WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional Complementary and Alternative Medicine

Publication date: 2004

T he use of traditional medicine (TM) and com-plementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has increased significantly over the past few years. However, as recent reports have shown, in ad- dition to the many benefits there are also risks asso- ciated with the different types of TM/CAM. Although consumers today have widespread access to various TM/CAM treatments and therapies, they often do not have enough information on what to check when using TM/CAM in order to avoid unnecessary harm. In this context, it is necessary to develop information to meet the needs of consumers. These Guidelines will provide governments and other stakeholders with an overview of the general principles and activities nec- essary for the development of reliable consumer infor- mation. The document will also be a useful reference to consumers in guiding them on the information they need to have in order to choose a TM/CAM therapy that is safe and effective. ISBN 92 4 159170 6 9 789241 591706 22750_volume.indd 2 14-06-2004 18:04:52 22750_volume.indd 3 14-06-2004 18:04:56 Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine January 2004 World Health Organization 22750_volume.indd 1 14-06-2004 18:05:02 WHO Library Cataloguing-in-Publication Data World Health Organization. WHO guidelines on developing consumer information on proper use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine. 1.Complementary therapies — utilization 2.Complementary therapies — adverse effects 3.Medicine, Traditional 4.Consumer advocacy - standards 5.Guidelines I.Title. ISBN 92 4 159170 6 (NLM classification: WB 890) © World Health Organization 2004 All rights reserved. Publications of the World Health Organization can be obtained from Marketing and Dis- semination, World Health Organization, 20 Avenue Appia, 1211 Geneva 27, Switzerland (tel: +41 22 791 2476; fax: +41 22 791 4857; email: bookorders@who.int). Requests for permission to reproduce or translate WHO publications – whether for sale or for noncommercial distribution – should be addressed to Publications, at the above address (fax: +41 22 791 4806; email: permissions@who.int). The designations employed and the presentation of the material in this publication do not imply the ex- pression of any opinion whatsoever on the part of the World Health Organization concerning the legal status of any country, territory, city or area or of its authorities, or concerning the delimitation of its frontiers or boundaries. Dotted lines on maps represent approximate border lines for which there may not yet be full agreement. The mention of specific companies or of certain manufacturers’ products does not imply that they are en- dorsed or recommended by the World Health Organization in preference to others of a similar nature that are not mentioned. Errors and omissions excepted, the names of proprietary products are distinguished by initial capital letters. The World Health Organization does not warrant that the information contained in this publication is com- plete and correct and shall not be liable for any damages incurred as a result of its use. Printed in Italy 22750_volume.indd 2 14-06-2004 18:05:10 Q Acknowledgements T he World Health Organization greatly appreciates the financial and technical support provided by the Re-gional Government of Lombardy, Italy, for the devel- opment and publication of these guidelines, as a part of the implementation of collaborative projects with WHO in the field of traditional medicine. The Region of Lombardy kindly hosted and provided financial support for the WHO Consul- tation on proper use of traditional medicine and complemen- tary/alternative medicine by consumers, held in Milan, Italy, in December 2003. In addition, WHO also greatly appreciates the financial support provided by the Government of Sweden through the Swedish Expertise Funds for the drafting and revision of the guidelines. 22750_volume.indd 3 14-06-2004 18:05:16 iv WHO is also indebted to the more than 290 reviewers, in- cluding experts and national authorities, in over 102 coun- tries who provided comments and advice on the draft texts, and for the technical support received from relevant Unit- ed Nations agencies, international organizations and non- governmental organizations (NGOs), including consumer associations. Special thanks are due to participants of the WHO Consul- tation on proper use of traditional medicine and complemen- tary/alternative medicine by consumers, who worked towards reviewing and finalizing the draft guidelines (see Annex VI); and to the WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medi- cine at the State University of Milan, Italy, in particular to Professor Umberto Solimene, the Director, and to Miss Elisa- betta Minelli, the International Liaison Officer, for their as- sistance to WHO in organizing the Consultation. Acknowledgement for the preparation of the original text is due to: Dr Torkel Falkenberg; Ms Johanna Hök; and Ms Su- zanna Schönström of Sweden. Finally, WHO thanks the Department of Health, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic of China; Swissmedic, Switzerland; and the WHO Collaborat- ing Centre for Traditional Medicine at the National Center on Alternative and Complementary Medicine, National Insti- tutes of Health (NIH), United States, for agreeing to waive their respective copyright fees on consumer information developed by them and included as Annexes to these guide- lines. Acknowledgements 22750_volume.indd 4 14-06-2004 18:05:26 Q Foreword D uring the last decade, the use of complementary med-icine (CM, referred to as CAM in the document) has increased in both developing and developed coun- tries, and also within the Lombardy Region of Italy. Globali- zation has led to intercultural exchanges and widespread use of techniques and therapeutic products of CM often unknown to local communities. This phenomenon requires particular attention in order to avoid inadequate misunderstandings and inappropriate use that could be harmful to the individu- als and subsequently affect entire communities. For this reason, the Regional Government of Lombardy is focusing on the important and strategic sector of consum- er protection, which has been considered as one of the pri- orities in economic health care planning as outlined in the 22750_volume.indd 5 14-06-2004 18:05:34 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicinevi twenty objectives of the Government. This priority runs par- allel to the most recent World Health Assembly Resolution on Traditional Medicine in 2003 which urged Member States of the World Health Organization to provide reliable informa- tion on traditional medicine (TM) and CM to consumers and providers in order to promote proper use. Therefore the Re- gional Government and the World Health Organization have established a four-year cooperation plan to develop technical guidelines and information on CM to help ensure the safety of consumers. It is extremely important to create the conditions for the correct and appropriate use of CM methods which, if used cor- rectly, can contribute to the protection and the enhancement of patients’ health and well being. One such condition is the need to make sure that consumers are better informed and aware of CM strategies and treatments so as to enable them to make ap- propriate decisions on how to improve their health. With this in mind, the Regional Government of Lombardy supported the development of the WHO Guidelines on devel- oping consumer information on proper use of traditional, complementary and alternative medicine by outlining how governments and relevant non-governmental organizations can empower consumers to become active participants in the therapeutic choices for health care in the field of CM. The process of development of these guidelines included the WHO Consultation Meeting held in Milan in December 2003, which brought together experts, national authorities and profes- sional organizations from all over the world. One of the con- clusions of the Consultation was that these guidelines were appropriate as a resource not only for the Lombardy Region, but also for various country situations worldwide. 22750_volume.indd 6 14-06-2004 18:05:44 vii The Regional Government of Lombardy has also outlined various issues in its regional management plans, one of which involves the importance of consumer associations as an important bridge between authorities and the community. At one level, consumer associations can interact directly with patients and operate within the community by contributing to activities for increasing consumer awareness of all forms of health care. At another level, such entities can communi- cate the needs of consumers to regional authorities in order to create adequate regional policies. Only through such cooperation can the consumers become more aware of the possibilities and of the issues relating to the use of TM/CM in health care and therefore assume re- sponsibility for their own health. Carlo Borsani Regional Minister of Health Regional Government of Lombardy Giancarlo Abelli Regional Minister of Family and Social Solidarity Regional Government of Lombardy Foreword 22750_volume.indd 7 14-06-2004 18:05:51 22750_volume.indd 8 14-06-2004 18:06:00 Q Preface One of the main reasons for the increasing use of tra-ditional medicine is a growing trend for patients to take a more proactive approach to their own health and to seek out different forms of self-care. In the process, many consumers have turned to natural traditional medici- nal products and practices, under the assumption that “natu- ral means safe”. However, this is not necessarily the case. A number of reports have revealed examples of incorrect use of traditional medicines by consumers, including incidents of overdose, unknowing use of suspect or counterfeit herbal medicines, and unintentional injuries caused by unqualified practitioners. In an effort to prevent similar incidents, there is a need to ensure that consumers are well informed about the proper use of traditional medicine. 22750_volume.indd 9 14-06-2004 18:06:05 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicinex These guidelines are intended to provide technical guid- ance in order to assist Member States in developing con- text-specific and reliable consumer information promoting proper use of traditional medicine (TM) and complementary and alternative medicine (CAM). In developing the informa- tion, health authorities are recommended to collaborate with a wide range of stakeholders representing different perspec- tives, including NGOs, professional and consumer organiza- tions and TM/CAM researchers. The objectives of these guidelines are: S To provide an overview of the key elements directly tied to consumers that must be in place in health systems in order to ensure proper use of TM/CAM; S To describe general principles and activities for the devel- opment of reliable consumer information about TM/CAM; S To outline the key elements that should be taken into con- sideration when developing consumer information promot- ing proper use of TM/CAM. The long-term goal is to maximize the benefits and mini- mize the risks of TM/CAM use by empowering consumers to become active participants in health care and to make in- formed choices. However, WHO recognizes that efforts to promote the prop- er use of TM/CAM through consumer education/training must be supported by other measures such as the establish- ment of national laws and regulations to control herbal med- icines products, efforts to ensure the qualified practice of TM/CAM therapies, and, where appropriate, measures to con- trol information about TM/CAM used in advertisements. In a follow-up to the development of these guidelines, WHO is to organize a series of interregional, regional and national 22750_volume.indd 10 14-06-2004 18:06:13 xi workshops for national health authorities and relevant NGOs on how to develop consumer information on the proper use of TM/CAM and how to organize education/training pro- grammes on this at a national level. Since the use of TM/CAM varies from country to country, national health authorities and NGOs should rely on their own specific situation to develop appropriate consumer in- formation and relevant training programmes. Some gov- ernments are already aware of the importance of consumer education in relation to the safe and effective use of TM/CAM and have developed consumer education information. It is important to note that such information should make use of engaging pictures and easily understood language so that it is easily accessible to a greater portion of the population. An excellent example of this can be found in Annex I: Leaflets promoting proper use of TM/CAM published by the Depart- ment of Health, Hong Kong SAR, China. WHO believes that consumer information and education will help consumers to seek out appropriate types of self-care and, as a result, help them to obtain more benefits from TM/ CAM and reduce unnecessary risks. Dr Xiaorui Zhang Coordinator Traditional Medicine (TRM) Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (EDM) World Health Organization Preface 22750_volume.indd 11 14-06-2004 18:06:20 22750_volume.indd 12 14-06-2004 18:06:26 Q Glossary Adverse event Any untoward medical occurence that may ap- pear during treatment with a pharmaceutical product but which does not necessarily have a causal relationship with the treatment (1). F Conventional medicine For the scope of this document, convention- al medicine refers to the broad category of medical practice that is sometimes called Western medicine, biomedicine, al- lopathic medicine, scientific medicine, or modern medicine. F Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) refers to a broad set of health-care practices that are not part of a country’s own tra- dition and not integrated into the dominant health care sys- tem. Other terms sometimes used to describe these health care practices include ‘natural medicine’, ‘non-conventional medicine’ and ‘holistic medicine’ (2). 