Uganda - Demographic and Health Survey - 1996

Publication date: 1996

Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 1995 Statistics Department Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning ®DHS Demographic and Health Surveys Macro International Inc. World Summit for Children Indicators: Uganda 1995 Value BASIC INDICATORS Infant mortality Infant mortality rate (direct estimation) I 81 per 1,000 Infant mortality rate (indirect estimation) I 97 per 1,000 Under-five mortality rate 147 per 1,000 Maternal mortality Maternal mortality ratio 506 per 100,000 Childhood undernutrition Percent stunted 38.3 Percent wasted 5.3 Percent underweight 25.5 Clean water supply Percent of households within 15 minutes of a safe water supply 2 I 1.0 Sanitary excreta disposal Percent of households with flush toilets or VIP latrines 3.1 Basic education Percent of women 15-49 with completed primary education 23.4 Percent of men 15-49 with completed primary education 38.1 Percent of girls 6-12 attending school 65.9 Percent of boys 6-12 attending school 68.8 Percent of women 15-49 who are literate 52.6 Children in especially Percent of children who are orphans (both parents dead) 1.9 difficult situations Percent of children who do not live with their natural mother 23.5 Percent of children who live in single adult households 12.1 SUPPORTING INDICATORS Women's Health Birth spacing Sal~ motherhood Percent of births within 24 months of a previous birth Percent of births with medical prenatal care Percent of births with prenatal care in first trimester Percent of births with medical assistance at delivery Percent of births in a medical facility Percent of births at high risk 27.8 91.2 13.7 37.8 35.4 65.9 Family planning Contraceptive prevalence rate (any method, married women) 14.8 Percent of currently married women with an unmet demand for family planning Percent of currently married women with an unmet need for family planning to avoid a high-risk birth 29.0 24.9 Percent of mothers with low BM[ 9.9 Percent of births at low birth weight (of those reporting numeric weight) 13.1 Percent of children under 4 months who are exclusively breastfed 70.1 Percent of households with iodised salt 69.0 Nutrition Maternal nutrition Low birth weight Breastfeeding Iodine Child Health Vaccinations Diarrhoea control Acute respiratory infection Percent of children whose mothers received tetanus toxoid vaccination during pregnancy Percent of children 12-23 months with measles vaccination Percent of children 12-23 months fully vaccinated Percent of children with diarrhoea in preceding 2 weeks who received oral rehydration therapy (sugar-salt-water solution) 80.0 59.6 47.4 49.2 Percent of children with acute respiratory infection in preceding 2 weeks who were seen by medical personnel 61.4 I See Chapter 7 Ibr details. 2 Piped, well, and bottled water Uganda Demographic and Health Survey 1995 Statistics Department Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning Entebbe, Uganda Macro International Inc, Calverton, Maryland USA August 1996 This report summarises the findings of the 1995 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) conducted by the Statistics Department in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. Macro International Inc. provided technical assistance. Funding was provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and the Government of Uganda. The UDHS is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programme, which is designed to collect data on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health. Additional information about the Uganda survey may be obtained from the Statistics Department, P.O. Box 13, Entebbe, Uganda (Telephone: 20320 or 20165; Fax: 20147). Additional information about the DHS programme may be obtained by writing to: DHS, Macro International Inc., 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705 (Telephone: 301-572-0200; Fax: 301-572- 0999; E-mail: reports@macroint.com; Internet: http://www/macroint.com/dhs/). Recommended citation: Statistics Department [Uganda] and Macro International Inc. 1996. Uganda Demographic and Health Survey, 1995. Calverton, Maryland: Statistics Department [Uganda] and Macro International Inc. CONTENTS Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi Preface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Summary of Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Map of Uganda . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx CHAPTER 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Geography, History, and the Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Demographic Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Family Planning Programmes and Population Policy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Health Priorities and Programmes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Objectives of the 1995 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Survey Organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 CHAPTER2 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1 Population by Age and Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Population by Age from Selected Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 2.3 Household Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.4 Fosterhood and Orphanhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.5 Educational Level of Household Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.6 School Enrolment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.7 Housing Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.8 Household Durable Goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.9 Background Characteristics of Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 2.10 Characteristics of Couples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.11 Educational Level of Survey Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.12 School Attendance and Reasons for Leaving School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 2.13 Exposure to Mass Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.14 Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.15 Employer and Form of Eamings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.16 Occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 2.17 Person who Decides on Use of Earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.18 Child Care While Working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 CHAPTER 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 FERT IL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Current Fertility Levels . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Differentials in Current Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Fertility Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Retrospective Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Birth Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 iii 3.6 3.7 Page Age at First Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Teenage Pregnancy and Motherhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 CHAPTER 4 FERT IL ITY REGULAT ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.1 Knowledge of Family Planning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.2 Trends in Contraceptive Knowledge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 4.3 Ever Use of Family Planning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 4.4 Current Use of Family Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 4.5 Number of Children at First Use of Family Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 4.6 Effect of Breastfeeding on Conception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 4.7 Somce of Family Planning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 4.8 Intention to Use Family Planning Among Non-users . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 4.9 Reasons for Non-use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 4.10 Preferred Method of Contraception for Future Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 4.11 Exposure to Family Planning Messages . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 4.12 Acceptability of Electronic Media to Disseminale Family Planning Messages . . . . . . 63 4.13 Exposure to Family Planning Messages Through the Print Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 4.14 Contact of Non-users with Family Planning Providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 4.15 Attitudes Towards Family Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 4.16 Problems with Contraceptive Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 4.17 Knowledge of Family Planning Logo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 4.18 Knowledge of Protector Condoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 CHAPTER 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERT IL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Current Marital Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Polygyny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Age at First Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Age at First Sexual Intercourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Recent Sexual Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Postpartum Amenorrhoea, Abstinence, and Insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Termination of Exposure to Pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 CHAPTER 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Desire for More Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Need for Family Planning Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Ideal Number of Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Fertility Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 CHAPTER 7 INFANT AND CHILD MORTAL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 7. l Assessment of Data Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 iv 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 Page Levels and Trends in Infant and Child Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Socio-economic Differentials in Childhood Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Demographic Differentials in Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 High-Risk Fertility Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 CHAPTER 8.1 8.2 8.3 8A 8.5 8.6 8.7 8.8 8 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Antenatal Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Assistance and Medical Care at Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Characteristics of Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Childhood Immunisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l I 1 Immunisation by Background Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Immunisations by First Year of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Childhood Illness and Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 CHAPTER 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 MATERNAL AND CHILD NUTRIT ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Breastfeeding and Supplementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Nutritional Status of Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Maternal Nutritional Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 CHAPTER 10 MATERNAL MORTAL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 10.1 Assessment of Data Completeness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 10.2 Direct Estimates of Adult Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 10.3 Direct Estimates of Maternal Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 10.4 Indirect Estimates of Maternal Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 10.5 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 CHAPTER 11 AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 11.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 11.2 Awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 11.3 Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 I 1.4 AIDS Knowledge and Awareness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 11.5 Perception of the Risk of Getting HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 CHAPTER 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 AVAILABIL ITY OF FAMILY PLANNING AND HEALTH SERVICES . . . . . 161 Service Availability Questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Availability of Family Planning Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Availability of Health Services to Women and Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Page REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 APPENDIX A SAMPLE IMPLEMENTATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 APPENDIX C DATA QUAL ITY TABULAT IONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 APPENDIX D PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 1995 UGANDA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 APPENDIX E QUESTIONNAIRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 vi Table 1.1 Table 1.2 Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2.3 Table 2.4 Table 2.5 Table 2.6 Table 2.7 Table 2.8 Table 2.9 Table 2.10 Table 2.11 Table 2.12 Table 2.13 Table 2.14 Table 2.15 Table 2.16 Table 2.17 Table 2.18 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4 Table 3.5 Table 3.6 Table 3.7 Table 3.8 Table 3.9 Table 3.10 Table 3.11 Table 3.12 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6.1 Table 4.6.2 Table 4.7.1 Table 4.7.2 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 Table 4.10 Table 4.11 Table 4.12 TABLES Page Demographic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Results of the household and individual interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Household population by age, residence and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Population by age from selected sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Household composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Fosterhood and orphanhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Educational level of the female and male household population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 School enrolment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Housing characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Household durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Background characteristics of respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Differential characteristics between spouses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Level of education by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 School attendance and reasons for leaving school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Access to mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Employer and form of earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Decisions on use of earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Child care while working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Current fertility rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Fertility by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Age-specific fertility rates from various sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Trends in fertility by region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Trends in age-specific fertility rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Trends in fertility by marital duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Children ever born and living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Birth intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Age at first birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Median age at first birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Adolescent pregnancy and motherhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Children born to adolescent women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Knowledge of contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Knowledge of contraceptive methods among couples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Knowledge of contraceptive methods by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Trends in knowledge of family planning methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Ever use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Current use of contraception: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Current use of contraception: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Current use of contraception by background characteristics: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Current use of contraception by background characteristics: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Trends in current use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Number of children at first use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Perceived contraceptive effect of breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Source of supply for modern contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Reason for selecting current sources of supply for contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . 59 vii TaMe 4.13 Table 4.14 Table 4.15 TaMe 4.16 TaMe 4.17 Table 4.18 Table 4.19 Table 4.20 Table 4.21 TaMe 4.22 Table 4.23 TaMe 4.24 TaMe 4.25 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 TaMe 5.3 TaMe 5 A Table 5.5 Table 5.6 Table 5.7.1 TaMe 5.7.2 Table 5.8 Table 5.9 Table 5.10 Table 6. l Table 6.2 TaMe 63 TaMe 6A Table 6.5 Table 6.6 TaMe 6.7 TaMe 6.8 Table 6.9 Table 7.1 Table 7.2 TaMe 7.3 Table 7A Table 8.1 Table 8.2 Table 8.3 Table 8.4 TaMe 8.5 Table 8.6 TaMe 8.7 TaMe 8.8 TaMe 8.9 TaMe 8.10 Table 8.11 Page Future use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Reasons for not using contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Preferred method of contraception for futme use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Exposure to family planning messages through the media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Acceptability of media messages on family planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Family planning messages in print . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Contact of non-users with family planning providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Wives ' perceptions of their husbands' attitudes toward family planning . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Attitudes of couples toward family planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Spouse's perception of spouse's approval of family planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Disadvantages of the pill/IUD/injec tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Knowledge of family planning logo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Knowledge of "Protector" condom . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Current marital status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Polygyny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Age at first marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Median age at first marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Age at first sexual intercourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Median age at first intercourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Recent sexual activity: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Recent sexual activity: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence, and insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Median duration of postpartum insusceptibility by background characteristics . . . . . . 83 Termination of exposure to the risk of pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Fertility preferences by number of living children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Fertility preferences by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Desire for more children among monogamous couples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Desire to limit childbearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Need for family planning services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Ideal and actual number of children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Mean ideal number of children by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Fertility planning status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Wanted fertility rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Infant and child mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Infant and child mortality by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Infant and child mortality by demographic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 High-risk fertility behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Antenatal care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Number of antenatal care visits and stage of pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Tetanus toxoid vaccinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Place of delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Assistance during delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Delivery characteristics: caesarean section, birth weight and size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 11 Vaccinations by source of information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Vaccinations by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Vaccinations in first year of life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Prevalence ~nd treatment c f acute respiratory infection and prevalence of fever . . . . 117 Prevalence of diarrhoea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 viii Table 8.12 Table 8.13 Table 8.14 Table 9.1 Table 9.2 Table 9.3 Table 9.4 Table 9.5 Table 9.6 Table 9.7 Table 9.8 Table 9.9 Table 10.1 Table 10.2 Table 10.3 Table 10.4 Table I I.l.1 Table 11.1.2 Table I 1.2.1 Table I 1.2.2 Table 11.3 Table 1.4.l Table 1.4.2 Table 1.5.1 Table 1.5.2 Table 1.6. I Table 1.6.2 Table 1.7 Table 1.8.1 Table 1.8.2 Table 1.9 Table 1.10 Table 1.11 Table 1.12.1 Table 1.12.2 Table 12.1 Table 12.2.1 Table 12.2.2 Table 12.3 Table 12.4 Table 12.5 Table 12.6 Table 12.7 Page Knowledge of diarrhoea care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Treatment of diarrhoea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Feeding practices during diarrhoea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Initial breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Breastfeeding status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Types of food received by children in preceding 24 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Types of food received by children in preceding week . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Types of food received by children by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Nutritional status of children by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Trends in nutritional status of children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Nutritional status of mothers by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Data on siblings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Adult mortality rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Direct estimates of maternal mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Indirect estimates of maternal mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Self-reporting of sexually transmitted diseases in the last year: women . . . . . . . . . . 145 Self-reporting of sexually transmitted diseases in the last year: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Action taken by respondents who reported a sexually transmitted disease in the last year . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Knowledge of AIDS and sources of AIDS information: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Knowledge of AIDS and sources of AIDS information: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Knowledge of ways to avoid HIV/AIDS: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Knowledge of ways to avoid HIV/AIDS: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Awareness of AIDS health issues: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Awareness of AIDS health issues: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Personal acquaintance with AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Perception of the risk of getting AIDS: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Perception of the risk of getting AIDS: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Perception of the risk of getting HIV/AIDS among couples . