UNFPA Strategic Plan 2018 - 2021

Publication date: 2017

STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 United Nations Population Fund 605 Third Avenue New York, NY 10158 +1 212 297 5000 www.unfpa.org Cover photo: © UNFPA/Bruno Feder © UNFPA/Ollivier Girard UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN, 2018–2021 The strategic plan reaffi rms the relevance of the current strategic direction of UNFPA, the goal of which is universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights, focusing on women, adolescents and youth. In accordance with the strategic direction of UNFPA and in line with General Assembly resolution 70/1 on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the strategic plan will seek to ensure that no one will be left behind and that the furthest behind will be reached fi rst. This strategic plan is the fi rst of three UNFPA strategic plans leading to 2030. It describes the transformative results that will contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, and, in particular, to good health and well-being, the advancement of gender equality, and the empowerment of women and adolescent girls, with a focus on eradicating poverty. The strategies introduced in the strategic plan are evidence-based and take into account the lessons learned from previous plan cycles. They are designed to further enhance organizational effectiveness and effi ciency and United Nations system-wide coherence, as well as strengthen the UNFPA integrated results and resources framework and the UNFPA business model. As requested by the Executive Board in decision 2017/7, a chapter outlining a common approach with UNDP, UNICEF and UN-Women, ‘Working together to support implementation of the 2030 Agenda’, prefaces the report. Annexes The following annexes to this report are available on the UNFPA Executive Board website. Annex 1. Integrated results and resources framework Annex 2. Theory of change Annex 3. Alignment to the quadrennial comprehensive policy review of operational activities for development of the United Nations system Annex 4. Revised business model and resource allocation system Annex 5. UNFPA programme accountability framework Annex 6. Global and regional interventions Annex 7. Working together to support implementation of the 2030 Agenda © UNFPA/Arvind Jodna Contents Preface: Working together to support implementation of the 2030 Agenda ���������������������������������������������������������������������� iii I� Introduction ���������������������������������������������������������������������������1 II� Strategic direction of the UNFPA strategic plan �����������������7 III� Expected development results of the strategic plan ����������9 IV� How UNFPA will achieve the development results of the strategic plan �����������������������������������������������������������19 V. Organizational effectiveness and efficiency ���������������������27 VI� Implementing the UNFPA strategic plan ���������������������������33 VII� Risk management ���������������������������������������������������������������34 VIII� Monitoring and evaluating the strategic plan �������������������35 ©UNFPA/Ben Maser Our commitment 1. As we set our strategic directions for the next four years, we – the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the United Nations Entity for Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women (UNWomen) – commit to working better together, characterized by stronger coherence and collaboration. We welcome the United Nations Secretary-General’s report on repositioning the United Nations development system to deliver on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Together we will step up our joint efforts, with a sense of urgency, to better support countries to achieve sustainable development. In line with the 2016 quadrennial comprehensive policy review of operational activities for development of the United Nations system (QCPR), we will help shape a United Nations development system that responds to our changing world and works in increasingly effective ways to deliver on the Sustainable Development Goals. Our strategic plans represent a clear commitment to United Nations reform and greater coherence in support of results. Key areas for collaboration 2. The principles of ‘leaving no one behind’ and ‘reaching the furthest behind’ first permeate all four of our strategic plans. In direct response to the QCPR, we will harness our respective collaborative advantage, in compliance with our respective mandates, in these key areas: (a) Eradicating poverty; (b) Addressing climate change; (c) Improving adolescent and maternal health; (d) Achieving gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls; (e) Ensuring greater availability and use of disaggregated data for sustainable development; (f) Emphasizing that development is a central goal in itself, and that in countries in conflict and post-conflict situations, the development work of the entities of the United Nations development system can contribute to peacebuilding and sustaining peace, in accordance with national plans, needs and priorities, and respecting national ownership. 3. These areas of collaborative advantage have positive multiplier effects across the Sustainable Development Goals and require multisectoral approaches for which the diversity of the United Nations system is an asset. They also provide a basis for closer collaboration with other United Nations entities as well as other Preface Working together to support implementation of the 2030 Agenda Together we will step up our joint efforts, with a sense of urgency, to better support countries to achieve sustainable development. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 iii ©UNICEF partners. As detailed in the annex to the common chapter of the strategic plans, our outputs will complementarily contribute to common results in these key areas, in accordance with our respective mandates and comparative advantages. The results will be tracked by the common Sustainable Development Goal indicators that are adopted at outcome or impact level in our respective strategic plans, including but not limited to the following: (a) Eradicating poverty: SDG 1.1.1. Proportion of population below the international poverty line, by sex, age, employment status and geographical location; (b) Eradicating poverty: SDG 1.3.1. Proportion of population covered by social protection floors/systems, by sex, distinguishing children, unemployed persons, older persons, persons with disabilities, pregnant women, newborns, work-injury victims and the poor and the vulnerable; (c) Adolescent health and HIV: SDG 3.3.1: Number of HIV infection per 1,000 uninfected population, by sex, age and key populations; (d) Gender equality: SDG 5.2.1. Proportion of ever partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by form of violence and by age; (e) Strengthening data for sustainable development: SDG 17.18.1. Proportion of sustainable development indicators produced at the national level with full disaggregation when relevant to the target, in accordance with the fundamental principles of official statistics; (f) Prevention, resilience, climate change: SDGs 1.5.1 and 11.5.1 and 13.1.1. Numbers of deaths, missing persons and directly affected persons attributed to disasters per 100,000 population. Strengthening how we work together 4. We will work together more effectively at all levels. Most importantly, our strategic plans reflect a change in how we work at country level, recognizing there is no ‘one size fits all’, and fully affirming the primary responsibility of national Governments for their countries’ development and for coordinating, on the basis of national strategies and priorities, all types of external assistance. 5. We will plan together. As part of United Nations country teams, we will support national Governments and partners to work towards common results and indicators, and collectively report on them through the revised United Nations Development Assistance Framework, as signed by national Governments, to drive stronger efficiency and effectiveness. In a significant step forward, these common results will now be underpinned by a mandatory common country assessment, from which theories of change can be drawn, and knowledge and expertise can be collaboratively used. This is an important improvement. During the 2030 Agenda era, the United Nations development system, at the country level, will support national priorities on the Sustainable Development Goals; share a common analysis of the issues; and plan, monitor and report on shared results. This increased programmatic collaboration will strengthen system-wide coherence at all levels as we draw data from joint analysis at country level. This change can be tracked through indicators, including but not limited to: (a) percentage of entities meeting or exceeding the System-wide Action Plan on Gender Equality and the Empowerment of Women minimum standards; and (b) percentage of country offices applying the standard operating procedures according to country context. During the 2030 Agenda era, the United Nations development system, at the country level, will support national priorities on the Sustainable Development Goals; share a common analysis of the issues; and plan, monitor and report on shared results. iv PREFACE Working together to support implementation of the 2030 Agenda ©Reach a Hand Uganda 6. We will implement programmes together differently. We will continue to support field offices in developing joint programmes, joint results groups and joint work plans in support of country priorities. On financing, we commit to the Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development. We will work to leverage public finances, including official development assistance, and support the adoption of policies to increase resource flows for the benefit of partner countries. We will promote integrated partnerships, using the full range of financing tools in support of the Sustainable Development Goals. Building on experiences from the common budgetary framework at country level, we are moving to jointly support financing strategies for the Sustainable Development Goals, including through innovative financing. These changes can be tracked through indicators, including but not limited to: (a) percentage of country offices engaged in joint programmes; (b) thematic funding as a percentage of other resources; and (c) percentage of country offices that track and report on allocations and expenditures using gender markers. 