Ukraine - Demographic and Health Survey - 2008

Publication date: 2008

Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey 2007 U kraine 2007 D em ographic and H ealth Survey UKRAINE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY 2007 Ukrainian Center for Social Reforms Kyiv, Ukraine State Statistical Committee Kyiv, Ukraine Ministry of Health Kyiv, Ukraine Macro International Inc. Calverton, Maryland, U.S.A. September 2008 This report summarizes the findings of the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) carried out by the Ukrainian Center for Social Reforms and the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. Macro International Inc. provided technical assistance through the MEASURE DHS project and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided funding under the terms of contract number GPO-C-00-03-00002-00. The views expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the United States Agency for International Development or the United States Government or the Government of Ukraine. The 2007 UDHS is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys program, which is designed to assist developing countries to collect data on fertility, reproductive health, maternal and child health, nutrition, and HIV/AIDS. Additional information about the survey may be obtained from: Ukrainian Center for Social Reforms, 26, Panasa Myrnogo Street, Kyiv, 01011, Ukraine, (Telephone/Fax: +380-44-280-8210; E-mail: ucsr@mail.ru) and from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine, 3, Shota Rustavely Street, Kyiv- 23,01023, Ukraine (Telephone: +380-287-24-33, Fax: +380-235-37-39; E-mail: office@ukrstat.gov.ua). Additional information about the MEASURE DHS project may be obtained from: Macro International Inc., 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705, USA (Telephone: 1-301-572-0200; Fax: 1-301-572-0999; Email: reports@macrointernational.com; Internet: www.measuredhs.com). Cover photo: The Kyivan Cave Monastery (Kyievo-Pecherska Lavra) is an Orthodox monastery founded in the mid-11th century on the hilly banks of the Dnieper River in Kiev. It is part of an architectural complex that includes eight churches. It figures prominently in the history of the Ukrainian people and is one of the most important spiritual and cultural sites in Ukraine. Recommended citation: Ukrainian Center for Social Reforms (UCSR), State Statistical Committee (SSC) [Ukraine], Ministry of Health (MOH) [Ukraine], and Macro International Inc. 2008. Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey 2007. Calverton, Maryland, USA: UCSR and Macro International. Contents | iii CONTENTS TABLES AND FIGURES . ix PREFACE . xv ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS. xvii SUMMARY OF FINDINGS . xix MAP OF UKRAINE . xxvi CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Geography and Population .1 1.2 Characteristics of the Health System of Ukraine .2 1.2.1 Network of Health Institutions, System of Management and Funding, and Basic Problems of the Health System .2 1.2.2 Specific Health Care Services and selected Programs .3 1.3 Systems for Collecting Demographic and Health Data .5 1.4 Objectives and Organization of the Survey .5 1.4.1 Sample Design and Implementation .6 1.4.2 Questionnaires .6 1.4.3 Training of Field Staff .7 1.4.4 Fieldwork and Data Processing .7 1.5 Response Rates.8 CHAPTER 2 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 2.1 Characteristics of the Population.9 2.1.1 Age-Sex Structure .9 2.1.2 Children’s Living Arrangements and Orphanhood.11 2.1.3 Household Composition .12 2.1.4 Education .12 2.2 Housing Characteristics.15 2.3 Wealth Quintiles .19 CHAPTER 3 BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS 3.1 Background Characteristics of Respondents .21 3.2 Educational Level of Respondents.22 3.3 Exposure to Mass Media .24 3.4 Employment .25 3.5 Occupation .29 3.6 Employment Characteristics .30 3.7 Male Circumcision.31 CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY 4.1 Current Fertility .33 4.2 Fertility Differentials by Background Characteristics .34 4.3 Fertility Trends.36 4.4 Children Ever Born and Living .36 4.5 Birth Intervals .37 iv | Contents 4.6 Age at First Birth .39 4.7 Teenage Pregnancy and Motherhood .41 CHAPTER 5 FAMILY PLANNING 5.1 Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods .43 5.2 Ever Use of Contraception .44 5.3 Current Use of Contraception.46 5.4 Current Use of Contraception by Background Characteristics.47 5.5 Trends in Current Use of Family Planning .48 5.6 Number of Children at First Use of Contraception .49 5.7 Knowledge of Fertile Period.49 5.8 Source of Contraception.50 5.9 Payment of Fees for Modern Contraceptive Methods.51 5.10 Informed Choice .51 5.11 Contraceptive Discontinuation.52 5.12 Future Contraception.53 5.13 Reasons for Nonuse of Contraception .54 5.14 Preferred Method of Contraception for Future Use .54 5.15 Exposure to Family Planning Messages.55 5.16 Contact of Nonusers with Family Planning Providers.56 5.17 Husband’s Knowledge of Wife’s Use of Contraception .57 CHAPTER 6 ABORTION 6.1 Pregnancies Ending in Induced Abortion.59 6.2 Lifetime Experience with Induced Abortion .60 6.3 Rates of Induced Abortion .61 6.4 Use of Contraceptive Methods Before Abortion .63 CHAPTER 7 OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY 7.1 Current Marital Status .65 7.2 Age at First Marriage .66 7.3 Age at First Sexual Intercourse .68 7.4 Recent Sexual Activity.69 7.5 Postpartum Amenorrhea, Abstinence, and Insusceptibility .72 7.6 Menopause .72 CHAPTER 8 FERTILITY PREFERENCES 8.1 Desire for More Children.73 8.2 Desire to Limit Childbearing by Background Characteristics .74 8.3 Need for Family Planning Services .74 8.4 Ideal Family Size.76 8.5 Fertility Planning .77 8.6 Circumstances Under Which a Woman Should Not Become Pregnant .78 8.7 Attitudes Toward Adopting a Child .80 Contents | v CHAPTER 9 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY 9.1 Definitions and Methodology.83 9.2 Assessment of Data Quality.83 9.3 Levels and Trends in Infant and Child Mortality .84 9.4 Socioeconomic Differentials in Childhood Mortality .85 9.5 Perinatal Mortality .86 CHAPTER 10 ANTENATAL CARE, POSTNATAL CARE, AND INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING 10.1 Antenatal Care.87 10.1.1 Antenatal Care Provider.87 10.1.2 Number and Timing of ANC Visits .87 10.1.3 Antenatal Care Content .89 10.2 Assistance and Medical Care at Delivery .91 10.2.1 Place of Delivery .91 10.2.2 Attended Deliveries .91 10.2.3 Caesarean Section Delivery .92 10.3 Postnatal Care .92 10.4 Child Nutrition .93 10.4.1 Initiation of Breastfeeding .93 10.4.2 Breastfeeding Patterns by Age .95 10.4.3 Supplemental Foods .96 CHAPTER 11 ADULT HEALTH 11.1 Tuberculosis .99 11.1.1 Knowledge about Tuberculosis and How Tuberculosis Spreads. 100 11.1.2 Knowledge that Tuberculosis is Curable . 101 11.1.3 Willingness to Keep Secret a Family Member’s Tuberculosis Status . 102 11.1.4 Knowledge about Tuberculosis Symptoms . 102 11.1.5 Misconceptions about the Way Tuberculosis Spreads . 104 11.1.6 Self-reporting of Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment . 106 11.2 High Blood Pressure . 106 11.3 Use of Tobacco . 110 11.3.1 Smoking Cigarettes . 110 11.3.2 Age at First Smoking . 112 11.3.3 Attitudes About Smoking . 113 11.4 Alcohol Consumption . 114 11.4.1 Use of Alcohol . 115 11.4.2 Age at First Alcoholic Drink. 117 11.5 Illicit Drug Use. 117 CHAPTER 12 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOR 12.1 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and of Transmission and Prevention Methods . 119 12.1.1 Awareness of AIDS . 119 12.1.2 Knowledge of Ways to Reduce HIV/AIDS Transmission. 120 12.2 Comprehensive Knowledge about HIV/AIDS . 121 12.3 Knowledge of Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV. 123 12.4 Stigma Associated with AIDS and Attitudes Related to HIV/AIDS . 124 12.5 Attitudes Toward Negotiating Safer Sex. 127 vi | Contents 12.6 Attitudes Toward Condom Education for Youth and Beliefs about Abstinence and Faithfulness. 128 12.7 Higher-Risk Sex . 130 12.7.1 Multiple Sexual Partners, Higher-Risk Sex, and Condom Use. 130 12.7.2 Paid Sex . 133 12.8 Coverage of HIV Counseling and Testing . 134 12.8.1 HIV Testing and Counseling for Pregnant Women . 137 12.8.2 Self-Reporting of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) . 137 12.8.3 Prevalence of Medical Injections. 139 12.8.4 Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Source of Condoms among Youth . 140 12.8.5 Trends in Age at First Sex. 141 12.8.6 Condom Use at First Sex. 142 12.8.7 Abstinence and Premarital Sex. 143 12.8.8 Higher-Risk Sex and Condom Use among Young Adults . 145 12.8.9 Cross-generational Sexual Partners. 146 12.8.10 Drunkenness During Sex Among Young Adults . 147 12.8.11 Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing among Young Adults . 148 CHAPTER 13 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT AND DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH OUTCOMES 13.1 Employment and Cash Earnings . 151 13.2 Use of Earnings . 152 13.3 Household Decisionmaking . 155 13.4 Attitudes toward Wife Beating . 158 13.5 Attitudes toward Refusing Sexual Intercourse . 160 CHAPTER 14 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE 14.1 Women Experiencing Physical Violence. 166 14.2 Perpetrators of Physical Violence Against Women. 167 14.3 Force at Sexual Initiation . 168 14.4 Experience of Sexual Violence and Perpetrators of Sexual Violence . 169 14.5 Experience of Different Types of Violence . 170 14.6 Violence during Pregnancy . 170 14.7 Marital Control by Husband or Partner . 171 14.8 Types of Spousal Violence . 174 14.8.1 Women’s reports of spousal violence. 174 14.8.2 Men’s reports of spousal violence . 176 14.8.3 Differentials in reported levels of violence. 177 14.9 Violence by Spousal Characteristics and Women’s Indicators. 179 14.10 Frequency of Spousal Violence by Husbands . 180 14.11 Onset of Spousal Violence . 181 14.12 Types of Injuries to Women Resulting from Spousal Violence . 182 14.13 Physical Violence by Women Against their Spouse. 183 14.14 Women Who Experienced Violence and Sought Help . 185 14.15 Men Experiencing Physical Violence . 187 14.16 Perpetrators of Physical Violence Against Men . 187 14.17 Location of Physical Violence Against Men . 188 Contents | vii CHAPTER 15 HUMAN TRAFFICKING 15.1 Working Abroad . 189 15.2 Awareness and Experience of Human Trafficking. 191 15.3 Intention to Work Abroad and the Risk of Human Trafficking . 194 REFERENCES . 199 APPENDIX A SAMPLE DESIGN . 203 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . 211 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES . 223 APPENDIX D PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 2007 UKRAINE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY . 227 APPENDIX E QUESTIONNAIRES Household Questionnaire. 231 Woman’s Questionnaire . 247 Man’s Questionnaire . 305 Tables and Figures | ix TABLES AND FIGURES CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews . 8 CHAPTER 2 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS Table 2.1 Household population by age, sex, and residence . 10 Table 2.2 Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood . 11 Table 2.3 Household composition . 12 Table 2.4.1 Educational attainment of the female household population . 14 Table 2.4.2 Educational attainment of the male household population . 14 Table 2.5 Household drinking water . 16 Table 2.6 Household sanitation facilities . 17 Table 2.7 Household characteristics . 18 Table 2.8 Household possessions . 19 Table 2.9 Wealth quintiles . 20 Figure 2.1 Population pyramid . 10 Figure 2.2 Age-specific school attendance rates . 15 CHAPTER 3 BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents . 22 Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment: women . 23 Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: men . 23 Table 3.3.1 Exposure to mass media: women . 24 Table 3.3.2 Exposure to mass media: men . 25 Table 3.4.1 Employment status: women . 27 Table 3.4.2 Employment status: men . 28 Table 3.5.1 Occupation: women. 29 Table 3.5.2 Occupation: men . 30 Table 3.6 Type of employment: women . 31 Figure 3.1 Employment status of women and men age 15-49 . 26 Figure 3.2 Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who are currently employed, by background characteristics . 28 Figure 3.3 Male circumcision by region . 32 CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY Table 4.1 Current fertility . 33 Table 4.2 Fertility by background characteristics . 35 Table 4.3 Trends in age-specific fertility rates . 36 Table 4.4 Children ever born and living . 37 Table 4.5 Birth intervals . 38 Table 4.6 Age at first birth . 40 Table 4.7 Median age at first birth . 40 Table 4.8 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood . 41 x | Tables and Figures Figure 4.1 Age-specific fertility rates by urban-rural residence . 34 Figure 4.2 Total fertility rates for the three-year period preceding survey . 35 Figure 4.3 Percentage of births occurring after a short birth interval (less than 24 months after a prior birth) . 39 CHAPTER 5 FAMILY PLANNING Table 5.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods . 44 Table 5.2.1 Ever use of contraception: women . 45 Table 5.2.2 Ever use of contraception: men . 46 Table 5.3 Current use of contraception by age . 47 Table 5.4 Current use of contraception by background characteristics . 48 Table 5.5 Number of children at first use of contraception . 49 Table 5.6 Knowledge of fertile period . 49 Table 5.7 Source of modern contraception methods . 50 Table 5.8 Cost of modern contraceptive methods . 51 Table 5.9 Informed choice . 52 Table 5.10 First-year contraceptive discontinuation rates . 52 Table 5.11 Reasons for discontinuation . 53 Table 5.12 Future use of contraception . 54 Table 5.13 Reason for not intending to use contraception in the future . 54 Table 5.14 Preferred method of contraception for future use . 55 Table 5.15 Exposure to family planning messages . 55 Table 5.16 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers . 57 Table 5.17 Husband/partner’s knowledge of women’s use of contraception . 58 CHAPTER 6 ABORTION Table 6.1 Pregnancy outcome by background characteristics . 59 Table 6.2 Lifetime experience with induced abortion . 60 Table 6.3 Induced abortion rates . 61 Table 6.4 Induced abortion rates by background characteristics . 63 Table 6.5 Use of contraception before pregnancy . 64 Figure 6.1 Age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) and age-specific abortion rates (ASAR) . 62 Figure 6.2 Use of contraception before abortion . 64 CHAPTER 7 OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY Table 7.1 Current marital status . 65 Table 7.2 Age at first marriage . 66 Table 7.3.1 Median age at first marriage: women . 67 Table 7.3.2 Median age at first marriage: men . 67 Table 7.4 Age at first sexual intercourse . 68 Table 7.5.1 Median age at first intercourse: women . 69 Table 7.5.2 Median age at first intercourse: men . 69 Table 7.6.1 Recent sexual activity: women . 70 Table 7.6.2 Recent sexual activity: men . 71 Table 7.7 Postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility . 72 Table 7.8 Menopause . 72 Tables and Figures | xi CHAPTER 8 FERTILITY PREFERENCES Table 8.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children . 73 Table 8.2 Desire to limit childbearing . 74 Table 8.3 Need and demand for family planning among currently married women . 75 Table 8.4 Ideal number of children . 76 Table 8.5 Fertility planning status . 77 Table 8.6 Wanted fertility rates . 78 Table 8.7 Perceived any circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant . 79 Table 8.8 Circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant . 79 Table 8.9 Attitudes about what a woman should do if she becomes pregnant under circumstances when she should not be pregnant . 80 Table 8.10 Attitudes about what a woman should do when a child is born as a result of a pregnancy that should not have occurred . 80 Table 8.11 Attitudes towards adopting a child . 81 Table 8.12 Circumstances for considering an adoption . 81 Table 8.13 Finding care for child . 82 CHAPTER 9 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY Table 9.1 Early childhood mortality rates . 84 Table 9.2 Early childhood mortality rates by background characteristics . 85 Table 9.3 Perinatal mortality . 86 Figure 9.1 Infant mortality rate estimates from registration system, 2007 UDHS, and 1999 URHS (with confidence intervals) . 85 CHAPTER 10 ANTENATAL CARE, POSTNATAL CARE, AND INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING Table 10.1 Antenatal care . 88 Table 10.2 Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit . 89 Table 10.3 Components of antenatal care . 90 Table 10.4 Place of delivery . 91 Table 10.5 Assistance during delivery . 92 Table 10.6 Timing of first postnatal checkup. 93 Table 10.7 Initial breastfeeding . 94 Table 10.8 Breastfeeding status by age . 95 Table 10.9 Foods and liquids consumed by children in the day and night preceding the interview . 97 Figure 10.1 Median duration of breastfeeding . 96 CHAPTER 11 ADULT HEALTH Table 11.1.1 Knowledge and attitude concerning tuberculosis: women . 100 Table 11.1.2 Knowledge and attitude concerning tuberculosis: men . 101 Table 11.2.1 Knowledge of symptoms of tuberculosis: women . 103 Table 11.2.2 Knowledge of symptoms of tuberculosis: men . 103 Table 11.3 Misconception about tuberculosis transmission . 105 Table 11.4.1 Levels of hypertension: women . 108 Table 11.4.2 Levels of hypertension: men . 109 xii | Tables and Figures Table 11.5.1 Use of tobacco: women . 111 Table 11.5.2 Use of tobacco: men . 112 Table 11.6 Age at first smoking . 112 Table 11.7 Smoking inside home and attitudes about smoking at work and in public places . 114 Table 11.8.1 Use of alcohol: women . 116 Table 11.8.2 Use of alcohol: men . 116 Table 11.9 Age at first alcoholic drink . 117 Table 11.10 Ever use of narcotics . 118 Figure 11.1 Knowledge and misconceptions about how tuberculosis is transmitted . 106 Figure 11.2 Awareness of hypertension and treatment status among hypertensive women and men age 15-49 . 110 CHAPTER 12 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOR Table 12.1 Knowledge of AIDS. 119 Table 12.2 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods . 120 Table 12.3.1 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS: women . 121 Table 12.3.2 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS: men . 122 Table 12.4 Knowledge of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV . 124 Table 12.5.1 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV/AIDS: women . 126 Table 12.5.2 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV/AIDS: men . 127 Table 12.6 Attitudes toward negotiating safer sexual relations with husband . 128 Table 12.7 Adult support of education about condom use to prevent AIDS . 129 Table 12.8.1 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: women . 132 Table 12.8.2 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: men . 133 Table 12.9 Payment for sexual intercourse: men . 134 Table 12.10.1 Coverage of prior HIV testing: women . 135 Table 12.10.2 Coverage of prior HIV testing: men . 136 Table 12.11 Pregnant women counseled and tested for HIV . 137 Table 12.12 Self-reported prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and STIs symptoms . 138 Table 12.13 Prevalence of medical injections . 139 Table 12.14 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS and of a source of condoms among youth . 140 Table 12.15 Age at first sexual intercourse among youth . 142 Table 12.16 Condom use at first sexual intercourse among youth . 143 Table 12.17 Premarital sexual intercourse and condom use during premarital sexual intercourse among youth . 144 Table 12.18.1 Higher-risk sexual intercourse among youth and condom use at last higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months: women . 145 Table 12.18.2 Higher-risk sexual intercourse among youth and condom use at last higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months: men . 146 Table 12.19 Age-mixing in sexual relationships among women age 15-19 and 15-24 . 147 Table 12.20 Drunkenness during sexual intercourse among youth . 148 Table 12.21 Recent HIV tests among youth . 149 Figure 12.1 Perceptions and beliefs about abstinence and faithfulness . 130 Tables and Figures | xiii CHAPTER 13 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT AND DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH OUTCOMES Table 13.1 Employment and cash earnings of currently married women and men . 152 Table 13.2.1 Control over women’s cash earnings and relative magnitude of women’s earnings: women . 153 Table 13.2.2 Control over men’s cash earnings . 154 Table 13.3 Women’s control over their own earnings and over those of their husband . 155 Table 13.4.1 Women’s participation in decisionmaking . 155 Table 13.4.2 Women’s participation in decisionmaking according to men . 156 Table 13.5.1 Women’s participation in decisionmaking by background characteristics . 157 Table 13.5.2 Men’s attitudes toward wife’s participation in decisionmaking . 158 Table 13.6.1 Attitudes toward wife beating: women . 159 Table 13.6.2 Attitudes toward wife beating: men . 160 Table 13.7.1 Attitudes toward wife refusing sexual intercourse with husband: women . 161 Table 13.7.2 Attitudes toward wife refusing sexual intercourse with husband: men . 162 Table 13.7.3 Men’s attitudes toward a husband’s rights when his wife refuses to have sexual intercourse . 163 Figure 13.1 Number of decisions in which currently married women participate . 156 CHAPTER 14 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Table 14.1 Women’s experience of physical violence . 167 Table 14.2 Persons committing physical violence . 168 Table 14.3 Force at sexual initiation . 168 Table 14.4 Experience of sexual violence . 169 Table 14.5 Persons committing sexual violence . 170 Table 14.6 Experience of different types of violence . 170 Table 14.7 Violence during pregnancy . 171 Table 14.8.1 Degree of marital control exercised by husbands according to women’s reports . 172 Table 14.8.2 Degree of marital control exercised by husbands according to men’s reports . 173 Table 14.9.1 Women’s experience of spousal violence according to women’s reports . 174 Table 14.9.2 Women’s experience of spousal violence according to men’s reports . 176 Table 14.10 Spousal violence according to women’s reports by background characteristics 177 Table 14.11 Spousal violence by husband’s characteristics and empowerment indicators . 180 Table 14.12 Frequency of spousal violence among women who reported violence . 181 Table 14.13 Onset of marital violence . 182 Table 14.14 Injuries to women as a result of spousal violence . 182 Table 14.15.1a Violence by women against their spouse according to women’s reports . 183 Table 14.15.1b Violence by women against their spouse according to women’s reports (continuation) . 184 Table 14.15.2 Violence by women against their spouse according to men’s reports . 185 Table 14.16 Help seeking to stop violence . 186 Table 14.17 Sources where help was sought . 186 Table 14.18 Men’s experience of physical violence . 187 Table 14.19 Persons committing nonspousal physical violence . 188 Figure 14.1 Percentage of ever-married women who have experienced specific types of physical or sexual violence committed by their current or most recent husband/partner, ever and during the past 12 months . 175 Figure 14.2 Spousal violence reported by ever-married women and men age 15-49 . 178 xiv | Tables and Figures Figure 14.3 Spousal violence by husbands against wives according to whether respondent’s father had a history of beating respondent’s mother, as reported by women and men . 179 Figure 14.4 Location where nonspousal physical violence was committed against men in the past 12 months . 188 CHAPTER 15 HUMAN TRAFFICKING Table 15.1 Household members working abroad . 190 Table 15.2 Prevalence of household members working abroad . 190 Table 15.3 Legal working permits . 191 Table 15.4 Awareness of human trafficking . 192 Table 15.5 Prevalence of human trafficking . 193 Table 15.6 Intention to work abroad . 194 Table 15.7 Perception of risk of human trafficking . 195 Table 15.8 Perception of risk of human trafficking over time . 196 Table 15.9 Reasons for perceiving lower risk of human trafficking . 197 Table 15.10 Reasons for perceiving higher risk of human trafficking . 198 APPENDIX A SAMPLE DESIGN Table A.1 Population distribution in Ukraine by administrative regions and by type of residence, based on 2001 population census . 204 Table A.2 Sample allocation of clusters and households according to geographical/ administrative regions and by type of residence . 205 Table A.3 Sample allocation of expected number of completed women and men interviews according to geographical/administrative regions and by type of residence . 206 Table A.4.1 Sample implementation: women . 208 Table A.4.2 Sample implementation: men . 209 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS Table B.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors . 213 Table B.2 Sampling errors for National sample . 214 Table B.3 Sampling errors for Urban sample . 215 Table B.4 Sampling errors for Rural sample . 216 Table B.5 Sampling errors for North sample . 217 Table B.6 Sampling errors for Central sample . 218 Table B.7 Sampling errors for East sample . 219 Table B.8 Sampling errors for South sample . 220 Table B.9 Sampling errors for West sample . 221 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES Table C.1 Household age distribution . 223 Table C.2.1 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . 224 Table C.2.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men . 224 Table C.3 Completeness of reporting . 225 Table C.4 Births by calendar years . 225 Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in days . 226 Table C.6 Reporting of age at death in months . 226 Preface | xv PREFACE The many critical demographic and social problems facing Ukraine today call for the development of an efficient and flexible social and demographic policy to meet the country’s needs. The development of this policy requires the implementation of special surveys to provide information on the demographic situation in Ukraine and the state of the national health care system. The results of the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) allow analysis of a wide range of data on fertility and fertility-related variables that cannot be obtained from current Ukrainian statistics. Of particular interest are data on the number of births in different subgroups of the population by wealth quintiles, the mean number of children ever born, the length of birth intervals, and other proximate determinants of fertility. The experience of retrospective national sample surveys like the 2007 UDHS that focus on marriage, family characteristics, and attitudes toward childbearing, has proved useful for many countries, and indicates that the use of demographic and health surveys is completely justified as a method of social and demographic inquiry. In particular, the 2007 UDHS provides valuable information on attitudes toward childbearing and family building, such as: desired and ideal number of children, intention to limit or space the births of children in the family, and the demand for family planning services in different subgroups of the population. The 2007 UDHS is also a source of extensive information linked to gender, such as factors related to women’s autonomy in decisionmaking, particularly financial decisionmaking in the household, respondents’ attitudes toward sexual relations between spouses, and the problem of domestic violence. In terms of the preservation of women’s health, the chapter on abortion is of considerable importance. In particular, this chapter shows the improvement in the abortion situation since 1999 as a result of the increased use of modern family planning methods. The survey uncovered an important association between induced abortion rates and the number of pregnancies and the number of living children a woman has. Discovering this association would not have been possible using the existing data from current statistics. Information from the UDHS on antenatal care and population awareness of tuberculosis and HIV/AIDS is crucial for developing a well-informed national health care policy. The 2007 UDHS findings include a large body of information on knowledge and use of contraception by various residential and social subgroups in Ukraine. This information will be useful in expanding awareness of modern contraceptive methods to different population strata and in identifying the factors influencing the choice of contraceptive methods and their use. Therefore, the 2007 UDHS results presented in this report will be useful to a large body of experts who focus on the Ukrainian demographic situation and the status of the national health care system as well as to program managers developing strategic activities aimed at overcoming the crisis phenomena existing in these fields. Nataliya Vlasenko Deputy Chairperson State Statistics Committee of Ukraine Acknowledgments | xvii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Ukrainian Center for Social Reforms is grateful to all those involved in the implementation of the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) and the preparation of this final report. Implementation of the 2007 UDHS was made possible by the generous financial support provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Particular thanks go to the USAID/Kyiv office representatives, Leslie Perry and Stephan Solat, who have been unfailingly cooperative and supportive. A special expression of gratitude is addressed to our colleagues from Macro International Inc. for providing valuable technical support during the survey design, staff training, data processing, and analysis of the data collected. Additionally, much of this report was prepared by the team of highly qualified and experienced specialists at Macro International Inc. We especially want to acknowledge the cooperation of Bernard Barrere, Gulnara Semenov, Alexander Izmukhambetov, and Sherrell Goggin, who visited Ukraine to assist the national project staff in implementation of the 2007 UDHS. Throughout all stages of the survey, we were assisted and encouraged by the incredibly strong organizational and methodological support received from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. We deeply appreciate the positive and professional cooperation of Nataliya Vlasenko, SSC Deputy Chairperson, Lyubov Stelmakh, Director of the Department of Population, and other SSC employees whose devoted work contributed so much to the completion of this ambitious survey in Ukraine. The contributions and comments received from specialists at the Ministry of Health of Ukraine were important to the development of the survey instrument and preparation of both the preliminary and final reports. We are grateful to Tetyana Tatarchuk and Valentyna Kolomeychuk for their participation in the finalization of the report. We also benefited from comments on the UDHS questionnaire design from a number of government institutions and NGOs. It seems unfair to single out a few for particular thanks. We were pleased that many organizations in Ukraine were interested in contributing to the contents of the questionnaires, and we are grateful for the feedback they provided, which allowed us to estimate needed demographic and health indicators. We also want to thank the people who ensured the successful completion of the 2007 UDHS by carrying out their day-to-day work. With great pleasure we acknowledge the devoted and committed work of the national UDHS team, made up not only of managers at headquarters and specialists, but also the numerous teams of interviewers, listers, and data processing operators. The names of these people are listed in Appendix D in this report. We would like to thank you, dear reader, for the attention paid to this report. We hope that the analysis presented herein will help you to answer your questions about the complex new challenges facing Ukraine. The ultimate reward for us will be to see the UDHS data used to good purpose in Ukraine, to develop new strategies and programs to improve the demographic and health situation throughout the country. We believe that the UDHS data are comprehensive and of such quality as to provide a solid base on which to build demographic and health care policy in Ukraine for many years to come. Ella Libanova, Doctor of Economics, Professor National Director, 2007 Ukraine DHS Director, Ukrainian Center for Social Reforms Summary of Findings � xix SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) is a nationally representative survey of 6,841 women age 15-49 and 3,178 men age 15-49. Survey fieldwork was conducted during the period July through November 2007. The UDHS was conducted by the Ukrainian Cen- ter for Social Reforms in close collaboration with the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. The MEASURE DHS Project provided technical sup- port for the survey. The U.S. Agency for Interna- tional Development/Kyiv Regional Mission to Ukraine, Moldova, and Belarus provided funding. CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS The majority, slightly more than 70 percent of the UDHS respondents, live in urban areas. Around one-third of respondents live in the East Region. All households in Ukraine have electricity. Nearly all use improved water sources and improved toi- lets, but only two-thirds of households have water piped into the residence and just over half have a flush toilet. Two-thirds of urban households (76 percent have a flush or pour flush toilet, while the majority of rural households (80 percent) have a pit latrine with a slab. Nearly all households have a finished floor, a color television, and a refrigera- tor; one-fourth have a car or truck, and one-fifth of households have a computer. Women and men in Ukraine are universally well educated. All have attained at least some second- ary or higher education; about one-quarter of women and men in the sample have a technikum education, and nearly one-third have attended uni- versity (33 percent of women and 27 of percent men). Seventy-four percent of women and 81 per- cent of men were employed in the 12 months pre- ceding the survey. FERTILITY Fertility rates. A useful index of the level of fer- tility is the total fertility rate (TFR), which indi- cates the number of children a woman would have if she passed through the childbearing ages at the current age-specific fertility rates (ASFR). The TFR, estimated for the three-year period preceding the survey, is 1.2 children per woman. This is be- low replacement level. The survey found that the TFR is lower in urban areas (1.0 children per woman) than in rural areas (1.5 children per woman). This urban-rural differ- ence in childbearing rates can be attributed almost exclusively to fertility differences in the younger age groups. Age-specific fertility rates indicate that fertility peaks at age 20-24 in both urban and rural areas, but the urban rate (85 births per 1,000 women) is much lower than the rural rate (122 births per 1,000 women), a difference of 37 births per 1,000 women. Trends in fertility. The total fertility rate of 1.2 children per woman (estimated for the three-year period preceding the survey) suggests there has been a small decrease from the rate of 1.4 children observed in the 1999 Ukraine Reproductive Health Survey. Age at first birth. Research has shown that child- bearing in the teenage years is associated with in- creased social and health problems for both the mother and her child. The UDHS found that only 3 percent of women age 15-19 had given birth. Moreover, almost all births among teenage women occurred at ages 18 and 19. Thus, the median age at initiation of childbearing in Ukraine is about 22 years. Birth intervals. Research has shown that children born soon after a previous birth, especially those born within two years of a previous birth, have an increased risk of illness and death. In Ukraine, on- ly 13 percent of second and higher order births occur after a birth interval of less than two years. The proportion of closely spaced births is highest among women in lowest wealth quintile (28 per- cent). Fertility preferences. Among currently married women, 58 percent reported that they either wanted no more children or were sterilized. Another 24 percent want another child, and 18 percent are infecund (unable to conceive) or unde- cided about having another child. xx | Summary of Findings CONTRACEPTION Knowledge and ever use. Knowledge of contra- ception is widespread in Ukraine. Among married women, knowledge of at least one method is uni- versal (99 percent). On average, married women reported knowledge of seven methods of contra- ception. Eighty-nine percent of married women have used a method of contraception at some time. Current use. Two-thirds (67 percent) of married women reported that they were currently using a contraceptive method: 48 percent were using mod- ern methods and 19 percent were using traditional methods. By far, the most commonly used method is the male condom (24 percent). The second most common method—the IUD—is used by 18 per- cent, and 10 percent of currently married women use withdrawal. Overall, levels of contraceptive use are similar for women in urban and rural areas, and similar across educational categories and wealth quintiles (be- tween 62 and 71 percent). Nevertheless, urban women and women with higher education show distinctive behavior patterns by relying more on modern methods and less on traditional methods. Among married women, the proportion using modern methods increases with household wealth status (wealth quintile). Current use of any modern contraceptive method is highest among sexually active unmarried wom- en (79 percent); these women rely primarily on the male condom (59 percent). Trends in current use. Overall, use of contracep- tion has changed little in the past five years, with 68 percent of married women age 15-44 reporting use of a method in the 1999 Ukraine Reproductive Health Survey (URHS) and 70 percent reporting use of a method in the 2007 UDHS.1 However, a closer look at the findings shows that the UDHS results indicate a decrease in the use of traditional methods, particularly withdrawal, and an increase in the use of modern methods, particularly the male condom. Method failure. A woman may discontinue use of contraception for many reasons including the de- sire to have more children, method failure, health 1 The base female population in the UDHS is women age 15-49; in the 1999 URHS the base is women age 15-44. To compare contraceptive use in the two sur- veys, the UDHS data on contraceptive use were com- puted for married women age 15-44. concerns, or lack of exposure to the risk of preg- nancy. In Ukraine, the most common reason for contraceptive discontinuation is the desire for a more effective method (14 percent). Another 12 percent of women discontinued use because of method failure, i.e., becoming pregnant while us- ing a method. The most commonly used traditional method, withdrawal, has the second highest failure rate after periodic abstinence (rhythm). Thirty-six percent of women practicing withdrawal expe- rience a contraceptive failure within 12 months of beginning use. Future use. Among married women who were not using contraception, 19 percent reported that they intended to use in the future. When asked which method they preferred, almost one-third (29 per- cent) of nonusers said they preferred the male condom, followed by the IUD (26 percent) and the pill (10 percent). Just 9 percent of women reported withdrawal as their preferred method and 7 percent reported periodic abstinence (rhythm). Source of supply. Most users of modern methods reported that they obtained their methods either through the pharmacy (49 percent) or the public medical sector (28 percent)—primarily women’s consultations, hospitals, and polyclinics. Two per- cent obtained their contraceptive supplies from the private medical sector, and 20 percent obtained them from other sources, primarily friends, rela- tives, and neighbors. INDUCED ABORTION In Ukraine, as in all of the former Soviet Union, induced abortion has been the primary means of fertility control for many years. Abortion rates. The use of abortion can be meas- ured by the total abortion rate (TAR), which indi- cates the number of abortions a woman would have in her lifetime if she passed through her childbearing years at the current age-specific abor- tion rates. The UDHS estimate of the TAR indi- cates that a woman in Ukraine will have an aver- age of 0.4 abortions during her lifetime. This rate is considerably lower than the comparable rate in the 1999 Ukraine Reproductive Health Survey (URHS) of 1.6. Despite this decline, among preg- nancies ending in the three years preceding the survey, one in four pregnancies (25 percent) ended in an induced abortion. Abortion differentials. Abortion rates are slightly higher among women in rural areas (0.6) than in urban areas (0.4). By region, the TAR ranges from Summary of Findings � xxi 0.3 in the West Region to 0.6 in the Central Re- gion. There is only a slight difference in the TAR by education. Women in the lowest wealth quintile have the highest TAR (0.7) while women in the two highest wealth quintiles have the lowest TAR (0.3). Contraceptive failure and abortion. When for- mulating policies designed to improve the repro- ductive health of women, it is useful to know the contraceptive behavior of women who use abor- tion as a means of fertility control. Two-thirds (66 percent) of all abortions took place among women who were using contraception and experienced method failure. A large proportion of women (42 percent) were using a traditional method, particu- larly withdrawal (28 percent). Greater access to and use of reliable contraceptive methods would reduce the abortion rate. Attitudes toward abortion. In the UDHS, women and men were asked a series of questions on atti- tudes related to abortion. Forty-five percent of women and 59 percent of men age 15-49 who think there are circumstances in which a woman should not become pregnant, reported that they think a pregnancy conceived under such circums- tances should be terminated or aborted. Only18 percent of women and 12 percent of men reported that they think such a pregnancy should be contin- ued. On the other hand, 32 percent of women and 22 percent of men said that it is up to the woman to decide about the pregnancy. Attitudes toward adoption. In the UDHS, all women and men were asked if they would ever consider adopting a child. Overall, women and men in Ukraine are not generally supportive of adopting children. Only 15 percent of both women and men said they would consider adopting a child. The major reasons for considering an adoption would be if the individual or their spouse had fer- tility problems, if the child was a family member, or out of compassion for orphans. In addition, 29 percent of women and 15 percent of men said that they would consider an adoption if they had enough money to afford it. All women and men in the UDHS were asked what they considered to be the best thing to do for a child whose parents could no longer care for the child. The majority of women (68 percent) and men (59 percent) said that help should be sought from other family members of the child. Placing a child in an orphanage was cited by only 2 percent of women and 9 percent of men. MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH Antenatal care. Ukraine has a well-developed health system with an extensive infrastructure of facilities that provide maternal care services. Overall, the levels of antenatal care and delivery assistance are high. Virtually all mothers receive antenatal care from professional health providers (doctors, nurses, and midwives) with negligible differences between urban and rural areas. Seven- ty-five percent of pregnant women have six or more antenatal care visits; 27 percent have 15 or more ANC visits. The percentage is slightly higher in rural areas than in urban areas (78 percent com- pared with 73 percent). However, a smaller pro- portion of rural women than urban women have 15 or more antenatal care visits (23 percent and 29 percent, respectively). In terms of content of care, virtually all women said they were weighed, had their blood pressure taken, and gave blood and urine specimens; how- ever, only slightly more than one-third of these women said that they were informed about preg- nancy complications (38 percent). In the UDHS, information was collected on the use of iron supplementation during pregnancy for live births in the five years preceding the survey: i.e., the number of days that pregnant women took iron supplementation in the form of tablets or syrup. Slightly more than half of the women took some form of iron supplements during their most recent pregnancy that ended in a live birth. Older women, urban residents, women living in the East Region, and those in the two highest wealth quintiles were most likely to use iron supplements. Delivery care. Virtually all births (99 percent) are delivered under the supervision of a trained medi- cal professional and take place at a health facility (99 percent). Most of these deliveries are attended by a doctor (91 percent), with a nurse-midwife delivering 8 percent of births. The East Region has the highest proportion of births assisted by nurses and midwives (13 percent). Breastfeeding. Ninety-six percent of children born in the five years preceding the survey were breastfed for a period of time. Although the me- dian duration of breastfeeding is 10 months, the duration of exclusive and predominant breastfeed- ing (breastfeeding plus plain water) is short: less than one month and two months, respectively. xxii | Summary of Findings Bottle-feeding. Bottle-feeding is fairly widespread in Ukraine. Among children age 0-3 months living with their mother, more than half (56 percent) of infants are fed with a bottle with a nipple. This proportion increases to 88 percent for children age 6-11 months, before declining. Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF). Ap- propriate infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices include the introduction of sol- id/semisolid foods beginning at age 6 months and increasing the amount of foods and frequency of feeding as the child gets older while maintaining frequent breastfeeding. Although the World Health Organization recom- mends that breastfeeding children under age 6 months not receive supplemental foods, the UDHS indicates that approximately one in five breast- feeding children under age 6 months receives solid or semisolid foods. Almost all children age 6-23 months receive solid or semisolid food. The pro- portion consuming various foods is generally higher among nonbreastfeeding children age 6-23 months than among breastfeeding children the same age. HIV/AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS The currently low level of HIV infection in Ukraine provides a unique window of opportunity for early targeted interventions to prevent further spread of the disease. However, the increases in the cumulative incidence of HIV infection suggest that this window of opportunity is rapidly closing. Knowledge and attitudes. Virtually all women and men reported that they have heard of HIV/AIDS and roughly 83 to 92 percent of women and men know about the three main ways to re- duce its transmission, namely, abstinence, being faithful to one uninfected partner, and using con- doms. Forty-six percent of women and 45 percent of men in Ukraine have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission, i.e., they know that using condoms consistently and having one faithful partner can reduce the risk of contracting HIV and that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus, and they reject the two most common local misconceptions—that a person can become infected with the AIDS virus by kiss- ing someone who is infected, and by sharing food and utensils with someone who has the AIDS vi- rus. Stigma surrounding AIDS is widespread in Ukraine. Only 5 percent of women and 7 percent of men said that they would not want to keep se- cret that a family member was infected with the AIDS virus. At the same time, 75 percent of wom- en and 73 percent of men said they would be will- ing to care for a family member with the AIDS virus in their home. The proportion of respondents who said that an HIV-positive teacher should be allowed to continue teaching is higher among women than men (42 and 32 percent, respective- ly). However, smaller proportions of women and men said that they would buy fresh food from a shopkeeper with AIDS (22 and 11 percent, respec- tively). The percentage expressing accepting atti- tudes on all four measures is low: 1 percent among men and less than 1 percent among women. Sexual behavior. Among respondents who had sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 15 percent of men and 3 percent of women reported having had more than one sexual partner, and 43 percent of men and 22 percent of women reported having higher-risk sex (i.e., sexual inter- course with a nonmarital, noncohabiting partner). Condom use. Almost two-thirds of men (62 per- cent) and slightly more than half of women (52 percent) reported using a condom during the most recent instance of higher-risk sex. These propor- tions are slightly higher among male and female youth age 15-24 (71 and 68 percent, respectively). Almost all of male youth (98 percent) and 96 per- cent of female youth age 15-24 said they knew a place where they could obtain a condom. ADULT HEALTH The major causes of death in Ukraine are similar to those in industrialized countries (cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and accidents), but there is also a rising incidence of certain infectious diseases, such as multidrug-resistant tuberculosis. Tuberculosis. Awareness about tuberculosis is virtually universal; almost all men and women have heard of tuberculosis. Ninety-five percent of female respondents and 94 percent of male res- pondents correctly identified the mode of tubercu- losis transmission (through the air when cough- ing). Hypertension. The UDHS included measurement of blood pressure for consenting adults age 15-49. The results indicate that about 25 percent of wom- en and 32 percent of men can be classified as hypertensive. Over half of men and women age 45 Summary of Findings � xxiii and older have some degree of hypertension, which confirms that hypertension is a serious health problem in Ukraine. Forty-nine percent of women and 77 percent of men with high blood pressure are unaware that they are hypertensive. Smoking. Survey data show that smoking is less prevalent among women than men: 15 percent of women and 52 percent men reported that they cur- rently smoke cigarettes. Among male smokers, 89 percent reported that they smoked 10 or more cig- arettes during the past 24 hours. The likelihood that a man smokes increases with age. Seventy-eight percent of women and 56 percent of men think that smoking should be banned from public places. Alcohol intake. Sixty-two percent of women and 77 percent of men age 15-49 consumed at least one alcoholic beverage in the month prior to the interview. Among men, consumption of at least one alcoholic beverage in the past month is highest in the East Region (90 percent); the proportion is about 70 percent for men in the other regions. Males consume alcohol with greater frequency than females. Twenty-nine percent of men con- sume alcohol 1-2 times per week, and 6 percent drink alcohol daily or almost daily, compared with 9 percent and 2 percent of women, respectively. WOMEN’S STATUS Sixty-four percent of married women make deci- sions on their own about their own health care, 33 percent decide jointly with their husband/partner, and 1 percent say that their husband or someone else is the primary decisionmaker about the wom- an’s own health care. The UDHS gathered information on women’s and men’s attitudes toward wife beating—a proxy for women’s perception of their status. Women and men were asked whether a husband is justified in beating his wife under a series of specific circums- tances: if the wife burns the food, argues with him, goes out without telling him, neglects the children, or refuses sexual relations. Men are more likely than women to agree with at least one of the rea- sons justifying a husband beating his wife (11 per- cent of men compared with 4 percent of women). The UDHS included questions on whether the res- pondent thinks that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband under three specific circumstances: she knows her hus- band has a sexually transmitted disease (STD); she knows her husband has sexual intercourse with other women; and she is tired or not in the mood. Overall, 83 percent of women agree that a woman is justified in refusing to have sex with her hus- band for all three of the specified reasons; only 2 percent of women do not agree with any of the reasons. Men are less likely than women to agree with all three of the specified reasons for a wife to refuse to have sex with her husband (68 percent). DOMESTIC VIOLENCE Overall, 17 percent of women age 15-49 expe- rienced some type of physical violence between age 15 and the time of the survey. Nine percent of all women experienced at least one episode of vi- olence in the 12 months preceding the survey. One percent of the women said they had often been subjected to violent physical acts during the past year. Overall, the data indicate that husbands are the main perpetrators of physical violence against women. Twenty-four percent of ever-married women re- port some type of emotional, physical, or sexual violence. More than one in ten (13 percent) ever- married women age 15-49 report having expe- rienced physical violence by their current or most recent husband/partner. Three percent report sex- ual violence, and 22 percent report emotional vi- olence. Among ever-married women who have ever suf- fered any type of spousal violence, women whose husbands do not drink are the least likely to report physical violence (2 percent), while women whose husbands get drunk frequently are the most likely to report violence (56 percent). Slightly more than one-third of women (38 per- cent) have ever sought help from any source for physical violence committed against them. HUMAN TRAFFICKING The UDHS collected information on respondents’ awareness of human trafficking in Ukraine and, if applicable, knowledge about any household mem- bers who had been the victim of human trafficking during the three years preceding the survey. More than half (52 percent) of respondents to the household questionnaire reported that they had heard of a person experiencing this problem and 10 percent reported that they knew personally someone who had experienced human trafficking. xxiv | Summary of Findings Less than 1 percent of households had a member who had ever experienced this problem. Overall, 8 percent of household members who worked abroad in the three years before the survey experienced problems with human trafficking. Among this group, households in the South Re- gion (18 percent) and households in the lowest wealth quintile (13 percent) were the most likely to report that household members had experienced trafficking. xxvi | Map of Ukraine Black Sea UKRAINE 0 250125 Kilometers Russia Poland Belarus Romania Hungary Moldova Slovakia West North Central South EastKyiv Sevastopol Introduction | 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 GEOGRAPHY AND POPULATION Ukraine is located in Eastern Europe and is bordered by the Black Sea and the Sea of Azov on the south, by Russia on the east and north, by Belarus on the north; by Poland, Slovakia, Hungary and Romania on the west, and by Moldova on the southwest. The territory of Ukraine is 603.5 thousand square kilometers (SSC 2007a). Ukraine has 27 administrative divisions: 24 regions (oblasts), the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and two cities with special status: Kyiv and Sevastopol. The capital of Ukraine is Kyiv. Ukraine extends across the Eastern European plain and includes three vegetation zones: pine and mixed forest, forest-steppe, and steppe. More than 60 percent of the land is fertile black land (chernozem). Ukraine is an agro-industrial country rich in natural resources. Most important among these are iron ore, coal, rock salt, cement, gypsum, uranium, and various metals. In general, Ukraine is able to provide most of the country’s resource needs, although some are still imported. Oil and gas are imported from Russia and Turkmenistan because the oil and gas deposits in Ukraine are not sufficient to meet the country’s energy needs. Currently, Ukraine’s industrial structure is focused on heavy industry, especially the iron, steel, and coal industries, and machine-building. The chemical industry, food industry, and various light industries also play important roles. In 1991, Ukraine gained the status of an independent state. The state structure is defined in the Constitution of Ukraine. In 1996, a new constitution was adopted; runaway inflation, which was endemic in the former Soviet Union, was curbed; and the national currency (Hryvna) was launched. Since then, Ukraine has achieved macroeconomic stability; prices and domestic and foreign trade have been liberalized; and an austere monetary policy has been introduced. Tax and budget systems are being reformed and a two-tiered banking structure has been established: the National Bank of Ukraine and all other types of commercial banks. Ukraine has a republican form of government. State power is subdivided into Legislative, Executive, and Judicial branches, each with ascribed functions within the country. Ukraine foreign policy focuses on broad, long-term cooperation with other countries as the way to solve both economic and political problems. In 2007, the gross domestic product (GDP) of Ukraine reached 712,945 billion Hryvna (UAH) or 142,589 billion USD (at current rates) (National Bank of Ukraine, 2008). The per capita GDP in 2007 was 15,329 UAH or 3,065 USD (at current rates). According to the 2001 census, the population of Ukraine is 48.5 million (SSC, 2003a). This makes Ukraine the fifth largest country in Europe (after Germany, Italy, Great Britain, and France). About one-third (32 percent) of the population is rural. The average population density in 2006 (SSC, 2007a) was 77 people per square kilometer, ranging from 36 per square kilometer in Chernyhiv oblast to 173 per square kilometer in Donets’k oblast. Ukrainians make up the largest part of the population (77.8 percent); Russians are the second largest group (17.3 percent); and other ethnic/linguistic groups each constitute 1 percent or less of the population (SSC, 2003a). The population of Ukraine reached a peak (52.2 million) in 1992-1993; since then, the population has been decreasing steadily. At the beginning of 2007, the SSC estimated (SSC, 2008) that the country had a population of 46.3 million, which represents a decline of almost six million. The decline is a result of negative population growth, a nationwide phenomenon since 1991. 2 | Introduction The greater proportion of deaths over births in countries today is not an unusual. More than one-third of European countries have experienced some degree of negative population growth. However, Ukraine is unusual because of the rapid pace of the population decline. At the beginning of the year 2000, the country was losing an average of 350,000 persons annually (calculated by the Institute for Demography and Social Studies from the PRB World Population Data Sheet) (PRB, 2008). In 2005, natural population loss in Ukraine was the highest in Europe. At the same time, however, deteriorating health conditions, low life expectancy, and high rates of mortality (especially among able-bodied men) were seen as contributing factors to the demographic trends in Ukraine. The health status of a population is an indicator of a country’s level of development and quality of life. The social transformation that took place in Ukraine in the 1990s was accompanied by a social and economic crisis that negatively affected the overall health of the population. The situation was further aggravated by the catastrophe at the Chernobyl Nuclear Power Plant, and substantial man- made pollution had a negative effect on the environment and health status of the Ukrainian population. In 1990, the health care system in Ukraine experienced many negative changes that resulted in increased morbidity (especially among children) and decreased life expectancy. 1.2 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE HEALTH SYSTEM OF UKRAINE 1.2.1 Network of Health Institutions, System of Management and Funding, and Basic Problems of the Health System According to the Constitution of Ukraine, every person has a right to health care, medical aid, and medical insurance. The health system is provided by public (state) funding. The state and municipal health institutions provide free medical services. The network of the health system in Ukraine consists of 10.9 thousand medical institutions. In 2006, the number of doctors (all specialties) was 225 thousand, or 48.4 per 10,000 population; the number of paramedical workers was 106.1 per 10,000 population; and the number of inpatient hospital beds was 95.6 per 10,000 population (SSC 2007a). The health system in Ukraine is made up of state, municipal, and private facilities. The first level of service (nonspecialized services) is provided by polyclinics, ambulatories, rural medical- obstetric centers, and antenatal clinics. There is no clear division between primary and secondary (specialized) medical services in Ukraine, so patients can seek out medical experts by themselves without referral by a doctor. Specialized medical services are an important part of the public health system in Ukraine. These are the second and the third levels of medical assistance. The second level includes specialized branches in polyclinics, hospitals, and inpatient clinics. The third level consists of highly specialized services at specialized clinics. It also includes the research institutes of the Academy of Medical Sciences of Ukraine, where the most expensive equipment is located and the most advanced medical technologies are applied. The organizational principles and system of management of the public health system in Ukraine were put in place when the country was part of the Soviet Union. Since independence, efforts have been made to implement changes to the system but the basic features of the Soviet system have been retained. Preservation of the old system in the new social and economic environment reduces efficiency and has a negative effect on the quality and availability of medical services. Another problem is lack of qualified health personnel, particularly in rural medical facilities. The lack of staff is a result of the low level of wages in rural facilities compared with urban facilities—wages at rural facilities are about 60 percent of wages earned in Ukraine as a whole. In Introduction | 3 rural areas, the problem of low wages is compounded by the poor living conditions and limited social infrastructure. Because the current funding system is inadequate to maintain the Ukraine public health system, the country has begun a discussion of the possibility of introducing some type of the mandatory state medical insurance. Recently, the government accepted many documents relating to changes to the public health services. In 2007, the Government of Ukraine approved the National Plan of Development of Public Health Services, which runs through 2010. It suggests improvements to promote financial maintenance of the health system, coordination between funding scales and the amount of state guarantees of free medical assistance, and optimization of public health institutions. A transition from the administrative-command model to the contract model of health services management is suggested, as well as introduction of the mechanism of strategic purchases of medical services on a contractual basis and transition from the line-item budgets of medical institutions to payment-for-services funding based on the scales and structure of specific services. One of the development priorities of the Ukraine public health services is improvements in the primary level of medicine, in particular, the creation of “family medicine.” The process of introducing family medicine in Ukraine started in 1987; training of family doctors in educational institutions began in 1995. Chairs of general practice/family medicine have been opened at all 17 medical institutions of higher education. The primary medical institutions have been charged with creating conditions for the introduction of family medicine. Toward this end, the Ministry of Health of Ukraine has developed a package of normative documents for regulating technologies for the introduction of family medicine. Development of family medicine in Ukraine is patterned after European models defined in the WHO strategy, “Health for All: The Policy Framework for the WHO European Region.” In cooperation with the European Union, a modern model of family medicine was introduced into several regions in Ukraine, including the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and Zaporizhzhia and Khmelnytskiy oblasts. Public health policy in Ukraine is formulated by the Verkhovna Rada (Parliament). The Ministry of Health is the central executive authority that implements health policy by setting targets, developing health programs and utilizing other mechanisms designed to improve the health of the Ukrainian people. 1.2.2 Specific Health Care Services and Selected Programs The Ministry of Health is implementing more than 25 state target programs and other efforts to improve health care services in Ukraine; these were approved by Decrees of the President, Decisions of the Government. In 2007, the government approved the “State Program of Creation of Uniform System of Granting of Emergency Medical Aid,” which will run through 2010. The program is designed to create conditions that will increase the availability and quality of emergency medical care. The aim is to reduce the levels of physical disability and death caused by accidents, injury, poisonings, and acute clinical conditions attributed to cardiovascular and other diseases. Mother and Child Health Care and Family Planning Mother and child health care is among the most important priorities of the Government of Ukraine. Health services for mothers and children are provided by a network of women’s consultations, medical-genetic consultations, children’s polyclinics and hospitals, family planning centers, and maternity hospitals. To improve public health services for children and mothers, the following national programs have been implemented: 4 | Introduction • “Children of Ukraine” (1995-2000) • National plan of action on improvement of the position of women and increase of their role in a society (1997-2000) • Long-term program of support of women and families • National program “Family planning” (1995-2000) • National program “Reproductive Health” (2001-2005) The complex of measures in the national program, “Reproductive Health” (2001-2005), promoted the following positive changes: • Creation of family planning services • Increased population awareness of the healthy way of life • Safe sexual relations • Responsible paternity • Methods to prevent an unwanted pregnancy • Use of modern contraceptive methods The need for further efforts to improve reproductive health resulted in the implementation of a new national program, “Reproductive Health of the Nation,” which runs through 2015. Beginning January 1, 2007, Ukraine adopted the WHO criteria for live and non-live births and the perinatal period. This prompted requests for increased attention and responsibility of state authorities in the organization, implementation, and maintenance of mother and child health care. In addition to health services, Ukrainian legislation provides many benefits and privileges to families with children. Women receive paid maternity leave of up to 126 days. When the child is born, a lump-sum benefit of 22 subsistence minimums is paid. There is also a benefit for children under age three. A woman’s job is reserved for her during this period. Programs Combating HIV/AIDS and Tuberculosis Combating HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis is a priority of national policy in Ukraine. To provide coordination on policy, programs, and efforts to combat HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis in Ukraine, the National Council of Counteraction to Tuberculosis and HIV-infection/AIDS and the Committee on Combating HIV-infection/AIDS and Other Socially Dangerous Diseases, were created. The fifth national program on prevention of HIV transmission and provision of care and support services (CSS) to people with HIV/AIDS was implemented 2004-2008. It will be replaced by a new national program on prevention of HIV transmission and provision of care and support to people with HIV/AIDS, 2009-2013. Its purpose is to stabilize the epidemiological situation, decrease the rate of HIV transmission, and reduce deaths caused by AIDS. Since 2001, national programs in Ukraine have dealt with the problem of the transmission of HIV from mother to child during pregnancy and delivery. In 1999, a program to monitor pregnant women to prevent the vertical transmission of HIV was introduced. The program includes consultations with pregnant women; prepatrimonial and intranatal HIV testing; administration of �RV drugs during labor or delivery for HIV-positive women; and consultation with HIV-positive women on feeding practices for the child. Tuberculosis is a serious public health problem in Ukraine and the World Health Organization’s DOTS strategy was introduced in pilot regions (Donetsk oblast and Kyiv city) in 2001. Since 2006, the DOTS strategy has been implemented in all regions of Ukraine. Introduction | 5 In 2006, the Government of Ukraine approved the National Program of Counteraction to Tuberculosis. The program, which utilizes international standards of control for tuberculosis, extends through 2011. Sanitary and Epidemiologic Services and Immunoprophylaxis According to the Constitution of Ukraine (Article 49), the state provides for the sanitary and epidemiologic well-being of the population. Basic activities carried out by the government include disease prevention and creation of healthy environments (work, home, and food related). Implementation of these tasks is the responsibility of the State Sanitary and Epidemiologic Service (SES) of Ukraine. This immunoprophylaxis program (2002-2006) was completed in 2006 and resulted in a reduction in the prevalence of infections. A draft of the next immunoprophylaxis program (through 2015) is being prepared. 1.3 SYSTEMS FOR COLLECTING DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH DATA The State Statistical Committee of Ukraine (SSC) is responsible for conducting censuses and for using data from the national registration system to provide information about current registration of population. The last census in Ukraine was conducted in 2001, with the results published in 2002- 2004; the next census is scheduled for 2011. Births, deaths, marriages, and divorces are registered at the local administrative level by the civil registry departments of the Ministry of Justice, while population migration within the country and abroad, by the relevant subdivisions of the Ministry of the Interior, and aggregated statistics are forwarded through the territorial statistical offices to the SSC. The SSC compiles and analyzes these data and issues annual reports entitled, “Population of Ukraine,” and other reports. Health information is collected by staff at health facilities and by the medical statistic services of the Ministry of Health and is sent through the territorial statistical offices to the SSC. The SSC compiles and analyzes these data for the country as a whole and issues annual reports as well as various analytical publications. Based on compiled health data, the Ministry of Health issues annual thematic reports and bi-annual report entitled, “Health indicators of the population and usage of health care resources in Ukraine.” The national data are available at the WHO website, Health for All Database. 1.4 OBJECTIVES AND ORGANIZATION OF THE SURVEY The 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) is a nationally representative sample survey designed to provide information on population and health issues in Ukraine. The primary goal of the survey was to develop a single integrated set of demographic and health data for the population of the Ukraine. The UDHS was conducted from July to November 2007 by the Ukrainian Center for Social Reforms (UCSR) in close collaboration with the State Statistical Committee (SSC) of Ukraine, which provided organizational and methodological support. Macro International Inc. provided technical assistance for the survey through the MEASURE DHS project. USAID/Kyiv Regional Mission to Ukraine, Moldova and Belarus provided funding for the survey through the MEASURE DHS project. MEASURE DHS is sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to assist countries worldwide in obtaining information on key population and health indicators. The 2007 UDHS collected national- and regional-level data on fertility and contraceptive use, maternal health, adult health and life style, infant and child mortality, tuberculosis, and HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases. The survey obtained detailed information on these issues from women of reproductive age and, on certain topics, from men as well. The results of the 2007 UDHS are intended to provide the information needed to evaluate existing social programs and to design new strategies for improving the health of Ukrainians and 6 | Introduction health services for the people of Ukraine. The 2007 UDHS also contributes to the growing international database on demographic and health-related variables. 1.4.1 Sample Design and Implementation The sample was designed to allow detailed analysis of indicators—including the estimation of fertility, abortion and infant/child mortality rates at the national level and for urban and rural areas. Many indicators can also be estimated for the following five domains or geographical areas: North, Central, South, East, and West. Each domain consists of a few administrative divisions out of the total 27 administrative regions existing in Ukraine (24 regions, the capital city Kyiv, the city of Sevastopol, and the Autonomous Republic of Crimea), except for the clusters affected by the Chernobyl disaster and are uninhabitable.1 • North: the city of Kyiv, and the regions of Kyiv, Zhytomyr, Sumy and Chernihiv; • Central: the regions of Cherkasy, Poltava, Kirovohrad and Vinnytsia; • South: the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, the city of Sevastopol’ and the regions of Odesa, Mykolaiv and Kherson; • East: the regions of Dnipropetrovs’k, Donets’k, Zaporizhzhia, Luhans’k, and Kharkiv; • West: the regions of Ivano-Frankivs’k, Khmel’nyts’kyi, Chernivtsi, L’viv, Rivne, Ternopil’, Volyn’ and Zakarpattia. A representative sample of households was selected for the 2007 UDHS. The sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 500 clusters were selected in Kyiv and the 26 other administrative divisions from the list of enumeration areas in the master sample frame of the 2001 Ukraine Population Census (SSC 2003a). In the second stage, a complete listing of households was carried out in each selected cluster. Households were then systematically selected from each cluster for participation in the survey. This design resulted in a final sample of 15,004 households selected. All women age 15-49 who were either permanent residents of the selected households or visitors present in the household the night before the survey were eligible to be interviewed. In addition, all men age 15-49 in one-half of the selected households were eligible to be interviewed if they were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household the night before the survey. Interviews were completed for 6,841 women and 3,178 men. 1.4.2 Questionnaires Three questionnaires were used in the UDHS: the Household Questionnaire, the Women’s Questionnaire, and the Men’s Questionnaire. The questionnaires were based on the model survey instruments developed by the MEASURE DHS project. The model questionnaires were adapted for use in Ukraine by experts from the UCSR, the SSC, the Ministry of Family Youth and Sports Affairs (MFYSA), the Ministry of Health (MOH) and Macro International Inc. Input was also sought from a number of nongovernmental organizations. Additionally, a module on human trafficking was developed for pilot testing during the 2007 UDHS. The questionnaires were prepared in English and translated into Ukrainian and Russian. The questionnaires were pretested in March 2007. The Household Questionnaire was used to list all usual members and visitors to the household and to collect information on the socioeconomic status of the household. The first part of the Household Questionnaire collected information on age, sex, educational attainment, and the relationship of each household member or visitor to the household head. This information provided basic demographic data on Ukrainian households, and was used to identify the women and men who were eligible for the individual interview (i.e., women and men age 15-49), and to randomly select one man or one woman age 15-49 per household to be interviewed with the domestic violence module. The second part of the Household Questionnaire included questions on housing 1 One cluster was originally selected from the Chernobyl area and was replaced. Introduction | 7 characteristics (e.g., flooring material, source of water and type of toilet facilities), ownership of a variety of consumer goods, and other questions on the socioeconomic status of the household. The Household Questionnaire was also used to obtain information on human trafficking. The Women’s Questionnaire obtained information from women age 15-49 on the following topics: • Background characteristics • Pregnancy history • Abortion history • Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care • Knowledge, attitudes, and use of contraception • Reproductive and adult health • Breastfeeding and weaning practices • Marriage and recent sexual activity • Fertility preferences • Attitudes towards unwanted pregnancies, abortion and adoption • Knowledge of and attitudes toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases • Knowledge of and attitudes toward tuberculosis • High blood pressure and medical injections • Smoking, alcohol and narcotics consumption • Domestic violence The Men’s Questionnaire, administered to men age 15-49, focused on the following topics: • Background characteristics • Reproductive health • Knowledge, attitudes, and use of contraception • Attitudes toward and use of condoms • Marriage and recent sexual activity • Fertility preferences • Attitudes towards unwanted pregnancies, abortion and adoption • Employment and gender roles • Attitudes toward women’s status • Knowledge of and attitudes toward AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases • Knowledge of and attitudes toward tuberculosis • High blood pressure and medical injections • Smoking, alcohol and narcotics consumption • Domestic violence In addition, blood pressure measurements for adult women and men were recorded in their individual questionnaires. 1.4.3 Training of Field Staff The main survey training was conducted by the Ukrainian Center for Social Reforms and the State Statistical Committee during a two-week period in July 2007, and was attended by all supervisors, field editors, interviewers, and quality control personnel. The training included lectures, demonstrations, practice interviewing in small groups, examinations and practicing blood pressure measurement using a digital monitor. All field staff participated in one day of field practice. 8 | Introduction 1.4.4 Fieldwork and Data Processing The survey data was collected by twenty-seven teams, each consisting of one or two female interviewers, a male interviewer, and a female team supervisor/editor. Fieldwork began in late July 2007 and was completed in November 2007. Senior DHS technical staff visited teams regularly to review the work and monitor data quality. Data processing of the UDHS began shortly after the beginning of fieldwork. Completed questionnaires were returned regularly from the field to UCSR headquarters in Kyiv, where they were entered and edited by specially trained data processing personnel. Data processing personnel included a supervisor, a questionnaire administrator, several office editors, 20 data entry operators, and a secondary editor. Concurrent data processing allowed the survey technical staff to be able to advise fieldwork teams of problems detected during the data entry. Tables generated to check various data quality parameters were used for this purpose. As a result, specific feedback was given to the teams to improve performance. The data entry and editing phase of the survey was completed in late January 2008. 1.5 RESPONSE RATES Table 1.1 presents household and individual response rates for the survey. A total of 15,004 households were selected for the sample, of which 14,069 were found at the time of fieldwork. The main reason for the difference is that some of the dwelling units that were occupied during the household listing operation were either vacant or the residents were away for an extended period at the time of interview. Of the households that were found, 95 percent were successfully interviewed. In these households, 7,437 women were identified as eligible for the individual interview. Interviews were completed with 92 percent of these women. Of the 3,523 eligible men identified, 90 percent were successfully interviewed. Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews, and response rates, according to residence, Ukraine 2007 Result Residence Total Urban Rural Household interviews Households selected 9,317 5,687 15,004 Households occupied 8,739 5,330 14,069 Households interviewed 8,124 5,255 13,379 Household response rate 93.0 98.6 95.1 Individual interviews: women Number of eligible women 4,679 2,758 7,437 Number of eligible women interviewed 4,291 2,550 6,841 Eligible woman response rate 91.7 92.5 92.0 Individual interviews: men Number of eligible men 2,200 1,323 3,523 Number of eligible men interviewed 1,993 1,185 3,178 Eligible man response rate 90.6 89.6 90.2 Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 9 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 2 This chapter presents a summary of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the household population in the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), including age, sex, place of residence, and educational status. The chapter also presents information on household ownership of various durable goods, key characteristics of the dwelling in which the household re- sides, and a wealth index derived from the household asset data. Information collected on the socio- economic characteristics of the UDHS households and respondents is important in understanding and interpreting the findings of the survey and also provides some indication of the representativeness of the survey. A household is defined as a person or group of related and unrelated persons who live togeth- er in the same dwelling unit(s) or in connected premises, who acknowledge one adult member as head of the household, and who have common arrangements for cooking and eating their food. The ques- tionnaire for the 2007 UDHS distinguishes between the de jure population (persons who usually live in a selected household) and the de facto population (persons who stayed the night before the inter- view in the household). According to the 2007 UDHS data, the differences between these populations are small. Tabulations for the household data presented in this chapter are primarily based on the de facto population. Throughout the report, the numbers in the tables reflect weighted numbers (see Ap- pendix A for discussion of the sample design). To ensure statistical reliability, percentages based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases are shown within parentheses, and percentages based on fewer than 25 un- weighted cases are suppressed. 2.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF THE POPULATION 2.1.1 Age-Sex Structure Age and sex are important demographic variables and form the primary basis of demographic classification in vital statistics, censuses, and surveys. They are also important variables in the study of mortality, fertility, and nuptiality. Table 2.1 presents the percent distribution of the de facto popula- tion by five-year age groups, according to urban-rural residence and sex. The information is used to construct the population pyramid shown in Figure 2.1. Table 2.1 shows that the total de facto population was 32,377 and there are more women (17,556) than men (14,816), with women constituting 54 percent of the population. The data show that the gender disparity is concentrated among the population age 50 and older (Figure 2.1). About two-thirds of the population is in the 15-64 age group, also referred to as the economi- cally active population. The proportion of the population falling within this age group is higher in ur- ban areas (70 percent) than in rural areas (61 percent). This difference may be largely attributed to rural-to-urban migration, especially among the young in search of jobs and higher education. 10 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.1 Household population by age, sex, and residence Percent distribution of the de facto household population by five-year age groups, according to sex and residence, Ukraine 2007 Age Urban Rural Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total <5 4.1 3.4 3.7 4.9 3.7 4.3 4.4 3.5 3.9 5-9 4.7 3.4 4.0 6.0 4.1 5.0 5.1 3.6 4.3 10-14 5.6 4.3 4.9 7.4 6.5 6.9 6.2 5.0 5.5 15-19 6.4 4.5 5.4 7.1 5.3 6.1 6.6 4.8 5.6 20-24 7.9 6.5 7.2 6.1 4.7 5.4 7.3 6.0 6.6 25-29 8.0 6.6 7.2 5.9 4.7 5.2 7.3 6.0 6.6 30-34 7.7 6.2 6.9 6.1 5.7 5.9 7.2 6.0 6.6 35-39 6.8 6.5 6.6 7.4 5.9 6.6 7.0 6.3 6.6 40-44 6.4 6.1 6.2 6.6 5.1 5.8 6.5 5.8 6.1 45-49 7.7 6.8 7.2 7.4 6.1 6.7 7.6 6.6 7.0 50-54 8.5 10.3 9.5 7.7 7.9 7.8 8.2 9.5 9.0 55-59 8.0 9.0 8.5 6.8 6.9 6.8 7.6 8.3 8.0 60-64 4.6 5.4 5.0 4.0 5.1 4.6 4.4 5.3 4.9 65-69 5.4 7.0 6.3 5.8 8.8 7.5 5.5 7.6 6.7 70-74 4.0 5.7 4.9 4.7 6.9 5.9 4.3 6.0 5.2 75-79 2.5 4.2 3.4 3.8 6.4 5.2 3.0 4.8 4.0 80 + 1.8 4.2 3.1 2.1 6.2 4.3 1.9 4.9 3.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 10,129 12,027 22,162 4,686 5,529 10,215 14,816 17,556 32,377 Note: Total includes 3 persons whose sex was not recorded. Figure 2.1 Population pyramid 80+ 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 <5 Age 0123456 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 UDHS 2007 Percent Males Females The remainder of the population that is not economically active, including the younger popu- lation under age 15 and the elderly population age 65 and older, constitutes the economically depen- dent population. The data further indicate that 14 percent of the population are less than 15 years of age. The proportion under 15 is larger in the rural areas than in the urban areas (16 and 13 percent, respectively). The percentage age 10-19 years is larger than the percentage age 0-9, suggesting that fertility has fallen over the ten-year period before the survey. Elderly people age 65 and older make up 19 percent of the population. The disproportionately low percentage of the population age 60-64 years is probably a result of low levels of fertility during World War II (Figure 2.1). Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 11 2.1.2 Children’s Living Arrangements and Orphanhood Detailed information on living arrangements and parental survivorship for children under 18 years of age is presented in Table 2.2. Among the 5,524 children under age 18, two in three live with both parents, 24 percent live with their mother only, 2 percent live with their father only, and 3 per- cent live with neither of their natural parents. The table also provides data on the extent of fosterhood and orphanhood among children un- der age 18. Three percent of children are fostered, meaning they are not living with either parent even though one or both parents are still alive. Six percent of children are orphaned, that is, the child has lost one or both parents. Five percent of children under 18 years have lost their fathers, but fewer children have lost their mothers (2 percent) or both parents (less than 1 percent). Table 2.2 Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood Percent distribution of de jure children under 18 years of age by living arrangements and survival status of parents, the percentage of children not living with a biological parent, and the percentage of children with one or both parents dead, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Living with both parents Living with mother but not with father Living with father but not with mother Not living with either parent Total Percentage not living with a biological parent Percentage with one or both parents dead Number of children Father alive Father dead Mother alive Mother dead Both alive Only father alive Only mother alive Both dead Missing informa- tion on father or mother Age 0-4 75.0 18.5 1.8 1.0 0.9 0.9 0.0 0.1 0.0 1.8 100.0 1.0 2.8 1,245 <2 79.4 16.5 1.3 0.9 0.2 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 100.0 0.7 1.5 454 2-4 72.6 19.6 2.1 1.1 1.2 0.9 0.0 0.2 0.0 2.2 100.0 1.1 3.5 791 5-9 69.2 22.4 2.5 0.9 0.6 2.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 2.1 100.0 2.4 3.4 1,376 10-14 65.0 20.2 5.0 1.4 1.8 2.2 0.4 0.1 0.4 3.5 100.0 3.0 7.7 1,768 15-17 59.7 20.4 6.4 0.7 1.5 3.0 1.0 0.4 0.6 6.2 100.0 5.0 10.0 1,136 Sex Male 67.9 20.2 4.2 1.1 1.5 1.8 0.1 0.1 0.3 2.8 100.0 2.3 6.2 2,893 Female 66.4 20.7 3.7 1.0 1.0 2.3 0.6 0.2 0.3 3.8 100.0 3.4 5.8 2,627 Residence Urban 65.3 22.1 3.9 0.9 1.3 2.2 0.4 0.2 0.3 3.5 100.0 3.0 5.9 3,468 Rural 70.5 17.5 4.1 1.3 1.2 1.7 0.3 0.1 0.4 2.9 100.0 2.4 6.2 2,056 Region North 71.8 15.4 4.0 1.1 1.5 2.3 0.3 0.1 0.2 3.3 100.0 2.9 6.1 1,038 Central 67.7 21.8 2.8 0.8 0.8 2.5 0.0 0.1 0.0 3.5 100.0 2.6 3.7 638 East 59.5 27.8 5.3 0.8 1.8 0.9 0.5 0.3 0.1 3.0 100.0 1.8 8.0 1,428 South 67.0 18.1 4.5 0.7 0.8 3.0 0.6 0.0 0.6 4.7 100.0 4.2 6.6 883 West 71.3 17.7 2.8 1.6 0.9 2.0 0.2 0.2 0.5 2.7 100.0 3.0 4.7 1,537 Wealth quintile Lowest 64.5 20.0 4.7 1.7 2.0 2.4 0.1 0.0 0.7 3.8 100.0 3.2 7.6 923 Second 71.9 17.3 3.8 0.7 0.9 1.5 0.2 0.3 0.1 3.4 100.0 2.0 5.2 1,311 Middle 67.6 19.5 3.7 1.3 1.0 3.2 0.7 0.1 0.1 2.7 100.0 4.1 5.7 1,061 Fourth 60.3 25.5 5.5 0.7 1.0 2.1 0.5 0.3 0.4 3.8 100.0 3.2 7.6 1,046 Highest 70.0 20.5 2.5 1.0 1.4 1.2 0.3 0.1 0.3 2.8 100.0 1.8 4.6 1,182 Total <15 69.2 20.4 3.3 1.2 1.2 1.8 0.2 0.1 0.2 2.5 100.0 2.2 5.0 4,388 Total <18 67.2 20.4 4.0 1.1 1.2 2.0 0.3 0.2 0.3 3.3 100.0 2.8 6.0 5,524 Note: Table is based on de jure members, i.e., usual residents. Total includes 3 persons whose sex was not recorded. Differentials in fosterhood and orphanhood by background characteristics are not large. As expected, older children are most likely to be fostered and orphaned. Small differences in living ar- rangements are found between rural and urban children. The North region has the highest proportion of children living with both parents (72 percent) and the East region has the lowest (60 percent). Children’s living arrangements have no specific pattern according to the household wealth index. Table 2.2 also presents the extent of fosterhood and orphanhood among children under age 15 to allow comparison with children under age 18. Differences in living arrangements and parental sur- vivorship between children under age 15 and under age 18 are negligible. 12 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics 2.1.3 Household Composition Table 2.3 shows the percent distribution of households in the 2007 UDHS sample by sex of the head of the household and household size. It also presents the mean household size for urban and rural areas. These characteristics are important because they are often associated with differences in household socioeconomic levels. For example, female-headed households are frequently poorer than households headed by males. In addition, the size and composition of the household affects the alloca- tion of financial and other resources among household members, which in turn influences the overall well-being of these individuals. Household size is also associated with crowding in the dwelling, which can lead to unfavorable health conditions. Women and men head nearly equal proportions of Ukrainian households. The average house- hold size in Ukraine is 2.5 persons. The average household size in rural areas is slightly larger than in urban areas (2.6 compared with 2.4 members). More than one in four households has only one mem- ber. Information on the proportion of households with foster children or orphan children is also presented in Table 2.3. Less than 2 percent of households include one or more foster children. Or- phans are included in 2 percent of households. Table 2.3 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household and by household size; mean size of household, and percentage of households with orphans and foster children under 18 years of age, according to residence, Ukraine 2007 Characteristic Residence Total Urban Rural Household headship Male 49.9 52.1 50.5 Female 50.1 47.9 49.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members 1 27.2 29.3 27.8 2 32.3 28.1 31.1 3 21.7 16.1 20.0 4 12.7 14.1 13.1 5 3.9 7.2 4.9 6+ 1.9 5.1 2.8 Total1 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean size of households 2.4 2.6 2.5 Percentage of households with orphans and foster children under 18 years of age Foster children2 1.4 1.4 1.4 Double orphans 0.1 0.1 0.1 Single orphans 1.7 2.1 1.9 Foster and/or orphan children 3.0 3.4 3.1 Number of households 9,364 4,015 13,379 Note: Table is based on de jure household members, i.e., usual residents. 1 Includes households (0.2 %) with no de jure members, because the UDHS 2007 field work coincided with summer vacation period and in some cases all members of a household slept last night in the household, but were not usual members of that household, for example in rented summer house. 2 Foster children are those under 18 years of age living in households with neither their mother nor their father present. 2.1.4 Education The educational attainment of household members is an important determinant of their oppor- tunities and behaviors. Many phenomena such as use of health facilities, reproductive behavior, health of children, and proper hygienic habits are associated with the educational level of household mem- bers, especially women. Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 13 The educational system of Ukraine has undergone several recent reforms, making it challeng- ing to analyze education data across a wide range of ages. Since 2005, a 12-year school system has been implemented: primary education takes four years to complete and middle education takes five years to complete (from classes [grades] 5 to 9). There are then three years of what are commonly called senior classes 10-12. PTU, or “Professionalnoe Tekhnicheskoye Uchilische,” is a vocational school that accepts students who have completed grade 9 of secondary school. It combines secondary education with ad- ditional training on manual or basic skill occupations. “Tekhnicum,” also known as a “secondary- special” education in the former Soviet Union educational system, is technical training in a specific field such as nursing, agriculture, and construction. Currently in Ukraine, tekhnicum is considered an initial level of higher education (I-II levels of state accreditation at higher education institutions). University, or similar institutions of III-IV levels of state accreditation at higher education in- stitutions, and postgraduate education prepares higher level specialists. Students who have completed secondary education or the equivalent, or who have completed tekhnicum, may enroll in university. In subsequent tables, these educational categories are collapsed into two categories: “second- ary or less,” which includes no education, primary level, secondary level, and PTU, and “higher than secondary,” which includes tekhnicum and university or similar higher education. Tables 2.4.1 and 2.4.2 present information on the educational attainment of female and male Ukrainians age six and over. Virtually all Ukrainians have gone to school. The proportion of the population with no education is low (1 percent or less), except among those age 6-9 (reflecting some who have not yet started school) and females age 65 years and older (2 percent). The median number of years of schooling is 10.7 years for women and 10.9 years for men. The median is higher among the populations living in urban areas and in the North and East, and it is positively associated with wealth status. Individuals residing in urban areas are much more likely to have attained a university education than those in rural areas. Wealth status also has a strong positive relationship with universi- ty education; 39 percent of women in the highest wealth quintile have at least some university educa- tion, compared with 6 percent in the lowest quintile. The corresponding proportions for men are 39 percent and 5 percent, respectively. 14 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.4.1 Educational attainment of the female household population Percent distribution of the de facto female household populations age six and over by highest level of schooling attended or completed and median grade completed, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic No education Primary Secondary PTU Tekhnicum University1 Total Number Median years completed Age 6-9 22.4 76.8 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 518 1.1 10-14 0.4 19.3 80.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 870 5.6 15-19 0.1 0.2 61.7 4.9 12.2 20.9 100.0 835 10.4 20-24 0.3 0.2 20.7 11.9 17.6 49.3 100.0 1,048 14.5 25-29 0.7 0.4 25.1 9.5 25.6 38.7 100.0 1,053 15.0 30-34 0.1 0.1 25.9 13.5 28.2 32.0 100.0 1,060 14.6 35-39 0.2 0.2 25.3 12.2 30.7 31.5 100.0 1,111 14.6 40-44 0.0 0.0 26.1 12.8 31.7 29.4 100.0 1,015 14.6 45-49 0.2 0.2 25.0 11.1 35.8 27.7 100.0 1,158 14.7 50-54 0.4 0.3 35.3 9.6 32.5 22.0 100.0 1,675 14.2 55-59 0.3 0.3 40.8 7.9 30.6 20.2 100.0 1,459 13.5 60-64 0.1 1.6 51.7 9.2 23.1 14.2 100.0 929 10.2 65+ 1.6 23.4 50.0 4.2 12.1 8.6 100.0 4,100 7.5 Residence Urban 1.1 6.4 32.0 9.0 25.5 25.8 100.0 11,545 13.1 Rural 1.7 15.5 53.5 5.6 13.0 10.8 100.0 5,286 9.4 Region North 1.4 7.1 35.9 7.3 23.2 25.0 100.0 3,077 11.6 Central 1.3 10.3 41.6 9.4 18.9 18.5 100.0 2,067 9.9 East 0.9 7.2 35.6 9.2 25.0 22.0 100.0 5,390 11.5 South 1.0 8.7 41.5 7.7 20.2 20.9 100.0 2,549 10.5 West 1.8 13.9 42.2 6.0 17.7 18.3 100.0 3,749 9.9 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.7 20.0 55.4 5.5 11.7 5.7 100.0 3,549 9.0 Second 1.8 9.2 46.5 7.8 20.3 14.4 100.0 3,289 10.0 Middle 1.0 7.6 38.1 8.2 24.5 20.5 100.0 3,380 11.0 Fourth 0.9 4.3 30.4 9.9 26.7 27.7 100.0 3,428 14.0 Highest 0.9 4.6 21.9 8.4 25.4 38.8 100.0 3,185 14.9 Total 1.3 9.3 38.8 8.0 21.6 21.1 100.0 16,831 10.7 1 Or similar institutions with levels III-IV of state accreditation for institutions of higher education Table 2.4.2 Educational attainment of the male household population Percent distribution of the de facto male household populations age six and over by highest level of schooling attended or completed and median grade completed, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic No education Primary Secondary PTU Tekhnicum University1 Total Number Median years completed Age 6-9 26.9 73.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 605 0.9 10-14 0.4 18.2 81.2 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 913 5.5 15-19 0.8 0.1 63.0 8.1 12.8 15.2 100.0 982 10.3 20-24 0.4 0.5 22.0 15.9 20.1 41.0 100.0 1,085 14.3 25-29 0.1 0.2 24.4 17.2 22.5 35.7 100.0 1,085 14.7 30-34 0.4 0.2 29.7 18.8 22.1 28.6 100.0 1,067 13.4 35-39 0.6 0.1 29.6 19.2 24.0 26.2 100.0 1,036 12.7 40-44 0.2 0.2 32.5 18.2 27.7 21.2 100.0 956 11.9 45-49 0.2 0.1 33.4 18.1 27.2 21.0 100.0 1,123 11.8 50-54 0.1 0.4 37.7 14.8 28.1 18.8 100.0 1,222 11.7 55-59 0.2 0.2 40.5 12.1 29.0 18.0 100.0 1,123 11.6 60-64 0.1 1.9 44.1 15.1 20.5 18.1 100.0 653 10.9 65+ 0.8 73.0 0.1 8.3 13.9 13.8 100.0 2,165 9.3 Residence Urban 1.4 5.3 30.5 13.9 23.4 25.5 100.0 9,611 11.9 Rural 1.9 10.2 56.8 10.7 11.3 9.1 100.0 4,406 9.6 Region North 1.6 6.6 35.5 12.2 18.8 25.3 100.0 2,559 11.3 Central 1.1 7.0 43.2 14.5 17.3 16.8 100.0 1,658 10.3 East 1.5 5.0 34.8 13.8 23.1 21.7 100.0 4,465 11.5 South 1.5 6.3 40.5 11.8 19.7 20.1 100.0 2,125 10.8 West 1.8 9.8 43.3 12.2 16.6 16.3 100.0 3,210 10.2 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.6 11.6 59.5 12.0 10.6 4.7 100.0 2,700 9.4 Second 1.7 8.0 48.3 12.8 17.1 12.1 100.0 2,828 10.0 Middle 1.8 5.3 38.2 13.3 23.1 18.2 100.0 2,780 11.1 Fourth 1.6 4.6 29.0 14.7 23.9 26.2 100.0 2,788 12.1 Highest 1.1 4.9 20.1 11.8 23.0 39.1 100.0 2,922 14.7 Total 1.5 6.8 38.7 12.9 19.6 20.3 100.0 14,017 10.9 1 Or similar institutions with levels III-IV of state accreditation for institutions of higher education Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 15 Figure 2.2 presents the age-specific attendance ratios (ASAR) for the population age 6-24 by sex. The ASAR indicates participation in schooling at any level, from primary through higher educa- tion. The closer the ASAR is to 100 percent, the higher the proportion of a given age attending school. In Ukraine, almost all youths of basic secondary age and higher (age 6-17) attend school and there are no significant differences by gender. After age 18, attendance ratios begin to decline and females at- tending school outnumber males. Figure 2.2 Age-specific school attendance rates UDHS 2007 0 9 81 98 98 100 98 99 98 100 96 98 93 78 69 56 49 46 22 13 0 6 87 96 99 100 98 100 99 98 99 100 96 76 72 59 56 46 26 14 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Age 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent Male Female 2.2 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS To assess the socioeconomic conditions under which the population lives, respondents were asked to give specific information about their household environment. Type of water source, sanita- tion facilities, and floor material are characteristics that affect the health status of household members and particularly of children. They also indicate the socioeconomic status of households. Tables 2.5 to 2.8 present major housing characteristics by urban-rural residence. Table 2.5 provides information on the source of drinking water for both households and the de jure population living in those households. 16 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.5 Household drinking water Percent distribution of households and de jure population by source of drinking water, according to residence, Ukraine 2007 Source of drinking water Households Population Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Improved source 93.5 95.4 94.1 93.4 95.7 94.1 Piped water into dwelling/yard/plot 80.1 30.5 65.2 80.1 32.0 64.9 Public tap/standpipe 2.0 3.6 2.5 1.8 3.5 2.4 Tube well or borehole 3.5 5.4 4.0 3.6 5.5 4.2 Protected dug well 7.8 54.9 22.0 7.7 53.4 22.2 Protected spring 0.1 1.0 0.4 0.1 1.3 0.5 Nonimproved source 0.5 4.3 1.7 0.5 4.0 1.6 Unprotected dug well 0.2 2.9 1.0 0.2 2.6 1.0 Unprotected spring 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Tanker truck/cart with small tank 0.2 1.3 0.6 0.2 1.3 0.6 Bottled water, improved source for cooking/washing1 5.7 0.1 4.0 5.8 0.1 4.0 Bottled water, nonimproved source for cooking/washing1 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.1 Other 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Missing 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percentage using any improved source of drinking water 99.2 95.5 98.1 99.2 95.8 98.1 Number 9,364 4,015 13,379 22,406 10,403 32,809 1 Because the quality of bottled water is not known, households using bottled water for drinking are classified as using an improved or nonimproved source according to their water source for cooking and washing. Table 2.5 shows that 98 percent of the households use improved sources for drinking water.1 Two-thirds of households in Ukraine have their drinking water piped directly into the house, yard, or plot. Urban households are much more likely than rural households to have piped water in their house, yard, or plot (80 percent and 31 percent, respectively). More than half of rural households (55 percent) get water from protected dug wells, compared with 8 percent of urban households. Poor sanitation coupled with unsafe water sources increases the risk of water-borne diseases and illnesses due to poor hygiene. Table 2.6 shows the proportion of households and of the de jure population having access to hygienic sanitation facilities. A household’s toilet/latrine facility is classi- fied as hygienic if it is used only by household members (i.e., not shared) and the type of facility ef- fectively separates human waste from human contact. The types of facilities that are most likely to accomplish this are flush or pour flush into a piped sewer system/septic tank and ventilated and im- proved pit latrine with a slab. 1 Improved water sources include piped water, public tap, tube well or borehole, protected dug well, or protected spring. Households using bottled water for drinking are classified as using an improved or nonimproved source according to their water source for cooking and washing. Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 17 Table 2.6 Household sanitation facilities Percent distribution of households and de jure population by type of toilet/latrine facilities, according to residence, Ukraine 2007 Type of toilet/ latrine facility Households Population Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Improved, not shared facility Flush/pour flush to piped sewer system 68.8 5.7 49.9 67.8 5.9 48.2 Flush/pour flush to septic tank 1.4 2.1 1.6 1.7 2.2 1.9 Flush/pour flush to pit latrine 6.1 6.0 6.1 7.0 6.9 7.0 Pit latrine with slab 18.6 79.6 36.9 19.0 79.4 38.1 Composting toilet 0.4 1.1 0.6 0.3 1.0 0.5 Nonimproved facility Any facility shared with other households 3.4 1.6 2.8 3.1 1.4 2.5 Flush/pour flush not to sewer/ septic tank/pit latrine 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 Pit latrine without slab/open pit 0.7 2.5 1.3 0.6 2.0 1.0 Bucket 0.1 1.0 0.4 0.1 0.9 0.3 No facility/bush/field 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 9,364 4,015 13,379 22,406 10,403 32,809 Ninety-five percent of households in Ukraine use improved sanitation facilities that are not shared with another household (Table 2.6). Half of households in Ukraine use a flush toilet connected to a piped sewer system and more than one-third use a pit latrine with slab. Flush toilets are wide- spread in urban areas (76 percent), while pit latrines with slab are the most common type of facility in rural areas (80 percent). Five percent of households use a nonimproved toilet. Overall, most of the respondents in urban areas live in environments with more adequate sani- tary conditions (Table 2.7). Almost all households in Ukraine have electricity. The majority of rural households have wood/plank floors (63 percent), while linoleum (39 percent) is widely used in urban areas as floor material, followed by wood/planks (28 percent). Parquet or polished wood floors are about equally common in urban and rural areas (20 percent and 18 percent, respectively). In Ukraine, just under one-third of households (31 percent) have one room used for sleeping while close to half of households (45 percent) have two rooms for sleeping. Among households using one or two rooms for sleeping, a slightly higher proportion of households in urban areas use two rooms for sleeping than those in rural areas. Smoke from solid fuels used for cooking, such as charcoal, wood, and other biomass fuels, is a major cause of respiratory infections. The type of fuel used for cooking, the location where food is cooked, and the type of stove used are all related to indoor air quality and the degree to which house- hold members are exposed to risk of respiratory infections and other diseases. Overall, more than eight in ten households cook in the house. For more than 90 percent of urban households, the place for cooking is inside the house while rural households are less likely to cook in the house (66 percent). Cooking fuel also affects the air quality for household members. The main cooking fuel used in Ukraine is liquid petroleum gas (LPG)/natural gas/biogas for 88 percent of all households, regardless of place of residence. Reducing the proportion of the population relying on solid fuels is a Millennium Development Goal, and in Ukraine, this proportion is only 4 percent (2 percent in urban and 8 percent in rural). 