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Reasons for perception of small/no risk of getting HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Reasons for perception of moderate/great risk of getting HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 AIDS prevention behaviour: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 AIDS prevention behaviour: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Distance to nearest family planning services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Distance to family planning services by type of facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Time to family planning services by type of facility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Distance to family planning services by type of method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Distance to nearest family planning services by use of family planning . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Distance to family planning services by type of method and need for family planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Distance and time to nearest facility providing antenatal care according to type of facility, residence and region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Distance and time to nearest facility providing delivery care according to type of facility, residence, and region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I69 ix Page Table 12.8 Table 12.9 Table 12.10 TabTe A.1 Table A.2 Table B.1 Table B.2.1 Table B.2.2 Table B.3. l Table B.3.2 Table B.4.1 Table B.4.2 Table B.5. l Table B.5.2 Table B.6.1 Table B.6.2 Table B.7.1 Table B.7.2 Table B.8.1 Table B.8.2 Table C. 1 Table C.2 Table C.3 Table C.4 Table C.5 Table C.6 Distance and time to nearest facility providing immunisation services according to type of facility, residence, and region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Distance to nearest selected health sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Distance to nearest maternal and child health services for children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Sample implementation: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Sample implementation: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 List of selected variables for sampling errols . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Sampling errors - National sample: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Sampling errors - National sample: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Sampling errors - Urban sample: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Sampling errors - Urban sample: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Sampling errors - Rural sample: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Sampling errors - Rural sample: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Sampling errors - Central region sample: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 190 Sampling errors - Central region sample: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Sampling errors - Eastern region sample: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Sampling errors - Eastern region sample: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Sampling errors - Northern region sample: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Sampling errors - Northern region sample: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Sampling errors - Western region sample: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Sampling errors - Western region sample: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Household age distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women and men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Completeness of reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 Births by calendar years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Reporting of age at death in days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 Reporting of age at death in months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 X Figure 2.1 Figure2.2 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 5.1 Figure6.1 Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3 Figure6.4 Figure7.1 Figure 7.2 Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 Figure 8.3 Figure 8.4 Figure9.1 Figure 10.1 Figure l0.2 Figure 11.1 FIGURES Page Distribution of the household population by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Percentage of the population age 6-24 enrolled in school by age and sex . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Age-specific fertility rates by urban-rural residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Total fertility rates by residence, region, and education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Adolescent childbearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Current use of specific contraceptive methods among currently married women . . . . . 51 Contraceptive use of currently married women 15-49 by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Trends in current contraceptive use among currently married women 15-49 . . . . . . . . 55 Distribution of current users of modem contraceptive methods by source of supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Percent of married women in polygynous unions by background characteristics . . . . . 75 Fertility preferences of currently married women 15-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Fertility preferences of married women by number of living children . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Percent of married women with four children who want no more children by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Ideal family size among women and men by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Trends in infant mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Under-five mortality by selected demographic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Percent distribution of births by antenatal care and delivery characteristics . . . . . . . . 106 Percentage of children age 12-23 months who have received all vaccinations by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Trends in vaccination coverage among children age 12-23 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Prevalence of respiratory illness and diarrhoea in the last two weeks by age of the child . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Nutritional status of children under four years, mean z-scores by age in months . . . . 132 Female adult mortality for the period 0-9 years before the survey, by age, from various sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Male adult mortality for the period 0-9 years before the survey, by age, from various sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Changes in behaviour after leaming about HIV/AIDS, among men and women . . . . 160 xi PREFACE The 1995 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) was conducted in all of the districts of the country except Kitgum District. This was a considerable improvement over the first UDHS which was conducted in 1988-89 and excluded nine districts. The major objectives of the 1995 UDHS were to collect and analyse data on fertility, mortality, family planning, and health. Compared to the 1988-89 UDHS, the present survey was significantly expanded in scope and included questions on the awareness and behaviour regarding AIDS. The 1995 UDHS will therefore provide more detailed findings in addition to updating indicators derived from the 1988-89 UDHS. In the past, Population and Housing Censuses were the only sources of demographic statistics in Uganda. There have been no national demographic surveys and the vital registration system is not yet satisfactorily operational. This emphasises the importance of the two UDHSs in filling the existing gaps in demographic and health statistics. Many government departments contributed to the successful completion of the 1995 UDHS and the prompt publication of this report. However, mention should be made of the staff of the Statistics Department who participated in the planning and the implementation of this survey. The Ministry of Health provided experts who participated in the training of field workers and drafted some of the chapters of the report. A number of the field workers were nurses who were provided by government health institutions. Special thanks go to the Population Secretariat for chairing and hosting all the meetings of the Steering and Technical Committees. Many of the members of these committees were from the Population Secretariat. We also acknowledge the active participation of some international agencies whose contribution led to the success of this survey. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided funds for this survey. Macro International Inc. provided technical and material support. UNICEF contributed greatly in the discussions to determine the content of the questionnaires. I am grateful to the endeavours of government officials at all levels of administration. Finally, special gratitude goes to all the respondents for having spared their valuable time to attend to the interviews which were sometimes lengthy. Commissioner for Statistics Statistics Department Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning xiii SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The 1995 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey (UDHS) is a nationally-representative survey of 7,070 women age 15-49 and 1,996 men age 15-54. The UDHS was designed to provide information on levels and trends of fertility, family planning knowledge and use, infant and child mortality, and maternal and child health. Fieldwork for the UDHS took place from late-March to mid-August 1995. The survey was similar in scope and design to the 1988-89 UDHS. Survey data show that fertility levels may be declining, contraceptive use is increasing, and childhood mortality is declining; however, data also point to several remaining areas of challenge. FERTILITY Fertility Trends. UDHS data indicate that fertility in Uganda may be starting to decline. The total fertility rate has declined from the level of 7.1 births per woman that prevailed over the last 2 decades to 6.9 births for the period 1992-94. The crude birth rate for the period 1992-94 was 48 live births per I000 population, slightly lower than the level of 52 observed from the 1991 Population and Housing Census. For the roughly 80 percent of the country that was covered in the 1988-89 UDHS, fertility has declined from 7.3 to 6.8 births per woman, a drop of 7 percent over a six and a half year period. Fertility Differentials. Some women are apparently leading the fertility decline. For example, fertility levels are substantially lower among urban women (5.0 children per woman on average) than among rural women (7.2 children). Moreover, women who have received some secondary education have the lowest level of fertility, with a total fertility rate of 5.2, compared to a rate of over 7 children per woman for those with either no education or with only primary education, a difference of nearly two children. Age at First Birth. Childbearing begins early in Uganda, with just under half of women becoming mothers by the time they reach age 18 and two-thirds having had a child by the time they reach age 20. The result is that the median age at first birth falls between 18 and 19 years and shows no clear trend over the past three decades. A similar observation was made from data from the 1988-89 UDHS strengthening the conclusion that there has been no real trend in age at first birth in Uganda. Moreover, 43 percent of teenage women (age 15-19) have begun childbearing, with 34 percent having had a child already and 9 percent carrying their first child. There is some evidence that, instead of declining over time, fertility rates among teenagers may in fact be increasing. This remains a challenge to policymakers since UDHS data show that children born to young mothers suffer higher rates of morbidity and mortality. Birth Intervals. The majority of Ugandan children (72 percent) are born after a "safe" birth interval (24 or more months apart), with 30 percent born at least 36 months after a prior birth. Nevertheless, 28 percent of non-first births occur less than 24 months after the preceding birth, with 10 percent occurring less than 18 months since the previous birth. The overall median birth interval is 29 months. Fertility Preferences. Survey data indicate that there is a strong desire for children and a preference for large families in Ugandan society. Among those with six or more children, 18 percent of married women want to have more children compared to 48 percent of married men. Both men and women desire large families. Half of all women report five or more children as ideal and another 30 XV percent want to have four children. Only 6 percent of women report a two-child family as ideal. Men are even more pronatalist than women. Overall, women report a mean ideal number of children of 5.3, compared to 5.8 for men. Despite high fertility preferences, the data indicate that there has been a significant decline in ideal family size among women in Uganda, from an average of 6.5 children in 1988-89 to 5.3 in 1995. Women's desire for additional children has also declined noticeably over the past six years. In 1988-89, 39 percent of married women wanted another child within the next two years compared with only 23 percent of women in 1995. The proportion of women who want no more children increased from 19 percent in 1988-89 to 31 percent in 1995. Unplanned Fertility. Despite the increasing level of contraceptive use, UDHS data indicate that unplanned pregnancies are still common. Overall, almost one-third of births in the three years prior to the survey were reported to be unplanned--22 percent were mistimed (wanted later) and 8 percent were unwanted. If unwanted births could be eliminated altogether, the total fertility rate in Uganda would be 5.6 births per woman instead of the actual level of 6.9. FAMILY PLANNING Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods. Knowledge of contraceptive methods is nearly universal with 92 percent of all women age 15-49 and 96 percent of all men age 15-54 knowing at least one method of family planning. Knowledge of contraceptive methods has increased considerably since the 1988-89 UDHS (which covered about 80 percent of the country). In 1988-89, only 82 percent of all women had knowledge of at least one family planning method compared with 92 percent in 1995. There has also been a large increase over the last six years in the proportion of women who know specific family planning methods. For example, the proportion of women who have heard of condoms has increased from 33 percent in 1988-89 to 78 percent in 1995, and the proportion who have heard of injectables increased from 40 percent to 70 percent during the same period. Increasing Use of Contraception. The contraceptive prevalence rate in Uganda has tripled over a six-year period, rising from about 5 percent in approximately 80 percent of the country surveyed in 1988-89 to 15 percent in 1995. Use of modem methods has increased particularly fast, from 3 percent of married women in 1988-89 to 8 percent in 1995. Use of traditional methods increased from 2 to 4 percent. Methods which have increased the fastest are the pill, injectables, and periodic abstinence. Differentials in Family Planning Use. Differentials in current use of family planning by the four regions of the country are large. One-quarter of married women in the Central Region are current contraceptive users compared to less than 14 percent of women in other regions. Modem method use is highest in the Central Region (16 percent) and lowest in the Northern Region (3 percent). Urban women are much more likely to be using contraceptive methods (35 percent) than rural women (12 percent). The difference between urban and rural women is most pronounced for modem method use (28 percent and 5 percent, respectively), while they are almost equally likely to use traditional and folk methods (6 and 7 percent). There are large differentials in current use by level of education. Eight percent of currently married women with no formal education are currently using a method compared with 38 percent of those with some secondary education. Source of Contraception. Half of current users (47 percent) obtain their methods from public sources, while 42 percent use non-governmental medical sources, and other private sources account for the remaining 11 percent. Govemment hospitals (30 percent) and private hospitals and clinics (30 percent) are the most common sources of contraceptive methods. Forty percent of women say they use their xvi current source because it is close to home, while one-third of women say that they know of no other source for their method. Family Planning Messages. One reason for the increase in level of contraceptive awareness is that family planning messages are prevalent. One-third of the women and over half of the men interviewed reported that they had heard a family planning message in the six months prior to the survey, mostly on the radio. Women in the Northern Region are at a disadvantage, however, with only 14 percent having heard a family planning message compared to 59 percent of women in the Central Region. Unmet Need for Family Planning. UDHS data show that there is a considerable unmet need for family planning services in Uganda. Overall, 29 percent of currently married women are in need of services--18 percent for spacing their next birth and 11 percent for limiting births. If all women who say they want to space or limit their children were to use methods, the contraceptive prevalence rate could be increased from 15 to 44 percent of married women. Currently, 34 percent of this "total demand" for family planning is being met. Availability of Family Planning Services. Family planning services are quite widely available in Uganda. Almost half of married women live within 5 kilometres of a source of family planning and 16 percent live in places with community-based distribution programmes. Fifty-six percent of all family planning users live within 5 km of fixed facilities offering family planning services compared to 45 percent of non-users. However, these programmes do not necessarily provide all contraceptive methods, and women generally have to travel farther to obtain clinical methods such as the IUD and sterilisation than they do to get supply methods such as pills and condoms. Only 5 percent of non-users were visited by a community-based distribution agent during the 12 months before the survey. MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH High Childhood Mortality. Although childhood mortality in Uganda is still quite high in absolute terms, there is evidence of a significant decline in recent years. Currently, the direct estimate of the infant mortality rate is 81 deaths per 1,000 births and under five mortality is 147 per 1,000 births, a considerable decline from the rates of 101 and 180, respectively, that were derived for the roughly 80 percent of the country that was covered by the 1988-89 UDHS. Although encouraging, the 1995 UDHS rates show that almost one in seven children born in Uganda dies before reaching the fifth birthday, an indication that there is still much improvement to be made. Childhood Vaccination Coverage. One possible reason for the declining mortality is improvement in childhood vaccination coverage. The UDHS results show that 47 percent of children age 12-23 months are fully vaccinated, and only 14 percent have not received any vaccinations. This is an improvement from the 31 percent of children who were estimated to have been fully vaccinated in 1988- 89. Nonetheless, a large proportion of children obtain one or two vaccinations but fail to complete the full course. If dropout rates could be reduced, the level of full coverage could be improved still further. Childhood Health. UDHS data indicate high levels of childhood illness. Approximately one in four children under age four had a respiratory illness during the two weeks before the survey. Of these, 61 percent were taken to a health facility for treatment. Almost half of the children under four were reported to have had a fever and one-fourth were reported to have had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey. Two-thirds of the children with diarrhoea received some sort of oral rehydration treatment (fluid made from an oral rehydration salts (ORS) packet, a homemade solution, or increased fluids). Almost three out of four mothers know about the use of sugar-salt-water solutions; yet when asked about specific eating and drinking regimes for sick children, only two-thirds say that a child who xvii is sick with diarrhoea should get more to drink and more than half say a child with diarrhoea should be given less to eat than usual. Breastfeeding Practises. The UDHS results indicate that breastfeeding is almost universally practised in Uganda, with a median duration of almost 20 months. Since breastfeeding has beneficial effects on both the child and the mother, it is encouraging to note that supplementation of breast milk starts relatively late in Uganda. In the first two months, only 17 percent of children have received supplements other than water and breast milk. Within 4-5 months, 57 percent of children are given some form of food supplementation. Also encouraging is the fact that there is negligible use of infant formula and that bottlefeeding is not commonly practised. Childhood Nutritional Status. Overall, 38 percent of Ugandan children under age four are classified as stunted (low height-for-age) and 15 percent as severely stunted. About 5 percent of children under four in Uganda are wasted (low weight-for-height); 1 percent are severely wasted. Comparison with other data sources shows little change in these measures over time. Maternal Health Care. UDHS data point to several encouraging areas regarding maternal health care as well as to some areas in which improvements could be made. Results show that most Ugandan mothers receive antenatal care, 10 percent from a doctor and 82 percent from a nurse or trained midwife. Similady, tetanus toxoid coverage is relatively widespread in Uganda; for 80 percent of births in the four years before the survey, the mothers received at least one tetanus toxoid injection during pregnancy. Somewhat less encouraging is the fact that two out of three births in Uganda are delivered at home and over one-third are assisted by relatives or friends. Less than 40 percent of births are assisted by medically trained personnel. Proper medical attention during pregnancy and hygienic conditions during delivery can reduce the risk of complications and infections that can cause death or serious illness for either the mother or the newborn. AIDS. Virtually all women and men in Uganda are aware of AIDS. About 60 percent of respondents say that limiting the number of sexual partners or having only one partner can prevent the spread of disease. However, knowledge of ways to avoid AIDS is related to respondents' education. Safe patterns of sexual behaviour are less commonly reported by respondents who have little or no education than those with more education. Results show that 65 percent of women and 84 percent of men believe that they have little or no chance of being infected. Availability of Health Services. Roughly half of women in Uganda live within 5 km of a facility providing antenatal care, delivery care, and immunisation services. However, the data show that children whose mothers receive both antenatal and delivery care are more likely to live within 5 km of a facility providing maternal and child health (MCH) services (70 percent) than either those whose mothers received only one of these services (46 percent) or those whose mothers received neither antenatal nor delivery care (39 percent). xviii UGANDA ZAIRE BUNDIBUGYO RUKUNGIRI NTUNGAMO RWANDA SUDAN KAPOHOK'WA KALANGALA 6" ~.