22750_volume.indd 13 14-06-2004 18:06:32 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicinexiv F Herbal Medicines include herbs, herbal materials, herbal prepa- rations and finished herbal products: S Herbs Herbs include crude plant material such as leaves, flowers, fruit, seed, stems, wood, bark, roots, rhizomes or other plant parts, which may be entire, fragmented or pow- dered. S Herbal materials include, in addition to herbs, fresh juices, gums, fixed oils, essential oils, resins and dry powders of herbs. In some countries, these materials may be processed by various local procedures, such as steaming, roasting, or stir-baking with honey, alcoholic beverages or other mate- rials. S Herbal preparations are the basis for finished herbal products and may include comminuted or powdered herbal materi- als, or extracts, tinctures and fatty oils of herbal materials. They are produced by extraction, fractionation, purifica- tion, concentration, or other physical or biological proc- esses. They also include preparations made by steeping or heating herbal materials in alcoholic beverages and/or honey, or in other materials. S Finished herbal products consist of herbal preparations made from one or more herbs. If more than one herb is used, the term mixture herbal product can also be used. Finished herbal products and mixture herbal products may contain excipi- ents in addition to the active ingredients. However, finished products or mixture products to which chemically defined ac- tive substances have been added, including synthetic com- pounds and/or isolated constituents from herbal materials, are not considered to be herbal. (3) 22750_volume.indd 14 14-06-2004 18:06:39 xv F Manufacturer For the purpose of these guidelines, the term man- ufacturer refers to the producer, importer, distributor or mar- keter of a finished TM/CAM medication product and, where applicable, to the holder of the marketing authorization or registration for that product in the country in question. F TM/CAM medication therapies For the scope of these guidelines, TM/CAM medication therapies include preparations com- monly referred to as herbal medicines (see definition above), homeopathic remedies and dietary supplements. F TM/CAM procedure-based therapies For the scope of these guidelines, these include therapies that use various techniques primari- ly without the use of medication to provide health care. They include for example acupuncture and related techniques, manual therapies (e.g. massage, chiropractic, naprapathy and osteopathy, qi gong, tai ji quan), naturopathy, thermal medicine and other physical, mental, spiritual and mind- body based therapies. F TM/CAM provider refers to all persons who provide TM/CAM serv- ices to treat, diagnose or prevent any disease or disorder. F Traditional medicine (TM) This includes diverse health practices, approaches, knowledge and beliefs incorporating plant-, an- imal- and/or mineral-based medicines, spiritual therapies, manual techniques and exercises applied singularly or in combination to maintain well-being, as well as to treat, diag- nose or prevent illness (2). Glossary 22750_volume.indd 15 14-06-2004 18:06:47 22750_volume.indd 16 14-06-2004 18:06:53 Q Table of Contents 1. General Considerations 1 1.1 The benefits of TM/CAM 1 1.2 The risks involved in the use of TM/CAM 2 1.3 Proper use of TM/CAM by consumers 3 1.4 Additional important aspects for the proper use of TM/CAM 4 2. Development of Consumer Information 7 2.1 Cultural influence 7 2.2 Health system structure 8 2.3 Utilization 9 22750_volume.indd 17 14-06-2004 18:06:58 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicinexviii 3. General Principles and Activities for Ensuring Reliable TM/CAM Information 10 3.1 How to develop reliable information 10 3.2 Dissemination of information 10 3.2.1 TM/CAM information centre 10 3.2.2 TM/CAM surveillance system 11 3.2.3 The media 12 3.2.4 Other information activities 13 3.2.5 Activities promoting rational use of medicines 13 3.3. Regulatory mechanisms for information and advertisements 13 4. Topics to Consider When Developing Consumer Information Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM 14 4.1 General information 15 4.2 Where to find reliable information 16 4.3 How to identify reliable information 16 4.4 TM/CAM medication therapies 17 4.4.1 Therapeutic claims 17 4.4.2 Quality 19 4.4.3 Precautions 20 4.4.4 Adverse events 20 4.4.5 Potent and/or toxic TM/CAM medication therapies 21 4.4.6 Interactions and contraindications 22 4.4.7 Posology 22 4.4.8 Methods of administration 22 4.4.9 Self-medication 23 4.4.10 Preparation of TM/CAM medication therapies 23 4.4.11 Children, pregnant or lactating women and the elderly 23 4.5 Procedure-based TM/CAM therapies 24 4.5.1 Therapeutic claims 24 4.5.2 Precautions 24 4.6 Practitioners 24 4.7 Pricing and health insurance coverage 25 22750_volume.indd 18 14-06-2004 18:07:06 xix 5. Use of this publication 25 References 27 Annexes I. Leaflets promoting proper use of TM/CAM published by the Department of Health, Hong Kong SAR, China 30 II. Things to Know about Evaluating Medical Resources on the Internet 32 III. Medical products on the Internet: a guide to finding reliable information 35 IV. Licence Symbol, Swissmedic 36 V. Selected WHO publications and documents on traditional medicine 37 VI. List of Participants 40 Table of Contents 22750_volume.indd 19 14-06-2004 18:07:14 22750_volume.indd 20 14-06-2004 18:07:19 Q1 General Considerations T he use of traditional medicine (TM) and complemen-tary and alternative medicine (CAM) is increasing throughout the world. Already, it accounts for a major part of the health care provided worldwide. In low- and mid- dle-income countries, up to 80% of the population may rely on TM for their primary health care needs (2). In many high- income countries CAM utilization is becoming increasingly popular, with up to 65% of the population reporting that they have used this form of medicine (2,4). In response to the challenges posed by the widespread use of TM/CAM, WHO has developed the WHO Traditional Med- icine Strategy: 2002-2005. The Strategy has four major ob- jectives: (i) framing policy; (ii) ensuring safety, efficacy and quality; (iii) enhancing access; (iv) promoting proper use of TM/CAM. While these guidelines focus on the issue of proper 22750_volume.indd 1 14-06-2004 18:07:25 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine2 use of TM/CAM, a number of WHO publications explore the other areas (see Annex V). This document adopts the definitions of TM and CAM that have been established by WHO (see glossary). 1.1D THE BENEFITS OF TM/CAM E TM/CAM therapies are generally available, affordable and commonly used in low- and middle-income countries. Sur- veys conducted by the WHO Roll Back Malaria Programme in 1998 showed that in Ghana, Mali, Nigeria and Zambia, more than 60% of children with high fever are treated at home with herbal medicines (5—8). Many TM/CAM therapies are supported by empirical evidence on safety and effectiveness. Such evidence is usually based on sources such as traditional scriptures, pharmacopoeias and/ or clinical experience collected over hundreds of years. An in- creasing number of scientific studies now support the use of certain TM/CAM therapies. The effectiveness of acupuncture, for example, a popular treatment for pain relief, has been dem- onstrated both through numerous clinical trials and laboratory experiments (9,10). Another example is artemisinin, a new anti- malarial medicine, which is purified from a traditionally used medicinal plant. Other examples of TM/CAM therapies with a re- search-derived evidence base are: St John’s Wort (Hypericum Perfo- ratum) for mild depression; and Saw Palmetto (Serenoa Repens) for reducing symptoms of benign prostate hyperplasia (11,12). TM/CAM therapies may cause fewer adverse events than conventional therapies such as treatment with conventional medicines (pharmacotherapy). For example, a National In- 22750_volume.indd 2 14-06-2004 18:07:33 3 stitutes of Health (NIH) panel issued a consensus statement on acupuncture stating that the incidence of adverse effects from acupuncture are extremely low and often lower than for conventional treatments (13). Another reason why patients turn to TM/CAM for comple- mentary care is the increasing cases of chronic and debilitat- ing diseases for which there is no cure. Scientific studies of several TM/CAM therapies show that their use is effective, e.g. for HIV/AIDS and cancer patients (14,15). As a result, UN- AIDS is advocating collaboration with TM practitioners in AIDS prevention and care in sub-Saharan Africa (16). The advantages of TM/CAM include its diversity and flex- ibility; its availability and affordability in many parts of the world; its widespread acceptance in low- and middle- income countries; its comparatively low cost; and the relatively low level of technological input required. As a result, TM/CAM therapies have the potential to contribute to a better health care system in many countries (2). However, there is a need for an increase in research to improve the evidence base as regards the efficacy of most TM/CAM therapies. Measures needed to facilitate research efforts include the legal recog- nition of TM/CAM, an increase in funding for research, the development of appropriate research methods for evaluating some TM/CAM therapies, and the development of systems for intellectual property rights protection (2). 1.2D THE RISKS INVOLVED IN THE USE OF TM/CAM E TM/CAM medication therapies are commonly used as self- care treatments. However, TM/CAM products are unregulated General Considerations 22750_volume.indd 3 14-06-2004 18:07:40 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine4 in many countries, and therefore many of the concerns about the risks for consumers relate to the safety and quality of TM/ CAM medicinal products. Reported problems include sales of in- correct plant species and the contamination and adulteration of TM/CAM medication therapies. Heavy metals, fumigation agents, microbial toxins and pharmaceutical substances have been found in toxic concentrations in TM/CAM medication therapies (17—19). Problems involving the use of incorrect plant species and contamination can be prevented by the development and enforcement of herbal medicine regulations and by following good agricultural and collection practices (GACP) for medicinal plants and good manufacturing practices (GMP) respectively. Uppsala Monitoring Centre, a WHO Collaborating Centre that monitors adverse reactions to medicines, has received reports from all over the world on adverse events following the use of TM/CAM medication therapies (20,21). The risks also include adverse events following sub-standard practices or the misuse of TM/CAM by unqualified practitioners. It is important to note that while TM/CAM procedure-based ther- apies are relatively safe, accidents do occasionally occur, for example when TM/CAM practitioners are not fully trained (3); when practitioners do not follow the professional code of ethics; or when the treatment is not adjusted or modified ac- cording to the condition or constitution of the patient. For example, although serious adverse events following acupunc- ture (e.g. pneumothorax) are rare, well-documented cases have occurred, including fatalities (17). Incorrect use of TM/CAM medication therapies can have fatal outcomes. For example, the Chinese herb ma huang (Ephedra sinica), which contains ephedrine and is used for breathing problems, has caused heart attacks and strokes 22750_volume.indd 4 14-06-2004 18:07:48 5 among some Americans using it as a dietary supplement (22); long-term use of kava kava (Piper Methysticum) can cause se- rious liver damage (23); and the use of ginkgo (gingko biloba), which stimulates peripheral circulation can result in bleeding during surgery (22). In addition to adverse events, interactions have been de- scribed in the scientific literature (17, 24) as well as in WHO Monographs (25, 26). Interactions may pose a risk to patients who use TM/CAM medication therapies in conjunction with conventional drugs. Studies show that many patients use TM/ CAM therapies concurrently with conventional medicine, often without informing their health care provider (27). Efforts are needed to improve communication between patients and health care providers and, in the case of self-care treatments, to en- sure that consumers are better informed. W In summary, TM/CAM is unregulated in most countries, com-munication between patients and health care providers is gen- erally poor, and there is an urgent need to develop consumer information in order to minimize the risks and maximize the benefits of TM/CAM use. 1.3D PROPER USE OF TM/CAM BY CONSUMERS E In view of the benefits and risks of TM/CAM therapies, ef- forts to ensure proper use of TM/CAM need to involve a wide range of stakeholders including consumers, governments, health authorities, NGOs, professional and consumer organ- izations, and TM/CAM researchers. Proper use of TM/CAM by consumers is a relative term that is influenced by the local culture and context (see section 2.1) and primarily depend- General Considerations 22750_volume.indd 5 14-06-2004 18:07:56 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine6 ent on the individual’s knowledge and ability to minimize the risks and maximize the benefits of TM/CAM use. ✓ The following is a checklist of basic questions which may be used by consumers to help facilitate proper use of TM/CAM. S Is the therapy suitable for treating the condition? S Does the therapy have the potential to prevent, alleviate and/or cure symptoms or in other ways contribute to improved health and well-being? S Is the therapy or herbal medicines provided by a qualified (preferably registered and certified) TM/CAM or health care practitioner with ade- quate training background, good skills and knowledge? S Are the herbal medicinal products or materials of assured quality and what are the contraindications and precautions? S Are the therapies or herbal medicinal products available at a competitive price? 1.4 D ADDITIONAL IMPORTANT ASPECTS E FOR THE PROPER USE OF TM/CAM Although these guidelines focus mainly on the development and content of reliable information for consumers, there is also a critical need to ensure that key health systems struc- tures and processes are in place when promoting proper use of TM/CAM. For instance, the presence of structures govern- ing TM/CAM education, information and/or research and the existence of professional TM/CAM organizations are all im- portant for the development, implementation and dissemina- tion of activities promoting proper use of TM/CAM (28). The following sections describe some of these key areas. 