Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011, Final Report, 2011

Publication date: 2011

Viet N am 2011 VIET NAM Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 Monitoring the situation of children and women MICS M ultiple Indicator C luster S urvey 2011 M IC S General Statistics Cluster Survey 2011 Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Website: mics.gso.gov.vn United Nations Children’s Fund United Nations Population Fund Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 Final Report December, 2011 The Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was carried out in 2010-2011 by the General Statistics Office of Viet Nam. Financial and technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and financial support was provided by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). MICS is an international household survey programme developed by UNICEF. The Viet Nam MICS was conducted as part of the fourth global round of MICS surveys (MICS 4). MICS provides up-to-date information on the situation of children and women and measures key indicators that allow countries to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments. Additional information on the global MICS project may be obtained from www.childinfo.org. Suggested citation: General Statistical Office (GSO), Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011, Final Report, 2011, Ha Noi, Viet Nam. 11 Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 GSO General Statistics Office UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UNFPA United Nations Population Fund December, 2011 2 3VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN SUMMARy TAblE OF FINDINGS Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Indicators, Viet Nam, 2011 Topic MICS 2011 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value CHILD MORTALITY Child mortality 1.1 4.1 Under-five mortality rate 16 per thousand 1.2 4.2 Infant mortality rate 14 per thousand NUTRITION Nutritional status 2.1a 2.1b 1.8 Underweight prevalence Moderate and Severe (- 2 SD) Severe (- 3 SD) 11.7 1.8 per cent per cent 2.2a 2.2b Stunting prevalence Moderate and Severe (- 2 SD) Severe (- 3 SD) 22.7 6 per cent per cent 2.3a 2.3b Wasting prevalence Moderate and Severe (- 2 SD) Severe (- 3 SD) 4.1 1.2 per cent per cent breastfeeding and infant feeding 2.4 Children ever breastfed 98 per cent 2.5 Early initiation of breastfeeding 39.7 per cent 2.6 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 17 per cent 2.7 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 73.9 per cent 2.8 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 19.4 per cent 2.9 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 43.3 per cent 2.10 Duration of breastfeeding 16.7 median months 2.11 bottle feeding 38.7 per cent 2.12 Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods 50.4 per cent 2.13 Minimum meal frequency 58.5 per cent 2.14 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 33.5 per cent 2.15 Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children 82.2 per cent Salt iodisation 2.16 Iodised salt consumption 45.1 per cent Vitamin A 2.17 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) 83.4 per cent low birth weight 2.18 low-birthweight infants 5.1 per cent 2.19 Infants weighed at birth 93.2 per cent CHILD HEALTH Vaccinations 3.1 bCG immunization coverage 95 per cent 3.2 Polio immunization coverage 68.1 per cent 3.3 Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus (DPT) immunization coverage 73 per cent 3.4 4.3 Measles immunization coverage 84.2 per cent 3.5 Hepatitis b immunization coverage 53.3 per cent Tetanus toxoid 3.7 Neonatal tetanus protection 77.5 per cent Care of illness 3.8 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 56.7 per cent 3.9 Care seeking for suspected pneumonia 73 per cent 3.10 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 68.3 per cent Solid fuel use 3.11 Solid fuels 46.4 per cent 4 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Topic MICS 2011 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value Malaria 3.12 Household availability of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) 9.5 per cent 3.13 Households protected by a vector control method 25 per cent 3.14 Children under age 5 sleeping under any mosquito net 94.4 per cent 3.15 6.7 Children under age 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) 9.4 per cent 3.16 Malaria diagnostics usage 10.7 per cent 3.17 Antimalarial treatment of children under age 5 the same or next day 0.9 per cent 3.18 6.8 Antimalarial treatment of children under age 5 1.2 per cent 3.19 Pregnant women sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) 11.3 per cent WATER, SANITATION AND HYGIENE Water and sanitation 4.1 7.8 Use of improved drinking water sources 92 per cent 4.2 Water treatment 89.6 per cent 4.3 7.9 Use of improved sanitation facilities 73.8 per cent 4.4 Safe disposal of child's faeces 61.1 per cent Hygiene 4.5 Place for handwashing with water and soap 86.6 per cent 4.6 Availability of soap 95.1 per cent REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Contraception and unmet need 5.1 5.4 Adolescent birth rate 46 per thousand 5.2 Early childbearing 3.0 per cent 5.3 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate 77.8 per cent 5.4 5.6 Unmet need for contraception 4.3 per cent Maternal and newborn health 5.5a 5.5b 5.5 Antenatal care coverage At least once by skilled personnel At least four times by any provider 93.7 59.6 per cent per cent 5.6 Pregnant women received blood pressure check, urine test and blood test before delivery 42.5 per cent 5.7 5.2 Skilled attendant at delivery 92.9 per cent 5.8 Institutional deliveries 92.4 per cent 5.9 Caesarean section 20 per cent CHILD DEVELOPMENT Child development 6.1 Support for learning 76.8 per cent 6.2 Father's support for learning 61.3 per cent 6.3 learning materials: children’s books 19.6 per cent 6.4 learning materials: playthings 49.3 per cent 6.5 Inadequate care 9.4 per cent 6.6 Early child development index 82.8 per cent 6.7 Attendance in early childhood education 71.9 per cent EDUCATION literacy and education 7.1 2.3 literacy rate among young women 96.4 per cent 7.2 School readiness 92.6 per cent 7.3 Net intake rate in primary education 94.9 per cent 7.4 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 97.9 per cent 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 81.0 per cent 7.6 2.2 Children reaching last grade of primary 99.4 per cent 7.7 Primary completion rate 99.6 per cent 7.8 Transition rate to secondary school 98.8 per cent 7.9 3.1 Gender parity index (primary school) 1.00 ratio 7.10 3.1 Gender parity index (secondary school) 1.07 ratio CHILD PROTECTION birth registration 8.1 birth registration 95 per cent Child labour 8.2 Child labour 9.5 per cent 8.3 School attendance among child labourers 83.4 per cent 8.4 Child labour among students 8.3 per cent Child discipline 8.5 Violent discipline 73.9 per cent 5VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Topic MICS 2011 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value Early marriage and polygyny 8.6 Marriage before age 15 0.7 per cent 8.7 Marriage before age 18 12.3 per cent 8.8 Young women age 15-19 currently married or in union 8.4 per cent 8.9 Polygyny 2.5 per cent 8.10a 8.10b Spousal age difference (10 or more years) Women age 15-19 Women age 20-24 7.4 4.8 per cent per cent Domestic violence 8.14 Attitudes towards domestic violence 35.8 per cent Orphaned children 8.15 Children’s living arrangements 5.3 per cent 8.16 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead 3.9 per cent HIV/AIDS AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes 9.1 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 45.1 per cent 9.2 6.3 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 51.1 per cent 9.3 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 49.6 per cent 9.4 Accepting attitude towards people living with HIV 28.9 per cent 9.5 Women who know where to be tested for HIV 61.1 per cent 9.6 Women who have been tested for HIV and know the results 6.6 per cent 9.7 Sexually active young women who have been tested for HIV and know the results 7.9 per cent 9.8 HIV counselling during antenatal care 20.9 per cent 9.9 HIV testing during antenatal care 28.6 per cent Sexual behaviour 9.10 young women who have never had sex 98.5 per cent 9.11 Sex before age 15 among young women 0.5 per cent 9.12 Age-mixing among sexual partners 6.3 per cent 9.13 Sex with multiple partners 0.1 per cent 9.15 Sex with non-regular partners 0.8 per cent 6 7VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN TAblE OF CONTENTS SUMMARy TAblE OF FINDINGS . 3 TAblE OF CONTENTS . 7 lIST OF TAblES. .10 lIST OF FIGURES . 14 lIST OF AbbREVIATIONS . 15 ACKNOWlEDGEMENTS . 17 MAP OF DISTRICTS WITH MICS 2011 DATA COllECTION SITES . 19 ExECUTIVE SUMMARy . 20 I. INTROdUCTION . 25 background . 26 MICS 2011 Objectives . 27 II. SAMPlE AND SURVEy METHODOlOGy . 29 Sample Design . 30 Questionnaires . 30 Training and Fieldwork . 32 Data Processing . 32 III. SAMPlE COVERAGE AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOlDS AND RESPONDENTS . 33 Sample Coverage . 34 Household Characteristics . 34 Characteristics of Female Respondents 15–49 Years of Age and Children Under 5 years of Age . 38 IV. CHIld MORTAlITY . 43 V. NUTRITION . 49 Nutritional Status . 50 breastfeeding and Infant and young Child Feeding . 54 Salt Iodisation . 65 Children’s Vitamin A Supplementation. 67 low birth Weight . 70 8 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VI. CHIld HEAlTH . 73 Immunization . 74 Neonatal Tetanus Protection . 78 Oral Rehydration Treatment . 80 Care Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia . 90 Solid Fuel Use . 95 Malaria . 98 VII. WATER, SANITATION ANd HYGIENE . 107 Use of Improved Water Sources . 108 Use of Improved Sanitation Facilities .114 Handwashing . 121 VIII. REPROdUCTIVE HEAlTH . 123 Fertility . 124 Contraception . 128 Unmet Need . 131 Antenatal Care . 133 Assistance at Delivery . 137 Place of Delivery . 140 IX. CHIld dEVElOPMENT . 143 Early Childhood Education and learning . 144 Early Childhood Development . 150 X. lITERACY ANd EdUCATION . 155 literacy among young Women . 156 School Readiness . 156 Primary and Secondary School Participation . 158 XI. CHIld PROTECTION . 169 birth Registration . 170 Child labour . 172 Child Discipline . 176 Early Marriage and Polygyny . 178 Domestic Violence . 185 Orphanhood . 187 9VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN XII. HIV/AIdS ANd SEXUAl BEHAVIOUR . 189 Knowledge about HIV Transmission and Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS . 190 Accepting Attitudes toward People living with HIV/AIDS . 200 Knowledge of a Place for HIV Testing, Counselling and Testing during Antenatal Care . 203 Sexual behaviour Related to HIV Transmission . 208 APPENDIx A. Sample Design . 215 APPENdIX B. list of Personnel Involved in the Survey . 219 APPENdIX C. Estimates of Sampling Errors . 223 APPENdIX d. Data Quality Tables . 253 APPENdIX E. MICS 2011 Indicators: Numerators and Denominators . 269 APPENdIX F. Questionnaires .A1 10 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN lIST OF TAblES Table HH.1: Interview results for households, women and children under 5 years of age 34 Table HH.2: Sample age distribution by sex 35 Table HH.3: Household characteristics 37 Table HH.4: Women’s background characteristics 39 Table HH.5: Background characteristics of children under age 5 41 Table CM.1: Children ever born, children surviving and proportion dead 44 Table CM.2: Child mortality 45 Table NU.1: Nutritional status of children 51 Table NU.2: Initial breastfeeding 55 Table NU.3: Breastfeeding 57 Table NU.3a: Feeding patterns by age 58 Table NU.4: duration of breastfeeding 60 Table NU.5: Age-appropriate breastfeeding 61 Table NU.6: Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods 62 Table NU.7: Minimum meal frequency 63 Table NU.8: Bottle feeding 64 Table NU.9: Iodised salt consumption 66 Table NU.10: Children’s vitamin A supplementation 69 Table NU.11: low birth weight infants 71 Table CH.1: Vaccinations in the first year of life 75 Table CH.2: Vaccinations by background characteristics 77 Table CH.3: Neonatal tetanus protection 79 Table CH.4: Oral rehydration solutions and recommended homemade fluids 82 Table CH.5: Feeding practices during diarrhoea 85 Table CH.6: Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding and other treatments 88 Table CH.7: Care seeking for suspected pneumonia and antibiotic use during suspected pneumonia 91 11VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CH.8: Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia 94 Table CH.9: Solid fuel use 96 Table CH.10: Solid fuel use by place of cooking 98 Table CH.11: Household availability of insecticide treated nets and protection by a vector control method 99 Table CH.12: Children sleeping under mosquito nets 100 Table CH.13: Pregnant women sleeping under mosquito nets 101 Table CH.14: Anti-malarial treatment of children with anti-malarial drugs 103 Table CH.15: Malaria diagnostics usage 105 Table WS.1: Use of improved water sources 109 Table WS.2: Household water treatment 112 Table WS.3: Time to source of drinking water 113 Table WS.4: Person collecting water 114 Table WS.5: Use of improved sanitation facilities 116 Table WS.6: Shared use of sanitation facilities 118 Table WS.7: disposal of child’s faeces 119 Table WS.8: Use of improved water sources and improved sanitation facilities 120 Table WS.9: Water and soap at place for handwashing 121 Table WS.10: Availability of soap 122 Table RH.1: Adolescent birth rate and total fertility rate 125 Table RH.2: Early childbearing 126 Table RH.3: Trends in early childbearing 127 Table RH.4: Use of contraception 129 Table RH.5: Unmet need for contraception 132 Table RH.6: Antenatal care coverage 134 Table RH.7: Number of antenatal care visits 135 Table RH.8: Content of antenatal care 136 Table RH.9: Assistance during delivery 138 Table RH.10: Place of delivery 141 12 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table Cd.1: Early childhood education 144 Table Cd.2: Support for learning 146 Table Cd.3: learning materials 148 Table Cd.4: Inadequate care 150 Table Cd.5: Early child development index 152 Table Ed.1: literacy among young women 156 Table Ed.2: School readiness 157 Table Ed.3: Primary school entry 159 Table Ed.4: Primary school attendance 160 Table Ed.5: Secondary school attendance 162 Table Ed.6: Children reaching the last grade of primary school 164 Table Ed.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school 166 Table Ed.8: Education gender parity 167 Table CP.1: Birth registration 171 Table CP.2a: Child labour among children aged 5-11 years 173 Table CP.2b: Child labour among children aged 12-14 years 174 Table CP.3: Child labour and school attendance 176 Table CP.4: Child discipline 177 Table CP.5: Early marriage and polygyny 180 Table CP.6: Trends in early marriage 182 Table CP.7: Spousal age difference 184 Table CP.8: Attitudes toward domestic violence 186 Table CP.9: Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood 188 Table HA.1: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIdS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission 192 Table HA.2: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among young people 195 Table HA.3: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission 199 Table HA.4: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIdS 201 13VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HA.5: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing 204 Table HA.6: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing among sexually active young women 205 Table HA.7: HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care 207 Table HA.8: Sexual behaviour that increases the risk of HIV infection 209 Table HA.9: Sex with multiple partners 212 Table HA.10: Sex with multiple partners (young women) 213 Table HA.11: Sex with non-regular partners 214 14 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN lIST OF FIGURES Figure HH.1: Age and sex distribution of household population 36 Figure HH.2: Household composition 38 Figure CM.1: Under five mortality rate by background characteristics 46 Figure CM.2: Trend in under five mortality rates 47 Figure NU.1: Percentage of children under 5 years of age who are undernourished by age in months 53 Figure NU.2: Percentage distribution of children under age 2 across feeding patterns by age group 59 Figure NU.3: Percentage of households consuming adequately iodised salt by region 67 Figure NU.4: Percentage of infants weighing less than 2500 grams at birth by region 72 Figure CH.1: Percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received basic vaccinations by 12 months 76 Figure CH.2: Percentage of women with a live birth in the last 2 years protected against neonatal tetanus 80 Figure WS.1: Percentage distribution of population by source of drinking water 111 Figure HA.1: Percentage of women aged 15–24 years with comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIdS by background characteristics 197 Figure HA.2: Percentage of women aged 15–24 years who had sex in the last 12 months with a man 10 or more years older by background characteristics 211 15VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN lIST OF AbbREVIATIONS AIdS Acquired Immune deficiency Syndrome bCG bacillus-Calmette-Guerin (Tuberculosis) CSPro Census and Survey Processing System DPT Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus EA Enumeration Area ECDI Early Child Development Index EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization GPI Gender Parity Index GSO General Statistics Office HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus Idd Iodine deficiency disorders IlO International labour Organization IRS Indoor Residual Spraying ITN Insecticide Treated Net IUD Intrauterine Device lAM lactational Amenorrhea Method MDG Millennium Development Goals MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MOH Ministry of Health NAR Net Attendance Rate ORT Oral Rehydration Treatment ppm Parts Per Million SESD Social and Environmental Statistics Department SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences UNAIDS United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund WFFC World Fit For Children WHO World Health Organization 16 17VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN ACKNOWlEDGEMENTS The Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 was conducted by the General Statistics Office (GSO) in collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Ministry of labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOlISA), with financial and technical support from UNICEF and financial support from UNFPA. The Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 is the fourth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys in Viet Nam. The three previous MICS surveys were conducted in 1996 (MICS1), 2000 (MICS2), and 2006 (MICS3). The current survey was designed to collect information on a large number of indicators that cover a broad range of issues affecting the health, development and living conditions of Vietnamese women and children. This information is essential to monitor the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration, the World Fit for Children Declaration and Action Plan, as well as the National Programme of Action for Children 2011–2020. The survey will serve as an up-to-date source of information on the situation of children and women and will be of substantial use for reporting on Viet Nam’s international commitments on children, such as the World Fit for Children End-decade Assessment and the 5th National Report on the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Under the leadership of the MICS 2011 Steering Committee, including GSO, UNICEF and UNFPA, the organisation of the survey, data collection, processing and report writing was carried out by GSO staff, in close collaboration with professionals and staff from relevant government ministries/agencies and UNICEF. We would like to acknowledge the technical and financial support provided by UNICEF Viet Nam, Headquarters and the Asia Pacific Shared Service Centre, in particular the provision of training, guidance and template for data collection and analysis tools. We would like to express our sincere gratitude to specialists and experts from relevant government ministries and agencies, including GSO, Ministry of Education and Training, Ministry of Health, Ministry of labour, Invalids and Social Affairs; UNICEF, UNFPA, UNDP, UNESCO, IlO and WHO; and some non-governmental organisations (NGOs) for their valuable advice and comments during the organisation of the survey, questionnaire development and report writing. We would also like to thank all the local authorities involved, particularly the People’s Committees of the selected communes. A special note of thanks goes to all the interviewers, supervisors and other participants in the survey for their hard work and long working hours committed to completing all the steps of the survey from its initial design to the dissemination of its findings. This includes the 30 fieldwork teams traveling nation-wide for almost two months to complete the data collection in a timely and professional manner. We would like to express our genuine thankfulness to all households who participated in the survey and their willingness to give their time to provide valuable information about their private lives. Without their collaboration this survey would not have been possible. We are grateful for the continuous active cooperation from all national as well as international agencies, organisations and individuals for the benefit of Viet Nam’s children. LottaSylwander Representative, UNICEF Viet Nam Do Thuc Director General, General Statistics Office 18 19VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN MAP OF DISTRICTS WITH MICS 2011 DATA COllECTION SITES Red River Delta Northern Midlands and Mountain areas North Central area and Central Coastal area Central Highlands South East Mekong River Delta Districts with MICS 2011 Enumeration Areas, by region Districts with no Enumeration Areas Note: The boundaries and the names shown the designations used on these maps do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. 20 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN ExECUTIVE SUMMARy The Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS 2011) was conducted from december 2010 to January 2011 by the General Statistics Office of Viet Nam, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Ministry of labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOlISA). Financial and technical support for the survey was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and financial support was provided by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) in Viet Nam. MICS 2011 provides valuable information and the latest evidence on the situation of children and women in Viet Nam, updating information from the previous 2006 Viet Nam MICS survey as well as earlier data collected in the first two MICS rounds carried out in 1996 and 2000. The survey presents data from an equity perspective by indicating disparities by sex, region, area, ethnicity, living standards and other characteristics. MICS 2011 is based on a sample of 11,614 households interviewed and provides a comprehensive picture of children and women in Viet Nam’s six regions. Child Mortality In the Viet Nam MICS 2011 survey, child mortality rates are calculated based on an indirect estimation technique known as the Brass method. According to the survey results, the under-five mortality rate in Viet Nam is 16 per 1,000 live births and the infant mortality rate is 14 per 1,000 live births. Substantial disparities exist along the dimensions of ethnicity and living standards: ethnic minority children are three times as likely as Kinh/Hoa1 children to die before their first and fifth birthdays; and children in the poorest households are twice as likely to die before reaching 1 and 5 years of age compared to children living in better off families. Nutritional Status and breastfeeding during MICS 2011 data collection, the weights and heights of all children under 5 years of age in the sample households were measured using anthropometric equipment recommended by UNICEF (see www.childinfo.org). These measurements show that 11.7 per cent of Vietnamese children are underweight (weight-for-age malnourished), 22.7 per cent are stunted (height-for-age malnourished), and 4.1 per cent are wasted (weight-for- height malnourished). There are large disparities between urban and rural areas, between Kinh/Hoa and ethnic minority children, between different wealth quintiles and by mother’s education level. At the same time, 4.4 per cent of children in Viet Nam are overweight. Only two in five children in Viet Nam (39.7 per cent) start breastfeeding at the correct time (i.e. within one hour of birth) and less than one in five children (17 per cent) are exclusively breastfed until 6 months of age. Exclusive breastfeeding is highest in the Northern Midlands and Mountain areas at 37.6 per cent. More than four in five children (83.4 per cent) aged 6 to 59 months received a high dose of vitamin A supplementation within the six months prior to the MICS 2011 survey. Roughly 93 per cent of children below two years of age were weighed at birth and only 5.1 per cent were born with low weight. 1 In MICS 2011, the Chinese (Hoa) ethnic minority is grouped together with the Kinh majority under the label Kinh/Hoa, mainly because Kinh and Hoa have similar living standards. All other ethnicities are grouped together under the label Ethnic Minorities. 21VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Adequately iodised salt, defined as containing 15 or more particles per million (15+ ppm), is used in less than half of all households (45.1 per cent) with the consumption pattern showing considerable regional differences. This is far below global standards: The World Health Organization (WHO) and UNICEF recommend Universal Salt Iodisation as a safe, cost-effective and sustainable strategy to ensure sufficient intake of iodine, meaning that at least 90 per cent of households must consume adequately iodised salt. Immunization Two out of five children (40.1 per cent) between 1 and 2 years of age have received all recommended vaccinations – notably BCG, three doses of polio, measles, three doses of DPT (or Pentavalent), and three doses of hepatitis b (or Pentavalent). However, an immunization card could be presented for only half of sampled children. The immunization coverage for dPT and polio drops considerably between the first and the third doses: by 20 percentage points for dPT, and by 23 percentage points for polio. The lowest coverage was observed for the hepatitis B birth dose (it is not included in the full immunization indicator). In particular, only 18.2 per cent of ethnic minority children have received the hepatitis B birth dose, and only 18.5 per cent of children of mothers with no education have received it. Almost four of five mothers who gave birth within two years prior to the survey were adequately protected against neonatal tetanus (77.5 per cent). Yet among ethnic minority women, only three in five mothers had received this protection (59.2 per cent). Care of Illness Reported prevalence of diarrhoea among children under 5 during the two weeks preceding the survey stood at 7.4 per cent. Among these children, 46.5 per cent had received oral rehydration salt (ORS) solution, 42.8 per cent had reported home management of diarrhoea with recommended fluids, and 65.6 per cent had received either ORS or another recommended homemade fluid. Approximately 3.3 per cent of children under 5 years of age showed symptoms of pneumonia in the two weeks preceding the survey. Of these, 73 per cent were taken to an appropriate provider and 68.3 per cent were treated with antibiotics. Only one in twenty mothers and caregivers (5 per cent) are aware of the danger signs of pneumonia. The use of solid fuels as a main source of energy for domestic cooking stands at 46.4 per cent. Ethnic minority households are twice as likely as Kinh/Hoa households to use these health-damaging fuels for cooking purposes (89.5 versus 40.5 per cent). Malaria Prevention Viet Nam is considered a low malaria prevalence country. Almost all households in Viet Nam (95.5 per cent) have at least one mosquito net, yet almost none have long-lasting insecticide-treated nets (0.4 per cent). The percentage of children under age 5 and the percentage of pregnant women who slept under a mosquito net during the night prior to the survey was 94.4 and 94.1 per cent, respectively. Water and Sanitation According to the survey, 92 per cent of the population in Viet Nam use improved drinking water sources, though only 68.4 per cent of the ethnic minority population use such sources. Some 12.4 per cent of the population that do not use improved drinking water sources do not use any form of water treatment. Among those who use water treatment, boiling the water is the most common treatment method, used in 84 per cent of the population with unimproved drinking water sources. Some 89.5 per cent of the population using improved drinking water sources and 5.1 per cent of the population using unimproved drinking water sources have a water source directly on their premises. 22 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Overall, less than three in four Vietnamese use improved sanitation facilities (73.8 per cent), though among ethnic minorities only half use such facilities (44.2 per cent). Open defecation is not widespread in Viet Nam: only 6.4 per cent of the population practice it. However, this percentage increases to 27.7 per cent among ethnic minorities, meaning that one in every four Vietnamese living in ethnic minority households defecate in the open. In addition, the faeces of two in five children under the age of 2 are disposed of in an unsafe manner (39.9 per cent); among ethnic minorities this is common practice for four in five children (78.5 per cent). The survey results indicate that 86.6 per cent of Vietnamese households have a place for hand washing that includes water and soap. This percentage is higher in urban (93.4 per cent) than in rural areas (83.7 per cent), and higher among house hold with heads as Kinh/ Hoa households (88.7per cent) than ethnic minority households (67.1 per cent). Reproductive Health The Total Fertility Rate (TFR) in Viet Nam is 2, meaning that a Vietnamese woman, by the end of her reproductive years, will have given birth to an average of two children. Early childbearing is relatively rare, with 7.5 per cent of women aged 15-19 having begun childbearing. About three in four women aged 15-49 who are currently married or in a union use any form of contraception (77.8 per cent). Of these, 59.8 per cent use modern methods and 17.9 per cent use traditional methods. The use of contraceptives – modern or traditional – among young women aged 15–19 who are married or in union is low, at 21 per cent. The unmet need for contraception is low among women aged 15-49 (4.3 per cent), but increases to 15.6 per cent among young women aged 15-19. The survey results show that 93.7 per cent of women aged 15–49 who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey received antenatal care from skilled personnel at least once, and 59.6 per cent had the recommended four antenatal care visits. A total of 92.4 per cent of all deliveries took place in health facilities. Considerable disparities emerge by ethnicity: virtually all women in Kinh/Hoa households delivered in a health facility (98.3 per cent) compared to three in five women (61.7 per cent) from ethnic minority households. Early Childhood Development Almost three in four children aged 3-5 years receive early childhood education (71.9 per cent), and an even higher proportion (76.8 per cent) of children aged 3-5 years had adults engage with them in four or more activities that promote learning and school readiness during the three days prior to the survey. However, only one in five children under 5 have three or more children’s books at home (19.6 per cent). One in ten children under 5 were left under inadequate care sometime during the week preceding the survey (9.4 per cent), meaning that they were either left alone or in the care of another child under the age of 10. The child development index score is 82.8 in Viet Nam. The score is calculated based on the percentage of children aged 3-5 years who are developmentally on track in at least three of the following four domains: literacy/numeracy, physical, social/emotional and learning. 23VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Education Overall literacy among Vietnamese women aged 15–24 years is high, at 96.4 per cent. However, the literacy rate drops to 82.3 per cent among ethnic minority women, meaning that almost one in every five women living in an ethnic minority household is not identified as literate. Primary school attendance is high, and there is virtually no difference between boys and girls or between Kinh/Hoa and ethnic minority children. Secondary school attendance, meanwhile, reveals both gender and ethnic disparities: the attendance rate is 78.3 per cent for boys and 83.9 per cent for girls, and 66.3 per cent for ethnic minority boys and 65 per cent for ethnic minority girls. Overall, one in every three ethnic minority children do not receive secondary education, compared with one in every five Kinh/Hoa children (34.4 versus 16.3 per cent). Child Protection Birth registration in Viet Nam is almost universal, with 95 per cent of children under the age of 5 reported to have had their births registered. Yet only 66.1 per cent of birth certificates were seen by survey workers. The survey indicates that 9.5 per cent of children aged 5-14 years are engaged in child labour2 activities. The majority of child labourers also attend school (83.4 per cent). More than half of all children aged 2-14 years in Viet Nam have experienced some form of physical discipline (55 per cent). This contrasts with the relatively limited belief, held by 17.2 per cent of mothers and caregivers, that children need to be physically punished. Approximately 5.3 per cent of children aged 0-17 years are not living with either biological parent, and for 3.9 per cent of children one or both parents have died. Approximately one in three Vietnamese women (35.8 per cent) agree that it is acceptable for husbands to physically punish their wife for various reasons. large disparities emerge by living standards and ethnicity: women living in the poorest households are twice as likely as those in the richest households to accept wife beating (48.8 versus 20.1 per cent), and almost every second ethnic minority woman shows an accepting attitude, compared to one in three Kinh/Hoa women (47.2 versus 34.3 per cent). More than one in every ten women (12.3 per cent) aged 20–49 got married before the age of 18. HIV and AIDS Nearly all young women aged 15-24 have heard of HIV (96.5 per cent), yet only one in two women of the same age group (51.1 per cent) have a comprehensive knowledge of HIV, meaning they can correctly identify two ways of preventing HIV infection; know that a healthy looking person can have HIV; and reject the two most common misconceptions about HIV transmission. Almost all women aged 15-49 know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child (92.4 per cent). More than three in five young women aged 15-24 know a place where they can be tested for HIV (60.7 per cent), and around one in three women have been tested (32.1 per cent). 2 Please refer to the Child Protection Chapter (Chapter XI.) for the definition of child labour used in this report. 24 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The percentage of young women aged 15-24 who have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months is 16.2 per cent and the percentage of women who have been told the result is 7.9 per cent. About one third of women aged 15-49 who received antenatal care during their last pregnancy were tested for HIV (36.1 per cent). Important disparities emerge by area of residence: women living in urban areas are twice as likely to have been tested compared to women living in rural areas (56.4 versus 27.7 per cent). Sexual behaviour that increases risk of HIV transmission (such as sex with multiple partners, sex with non-regular partners, sex before marriage, and sex before age 15) is very limited among women in Viet Nam. 25VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN I. INTRODUCTION 26 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN background This report is based on the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, conducted from december 2010 to January 2011 by the General Statistics Office of Viet Nam in collaboration with the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Ministry of labour, Invalids and Social Affairs (MOlISA). Financial and technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and financial support was provided by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). The survey provides valuable information on the situation of children and women in Viet Nam, and was based, in large part, on the needs to monitor progress towards goals and targets emanating from international agreements: the Millennium Declaration, adopted by all 191 United Nations Member States in September 2000, and the Declaration and Plan of Action of A World Fit For Children, adopted by 189 Member States at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002. These commitments build upon promises made by the international community at the 1990 World Summit for Children. In signing these international agreements, governments committed themselves to improving conditions for their children and to monitoring progress towards that end. UNICEF was assigned a supporting role in this task (see table below). A Commitment to Action: National and International Reporting Responsibilities The governments that signed the Millennium Declaration and the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitoring progress towards the goals and objectives they contained: “We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child-focused research. We will enhance international cooperation to support statistical capacity-building efforts and build community capacity for monitoring, assessment and planning.” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60) “…We will conduct periodic reviews at the national and subnational levels of progress in order to address obstacles more effectively and accelerate actions.…” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 61) The Plan of Action (paragraph 61) also calls for the specific involvement of UNICEF in the preparation of periodic progress reports: “… As the world’s lead agency for children, the United Nations Children’s Fund is requested to continue to prepare and disseminate, in close collaboration with Governments, relevant funds, programmes and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system, and all other relevant actors, as appropriate, information on the progress made in the implementation of the declaration and the Plan of Action.” Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) calls for periodic reporting on progress: “…We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action.” 27VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN MICS 2011 updates the Viet Nam MICS 2006 data and comes at an important time for evaluating the National Programme of Action for Children 2001–2010 and for preparing and monitoring the next Programme for 2011–2020. Based on an actual sample of 11,614 households, the survey provides a comprehensive picture of children and women in Viet Nam across the six regions, and from an equity approach. It indicates disparities by sex, area, ethnicity, education, living standards and other characteristics. The results of the Viet Nam MICS 2011 are presented in this final report. MICS 2011 Objectives The primary objectives of the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 are: ● To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Viet Nam; ● To furnish data needed for monitoring progress towards goals established in the Viet Nam National Programme of Action (NPA) for Children for the period 2001–2010, the Millennium declaration (Md), the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC), and other national and international commitments as well as to provide information for developing the National Programme of Action for Children for the period 2011–2020; ● To generate data for the identification of vulnerable groups, inequities and disparities, as a basis for informing policies and interventions; ● To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Viet Nam and to strengthen technical expertise in survey design, implementation and analysis. 28 29VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN II. SAMPlE ANd SURVEY METHODOlOGy 30 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Sample Design The sample for the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for Viet Nam’s six regions: Red River Delta, Northern Midland and Mountain areas, North Central area and Central Coastal area, Central Highlands, South East and Mekong River delta. The urban and rural areas within each region were identified as the main sampling strata and the sample was selected in two stages. Within each stratum, a specified number of census enumeration areas were selected with probability proportional to size. After the updating of household lists was carried out within the selected enumeration areas, a systematic sample of 20 households was drawn in each sample enumeration area. Two of the selected enumeration areas were not included in the survey as they no longer existed at the time of the survey fieldwork. The sample was stratified by region, urban and rural areas, and is not self-weighting. For reporting national level results, sample weights are used. A more detailed description of the sample design can be found in Appendix A. Questionnaires Three sets of questionnaires were used in the survey: 1) a household questionnaire which was used to collect information on all de jure household members (usual residents), the household, and the dwelling; 2) a woman questionnaire administered in each household to all women aged 15–49 years; and 3) a children questionnaire, administered to mothers or caregivers of all children under 5 years of age living in the household. The questionnaires included the following contents: The household questionnaire, administered to a knowledgeable adult living in the household, included the following modules: ● Household listing Form ● Education ● Water and Sanitation ● Household Characteristics ● Insecticide Treated bednets ● Indoor Residual Spraying ● Child labour ● Child Discipline ● Handwashing ● Salt Iodisation The questionnaire for women was administered to all women aged 15–49 years living in the households, and included the following modules: ● Woman’s background ● Child Mortality ● Desire for last birth 31VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN ● Maternal and Newborn Health ● Illness Symptoms ● Contraception ● Unmet Need ● Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence ● Marriage/Union ● Sexual behaviour ● HIV/AIDS The questionnaire for children under 5 years of age was administered to mothers or caregivers of all children under 5 years of age3 living in the households. Normally, the questionnaire was administered to mothers of these children. In cases when the mother was not listed in the household roster, a primary caregiver for the child was identified and interviewed. The questionnaire included the following modules: ● Age ● birth Registration ● Early Childhood Development ● breastfeeding ● Care of Illness ● Malaria ● Immunization ● Anthropometry The questionnaires are based on the global MICS 4 model questionnaire.4 From the English version of the MICS 4 model, the questionnaires were translated into Vietnamese and were pre-tested in Hoa binh province (in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas) and binh Dinh province (in the North Central area and Central Coastal area) from 26 September to 6 October 2010. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires. The questionnaires were revised and printed after the first training for the southern provinces in Can Tho city. A copy of the Viet Nam MICS 2011 questionnaires is provided in Appendix F. In addition to the administration of questionnaires, the fieldwork teams tested the iodine content of salt used for cooking in the households, observed the place for hand washing and measured the weights and heights of children under 5 years of age. details and findings of these measurements are provided in the respective sections of the report. 3 The terms “children under age 5”, “children aged 0–4 years”, and “children aged 0–59 months” are used interchangeably in this report. 4 The model MICS 4 questionnaires can be found at www.childinfo.org 32 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Training and Fieldwork GSO conducted two training courses for interviewers, measurers, field data editors, team leaders and supervisors. About 250 field workers participated. One training was conducted in Can Tho city for the participants from the Southern provinces, and another in Ha Noi for those from the Northern provinces. Each training course lasted 14 days: the Can Tho training was conducted from 25 October to 7 November 2010 and the Ha Noi training from 8 November to 21 November 2010. The training included sessions on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent two days in practice, interviewing, taking anthropometric measurements, editing and supervising. Before the field practice (pilot-test) the trainees spent one day practicing anthropometric measurements in a kindergarten. Some 180 persons were selected for the fieldwork. They were grouped into 30 survey teams, each comprised of three interviewers, one measurer, one field data editor and one team leader acting as a supervisor. Fieldwork began on 29 November 2010 and was concluded on 26 January 2011. Fieldwork monitoring was conducted at three levels to ensure quality and allow timely corrective action as necessary, notably: supervision by GSO, UNICEF and UNFPA, technical supervision from the National Steering Committee, and supervision by the team leaders. Supervisors are experts with technical knowledge who are able to take corrective action and resolve emerging issues that arise during the fieldwork. Data Processing data were entered using CSPro software on eight small computers. Ten operators working in shifts performed data entry under supervision of two data entry supervisors. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under the global MICS 4 programme and adapted to the Viet Nam questionnaire were used throughout. data processing began on 27 december 2010 and was completed on 21 March 2011. data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, Version 19. The model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were used for this purpose. 33VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN III. SAMPlE COVERAGE ANd THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOlDS AND RESPONDENTS 34 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Sample Coverage Of the 12,000 households selected for the sample, 11,642 were present at the time of the survey. Of these, 11,614 successfully completed the interview, resulting in a household response rate of 99.8 per cent. In the interviewed households, 12,115 women (aged 15–49 years) were identified. Of these, 11,663 completed the interview, yielding a response rate of 96.3 per cent compared to eligible respondents in interviewed households. In addition, 3,729 children under 5 years were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 3,678 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 98.6 per cent within interviewed households. The overall response rates (household response rate times the woman and child response rates within households) were 96 and 98.4 per cent for the survey of women and of children under 5 years of age, respectively (Table HH.1). Table HH.1: Interview results for households, women and children under 5 years of age Interview outcomes and response rates for households, women, and children under 5 years of age by area and region, Viet Nam, 2011 Area Region Urban Rural Red River Delta Northern Midlands and Mountain areas North Central area and Central Coastal area Central Highlands South East Mekong River Delta Total Households Sampled 5200 6800 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 2000 12000 Present 5016 6626 1912 1961 1947 1960 1930 1932 11642 Interviewed 5001 6613 1907 1955 1943 1956 1928 1925 11614 Response rate 99.7 99.8 99.7 99.7 99.8 99.8 99.9 99.6 99.8 Women Eligible 5364 6751 1739 2053 1942 2176 2168 2037 12115 Interviewed 5183 6480 1682 1970 1868 2078 2116 1949 11663 Response rate 96.6 96 96.7 96 96.2 95.5 97.6 95.7 96.3 Overall response rate 96.3 95.8 96.5 95.7 96 95.3 97.5 95.3 96 Children under five Eligible 1438 2291 555 722 552 734 585 581 3729 Mothers/caregivers interviewed 1409 2269 543 712 548 727 581 567 3678 Response rate 98 99 97.8 98.6 99.3 99 99.3 97.6 98.6 Overall response rate 97.7 98.8 97.6 98.3 99.1 98.8 99.2 97.2 98.4 Table HH.1 shows that there were no large differences in response rates across regions and urban/rural areas. This is the result of the collective effort of all survey teams, who overcame difficulties in the field and used every opportunity to visit household members at all times, whether day or night. Household Characteristics The weighted age and sex distribution of the survey sample is provided in Table HH.2. The distribution is also used to produce the population pyramid in Figure HH.1. The 11,614 households that completed interviews in the survey yielded a list of 43,998 household members. Of these, 21,559 were male (49 per cent) and 22,439 were female (51 per cent). According to the 2009 Viet Nam Population and Housing Census the sex distribution of the overall population was 49.5 per cent male and 50.5 per cent female. 35VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HH.2: Sample age distribution by sex Frequency and percentage of the population by sex and five-year age group, dependent age groups, and by child (aged 0–17 years) and adult populations (aged 18 or older), Viet Nam, 2011 Males Females Total Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage Age (years) 0-4 1867 8.7 1802 8 3668 8.3 5-9 1928 8.9 1778 7.9 3706 8.4 10-14 1984 9.2 1821 8.1 3805 8.6 15-19 1881 8.7 1776 7.9 3657 8.3 20-24 1582 7.3 1663 7.4 3245 7.4 25-29 1746 8.1 1814 8.1 3560 8.1 30-34 1648 7.6 1786 8 3435 7.8 35-39 1753 8.1 1646 7.3 3398 7.7 40-44 1545 7.2 1603 7.1 3148 7.2 45-49 1518 7 1447 6.4 2965 6.7 50-54 1244 5.8 1522 6.8 2767 6.3 55-59 877 4.1 1030 4.6 1907 4.3 60-64 663 3.1 794 3.5 1457 3.3 65-69 406 1.9 488 2.2 893 2 70-74 376 1.7 530 2.4 906 2.1 75-79 222 1 362 1.6 584 1.3 80-84 184 0.9 317 1.4 501 1.1 85+ 136 0.6 259 1.2 395 0.9 Dependency age groups 0-14 5778 26.8 5401 24.1 11180 25.4 15-64 14457 67.1 15081 67.2 29539 67.1 65+ 1324 6.1 1956 8.7 3280 7.5 Child and adult population Children aged 0-17 years 7002 32.5 6593 29.4 13594 30.9 Adults aged 18+ years 14558 67.5 15846 70.6 30404 69.1 Total 21559 100 22439 100 43998 100 Table HH.2 shows the age-sex structure of the household population. The proportions in child, working and old-age age groups (0–14, 15–64 and 65 years and over) in the household population of the sample are 25.4, 67.1 and 7.5 per cent, respectively. The corresponding proportions in the Census are 25.0, 68.4 and 6.6 per cent, respectively.5 Census data indicate that the proportion of the male population in the five-year age groups from 0–4 to 15–19 years is higher than of the female population, but a reverse pattern is observed in the age group 50–54 years and above, where the share of the male population is lower. MICS 2011 data indicate a similar age-sex pattern, with males accounting for a higher proportion of the population in the younger age groups (0–17 years) and a smaller share among adults (18 years old and above). The proportion of women in the 50-54 year age group is slightly higher than expected. This might be explained by some interviewers’ tendency of transferring women from one age group (reproductive age) to the next age group (non-reproductive), in order to make women ineligible for the interview. This possibility is confirmed by the data quality 5 Central Population and Housing Census Steering Committee, The 2009 Viet Nam Population and Housing Census, Major Findings, Hanoi, June 2010. 36 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table 1 (see Appendix D), which more precisely indicates the transfer of women from age 49-50. A similar drop is observed in age group 20–24, both for men and for women. Figure HH.1: Age and sex distribution of household population, Viet Nam, 2011 Tables HH.3 to HH.5 provide basic information on households, female respondents aged 15–49, and children under 5 years of age by presenting the unweighted, as well as the weighted results. Information on the basic characteristics of households, women and children under 5 years of age interviewed in the survey is essential for the interpretation of findings presented later in the report and also provides an indication of the representativeness of the survey. Besides these three tables, all other tables in this report are presented only with weighted numbers. See Appendix A for more details about weighting. Table HH.3 provides basic background information on interviewed households, including sex of the household head, region, urban/rural area of residence, number of household members, educational attainment and ethnicity6 of the household head. In MICS 2011, the Chinese (Hoa) ethnic minority is grouped together with the Kinh majority under the label Kinh/Hoa, because Kinh and Hoa have similar living standards. All other ethnicities are grouped together under the label Ethnic Minorities. These background characteristics are used in subsequent tables in this report. The figures in the table also include the numbers of observations by major categories of analysis in the report. 6 This was determined by asking the question: “To what ethnic group does the head of this household belong?” Households were divided into two groups: 1) Kinh/Hoa (including the Kinh [Vietnamese] majority and the Hoa [ethnic Chinese] minority); and 2) Ethnic Minorities (including all ethnicities other than Kinh and Hoa). Please refer to the questionnaire in Appendix F for detailed questions. 37VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HH.3: Household characteristics Percentage and frequency distribution of households by selected characteristics, Viet Nam, 2011 Weighted percentage Number of households Weighted Unweighted Sex of household head Male 73.8 8569 8421 Female 26.2 3045 3193 Region Red River Delta 22.4 2601 1907 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 15.8 1836 1955 North Central area and Central Coastal area 21.7 2522 1943 Central Highlands 5.2 604 1956 South East 16.1 1873 1928 Mekong River Delta 18.8 2178 1925 Area Urban 29.7 3454 5001 Rural 70.3 8160 6613 Number of household members 1 6.3 733 680 2 15.9 1850 1732 3 20.7 2407 2436 4 29.2 3396 3381 5 15 1739 1793 6 7.4 864 882 7 3.2 368 397 8 1.2 138 161 9 0.5 59 74 10+ 0.5 60 78 Education of household head None 5.9 691 775 Primary 25.1 2919 2839 lower Secondary 39.3 4568 4322 Upper Secondary 16.4 1904 1980 Tertiary 12.9 1504 1670 Missing/DK (0.3) 30 28 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 89.9 10436 10068 Ethnic Minorities 10.1 1178 1546 Households with at least One child aged 0-4 years 27.1 11614 11614 One child aged 0-17 years 67.1 11614 11614 One woman aged 15-49 years 77.1 11614 11614 Mean household size 3.8 11614 11614 Note: Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases The weighted and unweighted numbers for total households are equal, since sample weights were normalized (See Appendix A). The table also shows the proportions of households with at least one child under the age of 18, at least one child under the age of 5, and at least one eligible woman aged 15–49 years. The weighted average household size estimated by the survey is also presented. 38 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN According to Table HH.3, most households are headed by a male (73.8 per cent), more than 70 per cent of the population is living in rural areas, and about 10.1 per cent of the population belongs to ethnic groups other than Kinh (Vietnamese) and ethnic Chinese (Hoa). The weighted number of households in some regions such as the Central Highlands is considerably lower than the unweighted number due to over-sampling in this region. Some 6.3 per cent of the household population is living in single households and about 80.8 per cent were living in households containing 2–5 persons. The average household size is 3.8 members, which corresponds to the results of the 2009 Population Census. Figure HH.2 shows that for every 100 households interviewed, there are 27 households with at least one child aged 0–4 years, 67 households with at least one child aged 0–17 years and 77 households with at least one woman aged 15–49 years. Figure HH.2 Household composition, Viet Nam, 2011 Characteristics of Female Respondents 15–49 Years of Age and Children Under 5 years of Age Information on the background characteristics of female respondents 15–49 years of age and of children under 5 years of age is provided in Tables HH.4 and HH.5. In both tables, the totals of weighted and unweighted observations are equal, since sample weights have been normalized (See Appendix A). In addition to providing useful information on the background characteristics of women and children, the tables also show the number of observations in each background category. These categories are used in the subsequent tabulations of the report. 39VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HH.4: Women's background characteristics Percentage and frequency distribution of women aged 15–49 years by selected background characteristics, Viet Nam, 2011 Weighted percent Number of women Weighted Unweighted Region Red River Delta 20.3 2368 1682 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 16.3 1896 1970 North Central area and Central Coastal area 20.8 2429 1868 Central Highlands 5.8 671 2078 South East 17.8 2080 2116 Mekong River Delta 19 2220 1949 Area Urban 31.5 3676 5183 Rural 68.5 7987 6480 Age (years) 15-19 14.6 1707 1769 20-24 13.8 1608 1629 25-29 15.5 1806 1789 30-34 15.6 1817 1741 35-39 14.2 1657 1638 40-44 13.9 1621 1654 45-49 12.4 1448 1443 Marital/Union status Currently married/in union 71.5 8341 8194 Widowed 1.9 223 231 Divorced 1.3 148 174 Separated 0.9 101 105 Never married/in union 24.4 2849 2959 Motherhood status Ever gave birth 71.2 8304 8179 Never gave birth 28.8 3359 3484 Births in last two years Had a birth in last two years 11.9 1383 1363 Had no birth in last two years 88.1 10280 10300 Education None 4.1 479 612 Primary 16.3 1900 1883 lower Secondary 38.7 4517 4244 Upper Secondary 24.3 2836 2830 Tertiary 16.6 1931 2094 Wealth index quintile Poorest 17.7 2062 2152 Second 18.9 2200 1924 Middle 20.8 2429 2222 Fourth 21.3 2479 2529 Richest 21.4 2493 2836 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 87.9 10247 9836 Ethnic Minorities 12.1 1416 1827 Total 100 11663 11663 Table HH.4 provides the background characteristics of the female respondents aged 15– 49 years. More specifically, the table includes information on the distribution of women 40 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN according to region, area of residence, age, marital status, motherhood status, births given in last two years, highest educational attendance7, wealth index quintiles8, and ethnicity of household head. The regions with the largest share of women in the sample were the Red River delta (20.3 per cent) and the North Central area and Central Coast area (20.8 per cent). The Central Highlands accounted for only 5.8 per cent of all females in survey the population. In the sample, 68.5 per cent of women live in rural areas and 87.9 per cent of women live in Kinh/Hoa headed households. At the time of the interviews, 71.5 per cent of women were married or in union, 4 per cent were divorced, widowed or separated, and 24.4 per cent had never previously been married or lived in a union. Out of every five women interviewed, four had attained secondary education level or higher and only one had primary school education (16.3 per cent) or had never been to school (4.1 per cent). The background characteristics of children under 5 years of age covered in the survey are presented in Table HH.5. This table covers the distribution of children across several attributes, notably sex, region and area of residence, age, mother’s or caregiver’s highest education level, wealth index quintiles, and ethnicity. Table HH.5 shows that the proportion of boys exceeded the proportion of girls by 1.6 per cent. This is consistent with the Census 2009 results and other surveys implemented by GSO, and reflects the increasing trend towards an unbalanced sex ratio at birth in Viet Nam. The Northern Midland and Mountain areas comprise only 15.8 per cent of the population, but up to 19.2 per cent of the children under 5 years of age. The same pattern is observed for the Central Highlands, accounting for 5.2 per cent of the population but 6.3 per cent of all children under 5 years of age. Most of the children under 5 years in the survey had mothers or caregivers with secondary or higher education (76.5 per cent), with just 17.9 per cent having mothers or caregivers with primary education, and 5.6 per cent with no education. Some 14.5 per cent of children under 5 years of age live in ethnic minority households, exceeding both the proportion of women aged 15–49 living in ethnic minority households (12.1 per cent) and the proportion of households with an ethnic minority head (10.1 per cent). 7 Throughout this report, unless otherwise stated, “education” refers to the highest educational level attended by the respondent when it is used as a background variable. 8 Principal components analysis was performed by using information on the ownership of consumer goods, dwelling characteristics, water and sanitation, and other characteristics that are related to the household’s wealth to assign weights (factor scores) to each of the household assets. Each household was then assigned a wealth score based on these weights and the assets owned by that household. The survey household population was then ranked according to the wealth score of the household, and was finally divided into 5 equal parts (quintiles) from lowest (poorest) to highest (richest). The assets and other characteristics related to wealth used in these calculations were as follows: water sources, toilet facility, housing, fuel types for cooking, electricity, bank account, durable goods (such as radio, TV, refrigerator, fixed telephone, watch, mobile phone, bicycle, motorcycle, boat with motor, car), animals (such as buffalo, cattle, horse, donkey, goat, sheep, chicken, pig). The wealth index is assumed to capture the underlying long-term wealth through information on the household assets, and is intended to produce a ranking of households by wealth, from poorest to richest. The wealth index does not provide information on absolute poverty, current income or expenditure levels. The wealth scores calculated are applicable for only the particular data set they are based on. Further information on the construction of the wealth index can be found in Rutstein and Johnson, 2004, Filmer and Pritchett, 2001, and Gwatkinet. al., 2000. 41VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HH.5: Background characteristics of children under 5 years of age Percentage and frequency distribution of children under 5 years of age by selected characteristics, Viet Nam, 2011 Weighted percentage Number of children under 5 years Weighted Unweighted Sex Male 50.8 1869 1871 Female 49.2 1809 1807 Region Red River Delta 21.7 798 543 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 19.2 707 712 North Central area and Central Coastal area 19.5 719 548 Central Highlands 6.3 233 727 South East 15.5 572 581 Mekong River Delta 17.7 650 567 Area Urban 27.5 1013 1409 Rural 72.5 2665 2269 Age (months) 0-5 8.9 327 319 6-11 9.3 341 350 12-23 20.6 759 760 24-35 21.5 792 786 36-47 20.8 764 770 48-59 18.9 695 693 Mother’s education None 5.6 207 291 Primary 17.9 658 672 lower Secondary 40.2 1479 1380 Upper Secondary 18.2 670 661 Tertiary 18.1 664 674 Wealth index quintile Poorest 22.6 831 922 Second 18.3 673 595 Middle 19 700 649 Fourth 20.4 749 737 Richest 19.7 725 775 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 85.5 3143 2964 Ethnic Minorities 14.5 535 714 Total 100 3678 3678 42 43VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN IV. CHIld MORTAlITY 44 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN One of the overarching goals of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is the reduction of infant and under-five mortality. Specifically, MdG 4 calls for the reduction in under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Monitoring progress towards this goal is an important but difficult objective. Measuring childhood mortality may seem easy, but attempts using direct questions, such as “Has anyone in this household died in the last year?” give inaccurate results. Using direct measures of child mortality from birth histories is time consuming, more expensive, and requires greater attention to training and supervision. Alternatively, indirect methods developed to measure child mortality produce robust estimates that are comparable with the ones obtained from other sources. Indirect methods minimise the pitfalls of memory lapses, inexact or misinterpreted definitions, and poor interviewing techniques. The Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is the probability of dying before the first birthday. The Under-five Mortality Rate (U5MR) is the probability of dying before the fifth birthday. In the Viet Nam MICS 2011 survey, infant and under five mortality rates are calculated based on an indirect estimation technique known as the brass method9. The data used in the estimation are: the mean number of children ever born for the five-year age groups of women aged 15-49 years, and the proportion of these children who are dead also for the five-year age groups of women (Table CM.1). The technique converts the proportions dead among children of women in each age group into probabilities of dying by taking into account the approximate length of exposure of children to the risk of dying, assuming a particular model age pattern of mortality. Based on previous information on mortality in Viet Nam, the North model life table was selected as most appropriate10. The North model has been used in this and in all the previous Viet Nam MICS rounds, based on a comparison of the population structure with the model life tables. Table CM.1: Children ever born, children surviving and proportion dead Mean and total numbers of children ever born, children surviving and proportion dead by mother’s age, Viet Nam, 2011 Children ever born Children surviving Proportion dead Number of women Mean Total Mean Total Mother’s age 15-19 0.048 82 0.047 81 0.018 1707 20-24 0.511 823 0.504 810 0.015 1608 25-29 1.229 2220 1.208 2182 0.017 1806 30-34 1.833 3330 1.805 3280 0.015 1817 35-39 2.195 3636 2.118 3509 0.035 1657 40-44 2.44 3954 2.329 3774 0.046 1621 45-49 2.783 4029 2.619 3792 0.059 1448 Total 1.55 18075 1.494 17427 0.036 11663 Table CM.2 provides the estimates of child mortality. The IMR is estimated at 14 per thousand live births, while the probability of dying under age 5 (U5MR) is around 16 per thousand live births. These estimates have been calculated by averaging mortality estimates obtained from women aged 25–29 and 30–34, and refer to mid-2009. Child mortality does not indicate large differences by gender. Regional estimates cannot be shown due to the low number of observations of deceased children. 9 United Nations (1983). Indirect Techniques for demographic Estimation. Population Studies No. 81; United Nations (1990) Step-by-step guide to the estimation of Child Mortality; United Nations (1990) United Nations programme for child mortality estimation: a microcomputer programme to accompany the step-by-step guide to the estimation of child mortality. Population Studies No. 107. 10 Ministry of Planning and Investment and General Statistics Office, Population projection for Viet Nam 2009-2049, February 2011. 45VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The largest differentials in mortality exist in relation to the mother’s education level, household living standards (based on a wealth index), and ethnicity of the household head. As expected, the higher the mother’s education level, the lower the child mortality. It is interesting to observe that the U5MR for the mothers with no education was 29 per thousand live births, which declined to 21 per thousand live births for mothers with primary school, and further decreased to 14 per thousand live births for mothers with secondary or higher education levels. Similar differences by mother’s education level are observed for IMR. The U5MR of the 20 per cent poorest households was 28 per thousand live births, more than twice the U5MR of the rest of the population. Child mortality in ethnic minority households was quite high (39 per thousand live births for U5MR and 30 per thousand live births for IMR). This is equivalent to the mortality rates of the country ten years ago and more than three times higher than the mortality rate of children in Kinh/Hoa households (12 per thousand live births for U5MR and 10 per thousand live births for IMR). differentials in under-five mortality rates by selected background characteristics are shown in Figure CM.1. Table CM.2: Child mortality Infant and Under-five Mortality rates (per thousand live births), North Model, Viet Nam, 2011 Infant mortality rate1 Under-five mortality rate2 Sex Male 14 17 Female 14 16 Area Urban 13 15 Rural 14 17 Mother's education None 23 29 Primary 17 21 Secondary and higher 12 14 Wealth index quintile 20% Poorest 23 28 80% Better off 11 12 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 10 12 Ethnic Minorities 30 39 Total 14 16 1 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2 2 MICS indicator 1.1; MDG indicator 4.1 46 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Per thousand live births Figure CM1. Under five mortality rate by background characteristics, Viet Nam, 2011 Figure CM.2 shows various series of U5MR estimates from different surveys, based on responses of women in different age groups, and referring to various points in time, thus showing the estimated trend in U5MR. The MICS estimates indicate a decline in mortality over the last 10 years. The most recent U5MR estimate from the Population Census 200911 is 24.4 per thousand live births, which is higher than the 16 per thousand live births estimate from MICS 2011 for the year 2009. While the trend indicated by the MICS 2011 results are in broad agreement with the results of MICS 2006, the Population Change Survey 2010, and the Population Census 2009, Figure CM.2 does show that the MICS 2011 estimates of mortality levels are higher than the MICS 2006 estimates, and lower than the estimates from the Population Change Survey and Census. It should be mentioned here that the Census and the Population Change Survey had larger sample sizes than the MICS 2011 survey12. Further explanation of these apparent declines and differences, as well as analysis of determinants, should be taken up in more detail in a separate analysis. 11 The Population Census contains a sub-sample survey with a sampling rate of 15 per cent of all Enumeration Areas (EAs) selected from the total EAs of the Census 2009. Two questionnaires were used for simultaneous interviews in the Census, one was the short form covering all households in Viet Nam and the other (long form) covering 15 per cent of selected EAs. 12 The Population Change Survey is conducted annually. The sample rate for this survey is 1.5 per cent of all households in the country. The sample contained about 400,000 households in the 2010 round of the Population Change Survey, which is 33 times greater than the survey. 47VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Figure CM.2: Trend in under five mortality rates, Viet Nam, 2011 48 49VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN V. NUTRITION 50 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Nutritional Status Children’s nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. Malnutrition is associated with more than half of all child deaths worldwide. Undernourished children are more likely to die from common childhood ailments, and for those who survive, to have recurring sicknesses and faltering growth. Three-quarters of the children who die from causes related to malnutrition were only mildly or moderately malnourished – showing no outward sign of their vulnerability. The Millennium development Goal is to reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger between 1990 and 2015. A reduction in the prevalence of malnutrition will also assist in the goal to reduce child mortality. There is a reference distribution of height and weight for children under age 5 based on a well-nourished population. Undernourishment in a population can be gauged by comparing children to this reference population. The reference population used in this report is based on new WHO growth standards.13 Each of the three nutritional status indicators can be expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of the reference population. Weight-for-age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely underweight while those whose weight- for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. Height-for-age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Those whose height-for- age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. Finally, children whose weight-for-height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely wasted, while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. In the MICS 2011, weights and heights of all children under 5 years of age were measured using anthropometric equipment recommended by UNICEF (www.childinfo.org). Findings in this section are based on the results of these measurements. Table NU.1 shows percentages of children classified into each of these categories, based on the anthropometric measurements that were taken during fieldwork. Additionally, the table includes the percentage of children who are overweight, which takes into account those children whose weight for height is above 2 standard deviations from the median of the reference population, and mean z-scores for all three anthropometric indicators. 13 WHO, 2007. WHO Child Growth Standards – Methods and development, Geneva: WHO accessed at http://www.who. int/childgrowth/standards/second_set/technical_report_2.pdf 51VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e N U .1 : N ut rit io na l s ta tu s of c hi ld re n1 4 P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 b y nu tri tio na l s ta tu s ac co rd in g to th re e an th ro po m et ric in di ce s: w ei gh t-f or -a ge , h ei gh t-f or -a ge , a nd w ei gh t-f or -h ei gh t, V ie t N am , 2 01 1 W ei gh t-f or -a ge N um be r of ch ild re n un de r ag e 5 H ei gh t-f or -a ge N um be r of c hi ld re n un de r ag e 5 W ei gh t-f or -h ei gh t N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r ag e 5 U nd er w ei gh t M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) St un te d M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) W as te d O ve rw ei gh t M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) P er ce nt ag e be lo w P er ce nt ag e be lo w P er ce nt ag e be lo w P er ce nt ag e ab ov e - 2 S D 1 - 3 S D 2 - 2 S D 3 - 3 S D 4 - 2 S D 5 - 3 S D 6 + 2 S d Se x M al e 12 .1 1. 8 -0 .7 18 37 23 .7 6. 7 -1 .1 18 21 4. 3 1. 2 5. 5 -0 .1 18 21 Fe m al e 11 .4 1. 9 -0 .7 17 69 21 .6 5. 3 -1 17 51 3. 9 1. 2 3. 4 -0 .1 17 47 R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 7. 4 1. 7 -0 .6 76 6 18 .3 3. 3 -1 .0 75 8 3. 6 1. 4 2. 5 -0 .1 75 5 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 15 .4 1. 8 -0 .9 69 2 31 .4 9. 3 -1 .4 68 0 4. 3 0. 9 3. 4 -0 .2 68 3 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 14 .3 1. 8 -0 .8 71 2 28 .4 8. 3 -1 .2 70 9 4. 3 1. 5 4. 3 -0 .1 71 0 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 17 .6 2. 5 -0 .9 22 9 30 .6 9. 9 -1 .4 22 7 4. 1 1. 2 4. 2 -0 .2 22 7 S ou th E as t 4. 5 1. 1 -0 .1 56 3 9. 7 2. 2 -0 .5 55 8 3. 7 1. 3 10 .6 0. 2 55 5 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 14 .3 2. 3 -0 .8 64 5 20 .7 5. 0 -1 .1 64 1 4. 8 0. 9 2. 9 -0 .3 63 9 A re a U rb an 6. 0 0. 7 -0 .2 99 0 11 .8 2. 7 -0 .6 98 3 3. 9 1 8 0. 2 97 8 R ur al 13 .9 2. 3 -0 .9 26 17 26 .8 7. 3 -1 .3 25 89 4. 2 1. 3 3. 1 -0 .2 25 90 A ge (m on th s) 0- 5 6. 7 1. 3 -0 .4 31 6 9. 9 2. 9 -0 .2 30 6 9. 2 2. 6 4. 4 -0 .2 30 4 6- 11 6. 5 0. 8 -0 .4 33 4 6. 9 1. 7 -0 .4 32 7 4. 3 1. 5 2. 3 -0 .2 33 1 12 -2 3 9. 2 1. 2 -0 .5 74 7 22 .5 5. 9 -1 .1 74 2 3. 8 0. 9 6. 3 0 73 9 24 -3 5 12 .3 1. 5 -0 .7 78 1 28 .5 7. 2 -1 .3 77 4 2. 2 0. 6 4. 7 0 77 3 36 -4 7 15 .5 2. 5 -0 .9 75 2 26 .8 7. 6 -1 .3 74 9 3. 5 1 3. 4 -0 .1 74 7 48 -5 9 14 .6 3 -0 .9 67 7 25 6. 4 -1 .3 67 5 5 1. 7 4. 3 -0 .2 67 5 M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e 22 .4 5. 5 -1 .3 20 2 40 .8 20 .4 -1 .7 19 6 7. 7 1. 9 0. 7 -0 .4 20 0 P rim ar y 13 .9 2. 2 -0 .9 65 0 28 .7 8 -1 .3 64 4 5. 7 0. 9 2. 7 -0 .3 64 1 lo w er S ec on da ry 12 .7 2 -0 .8 14 62 24 .9 5. 9 -1 .2 14 53 4 1. 4 3. 7 -0 .2 14 51 U pp er S ec on da ry 10 .3 1. 4 -0 .5 64 9 19 .5 4. 2 -0 .9 64 6 3. 7 1. 8 6. 8 0 64 2 Te rti ar y 5. 5 0. 3 -0 .1 64 4 9. 1 1. 5 -0 .5 63 3 2. 1 0. 2 6. 7 0. 3 63 4 W ea lth in de x qu in til e 52 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e N U .1 : N ut rit io na l s ta tu s of c hi ld re n1 4 P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 b y nu tri tio na l s ta tu s ac co rd in g to th re e an th ro po m et ric in di ce s: w ei gh t-f or -a ge , h ei gh t-f or -a ge , a nd w ei gh t-f or -h ei gh t, V ie t N am , 2 01 1 W ei gh t-f or -a ge N um be r of ch ild re n un de r ag e 5 H ei gh t-f or -a ge N um be r of c hi ld re n un de r ag e 5 W ei gh t-f or -h ei gh t N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r ag e 5 U nd er w ei gh t M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) St un te d M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) W as te d O ve rw ei gh t M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) P er ce nt ag e be lo w P er ce nt ag e be lo w P er ce nt ag e be lo w P er ce nt ag e ab ov e - 2 S D 1 - 3 S D 2 - 2 S D 3 - 3 S D 4 - 2 S D 5 - 3 S D 6 + 2 S d P oo re st 20 .6 3. 7 -1 .2 81 8 40 .9 14 .3 -1 .7 80 3 5. 4 1. 2 1. 6 -0 .3 80 6 S ec on d 11 .3 1. 5 -0 .9 67 0 24 .2 4. 3 -1 .2 66 6 4. 1 1 2. 8 -0 .3 66 6 M id dl e 13 .9 2 -0 .8 68 3 24 .2 4. 8 -1 .2 68 1 4. 5 1. 5 2. 9 -0 .2 67 9 Fo ur th 8. 5 1. 1 -0 .5 72 6 15 .6 3. 6 -0 .8 72 1 4. 4 2 6. 3 0 71 9 R ic he st 3. 1 0. 6 0. 1 71 0 6. 1 1. 7 -0 .4 70 2 2. 1 0. 2 8. 9 0. 4 69 8 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 10 1. 6 -0 .6 30 81 19 .6 4. 7 -1 30 54 3. 8 1. 1 4. 9 30 47 E th ni c M in or iti es 22 3. 5 -1 .2 52 6 40 .9 13 .8 -1 .6 51 8 5. 7 1. 6 1. 7 -0 .4 52 1 To ta l 11 .7 1. 8 -0 .7 36 07 22 .7 6 -1 .1 35 72 4. 1 1. 2 4. 4 -0 .1 35 68 1 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 a an d M D G in di ca to r 1 .8 2 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 b 3 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 a, 4 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 b 5 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .3 a, 6 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .3 b .14 14 A cc or di ng to th e N at io na l I ns tit ut e of N ut rit io n, th e pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ho a re u nd er w ei gh t i s 17 .5 p er c en t, th e pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ho a re s tu nt ed is 2 9. 3 pe r c en t an d th e pe r c en ta ge o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ho a re w as te d is 7 .1 p er c en t. N at io na l I ns tit ut e of N ut rit io n (2 01 1) . A R ev ie w o f t he N ut rit io n S itu at io n in V ie t N am 2 00 9– 20 10 . H an oi : S ta tis tic al P ub - lis hi ng H ou se . 53VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Children whose full birth date (month and year) were not obtained, and children whose measurements are outside a plausible range are excluded from Table NU.1. Children are excluded from one or more of the anthropometric indicators when their weights or heights have not been measured, whichever applicable. For example if a child has been weighed but his/her height has not been measured, the child is included in the underweight calculations, but not in the calculations for stunting and wasting. Percentages of children by age and reasons for exclusion are shown in the data quality tables dQ.5(a,b,c) and dQ.6. Overall 98.2 per cent of children had both their weights and heights measured (Table dQ.5), 1.9 per cent of children are missing information on weight and 2.5 per cent are missing information on height. Table dQ.6 shows that due to incomplete dates of birth, implausible measurements, and missing weight and/or height, 2.1 per cent of children have been excluded from calculations of the weight-for-age indicator, while the figures are 3.1 for the height-for-age indicator, and 2.4 per cent for the weight-for-height indicator. Almost one in nine children under age 5 in Viet Nam are considered moderately or serevely underweight (11.7 per cent) and 1.8 per cent are classified as severely underweight (Table NU.1). What is striking is that twice as many children living in ethnic minority households are underweight compared to their peers in Kinh/Hoa households. Almost a quarter of children (22.7 per cent) are stunted or short for their age. Again, twice as many children from ethnic minority households are suffering from stunting compared to children in Kinh/ Hoa households. Some 4.1 per cent of children are wasted or thin for their height and 1.2 per cent are severely wasted. Figure NU.1: Percentage of children under 5 years of age who are undernourished by age in months, Viet Nam, 2011 Children in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas and the Central Highlands are more likely to be underweight and stunted than other children. The prevalence rate for wasting among children does not differ much among regions, ranging from around 3.6 to 4.8 per cent. Children whose mothers have secondary or higher education are the least likely to be underweight and stunted compared to children of mothers with no education. Boys appear to be slightly more likely to be underweight, stunted, and wasted than girls. The age pattern shows that a lower percentage of children aged 0–11 months are undernourished according to all three indices in comparison to older children (Figure NU.1). This pattern is 54 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN expected and is related to the age at which many children are weaned from breastfeeding and are exposed to contamination in water, food, and environment. Overweight is one of the concerns of Viet Nam’s Strategy against Malnutrition. Overweight is rapidly increasing in developing countries due to inappropriate diet for children. In MICS 2011, the overweight prevalence is 4.4 per cent. The overweight prevalence is highest among children living in the South East (10.6 per cent) and lowest among children living in the Red River delta (2.5 per cent). The prevalence rate in urban areas is almost three times greater than in rural areas (8 per cent versus 3.1 per cent); and progressively increases with household living standards, with 1.6 per cent of children in the poorest households being overweight, compared to 8.9 per cent in the richest households. The overweight prevalence is highest among children aged 12–23 months (6.3 per cent) in comparison with other age groups. breastfeeding and Infant and young Child Feeding Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon and there are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. WHO and UNICEF have the following feeding recommendations: ● Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months; ● Continued breastfeeding for two years or more; ● Safe, appropriate and adequate complementary foods beginning at 6 months; ● Frequency of complementary feeding: two times per day for 6–8 month olds; three times per day for 9–11 month olds. It is also recommended that breastfeeding be initiated within one hour of birth. Indicators related to recommended child feeding practices are as follows: ● Early initiation of breastfeeding (within one hour of birth); ● Exclusive breastfeeding rate (< 6 months); ● Predominant breastfeeding rate (< 6 months); ● Continued breastfeeding rate (at 1 year and at 2 years); ● Duration of breastfeeding; ● Age-appropriate breastfeeding (0–23 months); ● Introduction of solid, semi-solid and soft foods (6–8 months); ● Minimum meal frequency (6–23 months); ● Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfeeding children (6–23 months); ● Bottle feeding (0–23 months). 55VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table NU.2: Initial breastfeeding Percentage of last-born children in the two years preceding the survey who were ever breastfed, percentage who were breastfed within one hour of birth and within one day of birth, and percentage who received a prelacteal feed, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage ever breastfed1 Percentage who were first breastfed: Percentage who received a prelacteal feed Number of last-born children in the two years preceding the survey Within one hour of birth2 Within one day of birth Region Red River Delta 97.3 33.1 80.6 76 294 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 99.4 57 88.7 44 285 North Central area and Central Coastal area 99 42.7 81.6 49.8 287 Central Highlands 98.5 37 81.2 51.5 92 South East 95.9 28.9 67.5 72 214 Mekong River Delta 97.7 33.3 77.3 74.5 210 Area Urban 97.9 30.3 72.2 73.7 402 Rural 98.1 43.5 83.2 56.4 980 Months since birth 0-11 98.2 35.4 78.0 64.0 636 12-23 97.9 43.3 81.7 59.3 747 Assistance at delivery§ Skilled attendant 98.2 37.9 79.6 64.4 1284 Traditional birth attendant (100) (67.7) (92.5) (25.7) 28 Others (100) (70.6) (92.5) (23.0) 42 Place of delivery§§ Public sector health facility 98.4 37.8 79.7 65 1220 Private sector health facility 92.7 37.8 75.7 56.5 57 Home 100 64.2 88.6 23.8 102 Mother’s education None 97.7 55.9 89.8 33.9 64 Primary 98 38.5 77.8 58 203 lower Secondary 98.8 41.4 82.7 56.1 523 Upper Secondary 97.1 36.6 79.7 63.2 296 Tertiary 97.7 36.8 74.7 77.7 295 Wealth index quintile Poorest 98.8 51.9 86.5 39.8 300 Second 99 46 86.3 49.8 263 Middle 98.8 35.8 79.5 63.7 251 Fourth 97.4 31.4 76.6 75.4 270 Richest 96.3 32.5 71.3 79.1 299 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 97.8 36.7 78.7 65.7 1158 Ethnic Minorities 99.2 54.7 86.9 39.6 225 Total 98 39.7 80 61.5 1383 1 MICS indicator 2.4 2 MICS indicator 2.5 § This excludes 28 missing cases of assistance at delivery §§ This excludes 4 missing cases of place of delivery Note: Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases Table NU.2 presents the proportion of children born in the last two years who were ever breastfed, those who were first breastfed within one hour and one day of birth, and those 56 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN who received a prelacteal feed. Breastfeeding is a very important step in the management of lactation and the establishment of a physical and emotional relationship between the baby and the mother. However, only 39.7 per cent of babies are breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth, although 80 per cent of newborns in Viet Nam start breastfeeding within one day of birth. The percentage of children ever breastfed is quite high, at 98 per cent. Some 61.5 per cent of children received a prelacteal feed in the first three days of life. With an overall high percentage of children ever breastfed, virtually no disparities are noticed across any background variable. Meanwhile, place of delivery, attendance at delivery, mother’s education and wealth quintile are the strongest determinants for whether a child receives prelacteal feeding or not. It is interesting to observe that approximately 24 per cent of children born at home received a prelacteal feeding compared to 65 per cent of children born in a government health facility. Surprising results by background characteristics are observed for early initiation of breastfeeding (within one hour of birth). Children born at home are almost twice as likely to be breastfed within one hour of birth compared to those delivered in a public or private health facility (64.2 versus 37.8 per cent). Also, the higher the mother’s education and the wealthier the household the less likely the child will be breastfed within one hour of birth. Regional differences are also observed, with the Northern Midland and Mountain area indicating the highest percentage of breastfeeding within one hour of birth (57 per cent) and the South East indicating the lowest (28.9 per cent). The percentage is also higher in rural areas compared to urban areas, at 43.5 and 30.3 per cent, respectively. In Table NU.3, the breastfeeding status is based on the mother’s/caregiver’s report of children’s consumption of food and fluids in the 24 hours prior to the interview. Exclusively breastfed refers to infants who received only breast milk (and possibly vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine). The table shows exclusive breastfeeding of infants during the first six months of life, as well as continued breastfeeding of children at 12–15 and 20–23 months of age. 57VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table NU.3: Breastfeeding Percentage of living children according to breastfeeding status at selected age groups, Viet Nam, 2011 Children aged 0-5 months Children aged 12-15 months Children aged 20-23 months Percentage exclusively breastfed1 Percentage predominantly breastfed2 Number of children Percentage breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 1 year)3 Number of children Percentage breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 2 years)4 Number of children Sex Male 15.1 43.3 160 74.5 145 20.9 117 Female 18.8 43.3 167 73.3 128 18 122 Region Red River Delta 15.3 35.8 83 72.2 51 (10.5) 48 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 37.6 54.9 74 84.5 66 (34.6) 43 North Central area and Central Coastal area 14 49.5 66 78.9 59 (21.5) 47 Central Highlands * * 18 * 18 * 18 South East (7.3) (33.3) 41 (59.8) 40 (7.4) 47 Mekong River Delta (1.7) (35.5) 45 (57.1) 39 (19.9) 35 Area Urban 12.8 33.1 83 62.6 95 16.8 81 Rural 18.4 46.8 244 79.9 178 20.8 158 Mother’s education None * * 14 * 12 * 13 Primary 15.3 48 57 (76.1) 38 (15.5) 28 lower Secondary 16.2 42.2 101 71 101 22 96 Upper Secondary 18.1 49.2 81 77.8 62 (26.4) 40 Tertiary 14.3 31.5 75 72.4 60 10.9 61 Wealth index quintile Poorest 28 59.8 79 72 60 (38.6) 44 Second 17.3 54.6 61 82.7 46 (21.7) 39 Middle 18.4 37.4 65 82.8 56 (16.9) 40 Fourth 6.8 40.4 60 (72.4) 48 21.7 52 Richest 11.2 20.5 63 62.4 62 4.3 63 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 14 39.1 273 71.5 233 13.4 203 Ethnic Minorities 31.9 64.6 54 (87.8) 40 (54) 35 Total 17 43.3 327 73.9 273 19.4 238 1 MICS indicator 2.6; 2 MICS indicator 2.9 3 MICS indicator 2.7; 4 MICS indicator 2.8 Note: Figures denoted by an asterisk are based on denominators of 24 un-weighted cases and less Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases Only 17 per cent of children in Viet Nam aged less than six months are exclusively breastfed. This represents a low percentage. By the age of 12–15 months, 73.9 per cent of children are breastfed and by the age of 20–23 months, 19.4 per cent. Almost one in every two children aged 0–5 months (43.3 per cent) is predominantly breastfed.15 Differences in exclusive breastfeeding between girls and boys are minimal, however, considerable variations are observed by living standards, ethnicity of the household 15 Received breast milk and certain fluids (water and water-based drinks like sugar water, fruit juice, gripe water, oral rehydration solution, tea or herbal infusions), but did not receive anything else (in particular, non-human milk and food- based fluids) 58 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN head and region. For example, children aged 0-5 months in ethnic minority households are twice as likely to be exclusively breastfed compared to their peers in Kinh/Hoa households (31.9 per cent versus 14 per cent). A child living in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas is twice as likely to be exclusively breastfed (37.6 per cent) than a child living in the North Central area and Central Coastal area (14 per cent) or the Red River Delta (15.3 per cent). Similarly, 28 per cent of children in the poorest households are exclusively breastfed, compared to 11.2 per cent in the richest households. Table NU.3a. Feeding patterns by age Percent distribution of children aged 0-23 months by feeding pattern, Viet Nam, 2011 Feeding pattern Total Number of children Predominant breastfeeding breastfed and other milk / formula breastfed and other foods Not breastfed Exclusively breastfed breastfed and plain water only breastfed and non-milk liquids Age (months) 0-1 27.2 23.8 3.3 44.3 0 1.4 100 95 2-3 21.6 25.7 6.6 39.1 3.5 3.5 100 119 4-5 3.7 17.7 16.8 39.9 19.0 2.9 100 113 6-7 1.9 7.0 17.1 27.3 38.3 8.3 100 85 8-9 0.3 0.5 17.6 17.5 48.9 15.3 100 140 10-11 0 3.0 13.2 21.0 50.6 12.2 100 116 12-13 0 0.7 5.3 14.6 59.0 20.3 100 125 14-15 0 0.7 6.1 16.8 45.4 31.0 100 147 16-17 0 0 1.7 7.0 42.4 49.0 100 142 18-19 0 0.9 2.3 3.9 20.3 72.5 100 106 20-21 0 0 1.9 0.4 18.0 79.8 100 108 22-23 0 2.4 0 0 16.4 81.2 100 130 Figure NU.2 shows the detailed pattern of breastfeeding by the child’s age in months, up to the age of 2. Even at the earliest ages, the majority of children receive liquids or foods other than breast milk. Only about 20 per cent of children receive breast milk through the end of the second year of life. By the end of the first six months, the percentage of children exclusively breastfed is already below 3 per cent. 59VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Figure NU. 2. Percentage distribution of children under age 2 across feeding patterns by age group, Viet Nam, 2011 Table NU.4 shows the median duration of breastfeeding by selected background characteristics. Among children under age 3, the median duration is 16.7 months for any breastfeeding, 0.5 months for exclusive breastfeeding, and 1.4 months for predominant breastfeeding. The differences in median duration of any breastfeeding and exclusive breastfeeding are not large across gender or area. More notable differences are observed according to the ethnicity of the household heads, especially for the median duration of exclusive breastfeeding. The children in ethnic minority households are likely to be breastfed three times longer, on average about 1.8 months, compared to 0.5 months median duration of exclusive breastfeeding of children who live in households headed by a Kinh/Hoa. The median duration of predominantly breastfed children indicates some, yet no substantial, differences by all background variables. 60 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table NU.4: Duration of breastfeeding Median duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and predominant breastfeeding among children aged 0-35 months, Viet Nam, 2011 Median duration (in months) of Number of children aged 0-35 months Any breastfeeding1 Exclusive breastfeeding Predominant breastfeeding Sex Male 16.6 0.5 1.8 1143 Female 16.8 0.5 0.7 1076 Region Red River Delta 17.1 0.5 0.7 496 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 17 1.3 3 440 North Central area and Central Coastal area 17.8 0.4 2.3 423 Central Highlands 19.5 0.5 2.4 144 South East 14.8 0.4 1.1 339 Mekong River Delta 14.4 0 0.4 376 Area Urban 16.3 0.5 0.6 626 Rural 16.8 0.5 2.1 1594 Mother’s education None 18.2 0.5 4.5 110 Primary 16.3 0.5 1 367 lower Secondary 16.6 0.6 0.7 873 Upper Secondary 17.4 0.5 2.4 428 Tertiary 15.8 0.5 0.7 442 Wealth index quintile Poorest 16.9 1.6 4 495 Second 17 0.4 3.3 402 Middle 16.6 0.4 0.7 427 Fourth 17.3 0.5 1.8 434 Richest 15.6 0.5 0.5 462 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 16.5 0.5 0.7 1869 Ethnic Minorities 20.7 1.8 4.3 351 Median 16.7 0.5 1.4 2219 Mean for all children (0-35 months) 16.7 1 2.9 2219 1 MICS indicator 2.10 Information about the adequacy of infant feeding of children under 24 months is provided in Table NU.5. different criteria for adequate feeding are used depending on the age of the child. For infants aged 0–5 months, exclusive breastfeeding is considered as adequate feeding, while infants aged 6–23 months are considered to be adequately fed if they are receiving breast milk and solid, semi-solid or soft food. Age appropriate feeding shows disparities by area, living standards and ethnicity of the household head for both 0–5 and 6–23 month old children. Taking the ethnicity of the household head as an example, 31.9 per cent of 0–5 month old children in ethnic minority households are appropriately fed for their age compared to 14.0 per cent of children in Kinh/Hoa households. Regional differences are also observed, with the South East indicating a comparatively low percentage of adequate feeding for both 0–5 month old and 6–23 month old children, at 7.3 and 24.2 per cent respectively. As a result of these feeding patterns, overall only 38.5 per cent of children aged 6–23 months are being adequately fed.Taking the two age groups together, age appropriate feeding of children below 24 months is 33.5 per cent in Viet Nam. The widest range is observed across regions, with the Northern Midland and Mountain areas indicating the highest percentage of under 24 month children appropriately fed (42.5 per cent) and the South East the lowest (21 per cent). 61VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table NU.5: Age-appropriate breastfeeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were appropriately breastfed during the previous day, Viet Nam, 2011 Children age 0-5 months Children age 6-23 months Children age 0-23 months Percentage exclusively breastfed1 0Number of children Percentage currently breastfeeding and receiving solid, semi- solid or soft foods Number of children Percentage appropriately breastfed2 Number of children Sex Male 15.1 160 38 539 32.8 699 Female 18.8 167 38.9 561 34.3 728 Region Red River Delta 15.3 83 42.3 221 34.9 304 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 37.6 74 44.1 219 42.5 293 North Central area and Central Coastal area 14 66 38.4 224 32.9 290 Central Highlands * 18 37 76 32.2 93 South East (7.3) 41 24.2 176 21 218 Mekong River Delta (1.7) 45 41.5 184 33.6 229 Area Urban 12.8 83 32.5 325 28.5 408 Rural 18.4 244 41 775 35.6 1019 Mother’s education None * 14 37.3 53 37.3 67 Primary 15.3 57 36.7 167 31.3 224 lower Secondary 16.2 101 37.5 445 33.6 545 Upper Secondary 18.1 81 45 218 37.7 299 Tertiary 14.3 75 35.6 217 30.1 291 Wealth index quintile Poorest 28 79 43.5 234 39.6 313 Second 17.3 61 40.9 210 35.6 271 Middle 18.4 65 36.5 199 32.1 264 Fourth 6.8 60 40.4 212 33 272 Richest 11.2 63 31.5 244 27.3 307 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 14 273 37 929 31.8 1202 Ethnic Minorities 31.9 54 46.4 171 42.9 225 Total 17 327 38.5 1100 33.5 1427 1 MICS indicator 2.6 2 MICS indicator 2.14 Note: Figures denoted by an asterisk are based on denominators of 24 un-weighted cases and less Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases Adequate complementary feeding of children from six months to two years of age is particularly important for growth and development and the prevention of under-nutrition. Continued breastfeeding beyond six months should be accompanied by consumption of nutritionally adequate, safe and appropriate complementary foods that help meet nutritional requirements when breast milk is no longer sufficient. This requires that for breastfed children, two or more meals of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed if they are 6–8 months old, and three or more meals if they are 9–23 months of age. For children 6–23 months and older who are not breastfed, four or more meals of solid, semi-solid or soft foods or milk feeds are needed. 62 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Overall, 50.4 per cent of infants aged 6–8 months received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (Table NU.6). Among currently breastfeeding infants the percentage is 46. There are no noteworthy disparities by sex. Table NU.6: Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods Percentage of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi-solid or soft foods during the previous day, Viet Nam, 2011 All Currently breastfeeding Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods1 Number of children age 6-8 months Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods Number of children age 6-8 months Sex Male 52 72 47 63 Female 49 79 45 68 Area Urban (52.3) 37 (39.1) 25 Rural 49.8 114 47.6 106 Total 50.4 151 46 131 1 MICS indicator 2.12 Note: Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases Table NU.7 presents the proportion of children aged 6–23 months who received semi-solid or soft foods the minimum number of times or more during the previous day according to breastfeeding status. The note at the bottom of Table NU.7 provides the definition of minimum number of times for different age groups. 63VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table NU.7: Minimum meal frequency Percentage of children aged 6-23 months who received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (and milk feeds for non-breastfeeding children) the minimum number of times or more during the previous day, according to breastfeeding status, Viet Nam, 2011 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percentage receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods the minimum number of times§ Number of children aged 6-23 months Percentage receiving at least 2 milk feeds1 Percentage receiving solid, semi- solid and soft foods or milk feeds 4 times or more Number of children aged 6-23 months Percentage with minimum meal frequency2 Number of children aged 6-23 months Sex Male 46 316 82.9 82.8 223 61.2 539 Female 35.5 332 81.6 85.5 229 55.9 561 Age (months) 6-8 41.1 131 * * 20 47.9 151 9-11 33.1 167 * * 23 39.7 190 12-17 39.3 274 85.7 85.8 141 55.1 415 18-23 61.1 75 77.9 82.4 269 77.7 344 Region Red River Delta 54.5 123 93.4 88.4 98 69.5 221 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 37.3 150 62.3 80.6 68 50.8 219 North Central area and Central Coastal area 37.9 147 69.1 77.9 77 51.7 224 Central Highlands 24.3 54 * * 22 36.7 76 South East 37.5 75 98.6 94.3 101 70.1 176 Mekong River Delta 43.7 98 79 80.1 85 60.6 184 Area Urban 33.3 169 95.1 90.9 156 61 325 Rural 43.2 479 75.4 80.6 296 57.5 775 Mother’s education None (39.5) 36 * * 17 42.1 53 Primary 43.1 95 64.9 73.4 72 56.2 167 lower Secondary 36.2 272 83.3 83.7 172 54.6 445 Upper Secondary 49.8 138 89.6 88.1 81 63.9 218 Tertiary 38.3 107 95.7 94.7 110 66.9 217 Wealth index quintile Poorest 42.5 155 51.9 70.6 79 52 234 Second 44.8 137 72.1 74.8 73 55.2 210 Middle 33.5 118 84.5 81.9 81 53.2 199 Fourth 42.3 126 92.7 89.1 86 61.2 212 Richest 38.5 111 97.7 95.6 133 69.6 244 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 40.9 523 85 85.5 407 60.4 929 Ethnic Minorities 39.3 125 (57.6) (72.3) 45 48.1 171 Total 40.6 648 82.2 84.2 452 58.5 1100 1 MICS indicator 2.15 2 MICS indicator 2.13 §Among currently breastfeeding children aged 6-8 months, minimum meal frequency is defined as children who also received solid, semi-solid or soft foods 2 times or more. Among currently breastfeeding children aged 9-23 months, receipt of solid, semi-solid or soft foods at least 3 times constitutes minimum meal frequency. For non-breastfeeding children aged 6-23 months, minimum meal frequency is defined as children receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods, and milk feeds, at least 4 times during the previous day. Note: Figures denoted by an asterisk are based on denominators of 24 un-weighted cases and less Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases 64 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Among currently breastfeeding children aged 6–23 months, 40.6 per cent were receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods the minimum number of times. This proportion was 10 per cent higher among males compared to females. In the age group 6–23 months the older children (18–23 months) who are currently breastfeeding are more likely to receive solid, semi-solid and soft foods the minimum number of times, compared to their younger peers. Among non-breastfeeding children, 84 per cent of the children were receiving solid, semi- solid and soft foods or milk feeds 4 times or more, and 82 per cent were receiving at least two milk feeds. Both indicators for non-breastfeeding children reveal disparities by mother’s education and household living standards. For example, only one in two non-breastfeeding children are likely to receive at least two milk feeds if living in the poorest households, compared with virtually all children in the richest households. Among all children 6–23 months of age, 58.5 per cent received the minimum meal frequency. differences are observed by all background characteristics, with the widest variations across regions. At 36.7 per cent, children from the Central Highlands are less likely to receive the minimum meal frequency compared to other regions, with the South East ranking highest, at 70.1 per cent. The continued practice of bottle-feeding is a concern because of the possible contamination due to unsafe water and lack of hygiene in preparation. Table NU.8 shows that bottle-feeding is still prevalent in Viet Nam. Some 38.7 per cent of children aged 0–23 months are fed using a bottle with a nipple. Bottle feeding is more common among children living in urban areas, in richer households, and among children whose mother has higher education. Regional disparities are striking, with the percentage of children below 24 months fed with a bottle with a nipple being highest in the South East (68.2 per cent) and lowest in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas (18.6 per cent). It is also higher among children living in Kinh/Hoa households as opposed to ethnic minority households (43.4 and 13.4 per cent, respectively). Table NU.8: Bottle feeding Percentage of children aged 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of children aged 0-23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple1 Number of children aged 0-23 months Sex Male 36.1 699 Female 41.2 728 Age (months) 0-5 41.5 327 6-11 44.5 341 12-23 34.8 759 Region Red River Delta 33.8 304 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 18.6 293 North Central area and Central Coastal area 30.8 290 Central Highlands 30 93 South East 68.2 218 Mekong River Delta 56.2 229 Area Urban 53.3 408 Rural 32.8 1019 Mother’s education None 15.8 67 Primary 32.9 224 65VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table NU.8: Bottle feeding Percentage of children aged 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of children aged 0-23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple1 Number of children aged 0-23 months lower Secondary 35.4 545 Upper Secondary 42.4 299 Tertiary 50.8 291 Wealth index quintile Poorest 18 313 Second 28.4 271 Middle 42.5 264 Fourth 48.3 272 Richest 57.2 307 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 43.4 1202 Ethnic Minorities 13.4 225 Total 38.7 1427 1 MICS indicator 2.11 Salt Iodisation Iodine deficiency disorders (Idd) are the world’s leading cause of preventable mental retardation and impaired psychomotor development in young children. In its most extreme form, iodine deficiency causes cretinism. It also increases the risks of stillbirth and miscarriage in pregnant women. Iodine deficiency is most commonly and visibly associated with goitre. IDD takes its greatest toll in impaired mental growth and development, contributing in turn to poor school performance, reduced intellectual ability, and impaired work performance. The international goal is to achieve sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency by 2005. The monitoring indicator is the percentage of households consuming adequately iodised salt (>15 parts per million). In Viet Nam, the Endocrinology Hospital (MOH) was established to carry out goitre control activities. Since the 1970s, Viet Nam has implemented programmes to provide iodised salt to mountainous residents. Results from the 1993 Census on Goitre Status conducted by the Endocrinology Hospital in cooperation with UNICEF and CEMUbAC (belgium) revealed that 94 per cent of the Vietnamese population was at risk of iodine deficiency. Goitre prevalence among children was 22.4 per cent and the median urinary iodine level was 32 mcg/l. Because of these findings, at the end of 1994, the government of Viet Nam decided to provide iodised salt instead of normal salt throughout the country in order to fight against Idd. Based on criteria to assess IDD elimination (including the three indicators: prevalence of goitre among children under age 5; coverage of adequately iodised salt and median urinary iodine level), MoH announced that Viet Nam achieved the goal of eliminating Idd in 2005. 66 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table NU.9: Iodised salt consumption Percentage distribution of households by consumption of iodised salt, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of households in which salt was tested Number of households Percentage of households with Number of households in which salt was tested or with no saltNo salt Salt test result Not iodised 0 ppm >0 and <15 ppm 15+ ppm1 Total Region Red River Delta 97.8 2601 1.7 57 13.4 27.8 100 2587 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 98.9 1836 0.9 38 21.1 40 100 1832 North Central area and Central Coastal area 97.5 2522 2.2 30.6 17 50.2 100 2515 Central Highlands 98.8 604 0.9 3.3 7.8 88.1 100 602 South East 95 1873 4.1 15.9 23.4 56.5 100 1855 Mekong River Delta 95.2 2178 3.7 45.6 8.3 42.4 100 2154 Area Urban 96.2 3454 3.2 34.8 17.6 44.4 100 3431 Rural 97.4 8160 2.1 37.5 15 45.4 100 8114 Wealth index quintile Poorest 97.5 2329 2 33.6 16.8 47.6 100 2316 Second 97.6 2368 1.7 41.6 16.3 40.5 100 2350 Middle 96.7 2406 3 38.7 14.4 44 100 2398 Fourth 96 2326 3.4 34.6 14.7 47.4 100 2310 Richest 97.4 2186 2 34.9 16.8 46.3 100 2171 Total 97 11614 2.4 36.7 15.8 45.1 100 11545 1 MICS indicator 2.16 In about 97 per cent of households, salt used for cooking was tested for iodine content by using salt test kits and testing for the presence of potassium iodide content. Table NU.9 shows that in a very small proportion of households (2.4 per cent), there was no salt available. In 45.1 per cent of households, salt was found to contain 15 or more parts per million (ppm) of iodine; and in 15.8 per cent of households salt was found to have iodine content below 15 ppm. Some 36.7 per cent of households were found to use salt with no iodine. Use of iodised salt is lowest in the Red River delta (41.2 per cent any iodine, 27.8 per cent with 15 or more ppm) and highest in the Central Highlands (95.9 per cent any iodine, 88.1 per cent with 15 or more ppm). Use of iodised salt and use of adequately iodised salt do not differ substantially between urban and rural areas, standing at 44.4 per cent (15 or more ppm) and 17.6 per cent (positive amounts but <15ppm) for urban areas and 45.4 per cent (15 or more ppm) and 15 per cent (positive amounts but <15ppm) for rural areas, respectively (Figure NU.3). 67VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Figure NU.3 Percentage of households consuming adequately iodised salt by region, Viet Nam, 2011 Children’s Vitamin A Supplementation Vitamin A is essential for eye health and proper functioning of the immune system. It is found in foods such as milk, liver, eggs, red and orange fruits, red palm oil and green leafy vegetables, although the amount of vitamin A readily available to the body from these sources varies widely. In developing areas of the world, where vitamin A is largely consumed in the form of fruits and vegetables, daily per capita intake is often insufficient to meet dietary requirements. Inadequate intakes are further compromised by increased requirements for the vitamin as children grow or during periods of illness, as well as increased losses during common childhood infections. As a result, vitamin A deficiency is prevalent in the developing world and particularly in countries with the highest burden of under-five deaths. The 1990 World Summit for Children set the goal of virtual elimination of vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, including blindness, by the year 2000. This goal was also endorsed at the Policy Conference on Ending Hidden Hunger in 1991, the 1992 International Conference on Nutrition, and the UN General Assembly’s Special Session on Children in 2002. The critical role of vitamin A for child health and immune function also makes control of deficiency a primary component of child survival efforts, and therefore critical to the achievement of the fourth Millennium Development Goal: a two-thirds reduction in under- five mortality by the year 2015. For countries with vitamin A deficiency problems, current international recommendations call for high-dose vitamin A supplementation every four to six months, targeted to all children between the ages of 6–59 months living in affected areas. Providing young children with two high-dose vitamin A capsules a year is a safe, cost-effective, efficient strategy for eliminating vitamin A deficiency and improving child survival. Giving vitamin A to new mothers who are breastfeeding helps protect their children during the first months 68 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN of life and helps to replenish the mother’s stores of vitamin A, which are depleted during pregnancy and lactation. For countries with vitamin A supplementation programmes, the definition of the indicator is the percentage of children 6–59 months of age receiving at least one high dose vitamin A supplement in the last six months. In 1987, the Government of Viet Nam approved the National Programme for Prevention and Control of Vitamin A deficiency. This programme was piloted in some districts and was then expanded to the entire country in 1993. Based on UNICEF/WHO guidelines, the Viet Nam Ministry of Health recommends that children aged 6–11 months be given one high dose Vitamin A capsule per year and children aged 12–59 months be given a vitamin A capsule every 6 months. Vitamin A is integrated with immunization services and is given when the child has contact with these services after six months of age. The Vitamin A supplementation campaigns in Viet Nam are organised twice per year in June and december. It is also recommended that mothers take a vitamin A supplement within eight weeks of giving birth due to increased Vitamin A requirements during pregnancy and lactation It is noted that the Vietnamese Vitamin A Supplementation Programme targets children aged 6–36 (and not 6–59) months nation-wide, and that children up to 59 months are only targeted in selected provinces. Within the six months prior to MICS 2011 data collection, 83.4 per cent of children aged 6–59 months received a high dose Vitamin A supplement (Table NU.10). Vitamin A supplementation coverage is lower in the South East (77.6 per cent) than in other regions (for example 88.2 per cent in the Red River delta).This percentage is quite low when the mother has no education, at only 60.9 per cent. There are no large differences by sex, area and ethnicity. 69VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table NU.10: Children's vitamin A supplementation Percentage distribution of children aged 6-59 months by receipt of a high dose vitamin A supplement in the last 6 months, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage who received Vitamin A according to: Percentage of children who received Vitamin A during the last 6 months1 Number of children aged 6-59 months Child health book/card/ vaccination card Mother's report Sex Male 3.3 82.9 82.9 1709 Female 5.1 83.8 83.9 1642 Region Red River Delta 6.5 88.2 88.2 715 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 2.4 84.9 84.9 633 North Central area and Central Coastal area 1.2 84 84 653 Central Highlands 5.7 85.8 85.8 216 South East 4.4 77.6 77.6 530 Mekong River Delta 5.5 79.5 79.6 605 Area Urban 7.2 84.4 84.4 930 Rural 3 83 83 2421 Age (months) 6-11 5.9 72.5 72.5 341 12-23 7.4 90.9 91 759 24-35 5.5 88.9 88.9 792 36-47 1.6 83.4 83.4 764 48-59 1 74.2 74.2 695 Mother’s education None 2 60.9 60.9 193 Primary 1.7 76.9 76.9 601 lower Secondary 2.5 85.6 85.7 1378 Upper Secondary 6.1 85.8 85.8 589 Tertiary 9.4 89.7 89.7 589 Wealth index quintile Poorest 2 76 76 752 Second 3.1 81.6 81.6 613 Middle 3.1 86.3 86.4 636 Fourth 3.9 88.3 88.3 689 Richest 8.8 85.4 85.4 662 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 4.6 84.5 84.5 2870 Ethnic Minorities 1.5 76.4 76.4 481 Total 4.1 83.4 83.4 3351 1 MICS indicator 2.17 The age pattern of Vitamin A supplementation shows that the highest proportion of children are missing the first high dose of supplementation at the age 6–11 months, and the last dose at the age of 48–59 months, with the doses in between showing a higher percentage. Only 72.5 per cent of children receive the first dose and 74.2 per cent the last dose, with percentages in between ranging from 83.4 per cent for children aged 36–47 months to 91 per cent for those aged 12–23 months. The mother’s level of education is also positively correlated with the likelihood of a child receiving Vitamin A supplementation, increasing from 60.9 per cent among children whose mothers have no education to 76.9 per cent of children whose mothers have primary 70 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN education and 85.7 per cent of children whose mothers have lower secondary education. disparities are also observed by household living standards, with 76 per cent of children in the poorest households receiving Vitamin A during the 6 months preceding the survey, compared with 85.4 per cent in the richest households. low birth Weight Weight at birth is a good indicator reflecting a mother’s health and nutritional status but also a good indicator of the newborn’s chances for survival, growth, long-term health and psychosocial development. low birth weight (less than 2500 grams) carries with it a range of grave health risks for children. Babies who were undernourished in the womb face a greatly increased risk of dying during their early months and years. Those who survive have impaired immune function and increased risk of disease; they are likely to remain undernourished, with reduced muscle strength, throughout their lives, and suffer a higher incidence of diabetes and heart disease in later life. Children born underweight also tend to have a lower IQ and cognitive disabilities, affecting their performance in school and their job opportunities as adults. In the developing world, low birth weight stems primarily from the mother’s poor health and nutrition. Three factors have the most impact: the mother’s poor nutritional status before conception, short stature (due mostly to under nutrition and infections during her childhood), and poor nutrition during the pregnancy. Inadequate weight gain during pregnancy is particularly important since it accounts for a large proportion of foetal growth retardation. Moreover, diseases such as diarrhoea and malaria, which are common in many developing countries, can substantially impair foetal growth if the mother becomes infected while pregnant. In the industrialized world, cigarette smoking during pregnancy is the leading cause of low birth weight. In developed and developing countries alike, teenagers who give birth when their own bodies have yet to finish growing run the risk of bearing underweight babies. One of the major challenges in measuring the incidence of low birth weight is the fact that more than half of infants in the developing world are not weighed. In the past, most estimates of low birth weight for developing countries were based on data compiled from health facilities. However, these estimates are biased for most developing countries because the majority of newborns are not delivered in facilities, and those who are represent only a selected sample of all births. because many infants are not weighed at birth and those who are weighed may be a biased sample of all births, the reported birth weights usually cannot be used to estimate the prevalence of low birth weight among all children. Therefore, the percentage of births weighing below 2500 grams is estimated from two items in the questionnaire: the mother’s assessment of the child’s size at birth (i.e., very small, smaller than average, average, larger than average, very large) and the mother’s recall of the child’s weight or the weight as recorded on a health card if the child was weighed at birth16. 16 For a detailed description of the methodology, see JT Boerma, KI Weinstein, SO Rutstein and AE Sommerfelt, 1996. “data on birth weight in developing countries: can surveys help?” in Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 74(2): 209–216. 71VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table NU.11: Low birth weight infants Percentage of last-born children in the two years preceding the survey that are estimated to have weighed below 2500 grams at birth and percentage of live births weighed at birth, Viet Nam, 2011 Percent of live births: Number of live births in the last 2 yearsBelow 2500 grams1 Weighed at birth2 Region Red River Delta 4.4 99.2 294 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 5.9 78.1 285 North Central area and Central Coastal area 4.3 96.6 287 Central Highlands 6.5 79.6 92 South East 5.5 100 214 Mekong River Delta 5.3 100 210 Area Urban 5.2 98.4 402 Rural 5.1 91.1 980 Mother’s education None 8.4 46.5 64 Primary 6.5 87.5 203 lower Secondary 4.9 95.9 523 Upper Secondary 5.4 97.1 296 Tertiary 3.6 98.9 295 Wealth index quintile Poorest 5.4 75.1 300 Second 5.5 97 263 Middle 5.1 97.9 251 Fourth 5.3 98.8 270 Richest 4.4 99.2 299 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 5 98.6 1158 Ethnic Minorities 6 65.8 225 Total 5.1 93.2 1383 1 MICS indicator 2.18 2 MICS indicator 2.19 Overall, 93.2 per cent of children are weighed at birth and approximately 5.1 per cent are estimated to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth (Table NU.11). There was some variation by region and mother’s education (Figure NU.4). The percentage of low birth weight does not vary much by urban and rural areas. 72 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Figure NU.4 Percentage of infants weighing less than 2500 grams at birth by region, Viet Nam, 2011 73VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VI. CHIld HEAlTH 74 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Immunization The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to reduce child mortality by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. Immunization plays a key part in this goal. It has saved the lives of millions of children in the three decades since the launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974. Worldwide there are still 27 million children overlooked by routine immunization and as a result, vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than two million deaths every year. One of the World Fit for Children goals is to ensure full immunization of children under 1 year of age at 90 per cent nationally, with at least 80 per cent coverage in every district or equivalent administrative unit. According to the Viet Nam Ministry of Health (MoH) guidelines, a child should receive a bCG vaccination to protect against tuberculosis; a birth dose of hepatitis b vaccine, three doses of DPT to protect against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus; three doses of Hepatitis B vaccine; three doses of polio vaccine, and a measles vaccination by the age of 12 months. In June 2010 the new Pentavalent vaccine was introduced in Viet Nam, which combines dPT, Hepatitis B and Hib (Haemophilusinfluenza type B) antigens. Administered in three doses, the Pentavalent vaccine replaced the previously separate DPT and Hepatitis b vaccines. To accommodate the registration of the Pentavalent vaccine a new immunization handbook was issued. In Viet Nam, a child is considered to be fully immunized if he/she received seven antigens, notably BCG, dPT (1–3), Polio (1–3), measles and Hepatitis B (1–3). Hepatitis B at birth is not included in the full immunization indicator. In the Viet Nam MICS 2011, mothers were asked to provide vaccination cards for children under the age of 5 years, from which interviewers copied vaccination information onto the MICS questionnaire. The questionnaire was customised to allow the registration of immunizations for children who received single as well as those who received combined vaccines. 75VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CH.1: Vaccinations in the first year of life Percentage of children aged 12–23 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey and before the first birthday, Viet Nam, 2011 Vaccinated at any time before the survey according to Vaccinated by 12 months of ageImmunization card Mother's report Either bCG1 50.5 45 95.5 95.0 Polio 1 47.3 44.3 91.7 91.2 Polio 2 45.9 38.2 84.1 83.7 Polio 32 44.9 23.8 68.7 68.1 DPT 1 49.6 44.4 94.1 93.5 DPT 2 48.6 38.2 86.7 86.2 DPT 33 47 27.3 74.3 73.0 Measles4 46.9 45.3 92.2 84.2 Hep b at birth 20.3 27.9 48.2 48.2 Hep b 1 49.5 41.1 90.6 89.6 Hep b 2 48.8 30.1 78.9 77.9 Hep b 35 39.8 16 55.8 53.3 All vaccinations§ 30.9 9.2 40.1 31.3 No vaccinations 0.3 1.9 2.2 2.2 Number of children aged 12-23 months 759 759 759 759 1 MICS indicator 3.1 2 MICS indicator 3.2 3 MICS indicator 3.3 4 MICS indicator 3.4; MDG indicator 4.3 5 MICS indicator 3.5 §This excludes Hepatitis b at birth Overall, 51.6 per cent of children had immunization cards (Table CH.2). If the child did not have a card, the mother was asked to recall whether or not the child had received each of the vaccinations and, for dPT, Hepatitis B and Polio, how many times. The percentage of children aged 12–23 months who received each of the vaccinations is shown in Table CH.1. The denominator for the table is comprised of children aged 12–23 months so that only children who are old enough to be fully vaccinated are counted. In the top panel, the numerator includes all children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey according to the immunization card, the mother’s report and either source. In the last column, only those who were vaccinated before their first birthday, are included. For children without immunization cards, the proportion of vaccinations given before the first birthday is assumed to be the same as for children with immunization cards. Some 95 per cent of children aged 12–23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months and the first dose of dPT was given to 93.5 per cent. The percentage declines for subsequent doses of dPT to 86.2 per cent for the second dose, and 73 per cent for the third dose (Figure CH.1). Similarly, 91.2 per cent of children received the first dose of the Polio vaccine by the age of 12 months and this declines to 68.1 per cent for the third dose. The decline from the first dose to the third is steeper for the Hepatitis b vaccine, from almost 90 per cent to about 53 per cent. The measles vaccine coverage by 12 months is lower than for bCG, DPT1, DPT2, Hepatitis b1 and Polio1, at 84.2 per cent. 76 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Figure CH.1: Percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received basic vaccinations by 12 months, Viet Nam, 2011 Table CH.2 shows the vaccination coverage rates among children aged 12–23 months by background characteristics. The figures indicate children receiving the vaccinations at any time up to the date of the survey, and are based on information from both the immunization cards and mothers’/caregivers’ reports. differentials are observed by all background characteristics, but the widest ranges are noticed by mother’s education and ethnicity of the household head. For example, the vaccine with the highest national coverage, BCG, shows an almost 15 percentage point difference between children living in Kinh/ Hoa households and children living in ethnic minority households. Children whose mother has a higher education level are more likely to be vaccinated than those whose mother has lower or no education. In fact, the majority of children who received no vaccination (23.5 per cent) have uneducated mothers. Only 18.5 per cent of children whose mothers are uneducated received a Hepatitis B vaccination at birth compared to 62.5 per cent of children whose mothers have tertiary education. Household living standards also seem to be a factor. Some 30.4 per cent of children living in the poorest households received all recommended vaccinations, which is 20 percentage points lower than among their peers in the richest households. The North Central area and Central Coastal area is the region with the lowest percentage of children who received all vaccinations, only 28.2 per cent. This region indicates comparatively lower levels of immunization for the third dose of Hepatitis b, DPT and especially Polio, and compares to 53.6 per cent in the South East. As expected, higher immunization rates are observed in urban areas. The percentage of children whose immunization cards were seen by the interviewers declines as mothers’ education level and wealth quintile decline, and is higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The details in the data quality table dQ.10 (see Appendix d) show a notably lower percentage of immunization cards seen for older children. This may indicate poor vaccination record keeping in households. 77VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .2 : V ac ci na tio ns b y ba ck gr ou nd c ha ra ct er is tic s P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag ed 1 2- 23 m on th s cu rr en tly v ac ci na te d ag ai ns t c hi ld ho od d is ea se s, V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n w ho re ce iv ed : P er ce nt ag e w ith va cc in at io n ca rd s ee n N um be r of c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s b C G M ea sl es N on e A ll§ P ol io 1 P ol io 2 P ol io 3 D P T 1 D P T 2 D P T 3 H ep b at b irt h H ep b 1 H ep b 2 H ep b 3 Se x M al e 95 .1 91 .1 82 .7 65 .7 94 .5 86 .2 72 .5 92 .8 46 .7 91 .3 77 .9 54 .7 2. 2 38 .4 51 39 1 Fe m al e 95 .9 92 .2 85 .6 72 93 .5 87 .2 76 .2 91 .6 49 .7 89 .9 80 57 2. 2 41 .9 52 .3 36 8 R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 98 .4 95 .5 89 .3 72 .6 10 0 95 .9 82 .3 95 .8 64 .9 98 .3 84 60 .7 0 50 .3 43 .3 15 6 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 92 88 .2 77 .7 63 .5 91 80 67 .9 90 .6 26 .7 91 .4 78 .4 53 .1 3. 8 37 .9 47 .1 15 4 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 96 .1 93 .2 83 61 .9 91 .9 79 .4 65 .1 94 .1 51 .3 82 .1 66 .9 46 .1 1. 2 28 .2 50 .4 16 0 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 91 .3 90 .8 82 63 .2 89 .3 81 .8 63 .4 87 .9 39 .6 84 .1 77 .1 44 .1 5. 4 36 .2 42 .4 54 S ou th E as t 98 .8 88 .3 84 .4 78 .7 99 .5 97 89 96 .2 49 .1 96 .7 93 .6 67 .9 0. 5 53 .6 71 12 1 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 93 .7 92 .7 87 .8 72 .1 89 .2 84 .6 73 .8 84 .6 52 .4 87 .9 74 .9 59 .2 4. 8 33 .3 54 .6 11 4 A re a U rb an 97 .5 93 .6 87 .1 77 97 .8 93 .1 82 .3 95 .2 58 .3 93 .9 88 .4 65 0. 6 52 63 .3 23 2 R ur al 94 .6 90 .8 82 .8 65 .1 92 .4 83 .9 70 .7 90 .9 43 .7 89 .2 74 .7 51 .7 2. 9 34 .8 46 .5 52 7 M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e (7 0. 9) (6 1. 9) (5 0. 9) (2 7. 9) (6 2. 8) (5 0. 3) (3 5. 3) (6 4. 8) (1 8. 5) (5 9. 6) (4 8. ) (3 1. 6) (2 3. 5) (1 4. 2) (1 7. 3) 33 P rim ar y 92 .2 89 76 .8 60 89 .4 78 .5 66 .2 85 .4 35 .6 87 .3 76 .4 53 .5 5. 2 37 .2 47 .8 11 3 lo w er S ec on da ry 96 .5 93 .8 87 .2 70 .4 95 .1 87 .7 75 .5 95 .2 46 .2 90 .3 78 .9 54 .6 0. 9 37 .9 50 .3 30 0 U pp er S ec on da ry 98 .5 91 .7 86 .3 73 97 .5 91 79 .2 96 .8 51 .7 92 .1 81 .4 56 .6 0. 4 44 .5 56 .1 14 4 Te rti ar y 97 .9 95 .1 87 .8 75 .5 98 .3 93 .7 80 .5 92 .6 62 .5 97 .7 84 63 .3 0 47 59 .6 16 8 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 88 .4 86 .3 69 .2 55 .6 86 .7 71 .5 60 .4 85 .4 28 .1 85 .4 62 .9 44 .7 6 30 .4 37 .9 16 5 S ec on d 97 .4 98 .3 94 .3 72 92 .8 85 .2 72 .4 94 .4 47 .8 85 .9 79 .7 53 .8 1. 7 37 .8 57 .6 13 1 M id dl e 97 .3 92 .9 88 66 .1 95 .6 88 .7 74 .1 95 .2 50 .4 91 .3 81 55 .2 0. 4 37 .4 42 .5 14 4 Fo ur th 96 .9 87 .8 84 .1 71 95 .1 91 .9 78 .1 91 .1 55 .8 90 .7 80 .4 61 .2 2. 7 43 .6 52 .4 14 5 R ic he st 98 93 .9 87 .3 78 .9 99 .7 96 85 .5 95 .4 59 98 .5 90 .2 63 .6 0 50 .3 67 .2 17 4 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 97 .7 93 .6 87 .6 71 .6 96 .5 90 .6 78 .2 93 .9 53 .3 92 81 .1 57 .6 1. 1 40 .9 53 .2 64 6 E th ni c M in or iti es 82 .5 80 .1 64 .3 52 .8 79 .8 63 .7 51 .2 82 .4 18 .2 82 .8 63 .6 45 .5 8. 5 35 .1 42 .6 11 3 To ta l 95 .5 91 .7 84 .1 68 .7 94 .1 86 .7 74 .3 92 .2 48 .2 90 .6 78 .9 55 .8 2. 2 40 .1 51 .6 75 9 § Th is in di ca to r e xc lu de s H ep at iti s B a t b irt h. In V ie t N am , t he n ew P en ta va le nt v ac ci ne (c om bi ni ng th e fo llo w in g 5 an tig en s: d P T, H ep at iti s B a nd H ib ) w as in tro du ce d in J un e 20 10 . T he re fo re , a ch ild is c on si de re d to h av e re ce iv ed a ll va cc in at io n if he /s he (1 ) r ec ei ve d b C G , P ol io 1 -3 , D P T 1- 3, H ep at iti s b 1 -3 a nd M ea sl es o r ( 2) re ce iv ed P en ta va le nt 1 -3 , P ol io 1 -3 , b C G a nd M ea sl es N ot e: Fi gu re s sh ow n in p ar en th es is a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 5- 49 u n- w ei gh te d ca se s 78 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Neonatal Tetanus Protection MdG 5 is to reduce by three quarters the maternal mortality ratio, with one strategy being to eliminate maternal tetanus. Another goal is to reduce the incidence of neonatal tetanus to less than 1 case per 1,000 live births. One of the A World Fit for Children goals is to eliminate maternal and neonatal tetanus by 2005. Prevention of maternal and neonatal tetanus requires assuring that all pregnant women receive at least two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine. However, if women have not received two doses of the vaccine during the pregnancy, they (and their newborn) are also considered to be protected, if the following conditions are met: ● Received at least two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine, the last within the past three years; ● Received at least three doses, the last within the past five years; ● Received at least four doses, the last within the past ten years; ● Received at least five doses during lifetime. Table CH.3 shows the tetanus protection status of women who have had a live birth within the last two years. Figure CH.2 shows the protection of women against neonatal tetanus by major background characteristics. 79VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CH.3: Neonatal tetanus protection Percentage of women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years protected against neonatal tetanus, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of women who received at least two doses during last pregnancy Percentage of women who did not receive two or more doses during their last pregnancy but received: Protected against tetanus1 Number of women with a live birth in the last two years two doses, the last within the past three years three doses, the last within the past five years four doses, the last within the past ten years Region Red River Delta 64.6 20.5 0 0 85.1 294 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 60.6 14 0 0.4 74.9 285 North Central area and Central Coastal area 63.6 15 0 0 78.6 287 Central Highlands 55 16.7 0.7 0.2 72.6 92 South East 60.7 17.1 0.3 0.5 78.7 214 Mekong River Delta 56.6 13.2 0 0 69.8 210 Area Urban 61.9 17.9 0.1 0 80 402 Rural 60.8 15.4 0.1 0.2 76.5 980 Women’s education None 22.5 8.2 0 0 30.6 64 Primary 49.9 18.1 0.3 0 68.3 203 lower Secondary 61.5 16.5 0.1 0 78.1 523 Upper Secondary 68.1 17.3 0 0 85.4 296 Tertiary 69.6 14.6 0.1 0.8 85.1 295 Wealth index quintile Poorest 49.7 10.8 0 0 60.5 300 Second 65.5 15.8 0.3 0.4 81.9 263 Middle 64.8 19 0 0 83.8 251 Fourth 64.6 15 0.3 0.4 80.3 270 Richest 62.5 20.2 0 0.1 82.8 299 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 63.6 17.2 0.1 0.1 81 1158 Ethnic Minorities 48.3 10.4 0 0.5 59.2 225 Total 61.1 16.1 0.1 0.2 77.5 1383 1 MICS indicator 3.7 Table CH.3 shows that 77.5 per cent of women aged 15–49 years with a live birth in the last two years are protected against tetanus.There is a considerable differential in tetanus protection by ethnicity groups. About 81 per cent of women living in Kinh/Hoa households are protected against tetanus while only 59.2 per cent among women living in ethnic minority households are protected. The widest gap, however, is observed across women’s education levels. There is a 54 percentage point difference between women with tertiary and those with no education. The likelihood of being protected against tetanus doubles between women with no education and those with at least primary education. Regional differentials show that in the Red River delta 85.1 per cent of women of reproductive age who had a live birth in the last two years are protected against tetanus, while the percentage is about 69.8 among women living in the Mekong River delta. living standards also influence the prevalence of tetanus protection. About 80 per cent of women in the second, third, fourth, and fifth wealth index quintiles are protected against tetanus. A large disparity is observed for women in the poorest households, with only 60.5 per cent of women protected against neonatal tetanus. 80 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Figure CH.2: Percentage of women with a live birth in the last two years protected against neonatal tetanus, Viet Nam, 2011 Oral Rehydration Treatment diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children under age 5 worldwide. Most diarrhoea-related deaths in children are due to dehydration from loss of large quantities of water and electrolytes from the body in liquid stools. Management of diarrhoea – either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) – can prevent many of these deaths. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhoea. The goals are to: 1) reduce by one half the deaths due to diarrhoea among children under age 5 by 2010 compared to 2000 (A World Fit for Children); and 2) reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under age 5 by 2015 compared to 1990 (MdG). In addition, A World Fit for Children calls for a reduction in the incidence of diarrhoea by 25 per cent. 81VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The indicators are: ● Prevalence of diarrhoea ● Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) ● Home management of diarrhoea ● ORT with continued feeding In the Viet Nam MICS 2011 questionnaire, mothers (or caregivers) were asked to report whether their child had diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the survey. If so, the mother was asked a series of questions about what and how much the child was given to drink and eat during the episode and whether this was more or less than usual. Overall, 7.4 per cent of children under age 5 had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey (Table CH.4). The peak of diarrhoea prevalence occurs in the infancy period, among children aged 0–11 months. diarrhoea prevalence varies across regions. More than 10 per cent of children under age 5 had diarrhoea in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas, compared to the lowest level at 5 per cent in the South East. This indicates that a child in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas is twice as likely to have diarrhoea than a child in the South East. Ethnic differentials indicate that 11.6 per cent of children living in ethnic minority households had diarrhoea in the last two weeks compared with 6.6 per cent of children in Kinh/Hoa households. It can also be observed that the younger the child, the more likely it is to suffer from diarrhoea. Indeed, the incidence of diarrhoea decreases substantially as age increases, from 13 per cent among children aged 0–11 months to 2.8 per cent for children aged 48–59 months. 82 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .4 : O ra l r eh yd ra tio n so lu tio ns a nd r ec om m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks , a nd tr ea tm en t w ith o ra l r eh yd ra tio n so lu tio ns a nd re co m m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s, V ie t N am , 2 01 1 H ad di ar rh oe a in la st tw o w ee ks N um be r of c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s C hi ld re n w ith d ia rr ho ea w ho re ce iv ed : N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks O R S (F lu id fr om O R S pa ck et o r p re - pa ck ag ed O R S fl ui d) R ec om m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s O R S o r a ny re co m m en de d ho m em ad e flu id R ic e po rr id ge / r ic e so up le m on /o ra ng e/ co co nu t d rin k S ou p w at er fro m b oi le d ve ge ta bl es A ny re co m m en de d ho m em ad e flu id Se x M al e 7. 4 18 69 55 10 .6 8. 8 33 .5 42 .1 70 .3 13 8 Fe m al e 7. 3 18 09 37 .7 7. 7 14 .4 34 .2 43 .6 60 .7 13 2 R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 8 79 8 49 .3 0. 9 15 .7 42 .9 45 .2 69 .5 64 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 10 .4 70 7 34 .8 11 .4 7. 5 35 .4 44 .3 63 .8 74 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 6. 9 71 9 60 .8 23 .2 3. 8 27 41 .6 66 .8 49 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 6. 3 23 3 * * * * * * 15 S ou th E as t 5 57 2 (6 0. 8) (7 .7 ) (1 9. 4) (2 8. 7) (3 6. 6) (6 9. 4) 28 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 6. 2 65 0 (3 3. 3) (2 .7 ) (1 7. 7) (3 3. ) (4 5. 9) (5 6. 6) 40 A re a U rb an 5. 3 10 13 47 .3 8. 4 17 33 .4 43 .6 64 .6 54 R ur al 8. 1 26 65 46 .3 9. 4 10 .1 33 .9 42 .6 65 .9 21 6 A ge (m on th s) 0- 11 13 66 8 51 .2 8. 2 2. 3 15 .5 24 61 .4 87 12 -2 3 10 .4 75 9 48 .6 16 .4 17 .8 41 .3 52 .2 65 .4 79 24 -3 5 6. 9 79 2 45 .1 4. 8 15 .6 41 .9 48 71 .8 55 36 -4 7 4 76 4 (3 2. 4) (6 .7 ) (1 3. 7) (4 0. 6) (5 1. 8) (5 9. 5) 30 48 -5 9 2. 8 69 5 * * * * * * 19 83VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .4 : O ra l r eh yd ra tio n so lu tio ns a nd r ec om m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks , a nd tr ea tm en t w ith o ra l r eh yd ra tio n so lu tio ns a nd re co m m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s, V ie t N am , 2 01 1 H ad di ar rh oe a in la st tw o w ee ks N um be r of c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s C hi ld re n w ith d ia rr ho ea w ho re ce iv ed : N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks O R S (F lu id fr om O R S pa ck et o r p re - pa ck ag ed O R S fl ui d) R ec om m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s O R S o r a ny re co m m en de d ho m em ad e flu id R ic e po rr id ge / r ic e so up le m on /o ra ng e/ co co nu t d rin k S ou p w at er fro m b oi le d ve ge ta bl es A ny re co m m en de d ho m em ad e flu id M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e 10 20 7 * * * * * * 21 P rim ar y 7. 5 65 8 (2 2. 5) (4 .9 ) (4 .1 ) (2 3. 6) (3 0. 6) (4 7. 5) 49 lo w er S ec on da ry 7. 4 14 79 47 .4 13 .3 13 .6 35 .9 48 .6 70 .2 11 0 U pp er S ec on da ry 6. 7 67 0 (5 8. 7) (1 0. 3) (1 5. 8) (4 2. 6) (4 6. 6) (7 5. ) 45 Te rti ar y 6. 9 66 4 (5 7. 2) (3 .8 ) (1 4. 3) (3 5. 6) (4 2. 6) (6 4. 7) 46 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 9. 4 83 1 34 .9 10 .4 8 33 .7 42 .1 63 .5 78 S ec on d 7. 3 67 3 (4 3. 4) (9 .8 ) (2 .9 ) (2 7. 2) (3 6. 2) (6 1. 5) 49 M id dl e 7. 4 70 0 61 .4 6. 8 18 .8 44 .2 53 .6 81 .4 52 Fo ur th 6. 3 74 9 (4 6. 8) (1 2. 8) (1 1. 1) (2 5. 7) (3 5. ) (4 7. 9) 47 R ic he st 6. 1 72 5 (5 2. 7) (5 .1 ) (1 9. 1) (3 8. ) (4 7. 2) (7 4. 5) 44 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 6. 6 31 43 49 9. 6 14 .4 34 .4 44 .8 66 .2 20 8 E th ni c M in or iti es 11 .6 53 5 38 .1 7. 8 2 32 .1 43 .8 67 .4 62 To ta l 7. 4 36 78 46 .5 9. 2 11 .5 33 .8 42 .8 65 .6 27 0 N ot e: Fi gu re s de no te d by a n as te ris k a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 4 un -w ei gh te d ca se s an d le ss Fi gu re s sh ow n in p ar en th es is a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 5- 49 u n- w ei gh te d ca se s 84 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CH.4 also shows the percentage of children receiving various types of recommended liquids during the episode of diarrhoea. Since mothers were allowed to name more than one type of liquid, the percentages do not necessarily add to 100. About 46.5 per cent received fluids from ORS packets or pre-packaged ORS fluids. ORS is the rehydration treatment of choice for children with diarrhoea in the North Central area and Central Coast area and the South East. Recommended homemade fluids were given to 42.8 per cent of children who experienced diarrhoea in the last two weeks preceding the survey. Among the fluids, soup water from boiled vegetables was the most prevalent, given in 33.8 per cent of cases. It is interesting to note that ORS packets are the rehydration treatment of choice given to boys (55 per cent for boys versus 37.7 per cent for girls), whereas homemade fluids are the treatment of choice for girls (43.6 per cent versus 42.1 per cent). Some 65.6 per cent of children with diarrhoea received ORS or any recommended homemade fluid. About 70.3 per cent of boys with diarrhoea received ORS or any recommended homemade fluid compared to 60.7 per cent of girls. No notable disparities for ORS or any recommended homemade fluid preference are observed between urban and rural areas, and between Kinh/Hoa and ethnic minority households. less than one third (28.6 per cent) of children under age 5 with diarrhoea were given more than the usual amount to drink while 45.4 per cent were given the same amount (Table CH.5). Giving the child more to drink during diarrhoea is similar in the Red River delta and Northern Midland and Mountain areas, with 36.6 and 35.6 per cent, respectively, while it is less practised in the other regions. About one in three children (36.4 per cent) with diarrhoea were given somewhat less to eat than normal. 42.8 per cent of children were given the same amount to eat or more (continued feeding) and 16.9 per cent were given much less to eat during the episode of diarrhoea. There are considerable differences in continued eating practices by ethnicity, with as many as 20 per cent of children aged 0–59 months in Kinh/Hoa households being given much less to eat, compared with only 6.5 per cent of children in ethnic minority households. 85VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .5 : F ee di ng p ra ct ic es d ur in g di ar rh oe a P er ce nt ag e di st rib ut io n of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks b y am ou nt o f l iq ui ds a nd fo od g iv en d ur in g ep is od e of d ia rr ho ea , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 H ad di ar rh oe a in la st tw o w ee ks N um be r of ch ild re n ag ed 0– 59 m on th s D rin ki ng p ra ct ic es d ur in g di ar rh oe a: Ea tin g pr ac tic es d ur in g di ar rh oe a: N um be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 0– 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks G iv en m uc h le ss to dr in k G iv en so m ew ha t le ss to dr in k G iv en ab ou t th e sa m e to dr in k G iv en m or e to dr in k G iv en no th in g to d rin k G iv en m uc h le ss to ea t G iv en so m ew ha t le ss to e at G iv en ab ou t th e sa m e to e at G iv en m or e to e at S to pp ed fo od N ev er be en gi ve n fo od be fo re To ta l To ta l Se x M al e 7. 4 18 69 5. 3 19 42 .7 33 0 10 0 13 .5 39 .4 40 3. 5 1. 7 1. 9 10 0 13 8 Fe m al e 7. 3 18 09 5. 6 20 .6 48 .3 24 .1 1 10 0 20 .4 33 .4 38 .6 3. 5 0 4. 2 10 0 13 2 R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 8 79 8 0 8. 3 55 .1 36 .6 0 10 0 11 .1 29 52 .6 3. 7 0 3. 6 10 0 64 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 10 .4 70 7 3. 6 16 44 .7 35 .6 0. 1 10 0 9. 6 46 .3 35 .9 7. 4 0. 5 0. 3 10 0 74 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 6. 9 71 9 (6 .3 ) (3 2. 1) (3 6. 7) (2 3. 6) (0 ) 10 0 (2 2. 9) (4 0. 8) (3 1. 3) (0 ) (0 ) (5 ) 10 0 49 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 6. 3 23 3 * * * * * 10 0 * * * * * * 10 0 15 S ou th E as t 5 57 2 (1 1. 1) (2 6. 1) (4 6. 4) (1 6. 4) (0 ) 10 0 (1 8. 3) (3 4. 9) (3 4. 3) (1 .9 ) (2 .1 ) (8 .5 ) 10 0 28 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 6. 2 65 0 (9 .7 ) (2 2. 5) (4 1) (2 4. 9) (1 .9 ) 10 0 (2 7. 1) (2 7. 8) (3 9. 5) (2 .7 ) (2 .9 ) (0 ) 10 0 40 A re a U rb an 5. 3 10 13 7. 1 27 .2 32 .6 31 .6 1. 5 10 0 19 .2 30 .4 44 .8 2. 6 0 2. 9 10 0 54 R ur al 8. 1 26 65 5 18 48 .6 27 .9 0. 2 10 0 16 .3 37 .9 37 .9 3. 7 1. 1 3. 1 10 0 21 6 A ge (m on th s) 0– 11 13 66 8 4. 2 15 .1 60 .2 20 0. 5 10 0 14 26 .8 44 5. 7 1. 8 7. 8 10 0 87 12 –2 3 10 .4 75 9 4. 9 25 .2 39 .4 30 .4 0 10 0 21 38 .2 35 .9 2. 8 0. 2 1. 9 10 0 79 24 –3 5 6. 9 79 2 6. 6 18 .6 47 .4 27 .2 0. 2 10 0 7 42 .4 49 .1 0. 5 1. 1 0 10 0 55 36 –4 7 4 76 4 (3 .1 ) (2 2. 2) (3 5. 8) (3 6. 4) (2 .5 ) 10 0 (2 5. 2) (4 0. 1) (3 1. 1) (3 .6 ) (0 ) (0 ) 10 0 30 48 –5 9 2. 8 69 5 (1 3. 7) (1 8. 5) (1 2. 4) (5 2) (0 ) 10 0 (2 8. 3) (4 9. 8) (1 6. 9) (5 ) (0 ) (0 ) 10 0 19 M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e 10 20 7 * * * * * 10 0 * * * * * * 10 0 21 P rim ar y 7. 5 65 8 (1 0. 3) (1 9. 9) (4 7. 9) (1 9. 2) (1 .5 ) 10 0 (2 3. 1) (4 3. 1) (3 2. 2) (0 ) (.3 ) (1 .3 ) 10 0 49 lo w er S ec on da ry 7. 4 14 79 5 17 .4 47 .6 29 .9 0. 1 10 0 15 39 .5 41 .8 2 1. 6 0 10 0 11 0 U pp er S ec on da ry 6. 7 67 0 (0 ) (1 9. 8) (4 9. 3) (2 9. 9) (1 ) 10 0 (1 3. 2) (3 3. 1) (4 5. 7) (4 .7 ) (.9 ) (2 .5 ) 10 0 45 Te rti ar y 6. 9 66 4 (9 ) (2 2. 8) (3 4. 6) (3 3. 6) (0 ) 10 0 (1 4. 7) (2 6. 6) (3 5. 7) (8 .9 ) (0 ) (1 4. 1) 10 0 46 86 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .5 : F ee di ng p ra ct ic es d ur in g di ar rh oe a P er ce nt ag e di st rib ut io n of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks b y am ou nt o f l iq ui ds a nd fo od g iv en d ur in g ep is od e of d ia rr ho ea , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 H ad di ar rh oe a in la st tw o w ee ks N um be r of ch ild re n ag ed 0– 59 m on th s D rin ki ng p ra ct ic es d ur in g di ar rh oe a: Ea tin g pr ac tic es d ur in g di ar rh oe a: N um be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 0– 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks G iv en m uc h le ss to dr in k G iv en so m ew ha t le ss to dr in k G iv en ab ou t th e sa m e to dr in k G iv en m or e to dr in k G iv en no th in g to d rin k G iv en m uc h le ss to ea t G iv en so m ew ha t le ss to e at G iv en ab ou t th e sa m e to e at G iv en m or e to e at S to pp ed fo od N ev er be en gi ve n fo od be fo re To ta l To ta l W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 9. 4 83 1 4. 5 20 .8 42 .1 31 .6 0. 1 10 0 11 .6 50 .1 34 .4 2. 3 1. 5 0 10 0 78 S ec on d 7. 3 67 3 (3 .7 ) (1 5. 2) (5 8. 3) (2 2. 8) (0 ) 10 0 (1 3. 3) (2 9. 2) (4 9. 9) (5 .7 ) (1 .1 ) (0 .9 ) 10 0 49 M id dl e 7. 4 70 0 9. 1 23 40 .6 26 .4 0. 9 10 0 28 .7 26 .3 29 .9 5. 7 1. 2 8. 1 10 0 52 Fo ur th 6. 3 74 9 (6 .3 ) (1 5. 6) (4 9. 1) (2 7. 4) (1 .6 ) 10 0 21 (2 8. 5) (4 1. 6) (1 .1 ) (0 ) (7 .7 ) 10 0 47 R ic he st 6. 1 72 5 (3 .8 ) (2 3. 8) (3 8. 7) (3 3. 7) (0 ) 10 0 11 .8 (4 0. 4) (4 4. 6) (3 .2 ) (0 ) (0 ) 10 0 44 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 6. 6 31 43 6 20 .7 43 .8 29 .1 0. 4 10 0 20 33 .3 38 .3 3. 8 1. 1 3. 6 10 0 20 8 E th ni c M in or iti es 11 .6 53 5 3. 4 16 .8 50 .8 27 .1 0. 9 10 0 6. 5 47 42 .6 2. 7 0 1. 2 10 0 62 To ta l 7. 4 36 78 5. 4 19 .8 45 .4 28 .6 0. 5 10 0 16 .9 36 .4 39 .3 3. 5 0. 9 3. 1 10 0 27 0 N ot e: Fi gu re s de no te d by a n as te ris k a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 4 un -w ei gh te d ca se s an d le ss Fi gu re s sh ow n in p ar en th es is a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 5- 49 u n- w ei gh te d ca se s 87VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CH.6 presents the proportion of children aged 0–59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who received oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding, and the percentage of children with diarrhoea who received other treatments. Overall, more than half of all the children (58.2 per cent) with diarrhoea received ORS or increased fluids and 70.5 per cent received oral rehydration therapy (ORS or recommended homemade fluids or increased fluids). Most background characteristics indicate unclear patterns. However, it is clear that ORT use is higher among older children, boys and those living in ethnic minority households. For example, about 75.9 per cent of boys receive ORT compared with 64.8 per cent of girls. Combining the indicators in Table CH.5 and Table CH.4 on oral rehydration therapy, it is observed that 56.7 per cent of children received both oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and continued feeding, as is recommended. The same background characteristics, child age, sex and ethnicity of the household head, show differentials for the indicator ORT with continued feeding. The Northern Midland and Mountain areas show the highest percentage of children receiving ORT with continued feeding at 64.1 per cent. About a quarter of children with diarrhoea in the last two weeks were given antibiotics (pill, syrup or injection), which is the highest percentage among all treatments given. Still, 5.6 per cent of children with diarrhoea did not receive any treatment or drug. Gender disparities are observed in the use of antibiotics for diarrhoea treatment, with as many as 30.1 per cent of girls aged 0-59 months with diarrhoea receiving antibiotics, compared to 18 per cent of boys. 88 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .6 : O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g an d ot he r t re at m en ts P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho re ce iv ed o ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g, a nd p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n w ith d ia rr ho ea w ho re ce iv ed o th er tr ea tm en ts , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 C hi ld re n w ith d ia rr ho ea w ho re ce iv ed : O th er tr ea tm en ts : N ot g iv en an y tre at m en t or d ru g N um be r of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s w ith di ar rh oe a in la st tw o w ee ks O R S o r in cr ea se d flu id s O R T (O R S or re co m - m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s or in cr ea se d flu id s) O R T w ith co nt in ue d fe ed in g1 Pi ll or s yr up In je ct io n In tra - ve no us th er ap y H om e re m ed y, he rb al m ed ic in e O th er A nt i- bi ot ic A nt i- m ot ili ty dr ug Zi nc O th er U n- kn ow n A nt i- bi ot ic U n- kn ow n Se x M al e 66 .4 75 .9 64 .4 18 5. 3 0. 9 10 .9 20 .1 1. 7 2 3. 3 6. 7 28 .1 5. 9 13 8 Fe m al e 49 .7 64 .8 48 .8 30 .1 7. 4 1 6. 2 18 .9 1. 3 6. 3 1. 3 9. 9 28 .1 5. 3 13 2 R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 54 .4 69 .5 57 23 .7 6. 2 3. 6 11 .2 19 .1 6. 3 5. 4 5 0 46 .1 4. 7 64 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 58 .9 74 .2 64 .1 26 3. 3 0 9. 5 11 0 5. 3 0 22 .5 19 .4 8 74 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a (6 5. 4) (7 0. 1) (5 2. 9) (3 2. 4) (1 2. 6) (0 ) (8 .2 ) (1 9. 7) (0 ) (0 ) (6 .3 ) (5 ) (1 9. 5) (9 .6 ) 49 C en tra l H ig hl an ds * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 15 S ou th E as t (6 3. 3) (7 1. 9) (5 9. 7) (7 .9 ) (9 .5 ) (0 ) (4 ) (3 2. 1) (0 ) (3 .6 ) (0 ) (0 ) (2 9. 8) (0 ) 28 M ek on g R iv er D el ta (5 0. 8) (6 3. 1) (4 4. 7) (2 4. 4) (2 .5 ) (0 ) (4 .7 ) (2 7. 5) (0 ) (5 .8 ) (0 ) (7 ) (3 1. 6) (0 ) 40 A re a U rb an 58 .5 71 56 .8 25 .6 7. 7 3. 1 10 .7 18 .5 0 2. 8 0 1. 5 30 .9 1. 5 54 R ur al 58 .2 70 .3 56 .7 23 .5 6 0. 4 8. 1 19 .8 1. 9 4. 4 2. 9 9. 9 27 .4 6. 6 21 6 A ge (m on th s) 0– 11 54 .8 62 .8 49 .1 20 3. 3 1. 6 4. 8 11 0 2. 7 0 10 .3 32 9. 5 87 12 –2 3 61 .2 69 .8 53 .8 35 .4 9. 3 0. 4 15 .5 29 .1 2. 2 4. 9 6. 1 5. 4 33 .4 1. 7 79 24 –3 5 55 .4 76 .2 68 .8 19 12 .5 0 7. 2 18 .4 4. 2 7. 1 2. 6 9. 4 13 .8 5. 4 55 36 –4 7 (5 3. 9) (7 1) (5 6. 9) (8 .8 ) (0 ) (3 .1 ) (9 ) (1 7. 5) (0 ) (3 .3 ) (0 ) (7 .7 ) (3 2. 1) (6 ) 30 48 –5 9 * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 19 89VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .6 : O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g an d ot he r t re at m en ts P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho re ce iv ed o ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g, a nd p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n w ith d ia rr ho ea w ho re ce iv ed o th er tr ea tm en ts , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 C hi ld re n w ith d ia rr ho ea w ho re ce iv ed : O th er tr ea tm en ts : N ot g iv en an y tre at m en t or d ru g N um be r of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s w ith di ar rh oe a in la st tw o w ee ks O R S o r in cr ea se d flu id s O R T (O R S or re co m - m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s or in cr ea se d flu id s) O R T w ith co nt in ue d fe ed in g1 Pi ll or s yr up In je ct io n In tra - ve no us th er ap y H om e re m ed y, he rb al m ed ic in e O th er A nt i- bi ot ic A nt i- m ot ili ty dr ug Zi nc O th er U n- kn ow n A nt i- bi ot ic U n- kn ow n M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 21 P rim ar y 37 .3 56 .1 46 9. 9 3. 6 0 8. 1 15 0 3 0 21 7. 5 17 .6 49 lo w er S ec on da ry 61 .5 74 61 .6 26 .7 6. 2 0 6. 8 27 1. 6 4. 3 2. 8 5. 4 35 .3 2. 1 11 0 U pp er S ec on da ry (7 0. 4) (7 9. 8) (6 7. 3) (2 5. 3) (3 ) (5 .8 ) (6 .2 ) (2 1. 5) (5 .1 ) (8 .2 ) (3 .9 ) (1 .8 ) (1 9. 5) (5 .5 ) 45 Te rti ar y (6 0. 7) (6 8. 2) (4 8) (3 2. 9) (1 5. 5) (0 ) (1 9. 8) (6 .2 ) (0 ) (0 ) (3 .1 ) (5 .3 ) (4 6. 5) (2 ) 46 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 51 .9 70 .2 57 .8 23 2. 3 0 6. 6 12 .3 0 7. 3 3. 9 17 .9 15 .7 10 .3 78 S ec on d 59 .4 67 .2 62 .1 18 .4 6. 3 0 2. 5 10 .5 4. 7 4. 4 3. 6 11 .5 32 .8 6. 1 49 M id dl e 68 .8 81 .4 56 .4 18 .7 0 0 11 .7 43 .4 3. 4 3. 3 0 0. 4 36 .7 3. 8 52 Fo ur th (5 3. 8) (5 5) (4 0. 7) (2 9. 4) (1 5) (2 ) (7 .5 ) (2 1) (0 ) (1 .1 ) (0 ) (5 .2 ) (3 1. 3) (4 .2 ) 47 R ic he st (6 0. 5) (7 8. 1) (6 6. 3) (3 1. 7) (1 1. 7) (3 .8 ) (1 6. 5) (1 2. 9) (0 ) (2 .3 ) (3 .2 ) (0 ) (3 1. 2) (0 ) 44 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld he ad K in h/ H oa 58 .5 68 .5 53 .4 25 .5 8 1. 2 9. 4 22 .4 1. 9 3. 3 3 4. 1 33 .9 3. 8 20 8 E th ni c M in or iti es 57 .4 77 .1 70 .1 18 .5 0. 7 0 6. 1 10 .1 0 6. 9 0 22 .1 8. 6 11 .5 62 To ta l 58 .2 70 .5 56 .7 23 .9 6. 3 1 8. 6 19 .5 1. 5 4. 1 2. 3 8. 2 28 .1 5. 6 27 0 N ot e: Fi gu re s de no te d by a n as te ris k a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 4 un -w ei gh te d ca se s an d le ss Fi gu re s sh ow n in p ar en th es is a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 5- 49 u n- w ei gh te d ca se s 90 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Care Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia Pneumonia is the leading cause of death of children globally and the use of antibiotics for children under age 5 with presumed pneumonia is a key intervention. One of the A World Fit for Children goals is to reduce by one third the deaths due to acute respiratory infections. Children with suspected pneumonia are those who had an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or difficult breathing and whose symptoms were not due to a blocked nose. The indicators are: ● Prevalence of suspected pneumonia ● Care seeking for suspected pneumonia ● Antibiotic treatment for suspected pneumonia ● Knowledge of the danger signs of pneumonia 91VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .7 : C ar e se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia a nd a nt ib io tic u se d ur in g su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia in th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho w er e ta ke n to a h ea lth c ar e pr ov id er a nd p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n w ho w er e gi ve n an tib io tic s, V ie t N am , 2 01 1 H ad su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia in th e la st tw o w ee ks N um be r of ch ild re n ag ed 0- 59 m on th s C hi ld re n w ith s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia w ho w er e ta ke n to : A ny ap pr op ria te pr ov id er 1§ P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia w ho re ce iv ed an tib io tic s in th e la st tw o w ee ks 2 N um be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 0- 59 m on th s w ith s us pe ct ed pn eu m on ia in th e la st tw o w ee ks Pu bl ic s ou rc es Pr iv at e so ur ce s Gov. hospital Commune health centre Village health worker Private hospital/ clinic Private physician Private pharmacy Other private facility Relative/ Friend Traditional practitioner Se x M al e 3. 4 18 69 22 .5 28 1. 8 16 .2 13 .3 17 .7 0. 8 0. 6 0 69 .6 69 .7 64 Fe m al e 3. 1 18 09 17 .4 31 .8 2. 4 10 .1 18 .6 12 .5 0 1. 7 0. 6 76 .9 66 .8 56 R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 3. 9 79 8 (9 .7 ) (2 5. 3) (3 .8 ) (1 5. ) (8 .6 ) (1 1. 2) (0 ) (0 ) (0 ) (5 8. 6) (8 1. 4) 31 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 1. 2 70 7 * * * * * * * * * * * 9 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 5. 4 71 9 (1 8. 9) (3 0. 9) (0 ) (1 0. 4) (4 .9 ) (2 2. 2) (0 ) (2 .5 ) (0 ) (5 8. 5) (5 5. 2) 39 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 3. 8 23 3 * * * * * * * * * * * 9 S ou th E as t 3. 5 57 2 * * * * * * * * * * * 20 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 1. 9 65 0 * * * * * * * * * * * 13 A re a U rb an 2. 3 10 13 * * * * * * * * * * * 23 R ur al 3. 6 26 65 19 .4 33 .5 2. 6 9. 6 16 .8 14 .3 0 1. 4 0. 4 73 .1 66 .7 97 A ge (m on th s) 0- 11 2. 4 66 8 * * * * * * * * * * * 16 12 -2 3 3 75 9 * * * * * * * * * * * 23 24 -3 5 3. 8 79 2 (1 3. 4) (2 0. 8) (3 .9 ) (1 3. 4) (1 5. 3) (1 8. 9) (0 ) (3 .2 ) (0 ) (6 2. 8) (7 6. 2) 30 36 -4 7 3. 4 76 4 (2 7. 3) (2 4. 2) (0 ) (5 .) (1 5. ) (5 .4 ) (0 ) (1 .6 ) (0 ) (6 4. 4) (5 5. 4) 26 48 -5 9 3. 7 69 5 (1 2. 2) (3 4. 8) (0 ) (9 .9 ) (2 0. 1) (2 0. 5) (0 ) (0 ) (0 ) (6 8. 5) (7 2. 1) 26 92 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .7 : C ar e se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia a nd a nt ib io tic u se d ur in g su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia ** P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ith s us pe ct ed s us pe ct ed in th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho w er e ta ke n to a h ea lth p ro vi de r a nd p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n w ho w er e gi ve n an tib io tic s, V ie t N am , 20 11 H ad su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia in th e la st tw o w ee ks N um be r of ch ild re n ag ed 0- 59 m on th s C hi ld re n w ith s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia w ho w er e ta ke n to : A ny ap pr op ria te pr ov id er 1§ P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia w ho re ce iv ed an tib io tic s in th e la st tw o w ee ks 2 N um be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 0- 59 m on th s w ith s us pe ct ed pn eu m on ia in th e la st tw o w ee ks Pu bl ic s ou rc es Pr iv at e so ur ce s Gov. hospital Commune health centre Village health worker Private hospital/ clinic Private physician Private pharmacy Other private facility Relative/ Friend Traditional practitioner M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e 2. 6 20 7 * * * * * * * * * * * 5 P rim ar y 3. 4 65 8 * * * * * * * * * * * 23 lo w er S ec on da ry 3. 9 14 79 18 .2 34 .1 0 14 13 .7 10 0 0 0. 6 72 .6 63 .1 57 U pp er S ec on da ry 2. 9 67 0 * * * * * * * * * * * 19 Te rti ar y 2. 4 66 4 * * * * * * * * * * * 16 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 4 83 1 (2 .3 ) (5 2. 7) (0 ) (5 .3 ) (7 .7 ) (1 6. 5) (0 ) (0 ) (0 ) (6 7. 9) (4 3. 7) 33 S ec on d 3. 7 67 3 (2 4. 9) (3 2. 7) (0 ) (3 .6 ) (2 1. 4) (2 1. 7) (2 .) (5 .6 ) (0 ) (6 7. 4) (5 3. 7) 25 M id dl e 3 70 0 * * * * * * * * * * * 21 Fo ur th 3. 9 74 9 (1 7. 6) (1 0. 9) (0 ) (2 2. 7) (2 4. 6) (1 4. 8) (0 ) (0 ) (1 .2 ) (6 8. 4) (9 0. 2) 29 R ic he st 1. 7 72 5 * * * * * * * * * * * 12 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 3. 4 31 43 18 .3 26 .5 2. 4 14 .5 17 .2 14 .4 0. 5 0. 9 0. 3 72 .1 67 10 8 E th ni c M in or iti es 2. 3 53 5 * * * * * * * * * * * 12 To ta l 3. 3 36 78 20 .1 29 .8 2. 1 13 .3 15 .8 15 .2 0. 4 1. 1 0. 3 73 68 .3 12 0 1 M IC S in di ca to r 3 .9 ; 2 M IC S in di ca to r 3 .1 0 § T hi s in di ca to r i nc lu de s th e fo llo w in g: G ov er nm en t h os pi ta l, C om m un e he al th c en tre , V ill ag e he al th w or ke r, pr iv at e ho sp ita l/c lin ic , p riv at e ph ar m ac y, a nd o th er p riv at e fa ci lit ie s N ot e: Fi gu re s de no te d by a n as te ris k a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 4 un -w ei gh te d ca se s an d le ss Fi gu re s sh ow n in p ar en th es is a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 5- 49 u n- w ei gh te d ca se s 93VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CH.7 presents results on prevalence of presumed pneumonia, whether care was sought outside the home, and the site of care. Some 3.3 per cent of children aged 0–59 months were reported to have had symptoms of pneumonia during the two weeks preceding the survey. Of these children, 73 per cent were taken to an appropriate health care provider, and 68.3 per cent received antibiotics for presumed pneumonia. The number of observations is small and makes it difficult to further conclude about the differences by background characteristics. Details about the mother’s/caregiver’s knowledge of the danger signs of pneumonia are presented in Table CH.8. The mother’s/caregiver’s knowledge is an important determinant for care-seeking behaviour. Overall, only 5 per cent of mothers/caregivers recognised the two danger signs of pneumonia – fast and difficult breathing. The most commonly identified symptom for taking a child to a health facility is when the child develops a fever (87.1 per cent). Only 10.6 per cent of mothers/caregivers identified fast breathing and 29.1 per cent of mothers/caregivers identified difficult breathing as symptoms for taking children immediately to a health care provider. Although knowledge about the two danger signs of pneumonia is generally low in Viet Nam, there is some indication that the mother’s/ caregiver’s education is a factor. In addition, more mothers/caregivers in the Red River delta know about the two danger signs (8.9 per cent), compared to 0.1 per cent in the Mekong River delta and 2.8 per cent in the Central Highlands. 94 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .8 : K no w le dg e of th e tw o da ng er s ig ns o f p ne um on ia P er ce nt ag e of m ot he rs a nd c ar eg iv er s of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s by s ym pt om s th at w ou ld c au se th em to ta ke th e ch ild im m ed ia te ly to a h ea lth fa ci lit y, a nd p er ce nt ag e of m ot he rs w ho re co gn is e fa st a nd d iffi cu lt br ea th in g as s ig ns fo r s ee ki ng c ar e im m ed ia te ly , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f m ot he rs /c ar eg iv er s of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ho th in k th at a c hi ld sh ou ld b e ta ke n im m ed ia te ly to a h ea lth fa ci lit y if th e ch ild : M ot he rs / c ar eg iv er s w ho re co gn is e th e tw o da ng er s ig ns o f pn eu m on ia N um be r o f m ot he rs / ca re gi ve rs o f ch ild re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s Is n ot a bl e to d rin k or br ea st fe ed b ec om es si ck er D ev el op s a fe ve r H as fa st br ea th in g H as di ffi cu lty br ea th in g H as bl oo d in st oo l Is dr in ki ng po or ly H as o th er sy m pt om s R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 14 .8 38 .3 90 .4 13 .8 38 .8 14 8. 4 41 .7 8. 9 65 4 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 10 .7 43 .1 84 .2 11 .1 25 .3 10 .4 5. 4 25 .4 4. 7 58 9 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 14 .9 38 .5 90 .4 12 .1 36 .1 8. 7 5. 3 22 .2 7. 4 61 4 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 10 .1 36 .6 79 .5 10 .1 22 .2 6. 7 9. 7 23 .4 2. 8 19 5 S ou th E as t 10 .1 23 .5 86 .1 9 22 .1 5. 4 7. 2 41 3. 7 51 3 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 6. 4 21 .9 86 .2 6. 6 22 .6 1. 5 2. 4 30 .8 0. 1 55 2 A re a U rb an 12 .1 29 .8 88 .7 11 30 .7 9. 2 7. 6 35 .1 5. 9 88 6 R ur al 11 .3 35 .4 86 .4 10 .5 28 .4 7. 8 5. 4 30 .2 4. 6 22 32 M ot he r's e du ca tio n N on e 12 .2 38 .6 75 .1 5. 4 27 .4 8. 2 4. 8 16 .2 1 14 6 P rim ar y 7. 3 31 .5 83 .2 9. 1 24 4. 1 4. 4 28 .1 2. 1 52 4 lo w er S ec on da ry 10 .4 35 .4 87 .1 8. 9 27 .8 7. 3 5 31 .1 4 12 52 U pp er S ec on da ry 16 .8 35 .1 90 .5 16 32 .7 10 .1 8. 1 35 .4 9. 9 60 1 Te rti ar y 12 29 .9 90 .1 11 .6 33 11 .7 7. 8 35 .5 5. 7 59 4 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 12 .3 38 .8 83 .4 9. 8 28 7. 5 3. 4 20 .7 2. 9 64 5 S ec on d 9. 8 31 .4 86 .6 9. 3 28 .5 4. 2 4. 5 32 .3 5. 2 57 9 M id dl e 9. 4 33 .7 88 .8 11 .4 28 .1 7. 1 7. 7 32 .1 5. 2 61 0 Fo ur th 12 .9 36 .8 88 .1 12 .3 28 .9 10 .8 7. 2 36 .5 6. 6 64 9 R ic he st 12 .9 27 .9 88 .6 10 .4 31 .9 10 .8 7. 3 36 .4 5. 2 63 3 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 11 .2 32 .4 88 .1 10 .3 29 .9 8. 1 6. 6 32 .8 5. 3 27 43 E th ni c M in or iti es 13 .3 42 .2 80 .7 12 .5 24 .2 8. 7 2. 7 24 .2 3. 4 37 5 To ta l 11 .5 33 .8 87 .1 10 .6 29 .1 8. 