=, L~ke V~ KENYA TANZANIA Region Central Eastern Illllll[ltlll Western Northern I - -7 Part of Northern not surveyed XX CHAPTER1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Geography, History, and the Economy Geography The Republic of Uganda is in East Africa within the equatorial zone with the equator cutting across part of the country. It is a landlocked country bordering Kenya in the East, Tanzania and Rwanda in the South, Zaire in the West and Sudan in the North. The country has an area of 241,039 square kilometres, 18 percent of which is open water and swamps and 12 percent forest and game parks. Uganda has a favourable climate because of its relatively high altitude. The Central and Western Regions of the country have two rainy seasons in a year, with heavy rains from March to May and light rains between September and December. The level of rainfall diminishes towards the North turning into just one rainy season a year. The soil composition varies accordingly, being generally fertile in the Central and Western Regions and becoming less fertile as one moves to the East and the North. Due to these combinations of climatic conditions, Uganda varies between tropical rain forest vegetation in the South and savannah woodlands and semi-desert vegetation in the North. These climatic conditions determine the agricultural potential and thus the land's population carrying capacity, with high population densities in the Central and Western Regions and declining densities towards the North. History Uganda became independent of British colonial rule in October 1962. Uganda had close economic linkages with the other two East African countries of Kenya and Tanzania. This was partly because all three countries were British colonies and used English as an administrative language and partly because the three countries formed the East African Community in the late 1960s. Although the Community broke up in 1977, it was revived in early 1996. The country is composed of many tribal groupings of Bantu, Nilotics, Nilo-Hamites, and those of Sudanese origin. Some of these tribal groupings cut across the boundaries with neighbouring countries causing another natural linkage. Some tribal groups historically constituted monarchies or kingdoms which were abolished in the 1960s, but were recently re-introduced. Luganda is the most widely spoken language, followed by Swahili and English. English is the officiaI language of the country. At present, Uganda is divided into four statistical (not administrative) regions--Central, Eastern, Northern and Western (see map). The country is further divided into 39 administrative districts t, which do not necessarily represent tribal groups. Districts are further divided into counties, sub-counties and parishes. In most cases, parishes are divided into sub-parishes. The above system is administered by appointed chiefs. There is also a system of elected administrators which runs parallel to the above hierarchy called the Local Councils (LCs). Their equivalency is as follows: J At the time of the survey design, there were 38 districts. Ntungamo district was gazetted later. Economy District County Sub-county Parish Village or group of villages - Local Council 5 (LC5) - Local Council 4 (LC4) - Local Council 3 (LC3) - Local Council 2 (LC2) - Local Council 1 (LCI). District - Local Council 5 (LC5) i ne ecofibmy is preuomlnanuy agrlcmturaL With river ")~'perc6ht'tft" (i'id'pupulautm uepenuem un subsistence farming and light agro-based industries. Coffee, tea, and cotton are the major earners of Uganda's foreign exchange. The country is self-sufficient in food. During the period of independence from 1962 to 1970, Uganda had a flourishing economy with a gross domestic product (GDP) growth rate of 5 percent per annum, compared to a population growth rate of 2.6 percent per annum. Between 1979 and 1985, Uganda faced a period of civil and military unrest resulting in the destruction of the economic and social infrastructure. This seriously affected the growth of the economy and the provision of social services such as education and health care. Since 1986, however, the National Resistance Movement Government has introduced and implemented a recovery programme which is steadily moving the country towards economic prosperity. For example, during 1994-95, the economy was projected to have grown by 10 percent per annum, much higher than the previous year when the economy grew by 5.5 percent. In the same period, agricultural production increased by 6.1 percent per annum, of which food crop production increased by 7.7 percent per annum. The manufacturing sector grew by 17.7 percent in 1994-95 compared to 15.2 percent in 1993-94 (Statistics Department, 1995d). 1.2 Demographic Statistics In the past, most demographic statistics in Uganda were derived from population censuses which started in 1948. National surveys have not been major sources of demographic statistics due to the small number that have been conducted. Two relevant surveys are the Demographic and Health Surveys of 1988- 89 and of 1995. Other institutions, particularly Makerere University, have conducted small-scale surveys mainly for research purposes. Civil registration has not frequently been used as a source of demographic statistics because its coverage is incomplete, although it was made compulsory in 1973. Efforts to streamline the system were made between 1974 and 1978, but the achievements that were realised were later frustrated by the economic and civil instability between 1979 and 1985. Concrete plans to revive the civil registration system are now underway. Table 1.1 gives the demographic indices as compiled from the censuses since 1948. The table shows that Uganda's population is growing at a high rate because fertility is still high. Mortality is seen to be declining. Table 1.1 Demographic characteristics Selected demographic indicators, Uganda 1948-1991 Census year Index 1948 1959 1969 1980 1991 Population (thousands) 4,958.5 6,536.6 9,535.1 12,636.2 16,671.7 lntercensal growth rate - 2.5 3.9 2.7 2.5 Sex ratio 100.2 100.9 101.9 98.2 96.5 Crude birth rate 42 44 50 50 52 Total fertility rate 5.9 5.9 7.1 7.2 7.1 Crude death rate 25 20 19 20 17 Infant mortality rate 200 160 120 115 122 Percent urban - 4.8 7.8 8.7 I 1.3 Density (pop/kin 2) 25.2 33.2 48.4 64.4 85.0 Source: Statistics Department, 1995b: 27, 56, 139 1.3 Family Planning Programmes and Population Policy Family planning activities in Uganda started in 1957 with the establishment of the Family Planning Association of Uganda (FPAU), an affiliate of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. Since the inception of the FPAU, family planning services have been largely limited to urban centres, despite the fact that over 80 percent of the population resides in rural areas. With the acceptance and introduction of its primary health care strategy, the government since 1984 has integrated family planning into the overall maternal and child health programme as a means of reducing maternal morbidity and mortality in Uganda. Currently, family planning services are provided through clinics administered by FPAU, government, and non-government health institutions. Available data indicate that most users use oral contraceptives, female sterilisation, injectables and condoms, while few couples use IUDs. Natural family planning has gained some support in Uganda. A natural family planning programme organised by the Uganda Catholic Medical Secretariat covers most dioceses in Uganda and provides services through health units and home visits. In 1994, an integrated reproductive health project catled the Delivery of Improved Services for Health (DISH) was initiated by the Ministry of Health with United States Agency for International Development (USAID) funding. The project goals are to reduce total fertility rates and decrease the incidence of HIV infection in 10 of Uganda's 39 Districts. 2 The objective of the project is to increase the availability and utilisation of basic reproductive health services including family planning, diagnosis and treatment of sexually transmitted diseases, HIV testing and counselling, and maternal health services. In 1995, Uganda adopted the National Population Policy which has as its overall goal to influence future demographic trends and patterns in desirable directions in order to improve the quality of life and standard of living of the people. The policy aims at increasing the contraceptive prevalence rate from 7.8 percent to 15 percent by 2000 (Population Secretariat, 1995:28). The policy has separate targets for demographic trends, for health services, and for other social services. 2 The 10 DISH districts are Jinja, Kampala, Kamuli, Kasese, Luwero, Masaka, Masindi, Mbarara, Ntungamo (included in Mbarara District in the UDHS), and Rakai. 1.4 Health Priorities and Programmes According to the National Population Policy, the goal of achieving adequate health services for the entire population is likely to be made more difficult by the prevailing high levels of fertility and mortality and the recent surge in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic. The difficulty will be exacerbated by the expected rapid growth in the population of high risk groups, such as children under age five and women of childbearing age. The geographical distribution of health personnel and health facilites in Uganda does not reflect actual needs. The government runs 60 percent of the 1,398 health institutions, but some of the government- run institutions are in-equipped and in a poor state of repair. The policy also notes that other indices of general health care, such as the number of persons per doctor, sources of antenatal care, the number of babies delivered by trained personnel, and the annual average per capita expenditure on health, are still unsatisfactory. 1.5 Objectives of the 1995 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey The 1995 UDHS was a follow-up to a similar survey conducted in 1988-89. In addition to including most of the same questions included in the 1988-89 UDHS, the 1995 UDHS added more detailed questions on AIDS and maternal mortality, as well as incorporating a survey of men. The general objectives of the 1995 UDHS are to: provide national level data which will allow the calculation of demographic rates, particularly fertility and childhood mortality rates; analyse the direct and indirect factors which determine the level and trends of fertility; measure the level of contraceptive knowledge and practice (of both women and men) by method, by urban-rural residence, and by region; collect reliable data on maternal and child health indicators; immunisation, prevalence, and treatment of diarrhoea and other diseases among children under age four; antenatal visits; assistance at delivery; and breastfeeding; assess the nutritional status of children under age four and their mothers by means of anthropometric measurements (weight and height), and also child feeding practices; and assess among women and men the prevailing level of specific knowledge and attitudes regarding AIDS and to evaluate patterns of recent behaviour regarding condom use. 1.6 Survey Organisation The 1995 UDHS was conducted between March and August 1995 by the Statistics Department of the Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning in collaboration with the Population Secretariat and the Ministry of Health. Technical assistance was provided by the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Programme of Macro International Inc. in Calverton, Maryland. Financial assistance was provided by USAID. The Ugandan Government provided office accommodation, transport, computers, and professional personnel. 4 Sample Design A sample of 303 primary sampling units (PSU) consisting of enumeration areas (EAs) was selected from a sampling frame of the 1991 Population and Housing Census. For the purpose of the 1995 UDHS, the following domains were utilised: Uganda as a whole; urban and rural areas separately; each of the four regions: Central, Eastern, Northern, and Western; areas in the USAID-funded DISH project to permit calculation of contraceptive prevalence rates. Districts in the DISH project area were grouped by proximity into the following five reporting domains: I. II. III. IV. V. Kasese and Mbarara Districts Masaka and Rakai Districts Luwero and Masindi Districts Jinja and Kamuli Districts Kampala District The sample for the 1995 UDHS was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 303 EAs were selected with probability proportional to size. Then, within each selected EA, a complete household listing and mapping exercise was conducted in December 1994 forming the basis for the second-stage sampling. For the listing exercise, 11 listers from the Statistics Department were trained. Institutional populations (army barracks, hospitals, police camps, etc.) were not listed. From these household lists, households to be included in the UDHS were selected with probability inversely proportional to size based on the household listing results. All women age 15-49 years in these households were eligible to be interviewed in the UDHS. In one-third of these selected households, all men age 15-54 years were eligible for individual interview as well. The overall target sample was 6,000 women and 2,000 men. Because of insecurity, eight EAs could not be surveyed (six in Kitgum District, one in Apac District, and one in Moyo District). An additional two EAs (one in Arua and one in Moroto) could not be surveyed, but substitute EAs were selected in their place. Since one objective of the survey was to produce estimates of specific demographic and health indicators for the areas included in the DISH project, the sample design allowed for oversampling of households in these districts relative to their actual proportion in the population. Thus, the 1995 UDHS sample is not self-weighting at the national level; weights are required to estimate national-level indicators. Due to the weighting factor and rounding of estimates, figures may not add to totals. In addition, the percent total may not add to 100.0 due to rounding. Appendix B contains examples of sampling errors for some of the survey variables. Questionnaires Four questionnaires were used in the 1995 UDHS. A Household Schedule was used to list the names and certain individual characteristics of all usual members of the household and visitors who had spent the previous night in the household. Some basic information was collected on characteristics of each person listed, including his/her age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for the individual interview. In addition, the Household Questionnaire collected information on characteristics of the household's dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used for the floor of the house, and ownership of various consumer and durable goods. The Women's Questionnaire was used to collect information from women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics: Background characteristics (education, residential history, etc.) Reproductive history Knowledge and use of family planning methods Fertility preferences Antenatal and delivery care Breastfeeding and weaning practices Vaccinations and health status of children under age four Marriage and sexual activity Husband's occupation and education Woman's employment, occupation, and earnings Awareness and behaviour regarding AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases Adult mortality including maternal mortality Height and weight of children under age four and their mothers. The Men' s Questionnaire was used to collect information from a subsample of men age 15-54 (those living in every third household). The Men's Questionnaire collected much of the same information found in the Women's Questionnaire, but was shorter because it did not contain questions on reproductive history and maternal and child health. The Service Availability Questionnaire was used to collect community level information on the health and family planning services near each selected LC 1 (see section 1.1 for explanation). An enumeration area sometimes consists of more than one LC1. In such cases, one questionnaire was completed for each of the LC I s within the selected enumeration area. The questionnaires were developed in English by a Steering Committee which was chaired by the Population Secretariat. All except the Service Availability Questionnaire were translated into and printed in six major languages (Ateso, Luganda, Lugbara, Luo, Runyankole/Rukiga, and Runyoro/Rutoro). Training and Fieldwork The 1995 UDHS questionnaires were pretested in November 1994. Fourteen interviewers (seven teams of one female and one male interviewer) were trained for two weeks to implement the pretest. The pretest field work in the six local languages was carried out in seven districts for three days. Approximately 150 pretest interviews were conducted, debriefing sessions were subsequently held with the pretest field staff, and modifications to the questionnaire were made based on lessons drawn from the exercise. Training of field staff for the main survey was conducted over a three-week period in March 1995. Permanent staff from the Statistics Department, guest lecturers, and staff and consultants from Macro International Inc. trained 94 interviewers and data entry operators. Computer operators participated in interviewing during the first rounds of fieldwork to acquaint themselves with the questionnaires. The training course consisted of instruction in general interviewing techniques, field procedures, a detailed review of items on the questionnaires, instruction and practice in weighing and measuring children, mock interviews between participants in the classroom, and practice interviews with real respondents in areas outside the 1995 UDHS 6 sample points. Supervisors and editors were trained exclusively for three days to discuss their duties and responsibilities. Emphasis was given to the importance of ensuring data quality. Fieldwork for the 1995 UDHS started in the fourth week of March and ended in mid- August 1995. Ten interviewing teams were deployed, each consisting of one supervisor/team leader, one female field editor, three female interviewers, one male interviewer, one reserve interviewer of either sex, and a driver. In addition, a senior officer from the Statistics Department was assigned to each of the major languages. Data Processing All the questionnaires for the UDHS were returned to the Statistics Department for data processing, which consisted of office editing, coding of open-ended questions, data entry, and editing of computer- identified errors. All data were processed on microcomputers. Data entry and editing were accomplished using the computer program ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis) that was specially designed for the DHS programme. Data processing was performed during April-October 1995. Response Rates A summary of response rates from the household and individual interviews is shown in Table 1.2. Out of 8,093 households selected, 7,671 were occupied, the shortfall being a result mostly of vacant houses. Of the existing households, 7,550 were interviewed, for a response rate of 98 percent. The main reason for non-response was the interviewer's failure to find a respondent at home after at least three visits. In the interviewed households, 7,377 eli- gible women were identified and of these, 7,070 were interviewed, yielding a response rate of 96 percent. In the subsample of households selected for the man's interview, 2,224 eligible men were identified, of which 1,996 were successfully inter- viewed (90 percent response). The principal rea- son for non-response among both eligible men and women was the failure to find them at home de- spite repeated visits to the household. The lower response rate among men than women was due to the more frequent and longer absences of men. Table 1.2 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews, and response rates, Uganda 1995 Residence Result Urban Rural Total Household i n te rv iews Households sampled 2,682 5,411 8,093 Households occupied 2,483 5,188 7,671 Households interviewed 2,410 5,140 7,550 Household response rate 97. I 99.1 98.4 Individual interviews Number of eligible women 2,573 4,804 7,377 Number of eligible women interviewed 2,439 4,631 7,070 Eligible woman response rate 94.8 96.4 95.8 Number of eligible men 766 1,458 2,224 Number of eligible men interviewed 657 1,339 1,996 Eligible man response rate 85.8 91.8 89.7 The response rates are lower in urban areas due to long absence of respondents. One-member households are more common in urban areas and are more difficult to interview as they keep their houses locked up most of the time. In urban settings, neighbours often do not know the whereabouts of such people. CHAPTER2 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS This chapter presents information on some of the socio-economic characteristics of the household population and the individual survey respondents, such as age, sex, marital status, religion, urban-rural residence, and regional distribution. The chapter also considers the conditions surrounding the households in which the survey population live, including source of drinking water, availability of electricity, sanitation facilities, building materials, and persons per sleeping room. 2.1 Population by Age and Sex The 1995 UDHS included a questionnaire to be completed for each household. A household was defined as a person or group of persons that usually live and eat together. Individual socioeconomic characteristics were recorded for all usual residents and visitors who had spent the previous night in the selected households. Table 2.1 shows the distribution of the household population by five-year age groups, according to sex and urban-rural residence. Uganda's population is typically young, showing larger proportions of the population in the younger age groups as clearly seen in the population pyramid (Figure 2.1 ). This implies that as the increasingly larger numbers of women in the younger age groups move into the peak childbearing Table 2.1 Household population by age, residence and sex Percent distribution of the de facto household population by five-year age groups, according to urban-rural residence and sex, Uganda 1995 Urban Rural Total Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 0-4 19.4 17.3 18.3 20.1 19.9 20.0 20.0 19.6 19.8 5-9 14.3 15.8 15,1 18.1 17.5 17.8 17.7 17.3 17,5 10-14 11.7 14.0 12.9 15.1 13.8 14.4 14.7 13.9 14.3 15-19 10.4 12,7 11.6 9.0 8.7 8.9 9.2 9.2 9.2 20-24 10.9 12.2 11,6 6.8 8.4 7.6 7,3 8.9 8.1 25-29 9.9 10,1 10,0 6.3 6.8 6.6 6.7 7.2 7.0 30-34 7.3 6.0 6,6 4.8 5.5 5.1 5,1 5.5 5.3 35-39 5.7 4.1 4.9 4.3 4.4 4.4 4.5 4.4 4.4 40-44 3.2 2.4 2.8 3.2 2.6 2.9 3,2 2.6 2.9 45-49 2.3 1.2 1,7 2.3 1.8 2.0 2,3 1.7 2.0 50-54 1.4 1.6 1.5 2.2 3.3 2.8 2.1 3.0 2.6 55-59 0.9 0,7 0.8 2.0 2.0 2.0 1.8 1.8 1.8 60-64 0.8 0.5 0.7 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.6 1.7 1.7 65-69 0.5 0.5 0.5 1.5 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.1 1.2 70-74 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 75-79 0.1 0.1 0,1 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 0,5 0.5 80+ 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.9 0.7 0.8 0,8 0.6 0.7 Missing/Don't know 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.1 0.2 Total 100.0 100,0 100,0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 2,002 2,261 4,265 15,238 16,062 31,336 17,240 18,323 35,601 Note: Totals include a small number of persons whose sex was not stated. Figure 2.1 Distribution of the Household Population by Age Age 80+ 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 10 5 0 5 10 Percent UDHS 1995 years and start their families, the result will be a high population growth rate for some time to come: The data also show that there are more women than men in Uganda, with women forming 51 percent of the population and men 48 percent. The irregular bulge of women at age 50-54 is indicative of women from ages 45-49 being pushed to the 50-54 age group, perhaps to reduce the workload of the interviewer. There is also an unusually large number of girls age 14 relative to the number age i5 (see Appendix Table C.1), which is presumably due to the same phenomenon. This pattern has been observed in other DHS surveys (Rutstein and Bicego, 1990), but at the levels observed in the UDHS, it probably has little effect on the results. 2.2 Population by Age from Selected Sources The population distribution by broad age groups in Table 2.2 shows that more than half of the population is below 15 years, with a median age of just over 14. Previous censuses or surveys show fairly similar distributions by age. This young population will not only pose constraints on the incomes of their parents, but also on social services like health and education. The dependency ratio I calculated from the 1995 UDHS is 122, which means that there are 1.2 persons under 15 years or over 64 years in Uganda for every person age 15-64 years. 1 The dependency ratio is defined as the sum of all persons under age 15 years and age 65 and over divided by the number of persons age I5-64, multiplied by 100. 10 Table 2.2 Population by age from selected sources Percent distribution of the population by age group, according to selected sources, Uganda, 1969-1995 1995 1995 1969 1988-89 1989-90 199I 1992-93 UDHS UDHS Age group Census UDHS HBS Census IHS (de facto) (de jure) <15 46.2 49.0 50.5 47.3 49.7 51.5 51.4 15-64 50.0 48.6 46.3 49.4 47.0 45.0 45.2 65+ 3.8 2.4 3.2 3.3 3.3 3.3 3.3 Not stated 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median age 17.2 NA 14.8 16.3 15.7 14.4 14.4 Dependency ratio 100 106 I 16 102 I 13 122 121 NA = Not applicable UDHS = Uganda Demographic and Health Survey HBS = National Household Budget Survey IHS -- National Integrated Household Survey Sources: Statistics Department, 1995b:72 Statistics Department, 1994: Section 1.51.07; Statistics Department, 1991: Table 2.10. 