7. We will enhance multi-stakeholder partnerships. Reflecting the people- centred nature of the 2030 Agenda, we will support innovative platforms that strengthen collaboration with Governments, as well as with civil society and the private sector. We will build on recent progress in engaging citizens through volunteerism, empowerment, participation and other means to strengthen national ownership and capacity, and delivery of the sustainable development agenda. We will also intensify collaboration through multi-stakeholder partnerships at national, regional and global levels, and assist in improving mutual accountability for the Sustainable Development Goals in such partnerships. These changes can be tracked through indicators, including but not limited to: (a) percentage of total resources from contributions by donors other than the top 15; and (b) percentage share of total funding coming from private sector partners. 8. We will enhance efficiency together. Underpinning the drive for ever-greater effectiveness and building on progress made in recent years through the standard operating procedures, we will continue to accelerate efficiency gains through business operations strategies, mutual recognition, and broader operational harmonization. These changes can be tracked through indicators, including but not limited to: percentage of country offices implementing a business operations strategy. 9. All of the Sustainable Development Goal and QCPR-based indicators presented in this common chapter and in the annex to the common chapter are a subset of a much larger number of indicators shared by two or more entities that can be identified in the results frameworks of the respective strategic plans. We will report on all common indicators through the annual reports on the implementation of our respective strategic plans. Looking Forward 10. While fully recognizing that the findings and recommendations of the Secretary General’s report on repositioning the United Nations development system to deliver on the 2030 Agenda will be discussed by Member States, we will continue to fully support the process steered by the Secretary-General and retain the flexibility to respond accordingly to the decisions of Member States through the midterm reviews of the strategic plans. We will promote integrated partnerships, using the full range of financing tools in support of the Sustainable Development Goals. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 v ©UNFPA 1. The UNFPA strategic plan, 2018-2021, is aligned with General Assembly resolution 70/1 on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (hereafter referred to as the 2030 Agenda) and its 17 Sustainable Development Goals. The strategic plan also responds to other global frameworks underpinning the 2030 Agenda, including the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 of the Third United Nations World Conference on Disaster Risk Reduction, the 2015 Paris Agreement on climate change and the 2015 Addis Ababa Action Agenda of the Third International Conference on Financing for Development. 2. The goal of the strategic plan, 2018-2021, is to “achieve universal access to sexual and reproductive health, realize reproductive rights, and reduce maternal mortality to accelerate progress on the agenda of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, to improve the lives of women, adolescents and youth, enabled by population dynamics, human rights and gender equality”. The goal is the same as that of the previous UNFPA strategic plan, 2014-2017. Evaluative evidence has confirmed that the goal remains relevant and is an effective entry point for contributing to the 2030 Agenda. This goal will also enable UNFPA to address challenges in the area of sexual and reproductive health within the context of the Millennium Development Goal targets that were not achieved. 3. While overall poverty rates, maternal mortality, AIDS-related deaths and the unmet need for family planning are declining on the global level, inequalities and gaps in all aspects of development are evident among and within countries. These inequalities and gaps are observed through socioeconomic and demographic characteristics, including sex, age, residence, ethnicity, disability and income. Extreme poverty is on the decline and fell to below 10 per cent in 2016, yet approximately 800 million people still live in extreme poverty; Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa account for about 80 per cent of this figure. Between 1990 and 2015, maternal mortality was reduced by 44 per cent, yet approximately 830 women die each day from preventable causes related to maternal and child health. Virtually all maternal deaths (99 per cent) occur in developing countries; more than half of these deaths occur in sub-Saharan Africa and almost one third occur in South Asia. More than half of maternal deaths occur in fragile and humanitarian settings. I. Introduction The goal of the strategic plan, 2018-2021, is to “achieve universal access to sexual and reproductive health, realize reproductive rights,and reduce maternal mortality.to improve the lives of women, adolescents and youth, enabled by population dynamics, human rights and gender equality”. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 1 4. Child, early and forced marriage and adolescent pregnancy have declined, and the proportion of women aged 20 to 24 who reported they were married before the age of 18 dropped from 32 per cent around 1990 to 26 per cent around 2015. However, levels of child, early and forced marriage in Southern Asia and sub- Saharan Africa, 44 per cent and 37 per cent, respectively, remain unacceptably high. Similarly, teenage pregnancy declined, but remains a major concern. In 2015, it was estimated that 15.3 million adolescents gave birth; at this rate, this figure is projected to reach 19.2 million by 2035. 5. The demographic transitions occurring in different populations, such as the ageing process in many high-income countries and the large youth populations in developing and emerging countries, in particular, in sub-Saharan Africa, have led to labour shortages in the North and high youth unemployment and underemployment rates in the South. The unprecedented frequency, intensity and scope of humanitarian emergencies are also of concern. In 2016, over 125 million people required humanitarian assistance. Furthermore, constraints on the resources available for humanitarian and development work are increasing. In recent years, the world has experienced uneven economic growth and trends, following a slow recovery from the global economic recession of 2007-2009. In 2016, the world economy expanded just by 2.3 per cent, the slowest rate of growth since the recession. 6. The 2030 Agenda provides a welcome opportunity to continue to pursue the UNFPA goal and to implement the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development. By aligning the strategic plan to the Sustainable Development Goals, most directly to Goal 3 (Ensure healthy lives and promote well-being for all at all ages); Goal 5 (Achieve gender equality and empower all women and girls); Goal 10 (Reduce inequality within and among countries); Goal 16 (Promote peaceful and inclusive societies for sustainable development, provide access to justice for all and build effective, accountable and inclusive institutions at all levels); and Goal 17 (Strengthen the means of implementation and revitalize the Global Partnership for Sustainable Development), UNFPA will advance the work of the Programme of Action, contribute to the achievement of the goal of its strategic plan and, ultimately, to the eradication of poverty. UNFPA has prioritized 17 Sustainable Development Goal indicators as part of this alignment. Figure 1 illustrates the alignment of the UNFPA strategic plan to the Sustainable Development Goals. Levels of child, early and forced marriage in Southern Asia and sub-Saharan Africa, remain unacceptably high. © UNFPA/Sahr Philip Sheku Ado lescents and Youth Women Human Righ ts Po pu la tio n Dy na m ics Gender Achieve universal access to sexual and reproductive health, realize reproductive rights, and reduce maternal mortality to accelerate progress on the ICPD agenda The goal. to improve lives of. enabled by FIGURE 1� Alignment of the “bull’s eye” — the goal of the UNFPA strategic plan — to the goals and indicators of the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development 3.1.1 Maternal mortality ratio 3.1.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel 3.3.1 Number of new HIV infections per 1,000 uninfected population, by sex, age and key populations 3.7.1 Proportion of women of reproductive age (aged 15-49 years) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods 3.7.2 Adolescent birth rate (aged 10-14 years; aged 15-19 years) per 1,000 women in that age group 3.8.1 Coverage of essential health services 5.2.1 Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by form of violence and by age 5.2.2 Proportion of women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to sexual violence by persons other than an intimate partner in the previous 12 months, by age and place of occurrence 5.3.1 Proportion of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 18 5.3.2 Proportion of girls and women aged 15-49 years who have undergone female genital mutilation/cutting, by age 5.6.1 Proportion of women aged 15-49 years who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health care 5.6.2 Number of countries with laws and regulations that guarantee full and equal access to women and men aged 15 years and older to sexual and reproductive health care, information and education 10.3.1 Proportion of population reporting having personally felt discriminated against or harassed in the previous 12 months on the basis of a ground of discrimination prohibited under international human rights law 11.a.1 Proportion of population living in cities that implement urban and regional development plans integrating population projections and resource needs, by size of city 16.9.1 Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority, by age 17.18.1 Proportion of sustainable development indicators produced at the national level with full disaggregation when relevant to the target, in accordance with the Fundamental Principles of Official Statistics 17.19.2 Proportion of countries that: (a) have conducted at least one population and housing census in the last 10 years; and (b) have achieved 100 per cent birth registration and 80 per cent death registration UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 3 7. Using the 2030 Agenda time span, UNFPA has designed its strategic plan to be the first of three consecutive strategic plans that will contribute cumulatively to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. UNFPA will use its strategic plan to mobilize and align its institutional strategies to the 2030 Agenda, and, throughout the period of its three strategic plans, will monitor the 17 UNFPA- prioritized Sustainable Development Goal indicators. UNFPA has designed its strategic plan to be the first of three consecutive strategic plans that will contribute cumulatively to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. 