2 6 31 .6 5 31 18 95VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Solid Fuel Use More than 3 billion people around the world rely on solid fuels (biomass and coal) for their basic energy needs, including cooking and heating. Cooking and heating with solid fuels leads to high levels of indoor smoke, a complex mix of health-damaging pollutants. The main problem with the use of solid fuels is products of incomplete combustion, including carbon monoxide (CO), polyaromatic hydrocarbons, sulphur dioxide (SO2) and other toxic elements. Use of solid fuels increases the risks of acute respiratory illness, pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cancer, and possibly tuberculosis, low birth weight, cataracts and asthma. The primary monitoring indicator is the proportion of the household population using solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy for cooking. Results presented here are calculated for the population living in households, and therefore represent the percentage of the population exposed to various types of fuels, not percentage of households. 96 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .9 : S ol id fu el u se P er ce nt ag e di st rib ut io n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to ty pe o f c oo ki ng fu el u se d by th e ho us eh ol d, a nd p er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n liv in g in h ou se ho ld s us in g so lid fu el s fo r co ok in g, V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n in h ou se ho ld s us in g: N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs E le ct ric ity li qu efi ed P et ro le um G as (l P G ) N at ur al G as b io ga s K er os en e So lid fu el s O th er fu el N o fo od co ok ed in th e ho us eh ol d To ta l S ol id fu el s fo r co ok in g1 C oa l, lig ni te C ha r- co al W oo d S tra w , sh ru bs , gr as s A gr ic ul tu ra l cr op re si du e R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 0. 7 59 .9 0. 3 1. 3 0 9. 3 1. 4 9. 6 16 .7 0. 6 0. 1 0. 1 10 0 37 .6 92 61 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 0. 7 27 .5 0. 1 1. 6 0 1 0. 4 66 .8 1. 5 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0 69 .8 72 42 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al ar ea 0. 3 45 .2 0. 1 1. 1 0. 4 0. 7 4. 1 44 .4 3. 2 0. 1 0 0 10 0 52 .5 94 43 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 1 49 .1 0. 2 0. 4 0 0. 1 1. 4 47 .6 0 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0 49 .1 25 51 S ou th E as t 0. 4 81 .2 0. 2 0. 4 1. 6 0. 1 0. 7 13 .9 0 0 1. 2 1. 2 10 0 14 .6 70 66 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 0. 5 42 0. 1 0. 5 0. 7 0. 1 2. 5 51 .7 0. 2 0. 7 0. 4 0. 4 10 0 55 .2 84 34 A re a U rb an 0. 6 80 .7 0 0. 2 0. 9 3. 7 1. 1 11 .5 0. 6 0 0. 6 0. 6 10 0 16 .9 13 00 3 R ur al 0. 5 38 .2 0. 2 1. 3 0. 3 1. 7 2. 2 48 .4 6. 1 0. 4 0. 2 0. 2 10 0 58 .9 30 99 5 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d N on e 0. 5 21 .9 0. 1 0 0. 8 1. 3 4. 4 67 .6 2. 9 0 0. 5 0. 5 10 0 76 .3 26 51 P rim ar y 0. 5 35 .2 0. 1 0. 5 0. 7 0. 8 2. 9 53 .4 4. 7 0. 4 0. 3 0. 3 10 0 62 .3 11 33 1 lo w er S ec on da ry 0. 5 49 0. 3 1. 4 0. 3 3 1. 6 37 .1 6 0. 3 0. 3 0. 3 10 0 47 .8 17 45 2 U pp er S ec on da ry 0. 6 65 .5 0 1. 6 0. 5 3. 6 1. 4 22 .1 3. 8 0. 3 0. 3 0. 3 10 0 31 .1 72 22 Te rti ar y 0. 7 85 0. 1 0. 3 0. 2 2. 1 0. 1 10 0. 7 0. 3 0. 5 0. 5 10 0 13 .2 51 90 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 0. 1 1. 5 0 0. 3 0. 2 0. 1 2. 2 89 .5 5. 4 0. 2 0. 2 0. 2 10 0 97 .4 88 03 S ec on d 0. 9 16 .4 0. 1 1. 1 0. 4 1. 5 3. 7 64 .2 10 .5 0. 5 0. 3 0. 3 10 0 80 .3 87 96 M id dl e 0. 8 52 .7 0. 5 2. 1 1. 1 3. 8 2. 2 29 .2 5. 8 0. 8 0. 5 0. 5 10 0 41 .7 87 98 Fo ur th 0. 8 85 .9 0. 1 1. 4 0. 4 4. 5 1. 1 4. 4 0. 8 0 0. 6 0. 6 10 0 10 .8 87 97 R ic he st 0. 2 97 .4 0 0 0. 3 1. 7 0. 3 0 0 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0 2 88 03 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 0. 6 56 .5 0. 2 1 0. 5 2. 6 2. 1 30 .5 5. 1 0. 3 0. 4 0. 3 10 0 40 .5 38 67 5 E th ni c M in or iti es 0. 4 9. 2 0 0. 6 0. 1 0. 3 0. 7 88 .3 0. 3 0 0 0. 1 10 0 89 .5 53 23 To ta l 0. 6 50 .8 0. 2 1 0. 5 2. 3 1. 9 37 .5 4. 5 0. 3 0. 3 0. 3 10 0 46 .4 43 99 8 1 M IC S in di ca to r 3 .1 1 97VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Overall, close to half (46.4 per cent) of all households in Viet Nam use solid fuels for cooking. Use of solid fuels is lower in urban areas (16.9 per cent) than in rural areas where 58.9 per cent of the household population uses solid fuels. The most important differentials are with respect to household living standards and the educational level of the household head. About 76.3 per cent of the population in households with uneducated household heads rely on solid fuels compared to only 13.2 per cent among the population in which household heads have tertiary education. The findings show that the use of solid fuels is rare among the richest households (2 per cent) and very common among the poorest (97.4 per cent). The reverse is found in relation to the use of liquefied petroleum gas, used by 97.4 per cent of the richest, but only 1.5 per cent of the poorest households .Table CH.9 clearly shows that the overall percentage of the population relying on solid fuels is high due to the high use of wood for cooking purposes. Clear disparities are also revealed by ethnicity, with ethnic minority households being twice as likely to use solid fuels for cooking than Kinh/Hoa households. Solid fuel use alone is a poor proxy indicator for indoor air pollution, since the concentration of the pollutants varies when the same fuel is burnt in different stoves or ovens. Use of closed stoves with chimneys minimises indoor pollution, while open stoves or fires with no chimney or hood mean that there is no protection from the harmful effects of solid fuels. Solid fuel use by place of cooking is depicted in Table CH.10. Among the population in households using solid fuels about 63 per cent use a separate building as place for cooking, and 15.9 per cent use a separate room as kitchen. Some 18.9 per cent cook elsewhere in the house and only 1.9 per cent cook outdoors. Cooking elsewhere in the house among households using solid fuels is negatively correlated with the education level of the household head and household living standards. For example, 33.6 per cent of the population in households where the head is uneducated cook elsewhere in the house compared to 8.4 per cent in households where the head has tertiary education. A higher prevalence of outdoor cooking is observed among richest households (23.8 per cent) and in the South East (10.3 per cent), compared to 1.9 per cent overall. 98 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CH.10: Solid fuel use by place of cooking Percentage distribution of household members in households using solid fuels by place of cooking, Viet Nam, 2011 Place of cooking: Number of household members in households using solid fuels for cooking In a separate room used as kitchen Elsewhere in the house In a separate building Outdoors At another place Total Region Red River Delta 6.8 1.7 87.7 3.4 0.4 100 3480 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 12.9 21.8 64.8 0.3 0.1 100 5056 North Central area and Central Coastal area 21 11.8 65.5 1.6 0 100 4953 Central Highlands 20.2 29.5 48.5 1.5 0 100 1253 South East 20.6 14.4 53.7 10.3 0 100 1035 Mekong River Delta 18.6 34.3 45.8 1.2 0.1 100 4659 Area Urban 19.2 18.3 54.9 7.3 0.3 100 2192 Rural 15.5 19 63.9 1.3 0.1 100 18244 Education of household head None 20.8 33.6 42.7 2.5 0 100 2023 Primary 18.2 24.5 54.9 2.2 0.1 100 7059 lower Secondary 13.6 14.2 70.6 1.3 0.2 100 8342 Upper Secondary 14.4 9 73.7 2.3 0 100 2250 Tertiary 9.3 8.4 78.6 3.4 0.3 100 684 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 15.4 27.8 55 1.5 0.2 100 8571 Second 15 14.4 69 1.5 0 100 7067 Middle 18.1 10 69.5 2.1 0 100 3671 Fourth 17.3 9.6 67.1 5.2 0.8 100 954 Richest 23 1.8 51.4 23.8 0 100 173 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 15.6 14.6 67.2 2.4 0.1 100 15671 Ethnic Minorities 17.2 33.2 49.1 0.4 0.1 100 4764 Total 15.9 18.9 63 1.9 0.1 100 20435 Malaria Malaria contributes to anaemia in children and is a common cause of school absenteeism. Preventive measures, especially the use of insecticide treated mosquito nets (ITNs), can dramatically reduce malaria mortality rates among children. In areas where malaria is common, international recommendations suggest treating any fever in children as if it were malaria and immediately giving the child a full course of recommended anti-malarial tablets. Children with severe malaria symptoms, such as fever or convulsions, should be taken to a health facility. Also, children recovering from malaria should be given extra liquids and food and, for younger children, should continue to be breastfed. Viet Nam is considered a low malaria prevalence country with considerable achievements in malaria prevention. The National Malaria Control Programme aims to reduce mortality and morbidity caused by malaria. 99VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CH.11: Household availability of insecticide treated nets and protection by a vector control method Percentage of households with at least one mosquito net, percentage of households with at least one long-lasting treated net, percentage of households with at least one insecticide treated net (ITN) and percentage of households which either have at least one ITN or have received spraying through an indoor residual spraying (IRS) campaign in the last 12 months, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of households with at least one mosquito net Percentage of households with at least one long- lasting treated net Percentage of households with at least one ITN1 Percentage of households with at least one ITN or received IRS during the last 12 months2 Number of households Region Red River Delta 98.5 0.1 6.1 24 2601 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 98.9 0.9 16.7 28.5 1836 North Central area and Central Coastal area 98.5 0.2 10.5 25.4 2522 Central Highlands 97.9 1.1 22.8 28.8 604 South East 79.8 0.7 5 22 1873 Mekong River Delta 98.6 0.1 6.4 24.4 2178 Area Urban 88 0.1 4.4 27.4 3454 Rural 98.7 0.5 11.6 24 8160 Education of household head None 94.3 1.2 13.5 28 691 Primary 97 0.7 10.5 24.6 2919 lower Secondary 96.4 0.3 9.6 23.6 4568 Upper Secondary 94 0.2 7.7 25.5 1904 Tertiary 92.4 0.3 7.4 28.3 1504 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 98.5 1.3 16.8 26.2 2329 Second 99.7 0.2 9.2 20.7 2368 Middle 97.9 0.1 8.7 22.6 2406 Fourth 94.3 0.4 7.1 23.6 2326 Richest 86.6 0.1 5.3 32.7 2186 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 95.3 0.2 7.4 23.7 10436 Ethnic Minorities 97.4 1.9 27.7 36.7 1178 Total 95.5 0.4 9.5 25 11614 1 MICS indicator 3.12, 2 MICS indicator 3.13 The Viet Nam MICS 2011 questionnaire incorporates questions on the availability and use of bed nets, both at the household level, among children under 5 years of age, and among pregnant women. It also includes anti-malarial treatment, intermittent preventive therapy for malaria, and indoor residual spraying of households. The survey results indicate that almost all households in Viet Nam have at least one mosquito net (Table CH.11). On the other hand, long-lasting treated nets are almost non-existent (0.4 per cent). Insecticide treated nets (ITN) include long-lasting treated nets, pre-treated nets obtained within the past 12 months and other nets treated in the previous 12 months. Other types of mosquito nets are considered untreated. Some 9.5 per cent of households have at least one ITN. The percentage is higher in malaria prone regions, such as the Northern Midland and Mountain areas (16.7 per cent) and the Central Highlands (22.8 per cent). Prevalence of households with at least one ITN is higher among those headed by ethnic minorities (27.7 per cent), which is evidence of the Government’s policy to distribute ITNs among ethnic minority people. Mosquito net and ITN use is higher in rural compared to urban areas, and 100 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN in poorer compared to richer households. This is attributable to the fact that households in urban areas and better off households have other methods to prevent mosquito-borne malaria transmission, such as good sanitation facilities and use of air-conditioners. About 25 per cent of all households are protected by a vector control method, with at least one ITN or indoor residual spraying in the 12 months preceding the survey. Table CH.12: Children sleeping under mosquito nets Percentage of children aged 0-59 months who slept under a mosquito net during the previous night, by type of net, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of children aged 0-59 who stayed in the household the previous night Number of children aged 0-59 months Percentage of children who: Number of children aged 0-59 months who slept in the household the previous night Percentage of children who slept under an ITN living in households with at least one ITN Number of children aged 0-59 living in households with at least one ITN Slept under any mosquito net1 Slept under ITN2 Sex Male 97.5 1869 94.2 10.2 1821 86.9 214 Female 96.5 1809 94.6 8.6 1747 88.4 170 Region Red River Delta 96.2 798 97.9 5.5 768 (100) 42 Northen Midland and Mountain areas 96.8 707 96.5 16.8 684 79 146 North Central area and Central Coastal area 98.1 719 97.6 9 705 91.6 69 Central Highlands 98 233 95.6 21 228 85.8 56 South East 97.7 572 78.6 5.2 559 (94.5) 30 Mekong River Delta 96 650 97.8 6.3 624 (95.9) 41 Area Urban 97.6 1013 86.6 4.1 988 (91.9) 44 Rural 96.8 2665 97.4 11.5 2580 87 340 Age (months) 0-11 97.5 668 94.9 10 651 87 75 12-23 96.4 759 94.9 9.5 732 82.5 85 24-35 97.4 792 94.9 9.9 771 92.5 82 36-47 97.1 764 94.1 10.1 742 89.2 84 48-59 96.7 695 93 7.6 672 86.4 59 Mother's education None 95.8 207 87.6 16.4 198 (70.2) 46 Primary 97.3 658 95.4 10.3 640 88.2 75 lower Secondary 97.3 1479 96.2 9.4 1438 88.9 152 Upper Secondary 97.7 670 94.1 9.1 654 95.5 63 Tertiary 95.9 664 91.7 6.8 637 (88.7) 49 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 96.9 831 95.6 15.9 805 79.3 162 Second 97.5 673 99.2 8.1 656 89.5 59 Middle 96.5 700 97.7 10.4 676 97.2 73 Fourth 96.9 749 96 6.6 726 (97.7) 49 Richest 97.2 725 83.8 5.1 705 (88.2) 41 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 97 3143 94.6 6.9 3048 93.7 226 Ethnic Minorities 97.3 535 93.5 24 520 78.8 158 Total 97 3678 94.4 9.4 3568 87.6 384 1 MICS indicator 3.14 2 MICS indicator 3.15; MDG indicator 6.7 Note: Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases 101VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The survey results indicate that 94.4 per cent of children under the age of 5 slept under some type of mosquito net the night prior to the survey and only 9.4 per cent slept under an insecticide treated net (Table CH.12). A higher percentage of children sleep under ITNs in poorer households and in rural areas. Having a mother with low or no education or living in an ethnic minority household is associated with a higher likelihood of sleeping under ITNs. Here too the living standards pattern mentioned above explains why children in disadvantaged households have higher ITN use rates. Overall, some 87.6 per cent of children slept under an ITN in the households that have such nets. This means that 12.4 per cent of children under age 5 did not sleep under an ITN even though the household had at least one of these nets. Table CH.13: Pregnant women sleeping under mosquito nets Percentage of pregnant women who slept under a mosquito net during the previous night, by type of net, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of pregnant women who stayed in the household the previous night Number of pregnant women Percentage of pregnant women who: Number of pregnant women who slept in the household the previous night Percentage of pregnant women who slept under an ITN, living in households with at least one ITN Number of pregnant women living in households with at least one ITN Slept under any mosquito net Slept under ITN1 Region Red River Delta 98 68 100 4.9 67 * 5 Northen Midland and Mountain areas 97.8 76 98 10.6 74 * 14 North Central area and Central Coastal area 94.3 91 98.4 23.2 86 * 22 Central Highlands * 24 * * 24 * 7 South East 94.8 70 73.6 3 66 * 3 Mekong River Delta 95.9 60 97.7 4.2 58 * 2 Area Urban 97.3 119 87.5 4 116 * 5 Rural 95.7 271 97 14.6 259 (78.3) 48 Age group 15-19 94.5 54 98.1 20.2 51 * 15 20-24 96.2 147 94.1 8.6 142 * 17 25-29 95.2 106 93.1 9.9 101 * 10 30-34 98.3 64 94.7 10.9 63 * 7 35-39 * 16 * * 16 * 1 40-44 * 2 * * 2 * 2 45-49 * 1 * * 1 * 0 Women’s education None * 7 * * 7 * 2 Primary 98.3 50 (95.4) (16.8) 49 * 13 lower Secondary 97.2 145 92.8 9.6 141 * 19 Upper Secondary 95.3 102 97.5 12.5 98 * 12 Tertiary 94.2 85 90.9 7.8 80 * 6 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 97.3 83 97.5 16 81 * 18 Second 96 69 100 16.4 66 * 14 Middle 95.9 61 97.8 11.2 58 * 9 Fourth 94.9 92 90.9 9.1 87 * 9 Richest 97 85 86.7 5 82 * 4 Ethnicity of household head ` Kinh/Hoa 95.8 334 93.8 9 320 (82.7) 35 Ethnic Minorities 98.5 56 95.5 24.9 55 * 18 Total 96.2 390 94.1 11.3 375 80.2 53 1 MICS indicator 3.19 Note: Figures denoted by an asterisk are based on denominators of 24 un-weighted cases and less Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases 102 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CH.13 presents the proportion of pregnant women who slept under a mosquito net or ITN during the previous night. Some 94.1 per cent of pregnant women slept under any mosquito net the night prior to the survey but only 11.3 per cent slept under an ITN. Questions on the prevalence and treatment of fever were asked for all children under age 5. About 16.4 per cent of children under 5 years of age were ill with fever in the two weeks prior to the survey (Table CH.14). Fever prevalence peaked at the age group 12–23 months (20.1 per cent) and declined with age. Fever is less commonly reported among children from the Central Highlands (8.6 per cent) compared to those from the North Central area and Central Coastal area (21.7 per cent). 103VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .1 4: A nt i-m al ar ia l t re at m en t o f c hi ld re n w ith a nt i-m al ar ia l d ru gs P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ho h ad fe ve r i n th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho re ce iv ed a nt i-m al ar ia l d ru gs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 H ad a fe ve r in th e la st tw o w ee ks N um be r of ch ild re n ag ed 0- 59 m on th s A nt i-m al ar ia ls : O th er m ed ic at io ns : P er ce nt ag e w ho to ok a n an ti- m al ar ia l dr ug th e sa m e or ne xt d ay 2 N um be r of ch ild re n w ith fe ve r i n la st tw o w ee ks C hl or o- qu in e Q ui ni ne s ul ph at e ,A C T, Q ui ni ne di hy dr oc hl or at eD ih yd ro - ar te m is in in -P ip er aq ui ne , P rim aq ui ne O th er an ti- m al ar ia l A ny an ti- m al ar ia l dr ug 1 A nt i -b io tic pi ll or sy ru p A nt i -b io tic in je ct io n P ar ac et - am ol / P an ad ol / A ce ta m in - op he n A sp iri n Ib up ro fe n O th er M is si ng / D K Se x M al e 17 .4 1, 86 9 0. 4 0. 4 0. 5 1. 2 23 .7 7. 4 47 .4 1. 9 0. 7 22 .7 10 .1 1. 1 32 5 Fe m al e 15 .3 1, 80 9 0. 7 0. 6 0. 2 1. 2 23 .7 5. 2 38 .6 2. 3 0. 7 27 .2 8. 7 0. 7 27 7 R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 14 .8 79 8 0 0 0 0 15 .8 8. 5 28 3. 4 0 24 .8 3. 2 0 11 8 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 16 .8 70 7 0 0 0 0 36 .5 8. 5 28 .3 3. 4 0 34 .2 1. 5 0 11 9 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 21 .7 71 9 0. 9 0 0. 5 1. 3 21 .1 6. 9 57 .8 1 1. 1 13 .3 6. 4 0. 5 15 6 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 8. 6 23 3 * * * * * * * * * * * * 20 S ou th E as t 19 .3 57 2 1. 2 2. 7 0. 8 3. 6 23 .5 3. 4 47 .9 1. 7 2. 3 29 .1 17 .8 3. 2 11 0 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 12 .3 65 0 0. 8 0 0 0. 8 20 3. 5 51 .9 0. 8 0 28 .3 26 .8 0. 8 80 A re a U rb an 15 .5 1, 01 3 1. 3 1. 3 0. 5 2. 5 26 .2 4. 3 46 .1 1. 1 1 27 .9 8. 3 1. 4 15 7 R ur al 16 .7 2, 66 5 0. 3 0. 2 0. 3 0. 7 22 .8 7. 1 42 .4 2. 4 0. 6 23 .7 9. 9 0. 7 44 5 A ge (m on th s) 0- 11 14 .6 66 8 0 0 1. 5 1. 5 16 .5 1. 3 38 .7 0 1. 8 26 .2 4. 1 1. 5 98 12 -2 3 20 .1 75 9 0 0. 6 0 0. 3 26 .2 11 .3 40 .4 3 0. 6 28 .4 7. 8 0. 3 15 3 24 -3 5 18 .4 79 2 0 0. 3 0 0. 3 21 .7 6 42 .3 1. 1 0. 4 26 .8 13 0 14 6 36 -4 7 14 .2 76 4 1. 8 1. 4 0 2. 5 29 .3 3. 9 45 .9 3. 6 1 17 .4 10 .9 1. 3 10 8 48 -5 9 14 .1 69 5 1. 3 0 0. 7 2. 1 23 .6 7. 1 51 .4 2. 4 0 22 .8 10 .5 2. 1 98 M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e 19 .5 20 7 (0 ) (0 ) (0 ) (0 ) (2 1. 1) (1 0. 4) (5 3. 7) (0 ) (0 ) (1 6. 9) (8 .3 ) (0 ) 40 P rim ar y 16 .6 65 8 1. 2 0 0. 5 1. 7 25 .3 2. 3 40 .6 1. 4 0 25 .2 12 .3 0. 5 10 9 lo w er S ec on da ry 17 .7 1, 47 9 0. 8 1 0. 6 1. 9 22 .6 7. 9 41 .4 2. 6 1 24 .3 12 .3 1. 9 26 1 U pp er S ec on da ry 13 .9 67 0 0 0 0 0 25 .7 6. 4 47 .3 0. 2 0 15 .8 7. 5 0 93 Te rti ar y 14 .9 66 4 0 0. 5 0 0. 5 24 5. 2 43 .7 4 1. 8 37 .1 1. 2 0 99 104 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C H .1 4: A nt i-m al ar ia l t re at m en t o f c hi ld re n w ith a nt i-m al ar ia l d ru gs P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -5 9 m on th s w ho h ad fe ve r i n th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho re ce iv ed a nt i-m al ar ia l d ru gs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 H ad a fe ve r in th e la st tw o w ee ks N um be r of ch ild re n ag ed 0- 59 m on th s N um be r of ch ild re n w ith fe ve r i n la st tw o w ee ks A nt i-m al ar ia ls : O th er m ed ic at io ns : P er ce nt ag e w ho to ok a n an ti- m al ar ia l dr ug th e sa m e or ne xt d ay 2 C hl or o- qu in e Q ui ni ne s ul ph at e ,A C T, Q ui ni ne di hy dr oc hl or at eD ih yd ro - ar te m is in in -P ip er aq ui ne , P rim aq ui ne O th er an ti- m al ar ia l A ny an ti- m al ar ia l dr ug 1 A nt i -b io tic pi ll or sy ru p A nt i -b io tic in je ct io n P ar ac et - am ol / P an ad ol / A ce ta m in - op he n A sp iri n Ib up ro fe n O th er M is si ng / D K W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 18 .8 83 1 0 0. 6 0 0. 3 25 .9 10 .9 37 1 0 21 .6 8. 9 0. 3 15 6 S ec on d 15 .3 67 3 1. 3 0 0. 5 1. 8 23 .6 3. 3 55 .3 1. 6 0 27 .3 9. 1 0. 5 10 3 M id dl e 16 .6 70 0 0 0 0. 6 0. 6 22 .3 8. 1 37 .3 0. 7 0 21 .1 14 0. 6 11 6 Fo ur th 16 74 9 1. 1 1. 3 0 1. 8 21 .8 5. 2 42 .7 2. 4 1. 5 30 10 .8 1. 8 12 0 R ic he st 14 .9 72 5 0. 6 0. 4 0. 8 1. 9 24 .1 2. 3 48 .5 5. 3 2. 4 25 .2 4. 3 1. 4 10 8 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 16 .4 3, 14 3 0. 6 0. 4 0. 4 1. 3 21 .7 5. 8 44 .4 2. 4 0. 8 25 .1 10 .4 1 51 7 E th ni c M in or iti es 16 53 5 0 1. 2 0 0. 6 35 .7 9. 9 37 .3 0 0 23 .2 3. 8 0. 6 86 To ta l 16 .4 3, 67 8 0. 5 0. 5 0. 4 1. 2 23 .7 6. 4 43 .4 2. 1 0. 7 24 .8 9. 5 0. 9 60 2 1 M IC S in di ca to r 3 .1 8; M D G in di ca to r 6 .8 ; 2 M IC S in di ca to r 3 .1 7 N ot e: Fi gu re s de no te d by a n as te ris k a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 4 un -w ei gh te d ca se s an d le ss Fi gu re s sh ow n in p ar en th es is a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 5- 49 u n- w ei gh te d ca se s 105VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Overall, the use of “appropriate”17 anti-malarial drugs for children with fever is very low in Viet Nam, at 1.2 per cent. The majority of children are given other medications, including anti-pyretics such as paracetamol, panadol, acetaminophen, or antibiotic drugs. Because of the overall low rate of anti-malarial drug use, the percentage of children with fever who received anti-malarial drugs the same or next day is also low, barely 1 per cent. Since Viet Nam is a low prevalence country for malaria, it is normal that anti-malarials are not given for any fever, except in areas where the disease remains endemic. Table CH.15: Malaria diagnostics usage Percentage of children aged 0–59 months who had a fever in the last two weeks and who had a finger or heel stick for malaria testing, Viet Nam, 2011 Had a finger or heel stick1 Number of children aged 0-59 months with fever in the last two weeks Region Red River Delta 4.6 798 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 6.7 707 North Central area and Central Coastal area 12.5 719 Central Highlands 13.4 233 South East 15.1 572 Mekong River Delta 15.7 650 Area Urban 12.3 1013 Rural 10.2 2665 Mother’s education None 4.7 207 Primary 12.9 658 lower Secondary 7.9 1479 Upper Secondary 13.1 670 Tertiary 16.1 664 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 8.4 831 Second 9.2 673 Middle 12 700 Fourth 13.5 749 Richest 11.1 725 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 11 3143 Ethnic Minorities 9.4 535 Total 10.7 3678 1 MICS indicator 3.16 Table CH.15 provides the proportion of children aged 0–59 months who had a fever in the last two weeks and who had a finger or heel stick for malaria testing. Only 10.7 per cent of children with a fever in the last two weeks had a finger or heel stick. The regions with the lowest rates of children with fever who had a finger or heel stick are the Red River delta and Northern Midland and Mountain areas, with 4.6 and 6.7 per cent respectively. The percentages increase gradually from North to Central to South. lower percentages are also observed among children with uneducated mothers (4.7 per cent) and those living in the poorest households (8.4 per cent). 17 “Appropriate” anti-malarial drugs include: chloroquine, quinine sulphate, artemisinin based combinations therapy (ACT), quinine dihydrochlorate, dihydro-artemisinin-piperaquine, artesunate, or primaquine. 106 107VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VII. WATER, SANITATION ANd HyGIENE 108 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Safe drinking water and hygienic sanitation are basic necessities for good health. Unsafe drinking water and unhygienic sanitation can be significant carriers of diseases such as trachoma, diarrhoea, cholera, typhoid, and schistosomiasis (a parasitic disease). drinking water can also be tainted with chemical, physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to its association with disease, access to drinking water and secured sanitation facilities is particularly important for women and children, especially in rural areas, who bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, often for long distances, and who are the most vulnerable in using un-secured sanitation facilities. The MdG goal is to reduce by half, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. The World Fit for Children goal calls for a reduction in the proportion of households without access to hygienic sanitation facilities and affordable and safe drinking water by at least one-third. The indicators used in Viet Nam MICS 2011 are as follows: Water ● Use of improved drinking water sources ● Use of adequate water treatment method ● Time to source of drinking water ● Person collecting drinking water Sanitation ● Use of improved sanitation facilities ● Sanitary disposal of child’s faeces Hygiene ● Place for handwashing ● Availability of soap For more details on water and sanitation and to access some reference documents, please visit the UNICEF childinfo website http://www.childinfo.org/wes.html. Use of Improved Water Sources The distribution of the population in Viet Nam by source of drinking water is shown in Table WS.1 and Figure WS.1. The population using improved sources of drinking water are those using any of the following types of supply: piped water (into dwelling, compound, yard or plot, public tap/standpipe), tube well/borehole, protected well, protected spring, and rainwater collection. Bottled water is considered as an improved water source only if the household population is using an improved water source for other purposes, such as hand- washing and cooking. 109VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e W S. 1: U se o f i m pr ov ed w at er s ou rc es P er ce nt ag e di st rib ut io n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to m ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er a nd p er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n us in g im pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 M ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er To ta l P er ce nt ag e us in g im pr ov ed so ur ce s of dr in ki ng w at er 1 N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Im pr ov ed s ou rc es U ni m pr ov ed s ou rc es Pi pe d w at er Tube-well/ bore- hole Protected well Protected spring Rain-water collection bottled Water § Unprotected well Unprotected spring Tanker truck, cart with tank/ drum Surface water bottled water§ Other Into dwelling Into yard/ plot To neighbour Public tap/ stand-pipe R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 23 .7 3. 9 0. 3 0 25 .9 6 0. 1 34 .6 4. 5 0. 8 0. 1 0. 1 0 0. 1 0 10 0 99 92 61 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 9 3. 4 0. 1 0. 2 18 .3 33 .8 11 .9 2 1. 9 5. 1 5. 7 0 7 0. 1 1. 3 10 0 80 .7 72 42 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 23 .1 0. 8 1. 2 0. 1 22 .5 27 .1 1. 2 8. 9 5 7. 6 1 0. 2 0. 2 1. 1 0 10 0 89 .8 94 43 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 12 .6 1. 1 0. 2 0. 1 3. 7 52 .8 4. 2 1. 6 9. 9 10 .1 2. 8 0 0. 2 0. 7 0. 1 10 0 86 .1 25 51 S ou th E as t 33 .3 0. 7 0. 5 0. 1 21 .8 11 .9 0 1 29 .1 0. 5 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 6 0. 1 10 0 98 .4 70 66 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 17 .2 2. 5 0. 4 0. 1 8. 2 0. 7 0 43 .6 20 .2 0. 6 0 0 5. 1 1. 1 0. 1 10 0 93 .1 84 34 A re a U rb an 50 .7 3. 2 0. 7 0. 2 8. 9 7. 3 0. 5 7. 9 18 .9 0. 9 0. 3 0. 1 0. 1 0. 2 0 10 0 98 .4 13 00 3 R ur al 8. 3 1. 8 0. 4 0. 1 22 .6 22 .2 3. 3 22 .4 8. 3 4. 5 1. 8 0. 1 3. 1 0. 8 0. 3 10 0 89 .4 30 99 5 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d§ § N on e 14 .3 1. 8 0. 9 0. 4 13 .5 18 .8 6. 3 19 .8 6. 3 6. 6 4. 2 0 5. 2 0. 8 1. 1 10 0 82 .1 26 51 P rim ar y 14 .5 2. 4 0. 7 0. 1 16 18 .7 3. 9 20 .8 11 .4 4. 4 2. 2 0. 2 3. 6 0. 9 0. 2 10 0 88 .6 11 33 1 lo w er S ec on da ry 16 2. 2 0. 3 0. 1 22 .8 20 .6 1. 9 19 10 .3 3. 3 1. 1 0. 1 1. 6 0. 6 0. 2 10 0 93 .1 17 45 2 U pp er S ec on da ry 27 .7 1. 9 0. 4 0 16 .8 15 .1 1. 7 16 .5 14 .5 2. 7 0. 4 0. 1 1. 3 0. 7 0. 3 10 0 94 .5 72 22 Te rti ar y 43 .9 2. 7 0. 6 0 15 .3 9. 6 0. 8 11 13 .8 1 0. 5 0 0. 7 0. 1 0. 1 10 0 97 .7 51 90 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 2 1. 6 0. 6 0. 2 14 .2 28 .2 10 .5 17 1 9. 8 6. 3 0. 3 7. 1 0. 2 0. 9 10 0 75 .4 88 03 S ec on d 7. 9 2. 2 0. 9 0 24 .1 26 .3 1. 3 25 .1 3. 8 4. 6 0. 3 0. 1 2. 6 0. 8 0. 2 10 0 91 .5 87 96 M id dl e 10 .8 2. 6 0. 3 0. 2 23 .5 19 .6 0. 5 24 .3 13 .9 1. 9 0. 1 0 1. 2 0. 9 0. 2 10 0 95 .6 87 98 Fo ur th 22 .3 2. 9 0. 5 0. 1 21 .6 10 .8 0. 1 18 22 .2 0. 6 0. 1 0 0. 1 0. 8 0 10 0 98 .4 87 97 R ic he st 61 1. 8 0. 1 0 9. 5 4 0 6. 5 16 .4 0. 2 0 0. 1 0 0. 4 0 10 0 99 .3 88 03 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 23 .3 2. 4 0. 5 0. 1 19 .9 16 .2 0. 5 19 .7 12 .6 2. 5 0. 2 0. 2 1. 2 0. 7 0. 1 10 0 95 .3 38 67 5 E th ni c M in or iti es 3 1 0. 1 0. 2 9 28 .8 16 .9 6. 6 2. 9 10 .3 10 .1 0 9. 4 0. 1 1. 7 10 0 68 .4 53 23 To ta l 20 .8 2. 2 0. 5 0. 1 18 .6 17 .8 2. 5 18 .2 11 .5 3. 4 1. 4 0. 1 2. 2 0. 6 0. 3 10 0 92 43 99 8 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .1 ; M D G in di ca to r 7 .8 § H ou se ho ld s us in g bo ttl ed w at er a s th e m ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er a re c la ss ifi ed in to im pr ov ed o r u ni m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er u se rs a cc or di ng to th e w at er s ou rc e us ed fo r o th er p ur po se s su ch as c oo ki ng a nd h an dw as hi ng . §§ 15 1 ca se s w ith m is si ng e du ca tio n of h ou se ho ld h ea d no t s ho w n 110 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Overall, 92 per cent of the population use an improved source of drinking water – 98.4 per cent in urban areas and 89.4 per cent in rural areas. The situation in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas, where 80.7 per cent of the population get their drinking water from an improved source, is slightly worse than in other regions. In contrast, 17.8 per cent of the population in this region are using unimproved sources, including unprotected springs, unprotected wells or surface water. The percentage of the population using improved sources of drinking water shows a wide differential of 27 percentage points between the populations living in Kinh/Hoa households and those living in ethinic minority households. As shown in table WS.1, the source of drinking water used varies strongly by living standards, area, region, as well as by education and ethnicity of household head. In the South East, 34.6 per cent of the population use drinking water that is piped into their dwelling, into their yard or plot, to their neighbour or via a public tap/standpipe. This region shows the highest percentage of the population using piped water sources, followed by the Red River delta and the North Central area and Central Coastal area, where 27.9 and 25.2 per cent, respectively, use a piped water source. In contrast, only 12.7 per cent of the population in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas and 14 per cent of the population in the Central Highlands use a piped water source. As expected, the highest differential for piped water into dwelling emerges by living standards, with 2 per cent of the population in the poorest housdeholds using piped water sources, compared with 61 percent in the richest households. A similar differential is observed between urban and rural areas, standing at 50.7 and 8.3 per cent respectively. People living in the Mekong River delta and the Red River Delta are the most likely to be using rain water collection among the six regions, at 43.6 and 34.6 per cent, respectively. In both regions, rain water also represents the most popular source of drinking water, higher than piped water into dwellings. More than half of the population in the Central Highlands use protected wells as their main source of drinking water (52.8 per cent). The same water source is used by one third of the population living in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas (33.8 per cent). Ethnic minorities represent the highest proportion of the population using surface water (river, stream, pond), at 9.4 per cent. Closely related, 7 per cent of the population in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas, where the ethnic minority population is concentrated, use surface water. With 31.6 and 19.3 per cent respectively, people living in ethnic minority households and in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas represent the highest proportion of the population using unimproved drinking water sources. 111VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Figure WS.1: Percentage distribution of population by source of drinking water, Viet Nam, 2011 Use of in-house water treatment by key background characteristics is presented in Table WS.2. Households were asked about how they treat water at home to make it safer to drink such as boiling, adding bleach or chlorine, using a water filter, and using solar disinfection. These are considered proper treatment methods of drinking water. The table shows water treatment methods used in all households and the percentage of household members living in households using unimproved water sources but using appropriate water treatment methods. No treatment, straining through a cloth, and letting it stand and settle are considered inappropriate water treatment methods. Boiling is the most common method used by households for treatment of drinking water. 84 per cent of the population boil the water before drinking. The largest differential in the practice of boiling water is observed between the Red River delta with 98 per cent, and the Mekong River delta with 60.9 per cent. The differences in water boiling by other background characteristics are negligible. The use of water filters is higher in urban areas, among households where the heads have higher education levels and among the better off. As many as 89.6 per cent of household members in households using unimproved drinking water sources are using an appropriate water treatment method. 112 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e W S. 2: H ou se ho ld w at er tr ea tm en t P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n by d rin ki ng w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d us ed in th e ho us eh ol d, a nd fo r h ou se ho ld m em be rs li vi ng in h ou se ho ld s w he re a n un im pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc e is us ed , t he p er ce nt ag e w ho a re u si ng a n ap pr op ria te tr ea tm en t m et ho d, V ie t N am , 2 01 1 W at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d us ed in th e ho us eh ol d N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld m em be rs in h ou se ho ld s us in g un im pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es a nd u si ng a n ap pr op ria te w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d1 N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in h ou se ho ld s us in g un im pr ov ed dr in ki ng w at er s ou rc es N on e b oi l A dd bl ea ch / ch lo rin e S tra in th ro ug h a cl ot h U se w at er fil te r S ol ar d is - in fe ct io n le t i t st an d an d se ttl e O th er R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 1. 4 98 0. 8 0. 6 30 .7 0. 1 7. 4 3 92 61 * 96 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 1. 7 97 .7 0. 3 0. 2 13 .1 0 2. 1 1. 8 72 42 96 .6 13 96 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 6. 9 91 .3 1. 1 0. 8 16 .1 0. 3 4. 4 1. 4 94 43 86 .2 96 2 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 14 .2 85 .5 0. 7 0 7. 1 0 0. 9 2. 6 25 51 80 .3 35 5 S ou th E as t 28 .6 68 .6 0 0. 7 21 .3 0. 3 3. 5 2 70 66 (6 8. 7) 11 0 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 25 .8 60 .9 6. 1 8. 1 4. 4 0. 2 25 .5 1. 1 84 34 86 .7 58 4 A re a U rb an 15 .8 81 0. 6 1. 6 21 .4 0. 1 5. 5 2. 7 13 00 3 91 .1 21 2 R ur al 11 85 .2 2. 1 2. 1 14 .8 0. 2 9. 6 1. 6 30 99 5 89 .6 32 91 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d§ N on e 17 .9 76 1. 6 2. 6 6. 1 0 9. 2 0. 9 26 51 83 .2 47 6 P rim ar y 16 .2 77 .5 2. 6 3. 6 10 .8 0. 1 11 .4 1. 3 11 33 1 89 .6 12 97 lo w er S ec on da ry 10 .2 87 .1 1. 5 1. 7 18 .4 0 7. 8 1. 7 17 45 2 91 .9 12 01 U pp er S ec on da ry 11 .8 86 .4 1. 2 0. 7 19 .7 0. 4 6. 9 2 72 22 87 .5 39 6 Te rti ar y 9. 7 88 .2 1 0. 9 25 .2 0. 4 4. 9 4. 2 51 90 (1 00 ) 12 1 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 8. 5 86 .6 2. 6 2. 7 5. 1 0. 1 10 .2 0. 7 88 03 92 .2 21 61 S ec on d 9. 1 85 .8 2. 7 3. 1 12 .2 0. 1 12 .5 1. 1 87 96 91 .7 74 9 M id dl e 15 .3 82 1. 9 2. 2 15 .6 0. 3 8. 1 1. 9 87 98 85 .2 38 5 Fo ur th 17 .7 79 .1 0. 8 1. 2 20 .1 0. 3 7. 3 2. 4 87 97 (7 2. 7) 14 5 R ic he st 11 .5 86 .3 0. 3 0. 8 30 .7 0. 1 3. 7 3. 4 88 03 * 62 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 12 .8 83 .4 1. 8 2. 1 18 .5 0. 2 8. 8 2 38 67 5 88 18 19 E th ni c M in or iti es 9. 4 88 .1 0. 4 1. 4 4. 2 0 5 0. 8 53 23 91 .4 16 84 To ta l 12 .4 84 1. 7 2 16 .7 0. 2 8. 4 1. 9 43 99 8 89 .6 35 02 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .2 § 1 51 c as es w ith m is si ng e du ca tio n of h ou se ho ld h ea d no t s ho w n N ot e: Fi gu re s de no te d by a n as te ris k ar e ba se d on d en om in at or s of 2 4 un -w ei gh te d ca se s an d le ss Fi gu re s sh ow n in p ar en th es is a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 5- 49 u n- w ei gh te d ca se s; 113VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The amount of time it takes to obtain water is presented in Table WS.3. Note that these results refer to one round-trip from home to the drinking water source. Information on the number of trips made in one day was not collected. Table WS.3 shows that 94.6 per cent of the population have the drinking water source on their premises. Of these, 89.5 per cent have an improved and 5.1 per cent an unimproved water source on their premises. The Red River delta and the South East regions display the highest coverage (above 98 per cent), meaning that virtually all people living in those regions have a water source on their premises. Rather than geography, ethnicity of the household head displays the widest differential. As such, 96.8 per cent of people living in Kinh/Hoa households have drinking water on their premises, compared with 79.4 per cent of people living in ethnic minority households. Among the 5.2 per cent of the popluation without a water source on their premises, 4.6 per cent needed less than 30 minutes to go to a source, get water and return, and less than 1 per cent needed 30 minutes or more. Table WS.3: Time to source of drinking water Percentage distribution of household population according to time to go to source of drinking water, get water and return, for users of improved and unimproved drinking water sources, Viet Nam, 2011 Time to source of drinking water Users of improved drinking water sources Users of unimproved drinking water sources Number of household members Water on premises less than 30 minutes 30 minutes or more Water on premises less than 30 minutes 30 minutes or more Total Region Red River Delta 97.3 1.6 0 0.8 0.1 0 100 9261 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 76.8 3.6 0.2 12.9 6 0.4 100 7242 North Central area and Central Coastal area 86.8 2.8 0.1 7 2.3 0.8 100 9443 Central Highlands 79.3 4.7 1.9 9.4 2.8 1.6 100 2551 South East 97.2 1.1 0.1 1.1 0.2 0.1 100 7066 Mekong River Delta 91.4 1.3 0.1 3.2 3.6 0.1 100 8434 Area Urban 97.1 1.2 0 1.3 0.2 0 100 13003 Rural 86.3 2.7 0.3 6.7 3.3 0.5 100 30995 Education of household head§ None 75.1 5.4 1.3 8.8 8 1 100 2651 Primary 85.1 3 0.1 7.2 3.7 0.5 100 11331 lower Secondary 90.7 2.1 0.2 4.8 1.8 0.3 100 17452 Upper Secondary 93.4 1 0 4.1 0.9 0.4 100 7222 Tertiary 96.7 1 0 1.7 0.7 0 100 5190 Wealth index quintile Poorest 68.5 6.1 0.7 14.4 8.8 1.2 100 8803 Second 88.5 2.5 0.1 6.2 2.2 0 100 8796 Middle 94.1 1.5 0 3.5 0.7 0.2 100 8798 Fourth 97.3 0.9 0.1 1.3 0.2 0.2 100 8797 Richest 99 0.2 0 0.2 0.1 0.3 100 8803 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 93.5 1.6 0.1 3.3 1.2 0.2 100 38675 Ethnic Minorities 60.5 6.7 1.1 18.9 11.2 1.6 100 5323 Total 89.5 2.2 0.2 5.1 2.4 0.4 100 43998 §151 cases with missing education of household head not shown 114 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Information about the person who usually collects water in Viet Nam is shown in Table WS.4. In the majority of households without a drinking water source on premises, an adult woman is usually the person collecting the water. An adult woman is twice as likely to be collecting water than adult men (65 versus 30.2 per cent). In Viet Nam it is uncommon for boys or girls under 15 years of age to collect water. This is practiced in only 2.4 per cent of households, of which 1.8 per cent by girls and 0.6 per cent by boys. Table WS.4: Person collecting water Percentage of households without drinking water on the premises, and percentage distribution of households without drinking water on the premises according to the person usually collecting drinking water used by the household, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of households without drinking water on premises Number of households Person usually collecting drinking water Number of households without drinking water on premises Adult woman Adult man Female child under age 15 Male child under age 15 Missing/ DK Total Region Red River Delta 2.1 2601 74.3 25.7 0 0 0 100 54 Northern Midlands and Mountain area 9.2 1836 71.4 24.3 2.7 0 1.6 100 168 North Central and Central Coastal area 5.6 2522 69.6 26.2 2.4 1.1 0.7 100 141 Central Highlands 10.5 604 66.3 28.3 2.2 0.9 2.3 100 63 South East 1.7 1873 (45.5) (45.8) (0) (2.4) (6.3) (100) 33 Mekong River Delta 5.4 2178 50.6 42.3 1.1 0.4 5.5 100 118 Area Urban 1.6 3454 64.2 25.7 0.8 0.9 8.3 100 54 Rural 6.4 8160 65 30.7 1.9 0.5 1.7 100 523 Education of household head None 14.7 691 67.8 28.4 2.9 0 0.9 100 102 Primary 6.9 2919 61.8 31.6 1.4 0.8 4.4 100 203 lower Secondary 4.4 4568 70.7 25 2.2 0.6 1.4 100 202 Upper Secondary 2.4 1904 (50.8) (45.9) (0) (1.3) (2) (100) 46 Tertiary 1.6 1504 * * * * * * 24 Wealth index quintile Poorest 15.5 2329 70.8 26.2 2 0.9 0.1 100 360 Second 5.1 2368 58.1 34.2 1.7 0 5.9 100 120 Middle 2.3 2406 57 37.9 0 0 5.1 100 55 Fourth 1.2 2326 (48.6) (46.6) (4.8) (0) (0) (100) 29 Richest 0.6 2186 * * * * * * 14 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 3.2 10436 57.4 37.2 1 0.7 3.7 100 334 Ethnic Minorities 20.7 1178 75.3 20.7 3 0.5 0.5 100 244 Total 5 11614 65 30.2 1.8 0.6 2.4 100 577 Note: Figures denoted by an asterisk are based on denominators of 24 un-weighted cases and less Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases Use of Improved Sanitation Facilities Inadequate disposal of human excreta and personal hygiene are associated with a range of diseases including diarrhoeal diseases and polio. An improved sanitation facility is defined as one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. Improved sanitation can reduce diarrhoeal disease and can significantly lessen the adverse health 115VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN impacts of other disorders responsible for death and disease among children. Improved sanitation facilities for excreta disposal include flush or pour flush toilets flowing to a piped sewer system, septic tank, or latrine; ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with slab, and composting toilet. About 78 per cent of the population of Viet Nam live in households using improved sanitation facilities (Table WS.5). This percentage increases to 93.8 per cent in urban areas and decreases to 71.4 per cent in rural areas. People living in the Mekong River delta are considerably less likely than residents in any of the other five regions to use improved sanitation facilities, with only 44.3 per cent of the population in the Mekong River delta using such facilities, compared, for example, with 97.4 per cent in the Red River delta. The use of improved sanitation facilities is strongly correlated with living standards, education of household head and area of residence. For example, the likelihood of using improved sanitation facilities more than doubles from 42 per cent in the poorest households to 99.9 per cent in the wealthiest households. This pattern is mainly attributable to the availability of flush/pour flush toilets in the richest households. Both in urban and in rural areas, people predominantly use flush (septic tank) toilets, with as many as 81.1 per cent of the urban population using such facilities. However, despite it being the most common type of sanitation facility used, septic tank toilets are only used by 38.6 per cent of the rural population. In contrast, more than 28.6 per cent of the rural population use unimproved sanitation facilities, with as many as 8.6 per cent practicing open defecation. The practice of open defecation is more prevalent among people living in ethnic minority households (27.7 per cent), in households with uneducated heads (26.9 per cent) and in poor households (22.9 per cent). 116 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e W S. 5: U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s P er ce nt ag e di st rib ut io n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to ty pe o f t oi le t f ac ili ty u se d by th e ho us eh ol d, a nd th e pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n us in g im pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s, V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ty pe o f t oi le t f ac ili ty u se d by h ou se ho ld To ta l P er ce nt ag e of p op ul at io n us in g im pr ov ed sa ni ta tio n fa ci lit ie s N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Im pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit y U ni m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit y O pe n de fe ca tio n (n o fa ci lit y, bu sh , fi el d) Fl us h/ po ur fl us h to : Ventilated improved pit latrine Pit latrine with slab Compos-ting toilet Flush/ pour flush to somewhere else Pit latrine without slab/ open pit bucket Hanging toilet/ hanging latrine Other Piped sewer system Septic tank Pit latrine Unknown place/not sure/ DK where R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 3. 1 65 .4 3. 4 0 0 8. 5 17 0. 3 1. 3 0 0. 1 0. 6 0. 3 10 0 97 .4 92 61 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 1. 6 23 .5 1. 7 0. 1 1. 3 19 .9 28 .2 0. 7 7. 8 0. 2 0. 2 0. 1 14 .8 10 0 76 .3 72 42 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 0. 4 48 .3 4. 9 0 0. 1 15 .6 12 .9 0. 2 7. 5 0 1 0 9 10 0 82 .2 94 43 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 0. 8 39 .6 10 .3 0 0. 3 12 .5 5 0. 5 12 0 0. 1 0. 5 18 .2 10 0 68 .5 25 51 S ou th E as t 2. 8 79 .3 6. 4 1. 1 1. 4 1. 4 0. 1 0. 5 4. 1 0 0. 7 0. 2 2 10 0 92 .5 70 66 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 1. 1 42 .2 0. 8 0 0 0 0 1. 1 0 0. 3 50 .7 0. 7 2. 9 10 0 44 .3 84 34 A re a U rb an 3. 9 81 .1 3. 1 0. 4 0. 7 2. 4 2. 1 0. 6 1. 1 0. 1 3. 2 0. 1 1. 1 10 0 93 .8 13 00 3 R ur al 0. 8 38 .6 4. 1 0. 1 0. 4 12 .3 15 .2 0. 5 6 0. 1 13 0. 5 8. 6 10 0 71 .4 30 99 5 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d§ N on e 1. 1 26 .7 2. 5 0. 3 0. 4 7. 1 9 0. 6 8. 1 0. 4 16 .4 0. 7 26 .9 10 0 47 26 51 P rim ar y 1 36 .2 3. 3 0. 2 0. 5 9. 1 11 .4 0. 6 6. 6 0 20 .9 0. 5 9. 7 10 0 61 .7 11 33 1 lo w er S ec on da ry 1. 3 49 .6 4. 1 0. 1 0. 5 12 .1 15 .3 0. 5 4. 1 0. 1 7. 3 0. 3 4. 7 10 0 82 .9 17 45 2 U pp er S ec on da ry 2. 7 67 .1 4. 6 0. 2 0. 2 7. 7 8 0. 5 3. 2 0. 1 3. 5 0. 3 1. 8 10 0 90 .5 72 22 Te rti ar y 3. 7 79 .5 3. 8 0. 5 0. 7 3. 9 3. 8 0. 5 1. 4 0. 1 1. 5 0 0. 6 10 0 95 .9 51 90 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 0. 6 2. 6 1. 4 0 0. 7 16 .2 20 .5 0. 2 14 .5 0. 2 19 .8 0. 5 22 .9 10 0 42 88 03 S ec on d 0. 6 18 .4 6. 3 0. 1 0. 4 18 .7 21 .5 0. 7 5. 3 0. 2 20 .8 0. 8 6. 2 10 0 66 87 96 M id dl e 1. 6 52 .3 6. 1 0. 4 0. 7 10 .7 12 .7 0. 9 2. 7 0. 1 8. 8 0. 5 2. 5 10 0 84 .5 87 98 Fo ur th 3 87 .6 3. 5 0. 2 0. 5 1. 2 1. 8 0. 7 0. 2 0 1. 1 0 0. 2 10 0 97 .7 87 97 R ic he st 2. 7 94 .9 1. 8 0. 3 0. 1 0 0 0. 1 0 0 0 0. 1 0 10 0 99 .9 88 03 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 1. 8 56 .7 4 0. 2 0. 3 8. 7 10 .5 0. 5 2. 9 0. 1 10 .5 0. 4 3. 4 10 0 82 .2 38 67 5 E th ni c M in or iti es 1. 1 10 .9 2. 5 0. 1 1. 7 14 .3 17 .4 0. 8 16 .1 0. 2 6. 9 0. 3 27 .7 10 0 48 53 23 To ta l 1. 7 51 .2 3. 8 0. 2 0. 5 9. 4 11 .3 0. 5 4. 5 0. 1 10 .1 0. 4 6. 4 10 0 78 43 99 8 § 1 51 c as es w ith m is si ng e du ca tio n of h ou se ho ld h ea d no t s ho w n N ot e: Ta bl e ca lc ul at es th e in di ca to r ( us e of im pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s) ir re sp ec tiv e of w he th er o r n ot th e fa ci lit y is s ha re d. 117VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN MDGs and the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation classify households as using an unimproved sanitation facility if they are using otherwise acceptable sanitation facilities but sharing a facility between two or more households or using a public toilet facility. As shown in Table WS.6, 73.8 per cent of the population is using an improved sanitation facility that is not shared. The use of shared sanitation facilities is low (below 5 per cent) among both groups of households, i.e. those using improved and those using unimproved sanitation facilities. One in four households in the Mekong River delta use a shared sanitation facility, the majority of which are unimproved (19.7 per cent). The information on the household population using improved sanitation facilities which are not shared shows considerable disparities by living standards, education of the household head, ethnicity and area of residence. For example, people living in the wealthiest households are almost three times more likely to use an improved sanitation facility that is not shared compared with people living in the poorest households (98.5 per cent versus 38.4 per cent). Similarly, the likelihood of using improved sanitation facilities which are not shared is twice as high in households where the head has tertiary education than in households with a head with no education (92 per cent versus 43.1 per cent). A slightly lesser yet still noticeable difference emerges for Kinh/Hoa versus ethnic minority households (77.9 per cent versus 44.2 per cent). 118 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table WS.6: Shared use of sanitation facilities Percentage distribution of household population by use of private and public sanitation facilities and use of shared facilities, by users of improved and unimproved sanitation facilities, Viet Nam, 2011 Users of improved sanitation facilities Users of unimproved sanitation facilities Open defe- cation (no facility, bush, field) Total Number of household members Not shared¹ Public facility Shared by Not shared Public facility Shared by 2 households or more 2 households or more Region Red River Delta 91.6 0.6 5.3 2.2 0 0.1 0.3 100 9261 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 71.5 0.5 4.3 8.3 0 0.6 14.8 100 7242 North Central area and Central Coast area 79.1 0.1 3 8.3 0.1 0.4 9 100 9443 Central Highlands 65.5 0 3 11.9 0 1.3 18.2 100 2551 South East 87.5 0.9 4 4.5 0.2 0.9 2 100 7066 Mekong River Delta 41.4 0.1 2.8 30 3.1 19.7 2.9 100 8434 Area Urban 88.9 0.6 4.3 3.2 0.2 1.7 1.1 100 13003 Rural 67.5 0.3 3.6 13.9 0.8 5.3 8.6 100 30995 Education of household head§ None 43.1 0.4 3.6 15.6 2.3 8.3 26.9 100 2651 Primary 57.2 0.3 4.1 18.2 1.5 8.9 9.7 100 11331 lower Secondary 78.4 0.3 4.1 9.3 0.2 2.8 4.7 100 17452 Upper Secondary 86.8 0.4 3.3 6.2 0.2 1.3 1.8 100 7222 Tertiary 92 0.7 3.2 3.1 0.1 0.4 0.6 100 5190 Wealth index quintile Poorest 38.4 0.2 3.4 24.5 1.1 9.5 22.9 100 8803 Second 60.3 0.1 5.6 18.5 1.6 7.7 6.2 100 8796 Middle 77.8 0.8 5.8 9 0.6 3.4 2.5 100 8798 Fourth 94.1 0.7 3 1.6 0 0.4 0.2 100 8797 Richest 98.5 0.1 1.3 0.1 0 0 0 100 8803 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 77.9 0.4 3.9 9.6 0.7 4.1 3.4 100 38675 Ethnic Minorities 44.2 0.5 3.2 19.1 0.4 4.8 27.7 100 5323 Total 73.8 0.4 3.8 10.8 0.7 4.2 6.4 100 43998 ¹MICS indicator 4.3; MDG indicator 7.9 §151 cases with missing education of household head not shown The place of disposal of faeces of children aged 0–2 years is presented in Table WS.7. The disposal of child’s faeces is considered safe if the child is using a toilet or if the stool is rinsed into a toilet or latrine. For 61.1 per cent of Vietnamese children aged 0–2 years the stools were disposed of safely the last time the child defecated. This percentage is higher in urban than in rural areas (81.6 versus 53 per cent). The largest differential for safe disposal of childrens’ faeces is observed by mother’s education: it is as low as 15.6 per cent when mothers have no education, progressively increases to 38.2 per cent when mothers have primary education and reaches 82 per cent when mothers have tertiary education. Wide disparities in the practice of safe disposal of childrens’ faeces emerge between Kinh/Hoa and ethnic minority households (68.5 versus 21.5 per cent). In the Red River delta and the South East regions, safe disposal of stools is practiced for almost 78 per cent of children aged 0–2 years. This percentage decreases to 39 per cent for children living in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas. 119VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN by place of disposal, the most common practice is to put/rinse a child’s faeces into a toilet or latrine. This practice is considered to be safe, and was observed for 58 per cent of children aged 0–2 years. The other disposal method that is considered to be safe, notably the child using the toilet/latrine, has limited practice in Viet Nam, at only 3 per cent. The most common unsafe practice of disposing of children’s faeces is putting/rinsing them into a drain or ditch (12.1 per cent), followed by leaving them in the open (10.4 per cent). Almost one in every two ethnic minority children have their faeces disposed by leaving them in the open. differences in the safety of disposing of child faeces are observed by the type of sanitation facility available in the household. The most common disposal method in households with improved sanitation facilities is putting/rinsing the child’s stool into the toilet or latrine, which is a safe practice, standing at almost 70 per cent. Meanwhile, the most common disposal method in households with unimproved sanitation facilities is putting/rinsing the child’s stool into a drain or ditch, which is an unsafe practice, standing at 46 per cent. Table WS.7: Disposal of child's faeces Percentage distribution of children aged 0–2 years according to place of disposal of child's faeces, and the percentage of children aged 0–2 years whose stools were disposed of safely the last time the child passed stools,Viet Nam, 2011 Place of disposal of child's faeces Percentage of children whose stools were disposed of safely1 Number of children aged 0–2 years Child used toilet/ latrine Put/ rinsed into toilet, latrine Put/ rinsed into drain, ditch Thrown into garbage buried left in the open Other Missing/ DK Total Type of sanitation facility in dwelling Improved 3.5 69.7 4.7 9 1 5.4 6.2 0.5 100 73.2 1706 Unimproved 2 27.9 46 2.8 1.6 15.3 4.1 0.3 100 29.8 343 Open defecation 0 2 17.9 2.3 17.3 51.2 9.3 0 100 2 170 Region Red River Delta 3.6 74.4 5.2 7.1 0.6 0.3 8.4 0.5 100 77.9 496 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 1.8 37.2 5.8 5.6 0 32.1 16.7 0.7 100 39 440 North Central area and Central Coast area 2.2 59.8 12.5 8.3 5.9 9.7 1.3 0.2 100 62.1 423 Central Highlands 1.1 53.7 3.1 4.3 8 27.1 2.5 0.3 100 54.8 144 South East 4.4 73.3 1.9 13.5 3.2 1.3 2 0.3 100 77.7 339 Mekong River Delta 4.1 46.7 40.6 5.4 0.3 1.1 1.5 0.2 100 50.9 376 Area Urban 4 77.6 5 10.2 0.7 1.3 0.5 0.7 100 81.6 626 Rural 2.6 50.3 14.9 6.5 3 14 8.3 0.3 100 53 1594 Mother’s education None 2.1 13.5 19.6 0 2.3 61.5 1.1 0 100 15.6 110 Primary 3.8 34.3 24.2 5.5 6.5 17.7 7.7 0.2 100 38.2 367 lower Secondary 2.5 59.4 12.2 5.3 1.9 8.4 9.8 0.5 100 61.9 873 Upper Secondary 3.1 65.9 9.1 11.2 1.7 4.9 3.8 0.3 100 69 428 Tertiary 3.5 78.5 2.9 11.9 0.4 1.1 1.2 0.4 100 82 441 Wealth index quintile Poorest 1.5 25 21.1 3.4 4.6 33.5 10.9 0 100 26.5 495 Second 2 45.2 22.9 2.4 3.7 12.2 10.7 0.8 100 47.2 402 Middle 4 60.7 12.3 11.1 1.9 3.5 6.2 0.2 100 64.8 427 Fourth 2.2 79 4.1 9.3 1.4 0.4 3.1 0.5 100 81.2 434 Richest 5.3 82.5 0.3 11.5 0 0 0 0.5 100 87.7 462 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 3.3 65.2 11.9 8.5 2.3 3.4 5.1 0.3 100 68.5 1869 Ethnic Minorities 1.4 20 12.8 2.5 2.6 48 11.7 0.9 100 21.5 351 Total 3 58 12.1 7.5 2.3 10.4 6.1 0.4 100 61.1 2219 1 MICS indicator 4.4 120 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table WS.8 presents the percentages of the population using improved sources of drinking water and improved sanitation facilities, both separately and combined. Table WS.8: Use of improved water sources and improved sanitation facilities Percentage of household population using both improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation facilities, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of household population: Number of household members Using improved sources of drinking water1 Using improved sanitation facilities2 Using improved sources of drinking water and improved sanitation facilities Region Red River Delta 99 91.6 90.7 9261 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 80.7 71.5 62.6 7242 North Central area and Central Coastal area 89.8 79.1 73.1 9443 Central Highlands 86.1 65.5 59.5 2551 South East 98.4 87.5 86.5 7066 Mekong River Delta 93.1 41.4 40.2 8434 Area Urban 98.4 88.9 87.9 13003 Rural 89.4 67.5 62.7 30995 Education of household head§ None 82.1 43.1 37.5 2651 Primary 88.6 57.2 53.1 11331 lower Secondary 93.1 78.4 74.5 17452 Upper Secondary 94.5 86.8 83.5 7222 Tertiary 97.7 92 90.7 5190 Wealth index quintile Poorest 75.4 38.4 29.7 8803 Second 91.5 60.3 55.5 8796 Middle 95.6 77.8 75.2 8798 Fourth 98.4 94.1 92.6 8797 Richest 99.3 98.5 97.8 8803 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 95.3 77.9 75.5 38675 Ethnic Minorities 68.4 44.2 31.3 5323 Total 92 73.8 70.1 43998 1 MICS indicator 4.1; MDG indicator 7.8 2 MICS indicator 4.3; MDG indicator 7.9 §151 cases with missing education of household head not shown Note: Table calculates the indicator as only those improved sanitation facilities that are not shared The percentage of the population using both improved sources of drinking water and improved sanitation facilities is 70.1 per cent at the national level. large differences emerge by ethnicity, with 75.5 per cent of people living in Kinh/Hoa households using such facilities, compared with only 31.3 per cent of people living in ethnic minority households. Substantial disparities can also be observed by living standards, education of household head and regions. For example, people living in the poorest households are three times less likely to use both improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation facilities than people living in the wealthiest households (29.7 per cent versus 97.8 per cent). In the Mekong River delta, only 40.2 per cent of the population use improved sources of drinking water and improved sanitation facilities, while in the Red River Delta and the South East the percentage is relatively high, at around 90 per cent. 121VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Handwashing Handwashing with water and soap is the most cost-effective health intervention to reduce both the incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia in children under 5 years of age. It is most effective when done using water and soap after visiting a toilet or cleaning a child, before eating or handling food, and before feeding a child. Monitoring correct hand washing behaviour at these critical times is challenging. A reliable alternative to observations or self- reported behaviour is assessing the likelihood that correct hand washing behaviour takes place by observing if a household has a specific place where people most often wash their hands and if water and soap (or other local cleansing materials) are present at a specific place for handwashing. Table WS.9: Water and soap at place for handwashing Percentage of households where place for handwashing was observed and percentage distribution of households by availability of water and soap at place for handwashing, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of households where place for handwashing was observed Number of households Percent distribution of households where place for handwashing was observed, where: Total Number of households where place for handwashing was observed Water and soap are available1 Water is available, soap is not available Water is not available, soap is available Water and soap are not available Region Red River Delta 98.8 2601 92.8 6.8 0.3 0.1 100 2569 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 99.3 1836 81.4 18.1 0.2 0.3 100 1823 North Central area and Central Coastal area 97.8 2522 81.2 17.7 0.6 0.5 100 2466 Central Highlands 98.7 604 82.6 15.3 0.9 1.2 100 596 South East 96.4 1873 93.3 6.1 0.6 0.1 100 1806 Mekong River Delta 97 2178 85.1 14 0.7 0.2 100 2113 Area Urban 97.1 3454 93.4 6.1 0.5 0 100 3355 Rural 98.3 8160 83.7 15.4 0.5 0.4 100 8018 Education of household head§ None 95.7 691 68.1 30.3 0.4 1.1 100 661 Primary 97.6 2919 80.5 t18.3 0.6 0.6 100 2848 lower Secondary 98.3 4568 87.6 11.9 0.4 0.1 100 4489 Upper Secondary 98 1904 92.6 6.7 0.7 0 100 1865 Tertiary 98.5 1504 96 3.7 0.3 0 100 1481 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 98.1 2329 69.2 29.7 0.3 0.8 100 2285 Second 98.5 2368 84.3 14.8 0.7 0.2 100 2332 Middle 98.9 2406 88.5 10.8 0.5 0.3 100 2379 Fourth 96.9 2326 93.9 5.4 0.6 0.1 100 2254 Richest 97.1 2186 97.9 1.8 0.3 0 100 2122 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 97.9 10436 88.7 10.5 0.5 0.2 100 10216 Ethnic Minorities 98.2 1178 67.1 31.3 0.4 1.2 100 1157 Total 97.9 11614 86.6 12.6 0.5 0.3 100 11373 1MICS indicator 4.5 §29 cases with missing education of household head not shown In Viet Nam, a specific place for handwashing was observed in 97.9 per cent of all households (Table WS.9). In households where a place for handwashing was observed, 86.6 per cent had both water and soap present at the designated place. In 12.6 per cent of the households only water was available, while in 0.5 per cent of the households only soap but no water was available. The remaining 0.3 per cent of households had neither water 122 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN nor soap available at the handwashing place. The availability of water and soap is strongly correlated with education of the household head, ethnicity, as well as living standards. For example, the difference between the poorest and the second poorest households alone is about 15 per cent. This is largely attributable to the lack of soap in the poorer households, as well as in households with a less educated household head. Interesting disparities in the availability of soap also emerge by region, with as many as 18.1 per cent of households in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas lacking soap, compared to less than 7 per cent in the South East and the Red River delta. In 87 per cent of households with a handwashing place, soap was observed. In 8.5 per cent of households with a handwashing place, the soap was shown to the interviewer, and in 4.4 per cent there was no soap available (Table WS.10). Overall, 95.1 per cent of households had soap available somewhere in the dwelling. Households are less likely to have soap if the household head has no education and belongs to an ethnic minority, as well as if the household is poor and located in the Central Highlands. In all of these cases, the percentage drops below 90 per cent. Table WS.10: Availability of soap Percentage distribution of households by availability of soap in the dwelling, Viet Nam, 2011 Place for hand washing observed Place for hand washing not observed Total Percentage of households with soap somewhere in the dwelling1 Number of households Soap observed Soap not observed at place for hand washing Soap shown No soap in household Soap shown No soap in household Region Red River Delta 93.1 5.7 1.2 86 14 100 98.6 2601 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 81.6 12.7 5.7 90.6 9.4 100 94.3 1836 North Central area and Central Coastal area 81.8 9.9 8.3 73.2 26.8 100 91.3 2522 Central Highlands 83.5 5.7 10.8 38.5 61.5 100 88.5 604 South East 93.8 3.7 2.4 82.6 17.4 100 97 1873 Mekong River Delta 85.7 11.5 2.7 82 18 100 96.2 2178 Area Urban 93.9 4.5 1.6 93 7 100 98.1 3454 Rural 84.2 10.1 5.6 70.3 29.7 100 93.8 8160 Education of household head§ None 68.1 16.5 15 60.7 39.3 100 83.4 691 Primary 81 12 6.9 70.5 29.5 100 92.3 2919 lower Secondary 88 8.3 3.7 80.6 19.4 100 96 4568 Upper Secondary 93.3 5.1 1.6 96.8 3.2 100 98.3 1904 Tertiary 96.3 2.9 0.8 98.8 1.2 100 99.2 1504 Wealth index quintile Poorest 69.4 17.7 12.8 48.7 51.3 100 86.4 2329 Second 85 10.2 4.9 55.2 44.8 100 94.3 2368 Middle 89 8.2 2.8 84 16 100 96.9 2406 Fourth 94.5 4.2 1.3 94.8 5.2 100 98.5 2326 Richest 98.2 1.6 0.2 95.4 4.6 100 99.6 2186 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 89.3 7.2 3.5 77.7 16.8 100 96.1 10436 Ethnic Minorities 67.5 19.9 12.6 42.7 57.3 100 86.5 1178 Total 87 8.5 4.4 79.6 20.4 100 95.1 11614 1 MICS indicator 4.6 §28 cases with missing education of household head not shown 123VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIII. REPROdUCTIVE HEAlTH 124 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Fertility Management of fertility levels is important for supporting national population resources. data on fertility indicators are therefore necessary for informing the preparation of development plans and vision documents addressing current and future population needs. In the Viet Nam MICS 2011, adolescent birth rates and total fertility rates are calculated by using information on the date of last birth of each woman and are based on the one year period preceding the survey. Table RH.1 shows adolescent birth rate and total fertility rate in Viet Nam. The adolescent birth rate (age-specific fertility rate for women aged 15–19) is defined as the number of births to women aged 15–19 years during the one year period preceding the survey, divided by the average number of women aged 15–19 during the same period, expressed per 1,000 women. The adolescent birth rate is 46 in Viet Nam. It is higher in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas, among women with lower levels of education, in the poorer living standard quintiles, in the ethnic minority households and in rural areas. The findings show a strong correlation between the adolescent birth rate and the education level: for example, the adolescent birth rate is above 100 for women with no education, women with primary education and women with lower secondary education, and sharply drops to below 20 for upper secondary and tertiary levels of education. The total fertility rate (TFR) is obtained by summing the age-specific fertility rates calculated for each of the five-year age groups of women, from age 15 through to age 49. The TFR denotes the average number of children to which a woman will have given birth by the end of her reproductive years if current fertility rates prevail. The total fertility rate is 2 nationally and indicates differentials by all background characteristics included in Table RH.1. In the South East and the Mekong River Delta the TFR is lower by one child compared to the Northern Midland and Mountain areas. The total fertility rate is higher at the lower education levels and in the poorer quintiles. The adolescent birth rate and the TFR are higher in rural than in urban areas. 125VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table RH.1: Adolescent birth rate and total fertility rate Adolescent birth rates and total fertility rates, Viet Nam 2011 Adolescent birth rate 1 (Age-specific fertility rate for women aged 15–19) Total fertility rate Region Red River Delta 36 2.1 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 100 2.6 North Central area and Central Coastal area 38 2.0 Central Highlands 37 2.2 South East 29 1.5 Mekong River Delta 40 1.7 Area Urban 15 1.6 Rural 59 2.2 Education level None 126 2.9 Primary 171 2.8 lower Secondary 110 2.2 Upper Secondary 19 2.3 Tertiary 13 1.7 Wealth index quintile Poorest 95 2.5 Second 56 2.3 Middle 28 1.8 Fourth 39 1.7 Richest 15 1.8 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 37 1.9 Ethnic Minorities 99 2.6 Total 46 2 1 MICS indicator 5.1; MDG indicator 5.4 Sexual activity and childbearing early in life carry substantial risks for young people. Table RH.2 presents early childbearing indicators for women aged 15–19 and 20–24 while Table RH.3 presents the trends for early childbearing. As shown in Table RH.2, 4.6 per cent of women aged 15–19 have already had a birth, 2.9 per cent are pregnant with the first child, thus a total of 7.5 per cent of young women aged 15–19 have begun childbearing, although only 0.1 per cent have had a live birth before age 15. The percentage of women aged 20–24 years who have had a live birth before age 18 is 3. Regional patterns indicate that among women aged 20–24 years 10.1 per cent have had a live birth before age 18 in the Central Highlands, while in other regions only 5.8 per cent or less have had a live birth. There is a strong correlation with women’s education level, as the majority of early child births occur to uneducated or less-educated young women. The percentage is 10.9 for women aged 20–24 with primary education while no women with tertiary education have had a live birth before age 18. Early childbearing in the life of young women is higher among the poorer households (9.8 per cent among the poorest and 0.5 per cent among the richest households). 126 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table RH.2: Early childbearing Percentage of women aged 15–19 years who have had a live birth or who are pregnant with the first child and percentage of women aged 15–19 years who have begun childbearing, percentage of women who have had a live birth before age 15, and percentage of women aged 20–24 who have had a live birth before age 18, Viet Nam 2011 Percentage of women age 15–19 who: Number of women aged 15–19 Percentage of women aged 20–24 who have had a live birth before age 181 Number of women aged 20–24 Have had a live birth Are pregnant with first child Have begun childbearing Have had a live birth before age 15 Region Red River Delta 3.6 4 7.6 0 330 1.7 343 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 9.3 5.8 15.2 0 265 4.1 247 North Central area and Central Coastal area 2.9 2.7 5.6 0 427 1 289 Central Highlands 7.1 3.6 10.7 0.8 130 10.1 88 South East 2.3 0.8 3.1 0 275 0.6 329 Mekong River Delta 5 1 6.1 0 280 5.8 313 Area Urban 2.2 1.6 3.9 0 493 1.2 567 Rural 5.6 3.4 9 0.1 1214 3.9 1042 Women’s education None (23.3) (1.5) (24.8) (1.5) 29 (21.4) 46 Primary 20.4 11.1 31.5 0.8 69 10.9 129 lower Secondary 11.7 6.4 18.1 0 347 4.8 491 Upper Secondary 1.5 1.6 3.1 0 1110 0.1 422 Tertiary 0 1.2 1.2 0 151 0 520 Wealth index quintile Poorest 10.9 5.2 16.1 0.2 314 9.8 270 Second 5.3 2.7 8 0.1 369 2.5 270 Middle 2.5 2.2 4.7 0 361 2.7 344 Fourth 3.4 3.9 7.3 0 330 1 390 Richest 1.5 0.7 2.2 0 333 0.5 335 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 3.2 2.5 5.7 0 1465 2 1380 Ethnic Minorities 13.4 5.2 18.7 0.4 242 8.5 229 Total 4.6 2.9 7.5 0.1 1707 3 1608 1 MICS indicator 5.2 Note: Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25–49 un-weighted cases The overall childbearing before age 15 is low in Viet Nam (0.1 per cent). As expected the percentages are slightly higher in rural areas. Early childbearing before age 18 is more prevalent in the 35–39, 30–34 and 25–29 age groups of women, all groups indicating above 4 per cent, as shown in Table RH.3. 127VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e R H .3 : T re nd s in e ar ly c hi ld be ar in g P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ho h av e ha d a liv e bi rth , b y ag e 15 a nd 1 8, b y re si de nc e an d ag e gr ou p, V ie t N am 2 01 1 U rb an R ur al A ll P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a li ve bi rth b ef or e ag e 15 N um be r o f w om en P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a liv e bi rth b ef or e ag e 18 N um be r o f w om en P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a liv e bi rth b ef or e ag e 15 N um be r o f w om en P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a liv e bi rth b ef or e ag e 18 N um be r of w om en P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a liv e bi rth b ef or e ag e 15 N um be r of w om en P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a liv e bi rth b ef or e ag e 18 N um be r of w om en A ge 15 –1 9 0 49 3 na na 0. 1 1, 21 4 na na 0. 1 1, 70 7 na na 20 –2 4 0 56 7 1. 2 56 7 0. 3 1, 04 2 3. 9 1, 04 2 0. 2 1, 60 8 3 1, 60 8 25 –2 9 0. 4 57 2 1. 9 57 2 0. 5 1, 23 4 5. 1 1, 23 4 0. 4 1, 80 6 4. 1 1, 80 6 30 –3 4 0 55 8 2. 2 55 8 0. 2 1, 25 9 5. 6 1, 25 9 0. 1 1, 81 7 4. 6 1, 81 7 35 –3 9 0 50 2 3 50 2 0. 2 1, 15 4 5. 6 1, 15 4 0. 1 1, 65 7 4. 8 1, 65 7 40 –4 4 0 52 5 2. 6 52 5 0 1, 09 5 4 1, 09 5 0 1, 62 1 3. 5 1, 62 1 45 –4 9 0. 1 45 9 2. 5 45 9 0 98 8 3. 8 98 8 0 1, 44 8 3. 4 1, 44 8 To ta l 0. 1 36 76 2. 2 31 83 0. 2 7, 98 7 4. 7 6, 77 3 0. 1 11 ,6 63 3. 9 9, 95 6 128 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Contraception Appropriate family planning is important to the health of women and children by: 1) preventing pregnancies that are too early or too late; 2) extending the interval between births; and 3) limiting the number of children. Access by all couples to information and services to prevent pregnancies that are too early, too closely spaced, too late or too many is critical. Table RH.4 presents information on the use of various contraception methods by women aged 15–49 years who are married or in a union, hereafter simply referred to as married. Current use of contraception was reported by 77.8 per cent of these women. The most common method is the intrauterine device (IUD) which is used by 31 per cent of married women in Viet Nam. The next most common method women rely on is the male condom (12.7 per cent of all women rely on their sexual partner using this method), followed by periodic abstinence with 11.3 per cent. The male condom is relied on most heavily by women with tertiary education and those living in the richest quintile households. One in ten women aged 15–49 years uses contraceptive pills. 129VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e R H .4 : U se o f c on tr ac ep tio n P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge d 15 –4 9 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ) a c on tra ce pt iv e m et ho d, V ie t N am 2 01 1 N ot us in g an y m et ho d Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en (c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on ) w ho a re u si ng : N um be r of w om en cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on Fe m al e st er ili - za tio n M al e st er ili - za tio n IU D In je ct ab le s Im pl an ts P ill M al e co nd om O th er s§ lA M § § P er io di c ab st in en ce W ith dr aw al O th er A ny m od er n m et ho d A ny tra di - tio na l m et ho d A ny m et ho d1 R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 23 .7 2. 7 0. 1 31 0. 5 0. 2 5. 3 18 .3 0. 17 0. 3 12 .9 4. 7 0. 1 58 .3 18 76 .3 1, 75 5 N or th er n M id la nd an d M ou nt ai n ar ea s 26 .2 5. 1 0. 1 34 .2 1. 8 0. 4 10 .4 7. 4 0. 01 0. 1 9. 1 5. 2 0 59 .3 14 .5 73 .8 1, 49 1 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al ar ea 20 .1 4. 5 0. 2 35 .9 1. 4 0. 3 7. 6 13 .1 0. 12 0. 1 8. 8 7. 8 0 63 .1 16 .8 79 .9 1, 67 4 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 24 .2 5. 8 0. 1 28 .5 4. 2 0 8. 2 10 .8 0. 13 0. 2 9. 5 8. 2 0. 1 57 .9 17 .9 75 .8 46 7 S ou th E as t 21 .4 4. 6 0 23 .4 1. 7 0 12 .4 15 .5 0. 07 0. 7 13 .7 6. 5 0 57 .8 20 .9 78 .6 1, 33 5 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 19 .3 2. 5 0. 1 29 .9 2. 4 0. 4 16 .3 9. 3 0 0 12 .8 7 0 60 .9 19 .8 80 .7 1, 61 9 A re a U rb an 22 .4 2. 7 0 24 .3 0. 9 0. 2 9. 8 20 .2 0. 10 0. 2 12 .9 6. 2 0 58 .3 19 .3 77 .6 2, 43 4 R ur al 22 .1 4. 4 0. 1 33 .8 2 0. 3 10 .2 9. 6 0. 07 0. 2 10 .7 6. 4 0 60 .5 17 .4 77 .9 5, 90 8 A ge 15 –1 9 79 0 0 6. 1 0. 7 0 4. 6 3. 9 0 1. 5 1. 1 3. 1 0 15 .3 5. 7 21 14 3 20 –2 4 46 .6 0. 2 0 19 .7 1. 1 0. 2 11 .1 11 .7 0 0. 6 4. 9 3. 9 0 44 9. 4 53 .4 82 8 25 –2 9 24 .8 0. 5 0 29 .4 1. 6 0. 2 13 .2 14 .5 0. 04 0. 3 9. 3 6. 1 0 59 .5 15 .7 75 .2 1, 49 8 30 –3 4 15 1. 5 0. 1 36 .5 2. 5 0. 5 13 .3 15 .6 0. 07 0. 3 9. 3 5. 4 0 70 15 85 1, 64 3 35 –3 9 11 .5 4. 1 0 36 1. 8 0. 5 11 .2 13 .3 0. 19 0. 2 12 .9 8. 2 0 67 .1 21 .3 88 .5 1, 53 0 40 –4 4 14 .6 7 0. 2 34 .4 1. 5 0 8. 1 12 .3 0 0 15 .4 6. 2 0. 1 63 .6 21 .8 85 .4 1, 45 6 45 –4 9 28 10 .5 0. 3 25 .9 1. 2 0 3. 1 8 0. 16 0 15 .1 7. 6 0 49 .1 22 .8 72 1, 24 4 N um be r o f l iv in g ch ild re n 0 85 .2 0 0 0. 4 0. 1 0 3 5. 2 0 0 4. 3 1. 9 0 8. 6 6. 2 14 .8 53 7 1 31 .5 0. 7 0 24 .1 1. 3 0. 1 9. 1 17 0. 03 0. 4 9. 8 5. 9 0 52 .4 16 .1 68 .5 1, 97 7 2 11 .7 2. 9 0 37 .5 1. 7 0. 4 12 .3 13 .8 0. 11 0. 2 12 .8 6. 6 0 68 .7 19 .5 88 .3 3, 88 3 3 14 .3 8. 6 0. 3 35 .2 2 0. 2 9 9. 5 0 0. 3 12 .6 7. 9 0 64 .8 20 .9 85 .7 1, 29 8 4+ 20 .5 13 .6 0. 6 30 .2 3. 3 0. 3 8. 3 5. 3 0. 28 0. 1 10 .7 6. 9 0 61 .8 17 .7 79 .5 64 7 130 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e R H .4 : U se o f c on tr ac ep tio n P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge d 15 –4 9 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ) a c on tra ce pt iv e m et ho d, V ie t N am 2 01 1 N ot us in g an y m et ho d Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en (c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on ) w ho a re u si ng : N um be r of w om en cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on Fe m al e st er ili - za tio n M al e st er ili - za tio n IU D In je ct ab le s Im pl an ts P ill M al e co nd om O th er s§ lA M § § P er io di c ab st in en ce W ith dr aw al O th er A ny m od er n m et ho d A ny tra di - tio na l m et ho d A ny m et ho d1 W om en ’s e du ca tio n N on e 25 .3 7. 5 0. 1 34 .4 3. 9 0. 6 16 .9 2. 8 0 0. 3 5. 6 2. 6 0. 1 66 .1 8. 6 74 .7 39 6 P rim ar y 19 .3 7. 1 0. 1 32 2. 6 0. 5 13 .4 7. 2 0. 12 0. 3 9. 6 7. 8 0 63 17 .7 80 .7 1, 62 6 lo w er S ec on da ry 20 .4 3. 6 0. 1 34 .8 1. 7 0. 1 10 .2 10 .3 0. 09 0. 2 12 .1 6. 5 0 60 .9 18 .8 79 .6 3, 73 9 U pp er S ec on da ry 25 .7 2. 9 0 27 .6 0. 9 0. 3 6. 4 18 .3 0 0. 4 11 .4 6 0 56 .5 17 .8 74 .3 1, 41 3 Te rti ar y 27 0. 7 0. 1 20 .3 0. 4 0. 1 7. 6 24 .8 0. 11 0. 1 13 .3 5. 4 0 54 .2 18 .8 73 1, 16 7 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 23 .3 5. 9 0. 3 37 .5 3. 3 0. 5 13 .5 4. 1 0. 03 0. 1 7. 9 3. 5 0 65 .1 11 .6 76 .7 1, 55 8 S ec on d 20 .8 4. 9 0. 2 34 .2 2. 3 0. 4 11 .4 8. 2 0. 12 0. 1 9. 8 7. 4 0 61 .8 17 .4 79 .2 1, 60 4 M id dl e 21 3. 9 0 33 .7 1. 4 0. 1 9. 8 11 .4 0 0. 3 10 .6 7. 9 0 60 .1 18 .8 79 1, 70 8 Fo ur th 23 .8 3. 1 0 27 .5 1 0. 1 8. 3 15 .1 0. 06 0. 3 13 .5 7. 1 0. 1 55 .2 21 76 .2 1, 76 3 R ic he st 22 .2 2. 1 0 22 .9 0. 6 0. 2 8. 1 23 .7 0. 18 0. 2 14 .4 5. 5 0 57 .7 20 .1 77 .8 1, 70 8 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 21 .9 3. 6 0. 1 30 .4 1. 3 0. 2 9. 5 14 0. 1 0. 2 12 .1 6. 7 0 59 .1 19 78 .1 7, 27 7 E th ni c M in or iti es 24 .7 6. 4 0. 3 34 .8 4 0. 5 14 .6 4. 2 0. 0 0. 2 6. 1 4. 1 0 64 .8 10 .5 75 .3 1, 06 5 To ta l 22 .2 3. 9 0. 1 31 1. 7 0. 2 10 .1 12 .7 0. 1 0. 2 11 .3 6. 3 0 59 .8 17 .9 77 .8 8, 34 1 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .3 ; M D G in di ca to r 5 .3 § O th er s in cl ud e Fe m al e co nd om a nd D ia ph ra gm /F oa m /J el ly ; § § l A M is la ct at io na l a m en or rh ea 131VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Contraceptive prevalence rates indicate minimal differences by education, living standards, area or region. What seems to influence prevalence the most is women’s age and the number of children the women already have. Women are less likely to use contraception methods in younger ages (15–19 years and 20–24 years), and when they have no children or only one child. In addition, roughly 80 per cent of women aged 15–19 years, and 85.2 per cent of women with no children do not use any method of contraception. Three in five women (59.8 per cent) use modern contraceptive methods while one in five (17.9 per cent) use traditional methods. The use of traditional methods is positively correlated with the women’s age, living standard and education level: the older the woman, the richer and the more educated she is, the more likely she is to use a traditional contraceptive method. The use of traditional contraceptive methods is higher among women living in Kinh/Hoa households than women in ethnic minority households (19 per cent versus 10.5 per cent). In contrast, 64.8 per cent of women living in ethnic minority households use modern contraceptive methods compared with 59.1 per cent of women living in Kinh/Hoa households. Unmet Need Unmet need for contraception refers to fecund women who are not using any method of contraception, but who wish to postpone the next birth (spacing) or who wish to stop childbearing altogether (limiting). Unmet need is identified in the MICS by using a set of questions that elicit current behaviours and preferences pertaining to contraceptive use, fecundity, and fertility. Women with an unmet need for spacing include women who are currently married (or in a union), fecund (are currently pregnant or think that they are physically able to become pregnant), currently not using contraception, and want to space their births. Pregnant women are considered to want to space their births when they did not want the child at the time they got pregnant. Women who are not pregnant are classified in this category if they want to have a(nother) child, but want to have the child at least two years later, or after marriage. Women with an unmet need for limiting are those women who are currently married (or in a union), fecund (are currently pregnant or think that they are physically able to become pregnant), currently not using contraception, and want to limit their births. The latter group includes women who are currently pregnant but had not wanted the pregnancy at all, and women who are not currently pregnant but do not want to have a(nother) child. Total unmet need for contraception is simply the sum of unmet need for spacing and unmet need for limiting. Table RH.5 shows the results of the survey on contraception, unmet need, and the demand for contraception satisfied in Viet Nam. Some 2.3 per cent of 15–49 year old women who are married or in a union have an unmet need for contraception for spacing and 2 per cent for limiting children. As expected, the unmet need for spacing is higher among younger women and for limiting among the women in the age groups 30 and above. It is notable that young women aged 15–19 years report the highest rate of unmet need for contraception (15.6 per cent), which may contribute to why their contraceptive rate is so low. 132 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table RH.5: Unmet need for contraception Percentage of women aged 15–49 years currently married or in union with an unmet need for family planning and percentage of demand for contraception satisfied, Viet Nam 2011 Met need for contraception Unmet need for contraception Number of women currently married or in union Percentage of demand for contraception satisfied Number of women currently married or in union with need for contraception For spacing For limiting Total For spacing For limiting Total1 Region Red River Delta 15.4 60.9 76.3 3.2 1.4 4.6 1755 94.3 1,419 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 14.7 59 73.8 3.5 2.8 6.3 1491 92.1 1,194 North Central area and Central Coastal area 16.7 63.5 80.1 1.9 1.7 3.7 1674 95.6 1,403 Central Highlands 18.9 56.9 75.8 3.3 2.1 5.4 467 93.3 380 South East 25.2 53.4 78.6 1.3 1.8 3.1 1335 96.2 1,091 Mekong River Delta 19.1 61.6 80.7 1.2 2.4 3.6 1619 95.7 1,365 Area Urban 20.8 56.8 77.6 2.3 2.1 4.5 2434 94.5 1,998 Rural 16.8 61 77.9 2.3 2 4.3 5908 94.8 4,855 Age 15–19 16.6 4.4 21 14.6 1.1 15.6 143 57.3 52 20–24 41.7 11.8 53.4 8.6 1.7 10.3 828 83.8 527 25–29 40.4 34.9 75.2 4.5 1.1 5.5 1,498 93.1 1,211 30–34 20.9 64.1 85 1.5 3.3 4.8 1,643 94.6 1,477 35–39 9.3 79.2 88.5 0.6 2 2.7 1,530 97.1 1,394 40–44 2.5 83 85.5 0 1.9 1.9 1,456 97.8 1,273 45–49 0.5 71.5 72 0 1.9 1.9 1,244 97.5 918 Women’s education None 7.8 66.8 74.7 1.8 4.8 6.7 396 91.8 322 Primary 12.9 67.9 80.7 1.2 2.7 3.8 1,626 95.5 1,375 lower Secondary 16.1 63.6 79.7 1.9 1.8 3.6 3,739 95.6 3,116 Upper Secondary 22.5 51.8 74.3 4.1 1.4 5.5 1,413 93.1 1,128 Tertiary 29.3 43.8 73 3.4 1.7 5.1 1,167 93.5 912 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 12.9 63.8 76.7 2.3 2.7 5.1 1,558 93.8 1,273 Second 15.8 63.4 79.2 1.9 2 3.9 1,604 95.4 1,332 Middle 18.8 60.2 79 2.1 1.5 3.5 1,708 95.7 1,410 Fourth 20.9 55.4 76.3 2.7 2.2 4.8 1,763 94 1,430 Richest 21 56.9 78 2.6 1.9 4.4 1,708 94.6 1,407 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 18.7 59.4 78.2 2.2 1.9 4.1 7,277 95 5,987 Ethnic Minorities 13.1 62.2 75.3 3.1 2.9 6 1,065 92.6 866 Total 18 59.8 77.8 2.3 2 4.3 8,341 94.7 6,852 1 MICS indicator 5.4; MDG indicator 5.6 Met need for limiting includes women who are using a contraceptive method and who want no more children, have undergone sterilisation (or their partner/husband has undergone sterilisation) or declare themselves as infecund. Met need for spacing includes women who are using a contraceptive method and who want to have another child or are undecided whether to have another child. The total of met need for spacing and limiting adds up to the total met need for contraception. In Viet Nam the total percentage of women whose contraceptive needs are met is 77.8, of which 18 per cent have a met need for spacing and 59.8 for limiting. The met need for contraception for spacing is higher among younger women particularly those aged 20–29 years (around 40 per cent), while the met need for limiting is higher among women aged 30–49 years (above 60 per cent). 133VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Using information on contraception and unmet need, the percentage of demand for contraception that is satisfied is also estimated from the Viet Nam MICS 2011 data. The percentage of demand that is satisfied is defined as the proportion of women currently married or in a marital union who are currently using contraception, out of the total demand for contraception. The total demand for contraception includes women who currently have an unmet need (for spacing or limiting), plus those who are currently using contraception. The percentage of demand for contraception that is satisfied is 94.7. It is more than 90 per cent for all women currently married or in a union for all regions, educational levels, wealth index quintiles and age groups. It is below 90 per cent for women aged 15–19 years at 57.3 per cent and for women aged 20–24 years (83.8 per cent). Antenatal Care The antenatal period presents important opportunities for reaching pregnant women with a number of interventions that may be vital to their health and well-being and that of their infants. Better understanding of foetal growth and development and its relationship to the mother’s health has resulted in increased attention to the potential of antenatal care as an intervention to improve both maternal and newborn health. For example, if the antenatal period is used to inform women and families about the danger signs and symptoms and about the risks during labour and delivery, it may provide the route for ensuring that pregnant women do, in practice, deliver with the assistance of a skilled health care provider. The antenatal period also provides an opportunity to supply information on birth spacing, which is recognized as an important factor in improving infant survival. Tetanus immunization during pregnancy can be life-saving for both mother and infant. The prevention and treatment of malaria among pregnant women, management of anaemia during pregnancy and treatment of sexually transmittable infections (STIs) can significantly improve foetal outcomes and improve maternal health. Adverse outcomes such as low birth weight can be reduced through a combination of interventions to improve women’s nutritional status and prevent infections (e.g. malaria and STIs) during pregnancy. More recently, the potential of the antenatal period as an entry point for HIV prevention and care, in particular for the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child, has led to renewed interest in access to and use of antenatal services. WHO recommends a minimum of four antenatal visits based on a review of the effectiveness of different models of antenatal care. WHO guidelines are specific on the content of antenatal care visits, which should include: ● blood pressure measurement ● Urine testing for bateriuria and proteinuria ● blood testing to detect syphilis and severe anaemia ● Weight/height measurement (optional) The type of personnel providing antenatal care to women aged 15–49 years who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey is presented in Table RH.6. Coverage of antenatal care (by a doctor, nurse, or midwife) is high in Viet Nam with 93.7 per cent of women receiving antenatal care at least once during the latest pregnancy. The highest level of antenatal care is found in the Red River Delta and South East regions (99 per cent), while the lowest level is observed in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas (82.8 per cent). Antenatal care coverage increases notably with the women’s education level. Some 57.4 per cent of uneducated women have not received any antenatal care, compared with 5.8 per cent or less of women with primary education or above. About 78.4 per cent of women 134 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN living in the poorest households receive antenatal care from skilled personnel, compared to 96.2 per cent or higher for women in the richer quintiles. Accounting for 80.6 per cent, doctors are the main antenatal care provider among the health personnel providing such care. Table RH.6: Antenatal care coverage Percentage distribution of women age 15–49 years who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey by type of personnel providing antenatal care, Viet Nam 2011 Person providing antenatal care No antenatal care received Total At least once by skilled personnel¹ Number of women who gave birth in the preceding two yearsDoctor Nurse/ Midwife Auxiliary midwife/nurse Village health worker Other Missing Region Red River Delta 90.6 8.4 0 0 0 1 100 99 294 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 60 22.2 0.6 1 0 16.2 100 82.8 285 North Central area and Central Coastal area 79.5 16.1 1 0.7 0 2.7 100 96.6 287 Central Highlands 72.4 15 0.5 1 0 11.2 100 87.9 92 South East 95.7 3.3 0 0 0.5 0.4 100 99.1 214 Mekong River Delta 84.4 9.3 0.7 2.6 0 3 100 94.4 210 Area Urban 94.7 3.3 0 0 0 2.1 100 97.9 402 Rural 74.9 16.5 0.7 1.1 0.1 6.8 100 92 980 Mother's age at birth less than 20 72.5 15.2 0 0.2 0 12.1 100 87.7 130 20–34 82.5 11.5 0.5 1 0.1 4.5 100 94.4 1,106 35–49 73.2 19.5 1.3 0 0 6 100 94 114 Women’s education None 28.6 12.2 0.7 1 0 57.4 100 41.6 64 Primary 74 18.5 0.7 1 0 5.8 100 93.3 203 lower Secondary 77.3 17.3 0.6 1 0.2 3.6 100 95.2 523 Upper Secondary 88 9.6 0 1.1 0 1.3 100 97.6 296 Tertiary 95 3.5 0.5 0 0 1 100 99 295 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 51.1 25.5 1.7 1.4 0.4 19.9 100 78.4 300 Second 77.1 18.6 0.6 1 0 2.7 100 96.2 263 Middle 86.3 10.9 0 1.6 0 1.1 100 97.2 251 Fourth 92.1 7.2 0 0 0 0.8 100 99.2 270 Richest 98.2 0.8 0 0 0 0.9 100 99.1 299 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 87.6 9.7 0.4 0.6 0.1 1.6 100 97.7 1,158 Ethnic Minorities 44.5 28 0.7 1.9 0 24.9 100 73.2 225 Total 80.6 12.6 0.5 0.8 0.1 5.4 100 93.7 1,383 1 MICS indicator 5.5a; MDG indicator 5.5 UNICEF and WHO recommend a minimum of at least four antenatal care visits during pregnancy. Table RH.7 shows the number of antenatal care visits during the last pregnancy during the two years preceding the survey, regardless of provider by selected characteristics. More than nine in ten mothers (91.2 per cent) received antenatal care (ANC) more than once and over half of all mothers received ANC at least four times (59.6 per cent). Mothers with no education, those from the poorest households and those living in ethnic minority households are less likely to receive ANC four or more times. For example, 27.2 per cent 135VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN of the women living in the poorest households reported four or more antenatal care visits compared with 88.7 per cent among those living in the richest households. One in four women living in ethnic minority households (24.9 per cent) have not received any antenatal care compared to only 1.6 per cent of women living in Kinh/Hoa households. Following the same pattern, women living in Kinh/Hoa households have a three times higher chance of receiving the four recommended ANC visits (67 per cent) compared to women living in ethnic minority households (21.3 per cent). Education is the strongest predictor of antenatal care: 87.3 per cent of women with tertiary level of education reported receiving four or more antenatal care visits compared to only 5.6 per cent of women with no education. A high 57.4 per cent of women with no education have not received any antenatal care during the last pregnancy. Among the regions of Viet Nam, the Northern Midland and Mountain areas and Central Highlands are the two regions showing the lowest proportion of women receiving four or more ANC visits among women with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey (37.8 per cent and 37.6 per cent). Table RH.7: Number of antenatal care visits Percentage distribution of women who had a live birth during the two years preceding the survey by number of antenatal care visits by any provider, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage distribution of women who had: Number of women who had a live birth in the preceding two years No antenatal care visits One visit Two visits Three visits Four or more visits1 Total Region Red River Delta 1 1.3 6.6 15.7 75.3 100 294 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 16.2 5.2 18.7 21.6 37.8 100 285 North Central area and Central Coastal area 2.7 3.8 9.7 31.3 52.3 100 287 Central Highlands 11.2 5.6 16.7 28.7 37.6 100 92 South East 0.4 2.1 3.8 6.3 87.1 100 214 Mekong River Delta 3 2.4 12.8 22.9 58.8 100 210 Area Urban 2.1 1.1 4.4 10.5 81.6 100 402 Rural 6.8 4.1 13.6 24.9 50.5 100 980 Mother's age at birth less than 20 12.1 7.3 15.4 23.7 41.3 100 130 20–34 4.6 2.9 9.9 20.3 62.2 100 1139 35–49 6 1.9 16.4 20.9 54.3 100 114 Women‘s education None 57.4 9.8 10.5 16.7 5.6 100 64 Primary 5.8 7.3 21.9 21 44 100 203 lower Secondary 3.6 2.9 13.7 28.5 51.1 100 523 Upper Secondary 1.3 1.3 8.5 19.3 69.4 100 296 Tertiary 1 1.3 .9 9 87.3 100 295 Wealth index quintile Poorest 19.9 9.7 18.1 25 27.2 100 300 Second 2.7 2.8 16.2 33.1 45 100 263 Middle 1.1 0.7 13.3 26 58.5 100 251 Fourth 0.8 1.3 6 13.3 78.7 100 270 Richest 0.9 1 1.6 7.5 88.7 100 299 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 1.6 2.2 9.4 19.6 67 100 1158 Ethnic Minorities 24.9 8.5 19 26.4 21.3 100 225 Total 5.4 3.2 10.9 20.7 59.6 100 1383 1 MICS indicator 5.5b; MDG indicator 5.5 136 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN details about the types of services pregnant women received are shown in Table RH.8. Among women who have given birth to a child during the two years preceding the survey, 77.5 per cent reported that their blood pressure was measured, 64.1 per cent that a urine specimen was taken, and 48 per cent reported that a blood sample was taken during antenatal care visits. Some 42.5 per cent reported that they received all three types of services (blood pressure measured, urine and blood sample taken). Comparison across regions shows that the South East has the highest percentage of women receiving all three types of services (73.7 per cent). The high percentage in the South East is largely due to the high rate of women having their blood sample taken during their antenatal care (80.4 per cent). The percentage of all three types of services is also high among women in the richest households (73.5 per cent) but very low among women living in the poorest households (17.6 per cent). The same pattern occurs among women with different educational levels: only 7 per cent of non-educated women received all three types of services compared with 67.9 per cent of women with tertiary education. Women in urban areas are twice as likely to get the full range of recommended services compared to women in rural areas (64.9 per cent and 33.4 per cent). Table RH.8: Content of antenatal care Percentage of women aged 15–49 years who had their blood pressure measured, urine sample taken, and blood sample taken as part of antenatal care, Viet Nam 2011 Percentage of pregnant women who had: Number of women who had a live birth in the preceding two years blood pressure measured Urine sample taken blood sample taken blood pressure measured, urine and blood sample taken1 Region Red River Delta 80.5 79.8 59.2 52.2 294 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 60 44 27.8 20.7 285 North Central area and Central Coastal area 78.9 62.7 44.7 41.2 287 Central Highlands 58.7 33 24.1 19.3 92 South East 94.8 84.1 80.4 73.7 214 Mekong River Delta 85.9 64.8 42 38.9 210 Area Urban 90 81 69.7 64.9 402 Rural 72.4 57.2 39.1 33.4 980 Mother's age at birth less than 20 64.7 52.5 35 32 130 20–34 78.5 66 49.7 43.6 1,139 35–49 82.2 58.9 45.6 44 114 Women’s education None 26.7 12.8 9.5 7 64 Primary 70.7 47.2 31.3 24.8 203 lower Secondary 75.2 58.8 35.4 30.7 523 Upper Secondary 84.1 76 65.1 58 296 Tertiary 90.8 84.6 73.1 67.9 295 Wealth index quintile Poorest 54.7 38.3 20 17.6 300 Second 72.5 57.5 36.8 29 263 Middle 80.8 66.9 43.3 38.1 251 Fourth 86.7 71.9 62.3 53.5 270 Richest 93.9 86.6 77.1 73.5 299 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 82.8 70.9 53.9 48.3 1,158 Ethnic Minorities 50.4 29.2 17.5 13 225 Total 77.5 64.1 48 42.5 1,383 1 MICS indicator 5.6 137VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Assistance at Delivery Three quarters of all maternal deaths occur during delivery and the immediate post-partum period. The single most critical intervention for safe motherhood is to ensure a competent health worker with midwifery skills is present at every birth, and transport is available to a referral facility for obstetric care in case of emergency. One of the A World Fit for Children goals is to ensure that women have ready and affordable access to skilled attendance at delivery. The monitoring indicators include the proportion of births with a skilled attendant and proportion of deliveries in a health care facility. The skilled attendant at delivery indicator is also used to track progress toward the Millennium Development goal of reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. The Viet Nam MICS 2011 included a number of questions to assess the proportion of births attended by a skilled attendant. A skilled attendant includes a doctor, nurse, midwife or auxiliary midwife or nurse. More than 9 out of 10 births occurring in the two years preceding the survey (92.9) were delivered by skilled personnel (Table RH.9). The percentage is highest in the Red River delta at 99.2 and lowest in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas at 78.3. The more educated a woman is, the more likely she is to have delivered with the assistance of a skilled attendant. The range is from 45.4 per cent if the woman has no education, to 98.9 per cent if the woman has tertiary education. Fewer women are assisted by a skilled attendant if living in households belonging to the poorest quintile or in ethnic minority households. doctors assisted with the delivery of 79.2 per cent of births (the majority), followed by nurses/midwifes with 12.7 per cent, and auxiliary midwives for 1 per cent of births. Women in the richer households and those with higher levels of education were predominantly assisted by doctors at delivery. About 20 per cent of women in Viet Nam delivered by Caesarean section. In the Red River delta and in the South East the Caesarean section rate is double that in other regions. delivery through Caesarean section is higher for urban women (30.9 per cent) than for rural women (15.5 per cent). It increases with educational level and living standards. Some 2.8 per cent of women with no education gave birth by Caesarean section compared to 34.5 per cent of women with tertiary education. About 6.7 per cent of women living in the poorest households gave birth by Caesarean section compared to 35.9 per cent of women in the richest households. In addition, women living in Kinh/Hoa households are four times more likely to give birth by Caesarean section than women living in ethnic minority households (22.7 per cent and 5.7 per cent). It is important to note that high rates of Caesarean sections are harmful, yet low rates put mothers and babies at risk as well. 138 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e R H .9 : A ss is ta nc e du rin g de liv er y P er ce nt ag e di st rib ut io n of w om en a ge d 15 –4 9 w ho h ad a li ve b irt h in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey b y pe rs on a ss is tin g at d el iv er y an d pe rc en ta ge o f b irt hs d el iv er ed b y C ae sa re an s ec tio n, Vi et N am 2 01 1 Pe rs on a ss is tin g at d el iv er y N o at te nd an t To ta l A ny s ki lle d at te nd an t1§ P er ce nt ag e de liv er ed b y C ae sa re an se ct io n2 N um be r of w om en w ho h ad a liv e bi rth in pr ec ed in g tw o ye ar s D oc to r N ur se / M id w ife A ux ili ar y m id w ife / nu rs e Tr ad iti on al bi rth at te nd an t Vi lla ge h ea lth w or ke r R el at iv e/ Fr ie nd O th er / M is si ng R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 86 11 .4 1. 7 0 0 0 0. 8 0 10 0 99 .2 26 .6 29 4 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 62 .2 15 .1 1 4. 7 3. 5 5. 8 7. 4 0. 3 10 0 78 .3 14 28 5 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 77 .9 17 .2 1. 3 1. 4 1. 8 0 0. 3 0. 2 10 0 96 .4 15 .9 28 7 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 68 .2 10 .8 0. 7 8. 8 1. 7 8. 6 1. 2 0 10 0 79 .7 11 .4 92 S ou th E as t 93 .4 6 0 0. 3 0 0. 3 0 0 10 0 99 .4 33 .5 21 4 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 84 .6 12 .9 0. 7 1. 1 0 0 0. 7 0 10 0 98 .2 14 .5 21 0 A re a U rb an 90 .9 7. 9 0 0 0. 1 0. 3 0. 9 0 10 0 98 .8 30 .9 40 2 R ur al 74 .3 14 .7 1. 4 2. 9 1. 7 2. 4 2. 4 0. 2 10 0 90 .5 15 .5 98 0 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h le ss th an 2 0 69 .4 12 .6 3. 9 1. 8 1. 7 5. 1 5. 5 0 10 0 86 9. 8 13 0 20 –3 4 79 .6 13 .3 0. 7 2 1. 1 1. 4 1. 7 0. 1 10 0 93 .6 20 .1 1, 13 9 35 –4 9 85 .8 7. 3 0. 3 3. 2 1. 6 1. 8 0 0 10 0 93 .5 30 .4 11 4 Pl ac e of d el iv er y P ub lic s ec to r h ea lth fa ci lit y 85 13 .6 1 0 0. 4 0 0 0 10 0 99 .6 21 .6 12 20 P riv at e se ct or h ea lth fa ci lit y 96 .2 3. 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 10 0 10 0 23 57 H om e 2. 8 7. 1 1. 7 27 .8 11 .7 24 .6 22 .7 1. 6 10 0 11 .6 0 10 2 W om en ’s e du ca tio n N on e 25 .6 19 .8 0 15 .1 5. 6 16 .4 16 .1 1. 4 10 0 45 .4 2. 8 64 P rim ar y 66 .8 16 .6 1. 3 4. 8 3. 8 4 2. 3 0. 3 10 0 84 .7 12 .6 20 3 lo w er S ec on da ry 82 .4 13 0. 5 1 0. 7 1 1. 4 0 10 0 95 .9 15 .5 52 3 U pp er S ec on da ry 85 .1 10 .8 1. 6 1. 2 0. 7 0. 1 0. 6 0 10 0 97 .4 22 .2 29 6 Te rti ar y 87 .7 10 1. 2 0 0 0. 3 0. 8 0 10 0 98 .9 34 .5 29 5 139VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e R H .9 : A ss is ta nc e du rin g de liv er y P er ce nt ag e di st rib ut io n of w om en a ge d 15 –4 9 w ho h ad a li ve b irt h in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey b y pe rs on a ss is tin g at d el iv er y an d pe rc en ta ge o f b irt hs d el iv er ed b y C ae sa re an s ec tio n, Vi et N am 2 01 1 Pe rs on a ss is tin g at d el iv er y N o at te nd an t To ta l A ny s ki lle d at te nd an t1§ P er ce nt ag e de liv er ed b y C ae sa re an se ct io n2 N um be r of w om en w ho h ad a liv e bi rth in pr ec ed in g tw o ye ar s D oc to r N ur se / M id w ife A ux ili ar y m id w ife / nu rs e Tr ad iti on al bi rth at te nd an t Vi lla ge h ea lth w or ke r R el at iv e/ Fr ie nd O th er / M is si ng W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 49 .3 21 1. 6 8. 3 3. 4 8. 1 7. 8 0. 5 10 0 71 .9 6. 7 30 0 S ec on d 79 .1 16 .7 0. 6 0. 9 2. 4 0. 3 0. 1 0 10 0 96 .3 10 .3 26 3 M id dl e 86 .5 11 .4 1. 7 0. 4 0 0 0 0 10 0 99 .6 21 .7 25 1 Fo ur th 93 .8 4. 9 0. 8 0 0. 1 0 0. 3 0 10 0 99 .6 24 .9 27 0 R ic he st 89 .8 9. 1 0. 3 0 0 0 0. 8 0 10 0 99 .2 35 .9 29 9 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 85 .8 11 .7 1 0. 4 0. 6 0 0. 4 0 10 0 98 .6 22 .7 1, 15 8 E th ni c M in or iti es 44 .8 17 .7 0. 9 10 .8 4. 2 11 .1 9. 7 0. 7 10 0 63 .4 5. 7 22 5 To ta l 79 .2 12 .7 1 2. 1 1. 2 1. 8 1. 9 0. 1 10 0 92 .9 20 1, 38 3 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .7 ; M D G in di ca to r 5 .2 2 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .9 § T hi s in di ca to r i nc lu de s do ct or , n ur se / m id w ife a nd a ux ili ar y m id w ife /n ur se 140 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Place of Delivery Increasing the proportion of births that are delivered in health facilities is an important factor that has potential to reduce the health risks to both the mother and the baby. Proper medical attention and hygienic conditions during delivery can reduce the risks of complications and infection that can cause morbidity and mortality to either the mother or the baby. Table RH.10 presents the percentage distribution of women aged 15–49 with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey by place of delivery and the total percentage of births delivered in a health facility. Some 92.4 per cent of births in Viet Nam are delivered in a health facility. Of these, 88.2 per cent are deliveries which occurred in public sector facilities and 4.1 per cent in private sector facilities. The remaining 7.4 per cent of deliveries occurred at home. The majority of home deliveries occur in rural areas, in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas and the Central Highlands, among uneducated and women, living in households belonging to the poorest quintile and headed by ethnic minorities. Among these background characteristics Table RH.10 reveals the widest differentials for women delivering in a health facility. For example, 98.9 per cent of women with the highest levels of education deliver in a health facility compared to only 43.7 per cent of women with no education. The proportion of births delivered in a health facility increases as living standards increase, from 70.4 per cent of births in the poorest quintile to 99.2 per cent among those in the richest quintile. Women who do not have any antenatal care visits are three times less likely to deliver in a health facility and six times more likely to deliver at home compared to those who have at least one ANC visit. 141VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table RH.10: Place of delivery Percentage distribution of women aged 15–49 who had a live birth in two years preceding the survey by place of delivery, Viet Nam 2011 Place of delivery Total Delivered in health facility1 Number of women who had a live birth in preceding two years Public sector health facility Private sector health facility Home Other Region Red River Delta 98.6 0 0.6 0.8 100 98.6 294 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 76.5 1.5 22 0 100 78 285 North Central area and Central Coastal area 92.5 2.5 4.7 0.3 100 95 287 Central Highlands 69.4 9.5 20.7 0.5 100 78.9 92 South East 90.6 8.8 0.6 0 100 99.4 214 Mekong River Delta 89.7 8.6 1.8 0 100 98.2 210 Area Urban 94.6 3.6 1 0.8 100 98.2 402 Rural 85.6 4.3 10 0 100 90 980 Mother's age at birth less than 20 76.2 6.2 17.6 0 100 82.4 130 20–34 89.6 3.8 6.3 0.3 100 93.4 1139 35–49 88.1 5 6.9 0 100 93.1 114 Number of antenatal care visits None 30.7 0.3 64.2 4.8 100 31 74 1–3 visits 84.9 4.7 10.4 0 100 89.6 481 4+ visits 95.3 4.2 0.5 0 100 99.5 824 Women’s education None 43.7 0 56.3 0 100 43.7 64 Primary 77.5 7.2 15.3 0 100 84.7 203 lower Secondary 91 3.9 4.9 0.2 100 94.8 523 Upper Secondary 91.6 5.8 2.6 0 100 97.4 296 Tertiary 97.1 1.8 0.3 0.8 100 98.9 295 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 67.2 3.2 29.5 0.1 100 70.4 300 Second 92.2 4.1 3.6 0 100 96.4 263 Middle 93.8 5.7 0.5 0 100 99.5 251 Fourth 95.4 3.3 0.9 0.3 100 98.8 270 Richest 94.7 4.5 0 0.8 100 99.2 299 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 93.6 4.8 1.4 0.3 100 98.3 1158 Ethnic Minorities 60.8 0.9 38.3 0 100 61.7 225 Total 88.2 4.1 7.4 0.3 100 92.4 1383 1 MICS indicator 5.8 142 143VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN IX. CHIld DEVElOPMENT 144 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Early Childhood Education and learning Pre-school attendance in an organised learning or child education program is important for the readiness of children for school. As shown in table Cd.1, 71.9 per cent of children aged 36–59 months are attending pre-school in Viet Nam. The mother’s education and regional differentials are important determinants– the figure for pre-school attendance is as high as 96.4 per cent for children whose mothers have tertiary education, compared to only 38.4 per cent for children whose mothers have no education. Attendance in pre-school is highest in the Red River delta at 90 per cent, and lowest in the Mekong River delta at 47.2 per cent. The gender difference is negligible, while the differentials by socioeconomic status are substantial. Some 90.6 per cent of children living in households belonging to the richest quintile attend pre-school, while the figure drops to 58.8 per cent among households in the poorest quintile. At earlier ages, children are less likely to attend pre-school; only 62.3 per cent of children age 36–47 months (3–4 years old) are attending pre-school compared to 82.5 per cent of those age 48–59 months (5 years old). Table CD.1: Early childhood education Percentage of children aged 36–59 months who are attending an organized early childhood education programme, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of children aged 36–59 months currently attending early childhood education1 Number of children aged 36–59 months Sex Male 70.8 726 Female 73.1 733 Region Red River Delta 90 301 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 89.2 266 North Central area and Central Coastal area 67.4 296 Central Highlands 57.9 89 South East 69.1 233 Mekong River Delta 47.2 274 Area Urban 75.8 387 Rural 70.5 1072 Age of child (months) 36–47 62.3 764 48–59 82.5 695 Mother's education None 38.4 97 Primary 53.3 292 lower Secondary 73.7 606 Upper Secondary 80.8 242 Tertiary 96.4 222 Wealth index quintile Poorest 58.8 336 Second 63.3 272 Middle 73.4 274 Fourth 76.5 315 Richest 90.6 263 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 72.6 1275 Ethnic Minorities 67.5 184 Total 71.9 1459 1 MICS indicator 6.7 145VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN It is well recognised that a period of rapid brain development occurs in the first 3–4 years of life, and the quality of home care is a major determinant of the child’s development during this period. In this context, adult activities with children, presence of books in the home for the child, and conditions of care are important indicators of quality of home care. Children should be physically healthy, mentally alert, emotionally secure, socially competent and ready to learn. Information on a number of activities that support early learning was collected in the survey. These included the involvement of adults with children in the following activities: reading books or looking at picture books, telling stories, singing songs, taking children outside the home, compound or yard, playing with children, and spending time with children naming, counting, or drawing things. These results are presented in Table Cd.2. For about three-fourths (76.8 per cent) of children under age 5, an adult household member engaged in more than four activities that promote learning and school readiness during the three days preceding the survey. The average number of activities that adults and fathers engaged with children was 4.5 and 1.6 respectively. The table also indicates that the prevalence of father’s involvement in one or more such activities was 61.3 per cent. Some 13.7 per cent of children aged 36–59 months were living in a household without their fathers. 146 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CD.2: Support for learning Percentage of children aged 36–59 months with whom an adult household member engaged in activities that promote learning and school readiness during the last three days, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of children aged 36–59 months Mean number of activities Percentage of children not living with their natural father Number of children aged 36–59 months With whom adult household members engaged in four or more activities1 With whom the father engaged in one or more activities2 Any adult household member engaged with the child The father engaged with the child Sex Male 74 58.1 4.4 1.5 14.9 726 Female 79.5 64.5 4.6 1.7 12.5 733 Region Red River Delta 87.8 62.9 4.9 1.7 17.6 301 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 69.3 65.7 4.2 1.5 9.1 266 North Central area and Central Coastal area 71.4 62.8 4.4 1.7 15.7 296 Central Highlands 72 65.3 4.2 1.6 5 89 South East 80 68.1 4.7 2 10.5 233 Mekong River Delta 76.7 46.5 4.5 1 17.3 274 Area Urban 85.3 71.7 5 2 10.3 387 Rural 73.7 57.6 4.4 1.4 15 1072 Age of child (months) 36–47 78.4 60 4.6 1.5 13.6 764 48–59 75 62.7 4.5 1.7 13.9 695 Mother's education None 36.2 40.6 2.9 0.7 13.8 97 Primary 67.6 49.7 4 1.1 16.4 292 lower Secondary 76.1 61.7 4.5 1.5 12.1 606 Upper Secondary 90.9 71.4 5.2 1.9 10.6 242 Tertiary 93.2 73.5 5.3 2.4 18.1 222 Father's education§ None (35) (50.9) (3) (0.9) na 48 Primary 63.7 56.3 3.9 1.2 na 227 lower Secondary 78 68.9 4.5 1.6 na 518 Upper Secondary 87.2 76.6 5 2 na 265 Tertiary 89.3 87.2 5.2 3 na 200 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 62.9 54.6 3.8 1.2 13.5 336 Second 70.6 52 4.2 1.3 13.5 272 Middle 80.3 61.5 4.7 1.5 13.4 274 Fourth 79.5 61.9 4.7 1.5 16.3 315 Richest 94.1 78.5 5.4 2.4 11.5 263 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 79.7 61.9 4.7 1.6 14.3 1275 Ethnic Minorities 56.8 57.3 3.6 1.2 9.6 184 Total 76.8 61.3 4.5 1.6 13.7 1459 1 MICS indicator 6.1 2 MICS Indicator 6.2 §200 cases with missing education of father not shown Note: Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases 147VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Mothers’ and fathers’ education differentials exist both in terms of adult activities with children and in terms of fathers engaging in activities with children. A larger proportion of adults and fathers engaged in activities with children in the households in which fathers and mothers have higher levels of education. On the contrary, the lower the education of the parents, the less likely the child will receive support for learning. For example, in households where mothers have no education, adults engaged in learning activities with children in 36.2 per cent of cases, compared to 93.2 per cent of the children living in households with mothers who have tertiary education. The father’s education level shows a similar correlation with adult engagement in learning activities with children. While the child’s sex and age do not indicate strong differences, living standard quintile and area reveal important differences. Exposure to books in early years not only provides the child with greater understanding of the nature of print, but may also give the child opportunities to see others reading, such as older siblings doing school work. Presence of books is important for later school performance and IQ scores. The mothers/caregivers of all children under 5 were asked about the number of children’s or picture books, household or outside objects, and homemade or manufactured toys that are available at home for the child. The results of these questions are presented in Table Cd.3. In Viet Nam, only 19.6 per cent of children aged 0–59 months are living in households where at least 3 children’s books are present and this declines to 10 per cent for children with 10 or more books. A disproportionate share of the 19 respectively 10 per cent of children who have at least 3 respectively 10 books come from the most wealthy and educated households. While no gender differentials are observed, sharp contrasts are observed by all other background variables. Children with 3 or more books are more likely to be living in urban areas, in the South East and Red River Delta regions, have mothers with higher education, be from households in the richer quintiles and have a Kinh/Hoa household head. As one case in point, 49 per cent of children living in the richest quintile households have three or more books, compared to barely 3 per cent of those living in the poorest quintile. The data also indicate a preference for households to have children or picture books for older children. Some 6.6 per cent of children aged 0–23 months live in households with three or more children’s books, while this percentage is 27.9 among children at age 24–59 months. likewise, the same background variables are associated with a higher likelihood for children to have 10 or more children’s books. Children living in the poorest quintile households have no chance to have ten or more books. The survey data also indicate that no children from mothers with no education have 10 or more books.This again highlights the strong correlation between wealth and education, both in outcomes and in disparities. Roughly 29.3 per cent of children live in households with 10 or more books if the mother has tertiary education or the household is in the richest quintile. Ethnicity is an important determinant for the availability of children’s books in households, with children in Kinh/Hoa households being seven times more likely to have three or more books and sixteen times more likely to have 10 or more books compared to children in ethnic minority households. 148 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CD.3: Learning materials Percentage of children under age 5 by numbers of children's books present in the household, and by playthings that the child plays with, Viet Nam, 2011 Household has for the child: Child plays with: Two or more types of playthings2 Number of children under age 5 Three or more children's books1 10 or more children's books Home- made toys Toys from a shop/ manufactured toys Household objects/ objects found outside Sex Male 19.6 9.8 22.8 76 51.8 50.5 1869 Female 19.7 10.2 21.1 75.2 48.7 48 1809 Region Red River Delta 30.5 17 19.9 86.8 46.7 51.4 798 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 10 3.9 26 61 50.9 45.5 707 North Central area and Central Coastal area 14.6 6.2 32.6 65.9 55.4 53 719 Central Highlands 10.7 4.3 19.2 64.6 48.1 40.6 233 South East 34.3 18.1 13.4 90 49.1 51.6 572 Mekong River Delta 12.5 7 16.7 79.8 50.1 47.9 650 Area Urban 36.1 22.3 18.7 89 46.8 52.6 1013 Rural 13.4 5.3 23.2 70.5 51.6 48 2665 Age of child (months) 0–23 6.6 3.2 13 64.5 33.1 32 1427 24–59 27.9 14.2 27.6 82.7 61.1 60.3 2251 Mother’s education None 1.6 0 18.2 24.5 57.1 27.3 207 Primary 5.5 1.3 17.7 61.9 54.2 43.2 658 lower Secondary 12.9 4.5 22.5 80.3 50.7 51.8 1479 Upper Secondary 27.1 14.5 21.3 80 48.2 51.1 670 Tertiary 46.5 29.3 26.7 90.3 45.6 54.7 664 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 2.8 0 25.9 44.9 55.9 40.5 831 Second 7.4 2.3 22.3 72.2 52.3 47.1 673 Middle 15.4 5.2 20.7 81.2 46.7 49.5 700 Fourth 24.7 11.3 21.5 90.5 48.7 56.7 749 Richest 49 31.7 18.6 93.2 47 53.6 725 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 22.4 11.5 21.7 81.5 49.6 51.6 3143 Ethnic Minorities 3.2 0.7 23.1 40.7 54.3 35.8 535 Total 19.6 10 21.9 75.6 50.3 49.3 3678 1 MICS indicator 6.3 2 MICS indicator 6.4 Table Cd.3 also shows that 49.3 per cent of children aged 0–59 months had two or more playthings to play with in their homes. The playthings in the MICS included home-made toys (such as dolls, cars, or other toys made at home), toys that came from a store, and household objects (such as pots and bowls) or objects and materials found outside the home (such as sticks, rocks, animal shells, or leaves). Some 75.6 per cent of children play with toys from a store; 50.3 per cent with household objects or objects found outside and 21.9 per cent with home-made toys. The proportion of children who have two or more playthings is 54.7 per cent among children whose mothers have tertiary education but only 27.3 per cent among children whose mothers have no education, which is only half as many. 149VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Another interesting finding is that playing with household object playthings decreases with wealth as playing with toys increases. Similar to the indicator for books, gender differentials are negligible in respect to playthings. Ethnicity of the household head however shows a 16 percentage point differential between Kinh/Hoa and ethnic minority households. leaving children alone or in the presence of other young children is known to increase the risk of accidents. In MICS 2011 in Viet Nam, two questions were asked to find out whether during the week preceding the interview children aged 0–59 months were left alone, and whether children were left in the care of other children under 10 years of age. Table Cd.4 shows that 7.8 per cent of children aged 0–59 months were left in the care of other children under 10, while 3.5 per cent were left alone during the week preceding the interview. Combining the two care indicators, it is calculated that 9.4 per cent of children were left with inadequate care during the week preceding the survey, either by being left alone or in the care of another child.18 Substantial differences were observed by most background variables, including area, region, child’s age, mother’s education, living standards quintile and ethnicity of the household head. For example, it is five times more likely that a child living in a poorest quintile household will be left with inadequate care compared to a child living in the richest quintile. In urban areas, some 3.8 per cent of children under age 5 were left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age, while this percentage is 9.3 per cent in rural areas. This pattern is similar for children left alone, although to a lesser degree. Children aged 24–59 months were left alone or in the care of a child younger than 10 years of age more than those who were aged 0–23 months. The combined effect led to a similar pattern of inadequate care, which shows that the older age group is almost three times more likely to be left with inadequate care (12.4 per cent versus 4.6 per cent). The mother’s education and socioeconomic status of the household are the two background variables accounting for the widest differences for all three indicators presented in Table Cd.4. 18 The indicator left with inadequate care in the past week is calculated based on the occurrence of either of both scenarios (i.e. children left alone or in the care of other children), meaning that children who experience both are only counted once. Therefore, the indicator on inadequate care does not equal (but amounts to less than) the sum of both children left alone and children left in the care of other children. 150 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CD.4: Inadequate care Percentage of children under 5 years of age left alone or left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once during the past week, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of children under 5 years of age left alone in the past week left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age in the past week left with inadequate care in the past week1 Number of children under 5 years of age Sex Male 4.3 7.9 9.9 1869 Female 2.8 7.7 8.9 1809 Region Red River Delta 1.6 4.6 5.6 798 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 3.6 8.4 9.6 707 North Central area and Central Coastal area 6.6 15 17.4 719 Central Highlands 5.5 13.1 14.6 233 South East 1.9 3.2 4.3 572 Mekong River Delta 3.2 5.4 7.5 650 Area Urban 2.1 3.8 4.9 1013 Rural 4.1 9.3 11.1 2665 Age of child (months) 0–23 0.8 4.3 4.6 1427 24–59 5.2 10 12.4 2251 Mother’s completed education level None 11.9 19.5 22.7 207 Primary 6.7 12.4 15.6 658 lower Secondary 2.8 8.8 10.1 1479 Upper Secondary 1.8 2.8 3.7 670 Tertiary 1.1 2.4 3.3 664 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 7.2 14.5 17 831 Second 3.4 10 12.3 673 Middle 3 6.5 7.8 700 Fourth 2.4 4.5 5.4 749 Richest 1.2 2.9 3.5 725 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 3.1 6.7 8.3 3143 Ethnic Minorities 6.3 14.3 15.7 535 Total 3.5 7.8 9.4 3678 1 MICS indicator 6.5 Early Childhood Development Early child development is defined as an orderly, predictable process along a continuous path, in which a child learns to handle more complicated levels of moving, thinking, speaking, feeling and relating to others. Physical growth, literacy and numeracy skills, socio-emotional development and readiness to learn are vital domains of a child’s overall development, which is a basis for overall human development. A ten-item module was included in the Viet Nam MICS 2011 survey which was used to calculate the Early Child development Index (ECdI). The index is based on some benchmarks that children would be expected to achieve if they are developing on par with 151VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN the majority of children in that age group. Each of the 10 items is used in one of four domains to determine if children at age 3–5 years are developmentally on track in that domain. The domains are: ● literacy-numeracy: Children are identified as being developmentally on track depending on whether they can identify or name at least ten letters of the alphabet; whether they can read at least four simple, common words; and whether they know the name and recognize the symbols of all numbers from 1 to 10. If at least two of these are true, then the child is considered developmentally on track. ● Physical: If the child can pick up a small object with two fingers, like a stick or a rock from the ground and the mother/caregiver does not indicate that the child is sometimes too sick to play, then the child is regarded as being developmentally on track in the physical domain. ● In the social-emotional domain, children are considered to be developmentally on track if two of the following are true: If the child gets along well with other children; if the child does not kick, bite, or hit other children; and if the child does not get distracted easily. ● learning: If the child follows simple directions on how to do something correctly, or when given something to do, is able to do it independently, then the child is considered to be developmentally on track in the learning domain. The ECDI is calculated as the percentage of children who are developmentally on track in at least three of these four domains. 152 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CD.5: Early child development index Percentage of children aged 36–59 months who are developmentally on track in literacy-numeracy, physical, social- emotional, and learning domains, and the early child development index score, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of children aged 36–59 months who are developmentally on track for indicated domains Early child development index score1 Number of children aged 36–59 months literacy- numeracy Physical Social- Emotional learning Sex Male 23 98.6 87 92.1 83.6 726 Female 25.1 96.9 90.2 90.4 82.1 733 Region Red River Delta 24.1 99.1 89.7 94.3 86.5 301 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 23.9 98.7 89.3 90.7 81.8 266 North Central area and Central Coastal area 20.8 98.5 90.2 92 84.5 296 Central Highlands 17.4 93.8 81 77.8 68.2 89 South East 32.6 98.5 86.8 96.2 86.3 233 Mekong River Delta 22.6 95.1 89 87.8 79.8 274 Area Urban 33.9 98.1 87.4 96.2 88.3 387 Rural 20.5 97.6 89 89.5 80.9 1072 Age of child (months) 36–47 12.6 97.6 87.7 88.6 78.5 764 48–59 36.7 97.9 89.6 94.2 87.6 695 Preschool attendance Attending pre-school 29.3 98.2 89.8 94 86.2 1049 Not attending pre-school 10.6 96.6 85.6 84.2 74.3 409 Mother’s education None 10.7 96.4 80.9 68.6 62.9 97 Primary 14.8 95.5 87 87.8 74.8 292 lower Secondary 22.3 98.7 91.4 92.1 86.3 606 Upper Secondary 31.7 98 88.7 96.6 87.1 242 Tertiary 38.6 98.4 86.3 97.6 88.1 222 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 15.6 97 88.4 81.9 75.2 336 Second 20.8 97.8 88.3 93.5 82.8 272 Middle 23 97.3 89.8 90.3 81.8 274 Fourth 24.9 98.4 88.1 94.6 85.2 315 Richest 38.3 98.4 88.6 97.8 90.7 263 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 25.3 98 89.7 93.6 85.4 1275 Ethnic Minorities 15.8 96.1 81.1 75.5 64.8 184 Total 24.1 97.7 88.6 91.3 82.8 1459 1 MICS indicator 6.6 The results are presented in Table Cd.5. In Viet Nam, 82.8 per cent of children aged 36–59 months are developmentally on track. The ECdI is similar among boys (83.6 per cent) and girls (82.1 per cent). As expected, the ECdI is higher in the older age group (87.6 per cent among 48–59 months old compared to 78.5 per cent among 36–47 months old), since children develop more skills with increasing age. A higher ECdI is seen in children attending pre-school, 86.2 per cent, compared to those who are not attending preschool, 74.3 per cent. Children living in households with mothers with no education have a lower ECdI (62.9 per cent) compared to children of mothers with tertiary education (88.1 per cent). The Central Highlands scores the lowest on the ECdI with 68.2 per cent, which is nearly 153VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN 20 points lower than the ECdI calculated for the Red River delta and the South East. The analysis of four domains of child development shows that 97.7 per cent of children are on track in the physical domain, while this figure is only 24.1 per cent in the literacy-numeracy domain. However, it is interesting to note that the low percentage in the literacy-numeracy domain does not substantially impact the overall early child development index score, which is 82.8 per cent. The percentage of children who are developmentally on track for learning is quite high, 91.3 per cent, and in the social-emotional domain it reaches 88.6 per cent. In both domains, literacy-numeracy and learning, higher scoresare associated with children of more highly educated mothers, those who attend pre-school, live in urban areas, in the richest households, with a Kinh/Hoa household head, and with older children. 154 155VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN X. lITERACY ANd EDUCATION 156 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN literacy among young Women One of the World Fit for Children goals is to achieve adult literacy. Adult literacy is also an MdG indicator, relating to both men and women. Since only a women’s questionnaire was administered in MICS 2011, the results presented here only refer to females aged 15–24 years. literacy was assessed based on the ability of women to read a short simple statement or on past school attendance. The results on literacy among young women are presented in Table Ed.1. About 96.4 per cent of women aged 15–24 years are literate in Viet Nam. Virtually all young women in urban areas are literate, 99.2 per cent, compared with 95.1 per cent in rural areas. The comparison between ethnic groups shows a difference of 16.5 percentage points, with the percentage of literate young women in ethnic minority households being 82.3 per cent, and that in Kinh/Hoa households being 98.8 per cent. Only two out of six regions have literacy rates below 90 per cent, the Northern Midland and Mountain areas with 89.4 per cent and the Central Highlands with 89.9 per cent. The majority of illiterate young women live in the poorest households, with a literacy rate of 85.2 per cent compared with all the other living standards quintiles which display nearly a total literacy. Table ED.1: Literacy among young women Percentage of women age 15–24 years who are literate, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage literate1 Percentage not known Number of women age 15–24 years Region Red River Delta 99.8 0 673 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 89.4 0.2 512 North Central area and Central Coastal area 98.6 0 716 Central Highlands 89.9 0.5 218 South East 98.3 0 604 Mekong River Delta 96.6 0 593 Area Urban 99.2 0 1059 Rural 95.1 0.1 2256 Education level None 3.2 1.4 76 Primary 77 0.6 198 lower Secondary 100 0 838 Upper Secondary 100 0 1532 Tertiary 100 0 671 Age group 15–19 97.4 0 1707 20–24 95.4 0.1 1608 Wealth index quintile Poorest 85.2 0.2 584 Second 98.2 0.2 639 Middle 98 0 705 Fourth 99.5 0 720 Richest 99.6 0 668 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 98.8 0 2845 Ethnic Minorities 82.3 0.2 471 Total 96.4 0.1 3315 1 MICS indicator 7.1; MDG indicator 2.3 School Readiness Attendance in pre-school education in an organised learning or child education programme is important for child readiness for school. Table Ed.2 shows the proportion of children 157VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN in the first grade of primary school who attended pre-school the previous year. Overall, 92.6 per cent of children who are currently attending the first grade of primary school were attending pre-school the previous year. The school readiness proportions are similar between male and female, between urban and rural areas, and between ethnicities of the household head. For example, both in Kinh/Hoa and ethnic minority households the children’s school readiness is 92.6 per cent. Regional differentials are relatively slim, with the Mekong River Delta and the South East displaying the lowest school readiness at about 82 and 89 per cent, respectively, compared with about 99 per cent in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas. The Mother’s education appears to have a positive correlation with school readiness. While the indicator reaches 99 per cent among the children of mother’s with tertiary education, it drops to about 80 per cent among children whose mother has no education. Table ED.2: School readiness Percentage of children attending the first grade of primary school who attended pre-school the previous year, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of children attending first grade who attended preschool in the previous year1 Number of children attending the first grade of primary school Sex Male 91.9 425 Female 93.4 357 Region Red River Delta 97.5 133 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 98.5 149 North Central area and Central Coastal area 95.8 154 Central Highlands 94.7 64 South East 89. 124 Mekong River Delta 81.9 159 Area Urban 94 195 Rural 92.1 588 Mother's education None 79.5 82 Primary 87.1 180 lower Secondary 95.5 346 Upper Secondary 98.2 83 Tertiary 99 92 Wealth index quintile Poorest 92.4 230 Second 88.8 145 Middle 90.3 148 Fourth 94.6 136 Richest 97.9 124 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 92.6 631 Ethnic Minorities 92.6 152 Total 92.6 783 1 MICS indicator 7.2 158 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Primary and Secondary School Participation Universal access to basic education and the completion of primary education by the world’s children is one of the most important goals of the Millennium Development Goals and A World Fit for Children. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative labour and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights, protecting the environment, and influencing population growth. The indicators for primary and secondary school attendance include: ● Net intake rate in primary education ● Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) ● Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) ● Female to male education ratio (or gender parity index - GPI) in primary and secondary school The indicators of school progression include: ● Children reaching last grade of primary ● Primary completion rate ● Transition rate to secondary school In Viet Nam, the primary school entry age is 6 years and primary school ages are from 6 to 10 years. Table Ed.3 shows information about children’s entry to primary school. Among children who are of primary school entry age in Viet Nam, about 95 per cent are attending the first grade of primary school. differentials by background characteristics are generally small or almost non-existent. For example, 95.9 per cent of boys of primary school entry age entered grade 1, compared with a similar 93.9 per cent of girls. With all regions showing a percentage above 90, the indicator on primary school entry reveals virtually no regional disparities. The largest correlate of primary school entry observed was mother’s education. In particular children of mothers with no education indicate low primary school entry of about 78.2 per cent. A substantially higher figure, 97.8 per cent and above is observed for children of mothers with lower secondary education and above. 159VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table ED.3: Primary school entry Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 1 (net intake rate), Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 11 Number of children of primary school entry age Sex Male 95.9 411 Female 93.9 377 Region Red River Delta 98.7 132 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 95.5 152 North Central area and Central Coastal area 92.4 158 Central Highlands 90.4 56 South East 95.4 130 Mekong River Delta 94.9 160 Area Urban 95.8 218 Rural 94.6 570 Mother's education None 78.2 66 Primary 91.5 178 lower Secondary 97.8 354 Upper Secondary 100 92 Tertiary 97.3 98 Wealth index quintile Poorest 90.9 198 Second 93.4 149 Middle 97.6 153 Fourth 100 139 Richest 94.4 148 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 95.7 659 Ethnic Minorities 90.8 128 Total 94.9 788 1 MICS indicator 7.3 Table Ed.4 provides the percentage of children of primary school age, 6-10 years, who are attending primary or secondary school. The majority of children of primary school age are attending school (97.9 per cent). The remaining 2 per cent of children are out of school. By all background variables primary school attendance is above 90 per cent, including region, ethnicity of household head, area and household living standards. The only exception is primary school attendance in relation to the mother’s educational level. Only 88.8 per cent of children of primary school age attend primary school among children whose mother has no education, and the proportion is slightly higher among boys (90 per cent) than girls (87.7 per cent). This is 10 percentage points lower than children whose mother has primary education or above (97 per cent). In the remaining mother’s education groups there is almost full attendance. Other remarkable differentials between male and female are not observed. 160 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table ED.4: Primary school attendance Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary or secondary school (adjusted net attendance ratio*), Viet Nam, 2011 Male Female Total Net attendance ratio (adjusted§) Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted§) Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted§)1 Number of children Region Red River Delta 99.5 366 100 323 99.8 688 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 97.3 348 96.1 315 96.7 663 North Central area and Central Coastal area 98.4 375 98 373 98.2 749 Central Highlands 95.6 142 96.2 126 95.9 268 South East 97.9 293 96.9 260 97.4 553 Mekong River Delta 97.6 401 98.1 363 97.9 764 Area Urban 98.1 497 98.2 476 98.1 973 Rural 97.9 1428 97.6 1283 97.8 2711 Age at beginning of school year 6 95.9 411 94.9 377 95.4 788 7 97.6 391 98.5 331 98 722 8 98.6 356 99.3 339 98.9 694 9 98.9 376 98.7 367 98.8 743 10 99.1 391 97.5 346 98.4 737 Mother's education None 90 164 87.7 171 88.8 335 Primary 97 444 97.1 435 97 879 lower Secondary 99 869 99.5 802 99.3 1671 Upper Secondary 100 242 100 189 100 431 Tertiary 99.5 205 98.7 162 99.2 367 Wealth index quintile Poorest 95.7 474 94.9 421 95.3 895 Second 98.2 387 97.9 381 98 768 Middle 98.3 344 98.6 348 98.5 692 Fourth 100 380 99.4 306 99.7 686 Richest 98.3 339 98.8 303 98.5 642 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 98.4 1649 98.3 1477 98.4 3126 Ethnic Minorities 95.1 275 94.7 282 94.9 558 Total 98 1925 97.7 1759 97.9 3684 1 MICS indicator 7.4 §Ratios presented in this table are "adjusted" since they include not only primary school attendance, but also secondary school attendance in the numerator. Information on secondary school attendance is presented in Table Ed.5. Unlike primary school non-attendance, which is low at 2 per cent, one in five children of secondary school age (about 19 per cent) do not attend secondary school or higher. Of these, only 2 per cent are attending primary school and the remaining 17 per cent are out of school. The largest differentials are observed by mother’s education, living standards, region and ethnicity of the household head. For example, only one in two secondary school age children whose mothers have no education are attending secondary school or higher (48.3 per cent). This is half the rate of the secondary school attendance of children whose mothers have tertiary education (96.9 per cent). There is a considerable 18 percentage point difference 161VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN between children living in Kinh/Hoa versus ethnic minority households (83.7 versus 65.6 per cent). The two regions showing a comparatively lower percentage of secondary school age children attending secondary school or higher are the Central Highlands and the Mekong River delta, with 71.6 and 72.3 per cent respectively. With some exceptions it is generally observed that female secondary school attendance is higher than male. lower male attendance is particularly noticeable among children from the Mekong River delta, among children aged 15, 16 and 17 years at the beginning of the school year, children living in urban areas, and living in Kinh/Hoa households. For example, in urban areas, 90.6 per cent of girls (compared to 84.4 per cent boys) of secondary school age attend secondary school or higher. A 16 percentage point difference between boys and girls emerges among 17 year olds, standing at 72 per cent for girls and 55.4 per cent for boys. A considerable decline in male secondary school attendance is observed as age rises, gradually falling from 92.7 per cent among 12 year olds to 55.4 per cent among 17 year olds, with a very notable break from near parity occuring at age 15. 162 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e ED .5 : S ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge a tte nd in g se co nd ar y sc ho ol o r h ig he r ( ad ju st ed n et a tte nd an ce ra tio § ) an d pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n at te nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 M al e Fe m al e To ta l S ec on da ry sc ho ol n et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d§ ) P er ce nt ag e at te nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol N um be r of ch ild re n S ec on da ry sc ho ol n et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d§ ) P er ce nt ag e at te nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol N um be r of ch ild re n S ec on da ry s ch oo l ne t a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d§ )1 P er ce nt ag e at te nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol N um be r o f ch ild re n R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 90 .1 0. 5 49 9 92 .3 0. 6 51 6 91 .2 0. 5 10 16 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 81 .9 1. 1 47 0 78 .7 4. 5 44 6 80 .3 2. 8 91 6 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al ar ea 78 .6 1. 3 68 2 88 1. 2 65 4 83 .2 1. 2 13 35 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 68 .5 5. 7 22 1 74 .8 4. 4 21 1 71 .6 5. 1 43 2 S ou th E as t 79 .7 0. 9 37 9 82 1. 1 40 5 80 .9 1 78 4 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 67 4 53 6 79 2. 9 43 3 72 .3 3. 5 96 8 A re a U rb an 84 .4 1. 3 72 7 90 .6 0. 9 67 7 87 .4 1. 1 14 04 R ur al 76 .2 2. 2 20 61 81 .5 2. 6 19 87 78 .8 2. 4 40 48 A ge a t b eg in ni ng o f s ch oo l y ea r 11 86 .8 10 .2 35 5 88 .1 9. 4 32 9 87 .4 9. 8 68 4 12 92 .7 2. 3 39 0 91 .6 4. 5 37 8 92 .2 3. 4 76 7 13 88 .8 1. 2 40 7 91 .4 1. 8 39 8 90 .1 1. 5 80 4 14 86 .8 0. 3 44 2 84 .8 0. 5 38 9 85 .8 0. 4 83 1 15 70 .9 0. 6 41 6 81 0 33 0 75 .4 0. 3 74 6 16 66 .6 0. 1 38 1 79 .4 0 43 7 73 .4 0. 1 81 8 17 55 .4 0 39 7 72 0 40 5 63 .8 0 80 1 M ot he r's e du ca tio n§ § N on e 49 9. 3 24 7 47 .6 10 .5 23 2 48 .3 9. 8 47 9 P rim ar y 69 .5 2. 3 71 1 76 .9 3. 3 63 1 73 2. 8 13 42 lo w er S ec on da ry 84 .5 1. 2 11 96 90 .8 1 12 04 87 .6 1. 1 24 00 U pp er S ec on da ry 93 .4 0. 2 36 0 96 .3 0. 2 33 1 94 .8 0. 2 69 1 Te rti ar y 95 .4 0 18 9 98 .5 0 17 2 96 .9 0 36 1 163VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e ED .5 : S ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge a tte nd in g se co nd ar y sc ho ol o r h ig he r ( ad ju st ed n et a tte nd an ce ra tio § ) an d pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n at te nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 M al e Fe m al e To ta l S ec on da ry sc ho ol n et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d§ ) P er ce nt ag e at te nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol N um be r of ch ild re n S ec on da ry sc ho ol n et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d§ ) P er ce nt ag e at te nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol N um be r of ch ild re n S ec on da ry s ch oo l ne t a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d§ )1 P er ce nt ag e at te nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol N um be r o f ch ild re n W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 64 .6 4. 7 66 1 66 5. 8 53 7 65 .2 5. 2 11 98 S ec on d 73 1. 6 62 1 81 .7 1. 7 59 2 77 .2 1. 7 12 12 M id dl e 80 .3 1. 1 53 5 88 .1 2. 1 55 3 84 .2 1. 6 10 88 Fo ur th 84 .9 1. 3 48 5 89 0. 5 50 8 87 0. 9 99 3 R ic he st 95 0. 2 48 6 96 .4 0. 4 47 5 95 .7 0. 3 96 0 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 80 .4 1. 4 23 80 87 .2 1. 5 22 62 83 .7 1. 4 46 42 E th ni c M in or iti es 66 .3 5. 1 40 7 65 6 40 3 65 .6 5. 5 81 0 To ta l 78 .3 1. 9 27 87 83 .9 2. 2 26 64 81 2 54 52 1 M IC S in di ca to r 7 .5 § R at io s pr es en te d in th is ta bl e ar e "a dj us te d" s in ce th ey in cl ud e no t o nl y se co nd ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce , b ut a ls o at te nd an ce to h ig he r l ev el s in th e nu m er at or . §§ Th is e xc lu de s 13 m is si ng c as es (o f m ot he rs n ot p re se nt in th e ho us eh ol d) 164 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The percentage of children entering first grade who eventually reach the last grade of primary school is presented in Table Ed.6. Of all children starting grade one, the majority (99.4 per cent) will eventually reach the last grade. This number includes children who repeat grades and who eventually move up to reach the last grade. The high percentages throughout Table Ed.6 indicate virtually no drop outs in primary school. No large variations are observed among particular groups of children and background characteristics. Table ED.6: Children reaching the last grade of primary school Percentage of children entering the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary school (Survival rate to last grade of primary school), Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage attending grade 1 last year who are in grade 2 this year Percentage attending grade 2 last year who are attending grade 3 this year Percentage attending grade 3 last year who are attending grade 4 this year Percentage attending grade 4 last year who are attending grade 5 this year Percentage who reach grade 5 of those who enter grade 1 1 Sex Male 100 99.9 99.9 100 99.7 Female 99.9 99.9 100 99.3 99.1 Region Red River Delta 100 100 100 100 100 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 100 100 100 99.5 99.5 North Central area and Central Coastal area 100 100 100 100 100 Central Highlands 99.4 98.3 99.3 100 97 South East 100 100 100 100 100 Mekong River Delta 100 100 100 98.7 98.7 Area Urban 100 100 100 100 100 Rural 99.9 99.8 99.9 99.5 99.2 Mother's education None 99.5 99.7 99.3 98.9 97.3 Primary 100 100 100 99 99 lower Secondary 100 99.9 100 100 99.9 Upper Secondary 100 100 100 100 100 Tertiary 100 100 100 100 100 Wealth index quintile Poorest 100 99.5 99.7 99.6 98.8 Second 99.8 100 100 98.9 98.7 Middle 100 100 100 100 100 Fourth 100 100 100 100 100 Richest 100 100 100 100 100 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 100 100 100 99.7 99.7 Ethnic Minorities 99.7 99.3 99.6 99.2 97.7 Total 100 99.9 99.9 99.7 99.4 1 MICS indicator 7.6; MDG indicator 2.2 The primary school completion rate19 and transition rate to secondary education are presented in Table Ed.7. At the time of the survey, 99.6 per cent of children of primary completion age (10 years) were attending the last grade of primary education. This value 19 This indicator is calculated as the number of children (of any age) attending the last grade of primary school (excluding repeaters) [numerator] over the total number of children of primary school completion age (age appropriate to final grade of primary school) [denominator]. 165VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN should be distinguished from the gross primary completion ratio20 which includes children of any age attending the last grade of primary. The gross primary completion ratio is not shown in table Ed.7. disparities in primary school completion rate are observed between Kinh/Hoa (103.1 per cent) and ethnic minority (79.8 per cent) children. No such difference is noticed between male and female children, both having a primary school completion the rate of nearly 100 per cent. Considerable regional disparities emerge in terms of primary school completion, with the Mekong River delta showing the lowest completion rate of 80.8 per cent. On the other hand, the South East region has the highest rate at 113.1 per cent. Mother’s education is positively correlated with primary school completion, with a 25 percentage point difference between children whose mother has no education (84.1 per cent) and children whose mother has lower secondary education (109.6 per cent). The transition rate to secondary school is 98.8 per cent in Viet Nam, which means that nearly all children who successfully completed the last grade of primary school were found at the moment of the survey to be attending the first grade of secondary school. The high transition rate to secondary school is observed across all background variables ranging from a minimum of 93.6 per cent (among children whose mother has no education) to a maximum of 100 per cent (among children living in the Red River Delta, whose mother has upper secondary and above education, living in an urban area and in the middle to richest households). 20 This indicator is calculated as the number of children (of any age) attending the last grade of primary school (excluding repeaters) [numerator] over the total number of children of any age [denominator]. 166 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school Primary school completion rate and transition rate to secondary school, Viet Nam, 2011 Primary school completion rate§1 Number of children of primary school completion age Transition rate to secondary school2 Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year Sex Male 99.6 391 98.6 385 Female 99.5 346 99.1 327 Region Red River Delta 107.3 143 100 139 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 96.3 140 98 127 North Central area and Central Coastal area 109.9 139 99 146 Central Highlands 92 54 97.2 53 South East 113.1 99 98.2 83 Mekong River Delta 80.8 161 99.2 164 Area Urban 109.1 178 99.9 175 Rural 96.5 559 98.5 537 Mother's completed education level None 84.1 77 93.6 57 Primary 90.7 198 98 192 lower Secondary 109.6 329 99.8 334 Upper Secondary 100.3 82 99.9 84 Tertiary 91 51 (100) 44 Wealth index quintile Poorest 88.6 191 95.9 169 Second 97.7 153 99.2 156 Middle 119.9 134 100 141 Fourth 90.9 148 100 137 Richest 108 112 99.9 108 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 103.1 625 99.1 604 Ethnic Minorities 79.8 113 97.4 108 Total 99.6 737 98.8 712 1 MICS indicator 7.7 2 MICS indicator 7.8 §This indicator is calculated as the number of children (of any age) attending the last grade of primary school (excluding repeaters) [numerator] over the total number of children of primary school completion age (age appropriate to final grade of primary school) [denominator]. Note: Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases The ratios of girls to boys attending primary and secondary education are provided in Table Ed.8. These ratios are better known as the Gender Parity Index (GPI). The ratios included here are obtained from net attendance ratios rather than gross attendance ratios. The table shows that gender parity for primary school is 1.00, indicating no difference in the attendance of girls and boys in primary school. However, the indicator increases to 1.07 for secondary education, showing a slight advantage of girls in secondary education. This female advantage is observed by most of the background characteristics, particularly among children living in the Mekong River delta (1.17), children whose mothers have primary education (1.11) and children living in households with near poor (1.12) or middle (1.10) living standards quintiles. 167VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table ED.8: Education gender parity Ratio of adjusted net attendance ratios of girls to boys, in primary and secondary school, Viet Nam, 2011 Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for primary school adjusted NAR1 Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for secondary school adjusted NAR2 Region Red River Delta 100 99.5 1.00 92.3 90.1 1.02 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 96.1 97.3 0.99 78.7 81.9 0.97 North Central area and Central Coastal area 98 98.4 1.00 88 78.6 1.12 Central Highlands 96.2 95.6 1.01 74.8 68.5 1.09 South East 96.9 97.9 0.99 82 79.7 1.03 Mekong River Delta 98.1 97.6 1.00 79 67 1.17 Area Urban 98.2 98.1 1.00 90.6 84.4 1.08 Rural 97.6 97.9 1.00 81.5 76.2 1.07 Mother'seducation None 87.7 90 0.97 47.6 49 0.97 Primary 97.1 97 1.00 76.9 69.5 1.11 lower Secondary 99.5 99 1.00 90.8 84.5 1.07 Upper Secondary 100 100 1.00 96.3 93.4 1.03 Tertiary 98.7 99.5 0.99 98.5 95.4 1.03 Wealth index quintile Poorest 94.9 95.7 0.99 66 64.6 1.02 Second 97.9 98.2 1.00 81.7 73 1.12 Middle 98.6 98.3 1.00 88.1 80.3 1.10 Fourth 99.4 100 0.99 89 84.9 1.04 Richest 98.8 98.3 1.00 96.4 95 1.01 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 98.3 98.4 1.00 87.2 80.4 1.09 Ethnic Minorities 94.7 95.1 1.00 65 66.3 0.98 Total 97.7 98 1.00 83.9 78.3 1.07 1 MICS indicator 7.9; MDG indicator 3.1 2 MICS indicator 7.10; MDG indicator 3.1 168 169VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN XI. CHIld PROTECTION 170 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN birth Registration The International Convention on the Rights of the Child states that every child has the right to a name and a nationality and the right to protection from being deprived of his or her identity. Birth registration is a fundamental means of securing these rights for children. The World Fit for Children states the goal to develop systems to ensure the registration of every child at or shortly after birth, and fulfil his or her right to acquire a name and a nationality, in accordance with national laws and relevant international instruments. The monitoring indicator is the percentage of children under 5 years of age whose birth is registered. Information on birth registration including by selected background characteristics is presented in table CP.1. The births of 95 per cent of children under 5 years of age in Viet Nam have been registered. The indicator shows virtually no variation by sex (94.6 per cent for boys compared to 95.3 per cent for girls) and only minor differences between regions and areas. However, children are less likely to be registered if their mother has no education or if they belong to a household from the poorest wealth index quintile and to ethnic minority households. For example, the difference between children whose mothers have tertiary education and those whose mothers have no education is more than 20 percentage points. Similarly, children of ethnic minority households are less likely to have their birth registered by age 5, with 84.9 per cent of ethnic minority children having their birth registered, compared to 96.7 per cent of Kinh/Hoa children. 171VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CP.1: Birth registration Percentage of children under 5 years of age by whether birth is registered and percentage of children not registered whose mothers/caregivers know how to register birth, Viet Nam, 2011 Children under 5 years of age whose birth is registered with civil authorities Number of children Children under 5 years of age whose birth is not registered Has birth certificate No birth certificate Total registered1 Percentage of children whose mother/ caregiver knows how to register birth Number of children without birth registrationSeen Not seen Sex Male 65.5 27.9 1.2 94.6 1869 60.7 100 Female 66.8 27.5 1.0 95.3 1809 61.3 84 Region Red River Delta 67.8 30.3 0.1 98.2 798 * 14 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 60 33 1.4 94.4 707 (47.9) 39 North Central area and Central Coastal area 67.2 27.1 1.3 95.6 719 (61.2) 32 Central Highlands 65 25.6 1.9 92.4 233 * 18 South East 74.9 20.5 0.8 96.2 572 * 21 Mekong River Delta 62.3 26.5 1.8 90.7 650 53.2 60 Area Urban 71.3 24.8 1.0 97.1 1013 (70.3) 30 Rural 64.2 28.8 1.2 94.2 2665 59.2 155 Age (months) 0–11 58.8 23.8 1.8 84.5 668 66.8 104 12–23 67.9 26.2 1.5 95.7 759 (64.3) 33 24–35 68.5 27.6 1.1 97.2 792 * 22 36–47 67.4 29.8 0.7 97.8 764 * 16 48–59 67.1 30.9 0.5 98.6 695 * 10 Mother’s education None 39.3 32 6.3 77.6 207 (37.8) 46 Primary 63.1 25.3 1.8 90.2 658 60.5 65 lower Secondary 66.3 29.9 0.7 96.9 1479 (67) 45 Upper Secondary 71.4 25.3 0.6 97.3 670 * 18 Tertiary 71.9 26.4 0.3 98.5 664 * 10 Wealth index quintile Poorest 56.6 27.4 2.8 86.8 831 48.9 110 Second 66.8 28.4 1.1 96.2 673 (62.5) 25 Middle 70.5 26.1 0.4 97.1 700 * 20 Fourth 66.4 30.5 0.9 97.8 749 * 16 Richest 72 26.1 0.1 98.2 725 * 13 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 68.5 27.4 0.7 96.7 3143 75.6 104 Ethnic Minorities 52.1 29.5 3.3 84.9 535 42 81 Total 66.1 27.7 1.1 95 3678 61 185 1 MICS indicator 8.1 Note: Figures denoted by an asterisk are based on denominators of 24 un-weighted cases and less Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases Table CP.1 provides additional information on birth certificates and the practice of keeping birth certificates in households. In total, there are 93.8 per cent of children whose mother or 172 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN caregiver reported to have a birth certificate, yet only 66.1 per cent of certificates have been seen by the interviewer. This indicates a relatively low level of keeping birth registration documents in households overall, which seems to increase with children’s age, mothers’ education and household living standards. Child labour Article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child states: “States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development.” A World Fit for Children mentions nine strategies to combat child labour and the MDGs call for the protection of children against exploitation. In the Viet Nam MICS 2011 questionnaire, a number of questions addressed the issue of child labour, that is, children 5–14 years of age involved in labour activities. A child is considered to be involved in child labour activities at the moment of the survey if during the week preceding the survey: ● Ages 5–11: at least one hour of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week. ● Ages 12–14: at least 14 hours of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week. This definition allows differentiation between child labour and child work to identify the type of work that should be eliminated. As such, the estimate provided here is a minimum of the prevalence of child labour since some children may be involved in hazardous labour activities for a number of hours that could be less than the numbers specified in the criteria explained above. Tables CP.2a and CP.2b present the results of child labour by type of work and background characteristics for the two age groups 5–11 years (CP.2a) and 12–14 years (CP2b). Percentages do not add up to the total child labour children may be involved in more than one type of work. Overall, 9.5 per cent of children at aged 5–14 years are involved in child labour in Viet Nam. The percentage of children involved in child labour is slightly different between boys and girls, with relatively more girls involved in such activities than boys (10.6 per cent versus 8.5 per cent). A minor difference also emerges between the two age groups (9.2 per cent for children aged 5–11 years and 10.4 per cent for children aged 12–14 years). Substantial differences in both age groups become apparent between regions, urban and rural areas, mother’s education, wealth index quintiles, ethnic groups, and whether or not the child attends school. For example, in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas, 16.4 per cent of children aged 5–14 years are involved in child labour activities, compared with 4.4 per cent in the Red River delta. Socio-economic status also affects children’s involvement in child labour, with the percentage of child labourers being highest among poorest households (19.8 per cent for children aged 5–14 years) and lowest for children living in the richest households (2.3 per cent for children aged 5–14 years). This percentage is three times higher among ethnic minority children compared to Kinh/Hoa children aged 5–14 years. The overall prevalence of child labour is similar among both age groups (10.4 per cent for children aged 12–14 years and 9.2 per cent for children aged 5–11 years). However, school attendance among child labourers varies substantially between these age groups with as many as 50.4 per cent of child labourers aged 12–14 years not attending school, compared with 18.8 per cent of child labourers aged 5–11 years. Another noteworthy point is that the disparities within groups (e.g: by mother’s education) increase from the 5-11 age group to 173VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN the 12-14 age group. For example, the disparity of 23 percentage points for children aged 5-11 years by mother’s education increases to 32 percentage points for children aged 12-14 years. This is most pronounced with school attendance, where 7 percentage point gap among younger children aged 5-11 years increases to 43 percentage points for older children aged 12-14 years. It clearly shows that children who do not move on to secondary school are working, and that inequalities compound and become exacerbated over time. Table CP.2a: Child labour Percentage of children by involvement in economic activity and household chores during the past week, for the age group 5–11 years, and percentage of children aged 5–14 years involved in child labour, Viet Nam, 2011 Total child labour (5–14 years)1 Number of children aged 5–14 years Percentage of children aged 5–11 years involved in Number of children aged 5–11 years Economic activity Economic activity for at least one hour House- hold chores less than 28 hours House- hold chores for 28 hours or more Child labour Working outside household Working for family business Paid work Un-paid work Sex Male 8.5 3912 0.4 0.8 7.2 8.3 32.9 0.4 8.6 2701 Female 10.6 3599 0.5 1.2 8.2 9.6 46.7 0.2 9.8 2465 Region Red River Delta 4.4 1430 0.3 1.5 2.3 3.9 36.7 0.2 3.9 1000 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 16.4 1299 0.2 0.5 13.5 14 45.3 0.6 14.5 920 North Central area and Central Coastal area 8.9 1636 0.4 1.2 8.5 9.7 42.1 0.1 9.7 1070 Central Highlands 11.5 562 0 1.3 9.4 10 41.4 0.5 10.5 373 South East 6.3 1105 0.5 1.3 3.6 5.4 33.7 0.1 5.4 749 Mekong River Delta 10.9 1480 0.9 0.6 9.1 10.5 38 0.5 11 1054 Area Urban 4.4 1923 0.5 1.1 2.4 4 32 0.2 4.1 1369 Rural 11.3 5588 0.4 1 9.5 10.7 42.2 0.3 11 3797 School attendance yes 8.3 7193 0.4 1 7.4 8.6 39.9 0.3 8.9 5035 No 37.3 318 4.1 1.3 16.4 18.8 24.8 0 18.8 131 Mother’s education None 28.6 695 2.1 0.8 23.8 25.6 42.2 0.6 26.2 469 Primary 13.3 1856 0.6 1.2 10.3 11.9 42.6 0.9 12.6 1237 lower Secondary 6.6 3394 0.2 0.8 5.7 6.7 41.3 0.1 6.7 2324 Upper Secondary 2.9 890 0 0.9 2.6 3.5 31.9 0 3.5 615 Tertiary 2.9 675 0.2 1.7 1.3 3.3 30.5 0 3.3 521 Wealth index quintile Poorest 19.8 1773 0.7 0.8 17.4 18.3 43.2 0.5 18.6 1251 Second 12.1 1598 1.1 0.9 9.8 11.4 46.1 0.6 12 1053 Middle 5.6 1455 0.2 1.1 3.3 4.5 41.5 0.4 4.8 976 Fourth 4.3 1413 0.1 0.9 3.1 4.1 35.2 0 4.1 1000 Richest 2.3 1272 0.1 1.5 1.4 3 29.1 0 3 886 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 7.1 6376 0.5 1 5.5 6.9 38.3 0.2 7 4387 Ethnic Minorities 23.5 1135 0.3 0.9 19.9 20.5 46.1 0.8 21.2 779 Total 9.5 7511 0.4 1 7.7 8.9 39.5 0.3 9.2 5166 1 MICS indicator 8.2 174 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CP.2b: Child labour Percentage of children by involvement in economic activity and household chores during the past week, for the age group 12–14 years, and percentage of children aged 5–14 years involved in child labour, Viet Nam, 2011 Total child labour (5–14 years)1 Number of children aged 5–14 years Percentage of children aged 12–14 years involved in Number of children age 12–14 years Economic activity Economic activity less than 14 hours Economic activity for 14 hours or more House- hold chores less than 28 hours House- hold chores for 28 hours or more Child labour Working outside household Working for family business Paid work Un- paid work Sex Male 8.5 3912 1.9 2.1 23.6 18.6 8.0 73.8 0.6 8.5 1211 Female 10.6 3599 3.7 2.2 25.1 16.7 11.9 85.8 0.5 12.5 1134 Region Red River Delta 4.4 1430 0.4 2.0 11.0 8.1 5.0 87.7 0.7 5.5 430 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 16.4 1299 2.0 2.5 49.5 31.5 20.6 86.1 0.4 21.1 379 North Central area and Central Coastal area 8.9 1636 1.8 3.3 27.1 22.4 7.1 79.2 0.2 7.3 566 Central Highlands 11.5 562 1.8 2.5 30.0 19.7 12.6 72.8 1.1 13.5 189 South East 6.3 1105 5.7 1.8 14.0 12.8 7.1 73.2 1.0 8.1 356 Mekong River Delta 10.9 1480 5.2 0.7 17.8 12.2 10.2 74.6 0.5 10.7 425 Area Urban 4.4 1923 1.9 2.7 11.0 9.6 4.7 72.5 0.5 5.2 554 Rural 11.3 5588 3.0 2.0 28.4 20.2 11.5 81.8 0.6 12 1791 School attendance yes 8.3 7193 1.0 1.9 22.7 18.2 6.5 80.9 0.5 7.0 2158 No 37.3 318 23 5.0 42.8 11.9 49.4 64.5 1.1 50.4 187 Mother’s education None 28.6 695 11.3 2.5 50.6 25.6 33.4 78.3 0.3 33.7 227 Primary 13.3 1856 4.4 2.1 29.4 19.5 14.2 78.4 0.5 14.8 618 lower Secondary 6.6 3394 1.1 2.2 21.9 18.2 6.0 80.7 0.7 6.6 1070 Upper Secondary 2.9 890 0.2 1.4 13.2 13.3 1.0 80.2 0.6 1.6 275 Tertiary 2.9 675 0.0 3.0 1.7 3.7 1.0 77.3 0.5 1.5 154 Wealth index quintile Poorest 19.8 1773 4.4 3.1 51.5 31.9 22.6 81.7 0.2 22.8 523 Second 12.1 1598 5.3 1.6 29.1 23.3 11.6 79.8 1.2 12.5 545 Middle 5.6 1455 1.4 2.9 17.5 14.1 6.6 83.7 0.6 7.2 479 Fourth 4.3 1413 1.2 1.5 11.2 9.2 4.0 80.5 0.6 4.7 413 Richest 2.3 1272 0.4 1.5 3.3 4.2 0.7 70.4 0.2 0.9 386 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 7.1 6376 2.4 1.9 18.0 14.5 6.6 78.8 0.6 7.2 1989 Ethnic Minorities 23.5 1135 4.5 3.8 59.8 35.6 28.3 84.3 0.2 28.5 356 Total 9.5 7511 2.8 2.2 24.3 17.7 9.9 79.6 0.6 10.4 2345 1 MICS indicator 8.2 175VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The percentage of children aged 5–14 years involved in child labour who are attending school and the percentage of children aged 5–14 years attending school who are involved in child labour are presented in Table CP.3. Of the 95.8 per cent of children 5–14 years of age attending school, 8.3 per cent are also involved in child labour activities. The prevalence of child labour among students whose mother has higher education levels is much lower compared to students whose mother has no education (2.8 per cent versus 23.7 per cent, respectively). A similar pattern is observed in the case of students belonging to the richest households compared to the poorest households (2.3 per cent versus 17.6 per cent, respectively). A child who attends school is roughly three times more likely to become a labourer if living in an ethnic minority household. Among the six regions in Viet Nam, the South East and the Red River Delta have the lowest percentage of students who are child labourers, standing at 4.6 per cent and 4.3 per cent respectively, compared to the Northern Midland and Mountain areas, where it is 14.9 per cent. Of the 9.5 per cent of children who are involved in child labour, the majority (83.4 per cent) are also attending school. School attendance among child labourers drops considerably with age, from 94.8 per cent among younger children aged 5-11 years to 61.4 per cent among older children aged 12-14 years. Mother’s education and region of residence also indicate disparities for the indicator. Almost all child labourers whose mother has tertiary education are attending school (95.8 per cent), compared with only 68.9 per cent whose mother has no education. Similarly, almost 97.1 per cent of child labourers in the Red River delta are attending school compared with only 69.8 per cent in the South East. 176 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CP.3: Child labour and school attendance Percentage of children aged 5–14 years involved in child labour who are attending school, and percentage of children aged 5–14 years attending school who are involved in child labour, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of children involved in child labour Percentage of children attending school Number of children aged 5–14 years Percentage of child labourers who are attending school1 Number of children aged 5–14 years involved in child labour Percentage of children attending school who are involved in child labour2 Number of children aged 5–14 years attending school Sex Male 8.5 95.6 3912 84.0 334 7.5 3741 Female 10.6 95.9 3599 82.9 383 9.2 3452 Region Red River Delta 4.4 99.1 1430 97.1 63.0 4.3 1417 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 16.4 95.9 1299 87.2 214 14.9 1246 North Central area and Central Coastal area 8.9 96.4 1636 84.9 145 7.8 1578 Central Highlands 11.5 92.8 562 72.4 65 9.0 522 South East 6.3 94.8 1105 69.8 69 4.6 1047 Mekong River Delta 10.9 93.4 1480 82.0 161 9.6 1383 Area Urban 4.4 97.3 1923 82.5 85 3.8 1872 Rural 11.3 95.2 5588 83.6 632 9.9 5321 Age group 5–11 9.2 97.5 5166 94.8 473 8.9 5035 12–14 10.4 92.0 2345 61.4 244 7.0 2158 Mother’s education None 28.6 83.1 695 68.9 199 23.7 578 Primary 13.3 93.0 1856 82.8 247 11.9 1725 lower Secondary 6.6 98.4 3394 94.2 226 6.4 3338 Upper Secondary 2.9 99.0 890 97.9 26 2.9 881 Tertiary 2.9 99.3 675 95.8 19 2.8 670 Wealth index quintile Poorest 19.8 91.2 1773 81 352 17.6 1618 Second 12.1 94.8 1598 85.5 194 10.9 1515 Middle 5.6 97.4 1455 83.5 81 4.8 1417 Fourth 4.3 97.9 1413 84.1 61 3.7 1383 Richest 2.3 99.0 1272 97.3 30 2.3 1260 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 7.1 96.6 6376 84.8 450 6.2 6158 Ethnic Minorities 23.5 91.2 1135 81.1 267 20.9 1035 Total 9.5 95.8 7511 83.4 717 8.3 7193 1 MICS indicator 8.3 2 MICS indicator 8.4 Child Discipline As stated in A World Fit for Children, “children must be protected against any acts of violence…” and the Millennium declaration calls for the protection of children against abuse, exploitation and violence. In the Viet Nam MICS 2011 survey, parents or caregivers of children aged 2–14 years were asked a series of questions on the ways parents discipline their children when they misbehave. Note that for the child discipline module, one child aged 177VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN 2–14 years was selected randomly per household during fieldwork. Out of these questions, the two indicators used to describe aspects of child discipline are: 1) the number of children aged 2–14 years that experience psychological aggression as punishment, minor physical punishment or severe physical punishment; and 2) the number of parents or caregivers of children aged 2–14 years of age who believe that in order to raise their children properly, they need to physically punish them. Table CP.4: Child discipline Percentage of children aged 2–14 years according to method of disciplining the child, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of children aged 2–14 years who experienced: Number of children aged 2–14 years Respondent believes that the child needs to be physically punished Respondents to the child discipline module Only non- violent discipline Psychological aggression Physical punishment Any violent discipline method1 Any Severe Sex Male 20.0 57.2 58.3 3.9 76.3 5016 18.6 3338 Female 24.4 53.5 51.5 3.0 71.4 4731 15.6 2953 Region Red River Delta 27.5 47.6 55.1 3.3 68.9 1920 17.1 1265 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 25.5 55.1 48.6 4.4 71.5 1709 14.8 1060 North Central area Central Coastal area 15.7 51.9 65.0 3.2 78.2 2062 23.6 1329 Central Highlands 17.0 65.1 61.9 7.7 78.2 702 19.9 391 South East 26.2 51.5 48.7 2.3 69.5 1457 13.8 989 Mekong River Delta 19.5 66.7 52.2 2.5 78.2 1896 14.4 1258 Area Urban 27.5 48.3 52.1 2.0 69.1 2523 14.6 1760 Rural 20.2 57.8 56.0 4.0 75.6 7224 18.2 4532 Age (years) 2–4 19.3 48.6 62.1 2.9 73.9 2205 15.3 1485 5–9 20.7 56.4 60.5 3.4 75.9 3622 18.4 2264 10–14 25.0 58.2 46.0 3.8 72.0 3919 17.2 2543 Education of household head None 17.4 66.4 58.9 8.6 80.2 691 19.0 368 Primary 15.7 66.1 56.2 4.6 80.3 2560 20.4 1580 lower Secondary 22.6 53.0 55.2 2.6 73.2 4032 17.3 2591 Upper Secondary 27.5 50.3 53.7 3.2 68.9 1422 14.2 993 Tertiary 32.3 36.8 50.8 1.3 63.1 1014 13.5 743 Respondent's education level None 13.8 72.0 58.5 10.1 82.8 684 16.1 347 Primary 17.8 64.9 53.9 4.1 79.3 2367 21.5 1463 lower Secondary 21.6 54.7 57.1 2.8 74.3 4408 17.9 2814 Upper Secondary 26.7 47.4 52.0 2.5 67.6 1301 11.9 941 Tertiary 34.4 34.3 49.8 1.6 61.4 986 13.4 726 Wealth index quintile Poorest 16.1 61.3 59.6 5.7 79.5 2287 20.1 1307 Second 18.8 62.7 54.8 2.7 78.2 1996 20.7 1263 Middle 23.2 54.6 54.7 4.3 72.7 1890 16.2 1244 Fourth 21.1 54.9 56.4 2.3 74.5 1886 15.8 1269 Richest 34.2 40.1 48.0 1.7 61.9 1687 13.0 1209 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 22.7 54.4 55.2 3.0 73.4 8304 17.0 5493 Ethnic Minorities 18.9 61.0 54.1 6.2 76.8 1442 18.4 799 Total 22.1 55.4 55.0 3.5 73.9 9746 17.2 6292 1 MICS indicator 8.5 178 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN As shown in table CP.4, 73.9 per cent of children in Viet Nam aged 2–14 years experienced violent discipline, meaning they were subjected to at least one form of psychological or physical punishment by their parents/caregivers or other household members. 