2.3 Household Composition Information about the composition of house- holds is given in Table 2.3. In both urban and rural areas, about three-quarters of the households are headed by males and about one-quarter are female-headed. Households with one or two members constitute one- quarter of all households. This category of households is more common in urban areas (32 percent) than in ru- ral areas (22 percent). There are consistently higher per- centages of larger households in rural than in urban areas. Hence, the mean household size is higher in rural areas (4.8) than in urban areas (4.2). Overall, the aver- age household size is 4.8, identical to the figure deter- mined from the 1991 population and housing census (Statistics Department, 1995c:9). One-quarter of households have foster children, that is, children under age 15 living in a household with neither their biological mother nor father present. The high proportion of households with foster children cer- tainly intensifies the economic burden on the heads of these households. With the current high prevalence of AIDS, the percentage of households with foster children in Uganda is likely to rise even higher. Table 2,3 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household, household size, and whether household includes toster children, according to urban-rural residence, Uganda 1995 Characteristic Residence Urban Rural Total Household headship Male 72,3 76.1 75.6 Female 27.7 23.8 24.4 Number of usual members 1 16.3 9.9 10.7 2 16.1 11.6 12.2 3 15.8 14.4 14.6 4 13.0 14.7 14.5 5 12.3 12.8 12.8 6 8.3 11.9 I 1.4 7 6.5 8.8 8.5 8 4.4 6.0 5.7 9+ 7.3 9.8 9.5 Total Mean size 100.0 100.0 100.0 4.2 4.8 4.8 Percent with foster children 26.1 25.0 25.1 Note: Table is based on de jure members, i.e., usual residents. 11 2.4 Fosterhood and Orphanhood Information regarding fosterhood and orphanhood of children under 15 years of age is presented in Table 2.4. Fifty-seven percent of children under 15 years of age are living with both their parents, 18 percent are living with their mothers (but not with their fathers), 6 percent are living with their fathers (but not with their mothers) and 17 percent are living with neither their natural father nor natural mother. Of children under 15 years of age, 10 percent have lost their fathers and 5 percent have lost their mothers. Two percent of children have lost both their natural parents. Table 2.4 Fosterhood and orphanhood Percent distribution of de facto children under age 15 by survival status of parents and child's living arrangements, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Living Living with mother with father Not living with Missing/ but not father but not mother either parent Don't Living know if with Father Mother father/ Number both Father Father Mother Mother Both only only Both mother of Characteristic parents alive dead alive dead alive alive alive dead alive Total childlen Age 0-2 72.1 19.6 2.0 I.I 0.3 3.5 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.7 100.0 4.278 3-5 62.2 13.3 3.7 4.5 1.0 10.2 1.3 1.9 0.9 0.9 100.0 4,169 6-8 54.5 10.7 4.5 5.3 2.3 13.5 1.5 4.3 19 1.4 100.0 3,773 9-11 48.1 10.1 6.2 6.0 2.9 15.1 1.6 4.4 3.7 1.9 100.0 3,061 12+ 42.6 9.2 7.8 6.2 3.3 14.5 2.3 6.9 3.6 3.6 I00.0 3,067 Sex Male 57.5 12.9 4.8 4.8 2.1 9.8 1.3 3.3 1.9 1.6 100.0 9,1126 Female 57.2 13.1 4.4 4.1 1.5 11.8 1.2 3.3 1.9 1.6 100.0 9,291 Residence Urban 50.0 14.6 4.7 6.0 1.6 12.2 2.1 4.0 2.9 1.9 100.0 1,977 Rural 58.2 12.8 46 42 1.8 10.7 12 3.2 1.7 1.5 100.0 16,371 Region Central 46.7 13.9 4.6 6.1 2.1 15.4 2.4 4.3 2.9 1.5 100.0 4,794 Eastern 60.9 13.3 27 4.1 1.6 10.9 0.8 2.5 1.2 2.0 100.0 4,421 Northern 61.7 13.3 4.8 2.1 1.8 9.1 0.8 4.0 12 1.2 100.0 3,461 Western 60.7 11.9 59 4.7 1.7 8.0 1.0 2.7 1.9 1.5 100.0 5,672 Total 57.3 13.0 4.6 4.4 1.8 10.8 1.3 3.3 1.9 1.6 100.0 18,348 Note: By convention, fiJster children are those who are not living with either parent. This includes orphans, i.e. children whose parents are both dead. Total includes a few persons whose sex was not stated. 2.5 Educat iona l Level of Household Populat ion Education has many positive effects on an individual's way of life. It affects many aspects of life, including demographic and health behaviour. As will be seen in the rest of this report, educational level is strongly associated with reproductive behaviour, contraceptive use, fertility, and infant and child mortality. Table 2.5 shows the distribution of female and male household members age six and above by the highest level of education ever attended (although not necessarily completed), and the median number of years of education completed according to selected background characteristics. 12 Table 2.5 Educational level of the female and male household population Percent distribution of the de facto female and male household population age six and over by highest level of education attended, and median number of years of schooling, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Don't Median Background No edu- know/ years of characteristic cation Primary Secondary missing Total Number schooling FEMALE Age 6-9 36.6 62.3 0.0 1.0 100.0 2,451 0.7 10-14 15.0 82.7 2.0 0.3 100.0 2,539 2.8 15-19 18.6 64.8 16.0 0.7 1{30.0 1,685 5.0 20-24 22.7 60.3 16.3 0.7 100.0 1,626 4.9 25-29 33.7 50.0 15.7 0.6 100.0 1,328 4.3 30-34 43.2 44.9 I1.1 0.8 100.0 1,011 2.7 35-39 40.6 49.2 8.5 1.7 100.0 803 3.0 40-44 49.9 41.8 7 8 0.5 I 0O.0 471 1.0 45-49 55.5 38.3 4.4 1.8 100.0 318 0.0 50-54 73.6 23.2 1.0 2.2 100.0 559 0.0 55-59 79.6 18.8 0.5 I.I 100.0 336 0.0 60-64 76.4 19.6 0.6 3.4 100.0 320 0.0 65+ 85.2 12.7 0.2 1.9 100.0 555 0.0 Missing/Don't know 55.8 283 0.0 15.9 100.0 20 0.0 Residence Urban 15.2 57.7 25.5 17 10O.0 1,795 53 Rural 386 55.8 4.7 0.8 100.0 12,227 1.4 Region Central 20.5 64.6 13.5 1.4 100.0 3,809 3.8 Eastern 34.9 57.5 6.6 1.0 100.0 3,339 1.9 Northern 52.0 438 3.6 0.6 100.0 2,721 0.0 Western 39.2 55.1 49 0.8 100.0 4,154 1.2 Total 35.6 561 74 1.0 100.0 14,022 1.9 MALE Age 6-9 34.0 65.3 0.0 0.7 100.0 2,368 0.7 10-14 9.6 88.7 17 0.0 100.0 2,527 2.9 15-19 7.4 73.6 188 0.3 100.0 1,582 5.4 20-24 86 63.4 26.9 1.1 100.0 1,258 6.5 25-29 107 60.3 27.5 1.5 100.0 1,160 6.6 30-34 14.1 55.9 28.2 1.9 100.0 873 6.5 35-39 166 60.4 21.5 1.6 100.0 777 6.1 40-44 17.8 59.6 18.9 3.7 100.0 554 6.1 45-49 18.4 61.6 18.6 1.4 100.0 390 6.0 50-54 22.3 67.5 7.8 2.4 100.0 370 4.7 55-59 32.2 59.3 7.1 1.4 100.0 319 4.2 60-64 40.1 55.3 2.2 2.4 100.0 279 2.7 65+ 54.8 40.2 2.6 2.4 100.0 607 0.0 Missing/Don't know 15.8 37.1 15.6 31.4 100.0 45 5.8 Residence Urban 7.6 54.3 35.2 2.9 100.0 1,540 6.8 Rural 20.2 69. I 9.7 1.0 100.0 11,569 3.4 Region Central 13.5 63.8 19.7 3.0 100.0 3,501 4.4 Eastern 17.1 702 118 0.9 100.0 3,152 3.7 Northern 20.9 68.1 10.7 0.2 100.0 2,590 3.7 Western 23.4 67.7 8.4 0.4 100.0 3,867 3.1 Total 18.7 67.4 12.7 1.2 100.0 13,110 3.7 13 There is a strong differential in educational attainment between the sexes, especially as age increases. More than one-third of women (36 percent) in Uganda have never been to school, compared to only 19 percent of men. The median number of years of schooling is 1.9 for women and 3.7 for men. Moreover, in almost every age group, there are smaller proportions of men than women with no education and larger proportions of men than women with secondary education. However, over time, the sex differential has been narrowing; differences in educational attainment between school-age boys and girls have become almost insignificant. Education has become more widespread over time in Uganda. This is apparent from the differences in levels of educational attainment by age groups. A steadily decreasing percentage of both males and females have never attended school in the younger age groups. For men, the proportion who have never attended school decreases from 55 percent in the oldest age group (65 years or more) to 10 percent among those age 10-14; for women the decline is more striking, from 85 percent to 15 percent. The relatively high proportion of girls and boys age 6-9 who have never been to school is presumably due to hindrances like long distances to the nearest school and parents who consider these children to be too young to start schooling. Uganda has not yet attained compulsory universal primary education. Educational attainment is higher in urban areas than in rural areas. The percentage with no education is lower and the percentage with secondary education is higher for urban than for rural women and men. Also the median number of years of schooling is higher in urban than rural areas (5.3 vs. 1.4 percent, respectively for women, and 6.8 vs. 3.4 percent for men). The Central Region has the most educated population, with the lowest proportion of both women and men with no education and the highest proportion with secondary education. Interestingly, the Northern Region appears to be the least advantageous for women, with over half of the women in this region having no education. However, men living in the Northern region are not significantly disadvantaged educationally, while those in the Western region have the lowest educational attainment. 2.6 School Enrolment Table 2.6 presents the school enrolment ratios by age group, sex, and residence of the population age 6-24 years. A school enrolment ratio is the number of enrolled persons at a specific age group per hundred persons in that particular age group. Sixty-eight percent of the population age 6-15 are in school; urban Table 2.6 School enrolment Percentage of the de facto household population age 6-24 years enrolled in school, by age group, sex, and urban- rural residence, Uganda 1995 Age group Male Female Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total 6-10 79.5 63.6 65.1 75.9 60.8 62.5 77.5 62.2 63.7 11-15 77.4 77.4 77.4 67.9 67.9 67.9 71.9 72.9 72.8 6-15 78.6 69.6 70.4 72.2 63.7 64.8 75.0 66.7 67.6 16-20 40.5 38.1 38.5 22.7 12.5 14.3 30.1 24.5 25.4 21-24 15.0 11.8 12.4 4.6 2.8 3.1 9.4 6.7 7.2 14 enrolment (75 percent) is higher than rural enrolment (67 percent). Urban enrolment is also higher for those in age group 16-24. Figure 2.2 shows that the ratio of school enrolment is nearly the same for boys as well as girls in age group 6-10, but that girls tend to drop out at an earlier stage than boys. By age 21-24, 3 percent of women and 12 percent of men are still in school. Figure 2.2 Percentage of the Population Age 6-24 Enrolled in School by Age and Sex Percent IO0 80 6O 40 20 0 6-10 11-15 '~6-20 21-24 Age Group UDHS 1995 2.7 Housing Characteristics Respondents were asked questions about certain characteristics of their households, including electricity, source of drinking water, time to water source, type of toilet facility, floor materials, number of rooms used for sleeping, use of iodised salt, and basic assessment of consumption. Information on these characteristics is useful from a public health point of view, as well as indirectly in reflecting the household' s socio-economic status. This information on housing characteristics is given in Table 2.7. Only 7 percent of Ugandan households have electricity. Access to electricity is concentrated in urban areas, where 40 percent of the households have electricity, compared to a mere 2 percent of rural households. The source of drinking water is important since waterborne diseases, including diarrhoea and dysentery, are numerous in Uganda. Sources of water expected to be relatively free of these diseases are piped water, boreholes, springs, rainwater, and bottled water. Other sources like wells, rivers and streams, ponds and lakes, and gravity water are more likely to carry one or more of the above diseases. Table 2.7 shows that only 7 percent of all households in Uganda have access to piped water; 45 percent of urban 15 Table 2.7 Housing characteristics Percent distribution of households by housing characteristics, according to urban-rural residence, Uganda 1995 Residence Characteristic Urban Rural Total Electricity Yes 40.2 1.5 6.8 No 59.7 98.4 93.2 Missing/Don't know 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source of drinking water Piped into residence 12.7 0,1 1.8 Public tap 31.9 1.0 5.2 Well ill residence 0.8 0.1 0.2 Public well 17.9 23.2 22.5 Borehole 13.5 17.0 16.6 Spring 17.8 25,8 24.7 River/stream 1.3 15.3 13.4 Pond/lake 1.0 15.2 13.3 Gravity flow scheme 1.2 1.5 1.5 Rainwater 0.4 0.4 0.4 Bottled water 0.2 0.0 0.0 Other 1.4 0.2 0.4 Missing/Don't know 0.0 0,1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Time to water source (minutes) <15 minutes 49.6 16.3 20.8 Median time to source 15.0 30.6 30.5 Sanitation facility Own flush toilet 6,3 0.1 0.9 Shared flush toilet 3.0 0.2 0.6 Traditional pit toilet 80,1 76.2 76.8 Vcntilaled improved pit latrine 6.2 0.9 1.6 No lacilily/bush 2,8 21.9 19.4 Olhcr 1.6 0.5 0,6 Missing/Don't know 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Floor material Earth/sand 27.7 69.3 63.7 Dung 5.2 23.4 20.9 Parquet/polished wood 0.3 0,0 0.1 Vinyl/asphalt strip 0.7 0.0 0.1 Ceramic tiles 0.2 0.0 0.0 Cement 65.5 6.8 14.7 Other 0.1 0.1 0.1 Missil'~g/Don't know 0.2 0.4 0.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Table 2.7--Continued Percent distribution of households by housing characteristics, according to urban-rural residence, Uganda 1995 Characteristic Residence Urban Rural Total Persons per sleeping room 1-2 47.0 51.7 51.1 3-4 34.1 33.4 33.5 5-6 13.5 10.2 10.6 7+ 4.6 3.9 4.0 Missing/Don't know 0.7 0.8 0.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean persons per room 3.0 2.9 2.9 Iodine reading (parts per million) 0 8.5 34.4 30.9 25 3.3 8.0 7.3 50 7.3 9.2 9.0 75 44.9 25.3 27.9 100 32.5 19.2 21.0 Missing/Don't know 3.6 3.9 3.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Level of household food consumption Surplus 4.0 2.2 2.4 Not surplus or deficit 38.0 21.5 23.7 Occasionally deficit 37.0 39.1 38.8 Always deficit 20.6 37.0 34.8 Don't know 0.0 0.1 0.1 Missing 0.4 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households 1,020 6,530 7,550 16 households and only one percent of rural household have access to piped water. Over 40 percent of rural households get their drinking water from boreholes and springs, while 31 percent use less safe sources such as rivers, ponds, and lakes. In urban areas, half of the households can draw water within 15 minutes, compared to only 16 percent of rural households. Households with no toilet facilities are more exposed to the risk of diseases like dysentery, diarrhoea, and typhoid fever. Overall, about one in five Ugandan households have no toilet facilities. This problem is more common in rural areas, where 22 percent of the households had no toilet facilities, as compared to 3 percent of households in urban areas. Most households (77 percent) in Uganda use traditional pit toilets; this is true in both urban and rural areas. The type of material used for the floor may be viewed as an indicator of the quality of housing as well as an indicator of health risk. Some flooring materials like earth, sand, and cow dung may pose a health problem since they may be breeding grounds for pests like ticks and jiggers and may be a source of dust. They are also difficult to keep clean since they are not washable. Almost all rural households (93 percent) have floors made of earth, sand, or cow dung, compared to only 33 percent of urban households. On the other hand, 66 percent of the households in urban areas have cement floors, compared to only 7 percent of the households in rural areas. In general, rural households have poorer quality floors than urban households. The more luxurious floors such as those made from tiles, vinyl, or wood account for a negligible percentage of the households. The 1995 UDHS collected data on the number of rooms used for sleeping. The number of persons per sleeping room is a measure of overcrowding. There is an average 2.9 persons per sleeping room. Lack of a sufficient amount of iodine in the diet can lead to major nutritional deficiencies such as goiter, nutritional stunting, mental retardation, and cretinism. Many foods, particularly in the mountainous and flood-prone districts, lack natural iodine such that the population has started showing the effects of iodine deficiency and an increased prevalence of goiter. The government therefore initiated a campaign in December 1994 to introduce iodine in salt in order to overcome this deficiency. In order to evaluate this program, UDHS interviewers tested salt from each household for its iodine content. 2 The tests indicated that 31 percent of Ugandan households use un-iodised salt, while 69 percent of households use salt with iodine content. Among the urban households surveyed, the proportion that use iodised salt is 88 percent compared with 62 percent in rural households. The Ugandan government has undertaken a campaign to implement iodine coverage in 90 percent of the households by the year 2000. In the 1995 UDHS, respondents were asked whether they thought their household was a surplus or deficit household in terms of food consumption. Over one-third of Ugandan households indicated that they always have a shortage of food, while another 39 percent have occasional deficits. Only one in four households in Uganda were reported as having either enough or a surplus of food. Food deficits are more common among rural than urban households. Thirty-seven percent of rural households reported that their level of food supply was always in deficit, compared to 21 percent of urban households. 2.8 Household Durable Goods Respondents were asked about the household ownership of particular durable goods. Ownership of radio and television is a measure of access to mass media; telephone ownership measures access to an 2 Tests involved putting a small amount of salt on a piece of paper and then putting a drop of a special solution onto the salt and recording the intensity of the blue color that appears. Test kits were supplied by UNICEF/Uganda. 17 efficient means of communication; refrigerator ownership indicates the capacity for hygienic food storage; and ownership of a bicycle, motorcycle, or private car shows the means of transport available to the household. Information on ownership of these items is presented in Table 2.8. Radio is a more widespread medium in Uganda than television, with almost 40 percent of households having a radio, compared to only 3 percent with a television. Both radio and television ownership is higher in urban than rural households; 67 percent of urban households and 33 percent of rural households own a radio and 17 percent of urban households and less than 1 percent of rural households own a television. Telephone service and ownership of refrigerators are extremely low and only available in urban households. Table 2.8 shows that slightly over one-third of households own bicycles. Bicycles are more common in rural areas, while cars and motorcycles are almost exclu- sively owned by urban households. About half of the ru- ral households and 27 percent of the urban households do not own any of the above durable goods. 2.9 Background Characteristics of Respondents Background characteristics of the 7,070 women and 1,996 men interviewed individually in the UDHS are presented in Table 2.9. 3 The age distribution of the respondents shows a similar pattern for women and men, with the proportion of respondents in each group declining with increasing age. Forty-five percent of women and 38 percent of men are in the range 15-24, and 32 percent of women and 31 percent of men are in the 25-34 year age group. Table 2,8 Household durable goods Percentage of households possessing various durable consumer goods, by urban-rural residence, Uganda 1995 Residence Durable good Urban Rural Total Radio 67.2 32.8 37.5 Television 17.3 0.6 2.9 Telephone 2.4 0.1 0.4 Refrigerator 4.8 0.1 0.7 Bicycle 24.5 35.7 34.2 Motorcycle 1.7 0.6 0.7 Private car 5.4 0.7 1.3 None of the above 26.8 51.0 47.7 Number of households 1,020 6,530 7,550 About 85 percent of both women and men live in rural areas, while 15 percent live in urban areas. Respondents are roughly equally divided among the four regions, with slightly more living in Central region. Three in I 0 respondents live in areas covered by the DISH project (see Chapter I for description of the DISH project). The proportion of women who have never attended school is more than twice that of men (31 vs. 12 percent). Seventy-three percent of women, compared with 63 percent of men are either currently married or living with partners. Male respondents were much more likely than female respondents to have never married (30 vs. 16 percent). Forty-four percent of women respondents are Catholic, while 40 percent are Protestant and 12 percent are Muslim; male respondents had a similar distribution by religion. 3 Throughout the report, comparisons between men and women are affected by the different age limits used. 18 Table 2.9 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women and men by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Women Men Number of women Number of men Background Weighted Un- Weighted Un- characteristic percent Weighted weighted percent Weighted weighted Age 15-19 22.7 1,606 1,624 19.4 387 375 20-24 22.0 1,555 1,567 18.4 367 379 25-29 18.0 1,270 1,323 18.0 359 381 30-34 13.8 976 987 13.0 259 256 35-39 11.1 783 743 12.5 250 249 40-44 7. I 499 475 8.1 162 158 45-49 5.4 380 351 5.9 118 109 50-54 NA NA NA 4.7 95 89 Residence Urban 14.9 1,055 2,439 14.1 281 657 Rural 85.1 6,015 4,631 85.9 1,715 1,339 Region Central 27.8 1,967 2,218 28.5 568 641 Eastern 24.6 1,738 1,911 24.9 497 546 Northern 19.7 1,398 1,136 21.0 419 331 Western 27.8 1,968 1,805 25.6 51 I 478 DISH project region Kasese, Mbarara (I) 8.0 564 632 7.9 159 175 Masaka, Rakai (It) 6.7 476 520 6.9 138 152 Lawero, Masindi (Ill) 3.1 222 197 3.6 672 63 Kamuli, Jinja (IV) 4.8 341 601 4.2 85 164 Kampala (V) 7.1 502 541 7.1 141 155 Non-DISH district 70.2 4,494 4,579 70.2 1,401 1,287 DISH district 29.8 2,106 2,491 29.8 595 709 Education No education 30.6 2,161 1,808 I 1.6 232 199 Primary 56.0 3,956 3,901 63.1 1,259 1,174 Secondary+ 13.5 952 1,361 25.3 504 623 Current marital status Never married 15.7 1,107 1,272 29.7 592 610 Currently in union 72.6 5,134 4,898 62.7 1,252 1,241 Past union I 1.7 825 899 7.6 152 145 Missing 0.1 5 1 0.0 0 0 Religion Catholic 43.8 3,096 2,994 46.7 931 900 Protestant 40.4 2,853 2,860 40.6 811 833 Muslim 1 1.8 836 899 9.7 193 199 Seventh Day Adventist 1.3 93 108 0.9 18 22 Other 2.7 189 206 1.9 38 37 Total 100.0 NA = Not applicable 7,070 7,070 100.0 1,996 1,996 t9 2.10 Characteristics of Couples Because the men who were interviewed indi- vidually in the UDHS were selected from the same households in which women were interviewed, it is possible to match married men with their wives to form a sample of couples. The result does not exactly repre- sent all married (or cohabiting) couples in Uganda, since not all couples live together. Nevertheless, the sample of 1,109 couples can be viewed as a reasonable reflection of men and women who are living together. Table 2.10 presents data on the age and education at- tainment between spouses? In one-third of Ugandan couples, the husband is 0-4 years older than his wife, while in 37 percent of couples, the husband is 5-9 years older than his wife. In only 8 percent of the couples, the wife's age was older than her husband's. On average, men are a little more than six years older than their wives. In the majority of couples (60 percent), both spouses have at least some education. In 29 percent of couples, the husband has some education and the wile has none, while in only 4 percent of the couples, the wife has some education and the husband none. Cases in which neither spouse has been to school make up 7 percent of all the couples. Table 2.10 Differential characteristics between spouses Percent distribution of couples by differences between spouses in age and level of education, Uganda 1995 Number Percent/ of Years couples Age difference (percent) (husband minus wife) Wife older 8.0 88 0-4 years 33.5 371 5-9 years 37.1 411 10-14 years 15.4 171 15 years + 6.1 67 Mean age difference (years) 1st wife 6,2 1,073 2nd wile+ (10.1) 36 Education (percent) Both husband and wife not educated 7.4 82 Wife educated, husband not 4.2 46 Husband educated, wife not 28.5 315 Both husband and wife educated 60.0 665 Total 100.0 1,109 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 2.11 Educational Level of Survey Respondents Table 2.11 shows the percent distributions of female and male respondents by highest level of education attended, according to age, urban-rural residence, and region. The percentage of women with no education rises with age, from 17 percent in the 15-19 age group to 53 percent in the age group 45-49. This means that the younger women have had better chances of education than the older women. This is again reflected by the higher percentage of you nger women with some secondary education ( 16 percent), compared with the 45-49 age group (4 percent). Rural women are educationally disadvantaged compared to urban women. Over one-third of rural women age 15-49 have no education, compared to only 11 percent of urban women. Conversely, 40 percent of urban women have been to secondary school, compared to only 9 percent of rural women. Women living in the Central region are better educated than those living in other regions, while those living in the Northern region are the least well-educated. As mentioned before, men are generally better educated than women. While 31 percent of women age 15-49 have had no formal education, only 12 percent of men age 15-54 have had no schooling. Unlike 4 Data on age and educational attainment were taken from the respondent's questionnaire and not from what his/her spouse reported. 