22750_volume.indd 6 14-06-2004 18:08:04 7 (a) Quality control of herbal medicines Herbal medicines are the most popularly used form of TM/ CAM medication therapy. However, in some countries ani- mal, mineral, or other materials may also be used. Therefore, in these cases, regulations should be specifically tailored to address each country’s unique situation. Regulatory systems for the quality assurance and registration of herbal medi- cines will improve the quality of products and enable con- sumers to use high quality products (2). Quality control of herbal medicines involves complex issues, which have been described in a series of WHO documents such as Quality con- trol methods for medicinal plant materials (29), WHO mono- graphs on selected medicinal plants and General guidelines for the methodology on research and evaluation of traditional medicine (3, 25, 26, 29). It is important that regulations on the quality control of herbal medicines are developed and imple- mented appropriately so that small-scale manufacturers are able to comply and are not excluded from the market. (b) Development of reliable treatment guidelines The development of reliable information on the most com- monly used TM/CAM therapies, based on results from clinical studies and other scientific studies, can offer clini- cally relevant information about these therapies to guide TM/CAM practitioners, conventional health care providers and the public. This will help prevent irrational use and im- prove the ability of consumers to make informed decisions on TM/CAM use. General Considerations 22750_volume.indd 7 14-06-2004 18:08:12 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine8 (c) Training and qualified practice for TM/CAM practitioners Adequate training and the licensing of TM/CAM practition- ers will improve safety, promote the credibility of TM/CAM therapies and TM/CAM providers, and enhance consum- er trust in their practitioners (30, 31). Guidelines for basic training and continuing education of TM/CAM practitioners have been developed by a number of organizations including WHO and a number of national governments and various pro- fessional organizations (32). (d) Collaboration between conventional health care providers and TM/CAM practitioners Since consumers often use both TM/CAM and conventional treatment simultaneously, it is necessary to improve collab- oration between registered/licensed TM/CAM practitioners and conventional health care providers. Ideally, the training of conventional health care providers should include basic knowledge of commonly used TM/CAM. Likewise, the train- ing of TM/CAM practitioners should include basic knowl- edge of relevant parts of conventional medicine, such as public health, hygiene, first aid and ethical issues. Moreo- ver, TM/CAM practitioners should be encouraged to conduct research and submit reports to medical journals, in order to initiate information sharing between conventional and tra- ditional medicine. 22750_volume.indd 8 14-06-2004 18:08:19 9 (e) Communication between TM/CAM consumers and their conventional health care providers and TM/CAM practitioners Since conventional health care practitioners are sometimes sceptical about TM/CAM treatment, there is often a com- munication barrier between the consumers and doctors. Im- proved communication between TM/CAM consumers and their different health care providers, may promote greater trust between patient and providers and reduce the risks of adverse events and interactions in patients using TM/CAM medication therapies or using procedure-based therapies in conjunction with conventional treatment (30, 31). (f) Organization of TM/CAM practitioners Efforts to strengthen the organization of TM/CAM practi- tioners will help ensure better structures for self-regulated control mechanisms and contribute to increased profession- alism (30, 33). There is a need to develop local organizations of TM/CAM practitioners which can become the backbone of future national organizations. The development of a pro- fessional code of ethics can further contribute to consumer trust and safety. Official recognition of relevant TM/CAM practitioners (e.g. through legal frameworks) should also take place. General Considerations 22750_volume.indd 9 14-06-2004 18:08:27 22750_volume.indd 10 14-06-2004 18:08:33 Q2 Development of Consumer Information A lthough consumer information cannot compen-sate for poor TM/CAM products or inadequate TM/CAM practices, it can help consumers gain increased knowledge about the benefits and potential risks of TM/CAM therapies and where to find reliable sources of information. Public information about TM/CAM serves the purpose of spreading knowledge about the health benefits of TM/CAM as well as the potential risks. However, it is impor- tant that information strategies provide a well-balanced mes- sage containing reliable, well-supported information tailored to the specific local context. A recent report from Hong Kong SAR, China, on the impact of a number of publicity measures in reducing the incidence of herb-induced aconitine poisoning underlines the effectiveness of public information campaigns { 22750_volume.indd 11 14-06-2004 18:08:38 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine12 about the risks involved in the use of TM/CAM (34). In addi- tion, experiences from public education strategies promoting rational use of conventional medicine support the use of pub- lic interventions for behavioural change (35). The importance of developing and disseminating reliable TM/ CAM information has been addressed in a number of reports (2, 33, 36, 37). WHO has proposed six steps for the development of effec- tive communication strategies promoting rational drug use: (i) investigation; (ii) activity planning; (iii) development of materials; (iv) material testing and revising; (v) activity im- plementation and monitoring; (vi) activity evaluation and re- assessment (WHO, 2002). While the present guidelines focus mainly on steps (ii) and (iii) (see sections 3 and 4 respective- ly), it is recommended that stakeholders developing informa- tion promoting proper use of TM/CAM should pay attention to all six steps, possibly with guidance from the WHO work on the promotion of rational use of medicines. The type of information needed when promoting proper use of TM/CAM may vary from country to country depending on a number of factors such as cultural and traditional influenc- es, health system structure, the TM/CAM utilization pattern and the development of all additional aspects of proper use as outlined in section 1.4. 2.1D CULTURAL INFLUENCE E It is essential that an information campaign promoting prop- er use of TM/CAM is undertaken with knowledge of the so- cial, cultural, religious and spiritual context in which it is 22750_volume.indd 12 14-06-2004 18:08:46 13 based. Each country has its own set of medical knowledge based on the local culture and past experience. As a result, medical concepts and understandings can vary significantly from one country to the next. For instance, a traditional Chi- nese medicine for the heart will not treat the same conditions as heart medications in conventional medicine. This is be- cause the term ‘heart’ in traditional Chinese medicine does not only mean the physical organ ‘heart’, but also includes some functions conventional medicine would attribute to the brain. This is an example of how simple cultural misunder- standing can easily occur. When medicines are being traded in foreign markets, the do- mestic consumers often wrongly apply their own medical con- cepts and understanding to the imported traditional medicines, often resulting in misunderstanding and subsequent misuse. 2.2D HEALTH SYSTEM STRUCTURE E The structure of the health system in the country is important for the development of information about TM/CAM as it may determine the need for information as well as the kind of infor- mation suitable for different groups (2). The extent to which TM/CAM is an officially recognized el- ement of health care depends largely on the structure of the health system in individual countries. WHO has identified three types of health system structures in relation to TM/ CAM: an integrative health system, an inclusive health sys- tem and a tolerant health system (2). In an integrative health system (e.g. China, the Republic of Korea and Viet Nam) TM/CAM is officially recognized and Development of Consumer Information 22750_volume.indd 13 14-06-2004 18:08:54 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine14 incorporated into all areas of health care provision. There are a series of regulations and registration to control the safe- ty, efficacy and quality of herbal medicine products. The TM doctors must receive a university education which includes both knowledge of TM and modern medicine, and they must be licensed to practise. Patients/consumers are free to con- sult both TM/CAM providers and medical doctors, the health insurance system covers both forms of treatment, and there are no communication barriers between TM/CAM practition- ers and medical doctors. In addition, the government often provides consumer education. (See Annex I for an example of consumer information developed by the Department of Health, Hong Kong SAR, China.) The benefit of an integra- tive health system is that many of the necessary elements that are important when promoting proper use of TM/CAM already exist. The other systems are an inclusive health system, which recognizes TM/CAM, but has not yet incorporated it into all aspects of health care (e.g. in health care delivery, education and training, regulation or research). This situation exists in many countries including Australia, Canada, Germany, Ghana, India, Indonesia, Iran, Madagascar, Malaysia, Mali, Singapore, Switzerland, Thailand, Ukraine, United Arab Emirates and the United States. In a tolerant health system, health care is based entirely on conventional medicine and TM/CAM practices are not officially recognized as therapeu- tic methods or as health enhancement practices within the national health care system. At present, most countries have a health system structure that belongs to this third category (2). The type of information developed will have to address the specific needs demanded by the individual health system. 22750_volume.indd 14 14-06-2004 18:09:01 15 2.3D UTILIZATION E Utilization of TM/CAM is complex and varies among Member States. Therefore it is important to take into consideration the utilization pattern of a country to ensure that the infor- mation developed will be effective and appropriate to the specific country situation. Three broad types of utilization patterns can be recognized. The first is prevalent in coun- tries where TM is used as the primary source of health care. Typically for these countries, the availability and/or acces- sibility of conventional medicine are generally limited and TM is used mainly by poor populations, as in many African countries and some Asian countries. This situation is found mainly in countries with either a tolerant or an inclusive health system structure. The second type of TM utilization, involving a few countries, entails the use and prescription of TM in conjunction with conventional medicine due to cultur- al/historical influence. This dual utilization pattern is found in integrative systems such as in China, Viet Nam, and the Republic of Korea or in inclusive systems in many countries in Asia and South America. The third type involves the use of TM/CAM in a complementary or alternative role with con- ventional medicine. This selective utilization is common in high-income countries where the health system structure is usually inclusive or tolerant as in North America and many European countries. In countries where TM is the primary source of health care or is used in conjunction with conventional medicine, con- sumers are likely to be familiar with the general concepts of Development of Consumer Information 22750_volume.indd 15 14-06-2004 18:09:09 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine16 TM therapies. However, when TM is practised outside the con- text where it was first developed, consumers may not have the same knowledge about the general concepts of TM/CAM. As a result, the type of information needed is likely to vary depending on the individual context and utilization pattern in a country or region. In addition, TM/CAM utilization pat- terns may vary between different consumer groups within a country. 22750_volume.indd 16 14-06-2004 18:09:17 Q3 General Principles and Activities for Ensuring Reliable TM/CAM Information B efore developing and disseminating consumer infor-mation on how to use TM/CAM properly, it is neces-sary to carefully plan how to develop information, how the information is going to be disseminated, and what regulatory mechanisms are needed to ensure reliability. 3.1D HOW TO DEVELOP RELIABLE INFORMATION E It is essential that national and/or local governments play an important role in controlling and supporting the develop- ment and dissemination of various information initiatives ensuring proper use in the field of TM/CAM. However, in or- der to develop contextually appropriate TM/CAM informa- 22750_volume.indd 17 14-06-2004 18:09:25 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine18 tion, there is a need for collaboration and exchange of ideas among different stakeholders including: international or- ganizations; regional, national and local authorities; manu- facturers and suppliers of TM/CAM; TM/CAM researchers; professional organizations; consumer organizations; and NGOs involved in TM/CAM. Before starting to develop con- sumer information, it may be useful to examine what other countries have achieved (e.g. what kind of TM/CAM informa- tion and how this has been disseminated). Organizations or stakeholders in the same country but in other fields may also have useful experiences and information relevant for the de- velopment of TM/CAM consumer information. 3.2D DISSEMINATION OF INFORMATION E In order to ensure the success of information initiatives pro- moting proper use of TM/CAM, it is important to attract the attention and interest of consumers. In order to reach as many TM/CAM consumers as possible, the information provided should be in plain and simple language, if possible in each of the main languages spoken in the country and with alterna- tive forms for those unable to access the written form. To meet the various needs of consumers and to ensure that informa- tion is both accessible and understandable, information also needs to be presented in a variety of ways and through differ- ent activities as suggested in the following sections. 3.2.1 TM/CAM information centre A TM/CAM information centre can be a useful way of fa- cilitating the dissemination of reliable information. Such 22750_volume.indd 18 14-06-2004 18:09:32 19 a centre can be separate or part of an independent national research institute, either within an existing health or drug information centre. Public hospitals and primary health care centres can also serve as local TM/CAM information centres, possibly working under the supervision of a national centre. The staff at a TM/CAM information centre should include TM/CAM representatives, preferably designated by national health authorities. A TM/CAM information centre can provide consumers, the media, health care providers and others with guidance on TM/CAM issues including: S National regulations and registrations involving TM/ CAM; S Contact details of relevant TM/CAM professional organi- zations (e.g. a free local directory); S Lists of TM/CAM therapies covered by national or private health insurance; S Locally appropriate information regarding the safety, qual- ity and efficacy of different TM/CAM therapies (House of Lords, 2000); S Systems for reporting benefits as well as suspected adverse events or interactions. 