4 CHAPTER I Introduction © Pepe Mateo 8. To begin alignment of the strategic plan to the 2030 Agenda, as recommended by General Assembly resolution 71/243 on the quadrennial comprehensive policy review of operational activities for development of the United Nations system (hereafter referred to as the Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review), the strategic plan has adopted the key principles of the 2030 Agenda, including: (a) the protection and promotion of human rights; (b) the prioritization of leaving no one behind and reaching the furthest behind first; (c) strengthening cooperation and complementarity among development, humanitarian action and sustaining peace; (d) reducing risks and vulnerabilities and building resilience; (e) ensuring gender-responsive approaches at all levels of programming; and (f) a commitment to improving accountability, transparency and efficiency. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 5 © UNFPA/Vincent Tremeau 9. UNFPA embraces the vision set forth in the 2030 Agenda. UNFPA will organize its work around three transformative and people-centred results in the period leading up to 2030. These include: (a) an end to preventable maternal deaths; (b) an end to the unmet need for family planning; and (c) an end to gender-based violence and all harmful practices, including female genital mutilation and child, early and forced marriage (see figure 2). 10. To achieve these transformative results, the strategic plan emphasizes the need for strengthened partnerships and innovation. It also emphasizes, in accordance with General Assembly resolution 71/243 on the quadrennial comprehensive policy review, stronger collaboration and coordination within the United Nations system, to ensure a coherent, integrated and effective United Nations response to support countries and communities in achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. II. Strategic direction of the UNFPA strategic plan FIGURE 2� Universal and people-centred transformative results End preventable maternal deaths End the unmet need for family planning Universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights End gender-based violence and all harmful practices, including child marriage Implemented through: UNFPA “bull’s eye” for three consecutive strategic plan cycles Enabled by: Evidence and population expertise Focusing on: Empowerment of women and young people, especially adolescent girls Delivered in: Humanitarian and development settings UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 7 ©UNFPA/Dina Oganova III. Expected development results of the strategic plan 11. The strategic plan will build on the progress achieved by the Millennium Development Goals; address the remaining challenges in the areas of sexual and reductive health and reproductive rights; and draw on the evidence and the lessons learned from the previous strategic plan cycle, 2014-2017, to improve its approaches and strategies. Evaluative evidence has shown that the goal of the previous strategic plan – to achieve universal access to sexual and reproductive health, realize reproductive rights, and reduce maternal mortality to accelerate progress on the agenda of the International Conference on Population and Development – continues to be a relevant, valid and an effective approach to attain the 2030 Agenda. 12. From implementing the previous strategic plan, UNFPA learned that the results framework was strong and effectively guided programming towards planned results. UNFPA also learned that: (a) it was important that the strategic plan be accompanied by a robust theory of change; (b) increasing access to sexual and reproductive health required a strong emphasis on demand generation, including raising awareness; (c) the supply side of integrated sexual and reproductive health services should be approached from a national health system strengthening perspective; (d) improving the integration of sexual and reproductive health and HIV programmes could better meet diverse HIV prevention needs; and (e) interventions targeting young people, especially adolescent girls, required prioritization and increased funding. The change model to achieve the goal of the UNFPA strategic plan is shown in figure 3. FIGURE 3� The change model to achieve the goal of the UNFPA strategic plan, 2018-2021 Addressing supply and demand elements Foundation Principles Focus Everyone, everywhere, is counted, and accounted for, in the pursuit of sustainable development Every woman, adolescent and youth everywhere, especially those furthest behind, has utilized integrated sexual and reproductive health services and exercised reproductive rights, free of coercion, discrimination and violence Every adolescent and youth, in particular adolescent girls, is empowered to have access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights, in all contexts Gender equality, the empowerment of all women and girls, and reproductive rights are advanced in development and humanitarian settings Protecting and promoting human rights Prioritizing “leaving no one behind” and “reaching the furthest behind first” Ensuring gender responsiveness Reducing risk and vulnerabilities and building resilience Strengthening cooperation and complementarity among development, humanitarian action and sustaining peace Improving accountability, transparency and efficiency Achieved universal access to sexual and reproductive health, realized reproductive rights and reduced maternal mortality, to accelerate progress on the agenda of the International Conference on Population and Development and to improve the lives of women, adolescents and youth UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 9 Outcome 1: Every woman, adolescent and youth everywhere, especially those furthest behind, has utilized integrated sexual and reproductive health services and exercised reproductive rights, free of coercion, discrimination and violence� 13. Outcome 1 will focus on the sexual and reproductive health targets that were not achieved through the Millennium Development Goals. It will contribute to the achievement of the 2030 Agenda and respond to the Global Strategy for Women’s, Children’s and Adolescents’ Health, 2016-2030. Millennium Development Goal targets 5a and 5b were not achieved, and high maternal mortality and low use of family planning are a major concern in regions such as West Africa. Knowledge about HIV prevention among people aged 15 to 24 remains unacceptably low, especially in view of the trends in new HIV infections in Central Asia, Eastern Europe and Southern Africa. This outcome will directly contribute to achieving Sustainable Development Goal 3, focusing on maternal mortality, skilled birth attendance, met need for family planning, adolescent birth rates and HIV incidence. 14. Outcome 1 has leveraged the opportunities provided by the 2030 Agenda to promote sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights within multiple platforms, including through coordination and partnerships in the health sector and in sectors such as gender and education. The ability of UNFPA to engage in partnerships at all levels will be key to the success of this outcome. 15. In accordance with the principles of universality, integration, interconnectedness, country ownership, a people-centred life cycle approach and leaving no one behind, UNFPA will seek to strengthen health systems in collaboration with the World Health Organization, and will build on the momentum created by the movement for universal health coverage. This outcome will address inequity in access to, the poor quality of, and the lack of social accountability for sexual and reproductive health services in all contexts, including humanitarian and fragile contexts, and in public health emergencies. 16. UNFPA will focus first on increased utilization of integrated sexual and reproductive health services and reproductive rights for those who are furthest behind. UNFPA will enhance national capacities to: (a) develop and implement policies, including financial protection mechanisms, such as prepayment schemes, that provide integrated sexual and reproductive health services that benefit adolescents and youth; and (b) design and effectively implement national- level programmes that prioritize access to information and services by women, adolescents and youth who are furthest behind, including in humanitarian settings. UNFPA will also address the sexual and reproductive health needs and the reproductive rights of those considered most vulnerable, including first-time young mothers and adolescent girls, especially those living in poor urban settings, indigenous women, women living with disabilities, and populations living with or at risk of HIV. UNFPA will focus first on increased utilization of integrated sexual and reproductive health services and reproductive rights for those who are furthest behind. CHAPTER III Expected development results of the strategic plan10 17. To increase the utilization of integrated sexual and reproductive health services, UNFPA will focus on: (a) Strengthening capacities to provide high-quality, integrated information and services for family planning, maternal health, and sexually transmitted infections and HIV, including in humanitarian and fragile settings; (b) Strengthening capacities of the health workforce, especially those of midwives, to provide high-quality and integrated sexual and reproductive health services, including in humanitarian settings; (c) Strengthening capacities to effectively forecast, procure, distribute and track the delivery of sexual and reproductive health commodities, ensuring resilient supply chains. 