20 Table 2.11 Level of education by background characteristics Percent distribution of respondents by highest level of education attended, according to 1995 age, residence, and region, Uganda Level of education: women Level of education: men Background No Number No Number characteristic education Primary Secondary+ Total of women education Primary Secondary+ Total of men Age 15-19 16.5 67.2 16.2 100.0 1,606 4.4 67.7 27.9 100.0 387 20-24 22.2 61.8 16.0 100.0 1,555 10.0 60.1 29.9 100.0 367 25-29 31.6 52.8 15.7 100.0 1,270 I 1.7 64.6 23.8 100.0 359 30-34 38.8 49.2 12.0 100.0 976 9.6 56,5 33.9 100.0 259 35-39 41.9 48.5 9.6 100.0 783 16.2 61.1 22.7 100.0 250 40-44 48.2 44.7 7.1 100.0 499 17.7 63.5 18.8 100.0 162 45-49 53.3 42.4 4.3 I00.0 380 21.6 65.3 13.1 100.0 118 50-54 NA NA NA NA NA 17.7 70.6 11.7 100.0 95 Residence Urban 10.6 49.8 39.7 100.0 1,055 5.4 37.5 57.2 100.0 281 Rural 34.1 57.0 8.9 100.0 6,015 12.6 67.3 20.1 100.0 1,715 Region Central 14.4 62.0 23.6 100.0 1,967 9.7 52.3 38.0 100.0 568 Eastern 29.6 58.4 12.0 100.0 1,738 12.2 65.1 22.7 100.0 497 Northern 47.6 46.0 6.5 100.0 1,398 9.8 69.3 20.9 100.0 419 Western 35.6 54.8 9.5 100.0 1,968 14.7 68,1 17.2 100.0 511 Total 30.6 56.0 13.5 100.0 7,070 I 1.6 63.1 25.3 I00.0 1,996 NA = Not applicable women, the proportion of men with no education does not seem to follow any clear pattern by age group, although the proportion with some secondary education does show a clear increase among younger men. The urban-rural distribution of educational attainment for males is similar to that of females. Similar to women, men in the Central Region are most likely to be educated; however, men in the Western Region appear to be the least educated. 2.12 School Attendance and Reasons for Leaving School Women age 15 to 24 years who had ever been to school, but who were not currently attending school were asked in the UDHS why they had stopped attending school. One of the most important determinants of a woman's social and economic status is her level of education. Knowledge of the reasons why women leave school can provide guidance for policies designed to enhance women's status. Table 2.12 shows the percent distribution of women age 15-24 who had ever been to school by whether they were currently attending school and if not, the reason for stopping, according to the highest level of school attended. Of those who left school, the vast majority reported that they left because they could not afford the fee. This is especially tree for those women who left without completing primary school and those who completed primary but did not continue. Once women start attending secondary school, school costs are still the primary reason for leaving, but 15 percent of women who left school after starting secondary did so because they were pregnant. 21 Table 2.12 School attendance and reasons for leaving school Percent distribution of women age 15-24 who have ever attended school by whether currently attending school and, if not, the reason tot leaving school, according to highest level of education attended, Uganda 1995 Educational attainment Reason for Incomplete Complete Incomplete leaving school primary primary secondary Total Currently attending 8.6 6.6 42.9 14.9 Got pregnant 4.0 6.4 14.5 6.3 Got married 4.4 7.0 2.5 4.3 Take care of younger children 2.2 0.0 0.4 1.6 Family need help 1.7 0.4 0.0 1.2 Could not pay school fees 68.0 70.7 31.6 61.4 Need to earn money 0.3 0.8 0.3 0.4 Graduated/enough school 0.0 0.0 2.3 0.4 Did not pass exams 0.5 1.8 1.3 0.8 Did not like school 3.1 3.0 1.0 2.7 School not accessible 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.2 Other 4.8 2.5 1.8 4.0 Don't know/missing 2.1 0.8 1.4 1.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 1,757 285 483 2,525 Note: Excluded are 22 women who completed secondary school. 2.13 Exposure to Mass Media In the 1995 UDHS, respondents were asked if they usually read a newpaper at least once a week and how often they watch television and listen to the radio. It is important to know which groups of people are more or less likely to be reached by the media for purposes of planning health and family planning programmes. Table 2.13 shows the percentage of female and male respondents exposed to different types of mass media by age, urban-rural residence, region, and level of education. Results show that 19 percent of women and 34 percent of men read newspapers or magazines at least once a week, while only 6 percent of women and 4 percent of men watch television at least once a week and 33 percent of women and 61 percent of men listen to the radio every day. Three percent of respondents (both male and female) access all three media. However, 60 percent of women and 32 percent of men do not use any of these mass media. Access to media is somewhat higher among younger women and men and among those living in urban as opposed to rural areas. As expected, educated persons are more likely to read the newspaper, watch television, and listen to the radio than less educated persons. 22 Table 2.13 Access to mass media Percentage of women and men who usually read a newspaper once a week, watch television once a week, or listen to radio daily, by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Women Men Mass media Mass media Read Watch Listen Read Watch Listen No news- tele- to All Number No news- tele- to All Number Background mass paper vision radio three of mass paper vision radio three of characteristic media weekly weekly daily media women media weekly weekly daily media men Age 15-19 56.8 22.7 8.2 33.4 4.1 1,606 31.4 28.5 4.8 43.6 2.4 387 20-24 58.1 19.2 5.7 35.3 3.5 1,555 31.3 32.7 5.5 46.0 5.0 367 25-29 57.3 19.7 5.9 36.1 3.5 1,270 34.8 31.6 2.7 35.7 2.5 359 30-34 61.5 17.9 4.3 33.3 3.0 976 25.7 46.3 4.4 44.9 3.0 259 35-39 62.3 19.5 3.5 30.2 2.3 783 32.9 36.7 4.0 42.9 3.2 250 40-44 64.9 14.5 3.1 29.4 1.6 499 36.2 31.6 2.0 37.9 1.2 162 45-49 65.4 14.3 1.9 28.3 1.4 380 28.6 32.8 1.5 48.0 1.5 118 50-54 NA NA NA NA NA NA 43.9 31.0 1.4 38.0 1.4 95 Residence Urban 26.7 45.1 26.2 59.4 14.9 1,055 7.8 68.8 23.7 73.5 18.8 281 Rural 65.2 14.8 1.8 28.8 1.1 6,015 36.3 28.1 0.6 37.1 0.3 1,715 Region Central 28.4 39.4 15.3 60.8 9.6 1,967 17.3 45.0 10.0 59.6 7.5 568 Eastern 67.4 12.0 3.5 26.8 1.5 1,738 42.1 23.6 2.8 40.6 2.3 497 Northern 80.5 8.4 0.1 15.5 0.0 1,398 35.4 42.6 0.0 27.1 0.0 419 Western 68.6 13.6 1.1 24A 0.6 1,968 36.7 24.0 1.1 36.9 0.6 511 Education No education 84.4 0.8 0.5 15.(I 0.0 2,161 61.6 0.4 0.2 23.0 0.0 232 Primary 55.4 19.5 4.3 36.6 2.1 3,956 36.1 25.1 1.4 35.8 0.8 1,259 Secondary+ 19.9 60.7 21.4 61.7 14.9 952 9.3 70.8 I 1.5 67.2 9.4 504 Total 59.5 19.3 5.5 33.4 3.2 7,070 32.3 33.8 3.8 42.2 2.9 1,996 NA = Not applicable 2.14 Employment The 1995 UDHS collected information from women regarding their current employment situation. Table 2.14 shows that 39 percent of women are not working, while 61 percent are employed, with 42 percent employed all year, 16 percent employed seasonally, and 3 percent employed occasionally. There are proportionally more women who work seasonally in rural areas (17 percent) than in urban areas (9 percent). However, urban and rural women are almost equally likely to be working full-time (40 vs. 38 percent). Regional differences show that women in the Northern Region are by far the least likely to be working, with over three-quarters not currently employed. Regular full-time work tends to increase and seasonal work decreases with increasing level of education. 23 Table 2.14 Employment Percent distribution of women by employment status and continuity of employment, according to background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Not currently employed Currently employed Did not work Worked All year in last in Background 12 last 12 5+days <5 days Season- Occasion- characteristic months months per week per week ally ally Missing Total Number Age 15-19 47.5 4.8 29.5 2.7 12.8 2.6 0.1 100,0 1,606 20-24 37,3 2.8 36.9 4.2 16.6 2.2 0.0 100.0 1,555 25-29 34,5 2.1 40.3 3.8 15.7 3.6 0.1 100.0 1,270 30-34 29.2 2.3 42.4 3.9 19.5 2.8 0.0 100.0 976 35-39 28.7 1.3 43.2 5.6 18.0 3.2 0.0 100.0 783 40-44 33.9 0.6 42.1 5.1 16. I 2.1 0.2 100.0 499 45-49 29.9 0.4 46.6 4.3 15.7 2.9 0.1 100.0 380 Residence Urban 40.9 3.4 39.9 3.6 8.6 3.3 0.3 100.0 1,055 Rural 35.6 2.5 37.9 4.0 17.3 2.7 0.0 100.0 6,015 Region Central 32.8 3.9 45.4 3.3 l 1,9 2.6 0.1 100.0 1,967 Eastern 18.9 1.3 43.2 2.9 31.3 2.4 0,1 100.0 1,738 Northern 74.9 1.7 4.8 2.8 10.2 5.5 0.0 100.0 1,398 Western 281 3.1 50.2 6.4 10.9 1.3 0.0 100,0 1,968 Education No education 39.4 1.3 35.5 3,4 17,9 2.5 0,0 100.0 2,161 Primary 34.9 2.7 38.4 4.4 16.5 2.9 0.1 100.0 3,956 Secondary+ 35.8 5. I 43.0 3.4 9.9 2.6 0. I 100.0 952 Total 36.4 2,6 38.2 4.0 16.0 2.8 0.1 100.0 7,070 2.15 Employer and Form of Earnings According to Table 2.15, two-thirds (67 percent) of employed women age 15-49 are self-employed, about half of whom earn cash and half of whom do not. Nine percent of women are employed by non- relatives and almost all earn cash. Twenty-two percent of employed women work for relatives; half of them earn cash for their work. Urban women who work are less likely to be self-employed and more likely to work for non-relatives than are rural women. Working women in the Western region are much more likely to be self-employed (85 percent) than women in the other regions (47-71 percent) and women in the Central region are most likely to earn cash for their work. About 70 percent of employed women with no education or with primary education are self-employed, compared to less than half of those with secondary or higher education. 24 Table 2.15 Employer and form of earnings Percent distribution of currently employed women by employer and form of earnings, according to background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Employed by Employed by Self-employed a non-relative a relative Does Does Does Background Earns notearn Earns notearn Earns notearn characteristic cash cash cash cash cash cash Missing Total Number Age 15-I9 25.3 27.9 7.5 0.7 13.2 17.2 8.2 100.0 765 20-24 31,3 35.8 7.5 l.l 12.2 11.8 0.4 100.0 931 25-29 31.6 37.4 9.9 0.8 I 1.6 8.7 0.0 100.0 805 30-34 34.1 38.6 9.0 1.2 9.4 7.7 0.0 100.0 669 35-39 36.3 36.9 8.8 1.0 9.9 7.1 0.0 100.0 549 40-44 31.5 40.5 6.6 0.0 l 1.3 9.5 0,6 100.0 327 45-49 39.0 35.9 3.9 0.0 I 1.2 9.9 0. l 100.0 265 Residence Urban 38.2 12.5 33,2 0,7 8.4 4.3 2.6 100.0 586 Rural 30.8 39.3 4.1 0.8 I 1.9 I 1.6 1.4 100.0 3,724 Region Central 42.2 5.2 17.3 0.3 24.6 6.9 3.6 100.0 1,245 Eastern 32.0 39.2 3.3 1.8 5.0 17.5 1.2 100.O 1,386 Northern 34.7 22.8 10.9 0.5 18.7 12.4 0.0 100.0 326 Western 21.4 63.1 3.8 0.5 4.1 6.6 0.6 100.0 1,353 Education No education 27.2 45.2 3.9 0.9 10.0 12.8 0.0 100.0 1,281 Primary 34.5 34.9 5.3 0.9 I2.5 10.8 l.l 100.0 2,466 Secondary+ 30.8 17.0 29.6 0.4 9.8 4.9 7.5 100.0 563 Total 31.8 35.6 8.1 0.8 11.4 10,6 1.6 100.0 4,310 2.16 Occupation Table 2.16 gives the percent distribution of women age 15-49 who are employed by current occupation and the type of agricultural land worked, according to background characteristics. Most employed women (72 percent) are occupied in agriculture, almost all of whom work on family land or their own land. Only 27 percent of working women have non-agricultural jobs and half of these women are engaged in sales or services. As expected, employment in non-agricultural occupations is relatively more common among women who live in urban areas and among those who have more formal education. Around 85 percent of the women in the Eastern and Western Regions are engaged in agriculture, compared to 53 percent in the Central Region. In the Northern Region, only 37 percent of employed women are engaged in agriculture, though it should be noted that less than one in four women in the Northern Region are employed. 25 Table 2.16 Occupation Percent distribution of currently employed women by occupation and type of agricultural land worked or type of non- agricultural employment, according to background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Agricultural Non-agricultural Prof. Household Number Background Own Family Rented Other's tech./ Sales/ Skilled and of characteristic land land land land manag, services manual domestic Other Missing Total women Age 15-19 10.7 49.5 4.3 3.0 0.3 12.4 6.0 3.4 10.0 0.4 100.0 765 20-24 17.7 48.6 5.0 4.2 3.5 13.3 5.5 1.0 0.5 0.8 100.0 931 25-29 14.2 41,6 4.9 6.1 5.4 17.8 8.8 0.2 0.2 0.9 100.0 805 30-34 18.4 40.7 6.3 6.6 4.1 14.3 8.0 0.5 0.0 1.0 100.0 669 35-39 16.0 48.5 6.2 4.5 5.5 12.2 5.4 0.6 0.0 1.1 100.0 549 40-44 19.5 48.9 5.7 1.4 5.7 12.0 5.6 0.0 0.0 1.4 100.0 327 45-49 24.4 51.0 4.5 4.4 1.5 7.3 6.2 0.1 0.4 0.1 100.0 265 Residence Urban 2.8 9.1 1.1 2.9 15.0 45.7 11.1 5.5 4.1 2.7 100.0 586 Rural 18.4 52.2 5.9 4.8 1.9 8.5 5.9 0.3 1.6 0.5 100.0 3,724 Region Central 9.7 36.7 0.8 5.8 6.5 22.6 9.4 2.6 4.1 1.7 100.0 1,245 Eastern 22.1 47.3 12.1 3.1 2.1 7.7 3.2 0.4 1.4 0.6 100.0 1,386 Northern 7.2 23.6 1.0 5.4 6.3 30.3 24.9 0.1 0.4 0.8 100.0 326 Western 18.4 59.8 3.3 4.6 2.1 7.2 3.1 0.4 0.9 0.2 100.0 1,353 Education No education 20.8 54.1 5.6 5.8 0.3 7.0 5.0 0.5 0.1 0.8 100.0 1,281 Primary 16,0 48.6 5.9 4,0 0.8 14.1 7.3 1.4 1.3 0.8 100.O 2,466 Secondary+ 6.8 18.8 1.7 4.2 24.0 26.1 7.3 0.6 9.3 1.2 100.0 563 Total 16.2 46.4 5.2 4.5 3.7 13.6 6.6 1.0 2.0 0.8 100.0 4,310 Note: The "professional, technical, managerial" category includes professional, technical, clerical and managerial occupations. 2'.17 Person who Decides on Use of Earnings Information on who decides how to use the cash earned by employed women can be used as a measure of the status of women, particularly independence in decision making and control over resources. Table 2.17 shows that the majority of women who receive cash for work (65 percent) decide for themselves on how to spend the money, while 17 percent decide jointly with their partners as to how to spend their salaries. In only 14 percent of the cases, women say that the decision as to how to spend their money is made by their partners. As expected, urban and more educated women are more likely to decide for themselves how to spend their earnings. 26 Table 2.17 Decisions on use of earnings Percent distribution of women receiving cash earnings by person who decides on use of earnings, according to background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Person who decides how earnings are used Jointly with Jointly Background Self Husband/ husband/ Someone with characteristic only partner partner else someone Missing Total Number Age 15-19 56.4 17.2 12.0 7.3 6.5 0.6 100.0 351 20-24 59.5 17.2 21.0 0.7 1.6 0. I 100.0 474 25-29 65.7 14.5 19.2 0.0 0.5 0.1 100.0 427 30-34 69.0 12.6 17.5 0.0 0.5 0.4 100.0 351 35-39 67.0 15.1 16.7 0.2 0.9 0.0 100.0 302 40-44 76.1 5.6 17.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 162 45-49 74.8 8.9 14. I 0.0 2.2 0.0 100.0 143 Residence Urban 83.3 6.1 7.9 1.3 1.0 0.5 100.0 468 Rural 60.0 16.5 19.8 1.5 2.1 0.1 100.0 1,743 Region Central 71.7 10.1 14.2 1.3 2.5 0A I00.0 1,046 Eastern 55.3 20.0 21.6 1.7 1.5 0.0 100.0 559 Northern 65.5 19.0 12.0 2.5 0.8 0.3 100.0 210 Western 60.4 14.8 22.3 0.8 1.2 0.5 100.0 396 Education No education 56.9 20.2 20.0 0.9 1.7 0.3 100.0 527 Primary 65.2 13.1 17.4 1.9 2.2 0.1 100.0 1,289 Secondary+ 74.7 10.3 13.4 0.7 0.7 0.2 100.0 395 Marital status Currently married 54.7 20.0 24.5 0.1 0.5 0.2 100.0 1,564 Not married 89.6 0.5 0.0 4.8 5. I 0.1 100.0 647 Total 64.9 14.3 17.3 1.4 1.8 0.2 100.0 2,211 2.18 Child Care While Working Table 2.18 presents the distribution of employed women by whether they have a child under six years of age, and if so, the type of caretaker used by the mother while at work. Sixty-three percent of employed women have a child under six years of age. About half of these women look after their own children while at work, while 23 percent leave their children in the care of another child, either female or male. Fourteen percent of working mothers with pre-school age children have relatives who look after their children. In urban areas, 17 percent of employed mothers have servants or hired child caretakers, compared with only one percent of those in rural areas. Educated women are more likely to have employed a child caretaker than less educated women. Over one-third of working women in the Eastern and Northern Regions leave their pre- school age children with other children. 27 Table 2.18 Child care while working Percent distribution of employed women (i.e., worked in the last 12 months) by whether they have a child under six years of age, and the percent distribution of employed mothers who have a child under six by person who cares for child while mother is at work, according to background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Employed women Child's caretaker, among employed mothers who have children <6 years Child One or is in more Hns- school/ Number No chil- Re- band/ Other insti- Other Other of Background child dren spond- part- rela- Neigh- Hired tu6onal female male employed characteristic <6 <6 eat net tire bor Friend help care child child Other Missing Total mothers Residence Urban 51.4 48,6 39.1 08 17.7 65 I.I 16.9 2.0 76 2.0 1.8 4.6 1000 586 Rural 34.5 65.5 51.0 11 140 2.3 0.2 1,4 0.4 17,8 6.9 2,4 2.5 100 .0 3.724 Region Central 43.0 57.0 59.5 03 13.5 3.7 0.3 5.8 0,7 7.7 4.0 1.6 2.7 1000 1.245 Eastern 33.2 66.8 41.3 09 15,1 2,6 0.5 1.8 0.2 22.4 8.4 4.1 2.8 100.0 1.386 Northern 38.7 61.3 29.2 1.3 22.3 3.0 0.0 2,0 0.4 28.1 8,2 2.9 2,7 100.0 326 Western 34.4 65.6 55.4 1.7 12.7 2.0 0.0 2.3 0.9 15.5 5.9 1.0 2.6 1/10.11 1,353 Education No education 35.1 64.9 49.2 13 11.9 2,4 0.4 08 0.0 21.6 7.4 1.5 35 100.0 1.281 Primary 36.2 63.8 51.6 IO 14.9 2,7 0.1 2.0 0.7 15.8 62 2,9 2.1 100 .0 2.466 Secondary+ 43.4 56.6 42.1 11,5 18.9 3.5 0.5 14.3 1.2 8.5 5.0 2.1 3.4 100.0 563 Work status For family member 37.8 62.2 51.9 08 16,4 I1 0.2 2.1 0.2 15.9 6,6 2.4 25 1000 950 For someone else 508 49.2 24.6 (1.8 26.4 7.9 0.6 15,1 1.7 8.5 5.7 4.6 4.1 100.0 383 Self-employed 33,2 66.8 51.6 1.2 126 2.7 03 2.2 0,6 17.8 6.4 2.1 2.6 100 .0 2.9111 Occupation Agricultural 31,9 68,1 51.7 0.9 13.4 2.2 02 0.7 0.4 18.8 7.4 2,4 2.0 100 .0 3.t20 Non-agricultural 50.1 49.9 42.8 1.6 18.3 4.6 0,6 I 1.4 1.3 9.3 2.3 2.3 5.4 100.0 1.155 Employment status All year. full-time 38.0 62.0 51.3 12 14.5 3,0 0.3 3.3 0.7 15.0 6.1 21 24 100 ,0 2,699 All year, part-time 37.5 62.5 40.2 1.5 18,5 1.8 0.0 4,6 0.0 18.7 6,1 4.0 4,7 1000 280 Seasonal 32.8 67.2 48.0 11.5 12,9 2.5 03 2.3 03 21.0 7.5 2.6 22 100.0 1.134 Occasional 42.6 57.4 53,5 2,4 17.2 1.0 06 1.7 0.5 10.8 4.3 I.I 6.9 100.0 195 Total 36.8 63.2 49.8 I I 14,4 2.7 0.3 3,0 0.6 16.7 6.4 2.4 2.7 1000 4.310 Note: Totals include 67 women with work status missing, 35 women with occupa on hissing, and 2 women with employment status missing. Figures may not add to 1130.0 due Io rounding. 28 CHAPTER3 FERTILITY The information in this chapter is based on the respective birth histories of women age 15-49 years interviewed in the 1995 UDHS. Each woman was asked the number of sons and daughters she had ever given birth to, distinguishing between those living with her, those living elsewhere, and those dead. She was then asked for each birth, the month and year of birth, name, sex, and survival status of the child and for those who died, the age at death. If the child was still living, information was collected on the child's current age and whether the child was still living with the mother or not. The information from the birth history was cross- checked against the reported number of children ever bum for consistency. This information was used to obtain measures of fertility levels and trends, differentials in fertility by residence and education, information on the length of intervals between births, and the extent of childbearing among adolescents. It should be noted that the birth history method collects responses from surviving women and assumes that women's fertility does not differ significantly with survival status. 3.1 Current Fertility Levels The level of current fertility is important because of its direct relevance to population policies and programmes. In particular, Uganda's National Population Policy aims to reduce the level of current fertility from a total fertility rate (TFR) of 7.1 in 1991 to 6.5 live births per woman by the year 2000 (Population Secretariat, 1995:27). The indices used to study current fertility include age-specific fertility rates, the total fertility rate, the general fertility rate, and the crude birth rate. The age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) are useful in understanding the age pattern of current fertility. The ASFR is the number of live births which occurred during the specified period to women in a particular age group at the time of the birth, divided by the number of woman-years lived in that age group during the specified period. The Tt'R is obtained by summing up the ASFRs for all ages of the reproductive age bracket (15-49 years). The TPR carl be interpreted as the number of children a woman would have at the end of her reproductive life if she experienced the current age-specific fertility rates. The TFR is regarded as a useful means of summarising the overall level of fertility. Other summary measures of fertility include the general fertility rate (the number of live births per 1,000 women of reproductive age), and the crude birth rate (the annual number of live births per 1,000 population). Measures of current fertility are estimated for the three-year period preceding the survey, which corresponds roughly from mid-1992 to mid-1995. The choice of the estimation period is a compromise between providing the most recent information, avoiding problems of omission or displacement of births due to recall lapse, and obtaining enough cases to reduce the sampling errors. Estimates of current fertility for Uganda are given in Table 3.1. The results show a general fertility rate for the three-year period of 247 births per 1,000 women and a crude birth rate of 48 live births per 1,000 population. The latter figure is marginally lower than the crude birth rate of 52 per 1,000 population for 1990 estimated from the 1991 Population and Housing Census (Statistics Department, 1995b:87). It should be noted that the census estimates were obtained using indirect methods, hence part of the difference may be due to a difference in methodology. 29 Table 3.1 Current fertility rates Age-specific and cumulative fertility rates and the crude birth rate for the three years preceding the survey, by urban-rural residence, Uganda 1995 Residence Age group Urban Rural Total 15-19 153 215 204 20-24 253 332 319 25-29 244 322 309 30-34 161 257 244 35-39 92 188 177 40-44 76 90 89 45 -49 (16) 30 29 IPR 15-49 4.97 7.17 6.86 l ia r 15-44 4.89 7.02 6.71 GFR 190 257 247 CBR 47.7 47.8 47.8 Note: Rates are for the period 1-36 months preceding the survey. Rates for age group 45-49 may be slightly biased due to truncation. Rates in parentheses are based on 125 to 249 woman-years of exposure. TFR: Total fertility rate, expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate (births divided by number of women 15-44), expressed per 1,000 women CBR: Crude birth rate, expressed per 1,000 population The TFR indicates that a Ugandan woman would bear 6.9 children by the end of her reproductive lifetime, if she experiences the current age pattern of fertility. Fertility levels are substantially higher in the rural areas (TFR of 7.2 children) than in the urban areas (5.0). However, the lower fertility level in urban areas has a small impact on the overall level of fertility because of the small share of the urban population ( 15 percent). Similar residential differentials are observed for both the general fertility rate and the crude birth rate (Table 3.1). The age pattern of fertility indicates that childbearing in Uganda starts early in the reproductive ages. The ASFRs in Table 3.1 show that a woman will have given birth to 2.6 children (more than one-third of her lifetime births) by age 25, and to 4.2 children (two-fifths of her lifetime births) by age 30. At the current levels, at least one in five teenagers will give birth annually. The childbearing peak occurs in the ages 20-29 when almost one in three women gives birth annually. However, fertility declines sharply thereafter, with the ASFR being only 29 births per 1000 women at age group 45-49 (see Figure 3.1). This age pattern is similar to that observed in data from the 1991 Population and Housing Census and the 1988-89 UDHS. The major implication of this early childbearing pattern is that the younger women contribute a large proportion of all births, resulting in faster population growth. The age pattern of fertility is roughly similar by place of residence except at older ages. The ASFRs are lower in urban areas than rural areas irrespective of age, although the difference is much less among women age 40 and above (Figure 3.1). The results in Table 3.1 also show that fertility levels among teenagers are high. This has particular significance because this age group has high relative risks of morbidity and infant mortality. 