18 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.7 Household characteristics Percent distribution of households and de jure population by housing characteristics and percentage using solid fuel for cooking; and among those using solid fuels, percent distribution by type of fire/stove, according to residence, Ukraine 2007 Housing characteristic Households Population Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Electricity Yes 99.9 99.6 99.8 99.9 99.7 99.8 No 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Flooring material Earth/sand/dung 0.1 0.9 0.3 0.0 0.7 0.3 Wood/planks 28.3 63.0 38.7 27.4 59.7 37.7 Parquet or polished wood 19.9 18.1 19.3 20.7 19.5 20.3 Ceramic tiles 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 Concrete 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.9 0.8 Carpet 7.6 5.0 6.8 7.7 6.1 7.2 Laminate 3.3 0.5 2.5 3.6 0.6 2.6 Linoleum 38.8 10.5 30.3 38.4 11.2 29.7 Other 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.9 0.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Rooms used for sleeping One 32.4 29.1 31.4 21.5 16.2 19.8 Two 46.1 42.2 45.0 48.4 43.2 46.8 Three or more 20.1 27.3 22.3 28.7 39.1 32.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Place for cooking In the house 91.4 66.2 83.9 90.5 64.7 82.3 In a separate building 7.7 33.0 15.3 8.8 34.7 17.0 Outdoors 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Other 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Cooking fuel Electricity 9.9 3.3 8.0 9.7 2.8 7.5 LPG/natural gas/biogas 87.6 87.8 87.7 88.2 88.9 88.4 Coal/lignite 1.8 0.9 1.5 1.5 0.7 1.3 Charcoal 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 Wood 0.4 7.6 2.5 0.3 7.4 2.6 No food cooked in household 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percentage using solid fuel for cooking1 2.2 8.7 4.2 1.9 8.3 3.9 Number of households 9,364 4,015 13,379 22,406 10,403 32,809 Note: Total includes missing cases LPG = Liquid petroleum gas 1 Includes coal/lignite, charcoal and wood The availability of durable goods is a proximate measure of household socioeconomic status. Moreover, particular goods have specific benefits. For example, having access to a radio or a televi- sion exposes household members to innovative ideas; a refrigerator prolongs the wholesomeness of foods; and a means of transport allows greater access to many services away from the local area. Ta- ble 2.8 provides information on household ownership of durable goods (radios, televisions, tele- phones, and refrigerators) and modes of transportation (bicycles, motorcycles, and automobiles). Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 19 Table 2.8 Household possessions Percentage of households and de jure population possessing various household effects, means of transportation, agricultural land and livestock/farm animals by residence, Ukraine 2007 Possession Households Population Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Household effects Radio 73.0 67.1 71.2 73.1 67.5 71.3 Television 98.2 94.9 97.2 98.8 96.7 98.2 Mobile telephone 73.4 56.3 68.2 82.4 69.8 78.4 Non-mobile telephone 68.3 31.3 57.2 70.4 36.0 59.5 Refrigerator 97.8 88.4 95.0 98.5 91.9 96.4 DVD 38.6 20.4 33.1 47.6 29.0 41.7 Air conditioner 5.3 0.6 3.9 6.2 0.8 4.5 Satellite dish 9.4 8.8 9.2 11.7 12.1 11.8 Computer 25.0 8.1 19.9 31.8 11.4 25.3 Washing machine 83.3 72.7 80.1 87.3 79.3 84.8 Means of transport Bicycle 32.3 59.2 40.4 38.3 68.4 47.8 Animal drawn cart 0.2 6.6 2.1 0.3 8.5 2.9 Motorcycle/scooter 7.0 13.1 8.9 8.9 16.7 11.3 Car/truck 28.1 22.3 26.4 33.8 29.7 32.5 Boat with a motor 1.5 0.8 1.3 1.6 0.9 1.4 Ownership of agricultural land 31.2 86.8 47.9 33.3 88.0 50.6 Ownership of farm animals1 14.0 79.5 33.7 15.5 83.7 37.1 Number 9,364 4,015 13,379 22,406 10,403 32,809 1 Cows, bulls, horses, donkeys, goats, sheep, pigs, rabbits, nutria, geese, turkeys or chickens The results indicate that urban households are slightly more likely than rural households to own durable goods. Overall, 97 percent of Ukrainian households have a television, 95 percent have a refrigerator, 80 percent have a washing machine, 71 percent have a radio, and 68 percent have a mo- bile telephone. Both mobile and nonmobile telephones are much more common in urban areas than in rural areas. Urban households are much more likely than rural households to have a computer (25 per- cent and 8 percent, respectively). More than one in four households in Ukraine have a car or truck, and 40 percent have a bi- cycle. Bicycles are more common in rural areas than in urban areas (59 percent and 32 percent, re- spectively). Rural households are more likely than urban households to own an animal drawn cart or motorcycle/scooter. Forty-eight percent of Ukrainian households own agricultural land; the proportion is unders- tandably higher in rural than urban areas (87 percent and 31 percent, respectively). Thirty-four percent of Ukrainian households own farm animals (80 percent in rural and 14 percent in urban areas). 2.3 WEALTH QUINTILES The wealth index was developed and tested in a number of countries as a tool for assessing inequities in household income and relating those inequities to use of health services and health out- comes (Rutstein and Johnston, 2004; Rutstein et al., 2000). The wealth index is constructed by assign- ing a weight or factor score to each household asset through principal components analysis. These scores are summed by household, and individuals are ranked according to the total score of the house- hold in which they reside. The sample is then divided into population quintiles—five groups with an equal number of individuals in each group. At the national level, approximately 20 percent of the population is in each wealth quintile. 20 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.9 Wealth quintiles Percent distribution of the jure population by wealth quintiles, according to residence and region, Ukraine 2007 Residence/region Wealth quintile Total Number of population Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Residence Urban 8.0 12.5 22.4 28.1 28.9 100.0 22,406 Rural 45.8 36.1 14.8 2.7 0.6 100.0 10,403 Region North 17.6 15.4 17.0 19.5 30.4 100.0 5,994 Central 26.6 27.0 17.2 15.9 13.3 100.0 3,897 East 14.4 15.2 21.5 23.1 25.8 100.0 10,349 South 17.8 23.3 23.2 21.4 14.3 100.0 4,981 West 27.5 24.5 19.7 17.4 10.8 100.0 7,588 Total 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 32,809 Table 2.9 shows the distribution of the population across the five wealth quintiles by urban-rural residence and region. These distributions indicate the degree to which wealth is evenly (or unevenly) distributed by geographic areas. The findings indicate that wealth in Ukraine is concen- trated in urban areas. Among the population in urban areas, 29 percent is in the highest wealth quintile and 28 percent is in the fourth quintile, compared with a total of only 3 percent of the household population in rural areas. Marked differentials in welfare levels are also observed between regions. For example, about half of the population in the North and East regions is in the highest two wealth quintiles. In contrast, in the Central and West regions, more than half of the household population falls into the lowest two wealth quintiles. Background Characteristics of Respondents | 21 BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS 3 The purpose of this chapter is to provide a demographic and socioeconomic profile of the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) sample. Information on the basic characteris- tics of women and men interviewed in the survey is essential for the interpretation of findings pre- sented later in the report and also can provide an indication of the representativeness of the survey. For tables in this report that relate to the general adult population, the base population includes wom- en and men age 15-49. 3.1 BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS Table 3.1 presents the percent distribution of interviewed women and men age 15-49 by background characteristics including age, marital status, educational level, place of residence, and region. As noted in Chapter 1, all women age 15-49 who were usual residents or present in the house- hold on the night before the interviewer’s visit were eligible to be interviewed in the 2007 UDHS. Men age 15-49 meeting the same criteria were interviewed in one-half of the selected households. In order not to double count respondents, the tables in this report are based on the de facto population, that is, those who stayed in the household the previous night. For the most part, the male and female populations represented in the sample are fairly evenly distributed by age; however, there are somewhat greater proportions of women and men in their mid- to late forties than in younger age groups. This distribution is quite similar to the age distribution in the 2001 Ukraine Population Census (SSC, 2003b). The majority of both women and men are married or living together, with a slightly greater proportion of married women (55 percent) versus married men (51 percent). Fourteen percent of women are divorced or separated and 3 percent are widowed, compared with 9 percent and 1 percent of men, respectively. Twenty-three percent of women and 33 percent of men have never been married. Slightly more than 70 percent of UDHS respondents live in urban areas. Around one-third of respondents live in the East. Roughly 20 percent live in the North, a similar percentage live in the West, 15 percent are from the South, and 11 percent reside in the Central region. Women and men in Ukraine are universally well educated, with almost all having at least some secondary or higher education. Eleven percent of women and 17 percent of men have attended Professionalnoe Tekhnicheskoye Uchilische (PTU). Twenty-seven percent of women have attended a tekhnicum, as have 22 percent of men. Similarly, more women (33 percent) than men (27 percent) have higher education. Slightly more than one-fourth of women and men (27 percent) are living in households ranked in the highest wealth quintile, and 12 percent of women and 14 percent of men live in households ranked in the lowest wealth quintile. The majority of women (81 percent) and men (64 percent) report Orthodox Christianity as their religion. Eleven percent of women and almost three in ten men (29 percent) report no religion. 22 | Background Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 according to selected background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women Men Weighted percentage Weighted number Unweighted number Weighted percentage Weighted number Unweighted number Age 15-19 11.4 782 830 14.0 444 451 20-24 14.7 1,006 977 14.4 459 459 25-29 14.6 998 953 13.7 436 420 30-34 14.4 984 1,002 15.1 479 483 35-39 15.3 1,049 1,051 14.1 449 461 40-44 13.7 936 946 12.6 399 393 45-49 15.9 1,085 1,082 16.1 512 511 Religion Christian Orthodox 81.0 5,541 5,556 64.2 2,041 2,129 Christian Catholic 5.0 345 373 3.9 123 128 Christian Protestant 1.2 80 78 0.8 25 27 Islam 0.9 63 98 1.1 33 46 Judaism 0.1 5 3 0.3 11 6 No religion 11.2 769 692 29.0 920 817 Other/missing 0.6 37 41 0.7 24 25 Marital status Never married 22.6 1,544 1,520 32.9 1,044 1,058 Married 55.3 3,781 3,882 50.7 1,611 1,645 Living together 4.9 335 313 5.9 188 158 Divorced/separated 13.8 945 897 9.1 290 278 Widowed 3.4 236 229 1.4 45 39 Residence Urban 71.4 4,887 4,291 71.7 2,277 1,993 Rural 28.6 1,954 2,550 28.3 901 1,185 Region North 19.7 1,345 1,277 19.4 616 590 Central 11.9 817 1,334 11.1 354 565 East 31.0 2,120 1,117 33.4 1,060 590 South 15.3 1,049 1,488 15.5 493 725 West 22.1 1,509 1,625 20.6 654 708 Education No education 0.0 2 2 0.1 2 2 Primary 0.1 7 10 0.1 2 3 Secondary 28.7 1,966 2,170 33.5 1,063 1,133 PTU 11.0 754 761 17.2 548 561 Tekhnicum 26.8 1,831 1,737 21.7 691 666 University1 33.3 2,281 2,161 27.4 872 813 Wealth quintile Lowest 12.4 847 1,004 13.6 432 508 Second 21.0 1,437 1,711 20.5 651 783 Middle 18.6 1,276 1,391 19.6 622 661 Fourth 21.2 1,451 1,266 19.6 623 549 Highest 26.8 1,831 1,469 26.7 849 677 Total 100.0 6,841 6,841 100.0 3,178 3,178 Note: Education categories refer to the highest level of education attended, whether or not that level was completed. 1 University or similar institutions of levels III-IV of state accreditation for higher education institutions 3.2 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS Tables 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 show the educational level of female and male respondents by selected background characteristics. The results reflect the fact that education has been almost universal in Ukraine for some time. Overall, a negligible percentage of respondents have never attended school, and the majority have attained at least a secondary or higher education. The median years of schooling for women is 14.2 years and for men is 11.9 years. Background Characteristics of Respondents | 23 Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment: women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median grade completed, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Highest level of schooling Total Median years completed Number of women No education Primary Secondary PTU Tekhnicum University1 Age 15-24 0.0 0.1 38.6 9.0 15.0 37.2 100.0 12.3 1,788 15-19 0.0 0.2 61.9 5.1 12.4 20.4 100.0 10.3 782 20-24 0.0 0.1 20.5 12.1 17.0 50.4 100.0 14.6 1,006 25-29 0.1 0.1 25.4 9.7 25.5 39.3 100.0 15.0 998 30-34 0.0 0.1 26.6 12.2 29.1 32.0 100.0 14.6 984 35-39 0.0 0.1 24.5 12.5 31.2 31.7 100.0 14.7 1,049 40-44 0.0 0.1 24.6 13.1 33.0 29.2 100.0 14.6 936 45-49 0.1 0.1 25.1 11.2 35.6 27.8 100.0 14.7 1,085 Residence Urban 0.0 0.1 20.4 11.4 29.1 39.0 100.0 14.8 4,887 Rural 0.1 0.1 49.5 10.1 21.0 19.3 100.0 10.8 1,954 Region North 0.0 0.0 25.7 9.3 25.1 39.9 100.0 14.4 1,345 Central 0.0 0.2 30.2 14.2 25.3 30.1 100.0 13.6 817 East 0.0 0.0 22.4 12.5 32.7 32.3 100.0 14.6 2,120 South 0.0 0.4 33.0 9.9 24.9 31.9 100.0 13.8 1,049 West 0.1 0.1 36.5 9.6 21.9 31.7 100.0 13.2 1,509 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.1 0.2 55.4 11.7 20.8 11.8 100.0 10.4 847 Second 0.0 0.2 41.0 11.3 26.3 21.2 100.0 11.7 1,437 Middle 0.0 0.1 27.8 11.5 28.5 32.2 100.0 14.1 1,276 Fourth 0.1 0.0 19.5 11.2 30.4 38.8 100.0 14.8 1,451 Highest 0.0 0.1 14.8 10.0 25.8 49.3 100.0 15.4 1,831 Total 0.0 0.1 28.7 11.0 26.8 33.3 100.0 14.2 6,841 1 University or similar institutions of levels III-IV of state accreditation for higher education institutions Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median grade completed, accord- ing to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Highest level of schooling Total Median years completed Number of men No education Primary Secondary PTU Tekhnicum University1 Age 15-24 0.1 0.1 42.1 11.4 17.2 29.1 100.0 11.5 903 15-19 0.0 0.1 65.3 6.8 13.7 14.1 100.0 10.3 444 20-24 0.3 0.0 19.7 15.9 20.6 43.5 100.0 14.5 459 25-29 0.0 0.0 24.4 18.9 22.2 34.5 100.0 14.7 436 30-34 0.0 0.2 30.7 20.0 20.9 28.2 100.0 11.9 479 35-39 0.2 0.0 26.0 24.5 21.4 27.9 100.0 12.0 449 40-44 0.0 0.0 31.4 16.2 28.6 23.9 100.0 14.2 399 45-49 0.0 0.1 36.7 17.9 25.2 20.1 100.0 11.6 512 Residence Urban 0.1 0.0 26.4 16.9 23.5 33.2 100.0 14.2 2,277 Rural 0.1 0.2 51.4 18.2 17.3 12.8 100.0 10.6 901 Region North 0.2 0.0 28.2 17.3 19.5 34.9 100.0 13.4 616 Central 0.0 0.0 37.2 22.6 19.5 20.7 100.0 11.2 354 East 0.0 0.0 32.6 16.0 24.6 26.8 100.0 12.9 1,060 South 0.0 0.2 37.3 13.5 21.5 27.6 100.0 11.9 493 West 0.1 0.2 35.0 19.1 20.7 25.0 100.0 11.7 654 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.2 0.5 54.0 25.4 13.6 6.3 100.0 10.4 432 Second 0.0 0.0 46.3 17.8 22.2 13.7 100.0 10.9 651 Middle 0.0 0.0 34.6 17.2 24.4 23.8 100.0 11.9 622 Fourth 0.0 0.0 23.4 18.6 24.4 33.6 100.0 14.4 623 Highest 0.1 0.0 19.8 11.6 21.6 46.8 100.0 15.2 849 Total 0.1 0.1 33.5 17.2 21.7 27.4 100.0 11.9 3,178 1 University or similar institutions of levels III-IV of state accreditation for higher education institutions 24 | Background Characteristics of Respondents Although virtually all female respondents had attended secondary school, there are marked differences across subgroups of the population in the proportions who have gone beyond that level. For example, Table 3.2.1 shows that 39 percent of urban women have university education, compared with only 19 percent of rural women. There also is some variation by region, with the largest propor- tion of university-educated women living in the North region (40 percent) and the smallest proportion in the Central region (30 percent). Attainment of a higher education is closely related to wealth status; 49 percent of women in the highest wealth quintile have at least some university education, compared with 12 percent of women in the lowest quintile. Overall, the median number of years of schooling varies from 10.4 years among women in the lowest wealth quintile to 15.4 years among those in the highest quintile. As Table 3.2.2 shows, the pattern of educational attainment among men is similar to that of women. Thirty-three percent of urban men have some university-level education, compared with 13 percent of rural men. Residents in the North region seem to have an educational advantage over the rest of the country: 35 percent of men in the North region are university-educated, compared with 21 percent in the Central region. Wealth status is positively associated with education; while 6 percent of men in the lowest wealth quintile have higher education, the corresponding proportion for men in the highest wealth quintile is 47 percent. Like women, men living in the wealthiest households have, on average, almost five additional years of schooling compared with men in the poorest households (15.2 and 10.4 years, respectively). 3.3 EXPOSURE TO MASS MEDIA The 2007 UDHS collected information on the exposure of women and men to both broadcast and print media. This information is important because it can help program managers plan the disse- mination of information on health, family planning, nutrition, and other programs. The results are pre- sented in Tables 3.3.1 and 3.3.2. Table 3.3.1 Exposure to mass media: women Percentage of women age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, by background characte- ristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week All three media at least once a week No media at least once a week Number of women Age 15-19 68.9 98.0 69.4 50.9 0.8 782 20-24 74.8 98.1 72.4 57.6 1.2 1,006 25-29 76.7 98.1 68.0 57.7 1.1 998 30-34 73.7 97.7 66.1 53.5 1.1 984 35-39 76.2 97.7 65.7 54.6 1.0 1,049 40-44 75.5 97.7 62.1 52.0 1.1 936 45-49 75.0 96.3 64.3 52.5 1.8 1,085 Residence Urban 78.5 98.0 70.8 59.2 0.9 4,887 Rural 64.9 96.8 56.8 41.8 1.8 1,954 Region North 71.9 98.0 70.4 54.9 0.6 1,345 Central 71.7 96.4 66.1 46.0 0.8 817 East 86.8 98.5 73.7 68.1 0.8 2,120 South 64.0 95.1 61.0 44.7 3.4 1,049 West 68.8 98.4 58.1 45.3 1.0 1,509 Education Secondary or less 61.8 96.9 60.8 42.7 1.7 2,729 Higher 83.1 98.1 70.8 61.9 0.8 4,112 Wealth quintile Lowest 61.5 95.5 50.5 35.8 2.9 847 Second 70.9 97.2 61.2 48.5 1.5 1,437 Middle 73.4 97.6 64.8 52.0 1.2 1,276 Fourth 77.0 97.6 68.9 55.3 0.9 1,451 Highest 82.4 99.0 78.3 68.0 0.4 1,831 Total 74.6 97.6 66.8 54.2 1.2 6,841 Background Characteristics of Respondents | 25 Nearly all Ukrainian women (98 percent) watch television at least once a week, 75 percent read a newspaper, and 67 percent listen to the radio (Table 3.3.1). Only 1 percent do not regularly have exposure to any of the three media, compared with 54 percent who are exposed to all three me- dia on a weekly basis. Women age 20-29 are somewhat more likely than older women to report exposure to all three types of media. Exposure to all forms of media is clearly associated with residence, education, and wealth. Fifty-nine percent of urban women are exposed to television, radio, and newspapers, com- pared with 42 percent of rural women. Women from the East are markedly more likely to be exposed to all of the media (68 percent) than women from other regions. Sixty-two percent of women with a higher education are exposed to all three media, compared with 43 percent of women with secondary or lower level education. Sixty-eight percent of women in the highest wealth quintile are exposed to all three media, compared with 36 percent of women in the lowest wealth quintile. Compared with women, a higher proportion of men listen to the radio at least once a week (76 percent) and a smaller proportion read a newspaper at least once a week (68 percent). Overall, howev- er, the proportion of men exposed to all three types of media (54 percent) is identical to the rate ob- served among women (Table 3.3.2) and, as is the case among women, only 1 percent of men are not regularly exposed to mass media. Table 3.3.2 also shows that, for men, the relationships between ex- posure to mass media and background characteristics are generally similar to those observed among women. Table 3.3.2 Exposure to mass media: men Percentage of men age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, by background characteris- tics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week All three media at least once a week No media at least once a week Number of men Age 15-19 52.1 98.5 74.7 40.6 1.2 444 20-24 66.2 97.1 77.6 54.1 2.3 459 25-29 71.7 97.8 79.1 59.4 0.5 436 30-34 69.6 94.8 78.1 56.5 2.0 479 35-39 73.3 97.9 76.4 58.4 0.9 449 40-44 72.2 98.2 70.5 54.4 0.5 399 45-49 70.4 96.4 74.4 56.2 1.2 512 Residence Urban 71.8 97.3 79.6 59.4 1.1 2,277 Rural 58.1 96.9 66.7 41.3 1.8 901 Region North 78.7 97.2 74.7 63.6 1.0 616 Central 56.2 96.8 63.0 37.4 1.8 354 East 74.1 97.9 83.5 63.3 0.7 1,060 South 52.5 94.9 72.6 39.3 2.2 493 West 65.8 97.9 74.2 51.2 1.3 654 Education Secondary or less 55.8 96.2 70.3 41.0 1.9 1,615 Higher 80.4 98.2 81.7 68.1 0.6 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 53.2 95.0 55.3 32.6 3.1 432 Second 59.9 97.3 72.1 44.1 1.1 651 Middle 66.3 97.0 75.3 51.6 1.6 622 Fourth 71.2 97.9 78.6 58.8 0.2 623 Highest 80.4 97.8 87.8 71.7 1.0 849 Total 67.9 97.2 75.9 54.3 1.3 3,178 3.4 EMPLOYMENT In the 2007 UDHS, respondents were asked about their employment status at the time of the survey and, if they were not currently employed, about any work they may have done in the 12 26 | Background Characteristics of Respondents months prior to the survey1. All employed respondents were asked additional questions about their occupation; whether they were paid in cash, in kind, or not at all; and for whom they worked. Tables 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 show the percent distribution of female and male respondents by em- ployment status according to background characteristics. A high proportion of women (72 percent) reported being currently employed, 2 percent were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey but not working at the time of the survey, and 26 percent were not employed in the 12 months preced- ing the survey (Figure 3.1). Figure 3.1 Employment status of women and men age 15-49 UDHS 2007 Currently employed 72% Not currently employed 2% No work past 12 months 26% Currently employed 78% Not currently employed 3% No work past 12 months 19% Women Men A slightly higher proportion of men (78 percent) than women reported being currently em- ployed. Three percent of men reported that they were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey but not working at the time of the survey, and 19 percent reported that they were not employed during the 12 months preceding the survey. Looking at the differentials, employment among women and men generally increases with age. Women with three or more living children are less likely to be currently employed compared with those with one or two living children. However, the lowest proportion of currently employed women is among those with no living children, which is usually associated with young age. Women and men who are currently or formerly married are more likely than their never-married counterparts to be employed at the time of the survey. Women and men in urban areas are more likely to be currently employed than their rural counterparts. Employment among women and men is highest in the East region (79 and 82 percent, respectively), and lowest in the West region (61 and 71 percent, respectively). The likelihood that a 1 The measurement of women’s employment can be especially difficult because some of the activities that women do, especially work on family farms, family businesses, or in the informal sector, are often not perceived by women themselves as employment and hence are not reported as such. To avoid underestimating women’s employment, therefore, the questions relating to employment in the Women’s Questionnaire encouraged women to report such activities. First, women were asked, “Aside from your own housework, have you done any work in the last seven days?” Women who answered “No” to this question were then asked, “As you know, some women take up jobs for which they are paid in cash or kind. Others sell things, have a small business, or work on the family farm or in the family business. In the last seven days, have you done any of these things or any other work?” Background Characteristics of Respondents | 27 woman is currently employed increases with both her education level and the wealth status of her household. Among men, the employment rate also tends to increase with education and wealth status, although the relationships are not as uniform as among women (Figure 3.2). Table 3.4.1 Employment status: women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by employment status, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Total Number of women Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 11.6 2.3 86.0 100.0 782 20-24 58.1 3.2 38.7 100.0 1,006 25-29 80.3 1.0 18.6 100.0 998 30-34 85.4 1.7 12.9 100.0 984 35-39 83.4 2.3 14.0 100.0 1,049 40-44 85.4 1.0 13.6 100.0 936 45-49 83.5 2.2 14.2 100.0 1,085 Marital status Never married 41.3 2.3 56.3 100.0 1,544 Married or living together 78.2 1.9 19.8 100.0 4,116 Divorced/separated/widowed 88.4 1.5 10.1 100.0 1,181 Number of living children 0 51.7 2.3 45.9 100.0 2,098 1-2 81.9 1.7 16.4 100.0 4,379 3+ 62.8 3.3 33.7 100.0 364 Residence Urban 76.3 1.6 22.0 100.0 4,887 Rural 59.8 3.0 37.2 100.0 1,954 Region North 77.8 1.7 20.5 100.0 1,345 Central 66.4 2.2 31.3 100.0 817 East 78.7 1.1 20.1 100.0 2,120 South 68.4 2.7 28.9 100.0 1,049 West 61.2 2.7 36.0 100.0 1,509 Education Secondary or less 60.4 2.5 37.0 100.0 2,729 Higher 79.1 1.6 19.3 100.0 4,112 Wealth quintile Lowest 56.9 3.6 39.4 100.0 847 Second 63.7 2.6 33.7 100.0 1,437 Middle 70.4 1.7 27.9 100.0 1,276 Fourth 77.6 1.4 20.8 100.0 1,451 Highest 80.7 1.4 18.0 100.0 1,831 Total 71.6 2.0 26.4 100.0 6,841 1 “Currently employed” is defined as having done work in the past seven days. Includes persons who did not work in the past seven days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vaca- tion, or any other such reason. 28 | Background Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.4.2 Employment status: men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 by employment status, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Total Number of men Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 17.5 3.7 78.7 100.0 444 20-24 69.4 4.2 26.3 100.0 459 25-29 93.5 1.5 5.0 100.0 436 30-34 93.0 2.5 4.5 100.0 479 35-39 93.5 1.4 5.1 100.0 449 40-44 93.0 2.2 4.9 100.0 399 45-49 87.4 4.8 7.7 100.0 512 Marital status Never married 49.5 3.7 46.7 100.0 1,044 Married or living together 93.0 2.6 4.4 100.0 1,799 Divorced/separated/widowed 89.2 2.3 8.5 100.0 334 Residence Urban 80.5 2.6 16.9 100.0 2,277 Rural 72.6 3.9 23.4 100.0 901 Region North 78.7 1.7 19.4 100.0 616 Central 78.1 4.1 17.8 100.0 354 East 82.4 3.3 14.3 100.0 1,060 South 79.1 4.0 16.8 100.0 493 West 70.7 2.1 27.1 100.0 654 Education Secondary or less 74.8 3.4 21.7 100.0 1,615 Higher 81.8 2.5 15.6 100.0 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 73.1 4.9 22.0 100.0 432 Second 74.0 3.3 22.6 100.0 651 Middle 79.4 4.6 16.0 100.0 622 Fourth 81.1 1.1 17.8 100.0 623 Highest 81.3 1.9 16.7 100.0 849 Total 78.3 2.9 18.7 100.0 3,178 1 “Currently employed” is defined as having done work in the past seven days. Includes persons who did not work in the past seven days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vaca- tion, or any other such reason. Figure 3.2 Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who are currently employed, by background characteristics UDHS 2007 81 73 75 82 73 74 79 81 81 76 60 60 79 57 64 70 78 81 RESIDENCE Urban Rural MOTHER’S EDUCATION Secondary or less Higher WEALTH QUINTILE Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percentage currently employed Men Women Background Characteristics of Respondents | 29 3.5 OCCUPATION Information on a woman’s occupation not only allows an evaluation of the woman’s source of income but also has implications for her empowerment. To obtain information on occupation in the survey, respondents who indicated that they were currently working or had been employed in the 12- month period prior to the survey were asked about the kind of work they did. Their responses were recorded verbatim and served as the basis for the coding of occupation that occurred in the central office. Table 3.5.1 Occupation: women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background cha- racteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Professional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Unskilled manual Agriculture Missing Total Number of women Age 15-19 3.3 14.8 46.7 11.7 12.6 3.4 7.6 100.0 108 20-24 22.6 20.9 40.9 7.0 4.2 0.6 3.7 100.0 617 25-29 33.3 20.6 31.0 6.4 6.5 1.0 1.2 100.0 812 30-34 29.6 20.0 31.7 8.3 7.0 2.6 0.8 100.0 858 35-39 26.4 19.7 34.1 9.8 7.4 2.4 0.1 100.0 899 40-44 30.5 19.3 30.9 8.6 8.2 2.0 0.4 100.0 808 45-49 30.4 16.7 28.3 10.6 9.9 2.7 1.3 100.0 931 Marital status Never married 26.7 19.9 35.4 8.8 6.4 0.5 2.3 100.0 673 Married or living together 29.3 19.6 31.6 8.8 7.4 2.2 1.2 100.0 3,298 Divorced/separated/widowed 27.2 18.2 34.5 8.2 8.5 2.4 1.0 100.0 1,062 Number of living children 0 30.8 21.2 33.0 7.1 4.6 1.1 2.2 100.0 1,134 1-2 28.5 19.4 32.3 9.0 7.9 2.0 1.0 100.0 3,658 3+ 18.2 8.4 38.0 10.9 15.1 7.2 2.2 100.0 241 Residence Urban 30.5 20.4 32.6 9.0 5.7 0.3 1.5 100.0 3,807 Rural 22.4 15.9 33.2 7.4 13.1 7.3 0.6 100.0 1,226 Region North 34.4 20.3 28.9 7.5 6.5 1.5 1.0 100.0 1,070 Central 24.4 22.4 33.1 6.7 9.7 3.2 0.4 100.0 561 East 27.1 18.6 32.8 11.7 7.1 1.4 1.3 100.0 1,692 South 28.4 19.1 35.2 6.4 8.4 2.1 0.5 100.0 746 West 26.8 17.8 34.6 7.5 7.4 3.1 2.7 100.0 965 Education Secondary or less 4.7 9.8 47.7 16.0 15.7 4.7 1.6 100.0 1,717 Higher 40.8 24.2 25.0 4.9 3.3 0.7 1.1 100.0 3,316 Wealth quintile Lowest 15.5 12.9 34.4 9.5 18.0 8.6 1.1 100.0 512 Second 23.6 18.5 35.0 9.4 8.7 4.2 0.7 100.0 953 Middle 25.1 20.7 34.1 9.2 8.0 1.6 1.2 100.0 920 Fourth 31.2 19.3 32.3 9.8 6.1 0.1 1.2 100.0 1,146 Highest 36.1 21.1 30.2 6.7 4.0 0.1 1.8 100.0 1,502 Total 28.5 19.3 32.7 8.7 7.5 2.0 1.3 100.0 5,033 Table 3.5.1 shows the percent distribution of women employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics. One-third of employed women are in sales and services; 29 percent are employed in professional, technical, or managerial positions; and 19 percent are employed in clerical positions. Only 2 percent of women work in agriculture. Thirty-one percent of urban women, 41 percent of women with higher education, and more than one-third of women living in households in the highest wealth quintile hold professional, tech- nical, or managerial jobs. The proportions working in sales and services and in skilled and unskilled manual occupations are markedly higher among women with secondary or less education than among other women. 30 | Background Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.5.2 shows that among employed men, 20 percent hold professional, technical, or ma- nagerial positions; 28 percent are employed in sales and services; 38 percent work as skilled manual laborers; and only 2 percent work in agriculture. The variations across subgroups in the occupational profile among employed men are generally similar to those observed among women, with the excep- tion of similar proportions of men working in sales and services in each category of education. Table 3.5.2 Occupation: men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characte- ristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Professional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Unskilled manual Agriculture Missing Total Number of men Age 15-19 5.8 1.7 14.3 27.2 41.1 1.9 8.0 100.0 94 20-24 15.8 4.8 30.2 35.7 9.1 1.0 3.4 100.0 338 25-29 24.4 3.7 31.3 33.5 4.6 1.8 0.7 100.0 415 30-34 22.4 2.3 27.3 37.9 8.0 1.6 0.5 100.0 458 35-39 21.1 2.4 25.9 40.6 6.0 3.5 0.4 100.0 426 40-44 20.3 1.9 27.6 40.7 6.4 2.4 0.6 100.0 380 45-49 17.6 1.3 27.0 42.8 8.2 2.0 1.1 100.0 472 Marital status Never married 15.9 3.9 29.9 32.3 13.5 1.9 2.6 100.0 556 Married or living together 21.1 2.1 28.7 38.9 6.1 2.1 1.0 100.0 1,720 Divorced/separated/widowed 20.2 3.0 17.1 45.7 11.2 2.4 0.5 100.0 306 Residence Urban 23.0 2.7 29.3 36.1 7.3 0.5 1.2 100.0 1,892 Rural 11.2 2.4 23.0 44.3 11.1 6.5 1.4 100.0 689 Region North 26.4 3.7 28.9 32.7 7.0 0.6 0.7 100.0 496 Central 13.5 3.6 30.9 37.3 12.1 2.4 0.2 100.0 291 East 19.5 1.5 25.4 42.0 9.0 1.1 1.4 100.0 908 South 17.8 3.1 29.1 36.2 8.9 3.2 1.6 100.0 410 West 19.4 2.5 27.1 39.2 5.5 4.3 2.0 100.0 477 Education Secondary or less 3.0 1.5 26.9 50.6 14.0 2.9 1.0 100.0 1,263 Higher 36.0 3.6 28.3 26.4 2.8 1.3 1.5 100.0 1,318 Wealth quintile Lowest 8.3 1.5 14.3 53.6 14.6 6.4 1.2 100.0 337 Second 9.5 2.7 29.6 42.4 10.4 4.3 1.1 100.0 503 Middle 19.3 2.1 27.3 39.4 10.0 1.3 0.7 100.0 523 Fourth 24.0 3.4 29.9 36.0 4.9 0.6 1.2 100.0 512 Highest 30.1 2.8 31.2 28.9 5.0 0.0 2.0 100.0 706 Total 19.9 2.6 27.6 38.3 8.3 2.1 1.3 100.0 2,582 3.6 EMPLOYMENT CHARACTERISTICS Women who were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey were asked about the type of earnings they received, that is, whether they were paid in cash, in kind, or not at all. They were also asked about whether they were employed by a relative, a nonrelative, or were self-employed. Addi- tionally, women were asked whether they worked continuously throughout the year or seasonally. Table 3.6 presents the results of these questions according to the type of employment (agricultural or nonagricultural). Background Characteristics of Respondents | 31 Table 3.6 Type of employment: women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by type of earnings, type of employer, and continuity of employment, according to type of employment (agricultural or nonagricultural), Ukraine 2007 Employment characteristic Agricultural work Nonagricultural work Total Type of earnings Cash only 55.0 97.4 96.3 Cash and in-kind 32.2 1.8 2.4 In-kind only 1.6 0.1 0.2 Not paid 9.4 0.5 0.8 Missing 1.8 0.2 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Type of employer Employed by family member 4.5 1.8 2.0 Employed by nonfamily member 75.0 90.6 90.0 Self-employed 20.5 7.4 7.6 Missing 0.0 0.2 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Continuity of employment All year 73.2 94.3 93.6 Seasonal 23.6 3.6 4.0 Occasional 3.2 1.8 1.9 Missing 0.0 0.4 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women employed during the past 12 months 102 4,866 5,033 Note: Total includes women with information missing on type of employment who are not shown separately. Overall, 96 percent of employed women earn cash only, 2 percent are paid in cash and in kind, and 1 percent receive either in-kind payment or no payment at all. One in ten women who work in agriculture do not receive payment, and 55 percent are paid in cash only. Ninety-seven percent who work in nonagricultural jobs are paid in cash only. Table 3.6 shows that 90 percent of women who work are employed by a nonrelative, 2 per- cent are employed by a family member, and 8 percent are self-employed. The proportion self- employed among women working in agricultural jobs is 21 percent, compared with 7 percent of those employed in nonagricultural jobs. With regard to continuity of employment, the data show that more than nine in ten employed women work all year (94 percent). As expected, nearly one-fourth (24 percent) of women who work in agriculture work seasonally, while most of those who work in nonagricultural jobs typically work all year (94 percent). 3.7 MALE CIRCUMCISION Male circumcision has been shown to lower the risk to men of contracting sexually transmit- ted infections, including HIV. In the Ukraine, male circumcision is religiously practiced by the fol- lowers of Judaism and Islam. Figure 3.3 shows the percentage of men who report that they have been circumcised, by region. In general, only 2 percent of all men reported that they have been circumcised. The highest percentage of circumcision was observed in the South region (8 percent), which includes the Auto- nomous Republic of Crimea with a relatively large Muslim population of Crimean Tatars. 32 | Background Characteristics of Respondents Figure 3.3 Male circumcision by region UDHS 2007 2.3 1.2 1.6 1.9 8 0 Ukraine North Central East South West 0 2 4 6 8 10 Percent Fertility | 33 FERTILITY 4 Fertility is one of the three principal components of population dynamics, the others being mortality and migration. This chapter looks at a number of fertility indicators including levels, pat- terns, and trends in current and cumulative fertility; the length of birth intervals; the age at which women initiate childbearing; and teenage fertility. All women who were interviewed in the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) were asked to give their complete reproductive history. In collecting these histories, each woman was first asked about the total number of pregnancies ending in live births, stillbirths, miscar- riages, and induced abortions. After obtaining these aggregate data, an event-by-event pregnancy his- tory was collected. For each pregnancy, the duration, the month and year the pregnancy ended, and the pregnancy outcome were recorded. Information was collected about the most recent completed pregnancy, then the next-to-last, etc. For each pregnancy ending in a live birth, information was col- lected on the sex of the child, survival status, and age (for living children) or age at death (for dead children). 4.1 CURRENT FERTILITY The data collected in the reproductive history were used to calculate two of the most widely used measures of current fertility: the total fertility rate (TFR) and its component age-specific fertility rates (ASFR). The TFR is interpreted as the number of children a woman would bear in her lifetime if she experienced the currently observed age-specific rates throughout her reproductive years. The fer- tility rates refer to the three-year period before the survey (i.e., approximately from August-November 2004 to August-November 2007). Rather than a longer or a shorter period, the three- year period was chosen for calculating these rates to pro- vide the most current information, to reduce sampling er- ror, and to avoid problems of the displacement of births. ASFRs are expressed by the number of births to women of a given age interval per 1,000 women in that age interval. In this survey, the ASFR for any specific five-year age in- terval is calculated by dividing the number of births of women in the age interval during the period 1 to 36 months preceding the survey by the number of years lived by women in that age interval during the same period of 1 to 36 months. According to the results of the 2007 UDHS, the TFR is 1.2 children per woman (Table 4.1). This means that, on average, a woman in Ukraine who is at the begin- ning of her childbearing years would give birth to 1.2 children by the end of her reproductive period if fertility levels were to remain constant at the level observed in the three-year period before the 2007 UDHS. This is far below the replacement-level fertility of slightly more than 2.0 births. The TFR for rural areas (1.5 births per woman) is higher than for urban areas (1.0 birth per woman). Figure 4.1 shows that this urban-rural difference in childbearing rates is more pronounced Table 4.1 Current fertility Age-specific and total fertility rate, the general fertility rate, and the crude birth rate for the three years preceding the survey, by residence, Ukraine 2007 Age group Residence Total Urban Rural 15-19 16 43 24 20-24 85 122 94 25-29 56 79 62 30-34 36 41 38 35-39 12 16 13 40-44 4 1 3 45-49 0 2 0 TFR (15-49) 1.0 1.5 1.2 GFR 36 48 39 CBR 7.1 8.3 7.5 Notes: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Rates for age group 45-49 may be slightly biased due to truncation. Rates are for the period 1-36 months prior to interview. TFR: Total fertility rate expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate expressed per 1,000 women CBR: Crude birth rate, expressed per 1,000 population 34 | Fertility among women under age 30 than among older women. Fertility peaks at age 20-24 in both urban and rural areas. The greatest absolute urban-rural difference in ASFR (37 births per 1,000 women) is also found in this age group. Table 4.1 presents two other summary measures of fertility: the crude birth rate (CBR) and the general fertility rate (GFR). The survey results indicate that the crude birth rate is 7.5 births per 1,000 population, which is below the rate reported by the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine (SSC) (9.8 per 1,000 population) for the year 2006 (SSC, 2007c). Urban-rural differentials are also observed in the CBR and the GFR. Figure 4.1 Age-specific fertility rates by urban-rural residence � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age group 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 Births per 1,000 women Rural Urban Total� � UDHS 2007 Compared with recent fertility estimates from Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in other countries in the region, fertility in Ukraine in 2007 was lower than in Azerbaijan (2.0 births per women in 2006), Moldova (1.7 births per woman in 2005), and Armenia (1.7 births per woman in 2005) (SSC [Azerbaijan] and Macro International, 2008; NCPM [Moldova] and ORC Macro, 2006; NSS, MOH [Armenia], and ORC Macro, 2006). 4.2 FERTILITY DIFFERENTIALS BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS Table 4.2 and Figure 4.2 show the total fertility rate by background characteristics. Fertility is lowest in the East region (0.9 births per woman) and highest in the South and West regions (1.4 births per woman). The TFR is 1.4 births among women with secondary or lower levels of education, com- pared with 1.0 births among women with higher education. There is a negative association between fertility and wealth; women living in the poorest households have the highest fertility (1.7 births per woman). Fertility | 35 Table 4.2 Fertility by background characteristics Total fertility rate for the three years preceding the survey, percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant, and mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 years, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 Residence Urban 1.0 3.0 1.6 Rural 1.5 2.3 2.0 Region North 1.1 3.4 1.6 Central 1.2 2.2 1.8 East 0.9 2.1 1.5 South 1.4 3.5 1.8 West 1.4 3.1 2.0 Education Secondary or less 1.4 2.9 1.9 Higher 1.0 2.7 1.6 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.7 2.7 2.1 Second 1.3 2.4 1.8 Middle 1.3 3.1 1.7 Fourth 0.9 2.1 1.6 Highest 1.0 3.4 1.5 Total 1.2 2.8 1.7 Note: Total fertility rates are for the period 1-36 months prior to interview. Figure 4.2 Total fertility rates for the three-year period preceding survey 1.2 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.0 1.7 1.3 1.3 0.9 1.0 Ukraine RESIDENCE Urban Rural MOTHER’S EDUCATION Secondary or less Higher WEALTH QUINTILE Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest 0.0 1.0 2.0 3.0 Total fertility rate (children per woman) UDHS 2007 The percentage of women who reported being pregnant at the time of the survey is 2.8. This is likely to be an underestimate because women in the early stages of pregnancy may be unaware or un- sure that they are pregnant, and some may be reluctant to report that they are pregnant. Small differ- ences are found in this percentage across subgroups of women. 36 | Fertility The last column in Table 4.2 shows the mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49. This is an indicator of cumulative fertility; it reflects the fertility performance of older women who are nearing the end of their reproductive period and thus represents completed fertility. If fertility had remained stable over time, the mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 would be similar to the TFR. In fact, the UDHS found that the mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 (1.7 children per woman) is higher than the TFR for the three years preceding the survey (1.2 children per woman), indicating that fertility has declined over the past 30 years. The decline in fertility implied by a comparison of the TFR with completed fertility appears to have been shared by all subgroups. 4.3 FERTILITY TRENDS The 2007 UDHS data also allow for a direct examination of fertility trends over the 20 years pre- ceding the survey. One method for directly assessing fertility trends is to examine the age-specific fertility rates over time. Table 4.3 presents age-specific fertility rates for five-year periods preceding the survey using data on live births from respondents’ pregnancy histo- ries. Because women age 50 and older were not inter- viewed in the survey, the rates are successively trun- cated as the number of years before the survey increases. For example, rates cannot be calculated for women age 45-49 for the period 5-9 years or more prior to the survey because women in that age group would have been 50 or older at the time of the survey. Data in this table indicate that fertility has declined in the past 20 years. The decline is partic- ularly evident among women in the young age groups. For example, age-specific fertility among women age 15-19 declined from 55 births per 1,000 women in the period 10-14 years before the sur- vey to 29 births per 1,000 women in the period 0-4 years before the survey, a nearly 50 percent de- crease. The pace of the decline was more rapid at the beginning of the period than during the five-year period preceding the UDHS, reflecting the fact that women had already achieved very low fertility levels by the beginning of the latter period. Another method that is useful in determining the fertility trend is to compare the TFR for the three-year period preceding the UDHS with the rates found from other data sources for earlier periods. The 1999 Reproductive Health Survey (RHS) estimated the TFR among women age 15-44 for the two-year period preceding the survey to be 1.4 (1.3 in urban areas and 1.8 in rural areas) (KIIS, CDC, and USAID, 2001). A comparison of the RHS rate with the TFR of 1.2 estimated from the 2007 UDHS indicates that fertility has slightly decreased in recent years. Fertility estimates from other sources, mainly from the government registration system, also confirmed that fertility has declined steadily throughout the 1990s and into the present decade, from a TFR of 1.8 in 1990 to 1.3 in 2006 among women age 15-49 (SSC, 2007c). 4.4 CHILDREN EVER BORN AND LIVING Table 4.4 shows the distribution of all women and of currently married women by the total number of children ever born and by mean number of living children. Data on the number of children ever born reflect the accumulation of births to women over their entire reproductive years and there- fore have limited reference to current fertility levels, particularly when the country has experienced a decline in fertility. However, the information is useful in looking at how average family size varies across age groups and for looking at the level of primary infertility. Table 4.3 Trends in age-specific fertility rates Age-specific fertility rates for five-year periods preced- ing the survey, by mother’s age at the time of the birth, Ukraine 2007 Mother’s age at birth Number of years preceding survey 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 15-19 29 39 55 56 20-24 100 112 132 146 25-29 61 62 78 89 30-34 36 26 31 [48] 35-39 11 9 [13] 40-44 3 [1] 45-49 [0] Note: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. Rates exclude the month of interview. Fertility | 37 Table 4.4 shows that women in Ukraine have given birth to an average of 1.12 children, near- ly all of whom (1.09 children) are still alive. The mean number of children women have increases with age, reflecting the natural family-building process. On average, women in Ukraine have given birth to nearly one child by their late twenties. However, even in the oldest age groups, the mean number of children ever born is less than two. Almost no women age 15-19 (3 percent) have given birth. This proportion declines rapidly to 16 percent among women in their early thirties and to 5 per- cent among those in their forties. As expected, currently married women have had more births than all women in all age groups. The largest difference between the data on children ever born for currently married women and all women is in the young age groups, because a large number of unmarried young women are not exposed to the risk of pregnancy. Differences at older ages reflect the impact of marital dissolution (divorce or widowhood). Among currently married women, 43 percent have had only one live-born child, 37 percent have had two children, 6 percent have had three children, and less than 2 percent of women have had four or more children. Voluntary childlessness is rare in Ukraine, and most married women tend to have at least one child. Thus, the proportion childless among women age 45-49 is an indirect indicator of primary infertility. In total, only 4 percent of currently married women age 45-49 have never had a live birth. Table 4.4 Children ever born and living Percent distribution of all women and currently married women by number of children ever born, mean number of children ever born and mean number of living children, according to age group, Ukraine 2007 Age Number of children ever born Total Number of women Mean number of children ever born Mean number of living children 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ALL WOMEN 15-19 97.4 2.3 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 782 0.03 0.03 20-24 66.2 29.1 4.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,006 0.39 0.39 25-29 30.6 51.0 16.1 1.9 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 998 0.91 0.90 30-34 15.9 44.6 33.2 4.9 0.8 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 984 1.32 1.29 35-39 8.5 42.9 40.8 6.0 1.4 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 100.0 1,049 1.51 1.47 40-44 5.4 41.2 43.1 7.8 1.8 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 100.0 936 1.62 1.58 45-49 4.9 33.3 47.5 10.8 2.0 0.7 0.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,085 1.77 1.70 Total 30.4 35.9 27.5 4.8 0.9 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 6,841 1.12 1.09 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN 15-19 62.0 31.1 6.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 45 0.45 0.45 20-24 39.6 51.4 8.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 472 0.70 0.70 25-29 18.3 57.4 21.2 2.5 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 691 1.10 1.08 30-34 7.5 44.9 39.8 6.1 1.1 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 709 1.51 1.48 35-39 4.3 40.7 45.5 7.5 1.5 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 770 1.63 1.59 40-44 4.3 36.9 47.8 8.3 2.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.1 100.0 680 1.70 1.66 45-49 3.5 31.2 51.0 10.8 2.4 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 750 1.82 1.76 Total 11.7 43.0 37.1 6.3 1.3 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 4,116 1.45 1.42 4.5 BIRTH INTERVALS A birth interval is defined as the length of time between two live births. Research has shown that short birth intervals may adversely affect maternal health and children’s chances of survival (Rutstein, 2005; WHO, 2006a). Children born too close to a previous birth, especially if the interval between the births is less than two years, are at increased risk of health problems and dying at an early age. The occurrence of closely spaced births gives the mother insufficient time to restore her health, which may limit her ability to take care of her children. The duration of breastfeeding for the older child may also be shortened if the mother becomes pregnant. Longer birth intervals, on the other hand, contribute to the improved health status of both mother and child. 38 | Fertility Table 4.5 shows the percent distribution of second and higher-order births in the five years prior to the survey by the number of months since the previous birth. The overall median birth interval is 66.4 months. Only 13 percent of non-first births occur within 24 months of the previous birth, which is considered a short birth interval. Short birth intervals are as high as 40 percent among fourth or higher order births, 28 percent among births to women in the lowest wealth quintile, and 21 percent among rural births (Figure 4.3). In general, younger women have shorter birth intervals than older women. While 19 percent of births among women age 20-29 are spaced less than 24 months apart, the corresponding figure is 9 percent for births among women age 30-39. Table 4.5 Birth intervals Percent distribution of non-first births in the five years preceding the survey by number of months since preceding birth, and median number of months since preceding birth, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Months since preceding birth Total Number of non-first births Median number of months since preceding birth 7-17 18-23 24-35 36-47 48-59 60+ Age 15-19 * * * * * * * 3 * 20-29 11.0 7.8 23.1 14.5 13.7 29.8 100.0 193 41.9 30-39 4.6 4.7 4.7 4.9 7.5 73.6 100.0 282 92.1 40-49 (0.0) (0.0) (2.5) (3.8) (2.9) (90.8) 100.0 24 * Sex of preceding birth Male 8.7 6.9 12.6 12.0 6.9 52.9 100.0 258 63.1 Female 5.2 4.9 10.9 4.8 12.5 61.7 100.0 244 80.0 Birth order 2-3 5.4 5.0 12.0 8.4 10.3 58.9 100.0 460 69.6 4+ 23.9 16.5 9.2 9.9 1.7 38.9 100.0 42 36.3 Residence Urban 2.1 3.7 10.1 8.6 10.4 65.1 100.0 274 79.7 Rural 12.8 8.6 13.8 8.4 8.6 47.7 100.0 229 57.9 Region North 3.2 6.4 9.4 5.3 9.1 66.6 100.0 96 82.9 Central 4.5 7.5 10.1 8.6 11.2 58.0 100.0 57 65.7 East 4.7 1.2 3.7 7.9 11.9 70.6 100.0 100 87.2 South 4.5 6.1 15.2 8.2 5.6 60.4 100.0 86 79.6 West 12.7 7.9 16.9 10.8 10.1 41.6 100.0 164 49.6 Education Secondary or less 10.7 6.0 13.7 9.4 8.3 51.9 100.0 263 62.5 Higher 2.9 5.8 9.7 7.5 11.0 63.1 100.0 240 75.7 Wealth quintile Lowest 15.9 11.9 13.4 8.5 6.8 43.6 100.0 102 50.7 Second 8.8 4.3 14.7 10.6 11.6 50.0 100.0 140 61.0 Middle 2.3 2.2 13.4 7.7 12.1 62.3 100.0 97 81.6 Fourth 1.1 7.0 8.0 9.6 8.4 65.8 100.0 69 82.5 Highest 3.8 4.9 6.8 5.4 7.9 71.2 100.0 94 83.7 Total 7.0 5.9 11.8 8.5 9.6 57.2 100.0 503 66.4 Note: First-order births are excluded. The interval for multiple births is the number of months since the preceding preg- nancy that ended in a live birth. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. Fertility | 39 Figure 4.3 Percentage of births occurring after a short birth interval (less than 24 months after a prior birth) Note: Data are for non-first births in the five years preceding the survey 16 10 6 21 17 9 28 13 5 8 9 SEX OF CHILD Male Female RESIDENCE Urban Rural MOTHER’S EDUCATION Secondary or less Higher WEALTH QUINTILE Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Percentage of births UDHS 2007 The median number of months since the preceding birth is shorter for children born in rural areas (57.9 months) than those born in urban areas (79.7 months). Among regions, children born in the West region have the shortest interval (49.6 months), and those born in the East region have the longest birth interval (87.2 months). With regard to wealth status, births to women in the lower wealth quintiles have shorter intervals compared with births to women in the higher wealth quintiles. 4.6 AGE AT FIRST BIRTH Age at first birth is an important determinant of fertility. It has significant demographic con- sequences for society as a whole, as well as for the health and welfare of mothers and children. Early initiation into childbearing lengthens the reproductive period and subsequently increases fertility. Conversely, a late start in childbearing shortens the reproductive period and thus decreases fertility. Table 4.6 shows the percentage of women age 15-49 who have given birth by specific exact ages, ac- cording to current age. For women age 25 and older, the median age at first birth is presented in the last column of the table. 40 | Fertility Table 4.6 Age at first birth Percentage of women age 15-49 who gave birth by exact ages, percentage who have never given birth, and median age at first birth, according to current age, Ukraine 2007 Current age Percentage who gave birth by exact age Percentage who have never given birth Number of women Median age at first birth 15 18 20 22 25 15-19 0.1 na na na na 97.4 782 a 20-24 0.0 3.2 12.6 na na 66.2 1,006 a 25-29 0.1 5.0 20.0 39.4 62.5 30.6 998 23.1 30-34 0.1 7.3 27.8 52.3 71.3 15.9 984 21.8 35-39 0.0 4.9 26.3 52.1 74.9 8.5 1,049 21.8 40-44 0.2 3.0 21.7 49.8 76.5 5.4 936 22.0 45-49 0.0 1.9 16.2 42.5 73.3 4.9 1,085 22.6 25-49 0.1 4.4 22.3 47.2 71.7 12.9 5,053 22.3 na = Not applicable a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of women had a birth before reaching the be- ginning of the age group The 2007 UDHS findings indicate that childbearing among women begins relatively late. Two-thirds of women age 20-24 (66 percent) have never given birth. The median age at first birth among women age 25 and older is 22.3. Although the trend across age cohorts is not uniform, the me- dian age at first birth among women 25-29 years is 23.1 years, which is higher than the median ages at which older cohorts first gave birth (21.8 to 22.6 years). Table 4.7 shows the differential patterns in the median age at first birth among women cur- rently age 25-49, by background characteristics. The measures are presented beginning with age group 25-49 to ensure that at least half of the women in the age group have already had a birth. Wom- en in urban areas generally have a higher median age at first birth than women in rural areas (22.6 and 21.4 years, respectively). The median age at first birth varies only slightly by region, ranging from 21.8 years in the West region to 22.6 years in the North region. The median age at first birth is 21.4 years among women with secondary or less education and 22.8 among women with higher education. Although not uniform, the median age at first birth increases with wealth quintile. Table 4.7 Median age at first birth Median age at first birth among women age 25-49 years, by current age, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Current age Women age 25-49 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban 23.7 22.4 22.2 22.1 22.8 22.6 Rural 21.5 20.7 21.1 21.7 22.0 21.4 Region North 23.7 22.2 22.5 21.6 23.0 22.6 Central 22.9 21.9 21.2 21.7 22.0 21.9 East 23.2 21.8 21.8 22.3 22.7 22.4 South 23.7 22.0 21.8 22.2 22.6 22.5 West 22.0 21.2 21.7 21.9 22.3 21.8 Education Secondary or less 21.7 20.9 21.0 21.4 22.0 21.4 Higher 23.9 22.5 22.3 22.4 22.9 22.8 Wealth quintile Lowest 22.8 21.0 21.4 21.9 22.2 21.8 Second 21.4 21.3 21.0 21.8 22.1 21.6 Middle 22.6 21.5 21.8 21.7 22.0 21.9 Fourth 23.0 21.6 22.5 22.1 23.2 22.5 Highest a 22.9 22.2 22.3 23.0 23.0 Total 23.1 21.8 21.8 22.0 22.6 22.3 a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of the women had a birth before reaching the beginning of the age group Fertility | 41 4.7 TEENAGE PREGNANCY AND MOTHERHOOD It is well known that adolescent pregnancy, early childbearing, and mother- hood have negative socioeconomic and health consequences. Adolescent mothers are more likely to have complications during labor, which results in higher morbidity and mortal- ity for themselves and their children. Moreo- ver, childbearing during the teenage years frequently has adverse social consequences, particularly on female educational attainment, because women who become mothers in their teens are more likely to curtail education1. Table 4.8 shows the percentage of women age 15-19 (teenagers) who are moth- ers or pregnant with their first child, by back- ground characteristics. Overall, 4 percent of teenagers in Ukraine have begun childbear- ing. No respondents age 15 and 16 have be- gun childbearing, but starting from age 17, the proportion of young women who have begun childbearing increases with age, from 4 percent among women age 17 to 9 percent of women age 19. Although teenage fertility does not vary significantly by residence (4 percent in urban areas compared with 5 percent in rural areas), it varies significantly across regions, ranging from 1 percent in the East region to 8 percent in the South region. The proportion of early childbearing does not vary by education. The proportion who have begun childbearing is markedly lower among teenagers in the highest wealth quintile compared with those in the other wealth quintiles. 1 The legal age at marriage in Ukraine is 18 for men and 17 for women. Table 4.8 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood Percentage of women age 15-19 who have had a live birth or who are pregnant with their first child and percentage who have begun childbearing, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage who: Percentage who have begun child- bearing Number of women Have had a live birth Are pregnant with first child Age 15 0.0 0.0 0.0 141 16 0.0 0.0 0.0 166 17 1.6 2.6 4.2 178 18 6.2 1.7 7.9 136 19 5.9 3.3 9.2 161 Residence Urban 1.7 2.1 3.8 508 Rural 4.4 0.6 4.9 274 Region North 2.3 1.4 3.8 136 Central 2.2 2.3 4.4 106 East 0.0 1.0 1.0 212 South 4.6 2.9 7.5 125 West 4.6 1.1 5.7 204 Education Secondary or less 2.3 1.9 4.2 526 Higher 3.4 0.8 4.2 256 Wealth quintile Lowest 5.7 1.9 7.7 135 Second 1.5 0.9 2.4 191 Middle 4.0 4.7 8.7 142 Fourth 2.0 0.9 2.9 152 Highest 0.8 0.0 0.8 161 Total 2.6 1.6 4.2 782 Family Planning | 43 FAMILY PLANNING 5 The network of family planning institutions established in Ukraine is effective because of the successful implementation of the “Family Planning” and “Reproductive Health 2001-2005” programs. There has been a noticeable improvement in the awareness of contraceptive methods and in the timing of desired pregnancies. In the process of implementing these programs, there has been a 25 percent decrease in induced abortion rates over the past four years (SSC, 2007a). The government program, “Reproductive Health of the Nation for the Period Until 2015,” aims to improve reproductive health as an important component of overall health and is currently the main programmatic document used to make decisions on many reproductive health issues. With implementation of the program, the government has, for the first time, supported the purchase of contraceptive supplies that will be provided at no cost to women who should avoid pregnancy or childbirth for health reasons. This chapter presents results from the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) on knowledge of contraceptive methods and contraceptive prevalence rates past and present. The chapter then considers a number of other topics that are of practical use to policy and program administrators in formulating effective family planning strategies. These topics include sources of contraceptive methods, costs of modern methods, informed choice among users, reasons for discontinuation of a method, and plans for future use of contraceptive methods. The chapter also contains information on exposure to family planning messages through the media and contact of nonusers with family planning providers. Because men play an important role in the realization of reproductive goals, results from the male survey are also presented, wherever possible. In addition, when possible, comparisons are made with findings from the 1999 Ukraine Reproductive Health Survey (URHS) to evaluate changes in family planning in the Ukraine over time. 5.1 KNOWLEDGE OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS Knowledge of contraceptive methods is an important precursor to use. Information on knowledge of contraception was collected by first asking a respondent to name ways or methods by which a couple could delay or avoid pregnancy. If the respondent failed to mention a specific method spontaneously, the interviewer described the method and asked whether the respondent recognized it. The ability to spontaneously name or recognize a family planning method when it is described should be regarded as a simple test of the awareness of a method but not necessarily as an indication of the extent of a respondent’s knowledge of the method. The UDHS collected information on eight modern family planning methods—female and male sterilization, the pill, IUD, injectables, implants, male condoms, and emergency contraception—and two traditional methods—rhythm and withdrawal. Folk methods, such as the use of plants and herbs, if mentioned spontaneously by respondents were also noted. In Table 5.1, information about knowledge of contraceptive methods is presented for all women and men as well as for currently married and unmarried but sexually active women and men, by specific methods. The results show that knowledge of at least one modern method of family planning in Ukraine is universal among both women and men, regardless of marital status. A slightly greater proportion of women and men reported having heard of a modern than a traditional method. Knowledge of any traditional method is at or above 90 percent in all of the marital status categories. These results are similar to the findings of the 1999 URHS, indicating that contraceptive knowledge has remained consistently high in Ukraine. 44 | Family Planning Looking at knowledge of specific methods among currently married women, the most widely known modern contraceptive methods are male condoms (99 percent) and the IUD and the pill (96 and 94 percent, respectively). Seventy-four percent of married women know about female sterilization, 65 percent have heard of male sterilization, 50 percent mentioned knowing about emergency contraception, 47 percent cited injectables, and 23 percent were aware of implants. Considering traditional methods, 96 percent of married women know about withdrawal, 90 percent have heard of rhythm, and 16 percent could name a folk method. Although the patterns are not completely uniform, levels of knowledge of specific methods among sexually active unmarried women are generally similar to those found among married women. It is notable, however, that unmarried sexually active women are more aware of pills and substantially more aware of emergency contraception compared with other women. Contraceptive knowledge among currently married men is similar to that of women except that fewer men know about injectables, implants, and emergency contraception, and just 1 percent know about folk methods. Because of the nearly universal knowledge of contraceptives in Ukraine, there is almost no difference in the percentage of respondents who have heard of at least one method of contraception by background characteristics (data not shown). Table 5.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods Percentage of all respondents, currently married respondents and sexually active unmarried respondents age 15-49 who know any contraceptive method, by specific method, Ukraine 2007 Method Women Men All women Currently married women Sexually active unmarried women1 All men Currently married men Sexually active unmarried men1 Any method 99.1 99.3 100.0 99.5 99.7 100.0 Any modern method 99.1 99.2 100.0 99.4 99.7 100.0 Female sterilization 69.5 74.3 70.6 63.5 70.7 63.9 Male sterilization 60.3 65.3 59.0 57.3 64.4 56.8 Pill 93.5 94.3 97.2 87.9 92.6 87.6 IUD 94.0 96.1 96.3 82.5 89.0 85.9 Injectables 43.7 47.0 40.3 34.6 37.9 34.9 Implants 21.1 23.0 15.3 13.6 13.9 14.8 Male condom 98.8 98.8 100.0 99.3 99.6 100.0 Emergency contraception 48.5 49.6 57.9 31.7 33.6 37.1 Any traditional method 93.8 97.3 98.3 89.7 95.0 93.1 Rhythm 85.4 89.6 91.0 73.7 84.7 71.4 Withdrawal 91.4 96.0 96.6 86.7 92.0 90.6 Folk method 14.8 16.1 27.2 1.0 1.3 0.5 Mean number of methods known by respondents 7.2 7.5 7.5 6.3 6.8 6.4 Number of respondents 6,841 4,116 637 3,178 1,799 683 1 Had last sexual intercourse within past 30 days 5.2 EVER USE OF CONTRACEPTION In the 2007 UDHS, respondents who had heard of a method of family planning were asked if they had ever used a method. Ever use refers to use of a method at any time, with no distinction between past and present use. Data on ever use of contraception has special significance because it reveals the cumulative success of the family planning program in Ukraine in promoting the use of contraception among couples. Table 5.2.1 shows the percentage of all women, currently married women, and sexually active unmarried women who have ever used a specific family planning method by age. Looking first at the patterns for currently married women, 89 percent have ever used any method of contraception and 78 percent have used a modern method. Two in three married women have ever used a male condom, making it the most commonly used modern method. About one in three has ever used an IUD, more than one in six has used the pill, and 4 percent have used emergency contraception. The majority of Family Planning | 45 married women (72 percent) report use of traditional methods, with withdrawal being used more often than the rhythm method. Although the difference is not large, Table 5.2.1 also shows that sexually active unmarried women are more likely than married women to have ever used a method. Ever use of any method among the former group of women is 96 percent, and use of a modern method is 95 percent. In addition to the information on women’s use of contraception, the 2007 UDHS collected information from men on the ever use of four male methods: male sterilization, condoms, rhythm method, and withdrawal. Table 5.2.2 shows that 95 percent of currently married men age 15-49 have ever used one of these methods. Looking at specific methods, currently married men are most likely to have used condoms (89 percent), followed by use of withdrawal (77 percent) and rhythm (59 percent). Less than 1 percent of married men reported having been sterilized. As in the case of women, sexually active unmarried men are more likely to have ever used a method than currently married men. Finally, given the near universality of ever use of contraception, it is not surprising that there are relatively small differences across age groups in ever use rates in Tables 5.2.1 and 5.2.2. The largest age differentials are among married women, with the ever-use rate increasing from 66 percent among women age 15-19 to a peak of 91 percent among women in their late thirties. Table 5.2.1 Ever use of contraception: women Percentage of all women, currently married women, and sexually active unmarried women age 15-49 who have ever used any contraceptive method by method, according to age, Ukraine 2007 Age Any method Any modern method Modern method Any traditional method Traditional method Number of women Female steriliza- tion Male steriliza- tion Pill IUD Inject- ables Implants Male condom Emer- gency contra- ception Rhythm With- drawal Folk method ALL WOMEN 15-19 14.7 14.2 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.0 13.9 0.8 7.6 1.7 6.3 1.2 782 20-24 65.4 59.8 0.0 0.2 11.8 4.0 0.2 0.0 56.7 10.2 42.0 18.6 34.6 5.6 1,006 25-29 83.6 75.5 0.2 0.2 17.3 13.0 0.4 0.0 68.0 5.8 61.5 35.9 51.0 6.0 998 30-34 88.4 78.2 0.8 0.1 19.3 25.1 0.2 0.0 70.3 7.3 72.7 46.9 62.0 10.1 984 35-39 90.3 81.9 1.2 0.0 20.2 39.1 0.6 0.0 70.4 3.1 75.5 51.1 65.6 10.4 1,049 40-44 89.1 79.6 0.7 0.3 17.6 48.6 0.6 0.4 68.8 3.1 77.7 53.8 66.9 14.0 936 45-49 87.9 78.0 0.5 0.8 18.7 50.3 0.2 0.0 63.1 3.5 75.8 53.5 67.5 10.3 1,085 Total 76.2 68.5 0.5 0.3 15.6 26.7 0.3 0.1 60.2 4.9 60.7 38.6 52.1 8.4 6,841 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN 15-19 66.4 60.5 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 60.5 9.4 37.0 11.5 28.7 8.1 45 20-24 78.6 67.1 0.0 0.4 15.4 7.5 0.0 0.0 62.0 8.1 56.3 26.2 45.2 6.3 472 25-29 88.1 77.1 0.2 0.3 17.0 16.1 0.5 0.0 68.1 4.4 66.9 40.6 55.9 5.7 691 30-34 90.7 79.4 1.1 0.1 19.2 28.8 0.2 0.0 71.6 6.8 76.2 49.8 63.3 11.3 709 35-39 91.3 82.1 1.3 0.0 20.3 42.8 0.8 0.0 68.5 2.5 75.8 52.1 66.7 10.6 770 40-44 90.5 80.6 0.6 0.4 17.2 50.5 0.8 0.5 70.3 1.7 78.7 54.7 68.4 12.4 680 45-49 90.3 79.2 0.5 1.0 17.5 53.4 0.3 0.0 63.7 2.8 76.9 53.7 68.9 10.0 750 Total 88.6 78.1 0.6 0.3 17.8 34.6 0.5 0.1 67.6 4.2 72.4 47.1 62.1 9.6 4,116 SEXUALLY ACTIVE UNMARRIED WOMEN1 15-19 98.0 94.9 0.0 1.0 4.7 0.0 1.2 0.0 94.9 2.5 54.2 8.4 45.4 7.6 59 20-24 97.3 96.9 0.0 0.0 17.9 1.2 0.4 0.0 96.0 26.3 57.9 24.5 49.3 11.2 221 25-29 92.5 90.7 1.1 0.0 20.2 11.7 0.0 0.0 83.5 11.7 63.2 34.3 52.3 16.7 112 30-34 96.4 93.7 0.0 0.0 23.3 19.0 0.0 0.0 84.5 15.4 81.3 59.6 74.2 18.9 70 35-39 95.0 95.0 0.0 0.0 25.0 42.2 0.0 0.0 91.2 10.2 84.6 65.1 68.7 25.1 76 40-44 (96.0) (93.5) (0.0) (0.0) (30.0) (64.8) (0.0) (0.0) (87.7) (4.9) (89.0) (57.5) (72.8) (49.2) 63 45-49 (98.2) (93.5) (0.0) (0.0) (27.5) (70.1) (0.0) (0.0) (73.1) (2.9) (80.7) (60.5) (70.2) (22.7) 36 Total 96.1 94.5 0.2 0.1 20.3 20.0 0.2 0.0 89.7 15.0 68.6 38.7 58.0 18.7 637 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Women who had sexual intercourse within past 30 days 46 | Family Planning Table 5.2.2 Ever use of contraception: men Percentage of all men, currently married men, and sexually active unmarried men age 15-49 who have ever used any contraceptive method by method, according to age, Ukraine 2007 Age Any method Modern method Traditional method Number of men Any modern method Male steriliza- tion Male condom Any traditional method Rhythm With- drawal ALL MEN 15-19 32.2 29.3 0.4 29.0 15.3 4.1 14.4 444 20-24 89.1 87.5 0.5 87.5 61.6 19.9 57.4 459 25-29 95.1 92.4 0.8 92.4 79.8 40.9 70.8 436 30-34 94.7 89.4 0.2 89.4 83.8 49.4 78.5 479 35-39 94.1 87.8 0.6 87.8 83.0 56.2 77.7 449 40-44 94.4 84.5 0.7 84.5 86.7 58.6 80.4 399 45-49 93.5 88.3 0.3 88.3 83.3 57.6 76.7 512 Total 84.9 80.1 0.5 80.1 70.6 41.1 65.3 3,178 CURRENTLY MARRIED MEN 15-19 92.5 85.3 0.0 85.3 69.8 69.8 44.8 13 20-24 93.3 90.6 0.0 90.6 72.7 44.3 61.5 104 25-29 95.0 92.7 0.9 92.7 84.0 53.0 73.2 263 30-34 96.8 90.3 0.0 90.3 86.1 56.2 80.3 331 35-39 94.1 87.1 0.7 87.1 83.9 64.3 78.1 351 40-44 94.8 84.2 0.8 84.2 87.3 62.5 80.9 317 45-49 93.9 88.3 0.2 88.3 84.8 59.6 77.7 420 Total 94.7 88.5 0.5 88.5 84.4 58.6 77.0 1,799 SEXUALLY ACTIVE UNMARRIED MEN1 15-19 90.8 86.5 0.8 86.5 42.8 3.1 42.8 75 20-24 98.2 97.5 0.8 97.5 66.6 14.8 63.9 253 25-29 99.3 96.8 0.6 96.8 78.4 21.5 72.2 132 30-34 99.0 97.4 1.2 97.4 86.2 39.8 81.7 98 35-39 (98.2) (98.2) (0.0) (98.2) (86.3) (28.0) (79.9) 54 40-44 (93.5) (93.5) (0.0) (93.5) (86.5) (43.3) (82.1) 36 45-49 (94.5) (94.5) (0.0) (94.5) (80.6) (63.1) (73.0) 35 Total 97.3 95.8 0.7 95.8 72.4 23.4 68.4 683 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Men who had sexual intercourse within past 30 days 5.3 CURRENT USE OF CONTRACEPTION Current use of contraception is defined as the proportion of women who reported the use of a family planning method at the time of interview. The level of current use—usually calculated among currently married women—is the most widely used and valuable measure of the success of family planning programs. Table 5.3 shows the percent distribution of all women, currently married women, and sexually active unmarried women who are currently using specific family planning methods by age. Similar information on current use was not collected for men. Table 5.3 shows that nearly two in three currently married women (67 percent) are using a method of family planning, with 48 percent using a modern contraceptive method. The most popular modern methods are the condom (24 percent), followed by the IUD (18 percent) and the pill (5 percent). Other modern methods are currently used by less than 1 percent of currently married women. One in five women are currently using traditional methods, with withdrawal slightly more popular (10 percent) than rhythm (7 percent). The pattern of current use among sexually active unmarried women is similar to that among currently married women, except that current use is reported to be much higher among the former than the latter group. Eighty-seven percent of sexually active unmarried women report current use of any method, with 79 percent currently using a modern method. Condom use among sexually active unmarried women is nearly two and a half times higher than condom use among currently married women. On the other hand, currently married women are much more likely to be using an IUD than sexually active unmarried women. Family Planning | 47 Current contraceptive use varies by age. Use is lower among younger women, presumably because they are in the early stage of family building, and among older women, some of whom may no longer be fecund, than among those at intermediate ages. For example, current use of a modern contraceptive method is 43 percent among currently married women age 15-19, increases to 58 percent among women age 35-39, and then drops sharply to 33 percent at age 45-49. A similar pattern is seen in IUD use. However, condom use, which is most popular among the youngest group of women, falls steadily as age increases, from 37 percent to 14 percent. Table 5.3 Current use of contraception by age Percent distribution of all women, currently married women, and sexually active unmarried women age 15-49 by contraceptive method currently used, according to age, Ukraine 2007 Age Any method Any modern method Modern method Any tradi- tional method Traditional method Not currently using Total Number of women Female steriliza- tion Pill IUD Male condom Foam/ jelly Rhythm With- drawal Folk method ALL WOMEN 15-19 11.0 10.4 0.0 0.3 0.0 9.5 0.5 0.6 0.0 0.6 0.0 89.0 100.0 782 20-24 51.9 42.6 0.0 5.0 3.5 32.7 1.4 9.3 2.0 6.0 1.4 48.1 100.0 1,006 25-29 58.2 44.3 0.2 6.2 9.5 28.0 0.4 13.9 4.7 8.5 0.7 41.8 100.0 998 30-34 62.3 47.6 0.8 6.3 14.2 25.6 0.6 14.7 5.6 7.4 1.7 37.7 100.0 984 35-39 65.6 49.9 1.2 3.8 22.7 21.5 0.6 15.7 6.5 8.0 1.2 34.4 100.0 1,049 40-44 60.3 42.1 0.7 2.1 21.2 17.5 0.7 18.1 8.5 8.7 1.0 39.7 100.0 936 45-49 39.4 25.9 0.5 1.9 11.4 11.8 0.2 13.4 5.4 7.0 1.0 60.6 100.0 1,085 Total 50.9 38.3 0.5 3.7 12.1 21.2 0.6 12.6 4.8 6.8 1.0 49.1 100.0 6,841 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN 15-19 48.3 42.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 37.0 5.6 5.6 0.0 5.6 0.0 51.7 100.0 45 20-24 62.7 45.0 0.0 6.6 6.5 31.0 0.9 17.7 3.9 11.1 2.8 37.3 100.0 472 25-29 64.5 46.1 0.2 6.5 11.9 27.2 0.3 18.4 6.3 11.1 1.1 35.5 100.0 691 30-34 73.6 55.1 1.1 7.2 18.2 28.1 0.3 18.5 7.2 9.1 2.2 26.4 100.0 709 35-39 78.0 58.1 1.3 4.6 26.8 24.8 0.7 19.9 8.0 10.1 1.7 22.0 100.0 770 40-44 70.3 47.4 0.6 2.8 24.3 19.0 0.6 22.9 10.3 11.4 1.1 29.7 100.0 680 45-49 50.7 32.9 0.5 2.4 15.5 14.2 0.2 17.8 6.6 9.8 1.4 49.3 100.0 750 Total 66.7 47.5 0.6 4.8 17.7 23.8 0.5 19.1 7.2 10.3 1.6 33.3 100.0 4,116 SEXUALLY ACTIVE UNMARRIED WOMEN1 15-19 85.9 81.8 0.0 2.3 0.0 76.6 2.9 4.1 0.0 4.1 0.0 14.1 100.0 59 20-24 91.6 87.8 0.0 8.2 0.9 73.8 4.5 3.7 0.8 2.7 0.3 8.4 100.0 221 25-29 87.8 80.7 1.1 9.8 8.5 59.9 1.3 7.2 0.6 6.6 0.0 12.2 100.0 112 30-34 84.1 71.7 0.0 6.4 8.5 52.3 4.4 12.4 3.7 8.7 0.0 15.9 100.0 70 35-39 86.4 74.4 0.0 5.3 29.5 37.5 2.0 12.0 7.2 4.8 0.0 13.6 100.0 76 40-44 (83.1) (72.9) (0.0) (0.0) (31.9) (37.4) (3.6) (10.2) (4.6) (3.2) (2.4) (16.9) 100.0 63 45-49 (77.6) (55.5) (0.0) (6.1) (14.7) (32.7) (2.0) (22.1) (13.6) (7.0) (1.4) (22.4) 100.0 36 Total 87.3 79.3 0.2 6.5 10.2 59.0 3.2 8.0 2.9 4.7 0.4 12.7 100.0 637 Note: If more than one method is used, only the most effective method is considered in this tabulation. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Women who had sexual intercourse within past 30 days 5.4 CURRENT USE OF CONTRACEPTION BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS The study of differentials in current use of contraception is important because it helps identify subgroups of the population to target for family planning services. Table 5.4 shows the percent distribution of currently married women by their current use of family planning methods, according to background characteristics. This table allows comparison of levels of current contraceptive use among major population groups. It also permits an examination of differences in the method mix among current users within the various subgroups. There are noticeable differences in the use of contraceptive methods among subgroups of currently married women. Women in urban areas are more likely to use a family planning method than rural women, perhaps reflecting wider availability and easier access to methods in urban than in rural areas. The contraceptive prevalence rate for modern methods is 50 percent in urban areas, compared with 42 percent in rural areas. Most of that difference is owed to more widespread use of male condoms among urban than rural couples. 48 | Family Planning Table 5.4 Current use of contraception by background characteristics Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 by contraceptive method currently used, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Any method Any modern method Modern method Any tradi- tional method Traditional method Not currently using Total Number of women Female sterili- zation Pill IUD Male condom Foam/ jelly Rhythm With- drawal Folk method Residence Urban 68.5 50.0 0.6 5.5 17.0 26.1 0.7 18.5 7.4 9.1 2.0 31.5 100.0 2,858 Rural 62.3 41.9 0.7 3.4 19.3 18.3 0.2 20.4 6.5 13.2 0.7 37.7 100.0 1,258 Number of living children 0 39.5 31.8 0.0 6.2 1.4 23.1 1.0 7.7 2.1 4.9 0.8 60.5 100.0 491 1-2 71.0 50.8 0.6 4.8 20.6 24.2 0.5 20.1 7.6 10.7 1.8 29.0 100.0 3,330 3+ 62.9 36.4 2.1 2.9 12.1 19.4 0.0 26.5 10.2 15.3 1.0 37.1 100.0 295 Region North 72.6 44.9 0.4 6.1 11.4 26.8 0.3 27.6 15.8 8.9 2.9 27.4 100.0 861 Central 68.5 51.2 0.6 7.8 24.6 18.0 0.2 17.4 8.1 8.0 1.2 31.5 100.0 508 East 70.4 58.2 0.4 4.4 23.9 28.2 1.3 12.2 2.3 8.7 1.3 29.6 100.0 1,182 South 64.8 53.6 1.2 4.5 15.5 31.8 0.4 11.2 3.9 4.4 2.8 35.2 100.0 650 West 56.5 29.9 0.9 2.9 13.5 12.6 0.0 26.6 7.0 19.3 0.3 43.5 100.0 914 Education Secondary or less 63.3 43.2 0.6 3.4 17.3 21.6 0.3 20.1 6.2 11.9 2.0 36.7 100.0 1,609 Higher 68.8 50.3 0.7 5.7 18.0 25.1 0.7 18.5 7.8 9.3 1.4 31.2 100.0 2,507 Wealth quintile Lowest 62.4 36.0 0.3 3.5 14.2 17.8 0.1 26.4 7.3 17.1 1.9 37.6 100.0 508 Second 63.7 45.1 0.9 4.0 19.9 20.0 0.3 18.6 6.2 10.9 1.4 36.3 100.0 903 Middle 64.2 47.2 0.6 5.8 19.8 20.4 0.5 17.0 6.1 9.9 1.1 35.8 100.0 793 Fourth 69.5 50.7 0.8 4.6 16.2 28.9 0.2 18.8 7.6 9.2 2.1 30.5 100.0 776 Highest 70.7 52.7 0.5 5.7 17.2 28.2 1.1 18.0 8.3 7.9 1.8 29.3 100.0 1,136 Total 15-44 70.2 50.8 0.7 5.4 18.2 25.9 0.6 19.4 7.3 10.4 1.7 29.8 100.0 3,366 Total 15-49 66.7 47.5 0.6 4.8 17.7 23.8 0.5 19.1 7.2 10.3 1.6 33.3 100.0 4,116 Note: If more than one method is used, only the most effective method is considered in this tabulation. Use of modern methods increases from 32 percent among women with no living children to 51 percent among women with one or two living children, and then decreases to 36 percent among women with three or more children. IUD use peaks among women with 1-2 children, and the pill is most popular among women who have not yet had a child. There is little variation in condom use by the number of living children. Use of traditional methods increases as the number of living children increases. Contraceptive use varies by region, with current use of modern methods twice as high in the East region (58 percent) as in the West region (30 percent). Use of the pill is highest in the Central region (8 percent), and use of the IUD is highest in the Central and Eastern regions (25 and 24 percent, respectively). Condom use is highest in the South region (32 percent). Use of traditional methods is highest in the North and West regions, with the rhythm method being the most popular traditional method in the North region (16 percent) and withdrawal being the most popular traditional method in the West region (19 percent). Women with more than secondary education (69 percent) are more likely to use contraception than women with secondary or less education (63 percent). Considering the method mix, women who have higher than secondary education are somewhat more likely to use the pill and condom and less likely to use withdrawal than women with secondary or less education. Wealth has a positive effect on women’s contraceptive use; modern contraceptive use increases markedly as household wealth increases, from 36 percent among married women in the lowest wealth quintile to 53 percent among those in the highest wealth quintile. 5.5 TRENDS IN CURRENT USE OF FAMILY PLANNING The base female population in the UDHS is women age 15-49, while in the 1999 URHS it is women age 15-44. To analyze trends in contraceptive prevalence rates in Ukraine between the 1999 URHS and the 2007 UDHS, the UDHS data were computed for women age 15-44 to be comparable Family Planning | 49 with the 1999 URHS data. Current use of any method of contraception (70 percent among married women age 15-44 in the 2007 UDHS) has changed little since the 1999 URHS, when overall use was 68 percent (KIIS et al., 2001). However, there has been a 34 percent increase in the use of modern methods over the eight years, from 38 to 51 percent, and a corresponding decrease in the use of traditional methods, from 30 to 19 percent over the period. The increase in the use of modern methods occurred primarily because of the increase in the use of the male condom, from 14 to 26 percent. Smaller increases were seen in the use of the pill, while use of the IUD decreased slightly over the period. 5.6 NUMBER OF CHILDREN AT FIRST USE OF CONTRACEPTION To examine the timing of initial family planning use during the family building process, the 2007 UDHS asked all women about the number of living children they had when they first used contraception. Table 5.5, which presents this information by age group, allows an analysis of cohort changes in parity at first use of contraception. Table 5.5 Number of children at first use of contraception Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by number of living children at time of first use of contraception, according to current age, Ukraine 2007 Current age Never used Number of living children at time of first use of contraception Total Number of women 0 1 2 3 4+ Missing 15-19 85.3 13.8 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 782 20-24 34.6 52.6 11.8 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 1,006 25-29 16.4 50.5 29.2 3.1 0.6 0.2 0.1 100.0 998 30-34 11.6 43.5 36.9 6.3 0.6 0.7 0.3 100.0 984 35-39 9.7 38.2 40.9 8.7 1.8 0.4 0.2 100.0 1,049 40-44 10.9 33.0 40.8 13.1 1.0 0.8 0.4 100.0 936 45-49 12.1 28.9 43.3 12.6 1.9 0.7 0.5 100.0 1,085 Total 23.8 37.9 30.1 6.6 0.9 0.4 0.3 100.0 6,841 More than one in three Ukrainian women first used a method of family planning before they had any children, 30 percent first adopted a method when they had one child, and 7 percent adopted a method when they had two children. Younger women report first use of contraception at lower parities than older women. For example, 53 percent of women age 20-24 began using contraception before having any children, compared with 44 percent of women age 30-34. 5.7 KNOWLEDGE OF FERTILE PERIOD An elementary knowledge of repro- ductive physiology provides a useful back- ground for the successful practice of the rhythm method. As shown in Tables 5.1, 5.2.1, and 5.3, respectively, 85 percent of all women have heard of the rhythm method, 39 percent have used it in the past, and 5 percent are currently using the method. Table 5.6 shows respondents’ knowledge about the time during the menstrual cycle when a woman is most likely to get pregnant. Overall, 64 percent of women cor- rectly reported the most fertile time as being halfway between two menstrual periods. Among users of the rhythm method, a large majority (81 percent) were able to correctly identify when during a woman’s cycle she is Table 5.6 Knowledge of fertile period Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by knowledge of the fertile period during the ovulatory cycle, according to current use of the rhythm method, Ukraine 2007 Perceived fertile period Users of rhythm method Nonusers of rhythm method All women Just before her menstrual period begins 9.2 4.3 4.5 During her menstrual period 0.0 0.9 0.9 Right after her menstrual period has ended 8.2 7.8 7.8 Halfway between two menstrual periods 81.1 63.4 64.3 Other 0.3 1.0 0.9 No specific time 0.0 2.9 2.8 Don’t know 0.9 19.3 18.4 Missing 0.3 0.3 0.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 328 6,513 6,841 50 | Family Planning most likely to get pregnant, with only 8 percent incorrectly reporting that a woman’s most fertile period is right after menstruation has ended. Knowledge among women not using the rhythm method is also relatively high; 63 percent of these women knew when the most fertile period is, about one- fifth did not know when a woman’s fertile period is, and 8 percent stated that a woman is most susceptible to pregnancy just after her period has ended. 5.8 SOURCE OF CONTRACEPTION Table 5.7 shows the main sources of contraception for users of different modern methods. Information on where women obtain their method is important in designing policies and programs to expand and improve family planning service delivery. To obtain these data, all current users of modern contraceptive methods were asked the most recent source of their methods. The pharmacy is the major source of contraceptive methods in Ukraine, with nearly half of all users getting their method from pharmacies. The public medical sector remains the second major source, providing contraceptives to almost three in ten current users of modern methods. Less than 2 percent of users get their methods from the private medical sector, and 20 percent get their methods from other sources, primarily from friends, relatives, or neighbors. Table 5.7 Source of modern contraception methods Percent distribution of users of modern contraceptive methods age 15-49 by most recent source of method, according to method, Ukraine 2007 Source Pill IUD Male condom Total Public Sector 4.1 76.1 3.4 27.8 Hospital/maternity home 0.5 14.2 0.2 6.0 Polyclinic/ambulatory 0.2 10.2 0.4 3.5 Women’s consultation 2.8 49.5 2.5 17.4 Family planning center 0.2 1.0 0.0 0.3 Medical diagnostics center 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 FAP/rural health post 0.4 1.0 0.2 0.5 Private Sector 0.2 4.7 0.1 1.6 Private hospital/maternity home 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 Private polyclinic/ambulatory 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.1 Private women’s consultation 0.2 3.1 0.0 1.0 Private family planning center 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.3 Private medical diagnostics center 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 Other private 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 Pharmacy 91.3 17.4 60.1 49.3 Other source 1.0 1.0 35.8 20.3 Shop/market 0.0 0.0 8.5 4.7 Friends/relatives/neighbors 1.0 1.0 27.3 15.6 Missing 3.2 0.7 0.6 0.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 256 830 1,453 2,620 Note: Total includes 35 users of female sterilization, 43 users of foam/jelly, 1 user of injectables and 1 user of diaphragm and other modern methods. Seventeen percent obtain their method from public sector women’s consultation clinics. Hospitals and maternity homes serve 6 percent of public sector users, and polyclinics or ambulatory services provide methods to 4 percent. The majority of pill users obtain their supply from pharmacies (91 percent). One in two IUD insertions is performed in women’s consultation facilities. Condoms are primarily obtained either from pharmacies (60 percent) or from friends, relatives, or neighbors (27 percent). Family Planning | 51 5.9 PAYMENT OF FEES FOR MODERN CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS As Table 5.8 shows, only 4 percent of modern method users re- ceived the method for free. Around six in ten users were able to provide infor- mation on the cost of the method. Most of the users who were unable to report the cost of the method were condom users. This may be because the partner rather than the woman herself obtained the method. The median cost of a contra- ceptive method in Ukraine, among users who paid and know what they paid, is 35 Hryvna. As expected, costs vary by method. IUD insertions are most expensive, with a median cost of nearly 100 Hryvna per insertion. This means that approximately half of women paid 100 Hryvna or more to have an IUD inserted. Pill users paid a median of 39 Hryvna for each cycle of pills. The median cost of condoms per package was 9 Hryvna. 5.10 INFORMED CHOICE The UDHS included a series of questions to ascertain the extent to which users were provided the information they needed to make an informed choice with respect to the contraceptive method they adopted. These data are useful for monitoring the quality of family planning services. To facilitate informed decisionmaking, all users should be informed about other contraceptive methods. In addition, family planning providers should talk with all users about potential side effects of the method they plan to use and what to do if they experience a problem. This information assists users in coping with side effects and decreases unnecessary discontinuation of temporary methods. Table 5.9 presents information on informed choice by type and source of method. The data show that 77 percent of current users were informed about possible side effects or problems associated with use, 79 percent of users were informed about what to do if they experienced side effects, and 66 percent were informed of other methods that could be used. Users of the IUD are somewhat more likely than users of the pill to be informed of side effects, what to do if they experienced side effects, and alternate methods they could use. Eighty-eight percent of women who obtained their method for the first time from the public sector were informed about side effects or problems of the method used, 89 percent were informed about what to do if they experienced side effects, and 73 percent were informed of other methods that could be used. Table 5.8 Cost of modern contraceptive methods Percentage of current users of modern contraception age 15-49 who did not pay for the method, and percentage who know the cost of the method, and the median cost of the method, by current method, Ukraine 2007 Cost Pill IUD Male condom Total Percentage free 1.6 6.4 1.5 3.7 Percentage who know the cost 82.2 77.2 43.2 58.2 Median cost (in Hryvna)1 39.3 99.5 8.7 34.5 Number of women 256 830 1,453 2,620 Note: Total includes 35 users of female sterilization, 43 users of foam/jelly, 1 user of injectables and 1 user of diaphragm. Costs are based on the last time current users obtained method. Costs include consultation costs, if any. For condom, costs are per package; for pills, per cycle. For sterilization, data are based on women who received the operation in the 5 years before the survey. 1 Median cost is based on women who reported a cost. 52 | Family Planning Table 5.9 Informed choice Among current users of modern methods age 15-49 who started the last episode of use within the five years preceding the survey, the percentage who were informed about possible side effects or problems of that method, the percentage who were informed about what to do if they experienced side effects and the percentage who were informed about other methods they could use, by method and initial source of method, Ukraine 2007 Method/source Among women who started last episode of modern contraceptive method within five years preceding the survey: Number of women Percentage who were informed about side effects or problems of method used Percentage who were informed about what to do if experienced side effects Percentage who were informed by a health or family planning worker of other methods that could be used Method Pill 66.5 67.6 58.7 202 IUD 82.1 84.0 67.6 441 Other1 (74.2) (66.4) (76.0) 53 Initial source of method2 Public sector 88.1 88.8 72.9 350 Hospital/maternity home 88.5 82.8 72.2 73 Polyclinic/ambulatory (82.5) (80.8) (79.8) 32 Women’s consultation 89.4 92.2 73.2 234 Other public * * * 11 Private medical sector * * * 20 Pharmacy 71.3 74.3 65.1 290 Missing (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 36 Total 77.1 78.7 65.7 696 Note: Table excludes users who obtained their method from friends/relatives. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. na = Not applicable 1 Female sterilization, injectables, female condom and diaphragm 2 Source at start of current episode of use 5.11 CONTRACEPTIVE DISCONTINUATION Reproductive goals can only be realized if contraceptive methods are used consistently and correctly. A major concern among family planning program workers is the rate at which contraceptive users discontinue using their methods. To obtain information on contraceptive discontinuation, all segments of contraceptive use in the five-year period before the survey were recorded in the “Calendar” section of the Women’s Questionnaire. In analyzing these data, the month of interview and the two preceding months are ignored in order to avoid the bias that may be introduced by unrecognized pregnancies. One-year contraceptive discontinuation rates based on the calendar data are presented in Table 5.10. The data show that nearly a quarter of all contraceptive users in Ukraine discontinue using the method within 12 months of starting its use. Discontinuation rates are highest for withdrawal (36 percent), rhythm (30 percent), pills (25 percent), and condoms (23 percent). As seen in Table 5.11, the most frequently mentioned reasons for discontinuing a method included wanting a more effective method (14 percent), wanting to become pregnant (13 percent), infrequent sex or husband away (12 percent), and husband’s disapproval (9 percent). In addition, 12 percent of women mentioned that they became pregnant while using the method. Table 5.10 First-year contraceptive discontinuation rates Among women age 15-49 who started an episode of contraceptive use in the past five years, the percent- age of episodes discontinued within 12 months, by type of method, Ukraine 2007 Method Total Pill 25.3 IUD 1.4 Male condom 22.8 Rhythm 29.8 Withdrawal 35.7 All methods 23.1 Number of episodes of use 845 Note: Table is based on episodes of contraceptive use that began 3-59 months prior to the survey. Family Planning | 53 Table 5.11 Reasons for discontinuation Among all discontinuations of methods in the five years preceding the survey the percent distribution by main reason for discontinuation, according to method, Ukraine 2007 Reason Modern method Traditional method All methods1 Pill IUD Condom Rhythm With- drawal Other Became pregnant while using 5.5 3.5 8.9 19.8 19.4 20.9 12.0 Wanted to become pregnant 11.5 5.3 16.5 17.9 10.8 11.0 13.4 Husband disapproved 0.4 0.0 13.0 2.1 15.4 0.0 9.4 Side effects 23.3 9.6 0.2 0.2 2.9 3.9 3.7 Health concerns 18.8 21.8 1.9 2.5 2.2 1.4 5.7 Lack of access 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 Wanted a more effective method 3.2 0.9 11.6 27.7 22.7 6.6 14.2 Inconvenient to use 1.8 0.1 6.8 5.9 1.7 0.0 4.4 Infrequent sex/husband away 9.8 7.5 16.4 7.2 10.2 13.3 12.0 Cost too much 6.3 0.0 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 Difficult to get pregnant/menopausal 1.3 3.5 2.6 2.3 2.5 0.0 2.5 Marital dissolution/separation 5.0 5.3 4.6 5.9 2.4 0.0 4.3 Device expired/body to rest 3.0 35.8 0.7 0.0 0.0 1.7 5.1 Other 3.9 3.1 3.3 0.6 2.0 2.6 2.6 Don’t know 0.0 0.1 0.6 0.9 0.6 0.0 0.5 Missing 6.0 3.4 10.5 6.9 7.1 38.6 8.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of discontinuations 229 433 1,411 422 827 46 3,405 1 Includes 28 users of foam/jelly and 9 users of other modern methods. Looking at the results for specific methods, one in four pill users who discontinued use of the method in the five years before the survey cited side effects as the reason for discontinuation. An additional 19 percent of women who discontinued use of the pill cited health concerns as the main reason for stopping. Thirty-six percent of all IUD discontinuations during the five-years before the survey were because the device expired and/or the user needed to rest between periods of use. An additional 31 percent of IUD discontinuations were because of side effects or health concerns. The first reason for IUD discontinuations is a somewhat unusual misconception that needs separate investigation and is beyond the scope of this report. In the absence of apparent side effects, the most commonly used copper IUD can stay in place for at least 10 years without removal (WHO/RHR and CCP, 2007). There is no need for the body to rest; therefore, if the IUD is removed, a new IUD can be inserted immediately. Unnecessary removal of the IUD is invasive and increases exposure of currently sexually active women to the risk of unwanted pregnancy unless an alternative method is offered and started immediately. Seventeen percent of condom use discontinuations occurred because the users wanted to get pregnant. Other frequently mentioned reasons for discontinuing use of the condom included infrequent sex/husband away (16 percent), husband’s disapproval of the method (13 percent), and a desire for a more effective method (12 percent). Discontinuations of the rhythm method were primarily due to the need for a more effective method (28 percent), method failure (20 percent), or the desire to become pregnant (18 percent). Withdrawal users mentioned the desire for a more effective method most often as the reason for discontinuation (23 percent), followed closely by method failure (19 percent). Other frequently cited reasons for discontinuing withdrawal included husband’s disapproval (15 percent), a desire to become pregnant (11 percent), and infrequent sex/husband away (10 percent). 5.12 FUTURE CONTRACEPTION Currently married women who were not using contraception at the time of the survey were asked about their intention to use family planning in the future. This information is useful for assessing the changing demand for family planning and the extent to which nonusers of contraception plan to use family planning in the future. 54 | Family Planning Among currently married women who are not using contraception, 19 percent report that they intend to use a family planning method in the future, 58 percent say that they do not intend to use a method in the future, and 23 percent are unsure of their future intention (Table 5.12). There is some variation in the percentage of nonusers who intend to use family planning according to their number of living children. Nonusers with one to two children are about twice as likely to say that they will use family planning in the future as those with no children or those with three or more children. 5.13 REASONS FOR NONUSE OF CONTRACEPTION An understanding of the reasons given by women for not using family planning methods is critical to designing programs that could improve the quality of services. Table 5.13 shows the percent distribution of currently married women who are not using a contraceptive method and who do not intend to use in the future, by the main reasons for not intending to use. The vast majority of nonusers do not intend to use contraception in the future for fertility-related reasons. Most of these women report themselves to be subfecund or infecund (39 percent) or say they are menopausal or have had a hysterectomy (26 percent). In addition, one in ten women report not intending to use in the future because they are not having sexual intercourse or have sex infrequently. Eight percent of women cited method-related reasons for nonuse, the most important of these being health-related reasons (8 percent). Six percent of women do not intend to use a method because they are opposed to family planning, or their husband/partner is opposed, or they believe there are religious prohibitions against family planning. 5.14 PREFERRED METHOD OF CONTRACEPTION FOR FUTURE USE Future demand for specific methods of family planning can be assessed by asking nonusers who intend to use in the future for the methods they prefer to use. Table 5.14 provides some indication of currently married women’s preferences for their future method. Most currently married nonusers would prefer to use condoms (29 percent) or an IUD (26 percent) in the future. About 10 percent of women mention the pill as a potential future method. Among currently married women, 9 and 7 percent, respectively, say they would prefer to use withdrawal or rhythm in the future. Table 5.12 Future use of contraception Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 who are not using a contraceptive method by intention to use in the future, according to number of living children, Ukraine 2007 Intention Number of living children1 Total 0 1 2 3+ Intends to use 7.4 23.8 20.4 9.1 18.8 Unsure 18.3 25.8 22.3 15.6 22.5 Does not intend to use 73.1 49.3 56.4 72.9 57.5 Missing 1.2 1.2 1.0 2.5 1.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 215 556 487 114 1,373 1 Includes current pregnancy Table 5.13 Reason for not intending to use contraception in the future Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 who are not using contraception and who do not intend to use in the future by main reason for not intending to use, Ukraine 2007 Reason Percent distribution Fertility-related reasons Infrequent sex/no sex 9.8 Menopausal/had hysterectomy 26.3 Subfecund/infecund 39.0 Wants as many children as possible 4.4 Opposition to use Respondent opposed 2.7 Husband/partner opposed 1.5 Others opposed 0.1 Religious prohibition 1.9 Method-related reasons Health concerns 7.3 Fear of side effects 0.9 Inconvenient to use 0.1 Interferes with body’s normal processes 0.5 Other 4.7 Don’t know/missing 0.7 Total 100.0 Number of women 789 Family Planning | 55 Table 5.14 Preferred method of contraception for future use Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 who are not using a contraceptive method but who intend to use in the future by preferred method, Ukraine 2007 Preferred method Percent distribution Pill 9.6 IUD 26.4 Injectables 0.7 Implants 0.6 Male condom 29.4 Foam/jelly 1.9 Rhythm 7.1 Withdrawal 9.4 Folk methods 0.7 Unsure 14.1 Missing 0.2 Total 100.0 Number of women 258 5.15 EXPOSURE TO FAMILY PLANNING MESSAGES Information on the level of exposure to electronic media such as the radio and television is important for program managers and planners to effectively target population subgroups for information, education, and communication (IEC) campaigns on the use of family planning. To assess the extent to which media serve as a source of family planning messages, respondents were asked if they had heard or seen a message about family planning on the radio, television, or in the print media (newspaper, magazine) in the months preceding the survey. The results are shown in Table 5.15. Table 5.15 Exposure to family planning messages Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who heard or saw a family planning message on the radio or television or in a newspaper in the past few months, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women Men Radio Television Newspaper/ magazine None of these three media sources Number of women Radio Television Newspaper/ magazine None of these three media sources Number of women Age 15-19 19.1 41.3 39.9 42.4 782 5.3 16.9 7.5 78.5 444 20-24 22.9 47.0 45.5 34.9 1,006 9.4 28.7 15.5 64.0 459 25-29 24.3 46.8 41.9 36.5 998 10.5 27.0 16.3 62.8 436 30-34 20.2 39.8 41.6 43.5 984 11.4 31.3 16.4 59.4 479 35-39 19.3 40.2 36.5 43.8 1,049 13.9 29.2 16.5 61.2 449 40-44 14.3 31.9 26.2 54.3 936 7.3 20.5 12.8 68.6 399 45-49 15.5 33.6 26.2 56.7 1,085 7.5 20.2 11.3 73.7 512 Residence Urban 20.2 42.4 38.3 41.7 4,887 9.5 24.7 13.9 66.6 2,277 Rural 17.4 34.1 32.6 52.3 1,954 8.8 25.2 13.4 67.6 901 Region North 28.6 38.9 35.3 42.0 1,345 16.0 48.2 14.4 42.4 616 Central 20.7 36.9 35.3 49.2 817 7.9 26.3 16.8 64.6 354 East 12.3 46.5 35.4 41.4 2,120 3.6 12.3 9.6 81.9 1,060 South 21.2 33.8 36.0 49.2 1,049 10.8 18.7 12.0 71.6 493 West 19.2 38.0 40.8 46.3 1,509 11.9 27.1 19.5 63.3 654 Education Secondary or less 15.3 33.3 27.9 53.4 2,729 7.4 21.3 10.3 71.9 1,615 Higher 22.1 44.5 42.5 39.0 4,112 11.3 28.6 17.3 61.8 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 14.7 36.1 31.8 52.4 847 9.5 24.1 13.9 68.1 432 Second 17.1 39.1 35.1 48.6 1,437 9.6 24.6 13.2 67.8 651 Middle 17.9 38.4 35.5 47.2 1,276 8.0 21.9 13.3 68.5 622 Fourth 18.2 39.3 35.6 43.4 1,451 10.0 25.4 12.9 67.7 623 Highest 25.3 44.5 41.8 37.4 1,831 9.4 27.4 15.0 63.8 849 Total 19.4 40.1 36.7 44.7 6,841 9.3 24.9 13.8 66.9 3,178 56 | Family Planning Women are about equally as likely to have been exposed to family planning messages on the television (40 percent) as in the print media (37 percent). One in five women has heard a family planning message on the radio. Generally, men’s exposure to family planning messages through the various media is lower than women’s. One in four men have heard or seen family planning messages on the television, 14 percent have read about family planning in a newspaper or magazine, and 9 percent have heard messages on the radio. Two-fifths of women have not had any media exposure to family planning messages, compared with two-thirds of men. In general, respondent’s exposure to media messages on family planning decreases with age, with older women and men less likely to have been exposed to family planning messages in any media. Very young men (age 15-19) are least likely to have heard or seen a message on family planning in the media. Women’s exposure to family planning messages in the media is higher in urban than rural areas. However, there is little difference by urban-rural residence in men’s exposure. Looking at regional differences in media exposure, the patterns are different for women and men. For example, exposure is highest among women residing in the East region but lowest among men residing in the same region. Women in the East region are three times as likely as men to be exposed to family planning messages in the media. The North region is the only region in which the level of exposure of women and men is similar; in both cases, about 60 percent had seen a family planning message in one of the three media in the few months before the survey. Education is positively associated with media exposure. For example, about half of women with secondary or less education had no exposure to family planning information in any media, compared with two-fifths of women with higher education. A similar pattern is observed for men. Among women, exposure to family planning messages increases directly with household wealth status. Among men, exposure to messages is highest for those in the highest wealth quintile but does not vary markedly across the other quintiles. 