3.2.2 TM/CAM surveillance system A surveillance system is essential in order to improve the safety of TM/CAM therapies in general and to learn more about potential harmful adverse events and interactions fol- lowing TM/CAM use. In countries with a national surveil- lance system for conventional medicines, the same system, adapted for collecting reports on TM/CAM medication ther- apies, could be used for the reporting of suspected adverse General Principles and Activities for Ensuring Reliable TM/CAM Information 22750_volume.indd 19 14-06-2004 18:09:40 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine20 events following use of TM/CAM medication therapies. TM/ CAM experts should be involved in all TM/CAM surveillance systems in order to verify reports. The context in which a sur- veillance system functions will determine the appropriate structure of the system, including the means of reporting. For instance, different pathways of reporting may be used for TM/CAM medication therapies depending on their mode of delivery, as proposed in the Guidelines on the safety monitor- ing and pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines (38). For TM/ CAM procedure-based therapies, similar surveillance sys- tems can be developed, tailored to the particular TM/CAM therapy in question. 3.2.2.1 PATHWAYS OF SURVEILLANCE FOR TM/CAM MEDICATION THERAPIES The setting in which an adverse reaction is noted and the status of the person noting the reaction will determine the most appropriate means of reporting. It is recognized that in some countries a pharmacovigilance programme may con- sist of a network of national and regional centres. Reports should be sent to the appropriate regional or national centre in line with individual countries’ reporting guidelines. In the absence of a centre, it may be appropriate to report directly to the regulatory authority. 22750_volume.indd 20 14-06-2004 18:09:48 21 ✓ The different pathways for reporting are as follows: 1. Health professionals and providers of TM/CAM medication therapies should report to the national pharmacovigilance centre. 2. Patients/consumers should normally report to their physicians or provid- ers of TM/CAM medication therapies. They may also report directly to the national pharmacovigilance centre, consumer organizations or to compa- nies (or their representatives. 3. Manufacturers and importers/distributors of TM/CAM medication prod- ucts could be a source of information on adverse events involving their products. Some countries have included this source of information as part of their regulatory framework. Manufacturers should report directly to the national pharmacovigilance centre or to the regulatory authority. 3.2.3 The media The media play an important role in providing consumers with information on TM/CAM therapies. In order to ensure that the TM/CAM information they provide is accurate, jour- nalists – especially health journalists – should have ready ac- cess to reliable information. They also need to be informed about the importance of ensuring accuracy, credibility, bal- ance, legitimacy and responsibility, as well as knowing who to consult in case of uncertainty. Different forms of media serve different purposes and have special characteristics in relation to their ability to reach and actively involve their audience. Various types of media may therefore be used in combination to get across a distinct mes- sage in a tailored way, to reach a particular audience, and to improve communication between different groups of peo- ple (39). Furthermore, since standards, language, cultures, General Principles and Activities for Ensuring Reliable TM/CAM Information 22750_volume.indd 21 14-06-2004 18:09:55 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine22 technical capacity, literacy and logistics all vary according to country and location, the message needs to be tailored to the local audience when different forms of media are selected. The use of the mass media (radio, TV and newspapers) is one of the major ways of disseminating information to con- sumers. Because they target a large audience, the mass media have the potential to raise public awareness about different issues. However, they do not always offer the possibility to ex- plore issues in depth. TV and radio programmes with a health content can be used as well as sections in newspapers that fo- cus on health issues. Another way of reaching consumers is through information campaigns using advertisements and commercials on the radio and TV and in newspapers. Journals, reports, books, documentaries and the printed media often provide more in-depth information than the more immediate and faster forms of communication provid- ed by the mass media. However, in addition to the longer pro- duction time, their major drawback is that they reach fewer people, and that those who are illiterate, for example, will not be able to access the information. Journals and reports on TM/CAM-related issues play an important role in meet- ing certain consumer needs, while the printed media such as leaflets and booklets are another useful means of commu- nication, easily distributed at health care facilities (conven- tional as well as TM/CAM-oriented health care centres) and retail outlets, for example. 3.2.4 Other information activities Informative and educational approaches can also be made available through schools. Wherever possible, national au- thorities should support the use of reliable and independent 22750_volume.indd 22 14-06-2004 18:10:03 23 educational materials targeted to young consumers. Both printed material and videos can be effective outreach strate- gies for use in schools. Information can also be provided to consumers through consumer organizations and other NGOs working in the field of TM/CAM. Although the Internet offers easy access and a wider target audience, the disadvantages include lack of access by the poor and the fact that electronic communication and publishing is not always reliable (39). To counter these problems, several approaches can be used, including a website controlled by na- tional or local authorities or by officially approved TM/CAM organizations, and the use of certified sites on the Internet where the information has been approved by TM/CAM or- ganizations and consumer organizations. Another approach is the use of peer-reviewed sites, where the information has been approved by experts (33). One way of overcoming the problem of the lack of access to electronic communication is to transfer the information in digital form to local printing and distribution outlets. Workshops and seminars may be an additional way of pro- viding consumer information. Other methods such as the use of theatre and promotional events related to TM/CAM may also be considered (35). 3.2.5 Activities promoting rational use of medicines The most appropriate choice of media for information out- reach may vary according to the country’s needs. In a WHO survey on public education in rational medicine use, it was found that in developing countries use of the mass media was the most popular channel of communication, followed by workshops and the distribution and display of printed mate- General Principles and Activities for Ensuring Reliable TM/CAM Information 22750_volume.indd 23 14-06-2004 18:10:11 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine24 rials. In developed countries, the most popular communica- tion activities were printed materials followed by the mass media. Other popular activities used in both developing and developed countries included community meetings, health centre talks, school programmes, traditional or street thea- tre, puppet shows and telephone services. Many projects in- cluded in the study used a mixed approach of activities (35). The experiences of information initiatives on rational use of medicines may serve as a useful reference for consumer edu- cation on the proper use of TM/CAM. 3.3 D REGULATORY MECHANISMS FOR E INFORMATION AND ADVERTISEMENTS In addition to regulations for TM/CAM therapies, there is also a need for regulations controlling TM/CAM-related in- formation and advertisements. Such regulations can be is- sued either by national authorities, in the form of statutory controls, or by local organizations such as professional or- ganizations, in the form of voluntary controls (33). These kind of regulations, such as those recommended by the World Health Medication Industry (40), may control the reliability and ethical content of the information, prevent false health claims and misleading advertisements,1 and ensure the appropriate labelling of TM/CAM products (both medi- cation- and procedure-based). Ideally, legal mechanisms should be established to control both non-commercial 1 False health claims are those that are not supported by adequate evidence and misleading advertisements are ones that may lead the consumer to act unreasonably. 22750_volume.indd 24 14-06-2004 18:10:19 25 and commercial information in advertising and on product packages. These could involve the issuing of permits for ad- vertisements and information, based on evaluation of the con- tents. Consumers also need to be reminded that information on the Internet is not easily controlled or regulated and that special attention is needed when evaluating web-based infor- mation as compared to printed information (see Annexes II and III). Some countries have special regulations controlling the publication of health information on the Internet. General Principles and Activities for Ensuring Reliable TM/CAM Information 22750_volume.indd 25 14-06-2004 18:10:27 22750_volume.indd 26 14-06-2004 18:10:33 Q4 Topics to Consider when Developing Consumer Information Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM I nformation/education about the advantages and the disadvantages of certain TM/CAM therapies is key to enabling consumers to make an informed choice. This information may include issues such as methods of diagno- sis and treatment, benefits, risks, philosophy of the TM/CAM therapy concerned, health promotion and maintenance strat- egies. However, the content will vary depending on the coun- try-specific features of TM/CAM. For example, the structure of the health system and rate of TM/CAM utilization will in- fluence the degree of familiarity with this kind of medicine and the level of knowledge among consumers. National or local authorities need to decide which specific TM/CAM therapies should be included in the information ini- tiatives. The popularity of TM/CAM therapies as well as safe- 22750_volume.indd 27 14-06-2004 18:10:38 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine28 ty, quality and efficacy concerns will determine which ones should be included. The national or international evidence base for a certain therapy may also influence its inclusion. The following sections outline different topics to consider when developing consumer information. These are summa- rized in table 1. 4.1D GENERAL INFORMATION E Decisions about individual health care are important, includ- ing the decisions about whether to use TM/CAM. ✓ General consumer information regarding TM/CAM may include the following key issues: S The importance of the need to take charge of one’s own health by being an informed consumer. S The need for all providers, both conventional health care providers and TM/CAM practitioners, to be aware of the major TM/CAM and conventional therapies in use in order to promote the best treatment strategy to meet the patient’s specific needs and prevent potentially dangerous interac- tions. S The importance of ensuring that the provider is competent and provides TM/CAM services and products of quality. S Where relevant, the need for consumers to find out about standard charg- es and possible health insurance coverage for TM/CAM therapies. 22750_volume.indd 28 14-06-2004 18:10:46 29 Table 1. Elements relevant for consumer information on TM/CAM. Section Main topics Specific issues 4.1 General information S Being an informed consumer S Informing health care providers and TM/CAM practitioners about therapies being used S Engaging qualified TM/CAM practitioners and utilizing quality assured TM/CAM medication therapies S Where relevant, information regarding health insurance coverage 4.2 Where to find reliable information S Institutions and authorities representing TM/ CAM and/or conventional medicine S Registered TM/CAM providers, conventional health care providers S Certain publications and websites 4.3 How to identify reliable information S Purpose S Relevance/accuracy S Sources S Updated information S Objectivity 4.4 TM/CAM medication therapies S Therapeutic claims and corresponding level of evidence S Quality S Precautions S Adverse events S Potent and/or toxic therapies S Interactions and contraindications S Posology S Methods of administration S Self-medication S Preparation S Children, pregnant or lactating women and the elderly 4.5 Procedure-based therapies S Therapeutic claims and corresponding level of evidence S Precautions 4.6 Practitioners S How to identify qualified practitioners S Certification of practitioners S Surveillance system for malpractice 4.7 Pricing/ health insurance coverage S Where to access information about standard charges and health insurance coverage Topics to Consider When Developing Consumer Information Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM 22750_volume.indd 29 14-06-2004 18:10:54 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine30 4.2D WHERE TO FIND RELIABLE INFORMATION E Consumers need to know where and how to find and freely access reliable TM/CAM information (41). Reliable informa- tion should also be available and accessible in various ways (e.g. for those unable to access the written form), depending on the needs and capacity of each Member State. Conventional health care providers, TM/CAM practition- ers, and other consumers using the TM/CAM therapy in question may be important sources of information. Valuable information about TM/CAM can also be obtained from na- tional health authorities, research institutes, professional or- ganizations, consumer organizations, pharmacies, libraries, websites, bookstores, health food stores, drug information centres, universities/pharmacy schools that offer training courses and certification programmes for TM/CAM provid- ers, or societies representing specific diseases/conditions. One obvious resource for reliable TM/CAM information is a national or local centre for TM/CAM that critically evaluates information before making it available to consumers. In ad- dition, consumers can be advised to consult different kinds of reliable publications and types of product information to find out more about TM/CAM. 22750_volume.indd 30 14-06-2004 18:11:02 31Topics to Consider When Developing Consumer Information Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM ✓ The following key concepts could be considered when producing consum-er guidelines on how to assess the reliability of TM/CAM information2: S Purpose. Any reliable information source should have clear and transparent goals. It should be clear for whom and for what purpose the information is in- tended. For example, is it intended to educate the consumer or sell a product? S Relevance/accuracy. Good information meets the needs of the consumer and is relevant to his/her lifestyle and situation. It should not give unre- alistic recommendations and should be written in a language that is easy to understand and does not contain obvious errors such as misspellings and grammatical mistakes. S Sources. Credible information states clearly who is responsible for the information, who is financially supporting the information and where the information comes from (i.e. the original source). It should be clear whether the information is opinion-based or factual. S Updated information. Information needs to be updated and reviewed on a regular basis. The publication date on written information should always be easy to find. S Objectivity. A good source of information provides unbiased and balanced information. Such information should be honest about areas of uncer- tainty and enable consumers to make therapy choices that are in his/her best interest. In case of commercial information, relationships to product manufacturers, for example, should be clearly stated. 