30 Figure 3.1 Age-Specific Fertility Rates by Urban-Rural Residence 350 30O 250 ~50 IO0 5O Births per 1,000 Women v i i 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 Age Group 45-49 UDHS 1995 3.2 Differentials in Current Fertility Table 3.2 presents the TFR and the mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 years (completed fertility) for major subgroups of the population. The measure of completed fertility is vulnerable to understatement of parity by older women, most of whose births took place longer ago and who consequently may omit children who died young. Fertility rates are also subject to relatively large sampling errors (see Appendix B), so interpretation of differentials should be made cautiously. Various differentials in current fertility are notable from Table 3.2 and Figure 3.2. The TFR ranges from a low of 6.3 in the Central Region to a high of 7.4 in the Eastern Region, a difference of 1.1 births per woman. Women who received some secondary education have the lowest level of current fertility (5.2 births per woman), while those with primary education have the highest level (7.1), a difference of nearly two. It is noteworthy that the phenomenon of women with primary education having the highest TFR was also observed in the 1991 Census data. Fertility is higher in the non-DISH areas than in those areas covered by the DISH project (7.1 vs. 6.4, respectively--see Chapter 1 for a description of the project). Fertility differs greatly according to the DISH area, ranging from 7.2 in areas III and IV to a low of 4.8 in area V (Kampala). 31 Table 3.2 Fertility by background characteristics Total fertility rate for the three years preceding the survey, percentage currently pregnant, and mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49, by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Mean number of children Total Percentage ever born Background fertility currently to women characteristic rate ~ pregnant I age 40-49 Residence Urban 4.97 9.4 6.37 Rural 7.17 15.1 7.38 Region Central 6.28 13.0 7.30 Eastern 7.38 17.3 7.24 Northern 6.82 13.6 6.55 Western 6.98 13.3 7.73 Education No education Primary Secondary+ DISH area Group I and It 6.72 15.1 7.37 Group ill and IV (7.17) 16.6 6.82 Group V (4.76) 8.7 (6.91) Total DISH 6.37 14.0 7.14 Total non-DISH 7.05 14.4 7.34 Total 6.86 14.3 7.28 Note: Total fertility rates in parentheses are based on 500-999 women age 15-49; other figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 women. J Women age 15-49 years 7.04 14.5 7.27 7.12 15.1 7.42 5.15 10.5 6.55 The comparison of completed fertility (mean number of children ever born) with the TFR provides an indication of the direction and magnitude of fertility change in the country during the past 20-25 years. The results suggest that there has been a small decline in fertility levels in the country during this period as shown by a TFR of 6.9 births, compared to a mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 of 7.3 children. This decline is confirmed by looking at trends in TFRs obtained from previous surveys (see section 3.4). The differentials in current fertility by place of residence described above are also evident in measures of completed fertility. The decline in fertility as shown by the above method has been relatively faster in urban areas than in rural areas. The Kampala District (Group V), which is entirely urban, exhibited the lowest TFR (4.8) and the lowest proportion currently pregnant. Among regions, comparison of completed fertility with current fertility suggests that there has been little change and perhaps even an increase in fertility in the Eastern and Northern Regions, compared with declines in the Central and Western Regions. Likewise, fertility has declined at all levels of educational attainment. The decline has been steeper among women with secondary education. 32 Figure 3,2 Total Fertility Rates by Residence, Region, and Education RESIDENCE Urban Rural REGION Central Eastern Northern Western EDUCATION No Education 5.0 ~.2 ::i::::ii::i::i:::i:: : i :? i i : :~ : +: : : :~:::i : : i :i:~: :: :: i:: ~ ~:! :16 .3 ;i!:iii:i:i: i : : i i i) i!) i :: ¸¸¸¸5 ? i f : :5:i i ! : i : : : : i:::ii: ::::i:i : : : : :17.4 !::i:i: S: :# : ! :: : : : : ) : : : : : : !:::!:!i: i!::i:il6,8 ?::i:::i:::::i:i:ii: : : : :<i ::: i i= i: ! i l i ¸¸¸¸¸I¸¸: :::i !: : i i ]7 .o 7.0 Seco 2 4 5 8 Total Fertility Rate UDHS 1995 3.3 Ferti l i ty Trends Table 3.3 examines the trend in current fertility in Uganda by comparing the results of the 1995 UDHS with those of previous surveys and censuses, in as much as they are comparable. The 1988-89 UDI-IS is difficult to make comparisons with since it is not representative of the entire country, having excluded nine Table 3.3 Age-specific fertility rates from various sources Age-specific and total fertility rates from various sources and the approximate time period to which the rates refer, Uganda 1969-1995 Age group All Uganda Areas covered by 1988-89 UDHS I 1969 1991 1995 1988-89 1991 1995 Census Census UDHS UDHS Census UDHS 1968 1990 1992-95 1984-88 1990 1992-95 15-19 198 152 204 187 153 208 20-24 341 329 319 325 331 319 25-29 322 324 309 319 327 308 30-34 253 275 244 273 278 235 35-39 189 207 177 224 209 179 40-44 87 95 89 96 97 84 45-49 35 32 29 36 29 29 TFR 7.1 7.1 6.9 7.3 7.1 6.8 1 The 1988-89 UDHS covered only approximately 80 percent of tile country's population, excluding nine districts in the North. Source: Kaijuka, et al., 1989: Table 3.4; Statistics Department, 1995b: Tables A.4.5, A.4.I0, and A.4.28. 33 districts in the North. However, results from both the 1991 census and the 1995 UDHS have been tabulated for the same areas covered in the 1988-89 UDHS, so as to more accurately reflect trends. Considering the whole country, it is found that the TFR remained at just over 7 births per woman between 1968 and 1990 and then declined to 6.9 in 1992-95. The difference seems too small to indicate any significant decline in fertility. This is not surprising given that serious fertility reduction programmes in Uganda were started less than a decade before the 1995 survey and take much time to have a sizable impact. The information, however, gives a clue to the trend of current fertility levels. For the areas covered by the 1988-89 UDHS, levels of current fertility have declined modestly over recent years, from 7.3 in 1984-88 to 6.8 in 1992-95, a drop of one-half child on average. The decline was greatest among women in their 30s, while it appears that fertility may have risen among women age 15-19. The fact that national levels of fertility have shown only a very slight decline, while those in the areas covered by the 1988-89 UDHS show a more sizable decline is puzzling. It is important to remember that fertility rates are subject to relatively high sampling errors, so it is best not to make strong conclusions based on them. Table 3.4 compares TFRs by region from the 1991 Census and the 1995 UDHS. Both the adjusted and reported TFRs are given for the Census. According to the adjusted 1991 Census findings, the highest TFR was in the Western Region, while the UDHS data rank the Eastern Region as having the highest TFR. This switch in ranking may be partially attributed to sampling variability in the survey (see Appendix B) or to the use of indirect techniques in adjusting the census data. The unadjusted (reported) TFRs from the 1991 Census are more consistent with those from the UDHS; they imply that there has been little change, if any, in all regions except Central, where fertility appears to have declined. Table 3.4 Trends in fertility by region Total fertility rates by region, selected sources, Uganda 1991-1995 1991 Census I Region Reported Adjusted 1995 UDHS Central 7.0 6.9 6.3 Eastern 7.2 6.8 7.4 Northern 6.8 6.8 6.8 Western 7.3 7.9 7.0 Total 7.1 7. I 6.9 Note: Rates from the census rel~r to approximately one year bel'c~re the census, i.e., 1990, while those from the 1995 UDHS refer to the three years preceding the survey. u Source: Statistics Department, 1995b: Table A.4.28 Table 3.5 Trends in age-specific fertility rates Age-specific fertility rates for five-year periods preceding the survey, by women's age at the time, Uganda 1995 Number of years preceding the survey Women's age 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 15-19 198 188 201 214 20-24 315 330 327 318 25-29 307 331 319 317 30-34 252 284 290 [269] 35-39 180 212 [259] 40-44 93 [150] 45-49 [341 TFR 15-34 5.4 5.7 5.7 5.6 Note: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. Yet another way to examine trends in fertility is to examine age-specific fertility rates from the 1995 UDHS for successive five-year periods preceding the survey, as given in Table 3.5. Because women age 50 and above were not interviewed in the survey, the rates are successively truncated as the number of years before the survey increases. The results show that, except for age 15-19, fertility declines marginally between the period 5-9 and 0-4 years prior to the survey. Teenage fertility gradually declines in the 5-9 years prior 34 to the survey, and then rises in the most recent five- year period. The cumulative fertility for women age 15-34 years is fairly constant (about 5.7 births per woman) for the periods 5-19 years prior to the survey and then reduces slightly to 5.4 births per woman in the five years preceding the survey. Table 3.6 gives fertility rates for ever-mar- ried women by duration since first marriage. Like the rates by age, these are also truncated as the duration and period before the survey increase. The data show that fertility rates among women married less than five years have not changed sig- nificantly over time, perhaps because newly mar- ried couples tend to start their families. There is somewhat more evidence of a decline in fertility rates among women at higher marital durations, al- though at some durations, the pattern is inconsis- tent. Table 3.6 Trends in fertility by marital duration Fertility rates for ever-married women by duration (years) since first marriage tot five-year periods preceding the survey, Uganda 1995 Number of years preceding the survey Marriage duration 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-4 359 368 363 367 5-9 328 339 347 349 10-14 270 318 330 299 15-19 235 272 263 [2521 20-24 155 190 [2261 25-29 78 [128] Note: Duration-specific l~rtility rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. 3.4 Retrospective Fertility Measures of lifetime fertility reflect the accumulation of births over the past 30 years or so, and therefore have limited relevance to current fertility levels, especially if the country has experienced a decline in fertility. In Uganda's case, as discussed earlier, there is no evidence of a significant decline. Information on lifetime fertility is useful for examining average family size across age groups as well as estimating levels of primary infertility. Lifetime fertility is also useful in understanding changes that have taken place in the age pattern of current fertility. The percent distribution of women by age and number of children ever born (CEB) is given in Table 3.7 for all women as well as for women currently in a marital union (who constitute 73 percent of all women). The results for currently married women differ somewhat from those of all women due to the high number of women in the younger ages who have neither married nor had a birth; differences at the older ages are minimal. The mean number of children ever born is lowest among women age 15-19 (0.5 live births per woman). It increases by at least one birth at each five-year age group among women under age 40, so that women have given birth to more than three children by their late 20s and to more than six children by their late 30s. Thereafter, the mean number of children ever born continues increasing at a slower rate, reaching the highest level of 7.7 births for women at the end of the reproductive period (45-49 years). Women currently married show a similar pattern, although the figures are slightly higher. It is notable that one-third of women age 15-19 have already given birth. The high levels of fertility prevailing in Uganda are further reflected in the fact that almost one-third of women age 45-49 have borne 10 or more children. The percent childless among women at the end of the reproductive period is an indirect measure of primary infertility--the proportion of women who are unable to bear children at all. Since voluntary childlessness is rare in Uganda, it is likely that most married women with no births are unable to bear children. Table 3.7 shows that primary sterility is low, less than 2 percent. The incidence of primary sterility seems to have declined from about 4-5 percent in the 1988-89 UDHS to 2 percent in the 1995 UDHS. 35 Table 3.7 Children ever born and living Percent distribution of all women and of currently married women age 15-49 by number of children ever born (CEB) and mean number ever born and living, according to five-year age groups, Uganda 1995 Number of children ever born (CEB) Number Mean no. Mean no. Age of of of living group 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10+ Total women CEB children ALL WOMEN 15-19 65.9 25,3 6.9 18 0.0 Ol 0.0 00 0.0 O0 0.0 I00.0 1,606 0,45 039 20-24 15,3 25.8 310 19,3 5.8 22 it6 00 0.0 00 O,t) 100.0 1.555 1.83 1.58 25-29 70 9.7 157 20,0 204 164 7.2 2,3 I.I 0.2 1).0 1(10,0 1,270 3.34 285 30-34 46 43 5.5 8.5 13.3 185 16.9 14,8 88 3.7 09 100.0 976 5.06 422 35-39 34 31 5.3 53 7.2 10.4 13.2 166 143 10.4 10.8 I(X).O 783 6.29 5.19 40-44 2.2 4,2 45 4.4 7,4 69 10.4 13.4 L4,6 9.8 223 100.0 499 6.97 5.55 45-49 2.2 4,0 3.0 3.1 3.9 76 83 9.1 13,3 14.0 315 1000 380 7,69 6.15 Total 20.9 L46 13.0 10,5 8.3 8.0 6.4 5.7 47 3.1 4,6 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN 1000 7,070 3.40 2.83 15 19 393 44.1 127 37 00 01 0.0 00 0.0 00 0.0 L000 756 0.81 070 21)-24 89 24.8 342 217 7.0 27 0.7 00 0.0 00 0.0 100.0 1,212 204 177 25-29 5.2 7,5 [4.7 211 219 179 80 24 1.2 0.2 00 I(X) t) 1,067 3.53 301 30-34 3.6 39 50 6.7 124 190 188 160 95 41 11 100.0 810 5.28 4.42 35-39 3.0 2,5 4.1 35 64 10.2 136 175 158 11.4 [20 1000 656 6.58 543 40-44 1.9 2.9 4.7 2.4 7.1 5.1 106 135 159 11.5 24.4 1000 367 7.33 585 45-49 1.6 48 21 2.1 3.4 8.(1 47 6.6 136 159 371 100.0 266 807 6.50 Total 101 153 14.8 I I 8 96 9.5 75 6.6 56 3.8 5,4 100.0 5,134 3.95 3,29 3.5 Birth Intervals Previous research has shown that short birth intervals are closely associated with poor health of children, especially during infancy. This is particularly true for babies born at intervals of less than 24 months. Thus the study of birth intervals is important in understanding the health status of young children. Table 3.8 gives the distribution of births of second and higher order that occurred in the five years preceding the survey by the number of months since the previous birth, according to background characteristics; also presented is the median number of months since last birth. The table shows that the majority of Ugandan children (72 percent) are born after a "safe" birth interval (24 or more months apart), with 30 percent born at least 36 months after a prior birth. Nevertheless, 28 percent of non-first births occur less than 24 months after the preceding birth, with 10 percent occurring less than 18 months since the previous birth. The overall median birth interval is 29 months. Younger women tend to have shorter birth intervals than older women. The proportion of births with intervals less than 24 months declines steeply from 47 percent among women age 15-19 to a low of 20 percent among those age 40 and above. The median birth interval length increases with age from 25 to 35 months from the youngest to the oldest age groups, respectively. On the other hand, there is no significant differential in median birth interval by either birth order or sex of the previous child. In both cases, the differences are less than one month. The survival status of the previous birth has an impact on the length of the birth interval. Median birth intervals for births that follow a child who died are three months shorter than those for births following a surviving child. The percentage of births occurring after a very short interval (less than 18 months) is more 36 Table 3.8 Birth intervals Percent distribution of non-first births in the five years preceding the survey by number of months since previous birth, according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, Uganda 1995 Number of months since previous birth Characteristic 7-17 18-23 24-35 36-47 48+ Total Median number of Number months since of previous birth births Age of mother 15-19 23.5 23.9 39.7 7.9 5.0 100.0 24.6 172 20-29 10.7 19.5 44.3 15.3 10.1 100.0 28.3 3,105 30-39 9.3 15.2 40.4 19.3 15.8 100.0 30.7 2,189 40+ 7.3 12.9 32.2 20.3 27.3 100.0 35.0 471 Birth order 2-3 10.7 18.3 42.0 17.0 12.1 100.0 29.0 2,387 4-6 9.5 17.2 42.7 16.2 14.5 100.0 29.3 2,151 7 + 10.8 17.0 40.0 18.0 14.2 100.0 29.7 1,398 Sex of prior birth Male 9.4 17.2 41.9 17.8 13.7 I00.0 29.4 2,881 Female 11.1 17.9 41.7 16.1 13.3 IO0.O 29.2 3,056 Survivalnfpriorbirth Living 8.4 17.5 43.5 17.3 13.4 100.0 29.7 5,034 Dead 20.9 18.1 32.4 14.9 13.7 100.0 26.5 903 Residence Urban 13.8 21.1 34.5 14.8 15.8 100.0 27.9 651 Rural 9.8 17.1 42.7 17.2 13.2 100.0 29.4 5,286 Region Central I 1.3 19.5 39.6 16.7 12.9 100.0 28.7 1,519 Eastern I 1.2 18.1 44.8 15.6 10.4 100.0 28.6 1,617 Northern 9.0 14.5 38.8 19.3 18.5 100.0 31.8 1,143 Western 9.3 17.5 42.9 16.9 13.5 100.0 29.3 1,657 Education No education 9.4 15.3 39.0 19.4 16.8 100.0 3 I. 1 2,054 Primary 10.4 18.2 43.8 16. I 11.5 100.0 28.8 3,297 Secondary+ 12.1 21.8 40.0 13.0 13.0 100.0 27.8 585 Total 10.3 17.6 41.8 16.9 13.5 100.0 29.3 5,937 Note: First births are excluded. The interval lbr multiple births is the number ol months since the preceding pregnancy that ended in a live birth. than twice as high among births whose previous sibling died than among those whose prior sibling survived. The shorter intervals for the former group is partially due to the shorter breastfeeding period for the previous birth, leading to an earlier return of ovulation and hence increased chance of pregnancy. The median birth interval in urban areas is only slightly shorter than that in the rural areas, with a difference of one and a half months. Thirty-five percent of the births in urban areas occur at intervals which are "too short" (less than 24 months), compared to 27 percent for the rural areas. Surprisingly, the percentage of births with an interval of four years or more is slightly higher for urban than rural births. 37 Births in the Northern Region exhibit a relatively higher median birth interval (32 months) than the other regions, all of which cluster around 29 months. The median length of the birth interval decreases gradually as the level of education of the mother increases, from 31 months among those with no education to 28 months among those with secondary education. 3.6 Age at First Birth The age at which childbearing starts has important consequences for the overall level of fertility as well as the health and welfare of the mother and the child. Today, teenage pregnancy and motherhood is a major health and social concern. In some societies, postponement of first births due to an increase in age at marriage has contributed to overall fertility decline. However, in many societies, it is common for women to have children before getting married. Table 3.9 gives the distribution of all women by age at first birth according to age at the time of the survey. The data show that just under half (39 to 46 percent) of women become mothers by the time they reach age 18 and two-thirds have had a child before they reach age 20. Although the proportion of women who had their first birth before age 15 has declined steadily from 14 percent among women age 45-49 to 4 percent among women age 15-19, the proportion who have their first birth at ages 15-17 has remained roughly constant at about 32-35, excluding the youngest age group. The result is that the median age at first birth falls between 18 and 19 years for all age groups and shows no clear trend over the past three decades. Although the data from the 1988-89 UDHS are not strictly comparable since the survey covered only about 80 percent of the national population, the range of median ages at first birth was similar to the data presented in Table 3.9, strengthening the conclusion that there has been no real trend in age at first birth in Uganda. Table 3.9 Age at first birth Percent distribution of women 15-49 by age at first birth, according to current age, Uganda 1995 Current age Women Median with Age at first birth Number age at no of first births <15 15-17 18-19 20-21 22-24 25+ Total women birth 15-19 65.9 42 23.1 6,9 NA NA NA 100.0 1,606 a 20-24 15.3 7.2 31.9 273 14,2 4.1 NA 100.0 1,555 18.7 25-29 70 86 31,6 23+1 17.5 9,6 2.5 100.0 1,270 18,9 30-34 4.6 10.5 35.0 20.4 151 8.8 5.5 100.0 976 18,4 35-39 3.4 13.6 31.8 23.0 11.9 10.4 5.9 100.0 783 18.4 40-44 2.2 10.6 33.8 21.0 14,3 9.8 8.3 100.0 499 18.5 45-49 2.2 13.9 32.0 19.1 15.4 10.4 7.0 100.0 380 18.4 NA = Not applicable a Omitted because less than 50 percent of tile women in the age group x to x+4 have Itad a birth by age x In order to study differentials in age at first birth, Table 3.10 gives the median age at first birth for different subgroups of the population. The age group 15-19 is eliminated because less than half of these women have had a birth before age 15. The median age at first birth is slightly higher in urban areas than in rural areas, with a difference of 0.8 years among women 20-49 years old. Among the regions, the median ages are quite close, with the Western and Northern Regions having medians a few months higher than the Central and Eastern Regions. The median age at first birth shows an inverse relationship with educational attainment of the mother, being as low as 18 years for women with no education and increasing to 20 years for women with secondary education. 38 Table 3.10 Median age at first birth Median age at first birth among women age 20-49 years, by current age and selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Current age Background Age Age characteristic 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 20-49 25-49 Residence Urban 19.7 19.4 19.1 18.7 18.9 18.2 19.3 19.1 Rural 18.6 18,8 18.3 18,4 18.5 18.4 18.5 18.5 Region Central 18.7 18.4 18.6 18.2 18.3 18.0 18.5 18.4 Eastern 18.2 18.7 18.4 17,8 18.0 19.1 18.3 18.4 Northern 18.6 19.1 18.5 19.0 19.3 18.1 18.8 18.9 Western 19.3 19,3 18.1 18.6 18.5 18.6 19.0 18.8 Education No education 18.2 18.1 I7.8 18.3 18,4 17.7 18.1 18.0 Primary 18.5 18.8 18.5 18.2 18.4 18.9 18.5 18,6 Secondary+ a 20.3 19.8 19,6 19.7 " a 20.0 Total 18.7 18.9 18,4 18.4 18.5 18.4 18.6 18.6 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. a Omitted because less than 50 percent of the women in the age group x to x+4 have had a birth by age x Urban areas have shown a steady increase in the median age at first birth from 18 to 20 years over the 30 years prior to the survey, while the median age at first birth in the Central Region seems to have increased slightly from 18 to about 19 years. All the other population subgroups show no clear pattern over time. These time series should be interpreted with care, due to the small numbers of women in some subgroups. 