5.16 CONTACT OF NONUSERS WITH FAMILY PLANNING PROVIDERS When family planning providers make field visits or when nonusers visit health facilities, it creates an opportunity for health providers to discuss family planning issues, discuss contraception options available, and motivate nonusers to adopt a method of family planning. To gain insight into the level of contact between nonusers and health workers, women were asked if they were visited by a health worker or had visited a health facility in the 12 months preceding the survey for any reason and whether anyone had discussed family planning with them during the visit. Table 5.16 shows that only 4 percent of nonusers were visited by a health worker who discussed family planning. In addition, although about half of women visited a health facility in the 12 months before the survey, only 10 percent discussed family planning with a provider during a facility visit. Overall, 88 percent of women did not discuss family planning during a field visit or at a health facility during the 12 months before the survey. The level of contact of nonusers with family planning providers does not vary greatly by background characteristics. Family Planning | 57 Table 5.16 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers Among women age 15-49 who are not using contraception, the percentage who during the past 12 months were visited by a health worker who discussed family planning, the percentage who visited a health facility and discussed family planning, the percentage who visited a health facility but did not discuss family planning, and the percentage who neither discussed family planning with a health worker nor at a health facility, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage of women who were visited by health worker who discussed family planning Percentage of women who visited a health facility in the past 12 months and who: Percentage of women who neither discussed family planning with health worker nor at a health facility Number of women Discussed family planning Did not discuss family planning Age 15-19 5.9 8.1 33.2 88.5 696 20-24 8.2 17.1 39.9 79.1 484 25-29 4.3 21.2 39.3 78.0 417 30-34 5.4 15.2 47.0 82.9 371 35-39 1.7 6.6 50.5 92.5 361 40-44 0.8 3.6 52.0 95.6 372 45-49 0.2 1.8 53.6 98.0 658 Residence Urban 3.9 10.7 45.8 87.5 2,307 Rural 3.7 8.2 41.3 90.0 1,052 Region North 5.0 7.7 36.9 90.5 595 Central 3.4 11.4 54.2 87.0 393 East 4.3 13.0 58.0 84.9 958 South 3.5 6.8 29.3 91.1 542 West 3.0 9.4 39.4 89.2 871 Education Secondary or less 4.1 8.3 43.4 89.7 1,508 Higher 3.7 11.2 45.2 87.1 1,851 Wealth quintile Lowest 2.8 7.3 42.5 91.1 464 Second 4.6 9.7 42.5 87.9 760 Middle 4.2 11.9 46.7 85.9 651 Fourth 4.3 10.4 43.3 88.1 699 Highest 3.1 9.6 46.4 89.1 785 Total 3.9 9.9 44.4 88.3 3,359 5.17 HUSBAND’S KNOWLEDGE OF WIFE’S USE OF CONTRACEPTION Concealment of contraceptive use is an indication of absence of communication or disagreement on use of family planning. To shed light on the extent of communication regarding use of contraception among married couples, currently married women who were using contraception at the time of the survey were asked whether their husband knew of their use. A sizeable majority of users (93 percent) reported that their husband knows about their use of contraception (Table 5.17). 58 | Family Planning Table 5.17 Husband/partner’s knowledge of women’s use of contraception Among currently married women age 15-49 who are using a method, percent distribution by whether they report that their husbands/partners know about their use, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Husband/ partner knows1 Husband/ partner does not know Unsure whether husband/ partner knows/ missing Total Number of women Age 15-19 (100.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 22 20-24 94.6 0.0 5.4 100.0 296 25-29 93.6 0.5 5.9 100.0 446 30-34 93.6 1.4 5.0 100.0 522 35-39 91.6 1.3 7.1 100.0 601 40-44 92.5 0.5 7.0 100.0 478 45-49 93.9 0.9 5.2 100.0 380 Residence Urban 92.6 0.6 6.8 100.0 1,959 Rural 94.7 1.4 3.9 100.0 784 Region North 86.1 1.2 12.7 100.0 625 Central 98.0 0.2 1.9 100.0 348 East 95.7 0.4 3.9 100.0 832 South 95.8 1.3 2.9 100.0 421 West 92.4 1.1 6.4 100.0 517 Education Secondary or less 92.7 1.3 6.0 100.0 1,019 Higher 93.5 0.5 6.0 100.0 1,724 Wealth quintile Lowest 94.7 1.4 3.9 100.0 317 Second 95.6 1.6 2.7 100.0 575 Middle 93.4 1.5 5.1 100.0 509 Fourth 92.0 0.0 8.0 100.0 540 Highest 91.5 0.2 8.3 100.0 803 Total 93.2 0.8 6.0 100.0 2,743 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Includes women who report use of male sterilization, male condoms or withdrawal Abortion | 59 ABORTION 6 6.1 PREGNANCIES ENDING IN INDUCED ABORTION In Ukraine, as in all the coun- tries of the former Soviet Union, in- duced abortion was the primary means of fertility control for many years. In- duced abortion was first legalized in the Soviet Union in 1920 but was banned in 1936 as part of a pronatalist policy. This decision was reversed in 1955 when abortion for nonmedical reasons was again legalized throughout the former Soviet Union. Like other countries in East and Central Europe and the former Soviet Union, Ukraine’s abortion laws are among the most lib- eral in the world. They allow women to obtain an abortion upon request up to the 12th week of pregnancy, and up to 22 weeks for reasons that threaten the life of either the mother or fetus. Information about induced abortion was collected through a de- tailed reproductive history section in the Women’s Questionnaire. In col- lecting the histories, each woman was first asked about the total number of pregnancies that had ended in live births, stillbirths, miscarriages, and in- duced abortions. After obtaining these aggregate data, an event-by-event pregnancy history was re- corded. For each pregnancy, the duration, the month and year of termination, and the outcome of the pregnancy was recorded.1 Table 6.1 shows the percent distribution of the outcomes of all pregnancies that ended during the three-year period preceding the survey (approximately July-November 2004 to July-November 2007). In Ukraine, more than two-thirds of pregnancies end in a live birth (68 percent). The majority of pregnancy losses are due to induced abortions (25 percent of pregnancies), followed by miscarriages (6 percent) and stillbirths (less than 1 percent). The proportion of pregnancies that end in induced abortion increases dramatically with age of the woman and with pregnancy order. Eighteen percent of pregnancies among teenagers end in 1 The pregnancy history was structured to ensure as complete reporting of abortions as possible, especially for the period immediately before the survey. Data were collected in reverse chronological order (i.e., information was first collected about the most recent pregnancy, then about the next-to-last, and so on). This procedure was designed to yield a more complete reporting of events for the years immediately before the survey than collecting information in chronological order. At the end of the pregnancy history, interviewers were required to check the consistency between the aggregate data collected and the number of specific events reported in the pregnancy history. Table 6.1 Pregnancy outcome by background characteristics Percent distribution of pregnancies ending in the three years preceding the survey by type of outcome, according background characteristics. Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Pregnancy outcome Total Number of preg- nancies Live birth Stillbirth Miscarriage Abortion Age at pregnancy outcome < 20 78.5 1.1 2.6 17.8 100.0 75 20-24 78.8 0.1 5.2 15.9 100.0 356 25-34 62.5 1.3 7.8 28.4 100.0 471 35-49 47.2 0.6 3.2 49.0 100.0 104 Pregnancy order First 88.2 0.3 5.6 5.9 100.0 381 Second 69.5 0.4 6.0 24.2 100.0 277 Third 56.9 3.1 7.7 32.4 100.0 142 Fourth 38.3 0.7 4.9 56.1 100.0 86 Fifth or higher 34.2 0.5 6.4 58.9 100.0 120 Residence Urban 67.6 1.1 7.3 23.9 100.0 667 Rural 68.4 0.2 3.5 28.0 100.0 338 Region North 66.4 0.0 3.9 29.7 100.0 201 Central 63.5 0.4 6.2 29.9 100.0 124 East 63.9 1.8 8.3 26.1 100.0 242 South 63.4 0.7 8.0 27.9 100.0 200 West 79.3 0.7 3.7 16.3 100.0 239 Education Secondary or less 68.2 0.4 6.1 25.3 100.0 447 Higher 67.6 1.1 6.0 25.3 100.0 559 Wealth quintile Lowest 67.2 0.4 3.7 28.7 100.0 162 Second 66.6 0.0 4.7 28.7 100.0 229 Middle 69.7 0.7 5.1 24.5 100.0 201 Fourth 67.8 2.5 6.1 23.5 100.0 173 Highest 68.1 0.6 9.6 21.7 100.0 240 Total 67.9 0.8 6.0 25.3 100.0 1,005 60 | Abortion abortion, compared with 28 percent of pregnancies among women age 25-34 and nearly half of pregnancies (49 percent) among women age 35-49. There is a slightly steeper increase by pregnancy order, from about 6 percent of first pregnancies to 59 percent of fifth or higher pregnancies. Rural women are slightly more likely than urban women to have had a recent pregnancy end in an induced abortion (28 percent versus 24 percent). The proportion of pregnancies that end in an induced abortion also varies by region, ranging from a low of 16 percent in the West to a high of 30 percent in the North and the Central regions. With regard to education, no difference is observed in the proportion of pregnancies ending in induced abortion. However, the likelihood that a pregnancy will end in an induced abortion tends to decrease as wealth quintile increases. 6.2 LIFETIME EXPERIENCE WITH INDUCED ABORTION Table 6.2 shows women’s lifetime experience with abortion. The statistics on the proportion of women who have ever had an abortion are based on all women age 15-49 irrespective of their exposure to the risk of pregnancy. Table 6.2 Lifetime experience with induced abortion Percentage of women who have had at least one induced abortion, and among these women, percent distribution by number of abortions, and the mean number of abortions, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage of women who ever had an induced abortion Number of women Percent distribution of women who ever had an abortion by number of abortions Mean number of abortions Number of women with abortions1 2-3 4-5 6+ Total Age 15-19 0.6 782 * * * * 100.0 * 5 20-24 5.5 1,006 71.3 21.4 7.3 0.0 100.0 1.5 55 25-29 18.4 998 66.3 32.1 1.1 0.5 100.0 1.4 184 30-34 35.6 984 54.0 37.7 7.4 0.9 100.0 1.8 350 35-39 43.8 1,049 42.4 47.1 7.9 2.6 100.0 2.0 460 40-44 51.9 936 44.0 47.1 7.0 1.9 100.0 2.0 486 45-49 54.2 1,085 37.5 51.0 7.3 4.3 100.0 2.2 588 Number of living children 0 5.9 2,098 71.1 26.2 2.7 0.0 100.0 1.4 124 1 37.7 2,523 51.8 40.9 5.3 2.0 100.0 1.8 950 2 49.5 1,856 39.7 49.5 8.4 2.4 100.0 2.1 919 3+ 37.4 364 28.7 53.5 11.6 6.3 100.0 2.7 136 Marital status Never married 3.7 1,544 73.3 25.1 1.6 0.0 100.0 1.3 57 Married or living together 37.1 4,116 44.2 45.5 7.8 2.5 100.0 2.0 1,528 Divorced/separated/ widowed 46.0 1,181 49.0 43.9 4.9 2.2 100.0 1.9 544 Residence Urban 31.4 4,887 46.9 43.9 6.9 2.3 100.0 1.9 1,537 Rural 30.3 1,954 44.4 46.3 6.9 2.4 100.0 2.0 592 Region North 30.9 1,345 50.8 40.4 7.3 1.5 100.0 1.9 415 Central 38.4 817 41.7 49.7 6.3 2.3 100.0 2.0 314 East 36.4 2,120 50.4 40.5 5.6 3.5 100.0 1.9 772 South 37.9 1,049 36.7 50.6 10.4 2.4 100.0 2.1 398 West 15.3 1,509 46.7 48.0 5.0 0.4 100.0 1.8 230 Education Secondary or less 31.1 2,729 43.8 46.6 7.5 2.2 100.0 2.0 847 Higher 31.2 4,112 47.8 43.2 6.5 2.5 100.0 1.9 1,281 Wealth quintile Lowest 31.5 847 45.3 44.9 8.2 1.6 100.0 2.0 267 Second 32.0 1,437 44.9 47.2 6.0 2.0 100.0 1.9 460 Middle 30.8 1,276 42.4 44.9 10.3 2.4 100.0 2.1 393 Fourth 31.0 1,451 42.8 47.1 5.3 4.8 100.0 2.1 450 Highest 30.5 1,831 53.1 39.9 5.9 1.1 100.0 1.8 559 Total 31.1 6,841 46.2 44.5 6.9 2.4 100.0 2.0 2,129 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Abortion | 61 As expected, the percentage who have ever had an abortion increases rapidly with age, ranging from less than 1 in 20 women under age 25 to more than 1 in 2 women age 40-49. In part, this pattern reflects the fact that exposure to pregnancy increases with age, as many young women have not yet initiated sexual activity. Table 6.2 also shows that there is a positive relationship between having had an induced abortion and number of living children. Six percent of women with no living children have had an abortion, compared with 38 percent of women with one child, 50 percent of women with two children, and 37 percent of women with three or more children. Although there are no pronounced differentials in lifetime prevalence of induced abortions by urban-rural residence (31 percent and 30 percent, respectively), there is some variation in lifetime experience of induced abortion by region; the percentage ever having an abortion ranges from a low of 15 percent in the West to a high of 38 percent in the South and the Central regions. There is no association between education and the lifetime experience of an induced abortion, and there is only slight differentiation across wealth quintiles in the likelihood of ever having had an induced abortion. Table 6.2 also presents information on repeated use of induced abortion. Among women who have ever had an abortion, 54 percent have had more than one abortion. Forty-five percent of women who have had an abortion reported having 2-3 abortions, and 9 percent had had 4 or more. The mean number of abortions among women who have had at least one abortion is 2.0. As expected, the number of abortions increases with age and the number of living children. The base female population in the Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) is women age 15-49, and in the 1999 Ukraine Reproductive Health Survey (URHS), it is women age 15- 44. To analyze trends in abortion rates in Ukraine between the 1999 URHS and the 2007 UDHS, the data from the UDHS were computed for all women age 15-44 to be comparable with the 1999 URHS data. There has been a substantial decline in abortion rates over the past eight years. In 1999, 43 percent of women age 15-44 had had at least one abortion and 20 percent had had two or more abortions. This compares with 2007, when abortions had declined to 27 percent and 13 percent, respectively. The reason for such a large decline is not clear; however there has been a marked increase in the use of modern methods of contraception (51 percent among women age 15-44 in 2007, compared with 38 percent among women age 15-44 in 1999 URHS). The increase in the use of modern methods of contraception is primarily related to the increase in the use of male condoms, from 14 percent among women age 15-44 in 1999 to 26 percent among women age 15-44 in 2007 combined with an overall decrease in the use of traditional methods, mainly because of a decrease in the use of withdrawal, from 20 percent in 1999 to 10 percent in 2007 (data not shown). 6.3 RATES OF INDUCED ABORTION Table 6.3 shows rates of induced abortion from the 2007 UDHS. The rates are calculated in a manner analog- ous to the calculation of fertility rates. Age-specific abor- tion rates (ASARs) express the number of abortions among women in the age group per 1,000 women in the age group. The total abortion rate (TAR), which is expressed per woman, is a summary measure of the age-specific rates. The TAR is interpreted as the number of abortions a woman would have in her lifetime if she experienced the currently observed age-specific abortion rates during her childbearing years. The general abortion rate (GAR) is the number of abortions per 1,000 women age 15-49. All of the rates refer to the three-year period prior to the survey (i.e., approximately July-November 2004 to July-November 2007). The total abortion rate for Ukraine is 0.4 abortions per woman. This means that the average number of abor- Table 6.3 Induced abortion rates Age-specific induced abortion rates (per 1,000 women), total abortion rates (TAR), and general abortion rate (GAR) for the three-year period preceding the survey, Ukraine 2007 Age groups Residence Total Urban Rural 15-19 4 10 6 20-24 18 20 18 25-29 24 33 26 30-34 17 24 19 35-39 8 21 12 40-44 4 6 4 45-49 2 1 1 Rates1 TAR 15-49 0.4 0.6 0.4 TAR 15-44 0.4 0.6 0.4 GAR 14 20 15 1 Total abortion rate (TAR) expressed per woman. General abortion rate (GAR) (abortions divided by number of women 15-49) expressed per 1,000 women. 62 | Abortion tions a Ukrainian woman will have, according to current abortion rates, is about one-third of the aver- age number of births she will have (1.2 births per woman). The abortion rates are slightly higher among women in rural areas compared to urban areas (0.6 and 0.4, respectively). The 1999 URHS estimated the total abortion rate among women age 15-44 for the two-year period preceding the survey to be 1.57 (1.74 in urban areas and 1.29 in rural areas) (KIIS et al., 2001). The decrease in the total abortion rate may be due to the aggressive antiabortion campaign in recent years and the increased use of modern contraceptive methods. Compared with abortion estimates from recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in other countries in Eastern Europe and Eurasia, the total abortion rate in Ukraine in 2007 is three times lower than the total abortion rate in Moldova (1.3 in 2005) and markedly lower than the rate in Armenia (1.8 in 2005) and Azerbaijan (2.3 in 2006). Table 6.3 shows that the age-specific abortion rates increase rapidly in the youngest cohorts, peak among women age 25-29 (26 per 1,000 women) and then decrease in the older age groups. Figure 6.1 compares the age-specific rates for abortion and fertility. The comparison highlights the fact that abortion rates are much lower than fertility rates among women under age 35 but are about equal among older women (Figure 6.1). Figure 6.1 Age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) and age-specific abortion rates (ASAR) � � � � � � � � � � � � � � 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age group 0 20 40 60 80 100 Rates per 1,000 women ASFR ASAR� � UDHS 2007 Table 6.4 shows induced abortion rates by background characteristics. The total abortion rate differs only slightly by urban-rural residence. By region, the total abortion rate ranges from a low of 0.3 in the West region to a high of 0.6 in the Central and South regions. There is only a slight difference in the total abortion rate by level of education. Differences by wealth status indicate that women in the lowest wealth quintile have the highest total abortion rate (0.7) while women in the highest wealth quintiles have the lowest total abortion rate (0.3). Abortion | 63 Table 6.4 Induced abortion rates by background characteristics Total induced abortion rates for the three years preceding the survey and mean number of abortions among women age 40-49, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Total abortion rate among women age 15-49 Mean number of abortions among women age 40-49 Residence Urban 0.4 1.2 Rural 0.6 1.0 Region North 0.5 1.0 Central 0.6 1.3 East 0.4 1.3 South 0.6 1.5 West 0.3 0.5 Education Secondary or less 0.5 1.2 Higher 0.4 1.1 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.7 1.1 Second 0.5 1.1 Middle 0.5 1.2 Fourth 0.3 1.2 Highest 0.3 1.0 Total 0.4 1.1 6.4 USE OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS BEFORE ABORTION Information on contraceptive behavior before abortion is of particular interest to both family planning counselors and abortion providers because a woman who has an abortion either was not using a method of contraception at the time of conception or was using (perhaps incorrectly) a method that failed. To obtain these data, for each pregnancy that terminated in the three years preceding the survey, 2007 UDHS respondents were asked whether they were using a method of contraception at the time they became pregnant, and if so, which method. Table 6.5 shows use of contraception at the time of conception. Two-thirds of the respondents who had an induced abortion were using a method of contraception at the time they became pregnant. Thus, these abortions were the result of contraceptive failure. The majority of these contraceptive failures (42 percent overall) occurred after failure of a traditional contraceptive method—28 percent while using withdrawal and 12 percent while using rhythm. Most abortions among users of modern methods were reported by those using the male condom. In addition to a high level of contraceptive failure, it is important to note that one-third of pregnancies resulting in induced abortion occurred among women not using any method of contraception to prevent the pregnancy (34 percent) (Figure 6.2). It seems clear that access to and use of more reliable methods of contraception would reduce the incidence of induced abortion, thus improving the reproductive health of the women of Ukraine. 64 | Abortion Table 6.5 Use of contraception before pregnancy Percent distribution of pregnancy outcomes in the three years preceding the survey, by contraceptive method used at the time of conception, Ukraine 2007 Contraceptive method Result of pregnancy All pregnancies1 Live birth Miscarriage Abortion No method used 81.8 79.7 33.7 69.6 Any method 18.2 20.3 66.3 30.4 Any modern method 7.0 10.9 24.1 11.6 Pill 0.8 0.0 3.0 1.3 IUD 0.5 0.0 2.4 1.0 Male condom 5.4 10.9 18.3 9.0 Foam/jelly 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.3 Any traditional method 11.1 9.4 42.3 18.8 Rhythm 4.2 2.3 11.8 6.0 Withdrawal 6.6 7.2 27.8 11.9 Folk methods 0.4 0.0 2.6 0.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of pregnancies 683 61 254 1,005 1 Includes 8 cases of stillbirth. Figure 6.2 Use of contraception before abortion No method used 34% Pill 3% IUD 2% Male condom 18% Rhythm 12% Withdrawal 28% Folk methods 3% UDHS 2007 Proximate Determinants of Fertility | 65 PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY 7 This chapter addresses factors other than contraception that affect a woman’s risk of becoming pregnant. The length of a woman’s reproductive life is important for understanding fertility and the principal factors that affect the length of time that women are exposed to pregnancy— marriage, postpartum amenorrhea and sexual abstinence, and menopause. In societies like Ukraine where sexual activity usually takes place within marriage, marriage signals the onset of a woman’s sustained exposure to the risk of childbearing. Postpartum amenorrhea and sexual abstinence affect the duration of a woman’s insusceptibility to pregnancy, which in turn affects birth spacing. The onset of menopause marks the end of a woman’s reproductive life. 7.1 CURRENT MARITAL STATUS Table 7.1 shows the marital status of women and men by age. About three in five women and men age 15-49 are married or living together (60 and 57 percent, respectively). Nearly one in four women age 15-49 have never been married, whereas the proportion of men age 15-49 never married is considerably higher (33 percent). The proportion never married decreases sharply with age for both women and men—among women, from 94 percent in age group 15-19 to 2 percent in age group 40- 49, and among men, from 97 percent in age group 15-19 to 3 percent in age group 45-49. The leading cause of marriage disruption is divorce and separation, followed by widowhood. Twelve percent of women age 15-49 are divorced, compared with 7 percent of men. About 2 percent of women and men age 15-49 are separated. The proportion of women and men who are divorced generally increases with age, peaking at age 40-44, and then declines slightly. Overall, 3 percent of women and 1 percent of men are widowed. Widowhood increases with age among women, and, at age 45-49, nearly one in ten women is widowed. The proportion widowed among men also increases, but at a slower and less uniform pace than among women, and by age 45- 49, only 4 percent of men are widowed. Table 7.1 Current marital status Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 by current marital status, according to age, Ukraine 2007 Age Marital status Total Percentage of respondents currently in union Number of respondents Never married Married Living together Divorced Separated Widowed WOMEN 15-19 93.5 3.4 2.3 0.2 0.7 0.0 100.0 5.7 782 20-24 47.3 39.7 7.2 2.4 3.3 0.2 100.0 46.9 1,006 25-29 17.5 61.0 8.2 9.6 2.9 0.8 100.0 69.2 998 30-34 7.9 66.4 5.6 14.4 2.8 2.9 100.0 72.0 984 35-39 3.7 68.6 4.8 16.8 2.4 3.8 100.0 73.4 1,049 40-44 2.1 69.8 2.9 17.4 2.0 5.9 100.0 72.7 936 45-49 2.5 66.3 2.8 17.3 1.7 9.5 100.0 69.1 1,085 Total 22.6 55.3 4.9 11.5 2.3 3.4 100.0 60.2 6,841 MEN 15-19 97.0 0.7 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3.0 444 20-24 74.5 15.7 7.0 1.0 1.8 0.0 100.0 22.7 459 25-29 32.6 50.3 10.0 4.7 2.3 0.2 100.0 60.3 436 30-34 14.9 62.9 6.2 11.5 3.2 1.3 100.0 69.1 479 35-39 5.5 72.1 6.1 10.4 3.2 2.6 100.0 78.3 449 40-44 4.4 74.8 4.5 12.6 2.0 1.7 100.0 79.3 399 45-49 3.1 76.8 5.2 9.1 2.0 3.8 100.0 82.0 512 Total 32.9 50.7 5.9 7.0 2.1 1.4 100.0 56.6 3,178 66 | Proximate Determinants of Fertility 7.2 AGE AT FIRST MARRIAGE Age at first marriage has a major effect on childbearing because women who marry early have, on average, a longer period of exposure to the risk of becoming pregnant and a greater number of lifetime births. Information on age at first marriage was obtained in the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) by asking respondents the month and year—or age if year is not known— when they started living with their first husband or wife. Table 7.2 shows the percentage of women and men who have married by specific ages, according to current age. Among women, marriage occurs relatively late, with more than 90 percent of women age 15-19 and nearly half of women age 20-24 not yet married. There has been a noticeable increase in the median age at marriage across the age cohorts, from 21.0 years among women age 45- 49 to 22.8 years among women age 20-24. Table 7.2 Age at first marriage Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who were first married by specific exact ages and median age at first marriage, according to current age, Ukraine 2007 Current age Percentage first married by exact age: Percentage never married Number Median age at first marriage 15 18 20 22 25 WOMEN 15-19 0.1 na na na na 93.5 782 a 20-24 0.2 9.9 30.6 na na 47.3 1,006 22.8 25-29 0.6 14.4 38.8 58.0 76.2 17.5 998 21.2 30-34 1.0 18.7 46.1 67.9 84.3 7.9 984 20.3 35-39 0.5 15.1 47.1 68.6 85.0 3.7 1,049 20.3 40-44 0.3 10.8 41.7 69.6 87.2 2.1 936 20.5 45-49 0.4 8.1 34.0 63.1 83.0 2.5 1,085 21.0 25-49 0.6 13.3 41.5 65.4 83.1 6.7 5,053 20.7 MEN 15-19 0.0 na na na na 97.0 444 a 20-24 0.0 2.4 10.4 na na 74.5 459 a 25-29 0.1 3.5 12.2 32.7 56.2 32.6 436 24.1 30-34 0.2 3.6 14.1 35.3 61.8 14.9 479 23.7 35-39 0.0 1.8 12.6 34.9 68.5 5.5 449 22.9 40-44 0.0 1.1 12.2 41.3 74.3 4.4 399 22.5 45-49 0.0 1.0 9.4 37.9 72.9 3.1 512 22.7 25-49 0.1 2.2 12.1 36.4 66.7 12.0 2,275 23.0 Note: The age at first marriage is defined as the age at which the respondent began living with her/his first spouse or partner na = Not applicable due to censoring a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of the women married for the first time before reaching the beginning of the age group Table 7.2 also shows that men tend to marry more than two years later than women. The median age at marriage among men age 25-49 is 23.0 years, compared with 20.7 years among women in the same age group. Tables 7.3.1 and 7.3.2 present information from the UDHS on the median age at first marriage for women and men age 25-49 by five-year age groups, according to background characteristics. Among women, the results indicate urban residents marry nearly one year later than their rural counterparts, and those living in the East wait the longest to get married. Women with higher education marry one year later than those with a secondary or lower level of education. Similarly, the median age by wealth quintiles shows that women from the highest wealth quintile marry one year later than those from the second and lowest quintiles. Proximate Determinants of Fertility | 67 Table 7.3.1 Median age at first marriage: women Median age at first marriage among women age 25-49 by five-year age groups, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Age Women age 25-49 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban 21.5 20.7 20.7 20.6 21.2 20.9 Rural 20.1 19.5 19.7 20.4 20.5 20.0 Region North 21.2 20.5 20.6 19.9 21.0 20.7 Central 21.6 20.3 19.8 20.5 20.7 20.5 East 21.6 20.4 20.4 20.7 21.2 20.9 South 21.3 20.2 20.0 20.6 20.9 20.6 West 20.4 19.9 20.3 20.8 20.9 20.5 Education Secondary or less 19.8 19.6 19.6 20.0 20.4 19.9 Higher 21.8 20.8 20.8 20.8 21.4 21.1 Wealth quintile Lowest 20.8 19.9 20.0 20.5 20.6 20.3 Second 19.9 20.0 19.7 20.5 20.6 20.2 Middle 20.9 20.0 20.0 20.2 20.7 20.4 Fourth 20.8 20.4 21.1 20.6 21.6 20.9 Highest 22.2 20.8 20.4 20.8 21.3 21.1 Total 21.2 20.3 20.3 20.5 21.0 20.7 Note: The age at first marriage is defined as the age at which the respondent began living with her/his first spouse/partner. Among men, there is virtually no difference in the median age at marriage among urban and rural residents. Men residing in the West marry at a later age than men from all other regions. Education also influences age at marriage among men but not as substantially as among women. Men who have secondary or lower level of education marry half a year earlier than men with higher education. The relationship between median age at marriage and wealth quintile is mixed, with men living in households belonging to the middle wealth quintile marrying earlier than men in the other quintiles. Table 7.3.2 Median age at first marriage: men Median age at first marriage among men age 25-49 by five-year age groups, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Age Men age 25-49 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban 23.8 23.8 23.0 22.5 22.6 23.0 Rural a 23.6 22.7 22.7 22.9 23.1 Region North 23.5 23.1 23.1 22.5 23.0 23.0 Central a 23.9 22.4 22.5 22.6 23.0 East 22.6 23.7 23.0 22.4 22.4 22.7 South a 23.3 22.8 22.4 22.7 23.2 West a 25.0 23.1 23.2 23.3 23.9 Education Secondary or less 23.1 23.3 22.5 22.4 22.8 22.8 Higher 24.6 24.2 23.5 22.6 22.6 23.3 Wealth quintile Lowest 24.9 22.9 23.3 23.1 23.6 23.4 Second 24.8 23.8 22.6 22.2 22.8 23.0 Middle 23.6 24.0 22.3 22.6 22.5 22.7 Fourth 23.7 23.6 23.0 22.7 22.8 23.0 Highest 23.9 24.0 23.6 22.1 22.5 23.2 Total 24.1 23.7 22.9 22.5 22.7 23.0 Note: The age at first marriage is defined as the age at which the respondent began living with her/his first spouse/partner. a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of the men married for the first time before reaching the beginning of the age group. 68 | Proximate Determinants of Fertility 7.3 AGE AT FIRST SEXUAL INTERCOURSE Age at first marriage is often used as a proxy for first exposure to intercourse and risk of pregnancy. But the two events may not occur at the same time because some people may engage in sexual activity before marriage. In the UDHS, all women and men, irrespective of their marital status, were asked how old they were when they first had sexual intercourse. Table 7.4 shows the proportion of women and men who had their first sexual intercourse by specific ages. One in five women age 25-49 first had sexual intercourse by age 18, 57 percent by age 20, and 91 percent by age 25. The median age at first sexual intercourse among women age 25-49 is 19.6 years, almost a year earlier than the median age at first marriage, indicating that many Ukrainian women initiate sexual intercourse before their first marriage. The median age at first sexual intercourse has decreased by almost one year over the last two decades, from 20.3 years for women age 45-49 to 19.4 years for women age 20-24. Table 7.4 Age at first sexual intercourse Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who had first sexual intercourse by specific exact ages, percentage who never had intercourse, and median age at first intercourse, according to current age, Ukraine 2007 Current age Percentage who had first sexual intercourse by exact age: Percentage who never had intercourse Number Median age at first intercourse 15 18 20 22 25 WOMEN 15-19 1.0 na na na na 82.1 782 a 20-24 1.2 28.9 57.9 na na 21.5 1,006 19.4 25-29 0.6 27.0 60.7 80.4 91.0 4.4 998 19.3 30-34 0.2 28.4 64.0 82.4 91.7 1.7 984 19.1 35-39 0.2 22.2 60.8 81.2 91.4 0.6 1,049 19.4 40-44 0.4 15.0 54.2 80.3 92.7 0.8 936 19.8 45-49 0.2 13.2 44.5 76.6 89.8 0.5 1,085 20.3 20-49 0.5 22.4 56.9 na na 4.9 6,059 19.6 25-49 0.3 21.1 56.7 80.1 91.3 1.6 5,053 19.6 15-24 1.1 na na na na 48.0 1,788 22.4 MEN 15-19 2.9 na na na na 66.9 444 a 20-24 1.1 45.4 79.0 na na 8.3 459 18.3 25-29 2.9 43.7 74.5 90.2 96.5 1.3 436 18.4 30-34 2.8 40.0 70.1 88.9 95.5 1.1 479 18.6 35-39 1.7 39.5 70.5 87.1 96.0 0.6 449 18.6 40-44 0.7 34.6 62.5 86.5 95.5 0.2 399 18.9 45-49 1.6 32.8 68.3 88.0 96.2 0.5 512 18.8 20-49 1.8 39.3 70.9 na na 2.0 2,734 18.6 25-49 2.0 38.0 69.3 88.2 96.0 0.7 2,275 18.7 15-24 2.0 na na na na 37.1 903 19.3 na=Not applicable due to censoring a=Omitted because less than 50 percent of the respondents had intercourse for the first time before reaching the beginning of the age group Although men marry later than women, the results in Table 7.4 suggest that they initiate sexual intercourse on average at a younger age; the median age at first sexual intercourse among men age 25-49 (18.7 years) is almost a year lower than among women in the same age group. Similar to the pattern for women, the median age at first intercourse among men has declined across age cohorts, although the size of the decline has been somewhat less for men (around half a year) than for women. Tables 7.5.1 and 7.5.2 present information on the median age at first intercourse for women and men age 25-49 by five-year age groups, according to background characteristics. The results show that differences in the median age at first intercourse among women are comparatively minor, with the largest differentials observed by region and educational status; women residing in the South and women with higher education initiate sexual intercourse later than their counterparts. Looking at Proximate Determinants of Fertility | 69 the results for men, the largest differences are observed by residence; rural men initiate sex more than a half year later than their urban counterparts, and men residing in the West initiate sexual intercourse a year and a half later than men living in the Central and Eastern regions. Table 7.5.1 Median age at first intercourse: women Median age at first sexual intercourse among women age 20-49 by five-year age groups, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Current age Women age 20-49 Women age 25-49 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban 19.4 19.4 19.2 19.5 19.7 20.3 19.6 19.7 Rural 19.6 19.0 18.9 19.2 20.0 20.2 19.5 19.5 Region North 19.3 19.5 19.5 19.6 19.3 20.2 19.6 19.6 Central 19.6 18.7 19.1 18.9 19.7 19.9 19.4 19.3 East 19.0 19.2 18.8 19.3 19.7 20.2 19.4 19.5 South a 19.8 19.3 19.7 20.2 20.7 a 20.0 West 19.4 19.3 19.3 19.4 20.2 20.4 19.7 19.7 Education Secondary or less 18.7 18.7 18.7 19.0 19.6 19.8 19.1 19.2 Higher 19.8 19.6 19.5 19.6 19.9 20.5 19.8 19.8 Wealth quintile Lowest 19.1 19.2 19.1 19.5 19.9 20.2 19.5 19.6 Second 19.8 18.8 19.0 19.0 20.1 20.4 19.6 19.6 Middle 19.7 19.0 19.2 19.2 19.5 20.3 19.5 19.5 Fourth 19.3 19.3 19.2 19.8 19.7 20.4 19.6 19.7 Highest 19.3 19.8 19.1 19.5 19.7 20.1 19.6 19.7 Total 19.4 19.3 19.1 19.4 19.8 20.3 19.6 19.6 a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of the women had intercourse for the first time before reaching the beginning of the age group. Table 7.5.2 Median age at first intercourse: men Median age at first sexual intercourse among men age 20-49 by five-year age groups, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Age Men age 20-49 Men age 25-49 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban 18.2 18.3 18.5 18.3 18.9 18.6 18.5 18.5 Rural 18.4 18.9 18.7 19.2 18.9 19.4 19.0 19.1 Region North 18.4 18.2 18.6 19.2 19.1 18.9 18.7 18.8 Central 17.7 17.4 17.9 18.0 18.0 18.5 17.9 18.0 East 17.9 18.0 18.2 17.8 18.5 18.3 18.1 18.1 South 18.2 18.4 18.6 18.8 19.2 18.8 18.7 18.8 West 19.0 19.6 19.2 19.5 19.7 19.9 19.5 19.6 Education Secondary or less 18.0 18.4 18.3 18.6 19.2 18.9 18.5 18.6 Higher 18.4 18.4 18.9 18.7 18.8 18.8 18.7 18.7 Wealth quintile Lowest 18.4 19.1 18.8 18.6 18.9 18.9 18.8 18.8 Second 18.0 17.8 18.4 18.5 19.4 19.2 18.6 18.7 Middle 18.1 18.3 18.2 19.1 19.0 18.8 18.6 18.7 Fourth 18.2 19.1 19.3 18.4 18.3 17.9 18.6 18.6 Highest 18.5 18.2 18.6 18.7 18.9 18.9 18.6 18.6 Total 18.3 18.4 18.6 18.6 18.9 18.8 18.6 18.7 7.4 RECENT SEXUAL ACTIVITY In the absence of contraception, the probability of pregnancy is related to the frequency of intercourse. Therefore, information on sexual activity can be used to refine measures of exposure to the risk of pregnancy. All women and men were asked how long ago their last sexual activity occurred, and Tables 7.6.1 and 7.6.2 show the percent distribution of women and men by recent 70 | Proximate Determinants of Fertility sexual activity. About two-thirds of women age 15-49 were sexually active in the four weeks before the survey, 10 percent had been sexually active in the year before the survey but not in the month prior to the interview, and 13 percent had not been sexually active for one or more years. One in seven women had never had sexual intercourse. Table 7.6.1 Recent sexual activity: women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by timing of last sexual intercourse, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Timing of last sexual intercourse Never had sexual intercourse Total Number of women Within the past 4 weeks Within 1 year1 One or more years ago Missing Age 15-19 12.4 4.4 0.9 0.2 82.1 100.0 782 20-24 64.4 8.4 5.0 0.6 21.5 100.0 1,006 25-29 71.8 12.2 9.7 2.0 4.4 100.0 998 30-34 70.7 11.1 14.2 2.2 1.7 100.0 984 35-39 72.2 10.1 15.8 1.3 0.6 100.0 1,049 40-44 71.3 10.7 15.3 1.8 0.8 100.0 936 45-49 60.5 11.0 25.2 2.8 0.5 100.0 1,085 Marital status Never married 24.0 7.1 7.0 1.1 60.8 100.0 1,544 Married or living together 87.5 8.8 2.1 1.6 0.0 100.0 4,116 Divorced/separated/ widowed 22.6 17.3 57.8 2.4 0.0 100.0 1,181 Marital duration2 Married only once 0-4 years 86.8 10.2 1.7 1.1 0.2 100.0 608 5-9 years 88.0 7.6 2.8 1.5 0.0 100.0 629 10-14 years 90.4 6.9 1.6 1.1 0.0 100.0 583 15-19 years 89.2 6.4 2.5 1.9 0.0 100.0 607 20-24 years 87.6 8.0 2.4 2.0 0.0 100.0 672 25+ years 82.6 12.2 2.3 2.9 0.0 100.0 456 Married more than once 86.7 11.3 0.9 1.1 0.0 100.0 561 Residence Urban 62.8 9.6 13.1 1.7 12.9 100.0 4,887 Rural 59.8 10.7 12.1 1.5 15.9 100.0 1,954 Region North 64.4 9.5 10.5 3.4 12.3 100.0 1,345 Central 62.3 11.4 11.8 0.8 13.8 100.0 817 East 65.1 8.6 13.2 1.1 12.0 100.0 2,120 South 60.4 10.3 13.8 0.5 15.1 100.0 1,049 West 56.4 11.0 14.2 2.0 16.5 100.0 1,509 Education Secondary or less 57.2 9.3 12.4 1.6 19.4 100.0 2,729 Higher 65.1 10.3 13.1 1.6 10.0 100.0 4,112 Wealth quintile Lowest 57.9 11.8 13.4 1.2 15.7 100.0 847 Second 58.7 10.2 13.7 1.3 16.1 100.0 1,437 Middle 62.8 8.8 13.3 1.7 13.3 100.0 1,276 Fourth 59.2 10.2 15.4 1.7 13.5 100.0 1,451 Highest 68.0 9.2 9.4 2.0 11.4 100.0 1,831 Total 62.0 9.9 12.8 1.6 13.7 100.0 6,841 1 Excludes women who had sexual intercourse within the past 4 weeks 2 Excludes women who are not currently married Proximate Determinants of Fertility | 71 Table 7.6.2 Recent sexual activity: men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 by timing of last sexual intercourse, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Timing of last sexual intercourse Never had sexual intercourse Total Number of men Within the past 4 weeks Within 1 year1 One or more years ago Missing Age 15-19 19.5 11.4 0.9 1.4 66.9 100.0 444 20-24 75.2 14.4 1.8 0.3 8.3 100.0 459 25-29 86.0 10.5 1.1 1.1 1.3 100.0 436 30-34 82.1 11.0 1.9 3.8 1.1 100.0 479 35-39 84.4 10.2 2.6 2.3 0.6 100.0 449 40-44 82.2 11.9 4.7 1.0 0.2 100.0 399 45-49 80.9 10.7 6.2 1.7 0.5 100.0 512 Marital status Never married 47.6 14.8 2.6 1.3 33.6 100.0 1,044 Married or living together 91.1 6.6 0.4 1.9 0.1 100.0 1,799 Divorced/separated/ widowed 55.2 27.1 16.2 1.5 0.0 100.0 334 Marital duration2 Married only once 0-4 years 88.7 8.6 0.0 2.3 0.4 100.0 288 5-9 years 89.9 7.1 0.1 2.9 0.0 100.0 277 10-14 years 92.6 5.2 0.2 1.9 0.0 100.0 261 15-19 years 91.2 5.9 0.6 2.2 0.0 100.0 261 20-24 years 90.2 7.7 0.4 1.7 0.0 100.0 299 25+ years 89.9 8.6 0.3 1.2 0.0 100.0 142 Married more than once 95.0 3.4 0.9 0.7 0.0 100.0 270 Residence Urban 75.0 11.2 1.7 1.3 10.7 100.0 2,277 Rural 68.1 12.0 5.3 2.6 11.9 100.0 901 Region North 75.0 11.2 2.1 1.0 10.6 100.0 616 Central 79.6 9.3 1.7 0.6 8.8 100.0 354 East 76.6 9.6 1.8 2.0 10.0 100.0 1,060 South 67.5 18.0 4.7 0.4 9.4 100.0 493 West 66.2 10.9 4.1 3.3 15.6 100.0 654 Education Secondary or less 67.4 11.0 3.8 1.9 15.9 100.0 1,615 Higher 78.9 11.9 1.7 1.4 6.1 100.0 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 65.8 14.5 7.4 2.4 9.9 100.0 432 Second 72.9 11.0 3.1 0.9 12.0 100.0 651 Middle 71.0 13.8 3.2 2.0 10.1 100.0 622 Fourth 75.1 9.8 1.7 1.6 11.8 100.0 623 Highest 76.9 9.7 0.6 1.8 11.0 100.0 849 Total 73.1 11.4 2.8 1.7 11.1 100.0 3,178 1 Excludes men who had sexual intercourse within the past 4 weeks 2 Excludes men who are not currently married The proportion of women who were sexually active during the four weeks preceding the survey increases with age, from 12 percent at age 15-19 to more than 70 percent among women age 25-44, and then decreases to 61 percent at age 45-49. As expected, women who were currently in union were much more likely to be sexually active in the four weeks preceding the survey than women who were formerly married or have never been married. Differences among women in the level of recent sexual activity by marital duration, residence, region, education, and wealth quintile generally are fairly minor; the largest differential is observed between women in the highest wealth quintile (68 percent) and those in the lowest wealth quintile (58 percent). Looking at the results for men, a higher proportion of men than women age 15-49 had sexual intercourse in the four weeks before the survey (73 percent compared with 62 percent). One in ten men had sexual intercourse in the year before the survey but not in the month before the survey, while 3 percent had not been sexually active for one year or more. One in ten men said they had never had sex. The likelihood of recent sexual activity increases with age, peaking at 86 percent among men age 72 | Proximate Determinants of Fertility 25-29 and remaining more than 80 percent in older cohorts. Similar to the situation among women, men in union were much more likely to be sexually active in the four weeks prior to the survey than those who were not in union. Across other subgroups, the largest differentials are observed by region; 66 percent of men in the West region reported that they were sexually active in the four-week period before the survey, compared with 80 percent of men in the Central region. 7.5 POSTPARTUM AMENORRHEA, ABSTINENCE, AND INSUSCEPTIBILITY Postpartum amenorrhea is the interval between the birth of a child and the resumption of menstruation, during which the risk of pregnancy is much reduced. Postpartum protection from conception depends upon the intensity and duration of breastfeeding. Postpartum abstinence refers to the period of voluntary sexual inactivity after childbirth. A woman is considered insusceptible if she is not exposed to the risk of pregnancy, either because she is amenorrheic or because she is abstaining from sexual intercourse following a birth. In the UDHS, information was obtained about the duration of amenorrhea and the duration of sexual abstinence following childbirth for all births in the three years preceding the survey. Table 7.7 shows the percentage of births in the three years preceding the survey for which mothers were postpartum amenorrheic, abstaining, and insusceptible, by the median and mean number of months since the birth. The results indicate that Ukrainian women are amenorrheic for a median of 3.4 months, abstain for a median of 2.0 months, and are insusceptible to pregnancy for a median of 3.9 months. Because a few women in Ukraine are amenorrheic or abstain for a very long time, the mean durations are higher than the median duration for amenorrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility. 7.6 MENOPAUSE The risk of becoming pregnant decreases with age. The term infecundity denotes a process rather than a well-defined event, and although the onset of infecundity is difficult to determine for an individual woman, there are ways of estimating it for a group of women. Table 7.8 presents data on menopause, an indicator of decreasing exposure to the risk of pregnancy (infecundity) for women age 30 and over. In this report, women were considered menopausal if they were neither pregnant nor postpartum amenorrheic at the time of the survey and had not had a menstrual period for at least six months prior to the survey. Table 7.8 shows that the proportion of women who are menopausal increases with age from less than 1 percent among women age 30-34 to 48 percent among women age 48-49. Overall, 10 percent of women age 30-49 are menopausal. Table 7.7 Postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility Median and mean duration (in months) for which mothers are postpartum amenorrheic, abstaining, and insusceptible, for births in the three years preceding the survey, Ukraine 2007 Duration (month since birth) Amenorrheic Abstaining Insusceptible1 Median 3.4 2.0 3.9 Mean 6.2 4.8 7.6 Note: Estimates are based on status at the time of the survey. 1 Includes births for which mothers are either still amenorrheic or still abstaining (or both) following birth Table 7.8 Menopause Percentage of women age 30-49 who are menopausal, by age, Ukraine 2007 Age Percentage menopausal1 Number of women 30-34 0.7 984 35-39 1.9 1,049 40-41 3.4 358 42-43 6.8 377 44-45 13.1 448 46-47 21.8 448 48-49 48.3 391 Total 10.1 4,054 1 Percentage of all women who are not pregnant and not postpartum amenorrheic whose last menstrual period occurred six or more months preceding the survey Fertility Preferences | 73 FERTILITY PREFERENCES 8 Information on fertility preferences is useful in understanding future fertility patterns and the demand for contraception. Data on fertility preferences are also used to construct measures of unmet need for contraception and of unwanted or mistimed births. Fertility preferences help to assess the overall attitudes of women toward childbearing and the general course of fertility. In the Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), currently married women and men were asked about their fertility preferences, including their desire to have another child, the length of time they would like to wait before having another child, and what they consider to be the ideal number of children. These data enable the quantification of fertility preferences, and, in combination with the data on contraceptive use, permit estimation of the unmet need for family planning for both spacing and limiting births. However, caution should be exercised in the interpretation of data on fertility preferences because respondents’ reported preferences are, in most cases, hypothetical. They may be influenced by social pressure, and they are subject to change and rationalization. Nevertheless, information on future reproductive intentions is of fundamental importance in the development of population policies and in refining and modifying existing family planning programs. 8.1 DESIRE FOR MORE CHILDREN In the UDHS, currently married women and men were asked whether they want to have another child, and if so how soon. Pregnant women, or men whose wives were pregnant at the time of the survey, were asked the same question but phrased differently to ensure that they understood that the question was not about the desire for the current pregnancy but for subsequent children. Table 8.1 shows fertility preferences of currently married women and men by the number of living children. Ten percent of women want to have another child soon (within two years), 9 percent want another child two or more years later, and 6 percent say they want to have another child, but are undecided as to when. Fifty-seven percent want no more children, 11 percent are undecided about having another child, and less than 1 percent are sterilized. Seven percent of women declared themselves to be infecund. The desire to stop childbearing— including those wanting no more children and the small number already sterilized— increases with the number of living children, from 5 percent among women with no children to 84 percent among women with Table 8.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children Percent distribution of currently married women and currently married men age 15-49 by desire for children, according to number of living children, Ukraine 2007 Desire for children Number of living children1 Total 0 1 2 3+ WOMEN Have another soon2 27.9 12.8 2.6 2.6 9.6 Have another later3 9.6 15.4 2.6 1.5 8.9 Have another, undecided when 16.5 7.9 1.5 1.8 5.8 Undecided 8.3 12.9 10.0 6.0 10.8 Want no more 5.3 45.1 79.5 81.8 57.2 Sterilized4 0.0 0.3 0.9 2.0 0.6 Declared infecund 31.1 4.9 2.8 4.1 6.6 Missing 1.3 0.6 0.1 0.2 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 409 1,808 1,599 300 4,116 MEN5 Have another soon2 42.2 14.7 2.8 2.3 13.3 Have another later3 9.9 12.1 1.6 2.3 7.3 Have another, undecided when 10.0 11.8 3.3 2.5 7.8 Undecided 18.7 24.0 14.4 11.8 19.0 Want no more 5.4 35.2 75.2 78.1 48.6 Sterilized4 1.0 0.4 0.9 0.9 0.7 Declared infecund 9.4 0.5 0.4 0.7 1.7 Missing 3.4 1.2 1.5 1.5 1.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 247 775 662 116 1,799 1 The number of living children includes current pregnancy for women. 2 Wants next birth within 2 years 3 Wants to delay next birth for 2 or more years 4 Includes both female and male sterilization 5 The number of living children includes one additional child if respondent’s wife is pregnant. 74 | Fertility Preferences three or more children. Women and men differ little in their overall desire to limit childbearing. However, women are more likely to want to limit childbearing at lower parities than men. For example, 45 percent of women with one child desire to stop childbearing or are sterilized, compared with 36 percent of men. Similarly, 80 percent of women with two children desire to stop childbearing or are sterilized, compared with 76 percent of men with two children. 8.2 DESIRE TO LIMIT CHILDBEARING BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS Table 8.2 shows the desire to limit childbearing among currently married women and men by background characteristics. Rural residents are more likely to want to limit childbearing than their urban counterparts. The desire to limit childbearing is highest among women residing in the Central region, followed closely by those in the West region. Among men, this pattern is reversed, with men in the West region being the most likely to want to limit childbearing, followed by those in the Central region. Overall, the desire to limit childbearing is greater among women and men with secondary or less education than among those with higher education. Women and men living in the poorest households are more likely than those in higher wealth quintiles to want to limit childbearing. Table 8.2 Desire to limit childbearing Percentage of currently married women and men age 15-49 who want no more children, by number of living children, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women Men Number of living children1 Total Number of living children1 Total 0 1 2 3 4+ 0 1 2 3 Residence Urban 4.4 45.5 80.9 87.2 (53.8) 54.2 6.3 34.2 75.9 (85.1) 45.7 Rural 9.9 45.3 79.6 89.2 (72.8) 66.1 7.2 41.0 76.4 (76.4) 58.8 Region North 5.5 45.8 81.8 89.2 * 54.9 7.2 26.1 63.3 * 40.1 Central 9.0 48.9 90.9 83.4 * 64.2 2.0 43.3 81.6 * 54.8 East 5.9 48.0 79.0 90.0 * 55.5 8.6 38.3 83.2 * 48.2 South 1.5 39.9 77.3 85.6 * 54.6 2.4 26.9 62.8 * 41.0 West 3.7 42.8 77.6 90.2 * 62.5 4.0 45.3 84.5 * 64.3 Education Secondary or less 6.1 44.9 78.1 90.0 (66.2) 60.3 7.5 41.3 78.1 (79.8) 54.6 Higher 4.9 45.8 82.0 86.0 (74.7) 56.3 5.6 31.1 73.8 (81.5) 44.3 Wealth quintile Lowest 13.1 43.1 75.5 88.8 * 62.9 9.6 43.4 72.9 * 55.7 Second 4.6 44.6 77.8 88.0 * 60.8 2.8 37.1 75.5 * 53.1 Middle 2.2 39.1 79.3 85.0 * 55.6 8.3 37.6 79.3 * 53.5 Fourth 4.9 47.4 88.9 90.1 * 58.5 5.0 34.3 70.2 * 41.7 Highest 5.4 48.8 80.9 91.2 * 54.3 6.3 32.5 79.3 * 45.7 Total 5.3 45.5 80.4 88.4 67.5 57.8 6.4 35.6 76.0 80.5 49.3 Note: Women who have been sterilized are considered to want no more children. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 The number of living children includes the current pregnancy. 8.3 NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Data in this section provide information on the extent of need and the potential demand for family planning services in Ukraine. Currently married fecund women who want to postpone their next birth for two or more years or who want to stop childbearing altogether but are not using a contraceptive method are considered to have an unmet need for family planning. Pregnant women are considered to have an unmet need for spacing or limiting if their pregnancy was mistimed or unwanted. Similarly, amenorrheic women who are not using family planning and whose last birth was mistimed are considered to have an unmet need for spacing, and those whose last child was unwanted have an unmet need for limiting. Women who are currently using a family planning method are said to have a met need for family planning. The total demand for family planning services comprises those who fall in the met need and unmet need categories. Fertility Preferences | 75 Table 8.3 shows the need for family planning among currently married women by background characteristics. One in ten currently married women has an unmet need for family planning, with 4 percent having an unmet need for spacing and 6 percent having an unmet need for limiting. Sixty- seven percent of women have a met need for family planning. If all currently married women who say they want to space or limit their children were to use a family planning method, the contraceptive prevalence rate would increase to 77 percent. Currently, 87 percent of the family planning needs of currently married women are being met. Table 8.3 Need and demand for family planning among currently married women Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 with unmet need for family planning, percentage with met need for family planning, the total demand for family planning, and the percentage for the demand for contraception that is satisfied, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Unmet need for family planning1 Met need for family planning (currently using)2 Total demand for family planning Percentage of demand satisfied Number of women For spacing For limiting Total For spacing For limiting Total For spacing For limiting Total Age 15-19 27.5 1.4 29.0 46.8 1.5 48.3 76.0 3.0 78.9 63.3 45 20-24 8.6 0.9 9.5 57.2 5.5 62.7 66.4 6.4 72.7 87.0 472 25-29 8.5 2.9 11.4 44.3 20.2 64.5 53.2 23.2 76.3 85.1 691 30-34 4.3 3.4 7.7 31.9 41.7 73.6 36.3 45.1 81.4 90.6 709 35-39 1.9 6.8 8.7 15.3 62.7 78.0 17.2 69.5 86.7 89.9 770 40-44 0.3 11.3 11.6 4.2 66.1 70.3 4.4 77.6 82.1 85.9 680 45-49 0.2 11.5 11.7 0.8 49.9 50.7 1.0 61.4 62.4 81.2 750 Residence Urban 3.5 5.6 9.1 26.8 41.7 68.5 30.5 47.4 77.8 88.3 2,858 Rural 4.8 8.2 13.0 16.6 45.8 62.3 21.5 54.1 75.7 82.8 1,258 Region North 2.7 5.3 7.9 27.3 45.3 72.6 29.9 50.5 80.5 90.1 861 Central 2.5 6.2 8.7 19.9 48.6 68.5 23.3 55.0 78.2 88.8 508 East 3.2 6.9 10.1 28.4 42.0 70.4 31.6 49.0 80.6 87.4 1,182 South 4.0 3.3 7.3 21.8 42.9 64.8 26.0 46.3 72.3 89.9 650 West 6.5 9.3 15.8 17.7 38.8 56.5 24.4 48.1 72.5 78.2 914 Education Secondary or less 3.7 7.6 11.4 21.3 42.0 63.3 25.2 49.8 75.0 84.9 1,609 Higher 4.0 5.7 9.6 25.2 43.5 68.8 29.4 49.2 78.6 87.7 2,507 Wealth quintile Lowest 5.4 8.2 13.5 18.2 44.2 62.4 23.6 52.6 76.3 82.3 508 Second 3.8 6.1 9.9 20.2 43.4 63.7 24.3 49.6 73.9 86.6 903 Middle 5.1 6.9 11.9 24.2 40.0 64.2 29.4 46.9 76.3 84.3 793 Fourth 3.9 7.1 11.0 26.3 43.3 69.5 30.4 50.4 80.8 86.4 776 Highest 2.4 5.1 7.6 26.8 43.9 70.7 29.3 49.0 78.3 90.3 1,136 Total 3.9 6.4 10.3 23.7 43.0 66.7 27.7 49.4 77.2 86.6 4,116 1 Unmet need for spacing includes pregnant women whose pregnancy was mistimed; amenorrheic women who are not using family planning and whose last birth was mistimed, or whose last birth was unwanted but now say they want more children; and fecund women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic, who are not using any method of family planning, and say they want to wait 2 or more years for their next birth. Also included in unmet need for spacing are fecund women who are not using any method of family planning and say they are unsure whether they want another child or who want another child but are unsure when to have the birth. Unmet need for limiting refers to pregnant women whose pregnancy was unwanted; amenorrheic women who are not using family planning, whose last child was unwanted and who do not want any more children; and fecund women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic, who are not using any method of family planning, and who want no more children. 2 Using for spacing is defined as women who are using some method of family planning and say they want to have another child or are undecided whether to have another. Using for limiting is defined as women who are using and who want no more children. Note that the specific methods used are not taken into account here. Unmet need is highest among the youngest age group, with nearly three in ten women age 15- 19 expressing an unmet need for family planning. Most of this need is for spacing (28 percent). In contrast to younger women, women age 35 and older are mainly in need of contraception for limiting. Unmet need is higher among rural (13 percent) than urban women (9 percent). Looking at regional variation, unmet need is highest in the West region, where 16 percent of women express a need for family planning. Unmet need is only slightly higher among women with secondary or less education than among women with higher education. Looking at the relationship with household wealth status, women in the lowest quintile have the highest level of unmet need. 76 | Fertility Preferences 8.4 IDEAL FAMILY SIZE In the UDHS, ideal family size is measured in two ways. Respondents who did not have any children were asked the number of children they would like to have if they could choose the exact number to have, and respon- dents who had living children were asked how many children they would like to have if they could go back to the time when they did not have any chil- dren and choose exactly the number of children to have. Even though these questions are based on hypothetical sit- uations, they provide two measures. First, for men and women who have not yet started a family, the data provide an idea of future fertility. Second, for older and high parity women, the excess of past fertility over the ideal family size provides a measure of unwanted fertil- ity. Responses to these questions for both women and men are presented in Table 8.4. The vast majority of women and men were able to provide a numeric response to these questions. Only 4 percent of women and 8 percent of men were unable to provide a numeric response. Both women and men in Ukraine prefer a small family size with only marginal differences between them in the ideal number of children. Three out of five women and men preferred an ideal family size of two children, with 20 percent of women and 15 percent of men favoring less than two children. Thirteen percent of women and 15 percent of men express a preference for a three-child family. Two percent of women and 3 percent of men express an ideal family size of four or more children. The mean ideal number of children is about two children among all women and men, irrespective of their marital status. Table 8.4 also shows that the mean ideal family size increases with the number of living children among both women and men, increasing from about two children among respondents with no children to almost three children among the small proportion of respondents with three or more children, indicating the positive association between actual and ideal number of children. This positive association between actual and ideal number of children could be due to two factors. First, to the extent that women and men are able to implement their fertility desires, those who want smaller families will tend to achieve smaller families. Second, some women and men may have difficulty admitting their desire for fewer children if they could begin childbearing again and may in fact report their actual number as their preferred number. Despite this tendency to rationalize, the UDHS data provide evidence of unwanted fertility, with nearly one-third of women (33 percent) and one-fourth of Table 8.4 Ideal number of children Percent distribution of women and men 15-49 by ideal number of children, and mean ideal number of children for all respondents and for currently married respondents, according to number of living children, Ukraine 2007 Ideal number of children Number of living children Total 0 1 2 3+ WOMEN1 0 2.3 0.5 0.6 0.4 1.0 1 24.8 29.2 3.3 4.1 19.2 2 54.2 60.6 74.5 28.4 60.9 3 11.5 7.2 16.7 43.7 13.1 4+ 2.1 0.8 2.2 13.1 2.2 Non-numeric responses 5.2 1.8 2.7 10.2 3.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 2,011 2,519 1,941 370 6,841 Mean ideal number children for2: All women 1.9 1.8 2.2 2.8 2.0 Number 1,907 2,474 1,887 332 6,600 Currently married women 1.9 1.8 2.2 2.8 2.0 Number 394 1,781 1,560 271 4,006 MEN3 0 6.8 1.7 1.7 1.8 3.9 1 14.4 16.1 1.3 2.2 11.5 2 50.8 66.8 70.5 20.9 58.9 3 11.9 10.6 20.2 41.5 14.5 4+ 2.6 1.3 2.2 18.4 2.7 Non-numeric responses 13.5 3.5 4.0 15.1 8.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of men 1,393 943 724 119 3,178 Mean ideal number children for2: All men 1.9 2.0 2.2 2.9 2.0 Number 1,204 910 695 101 2,910 Currently married men 2.0 1.9 2.2 2.9 2.1 Number 235 743 639 98 1,714 1 The number of living children includes current pregnancy for women 2 Means are calculated excluding respondents who gave non-numeric responses. 3 The number of living children includes one additional child if respondent’s wife is pregnant (or if any wife is pregnant for men with more than one current wife). Fertility Preferences | 77 men (25 percent) with three or more children wanting an ideal family size of fewer than three children. There is very little variation in the mean ideal number of children by background characteris- tics (data not shown). 8.5 FERTILITY PLANNING Information collected from the UDHS can also be used to estimate the level of unwanted fertility. This information provides some insight into the degree to which couples are able to control fertility. Women age 15-49 were asked a number of questions about each child born to them in the preceding five years, as well as any current pregnancy, to determine whether the birth or pregnancy was wanted then (planned), wanted later (mistimed), or not wanted at all (unplanned) at the time of conception. In assessing these results, it is important to bear in mind that these may be an underestimate of the true extent of unwanted births because women may declare a previously unwanted birth or current pregnancy as wanted. Table 8.5 shows the percent distribution of births (including current pregnancy) in the five years preceding the survey by planning status of the birth, according to birth order and age of mother at birth. According to the data, more than four out of five births (85 percent) in the five years preceding the survey were planned, 8 percent were mistimed, and only 6 percent were unwanted. The proportion of unwanted births increases with birth order. Thirty-one percent of births of order four and higher and more than one in ten births of order three are unwanted. Mistimed births occur least often among women in the highest (4+) parity group. Nearly one in ten births to young women age 15-19 was unwanted and 16 percent were mistimed. Among older women, the percentage of unwanted and mistimed births increases with mother’s age, from a low of 13 percent among mothers age 20-24 to a high of 23 percent among mothers age 35-39. As expected, mistimed births are most common among younger mothers. Table 8.5 Fertility planning status Percent distribution of births to women 15-49 in the five years preceding the survey (including current pregnancies), by planning status of the birth, according to birth order and mother’s age at birth, Ukraine 2007 Birth order and mother’s age at birth Planning status of birth Total Number of births Wanted then Wanted later Wanted no more Missing Birth order 1 87.0 9.0 3.3 0.6 100.0 750 2 84.6 5.8 6.5 3.1 100.0 485 3 77.8 9.2 13.0 0.0 100.0 81 4+ 66.2 3.0 30.8 0.0 100.0 52 Mother’s age at birth <20 73.3 15.8 9.5 1.3 100.0 137 20-24 86.6 9.4 3.5 0.5 100.0 561 25-29 86.9 5.6 4.8 2.7 100.0 374 30-34 86.6 3.1 8.1 2.3 100.0 220 35-39 77.2 4.5 18.3 0.0 100.0 61 40-49 * * * * 100.0 16 Total 84.8 7.7 6.1 1.5 100.0 1,369 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 78 | Fertility Preferences Information on ideal family size can be used to calculate what the total fertility rate would be if all unwanted births were avoided. This measure may underestimate unwanted fertility to the extent that women are uncomfortable reporting an ideal family size lower than their actual family size. Table 8.6 shows total wanted fertility rates and actual fertility rates, by background characteristics. The wanted fertility rate represents the level of fertility that would have prevailed in the three years preceding the survey if all unwanted births, i.e., births that exceeded the number considered ideal, had been avoided. Comparing the total fertility rate of 1.2 with the total wanted fertility rate of 1.1 indicates that there are few unwanted births in Ukraine. Looking at background characteristics, the only difference worth noting is that women in the lowest wealth quintile have a slighter higher total fertility rate (1.7) than what they consider ideal (1.5). 8.6 CIRCUMSTANCES UNDER WHICH A WOMAN SHOULD NOT BECOME PREGNANT In the UDHS, women and men were asked if there are any circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant. If they answered “yes,” they were asked to describe the circumstances under which they thought a woman should not become pregnant. Seventy-four percent of women and 62 percent of men stated that there are circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant (Table 8.7). Women and men were more likely to state that there are circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant if they live in urban areas, reside in the East region, and have a higher level of education. Table 8.6 Wanted fertility rates Total wanted fertility rates and total fertility rates for the three years preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Total wanted fertility rates Total fertility rate Residence Urban 1.0 1.0 Rural 1.4 1.5 Region North 1.0 1.1 Central 1.1 1.2 East 0.8 0.9 South 1.4 1.4 West 1.3 1.4 Education Secondary or less 1.3 1.4 Higher 1.0 1.0 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.5 1.7 Second 1.2 1.3 Middle 1.2 1.3 Fourth 0.9 0.9 Highest 0.9 1.0 Total 1.1 1.2 Note: Rates are calculated based on births to women age 15-49 in the period 1-36 months preceding the survey. The total fertility rates are the same as those presented in Table 4.2. Fertility Preferences | 79 Table 8.7 Perceived any circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 by whether they think there can be circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women Men Yes, there are circum- stances No, there are no circum- stances Don’t know/ missing Total Number Yes, there are circum- stances No, there are no circum- stances Don’t know/ missing Total Number Age 15-19 58.6 3.5 38.0 100.0 782 36.4 13.2 50.4 100.0 444 20-24 65.4 9.7 24.9 100.0 1,006 55.7 11.6 32.7 100.0 459 25-29 75.0 8.8 16.2 100.0 998 60.0 12.9 27.1 100.0 436 30-34 77.7 10.3 12.0 100.0 984 65.7 14.2 20.1 100.0 479 35-39 81.0 8.2 10.8 100.0 1,049 72.5 12.7 14.8 100.0 449 40-44 76.7 11.4 11.9 100.0 936 69.6 14.2 16.2 100.0 399 45-49 77.4 10.6 11.9 100.0 1,085 71.3 10.8 17.9 100.0 512 Marital status Never married 62.4 6.3 31.3 100.0 1,544 44.9 14.3 40.8 100.0 1,044 Married or living together 76.3 10.5 13.3 100.0 4,116 70.8 11.8 17.4 100.0 1,799 Divorced/separated/ widowed 79.0 8.0 12.9 100.0 1,181 65.6 12.9 21.5 100.0 334 Residence Urban 74.9 8.1 17.0 100.0 4,887 65.7 11.1 23.2 100.0 2,277 Rural 70.3 11.6 18.0 100.0 1,954 51.7 17.0 31.3 100.0 901 Region North 68.5 4.9 26.6 100.0 1,345 71.4 4.8 23.8 100.0 616 Central 73.4 14.4 12.2 100.0 817 56.7 11.2 32.1 100.0 354 East 83.9 3.9 12.2 100.0 2,120 73.4 3.7 22.9 100.0 1,060 South 72.4 9.7 17.8 100.0 1,049 52.3 20.3 27.5 100.0 493 West 64.7 16.9 18.5 100.0 1,509 43.6 30.0 26.4 100.0 654 Education Secondary or less 68.9 9.0 22.1 100.0 2,729 56.4 12.8 30.8 100.0 1,615 Higher 76.7 9.2 14.1 100.0 4,112 67.2 12.7 20.1 100.0 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 74.1 8.7 17.2 100.0 847 54.3 13.7 31.9 100.0 432 Second 72.1 11.1 16.8 100.0 1,437 54.5 16.5 29.0 100.0 651 Middle 75.0 9.8 15.2 100.0 1,276 61.8 11.1 27.1 100.0 622 Fourth 72.3 10.5 17.1 100.0 1,451 64.6 14.8 20.6 100.0 623 Highest 74.6 6.1 19.3 100.0 1,831 68.9 9.0 22.1 100.0 849 Total 73.6 9.1 17.3 100.0 6,841 61.7 12.7 25.5 100.0 3,178 Note: All women and men in the UDHS were asked if there are any circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant. Table 8.8 presents the answers given by women and men about the specific circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant. For a majority of both women and men, the main obstacle is the existence of alcoholism/narcomania/asocial/criminal behavior (75 percent for women and 76 percent for men). The second most commonly declared circumstance under which a woman should not become pregnant is if the woman is mentally impaired (50 percent of women and 62 percent of men). Half of men (50 percent) and 42 percent of women indicated that a woman who was physically impaired or sick should not become pregnant, and 45 percent of women and 43 percent of men said women who had a transmissible infection should avoid pregnancy. Other answers frequently mentioned by women were homelessness (36 percent), threat to woman’s life (36 percent), and risk of having an abnor- mal fetus (35 percent); other answers mentioned by men were woman being too old (30 percent), too young (28 percent), and risk of having an abnormal fetus (29 percent). Only 14 percent of women and 6 percent of men stated that the woman should not become pregnant if she is not married. Table 8.8 Circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who think there can be circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant, by specific circumstances, Ukraine 2007 Circumstances Women Men Too young 19.6 28.2 Too old 20.5 30.3 Already too many children 17.5 9.4 Has a transmissible infection 44.6 43.0 Physically impaired/sick 42.3 50.4 Mentally impaired 50.4 61.9 Does not have work/poor 26.1 16.0 Not married 14.4 5.8 Sexually abused 22.1 14.0 Abnormal fetus 35.3 28.9 Does not want a child 21.2 16.8 Threat to woman’s life 35.8 27.5 Homeless 36.4 25.7 Alcoholism/narcomania/ asocial/criminal behavior 75.0 76.2 Other 1.6 1.7 Number 5,036 1,962 80 | Fertility Preferences Women and men who stated that there are some circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant were further asked how a woman should resolve such a pregnancy. Table 8.9 shows that 45 percent of women and 59 percent of men said that the woman should terminate or abort the pregnancy while only18 percent of women and 12 percent of men thought that she should continue the pregnancy. On the other hand, 32 percent of women and 22 percent of men stated that it is up to the woman to decide. In the UDHS, women and men were also asked about what to do with a child born to a woman as a result of a pregnancy that should not have oc- curred. One-third of both women and men (33 percent and 34 percent, respectively) stated that this is the woman’s personal decision, while another one-third of women (33 percent) and 27 percent of men stated that the woman should keep the child (Table 8.10). Seventeen percent of women and 18 percent of men proposed that the woman should seek help from a family member to care for the child. Eight percent of women and 6 percent of men thought that the child should be given up for adoption or to a foster family. Only 2 percent of women and 5 percent of men were in favor of placing the child in an orphanage. Table 8.10 Attitudes about what a woman should do when a child is born as a result of a pregnancy that should not have occurred Among women and men age 15-49 who think there can be circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant, percent distribution by action mother should take after birth of such a child, Ukraine 2007 Action mother should take after birth of child Women Men Keep the child 33.2 26.8 Give the child up for adoption 2.2 2.1 Give the child up to foster family 6.2 3.9 Give the child to an orphanage 1.9 4.7 Seek help from a family member to care for the child 16.9 18.2 Woman’s personal decision 33.1 33.9 Other 0.2 0.4 Don’t know/missing 6.2 10.0 Total 100.0 100.0 Number 5,036 1,962 8.7 ATTITUDES TOWARD ADOPTING A CHILD The main purpose of adoption is to find a new and permanent family for a child who, for whatever reason, can no longer be cared for by her/his family of birth or current legal parents. In the UDHS, all women and men were asked if they would ever consider adopting a child. Table 8.11 presents the percent distribution of women and men by their willingness to consider adopting a child, by background characteristics. Overall, women and men in Ukraine are not supportive of adopting children. Only 15 percent of both women and men said that they would consider adopting a child. Seventy-eight percent of women and 70 percent of men would not consider adopting a child. In general, the proportion of women and men who say they would consider adopting a child increases as the age of the women and men increases. In the East region, women are more likely to consider adopting a child (18 percent) compared with men (10 percent), but in the Central region more men than women are likely to consider adopting a child (26 percent and 14 percent, respectively). Table 8.9 Attitudes about what a woman should do if she becomes pregnant under circumstances when she should not be pregnant Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 who think there can be circumstances under which a woman should not become pregnant, according to how they think such a pregnancy should be resolved, Ukraine 2007 How pregnancy should be resolved Women Men Keep the pregnancy 17.5 12.3 Terminate/abort the pregnancy 44.7 58.7 Woman’s personal decision 32.0 22.2 Other 0.4 0.3 Don’t know/missing 5.4 6.5 Total 100.0 100.0 Number 5,036 1,962 Fertility Preferences | 81 Table 8.11 Attitudes towards adopting a child Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 by whether they would ever consider adopting a child, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women Men Yes, would consider No, would not consider Don’t know/ missing Total Number Yes, would consider No, would not consider Don’t know/ missing Total Number Age 15-19 8.0 76.0 16.1 100.0 782 6.5 66.8 26.7 100.0 444 20-24 9.7 77.4 12.9 100.0 1,006 11.6 70.2 18.2 100.0 459 25-29 15.5 76.0 8.5 100.0 998 13.3 68.2 18.5 100.0 436 30-34 18.9 76.3 4.7 100.0 984 17.8 67.9 14.3 100.0 479 35-39 17.7 78.1 4.2 100.0 1,049 16.1 70.6 13.3 100.0 449 40-44 16.0 80.8 3.3 100.0 936 20.1 71.8 8.1 100.0 399 45-49 14.4 81.8 3.8 100.0 1,085 17.3 72.1 10.6 100.0 512 Marital status Never married 11.9 72.9 15.2 100.0 1,544 10.3 67.1 22.6 100.0 1,044 Married or living together 14.7 80.3 5.0 100.0 4,116 16.4 70.9 12.7 100.0 1,799 Divorced/separated/ widowed 17.4 77.4 5.1 100.0 1,181 18.9 71.2 9.9 100.0 334 Residence Urban 15.0 77.2 7.8 100.0 4,887 14.6 70.4 15.1 100.0 2,277 Rural 13.2 80.5 6.3 100.0 1,954 15.0 67.9 17.1 100.0 901 Region North 11.8 82.8 5.4 100.0 1,345 15.3 43.4 41.4 100.0 616 Central 13.5 83.3 3.1 100.0 817 26.2 62.3 11.5 100.0 354 East 17.8 72.9 9.3 100.0 2,120 9.8 87.4 2.9 100.0 1,060 South 11.1 82.6 6.3 100.0 1,049 12.5 81.5 6.0 100.0 493 West 15.2 75.5 9.3 100.0 1,509 17.5 60.9 21.6 100.0 654 Education Secondary or less 12.3 79.4 8.3 100.0 2,729 14.3 70.1 15.6 100.0 1,615 Higher 16.0 77.3 6.7 100.0 4,112 15.1 69.3 15.7 100.0 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 12.7 80.9 6.4 100.0 847 19.9 65.2 14.8 100.0 432 Second 15.4 77.8 6.9 100.0 1,437 14.7 71.9 13.4 100.0 651 Middle 16.5 76.2 7.3 100.0 1,276 15.4 72.3 12.4 100.0 622 Fourth 13.0 78.6 8.4 100.0 1,451 13.3 68.7 18.0 100.0 623 Highest 14.5 78.2 7.3 100.0 1,831 12.5 69.0 18.5 100.0 849 Total 14.5 78.1 7.3 100.0 6,841 14.7 69.7 15.6 100.0 3,178 Those who stated that they would consider adopting a child were also asked about the specific circumstances under which they would adopt a child. Infertility of either of the spouses was the most frequently given answer (Table 8.12). Nearly one-third of both women and men stated that they would consider an adoption if they were infertile. Interestingly, although 34 percent of men stated that they would consider an adoption if their wife was infertile, only 14 percent of women stated that they would consider an adoption if their husband is infertile. Thirty- nine percent of women and 27 percent of men said they would adopt because of feeling compassion for a child from an orphanage, and 22 percent of women and 13 percent of men said they would adopt because of feeling compassion for an abused/street child. In addition, 29 percent of women and 15 percent of men stated that they would consider an adoption if they had enough money to afford it. Table 8.12 Circumstances for considering an adoption Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who would consider adopting a child, by specific circumstances under which they would adopt a child, Ukraine 2007 Circumstances Women Men Want (another) child 8.0 10.8 Avoid pregnancy 3.1 1.4 Unmarried/no partner to get pregnant 6.1 3.5 Too old to have a biological child 4.7 1.8 Spouse’s infertility 13.8 33.6 Own infertility 32.8 34.3 If child is a family member 17.8 18.5 If child is a child of friends 14.8 14.8 Compassion for an abused/street child 22.4 12.5 Compassion for a child from an orphanage 38.6 26.9 If had enough money to afford it 29.1 15.3 Other 4.6 4.5 Number 993 467 82 | Fertility Preferences Another question asked to all women and men in the UDHS was about what they consider best to do for a child whose parents can no longer properly care for the child. Table 8.13 shows that the majority of women (68 percent) and men (59 percent) think that help should be sought from the child’s other family members. Another 17 percent of women and 13 percent of men mentioned options such as placing the child for adoption or with a foster family. Placing a child in an orphanage was cited by only 2 percent of women and 9 percent of men. Table 8.13 Finding care for child Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49, by what they consider best to do for a child whose parents can no longer properly care for the child, Ukraine 2007 Best action to find care for child Women Men Seek help from family member of the child 68.0 58.7 Place child for adoption 8.0 7.5 Place child with a foster family 8.9 5.8 Place child in an orphanage 2.3 8.8 Other 0.8 0.5 Don’t know/missing 12.0 18.8 Total 100.0 100.0 Number 6,841 3,178 Infant and Child Mortality | 83 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY 9 One important objective of the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) was to measure the levels and trends of mortality among children, because infant and child mortality rates are basic indicators of a country’s socioeconomic situation and quality of life. Mortality statistics are useful in identifying segments of the population where children are at high risk so that programs can be designed to increase their chances of survival. This chapter reports information on the levels, trends, and differentials in mortality among children under five years of age. 9.1 DEFINITIONS AND METHODOLOGY The reproductive history collected in the 2007 UDHS included questions about the outcome of each of the respondent’s pregnancies, i.e., whether the pregnancy ended in a live birth, a stillbirth, a miscarriage, or an induced abortion. Using the standard international definition, a live birth was any birth, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy, that, after separation from the mother, showed any sign of life (e.g., breathing, beating of the heart, or movement of voluntary muscles) (WHO, 1992). For each live birth reported in the pregnancy history, information was collected on the date of birth (month and year), sex, survivorship, and current age (for surviving children) or age at death (for deceased children). The information on survivorship of live births is used to derive direct estimates1 of the following five mortality rates: Neonatal mortality (NN): the probability of dying within the first month of life (at age 0-30 days) Postneonatal mortality (PNN): the probability of dying after the first month of life but before the first birthday (at ages 1-11 months) Infant mortality (1q0): the probability of dying before the first birthday (at ages 0-11 months) Child mortality (4q1): the probability of dying between the first and fifth birthday (at ages 1-4 years or 12-59 months) Under-five mortality (5q0): the probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday (at ages 0-4 years or 0-59 months). All rates are expressed as deaths per 1,000 live births, except for child mortality, which is expressed as deaths per 1,000 children surviving to age one. 9.2 ASSESSMENT OF DATA QUALITY The accuracy of mortality estimates from the UDHS is mainly influenced by two factors: sampling error (i.e., variability) and nonsampling error. Sampling variability is a factor because the sample of women interviewed during the 2007 UDHS is only one of many samples that could potentially have been selected for the survey from the 1 The rates are calculated using a synthetic cohort approach in which probabilities of dying are first calculated for small age segments and the component probabilities are then combined to obtain the rate for the full age segment of interest. The advantage of this approach is that mortality rates can be calculated for time periods close to the survey date while still respecting the principle of correspondence; that is, if a child is included in the exposed-to-risk in the denominator, and he/she dies during the relevant time period, then his/her death must be included in the numerator corresponding to that period of risk. A more detailed explanation of this approach can be found in the Guide to DHS Statistics (Rutstein and Rojas, 2006). 84 | Infant and Child Mortality Ukrainian population. Although representative of the population, each of the potential samples would have had a somewhat different experience of child mortality and would, thus, have produced measurably different mortality rates. Although the degree of variability between the mortality rates estimated from the 2007 UDHS and the actual rates for the population as a whole is not known, statistical procedures are available that allow calculation of the intervals within which it can be assumed with known degrees of confidence the actual mortality rates lie. Appendix B includes information on the intervals in which there is 95 percent confidence that the true values lie for the national, urban-rural, and regional mortality rate estimates shown in this chapter. Nonsampling errors primarily arise because of problems in the completeness and accuracy with which births and deaths are reported by respondents and recorded by interviewers during data collection. The most common source of nonsampling error is the underreporting of deceased children. Underreporting of events may be due to forgetfulness or to conscious avoidance of recalling the death of a child. It is well established that underreporting of deceased children by survey respondents is most likely 1) for time periods more remote from the survey date and 2) for deaths that occurred in early infancy (i.e., in the neonatal period, before a child becomes fully integrated into the family). Appendix C includes several tables that allow an assessment of the extent of underreporting of childhood deaths in the 2007 UDHS. Although the number of deaths is small, tables in Appendix C show no evidence of significant nonsampling errors. 9.3 LEVELS AND TRENDS IN INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY Table 9.1 presents early childhood mortality rates in Ukraine for the three 5-year periods preceding the 2007 UDHS. These periods coincide approximately with 2003-2007, 1998-2002, and 1993-1997.2 For the five years preceding the survey (approximately calendar years 2003-2007), the infant mortality estimate is 14 per 1,000 live births. The estimates of neonatal and postneonatal mortality for the period are 9 and 5 per 1,000, respectively. The estimate of child mortality (age one to four) is much lower: 3 per 1,000. The overall under-five mortality rate for the period is 17 per 1,000. Table 9.1 Early childhood mortality rates Neonatal, post-neonatal, infant, child, and under-five mortality rates for five-year periods preceding the survey, Ukraine 2007 Years preceding the survey Neonatal mortality (NN) Post- neonatal mortality1 (PNN) Infant mortality (1q0) Child mortality (4q1) Under-five mortality (5q0) 0-4 9 5 14 3 17 5-9 14 5 19 2 21 10-14 12 4 16 2 18 1 Computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates Figure 9.1 presents infant mortality estimates from civil registration data as well as the 1999 Ukraine Reproductive Health Survey (URHS) and the 2007 UDHS for the period 1990-2007 (SSC, 2007c; Aleshina and Redmond, 2003). An examination of the estimates from the three sources suggests that, overall, child mortality levels declined gradually during the period although the trend cannot be considered statistically significant. The estimates from the two surveys shown in the figure are higher than the official estimates from the State Statistical Committee of Ukraine derived from registration data during the period; however, the confidence intervals for the survey-based estimates3 overlap with the registration-based statistics, and the differences should be interpreted with caution. 2 Note that because fieldwork was conducted between July and November 2007, the exact periods to which rates correspond are July-November 2002 to July-November 2007, July-November 1997 to July-November 2002, and July-November 1992 to July-November 1997. 3 For example, the 95 percent confidence interval around the rate for the period 2003-2007 derived from the UDHS (14 per 1,000) ranges from 6 to 21 per 1,000, and the 95 percent confidence interval around the rate derived from the 1999 URHS (15 per 1,000) for the period 1995-1999 ranges from 9.5 to 21 per 1,000. Infant and Child Mortality | 85 Figure 9.1 Infant mortality rate estimates from registration system, 2007 UDHS, and 1999 URHS (with confidence intervals) � 15� � � 16 19 14 19 90 19 91 19 92 19 93 19 94 19 95 19 96 19 97 19 98 19 99 20 00 20 01 20 02 20 03 20 04 20 05 20 06 20 07 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 Deaths per 1,000 live births Registration 2007 UDHS 1999 URHS� � 21.1 9.3 21 6 9.4 SOCIOECONOMIC DIFFERENTIALS IN CHILDHOOD MORTALITY Mortality differentials by place of residence, educational level of the mother, and sex of the child are presented in Table 9.2. In order to reduce sampling variability and to have a sufficient number of births to study mortality differentials across population subgroups, period-specific rates are presented for the ten-year period preceding the survey. However, because of the low levels of childhood mortality, even when using a ten-year period it is not possible to present the results by region and wealth status. Because of the small number of deaths during the period, confidence intervals are also broad for the mortality estimates that are presented for various populations in the table, necessitating that caution be exercised when interpreting even these differentials. The sex differential in mortality conforms to the expected pattern of higher mortality for boys than for girls. For example, the infant mortality rate for infant boys is 20 per 1,000, and for infant girls it is 13 per 1,000. Similarly, for under-five mortality, the mortality rate for boys is 23 per 1,000 and for girls it is 14 per 1,000. Table 9.2 Early childhood mortality rates by background characteristics Neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child, and under-five mortality rates for the 10- year period preceding the survey, by background characteristic, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Neonatal mortality (NN) Post- neonatal mortality1 (PNN) Infant mortality (1q0) Child mortality (4q1) Under- five mortality (5q0) Residence Urban 14 3 17 2 18 Rural 7 9 17 3 20 Mother’s education Secondary or less 9 7 16 3 19 Higher 14 3 17 2 19 Child’s sex Male 16 4 20 4 23 Female 7 6 13 1 14 1 Computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates 86 | Infant and Child Mortality Overall, with the exception of neonatal and postneonatal mortality, under-five mortality levels do not differ by residence or the mother’s education. The neonatal mortality rate is unexpectedly higher in urban areas (14 per 1,000) than in rural areas (7 per 1,000). Similarly, the neonatal mortality rate is unexpectedly higher among children born to women with higher education (14 per 1,000) compared with women with secondary or less education (9 per 1,000). However, because of the small numbers of deaths on which the rates are based, the differences by residence and education cannot be considered to be significant. 9.5 PERINATAL MORTALITY Ukraine adoped the World Health Organization (WHO) definition of the peri- natal period which begins at 22 completed weeks (154 days) of gestation and ends seven completed days after birth (WHO, 1992). The perinatal mortality rate (per 1,000) is defined as deaths occurring during late pregnancy (at 22 completed weeks gestation and over), during child- birth, and up to seven completed days of life (WHO, 2006b). However, for interna- tional comparison, in this report the cor- responding gestational age of 28 completed weeks is used for estimation of the perina- tal mortality rates. The perinatal mortality rates presented in Table 9.3 measure the level of mortality from the time of prenatal viability (in this report beginning at 28 weeks of gestation) through labor, delivery, and the early neonatal period (i.e., the first seven days of life). Pregnancies that end without signs of life after the 28th week are referred to as stillbirths. Stillbirths and early neonatal deaths share many of the same underlying causes leading to mortality (e.g., congenital malforma- tions), and for this reason these events are aggregated into the perinatal mortality rate. It should be noted that data quality is always an issue when considering perinatal mortality rates, because both stillbirths and early neonatal deaths are susceptible to underreporting. The overall perinatal mortality rate is 10 per 1,000. Early neonatal deaths (deaths under seven days) were reported more frequently than stillbirths and thus contribute more to the overall perinatal rate. Looking at the differentials presented in the table, perinatal mortality rates are higher among urban women (13 per 1,000) than rural women (5 per 1,000), but there is no differentiation in the perinatal mortality rates according to mother’s level of education. Again, because the numbers of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths are small in all of the population groups, the differentials shown in Table 9.3 should be interpreted with caution. Table 9.3 Perinatal mortality Number of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths, and the perinatal mortality rate for the five-year period preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Number of stillbirths1 Number of early neonatal deaths2 Perinatal mortality rate3 Number of pregnancies of 7+ months duration Residence Urban 4 6 13 766 Rural 1 1 (5) 415 Mother’s education Secondary or less 2 3 10 535 Higher 2 4 10 647 Total 4 7 10 1,181 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 250 to 499 unweighted pregnancies of 7+ months duration. 1 Stillbirths are fetal deaths in pregnancies lasting seven or more months. 2 Early neonatal deaths are deaths at age 0-6 days among live-born children. 3 The sum of the number of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths divided by the number of pregnancies of seven or more months duration, expressed per 1,000. Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Infant and Young Child Feeding | 87 ANTENATAL CARE, POSTNATAL CARE, AND INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING 10 Reproductive and maternal health care in Ukraine is implemented through an extensive system of ambulatory polyclinic and maternity hospitals. The network of ambulatory health care is organized around geographical regions and is offered through women’s consultation polyclinics and rural health facilities. Obstetric care is offered at obstetric-gynecological departments in hospitals, regional maternity hospitals located in urban areas, and national centers for specialized (tertiary) care. This chapter presents findings on several areas of importance to reproductive and maternal health, including the utilization of antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care services. These data are of great value in identifying subgroups of women who do not use or receive specific health services and is useful in planning for improvements in service delivery. 10.1 ANTENATAL CARE The health care that a woman receives from a trained health provider during pregnancy is important for the survival and well-being of both the woman and the child. The 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) obtained information on a number of aspects of antenatal care (ANC) including the type of provider, number of ANC visits, and stage of pregnancy at the time of the first visit, as well as the services and information provided during antenatal care. 10.1.1 Antenatal Care Provider Table 10.1 presents data on the utilization of different antenatal care providers. Overall, 99 percent of women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey received antenatal care from a trained health provider prior to the most recent birth. Almost all women (97 percent) saw a doctor for care at least once during their pregnancy. Coverage is almost uniformly high among mothers regardless of the background characteristics shown in Table 10.1. Overall, antenatal care coverage has increased in recent years, from 90 percent in the 1999 Ukraine Reproductive Health Survey (URHS) to 99 percent in 2007. Compared with estimates from recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in other countries in Eastern Europe and Caucasus, Ukraine is among those with the highest coverage of antenatal care by a trained provider. 10.1.2 Number and Timing of ANC Visits Early examination of pregnant women and the use of educational and preventive measures to avoid possible complications during pregnancy and delivery are important elements of antenatal care. A successful pregnancy and delivery is most likely when a pregnant woman has her first antenatal care visit within the first trimester, and thereafter has the recommended number of antenatal care visits. For a normal pregnancy, i.e., one that is not considered at high risk for antenatal complications, the Ministry of Health of Ukraine recommends monthly visits during the first 30 weeks of pregnancy and twice-monthly visits during the next 10 weeks. Ten to 12 antenatal care visits are considered to be optimal for a normal pregnancy. For a pregnancy with complications the number of visits is defined by a physician in a case-by-case basis. The World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines recommend at least four antenatal care visits for a normal pregnancy. In Ukraine, only a small proportion of women (2 percent) have less than four ANC visits. 88 | Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Infant and Young Child Feeding Table 10.1 Antenatal care Percent distribution of women age 15-49 who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey by antenatal care (ANC) provider during pregnancy for the most recent birth and the percentage receiving antenatal care from a skilled provider for the most recent birth, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Doctor Nurse/ midwife No one Missing Total Percentage receiving antenatal care from a skilled provider1 Number of women Mother’s age at birth <20 95.4 1.9 2.6 0.0 100.0 97.4 106 20-34 96.9 1.7 0.4 0.9 100.0 98.6 900 35-49 96.0 2.9 1.1 0.0 100.0 98.9 66 Residence Urban 97.5 1.3 0.5 0.8 100.0 98.7 722 Rural 95.2 2.9 1.2 0.7 100.0 98.1 350 Region North 97.7 1.4 0.5 0.5 100.0 99.0 230 Central 96.2 1.0 2.8 0.0 100.0 97.2 120 East 96.1 2.4 0.0 1.5 100.0 98.5 262 South 97.8 0.9 0.5 0.8 100.0 98.7 180 West 96.1 2.5 0.7 0.7 100.0 98.7 280 Mother’s education Secondary or less 95.3 2.4 1.1 1.1 100.0 97.8 467 Higher 97.8 1.3 0.4 0.5 100.0 99.1 605 Wealth quintile Lowest 92.0 4.8 2.0 1.2 100.0 96.7 151 Second 96.3 1.7 0.7 1.3 100.0 98.0 238 Middle 98.3 0.6 0.3 0.7 100.0 98.9 210 Fourth 96.9 2.7 0.3 0.0 100.0 99.7 199 Highest 98.4 0.5 0.4 0.7 100.0 98.9 274 Total 96.7 1.8 0.7 0.8 100.0 98.5 1,072 Note: If more than one source of ANC was mentioned, only the provider with the highest qualifications is considered in this tabulation. 1 Skilled provider includes doctor, nurse and midwife. Table 10.2 shows the number of antenatal care visits and the timing of the first visit during the most recent pregnancy for women with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Seventy-five percent of women have six or more ANC visits, and more than one-quarter of women (27 percent) have 15 or more ANC visits. About one in five women (21 percent) had difficulty recalling the total number of ANC visits. Urban residents were somewhat more likely than rural residents to have reported having 15 or more antenatal visits (29 percent and 23 percent, respectively) and somewhat less likely than rural residents to have had fewer than six antenatal visits (3 percent and 8 percent, respectively). However, because a larger proportion of urban women than rural women did not report the number of antenatal visits, the proportion reporting six or more visits is higher among rural women (78 percent) than urban women (73 percent). Table 10.2 also shows that the majority of women (84 percent) had their first antenatal visit in the first trimester, with a higher proportion of women in urban (86 percent) than in rural areas (79 percent) indicating that they saw their antenatal care provider for the first time in that trimester. The median gestational age at the first antenatal visit was 2.9 months. Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Infant and Young Child Feeding | 89 Table 10.2 Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit Percent distribution of women age 15-49 who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey by number of antenatal care (ANC) visits for the most recent live birth, and by the timing of the first visit, and among women with ANC, median months pregnant at first visit, according to residence, Ukraine 2007 Number and timing of ANC visits Residence Total Urban Rural Number of ANC visits None 0.5 1.2 0.7 1-5 2.1 7.1 3.8 6-9 14.6 23.0 17.3 10-14 29.4 32.3 30.4 15+ 29.2 22.7 27.1 Don’t know/missing 24.2 13.7 20.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of months pregnant at time of first ANC visit No antenatal care 0.5 1.2 0.7 <4 85.7 79.2 83.6 4-5 9.8 14.9 11.5 6-7 1.7 2.3 1.9 8+ 0.3 0.4 0.3 Don’t know/missing 2.0 1.9 2.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 722 350 1,072 Median months pregnant at first visit (for those with ANC) 2.8 3.1 2.9 Number of women with ANC 713 344 1,056 10.1.3 Antenatal Care Content The content of the care provided to pregnant women serves as an indicator of the quality of antenatal services. In Ukraine, it is recommended, but not mandatory, that pregnant women receive multivitamin and mineral supplements including iron and folic acid supplements. Another important component of antenatal care services is the provision of educational information to the pregnant woman about normal changes during pregnancy and signs of complications. Other specific services that a woman should receive during antenatal care include the taking of anthropometric and blood pressure measurements and urine and blood samples. Pregnant women suffering certain pathologies or who are exposed to higher risks of adverse pregnancy complications undergo additional tests and examinations. Table 10.3 shows the extent to which women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey received iron supplements and were given drugs to treat intestinal worms. The table also shows the extent to which women who had antenatal care for a birth in the five years before the survey were informed about signs of pregnancy complications and had basic tests performed. Maternal anemia, especially iron deficiency anemia, is one cause of both maternal complications and neonatal complications. Routine iron supplementation of pregnant women is not a standard requirement of the ANC protocol in Ukraine, and only women with diagnosed anemia when the blood hemoglobin level falls below 100 g/l are eligible for treatment with iron tablets for as long as it is necessary to cure anemia. According to the 1999 URHS, 34 percent of women reported that they were told by their ANC provider that they had anemia, and 38 percent of women reported taking iron supplements during the pregnancy that ended with the most recent live birth. The 2007 UDHS results indicate that iron supplementation during pregnancy has increased substantially, with slightly more than half of women (55 percent) reporting they received iron supplements for the most recent live birth during the five-year period prior to the survey. 90 | Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Infant and Young Child Feeding Table 10.3 Components of antenatal care Among women age 15-49 with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey, the percentage who took iron tablets or syrup and drugs for intestinal parasites during the pregnancy for the most recent birth, and among women receiving antenatal care (ANC) for the most recent live birth in the five years preceding the survey, the percentage receiving specific antenatal services, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Among women with a live birth in the past five years, the percentage who during the pregnancy for their last birth: Number of women with a live birth in the past five years Among women who received antenatal care for their most recent birth in the past five years, the percentage who received selected services: Number of women with ANC for their most recent birth Took iron tablets or syrup Took intestinal parasite drugs Informed of signs of pregnancy complica- tions Weighed Blood pressure measured Urine sample taken Blood sample taken Mother’s age at birth <20 49.6 9.3 106 28.9 100.0 98.9 100.0 98.9 103 20-34 55.5 9.3 900 37.6 99.9 99.8 99.9 99.9 888 35-49 55.7 9.9 66 53.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 65 Residence Urban 58.8 11.0 722 38.7 100.0 99.7 100.0 99.8 713 Rural 47.0 5.8 350 35.5 99.8 99.8 99.8 99.8 344 Region North 41.9 7.0 230 26.0 100.0 99.0 100.0 100.0 228 Central 55.7 5.9 120 49.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 117 East 69.9 23.2 262 50.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 258 South 52.6 6.1 180 35.6 99.6 99.6 99.6 98.9 178 West 52.9 1.9 280 31.8 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 277 Mother’s education Secondary or less 52.4 11.1 467 37.4 99.8 99.3 99.8 99.6 457 Higher 56.9 8.0 605 37.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 600 Wealth quintile Lowest 46.2 4.1 151 38.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 146 Second 51.7 8.0 238 40.8 99.7 99.7 99.7 99.7 233 Middle 55.7 9.7 210 36.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 208 Fourth 58.0 11.5 199 39.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.4 199 Highest 59.8 11.5 274 33.9 100.0 99.1 100.0 100.0 271 Total 54.9 9.3 1,072 37.7 99.9 99.7 99.9 99.8 1,056 As Table 10.3 shows, the youngest women were least likely to have received iron supplements during pregnancy. Women who live in urban areas were more likely to receive iron supplements than women in rural areas (59 percent and 47 percent, respectively). The rate varied markedly among regions; 70 percent of women in the East region took iron supplements during pregnancy, compared with only 42 percent in the North region. Similarly, 60 percent of women in the highest wealth quintile took iron supplements, compared with 46 percent of women in the lowest wealth quintile. Table 10.3 also shows that approximately one in ten women (9 percent) in Ukraine were given deworming drugs during pregnancy. Deworming medication is not a standard part of the antenatal care protocol in Ukraine. Although all pregnant women are tested for intestinal worms, deworming medication is only given to those who test positive. Overall, women living in rural areas (6 percent), from the West region (2 percent), and from the poorest households (4 percent) are the least likely to receive deworming drugs during pregnancy. Women living in the East region are the most likely to receive this medication; nearly one in four women (23 percent) were given deworming drugs. The proportion of women who undergo basic tests during pregnancy is nearly universal throughout Ukraine: virtually all women who gave birth in the five years preceding the UDHS reported that, for the most recent birth, they were weighed, had their blood pressure measured, had a blood sample taken, and had their urine tested. On the other hand, only slightly more than one-third (38 percent) of these women were informed of the signs of pregnancy complications. The likelihood of receiving the information about the signs of pregnancy complications does not vary substantially according to the background Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Infant and Young Child Feeding | 91 characteristics shown in Table 10.3, except for age and region. The proportion of women who reported they received information about complications increases with age, with women under age 20 being only around half as likely as women age 35-49 to receive this information. Regional differences in the receipt of information about pregnancy are especially marked. For example, about half of women in the East and Central regions were informed about the signs of complications, compared with about one-fourth of women (26 percent) in the North region. 