18. Addressing all the causes of maternal mortality is essential for achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. In accordance with national laws and priorities, UNFPA will continue to support capacity-building and the implementation of comprehensive and essential reproductive health services. UNFPA will also support the generation of evidence to eliminate barriers to the full exercise of sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights. 19. UNFPA will focus on increased domestic accountability that involves all health- system stakeholders, including communities, to strengthen services and the demand for sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights. This will be achieved by: (a) policy and advocacy dialogue that seeks to remove legal and policy barriers impeding access to services and rights; (b) strengthening information and data collection; (c) fostering strong national ownership and domestic investments that reach women, adolescents and youth, emphasizing those who are furthest behind, including in all phases of humanitarian action; and (d) mobilizing and supporting mechanisms for the broad participation of civil society, especially women and young people, in developing, reviewing and monitoring national health plans. © Dennis Zelenko, for Imena Magazine © UNFPA 20. UNFPA will work with national institutions, such as ministries of health and national professional associations, to support the provision of sexual and reproductive health information, services and commodities. UNFPA will champion broad multi- stakeholder partnerships to provide high-quality services that reach everyone; improve monitoring and quality assurance standards; expand capacity-development programmes for midwives; and scale up programme impact through knowledge management. Outcome 2: Every adolescent and youth, in particular adolescent girls, is empowered to have access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights, in all contexts 21. The 2030 Agenda is committed to investing in youth, and underscores the rights of adolescents in development and the need to capitalize on the potential of adolescents and youth to contribute to positive social transformation. The Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development recognizes that the effective realization of sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights requires the empowerment of all sectors of society, including adolescents and youth, and the promotion of their participation in the design of policies. 22. A focus on girls during early adolescence is critical: the right decisions made during this period can avoid adverse health and development outcomes for the girl, the community and society. If these investments are made, harmful practices such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation will no longer directly threaten the human rights, health and well-being of girls. Millions of girls will be able to complete basic education, avoid early pregnancy and contribute to greater economic growth. Furthermore, such investments will lead to lower rates of maternal and infant deaths and lower HIV prevalence. 23. UNFPA will intensify its evidence-based advocacy, policy engagement and programme efforts to strengthen international and national commitments to prioritize, invest and empower adolescents and youth, especially adolescent girls. This will enable them to exercise autonomy and choice with regard to their sexual and reproductive health and rights, and well-being. 24. UNFPA will support the strengthening of national development policies and programmes to enhance adolescents’ and young people’s chances of completing schooling and accessing high-quality education, including comprehensive sexuality education. This will empower them to access integrated sexual and reproductive health services, including HIV and gender-based violence services, in all contexts, including humanitarian and fragile contexts. 25. UNFPA will focus on strengthening policies and advocacy for large-scale, sustainable sexuality education that is comprehensive and reaches young people in and out of school. This work will include teaching, teacher training, the development of curricula, and community engagement, including outreach to the most vulnerable adolescent girls, who are at high risk of unwanted pregnancies, sexual exploitation and abuse. UNFPA will also ensure that men and adolescent boys have opportunities, including through comprehensive sexuality education programmes, to challenge harmful notions of masculinity and promote gender equality. A focus on girls during early adolescence is critical: the right decisions made during this period can avoid adverse health and development outcomes for the girl, the community and society. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 13 26. UNFPA will promote and support the fundamental right of young people to participate in civil and political life. This will empower them to play a vital role in their own development and in that of their communities. This will be achieved by supporting local, youth-led initiatives and organizations that promote the equal participation of diverse young men and women, including those with disabilities, and by creating partnership platforms for young people’s participation in the development agenda, including in humanitarian action and in sustaining peace and security. 27. UNFPA will promote youth-oriented, multisectoral policies and programmes to address central issues affecting young people. Multisectoral and multi-component interventions are recognized as an effective way to address the factors affecting the determinants of young people’s health and well-being. The focus will be on supportive and protective laws and policies; education and training; the right to be heard; access to jobs; access to high-quality adolescent and youth-friendly health services, including integrated sexual and reproductive health services; girls’ education, both in and out of school; the elimination of harmful practices, such as child, early and forced marriage and female genital mutilation; teenage pregnancy; and the prevention of the human papillomavirus. These investments are necessary to enable every adolescent and youth, in particular adolescent girls, to realize his or her sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights, and to participate in sustainable development. 28. UNFPA will continue to cooperate with its partners in and outside the United Nations system to implement joint programmes that adopt a broad life-course approach and take note of the context in which young people live and the barriers they face in exercising their rights. This approach will build on investments made in past years to: (a) obtain recognition for young people as positive agents of change, including in humanitarian action, sustaining peace and resilience issues; and (b) obtain recognition of the unique demographic dividend that young people represent. UNFPA will promote and support the fundamental right of young people to participate in civil and political life. © UNFPA/Sima Diab Outcome 3: Gender equality, the empowerment of all women and girls, and reproductive rights are advanced in development and humanitarian settings 29. Gender equality and the empowerment of all women and girls are crucial to achieving sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights. Gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, including their reproductive rights, are centrally positioned within the 2030 Agenda. Sustainable Development Goal 5 and its nine targets address gender-equality priorities, including targets to end all forms of violence against women and girls, eliminate harmful practices, and achieve reproductive rights for all women and girls. Gender equality and women’s rights are essential to reaching those furthest behind. The 2015 global review on emerging evidence, lessons and practice in comprehensive sexuality education by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization shows that when the school curriculum includes gender and the dynamics of power, the possibility of achieving sexual and reproductive rights-related results improves. 30. UNFPA bases its strategic approach to gender equality and the empowerment of women on the collaborative advantage of United Nations system organizations, through complementarity with their work on legislative frameworks. UNFPA focuses on strengthening multisectoral capacity and response to eliminate harmful practices and to prevent and respond to gender-based violence, including sexual violence and sexual exploitation and abuse – including in humanitarian settings. These areas of involvement require the creation of an enabling legislative and policy environment and the elimination of discriminatory gender and sociocultural norms that affect women and girls. 31. To advance gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls, UNFPA will strengthen policy, legal and accountability frameworks. This includes support to international and national human rights mechanisms. These mechanisms will monitor the implementation of human rights obligations that empower women and girls and that guarantee equal access to sexual and reproductive health and rights, regardless of marital status, age or third-party authorization. These efforts will require the availability of sex-disaggregated data that address the needs of vulnerable groups, such as persons with disabilities, indigenous people and other marginalized populations, in accessing sexual and reproductive health services. UNFPA will also support countries to engage men and boys to advance gender equality and women’s empowerment. UNFPA will implement comprehensive programmes to change underlying social norms that are barriers to eliminating gender discriminatory practices, including gender-based violence, female genital mutilation, and child, early and forced marriage. 