3.7 Teenage Pregnancy and Motherhood As already mentioned, teenage pregnancy is important because of its association with higher morbidity and mortality for both the mother and child. In addition, teenage pregnancy has been associated with termination of education of the mothers, which in itself has a spiral effect on the socioeconomic status of the individual, and hence, the child. Table 3.11 and Figure 3.3 give the proportion of women age 15-19 years who have begun childbearing, separating those who are already mothers from those who are pregnant with their first child. Overall, 43 percent of teenagers have begun childbearing, with 34 percent having had a child already and 9 percent carrying their first child. As expected, the percentage who have started the reproductive process increases with age due to longer exposure, from 8 percent among the 15-year-old teenagers to 71 percent--more than nine times higher--by the age of 19. Table 3.11 further shows that overall teenage parenthood is higher among rural women (45 percent) than their urban counterparts (31 percent). This is true for both the proportion who are already mothers as well as the proportion who are pregnant with their first child. Higher school attendance among urban adolescents, which tends to discourage early childbearing, may account for the lower levels of motherhood and pregnancy among urban teenagers; however, it is also possible that higher school attendance is due to the avoidance of early parenthood. 39 Table 3,11 Adolescent pregnancy and motherhood Percentage of women 15-19 who are mothers or pregnant with their first child, by selected background characteristics; Uganda 1995 Percentage who are: Percentage who have Pregnant begun Number Background with first child- of characteristic Mothers child hearing women Age 15 4.6 3.1 7.7 290 16 12.9 9.2 22.1 340 17 33.1 10.2 43.3 281 18 51.6 13.1 64,7 392 19 64.3 6.5 70.8 304 Residence Urban 25.5 5.0 30.6 277 Rural 35.9 9.5 45.4 1,329 Region Central 35.0 7.7 42.7 502 Eastern 39.7 11.4 51.1 350 Northern 34.0 7,5 41.4 344 Western 28.4 8.8 37.2 411 Education No education 38.9 9.5 48.5 266 Primary 37.5 9.8 47.3 1,080 Secondary+ 15.1 3.6 18.7 261 Total 34.1 8.7 42.9 1,606 Percent Figure 3.3 Adolescent Childbearing 100 80 60 40 20 15 16 17 Age 18 19 UDHS 1995 40 On a regional basis, the Western Region has the lowest prevalence of teenage childbearing (37 percent), while the Eastern Region has the highest level (51 percent). The level of teenage childbearing is strongly associated with the level of education. Only 19 percent of teenagers who have secondary education have begun childbearing, compared to 49 percent for those with no education and 47 percent for those with primary education. This relationship is partially due to regulations that dictate the automatic discontinuation of schooling for pregnant women. Table 3.12 shows the distribution of teenagers by age and number of children ever born. The table shows that about two-thirds of the teenagers have never given birth. Most of the teenagers who have given birth have had one child; only 9 percent of teenagers have had more than one birth. The likelihood that a teenager will have had more than one birth increases with age, reaching a level of 24 percent among 19-year- olds. The mean number of children ever born to teenagers also increases with age from less than 0.1 children for women age 15 years to almost one child by age 19. Table 3.12 Children born to adolescent women Percent distribution of women 15-19 by number of children ever born (CEB), according to single years of age, Uganda 1995 Age 0 I 2+ Number of Mean children ever born number Number of of Total CEB women 15 95.4 4.6 0.0 I00.0 0.05 290 16 87,1 11.8 1.2 100.0 0,14 340 17 66.9 29.4 3.7 100.0 0.37 281 18 48.4 37.7 13.9 100.0 0.70 392 19 35.7 40.6 23.8 100.0 0.93 304 Total 65.9 25.3 8.8 100.0 0.45 1,606 41 CHAPTER4 FERTILITY REGULATION Knowledge of family planning methods and sources to obtain them are crucial elements in the decision of whether to adopt a contraceptive method and the choice of which method to use. A positive attitude towards family planning is an additional prerequisite for use. Data collected in the 1995 UDHS on contraceptive knowledge, attitudes, behaviour, and sources are presented in this chapter. While the focus is placed on women, some results from the men's survey will also be presented, since men play an important role in the realisation of reproductive goals. 4.1 Knowledge of Family Planning Methods The level of knowledge of family planning methods was measured in two ways in the UDHS. Respondents were first asked to name ways or methods by which a couple could delay or avoid pregnancy. When a respondent failed to mention a particular method spontaneously, the interviewer described the method and asked if the respondent knew it. For each method recognised, respondents were asked if they had ever used it. Information was collected for eight modern methods: the pill, IUD, injectables, Norplant, vaginal methods (foam, jelly, cream, sponge, or diaphragm), condom, and female and male sterilisation; and three traditional methods: the rhythm method, natural family planning method, and withdrawal. In addition, provision was made in the questionnaire to record any other methods named spontaneously by respondents. Both prompted and unprompted knowledge are combined in the report. Table 4.1 shows the percentage of all women and men, currently married women and men, and sexually active unmarried women and men who have heard about specific contraceptive methods. Knowledge of contraceptive methods is nearly universal, with 92 percent of all women age 15-49 and 96 percent of all men age 15-54 knowing at least one method of family planning. Over 90 percent of women and men have heard about a modem method. Women know about slightly more methods on average than men do (4.9 vs. 4.6); however, men are more likely to know about male methods such as condoms and male sterilisation, though oddly men are less likely than women to know about withdrawal. For currently married women, the pill (83 percent) and condom (78 percent) are the most widely known modem methods, followed by female sterilisation (72 percent), injectables (71 percent), and the IUD (31 percent). The least recognised modern methods are male sterilisation (19 percent) and vaginal methods (14 percent). The proportion of women who recognise Norplant is very low (6 percent), presumably because Norplant was only introduced in 1993 on a trial basis at Mulago hospital and only three sites (Mulago, Jinja and Mbarara hospitals) were providing the service at the time of the survey. Among currently married men, the most widely recognised method is the condom (90 percent), followed by the pill (85 percent), female sterilisation (71 percent), injectables (65 percent), male sterilisation (28 percent), and the IUD (23 percent). Vaginal methods and Norplant are not widely recognised. Traditional methods are less widely recognised than modem methods by both women and men, although men's knowledge of traditional methods was relatively higher. Three-fifths of married women and four-fifths of married men say they know of at least one traditional method. The most widely known traditional method is periodic abstinence, which is recognised by 54 percent of married women and 79 percent of married men. Although withdrawal is considered to be a "male method," it is known by a larger proportion of married women than men (34 vs. 12 percent). 43 Table 4.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods Percentage of all women 15-49, of currently married women, of sexually active unmarried women, and of women with no sexual experience, and the percentage of all men 15-54, of currently married men, and of sexually active unmarried men who know specific contraceptive methods, by specific methods, Uganda 1995 Women who know method Men who know method Sexually Sexually Currently active No Currently active Contraceptive All married unmarried sexual All married unmarried method women women women experience men men men Any method 92.0 93.4 98.2 76.8 96.2 98.2 97.9 Any modern method 90.4 91.6 98.2 74.9 93.9 95.2 97.0 Pill 82.1 83.0 95.5 62.4 83.1 84.5 90.3 IUD 30.4 30.9 42.7 15.3 19.5 22.5 23.0 lnjectables 69.2 70.8 82.8 44.0 60.5 65.3 69.6 Diaphragm/foam/jelly 14.3 14.3 20.7 9.7 17.9 17.9 21.5 Condom 78.0 77.9 93.8 66.2 88.4 89.5 94.1 Female sterilisation 69.5 71.7 79.8 43.0 67.7 71.4 80.9 Male sterilisation 17.7 18.5 16.4 10.1 25.7 27.9 31.0 Norplant 5.4 5.6 4.1 2.9 7.9 8.4 11.7 Any traditional method 60.3 61.6 69.0 39.0 72.5 81.4 71.6 Periodic abstinence 53.8 54.1 61.3 37.3 69.5 78.5 66.2 Withdrawal 31.8 33.6 41.7 12.0 10,0 11.5 12.9 Natural family planning 11.4 12.1 12.0 5.3 13.4 14.8 13.6 Folk method 24.2 26.2 27.9 9.2 1.3 1.2 2.0 Any traditional/folk method 67.5 69.7 74.3 42.3 72.5 81.5 71.6 Number of women/men 7,070 5,134 200 685 1,996 1,252 140 Mean number of methods 4.9 5.0 5.8 3.2 4.6 4.9 5.2 Table 4.2 shows the correspondence between the contraceptive knowledge of husbands and wives (1,109 couples) in the UDHS sam- ple. Knowledge of at least one method by both spouses is high (92 percent). For couples where only one part- ner knows of a method, hus- bands are more likely to know the method than their wives; exceptions are the IUD, injectables, withdrawal and folk methods, which wives are more likely than their husbands to know. Table 4.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods among couples Percent distribution of couples by contraceptive knowledge, according to specific methods, Uganda 1995 Only Only Both husband wife Neither Contraceptive know knows knows knows method method method method method Total Any method 91.9 6.2 1.4 0.5 100.0 Any modern method 89.1 6.3 2.3 2.3 1(30.0 Pill 74.6 10.5 7.5 7.4 100.0 1UD 10.8 12.4 16.6 60.1 100.0 lnjectables 51.7 14.6 19.7 14.0 100.0 Diaphragm/Foam/Jelly 4.9 13.4 9.0 72.7 100.0 Condom 73.4 16.3 4.4 5.9 100.0 Female sterilisation 55.2 16.7 16.4 11.8 100.0 Male sterilisation 8.3 20.0 9.1 62.6 100.0 Norplant 1.3 7.3 4.0 87.4 100.0 Any traditional method 48.4 32.8 10.4 8.3 100.0 Periodic abstinence 41.8 36.6 10.7 10.9 100.0 Withdrawal 4.2 7.3 26.2 62.3 100.0 Natural family planning 3.2 11.3 8.7 76.8 100.0 Folk method 0.4 0.8 27.3 71.4 100.0 Any traditional/folk method 55.8 25,5 11.4 7.3 100.0 44 Table 4.3 presents the percentage of currently married respondents who know of at least one modem method of contraception according to background characteristics. The data reveal that in general there are no large differences in knowledge of methods by background characteristics of currently married respondents. Differentials by region show that knowledge of methods among currently married respondents is highest in the Central Region, while those in the Northem Region are least likely to know of a method, especially a modem method. Respondents from the DISH districts are slightly more likely to know of contraceptive methods than respondents from non-DISH districts. The level of education is positively associated with knowledge of contraceptives. Knowledge of at least one method is universal among respondents with secondary or higher education. Table 4.3 Knowledge of contraceptive methods b'/background characteristics Percentage of currently married respondents who know at least one contraceptive method and at least one modern contraceptive method by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Women Men Know Know Number Know Know Contraceptive any modern of any modern Number method method method women method method of men Age 15-19 93.0 91.4 756 (100.0) (89.7) 38 20-24 94.6 93.3 1,212 96.0 92.4 lg0 25-29 93.7 92.4 1,067 99.5 98.5 262 30-34 94.6 92.6 810 98.5 95.0 230 35-39 91.6 89.5 656 99.4 99.4 219 40-44 93.8 91.4 367 97.2 92.8 144 45-49 88.0 82.8 266 99.0 92. l 96 50-54 NA NA NA 95.3 90.9 83 Residence Urban 97.9 96.7 612 99.4 99.2 156 Rural 92.8 90.9 4,522 98.1 94.6 1,095 Region Central 99.3 98.4 1,242 99.4 99.0 317 Eastern 93.9 92.1 1,399 99.2 98.0 318 Northern 84.5 79.4 l,115 97.5 86.5 274 Western 94.7 94.6 1,378 96.8 96.0 343 DISH area Kasese/Mbarara (I) 92.3 92.0 402 97.9 97.0 113 Masaka/Rakai (ll) 99.6 99.6 298 98.6 98.6 71 Luwero/Masindi 0II) 97.8 97.1 167 (100.0) (94.4) 44 Kamuli/Jinja (IV) 98.2 97.6 274 100.0 100.0 60 Kampala (V) 98.4 96.7 282 98.7 98.7 71 Total DISH 96.8 96.2 1,423 98.8 97.8 359 Total non-DISH 92.1 89.8 3,711 98.0 94.2 893 Education No education 86.2 82.8 1,792 96.4 85.6 150 Primary 96.7 95.6 2,823 98.0 95.4 825 Secondary+ 100.0 100.0 520 100.0 100.0 277 Total 93.4 91.6 5,134 98.2 95.2 1,252 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. NA = Not applicable 45 4.2 Trends in Contraceptive Knowledge Knowledge of contraceptive methods has increased considerably since the 1988-89 UDHS. In 1988- 89, only 82 percent of all women had heard of at least one family planning method, compared with 93 percent ~ in 1995. There has also been a large increase over the last six years in the proportion of women who know specific family planning methods. For example, the proportion of women who have heard of condoms has increased from 33 percent in 1988-89 to 79 percent in 1995 and the proportion who have heard of injec- tables increased from 40 percent to 72 percent during the same period (Table 4.4). Table 4.4 Trends in knowledge of family planning methods Percentage of all women who know specific contraceptive methods, Uganda, 1988-89 and 1995 Contraceptive 1988-89 1995 method UDHS UDHS a Any method 81.9 92.6 Any modern method 76.5 90.9 Pill 66.4 84.5 IUD 20.2 33.3 lnjectables 39.7 72.4 Condom 32.5 78.8 Diaphragm/tbam/jelly 11.3 14.8 Female sterilisation 59.1 68.9 Male sterilisation 8.2 19.6 Norplant NA 5.8 Any traditional method 58.6 59.1 Periodic abstinence 42.6 52.0 Withdrawal 20.5 32.6 Other methods b 31.1 25.3 Any traditional/folk method NA 67.1 Number of women 4,730 5,946 a Analysis is restricted to 1988-89 UDHS areas. b Includes herbs and other folk methods. NA = Not applicable 4.3 Ever Use of Family Planning Methods All women and men interviewed in the 1995 UDHS who said that they had heard of a method of family planning were asked if they had ever used it. Ever use of family plan- ning methods thus refers to use of a method at any time with no distinction between past and current use. Table 4.5 shows the percentage of women who have ever used family plan- ning, according to method and age. One-third of currently married women reported having used a method of family planning at some time; 16 percent have used a modem meth- od, 19 percent have used a traditional method, and 8 percent have used a folk method. Among currently married women, the pill is the modem method that has been most frequently ever used (10 percent), followed by injectables (5 percent) and condoms (4 percent). Sexually active unmarried respondents are more likely to report ever use of modem methods (37 percent) than married respondents ( 16 percent); this difference is explained by much greater use of condoms and to a lesser extent the pill, among unmarried women. Ever use of traditional methods, mainly periodic abstinence, is high among all groups of women, and among currently married women, exceeds the level of ever use of modem methods. Because the 1988-89 survey did not cover the entire country, the data from 1995 have been tabulated for only the areas that were covered in the 1988-89 UDHS. 46 4~ Table 4.5 Ever use of contraception Percentage of all women, currently married women, and sexually active unmarried women who have ever used any contraceptive method, by specific method and age, Uganda 1995 Modern method Traditional method Any Diaphragm/ Female Any Natural Any tradi- Number Any modem Foam/ sterili- traditional Periodic With- family Folk tional/folk of Age method method Pill IUD lnjectables Jelly Condom sation method abstinence drawal planning method method women ALL WOMEN 15-19 16.5 7.2 2.5 01 0.5 00 4.9 0.0 10.0 8.9 1.4 0.8 1.6 11.3 1,606 20-24 33.4 16.3 9.1 0.2 2.i 0.4 7.8 0.0 20.2 174 6.0 1.5 5.1 24.0 1.555 25-29 37.2 20.8 15.1 1.0 5.2 0.5 7.3 0.6 20.4 17.5 4.8 1.0 6.1 24.3 1,270 30-34 40.6 21.0 13.7 1.3 6.9 1.0 5.5 1 4 20.6 16.5 5.7 1.6 8.8 26.2 976 35-39 36.8 18.6 10.8 1.7 8.8 0.7 3.0 3.2 17.0 13.4 6.1 1 .I 10.3 24.0 783 40-44 36.6 17.0 9.7 1.3 7.2 0.7 2.8 4.3 19.7 16.3 4.8 2.1 10.2 26.9 499 45-49 33.7 11.4 4.5 0.8 3.8 0.7 0.5 5.1 I5.7 13.4 3.2 0.9 13.7 26.0 380 Total 31.9 15.7 9.3 0.7 4.1 0.5 5 5 1.2 17.3 14.6 4.5 1.2 6.4 21.8 7,070 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN 15-19 24.2 8.6 3.9 0.1 0.7 0.0 4.6 0.0 14.8 12.9 2.1 1.4 3.4 17.4 756 20-24 321 14.4 9.3 0.3 2.4 0.4 4.9 0.0 19.7 16.6 6.2 1.6 57 23.8 1,212 25 29 34.5 18.1 13.7 0.9 5.3 0.5 5.1 0.5 19.2 16.0 4.9 1.1 6.2 23.3 1,067 30-34 40.0 19.7 13.3 1.2 6.5 1.1 4.2 1.5 20.7 16.4 5.9 18 9.2 26.4 810 35-39 37.1 17.7 9.8 1.7 8.3 0.6 2.6 3 4 17.8 14.4 6.0 1.3 11.2 25.5 656 40-44 379 17.3 9.2 1.4 7.1 0.8 1.9 5.3 19.2 15.3 5.4 2.1 12.6 28.2 367 45 49 34.7 9.6 3.9 0.6 3.2 0.1 0.7 4.9 15.9 13.6 28 0.7 16.3 28.4 266 Total 33.9 15.5 9.8 0.8 4.5 0.5 4.1 1.4 18.6 15.4 5.0 1 5 7.8 23.9 5,134 SEXUALLY ACTIVE UNMARRIED WOMEN Total 51.5 37.0 17.3 0.6 3.8 1.4 26.3 0.8 24.9 212 6.3 1.2 3.1 27.4 200 4.4 Current Use of Family Planning The level of current use of family planning is one of the indicators most frequently used to assess the success of family planning programme activities. It is also widely used as a measure in the analysis of the determinants of fertility. This section focuses on the levels and differentials in family planning use among population sub-groups with particular emphasis on the method mix among users. Trends in family planning use in Uganda are also described. Information on the service providers from which users obtained methods is also presented. The contraceptive prevalence rate (CPR)--the percentage of currently married women who are using a method of family planning--is 15 percent (Table 4.6.1). Just over half of the current users are using a modem method. The CPR for modem methods is 8 percent, while 4 percent and 3 percent of currently married women were using traditional and folk methods, respectively (Figure 4.1). The most popular methods are periodic abstinence, the pill and injectables, which are each currently used by about 3 percent of married women. One percent of currently married women have been sterilised. Modem method use rises with age from 4 percent among married women age 15-19 to a peak of 12 percent among those age 30-34, after which it falls to 6 percent among women 45-49 years. Table 4.6.1 also shows that current use of modern methods is more than three times higher among sexually active unmarried women (27 percent) than among currently married women (8 percent). The difference is largely attributable to the much greater use of condoms among unmarried women (15 percent) than currently married women (1 percent). This suggests that the intention for extramarital contraceptive use involves more than pregnancy prevention and probably indicates motivation to avoid sexually transmitted diseases, especially human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Data on current use of contraception by male respondents are presented in Table 4.6.2. The use of family planning method by men is higher than that by women. The CPR for any method for currently married men age 15-54 is 25 percent, and for modem methods the CPR is 10 percent. About one-third of sexually active unmarried men are using a modern method. Like sexually active unmarried women, sexually active unmarried men reported much higher levels of condom use (32 percent) than their married counterparts (3 percent). In fact, they seem to use condoms almost exclusively, reporting less reliance on the pill, periodic abstinence, and folk methods than married men. Such heavy reliance on the condom may represent differing reproductive and health (disease prevention) strategies among the unmarried and married. The fact that sexually active unmarried women are reporting higher levels of pill use (7 percent) than their male counterparts (less than 1 percent) could mean that these men are not aware of their partners' pill use. Another discrepancy is apparent in the reported level of use of periodic abstinence, which is considerably higher among married men than married women. Higher levels of use of traditional methods among men than women is common, especially in East Africa (Ezeh, et al., 1996:19, 20) and may be due to misreporting by men of other method types for sexual abstinence, such as periodic abstinence. Of course, there is no reason to expect complete correspondence in contraceptive use between samples of married men and married women, since respondents are not confined to reporting about contraceptive use only with their spouses. 48 4x Table4.6.1 Current useofcontraception: women Percent distribution of all women, currently married women, and sexually active unmarried women who are currently using a contraceptive method by specific method, according to age, Uganda 1995 Modem method Traditional method Any Female Any Natural Not Number Any modem sterili- traditional Periodic With- family Folk currently of Age method method Pill IUD lnjectables Condom sation method abstinence drawal planning method using Total women ALL WOMEN 15-19 7.2 3,4 1.3 0.0 0.4 1.6 0.0 2.9 2.4 0.2 0.3 0.9 92.8 100.0 1,606 20-24 13.0 6.3 2.5 0 1 1.1 2 4 0.0 5.0 4.7 0.3 0.0 1.7 87.0 100.0 1,555 25-29 14 3 9.0 3.3 0.4 26 1.9 0.6 3.4 2.7 0.7 0.1 1.9 85.7 100.0 1.270 30-34 19.6 I 1 5 3.9 0.7 4.1 I 2 1.4 4.8 3 7 1.0 0.1 3.3 80.4 100.0 976 35-39 17.2 10.4 1.5 0.5 4 6 0.5 32 3.2 2.4 0.6 0.2 3.6 82.8 100.0 783 40-44 14.0 8.6 1.8 0.0 1.9 03 4.3 3.9 3 1 0.5 0.3 1.6 86.0 100.0 499 45-49 13.3 5.7 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.1 5 1 3.5 3.5 0.0 0.0 4.0 86.7 100.0 380 Total 13.4 7.4 2.3 03 2.0 1.5 1.2 3.9 3.2 0.5 02 2.1 86.6 100.0 7,070 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN 15-19 9.9 3.8 2.4 0.0 0.7 0.7 0.0 4.3 3.2 0.3 0.7 1.8 90.1 100.0 756 20-24 12.2 5.3 2.9 01 1.2 0.9 0.0 5.0 4.7 0.3 0.0 1.9 87.8 100.0 1,212 25-29 13 4 8.0 3.0 0.5 2.9 1.1 0.5 3.1 2.2 0.8 0.1 23 86.6 100.0 1,067 30-34 20.7 11.8 4.0 0.9 4.3 0.9 1.5 5.1 3.7 1.2 0.1 3.8 79.3 100.0 810 35- 39 18.6 10.9 1.4 0.6 4.9 0.6 3.4 3.5 2.6 0.7 0.2 4.2 81.4 100.0 656 40-44 17.6 10.6 2.0 0. I 2.5 0.4 5.3 5.2 4.1 0.6 0.5 1.7 82.4 100.0 367 45-49 16.0 5.8 0.5 0.0 03 O. 1 4.9 4.5 4.5 0.0 0.0 5.6 84.0 100.0 266 Total 14.8 7.8 2.6 0.4 25 0.8 14 4.3 3.5 0.6 0.2 2.7 85.2 100.0 5,134 SEXUALLY ACTIVE UNMARRIED WOMEN Total 35.6 26.5 7.2 0.3 2.9 15.4 0.8 7.7 7.7 0.0 0.0 1.4 64.4 100.0 200 L/I cz) Table 4.6.2 Current use of contraception: men Percent distribution of all men, currently married men, and sexually active unmarried men who are currently using a contraceptive method by specific method, according to age, Uganda 1995 Modem method Traditional method Any Female Any Natural Not Number Any modern sterili- traditional Periodic With- family Folk currently of Age method method Pill IUD Injectables Condom sation method abslinence drawal planning method using Total men ALL MEN 15-19 7.8 50 08 00 0.0 4.2 0.0 2.7 26 0.1 0.0 0.1 922 100.0 387 20-24 24.5 15.0 I 1 0.2 0.5 13 2 0 1 7 9 6.8 0.7 0.4 1.7 75 5 100.0 367 25-29 19 7 97 3.6 0.0 09 5.2 00 8.7 8.0 0.7 0.0 1.3 80.3 100.0 359 30 34 28 8 10 8 3.5 0.7 1 4 4.6 06 17.0 16.2 0.8 0.0 1.0 71.2 100.0 259 35-39 27.0 13.6 2.9 03 3.6 3.6 2.9 9.6 8.7 05 0.4 3.8 73.0 100.0 250 40~44 20.3 11.2 3.3 0 0 4.2 2 2 1.5 5 9 4.1 18 0.0 3.2 79.7 100.0 162 45-49 21 1 7 9 0. I 0.0 2 5 2.0 3.3 8. I 6 7 0.0 1.4 5.0 78.9 100.0 118 50-54 13.7 96 0.6 0.0 6.3 0.0 2.5 3.8 3 2 0.3 0.3 0.3 86.3 100.0 95 Total 20.2 104 2.1 0.2 I 7 5.5 09 8.1 7.3 0.6 0.2 1.7 79.8 100.0 1,996 CURRENTLY MARRIED MEN 15-19 (288) (10.5) (7.6) (00) (0.0) (2.9) (0.0) (18.3) (18.3) (00) (0.0) (0.0) (71.2) 100.0 38 20-24 25.0 7.8 2.2 0.3 1.0 4.3 0 0 14.4 13 0 0.6 0.8 2.8 75.0 100.0 180 25-29 22.5 8.8 5.0 0 1 1.2 2.6 0.0 11.9 10 9 0.9 00 1.8 77.5 100.0 262 30-34 29.8 10.1 3.9 0.8 1.6 32 0.7 I9.0 18.1 0.9 0.0 0.6 70.2 100.0 230 35-39 298 14.5 3.3 0.3 41 3 1 3.3 109 10.0 0.5 0.5 4.4 70.2 100.0 219 40-44 21.0 10 8 3.7 0.0 47 0.6 1 7 6.6 4.6 2.1 0.0 3.6 79.0 100.0 144 45-49 24.4 8.3 02 0.0 3.0 1.0 4 1 10.0 8.2 0.0 1.8 6.2 75.6 100.0 96 50-54 15.3 10.9 0.7 00 7.1 0.0 2.9 40 3 6 0.4 0.0 0.4 84.7 100.0 83 Total 252 10.3 3.4 0.3 26 25 1.4 12.3 11.2 08 0.3 2.6 748 100.0 1,252 SEXUALLY ACTIVE UNMARRIED MEN Total 34.5 32.4 0.3 0 0 0.0 32.1 00 2.1 1 5 0.4 0.2 0.0 65.5 100.0 140 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Figure 4.1 Current Use of Specific Contraceptive Methods among Currently Married Women Supply Methods 3.4% .