10.2 ASSISTANCE AND MEDICAL CARE AT DELIVERY 10.2.1 Place of Delivery Proper medical attention and hygienic conditions during delivery can reduce the risk of complications and infections that can cause the death or serious illness of the mother and/or the infant. Table 10.4 shows that virtually all deliveries take place in health facilities. The nearly universal prevalence of facility deliveries reported in the 2007 UDHS among all subgroups is similar to the results from the 1999 URHS. Table 10.4 Place of delivery Percent distribution of live births in the five years preceding the survey by place of delivery and percentage delivered in a health facility, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Health facility Home Missing Total Percentage delivered in a health facility Number of births Public sector Private sector Mother’s age at birth <20 96.2 2.5 0.5 0.8 100.0 98.8 125 20-34 96.6 2.4 0.2 0.8 100.0 99.0 984 35-49 96.1 2.9 1.0 0.0 100.0 99.0 68 Residence Urban 95.5 3.7 0.0 0.8 100.0 99.2 763 Rural 98.3 0.2 0.8 0.6 100.0 98.5 414 Region North 98.6 0.5 0.4 0.4 100.0 99.1 246 Central 98.5 0.5 1.0 0.0 100.0 99.0 132 East 89.3 9.3 0.0 1.4 100.0 98.6 272 South 99.2 0.4 0.0 0.4 100.0 99.6 200 West 98.5 0.3 0.3 0.9 100.0 98.8 328 Mother’s education Secondary or less 97.6 1.0 0.3 1.1 100.0 98.6 533 Higher 95.6 3.7 0.3 0.5 100.0 99.3 644 Wealth quintile Lowest 97.5 0.0 0.9 1.6 100.0 97.5 186 Second 97.2 1.0 0.7 1.2 100.0 98.2 267 Middle 93.9 5.8 0.0 0.3 100.0 99.7 228 Fourth 98.1 1.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 205 Highest 96.1 3.2 0.0 0.7 100.0 99.3 291 Total 96.5 2.5 0.3 0.7 100.0 99.0 1,177 1 Includes only the most recent birth in the five years preceding the survey 10.2.2 Attended Deliveries Table 10.5 shows that virtually all births (99 percent) in Ukraine are delivered by a trained health professional, with little or no variation by background characteristics. Most of these deliveries are attended by a doctor, with nurse-midwives attending only 8 percent of births. The East region has the highest proportion of births assisted by nurses and midwives (13 percent). 92 | Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Infant and Young Child Feeding Table 10.5 Assistance during delivery Percent distribution of live births in the five years preceding the survey by person providing assistance during delivery, percentage of births assisted by a skilled provider and percentage delivered by caesarean section, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Person providing assistance during delivery Percentage delivered by a skilled provider1 Percentage delivered by C-section Number of births Doctor Nurse/ midwife Relative/ other No one Don’t know/ missing Total Mother’s age at birth <20 93.4 5.4 0.5 0.0 0.8 100.0 98.8 12.2 125 20-34 90.9 7.8 0.2 0.1 1.0 100.0 98.7 9.4 984 35-49 92.1 6.8 0.0 1.0 0.0 100.0 99.0 22.2 68 Residence Urban 92.6 6.4 0.0 0.0 0.9 100.0 99.1 10.4 763 Rural 88.6 9.5 0.6 0.4 0.8 100.0 98.1 10.4 414 Region North 96.6 2.5 0.4 0.0 0.4 100.0 99.1 10.8 246 Central 94.4 4.6 0.4 0.5 0.0 100.0 99.0 13.2 132 East 85.8 12.8 0.0 0.0 1.4 100.0 98.6 7.9 272 South 90.0 8.7 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0 98.7 9.5 200 West 91.1 7.3 0.3 0.3 0.9 100.0 98.4 11.7 328 Mother’s education Secondary or less 89.7 8.3 0.2 0.3 1.4 100.0 98.0 11.5 533 Higher 92.5 6.8 0.3 0.0 0.5 100.0 99.3 9.5 644 Wealth quintile Lowest 85.4 11.6 0.9 0.6 1.6 100.0 96.9 8.8 186 Second 87.4 10.4 0.4 0.3 1.6 100.0 97.7 12.3 267 Middle 93.0 6.7 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 99.7 11.0 228 Fourth 94.7 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 99.6 13.5 205 Highest 94.6 4.8 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 99.3 7.2 291 Total 91.2 7.5 0.2 0.2 0.9 100.0 98.7 10.4 1,177 Note: If the respondent mentioned more than one person attending during delivery, only the most qualified person is considered in this tabulation. 1 Skilled provider includes doctor, nurse and midwife. 10.2.3 Caesarean Section Delivery According to the World Health Organization and UNICEF, acceptable rates for caesarean section (C-section) delivery are between 5 and 15 percent. Above 15 percent is considered excessive, while rates below 5 percent indicate that not all women in need are receiving a C-section delivery (UNICEF/WHO/UNFPA, 1997; Althabe and Belizan, 2006). Ukraine’s C-section rate of 10 percent suggests that all women in need of a C-section are receiving one. Caesarean deliveries increase with the woman’s age, reaching a high of 22 percent among women age 35-49. Women living in the Central and West regions, those with secondary or less education, and those in households in the second to fourth wealth quintiles are somewhat more likely to deliver by caesarian section compared with other women (Table 10.5). 10.3 POSTNATAL CARE The postnatal period is defined as the time between the delivery of the placenta and 42 days after delivery. Postnatal care obtained from a trained medical provider during this period represents a basic component of safe maternity. The postnatal examination plays an important role in assessing the health status of the mother and child, diagnosing and treating postnatal complications, and providing counseling and support regarding early baby care. Because research has shown that most maternal and infant deaths occur within the first two days after delivery, postnatal care should be provided as soon as possible after birth, within this critical period. To evaluate the extent to which women receive postnatal care, the 2007 UDHS asked women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey whether a health professional examined them after their last live birth and about the timing of the first checkup if the woman received postnatal care. Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Infant and Young Child Feeding | 93 Table 10.6 presents information on the receipt and timing of postnatal care after the most recent birth for women who gave birth in the five years preceding the survey. The data show that 95 percent of women received an examination within six weeks after delivery. Postnatal care is universally provided by a skilled health care provider (98 percent) (data not shown). With regard to the timing of the first postnatal checkup, 54 percent of women who had a live birth in the past five years received a medical checkup within the first day after delivery of their last birth, and 87 percent were examined within the first two days after delivery. Another 8 percent saw a health professional for a postnatal checkup within six weeks of giving birth. Only 2 percent of women reported not having any type of postnatal checkup. Table 10.6 Timing of first postnatal checkup Percent distribution of women age 15-49 with a birth in the five years preceding the survey by timing of first postnatal checkup for the last live birth, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Timing of first postnatal checkup No postnatal checkup1 Total Number of women Less than 4 hours 4-23 hours 2 days 3-41 days Don’t know/ missing Mother’s age at birth <20 37.3 10.7 36.7 10.6 2.8 1.9 100.0 106 20-34 30.5 25.3 31.9 7.3 2.7 2.2 100.0 900 35-49 25.3 20.1 32.9 18.1 0.0 3.7 100.0 66 Residence Urban 33.9 24.7 30.1 7.0 2.4 2.0 100.0 722 Rural 24.6 21.3 37.3 11.1 2.8 2.9 100.0 350 Region North 41.3 18.9 31.8 3.9 1.6 2.5 100.0 230 Central 37.4 33.8 22.9 4.9 0.6 0.4 100.0 120 East 33.2 30.2 24.1 7.7 3.3 1.5 100.0 262 South 11.8 24.1 53.0 4.2 1.7 5.2 100.0 180 West 29.5 16.6 31.7 16.6 4.0 1.7 100.0 280 Education Secondary or less 27.3 22.9 34.9 8.9 3.2 2.8 100.0 467 Higher 33.6 24.1 30.5 7.9 2.1 1.9 100.0 605 Wealth quintile Lowest 25.2 13.5 43.1 11.2 3.0 4.0 100.0 151 Second 23.8 27.9 35.3 9.0 1.9 2.0 100.0 238 Middle 32.1 22.1 33.7 7.7 2.1 2.2 100.0 210 Fourth 37.6 21.7 28.5 7.7 3.4 1.1 100.0 199 Highest 34.1 27.9 26.0 7.0 2.7 2.4 100.0 274 Total 30.8 23.6 32.4 8.3 2.6 2.3 100.0 1,072 1 Includes women who received a checkup after 41 days 10.4 CHILD NUTRITION Nutrition is a critical component in laying a solid foundation for good health and development. Good nutrition builds the immune system, strengthens the body, and plays an essential role in a healthy and productive lifestyle. This section looks at several aspects of the nutritional status of children: infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding patterns, and the prevalence of bottle feeding among children under age five. 10.4.1 Initiation of Breastfeeding Early feeding practices play an important role in the physical development of infants. Optimal infant feeding is defined by WHO and UNICEF as follows: • Initiation of breastfeeding within the first hour of birth; • Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months, that is, the infant receives breast milk only, without additional food or drink (not even plain water); • Breastfeeding day and night on demand, and increased breastfeeding during illness and recovery; and 94 | Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Infant and Young Child Feeding • Complementary feeding with adequate and safe foods starting at six months, with continued breastfeeding up to two years of age or beyond (UNICEF, 1990). The early initiation of breastfeeding is important for a number of reasons. First, it takes advantage of the newborn’s suckling reflex and alertness immediately after birth. Early suckling also benefits mothers because it stimulates breast milk production and releases a hormone that helps the uterus to contract and reduces postpartum blood loss. The first breast milk contains colostrum, which is highly nutritious and has antibodies that protect the newborn from diseases. Early breastfeeding also fosters bonding of the mother and child and enhances the socialization experience of an infant. Table 10.7 shows that a majority (96 percent) of children born in the five years preceding the survey were breastfed. This is a slight increase from 92 percent of children ever breastfed reported in the 1999 URHS. There is generally little variation by background characteristics, with the largest differences observed by region. The East region (98 percent) has the highest proportion of children ever breastfed, and the Central region has the lowest (87 percent). Table 10.7 Initial breastfeeding Percentage of children born in the five years preceding the survey who were ever breastfed, and among last-born children ever breastfed, the percentage who started breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth and the percentage who received a prelacteal feed, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Breastfeeding among children born in past five years Among last-born children ever breastfed: Number of last-born children ever breastfed Percentage ever breastfed Number of children born in past five years Percentage who started breast- feeding within 1 hour of birth Percentage who started breast- feeding within 1 day of birth1 Percentage who received a prelacteal feed2 Sex Male 95.6 618 42.3 83.6 17.8 528 Female 95.6 560 39.1 81.3 20.4 497 Residence Urban 96.1 763 41.8 82.3 21.0 694 Rural 94.8 414 38.6 83.0 15.1 331 Region North 96.8 246 48.3 76.3 18.5 223 Central 87.4 132 54.8 77.4 29.9 105 East 97.7 272 34.5 90.9 17.6 256 South 96.3 200 36.5 83.4 12.1 175 West 95.9 328 37.8 81.1 21.2 267 Mother’s education Secondary or less 95.2 533 33.1 80.6 17.8 443 Higher 96.0 644 46.6 83.9 20.1 581 Wealth quintile Lowest 95.6 186 37.2 82.2 14.8 145 Second 93.6 267 41.8 84.1 17.1 221 Middle 95.5 228 38.3 84.0 22.1 200 Fourth 95.0 205 38.8 84.0 21.1 189 Highest 98.0 291 45.1 79.2 19.3 270 Total 95.6 1,177 40.8 82.5 19.1 1,025 Note: Table is based on births in the past five years, regardless of whether child is living or dead at the time of interview. 1 Includes children who started breastfeeding within one hour of birth 2 Children given something other than breast milk during the first three days of life Overall, among last-born children who were ever breastfed, the majority were breastfed within the first day of life (83 percent), and four in ten children started breastfeeding within one hour of birth. There are generally only minor variations by background characteristics in the proportion breastfed within one day of birth; however, these proportions are comparatively low among infants whose mothers are from the North (76 percent) and Central (77 percent) regions and who live in households in the highest wealth quintile (79 percent). On the other hand, infants from the Central (55 percent) and the North (48 percent) regions are more likely than infants in the other regions (38 Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Infant and Young Child Feeding | 95 percent or less) to have begun breastfeeding within an hour of delivery. The proportion breastfed within one hour of birth is also comparatively high among infants whose mothers are the most highly educated (47 percent) or who live in households in the highest wealth quintile (45 percent). Prelacteal feeding is the practice of giving other liquids to an infant during the period after birth before the mother’s milk is flowing freely. Overall, 19 percent of breastfed children were given a prelacteal feed. This practice varies only modestly by background characteristics. Around 15 percent of rural infants and infants born in the poorest households received a prelacteal feed, compared with 21 percent of urban infants and 19 to 22 percent of infants living in the households in the middle to highest wealth quintiles. The Central region has the highest percentage of infants given prelacteal feeds (30 percent), while the South region has the lowest percentage (12 percent). 10.4.2 Breastfeeding Patterns by Age Exclusive breastfeeding is recommended during the first six months of a child’s life because it limits exposure to disease agents and provides all of the nutrients that are required for a baby. Children who are exclusively breastfed receive only breast milk. As an infant grows, breast milk alone no longer provides sufficient nourishment, and other liquids and foods need to be added to the child’s diet. Table 10.8 describes feeding practices for children under three years of age. Eighty percent of children under six months are breastfed. However, breastfeeding does not continue for very long for many children. At age 6-9 months, 38 percent of children are no longer breastfed, and this proportion increases to three-fourths of children (74 percent) at age 12-15 months. At 20-23 months, 94 percent of children have been weaned. Table 10.8 Breastfeeding status by age Percent distribution of youngest children under three years who are living with their mother, by breastfeeding status and the percentage currently breastfeeding; and the percentage of all children under three years using a bottle with a nipple, according to age in months, Ukraine 2007 Age in months Percent distribution of youngest children under three living with their mother by breastfeeding status Total Percentage currently breast- feeding Number of youngest child under three years Percentage using a bottle with a nipple1 Number of children under three years Not breast- feeding Exclusively breastfed Breastfeeding and consuming: Plain water only Non-milk liquids/ juice Other milk Comple- mentary foods 0-3 9.8 28.3 27.8 1.5 28.3 4.4 100.0 90.2 52 55.7 53 0-5 19.7 18.2 19.5 2.7 21.9 18.0 100.0 80.3 85 67.6 86 6-9 38.0 0.0 0.9 2.6 3.4 55.1 100.0 62.0 74 82.3 74 12-15 74.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 24.8 100.0 25.6 81 82.5 82 12-23 85.2 0.0 0.5 0.4 0.7 13.3 100.0 14.8 212 67.1 217 20-23 93.5 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.0 4.9 100.0 6.5 53 54.5 55 24-35 98.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 100.0 1.6 228 45.0 254 Note: Breastfeeding status refers to a 24-hour period (yesterday and the past night). Children who are classified as breastfeeding and consuming plain water only consumed no liquid or solid supplements. The categories of not breastfeeding, exclusively breastfed, breastfeeding and consuming plain water, non-milk liquids/juice, other milk, and complementary foods (solids and semi-solids) are hierarchical and mutually exclusive, and their percentages add to 100 percent. Thus children who receive breast milk and non-milk liquids and who do not receive complementary foods are classified in the non-milk liquid category even though they may also get plain water. Any children who get complementary food are classified in that category as long as they are breastfeeding as well. 1 Based on all children under three years Exclusive breastfeeding is not common and supplementary feeding begins early. According to the 2007 UDHS results, only 18 percent of children under six months are exclusively breastfed. In addition to breast milk, 22 percent are given other (non-breast) milk, 22 percent are given water or other liquids, and 18 percent are given complementary food in the form of solid or mushy food. By age 6-9 months, almost four in ten Ukrainian children are no longer being breastfed, and most breastfeeding children are receiving complementary foods in addition to breast milk. Bottle-feeding is fairly widespread in Ukraine; more than half (56 percent) of the youngest infants are fed with a bottle with a nipple. 96 | Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Infant and Young Child Feeding Figure 10.1 shows that the median duration of any breastfeeding is 10 months. However, the median durations of exclusive breastfeeding (child receives only breast milk) and predominant breastfeeding (child is exclusively breastfed or receives breast milk plus plain water, water-based liquids, or juice only) are short (less than one month and two months, respectively). More than nine in ten (96 percent) breastfeeding children under six months of age were breastfed at least six times in the 24 hours preceding the survey. The mean number of daytime feeds is six, and the mean number of nighttime feeds is three; the resulting average of nine feeds is considered sufficient for a 24-hour period (data not shown). Figure 10.1 Median duration of breastfeeding Note: Data are for children born in the past three years. 9.5 0.6 1.8 Any breastfeeding Exclusive breastfeeding Predominant breastfeeding 0.0 2.0 4.0 6.0 8.0 10.0 12.0 Months UDHS 2007 10.4.3 Supplemental Foods The nutritional requirements of young children are more likely to be met if they are fed a variety of foods after six months of age. To obtain information on this topic, interviewers read a list of specific foods to women with a child under age three living with them and asked the mother to report whether or not the child received each food in the 24 hours before the interview. The foods given to a child are not mutually exclusive; therefore, a child could be reported as receiving several types of foods. Although it is recommended that breastfeeding children under six months of age not receive supplemental foods, Table 10.9 shows that, during the 24 hours preceding the interview, 19 percent of breastfeeding children under six months receive infant formula, 36 percent receive other milk, and 28 percent receive other liquids. Approximately one in five breastfeeding children under six months of age receives some type of semi-solid or solid food, with 21 percent receiving some type of food made from grains. Among breastfeeding children age six months and older, the percentage receiving complementary foods steadily increases. Overall, among breastfeeding children age 6-23 months, 88 percent receive some type of semi-solid or solid food, with 76 percent consuming foods made from grains. Approximately one in four children age 6-23 months (26 percent) receives fortified baby foods. Antenatal Care, Postnatal Care, and Infant and Young Child Feeding | 97 Table 10.9 Foods and liquids consumed by children in the day and night preceding the interview Percentage of youngest children under three years of age who are living with the mother by type of foods consumed in the day and night preceding the interview, according to breastfeeding status and age, Ukraine 2007 Age in months Liquids Solid or semi-solid foods Any solid or semi- solid food Number of children Infant formula Other milk1 Other liquids2 Fortified baby foods Food made from grains3 BREASTFEEDING CHILDREN 0-5 19.1 35.5 27.5 6.7 21.2 22.5 69 6-11 37.4 54.3 79.1 22.1 76.9 86.5 68 12-35 (27.6) (66.4) (69.4) (34.1) (75.2) (90.8) 35 6-23 34.5 58.6 76.8 26.2 75.5 87.5 100 Total 28.1 49.3 56.6 18.4 54.4 61.9 172 NONBREASTFEEDING CHILDREN 0-5 * * * * * * 18 6-11 54.5 85.0 83.7 43.1 88.1 92.4 49 12-35 33.2 84.8 86.9 19.5 92.8 98.2 405 6-23 45.6 84.9 85.3 32.6 90.1 96.1 230 Total 36.5 83.9 86.4 22.1 91.1 96.1 471 Note: Breastfeeding status and food consumed refer to a 24-hour period (yesterday and the past night). An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Other milk includes fresh, tinned and powdered cow or other animal milk 2 Doesn’t include plain water 3 Includes fortified baby food Table 10.9 also shows that the proportions consuming various foods are generally higher among nonbreastfeeding children age 6-23 months than among breastfeeding children. Almost all children age 6-23 months consume some type of solid and semi-solid foods, and nine in ten children received foods made from grains. Approximately one in three (33 percent) nonbreastfeeding children age 6-23 months is given fortified baby foods. Adult Health | 99 ADULT HEALTH 11 Ukraine, like other countries in epidemiological transition, is facing an increase in non- communicable diseases, obesity, and other conditions connected with a sedentary lifestyle and rapid urbanization, combined with new and re-emerging infectious diseases such as HIV/AIDS, avian influenza, and tuberculosis. This imposes upon Ukraine a double burden of diseases typical for both developed and developing societies. The average life expectancy of a person born in Ukraine in 2005- 2006 was 74 years for women and 62 years for men1 (SSC, 2007c). The major causes of death are similar to those of industrialized countries: cardiovascular disease, cancer, and accidents. This chapter presents information on various aspects of adult health in Ukraine. 11.1 TUBERCULOSIS Tuberculosis is primarily caused by bacteria called Mycobacterium tuberculosis.2 The disease usually affects the lungs, although other organs are involved in up to one-third of cases. If properly treated, tuberculosis caused by drug-susceptible strains is curable in virtually all cases. If untreated, more than half the cases may be fatal within five years. Transmission is usually airborne through the spread of droplets produced when patients with infectious pulmonary tuberculosis cough. Tuberculosis is a major global health problem and is currently responsible for the deaths of about two million people each year. Of great public health concern in countries of the former Soviet Union is the increasing prevalence of tuberculosis caused by strains of bacteria that are resistant to all major antituberculosis drugs, in particular isoniazid and rifampicin. According to the World Health Organization “TB patients in parts of Eastern Europe and Central Asia are now ten times more likely to have multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) than those in the rest of the world” (WHO, 2004). Factors contributing to MDR-TB include patients failing to take their drugs regularly and for the required length of time, doctors and health workers prescribing the wrong treatment regimens, and unreliable drug supplies. Although MDR-TB is treatable, it requires extensive chemotherapy, which may be prohibitively expensive and is more toxic to patients. Re-emerging multidrug-resistant tuberculosis combined with a rapidly growing HIV epidemic presents a serious public health challenge for Ukraine. The World Health Organization recommends a tuberculosis control strategy known as DOTS (directly observed treatment, short-course) that combines: 1) case detection by sputum smear microscopy among symptomatic patients who self-report to health services; 2) standardized short- course chemotherapy with directly observed treatment; and 3) a standardized recording and reporting system that tracks the treatment of each patient and in turn provides data to the tuberculosis control program (WHO, 1999b). In Ukraine, coverage3 for the DOTS program was initially limited to Donetsk, where it was implemented as a pilot project at the end of 2001. In 2006, the DOTS program was expanded to other regions according to the Ministry of Health of Ukraine decree number 318 “About Approving the Protocol on Implementation of the DOTS-strategies in Ukraine.” 1 These statistics on life expectancy are based on data from the national registration system provided by the State Statistical Committee. The figures may be overestimated because the infant mortality rate—which is a primary determinant of life expectancy at birth—that was obtained from the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey is significantly higher than the official infant mortality rate obtained from the registration system (see Chapter 9). 2 Bovine tuberculosis was eliminated by introduction of pasteurization. In Ukraine, any commercially available animal milk is pasteurized, and milk products available for human consumption are made from pasteurized milk. 3 DOTS coverage is defined by the World Health Organization as the percentage of a country’s population living in geographical areas served by DOTS (WHO/ROE, 2002). 100 | Adult Health Tuberculosis is a significant public health problem in Ukraine. According to official country statistics, the registered number of cases of active tuberculosis was 19,900 (38.9 per 100,000 population) in 1995, compared with 37,100 cases (79.7 per 100,000 population) in 2006. Moreover, the number of new cases of tuberculosis in 1995 was 21,500 (41.8 per 100,000 population), and in 2006 it had risen to 38,900 new cases (83.4 per 100,000 population) (SSC, 2007a). In the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS), women and men were asked a series of questions about their knowledge of tuberculosis, its mode of transmission, and treatment. This section summarizes the information at the national level and for regional and different age subgroups of the population. 11.1.1 Knowledge about Tuberculosis and How Tuberculosis Spreads As shown in Tables 11.1.1 and 11.1.2, knowledge of tuberculosis is almost universal among Ukrainians: 98 percent of women and men have heard of tuberculosis. Slightly lower rates are observed among women and men in their teens (96 percent and 95 percent, respectively), in the North region (97 percent each among women and men), and in the South region for women (97 percent). Table 11.1.1 Knowledge and attitude concerning tuberculosis: women Percentage of women age 15-49 who have heard of tuberculosis (TB), and among women who have heard of TB, the percentage who know that TB is spread through the air by coughing, the percentage who believe that TB can be cured, and the percentage who would want to keep secret that a family member has TB, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Among all women Among women who have heard of TB Background characteristic Percentage who have heard of TB Number of women Percentage who report that TB is spread through the air by coughing Percentage who believe that TB can be cured Percentage who would want a family member’s TB kept secret Number of women Age 15-19 95.7 782 91.7 66.4 58.7 748 20-24 98.1 1,006 95.2 72.1 59.1 987 25-29 98.8 998 95.9 77.8 60.2 986 30-34 98.8 984 95.6 80.4 58.2 973 35-39 98.5 1,049 96.8 80.8 59.7 1,033 40-44 99.5 936 95.3 77.7 59.3 931 45-49 98.7 1,085 94.9 79.4 59.1 1,071 Residence Urban 98.4 4,887 96.4 79.4 62.4 4,811 Rural 98.2 1,954 92.2 70.3 51.3 1,919 Region North 96.6 1,345 93.7 71.9 63.9 1,300 Central 99.6 817 93.2 70.7 52.2 814 East 99.4 2,120 98.3 84.1 69.8 2,107 South 96.6 1,049 96.8 82.4 53.7 1,014 West 99.0 1,509 92.1 70.2 47.6 1,495 Education Secondary or less 97.8 2,729 93.1 69.7 56.3 2,670 Higher 98.7 4,112 96.6 81.4 61.1 4,059 Wealth quintile Lowest 98.3 847 91.7 69.2 49.0 833 Second 98.2 1,437 93.9 72.6 54.0 1,411 Middle 98.9 1,276 94.7 75.0 56.2 1,261 Fourth 98.8 1,451 96.8 81.8 65.2 1,433 Highest 97.8 1,831 96.9 80.8 65.4 1,791 Total 98.4 6,841 95.2 76.8 59.2 6,729 Adult Health | 101 Table 11.1.2 Knowledge and attitude concerning tuberculosis: men Percentage of men age 15-49 who have heard of tuberculosis (TB), and among men who have heard of TB, the percentage who know that TB is spread through the air by coughing, the percentage who believe that TB can be cured, and the percentage who would want to keep secret that a family member has TB, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Among all men Among men who have heard of TB: Background characteristic Percentage who have heard of TB Number of men Percentage who report that TB is spread through the air by coughing Percentage who believe that TB can be cured Percentage who would want a family member’s TB kept secret Number of men Age 15-19 94.9 444 91.6 69.0 64.1 421 20-24 98.6 459 92.8 76.9 61.8 453 25-29 99.0 436 92.2 78.1 63.6 432 30-34 97.8 479 94.9 75.2 59.5 468 35-39 99.4 449 94.0 73.6 53.3 446 40-44 98.7 399 94.4 73.1 60.7 394 45-49 100.0 512 95.1 67.4 58.8 512 Residence Urban 98.4 2,277 95.4 75.0 62.5 2,241 Rural 98.4 901 89.2 68.6 54.2 886 Region North 97.4 616 97.0 76.7 68.6 600 Central 97.9 354 91.6 75.8 50.2 347 East 98.3 1,060 97.1 68.8 66.5 1,043 South 99.8 493 92.8 76.4 68.5 492 West 98.5 654 86.5 73.3 41.0 645 Education Secondary or less 97.8 1,615 92.2 66.0 58.0 1,579 Higher 99.0 1,563 95.0 80.7 62.3 1,547 Wealth quintile Lowest 99.1 432 90.9 60.0 49.2 429 Second 98.7 651 89.4 72.0 56.6 642 Middle 98.2 622 94.0 73.4 56.6 611 Fourth 98.7 623 95.3 76.0 64.2 615 Highest 97.6 849 96.7 78.9 68.2 829 Total 98.4 3,178 93.6 73.2 60.2 3,126 Respondents were also asked if they know how tuberculosis spreads from one person to another. Tables 11.1.1 and 11.1.2 show that 95 percent of women and 94 percent of men who have heard of tuberculosis were able to correctly identify the mode of tuberculosis transmission (through the air when coughing). Among women, knowledge of the correct mode of transmission generally increases with age, education, and wealth status (quintile). Urban residents (96 percent) are somewhat more likely than rural residents (92 percent) to identify the correct mode of transmission. The percentage of women who know the correct mode of transmission varies by region, from 92 percent in the West region to 98 percent in the East region. Consistent with the pattern for women, higher proportions of older men, better educated men, and men living in the wealthiest households can identify the correct mode of transmission, compared with younger, poorer, and less educated men. More urban men (95 percent) than rural men (89 percent) said that tuberculosis is spread through the air by coughing. There is substantial regional variation regarding knowledge of the correct mode of transmission. Almost all men in the North and the East regions correctly reported that tuberculosis is spread by coughing (97 percent in each region), compared with only 87 percent of men in the West region. 11.1.2 Knowledge that Tuberculosis is Curable Respondents were also asked if they knew that tuberculosis can be cured. Tables 11.1.1 and 11.1.2 show that despite almost universal knowledge of TB, only 77 percent of women and 73 percent of men who have heard of tuberculosis know that it can be completely cured. 102 | Adult Health The percentage of women who know that tuberculosis can be cured increases with age up to the 35-39 age group. Women in their teens (66 percent) are the least likely to be aware that tuberculosis is curable. Urban residents (79 percent) are more likely than rural residents (70 percent) to know that TB is curable. Regional breakdowns show that knowledge that TB is curable is highest among women in the South and East regions (82 and 84 percent, respectively), and lowest in the West region (70 percent). Knowledge that TB can be cured increases with education and wealth status. Over 80 percent of women with university education and in the higher wealth quintiles reported that tuberculosis is curable, compared with about 70 percent of women with secondary or less education and in the lower wealth quintiles. Men are slightly less likely than women to know that tuberculosis is curable (73 percent). The proportion of men who know that tuberculosis can be cured is highest among those in their twenties, compared with other age groups. Male respondents in their teens (69 percent) and men in their late forties (67 percent) are the least likely to know that tuberculosis is curable. As with women, there are notable differences by residence, with more urban men (75 percent) than rural men (69 percent) reporting that tuberculosis is treatable. Men in the West region (73 percent) and in the East region (69 percent) are less likely to know that tuberculosis is curable than men in other regions (76-77 percent). As with women, more educated men and those in the higher wealth quintiles are more likely to know that tuberculosis is curable. 11.1.3 Willingness to Keep Secret a Family Member’s Tuberculosis Status Respondents were asked, if a member of their family got tuberculosis, whether they would want it to remain a secret. About 60 percent of women and men said they would want a family member’s tuberculosis status kept secret, indicating that tuberculosis is stigmatized by a substantial majority of the population. Women living in urban settings and better educated women are more likely than their counterparts to want to keep secret the fact that a relative has tuberculosis. The likelihood of stigma also increases with wealth status. There are notable variations by region. Women in the East region (70 percent) are particularly likely to want to keep a relative’s tuberculosis status secret. Women in the West region are less likely than other women to want to keep a family member’s tuberculosis status secret (48 percent). Similarly, stigma is less likely among rural men (54 percent) and even less pronounced among men in the West region, with 41 percent reporting that they would want to keep a family member’s tuberculosis status secret. As with women, more educated men and those in households in the higher wealth quintiles are more likely to say they would want to keep a family member’s tuberculosis status secret. 11.1.4 Knowledge about Tuberculosis Symptoms Respondents who had heard of tuberculosis were asked to name (unprompted) any signs or symptoms that would lead them to think that a person had tuberculosis. Tables 11.2.1 and 11.2.2 show the distribution of knowledge of the signs and symptoms of tuberculosis among women and men. Blood in the sputum (53 percent), persistent coughing (47 percent), and coughing with sputum production (44 percent) are the most frequently cited symptoms among women, together with pain in chest and fever, ranging from 39 to 42 percent, while nighttime sweating, loss of appetite, fatigue, and lethargy are the least mentioned symptoms. About one-third of women cited nonspecific coughing and weight loss. Adult Health | 103 Table 11.2.1 Knowledge of symptoms of tuberculosis: women Percentage of women age 15-49 who reported knowledge of specific symptoms of tuberculosis, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Symptoms of tuberculosis Background characteristic Non- specific coughing Coughing with sputum Coughing for several weeks Any coughing Fever Blood in sputum Loss of appetite Night sweating Pain in chest Tired- ness/ fatigue Weight loss Lethargy Other Don’t know Number Age 15-19 34.4 31.5 41.2 80.6 35.9 40.0 13.8 11.4 27.1 14.5 20.3 3.5 1.4 7.9 782 20-24 28.6 42.3 44.5 84.7 42.6 51.1 16.5 17.9 37.2 20.4 27.2 5.2 0.8 5.2 1,006 25-29 31.1 42.0 46.3 85.8 37.4 54.7 17.8 18.8 38.0 22.8 35.0 5.4 2.1 2.8 998 30-34 26.2 47.2 51.8 90.6 45.7 55.3 21.6 21.3 43.7 24.1 33.8 5.8 0.8 1.6 984 35-39 27.7 47.0 49.6 87.8 41.9 56.4 22.1 21.3 42.9 22.4 36.2 6.0 1.2 1.9 1,049 40-44 28.5 48.1 49.6 89.0 45.6 54.2 21.1 23.4 41.8 23.4 38.2 8.0 0.7 2.7 936 45-49 33.1 47.5 47.3 89.5 43.1 53.1 21.9 20.8 40.9 21.9 37.9 5.6 1.3 1.9 1,085 Residence Urban 27.2 45.3 47.6 86.5 42.4 56.8 19.1 19.8 40.3 22.2 34.1 5.6 1.2 2.8 4,887 Rural 36.5 40.9 46.8 88.4 40.5 41.8 20.2 18.9 36.3 19.9 30.6 6.0 1.2 4.4 1,954 Region North 22.9 30.9 36.4 75.4 28.6 44.1 11.9 14.8 30.8 16.7 22.8 2.7 0.9 3.0 1,345 Central 27.2 40.2 53.9 87.0 43.4 53.6 16.4 13.9 34.2 16.7 33.3 2.5 1.2 7.0 817 East 26.5 57.3 52.2 94.9 54.3 67.7 25.3 23.2 50.7 29.2 42.6 6.9 2.1 1.1 2,120 South 32.2 43.3 44.5 85.5 37.4 58.3 20.5 18.4 33.3 17.2 30.4 3.2 0.7 1.5 1,049 West 40.5 39.8 48.8 87.5 38.5 34.2 18.9 22.5 37.3 20.9 30.6 10.1 0.5 5.9 1,509 Education Secondary or less 31.8 38.6 46.5 86.5 40.8 45.7 17.0 15.4 36.5 17.9 30.2 4.0 1.2 4.7 2,729 Higher 28.6 47.7 48.0 87.4 42.6 57.0 21.0 22.3 41.0 24.0 35.0 6.8 1.2 2.4 4,112 Wealth quintile Lowest 35.8 40.7 42.8 87.5 38.1 41.4 18.9 15.7 35.4 20.7 30.0 2.8 1.5 4.4 847 Second 33.8 41.0 47.4 87.4 43.3 48.4 20.5 17.8 36.0 20.1 31.6 5.1 1.4 3.5 1,437 Middle 32.3 43.3 49.7 88.0 45.3 51.9 19.5 20.0 40.4 22.0 37.3 6.9 2.1 3.7 1,276 Fourth 27.6 47.7 49.7 88.6 42.0 54.7 19.0 22.1 41.5 19.3 30.5 8.0 1.0 2.7 1,451 Highest 24.1 45.7 46.0 84.7 40.0 59.5 19.2 20.3 40.8 24.6 34.8 4.9 0.4 2.7 1,831 Total 29.8 44.1 47.4 87.1 41.9 52.5 19.4 19.5 39.2 21.6 33.1 5.7 1.2 3.3 6,841 Table 11.2.2 Knowledge of symptoms of tuberculosis: men Percentage of men age 15-49 who reported knowledge of specific symptoms of tuberculosis, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Symptoms of tuberculosis Background characteristic Non- specific coughing Coughing with sputum Coughing for several weeks Any coughing Fever Blood in sputum Loss of appetite Night sweating Pain in chest Tired- ness/ fatigue Weight loss Lethargy Other Don’t know Number Age 15-19 34.9 36.1 40.8 80.3 23.4 40.9 12.0 7.8 24.5 9.6 15.8 2.1 0.6 4.9 444 20-24 32.3 42.2 53.6 90.6 22.8 53.8 11.3 10.7 31.8 13.8 24.9 1.3 0.6 3.2 459 25-29 29.6 40.5 52.8 85.0 21.2 57.6 14.3 10.0 29.5 13.3 26.2 1.8 0.4 5.9 436 30-34 30.5 44.5 47.5 83.4 23.1 55.3 12.1 12.0 32.9 15.3 28.6 3.7 1.0 4.4 479 35-39 28.7 41.7 55.4 88.5 21.5 58.1 13.6 10.2 30.3 10.7 27.0 3.7 0.8 3.1 449 40-44 32.0 46.2 52.3 88.0 27.1 56.4 13.3 12.4 31.8 14.6 26.6 2.8 0.9 2.6 399 45-49 32.4 41.0 52.9 86.9 26.8 59.1 13.7 9.9 30.5 13.3 27.7 3.9 0.5 4.4 512 Residence Urban 29.2 41.9 56.1 87.5 24.7 59.2 13.9 11.0 31.3 13.7 27.7 3.3 0.7 2.9 2,277 Rural 37.4 41.2 37.3 82.5 21.1 42.8 10.3 9.0 27.4 11.0 19.4 1.7 0.8 7.0 901 Region North 21.6 39.8 57.7 85.1 21.7 62.1 14.3 16.0 35.7 20.1 48.8 4.9 0.4 5.3 616 Central 46.6 46.5 42.2 84.4 18.5 39.6 9.4 6.2 17.2 6.9 15.2 1.0 2.5 10.2 354 East 25.5 42.3 62.9 90.3 28.7 62.0 16.6 8.2 36.3 12.0 22.3 1.7 0.3 0.9 1,060 South 36.8 37.0 44.0 87.5 21.6 59.0 11.8 11.0 18.8 12.8 25.3 4.0 0.4 3.7 493 West 38.4 43.4 34.2 80.0 21.9 40.1 8.0 10.7 30.7 11.0 13.7 2.7 1.0 5.1 654 Education Secondary or less 32.1 39.9 46.3 84.3 20.5 51.3 10.2 8.0 26.4 11.2 20.9 2.5 0.7 5.2 1,615 Higher 30.9 43.6 55.3 88.0 27.0 57.9 15.6 13.0 34.1 14.8 29.9 3.1 0.7 3.0 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 40.0 40.5 35.2 83.5 19.7 44.9 9.4 9.0 25.9 12.9 20.2 2.1 0.6 6.4 432 Second 36.3 41.2 39.2 83.3 19.6 47.4 9.6 8.8 25.5 10.4 20.2 1.3 1.0 5.7 651 Middle 31.4 40.0 52.0 86.1 23.4 50.8 10.3 7.8 28.3 13.4 22.3 2.3 1.0 4.7 622 Fourth 27.4 41.1 55.3 86.1 26.3 61.9 15.6 10.4 27.8 11.7 27.8 3.6 0.6 1.9 623 Highest 26.6 44.4 63.3 89.5 27.1 62.3 17.0 14.5 39.2 15.5 32.3 4.1 0.3 2.8 849 Total 31.5 41.7 50.8 86.1 23.7 54.6 12.9 10.4 30.2 12.9 25.3 2.8 0.7 4.1 3,178 104 | Adult Health The percentage of women reporting coughing of any kind as a symptom of tuberculosis increases with age, from 81 percent in the lowest age group to 90 percent in the oldest age group. For coughing of any kind, there are almost no differences by education or urban-rural residence, but there are large differences by region. Any coughing is cited most frequently by women in the East region (95 percent) and cited least frequently by women in the North region (75 percent). It is notable that both coughing with sputum (which is a more specific symptom than nonspecific coughing) and blood in sputum are more likely to be cited by urban women, women in the East region, women with higher education and women in households in the higher wealth quintiles. As with women, the symptoms of tuberculosis most frequently cited by men are blood in sputum (55 percent), persistent coughing (51 percent), and coughing with sputum production (42 percent). About one-third of men also named nonspecific coughing and pain in chest. Fever and weight loss are cited by one-quarter of men. Nighttime sweating and lethargy are the symptoms least likely to be reported by men. The percentage of men who reported blood in sputum and coughing for several weeks as symptoms increases with education and wealth status, and is higher in urban than rural areas. The reporting of persistent coughing by men varies substantially by region, from 34 percent in the West region to 58 percent in the North region. 11.1.5 Misconceptions about the Way Tuberculosis Spreads Table 11.3 and Figure 11.1 show the percentage of women and men who have heard of tuberculosis by their knowledge of the way tuberculosis is contracted, including misconceptions about the how it spreads. While the majority of women and men are able to correctly identify that tuberculosis is spread through the air by coughing, misconceptions about tuberculosis transmission are widespread in the adult population. The most common misconception, reported by more than one- third of adults, is that tuberculosis spreads through sharing utensils (39 percent of men and 31 percent of women). The second most common misconception is that tuberculosis can be contracted through food (15 percent of men and 10 percent of women). Less than 10 percent of men believe that tuberculosis can be contracted through touching a person with tuberculosis. A small proportion of adults said that tuberculosis can be transmitted through sexual contact (6 percent of men and 4 percent of women). Ad ul t H ea lth | 1 05 T ab le 1 1. 3 M isc on ce pt io n ab ou t t ub er cu lo sis tr an sm iss io n A m on g w om en a nd m en w ho h av e he ar d of tu be rc ul os is (T B) , t he p er ce nt ag e w ho re po rt v ar io us w ay s tu be rc ul os is is sp re ad , a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, U kr ai ne 2 00 7 W om en M en B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic Th ro ug h th e ai r w he n co ug hi ng or s ne ez in g Th ro ug h sh ar in g ut en sil s Th ro ug h to uc hi ng a pe rs on w ith T B Th ro ug h fo od Th ro ug h se xu al co nt ac t Th ro ug h m os qu ito bi te s O th er D on ’t kn ow N um be r of w om en w ho he ar d of T B Th ro ug h th e ai r w he n co ug hi ng or s ne ez in g Th ro ug h sh ar in g ut en sil s Th ro ug h to uc hi ng a pe rs on w ith T B Th ro ug h fo od Th ro ug h se xu al co nt ac t Th ro ug h m os qu ito bi te s O th er D on ’t kn ow N um be r of m en w ho he ar d of TB A ge 15 -1 9 91 .7 27 .9 3. 3 8. 7 3. 3 0. 5 0. 6 5. 9 74 8 91 .6 31 .1 7. 5 17 .6 6. 0 1. 5 1. 0 3. 5 42 1 20 -2 4 95 .2 25 .2 2. 9 6. 9 3. 2 0. 6 0. 5 3. 4 98 7 92 .8 38 .4 9. 2 15 .6 4. 8 1. 7 0. 2 4. 4 45 3 25 -2 9 95 .9 30 .9 2. 7 10 .1 3. 3 1. 2 0. 2 2. 6 98 6 92 .2 40 .8 5. 9 14 .6 5. 1 1. 3 0. 2 4. 6 43 2 30 -3 4 95 .6 33 .1 4. 3 9. 1 4. 8 2. 1 0. 4 2. 5 97 3 94 .9 36 .6 12 .7 14 .9 6. 5 1. 5 0. 2 3. 1 46 8 35 -3 9 96 .8 32 .2 3. 3 9. 5 2. 5 0. 8 0. 3 1. 3 1, 03 3 94 .0 40 .9 9. 8 13 .7 6. 5 0. 6 0. 1 2. 6 44 6 40 -4 4 95 .3 33 .9 6. 1 12 .6 5. 2 0. 7 0. 2 2. 6 93 1 94 .4 40 .9 8. 7 20 .0 6. 2 0. 5 0. 4 1. 9 39 4 45 -4 9 94 .9 34 .3 3. 9 11 .9 4. 3 1. 0 0. 7 3. 3 1, 07 1 95 .1 43 .4 8. 6 11 .7 4. 6 0. 2 1. 0 2. 7 51 2 R es id en ce U rb an 96 .4 29 .0 3. 8 9. 5 3. 0 0. 8 0. 4 2. 2 4, 81 1 95 .4 40 .3 9. 7 15 .5 5. 7 1. 0 0. 5 2. 3 2, 24 1 Ru ra l 92 .2 36 .8 3. 7 10 .9 5. 8 1. 5 0. 4 5. 1 1, 91 9 89 .2 35 .5 7. 0 14 .6 5. 5 1. 1 0. 3 5. 7 88 6 R eg io n N or th 93 .7 31 .1 5. 6 2. 3 2. 5 0. 7 0. 0 3. 2 1, 30 0 97 .0 50 .4 14 .0 19 .7 2. 5 1. 7 0. 0 2. 2 60 0 C en tra l 93 .2 39 .2 2. 4 10 .7 2. 8 0. 7 0. 1 6. 2 81 4 91 .6 28 .0 6. 1 10 .6 6. 2 0. 4 0. 8 6. 3 34 7 Ea st 98 .3 26 .6 3. 1 15 .4 5. 4 0. 2 0. 9 0. 6 2, 10 7 97 .1 37 .1 9. 0 14 .5 6. 3 0. 3 0. 4 1. 8 1, 04 3 So ut h 96 .8 32 .4 6. 0 5. 8 2. 9 0. 6 0. 3 1. 5 1, 01 4 92 .8 38 .2 12 .8 9. 6 9. 8 2. 0 0. 6 3. 8 49 2 W es t 92 .1 32 .6 2. 4 11 .0 3. 9 2. 8 0. 3 5. 4 1, 49 5 86 .5 37 .9 2. 8 19 .3 4. 1 1. 1 0. 7 4. 5 64 5 E du ca tio n Se co nd ar y or le ss 93 .1 32 .9 4. 2 11 .1 4. 7 1. 2 0. 3 4. 7 2, 67 0 92 .2 35 .4 9. 8 14 .1 5. 4 1. 0 0. 7 4. 7 1, 57 9 H ig he r 96 .6 30 .1 3. 5 9. 1 3. 2 0. 9 0. 5 1. 9 4, 05 9 95 .0 42 .6 8. 1 16 .4 5. 9 1. 1 0. 2 1. 8 1, 54 7 W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 91 .7 39 .9 3. 0 11 .8 5. 6 1. 6 0. 3 5. 9 83 3 90 .9 33 .9 6. 2 11 .0 6. 6 1. 5 0. 2 6. 4 42 9 Se co nd 93 .9 34 .5 3. 8 9. 8 5. 4 0. 6 0. 7 3. 1 1, 41 1 89 .4 32 .1 6. 6 15 .5 6. 4 0. 6 0. 8 5. 4 64 2 M id dl e 94 .7 33 .4 5. 0 10 .3 3. 7 1. 2 0. 3 3. 6 1, 26 1 94 .0 30 .9 7. 8 12 .0 5. 3 0. 4 1. 1 3. 8 61 1 Fo ur th 96 .8 25 .4 3. 1 8. 1 1. 9 1. 0 0. 5 2. 1 1, 43 3 95 .3 46 .9 9. 2 19 .4 4. 8 1. 3 0. 3 0. 7 61 5 H ig he st 96 .9 27 .6 3. 9 10 .2 3. 3 0. 9 0. 3 1. 8 1, 79 1 96 .7 46 .9 12 .9 16 .6 5. 5 1. 5 0. 0 1. 5 82 9 T ot al 95 .2 31 .2 3. 8 9. 9 3. 8 1. 0 0. 4 3. 0 6, 72 9 93 .6 39 .0 9. 0 15 .3 5. 7 1. 0 0. 5 3. 3 3, 12 6 | 105Adult Health 106 | Adult Health Figure 11.1 Knowledge and misconceptions about how tuberculosis is transmitted 95 31 4 10 4 1 3 94 39 9 15 6 1 3 Through the air when coughing or sneezing Through sharing utensils Through touching a person with TB Through food Through sexual contact Through mosquito bites Don't know 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Percent Women Men UDHS 2007 11.1.6 Self-reporting of Tuberculosis Diagnosis and Treatment Less than 1 percent of both women and men reported that they had ever been diagnosed with tuberculosis by a health professional. Among respondents who reported that they had been diagnosed with tuberculosis, 48 percent were diagnosed more than five years preceding the survey; 72 percent of cases had been treated at some time and 59 percent of cases had been hospitalized (data not shown). 11.2 HIGH BLOOD PRESSURE Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in Ukraine, as in many countries throughout the world. The most recent data from the SSC indicate that in 2006 diseases of the circulatory system were the main causes of death in all age groups of the adult population. The mortality rate from cardiovascular diseases for males age 15-49 is higher than the rate for females in the same age group (118.8 deaths and 27.4 deaths per 100,000 population, respectively) (SSC, 2007b and unpublished statistics). One of the objectives of the 2007 UDHS is to provide population-based data on cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension and smoking) to complement data available from other sources. High blood pressure (hypertension) has been known to be a contributing factor to heart disease, stroke, and kidney disease. In the 2007 UDHS, blood pressure measurements were taken during the administration of the Women’s and Men’s Questionnaires. It should be noted that the blood pressure measurements taken in the survey are not intended to provide a medical diagnosis of the disease, and are regarded only as a statistical description of the survey population. Of the 6,841 women interviewed, blood pressure measurements were taken for 5,092 women (74 percent). Among the 3,178 men interviewed, measurements were taken for 2,362 men (74 percent). The survey interviewers were provided with a fully automatic, digital oscillometric blood pressure measuring device with automatic upper-arm inflation and automatic pressure release. Interviewers were trained in the use of this device according to the manufacturer’s recommended protocol. Three measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure (measured in millimeters of mercury, mmHg) were taken during the survey interview, with an interval of at least 10 minutes between measurements. The average of the second and third measurements was used to classify Adult Health | 107 individuals with respect to hypertension, following internationally recommended categories (WHO, 1999a). Individuals were classified as hypertensive if their systolic blood pressure exceeded 140 mmHg or if their diastolic blood pressure exceeded 90 mmHg. Elevated blood pressure was classified as mild, moderate, or severe according to the cut-off points recommended by the National Institutes of Health (1997). Blood pressure status Systolic (mmHg) Diastolic (mmHg) Optimal <120 <80 Normal 120-129 80-84 High normal 130-139 85-89 Level of hypertension Stage 1, mildly elevated 140-159 90-99 Stage 2, moderately elevated 160-179 100-109 Stage 3, severely elevated 180+ 110+ Following internationally recommended guidelines, individuals were considered hypertensive if they had a normal average blood pressure reading but were taking antihypertensive medication. Tables 11.4.1 and 11.4.2 show the prevalence rates of hypertension for survey respondents. Twenty-five percent of women age 15-49 are classified as hypertensive: 3 percent with hypertension controlled by medication (blood pressure <140/90), 15 percent with stage 1 hypertension (mildly elevated blood pressure), 5 percent with stage 2 hypertension (moderately elevated), and 3 percent with stage 3 hypertension (severely elevated). Thirty-two percent of men age 15-49 are classified as hypertensive: less than 1 percent with their hypertension controlled by medication, 22 percent with stage 1 hypertension, 7 percent with stage 2 hypertension, and nearly 3 percent with stage 3 hypertension (severely elevated). Compared with estimates from recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in other countries, the hypertensive rates among women and men age 15-49 in Ukraine (25 and 32 percent, respectively) are higher than those in Armenia in 2005 (22 percent for women and 27 percent for men) and in Azerbaijan in 2006 (16 and 17 percent, respectively), and markedly higher than in Uzbekistan in 2002 (8 and 7 percent, respectively). Epidemiological studies have shown that hypertension is positively associated with age, a finding confirmed by the data from the 2007 UDHS. Among women, hypertension levels increase from 3 percent at age 15-19 to 30 percent at age 35-39 and 41 percent at age 40-44. By age 45-49, more than half of women are hypertensive. The same pattern is observed for men. The prevalence of hypertension is eight times higher among men age 45-49 (57 percent) than among men age 15-19 (7 percent). Over half of men and women age 45 and older are suffering from some form of hypertension, indicating that hypertension is a serious health problem in Ukraine. It is most serious for men age 45-49, nearly six in ten of whom have high blood pressure. Hypertension is slightly higher among men who smoke than men who do not smoke (35 percent and 29 percent, respectively). Among women, the relationship between smoking and any hypertension is reversed because of the slightly higher proportion of mild forms of hypertension among women who are nonsmokers. Differentials in hypertension rates by urban-rural residence are negligible for men. However, the proportion of women with high blood pressure was slightly higher among rural women (27 percent) than urban women (23 percent). By region, the highest prevalence of hypertension is found in the West region: 30 percent for women and 40 percent for men. The next highest prevalence of hypertension was found in the Southern region for women (27 percent) and in the East region for men (38 percent). 108 | Adult Health Table 11.4.1 Levels of hypertension: women Prevalence of hypertension among women age 15-49 and percent distribution of women by blood pressure status, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Classification of blood pressure Background characteristic Prevalence of hyperten- sion1 Optimal <120/ <80 mmHg Normal 120-129/ 80-84 mmHg High normal 130-139/ 85-89 mmHg Mildly elevated (stage 1) 140-159/ 90-99 mmHg Moderately elevated (stage 2) 160-179/ 100-109 mmHg Severely elevated (stage 3) 180+/ 110+ mmHg Normal BP and taking medica- tions Total Number of women Age 15-19 2.9 71.1 20.4 5.6 2.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 100.0 585 20-24 8.5 57.6 25.3 8.6 6.2 0.5 0.4 1.4 100.0 725 25-29 11.7 44.7 31.5 12.2 7.0 2.3 0.6 1.8 100.0 707 30-34 17.6 36.4 30.8 15.1 11.0 3.3 1.1 2.2 100.0 739 35-39 30.1 25.4 26.4 18.1 18.9 6.4 2.5 2.2 100.0 799 40-44 40.8 20.7 19.9 18.6 21.3 7.2 5.7 6.6 100.0 725 45-49 51.5 12.9 16.3 19.3 30.9 9.9 5.8 5.0 100.0 811 Marital status Never married 7.5 60.8 23.0 8.7 6.1 0.6 0.6 0.2 100.0 1,130 Married or living together 27.4 31.4 25.1 16.1 15.6 5.0 2.9 3.9 100.0 3,090 Divorced/separated/ widowed 36.0 25.2 23.6 15.3 22.2 7.7 3.4 2.7 100.0 872 Working status Currently working 27.7 31.6 24.7 16.0 16.3 5.2 3.0 3.3 100.0 3,561 Worked in the past year 21.3 34.5 30.2 14.0 12.4 3.4 1.7 3.8 100.0 113 Not working 16.6 50.2 23.2 10.0 10.7 2.9 1.3 1.6 100.0 1,418 Smoking Yes 20.7 41.4 22.7 15.2 11.2 4.0 3.0 2.5 100.0 745 No 25.1 36.1 24.7 14.1 15.2 4.6 2.4 2.9 100.0 4,347 Residence Urban 23.0 37.7 24.6 14.7 13.3 4.4 2.6 2.7 100.0 3,408 Rural 27.4 35.2 23.9 13.5 17.3 4.7 2.2 3.2 100.0 1,684 Region North 24.6 36.8 24.3 14.4 13.0 5.4 2.7 3.4 100.0 794 Central 18.9 41.2 26.3 13.7 11.7 2.8 1.0 3.4 100.0 685 East 20.3 39.4 24.4 15.9 11.8 2.9 2.1 3.5 100.0 1,390 South 27.1 37.8 20.8 14.3 17.0 4.7 2.5 2.8 100.0 843 West 29.8 31.6 25.6 13.0 18.4 6.3 3.5 1.6 100.0 1,380 Education Secondary or less 25.3 38.1 22.8 13.9 15.8 4.4 2.3 2.8 100.0 2,123 Higher 23.9 36.0 25.5 14.6 13.8 4.5 2.6 3.0 100.0 2,969 Wealth quintile Lowest 26.0 37.6 22.3 14.1 16.2 4.6 2.1 3.0 100.0 718 Second 25.6 34.6 24.9 14.9 14.2 4.8 2.5 4.1 100.0 1,216 Middle 26.5 36.3 23.9 13.4 16.1 4.1 3.3 2.9 100.0 994 Fourth 22.2 37.9 25.2 14.7 13.1 4.8 2.3 1.9 100.0 1,006 Highest 22.7 38.3 24.8 14.3 14.1 4.2 2.2 2.2 100.0 1,157 Total 24.5 36.8 24.4 14.3 14.6 4.5 2.5 2.9 100.0 5,092 Note: These measurements should not be considered a medical diagnosis of disease, but only as a statistical description of the survey population. 1 Blood pressure �140/90 mmHg or currently taking antihypertensive medication Figure 11.2 shows the level of awareness and treatment status of hypertensive women and men. Half of hypertensive women reported that they are aware of their condition (51 percent). Only one in eight hypertensive women is being treated and has brought her blood pressure under control (12 percent); however, a large group of women are being treated but still have elevated blood pressure (34 percent). Six percent of hypertensive women are aware that they have elevated blood pressure but are not being treated, and 49 percent are unaware of their condition. Hypertensive men are much less aware of their condition than women. Less than one-quarter of hypertensive men (23 percent) are aware of their hypertensive status, compared with half of women. A handful of hypertensive men are being treated and have brought their blood pressure under control (3 percent); another 8 percent are being treated for hypertension but still have elevated blood pressure. Hypertensive men (12 percent) are more likely than hypertensive women (6 percent) to be aware that they have elevated blood pressure but are not being treated. Most significant is the finding that the majority of hypertensive men (77 percent) are unaware of their condition. Adult Health | 109 These findings are similar to those of the 2002 Uzbekistan Health Examination Survey and the 2006 Azerbaijan Demographic and Health Survey, which showed that men are less aware of their hypertensive status than women: 38 percent of women and 63 percent of men in Uzbekistan and 56 percent of women and 86 percent of men in Azerbaijan were not aware of their hypertensive status (AIC/MOH [Uzbekistan] et al., 2004 and SSC [Azerbaijan] and Macro International, 2008). By contrast, in Armenia, women and men with hypertension are equally likely to be unaware of their status (81 percent of men and 82 percent of women in Armenia were unaware of their hypertensive status) (NSS [Armenia] et al., 2006). Table 11.4.2 Levels of hypertension: men Prevalence of hypertension among men age 15-49 and percent distribution of men by blood pressure status, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Classification of blood pressure Background characteristic Prevalence of hyperten- sion1 Optimal <120/ <80 mmHg Normal 120-129/ 80-84 mmHg High normal 130-139/ 85-89 mmHg Mildly elevated (stage 1) 140-159/ 90-99 mmHg Moderately elevated (stage 2) 160-179/ 100-109 mmHg Severely elevated (stage 3) 180+/ 110+ mmHg Normal BP and taking medicati ons Total Number of men Age 15-19 6.7 40.4 40.5 12.3 4.7 0.9 0.2 0.8 100.0 341 20-24 12.4 22.7 48.0 16.9 9.6 1.5 1.1 0.2 100.0 369 25-29 25.1 7.5 42.6 24.9 16.3 5.8 2.5 0.6 100.0 313 30-34 34.6 11.3 29.9 24.2 22.8 7.4 3.6 0.8 100.0 350 35-39 42.4 5.8 25.7 26.1 30.1 10.0 1.4 0.9 100.0 334 40-44 46.2 5.1 21.2 27.6 31.6 8.0 5.3 1.2 100.0 293 45-49 57.4 4.0 12.8 25.9 37.6 14.0 4.4 1.4 100.0 362 Marital status Never married 17.5 28.6 39.3 14.6 10.8 4.7 1.5 0.6 100.0 802 Married or living together 38.3 7.0 27.8 26.8 27.0 7.3 3.0 1.0 100.0 1,292 Divorced/separated/ widowed 43.6 5.0 27.2 24.2 28.4 10.7 3.6 1.0 100.0 268 Working status Currently working 35.8 9.7 30.4 24.2 24.5 7.4 2.9 1.0 100.0 1,829 Worked in the past year 26.4 28.7 31.1 13.8 19.9 5.3 0.0 1.2 100.0 70 Not working 17.2 29.4 36.8 16.5 10.5 4.6 1.9 0.2 100.0 463 Smoking Yes 34.9 12.2 28.6 24.3 24.1 7.4 2.5 0.9 100.0 1,215 No 28.6 16.2 34.9 20.3 19.0 6.1 2.7 0.8 100.0 1,147 Residence Urban 32.0 14.5 31.5 22.0 21.9 6.6 2.5 1.0 100.0 1,641 Rural 31.6 13.3 32.0 23.1 21.0 7.3 2.8 0.6 100.0 721 Region North 21.3 15.2 44.8 18.7 14.0 4.7 1.9 0.7 100.0 363 Central 33.5 12.4 33.9 20.2 26.5 4.3 2.2 0.5 100.0 241 East 38.3 15.1 24.4 22.2 28.8 7.6 0.8 1.2 100.0 789 South 15.5 17.7 35.1 31.8 12.6 1.0 0.9 0.9 100.0 393 West 40.2 10.3 30.0 19.4 20.8 12.0 6.7 0.6 100.0 575 Education Secondary or less 33.0 16.0 29.9 21.1 23.5 6.9 1.8 0.8 100.0 1,232 Higher 30.6 12.0 33.6 23.7 19.6 6.7 3.5 0.9 100.0 1,131 Wealth quintile Lowest 35.3 12.2 32.2 20.4 24.2 8.3 1.8 0.9 100.0 335 Second 28.7 13.2 35.1 23.0 20.9 4.7 2.4 0.7 100.0 537 Middle 31.9 12.1 27.9 28.1 22.9 5.6 2.4 1.0 100.0 465 Fourth 37.3 14.3 28.9 19.5 22.4 9.0 4.2 1.7 100.0 465 Highest 28.3 17.7 33.4 20.6 19.2 7.0 2.0 0.1 100.0 561 Total 31.9 14.1 31.7 22.4 21.6 6.8 2.6 0.9 100.0 2,362 Note: These measurements should not be considered a medical diagnosis of disease, but only as a statistical description of the survey population. 1 Blood pressure �140/90 mmHg or currently taking antihypertensive medication 110 | Adult Health Figure 11.2 Awareness of hypertension and treatment status among hypertensive women and men age 15-49 49% 12% 34% 6% Unaware 77% Aware, treated, contro 3% Aware, treated, not co 8% Aware, not treated 12% UDHS 2007 Women Men Aware, treated, controlled 12% Aware, treated, not controlled 34% Aware, treated, not controlled 8%Aware, treated, controlled 3% Aware, not treated 12% Aware, not treated 6% Unaware 49% Unaware 77% 11.3 USE OF TOBACCO Smoking is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. It also causes lung and other forms of cancer, and contributes to the severity of pneumonia, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis. Smoking may also have an impact on individuals who are exposed to the smoke secondhand. For example, inhaling secondhand smoke may adversely affect children’s growth and cause childhood illness, especially respiratory diseases. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), over 40 percent of all deaths among men age 35-69 in Ukraine in the early 1990s were attributable to tobacco use (Harkin at al., 1997; Peto et al., 1994). Because smoking is an acquired behavior that is chosen by individuals, all morbidity and mortality caused by smoking is preventable. Traditionally, smoking in Ukraine was mostly prevalent among men. However, probably because of fashion prompted by aggressive marketing towards women and young people, the emancipation of women, and the relatively low price of cigarettes, access to tobacco products and their use has also been on the rise among women. 11.3.1 Smoking Cigarettes People in Ukraine use tobacco almost exclusively in the form of cigarettes. Results of the 2007 UDHS presented in Tables 11.5.1 and 11.5.2 show a substantial difference between women and men in the prevalence of smoking: 15 percent of women and 52 percent of men report that they currently smoke cigarettes. Smoking among women is more common in urban areas (18 percent) than rural areas (8 percent). For men, the residential difference in the prevalence of smoking is reversed: 51 percent in urban areas and 54 percent in rural areas. The likelihood of smoking increases with age. Only 11 percent of women smoke in their teens, however the proportion doubles among women in their early twenties. Women in the age group 20-34 are the most likely to smoke. The pattern is similar for men: nearly one-quarter of men smoke in their teens and half are smoking in their twenties. Among men age 45-49, 63 percent report that they are smokers. Among women, there is a little difference in the prevalence of smoking by education, however among men, those with secondary or less education (58 percent) are more likely to smoke than those with higher education (45 percent). Adult Health | 111 The prevalence of women smokers is the highest in the East region (22 percent) and lowest in the West region (9 percent). For men, the prevalence of smoking is highest in the South and Central regions (63 and 58 percent, respectively) and lowest in the North and the West regions (44 and 46 percent, respectively). Overall, the proportion of women who are current cigarette smokers decreased slightly in Ukraine from 19 percent in the 1999 Ukraine Reproductive and Health Survey to 15 percent in the 2007 UDHS. The largest decrease in smoking was among women under age 30, with a sharp decline in proportion of teenage girls (age 15-19) smoking: from 19 percent in 1999 to 11 percent in 2007). Compared with estimates from recent Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in other countries, the level of cigarette smoking among men in Ukraine is about the same as that for men in Azerbaijan in 2006 (49 percent) and Moldova in 2005 (51 percent). At the same time, it is lower than that for men in Armenia in 2005 (61 percent) and higher than the rate for men in Uzbekistan in 2002 (21 percent for men age 15-59). Cigarette smoking among women in Ukraine (15 percent) is the highest in the region; the prevalence of smoking among women in Moldova is 7 percent, and it is 2 percent among women in Armenia (SSC [Azerbaijan] and Macro International Inc., 2008; NCPM [Moldova] and ORC Macro, 2006; NSS [Armenia] et al., 2006; AIC/MOH [Uzbekistan] et al., 2004). Table 11.5.1 Use of tobacco: women Percentage of women age 15-49 who smoke cigarettes or a pipe or use other tobacco products and the percent distribution of cigarette smokers by number of cigarettes smoked in preceding 24 hours, according to background characteristics and maternity status, Ukraine 2007 Uses tobacco Number of cigarettes in past 24 hours Background characteristic Cigarettes Pipe Other tobacco Does not use tobacco Number of women 0 1-2 3-5 6-9 10+ Don’t know/ missing Total Number of cigarette smokers Age 15-19 10.6 0.0 2.9 89.1 782 4.7 12.4 39.1 19.1 24.7 0.0 100.0 83 20-24 21.7 0.3 7.1 77.4 1,006 2.4 9.4 29.1 25.2 33.4 0.6 100.0 218 25-29 16.5 0.5 3.4 83.3 998 0.3 10.5 26.7 20.6 41.9 0.0 100.0 165 30-34 17.9 0.0 2.0 82.1 984 2.9 7.0 25.2 19.1 45.7 0.0 100.0 176 35-39 15.5 0.0 2.6 84.5 1,049 2.3 8.4 26.9 18.6 43.7 0.0 100.0 163 40-44 13.6 0.0 1.9 86.2 936 5.7 2.9 25.9 18.8 46.8 0.0 100.0 128 45-49 8.1 0.0 1.0 91.9 1,085 0.0 3.1 26.2 11.4 59.2 0.0 100.0 88 Maternity status Pregnant 3.9 0.0 0.0 96.1 191 * * * * * * 100.0 8 Breastfeeding (not pregnant) 5.3 0.0 2.0 93.8 171 * * * * * * 100.0 9 Neither 15.5 0.1 3.1 84.3 6,479 2.4 7.7 27.3 20.1 42.3 0.1 100.0 1,004 Residence Urban 17.7 0.2 3.8 82.0 4,887 2.4 7.9 26.7 20.2 42.7 0.1 100.0 866 Rural 7.9 0.0 1.0 92.0 1,954 3.0 8.0 34.6 17.9 36.5 0.0 100.0 154 Region North 12.9 0.0 2.7 86.8 1,345 0.9 9.4 24.8 22.4 41.6 0.7 100.0 174 Central 11.2 0.0 1.4 88.8 817 1.2 5.7 33.0 15.5 44.6 0.0 100.0 91 East 22.1 0.3 5.7 77.5 2,120 3.5 8.6 26.8 18.0 43.2 0.0 100.0 468 South 14.8 0.1 2.2 85.2 1,049 2.0 5.2 28.0 17.7 47.2 0.0 100.0 155 West 8.8 0.0 0.8 91.2 1,509 2.7 8.3 32.0 28.6 28.4 0.0 100.0 133 Education Secondary or less 15.5 0.1 2.4 84.4 2,729 1.5 7.9 30.2 22.7 37.7 0.0 100.0 423 Higher than secondary 14.5 0.1 3.3 85.1 4,112 3.3 7.9 26.2 17.9 44.6 0.2 100.0 598 Wealth quintile Lowest 10.1 0.0 1.3 89.9 847 2.0 3.8 30.2 16.0 47.9 0.0 100.0 86 Second 8.7 0.0 1.2 91.0 1,437 3.4 6.4 32.4 14.5 43.4 0.0 100.0 124 Middle 17.0 0.0 3.0 82.9 1,276 0.0 8.6 26.9 16.2 48.3 0.0 100.0 217 Fourth 16.9 0.3 4.0 82.8 1,451 4.4 7.3 27.7 24.2 36.4 0.0 100.0 245 Highest 19.0 0.1 4.3 80.7 1,831 2.5 9.4 26.4 22.0 39.3 0.4 100.0 348 Total 14.9 0.1 3.0 84.9 6,841 2.5 7.9 27.9 19.9 41.7 0.1 100.0 1,021 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 112 | Adult Health Table 11.5.2 Use of tobacco: men Percentage of men age 15-49 who smoke cigarettes or a pipe or use other tobacco products and the percent distribution of cigarette smokers by number of cigarettes smoked in preceding 24 hours, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Uses tobacco Number of cigarettes in past 24 hours Background characteristic Cigarettes Pipe Other tobacco Does not use tobacco Number of men 0 1-2 3-5 6-9 10+ Don’t know/ missing Total Number of cigarette smokers Age 15-19 22.9 0.1 0.9 77.1 444 0.0 7.0 21.1 15.3 55.1 1.6 100.0 102 20-24 48.6 0.5 5.1 51.0 459 0.0 1.2 5.1 4.3 89.3 0.0 100.0 223 25-29 49.8 0.0 5.7 49.5 436 0.0 0.0 3.4 5.8 90.7 0.1 100.0 217 30-34 59.7 0.5 4.1 40.3 479 0.3 0.7 4.4 5.2 87.8 1.7 100.0 286 35-39 60.3 1.3 4.9 39.7 449 0.0 0.9 2.8 2.3 92.5 1.4 100.0 271 40-44 54.2 1.0 6.3 45.3 399 0.0 0.3 3.0 2.5 94.1 0.2 100.0 216 45-49 63.3 0.7 3.0 36.7 512 0.0 0.5 1.8 3.1 94.4 0.2 100.0 324 Residence Urban 50.8 0.7 4.3 49.0 2,277 0.1 0.8 4.7 4.1 89.9 0.5 100.0 1,156 Rural 53.7 0.4 4.1 46.3 901 0.0 1.5 3.8 5.5 87.9 1.2 100.0 483 Region North 43.9 0.5 3.0 55.9 616 0.3 0.7 4.2 5.1 87.9 1.7 100.0 271 Central 57.9 0.2 4.9 41.8 354 0.0 0.3 2.3 4.3 93.1 0.0 100.0 205 East 52.0 0.4 4.6 47.7 1,060 0.0 0.4 4.5 3.8 90.7 0.6 100.0 552 South 63.1 1.4 5.3 36.8 493 0.0 2.0 7.7 4.5 85.5 0.4 100.0 311 West 46.0 0.5 3.6 53.8 654 0.0 1.9 2.6 5.5 89.2 0.8 100.0 301 Education Secondary or less 57.9 0.6 4.3 42.0 1,615 0.1 1.1 4.5 5.0 88.2 1.2 100.0 935 Higher than secondary 45.1 0.6 4.1 54.6 1,563 0.0 0.9 4.4 3.9 90.7 0.1 100.0 704 Wealth quintile Lowest 61.4 0.3 4.7 38.1 432 0.0 1.3 2.7 6.7 88.1 1.2 100.0 266 Second 53.5 0.9 2.9 46.5 651 0.2 1.2 4.5 3.2 90.9 0.0 100.0 348 Middle 55.3 0.5 3.3 44.6 622 0.0 0.8 3.1 5.6 89.4 1.0 100.0 344 Fourth 51.3 0.5 4.7 48.6 623 0.0 0.5 5.0 3.8 89.6 1.1 100.0 319 Highest 42.6 0.6 5.3 57.0 849 0.0 1.3 6.2 3.8 88.2 0.4 100.0 362 Total 51.6 0.6 4.2 48.2 3,178 0.0 1.0 4.4 4.5 89.3 0.7 100.0 1,639 11.3.2 Age at First Smoking The age when smoking begins has a major effect on health because individu- als who start smoking early have, on av- erage, a longer period of exposure to the hazardous products of nicotine breakdown through inhalation. Information on the age at initiation of cigarette smoking was ob- tained by asking respondents the exact age at which they started smoking cigarettes. Table 11.6 shows the percentage of women and men who started smoking by specific ages, according to current age. Smoking starts relatively early in Ukraine, and younger women are more likely to smoke than older women. The percentage who have never smoked is highest among women in their forties (81 percent) and lowest among women age 20- 24 (62 percent). It should be noted that women are starting to smoke at an earlier age: among women age 20-24, almost one-quarter started smoking by age 18, a proportion that increases to 34 percent by age 20. In contrast, among women age 45-49, only 10 percent started smoking by age 18 and 14 percent by age 20, indicating that the Table 11.6 Age at first smoking Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who first smoked cigarettes by specific exact ages, according to current age, Ukraine 2007 Percentage smoked by exact age Current age 15 18 20 25 Percentage never smoked Number WOMEN 15-19 5.0 na na na 79.9 782 20-24 3.1 24.0 34.1 na 61.8 1,006 25-29 1.4 17.2 26.8 33.1 65.2 998 30-34 2.5 17.9 26.2 30.6 66.8 984 35-39 1.4 12.9 20.3 27.4 70.8 1,049 40-44 0.9 11.2 19.9 24.7 71.8 936 45-49 1.1 9.7 14.3 16.5 81.2 1,085 MEN 15-19 16.3 na na na 60.2 444 20-24 8.7 46.1 56.2 na 38.9 459 25-29 12.4 46.4 59.9 65.4 32.5 436 30-34 13.6 50.7 67.1 72.7 25.0 479 35-39 9.6 51.0 66.0 72.0 24.0 449 40-44 7.2 46.0 63.8 69.9 25.9 399 45-49 12.8 51.5 66.2 74.4 20.0 512 na = Not applicable due to censoring Adult Health | 113 number of women who started smoking by age 18 and by age 20 has more than doubled over the past two decades. Table 11.6 shows that smoking is more prevalent among men than among women, and men start smoking earlier than women. However, in recent years, smoking has increased more rapidly among young women than among young men. Unlike women, differences in smoking patterns among men are small; about half of men of any age starting smoking by age 18. 11.3.3 Attitudes About Smoking In the 2007 UDHS, all current smokers were asked if they smoke inside the home. In addition, all respondents were asked if they live with someone smoking inside their home, and if they think that smoking should be banned from the work place and from public places. Table 11.7 shows that at the national level, only 6 percent of women smoke inside their house, but more than one-quarter are living with someone who smokes inside the home. Women in their late forties and teenagers are the least likely to smoke inside the home (3 percent or less), compared with 5-9 percent in other age groups. Smoking inside the home is more prevalent among urban women (7 percent) than rural women (2 percent). Regional variation is not pronounced, with about 3 to 4 percent of women smoking inside the home in all regions, except the East region. The proportion of women living in the East region who smoke inside home is unusually high (12 percent), more than twice the proportion at the national level. Although there is no difference by education, there is a slight increase in women smoking in the home with increasing wealth status. The percentage of men who smoke inside the home (18 percent) is more than three times that of women. However, the proportion of men who live with someone who smokes (13 percent) is half that of women (26 percent). Older men are more likely to smoke in the home; for example, twice as many men age 45-49 smoke inside the home (29 percent), compared with men age 20-24 (16 percent). Although urban-rural differences in smoking inside the home are negligible among men, there are marked regional variations. Men in the South and East regions (25 and 23 percent, respectively) tend to smoke inside the home in greater proportions than men in the other regions (14 percent or less). Unlike women, less educated men and men from the poorest households are more likely to smoke inside the home. Current smoking status is by far the most important factor associated with the likelihood of smoking inside the home, for both women and men. Among current smokers, about equal proportions of women (38 percent) and men (35 percent) smoke inside the home. However, women who smoke are more exposed to second-hand smoke in the home than men who smoke; e.g., four in ten women smokers live with someone who smokes inside the home, compared with two in ten male smokers and two in ten nonsmoking women. A large majority of women think that smoking should be banned at work (84 percent) and in public places (78 percent). Markedly fewer men agree with banning smoking at work (58 percent) and in public places (56 percent). The proportions of women and men who agree with banning smoking in any place are markedly lower among current smokers compared with nonsmokers. For example, only 57 percent of women who currently smoke agree that there should be a ban on smoking in the workplace, compared with 89 percent of nonsmoking women. Similarly, only 40 percent of men who currently smoke agree with a ban on smoking in the workplace, compared with 77 percent of nonsmoking men. Apart from smoking status there is little variation in women’s attitudes about banning smoking at work and in public places by background characteristics. More women from the Central region agree that smoking should be banned in the workplace. Women with university education and those in households in the lowest wealth quintiles are slightly more likely than other women to agree with banning smoking at work and in public places. 114 | Adult Health Among men, younger respondents, urban residents, men with higher education, and those living in the wealthiest households are more likely to agree on banning smoking at work, while rural men are more likely to agree with banning smoking from public places. Men in the South region are the least likely to agree with banning smoking in the workplace and in public places. Table 11.7 Smoking inside home and attitudes about smoking at work and in public places Among all women and men age 15-49, percentage who smoke inside home, percentage who live with someone smoking inside the home, percentage who think that smoking should be banned from the work place and percentage who think that smoking should be banned from public places, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Women: Percentage who: Men: Percentage who: Background characteristic Smoke inside home Living with someone smoking inside home Think that smoking should be banned from work place Think that smoking should be banned from public places Number Smoke inside home Living with someone smoking inside home Think that smoking should be banned from work place Think that smoking should be banned from public places Number Smoking Yes 37.6 40.5 56.9 41.9 1,036 34.8 17.7 39.9 42.6 1,646 No 0.0 23.7 89.1 84.3 5,805 0.0 8.6 76.7 69.9 1,532 Age 15-19 1.9 30.1 87.9 78.9 782 2.6 18.8 68.5 65.7 444 20-24 7.3 26.7 80.5 72.0 1,006 15.5 19.6 61.0 52.7 459 25-29 5.4 21.6 83.1 76.7 998 16.1 13.3 57.4 52.1 436 30-34 8.9 24.8 82.7 77.6 984 22.9 13.0 55.0 58.3 479 35-39 7.1 26.0 84.1 79.6 1,049 20.4 8.9 54.8 53.5 449 40-44 5.7 27.8 84.8 77.9 936 18.3 10.0 55.8 55.6 399 45-49 2.9 27.5 87.2 82.2 1,085 28.6 9.7 51.7 52.5 512 Residence Urban 7.2 24.8 84.0 77.1 4,887 18.7 13.1 59.2 53.6 2,277 Rural 2.0 29.7 84.8 79.7 1,954 16.5 13.9 53.6 61.0 901 Region North 3.4 19.1 87.0 86.8 1,345 11.3 9.9 64.3 58.3 616 Central 1.8 20.3 91.1 78.2 817 12.3 8.9 57.0 68.0 354 East 11.8 30.5 82.0 72.0 2,120 23.1 16.1 60.0 50.6 1,060 South 3.7 22.6 83.0 82.9 1,049 24.9 14.1 36.4 42.8 493 West 2.7 32.4 82.1 74.5 1,509 14.1 13.8 63.9 64.6 654 Education Secondary or less 5.9 31.1 81.9 74.9 2,729 21.8 15.9 52.2 54.3 1,615 Higher 5.5 23.0 85.8 79.8 4,112 14.1 10.6 63.3 57.2 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 4.2 33.2 85.8 80.7 847 24.9 17.1 52.0 55.1 432 Second 2.3 29.5 86.5 81.8 1,437 16.1 15.0 53.3 59.7 651 Middle 6.9 29.4 83.0 75.2 1,276 19.3 15.0 57.7 64.4 622 Fourth 6.1 20.4 83.6 77.4 1,451 17.0 11.2 57.9 52.0 623 Highest 7.9 22.9 83.1 75.6 1,831 15.8 10.5 63.5 49.4 849 Total 5.7 26.2 84.2 77.9 6,841 18.0 13.3 57.6 55.7 3,178 11.4 ALCOHOL CONSUMPTION Alcohol abuse is a serious problem in many countries in Europe. This region registers the highest alcohol consumption in the world. Alcohol consumption is considered to be the third highest risk factor for death and disability. Potential consequences of alcohol abuse include increased risk of accidents, cirrhosis, hypertension, psychological illnesses, and congenital malformations. Moreover, alcohol consumption aggravates the risk of family problems as well as other social and employment issues such as alcohol addiction, accidents, criminal behavior, inadvertent injuries, violence, homicide and suicide, road traffic problems, etc. In particular, damages brought about by alcohol abuse rank the highest in the eastern European region, accounting for the increased rate of cardiovascular diseases and shortened life expectancy. In these societies, the total cost related to alcohol abuse is estimated to be 1-3 percent of the gross national product (WHO/ROE, 2001). In the 2007 UDHS, respondents were asked a series of questions related to alcohol consumption: if they ever drank alcohol, age at first alcoholic drink, and how many alcoholic beverages they had consumed during the past month on the days when they had consumed alcohol. A Adult Health | 115 bottle or a can of beer (330-500 ml), a glass of wine (50-200 ml), and a shot of liqueur, vodka, or whiskey (50 ml) are considered standard beverages or standard drinks. 11.4.1 Use of Alcohol Table 11.8.1 shows that 62 percent of women consumed at least one alcoholic beverage in the month preceding the survey. Alcohol consumption varies by age and region. The consumption increases from 45 percent in the age group 15-19 to 70 percent in the age group 40-44. The highest consumption is found in the East region (69 percent) and in the Central region (67 percent); urban- rural difference is minimal. In general, women who do drink do not consume alcohol frequently; 38 percent of women consume alcohol less than once a month, 9 percent consume alcohol 1-2 times per week, and less than 2 percent drink alcohol daily or almost daily. Women age 20-24 and those in the East region are the most likely to report consumption of alcohol once or twice a week (12 and 14 percent, respectively). The proportion of men who consume alcohol is higher than the proportion of women, and men who drink also tend to drink more frequently than women (Table 11.8.2). Seventy-seven percent of men had an alcoholic drink in the month preceding the survey. Alcohol consumption among men increases rapidly from 51 percent in the age group 15-19 to 77 percent in the age group 20-24, and 83 percent in the age group 25-29, then stabilizes with little variation (82-84 percent) through age 49. Among men who had at least one drink in the past month there is little difference in alcohol consumption by education or by urban-rural residence; however, the highest consumption of alcohol is in the East region (90 percent). Men consume alcohol more often than women: 23 percent of men consume alcohol less than once a month, 29 percent consume alcohol 1-2 times per week, and 6 percent drink alcohol daily or almost daily. Alcohol consumption once or twice a week increases rapidly between age group 15-19 (17 percent) and age group 20-24 (27 percent), then levels off at about 31-34 percent across older age groups. Alcohol consumption at least once a week is about the same in urban and rural areas (about 30 percent), but it is relatively high in the East region (37 percent). Men in the South and the North regions are the least likely to drink once or twice a week (20 and 21 percent, respectively). Alcohol consumption—measured as the proportion consuming at least one alcoholic drink in the past month—among men in Ukraine (77 percent) is about the same as that for men in Moldova (80 percent); however, men in Ukraine have an alcohol consumption rate twice that of men in Azerbaijan (39 percent) (NCPM [Moldova] and ORC Macro, 2006; SSC [Azerbaijan] and Macro International, 2008). 116 | Adult Health Table 11.8.1 Use of alcohol: women Percentage of women age 15-49 who have had at least one alcoholic drink in the month preceding the survey and frequencies of drinking, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Frequency of drinking Background characteristic Has had at least one drink in the past month Every day Almost every day 1-2 times per week 2-3 times per month Once a month Less than once a month Missing Number of women Age 15-19 45.4 0.1 0.2 5.1 12.8 27.2 54.4 0.1 782 20-24 58.2 0.0 2.1 11.6 16.1 28.2 41.6 0.4 1,006 25-29 62.0 0.1 0.5 10.0 20.0 30.4 38.0 1.0 998 30-34 63.7 0.1 1.5 9.4 21.5 31.0 36.1 0.5 984 35-39 67.3 0.5 2.1 8.2 21.9 34.2 32.5 0.6 1,049 40-44 70.1 0.4 1.8 7.8 23.3 36.5 29.9 0.3 936 45-49 66.1 0.0 0.6 8.1 19.9 37.1 33.9 0.4 1,085 Residence Urban 63.0 0.2 1.4 9.5 18.8 32.6 37.0 0.5 4,887 Rural 60.9 0.2 1.0 6.6 21.4 31.5 38.9 0.3 1,954 Region North 55.1 0.1 0.2 5.1 21.1 27.9 44.9 0.6 1,345 Central 67.2 0.0 0.1 7.1 23.4 36.4 32.8 0.2 817 East 68.7 0.4 3.2 13.8 15.4 35.5 31.1 0.6 2,120 South 56.1 0.2 0.6 8.7 20.5 25.7 43.8 0.5 1,049 West 61.7 0.1 0.7 5.8 21.1 33.9 38.1 0.4 1,509 Education Secondary or less 60.0 0.1 1.2 8.9 18.6 30.7 39.9 0.5 2,729 Higher 64.0 0.2 1.3 8.6 20.2 33.3 36.0 0.5 4,112 Wealth quintile Lowest 60.9 0.3 1.0 6.0 20.1 33.1 38.8 0.5 847 Second 63.2 0.2 1.1 7.4 20.0 34.1 36.8 0.5 1,437 Middle 65.9 0.1 1.6 9.2 21.8 32.9 34.1 0.3 1,276 Fourth 61.1 0.1 1.1 10.8 18.4 30.6 38.6 0.4 1,451 Highest 60.9 0.3 1.4 9.1 18.2 31.3 39.1 0.7 1,831 Total 62.4 0.2 1.3 8.7 19.5 32.3 37.5 0.5 6,841 Note: A bottle or a can of beer (330-500 ml), a glass of wine (50-200 ml), a glass of liqueur, vodka or whiskey (50 ml) were considered standard beverages equal to one alcoholic drink. Table 11.8.2 Use of alcohol: men Percentage of men age 15-49 who have had at least one alcoholic drink in the month preceding the survey and frequencies of drinking, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Frequency of drinking Background characteristic Has had at least one drink in the past month Every day Almost every day 1-2 times per week 2-3 times per month Once a month Less than once a month Missing Number of men Age 15-19 50.5 0.7 1.6 17.1 17.1 13.8 49.5 0.2 444 20-24 77.0 2.5 4.0 26.6 33.4 10.6 23.0 0.0 459 25-29 82.5 2.8 4.7 32.2 32.4 9.5 17.5 0.8 436 30-34 82.4 2.0 5.2 31.4 31.2 12.4 17.6 0.2 479 35-39 82.1 1.3 4.7 32.8 34.3 9.0 17.9 0.0 449 40-44 81.7 1.2 6.7 33.9 27.7 12.2 18.3 0.0 399 45-49 84.3 0.8 6.5 31.8 34.1 10.5 15.7 0.5 512 Residence Urban 78.0 1.8 4.9 29.7 30.7 10.5 22.0 0.3 2,277 Rural 75.7 1.0 4.4 28.6 28.8 12.7 24.3 0.1 901 Region North 71.2 0.6 2.5 21.2 37.2 9.5 28.8 0.1 616 Central 69.5 0.7 2.5 33.3 23.0 9.6 30.5 0.3 354 East 89.7 2.9 7.9 36.6 34.1 7.8 10.3 0.3 1,060 South 72.7 2.3 5.1 20.3 24.7 19.8 27.3 0.4 493 West 70.9 0.3 2.8 30.1 25.3 12.4 29.1 0.0 654 Education Secondary or less 76.4 1.2 6.3 31.1 26.5 11.0 23.6 0.4 1,615 Higher 78.4 2.1 3.3 27.6 34.0 11.3 21.6 0.1 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 81.5 1.4 7.3 32.4 26.2 14.1 18.5 0.0 432 Second 76.6 1.7 4.5 28.9 29.0 12.2 23.4 0.2 651 Middle 76.3 1.1 3.6 27.9 32.5 11.1 23.7 0.1 622 Fourth 76.1 2.1 4.8 30.2 31.2 7.8 23.9 0.0 623 Highest 77.5 1.6 4.6 28.8 30.6 11.3 22.5 0.7 849 Total 77.3 1.6 4.8 29.4 30.2 11.1 22.7 0.3 3,178 Note: A bottle or a can of beer (330-500 ml), a glass of wine (50-200 ml), a glass of liqueur, vodka or whiskey (50 ml) were considered standard beverages equal to one alcoholic drink. Adult Health | 117 11.4.2 Age at First Alcoholic Drink Information on age at first alcoholic drink was obtained by asking respondents the exact age at which they started to consume alcohol. Table 11.9 shows the percentage of women and men who have started drinking by specific ages, according to current age. Alcohol consumption starts relatively early in Ukraine, although almost 40 percent of women and men under age 20 have never drunk alcohol. However, there is a notable trend among women to start drinking at younger ages: 50 percent of women age 20-24 started alcohol consumption by age 18 and 74 percent had begun by age 20. In contrast, only about one-third of women in their late thirties and forties started drinking by age 18 and two-thirds by age 20, indicating that the number of women who started using alcohol by age 18 increased in recent years. Table 11.9 shows that alcohol consumption is more prevalent among men than among women, and that men start drinking earlier than women. Only 3 percent of men in their late forties have never drunk alcohol, compared with 12 percent of men age 20-24. Unlike women, there is little variation over time in the age at which men have their first alcoholic drink: more than half of the men in every age category starting alcohol consumption by age 18. Use of alcohol by age 20 increases to about 80 percent and remains steady among men in all age groups. The findings indicate that the introduction of alcohol to young women in recent years has been increasing compared with young men. Table 11.9 Age at first alcoholic drink Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who had their first alcoholic drink by specific exact ages, according to current age, Ukraine 2007 Percentage drank by exact age Current age 15 18 20 25 Percentage who never drank alcohol Number WOMEN 15-19 10.3 na na na 38.9 782 20-24 2.6 49.7 73.7 na 18.3 1,006 25-29 2.1 45.7 71.3 81.2 13.1 998 30-34 2.2 42.6 71.1 81.8 12.9 984 35-39 1.6 37.3 68.1 81.8 11.1 1,049 40-44 1.3 36.3 67.1 83.0 9.4 936 45-49 2.0 34.5 64.8 81.1 9.3 1,085 MEN 15-19 17.1 na na na 35.7 444 20-24 5.4 59.2 80.6 na 11.7 459 25-29 7.7 58.2 77.0 86.9 7.0 436 30-34 8.3 57.1 79.0 90.3 5.4 479 35-39 4.3 57.4 78.7 88.5 6.4 449 40-44 6.2 54.0 77.6 92.6 3.3 399 45-49 7.5 58.7 80.7 90.4 3.3 512 na = Not applicable due to censoring 11.5 ILLICIT DRUG USE Drug use is reported to have increased in Ukraine, particularly among young people. Drug use among prisoners is a special concern of the Ministry of the Interior of Ukraine. The prevalence of registered drug users is relatively low, but sporadic use is high. For example, according to World Health Organization data on Ukraine, in the early to mid-1990s 20 percent of registered users used cannabis and 95 percent used it occasionally. Only 5 percent of registered drug users used ephedron daily and 45 percent used it occasionally. Stimulants such as amphetamines were used by 5 percent and cocaine was used by 1 percent of registered users. Opiate and opiate derivates such as homemade dimethylmorphine (dimitrol) are the most widely used drug in Ukraine, especially among young people, although the WHO report suggests that most reported drug users are polydrug users (Harkin et al., 1997). 118 | Adult Health In the 2007 UDHS, all respondents were asked if they had ever tried narcotics or recreational drugs. They were also asked about the way the drugs were taken the last time they used narcotics or recreational drugs. Questions about the specific substances used were not asked. Use of narcotics is illegal in Ukraine and drug use by respondents may have been underreported despite reassurances of confidentiality. Experimentation with narcotics is more prevalent among men; 10 percent of men reported ever use of drugs compared with 1 percent of women (Table 11.10). Smoking is a predominant method of drug use, reported by 9 percent of men and 1 percent of women. Less than 1 percent of men reported injecting drugs intravenously the last time they used narcotics (data not shown). The small number of reported cases of drug use collected by the UDHS prevents detailed analysis. Further research on drug use, using a different methodology—e.g., qualitative research—or a different sampling strategy—targeting specific populations by age or sex, or other demographic and social subgroups of population, and oversampling specific regions—might be a better vehicle to obtain data. The data are necessary for programmatic use by policymakers to develop effective preventive measures and a workable strategy to control the documented increase in drug abuse and drug trafficking in Ukraine. Table 11.10 Ever use of narcotics Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who ever used drugs, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Women Men Background characteristic Ever used narcotics Number of women Ever used narcotics Number of men Age 15-19 1.4 830 7.2 444 20-24 2.9 977 16.9 459 25-29 2.3 953 13.6 436 30-34 1.5 1,002 12.4 479 35-39 0.9 1,051 9.8 449 40-44 0.7 946 6.0 399 45-49 0.5 1,082 4.0 512 Residence Urban 1.9 4,291 11.7 2,277 Rural 0.7 2,550 5.5 901 Region North 2.0 1,277 5.0 616 Central 1.3 1,334 6.1 354 East 3.0 1,117 18.8 1,060 South 0.6 1,488 7.6 493 West 0.7 1,625 4.1 654 Education Secondary or less 1.2 2,943 9.6 1,615 Higher 1.6 3,898 10.3 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.3 1,004 6.5 432 Second 0.6 1,711 7.3 651 Middle 1.1 1,391 8.9 622 Fourth 1.4 1,266 10.6 623 Highest 2.9 1,469 14.0 849 Total 1.4 6,841 10.0 3,178 HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 119 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOR 12 This chapter presents current levels of HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and related behavior for the general adult population of Ukraine. The chapter then focuses on HIV/AIDS knowledge and patterns of sexual activity among young people because youth are the main target of many HIV prevention efforts. The findings in this chapter will assist the AIDS control program in Ukraine to identify particular groups of people most in need of information and services and most vulnerable to the risk of HIV infection. 12.1 KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/AIDS AND OF TRANSMISSION AND PREVENTION METHODS 12.1.1 Awareness of AIDS In Ukraine, knowledge of AIDS is almost universal, with 99 percent of women and men age 15-49 having heard of AIDS (Table 12.1). Knowledge of HIV/AIDS does not vary much by background characteristics. Table 12.1 Knowledge of AIDS Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who have heard of AIDS, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women Men Has heard of AIDS Number of women Has heard of AIDS Number of men Age 15-24 97.8 1,788 98.7 903 15-19 96.3 782 98.1 444 20-24 99.0 1,006 99.3 459 25-29 99.1 998 98.6 436 30-39 99.1 2,034 98.9 928 40-49 98.4 2,021 97.9 911 Marital status Never married 97.7 1,544 98.5 1,044 Ever had sex 99.6 606 98.9 694 Never had sex 96.5 938 97.7 350 Married/living together 98.9 4,116 98.8 1,799 Divorced/separated/ widowed 98.4 1,181 97.2 334 Residence Urban 98.9 4,887 98.9 2,277 Rural 97.6 1,954 97.6 901 Region North 98.4 1,345 98.2 616 Central 99.8 817 99.3 354 East 98.9 2,120 98.4 1,060 South 96.8 1,049 99.7 493 West 98.8 1,509 97.7 654 Education Secondary or less 97.7 2,729 97.8 1,615 Higher 99.1 4,112 99.3 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 98.2 847 97.1 432 Second 97.8 1,437 98.6 651 Middle 98.3 1,276 98.9 622 Fourth 99.1 1,451 99.3 623 Highest 99.0 1,831 98.4 849 Total 98.6 6,841 98.5 3,178 120 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior 12.1.2 Knowledge of Ways to Reduce HIV/AIDS Transmission HIV/AIDS prevention programs focus their messages and efforts on three important aspects of behavior: delaying sexual debut in young persons (abstinence), limiting the number of sexual part- ners/staying faithful to one partner, and promoting the use of condoms (the ABC message). To ascertain whether programs have effectively communicated these messages, the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) asked specific questions about whether it is possible to reduce the chances of getting the AIDS virus by having just one faithful sexual partner, using a condom at every sexual encounter, and abstaining from sex. Table 12.2 presents knowledge of ways to prevent HIV by background characteristics. Overall, 92 percent of women and men are aware that the chances of getting the AIDS virus can be reduced by using condoms every time sexual intercourse takes place, and 89 percent of women and 90 percent of men know that the chances of getting infected can be reduced by limiting sex to one uninfected partner who has no other partners. A large majority—85 percent of women and 87 percent of men—are aware that using condoms and limiting sex to one uninfected partner can reduce the risk of getting the AIDS virus. Knowledge of abstinence from sexual intercourse as a means of preventing transmission of the AIDS virus is less well known, particularly among men (86 percent of women and 83 percent of men). Table 12.2 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who, in response to prompted questions, say that people can reduce the risk of getting the AIDS virus by using condoms every time they have sexual intercourse, by having one sex partner who is not infected and has no other partners, and by abstaining from sexual intercourse, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women Men Percentage who say HIV can be prevented by Number of women Percentage who say HIV can be prevented by Number of men Using condoms1 Limiting sexual intercourse to one uninfected partner2 Using condoms and limiting sexual intercourse to one uninfected partner1,2 Abstaining from sexual intercourse Using condoms1 Limiting sexual intercourse to one uninfected partner2 Using condoms and limiting sexual intercourse to one uninfected partner1,2 Abstaining from sexual intercourse Age 15-24 91.4 88.4 84.8 84.9 1,788 92.1 88.7 85.8 83.4 903 15-19 87.8 84.7 80.0 82.5 782 88.8 83.9 80.1 79.6 444 20-24 94.2 91.2 88.6 86.7 1,006 95.2 93.3 91.3 87.0 459 25-29 93.5 89.8 87.2 86.4 998 92.2 89.5 86.5 82.4 436 30-39 92.2 89.8 86.1 86.7 2,034 92.6 90.7 87.8 81.5 928 40-49 90.1 87.5 83.8 85.0 2,021 90.2 89.3 86.1 83.7 911 Marital status Never married 90.5 87.6 83.6 82.9 1,544 91.4 88.6 85.2 80.5 1,044 Ever had sex 92.4 89.4 85.3 82.4 606 93.5 90.4 87.5 81.5 694 Never had sex 89.2 86.5 82.4 83.2 938 87.0 85.0 80.5 78.6 350 Married/living together 92.0 89.5 86.0 86.9 4,116 92.5 90.4 88.0 83.9 1,799 Divorced/separated/ widowed 91.4 87.6 85.0 85.0 1,181 88.1 88.0 83.2 83.8 334 Residence Urban 92.5 89.9 86.8 87.0 4,887 94.0 92.0 89.7 86.4 2,277 Rural 89.1 85.7 81.3 82.4 1,954 85.8 83.4 78.6 73.7 901 Region North 89.2 86.2 82.7 87.8 1,345 86.5 84.3 81.0 81.8 616 Central 91.8 88.7 84.8 82.6 817 90.5 87.0 83.0 79.8 354 East 93.8 93.4 90.8 89.6 2,120 95.8 94.4 93.2 92.4 1,060 South 89.7 83.6 79.5 79.6 1,049 91.1 90.2 86.2 85.4 493 West 91.6 88.0 83.8 84.2 1,509 91.0 87.5 83.3 67.7 654 Education Secondary or less 89.1 85.5 81.6 84.0 2,729 88.7 86.1 82.3 79.6 1,615 Higher 93.2 90.9 87.7 86.8 4,112 94.8 93.1 91.0 86.1 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 90.5 85.3 81.7 82.9 847 81.8 80.0 74.2 72.5 432 Second 89.7 87.4 82.9 83.5 1,437 90.4 87.9 84.1 77.1 651 Middle 91.9 89.0 85.2 85.7 1,276 91.5 90.4 87.1 84.7 622 Fourth 91.7 90.2 86.4 86.1 1,451 96.0 93.1 91.7 86.9 623 Highest 93.1 90.1 87.8 88.3 1,831 94.7 92.5 90.7 87.9 849 Total 91.5 88.7 85.2 85.7 6,841 91.7 89.6 86.6 82.8 3,178 1 Using condoms every time they have sexual intercourse 2 Partner who has no other partners HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 121 As Table 12.2 shows, women and men who have never had sex are among the least likely to report knowledge of ways to prevent the transmission of AIDS. Among both women and men, knowledge of ways to prevent AIDS is higher in urban areas than in rural area, and higher in the East region compared with other regions. Respondents with higher education are more likely than those with secondary or less education to be aware of various preventive methods. Similarly, women and men in the higher wealth quintiles are somewhat more likely than those in lower wealth quintiles to be aware of ways to prevent the transmission of the AIDS virus. 12.2 COMPREHENSIVE KNOWLEDGE ABOUT HIV/AIDS The 2007 UDHS included questions to assess the prevalence of common misconceptions about AIDS and HIV transmission. Respondents were asked whether they think it is possible for a healthy-looking person to have the AIDS virus. They were also asked whether a person can get AIDS from mosquito bites, by kissing, or by sharing food and utensils with a person who has AIDS. Table 12.3.1 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS: women Percentage of women age 15-49 who say that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus and who, in response to prompted questions, correctly reject local misconceptions about AIDS transmission or prevention, and the percentage with a comprehensive knowledge about AIDS by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage of women who say that: Percentage who say that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus, and who reject the two most common local misconceptions about AIDS transmission and prevention1 Percentage with comprehensive knowledge about AIDS2 Number of women A healthy- looking person can have the AIDS virus AIDS cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites AIDS cannot be transmitted by kissing A person cannot become infected by sharing food with a person who has AIDS Age 15-24 75.4 70.9 68.3 75.3 49.7 44.8 1,788 15-19 71.5 66.2 65.0 71.4 44.8 38.9 782 20-24 78.4 74.5 70.8 78.3 53.5 49.4 1,006 25-29 77.8 73.9 70.3 78.0 52.9 49.2 998 30-39 76.4 69.6 69.3 76.8 50.7 46.6 2,034 40-49 75.1 68.1 64.5 76.7 47.9 43.5 2,021 Marital status Never married 76.0 71.4 67.7 76.2 49.1 43.8 1,544 Ever had sex 84.2 74.5 68.8 80.3 53.9 48.0 606 Never had sex 70.7 69.4 67.1 73.6 46.1 41.1 938 Married/living together 75.5 69.7 67.7 76.9 49.9 45.7 4,116 Divorced/separated/ widowed 77.5 70.1 68.0 75.6 51.3 47.5 1,181 Residence Urban 78.5 74.0 70.5 80.2 53.7 49.3 4,887 Rural 69.7 60.4 60.8 67.4 40.5 36.5 1,954 Region North 67.0 69.5 66.8 72.3 45.9 42.2 1,345 Central 93.8 64.4 69.0 82.7 60.5 54.3 817 East 82.6 76.8 66.4 82.8 52.1 49.3 2,120 South 70.8 75.1 77.9 80.2 55.0 47.8 1,049 West 68.6 61.0 62.8 65.6 41.1 37.2 1,509 Education Secondary or less 68.6 61.0 59.6 67.0 38.0 34.3 2,729 Higher 80.9 76.2 73.2 82.9 57.9 53.1 4,112 Wealth quintile Lowest 66.4 57.6 58.3 64.3 36.6 33.0 847 Second 72.6 64.9 65.4 71.6 44.1 39.9 1,437 Middle 77.2 70.1 66.5 77.0 50.1 45.7 1,276 Fourth 80.9 73.6 74.5 83.1 57.4 51.8 1,451 Highest 78.3 77.4 69.5 80.6 54.6 50.9 1,831 Total 76.0 70.1 67.8 76.5 49.9 45.6 6,841 1 Two most common local misconceptions involve transmission by kissing and by sharing food and utensils with someone with AIDS 2 Comprehensive knowledge means knowing that consistent use of condom during sexual intercourse and having just one uninfected faithful partner can reduce the chances of getting the AIDS virus, knowing that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus, and rejecting the two most common local misconceptions about AIDS transmission or prevention. 122 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Table 12.3.2 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS: men Percentage of men age 15-49 who say that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus and who, in response to prompted questions, correctly reject local misconceptions about AIDS transmission or prevention, and the percentage with a comprehensive knowledge about AIDS by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage of men who say that: Percentage who say that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus, and who reject the two most common local misconceptions about AIDS transmission and prevention1 Percentage with comprehensive knowledge about AIDS2 Number of men A healthy- looking person can have the AIDS virus AIDS cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites AIDS cannot be transmitted by kissing A person cannot become infected by sharing food with a person who has AIDS Age 15-24 74.6 68.4 67.0 68.3 45.9 42.8 903 15-19 67.6 64.8 60.3 62.3 37.6 33.2 444 20-24 81.5 72.0 73.4 74.0 54.0 52.1 459 25-29 76.5 71.9 68.8 72.8 50.7 48.6 436 30-39 76.3 68.8 65.8 68.5 47.5 44.4 928 40-49 77.7 64.7 65.9 71.7 48.6 45.6 911 Marital status Never married 73.8 68.8 64.5 66.8 43.4 40.5 1,044 Ever had sex 78.7 69.3 70.0 70.3 48.6 46.0 694 Never had sex 64.2 67.9 53.5 60.0 32.9 29.6 350 Married/living together 77.9 68.6 68.2 72.4 50.4 47.5 1,799 Divorced/separated/ widowed 75.0 61.5 64.3 66.3 47.5 44.1 334 Residence Urban 77.9 71.1 69.5 74.8 50.9 48.3 2,277 Rural 72.1 59.9 59.2 57.8 40.0 36.3 901 Region North 59.7 75.8 71.9 68.5 42.1 37.4 616 Central 77.3 64.3 58.4 68.2 42.7 38.9 354 East 88.1 64.7 67.1 79.9 56.4 54.9 1,060 South 77.1 74.4 74.6 73.4 59.1 55.6 493 West 71.4 63.0 59.0 53.5 33.5 30.8 654 Education Secondary or less 69.8 58.8 59.5 63.2 39.2 36.0 1,615 Higher 82.9 77.4 73.8 76.9 56.7 54.0 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 67.0 47.9 50.6 56.5 31.9 28.2 432 Second 75.4 66.1 66.4 65.0 48.0 44.8 651 Middle 80.0 67.2 72.5 72.7 55.0 51.7 622 Fourth 79.6 73.9 71.8 73.7 50.2 47.9 623 Highest 76.4 75.7 66.5 75.9 48.7 46.2 849 Total 76.2 67.9 66.5 70.0 47.8 44.9 3,178 1 Two most common local misconceptions involve transmission by kissing and by sharing food and utensils with someone with AIDS 2 Comprehensive knowledge means knowing that consistent use of condom during sexual intercourse and having just one uninfected faithful partner can reduce the chances of getting the AIDS virus, knowing that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus, and rejecting the two most common local misconceptions about AIDS transmission or prevention. The results in Tables 12.3.1 and 12.3.2 indicate that many Ukrainian adults have accurate knowledge about the ways in which the AIDS virus can and cannot be transmitted. Three-fourths of women and men (76 percent each) know that a healthy-looking person can have the virus that causes AIDS. Furthermore, 77 percent of women and 70 percent of men are aware that the AIDS virus cannot be transmitted by sharing food with a person who has AIDS. Finally, 70 percent of women and 68 percent of men know that AIDS cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites, and 68 percent of women and 67 percent of men correctly believe that AIDS cannot be transmitted by kissing. Overall, about half of women (50 percent) and men (48 percent) reject two of the most common misconceptions about the transmission of AIDS in Ukraine—namely, that AIDS can be transmitted by kissing and by sharing food and utensils with someone with AIDS—and believe that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus. Tables 12.3.1 and 12.3.2 provide an assessment of the level of comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission. Comprehensive knowledge is defined as: 1) knowing that both condom use and limiting sex partners to one uninfected person are HIV/AIDS prevention methods, 2) being aware that a healthy-looking person can have HIV, and 3) rejecting the two most common local misconceptions, namely, that AIDS can be transmitted by kissing and by sharing food and utensils with someone who is infected with the AIDS virus. The 2007 UDHS results indicate that HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 123 less than half of women (46 percent) and men (45 percent) in Ukraine have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission. Tables 12.3.1 and 12.3.2 document substantial variation in knowledge about AIDS by background characteristics. The proportions of women and men who reject the most common misconceptions and know that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus, or who have comprehensive knowledge about AIDS, are highest in the 20-29 age group. For all indicators, the proportions of women and men with correct knowledge about HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission are higher in urban areas than in rural areas. Variations in knowledge of AIDS are also seen by region. Women in the West region (37 percent) have the lowest level of comprehensive knowledge about AIDS, while women in the Central region (54 percent) have the highest level. Among men, comprehensive knowledge ranges from 31 percent in the West region to 56 percent in the South region. Education and wealth status are directly related to correct knowledge about common misconceptions about AIDS and comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention and transmission. Among women, for example, 53 percent of women with higher education have comprehensive knowledge about prevention and transmission of AIDS, compared with 34 percent of women with secondary or less education. Similarly, among men, the level of comprehensive knowledge is 54 percent among men with higher education, compared with 36 percent among men with secondary or less education. Looking at wealth status, 33 percent of women in the lowest quintile have comprehensive knowledge about AIDS, compared with 51 percent of women in the highest wealth quintile. Among men, the level of comprehensive knowledge about AIDS generally increases with wealth quintile. 12.3 KNOWLEDGE OF PREVENTION OF MOTHER-TO-CHILD TRANSMISSION OF HIV Increasing the level of knowledge about the transmission of HIV from mother to child and reducing the risk of transmission from mother to child through the use of antiretroviral drugs is critical to reducing mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV. To assess MTCT knowledge, respondents were asked if the virus that causes AIDS can be transmitted from a mother to a child through breastfeeding and whether a mother with HIV can reduce the risk of transmitting the virus to the baby by taking special drugs during pregnancy. These two questions were tabulated together to produce an indicator measuring the proportion who responded correctly to both questions. Table 12.4 shows the percentage of women and men who know that: 1) HIV can be transmitted from mother to child by breastfeeding, 2) the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV can be reduced by the mother taking special drugs during pregnancy, and 3) knowing both of the above. Women are more likely than men to know of the risk of mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastfeeding (60 and 39 percent, respectively). Generally, women and men with higher education are more likely to know that HIV can be transmitted through breastfeeding than those with less education. Among women, those who are pregnant are much more likely to have this knowledge than those who are not pregnant (75 and 60 percent, respectively). Women in the higher wealth quintiles are more aware that HIV can be transmitted by breastfeeding than those in lower quintiles. About one in three women (33 percent) and men (31 percent) know that the risk of mother-to- child transmission of HIV can be reduced by the mother taking special drugs during pregnancy. As observed for knowledge of MTCT, pregnant women are much more likely to know about drugs to reduce the risk of mother-to-child transmission than women who are not pregnant (50 and 33 percent, respectively). Women and men in urban areas, those with higher education, and those from wealthier households are more likely to know about special drugs to prevent mother-to-child transmission than other respondents. Knowledge of drugs to prevent MTCT varies by region. For women, it is lowest in the Central and South regions (26 percent) and highest in the North region (37 percent). 