32. Addressing gender-based violence is crucial for advancing gender equality and the empowerment of women and girls. UNFPA interventions on gender-based violence focus on advocacy, data, health and health systems, psychosocial support and coordination. UNFPA will seek to prevent gender-based violence by increasing multisectoral capacity and by using a continuum approach in development and humanitarian settings. This entails working together to develop and implement United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks and humanitarian response plans to mainstream the prevention of and response to gender-based violence. UNFPA plays a prominent inter-agency role in leading the gender-based violence area of responsibility under the Global Protection Cluster. Humanitarian settings require high-level accountability, the prioritization of sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights, and the prevention of and response to gender-based violence. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 15 33. Humanitarian settings require high-level accountability, the prioritization of sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights, and the prevention of and response to gender-based violence. Despite efforts, gaps exist in accessing comprehensive reproductive health services, including emergency contraception, comprehensive clinical and psychosocial care for rape survivors, family planning, and adolescent sexual and reproductive health services. UNFPA plays an important role by supporting a holistic approach, through coordination and support, to appropriate services. 34. UNFPA will also seek to eliminate harmful practices, including child, early and forced marriage; female genital mutilation; and son preference. UNFPA is the leading United Nations entity working on such harmful practices, which affect women and girls worldwide. Work in this area will continue to build on the joint programmes with the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) to address female genital mutilation in 17 priority countries and child marriage in 12 priority countries. The recently launched UNFPA global programme on son preference and the undervaluation of girls, under way in six countries in the Asia-Pacific, Central Asia and Eastern Europe regions, will expand work to eliminate this harmful practice. Outcome 4: Everyone, everywhere, is counted, and accounted for, in the pursuit of sustainable development 35. During the past several decades, the world has seen major shifts in population dynamics and huge disparities between and within countries. Recent analysis by UNFPA indicates that the next 15 years will be a period in which countries of the world will be more different in age structure than ever before. The projected demographic change up to 2030 will have important implications for development and progress towards achieving the Sustainable Development Goals. The implementation of the 2030 Agenda requires effective monitoring from a population perspective. It is essential for countries to map population characteristics and needs, and to understand how changes in age structures affect development. The availability of data and the analytical capacity to forecast population dynamics and assess demographic development linkages are critical for the design of effective, evidence-based population policies and programmes. 36. In many countries, the population data systems needed to count, diagnose, monitor and project population profiles are weak or focused more on generating data than on using it. The use of censuses and other data sources to generate demographic intelligence for decision-making is weak within the developing world, as noted by the recent UNFPA external evaluation of the 2010 census round. Only a minority of the least developed countries used their census data to generate population projections, a basic requirement for planning public investments. Few developing countries are able to generate vital statistics from their civil registration systems. 37. To achieve outcome 4, UNFPA will improve national population data systems to map and address inequalities. This will support the achievement of universal access to sexual and reproductive health, including during humanitarian crises, as well as the Sustainable Development Goals, by identifying population groups that are furthest behind. Historically, the work of UNFPA in this area has focused on data production, emphasizing censuses and surveys, and, to some extent, civil registration and vital statistics. Coordination and integration among those data sources are limited; they must be complemented by non-traditional data in order to fill gaps, generate timely estimates and produce relevant information in times of crisis and rapid change. UNFPA will improve national population data systems to map and address inequalities. CHAPTER III Expected development results of the strategic plan16 © UNFPA/Lorenzo Tugnoli 38. The strengthening of national statistical systems will improve the capacity to: (a) produce population data, including in humanitarian settings; (b) identify and address data gaps related to the indicators of the Programme of Action of the International Conference on Population and Development, through the integration and validation of data; and (c) develop and disseminate innovative data collection, integration and analysis tools, including through the use of “big data”. 39. The humanitarian data strategy of UNFPA addresses key aspects of the Sendai Framework for Disaster Risk Reduction 2015-2030 by: (a) promoting strategic partnerships; (b) harnessing new technologies and using comparative advantage in national population data systems; and (c) strengthening and engaging with coordination networks. UNFPA will extend its support to national authorities to strengthen national capacity to make subnational population projections and use geospatial mapping tools to support disaster risk reduction efforts. 40. UNFPA will also focus on the use of data by mainstreaming the use of demographic intelligence in formulating and implementing development strategies, policies and programmes. Demographic intelligence offers insights into how demographic changes, such as status and trends of population growth, health, ageing, distribution, mobility, family life and household structures, shape social, economic and environmental development. UNFPA will work with a range of partners and serve as a bridge between data producers, methodological and substantive innovators, and data users. The focus will be on strengthening national capacity to generate usable information for national development planning, coordinated risk reduction and humanitarian response. Key approaches will include subnational mapping, small area estimation, projections and methodological leadership on indicators. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 17 ©UNFPA 41. In 2014, UNFPA introduced a diversified business model to better support national development priorities. UNFPA assessed the application of this business model after three years of implementation. This was done through: (a) a formative evaluation of the architecture supporting the operationalization of the UNFPA strategic plan, 2014-2017; (b) consultations with field offices and partners; and (c) the midterm review process. Based on the lessons learned, UNFPA will strengthen and further clarify the four dimensions of its business model: “what”, “where”, “who” and “how” (see figure 4 below). IV. How UNFPA will achieve the development results of the strategic plan • Focus on the "bull's eye" — the goal of the UNFPA strategic plan • Country classification • Middle-income countries, small island developing States, multicountry programmes and fragile contexts • Modes of engagement • Country programme resource allocation system • Governments, non-governmental organizations, civil society organizations, the private sector, think tanks and other national institutions • Country programmes, and global and regional interventions What Where Who How FIGURE 4� The UNFPA four-dimensional business model 42. The “what” will encompass the “bull’s eye” – the goal of the strategic plan – with adjustments for alignment to the 2030 Agenda. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 19 TABLE 1� Number of countries by quadrant Ability to finance (Adjusted for inequality) Need Highest High Medium Low Low 26 14 3 0 Lower-middle 5 13 14 10 Upper-middle 0 3 15 15 High 3 CHAPTER IV How UNFPA wil l achieve the development results of the strategic plan20 Besides above mentioned countries, UNFPA has multi-country programmes in Pacific Islands (yellow countries) and the Caribbean (pink countries). Note: The boundaries and names shown and the designations used on this map do not imply official endorsement or acceptance by the United Nations. 43. Regarding the “where”, UNFPA will maintain and further leverage its global presence in the least developed countries, in low- and middle-income countries, and in small island developing States, with priority given to the least developed countries that lag behind and that are vulnerable to conflict and natural disasters. UNFPA will strengthen its development and humanitarian actions in all programme countries. 44. Although the numbers of middle-income countries are increasing, the multidimensional aspects of poverty and the inequalities within countries are on the rise. Over 70 per cent of the global poor live in middle-income countries, but economic gains are often unstable. Middle-income countries have made important contributions to achieving the commitments of the International Conference on Population and Development, but many commitments have fallen short. Tailored intervention strategies are therefore required to achieve universal access to sexual and reproductive health. 