3.5 per cent of children were subjected to severe physical punishment and 55.0 per cent to any physical punishment. On the other hand, only 17.2 per cent of parents/caregivers stated that they believe children should be physically punished. This shows an interesting contrast between the actual prevalence of physical discipline (55.0 per cent) and parents’ stated beliefs about physical discipline (17.2 per cent). On par with the proportion of children subjected to any physical punishment, 55.4 per cent of children were subjected to psychological aggression. With the increase in age of the child the physical punishment is likely to decrease, from 62.1 per cent of children 2–4 years of age to 46.0 per cent of those 10–14 years of age. In contrast the severity of punishment is likely to slightly increase for the older children. Severe punishment of children is more common in rural areas, as well as in less educated, poorer and ethnic minority households. Psychological punishment shows similar variations especially depending on the education level of the household head and wealth index quintile. Children in households in which the head has tertiary education are nearly 30 percentage points less likely to be subjected to psychological aggression than children in households in which the household head has no education. Early Marriage and Polygyny Marriage before the age of 18 is a reality for many young girls. According to UNICEF’s worldwide estimates, over 64 million women age 20–24 were married/in a union before the age of 18. Factors that influence child marriage rates include: the state of the country’s civil registration system, which provides proof of age for children; the existence of an adequate legislative framework with an accompanying enforcement mechanism to address cases of child marriage; and the existence of customary or religious laws that condone the practice. In many parts of the world parents encourage the marriage of their daughters while they are still children hoping that the marriage will benefit them both financially and socially, while also relieving financial burdens on the family. In actual fact, child marriage is a violation of human rights, compromising the development of girls and often resulting in early pregnancy and social isolation, with little education and poor vocational training reinforcing the gendered nature of poverty. The right to ‘free and full’ consent to a marriage is recognized in the Universal declaration of Human Rights – with the recognition that consent cannot be ‘free and full’ when one of the parties involved is not sufficiently mature to make an informed decision about a life partner. The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women mentions the right to protection from child marriage in Article 16, which states: “The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal effect, and all necessary action, including legislation, shall be taken to specify a minimum age for marriage.” While marriage is not considered directly in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, child marriage is linked to other rights – such as the right to express their views freely, the right to protection from all forms of abuse, and the right to be protected from harmful traditional practices – and is frequently addressed by the Committee on the Rights of the Child. The Convention on Consent to Marriage, Minimum Age for Marriage and Registration of Marriages is another international agreement related to child marriage. Young married girls are a unique, though often invisible, group. Required to perform heavy amounts of domestic work, under pressure to demonstrate fertility, and responsible for raising children while still children themselves, married girls and child mothers face constrained 179VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN decision-making and reduced life choices. Boys are also affected by child marriage but the issue impacts girls in far larger numbers and with more intensity. Cohabitation – when a couple lives together as if married – raises the same human rights concerns as marriage. Where a girl lives with a man and takes on the role of caregiver for him, the assumption is often that she has become an adult woman, even if she has not yet reached the age of 18. Additional concerns due to the informality of the relationship – for example, inheritance, citizenship and social recognition – might make girls in informal unions vulnerable in different ways than those who are in formally recognized marriages. Many factors can place a child at risk of marriage. Poverty, protection of girls, family honour and the provision of stability during unstable social periods are considered as significant factors in determining a girl’s risk of becoming married while still a child. Women who married at younger ages were more likely to believe that it is sometimes acceptable for a husband to beat his wife and were more likely to experience domestic violence themselves. The age gap between partners is thought to contribute to these abusive power dynamics and to increase the risk of untimely widowhood. Closely related to the issue of child marriage is the age at which girls become sexually active. Women who are married before the age of 18 tend to have more children than those who marry later in life. Pregnancy related deaths are known to be a leading cause of mortality for both married and unmarried girls between the ages of 15 and 19, particularly among the youngest of this cohort. Information about early marriage is provided in Table CP.5. The Vietnamese law on Marriage and Family sets the legal minimum marriage age at 20 for males and 18 for females. Some 8.4 percentage of young women aged 15–19 years are currently married or in union. The proportion in urban areas (4.5 per cent) is half that in rural areas (9.9 per cent), and is inversely related to the level of education and household living standards. As an example, 17.7 per cent of women aged 15–19 years are currently married or in a union in the poorest households, compared with only 2.8 per cent in the richest households. Similarly, 26.9 per cent of women aged 15–19 years with no education are currently married or in a union, compared with only 1.2 per cent of their peers with tertiary education. The Northern Midland and Mountain areas followed by the Central Highlands are the two regions where the percentage of currently married 15–19 year old women is the highest, standing at 16.5 and 11.2 per cent, respectively. less than 1 per cent of women are married before the age of 15. However, 12.3 per cent of women in the age group 20–49 years were married by the age of 18. The indicator is two and a half times higher in rural areas compared with urban areas, with 6.2 per cent of women in urban areas married before age 18, and 15.2 per cent of women in rural areas. yet, living standards, ethnicity of the household head, and most importantly, education display the widest differentials. For example, one third of women aged 20–49 years with no education married before the age of 18 compared to less than one per cent of women with tertiary level education. The percentage of women aged 20–49 years married before age 18 is highest in the Northern Midland and Mountain areas, at approximately 18.8 per cent. Table CP.5 also includes data about women in a polygynous union21. In Viet Nam, polygynous marriages are prohibited by the constitution, which stipulates that a lawful marriage must be monogamous. Yet 2.5 per cent of women aged 15–49 years are in polygynous marriages and/or unions. The differentials in each classification are small because of the relatively low level of the phenomenon overall. Ethnicity does not seem to be a determinant in the incidence of polygyny, with 2.5 and 2.6 per cent of women in 21 Polygyny refers to a form of marriage in which a man has two or more wives at the same time. 180 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Kinh/Hoa and ethnic minority households living in a polygynous marriage or union respectively. Table CP.5: Early marriage and polygyny Percentage of women aged 15–49 years who first married or entered a marital union before their 15th birthday, percentages of women aged 20–49 years who first married or entered a marital union before their 15th and 18th birthdays, percentage of women aged 15–19 years currently married or in union, and the percentage of women currently married or in union who are in a polygynous marriage or union, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage married before age 151 Number of women aged 15–49 years Percentage married before age 15 Percentage married before age 182 Number of women aged 20–49 years Percentage of women aged 15–19 years currently married/in union3 Number of women aged 15–19 years Percentage of women aged 15–49 years in polygynous marriage/ union4 Number of women aged 15–49 years currently married/ in union Region Red River Delta 0.0 2368 0.0 9.5 2037 8.7 330 2.3 1755 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 1.2 1896 1.2 18.8 1630 16.5 265 3.1 1491 North Central area and Central Coastal area 0.4 2429 0.4 8.5 2002 5.0 427 1.5 1674 Central Highlands 1.7 671 1.6 15.1 542 11.2 130 2.0 467 South East 0.5 2080 0.6 8.8 1805 4.0 275 3.1 1335 Mekong River Delta 1.1 2220 1.3 16.3 1940 8.3 280 2.6 1619 Area Urban 0.4 3676 0.5 6.2 3183 4.5 493 2.4 2434 Rural 0.8 7987 0.8 15.2 6773 9.9 1214 2.5 5908 Age group 15–19 0.4 1707 na na 0 8.4 1707 1.5 143 20–24 0.5 1608 0.5 9.3 1608 na na 1.9 828 25–29 0.8 1806 0.8 11.3 1806 na na 1.6 1498 30–34 1.0 1817 1.0 13.9 1817 na na 1.8 1643 35–39 0.7 1657 0.7 15.8 1657 na na 2.9 1530 40–44 0.6 1621 0.6 11 1621 na na 2.2 1456 45–49 0.7 1448 0.7 12.5 1448 na na 4.6 1244 Education level None 6.6 479 6.3 35.9 450 (26.9) 29 3.4 396 Primary 1.0 1900 0.9 21.3 1831 33.9 69 4.0 1626 lower Secondary 0.6 4517 0.6 13.8 4170 19.1 347 2.3 3739 Upper Secondary 0.1 2836 0.1 5.1 1725 3.9 1110 2.0 1413 Tertiary 0.1 1931 0.1 0.7 1780 1.2 151 1.0 1167 Wealth index quintile Poorest 2.0 2062 2.0 20.6 1748 17.7 314 2.8 1558 Second 0.5 2200 0.5 15.9 1831 7.3 369 3.2 1604 Middle 0.4 2429 0.4 11.8 2068 6.0 361 2.3 1708 Fourth 0.6 2479 0.7 10.2 2149 8.9 330 2.1 1763 Richest 0.2 2493 0.2 5.2 2160 2.8 333 1.9 1708 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 0.4 10247 0.5 10.4 8782 6.6 1465 2.5 7277 Ethnic Minorities 2.5 1416 2.4 26.8 1174 19.3 242 2.6 1065 Total 0.7 11663 0.7 12.3 9956 8.4 1707 2.5 8341 1 MICS indicator 8.6; 2 MICS indicator 8.7; 3 MICS indicator 8.8; 4 MICS indicator 8.9 Note: Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases 181VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CP.6 presents the proportion of women who were first married or entered into a marital union before age 15 and 18 by residence area and age groups. Examining the percentages of women married before 15 and 18 by different age groups allows for the identification of trends in early marriage over time. It is not possible to reach any decisive conclusion for women married before age 15 since the overall incidence is very small (below 1 per cent overall). 182 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C P. 6: T re nd s in e ar ly m ar ria ge P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ho w er e fir st m ar rie d or e nt er ed in to a m ar ita l u ni on b ef or e ag e 15 a nd 1 8, b y re si de nc e an d ag e gr ou p, V ie t N am , 2 01 1 U rb an R ur al A ll P er ce nt ag e of w om en m ar rie d be fo re a ge 1 5 N um be r o f w om en P er ce nt ag e of w om en m ar rie d be fo re a ge 1 8 N um be r o f w om en P er ce nt ag e of w om en m ar rie d be fo re a ge 1 5 N um be r o f w om en P er ce nt ag e of w om en m ar rie d be fo re a ge 1 8 N um be r o f w om en P er ce nt ag e of w om en m ar rie d be fo re a ge 1 5 N um be r o f w om en P er ce nt ag e of w om en m ar rie d be fo re a ge 1 8 N um be r o f w om en A ge gr ou p 15 –1 9 0. 1 49 3 na na 0. 6 12 14 na na 0. 4 17 07 na na 20 –2 4 0. 2 56 7 4. 3 56 7 0. 6 10 42 12 .1 10 42 0. 5 16 08 9. 3 16 08 25 –2 9 0. 7 57 2 5. 0 57 2 0. 9 12 34 14 .2 12 34 0. 8 18 06 11 .3 18 06 30 –3 4 0. 8 55 8 6. 8 55 8 1. 1 12 59 17 .0 12 59 1. 0 18 17 13 .9 18 17 35 –3 9 0. 6 50 2 7. 9 50 2 0. 8 11 54 19 .2 11 54 0. 7 16 57 15 .8 16 57 40 –4 4 0. 3 52 5 7. 6 52 5 0. 8 10 95 12 .6 10 95 0. 6 16 21 11 .0 16 21 45 –4 9 0. 4 45 9 5. 5 45 9 0. 9 98 8 15 .7 98 8 0. 7 14 48 12 .5 14 48 To ta l 0. 4 36 76 6. 2 31 83 0. 8 79 87 15 .2 67 73 0. 7 11 66 3 12 .3 99 56 183VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Spousal age difference indicates the percentage of women in a marriage or union whose current spouse is ten or more years older. Table CP.7 presents the results of the age difference between wives and their husbands. 4.8 per cent of women aged 20–24 years are currently married to or in a union with a man/partner who is ten or more years older. This increases to 7.4 per cent for women aged 15–19 years. More women aged 20–24 years live with husbands 10 or more years older than them in urban areas than in rural areas (8.5 per cent versus 3.7 per cent, respectively). 184 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C P. 7: S po us al a ge d iff er en ce P er ce nt ag e di st rib ut io n of w om en c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on a ge d 15 –1 9 ye ar s an d 20 –2 4 ye ar s ac co rd in g to th e ag e di ffe re nc e w ith th ei r h us ba nd o r p ar tn er , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on w om en a ge d 15 –1 9 ye ar s w ho se h us ba nd o r p ar tn er is : N um be r of w om en ag ed 1 5– 19 y ea rs cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in u ni on Pe rc en ta ge o f c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on w om en a ge d 20 –2 4 ye ar s w ho se h us ba nd o r p ar tn er is : N um be r o f w om en a ge d 20 –2 4 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in un io n yo un ge r 0– 4 ye ar s ol de r 5– 9 ye ar s ol de r 10 + ye ar s ol de r1 H us ba nd / pa rtn er 's a ge un kn ow n To ta l yo un ge r 0– 4 ye ar s ol de r 5– 9 ye ar s ol de r 10 + ye ar s ol de r2 H us ba nd / pa rtn er 's a ge un kn ow n To ta l R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta (0 ) (3 9. 6) (5 6. 4) (4 .1 ) (0 ) (1 00 ) 29 4. 4 61 .3 30 2. 2 2. 1 10 0 18 7 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s (7 .2 ) (5 6. 2) (3 0. 5) (6 .1 ) (0 ) (1 00 ) 44 15 .2 64 .4 19 .8 0. 5 0. 2 10 0 17 2 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a * * * * * * 21 2. 9 64 .0 30 .4 2. 6 0. 0 10 0 14 3 C en tra l H ig hl an ds * * * * * * 15 (7 .5 ) (5 2. 1) (3 2. 2) (6 .7 ) (1 .5 ) (1 00 .) 48 S ou th E as t * * * * * * 11 9. 8 50 .3 24 .8 15 .1 0. 0 10 0 11 7 M ek on g R iv er D el ta * * * * * * 23 13 .3 53 .1 27 6. 6 0. 0 10 0 16 1 A re a U rb an * * * * * * 22 9. 7 52 .7 27 8. 5 2. 1 10 0 19 5 R ur al 4. 6 53 35 7. 1 0. 4 10 0 12 1 8. 9 60 .6 26 .7 3. 7 0. 1 10 0 63 3 Ed uc at io n le ve l N on e * * * * * * 8 (4 0. 7) (3 7. 3) (1 9. 8) (0 ) (2 .2 ) (1 00 ) 32 P rim ar y * * * * * * 23 6. 5 61 .1 25 .8 6. 2 0. 3 10 0 93 lo w er S ec on da ry 1. 9 45 .3 46 .9 5. 9 0 10 0 66 6. 1 60 .8 26 .8 5. 8 0. 6 10 0 35 0 U pp er S ec on da ry (0 .6 ) (6 0. 7) (2 8. 3) (9 .4 ) (1 .1 ) (1 00 ) 45 11 .6 57 .7 26 .6 3. 9 0. 3 10 0 23 9 Te rti ar y 6. 4 58 .6 29 .8 4. 2 1. 0 10 0 11 4 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 9. 7 57 .0 30 .6 2. 7 0 10 0 55 15 .0 62 .7 19 .3 2. 4 0. 5 10 0 17 9 S ec on d (0 ) (5 7. 7) (3 5. 8) (6 .5 ) (0 ) (1 00 ) 27 8. 6 65 .4 25 .0 1. 0 0. 0 10 0 17 1 M id dl e * * * * * * 22 5. 2 57 .4 29 .7 6. 6 1. 2 10 0 17 0 Fo ur th (0 ) (4 1. 7) (4 2. 6) (1 5. 6) (0 ) (1 00 ) 29 7. 9 58 .1 28 .2 5. 8 0. 0 10 0 20 0 R ic he st * * * * * * 9 8. 5 44 .7 34 .7 10 .4 1. 8 10 0 10 8 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d 1. 7 45 .7 44 .2 8. 4 0 10 0 96 7. 4 57 .5 29 .2 5. 4 0. 6 10 0 68 2 (8 .8 ) (6 3. 6) (2 1. 2) (5 .4 ) (1 ) (1 00 ) 47 16 .8 64 .6 15 .6 2. 4 0. 7 10 0 14 6 To ta l 4. 0 51 .5 36 .7 7. 4 0. 3 10 0 14 3 9. 1 58 .7 26 .8 4. 8 0. 6 10 0 82 8 1 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .1 0a ; 2 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .1 0b N ot e: Fi gu re s de no te d by a n as te ris k ar e ba se d on d en om in at or s of 2 4 un -w ei gh te d ca se s an d le ss Fi gu re s sh ow n in p ar en th es is a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 5- 49 u n- w ei gh te d ca se s 185VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Domestic Violence A number of questions were asked to women aged 15–49 years to assess their attitudes towards whether husbands are justified to hit or beat their wives/partners for a variety of reasons. These questions were asked to have an indication of cultural beliefs that tend to be associated with the prevalence of violence against women by their husbands/partners. The main assumption here is that women that agree with the statements indicating that husbands/partners are justified to beat their wives/partners under the situations described in reality tend to be abused by their own husbands/partners. The responses to these questions can be found in Table CP.8. More than one third of women in Viet Nam feel that a husband/partner has a right to hit or beat his wife/partner for at least one of the following five reasons: if she (1) goes out without telling him; (2) neglects the children; (3) argues with him; (4) refuses sex with him; (5) burns the food. Women who approve of their partner’s violence, in most cases agree and justify violence in instances of when they neglect the children (26.8 per cent), or if they demonstrate their autonomy, e.g. by arguing with them (20.6 per cent). Roughly 14 per cent of women believe that a partner/husband has a right to hit or beat his partner/wife if she goes out without telling him and almost 6 per cent if she refuses to have sex with him. Some 3.2 per cent of women believe that a husband or partner is justified to hit his partner or wife for burning the food. Acceptance of domestic violence is more present among the poorest, less educated, and ethnic minority households. For example, nearly half of all the women living in the poorest households agree that a husband is justified in beating his wife for any of the above reasons, compared with 20.1 per cent of women who share that opinion in the richest households. Similarly, women in rural areas are more likely to have an accepting attitude towards violence than in urban areas (39.8 versus 27.3 per cent, respectively). Appreciable differences also emerge between regions, with three out of six regions, namely the North Central area and Central Coastal area, the Northern Midland and Mountain areas, and the Mekong River Delta revealing the highest percentage of women with an accepting attitude towards domestic violence, at above 40 per cent. However, the most considerable disparities in the acceptance of violence are by the woman’s level of education: more than one in two women aged 15–49 years with no education state an accepting attitude compared to one in six women with tertiary education. It is noteworthy to see that acceptance of domestic violence dose not decrease over time as the percentage of women who accept it holds fairly constant over all age cohorts. 186 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CP.8: Attitudes toward domestic violence Percentage of women aged 15–49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife/partner in various circumstances, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of women aged 15–49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife/partner: Number of women aged 15–49 years If goes out without telling him If she neglects the children If she argues with him If she refuses sex with him If she burns the food For any of these reasons1 Region Red River Delta 7.3 19.3 16.4 2.7 0.7 27.4 2368 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 18.0 33.1 27.4 11.0 5.0 43.5 1896 North Central area and Central Coastal area 15.0 30.3 27.7 5.9 4.5 44.4 2429 Central Highlands 15.0 23.9 26 6.5 3.0 36.3 671 South East 5.4 16.5 9.6 2.4 0.6 21.9 2080 Mekong River Delta 22.3 35.9 20.0 7.3 5.3 41.8 2220 Area Urban 8.9 21.4 12.8 2.9 1.8 27.3 3676 Rural 15.8 29.2 24.2 7.0 3.8 39.8 7987 Age group 15–19 10.8 28.3 18.4 3.9 2.1 34.5 1707 20–24 11.0 24.8 17.4 3.8 2.0 32.1 1608 25–29 12.1 24.5 18.7 5.2 2.3 33.8 1806 30–34 13.7 25.8 21.2 5.3 4.2 36.3 1817 35–39 15.8 26.8 21.4 6.4 2.8 36.6 1657 40–44 17.5 28.9 24.4 8.0 4.4 39.9 1621 45–49 14.6 28.7 23.0 8.1 4.6 38.0 1448 Marital/Union status Currently married/in union 14.6 27.5 22.3 6.5 3.5 37.6 8341 Widowed 15.0 28.2 19.2 10.9 5.0 34.6 223 Divorced 22.1 35 23.8 6.6 4.3 42.9 148 Separated 16.9 33.1 24.4 8.5 3.2 44.1 101 Never married/in union 9.9 24.0 15.4 3.0 2.1 30.1 2849 Education level None 32.8 41.2 39.0 18.4 8.8 55 479 Primary 23.8 36.8 26.3 10.6 6.0 46.3 1900 lower Secondary 14.9 29.4 25.0 6.1 3.5 41.0 4517 Upper Secondary 8.7 23.7 15.6 2.9 1.3 30.7 2836 Tertiary 3.1 11.6 7.5 1.2 1.0 16.3 1931 Wealth index quintile Poorest 22.3 35.8 31.6 10.9 5.9 48.8 2062 Second 16.8 32.8 26.1 7.8 4.1 43.5 2200 Middle 14.7 29.3 21.5 5.7 3.3 38.3 2429 Fourth 11.2 23.5 16.8 3.1 2.1 31.6 2479 Richest 4.8 14.7 9.3 2.3 1.1 20.1 2493 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 12.3 25.6 19.4 4.6 2.9 34.3 10247 Ethnic Minorities 22.6 35.4 29.1 13.7 5.2 47.2 1416 Total 13.6 26.8 20.6 5.7 3.2 35.8 11663 1 MICS indicator 8.14 187VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Orphanhood According to the Framework for the Protection, Care and Support of Orphans and Vulnerable Children living in a World with HIV and AIdS (July 2004) orphanhood is defined as follows: “Maternal orphans are children whose mother has died (includes double orphans), paternal orphans are children whose father has died (includes double orphans), double orphans are children whose mothers and fathers have died.” In MICS an orphan is defined as a child under 18 years of age whose mother, father or both parents have died from any cause. Children who are orphaned may be at increased risk of neglect or exploitation if the parents are not available to assist them. Monitoring the variations in different outcomes for orphans and comparing them to their peers gives us a measure of how well communities and governments are responding to their needs. Children’s living arrangements (living with neither parent, mother only, or father only) and children with at least one parent dead are presented in Table CP.9. In Viet Nam, 83.7 percent of children aged 0–17 years live with both parents while 5.2 per cent live with neither parent. Some 5.7 per cent live only with their mother even though the father is alive and 2.4 per cent live with their mother only when the father is dead. 1.8 per cent live only with their father even though the mother is alive and 0.7 per cent live with their father only when the mother is dead. About 5.3 per cent do not live with a biological parent and this percentage is highest in the Mekong River delta (8.8 per cent), and lowest in the Central Highlands (2.3 per cent). Some 3.9 per cent of children have one or both parents dead. The percentage is 6.3 per cent among the poorest households and decreases to 3.5 per cent for the richest households. 188 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e C P. 9: C hi ld re n' s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts a nd o rp ha nh oo d P er ce nt ag e di st rib ut io n of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –1 7 ye ar s ac co rd in g to li vi ng a rr an ge m en ts , p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –1 7 ye ar s in h ou se ho ld s no t l iv in g w ith a b io lo gi ca l p ar en t a nd p er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ho h av e on e or b ot h pa re nt s de ad , V ie t N am 2 01 1 li vi ng w ith b ot h pa re nt s Li vi ng w ith n ei th er p ar en t Li vi ng w ith m ot he r on ly Li vi ng w ith fa th er on ly Im po ss ib le to de te rm in e T ot al N ot li vi ng w ith a bi ol og ic al pa re nt 1 O ne o r bo th pa re nt s de ad 2 N um be r of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –1 7 ye ar s O nl y fa th er al iv e O nl y m ot he r al iv e b ot h ar e al iv e b ot h ar e de ad Fa th er al iv e Fa th er de ad M ot he r al iv e M ot he r de ad Se x M al e 83 .4 0. 1 0. 5 4. 4 0. 3 5. 5 2. 4 2. 1 0. 7 0. 5 10 0 5. 3 4. 0 70 02 Fe m al e 83 .9 0. 1 0. 4 4. 4 0. 3 5. 9 2. 3 1. 5 0. 6 0. 7 10 0 5. 2 3. 7 65 93 R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 82 .6 0. 1 0. 5 3. 2 0. 5 8. 5 1. 7 1. 6 0. 5 0. 7 10 0 4. 4 3. 3 26 89 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 86 .3 0. 1 0. 3 3. 6 0. 1 4. 4 2. 3 1. 5 1. 0 0. 5 10 0 4. 1 3. 8 24 14 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 82 .6 0. 1 0. 5 4. 2 0. 2 5. 1 3. 4 2. 7 0. 7 0. 5 10 0 5. 0 4. 9 29 62 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 89 .1 0. 1 0. 1 1. 7 0. 3 3. 2 3. 6 0. 5 0. 9 0. 4 10 0 2. 3 5. 0 98 8 S ou th E as t 82 .4 0. 2 0. 5 4. 6 0. 1 7. 4 1. 9 1. 8 0. 4 0. 8 10 0 5. 4 3. 0 20 06 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 82 .3 0. 1 0. 5 7. 7 0. 5 4. 3 1. 7 1. 6 0. 7 0. 5 10 0 8. 8 3. 5 25 34 A re a U rb an 84 .3 0. 0 0. 5 3. 7 0. 3 6. 8 2. 1 1. 6 0. 2 0. 5 10 0 4. 5 3. 1 35 95 R ur al 83 .4 0. 1 0. 4 4. 7 0. 3 5. 3 2. 4 1. 8 0. 8 0. 6 10 0 5. 5 4. 1 10 00 0 A ge g ro up 0– 4 84 .4 0. 1 0. 1 4. 4 0. 1 8. 4 1. 0 1. 0 0. 1 0. 4 10 0 4. 7 1. 4 36 68 5– 9 84 .6 0. 1 0. 3 4. 9 0. 2 5. 1 1. 8 1. 9 0. 5 0. 5 10 0 5. 5 2. 9 37 06 10 –1 4 83 .5 0. 1 0. 9 3. 8 0. 4 4. 2 3. 1 2. 3 1. 1 0. 4 10 0 5. 3 5. 7 38 05 15 –1 7 81 .2 0. 2 0. 4 4. 7 0. 5 4. 7 4. 1 1. 8 1. 2 1. 2 10 0 5. 7 6. 3 24 15 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 82 0. 0 0. 7 5. 1 0. 6 4. 4 3. 8 1. 7 1. 1 0. 7 10 0 6. 3 6. 2 31 05 S ec on d 84 .1 0. 1 0. 4 4. 8 0. 1 4. 6 2. 7 1. 5 1. 1 0. 6 10 0 5. 4 4. 4 27 97 M id dl e 83 .2 0. 2 0. 2 4. 7 0. 2 6. 7 1. 6 2 0. 4 0. 8 10 0 5. 2 2. 6 26 43 Fo ur th 83 .5 0. 1 0. 6 4. 7 0. 2 5. 9 2. 2 2. 2 0. 2 0. 4 10 0 5. 6 3. 3 25 92 R ic he st 85 .9 0. 1 0. 4 2. 7 0. 3 7. 2 1. 1 1. 5 0. 4 0. 5 10 0 3. 5 2. 3 24 58 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 83 0. 1 0. 5 4. 7 0. 3 6. 0 2. 3 1. 9 0. 6 0. 6 10 0 5. 5 3. 8 11 58 4 E th ni c M in or iti es 87 .4 0. 1 0. 3 3. 1 0. 4 3. 7 2. 8 0. 8 0. 8 0. 6 10 0 3. 8 4. 3 20 10 To ta l 83 .7 0. 1 0. 4 4. 4 0. 3 5. 7 2. 4 1. 8 0. 7 0. 6 10 0 5. 3 3. 9 13 59 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .1 5; 2 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .1 6 189VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN XII. HIV/AIdS ANd SEXUAl bEHAVIOUR 190 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Knowledge about HIV Transmission and Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS One of the most important prerequisites for reducing the rate of HIV infection is accurate knowledge of how HIV is transmitted and strategies for preventing transmission. Correct information is the first step toward raising awareness and giving young people the tools to protect themselves from infection. Misconceptions about HIV are common and can confuse young people and hinder prevention efforts or fuel stigma and discrimination. Different regions are likely to have variations in misconceptions although some appear to be universal (for example that sharing food or mosquito bites can transmit HIV). The United Nations General Assembly Special Session (UNGASS) on HIV/AIDS called on governments to improve the knowledge and skills of young people to protect themselves from HIV. The indicators to monitor this goal as well as the MdG of reducing HIV infections by half include improving the level of knowledge of HIV and its prevention, and changing behaviours to prevent further spread of the disease. The HIV module was administered to women 15–49 years of age. One indicator which is both an MDG and an UNGASS indicator is the percentage of young women who have comprehensive and correct knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission. In the Viet Nam MICS 2011 all women who have heard of AIdS were asked whether they knew the two main ways of preventing HIV transmission – having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time they have sexual relations. The results are presented in Table HA.1. In Viet Nam, almost all the interviewed women (95.4 per cent) have heard of HIV/AIdS. However, the percentage of women who know the two main ways of preventing HIV transmission is about 80 per cent. Some 85.1 per cent of women know about having one faithful uninfected sex partner, and 86.1 per cent know about using a condom every time as the main ways of preventing HIV transmission. Knowledge among women about prevention of HIV transmission is above 90 per cent in the Red River Delta, among women with tertiary education and among those living in the richest quintile of households. A 25 percentage point difference in knowledge about prevention of HIV transmission is also observed between women in Kinh/Hoa versus ethnic minority households. The percentage of women who have heard about AIdS in the first place is also lower among ethnic minority households. Table HA.1 also includes detailed information regarding women’s knowledge about misconceptions of HIV transmission. This indicator is based on the two most common misconceptions in Viet Nam (i.e. that HIV can be transmitted by mosquito bites and supernatural means) and the percentage who know that a healthy looking person can have the HIV virus. Overall, one in every two women age 15–49 rejects the two most common misconceptions and knows that a healthy looking person can have HIV (49.6 per cent). Variations in the level of misconceptions are noticed throughout the spectrum of background characteristics. Once again women’s education level and household living standards show the widest disparities. For example, only 9 per cent of women with no education reject the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can have the HIV virus, compared to almost 80 per cent of women with tertiary education. Information on comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission is also included in Table HA.1. The indicator is based on the number of women aged 15–49 years who correctly identify two ways of preventing HIV infection, know that a healthy looking person can have HIV, and reject the two most common misconceptions about HIV transmission. Overall, 45.1 per cent of 15–49 year old women have comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission. This knowledge is positively correlated with women’s education level, with 74.6 per cent of women with tertiary education showing comprehensive knowledge, compared with only 6.7 191VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN per cent of women with no education. Comprehensive HIV knowledge is also correlated with other background variables such as region, living standards and ethnicity. For example, the Mekong River Delta displays the lowest level of comprehensive HIV knowledge among 15–49 year old women, at 33.7 per cent (compared with 57.7 per cent in the Red River delta). Similarly, women in the poorest households show a considerably lower level of knowledge on HIV than women in the richest households (28.7 per cent versus 67.1 per cent), as do women in ethnic minority households (28.7 per cent), as opposed to Kinh/Hoa headed households (47.3 per cent). 192 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e H A .1 : K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on , m is co nc ep tio ns a bo ut H IV /A ID S, a nd c om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge d 15 –4 9 ye ar s w ho k no w th e m ai n w ay s of p re ve nt in g H IV tr an sm is si on , p er ce nt ag e w ho k no w th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an h av e th e H IV , p er ce nt ag e w ho re je ct co m m on m is co nc ep tio ns , a nd p er ce nt ag e w ho h av e co m pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 P er ce nt ag e w ho h av e he ar d of H IV /A ID S Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w tr an sm is si on c an b e pr ev en te d by : P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ho k no w bo th w ay s P er ce nt ag e w ho k no w th at a he al th y lo ok in g pe rs on c an h av e H IV Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w th at H IV c an no t be tr an sm itt ed b y: P er ce nt ag e w ho re je ct th e tw o m os t c om m on m is co nc ep tio ns a nd kn ow th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an ha ve H IV P er ce nt ag e w ith co m pr eh en si ve kn ow le dg e1 N um be r of w om en ag ed 1 5– 49 y ea rs H av in g on ly o ne fa ith fu l u ni nf ec te d se x pa rtn er U si ng a co nd om ev er y tim e M os qu ito bi te s S up er na tu ra l m ea ns S ha rin g fo od w ith so m eo ne w ith H IV R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 99 .2 94 .6 96 .0 92 .1 88 .6 67 .4 95 .1 91 .1 60 .6 57 .7 23 68 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 90 .5 81 .6 85 .8 79 .5 75 .6 57 .4 82 .8 80 .6 47 .7 44 .4 18 96 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al ar ea 94 .4 81 .0 82 .0 75 .1 71 .3 64 .5 86 .1 84 .7 47 .9 40 .9 24 29 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 87 78 .2 77 .3 71 .6 59 .9 63 .7 80 .4 78 .5 45 .1 40 .9 67 1 S ou th E as t 98 .7 90 .8 86 .5 82 .3 77 .1 70 .3 93 .6 90 .5 54 .4 49 .7 20 80 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 96 .1 79 .3 82 .3 72 .1 59 .1 62 .3 85 .5 85 .7 38 .4 33 .7 22 20 A re a U rb an 98 .4 91 .0 90 .0 85 .5 82 .1 74 .4 93 .8 92 .4 62 .5 58 .0 36 76 R ur al 94 .0 82 .4 84 .3 77 .2 69 .6 60 .0 85 .8 83 .3 43 .7 39 .1 79 87 A ge 15 –2 4 96 .5 86 .6 87 .7 81 .1 78 .2 70 .7 92 88 .5 56 .8 51 .1 33 15 25 –2 9 95 .6 87 .9 88 .2 83 .5 77 .7 67 .9 90 .7 88 .5 55 .1 51 .7 18 06 30 –3 9 94 .9 83 .9 85 .4 78 .6 71 .3 61 .5 87 .2 85 .8 46 .6 41 .9 34 73 40 –4 9 94 .7 83 .2 83 .7 77 .5 68 .6 59 .3 84 .2 82 .8 42 .1 38 .3 30 68 M ar ita l s ta tu s E ve r m ar rie d/ in u ni on 94 .8 84 .4 85 .3 79 .2 71 .8 61 .5 86 .7 84 .9 46 .3 42 .3 88 14 N ev er m ar rie d/ in un io n 97 .3 87 .3 88 .3 81 .6 79 .0 73 .8 93 .1 90 .3 59 .8 53 .5 28 49 193VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e H A .1 : K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on , m is co nc ep tio ns a bo ut H IV /A ID S, a nd c om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge d 15 –4 9 ye ar s w ho k no w th e m ai n w ay s of p re ve nt in g H IV tr an sm is si on , p er ce nt ag e w ho k no w th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an h av e th e H IV , p er ce nt ag e w ho re je ct co m m on m is co nc ep tio ns , a nd p er ce nt ag e w ho h av e co m pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 P er ce nt ag e w ho h av e he ar d of H IV /A ID S Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w tr an sm is si on c an b e pr ev en te d by : P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ho k no w bo th w ay s P er ce nt ag e w ho k no w th at a he al th y lo ok in g pe rs on c an h av e H IV Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w th at H IV c an no t be tr an sm itt ed b y: P er ce nt ag e w ho re je ct th e tw o m os t c om m on m is co nc ep tio ns a nd kn ow th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an ha ve H IV P er ce nt ag e w ith co m pr eh en si ve kn ow le dg e1 N um be r of w om en ag ed 1 5– 49 y ea rs H av in g on ly o ne fa ith fu l u ni nf ec te d se x pa rtn er U si ng a co nd om ev er y tim e M os qu ito bi te s S up er na tu ra l m ea ns S ha rin g fo od w ith so m eo ne w ith H IV W om en ’s e du ca tio n N on e 55 .1 32 .2 34 .7 25 .1 28 .1 21 .2 40 .2 36 .5 9. 1 6. 7 47 9 P rim ar y 90 .7 72 .9 75 .6 65 .4 54 .4 48 .6 76 .9 74 .8 27 .1 23 .9 19 00 lo w er S ec on da ry 97 .1 87 .2 87 .6 81 .6 72 .6 60 .3 89 .3 86 .8 43 .4 38 .6 45 17 U pp er S ec on da ry 99 .5 92 .3 93 87 .6 83 .3 73 .5 95 .7 93 .8 61 .2 56 28 36 Te rti ar y 99 .9 94 .8 95 .3 91 .6 91 .6 87 .4 98 .3 97 .2 79 .5 74 .6 19 31 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 84 .2 68 .8 71 .5 63 .4 57 .4 49 .8 72 .4 70 .1 32 .7 28 .7 20 62 S ec on d 95 .5 83 .1 84 .8 77 .4 70 .1 57 .9 86 83 .4 41 .5 37 22 00 M id dl e 97 .1 86 .6 87 .1 80 .5 71 .7 61 .9 90 .2 87 .3 45 .2 40 .8 24 29 Fo ur th 99 90 .1 90 .3 84 .3 77 .5 68 .3 92 .9 91 .7 53 .2 48 24 79 R ic he st 99 .3 94 .1 94 90 .2 87 .9 81 .2 97 95 .4 71 .5 67 .1 24 93 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 97 .5 87 .9 88 .4 82 .4 76 .1 66 .9 90 .8 89 52 47 .3 10 24 7 E th ni c M in or iti es 80 65 .3 68 .8 60 .6 55 .2 47 .4 69 .9 65 .6 32 .2 28 .7 14 16 To ta l 95 .4 85 .1 86 .1 79 .8 73 .6 64 .5 88 .3 86 .2 49 .6 45 .1 11 66 3 1 M IC S in di ca to r 9 .1 194 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The results for women aged 15–24 years are separately presented in Table HA.2. Virtually all young women in Viet Nam, 96.5 per cent, have heard of AIdS. The percentage of young women with correct knowledge about the prevention of HIV transmission (i.e. who know the two main ways of prevention – having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time) is 81.1 per cent. Meanwhile, 86.6 per cent of women know about having one faithful uninfected sex partner, and 87.7 per cent know about using a condom every time they have sexual intercourse. The largest disparities emerge along the education background variable. While one in four women with no education (23 per cent) display correct knowledge, as many as seven out of eight women with tertiary education (88.6 per cent) know how to prevent HIV transmission. With regards to knowledge about misconceptions of HIV transmission, 56.8 per cent of young women rejected the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can have the HIV virus. Women’s education and household living standards display the largest range of differentials among the background characteristics. With 46.6 per cent, the Central Highlands region reveals the lowest knowledge about misconceptions among women aged 15–24 years among the six regions in Viet Nam. A relatively lower percentage is also observed among women living in ethnic minority households (39.5 per cent) compared to those with a Kinh/Hoa head (59.6 per cent). About 51 per cent of young women in Viet Nam correctly identified two ways of preventing HIV infection, knew that a healthy looking person can have HIV, and rejected the two most common misconceptions about HIV transmission. Such comprehensive knowledge is more likely among women with higher education levels (69.7 per cent among women with tertiary education and only 7.2 per cent among women with no education), living in better off households (68 per cent of women living in the richest households compared to 37.6 per cent of women living in the poorest households) and in households headed by Kinh/ Hoa (53.6 per cent of women living in Kinh/Hoa headed households and 35.7 per cent of women living in ethnic minority households). Both in the Central Highlands and in the Mekong River delta the percentage is somewhat lower than in the other regions (42.5 per cent compared to about 50 per cent or higher). 195VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e H A .2 : K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on , m is co nc ep tio ns a bo ut H IV /A ID S, a nd c om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on a m on g yo un g pe op le P er ce nt ag e of y ou ng w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho k no w th e m ai n w ay s of p re ve nt in g H IV tr an sm is si on , p er ce nt ag e w ho k no w th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an h av e th e H IV , p er ce nt ag e w ho re je ct c om m on m is co nc ep tio ns , a nd p er ce nt ag e w ho h av e co m pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on V ie t N am , 2 01 1 P er ce nt ag e w ho h av e he ar d of H IV /A ID S Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w tr an sm is si on c an b e pr ev en te d by : P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ho k no w bo th w ay s P er ce nt ag e w ho k no w th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an ha ve H IV Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w th at H IV ca nn ot b e tr an sm itt ed b y: P er ce nt ag e w ho re je ct th e tw o m os t c om m on m is co nc ep tio ns a nd kn ow th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an ha ve H IV P er ce nt ag e w ith co m pr eh en si ve kn ow le dg e1 N um be r of w om en ag ed 15 –2 4 H av in g on ly on e fa ith fu l un in fe ct ed s ex pa rtn er U si ng a co nd om e ve ry tim e M os qu ito bi te s S up er na tu ra l m ea ns S ha rin g fo od w ith so m eo ne w ith H IV R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 99 .1 94 .1 96 .4 92 .2 90 .1 72 .3 97 .2 91 .6 63 .6 60 .6 67 3 N or th en M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 90 .4 82 .0 86 .1 80 .0 75 .7 62 .8 85 .3 80 .8 51 .9 49 .1 51 2 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 98 .2 84 .6 86 .3 77 .7 80 .4 72 .6 93 .6 91 .6 60 .1 50 .8 71 6 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 89 .5 78 .7 79 .8 73 .1 60 .8 68 .1 83 .3 81 .0 46 .6 42 .5 21 8 S ou th E as t 98 .6 90 .6 87 .2 82 .2 80 .4 76 .2 95 .2 90 .8 60 .6 53 .9 60 4 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 97 .1 83 .4 84 .4 75 .3 68 .6 68 .6 89 .6 88 .5 49 .2 42 .5 59 3 A re a U rb an 99 .4 90 .8 90 .8 84 .8 84 .6 77 .1 96 .7 93 .6 65 .1 58 .3 10 59 R ur al 95 .1 84 .7 86 .3 79 .3 75 .3 67 .6 89 .8 86 .1 52 .9 47 .6 22 56 A ge 15 –1 9 97 .2 86 .3 88 .4 80 .8 78 .3 71 .6 92 .8 89 .5 57 .5 51 .2 17 07 20 –2 4 95 .7 87 .0 87 .0 81 .4 78 .2 69 .7 91 .1 87 .5 56 .0 50 .9 16 08 M ar ita l s ta tu s E ve r m ar rie d/ in u ni on 92 .4 82 .8 83 .5 77 .5 74 .7 61 .3 86 .0 82 .2 47 .9 43 .7 99 0 N ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 98 .2 88 .3 89 .5 82 .6 79 .7 74 .7 94 .5 91 .2 60 .6 54 .2 23 26 W om en ’s e du ca tio n N on e 52 .9 34 .4 32 .3 23 .1 30 .2 26 .5 42 .3 25 .6 12 .6 7. 2 76 P rim ar y 82 .9 64 .6 67 .6 57 .6 52 .0 51 .2 67 .7 69 .5 30 .5 27 .9 19 8 lo w er S ec on da ry 95 .4 83 .9 84 .5 78 .0 67 .3 59 .6 88 .9 84 .1 39 .6 35 .4 83 8 U pp er S ec on da ry 99 .4 90 .8 92 .1 85 .4 84 .5 75 .2 96 .5 93 .1 63 .2 56 .6 15 32 Te rti ar y 10 0 92 .9 93 .7 88 .6 90 .9 85 .0 98 .3 96 .3 76 .4 69 .7 67 1 196 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e H A .2 : K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on , m is co nc ep tio ns a bo ut H IV /A ID S, a nd c om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on a m on g yo un g pe op le P er ce nt ag e of y ou ng w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho k no w th e m ai n w ay s of p re ve nt in g H IV tr an sm is si on , p er ce nt ag e w ho k no w th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an h av e th e H IV , p er ce nt ag e w ho re je ct c om m on m is co nc ep tio ns , a nd p er ce nt ag e w ho h av e co m pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on V ie t N am , 2 01 1 P er ce nt ag e w ho h av e he ar d of H IV /A ID S Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w tr an sm is si on c an b e pr ev en te d by : P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ho k no w bo th w ay s P er ce nt ag e w ho k no w th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an ha ve H IV Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w th at H IV ca nn ot b e tr an sm itt ed b y: P er ce nt ag e w ho re je ct th e tw o m os t c om m on m is co nc ep tio ns a nd kn ow th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an ha ve H IV P er ce nt ag e w ith co m pr eh en si ve kn ow le dg e1 N um be r of w om en ag ed 15 –2 4 H av in g on ly on e fa ith fu l un in fe ct ed s ex pa rtn er U si ng a co nd om e ve ry tim e M os qu ito bi te s S up er na tu ra l m ea ns S ha rin g fo od w ith so m eo ne w ith H IV W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 86 .3 74 .2 76 .6 69 .2 63 .5 56 .8 78 .6 75 .1 40 .8 37 .6 58 4 S ec on d 97 .8 87 .2 87 .2 80 .5 75 .7 68 .1 91 .9 89 .3 53 .6 48 .0 63 9 M id dl e 98 .7 88 .9 88 .8 82 .4 78 .9 71 .2 93 .6 90 .3 55 .7 50 .1 70 5 Fo ur th 99 .1 89 .6 91 .2 84 .4 80 .9 72 .0 96 .1 91 .2 56 .6 49 .9 72 0 R ic he st 99 .0 91 .3 93 .1 87 .0 89 .9 83 .3 97 .6 94 .8 75 .1 68 .0 66 8 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 98 .6 89 .4 90 .2 83 .8 81 .4 73 .4 94 .7 91 .2 59 .6 53 .6 28 45 E th ni c M in or iti es 83 .7 70 .1 72 .9 64 .5 59 .2 54 .4 75 .3 72 .3 39 .5 35 .7 47 1 To ta l 96 .5 86 .6 87 .7 81 .1 78 .2 70 .7 92 .0 88 .5 56 .8 51 .1 33 15 1 M IC S in di ca to r 9 .2 ; M D G in di ca to r 6 .3 197VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Comparing the results between the women in the age group 15–49 years from Table HA.1 and those in the age group 15–24 years from the Table HA.2 reveals that younger women have a somewhat higher level of comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission. The 6 percentage point higher knowledge level among younger women (15–24 years) is primarily on account of their higher level of misconception rejection and correct knowledge that a healthy looking person can have HIV – which is 7 percentage points higher, among younger women than among all women of reproductive age (56.8 versus 49.6 per cent). The pattern of differentials between the two groups of women is similar, with their education, household living standards and ethnicity of household head producing the largest ranges. Major differentials in comprehensive knowledge of young women aged 15-24 by selected background characteristics are illustrated in Figure HA.1. Figure HA.1: Percentage of women (15–24 years) with comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS by background characteristics, Viet Nam, 2011 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is an important first step for women to seek HIV testing when they are pregnant to avoid infection of the baby. Women should know that HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy, delivery, and through breastfeeding. The level of knowledge among women aged 15–49 years concerning mother-to-child transmission is presented in Table HA.3. 198 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Overall, 92.4 per cent of women know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child. The percentage of women who know all three ways of mother-to-child transmission is 49.6, with 90.6 per cent knowing that HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy, 74.7 per cent knowing about HIV transmission during delivery and 55.2 per cent knowing about transmission by breastfeeding. Yet 3 per cent of women did not know of any specific way. The most important differences are between regions and women’s education level. The percentage of women with correct knowledge about all three ways of HIV transmission from mother-to-child is lowest in the North Central area and Central Coastal area, at 41.1 per cent. In comparison the Mekong River delta scores 20 percentage points higher for the same indicator. About half as many women with no education are knowledgeable about all three ways of mother-to-child transmission compared to their peers with tertiary education. Some 74.4 per cent of women living in ethnic minority households know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child, compared to 94.9 per cent of women living in Kinh/Hoa headed households. However, the level of correct knowledge on the three ways of mother-to-child transmission of HIV shows less of a differential between Kinh/Hoa and ethnic minority households: 50 per cent of women living in Kinh/Hoa headed households are aware of all three ways of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, and 46.5 per cent of women living in ethnic minority households. 199VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HA.3: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission Percentage of women aged 15–49 years who correctly identify means of HIV transmission from mother to child, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage who know HIV can be transmitted from mother to child Percentage who know HIV can be transmitted: Does not know any of the specific means Number of women aged 15– 49 years During pregnancy During delivery by breastfeeding All three means1 Region Red River Delta 97.3 94.7 76.4 52.9 46.3 1.9 2368 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 85.6 83.7 70.3 50.7 45.7 4.8 1896 North Central area and Central Coastal area 91.5 90.6 73.2 44.1 41.1 2.9 2429 Central Highlands 83.6 82.8 66.6 47.9 44.9 3.4 671 South East 96.1 94.3 80.2 61.5 55.9 2.6 2080 Mekong River Delta 93.2 91.1 75.5 69.7 61.2 3.0 2220 Area Urban 96.1 94.2 79.4 58.8 53.1 2.3 3676 Rural 90.7 89.0 72.5 53.5 48.0 3.3 7987 Age group 15–24 94.6 93.3 75.9 55.5 49.6 1.8 3315 25+ 91.5 89.5 74.2 55.0 49.6 3.5 8348 Age group 15–19 95.4 94.3 76.7 54.9 48.8 1.8 1707 20–24 93.8 92.3 75.1 56.1 50.4 1.9 1608 25–29 93.1 91.1 76.3 54.8 50.1 2.5 1806 30–39 91.6 89.6 74.4 56.0 50.3 3.3 3473 40–49 90.5 88.5 72.8 54.1 48.5 4.2 3068 Marital status Ever married/in union 91.5 89.6 74.0 55.2 49.5 3.3 8814 Never married/in union 95.3 93.8 76.8 55.1 49.7 2.0 2849 Women’s education None 46.0 44.9 37.8 32.1 28.5 9.0 479 Primary 85.0 82.7 67.8 55.1 49.1 5.7 1900 lower Secondary 94.1 92.2 74.8 56.4 50.5 3.1 4517 Upper Secondary 98.1 96.6 78.2 55.3 49.5 1.4 2836 Tertiary 99.0 97.3 85.3 57.8 53.2 0.9 1931 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 78.8 77.0 63.9 48.4 43.6 5.4 2062 Second 91.9 90.2 71.4 52.8 46.5 3.6 2200 Middle 94.3 92.1 74.9 56.8 50.5 2.8 2429 Fourth 97.0 95.7 79.2 59.6 54.0 2.0 2479 Richest 97.6 95.7 81.8 56.8 51.9 1.7 2493 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 94.9 93.1 76.4 55.8 50.0 2.6 10247 Ethnic Minorities 74.4 72.4 62.0 50.9 46.5 5.6 1416 Total 92.4 90.6 74.7 55.2 49.6 3.0 11663 1 MICS indicator 9.3 200 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Accepting Attitudes toward People living with HIV/AIDS The indicators on attitudes toward people living with HIV measure stigma and discrimination in the community. Stigma and discrimination are low if respondents report an accepting attitude on the following four questions: 1) would care for family member sick with AIDS; 2) would buy fresh vegetables from an HIV positive vendor; 3) think that a female teacher who is HIV positive should be allowed to teach in school; and 4) would not want to keep the HIV status of a family member a secret. Table HA.4 presents the attitudes of women towards people living with HIV/AIdS. In Viet Nam 98.5 per cent of women who have heard of AIdS agree with at least one accepting attitude. The most common discriminatory attitude is that women would want to keep it a secret that a family member got infected with the HIV virus. Only 51 per cent would not want to keep that a secret (note that the MICS3 shows that in Viet Nam, 64 per cent of women who have heard about AIDS would not want to keep it a secret if a family member got infected with the HIV/AIdS virus). The most accepting attitude is caring for an HIV infected family member in their own home: 94 per cent of women who heard of AIdS indicate that they would do that. Believing that a teacher living with HIV and who is not sick should be allowed to teach is accepted by 69 per cent of women who heard of AIdS. Some 64.3 per cent expressed an accepting attitude in terms of buying vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who has the HIV virus. Overall, only 28.9 per cent of women who heard of AIdS expressed an accepting attitude for all four scenarios. The accepting attitude on all four indicators is the lowest among uneducated women, among whom it is only 9.5 per cent. Women who heard of AIdS in the Mekong River delta indicate the lowest accepting attitude on all four indicators among all six regions in Viet Nam (18.6 per cent), with women in the Red River Delta and the Northern Midland and Mountain areas being twice as likely to show an accepting attitude (37.2 per cent and 36.3 per cent, respectively). 201VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e H A .4 : A cc ep tin g at tit ud es to w ar d pe op le li vi ng w ith H IV /A ID S P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge d 15 –4 9 ye ar s w ho h av e he ar d of H IV /A Id S a nd e xp re ss a n ac ce pt in g at tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV /A Id S , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en w ho : N um be r o f w om en ag ed 15 –4 9 w ho ha ve h ea rd o f H IV /A ID S A re w ill in g to c ar e fo r a fa m ily m em be r w ith H IV in o w n ho m e W ou ld b uy fr es h ve ge ta bl es fr om a sh op ke ep er o r v en do r liv in g w ith H IV b el ie ve th at a fe m al e te ac he r l iv in g w ith H IV an d w ho is n ot s ic k sh ou ld be a llo w ed to c on tin ue te ac hi ng W ou ld n ot w an t t o ke ep se cr et th at a fa m ily m em be r g ot in fe ct ed w ith H IV A gr ee w ith a t l ea st on e ac ce pt in g at tit ud e E xp re ss a cc ep tin g at tit ud es o n al l f ou r in di ca to rs 1 R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 96 .8 70 .8 76 .5 56 .6 99 .1 37 .2 23 48 N or th en M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 95 .0 65 .2 69 .9 59 .2 98 .6 36 .3 17 16 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 93 .6 64 .7 67 .2 57 .5 98 .1 33 .0 22 92 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 94 .5 67 .2 72 .6 41 .6 97 .7 25 .4 58 4 S ou th E as t 94 .1 63 .9 70 .5 39 .2 98 .7 20 .4 20 53 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 91 .1 55 .3 60 .2 45 .4 98 .1 18 .6 21 34 A re a U rb an 94 .9 69 .3 74 .7 44 .5 98 .4 28 .2 36 18 R ur al 93 .8 61 .8 66 .4 54 .2 98 .5 29 .3 75 08 A ge g ro up 15 –2 4 94 .1 68 .8 75 .1 48 .7 98 .4 30 .4 31 99 25 + 94 .2 62 .4 66 .7 52 .0 98 .5 28 .3 79 28 A ge g ro up 15 –1 9 93 .8 70 .3 78 .1 47 .7 98 .0 30 .9 16 60 20 –2 4 94 .3 67 .2 72 .0 49 .7 98 .8 29 .8 15 39 25 –2 9 94 .9 70 .3 71 .2 46 .1 99 .1 28 .4 17 27 30 –3 9 93 .2 62 .4 66 .4 51 .5 98 .4 28 .2 32 96 40 –4 9 94 .9 57 .8 64 .4 56 .0 98 .4 28 .4 29 04 M ar ita l s ta tu s E ve r m ar rie d/ in u ni on 94 .2 62 .1 66 .1 52 .1 98 .7 28 .1 83 53 N ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 93 .9 70 .8 78 .2 47 .8 98 .0 31 .3 27 73 W om en ’s e du ca tio n 202 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e H A .4 : A cc ep tin g at tit ud es to w ar d pe op le li vi ng w ith H IV /A ID S P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge d 15 –4 9 ye ar s w ho h av e he ar d of H IV /A Id S a nd e xp re ss a n ac ce pt in g at tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV /A Id S , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en w ho : N um be r o f w om en ag ed 15 –4 9 w ho ha ve h ea rd o f H IV /A ID S A re w ill in g to c ar e fo r a fa m ily m em be r w ith H IV in o w n ho m e W ou ld b uy fr es h ve ge ta bl es fr om a sh op ke ep er o r v en do r liv in g w ith H IV b el ie ve th at a fe m al e te ac he r l iv in g w ith H IV an d w ho is n ot s ic k sh ou ld be a llo w ed to c on tin ue te ac hi ng W ou ld n ot w an t t o ke ep se cr et th at a fa m ily m em be r g ot in fe ct ed w ith H IV A gr ee w ith a t l ea st on e ac ce pt in g at tit ud e E xp re ss a cc ep tin g at tit ud es o n al l f ou r in di ca to rs 1 N on e 79 .2 29 .6 34 .3 51 .6 94 .0 9. 5 26 4 P rim ar y 91 .9 44 .5 50 .9 47 .9 97 .4 16 .2 17 23 lo w er S ec on da ry 94 .1 62 .0 66 .2 54 .0 98 .6 29 .4 43 88 U pp er S ec on da ry 95 .5 73 .6 79 .1 51 .5 99 .1 34 .7 28 21 Te rti ar y 96 .2 78 .0 82 .2 46 .4 99 .0 33 .4 19 29 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 93 .2 52 .7 57 .7 60 .1 98 .5 27 .9 17 37 S ec on d 93 .7 58 .0 64 .8 56 .3 98 .3 29 .3 21 01 M id dl e 93 .5 64 .8 68 .6 51 .6 98 .3 29 .3 23 60 Fo ur th 94 .7 68 .1 71 .9 47 .0 99 .0 28 .1 24 54 R ic he st 95 .3 73 .3 78 .7 43 .7 98 .5 29 .7 24 74 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 94 .4 65 .6 70 .4 50 .0 98 .6 28 .9 99 94 E th ni c M in or iti es 92 .2 52 .8 57 .9 60 .2 98 .0 29 .1 11 32 To ta l 94 .1 64 .3 69 .1 51 .0 98 .5 28 .9 11 12 6 1 M IC S in di ca to r 9 .4 203VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Knowledge of a Place for HIV Testing, Counselling and Testing during Antenatal Care Another important indicator is the knowledge of where to be tested for HIV and use of such services. In order to protect themselves and to prevent infecting others, it is important for individuals to know their HIV status. Knowledge of one’s status is a prerequisite to seeking treatment. Questions related to knowledge among women of a facility for HIV testing and whether they have ever been tested are presented in Table HA.5. In Viet Nam, 61.1 per cent of women know where to be tested, while 22.4 per cent have actually been tested and 9.2 per cent have been tested in the last 12 months. Only a small proportion, 6.6 per cent of women, have been tested and has been told the result. The Central Highlands has the lowest percentage on all indicators among the regions. living standards, are positively correlated with all four indicators. For example, 37.7 per cent of women in the poorest quintile households know where to get tested compared to 82.7 per cent in the richest quintile. Similarly, only 2.8 per cent of women have been tested and been told the result in the poorest quintile compared to 10.5 per cent in the richest. 204 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HA.5: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing Percentage of women aged 15–49 years who know where to get an HIV test, percentage of women who have ever been tested, percentage of women who have been tested in the last 12 months, and percentage of women who have been tested and have been told the result, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of women who: Know a place to get tested1 Have ever been tested Have been tested in the last 12 months Have been tested and have been told result2 Number of women Region Red River Delta 68.8 26.8 11.2 7.9 2368 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 62.2 24.1 10.7 7.9 1896 North Central area and Central Coastal area 53.2 15.8 6.7 4.8 2429 Central Highlands 41.7 8.2 3.2 2.9 671 South East 73.7 28.6 11.5 8.0 2080 Mekong River Delta 54.7 21.8 8.2 5.9 2220 Area Urban 73.6 29.2 11.3 8.7 3676 Rural 55.4 19.2 8.2 5.6 7987 Age group 15–19 56.9 4.6 3.3 2.7 1707 20–24 68.6 25.0 11.9 7.0 1608 25–29 70.1 36.1 14.6 9.2 1806 30–34 62.5 29.9 11.6 7.9 1817 35–39 60.2 25.2 9.6 7.2 1657 40–44 54.9 18.2 6.4 6 1621 45–49 53.1 15.3 6.1 5.9 1448 Marital status Ever married/in union 60.4 26.8 10.7 7.5 8814 Never married/in union 63.5 8.6 4.4 3.9 2849 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 37.7 11.1 4.6 2.8 2062 Second 50.8 15.8 6.3 4.0 2200 Middle 60.0 21.2 9.6 7.3 2429 Fourth 69.2 25.6 10.2 7.5 2479 Richest 82.7 35.4 14.2 10.5 2493 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 64.2 24.1 9.8 7.1 10247 Ethnic Minorities 39.3 10.1 4.5 2.9 1416 Total 61.1 22.4 9.2 6.6 11663 1 MICS indicator 9.5 2 MICS indicator 9.6 Table HA.6 presents the same results for sexually active young women aged 15–24 years. The proportion of young women who have been tested and have been told the result provides a measure of the effectiveness of interventions that promote HIV counselling and testing among young people. Some 60.7 per cent of young women knew where to be tested, while 32.1 per cent have actually been tested. In the last 12 months, 16.2 per cent have been tested. Only 7.9 per cent have been tested and told the result. Prevalence of young women who have had HIV testing in the past 12 months and received the results were different depending on among groups of education, wealth index quintiles, living areas and ethnicity. 205VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The proportion of young women who have been tested and received the result increass by women’s education. The young women with primary education have only 4.3 per cent who have been tested and none have been told the result while 28.7 per cent of young women with tertiary education have been tested for HIV and 16.4 per cent received the result. The proportion of women living in the poorest of households who have been tested and received the result are 10.1 per cent and 38 percent respectively, whit the similar proportion of women living in the richest households are 26.2 percent and 12 percent. Table HA.6: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing among sexually active young women Percentage of women aged 15–24 years who have had sex in the last 12 months, and among women who have had sex in the last 12 months, the percentage who know where to get an HIV test, percentage of women who have ever been tested, percentage of women who have been tested in the last 12 months, and percentage of women who have been tested and have been told the result, Viet Nam 2011 Percentage who have had sex in the last 12 months Number of women aged 15–24 years Percentage of women who: Number of women aged 15–24 years who have had sex in the last 12 months Know a place to get tested Have ever been tested Have been tested in the last 12 months Have been tested and have been told result1 Region Red River Delta 32.5 673 68.2 42.6 21.9 11.2 219 Northen Midland and Mountain areas 42.5 512 58.1 26.7 13.6 6.3 218 North Central and Central Coastal area 23.0 716 56.6 26.2 18.3 8.1 165 Central Highlands 29.8 218 35.3 6.7 1.1 1.1 65 South East 21.9 604 78.5 48.7 21.6 10.2 133 Mekong River Delta 31.2 593 54.8 28.1 12.0 6.3 185 Area Urban 21.6 1059 76.6 43.6 18.2 11.2 229 Rural 33.5 2256 55.9 28.6 15.6 6.9 755 Age 15–19 8.9 1707 39.8 16.8 12.7 7.3 151 20–24 51.8 1608 64.5 34.8 16.8 8.0 832 Marital status Ever married/in union 96.9 990 60.3 32.3 16.2 7.7 959 Never married/in union 1.1 2326 (75.9) (23.2) (17.4) (17.4) 25.0 Women’s education None 53.8 76 (9.8) (6) (4.9) (1.6) 41.0 Primary 59.8 198 30.8 12.9 4.3 0.0 118 lower Secondary 49.3 838 56.6 23.9 11.3 5.3 413 Upper Secondary 18.7 1532 74.0 45.8 24.3 12.0 286 Tertiary 18.6 671 88.8 54.0 28.7 16.4 125 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 41.4 584 38.1 16.7 10.1 3.8 242 Second 30.9 639 54.3 23.7 13.3 4.3 197 Middle 26.6 705 64.3 38.0 19 12.3 188 Fourth 32.3 720 72.9 38.9 17.2 9.4 233 Richest 18.6 668 86.9 53.1 26.2 12.0 124 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 27.6 2845 66.1 36.1 18.1 9.5 787 Ethnic Minorities 41.9 471 39.3 16.0 8.6 1.6 197 Total 29.7 3315 60.7 32.1 16.2 7.9 984 1 MICS indicator 9.7 Note: Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases 206 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Among women who have given birth within the two years preceding the survey, the percentage who received counselling and HIV testing during antenatal care is presented in Table HA.7. Some 93.7 per cent of women who gave birth in the 2 years preceding the Viet Nam MICS 2011 received antenatal care from a health care professional, 20.9 per cent received HIV counselling during antenatal care visits, 36.1 per cent were offered a HIV test and were tested and 28.6 per cent received the results during the antenatal care visits. At the same time 7.5 per cent were offered a HIV test and were tested but did not receive the results. Being tested but not receiving the results occurs to women of all backgrounds. Women who reported having received all three services during antenatal care: 1) received HIV counselling, 2) were offered a HIV test and were tested, and 3) received the result, account for only 16.4 per cent. There are considerable differences between women with different educational levels in receiving HIV related services during antenatal care visits. This disparity is demonstrated when we consider that only 41.6 per cent of women with no education received antenatal care, compared to 99 per cent of women with tertiary level education, a gap of nearly 60 percentage points. large disparities are also noticed among women across different living standards and between women in Kinh/Hoa and ethnic minority households. Only 11 per cent of women in rural areas received HIV related services (counselling, testing and the test result) during antenatal care visits, compared to 29.4 per cent of women in urban areas. 207VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HA.7: HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care Among women aged 15–49 years who gave birth in the last 2 years, percentage of women who received antenatal care from a health professional during the last pregnancy, percentage who received HIV counselling, percentage who were offered and accepted HIV test and received the results, Viet Nam 2011 Percentage of women who: Number of women who gave birth in the 2 years preceding the survey Received antenatal care from a health care professional for last pregnancy Received HIV counselling during antenatal care1 Were offered a HIV test and were tested for HIV during antenatal care Were offered a HIV test and were tested for HIV during antenatal care, and received the results2 Received HIV counselling, were offered a HIV test, accepted and received the results Region Red River Delta 99.0 21.3 47.9 41.5 18.8 294 Northen Midland and Mountain areas 82.8 16.0 25.5 16.7 9.7 285 North Central area and Central Coastal area 96.6 11.0 22.9 16.5 7.3 287 Central Highlands 87.9 2.3 6.5 4.8 1.8 92 South East 99.1 48.9 69.4 57.6 40.5 214 Mekong River Delta 94.4 20.3 31.0 24.3 16.2 210 Area Urban 97.9 34.7 56.4 49.4 29.4 402 Rural 92.0 15.2 27.7 20.1 11.0 980 Young women 15–24 91.4 16.6 33.8 24.9 12.4 468 Age group 15–19 90.7 10.0 16.4 8.0 5.8 71 20–24 91.5 17.7 36.9 27.9 13.6 397 25–29 94.2 21.5 40.2 32.3 17.2 479 30–34 96.5 26.7 35.7 31.8 22.3 283 35–49 94.2 21.6 30.6 22.8 14.9 152 Marital status Ever married/in union 93.8 20.9 36.2 28.7 16.4 1374 Never married/in union * * * * * 9 Women’s education None 41.6 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 64 Primary 93.3 13.5 18.7 11.0 7.9 203 lower Secondary 95.2 16.6 28.4 22.7 12.7 523 Upper Secondary 97.6 23.8 44.0 33.8 17.6 296 Tertiary 99.0 35.4 61.1 52.3 31.1 295 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 78.4 7.8 13.4 9.1 4.0 300 Second 96.2 10.9 17.9 14.3 6.5 263 Middle 97.2 18.4 34.2 23.2 12.7 251 Fourth 99.2 28.2 45.4 36 24.3 270 Richest 99.1 38.4 68.1 58.9 33.3 299 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 97.7 24.1 41.7 33.7 19.3 1158 Ethnic Minorites 73.2 4.7 7.0 2.6 1.1 225 Total 93.7 20.9 36.1 28.6 16.4 1383 1 MICS indicator 9.8; 2 MICS indicator 9.9 Note: Figures denoted by an asterisk are based on denominators of 24 un-weighted cases and less 208 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Sexual behaviour Related to HIV Transmission Promoting safer sexual behaviour is critical for reducing HIV prevalence. The use of condoms during sex, especially with non-regular partners, is especially important for reducing the spread of HIV. In most countries over half of new HIV infections are among young people 15–24 years of age, thus a change in behaviour among this age group will be especially important to reduce new infections. A module of questions was administered to women aged 15–24 years of age to assess their risk of HIV infection. Risk factors for HIV include sex at an early age, sex with older men, sex with a non-marital non-cohabitating partner, and failure to use a condom. 209VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e H A .8 : S ex ua l b eh av io ur th at in cr ea se s th e ris k of H IV in fe ct io n P er ce nt ag e of n ev er -m ar rie d yo un g w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho h av e ne ve r h ad s ex , p er ce nt ag e of y ou ng w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho h av e ha d se x be fo re a ge 1 5, a nd p er ce nt ag e of yo un g w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho h ad s ex w ith a m an 1 0 or m or e ye ar s ol de r d ur in g th e la st 1 2 m on th s, V ie t N am 2 01 1 P er ce nt ag e of n ev er - m ar rie d w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho h av e ne ve r h ad s ex 1 N um be r o f n ev er - m ar rie d w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag ed 1 5– 24 y ea rs w ho ha d se x be fo re a ge 1 52 N um be r o f w om en ag ed 1 5– 24 y ea rs P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho h ad s ex in th e la st 1 2 m on th s w ith a m an 10 o r m or e ye ar s ol de r3 N um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho h ad s ex in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 97 .9 45 6 0. 0 67 3 2. 1 21 9 N or th en M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 98 .3 28 9 0. 7 51 2 2. 2 21 8 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 98 .3 54 9 0. 1 71 6 7. 4 16 5 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 97 .3 15 4 2. 7 21 8 8. 2 65 S ou th E as t 98 .8 46 9 0. 2 60 4 14 .8 13 3 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 99 .5 40 8 0. 5 59 3 8. 4 18 5 A re a U rb an 98 .1 83 8 0. 1 10 59 8. 2 22 9 R ur al 98 .6 14 88 0. 6 22 56 5. 7 75 5 A ge 15 –1 9 99 .2 15 61 0. 4 17 07 8. 5 15 1 20 –2 4 97 .0 76 5 0. 5 16 08 5. 9 83 2 M ar ita l s ta tu s E ve r m ar rie d/ in u ni on n. a. n. a. 1. 5 99 0 6. 4 95 9 N ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 98 .5 23 26 0. 0 23 26 (1 ) 25 W om en ’s e du ca tio n N on e 96 .4 34 7. 7 76 (1 .1 ) 41 P rim ar y 96 .5 80 3. 0 19 8 7. 0 11 8 lo w er S ec on da ry 96 .9 41 1 0. 4 83 8 7. 1 41 3 U pp er S ec on da ry 99 .2 12 47 0. 0 15 32 6. 2 28 6 Te rti ar y 98 .4 55 4 0. 0 67 1 5. 1 12 5 210 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e H A .8 : S ex ua l b eh av io ur th at in cr ea se s th e ris k of H IV in fe ct io n P er ce nt ag e of n ev er -m ar rie d yo un g w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho h av e ne ve r h ad s ex , p er ce nt ag e of y ou ng w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho h av e ha d se x be fo re a ge 1 5, a nd p er ce nt ag e of yo un g w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho h ad s ex w ith a m an 1 0 or m or e ye ar s ol de r d ur in g th e la st 1 2 m on th s, V ie t N am 2 01 1 P er ce nt ag e of n ev er - m ar rie d w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho h av e ne ve r h ad s ex 1 N um be r o f n ev er - m ar rie d w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en ag ed 1 5– 24 y ea rs w ho ha d se x be fo re a ge 1 52 N um be r o f w om en ag ed 1 5– 24 y ea rs P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho h ad s ex in th e la st 1 2 m on th s w ith a m an 10 o r m or e ye ar s ol de r3 N um be r o f w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho h ad s ex in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 97 .5 33 9 2 58 4 2. 5 24 2 S ec on d 99 .3 43 7 0. 1 63 9 4. 1 19 7 M id dl e 98 .8 51 3 0. 2 70 5 10 .4 18 8 Fo ur th 97 .9 48 8 0. 1 72 0 6. 5 23 3 R ic he st 98 .5 54 8 0 66 8 10 .6 12 4 Et hn ic ity o f h ou se ho ld h ea d K in h/ H oa 98 .7 20 55 0. 1 28 45 7. 1 78 7 E th ni c M in or iti es 97 .1 27 0 2. 3 47 1 3 19 7 To ta l 98 .5 23 26 0. 5 33 15 6. 3 98 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 9 .1 0 2 M IC S in di ca to r 9 .1 1 3 M IC S in di ca to r 9 .1 2 N ot e: Fi gu re s sh ow n in p ar en th es is a re b as ed o n de no m in at or s of 2 5- 49 u n- w ei gh te d ca se s 211VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The frequency of sexual behaviour that increases the risk of HIV infection among women is presented in Table HA.8 and Figure HA.2. The percentage of never-married young women who have never had sex is 98.5 per cent. In other words, only 1.5 per cent of never-married women aged 15–24 years have had sex. The percentage who had sex before age 15 among all young women is minimal, at 0.5 per cent. Women in the same age group who had sex in the last 12 months with a man 10 or more years older is 6.3 per cent. It is higher in the age group 15–19 years (8.5 per cent) and lower in the age group 20–24 years (5.9 per cent). Considerable differences are observed by living standards – with the likelihood of women having sex with a man 10 or more years older being five times higher in the richest households (10.6 per cent) than in the poorest households (2.5 per cent). large differentials are also observed by region – with the South East region indicating the highest percentage of young women who had sex in the last 12 months with a man 10 or more years older, at 14.8 per cent, compared to 2.1 per cent in the Red River delta. Figure HA.2: Percentage of women at aged 15–24 years who had sex in the last 12 months with a man 10 or more years older by background characteristics, Viet Nam, 2011 Sexual behaviour and condom use during sex with more than one partner in the last 12 months was assessed for all women and separately for women aged 15–24 years of age who had sex with more than one partner in the previous year. Tables HA.9 and HA.10 include information about women aged 15–49 years and 15–24 years who had sex with more than one partner in the last 12 months. The data on condom use during the last time they had sex with one of multiple partners was excluded due to the small number of observations. Only 0.1 per cent of women 15–49 years of age reported having sex with more than one partner in the last 12 months. The percentage is 0 for young women aged 15–24 years. 212 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HA.9: Sex with multiple partners Percentage of women aged 15–49 years who ever had sex, percentage who had sex in the last 12 months and percentage who have had sex with more than one partner in the last 12 months, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of women who: Ever had sex Had sex in the last 12 months Had sex with more than one partner in last 12 months1 Number of women aged 15–49 years Region Red River Delta 78.3 74.0 0.1 2368 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 83.4 78.3 0.0 1896 North Central area and Central Coastal area 73.5 68.1 0.2 2429 Central Highlands 75.1 69.6 0.2 671 South East 70.2 64.0 0.0 2080 Mekong River Delta 77.2 72.0 0.1 2220 Area Urban 71.5 66.2 0.0 3676 Rural 78.5 73.3 0.1 7987 Age group 15–24 30.9 29.7 0.0 3315 25–29 86.6 83.0 0.0 1806 30–39 96.2 91.3 0.2 3473 40–49 96.8 85.9 0.2 3068 Marital status Ever married/in union 100 93.6 0.1 8814 Never married/in union 3.1 1.5 0.1 2849 Women’s education None 89 80.9 0.1 479 Primary 92.6 84.6 0.3 1900 lower Secondary 88.1 82.1 0.1 4517 Upper Secondary 53.1 49.9 0.1 2836 Tertiary 63.5 60.7 0.0 1931 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 81.7 74.8 0.1 2062 Second 77.4 72.2 0.1 2200 Middle 75.2 69.7 0.2 2429 Fourth 75.7 70.9 0.0 2479 Richest 72.5 68.6 0.1 2493 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 75.8 70.6 0.1 10247 Ethnic Minorities 79.6 74.8 0.1 1416 Total 76.3 71.1 0.1 11663 1 MICS indicator 9.13 213VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HA.10: Sex with multiple partners (Young women) Percentage of women aged 15–24 years who ever had sex, percentage who had sex in the last 12 months and percentage who have had sex with more than one partner in the last 12 months, Viet Nam, 2011 Percentage of women aged 15–24 years who: Ever had sex Had sex in the last 12 months Had sex with more than one partner in last 12 months Number of women aged 15–24 years Region Red River Delta 33.6 32.5 0 673 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 44.6 42.5 0 512 North Central area and Central Coastal area 24.5 23 0 716 Central Highlands 31.3 29.8 0.1 218 South East 23.1 21.9 0 604 Mekong River Delta 31.5 31.2 0 593 Area Urban 22.4 21.6 0 1059 Rural 34.9 33.5 0 2256 Age 15–19 9.3 8.9 0 1707 20–24 53.8 51.8 0 1608 Marital status Ever married/in union 99.9 96.9 0 990 Never married/in union 1.5 1.1 0 2326 Women’s education None 57.2 53.8 0 76 Primary 61.2 59.8 0.2 198 lower Secondary 52.3 49.3 0 838 Upper Secondary 19.3 18.7 0 1532 Tertiary 18.8 18.6 0 671 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 43.3 41.4 0.1 584 Second 31.9 30.9 0 639 Middle 28.1 26.6 0 705 Fourth 33.6 32.3 0 720 Richest 19.1 18.6 0 668 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 28.7 27.6 0 2845 Ethnic Minorities 44.2 41.9 0.1 471 Total 30.9 29.7 0 3315 Tables HA.11 presents the percentage of women aged 15–24 years who ever had sex, percentage who had sex in the last 12 months, and the percentage who had sex with a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 months. Information on condom use the last time they had sex with a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner could not be presented due to the small number of observations. The percentage of young women who had sex with a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 months is 0.8. The low rate of such sexual activity extends throughout the background variables. 214 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HA.11: Sex with non-regular partners Percentage of women aged 15–24 years who ever had sex, percentage who had sex in the last 12 months, percentage who have had sex with a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 months and among those who had sex with a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner, Viet Nam 2011 Percentage of women aged 15–24 years who: Number of women aged 15–24 years Percentage who had sex with a non-marital, non- cohabiting partner in the last 12 months1 Number of women aged 15–24 years who had sex in the last 12 months Ever had sex Had sex in the last 12 months Region Red River Delta 33.6 32.5 673 1.0 219 Northen Midland and Mountain areas 44.6 42.5 512 0.9 218 North Central area and Central Coastal area 24.5 23.0 716 0.6 165 Central Highlands 31.3 29.8 218 1.3 65 South East 23.1 21.9 604 1.0 133 Mekong River Delta 31.5 31.2 593 0.4 185 Area Urban 22.4 21.6 1059 1.3 229 Rural 34.9 33.5 2256 0.6 755 Age 15–19 9.3 8.9 1707 0.5 151 20–24 53.8 51.8 1608 1.2 832 Marital status Ever married/in union 99.9 96.9 990 0.2 959 Never married/in union 1.5 1.1 2326 (1.1) 25 Women’s education None 57.2 53.8 76 (1.6) 41 Primary 61.2 59.8 198 0.9 118 lower Secondary 52.3 49.3 838 0.7 413 Upper Secondary 19.3 18.7 1532 0.5 286 Tertiary 18.8 18.6 671 1.5 125 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 43.3 41.4 584 1.3 242 Second 31.9 30.9 639 0.1 197 Middle 28.1 26.6 705 0.4 188 Fourth 33.6 32.3 720 1.1 233 Richest 19.1 18.6 668 1.2 124 Ethnicity of household head Kinh/Hoa 28.7 27.6 2845 0.7 787 Ethnic Minorities 44.2 41.9 471 1.5 197 Total 30.9 29.7 3315 0.8 984 1 MICS indicator 9.15 Note: Figures shown in parenthesis are based on denominators of 25-49 un-weighted cases 215VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN APPENdIX A. Sample Design The major features of the sample design are described in this appendix. Sample design features include target sample size, sample allocation, sampling frame and listing, choice of domains, sampling stages, stratification, and the calculation of sample weights. The primary objective of the sample design for the Viet Nam MICS 2011 was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the six regions of Viet Nam: Red River Delta, Northern Midlands and Mountainous areas, North Central area and Central Coastal area, Central Highlands, South East and Mekong River delta. Urban and rural areas in each of the six regions were designated as the sampling strata. A multi-stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample. Sample Size and Sample Allocation The target sample size for the Viet Nam MICS 2011 was calculated as 12000 households. For the calculation of the sample size, the key indicator used was the underweight prevalence among children aged 0–4 years. The following formula was used to estimate the required sample size for this indicator: where ● n is the required sample size, expressed as number of households ● 4 is a factor to achieve the 95 per cent level of confidence ● r is the predicted or anticipated value of the indicator, expressed in the form of a proportion ● 1.05 is the factor necessary to raise the sample size by 5 per cent for the expected non-response ● f is the shortened symbol for deff(design effect) ● 0.12r is the margin of error to be tolerated at the 95 per cent level of confidence, defined as 12 per cent of r (relative margin of error of r) ● p is the proportion of the total population upon which the indicator, r, is based on ● _ n is the average household size (number of persons per household). For the calculation, r (underweight prevalence) was assumed to be 21 per cent. The value of deff (design effect) was taken as 2 based on estimates from previous surveys, p (percentage of children aged 0–4 years in the total population) was taken as 8 per cent, _ n (average household size) was taken as 4.25 per cent, and the response rate was assumed to be 95%. 