124 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Table 12.4 Knowledge of prevention of mother to child transmission of HIV Percentage of women and men who know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child by breastfeeding and that the risk of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV can be reduced by mother taking special drugs during pregnancy, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women Men Percentage who know that: Number of women Percentage who know that: Number of men HIV can be transmitted by breastfeeding Risk of MTCT can be reduced by mother taking special drugs during pregnancy HIV can be transmitted by breastfeeding and risk of MTCT can be reduced by mother taking special drugs during pregnancy HIV can be transmitted by breastfeeding Risk of MTCT can be reduced by mother taking special drugs during pregnancy HIV can be transmitted by breastfeeding and risk of MTCT can be reduced by mother taking special drugs during pregnancy Age 15-24 58.1 30.4 24.5 1,788 31.8 26.3 12.1 903 15-19 50.2 22.6 16.9 782 29.0 24.1 11.1 444 20-24 64.2 36.5 30.4 1,006 34.5 28.6 13.1 459 25-29 60.1 39.0 31.4 998 39.3 35.1 15.1 436 30-39 62.7 35.8 28.2 2,034 43.8 37.2 19.3 928 40-49 58.6 30.7 22.9 2,021 41.4 28.2 14.9 911 Marital status Never married 55.1 27.7 21.4 1,544 30.8 27.7 13.4 1,044 Ever had sex 54.4 29.5 21.9 606 33.0 29.0 14.1 694 Never had sex 55.6 26.5 21.0 938 26.5 25.1 12.0 350 Married/living together 62.1 36.7 29.1 4,116 44.5 34.8 17.5 1,799 Divorced/separated/ widowed 58.8 29.1 22.0 1,181 36.0 23.5 10.5 334 Currently pregnant Pregnant 74.5 49.9 45.9 191 na na na 0 Not pregnant or not sure 59.5 32.9 25.6 6,650 na na na 0 Residence Urban 59.9 35.8 28.1 4,887 37.4 32.3 13.9 2,277 Rural 59.9 27.2 21.1 1,954 43.3 28.6 19.1 901 Region North 64.2 37.2 32.7 1,345 21.1 48.1 10.2 616 Central 55.1 26.0 18.7 817 39.3 26.1 16.6 354 East 59.2 36.4 27.5 2,120 48.2 17.5 11.5 1,060 South 55.4 26.1 18.4 1,049 27.8 39.3 15.4 493 West 62.9 34.7 27.6 1,509 49.6 34.4 26.1 654 Education Secondary or less 58.8 23.0 17.9 2,729 36.7 24.1 12.0 1,615 Higher 60.7 40.3 31.6 4,112 41.5 38.6 18.9 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 59.6 25.8 19.9 847 42.5 22.4 15.0 432 Second 58.7 30.0 23.2 1,437 38.5 26.8 16.7 651 Middle 54.6 29.3 20.6 1,276 39.2 26.6 14.8 622 Fourth 61.6 33.8 27.8 1,451 38.9 35.5 16.3 623 Highest 63.4 41.9 33.8 1,831 37.8 39.5 14.4 849 Total 59.9 33.4 26.1 6,841 39.1 31.3 15.4 3,178 na = Not applicable Overall, about one in four women (26 percent) and one in seven men (15 percent) know that HIV can be transmitted through breastfeeding and that the risk of MTCT can be reduced by the mother taking special drugs during pregnancy. Knowledge is lowest among respondents who have never had sex. Also, a larger proportion of women in urban areas than in rural areas know about MTCT and the use of special drugs to reduce the risk of MTCT (28 and 21 percent, respectively) while the reverse is true for men (14 percent of men in urban areas know about MTCT and the use of special drugs to reduce the risk of MTCT, compared with 19 percent of men in rural areas). By region, this knowledge among women ranges from 18 percent in the South region to 33 percent in the North region. Among men, this knowledge ranges from 10 percent in the North region to 26 percent in the West region. 12.4 STIGMA ASSOCIATED WITH AIDS AND ATTITUDES RELATED TO HIV/AIDS Knowledge and beliefs about AIDS can affect how people treat those they know to be living with HIV. In the 2007 UDHS, a number of questions were posed to respondents to measure their attitudes toward HIV-positive people including questions about their willingness 1) to buy vegetables HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 125 from a shopkeeper with HIV, 2) to let others know the HIV status of family members, and 3) to take care of relatives who are sick with AIDS in their own household. They were also asked whether an HIV-positive female teacher who is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching. Tables 12.5.1 and 12.5.2 show, for women and men who have heard about HIV/AIDS, the percentage who express positive attitudes toward people with HIV, by background characteristics. Both women and men tended to express more positive attitudes to the question on care for a family member sick with AIDS than to the questions about the HIV-positive shopkeeper selling vegetables or the HIV-positive teacher, or preferences regarding keeping secret a relative’s HIV- positive status. About three-fourths of women (75 percent) and men (73 percent) said they would be willing to care for a family member sick with AIDS in their home. In contrast, just 5 percent of women and 7 percent of men said that they would not want to keep secret that a family member was infected with the AIDS virus. Only 22 percent of women and 11 percent of men would buy fresh food from a shopkeeper with the AIDS virus, while 42 percent of women and 32 percent of men said that an HIV-positive teacher should be allowed to continue teaching. The percentage expressing accepting attitudes on all four measures is just 1 percent for both women and men. Higher education and urban residence are generally associated with more accepting attitudes toward nonrelatives who are HIV-positive and to greater willingness to care for relatives sick with AIDS in their own home. For example, the percentage of women expressing accepting attitudes toward a female teacher who is HIV-positive but not sick is 43 percent among urban women, compared with 37 percent among rural women; it is 34 percent among women who have secondary or less education, compared with 47 percent among those with higher education. On the other hand, women in rural areas, those in households in the lower wealth quintiles, and respondents with secondary or less education are generally more likely to say that they would not want to keep secret that a family member was HIV positive. Older women, ever-married women, and women with higher education are somewhat more likely to say that they would be willing to care for a family member with AIDS in their home, compared with other women. There are marked regional variations, especially among men. Men in the North region are the least likely to say they would take care of a relative sick with AIDS in their home (54 percent), compared with 69 percent of men in the West region, and 80-82 percent of men in the other regions. Contrary to the findings for men, women in the North region (81 percent) are the most likely to agree to take care of a family member with AIDS in their home, compared with women in the other regions (71-75 percent). For both women and men, there is little difference in willingness to care for a relative sick with AIDS in one’s own home, by other background characteristics. 126 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Table 12.5.1 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV/AIDS: women Among women age 15-49 who have heard of AIDS, percentage expressing specific accepting attitudes toward people with AIDS, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage of respondents who: Percentage expressing acceptance attitudes on all four indicators Number of women who have heard of AIDS Are willing to care for a family member with AIDS in the respondent’s home Would buy fresh vegetables from shopkeeper who has the AIDS virus Say that a female teacher with the AIDS virus and is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching Would not want to keep secret that a family member got infected with the AIDS virus Age 15-24 68.5 20.9 42.0 4.9 0.8 1,749 15-19 67.6 16.3 39.7 4.1 0.6 753 20-24 69.2 24.4 43.8 5.6 0.9 996 25-29 73.1 25.8 42.3 4.3 0.6 989 30-39 76.0 22.7 40.7 4.1 0.9 2,015 40-49 79.3 20.5 41.5 4.9 0.9 1,989 Marital status Never married 69.7 20.9 42.5 4.5 0.7 1,509 Ever had sex 69.0 25.4 44.9 2.9 0.9 604 Never had sex 70.1 17.9 40.9 5.6 0.5 905 Married/living together 76.5 22.3 41.2 4.6 0.9 4,071 Divorced/separated/ widowed 74.4 22.6 41.2 4.6 0.6 1,162 Residence Urban 75.0 24.4 43.3 3.9 0.8 4,835 Rural 73.5 16.2 37.1 6.4 0.8 1,907 Region North 81.4 30.0 44.2 3.3 0.3 1,323 Central 71.3 20.8 45.5 2.1 0.2 815 East 72.4 21.4 40.0 2.1 0.9 2,097 South 72.0 26.0 45.0 8.7 1.5 1,015 West 75.3 13.9 36.7 7.7 1.0 1,491 Education Secondary or less 71.2 17.8 33.9 5.2 0.6 2,667 Higher 76.8 24.8 46.5 4.2 1.0 4,075 Wealth quintile Lowest 73.2 14.1 34.6 6.6 1.0 832 Second 74.0 17.5 36.0 6.0 0.6 1,405 Middle 73.7 21.7 40.4 5.7 1.3 1,253 Fourth 77.0 27.6 45.1 2.6 0.3 1,438 Highest 74.4 25.1 46.9 3.3 1.0 1,813 Total 74.6 22.1 41.5 4.6 0.8 6,742 HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 127 Table 12.5.2 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV/AIDS: men Among men age 15-49 who have heard of HIV/AIDS, percentage expressing specific accepting attitudes toward people with HIV/AIDS, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage of respondents who: Percentage expressing acceptance attitudes on all four indicators Number of respondents who have heard of AIDS Are willing to care for a family member with AIDS in the respondent’s home Would buy fresh vegetables from shopkeeper who has the AIDS virus Say that a female teacher with the AIDS virus and is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching Would not want to keep secret that a family member got infected with the AIDS virus Age 15-24 70.8 11.1 30.5 6.8 0.6 891 15-19 65.8 10.0 25.1 7.2 0.2 435 20-24 75.5 12.1 35.7 6.4 1.0 456 25-29 71.8 7.9 29.6 6.9 0.9 430 30-39 72.5 12.0 32.3 7.7 2.5 918 40-49 76.0 11.3 34.6 6.7 1.1 892 Marital status Never married 68.0 10.3 33.1 6.9 0.5 1,029 Ever had sex 71.8 12.6 37.4 7.7 0.7 687 Never had sex 60.4 5.6 24.5 5.2 0.0 342 Married/living together 75.7 10.8 30.5 6.9 1.6 1,778 Divorced/separated/ widowed 73.2 13.9 37.4 8.1 2.7 325 Residence Urban 72.8 11.4 34.1 6.0 1.3 2,253 Rural 73.1 9.7 26.8 9.6 1.5 879 Region North 54.3 15.4 18.3 13.5 4.9 605 Central 81.8 15.7 42.8 5.5 1.5 352 East 79.6 8.0 34.4 3.1 0.4 1,044 South 80.8 14.1 24.1 4.1 0.1 491 West 68.6 6.6 41.5 10.5 0.3 639 Education Secondary or less 72.8 9.4 28.5 8.0 1.1 1,580 Higher 73.0 12.5 35.7 6.1 1.6 1,551 Wealth quintile Lowest 69.8 8.8 25.0 9.4 0.9 420 Second 79.3 10.4 31.2 8.4 1.6 642 Middle 80.8 15.7 35.2 9.2 3.0 616 Fourth 72.6 10.1 38.7 5.4 0.6 619 Highest 64.0 9.5 29.1 4.5 0.6 835 Total 72.9 11.0 32.1 7.0 1.3 3,131 12.5 ATTITUDES TOWARD NEGOTIATING SAFER SEX Knowledge about HIV transmission and ways to prevent it are of little use if people feel powerless to negotiate safer sex practices with their partners. In an effort to assess the ability of women to negotiate safer sex with their spouse who has a sexually transmitted disease (STD), the 2007 UDHS respondents were asked whether a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband when she knows he has a disease that can be transmitted through sexual contact. Table 12.6 shows that more than nine in ten women and men believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband if she knows he has an STD (96 percent of women and 93 percent of men), and that a woman is justified in asking her husband to use a condom if he has an STD (97 percent of women and 95 percent of men). Almost all women (98 percent) and men (96 percent) believe that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse or asking that her husband use a condom if he has an STD. There are no notable differences in these attitudes by background characteristics. 128 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Table 12.6 Attitudes toward negotiating safer sexual relations with husband Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who believe that if a husband has a sexually transmitted disease his wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with him or asking that they use a condom, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women Men Woman is justified in: Number of women Woman is justified in: Number of men Refusing to have sexual intercourse Asking that they use a condom Refusing sexual intercourse or asking that they use a condom Refusing to have sexual intercourse Asking that they use a condom Refusing sexual intercourse or asking that they use a condom Age 15-24 93.1 95.4 96.4 1,788 91.1 93.1 93.8 903 15-19 89.5 91.7 93.3 782 88.1 90.7 91.6 444 20-24 95.9 98.4 98.8 1,006 93.9 95.4 96.0 459 25-29 95.8 98.0 98.6 998 92.6 94.8 95.2 436 30-39 96.2 97.5 98.4 2,034 93.9 96.2 96.9 928 40-49 96.6 97.3 98.6 2,021 94.0 96.0 96.6 911 Marital status Never married 92.3 94.7 95.7 1,544 90.3 93.2 93.9 1,044 Ever had sex 95.7 98.0 98.3 606 92.4 94.9 95.6 694 Never had sex 90.1 92.5 94.0 938 86.1 89.6 90.7 350 Married/living together 96.3 97.7 98.7 4,116 94.7 96.6 97.2 1,799 Divorced/separated/ widowed 96.7 97.5 98.4 1,181 91.4 93.2 93.4 334 Residence Urban 96.4 97.7 98.5 4,887 93.8 95.6 96.2 2,277 Rural 93.2 95.3 96.5 1,954 90.8 93.7 94.6 901 Region North 94.8 96.4 97.0 1,345 90.9 92.8 92.8 616 Central 95.7 97.6 98.2 817 91.2 96.0 96.7 354 East 98.1 97.8 99.1 2,120 94.2 97.0 97.0 1,060 South 92.7 97.3 98.4 1,049 93.0 94.5 95.4 493 West 94.1 95.9 96.9 1,509 93.6 94.2 96.2 654 Education Secondary or less 94.1 95.6 97.1 2,729 91.2 93.7 94.6 1,615 Higher 96.4 97.9 98.5 4,112 94.7 96.5 96.9 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 92.7 95.4 96.6 847 90.6 92.9 94.5 432 Second 95.3 96.2 97.6 1,437 90.9 94.6 95.0 651 Middle 95.9 97.2 98.4 1,276 95.1 96.4 97.3 622 Fourth 95.4 97.6 98.2 1,451 93.6 96.0 96.5 623 Highest 96.5 97.7 98.4 1,831 93.6 94.9 95.1 849 Total 95.5 97.0 98.0 6,841 92.9 95.1 95.7 3,178 12.6 ATTITUDES TOWARD CONDOM EDUCATION FOR YOUTH AND BELIEFS ABOUT ABSTINENCE AND FAITHFULNESS HIV prevention programs focus their messages and efforts on promoting three specific behaviors: use of condoms, limiting the number of sexual partners or staying faithful to one uninfected sexual partner, and abstinence. This section measures respondents’ perceptions of women’s and men’s roles regarding these behaviors and perceptions about educating youth about the three behaviors. Condom use is one of the main strategies for combating the spread of HIV; however, educating youth about condoms is sometimes controversial, with some people saying it promotes early sexual experimentation. To gauge attitudes toward condom education, UDHS respondents were asked if they thought that children age 12-14 should be taught about using a condom to avoid AIDS. The results are shown in Table 12.7. Because the table focuses on adult opinions, results are tabulated for respondents age 18-49. There is a high degree of agreement that children age 12-14 years should be taught about the use of condoms to avoid AIDS (93 percent of women and 83 percent of men). There are no substantial differences by age or marital status among women. Among men, however, those under age 25 (87 percent) and never-married men (86 percent) are somewhat more likely than other men to agree on HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 129 safe sex education for children age 12-14. Urban women and men are more likely than their rural counterparts to agree on teaching children age 12-14 about condom use to avoid AIDS. By region, agreement on teaching children age 12-14 about the use of condoms ranges from 86 percent of women and 70 percent of men in the South region to 95 percent of women and 94 percent of men in the Central region. The proportion of respondents who support teaching children age 12-14 about condoms increases with level of education and wealth quintile. For example, 94 percent of women with higher education, compared with 92 percent of women with secondary or less education, agree on instructing children 12-14 years about condoms. The figures for men are 84 percent and 80 percent, respectively. Table 12.7 Adult support of education about condom use to prevent AIDS Percentage of women and men age 18-49 who agree that children age 12-14 years should be taught about using a condom to avoid AIDS, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women Men Percentage who agree Number of women Percentage who agree Number of men Age 18-24 93.1 1,303 86.9 628 18-19 89.8 297 86.0 169 20-24 94.1 1,006 87.2 459 25-29 92.7 998 84.0 436 30-39 94.2 2,034 82.7 928 40-49 91.9 2,021 78.4 911 Marital status Never married 92.7 1,072 86.2 772 Married or living together 93.0 4,105 81.0 1,797 Divorced/separated/ widowed 93.5 1,178 81.5 334 Residence Urban 93.6 4,576 84.1 2,093 Rural 91.6 1,780 78.3 811 Region North 93.4 1,261 90.9 567 Central 95.3 755 94.4 324 East 95.5 1,979 78.8 974 South 86.2 967 70.0 455 West 92.6 1,393 83.5 583 Education Secondary or less 91.5 2,307 80.4 1,371 Higher 93.9 4,048 84.3 1,532 Wealth quintile Lowest 91.5 763 73.7 398 Second 91.8 1,306 81.0 583 Middle 92.8 1,193 83.9 564 Fourth 94.1 1,352 84.6 571 Highest 94.0 1,742 85.3 787 Total 18-49 93.0 6,355 82.5 2,903 All respondents in the UDHS 2007 were asked a series of questions about their perceptions and beliefs about abstinence and faithfulness. Findings in Figure 12.1 indicate that 39 percent of women and 20 percent of men age 15-49 believe that young men should wait until they are married to have sexual intercourse. Additionally, 59 percent of women and 50 percent of men age 15-49 believe that young women should wait until they are married to have sexual intercourse. Eighty-nine percent of women and 74 percent of men believe that married men should only have sex with their wives, while 92 percent of women and 83 percent of men believe that married women should only have sex with their husbands. At the same time, it is interesting to note that only four in ten women and men report that most married men they know actually have sex only with their wives. Six in ten women and about half of men (47 percent) think that most married women they know are faithful to their husbands. 130 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Figure 12.1 Perceptions and beliefs about abstinence and faithfulness 39 59 89 40 92 60 20 50 74 40 83 47 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent Women Men UDHS 2007 Young men should wait until they are married to have sexual intercourse Young women should wait until they are married to have sexual intercourse Married men should only have sex with their wives Married women should only have sex with their husbands Most married men they know only have sex with their wives Most married women they know only have sex with their husbands 12.7 HIGHER-RISK SEX Given that most HIV infections are contracted through heterosexual contact, information on sexual behavior is important in designing and monitoring intervention programs to control the spread of the epidemic. In the context of HIV/AIDS prevention, limiting the number of sexual partners and having protected sex are crucial to combating the epidemic. The 2007 UDHS included questions about respondents’ sexual partners during the 12 months preceding the survey. For male respondents, an additional question was asked about whether they paid for sex during the past 12 months. Information on the use of condoms at last sexual intercourse with each type of partner was collected for both women and men. Finally, sexually active women and men were asked about the total number of partners they had had during their lifetime. Because these questions cover sensitive topics, when interpreting the results presented in this section it is important to remember that respondents’ answers may be subject to some degree of reporting bias. 12.7.1 Multiple Sexual Partners, Higher-Risk Sex, and Condom Use Tables 12.8.1 and 12.8.2 present data from the 2007 UDHS on sexual behavior, including the percentage of respondents who had multiple partners and higher-risk sex in the 12 months preceding the survey, condom use, and mean number of lifetime sexual partners. In the UDHS, higher-risk sex is defined as sex with a nonmarital, noncohabiting partner. It is important to keep in mind when interpreting the tables that all premarital sex is defined as higher-risk sex. According to Table 12.8.1, only 2 percent of all women and 3 percent of women who had sexual intercourse in the 12 months before the survey reported having two or more partners during that period. However, 22 percent of sexually active women in the past year had higher-risk sexual intercourse over the same period. The likelihood of having higher-risk sexual intercourse decreases with age from 70 percent for women age 15-19 to 13 percent for women age 40-49. Across marital categories, women who have never married show the highest proportion having higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past year. Additionally, urban women, those with higher education, women in the East region, and those in the highest wealth quintiles are the most likely to have had higher-risk sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey. HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 131 The 2007 UDHS also assessed condom use among women and men with multiple partners or higher-risk sex in the 12 months preceding the survey. While truly effective protection requires condom use at every sexual encounter, the sexual encounters included in Tables 12.8.1 and 12.8.2 are those considered to pose the greatest risk of HIV transmission. Respondents who had more than one sexual partner or had sexual intercourse with a nonmarital, noncohabiting partner (higher-risk sexual intercourse) were also asked whether they used a condom at the last sexual intercourse. Among women who had multiple sexual partners in the past 12 months, almost half (48 percent) reported using a condom during the last sexual intercourse, and more than half (52 percent) of women who had higher-risk sexual intercourse reported using a condom at last higher-risk sex. Women age 15-24 who had two or more partners in the past 12 months had the highest level of condom use at last sexual intercourse (63 percent). Among women who had higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, those age 15-19 had the highest level of condom use at last higher- risk sex (73 percent). Urban women are more likely than rural women to use condoms at last sexual intercourse (49 and 45 percent, respectively) and at last higher-risk sexual intercourse (52 and 48 percent, respectively). Women have an average of two partners in their lifetime. There are no significant variations in the number of lifetime partners by background characteristics. Table 12.8.2 shows the same indicators for men age 15-49. Overall, 13 percent of all men and 15 percent of men who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months said that they had two or more partners in the past 12 months. Men age 20–24 years are the most likely to have had two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months (24 percent of all men and 27 percent of sexually active men). Never-married men and divorced, separated, or widowed men are substantially more likely to have had two or more partners in the past 12 months than those who are currently married. Furthermore, urban men are somewhat more likely than rural men to have had two or more sexual partners in the past year. Among men who had sexual intercourse during the 12 months preceding the survey, more than four in ten (43 percent) engaged in higher-risk sexual intercourse. Men age 15-19 (96 percent) had the highest proportion engaging in higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months, followed by men age 20-24 (82 percent). Thirteen percent of currently married men had sex with someone other than their wife or partner. Urban men (44 percent) and those living in the East region (51 percent) are more likely than other men to have had higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Forty-six percent of men who had two or more sexual partners in the past 12 months reported using a condom during the last sexual intercourse, and 62 percent of men who engaged in higher-risk sex during the past 12 months used a condom at last such encounter. As with young women, condoms are most often used by young men. Sixty-four percent of men age 15-24 who had multiple sexual partners in the 12 months before the survey used a condom during last sexual intercourse; and 74 percent of men age 15-19 and 70 percent for men age 20-24 who had higher-risk sex used a condom during their higher-risk intercourse. The use of condoms is higher among urban men—48 percent used a condom at last sexual intercourse and 64 percent used a condom at last higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past year—than rural men (40 percent and 55 percent, respectively). Condom use during last higher-risk sexual intercourse varies by region, from 43 percent among men in the West region to 79 percent among those in the South region. The mean number of lifetime sexual partners reported by men is six, but this figure varies substantially across subgroups. As expected, the number is larger for older men (three for men age 15- 19 compared with seven for men age 40-49). Urban men have more partners than rural men (six and five sexual partners, respectively). There are also notable differences by region, from four sexual partners in the West region to seven in the East and Central regions. 132 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Table 12.8.1 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: women Among all women age 15-49, the percentage who had sexual intercourse with more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months; among women age 15-49 who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage who had intercourse with more than one partner and the percentage who had higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months; and among those having more than one partner in the past 12 months, the percentage reporting that a condom was used at last intercourse; and among those having higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage reporting that a condom was used at last higher-risk intercourse; and the mean number of sexual partners during lifetime for women who ever had sexual intercourse, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Among all women Among women who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: Among women who had 2+ partners in the past 12 months: Among women who had higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months: Among women who ever had sexual intercourse Percentage who had 2+ partners in the past 12 months Number Percentage who had 2+ partners in the past 12 months Percentage who had higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months1 Number of women Percentage who reported using a condom during last sexual intercourse Number of women Percentage who reported using a condom at last higher-risk intercourse1 Number of women Mean number of sexual partners in lifetime Number of women Age 15-24 3.1 1,788 6.5 45.9 865 62.7 56 68.4 397 2.1 904 15-19 1.5 782 9.1 69.5 132 * 12 72.7 91 1.6 136 20-24 4.4 1,006 6.0 41.7 733 (61.0) 44 67.1 306 2.2 768 25-29 3.0 998 3.6 23.7 838 * 30 52.6 198 2.1 907 30-39 2.3 2,034 2.8 17.0 1,669 (28.5) 46 40.1 284 2.2 1,917 40-49 1.2 2,021 1.6 12.9 1,544 * 24 33.9 200 2.1 1,916 25-49 2.0 5,053 2.5 16.8 4,051 39.8 101 41.9 682 2.1 4,740 Marital status Never married 3.3 1,544 10.7 99.0 481 (65.5) 52 66.2 476 2.8 550 Married or living together 1.2 4,116 1.2 4.3 3,964 (20.8) 48 36.6 169 1.9 3,994 Divorced/separated/ widowed 4.8 1,181 12.1 92.4 471 (55.3) 57 41.5 435 2.7 1,100 Residence Urban 2.7 4,887 3.8 25.4 3,539 48.5 134 52.3 898 2.3 4,044 Rural 1.2 1,954 1.6 13.2 1,377 (45.3) 23 48.3 181 1.7 1,599 Region North 2.0 1,345 2.6 20.0 993 (46.3) 26 43.9 199 2.3 1,107 Central 2.8 817 3.8 19.2 602 (32.9) 23 47.1 115 2.5 683 East 3.9 2,120 5.3 30.6 1,562 (56.0) 82 54.5 478 2.4 1,761 South 1.5 1,049 2.2 16.9 742 * 16 50.0 125 1.8 867 West 0.6 1,509 0.9 15.9 1,017 * 9 57.0 162 1.6 1,227 Education Secondary or less 2.0 2,729 3.0 18.1 1,816 40.8 55 47.5 328 2.0 2,096 Higher 2.5 4,112 3.3 24.2 3,099 51.8 102 53.5 751 2.2 3,548 Wealth quintile Lowest 2.7 847 3.8 19.5 590 * 23 42.2 115 1.9 688 Second 1.7 1,437 2.5 14.5 990 (39.0) 25 46.3 144 1.8 1,173 Middle 1.7 1,276 2.4 18.3 914 * 22 55.1 167 2.1 1,077 Fourth 2.7 1,451 3.8 30.6 1,007 (48.5) 39 52.1 308 2.4 1,191 Highest 2.7 1,831 3.5 24.4 1,414 (52.8) 49 54.9 345 2.3 1,514 Total 2.3 6,841 3.2 22.0 4,916 48.0 157 51.6 1,079 2.1 5,643 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Sexual intercourse with a nonmarital, noncohabiting partner HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 133 Table 12.8.2 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: men Among all men age 15-49, the percentage who has sexual intercourse with more than one sexual partner in the past 12 months; among men age 15-49 who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage who had intercourse with more than one partner and the percentage who had higher- risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months; and among those having more than one partner in the past 12 months, the percentage reporting that a condom was used at last intercourse; and among those having higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage reporting that a condom was used at last higher-risk intercourse; and the mean number of sexual partners during lifetime for men who ever had sexual intercourse, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Among all men Among men who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: Among men who had 2+ partners in the past 12 months: Among men who had higher risk intercourse in the past 12 months: Among men who ever had sexual intercourse: Percentage who had 2+ partners in the past 12 months Number Percentage who had 2+ partners in the past 12 months Percentage who had higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months1 Number of men Percentage who reported using a condom during last sexual intercourse Number of men Percentage who reported using a condom at last higher-risk intercourse1 Number of men Mean number of sexual partners in lifetime Number of men Age 15-24 16.2 903 26.7 85.4 549 63.7 146 71.0 469 4.6 527 15-19 8.0 444 26.1 95.9 137 (66.2) 36 74.4 131 2.9 135 20-24 24.1 459 26.9 81.9 412 62.9 111 69.7 337 5.3 392 25-29 17.5 436 18.1 49.0 421 47.8 76 62.1 206 5.6 367 30-39 11.5 928 12.3 33.3 870 37.5 107 53.9 289 6.0 743 40-49 8.7 911 9.4 22.1 845 25.3 80 51.6 187 6.8 747 25-49 11.6 2,275 12.3 31.9 2,137 36.8 263 55.7 683 6.2 1,857 Marital status Never married 20.2 1,044 32.3 99.6 653 62.4 211 64.1 650 5.5 612 Married or living together 6.8 1,799 7.0 13.4 1,758 16.5 122 73.5 236 5.4 1,508 Divorced/separated/ widowed 22.8 334 27.7 96.2 275 50.3 76 46.4 265 9.3 262 Residence Urban 13.8 2,277 16.0 44.2 1,964 48.3 314 64.2 869 6.4 1,692 Rural 10.6 901 13.2 39.1 722 40.1 95 54.9 282 4.6 691 Region North 9.7 616 11.2 40.3 531 63.7 60 62.3 214 4.4 397 Central 17.3 354 19.4 38.7 315 51.4 61 69.2 122 7.1 286 East 16.6 1,060 19.3 50.7 914 35.5 176 62.0 463 7.3 794 South 8.9 493 10.4 37.9 421 61.8 44 79.0 160 5.9 419 West 10.5 654 13.6 38.2 504 45.4 69 42.8 193 4.0 488 Education Secondary or less 12.5 1,615 15.9 42.3 1,266 40.6 201 57.9 536 5.7 1,151 Higher 13.3 1,563 14.7 43.3 1,419 52.1 208 65.5 615 6.0 1,233 Wealth quintile Lowest 11.8 432 14.7 45.8 347 31.6 51 49.6 159 5.2 330 Second 12.9 651 15.4 38.3 547 37.4 84 57.8 209 5.5 519 Middle 12.9 622 15.2 42.0 528 50.7 80 59.7 222 6.4 474 Fourth 14.4 623 16.9 48.5 529 48.8 89 68.6 256 6.6 454 Highest 12.3 849 14.2 41.5 735 55.6 105 67.3 305 5.6 606 Total 12.9 3,178 15.2 42.9 2,685 46.4 409 62.0 1,151 5.9 2,383 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Sexual intercourse with a nonmarital, noncohabiting partner 12.7.2 Paid Sex Paid sex is considered a special category of higher-risk sex. Male respondents in the 2007 UDHS who had had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months were asked whether they paid anyone for sexual intercourse. Men who paid for sex were asked about condom use during the last paid sexual encounter. Overall, 2 percent of men age 15-49 years reported paying for sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. Among them, the majority (84 percent) reported using a condom at last paid sexual intercourse (data not shown). Never-married men and those who are divorced, separated or widowed, men in urban areas, and those in the East and West regions, and men with secondary or less education are slightly more likely than other men to have paid for sex in the past year. 134 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Table 12.9 Payment for sexual intercourse: men Percentage of men age 15-49 reporting payment for sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage who paid for sexual intercourse in the past 12 months Number of men Age 15-24 1.2 903 15-19 0.1 444 20-24 2.2 459 25-29 3.9 436 30-39 2.2 928 40-49 1.1 911 Marital status Never married 2.9 1,044 Married or living together 0.8 1,799 Divorced/separated/ widowed 3.8 334 Residence Urban 2.1 2,277 Rural 1.1 901 Region North 0.5 616 Central 0.8 354 East 2.6 1,060 South 1.7 493 West 2.5 654 Education Secondary or less 2.6 1,615 Higher 1.0 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.7 432 Second 1.9 651 Middle 1.4 622 Fourth 2.7 623 Highest 1.5 849 Total 1.8 3,178 12.8 COVERAGE OF HIV COUNSELING AND TESTING Knowledge of HIV status helps HIV-negative individuals make specific decisions that will help reduce the risk of contracting HIV. For those who are HIV-positive, knowledge of their status allows them to take action to protect themselves and their sexual partners, to access treatment, and to plan for the future. To assess awareness and coverage of HIV testing services, the UDHS respondents were asked whether they knew where to get an HIV test, whether they were ever tested for HIV and, if so, whether they received the results. Respondents who had ever been tested for HIV were also asked whether they received and HIV test in the 12 months preceding the survey. According to the findings presented in Table 12.10.1, a large majority of women age 15-49 know where to get an HIV test (83 percent). Overall, teenage women, women with no sexual experience, rural women, women in the West region, those with secondary or less education, and those in the poorest households are less likely than other women to know a place where they can get an HIV test. Knowledge of a place for HIV testing is not directly associated with having taken a test; 48 percent of women have never been tested, 45 percent were tested at some time and received the results of the last test, and 7 percent were tested at some time but did not receive the results. HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 135 Table 12.10.1 Coverage of prior HIV testing: women Percentage of women age 15-49 who know where to get an HIV test, percent distribution of women age 15-49 by testing status and by whether they received the results of the last test, the percentage of women ever tested, and the percentage of women age 15-49 who received their test results the last time they were tested for HIV in the past 12 months, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage who know where to get an HIV test Percent distribution of women by testing status and by whether they received the results of the last test Percentage ever tested Percentage who received results from last HIV test taken in the past 12 months Number of women Ever tested and received results Ever tested did not receive results Never tested1 Total Age 15-24 72.9 31.7 5.0 63.3 100.0 36.7 12.6 1,788 15-19 60.1 13.0 2.4 84.6 100.0 15.4 7.7 782 20-24 82.8 46.3 7.0 46.8 100.0 53.2 16.4 1,006 25-29 89.9 60.1 8.8 31.0 100.0 69.0 14.8 998 30-39 87.9 54.5 8.1 37.4 100.0 62.6 11.8 2,034 40-49 82.9 41.0 6.4 52.5 100.0 47.5 11.2 2,021 25-49 86.3 50.2 7.6 42.2 100.0 57.8 12.1 5,053 Marital status Never married 69.8 22.0 4.4 73.6 100.0 26.4 8.8 1,544 Ever had sex 77.9 35.8 6.9 57.3 100.0 42.7 13.8 606 Never had sex 64.5 13.1 2.8 84.1 100.0 15.9 5.5 938 Married/living together 87.1 52.7 8.0 39.3 100.0 60.7 13.3 4,116 Divorced/separated/ widowed 85.1 50.4 6.2 43.4 100.0 56.6 13.2 1,181 Residence Urban 85.2 49.4 5.9 44.6 100.0 55.4 13.5 4,887 Rural 76.8 35.3 9.2 55.5 100.0 44.5 9.2 1,954 Region North 76.8 41.7 8.4 50.0 100.0 50.0 13.7 1,345 Central 90.1 32.5 9.3 58.3 100.0 41.7 9.7 817 East 88.2 60.9 7.9 31.2 100.0 68.8 16.5 2,120 South 86.3 52.8 5.8 41.4 100.0 58.6 13.3 1,049 West 74.2 28.8 3.6 67.6 100.0 32.4 5.7 1,509 Education Secondary or less 76.3 38.1 7.9 54.0 100.0 46.0 11.9 2,729 Higher 87.1 50.2 6.2 43.5 100.0 56.5 12.5 4,112 Wealth quintile Lowest 78.7 33.9 9.5 56.6 100.0 43.4 10.1 847 Second 78.4 39.6 9.1 51.4 100.0 48.6 11.1 1,437 Middle 83.6 45.9 6.9 47.2 100.0 52.8 11.4 1,276 Fourth 84.5 47.0 6.3 46.7 100.0 53.3 12.6 1,451 Highest 86.3 53.6 4.4 42.0 100.0 58.0 14.5 1,831 Total 82.8 45.4 6.9 47.7 100.0 52.3 12.3 6,841 1 Includes “don’t know/missing” Younger women age 15-19 are the least likely to have ever been tested and to have received the results (13 percent) when compared with women in other age groups. Additionally, rural women, women who have never had sex, less educated women, and women in poorer households are less likely than other women to have been tested. For example, 38 percent of women with secondary or less education have been tested and know the results, compared with 50 percent of women with higher education. Regional variations also exist; the proportion of women who have ever been tested and received the results ranges from 29 percent among women in the West region to 61 percent among women in the East region. More than one in ten women (12 percent) were tested for HIV in the past 12 months and received the results. Differences by background characteristics are similar to those for other indicators, with younger women age 15-19, women in rural areas, and women in poorer households less likely to have been tested and to have received their results in the 12 months before the survey. Table 12.10.2 shows data on HIV testing for men age 15-49. Men are slightly less likely than women to know where to get an HIV test (82 percent compared with 83 percent). As with women, 136 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Table 12.10.2 Coverage of prior HIV testing: men Percentage of men age 15-49 who know where to get an HIV test, percent distribution of men age 15-49 by testing status and by whether they received the results of the last test, the percentage of men ever tested, and the percentage of men age 15-49 who received their test results the last time they were tested for HIV in the past 12 months, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage who know where to get an HIV test Percent distribution of men by testing status and by whether they received the results of the last test Percentage ever tested Percentage who received results from last HIV test taken in the past 12 months Number of men Ever tested and received results Ever tested did not receive results Never tested1 Total Age 15-24 77.4 18.4 5.8 75.8 100.0 24.2 6.6 903 15-19 70.5 10.2 4.6 85.3 100.0 14.7 5.0 444 20-24 84.1 26.3 7.0 66.7 100.0 33.3 8.1 459 25-29 83.2 22.6 7.4 70.0 100.0 30.0 7.2 436 30-39 84.6 27.4 5.1 67.5 100.0 32.5 9.0 928 40-49 82.3 17.8 7.1 75.2 100.0 24.8 5.8 911 25-49 83.4 22.6 6.3 71.1 100.0 28.9 7.4 2,275 Marital status Never married 75.7 17.2 6.3 76.5 100.0 23.5 5.3 1,044 Ever had sex 80.4 21.6 7.4 71.0 100.0 29.0 6.0 694 Never had sex 66.3 8.5 4.1 87.4 100.0 12.6 3.8 350 Married/living together 85.6 23.7 6.4 69.9 100.0 30.1 8.3 1,799 Divorced/separated/ widowed 79.9 22.4 4.5 73.0 100.0 27.0 7.3 334 Residence Urban 84.5 23.0 6.6 70.4 100.0 29.6 7.6 2,277 Rural 74.8 17.4 5.2 77.4 100.0 22.6 6.2 901 Region North 77.8 18.5 11.2 70.3 100.0 29.7 6.1 616 Central 79.0 32.1 4.4 63.5 100.0 36.5 13.6 354 East 91.5 19.9 6.9 73.2 100.0 26.8 3.6 1,060 South 85.0 31.5 7.1 61.4 100.0 38.6 14.8 493 West 68.6 13.3 0.6 86.2 100.0 13.8 4.7 654 Education Secondary or less 76.3 17.1 6.0 77.0 100.0 23.0 6.7 1,615 Higher 87.3 25.9 6.4 67.7 100.0 32.3 7.7 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 75.8 15.7 5.0 79.2 100.0 20.8 6.6 432 Second 80.8 21.6 5.9 72.5 100.0 27.5 7.4 651 Middle 83.5 23.4 7.5 69.0 100.0 31.0 8.9 622 Fourth 80.0 19.6 5.1 75.2 100.0 24.8 6.4 623 Highest 85.4 24.0 6.7 69.3 100.0 30.7 6.5 849 Total 81.7 21.4 6.2 72.4 100.0 27.6 7.2 3,178 1 Includes “don’t know/missing” knowledge of a place to get an HIV test is lowest among younger men, those who have never had sex, men with less education, and men in the lowest wealth quintile. There are large differences in knowledge of where to get an HIV test by region, ranging from 69 percent in the West region to 92 percent in the East region. One-fifth of men (21 percent) have been tested for HIV at some time and received the results of the last test, and 6 percent have been tested but did not receive the results. Men age 15-19, men who in rural areas, those who have never had sex, men with secondary or less education, and men in households in the lowest wealth quintile are less likely than men in other groups to have ever been tested for HIV and receive the test results. Men are less likely than women to have been tested in the past 12 months and to have received the test results (7 percent and 12 percent, respectively). There is little variation in testing coverage between respondents tested in the past 12 months and respondents ever tested, by background characteristics. HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 137 Men and women in the West region are consistently less likely to have ever been tested and less likely to know a place to go for HIV testing. 12.8.1 HIV Testing and Counseling for Pregnant Women One of the tragic consequences of HIV infection in women is the transmission of the virus to their children. This can occur during pregnancy, at the time of delivery, or through breastfeeding. Worldwide, the effects of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV are staggering. Table 12.11 shows that among women who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey, 58 percent received HIV counseling during antenatal care for their most recent birth, and about eight in ten of these women (79 percent) were offered and accepted an HIV test and received the results of the test. About one in two women (49 percent) who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey were counseled, were offered and voluntarily accepted an HIV test, and received the test results. The proportion of women who received the test and test results is highest in the 30-39 age group (84 percent) and is higher among urban women and those with higher education. Similar patterns are observed in the percentage of women who were counseled, tested, and received the results, by other background characteristics. Table 12.11 Pregnant women counseled and tested for HIV Among all women age 15-49 who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey, the percentage who received HIV counseling during antenatal care for their most recent birth, and percentage who accepted an offer of HIV testing by whether they received their test results, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage who received HIV counseling during antenatal care1 Percentage who were offered and accepted an HIV test during antenatal care and who: Percentage who were counseled, were offered and accepted an HIV test, and received results2 Number of women who gave birth in the past two years3 Received results Did not receive results Age 15-24 57.3 77.8 9.8 49.8 173 15-19 * * * * 18 20-24 58.8 80.8 8.3 51.9 155 25-29 56.7 75.5 9.1 46.7 129 30-39 62.2 83.7 7.5 53.6 109 40-49 * * * * 6 Residence Urban 60.5 84.4 7.1 52.8 280 Rural 52.0 66.4 13.2 42.2 137 Region North 61.9 77.1 10.0 53.4 82 Central 75.0 70.7 13.6 57.5 49 East (56.2) (93.1) (5.5) (50.7) 99 South 72.5 73.1 12.6 58.5 77 West 38.1 73.8 7.1 35.1 111 Education Secondary or less 53.3 70.5 13.0 44.1 190 Higher 61.4 85.2 5.8 53.7 228 Total 57.7 78.5 9.1 49.3 417 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 In this context, “counseled” means that someone talked with the respondent about all three of the following topics: 1) babies getting the AIDS virus from their mother, 2) preventing the virus, and 3) getting tested for the virus. 2 Only women who were offered the test are included in the table; women who were either required or asked for the test are excluded from the numerator of this measure. 3 Denominator for percentages includes women who did not receive antenatal care for their last birth in the past two years. 12.8.2 Self-Reporting of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) Information about the incidence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) is not only useful as a marker of unprotected sexual intercourse but also as a cofactor for HIV transmission. In the 2007 138 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior UDHS, respondents who had ever had sexual intercourse were asked if they had had a disease in the past 12 months that was contracted through sexual contact, or if they had ever experienced either of two symptoms associated with STIs (bad-smelling, abnormal discharge from the vagina/penis or a genital sore or ulcer). These symptoms have been shown to be useful in identifying STIs in men. They are less easily interpreted in women because women are likely to experience more non-STI conditions of the reproductive tract that produce a discharge. Table 12.12 shows the self-reported prevalence of STIs and STI symptoms for men and women. Just 1 percent of women and 2 percent of men age 15-49 reported having an STI in the past 12 months, but 5 percent of women and 2 percent of men reported having an STI or symptoms suggestive of STIs in the past 12 months. There are small variations in reported STIs and symptoms of STIs in the past 12 months among both women and men by background characteristics, except for region. Across regions, the percentage of those infected with an STI or having symptoms of an STI ranges among women from less than 1 percent in the Central region to 8 percent in the South region, while for men it ranges from less than 2 percent in the Central and East regions to 4 percent in the West region. Table 12.12 Self-reported prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and STIs symptoms Among women and men age 15-49 who have ever had sexual intercourse, the percentage who reported having an STI and/or symptoms of an STI in the past 12 months, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women Men Percentage of women who reported having in the past 12 months: Number of women who ever had sexual intercourse Percentage of men who reported having in the past 12 months: Number of men who ever had sexual intercourse STI Bad smelling/ abnormal genital discharge Genital sore or ulcer STI/genital discharge/ sore or ulcer STI Bad smelling/ abnormal genital discharge Genital sore or ulcer STI/genital discharge/ sore or ulcer Age 15-24 0.7 3.1 0.8 4.1 930 1.5 0.5 0.3 1.9 568 15-19 0.0 1.2 0.7 1.9 140 1.4 0.9 0.0 2.3 147 20-24 0.9 3.5 0.9 4.5 790 1.5 0.4 0.4 1.7 421 25-29 0.8 3.9 1.3 5.0 955 1.9 1.7 0.2 2.7 431 30-39 0.6 3.4 1.0 4.4 2,010 1.7 1.2 0.5 3.0 920 40-49 0.7 4.7 0.7 5.3 2,008 1.8 1.0 0.3 2.1 908 Marital status Never married 0.5 3.2 0.6 4.2 606 2.3 1.2 0.4 2.9 694 Married or living together 0.8 4.1 1.0 5.1 4,115 1.5 1.0 0.3 2.2 1,798 Divorced/separated/ widowed 0.5 3.5 0.7 3.9 1,181 1.9 1.1 0.1 2.6 334 Residence Urban 0.7 3.9 1.0 4.8 4,259 1.5 1.0 0.3 2.2 2,033 Rural 0.7 3.8 0.8 4.6 1,643 2.3 1.3 0.3 3.0 794 Region North 0.7 3.6 0.6 4.0 1,180 1.9 0.8 0.0 2.3 551 Central 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.4 704 1.6 0.7 0.4 1.9 323 East 0.8 4.4 1.9 6.4 1,866 1.0 0.6 0.2 1.7 954 South 0.7 7.3 0.5 7.8 891 2.5 1.1 0.5 3.2 446 West 0.8 3.0 0.5 3.3 1,261 2.3 2.4 0.6 3.5 553 Education Secondary or less 1.0 3.8 0.8 4.8 2,199 2.7 1.7 0.4 3.7 1,359 Higher 0.5 3.9 1.0 4.7 3,703 0.9 0.5 0.2 1.3 1,468 Total 0.7 3.9 0.9 4.7 5,902 1.7 1.1 0.3 2.4 2,827 Respondents who had an STI or symptoms of an STI were asked if they sought advice or treatment from any source. The findings indicate that 16 percent of women and 44 percent of men with an STI or symptoms of an STI in the past 12 months did not seek any treatment or professional medical advice for the infection (data not shown). HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 139 12.8.3 Prevalence of Medical Injections Nonsterile injections can pose a risk of infection with HIV and other diseases. Based on international epidemiological studies, the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) guidelines state that the overall risk of transmission of HIV after a needle stick from an HIV seropositive source is estimated at 0.1 to 0.3 percent (CDC, 1998). To measure the potential risk of transmission of HIV associated with medical injections, women and men who were interviewed in the 2007 UDHS were asked if they had received an injection in the past 12 months and, if so, the number of injections. They were also asked whether, for the last injection, the needle and syringe were taken from a new, unopened package. Table 12.13 shows that 21 percent of women and 19 percent of men received at least one medical injection in the past 12 months. On average, women received three injections and men received two. The proportion of women who received a medical injection increases with age. Women in their forties are more likely to have received a medical injection in the 12 months preceding the survey (24 percent) than women age 15-24 (19 percent). Rural women (22 percent) are somewhat more likely than urban women (20 percent) to receive medical injections. There are no major differences by background characteristics. Table 12.13 Prevalence of medical injections Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who received at least one medical injection in the past 12 months, the average number of medical injections per person in the past 12 months, and among those who received a medical injection, the percentage of last medical injections for which the syringe and needle were taken from a new, unopened package, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women Men Percentage who received a medical injection in the past 12 months Average number of medical injections per person in the past 12 months Number of women For last injection, syringe and needle taken from a new, unopened package Number of women receiving medical injections in the past 12 months Percentage who received a medical injection in the past 12 months Average number of medical injections per person in the past 12 months Number of men For last injection, syringe and needle taken from a new, unopened package Number of men receiving medical injections in the past 12 months Age 15-24 18.6 1.5 1,788 97.0 333 19.1 0.9 903 89.8 173 15-19 21.0 1.0 782 97.9 165 20.4 0.9 444 86.8 90 20-24 16.8 1.8 1,006 96.2 169 17.9 0.9 459 93.0 82 25-29 17.6 1.9 998 92.8 176 13.4 1.0 436 92.9 59 30-39 20.4 2.6 2,034 97.4 415 16.5 1.6 928 86.8 153 40-49 23.9 3.5 2,021 97.9 483 22.6 2.9 911 95.6 206 Residence Urban 19.9 2.4 4,887 96.5 971 18.7 1.8 2,277 92.0 426 Rural 22.4 2.7 1,954 97.7 437 18.3 1.5 901 89.7 165 Region North 20.1 3.0 1,345 97.5 270 17.4 1.8 616 96.0 107 Central 23.7 3.2 817 97.6 194 19.8 1.4 354 95.7 70 East 20.1 2.0 2,120 97.2 427 22.2 2.3 1,060 89.4 235 South 20.2 2.5 1,049 92.7 212 16.3 1.5 493 87.9 80 West 20.3 2.3 1,509 98.4 306 14.9 0.9 654 90.7 98 Education Secondary or less 20.7 2.6 2,729 97.3 566 20.4 1.9 1,615 87.5 329 Higher 20.5 2.4 4,112 96.6 842 16.8 1.4 1,563 96.2 262 Wealth quintile Lowest 21.1 2.5 847 96.0 179 20.3 2.4 432 84.9 88 Second 23.6 2.8 1,437 98.0 339 17.7 1.7 651 94.8 115 Middle 19.9 2.8 1,276 97.8 253 21.5 2.3 622 91.0 134 Fourth 20.8 2.2 1,451 96.8 302 18.6 1.3 623 94.1 116 Highest 18.3 2.2 1,831 95.6 335 16.3 1.2 849 90.7 138 Total 20.6 2.5 6,841 96.9 1,408 18.6 1.7 3,178 91.4 591 Note: Medical injections are those given by a doctor, nurse, pharmacist, dentist or other health worker. Almost all women and men who received a medical injection in the past 12 months said that for the last injection, the syringe and needle were taken from a new, unopened package (97 percent of women and 91 percent of men). Similar to the previous indicator, there were no marked variations in this indicator by background characteristics. 140 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior 12.8.4 Comprehensive HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Source of Condoms among Youth As discussed in Section 12.2, comprehensive knowledge about AIDS means knowing that consistent use of condoms during sexual intercourse and having just one uninfected faithful partner can reduce the chances of getting the AIDS virus, knowing that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus, and rejecting the two most common local misconceptions about AIDS transmission or prevention. In Ukraine, the most common local misconceptions are that AIDS can be transmitted by kissing and by sharing food and utensils with a person who has AIDS. Table 12.14 addresses comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS and knowledge of a source for condoms among persons age 15-24 years. Condom use among young adults plays an important role in the prevention of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections, as well as unwanted pregnancies. Knowledge of a source for condoms is a proxy for assessing the ability of young adults to obtain and use condoms. Young respondents were asked the same set of questions on facts and beliefs about HIV transmission as other respondents. Information on the knowledge of the major ways to avoid HIV and the rejection of major misconceptions about HIV is shown for women and men age 15-49 in Tables 12.2, 12.3.1, and 12.3.2. Table 12.14 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS and of a source of condoms among youth Percentage of young women and young men age 15-24 with comprehensive knowledge about AIDS and percentage with knowledge of a source of condoms, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women age 15-24 Men age 15-24 Percentage with comprehensive knowledge of AIDS1 Percentage who know a condom source2 Number of women Percentage with comprehensive knowledge of AIDS1 Percentage who know a condom source2 Number of men Age 15-19 38.9 94.7 782 33.2 96.8 444 15-17 40.1 94.3 486 29.2 96.3 275 18-19 37.1 95.4 297 39.5 97.6 169 20-24 49.4 96.7 1,006 52.1 98.9 459 20-22 49.3 96.4 567 51.2 99.7 265 23-24 49.5 97.0 440 53.3 97.9 194 Marital status Never married 42.5 95.3 1,206 40.3 97.8 772 Ever had sex 48.2 99.3 349 48.6 99.1 438 Never had sex 40.2 93.7 857 29.4 96.2 334 Ever married 49.6 96.8 582 57.5 98.2 131 Residence Urban 47.8 96.8 1,274 45.4 98.3 649 Rural 37.3 93.4 514 36.0 96.8 254 Region North 40.0 95.2 363 30.8 97.9 181 Central 53.5 99.7 222 41.4 99.1 102 East 50.5 99.6 504 55.7 98.3 282 South 51.1 90.6 272 56.2 99.0 144 West 33.7 93.0 426 25.9 95.8 192 Education Secondary or less 36.6 95.3 855 31.9 97.7 485 Higher 52.4 96.2 934 55.4 98.1 418 Wealth quintile Lowest 33.1 91.1 224 27.6 97.8 102 Second 40.6 95.6 390 39.9 97.6 197 Middle 45.6 96.1 335 51.4 98.4 174 Fourth 55.2 96.9 384 46.7 97.4 176 Highest 44.9 97.1 454 42.4 98.1 254 Total 15-24 44.8 95.8 1,788 42.8 97.9 903 1 Comprehensive knowledge means knowing that consistent use of condom during sexual intercourse and having just one uninfected faithful partner can reduce the chance of getting the AIDS virus, knowing that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus, and rejecting the two most common local misconceptions about AIDS transmission or prevention. The components of comprehensive knowledge are presented in Tables 12.2, 12.3.1, and 12.3.2. 2 Friends, family members and home are not considered sources for condoms. HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 141 Young women have a slightly higher level of comprehensive knowledge of AIDS than young men (45 percent compared with 43 percent). Knowledge increases with age; for example, comprehensive knowledge of AIDS among women and men age 15-19 (39 percent for women and 33 percent for men) is substantially lower than among those age 20-24 (49 percent for women and 52 percent for men). Comprehensive knowledge of AIDS is highest among ever-married women and men (50 and 58 percent, respectively) and lowest among those who never had sex (40 and 29 percent, respectively). Urban women and men have higher levels of comprehensive knowledge (48 and 45 percent, respectively) than their rural counterparts (37 and 36 percent, respectively). By region, comprehensive knowledge is lowest for young women and young men age 15-24 in the North and West regions: 40 percent for young women and 31 percent for young men in the North region, and 34 percent for young women and 26 percent for young men in the West region. The highest comprehensive knowledge of AIDS is in Central region for young women (54 percent), and East and South regions for young men (56 percent each). Comprehensive knowledge increases with education; while 37 percent of women with secondary or less education have comprehensive knowledge of AIDS, the proportion increases to 52 percent among women with higher education. For both women and men, the level of comprehensive knowledge about AIDS is lowest among those in the lowest wealth quintile. Knowledge of a source for condoms is nearly universal among women and men age 15-24; 96 percent of women and 98 percent of men know at least one source of condoms. Differences in knowledge of a condom source are small; however, it can be noted that women who had never had sex and women in the South region were less likely than other women to know of a source for condoms. For both men and women, knowledge of a condom source is higher among urban residents and those with higher education than their counterparts. 12.8.5 Trends in Age at First Sex Because HIV transmission in Ukraine occurs predominantly through heterosexual intercourse between an infected and a noninfected person, age at first intercourse marks the time at which most individuals first risk exposure to the AIDS virus. Table 12.15 shows that 1 percent of young women and 2 percent of young men age 15-24 had sexual intercourse before age 15. Twenty-eight percent of young women and 44 percent of young men age 18-24 had their first sexual experience by age 18. Young women and men who have ever been married are more likely to have had sexual intercourse before age 18 than those who have never been married. In addition, women in urban areas are more likely to have had sex by age 18 than rural women. Across regions, young women in the East and North regions (31 percent each) and young men in the Central region (58 percent) are the most likely to have had their sexual debut by age 18. On the other hand, women in the South region (19 percent) and men in the West region (34 percent) are the least likely to have sex by age 18. The proportion of young respondents who had sex before age 18 decreases with level of education, especially among women. Whereas 38 percent of women age 18-24 with secondary or less education had sex by age 18, only 23 percent of women with higher education have had sex by the same age. 142 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Table 12.15 Age at first sexual intercourse among youth Percentage of young women and of young men age 15-24 who had sexual intercourse before age 15 and percentage of young women and of young men age 18-24 who had sexual intercourse before age 18, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women age 15-24 Women age 18-24 Men age 15-24 Men age 18-24 Percentage who had sexual intercourse before age 15 Number of respondents (15-24) Percentage who had sexual intercourse before age 18 Number of respondents (18-24) Percentage who had sexual intercourse before age 15 Number of respondents (15-24) Percentage who had sexual intercourse before age 18 Number of respondents (18-24) Age 15-19 1.0 782 na na 2.9 444 na na 15-17 1.0 486 na na 2.5 275 na na 18-19 1.0 297 24.6 297 3.5 169 39.8 169 20-24 1.2 1,006 28.9 1,006 1.1 459 45.4 459 20-22 1.0 567 25.4 567 0.6 265 43.4 265 23-24 1.4 440 33.4 440 1.8 194 48.1 194 Marital status Never married 0.6 1,206 17.8 734 2.0 772 42.5 499 Ever married 2.2 582 40.9 568 1.7 131 49.0 129 Residence Urban 1.1 1,274 29.0 962 2.2 649 44.0 464 Rural 1.0 514 24.7 340 1.4 254 43.4 164 Region North 1.0 363 30.8 279 2.5 181 42.0 133 Central 1.3 222 27.0 161 2.8 102 58.3 72 East 1.5 504 31.4 363 1.6 282 46.2 196 South 0.8 272 19.2 190 4.2 144 43.1 106 West 0.7 426 27.0 310 0.0 192 34.1 121 Education Secondary or less 1.1 855 38.0 433 2.5 485 49.1 241 Higher 1.1 934 22.9 870 1.4 418 40.6 387 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.6 224 35.1 140 1.4 102 50.2 67 Second 0.7 390 23.8 259 1.2 197 48.8 129 Middle 1.7 335 24.0 252 3.7 174 47.8 116 Fourth 1.2 384 30.2 285 2.7 176 36.8 124 Highest 0.7 454 28.9 366 1.2 254 40.6 192 Total 15-24 1.1 1,788 27.9 1,303 2.0 903 43.9 628 na = Not available 12.8.6 Condom Use at First Sex Consistent condom use is advocated by HIV control programs to reduce the risk of sexual transmission of HIV among sexually active young adults. Young adults who use condoms at first sex are more likely to sustain condom use later in life. Condom use at first sex serves as an indicator of reduced risk of exposure at the beginning of sexual activity. Table 12.16 shows that 45 percent of young women and 50 percent of young men used a condom at their first sexual intercourse. Men are more likely than women to report condom use by almost all background characteristics. For example, among respondents age 15-19, 59 percent of men used a condom at first sexual intercourse compared with 56 percent of women. For those age 20-24, the percentages are 47 percent for men and 44 percent for women. Among women, urban residents are much more likely than rural residents to report condom use at first sexual intercourse (49 percent compared with 33 percent). However, this is not the case for men. Urban and rural men are equally likely to have used a condom at first sexual intercourse (50 percent each). Use of condoms at first sex by young women is lowest in the West region (32 percent) and highest in the East region (65 percent). For men, the percentages range from 39 percent in the East region to 68 percent in the North region. Notably, women are more likely than men to use a condom at first intercourse in the Central and East regions. Among young women, there is a positive relationship between level of education and wealth and use of a condom at first sexual intercourse. Among young men, the difference by education is marginal; however, young men from households in the highest wealth quintile are most likely to use a condom at first sexual intercourse. HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 143 Table 12.16 Condom use at first sexual intercourse among youth Among young women and young men age 15-24 who have ever had sexual intercourse, percentage who used a condom the first time they had sexual intercourse, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women age 15-24 Men age 15-24 Percentage who used a condom at first sexual intercourse Number of respondents who have ever had sexual intercourse Percentage who used a condom at first sexual intercourse Number of respondents who have ever had sexual intercourse Age 15-19 55.8 140 58.7 147 15-17 (58.6) 38 (53.3) 47 18-19 54.8 103 61.2 100 20-24 43.6 790 47.1 421 20-22 45.3 396 49.5 229 23-24 41.8 394 44.2 192 Marital status Never married 64.4 349 52.9 438 Ever married 34.0 581 40.6 130 Residence Urban 49.2 711 50.2 416 Rural 33.2 219 49.9 152 Region North 34.6 210 67.7 116 Central 47.3 116 43.9 73 East 65.1 278 39.3 185 South 38.9 129 58.8 98 West 32.3 197 45.5 96 Education Secondary or less 39.3 346 48.4 240 Higher 49.0 584 51.3 329 Wealth quintile Lowest 31.7 101 42.7 63 Second 38.0 170 40.0 125 Middle 45.4 184 55.4 116 Fourth 55.2 204 42.6 102 Highest 47.9 270 61.7 162 Total 15-24 45.4 930 50.1 568 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 12.8.7 Abstinence and Premarital Sex Premarital sex and the interval between sexual initiation and marriage are among the factors contributing to the spread of HIV infection. Table 12.17 shows, for never-married women and men age 15-24, the percentage who have never had sex, the percentage who had sex in the past 12 months, and among those who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage who used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Never-married young women age 15-19 show a relatively high level of abstinence: 88 percent have never had sexual intercourse, compared with 46 percent of women age 20-24. The figures differ substantially for men: 69 percent of young men age 15-19 have never had sex, compared with 11 percent among those age 20-24. Rural youth are more likely to abstain (83 percent of women and 46 percent of men) than urban youth (66 percent of women and 42 percent of men). The percentage of young women who have never had sexual intercourse is highest in the South region (83 percent) and lowest in the East region (61 percent). Among men, the percentage that have abstained from sex ranges from 33 percent in the Central region to 55 percent in the West region. Less educated youth and women in the lowest wealth quintiles are more likely than other youth to abstain. There is no clear relationship between wealth and premarital sexual experience among men. 144 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Table 12.17 Premarital sexual intercourse and condom use during premarital sexual intercourse among youth Among never-married women and men age 15-24, the percentage who have never had sexual intercourse, the percentage who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, and, among those who had premarital sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage who used a condom at the last sexual intercourse, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Never-married women age 15-24 Never-married men age 15-24 Percentage who have never had sexual intercourse Percentage who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months Number of never married women Among women who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months Percentage who have never had sexual intercourse Percentage who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months Number of never married men Among men who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months Percentage who used condom at last sexual intercourse Number of women Percentage who used condom at last sexual intercourse Number of men Age 15-19 87.7 11.3 731 74.8 83 68.7 28.9 430 71.7 124 15-17 94.7 4.9 472 (70.1) 23 83.4 14.6 273 (69.0) 40 18-19 74.9 23.1 259 76.6 60 43.4 53.8 157 73.0 85 20-24 45.5 48.6 476 71.9 231 11.1 86.4 342 67.5 295 20-22 51.8 42.9 329 77.2 141 15.6 81.4 228 68.1 186 23-24 31.4 61.6 146 63.5 90 2.2 96.3 114 66.5 109 Residence Urban 66.2 30.2 849 74.2 257 42.2 56.3 550 71.6 309 Rural 82.5 16.0 357 65.8 57 45.8 49.7 223 60.8 111 Region North 72.0 24.6 212 67.5 52 40.7 57.3 159 80.5 91 Central 70.6 23.6 151 78.0 36 33.2 64.0 88 75.0 56 East 61.2 36.7 370 71.8 136 42.7 54.7 229 63.0 125 South 82.6 16.2 173 (64.1) 28 37.5 60.8 122 80.0 74 West 76.2 20.7 302 79.5 63 55.4 41.8 174 47.6 73 Education Secondary or less 83.0 14.5 612 66.8 88 56.7 41.3 432 65.1 178 Higher 58.8 37.9 595 74.9 225 26.2 70.9 340 71.5 241 Wealth quintile Lowest 78.1 21.2 158 (61.8) 34 44.7 51.5 87 57.7 45 Second 81.8 15.8 269 (58.7) 42 42.6 53.9 169 59.3 91 Middle 71.0 24.0 211 78.4 51 38.9 58.8 147 64.0 86 Fourth 67.6 29.2 266 71.9 78 48.8 48.3 151 77.8 73 Highest 60.9 36.2 302 79.3 109 42.1 57.1 217 77.7 124 Total 15-24 71.1 26.0 1,206 72.6 314 43.2 54.4 772 68.7 420 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. Among never-married women and men age 15-24, 26 percent of women and 54 percent of men had sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey. Almost half (49 percent) of never- married women age 20-24 had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, compared with about one- tenth (11 percent) of women age 15-19. Among young men, 29 percent of those age 15-19 were sexually active in the past year, compared with 86 percent of men age 20-24. Urban residents are much more likely to have had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months (30 percent of young women and 56 percent of young men) than rural residents (16 percent of young women and 50 percent of young men). Across regions, 16 percent of young women in the South region had sexual intercourse in the past year, compared with 37 percent in the East region. Among young men, the percentage that had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months was highest in the Central region (64 percent) and lowest in the West (42 percent). Less educated women and men age 15-24 are less likely than those with higher education to report recent sexual intercourse. Recent premarital sexual intercourse among youth generally increases with household wealth. A large proportion of never-married women and men reported using a condom at last sexual intercourse in the 12 months before the survey (73 percent of women and 69 percent of men). While there are no significant differences by age, it is notable that never-married youth in urban areas are more likely to use condoms than youth in rural areas. Furthermore, youth report greater use of condoms if they have higher education and live in households in the higher wealth quintiles. HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 145 12.8.8 Higher-Risk Sex and Condom Use among Young Adults Tables 12.18.1 and 12.18.2 show the proportion of young men and women age 15- 24 who engaged in higher-risk sex1 in the 12 months preceding the survey among those who were sexually active during this period. The tables also show the proportion who used a condom at last higher-risk sex among young men and women age 15-24 who engaged in higher-risk sexual intercourse in the 12 months before the survey. Overall, 46 percent of young women age 15-24 report having had higher-risk sex- ual intercourse during the 12 months preced- ing the survey (Table 12.18.1). Younger women are much more likely to engage in higher-risk sexual intercourse than older women (70 percent for women age 15-19, compared with 42 percent for women age 20- 24). Sixteen percent of ever-married young women age 15-24 who were sexually active during the 12 months preceding the survey were engaged in higher-risk sexual inter- course. Urban women are more likely to have higher-risk sexual intercourse than rural women (49 percent and 35 percent, respectively). More than one-third of women (36 percent) with secondary or less education reported that they had had higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, compared with one in two women (51 percent) with higher education. The percentage of young women who had recent higher-risk sexual intercourse generally increases with house- hold wealth. Sixty-eight percent of women age 15- 24 who had higher-risk sexual intercourse in the 12 months before the survey reported using a condom at their last higher-risk intercourse. Women age 15-19 are more likely to report using a condom at last higher-risk sexual intercourse than those age 20-24 (73 percent, compared with 67 percent). Condom use at last higher-risk sexual intercourse was reported by 69 percent of young women in urban areas, compared with 65 percent of those in rural areas. By region, women in the West region are most likely to use a condom (79 percent) at last higher-risk sex. Higher education and household wealth are positively related to use of a condom at last higher-risk sexual intercourse among young women. Eighty-five percent of men age 15-24 who were sexually active during the 12 months preceding the survey engaged in higher-risk sex during that period, and 71 percent of those reported using a condom at last higher-risk sex (Table 12.18.2). Higher-risk sex is more common among men age 15-19 than those age 20-24 (96 percent, compared with 82 percent). Four in ten ever-married young men had higher-risk sex in the past year. There are no major variations in recent exposure of 1 Sexual intercourse with a nonmarital, noncohabiting partner. Table 12.18.1 Higher-risk sexual intercourse among youth and condom use at last higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months: women Among young women age 15-24 who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage who had higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, and among those having higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage reporting that a condom was used at last higher-risk intercourse, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Among women age 15-24 who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: Among women age 15-24 who had higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months: Percentage who had higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months1 Number of women Percentage who reported using a condom at last higher-risk intercourse1 Number of women Age 15-19 69.5 132 72.7 91 15-17 (76.4) 35 (64.8) 27 18-19 66.9 96 76.0 64 20-24 41.7 733 67.1 306 20-22 47.0 370 73.9 174 23-24 36.3 363 58.0 132 Marital status Never married 99.2 314 72.7 311 Ever married 15.6 551 52.4 86 Residence Urban 49.1 666 69.2 327 Rural 35.2 199 64.5 70 Region North 41.1 194 59.3 80 Central 40.8 107 76.6 44 East 61.8 264 68.3 163 South 34.1 123 59.1 42 West 38.8 178 79.4 69 Education Secondary or less 36.0 309 64.6 111 Higher 51.4 555 69.8 286 Wealth quintile Lowest 40.3 95 (60.3) 38 Second 35.2 155 59.9 54 Middle 42.5 170 72.0 72 Fourth 54.8 189 69.5 103 Highest 50.2 257 71.3 129 Total 15-24 45.9 865 68.4 397 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Sexual intercourse with a nonmarital, noncohabiting partner 146 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior young men to higher-risk sex by urban-rural residence, education, or household wealth. Seventy-four percent of young men in urban areas reported condom use at last higher-risk sex compared with 64 percent of those in rural areas. Unlike women, men in the West region are markedly less likely to have used a condom at last higher-risk sex (47 percent), compared with men in other regions (70-81 percent). The proportion of young men age 15-24 who reported condom use at last higher-risk sexual intercourse increases with education and household wealth. Table 12.18.2 Higher-risk sexual intercourse among youth and condom use at last higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months: men Among young men age 15-24 who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage who had higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, and among those having higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage reporting that a condom was used at last higher-risk intercourse, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Among men age 15- 24 who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: Among men age 15-24 who had higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months: Percentage who had higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months1 Number of men Percentage who reported using a condom at last higher-risk intercourse1 Number of men Age 15-19 95.9 137 74.4 131 15-17 (100.0) 42 (70.4) 42 18-19 94.1 95 76.2 90 20-24 81.9 412 69.7 337 20-22 91.6 222 70.3 203 23-24 70.7 190 68.8 134 Marital status Never married 99.6 420 69.0 418 Ever married 39.1 129 (87.5) 50 Residence Urban 85.1 408 73.5 347 Rural 86.5 141 64.0 122 Region North 85.5 113 80.5 96 Central 82.8 71 74.4 58 East 91.9 178 70.5 163 South 79.8 96 80.6 77 West 80.8 91 47.1 74 Education Secondary or less 85.4 231 67.5 197 Higher 85.4 318 73.5 271 Wealth quintile Lowest 90.7 58 60.5 53 Second 81.1 119 63.2 97 Middle 87.6 112 66.4 98 Fourth 85.5 98 82.0 84 Highest 85.2 160 77.2 137 Total 15-24 85.4 549 71.0 469 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Sexual intercourse with a nonmarital, noncohabiting partner 12.8.9 Cross-generational Sexual Partners Research around the world points to a continuing increase in rates of HIV infection among women, particularly women in Africa, Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean. A substantial proportion of HIV/AIDS cases occur among young women age 15-29, indicating that many of these women were infected with HIV as adolescents. Anatomical, biological, and other factors contribute to young women’s heightened vulnerability to HIV/AIDS. The gender variable—while routinely and automatically acknowledged as important—goes beyond clinical and treatment issues, and even beyond anatomical, male-female differences. Twenty years into the HIV/AIDS epidemic, gender and the role it plays remains unclear (Rivers and Aggleton, 1999). HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 147 This section examines the prevalence of sexual intercourse between partners with large age differences. Women age 15-19 who had higher-risk sexual intercourse in the 12 months before the survey were asked the age of all their partners. In the event they did not know a partner’s exact age, they were asked if the partner was older or younger than they were, and if older, whether the partner was 10 or more years older. The results are shown in Table 12.19. Overall, 4 percent of young women who had higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past year said that they had had sexual intercourse with a man 10 or more years older. The likelihood of a woman having higher-risk sexual intercourse with an older man is highest among women age 18-19 (6 percent). 12.8.10 Drunkenness During Sex Among Young Adults Engaging in sexual intercourse while under the influence of alcohol can impair judgment, compromise power relations, and contribute to risky sexual behavior. Respondents who had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey were asked (for each partner) if they or their partner drank alcohol the last time they had sex with that partner, and whether they or their partner was drunk. Table 12.20 shows the proportion of women and men age 15–24 who had sexual intercourse while being drunk or had sexual intercourse with a partner who was drunk in the past 12 months. Two percent of young women and 8 percent of men reported being drunk while having sexual intercourse in the past 12 months. These figures increase to 3 percent for young women and 9 percent for young men when sexual intercourse in the past 12 months with a partner who was drunk is added. For women and men, the likelihood of having sexual intercourse while drunk or with a partner who is drunk increases with age. Never-married men are more likely than ever-married men to have had sexual intercourse when they or their partner was drunk. Further, while there is no variation by urban-rural residence for men, women in urban areas are two times more likely than women in rural areas to have been under the influence of alcohol during sexual intercourse or have a partner who was under the influence (4 percent and 2 percent, respectively). Regionally, women’s reported prevalence of sexual intercourse while they or their partner was drunk is highest in the North and South regions (6 percent), while for men it is highest in the North and West regions (11 percent, each). Table 12.19 Age-mixing in sexual rela- tionships among women age 15-19 and 15-24 Percentage of women age 15-19 and 15- 24 who had higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months with a man who was 10 or more years older than themselves, Ukraine 2007 Age Percentage of women who had higher-risk intercourse with a man 10+ years older1 Number of women who had higher-risk intercourse in the past 12 months1 15-19 4.2 91 15-17 (0.0) 27 18-19 5.9 64 15-24 4.3 397 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Sexual intercourse with a nonmarital, noncohabiting partner 148 | HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Table 12.20 Drunkenness during sexual intercourse among youth Among all young women and young men age 15-24, the percentage who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months while being drunk and percentage who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months when drunk or with a partner who was drunk, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Women age 15-24 Men age 15-24 Percentage who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months when drunk Percentage who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months when drunk or with a partner who was drunk Number of women Percentage who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months when drunk Percentage who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months when drunk or with a partner who was drunk Number of men Age 15-19 1.0 1.7 782 5.2 5.4 444 15-17 0.2 0.8 486 4.0 4.0 275 18-19 2.5 3.2 297 7.2 7.7 169 20-24 3.1 4.5 1,006 10.8 11.9 459 20-22 3.2 4.7 567 11.0 12.1 265 23-24 3.0 4.3 440 10.6 11.7 194 Marital status Never married 2.4 3.2 1,206 8.9 9.3 772 Ever married 1.7 3.5 582 2.9 5.3 131 Residence Urban 2.6 3.8 1,274 7.7 8.6 649 Rural 1.2 2.1 514 9.0 9.2 254 Region North 3.1 5.6 363 9.6 10.6 181 Central 0.2 1.8 222 8.4 8.9 102 East 1.7 1.7 504 4.7 5.5 282 South 4.4 5.7 272 8.7 10.0 144 West 1.6 2.5 426 10.8 10.8 192 Education Secondary or less 1.5 2.8 855 8.0 8.5 485 Higher 2.9 3.8 934 8.1 9.0 418 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.1 2.2 224 10.7 10.7 102 Second 1.8 3.0 390 8.6 9.3 197 Middle 3.0 3.4 335 6.7 7.1 174 Fourth 2.9 4.2 384 6.8 8.0 176 Highest 1.9 3.2 454 8.3 9.0 254 Total 15-24 2.2 3.3 1,788 8.0 8.7 903 12.8.11 Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing among Young Adults Table 12.21 shows that 19 percent of sexually active women age 15-24 and 8 percent of sexu- ally active men age 15-24 were tested for HIV in the 12 months preceding the survey and received the test results. Women in all subgroups are much more likely than men to have taken the test and received the results. For example, 20 percent of women age 20-24 were tested for HIV and received the results in the past 12 months, compared with 8 percent of men in the same age group. It is possible that most of these women were tested during pregnancy. For example, among women age 20-24 who gave birth in the past two years, 81 percent reported having been tested and received results, and 52 percent reported they were counseled, were offered and accepted an HIV test, and received the results (Table 12.11). Ever-married respondents and those who live in urban areas are more likely than other respondents to know their HIV status. Twenty-two percent of ever-married women have been tested for HIV in the past year and received results, compared with 15 percent of never-married women. Young women with secondary or less education are more likely to know their HIV status than young women with higher education. Regionally, young women and men in the South region reported the highest coverage for HIV testing (25 percent and 18 percent, respectively), while young women in the West region (12 percent) and young men in the East region (3 percent) reported the lowest coverage. HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior | 149 Table 12.21 Recent HIV tests among youth Among young women and young men age 15-24 who have had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage who have had an HIV test in the past 12 months and received the results of the test, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Among women age 15-24 who have had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: Among men age 15-24 who have had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: Percentage who have been tested for HIV and received results in the past 12 months Number of women Percentage who have been tested for HIV and received results in the past 12 months Number of men Age 15-19 18.0 132 7.0 137 15-17 (12.7) 35 (7.9) 42 18-19 19.9 96 6.6 95 20-24 19.7 733 8.4 412 20-22 19.9 370 7.1 222 23-24 19.5 363 10.0 190 Marital status Never married 14.6 314 6.3 420 Ever married 22.2 551 13.9 129 Residence Urban 19.8 666 8.9 408 Rural 18.4 199 5.7 141 Region North 18.4 194 4.9 113 Central 21.5 107 13.3 71 East 21.8 264 3.0 178 South 24.9 123 18.1 96 West 12.0 178 7.2 91 Education Secondary or less 23.7 309 8.5 231 Higher 17.0 555 7.8 318 Wealth quintile Lowest 17.4 95 5.3 58 Second 21.0 155 9.8 119 Middle 14.5 170 8.5 112 Fourth 17.3 189 7.2 98 Highest 24.1 257 8.1 160 Total 15-24 19.4 865 8.1 549 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes | 151 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT AND DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH OUTCOMES 13 This chapter presents information on indicators of women’s empowerment, develops three empowerment indices, and relates these indices to select demographic and health outcomes. The study of women’s status and empowerment is important on its own, but takes on a special significance in conjunction with the study of demographic and health outcomes. As caretakers for children, women are the focus of a number of population, health, and nutrition programs. The constraints women face in obtaining information about, accessing, and utilizing these programs are inherently tied to their status in society, but also their status in the home. The 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) Women’s Questionnaire collected data on the general background characteristics of women (e.g., age, education, wealth quintile, employment status) but also data relating to women’s empowerment, such as receipt of cash earnings, the magnitude of women’s earnings relative to those of their husband/partner,1 and women’s control over the use of their own earnings and those of their husband/partner. This chapter presents these indicators of women’s empowerment. The 2007 UDHS Women’s Questionnaire also collected data on women’s participation in household decisionmaking, the circumstances under which women feel that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband/partner, and attitudes toward wife beating. Three separate indices of empowerment are developed based on the number of household decisions in which the woman participates, her opinion on the number of circumstances for which a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband/partner, and her opinion on the number of reasons that justify wife beating. The ranking of women on these three indices is then examined according to selected demographic and health outcomes including contraceptive use, ideal family size, and unmet need for contraception. 13.1 EMPLOYMENT AND CASH EARNINGS In the 2007 UDHS, respondents were asked a number of questions to determine their employment status at the time of the survey and the continuity of their employment in the 12 months preceding the survey. They were also asked about the form of payment received for their work. Table 13.1 shows the percentage of currently married women and men who were employed at any time during the past 12 months and the percent distribution of those employed during that time by the type of earnings received (cash, in-kind, or both). 1 For the rest of this chapter the term “husband” refers both to the current or most recent husband (for currently married or formerly [legally] married women) and to the current or most recent partner (for women who currently live or formerly lived together with their partner in an informal union). 152 | Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes Table 13.1 Employment and cash earnings of currently married women and men Percentage of currently married women and men age 15-49 who were employed at any time in the past 12 months and the percent distribution of currently married women and men employed in the past 12 months by type of earnings, according to age, Ukraine 2007 Currently married respondents Percent distribution of currently married respondents employed in the past 12 months, by type of earnings Age Percentage employed Number of respondents Cash only Cash and in-kind In-kind only Not paid Missing Total Number of respondents WOMEN 15-19 33.9 45 * * * * * 100.0 15 20-24 65.2 472 96.4 2.1 0.0 0.9 0.6 100.0 308 25-29 78.5 691 97.5 1.7 0.3 0.5 0.0 100.0 543 30-34 83.9 709 96.1 3.6 0.1 0.0 0.2 100.0 594 35-39 82.7 770 94.8 3.8 0.0 1.1 0.3 100.0 637 40-44 84.1 680 96.6 2.0 0.4 1.0 0.0 100.0 572 45-49 83.9 750 95.0 2.8 0.3 1.3 0.5 100.0 629 Total 80.1 4,116 95.9 2.8 0.2 0.8 0.3 100.0 3,298 MEN 15-19 * 13 * * * * * 100.0 9 20-24 94.5 104 95.7 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99 25-29 97.8 263 92.3 5.0 1.2 1.5 0.0 100.0 257 30-34 96.6 331 92.6 5.0 1.1 1.3 0.0 100.0 319 35-39 96.2 351 90.7 7.8 0.6 0.9 0.0 100.0 338 40-44 96.9 317 91.3 7.8 0.3 0.5 0.0 100.0 307 45-49 93.1 420 88.8 7.9 1.0 2.4 0.0 100.0 391 Total 95.6 1,799 91.3 6.7 0.8 1.3 0.0 100.0 1,720 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. According to the 2007 UDHS data, eight in ten currently married women and more than nine in ten currently married men (96 percent) were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey. Younger women, especially those age 15-19 and 20-24, were less likely to be employed than older women. These women may have been in school or in training rather than in the job market. As women get older, the likelihood of their being employed increases, from 34 percent among women age 15-19 to 84 percent among those age 40-49. There are no substantial variations in the employment of currently married men by age. For women and men who were employed in the past 12 months, the majority (96 percent of women and 91 percent of men) received only cash for their work, while 3 percent of women and 7 percent of men received cash and in-kind earnings. About 1 percent of both women and men did not receive any payment at all. 13.2 USE OF EARNINGS The 2007 UDHS included a number of questions that were intended to assess the magnitude of women’s earnings relative to those of their husband, women’s control over the use of their earnings, and women’s participation in decisions on how their husband’s earnings are used. This information has implications for the empowerment of women. Employment and earnings are more likely to empower women if their earnings are perceived as significant relative to those of their husband and if women themselves control their own earnings. Women are also empowered if they have a voice in how their husbands’ earnings are spent. Table 13.2.1 shows how women’s control over their own earnings and their perception of the magnitude of their earnings relative to those of their husband varies by background characteristics. Among married women receiving cash earnings, more than one-third (35 percent) mainly decide themselves how to use the money, while more than six in ten (63 percent) decide jointly with their husband. Only 1 percent of women say that mainly their husband decides on the allocation of the woman’s earnings. Women with fewer children, urban women, and women in the North region are more likely to decide themselves on how their earnings are used, compared with other groups of women. Among regions, women’s independence in decisionmaking on the use of their earnings ranges from 24 percent in the West region to 48 percent in the North region. Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes | 153 Table 13.2.1 Control over women’s cash earnings and relative magnitude of women’s earnings: women Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 who received cash earnings for employment in the 12 months preceding the survey by person who decides how wife’s cash earnings are used and by whether she earned more or less than her husband, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Person who decides how wife’s cash earnings are used Wife’s cash earnings compared with husband’s cash earnings Background characteristic Mainly wife Wife and husband jointly Mainly husband Other Missing Total More Less About the same Husband/ partner has no earnings Don’t know/ Missing Total Number of women Age 15-19 * * * * * 100.0 * * * * * 100.0 13 20-24 38.2 59.4 0.6 0.0 1.8 100.0 4.6 72.3 17.0 1.9 4.1 100.0 303 25-29 35.7 61.4 1.7 0.0 1.2 100.0 6.7 69.5 19.0 0.9 3.9 100.0 538 30-34 32.4 65.8 1.0 0.1 0.7 100.0 8.0 67.0 20.5 1.2 3.2 100.0 592 35-39 32.9 64.5 1.9 0.2 0.6 100.0 9.8 65.3 21.1 1.1 2.6 100.0 629 40-44 37.7 61.5 0.3 0.0 0.4 100.0 10.7 62.4 23.9 1.5 1.6 100.0 564 45-49 37.2 62.1 0.4 0.0 0.3 100.0 12.2 59.1 25.7 0.6 2.4 100.0 616 Number of living children 0 41.7 54.3 1.5 0.0 2.6 100.0 8.0 59.8 22.0 2.7 7.5 100.0 398 1-2 34.6 63.9 1.0 0.1 0.5 100.0 9.2 66.4 21.2 1.0 2.2 100.0 2,678 3+ 32.4 66.1 1.1 0.0 0.4 100.0 9.4 61.8 25.6 1.5 1.8 100.0 181 Residence Urban 37.1 60.9 1.1 0.0 0.8 100.0 7.7 67.1 21.0 1.1 3.0 100.0 2,416 Rural 30.2 68.5 0.8 0.0 0.4 100.0 12.9 60.2 23.1 1.5 2.3 100.0 840 Region North 47.6 51.5 0.6 0.1 0.2 100.0 10.8 69.0 17.2 1.7 1.4 100.0 750 Central 30.1 66.5 2.7 0.0 0.7 100.0 9.2 70.7 17.8 1.1 1.2 100.0 381 East 37.2 61.7 0.6 0.0 0.4 100.0 6.6 64.4 24.3 0.9 3.7 100.0 1,003 South 31.0 64.6 1.8 0.2 2.3 100.0 8.8 61.1 25.9 1.1 3.2 100.0 489 West 24.3 74.5 0.6 0.0 0.7 100.0 11.0 62.4 21.4 1.4 3.8 100.0 633 Education Secondary or less 36.1 62.1 1.1 0.1 0.7 100.0 7.7 67.0 20.8 1.5 3.0 100.0 1,117 Higher 35.0 63.2 1.0 0.0 0.8 100.0 9.7 64.5 22.0 1.0 2.8 100.0 2,139 Wealth quintile Lowest 33.6 65.1 0.9 0.0 0.4 100.0 17.7 58.6 20.1 2.4 1.3 100.0 309 Second 28.9 69.3 1.2 0.2 0.4 100.0 10.6 62.1 22.4 1.7 3.2 100.0 648 Middle 29.4 68.5 1.0 0.0 1.1 100.0 9.5 64.8 21.4 0.9 3.4 100.0 612 Fourth 37.3 61.7 0.2 0.0 0.8 100.0 6.6 68.1 21.5 1.3 2.5 100.0 674 Highest 42.3 55.4 1.5 0.0 0.8 100.0 6.8 67.9 21.6 0.7 3.0 100.0 1,013 Total 35.3 62.8 1.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 9.0 65.3 21.6 1.2 2.8 100.0 3,256 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Table 13.2.1 shows that about two-thirds of married women (65 percent) reported that they earn less than their husband, while more than one in five (22 percent) earn the same as their husband. About one in ten married women (9 percent) reported earning more cash than her husband. Table 13.2.2 looks at the issue of who controls men’s cash earnings from the perspective of the wife and the husband. Among married men receiving cash earnings, about one in ten decide themselves how to use the money they earn, while about eight in ten (78 percent) decide jointly with their wife. Interestingly, around one in eight (12 percent) married men say that their wife controls how their cash earnings are used. Men age 25-29, men living in the Central region, and those with secondary or less education are more likely to decide by themselves how their earnings are used, compared with other groups of men. Among married women whose husbands earned cash in the past year, 8 percent reported that the husband mainly decides how his cash earnings are used, while 13 percent reported that the wife mainly makes that decision. The majority of currently married women (78 percent) reported that they and their husband decide jointly how the husband’s earnings are used. Overall, older women, women in the East and South regions, and women with secondary or less education are somewhat more likely than other women to be the main decisionmakers on how their husband’s cash earnings are used. 154 | Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes Table 13.2.2 Control over men’s cash earnings Percent distribution of currently married men age 15-49 who receive cash earnings and of currently married women 15-49 whose husbands receive cash earnings, by person who decides how husband’s cash earnings are used, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Men Women with cash earnings Person who decides how husband’s cash earnings are used Person who decides how husband’s cash earnings are used Background characteristic Mainly wife Husband and wife jointly Mainly husband Other Missing Total Number of men with cash earnings Mainly wife Husband and wife jointly Mainly husband Other Missing Total Number of women whose husbands have cash earnings Age 15-19 * * * * * 100.0 9 * * * * * 100.0 11 20-24 4.1 86.3 9.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 99 6.0 79.3 12.6 0.0 2.1 100.0 297 25-29 9.5 78.0 11.9 0.0 0.6 100.0 250 12.0 76.6 9.4 0.0 1.9 100.0 532 30-34 8.1 80.7 9.6 0.3 1.4 100.0 312 10.7 80.0 8.0 0.1 1.2 100.0 583 35-39 11.7 78.8 8.1 0.0 1.5 100.0 333 10.8 80.6 7.5 0.0 1.1 100.0 616 40-44 10.8 78.8 10.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 304 16.6 75.1 7.8 0.0 0.6 100.0 552 45-49 20.9 71.0 7.4 0.4 0.3 100.0 378 16.1 76.5 6.0 0.1 1.3 100.0 611 Residence Urban 12.9 76.6 9.4 0.2 0.9 100.0 1,252 12.2 77.4 9.0 0.0 1.4 100.0 2,381 Rural 9.8 80.3 9.6 0.0 0.3 100.0 432 13.2 79.9 5.7 0.1 1.1 100.0 821 Region North 8.2 83.6 5.4 0.0 2.8 100.0 342 12.0 81.1 6.2 0.1 0.6 100.0 736 Central 8.5 78.0 13.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 198 14.1 79.2 6.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 375 East 20.8 68.0 10.7 0.3 0.2 100.0 583 14.9 70.6 13.5 0.0 1.0 100.0 991 South 9.6 81.8 8.3 0.3 0.0 100.0 259 14.9 77.8 4.0 0.1 3.2 100.0 483 West 4.1 85.1 10.1 0.0 0.7 100.0 302 6.4 85.7 6.4 0.0 1.5 100.0 618 Education Secondary or less 12.9 75.5 10.5 0.1 1.0 100.0 799 15.1 75.3 8.2 0.1 1.3 100.0 1,093 Higher 11.4 79.3 8.5 0.2 0.6 100.0 885 11.2 79.4 8.1 0.0 1.3 100.0 2,109 Wealth quintile Lowest 10.6 79.6 9.1 0.4 0.3 100.0 186 12.7 79.2 6.7 0.2 1.2 100.0 299 Second 12.1 77.1 10.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 347 12.2 80.6 6.1 0.0 1.0 100.0 633 Middle 10.7 78.9 9.7 0.5 0.3 100.0 337 13.1 79.8 5.6 0.0 1.5 100.0 604 Fourth 9.0 77.2 11.6 0.0 2.2 100.0 328 12.5 77.2 9.1 0.0 1.2 100.0 661 Highest 15.7 76.3 7.1 0.0 0.9 100.0 486 12.3 75.5 10.8 0.0 1.5 100.0 1,006 Total 12.1 77.5 9.5 0.1 0.8 100.0 1,684 12.5 78.0 8.1 0.0 1.3 100.0 3,203 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Table 13.3 shows, for currently married women who earned cash in the past 12 months, the person who decides how their cash earnings are used, and for all currently married women whose husbands earned cash in the past 12 months, the person who decides how their husband’s cash earnings are used, according to the relative magnitude of the woman’s earnings compared with her husband’s earnings. The majority of women reported that decisions about how their earnings or their husband’s earnings are used are made jointly. As expected, however, women are more likely to decide themselves how their cash earnings are used if their husband has no cash earnings or does not work. Women making more money than their husband are also more likely than other women to say they mainly decide how their own cash earnings are used. Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes | 155 Table 13.3 Women’s control over their own earnings and over those of their husband Percent distributions of currently married women age 15-49 with cash earnings in the past 12 months by person who decides how wife’s cash earnings are used, and percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 whose husbands have cash earnings by person who decides how husband’s cash earnings are used, according to woman’s cash earnings relative to husband’s cash earnings, Ukraine 2007 Person who decides how wife’s cash earnings are used Person who decides how husband’s cash earnings are used Woman’s earnings relative to husband’s earnings Mainly wife Wife and husband jointly Mainly husband Total2 Number of women with cash earnings Mainly wife Wife and husband jointly Mainly husband Total2 Number of women whose husbands have cash earnings More than husband/partner 47.1 52.4 0.5 100.0 294 21.9 67.9 8.6 100.0 286 Less than husband/partner 35.5 63.0 1.5 100.0 2,127 13.2 79.0 7.2 100.0 2,126 Same as husband/partner 25.7 74.2 0.1 100.0 702 7.3 85.4 7.0 100.0 699 Husband/partner has no cash earnings or does not work (69.9) (29.1) (0.0) 100.0 39 na na na 0.0 0 Woman worked but has no cash earnings na na na 0.0 0 (10.6) (69.7) (17.2) 100.0 41 Woman does not work na na na 0.0 0 9.0 80.0 9.7 100.0 802 Total1 35.3 62.8 1.0 100.0 3,256 11.8 78.3 8.5 100.0 4,046 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. na = Not applicable 1 Excludes cases where a woman or her husband/partner has no earnings and includes cases where a woman does not know whether she earned more or less than her husband/partner and includes 93 women with cash earnings and 92 women whose husbands have cash earnings with information missing on women’s earnings relative to husband’s earnings 2 Includes Others and Missing 13.3 HOUSEHOLD DECISIONMAKING To assess women’s decisionmaking autonomy, information was collected in the 2007 UDHS on women’s participation in decisions on four types of issues: the respondent’s own health care, making major household purchases, making household purchases for daily needs, and visits to her family or relatives. The ability of women to make decisions that affect the circumstances of their own lives is an essential aspect of empowerment. Table 13.4.1 shows the percent distribution of currently married women according to the person in the household who usually makes decisions about four specific issues. Sixty-four percent of married women make decisions on their own about their own health care, 33 percent decide jointly with their husband, and 1 percent say that their husband or someone else is the primary decisionmaker about their health care. Sixteen percent of currently married women decide mainly themselves about the purchase of large household items, more than three-fourths (76 percent) decide jointly with their husband, and 6 percent say that the husband or someone else has the main say in these matters. Around three-fourths of married women (77 percent) make decisions about daily household purchases and about one-fourth (24 percent) decide on their own about visits to her family or relatives. Table 13.4.1 Women’s participation in decisionmaking Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 by person who usually makes decisions about four kinds of issues, Ukraine 2007 Issue Mainly wife Wife and husband jointly Mainly husband Someone else Other Missing Total Number of women Own health care 64.2 33.1 1.3 0.1 0.2 1.0 100.0 4,116 Major household purchases 16.1 76.2 6.1 0.4 0.4 0.9 100.0 4,116 Purchases for daily household needs 76.5 18.3 2.8 1.2 0.2 0.9 100.0 4,116 Visits to her family or relatives 24.3 72.2 1.9 0.0 0.6 0.9 100.0 4,116 The 2007 UDHS also asked men about who they think should have a greater say in making decisions about five issues: making major household purchases, making household purchases for daily needs, visits to the wife’s family or relatives, what to do with the money the wife earns, and how many children to have. Table 13.4.2 shows that, for four of the five issues, the majority of men think that these decisions should be made by the wife and husband jointly: major household purchases (82 percent), visits to wife’s family or relatives (64 percent), what to do with the money the wife makes 156 | Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes (63 percent), and how many children to have (94 percent). For one of the five issues, purchases for daily household needs, 65 percent of men think that a wife should have a greater say in making these decisions. Table 13.4.2 Women’s participation in decisionmaking according to men Percent distribution of currently married men 15-49 by the person they think should have a greater say in making decisions about five kinds of issues, Ukraine 2007 Issue Wife Wife and husband equally Husband Don’t know/ depends Missing Total Number of men Major household purchases 5.2 82.4 11.1 1.0 0.3 100.0 1,799 Purchases for daily household needs 64.6 28.9 2.6 3.5 0.4 100.0 1,799 Visits to wife’s family or relatives 28.8 63.7 1.5 5.3 0.6 100.0 1,799 What to do with money wife earns 32.1 63.0 1.7 2.8 0.4 100.0 1,799 How many children to have 3.4 94.1 0.8 1.5 0.3 100.0 1,799 Women may have a say in some decisions but not others. To assess a woman’s overall decisionmaking autonomy, the decisions in which she participates—that is, the decisions in which she alone has the final say, and the decisions she makes jointly with her husband—are added together. The total number of decisions in which a woman participates is one measure of her empowerment. The number of decisions in which a woman has final say, alone or jointly with her husband, is positively related to women’s empowerment and reflects the degree of decisionmaking control women are able to exercise in the areas that affect their life. Figure 13.1 shows the distribution of cur- rently married women according to the number of decisions in which they participate. The majority of married women (88 percent) participate in all four of the specified household decisions; only 1 percent (each) participate in just 1 decision or no decisions. Figure 13.1 Number of decisions in which currently married women participate 1 1 2 9 88 0 1 2 3 4 Number of decisions 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent UDHS 2007 Table 13.5.1 shows how women’s participation in decisionmaking varies by background characteristics. There is a strong correlation between age and decisionmaking. For example, the percentage of women participating in all four decisions increases from 75 percent among women age 15-19 to 88-89 percent among women age 30 or older. Women who are employed for cash are the most likely to participate in all four decisions, compared with women who are not employed, or who are employed but receive no cash payment. Looking at regional variations, the proportion of currently married women participating in all decisions ranges from 80 percent in the East region to 94 percent in the North. The proportion of women participating in decisionmaking varies little by other background characteristics. Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes | 157 Table 13.5.1 Women’s participation in decisionmaking by background characteristics Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 who usually make specific decisions either by themselves or jointly with their husband, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Percentage of women who alone or jointly with their husband make four specific decisions Background characteristic Own health care Making major household purchases Making purchases for daily household needs Visits to her family or relatives Percentage who participate in all four decisions Percentage who participate in none of the decisions Number of women Age 15-19 91.9 83.1 83.8 94.1 74.7 1.9 45 20-24 97.5 90.7 90.8 96.6 86.0 1.7 472 25-29 95.7 91.2 95.6 95.5 85.5 1.1 691 30-34 97.0 93.1 94.9 97.5 88.3 0.8 709 35-39 97.6 92.3 95.2 96.1 88.1 1.2 770 40-44 98.3 92.5 95.6 96.8 88.6 0.6 680 45-49 98.1 93.6 96.2 96.8 88.6 0.9 750 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 96.1 88.6 92.3 96.0 83.3 1.3 814 Employed for cash 97.8 93.5 95.6 96.8 88.8 0.8 3,256 Employed not for cash (95.2) (77.3) (89.9) (95.2) (74.9) (3.1) 33 Residence Urban 97.2 92.5 94.6 96.1 87.2 1.1 2,858 Rural 97.7 91.8 95.3 97.5 88.2 0.9 1,258 Region North 97.8 96.5 97.5 98.5 94.3 0.4 861 Central 97.9 97.0 96.9 98.3 93.7 0.9 508 East 96.7 87.7 92.1 94.8 79.7 1.0 1,182 South 96.7 92.6 95.2 95.9 89.0 2.2 650 West 97.8 91.2 94.4 96.3 86.5 1.0 914 Education Secondary or less 97.1 90.9 94.8 96.6 85.9 0.9 1,609 Higher 97.4 93.1 94.8 96.5 88.5 1.1 2,507 Wealth quintile Lowest 95.8 93.7 95.4 97.2 89.8 1.1 508 Second 97.9 92.2 95.2 96.9 87.2 0.8 903 Middle 96.5 89.1 93.1 96.1 84.2 1.3 793 Fourth 97.6 93.8 96.1 96.5 89.9 1.2 776 Highest 98.0 92.8 94.7 96.2 87.3 0.9 1,136 Total 97.3 92.3 94.8 96.5 87.5 1.0 4,116 Note: Total includes 13 women with information missing on employment. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. Table 13.5.2 shows the differences in men’s attitudes toward women’s participation in various kinds of decisions by background characteristics. The table indicates that more than three-fourths of men think that women should participate in all five decisions. Just 1 percent of men think that women should not participate in any of the decisions. 158 | Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes Table 13.5.2 Men’s attitudes toward wife’s participation in decisionmaking Percentage of currently married men age 15-49 who think that a wife should have the greater say alone, or equal say with her husband, on five specific decisions, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Percentage of men who think a wife should have the greater say alone or equal say with her husband on five specific decisions Background characteristic Making major household purchases Making purchases for daily household needs Visits to her family or relatives What to do with the money the wife earns How many children to have Percent- age who agree with all five decisions Percent- age who agree with none of the decisions Number of men Age 15-19 * * * * * * * 13 20-24 79.6 92.0 92.2 95.1 99.7 68.4 0.3 104 25-29 85.3 90.5 91.6 94.8 97.7 73.6 1.3 263 30-34 88.0 95.6 94.3 94.3 96.4 78.1 0.8 331 35-39 91.4 96.0 92.8 96.8 99.2 82.7 0.3 351 40-44 86.1 91.6 91.4 93.8 97.5 73.4 1.4 317 45-49 89.9 93.5 92.1 95.1 95.9 76.4 1.3 420 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 80.0 93.4 91.1 93.4 94.9 72.4 3.2 79 Employed for cash 88.0 93.5 92.6 95.1 97.6 76.4 0.8 1,684 Employed not for cash (88.9) (100.0) (93.1) (97.3) (98.6) (82.5) (0.0) 35 Residence Urban 87.8 92.9 92.8 95.3 97.5 76.0 0.9 1,303 Rural 86.8 95.3 91.7 94.4 97.3 77.1 1.1 497 Region North 95.0 93.1 94.2 95.1 96.0 86.3 2.0 359 Central 86.1 91.2 90.8 94.8 96.2 71.1 0.9 213 East 81.1 92.3 90.8 96.9 98.5 68.2 0.3 610 South 91.5 96.9 93.2 94.1 97.0 79.8 0.7 278 West 89.0 95.0 94.5 92.5 98.0 80.6 1.4 340 Education Secondary or less 86.7 93.4 91.5 94.1 97.4 75.0 1.3 871 Higher 88.3 93.7 93.5 95.9 97.5 77.6 0.7 929 Wealth quintile Lowest 87.2 93.9 93.7 94.0 96.5 79.1 2.4 227 Second 88.0 97.1 91.3 93.1 98.0 77.7 0.8 375 Middle 87.8 93.8 90.9 94.2 98.1 73.6 0.0 357 Fourth 85.1 90.7 93.5 95.6 96.9 74.5 1.3 338 Highest 88.9 92.5 93.5 97.2 97.3 77.2 0.9 503 Total 87.6 93.5 92.5 95.0 97.4 76.3 1.0 1,799 Note: Total includes 1 man with information missing on employment. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. There are no major variations by background characteristics in the proportion of men who think that a wife should participate in the specific decisions, except by region. The percentage of men who think that a wife should participate in all five decisions ranges from 68 percent in the East region to 86 percent in the North region. 