2 List adapted from various sources including the Discern Instrument, http://www.discern.org.uk (accessed 25 January 2004); and http://nccam.nih.gov/health/decisions/index.htm (accessed 25 January 2004). 22750_volume.indd 31 14-06-2004 18:11:10 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine32 4.3D HOW TO IDENTIFY RELIABLE INFORMATION E Governments have a key role in the control of information on TM/CAM, irrespective of whether a national TM/CAM centre exists. However, in most countries the majority of con- sumers may not have access to information controlled by ei- ther a national TM/CAM centre or by the government. In any case, consumers are likely to collect information from a vari- ety of sources. Hence there is a need to help consumers under- stand how to evaluate information about TM/CAM. WHO has published guidelines entitled Medical products and the Internet: a guide to finding reliable information. The principles of these guidelines could also be used for finding reliable information on TM/CAM (See Annex III) (42). It is important for the consumer to be able to evaluate criti- cally the information by means of an independent source. Both reliability and quality need to be assessed. Instruments for testing the reliability and quality of general health care infor- mation may be developed to help consumers with this evalu- ation. One notable example is the Discern Instrument in the United Kingdom which is designed to help consumers and oth- ers to evaluate information in order to identify reliable and high quality information (41). 4.4D TM/CAM MEDICATION THERAPIES E TM/CAM medication therapies include therapies commonly referred to as herbal medicines (see glossary), homeopath- ic remedies and dietary supplements. TM/CAM medication 22750_volume.indd 32 14-06-2004 18:11:18 33 therapies are used with or without prescription from a TM/ CAM provider or a conventional health care provider. 4.4.1 Therapeutic claims Statements about the efficacy and/or benefits of a TM/CAM therapy made by manufacturers, health care providers or TM/ CAM practitioners may or may not be supported by an evi- dence base. The claims on legally registered TM/CAM products can be expected to be reliable. However, in most countries, TM/CAM has not been integrated into main- stream health care and there is a lack of research information and, in particular, a lack of clinical studies. The efficacy of TM/CAM could be divided into different categories based on research data and studies. For example, in the WHO monographs on selected medicinal plants, the information on medicinal use has been divided into the following three categories (25, 26): Use supported by clinical data This category includes medical indications which are well es- tablished in some countries and which have been validated by clinical works documented in the world’s scientific litera- ture. Clinical trials may be controlled, randomized, double- blind studies, open trials, cohort studies, or well-documented observations on therapeutic applications. Uses described in pharmacopoeias and in traditional systems of medicine This category includes medicinal uses which have been well established in many countries and are included in official pharmacopoeias or governmental monographs. Uses hav- Topics to Consider When Developing Consumer Information Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM ' 22750_volume.indd 33 14-06-2004 18:11:26 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine34 ing a pharmacologically plausible basis are included as well as information resulting from clinical studies which clearly need to be repeated because of conflicting results. Uses described in traditional medicine, not supported by experimental or clinical data This category refers to indications described in non-official pharmacopoeias and other literature or traditional uses. Their appropriateness could not be assessed because sufficient data to support the claims could not be found in the literature. W Consumers need to be aware of the different levels of efficacy and the different legal status of medicinal products, which have a ma- jor impact on the safety, efficacy and quality of the products and treatment. Claims for TM/CAM medication therapies should be appro- priately stated on the label. Statements about claims for TM/ CAM procedure-based therapies may be provided by bodies such as approved TM/CAM professional organizations. In addition, it is important to ensure that when a product is claimed to be marketed for its traditional use, it is used in accordance with the traditional method of use (e.g. the same dosage, duration of treatment and dosage instructions). Many Member States have regulatory agencies or licens- ing boards for certain types of TM/CAM practitioners and therapies that may also provide information about evidence and claims (43, 44). In addition, licensing, accreditation and regulatory laws for TM/CAM practices help ensure that TM/ CAM practitioners are competent and provide services that correspond to stated claims. When it is possible to have access to conventional medicines, it is widely agreed by doctors and medical researchers that 22750_volume.indd 34 14-06-2004 18:11:33 35 certain serious diseases or disorders cannot or should not be diagnosed or treated except under medical ad- vice, and that claims for the treatment of such diseases/dis- orders must be specially evaluated by conventional health care providers and TM/CAM practitioners (3). In countries where such circumstances apply, consumers need to know where to find proper information. The WHO document Acu- puncture: Review and analysis of reports on controlled clini- cal trials, for example, lists symptoms and diseases for which acupuncture may be used (30). It also emphasizes that some symptoms and diseases may only be treated provided that the practitioner has special knowledge in conventional medicine and access to adequate monitoring equipment. 4.4.2 Quality Consumers may need guidance on how to identify quality assured TM/CAM medication therapies. For example, infor- mation about quality can be found on the package, label or leaflet that is provided with the medication or given by the provider/retailer. Information that could help the consumer to check the quality of a product include GMP standards, the product registration number and information about the prod- uct given by a TM/CAM information centre. Depending on the regulatory status of TM/CAM medica- tion therapies, the quality of the products may be more or less difficult to assess. In many countries, TM/CAM medication therapies are marketed as food supplements. In such situa- tions no rigorous regulation exists comparable to that of the pharmaceutical sector. As a result, it becomes even more im- portant to empower consumers to make an informed choice in relation to quality. Topics to Consider When Developing Consumer Information Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM Y 22750_volume.indd 35 14-06-2004 18:11:41 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine36 The following information should always be available when purchasing a quality TM/CAM medication therapy. (a) Information about the product Identification of the product/active ingredients is an impor- tant step when assuring the quality of most TM/CAM medi- cation products. It involves identification of the plant/animal species (sometimes also including minerals and/or vitamins), when relevant through botanical verification. It is also impor- tant to check the quantitative composition of the product. For many Member States it may be relevant to inform consumers of the need to pay attention to the composition and the local and scientific (Latin or equivalent national terminologies) name of all active ingredients (45). Identification of a species both by its local and Latin name may be important since lo- cal names are occasionally used for several different species with different biological activities. Latin binomial names are constructed in two parts, the first part identifying the genus and the second part describing the particular species. Since different parts of a species might also have different biologi- cal activities, consumers also need to identify the parts of the plant/animal material (e.g. bark, leaves, blossoms) used for the preparations (25, 26) in order to ensure that the correct part of the species is used. Information about the identity of ingredients can be either presented on labels or explained ver- bally by the retailer at the time of purchase. (b) Recognition of quality standards A product of quality can be identified through recog- nition of official quality standards. Where available, national or local quality standards and/or registra- 22750_volume.indd 36 14-06-2004 18:11:50 37 tion/licensing systems for TM/CAM medication therapies can guide the consumer to choose quality products by, for in- stance, labelling quality controlled products with a specific label, such as the licence symbol used by Swissmedic (see An- nex IV). Such standards can be based on recommendations in national or international pharmacopoeias, national registra- tion and regulation procedures or according to suggestions from registered TM/CAM providers. Where product quality certifications are not available, certified TM/CAM practi- tioners or conventional health care providers providing TM/ CAM services should be able to provide or recommend prod- ucts of quality. It is also important to be able to identify the holder of the market authorization as well as GMP standards and site reg- istration in order to know whom to contact in case of questions about the product, for example. Different rules might apply to nationally produced products and imported products. With regard to quality standards of raw plant material (or animal and mineral material), it is the responsibility of the registered TM/CAM practitioner or the registered provider of the raw materials to ensure the quality of the material. (c) Storage and expiry date Consumers need to pay attention to the manufacturer’s in- structions concerning storage and expiry date. Following the storage instructions may be crucial, for example to prevent early ageing and/or destruction of a product. It is also impor- tant that consumers are aware that they should not purchase or use a product beyond its expiry date, since the efficacy of TM/CAM medication therapies can be age-related (45). Topics to Consider When Developing Consumer Information Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM 22750_volume.indd 37 14-06-2004 18:11:57 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine38 (d) Quality control of raw materials Most of the issues cited above also apply to raw materials, which are used by a majority of those who have limited access to high-quality medicines. Good cultivation and preparation are some of the additional areas that need to be addressed in relation to quality assurance of raw materials. 4.4.3 Precautions Consumers need to be informed about the risks asso- ciated with the use of TM/CAM medication therapies. Awareness and vigilance are valuable first steps to- wards minimizing risks such as direct toxicity, interactions and contraindications, depending on the specific TM/CAM medication therapy used (17). Consumer information on safe- ty is not intended to be alarmist; instead the aim is to mini- mize possible risks for the consumer. 4.4.4 Adverse events TM/CAM-related adverse events are any unintended or unde- sirable events following the use of TM/CAM (see glossary). Consumers need to be informed about known adverse events and their causality. Consumers with allergies should be par- ticularly observant when using TM/CAM medication thera- pies in case of an allergic reaction. Furthermore, consumers need to know what to do in case of adverse events or an over- dose as well as whom to contact (see section 3.2.2). Examples of consumer information on adverse events are given in the leaflet material prepared by the Department of Health, Hong Kong SAR, China (see Annex I). It is advisable to use a standard reporting form and to make these widely available. It should, however, be acceptable to re- X 22750_volume.indd 38 14-06-2004 18:12:05 39Topics to Consider When Developing Consumer Information Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM ✓ A case report of a suspected adverse event or overdose may con-tain some of the following information: S Where it is permitted by the country health information privacy code, and with appropriate confidentiality, there should be some form of identifica- tion of the consumer/patient in order to avoid duplications and facilitate follow-up. S Age, sex, and brief medical history (when relevant). In some countries ethnicity may need to be specified. S Details of suspected TM/CAM therapy if known. For herbal medicines: species name and/or brand or ingredient name(s) including Latin bino- mial and common name, part of plant used, preparation methods; manu- facturer, country of origin, batch number, expiry date and provider. S Administration details: dose and quantity supplied, dosage form, route, start/stop dates. S Indication or reason for use. S Adverse events: date of onset (or duration from first administration to onset of event), description with symptoms and signs, severity and se- riousness, results of clinical investigations and tests, course and out- come; and, if appropriate, consider dechallenge/rechallenge with the same product. S All other medicines used (including self-medication) with administration details. S Risk factors (e.g. age, impaired renal function, previous exposure to the therapy, previous allergies, drug misuse or abuse, recreational use of drugs). S Name and address of reporter (to be considered confidential and to be used only for data verification, completion and case follow-up). 