45. Given the diversity of the development landscape and the challenges faced by countries, UNFPA will maintain a diversified country presence and a classification system that places countries into four colour-coded quadrants. 46. Table 1 summarizes the distribution of countries by colour quadrant. Countries with a combination of: (a) highest need and low or lower-middle level ability to finance their programme; and (b) high need and low ability to finance – are placed in the red quadrant. Countries with a combination of: (a) low need and lower-middle ability to finance; (b) medium need and upper-middle ability to finance; (c) low need and upper- middle and high ability to finance – are placed in the pink quadrant. In between are countries in the orange and yellow quadrants. UNFPA will be present in selected high- income countries (annex 4). ©Lurie Foca 47. The country classification is determined by a combination of a country’s needs and the ability to finance its own development, and is consistent with the Agenda 2030 call to leave no one behind and to address multi-dimensional inequalities between and among countries. UNFPA used gross national income per capita in the previous strategic plan to measure the ability to finance the needs, but gross national income per capita masked inequalities. The business model will therefore utilize the findings of the Equitable Access Initiative1 to refine and improve the assessment criteria that measure a country’s ability to finance its development programmes. 48. Need is determined by indicators that directly measure the areas of development on which UNFPA focuses: (a) the maternal mortality ratio; (b) skilled birth attendance of the poorest quintile of the population; (c) the adolescent fertility rate; (d) the need for family planning satisfied; (e) the youth HIV incidence rate; (f) the gender inequality index; (g) the INFORM index for risk management; and (h) national data availability for skilled birth attendance, the adolescent birth rate and gender-based violence. 49. National capacity development is the overarching strategy of the UNFPA programme approach. The Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review states that the funds, programmes and specialized agencies of the United Nations should improve their support to the building, development and strengthening of national capacities to support development results and to promote national ownership and leadership. 1 The convening partners of the Equitable Access Initiative include the World Health Organization; the World Bank; Gavi, the Vaccine Alliance; the Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS; UNDP; UNFPA; UNICEF; Unitaid, and the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, with support from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and the Wellcome Trust. National capacity development is the overarching strategy of the UNFPA programme approach. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 21 50. UNFPA presence at the country level is operationalized through five modes of engagement: (a) Advocacy and policy dialogue that focuses on the development, improvement and reform (including performance monitoring) of legislation, policies and strategies; (b) Capacity development that strengthens people skills, systems and resources, and that provides tailored technical expertise; (c) Knowledge management that improves programmes through data analysis and the timely delivery of high-quality knowledge products and the provision of innovative solutions; (d) Partnerships and coordination, including South-South and triangular cooperation (through the systematic exchange of knowledge solutions and innovation), as well as inter-agency humanitarian coordination, based on collaborative advantage that reinforces the collective accountability to achieve results; (e) Service delivery of essential reproductive health services and services to prevent and respond to gender-based violence. 51. Modes of engagement are interlinked and may be applied in various combinations to provide tailored solutions to meet national needs. Recent formative evaluations indicate that a mix of the modes of engagement responds appropriately to national priorities. UNFPA will deploy all five modes of engagement for countries in the red quadrant and countries with humanitarian crises, which have the highest needs. For countries in the orange, yellow and pink quadrants, UNFPA will deploy selected modes of engagement, excluding service delivery, that are tailored to meet the specific needs and priorities of those countries. The tailored approach is in accordance with the Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review. This approach also responds to the requests of Member States to provide greater support in technical cooperation, policy and advocacy. Table 2 summarizes the use of the modes of engagements per colour quadrant. TABLE 2� Country context and modes of engagement Modes of engagement Countries in the red quadrant and countries with humanitarian crises Countries in the orange quadrant Countries in the yellow quadrant Countries in the pink quadrant Service delivery Not deployed Capacity development *** *** ** * Partnerships and coordination, including South-South and triangular cooperation Knowledge management Advocacy, policy dialogue and advice * The focus is on an enabling environment ** The focus is on an enabling environment and on institutional levels *** The focus is on an enabling environment and on institutional and individual levels CHAPTER IV How UNFPA wil l achieve the development results of the strategic plan22 © UNFPA/Santosh Chhetri © UNFPA/Qayyarah Turchenkova 52. In responding to emergencies and protracted crises, UNFPA will utilize all modes of engagement, including: (a) the provision of life-saving services to prevent and respond to gender-based violence; (b) meeting the sexual and reproductive health needs of women and girls through the minimum initial services package; and (c) leading or co-leading the coordination of efforts to prevent and address gender-based violence. Humanitarian intervention strategies will shift from reacting to disasters and conflicts to applying a resilience approach by linking prevention, preparedness and response with national capacity-building. Risk mitigation and humanitarian response indicators are therefore a part of the integrated results and resources framework. 53. The revised business model is well oriented to the needs of middle-income countries. UNFPA will seek to build national capacities by recognizing the different stages of a country’s development and focusing on national priorities. Brokering high-level expertise will be critical for providing innovative and integrated policy solutions to achieve impact. The new UNFPA South-South and triangular cooperation strategy creates a platform to exchange know-how and support between the countries in need and those with deployable expertise. 54. UNFPA will align human and financial resources to the business model. UNFPA country offices in the pink quadrant will need strong skills for advocacy and will require technical support from headquarters, regional offices and/or partner organizations. These countries will engage in increased South-South and triangular cooperation. Country offices in the red quadrant will require a larger number of staff, including staff with experience in managing complex programmes. 55. The revised business model also includes the distribution of financial resources for country programmes, as outlined in annex 4. The allocation of regular resources at the country level consists of two steps. Step one ensures that there is a floor of UNFPA contributions from regular resources allocated for a minimum package of programming in each country, including advocacy, policy dialogue and advice. The floor is set at $500,000 per annum per country programme for low-income countries and lower middle-income countries, based on inequality-adjusted gross national income Humanitarian intervention strategies will shift from reacting to disasters and conflicts to applying a resilience approach by linking prevention, preparedness and response with national capacity-building. CHAPTER IV How UNFPA wil l achieve the development results of the strategic plan24 per capita. That same floor of $500,000 is applicable for multi-country programmes. The floor is $300,000 per annum per country programme for upper middle-income countries and high-income countries, based on inequality-adjusted gross national income per capita. 56. With regard to step two, UNFPA calculates country-level, needs-driven indicative figures using: (a) the indicators for country classification; (b) the female population aged 10-24 years old; and (c) gross national income per capita. Countries with the highest needs, a low ability to finance and a large population will receive a relatively larger share of indicative core resources. Countries with low need, but a high ability to finance and a smaller population, will receive a smaller share of indicative core resources. 57. Given current core contribution projections (see table 3), nearly 60 per cent of core resources will be allocated to the red quadrant; 15 to 17 per cent to the pink quadrant; about 14 to 18 per cent to the orange quadrant; and about 10 per cent to the yellow quadrant. UNFPA will continue to focus on the needs of the most vulnerable countries in Africa, the least developed countries and the landlocked developing countries, all of which constitute the largest proportion of countries in the red quadrant. UNFPA will design two multi-country programmes to meet the specific needs of the Pacific Island countries and territories, and the English- and Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries, and will seek to harmonize the approach to multi-country programmes within the United Nations system. TABLE 3� Resource allocation by country quadrant Countries in the red quadrant Countries in the pink quadrant Countries in the orange quadrant Countries in the yellow quadrant 56-60 per cent 15-17 per cent 14-18 per cent 7-11 per cent 58. UNFPA will maintain the provision of matching funds in the strategic plan. Currently, if a country that is classified as an (inequality-adjusted) upper-middle or high- income country contributes to its own country programme, UNFPA matches these contributions on a one-to-one basis up to $100,000 on top of the floor. UNFPA will continue to use this arrangement to support domestic fundraising and the ownership of programmes. In addition, the business model of the strategic plan enables UNFPA country offices to mobilize resources and to respond to country-specific priorities. 