13.4 ATTITUDES TOWARD WIFE BEATING The 2007 UDHS gathered information on women’s and men’s attitudes toward wife beating, a proxy for perceptions of women’s status. Women and men were asked whether a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife under five specific circumstances: the wife burns the food, the wife argues with him, the wife goes out without telling him, the wife neglects the children, and the wife refuses to have sexual relations. Women who think that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife for any of the specified reasons may believe themselves to be low in status both absolutely and relative to men. Such perceptions could 1) act as a barrier to women accessing health care for themselves and their children, 2) affect women’s attitudes toward use of contraception, and 3) have a negative impact on women’s general wellbeing. Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes | 159 Table 13.6.1 presents women’s attitudes toward wife beating according five specific reasons justifying a husband hitting or beating his wife. Three percent of women agree that a husband is justified in hitting his wife if she neglects the children, but less than 1 percent agree that wife beating is justified for any of the other reasons. Just 4 percent of all women agree with at least one of the specified reasons justifying a husband hitting or beating his wife. There are slight variations by background characteristics, e.g., women in the lowest wealth quintiles are somewhat more likely than women in the highest wealth quintiles to agree that a husband is justified in hitting his wife for at least one of the specified reasons. Table 13.6.1 Attitudes toward wife beating: women Percentage of all women age 15-49 who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife for specific reasons, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Percentage of women who agree with specific reasons justifying a husband hitting or beating his wife Background characteristic Burns the food Argues with him Goes out without telling him Neglects the children Refuses to have sexual intercourse with him Percentage who agree with at least one reason Number of women Age 15-19 0.1 0.7 0.2 2.9 0.3 3.1 782 20-24 0.0 0.3 0.2 1.9 0.3 2.0 1,006 25-29 0.2 0.4 0.4 2.2 0.2 2.6 998 30-34 0.1 1.2 0.1 3.5 0.5 4.2 984 35-39 0.2 1.5 0.2 4.1 0.5 4.7 1,049 40-44 0.1 1.1 0.4 3.5 0.9 4.1 936 45-49 0.2 0.9 1.4 3.4 0.8 4.1 1,085 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 0.2 0.8 0.5 2.8 0.7 3.3 1,803 Employed for cash 0.1 0.9 0.4 3.2 0.4 3.6 4,968 Employed not for cash 2.0 3.2 2.0 5.3 2.0 6.4 47 Marital status Never married 0.1 0.4 0.1 2.1 0.2 2.3 1,544 Married or living together 0.2 1.0 0.6 3.4 0.7 4.1 4,116 Divorced/separated/ widowed 0.1 1.0 0.3 3.1 0.3 3.3 1,181 Residence Urban 0.1 0.6 0.3 2.7 0.3 3.0 4,887 Rural 0.2 1.6 0.8 4.0 0.9 5.1 1,954 Region North 0.1 0.8 0.5 2.1 0.8 2.5 1,345 Central 0.3 0.3 0.3 2.8 0.3 3.0 817 East 0.0 0.8 0.3 4.6 0.2 4.6 2,120 South 0.4 1.8 1.0 2.5 1.5 4.3 1,049 West 0.1 0.8 0.3 2.4 0.1 2.9 1,509 Education Secondary or less 0.2 1.4 0.7 4.1 0.8 4.9 2,729 Higher 0.1 0.6 0.3 2.4 0.3 2.7 4,112 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.3 2.5 0.7 6.2 1.3 7.3 847 Second 0.3 1.5 0.9 3.9 0.8 4.7 1,437 Middle 0.1 0.6 0.6 3.7 0.6 4.4 1,276 Fourth 0.1 0.7 0.1 2.0 0.2 2.1 1,451 Highest 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.4 0.1 1.5 1,831 Total 0.1 0.9 0.4 3.1 0.5 3.6 6,841 Note: Total includes 23 women with information missing on employment. 160 | Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes As shown in Table 13.6.2, men are somewhat more likely than women to agree with at least one reason justifying a husband beating his wife (11 percent of men, compared with 4 percent of women). Nine percent of men agree that a husband has the right to beat his wife if she neglects the children, 5 percent agree if she argues with him, 4 percent agree if she goes out without telling him, and 2 percent agree if she refuses to have sexual intercourse with him. Less than 1 percent of men believe that a husband may beat his wife if she burns the food. Table 13.6.2 Attitudes toward wife beating: men Percentage of all men age 15-49 who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife for specific reasons, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Percentage of men who agree with specific reasons justifying a husband hitting or beating his wife Background characteristic Burns the food Argues with him Goes out without telling him Neglects the children Refuses to have sexual intercourse with him Percentage who agree with at least one reason Number of men Age 15-19 1.5 4.4 2.9 6.0 1.8 8.0 444 20-24 0.3 4.5 3.1 6.7 0.9 8.6 459 25-29 1.1 4.8 3.5 10.0 1.3 12.1 436 30-34 0.4 7.4 6.8 13.6 3.0 15.7 479 35-39 0.7 4.3 3.8 7.3 1.6 9.1 449 40-44 0.5 6.1 5.0 9.0 2.5 10.6 399 45-49 0.5 4.9 4.3 10.0 1.9 13.2 512 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 0.9 4.8 3.7 8.0 2.2 10.5 595 Employed for cash 0.6 5.3 4.3 9.2 1.8 11.2 2,526 Employed not for cash 1.2 3.2 5.3 9.9 1.2 12.0 53 Marital status Never married 1.1 6.1 4.3 9.3 2.1 11.5 1,044 Married or living together 0.4 3.2 2.8 7.0 1.4 8.9 1,799 Divorced/separated/ widowed 1.2 13.0 11.5 19.0 3.4 22.0 334 Residence Urban 0.6 4.6 3.9 8.4 1.5 10.0 2,277 Rural 0.9 6.8 5.0 10.5 2.7 13.9 901 Region North 0.2 3.3 2.5 4.8 1.0 6.1 616 Central 0.0 0.4 0.3 6.6 0.3 6.8 354 East 1.4 6.4 7.1 11.4 1.8 13.9 1,060 South 1.1 10.5 4.0 10.6 3.7 14.1 493 West 0.1 3.6 3.4 9.2 2.2 11.4 654 Education Secondary or less 1.0 7.0 6.0 11.2 2.3 14.2 1,615 Higher 0.4 3.3 2.4 6.7 1.4 7.9 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.9 9.1 7.0 17.5 4.0 21.0 432 Second 1.0 5.3 4.5 9.6 1.9 12.1 651 Middle 0.2 4.8 3.2 7.0 1.5 9.0 622 Fourth 0.9 5.7 5.4 9.5 2.0 10.9 623 Highest 0.6 2.9 2.5 5.4 0.8 7.0 849 Total 0.7 5.2 4.2 9.0 1.9 11.1 3,178 Note: Total includes 4 men with information missing on employment. The likelihood that a man agrees that wife beating is justified for at least one of the specified reasons decreases with age and is highest among men age 30-34. Divorced or separated men, men in rural areas, men with secondary or less education, and those in the lowest wealth quintile are more likely than other men to agree with at least one reason justifying a man beating his wife. The percentage of men agreeing with at least one of these reasons is highest in the East and South regions (14 percent each) and lowest in the North region (6 percent). Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes | 161 13.5 ATTITUDES TOWARD REFUSING SEXUAL INTERCOURSE The extent of control women have over when they have sexual intercourse has important implications for demographic and health outcomes. It is also an indicator of women’s empowerment because it measures women’s degree of acceptance of norms in certain societies that socialize women to believe that a woman does not have the right to refuse to have sexual intercourse with her husband for any reason. The 2007 UDHS included questions on whether respondents think that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband under specific circumstances: she knows her husband has a sexually transmitted disease (STD); she knows her husband has sexual intercourse with other women; and she is tired or not in the mood. These three circumstances for which opinions were sought were chosen because they are effective in combining issues of women’s rights and consequences for women’s health. Table 13.7.1 shows the percentages of women who say that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband for these reasons. Table 13.7.1 Attitudes toward wife refusing sexual intercourse with husband: women Percentage of all women age 15-49 who think that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband in specific circumstances, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Percentage of women who think that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she: Background characteristic Knows husband has a sexually transmitted disease Knows husband has intercourse with other women Is tired or not in the mood Percentage who agree with all three reasons Percentage who agree with none of the reasons Number of women Age 15-19 89.5 87.4 81.1 76.3 5.6 782 20-24 95.9 93.6 91.3 87.2 1.4 1,006 25-29 95.8 94.1 89.3 85.2 1.3 998 30-34 96.7 91.5 87.7 83.2 1.5 984 35-39 95.7 90.6 88.0 83.0 1.9 1,049 40-44 96.9 91.8 87.4 82.8 1.2 936 45-49 96.3 90.4 84.3 80.4 2.1 1,085 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 92.5 88.7 83.1 78.3 4.2 1,803 Employed for cash 96.6 92.5 88.7 84.5 1.2 4,968 Employed not for cash 95.9 87.8 89.6 79.9 2.7 47 Marital status Never married 92.3 90.3 85.2 80.9 3.7 1,544 Married or living together 96.3 91.2 86.8 82.2 1.6 4,116 Divorced/separated/widowed 96.7 93.6 91.0 87.2 1.5 1,181 Residence Urban 96.4 93.2 88.7 84.9 1.4 4,887 Rural 93.2 87.0 83.3 77.3 3.6 1,954 Region North 94.8 91.9 90.5 86.4 3.0 1,345 Central 95.7 86.9 83.5 78.0 1.7 817 East 98.1 96.1 90.2 88.3 1.1 2,120 South 92.7 89.1 81.9 75.5 1.8 1,049 West 94.1 88.5 85.7 79.2 2.9 1,509 Education Secondary or less 94.1 87.4 83.3 77.9 3.1 2,729 Higher 96.4 94.1 89.8 86.0 1.3 4,112 Wealth quintile Lowest 92.7 86.1 81.3 75.1 4.1 847 Second 95.3 89.4 85.3 81.4 2.7 1,437 Middle 95.9 90.6 87.0 80.9 1.2 1,276 Fourth 95.4 94.0 89.4 84.8 1.5 1,451 Highest 96.5 94.1 89.7 87.0 1.6 1,831 Total 95.5 91.4 87.2 82.8 2.0 6,841 Note: Total includes 23 women with information missing on employment. Overall, 83 percent of women agree that a woman is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband for all three reasons. Specifically, 96 percent of women said that a woman can refuse to have sex with her husband if she knows the husband has an STD, 91 percent said she can refuse if she knows 162 | Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes that the husband is having sexual relations with other women, and 87 percent said she can refuse if she is not in the mood or is tired. Overall, only 2 percent of women did not agree that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband for any of the specified reasons. Younger women are less likely than older women to agree that a woman is justified in refusing sexual intercourse with her husband for all of the specified reasons. Furthermore, unemployed women, never-married women, and rural women tend to agree somewhat more often than other women that a woman is justified in refusing sexual intercourse for all of the reasons. Looking at regional variation, agreement with all of the specified reasons for a wife to refuse to have sexual intercourse with her husband ranges from 76 percent in the South region to 86 percent in the North region. Better educated women and those in the higher wealth quintiles are more likely than less educated women and those in the lower wealth quintiles to agree with all of the specified reasons for a wife to refuse to have sexual intercourse with her husband. Table 13.7.2 shows the percentage of men who say that a woman is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband for the same three reasons as in Table 13.7.2. Men are less likely than women to agree with all of the reasons for a wife to withhold sexual relations from her husband (68 and 83 percent, respectively). Specifically, 93 percent of men said that a wife can refuse to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she knows that that he has an STD, 80 percent said she can refuse if she knows that her husband is having sexual relations with another woman, and 76 percent agree that a woman can refuse to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she is not in the mood or is tired. Table 13.7.2 Attitudes toward wife refusing sexual intercourse with husband: men Percentage of all men age 15-49 who think that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband in specific circumstances, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Percentage of men who think that a wife is justified in refusing to have sexual intercourse with her husband if she: Background characteristic Knows husband has a sexually transmitted disease Knows husband has intercourse with other women Is tired or not in the mood Percentage who agree with all three reasons Percentage who agree with none of the reasons Number of men Age 15-19 88.1 77.3 77.2 69.9 9.3 444 20-24 93.9 80.5 78.9 70.2 4.3 459 25-29 92.6 81.9 73.5 68.3 5.8 436 30-34 93.9 77.8 74.6 66.1 3.8 479 35-39 93.9 81.7 77.8 70.2 4.7 449 40-44 93.6 79.0 73.4 66.7 4.9 399 45-49 94.3 78.5 74.0 66.3 4.1 512 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 88.8 78.5 73.5 67.4 8.7 595 Employed for cash 94.0 79.9 76.3 68.7 4.4 2,526 Employed not for cash 93.6 72.1 70.2 54.9 4.0 53 Marital status Never married 90.3 75.9 73.2 65.2 7.0 1,044 Married or living together 94.7 82.5 79.2 71.8 3.6 1,799 Divorced/separated/widowed 91.4 74.9 64.3 58.6 8.2 334 Residence Urban 93.8 81.6 76.2 69.7 4.7 2,277 Rural 90.8 74.2 74.2 64.4 6.7 901 Region North 90.9 82.2 83.6 77.6 7.6 616 Central 91.2 82.0 88.7 77.2 4.9 354 East 94.2 79.4 69.9 63.4 4.6 1,060 South 93.0 76.1 74.9 68.2 5.3 493 West 93.6 78.4 71.0 62.3 4.1 654 Education Secondary or less 91.2 75.8 71.9 64.0 6.7 1,615 Higher 94.7 83.4 79.6 72.6 3.7 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 90.6 67.6 66.3 56.6 7.3 432 Second 90.9 76.3 73.9 64.5 6.4 651 Middle 95.1 85.3 79.6 73.3 3.8 622 Fourth 93.6 82.2 77.5 69.7 4.0 623 Highest 93.6 81.7 77.5 72.1 5.2 849 Total 92.9 79.5 75.7 68.2 5.2 3,178 Note: Total includes 4 men with information missing on employment. Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes | 163 Men who are employed but not for cash, and men in the lowest wealth quintile, are the least likely to agree with the three reasons for a wife to refuse to have sexual intercourse with her husband. Men who are divorced or separated and men in rural areas are somewhat less likely to agree with all of the reasons for a wife to withhold sexual relations from her husband. The proportion of men who agree with all of the specified reasons ranges from 62 percent in the West region to 78 percent in the North. As with women, the proportion of men who agree with all of the reasons for a wife to refuse to have sexual intercourse with her husband increases with education and wealth quintile. Table 13.7.3 shows the percentage of men who think that a husband has a right to take specific actions when his wife refuses to have sexual intercourse with him when he wants her to. These actions are, 1) get angry and reprimand her, 2) refuse her financial support, 3) use force to have sexual intercourse with her, and 4) have sex with another woman. Overall, less than 1 percent of men agree that a man has the right to take all of the specified actions if his wife refuses to have sexual relations with him, and 71 percent think a man has no right to take any of the specified actions. Results for specific actions are: 24 percent of men think that a man has the right to get angry and reprimand his wife if she refuses to have sexual intercourse with him, 11 percent think he has the right to have sexual intercourse with another woman, 5 percent think that he has the right to refuse her financial support, and 1 percent think he has the right to use force to have sexual intercourse. Men age 15-19, unemployed men, men in the South region, and men with higher education are less likely to agree that a husband has the right to any of the specified actions when his wife refuses to have sexual intercourse with him. Table 13.7.3 Men’s attitudes toward a husband’s rights when his wife refuses to have sexual intercourse Percentage of men age 15-49 who consider that a husband has the right to take specific actions when his wife refuses to have sexual intercourse with him when he wants her to, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Percentage of men who think that a husband has the right to take specific actions when his wife refuses to have sexual intercourse with him Background characteristic Get angry and reprimand her Refuse her financial support Use force to have sex Have sex with another woman Percentage who agree with all four actions Percentage who agree with none of the actions Number of men Age 15-19 14.5 4.8 2.5 6.8 1.6 81.5 444 20-24 22.0 5.5 1.6 11.8 1.2 73.5 459 25-29 27.5 6.0 0.9 12.5 0.6 66.4 436 30-34 30.3 5.4 1.0 14.9 0.7 63.3 479 35-39 24.3 3.7 0.7 8.8 0.5 72.0 449 40-44 25.6 6.0 0.1 12.9 0.1 69.2 399 45-49 22.7 3.1 0.1 10.7 0.1 72.6 512 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 17.7 7.0 2.0 9.3 1.3 76.8 595 Employed for cash 25.2 4.3 0.7 11.6 0.5 70.0 2,526 Employed not for cash 27.3 9.7 0.0 13.7 0.0 64.2 53 Marital status Never married 22.2 7.5 2.0 12.5 1.5 72.1 1,044 Married or living together 24.0 2.8 0.3 9.3 0.2 71.7 1,799 Divorced/separated/widowed 28.4 7.8 1.2 17.2 0.7 65.5 334 Residence Urban 24.2 4.8 1.0 11.2 0.8 70.6 2,277 Rural 23.0 5.2 0.8 11.2 0.4 72.6 901 Region North 21.3 1.0 0.2 6.3 0.1 73.9 616 Central 13.6 2.1 0.0 10.0 0.0 78.2 354 East 27.9 4.4 2.0 17.2 1.3 66.8 1,060 South 17.3 6.4 1.1 7.4 0.9 80.3 493 West 30.1 9.6 0.4 9.6 0.4 65.1 654 Education Secondary or less 25.1 5.9 1.6 13.0 1.1 69.8 1,615 Higher 22.5 3.8 0.4 9.4 0.3 72.6 1,563 Wealth quintile Lowest 27.9 7.3 1.6 15.0 1.0 67.4 432 Second 21.5 4.4 0.9 10.5 0.5 73.1 651 Middle 18.0 3.0 0.1 10.3 0.1 78.0 622 Fourth 26.1 7.4 0.9 10.0 0.5 68.1 623 Highest 26.1 3.5 1.4 11.3 1.2 69.0 849 Total 23.8 4.9 1.0 11.2 0.7 71.2 3,178 Note: Total includes 4 men with information missing on employment. Domestic Violence | 165 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE 14 In recent years, there has been increasing concern about violence against women in general and domestic violence in particular, in both developed and developing countries. Gender-based violence is defined as any act of violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual, or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion, or arbitrary deprivations of liberty, where occurring in public or private life (United Nations General Assembly, 1993). Domestic violence against women has been acknowledged worldwide as a violation of basic human rights, and an increasing amount of research highlights the health burdens, intergenerational effects, and demographic consequences of such violence (Heise et al., 1994, 1998; Jejeebhoy, 1998; Kishor and Johnson, 2006; United Nations General Assembly, 1991). The 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) included a special module designed to obtain information on the extent to which women in Ukraine experience domestic violence. The UDHS also collected information on violence from men. Men were asked both about violence they have perpetrated against their wife or partner and about violence they have received from any source. The domestic violence module was administered to one randomly selected woman or man in each household. Men were eligible to be interviewed with the domestic violence module only in households selected to have the Men’s Questionnaire administered (every second household selected for the survey); in the remaining households, this module was administered to women. Data on domestic violence was weighted because only one person per household was interviewed with this module. This report mainly presents information about domestic violence against women; when data were sufficient, the tables also present information for men. The DHS standard domestic violence module was used to collect information on women’s experience of violence. The module obtained information from ever-married women as to whether or not they had ever experienced various types of emotional, physical, or sexual violence at the hands of their current (most recent) husband/partner.1 Marital emotional violence was assessed by asking the woman whether or not her husband had ever said or done something to humiliate her in front of others, threatened to hurt or harm her or someone close to her, or insulted her or made her feel bad about herself. To assess the extent of marital physical violence, women were asked if the husband had ever done any of the following: (1) pushed her, shaken her, thrown something at her, twisted her arm, or pulled her hair; (2) slapped her; (3) punched her with his fist or with something that could hurt her, kicked her, dragged her, or beaten her up; (4) tried to choke her or burn her; or (5) threatened or attacked her with a knife, gun, or other type of weapon. The extent of marital sexual violence was assessed by asking whether the husband had ever physically forced her to have sexual intercourse or forced her to perform any other sexual acts. Women who reported that they had ever experienced any type of violence were asked about the frequency with which each of the specific acts had occurred during the 12 months preceding the survey. Although the module focused on the extent of marital violence, information also was obtained from all women on any physical violence that the woman experienced since her fifteenth birthday. The module also obtained information from all women who had ever had sexual intercourse whether their first sexual experience had been forced against their will and whether they had experienced sexual violence at any other time. If a woman reported she had been subjected to physical or sexual violence, she was asked about assistance, if any, she may have sought at the time the most recent episode of violence occurred. 1 For the rest of this chapter the term “husband” refers both to the current or most recent husband (for currently married or formerly [legally] married women) and to the current or most recent partner (for women who currently live or formerly lived together with their partner in an informal union). 166 | Domestic Violence Because there is no standard module on domestic violence against men, the domestic violence module for women was modified and adapted to collect data from men: the first part of the module collected information on men who reported committing any type of violence against their current or most recent wife. The second part of the module collected information on any type of violence committed against men since the age of 15; the methodology used to collect this information was similar to that described below for women. The collection of data on domestic violence is challenging. Obtaining such sensitive information requires the establishment of a rapport between the interviewer and the respondent. To prepare field staff to collect domestic violence data, they were given special training on gender-based violence, focusing on domestic violence. Interviewers also were instructed that interviews could only proceed when maximum privacy had been ensured. If privacy was not assured, the questions in the domestic violence module were not to be asked. 14.1 WOMEN EXPERIENCING PHYSICAL VIOLENCE Table 14.1 shows the percentage of all women who reported experiencing physical violence since age 15 and in the 12 months preceding the survey. The data show that one in six women age 15- 49 (17 percent) experienced physical violence since the age of 15. About half of these women—9 percent of all women—had experienced at least one episode of violence in the 12 months preceding the survey. One percent of the women said they had been subjected to violent physical acts often, and 8 percent had been subjected to violence sometime during the past 12 months. Women age 15-19 are least likely to have experienced violence both since they were 15 and in the past 12 months (6 percent and 4 percent, respectively), while women age 40-49 are the most likely (22 percent and 11 percent, respectively). Employed women are more likely to have experienced physical violence since age 15 and in the preceding year than unemployed women. Table 14.1 also shows that a woman’s marital status is associated with the experience of domestic violence; while 38 percent of women who are divorced or separated and 19 percent of widowed women reported experiencing physical violence since the age of 15, the proportions for never-married and currently married women are 8 percent and 15 percent, respectively. The experience of physical violence since age 15 and during the past 12 months increases steadily with the number of living children a woman has. Generally, residential differences in women’s experience of physical violence are not large, although rural women are somewhat more likely than urban women to have experienced physical violence since age 15 (19 and 16 percent, respectively) and in the past 12 months (11 and 8 percent, respectively). Among the regions, women’s experience of physical violence since age 15 is highest in the Central region (19 percent) and lowest in the West region (15 percent), while recent experience with physical violence is highest in the South region (10 percent) and lowest in the Central region (7 percent). The likelihood that a woman has experienced violence decreases with education. Twenty-one percent of women with secondary or less education have experienced physical violence since age 15 compared with 14 percent of those with higher education. Experience with violence is somewhat more common among women in the lower wealth quintiles than among those in higher wealth quintiles. Domestic Violence | 167 Table 14.1 Women’s experience of physical violence Percentage of women age 15-49 who have ever experienced physical violence since age 15 and percentage who experienced physical violence during the 12 months preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage who have experienced physical violence since age 15 Number of women Ever1 In the past 12 months Often Sometimes Any Age 15-19 6.2 0.0 4.1 4.1 248 20-24 12.6 0.5 3.6 4.1 402 25-29 12.4 0.9 5.1 6.0 387 30-39 18.0 1.9 8.9 10.8 920 40-49 22.3 1.5 9.7 11.1 946 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 12.8 1.3 5.7 7.0 713 Employed 18.2 1.3 8.0 9.3 2,184 Marital status Never married 7.7 0.1 2.1 2.2 548 Married or living together 14.7 0.8 6.5 7.3 1,831 Divorced or separated 38.1 5.5 20.2 25.6 420 Widowed 18.8 0.0 1.8 1.8 105 Number of living children 0 11.3 0.4 4.6 5.0 763 1-2 18.1 1.5 8.1 9.6 1,961 3+ 27.6 2.8 13.6 16.4 180 Residence Urban 16.1 0.8 7.1 7.9 2,059 Rural 18.8 2.5 8.4 11.0 844 Region North 16.4 1.3 7.5 8.8 577 Central 18.6 0.7 5.8 6.5 347 East 17.7 1.1 8.0 9.1 853 South 17.1 2.6 7.6 10.2 462 West 15.3 1.0 7.7 8.6 664 Education Secondary or less 21.3 1.8 9.5 11.2 1,093 Higher 14.2 1.0 6.3 7.3 1,810 Wealth quintile Lowest 19.9 2.3 10.0 12.3 363 Second 18.8 2.6 7.8 10.4 584 Middle 19.1 1.2 7.7 8.9 536 Fourth 13.4 0.9 5.5 6.5 641 Highest 15.5 0.2 7.6 7.7 779 Total 16.9 1.3 7.5 8.8 2,903 Note: Total includes 6 women with information missing on employment. 1 Includes the past 12 months 14.2 PERPETRATORS OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN Table 14.2 shows the percentage of women who have ever experienced physical violence by the person or persons who committed the physical violence, according to marital status. The number of never-married women reporting physical violence is small, so the results for this group should be interpreted with caution. Overall, the data show that husbands are the main perpetrators of violence. Among ever- married women who have experienced physical violence, 32 percent name a current husband or partner as the perpetrator, while 51 percent cite a former husband or partner. 168 | Domestic Violence Table 14.2 Persons committing physical violence Among women age 15-49 who ever experienced physical violence since age 15, percentage who reported specific persons who committed the violence, according to the respondent’s marital status, Ukraine 2007 Person Marital status Total Ever married Never married Current husband/partner 32.0 na 29.2 Former husband/partner 50.9 na 46.5 Current boyfriend 1.0 (1.9) 1.1 Former boyfriend 5.5 (18.4) 6.6 Father/step-father 14.6 (26.1) 15.6 Mother/step-mother 3.7 (21.4) 5.2 Sister/brother 4.0 (14.6) 5.0 Daughter/son 0.1 (0.0) 0.1 Other relative 0.4 (0.0) 0.4 Mother-in-law 0.6 na 0.5 Father-in-law 0.3 na 0.3 Other in-law 0.4 na 0.3 Teacher 0.1 (0.0) 0.1 Employer/someone at work 0.3 (0.0) 0.2 Police/soldier 0.3 (0.0) 0.3 Other 0.5 (0.0) 0.5 Number of women 448 42 491 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. na = Not applicable Fathers and stepfathers are common perpetrators of physical violence. Fifteen percent of ever- married women and 26 percent of never-married women who had been subjected to at least one incident of physical violence since age 15 name their father or stepfather. A former boyfriend was reported as the perpetrator of the physical violence by 6 percent of ever-married women and 18 percent of never-married women who have experienced violence since age 15. Furthermore, among never-married women who experienced physical violence since age 15, about one in four (21 percent) reported their mother or stepmother as the perpetrator, and about one in seven (15 percent) reported a sibling as the person committing the physical violence. 14.3 FORCE AT SEXUAL INITIATION Table 14.3 looks at the issue of the ex- tent to which force is used at the time of sexual initiation. Among women who have ever had sexual intercourse, 2 percent reported that their first sexual intercourse was forced against their will. There are minor variations in this percentage by age at first sexual intercourse; women younger than 20 at the time that they first had intercourse are more likely to have been forced at sexual initiation (3 percent) than older women (less than 1 percent). Furthermore, the percentage of women whose first sexual intercourse was forced against their will is higher among women whose first sexual inter- course was before their first marriage or coha- bitation than among women whose first sexual intercourse was at the time of their first marriage or cohabitation (3 percent, compared with 1 percent). Table 14.3 Force at sexual initiation Percentage of women age 15-49 who have ever had sexual intercourse who say that their first experience of sexual intercourse was forced against their will, by age at first sexual intercourse and whether the first sexual intercourse was at the time of first marriage or before, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage whose first sexual intercourse was forced against their will Number of women who have ever had sexual intercourse Age at first sexual intercourse <20 3.2 1,120 20-24 0.4 897 25-49 0.0 117 Missing 1.7 462 First sexual intercourse was: At the time of first marriage/ first cohabitation 1.1 1,526 Before first marriage/ first cohabitation1 2.9 1,034 Total 1.8 2,596 Note: Total includes 36 women with information missing about timing of the first sexual intercourse. 1 Includes never-married women Domestic Violence | 169 14.4 EXPERIENCE OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE AND PERPETRATORS OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE The UDHS not only obtained information on women’s experience of violence at the time of sexual initiation, but also women’s lifetime experience of sexual violence. Overall, 5 percent of women in Ukraine have experienced sexual violence at some time in their life (Table 14.4). Data show that younger women age 15-19 are less likely to report having ever experienced sexual violence (less than 1 percent) compared with older women (5-7 percent). Women who were employed in the past 12 months (6 percent) are somewhat more likely than unemployed women (4 percent) to report experiencing sexual violence. Divorced or separated women are substantially more likely to have experienced sexual violence (13 percent) than currently married women (5 percent) and never-married women (2 percent). Women in urban areas (6 percent) and those in the North region (7 percent) are more likely than rural women or those in other regions to report sexual violence. There is a small difference in the experience of sexual violence by education: 7 percent among women with secondary or less education, compared with 5 percent among women with higher education. By wealth status, women in the highest quintile are the most likely to report experiencing sexual violence (7 percent); the other quintiles range between 4 and 6 percent. Table 14.5 shows the percentage of women who have ever experienced sexual violence by the person(s) who committed the sexual violence. Overall, the data indicate that a former husband or partner is the main perpetrator of violence. More than one-third of women (35 percent) reported a former husband or partner as the perpetrator. Additionally, about one in six women (16 percent) named a current husband or partner as the perpetrator of sexual violence, while one in ten (10 percent) identified a friend or acquaintance as the person committing the sexual violence. Table 14.4 Experience of sexual violence Percentage of women age 15-49 who have ever experienced sexual violence, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristics Percentage who have ever experienced sexual violence1 Number of women Age 15-19 0.3 248 20-24 7.2 402 25-29 5.3 387 30-39 6.2 920 40-49 5.4 946 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 3.5 713 Employed 6.1 2,184 Marital status Never married 1.7 548 Married or living together 4.8 1,831 Divorced or separated 12.7 420 Widowed 6.8 105 Number of living children 0 4.5 763 1-2 5.7 1,961 3+ 7.0 180 Residence Urban 5.9 2,059 Rural 4.3 844 Region North 7.3 577 Central 4.8 347 East 5.1 853 South 6.0 462 West 4.2 664 Education Secondary or less 6.5 1,093 Higher 4.8 1,810 Wealth quintile Lowest 4.3 363 Second 4.9 584 Middle 5.9 536 Fourth 4.4 641 Highest 6.9 779 Total 5.4 2,903 Note: Total includes 6 women with information missing on employment. 1 Includes those whose sexual initiation was forced against their will 170 | Domestic Violence Table 14.5 Persons committing sexual violence Among women age 15-49 who ever experienced sexual violence since age 15, percentage who reported that specific persons committed sexual violence, Ukraine 2007 Person Women who experienced sexual violence Current husband/partner 16.1 Former husband/partner 35.0 Current/former boyfriend 6.8 Step-father 0.9 Other relative 0.8 Own friend/acquaintance 9.7 Police/soldier 0.3 Priest/religious leader 0.4 Other 0.4 Missing 11.3 Number of women 158 14.5 EXPERIENCE OF DIFFERENT TYPES OF VIOLENCE Table 14.6 shows the percentage of all women age 15-49 who reported expe- riencing various types of physical violence, sexual violence, or both, by current age. Overall, 18 percent of women reported that they had experienced some type of physical or sexual violence, whether it was physical abuse only, sexual abuse only, or both physical and sexual abuse. The experience of physical or sexual violence increases with age, from 6 percent among women age 15- 19 to 24 percent among those age 40-49. Four percent of women reported having experienced both physical and sexual violence. 14.6 VIOLENCE DURING PREGNANCY Women can experience violence at any stage of their life. In the 2007 UDHS, women who had ever had a pregnancy (whether it resulted in a live birth or not) and those who were pregnant for the first time at the time of the survey were asked whether they had experienced any type of physical violence during any of their pregnancies, and who committed the violence. Table 14.7 presents these findings according to selected background characteristics. Overall, 4 percent of ever-pregnant women reported that they experienced violence when they were pregnant. Looking at the age pattern, women in the 30-49 age group are more likely to report having experienced violence while pregnant (4 percent) than younger women 15-29 (2 percent). Divorced or separated women (8 percent) are more likely than currently married women (3 percent) to have experienced violence during pregnancy. Rural women are somewhat more likely than urban women to have been exposed to physical violence during pregnancy (5 percent compared with 3 percent). Women in the South region (6 percent) reported the highest prevalence of physical violence during pregnancy, while women in the East and West regions (3 percent, each) reported the lowest prevalence. The experience of violence during pregnancy generally decreases with increasing level of education and wealth. Table 14.6 Experience of different types of violence Percentage of women age 15-49 who have experienced different types of violence, by current age, Ukraine 2007 Age Physical violence only Sexual violence only1 Physical and sexual violence1 Physical or sexual violence1 Number of women 15-19 5.9 0.0 0.3 6.2 248 15-17 6.7 0.0 0.0 6.7 144 18-19 4.9 0.0 0.7 5.6 104 20-24 6.9 1.5 5.7 14.0 402 25-29 9.3 2.1 3.1 14.5 387 30-39 13.7 1.8 4.4 19.9 920 40-49 18.1 1.2 4.2 23.5 946 Total 12.9 1.4 4.0 18.3 2,903 1 Includes forced sexual initiation Domestic Violence | 171 Table 14.7 Violence during pregnancy Among women age 15-49 who have ever been pregnant, percentage who ever experienced physical violence during pregnancy, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage who ever experienced physical violence during pregnancy Number of women who have ever been pregnant Age 15-24 2.1 171 25-29 2.0 276 30-39 3.9 815 40-49 4.4 910 Marital status Never married (4.3) 42 Married or living together 3.1 1,672 Divorced or separated 7.5 356 Widowed 0.7 102 Number of living children 0 (0.0) 31 1-2 3.5 1,961 3+ 6.9 180 Residence Urban 3.3 1,482 Rural 4.6 690 Region North 4.0 407 Central 4.1 244 East 2.8 619 South 5.5 372 West 3.2 529 Education Secondary or less 5.3 849 Higher 2.8 1,323 Wealth quintile Lowest 5.8 286 Second 4.7 462 Middle 5.1 409 Fourth 1.6 469 Highest 2.7 546 Total 3.7 2,172 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 14.7 MARITAL CONTROL BY HUSBAND OR PARTNER Marital violence refers to violence perpetuated by partners in a marital union. Attempts by male spouses/partners to closely control and monitor their female counterparts have been found to be among the most important early warning signs, as well as correlates of violence in a relationship. Controlling behaviors most often manifest themselves in terms of extreme possessiveness, jealousy, and attempts to isolate the woman from her family and friends. To determine the degree of marital control by husbands of their wives, ever-married women were asked in the UDHS whether their current (last) husband exhibits(ed) each of the following controlling behaviors: (1) becomes jealous or gets angry if she talks to other men; (2) accuses her of being unfaithful; (3) does not permit meetings with female friends; (4) tries to limit contact with her family; (5) insists on knowing where she is at all times; and (6) does not trust her with any money. Table 14.8.1 shows the percentage of ever-married women whose husbands or partners displayed each of the listed behaviors, by background characteristics. Because the accumulation of such behaviors is more significant than the display of any single behavior, the proportion of women whose husbands display at least three of the specified behaviors is highlighted. Table 14.8.1 shows that the main controlling behaviors women experienced are that their husbands become jealous or angry if she talks to other men (54 percent) and that they insist on 172 | Domestic Violence knowing where she is at all times (51 percent). Furthermore, one in six women said that their husbands frequently accuse them of being unfaithful. Almost the same proportion said that their husbands do not trust them with any money (16 percent). One in ten women (11 percent) reported that their husbands do not permit them to meet their female friends, and 4 percent reported that their husbands try to limit their contact with their families. More than one-fifth (22 percent) of ever- married women reported that their spouses display three or more of the specific behaviors, while about one-third (31 percent) of women reported that their spouses do not display any of the behaviors. Table 14.8.1 Degree of marital control exercised by husbands according to women’s reports Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 whose current or most recent husband/partner ever demonstrated specific types of controlling behaviors, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage of women whose husband: Number of women Is jealous or angry if she talks to other men Frequently accuses her of being unfaithful Does not permit her to meet her female friends Tries to limit her contact with her family Insists on knowing where she is at all times Does not trust her with any money Displays 3 or more of the specified behaviors Displays none of the specified behaviors Age 15-24 60.2 6.9 9.1 3.8 54.2 11.5 16.2 29.5 241 25-29 53.0 10.5 7.4 2.7 48.7 13.0 14.0 31.9 319 30-39 54.6 19.6 12.3 4.9 52.3 17.0 25.0 30.7 867 40-49 52.1 18.3 11.7 4.2 49.4 16.7 22.5 31.5 929 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 51.1 10.9 6.6 2.6 47.8 13.5 14.2 31.4 437 Employed 54.7 17.8 12.1 4.6 51.6 16.3 23.4 31.0 1,914 Number of living children 0 57.4 15.8 13.9 5.7 50.4 15.5 22.3 30.9 256 1-2 53.5 16.9 10.8 4.0 51.3 15.9 22.0 31.2 1,920 3+ 53.4 13.9 9.9 4.6 46.7 14.4 16.9 30.3 180 Marital status and duration Currently married women 49.1 9.6 6.6 2.2 48.4 12.6 13.8 33.9 1,831 Married only once 47.9 9.5 6.3 1.7 48.3 12.9 13.7 34.9 1,541 Marital duration: 0-4 years 46.6 2.8 6.2 1.0 44.1 11.3 10.5 39.7 257 5-9 years 55.5 8.2 4.8 0.8 53.6 12.7 11.3 28.3 243 10+ years 46.5 11.4 6.6 2.1 48.0 13.3 15.1 35.3 1,041 Married more than once 55.3 10.1 8.2 5.2 48.8 11.3 14.2 28.3 290 Divorced or separated 76.6 47.2 29.8 13.4 64.0 29.8 55.3 17.2 420 Widowed 47.8 16.1 14.9 2.4 41.7 14.9 23.7 37.7 105 Residence Urban 54.4 16.0 11.9 4.3 51.4 16.4 22.2 31.2 1,643 Rural 53.0 17.8 9.2 4.1 49.6 14.3 20.3 30.7 712 Region North 52.2 15.0 12.2 5.7 48.4 12.1 17.5 34.4 462 Central 49.2 14.4 6.4 3.3 32.5 5.2 12.5 44.6 257 East 58.4 20.0 14.0 3.8 63.8 26.2 28.1 20.4 683 South 52.9 11.0 10.9 4.6 34.6 17.4 21.8 37.7 401 West 52.9 18.6 8.9 3.8 57.3 9.7 21.2 30.4 552 Education Secondary or less 54.1 16.7 11.7 4.7 50.7 16.1 21.1 29.6 891 Higher 53.9 16.4 10.7 3.9 51.0 15.6 22.0 32.0 1,464 Wealth quintile Lowest 56.2 18.6 11.1 5.7 53.1 13.8 22.4 25.9 300 Second 54.0 17.3 9.9 3.2 48.8 16.9 21.3 29.9 484 Middle 56.4 14.8 9.8 3.6 47.0 15.8 19.8 33.3 449 Fourth 48.6 17.0 10.0 4.4 50.0 17.3 23.1 33.5 505 Highest 55.4 15.9 13.8 4.7 54.9 14.6 21.7 30.9 617 Total 53.9 16.6 11.1 4.2 50.9 15.8 21.6 31.1 2,355 Note: Total includes 4 women with information missing on employment. Women not currently married were asked questions about the behavior of their most recent husband/partner using the past tense. The proportion of women who reported that their spouses display three or more of the specific behaviors is lowest among younger women. Women age 15-24 and those age 25-29 (16 percent and 14 percent, respectively) are much less likely to report that their spouses display three or more of the specific controlling behaviors when compared with older women age 30-39 and age 40-49 (25 percent and 23 percent, respectively). Employed women, those with no children or with 1-2 children, and divorced, separated, or widowed women are more likely than other subgroups to report three or more controlling behaviors displayed by their husbands. One in two divorced or separated women (55 percent) and one in four widowed women (24 percent) reported that their spouses demonstrated all Domestic Violence | 173 three specific types of controlling behaviors, compared with only one in seven currently married women (14 percent). Women residing in urban areas (22 percent) are slightly more likely than rural women (20 percent) to report that their husbands display three or more of the controlling behaviors. The extent to which husbands display controlling behaviors varies by region; the proportion who reported that their husbands display three or more of these behaviors ranges from 13 percent in the Central region to 28 percent in the East region. There are no major variations by education or wealth. In the UDHS, ever-married men were also asked whether they had ever demonstrated these same controlling behaviors over their current or most recent wife or partner. Table 14.8.2 presents the results. Similar to women, data for men show that the main controlling behaviors men demonstrate are that they become jealous or angry if their wife talks to other men (43 percent) and that they insist on knowing where she is at all times (32 percent). Furthermore, 8 percent of men said that they frequently accuse their wives or partners of being unfaithful, 6 percent reported that they do not permit them to meet their female friends, and 4 percent reported that they do not trust their wives with any money. Just 1 percent reported that they try to limit their wife/partner’s contact with her family. Overall, more than one-tenth (11 percent) of ever-married men reported that they have demonstrated three or more of the specific behaviors, while close to half (46 percent) reported having never displayed any of the behaviors. Table 14.8.2 Degree of marital control exercised by husbands according to men’s reports Percentage of ever-married men age 15-49 who ever demonstrated specific types of controlling behaviors over their wife/partner, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Percentage of men who: Number of men Are jealous or angry if their wife/ partner talks to other men Frequently accuse their wife/ partner of being unfaithful Do not permit their wife/ partner to meet her female friends Try to limit their wife/ partner contact with her family Insist on knowing where their wife/ partner is at all times Do not trust their wife/ partner with any money Display 3 or more of the specified behaviors Display none of the specified behaviors Age 15-24 42.1 2.2 4.4 0.0 26.3 3.7 7.1 47.9 116 25-29 40.1 6.8 6.9 0.9 28.3 4.0 9.1 49.2 251 30-39 47.5 10.4 6.6 2.2 34.4 4.8 12.5 41.4 671 40-49 38.3 7.7 5.7 0.8 31.8 3.8 9.4 50.1 616 Marital status Married or living together 40.3 5.1 4.6 0.9 30.2 3.8 7.3 47.4 1,390 Divorced/separated/widowed 54.5 24.8 14.6 3.7 41.1 6.2 27.0 40.5 264 Residence Urban 44.1 7.2 5.8 1.1 30.0 3.3 9.5 46.8 1,204 Rural 38.4 11.2 7.1 2.0 36.9 6.6 13.1 44.8 450 Region North 48.7 3.9 1.5 0.0 18.1 1.1 3.8 43.3 365 Central 31.0 2.8 5.1 1.0 31.9 4.2 4.6 54.0 190 East 41.7 11.0 8.5 1.9 33.7 4.4 13.2 48.1 559 South 35.4 11.2 9.6 3.0 41.1 6.1 15.2 51.1 241 West 49.8 9.5 5.5 0.6 38.1 6.0 13.4 37.8 300 Education Secondary or less 45.3 10.9 8.2 1.3 37.9 5.2 13.3 41.6 816 Higher 40.0 5.7 4.2 1.4 26.1 3.2 7.7 50.8 838 Wealth quintile Lowest 40.3 13.7 7.8 2.2 43.4 8.9 17.4 42.5 233 Second 34.1 6.4 7.3 1.4 31.2 5.0 8.7 51.4 330 Middle 37.5 7.7 6.5 2.0 31.0 3.6 10.4 51.8 324 Fourth 50.1 10.9 6.2 1.3 35.3 4.4 14.0 41.8 324 Highest 48.4 5.2 4.2 0.3 24.7 1.4 5.6 43.7 443 Total 42.6 8.3 6.2 1.3 31.9 4.2 10.5 46.3 1,654 Ever-married men age 30-39 are the most likely (13 percent) to display three or more of the specified behaviors when compared with men in other age groups. Divorced, separated, or widowed men are more likely than those who are currently married or living together to demonstrate three or more controlling behaviors (27 percent compared with 7 percent) toward their current/last wife/partner. Contrary to women’s reports, men in rural areas (13 percent) are somewhat more likely than men in urban areas (10 percent) to display three or more of the specific behaviors. Husbands display of controlling behaviors is highest in the South region (15 percent) and lowest in the North region (4 percent). Men with secondary or less education (13 percent) are more likely to demonstrate 174 | Domestic Violence three or more controlling behaviors than men with higher education (8 percent). The relationship between controlling behaviors reported by ever-married men and wealth status does not follow a clear pattern; nevertheless, men in the highest wealth quintile are the least likely to report all three controlling behaviors. 14.8 TYPES OF SPOUSAL VIOLENCE Research suggests that physical violence in intimate relationships is often accompanied by psychological abuse and, in one-third to more than half of cases, by sexual abuse (Krug et al., 2002). 14.8.1 Women’s reports of spousal violence Figure 14.1 shows the proportion of ever-married women who have ever experienced various types of violence by their current or most recent husbands. Table 14.9.1 presents additional information on the specific types of spousal violence ever-married women have experienced ever and in the 12 months preceding the survey. The table also provides information on the frequency with which women experienced violence in the past 12 months and the proportion of women who experienced multiple types of spousal violence. Table 14.9.1 Women’s experience of spousal violence according to women’s reports Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have experienced various types of violence ever and in the 12 months preceding the survey, committed by their current or most recent husband/partner, Ukraine 2007 Type of violence Ever Frequency of violence in past 12 months1 Often Sometimes Often or sometimes Physical violence Any 12.7 1.6 8.8 10.4 Pushed her, shook her, or threw something at her 11.7 1.1 8.4 9.6 Slapped her 8.0 0.8 5.5 6.4 Twisted her arm or pulled her hair 3.9 0.5 2.6 3.0 Punched her with his fist or with something that could hurt her 4.5 0.6 3.0 3.6 Kicked her, dragged her, or beat her up 3.2 0.6 2.1 2.7 Tried to choke her or burn her on purpose 0.8 0.1 0.3 0.3 Threatened her or attacked her with a knife, gun, or any other weapon 0.5 0.0 0.2 0.2 Sexual violence Any 3.3 0.4 1.8 2.2 Physically forced her to have sexual intercourse with him even when she did not want to 2.5 0.3 1.4 1.7 Forced her to perform any sexual acts she did not want to 1.3 0.1 0.9 1.0 Sexual initiation was with current or most recent husband and was forced2 0.5 na na na Emotional violence Any 22.4 4.6 15.6 20.2 Said or did something to humiliate her in front of others 17.0 3.0 12.0 15.0 Threatened to hurt or harm her or someone close to her 7.6 1.2 5.2 6.4 Insulted her or made her feel bad about herself 18.4 3.6 12.9 16.5 Any type of physical and/or sexual violence 13.2 1.7 9.0 10.6 Any type of physical and sexual violence 2.7 0.3 1.6 1.9 Any type of emotional, physical and/or sexual violence 24.4 4.9 17.0 21.9 Any type of emotional, physical and sexual violence 2.4 0.3 1.1 1.5 Number of ever-married women 2,355 2,251 2,251 2,251 Note: Husband/partner refers to the current husband/partner for currently married women and the most recent husband/partner for divorced, separated or widowed women. 1 Excludes widows 2 Excludes women who have been married more than once since their sexual initiation could not have been with the current/ most recent partner. na = Not applicable Domestic Violence | 175 Overall, 13 percent of women reported that they had ever been subjected to an act of physical violence by their current (last) husband. The majority of women who ever experienced physical violence reported that they had been subjected to at least one incident of violent behavior in the past year, with 2 percent saying that such incidents had occurred frequently during the period. The most common type of spousal physical violence reported by women was being pushed, shaken, or having something thrown at her (12 percent ever), followed by being slapped (8 percent ever). Five percent of women reported having ever been punched by their current or most recent spouse, 4 percent reported that that her spouse twisted her arm or pulled her hair, and 3 percent reported that her spouse kicked her, dragged her, or beat her up. Less than 1 percent said that her spouse had tried to choke or burn her on purpose, and a similar proportion said that her spouse had threatened or attacked her with a knife, gun, or other weapon. With respect to spousal sexual violence, 3 percent of ever-married women reported some type of sexual violence. Two percent reported at least one episode of sexual violence during the past 12 months, with less than 1 percent indicating that the violence had taken place often during that time. Most of the women who experienced spousal sexual violence said their husband or partner had forced them to have sexual intercourse. One percent reported being made to perform other sexual acts against their will. More than one-fifth (22 percent) of ever-married women said that their husband had subjected them to emotional violence at some time, with 20 percent saying they had been subjected to such violence within the past 12 months. Five percent indicated that this behavior had taken place often. The most common type of emotional spousal violence involved a spouse insulting his wife or making her feel bad about herself (18 percent), followed by a spouse humiliating his wife in front of others (17 percent). Twenty-four percent of ever-married women reported experiencing at least one type of violence (physical/sexual/emotional) at some time in their lives. Two percent of women were subjected to all three types of violence at some time in their lives. Figure 14.1 Percentage of ever-married women who have experienced specific types of physical or sexual violence committed by their current or most recent husband/partner, ever and during the past 12 months 11.7 8 3.9 4.5 3.2 0.8 0.5 2.5 1.3 12.8 9.6 6.4 3 3.6 2.7 0.3 0.2 1.7 1 10.6 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Percent Ever Past 12 months UDHS 2007 Pushed her, shook her, or threw something at her Slapped her Twisted her arm or pulled her hair Punched her with his fist or with something that could hurt her Kicked her, dragged her, or beat her up Tried to choke her or burn her on purpose Threatened her or attacked her with a knife, gun, or any other weapon Physically forced her to have sexual intercourse with him even when she did not want to Forced her to perform any sexual acts she did not want to At least one of these acts 176 | Domestic Violence 14.8.2 Men’s reports of spousal violence Table 14.9.2 presents information on the specific types of spousal violence committed by ever-married men against their wives ever and in the 12 months preceding the survey. The data show that overall, 8 percent of men reported that they had committed an act of physical violence against their wife at some time in their lives. The majority of men (7 percent) who ever committed the physical violence reported that they had done so at least once in the past year. The two most common acts of physical spousal violence reported by men were pushing, shaking, or throwing something at their wife, and slapping her (6 percent, each). Table 14.9.2 Women’s experience of spousal violence according to men’s reports Percentage of ever-married men age 15-49 who have committed various types of violence against their wife/partner ever and in the 12 months preceding the survey, Ukraine 2007 Type of violence Ever Frequency of violence in past 12 months1 Often Sometimes Often or sometimes Physical violence Any 8.4 0.7 6.6 7.3 Pushed her, shook her, or threw something at her 6.4 0.3 5.2 5.5 Slapped her 5.8 0.4 4.6 5.1 Twisted her arm or pulled her hair 1.3 0.0 0.8 0.8 Punched her with his fist or with something that could hurt her 1.7 0.0 1.0 1.1 Kicked her, dragged her, or beat her up 1.2 0.0 0.7 0.7 Tried to choke her or burn her on purpose 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.1 Threatened her or attacked her with a knife, gun, or any other weapon 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 Sexual violence Any 0.9 0.0 0.4 0.4 Physically forced her to have sexual intercourse with him even when she did not want to 0.8 0.0 0.3 0.3 Forced her to perform any sexual acts she did not want to 0.7 0.0 0.2 0.2 Emotional violence Any 18.0 1.4 16.0 17.4 Said or did something to humiliate her in front of others 9.3 0.8 7.8 8.6 Threatened to hurt or harm her or someone close to her 5.7 0.2 4.7 4.9 Insulted her or made her feel bad about herself 13.5 1.0 12.0 13.0 Any type of physical and/or sexual violence 8.4 0.7 6.6 7.3 Any type of physical and sexual violence 0.9 0.0 0.4 0.4 Any type of emotional, physical and/or sexual violence 20.7 1.7 17.9 19.7 Any type of emotional, physical and sexual violence 0.7 0.0 0.2 0.2 Number of ever-married men 1,654 1,625 1,625 1,625 Note: Husband/partner refers to the current husband/partner for currently married women and the most recent husband/partner for divorced, separated or widowed women. 1 Excludes widows One percent of men said that they had at some time forced their wife to have sexual intercourse with them, and the same proportion reported having ever forced her to perform other sexual acts against her will. Less than 1 percent reported having carried out these acts within the past year. Eighteen percent of ever-married men said that they had subjected their wife to emotional violence at some time, with 17 percent saying they had done so within the past 12 months. A large majority of men who reported ever subjecting their wife to emotional violence reported insulting her or making her feel bad about herself (14 percent). Additionally, 9 percent of ever-married men said that they had at some time humiliated their wife in front of others, and 6 percent said that they threatened to hurt or harm her or someone close to her. Domestic Violence | 177 14.8.3 Differentials in reported levels of violence Table 14.10 shows the proportion of ever-married women who have ever experienced emotional, physical, or sexual spousal violence, according to women’s reports, by selected background characteristics. Overall, the percentage of women who reported any type of spousal violence increases with age. A similar pattern is observed in the case of the differentials for physical and emotional violence but not in the case of sexual violence. For example, 13 percent of women age 15-24 reported having been exposed to spousal emotional violence and 7 percent reported having been exposed to physical spousal violence, compared with 28 percent and 16 percent, respectively, of women age 40-49. The reverse is true for sexual violence; 6 percent of women age 15-24 were subjected to spousal sexual violence, compared with 3 percent of women age 30-49. Divorced or separated women and women who were employed in the past 12 months are more likely to have experienced some type of spousal violence than other women. For example, more than half of Table 14.10 Spousal violence according to women’s reports by background characteristics Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have ever experienced emotional, physical or sexual violence committed by their current or most recent husband/partner, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristics Emotional violence Physical violence Sexual violence Physical and/or sexual violence Physical and sexual violence Emotional, physical and/or sexual violence Emotional, physical and sexual violence Number of women Age 15-24 12.5 7.0 6.1 8.0 5.1 16.2 3.1 241 25-29 13.5 7.7 1.8 8.2 1.3 14.6 1.3 319 30-39 22.8 12.5 3.2 12.8 2.9 24.4 2.6 867 40-49 27.7 16.0 3.1 16.6 2.5 30.0 2.3 929 Employed past 12 months Not employed 18.6 9.8 3.0 10.2 2.6 21.0 1.3 437 Employed 23.2 13.3 3.3 13.8 2.8 25.2 2.6 1,914 Number of living children 0 18.2 11.9 6.4 12.2 6.1 18.5 6.1 256 1-2 22.4 12.2 2.8 12.8 2.1 24.4 1.7 1,920 3+ 28.1 18.7 4.5 18.7 4.5 32.9 4.5 180 Marital status and duration Currently married women 16.2 7.8 1.5 8.3 1.1 17.8 0.9 1,831 Married only once 15.9 7.1 1.4 7.6 0.9 17.4 0.7 1,541 Marital duration: 0-4 years 6.0 0.7 0.9 1.1 0.5 6.5 0.5 257 5-9 years 13.4 5.8 1.7 6.3 1.1 15.4 0.9 243 10+ years 18.9 9.0 1.5 9.5 1.0 20.6 0.8 1,041 Married more than once 18.0 11.5 2.2 11.7 2.0 20.0 2.0 290 Divorced or separated 51.6 33.2 10.2 34.2 9.2 55.2 8.0 420 Widowed 13.9 15.2 5.9 15.2 5.9 17.1 5.2 105 Residence Urban 22.7 11.9 3.6 12.5 2.9 24.2 2.5 1,643 Rural 21.8 14.5 2.5 14.7 2.3 25.1 2.2 712 Region North 22.5 13.4 3.9 13.7 3.6 24.5 2.4 462 Central 19.1 11.8 1.2 12.3 0.7 22.3 0.5 257 East 26.4 13.7 4.7 14.8 3.6 28.2 3.3 683 South 18.0 11.9 3.1 12.1 2.9 20.2 2.8 401 West 22.2 11.6 2.1 12.0 1.8 23.8 1.8 552 Education Secondary or less 24.6 15.8 4.6 16.9 3.4 27.6 2.8 891 Higher 21.1 10.7 2.5 10.9 2.3 22.5 2.1 1,464 Wealth quintile Lowest 25.8 15.9 3.2 16.3 2.9 28.9 2.7 300 Second 21.6 15.4 3.1 15.8 2.7 25.3 2.5 484 Middle 22.2 12.0 3.2 12.4 2.8 23.3 2.8 449 Fourth 21.3 8.8 1.9 9.0 1.7 22.2 1.7 505 Highest 22.5 12.5 4.6 13.6 3.5 24.3 2.4 617 Total 22.4 12.7 3.3 13.2 2.7 24.4 2.4 2,355 Note: Total includes 4 women with information missing on employment and 17 women with information missing on respondent’s father beating her mother. Women not currently married were asked questions about the behavior of their most recent husband/partner using the past tense. 178 | Domestic Violence divorced or separated women report having been subjected to emotional violence (52 percent) and one-third to physical violence (33 percent), compared with 16 percent and 8 percent, respectively, reported by currently married women. The percentage of ever-married women who reported having been subjected to emotional or physical violence increases with the number of living children the woman has. This relationship is not observed for sexual violence, the pattern for which is similar to that observed by age. There is some variation by region in the extent to which women have experienced some type of violence, with women in the East region reporting the highest level of spousal abuse (28 percent) and women in the South region reporting the lowest level of spousal abuse (20 percent). Overall, women with secondary or less education and women in the lowest wealth quintile are more likely to have been subjected to spousal violence than women with higher education and women in the highest wealth quintile. In the UDHS, the domestic violence module was administered to one randomly selected person per household: to women in one-half of households selected and to men in the other half of households selected. When comparing the results on spousal violence based on the reports of women and men, it is important to remember that the results are from independent samples of men and women and, therefore, the rates do not apply to the matched couples and are not strictly comparable. Figure 14.2 shows the percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 by whether they have ever experienced emotional, physical, or sexual violence committed by their current or most recent husband, and the percentage of ever-married men age 15-49 by whether they have ever committed emotional, physical, or sexual violence against their current or most recent wife. Figure 14.2 Spousal violence reported by ever-married women and men age 15-49 22 13 3 24 2 18 8 1 21 1 Emotional violence Physical violence Sexual violence Emotional, physical, and/or sexual violence Emotional, physical, and sexual violence 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Percent Women Men UDHS 2007 In general, women’s and men’s reports on types of violence committed by men against their spouses show similar trends, although the rates reported by men are somewhat lower than those reported by women. Figure 14.3 shows the percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have ever experienced emotional, physical, or sexual violence committed by their current or most recent husband and percentages of ever-married men age 15-49 who have ever committed emotional, physical, or sexual violence against their current or most recent wife, according to whether or not the respondent’s father beat his mother. Women with a family history of violence are markedly more likely than other women to have experienced some type of spousal violence. About four in ten (41 Domestic Violence | 179 percent) ever-married women who reported that their father beat their mother had experienced some type of spousal violence themselves, compared with 18 percent of women who said their father had never beaten their mother. Similarly, men with a family history of violence are twice as likely as men with no such history to have ever committed any type of spousal violence (33 percent compared with 15 percent). Figure 14.3 Spousal violence by husbands against wives according to whether respondent’s father had a history of beating respondent’s mother, as reported by women and men 41 33 18 15 Women Men 0 10 20 30 40 50 Percent Respondent’s father beat her/his mother Respondent’s father did not beat her/his mother UDHS 2007 14.9 VIOLENCE BY SPOUSAL CHARACTERISTICS AND WOMEN’S INDICATORS Table 14.11 looks at the relationship between ever-married women’s experience of spousal violence and several social and demographic characteristics of the husband. The results show that the husband’s level of education is inversely related to the wife’s experience of any type of spousal violence. For example, 29 percent of women whose husbands have secondary or less education report emotional, physical, and/or sexual violence, compared with 20 percent among those whose husbands have higher education. As expected, alcohol consumption is strongly associated with spousal violence. Women whose husbands do not drink (14 percent) or who drink but are never drunk (8 percent) are substantially less likely to report having been subjected to any type of spousal violence, compared with women whose husbands get drunk frequently (73 percent). Wives who are 10 or more years younger than their husbands are somewhat more likely than other women to report higher levels of violence by their husbands (24 percent) when compared with women who are the same age, older, or less than 10 years younger than their husbands (17-20 percent). Women who have the same level of education (18 percent) as their husbands are less likely to report violence than those who have more education (27 percent) or less education (26 percent) than their husbands. There is a strong direct relationship between the number of marital control behaviors displayed by the husband and the experience of any type of spousal violence by women; only 7 percent of women whose husbands display none of the specific behaviors reported having experienced violence, compared with 84 percent of women whose husbands display five or six behaviors. Table 14.11 also examines how spousal violence varies with indicators of women’s status. Women’s status is measured by the number of reasons considered acceptable for refusing to have sexual intercourse with the husband and the number of reasons for which wife beating is justified. Results show that there is a clear relationship between women’s empowerment status and their 180 | Domestic Violence experience of spousal violence. Women who gave three acceptable reasons for refusing to have sexual intercourse, and women who believe there are no reasons for which wife beating is justified, are much less likely to experience spousal violence than other women. Table 14.11 Spousal violence by husband’s characteristics and empowerment indicators Percentage of ever-married women age15-49 who have ever suffered emotional, physical or sexual violence committed by their current or most recent husband/partner, according to his characteristics, marital characteristics, and empowerment indicators, Ukraine 2007 Characteristic Emotional violence Physical violence Sexual violence Physical and/or sexual violence Physical and sexual violence Emotional, physical and/or sexual violence Emotional, physical and sexual violence Number of women Husband/partner’s education Secondary or less 26.4 16.4 4.8 17.3 3.9 29.4 3.3 1,107 Higher 18.4 9.2 2.0 9.5 1.7 19.6 1.6 1,240 Missing * * * * * * * 9 Husband/partner’s alcohol consumption Does not drink alcohol 13.7 2.3 0.2 2.3 0.2 14.2 0.2 480 Drinks alcohol but is never drunk 6.7 2.4 1.4 3.8 0.0 7.6 0.0 436 Is sometimes drunk 22.8 11.6 2.0 11.9 1.7 24.9 1.5 1,164 Is often drunk 66.0 56.0 18.7 57.0 17.7 72.6 15.2 249 Don’t know/missing (12.8) (9.5) (1.4) (10.9) (0.0) (14.7) (0.0) 27 Spousal age difference1 Wife older 17.7 10.8 1.3 10.8 1.3 19.0 1.3 209 Wife is same age 19.6 6.5 0.3 6.5 0.3 20.3 0.3 227 Wife is 0-4 years younger 15.3 6.9 1.8 7.5 1.2 17.0 1.0 947 Wife is 5-9 years younger 15.1 7.8 1.6 8.1 1.3 16.5 1.2 348 Wife is 10 or more years younger 20.3 14.4 2.7 16.7 0.4 24.1 0.4 84 Missing * * * * * * * 15 Spousal education difference Husband has more education 23.4 14.9 4.1 15.7 3.2 26.1 2.6 1,111 Wife has more education 24.4 13.8 3.3 14.3 2.8 26.5 2.7 648 Both have equal education 16.7 6.7 1.6 6.7 1.6 17.5 1.5 562 Don’t know/missing (45.2) (17.0) (4.2) (17.0) (4.2) (45.2) (4.2) 34 Number of marital control behaviors displayed by husband/partner 0 5.8 2.6 1.2 2.8 1.0 7.4 0.3 739 1-2 17.4 7.0 1.3 7.6 0.7 19.1 0.7 1,085 3-4 49.7 30.1 6.8 31.2 5.7 52.9 5.3 425 5-6 79.4 70.1 23.9 70.1 23.9 83.5 22.8 107 Number of reasons given for refusing to have sexual intercourse with husband 0 (30.9) (24.0) (6.3) (24.0) (6.3) (33.0) (6.3) 25 1-2 27.7 14.0 3.3 15.0 2.2 30.4 2.1 357 3 21.3 12.3 3.2 12.7 2.8 23.2 2.4 1,973 Number of reasons for which wife beating is justified 0 21.6 11.6 3.2 12.1 2.7 23.5 2.3 2,258 1+ 40.6 37.7 4.3 37.7 4.3 46.3 4.3 97 Total 22.4 12.7 3.3 13.2 2.7 24.4 2.4 2,355 Note: Women not currently married were asked questions about the behavior of their most recent husband/partner using the past tense. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Includes only currently married women 14.10 FREQUENCY OF SPOUSAL VIOLENCE BY HUSBANDS To determine how many women continue to experience spousal violence at the present time, women were asked, for each act of violence ever committed by their husband, the frequency with which he committed the act in the 12 months preceding the survey. Table 14.12 looks at differentials in the frequency of spousal violence among women who reported experiencing various types of violence in the past year. The table shows that among women who reported ever experiencing spousal violence, around nine in ten had experienced emotional spousal violence in the 12 months preceding the survey, with one in five having experienced emotional spousal violence often in the past year. Furthermore, 85 percent of women who ever experienced spousal violence reported having been Domestic Violence | 181 subjected to physical or sexual violence in the past 12 months, and 13 percent experienced physical and sexual violence often in the past year. Looking at the frequency of spousal emotional violence, women who are divorced or separated and rural women were more likely than other women to report frequent emotional spousal violence in the past year. Women with higher education and those in the highest wealth quintile were less likely to have experienced frequent emotional violence committed by their spouse than women with less education. Looking at regional variation, the percentage of women who reported frequent emotional spousal violence in the past year ranges from 16 percent in the North region to 35 percent in the South region. Considering the experience of physical or sexual violence, women in rural areas and in the South region, women with secondary or less education, and women in the two lowest wealth quintiles are more likely than other women to have experienced these types of violence often in the past 12 months. Table 14.12 Frequency of spousal violence among women who reported violence Percent distribution of ever-married women age 15-49 (excluding widows) who have ever experienced emotional violence committed by their current or most recent husband/partner by frequency of violence in the 12 months preceding the survey, and percent distribution of women who have ever experienced physical or sexual violence committed by their current or most recent husband/partner by frequency of violence in the 12 months preceding the survey, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristic Frequency of emotional violence in the past 12 months Frequency of physical or sexual violence in the past 12 months Often Sometimes Not at all Total Number of women Often Sometimes Not at all Total Number of women Age 15-24 (22.1) (70.7) (7.2) 100.0 29 * * * 100.0 16 25-29 19.5 74.3 6.2 100.0 42 (10.5) (82.3) (7.1) 100.0 26 30-39 25.4 66.2 8.4 100.0 192 17.4 71.4 11.2 100.0 107 40-49 16.4 71.6 12.0 100.0 241 10.8 68.9 20.2 100.0 131 Marital status and duration Currently married women 11.4 84.4 4.2 100.0 294 9.8 81.5 8.7 100.0 142 Divorced/separated 33.0 49.3 17.8 100.0 211 17.2 62.1 20.7 100.0 138 Residence Urban 18.3 70.0 11.7 100.0 356 9.1 72.8 18.1 100.0 184 Rural 25.6 69.0 5.4 100.0 148 21.6 70.3 8.1 100.0 96 Region North 15.8 71.0 13.3 100.0 99 11.4 70.7 17.8 100.0 60 Central 18.6 57.1 24.2 100.0 46 7.9 56.4 35.7 100.0 30 East 17.1 73.7 9.3 100.0 174 12.2 69.8 18.0 100.0 86 South 34.6 64.6 0.9 100.0 70 26.3 73.7 0.0 100.0 44 West 21.6 70.9 7.4 100.0 116 10.6 82.3 7.1 100.0 61 Education Secondary or less 23.2 68.7 8.1 100.0 203 14.6 73.7 11.8 100.0 130 Higher 18.6 70.4 11.0 100.0 301 12.5 70.4 17.1 100.0 151 Wealth quintile Lowest 23.9 70.2 5.9 100.0 75 18.3 72.5 9.2 100.0 45 Second 25.2 68.3 6.5 100.0 95 22.2 66.1 11.7 100.0 66 Middle 19.3 65.3 15.4 100.0 97 12.4 68.0 19.6 100.0 53 Fourth 19.9 65.0 15.1 100.0 106 (13.9) (67.5) (18.6) 100.0 44 Highest 16.3 77.5 6.3 100.0 133 2.8 82.5 14.7 100.0 72 Total 20.4 69.7 9.9 100.0 504 13.4 71.9 14.6 100.0 280 Note: Table excludes widows who were not asked about spousal violence in the past 12 months. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 14.11 ONSET OF SPOUSAL VIOLENCE To examine the timing of the onset of marital violence, the 2007 UDHS asked ever-married women, who experienced physical or sexual spousal violence, when the first episode of violence took place after marriage. The results indicate that, for more than one-third of women who experienced spousal violence (5 percent of all women), violence began occurring three to five years after marriage. For about one-quarter of women who had experienced violence (3 percent of all women), the violence was initiated less than a year into the marriage, while a similar proportion said that violence was initiated one to two years after marriage. 182 | Domestic Violence Table 14.13 Onset of marital violence Percent distribution of ever-married women by number of years between marriage and first experience of physical or sexual violence by current or most recent husband/partner, if ever, according to marital status and duration, Ukraine 2007 Marital status/ duration Years between marriage1 and first experience of violence Total Number of women Experienced no violence Before marriage1 <1 year 1-2 years 3-5 years 6-9 years 10+ years Don’t know/ missing Currently married 91.7 0.2 1.6 1.8 2.6 0.9 1.1 0.1 100.0 1,831 Married only once 92.4 0.1 1.3 1.4 2.3 1.0 1.2 0.1 100.0 1,541 Married more than once 88.3 0.6 2.7 3.5 4.0 0.5 0.5 0.0 100.0 290 Divorced/separated/ widowed 69.6 0.5 5.8 7.8 12.7 1.6 1.9 0.0 100.0 525 Total 86.8 0.3 2.5 3.1 4.9 1.1 1.3 0.1 100.0 2,355 1 For couples who are not married but are living together as if married, the time of marriage refers the time when the respondent first started living together with her partner. 14.12 TYPES OF INJURIES TO WOMEN RESULTING FROM SPOUSAL VIOLENCE Table 14.14 presents information on the types of injuries experienced by ever-married women as a result of spousal violence. Among women who ever experienced physical violence, about seven in ten had cuts, bruises, or aches; one-fifth had eye injuries, sprains, dislocations, or burns; and 3 percent had deep wounds, broken bones or teeth, or other serious injuries. Overall, 72 percent of women experienced some type of injury as a result of physical spousal violence. Most of those women reported that they had been injured in the 12 months preceding the survey. Women who ever experienced sexual violence were more likely than women who ever experienced physical violence to report that they had been injured as a result of spousal violence. Eighty-two percent of women who ever experienced sexual violence had cuts, bruises, or aches resulting from at least one incident of spousal violence; 34 percent received eye injuries, sprains, dislocations, or burns as a result of sexual violence; and 7 percent reported receiving deep wounds, broken bones, broken teeth, or any other serious injury from sexual violence. More than eight in ten women who experienced sexual violence have ever received an injury; most of these women were injured during the 12 months preceding the survey. Table 14.14 Injuries to women as a result of spousal violence Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have experienced specific injuries as a result of spousal violence committed by their current or most recent husband/partner, by type of spousal violence and whether they experienced the violence ever, and in the past 12 months, Ukraine 2007 Type of spousal violence Percentage of women who experienced specific injuries as a result of spousal violence Number of ever- married women Cuts, bruises, or aches Eye injuries, sprains, dislocations, or burns Deep wounds, broken bones, broken teeth, or any other serious injury Any of the specified injuries Physical violence Ever1 71.0 20.0 3.1 71.5 298 In the past 12 months2 70.3 21.2 3.5 70.7 235 Sexual violence Ever1 82.1 33.9 7.0 82.1 68 In the past 12 months2 (88.8) (39.1) (7.1) (88.8) 50 Physical or sexual violence Ever1 70.3 19.7 3.1 70.7 303 In the past 12 months2 69.5 20.8 3.4 69.9 239 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Includes in the past 12 months 2 Excludes widows Domestic Violence | 183 14.13 PHYSICAL VIOLENCE BY WOMEN AGAINST THEIR SPOUSE In cases of domestic violence, either spouse can be the instigator of violent behavior. Ever- married women were also asked about instances when they said or did something to physically harm their spouse, at times when he was not already beating or physically hurting them. The results show that 11 percent of ever-married women reported that they had committed physical violence against their current or most recent husband, and 10 percent reported doing so in the past 12 months (Tables 14.15.1a and 14.5.1b). The rates of violence by women against their husbands vary by background characteristics. The highest rate was for women whose husbands got drunk often (32 percent); they were also high for women whose husbands have secondary or less education (12 percent), women who are 10 or more years younger than their husbands (14 percent), women age 40-49 (14 percent), and women who are divorced or separated (23 percent). Urban women (12 percent) and those in the East region (17 percent) are more likely than rural women (9 percent) and women in the other regions (7-11 percent) to abuse their husbands when they were not already being beaten or physically hurt by them. Table 14.15.1a Violence by women against their spouse according to women’s reports Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have committed physical violence against their current or most recent husband/partner when he was not already beating or physically hurting them ever, and in the past 12 months, according to women’s own experience of spousal violence and their own and husband/partner’s characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Characteristics Percentage of women who have committed physical violence against current or most recent husband/partner: Number of women1 Ever Number of women Frequency of violence in the past 12 months1 Often Sometimes Any Woman’s experience of spousal physical violence Ever 42.7 298 3.9 36.8 40.7 282 In the past 12 months 40.0 235 4.0 35.7 39.8 235 Not in the past 12 months/ widow/missing 52.7 63 3.0 42.0 45.1 47 Never 6.3 2,057 0.4 5.5 5.8 1,969 Age 15-24 6.6 241 0.0 5.4 5.4 240 25-29 4.7 319 0.5 3.8 4.3 316 30-39 11.3 867 1.2 9.6 10.7 844 40-49 13.8 929 0.8 12.4 13.2 850 Number of living children 0 9.4 256 1.2 7.8 9.0 250 1-2 11.0 1,920 0.6 9.5 10.2 1,833 3+ 12.1 180 2.1 10.4 12.5 168 Marital status and duration Currently married woman 8.2 1,831 0.5 7.4 7.9 1,831 Married only once 7.8 1,541 0.5 7.1 7.5 1,541 Marital duration: 0-4 years 3.4 257 0.0 3.4 3.4 257 5-9 years 4.8 243 0.4 3.9 4.3 243 10+ years 9.5 1,041 0.6 8.7 9.3 1,041 Married more than once 10.8 290 0.7 9.1 9.8 290 Divorced or separated 22.7 420 2.2 18.1 20.3 420 Widowed 10.7 105 na na na 105 Residence Urban 11.6 1,643 0.9 9.9 10.8 1,573 Rural 9.3 712 0.5 8.2 8.8 677 Region North 7.8 462 0.4 7.1 7.5 435 Central 7.7 257 0.4 7.4 7.8 248 East 17.0 683 0.4 14.5 14.9 656 South 11.3 401 2.1 9.4 11.5 375 West 7.1 552 0.9 6.0 6.9 536 na = Not applicable 1 Excludes widows 2 Currently married women 184 | Domestic Violence Table 14.15.1b Violence by women against their spouse according to women’s reports (continuation) Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have committed physical violence against their husband/partner when he was not already beating or physically hurting them ever, and in the past 12 months, according to women’s own experience of spousal violence and their own and husband/partner’s characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Characteristics Percentage of women who have committed physical violence against current or most recent husband/partner: Number of women1 Ever Number of women In the past 12 months1 Often Sometimes Any Woman’s education Secondary or less 10.3 891 1.3 9.0 10.3 840 Higher 11.3 1,464 0.5 9.6 10.2 1,410 Husband/partner’s education Secondary or less 12.4 1,107 1.0 11.7 12.7 1,039 Higher 9.4 1,240 0.6 7.3 7.9 1,203 Missing * 9 * * * 9 Husband/partner’s alcohol consumption Does not drink alcohol 5.1 480 0.8 4.2 5.0 449 Drinks alcohol but is never drunk 4.2 436 0.0 2.8 2.8 426 Is sometimes drunk 11.5 1,164 0.2 10.8 10.9 1,123 Is often drunk 32.4 249 5.3 26.0 31.3 230 Missing (0.0) 27 (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 23 Spousal age difference2 Wife older 7.8 209 0.5 6.9 7.4 209 Wife is same age 11.2 227 0.7 10.5 11.2 227 Wife is 0-4 years younger 8.0 947 0.4 7.1 7.6 947 Wife is 5-9 years younger 6.0 348 0.5 5.5 6.0 348 Wife is 10 or more years younger 13.8 84 0.6 11.7 12.3 84 Missing * 15 * * * 15 Spousal education difference Husband has more education 11.2 1,111 1.1 9.1 10.1 1,069 Wife has more education 14.5 648 0.4 13.9 14.2 608 Both have equal education 5.7 562 0.4 4.6 5.0 543 Missing (21.3) 34 (6.9) (17.0) (23.8) 31 Wealth quintile Lowest 9.8 300 0.7 9.1 9.8 283 Second 11.8 484 0.3 10.6 10.9 454 Middle 12.5 449 1.0 9.4 10.4 440 Fourth 10.0 505 1.6 9.1 10.6 477 Highest 10.4 617 0.4 8.9 9.3 598 Total 10.9 2,355 0.8 9.4 10.2 2,251 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Excludes widows 2 Currently married women Table 14.15.2 presents the results on violence by wives against their husbands according to men’s reports. In general, men’s and women’s reports on domestic violence committed by women against their spouses show similar patterns, although the rates reported by men are somewhat lower than those reported by women. Overall, 7 percent of men reported experiencing spousal violence by their wives when they were not already physically hurting their wives. Similar to what was reported by women, older men (7-9 percent of men age 30-49), divorced, separated or, widowed men (17 percent), men in the East region (9 percent), men with secondary or less education (10 percent), and men in the poorest wealth quintile are the most likely to have their wives initiate violence against them. Not surprisingly, men whose spouses do not drink (3 percent), or who drink but are never drunk (4 percent), are substantially less likely to report that their wives initiated spousal violence than men whose wives sometimes get drunk (17 percent). Domestic Violence | 185 Table 14.15.2 Violence by women against their spouse according to men’s reports Percentage of ever-married men age 15-49 who have ever experienced physical violence committed by their current or most recent wife/partner when he was not already beating or physically hurting them, according to their own and wife/partner’s characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Characteristics Percentage of men age 15-49 who have ever experienced physical violence committed by their current or most recent wife/partner Number of men Age 15-24 1.7 116 25-29 4.3 251 30-39 8.5 671 40-49 6.5 616 Marital status Currently married 4.6 1,390 Divorced/separated/ widowed 17.3 264 Residence Urban 6.3 1,204 Rural 7.7 450 Region North 3.0 365 Central 6.1 190 East 9.0 559 South 7.3 241 West 6.5 300 Education Secondary or less 10.1 816 Higher 3.3 838 Wife/partner’s alcohol consumption Does not drink alcohol 3.0 771 Drinks alcohol but is never drunk 4.2 523 Is sometimes drunk 16.9 331 Is often drunk * 15 Missing * 15 Wealth quintile Lowest 13.4 233 Second 5.4 330 Middle 7.4 324 Fourth 8.1 324 Highest 2.4 443 Total 6.6 1,654 14.14 WOMEN WHO EXPERIENCED VIOLENCE AND SOUGHT HELP Table 14.16 presents information on women who reported that they had ever experienced violence and whether they sought help to stop the violence, by selected characteristics. Overall, 16 percent of women who had ever experienced physical or sexual violence never told anyone that they were victims of violence, and 44 percent never sought help. Thirty-eight percent of women who ever experienced physical or sexual violence did seek help from at least one source. Women who experienced only physical violence were more likely than those who experienced only sexual violence to have sought help (38 and 13 percent, respectively), although the number of women reporting only sexual violence is quite small. Additionally, women who are divorced, separated, or widowed, and currently married women who were married more than once, are more likely to have sought help than currently married women who were married only once. With regard to residence, women in urban areas are more likely to have sought help (40 percent) than their counterparts in rural areas (35 percent). Twenty-nine percent of women in the North region sought help for the violence they experienced, compared with 44 percent (each) of women in the South and East regions. 186 | Domestic Violence Table 14.16 Help seeking to stop violence Among women age 15-49 who have ever experienced physical or sexual violence, percentage who never told anyone about the violence, percentage who never sought help to stop the violence, and percentage who ever sought help from any source to stop the violence, according to type of violence and background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Type of violence/ characteristic Percentage who never told anyone about violence Percentage who never sought help to stop the violence1 Percentage who ever sought help from any source Number of women Type of violence Physical only 13.4 40.8 38.4 375 Sexual only2 (34.5) (59.6) (12.6) 42 Both physical and sexual2 15.7 48.7 46.5 116 Age 15-19 * * * 15 20-24 22.9 56.1 32.5 56 25-29 21.6 41.1 37.5 56 30-39 12.0 36.1 42.6 183 40-49 13.1 47.0 36.8 222 Number of living children 0 22.4 46.9 38.5 95 1-2 14.4 43.6 37.8 385 3+ 11.9 41.5 39.9 53 Marital status and duration Never married (29.6) (54.7) (24.5) 46 Currently married women 13.3 47.0 31.4 303 Married only once 13.8 50.8 23.8 209 Married more than once 12.2 38.6 48.4 94 Divorced/separated/ widowed 15.7 36.4 52.6 184 Residence Urban 15.6 43.8 39.6 365 Rural 15.4 44.3 35.0 168 Region North 21.5 45.0 29.3 110 Central 20.2 53.7 33.5 70 East 11.5 40.7 43.8 157 South 17.0 39.4 44.2 83 West 11.3 44.8 37.3 112 Education Secondary or less 16.8 45.4 38.5 251 Higher 14.4 42.7 37.8 281 Wealth quintile Lowest 11.3 39.6 48.5 74 Second 19.7 49.8 29.9 115 Middle 14.1 45.4 41.3 112 Fourth 14.1 40.1 36.7 92 Highest 16.4 42.9 37.8 140 Total 15.5 44.0 38.1 533 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Includes women who have not told anyone about the violence 2 Does not include forced sexual initiation Table 14.17 shows the percentage of women who ever experienced physical or sexual violence and sought help for the abuse, by the source of help sought. A large majority (69 percent) of women who were abused and sought help did so from their own family. More than four in ten (44 percent) asked for help from their in-laws, and 28 percent sought help from friends or neighbors. Only about one-third of women (32 percent) sought help for their abuse from the police. Just 3 percent of women asked for help from a doctor or other medical personnel, from a lawyer, and from a social service organization. Table 14.17 Sources where help was sought Percentage of women age 15-49 who have ever experienced physical or sexual violence and sought help, by source from which help was sought, Ukraine 2007 Source of help Percentage of women who sought help Own family 68.9 In-laws 43.7 Husband/partner/boyfriend 1.5 Friend/neighbor 28.4 Religious leader 0.2 Doctor/medical personnel 2.6 Police 32.1 Lawyer 2.9 Social service organization 3.0 Other 1.8 Number of women 203 Domestic Violence | 187 14.15 MEN EXPERIENCING PHYSICAL VIOLENCE In the 2007 UDHS, men 15-49 were asked about their own experience of emotional, physical, or sexual violence. The proportions of men who reported sexual or physical violence committed against them by their current or most recent wife are negligible and not presented in this report. However, a substantial proportion of men reported having experienced physical violence since age 15 committed against them by someone other than their current spouse. Table 14.18 shows the percent- age of all men who reported experi- encing this type of physical violence since age 15 and in the 12 months pre- ceding the survey. About one-third of men age 15-49 (35 percent) experi- enced this type of physical violence, and 5 percent reported experiencing at least one episode of violence in the past 12 months. Less than 1 percent of men reported that they had been subjected to physical violence often during the 12 months preceding the survey. Men age 15-19 are most likely to have experienced physical violence both since they were age 15 and in the past 12 months (41 and 8 percent, re- spectively) committed against them by someone other than their current spouse. Employed men are more likely to have experienced physical violence than unemployed men (37 and 31 per- cent, respectively), but the opposite is the case regarding physical violence in the past year (4 percent of employed men, compared with 11 percent of unemployed men). Formerly married men—i.e., divorced, separated, and widowed men (44 percent)—are the most likely to report having ever experienced physical violence, compared with other men, and never-married men reported the highest rate of a recent violence (9 percent). Men with higher education and those in the higher wealth quintiles are less likely than other subgroups to report experiencing nonspousal, physical violence since age 15, or in the past 12 months. There is little variation by urban-rural residence. Differentials by region indicate that, for men, the experience physical violence since age 15 is highest in the East region (50 percent) and lowest in the North region (22 percent). Similarly, recent exposure to physical violence (past 12 months) ranges from 2 percent in the North region to 7 percent in the East region. 14.16 PERPETRATORS OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST MEN Table 14.19 shows the percentage of men who have ever experienced physical violence since age 15 by the persons who committed the violence. The results show that the persons reported most often are the police or soldiers (20 percent). Seven percent of men reported their father or stepfather as the person committing the physical violence against them, and 4 percent reported their mother or stepmother. Other persons were reported by 2 percent or less of men. Table 14.18 Men’s experience of physical violence Percentage of men age 15-49 who have ever experienced physical violence since age 15 committed against them by someone other than their current spouse and percentage who have experienced this type of physical violence during the 12 months preceding the survey, by background characteristics Ukraine 2007 Background characteristics Percentage who have experienced nonspousal physical violence since age 15 Number of men Ever1 Frequency of violence in the past 12 months Often Sometimes Any Age 15-19 41.3 0.0 7.5 7.5 150 20-24 35.9 0.2 4.5 4.8 338 25-29 36.6 0.4 3.6 4.1 420 30-39 36.6 0.4 5.0 5.4 894 40-49 Employment (past 12 months) Not employed 30.5 1.1 10.3 11.3 543 Employed 36.6 0.1 3.4 3.6 2,058 Marital status Never married 32.5 0.7 8.2 8.9 950 Married or living together 35.6 0.1 3.0 3.1 1,390 Divorced/separated/ widowed 44.1 0.3 2.6 2.9 264 Residence Urban 35.6 0.3 4.3 4.6 1,866 Rural 34.5 0.5 6.2 6.6 738 Region North 22.2 0.0 2.3 2.3 504 Central 34.7 0.6 4.6 5.2 291 East 49.7 0.0 6.5 6.5 866 South 27.1 0.3 3.9 4.2 405 West 31.0 1.1 5.4 6.4 539 Education Secondary or less 38.9 0.5 7.2 7.7 1,347 Higher 31.5 0.1 2.3 2.4 1,257 Wealth quintile Lowest 44.1 0.5 9.1 9.5 356 Second 36.9 0.5 4.7 5.2 536 Middle 36.7 0.0 4.2 4.2 503 Fourth 35.2 0.7 3.9 4.5 517 Highest 28.7 0.1 3.9 4.1 692 Total 35.3 0.3 4.8 5.2 2,604 Note: Total includes 3 men with information missing on respondent’s employment. 1 Includes in the past 12 months 188 | Domestic Violence Table 14.19 Persons committing nonspousal physical violence Among men age 15-49 who have experienced physical violence since age 15 committed against them by someone other than their current spouse, percentage who reported specific persons who committed the violence, Ukraine 2007 Person Percentage of men who reported specific persons committed the violence Former wife/partner 0.8 Current girlfriend 0.3 Former girlfriend 0.3 Father/stepfather 6.9 Mother/stepmother 3.8 Sister/brother 1.5 Other relative 0.7 Mother-in-law 0.3 Father-in-law 0.9 Other in-law 1.1 Teacher 0.7 Employer/someone at work 1.1 Police/soldier 19.7 Other 1.0 Number of men 920 14.17 LOCATION OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE AGAINST MEN The 2007 UDHS asked men who reported having experienced physical violence where the violence took place. Figure 14.4 shows that six in ten men (58 percent) reported that the violence occurred in the street, and more than one in ten (12 percent) reported that the violence took place at school. Three to 6 percent of men reported military barracks, the police station, work, or home as the place where the physical violence occurred. Figure 14.4 Location where nonspousal physical violence was committed against men in the past 12 months Street 58% Home 6% School 12% Work 6% Police station 5% Military barracks 3% Other 11% UDHS 2007 Human Trafficking | 189 HUMAN TRAFFICKING 15 According to the United Nations protocol, human trafficking involves recruiting, transporting, harboring, or receiving persons under the threat or use of force or other types of coercion for purposes of exploiting the individuals for prostitution, other types of sexual exploitation, forced labor or services, slavery or practices similar to slavery, servitude, or the removal of organs (United Nations, 2000). Although the problem is centuries old, the United Nations and international aid agencies have responded to recent increases in the practice, particularly in the trafficking of women and children across national borders for the commercial sex industry, by dedicating substantial resources to developing effective solutions. Governments around the world are also attempting to implement new laws and legal strategies to meet the challenges of this problem. Ukraine is a country of origin and country of transit for persons, primarily women and children, trafficked for the purpose of sexual exploitation (Banwell et al., 2002; and Kane, 2005). Research indicates, for example, that women are being recruited and trafficked from almost all regions of Ukraine to different destination countries (Hughes and Denisova, 2003). The Government of Ukraine is committed to combating this trafficking and has adopted a multi-year policy to fight human trafficking (Council of Europe, 2007). A special module was included in the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) to collect basic information at the household level on labor migration abroad and awareness and experience of human trafficking among members of Ukrainian households. All respondents to the Household Questionnaire were asked if any of the household members, including the respondent, had worked abroad at any time in the past three years. The aim was to collect general information about any persons with a recent history of working abroad. Questions were also included to collect information about the respondent’s awareness of human trafficking as well as information about any members of the household who had been the victim of human trafficking during the three years preceding the survey. 15.1 WORKING ABROAD Table 15.1 shows the percentage of households in which one or more members have worked abroad at some time in the past three years. Overall, 6 percent of households had at least one member who has worked abroad. Working abroad is more frequent among households in the West region (14 percent) compared to other regions. There are small variations by residence and wealth quintile. Table 15.2 presents several estimates of the proportion of UDHS household members who worked abroad during the three years preceding the survey. In calculating these estimates, it was assumed that the size of the de jure (usual) household population was stable during the period. Because there was no information collected in the trafficking module on the age of the household members who worked abroad, it was assumed that the individuals who worked abroad were all within the usual working age population, i.e., the population age 15-64. In addition, because it is not likely that household members travelling abroad for work belong to the youngest and the oldest age groups in the working age population, an alternative “prevalence” estimate based on the population age 18-44 years is also shown in the table. The overall prevalence figures in Table 15.2 should be interpreted with caution because the age profile of the population working abroad is not precisely known. However, the estimates provide some insight into the overall extent to which the working age population in Ukraine may have sought employment opportunities abroad during the period immediately before the survey. 190 | Human Trafficking Table 15.1 Household members working abroad Percentage of households in which one or more members have either worked abroad at some time in the past three years, or are currently working abroad, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristics Percentage of households with at least one member who has worked abroad1 Number of households Residence Urban 5.4 9,364 Rural 6.0 4,015 Region North 2.9 2,400 Central 3.4 1,652 East 3.1 4,632 South 4.9 1,975 West 13.8 2,720 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.1 3,240 Second 6.8 2,281 Middle 6.8 2,620 Fourth 4.9 2,881 Highest 7.2 2,357 Total 5.6 13,379 1 Worked abroad anytime in the three years preceding the survey. Includes household members who have worked abroad but have since died. Table 15.2 Prevalence of household members working abroad Percentage of household members who have worked abroad in the past three years or are currently working abroad among household members age 15-64, and percentage of household members who have worked abroad in the past three years or are currently working abroad among household members age 18-44, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Background characteristics Percentage of household members age 15-64 who have worked abroad/ are working abroad1,2 Number of household members age 15-643 Percentage of household members age 18-44 who have worked abroad/ are working abroad1,4 Number of household members age 18-443 Residence Urban 4.3 15,723 8.1 8,286 Rural 5.2 6,419 10.0 3,321 Region North 2.7 4,048 4.8 2,246 Central 2.8 2,576 5.6 1,306 East 2.4 7,173 4.7 3,652 South 4.0 3,377 7.7 1,747 West 10.4 4,969 19.5 2,656 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.9 3,490 8.8 1,525 Second 4.7 4,408 8.9 2,334 Middle 5.8 4,441 11.6 2,207 Fourth 4.0 4,681 7.7 2,443 Highest 4.3 5,122 7.1 3,097 Total 4.5 22,143 8.7 11,606 1 Worked abroad anytime in the three years preceding the survey. Includes household members who have worked abroad but have since died. 2 Assumes that those reported to have worked abroad/are working abroad are age 15-64. 3 Current (de jure) household members. 4 Assumes that those reported to have worked abroad/are working abroad are age 18-44. Human Trafficking | 191 Overall, Table 15.2 shows that, if the base population is usual household members age 15-64, the proportion of household members working abroad during the three years before the survey is estimated at 5 percent. If the population is limited to household members age 18-44, the estimate is 9 percent. Regardless of which age group is used as a reference, the prevalence of household members working abroad is highest in the West region (10 percent for the 15-64 age group and 20 percent for the 18-44 age group). For each household member reported as working abroad, the household informant was asked whether the individual had a legal permit to work in the country to which s/he had travelled for work. Table 15.3 shows that according to the reports of household informants, 60 percent of household members working abroad have a legal work permit while 9 percent work abroad without a permit. In the case of the remaining household members reported as working abroad (31 percent), the household informants were not sure whether the individuals had a permit. The proportion of household members working abroad reported as having a legal work permit is higher in urban households than rural households (64 and 53 percent, respectively). The East region has the highest proportion working abroad with a legal permit (63 percent), while the North region had the highest proportion working abroad without a work permit (16 percent). The proportion of household members working abroad with a legal work permit increases directly with household wealth quintile. Table 15.3 Legal working permits Percent distribution of household members who have worked/are working abroad in the past three years by legal work permit status while working abroad, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Percent distribution of household members who have worked abroad/ are working abroad by legal work permit status Background characteristics Had/has a legal work permit Did not/does not have a legal work permit Don’t know Total Number of household members who have worked abroad in the past 3 years/are working abroad1 Residence Urban 64.1 8.0 27.9 100.0 673 Rural 52.8 9.5 37.7 100.0 332 Region North 61.4 16.1 22.5 100.0 108 Central 56.8 3.6 39.6 100.0 73 East 63.1 8.2 28.7 100.0 172 South 59.4 5.8 34.8 100.0 135 West 60.0 8.4 31.6 100.0 518 Wealth quintile Lowest 44.8 6.1 49.1 100.0 134 Second 57.0 8.4 34.6 100.0 208 Middle 61.5 11.9 26.7 100.0 256 Fourth 63.0 6.2 30.8 100.0 187 Highest 69.5 8.1 22.4 100.0 220 Total 60.4 8.5 31.1 100.0 1,005 1 Worked abroad anytime in the three years preceding the survey. Includes household members who have worked abroad but have since died, whose work permit status is unknown. 15.2 AWARENESS AND EXPERIENCE OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING To assess the impact of human trafficking in Ukraine, all respondents to the Household Questionnaire were asked the following question: Have you ever heard of people who traveled abroad because they were offered a job, and when they arrived they were not allowed to leave or were forced to work for little or no pay, or were forced to work at a different job than the one they were promised? This question was carefully worded in order to address as many of the different aspects of human trafficking as possible in one simple and direct question. If a respondent answered “yes” to this 192 | Human Trafficking question, a further question was asked: Do you personally know people to whom this happened? If the response to the latter question was “yes,” respondents were asked if this problem had ever happened to a member of their household, including themselves. As presented in Table 15.4, more than half of the respondents to the Household Questionnaire (52 percent) reported that they had heard of a person experiencing this problem, and 10 percent reported that they personally knew someone who had experienced this problem. The percentage of household respondents who have heard about someone who experienced human trafficking is highest in urban areas (56 percent), in the East region (62 percent), and among respondents with higher education (62 percent), and increases substantially with increasing wealth quintile. Table 15.4 also shows that the percentage of household respondents who know someone who has experienced the problem is slightly higher in urban areas (11 percent) than rural areas (8 percent), and higher among respondents with higher education (13 percent) than those with secondary or less education (7 percent). Household respondents in the Central region are least likely to personally know someone who has experienced the problem (6 percent), compared with the other regions (9 to 11 percent). Respondents in the highest wealth quintile are three times as likely to say that they know of someone who may have been trafficked as household respondents in the lowest wealth quintile. Finally, Table 15.4 shows that less than 1 percent of the household respondents said that a member of their household (including themselves) had worked abroad and experienced the type of problems associated with trafficking. Table 15.4 Awareness of human trafficking Percentage of respondents to the household questionnaire who have either heard of someone or who personally know someone who traveled abroad because they were offered a job, and when they arrived they were not allowed to leave or were forced to work for little or no pay, or were forced to work at a different job than the one they were promised, and the percentage of households with a member who has ever experienced this problem, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Household respondents who heard or know of someone who traveled abroad because they were offered a job, and experienced problems associated with human trafficking Background characteristics Percentage who heard of someone who experienced this problem Percentage who personally know someone who experienced this problem Percentage of households with a member who ever experienced this problem Number of respondents to the household questionnaire Sex Male 49.7 9.6 na 4,236 Female 52.6 9.6 na 9,143 Residence Urban 56.1 10.6 0.5 9,364 Rural 41.5 7.5 0.7 4,015 Region North 54.9 10.9 0.1 2,400 Central 51.7 6.4 0.5 1,652 East 62.3 9.2 0.2 4,632 South 40.6 10.1 1.1 1,975 West 38.8 10.8 1.3 2,720 Education Secondary or less 42.8 7.0 na 7,290 Higher 62.3 12.8 na 6,086 Wealth quintile Lowest 35.6 5.2 0.5 3,240 Second 48.0 8.4 0.6 2,281 Middle 52.9 9.3 0.6 2,620 Fourth 56.6 10.5 0.6 2,881 Highest 70.0 16.2 0.6 2,357 Total 51.7 9.6 0.6 13,379 Note: Total includes 1 respondent with missing information on sex and 3 respondents with missing information on education. na=Not applicable Human Trafficking | 193 Household respondents who reported that a household member had been subjected to practices associated with human trafficking when they had taken a job overseas were further asked about the number of household members who had experienced these problems during the past three years. This information is used to estimate the proportion of household members of working age (age 15-64 and 18-44), who potentially had been subject to trafficking during the three years preceding the survey. The assumptions used in calculating these estimates are similar to those used in estimating the prevalence of the population working abroad during this period (see Section 15.1). Table 15.5 shows that the proportion of household members who experienced the adverse working conditions associated with human trafficking during the three years preceding the UDHS is quite low—0.3 percent among household members age 15-64 and 0.7 percent among household members age 18-44. One-third of the household members who experienced these problems were women (data not shown). Table 15.5 Prevalence of human trafficking Percentage of household members who traveled abroad in the past three years because they were offered a job, and when they arrived they were not allowed to leave or were forced to work for little or no pay, or were forced to work at a different job than the one they were promised among household members age 15-64, and percentage of household members who experienced this problem among household members age 18-44, and percentage of those who have experienced this problem among household members who worked/are working abroad in the past three years, according to background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Prevalence of the problem of human trafficking Household members age 15-64 Household members age 18-44 Household members who worked/are working abroad in the past 3 years Background characteristics Percentage who have experienced this problem1,2 Number of household members3 Percentage who have experienced this problem1,4 Number of household members3 Percentage who have experienced this problem1 Number of household members Residence Urban 0.3 15,723 0.6 8,286 7.1 673 Rural 0.4 6,419 0.8 3,321 8.4 332 Region North 0.0 4,048 0.1 2,246 1.6 108 Central 0.2 2,576 0.4 1,306 6.7 73 East 0.1 7,173 0.2 3,652 5.2 172 South 0.7 3,377 1.4 1,747 18.2 135 West 0.7 4,969 1.3 2,656 6.9 518 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.5 3,490 1.1 1,525 12.8 134 Second 0.3 4,408 0.5 2,334 6.1 208 Middle 0.3 4,441 0.6 2,207 5.4 256 Fourth 0.4 4,681 0.7 2,443 9.7 187 Highest 0.3 5,122 0.5 3,097 6.4 220 Total 0.3 22,143 0.7 11,606 7.5 1,005 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases. 1 Experienced this problem anytime in the three years preceding the survey. Includes household members who had experienced this problem but have since died. 2 Assumes that those reported to have worked abroad/are working abroad are age 15-64. 