22750_volume.indd 39 14-06-2004 18:12:13 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine40 ceive reports by telephone, letter or e-mail. For health care providers already included in a national pharmacovigilance programme, the reporting form can be the same as the one al- ready in use. A familiar form will facilitate reporting and the introduction of a second type of reporting form may cause confusion. Although the reporting system might coincide with the pharmacovigilance programme, the reports about adverse events following TM/CAM use need to be verified by TM/CAM experts. Reporting forms should be provided to those involved in the provision of TM/CAM medication therapies, such as TM/ CAM practitioners and TM/CAM retailers, who are not part of an existing national pharmacovigilance system. It may be necessary to design a special reporting form for those not fa- miliar with the reporting of suspect reactions to medicines. Educational material regarding adverse events can be devel- oped by TM/CAM professional organizations, for example, in collaboration with relevant authorities, in order to inform other professionals as well as consumers about adverse events and how to write a report about suspected adverse events. 4.4.5 Potent and/or toxic TM/CAM medication therapies # A number of TM/CAM medication therapies are very potent and sometimes toxic. Such medicines are often processed before use in order to decrease the toxicity. If incorrectly processed or used, these medicines can be very harmful and cause poisoning. In countries where such medicines are available, consumers need to be aware that they should not be used without a prescription and detailed instructions from a registered TM/CAM practitioner or a conventional health care provider knowledgeable in TM/CAM. 22750_volume.indd 40 14-06-2004 18:12:21 41 Often only certain TM/CAM practitioners have the legal right to prescribe potent and/or toxic medication therapies. Where this is the case, this is also something the consumer needs to be aware of (see section 4.6). A list of all toxic TM/ CAM medication therapies can also be helpful for the con- sumer. In addition, consumers should pay particular atten- tion to the prescriptions and dosage recommendations for these medications. Common symptoms of poisoning and pos- sible pathways for reporting such suspected poisoning need to be described in accompanying information material (see section 3.2.2). 4.4.6 Interactions and contraindications In many countries, TM/CAM medication therapies are com- monly used in combination with conventional medicine, gen- erally with satisfactory results. However, it is important to be aware of the possibility of interactions that may result from the concurrent use of several TM/CAM medication thera- pies and/or conventional drugs. The combination of several TM/CAM medication therapies and/or the concurrent use of conventional drugs may magnify or oppose the effect of the treatments (24). Consumers need to be informed about any potential interactions involved in their therapy and they also need to understand the importance of informing health care providers and TM/CAM providers about any parallel use of therapies and/or medicines. Because of the limited knowl- edge about interactions between conventional medicines and herbal medicines, this is an area that needs further study and it is important that professionals as well as consumers pay careful attention to this area and report any suspected interactions. Topics to Consider When Developing Consumer Information Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM 22750_volume.indd 41 14-06-2004 18:12:28 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine42 4.4.7 Posology In order to get the desired effect of TM/CAM medication ther- apies it is essential to take them at the correct time, in the right dosage and for the appropriate length of time. Instruc- tions on when to take the medicine (in the morning, mid-day, evening, before, with or after meals etc.), how to take it (with hot or cold drinks, with or without certain foods etc.) and for how long should be provided by the TM/CAM practitioner, and wherever possible clearly displayed on the label/leaflet attached to the medication. It is important to in- form consumers about these issues so that they can be prop- erly informed, and if necessary, they can ask their provider for such information (see Annex I). 4.4.8 Methods of administration When using TM/CAM medication therapies, it is important to adhere to the recommended method of administration. Consumers need to be informed about different methods of administration for various dosage forms such as tablets, tinctures, decoctions, teas, capsules and salves. It is impor- tant that instructions for consumers on how to administer their medicines are clear-cut and that these are clearly dis- played on the label. Both the advantages and disadvantages of each method of administration may also need to be dis- cussed. For example, it may be more appropriate for children to take medicine in the form of syrups or tinctures rather than tablets. The most appropriate method of administration can be discussed with the TM/CAM practitioner or retailer. p 22750_volume.indd 42 14-06-2004 18:12:36 43 4.4.9 Self-medication When TM/CAM medication therapies are used as self-treat- ment, consumers need to be aware of the importance of fol- lowing the proper recommendations. Consumers should always notify their conventional health care provider and TM/CAM practitioner if symptoms do not disappear, if there is no improvement in general (depending on the aim of the therapy), if symptoms get worse or adverse events are sus- pected. In addition, consumers using self-treatment need to pay special attention to all the issues outlined in the sections above as well as consult health providers, including those for traditional medicine, to ensure proper use of TM/CAM. A list of TM/CAM medication therapies and conditions ap- propriate for self-medication can be helpful for the consumer who wishes to self-medicate. However, the suitability of self- medication is also dependant on the individual’s own knowl- edge. When possible, consumers should be encouraged to discuss their self-medication with their TM/CAM provider, conventional health care provider or pharmacist. 4.4.10 Preparation of TM/CAM medication therapies In some countries, it is common for consumers to prepare their own medicines from raw materials. In such cases, as for in- stance stated by the Department of Health in Hong Kong SAR, China (see Annex I), it is important that patients have some knowledge about the preparation of TM/CAM medication ther- apies. A recipe for the particular formula is always important. The consumer needs to be informed about how much material to use for a certain amount of water; in which order to put in Topics to Consider When Developing Consumer Information Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM 22750_volume.indd 43 14-06-2004 18:12:44 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine44 the ingredients; how long to boil/simmer/steep the ingredi- ents; and for how long it can be used after preparation. Ideally TM/CAM practitioners should provide this informa- tion. However, it is useful for public information initiatives to bring up these issues and to provide general directions in some form (e.g. through brochures) for the preparation of TM/CAM medication therapies. 4.4.11 Children, pregnant or lactating women and the elderly Consumers need to be aware that decisions about medi- cal care and treatment are best made in consultation with a health care provider. In particular, children, pregnant or lactating women or the elderly should always pay special at- tention and consult a health care provider and/or authorized TM/CAM practitioner before using any TM/CAM therapy. In the case of medication therapy, children and the elderly of- ten require a different dosage than normally prescribed for adults. Meanwhile pregnant women may risk their own and/ or their baby’s health by using certain TM/CAM therapies, due to known or unknown side effects (17). Information should emphasize that: S Women who are pregnant or breastfeeding should consult an authorized TM/CAM practitioner before using any TM/ CAM therapy. S Where conventional health care is accessible, communica- tion with the conventional health care provider about TM/ CAM use needs to be particularly emphasized in the case of children, pregnant or lactating women and the elderly. 22750_volume.indd 44 14-06-2004 18:12:52 45 4.5D PROCEDURE-BASED TM/CAM THERAPIES E Procedure-based therapies use various techniques primari- ly without the use of medication therapies to provide health care. These include acupuncture and related techniques, manual therapies (e.g. massage, chiropractic, naprapathy and osteopathy, qi gong, tai ji quan, naturopathy), thermal medicine and other physical, mental, spiritual and mind- body based therapies. 4.5.1 Therapeutic claims The effectiveness and benefits of procedure-based TM/CAM therapies usually depend on the individual practitioner’s ed- ucation and training level as well as clinical experience and the efficacy of the particular TM/CAM therapy. In order to guide consumers in the selection of appropri- ate TM/CAM procedure-based therapies, national authorities and international or national/local professional organiza- tions can develop national lists of widely used TM/CAM pro- cedure-based therapies, together with the respective claims based on existing clinical evidence. Different levels of claims can be presented, such as suggested in section 4.4.1. The WHO document Acupuncture: Review and Analysis of Reports on Controlled Clinical Trials may serve as a good example (30). The quality of a certain procedure-based TM/CAM therapy is largely dependent on the skills of the TM/CAM practition- er (see section 4.6). Topics to Consider When Developing Consumer Information Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM 22750_volume.indd 45 14-06-2004 18:13:00 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine46 4.5.2 Precautions Although procedure-based therapies are usually safe, there are occasions when, because of the patient’s particular con- dition (e.g. pregnancy), use of a particular therapeutic tech- nique may be contraindicated. Organizations that regulate these therapies are mainly concerned with patient safety and can issue guidelines regarding contraindications. 4.6D PRACTITIONERS E In order to avoid treatment by non-qualified TM/CAM prac- titioners and malpractice, it is important that the consumer knows how to identify a qualified practitioner. In countries where the level of education and/or knowledge is controlled by statutory or voluntary regulations, a TM/CAM practition- er should generally have fulfilled these requirements in order to be considered qualified. One way of certifying a qualified TM/CAM practitioner’s continuous ‘good practice’ is to reg- ister all qualified providers and to enforce a system where patients can report malpractice (32). Repeated or serious mal- practice could lead to the withdrawal of the registration cer- tificate. However, such a system of quality assurance relies on consumer awareness and responsibility since reports on incidents of malpractice come mainly from consumers them- selves. Therefore, information must be available on where cases of malpractice can be reported (see section 3.2.2). Qualified/registered TM/CAM practitioners can also be identified through a system of easily recognizable certifi- cates displayed at the practice. Such certificates could be issued by the national authorities or by self-regulating pro- 22750_volume.indd 46 14-06-2004 18:13:07 47 fessional organizations and designed in a way so that they can be easily recognized. Moreover, lists of qualified/regis- tered TM/CAM practitioners available to the public could be updated periodically and published in an easily accessible format in print or on the Internet and made available through a TM/CAM information centre, local authorities, consumer organizations and professional organizations, for example. In the absence of adequate regulations, some TM/CAM practitioners may not adhere to adequate standards of clini- cal practice, with obvious implications for safety. One way to eliminate such concerns is to train, regulate and register all practitioners who employ TM/CAM and encourage consumers to seek treatment from competent practitioners who provide high quality services (17). Moreover, TM/CAM practitioners should preferably be educated in the general principles of con- ventional medicine in order to refer patients to conventional practitioners when appropriate. Another way to encourage good clinical practice is to help strengthen and increase the organization of TM/CAM practitioners. This helps facilitate the use of voluntary control mechanisms and contributes to increased professionalism among TM/CAM practitioners. 4.7D PRICING AND HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE E In countries where TM/CAM is used in conjunction with con- ventional medicine, pricing and health insurance coverage is an important determinant for TM/CAM use (27, 36). Con- sumers in such countries need to be able to assess informa- tion about standard charges and health insurance coverage for certain TM/CAM therapies. Topics to Consider When Developing Consumer Information Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM 22750_volume.indd 47 14-06-2004 18:13:15 22750_volume.indd 48 14-06-2004 18:13:21 Q5 Use of this Publication T here are both benefits and risks associated with the use of TM/CAM, as highlighted by a number of re-cent reports. Therefore it is important to ensure that appropriate information is made available to consumers to enable them to maximize the benefits of TM/CAM while min- imizing the risks. A number of elements should be taken into account when developing consumer information. For example, TM/CAM therapies are often linked to the culture from which they have originated, and their use out of the original context can be a source of misunderstanding and/or improper use. In addition, each country has a different health care system and different pattern of utilization of TM/CAM by consum- ers. Therefore consumer information on TM/CAM needs to be 22750_volume.indd 49 14-06-2004 18:13:26 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine50 tailored to specific country needs. This document provides important reference information that can be used by consumers and is intended to help guide them in their choice and use of TM/CAM therapies or prod- ucts. The aim is to help protect consumers and reduce the risks involved in improper use of TM/CAM. Finally, as em- phasized throughout this document, it is important that a number of key stakeholders work in collaboration with gov- ernments to develop much needed consumer information on TM/CAM and ensure that it is easily accessible. 22750_volume.indd 50 14-06-2004 18:13:34 Q References 1. The importance of pharmacovigilance: safety monitoring of medicinal plants. Geneva, WHO, 2002. 2. WHO Traditional Medicine Strategy 2002-2005. Geneva, WHO, 2002 (document reference WHO/EDM/TRM/2002.1). 