59. The business model encourages the contribution of core funds and prioritizes funding to countries with the highest needs. Lessons learned indicate the need to factor in the volatility of core contributions, since predictable core resources are critical for countries with the highest needs. Non-core funding, currently accounting for nearly two thirds of available funds, is predominantly earmarked for countries in the red quadrants and for countries with humanitarian settings. The UNFPA integrated budget (DP/ FPA/2017/10) and the UNFPA integrated results and resources framework (annex 1) provide further details on the distribution of resources among results areas. The business model encourages the contribution of core funds and prioritizes funding to countries with the highest needs. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 25 ©UNFPA CHAPTER V Organizational effectiveness and eff ic iency26 V. Organizational effectiveness and efficiency 60. UNFPA will build on progress in programming; the management of resources; system-wide results, coordination and coherence; and communication, resource mobilization and partnerships to further strengthen its organizational effectiveness and efficiency. By 2021, UNFPA will ensure that: (a) all UNFPA staff in managerial positions have a managerial certification; (b) all identified manual processes are automated; and (c) funding and in-kind contributions from the private sector and non-traditional donors are expanded to at least 10 per cent relative to UNFPA core resources. 61. UNFPA will ensure accountability through rigorous and timely oversight and follow-up of the implementation of external and internal audit recommendations. In accordance with the Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review, UNFPA will seek better integration, coordination, accountability and transparency with other United Nations entities. UNFPA will continue to use the “three lines of defence” model for risk management and control. UNFPA will also employ the Enterprise Risk Management system to assess all offices annually and to prepare and implement risk-mitigation plans. 62. UNFPA has identified four outputs to track the required changes in organizational effectiveness and efficiency: 1 Improved programming for results; 2 Optimized management of resources; 3 Increased contribution to United Nations system-wide results, coordination and coherence; 4 Enhanced communication, resource mobilization and partnerships for impact� UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 27 ©UNFPA/Vincent Tremeau 63. UNFPA will increase its efforts to improve results-based management by capitalizing on information and communication technologies and by applying better business analytics. It will continue to mainstream results-based management in its policies, procedures, manuals and systems. Results-based management will be a core skill of all programme and operations staff. In accordance with the Quadrennial Comprehensive Policy Review, UNFPA will align its programme policies and procedures with new guidance on the United Nations Development Assistance Framework, while reaffirming the central role of national Governments in contributing to the work of the United Nations development system. 64. UNFPA will work with United Nations system organizations to ensure that all country programmes comply with the quality criteria of the Sustainable Development Goals and that country programmes implement the audit recommendations. In addition, UNFPA will monitor the implementation of the recommendations of the Joint Inspection Unit. To improve the quality of its programmes, UNFPA will provide support to: (a) develop theories of change; (b) document and use good practices and lessons learned; and (c) plan and implement programme monitoring and evaluation. 65. UNFPA uses results-based management to manage the full cycle of programmes, from planning, monitoring and reporting, to evaluation. Learning is embedded in each stage of the cycle, including learning from evaluative evidence to improve programme design and implementation. The Evaluation Office will continue to foster evidence-based learning and programme development, and will conduct high-quality evaluations to inform management actions. 66. UNFPA will accelerate its humanitarian preparedness efforts to address risks and build resilience. This will ensure that systems, communities and societies are better equipped to respond to and recover from emergencies. These efforts will also include the implementation of minimum preparedness actions. UNFPA will increase its efforts to improve results-based management CHAPTER V Organizational effectiveness and eff ic iency28 ©Reach a Hand Uganda 67. UNFPA will use first-rate knowledge to improve effectiveness and efficiency in achieving results. Knowledge management in UNFPA will focus on: (a) the increased availability of and timely access to high-quality knowledge products; (b) the mainstreaming of knowledge management in UNFPA programmes and operations; and (c) improved staff capacity and accountability in managing knowledge. 68. UNFPA will promote innovation to improve programming by: (a) creating innovative solutions with partners to address development bottlenecks; (b) scaling up innovations that have proven to be successful; (c) partnering with innovators from the public and private sectors; and (d) institutionalizing a culture of innovation in UNFPA. 69. Optimizing the management of human resources to ensure proper staffing; the alignment of staff to the right skill sets; and strengthening tools to enhance skills are essential for implementing the strategic plan. Capacity development will include coaching, mentoring, learning, career development and recognition. UNFPA will strengthen its leadership at all levels by focusing on the leadership pool and surge roster, filling key management posts as quickly as possible, and adequately addressing surge deployments and “duty of care”. UNFPA will emphasize ethical behaviour, mutual respect, teamwork and knowledge sharing. UNFPA will maintain an inclusive composition of staff (by gender, region and disability), and will pay careful attention to equal geographical representation and gender parity for professional and managerial posts. UNFPA will strengthen the monitoring of staff performance, provide incentives to maintain performance at high levels and address underperformance. UNFPA will promote innovation to improve programming © UNFPA/Maks Levin 70. UNFPA will adequately staff key management posts and will build staff capacity in results-based programme management, financial and human resources management, advocacy, partnerships and resource mobilization. Skills and knowledge in those areas are critical for the achievement of transformative results. 71. UNFPA will enhance the use of strategic partnerships and “volunteerism for development” to achieve results. The strategy for partnerships will target the private sector, civil society (including faith-based organizations), academia and individuals in order to: (a) mobilize resources and expand the non-traditional donor-base; (b) identify innovative and cutting-edge solutions for development challenges; and (c) mobilize broad social support for the agenda of the International Conference on Population and Development. 72. UNFPA will continue to strive for excellence in managing financial resources by improving the performance of business units with the greatest needs, based on its risk-assessment model. This will include monitoring implementing partners’ expenditures and paying careful attention to programme planning and budgeting to use resources efficiently. 73. UNFPA will continue to advocate environmental sustainability. UNFPA is a climate- neutral organization that will strive to further reduce greenhouse gas emissions, hazardous waste creation and water consumption, consistent with its future emissions management system. UNFPA will strengthen its leadership at all levels CHAPTER V Organizational effectiveness and eff ic iency30 © UNFPA/Don Hinrichsen 74. UNFPA will invest in information and communications technology to support the effectiveness and efficiency of programmes and operations. This includes improved technology for business processes to increase the efficiency of programmes, offices and operations. 75. UNFPA has a large country-level presence and a universal, rights-based mandate. This will enable it to increase its contribution to United Nations system-wide results, coordination and coherence through: (a) scaled-up “Delivering as one” and joint programming; (b) improved coordination in addressing gender-based violence and reproductive health in humanitarian settings; and (c) increased collaboration to attain the Sustainable Development Goals. 76. UNFPA is a strong supporter of the use of common services and common premises with other United Nations organizations to reduce management and administrative costs in the field and at headquarters. UNFPA will recognize the best practices of other United Nations organizations and seek to increase the number of country offices with joint business operations. UNFPA supports a more cost-efficient integration of human resources-related functions and services within the United Nations system. UNFPA will also explore functions that are not human resources-related that may be suitable for integration. 77. The effective communication of results is a corporate priority and the driving force for the change process at UNFPA. The “One Voice” global communication strategy will position UNFPA as a vocal and visible development partner, and will engage stakeholders through timely and focused communications on UNFPA impact and transformative results. UNFPA will continue to make use of and publish data according to the standards of the International Aid Transparency Initiative. 