3 Current (de jure) household members. 4 Assumes that those reported to have worked abroad/are working abroad are age 18-44. However, among household members who, according to the household respondent, had worked abroad or were working abroad during the past three years (i.e., the population at risk of human trafficking), about 8 percent had actually experienced human trafficking. There are marked variations by residence and wealth status. Household members in the South region (18 percent) and those in the lowest wealth quintile (13 percent), are the most likely to have experienced trafficking in the past three years. Residents in the North region reported the lowest incidence of trafficking (less than 2 percent). 194 | Human Trafficking 15.3 INTENTION TO WORK ABROAD AND THE RISK OF HUMAN TRAFFICKING Household respondents were also asked about their intention to go to work abroad and about their perception of the risk of being subject to human trafficking if they were to work abroad. Table 15.6 shows that the majority of household respondents do not plan to work abroad; 3 percent plan to work abroad in the future, and 16 percent said that they may work abroad. The intention to work abroad, whether it is an actual plan or only a possibility, is higher among males, respondents in urban areas, those in the Western region, those with higher education, and especially those in the highest wealth quintile. Table 15.6 Intention to work abroad Percentage of respondents to the household questionnaire who plan to work abroad at some time in the future, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Percentage of household respondents who plan to work abroad in the future Background characteristics Plan to work abroad Do not plan to work abroad Maybe Number of respondents to household questionnaire Sex Male 3.5 77.3 18.9 4,236 Female 2.1 82.6 15.0 9,143 Residence Urban 2.7 79.0 18.1 9,364 Rural 2.2 85.5 11.9 4,015 Region North 1.6 81.9 16.4 2,400 Central 2.1 87.1 10.4 1,652 East 1.8 80.5 17.7 4,632 South 3.7 86.1 9.6 1,975 West 4.1 73.4 21.8 2,720 Education Secondary or less 1.8 86.0 11.8 7,290 Higher 3.3 74.9 21.6 6,086 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.3 91.8 6.4 3,240 Second 2.5 82.9 14.3 2,281 Middle 2.4 84.2 13.0 2,620 Fourth 3.1 78.5 18.2 2,881 Highest 3.6 63.6 32.6 2,357 Total 2.5 80.9 16.2 13,379 1 Note: Total includes 1 respondent with missing information on sex and 3 respondents with missing information on education. Regarding the possibility of being subject to human trafficking, Table 15.7 shows that slightly more than half of household respondents (51 percent) reported that they were not sure if going abroad for work placed them at risk for human trafficking and 19 percent reported that they did not regard human trafficking as a possible risk if they were to travel abroad for work. Twenty-one percent of household respondents perceive human trafficking as a slight possibility, while 9 percent regard it as a big possibility. Urban respondents are somewhat more likely than rural respondents to consider human trafficking at least a slight possibility if they were to work abroad (31 percent and 26 percent, respectively). Household respondents in the North region (21 percent) were the least likely to perceive themselves to be at risk of human trafficking, while those in the East region (34 percent) and the South region (31 percent) were most likely to perceive themselves at risk. The percentage of household respondents who think there is a slight or big risk of human trafficking is higher among those with higher education (36 percent) compared to those with secondary or less education (24 percent), and higher among those in the highest wealth quintile (39 percent), compared to those in lowest wealth quintile (20 percent). Human Trafficking | 195 Table 15.7 Perception of risk of human trafficking Percent distribution of respondents to the household questionnaire by their perception, if they were to go abroad to work, of whether they would be subject to the possibility of not being allowed to leave or be forced to work for little or no pay, or forced to work at a job other than the one they were promised, by background characteristics, Ukraine 2007 Percentage of household respondents who perceive themselves to be at risk of the possibility of human trafficking, if they were to travel abroad for work Background characteristics Slight possibility Big possibility No possibility Don’t know Number of respondents to household questionnaire Sex Male 21.3 7.4 20.3 49.6 4,236 Female 20.3 9.7 18.4 50.9 9,143 Residence Urban 22.6 8.5 20.0 48.2 9,364 Rural 16.0 10.0 16.7 55.9 4,015 Region North 12.1 9.1 14.9 63.1 2,400 Central 15.3 15.2 12.2 57.1 1,652 East 26.3 7.3 23.2 43.2 4,632 South 22.9 8.5 25.3 42.7 1,975 West 19.8 8.2 14.9 53.6 2,720 Education Secondary or less 15.5 8.5 17.0 57.8 7,290 Higher 26.6 9.4 21.3 41.8 6,086 Wealth quintile Lowest 11.5 8.9 17.5 61.1 3,240 Second 21.4 9.2 17.5 51.0 2,281 Middle 18.6 9.9 20.1 50.0 2,620 Fourth 23.5 8.8 17.4 49.4 2,881 Highest 30.9 7.9 23.0 37.3 2,357 Total 20.6 8.9 19.0 50.5 13,379 Note: Total includes 1 respondent with missing information on sex and 3 respondents with missing information on education Household respondents were asked to compare their current risk of being subject to human trafficking with the situation three years ago. More than half said that they did not know whether the level of risk had changed (Table 15.8); one in four (26 percent) thought that the level of risk is about the same, and 13 percent said that it was lower. Only 5 percent of the household respondents thought that the risk of human trafficking for them was higher than three years ago. 196 | Human Trafficking Table 15.8 Perception of risk of human trafficking over time Percent distribution of respondents to the household questionnaire by their perception, if they were to work abroad, of the level of risk associated with the possibility of not being allowed to leave or being forced to work for little or no pay, or forced to work at a job other than the one they were promised, compared with the level of risk three years ago, Ukraine 2007 Percentage of household respondents who perceive themselves to be at specific levels of risk for human trafficking, if they were to travel abroad for work, now and 3 years ago Background characteristics Higher risk Lower risk About the same level of risk Don’t know/ depends Number of respondents to household questionnaire Sex Male 3.9 13.0 26.7 55.0 4,236 Female 4.7 12.4 25.8 56.5 9,143 Residence Urban 4.0 13.8 27.1 54.4 9,364 Rural 5.4 9.8 23.8 59.7 4,015 Region North 5.5 9.3 18.7 65.8 2,400 Central 6.6 14.0 25.5 53.8 1,652 East 4.2 15.1 29.5 51.1 4,632 South 4.7 9.4 31.9 53.6 1,975 West 2.5 12.5 22.9 58.8 2,720 Education Secondary or less 4.4 8.8 23.4 62.5 7,290 Higher 4.6 17.1 29.3 48.2 6,086 Wealth quintile Lowest 5.5 7.2 20.6 65.9 3,240 Second 5.0 12.3 27.4 54.4 2,281 Middle 3.8 11.0 27.2 56.7 2,620 Fourth 4.1 13.9 27.6 53.7 2,881 Highest 3.7 20.3 29.3 46.0 2,357 Total 4.5 12.6 26.1 56.0 13,379 Note: Total includes 1 respondent with missing information on sex and 3 respondents with missing information on education The 13 percent of household respondents who said that they thought the risk of human trafficking is lower compared with three years ago, were asked why they perceived this to be the case. Table 15.9 shows that more than half of the respondents (53 percent) said that they know more about human trafficking now and are careful to avoid the risks; 46 percent believe that, in general, human trafficking is happening to fewer people than before; 3 percent said they have taken specific steps in the past three years to avoid the risks associated with human trafficking; and 4 percent cited other reasons for thinking that the level of human trafficking has declined (Table 15.9). Human Trafficking | 197 Table 15.9 Reasons for perceiving lower risk of human trafficking Percentage of household respondents who perceive themselves to be at lower risk of human trafficking now than three years ago, if they went abroad to work, by reasons given for perceiving themselves to be at lower risk of being susceptible to the possibility of not being allowed to leave or being forced to work for little or no pay, or forced to work at a job other than the one they were promised, Ukraine 2007 Percentage of household respondents who gave specific reasons for their perception that the risk of being subject to human trafficking is lower now than 3 years ago Background characteristics Human trafficking is generally happening to fewer people than before Know more about human trafficking now, and are more careful to avoid risks Have taken specific steps in past 3 years to avoid the risks associated with human trafficking Other reasons Number of respondents to the household questionnaire who perceive themselves at lower risk Sex Male 41.2 56.4 3.8 4.6 552 Female 48.0 51.2 2.2 4.3 1,129 Residence Urban 43.3 54.2 2.6 4.2 1,288 Rural 53.9 48.8 3.2 5.2 393 Region North 48.4 52.0 2.6 2.3 223 Central 64.6 41.3 3.9 4.5 231 East 32.0 58.4 2.7 6.2 700 South 41.9 57.6 3.0 2.2 186 West 61.8 47.8 1.9 3.2 340 Education Secondary or less 50.6 49.6 2.6 6.2 639 Higher 42.9 55.0 2.8 3.3 1,042 Wealth quintile Lowest 49.6 46.5 3.5 8.6 233 Second 46.3 52.8 1.7 6.6 280 Middle 45.4 50.5 2.6 6.0 288 Fourth 47.8 52.6 2.4 2.5 401 Highest 42.2 58.0 3.3 1.8 478 Total 45.8 53.0 2.7 4.4 1,681 Household respondents who think that there is a higher risk of human trafficking now compared with three years ago (5 percent) were asked why they perceived this to be the case. Table 15.10 shows that 51 percent said that this is generally happening to more people than before; 20 percent said that they know more about human trafficking now and realize that it could happen to them; 30 percent reported that they know that human trafficking can happen to anyone and they think it is not possible to avoid the risks; and 10 percent cited other reasons for thinking that the risk of human trafficking is increasing. 198 | Human Trafficking Table 15.10 Reasons for perceiving higher risk of human trafficking Percentage of household respondents who perceive themselves to be at greater risk of human trafficking now than three years ago, if they went abroad to work, by reasons given for perceiving themselves to be at higher risk of being susceptible to the possibility of not being allowed to leave or being forced to work for little or no pay, or forced to work at a job other than the one they were promised, Ukraine 2007 Percentage of household respondents who gave specific reasons for their perception that the risk of being subject to human trafficking is higher now than 3 years ago Background characteristics Human trafficking is generally happening to more people than before Know more about human trafficking now, and realize it can happen to me Know that human trafficking can happen to anyone, and cannot avoid the risks Other reasons Number of respondents to the household questionnaire who perceive themselves at higher risk Sex Male 48.5 23.4 23.4 12.2 167 Female 51.7 18.7 33.0 8.4 429 Residence Urban 50.1 21.4 29.1 11.0 377 Rural 52.0 17.8 32.4 6.8 219 Region North 65.2 16.5 31.3 3.0 133 Central 52.0 27.0 36.9 2.4 108 East 45.5 15.4 27.9 21.7 195 South 39.5 29.7 23.6 7.6 92 West 51.2 16.4 33.7 1.2 68 Education Secondary or less 53.1 14.7 34.1 7.0 317 Higher 48.1 26.1 26.0 12.3 279 Wealth quintile Lowest 53.6 13.2 36.6 9.9 177 Second 51.4 19.6 30.6 7.8 114 Middle 42.2 27.3 29.2 9.1 99 Fourth 60.7 21.9 19.9 11.8 118 Highest 40.5 23.8 32.4 8.3 87 Total 50.8 20.1 30.3 9.5 596 References | 199 REFERENCES Aleshina, N., and G. Redmond. 2003. “How High is Infant Mortality Rate in Central and Eastern Europe and the CIS?” Innocenti Working Paper No. 95. Florence, Italy: UNICEF Innocenti Research Centre. Althabe, F. Belizan, J.M. 2006. Caesarean section: The paradox. Lancet 368(9546): 1472-1473. Analytical and Information Center, Ministry of Health (AIC/MOH) [Uzbekistan], State Department of Statistics, Ministry of Macroeconomics and Statistics [Uzbekistan], and ORC Macro. 2004. Uzbekistan Health Examination Survey 2002. Calverton, Maryland, USA: Analytical and Information Center, State Department of Statistics, and ORC Macro. Auvert, B., D. Taljaard, E. Lagarde, J. Sobngwi-Tambekou, R. Sitta, and A. Puren. 2005. Randomized, controlled intervention trial of male circumcision for reduction of HIV infection risk: the ANRS 1265 Trial. Presented at the International AIDS Society 2005 Conference, on 26 July 2005, in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Banwell, S., R. Phillips, and M. Schmiechen. 2000. Trafficking in Women: Moldova and Ukraine. Minneapolis, Minnesota: Minnesota Advocates for Human Rights. Bolyard, E.A., O.C. Tablan, W.W. Williams, M.L. Pearson, C.N. Shapiro, S.D. Deitchman, et al. 1998. Guideline for infection control in health care personnel. Atlanta, Georgia, USA: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and ORC Macro. 2003. Reproductive, maternal and child health in eastern Europe and Eurasia: A comparative report. Atlanta, Georgia (USA) and Calverton, Maryland (USA): CDC and ORC Macro. Council of Europe. 2007. Action against trafficking in human beings: Prevention, protection and prosecution. Strasbourg, France: Council of Europe. Dewey, K. 2003. Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child. Washington, D.C: Pan American Health Organization. Available at http://whqlibdoc.who.int/paho/2004/a85622.pdf. Harkin, A.M, P. Anderson, and C. Goos. 1997. Smoking, drinking and drug taking in the European Region. Copenhagen, Denmark: Alcohol, Drugs and Tobacco Programme, World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Heise, L., J. Pitanguy, and A. Germain. 1994. Violence against women: The hidden health burden. World Bank Discussion Papers, 255. Washington, D.C.: The World Bank. Heise, L., M. Ellsberg, and M. Gottemoeller. 1998. Ending violence against women. Population Reports, Series L, No. 11. Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University School of Public Health, Population Information Program. Available at http://www.infoforhealth.org/pr/l11/violence.pdf. Hughes, D.M., and T. Denisova. 2003. Trafficking in women from Ukraine. Report prepared as part of the U.S. Ukraine Research Partnership as part of an agreement between the International Center of the U.S. National Institute of Justice and the Ukrainian Academy of Legal Sciences. 200 | References Jejeebhoy, S.J. 1998. Associations between wife-beating and fetal and infant death: Impressions from a survey in rural India. Studies in Family Planning 29(3): 300-308. Kane, J. 2005. Child trafficking - The people involved: A synthesis of findings from Albania Moldova Romania and Ukraine. Geneva: International Programme on the Elimination of Child Labour (IPEC), International Labour Organization (ILO). Kyiv International Institute of Sociology (KIIS), Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), and United States Agency for International Development (USAID). 2001. 1999 Ukraine Reproductive Health Survey. Kyiv, Ukraine: Kyiv International Institute of Sociology. Kishor, S., and K. Johnson. 2006. Reproductive health and domestic violence: Are the poorest women uniquely disadvantaged? Demography 43(2): 293-307. Krug, E.G., L.L. Dahlberg, J.A. Mercy, A.B. Zwi, and R. Lozano. 2002. World report on violence and health. Geneva: World Health Organization. Ministry of Health (MOH) [Ukraine]. 2006. Decree number 318 “About Approving the Protocol on Implementation of the DOTS Strategies in Ukraine.” Kyiv, Ukraine: Ministry of Health. Ministry of Health (MOH) [Ukraine]. Data available at http://moz.gov.ua/ua/main/hcare/analitic/. National Bank of Ukraine at http://www.bank.gov.ua. National Institutes of Health (NIH). 1997. The sixth report of the Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Treatment of High Blood Pressure. Bethesda, Maryland, USA: National High Blood Pressure Education Program, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health. NIH Publication No. 98-4080. National Scientific and Applied Center for Preventive Medicine (NCPM) [Moldova] and ORC Macro. 2006. Moldova Demographic and Health Survey 2005. Calverton, Maryland: National Scientific and Applied Center for Preventive Medicine of the Ministry of Health and Social Protection and ORC Macro. National Statistical Service (NSS) [Armenia], Ministry of Health (MOH) [Armenia], and ORC Macro. 2006. Armenia Demographic and Health Survey 2005. Calverton, Maryland: National Statistical Service, Ministry of Health, and ORC Macro. Peto, R., A.D. Lopez, J. Boreham, M. Thun, and C. Heath. 1994. Mortality from smoking in developed countries, 1950-2000: Indirect estimates from national vital statistics. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. Population Reference Bureau (PRB). 2008. 2008 World Population Data Sheet. Washington, D.C.: Population Reference Bureau. Rehn, N., R. Room, and G. Edwards. 2001. Alcohol in the European region – consumption, harm and policies. Copenhagen, Denmark: World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe. Rivers, K., and P. Aggleton. 1999. Adolescent sexuality, gender and the HIV epidemic. New York: HIV and Development Programme, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP). Rutstein, S.O. 2005. Effects of preceding birth intervals on neonatal, infant and under-five years mortality and nutritional status in developing countries: Evidence from the demographic and health surveys. International Journal of Gynecology & Obstetrics 89(Suppl. 1): S7-24. References | 201 Rutstein, S.O. and K. Johnston. 2004. The DHS wealth index. DHS Comparative Reports No. 6. Calverton, Maryland: ORC Macro. Rutstein, S.O., and G. Rojas. 2006. Guide to DHS statistics. Calverton, Maryland, USA: ORC Macro. Rutstein, S.O., K. Johnston, and D. Gwatkin. 2000. Poverty, health inequality, and its health and demographic effects. Paper presented at the 2000 annual meeting of the Population Association of America, Los Angeles, California. State Statistical Committee (SSC) [Ukraine]. 2003a. First all-Ukrainian population census 2001. Kyiv, Ukraine: State Statistical Committee. State Statistical Committee (SSC) [Ukraine]. 2003b. Gender and age structure of the population of Ukraine based on data from the 2001 Ukraine Population Census. Kyiv, Ukraine: State Statistical Committee. State Statistical Committee (SSC) [Ukraine]. 2007a. 2006 Statistical Yearbook of Ukraine. Kyiv, Ukraine. State Statistical Committee (SSC) [Ukraine]. 2007b. Indicators on mortality from cardiovascular diseases. Internal data. Kyiv, Ukraine: State Statistical Committee. State Statistical Committee (SSC) [Ukraine]. 2007c. Population of Ukraine 2006. Kyiv, Ukraine: State Statistical Committee of Ukraine. State Statistical Committee (SSC) [Azerbaijan] and Macro International Inc. 2008. Azerbaijan Demographic and Health Survey 2006. Calverton, Maryland, USA: State Statistical Committee and Macro International Inc. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). 1990. Strategy for improved nutrition of children and women in developing countries. A UNICEF policy review. New York: UNICEF. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), United Nations University, and World Health Organization (WHO). 2001. Iron deficiency anaemia: Assessment, prevention, and control: A guide for programme managers. Geneva: WHO. United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), World Health Organization (WHO), and United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA).1997. Guidelines for monitoring the availability and use of obstetric services. New York: UNICEF. United Nations, Division for the Advancement of Women. 1995. Beijing Declaration and Platform for Action. New York: United Nations. United Nations General Assembly. 1993. Declaration on the elimination of violence against women. New York: United Nations. A/RES/48/104. United Nations General Assembly. 1991. Advancement of women: Convention on the elimination of all forms of discrimination against women, Report of the Secretary-General. New York: United Nations. A/51/277. World Health Organization (WHO). 1992. International statistical classification of diseases and related health problems. 10th revision. Geneva: World Health Organization. 202 | References World Health Organization (WHO). 1999a. 1999 World Health Organization-International Society of Hypertension guidelines for the management of hypertension: Guidelines subcommittee. Journal of Hypertension 17(2): 151-183. World Health Organization (WHO). 1999b. What is DOTS? A guide to understanding the WHO- recommended TB control strategy known as DOTS. Geneva: World Health Organization. WHO/CDS/CPC/TB/99.270. World Health Organization (WHO). 2004. Drug-resistant tuberculosis levels 10 times higher in eastern Europe and central Asia. Press release WHO/17, Geneva, 16 March 2004. World Health Organization (WHO). 2006a. Birth spacing: Report from a WHO technical consultation. Geneva: World Health Organization. World Health Organization (WHO). 2006b. Reproductive health indicators: Guidelines for their generation, interpretation and analysis for global monitoring. Geneva: World Health Organization. World Health Organization Department of Reproductive Health and Research (WHO/RHR) and Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health/Center for Communication Programs (CCP), INFO Project. 2007. Family planning: A global handbook for providers. Baltimore and Geneva: CCP and WHO. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/ROE). 2002. DOTS expansion plan to stop TB in the WHO European region 2002 - 2006. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO Regional Office for Europe. Available at http://www.euro.who.int/document/E77477.pdf. World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe (WHO/ROE). 2004. The tuberculosis challenge in the European region. Fact Sheet EURO/01/04. Copenhagen, Denmark: WHO Regional Office for Europe. Appendix A | 203 SAMPLE DESIGN Appendix A A.1 INTRODUCTION The 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) was the first survey of its kind carried out in Ukraine. The survey was a nationally representative sample survey of 15,000 households, with an expected yield of about 7,900 completed interviews of women age 15-49. It was designed to provide estimates on fertility, infant and child mortality, use of contraception and family planning, knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STI), and other family welfare and health indicators. Ukraine is made up of 24 oblasts, the Autonomous Republic of Crimea, and two special cities (Kyiv and Sevastopol), which together make up 27 administrative regions, each subdivided into lower-level administrative units. The 27 administrative regions were grouped for this survey into five geographic regions: North, Central, East, South and West. The five geographic regions are the five study domains of the survey. The estimates obtained from the 2007 UDHS are presented for the country as a whole, for urban and rural areas, and for each of the five geographic regions. A men’s survey was conducted at the same time as the women’s survey, in a subsample consisting of one household in every two selected for the female survey. All men age 15-49 living in the selected households were eligible for the men’s survey. The survey collected information on men’s use of contraception and family planning and their knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STI). A.2 SAMPLING FRAME The sampling frame used for the 2007 UDHS was the Ukraine Population Census conducted in 2001 (SSC, 2003a), provided by the State Statistical Committee (SSC) of Ukraine. The sampling frame consisted of about 38 thousand enumeration areas (EAs) with an average of 400-500 households per EA. Each EA is subdivided into 4-5 enumeration units (EUs) with an average of 100 households per EU. An EA is a city block in urban areas; in rural areas, an EA is either a village or part of a large village, or a group of small villages (possibly plus a part of a large village). An EU is a list of addresses (in a neighborhood) that was used as a convenient counting unit for the census. Both EAs and EUs include information about the location, type of residence, address of each structure in it, and the number of households in each structure. Census maps were available for most of the EAs with marked boundaries. In urban areas, the census maps have marked boundaries/locations of the EUs. In rural areas, the EUs are defined by detailed descriptions available at the SSC local office. Therefore, either the EA or the EU could be used as the primary sampling unit (PSU) for the 2007 UDHS. Because the EAs in urban areas are large (an average of 500 households), using EAs as PSUs in urban areas would require a great deal of work to implement the household listing, so it was decided to use the EUs as PSUs in urban areas. In rural areas, the EUs are too small (less than 100 households) to be used as PSUs. At the same time, the EAs are (geographically) too large to be used as PSUs. It was decided therefore that for rural areas the large EAs (300 or more households) would be divided to form two PSUs and the small EAs (less than 300 households) would be single PSUs. This segmentation of the sample was done in the office prior to the selection of the PSUs. Thus, in rural areas, a PSU is either an EA or a part of an EA. Table A.1 below shows the population distribution of Ukraine by administrative regions and residence, based on 2001 population census. In Ukraine, 67.2 percent of the population resides in cities and towns. 204 | Appendix A Table A.1 Population distribution in Ukraine by administrative regions and by type of residence, based on 2001 population census Ukraine DHS regions Geographical regions Urban Rural Total Proportion region Proportion urban in region North The city of Kyiv 2611.3 0 2611.3 0.054 1.000 North Kyiv region 1053.5 774.4 1827.9 0.038 0.576 North Zhytomyr region 775.4 614.1 1389.5 0.029 0.558 North Sumy region 842.9 456.8 1299.7 0.027 0.649 North Chernihiv region 727.2 518.1 1245.3 0.026 0.584 Central Cherkasy region 753.6 649.3 1402.9 0.029 0.537 Central Poltava region 956.8 673.3 1630.1 0.034 0.587 Central Kirovohrad region 682 451.1 1133.1 0.023 0.602 Central Vinnytsia region 818.9 953.5 1772.4 0.037 0.462 East Dnipropetrovs'k region 2960.3 607.3 3567.6 0.074 0.830 East Donets'k region 4363.6 477.5 4841.1 0.100 0.901 East Zaporizhzhia region 1458.2 471 1929.2 0.040 0.756 East Luhans'k region 2190.8 355.4 2546.2 0.053 0.860 East Kharkiv region 2288.7 625.5 2914.2 0.060 0.785 South The Autonomous Republic of Crimea 1274.3 759.4 2033.7 0.042 0.627 South The city of Sevastopol 358.1 21.4 379.5 0.008 0.944 South Odesa region 1624.6 844.4 2469 0.051 0.658 South Mykolaiv region 838.8 425.9 1264.7 0.026 0.663 South Kherson region 706.2 468.9 1175.1 0.024 0.601 West Ivano-Frankivs'k region 593 816.8 1409.8 0.029 0.421 West Khmel'nyts'kyi region 729.6 701.2 1430.8 0.030 0.510 West Chernivtsi region 373.5 549.3 922.8 0.019 0.405 West L'viv region 1558.7 1067.8 2626.5 0.054 0.593 West Rivne region 549.7 623.6 1173.3 0.024 0.469 West Ternopil' region 485.6 656.8 1142.4 0.024 0.425 West Volyn' region 533.2 527.5 1060.7 0.022 0.503 West Zakarpattia region 466 792.3 1258.3 0.026 0.370 Ukraine 32575 15883 48457 1.000 0.672 Note: Population in thousand, UPC 2001. State Statistical Committee of Ukraine A.3 SAMPLE DESIGN AND THE SAMPLING PROCEDURE The sample for 2007 UDHS was a stratified sample selected in two stages from the 2001 census frame. Stratification was achieved by separating every administrative region into urban and rural areas. Therefore, the 27 regions had been stratified into 53 sampling strata because the city of Kyiv had only urban areas. Samples were selected independently in every stratum by a two stages probability selection. In first stage, a certain number of PSU were selected with probability proportional to the PSU size; the size of the PSU was the number of people enumerated in the 2001 census. Implicit stratifications and proportional allocation would have been achieved at each of the lower administrative levels by sorting the sampling frame according to different administrative units and geographical orders, and by using a probability proportional to size selection at the first stage’s sampling. In the first stage, 500 PSU were selected with probability proportional to the PSU size. A household listing operation was carried out in all of the selected PSUs before the main survey, and the resulting lists of households was served as sampling frame for the selection of households in the second stage. In the second stage, a fixed number of 30 households were selected in each selected PSU with an equal probability systematic selection. Some of the selected PSUs were of large size. In order to minimize the task of household listing, for the selected PSUs which counted more than 300 households in the household listing operation were segmented during the operation. Only one segment was selected for the survey with probability proportional to the segment size. Household listing was conducted only in the selected segment. So a 2007 UDHS cluster is either a PSU or a segment of a PSU. By selecting 30 households per cluster, a total of 15 000 households were selected. A spreadsheet for household selection was prepared in advance and was used for household selection in the central office. The survey interviewers were asked to interview only the preselected households. No replacements and no changes of the preselected households were allowed in the implementing stages in order to prevent bias. All women age 15-49 who slept in a selected household the night before the survey (de facto) were interviewed with the Women’s Questionnaire. A subsample of one household in every two selected for the female survey was selected for a male survey. All men aged Appendix A | 205 15-49 who slept in a selected household the night before the survey were interviewed with the Men’s Questionnaire. Table A.2 below shows the sample allocation of clusters and households according to administrative regions and by type of residence. Because of the tight budget restrictions, the sample allocation was not a proportional allocation since otherwise some of the small regions would have received a too small sample size. In order that the survey precisions for most of the survey indicators are acceptable at domain level, and that the survey precisions are comparable across study domains, the sampled households were equally allocated to the 5 study domains, that is, 100 PSU and 3000 households per each study domain. The 3000 households in each domain were then allocated to the administrative regions within the domain according to the size of region and by type of residence. The size of a region was the population enumerated in the population census 2001. Table A.3 below shows the sample allocation of expected completed women and men interviews according to administrative regions and by type of residence. Among the 500 clusters, 310 clusters are in urban areas, 190 clusters are in rural areas. The sample allocations were calculated based on the facts obtained from the 2001 population census, 1999 Ukraine reproductive Health Survey and empirical knowledge. The average number of women 15-49 per household was 0.686; the average number of men 15-49 per household was 0.668; the household gross response rate was 90 percent; women response rate was 84 percent in urban areas and 89 percent in rural areas; men response rate was 80 percent in both urban and rural areas. The number of households selected in each cluster was 30. Table A.2 Sample allocation of clusters and households according to geographical/administrative regions and by type of residence, Ukraine 2007 Geographical / Administrative Region Allocation of clusters Allocation of households Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total The city of Kyiv 31 0 31 930 0 930 Kyiv region 13 9 22 390 270 660 Zhytomyr region 10 7 17 300 210 510 Sumy region 9 6 15 270 180 450 Chernihiv region 9 6 15 270 180 450 North 72 28 100 2 160 840 3 000 Cherkasy region 13 11 24 390 330 720 Poltava region 15 12 27 450 360 810 Kirovohrad region 11 8 19 330 240 570 Vinnytsia region 15 15 30 450 450 900 Central 54 46 100 1 620 1 380 3 000 Dnipropetrovs’k region 16 7 23 480 210 690 Donets’k region 24 7 31 720 210 930 Zaporizhzhia region 8 4 12 240 120 360 Luhans’k region 12 4 16 360 120 480 Kharkiv region 12 6 18 360 180 540 East 72 28 100 2 160 840 3 000 The Autonomous Republic of Crimea 15 11 26 450 330 780 The city of Sevastopol 7 2 9 210 60 270 Odesa region 18 12 30 540 360 900 Mykolaiv region 11 7 18 330 210 540 Kherson region 10 7 17 300 210 510 South 61 39 100 1 830 1 170 3 000 Ivano-Frankivs'k region 6 7 13 180 210 390 Khmel'nyts'kyi region 7 6 13 210 180 390 Chernivtsi region 4 5 9 120 150 270 L'viv region 14 10 24 420 300 720 Rivne region 5 5 10 150 150 300 Ternopil' region 5 5 10 150 150 300 Volyn' region 5 5 10 150 150 300 Zakarpattia region 5 6 11 150 180 330 West 51 49 100 1 530 1470 3 000 Ukraine 310 190 500 9 300 5 700 15 000 206 | Appendix A Table A.3 Sample allocation of expected number of completed women and men interviews according to geographical/administrative regions and by type of residence, Ukraine 2007 Geographical / Administrative Region Women 15-49 Men 15-49 Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total The city of Kyiv 483 0 483 224 0 224 Kyiv region 202 149 351 94 65 159 Zhytomyr region 155 116 271 72 51 123 Sumy region 140 99 239 65 43 108 Chernihiv region 140 99 239 65 43 108 North 1 120 463 1 583 520 202 722 Cherkasy region 202 182 384 94 80 174 Poltava region 234 198 432 108 87 195 Kirovohrad region 171 132 303 80 58 138 Vinnytsia region 234 247 481 108 108 216 Central 841 759 1 600 390 333 723 Dnipropetrovs'k region 249 116 365 115 51 166 Donets'k region 374 116 490 173 51 224 Zaporizhzhia region 124 66 190 58 29 87 Luhans'k region 186 66 252 87 29 116 Kharkiv region 186 99 285 87 43 130 East 1 119 463 1 582 520 203 723 The Autonomous Republic of Crimea 234 182 416 108 80 188 The city of Sevastopol 109 33 142 51 14 65 Odesa region 281 198 479 130 87 217 Mykolaiv region 171 116 287 80 51 131 Kherson region 155 116 271 72 51 123 South 950 645 1 595 441 283 724 Ivano-Frankivs'k region 93 116 209 43 51 94 Khmel'nyts'kyi region 109 99 208 51 43 94 Chernivtsi region 62 83 145 29 36 65 L'viv region 218 165 383 101 72 173 Rivne region 78 83 161 36 36 72 Ternopil' region 78 83 161 36 36 72 Volyn' region 78 83 161 36 36 72 Zakarpattia region 78 99 177 36 43 79 West 794 811 1 605 368 353 721 Ukraine 4 824 3 141 7 965 2 239 1 374 3 613 Note: The men sub-sample consists of one household in every two selected for female survey. A.4 SAMPLING PROBABILITIES Sampling probabilities were calculated separately for each sampling stage and for each cluster. We use the following notations: P1hi: first-stage sampling probability of the ith cluster in stratum h P2hi: second -stage sampling probability within the ith cluster (households) Let ah be the number of PSUs selected in stratum h, Mhi the number residents according to the sampling frame in the ith PSU, and ΣMhi the total number of residents in the stratum. The probability of selecting the ith PSU in the 2007 UDHS sample was calculated as follows: M M a hi hih � Let hib be the proportion of households in the selected cluster compared to the total number of households in the PSU i in stratum h if the PSU is segmented, otherwise 1=hib . Then the probability of selecting cluster i in the sample was: hi hi hih 1hi b M M a = P × � Appendix A | 207 Let hiL be the number of households listed in the household listing operation in cluster i in stratum h, let hig be the number of households selected in the cluster. The second stage’s selection probability for each household in the cluster was calculated as follows: hi hi hi L g P =2 The overall selection probability of each household in cluster i of stratum h is therefore the production of the two stages selection probabilities: hihihi PPP 21 ×= Because of the non-proportional allocation of the sample to the different regions, sampling weights will be required to ensure the actual representativity of the sample at national level and at the domain level. The sampling weight for each household in cluster i of stratum h is the inverse of its overall selection probability: hihi PW /1= A spreadsheet containing all sampling parameters and selection probabilities was constructed to facilitate the calculation of weights. Sampling weights were adjusted for household nonresponse and as well as for individual nonresponse. Two sets of weights were calculated for both female survey and male survey respectively; one for the households and one for the individuals. The final weights were normalized in order to give the total number of unweighted cases equal to the total number of weighted cases at national level, for both household weights and individual weights for female survey and male survey respectively. A.5 SURVEY IMPLEMENTATION In Table A.4.1 and Table A.4.2 below we present the survey implementation results. The total numbers of completed women and men are below the expected numbers because the survey found the average numbers of women 15-49 and men 15-49 smaller than the expected numbers, especially in the East region. 208 | Appendix A Table A.4.1 Sample implementation: Women Percent distribution of households and eligible women by results of the household and individual interviews, and household, eligible women and overall response rates, according to urban-rural residence and region (unweighted), Ukraine 2007 Residence Region Result Urban Rural North Central East South West Total Selected households Completed (C) 87.2 92.4 84.9 88.6 86.3 92.6 93.4 89.2 Household present but no competent respondent at home (HP) 2.5 0.6 1.8 2.4 2.8 1.6 0.4 1.8 Postponed (P) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Refused (R) 4.0 0.6 7.6 0.9 2.6 1.1 1.4 2.7 Dwelling not found (DNF) 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 Household absent (HA) 1.9 0.8 1.5 1.6 1.9 1.1 1.4 1.5 Dwelling vacant/address not a dwelling (DV) 4.1 4.7 3.9 6.0 5.7 2.7 3.2 4.3 Dwelling destroyed (DD) 0.2 0.8 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.9 0.1 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of sampled households 9,317 5,687 3,003 3,000 3,001 3,000 3,000 15,004 Household response rate (HRR) 1 93.0 98.6 89.9 96.2 94.0 97.2 98.1 95.1 Eligible women Completed (EWC) 91.7 92.5 84.8 94.7 90.3 93.0 96.4 92.0 Not at home (EWNH) 1.4 2.5 2.5 2.1 1.7 2.0 0.8 1.8 Postponed (EWP) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 Refused (EWR) 4.9 3.1 8.7 2.3 6.1 3.3 1.5 4.2 Partly completed (EWPC) 1.5 1.1 3.5 0.3 1.1 1.3 0.7 1.3 Incapacitated (EWI) 0.4 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.5 Other (EWO) 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 4,679 2,758 1,506 1,409 1,237 1,600 1,685 7,437 Eligible women response rate (EWRR)2 91.7 92.5 84.8 94.7 90.3 93.0 96.4 92.0 Overall response rate (ORR) 3 85.3 91.2 76.2 91.1 84.9 90.4 94.6 87.5 1 Using the number of households falling into specific response categories, the household response rate (HRR) is calculated as: 100 * C ——————————— C + HP + P + R + DNF 2 Using the number of eligible women falling into specific response categories, the eligible woman response rate (EWRR) is calculated as: 100 * EWC ————————————————————————— EWC + EWNH + EWP + EWR + EWPC + EWI + EWO 3 The overall response rate (ORR) is calculated as: ORR = HRR * EWRR/100 Appendix A | 209 Table A.4.2 Sample implementation: Men Percent distribution of households and eligible men by results of the household and individual interviews, and household, eligible men and overall response rates, according to urban-rural residence and region (unweighted) , Ukraine 2007 Residence Region Result Urban Rural North Central East South West Total Selected households Completed (C) 87.0 91.9 84.5 87.7 86.4 92.7 92.9 88.8 Household present but no competent respondent at home (HP) 2.4 0.6 1.7 2.7 2.6 1.5 0.2 1.7 Postponed (P) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 Refused (R) 4.3 0.9 8.3 1.0 2.8 1.3 1.6 3.0 Dwelling not found (DNF) 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 Household absent (HA) 1.9 1.0 1.5 1.8 1.7 1.1 1.7 1.6 Dwelling vacant/address not a dwelling (DV) 4.1 4.8 3.7 6.2 5.9 2.8 3.2 4.3 Dwelling destroy (DD) 0.2 0.7 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.3 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of sampled households 4,657 2,849 1,501 1,500 1,504 1,501 1,500 7,506 Household response rate (HRR) 1 92.7 98.3 89.3 95.8 94.0 97.1 98.0 94.8 Eligible men Completed (EMC) 90.6 89.6 84.0 88.8 91.8 92.8 93.0 90.2 Not at home (EMNH) 1.9 4.3 3.7 5.5 1.1 3.1 0.8 2.8 Refused (EMR) 5.0 3.2 9.1 4.1 5.1 2.3 1.6 4.3 Partly completed (EMPC) 1.0 0.7 2.0 0.5 0.6 0.9 0.5 0.9 Incapacitated (EMI) 0.9 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.2 0.8 0.7 0.9 Other (EMO) 0.6 1.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.1 3.4 0.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of men 2,200 1,323 702 636 643 781 761 3,523 Eligible men response rate (EMRR)2 90.6 89.6 84.0 88.8 91.8 92.8 93.0 90.2 Overall response rate (ORR)3 84.0 88.1 75.1 85.1 86.2 90.1 91.2 85.6 1 Using the number of households falling into specific response categories, the household response rate (HRR) is calculated as: 100 * C ——————————— C + HP + P + R + DNF 2 Using the number of eligible men falling into specific response categories, the eligible man response rate (EMRR) is calculated as: 100 * EMC ————————————————————— EMC + EMNH + EMR + EMPC + EMI + EMO 3 The overall response rate (ORR) is calculated as: ORR = HRR * EMRR/100 Appendix B | 211 ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS Appendix B The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: nonsampling errors and sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 2007 Ukraine Demographic and Health Survey (2007 UDHS) to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically. Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the 2007 UDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results. A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design. If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 2007 UDHS sample was the result of a multi-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the 2007 UDHS is a Macro SAS procedure. This procedure used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates. The Taylor linearization method treats any percentage or average as a ratio estimate, r = y/x, where y represents the total sample value for variable y, and x represents the total number of cases in the group or subgroup under consideration. The variance of r is computed using the formula given below, with the standard error being the square root of the variance: � � = = � � � � � � � � � � − − − == H h h h m i hi h h m zz m m x frvarrSE h 1 2 1 2 2 2 1 1)()( in which hihihi rxyz −= , and hhh rxyz −= where h represents the stratum which varies from 1 to H, mh is the total number of clusters selected in the hth stratum, yhi is the sum of the weighted values of variable y in the ith cluster in the hth stratum, 212 | Appendix B xhi is the sum of the weighted number of cases in the ith cluster in the hth stratum, and f is the overall sampling fraction, which is so small that it is ignored. The Jackknife repeated replication method derives estimates of complex rates from each of several replications of the parent sample, and calculates standard errors for these estimates using simple formulae. Each replication considers all but one cluster in the calculation of the estimates. Pseudo-independent replications are thus created. In the 2007 UDHS, there were 500 non-empty clusters. Hence, 500 replications were created. The variance of a rate r is calculated as follows: SE r var r k k r r i k i 2 1 21 1 ( ) ( ) ( ) ( )= = − − = � in which )()1( ii rkkrr −−= where r is the estimate computed from the full sample of 500 clusters, r(i) is the estimate computed from the reduced sample of 499 clusters (ith cluster excluded), and k is the total number of clusters. In addition to the standard error, the design effect (DEFT) for each estimate is calculated, which is defined as the ratio between the standard error using the given sample design and the standard error that would result if a simple random sample had been used. A DEFT value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a value greater than 1.0 indicates the increase in the sampling error due to the use of a more complex and less statistically efficient design. The relative standard error and confidence limits for the estimates are also calculated. Sampling errors for the 2007 UDHS are calculated for selected variables considered to be of primary interest for the women’s survey and for the men’s surveys, respectively. The results are presented in this appendix for the country as a whole, for urban and rural areas, and for each of the 5 geographical regions. For each variable, the type of statistic (mean, proportion, or rate) and the base population are given in Table B.1. Tables B.2 to B.9 present the value of the statistic (R), its standard error (SE), the number of unweighted (N) and weighted (WN) cases, the design effect (DEFT), the relative standard error (SE/R), and the 95 percent confidence limits (R±2SE), for each variable. The DEFT is considered undefined when the standard error considering simple random sample is zero (when the estimate is close to 0 or 1). In the case of the total fertility rate and total abortion rate, the number of unweighted cases is not relevant, as there is no known unweighted value for woman-years of exposure to childbearing. The confidence interval, e.g., as calculated for children ever born, can be interpreted as follows: the overall average from the national sample is 1.118 and its standard error is 0.015. Therefore, to obtain the 95 percent confidence limits, one adds and subtracts twice the standard error to the sample estimate, i.e., 1.118±2×0.015. There is a high probability (95 percent) that the true average number of children ever born is between 1.088 and 1.148. For the total sample, the value of the DEFT, averaged over all women variables, is 1.39. This means that, due to multistage clustering of the sample, the average standard error is increased by a factor of 1.39 over that in an equivalent simple random sample. Appendix B | 213 Table B.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors, Ukraine 2007 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Variable Estimate Base population ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– WOMEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence Proportion All women 15-49 Currently married/in union Proportion All women 15-49 Married before age 20 Proportion All women 20-49 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 Proportion All women 20-49 Currently pregnant Proportion All women 15-49 Children ever born Mean Currently married women 15-49 Children surviving Mean Currently married women 15-49 Children ever born to women 40-49 Mean All women 40-49 Knows any contraceptive method Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Ever used any contraceptive method Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using any method Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using a modern method Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using pill Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using IUD Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using condoms Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using female sterilization Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using periodic abstinence Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Using public sector source Proportion Current users of modern method Want no more children Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Want to delay at least 2 years Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Ideal number of children Mean All women 15-49 Mothers received medical assistance at delivery Proportion Births occurring 1-59 months before survey Total abortion rate (last 3 years) Rate All women 15-49 Total fertility rate (last 3 years) Rate Children exposed to the risk of mortality Post-neonatal mortality rate¹ Rate Children exposed to the risk of mortality Infant mortality rate¹ Rate Children exposed to the risk of mortality Child mortality rate¹ Rate Children exposed to the risk of mortality Under-five mortality rate¹ Rate Children exposed to the risk of mortality Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months Proportion All women 15-49 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months Proportion All women 15-49 who had sexual intercourse in past 12 months Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse Proportion All women 15-49 who had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse(youth) Proportion All women 15-24 who had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) Proportion All never-married women 15-24 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth Proportion All never-married women 15-24 Had an injection in past 12 months Proportion All women 15-49 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months Proportion All women 15-49 Accepting attitudes toward people with HIV Proportion All women 15-49 who have heard of HIV/AIDS Has heard of HIV/AIDS Proportion All women 15-49 Knows about condoms to prevent AIDS Proportion All women 15-49 Knows about limiting partners to prevent AIDS Proportion All women 15-49 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission Proportion All women 15-49 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– MEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence Proportion All men 15-49 Currently married/in union Proportion All men 15-49 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 Proportion All men 20-49 Ideal number of children Mean All men 15-49 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months Proportion All men 15-49 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months Proportion All men 15-49 who had sexual intercourse in past 12 months Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse Proportion All men 15-49 who had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse(youth) Proportion All men 15-24 who had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) Proportion All never-married men 15-24 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth Proportion All never-married men 15-24 Paid for sexual intercourse in past 12 months Proportion All men 15-49 Had an injection in past 12 months Proportion All men 15-49 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months Proportion All men 15-49 Accepting attitudes toward people with HIV Proportion All men 15-49 who have heard of HIV/AIDS Has heard of HIV/AIDS Proportion All men 15-49 Knows about condoms to prevent AIDS Proportion All men 15-49 Knows about limiting partners to prevent AIDS Proportion All men 15-49 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission Proportion All men 15-49 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– ¹ The mortality rates are calculated for 5 years and 10 years before the survey for the national sample and the domain samples, respectively. 214 | Appendix B Table B.2 Sampling errors for National sample, Ukraine 2007 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number of cases Stand- –––––––––––––––– Rela- ard Un- Weight- Design tive Confidence limits Value error weighted ed effect error –––––––––––––––– Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– WOMEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.714 0.007 6841 6841 1.347 0.010 0.700 0.729 Currently married/in union 0.602 0.008 6841 6841 1.307 0.013 0.586 0.617 Married before age 20 0.396 0.008 6011 6059 1.283 0.020 0.380 0.413 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.224 0.008 6011 6059 1.462 0.035 0.208 0.240 Currently pregnant 0.028 0.003 6841 6841 1.377 0.098 0.022 0.033 Children ever born 1.118 0.015 6841 6841 1.246 0.013 1.088 1.148 Children surviving 1.090 0.014 6841 6841 1.228 0.013 1.061 1.118 Children ever born to women age 40-49 1.701 0.023 2028 2021 1.162 0.014 1.654 1.748 Knowing any contraceptive method 0.993 0.002 4195 4116 1.916 0.003 0.988 0.998 Ever used any contraceptive method 0.886 0.008 4195 4116 1.616 0.009 0.870 0.902 Currently using any method 0.667 0.010 4195 4116 1.394 0.015 0.646 0.687 Currently using a modern method 0.475 0.011 4195 4116 1.435 0.023 0.453 0.497 Currently using pill 0.048 0.004 4195 4116 1.235 0.085 0.040 0.057 Currently using IUD 0.177 0.008 4195 4116 1.274 0.042 0.162 0.192 Currently using condoms 0.238 0.011 4195 4116 1.667 0.046 0.216 0.259 Currently using female sterilization 0.006 0.001 4195 4116 1.076 0.206 0.004 0.009 Currently using periodic abstinence 0.072 0.006 4195 4116 1.466 0.082 0.060 0.083 Obtained method from public sector source 0.735 0.015 2548 2620 1.735 0.021 0.704 0.765 Want no more children 0.578 0.011 4195 4116 1.377 0.018 0.557 0.599 Want to delay at least 2 years 0.089 0.007 4195 4116 1.482 0.073 0.076 0.102 Ideal number of children 1.982 0.017 6597 6600 1.683 0.009 1.947 2.017 Mothers received medical assistance at delivery 0.987 0.004 1221 1177 1.124 0.004 0.980 0.994 Total abortion rate (last 3 years) 0.436 0.036 na 19797 1.162 0.081 0.365 0.508 Total fertility rate (last 3 years) 1.168 0.055 na 19797 1.276 0.047 1.058 1.278 Neonatal mortality (last 0-4 years) 8.886 3.117 1234 1193 1.170 0.351 2.653 15.119 Post-neonatal mortality (last 0-4 years) 4.979 2.175 1242 1202 1.058 0.437 0.629 9.329 Infant mortality (last 0-4 years) 13.865 3.721 1234 1193 1.115 0.268 6.422 21.308 Child mortality (last 0-4 years) 3.027 1.414 1230 1201 0.917 0.467 0.199 5.855 Under-five mortality (last 0-4 years) 16.850 3.922 1234 1193 1.075 0.233 9.005 24.695 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.023 0.003 6841 6841 1.396 0.110 0.018 0.028 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.220 0.009 4901 4916 1.492 0.040 0.202 0.237 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.516 0.021 956 1079 1.285 0.040 0.475 0.558 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.684 0.031 357 397 1.255 0.045 0.622 0.746 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.711 0.018 1217 1206 1.358 0.025 0.675 0.746 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.260 0.018 1217 1206 1.392 0.067 0.225 0.295 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.206 0.008 6841 6841 1.683 0.040 0.189 0.222 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.123 0.008 6841 6841 2.097 0.068 0.106 0.139 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.008 0.001 6729 6742 1.273 0.172 0.005 0.011 Has heard about HIV/AIDS 0.986 0.002 6841 6841 1.432 0.002 0.981 0.990 Knows about condoms 0.915 0.005 6841 6841 1.483 0.005 0.905 0.925 Knows about limiting partners 0.887 0.006 6841 6841 1.618 0.007 0.875 0.900 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.456 0.012 6841 6841 1.935 0.026 0.433 0.479 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– MEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.717 0.009 3178 3178 1.178 0.013 0.698 0.735 Currently married (in union) 0.566 0.012 3178 3178 1.369 0.021 0.542 0.590 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.393 0.016 2727 2734 1.711 0.041 0.361 0.425 Ideal number of children 2.032 0.023 2898 2910 1.434 0.011 1.986 2.079 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.129 0.009 3178 3178 1.493 0.069 0.111 0.147 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.429 0.013 2683 2685 1.364 0.030 0.403 0.455 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.620 0.022 1101 1151 1.479 0.035 0.576 0.663 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.710 0.027 471 469 1.305 0.038 0.655 0.765 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.432 0.022 784 772 1.257 0.051 0.388 0.477 Sexually active in past 12 months among never- married youth 0.544 0.023 784 772 1.270 0.042 0.498 0.589 Paid for sexual intercourse in past 12 months 0.018 0.003 3178 3178 1.227 0.160 0.012 0.024 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.186 0.011 3178 3178 1.595 0.059 0.164 0.208 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.072 0.006 3178 3178 1.240 0.079 0.060 0.083 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.013 0.003 3137 3131 1.464 0.226 0.007 0.019 Has heard of HIV/AIDS 0.985 0.003 3178 3178 1.447 0.003 0.979 0.992 Knows condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.917 0.007 3178 3178 1.361 0.007 0.904 0.930 Knows limiting partners to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.896 0.008 3178 3178 1.423 0.009 0.880 0.911 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.449 0.017 3178 3178 1.906 0.037 0.415 0.482 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– na = Not applicable Appendix B | 215 Table B.3 Sampling errors for Urban sample, Ukraine 2007 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number of cases Stand- –––––––––––––––– Rela- ard Un- Weight- Design tive Confidence limits Value error weighted ed effect error –––––––––––––––– Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– WOMEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 1.000 0.000 4291 4887 na 0.000 1.000 1.000 Currently married/in union 0.585 0.010 4291 4887 1.321 0.017 0.565 0.605 Married before age 20 0.365 0.010 3819 4379 1.277 0.027 0.345 0.385 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.221 0.010 3819 4379 1.498 0.046 0.201 0.241 Currently pregnant 0.030 0.004 4291 4887 1.389 0.121 0.023 0.037 Children ever born 1.004 0.016 4291 4887 1.214 0.016 0.971 1.037 Children surviving 0.980 0.016 4291 4887 1.201 0.016 0.949 1.012 Children ever born to women age 40-49 1.578 0.026 1264 1444 1.132 0.017 1.526 1.631 Knowing any contraceptive method 0.997 0.002 2556 2858 1.436 0.002 0.994 1.000 Ever used any contraceptive method 0.905 0.008 2556 2858 1.449 0.009 0.888 0.921 Currently using any method 0.685 0.013 2556 2858 1.362 0.018 0.660 0.710 Currently using a modern method 0.500 0.014 2556 2858 1.446 0.029 0.471 0.529 Currently using pill 0.055 0.005 2556 2858 1.197 0.099 0.044 0.065 Currently using IUD 0.170 0.009 2556 2858 1.271 0.055 0.151 0.189 Currently using condoms 0.261 0.014 2556 2858 1.667 0.055 0.232 0.290 Currently using female sterilization 0.006 0.002 2556 2858 1.077 0.266 0.003 0.010 Currently using periodic abstinence 0.074 0.008 2556 2858 1.448 0.101 0.059 0.090 Obtained method from public sector source 0.722 0.019 1699 1992 1.748 0.026 0.684 0.760 Want no more children 0.542 0.014 2556 2858 1.386 0.025 0.515 0.569 Want to delay at least 2 years 0.098 0.009 2556 2858 1.495 0.090 0.080 0.115 Ideal number of children 1.919 0.023 4132 4716 1.699 0.012 1.874 1.964 Mothers received medical assistance at delivery 0.991 0.004 694 763 1.140 0.004 0.982 0.999 Total abortion rate (last 3 years) 0.379 0.039 na 14194 1.137 0.104 0.300 0.458 Total fertility rate (last 3 years) 1.038 0.061 na 14194 1.260 0.059 0.916 1.160 Neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 14.096 3.402 1432 1571 1.083 0.241 7.293 20.900 Post-neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 2.547 1.141 1435 1580 0.842 0.448 0.264 4.829 Infant mortality (last 0-9 years) 16.643 3.537 1432 1571 1.039 0.213 9.568 23.717 Child mortality (last 0-9 years) 1.887 0.961 1451 1594 0.855 0.509 0.000 3.809 Under-five mortality (last 0-9 years) 18.498 3.714 1433 1571 1.044 0.201 11.070 25.926 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.027 0.003 4291 4887 1.375 0.125 0.021 0.034 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.254 0.012 3090 3540 1.472 0.045 0.231 0.277 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.523 0.024 704 898 1.274 0.046 0.475 0.571 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.692 0.036 257 327 1.234 0.052 0.621 0.763 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.662 0.023 749 849 1.318 0.034 0.617 0.708 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.302 0.023 749 849 1.365 0.076 0.256 0.348 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.199 0.010 4291 4887 1.700 0.052 0.178 0.219 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.135 0.011 4291 4887 2.151 0.083 0.113 0.157 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.008 0.002 4243 4835 1.300 0.222 0.004 0.012 Has heard about HIV/AIDS 0.989 0.002 4291 4887 1.460 0.002 0.985 0.994 Knows about condoms 0.925 0.006 4291 4887 1.456 0.006 0.914 0.937 Knows about limiting partners 0.899 0.008 4291 4887 1.641 0.008 0.884 0.914 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.493 0.015 4291 4887 1.948 0.030 0.463 0.522 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– MEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 1.000 0.000 1993 2277 na 0.000 1.000 1.000 Currently married (in union) 0.572 0.016 1993 2277 1.417 0.027 0.541 0.603 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.417 0.021 1718 1971 1.762 0.050 0.375 0.459 Ideal number of children 2.005 0.028 1806 2073 1.429 0.014 1.948 2.061 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.138 0.012 1993 2277 1.492 0.084 0.115 0.161 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.442 0.017 1722 1964 1.394 0.038 0.409 0.476 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.642 0.027 720 869 1.520 0.042 0.588 0.697 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.735 0.032 308 347 1.260 0.043 0.671 0.798 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.422 0.028 493 550 1.260 0.067 0.366 0.478 Sexually active in past 12 months among never- married youth 0.563 0.028 493 550 1.270 0.050 0.506 0.620 Paid for sexual intercourse in past 12 months 0.021 0.004 1993 2277 1.188 0.181 0.014 0.029 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.187 0.014 1993 2277 1.573 0.073 0.159 0.214 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.076 0.007 1993 2277 1.232 0.097 0.061 0.090 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.013 0.004 1975 2253 1.414 0.282 0.006 0.020 Has heard of HIV/AIDS 0.989 0.003 1993 2277 1.469 0.003 0.982 0.996 Knows condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.940 0.007 1993 2277 1.312 0.007 0.926 0.954 Knows limiting partners to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.920 0.008 1993 2277 1.397 0.009 0.903 0.937 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.483 0.021 1993 2277 1.899 0.044 0.440 0.525 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– na = Not applicable 216 | Appendix B Table B.4 Sampling errors for Rural sample, Ukraine 2007 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number of cases Stand- –––––––––––––––– Rela- ard Un- Weight- Design tive Confidence limits Value error weighted ed effect error –––––––––––––––– Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– WOMEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.000 0.000 2550 1954 na na 0.000 0.000 Currently married/in union 0.644 0.011 2550 1954 1.111 0.016 0.623 0.665 Married before age 20 0.479 0.013 2192 1680 1.172 0.026 0.454 0.504 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.231 0.011 2192 1680 1.197 0.047 0.210 0.253 Currently pregnant 0.023 0.003 2550 1954 1.071 0.139 0.017 0.029 Children ever born 1.403 0.029 2550 1954 1.282 0.021 1.345 1.461 Children surviving 1.364 0.027 2550 1954 1.244 0.020 1.310 1.417 Children ever born to women age 40-49 2.009 0.047 764 577 1.252 0.023 1.915 2.103 Knowing any contraceptive method 0.983 0.007 1639 1258 2.313 0.007 0.968 0.998 Ever used any contraceptive method 0.844 0.017 1639 1258 1.889 0.020 0.811 0.878 Currently using any method 0.623 0.017 1639 1258 1.390 0.027 0.590 0.657 Currently using a modern method 0.419 0.016 1639 1258 1.300 0.038 0.388 0.451 Currently using pill 0.034 0.005 1639 1258 1.216 0.159 0.023 0.045 Currently using IUD 0.193 0.012 1639 1258 1.220 0.062 0.169 0.217 Currently using condoms 0.183 0.014 1639 1258 1.438 0.075 0.156 0.211 Currently using female sterilization 0.007 0.002 1639 1258 1.017 0.305 0.003 0.011 Currently using periodic abstinence 0.065 0.008 1639 1258 1.381 0.130 0.048 0.082 Obtained method from public sector source 0.776 0.019 849 628 1.346 0.025 0.737 0.814 Want no more children 0.661 0.015 1639 1258 1.251 0.022 0.632 0.690 Want to delay at least 2 years 0.068 0.007 1639 1258 1.172 0.107 0.053 0.082 Ideal number of children 2.139 0.022 2465 1885 1.362 0.010 2.095 2.182 Mothers received medical assistance at delivery 0.981 0.007 527 414 1.141 0.007 0.967 0.994 Total abortion rate (last 3 years) 0.577 0.072 na 5603 1.214 0.125 0.433 0.721 Total fertility rate (last 3 years) 1.521 0.108 na 5603 1.298 0.071 1.304 1.738 Neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 7.354 2.300 1114 872 0.944 0.313 2.753 11.954 Post-neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 9.204 3.934 1119 877 1.237 0.427 1.336 17.071 Infant mortality (last 0-9 years) 16.557 4.307 1114 872 1.097 0.260 7.942 25.172 Child mortality (last 0-9 years) 3.425 1.735 1126 885 1.025 0.506 0.000 6.895 Under-five mortality (last 0-9 years) 19.926 4.445 1114 872 1.054 0.223 11.036 28.815 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.012 0.002 2550 1954 0.997 0.182 0.007 0.016 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.132 0.009 1811 1377 1.113 0.067 0.114 0.149 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.483 0.033 252 181 1.048 0.068 0.417 0.549 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.645 0.054 100 70 1.127 0.084 0.537 0.754 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.825 0.020 468 357 1.154 0.025 0.785 0.866 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.160 0.019 468 357 1.105 0.117 0.123 0.198 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.224 0.013 2550 1954 1.534 0.057 0.199 0.249 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.092 0.007 2550 1954 1.285 0.080 0.077 0.106 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.008 0.002 2486 1907 1.070 0.235 0.004 0.012 Has heard about HIV/AIDS 0.976 0.004 2550 1954 1.418 0.004 0.968 0.985 Knows about condoms 0.891 0.009 2550 1954 1.534 0.011 0.872 0.910 Knows about limiting partners 0.857 0.010 2550 1954 1.510 0.012 0.837 0.878 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.365 0.016 2550 1954 1.677 0.044 0.333 0.397 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– MEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.000 0.000 1185 901 na na 0.000 0.000 Currently married (in union) 0.552 0.015 1185 901 1.044 0.027 0.521 0.582 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.330 0.019 1009 763 1.288 0.058 0.291 0.368 Ideal number of children 2.101 0.040 1092 837 1.386 0.019 2.021 2.180 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.106 0.011 1185 901 1.253 0.106 0.083 0.128 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.391 0.017 961 722 1.085 0.044 0.357 0.425 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.549 0.030 381 282 1.161 0.054 0.490 0.609 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.640 0.051 163 122 1.353 0.080 0.538 0.742 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.458 0.034 291 223 1.177 0.075 0.389 0.527 Sexually active in past 12 months among never- married youth 0.497 0.036 291 223 1.213 0.072 0.425 0.568 Paid for sexual intercourse in past 12 months 0.011 0.003 1185 901 1.160 0.323 0.004 0.018 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.183 0.017 1185 901 1.543 0.095 0.148 0.218 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.062 0.008 1185 901 1.135 0.129 0.046 0.077 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.015 0.005 1162 879 1.553 0.373 0.004 0.026 Has heard of HIV/AIDS 0.976 0.007 1185 901 1.473 0.007 0.962 0.989 Knows condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.858 0.015 1185 901 1.487 0.018 0.827 0.888 Knows limiting partners to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.834 0.016 1185 901 1.505 0.020 0.801 0.867 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.363 0.025 1185 901 1.797 0.069 0.313 0.413 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– na = Not applicable Appendix B | 217 Table B.5 Sampling errors for North sample, Ukraine 2007 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number of cases Stand- –––––––––––––––– Rela- ard Un- Weight- Design tive Confidence limits Value error weighted ed effect error –––––––––––––––– Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– WOMEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.797 0.015 1277 1345 1.315 0.019 0.768 0.827 Currently married/in union 0.640 0.017 1277 1345 1.265 0.027 0.606 0.674 Married before age 20 0.409 0.016 1137 1209 1.092 0.039 0.377 0.441 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.242 0.015 1137 1209 1.220 0.064 0.211 0.273 Currently pregnant 0.034 0.006 1277 1345 1.089 0.162 0.023 0.045 Children ever born 1.037 0.029 1277 1345 1.138 0.028 0.979 1.095 Children surviving 1.010 0.028 1277 1345 1.123 0.027 0.955 1.066 Children ever born to women age 40-49 1.636 0.045 350 356 1.059 0.028 1.545 1.726 Knowing any contraceptive method 0.998 0.002 807 861 1.265 0.002 0.994 1.002 Ever used any contraceptive method 0.894 0.014 807 861 1.272 0.015 0.866 0.922 Currently using any method 0.726 0.020 807 861 1.265 0.027 0.686 0.765 Currently using a modern method 0.449 0.021 807 861 1.212 0.047 0.407 0.492 Currently using pill 0.061 0.011 807 861 1.307 0.181 0.039 0.083 Currently using IUD 0.114 0.012 807 861 1.094 0.108 0.089 0.138 Currently using condoms 0.268 0.022 807 861 1.393 0.081 0.224 0.311 Currently using female sterilization 0.004 0.002 807 861 0.910 0.501 0.000 0.008 Currently using periodic abstinence 0.158 0.020 807 861 1.543 0.125 0.119 0.198 Obtained method from public sector source 0.802 0.025 463 493 1.337 0.031 0.753 0.852 Want no more children 0.549 0.020 807 861 1.113 0.036 0.510 0.588 Want to delay at least 2 years 0.084 0.011 807 861 1.146 0.133 0.062 0.107 Ideal number of children 1.852 0.028 1254 1319 1.498 0.015 1.796 1.907 Mothers received medical assistance at delivery 0.991 0.006 227 246 1.012 0.006 0.979 1.004 Total abortion rate (last 3 years) 0.496 0.087 na 3896 1.098 0.175 0.322 0.670 Total fertility rate (last 3 years) 1.084 0.110 na 3896 1.203 0.102 0.863 1.305 Neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 16.906 7.336 471 497 1.249 0.434 2.234 31.579 Post-neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 0.000 0.000 475 502 na na 0.000 0.000 Infant mortality (last 0-9 years) 16.906 7.336 471 497 1.249 0.434 2.234 31.579 Child mortality (last 0-9 years) 4.155 2.442 474 500 0.895 0.588 0.000 9.039 Under-five mortality (last 0-9 years) 20.991 7.637 472 498 1.196 0.364 5.716 36.266 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.020 0.005 1277 1345 1.161 0.230 0.011 0.029 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.200 0.017 940 993 1.271 0.083 0.167 0.234 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.439 0.039 189 199 1.083 0.089 0.361 0.518 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.593 0.067 74 80 1.156 0.112 0.460 0.726 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.720 0.037 208 212 1.190 0.052 0.645 0.794 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.246 0.037 208 212 1.226 0.149 0.173 0.320 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.201 0.019 1277 1345 1.659 0.093 0.164 0.238 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.137 0.015 1277 1345 1.563 0.110 0.107 0.168 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.003 0.002 1257 1323 1.139 0.612 0.000 0.006 Has heard about HIV/AIDS 0.984 0.005 1277 1345 1.283 0.005 0.975 0.993 Knows about condoms 0.892 0.015 1277 1345 1.769 0.017 0.861 0.923 Knows about limiting partners 0.862 0.018 1277 1345 1.850 0.021 0.826 0.898 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.422 0.036 1277 1345 2.599 0.085 0.350 0.494 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– MEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.773 0.021 590 616 1.228 0.027 0.730 0.815 Currently married (in union) 0.583 0.024 590 616 1.176 0.041 0.535 0.631 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.365 0.024 507 526 1.114 0.065 0.317 0.413 Ideal number of children 2.013 0.051 526 538 1.347 0.025 1.910 2.115 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.097 0.015 590 616 1.198 0.151 0.068 0.126 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.403 0.026 507 531 1.175 0.064 0.352 0.454 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.623 0.038 201 214 1.116 0.061 0.546 0.699 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.805 0.049 91 96 1.175 0.061 0.706 0.903 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.407 0.039 148 159 0.974 0.097 0.328 0.486 Sexually active in past 12 months among never- married youth 0.573 0.037 148 159 0.918 0.065 0.498 0.648 Paid for sexual intercourse in past 12 months 0.005 0.003 590 616 1.181 0.715 0.000 0.011 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.174 0.026 590 616 1.653 0.148 0.122 0.226 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.061 0.012 590 616 1.173 0.189 0.038 0.084 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.049 0.014 581 605 1.531 0.279 0.022 0.077 Has heard of HIV/AIDS 0.982 0.006 590 616 1.085 0.006 0.970 0.994 Knows condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.865 0.018 590 616 1.291 0.021 0.829 0.902 Knows limiting partners to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.843 0.022 590 616 1.501 0.027 0.799 0.888 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.374 0.034 590 616 1.711 0.091 0.306 0.442 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– na = Not applicable 218 | Appendix B Table B.6 Sampling errors for Central sample, Ukraine 2007 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number of cases Stand- –––––––––––––––– Rela- ard Un- Weight- Design tive Confidence limits Value error weighted ed effect error –––––––––––––––– Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– WOMEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.613 0.017 1334 817 1.274 0.028 0.579 0.647 Currently married/in union 0.622 0.017 1334 817 1.243 0.027 0.589 0.655 Married before age 20 0.411 0.015 1164 712 1.023 0.036 0.381 0.440 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.239 0.014 1164 712 1.125 0.059 0.211 0.267 Currently pregnant 0.022 0.004 1334 817 1.047 0.189 0.014 0.031 Children ever born 1.163 0.030 1334 817 1.074 0.026 1.103 1.222 Children surviving 1.130 0.029 1334 817 1.098 0.026 1.072 1.189 Children ever born to women age 40-49 1.764 0.048 421 257 1.090 0.027 1.667 1.860 Knowing any contraceptive method 1.000 0.000 833 508 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 Ever used any contraceptive method 0.930 0.009 833 508 0.998 0.010 0.912 0.947 Currently using any method 0.685 0.020 833 508 1.215 0.029 0.646 0.725 Currently using a modern method 0.512 0.021 833 508 1.199 0.041 0.470 0.553 Currently using pill 0.078 0.010 833 508 1.111 0.133 0.057 0.098 Currently using IUD 0.246 0.018 833 508 1.212 0.074 0.209 0.282 Currently using condoms 0.180 0.016 833 508 1.221 0.090 0.147 0.212 Currently using female sterilization 0.006 0.003 833 508 1.087 0.492 0.000 0.012 Currently using periodic abstinence 0.081 0.013 833 508 1.322 0.154 0.056 0.106 Obtained method from public sector source 0.704 0.027 535 327 1.350 0.038 0.651 0.758 Want no more children 0.642 0.021 833 508 1.261 0.033 0.600 0.684 Want to delay at least 2 years 0.066 0.010 833 508 1.204 0.157 0.045 0.087 Ideal number of children 1.936 0.024 1277 782 1.193 0.012 1.888 1.983 Mothers received medical assistance at delivery 0.990 0.007 220 132 1.021 0.007 0.977 1.004 Total abortion rate (last 3 years) 0.555 0.101 na 2351 1.266 0.183 0.352 0.758 Total fertility rate (last 3 years) 1.220 0.097 na 2351 1.020 0.079 1.026 1.413 Neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 11.109 4.991 453 274 1.043 0.449 1.127 21.092 Post-neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 7.188 4.115 452 273 1.028 0.572 0.000 15.417 Infant mortality (last 0-9 years) 18.297 6.194 453 274 1.014 0.339 5.910 30.684 Child mortality (last 0-9 years) 1.794 1.798 458 279 0.903 1.002 0.000 5.389 Under-five mortality (last 0-9 years) 20.058 6.326 453 274 0.989 0.315 7.407 32.710 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.028 0.006 1334 817 1.280 0.206 0.017 0.040 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.192 0.017 983 602 1.333 0.087 0.158 0.225 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.471 0.033 186 115 0.903 0.070 0.405 0.538 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.766 0.046 69 44 0.890 0.060 0.675 0.857 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.706 0.032 241 151 1.099 0.046 0.641 0.771 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.236 0.030 241 151 1.111 0.129 0.175 0.297 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.237 0.019 1334 817 1.624 0.080 0.199 0.275 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.097 0.013 1334 817 1.611 0.134 0.071 0.123 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.002 0.001 1331 815 1.013 0.569 0.000 0.005 Has heard about HIV/AIDS 0.998 0.001 1334 817 1.003 0.001 0.995 1.000 Knows about condoms 0.918 0.012 1334 817 1.641 0.013 0.894 0.943 Knows about limiting partners 0.887 0.019 1334 817 2.166 0.021 0.849 0.925 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.543 0.023 1334 817 1.649 0.041 0.498 0.588 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– MEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.594 0.024 565 354 1.142 0.040 0.547 0.641 Currently married (in union) 0.601 0.019 565 354 0.938 0.032 0.562 0.639 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.515 0.033 489 306 1.468 0.065 0.448 0.581 Ideal number of children 2.150 0.041 483 305 1.095 0.019 2.068 2.232 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.173 0.018 565 354 1.152 0.106 0.136 0.209 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.387 0.024 502 315 1.095 0.062 0.339 0.435 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.692 0.038 196 122 1.139 0.054 0.617 0.768 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.744 0.054 93 58 1.184 0.073 0.636 0.852 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.332 0.045 140 88 1.114 0.134 0.243 0.421 Sexually active in past 12 months among never- married youth 0.640 0.044 140 88 1.084 0.069 0.552 0.729 Paid for sexual intercourse in past 12 months 0.008 0.005 565 354 1.246 0.597 0.000 0.017 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.198 0.021 565 354 1.272 0.108 0.156 0.241 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.136 0.016 565 354 1.137 0.121 0.103 0.168 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.015 0.007 562 352 1.364 0.471 0.001 0.029 Has heard of HIV/AIDS 0.993 0.004 565 354 1.125 0.004 0.986 1.001 Knows condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.905 0.020 565 354 1.600 0.022 0.865 0.944 Knows limiting partners to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.870 0.019 565 354 1.344 0.022 0.832 0.908 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.389 0.027 565 354 1.333 0.070 0.334 0.444 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– na = Not applicable Appendix B | 219 Table B.7 Sampling errors for East sample, Ukraine 2007 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number of cases Stand- –––––––––––––––– Rela- ard Un- Weight- Design tive Confidence limits Value error weighted ed effect error –––––––––––––––– Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– WOMEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.875 0.011 1117 2120 1.071 0.012 0.854 0.896 Currently married/in union 0.557 0.017 1117 2120 1.122 0.030 0.524 0.591 Married before age 20 0.375 0.018 1004 1908 1.185 0.048 0.339 0.411 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.233 0.019 1004 1908 1.420 0.081 0.195 0.271 Currently pregnant 0.021 0.007 1117 2120 1.640 0.337 0.007 0.035 Children ever born 1.004 0.029 1117 2120 1.113 0.029 0.947 1.061 Children surviving 0.982 0.027 1117 2120 1.092 0.028 0.928 1.036 Children ever born to women age 40-49 1.510 0.041 360 687 0.986 0.027 1.429 1.592 Knowing any contraceptive method 1.000 0.000 641 1182 na 0.000 1.000 1.000 Ever used any contraceptive method 0.954 0.012 641 1182 1.442 0.013 0.930 0.978 Currently using any method 0.704 0.023 641 1182 1.260 0.032 0.659 0.750 Currently using a modern method 0.582 0.026 641 1182 1.351 0.045 0.529 0.635 Currently using pill 0.044 0.009 641 1182 1.072 0.199 0.026 0.061 Currently using IUD 0.239 0.019 641 1182 1.100 0.078 0.202 0.276 Currently using condoms 0.282 0.029 641 1182 1.636 0.103 0.224 0.341 Currently using female sterilization 0.004 0.003 641 1182 1.109 0.711 0.000 0.009 Currently using periodic abstinence 0.023 0.007 641 1182 1.149 0.297 0.009 0.036 Obtained method from public sector source 0.729 0.032 543 997 1.677 0.044 0.665 0.793 Want no more children 0.555 0.026 641 1182 1.338 0.047 0.502 0.607 Want to delay at least 2 years 0.069 0.017 641 1182 1.662 0.241 0.036 0.103 Ideal number of children 1.933 0.045 1087 2060 1.495 0.023 1.844 2.022 Mothers received medical assistance at delivery 0.986 0.010 139 272 1.035 0.010 0.965 1.006 Total abortion rate (last 3 years) 0.369 0.073 na 6159 1.072 0.199 0.222 0.516 Total fertility rate (last 3 years) 0.860 0.102 na 6159 1.188 0.119 0.656 1.064 Neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 6.625 4.615 323 593 0.999 0.697 0.000 15.854 Post-neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 0.000 0.000 329 604 na na 0.000 0.000 Infant mortality (last 0-9 years) 6.625 4.615 323 593 0.999 0.697 0.000 15.854 Child mortality (last 0-9 years) 0.000 0.000 342 618 na na 0.000 0.000 Under-five mortality (last 0-9 years) 6.625 4.615 323 593 0.999 0.697 0.000 15.854 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.039 0.007 1117 2120 1.189 0.177 0.025 0.053 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.306 0.020 827 1562 1.269 0.066 0.266 0.347 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.545 0.038 235 478 1.170 0.070 0.469 0.622 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.683 0.059 80 163 1.118 0.086 0.566 0.800 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.612 0.041 190 370 1.155 0.067 0.530 0.694 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.367 0.042 190 370 1.185 0.113 0.284 0.450 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.201 0.019 1117 2120 1.611 0.096 0.163 0.240 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.165 0.023 1117 2120 2.058 0.139 0.119 0.210 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.009 0.003 1103 2097 1.202 0.375 0.002 0.016 Has heard about HIV/AIDS 0.989 0.004 1117 2120 1.335 0.004 0.981 0.997 Knows about condoms 0.938 0.008 1117 2120 1.090 0.008 0.922 0.954 Knows about limiting partners 0.934 0.008 1117 2120 1.124 0.009 0.917 0.951 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.493 0.022 1117 2120 1.479 0.045 0.449 0.537 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– MEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.868 0.012 590 1060 0.875 0.014 0.843 0.892 Currently married (in union) 0.575 0.028 590 1060 1.380 0.049 0.519 0.631 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.489 0.040 517 930 1.807 0.082 0.409 0.568 Ideal number of children 1.981 0.047 553 995 1.333 0.024 1.888 2.074 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.166 0.022 590 1060 1.425 0.132 0.122 0.210 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.507 0.030 508 914 1.353 0.059 0.446 0.567 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.620 0.045 259 463 1.491 0.073 0.529 0.710 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.705 0.056 91 163 1.160 0.079 0.593 0.817 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.427 0.053 124 229 1.187 0.124 0.321 0.533 Sexually active in past 12 months among never- married youth 0.547 0.055 124 229 1.220 0.100 0.437 0.656 Paid for sexual intercourse in past 12 months 0.026 0.007 590 1060 1.081 0.274 0.012 0.040 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.222 0.023 590 1060 1.363 0.105 0.175 0.269 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.036 0.008 590 1060 1.064 0.226 0.020 0.053 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.004 0.003 578 1044 1.124 0.789 0.000 0.009 Has heard of HIV/AIDS 0.984 0.007 590 1060 1.341 0.007 0.970 0.998 Knows condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.958 0.010 590 1060 1.240 0.011 0.938 0.979 Knows limiting partners to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.944 0.012 590 1060 1.273 0.013 0.920 0.968 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.549 0.036 590 1060 1.737 0.065 0.478 0.621 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– na = Not applicable 220 | Appendix B Table B.8 Sampling errors for South sample, Ukraine 2007 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number of cases Stand- –––––––––––––––– Rela- ard Un- Weight- Design tive Confidence limits Value error weighted ed effect error –––––––––––––––– Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– WOMEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.690 0.017 1488 1049 1.389 0.024 0.656 0.723 Currently married/in union 0.620 0.016 1488 1049 1.243 0.025 0.589 0.651 Married before age 20 0.398 0.016 1304 924 1.162 0.040 0.367 0.430 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.191 0.015 1304 924 1.394 0.080 0.160 0.221 Currently pregnant 0.035 0.005 1488 1049 1.060 0.145 0.025 0.045 Children ever born 1.158 0.029 1488 1049 1.149 0.025 1.099 1.217 Children surviving 1.131 0.028 1488 1049 1.129 0.025 1.075 1.187 Children ever born to women age 40-49 1.768 0.050 461 320 1.199 0.028 1.668 1.868 Knowing any contraceptive method 1.000 0.000 926 650 0.000 0.000 1.000 1.000 Ever used any contraceptive method 0.846 0.020 926 650 1.668 0.023 0.806 0.885 Currently using any method 0.648 0.019 926 650 1.205 0.029 0.610 0.686 Currently using a modern method 0.536 0.021 926 650 1.288 0.039 0.493 0.578 Currently using pill 0.045 0.008 926 650 1.129 0.171 0.030 0.060 Currently using IUD 0.155 0.014 926 650 1.173 0.090 0.127 0.183 Currently using condoms 0.318 0.021 926 650 1.368 0.066 0.276 0.360 Currently using female sterilization 0.012 0.004 926 650 1.202 0.358 0.003 0.021 Currently using periodic abstinence 0.039 0.007 926 650 1.061 0.173 0.026 0.053 Obtained method from public sector source 0.722 0.032 600 425 1.752 0.045 0.658 0.786 Want no more children 0.546 0.018 926 650 1.115 0.033 0.509 0.582 Want to delay at least 2 years 0.108 0.009 926 650 0.867 0.082 0.090 0.125 Ideal number of children 2.064 0.028 1450 1022 1.265 0.014 2.007 2.121 Mothers received medical assistance at delivery 0.987 0.007 284 200 0.982 0.007 0.974 1.000 Total abortion rate (last 3 years) 0.626 0.084 na 3029 1.102 0.134 0.458 0.795 Total fertility rate (last 3 years) 1.439 0.120 na 3029 1.146 0.084 1.198 1.680 Neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 13.812 5.164 570 397 1.054 0.374 3.484 24.139 Post-neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 4.614 3.053 564 392 1.048 0.662 0.000 10.720 Infant mortality (last 0-9 years) 18.425 5.733 570 397 1.016 0.311 6.960 29.891 Child mortality (last 0-9 years) 1.828 1.830 563 391 0.998 1.001 0.000 5.488 Under-five mortality (last 0-9 years) 20.220 5.942 570 397 1.008 0.294 8.336 32.103 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.015 0.004 1488 1049 1.205 0.250 0.008 0.023 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.169 0.013 1055 742 1.160 0.079 0.142 0.195 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.500 0.044 177 125 1.179 0.089 0.411 0.589 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.591 0.075 61 42 1.172 0.126 0.441 0.740 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.826 0.031 251 173 1.272 0.037 0.765 0.887 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.162 0.028 251 173 1.202 0.173 0.106 0.218 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.202 0.014 1488 1049 1.366 0.071 0.173 0.230 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.133 0.013 1488 1049 1.484 0.099 0.106 0.159 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.015 0.004 1434 1015 1.168 0.252 0.007 0.022 Has heard about HIV/AIDS 0.968 0.007 1488 1049 1.484 0.007 0.954 0.981 Knows about condoms 0.897 0.010 1488 1049 1.247 0.011 0.878 0.917 Knows about limiting partners 0.836 0.019 1488 1049 1.959 0.023 0.798 0.874 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.478 0.020 1488 1049 1.563 0.042 0.438 0.519 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– MEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.692 0.019 725 493 1.136 0.028 0.653 0.731 Currently married (in union) 0.564 0.021 725 493 1.141 0.037 0.522 0.606 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.317 0.025 620 422 1.344 0.079 0.266 0.367 Ideal number of children 2.145 0.050 678 461 1.290 0.023 2.045 2.246 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.089 0.012 725 493 1.109 0.132 0.065 0.112 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.379 0.022 616 421 1.104 0.057 0.336 0.422 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.790 0.034 232 160 1.279 0.043 0.721 0.859 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.806 0.044 112 77 1.172 0.055 0.718 0.894 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.375 0.040 180 122 1.098 0.106 0.296 0.455 Sexually active in past 12 months among never- married youth 0.608 0.039 180 122 1.070 0.064 0.530 0.686 Paid for sexual intercourse in past 12 months 0.017 0.005 725 493 1.015 0.283 0.008 0.027 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.163 0.017 725 493 1.267 0.107 0.128 0.197 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.148 0.021 725 493 1.609 0.144 0.105 0.190 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.001 0.001 722 491 0.993 0.994 0.000 0.004 Has heard of HIV/AIDS 0.997 0.002 725 493 0.877 0.002 0.993 1.001 Knows condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.911 0.014 725 493 1.339 0.016 0.883 0.940 Knows limiting partners to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.902 0.017 725 493 1.507 0.018 0.869 0.935 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.556 0.038 725 493 2.054 0.068 0.480 0.632 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– na = Not applicable Appendix B | 221 Table B.9 Sampling errors for West sample, Ukraine 2007 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Number of cases Stand- –––––––––––––––– Rela- ard Un- Weight- Design tive Confidence limits Value error weighted ed effect error –––––––––––––––– Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– WOMEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.487 0.017 1625 1509 1.389 0.035 0.452 0.521 Currently married/in union 0.606 0.015 1625 1509 1.261 0.025 0.575 0.636 Married before age 20 0.407 0.017 1402 1306 1.286 0.041 0.373 0.441 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.210 0.014 1402 1306 1.274 0.066 0.182 0.237 Currently pregnant 0.031 0.004 1625 1509 0.975 0.136 0.022 0.039 Children ever born 1.299 0.037 1625 1509 1.304 0.029 1.224 1.373 Children surviving 1.261 0.035 1625 1509 1.277 0.028 1.191 1.331 Children ever born to women age 40-49 1.993 0.065 436 401 1.222 0.033 1.863 2.123 Knowing any contraceptive method 0.970 0.011 988 914 2.022 0.011 0.948 0.992 Ever used any contraceptive method 0.796 0.024 988 914 1.894 0.031 0.747 0.845 Currently using any method 0.565 0.022 988 914 1.423 0.040 0.520 0.610 Currently using a modern method 0.299 0.022 988 914 1.523 0.074 0.255 0.344 Currently using pill 0.029 0.007 988 914 1.231 0.226 0.016 0.042 Currently using IUD 0.135 0.015 988 914 1.340 0.108 0.106 0.165 Currently using condoms 0.126 0.014 988 914 1.341 0.112 0.098 0.155 Currently using female sterilization 0.009 0.003 988 914 0.968 0.331 0.003 0.014 Currently using periodic abstinence 0.070 0.011 988 914 1.386 0.161 0.048 0.093 Obtained method from public sector source 0.703 0.032 407 378 1.406 0.045 0.639 0.767 Want no more children 0.625 0.021 988 914 1.352 0.033 0.583 0.666 Want to delay at least 2 years 0.116 0.014 988 914 1.387 0.122 0.088 0.145 Ideal number of children 2.140 0.031 1529 1418 1.498 0.014 2.079 2.201 Mothers received medical assistance at delivery 0.984 0.007 351 328 1.127 0.007 0.970 0.999 Total abortion rate (last 3 years) 0.305 0.061 na 4361 1.141 0.200 0.183 0.427 Total fertility rate (last 3 years) 1.445 0.136 na 4361 1.378 0.094 1.173 1.717 Neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 11.322 3.680 729 682 0.969 0.325 3.962 18.682 Post-neonatal mortality (last 0-9 years) 12.105 5.066 734 686 1.130 0.418 1.974 22.236 Infant mortality (last 0-9 years) 23.427 5.815 729 682 1.019 0.248 11.797 35.057 Child mortality (last 0-9 years) 4.027 2.284 740 692 0.979 0.567 0.000 8.595 Under-five mortality (last 0-9 years) 27.360 6.184 729 682 1.028 0.226 14.992 39.727 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.006 0.002 1625 1509 1.049 0.332 0.002 0.010 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.159 0.015 1096 1018 1.379 0.096 0.128 0.189 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.570 0.044 169 162 1.143 0.077 0.482 0.657 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.794 0.055 73 69 1.161 0.070 0.683 0.905 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.762 0.031 327 302 1.314 0.041 0.700 0.824 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.207 0.030 327 302 1.323 0.143 0.148 0.267 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.203 0.013 1625 1509 1.329 0.065 0.176 0.229 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.057 0.006 1625 1509 1.083 0.109 0.045 0.070 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.010 0.003 1604 1491 1.039 0.261 0.005 0.015 Has heard about HIV/AIDS 0.988 0.004 1625 1509 1.317 0.004 0.981 0.995 Knows about condoms 0.916 0.011 1625 1509 1.548 0.012 0.895 0.937 Knows about limiting partners 0.880 0.011 1625 1509 1.384 0.013 0.858 0.903 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.372 0.021 1625 1509 1.711 0.055 0.331 0.413 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– MEN ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Urban residence 0.504 0.023 708 654 1.240 0.046 0.457 0.550 Currently married (in union) 0.519 0.021 708 654 1.115 0.040 0.477 0.561 Had sexual intercourse before age of 18 0.248 0.020 594 550 1.150 0.082 0.207 0.289 Ideal number of children 1.989 0.048 658 612 1.466 0.024 1.893 2.086 Had 2+ sexual partners in past 12 months 0.105 0.014 708 654 1.243 0.137 0.076 0.134 Had higher-risk intercourse in past 12 months 0.382 0.024 550 504 1.166 0.063 0.334 0.430 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse 0.428 0.038 213 193 1.128 0.090 0.352 0.505 Condom use at last higher-risk intercourse (youth) 0.471 0.067 84 74 1.216 0.142 0.337 0.605 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had intercourse) 0.554 0.047 192 174 1.293 0.084 0.460 0.647 Sexually active in past 12 months among never- married youth 0.418 0.047 192 174 1.327 0.113 0.323 0.513 Paid for sexual intercourse in past 12 months 0.025 0.006 708 654 1.086 0.253 0.013 0.038 Had an injection la past 12 months 0.149 0.021 708 654 1.558 0.140 0.108 0.191 Had HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.047 0.009 708 654 1.073 0.182 0.030 0.064 Accepting attitudes towards people with HIV 0.003 0.002 694 639 1.055 0.721 0.000 0.008 Has heard of HIV/AIDS 0.977 0.008 708 654 1.388 0.008 0.962 0.993 Knows condom use to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.910 0.015 708 654 1.373 0.016 0.880 0.939 Knows limiting partners to prevent HIV/AIDS 0.875 0.018 708 654 1.419 0.020 0.840 0.910 Comprehensive knowledge on HIV transmission 0.308 0.030 708 654 1.717 0.097 0.248 0.367 ––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– na = Not applicable Appendix C | 223 DATA QUALITY TABLES Appendix C Table C.1 Household age distribution Single-year age distribution of the de facto household population by sex (weighted), Ukraine 2007 Female Male Age Number Percent Number Percent 0 104 0.6 119 0.8 1 106 0.6 124 0.8 2 133 0.8 136 0.9 3 128 0.7 152 1.0 4 137 0.8 117 0.8 5 118 0.7 150 1.0 6 112 0.6 160 1.1 7 119 0.7 143 1.0 8 122 0.7 138 0.9 9 166 0.9 164 1.1 10 134 0.8 158 1.1 11 150 0.9 154 1.0 12 175 1.0 183 1.2 13 196 1.1 192 1.3 14 215 1.2 225 1.5 15 150 0.9 162 1.1 16 180 1.0 229 1.5 17 189 1.1 200 1.3 18 141 0.8 203 1.4 19 175 1.0 188 1.3 20 213 1.2 219 1.5 21 177 1.0 193 1.3 22 197 1.1 209 1.4 23 229 1.3 231 1.6 24 231 1.3 232 1.6 25 211 1.2 232 1.6 26 207 1.2 198 1.3 27 225 1.3 242 1.6 28 214 1.2 197 1.3 29 195 1.1 216 1.5 30 264 1.5 253 1.7 31 194 1.1 214 1.4 32 192 1.1 231 1.6 33 203 1.2 168 1.1 34 207 1.2 202 1.4 35 241 1.4 242 1.6 36 201 1.1 227 1.5 37 233 1.3 186 1.3 38 224 1.3 189 1.3 39 212 1.2 192 1.3 40 199 1.1 191 1.3 41 191 1.1 181 1.2 42 208 1.2 199 1.3 43 198 1.1 177 1.2 44 219 1.2 207 1.4 45 269 1.5 242 1.6 46 228 1.3 213 1.4 47 250 1.4 235 1.6 48 210 1.2 217 1.5 49 199 1.1 216 1.5 50 473 2.7 282 1.9 51 350 2.0 247 1.7 52 300 1.7 265 1.8 53 240 1.4 207 1.4 54 312 1.8 221 1.5 55 298 1.7 241 1.6 56 289 1.6 221 1.5 57 338 1.9 226 1.5 58 301 1.7 237 1.6 59 232 1.3 196 1.3 60 245 1.4 198 1.3 61 166 0.9 154 1.0 62 149 0.8 101 0.7 63 212 1.2 103 0.7 64 158 0.9 98 0.7 65 245 1.4 149 1.0 66 221 1.3 141 0.9 67 272 1.5 195 1.3 68 306 1.7 164 1.1 69 293 1.7 170 1.1 70+ 2,763 15.7 1,347 9.1 Don't know/missing 1 0.0 0 0.0 Total 17,556 100.0 14,816 100.0 Note: The de facto population includes all residents and nonresidents who stayed in the household the night before interview 224 | Appendix C Table C.2.1 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women De facto household population of women age 10-54 and interviewed women age 15-49; and percent distribution and percentage of eligible women who were interviewed (weighted), by five-year age groups, Ukraine 2007 Household population of women age 10-54 Interviewed women age 15-49 Percentage of eligible women interviewed Age group Number Percent 10-14 870 na na na 15-19 835 773 11.6 92.5 20-24 1,048 972 14.6 92.8 25-29 1,053 958 14.4 91.0 30-34 1,060 961 14.4 90.6 25-39 1,111 1,029 15.5 92.6 40-44 1,015 913 13.7 89.9 45-49 1,158 1,050 15.8 90.7 50-54 1,675 na na na 15-49 7,279 6,656 100.0 91.4 Note: The de facto population includes all residents and nonresidents who stayed in the household the night before the interview. Weights for both household population of women and interviewed women are household weights. Age is based on the Household Questionnaire. na = Not applicable Table C.2.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men De facto household population of men age 10-54 and interviewed men age 15-49; and percent distribution and percentage of eligible men who were interviewed (weighted), by five-year age groups, Ukraine 2007 Household population of men age 10-54 Interviewed men age 15-49 Percentage of eligible men interviewed Age group Number Percent 10-14 466 na na na 15-19 485 440 13.9 90.7 20-24 501 460 14.5 91.9 25-29 488 435 13.7 89.0 30-34 516 470 14.8 91.1 25-39 504 449 14.2 89.1 40-44 445 404 12.7 90.6 45-49 552 510 16.1 92.5 50-54 637 na na na 15-49 3,491 3,167 100.0 90.7 Note: The de facto population includes all residents and nonresidents who stayed in the household the night before the interview. Weights for both household population of men and interviewed men are household weights. Age is based on the Household Questionnaire. na = Not applicable Appendix C | 225 Table C.3 Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations missing information for selected demographic and health questions (weighted), Ukraine 2007 Subject Reference group Percentage with information missing Number of cases Birth date Births in the 15 years preceding the survey 0.04 3,939 Month only 0.03 3,939 Month and year Age at death Dead children born in the 15 years preceding the survey 0.00 75 Age/date at first union1 Ever-married women age 15-49 0.22 5,297 Ever-married men age 15-49 0.00 2,134 Respondent's education All women age 15-49 0.03 6,841 All men age 15-49 0.00 3,178 1 Both year and age missing Table C.4 Births by calendar years Number of births, percentage with complete birth date, sex ratio at birth, and calendar year ratio by calendar year, according to living (L), dead (D), and total (T) children (weighted), Ukraine 2007 Number of births Percentage with complete birth date1 Sex ratio at birth2 Calendar year ratio3 Calendar year L D T L D T L D T L D T 2007 139 0 139 100.0 na 100.0 119.5 na 119.5 na na na 2006 232 1 233 100.0 100.0 100.0 107.2 0.0 106.2 na na na 2005 258 5 264 100.0 100.0 100.0 105.1 na 109.3 110.3 129.4 110.6 2004 237 7 244 100.0 100.0 100.0 134.0 363.1 137.4 94.8 141.6 95.8 2003 241 5 246 100.0 100.0 100.0 83.6 180.3 84.9 101.8 106.2 101.9 2002 237 2 239 100.0 100.0 100.0 112.2 92.9 112.0 101.8 39.7 100.5 2001 224 5 229 99.8 100.0 99.8 153.7 437.5 156.8 89.2 110.3 89.6 2000 266 7 273 100.0 100.0 100.0 121.5 232.2 123.5 121.9 148.3 122.5 1999 212 5 216 100.0 100.0 100.0 94.1 42.9 92.5 78.5 68.0 78.3 1998 273 7 280 99.9 100.0 99.9 118.9 224.4 120.6 116.8 171.2 117.7 2003-2007 1,107 18 1,126 100.0 100.0 100.0 107.4 330.2 109.2 na na na 1998-2002 1,212 26 1,238 99.9 100.0 99.9 118.8 170.2 119.7 na na na 1993-1997 1,461 30 1,491 99.9 100.0 99.9 104.6 121.0 104.9 na na na 1988-1992 1,537 42 1,579 99.8 98.3 99.8 121.7 180.8 122.9 na na na < 1988 2,137 79 2,216 100.0 99.6 100.0 109.3 160.2 110.7 na na na All 7,454 195 7,649 99.9 99.5 99.9 112.0 168.4 113.1 na na na na = Not applicable 1 Both year and month of birth given 2 (Bm/Bf)x100, where Bm and Bf are the numbers of male and female births, respectively 3 [2Bx/(Bx-1+Bx+1)]x100, where Bx is the number of births in calendar year x 226 | Appendix C Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in days Distribution of reported deaths under one month of age by age at death in days and the percentage of neonatal deaths reported to occur at ages 0-6 days, for five-year periods of birth preceding the survey (weighted), Ukraine 2007 Age at death (days) Number of years preceding the survey Total 0-19 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 <1 2 3 4 1 10 1 0 1 4 6 12 2 0 2 2 4 8 3 3 3 4 8 18 4 3 1 0 1 5 5 0 3 0 0 3 7 1 0 0 1 2 8 0 0 1 2 3 9 1 1 0 0 2 10 0 0 2 0 2 11 0 1 0 0 1 13 0 0 2 0 2 14 0 1 0 2 3 15 0 1 0 0 1 17 0 1 0 0 1 20 1 0 0 0 1 21 0 0 1 0 1 26 0 0 0 1 1 Total 0-30 10 18 19 27 73 Percentage early neonatal1 73.4 74.1 70.9 79.3 75.1 1�6 days / �30 days Table C.6 Reporting of age at death in months Distribution of reported deaths under two years of age by age at death in months and the percentage of infant deaths reported to occur at age under one month, for five-year periods of birth preceding the survey, Ukraine 2007 Age at death (months) Number of years preceding the survey Total 0-190-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 <1a 10 18 19 27 73 1 2 3 2 1 7 2 2 2 3 1 7 3 2 1 0 0 3 4 0 0 0 1 1 6 0 1 1 1 2 7 0 0 0 1 1 10 0 0 0 0 0 11 0 0 0 1 1 12 0 0 0 1 1 13 0 0 1 0 1 14 0 0 0 0 0 16 1 0 0 0 1 1 yar 3 1 0 0 3 Total 0-11 16 24 25 32 97 Percentage neonatal1 62.5 74.4 76.2 83.2 75.8 a Includes deaths under one month reported in days 1 Under one month / under one year Appendix D | 227 PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 2007 UKRAINE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY Appendix D UKRAINIAN CENTER FOR SOCIAL REFORMS Libanova Ella Grygorovych Svitlana Makarova Olena Sarioglo Volodymyr Kotel’nikova Lidiya Klymenko Yuliya Gruznykh Vira STATE STATISTICAL COMMITTEE OF UKRAINE Vlasenko Nataliya Stelmakh Lyubov Tymonina Mariya Nikolayenko Tetyana Kravchenko Andriy Los’ Oleksandra Chygrynets Iryna Khionina-Kozlenko Tetyana Karmazina Olga Rudych Oleksandr FIELD STAFF Danylenko Nina Starchenko Svitlana Fedotenko Kateryna Dyachenko Juriy Benyashevska Maryna Bartetska Kateryna Buga Alla Abramovskiy Ivan Polischuk Grigoriy Lischuk Olena Baranyuk Oksana Strelyuk Andriy Antonova Lyubov Bondareva Nataliya Samborska Lyubov Antonov Oleksiy Derkach Olena Barbo Victoriya Gruzinska Lyudmyla Turilin Sergiy Rechits’ Olena Dzhukhil Olga Kovalevskiy Vitaliy Yager Larysa Buletsa Lyubov Il’kiv Zynoviy Voytenko Valentyna Akentieva Maryna Khudokon Juriy Rogozhyna Tamara Yankiv Roksolana Rogozhin Oleksandr Sirchik Iryna Dubova Natalia Gun’ko Nataliya Gun’ko Sergiy Krokhmalyuk Olga Shaumyan Zynaida Lukavenko Oleksandr Broslavs’ka Lyubov Fula Anastasiya Srebnitsky Mykola Gurnyak Iryna Sultanova Lyudmyla Gubchuk Mykola Archypenko Nadiya Zabiyaka Lyudmyla Shilov Valentyn Yeremeyeva Olga Tsyurya Vera Sukhareva Olga Yeremeyev Yevgen 228 | Appendix D Kaschavtseva Valentyna Kulchiy Olena Shmandiy Nina Pushkar Dmytro Androschuk Zoya Gnatyuk Galyna Smolyanets’ Mikhailo Semenozhenko Nina Karpyshka Kateryna Karpyshka Konstyantyn Altukhova Lidiya Turchmanovych Polina Kashits’kiy Jaroslav Myakusheva Lyudmyla Poluektova Lyayuzya Brazhnik Mykola Garan Valentyna Il’ina Tetyana Kurakov Oleksandr Dekhtyarenko Nataliya Lischuk Valentyna Androschuk Sergiy Matvienko Valentyna Savchenko Tetyana Matvienko Dariya Syvolap Sergiy Prosvirnova Tetyana Gopka Nina Spasennikov Sergiy Zorina Larysa Baklan Galyna Krasnozhon Andriy Bondar Oksana Bashkiryova Lydiya Mironchik Ganna Tupchiy Valeriy Naydenko Svitlana Kobylinskiy Denis OPERATORS Stelmakh Oleksiy Chernichenko Victor Dryomina Yuliya Scherbyna Oleksandra Sosin Vladyslav Samsonov Dmytro Vaschaeva Nataliya Tereschenko Ganna Vasyliev Oleksandr Syvun Olena Byalkovs’ka Violetta Cherepans’kiy Mikhailo Krymer Borys Lesnikova Maryna Rodicheva Iryna Maydanyk Iryna Kasyan Liliya Serdyuk Iryna Gvelesiani Anna Shvydka Ganna Pronina Iryna Shiskin Vladyslav LISTERS AND MAPERS Burdulenko Valentyna Danylenko Nina Polischuk Grygoriy Abramovskiy Ivan Baranyuk Oksana Motil Oleksiy Andreev Igor Filimonov Albert Nemova Raisa Dobychina Lyudmyla Korpan Lyudmyla Maslikova Svitlana Yager Larysa Il’kiv Zenoviy Voytenko Valentyna Khudokon’ Juriy Grynkiv Oksana Pikhur Tamara Marvanyuk Nataliya Gubenko Iryna Shaumyan Zynaida Krokhmalyuk Olga Andreeva Oksana Prydorozhko Juliya Samodala Larysa Pertak Nataliya Arkhypenko Nadiya Zabiyaka Lyudmyla Yeremeeva Olga Tsyurya Vera Kaschavtseva Valentyna Kulchiy Olena Androschuk Zoya Gnatyuk Galyna Shipot’ko Valentyna Pushkar Oksana Altukhova Lydiya Turchmanovych Pelahiya Myakisheva Lyudmyla Poluektova Lyayuzya Appendix D | 229 Garan Valentyna Il’ina Tetyana Sobchuk Olena Mukusiy Liliya Matviyenko Valentyna Slavchenko Tetyana Prosvirnova Tetyana Khmel’ Iryna Baklan Galyna Zorina Larysa Rashkovs’ka Valentyna Molchan Nadiya Naydenko Svitlana MACRO INTERNATIONAL INC. Gulnara Semenov Bernard Barrere Ruilin Ren Alexander Izmukhambetov Ann Way Pav Govindasamy Turgay Unalan Zhuzhi Moore Sidney Moore Christopher Gramer Kaye Mitchell Kevin Hull CONTRIBUTORS: MINISTRY OF HEALTH Valentyna Kolomeychuk Tetiana Tatarchuk USAID Leslie Perry Stephen Solat QUESTIONNAIRES Appendix E | 231Appendix E UKRAINE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEYS HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE UKRAINE THE UKRAINIAN CENTER FOR SOCIAL REFORMS IDENTIFICATION PLACE NAME NAME OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD CLUSTER NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOUSEHOLD NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OBALST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAYON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KIEV/LARGE CITY >1 MLN=1, SMALL CITY(50,000-1 MLN)=2,TOWN(< 50,000)=3, RURAL=4 IS THIS HOUSEHOLD SELECTED FOR THE MALE INTERVIEWS ……………………………………(YES = 1, NO = 2) INTERVIEWER VISITS FINAL VISIT DATE DAY MONTH YEAR INTERVIEWER'S NAME INT. NUMBER RESULT* RESULT NEXT VISIT: DATE TOTAL NUMBER TIME OF VISITS *RESULT CODES: 1 COMPLETED TOTAL PERSONS 2 NO HOUSEHOLD MEMBER AT HOME OR NO COMPETENT RESPONDENT IN HOUSEHOLD AT HOME AT TIME OF VISIT 3 ENTIRE HOUSEHOLD ABSENT FOR EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME 4 POSTPONED TOTAL ELIGIBLE 5 REFUSED WOMEN 6 DWELLING VACANT OR ADDRESS NOT A DWELLING 7 DWELLING DESTROYED 8 DWELLING NOT FOUND TOTAL ELIGIBLE 9 OTHER MEN (SPECIFY) LINE NO. OF QUESTIONNAIRE LANGUAGE OF NATIVE LANGUAGE RESPONDENT LANGUAGE: INTERVIEW: OF RESPONDENT TO HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE CODES: UKRAINIAN-1; RUSSIAN-2 ; OTHER-6 (SPECIFY_________) TRANSLATOR USED: …… (YES = 1, NO = 2) SUPERVISOR/FIELD EDITOR NAME DATE EDITOR OFFICE KEYED BY 1 2 3 HH 1 | 233Appendix E Introduction and Consent Hello. My name is _______________________________________ and I am working with The State Statistical Committee and The Ukrainian Center for Social Reforms. We are conducting a national survey about various health issues. We would very much appreciate your participation in this survey. The survey usually takes between 10 and 15 minutes to complete As part of the survey we would first like to ask some questions about your household. All of the answers you give will be confidential. Participation in the survey is completely voluntary. If we should come to any question you don't want to answer, just let me know and I will go on to the next question; or you can stop the interview at any time. However, we hope you will participate in the survey since your views are important. At this time, do you want to ask me anything about the survey? May I begin the interview now? Signature of interviewer: Date: . . . 