3. General guidelines for methodologies on research and evaluation of traditional medicine. Geneva, WHO, 2000 (document reference WHO/EDM/TRM/2000.1). 4. Ernst E. Prevalence of the use of complementary/alternative medicine: a systematic review. Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 2000, 78:252-257. 5. Brieger WR et al. Roll Back Malaria. Pre-testing of needs assessment procedures. IDO Local government, Oyo State Nigeria. Unpublished draft, 1998. 6. Diarria D et al. Roll Back Malaria. Needs assessment report. Field test of instruments and methodology in Mali. Unpublished draft, 1999; copy available from Traditional Medicine, Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy, World Health Organization. 22750_volume.indd 51 14-06-2004 18:13:41 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine52 7. Gyapong M, Aikins M, Amofah G. Report on pretesting of instruments of roll back malaria needs assessment in the Dangme West District Ghana. Unpublished draft, 1999; copy available from Traditional Medicine, Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy, World Health Organization. 8. RBM Country Team. The final RBM Report on the pre-testing of the RBM (WHO) research instruments, and the situation analysis for action again malaria in Petauke District, Zambia (21st December 1998 to 20th January 1999). Unpublished draft, 1999; copy available from Traditional Medicine, Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy, World Health Organization. 9. Vickers A. Can acupuncture have specific effects on health? A systematic review of acupuncture antiemesis trials. Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 1996, 89:303-311. 10. Ernst E, Pittler MH. The effectiveness of acupuncture in treating acute dental pain: a systematic review. British Dental Journal, 1998, 184:443-447. 11. Linde K, Mulrow CD. St John’s Wort for depression. On-line Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2 November 2002. 12. Wilt T, Ishani A, MacDonald R. Serenoa Repens for benign prostatic hyperplasia. On-line Cochrane Library Issue 4, 2 November 2002. 13. NIH News Release - NIH Panel Issue. NIH Panel Issues Consensus Statement on Acupuncture, Bethesda, Maryland, National Institutes of Health, 1997 (available on the Internet at http://www.nih.gov/news/pr/nov97/od-05.html, accessed 20 May 2004). 14. Carlsson M et al. Perceived quality of life and coping for Swedish women with breast cancer who choose complementary medicine. Cancer Nursing, 2001, 24:395-401. 15. Power R et al. HIV: Effectiveness of Complementary and Alternative Medicine. Primary Care, 2002, 29:361-78. 16. Collaboration with Traditional Healers in AIDS Prevention and Care in Sub-Saharan Africa: a literature review. Geneva, UNAIDS, 2000. 17. Ernst E. The desktop guide to complementary and alternative medicine: An evidence based approach. Orlando, FL, Harcourt Ltd, 2001. 18. Huang WF, Wen KC, Hsaio ML. Adulteration by synthetic therapeutic substances of traditional Chinese medicines in Taiwan. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 1997, 37:334-350. 22750_volume.indd 52 14-06-2004 18:13:49 53 19. Ko R. Adulterant in Asian patent medicines. New England Journal of Medicine, 1998, 339; 847:12. 20. Farah M et al. International monitoring of adverse events associated with herbal medicines. Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, 2000, 9:105-112. 21. Uppsala Monitoring Center (Internet communication of 1 November 2002 at web site http://www.who-umc.org). 22. Ang-Lee M, Moss J, Yuan C. Herbal medicine and perioperative Care. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 2001, 286:208-216. 23. Stevinson C, Huntley A, Ernst E. A systematic review of the safety of kava extract in the treatment of anxiety. Drug Safety, 2002, 25: 251-261. 24. Fugh-Berman H. Herb-drug interactions, Lancet, 2000, 355: 134-138. 25. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants Volume 1. Geneva, WHO, 1999. 26. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants Volume 2. Geneva, WHO, 2002. 27. Eisenberg D et al. Trends in alternative medicine use in the United States, 1990-1997. The Journal of the American Medical Association, 1998, 280:1569-1575. 28. Falkenberg T. Towards a global atlas of traditional/ complementary and alternative medicine utilization: Provisional indicators for monitoring traditional, complementary and alternative medicine use. In: Proceedings of WKC International Consultative Meeting Global Information on Traditional Medicine/Complementary and Alternative Medicine Practices and Utilization, WHO Collaborating Centre, Kobe, Japan, 19-21 September 2001. 29. Quality control methods for medicinal plant materials. Geneva, WHO, 1998. 30. Acupuncture: Review and analysis of reports on controlled clinical trials. Geneva, WHO, 2002. 31. Zollman C, Vickers A. ABC of complementary medicine. London, BMJ Books, 2000. 32. Guidelines on basic training and safety in acupuncture. Geneva, WHO, 1999 (document reference WHO/EDM/ TRM/99.1). 33. Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Session 1999- 2000, 6th report, House of Lords Select Committee on Science References 22750_volume.indd 53 14-06-2004 18:13:57 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine54 and Technology. London, Stationery Office, 2000 (available on the Internet at http://www.parliament.the-stationery- office.co.uk/pa/ld199900/ldselect/ldsctech/123/12301.htm, accessed 20 May 2004). 34. Chan T. Incidence of herb-induced aconitine poisoning in Hong-Kong: Impact of publicity measures to promote awareness among the herbalists and the public. Drug Safety, 2002, 25:823-828. 35. Public education in rational drug use: A global survey. Geneva, WHO, 1997 (document reference WHO/DAP/97.5). 36. Perspective on complementary and alternative medicine: A collection of papers prepared for Health Canada, Health Canada, 2001 (available on the Internet at http://www.hc-sc.gc. ca/healthcare/cahc/index.html, accessed 20 May 2004). 37. McCarthy M. US Panel calls for more support of alternative medicine. Lancet, 359:1213. 38. Guidelines on the safety monitoring and pharmacovigilance of herbal medicines. Geneva, WHO, in preparation. 39. Gandelsonas C. Communicating for development: Experience from the urban environment. London, ITDG Publishing, 2002. 40. Guiding principles in self-medication. Ferney Voltaire, France, World Self-Medication Industry (WSMI), 2002 (document originally found at http://www.wsmi.org/). 41. The DISCERN handbook: quality criteria for consumer health information on treatment choices. Abingdon, Radcliffe Medical Press, 1998. 42. Medical products and the Internet: A guide to finding reliable information. Geneva, WHO, 1999 (document reference WHO/ EDM/QSM/99.4). 43. Legal status of traditional medicine and complementary and alternative medicine: A worldwide review. Geneva, WHO, 2001 (document reference WHO/EDM/TRM/2001.2). 44. Regulatory situation of herbal medicines: A worldwide review. Geneva, WHO, 1998 (document reference WHO/TRM/98.1). 45. Guidelines for the assessment of herbal medicines. Geneva, WHO, 1991 (document reference WHO/TRM/91.4) 22750_volume.indd 54 14-06-2004 18:14:05 Q Annex I Leaflets Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM Published by the Department of Health, Hong Kong SAR, China 22750_volume.indd 55 14-06-2004 18:14:12 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine56 Example 1 General Knowledge of Toxic/Potent Chinese Herbal Medicines 22750_volume.indd 56 14-06-2004 18:14:25 57Annex I. Leaflets Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM Published by the Department of Health, Hong Kong SAR, China 22750_volume.indd 57 14-06-2004 18:14:35 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine58 Example 2 Points to note when purchasing Chinese Medicines 22750_volume.indd 58 14-06-2004 18:14:45 59Annex I. Leaflets Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM Published by the Department of Health, Hong Kong SAR, China 22750_volume.indd 59 14-06-2004 18:14:55 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine60 Example 3 Registered and Listed Chinese Medicine Practitioners 22750_volume.indd 60 14-06-2004 18:15:05 61Annex I. Leaflets Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM Published by the Department of Health, Hong Kong SAR, China 22750_volume.indd 61 14-06-2004 18:15:15 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine62 Example 4 Adverse Effects of Misusing Herbal Tonics 22750_volume.indd 62 14-06-2004 18:15:26 63Annex I. Leaflets Promoting Proper Use of TM/CAM Published by the Department of Health, Hong Kong SAR, China 22750_volume.indd 63 14-06-2004 18:15:36 22750_volume.indd 64 14-06-2004 18:15:41 Q Annex II Things to Know about Evaluating Medical Resources on the Internet* T he number of Web sites o f f e r i n g health-related re- sources grows every day. Many sites pro- vide valuable infor- mation, while others may have informa- tion that is unreli- able or misleading. This short guide contains important questions you should consider as you look for health information online. Answer- * Information provided by National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) at National Institute of Health, USA. http://nccam.nih.gov/health/webresources/ 22750_volume.indd 65 14-06-2004 18:15:48 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine66 ing these questions when you visit a new site will help you evaluate the information you find. 1. Who runs this site? Any good health-related Web site should make it easy for you to learn who is responsible for the site and its information. On this site, for example, the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is clearly marked on every ma- jor page of the site, along with a link to the NCCAM homepage. 2. Who pays for the site? It costs money to run a Web site. The source of a Web site’s funding should be clearly stated or readily apparent. For ex- ample, Web addresses ending in “.gov” denote a Federal Gov- ernment-sponsored site. You should know how the site pays for its existence. Does it sell advertising? Is it sponsored by a drug company? The source of funding can affect what con- tent is presented, how the content is presented, and what the site owners want to accomplish on the site. 3. What is the purpose of the site? This question is related to who runs and pays for the site. An “About This Site” link appears on many sites; if it’s there, use it. The purpose of the site should be clearly stated and should help you evaluate the trustworthiness of the information. 4. Where does the information come from? Many health/medical sites post information collected from other Web sites or sources. If the person or organization in charge of the site did not create the information, the original source should be clearly labeled. 22750_volume.indd 66 14-06-2004 18:15:56 67 5. What is the basis of the information? In addition to identifying who wrote the material you are reading, the site should describe the evidence that the mate- rial is based on. Medical facts and figures should have refer- ences (such as to articles in medical journals). Also, opinions or advice should be clearly set apart from information that is “evidence-based” (that is, based on research results). 6. How is the information selected? Is there an editorial board? Do people with excellent profes- sional and scientific qualifications review the material be- fore it is posted? 7. How current is the information? Web sites should be reviewed and updated on a regular basis. It is particularly important that medical information be cur- rent. The most recent update or review date should be clearly posted. Even if the information has not changed, you want to know whether the site owners have reviewed it recently to en- sure that it is still valid. 8. How does the site choose links to other sites? Web sites usually have a policy about how they establish links to other sites. Some medical sites take a conservative approach and don’t link to any other sites. Some link to any site that asks, or pays, for a link. Others only link to sites that have met certain criteria. Annex II. Things to Know About Evaluating Medical Information on the Web 22750_volume.indd 67 14-06-2004 18:16:04 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine68 9. What information about you does the site collect, and why? Web sites routinely track the paths visitors take through their sites to determine what pages are being used. However, many health Web sites ask for you to “subscribe” or “become a member.” In some cases, this may be so that they can col- lect a user fee or select information for you that is relevant to your concerns. In all cases, this will give the site personal information about you. Any credible health site asking for this kind of information should tell you exactly what they will and will not do with it. Many commercial sites sell “aggregate” (collected) data about their users to other companies--information such as what percentage of their users are women with breast cancer, for example. In some cases they may collect and reuse informa- tion that is “personally identifiable,” such as your ZIP code, gender, and birth date. Be certain that you read and under- stand any privacy policy or similar language on the site, and don’t sign up for anything that you are not sure you fully un- derstand. 10. How does the site manage interactions with visitors? There should always be a way for you to contact the site owner if you run across problems or have questions or feedback. If the site hosts chat rooms or other online discussion areas, it should tell visitors what the terms of using this service are. Is it moderated? If so, by whom, and why? It is always a good idea to spend time reading the discussion without joining in, so that you feel comfortable with the environment before be- coming a participant. 