216 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The resulting number of households from this exercise was 2050 households which is the sample size needed in each region – thus yielding about 12000 in total. The average number of households selected per cluster for the Viet Nam MICS 2011 was determined as 20 households, based on a number of considerations, including the design effect, the budget available, and the time that would be needed per team to complete one cluster. Dividing the total number of households by the number of sample households per cluster, it was calculated that 100 sample clusters would need to be selected in each region. Equal allocation of the total sample size to the six regions was used. Therefore, 100 clusters were allocated to each region, with the final sample size calculated at 12000 households (100 clusters * 6 regions * 20 sample households per cluster). In each region, the clusters (primary sampling units) were distributed to urban and rural domains, proportional to the size of urban and rural populations in that region. The table below shows the allocation of clusters to the sampling strata. Table SD.1: Allocation of Sample Clusters (Primary Sampling Units) to Sampling Strata Region Number of Selected Clusters Number of Selected households Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Red River Delta 40 60 100 800 1200 2000 Northern Midlands and Mountain areas 40 60 100 800 1200 2000 North Centra area and Central Coastal area 40 60 100 800 1200 2000 Central Highlands 40 60 100 800 1200 2000 South East 60 40 100 1200 800 2000 Mekong River Delta 40 60 100 800 1200 2000 Total 260 340 600 5200 6800 12000 Sampling Frame and Selection of Clusters The master sample census frame was used for the selection of clusters. Census enumeration areas were defined as primary sampling units (PSUs), and were selected from each of the sampling strata by using systematic pps (probability proportional to size) sampling procedures, based on the estimated sizes of the enumeration areas from the 2009 Population Census. The first stage of sampling was thus completed by selecting the required number of enumeration areas from each of the 6 regions, separately by urban and rural strata. listing and Selection of Households The master sampling frame (based on the 15 per cent sample frame of the Population Census 2009) was up-to-date, and the available lists of Enumeration Areas (EAs) from the 2009 Population Census were used for selecting the EAs for the MICS 2011. Because of migration, it was necessary to update the household lists prior to the selection of households. The selected EAs lists with corresponding maps were sent to the Provincial Statistical Offices (PSOs) for updating prior to the selection of households. For this purpose, PSOs and district Statistical Offices (dSOs) in collaboration with 600 commune authorities (which had selected EAs) updated the lists of households for all selected EAs, with the occupied households. These activities were conducted one month prior to the fieldwork. The updated households were then sequentially numbered from 1 to n (the total number of households in each enumeration area) at the General Statistics Office, where the selection of 20 households in each enumeration area was carried out using random systematic selection procedures. 217VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Calculation of Sample Weights The Viet Nam MICS 2011 sample is not self-weighting. Essentially, by allocating equal numbers of households to each of the regions, different sampling fractions were used in each region since the size of the regions varied. For this reason, sample weights were calculated and these were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data. The sample weight calculation was performed on the basis of strata. The major component of the weight is the reciprocal of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in that particular sampling stratum (h) and PSU (i): hi hi f W 1= The term fhi, the sampling fraction for the i-th sample PSU in the h-th stratum, is the product of probabilities of selection at every stage in each sampling stratum: hihihihi pppf 321 ××= where pshi is the probability of selection of the sampling unit at stage s for the i-th sample PSU in the h-th sampling stratum. Since the estimated number of households in each enumeration area (PSU) in the sampling frame used for the first stage selection and the updated number of households in the enumeration area from the listing were different, individual sampling fractions for households in each sample enumeration area (cluster) were calculated. The sampling fractions for households in each enumeration area (cluster) therefore included the first stage probability of selection of the enumeration area in that particular sampling stratum and the second stage probability of selection of a household in the sample enumeration area (cluster). A second component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non-response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response is equal to the inverse value of: RRh = Number of interviewed households in stratum h/ Number of occupied households listed in stratum h After the completion of fieldwork, response rates were calculated for each sampling stratum. These were used to adjust the sample weights calculated for each cluster. Response rates in the Viet Nam MICS 2011 are shown in Table HH.1 in this report. Similarly, the adjustment for non-response at the individual level (women and children under 5 years of age) for each stratum is equal to the inverse value of: RRh = Completed women’s (or under-fives) questionnaires in stratum h / Eligible women (or under-fives) in stratum h The non-response adjustment factors for woman and children under-five questionnaires 218 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN are applied to the adjusted household weights. Numbers of eligible women and children under 5 years of age were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed. The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each enumeration area. These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal to the total sample size at the national level. Normalization is performed by dividing the aforementioned design weights by the average design weight at the national level. The average design weight is calculated as the sum of the design weights divided by the unweighted total. A similar standardization procedure was followed in obtaining standardized weights for the woman and children under-five questionnaires. Adjusted (normalized) weights varied between 0.081396 and 3.072818 in the 600 sample enumeration areas (clusters). Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting each household, woman or child under 5 years of age with these sample weights. 219VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN APPENdIX B. list of Personnel Involved in the Survey 1. Central Steering Committee: Ms. Tran Thi Hang, deputy director General, GSO Mr. Nguyen Phong, director, SESd, GSO Mr. Nguyen dinh Chung, deputy director, SESd, GSO Mr. Nguyen Hai Huu, director General, department of Child Care and Protection, MOlISA Mr. Tran duy Phu, director, Human Resource department, GSO Mr. Jean dupraz, deputy Representative, UNICEF Mr. Paul Quarles van Ufford, Chief, Planning and Social Policy, UNICEF Ms. Tran Thi Van, Assistant Representative, UNFPA Ms. Geetanjali Narayan, former Chief, Planning and Social Policy, UNICEF 2. Technical Coordinators: Mr. Alexandru Nartea, Consultant, UNICEF Ms. Sigrid Breddy, Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist, UNICEF 3. Data processing/programming/tabulating team: Mr. Nguyen dinh Chung, deputy director, SESd, GSO Ms. Nguyen Thi Huyen Thanh, deputy director, Computer Center Ms. lo Thi duc, Statistician, SESd, GSO Ms. Nguyen Thi Thu, Programmer, Computer Center Ms. To Thuy Hanh, Statistician, SESd, GSO 4. Training facilitators: Ms. Nguyen Thi loan, Statistician, SESd, GSO Mr. Vo Thanh Son, Statistician, SESd, GSO Ms. doan Thuan Hoa, Consultant 5. Report writers: Mr. Nguyen Phong, director, SESd, GSO Mr. Nguyen dinh Chung, deputy director, SESd, GSO Mr. Vo Thanh Son, Statistician, SESd, GSO Ms. To Thuy Hanh, Statistician, SESd, GSO 220 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN 6. Report editors: Mr. do Anh Kiem, deputy director, SESd, GSO Mr. Nguyen The Quan, deputy director, SESd, GSO Ms. Sigrid Breddy, Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist, UNICEF Ms. Michele Schmit, Monitoring and Evaluation Officer, UNICEF Mr. Alexandru Nartea, Consultant, UNICEF Ms. Sarah Bales, Consultant, MOH Mr. dong Ba Huong, director, Population and labour Statistics department, GSO Ms. Nguyen Bich Ngoc, database Management Expert, UNICEF Mr. Tran Chien Thang, Programme Associate, UNFPA Mr. le danh Tuyen, deputy director, National Institute of Nutrition 7. GSO Supervisors: Mr. Nguyen Phong, director, SESd, GSO Mr. Nguyen dinh Chung, deputy director, SESd, GSO Mr. do Anh Kiem, deputy director, SESd, GSO Mr. Nguyen The Quan, deputy director, SESd, GSO Mr. Vo Thanh Son, Statistician Ms. Nguyen Thi loan, Statistician Mr. Pham Xuan luong, Statistician Mr. Than Viet dung, Statistician Ms. Vu Thi Thu Thuy, Statistician Ms. Ho Thi Kim Nhung, Statistician Ms.To Thuy Hanh, Statistician Ms. lo Thi duc, Statistician Ms. Nguyen Thi Hon, Statistician Ms. Nguyen Thanh Tu, Statistician Ms. Nguyen Thanh Ngoc, Statistician Mr. Nguyen Quoc Hung, Statistician Mr. Cao Thanh Son, Statistician Mr. Nguyen Phuong Anh, Statistician 221VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Mr. Nguyen Quang Phuong, Statistician Ms. Nguyen Thi Viet Nga, Statistician Mr. Ngo doan Thang, Statistician 8. Independent supervisors: Ms. Nguyen Bich Ngoc, database Management Expert, UNICEF Mr. Alexandru Nartea, Consultant, UNICEF Mr. Nguyen Xuan Hong, Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist, UNFPA Mr. Tran Thanh do, Expert, National Institute of Nutrition Mr. Nguyen Huu Chinh, Nutrition Expert, National Institute of Nutrition 222 223VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN APPENdIX C. Estimates of Sampling Errors The sample of respondents selected in the Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey is only one of the samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data. ● The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators: ● Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors. ● Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error. ● Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design. ● Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design. For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, SPSS Version 18 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator. Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. Three of the selected indicators are based on households, 8 are based on household members, 13 are based on women, and 15 are based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions. Table SE.1 shows the list of indicators for which sampling errors are calculated, including the base population (denominator) for each indicator. Tables SE.2 to SE.10 show the calculated sampling errors for selected domains. 224 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table SE.1: Indicators selected for sampling error calculations list of indicators selected for sampling error calculations, and base populations (denominators) for each indicator, Viet Nam, 2011 MICS 2011 Indicator Base Population HOUSEHOlDS 2.16 Iodised salt consumption All households in which salt was tested or with no salt 4.5 Place for handwashing All households 4.6 Availability of soap All households HOUSEHOlD MEMbERS 4.1 Use of improved drinking water sources All household members - Use of improved sanitation facilities (shared and not shared) All household members 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Children of secondary school age 8.2 Child labour Children aged 5-14 years 9.18 Prevalence of children with at least one parent dead Children aged 0-17 years 8.5 Violent discipline Children aged 2-14 years 4.2 Water treatment All households members in households using unimproved drinking water sources 7.2 School readiness Children attending the first grade of primary school 7.3 Net intake rate in primary education Children of school-entry age 7.4 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Children of primary school age 7.7 Primary completion rate Children of primary school completion age 7.8 Transition rate to secondary school Children who are attending the first grade of secondary school 8.15 Children’s living arrangements Children aged 0-17 years WOMEN 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence Women aged 15-49 years who are currently married or in union 5.5a Antenatal care coverage - at least once by skilled personnel Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 5.7 Skilled attendant at delivery Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 5.8 Institutional deliveries Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 5.9 Caesarean section Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 8.7 Marriage before age 18 Women aged 20-49 years 8.9 Polygyny Women aged 15-49 years who are currently married or in union 9.2 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people Women aged 15-24 years 9.3 Knowledge of mother- to-child transmission of HIV Women aged 15-49 years 9.4 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV Women aged 15-49 years who have heard of HIV 9.6 Women who have been tested for HIV and know the results Women aged 15-49 years 5.6 Content of antenatal care Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 2.19 Infants weighed at birth last live births in the 2 years preceding the survey 2.4 Children ever breastfed Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 2.5 Early initiation of breastfeeding Women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 9.1 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention Women aged 15-49 years 225VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Children under 5 2.1a Underweight prevalence Children under age 5 2.2a Stunting prevalence Children under age 5 2.3a Wasting prevalence Children under age 5 2.6 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months Total number of infants under 6 months of age 2.14 Age-appropriate breastfeeding Children aged 0-23 months - Tuberculosis immunization coverage Children aged 12-23 months - Received polio immunization Children aged 12-23 months - Received DPT immunization Children aged 12-23 months - Received measles immunization Children aged 12-23 months - Diarrhoea in the previous two weeks Children under age 5 - Fever in last two weeks Children under age 5 3.8 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding Children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the previous two weeks 3.10 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia Children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the previous two weeks 3.15 Children under age 5 sleeping under insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) Children under age 5 3.18 Anti-malarial treatment of children under age 5 Children under age 5 reported to have had fever in the previous two weeks 6.1 Support for learning Children aged 36-59 months 6.7 Attendance to early childhood education Children aged 36-59 months 8.1 birth registration Children under age 5 2.9 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months Children under 6 months 2.7 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year Children aged 12-15 months 2.8 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years Children aged 20-23 months 2.13 Minimum meal frequency Children aged 6-23 months 2.15 Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children Non breast-fed children aged 6-23 months 2.11 bottle feeding Children aged 0-23 months 2.17 Vitamin A supplementation (children under age 5) Children aged 6-59 months - Fully immunized children Children aged 12-23 months - Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks Children under age 5 3.9 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia Children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks 6.2 Father’s support for learning Children aged 36-59 months 6.3 learning materials: children’s books Children under age 5 6.4 learning materials: playthings Children under age 5 6.5 Inadequate care Children under age 5 6.6 Early child development Index Children aged 36-59 months 4.4 Safe disposal of child’s faeces Children aged 0-2 226 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .2 : S am pl in g er ro rs : T ot al s am pl e S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of v ar ia tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot of d es ig n ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se H O U S E H O lD S Io di se d sa lt co ns um pt io n N U .9 0. 45 1 0. 00 9 0. 02 0 3. 63 6 1. 90 7 1 1, 54 5 1 1, 55 6 0. 43 3 0. 46 9 P la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng W S .9 0. 97 9 0. 00 2 0. 00 2 2. 03 2 1. 42 6 1 1, 61 4 1 1, 61 4 0. 97 5 0. 98 3 Av ai la bi lit y of s oa p W S .1 0 0. 95 1 0. 00 2 0. 00 3 1. 48 5 1. 21 9 1 1, 61 4 1 1, 61 4 0. 94 6 0. 95 6 C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 4 0. 73 9 0. 00 8 0. 01 0 1. 93 4 1. 39 1 9 ,7 46 6, 42 4 0. 72 4 0. 75 4 H O U S E H O lD M E M b E R S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es W S .1 0. 92 0 0. 00 6 0. 00 7 6. 09 1 2. 46 8 4 3, 99 8 1 1, 61 4 0. 90 8 0. 93 3 W at er tr ea tm en t W S .2 0. 89 6 0. 02 0 0. 02 3 3. 86 7 1. 96 6 3 ,5 02 87 9 0. 85 6 0. 93 7 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s (s ha re d an d no t s ha re d) W S .5 0. 78 0 0. 00 8 0. 01 1 4. 70 8 2. 17 0 4 3, 99 8 1 1, 61 4 0. 76 4 0. 79 7 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss E d .2 0. 92 6 0. 01 0 0. 01 1 1. 28 7 1. 13 5 7 8, 27 3 83 9 0. 90 5 0. 94 6 N et in ta ke ra te in p rim ar y ed uc at io n E d .3 0. 94 9 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 04 5 1. 02 2 7 8, 78 4 82 0 0. 93 4 0. 96 5 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .4 0. 97 9 0. 00 3 0. 00 3 1. 34 4 1. 15 9 36 8, 41 4 3, 84 8 0. 97 3 0. 98 4 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .5 0. 81 0 0. 00 8 0. 01 0 2. 28 7 1. 51 2 5 45 ,1 79 5 ,7 86 0. 79 5 0. 82 6 Tr an si tio n ra te to s ec on da ry s ch oo l E d .7 0. 98 8 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 1. 02 6 1. 01 3 7 1, 18 1 73 0 0. 98 0 0. 99 6 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 2 0. 09 5 0. 00 5 0. 05 6 2. 61 0 1. 61 6 75 1, 11 2 7, 86 8 0. 08 5 0. 10 6 C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts C P. 9 0. 05 3 0. 00 3 0. 05 7 2. 56 5 1. 60 2 1, 35 9, 43 3 1 4, 18 3 0. 04 7 0. 05 9 P re va le nc e of c hi ld re n w ith a t l ea st o ne p ar en t d ea d C P. 9 0. 03 9 0. 00 3 0. 07 3 3. 02 7 1. 74 0 1, 35 9, 43 3 1 4, 18 3 0. 03 3 0. 04 4 W O M E N A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge R H .6 0. 93 7 0. 00 9 0. 01 0 1. 99 9 1. 41 4 13 8, 25 2 1, 36 3 0. 91 9 0. 95 6 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .9 0. 92 9 0. 00 9 0. 01 0 1. 74 5 1. 32 1 13 8, 25 2 1, 36 3 0. 91 0 0. 94 7 In st itu tio na l d el iv er ie s R H .1 0 0. 92 4 0. 00 9 0. 01 0 1. 69 6 1. 30 2 13 8, 25 2 1, 36 3 0. 90 5 0. 94 2 C ae sa re an s ec tio n R H .9 0. 20 0 0. 01 2 0. 06 2 1. 29 9 1. 14 0 13 8, 25 2 1, 36 3 0. 17 5 0. 22 4 C on te nt o f a nt en at al c ar e R H .8 0. 42 5 0. 01 5 0. 03 6 1. 31 5 1. 14 7 13 8, 25 2 1, 36 3 0. 39 5 0. 45 6 In fa nt s w ei gh ed a t b irt h N U .1 1 0. 93 2 0. 00 9 0. 01 0 1. 77 4 1. 33 2 13 8, 25 2 1, 36 3 0. 91 4 0. 95 1 C hi ld re n ev er b re as tfe d N U .2 0. 98 0 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 1. 14 6 1. 07 0 13 8, 25 2 1, 36 3 0. 97 2 0. 98 8 227VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .2 : S am pl in g er ro rs : T ot al s am pl e S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of v ar ia tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot of d es ig n ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g N U .2 0. 39 7 0. 01 5 0. 03 8 1. 32 3 1. 15 0 13 8, 25 2 1, 36 3 0. 36 6 0. 42 7 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .4 0. 77 8 0. 00 6 0. 00 7 1. 53 3 1. 23 8 83 4, 13 5 8, 19 4 0. 76 6 0. 78 9 A du lt lit er ac y E d .1 0. 96 4 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 2. 75 8 1. 66 1 33 1, 53 7 3, 39 8 0. 95 4 0. 97 5 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 5 0. 12 3 0. 00 6 0. 04 5 2. 79 2 1. 67 1 99 5, 60 7 9, 89 4 0. 11 2 0. 13 4 P ol yg yn y C P. 5 0. 02 5 0. 00 2 0. 08 2 1. 40 3 1. 18 5 83 4, 13 5 8, 19 4 0. 02 1 0. 02 9 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n H A .1 0. 45 1 0. 00 7 0. 01 5 2. 13 3 1. 46 0 1, 16 6, 30 0 1 1, 66 3 0. 43 7 0. 46 4 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n am on g yo un g pe op le H A .2 0. 51 1 0. 01 1 0. 02 1 1. 53 8 1. 24 0 33 1, 53 7 3, 39 8 0. 48 9 0. 53 2 A cc ep tin g at tit ud es to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV H A .4 0. 28 9 0. 00 6 0. 02 1 1. 88 5 1. 37 3 1, 11 2, 62 2 1 0, 96 6 0. 27 7 0. 30 1 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV d ur in g la st 1 2 m on th s an d w ho h av e be en to ld th e re su lts H A .5 0. 06 6 0. 00 3 0. 04 3 1. 55 4 1. 24 6 1 ,1 66 ,3 00 1 1, 66 3 0. 06 0 0. 07 2 K no w le dg e of m ot he r- to -c hi ld tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A .3 0. 49 6 0. 00 7 0. 01 4 2. 28 0 1. 51 0 1, 16 6, 30 0 1 1, 66 3 0. 48 2 0. 51 0 C hi ld re n un de r 5 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0. 11 7 0. 00 6 0. 05 4 1. 37 1 1. 17 1 36 0, 69 1 3, 60 1 0. 10 5 0. 13 0 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 22 7 0. 00 9 0. 03 8 1. 52 9 1. 23 7 35 7, 21 1 3, 56 3 0. 20 9 0. 24 4 W as tin g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 04 1 0. 00 4 0. 09 6 1. 39 5 1. 18 1 35 6, 80 3 3, 56 1 0. 02 9 0. 05 4 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 17 0 0. 01 8 0. 10 7 0. 75 1 0. 86 7 3 2, 71 9 31 9 0. 13 4 0. 20 7 P re do m in an t b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 43 3 0. 02 4 0. 05 6 0. 74 9 0. 86 6 3 2, 71 9 31 9 0. 38 5 0. 48 1 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 1 y ea r N U .3 0. 73 9 0. 02 1 0. 02 8 0. 63 3 0. 79 6 2 7, 28 2 27 6 0. 69 7 0. 78 1 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 2 y ea rs N U .3 0. 19 4 0. 01 5 0. 07 5 0. 32 9 0. 57 3 2 3, 83 3 24 1 0. 16 5 0. 22 4 A ge -a pp ro pr ia te b re as tfe ed in g N U .5 0. 33 5 0. 01 5 0. 04 4 1. 38 0 1. 17 5 14 2, 71 1 1, 42 9 0. 30 6 0. 36 5 M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy N U .7 0. 58 5 0. 01 5 0. 02 6 1. 03 9 1. 01 9 10 9, 99 2 1, 11 0 0. 55 5 0. 61 5 M ilk fe ed in g fre qu en cy fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n N U .7 0. 82 2 0. 01 5 0. 01 8 0. 65 9 0. 81 2 4 5, 20 0 44 1 0. 79 3 0. 85 2 b ot tle fe ed in g N U .8 0. 38 7 0. 01 5 0. 03 8 1. 29 8 1. 13 9 14 2, 71 1 1, 42 9 0. 35 8 0. 41 6 V ita m in A s up pl em en ta tio n (c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 ) N U .1 0 0. 83 4 0. 00 8 0. 01 0 1. 61 3 1. 27 0 33 5, 08 1 3, 35 9 0. 81 7 0. 85 0 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 95 5 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 0. 59 1 0. 76 9 7 5, 51 3 7 55 0. 94 3 0. 96 6 228 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .2 : S am pl in g er ro rs : T ot al s am pl e S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of v ar ia tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot of d es ig n ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 68 7 0. 01 8 0. 02 5 1. 07 9 1. 03 9 7 5, 36 1 7 54 0. 65 2 0. 72 2 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0. 74 3 0. 01 5 0. 02 1 0. 91 8 0. 95 8 7 4, 38 7 7 45 0. 71 2 0. 77 4 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 92 2 0. 00 9 0. 00 9 0. 76 6 0. 87 5 7 4, 79 8 7 48 0. 90 5 0. 93 9 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0. 40 1 0. 02 3 0. 05 8 1. 69 3 1. 30 1 7 5, 68 5 7 57 0. 35 5 0. 44 7 D ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks C H .4 0. 07 4 0. 00 5 0. 07 1 1. 48 4 1. 21 8 3 67 ,8 00 3 ,6 78 0. 06 3 0. 08 4 O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g C H .6 0. 56 7 0. 02 1 0. 03 6 0. 46 1 0. 67 9 2 7, 04 7 2 67 0. 52 6 0. 60 9 A cu te re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n in la st tw o w ee ks C H .7 0. 03 3 0. 00 3 0. 10 4 1. 34 7 1. 16 0 3 67 ,8 00 3 ,6 78 0. 02 6 0. 03 9 A nt ib io tic tr ea tm en t o f s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 68 3 0. 02 5 0. 03 6 0. 33 6 0. 58 0 1 2, 02 4 1 22 0. 63 4 0. 73 2 C ar e- se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 73 0 0. 02 0 0. 02 7 0. 24 2 0. 49 2 1 2, 02 4 1 22 0. 69 1 0. 77 0 C hi ld re n un de r 5 s le ep in g un de r a n in se ct ic id e tre at ed n et C H .1 2 0. 09 4 0. 00 9 0. 09 9 3. 65 0 1. 91 0 3 56 ,8 00 3 ,5 78 0. 07 6 0. 11 3 Fe ve r i n la st tw o w ee ks C H .1 4 0. 16 4 0. 00 8 0. 04 6 1. 54 9 1. 24 5 36 7, 80 0 3, 67 8 0. 14 9 0. 17 9 A nt im al ar ia l t re at m en t C H .1 4 0. 00 9 0. 00 3 0. 29 5 0. 45 5 0. 67 5 6 0, 24 2 58 1 0. 00 4 0. 01 4 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n C d .1 0. 71 9 0. 01 6 0. 02 2 1. 79 2 1. 33 9 14 5, 87 8 1, 46 3 0. 68 8 0. 75 1 S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 76 8 0. 01 4 0. 01 8 1. 50 1 1. 22 5 14 5, 87 8 1, 46 3 0. 74 1 0. 79 5 Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 61 3 0. 01 4 0. 02 2 1. 15 7 1. 07 6 14 5, 87 8 1, 46 3 0. 58 6 0. 64 0 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : c hi ld re n’ s bo ok s C d .3 0. 19 6 0. 00 9 0. 04 3 1. 69 2 1. 30 1 36 7, 80 0 3, 67 8 0. 17 9 0. 21 3 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : p la yt hi ng s C d .3 0. 49 3 0. 00 9 0. 01 9 1. 25 2 1. 11 9 36 7, 80 0 3, 67 8 0. 47 4 0. 51 1 In ad eq ua te c ar e C d .4 0. 09 4 0. 00 6 0. 06 3 1. 50 1 1. 22 5 36 7, 80 0 3, 67 8 0. 08 2 0. 10 6 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t I nd ex C d .5 0. 82 8 0. 01 1 0. 01 4 1. 34 7 1. 16 1 14 5, 87 8 1, 46 3 0. 80 5 0. 85 1 b irt h re gi st ra tio n C P. 1 0. 95 0 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 2. 71 4 1. 64 8 36 7, 80 0 3, 67 8 0. 93 8 0. 96 2 S af e di sp os al o f c hi ld ’s fa ec es W S .7 0. 61 1 0. 01 5 0. 02 5 2. 12 2 1. 45 7 22 1, 92 2 2, 21 5 0. 58 0 0. 64 1 229VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .3 : S am pl in g er ro rs : U rb an a re as S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of v ar ia tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se H O U S E H O lD S Io di se d sa lt co ns um pt io n N U .9 0. 44 4 0. 01 4 0. 03 2 4. 05 8 2. 01 5 3 ,4 31 4, 97 5 0. 41 6 0. 47 2 P la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng W S .9 0. 97 1 0. 00 3 0. 00 3 1. 33 6 1. 15 6 3 ,4 54 5, 00 1 0. 96 6 0. 97 7 Av ai la bi lit y of s oa p W S .1 0 0. 98 1 0. 00 2 0. 00 2 1. 44 4 1. 20 2 3 ,4 54 5, 00 1 0. 97 6 0. 98 5 C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 4 0. 69 1 0. 01 3 0. 01 9 2. 02 3 1. 42 2 2 ,5 23 2, 58 2 0. 66 5 0. 71 7 H O U S E H O lD M E M b E R S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es W S .1 0. 98 4 0. 00 3 0. 00 4 3. 75 6 1. 93 8 1 3, 00 3 5, 00 1 0. 97 7 0. 99 1 W at er tr ea tm en t W S .2 0. 91 1 0. 01 5 0. 01 6 0. 28 1 0. 53 0 2 12 10 6 0. 88 1 0. 94 0 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s (s ha re d an d no t s ha re d) W S .5 0. 93 8 0. 00 8 0. 00 9 5. 81 7 2. 41 2 1 3, 00 3 5 ,0 01 0. 92 1 0. 95 4 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss E d .2 0. 94 0 0. 01 4 0. 01 5 1. 08 6 1. 04 2 1 9, 51 7 29 6 0. 91 1 0. 96 8 N et in ta ke ra te in p rim ar y ed uc at io n E d .3 0. 95 8 0. 01 4 0. 01 5 1. 57 2 1. 25 4 2 1, 80 0 30 8 0. 92 9 0. 98 7 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .4 0. 98 1 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 1. 82 3 1. 35 0 9 7, 32 3 1, 44 6 0. 97 1 0. 99 1 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .5 0. 87 4 0. 01 1 0. 01 3 2. 30 2 1. 51 7 1 40 ,3 63 2 ,1 64 0. 85 2 0. 89 6 Tr an si tio n ra te to s ec on da ry s ch oo l E d .7 0. 99 9 0. 00 1 0. 00 1 0. 16 8 0. 41 0 1 7, 45 1 25 5 0. 99 8 1. 00 0 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 2 0. 04 4 0. 00 5 0. 10 6 1. 49 7 1. 22 4 19 2, 29 6 2, 88 8 0. 03 5 0. 05 4 C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts C P. 9 0. 04 5 0. 00 4 0. 09 3 2. 19 3 1. 48 1 35 9, 48 1 5, 36 2 0. 03 7 0. 05 4 P re va le nc e of c hi ld re n w ith a t l ea st o ne p ar en t d ea d C P. 9 0. 03 1 0. 00 4 0. 11 7 2. 35 7 1. 53 5 35 9, 48 1 5, 36 2 0. 02 4 0. 03 8 W O M E N A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge R H .6 0. 97 9 0. 00 7 0. 00 8 1. 48 0 1. 21 6 4 0, 24 5 54 2 0. 96 5 0. 99 4 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .9 0. 98 8 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 1. 74 5 1. 32 1 4 0, 24 5 54 2 0. 97 5 1. 00 0 In st itu tio na l d el iv er ie s R H .1 0 0. 98 2 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 92 6 1. 38 8 4 0, 24 5 54 2 0. 96 6 0. 99 8 C ae sa re an s ec tio n R H .9 0. 30 9 0. 02 2 0. 07 0 1. 18 0 1. 08 6 4 0, 24 5 54 2 0. 26 6 0. 35 2 C on te nt o f a nt en at al c ar e R H .8 0. 64 9 0. 02 4 0. 03 6 1. 31 7 1. 14 8 4 0, 24 5 54 2 0. 60 2 0. 69 6 In fa nt s w ei gh ed a t b irt h N U .1 1 0. 98 4 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 2. 03 2 1. 42 5 4 0, 24 5 54 2 0. 96 8 0. 99 9 C hi ld re n ev er b re as tfe d N U .2 0. 97 9 0. 00 7 0. 00 7 1. 31 7 1. 14 7 4 0, 24 5 54 2 0. 96 5 0. 99 3 230 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .3 : S am pl in g er ro rs : U rb an a re as S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of v ar ia tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g N U .2 0. 30 3 0. 02 3 0. 07 7 1. 38 7 1. 17 8 4 0, 24 5 54 2 0. 25 6 0. 34 9 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .4 0. 77 6 0. 00 8 0. 01 1 1. 34 5 1. 16 0 24 3, 36 9 3, 44 6 0. 75 9 0. 79 2 A du lt lit er ac y E d .1 0. 99 2 0. 00 3 0. 00 3 1. 34 2 1. 15 9 10 5, 94 5 1, 47 4 0. 98 6 0. 99 7 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 5 0. 06 2 0. 00 5 0. 07 6 1. 68 0 1. 29 6 31 8, 32 2 4, 45 8 0. 05 2 0. 07 1 P ol yg yn y C P. 5 0. 02 4 0. 00 3 0. 11 4 1. 10 7 1. 05 2 24 3, 36 9 3, 44 6 0. 01 9 0. 03 0 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n H A .1 0. 58 0 0. 01 0 0. 01 7 2. 16 3 1. 47 1 36 7, 60 1 5, 18 3 0. 56 0 0. 60 0 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n am on g yo un g pe op le H A .2 0. 58 3 0. 01 5 0. 02 5 1. 30 1 1. 14 0 10 5, 94 5 1, 47 4 0. 55 4 0. 61 3 A cc ep tin g at tit ud es to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV H A .4 0. 28 2 0. 00 8 0. 02 9 1. 64 6 1. 28 3 36 1, 80 8 5, 06 4 0. 26 6 0. 29 8 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV d ur in g la st 1 2 m on th s an d w ho h av e be en to ld th e re su lts H A .5 0. 08 7 0. 00 5 0. 06 2 1. 90 2 1. 37 9 3 67 ,6 01 5 ,1 83 0. 07 6 0. 09 8 K no w le dg e of m ot he r- to -c hi ld tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A .3 0. 53 1 0. 01 1 0. 02 1 2. 60 3 1. 61 3 36 7, 60 1 5, 18 3 0. 50 9 0. 55 4 C hi ld re n un de r 5 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0. 06 0 0. 00 8 0. 13 1 1. 50 4 1. 22 6 9 9, 01 9 1, 37 6 0. 04 5 0. 07 6 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 11 8 0. 01 2 0. 10 2 1. 89 2 1. 37 5 9 8, 26 8 1, 36 4 0. 09 4 0. 14 2 W as tin g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 03 9 0. 00 6 0. 15 8 1. 36 8 1. 17 0 9 7, 77 8 1, 35 9 0. 02 3 0. 05 5 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 12 8 0. 03 3 0. 25 5 1. 11 1 1. 05 4 8 ,2 94 11 7 0. 06 3 0. 19 4 P re do m in an t b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 33 1 0. 04 9 0. 14 9 1. 27 7 1. 13 0 8 ,2 94 11 7 0. 23 2 0. 43 0 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 1 y ea r N U .3 0. 62 6 0. 03 5 0. 05 6 0. 65 5 0. 80 9 9 ,4 53 12 5 0. 55 6 0. 69 6 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 2 y ea rs N U .3 0. 16 8 0. 02 8 0. 16 4 0. 57 7 0. 76 0 8 ,0 55 10 7 0. 11 3 0. 22 3 A ge -a pp ro pr ia te b re as tfe ed in g N U .5 0. 28 5 0. 02 6 0. 09 0 1. 79 8 1. 34 1 4 0, 78 2 56 1 0. 23 3 0. 33 6 M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy N U .7 0. 61 0 0. 02 6 0. 04 3 1. 27 2 1. 12 8 3 2, 48 8 44 4 0. 55 8 0. 66 2 M ilk fe ed in g fre qu en cy fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n N U .7 0. 95 1 0. 01 0 0. 01 0 0. 38 6 0. 62 2 1 5, 62 4 19 7 0. 93 2 0. 97 0 b ot tle fe ed in g N U .8 0. 53 3 0. 02 2 0. 04 1 1. 06 2 1. 03 0 4 0, 78 2 56 1 0. 49 0 0. 57 7 V ita m in A s up pl em en ta tio n (c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 ) N U .1 0 0. 84 4 0. 01 3 0. 01 5 1. 62 9 1. 27 7 9 2, 96 1 1, 29 2 0. 81 8 0. 86 9 231VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .3 : S am pl in g er ro rs : U rb an a re as S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of v ar ia tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 97 5 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 0. 80 9 0. 90 0 2 3, 22 2 3 13 0. 95 9 0. 99 1 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 77 0 0. 02 3 0. 03 0 0. 93 0 0. 96 5 2 3, 16 9 3 12 0. 72 4 0. 81 6 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0. 82 3 0. 02 3 0. 02 7 1. 08 5 1. 04 2 2 3, 11 7 3 11 0. 77 8 0. 86 8 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 95 2 0. 01 3 0. 01 3 1. 11 8 1. 05 7 2 2, 94 1 3 11 0. 92 7 0. 97 8 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0. 52 0 0. 03 5 0. 06 8 1. 54 2 1. 24 2 2 3, 19 7 3 12 0. 45 0 0. 59 1 D ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks C H .4 0. 05 3 0. 00 7 0. 12 3 1. 20 3 1. 09 7 1 01 ,2 55 1 ,4 09 0. 04 0 0. 06 7 O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g C H .6 0. 56 8 0. 02 9 0. 05 2 0. 26 8 0. 51 8 5 ,4 09 7 8 0. 50 9 0. 62 6 A cu te re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n in la st tw o w ee ks C H .7 0. 02 3 0. 00 4 0. 17 1 0. 97 6 0. 98 8 1 01 ,2 55 1 ,4 09 0. 01 5 0. 03 1 A nt ib io tic tr ea tm en t o f s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 74 8 0. 04 3 0. 05 8 0. 34 6 0. 58 8 2 ,3 41 3 6 0. 66 2 0. 83 5 C ar e- se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 73 0 0. 04 5 0. 06 2 0. 35 8 0. 59 8 2 ,3 41 3 6 0. 64 0 0. 81 9 C hi ld re n un de r 5 s le ep in g un de r a n in se ct ic id e tre at ed n et C H .1 2 0. 04 1 0. 00 7 0. 17 9 1. 87 2 1. 36 8 9 8, 84 5 1 ,3 76 0. 02 6 0. 05 6 Fe ve r i n la st tw o w ee ks C H .1 4 0. 15 5 0. 01 1 0. 07 0 1. 27 0 1. 12 7 10 1, 25 5 1, 40 9 0. 13 3 0. 17 7 A nt im al ar ia l t re at m en t C H .1 4 0. 01 4 0. 00 1 0. 05 7 0. 00 9 0. 09 6 1 5, 71 4 20 9 0. 01 2 0. 01 5 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n C d .1 0. 75 8 0. 03 0 0. 04 0 2. 69 0 1. 64 0 3 8, 69 6 55 0 0. 69 8 0. 81 8 S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 85 3 0. 01 9 0. 02 2 1. 60 2 1. 26 6 3 8, 69 6 55 0 0. 81 4 0. 89 1 Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 71 7 0. 02 0 0. 02 7 1. 04 4 1. 02 2 3 8, 69 6 55 0 0. 67 8 0. 75 6 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : c hi ld re n’ s bo ok s C d .3 0. 36 1 0. 01 9 0. 05 2 2. 13 5 1. 46 1 10 1, 25 5 1, 40 9 0. 32 3 0. 39 8 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : p la yt hi ng s C d .3 0. 52 6 0. 01 6 0. 03 0 1. 38 7 1. 17 8 10 1, 25 5 1, 40 9 0. 49 4 0. 55 7 In ad eq ua te c ar e C d .4 0. 04 9 0. 00 7 0. 15 2 1. 69 0 1. 30 0 10 1, 25 5 1, 40 9 0. 03 4 0. 06 4 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t I nd ex C d .5 0. 88 3 0. 01 8 0. 02 0 1. 70 5 1. 30 6 3 8, 69 6 55 0 0. 84 7 0. 91 8 b irt h re gi st ra tio n C P. 1 0. 97 1 0. 00 7 0. 00 7 2. 12 9 1. 45 9 10 1, 25 5 1, 40 9 0. 95 8 0. 98 4 S af e di sp os al o f c hi ld ’s fa ec es W S .7 0. 81 6 0. 01 6 0. 02 0 1. 49 6 1. 22 3 6 2, 55 9 85 9 0. 78 4 0. 84 9 232 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .4 : S am pl in g er ro rs : R ur al a re as S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce lim its r - 2 se r + 2 se H O U S E H O lD S Io di se d sa lt co ns um pt io n N U .9 0. 45 4 0. 01 1 0. 02 4 3. 23 0 1. 79 7 8, 11 4 6, 58 1 0. 43 2 0. 47 6 P la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng W S .9 0. 98 3 0. 00 2 0. 00 2 2. 26 7 1. 50 6 8, 16 0 6, 61 3 0. 97 8 0. 98 7 Av ai la bi lit y of s oa p W S .1 0 0. 93 8 0. 00 3 0. 00 4 1. 27 0 1. 12 7 8, 16 0 6, 61 3 0. 93 2 0. 94 5 C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 4 0. 75 6 0. 00 9 0. 01 2 1. 74 1 1. 32 0 7, 22 4 3, 84 2 0. 73 7 0. 77 4 H O U S E H O lD M E M b E R S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es W S .1 0. 89 4 0. 00 9 0. 01 0 5. 22 5 2. 28 6 3 0, 99 5 6, 61 3 0. 87 7 0. 91 1 W at er tr ea tm en t W S .2 0. 89 6 0. 02 1 0. 02 4 3. 81 3 1. 95 3 3 ,2 91 77 3 0. 85 3 0. 93 9 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s (s ha re d an d no t s ha re d) W S .5 0. 71 4 0. 01 1 0. 01 6 4. 03 9 2. 01 0 3 0, 99 5 6 ,6 13 0. 69 2 0. 73 6 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss E d .2 0. 92 1 0. 01 3 0. 01 4 1. 22 8 1. 10 8 5 8, 75 6 54 3 0. 89 6 0. 94 7 N et in ta ke ra te in p rim ar y ed uc at io n E d .3 0. 94 6 0. 00 9 0. 01 0 0. 88 0 0. 93 8 56 ,9 84 51 2 0. 92 7 0. 96 5 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .4 0. 97 8 0. 00 3 0. 00 3 1. 15 7 1. 07 5 2 71 ,0 91 2, 40 2 0. 97 1 0. 98 4 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .5 0. 78 8 0. 01 0 0. 01 2 2. 05 1 1. 43 2 4 04 ,8 16 3 ,6 22 0. 76 8 0. 80 8 Tr an si tio n ra te to s ec on da ry s ch oo l E d .7 0. 98 5 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 0. 90 4 0. 95 1 5 3, 73 1 47 5 0. 97 4 0. 99 5 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 2 0. 11 3 0. 00 7 0. 06 1 2. 35 9 1. 53 6 55 8, 81 6 4, 98 0 0. 09 9 0. 12 7 C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts C P. 9 0. 05 5 0. 00 4 0. 06 9 2. 44 0 1. 56 2 9 99 ,9 52 8, 82 1 0. 04 8 0. 06 3 P re va le nc e of c hi ld re n w ith a t l ea st o ne p ar en t d ea d C P. 9 0. 04 1 0. 00 4 0. 08 7 2. 88 4 1. 69 8 9 99 ,9 52 8, 82 1 0. 03 4 0. 04 9 W O M E N A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge R H .6 0. 92 0 0. 01 3 0. 01 4 1. 78 6 1. 33 7 9 8, 00 7 82 1 0. 89 5 0. 94 5 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .9 0. 90 5 0. 01 3 0. 01 4 1. 52 2 1. 23 4 9 8, 00 7 82 1 0. 87 9 0. 93 0 In st itu tio na l d el iv er ie s R H .1 0 0. 90 0 0. 01 3 0. 01 4 1. 48 0 1. 21 7 98 ,0 07 82 1 0. 87 4 0. 92 5 C ae sa re an s ec tio n R H .9 0. 15 5 0. 01 4 0. 09 1 1. 25 7 1. 12 1 98 ,0 07 82 1 0. 12 7 0. 18 3 C on te nt o f a nt en at al c ar e R H .8 0. 33 4 0. 01 8 0. 05 2 1. 13 1 1. 06 4 9 8, 00 7 82 1 0. 29 9 0. 36 9 In fa nt s w ei gh ed a t b irt h N U .1 1 0. 91 1 0. 01 2 0. 01 4 1. 55 4 1. 24 7 9 8, 00 7 82 1 0. 88 7 0. 93 6 C hi ld re n ev er b re as tfe d N U .2 0. 98 1 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 1. 04 1 1. 02 0 98 ,0 07 82 1 0. 97 1 0. 99 1 233VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .4 : S am pl in g er ro rs : R ur al a re as S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce lim its r - 2 se r + 2 se E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g N U .2 0. 43 5 0. 01 9 0. 04 3 1. 17 8 1. 08 6 9 8, 00 7 82 1 0. 39 8 0. 47 3 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .4 0. 77 9 0. 00 7 0. 00 9 1. 45 9 1. 20 8 5 90 ,7 66 4, 74 8 0. 76 4 0. 79 3 A du lt lit er ac y E d .1 0. 95 1 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 2. 42 5 1. 55 7 2 25 ,5 92 1, 92 4 0. 93 6 0. 96 7 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 5 0. 15 2 0. 00 8 0. 05 1 2. 51 4 1. 58 5 6 77 ,2 84 5, 43 6 0. 13 7 0. 16 8 P ol yg yn y C P. 5 0. 02 5 0. 00 3 0. 10 6 1. 35 5 1. 16 4 5 90 ,7 66 4, 74 8 0. 02 0 0. 03 0 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n H A .1 0. 39 1 0. 00 8 0. 02 1 1. 90 1 1. 37 9 7 98 ,6 99 6, 48 0 0. 37 4 0. 40 8 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n am on g yo un g pe op le H A .2 0. 47 6 0. 01 4 0. 02 9 1. 47 2 1. 21 3 22 5, 59 2 1, 92 4 0. 44 9 0. 50 4 A cc ep tin g at tit ud es to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV H A .4 0. 29 3 0. 00 8 0. 02 7 1. 77 6 1. 33 3 7 50 ,8 14 5, 90 2 0. 27 7 0. 30 9 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV d ur in g la st 1 2 m on th s an d w ho ha ve b ee n to ld th e re su lts H A .5 0. 05 6 0. 00 3 0. 05 9 1. 35 1 1. 16 2 7 98 ,6 99 6 ,4 80 0. 05 0 0. 06 3 K no w le dg e of m ot he r- to -c hi ld tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A .3 0. 48 0 0. 00 9 0. 01 8 1. 99 6 1. 41 3 7 98 ,6 99 6, 48 0 0. 46 2 0. 49 7 C hi ld re n un de r 5 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0. 13 9 0. 00 8 0. 05 8 1. 22 3 1. 10 6 2 61 ,6 72 2, 22 5 0. 12 3 0. 15 5 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 26 8 0. 01 1 0. 04 1 1. 34 6 1. 16 0 2 58 ,9 43 2, 19 9 0. 24 6 0. 29 0 W as tin g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 04 2 0. 00 5 0. 11 6 1. 30 8 1. 14 4 25 9, 02 5 2, 20 2 0. 02 6 0. 05 8 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 18 4 0. 02 2 0. 11 8 0. 63 5 0. 79 7 2 4, 42 5 20 2 0. 14 1 0. 22 8 P re do m in an t b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 46 8 0. 02 7 0. 05 8 0. 59 8 0. 77 3 2 4, 42 5 20 2 0. 41 3 0. 52 2 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 1 y ea r N U .3 0. 79 9 0. 02 7 0. 03 3 0. 66 1 0. 81 3 17 ,8 28 15 1 0. 74 6 0. 85 3 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 2 y ea rs N U .3 0. 20 8 0. 01 7 0. 08 2 0. 23 5 0. 48 5 1 5, 77 8 13 4 0. 17 4 0. 24 2 A ge -a pp ro pr ia te b re as tfe ed in g N U .5 0. 35 6 0. 01 8 0. 05 0 1. 19 9 1. 09 5 1 01 ,9 28 86 8 0. 32 0 0. 39 1 M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy N U .7 0. 57 5 0. 01 8 0. 03 2 0. 92 6 0. 96 2 77 ,5 03 66 6 0. 53 8 0. 61 1 M ilk fe ed in g fre qu en cy fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n N U .7 0. 75 4 0. 02 2 0. 02 9 0. 63 0 0. 79 4 29 ,5 76 24 4 0. 71 1 0. 79 8 b ot tle fe ed in g N U .8 0. 32 8 0. 01 8 0. 05 6 1. 31 2 1. 14 5 1 01 ,9 28 86 8 0. 29 2 0. 36 5 V ita m in A s up pl em en ta tio n (c hi ld re n un de r 5 ) N U .1 0 0. 83 0 0. 01 0 0. 01 2 1. 51 9 1. 23 2 2 42 ,1 20 2, 06 7 0. 80 9 0. 85 0 234 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .4 : S am pl in g er ro rs : R ur al a re as S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce lim its r - 2 se r + 2 se Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 94 6 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 0. 51 0 0. 71 4 5 2, 29 2 4 42 0. 93 0 0. 96 1 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 65 2 0. 02 3 0. 03 5 1. 02 9 1. 01 4 5 2, 19 2 4 42 0. 60 6 0. 69 8 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0. 70 7 0. 02 0 0. 02 8 0. 81 5 0. 90 3 5 1, 27 1 4 34 0. 66 8 0. 74 6 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 90 9 0. 01 1 0. 01 2 0. 64 8 0. 80 5 5 1, 85 6 4 37 0. 88 6 0. 93 1 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0. 34 7 0. 02 9 0. 08 4 1. 67 2 1. 29 3 5 2, 48 8 4 45 0. 28 9 0. 40 5 D ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks C H .4 0. 08 1 0. 00 7 0. 08 3 1. 39 5 1. 18 1 2 66 ,5 45 2 ,2 69 0. 06 8 0. 09 5 O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g C H .6 0. 56 7 0. 02 5 0. 04 4 0. 46 8 0. 68 4 2 1, 63 8 1 89 0. 51 8 0. 61 7 A cu te re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n in la st tw o w ee ks C H .7 0. 03 6 0. 00 4 0. 12 2 1. 28 1 1. 13 2 2 66 ,5 45 2 ,2 69 0. 02 7 0. 04 5 A nt ib io tic tr ea tm en t o f s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 66 7 0. 02 9 0. 04 3 0. 31 2 0. 55 9 9 ,6 83 8 6 0. 61 0 0. 72 5 C ar e- se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 73 1 0. 02 2 0. 03 0 0. 21 1 0. 46 0 9 ,6 83 8 6 0. 68 6 0. 77 5 C hi ld re n un de r 5 s le ep in g un de r a n in se ct ic id e tre at ed n et C H .1 2 0. 11 5 0. 01 3 0. 10 9 3. 40 6 1. 84 5 2 57 ,9 55 2 ,2 02 0. 09 0 0. 14 0 Fe ve r i n la st tw o w ee ks C H .1 4 0. 16 7 0. 01 0 0. 05 8 1. 51 2 1. 22 9 2 66 ,5 45 2, 26 9 0. 14 8 0. 18 6 A nt im al ar ia l t re at m en t C H .1 4 0. 00 7 0. 00 4 0. 48 8 0. 65 1 0. 80 7 4 4, 52 9 37 2 0. 00 0 0. 01 4 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n C d .1 0. 70 5 0. 01 9 0. 02 6 1. 53 3 1. 23 8 10 7, 18 2 91 3 0. 66 8 0. 74 3 S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 73 7 0. 01 7 0. 02 3 1. 38 0 1. 17 5 1 07 ,1 82 91 3 0. 70 3 0. 77 2 Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 57 6 0. 01 7 0. 03 0 1. 11 6 1. 05 6 1 07 ,1 82 91 3 0. 54 1 0. 61 0 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : c hi ld re n’ s bo ok s C d .3 0. 13 4 0. 00 9 0. 06 5 1. 47 1 1. 21 3 2 66 ,5 45 2, 26 9 0. 11 6 0. 15 1 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : p la yt hi ng s C d .3 0. 48 0 0. 01 1 0. 02 3 1. 15 7 1. 07 6 26 6, 54 5 2, 26 9 0. 45 8 0. 50 3 In ad eq ua te c ar e C d .4 0. 11 1 0. 00 8 0. 06 9 1. 33 0 1. 15 3 2 66 ,5 45 2, 26 9 0. 09 6 0. 12 6 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t I nd ex C d .5 0. 80 9 0. 01 4 0. 01 8 1. 18 8 1. 09 0 1 07 ,1 82 91 3 0. 78 0 0. 83 7 b irt h re gi st ra tio n C P. 1 0. 94 2 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 2. 49 0 1. 57 8 2 66 ,5 45 2, 26 9 0. 92 6 0. 95 7 S af e di sp os al o f c hi ld ’s fa ec es W S .7 0. 53 0 0. 01 9 0. 03 6 1. 98 4 1. 40 8 1 59 ,3 63 1, 35 6 0. 49 2 0. 56 8 235VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .5 : S am pl in g er ro rs : R ed R iv er D el ta S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se H O U S E H O lD S Io di se d sa lt co ns um pt io n N U .9 0. 27 8 0. 01 4 0. 05 2 1. 98 1 1. 40 8 2 ,5 87 1, 89 9 0. 25 0 0. 30 7 P la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng W S .9 0. 98 8 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 3. 64 4 1. 90 9 2 ,6 01 1, 90 7 0. 97 8 0. 99 7 Av ai la bi lit y of s oa p W S .1 0 0. 98 6 0. 00 3 0. 00 3 0. 96 1 0. 98 0 2 ,6 01 1, 90 7 0. 98 1 0. 99 1 C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 4 0. 68 9 0. 02 0 0. 02 9 1. 73 1 1. 31 6 1 ,9 20 91 8 0. 64 9 0. 72 9 H O U S E H O lD M E M b E R S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es W S .1 0. 99 0 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 3. 95 6 1. 98 9 9 ,2 61 1, 90 7 0. 98 0 0. 99 9 W at er tr ea tm en t W S .2 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 . . 96 2 0 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s (s ha re d an d no t s ha re d) W S .5 0. 97 4 0. 00 6 0. 00 7 3. 17 5 1. 78 2 9 ,2 61 1 ,9 07 0. 96 1 0. 98 7 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss E d .2 0. 97 5 0. 01 3 0. 01 3 0. 67 9 0. 82 4 1 3, 29 4 9 7 0. 94 9 1. 00 0 N et in ta ke ra te in p rim ar y ed uc at io n E d .3 0. 98 7 0. 01 3 0. 01 3 1. 17 9 1. 08 6 1 3, 20 7 9 6 0. 96 2 1. 00 0 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .4 0. 99 8 0. 00 2 0. 00 2 1. 21 9 1. 10 4 6 8, 83 2 50 6 0. 99 3 1. 00 0 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .5 0. 91 2 0. 01 4 0. 01 5 1. 65 0 1. 28 5 1 01 ,5 64 7 37 0. 88 5 0. 93 9 Tr an si tio n ra te to s ec on da ry s ch oo l E d .7 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 . . 1 3, 85 7 9 9 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 2 0. 04 4 0. 00 9 0. 20 4 1. 98 3 1. 40 8 14 2, 95 2 1, 03 9 0. 02 6 0. 06 2 C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts C P. 9 0. 04 4 0. 00 6 0. 13 3 1. 55 4 1. 24 7 26 8, 91 2 1, 92 5 0. 03 2 0. 05 5 P re va le nc e of c hi ld re n w ith a t l ea st o ne p ar en t d ea d C P. 9 0. 03 3 0. 00 6 0. 16 7 1. 84 6 1. 35 9 26 8, 91 2 1, 92 5 0. 02 2 0. 04 5 W O M E N A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge R H .6 0. 99 0 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 32 4 1. 15 1 2 9, 37 1 20 3 0. 97 3 1. 00 0 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .9 0. 99 2 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 58 3 1. 25 8 2 9, 37 1 20 3 0. 97 6 1. 00 0 In st itu tio na l d el iv er ie s R H .1 0 0. 98 6 0. 01 0 0. 01 0 1. 37 3 1. 17 2 2 9, 37 1 20 3 0. 96 7 1. 00 0 C ae sa re an s ec tio n R H .9 0. 26 6 0. 03 3 0. 12 5 1. 15 3 1. 07 4 2 9, 37 1 20 3 0. 19 9 0. 33 3 C on te nt o f a nt en at al c ar e R H .8 0. 52 2 0. 03 9 0. 07 4 1. 21 4 1. 10 2 2 9, 37 1 20 3 0. 44 5 0. 60 0 In fa nt s w ei gh ed a t b irt h N U .1 1 0. 99 2 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 58 3 1. 25 8 2 9, 37 1 20 3 0. 97 6 1. 00 0 C hi ld re n ev er b re as tfe d N U .2 0. 97 3 0. 01 2 0. 01 2 1. 14 4 1. 07 0 2 9, 37 1 20 3 0. 94 9 0. 99 8 236 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .5 : S am pl in g er ro rs : R ed R iv er D el ta S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g N U .2 0. 33 1 0. 02 5 0. 07 5 0. 56 8 0. 75 4 2 9, 37 1 20 3 0. 28 1 0. 38 1 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .4 0. 76 3 0. 01 4 0. 01 8 1. 24 5 1. 11 6 17 5, 45 9 1, 23 5 0. 73 6 0. 79 0 A du lt lit er ac y E d .1 0. 99 8 0. 00 2 0. 00 2 0. 96 6 0. 98 3 6 7, 28 9 47 5 0. 99 4 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 5 0. 09 5 0. 00 9 0. 09 5 1. 37 0 1. 17 1 20 3, 72 6 1, 44 9 0. 07 7 0. 11 3 P ol yg yn y C P. 5 0. 02 3 0. 00 5 0. 20 2 1. 19 9 1. 09 5 17 5, 45 9 1, 23 5 0. 01 4 0. 03 3 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n H A .1 0. 57 7 0. 01 6 0. 02 7 1. 66 2 1. 28 9 23 6, 76 2 1, 68 2 0. 54 6 0. 60 8 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n am on g yo un g pe op le H A .2 0. 60 6 0. 02 2 0. 03 6 0. 95 1 0. 97 5 6 7, 28 9 47 5 0. 56 3 0. 65 0 A cc ep tin g at tit ud es to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV H A .4 0. 37 2 0. 01 6 0. 04 3 1. 79 6 1. 34 0 23 4, 79 8 1, 66 7 0. 34 0 0. 40 4 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV d ur in g la st 1 2 m on th s an d w ho h av e be en to ld th e re su lts H A .5 0. 07 9 0. 00 7 0. 09 1 1. 19 0 1. 09 1 2 36 ,7 62 1 ,6 82 0. 06 4 0. 09 3 K no w le dg e of m ot he r- to -c hi ld tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A .3 0. 46 3 0. 01 8 0. 03 9 2. 23 4 1. 49 5 23 6, 76 2 1, 68 2 0. 42 7 0. 50 0 C hi ld re n un de r 5 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0. 07 4 0. 01 3 0. 17 2 1. 23 5 1. 11 1 7 6, 60 6 51 9 0. 04 9 0. 10 0 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 18 3 0. 01 9 0. 10 4 1. 24 3 1. 11 5 7 5, 80 9 51 4 0. 14 5 0. 22 1 W as tin g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 03 6 0. 00 8 0. 23 4 1. 03 6 1. 01 8 7 5, 46 7 51 1 0. 01 0 0. 06 1 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 15 3 0. 04 0 0. 25 8 0. 68 6 0. 82 9 8 ,3 04 5 8 0. 07 4 0. 23 2 P re do m in an t b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 35 8 0. 05 6 0. 15 5 0. 76 8 0. 87 6 8 ,3 04 5 8 0. 24 7 0. 47 0 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 1 y ea r N U .3 0. 72 2 0. 04 2 0. 05 8 0. 31 0 0. 55 6 5 ,1 37 3 6 0. 63 8 0. 80 7 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 2 y ea rs N U .3 0. 10 5 0. 02 6 0. 24 8 0. 25 3 0. 50 3 4 ,8 38 3 6 0. 05 3 0. 15 7 A ge -a pp ro pr ia te b re as tfe ed in g N U .5 0. 34 9 0. 03 2 0. 09 1 0. 93 9 0. 96 9 3 0, 44 5 21 1 0. 28 6 0. 41 3 M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy N U .7 0. 69 5 0. 03 6 0. 05 2 0. 91 9 0. 95 9 2 2, 14 1 15 3 0. 62 3 0. 76 7 M ilk fe ed in g fre qu en cy fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n N U .7 0. 93 4 0. 02 0 0. 02 1 0. 43 8 0. 66 2 9 ,8 03 7 0 0. 89 5 0. 97 4 b ot tle fe ed in g N U .8 0. 33 8 0. 03 3 0. 09 7 1. 00 8 1. 00 4 3 0, 44 5 21 1 0. 27 3 0. 40 4 V ita m in A s up pl em en ta tio n (c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 ) N U .1 0 0. 88 2 0. 01 7 0. 01 9 1. 32 1 1. 15 0 7 1, 46 5 48 5 0. 84 9 0. 91 6 237VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .5 : S am pl in g er ro rs : R ed R iv er D el ta S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 98 4 0. 00 9 0. 00 9 0. 51 0 0. 71 4 1 5, 62 5 1 10 0. 96 6 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 72 6 0. 04 2 0. 05 7 0. 94 7 0. 97 3 1 5, 62 5 1 10 0. 64 3 0. 80 9 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0. 82 3 0. 04 0 0. 04 9 1. 22 6 1. 10 7 1 5, 62 5 1 10 0. 74 2 0. 90 4 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 95 8 0. 01 4 0. 01 5 0. 51 2 0. 71 6 1 5, 25 6 1 07 0. 93 0 0. 98 6 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0. 50 3 0. 04 7 0. 09 3 0. 96 2 0. 98 1 1 5, 62 5 1 10 0. 40 9 0. 59 7 D ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks C H .4 0. 08 0 0. 01 2 0. 15 1 1. 07 8 1. 03 8 7 9, 76 9 5 43 0. 05 6 0. 10 5 O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g C H .6 0. 57 0 0. 04 6 0. 08 1 0. 37 7 0. 61 4 6 ,4 05 4 4 0. 47 8 0. 66 3 A cu te re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n in la st tw o w ee ks C H .7 0. 03 9 0. 00 6 0. 14 1 0. 43 8 0. 66 2 7 9, 76 9 5 43 0. 02 8 0. 05 0 A nt ib io tic tr ea tm en t o f s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 81 4 0. 06 0 0. 07 4 0. 58 0 0. 76 2 3 ,1 28 2 5 0. 69 3 0. 93 5 C ar e- se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 58 6 0. 06 8 0. 11 6 0. 45 7 0. 67 6 3 ,1 28 2 5 0. 45 0 0. 72 2 C hi ld re n un de r 5 s le ep in g un de r a n in se ct ic id e tre at ed n et C H .1 2 0. 05 5 0. 01 6 0. 28 7 2. 49 9 1. 58 1 7 6, 76 6 5 25 0. 02 3 0. 08 6 Fe ve r i n la st tw o w ee ks C H .1 4 0. 14 8 0. 01 6 0. 10 6 1. 05 0 1. 02 5 7 9, 76 9 54 3 0. 11 6 0. 17 9 A nt im al ar ia l t re at m en t C H .1 4 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 . . . 1 1, 77 5 8 2 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n C d .1 0. 90 0 0. 02 5 0. 02 8 1. 40 2 1. 18 4 3 0, 12 3 20 1 0. 84 9 0. 95 0 S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 87 8 0. 02 6 0. 02 9 1. 22 1 1. 10 5 3 0, 12 3 20 1 0. 82 7 0. 92 9 Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 62 9 0. 03 2 0. 05 1 0. 88 1 0. 93 9 3 0, 12 3 20 1 0. 56 5 0. 69 4 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : c hi ld re n’ s bo ok s C d .3 0. 30 5 0. 02 0 0. 06 7 1. 06 3 1. 03 1 7 9, 76 9 54 3 0. 26 4 0. 34 6 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : p la yt hi ng s C d .3 0. 51 4 0. 02 0 0. 04 0 0. 89 7 0. 94 7 7 9, 76 9 54 3 0. 47 3 0. 55 4 In ad eq ua te c ar e C d .4 0. 05 6 0. 00 8 0. 15 1 0. 73 0 0. 85 4 7 9, 76 9 54 3 0. 03 9 0. 07 3 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t I nd ex C d .5 0. 86 5 0. 02 6 0. 03 0 1. 14 9 1. 07 2 3 0, 12 3 20 1 0. 81 3 0. 91 7 b irt h re gi st ra tio n C P. 1 0. 98 2 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 81 8 1. 34 8 7 9, 76 9 54 3 0. 96 7 0. 99 7 S af e di sp os al o f c hi ld ’s fa ec es W S .7 0. 77 9 0. 02 3 0. 02 9 1. 01 7 1. 00 9 4 9, 64 6 34 2 0. 73 4 0. 82 5 238 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .6 : S am pl in g er ro rs : N or th en M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of v ar ia tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot of d es ig n ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U n- w ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce lim its r - 2 se r + 2 se H O U S E H O lD S Io di se d sa lt co ns um pt io n N U .9 0. 40 0 0. 02 5 0. 06 3 5. 23 0 2. 28 7 1, 83 2 1, 95 0 0. 34 9 0. 45 1 P la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng W S .9 0. 99 3 0. 00 3 0. 00 3 3. 09 8 1. 76 0 1, 83 6 1, 95 5 0. 98 6 1. 00 0 Av ai la bi lit y of s oa p W S .1 0 0. 94 3 0. 00 7 0. 00 8 1. 94 8 1. 39 6 1 ,8 36 1, 95 5 0. 92 8 0. 95 8 C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 4 0. 71 5 0. 01 9 0. 02 7 2. 02 1 1. 42 2 1 ,7 09 1, 09 9 0. 67 6 0. 75 4 H O U S E H O lD M E M b E R S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es W S .1 0. 80 7 0. 02 4 0. 02 9 6. 95 4 2. 63 7 7 ,2 42 1, 95 5 0. 76 0 0. 85 4 W at er tr ea tm en t W S .2 0. 96 6 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 0. 35 4 0. 59 5 1, 39 6 32 4 0. 95 4 0. 97 8 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s (s ha re d an d no t s ha re d) W S .5 0. 76 3 0. 02 2 0. 02 9 5. 36 7 2. 31 7 7 ,2 42 1 ,9 55 0. 71 8 0. 80 7 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss E d .2 0. 98 5 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 0. 67 4 0. 82 1 1 4, 89 9 15 2 0. 96 8 1. 00 0 N et in ta ke ra te in p rim ar y ed uc at io n E d .3 0. 95 5 0. 01 5 0. 01 5 0. 75 8 0. 87 1 1 5, 24 3 15 2 0. 92 6 0. 98 5 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .4 0. 96 7 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 34 6 1. 16 0 6 6, 28 8 68 3 0. 95 1 0. 98 3 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .5 0. 80 3 0. 02 4 0. 03 0 3. 41 6 1. 84 8 9 1, 60 6 9 69 0. 75 6 0. 85 1 Tr an si tio n ra te to s ec on da ry s ch oo l E d .7 0. 98 0 0. 01 0 0. 01 0 0. 57 4 0. 75 7 1 2, 65 9 12 4 0. 96 0 0. 99 9 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 2 0. 16 4 0. 01 9 0. 11 8 3. 68 1 1. 91 9 1 29 ,8 69 1, 34 3 0. 12 6 0. 20 3 C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts C P. 9 0. 04 1 0. 00 6 0. 15 6 2. 60 6 1. 61 4 24 1, 43 5 2, 52 4 0. 02 8 0. 05 3 P re va le nc e of c hi ld re n w ith a t l ea st o ne p ar en t d ea d C P. 9 0. 03 8 0. 00 7 0. 19 3 3. 68 6 1. 92 0 24 1, 43 5 2, 52 4 0. 02 3 0. 05 2 W O M E N A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge R H .6 0. 82 8 0. 03 4 0. 04 1 2. 26 6 1. 50 5 2 8, 49 4 27 8 0. 76 0 0. 89 7 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .9 0. 78 3 0. 03 4 0. 04 4 1. 88 8 1. 37 4 2 8, 49 4 27 8 0. 71 4 0. 85 1 In st itu tio na l d el iv er ie s R H .1 0 0. 78 0 0. 03 4 0. 04 4 1. 91 3 1. 38 3 2 8, 49 4 27 8 0. 71 1 0. 84 9 C ae sa re an s ec tio n R H .9 0. 14 0 0. 02 9 0. 20 7 1. 93 1 1. 39 0 2 8, 49 4 27 8 0. 08 2 0. 19 7 C on te nt o f a nt en at al c ar e R H .8 0. 20 7 0. 02 8 0. 13 6 1. 33 1 1. 15 4 2 8, 49 4 27 8 0. 15 1 0. 26 3 In fa nt s w ei gh ed a t b irt h N U .1 1 0. 78 1 0. 03 5 0. 04 5 1. 98 1 1. 40 8 2 8, 49 4 27 8 0. 71 1 0. 85 1 239VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .6 : S am pl in g er ro rs : N or th en M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of v ar ia tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot of d es ig n ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U n- w ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce lim its r - 2 se r + 2 se C hi ld re n ev er b re as tfe d N U .2 0. 99 4 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 1. 15 5 1. 07 5 2 8, 49 4 27 8 0. 98 3 1. 00 0 E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g N U .2 0. 57 0 0. 03 5 0. 06 2 1. 41 2 1. 18 8 2 8, 49 4 27 8 0. 50 0 0. 64 1 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .4 0. 73 8 0. 01 2 0. 01 7 1. 21 2 1. 10 1 1 49 ,1 44 1, 51 2 0. 71 3 0. 76 3 A du lt lit er ac y E d .1 0. 89 4 0. 02 6 0. 02 9 3. 78 6 1. 94 6 5 1, 20 9 54 9 0. 84 2 0. 94 5 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 5 0. 18 8 0. 02 2 0. 11 9 5. 52 2 2. 35 0 1 63 ,0 45 1, 68 2 0. 14 3 0. 23 2 P ol yg yn y C P. 5 0. 03 1 0. 00 5 0. 14 4 1. 01 6 1. 00 8 1 49 ,1 44 1, 51 2 0. 02 2 0. 04 0 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n H A .1 0. 44 4 0. 02 3 0. 05 2 4. 25 0 2. 06 1 18 9, 58 5 1, 97 0 0. 39 8 0. 49 0 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n am on g yo un g pe op le H A .2 0. 49 1 0. 03 3 0. 06 8 2. 43 6 1. 56 1 5 1, 20 9 54 9 0. 42 4 0. 55 8 A cc ep tin g at tit ud es to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV H A .4 0. 36 3 0. 01 8 0. 05 1 2. 55 5 1. 59 8 17 1, 55 3 1, 75 9 0. 32 6 0. 39 9 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV d ur in g la st 1 2 m on th s an d w ho ha ve b ee n to ld th e re su lts H A .5 0. 07 9 0. 00 9 0. 11 9 2. 42 2 1. 55 6 1 89 ,5 85 1 ,9 70 0. 06 0 0. 09 8 K no w le dg e of m ot he r- to -c hi ld tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A .3 0. 45 7 0. 02 2 0. 04 7 3. 72 0 1. 92 9 1 89 ,5 85 1, 97 0 0. 41 4 0. 50 0 C hi ld re n un de r 5 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0. 15 4 0. 01 4 0. 08 9 0. 98 8 0. 99 4 6 9, 23 9 69 5 0. 12 7 0. 18 1 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 31 4 0. 02 3 0. 07 2 1. 60 7 1. 26 8 6 7, 96 3 67 9 0. 26 9 0. 36 0 W as tin g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 04 3 0. 01 0 0. 23 3 1. 67 4 1. 29 4 6 8, 26 1 68 3 0. 01 6 0. 07 0 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 37 6 0. 05 0 0. 13 2 0. 76 6 0. 87 5 7, 40 6 7 4 0. 27 6 0. 47 5 P re do m in an t b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 54 9 0. 04 2 0. 07 7 0. 52 4 0. 72 4 7 ,4 06 7 4 0. 46 5 0. 63 3 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 1 y ea r N U .3 0. 84 5 0. 03 3 0. 03 9 0. 53 9 0. 73 4 6, 60 9 6 6 0. 78 0 0. 91 1 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 2 y ea rs N U .3 0. 34 6 0. 02 2 0. 06 5 0. 08 1 0. 28 4 4 ,3 25 3 7 0. 30 1 0. 39 1 A ge -a pp ro pr ia te b re as tfe ed in g N U .5 0. 42 5 0. 03 6 0. 08 4 1. 51 2 1. 23 0 2 9, 28 3 29 1 0. 35 3 0. 49 6 M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy N U .7 0. 50 8 0. 03 1 0. 06 1 0. 82 1 0. 90 6 2 1, 87 7 21 7 0. 44 6 0. 57 0 M ilk fe ed in g fre qu en cy fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n N U .7 0. 62 3 0. 04 4 0. 07 0 0. 47 6 0. 69 0 6 ,8 31 5 9 0. 53 5 0. 71 1 b ot tle fe ed in g N U .8 0. 18 6 0. 02 6 0. 13 8 1. 26 4 1. 12 4 2 9, 28 3 29 1 0. 13 5 0. 23 8 V ita m in A s up pl em en ta tio n (c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 ) N U .1 0 0. 84 9 0. 02 4 0. 02 9 2. 93 0 1. 71 2 6 3, 27 3 63 8 0. 80 1 0. 89 8 240 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .6 : S am pl in g er ro rs : N or th en M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of v ar ia tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot of d es ig n ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U n- w ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce lim its r - 2 se r + 2 se Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 92 0 0. 02 1 0. 02 3 0. 81 8 0. 90 4 1 5, 08 9 1 37 0. 87 7 0. 96 2 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 63 8 0. 04 1 0. 06 4 0. 98 2 0. 99 1 1 5, 10 7 1 37 0. 55 6 0. 71 9 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0. 67 9 0. 04 3 0. 06 4 1. 13 5 1. 06 5 1 4, 77 7 1 34 0. 59 3 0. 76 5 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 90 6 0. 02 8 0. 03 0 1. 21 5 1. 10 2 1 5, 18 0 1 38 0. 85 1 0. 96 1 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0. 37 9 0. 06 0 0. 15 9 2. 09 0 1. 44 6 1 5, 15 5 1 37 0. 25 9 0. 49 9 D ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks C H .4 0. 10 4 0. 01 4 0. 13 4 1. 47 8 1. 21 6 7 0, 67 8 7 12 0. 07 6 0. 13 2 O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g C H .6 0. 64 1 0. 05 2 0. 08 1 0. 89 7 0. 94 7 7 ,3 72 7 7 0. 53 7 0. 74 6 A cu te re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n in la st tw o w ee ks C H .7 0. 01 2 0. 00 5 0. 39 1 1. 33 1 1. 15 4 7 0, 67 8 7 12 0. 00 3 0. 02 2 A nt ib io tic tr ea tm en t o f s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 86 1 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 8 57 1 1 0. 86 1 0. 86 1 C ar e- se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 91 8 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 8 57 1 1 0. 91 8 0. 91 8 C hi ld re n un de r 5 s le ep in g un de r a n in se ct ic id e tre at ed n et C H .1 2 0. 16 8 0. 02 6 0. 15 6 3. 41 4 1. 84 8 6 8, 42 7 6 92 0. 11 6 0. 22 1 Fe ve r i n la st tw o w ee ks C H .1 4 0. 16 8 0. 01 7 0. 10 2 1. 49 8 1. 22 4 7 0, 67 8 71 2 0. 13 4 0. 20 2 A nt im al ar ia l t re at m en t C H .1 4 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 . . . 11 ,8 69 12 2 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n C d .1 0. 89 2 0. 03 1 0. 03 5 2. 75 9 1. 66 1 26 ,6 42 27 8 0. 83 0 0. 95 4 S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 69 3 0. 04 1 0. 05 9 2. 19 4 1. 48 1 26 ,6 42 27 8 0. 61 1 0. 77 5 Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 65 7 0. 03 2 0. 04 9 1. 25 9 1. 12 2 26 ,6 42 27 8 0. 59 3 0. 72 1 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : c hi ld re n’ s bo ok s C d .3 0. 10 0 0. 01 4 0. 14 3 1. 61 3 1. 27 0 7 0, 67 8 71 2 0. 07 2 0. 12 9 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : p la yt hi ng s C d .3 0. 45 5 0. 01 9 0. 04 3 1. 07 4 1. 03 6 7 0, 67 8 71 2 0. 41 6 0. 49 3 In ad eq ua te c ar e C d .4 0. 09 6 0. 01 2 0. 12 4 1. 16 4 1. 07 9 7 0, 67 8 71 2 0. 07 2 0. 12 0 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t I nd ex C d .5 0. 81 8 0. 03 0 0. 03 6 1. 63 9 1. 28 0 2 6, 64 2 27 8 0. 75 9 0. 87 7 b irt h re gi st ra tio n C P. 1 0. 94 4 0. 01 1 0. 01 1 1. 52 6 1. 23 5 7 0, 67 8 71 2 0. 92 3 0. 96 5 S af e di sp os al o f c hi ld ’s fa ec es W S .7 0. 39 0 0. 03 4 0. 08 8 2. 14 7 1. 46 5 4 4, 03 6 43 4 0. 32 1 0. 45 8 241VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .7 : S am pl in g er ro rs : N or th C en tr al a re a an d C en tr al C oa st al a re a S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of v ar ia tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2s e r + 2 se H O U S E H O lD S Io di se d sa lt co ns um pt io n N U .9 0. 50 2 0. 02 1 0. 04 1 3. 31 1 1. 82 0 2, 51 5 1 ,9 37 0. 46 0 0. 54 3 P la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng W S .9 0. 97 8 0. 00 3 0. 00 3 0. 92 4 0. 96 1 2 ,5 22 1 ,9 43 0. 97 1 0. 98 4 Av ai la bi lit y of s oa p W S .1 0 0. 91 3 0. 00 7 0. 00 7 1. 06 3 1. 03 1 2, 52 2 1 ,9 43 0. 89 9 0. 92 6 C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 4 0. 78 2 0. 01 7 0. 02 2 1. 73 4 1. 31 7 2 ,0 62 1 ,0 25 0. 74 8 0. 81 6 H O U S E H O lD M E M b E R S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es W S .1 0. 89 8 0. 01 5 0. 01 7 4. 96 2 2. 22 8 9 ,4 43 1 ,9 43 0. 86 8 0. 92 9 W at er tr ea tm en t W S .2 0. 86 2 0. 06 9 0. 08 0 6. 58 8 2. 56 7 96 2 1 64 0. 72 3 1. 00 0 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s (s ha re d an d no t s ha re d) W S .5 0. 82 2 0. 01 9 0. 02 3 4. 54 6 2. 13 2 9 ,4 43 1 ,9 43 0. 78 5 0. 85 9 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss E d .2 0. 95 8 0. 01 7 0. 01 8 0. 84 9 0. 92 1 1 5, 36 1 1 19 0. 92 4 0. 99 2 N et in ta ke ra te in p rim ar y ed uc at io n E d .3 0. 92 4 0. 01 9 0. 02 1 0. 63 6 0. 79 8 1 5, 76 0 1 22 0. 88 6 0. 96 3 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .4 0. 98 2 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 0. 91 9 0. 95 8 74 ,8 72 5 67 0. 97 1 0. 99 3 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .5 0. 83 2 0. 01 3 0. 01 6 1. 25 2 1. 11 9 1 33 ,5 39 1 ,0 17 0. 80 5 0. 85 8 Tr an si tio n ra te to s ec on da ry s ch oo l E d .7 0. 99 0 0. 01 0 0. 01 0 1. 16 4 1. 07 9 1 4, 59 8 1 12 0. 96 9 1. 00 0 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 2 0. 08 9 0. 00 9 0. 09 7 1. 12 0 1. 05 8 1 63 ,5 98 1 ,2 30 0. 07 2 0. 10 6 C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts C P. 9 0. 05 0 0. 00 6 0. 12 5 1. 86 3 1. 36 5 2 96 ,2 25 2 ,2 58 0. 03 7 0. 06 2 P re va le nc e of c hi ld re n w ith a t l ea st o ne p ar en t d ea d C P. 9 0. 04 9 0. 00 8 0. 16 6 3. 23 1 1. 79 7 2 96 ,2 25 2 ,2 58 0. 03 3 0. 06 6 W O M E N A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge R H .6 0. 96 6 0. 01 1 0. 01 1 0. 69 6 0. 83 4 28 ,7 49 2 07 0. 94 5 0. 98 7 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .9 0. 96 4 0. 01 5 0. 01 6 1. 38 0 1. 17 5 2 8, 74 9 2 07 0. 93 3 0. 99 4 In st itu tio na l d el iv er ie s R H .1 0 0. 95 0 0. 01 7 0. 01 8 1. 23 1 1. 10 9 28 ,7 49 2 07 0. 91 6 0. 98 4 C ae sa re an s ec tio n R H .9 0. 15 9 0. 02 1 0. 13 2 0. 68 4 0. 82 7 28 ,7 49 2 07 0. 11 7 0. 20 2 C on te nt o f a nt en at al c ar e R H .8 0. 41 2 0. 03 1 0. 07 6 0. 83 5 0. 91 4 2 8, 74 9 2 07 0. 35 0 0. 47 5 In fa nt s w ei gh ed a t b irt h N U .1 1 0. 96 6 0. 01 6 0. 01 6 1. 58 2 1. 25 8 2 8, 74 9 2 07 0. 93 4 0. 99 8 C hi ld re n ev er b re as tfe d N U .2 0. 99 0 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 28 4 1. 13 3 2 8, 74 9 2 07 0. 97 5 1. 00 0 242 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .7 : S am pl in g er ro rs : N or th C en tr al a re a an d C en tr al C oa st al a re a S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of v ar ia tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2s e r + 2 se E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g N U .2 0. 42 7 0. 04 3 0. 10 1 1. 56 5 1. 25 1 2 8, 74 9 2 07 0. 34 0 0. 51 3 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .4 0. 79 9 0. 01 5 0. 01 8 1. 69 4 1. 30 1 1 67 ,3 98 1 ,2 78 0. 77 0 0. 82 9 A du lt lit er ac y E d .1 0. 98 6 0. 00 7 0. 00 7 1. 65 2 1. 28 5 7 1, 56 5 5 59 0. 97 3 0. 99 9 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 5 0. 08 5 0. 01 0 0. 12 2 2. 12 9 1. 45 9 2 00 ,2 02 1 ,5 47 0. 06 4 0. 10 6 P ol yg yn y C P. 5 0. 01 5 0. 00 3 0. 22 0 0. 96 0 0. 98 0 16 7, 39 8 1 ,2 78 0. 00 9 0. 02 2 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n H A .1 0. 40 9 0. 01 3 0. 03 1 1. 21 3 1. 10 1 2 42 ,8 61 1 ,8 68 0. 38 4 0. 43 4 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n am on g yo un g pe op le H A .2 0. 50 8 0. 02 0 0. 04 0 0. 93 6 0. 96 7 7 1, 56 5 5 59 0. 46 7 0. 54 9 A cc ep tin g at tit ud es to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV H A .4 0. 33 0 0. 01 5 0. 04 5 1. 76 4 1. 32 8 22 9, 21 6 1 ,7 57 0. 30 0 0. 36 0 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV d ur in g la st 1 2 m on th s an d w ho h av e be en to ld th e re su lts H A .5 0. 04 8 0. 00 5 0. 11 2 1. 17 5 1. 08 4 2 42 ,8 61 1 ,8 68 0. 03 7 0. 05 9 K no w le dg e of m ot he r- to -c hi ld tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A .3 0. 41 1 0. 01 3 0. 03 2 1. 34 1 1. 15 8 2 42 ,8 61 1 ,8 68 0. 38 5 0. 43 7 C hi ld re n un de r 5 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0. 14 3 0. 01 5 0. 10 5 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 7 1, 16 3 5 39 0. 11 3 0. 17 4 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 28 4 0. 02 1 0. 07 5 1. 19 9 1. 09 5 70 ,8 58 5 37 0. 24 1 0. 32 6 W as tin g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 04 3 0. 00 9 0. 21 0 1. 05 7 1. 02 8 7 0, 95 6 5 38 0. 01 2 0. 07 3 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 14 0 0. 03 5 0. 24 8 0. 49 1 0. 70 0 6 ,6 13 50 0. 07 1 0. 21 0 P re do m in an t b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 49 5 0. 05 6 0. 11 2 0. 60 5 0. 77 8 6 ,6 13 50 0. 38 4 0. 60 6 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 1 y ea r N U .3 0. 78 9 0. 06 1 0. 07 7 0. 92 1 0. 96 0 5, 87 3 42 0. 66 7 0. 91 2 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 2 y ea rs N U .3 0. 21 5 0. 05 4 0. 25 4 0. 59 8 0. 77 3 4 ,6 54 35 0. 10 6 0. 32 4 A ge -a pp ro pr ia te b re as tfe ed in g N U .5 0. 32 9 0. 03 9 0. 11 8 1. 44 9 1. 20 4 29 ,0 24 2 15 0. 25 1 0. 40 6 M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy N U .7 0. 51 7 0. 04 0 0. 07 8 1. 05 5 1. 02 7 22 ,4 11 1 65 0. 43 7 0. 59 7 M ilk fe ed in g fre qu en cy fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n N U .7 0. 69 1 0. 04 7 0. 06 8 0. 58 4 0. 76 4 7, 73 3 57 0. 59 7 0. 78 5 b ot tle fe ed in g N U .8 0. 30 8 0. 03 4 0. 11 2 1. 19 0 1. 09 1 29 ,0 24 2 15 0. 23 9 0. 37 7 V ita m in A s up pl em en ta tio n (c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 ) N U .1 0 0. 84 0 0. 01 6 0. 01 9 0. 98 4 0. 99 2 6 5, 26 2 4 98 0. 80 7 0. 87 3 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 96 1 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 0. 05 6 0. 23 6 1 6, 04 9 1 18 0. 95 3 0. 97 0 243VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .7 : S am pl in g er ro rs : N or th C en tr al a re a an d C en tr al C oa st al a re a S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of v ar ia tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2s e r + 2 se P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 61 9 0. 04 6 0. 07 4 1. 02 8 1. 01 4 1 6, 04 9 1 18 0. 52 8 0. 71 0 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0. 65 1 0. 03 0 0. 04 6 0. 45 8 0. 67 7 1 5, 82 3 1 16 0. 59 1 0. 71 1 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 94 1 0. 01 5 0. 01 6 0. 49 0 0. 70 0 1 5, 90 1 1 17 0. 91 0 0. 97 2 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0. 28 2 0. 05 7 0. 20 3 1. 88 5 1. 37 3 1 6, 04 9 1 18 0. 16 8 0. 39 6 D ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks C H .4 0. 06 9 0. 01 4 0. 20 0 1. 60 8 1. 26 8 7 1, 87 6 5 48 0. 04 1 0. 09 6 O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g C H .6 0. 52 9 0. 03 5 0. 06 5 0. 17 3 0. 41 6 4 ,9 31 3 7 0. 46 0 0. 59 8 A cu te re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n in la st tw o w ee ks C H .7 0. 05 4 0. 01 3 0. 23 3 1. 69 1 1. 30 0 7 1, 87 6 5 48 0. 02 9 0. 07 9 A nt ib io tic tr ea tm en t o f s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 55 2 0. 04 5 0. 08 2 0. 22 5 0. 47 4 3 ,8 71 2 8 0. 46 2 0. 64 3 C ar e- se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 58 5 0. 03 7 0. 06 3 0. 15 1 0. 38 8 3 ,8 71 2 8 0. 51 2 0. 65 9 C hi ld re n un de r 5 s le ep in g un de r a n in se ct ic id e tre at ed n et C H .1 2 0. 09 0 0. 02 7 0. 29 7 4. 67 1 2. 16 1 7 0, 49 6 5 36 0. 03 6 0. 14 3 Fe ve r i n la st tw o w ee ks C H .1 4 0. 21 7 0. 02 5 0. 11 3 1. 94 4 1. 39 4 7 1, 87 6 5 48 0. 16 7 0. 26 6 A nt im al ar ia l t re at m en t C H .1 4 0. 00 5 0. 00 0 0. 07 1 0. 00 3 0. 05 2 1 5, 56 4 1 17 0. 00 4 0. 00 5 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n C d .1 0. 67 4 0. 03 1 0. 04 6 0. 99 4 0. 99 7 29 ,5 58 2 26 0. 61 1 0. 73 6 S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 71 4 0. 02 5 0. 03 5 0. 68 6 0. 82 8 29 ,5 58 2 26 0. 66 4 0. 76 3 Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 62 8 0. 02 9 0. 04 6 0. 81 2 0. 90 1 2 9, 55 8 2 26 0. 57 0 0. 68 7 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : c hi ld re n’ s bo ok s C d .3 0. 14 6 0. 01 6 0. 11 1 1. 15 9 1. 07 7 71 ,8 76 5 48 0. 11 3 0. 17 8 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : p la yt hi ng s C d .3 0. 53 0 0. 02 3 0. 04 4 1. 21 0 1. 10 0 7 1, 87 6 5 48 0. 48 3 0. 57 7 In ad eq ua te c ar e C d .4 0. 17 4 0. 02 0 0. 11 6 1. 55 7 1. 24 8 7 1, 87 6 5 48 0. 13 3 0. 21 4 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t I nd ex C d .5 0. 84 5 0. 02 3 0. 02 7 0. 88 9 0. 94 3 29 ,5 58 2 26 0. 80 0 0. 89 1 b irt h re gi st ra tio n C P. 1 0. 95 6 0. 01 1 0. 01 1 1. 43 9 1. 20 0 71 ,8 76 5 48 0. 93 5 0. 97 7 S af e di sp os al o f c hi ld ’s fa ec es W S .7 0. 62 1 0. 04 2 0. 06 8 2. 42 2 1. 55 6 42 ,3 18 3 22 0. 53 6 0. 70 5 244 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .8 : S am pl in g er ro rs : C en tr al H ig hl an ds S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se H O U S E H O lD S Io di se d sa lt co ns um pt io n N U .9 0. 88 1 0. 01 1 0. 01 3 2. 28 2 1. 51 1 6 02 1 ,9 52 0. 85 9 0. 90 3 P la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng W S .9 0. 98 7 0. 00 3 0. 00 3 1. 16 3 1. 07 8 6 04 1 ,9 56 0. 98 1 0. 99 2 Av ai la bi lit y of s oa p W S .1 0 0. 88 5 0. 01 6 0. 01 8 4. 79 5 2. 19 0 6 04 1 ,9 56 0. 85 4 0. 91 7 C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 4 0. 78 2 0. 01 6 0. 02 1 1. 90 2 1. 37 9 7 02 1 ,2 49 0. 75 0 0. 81 4 H O U S E H O lD M E M b E R S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es W S .1 0. 86 1 0. 01 7 0. 02 0 4. 86 4 2. 20 5 2 ,5 51 1 ,9 56 0. 82 6 0. 89 5 W at er tr ea tm en t W S .2 0. 80 3 0. 03 4 0. 04 2 1. 57 0 1. 25 3 3 55 2 18 0. 73 6 0. 87 1 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s (s ha re d an d no t s ha re d) W S .5 0. 68 5 0. 03 3 0. 04 8 9. 82 5 3. 13 5 2 ,5 51 1 ,9 56 0. 62 0 0. 75 1 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss E d .2 0. 94 7 0. 02 0 0. 02 1 1. 57 6 1. 25 5 6 ,3 98 2 05 0. 90 8 0. 98 6 N et in ta ke ra te in p rim ar y ed uc at io n E d .3 0. 90 4 0. 02 7 0. 03 0 1. 47 2 1. 21 3 5 ,5 86 1 80 0. 85 0 0. 95 7 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .4 0. 95 9 0. 01 1 0. 01 1 2. 53 4 1. 59 2 2 6, 75 6 8 45 0. 93 7 0. 98 1 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .5 0. 71 6 0. 03 3 0. 04 7 7. 32 3 2. 70 6 4 3, 20 8 1 ,3 53 0. 64 9 0. 78 2 Tr an si tio n ra te to s ec on da ry s ch oo l E d .7 0. 97 2 0. 01 2 0. 01 3 0. 94 6 0. 97 3 5 ,3 06 1 70 0. 94 8 0. 99 7 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 2 0. 11 5 0. 01 3 0. 11 4 3. 00 0 1. 73 2 5 6, 24 1 1 ,7 83 0. 08 9 0. 14 2 C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts C P. 9 0. 02 3 0. 00 3 0. 13 3 1. 26 3 1. 12 4 9 8, 80 7 3 ,1 19 0. 01 7 0. 02 8 P re va le nc e of c hi ld re n w ith a t l ea st o ne p ar en t d ea d C P. 9 0. 05 0 0. 00 7 0. 14 6 3. 49 0 1. 86 8 9 8, 80 7 3 ,1 19 0. 03 5 0. 06 5 W O M E N A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge R H .6 0. 87 9 0. 02 7 0. 03 1 1. 89 1 1. 37 5 9 ,2 42 2 72 0. 82 4 0. 93 3 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .9 0. 79 7 0. 04 6 0. 05 7 3. 50 9 1. 87 3 9 ,2 42 2 72 0. 70 6 0. 88 9 In st itu tio na l d el iv er ie s R H .1 0 0. 78 9 0. 04 6 0. 05 9 3. 49 1 1. 86 8 9 ,2 42 2 72 0. 69 6 0. 88 2 C ae sa re an s ec tio n R H .9 0. 11 4 0. 02 3 0. 20 5 1. 46 5 1. 21 0 9 ,2 42 2 72 0. 06 7 0. 16 0 C on te nt o f a nt en at al c ar e R H .8 0. 19 3 0. 02 7 0. 14 0 1. 26 5 1. 12 5 9 ,2 42 2 72 0. 13 9 0. 24 7 In fa nt s w ei gh ed a t b irt h N U .1 1 0. 79 6 0. 04 1 0. 05 2 2. 84 6 1. 68 7 9 ,2 42 2 72 0. 71 4 0. 87 9 C hi ld re n ev er b re as tfe d N U .2 0. 98 5 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 0. 75 1 0. 86 6 9 ,2 42 2 72 0. 97 2 0. 99 8 E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g N U .2 0. 37 0 0. 03 7 0. 09 9 1. 55 6 1. 24 7 9 ,2 42 2 72 0. 29 6 0. 44 3 245VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .8 : S am pl in g er ro rs : C en tr al H ig hl an ds S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .4 0. 75 8 0. 01 7 0. 02 3 2. 31 3 1. 52 1 4 6, 73 2 1 ,4 40 0. 72 4 0. 79 2 A du lt lit er ac y E d .1 0. 89 9 0. 02 8 0. 03 2 5. 86 9 2. 42 3 2 1, 76 4 6 58 0. 84 2 0. 95 6 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 5 0. 15 1 0. 01 3 0. 08 3 2. 05 9 1. 43 5 5 4, 16 0 1 ,6 91 0. 12 6 0. 17 6 P ol yg yn y C P. 5 0. 02 0 0. 00 4 0. 21 5 1. 33 0 1. 15 3 4 6, 73 2 1 ,4 40 0. 01 1 0. 02 8 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n H A .1 0. 40 9 0. 02 2 0. 05 4 4. 15 5 2. 03 8 6 7, 11 1 2 ,0 78 0. 36 5 0. 45 3 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n am on g yo un g pe op le H A .2 0. 42 5 0. 03 3 0. 07 8 2. 99 5 1. 73 1 2 1, 76 4 6 58 0. 35 9 0. 49 2 A cc ep tin g at tit ud es to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV H A .4 0. 25 4 0. 01 4 0. 05 4 1. 79 0 1. 33 8 5 8, 38 8 1 ,8 24 0. 22 7 0. 28 1 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV d ur in g la st 1 2 m on th s an d w ho h av e be en to ld th e re su lts H A .5 0. 02 9 0. 00 4 0. 15 2 1. 46 3 1. 20 9 6 7, 11 1 2 ,0 78 0. 02 0 0. 03 8 K no w le dg e of m ot he r- to -c hi ld tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A .3 0. 44 9 0. 02 2 0. 04 9 4. 06 5 2. 01 6 6 7, 11 1 2 ,0 78 0. 40 5 0. 49 3 C hi ld re n un de r 5 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0. 17 6 0. 01 4 0. 08 1 1. 00 5 1. 00 3 2 2, 90 4 7 14 0. 14 7 0. 20 4 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 30 6 0. 02 2 0. 07 2 1. 61 8 1. 27 2 2 2, 71 3 7 09 0. 26 2 0. 35 0 W as tin g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 04 1 0. 00 8 0. 20 7 1. 28 9 1. 13 5 2 2, 72 8 7 09 0. 01 2 0. 07 0 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 11 6 0. 02 6 0. 22 6 0. 36 3 0. 60 2 1 ,7 52 55 0. 06 4 0. 16 9 P re do m in an t b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 49 9 0. 03 3 0. 06 5 0. 23 0 0. 48 0 1 ,7 52 55 0. 43 3 0. 56 4 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 1 y ea r N U .3 0. 91 2 0. 02 8 0. 03 1 0. 52 4 0. 72 4 1 ,7 84 53 0. 85 5 0. 96 9 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 2 y ea rs N U .3 0. 33 0 0. 04 6 0. 13 9 0. 50 7 0. 71 2 1 ,7 60 54 0. 23 8 0. 42 2 A ge -a pp ro pr ia te b re as tfe ed in g N U .5 0. 32 2 0. 03 3 0. 10 1 1. 37 1 1. 17 1 9 ,3 07 2 82 0. 25 7 0. 38 7 M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy N U .7 0. 36 7 0. 02 7 0. 07 3 0. 70 4 0. 83 9 7 ,5 55 2 27 0. 31 3 0. 42 1 M ilk fe ed in g fre qu en cy fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n N U .7 0. 77 5 0. 02 8 0. 03 6 0. 29 5 0. 54 4 2 ,1 83 66 0. 71 9 0. 83 2 b ot tle fe ed in g N U .8 0. 30 0 0. 03 4 0. 11 4 1. 55 7 1. 24 8 9 ,3 07 2 82 0. 23 1 0. 36 8 V ita m in A s up pl em en ta tio n (c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 ) N U .1 0 0. 85 8 0. 02 7 0. 03 1 3. 87 6 1. 96 9 2 1, 55 7 6 72 0. 80 4 0. 91 1 246 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .8 : S am pl in g er ro rs : C en tr al H ig hl an ds S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 91 3 0. 04 0 0. 04 4 3. 20 0 1. 78 9 5 ,3 04 1 62 0. 83 3 0. 99 2 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 63 6 0. 04 1 0. 06 4 1. 16 8 1. 08 1 5 ,3 74 1 63 0. 55 4 0. 71 7 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0. 63 4 0. 03 7 0. 05 9 0. 95 8 0. 97 9 5 ,3 08 1 61 0. 56 0 0. 70 9 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 87 9 0. 04 1 0. 04 7 2. 51 9 1. 58 7 5 ,2 88 1 61 0. 79 7 0. 96 1 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0. 36 2 0. 03 3 0. 09 0 0. 74 5 0. 86 3 5 ,4 10 1 64 0. 29 7 0. 42 7 D ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks C H .4 0. 06 3 0. 01 0 0. 16 5 1. 33 3 1. 15 4 2 3, 30 9 7 27 0. 04 2 0. 08 4 O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g C H .6 0. 58 4 0. 02 8 0. 04 7 0. 13 5 0. 36 7 1 ,4 65 4 4 0. 52 9 0. 63 9 A cu te re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n in la st tw o w ee ks C H .7 0. 03 8 0. 00 8 0. 20 3 1. 19 5 1. 09 3 2 3, 30 9 7 27 0. 02 3 0. 05 4 A nt ib io tic tr ea tm en t o f s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 67 7 0. 05 0 0. 07 4 0. 30 9 0. 55 6 8 95 2 8 0. 57 7 0. 77 7 C ar e- se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 69 9 0. 03 5 0. 05 0 0. 15 9 0. 39 9 8 95 2 8 0. 62 8 0. 76 9 C hi ld re n un de r 5 s le ep in g un de r a n in se ct ic id e tre at ed n et C H .1 2 0. 21 0 0. 03 5 0. 16 6 5. 20 0 2. 28 0 2 2, 84 2 7 13 0. 14 1 0. 28 0 Fe ve r i n la st tw o w ee ks C H .1 4 0. 08 6 0. 01 0 0. 11 1 0. 83 8 0. 91 5 2 3, 30 9 7 27 0. 06 7 0. 10 5 A nt im al ar ia l t re at m en t C H .1 4 0. 02 8 0. 00 2 0. 05 8 0. 00 6 0. 07 9 2 ,0 13 66 0. 02 5 0. 03 1 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n C d .1 0. 57 9 0. 04 3 0. 07 4 2. 10 6 1. 45 1 8 ,8 77 2 84 0. 49 4 0. 66 4 S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 72 0 0. 04 2 0. 05 9 2. 49 9 1. 58 1 8 ,8 77 2 84 0. 63 5 0. 80 4 Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 65 3 0. 03 2 0. 04 9 1. 28 4 1. 13 3 8 ,8 77 2 84 0. 58 9 0. 71 7 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : c hi ld re n’ s bo ok s C d .3 0. 10 7 0. 01 3 0. 12 0 1. 25 0 1. 11 8 2 3, 30 9 7 27 0. 08 1 0. 13 2 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : p la yt hi ng s C d .3 0. 40 6 0. 01 9 0. 04 8 1. 14 1 1. 06 8 2 3, 30 9 7 27 0. 36 7 0. 44 5 In ad eq ua te c ar e C d .4 0. 14 6 0. 01 7 0. 11 8 1. 72 4 1. 31 3 2 3, 30 9 7 27 0. 11 1 0. 18 0 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t I nd ex C d .5 0. 68 2 0. 03 6 0. 05 3 1. 68 8 1. 29 9 8 ,8 77 2 84 0. 61 0 0. 75 4 b irt h re gi st ra tio n C P. 1 0. 92 4 0. 02 0 0. 02 1 4. 08 3 2. 02 1 2 3, 30 9 7 27 0. 88 5 0. 96 4 S af e di sp os al o f c hi ld ’s fa ec es W S .7 0. 54 8 0. 04 4 0. 08 0 3. 41 4 1. 84 8 1 4, 43 2 4 43 0. 46 1 0. 63 6 247VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .9 : S am pl in g er ro rs : S ou th E as t S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se H O U S E H O lD S Io di se d sa lt co ns um pt io n N U .9 0. 56 5 0. 02 2 0. 03 9 3. 86 3 1. 96 6 1, 85 5 1, 91 0 0. 52 1 0. 61 0 P la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng W S .9 0. 96 4 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 1. 75 0 1. 32 3 1, 87 3 1, 92 8 0. 95 3 0. 97 5 Av ai la bi lit y of s oa p W S .1 0 0. 97 0 0. 00 5 0. 00 6 1. 93 9 1. 39 2 1, 87 3 1, 92 8 0. 95 9 0. 98 1 C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 4 0. 