78. UNFPA will maintain strong relations with its traditional donor base. It will also seek to increase contributions from programme countries, as well as mobilize human and financial resources, in-kind contributions, and support from civil society (including faith-based organizations), global public-private alliances, international financial institutions, philanthropic organizations, the private sector and the public. 79. UNFPA advocates flexible and predictable funding through multi-year pledges, commitments and contributions. UNFPA will strengthen its resource mobilization and partnership-building capacities to identify opportunities for resource mobilization from non-traditional donors, including the private sector. It will prioritize partnerships with other United Nations organizations to build efficiencies and operate at scale. Enhanced branding and better information and awareness of the transformative results of UNFPA, through traditional and social media, are vital to expanding its political and financial support. The effective communication of results is a corporate priority and the driving force for the change process at UNFPA. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 31 © UNFPA/Danielle Engel 80. UNFPA implements its strategic plan at headquarters, regional, multi-country and country levels. UNFPA has 121 country programmes, including multi-country programmes for the Pacific Islands and territories and for the English-speaking and Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries. Evaluative evidence indicates that UNFPA programmes, which build on experience from previous programmes, respond well to specific country needs. 81. Country programmes are at the forefront of implementing the strategic plan. They respond to country needs and priorities, and to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals. Country programmes will be aligned with the outcomes and outputs of the strategic plan. UNFPA will address the four outcomes of its strategic plan in an integrated manner, and will be guided by country priorities, the United Nations Development Assistance Framework, the revised business model and UNFPA modes of engagement. 82. UNFPA is committed to the “Delivering as one” approach and the system-wide coherence principles contained in the Standard Operating Procedures. UNFPA country programmes are fully aligned with the United Nations Development Assistance Frameworks and implemented to enhance country, regional and global policy coherence, joint programmes, monitoring, and reporting for results. UNFPA is one of three United Nations organizations that chairs the largest number of United Nations country team inter-agency groups and participates in the largest number of joint programmes. As such, it is uniquely positioned to further advance coherence in programme delivery. 83. The theory of change (annex 2) describes how UNFPA will attain the goal of the strategic plan through outcomes, outputs and critical assumptions. Country programmes will include robust theories of change that spell out those assumptions. Through critical assumptions, UNFPA will be able to identify programme risks, and mitigate those risks through expanded partnerships and monitoring. 84. UNFPA will implement global and regional-level interventions through one global programme and six regional programmes (annex 6). The global programme and the regional programmes will enable UNFPA to demonstrate the contributions, at regional and global levels, that support the achievement of the results of the strategic plan. 85. Regional interventions will provide technical support, operational guidance and quality assurance to country offices. Global interventions will provide normative guidance (including the development of tools, guidelines and standards) and complementary technical support to countries. They will also facilitate global advocacy and intergovernmental policy dialogue. 86. In regions that are prone to disasters and humanitarian crises, regional interventions will provide frontline support to countries, and will coordinate and address the needs of underserved population groups. Global interventions that provide humanitarian and resilience support will complement the regional interventions. 87. UNFPA will allocate core resources to support global and regional initiatives and will mobilize non-core resources for selected initiatives at global and regional levels. VI. Implementing the UNFPA strategic plan Country programmes are at the forefront of implementing the strategic plan. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 33 © UNFPA/Santosh Chhetri VII. Risk management 88. An effective risk management framework is required to address risks to achieving the results of the strategic plan. External risk factors include: (a) a changing international assistance environment, with limited core resources and increased competition for funding; (b) a political landscape with growing opposition towards sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights; and (c) many humanitarian and crisis situations that undermine development gains and that are characterized by the neglect of maternal and reproductive health needs and gender-based violence. 89. UNFPA will address these challenges through innovative approaches for resource mobilization; enhanced partnerships; the improved use of communications, including the use of social media; and by playing a leading role in the prevention of and response to gender-based violence and the provision of sexual and reproductive health services in humanitarian settings. UNFPA will reinforce its “three lines of defence” model for effective risk management and control by: (a) developing timely change-management plans; (b) updating institutional guidance; (c) maintaining strong controls; (d) strengthening the results-based management system, including monitoring and evaluation and business analytics; and (e) maintaining capable and motivated human resources. UNFPA will continuously review its enterprise risk management system to introduce change, leverage existing resources and integrate lessons learned. ©UNFPA/Sima Diab VIII. Monitoring and evaluating the strategic plan 90. The development results articulated in the integrated results and resources framework (annex 1) form the centrepiece of programme accountability. Accountability for results (annex 5) further details the key components of programme accountability in UNFPA. 91. UNFPA will monitor the development results of the strategic plan at the output, outcome and impact levels, and its organizational effectiveness and efficiency results at the output level. A theory of change and a results framework aligned with the strategic plan will be required for each programme that UNFPA develops under this strategic plan. The results framework must specify critical assumptions and risks that a programme may face. 92. UNFPA will monitor and report the results at the programme output level annually. UNFPA will apply real time monitoring where applicable to monitor the progress towards output targets, critical assumptions and risks. 93. UNFPA will prioritize evaluations and quantitative and qualitative analyses to learn from the implementation of the strategic plan and inform the strategic decision- making process. 94. UNFPA will strengthen the communication of results at all organizational levels to mobilize support from a range of partners, in order to ensure sustained and predictable resources, transparency and the brand positioning of UNFPA. 95. UNFPA will conduct a midterm review of the strategic plan, including the resource allocation system. 96. The revised UNFPA evaluation policy (DP/FPA/2013/5) and its quadrennial budgeted evaluation plan, 2016-2019 (DP/FPA/2015/12), specify the principles, selection criteria, process, approach and proposed corporate evaluations for UNFPA. Therefore, this document does not include an evaluation plan. UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 35 © UNFPA/Ollivier Girard UNITED NATIONS POPULATION FUND UNFPA STRATEGIC PLAN, 2018–2021 The strategic plan reaffi rms the relevance of the current strategic direction of UNFPA, the goal of which is universal access to sexual and reproductive health and reproductive rights, focusing on women, adolescents and youth. In accordance with the strategic direction of UNFPA and in line with General Assembly resolution 70/1 on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development, the strategic plan will seek to ensure that no one will be left behind and that the furthest behind will be reached fi rst. This strategic plan is the fi rst of three UNFPA strategic plans leading to 2030. It describes the transformative results that will contribute to the achievement of the Sustainable Development Goals, and, in particular, to good health and well-being, the advancement of gender equality, and the empowerment of women and adolescent girls, with a focus on eradicating poverty. The strategies introduced in the strategic plan are evidence-based and take into account the lessons learned from previous plan cycles. They are designed to further enhance organizational effectiveness and effi ciency and United Nations system-wide coherence, as well as strengthen the UNFPA integrated results and resources framework and the UNFPA business model. As requested by the Executive Board in decision 2017/7, a chapter outlining a common approach with UNDP, UNICEF and UN-Women, ‘Working together to support implementation of the 2030 Agenda’, prefaces the report. Annexes The following annexes to this report are available on the UNFPA Executive Board website. Annex 1. Integrated results and resources framework Annex 2. Theory of change Annex 3. Alignment to the quadrennial comprehensive policy review of operational activities for development of the United Nations system Annex 4. Revised business model and resource allocation system Annex 5. UNFPA programme accountability framework Annex 6. Global and regional interventions Annex 7. Working together to support implementation of the 2030 Agenda © UNFPA/Arvind Jodna STRATEGIC PLAN 2018–2021 United Nations Population Fund 605 Third Avenue New York, NY 10158 +1 212 297 5000 www.unfpa.org Cover photo: © UNFPA/Bruno Feder

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