1 RESPONDENT DOES NOT AGREE TO BE INTERVIEWED . . . 2 ENDRESPONDENT AGREES TO BE INTERVIEWED HH 2 234 | Appendix E IF AGE 0-17 YEARS LINE USUAL RESIDENTS AND AGE SURVIVORSHIP AND RESIDENCE OF BIOLOGICAL PARENTS NO. VISITORS Please give me the names What is the Is Does Did How CIRCLE CHECK Is Does Is Does of the persons who usually relationship of (NAME) (NAME) (NAME) old is LINE COVER (NAME)'s (NAME)'s (NAME)'s (NAME)'s live in your household and (NAME) to the male or usually stay (NAME)? NUMBER PAGE natural natural natural natural guests of the household head of the female? live here OF ALL IF HH mother alive? mother father alive? father who stayed here last night, household? here? last IF 95 WOMEN SELEC- usually usually starting with the head of night? YEARS AGE TED FOR live in this live in this the household. SEE CODES OR 15-49 MALE household household BELOW. OLDER, SURVEY or was she or was he AFTER LISTING THE RECORD CIRCLE a guest a guest HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE RELATIONSHIP TO HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD SEX RESIDENCE ELIGIBILITY NAMES AND RECORDING 95 LINE last night? last night? THE RELATIONSHIP NUMBER AND SEX FOR EACH OF ALL IF YES: IF YES: PERSON, ASK MEN What is What is QUESTIONS 2A-2C AGE her name? his name? TO BE SURE THAT THE 15-49 RECORD RECORD LISTING IS COMPLETE. MOTHER'S FATHER'S LINE LINE THEN ASK APPROPRIATE NUMBER. NUMBER. QUESTIONS IN COLUMNS 5-28 FOR EACH PERSON. IF NO, IF NO, RECORD RECORD '00'. '00'. (1) (2) (9) (10) (14) (17) M F Y N Y N IN YEARS Y N DK Y N DK 01 1 2 1 2 1 2 01 01 1 2 8 1 2 8 GO TO 16 GO TO 23 02 1 2 1 2 1 2 02 02 1 2 8 1 2 8 GO TO 16 GO TO 23 (13) (16)(4) (5) (6) (7)(3) GO TO 16 GO TO 23 03 1 2 1 2 1 2 03 03 1 2 8 1 2 8 GO TO 16 GO TO 23 04 1 2 1 2 1 2 04 04 1 2 8 1 2 8 GO TO 16 GO TO 23 05 1 2 1 2 1 2 05 05 1 2 8 1 2 8 GO TO 16 GO TO 23 06 1 2 1 2 1 2 06 06 1 2 8 1 2 8 GO TO 16 GO TO 23 07 1 2 1 2 1 2 07 07 1 2 8 1 2 8 GO TO 16 GO TO 23 08 1 2 1 2 1 2 08 08 1 2 8 1 2 8 GO TO 16 GO TO 23 09 1 2 1 2 1 2 09 09 1 2 8 1 2 8 GO TO 16 GO TO 23 10 1 2 1 2 1 2 10 10 1 2 8 1 2 8 GO TO 16 GO TO 23 TICK HERE IF CONTINUATION SHEET USED CODES FOR Q. 3: RELATIONSHIP TO HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD 2A) Just to make sure that I have a complete 01 = HEAD 08 = BROTHER OR SISTER listing. Are there any other persons such as small 02 = WIFE OR HUSBAND 09 = NIECE/NEPHEW BY BLOOD children or infants that we have not listed? YES NO 03 = SON OR DAUGHTER 10 = NIECE/NEPHEW BY MARRIAGE 2B) Are there any other people who may not be 04 = SON-IN-LAW OR 11 = OTHER RELATIVE members of your family, such as domestic DAUGHTER-IN-LAW 12 = ADOPTED/FOSTER/ servants, lodgers, or friends who usually live here YES NO 05 = GRANDCHILD STEPCHILD 2C) Are there any guests or temporary visitors 06 = PARENT 13 = NOT RELATED staying here, or anyone else who stayed here last 07 = PARENT-IN-LAW 98 = DON'T KNOW night, who have not been listed? YES NO ADD TO TABLE ADD TO TABLE ADD TO TABLE HH 3 | 235Appendix E IF AGE 5 YEARS OR OLDER LINE EVER ATTENDED CURRENT/RECENT SCHOOL ATTENDANCE NO. SCHOOL Has What is the Did During this/that Did During that (NAME) highest level of (NAME) school year, (NAME) school year, ever school (NAME) attend what level and attend what attended has attended? school grade [is/was] school level and grade school? at any (NAME) at any did (NAME) SEE CODES time attending? time attend? BELOW. during during the SEE CODES the SEE CODES What is the (2006 - BELOW. previous BELOW. IF AGE 5-24 YEARS highest grade 2007) school (NAME) school year, completed year? that is, at that level? (2005 - 2006)? SEE CODES BELOW. (1) Y N LEVEL GRADE Y N LEVEL GRADE Y N LEVEL GRADE 01 1 2 1 2 1 2 NEXT ROW GO TO 27 NEXT ROW 02 1 2 1 2 1 2 NEXT ROW GO TO 27 NEXT ROW (23) (24) (27)(25) (28)(26) NEXT ROW GO TO 27 NEXT ROW 03 1 2 1 2 1 2 NEXT ROW GO TO 27 NEXT ROW 04 1 2 1 2 1 2 NEXT ROW GO TO 27 NEXT ROW 05 1 2 1 2 1 2 NEXT ROW GO TO 27 NEXT ROW 06 1 2 1 2 1 2 NEXT ROW GO TO 27 NEXT ROW 07 1 2 1 2 1 2 NEXT ROW GO TO 27 NEXT ROW 08 1 2 1 2 1 2 NEXT ROW GO TO 27 NEXT ROW 09 1 2 1 2 1 2 NEXT ROW GO TO 27 NEXT ROW 10 1 2 1 2 1 2 NEXT ROW GO TO 27 NEXT ROW CODES FOR Qs. 24, 26, AND 28: EDUCATION LEVEL GRADE 1 = PRIMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-4 2 = SECONDARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5-12 3 = PTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-3 4 = TECHNIKUM/UCHILICHE . . . . . . . . 1-4 5 = HIGHER (UNIVERSITET/CONCERVATORIA/ INSTITUT/ACADEMIA/COLLEGE) 1+ ( RECORD 1-7+ FOR UNIVERSITET,ETC) 00 = LESS THAN 1 YEAR COMPLETED (USE '00' FOR Q. 24 ONLY. THIS CODE IS NOT ALLOWED FOR QS. 26 AND 28) 98 = DON'T KNOW HH 4 236 | Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS SKIP 101 What is the main source of drinking water for members PIPED WATER of your household? PIPED INTO DWELLING . . . . . . . . . . 11 PIPED TO YARD/PLOT . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 PUBLIC TAP/STANDPIPE . . . . . . . . . . 13 TUBE WELL OR BOREHOLE . . . . . . . . . . 21 DUG WELL PROTECTED WELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 103 UNPROTECTED WELL . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 WATER FROM SPRING HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS CODING CATEGORIES 108 PROTECTED SPRING . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 UNPROTECTED SPRING . . . . . . . . . . 42 RAINWATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 108 TANKER TRUCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SURFACE WATER (RIVER/DAM/ LAKE/POND/STREAM/CANAL/ 103 IRRIGATION CHANNEL) . . . . . . . . . . 81 BOTTLED WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 OTHER 96 103 (SPECIFY) 102 What is the main source of water used by your PIPED WATER household for other purposes such as cooking and PIPED INTO DWELLING . . . . . . . . . . 11 handwashing? PIPED TO YARD/PLOT . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 PUBLIC TAP/STANDPIPE . . . . . . . . . . 13 TUBE WELL OR BOREHOLE . . . . . . . . . . 21 DUG WELL PROTECTED WELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 108 UNPROTECTED WELL . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 WATER FROM SPRING PROTECTED SPRING . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 UNPROTECTED SPRING . . . . . . . . . . 42 RAINWATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 108 TANKER TRUCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 SURFACE WATER (RIVER/DAM/ LAKE/POND/STREAM/CANAL/ IRRIGATION CHANNEL) . . . . . . . . . . 81 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 103 Where is that water source located? IN OWN DWELLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 IN OWN YARD/PLOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ELSEWHERE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 108 What kind of toilet facility do members of your FLUSH OR POUR FLUSH TOILET household usually use? FLUSH TO PIPED SEWER household usually use? FLUSH TO PIPED SEWER SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 FLUSH TO SEPTIC TANK . . . . . . . . . . 12 FLUSH TO PIT LATRINE . . . . . . . . . . 13 FLUSH TO SOMEWHERE ELSE . . . 14 FLUSH, DON'T KNOW WHERE . . . 15 PIT LATRINE IMPROVED PIT LATRINE WITH SLAB . . 22 PIT LATRINE WITHOUT SLAB/ OPEN PIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 COMPOSTING TOILET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 BUCKET TOILET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 NO FACILITY/BUSH/FIELD . . . . . . . . . . 61 111 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) HH 5 | 237Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS SKIPCODING CATEGORIES 109 Do you share this toilet facility with other households? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 111 110 How many households use this toilet facility? NO. OF HOUSEHOLDS IF LESS THAN 10 . . . . . . . . . . 10 OR MORE HOUSEHOLDS . . . . . . . . 95 DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 111 Does your household have: YES NO 0 YES NO Electricity? ELECTRICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 A radio? RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 A television? TELEVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 A mobile telephone? MOBILE TELEPHONE . . . . . 1 2 A non-mobile telephone? NON-MOBILE TELEPHONE . 1 2 A refrigerator? REFRIGERATOR . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 A DVD DVD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 An air conditioner AIR CONDITIONER 1 2 A sattelite dish antenne SATTELITE DISH ANTENNE. . . . . 1 2 A computer COMPUTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 A washing machine WASHING MACHINE . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 A sofa or a bed SOFA OR BED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 HH 6 238 | Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS SKIPCODING CATEGORIES 112 What type of fuel does your household mainly use ELECTRICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 for cooking? LPG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 115 NATURAL GAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 BIOGAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 KEROSENE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 COAL, LIGNITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 CHARCOAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 WOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 NO FOOD COOKED IN HOUSEHOLD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 117 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 113 In this household, is food cooked on an open fire, an open OPEN FIRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 stove or a closed stove? OPEN STOVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CLOSED STOVE WITH CHIMNEY . . . . . 3 115 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) 114 Does this (fire/stove) have a chimney, a hood, or CHIMNEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 neither of these? HOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NEITHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 115 Is the cooking usually done in the house, in a separate IN THE HOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 building, or outdoors? IN A SEPARATE BUILDING . . . . . . . . . . 2 OUTDOORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 117 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) 116 Do you have a separate room which is used as a kitchen? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 117 MAIN MATERIAL OF THE FLOOR. NATURAL FLOOR EARTH/SAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 RECORD OBSERVATION. DUNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 RUDIMENTARY FLOOR WOOD PLANKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 FINISHED FLOOR PARQUET OR POLISHED WOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 VINYL OR ASPHALT STRIPS . . 32 CERAMIC TILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 CARPET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 LAMINATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 LINOLEUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) HH 7 | 239Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS SKIPCODING CATEGORIES 118 MAIN MATERIAL OF THE ROOF. NATURAL ROOFING NO ROOF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 RECORD OBSERVATION. THATCH/CANE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 SOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 RUDIMENTARY ROOFING RUSTIC MAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 PLYWOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 FINISHED ROOFING METAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 WOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 CALAMINE/CEMENT FIBER . . . . . . . . 33 CERAMIC TILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 CONCRET. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 ROOFING SHINGLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 119 MAIN MATERIAL OF THE EXTERIOR WALLS. NATURAL WALLS NO WALLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 EARTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 RUDIMENTARY WALLS STONE WITH MUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 UNCOVERED ADOBE . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 PLYWOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 CARDBOARD 25 REUSED WOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 FINISHED WALLS CONCRETE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 STONE/SHELLS/CONCRETE . . . . . . . . 32 BRICKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CONCRETE BLOCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 COVERED ADOBE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 WOOD . . . . . . . . 36 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 120 How many rooms in this household are used for sleeping? ROOMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Does any member of this household own: YES NO A bicycle? BICYCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 A motorcycle or motor scooter? MOTORCYCLE/SCOOTER . . . 1 2 An animal-drawn cart? ANIMAL-DRAWN CART . . . . . 1 2 A car or truck? CAR/TRUCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 A boat with a motor? BOAT WITH MOTOR . . . . . . . . 1 2 122 Does any member of this household own any agricultural YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 land? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 124 HH 8 240 | Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS SKIPCODING CATEGORIES 123 How many ARI (sotok) of agricultural land do members of this household own? ARI 100 ARI = 1 HECTARE IF>99,000 ARI RECORD 99,000 DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99998 124 Does this household own any livestock, herds, YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 other farm animals, or poultry? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 126 125 How many of the following animals does this household own?own? IF NONE, ENTER '00'. IF MORE THAN 95, ENTER '95'. IF UNKNOWN, ENTER '98'. Cattle,bulls or milk cows? COWS/BULLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Horses, donkeys, or mules? HORSES/DONKEYS/MULES . . . Goats or sheeps? GOATS/SHEEP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pigs? PIGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rabbits/Nutria/other fur animals? RABBITS/NUTRIA/FUR ANIMALS Chickens, geese, ducks, turkey? CHICKEN/GEESE/TURKEY . . . . . 126 Does any member of this household have a bank account? YES 1126 Does any member of this household have a bank account? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 HH 9 | 241Appendix E HUMAN TRAFFICKING NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 127 You told me that (NUMBER OF USUAL RESIDENTS: ALL HOUSEHOLD MEMBER WITH COLUMN 5 = YES) usually live in this household, including yourself. Have you or any of these household members worked abroad at any time in the last three years? I do not want NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . to know who, just how many. IF NONE, CIRCLE '00'. NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 128 CHECK 127: Q127 = 00 Q 127 =01 OR MORE Is anyone who lived Apart from these persons who in this household anytime you have just told me about, is in the last three years anyone who lived in this household presently working abroad? anytime in the last three years, presently working abroad? IF YES: How many of these people are now working abroad? NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IF NONE, RECORD '00'. 129 SUM ANSWERS TO 127 AND 128 AND ENTER TOTAL. NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 131 IF ONE OR MORE, ENTER TOTAL. . . . . 130 You told me that (NUMBER FROM 129) persons have worked abroad in the last 3 years. NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How many of them have or had a legal work permit while working abroad? DO NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 IF NONE, RECORD '00'. 131 Have you ever heard of people who traveled abroad because YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 they were offered a job, and when they arrived NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 136 they were not allowed to leave or were forced to work for little or no pay, or even forced to work at a different job than the one they were promised? 132 Do you personally know people whom this happened to? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 136 133 Has this ever happened to any usual member of your YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 household, including you? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DO NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 136 134 How many of the usual members of this household, including you has this happened to in the past 3 years? NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I do not want to know who, just how many people this happened to. NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 DO NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 136 IF NONE, CIRCLE '00'. 135 CHECK 134: Q134 = 01 Q 134 =02 OR MOREQ134 = 01 Q 134 =02 OR MORE MALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Is this person How many of these persons are male or female? male and how many are female? FEMALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RECORD THE NUMBER IN THE BOXES PROVIDED IF NONE RECORD 00 136 Do you plan to go to work abroad in the future? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MAYBE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 137 If you were to go to work abroad, do you think that when YES, A SLIGHT POSSIBILITY you arrive there is a possibility that you might not be allowed THAT THIS WOULD HAPPEN TO ME . . . . . . 1 to leave or be forced to work for little or no pay, or even forced YES, A BIG POSSIBILITY to work at a different job than the one you were promised? THAT THIS WOULD HAPPEN TO ME . . . . . . 2 NO, THERE IS NO POSSIBILITY IF YES, PROBE: Do you think that there is a big THAT THIS WOULD HAPPEN TO ME . . . . . . 3 possibility or only a slight possibility of any of these things I DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 happening if you were to go abroad to work? HH10 242 | Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 138 Do you personally believe yourself currently to be at higher, HIGHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 140 lower, or about the same level of risk of this situation LOWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 happening to you than 3 years ago? ABOUT THE SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON'T KNOW/DEPENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 141 139 What is the reason you think that your risk is lower GENERALLY IS HAPPENING TO now than 3 years ago? FEWER PEOPLE THAN BEFORE . . . . . . . . . A I KNOW MORE NOW AND AVOID CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED THE RISKS TO BE MORE CAREFUL . . . . . . . . B I HAVE TAKEN SPECIFIC STEPS TO AVOID THE RISKS OVER THE PAST 3 YEARS (SPECIFY) _______________ . . . . . . . . . . . C OTHER REASONS (SPECIFY) _______________ . . . . . . . . . . . X 141 140 What is the reason you think that your risk is GENERALLY IS HAPPENING TO higher now than 3 years ago? MORE PEOPLE THAN BEFORE . . . . . . . . . A CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED I KNOW MORE NOW AND REALIZED IT CAN HAPPEN TO ME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B I NOW KNOW THAT IT CAN HAPPEN TO ANYONE AND I CAN’T AVOID THE RISKS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C OTHER REASONS (SPECIFY) _______________. . . . . . . . . . . X 141 Did any usual member of your household die during NO, NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 145 the last 3 years?the last 3 years? IF YES, ASK: How many members of your household died during the last 3 years? NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IF NO, CIRCLE '00'. 142 Did (the person/any of the persons) who died work abroad NO, NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 145 at any time during the last 3 years? IF YES AND MORE THAN 1 PERSON DIED, ASK: NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How many of them worked abroad in the last 3 years? 143 Did (this person/any of these persons who died) travel abroad NO, NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 145 because of a job offer, but upon arrival was not allowed to leave or was forced to work for little or no pay or even forced to work at a different job than the one that was promised? NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IF YES AND MORE THAN 1 PERSON WAS NOT ALLOWED TO LEAVE, ASK: How many persons did this happen to? DO NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 144 IF NO, CIRCLE '00'. 143A CHECK 143:143A CHECK 143: Q143 = 01 Q 143 =02 OR MORE NUMBER DIED ABROAD . . . . . . . . Did this person died How many of these persons abroad or in Ukraine? died abroad and how many NUMBER DIED IN UKRAINE . . . . . . . . died in Ukraine? RECORD THE NUMBER IN THE BOXES PROVIDED IF NONE RECORD 00 144 CHECK 143: Q143 = 01 Q 143 =02 OR MORE MALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Is this person How many of these persons are FEMALE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . male or female? male and how many are female? RECORD THE NUMBER IN THE BOXES PROVIDED IF NONE RECORD 00 HH11 | 243Appendix E 145 NO YES 147 INSTRUCTIONS LOOK AT THE COVER PAGE IF THIS HOUSEHOLD SELECTED FOR THE MALE INTERVIEW TABLE FOR SELECTION OF ONE WOMAN FOR THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE INTERVIEW • LOOK AT THE LAST DIGIT OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE NUMBER ON THE COVER PAGE. • THIS IS THE ROW NUMBER YOU SHOULD CIRCLE IN TH TABLE BELOW. • RECORD HERE____ ____ THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ELIGIBLE WOMEN ON THE COVER SHEET OF THE HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE: • THIS IS THE COLUMN NUMBER YOU SHOULD CIRCLE IN THE TABLE BELOW. • FIND THE BOX WHERE THE CIRCLED ROW AND THE CIRCLED COLUMN MEET AND CIRCLE THE NUMBER THAT APPEARS IN THE BOX LAST DIGIT OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE THAT APPEARS IN THE BOX. • THIS IS THE ORDER NUMBER OF THE ELIGIBLE WOMAN WHO WILL BE ASKED THE HOUSEHOLD RELATIONS QUESTIONS. • RECORD THE LINE NUMBER OF THE SELECTED WOMAN IN THE BOX BELOW IN Q146 FOR EXAMPLE: • IF THE HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE NUMBER IS ‘3716’, • GO TO ROW 6 AND CIRCLE THE ROW NUMBER ('6'). • IF THERE ARE THREE ELIGIBLE WOMEN IN THE HOUSEHOLD, RECORD IN THE BOX "03" AND GO TO COLUMN 3 AND CIRCLE THE COLUMN NUMBER ('3'). • DRAW LINES FROM ROW 6 AND COLUMN 3 AND FIND THE BOX WHERE THE TWO MEET, AND CIRCLE THE NUMBER IN IT (‘2'). • THIS IS THE ORDER NUMBER OF THE SELECTED WOMEN IN THE HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE AND IT MEANS YOU HAVE TO SELECT THE SECOND ELIGIBLE WOMAN. • SUPPOSE THE HOUSEHOLD LINE NUMBERS OF THE THREE ELIGIBLE WOMEN ARE ‘02', ‘03', AND ‘07’; THEN THE ELIGIBLE WOMAN FOR THE HOUSEHOLD RELATIONS QUESTIONS IS THE SECOND ELIGIBLE WOMAN, • I.E., THE WOMAN WITH HOUSEHOLD LINE NUMBER ‘03'. • RECORD THE LINE NUMBER OF THE SELECTED WOMAN IN THE BOX BELOW IN Q146 TOTAL NUMBER OF ELIGIBLE WOMEN IN THE HOUSEHOLD 2 6 7 0 5 6NUMBER 2 5 675 2 3 1 4 1 4 3 6 5 4 1 2 3 4 2 15 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 1 1 3 5 3 1 3 2 4 2 81 2 3 4 1 3 84 7 1 1 1 1 3 146 RECORD HERE LINE NUMBER OF THE WOMAN SELECTED FOR THE DV MODULE END 7 1 1 1 2 26 9 1 2 18 1 1 2 3 6 4 2 2 3 7 5 3 2 53 1 4 1 44 1 2 6 5 HH12 244 | Appendix E 147 INSTRUCTIONS LOOK AT THE COVER PAGE IF THIS HOUSEHOLD SELECTED FOR THE MALE INTERVIEW TABLE FOR SELECTION OF MEN FOR THE DOMESTIC VIOLENCE QUESTIONS LOOK AT THE LAST DIGIT OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE NUMBER ON THE COVER PAGE. • THIS IS THE ROW NUMBER YOU SHOULD CIRCLE IN TH TABLE BELOW. • RECORD HERE ___ ___THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ELIGIBLE MEN ON THE COVER SHEET OF THE HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE: • THIS IS THE COLUMN NUMBER YOU SHOULD CIRCLE IN THE TABLE BELOW. • FIND THE BOX WHERE THE CIRCLED ROW AND THE CIRCLED COLUMN MEET AND CIRCLE THE NUMBER THAT APPEARS IN THE BOX. • THIS IS THE ORDER NUMBER OF THE ELIGIBLE MAN WHO WILL BE ASKED THE HOUSEHOLD RELATIONS QUESTIONS. • RECORD THE LINE NUMBER OF THE SELECTED MAN IN THE BOX BELOW IN Q148 75 6 LAST DIGIT OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE NUMBER 3 84 • RECORD THE LINE NUMBER OF THE SELECTED MAN IN THE BOX BELOW IN Q148 FOR EXAMPLE: • IF THE HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE NUMBER IS ‘3716’, • GO TO ROW 6 AND CIRCLE THE ROW NUMBER ('6'). • IF THERE ARE THREE ELIGIBLE MEN IN THE HOUSEHOLD, RECORD IN THE BOX "03" AND GO TO COLUMN 3 AND CIRCLE THE COLUMN NUMBER ('3'). • DRAW LINES FROM ROW 6 AND COLUMN 3 AND FIND THE BOX WHERE THE TWO MEET, AND CIRCLE THE NUMBER IN IT (‘2'). • THIS IS THE ORDER NUMBER OF THE SELECTED MEN IN THE HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE AND IT MEANS YOU HAVE TO SELECT THE SECOND ELIGIBLE MAN. • SUPPOSE THE HOUSEHOLD LINE NUMBERS OF THE THREE ELIGIBLE MEN ARE ‘02', ‘03', AND ‘07’; THEN THE ELIGIBLE MAN FOR THE HOUSEHOLD RELATIONS QUESTIONS IS THE SECOND ELIGIBLE MAN, • I.E., THE MAN WITH HOUSEHOLD LINE NUMBER ‘03'. • RECORD THE LINE NUMBER OF THE SELECTED MAN IN THE BOX BELOW IN Q148 TOTAL NUMBER OF ELIGIBLE MEN IN THE HOUSEHOLD 1 2 0 2 6 5 675 2 3 1 4 1 4 3 6 5 4 1 1 2 2 3 4 2 2 15 6 1 2 2 1 2 1 1 1 1 2 8 3 1 1 3 5 3 1 3 6 4 2 7 1 2 3 4 2 4 2 4 1 1 1 1 148 RECORD HERE LINE NUMBER OF THE MAN SELECTED FOR THE DV MODULE 7 1 1 9 1 2 18 1 1 2 3 2 3 7 5 353 1 1 44 1 2 6 5 END HH13 | 245Appendix E UKRAINE DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY WOMAN QUESTIONNAIRE UKRAINE THE UKRAINIAN CENTER FOR SOCIAL REFORMS IDENTIFICATION PLACE NAME NAME OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD CLUSTER NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOUSEHOLD NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OBLAST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RAYON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KIEV/LARGE CITY >1 MLN=1, SMALL CITY(50,000-1 MLN)=2, TOWN(< 50,000)=3, RURAL=4 NAME AND LINE NUMBER OF WOMAN CHECK QUESTION 146 IN HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE. IS THIS WOMAN SELECTED FOR QUESTIONS ON "DOMESTIC VIOLENCE" (SECTION 11 WOMAN'S Q.)? . . . . . . . . . . . . (YES = 1, NO=2) INTERVIEWER VISITS FINAL VISIT DATE DAY MONTH YEAR INTERVIEWER'S NAME INT. NUMBER RESULT* RESULT NEXT VISIT: DATE TOTAL NUMBER TIME OF VISITS *RESULT CODES: 1 COMPLETED 4 REFUSED 2 NOT AT HOME 5 PARTLY COMPLETED 7 OTHER 3 POSTPONED 6 INCAPACITATED (SPECIFY) QUESTIONNAIRE LANGUAGE OF NATIVE LANGUAGE TRANSLATOR USED LANGUAGE: INTERVIEW: OF RESPONDENT (YES = 1, NO = 2) CODES: UKRAINIAN-1; RUSSIAN-2 ; OTHER-6 (SPECIFY_________) SUPERVISOR/FIELD EDITOR NAME DATE EDITOR OFFICE KEYED BY 1 2 3 W-1 | 247Appendix E SECTION 1. RESPONDENT'S BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION AND CONSENT INFORMED CONSENT Hello. My name is _______________________________________ and I am working with The State Statistical Commette and The Ukrainian Center for Socail Reforms. We are conducting a national survey that asks women (and men) about various health issues. We would very much appreciate your participation in this survey. This information will help the government to plan health services. The survey usually takes between 30 and 60 minutes to complete. Whatever information you provide will be kept strictly confidential and will not be shown to other persons. Participation in this survey is voluntary, and if we should come to any question you don't want to answer, just let me know and I will go on to the next question; or you can stop the interview at any time. However, we hope that you will participate in this survey since your views are importantsince your views are important. During the interview I would like to measure your blood pressure and pulse. This will be done three times during the interview. This is a harmless procedure. The results of this blood pressute and pulse measurement will be given to you after the interview together with an explanation of the meaning of your blood pressure and pulse numbers. Although we will give you the results, we will not be able to provide you with any further counselling, testing or treatment if you have elevated blood pressure. At this time, do you want to ask me anything about the survey? May I begin the interview now? Signature of interviewer: Date: RESPONDENT AGREES TO BE INTERVIEWED . . . . . . 1 RESPONDENT DOES NOT AGREE TO BE INTERVIEWED . . . 2 END NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 101 RECORD THE TIME. HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101A BLOOD PRESSURE MESUREMENT 1 GOTO Q1135 IN SECTION 11 AT THE END OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE 102 How long have you been living continuously in (NAME OF CURRENT PLACE OF RESIDENCE)? YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IF LESS THAN ONE YEAR, RECORD '00' YEARS. ALWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 VISITOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 106 103 Just before you moved here, did you live in a city, in a town, or in CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 the countryside? TOWN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 COUNTRYSIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 106 In what month and year were you born? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON'T KNOW MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . DON'T KNOW YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . 9998 107 How old were you at your last birthday? AGE IN COMPLETED YEARS COMPARE AND CORRECT 106 AND/OR 107 IF INCONSISTENT. 108 Have you ever attended school? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 115 109 What is the highest level of school you attended: PRIMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 primary, secondary, or higher? SECONDARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PTU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 TECHNICUM/UCHILICHE. . . . . . . . . . . . 4 HIGHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 110 What is the highest (grade/form/year) you completed at that level? GRADE/FORM/YEAR . . . . . . . . 115 Do you read a newspaper or magazine almost every day, at least ALMOST EVERY DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 once a week, less than once a week or not at all? AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . 2 LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . 3 NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 W-2 248 | Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 116 Do you listen to the radio almost every day, at least once a week, ALMOST EVERY DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 less than once a week or not at all? AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . 2 LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . 3 NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 117 Do you watch television almost every day, at least once a week, ALMOST EVERY DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 less than once a week or not at all? AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . 2 LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . 3 NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 118 What is your religion? CHRISTIAN ORTHODOCS . . . . . . . . . 01 CHRISTIAN CATHOLIC . . . . . . . . . . 02 CHRISTIAN PROTESTANT. . . . . . . . . . 03 ISLAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04ISLAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 JUDAISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 NO RELIGION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '96 (SPECIFY) 118A In the last 12 month have you attended any religious services YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 or any activity organized by any religious group? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 201 118B When was the last time you have attended MONTHS AGO this type of activity or service? RECORD THE MONTHS LESS THAN ONE MONTH RECORD 00 118C What type of service or activity was it? OCCASIONAL RELIGIOUS CEREMON. . 1 REGULAR MASS/SERVICE . . . . . . . . 2 201 ORGANIZED ACTIVITY . . . . . . . . 3 118D What religious group did organize or hosted this activity? CHRISTIAN ORTHODOCS . . . . . . . . . 01g g p g y CHRISTIAN CATHOLIC . . . . . . . . . . 02 CHRISTIAN PROTESTANT. . . . . . . . . . 03 ISLAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 JUDAISM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . '96 (SPECIFY) W-3 | 249Appendix E SECTION 2. REPRODUCTION NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 201 Now I would like to ask about all the births you have had during YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 your life. Have you ever given birth? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 206 202 Do you have any sons or daughters to whom you have given YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 birth who are now living with you? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 204 203 How many sons live with you? SONS AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . And how many daughters live with you? DAUGHTERS AT HOME . . . . . . IF NONE, RECORD '00'. 204 Do you have any sons or daughters to whom you have given YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 birth who are alive but do not live with you? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 206 205 How many sons are alive but do not live with you? SONS ELSEWHERE . . . . . . . . And how many daughters are alive but do not live with you? DAUGHTERS ELSEWHERE . . . IF NONE, RECORD '00'. 206 Have you ever given birth to a boy or girl who was born alive but later died? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 IF NO, PROBE: Any baby who cried or showed signs of life but NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 208 did not survive? 207 How many boys have died? BOYS DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . And how many girls have died? GIRLS DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IF NONE, RECORD '00'. 208 SUM ANSWERS TO 203, 205, AND 207, AND ENTER TOTAL. IF NONE, RECORD '00'. TOTAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 CHECK 208: Just to make sure that I have this right: you have had in TOTAL _____ births during your life. Is that correct? PROBE AND YES NO CORRECT 201-208 AS NECESSARY. 209A Women sometimes have pregnancies which do not end in a live born child. That is, a pregnancy can be ended early by an abortion, a miscarriage, or a stillbirth. I will now ask you about each of them separately. How many abortions have you had? IF NONE, RECORD '00' TOTAL ABORTIONS 209B How many miscarriages? IF NONE, RECORD '00' 209C How many stillbirths? IF NONE, RECORD '00' 209D SUM ANSWERS TO 208, 209A, 209B, 209C, AND ENTER TOTAL. IF NO PREGNANCIES OUTCOMES, RECORD '00'. TOTAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 CHECK 209D: Just to make sure that I have this right: you have had in TOTAL _____ pregnancies outcomes during your life. Is that correct? ONE OR MORE NO 226 PREGNANCIES PREGNANCIES TOTAL MISCARRIAGES TOTAL STILLBIRTHS W-4 250 | Appendix E 21 1 P R EG NA NC Y H IS TO RY . N ow I w a n t t o ta lk a bo ut e a ch o f y o u r pr e gn an cie s, in cl u di n g th os e w hi ch e nd ed in a liv e b irt h, a n in du ce d ab or tio n , a m is ca rr ia ge , a n d a st illb irt h. St a rti n g wi th yo u r la st pr e gn an cy , pl e a se te ll m e th e fo llo w in g in fo rm a tio n : R EC O RD A LL P RE G NA NC IE S. R EC O RD T W IN S AN D TR IP LE TS O N SE PA RA TE L IN ES . I F TH ER E M O RE T HA N 10 P RE G NA NC IE S US E AN A DD IT IO NA L QU ES TI O NN AI R E IF A LI VE : IF A LI VE : IF A LI VE : IF D IE D : D id yo u r (la st /n ex t t o la st /e tc ) W a s th is In w ha t m o n th a nd CH EC K 21 2: W ha t n am e w a s Is (N AM E) Is (N AM E) H o w o ld Is (N AM E) R EC O RD H o w o ld w a s (N AM E) W e re th er e pr e gn an cy a s in gl e or ye a r (w a s th is c hi ld gi ve n to th is a b oy o r st ill al iv e ? w a s liv in g wi th H O US EH O LD w he n he /s he d ie d? a n y o th er e n d in a li ve b irt h, a m u lti pl e bo rn / di d th is R EC O R D SA M E ch ild ? gi rl? (N AM E) yo u ? LI N E N 0. pr e gn an cie s 21 7 21 8 22 2A 22 2 22 1 22 0 21 9 21 6 21 2 21 5 21 3 21 4 a s til lb irt h, bi rth ? pr e gn an cy e n d? ) R ES PO NS E o n h is /h er O F CH IL D . IF '1 YR ', PR O BE : be tw e e n a m is ca rr ia ge , W R IT E 'B AB Y 1' la st H o w m a n y m o n th s ol d th is a n d o r a n a bo rti o n ? BA BY 2' , ET C. bi rth da y? w a s (N AM E) ? th e pr e gn an cy IF N O N AM E R EC O R D D AY S IF w e w e re jus t W AS G IV EN R EC O RD LE SS T H AN 1 ta lk in g ab ou t? TO A CH IL D AG E IN R EC O RD '0 0' M O N TH ; M O N TH S IF CO M PL ET E IF C HI LD N O T LE SS T H AN TW O IF YE S, A DD YE AR S LI ST ED IN YE AR S; O R YE AR S. IT TO TA BL E H O US EH O LD 01 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . 1 N AM E: BO Y 1 YE S . . . 1 AG E IN YE S . . 1 H H LI N E N O . : D AY S . . . 1 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . . 1 SI N G 1 M O N TH ST IL L BI R TH . . 2 YE AR S ST IL L BI R TH . . . . . . 2 M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 G IR L 2 N O . . . . 2 N O . . . 2 M O NT HS 2 M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 M UL T 2 YE AR AB O RT IO N . . . . . 4 AB O RT IO N . . . . . . 4 N EX T YE AR S . . 3 N EX T PR EG NA NC Y PR EG NA NC Y 22 2 G O TO 2 14 02 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . 1 N AM E: BO Y 1 YE S . . . . 1 AG E IN YE S . . 1 H H LI N E N O .: D AY S . . . 1 YE S . . 1 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . . 1 SI N G 1 M O N TH ST IL L BI R TH . . 2 YE AR S AD D ST IL L BI R TH . . . . . . 2 M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 G IR L 2 N O . . . . 2 N O . . . 2 M O NT HS 2 PR EG N AN CY M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 M UL T 2 YE AR AB O RT IO N . . . . . 4 AB O RT IO N . . . . . . 4 G O TO 2 22 A YE AR S . . 3 N O . . . 2 G O TO 2 22 A N EX T PR EG NA N CY 03 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . 1 N AM E: BO Y 1 YE S . . . . 1 AG E IN YE S . . 1 H H LI N E N O .: D AY S . . . 1 YE S . . 1 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . . 1 SI N G 1 M O N TH ST IL L BI R TH . . 2 YE AR S AD D ST IL L BI R TH . . . . . . 2 M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 G IR L 2 N O . . . . 2 N O . . . 2 M O NT HS 2 PR EG N AN CY M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 M UL T 2 YE AR AB O RT IO N . . . . . 4 AB O RT IO N . . . . . . 4 G O TO 2 22 A YE AR S . . 3 N O . . . 2 G O TO 2 22 A N EX T PR EG N AN CY 22 2 22 2 G O TO 2 14 G O TO 2 14 04 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . 1 N AM E: BO Y 1 YE S . . . . 1 AG E IN YE S . . 1 H H LI N E N O .: D AY S . . . 1 YE S . . 1 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . . 1 SI N G 1 M O N TH ST IL L BI R TH . . 2 YE AR S AD D ST IL L BI R TH . . . . . . 2 M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 G IR L 2 N O . . . . 2 N O . . . 2 M O NT HS 2 PR EG N AN CY M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 M UL T 2 YE AR AB O RT IO N . . . . . 4 AB O RT IO N . . . . . . 4 G O TO 2 22 A YE AR S . . 3 N O . . . 2 G O TO 2 22 A N EX T PR EG NA N CY 05 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . 1 N AM E: BO Y 1 YE S . . . . 1 AG E IN YE S . . 1 H H LI N E N O .: D AY S . . . 1 YE S . . 1 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . . 1 SI N G 1 M O N TH ST IL L BI R TH . . 2 YE AR S AD D ST IL L BI R TH . . . . . . 2 M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 G IR L 2 N O . . . . 2 N O . . . 2 M O NT HS 2 PR EG N AN CY M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 M UL T 2 YE AR AB O RT IO N . . . . . 4 AB O RT IO N . . . . . . 4 G O TO 2 22 A YE AR S . . 3 N O . . . 2 G O TO 2 22 A N EX T PR EG NA N C Y 22 2 22 2 G O TO 2 14 G O TO 2 14 W 5 | 251Appendix E IF A LI VE : IF A LI VE : IF A LI VE : IF D IE D : D id yo u r (la st /n ex t t o la st /e tc ) W a s th is In w ha t m o n th a nd CH EC K 21 2: W ha t n am e w a s Is (N AM E) Is (N AM E) H o w o ld Is (N AM E) R EC O RD H o w o ld w a s (N AM E) W e re th er e pr e gn an cy a s in gl e or ye a r (w a s th is c hi ld gi ve n to th is a b oy o r st ill al iv e ? w a s liv in g wi th H O US EH O LD w he n he /s he d ie d? a n y o th er e n d in a li ve b irt h, a m u lti pl e bo rn / di d th is R EC O R D SA M E ch ild ? gi rl? (N AM E) yo u ? LI N E N 0. pr e gn an cie s a s til lb irt h, bi rth ? pr e gn an cy e n d? ) R ES PO NS E o n h is /h er O F CH IL D . IF '1 YR ', PR O BE : be tw e e n a m is ca rr ia ge , W R IT E 'B AB Y 1' la st H o w m a n y m o n th s ol d th is a n d o r a n a bo rti o n ? BA BY 2' , ET C. bi rth da y? w a s (N AM E) ? th e pr e gn an cy 22 2A 22 2 21 9 21 7 22 1 21 8 21 6 22 0 21 2 21 4 21 5 21 3 IF N O N AM E R EC O R D D AY S IF w e w e re jus t W AS G IV EN R EC O RD LE SS T H AN 1 ta lk in g ab ou t? TO A CH IL D AG E IN R EC O RD '0 0' M O N TH ; M O N TH S IF CO M PL ET E IF C HI LD N O T LE SS T H AN TW O IF YE S, A DD YE AR S LI ST ED IN YE AR S; O R YE AR S. IT TO TA BL E H O US EH O LD 06 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . 1 N AM E: BO Y 1 YE S . . . 1 AG E IN YE S . . 1 H H LI N E N O . : D AY S . . . 1 YE S . . 1 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . . 1 SI N G 1 M O N TH ST IL L BI R TH . . . . 2 YE AR S AD D ST IL L BI R TH . . . . . . 2 M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 G IR L 2 N O . . . . 2 N O . . . 2 M O NT HS 2 PR EG N AN CY M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 M UL T 2 YE AR AB O RT IO N . . . . . 4 AB O RT IO N . . . . . . 4 G O TO 2 22 A YE AR S . . 3 N O . . . 2 G O TO 2 22 A N EX T PR EG NA N C Y 07 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . 1 N AM E: BO Y 1 YE S . . . . 1 AG E IN YE S . . 1 H H LI N E N O .: D AY S . . . 1 YE S . . 1 22 2 G O TO 2 14 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . . 1 SI N G 1 M O N TH ST IL L BI R TH . . . . 2 YE AR S AD D ST IL L BI R TH . . . . . . 2 M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 G IR L 2 N O . . . . 2 N O . . . 2 M O NT HS 2 PR EG N AN CY M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 M UL T 2 YE AR AB O RT IO N . . . . . 4 AB O RT IO N . . . . . . 4 G O TO 2 22 A YE AR S . . 3 N O . . . 2 G O TO 2 22 A N EX T PR EG NA N CY 08 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . 1 N AM E: BO Y 1 YE S . . . . 1 AG E IN YE S . . 1 H H LI N E N O .: D AY S . . . 1 YE S . . 1 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . . 1 SI N G 1 M O N TH ST IL L BI R TH . . . . 2 YE AR S AD D ST IL L BI R TH . . . . . . 2 M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 G IR L 2 N O . . . . 2 N O . . . 2 M O NT HS 2 PR EG N AN CY M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 M UL T 2 YE AR AB O RT IO N . . . . . 4 AB O RT IO N . . . . . . 4 G O TO 2 22 A YE AR S . . 3 N O . . . 2 G O TO 2 22 A N EX T PR EG N AN CY 09 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . 1 N AM E: BO Y 1 YE S . . . . 1 AG E IN YE S . . 1 H H LI N E N O .: D AY S . . . 1 YE S . . 1 LI VE BI R TH 1 SI NG 1 M O NT H ST IL L BI R TH 2 YE AR S AD D 22 2 22 2 G O TO 2 14 G O TO 2 14 LI VE BI R TH . . . . . . 1 SI NG 1 M O NT H ST IL L BI R TH . . . . 2 YE AR S AD D ST IL L BI R TH . . . . . . 2 M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 G IR L 2 N O . . . . 2 N O . . . 2 M O NT HS 2 PR EG N AN CY M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 M UL T 2 YE AR AB O RT IO N . . . . . 4 AB O RT IO N . . . . . . 4 G O TO 2 22 A YE AR S . . 3 N O . . . 2 G O TO 2 22 A N EX T PR EG NA N CY 10 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . 1 N AM E: BO Y 1 YE S . . . . 1 AG E IN YE S . . 1 H H LI N E N O .: D AY S . . . 1 YE S . . 1 LI VE B IR TH . . . . . . 1 SI N G 1 M O N TH ST IL L BI R TH . . . . 2 YE AR S AD D ST IL L BI R TH . . . . . . 2 M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 G IR L 2 N O . . . . 2 N O . . . 2 M O NT HS 2 PR EG N AN CY M IS CA R R IA G E . . 3 M UL T 2 YE AR AB O RT IO N . . . . . 4 AB O RT IO N . . . . . . 4 G O TO 2 22 A YE AR S . . 3 N O . . . 2 G O TO 2 22 A N EX T PR EG NA N C Y 22 2 22 2 G O TO 2 14 G O TO 2 14 W -6 252 | Appendix E 222B Have you had any pregnancies since the the last birth/abortion/miscarriage/still birth? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 IF YES, RECORD PREGNANCIES IN TABLE ABOVE. NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 222C RECORD AND COMPARE NUMBER OF EVENTS RECORDED IN PREGNANCY HISTORY WITH EARLIER RESPONSES TOTAL NUMBER OF PREGNANCIES OUTCOMES SAME AS NUMBER IN 209D DIFFERENT (PROBE AND RECONCILE) TOTAL NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTH SAME AS NUMBER IN 208 DIFFERENT (PROBE AND RECONCILE) TOTAL NUMBER OF ABORTIONS SAME AS NUMBER IN 209A DIFFERENT (PROBE AND RECONCILE) 222D COMPARE 209D WITH TOTAL NUMBER OF PREGNANCIES OUTCOMES IN PREGNANCY HISTORY AND MARK: NUMBERS ARE NUMBERS DIFFERENT (PROBE AND RECONCILE) ARE SAME CHECK: FOR EACH PREGNANCY: YEAR WHEN PREGNANCY ENDED IS RECORDED (Q.214) FOR EACH LIVE BIRTH SINCE JANUARY 2002, MONTH AND YEAR OF BIRTH IS RECORDED (Q.214) FOR EACH LIVING CHILD: CURRENT AGE IS RECORDED (Qs. 218, 219) FOR EACH CHILD THAT DIED: AGE AT DEATH IS RECORDED (Qs. 218, 222). FOR AGE AT DEATH 12 MONTHS OR 1 YEAR: PROBE TO DETERMINE EXACT NUMBER OF MONTHS (Q. 222). W-7 | 253Appendix E 223A CHECK 212 AND 214: NO 223E ONE OR MORE ABORTIONS ABORTIONS SINCE JANUARY 2002 IN 2002 OR LATER OR LATER QUESTIONS LAST ABORTION NO. AND FILTER 223B PREGNANCY � FROM 212 PREGNANCY � 223C Where was PUBLIC SECTOR223C Where was PUBLIC SECTOR this last 11 abortion POLICLINIC/AMBULATORY . . . . . . . 12 performed? WOMEN'S HEALTH CONSULT CTR 13 FAMILY PLANNING CENTER/CAB 14 MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTER . 15 FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST . . . . . . . 16 OTHER PUBLIC 26 _____________________ (SPECIFY) PRIVATE SECTOR 31 POLICLINIC/AMBULATORY . . . . . . . 32 WOMEN'S HEALTH CONSULT CTR 33 FAMILY PLANNING CENTER/CAB 34 MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTER . 35 FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST . . . . . . . 36 NGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 OTHER PRIVATE 46 _____________________ (SPECIFY) HOSPITAL/MATERNITY HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOSPITAL/MATERNITY HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . (SPECIFY) RESPONDENT'S HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 NOT A MEDICAL FACILITY . . . . . . . . . . . 62 OTHER . . . 96 223D In addition to the abortion we just have talked about, in the last five years have you been taking YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 any facilitating abortion tablets or medications (SKIP TO 223F) with an abortive effect? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 224) 223E In the last five years have you been taking YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 any facilitating abortion tablets or medications with an abortive effect? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 224) 223F For how many cases of experienced menstruation delays in total have you been taking this medication during the last five years? 223G The last time you have used this medication, CYTOTEC/MISOPROSTOL . . . . . . . . 1 (SPECIFY) what was the brand name of the medication? RU486/MIFEPRISTONE/MIFEPREX . 2 OTHER . 6 (SPECIFY) 223H CHECK 223F 223F=1 OR MORE 223F= 00 224 FOR EACH EPISODE SINCE JANUARY2002 OR LATER OF USING ABORTIVE TABLETS OR ANY MEDICATION WITH AN ABORTIVE EFFECT TO FACILITATE RESUMPTION OF MENSTRUATION, RECORD "M" IN THE CALENDAR IN COLUMN "3" IN THE MONTH OF TAKING THE MEDICATION/TABLETS W-8 254 | Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 224 CHECK 212 AND 214: ENTER THE NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS BORN IN 2002 OR LATER. IF NONE, RECORD '0' 225 FOR EACH PREGNANCY SINCE JANUARY 2002 OR LATER, IN THE CALENDAR COLUMN 1 ENTER THE CODE OF PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN THE MONTH OF WHEN PREGNANCY ENDED: • 'B' FOR LIVE BIRTH, • 'T' FOR INDUCED ABORTION, MISCARRIAGE, STILLBIRTH FOR EACH LIVE BIRTH SINCE JANUARY 2002, ENTER 'B' IN THE MONTH OF BIRTH IN THE CALENDAR. WRITE THE NAME OF THE CHILD TO THE LEFT OF THE 'B' CODE. FOR EACH BIRTH, ASK THE NUMBER OF MONTHS THE PREGNANCY LASTED AND RECORD 'P' IN EACH OF THE PRECEDING MONTHS ACCORDING TO THE DURATION OF PREGNANCY. (NOTE: THE NUMBER OF 'P's MUST BE ONE LESS THAN THE NUMBER OF MONTHS THAT THE PREGNANCY LASTED.) FOR EACH PREGNANCY TERMINATION (ABORTION, MISCARRIAGE OR STILLBIRTH), ASK THE NUMBER OF COMPLETED MONTHS THE PREGNANCY LASTED, ENTER 'T' IN THE CALENDAR IN THE MONTH THAT THE PREGNANCY TERMINATED, AND 'P' FOR THE REMAINING NUMBER OF COMPLETED MONTHS. 226 Are you pregnant now? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 237 227 How many months pregnant are you? MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RECORD NUMBER OF COMPLETED MONTHS. ENTER 'P's IN THE CALENDAR, BEGINNING WITH THE MONTH OF INTERVIEW AND FOR THE TOTAL NUMBER OF COMPLETED MONTHS. 228 At the time you became pregnant, did you want to become THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 pregnant then, did you want to wait until later, or did you LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 not want to have any (more) children at all? NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 237 When did your last menstrual period start? DAYS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WEEKS AGO . . . . . . . . . . 2 MONTHS AGO . . . . . . . . 3 (DATE, IF GIVEN) YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . 4 IN MENOPAUSE/ HAS HAD HYSTERECTOMY . . . 994 BEFORE LAST BIRTH . . . . . . . . . . . . 995 NEVER MENSTRUATED . . . . . . . . . . 996 238 From one menstrual period to the next, are there certain days YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 when a woman is more likely to become pregnant if she has NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 sexual relations? DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 301 239 Is this time just before her period begins, JUST BEFORE HER PERIOD during her period, right after her period has ended, BEGINS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 or halfway between two periods? DURING HER PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RIGHT AFTER HER PERIOD HAS ENDED . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 HALFWAY BETWEEN TWO PERIODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 _________________________ W-9 | 255Appendix E SECTION 3. CONTRACEPTION 301 Now I would like to talk about family planning - the various ways or methods that 302 Have you ever used a couple can use to delay or avoid a pregnancy. (METHOD)? Which ways or methods have you heard about? FOR METHODS NOT MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY, ASK: Have you ever heard of (METHOD)? CIRCLE CODE 1 IN 301 FOR EACH METHOD MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY. THEN PROCEED DOWN COLUMN 301, READING THE NAME AND DESCRIPTION OF EACH METHOD NOT MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY. CIRCLE CODE 1 IF METHOD IS RECOGNIZED, AND CODE 2 IF NOT RECOGNIZED. THEN, FOR EACH METHOD WITH CODE 1 CIRCLED IN 301, ASK 302. 01 FEMALE STERILIZATION Women can have an operation to avoid YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Have you ever had an operation to having any more children. NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 avoid having any more children? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 02 MALE STERILIZATION Men can have an operation to avoid having YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Have you ever had a partner who had any more children. NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 an operation to avoid having any more children? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 03 PILL Women can take a pill every day to avoid becoming pregnant. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 04 IUD Women can have a loop or coil placed inside them by a doctor or YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 a nurse. NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 05 INJECTABLES Women can have an injection by a health provider YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 that stops them from becoming pregnant for one or more months. NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 06 IMPLANTS Women can have several small rods placed in their upper YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 arm by a doctor or nurse which can prevent pregnancy for one or more NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 years. NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 07 CONDOM Men can put a rubber sheath on their penis before sexual YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 intercourse. NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 10 RHYTHM METHOD Every month that a woman is sexually active YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 she can avoid pregnancy by not having sexual intercourse NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 on the days of the month she is most likely to get pregnant. NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 11 WITHDRAWAL Men can be careful and pull out before climax. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 12 EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION As an emergency measure after YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 unprotected sexual intercourse, women can take special pills at any NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 time within five days to prevent pregnancy. NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 13 Have you heard of any other ways or methods that women or men can YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 use to avoid pregnancy? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SPECIFY) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SPECIFY) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 303 CHECK 302: NOT A SINGLE AT LEAST ONE "YES" "YES" 307 (NEVER USED) (EVER USED) W-10 256 | Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 304 Have you ever used anything or tried in any way to delay or avoid YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 306 getting pregnant? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 305 ENTER '0' IN THE CALENDAR IN EACH BLANK MONTH. 333 306 What have you used or done? CORRECT 302 AND 303 (AND 301 IF NECESSARY). 307 Now I would like to ask you about the first time that you did something or used a method to avoid getting pregnant. NUMBER OF CHILDREN . . . . . . How many living children did you have at that time, if any? IF NONE, RECORD '00'. 308 CHECK 302 (01): WOMAN NOT WOMAN STERILIZED STERILIZED 311A 309 CHECK 226: NOT PREGNANT PREGNANT OR UNSURE 322 310 Are you currently doing something or using any method to delay YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 or avoid getting pregnant? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 322 311 Which method are you using? FEMALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . A MALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . B 316 CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED. PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D IF MORE THAN ONE METHOD MENTIONED, FOLLOW SKIP INJECTABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 315 INSTRUCTION FOR HIGHEST METHOD IN LIST. IMPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G FEMALE CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H 311A CIRCLE 'A' FOR FEMALE STERILIZATION DIAPHRAGM I 315311A CIRCLE A FOR FEMALE STERILIZATION. DIAPHRAGM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 315 FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J RHYTHM METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L 319A OTHER _______________________ X (SPECIFY) W-11 | 257Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 314 How many (pill cycles/condoms) did you get NUMBER OF PILL the last time? CYCLES/CONDOMS . . . DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 315 The last time you obtained (HIGHEST METHOD ON LIST IN 311), how much did you pay in total, including the cost of the method COST . . . . . . . . . . . and any consultation you may have had? 319A FREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9995 DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9998 316 In what facility did the sterilization take place? PUBLIC SECTOR 11 PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE POLICLINIC/AMBULATORY . . . . . . . 12 THE APPROPRIATE CODE. WOMEN'S HEALTH CONSULT CTR. 13 HOSPITAL/MATERNITY HOME FAMILY PLANNING CENTER/CAB 14 IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE IF HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTER MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTER . . . 15 OR CLINIC IS PUBLIC OR PRIVATE MEDICAL, WRITE FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST . . . . . . . 16 THE NAME OF THE PLACE. OTHER PUBLIC 26 _______________________ (SPECIFY) (NAME OF PLACE) PRIVATE SECTOR 31 POLICLINIC/AMBULATORY . . . . . . . 32 WOMEN'S HEALTH CONSULT CTR. 33 FAMILY PLANNING CENTER/CAB 34 MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTER . . . 35 FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST . . . . . . . 36 NGO 38 OTHER PRIVATE 46 _______________________ (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 _______________________ (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW 98 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOSPITAL/MATERNITY HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 CHECK 311/311A: CODE 'A' CODE 'A' CIRCLED NOT CIRCLED Before your sterilization Before the sterilization operation, YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 operation, were you told was your husband/partner told NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 that you would not be able that he would not be able to DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 to have any (more) children have any (more) children because of the operation? because of the operation? 318 How much did you (your husband/partner) pay in total for the sterilization, including any consultation you (he) may have had? COST . . . . . . . . . . . FREE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9995 DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9998 319 In what month and year was the sterilization performed? 319A Since what month and year have you been using (CURRENT MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . METHOD) without stopping? YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . PROBE: For how long have you been using (CURRENTPROBE: For how long have you been using (CURRENT METHOD) now without stopping? W-12 258 | Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 320 CHECK 319/319A, 214: ANY BIRTH OR PREGNANCY TERMINATION AFTER MONTH AND YES NO YEAR OF START OF USE OF CONTRACEPTION IN 319/319A GO BACK TO 319/319A, PROBE AND RECORD MONTH AND YEAR AT START OF CONTINUOUS USE OF CURRENT METHOD (MUST BE AFTER LAST BIRTH OR PREGNANCY TERMINATION). 321 CHECK 319/319A: YEAR IS 2002 OR LATER YEAR IS 2001 OR EARLIER ENTER CODE FOR METHOD USED IN MONTH OF ENTER CODE FOR METHOD USED IN MONTH OF INTERVIEW IN THE CALENDAR COL.1 AND IN INTERVIEW IN THE CALENDAR COL.1 AND EACH MONTH BACK TO THE DATE STARTED USING. EACH MONTH BACK TO JANUARY 2002. THEN SKIP TO 322 I would like to ask you some questions about the times you or your partner may have used a method to avoid getting pregnant during the last few years. USE CALENDAR TO PROBE FOR EARLIER PERIODS OF USE AND NONUSE, STARTING WITH MOST RECENT USE, BACK TO JANUARY 2002. USE NAMES OF CHILDREN, DATES OF BIRTH, AND PERIODS OF PREGNANCY AS REFERENCE POINTS. IN COLUMN 1 ENTER METHOD USE CODE OR '0' FOR NONUSE IN EACH BLANK MONTH. ILLUSTRATIVE QUESTIONS: * When was the last time you used a method? Which method was that? * When did you start using that method? How long after the birth of (NAME)? * How long did you use the method then? IN COLUMN 2, ENTER CODES FOR DISCONTINUATION NEXT TO LAST MONTH OF USE. NUMBER OF CODES IN COLUMN 2 MUST BE SAME AS NUMBER OF INTERRUPTIONS OF METHOD USE IN COLUMN 1. ASK WHY SHE STOPPED USING THE METHOD. IF A PREGNANCY FOLLOWED, ASK WHETHER SHE BECAME PREGNANT UNINTENTIONALLY WHILE USING THE METHOD OR DELIBERATELY STOPPED TO GET PREGNANT. 331 ILLUSTRATIVE QUESTIONS: COLUMN 2: * Why did you stop using the (METHOD)? * Did you become pregnant while using (METHOD), or did you stop to get pregnant, or did you stop for some other reason? IF DELIBERATELY STOPPED TO BECOME PREGNANT, ASK: * How many months did it take you to get pregnant after you stopped using (METHOD)? AND ENTER '0' IN EACH SUCH MONTH IN COLUMN 1. 323 CHECK 311/311A: NO CODE CIRCLED . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 333 FEMALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . 01 326 CIRCLE METHOD CODE: MALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . 02 335 PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 IF MORE THAN ONE METHOD CODE CIRCLED IN 311/311A, IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 CIRCLE CODE FOR HIGHEST METHOD IN LIST. INJECTABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 IMPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 FEMALE CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 DIAPHRAGM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 RHYTHM METHOD 12 324ARHYTHM METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 324A WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 335 OTHER METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 335 W-13 | 259Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 324 Where did you obtain (CURRENT METHOD) when you started PUBLIC SECTOR using it? 11 POLICLINIC/AMBULATORY . . . . . . . 12 WOMEN'S HEALTH CONSULT CTR. 13 FAMILY PLANNING CENTER/CAB 14 MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTER . . . 15 FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST . . . . . . . 16 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 OTHER PUBLIC 26 _______________________ (SPECIFY) 324A Where did you learn how to use the rhythm PRIVATE SECTOR method? 31 POLICLINIC/AMBULATORY . . . . . . . 32 IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE IF HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTER, OR WOMEN'S HEALTH CONSULT CTR. 33 HOSPITAL/MATERNITY HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOSPITAL/MATERNITY HOME FAMILY PLANNING CENTER/CAB 34 CLINIC IS PUBLIC OR PRIVATE MEDICAL, WRITE THE NAME OF MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTER . . . 35 THE PLACE. FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST . . . . . . . 36 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 NGO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 (NAME OF PLACE) OTHER PRIVATE 46 _______________________ (SPECIFY) OTHER SOURCE SHOP/MARKET 51 FRIEND/RELATIVE/NEIGHBOR/HUSBA52 OTHER 96 _______________________ (SPECIFY) 325 CHECK 311/311A: PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 CIRCLE METHOD CODE: INJECTABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 IMPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 IF MORE THAN ONE METHOD CODE CIRCLED IN 311/311A, CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 332 CIRCLE CODE FOR HIGHEST METHOD IN LIST. FEMALE CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 329 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DIAPHRAGM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 329 FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 329 RHYTHM METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 335 326 You obtained (CURRENT METHOD FROM 323) from (SOURCE OF METHOD FROM 316 OR 324) in (DATE FROM 319/319A). At YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 328 that time, were you told about side effects or problems you NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 might have with the method? 327 Were you ever told by a health or family planning worker about YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 side effects or problems you might have with the method? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 329 328 Were you told what to do if you experienced side effects YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 or problems? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 329 CHECK 326: CODE '1' CODE '1' CIRCLED NOT CIRCLED At that time, were you told When you obtained (CURRENT about other methods of family METHOD FROM 323) fromabout other methods of family METHOD FROM 323) from planning that you could use? (SOURCE OF METHOD FROM 316 OR 324) were you told YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 331 about other methods of family NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 planning that you could use? 330 Were you ever told by a health or family planning worker about YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 other methods of family planning that you could use? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 331 CHECK 311/311A: FEMALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . 01 MALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . 02 335 CIRCLE METHOD CODE: PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 IF MORE THAN ONE METHOD CODE CIRCLED IN 311/311A, INJECTABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 CIRCLE CODE FOR HIGHEST METHOD IN LIST. IMPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 FEMALE CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 DIAPHRAGM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 RHYTHM METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 335 OTHER METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 W-14 260 | Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 332 Where did you obtain (CURRENT METHOD) the last time? PUBLIC SECTOR 11 PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE POLICLINIC/AMBULATORY . . . . . . . 12 THE APPROPRIATE CODE. WOMEN'S HEALTH CONSULT CTR. 13 FAMILY PLANNING CENTER/CAB 14 IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE IF HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTER MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTER . . . 15 OR CLINIC IS PUBLIC OR PRIVATE MEDICAL, WRITE FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST . . . . . . . 16 THE NAME OF THE PLACE. PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 OTHER PUBLIC 26 _______________________ (NAME OF PLACE) (SPECIFY) PRIVATE SECTOR 31 POLICLINIC/AMBULATORY . . . . . . . 32 WOMEN'S HEALTH CONSULT CTR. 33 335 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOSPITAL/MATERNITY HOME HOSPITAL/MATERNITY HOME FAMILY PLANNING CENTER/CAB 34 MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTER . . . 35 FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST . . . . . . . 36 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 NGO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 OTHER PRIVATE 46 _______________________ (SPECIFY) OTHER SOURCE SHOP/MARKET 51 FRIEND/RELATIVE/NEIGHBOR/HUSBA52 OTHER 96 _______________________ (SPECIFY) 333 Do you know of a place where you can obtain a method of family YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 planning? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 335 334 Where is that? PUBLIC SECTOR A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOSPITAL/MATERNITY HOME Any other place? POLICLINIC/AMBULATORY . . . . . . . B WOMEN'S HEALTH CONSULT CTR. C PROBE TO IDENTIFY EACH TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE FAMILY PLANNING CENTER/CAB D THE APPROPRIATE CODE(S). MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTER . . . E FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST . . . . . . . F PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE IF HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTER OTHER PUBLIC H OR CLINIC IS PUBLIC OR PRIVATE MEDICAL, WRITE _______________________ THE NAME OF THE PLACE. (SPECIFY) PRIVATE SECTOR I (NAME OF PLACE(S)) POLICLINIC/AMBULATORY . . . . . . . J WOMEN'S HEALTH CONSULT CTR. K FAMILY PLANNING CENTER/CAB L MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTER . . . M FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST . . . . . . . N PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O NGO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL ________________ R (SPECIFY) OTHER SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOSPITAL/MATERNITY HOME SHOP/MARKET S FRIEND/RELATIVE/ NEIGHBOR/HUSBAND . . . . . . . T OTHER X _______________________ (SPECIFY) 335 In the last 12 months, were you visited by a fieldworker who YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 talked to you about family planning? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 336 In the last 12 months, have you visited a health facility for care YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 for yourself (or your children)? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 401 337 Did any staff member at the health facility speak to you about YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 family planning methods? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . W-15 | 261Appendix E SECTION 4. PREGNANCY AND POSTNATAL CARE 401 CHECK 224: ONE OR MORE NO 577 BIRTHS BIRTHS IN 2002 IN 2002 OR LATER OR LATER 402 CHECK 214: ENTER IN THE TABLE THE LINE NUMBER, NAME, AND SURVIVAL STATUS OF EACH BIRTH IN 2002 OR LATER. ASK THE QUESTIONS ABOUT ALL OF THESE BIRTHS. BEGIN WITH THE LAST BIRTH. (IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 3 BIRTHS, USE LAST 2 COLUMNS OF ADDITIONAL QUESTIONNAIRES). Now I would like to ask you some questions about the health of all your children born in the last five years. (We will talk about each separately.) 403 LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH LINE NUMBER FROM 212 LINE NO. LINE NO. LINE NO. 404 NAME ________________ NAME ________________ NAME _________________ FROM 216 AND 218 LIVING DEAD LIVING DEAD LIVING DEAD 405 At the time you became pregnant THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 with (NAME), did you want to (SKIP TO 407) (SKIP TO 432) (SKIP TO 432) become pregnant then, did you LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 want to wait until later, or did you not want to have any (more) NOT AT ALL . . . . . 3 NOT AT ALL . . . . . 3 NOT AT ALL . . . . . 3 children at all? (SKIP TO 407) (SKIP TO 432) (SKIP TO 432) 406 How much longer would you have liked to wait? MONTHS MONTHS MONTHS . .1. .1 . .1 YEARS YEARS YEARS DON'T KNOW . . . 998 DON'T KNOW . . . 998 DON'T KNOW . . . 998 407 Did you see anyone for antenatal HEALTH PERSONNEL care for this pregnancy? DOCTOR . . . . . . . . A NURSE/MIDWIFE B IF YES: Whom did you see? Anyone else? OTHER PERSON TRADITIONAL BIRTH PROBE TO IDENTIFY EACH TYPE ATTENDANT . D OF PERSON AND RECORD ALL COMMUNITY/VILLAGE MENTIONED. HEALTH WORKER . . . E OTHER X (SPECIFY) NO ONE Y . .2. .2 . .2 NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . Y (SKIP TO 421) W-16 262 | Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME ________________ NAME ________________ NAME _________________ 408 Where did you receive antenatal HOME care for this pregnancy? YOUR HOME . . . A OTHER HOME . . . B Anywhere else? PUBLIC SECTOR PROBE TO IDENTIFY TYPE(S) HOSPITAL/MATER- OF SOURCE(S) AND CIRCLE NITY HOME . . . . C THE APPROPRIATE CODE(S). POLICLINIC/ AMBULATORY . . D IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE WOMAN'SIF UNABLE TO DETERMINE WOMAN S IF A HOSPITAL, HEALTH CONSULT. . . . . E CENTER, OR CLINIC IS FAM. PLAN. CTR . . F PUBLIC OR PRIVATE MED DIAGN CTR . . G MEDICAL, WRITE THE FAP/RHP . . H THE NAME OF THE PLACE. OTHER PUBLIC I (SPECIFY) (NAME OF PLACE(S)) PRIVATE SECTOR HOSPITAL/MATER- NITY HOME . . . . J POLICLINIC/ AMBULATORY . . K WOMEN'S CONSULT. . . L FAM. PLAN. CTR . . M MED DIAGN CTR . . N FAP/RHP . . O NGO. . . . . . . . . . . P OTHER PRIVATE MED. R (SPECIFY) OTHER X (SPECIFY) 409 How many months pregnant were you when you first received MONTHS . . . antenatal care for this pregnancy? DON'T KNOW . . . . . 98 410 How many times did you receive NUMBER antenatal care during this OF TIMES . pregnancy? DON'T KNOW . . . . . 98 411 As part of your antenatal care during this pregnancy, were any of the following done at least once? YES NOthe following done at least once? YES NO Were you weighed? WEIGHT . . . 1 2 Was your blood pressure measured? BP . . . . . . . . 1 2 Did you give a urine sample? URINE . . . . . 1 2 Did you give a blood sample? BLOOD . . . 1 2 412 During (any of) your antenatal YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 care visit(s), were you told about NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 the signs of pregnancy (SKIP TO 421) complications? DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 413 Were you told where to go if you YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 had any of these complications? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 W-17 | 263Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME ________________ NAME ________________ NAME _________________ 421 During this pregnancy, were you YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 given or did you buy any iron tablets or iron syrup? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 423) SHOW TABLETS/SYRUP. DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 422 During the whole pregnancy, for how many days did you take the DAYS . tablets or syrup? DON'T KNOW 998DON T KNOW . . . 998 IF ANSWER IS NOT NUMERIC, PROBE FOR APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF DAYS. 423 During this pregnancy, did you YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 take any drug for intestinal NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 worms? DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 424 During this pregnancy, did you YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 have difficulty with your vision NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 during daylight? DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 425 During this pregnancy, did you YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 suffer from night blindness NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 [USE LOCAL TERM]? DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 432 When (NAME) was born, was VERY LARGE . . . . . 1 VERY LARGE . . . . . 1 VERY LARGE . . . . . 1 he/she very large, larger than LARGER THAN LARGER THAN LARGER THAN average, average, smaller than AVERAGE . . . . . 2 AVERAGE . . . . . 2 AVERAGE . . . . . 2average, average, smaller than AVERAGE . . . . . 2 AVERAGE . . . . . 2 AVERAGE . . . . . 2 average, or very small? AVERAGE . . . . . . . . 3 AVERAGE . . . . . . . . 3 AVERAGE . . . . . . . . 3 SMALLER THAN SMALLER THAN SMALLER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . 4 AVERAGE . . . . . 4 AVERAGE . . . . . 4 VERY SMALL . . . . . 5 VERY SMALL . . . . . 5 VERY SMALL . . . . . 5 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 433 Was (NAME) weighed at birth? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 435) (SKIP TO 435) (SKIP TO 435) DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 434 How much did (NAME) weigh? KG FROM CARD KG FROM CARD KG FROM CARD RECORD WEIGHT IN . . . KILOGRAMS FROM HEALTH CARD, IF AVAILABLE. KG FROM RECALL KG FROM RECALL KG FROM RECALL 11 1 . . . DON'T KNOW . 99.998 DON'T KNOW . 99.998 DON'T KNOW . 99.998 22 2 W-18 264 | Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME ________________ NAME ________________ NAME _________________ 435 Who assisted with the delivery HEALTH PERSONNEL HEALTH PERSONNEL HEALTH PERSONNEL of (NAME)? DOCTOR . . . . . A DOCTOR . . . . . A DOCTOR . . . . . A NURSE/MIDWIFE . B NURSE/MIDWIFE . B NURSE/MIDWIFE . B Anyone else? PROBE FOR THE TYPE(S) OF OTHER PERSON OTHER PERSON OTHER PERSON PERSON(S) AND RECORD ALL TRADITIONAL BIRTH TRADITIONAL BIRTH TRADITIONAL BIRTH MENTIONED. ATTENDANT . . D ATTENDANT . . D ATTENDANT . . D RELATIVE/FRIEND .E RELATIVE/FRIEND . E RELATIVE/FRIEND .E IF RESPONDENT SAYS NO ONE OTHER OTHER OTHERIF RESPONDENT SAYS NO ONE OTHER OTHER OTHER ASSISTED, PROBE TO X X X DETERMINE WHETHER ANY (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) ADULTS WERE PRESENT AT NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . Y NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . Y NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . Y THE DELIVERY. 435A Was (NAME)'s father with you YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 while you were delivering (NAME)? (SKIP TO 436) (SKIP TO 436) (SKIP TO 436) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 435B Did you wish he was there? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NOT SURE . . . . . . . . 8 NOT SURE . . . . . . . . 8 NOT SURE . . . . . . . . 8 436 Where did you give birth to HOME HOME HOME (NAME)? YOUR HOME . . . 11 YOUR HOME . . . 11 YOUR HOME . . . 11 (SKIP TO 443) (SKIP TO 444) (SKIP TO 444) PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OTHER HOME . . . 12 OTHER HOME . . . 12 OTHER HOME . . . 12 OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL/MATER- HOSPITAL/MATER- HOSPITAL/MATER- IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE NITY HOME . . . . 13 NITY HOME . . . . 13 NITY HOME . . . . 13 IF A HOSPITAL, HEALTH POLICLINIC/ POLICLINIC/ POLICLINIC/ AMBULATORY . . 14 AMBULATORY . . 14 AMBULATORY . . 14 PUBLIC OR PRIVATE WOMAN'S WOMAN'S WOMAN'S MEDICAL, WRITE THE CONSULT. . . . . 15 CONSULT. . . . . 15 CONSULT. . . . . 15 THE NAME OF THE PLACE. FAM. PLAN. CTR . . 16 FAM. PLAN. CTR . . 16 FAM. PLAN. CTR . . 16 MED DIAGN CTR . . 17 MED DIAGN CTR . . 17 MED DIAGN CTR . . 17 FAP/RHP . . 18 FAP/RHP . . 18 FAP/RHP . . 18 (NAME OF PLACE) OTHER PUBLIC OTHER PUBLIC OTHER PUBLIC 26 26 26 (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR HOSPITAL/MATER- HOSPITAL/MATER- HOSPITAL/MATER- NITY HOME . . . . 31 NITY HOME . . . . 31 NITY HOME . . . . 31 POLICLINIC/ POLICLINIC/ POLICLINIC/ AMBULATORY . . 32 AMBULATORY . . 32 AMBULATORY . . 32 WOMEN'S WOMEN'S WOMEN'S CONSULT. . . 33 CONSULT. . . 33 CONSULT. . . 33 FAM. PLAN. CTR . . 34 FAM. PLAN. CTR . . 34 FAM. PLAN. CTR . . 34 MED DIAGN CTR . . 35 MED DIAGN CTR . . 35 MED DIAGN CTR . . 35 FAP/RHP . . 36 FAP/RHP . . 36 FAP/RHP . . 36 NGO. . . . . . . . . . . 38 NGO. . . . . . . . . . . 38 NGO. . . . . . . . . . . 38 OTHER PRIVATE OTHER PRIVATE OTHER PRIVATE MED. 46 MED. 46 MED. 46 (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 OTHER 96 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SKIP TO 443) (SKIP TO 444) (SKIP TO 444) W-19 | 265Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME ________________ NAME ________________ NAME _________________ 437 How long after (NAME) was delivered did you stay there? HOURS 1 HOURS 1 HOURS 1 IF LESS THAN ONE DAY, DAYS 2 DAYS 2 DAYS 2 RECORD HOURS. IF LESS THAN ONE WEEK, WEEKS 3 WEEKS 3 WEEKS 3 RECORD DAYS. DON'T KNOW . 998 DON'T KNOW . . . 998 DON'T KNOW . . . 998 438 Was (NAME) delivered by YES 1 YES 1 YES 1438 Was (NAME) delivered by YES . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 caesarean section? NO . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 439 Before you were discharged after YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (NAME) was born, did any health NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 455) (SKIP TO 455) care provider check on your health? (SKIP TO 442) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 440 How long after delivery did the first check take place? HOURS 1 DAYS 2 IF LESS THAN ONE DAY, RECORD HOURS. WEEKS 3 IF LESS THAN ONE WEEK, RECORD DAYS. DON'T KNOW . . . 998 441 Who checked on your health HEALTH PERSONNEL at that time?) DOCTOR . . . . . . . . 11 NURSE/MIDWIFE 12 OTHER PERSON PROBE FOR MOST QUALIFIED TRADITIONAL BIRTH PERSON. ATTENDANT . 21 COMMUNITY/VILLAGE HEALTH WORKER . . . 22 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) (SKIP TO 453) 442 After you were discharged, did YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 any health care provider or (SKIP TO 445) (SKIP TO 455) (SKIP TO 455) a traditional birth attendant NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 check on your health? (SKIP TO 453) 443 Why didn't you deliver in a health COST TOO MUCH . . A facility? FACILITY NOT OPEN . B TOO FAR/ NO TRANS- PORTATION. . . . . . C PROBE: Any other reason? DON'T TRUST FACILITY/POOR RECORD ALL MENTIONED. QUALITY SERVICE D NO FEMALE PROVID- ER AT FACILITY . . E HUSBAND/FAMILY DID NOT ALLOW . . F NOT NECESSARY . . G NOT CUSTOMARY . . H OTHER (SPECIFY) X W-20 266 | Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME ________________ NAME ________________ NAME _________________ 444 After (NAME) was born, did any health care provider or YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 a traditional birth attendant NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 check on your health? (SKIP TO 449) 445 How long after delivery did the first check take place? HOURS 1 DAYS 2 IF LESS THAN ONE DAYIF LESS THAN ONE DAY, RECORD HOURS. WEEKS 3 IF LESS THAN ONE WEEK, RECORD DAYS. DON'T KNOW . . . 998 446 Who checked on your health HEALTH PERSONNEL at that time? DOCTOR . . . . . . . . 11 NURSE/MIDWIFE 12 OTHER PERSON PROBE FOR MOST QUALIFIED TRADITIONAL BIRTH PERSON. ATTENDANT . 21 COMMUNITY/VILLAGE HEALTH WORKER . . . 22 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 447 Where did this first check HOME take place? YOUR HOME . . . 11 OTHER HOME . . . 12 PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE PUBLIC SECTOR APPROPRIATE CODE. HOSPITAL/MATER- NITY HOME . . . . 13 IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE POLICLINIC/ IF A HOSPITAL, HEALTH AMBULATORY . . 14 CENTER, OR CLINIC IS WOMAN'S PUBLIC OR PRIVATE CONSULT. . . . . 15 MEDICAL, WRITE THE FAM. PLAN. CTR . . 16 THE NAME OF THE PLACE. MED DIAGN CTR . . 17 FAP/RHP . . 18 OTHER PUBLIC (NAME OF PLACE) 26 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE SECTOR HOSPITAL/MATER- NITY HOME . . . . 31 POLICLINIC/ AMBULATORY . . 32 WOMEN'S CONSULT. . . 33 FAM. PLAN. CTR . . 34 MED DIAGN CTR . . 35 FAP/RHP . . 36 NGO. . . . . . . . . . . 38 OTHER PRIVATE MED. 46 (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) W-21 | 267Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME ________________ NAME ________________ NAME _________________ 448 CHECK 442: YES (SKIP TO 453) 449 In the two months after (NAME) was born, did any health YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 care provider or a traditional birth NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 attendant check on his/her (SKIP TO 453) health? DON'T KNOW 8 NOT ASKED health? DON T KNOW . . . . . 8 450 How many hours, days or weeks HRS AFTER after the birth of (NAME) did the BIRTH . . 1 first check take place? DAYS AFTER BIRTH . . 2 IF LESS THAN ONE DAY, WKS AFTER RECORD HOURS. BIRTH . . 3 IF LESS THAN ONE WEEK, RECORD DAYS. DON'T KNOW . . . 998 451 Who checked on (NAME)'s health HEALTH PERSONNEL at that time? DOCTOR . . . . . . . . 11 NURSE/MIDWIFE 12 PROBE FOR MOST QUALIFIED PERSON. OTHER PERSON TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . 21 COMMUNITY/VILLAGECOMMUNITY/VILLAGE HEALTH WORKER . . . 22 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) W-22 268 | Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME ________________ NAME ________________ NAME _________________ 452 Where did this first check of HOME (NAME) take place? YOUR HOME . . . 11 OTHER HOME . . . 12 PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE PUBLIC SECTOR APPROPRIATE CODE. HOSPITAL/MATER- NITY HOME . . . . 13 IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE POLICLINIC/ IF A HOSPITAL, HEALTH AMBULATORY . . 14 CENTER OR CLINIC IS WOMAN'SCENTER, OR CLINIC IS WOMAN'S PUBLIC OR PRIVATE CONSULT. . . . . 15 MEDICAL, WRITE THE FAM. PLAN. CTR . . 16 THE NAME OF THE PLACE. MED DIAGN CTR . . 17 FAP/RHP . . 18 OTHER PUBLIC (NAME OF PLACE) 26 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE SECTOR HOSPITAL/MATER- NITY HOME . . . . 31 POLICLINIC/ AMBULATORY . . 32 WOMEN'S CONSULT. . . 33 FAM. PLAN. CTR . . 34 MED DIAGN CTR . . 35 FAP/RHP . . 36 NGO 38NGO. . . . . . . . . . . 38 OTHER PRIVATE MED. 46 (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 453 In the first two months after delivery, did you receive a YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 vitamin A dose (like this/any of these)? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SHOW COMMON TYPES OF DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 AMPULES/CAPSULES/SYRUPS. 454 Has your menstrual period returned YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 since the birth of (NAME)? (SKIP TO 456) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 457)(SKIP TO 457) 455 Did your period return between YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 the birth of (NAME) and your NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 next pregnancy? (SKIP TO 459) (SKIP TO 459) 456 For how many months after the birth of (NAME) did you not have MONTHS . . . MONTHS . . . MONTHS . . . a period? DON'T KNOW . . . . . 98 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 98 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 98 W-23 | 269Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME ________________ NAME ________________ NAME _________________ 457 CHECK 226: NOT PREGNANT PREG- OR IS RESPONDENT PREGNANT? NANT UNSURE (SKIP TO 459) 458 Have you begun to have YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 sexual intercourse again since NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 the birth of (NAME)? (SKIP TO 460) 459 For how many months after the459 For how many months after the birth of (NAME) did you not have MONTHS . . . MONTHS . . . MONTHS . . . sexual intercourse? DON'T KNOW . . . . . 98 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 98 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 98 460 Did you ever breastfeed (NAME)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 467) (SKIP TO 467) (SKIP TO 467) 461 How long after birth did you first put (NAME) to the breast? IMMEDIATELY . . . 000 IF LESS THAN 1 HOUR, RECORD ‘00' HOURS. IF LESS THAN 24 HOURS, HOURS 1 RECORD HOURS. OTHERWISE, RECORD DAYS. DAYS 2 462 In the first three days after YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 delivery, was (NAME) given NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2delivery, was (NAME) given NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 anything to drink other than (SKIP TO 464) breast milk? 463 What was (NAME) given to drink? MILK (OTHER THAN BREAST MILK ) . A Anything else? PLAIN WATER . . . B SUGAR OR GLU- RECORD ALL LIQUIDS COSE WATER . . . C MENTIONED. GRIPE WATER . . . D SUGAR-SALT-WATER SOLUTION . . . . . E FRUIT JUICE . . . . . F INFANT FORMULA . G TEA/INFUSIONS . . . H HONEY . . . . . . . . . . I OTHER X (SPECIFY) 464 CHECK 404: LIVING DEAD IS CHILD LIVING? (SKIP TO 466) 465 Are you still breastfeeding YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (NAME)? (SKIP TO 468) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 W-24 270 | Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME ________________ NAME ________________ NAME _________________ 466 For how many months did you breastfeed (NAME)? MONTHS . . . MONTHS . . . MONTHS . . . STILL BF . . . . . . . . 95 STILL BF . . . . . . . . 95 DON'T KNOW . . . 98 DON'T KNOW . . . 98 DON'T KNOW . . . 98 467 CHECK 404: LIVING DEAD LIVING DEAD LIVING DEAD IS CHILD LIVING? (GO BACK TO (GO BACK TO (GO BACK TO 405(GO BACK TO (GO BACK TO (GO BACK TO 405 405 IN NEXT 405 IN NEXT IN NEXT-TO-LAST COLUMN; OR, COLUMN; OR, COLUMN OF NEW IF NO MORE IF NO MORE QUESTIONNAIRE; OR, BIRTHS, GO BIRTHS, GO IF NO MORE (SKIP TO 470) TO 577) (SKIP TO 470) TO 577) (SKIP TO 470) BIRTHS, GO TO 577) 468 How many times did you breastfeed last night between NUMBER OF sunset and sunrise? NIGHTTIME FEEDINGS . IF ANSWER IS NOT NUMERIC, PROBE FOR APPROXIMATE NUMBER. 469 How many times did you breastfeed yesterday during NUMBER OF the daylight hours? DAYLIGHT FEEDINGSFEEDINGS . IF ANSWER IS NOT NUMERIC, PROBE FOR APPROXIMATE NUMBER. 470 Did (NAME) drink anything from YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 a bottle with a nipple yesterday NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 or last night? DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 8 471 GO BACK TO 405 IN GO BACK TO 405 IN GO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NEXT-TO-LAST NO MORE BIRTHS, GO NO MORE BIRTHS, GO COLUMN OF NEW TO 577. TO 577. QUESTIONNAIRE; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 577. W-25 | 271Appendix E SECTION 5 CHILD'S NUTRITION NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 577 CHECK 214 AND 220, ALL ROWS: NUMBER OF CHILDREN BORN IN 2004 OR LATER LIVING WITH THE RESPONDENT ONE OR MORE NONE 582 RECORD NAME OF YOUNGEST CHILD LIVING WITH HER (AND CONTINUE WITH 578) (NAME) 578 Now I would like to ask you about liquids or foods (NAME FROM 577) had yesterday during the day or at night. Did (NAME FROM 577) (drink/eat): YES NO DK Plain water? PLAIN WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 Milk such as tinned, powdered, or fresh animal milk? MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 Any other liquids? OTHER LIQUID . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 Commercially produced infant formula? FORMULA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 Milk kitchen produced infant formula? MILK KITCHEN FORMULA . 1 2 8 Any [BRAND NAME OF COMMERCIALLY FORTIFIED BABY FOOD, E.G., Cerelac]? (1) BABY CEREAL . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 Any (other) porridge or gruel? OTHER PORRIDGE/GRUEL. . 1 2 8 Any other solid or semi-solid food? SOLID SEMI-SOLID FOOD 1 2 8 580 CHECK 578 (LAST 3 CATEGORIES: BABY CEREAL, OR OTHER PORRIDGE/GRUEL, OTHER SOLID OR SEMI-SOLID FOOD):OR SEMI-SOLID FOOD): AT LEAST ONE NOT A SINGLE "YES" 582 "YES' 581 How many times did (NAME FROM 577) eat solid, semisolid, or NUMBER OF soft foods yesterday during the day or at night? TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IF 7 OR MORE TIMES, RECORD ‘7'. DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 582 BLOOD PRESSURE MESUREMENT 2 GOTO Q1136 IN SECTION 11 AT THE END OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE 1 In the case of fortified foods, the interviewer should ask to see the package and/or brand label (if available), to confirm that the food is fortified. W-26 272 | Appendix E SECTION 6. MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 601 Are you currently married or living together with a man as if YES, CURRENTLY MARRIED 1 married? YES, LIVING WITH A MAN . . . . . . . . . . 2 604 NO, NOT IN UNION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 602 Have you ever been married or lived together with a man as if YES, FORMERLY MARRIED . . . . . . . . 1 married? YES, LIVED WITH A MAN . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 617 603 What is your marital status now: are you widowed, WIDOWED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 divorced, or separated? DIVORCED 2 609 SEPARATED 3 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 604 Is your husband/partner living with you now or is he staying LIVING WITH HER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 elsewhere? STAYING ELSEWHERE . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 605 RECORD THE HUSBAND'S/PARTNER'S NAME AND LINE NAME _____________________________ NUMBER FROM THE HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE. IF HE IS NOT LISTED IN THE HOUSEHOLD, RECORD '00'. LINE NO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 609 Have you been married or lived with a man only once or ONLY ONCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 more than once? MORE THAN ONCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 615 CHECK 609: MARRIED/ MARRIED/ LIVED WITH A MAN LIVED WITH A MAN MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ONLY ONCE MORE THAN ONCE In what month and year Now I would like to ask about DON'T KNOW MONTH . . . . . . . . . . 98 did you start living with when you started living with your husband/partner? your first husband/partner. In what month and year YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . 617 was that? DON'T KNOW YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . 9998 616 How old were you when you first started living with him? AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 617 CHECK FOR THE PRESENCE OF OTHERS. BEFORE CONTINUING, MAKE EVERY EFFORT TO ENSURE PRIVACY. 618 Now I need to ask you some questions about sexual activity in NEVER HAD SEXUAL order to gain a better understanding of some important life issues. INTERCOURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 How old were you when you had sexual intercourse for the very AGE IN YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . 621 first time? FIRST TIME WHEN STARTED LIVING WITH (FIRST) HUSBAND/PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 621 619 CHECK 107: AGE AGE 15-24 25-49 641 620 Do you intend to wait until you get married to have sexual YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 intercourse for the first time? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 641 DON'T KNOW/UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 . 621 CHECK 107: AGE AGE 15-24 25-49 626 622 The first time you had sexual intercourse, was a condom YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 used? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON'T KNOW/DON'T REMEMBER . . . 8 W-27 | 273Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 623 How old was the person you first had sexual intercourse with? AGE OF PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . 626 DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 624 Was this person older than you, younger than you, or about OLDER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 the same age as you? YOUNGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ABOUT THE SAME AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 626 DON'T KNOW/DON'T REMEMBER . . . 8 625 Would you say this person was ten or more years older than TEN OR MORE YEARS OLDER . . . . . 1 you or less than ten years older than you? LESS THAN TEN YEARS OLDER . . . 2 OLDER UNSURE HOW MUCH 3OLDER, UNSURE HOW MUCH 3 626 When was the last time you had sexual intercourse? DAYS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 IF LESS THAN 12 MONTHS, ANSWER MUST BE RECORDED IN DAYS, WEEKS OR MONTHS. WEEKS AGO . . . . . . . . . . 2 IF 12 MONTHS (ONE YEAR) OR MORE, ANSWER MUST BE RECORDED IN YEARS. MONTHS AGO . . . . . . . . 3 YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . 4 640 . . . . . W-28 274 | Appendix E 626A Now I would like to ask you some questions about your recent sexual activity. Let me assure you again that your answers are completely confidential and will not be told to anyone. If we should come to any question that you don't want to answer, just let me know and we will go to the next question. SKIP TO 628 627 When was the last time you had sexual intercourse with this person? DAYS . 1 DAYS . 1 WEEKS 2 WEEKS 2 MONTHS 3 MONTHS 3 LAST SEXUAL PARTNER SECOND-TO-LAST SEXUAL PARTNER THIRD-TO-LAST SEXUAL PARTNER 628 The last time you had sexual YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 intercourse (with this second/third NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 person), was a condom used? (SKIP TO 630) (SKIP TO 630) (SKIP TO 630) 629 Did you use a condom every YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 time you had sexual intercourse NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 with this person in the last 12 months? 630 What was your relationship to HUSBAND . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HUSBAND . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HUSBAND . . . . . . . . . . . 1 this person with whom you had (SKIP TO 636) (SKIP TO 636) (SKIP TO 636) sexual intercourse? LIVE-IN PARTNER . . . . 2 LIVE-IN PARTNER . . . . 2 LIVE-IN PARTNER . . . . 2 BOYFRIEND NOT BOYFRIEND NOT BOYFRIEND NOT IF BOYFRIEND: LIVING WITH LIVING WITH LIVING WITH Were you living together as if RESPONDENT . . . . 3 RESPONDENT . . . . 3 RESPONDENT . . . . 3 married? CASUAL CASUAL CASUAL IF YES, CIRCLE '2'. ACQUAINTANCE . . . 4 ACQUAINTANCE . . . 4 ACQUAINTANCE . . . 4 IF NO, CIRCLE '3'. PROSTITUTE . . . . . . . . 5 PROSTITUTE . . . . . . . . 5 PROSTITUTE . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 OTHER 6 OTHER 6______________ ______________ ______________ (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) 631 For how long (have you had/did you have) a sexual relationship DAYS . 1 DAYS . 1 DAYS . 1 with this person? IF ONLY HAD SEXUAL MONTHS 2 MONTHS 2 MONTHS 2 RELATIONS WITH THIS PERSON ONCE, RECORD '01' DAYS. YEARS 3 YEARS 3 YEARS 3 632 CHECK 107: AGE AGE AGE AGE AGE AGE 15-24 25-49 15-24 25-49 15-24 25-49 (SKIP TO 636) (SKIP TO 636) (SKIP TO 636) 633 How old is this person? AGE OF AGE OF AGE OF PARTNER PARTNER PARTNER (SKIP TO 636) (SKIP TO 636) (SKIP TO 636) DON'T KNOW . . . . . 98 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 98 DON'T KNOW . . . . . 98 634 Is this person older than you, OLDER . . . . . . . . 1 OLDER . . . . . . . . 1 OLDER . . . . . . . . 1 younger than you, or about the YOUNGER . . . . . 2 YOUNGER . . . . . 2 YOUNGER . . . . . 2 same age? SAME AGE . . . . . 3 SAME AGE . . . . . 3 SAME AGE . . . . . 3 DON'T KNOW . . . 8 DON'T KNOW . . . 8 DON'T KNOW . . . 8 (SKIP TO 636) (SKIP TO 636) (SKIP TO 636) 635 Would you say this person is ten TEN OR MORE TEN OR MORE TEN OR MORE or more years older than you or YEARS OLDER . 1 YEARS OLDER . 1 YEARS OLDER . 1 less than ten years older than you? LESS THAN TEN LESS THAN TEN LESS THAN TEN YEARS OLDER . 2 YEARS OLDER . 2 YEARS OLDER . 2 OLDER, UNSURE OLDER, UNSURE OLDER, UNSURE HOW MUCH . . . 3 HOW MUCH . . . 3 HOW MUCH . . . 3 W-29 | 275Appendix E LAST SEXUAL PARTNER SECOND-TO-LAST SEXUAL PARTNER THIRD-TO-LAST SEXUAL PARTNER 636 The last time you had sexual YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 intercourse with this person, NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 did you or this person drink (SKIP TO 637A) (SKIP TO 637A) (SKIP TO 637A) alcohol? 637 Were you or your partner drunk RESPONDENT ONLY 1 RESPONDENT ONLY 1 RESPONDENT ONLY 1 at that time? PARTNER ONLY . . . 2 PARTNER ONLY . . . 2 PARTNER ONLY . . . 2 RESPONDENT AND RESPONDENT AND RESPONDENT AND IF YES: Who was drunk? PARTNER BOTH . 3 PARTNER BOTH . 3 PARTNER BOTH . 3 NEITHER . . . . . . . . . . 4 NEITHER . . . . . . . . . . 4 NEITHER . . . . . . . . . . 4 637A The last time you had sexual YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 intercourse with this person, NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 did you or this person used (SKIP TO 638) (SKIP TO 638) (SKIP TO 639) recreational drugs/narcotics? 637B Were you or your partner high RESPONDENT ONLY 1 RESPONDENT ONLY 1 RESPONDENT ONLY 1 on drugs at that time? PARTNER ONLY . . . 2 PARTNER ONLY . . . 2 PARTNER ONLY . . . 2 RESPONDENT AND RESPONDENT AND RESPONDENT AND IF YES: Who was on drugs? PARTNER BOTH . 3 PARTNER BOTH . 3 PARTNER BOTH . 3 NEITHER . . . . . . . . . . 4 NEITHER . . . . . . . . . . 4 NEITHER . . . . . . . . . . 4 638 Apart from [this person/these two YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 people], have you had sexual (GO BACK TO 627 (GO BACK TO 627 intercourse with any other IN NEXT COLUMN) IN NEXT COLUMN) person in the last 12 months? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 640) (SKIP TO 640) 639 In total, with how many different NUMBER OF people have you had sexual PARTNERS intercourse in the last 12 months? LAST 12 . . . IF NON-NUMERIC ANSWER, PROBE TO GET AN ESTIMATE. DON'T KNOW . . . IF NUMBER OF PARTNERS IS GREATER THAN 95, WRITE '95.' 98 MONTHS W-30 276 | Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 640 In total, with how many different people have you had sexual NUMBER OF PARTNERS intercourse in your lifetime? IN LIFETIME . . . . . . . . . . . IF NON-NUMERIC ANSWER, PROBE TO GET AN ESTIMATE. DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IF NUMBER OF PARTNERS IS GREATER THAN 95, WRITE '95.' 641 Do you know of a place where a person can get condoms? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 701 642 Where is that? PUBLIC SECTOR 98 A Any other place? POLICLINIC/AMBULATORY . . . . . . . B WOMEN'S HEALTH CONSULT CTR. C PROBE TO IDENTIFY EACH TYPE OF SOURCE AND FAMILY PLANNING CENTER/CAB D CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE(S). MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTER . . . E FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST . . . . . . . F IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE IF HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTER PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G OR CLINIC IS PUBLIC OR PRIVATE MEDICAL, WRITE OTHER PUBLIC H THE NAME OF THE PLACE. _______________________ (SPECIFY) (NAME OF PLACE(S)) PRIVATE SECTOR I POLICLINIC/AMBULATORY . . . . . . . J WOMEN'S HEALTH CONSULT CTR. K FAMILY PLANNING CENTER/CAB L MEDICAL DIAGNOSTIC CENTER . . . M FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST N HOSPITAL/MATERNITY HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOSPITAL/MATERNITY HOME FAP/RURAL HEALTH POST . . . . . . . N PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O NGO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P OTHER PRIVATE R _______________________ (SPECIFY) OTHER SOURCE SHOP/MARKET S FRIEND/RELATIVE/NEIGHBOR /HUSBAND/SEX PARTNER . . T OTHER X _______________________ (SPECIFY) 643 If you wanted to, could you yourself get a condom? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON'T KNOW/UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 W-31 | 277Appendix E SECTION 7. FERTILITY PREFERENCES NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 701 CHECK 311/311A: NEITHER HE OR SHE STERILIZED STERILIZED 713 702 CHECK 226: NOT PREGNANT PREGNANT OR UNSURE Now I have some questions Now I have some questions HAVE (A/ANOTHER) CHILD . . . . . . . . 1 about the future. about the future. NO MORE/NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 704 Would you like to have After the child you are SAYS SHE CAN'T GET PREGNANT . 3 713y y (a/another) child, or would you expecting now, would you like UNDECIDED/DON'T KNOW AND prefer not to have any (more) to have another child, or would PREGNANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 709 children? you prefer not to have any UNDECIDED/DON'T KNOW more children? AND NOT PREGNANT OR UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 708 703 CHECK 226: MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NOT PREGNANT PREGNANT OR UNSURE YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 How long would you like to wait After the birth of the child you SOON/NOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993 708 from now before the birth of are expecting now, how long SAYS SHE CAN'T GET PREGNANT 994 713 (a/another) child? would you like to wait before AFTER MARRIAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995 the birth of another child? OTHER ______________________ 996 708 (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 704 CHECK 226: NOT PREGNANT PREGNANT OR UNSURE 709OR UNSURE 709 705 CHECK 310: USING A CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD? NOT NOT CURRENTLY ASKED CURRENTLY USING 713 USING 706 CHECK 703: NOT 24 OR MORE MONTHS 00-23 MONTHS ASKED OR 02 OR MORE YEARS OR 00-01 YEAR 709 W-32 278 | Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 707 CHECK 702: NOT MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A WANTS TO HAVE WANTS NO MORE/ FERTILITY-RELATED REASONS A/ANOTHER CHILD NONE NOT HAVING SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B INFREQUENT SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C MENOPAUSAL/HYSTERECTOMY . D You have said that you do not You have said that you do not SUBFECUND/INFECUND . . . . . . . . E want (a/another) child soon, but want any (more) children, but POSTPARTUM AMENORRHEIC . . . F you are not using any method to you are not using any method to BREASTFEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G avoid pregnancy. avoid pregnancy. FATALISTIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H Can you tell me why you are Can you tell me why you are OPPOSITION TO USE not using a method? not using a method? RESPONDENT OPPOSED . . . . . . . . I HUSBAND/PARTNER OPPOSED . J Any other reason? Any other reason? OTHERS OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . K RELIGIOUS PROHIBITION . . . . . . . . L RECORD ALL REASONS MENTIONED. LACK OF KNOWLEDGE KNOWS NO METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . M KNOWS NO SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . N METHOD-RELATED REASONS HEALTH CONCERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . O FEAR OF SIDE EFFECTS . . . . . . . . P LACK OF ACCESS/TOO FAR . . . . . . Q COSTS TOO MUCH . . . . . . . . . . . . R INCONVENIENT TO USE . . . . . . . . S INTERFERES WITH BODY'S NORMAL PROCESSES . . . . . . . . T OTHER ______________________ X (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 708 CHECK 310: USING A CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD? NOT NO, YES, ASKED NOT CURRENTLY USING CURRENTLY USING 713 709 Do you think you will use a contraceptive method to delay or avoid YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 pregnancy at any time in the future? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 711 DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 713 710 Which contraceptive method would you prefer to use? FEMALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . 01 MALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 INJECTABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 IMPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 FEMALE CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 713 DIAPHRAGM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 RHYTHM METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 OTHER ______________________ 96 (SPECIFY)(SPECIFY) UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 W-33 | 279Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 711 What is the main reason that you think you will not use a NOT MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 contraceptive method at any time in the future? FERTILITY-RELATED REASONS INFREQUENT SEX/NO SEX . . . 22 MENOPAUSAL/HYSTERECTOMY 23