69 5 0. 02 0 0. 02 8 1. 83 5 1. 35 4 1, 45 7 1, 00 9 0. 65 6 0. 73 4 H O U S E H O lD M E M b E R S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es W S .1 0. 98 4 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 1. 72 9 1. 31 5 7, 06 6 1, 92 8 0. 97 7 0. 99 2 W at er tr ea tm en t W S .2 0. 68 7 0. 06 4 0. 09 4 0. 53 8 0. 73 4 1 10 2 9 0. 55 8 0. 81 6 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s (s ha re d an d no t s ha re d) W S .5 0. 92 5 0. 01 2 0. 01 3 3. 72 9 1. 93 1 7 ,0 66 1 ,9 28 0. 90 2 0. 94 8 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss E d .2 0. 89 0 0. 02 4 0. 02 7 0. 75 0 0. 86 6 1 2, 37 8 12 5 0. 84 2 0. 93 9 N et in ta ke ra te in p rim ar y ed uc at io n E d .3 0. 95 4 0. 02 2 0. 02 3 1. 35 2 1. 16 3 1 3, 00 4 12 9 0. 91 0 0. 99 7 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .4 0. 97 4 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 52 2 1. 23 4 55 ,2 60 56 4 0. 95 8 0. 99 1 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .5 0. 80 9 0. 01 6 0. 02 0 1. 39 1 1. 17 9 7 8, 41 1 8 38 0. 77 7 0. 84 1 Tr an si tio n ra te to s ec on da ry s ch oo l E d .7 0. 98 2 0. 01 9 0. 02 0 1. 75 9 1. 32 6 8, 33 4 8 7 0. 94 3 1. 00 0 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 2 0. 06 3 0. 00 8 0. 12 5 1. 19 4 1. 09 3 1 10 ,4 59 1, 14 5 0. 04 7 0. 07 8 C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts C P. 9 0. 05 4 0. 00 8 0. 14 3 2. 43 1 1. 55 9 2 00 ,6 35 2, 08 2 0. 03 8 0. 06 9 P re va le nc e of c hi ld re n w ith a t l ea st o ne p ar en t d ea d C P. 9 0. 03 0 0. 00 5 0. 17 3 1. 92 1 1. 38 6 2 00 ,6 35 2, 08 2 0. 01 9 0. 04 0 W O M E N A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge R H .6 0. 99 1 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 0. 39 6 0. 62 9 2 1, 37 2 21 5 0. 98 3 0. 99 9 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .9 0. 99 4 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 1. 24 8 1. 11 7 2 1, 37 2 21 5 0. 98 3 1. 00 0 In st itu tio na l d el iv er ie s R H .1 0 0. 99 4 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 1. 24 8 1. 11 7 2 1, 37 2 21 5 0. 98 3 1. 00 0 C ae sa re an s ec tio n R H .9 0. 33 5 0. 03 3 0. 09 9 1. 05 8 1. 02 9 2 1, 37 2 21 5 0. 26 8 0. 40 1 C on te nt o f a nt en at al c ar e R H .8 0. 73 7 0. 02 5 0. 03 4 0. 71 3 0. 84 5 2 1, 37 2 21 5 0. 68 6 0. 78 8 In fa nt s w ei gh ed a t b irt h N U .1 1 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 . . 2 1, 37 2 21 5 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 C hi ld re n ev er b re as tfe d N U .2 0. 95 9 0. 01 2 0. 01 2 0. 77 5 0. 88 0 2 1, 37 2 21 5 0. 93 5 0. 98 3 248 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .9 : S am pl in g er ro rs : S ou th E as t S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g N U .2 0. 28 9 0. 03 3 0. 11 5 1. 14 6 1. 07 1 2 1, 37 2 21 5 0. 22 3 0. 35 5 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .4 0. 78 6 0. 01 2 0. 01 6 1. 22 4 1. 10 6 1 33 ,5 14 1, 33 4 0. 76 1 0. 81 1 A du lt lit er ac y E d .1 0. 98 3 0. 00 7 0. 00 7 1. 93 4 1. 39 1 6 0, 40 1 62 2 0. 96 9 0. 99 7 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 5 0. 08 8 0. 00 7 0. 08 5 1. 26 7 1. 12 5 1 80 ,5 18 1, 83 2 0. 07 3 0. 10 3 P ol yg yn y C P. 5 0. 03 1 0. 00 6 0. 19 5 1. 61 1 1. 26 9 1 33 ,5 14 1, 33 4 0. 01 9 0. 04 3 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n H A .1 0. 49 7 0. 01 4 0. 02 8 1. 66 7 1. 29 1 2 08 ,0 15 2, 11 6 0. 46 9 0. 52 5 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n am on g yo un g pe op le H A .2 0. 53 9 0. 02 1 0. 04 0 1. 13 5 1. 06 6 6 0, 40 1 62 2 0. 49 6 0. 58 1 A cc ep tin g at tit ud es to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV H A .4 0. 20 4 0. 01 0 0. 05 1 1. 36 1 1. 16 7 2 05 ,2 51 2, 08 2 0. 18 3 0. 22 5 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV d ur in g la st 1 2 m on th s an d w ho h av e be en to ld th e re su lts H A .5 0. 08 0 0. 00 6 0. 07 4 1. 00 5 1. 00 2 2 08 ,0 15 2 ,1 16 0. 06 8 0. 09 2 K no w le dg e of m ot he r- to -c hi ld tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A .3 0. 55 9 0. 01 3 0. 02 3 1. 46 7 1. 21 1 2 08 ,0 15 2, 11 6 0. 53 3 0. 58 5 C hi ld re n un de r 5 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0. 04 5 0. 01 1 0. 23 7 1. 52 3 1. 23 4 5 6, 31 0 57 2 0. 02 4 0. 06 7 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 09 7 0. 01 6 0. 16 3 1. 61 6 1. 27 1 5 5, 76 2 56 7 0. 06 5 0. 12 9 W as tin g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 03 7 0. 00 8 0. 23 2 1. 14 9 1. 07 2 5 5, 46 7 56 4 0. 01 5 0. 05 8 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 07 3 0. 02 5 0. 34 9 0. 40 2 0. 63 4 4 ,1 45 4 3 0. 02 2 0. 12 4 P re do m in an t b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 33 3 0. 07 1 0. 21 3 0. 95 1 0. 97 5 4, 14 5 4 3 0. 19 1 0. 47 4 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 1 y ea r N U .3 0. 59 8 0. 07 4 0. 12 3 0. 92 6 0. 96 2 3 ,9 55 4 2 0. 45 1 0. 74 6 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 2 y ea rs N U .3 0. 07 4 0. 02 6 0. 35 0 0. 43 8 0. 66 2 4 ,7 48 4 6 0. 02 2 0. 12 5 A ge -a pp ro pr ia te b re as tfe ed in g N U .5 0. 21 0 0. 03 1 0. 14 9 1. 33 1 1. 15 4 2 1, 79 5 22 5 0. 14 7 0. 27 3 M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy N U .7 0. 70 1 0. 03 4 0. 04 9 1. 01 7 1. 00 9 1 7, 64 9 18 2 0. 63 2 0. 76 9 M ilk fe ed in g fre qu en cy fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n N U .7 0. 98 6 0. 01 0 0. 01 0 0. 78 5 0. 88 6 1 0, 11 7 10 8 0. 96 5 1. 00 0 b ot tle fe ed in g N U .8 0. 68 2 0. 03 2 0. 04 7 1. 06 0 1. 03 0 21 ,7 95 22 5 0. 61 8 0. 74 6 V ita m in A s up pl em en ta tio n (c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 ) N U .1 0 0. 77 6 0. 01 7 0. 02 2 0. 89 3 0. 94 5 5 3, 04 4 53 8 0. 74 2 0. 81 0 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 98 8 0. 00 3 0. 00 3 0. 09 3 0. 30 5 1 2, 08 6 1 25 0. 98 2 0. 99 4 249VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .9 : S am pl in g er ro rs : S ou th E as t S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 78 7 0. 03 9 0. 05 0 1. 13 2 1. 06 4 1 2, 08 6 1 25 0. 70 9 0. 86 6 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0. 89 0 0. 02 6 0. 02 9 0. 82 9 0. 91 1 1 2, 08 6 1 25 0. 83 8 0. 94 1 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 96 2 0. 01 4 0. 01 5 0. 68 2 0. 82 6 1 2, 03 2 1 24 0. 93 3 0. 99 0 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0. 53 6 0. 05 8 0. 10 9 1. 68 8 1. 29 9 1 2, 08 6 1 25 0. 41 9 0. 65 2 D ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks C H .4 0. 05 0 0. 00 8 0. 16 4 0. 82 0 0. 90 5 5 7, 19 0 5 81 0. 03 3 0. 06 6 O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g C H .6 0. 59 7 0. 05 4 0. 09 1 0. 36 4 0. 60 4 2 ,8 44 3 1 0. 48 9 0. 70 5 A cu te re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n in la st tw o w ee ks C H .7 0. 03 5 0. 00 9 0. 25 3 1. 34 6 1. 16 0 5 7, 19 0 5 81 0. 01 7 0. 05 3 A nt ib io tic tr ea tm en t o f s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 90 1 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 2 ,0 09 1 8 0. 90 1 0. 90 1 C ar e- se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 2 ,0 09 1 8 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 C hi ld re n un de r 5 s le ep in g un de r a n in se ct ic id e tre at ed n et C H .1 2 0. 05 2 0. 01 5 0. 29 9 2. 74 8 1. 65 8 5 5, 87 3 5 68 0. 02 1 0. 08 2 Fe ve r i n la st tw o w ee ks C H .1 4 0. 19 3 0. 01 5 0. 08 0 0. 87 5 0. 93 5 57 ,1 90 58 1 0. 16 2 0. 22 3 A nt im al ar ia l t re at m en t C H .1 4 0. 03 2 0. 01 4 0. 44 7 0. 74 9 0. 86 5 11 ,0 10 11 6 0. 00 3 0. 06 0 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n C d .1 0. 69 1 0. 02 9 0. 04 3 0. 95 9 0. 97 9 2 3, 28 3 23 7 0. 63 3 0. 75 0 S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 80 0 0. 02 5 0. 03 1 0. 90 0 0. 94 9 2 3, 28 3 23 7 0. 75 0 0. 84 9 Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 68 1 0. 02 9 0. 04 3 0. 93 8 0. 96 9 2 3, 28 3 23 7 0. 62 2 0. 74 0 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : c hi ld re n’ s bo ok s C d .3 0. 34 3 0. 02 2 0. 06 5 1. 28 0 1. 13 2 5 7, 19 0 58 1 0. 29 8 0. 38 8 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : p la yt hi ng s C d .3 0. 51 6 0. 02 1 0. 04 1 1. 03 4 1. 01 7 5 7, 19 0 58 1 0. 47 4 0. 55 9 In ad eq ua te c ar e C d .4 0. 04 3 0. 00 8 0. 19 0 0. 94 8 0. 97 4 5 7, 19 0 58 1 0. 02 7 0. 06 0 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t I nd ex C d .5 0. 86 3 0. 02 2 0. 02 5 0. 95 0 0. 97 5 2 3, 28 3 23 7 0. 81 9 0. 90 6 b irt h re gi st ra tio n C P. 1 0. 96 2 0. 00 9 0. 01 0 1. 36 8 1. 17 0 5 7, 19 0 58 1 0. 94 4 0. 98 1 S af e di sp os al o f c hi ld ’s fa ec es W S .7 0. 77 7 0. 02 8 0. 03 6 1. 52 4 1. 23 4 33 ,9 07 34 4 0. 72 2 0. 83 3 250 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .1 0: S am pl in g er ro rs : M ek on g R iv er D el ta S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se H O U S E H O lD S Io di se d sa lt co ns um pt io n N U .9 0. 42 4 0. 02 0 0. 04 6 3. 01 1 1. 73 5 2 ,1 54 1, 90 8 0. 38 4 0. 46 3 P la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng W S .9 0. 97 0 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 1. 52 2 1. 23 4 2 ,1 78 1, 92 5 0. 96 0 0. 98 0 Av ai la bi lit y of s oa p W S .1 0 0. 96 2 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 1. 15 6 1. 07 5 2 ,1 78 1, 92 5 0. 95 2 0. 97 1 C hi ld d is ci pl in e C P. 4 0. 78 2 0. 01 4 0. 01 8 1. 25 6 1. 12 1 1 ,8 96 1, 12 4 0. 75 5 0. 81 0 H O U S E H O lD M E M b E R S U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es W S .1 0. 93 1 0. 01 7 0. 01 8 8. 50 9 2. 91 7 8 ,4 34 1, 92 5 0. 89 7 0. 96 4 W at er tr ea tm en t W S .2 0. 86 7 0. 02 3 0. 02 7 0. 58 0 0. 76 2 5 84 12 4 0. 82 0 0. 91 4 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s (s ha re d an d no t s ha re d) W S .5 0. 44 3 0. 02 6 0. 05 9 5. 31 2 2. 30 5 8 ,4 34 1 ,9 25 0. 39 1 0. 49 5 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss E d .2 0. 81 9 0. 04 1 0. 05 0 1. 56 3 1. 25 0 1 5, 94 4 14 1 0. 73 7 0. 90 0 N et in ta ke ra te in p rim ar y ed uc at io n E d .3 0. 94 9 0. 02 1 0. 02 2 1. 23 2 1. 11 0 1 5, 98 4 14 1 0. 90 8 0. 99 1 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .4 0. 97 9 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 1. 18 9 1. 09 0 7 6, 40 5 68 3 0. 96 6 0. 99 1 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E d .5 0. 72 3 0. 02 2 0. 03 0 2. 04 9 1. 43 2 9 6, 85 0 8 72 0. 68 0 0. 76 7 Tr an si tio n ra te to s ec on da ry s ch oo l E d .7 0. 99 2 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 05 3 1. 02 6 1 6, 42 7 13 8 0. 97 7 1. 00 0 C hi ld la bo ur C P. 2 0. 10 9 0. 01 2 0. 11 1 2. 00 2 1. 41 5 14 7, 99 2 1, 32 8 0. 08 5 0. 13 3 C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts C P. 9 0. 08 8 0. 01 0 0. 10 9 2. 59 6 1. 61 1 25 3, 42 0 2, 27 5 0. 06 9 0. 10 7 P re va le nc e of c hi ld re n w ith a t l ea st o ne p ar en t d ea d C P. 9 0. 03 5 0. 00 5 0. 14 8 1. 82 7 1. 35 2 25 3, 42 0 2, 27 5 0. 02 5 0. 04 6 W O M E N A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge R H .6 0. 94 4 0. 02 6 0. 02 8 2. 46 3 1. 57 0 2 1, 02 5 18 8 0. 89 1 0. 99 7 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y R H .9 0. 98 2 0. 00 9 0. 01 0 0. 96 3 0. 98 1 2 1, 02 5 18 8 0. 96 3 1. 00 0 In st itu tio na l d el iv er ie s R H .1 0 0. 98 2 0. 00 9 0. 01 0 0. 96 3 0. 98 1 2 1, 02 5 18 8 0. 96 3 1. 00 0 C ae sa re an s ec tio n R H .9 0. 14 5 0. 01 8 0. 12 4 0. 48 3 0. 69 5 2 1, 02 5 18 8 0. 10 9 0. 18 0 C on te nt o f a nt en at al c ar e R H .8 0. 38 9 0. 03 3 0. 08 4 0. 83 8 0. 91 5 2 1, 02 5 18 8 0. 32 4 0. 45 5 In fa nt s w ei gh ed a t b irt h N U .1 1 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 . . 2 1, 02 5 18 8 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 251VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .1 0: S am pl in g er ro rs : M ek on g R iv er D el ta S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se C hi ld re n ev er b re as tfe d N U .2 0. 97 7 0. 01 0 0. 01 0 0. 77 6 0. 88 1 2 1, 02 5 18 8 0. 95 8 0. 99 6 E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g N U .2 0. 33 3 0. 03 6 0. 10 7 1. 07 2 1. 03 5 2 1, 02 5 18 8 0. 26 2 0. 40 5 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce R H .4 0. 80 7 0. 01 2 0. 01 5 1. 33 2 1. 15 4 16 1, 88 8 1, 39 5 0. 78 3 0. 83 1 A du lt lit er ac y E d .1 0. 96 6 0. 01 0 0. 01 0 1. 49 4 1. 22 2 5 9, 30 9 53 5 0. 94 7 0. 98 5 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 C P. 5 0. 16 3 0. 01 2 0. 07 2 1. 69 3 1. 30 1 19 3, 95 6 1, 69 3 0. 14 0 0. 18 7 P ol yg yn y C P. 5 0. 02 6 0. 00 5 0. 20 0 1. 50 3 1. 22 6 16 1, 88 8 1, 39 5 0. 01 6 0. 03 7 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n H A .1 0. 33 7 0. 01 4 0. 04 0 1. 59 6 1. 26 3 22 1, 96 6 1, 94 9 0. 31 0 0. 36 4 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n am on g yo un g pe op le H A .2 0. 42 5 0. 02 9 0. 06 9 1. 85 3 1. 36 1 5 9, 30 9 53 5 0. 36 7 0. 48 3 A cc ep tin g at tit ud es to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV H A .4 0. 18 6 0. 01 0 0. 05 4 1. 27 3 1. 12 8 21 3, 41 6 1, 87 7 0. 16 6 0. 20 7 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV d ur in g la st 1 2 m on th s an d w ho h av e be en to ld th e re su lts H A .5 0. 05 9 0. 00 6 0. 09 9 1. 19 1 1. 09 1 2 21 ,9 66 1 ,9 49 0. 04 7 0. 07 0 K no w le dg e of m ot he r- to -c hi ld tr an sm is si on o f H IV H A .3 0. 61 2 0. 01 2 0. 01 9 1. 13 2 1. 06 4 22 1, 96 6 1, 94 9 0. 58 8 0. 63 5 C hi ld re n un de r 5 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e N U .1 0. 14 3 0. 01 8 0. 12 9 1. 55 5 1. 24 7 6 4, 46 9 56 2 0. 10 6 0. 18 0 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 20 7 0. 01 8 0. 08 7 1. 08 9 1. 04 4 6 4, 10 5 55 7 0. 17 1 0. 24 3 W as tin g pr ev al en ce N U .1 0. 04 8 0. 01 0 0. 21 2 1. 25 8 1. 12 2 6 3, 92 4 55 6 0. 01 1 0. 08 5 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 01 7 0. 00 0 0. 02 6 0. 00 0 0. 02 1 4 ,4 98 3 9 0. 01 6 0. 01 8 P re do m in an t b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s N U .3 0. 35 5 0. 06 3 0. 17 6 0. 64 9 0. 80 6 4 ,4 98 3 9 0. 23 0 0. 48 0 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 1 y ea r N U .3 0. 57 1 0. 02 6 0. 04 5 0. 09 9 0. 31 4 3 ,9 24 3 7 0. 51 9 0. 62 3 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 2 y ea rs N U .3 0. 19 9 0. 02 1 0. 10 4 0. 08 6 0. 29 4 3 ,5 09 3 3 0. 15 8 0. 24 1 A ge -a pp ro pr ia te b re as tfe ed in g N U .5 0. 33 6 0. 02 8 0. 08 4 0. 72 3 0. 85 0 2 2, 85 6 20 5 0. 28 0 0. 39 3 M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy N U .7 0. 60 6 0. 03 3 0. 05 4 0. 75 3 0. 86 8 1 8, 35 8 16 6 0. 54 0 0. 67 2 M ilk fe ed in g fre qu en cy fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n N U .7 0. 79 0 0. 04 1 0. 05 2 0. 82 3 0. 90 7 8 ,5 33 8 1 0. 70 8 0. 87 3 b ot tle fe ed in g N U .8 0. 56 2 0. 03 5 0. 06 2 0. 99 6 0. 99 8 2 2, 85 6 20 5 0. 49 3 0. 63 2 V ita m in A s up pl em en ta tio n (c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 ) N U .1 0 0. 79 5 0. 01 8 0. 02 3 1. 07 4 1. 03 6 6 0, 48 0 52 8 0. 75 8 0. 83 1 252 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e SE .1 0: S am pl in g er ro rs : M ek on g R iv er D el ta S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t) an d co nfi de nc e in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Ta bl e Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t o f va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn e ffe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t U nw ei gh te d co un t C on fid en ce li m its r - 2 se r + 2 se Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 93 7 0. 01 6 0. 01 8 0. 46 8 0. 68 4 1 1, 36 0 1 03 0. 90 4 0. 97 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 72 1 0. 03 2 0. 04 4 0. 50 0 0. 70 7 1 1, 12 0 1 01 0. 65 7 0. 78 4 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r D P T C H .2 0. 73 8 0. 03 8 0. 05 1 0. 73 0 0. 85 5 1 0, 76 8 9 9 0. 66 2 0. 81 4 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge C H .2 0. 84 6 0. 02 0 0. 02 4 0. 31 1 0. 55 8 1 1, 14 0 1 01 0. 80 6 0. 88 6 Fu lly im m un iz ed c hi ld re n C H .2 0. 32 7 0. 04 5 0. 13 6 0. 92 3 0. 96 1 1 1, 36 0 1 03 0. 23 8 0. 41 6 D ia rr ho ea in la st tw o w ee ks C H .4 0. 06 2 0. 01 2 0. 18 9 1. 33 5 1. 15 5 6 4, 97 8 5 67 0. 03 9 0. 08 5 O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g C H .6 0. 44 7 0. 05 0 0. 11 3 0. 33 9 0. 58 2 4 ,0 31 3 4 0. 34 6 0. 54 8 A cu te re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n in la st tw o w ee ks C H .7 0. 01 9 0. 00 6 0. 28 4 0. 90 7 0. 95 2 6 4, 97 8 5 67 0. 00 8 0. 03 1 A nt ib io tic tr ea tm en t o f s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 0. 29 7 0. 08 9 0. 29 8 0. 41 3 0. 64 3 1 ,2 64 1 2 0. 12 0 0. 47 4 C ar e- se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia C H .7 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 1 ,2 64 1 2 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 C hi ld re n un de r 5 s le ep in g un de r a n in se ct ic id e tre at ed n et C H .1 2 0. 06 3 0. 01 6 0. 25 9 2. 42 9 1. 55 8 6 2, 39 6 5 44 0. 03 0 0. 09 5 Fe ve r i n la st tw o w ee ks C H .1 4 0. 12 3 0. 01 3 0. 10 8 0. 93 0 0. 96 4 6 4, 97 8 56 7 0. 09 7 0. 15 0 A nt im al ar ia l t re at m en t C H .1 4 0. 00 8 0. 00 0 0. 04 8 0. 00 1 0. 03 8 8 ,0 11 7 8 0. 00 7 0. 00 9 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n C d .1 0. 47 2 0. 04 6 0. 09 7 1. 98 5 1. 40 9 2 7, 39 4 23 7 0. 38 1 0. 56 4 S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 76 7 0. 03 5 0. 04 6 1. 65 9 1. 28 8 2 7, 39 4 23 7 0. 69 7 0. 83 8 Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g C d .2 0. 46 5 0. 03 3 0. 07 1 1. 02 1 1. 01 1 2 7, 39 4 23 7 0. 40 0 0. 53 1 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : c hi ld re n’ s bo ok s C d .3 0. 12 5 0. 01 8 0. 14 3 1. 64 8 1. 28 4 6 4, 97 8 56 7 0. 08 9 0. 16 1 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : p la yt hi ng s C d .3 0. 47 9 0. 02 5 0. 05 1 1. 36 7 1. 16 9 6 4, 97 8 56 7 0. 43 0 0. 52 8 In ad eq ua te c ar e C d .4 0. 07 5 0. 01 4 0. 19 1 1. 68 1 1. 29 6 6 4, 97 8 56 7 0. 04 6 0. 10 4 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t I nd ex C d .5 0. 79 8 0. 03 0 0. 03 8 1. 33 6 1. 15 6 2 7, 39 4 23 7 0. 73 8 0. 85 9 b irt h re gi st ra tio n C P. 1 0. 90 7 0. 02 4 0. 02 6 3. 86 2 1. 96 5 6 4, 97 8 56 7 0. 85 9 0. 95 5 S af e di sp os al o f c hi ld ’s fa ec es W S .7 0. 50 9 0. 03 4 0. 06 7 1. 50 7 1. 22 8 3 7, 58 4 33 0 0. 44 1 0. 57 6 253VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN APPENdIX d. Data Quality Tables Table DQ.1: Age distribution of household population Single-year age distribution of household population by sex,Viet Nam, 2011 Sex Male Female Number Percent Number Percent Age 0 307 1.4 356 1.6 1 399 1.9 371 1.7 2 441 2.0 349 1.6 3 374 1.7 383 1.7 4 346 1.6 342 1.5 5 400 1.9 365 1.6 6 395 1.8 357 1.6 7 423 2.0 356 1.6 8 373 1.7 335 1.5 9 337 1.6 365 1.6 10 400 1.9 356 1.6 11 373 1.7 331 1.5 12 361 1.7 344 1.5 13 412 1.9 386 1.7 14 438 2.0 405 1.8 15 412 1.9 358 1.6 16 397 1.8 405 1.8 17 414 1.9 428 1.9 18 353 1.6 333 1.5 19 305 1.4 251 1.1 20 347 1.6 352 1.6 21 295 1.4 280 1.2 22 311 1.4 337 1.5 23 354 1.6 369 1.6 24 275 1.3 325 1.4 25 354 1.6 364 1.6 26 379 1.8 362 1.6 27 320 1.5 354 1.6 28 363 1.7 397 1.8 29 330 1.5 337 1.5 30 297 1.4 372 1.7 31 300 1.4 332 1.5 32 368 1.7 332 1.5 33 344 1.6 395 1.8 34 340 1.6 356 1.6 35 341 1.6 351 1.6 36 357 1.7 319 1.4 37 359 1.7 331 1.5 38 372 1.7 320 1.4 39 325 1.5 324 1.4 40 317 1.5 362 1.6 41 290 1.3 317 1.4 42 361 1.7 300 1.3 43 264 1.2 264 1.2 44 313 1.5 358 1.6 45 314 1.5 369 1.6 46 339 1.6 313 1.4 47 349 1.6 301 1.3 254 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table DQ.1: Age distribution of household population Single-year age distribution of household population by sex,Viet Nam, 2011 Sex Male Female Number Percent Number Percent 48 301 1.4 266 1.2 49 215 1.0 199 0.9 50 302 1.4 384 1.7 51 204 0.9 308 1.4 52 265 1.2 326 1.5 53 264 1.2 262 1.2 54 210 1.0 242 1.1 55 204 0.9 236 1.1 56 222 1.0 249 1.1 57 157 0.7 186 0.8 58 177 0.8 219 1.0 59 116 0.5 141 0.6 60 171 0.8 204 0.9 61 140 0.6 168 0.7 62 118 0.5 178 0.8 63 136 0.6 129 0.6 64 98 0.5 115 0.5 65 95 0.4 103 0.5 66 85 0.4 83 0.4 67 70 0.3 107 0.5 68 89 0.4 112 0.5 69 67 0.3 83 0.4 70 75 0.3 142 0.6 71 87 0.4 91 0.4 72 62 0.3 110 0.5 73 82 0.4 94 0.4 74 69 0.3 93 0.4 75 44 0.2 87 0.4 76 59 0.3 79 0.4 77 43 0.2 79 0.4 78 38 0.2 60 0.3 79 38 0.2 57 0.3 80+ 320 1.5 576 2.6 DK/missing 0 0.0 0 0.0 Total 21559 100.0 22439 100.0 255VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table DQ.2: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women Household population of women age 10-54, interviewed women age 15-49, and percentage of eligible women who were interviewed, by five-year age groups, Viet Nam, 2011 Household population of women age 10-54 Interviewed women age 15-49 Percentage of eligible women interviewed (Completion rate) Number Number Percent Age 10-14 1821 . . . 15-19 1776 1656 14.6 93.3 20-24 1663 1563 13.8 94.0 25-29 1814 1754 15.5 96.7 30-34 1786 1763 15.6 98.7 35-39 1646 1608 14.2 97.7 40-44 1603 1571 13.9 98.0 45-49 1447 1407 12.4 97.2 50-54 1522 . . . Total (15-49) 11735 11322 100.0 96.5 Table DQ.3: Age distribution of children under 5 in household and children under 5 questionnaires Household population of children age 0-7, children age 0-4 whose mothers/caretakers were interviewed, and percentage of children under 5 whose mothers/caretakers were interviewed, by single ages, Viet Nam, 2011 Household population of children 0-7 years Interviewed children under 5 Percentage of eligible Children under 5 interviewed (Completion rate) Number Number Percent Age 0 663 650 18.0 98.1 1 770 755 20.8 98.1 2 790 780 21.5 98.8 3 757 753 20.8 99.5 4 689 685 18.9 99.5 5 765 . . . 6 752 . . . 7 779 . . . Total (0-4) 3668 3624 100.0 98.8 256 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table DQ.4: Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations that are missing information for selected questions and indicators, Viet Nam, 2011 Percent with missing/incomplete information* Number of cases Salt testing 0.2 11614 Starting time of interview 0.2 11614 Ending time of interview 0.2 11614 Woman's date of birth: Only month 4.0 11663 Woman's date of birth: both month and year 0.0 11663 date of first birth: Only month 0.8 8304 date of first birth: Both month and year 0.0 8304 Completed years since first birth 0.0 1 Date of last birth: Only month 0.1 8304 Date of last birth: both month and year 0.2 8304 date of first marriage/union: Only month 5.0 8814 date of first marriage/union: Both month and year 1.9 8814 Age at first marriage/union 0.0 8814 Age at first intercourse 0.0 1024 Time since last intercourse 0.0 1024 Starting time of interview 0.2 11663 Ending time of interview 0.3 11663 Date of birth: Only month 0.1 3678 Date of birth: both month and year 0.0 3678 Anthropometric measurements: Weight 1.9 3678 Anthropometric measurements: Height 2.5 3678 Anthropometric measurements: both weight and height 1.8 3678 Starting time of interview 0.3 3678 Ending time of interview 0.4 3678 257VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e D Q .5 a: C om pl et en es s of in fo rm at io n fo r a nt hr op om et ric in di ca to rs D is tr ib ut io n of c hi ld re n un de r 5 b y co m pl et en es s of in fo rm at io n fo r a nt hr op om et ric in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Va lid w ei gh t a nd da te o f b irt h R ea so n fo r e xc lu si on fr om a na ly si s To ta l P er ce nt o f c hi ld re n ex cl ud ed fr om an al ys is N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r 5 W ei gh t n ot m ea su re d In co m pl et e da te o f bi rth W ei gh t n ot m ea su re d, in co m pl et e da te o f bi rth Fl ag ge d ca se s (o ut lie rs ) W ei gh t b y ag e <6 m on th s 95 .0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 0 10 0. 0 5. 0 31 9 6- 11 m on th s 98 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 7 10 0. 0 1. 7 35 0 12 -2 3 m on th s 98 .2 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 1. 7 10 0. 0 1. 8 76 0 24 -3 5 m on th s 98 .5 0. 1 0. 1 0. 0 1. 3 10 0. 0 1. 5 78 6 36 -4 7 m on th s 98 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 3 10 0. 0 1. 3 77 0 48 -5 9 m on th s 97 .3 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 2. 5 10 0. 0 2. 7 69 3 To ta l 97 .9 0. 1 0. 1 0. 0 2. 0 10 0. 0 2. 1 36 78 Ta bl e D Q .5 b: C om pl et en es s of in fo rm at io n fo r a nt hr op om et ric in di ca to rs D is tr ib ut io n of c hi ld re n un de r 5 b y co m pl et en es s of in fo rm at io n fo r a nt hr op om et ric in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Va lid h ei gh t a nd da te o f b irt h R ea so n fo r e xc lu si on fr om a na ly si s To ta l P er ce nt o f c hi ld re n ex cl ud ed fr om an al ys is N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r 5 H ei gh t n ot m ea su re d In co m pl et e da te o f bi rth H ei gh t n ot m ea su re d, in co m pl et e da te o f bi rth Fl ag ge d ca se s (o ut lie rs ) H ei gh t b y ag e <6 m on th s 91 .2 2. 8 0. 0 0. 0 6. 0 10 0. 0 8. 8 31 9 6- 11 m on th s 96 .3 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 3. 1 10 0. 0 3. 7 35 0 12 -2 3 m on th s 97 .4 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 2. 1 10 0. 0 2. 6 76 0 24 -3 5 m on th s 97 .6 1. 0 0. 1 0. 0 1. 3 10 0. 0 2. 4 78 6 36 -4 7 m on th s 98 .3 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 4 10 0. 0 1. 7 77 0 48 -5 9 m on th s 96 .8 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 2. 7 10 0. 0 3. 2 69 3 To ta l 96 .9 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 2. 3 10 0. 0 3. 1 36 78 258 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e d Q .5 c: C om pl et en es s of in fo rm at io n fo r a nt hr op om et ric in di ca to rs d is tri bu tio n of c hi ld re n un de r 5 b y co m pl et en es s of in fo rm at io n fo r a nt hr op om et ric in di ca to rs , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 Va lid w ei gh t an d he ig ht R ea so n fo r e xc lu si on fr om a na ly si s To ta l P er ce nt o f ch ild re n ex cl ud ed fr om an al ys is N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r 5 W ei gh t n ot m ea su re d H ei gh t n ot m ea su re d In co m pl et e da te o f b irt h W ei gh t n ot m ea su re d, in co m pl et e da te o f b irt h H ei gh t n ot m ea su re d, in co m pl et e da te o f b irt h W ei gh t a nd he ig ht n ot m ea su re d, in co m pl et e da te o f b irt h Fl ag ge d ca se s (o ut lie rs ) W ei gh t b y he ig ht <6 m on th s 90 .6 0. 0 2. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 6. 6 10 0. 0 9. 4 31 9 6- 11 m on th s 97 .4 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 10 0. 0 2. 6 35 0 12 -2 3 m on th s 97 .2 0. 1 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 1 10 0. 0 2. 8 76 0 24 -3 5 m on th s 97 .2 0. 1 1. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 10 0. 0 2. 8 78 6 36 -4 7 m on th s 98 .1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 7 10 0. 0 1. 9 77 0 48 -5 9 m on th s 96 .7 0. 0 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 9 10 0. 0 3. 3 69 3 To ta l 96 .7 0. 1 0. 7 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 4 10 0. 0 3. 3 36 78 259VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table DQ.6: Heaping in anthropometric measurements Distribution of weight and height/length measurements by digits reported for decimals, Viet Nam, 2011 Weight Height Number Percent Number Percent Digits 0 451 12.5 794 22.0 1 341 9.5 331 9.2 2 380 10.5 396 11.0 3 367 10.2 339 9.4 4 307 8.5 320 8.9 5 420 11.7 468 13.0 6 317 8.8 258 7.2 7 341 9.5 241 6.7 8 369 10.2 251 7.0 9 312 8.7 209 5.8 0 or 5 871 24.2 1262 35.0 Total 3605 100.0 3607 100.0 260 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e D Q .7 : O bs er va tio n of b ed ne ts a nd p la ce s fo r h an d w as hi ng Pe rc en ta ge o f b ed ne ts in a ll ho us eh ol ds in te rv ie w ed o bs er ve d by th e in te rv ie w er , a nd p er ce nt ag e of p la ce s fo r h an dw as hi ng o bs er ve d by th e in te rv ie w er in a ll in te rv ie w ed ho us eh ol ds , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 P er ce nt ag e of be dn et s ob se rv ed by in te rv ie w er To ta l n um be r o f be dn et s O bs er va tio n of p la ce s fo r h an dw as hi ng : O bs er ve d P la ce fo r ha nd w as hi ng n ot in d w el lin g N o pe rm is si on to se e O th er To ta l N um be r o f ho us eh ol ds in te rv ie w ed R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 91 .5 47 08 99 .1 0. 3 0. 6 0. 1 10 0. 0 19 07 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 95 .1 50 11 98 .9 0. 5 0. 3 0. 3 10 0. 0 19 55 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 87 .7 46 09 97 .4 1. 1 1. 2 0. 2 10 0. 0 19 43 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 95 .5 46 41 98 .8 0. 8 0. 2 0. 2 10 0. 0 19 56 S ou th E as t 79 .3 35 58 96 .2 0. 4 2. 6 0. 8 10 0. 0 19 28 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 85 .7 56 65 96 .4 1. 2 1. 2 1. 1 10 0. 0 19 25 A re a U rb an 85 .8 11 57 3 97 .2 0. 6 1. 7 0. 5 10 0. 0 50 01 R ur al 92 .1 16 61 9 98 .2 0. 8 0. 5 0. 4 10 0. 0 66 13 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 95 .1 52 99 97 .9 1. 6 0. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 23 07 S ec on d 92 .0 51 55 98 .4 0. 8 0. 3 0. 5 10 0. 0 20 73 M id dl e 91 .4 55 30 98 .7 0. 4 0. 6 0. 3 10 0. 0 22 51 Fo ur th 86 .7 59 35 97 .1 0. 7 1. 7 0. 5 10 0. 0 24 35 R ic he st 82 .4 62 73 97 .1 0. 2 2. 1 0. 6 10 0. 0 25 48 To ta l 89 .5 28 19 2 97 .8 0. 7 1. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 11 61 4 261VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e D Q .8 : O bs er va tio n of w om en 's h ea lth c ar ds Pe rc en t d is tr ib ut io n of w om en w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st tw o ye ar s by p re se nc e of a h ea lth c ar d, an d th e pe rc en ta ge o f h ea lth c ar ds s ee n by th e in te rv ie w er s, V ie t N am , 2 01 1 W om an d oe s no t ha ve h ea lth c ar d W om an h as h ea lth c ar d M is si ng /D K To ta l P er ce nt o f h ea lth c ar ds se en b y th e in te rv ie w er (1 )/( 1+ 2) *1 00 N um be r o f w om en w ith a liv e bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s S ee n by th e in te rv ie w er (1 ) N ot s ee n by th e in te rv ie w er (2 ) R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 38 .4 11 .8 49 .3 0. 5 10 0. 0 19 .4 20 3 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 64 .0 9. 7 26 .3 0. 0 10 0. 0 27 .0 27 8 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 38 .6 10 .1 50 .7 0. 5 10 0. 0 16 .7 20 7 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 57 .0 4. 8 37 .1 1. 1 10 0. 0 11 .4 27 2 S ou th E as t 21 .4 25 .1 53 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 32 .0 21 5 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 33 .5 17 .6 48 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 26 .4 18 8 A re a U rb an 30 .6 16 .6 52 .4 0. 4 10 0. 0 24 .1 54 2 R ur al 52 .9 10 .0 36 .8 0. 4 10 0. 0 21 .4 82 1 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 70 .6 7. 3 21 .4 0. 6 10 0. 0 25 .5 32 7 S ec on d 50 .2 11 .7 38 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 23 .4 22 3 M id dl e 42 .5 9. 2 47 .9 0. 4 10 0. 0 16 .1 24 0 Fo ur th 31 .3 16 .8 51 .5 0. 4 10 0. 0 24 .6 26 8 R ic he st 23 .3 18 .0 58 .4 0. 3 10 0. 0 23 .6 30 5 To ta l 44 .0 12 .6 43 .0 0. 4 10 0. 0 22 .7 13 63 262 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table DQ.9: Observation of children under 5 birth certificates Percent distribution of children under 5 by presence of birth certificates,and percentage of birth calendar seen, Viet Nam, 2011 Child does not have birth certificate Child has birth certificate Missing/DK Total Percent of birth certificates seen by the interviewer (1)/ (1+2)*100 Number of children under 5 Seen by the interviewer (1) Not seen by the interviewer (2) Region Red River Delta 1.8 69.4 28.7 0.0 100.0 70.7 543 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 8.4 59.6 32.0 0.0 100.0 65.0 712 North Central area and Central Coastal area 5.3 65.9 28.5 0.4 100.0 69.8 548 Central Highlands 8.9 65.6 25.3 0.1 100.0 72.2 727 South East 4.6 73.7 21.7 0.0 100.0 77.3 581 Mekong River Delta 10.2 63.3 26.5 0.0 100.0 70.5 567 Area Urban 3.5 70.1 26.2 0.1 100.0 72.8 1409 Rural 8.8 63.4 27.8 0.0 100.0 69.5 2269 Child's age 0 18.1 59.3 22.3 0.3 100.0 72.6 663 1 6.8 66.3 26.9 0.0 100.0 71.1 765 2 4.4 68.7 26.8 0.0 100.0 71.9 787 3 3.4 67.9 28.7 0.0 100.0 70.3 770 4 2.3 66.7 30.9 0.1 100.0 68.3 693 Total 6.8 66.0 27.2 0.1 100.0 70.8 3678 263VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e D Q .1 0: O bs er va tio n of v ac ci na tio n ca rd s Pe rc en t d is tr ib ut io n of c hi ld re n un de r 5 b y pr es en ce o f a v ac ci na tio n ca rd , a nd th e pe rc en ta ge o f v ac ci na tio n ca rd s se en b y th e in te rv ie w er s, V ie t N am , 2 01 1 C hi ld d oe s no t h av e va cc in at io n ca rd C hi ld h as v ac ci na tio n ca rd M is si ng /D K To ta l P er ce nt o f va cc in at io n ca rd s se en b y th e in te rv ie w er (1 )/ (1 +2 )* 10 0 N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r 5 H ad v ac ci na tio n ca rd p re vi ou sl y N ev er h ad va cc in at io n ca rd S ee n by th e in te rv ie w er (1 ) N ot s ee n by th e in te rv ie w er (2 ) R eg io n R ed R iv er D el ta 1. 7 7. 0 38 .9 52 .5 0. 2 10 0. 0 42 .5 54 3 N or th er n M id la nd a nd M ou nt ai n ar ea s 5. 9 26 .5 31 .6 35 .8 0. 1 10 0. 0 46 .9 71 2 N or th C en tra l a re a an d C en tra l C oa st al a re a 6. 0 9. 1 38 .5 46 .4 0. 2 10 0. 0 45 .4 54 8 C en tra l H ig hl an ds 9. 4 8. 9 38 .5 43 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 47 .1 72 7 S ou th E as t 4. 3 3. 1 57 .7 34 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 62 .3 58 1 M ek on g R iv er D el ta 5. 1 12 .3 39 .9 42 .7 0. 0 10 0. 0 48 .3 56 7 A re a U rb an 4. 6 6. 0 49 .4 40 .0 0. 1 10 0. 0 55 .3 14 09 R ur al 6. 2 15 .2 34 .9 43 .6 0. 0 10 0. 0 44 .4 22 69 C hi ld 's ag e 0 1. 4 15 .7 65 .3 17 .6 0. 0 10 0. 0 78 .7 66 3 1 3. 5 8. 8 51 .4 36 .3 0. 0 10 0. 0 58 .6 76 5 2 6. 1 10 .4 37 .6 45 .9 0. 1 10 0. 0 45 .1 78 7 3 6. 0 10 .8 28 .1 55 .1 0. 3 10 0. 0 33 .8 77 0 4 11 .0 13 .6 21 .6 53 .8 0. 0 10 0. 0 28 .7 69 3 To ta l 5. 6 11 .7 40 .5 42 .2 0. 1 10 0. 0 48 .9 36 78 264 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e D Q .1 1: P re se nc e of m ot he r i n th e ho us eh ol d an d th e pe rs on in te rv ie w ed fo r t he c hi ld re n un de r 5 q ue st io nn ai re D is tr ib ut io n of c hi ld re n un de r 5 b y w he th er th e m ot he r l iv es in th e sa m e ho us eh ol d, a nd th e pe rs on in te rv ie w ed fo r t he c hi ld re n un de r 5 q ue st io nn ai re , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 M ot he r i n th e ho us eh ol d M ot he r n ot in th e ho us eh ol d To ta l N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 M ot he r i nt er vi ew ed Fa th er in te rv ie w ed O th er a du lt fe m al e in te rv ie w ed Fa th er in te rv ie w ed O th er a du lt fe m al e in te rv ie w ed O th er a du lt m al e in te rv ie w ed A ge 0 98 .3 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 66 3 1 93 .8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 9 0. 3 10 0. 0 77 0 2 92 .4 0. 4 0. 0 0. 2 6. 9 0. 1 10 0. 0 79 0 3 92 .7 0. 0 0. 2 0. 8 6. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 75 7 4 91 .6 0. 2 0. 0 1. 0 6. 6 0. 7 10 0. 0 68 9 To ta l 93 .7 0. 1 0. 1 0. 4 5. 5 0. 2 10 0. 0 36 68 265VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table DQ.12: Selection of children age 2-14 years for the child discipline module Percent of households with at least two children age 2-14 years where correct selection of one child for the child discipline module was performed, Viet Nam, 2011 Percent of households where correct selection was performed Number of households with two or more children age 2-14 years Region Red River Delta 96.6 409 Northern Midland and Mountain areas 97.8 507 North Central area and Central Coastal area 95.8 425 Central Highlands 95.6 680 South East 94.9 391 Mekong River Delta 98.5 480 Area Urban 96.1 984 Rural 96.8 1908 Number of households by number of children 2-14 2 96.8 2279 3 95.2 461 4 96.1 152 Total 96.5 2892 266 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e D Q .1 3: S ch oo l a tte nd an ce b y si ng le a ge D is tr ib ut io n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ag e 5- 24 b y ed uc at io na l l ev el a nd e du ca tio na l l ev el a nd g ra de a tte nd ed in th e cu rr en t ( or m os t r ec en t) sc ho ol y ea r, Vi et N am , 2 01 1 N ot at te nd in g sc ho ol P re sc ho ol P rim ar y lo w er S ec on da ry U pp er S ec on da ry P ro fe ss io na l S ch oo l C ol le ge / U ni ve rs ity an d ab ov e D K To ta l N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A ge a t be gi nn in g of s ch oo l ye ar 5 5. 5 70 .2 24 .0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 76 3 6 2. 4 2. 2 68 .4 26 .5 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 78 8 7 1. 5 0. 5 5. 6 70 .6 21 .6 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 72 2 8 1. 0 0. 0 1. 0 8. 6 68 .5 20 .8 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 69 4 9 1. 2 0. 0 0. 9 2. 1 7. 5 64 .7 23 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 74 3 10 1. 6 0. 0 0. 3 0. 4 3. 2 6. 3 66 .7 21 .0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 73 7 11 2. 8 0. 0 0. 2 0. 4 0. 7 1. 8 6. 7 67 .6 19 .6 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 68 4 12 4. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 6 2. 5 9. 9 59 .2 23 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 76 7 13 8. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 6 0. 6 0. 7 8. 8 56 .8 23 .3 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 80 4 14 13 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 2 0. 0 0. 1 1. 2 2. 1 8. 5 54 .9 19 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 83 1 15 24 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 0. 4 0. 3 2. 7 6. 9 64 .9 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 74 6 16 26 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 2 0. 7 1. 8 70 .3 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 81 8 17 38 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 8 55 .2 1. 9 3. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 80 1 18 64 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 13 .4 3. 7 18 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 68 6 19 66 .4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 1. 8 8. 6 23 .0 0. 0 10 0. 0 59 3 20 69 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 7. 6 21 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 65 8 21 77 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 5. 0 17 .2 0. 1 10 0. 0 59 1 22 82 .8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 3. 2 14 .0 0. 0 10 0. 0 68 7 23 89 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 1. 9 8. 8 0. 0 10 0. 0 64 3 24 90 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 1. 4 6. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 63 7 267VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e D Q .1 4: S ex ra tio a t b irt h am on g ch ild re n ev er b or n an d liv in g Se x ra tio (n um be r o f m al es p er 1 00 fe m al es ) a m on g ch ild re n ev er b or n (a t b irt h) , c hi ld re n liv in g, a nd d ec ea se d ch ild re n, b y ag e of w om en , V ie t N am , 2 01 1 C hi ld re n E ve r b or n C hi ld re n li vi ng C hi ld re n D ec ea se d N um be r o f w om en N um be r o f s on s ev er b or n N um be r o f da ug ht er s ev er bo rn S ex ra tio N um be r o f s on s liv in g N um be r o f da ug ht er s liv in g S ex ra tio N um be r o f de ce as ed s on s N um be r o f de ce as ed da ug ht er s S ex ra tio A ge 15 -1 9 42 46 0. 9 42 45 0. 9 0 1 0. 0 17 69 20 -2 4 39 6 41 1 1. 0 38 4 40 9 0. 9 12 2 6. 0 16 29 25 -2 9 11 56 10 75 1. 1 11 32 10 55 1. 1 24 20 1. 2 17 89 30 -3 4 15 97 16 14 1. 0 15 71 15 90 1. 0 26 24 1. 1 17 41 35 -3 9 18 36 17 81 1. 0 17 67 17 30 1. 0 69 51 1. 4 16 38 40 -4 4 21 72 19 59 1. 1 20 44 18 83 1. 1 12 8 76 1. 7 16 54 45 -4 9 20 64 19 78 1. 0 19 24 18 68 1. 0 14 0 11 0 1. 3 14 43 To ta l 92 63 88 64 1. 0 88 64 85 80 1. 0 39 9 28 4 1. 8 11 66 3 268 269VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A P P E N d IX E . M IC S 2 01 1 In di ca to rs : N um er at or s an d D en om in at or s M IC S 20 11 IN D IC AT O R M od ul e1 N um er at or D en om in at or M D G 2 1. M O R TA LI TY 1. 1 U nd er -fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 3 C M - b H P ro ba bi lit y of d yi ng b y ex ac t a ge 5 y ea rs M d G 4 .1 1. 2 In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 4 C M - b H P ro ba bi lit y of d yi ng b y ex ac t a ge 1 y ea r M d G 4 .2 2. N U TR IT IO N 2. 1a 2. 1b U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e A N N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ho (a ) f al l b el ow m in us tw o st an da rd d ev ia tio ns (m od er at e an d se ve re ) (b ) f al l b el ow m in us th re e st an da rd d ev ia tio ns (s ev er e) fro m th e m ed ia n w ei gh t f or a ge o f t he W H O s ta nd ar d To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 M d G 1 .8 2. 2a 2. 2b S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce A N N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ho (a ) f al l b el ow m in us tw o st an da rd d ev ia tio ns (m od er at e an d se ve re ) (b ) f al l b el ow m in us th re e st an da rd d ev ia tio ns (s ev er e) fro m th e m ed ia n he ig ht fo r a ge o f t he W H O s ta nd ar d To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 2. 3a 2. 3b W as tin g pr ev al en ce A N N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ho (a ) f al l b el ow m in us tw o st an da rd d ev ia tio ns (m od er at e an d se ve re ) (b ) f al l b el ow m in us th re e st an da rd d ev ia tio ns (s ev er e) fro m th e m ed ia n w ei gh t f or h ei gh t o f t he W H O s ta nd ar d To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 2. 4 C hi ld re n ev er b re as tfe d M N N um be r o f w om en w ith a li ve b irt h in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ho b re as tfe d th e ch ild a t a ny ti m e To ta l n um be r o f w om en w ith a li ve b irt h in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 2. 5 E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g M N N um be r o f w om en w ith a li ve b irt h in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ho p ut th e ne w bo rn in fa nt to th e br ea st w ith in o ne h ou r o f b irt h To ta l n um be r o f w om en w ith a li ve b irt h in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 2. 6 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s b F N um be r o f i nf an ts u nd er 6 m on th s of a ge w ho a re ex cl us iv el y br ea st fe d5 To ta l n um be r o f i nf an ts u nd er 6 m on th s of a ge 1 S om e in di ca to rs a re c on st ru ct ed b y us in g qu es tio ns in s ev er al m od ul es . I n su ch c as es , o nl y th e m od ul e( s) w hi ch c on ta in s m os t o f t he n ec es sa ry in fo rm at io n is in di ca te d. 2 M D G in di ca to rs a s of F eb ru ar y 20 10 3 In di ca to r i s de fin ed a s “P ro ba bi lit y of d yi ng b et w ee n bi rth a nd fi fth b irt hd ay , d ur in g th e 5- ye ar p er io d pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey ” w he n es tim at ed fr om th e bi rth h is to ry 4 In di ca to r i s de fin ed a s “P ro ba bi lit y of d yi ng b et w ee n bi rth a nd th e fir st b irt hd ay , d ur in g th e 5- ye ar p er io d pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey ” w he n es tim at ed fr om th e bi rth h is to ry 5 In fa nt s re ce iv in g br ea st m ilk , a nd n ot re ce iv in g an y ot he r fl ui ds o r f oo ds , w ith th e ex ce pt io n of o ra l r eh yd ra tio n so lu tio n, v ita m in s, m in er al s up pl em en ts a nd m ed ic in es 270 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN M IC S 20 11 IN D IC AT O R M od ul e1 N um er at or D en om in at or M D G 2 2. 7 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at 1 y ea r b F N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -1 5 m on th s w ho a re c ur re nt ly br ea st fe ed in g To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -1 5 m on th s 2. 8 C on tin ue d br ea st fe ed in g at tw o ye ar s b F N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 20 -2 3 m on th s w ho a re c ur re nt ly br ea st fe ed in g To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 20 -2 3 m on th s 2. 9 P re do m in an t b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s b F N um be r o f i nf an ts u nd er 6 m on th s of a ge w ho re ce iv ed br ea st m ilk a s th e pr ed om in an t s ou rc e of n ou ris hm en t6 du rin g th e pr ev io us d ay To ta l n um be r o f i nf an ts u nd er 6 m on th s of a ge 2. 10 D ur at io n of b re as tfe ed in g b F Th e ag e in m on th s w he n 50 p er ce nt o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 35 m on th s di d no t r ec ei ve b re as t m ilk d ur in g th e pr ev io us d ay 2. 11 b ot tle fe ed in g b F N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 23 m on th s w ho w er e fe d w ith a bo ttl e du rin g th e pr ev io us d ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 23 m on th s 2. 12 In tro du ct io n of s ol id , s em i-s ol id o r s of t fo od s b F N um be r o f i nf an ts a ge 6 -8 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed s ol id , se m i-s ol id o r s of t f oo ds d ur in g th e pr ev io us d ay To ta l n um be r o f i nf an ts a ge 6 -8 m on th s 2. 13 M in im um m ea l f re qu en cy b F N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s re ce iv in g so lid , s em i- so lid a nd s of t f oo ds (p lu s m ilk fe ed s fo r n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n) th e m in im um ti m es 7 o r m or e, a cc or di ng to br ea st fe ed in g st at us , d ur in g th e pr ev io us d ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s 2. 14 A ge -a pp ro pr ia te b re as tfe ed in g b F N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 23 m on th s ap pr op ria te ly fe d8 du rin g th e pr ev io us d ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 23 m on th s 2. 15 M ilk fe ed in g fre qu en cy fo r n on - br ea st fe d ch ild re n b F N um be r o f n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed a t l ea st tw o m ilk fe ed in gs d ur in g th e pr ev io us d ay To ta l n um be r o f n on -b re as tfe d ch ild re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s 2. 16 Io di ze d sa lt co ns um pt io n S I N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s w ith s al t t es tin g 15 p ar ts p er m ill io n or m or e of io di de /io da te To ta l n um be r o f h ou se ho ld s in w hi ch s al t w as te st ed o r w ith n o sa lt 2. 17 Vi ta m in A s up pl em en ta tio n (c hi ld re n un de r 5 ) IM N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 6- 59 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed a t le as t o ne h ig h- do se v ita m in A s up pl em en t i n th e 6 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 6- 59 m on th s 2. 18 lo w -b irt h- w ei gh t i nf an ts M N N um be r o f l as t l iv e bi rth s in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ei gh in g be lo w 2 ,5 00 g ra m s at b irt h To ta l n um be r o f l as t l iv e bi rth s in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 2. 19 In fa nt s w ei gh ed a t b irt h M N N um be r o f l as t l iv e bi rth s in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ho w er e w ei gh ed a t b irt h To ta l n um be r o f l as t l iv e bi rth s in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 6 In fa nt s w ho re ce iv e br ea st m ilk a nd c er ta in fl ui ds (w at er a nd w at er -b as ed d rin ks , f ru it ju ic e, ri tu al fl ui ds , o ra l r eh yd ra tio n so lu tio n, d ro ps , v ita m in s, m in er al s, a nd m ed ic in es ), bu t d o no t r ec ei ve an yt hi ng e ls e (in p ar tic ul ar , n on -h um an m ilk a nd fo od -b as ed fl ui ds ) 7 B re as tfe ed in g ch ild re n: S ol id , s em i-s ol id , o r s of t f oo ds , t w o tim es fo r i nf an ts a ge 6 -8 m on th s, 3 ti m es fo r c hi ld re n 9- 23 m on th s; N on -b re as tfe ed in g ch ild re n: S ol id , s em i-s ol id , o r s of t f oo ds , o r m ilk fe ed s, fo ur ti m es fo r c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s 8 In fa nt s ag e 0- 5 w ho a re e xc lu si ve ly b re as tfe d, a nd c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s w ho a re b re as tfe d an d at e so lid , s em i-s ol id o r s of t f oo ds 271VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN M IC S 20 11 IN D IC AT O R M od ul e1 N um er at or D en om in at or M D G 2 3. C H IL D H EA LT H 3. 1 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge IM N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed b C G va cc in e be fo re th ei r fi rs t b irt hd ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s 3. 2 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge IM N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed O P V 3 va cc in e be fo re th ei r fi rs t b irt hd ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s 3. 3 Im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge fo r d ip ht he ria , pe rtu ss is a nd te ta nu s (D P T) IM N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed D P T3 va cc in e be fo re th ei r fi rs t b irt hd ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s 3. 4 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge IM N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed m ea sl es v ac ci ne b ef or e th ei r fi rs t b irt hd ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s M d G 4 .3 3. 5 H ep at iti s b im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge IM N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed th e th ird d os e of H ep at iti s B v ac ci ne b ef or e th ei r fi rs t b irt hd ay To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s 3. 7 N eo na ta l t et an us p ro te ct io n M N N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ho w er e gi ve n at le as t tw o do se s of te ta nu s to xo id v ac ci ne w ith in th e ap pr op ria te in te rv al 9 p rio r t o gi vi ng b irt h To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve bi rth in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 3. 8 O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith co nt in ue d fe ed in g C A N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e pr ev io us tw o w ee ks w ho re ce iv ed O R T (O R S p ac ke t o r re co m m en de d ho m em ad e flu id o r i nc re as ed fl ui ds ) a nd co nt in ue d fe ed in g du rin g th e ep is od e of d ia rr ho ea To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e pr ev io us tw o w ee ks 3. 9 C ar e- se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed pn eu m on ia C A N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 w ith s us pe ct ed pn eu m on ia in th e pr ev io us tw o w ee ks w ho w er e ta ke n to an a pp ro pr ia te h ea lth p ro vi de r To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 w ith s us pe ct ed pn eu m on ia in th e pr ev io us tw o w ee ks 3. 10 A nt ib io tic tr ea tm en t o f su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia C A N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 w ith s us pe ct ed pn eu m on ia in th e pr ev io us tw o w ee ks w ho re ce iv ed an tib io tic s To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 w ith s us pe ct ed pn eu m on ia in th e pr ev io us tw o w ee ks 3. 11 S ol id fu el s H C N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in h ou se ho ld s th at u se so lid fu el s as th e pr im ar y so ur ce o f d om es tic e ne rg y to co ok To ta l n um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs 3. 12 H ou se ho ld a va ila bi lit y of in se ct ic id e- tre at ed n et s (IT N s) 10 TN N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s w ith a t l ea st o ne in se ct ic id e tre at ed ne t ( IT N ) To ta l n um be r o f h ou se ho ld s 9 S ee M IC S 2 01 1 m an ua l f or a d et ai le d de sc rip tio n 10 A n IT N is (a ) a fa ct or y tre at ed n et w hi ch d oe s no t r eq ui re a ny tr ea tm en t, (b ) a p re tre at ed n et o bt ai ne d w ith in th e pa st 1 2 m on th s, o r ( c) a n et th at h as b ee n so ak ed w ith in se ct ic id e w ith in th e pa st 1 2 m on th s 272 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN M IC S 20 11 IN D IC AT O R M od ul e1 N um er at or D en om in at or M D G 2 3. 13 H ou se ho ld s pr ot ec te d by a v ec to r co nt ro l m et ho d TN - IR N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s w ith a t l ea st o ne in se ct ic id e- tre at ed n et (I TN ) a nd /o r t ha t r ec ei ve d sp ra yi ng th ro ug h an IR S 11 c am pa ig n in th e la st 1 2 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey To ta l n um be r o f h ou se ho ld s 3. 14 C hi ld re n un de r 5 s le ep in g un de r a ny ty pe o f m os qu ito n et TN N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ho s le pt u nd er a ny ty pe o f m os qu ito n et th e pr ev io us n ig ht To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 3. 15 C hi ld re n un de r 5 s le ep in g un de r in se ct ic id e- tre at ed n et s (IT N s) TN N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ho s le pt u nd er a n in se ct ic id e- tre at ed m os qu ito n et (I TN ) t he p re vi ou s ni gh t To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 M d G 6 .7 3. 16 M al ar ia d ia gn os tic s us ag e M l N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 re po rte d to h av e ha d fe ve r i n th e pr ev io us tw o w ee ks w ho h ad a fi ng er o r h ee l s tic k fo r m al ar ia te st in g To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 re po rte d to h av e ha d fe ve r i n th e pr ev io us tw o w ee ks 3. 17 A nt i-m al ar ia l t re at m en t o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 th e sa m e or n ex t d ay M l N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 re po rte d to h av e ha d fe ve r in th e pr ev io us tw o w ee ks w ho w er e tre at ed w ith a ny an ti- m al ar ia l d ru g w ith in th e sa m e or n ex t d ay o f o ns et o f sy m pt om s To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 re po rte d to h av e ha d fe ve r i n th e pr ev io us tw o w ee ks 3. 18 A nt i-m al ar ia l t re at m en t o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 M l N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge re po rte d to h av e ha d fe ve r in th e pr ev io us tw o w ee ks w ho re ce iv ed a ny a nt im al ar ia l tre at m en t To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 re po rte d to h av e ha d fe ve r i n th e pr ev io us tw o w ee ks M d G 6 .8 3. 19 P re gn an t w om en s le ep in g un de r in se ct ic id e- tre at ed n et s (IT N s) TN N um be r o f p re gn an t w om en w ho s le pt u nd er a n in se ct ic id e- tre at ed n et (I TN ) t he p re vi ou s ni gh t To ta l n um be r o f p re gn an t w om en 4. W AT ER , S A N IT AT IO N A N D H YG IE N E 4. 1 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er so ur ce s W S N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs u si ng im pr ov ed s ou rc es of d rin ki ng w at er To ta l n um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs M d G 7 .8 4. 2 W at er tr ea tm en t W S N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs u si ng u ni m pr ov ed dr in ki ng w at er w ho u se a n ap pr op ria te tr ea tm en t m et ho d To ta l n um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in h ou se ho ld s us in g un im pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 3 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n W S N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs u si ng im pr ov ed s an ita tio n fa ci lit ie s w hi ch a re n ot s ha re d To ta l n um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs M d G 7 .9 4. 4 S af e di sp os al o f c hi ld ’s fa ec es C A N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- tw o ye ar s w ho se (l as t) st oo ls w er e di sp os ed o f s af el y To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- tw o ye ar s 4. 5 P la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng W S N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s w ith a d es ig na te d pl ac e fo r h an d w as hi ng w he re w at er a nd s oa p ar e pr es en t To ta l n um be r o f h ou se ho ld s 4. 6 Av ai la bi lit y of s oa p W S N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s w ith s oa p an yw he re in th e dw el lin g To ta l n um be r o f h ou se ho ld s 11 In do or re si du al s pr ay in g 273VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN M IC S 20 11 IN D IC AT O R M od ul e1 N um er at or D en om in at or M D G 2 5. R EP R O D U C TI VE H EA LT H 5. 1 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 12 C M - b H A ge -s pe ci fic fe rti lit y ra te fo r w om en a ge 1 5- 19 y ea rs fo r t he o ne y ea r p er io d pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey M d G 5 .4 5. 2 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g C M - b H N um be r o f w om en a ge 2 0- 24 y ea rs w ho h ad a t l ea st o ne liv e bi rth b ef or e ag e 18 To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 2 0- 24 y ea rs 5. 3 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te C P N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in un io n w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ) a (m od er n or tr ad iti on al ) c on tra ce pt iv e m et ho d To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho a re cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on M d G 5 .3 5. 4 U nm et n ee d fo r c on tra ce pt io n1 3 U N N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho a re c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re fe cu nd a nd w an t t o sp ac e th ei r b irt hs o r l im it th e nu m be r o f c hi ld re n th ey h av e an d w ho a re n ot c ur re nt ly u si ng c on tra ce pt io n To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho a re cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on M d G 5 .6 5. 5a 5. 5b A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge M N N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho w er e at te nd ed du rin g pr eg na nc y in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey (a ) a t l ea st o nc e by s ki lle d pe rs on ne l (b ) a t l ea st fo ur ti m es b y an y pr ov id er To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve bi rth in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey M d G 5 .5 5. 6 C on te nt o f a nt en at al c ar e M N N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ho h ad th ei r b lo od pr es su re m ea su re d an d ga ve u rin e an d bl oo d sa m pl es du rin g th e la st p re gn an cy To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve bi rth in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 5. 7 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y M N N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e Tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ho w er e at te nd ed d ur in g ch ild bi rth b y sk ill ed h ea lth p er so nn el To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve bi rth in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey M d G 5 .2 5. 8 In st itu tio na l d el iv er ie s M N N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e Tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ho d el iv er ed in a h ea lth fa ci lit y To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve bi rth in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 5. 9 C ae sa re an s ec tio n M N N um be r o f l as t l iv e bi rth s in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ho w er e de liv er ed b y ca es ar ea n se ct io n To ta l n um be r o f l as t l iv e bi rth s in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 6. C H IL D D EV EL O PM EN T 6. 1 S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g E C N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s w ith w ho m a n ad ul t ha s en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es to p ro m ot e le ar ni ng an d sc ho ol re ad in es s in th e pa st 3 d ay s To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s 12 In di ca to r i s de fin ed a s “A ge -s pe ci fic fe rti lit y ra te fo r w om en a ge 1 5- 19 y ea rs , f or th e 3- ye ar p er io d pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey ” w he n es tim at ed fr om th e bi rth h is to ry 13 S ee M IC S 2 01 1 m an ua l f or a d et ai le d de sc rip tio n 274 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN M IC S 20 11 IN D IC AT O R M od ul e1 N um er at or D en om in at or M D G 2 6. 2 Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g E C N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s w ho se fa th er h as en ga ge d in o ne o r m or e ac tiv iti es to p ro m ot e le ar ni ng a nd sc ho ol re ad in es s in th e pa st th re e da ys To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s 6. 3 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : c hi ld re n’ s bo ok s E C N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ho h av e th re e or m or e ch ild re n’ s bo ok s To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 6. 4 le ar ni ng m at er ia ls : p la yt hi ng s E C N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ith tw o or m or e pl ay th in gs To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 6. 5 In ad eq ua te c ar e E C N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 le ft al on e or in th e ca re o f an ot he r c hi ld y ou ng er th an 1 0 ye ar s of a ge fo r m or e th an on e ho ur a t l ea st o nc e in th e pa st w ee k To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 6. 6 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t I nd ex E C N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s w ho a re de ve lo pm en ta lly o n tra ck in li te ra cy -n um er ac y, p hy si ca l, so ci al -e m ot io na l, an d le ar ni ng d om ai ns To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s 6. 7 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od ed uc at io n E C N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s w ho a re a tte nd in g an e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n pr og ra m m e To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s 7. L IT ER A C Y A N D E D U C AT IO N 7. 1 li te ra cy ra te a m on g yo un g w om en W b N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho a re a bl e to re ad a sh or t s im pl e st at em en t a bo ut e ve ry da y lif e or w ho at te nd ed s ec on da ry o r h ig he r e du ca tio n To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs M d G 2 .3 7. 2 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss E D N um be r o f c hi ld re n in fi rs t g ra de o f p rim ar y sc ho ol w ho at te nd ed p re -s ch oo l d ur in g th e pr ev io us s ch oo l y ea r To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n at te nd in g th e fir st g ra de o f pr im ar y sc ho ol 7. 3 N et in ta ke ra te in p rim ar y ed uc at io n E D N um be r o f c hi ld re n of s ch oo l-e nt ry a ge w ho e nt er th e fir st gr ad e of p rim ar y sc ho ol To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n of s ch oo l-e nt ry a ge 7. 4 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E D N um be r o f c hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge c ur re nt ly at te nd in g pr im ar y or s ec on da ry s ch oo l To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge 7. 5 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) E D N um be r o f c hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge c ur re nt ly at te nd in g se co nd ar y sc ho ol o r h ig he r To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n of s ec on da ry -s ch oo l a ge 7. 6 C hi ld re n re ac hi ng la st g ra de o f pr im ar y E D P ro po rti on o f c hi ld re n en te rin g th e fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y sc ho ol w ho e ve nt ua lly re ac h la st g ra de M d G 2 .2 7. 7 P rim ar y co m pl et io n ra te E D N um be r o f c hi ld re n (o f a ny a ge ) a tte nd in g th e la st g ra de o f pr im ar y sc ho ol (e xc lu di ng re pe at er s) To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol c om pl et io n ag e (a ge a pp ro pr ia te to fi na l g ra de o f p rim ar y sc ho ol ) 7. 8 Tr an si tio n ra te to s ec on da ry s ch oo l E D N um be r o f c hi ld re n at te nd in g th e la st g ra de o f p rim ar y sc ho ol d ur in g th e pr ev io us s ch oo l y ea r w ho a re in th e fir st gr ad e of s ec on da ry s ch oo l d ur in g th e cu rr en t s ch oo l y ea r To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n w ho a re a tte nd in g th e fir st gr ad e of s ec on da ry s ch oo l 7. 9 G en de r p ar ity in de x (p rim ar y sc ho ol ) E D P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) fo r g irl s P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) fo r b oy s M d G 3 .1 7. 10 G en de r p ar ity in de x (s ec on da ry sc ho ol ) E D S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) fo r g irl s S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) fo r bo ys M d G 3 .1 275VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN M IC S 20 11 IN D IC AT O R M od ul e1 N um er at or D en om in at or M D G 2 8. C H IL D P R O TE C TI O N 8. 1 b irt h re gi st ra tio n b R N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ho se b irt hs a re re po rte d re gi st er ed To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r 5 8. 2 C hi ld la bo ur C l N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 5- 14 y ea rs w ho a re in vo lv ed in ch ild la bo ur To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 5- 14 y ea rs 8. 3 S ch oo l a tte nd an ce a m on g ch ild la bo ur er s E D - C l N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 5- 14 y ea rs w ho a re in vo lv ed in ch ild la bo ur a nd a re c ur re nt ly a tte nd in g sc ho ol To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 5- 14 y ea rs in vo lv ed in ch ild la bo ur 8. 4 C hi ld la bo ur a m on g st ud en ts E D - C l N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 5- 14 y ea rs w ho a re in vo lv ed in ch ild la bo ur a nd a re c ur re nt ly a tte nd in g sc ho ol To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 5- 14 y ea rs a tte nd in g sc ho ol 8. 5 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e C D N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 2- 14 y ea rs w ho e xp er ie nc ed ps yc ho lo gi ca l a gg re ss io n or p hy si ca l p un is hm en t d ur in g th e pa st m on th To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 2- 14 y ea rs 8. 6 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 15 M A N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho w er e fir st m ar rie d or in u ni on b y th e ex ac t a ge o f 1 5 To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs 8. 7 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 M A N um be r o f w om en a ge 2 0- 49 y ea rs w ho w er e fir st m ar rie d or in u ni on b y th e ex ac t a ge o f 1 8 To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 2 0- 49 y ea rs 8. 8 Yo un g w om en a ge 1 5- 19 y ea rs cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on M A N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 19 y ea rs w ho a re c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 19 y ea rs 8. 9 P ol yg yn y M A N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho a re in a po ly gy no us u ni on To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho a re cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on 8. 10 a 8. 10 b S po us al a ge d iff er en ce M A N um be r o f w om en c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho se sp ou se is 1 0 or m or e ye ar s ol de r, (a ) f or w om en a ge 1 5- 19 y ea rs , ( b) fo r w om en a ge 2 0- 24 y ea rs To ta l n um be r o f w om en c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on (a ) a ge 1 5- 19 y ea rs , ( b) a ge 2 0- 24 y ea rs 8. 14 A tti tu de s to w ar ds d om es tic v io le nc e D V N um be r o f w om en w ho s ta te th at a h us ba nd /p ar tn er is ju st ifi ed in h itt in g or b ea tin g hi s w ife in a t l ea st o ne o f t he fo llo w in g ci rc um st an ce s: (1 ) s he g oe s ou t w ith ou t t el lin g hi m , ( 2) s he n eg le ct s th e ch ild re n, (3 ) s he a rg ue s w ith hi m , ( 4) s he re fu se s se x w ith h im , ( 5) s he b ur ns th e fo od To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs 8. 15 C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts H l N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 17 y ea rs n ot li vi ng w ith a bi ol og ic al p ar en t To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 17 y ea rs 8. 16 P re va le nc e of c hi ld re n w ith a t l ea st on e pa re nt d ea d H l N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 17 y ea rs w ith a t l ea st o ne d ea d pa re nt To ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 17 y ea rs 276 VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN M IC S 20 11 IN D IC AT O R M od ul e1 N um er at or D en om in at or M D G 2 9. H IV /A ID S A N D S EX U A L B EH AV IO U R 9. 1 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n H A N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho c or re ct ly id en tif y tw o w ay s of p re ve nt in g H IV in fe ct io n1 4 , kn ow th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an h av e H IV , a nd re je ct th e tw o m os t co m m on m is co nc ep tio ns a bo ut H IV tr an sm is si on To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs 9. 2 C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV pr ev en tio n am on g yo un g pe op le H A N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho c or re ct ly id en tif y tw o w ay s of p re ve nt in g H IV in fe ct io n1 2 , kn ow th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an h av e H IV , a nd re je ct th e tw o m os t co m m on m is co nc ep tio ns a bo ut H IV tr an sm is si on To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs M d G 6 .3 9. 3 K no w le dg e of m ot he r- to -c hi ld tra ns m is si on o f H IV H A N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho c or re ct ly id en tif y al l t hr ee m ea ns 15 o f m ot he r- to -c hi ld tr an sm is si on o f H IV To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs 9. 4 A cc ep tin g at tit ud es to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV [M ] H A N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs e xp re ss in g ac ce pt in g at tit ud es o n al l f ou r q ue st io ns 16 to w ar d pe op le li vi ng w ith H IV To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho h av e he ar d of H IV 9. 5 W om en w ho k no w w he re to b e te st ed fo r H IV H A N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho s ta te k no w le dg e of a p la ce to b e te st ed fo r H IV To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs 9. 6 W om en w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV an d kn ow th e re su lts H A N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey a nd w ho kn ow th ei r r es ul ts To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs 9. 7 S ex ua lly a ct iv e yo un g w om en w ho ha ve b ee n te st ed fo r H IV a nd k no w th e re su lts H A N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho h av e ha d se x in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey , w ho h av e be en te st ed fo r H IV in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey an d w ho k no w th ei r r es ul ts To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho h av e ha d se x in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 9. 8 H IV c ou ns el lin g du rin g an te na ta l c ar e H A N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho g av e bi rth in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey a nd re ce iv ed a nt en at al ca re , r ep or tin g th at th ey re ce iv ed c ou ns el lin g on H IV du rin g an te na ta l c ar e To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho g av e bi rth in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 9. 9 H IV te st in g du rin g an te na ta l c ar e H A N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho g av e bi rth in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey a nd re ce iv ed a nt en at al ca re , r ep or tin g th at th ey w er e of fe re d an d ac ce pt ed a n H IV te st d ur in g an te na ta l c ar e an d re ce iv ed th ei r r es ul ts To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho g av e bi rth in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 14 U si ng c on do m s an d lim iti ng s ex to o ne fa ith fu l, un in fe ct ed p ar tn er 15 Tr an sm is si on d ur in g pr eg na nc y, d ur in g de liv er y, a nd b y br ea st fe ed in g 16 W om en (1 ) w ho th in k th at a fe m al e te ac he r w ith th e A ID S v iru s sh ou ld b e al lo w ed to te ac h in s ch oo l, (2 ) w ho w ou ld b uy fr es h ve ge ta bl es fr om a s ho pk ee pe r o r v en do r w ho h as th e A ID S v iru s, (3 ) w ho w ou ld n ot w an t t o ke ep it a s a se cr et if a fa m ily m em be r b ec am e in fe ct ed w ith th e AI D S vi ru s, a nd (4 ) w ho w ou ld b e w illi ng to c ar e fo r a fa m ily m em be r w ho b ec am e si ck w ith th e AI D S vi ru s 277VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN M IC S 20 11 IN D IC AT O R M od ul e1 N um er at or D en om in at or M D G 2 9. 10 yo un g w om en w ho h av e ne ve r h ad se x S b N um be r o f n ev er m ar rie d w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho ha ve n ev er h ad s ex To ta l n um be r o f n ev er m ar rie d w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs 9. 11 S ex b ef or e ag e 15 a m on g yo un g w om en S b N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho h av e ha d se xu al in te rc ou rs e be fo re a ge 1 5 To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs 9. 12 A ge -m ix in g am on g se xu al p ar tn er s S b N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho h ad s ex in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ith a p ar tn er w ho w as 1 0 or m or e ye ar s ol de r t ha n th ey w er e To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho h av e ha d se x in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 9. 13 S ex w ith m ul tip le p ar tn er s S b N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho h av e ha d se xu al in te rc ou rs e w ith m or e th an o ne p ar tn er in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs 9. 14 C on do m u se d ur in g se x w ith m ul tip le pa rtn er s S b N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho re po rt ha vi ng h ad m or e th an o ne s ex ua l p ar tn er in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ho a ls o re po rte d th at a c on do m w as u se d th e la st ti m e th ey h ad s ex To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho re po rte d ha vi ng h ad m or e th an o ne s ex ua l p ar tn er in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 9. 15 S ex w ith n on -r eg ul ar p ar tn er s S b N um be r o f s ex ua lly a ct iv e w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho ha ve h ad s ex w ith a n on -m ar ita l, no n- co ha bi ta tin g pa rtn er in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey To ta l n um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho h av e ha d se x in th e 12 m on th s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 278 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A1VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 APPENdIX F. Questionnaires See the Questionnaires in separate file HOUSEHOlD QUESTIONNAIRE VIET NAM HOUSEHOLD INFORMATION PANEL HH HHA. Province/ City name and number: HHB. district name and number: Name __________________________ ___ ___ Name ___________________________ ___ ___ HHC. Commune/ Ward name and number: ___________________________ ___ ___ HH1. EA name and number: HH2. Household number: Name __________________________ ___ __ ___ ___ HH3. Interviewer name and number: HH4. Team leader name and number: Name __________________________ ___ ___ Name __________________________ ___ ___ HH5. day / Month / Year of interview: ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ HH6. Area: Urban.1 Rural.2 HH7. Region: Red River Delta . 1 Northern Midlands and Mountain area . 2 North Central and Central Coastal area . 3 Central Highlands . 4 South East . 5 Mekong River Delta . 6 We are from General StatiSticS office. We are WorkinG on a Survey concerned With family health and education. i Would like to talk to you about theSe SubjectS. the intervieW Will take about 40 minuteS. all the information We obtain Will remain Strictly confidential and your anSWerS Will never be Shared With anyone other than our project team. may i Start noW?  Yes, permission is given  Go to HH18 to record the time and then begin the interview.  No, permissioN is Not giveN  Complete HH9. DisCuss tHis result witH your team leaDer. After all questionnaires for the household have been completed, fill in the following information: HH8. Name of head of household: __________________________________________ HH9. Result of household interview: Completed .01 No household member or no competent respondent at home at time of visit .02 Entire household absent for extended period of time .03 Refused .04 Dwelling vacant / Address not a dwelling .05 Dwelling destroyed .06 Dwelling not found .07 Other (specify) ________________________________ 96 HH10. Respondent to household questionnaire: Name:____________________________________ line Number: ___ ___ HH11. Total number of household members: ___ ___ HH12. Number of women age 15-49 years: ___ ___ HH13. Number of woman’s questionnaires completed: ___ ___ HH14. Number of children under age 5: ___ ___ HH15. Number of under-5 questionnaires completed: ___ ___ HH16. Field edited by (Name and number): Name HH17. data entry clerk (Name and number): Name A2 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 H O U S E H O lD l IS TI N G F O R M H l fi r S t, p le a S e t e ll m e t h e n a m e o f e a c h p e r S o n W h o u S u a ll y l iv e S h e r e , S ta r ti n G W it h t h e h e a d o f th e h o u S e h o ld . Li st th e he ad o f t he h ou se ho ld in li ne 0 1. L is t a ll ho us eh ol d m em be rs (H L2 ), th ei r r el at io ns hi p to th e ho us eh ol d he ad (H L3 ), an d th ei r s ex (H L4 ) Th en a sk : a r e t h e r e a n y o th e r S W h o l iv e h e r e , e v e n if t h e y a r e n o t at h o m e n o W ? If ye s, c om pl et e lis tin g fo r q ue st io ns H L2 -H L4 . T he n, a sk q ue st io ns s ta rti ng w ith H L5 fo r e ac h pe rs on a t a ti m e. U se a n ad di tio na l q ue st io nn ai re if a ll ro w s in th e ho us eh ol d lis tin g fo rm h av e be en u se d. Fo r w om en ag e 15 -4 9 Fo r c hi ld re n ag e 5- 17 Fo r c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 Fo r a ll ho us eh ol d m em be rs Fo r c hi ld re n ag e 0- 17 y ea rs h l1 . Li ne nu m be r h l2 . N am e h l3 . W h at iS t h e r e la ti o n - S h ip o f (n am e) t o th e h e a d o f h o u S e - h o ld ? h l4 . iS (n am e) m a le o r fe m a le ? 1 M al e 2 Fe m al e h l5 . W h at iS (n am e) ’S d at e o f b ir th ? R ec or d re sp on se in S ol ar c al en da r o nl y. If ne ed ed u se th e Lu na r- S ol ar c on ve rs io n ta bl e. h l6 . h o W o ld iS (n am e) ? R ec or d in co m pl et ed ye ar s. If ag e is 9 5 or a bo ve , re co rd ‘9 5’ h l7 . C irc le lin e nu m be r if w om an is ag e 15 -4 9 h l8 . W h o iS t h e m o th e r o r p r im a r y c a r e ta k e r o f th iS c h il d ? R ec or d lin e nu m be r of m ot he r/ ca re ta ke r h l9 . W h o iS t h e m o th e r o r p r im a r y c a r e ta k e r o f th iS c h il d ? R ec or d lin e nu m be r of m ot he r/ ca re ta ke r h l1 0. d id (n am e) S ta y h e r e la S t n iG h t? 1 ye s 2 N o h l1 1. iS (n am e) ’S n at u r a l m o th e r a li v e ? 1 ye s 2 N o H l1 3 8 d K  H l1 3 h l1 2. d o e S (n am e) ’S n at u r a l m o th e r l iv e in th iS h o u S e h o ld ? R ec or d lin e nu m be r of m ot he r o r 00 fo r “ N o” h l1 3. iS (n am e) ’S n at u r a l fa th e r a li v e ? 1 ye s 2 N o N ex t l in e 8 d K  N ex t l in e h l1 4. d o e S (n am e) ’S n at u r a l fa th e r li v e in t h iS h o u S e h o ld ? R ec or d lin e nu m be r of fa th er o r 00 fo r “ N o” 98 d K 99 98 d K li ne N am e R el at io n* M F M on th ye ar A ge 15 -4 9 M ot he r M ot he r y n y n d k M ot he r y n d k Fa th er 01 0 1 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 01 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 02 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 02 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 03 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 03 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 04 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 04 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 05 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 05 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 06 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 06 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 07 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 07 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 08 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 08 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ h h 18 . R ec or d th e tim e. H ou r . . . . ._ _ __ M in ut es __ _ _ MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A3VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 H O U S E H O lD l IS TI N G F O R M H l fi r S t, p le a S e t e ll m e t h e n a m e o f e a c h p e r S o n W h o u S u a ll y l iv e S h e r e , S ta r ti n G W it h t h e h e a d o f th e h o u S e h o ld . Li st th e he ad o f t he h ou se ho ld in li ne 0 1. L is t a ll ho us eh ol d m em be rs (H L2 ), th ei r r el at io ns hi p to th e ho us eh ol d he ad (H L3 ), an d th ei r s ex (H L4 ) Th en a sk : a r e t h e r e a n y o th e r S W h o l iv e h e r e , e v e n if t h e y a r e n o t at h o m e n o W ? If ye s, c om pl et e lis tin g fo r q ue st io ns H L2 -H L4 . T he n, a sk q ue st io ns s ta rti ng w ith H L5 fo r e ac h pe rs on a t a ti m e. U se a n ad di tio na l q ue st io nn ai re if a ll ro w s in th e ho us eh ol d lis tin g fo rm h av e be en u se d. Fo r w om en ag e 15 -4 9 Fo r c hi ld re n ag e 5- 17 Fo r c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 Fo r a ll ho us eh ol d m em be rs Fo r c hi ld re n ag e 0- 17 y ea rs h l1 . Li ne nu m be r h l2 . N am e h l3 . W h at iS t h e r e la ti o n - S h ip o f (n am e) t o th e h e a d o f h o u S e - h o ld ? h l4 . iS (n am e) m a le o r fe m a le ? 1 M al e 2 Fe m al e h l5 . W h at iS (n am e) ’S d at e o f b ir th ? R ec or d re sp on se in S ol ar c al en da r o nl y. If ne ed ed u se th e Lu na r- S ol ar c on ve rs io n ta bl e. h l6 . h o W o ld iS (n am e) ? R ec or d in co m pl et ed ye ar s. If ag e is 9 5 or a bo ve , re co rd ‘9 5’ h l7 . C irc le lin e nu m be r if w om an is ag e 15 -4 9 h l8 . W h o iS t h e m o th e r o r p r im a r y c a r e ta k e r o f th iS c h il d ? R ec or d lin e nu m be r of m ot he r/ ca re ta ke r h l9 . W h o iS t h e m o th e r o r p r im a r y c a r e ta k e r o f th iS c h il d ? R ec or d lin e nu m be r of m ot he r/ ca re ta ke r h l1 0. d id (n am e) S ta y h e r e la S t n iG h t? 1 ye s 2 N o h l1 1. iS (n am e) ’S n at u r a l m o th e r a li v e ? 1 ye s 2 N o H l1 3 8 d K  H l1 3 h l1 2. d o e S (n am e) ’S n at u r a l m o th e r l iv e in th iS h o u S e h o ld ? R ec or d lin e nu m be r of m ot he r o r 00 fo r “ N o” h l1 3. iS (n am e) ’S n at u r a l fa th e r a li v e ? 