22750_volume.indd 68 14-06-2004 18:16:12 69 NCCAM has provided this material for your information. It is not intended to substitute for the medical expertise and advice of your primary health care provider. We encourage you to discuss any decisions about treatment or care with your health care provider. The mention of any product, serv- ice, or therapy in this information is not an endorsement by NCCAM. This document is in the public domain. Duplication is en- couraged. This publication is adapted from a fact sheet produced by the National Cancer Institute. NCCAM Publication No. D142 February 19, 2002. NCCAM Clearinghouse E-mail: info@nccam.nih.gov Web site: nccam.nih.gov Address: NCCAM Clearinghouse P.O. Box 7923 Gaithersburg, MD 20898-7923 United States of America Annex II. Things to Know About Evaluating Medical Information on the Web 22750_volume.indd 69 14-06-2004 18:16:19 22750_volume.indd 70 14-06-2004 18:16:25 Q Annex III Medical Products on the Internet: A Guide to Finding Reliable Information 22750_volume.indd 71 14-06-2004 18:16:32 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine72 22750_volume.indd 72 14-06-2004 18:16:41 73Annex III. Medical Products on the Internet: a guide to finding reliable information 22750_volume.indd 73 14-06-2004 18:16:51 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine74 22750_volume.indd 74 14-06-2004 18:17:01 75Annex III. Medical Products on the Internet: a guide to finding reliable information 22750_volume.indd 75 14-06-2004 18:17:10 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine76 22750_volume.indd 76 14-06-2004 18:17:19 Q Annex IV Licence Symbol, Swissmedic1 Licence symbol A Licence symbol B Licence symbol C Licence symbol D Licence symbol E 1 Swissmedic Internet communication 4 September, 2003 at http:// www.swissmedic.ch/en/industrie/overall.asp?theme=0.00107.000 04.00001&theme_id=916&news_id=1839&page=1 22750_volume.indd 77 14-06-2004 18:17:30 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine78 The licence symbol indicates that Swissmedic, the Swiss Agency for Therapeutic Products, has issued an authorization for a specific preparation. (It corresponds to the previous “IKS/ OICM” including the (IKS/Uhu) logo in the corner with the dis- tribution category.) Owing to the disbanding of Sanphar the previous “IKS Vignettes” may not be replaced with “Medwin Vignettes” and the old IKS logo will no longer be continued by Swissmedic. A new format for the licence symbol will therefore be made available to companies requiring it. It was decided that the all black version of the Swissmedic logo should appear in the circle indicating the distribution category. For reasons of space the authorization number had to be left out of this circle. On the packaging the authorization number is indicated under the EAN barcode. As this number is the only way of faultlessly classifying the package, the package indication in the form of a three-figure pharmaceutical code for IKS preparations or the two-figure pharmaceutical code for the former BAG prepara- tions is printed in the EAN barcode next to the former five-figure IKS number or the former three-figure BAG number. However, as it is not legally compulsory to place a barcode on the package, in the absence of the EAN barcode the authorization number must be printed on the packaging, with the indication “Zulas- sungs-Nr.” (abbreviated to: “Zul.-Nr.”). The previous bilingual indication “IKS/OICM” or “BAG/OFSP” must of course be re- placed by “SWISSMEDIC” (in capitals to make it easier to read). The time allowed for the change-over to the Swissmedic licence symbol is one year from the expiry of the existing IKS or BAG certificate and its replacement by a new Swissmedic authoriza- tion. The change-over to the Swissmedic authorization symbol may be made earlier but in this case Swissmedic must be in- formed that this aspect of the packaging has been modified. 22750_volume.indd 78 14-06-2004 18:17:37 Q Annex 5 Selected WHO Publications and Documents on Traditional Medicine P ublications and documents listed below are available in English. The following abbreviations are used to indicate the availability of language editions: Ar: Ar- abic; C: Chinese; F: French; R: Russian; S: Spanish. * Respec- tive language version in preparation. National policy and monitoring WHO Traditional Medicines Strategy: 2002-2005. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002 (document reference WHO/EDM/ TRM/2002.1) (Ar/C/F/S/R). Traditional Medicine – Growing Needs and Potential. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002 (document reference WHO/ TRM/2002.4) (Ar/C/F/S/R). Legal Status of Traditional medicine and Complementary/ Alternative Medicine: a Worldwide Review. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001 (document reference WHO/EDM/TRM/2001.2) (F*/R/S*). 22750_volume.indd 79 14-06-2004 18:17:45 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine80 Report of the Inter-regional Workshop on Intellectual Property Rights in the Context of Traditional Medicine. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001 (document reference WHO/EDM/TRM/2001.1). Regulatory Situation of Herbal Medicines: a Worldwide Review. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998 (document reference WHO/TM/98.1) (F/S). Traditional Practitioners as Primary Health Care Workers. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1995 (document reference WHO/SHS/DHS/TM/95.6). Quality, safety and efficacy Medicinal plants WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 3. Geneva, World Health Organization, in preparation. WHO Guidelines on Safety Monitoring and Pharmacovigilance of Herbal Medicines. Geneva, World Health Organization, in preparation. WHO guidelines on good agricultural and collection practices (GACP) for medicinal plants. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2003 (Ar*/C*/F*/R*/S*). WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 2. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002. WHO Monographs on Selected Medicinal Plants. Vol. 1. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999. Basic Tests for Drugs: Pharmaceutical Substances, Medicinal Plant Materials and Dosage Forms. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998 (F/S). Quality Control Methods for Medicinal Plant Materials. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1998. Good Manufacturing Practices: Supplementary Guidelines for the Manufacture of Herbal Medicinal Products. Annex 8 of WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations. Thirty-fourth Report. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1996 (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 863) (F/S). (This supplementary guideline is also included in Quality Assurance of Pharmaceuticals: A compendium of guidelines and related 22750_volume.indd 80 14-06-2004 18:17:53 81 materials, Vol. 2: Good manufacturing practices and inspection. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999 (F).) Guidelines for the Assessment of Herbal Medicines. Annex 11 of WHO Expert Committee on Specifications for Pharmaceutical Preparations. Thirty-fourth Report. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1996 (WHO Technical Report Series, No. 863) (F/S). (This guideline is also included in Quality Assurance of Pharmaceuticals: A compendium of guidelines and related materials, Vol. 1. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1997 (F).) Research Report of the Inter-Regional Workshop on Intellectual Property Rights in the Context of Traditional Medicine, Bangkok, Thailand, 6-8 December 2000. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2001 (document reference WHO/EDM/TRM/2001.1). General Guidelines for Methodologies on Research and Evaluation of Traditional Medicine. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2000 (document reference WHO/EDM/TRM/2000.1) (F/S/R). Clinical Evaluation of Traditional Medicines and Natural Products. Report of a WHO Consultation on Traditional Medicine and AIDS, Geneva, 26–28 September 1990. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1990 (document reference WHO/TM/GPA/90.2). Rational use Acupuncture nomenclature A Proposed Standard International Acupuncture Nomenclature: Report of a WHO Scientific Group. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1991. Report of the Working Group on Auricular Acupuncture Nomenclature. Lyon, France, 28–30 November 1990. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1991 (document reference WHO/TM/91.2). Conservation of medicinal plants WHO/IUCN/WWF Guidelines on the Conservation of Medicinal Plants. Gland, Switzerland, International Union for the Conservation of Nature, 1993 (F/S). Annex 5. Selected WHO publications and documents on traditional medicine 22750_volume.indd 81 14-06-2004 18:18:01 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine82 Training and good practice Acupuncture: Review and Analysis of Reports on Controlled Clinical Trials. Geneva, World Health Organization, 2002. Guidelines on Basic Training and Safety in Acupuncture. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1999 (document reference WHO/EDM/ TM/99.1) (F/S). Guidelines for Training Traditional Health Practitioners in Primary Health Care. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1995 (document reference WHO/SHS/DHS/TM/95.5). Prospects for Involving Traditional Health Practitioners. Report of the Consultation on AIDS and Traditional Medicine, Francistown, Botswana, 23–27 July 1990. Geneva, World Health Organization, 1990 (document reference WHO/TM/GPA/90.1) (F). 22750_volume.indd 82 14-06-2004 18:18:08 Q Annex VI List of Participants WHO Consultation on Proper Use of Traditional Medicine and Complementary Medicine by Consumers, Milan, Italy, 1–3 December 2003 Dr Abdullah M Al-Bedah, Supervisor, Complementary and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Health, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia Dr Céspedes Valcarcel Alfredo Jacobo, Deputy Director for Drugs, National Center for Drugs Quality Control, Ministry of Public Health, La Habana, Cuba Dr Maurizio Amigoni, Deputy Director-General, Directorate-General of Health, Lombardy Region, Milano, Italy Dr Layla Ashoor, Family Physician, Focal Point for CAM in Baharain, Ministry of Health, Karbabad, Kingdom of Bahrain Mr Myat Kyaw U. Aung, Director, Department of Traditional Medicine, Yangon, Myanmar [Vice-Chairperson] 22750_volume.indd 83 14-06-2004 18:18:16 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine84 Dr Sassan Behjat, Coordinator, Complementary and Alternative Medicine Unit, Ministry of Health, Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates [Chairperson] Dr Ivo Bianchi, President, Italian Medical Association of Homotoxicology, Milano, Italy Dr Gordon Brown, Head, Complementary Therapies Team, Department of Health, London, United Kingdom Ms Anna Caizzi, Director of the Consumer Protection and Support to the Commercial System Structure, Directorate- General of Market, Fairs and Congresses, Lombardy Region, Milan, Italy Dr Carmelita Canila, Country Officer for Philippines, Consumer International, Asia Pacific Office, Quezon City, Phillippines Dr Vittorio Caprioglio, Director, Riza Institute of Psychosomatic Medicine, Milano, Italy Ms Swee Seng Chu, Head, Chinese Proprietary Medicine Unit, Centre of Pharmaceutical Administration, Health Sciences Authority, Singapore Dr Anchalee Chuthaputti, Senior Pharmacist, Institute of Thai Traditional Medicine, Department for Development of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthabusi, Thailand Dr Dairine Dempsey, Herbal Medicines Project Manager, Irish Medicines Board, Dublin, Ireland Dr Alessandro Discalzi, Medical Doctor, Directorate- General, Family and Social Solidarity, Lombardy Region, Milano, Italy Professor Daniela Giachetti, Department of Environmental Sciences, Pharmaceutical Biology, University of Siena, Siena, Italy 22750_volume.indd 84 14-06-2004 18:18:23 85 Professor Aly Bayoumi Hammad, Head, Complementary Medicine Unit, Internal Medicine Department, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt Dr Hunua Francis Korbla Hlortsi-Akakpo, Registrar, Traditional Medicine Practice Council, Ministry of Health, Accra, Ghana [Co-Rapporteur] Professor Lidia Ilyenko, Chief Specialist, Alternative Treatment and Homeopathy, Russian State Medical University, Moscow, Russian Federation Dr Saliya Karymbaeva, Head, Drug Information Centre of Drug Department, Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan Professor Byung-Hee Koh, Hospital of Oriental Medicine, Kyung-Hee University, Seoul, Republic of Korea Mr Nchele Dickson Lentsoane, Medicines Control Council, Department of Health, Pretoria, South Africa Professor Emilio Minelli, WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine, State University of Milan, Milano, Italy Dr Fernando Ortega, Director of Integrated Community Development Department and Vice Dean of College of Health Sciences, Universidad San Francisco de Quito, Quito, Ecuador Ms Christine Qunta, Indigenous Knowledge Systems Trust, Pretoria, South Africa Dr Jean Rene Randriasamimanana, Director, Agency of Medication, Ministry of Health, Antananarivo, Madagascar Dr David S. Riley, University of New Mexico, Santa Fe, New Mexico, United States of America Dr Erus Sangiorgi, WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine, State University of Milan, Italy Annex VI. List of Participants 22750_volume.indd 85 14-06-2004 18:18:31 WHO Guidelines on Developing Consumer Information on Proper Use of Traditional, Complementary and Alternative Medicine86 Ms Lucia Scrabbi, Planning Unit, Directorate-General oh Health, Lombardy Region, Milano, Italy Dr Jaime Sin, Senior Medical and Health Officer, Chinese Medicine Division, Department of Health, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region, People’s Republic of China Mrs Wen Situ, Senior Researcher, State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Beijing, People’s Republic of China Professor Umberto Solimene, Director, WHO Collaborating Centre for Traditional Medicine, State University of Milan, Milano, Italy Dr Pennapa Subcharoen, Deputy Director-General, Department for Development of Thai Traditional and Alternative Medicine, Ministry of Public Health, Nonthaburi, Thailand Dr Sergei Sur, Deputy Chief Inspector , State Inspection for Quality Control of Medicines, Ministry of Health, Kiev, Ukraine Ms Sinead Tuite, Policy Analyst, Natural Health Products Directorate, Health Canada, Ontario, Canada [Co- Rapporteur] Dr Robbert Van Haselen, Deputy Director of Research, The Royal London Homeopathic Hospital, London, United Kingdom Dr Hashim Ubale Yusufu, National Agency for Food and Drug Administration and Control, Wuse Abuja, Nigeria 22750_volume.indd 86 14-06-2004 18:18:39 87 WHO Temporary Advisors Ms Johanna Hök, Centre for Studies of Complementary Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of International Health and Department of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden Ms Suzanne Schönström, Centre for Studies of Complementary Medicine, Department of Public Health Sciences, Division of International Health and Department of Nursing, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden WHO Secretariat Dr Jonathan Quick, Director, Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (EDM), World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Dr Xiaorui Zhang, Coordinator, Traditional Medicine (TRM), Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (EDM), World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Dr Rosario D’Alessio, Regional Advisor, THS/EV, WHO Regional Office for Americas, Washington DC, United States of America Dr Ossy Kasilo, Regional Advisor, Traditional Medicine, WHO Regional Office for Africa, Brazzaville, Republic of Congo Ms Yukiko Maruyama, Scientist, Traditional Medicine (TRM), Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (EDM), World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland Mr Raymond Tsai, Traditional Medicine (TRM), Department of Essential Drugs and Medicines Policy (EDM), World Health Organization, Geneva , Switzerland Annex VI. List of Participants 22750_volume.indd 87 14-06-2004 18:18:46

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