1 ye s 2 N o N ex t l in e 8 d K  N ex t l in e h l1 4. d o e S (n am e) ’S n at u r a l fa th e r li v e in t h iS h o u S e h o ld ? R ec or d lin e nu m be r of fa th er o r 00 fo r “ N o” 98 d K 99 98 d K li ne N am e R el at io n* M F M on th ye ar A ge 15 -4 9 M ot he r M ot he r y n y n d k M ot he r y n d k Fa th er 09 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 09 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 10 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 10 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 11 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 11 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 12 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 12 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 13 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 13 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 14 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 14 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 15 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ 15 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ 1 2 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ Ti ck h er e if ad di tio na l q ue st io nn ai re u se d  h h 18 . R ec or d th e tim e. H ou r . . . . ._ _ __ M in ut es __ _ _ A4 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 P ro be fo r a dd iti on al h ou se ho ld m em be rs . P ro be e sp ec ia lly fo r a ny in fa nt s or s m al l c hi ld re n no t l is te d, a nd o th er s w ho m ay n ot b e m em be rs o f t he fa m ily (s uc h as s er va nt s, fr ie nd s, a do pt ed c hi ld re n) b ut w ho u su al ly liv e in th e ho us eh ol d. In se rt na m es o f a dd iti on al m em be rs in th e ho us eh ol d lis t a nd c om pl et e fo rm a cc or di ng ly. N ow fo r e ac h w om an a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs , w rit e he r n am e an d lin e nu m be r a nd o th er id en tif yi ng in fo rm at io n in th e in fo rm at io n pa ne l o f a s ep ar at e In di vi du al W om en ’s Q ue st io nn ai re . Fo r e ac h ch ild u nd er a ge 5 , w rit e hi s/ he r n am e an d lin e nu m be r A N D th e lin e nu m be r o f h is /h er m ot he r o r c ar et ak er in th e in fo rm at io n pa ne l o f a s ep ar at e U nd er -5 Q ue st io nn ai re . Yo u sh ou ld n ow h av e a se pa ra te q ue st io nn ai re fo r e ac h el ig ib le w om an a nd e ac h ch ild u nd er fi ve in th e ho us eh ol d. 01 H ea d 02 W ife / H us ba nd 03 S on / D au gh te r 04 S on -In -l aw / D au gh te r- In -l aw 05 G ra nd ch ild 06 P ar en t 07 P ar en t-I n- la w 08 B ro th er / S is te r 09 b ro th er -In -l aw / S is te r- In -l aw 10 U nc le / A un t 11 N ie ce / N ep he w 12 O th er re la tiv e 13 A do pt ed / Fo st er / S te pc hi ld 14 N ot re la te d 98 d on 't kn ow MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A5VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 G R A D E C O N VE R TI O N T A B LE F O R U N IV ER SA LI SE D E D U C AT IO N S YS TE M S G en er al e du ca tio n sy st em fo r co nv er si on E Q U IV A lE N T G E N E R A l E D U C AT IO N l E V E lS Fr om 1 94 5 un til 1 95 4 C om pl em en ta ry ed uc at io n (C E ) sy st em E du ca tio na l s ys te m in N or th er n Vi et N am C ur re nt na tio na l ed uc at io n sy st em S ys te m u nd er th e Fr en ch ti m e Fr ee re gi on Te m po ra ril y oc cu pi ed re gi on P rio r t o 19 81 Fr om Q uả ng B ìn h no rth w ar d le ve l G ra de 19 45 -1 95 0 19 50 -1 95 4 19 81 -1 98 6 19 86 -1 98 9 1 G ra de 5 G ra de 5 P re - G ra de 1 G ra de 1 G ra de 1 (C ou rs e nf an tin ) pr im ar y sc ho ol sc ho ol 2 G ra de 4 G ra de 4 G ra de 1 G ra de 4 G ra de 1 C E G ra de 1 G ra de 2 G ra de 2 G ra de 2 P rim ar y (C ou rs p ré pa ra to ire ) pr im ar y sc ho ol S ch oo l 3 G ra de 3 G ra de 3 G ra de 2 G ra de 3 G ra de 2 C E G ra de 2 G ra de 3 G ra de 3 G ra de 3 (C ou rs e le m en ta ire ) pr im ar y sc ho ol 4 In te rm ed ia te 1 (M oy en 1) G ra de 2 G ra de 3 G ra de 2 G ra de 3 C E G ra de 3 G ra de 4 G ra de 4 G ra de 4 In te rm ed ia te 2 (M oy en 2) pr im ar y sc ho ol 5 U pp er in te rm ed ia te (S up ér ie ur ) G ra de 1 G ra de 4 G ra de 1 G ra de 4 C E G ra de 4 G ra de 5 G ra de 5 G ra de 5 C er tifi ca te (C er tifi ca t) pr im ar y sc ho ol 6 Fi rs t y ea r Fi rs t y ea r 7t h cl as s G ra de 5 C E G ra de 6 G ra de 6 lo w er S ec on da ry S ch oo l (P re m iè re a nn ée ) S ec on da ry s ch oo l 7 S ec on d ye ar S ec on d ye ar G ra de 5 6t h cl as s G ra de 6 C E G ra de 5 G ra de 6 G ra de 7 G ra de 7 (D eu xi èm e an né e) S ec on da ry s ch oo l 8 Th ird y ea r Th ird y ea r G ra de 6 5t h cl as s G ra de 7 C E G ra de 6 G ra de 7 G ra de 8 G ra de 8 (T ro is iè m e an né e) S ec on da ry s ch oo l 9 Fo ur th y ea r - D ip lo m a Fo ur th y ea r G ra de 7 4t h cl as s G ra de 7 B C E G ra de 7 G ra de 9 (Q ua tri èm e an né e - D ip lô m e) S ec on da ry s ch oo l 10 Fi rs t y ea r Fi rs t y ea r G ra de 8 3r d cl as s G ra de 8 C E G ra de 8 G ra de 1 0 G ra de 1 0 G ra de 1 0 U pp er S ec on da ry S ch oo l S pe ci al is at io n 11 Fi rs t p ar t, se co nd ar y sc ho ol de gr ee S ec on d ye ar G ra de 9 2n d cl as s b ac ca la ur ea te I G ra de 9 C E G ra de 9 G ra de 1 1 G ra de 1 1 G ra de 1 1 (b ac ca la ur éa t p re m iè re p ar tie ) S pe ci al is at io n G ra de 1 0A C E 12 S ec on d pa rt, s ec on da ry s ch oo l de gr ee (b ac ca la ur éa t d eu xi èm e pa rti e) Th ird y ea r S pe ci al is at io n 1s t c la ss 2n d ed uc at io n de gr ee G ra de 1 0b C E G ra de 1 0 G ra de 1 2 G ra de 1 2 G ra de 1 2 A6 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 ED U C AT IO N ED Fo r h ou se ho ld m em be rs a ge 5 a nd a bo ve Fo r h ou se ho ld m em be rs a ge 5 -2 4 ye ar s e d 1. Li ne nu m be r e d 2. N am e an d ag e C op y fro m H ou se ho ld L is tin g Fo rm , H L2 a nd H L6 e d 3. h a S (n am e) e v e r at te n d e d S c h o o l o r p r e -S c h o o l? 1 ye s 2 n o  N ex t li ne e d 4. W h at iS t h e h iG h e S t le v e l o f S c h o o l (n am e) a tt e n d e d ? W h at iS t h e h iG h e S t G r a d e (n am e) c o m p le te d a t th iS l e v e l? R ec or d re sp on se in 1 2 ye ar s ys te m . U se c on ve rs io n ta bl e if ne ed ed . e d 5. d u r in G t h e (2 01 1) S c h o o l y e a r , d id (n am e) a tt e n d S c h o o l o r p r e S c h o o l at a n y t im e ? 1 ye s 2 N o  E d 7 e d 6. d u r in G t h iS S c h o o l y e a r , W h ic h le v e l a n d G r a d e iS /W a S (n am e) at te n d in G ? e d 7. d u r in G t h e p r e v io u S S c h o o l y e a r , t h at iS (2 00 9- 20 10 ), d id (n am e) at te n d S c h o o l o r p r e S c h o o l at a n y t im e ? 1 y es 2 N o  N ex t l in e 8 d K  N ex t l in e e d 8. d u r in G t h at p r e v io u S S c h o o l y e a r , W h ic h l e v e l a n d G r a d e d id (n am e) at te n d ? le ve l: 0 P re sc ho ol  e d 5 1 P rim ar y 2 lo w er S ec on da ry 3 U pp er S ec on da ry 4 P ro fe ss io na l S ch oo l  e d 5 5 C ol le ge / U ni ve rs ity & ab ov e  e d 5 8 d k G ra de : 98 d k If le ss th an 1 fu ll gr ad e at th is le ve l, en te r 0 0. le ve l: 0 P re sc ho ol  e d 7 1 P rim ar y 2 lo w er S ec on da ry 3 U pp er S ec on da ry 4 P ro fe ss io na l S ch oo l  e d 7 5 C ol le ge / U ni ve rs ity & ab ov e  e d 7 8 d k G ra de : 98 d k le ve l: 0 P re sc ho ol  N ex t p er so n 1 P rim ar y 2 lo w er S ec on da ry 3 U pp er S ec on da ry 4 P ro fe ss io na l S ch oo l  N ex t p er so n 5 C ol le ge /U ni ve rs ity & a bo ve  N ex t p er so n 8 d k G ra de : 98 d k li ne N am e A ge y es N o le ve l G ra de ye s N o le ve l G ra de y n d k le ve l G ra de 01 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 02 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 03 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 04 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 05 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 06 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 07 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 08 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 09 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 10 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 11 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 12 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 13 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 14 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 15 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 8 __ _ _ __ MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A7VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 WATER AND SANITATION WS WS1. What iS the main Source of drinkinG Water for memberS of your houSehold? Piped water Piped into dwelling . 11 Piped into compound, yard or plot . 12 Piped to neighbour . 13 Public tap / standpipe . 14 Tube Well, borehole . 21 Dug well Protected well . 31 Unprotected well . 32 Water from spring Protected spring . 41 Unprotected spring . 42 Rainwater collection . 51 Tanker-truck . 61 Cart with small tank / drum . 71 Surface water (river, stream, dam, lake, pond, canal, irrigation channel) . 81 bottled water. 91 Other (specify) ______________________________ 96 11WS6 12WS6 13WS6 14WS3 21WS3 31WS3 32WS3 41WS3 42WS3 51WS3 61WS3 71WS3 81WS3 96WS3 WS2. What iS the main Source of Water uSed by your houSehold for other purpoSeS Such aS cookinG and handWaShinG? Piped water Piped into dwelling . 11 Piped into compound, yard or plot . 12 Piped to neighbour . 13 Public tap / standpipe . 14 Tube Well, borehole . 21 Dug well Protected well . 31 Unprotected well . 32 Water from spring Protected spring . 41 Unprotected spring . 42 Rainwater collection . 51 Tanker-truck . 61 Cart with small tank / drum . 71 Surface water (river, stream, dam, lake, pond, canal, irrigation channel) . 81 Other (specify) ______________________________ 96 11WS6 12WS6 13WS6 WS3. Where iS that Water Source located? In own dwelling . 1 In own yard / plot . 2 Elsewhere . 3 1WS6 2WS6 WS4. hoW lonG doeS it take to Go there, Get Water, and come back? Number of minutes . __ __ __ DK. 998 WS5. Who uSually GoeS to thiS Source to collect the Water for your houSehold? Probe: iS thiS perSon under aGe 15? What Sex? Adult woman (age 15+ years) . 1 Adult man (age 15+ years) . 2 Female child (under 15). 3 Male child (under 15) . 4 DK. 8 WS6. do you do anythinG to the Water to make it Safer to drink? yes . 1 No 2 DK. 8 2WS8 8WS8 A8 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 WS7. What do you uSually do to make the Water Safer to drink? Probe: anythinG elSe? Record all items mentioned. boil.A Add bleach / chlorine .b Strain it through a cloth.C Use water filter (ceramic, sand, composite, etc.).D Solar disinfection .E let it stand and settle .F Other (specify) ______________________________ x DK.Z WS8. What kind of toilet facility do memberS of your houSehold uSually uSe? If “flush” or “pour flush”, probe: Where doeS it fluSh to? If necessary, ask permission to observe the facility. Flush / Pour flush Flush to piped sewer system . 11 Flush to septic tank . 12 Flush to pit (latrine) . 13 Flush to somewhere else . 14 Flush to unknown place / Not sure / DK where . 15 Pit latrine Ventilated Improved Pit latrine (VIP) . 21 Pit latrine with slab . 22 Pit latrine without slab / Open pit . 23 Composting toilet . 31 bucket. 41 Hanging toilet, Hanging latrine . 51 No facility, bush, Field . 95 Other (specify) _____________________________ 96 95Next Module WS9. do you Share thiS facility With otherS Who are not memberS of your houSehold? yes . 1 No 2 2Next Module WS10. do you Share thiS facility only With memberS of other houSeholdS that you knoW, or iS the facility open to the uSe of the General public? Other households only (not public) . 1 Public facility . 2 2Next Module WS11. hoW many houSeholdS in total uSe thiS toilet facility, includinG your oWn houSehold? Number of households (if less than 10) . 0 __ Ten or more households . 10 DK. 98 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A9VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS HC hc1a. What iS the reliGion of the head of thiS houSehold? buddhism. 1 Muslim . 2 Cao Dai. 3 Hoa Hao . 4 Christian Catholic . 5 Christian Protestant . 9 Other religion (specify) _______________________ 6 No religion . 7 hc1c. to What ethnic Group doeS the head of thiS houSehold belonG? Kinh . 01 Tay . 02 Thai. 03 Muong. 04 Khmer . 05 Chinese . 06 Nung . 07 Hmong . 08 Other (specify) _____________________________ 96 Unspecified ________________________________ 97 hc2. hoW many roomS in thiS houSehold are uSed for SleepinG? Number of rooms . __ __ hc3. Main material of the dwelling floor. Record observation. Natural floor Earth / Sand . 11 Rudimentary floor Wood planks . 21 Palm / bamboo . 22 Finished floor Parquet or polished wood . 31 Vinyl sheets . 32 Ceramic tiles . 33 Cement/ concrete . 34 Carpet . 35 Enamelled tiles/ marble . 36 Other (specify) _____________________________ 96 hc4. Main material of the roof. Record observation. Natural roofing No Roof . 11 Thatch / Palm leaf/ Straw . 12 Rudimentary Roofing bamboo/ tree-trunk . 22 Wood planks/ shingles . 23 Cardboard . 24 Finished roofing Metal/ corrugated iron sheet . 31 Calamine / Cement fibre . 33 Ceramic tiles . 34 Cement/ reinforced concrete . 35 Stone slates . 37 Asphalt sheets . 38 Other (specify) ______________________________ 96 A10 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 hc5. Main material of the exterior walls. Record observation. Natural walls No walls . 11 bamboo/ Cane / Palm / Tree-Trunks . 12 Dirt . 13 Reed . 14 Rudimentary walls bamboo with mud . 21 Stone with mud . 22 Uncovered adobe . 23 Plywood . 24 Cardboard . 25 Reused wood (packing wood) . 26 Finished walls Reinforced concrete . 31 Stone/ laterite . 32 bricks (covered or uncovered) . 33 Cement blocks/ coal residue bricks . 34 Covered adobe . 35 Wood planks / shingles . 36 Other (specify) ______________________________ 96 hc6. What type of fuel doeS your houSehold mainly uSe for cookinG? Electricity . 01 liquefied Petroleum Gas (lPG) . 02 Natural gas . 03 biogas. 04 Kerosene . 05 Coal/ Pit-coal/ light coal . 06 Charcoal . 07 Wood . 08 Straw / Shrubs / Grass . 09 Animal dung. 10 Agricultural crop residue . 11 No food cooked in household . 95 Other (specify) ______________________________ 96 01hc8 02hc8 03hc8 04hc8 05hc8 95hc8 hc7. iS the cookinG uSually done in the houSe, in a Separate buildinG, or outdoorS? If ‘In the house’, probe: iS it done in a Separate room uSed aS a kitchen? In the house In a separate room used as kitchen . 1 Elsewhere in the house . 2 In a separate building . 3 Outdoors . 4 Other (specify) ______________________________ 6 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A11VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 hc8. doeS your houSehold have: [a] electricity? [b] a radio? [C] a televiSion? [D] a non-mobile telephone? [E] a refriGerator? [F] a bed? [G] a table and chairS Set? [H] a Sofa? [I] a cupboard for cloth? [J] kitchen cabinetS? [K] a fan? [l] cable/ diGital tv? [M] a computer? [N] air conditioner? yes No Electricity . 1 2 Radio . 1 2 Television . 1 2 Non-mobile telephone . 1 2 Refrigerator. 1 2 bed . 1 2 Table and chairs set. 1 2 Sofa . 1 2 Cupboard . 1 2 Kitchen cabinets . 1 2 Fan . 1 2 Cable/ digital TV . 1 2 Computer . 1 2 Air conditioner. 1 2 hc9. doeS any member of your houSehold oWn: [A] a WriSt Watch? [b] a mobile telephone? [c] a bicycle? [d] a motorcycle or Scooter? [E] a poWer-tiller or tractor? [F] a car or truck? [G] a Ship or boat With a motor? yes No Wrist watch .1 2 Mobile telephone .1 2 bicycle .1 2 Motorcycle / Scooter .1 2 Power-tiller / Tractor .1 2 Car / Truck .1 2 Ship/ boat with motor .1 2 hc10. do you or Someone livinG in thiS houSehold oWn thiS dWellinG? If “No”, then ask: do you rent thiS dWellinG from Someone not livinG in thiS houSehold? If “Rented from someone else”, circle “2”. For other responses, circle “6”. Own . 1 Rent . 2 Other (Not owned or rented). 6 hc11. doeS any member of thiS houSehold oWn or have uSer riGhtS for any land that can be uSed for aGriculture? yes . 1 No 2 2hc12a hc12. hoW many Square meterS (m²) of aGricultural land do memberS of thiS houSehold oWn or have uSer riGhtS for? If unknown, record ‘99998’. M² ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ hc12a. doeS any member of thiS houSehold oWn or have uSer riGhtS for any Water Surface area that can be uSed for aquaculture? yes . 1 No 2 2hc13 hc12b. hoW many Square meterS (m²) of Water Surface area do memberS of thiS houSehold oWn or have uSer riGhtS for? If unknown, record ‘99998’. M² ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ hc13. doeS thiS houSehold oWn any liveStock, herdS, other farm animalS, or poultry? yes . 1 No 2 2HC15 A12 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 hc14. hoW many of the folloWinG animalS doeS thiS houSehold have? [a] buffalo, milk coWS, or bullS? [b] horSeS? [C] GoatS? [D] Sheep? [E] chickenS? [F] piGS? [G] duckS, GeeSe, or SWanS? If none, record ‘00’. If 95 or more, record ‘95’. If unknown, record ‘98’. buffalo, milk cows, or bulls . ___ ___ Horses . ___ ___ Goats . ___ ___ Sheep . ___ ___ Chickens . ___ ___ Pigs. ___ ___ Ducks, geese, swans. ___ ___ hc15. doeS any member of thiS houSehold have a bank account? Not including Deposit Certificate. yes .1 No .2 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A13VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 IN SE C TI C ID E TR EA TE D N ET S TN TN 1. d oe s yo ur h ou se ho ld h av e an y m os qu ito n et s th at c an b e us ed w hi le sl ee pi ng ? ye s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 N o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 N ex t M od ul e TN 2. H ow m an y m os qu ito n et s do es y ou r h ou se ho ld h av e? N um be r o f n et s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ._ __ _ __ tn 3. a s k t H e r e s p o N D e N t to s H o w y o u t H e N e ts iN t H e H o u s e H o lD . i f m o r e t H a N 6 N e ts , u s e a D D it io N a l q u e s ti o N N a ir e (s ). 1s t N et 2n d N et 3r d N et 4t h N et 5t h N et 6t h N et tn 4. M os qu ito n et ob se rv ed ? O bs er ve d . . . . . . . . 1 N ot o bs er ve d . . . . . . . 2 O bs er ve d . . . . . . . . 1 N ot o bs er ve d . . . . . . . 2 O bs er ve d . . . . . . . . 1 N ot o bs er ve d . . . . . . . 2 O bs er ve d . . . . . . . . 1 N ot o bs er ve d . . . . . . . 2 O bs er ve d . . . . . . . . 1 N ot o bs er ve d . . . . . . . 2 O bs er ve d . . . . . . . . 1 N ot o bs er ve d . . . . . . . 2 TN 5. O bs er ve o r as k th e br an d/ ty pe of m os qu ito n et . If br an d is un kn ow n an d yo u ca nn ot o bs er ve th e ne t, sh ow pi ct ur es o f t yp ic al ne t t yp es /b ra nd s to re sp on de nt . lo ng -la st in g tre at ed n et s G lo ba l F un d . . . . . . 11 O th er (s pe ci fy ) . . . . .1 6 D K b ra nd . . . . . . . 18 P re -tr ea te d ne ts G lo ba l F un d . . . . . . 21 O th er (s pe ci fy ) . . . . .2 6 D K b ra nd . . . . . . . 28 O th er n et ( sp ec ify ) _ __ __ __ __ __ 31 D K b ra nd / ty pe . . . . 98 lo ng -la st in g tre at ed n et s G lo ba l F un d . . . . . . 11 O th er (s pe ci fy ) . . . . .1 6 D K b ra nd . . . . . . . 18 P re -tr ea te d ne ts G lo ba l F un d . . . . . . 21 O th er (s pe ci fy ) . . . . .2 6 D K b ra nd . . . . . . . 28 O th er n et ( sp ec ify ) _ __ __ __ __ __ 31 D K b ra nd / ty pe . . . . 98 lo ng -la st in g tre at ed n et s G lo ba l F un d . . . . . . 11 O th er (s pe ci fy ) . . . . .1 6 D K b ra nd . . . . . . . 18 P re -tr ea te d ne ts G lo ba l F un d . . . . . . 21 O th er (s pe ci fy ) . . . . .2 6 D K b ra nd . . . . . . . 28 O th er n et ( sp ec ify ) _ __ __ __ __ __ 31 D K b ra nd / ty pe . . . . 98 lo ng -la st in g tre at ed n et s G lo ba l F un d . . . . . . 11 O th er (s pe ci fy ) . . . . .1 6 D K b ra nd . . . . . . . 18 P re -tr ea te d ne ts G lo ba l F un d . . . . . . 21 O th er (s pe ci fy ) . . . . .2 6 D K b ra nd . . . . . . . 28 O th er n et ( sp ec ify ) _ __ __ __ __ __ 31 D K b ra nd / ty pe . . . . 98 lo ng -la st in g tre at ed n et s G lo ba l F un d . . . . . . 11 O th er (s pe ci fy ) . . . . .1 6 D K b ra nd . . . . . . . 18 P re -tr ea te d ne ts G lo ba l F un d . . . . . . 21 O th er (s pe ci fy ) . . . . .2 6 D K b ra nd . . . . . . . 28 O th er n et ( sp ec ify ) _ __ __ __ __ __ 31 D K b ra nd / ty pe . . . . 98 lo ng -la st in g tre at ed ne ts G lo ba l F un d . . . . . . 11 O th er (s pe ci fy ) . . . . .1 6 D K b ra nd . . . . . . . 18 P re -tr ea te d ne ts G lo ba l F un d . . . . . . 21 O th er (s pe ci fy ) . . . . .2 6 D K b ra nd . . . . . . . 28 O th er n et ( sp ec ify ) _ __ __ __ __ __ 31 D K b ra nd / ty pe . . . . 98 TN 6. h o W m a n y m o n th S a G o d id y o u r h o u S e h o ld G e t th e m o S q u it o n e t? If le ss th an o ne m on th , r ec or d “0 0” M on th s ag o . . . ._ __ _ __ M or e th an 3 6 m o. ag o . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . 98 M on th s ag o . . . ._ __ _ __ M or e th an 3 6 m o. ag o . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . 98 M on th s ag o . . . ._ __ _ __ M or e th an 3 6 m o. ag o . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . 98 M on th s ag o . . . ._ __ _ __ M or e th an 3 6 m o. ag o . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . 98 M on th s ag o . . . ._ __ _ __ M or e th an 3 6 m o. ag o . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . 98 M on th s ag o . . . ._ __ _ __ M or e th an 3 6 m o. ag o . . . . . . . . . . . .9 5 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . 98 tn 7. C he ck T N 5 fo r t yp e of n et  L on g- la st in g (1 1- 18 )  T N1 1  P re -tr ea te d (2 1- 28 )  T N9  E ls e  C on tin ue  L on g- la st in g (1 1- 18 )  T N1 1  P re -tr ea te d (2 1- 28 )  T N9  E ls e  C on tin ue  L on g- la st in g (1 1- 18 )  T N1 1  P re -tr ea te d (2 1- 28 )  T N9  E ls e  C on tin ue  L on g- la st in g (1 1- 18 )  T N1 1  P re -tr ea te d (2 1- 28 )  T N9  E ls e  C on tin ue  L on g- la st in g (1 1- 18 )  T N1 1  P re -tr ea te d (2 1- 28 )  T N9  E ls e  C on tin ue  L on g- la st in g (1 1- 18 )  T N1 1  P re -tr ea te d (2 1- 28 )  T N9  E ls e  C on tin ue tn 8. W h e n y o u G o t th e n e t, W a S it a lr e a d y t r e at e d W it h a n in S e c ti c id e to k il l o r r e p e l m o S q u it o e S ? ye s . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 N o 2 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . . 8 ye s . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 N o 2 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . . 8 ye s . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 N o 2 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . . 8 ye s . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 N o 2 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . . 8 ye s . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 N o 2 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . . 8 ye s . . . . . . . . . . . . .1 N o 2 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . . 8 A14 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 tn 9. S in c e y o u G o t th e n e t, W a S it e v e r S o a k e d o r d ip p e d in a l iq u id t o k il l o r r e p e l m o S q u it o e S ? ye s . . . . . . . . .1 N o 2  TN 11 D K / N ot s ur e. . . 8  TN 11 ye s . . . . . . . . .1 N o 2  TN 11 D K / N ot s ur e. . . 8  TN 11 ye s . . . . . . . . .1 N o 2  TN 11 D K / N ot s ur e. . . 8  TN 11 ye s . . . . . . . . .1 N o 2  TN 11 D K / N ot s ur e. . . 8  TN 11 ye s . . . . . . . . .1 N o 2  TN 11 D K / N ot s ur e. . . 8  TN 11 ye s . . . . . . . . .1 N o 2  TN 11 D K / N ot s ur e. . . 8  TN 11 tn 10 . h o W m a n y m o n th S a G o W a S t h e n e t la S t S o a k e d o r d ip p e d ? If le ss th an o ne m on th , r ec or d “0 0” M on th s ag o . . . . ._ __ _ __ M or e th an 2 4 m o. ag o . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . .9 8 M on th s ag o . . . . ._ __ _ __ M or e th an 2 4 m o. ag o . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . .9 8 M on th s ag o . . . . ._ __ _ __ M or e th an 2 4 m o. ag o . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . .9 8 M on th s ag o . . . . ._ __ _ __ M or e th an 2 4 m o. ag o . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . .9 8 M on th s ag o . . . . ._ __ _ __ M or e th an 2 4 m o. ag o . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . .9 8 M on th s ag o . . . . ._ __ _ __ M or e th an 2 4 m o. ag o . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 D K / N ot s ur e. . . . . . .9 8 tn 11 . d id a n y o n e S le e p u n d e r t h iS m o S q u it o n e t la S t n iG h t? ye s . . . . . . . . 1 N o 2  TN 13 D K / N ot s ur e. . . 8  TN 13 ye s . . . . . . . . 1 N o 2  TN 13 D K / N ot s ur e. . . 8  TN 13 ye s . . . . . . . . 1 N o 2  TN 13 D K / N ot s ur e. . . 8  TN 13 ye s . . . . . . . . 1 N o 2  TN 13 D K / N ot s ur e. . . 8  TN 13 ye s . . . . . . . . 1 N o 2  TN 13 D K / N ot s ur e. . . 8  TN 13 ye s . . . . . . . . 1 N o 2  TN 13 D K / N ot s ur e. . . 8  TN 13 tn 12 . W h o S le p t u n d e r t h iS m o S q u it o n e t la S t n iG h t? R ec or d th e pe rs on ’s li ne nu m be r f ro m th e ho us eh ol d lis tin g fo rm If so m eo ne n ot in th e ho us eh ol d lis t s le pt u nd er th e m os qu ito n et , re co rd “0 0” N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ N am e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ li ne n um be r . . . ._ __ _ __ tn 13 . G o ba ck to T N 4 fo r n ex t n et . If no m or e ne ts , g o to n ex t m od ul e G o ba ck to T N 4 fo r n ex t ne t. If no m or e ne ts , g o to ne xt m od ul e G o ba ck to T N 4 fo r n ex t ne t. If no m or e ne ts , g o to ne xt m od ul e G o ba ck to T N 4 fo r n ex t n et . If no m or e ne ts , g o to n ex t m od ul e G o ba ck to T N 4 fo r n ex t n et . If no m or e ne ts , g o to n ex t m od ul e G o ba ck to T N 4 in fir st c ol um n of a n ew qu es tio nn ai re fo r n ex t n et . If no m or e ne ts , g o to n ex t m od ul e Ti ck h er e if ad di tio na l qu es tio nn ai re u se d  MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A15VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 INDOOR RESIDUAL SPRAYING IR ir1. at any time in the paSt 12 monthS, haS anyone come into your dWellinG to Spray the interior WallS aGainSt moSquitoeS? yes . 1 No 2 DK. 8 A16 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 C H IL D L A B O U R C L To b e ad m in is te re d fo r c hi ld re n in th e ho us eh ol d ag e 5- 17 y ea rs . F or h ou se ho ld m em be rs b el ow a ge 5 o r a bo ve a ge 1 7, le av e ro w s bl an k. n o W i W o u ld l ik e t o a S k a b o u t a n y W o r k c h il d r e n in t h iS h o u S e h o ld m ay d o . c l1 . Li ne nu m be r c l2 . N am e an d A ge C op y fro m H ou se ho ld L is tin g Fo rm , H L2 a nd H L6 c l3 . d u r in G t h e p a S t W e e k , d id (n am e) d o a n y k in d o f W o r k f o r S o m e o n e W h o iS n o t a m e m b e r o f th iS h o u S e h o ld ? If ye s: f o r p ay in c a S h o r k in d ? 1 ye s, fo r p ay (c as h or k in d) 2 ye s, u np ai d 3 N o  C l5 c l4 . S in c e l a S t (d ay o f t he w ee k) , a b o u t h o W m a n y h o u r S d id h e /S h e d o t h iS W o r k f o r S o m e o n e W h o iS n o t a m e m b e r o f th iS h o u S e h o ld ? If m or e th an o ne jo b, in cl ud e al l ho ur s at a ll jo bs . c l5 . d u r in G t h e p a S t W e e k , d id (n am e) fe tc h W at e r o r c o ll e c t fi r e W o o d fo r h o u S e h o ld u S e ? 1 ye s 2 N o  C l7 c l6 . S in c e l a S t (d ay o f t he w ee k) , a b o u t h o W m a n y h o u r S d id h e / S h e f e tc h W at e r o r c o ll e c t fi r e W o o d f o r h o u S e h o ld u S e ? c l7 . d u r in G t h e p a S t W e e k , d id (n am e) d o a n y p a id o r u n pa id W o r k o n a f a m il y f a r m o r in a f a m il y b u S in e S S o r S e ll in G G o o d S in t h e S tr e e t? In cl ud e w or k fo r a b us in es s ru n by th e ch ild , a lo ne o r w ith o ne o r m or e pa rtn er s. 1 ye s 2 N o  C l9 c l8 . S in c e l a S t (d ay o f t he w ee k) , a b o u t h o W m a n y h o u r S d id h e / S h e d o t h iS W o r k f o r h iS / h e r f a m il y o r h im S e lf / h e r S e lf ? c l9 . d u r in G t h e p a S t W e e k , d id (n am e) h e lp W it h h o u S e h o ld c h o r e S S u c h a S S h o p p in G , c le a n in G , W a S h in G c lo th e S , c o o k in G ; o r c a r in G f o r c h il d r e n , o ld o r S ic k p e o p le ? 1 ye s 2 N o  N ex t l in e c l1 0. S in c e l a S t (d ay o f t he w ee k) , a b o u t h o W m a n y h o u r S d id h e / S h e S p e n d d o in G th e S e c h o r e S ? ye s N o N um be r N um be r N um be r N um be r li ne N am e A ge P ai d U np ai d of h ou rs ye s N o of h ou rs ye s N o of h ou rs ye s N o of h ou rs 01 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 02 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 03 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 04 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 05 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 06 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 07 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 08 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 09 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 10 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 11 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 12 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 13 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 14 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 15 __ __ 1 2 3 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ 1 2 __ __ __ __ MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A17VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 CHILD DISCIPLINE CD Table 1: Children Aged 2-14 Years Eligible for Child Discipline Questions o List each of the children aged 2-14 years below in the order they appear in the Household Listing Form. Do not include other household members outside of the age range 2-14 years. o Record the line number, name, sex, and age for each child. o Then record the total number of children aged 2-14 in the box provided (CD6). cd1. Rank number cd2. Line number from HL1 cd3. Name from HL2 cd4. Sex from HL4 cd5. Age from HL6 Rank line Name M F Age 1 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 2 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 3 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 4 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 5 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 6 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 7 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ Cd6. Total children age 2-14 years ___ ___ o If there is only one child age 2-14 years in the household, then skip table 2 and go to CD8; write down’1’ and continue with CD9 Table 2: Selection of Random Child for Child Discipline Questions o Use Table 2 to select one child between the ages of 2 and 14 years, if there is more than one child in that age range in the household. o Check the last digit of the household number (HH2) from the cover page. This is the number of the row you should go to in the table below. o Check the total number of eligible children (2-14) in CD6 above. This is the number of the column you should go to. o Find the box where the row and the column meet and circle the number that appears in the box. This is the rank number of the child (CD1) about whom the questions will be asked. cd7. Total Number of Eligible Children in the Household (CD6) Last digit of household number (HH2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ 0 1 2 2 4 3 6 5 4 1 1 1 3 1 4 1 6 5 2 1 2 1 2 5 2 7 6 3 1 1 2 3 1 3 1 7 4 1 2 3 4 2 4 2 8 5 1 1 1 1 3 5 3 1 6 1 2 2 2 4 6 4 2 7 1 1 3 3 5 1 5 3 8 1 2 1 4 1 2 6 4 9 1 1 2 1 2 3 7 5 cd8. Record the rank number of the selected child . ___ cd9. Write the name and line number of the child selected for the module from CD3 and CD2, based on the rank number in CD8. Name ______________________________________ line number . __ __ A18 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 cd10. adultS uSe certain WayS to teach children the riGht behaviour or to addreSS a behaviour problem. i Will read variouS methodS that are uSed and i Want you to tell me if you or anyone elSe in your houSehold haS uSed thiS method With (name) in the paSt month. cd11. took aWay privileGeS, forbade SomethinG (name) liked or did not alloW him/her to leave houSe. yes . 1No 2 cd12. explained Why (name)’S behavior WaS WronG. yes . 1 No 2 cd13. Shook him/her. yes . 1 No 2 cd14. Shouted, yelled at or Screamed at him/her. yes . 1 No 2 cd15. Gave him/her SomethinG elSe to do. yes . 1 No 2 cd16. Spanked, hit or Slapped him/her on the bottom With bare hand. yes . 1 No 2 cd17. hit him/her on the bottom or elSeWhere on the body With SomethinG like a belt, hairbruSh, Stick or other hard object. yes . 1 No 2 cd18. called him/her dumb, lazy, or another name like that. yes . 1 No 2 cd19. hit or Slapped him/her on the face, head or earS. yes . 1 No 2 cd20. hit or Slapped him/her on the hand, arm, or leG. yes . 1 No 2 cd21. beat him/her up, that iS hit him/her over and over aS hard aS one could. yes . 1 No 2 cd22. do you believe that in order to brinG up, raiSe, or educate a child properly, the child needS to be phySically puniShed? yes . 1 No 2 Don’t know / No opinion. 8 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A19VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 HANDWASHING HW hW1. pleaSe ShoW me Where memberS of your houSehold moSt often WaSh their handS. Observed . 1 Not observed Not in dwelling / plot / yard . 2 No permission to see . 3 Other reason . 6 2 hW4 3 hW4 6 hW4 hW2. Observe presence of water at the specific place for handwashing. Verify by checking the tap/pump, or basin, bucket, water container or similar objects for presence of water. Water is available . 1 Water is not available . 2 hW3. Record if soap or detergent is present at the specific place for handwashing. Circle all that apply. Skip to HH19 if any soap or detergent code (A, B, C or D) is circled. If “None” (Y) is circled, continue with HW4. bar soap .A Detergent (Powder / liquid / Paste) .b liquid soap .C Ash / Mud / Sand .D None .y AHH19 bHH19 CHH19 DHH19 hW4. do you have any Soap or deterGent in your houSehold for WaShinG handS? yes . 1 No 2 2HH19 hW5. can you pleaSe ShoW it to me? Record observation. Circle all that apply. bar soap .A Detergent (Powder / liquid / Paste) .b liquid soap .C Ash / Mud / Sand .D Not able / Does not want to show .y hh19. Record the time. Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ SALT IODIzATION SI Si1. We Would like to check Whether the Salt uSed in your houSehold iS iodized. may i have a Sample of the Salt uSed to cook mealS in your houSehold? Once you have tested the salt, circle number that corresponds to test outcome. Not iodized 0 PPM . 1 More than 0 PPM & less than 15 PPM . 2 15 PPM or more . 3 No salt in the house . 6 Salt not tested. 7 A20 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 hh20. Does any eligible woman age 15-49 reside in the household? Check Household Listing Form, column HL7 for any eligible woman. You should have a questionnaire with the Information Panel filled in for each eligible woman.  Yes  Go to QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INDIVIDUAL WOMEN to administer the questionnaire to the first eligible woman.  No  Continue. hh21. Does any child under the age of 5 reside in the household? Check Household Listing Form, column HL9 for any eligible child under age 5. You should have a questionnaire with the Information Panel filled in for each eligible child.  Yes  Go to QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE to administer the questionnaire to mother or caretaker of the first eligible child.  No  End the interview by thanking the respondent for his/her cooperation. Gather together all questionnaires for this household and complete HH8 to HH15 on the cover page. Interviewer’s Observations Field Editor’s Observations Team Leader’s Observations QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INDIVIDUAl WOMEN MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A21VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 VIET NAM WOMAN’S INFORMATION PANEL WM This questionnaire is to be administered to all women age 15 through 49 (see Household Listing Form, column HL7). A separate questionnaire should be used for each eligible woman. WMA. Province/ City name and number: WMB. district name and number: Name . ___ ___ Name ___________________________ ___ ___ WMC. Commune/ Ward name and number: ___________________________ ___ ___ WM1. EA name and number: WM2. Household number: Name . ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ WM3. Woman’s name: WM4. Woman’s line number: Name ___ ___ WM5. Interviewer name and number: WM6. day / Month / Year of interview: Name . ___ ___ ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ Repeat greeting if not already read to this woman: We are from General StatiSticS office. We are WorkinG on a Survey concerned With family health and education. i Would like to talk to you about theSe SubjectS. the intervieW Will take about 30 minuteS. all the information We obtain Will remain Strictly confidential and your anSWerS Will never be Shared With anyone other than our project team. If greeting at the beginning of the household questionnaire has already been read to this woman, then read the following: noW i Would like to talk to you more about your health and other topicS. thiS intervieW Will take about 30 minuteS. aGain, all the information We obtain Will remain Strictly confidential and your anSWerS Will never be Shared With anyone other than our project team. may i Start noW?  Yes, permission is given  Go to WM10 to record the time and then begin the interview.  No, permission is not given  Complete WM7. Discuss this result with your team leader. WM7. Result of woman’s interview Completed . 01 Not at home . 02 Refused . 03 Partly completed . 04 Incapacitated . 05 Other (specify) _____________________________________ 96 WM8. Field edited by (Name and number): Name . ___ ___ WM9. data entry clerk (Name and number): Name . ___ ___ Wm10. Record the time. Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ A22 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 WOMAN’S BACKGROUND WB Wb1. in What month and year Were you born? Record response in Solar calendar only. If needed use the Lunar-Solar conversion table. Date of birth Month . __ __ DK month . 98 year . __ __ __ __ DK year . 9998 Wb2. hoW old are you? Probe: hoW old Were you at your laSt birthday? Compare and correct WB1 and/or WB2 if inconsistent Age (in completed years). __ __ Wb3. have you ever attended School or preSchool? yes . 1 No . 2 2Wb7 Wb4. What iS the hiGheSt level of School you attended? Preschool. 0 Primary . 1 lower Secondary. 2 Upper Secondary. 3 Professional School . 4 College/ University & above . 5 0Wb7 4Next module 5Next module Wb5. What iS the hiGheSt Grade you completed at that level? If less than 1 full grade at this level, enter “00” Grade. __ __ Wb6. Check WB4:  Lower Secondary or higher.  Go to Next Module  Primary  Continue with WB7 Wb7. noW i Would like you to read thiS Sentence to me. Show sentence on the card to the respondent. If respondent cannot read whole sentence, probe: can you read part of the Sentence to me? Cannot read at all . 1 Able to read only parts of sentence . 2 Able to read whole sentence . 3 No sentence in required language __________________________ 4 (specify language) blind / mute, visually / speech impaired . 5 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A23VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 CHILD MORTALITY CM All questions refer only to LIVE births. cm1. noW i Would like to aSk about all the birthS you have had durinG your life. have you ever Given birth? yes . 1 No . 2 2cm8 cm2. What WaS the date of your firSt birth? i mean the very firSt time you Gave birth, even if the child iS no lonGer livinG, or WhoSe father iS not your current partner. Skip to CM4 only if year of first birth is given. Otherwise, continue with CM3. date of first birth Day . __ __ DK day . 98 Month. __ __ DK month. 98 year . __ __ __ __ DK year. 9998 cm4 cm3. hoW many yearS aGo did you have your firSt birth? Completed years since first birth . __ __ cm4. do you have any SonS or dauGhterS to Whom you have Given birth Who are noW livinG With you? yes . 1 No . 2 2cm6 cm5. hoW many SonS live With you? hoW many dauGhterS live With you? If none, record ‘00’. Sons at home . __ __ Daughters at home . __ __ cm6. do you have any SonS or dauGhterS to Whom you have Given birth Who are alive but do not live With you? yes . 1 No . 2 2cm8 cm7. hoW many SonS are alive but do not live With you? hoW many dauGhterS are alive but do not live With you? If none, record ‘00’. Sons elsewhere . __ __ Daughters elsewhere. __ __ cm8. have you ever Given birth to a boy or Girl Who WaS born alive but later died? If “No” probe by asking: i mean, to a child Who ever breathed or cried or ShoWed other SiGnS of life – even if he or She lived only a feW minuteS or hourS? yes . 1 No . 2 2cm10 cm9. hoW many boyS have died? hoW many GirlS have died? If none, record ‘00’. boys dead. __ __ Girls dead . __ __ cm10. Sum answers to CM5, CM7, and CM9. Sum . __ __ cm11. juSt to make Sure that i have thiS riGht, you have had in total (total number in CM10) live birthS durinG your life. iS thiS correct?  Yes. Check below:  No live births  Go to ILLNESS SYMPTOMS Module  One or more live births  Continue with CM12  No  Check responses to CM1-CM10 and make corrections as necessary before proceeding to CM12 A24 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 cm12. of theSe (total number in CM10) birthS you have had, When did you deliver the laSt one (even if he or She haS died)? Month and year must be recorded. Date of last birth Day . __ __ DK day . 98 Month. __ __ year . __ __ __ __ cm13. Check CM12: Last birth occurred within the last 2 years, that is, since (day and month of interview) in 2008/2009  No live birth in last 2 years.  Go to ILLNESS SYMPTOMS Module.  One or more live births in last 2 years.  Ask for the name of the child Name of child_______________________ If child has died, take special care when referring to this child by name in the following modules. Continue with the next module. DESIRE FOR LAST BIRTH DB This module is to be administered to all women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding date of interview. Check child mortality module CM13 and record name of last-born child here _____________________. Use this child’s name in the following questions, where indicated. db1. When you Got preGnant With (name), did you Want to Get preGnant at that time? yes . 1 No . 2 1Next Module db2. did you Want to have a baby later on, or did you not Want any (more) children? later . 1 No more . 2 2Next Module db3. hoW much lonGer did you Want to Wait? Months . 1 __ __ years . 2 __ __ DK. 998 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A25VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 MATERNAL AND NEWBORN HEALTH MN This module is to be administered to all women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding date of interview. Check child mortality module CM13 and record name of last-born child here _____________________. Use this child’s name in the following questions, where indicated. mn1. did you See anyone for antenatal care durinG your preGnancy With (name)? yes . 1 No . 2 2mn5 mn2. Whom did you See? Probe: anyone elSe? Probe for the type of person seen and circle all answers given. Health professional: Doctor .A Nurse / Midwife .b Elementary midwife/nurse .C Other person Traditional birth attendant .F Village health worker . G Other (specify) _______________________________x mn3. hoW many timeS did you receive antenatal care durinG thiS preGnancy? Number of times . __ __ DK. 98 mn4. aS part of your antenatal care durinG thiS preGnancy, Were any of the folloWinG done at leaSt once: [a] WaS your blood preSSure meaSured? [b] did you Give a urine Sample? [c] did you Give a blood Sample? yes No blood pressure .1 2 Urine sample .1 2 blood sample .1 2 mn5. do you have a card With your oWn immunizationS liSted? may i See it pleaSe? If a card is presented, use it to assist with answers to the following questions. yes (card seen) . 1 yes (card not seen) . 2 No . 3 DK. 8 mn6. When you Were preGnant With (name), did you receive any injection in the arm or Shoulder to prevent the baby from GettinG tetanuS toxoid, that iS convulSionS after birth? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2mn9 8mn9 mn7. hoW many timeS did you receive thiS tetanuS injection durinG your preGnancy With (name)? If 7 or more times, record ‘7’. Number of times . __ DK. 8 8mn9 mn8. How many tetanus injections during last pregnancy were reported in MN7?  Two or more tetanus injections during last pregnancy.  Go to MN17  One tetanus injection during last pregnancy.  Continue with MN9 mn9. did you receive any tetanuS injection at any time before your preGnancy With (name), either to protect yourSelf or another baby? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2mn17 8MN17 mn10. hoW many timeS did you receive a tetanuS injection before your preGnancy With (name)? If 7 or more times, record ‘7’. Number of times . __ DK. 8 8MN17 mn11. hoW many yearS aGo did you receive the laSt tetanuS injection before your preGnancy With (name)? years ago . __ __ A26 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 mn17. Who aSSiSted With the delivery of (name)? Probe: anyone elSe? Probe for the type of person assisting and circle all answers given. If respondent says no one assisted, probe to determine whether any adults were present at the delivery. Health professional: Doctor .A Nurse / Midwife .b Elementary midwife/ nurse .C Other person Traditional birth attendant .F Village health worker . G Relative / Friend .H Other (specify) _______________________________x No one .y mn18. Where did you Give birth to (name)? Probe to identify the type of source. If unable to determine whether public or private, write the name of the place. (Name of place) Home your home . 11 Other home . 12 Public sector Govt. hospital . 21 Commune health centre . 22 Policlinic . 25 Sectoral hospital (army, police) . 24 Other public (specify) ______________________ 26 Private Medical Sector Private hospital . 31 Private clinic . 32 Private maternal hospital . 33 Other private medical (specify)_______________________ 36 Other (specify) ______________________________ 96 11mn20 12mn20 96mn20 mn19. WaS (name) delivered by caeSarean Section? (that iS, did they cut your belly open to take the baby out?) yes . 1 No . 2 mn20. When (name) WaS born, WaS he/She very larGe, larGer than averaGe, averaGe, Smaller than averaGe, or very Small? Very large . 1 larger than average . 2 Average . 3 Smaller than average . 4 Very small . 5 DK. 8 mn21. WaS (name) WeiGhed at birth? yes . 1 No 2 DK. 8 2mn23 8mn23 mn22. hoW much did (name) WeiGh? Record weight from immunization handbook or Certificate of Hospital Discharge after Delivery, if available. From handbook .1 (kg) __ . __ __ __ From recall .2 (kg) __ . __ __ __ DK. 99998 mn23. haS your menStrual period returned Since the birth of (name)? yes . 1 No . 2 mn24. did you ever breaStfeed (name)? yes . 1No . 2 2Next Module mn25. hoW lonG after birth did you firSt put (name) to the breaSt? If less than 1 hour, record ‘00’ hours. If less than 24 hours, record hours. Otherwise, record days. Immediately . 000 Hours . 1 __ __ Days . 2 __ __ Don’t know / remember . 998 mn26. in the firSt three dayS after delivery, WaS (name) Given anythinG to drink other than breaSt milk? yes . 1 No . 2 2Next Module MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A27VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 mn27. What WaS (name) Given to drink? Probe: anythinG elSe? Milk (other than breast milk) .A Plain water .b Sugar or glucose water.C Gripe water .D Sugar-salt-water solution .E Fruit juice .F Infant formula. G Tea / Infusions .H Honey . I Rice soup. J Other (specify) _______________________________x ILLNESS SYMPTOMS IS iS1. Check Household Listing, column HL9 Is the respondent the mother or caretaker of any child under age 5?  Yes  Continue with IS2.  No  Go to Next Module. iS2. SometimeS children have Severe illneSSeS and Should be taken immediately to a health facility. What typeS of SymptomS Would cauSe you to take your child to a health facility riGht aWay? Probe: any other SymptomS? Keep asking for more signs or symptoms until the mother/caretaker cannot recall any additional symptoms. Circle all symptoms mentioned, but do NOT prompt with any suggestions Child not able to drink or breastfeed.A Child becomes sicker .b Child develops a fever .C Child has fast breathing .D Child has difficult breathing .E Child has blood in stool .F Child is drinking poorly . G Child is vomiting .H Child choked . I Other (specify) _______________________________x Other (specify) _______________________________y Other (specify) _______________________________ Z A28 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 CONTRACEPTION CP cp1. i Would like to talk With you about another Subject – family planninG. are you preGnant noW? yes, currently pregnant . 1 No . 2 Unsure or DK . 8 1Next Module cp2. coupleS uSe variouS WayS or methodS to delay or avoid a preGnancy. are you currently doinG SomethinG or uSinG any method to delay or avoid GettinG preGnant? yes . 1 No . 2 2Next Module cp3. What are you doinG to delay or avoid a preGnancy? Do not prompt. If more than one method is mentioned, circle each one. Female sterilization.A Male sterilization .b IUD .C Injectables .D Implants .E Pill F Male condom . G Female condom .H Diaphragm . I Foam / Jelly . J lactational amenorrhoea method (lAM) .K Periodic abstinence / Rhythm . l Withdrawal . M Other (specify) _______________________________x UNMET NEED UN un1. Check CP1. Currently pregnant?  Yes, currently pregnant  Continue with UN2  No, unsure or DK  Go to UN5 un2. noW i Would like to talk to you about your current preGnancy. When you Got preGnant, did you Want to Get preGnant at that time? yes . 1 No . 2 1un4 un3. did you Want to have a baby later on or did you not Want any (more) children? later . 1 No more . 2 un4. noW i Would like to aSk Some queStionS about the future. after the child you are noW expectinG, Would you like to have another child, or Would you prefer not to have any more children? Have another child. 1 No more / None . 2 Undecided / Don’t know. 8 1un7 2un13 8un13 un5. Check CP3. Currently using “Female sterilization”?  Yes  Go to UN13  No  Continue with UN6 un6. noW i Would like to aSk you Some queStionS about the future. Would you like to have (a/ another) child, or Would you prefer not to have any (more) children? Have (a/another) child . 1 No more / None . 2 Says she cannot get pregnant . 3 Undecided / Don’t know. 8 2un9 3un11 8un9 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A29VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 un7. hoW lonG Would you like to Wait before the birth of (a/another) child? Months . 1 __ __ years . 2 __ __ Soon / Now . 993 Says she cannot get pregnant . 994 After marriage . 995 Other. 996 Don’t know . 998 994un11 un8. Check CP1. Currently pregnant?  Yes, currently pregnant  Go to UN13  No, unsure or DK  Continue with UN9 un9. Check CP2. Currently using a method?  Yes  Go to UN13  No  Continue with UN10 un10. do you think you are phySically able to Get preGnant at thiS time? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 1 un13 8 un13 un11. Why do you think you are not phySically able to Get preGnant? Circle all the codes if more than one reason is given. Infrequent sex / No sex.A Menopausal .b Never menstruated .C Hysterectomy (surgical removal of uterus) .D Has been trying to get pregnant for 2 years or more without result .E Postpartum amenorrheic .F breastfeeding . G Too old .H Fatalistic . I Other (specify) _______________________________x Don’t know .Z un12. Check UN11. “Never menstruated” mentioned?  Mentioned  Go to Next Module  Not mentioned  Continue with UN13 un13. When did your laSt menStrual period Start? Days ago . 1 __ __ Weeks ago . 2 __ __ Months ago . 3 __ __ years ago . 4 __ __ In menopause / Has had hysterectomy . 994 before last birth . 995 Never menstruated . 996 A30 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 ATTITUDES TOWARD DOMESTIC VIOLENCE DV dv1. SometimeS a huSband iS annoyed or anGered by thinGS that hiS Wife doeS. in your opinion, iS a huSband juStified in hittinG or beatinG hiS Wife in the folloWinG SituationS: [a] if She GoeS out Without tellinG him? [b] if She neGlectS the children? [c] if She arGueS With him? [d] if She refuSeS to have Sex With him? [e] if She burnS the food? yes No DK Goes out without telling . 1 2 8 Neglects children . 1 2 8 Argues with him . 1 2 8 Refuses sex . 1 2 8 burns food . 1 2 8 MARRIAGE/UNION MA ma1. are you currently married or livinG toGether With a man aS if married? yes, currently married . 1 yes, living with a man . 2 No, not in union . 3 3ma5 ma2. hoW old iS your huSband/partner? Probe: hoW old WaS your huSband/partner on hiS laSt birthday? Age in years. __ __ DK. 98 ma3. beSideS yourSelf, doeS your huSband/partner have any other WiveS or partnerS or doeS he live With other Women aS if married? yes . 1 No . 2 2ma7 ma4. hoW many other WiveS or partnerS doeS he have? Number . __ __ DK. 98 ma7 98ma7 ma5. have you ever been married or lived toGether With a man aS if married? yes, formerly married . 1 yes, formerly lived with a man . 2 No 3 3 Next Module ma6. What iS your marital StatuS noW: are you WidoWed, divorced or Separated? Widowed . 1 Divorced . 2 Separated . 3 ma7. have you been married or lived With a man only once or more than once? Only once . 1More than once. 2 ma8. in What month and year did you firSt marry or Start livinG With a man aS if married? date of first marriage Month. __ __ DK month. 98 year . __ __ __ __ DK year. 9998 Next Module ma9. hoW old Were you When you Started livinG With your firSt huSband/partner? Age in years. __ __ MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A31VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR SB Check for the presence of others. Before continuing, ensure privacy. Sb1. noW i Would like to aSk you Some queStionS about Sexual activity in order to Gain a better underStandinG of Some important life iSSueS. the information you Supply Will remain Strictly confidential. hoW old Were you When you had Sexual intercourSe for the very firSt time? Never had intercourse . 00 Age in years. __ __ First time when started living with (first) husband/partner . 95 00Next Module Sb2. the firSt time you had Sexual intercourSe, WaS a condom uSed? yes . 1 No . 2 DK / Don’t remember . 8 Sb3. When WaS the laSt time you had Sexual intercourSe? Record ‘years ago’ only if last intercourse was one or more years ago. If 12 months or more the answer must be recorded in years. Days ago . 1 __ __ Weeks ago . 2 __ __ Months ago . 3 __ __ years ago . 4 __ __ 4SB15 Sb4. the laSt time you had Sexual intercourSe, WaS a condom uSed? yes . 1 No . 2 Sb5. What WaS your relationShip to thiS perSon With Whom you laSt had Sexual intercourSe? Probe to ensure that the response refers to the relationship at the time of sexual intercourse If ‘boyfriend’, then ask: Were you livinG toGether aS if married? If ‘yes’, circle ‘2’. If ‘no’, circle‘3’. Husband . 1 Cohabiting partner . 2 boyfriend . 3 Casual acquaintance . 4 Other (specify) _______________________________ 6 3Sb7 4Sb7 6Sb7 Sb6. Check MA1:  Currently married or living with a man (MA1 = 1 or 2)  Go to SB8  Not married / Not in union (MA1 = 3)  Continue with SB7 Sb7. hoW old iS thiS perSon? If response is DK, probe: about hoW old iS thiS perSon? Age of sexual partner . __ __ DK. 98 Sb8. have you had Sexual intercourSe With any other perSon in the laSt 12 monthS? yes . 1No . 2 2SB15 Sb9. the laSt time you had Sexual intercourSe With thiS other perSon, WaS a condom uSed? yes . 1 No . 2 Sb10. What WaS your relationShip to thiS perSon? Probe to ensure that the response refers to the relationship at the time of sexual intercourse If ‘boyfriend’ then ask: Were you livinG toGether aS if married? If ‘yes’, circle ‘2’. If ‘no’, circle’ 3’. Husband . 1 Cohabiting partner . 2 boyfriend . 3 Casual acquaintance . 4 Other (specify) _______________________________ 6 3Sb12 4Sb12 6Sb12 A32 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 Sb11. Check MA1 and MA7:  Currently married or living with a man (MA1 = 1 or 2) AND Married only once or lived with a man only once (MA7 = 1)  Go to SB13  Else  Continue with SB12 Sb12. hoW old iS thiS perSon? If response is DK, probe: about hoW old iS thiS perSon? Age of sexual partner . __ __ DK. 98 Sb13. other than theSe tWo perSonS, have you had Sexual intercourSe With any other perSon in the laSt 12 monthS? yes . 1 No . 2 2 tSB15 Sb14. in total, With hoW many different people have you had Sexual intercourSe in the laSt 12 monthS? Number of partners. __ __ Sb15. in total, With hoW many different people have you had Sexual intercourSe in your lifetime? If a non-numeric answer is given, probe to get an estimate. If number of partners is 95 or more, write ‘95’. Number of lifetime partners . __ __ DK. 98 HIV/AIDS HA ha1. noW i Would like to talk With you about SomethinG elSe. have you ever heard of an illneSS called hiv/ aidS? yes . 1 No . 2 2WM11 ha2. can people reduce their chance of GettinG the hiv/aidS viruS by havinG juSt one uninfected Sex partner Who haS no other Sex partnerS? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ha3. can people Get the hiv/aidS viruS becauSe of Witchcraft or other Supernatural meanS? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ha4. can people reduce their chance of GettinG the hiv/aidS viruS by uSinG a condom every time they have Sex? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ha5. can people Get the hiv/aidS viruS from moSquito biteS? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ha6. can people Get the hiv/aidS viruS by SharinG food With a perSon Who haS the aidS viruS? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ha7. iS it poSSible for a healthy-lookinG perSon to have the hiv/aidS viruS? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ha8. can the viruS that cauSeS hiv/aidS be tranSmitted from a mother to her baby: [a] durinG preGnancy? [b] durinG delivery? [c] by breaStfeedinG? yes No DK During pregnancy . 1 2 8 During delivery. 1 2 8 by breastfeeding. 1 2 8 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A33VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 ha9. in your opinion, if a female teacher haS the hiv/aidS viruS but iS not Sick, Should She be alloWed to continue teachinG in School? yes . 1 No . 2 DK / Not sure / Depends. 8 ha10. Would you buy freSh veGetableS from a Shopkeeper or vendor if you kneW that thiS perSon had the hiv/aidS viruS? yes . 1 No . 2 DK / Not sure / Depends. 8 ha11. if a member of your family Got infected With the hiv/aidS viruS, Would you Want it to remain a Secret? yes . 1 No . 2 DK / Not sure / Depends. 8 ha12. if a member of your family became Sick With hiv/aidS, Would you be WillinG to care for her or him in your oWn houSehold? yes . 1 No . 2 DK / Not sure / Depends. 8 ha13. Check CM13: Any live birth in last 2 years?  No live birth in last 2 years Go to HA24  One or more live births in last 2 years  Continue with HA14 HA14. Check MN1: Received antenatal care?  Received antenatal care  Continue with HA15  Did not receive antenatal care  Go to HA24 ha15. durinG any of the antenatal viSitS for your preGnancy With (name), Were you Given any information about: [a] babieS GettinG the hiv/aidS viruS from their mother? [b] thinGS that you can do to prevent GettinG the hiv/aidS viruS? [c] GettinG teSted for the hiv/aidS viruS? Were you: [d] offered a teSt for the hiv/aidS viruS? y N DK AIDS from mother . 1 2 8 Things to do . 1 2 8 Tested for AIDS. 1 2 8 Offered a test . 1 2 8 ha16. i don’t Want to knoW the reSultS, but Were you teSted for the hiv/aidS viruS aS part of your antenatal care? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2ha19 8ha19 ha17. i don’t Want to knoW the reSultS, but did you Get the reSultS of the teSt? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2ha22 8ha22 ha18. reGardleSS of the reSult, all Women Who are teSted are SuppoSed to receive counSelinG after GettinG the reSult. after you Were teSted, did you receive counSellinG? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 1ha22 2ha22 8ha22 HA19. Check MN17: Birth delivered by health professional (A, B or C)?  Yes, birth delivered by health professional  Continue with HA20  No, birth not delivered by health professional  Go to HA24 ha20. i don’t Want to knoW the reSultS, but Were you teSted for the hiv/aidS viruS betWeen the time you Went for delivery but before the baby WaS born? yes . 1 No . 2 2ha24 ha21. i don’t Want to knoW the reSultS, but did you Get the reSultS of the teSt? yes . 1 No . 2 A34 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 ha22. have you been teSted for the hiv/aidS viruS Since that time you Were teSted durinG your preGnancy? yes . 1 No . 2 1ha25 HA23. When was the most recent time you were tested for the HIV/AIDS virus? less than 12 months ago . 1 12-23 months ago. 2 2 or more years ago.3 1Wm11 2Wm11 3WM11 HA24. I don’t want to know the results, but have you ever been tested to see if you have the HIV/AIDS virus? yes . 1 No.2 2HA27 HA25. When was the most recent time you were tested? less than 12 months ago . 1 12-23 months ago. 2 2 or more years ago .3 HA26. I don’t want to know the results, but did you get the results of the test? yes . 1 No. . 2 dK.8 1Wm11 2Wm11 8WM11 HA27. do you know of a place where people can go to get tested for the HIV/AIDS virus? yes . 1 No.2 Wm11. Record the time. Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ Wm12. Check Household Listing Form, column HL9. Is the respondent the mother or caretaker of any child age 0-4 living in this household?  Yes  Go to QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE for that child and start the interview with this respondent.  No  End the interview with this respondent by thanking her for her cooperation. Check for the presence of any other eligible woman or children under-5 in the household. MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A35VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 Interviewer’s Observations Field Editor’s Observations Team Leader’s Observations A36 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A37VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHIlDREN UNDERFIVE VIET NAM UNDER-FIVE CHILD INFORMATION PANEL UF This questionnaire is to be administered to all mothers or caretakers (see Household Listing Form, column HL9) who care for a child that lives with them and is under the age of 5 years (see Household Listing Form, column HL6). A separate questionnaire should be used for each eligible child. UFA. Province/ City name and number: UFB. district name and number: Name . ___ ___ Name . ___ ___ UFC. Commune/ Ward name and number: ___________________________ ___ ___ UF1. EA name and number: UF2. Household number: Name . ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ UF3. Child’s name: UF4. Child’s line number: Name ___ ___ UF5. Mother’s / Caretaker’s name: UF6. Mother’s / Caretaker’s line number: Name ___ ___ UF7. Interviewer name and number: UF8. day / Month / Year of interview: Name ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ Repeat greeting if not already read to this respondent: We are from General StatiSticS office. We are WorkinG on a Survey concerned With family health and education. i Would like to talk to you about (name)’S health and Well- beinG. the intervieW Will take about 30 minuteS. all the information We obtain Will remain Strictly confidential and your anSWerS Will never be Shared With anyone other than our project team. If greeting at the beginning of the household questionnaire has already been read to this woman, then read the following: noW i Would like to talk to you more about (child’s name from UF3)’S health and other topicS. thiS intervieW Will take about 30 minuteS. aGain, all the information We obtain Will remain Strictly confidential and your anSWerS Will never be Shared With anyone other than our project team. may i Start noW?  Yes, permission is given  Go to UF12 to record the time and then begin the interview.  No, permission is not given  Complete UF9. Discuss this result with your team leader. UF9. Result of interview for children under 5 Codes refer to mother/caretaker. Completed . 01 Not at home . 02 Refused . 03 Partly completed . 04 Incapacitated . 05 Other (specify) _____________________________________ 96 UF10. Field edited by (Name and number): Name . ___ ___ UF11. data entry clerk (Name and number): Name _____________________________________ ___ ___ UF12. reCorD tHe time Hour and minutes __ __ : __ __ A38 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 AGE AG aG1. noW i Would like to aSk you Some queStionS about the health of (name). in What day, month and year WaS (name) born? Probe: What iS hiS / her birthday? If the mother/caretaker knows the exact birth date, also enter the day; otherwise, circle 98 for day Month and year must be recorded. Date of birth Day . __ __ DK day . 98 Month . __ __ year . __ __ __ __ aG2. hoW old iS (name)? Probe: hoW old WaS (name) at hiS / her laSt birthday? Record age in completed years. Record ‘0’ if less than 1 year. Compare and correct AG1 and/or AG2 if inconsistent. Age (in completed years). __ EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT EC ec1. hoW many children’S bookS or picture bookS do you have for (name)? None . 00 Number of children’s books . 0 __ Ten or more books . 10 ec2. i am intereSted in learninG about the thinGS that (name) playS With When he/She iS at home. doeS he/She play With: [a] homemade toyS (Such aS dollS, carS, or other toyS made at home)? [b] toyS from a Shop or manufactured toyS? [c] houSehold objectS (Such aS boWlS or potS) or objectS found outSide (Such aS StickS, rockS, animal ShellS or leaveS)? If the respondent says “YES” to the categories above, then probe to learn specifically what the child plays with to ascertain the response y N DK Homemade toys . 1 2 8 Toys from a shop . 1 2 8 Household objects or outside objects . 1 2 8 ec3. SometimeS adultS takinG care of children have to leave the houSe to Go ShoppinG, WaSh clotheS, or for other reaSonS and have to leave younG children. on hoW many dayS in the paSt Week WaS (name): [a] left alone for more than an hour? [b] left in the care of another child, that iS, Someone leSS than 10 yearS old, for more than an hour? If ‘none’ enter’ 0’. If ‘don’t know’ enter’8’ Number of days left alone for more than an hour . __ Number of days left with other child for more than an hour. __ MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A39VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 ec4. Check AG2: Age of child  Child age 3 or 4  Continue with EC5  Child age 0, 1 or 2  Go to Next Module ec5. doeS (name) attend any orGanized learninG or early childhood education proGramme, Such aS a private or Government facility, includinG kinderGarten or community child care? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2ec7 8ec7 ec6. Within the laSt Seven dayS, about hoW many hourS did (name) attend? Number of hours . __ __ ec7. in the paSt 3 dayS, did you or any houSehold member over 15 yearS of aGe enGaGe in any of the folloWinG activitieS With (name): If yes, ask: Who enGaGed in thiS activity With (name)? Circle all that apply. Mother Father Other Noone [a] read bookS to or looked at picture bookS With (name)? Read books A b x y [b] told StorieS to (name)? Told stories A b x y [c] SanG SonGS to (name) or With (name), includinG lullabieS? Sang songs A b x y [d] took (name) outSide the home, compound, yard or encloSure? Took outside A b x y [e] played With (name)? Played with A b x y [f] named, counted, or dreW thinGS to or With (name)? Named/counted A b x y ec8. i Would like to aSk you Some queStionS about the health and development of your child. children do not all develop and learn at the Same rate. for example, Some Walk earlier than otherS. theSe queStionS are related to Several aSpectS of your child’S development. can (name) identify or name at leaSt ten letterS of the alphabet? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ec9. can (name) read at leaSt four Simple, popular WordS? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ec10. doeS (name) knoW the name and recoGnize the Symbol of all numberS from 1 to 10? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ec11. can (name) pick up a Small object With tWo finGerS, like a Stick or a rock from the Ground? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ec12. iS (name) SometimeS too Sick to play? yes . 1No . 2 DK. 8 A40 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 ec13. doeS (name) folloW Simple directionS on hoW to do SomethinG correctly? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ec14. When Given SomethinG to do, iS (name) able to do it independently? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ec15. doeS (name) Get alonG Well With other children? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ec16. doeS (name) kick, bite, or hit other children or adultS? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ec17. doeS (name) Get diStracted eaSily? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 BREASTFEEDING BF bf1. haS (name) ever been breaStfed? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2bf3 8bf3 bf2. iS he/She Still beinG breaStfed? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 bf3. i Would like to aSk you about liquidS that (name) may have had yeSterday durinG the day or the niGht. i am intereSted in Whether (name) had the item even if it WaS combined With other foodS. did (name) drink plain Water yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 bf4. did (name) drink infant formula (Similac, mama Sua non, friSo, neStle, or other) yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2bf6 8bf6 bf5. hoW many timeS did (name) drink infant formula? Number of times . __ __ bf6. did (name) drink milk, Such aS condenSed, poWdered or freSh animal milk yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2bf8 8bf8 bf7. hoW many timeS did (name) drink condenSed, poWdered or freSh animal milk? Number of times . __ __ bf8. did (name) drink juice or juice drinkS yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A41VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 bf9. did (name) drink clear broth or herbal/ meat Water yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 bf10. did (name) drink or eat vitamin or mineral SupplementS or any medicineS yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 bf11. did (name) drink orS (oral rehydration Solution) yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 bf12. did (name) drink any other liquidS (tea, coffee, coke, or other) yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 bf13. did (name) drink or eat yoGurt yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2bf15 8bf15 bf14. hoW many timeS did (name) drink or eat yoGurt yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? Number of times . __ __ bf15. did (name) eat thin porridGe (rice porridGe) yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 bf16. did (name) eat Solid or Semi-Solid (Soft, muShy) food yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2bf18 8bf18 bf17. hoW many timeS did (name) eat Solid or Semi- Solid (Soft, muShy) food yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht? Number of times . __ __ bf18. yeSterday, durinG the day or niGht, did (name) drink anythinG from a bottle With a nipple? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 A42 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 CARE OF ILLNESS CA ca1. in the laSt tWo WeekS, haS (name) had diarrhoea? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2ca7 8ca7 ca2. i Would like to knoW hoW much (name) WaS Given to drink durinG the diarrhoea (includinG breaStmilk). durinG the time (name) had diarrhoea, WaS he/ She Given leSS than uSual to drink, about the Same amount, or more than uSual? If less, probe: WaS he/She Given much leSS than uSual to drink, or SomeWhat leSS? Much less . 1 Somewhat less . 2 About the same . 3 More . 4 Nothing to drink . 5 DK. 8 ca3. durinG the time (name) had diarrhoea, WaS he/She Given leSS than uSual to eat, about the Same amount, more than uSual, or nothinG to eat? If “less”, probe: WaS he/She Given much leSS than uSual to eat or SomeWhat leSS? Much less . 1 Somewhat less . 2 About the same . 3 More . 4 Stopped food . 5 Never gave food . 6 DK. 8 ca4. durinG the epiSode of diarrhoea, WaS (name) Given to drink any of the folloWinG: Read each item aloud and record response before proceeding to the next item. [a] a fluid made from a Special packet called oral rehydration Solution (orS)? [b] a pre-packaGed orS fluid for diarrhoea? [c] Water from rice porridGe/ rice Soup (With Salt)? [d] lemon-oranGe/ coconut drink? [e] Soup Water from boiled veGetableS/ meat? [f] Water from fried-and-boiled rice? y N DK Fluid from ORS packet . 1 2 8 Pre-packaged ORS fluid . 1 2 8 Water from rice porridge/ rice soup . 1 2 8 lemon-orange/ coconut drink . 1 2 8 Soup water from boiled vegetables/ meat . 1 2 8 Water from fried-and-boiled rice . 1 2 8 ca5. WaS anythinG (elSe) Given to treat the diarrhoea? yes . 1No . 2 DK. 8 2ca7 8ca7 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A43VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 ca6. What (elSe) WaS Given to treat the diarrhoea? Probe: anythinG elSe? Record all treatments given. Write brand name(s) of all medicines mentioned. (Name) Pill or Syrup Antibiotic .A Antimotility .b Zinc .C Other (Not antibiotic, antimotility or zinc) . G Unknown pill or syrup .H Injection Antibiotic . l Non-antibiotic . M Unknown injection .N Intravenous . O Home remedy / Herbal medicine . Q Other (specify) _______________________________x ca7. at any time in the laSt tWo WeekS, haS (name) had an illneSS With a couGh? yes . 1 No 2 DK. 8 2ca14 8ca14 ca8. When (name) had an illneSS With a couGh, did he/She breathe faSter than uSual With Short, rapid breathS or have difficulty breathinG? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2ca14 8ca14 ca9. WaS the faSt or difficult breathinG due to a problem in the cheSt or a blocked / runny noSe? Problem in chest only . 1 blocked or runny nose only . 2 both . 3 Other (specify) _______________________________ 6 DK. 8 2ca14 6ca14 ca10. did you Seek any advice or treatment for the illneSS from any Source? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2ca12 8ca12 ca11. from Where did you Seek advice or treatment? Probe: anyWhere elSe? Circle all providers mentioned, but do NOT prompt with any suggestions. Probe to identify each type of source. If unable to determine if public or private sector, write the name of the place. (Name of place) Public sector Govt. hospital .A Commune health centre .b Policlinic .C Village health worker .D Mobile clinic (health service) .E Sectoral hospital (army, police) .F Govt. pharmacy . G Other public (specify) _______________________H Private medical sector Private hospital / clinic . I Private doctor . J Private pharmacy .K Other private medical (specify) _______________ O Other source Relative / Friend .P Shop . Q Traditional healer .R Other (specify) _______________________________x ca12. WaS (name) Given any medicine to treat thiS illneSS? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2ca14 8ca14 A44 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 ca13. What medicine WaS (name) Given? Probe: any other medicine? Circle all medicines given. Write brand name(s) of all medicines mentioned. (Names of medicines) Antibiotic Pill / Syrup .A Injection .b Anti-malarials . M Paracetamol / Panadol / Acetaminophen .P Aspirin. Q Ibuprofen .R Other (specify) _______________________________x DK.Z ca14. Check AG2: Child aged under 3?  yes  Continue with CA15  No  Go to Next Module ca15. the laSt time (name) paSSed StoolS, What WaS done to diSpoSe of the StoolS? Child used toilet / latrine . 01 Put / Rinsed into toilet or latrine. 02 Put / Rinsed into drain or ditch . 03 Thrown into garbage (solid waste) . 04 buried . 05 left in the open . 06 Other (specify) ______________________________ 96 DK. 98 MALARIA ML ml1. in the laSt tWo WeekS, haS (name) been ill With a fever at any time? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2Next Module 8Next Module ml2. at any time durinG the illneSS, did (name) have blood taken from hiS/her finGer or heel for teStinG? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 ml3. did you Seek any advice or treatment for the illneSS from any Source? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2ml8 8ml8 ml4. WaS (name) taken to a health facility durinG thiS illneSS? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2ml8 8ml8 ml5. WaS (name) Given any medicine for fever or malaria at the health facility? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2ml7 8ml7 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A45VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 ml6. What medicine WaS (name) Given? Probe: any other medicine? Circle all medicines mentioned. Write brand name(s) of all medicines, if given. (Name) Anti-malarials: Chloroquine (tab.) .b Quinine sulfate (tab.) .D Artemisinin based Combination Therapy (ACT) .E Quinine dihydrochlorate (inj.).F dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine (tab.) . G Artesunate (inj.) .K Primaquine (tab.) . l Other anti-malarial (specify) _______________________________H Antibiotic drugs Pill / Syrup . I Injection . J Other medications: Paracetamol/ Panadol /Acetaminophen .P Aspirin . Q Ibuprofen .R Other (specify) _______________________________x DK.Z ch qu ar qdi dph art pri oa ml7. WaS (name) Given any medicine for the fever or malaria before beinG taken to the health facility? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 1ml9 2ml10 8ml10 ml8. WaS (name) Given any medicine for fever or malaria durinG thiS illneSS? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2ml10 8ml10 ml9. What medicine WaS (name) Given? Probe: any other medicine? Circle all medicines mentioned. Write brand name(s) of all medicines, if given. (Name) . Anti-malarials: Chloroquine (tab.) .b Quinine sulfate (tab.) .D Artemisinin based Combination Therapy (ACT) .E Quinine dihydrochlorate (inj.).F dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine (tab.) . G Artesunate (inj.) .K Primaquine (tab.) . l Other anti-malarial (specify) _______________________________H Antibiotic drugs Pill / Syrup . I Injection . J Other medications: Paracetamol/ Panadol/ Acetaminophen .P Aspirin . Q Ibuprofen .R Other (specify) _______________________________x DK.Z ml10. Check ML6 and ML9: Anti-malarial mentioned (codes B, D, E, F, G, K, L, H)? Yes  Continue with ML11  No  Go to Next Module ml11. hoW lonG after the fever Started did (name) firSt take (name of anti-malarial from ML6 or ML9)? If multiple anti-malarials mentioned in ML6 or ML9, name all anti-malarial medicines mentioned. Same day . 0 Next day . 1 2 days after the fever . 2 3 days after the fever . 3 4 or more days after the fever . 4 DK. 8 A46 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 IMMUNIzATION IM If an immunization card/ handbook is available, copy the dates in IM3 for each type of immunization recorded on the card/ handbook. IM6-IM16 are for registering vaccinations that are not recorded on the card/ handbook. IM6-IM16 will only be asked when a card/handbook is not available. im1. do you have a card/ handbook Where (name)’S vaccinationS are Written doWn? (If yes) may i See it pleaSe? yes, seen . 1 yes, not seen . 2 No card/ handbook . 3 1im3 2im6 im2. did you ever have a vaccination card/ handbook for (name)? yes . 1 No . 2 1im6 2im6 im3. (a) Copy dates for each vaccination from the card/ handbook. (b) Write ‘44’ in day column if card/ handbook shows that vaccination was given but no date recorded. Date of Immunization Day Month year bcG bcG polio 1 opv1 polio 2 opv2 polio 3 opv3 pentavalent1 dpt-vGb-hib1 DPT: bach hau - Ho ga - UV VGb: Viem phoi Hib: Viem mang naoRecord this vaccine only from the new handbook (page 6). pentavalent2 dpt-vGb-hib2 Record this vaccine only from the new handbook (page 6). pentavalent3 dpt-vGb-hib3 Record this vaccine only from the new handbook (page 6). dpt1 dpt1 dpt2 dpt2 dpt3 dpt3 hepb at birth h0 Available from the new handbook (page 5), or record from the card if HepB1 vaccine was administered on the date of birth. hepb1 h1 hepb2 h2 hepb3 h3 meaSleS (or mmr) meaSleS vitamin a (moSt recent) vita MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A47VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 im4. Check IM3. Are all vaccines (BCG to Measles) recorded?  Yes  Go to IM18  No  Continue with IM5 im5. in addition to What iS recorded on thiS card/ handbook, did (name) receive any other vaccinationS – includinG vaccinationS received in campaiGnS or immunization dayS? Record ‘Yes’ only if respondent mentions vaccines shown in the table above. yes . 1 (Probe for vaccinations and write ‘66’ in the corresponding day column for each vaccine mentioned. Then skip to IM18) No . 2 DK. 8 2im18 8im18 im6. haS (name) ever received any vaccinationS to prevent him/her from GettinG diSeaSeS, includinG vaccinationS received in a campaiGn or immunization day? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2im18 8im18 im7. haS (name) ever received a bcG vaccination aGainSt tuberculoSiS – that iS, an injection in the upper arm that uSually cauSeS a Scar? yes . 1 No . 12 DK. 8 im8. haS (name) ever received any “vaccination dropS in the mouth” to protect him/her from GettinG diSeaSeS – that iS, polio? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2im10a 8im10a im10. hoW many timeS WaS the polio vaccine received? Number of times . __ im10a. haS (name) ever received a pentavalent (dpt-vGb-hib) vaccination – that iS, an injection in the thiGh or buttockS – to prevent him/her from GettinG dpt, hepatitiS b and hib? Probe by indicating that Pentavalent vaccine is sometimes called 5 in 1. yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2im11 8im11 im10b. hoW many timeS WaS a pentavalent (dpt- vGb-hib) vaccine received? Number of times . __ im11. haS (name) ever received a dpt vaccination – that iS, an injection in the thiGh or buttockS – to prevent him/her from GettinG tetanuS, WhoopinG couGh, or diphtheria? Probe by indicating that DPT vaccination is sometimes given at the same time as Polio. yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2im13 8im13 im12. hoW many timeS WaS a dpt vaccine received? Number of times . __ im13. haS (name) ever been Given a hepatitiS b vaccination – that iS, an injection in the thiGh or buttockS – to prevent him/her from GettinG hepatitiS b? Probe by indicating that the Hepatitis B vaccine is sometimes given at the same time as Polio and DPT vaccines. yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 2im16 8im16 im14. WaS the firSt hepatitiS b vaccine received Within 24 hourS after birth, or later? Within 24 hours. 1 later . 2 im15. hoW many timeS WaS a hepatitiS b vaccine received? Number of times . __ im16. haS (name) ever received a meaSleS injection or an mmr injection – that iS, a Shot in the arm at the aGe of 9 monthS or older - to prevent him/her from GettinG meaSleS? yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 A48 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 im18. haS (name) received a vitamin a doSe like (thiS/any of theSe) Within the laSt 6 monthS? Show common types of ampules / capsules / syrups yes . 1 No . 2 DK. 8 im19. pleaSe tell me if (name) haS participated in any of the folloWinG campaiGnS, national immunization dayS and/or vitamin a or child health dayS: [a] june 2010, vitamin a campaiGn [b] december 2010, vitamin a campaiGn [c] September-november 2010, meaSleS vaccination campaiGn/ meaSleS Supplementary immunization activity (Sia) y N DK June 2010, Vitamin A . 1 2 8 December 2010, Vitamin A . 1 2 8 Sep-Nov 2010, Measles . 1 2 8 uf13. Record the time. Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ uf14. Is the respondent the mother or caretaker of another child age 0-4 living in this household?  Yes  Indicate to the respondent that you will need to measure the weight and height of the child later. Go to the next QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE to be administered to the same respondent  No  End the interview with this respondent by thanking him/her for his/her cooperation and tell her/him that you will need to measure the weight and height of the child Check to see if there are other woman’s or under-5 questionnaires to be administered in this household. Move to another woman’s or under-5 questionnaire, or start making arrangements for anthropometric measurements of all eligible children in the household. ANTHROPOMETRY AN After questionnaires for all children are complete, the measurer weighs and measures each child. Record weight and length/height below, taking care to record the measurements on the correct questionnaire for each child. Check the child’s name and line number on the household listing before recording measurements. an1. Measurer’s name and number: Name ___ ___ an2. Result of height / length and weight measurement Either or both measured . 1 Child not present . 2 Child or caretaker refused . 3 Other (specify) _______________________________ 6 2an6 3an6 6an6 an3. Child’s weight Kilograms (kg) . __ __ . __ Weight not measured . 99.9 an4. Child’s length or height Check age of child in AG2:  Child under 2 years old.  Measure length (lying down).  Child age 2 or more years.  Measure height (standing up). length (cm) lying down . 1 __ __ __ . __ Height (cm) Standing up . 2 __ __ __ . __ length / Height not measured . 9999.9 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN A49VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 an5. Oedema Observe and record Checked Oedema present . 1 Oedema not present . 2 Unsure . 3 Not checked (specify reason) ___________________________ 7 an6. Is there another child in the household who is eligible for measurement?  Yes  Record measurements for next child.  No  End the interview with this household by thanking all participants for their cooperation. Gather together all questionnaires for this household and check that all identification numbers are inserted on each page. Tally on the Household Information Panel the number of interviews completed. A50 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN VIET NAM MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011 Interviewer’s Observations Field Editor’s Observations Team Leader’s Observations Viet N am 2011 VIET NAM Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011 Monitoring the situation of children and women MICS M ultiple Indicator C luster S urvey 2011 M IC S General Statistics Cluster Survey 2011 Viet Nam Multiple Indicator Website: mics.gso.gov.vn United Nations Children’s Fund United Nations Population Fund

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