- . . Clinical Methods 2.9% ~ 5 ~ ' ~ ~ ] Female Sterilisation 1.4% \ ' ~ 7 ~ j ~ ~ " Tradit(onal/Fotk Methods 7.0% ~ Not currently using a method 85.2% Note: Supply Methods include the Pill (2.6%) and the Condom (0.8%); Clinical Methods include Injectables (2,5%) and the IUD (0.4%). UDHS 1995 Some women are much more likely to be using contraception than others (see Table 4.7.1 and Figure 4.2). Urban women are much more likely to be using contraceptive methods (35 percent) than rural women (12 percent). The difference is most pronounced for modern method use (28 vs. 5 percent, respectively), while urban and rural women are almost equally likely to use traditional and folk methods (6-7 percent). There are large differences in levels of contraceptive use by region. One-quarter of currently married women in the Central Region are current users, compared to less than 14 percent of currently married in other regions. Modem method use is highest in the Central Region (16 percent) and lowest in the Northern Region (3 percent), where use of traditional methods is the highest (8 percent). Over 40 percent of married women living in Kampala District (Group V of DISH areas) are using contraceptive methods, compared with only 7 percent in Group I (Kasese and Mbarara Districts). Overall, twice the proportion of women living in DISH districts are using modem methods as women living in non-DISH districts. There are large differentials in current use by level of education. Eight percent of currently married women with no formal education are currently using a method, compared with i5 percent with some primary education, and 38 percent of those with some secondary education. The differentials are similar for modem method use. Contraceptive use rises with the number of living children. It is expected that once individuals or couples achieve their reproductive goals, they would be sufficiently motivated to use a family planning method. The percentage of currently married women using any method increases rapidly from 5 percent among women with no children to 20 percent among those with four or more children. The results confirm that few women in Uganda begin to adopt contraception seriously until after they have had several children, perhaps so as to be sure of their survival. 51 t jr i,o Table 4.7.1 Current use of contraception by background characteristics: women Percent distribution of currently married women by contraceptive method currently used, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Modem method Traditional method Any Female Any Natural Not Background Any modem stenli- traditional Periodic With- family Folk currently characteristic method method Pill IUD lnjectables Condom sa0on method abstinence drawal planning method using Total Number of WOl~C~n Residence Urban 34.5 28 1 10.5 2 2 6.9 3.6 43 4 5 3.2 1.0 0.3 1.9 65.5 100.0 612 Rural 12.2 5.1 1.6 0.1 1.9 0.4 10 4 3 3.5 0.6 0.2 2.8 87.8 100.0 4,522 Region Central 25.0 16.2 5.7 09 4.9 1.8 2.6 4 7 3.6 0.9 0.1 4.0 75.0 100.0 1,242 Eastern 114 5.5 1.4 0.3 1.7 0.7 1.4 2.5 2.0 0.5 0.0 3 4 88.6 1000 1,399 Northern 136 2.5 0.5 0.1 I 2 0.3 0.3 8.2 71 03 0.8 2.9 86.4 100.0 1,115 Western 103 6.9 2.9 0.2 2.2 0.3 13 2 6 19 0.7 0.0 0.8 89.7 100.0 1,378 DISH area Kasese/Mbarara (I) 74 5.7 I 5 0.2 2.3 0.6 I I 07 0.6 0.1 0.0 1.0 92.6 100.0 402 Masaka/Rakai (11) 145 5.6 0.4 0.4 27 17 03 39 3.2 0.8 0.0 5.1 85.5 100.0 298 Luwero/Mmsindi (Ill) 15.9 93 5.0 0.0 4.3 0.0 0.0 46 3 9 07 0.0 2 1 84.1 100.0 167 Kamuli/Jinja (IV) 16.7 90 3.7 0.8 2.6 0.5 1.4 2.5 2.2 0.3 0.0 5.2 83.3 100.0 274 Kampala (V) 405 34.9 13.5 29 82 43 49 3.6 2.0 1.0 07 2.0 59.5 100.0 282 Total DISH 18.2 12.5 4.5 0.9 3.9 1.5 1 6 2 8 2.1 0.5 0.1 3.0 81.8 100.0 1,423 Total non-DISH 13.5 60 1.9 0.2 2.0 0.5 13 49 4.0 0.7 0.2 2.6 86.5 100.0 3,711 Education No education 8.3 2.6 0.9 00 10 0.2 0.5 3.1 2.4 0.3 0.4 2.5 91.7 100.0 1,792 Primary 14.8 7.8 2.4 0.3 2.9 0.7 1.5 42 3 5 0.7 0.0 2.8 85.2 1{30.0 2,823 Secondary+ 376 25.5 10.1 1.9 5.6 37 39 90 7.2 1.2 0.7 3.0 62.4 100.0 520 Number of living children 0 5.0 1.9 0.7 0.0 0.2 1.0 0.0 3.1 20 0.2 0.9 0.0 95.0 100.0 627 1 9.7 4.6 2.6 0.0 0.8 0.7 0.3 4.3 3 8 0.4 0.1 0.9 90.3 100.0 901 2 156 7.2 3.2 0.4 2.2 1,0 03 5.0 4.5 0.4 0.0 3.4 84.4 100.0 834 3 13.7 7.0 3.0 0.6 1.6 0.9 08 44 3.9 0.6 0.0 2.3 86.3 100.0 690 4+ 20.1 115 2.9 0.5 43 0.7 3.0 4.4 3.3 0.9 0.2 4.3 79.9 100.0 2,081 Total 14.8 7.8 2.6 04 25 0.8 1.4 4.3 3.5 0.6 0.2 2.7 852 100.0 5,134 Table 4.7.2 Current use of contraception by background characteristics: men Percent distribution of currently married men by contraceptive method currently used, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Modem method Traditional method Any Female Any Natural Not Number Background Any modem sterili- traditional Periodic With- family Folk currently of characteristic method method Pill IUD lnjectables Condom sation method abstinence drawal planning method using Total men Residence Urban 42.0 31.7 12.1 1.3 6.3 8.3 2.9 8.7 7.3 1.2 0.2 1.7 58.0 100.0 156 Rural 22.7 7.2 2.1 0.1 2.1 1.7 1.2 12.8 11.7 0.7 0.4 2.7 77.3 100.0 1,095 Region Central 26.7 19 4 5.9 0.5 5.3 6.0 1.4 4.8 3.3 1.0 0.4 2.6 73.3 100.0 317 Eastern 25.0 10.2 3.2 0.5 1.6 1.9 3.0 11.2 10.2 1.1 00 3.5 75.0 i00.0 318 Northern 34.1 3.8 1.7 0.0 0.5 1.6 0A 26 5 25.4 0.5 0.5 3.8 65.9 100.0 274 Western 16.7 7.0 2.6 0.0 2.9 0.6 0.9 9.0 8.1 0 5 0.4 0.7 83.3 100.0 343 DISH area Kasese/Mbarara (1) 12.7 6.5 1.5 0.0 3.6 1.2 0.0 52 5.0 0.2 0.0 1.0 87.3 100.0 113 Masaka/Rakai (II) 20.7 86 04 00 2.1 4.0 2.1 8.8 3.5 3.4 1.8 3.3 79.3 100.0 71 Luwero/Masindi (lit) (13.9) (11.4) (3.8) (0.0) (5.1) (2.5) (0.0) (2.5) (2.5) (00) (0.0) (0.0) (86.1) 100.0 44 Kamuli/Iinja (IV) 19.2 8.4 4.8 2.1 0.3 0.6 0.6 10.8 10.5 0.3 0.0 0.0 80.8 100.0 60 Kampala (V) 41.0 37.2 14.1 13 102 9.0 1.3 3.9 2.6 13 0.0 0.0 59.0 100.0 71 Total DISH 21.1 139 4.6 06 4.3 3.3 0.8 63 4.9 1.0 0.4 0.9 78.9 100.0 359 Total non-DISH 26.8 88 2.9 01 2.0 2.2 1.6 14.7 13.7 0.7 0.3 3.2 73.2 100.0 893 Education No education 10.6 21 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 1.5 6.3 6.3 0.0 0.0 2.2 89.4 100.0 150 Primary 223 6.5 23 0.1 1.8 13 H 13.0 115 0.9 05 2.8 77.7 100.0 825 Secondary+ 41.6 25.9 8.4 0.9 6.3 7.5 23 13.7 12.7 1.0 0.0 2.1 58.4 100.0 277 Number of living children 0 7.6 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 0.9 4.4 3.5 0.9 0.0 0.0 92.4 100.0 121 1 28.4 9.8 4.8 0.0 0.5 4.0 0.5 17.1 16,3 0.0 0.8 1.5 71.6 100.0 185 2 25.0 9.5 3.2 0.8 2.7 28 00 11.6 10.2 1.4 0.0 3.9 75.0 I00.0 176 3 23.2 6.1 2.0 0.4 0.I 2.1 1.4 13.5 13.2 0.3 0.0 3.6 76.8 100.0 147 4+ 28.1 13.0 4.0 02 4.4 2.2 2.1 123 10.9 1.0 0.4 2.8 71.9 100.0 622 Total 25.2 10.3 3,4 0.3 2.6 2.5 1.4 12.3 11.2 0.8 0.3 2.6 74.8 100.0 1,252 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25":19 unweighted cases. Figure 4.2 Contraceptive Use of Currently Married Women 15-49 by Background Characteristics RESIDENCE Urban Rural REGION Central Eastern Northern Western DISTRICT DISH Non-DISH EDUCATION No education Primary Secondary + "~"jJJ J J J~JjJfJ J J J J J j J J J~JJJ J~ ~JJJfJJJJJJJJJJJJ~ ~JffJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJJ~ ~SJJJJJJJJJJJ~ 10 20 30 Percent 40 UDHS 1995 Table 4.7.2 shows the percent distribution of married men age t5-54 by the contraceptive method currently used, according to background characteristics. The differentials in contraceptive use by men resemble those among women. Men in urban areas are more likely to use contraceptive methods, especially modem methods, than their counterparts in rural areas. Conversely, use of traditional methods is more common in rural areas than in urban areas. There are quite large differences in the prevalence of current contraceptive use among men in the various regions. For example, 19 percent of married men in the Central Region are using modem family planning methods, compared with only 4 percent in the Northern Region; 7 percent of married men in the Western Region and 10 percent of those in the Eastern Region are using modem contraception. Men living in the DISH districts are more likely to use any method but less likely to use modem methods than those living in non-DISH districts. Modem contraceptive use increases with increasing educational attainment, from 2 percent of married men with no formal education, to 7 percent of those with some primary education, and to 26 percent of those with at least some secondary education. The contraceptive prevalence rate in Uganda has tripled over a six-year period, rising from 5 percent in the areas of the country covered by the 1988-89 UDHS to 16 percent in 1995 for these same areas (see Table 4.8 and Figure 4.3). 2 The results not only show the overall increase, but also document the changes that have occurred with the method mix. Use of modem methods has increased faster than overall use, from 3 percent in 1988-89 to 9 percent in 1995. Use of traditional methods increased from 2 percent to 4 percent. Methods which have increased the fastest are the pill, injectables, and periodic abstinence. 2 The rate of 16 percent is calculated from the 1995 UDHS data fur only those areas of the country that were covered in the 1988-89 UDHS and is slightly higher than the national-level contraceptive prevalence rate of 14.8 (see Table 4.6.1 ). 54 Table 4.8 Trends in current use of contraception Percentage of currently married women who were using specific contraceptive methods at the time of the survey, Uganda, 1988-89 and 1995 Contraceptive 1988-89 1995 method UDHS UDHS l Any method 4.9 15,7 Any modern method 2.5 8.9 Pill 1.1 3.I IUD 0.2 0.4 lnjectables 0.4 2.8 Condom 0.0 0.8 Female sterilisation 0.8 1.6 Arty traditional method 2.4 3.8 Periodic abstinence 1.6 3.0 Withdrawal 0.3 0.7 Natural family planning NA 0.2 Other methods 0.4 3.0 Number of women 3,180 4,238 1 The 1995 UDHS figures are calct2lated for 1988-89 UDHS areas, NA = Not applicable Source: Kaijuka et ah, 1989:33 Figure 4.3 Trends in Current Contraceptive Use Among Currently Married Women 15-49 Any Method Any Modern Method Any Traditional Method IUD Injeetables Condom Pemale SterilJsation Periodic Abstinence ~-'~JJ~JJJfJ~-~'JJJJ~'~ t 5,7 ~J~J~'A~ZJ~'~-~ 8.9 ~ 3 , 8 ~ 3 , 1 1104 ~ 2.8 ~0.8 ~1.6 ~3.0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 Percent Using Method 18 Note; 1995 UDHS data were adjusted for 1988-89 UDHS areas. 55 4.5 Number of Children at First Use of Family Planning Family planning methods may be used for either spacing births or limiting family size. The 1995 UDHS included questions on the number of children the woman had when she first used contraception. These data enable an examination of the cohort changes in the timing of adopting contraceptive use. Table 4.9 shows the distribution of ever-married women by age group and the number of children the women had when they first used contraception. The results indicate that Ugandan women are increasingly adopting family planning at an earlier stage of the family building process. Younger cohorts of women reported first use at lower parities than older cohorts of women. For example, the oldest cohorts (age 45-49) of ever-married women reported first using contraception after having a median of 4.6 births, compared with 1-2 births among the youngest cohorts (under age 30). From another perspective, 15 percent of ever-married women age 15-19 started contracepting before the birth of their first child, compared with only 3 percent of the 45-49 cohort. This pattern may also be a reflection of a recent increase in availability of family planning services. Table 4.9 Number of children at first use of contraception Percent distribution of ever-married women by number of living children at the time of first use of contraception, and median number of children at first use, according to current age, Uganda 1995 Median Never Number of living children at time number of used of first use of contraception Number children contra- of at first Current age ception 0 I 2 3 4+ Missing Total women use 15-19 76.0 15.0 6.8 1.9 0.1 0.0 0.2 100.0 801 0.8 20-24 67.7 9.2 12.8 7.4 2.2 0.5 0.1 100.0 1,365 1.5 25-29 64.0 8.2 10.4 7.3 4.9 5.2 0.1 100.0 1,196 1.9 30-34 59.8 3.5 8.9 5.6 6.6 15.4 0.3 100.0 957 3.3 35-39 63.2 2.6 7.6 3.9 5.0 17.7 0.0 100,0 772 3.9 40-44 63.3 2.7 5.6 5.4 4.6 18.4 0.0 100.0 498 4.0 45-49 66.4 3.4 8.1 2.3 1.8 18.0 0.0 100.0 370 4.6 Total 65.8 7.1 9.3 5.4 3.7 8.5 0.1 100.0 5,959 2.1 4.6 Effect of Breastfeeding on Conception Information on knowledge of the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding as perceived by women is shown in Table 4.10. Over half of currently married Ugandan women believe that breastfeeding does not affect the chance of a woman becoming pregnant. Twenty percent correctly report that breastfeeding can reduce the risk of pregnancy, while 15 percent say that it depends. Differentials in knowledge of the contraceptive effect of breastfeeding by age group, place of residence and region are not large. Only 18 percent of currently married women have used breastfeeding in the past to avoid pregnancy and 8 percent are currently relying on breastfeeding as contraception. Seven percent of women meet the criteria for use of the lactational amenorrhoeic method (LAM) 3 of family planning. 3 LAM users are women who are breastfeeding a child under six months of age, are still postpartum amenorrhoeic, and are not feeding the child anything but breastmilk and plain water. 56 Table 4.10 Perceived contraceptive effect of breastfeeding Percent distribution of currently married women by perceived risk of pregnancy associated with breastfeeding, percentage who rely on breastfeeding to avoid pregnancy, and percentage who meet lactational amenorrhoeic method (LAM) criteria, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Perceived risk of pregnancy associated with breastfeeding Reliance on breastfeeding to avoid pregnancy Don't Meet Number Background Un- In- De- know/ Previ- Cur- LAM of characteristic changed creased creased Depends Missing Total ously rently criteria women Age 15-19 55.5 2.2 18.5 11.6 12.4 100.0 7.8 4.8 10.0 756 20-24 55.5 2.0 20.1 15.1 7.3 100.0 16.0 8.8 8.2 1,212 25-29 55.8 2.3 21.1 16.5 4.4 100.0 19.5 9.9 8.1 ],067 30-34 51.7 2.7 22.6 16.6 6.5 100.0 24.0 11.0 6.3 810 35-39 61.0 1.7 18.0 16.0 3.2 100.0 17.2 7.6 4.2 656 40-44 53.9 1.6 24.3 16.7 3.5 100.0 22.6 4.9 4.9 367 45-49 59.8 1.8 18.0 15.7 4.7 100.0 20.6 2.3 0.0 266 Residence Urban 49.3 2.4 20.0 21.0 7.3 100.0 17.9 6.8 4.7 612 Rural 56.6 2.1 20.4 14.6 6.3 100.0 17.6 8.2 7.3 4,522 Region Central 54.0 1.6 17.8 22.7 3.9 100.0 19.7 7.5 6.3 1,246 Eastern 42.3 4,1 22.1 25.3 6.2 100.0 20.9 8.7 6.1 1,400 Northern 66.8 1.4 20.3 4.4 7.1 100.0 13.4 7.7 9.2 1,112 Western 62.2 1.2 20.9 7.6 8.1 100.0 15.8 8.1 6.6 1,376 Education No education 55.5 2.4 21.4 12.8 7.9 100.0 17.7 7.9 7.4 1,792 Primary 57.8 2.0 19.1 15.4 5.8 100.0 16.8 8.1 7.2 2,823 Secondary+ 45.8 1.7 23.8 24.4 4.4 100.0 21.7 7.8 4.5 520 Total 55,8 2.1 20.4 15.4 6.4 100.0 17.6 8.0 7.0 5,134 4.7 Source of Family Planning Methods Information on the source of modern contraceptives currently used is useful for family planning managers and implementers. In the 1995 UDHS, women who reported using a modern method of contra- ception at the time of survey were asked where they obtained the method the last time. Table 4.11 and Figure 4.4 show that about half of current users (47 percent) obtain their methods from public sources. Private medical sources are reported by 42 percent of current users, and other private sources account for the remaining 11 percent. Government hospitals (30 percent) and private hospitals and clinics (30 percent) are the most common sources of contraceptive methods. The source of family planning methods varies according to the type of method used. For example, more than half the pill users (55 percent) obtain their method from private medical sources, 38 percent from private hospitals and clinics, 10 percent from pharmacies, and 7 percent from other private medical sources. Over 60 percent of users of injectables and female sterilisation use public sources, compared to only 24 percent of condom users. Most condom users obtain their method from private sources, either shops (19 percent), private hospitals or clinics (14 percent), or pharmacies (14 percent). 57 Table 4.11 Source of supply for modern contraceptive methods Percent distribution of women currently using modern contraceptive methods by most recent source of supply, according to specific methods, Uganda 1995 Contraceptive method Female All Inject- Con- sterili- modern Source of supply Pill ables dora sation methods Public 39.4 61.1 23.9 63.3 47.4 Government hospital 22.8 30.6 i2.0 60.7 30.0 Government health centre 8.3 12.3 6.5 2.6 8.1 Government dispensary/ health unit 6.9 17.1 2.9 0.0 7.6 Government mobile clinic 0.7 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.5 Government field worker 0.7 0.0 1.6 0.0 0.6 Other public 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 Medical prlvate 54.6 37.0 34.2 34.9 41.5 Private hospital/clinic 37.8 32.0 14.3 31.8 30.1 Pharmacy 9.6 0.7 13.5 0.0 5.9 Private doctor 2.4 0.3 0.5 1.1 1.2 Private m~)bile clinic i. I 0.2 0.9 0.0 0.6 Private field worker 0.0 0.3 3.5 0.0 1.0 Other private 3.8 3.6 1.5 2.1 2.8 Other private 5.7 i .8 40.2 1 .g 10.8 Shop 2.2 0.0 18.9 0.0 4.5 Church 0.0 1.2 1.7 0.0 0.7 Friend/relative 2.7 0.7 9.7 0,0 3.0 Other 0.8 0.0 9.9 i ,8 2.6 Missing 0.2 0.0 1.7 0,0 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 I00.0 Number of users 162 143 106 88 524 Note: The total includes 19 IUD users, four users of diaphragm/foam/jelly, and one Norplant user. Women who are currently using a modem method of contra- ception were asked why they went to the place where they got their method instead of some other source. The reasons women give for choosing particular sources can pro- vide the family planning pro- gramme with important insights in- to the process of adoption of contra- ception. Table 4.12 summarises the reasons users gave for choosing their current method source. Forty percent of women say they use their current source because it is closest to home, while one-third of women say that they know of no other source for their method. The com- petence and friendliness of staff was the main reason why 10 percent of users chose their source. Users of medical private sources are more likely to use these sources because they are closer to home, while pub- lic source users are equally likely to say they use their source because they do not know of any other source. Figure 4.4 Distribution of Current Users of Modern Contraceptive Methods by Source of Supply Government facilities 47% Other Private 11% Medical private 42% UDHS 1995 58 Table 4.12 Reason for selecting current sources of supply for contraceptive methods Percent distribution of current users of modem contraceptive methods by reason for selecting most recent source of supply, according to source of method, Uganda 1995 Staff Use Know Closer Closer to compe- Offers Shorter Longer other Don't Number Source of no other to market/ Transport tent, Cleaner more waiting hours of services Low cost, Wanted know/ of supply source home work available friendly facility privacy time operation there cheaper anonymity Other Missing Total users Public 34.8 36.6 2.4 1.6 9.2 0.3 1.0 1.2 0.4 1.6 4.7 1.2 4.8 0.1 1(30.0 205 Government hospital 40.8 30.0 2.1 2.8 8.7 0.6 1.1 1.1 0.8 1.5 4.0 L2 5.1 0.2 100,0 115 Government health centre t34.0) t44.5) (0.0) (0.0) (9.9) (0.0) (0.7) (0.0) (0.0) (3.6) (0.0) (2.8) (4.6) (0.0) 100.0 41 Government dispensary/ health unit (23.3) (47.3) (4.5) (0.0 (95) (0.0) (0.6) (0.4) (0.0) (0.0) (11.2) (0.0) (3.1l (0.0) 100.0 40 Medical private 26.6 45.6 2.7 0.3 I 1 9 0.3 2.3 2.3 0.0 1 3 1.3 1.5 3.7 0.2 100.0 192 Private hospital/clinic 22.4 45.8 1.6 0.2 13.9 0.4 2.5 2.6 0.0 1.9 1.8 2.2 4.4 0.2 100.0 134 Pharmacy (235) (59.8) (9.0) (0.6) (7.1) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0,0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 31 Other private 47.5 35.9 0.0 0.0 3.5 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.0 2.2 0.6 2.4 5.2 1.4 100.0 55 Total 33.0 40.2 2.2 0.8 9.6 0.3 1.5 1.5 0.2 1.5 2.7 1.5 4.4 0.5 100.0 453 Note: Table excludes IUD and female sterilisation users who obtained these methods more than two years prior to the survey. Total includes sources for which there are too few users to show separately. Figures in parentheses are based on 2549 unweighted cases. 4.8 Intention to Use Family Planning Among Non-users An important indicator of the changing demand for family planning is the extent to which non-users of contraception plan to use family planning in the future. Currently married respondents who were not using contraception at the time of survey were asked if they intended to use family planning methods in future. The results are presented in Table 4.13 for women and men. More than half (55 percent) of currently married female non-users say they intend to use family planning at some time in the future, with 39 percent saying they intend to use in the next 12 months and 16 percent saying they intend to use later. Another 38 percent do not intend to use, while 7 percent are unsure about either the timing of use or their intention to use. For currently married male respondents, 61 percent say they intend to use family planning in the future, 30 percent of them within 12 months, while 29 percent do not intend to use and 10 percent are not sure about either the timing or possible use. The proportion intending to use, and especially the timing of use, varies with the number of living children. For example, the proportion of women who intend to use within the next 12 months is much lower among childless women (17 percent) than among those with two children (41 percent), and the proportion who do not intend to use at all is lower among women with four or more children (36 percent) than among childless women (55 percent). Table 4.13 Future use of contraception Percent distribution of currently married women and men who are not currently using a contraceptive method, by past experience with contraception and intention to use in the future, according to number of living children, Uganda 1995 Past experience Number of living children J Total with contraception for and future intentions 0 1 2 3 4+ women Tolal lbr men Never used contraception Intend to use in next 12 months 13.0 28.4 27.0 21.7 30.8 26.8 19.8 Intend to use later 16.3 14.5 13.1 14.4 7.9 11.7 23.9 Unsure as to timing 0.4 0.8 0.8 1.8 1.1 1.0 0.3 Unsure as to intention 7.7 4.7 4.3 5.2 4.6 5.0 5.5 Do not intend to use 51.0 33.5 30.8 31.6 30.5 33.1 24.3 Missing 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 Previously used contraception Intend to use in next 12 months 4.1 8.8 14,3 13.5 15.2 12.6 9.6 Intend to use later 3.4 3.5 3.9 4.8 3.5 3.8 7.5 Unsure as to timing 0.0 0.1 0.2 1.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 Unsure as to intention 0.5 0.2 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.4 3.7 Do not intend to use 3.5 5.4 4.1 5.5 5.8 5.2 4.5 Missing 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100,0 I00.0 100.0 100.0 All currently married non-users Intend to use in next 12 months 17.1 37.2 41.3 35.1 46.0 39.4 29.5 Intend to use later 19.6 18.0 17.0 19.2 11.4 15.5 31.4 Unsure as to timing 0.4 0.9 1.0 2.9 1.2 1.3 0.5 Unsure as to intention 8.2 4.9 5.1 5.7 4.9 5.4 9.2 Do not intend to use 54.5 38.9 34.8 37.1 36.3 38.3 28.8 Missing 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100,0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 388 852 720 646 1,766 4,372 937 i Includes current pregnancy 60 Most of the women and men who intend to use in the future have never used contraception. For example, of the 39 percent of women who intend to use in the next 12 months, 27 percent have never used and 13 percent have used previously. Similar patterns are also observed among the men. 4.9 Reasons for Non-use Table 4.14 presents the main reasons for not using family planning given by currently married non- users who do not intend to use contraception in the future. Among women, the desire for more children was the most common reason for non-use (37 percent), followed by infecundity or menopause (20 percent), and opposition to family planning by either the woman or her husband (I 2 percent). Eight percent of female non- users who do not intend to use say they do not know of any method, while 6 percent say they do not know a source for obtaining methods. Younger women are more likely than older women to cite desire for more children and lack of knowledge of methods as the main reasons for not intending to use. While desire for more children was also the most important reason for not using family planning among older women, other important reasons cited by non-users 30 years and over are related to infecundity and menopause. The majority of men cited wanting more children as the most important reason. Table 4.14 Reasons for not using contraception Percent distribution of currently married women and men who are not using a contra- ceptive method and who do not intend to use in the future, by main reason lbr not using, according to age, Uganda 1995 Women Men Age Age Reason for not using contraception <30 30-49 Total <30 30-54 Total Want children 50.7 23.1 37.0 61.4 39.8 46.7 Side effects 4.6 4.5 4.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 Health concerns 1.0 1.6 1.3 1.6 0.3 0.7 Interferes with body 0.6 0.9 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 Knows no method 9.6 6.9 8.3 6.9 5.6 6.0 Knows no source 5.4 5.8 5.6 0.0 0.8 0.5 Hard to get 0.5 0.0 0.3 0.0 1.0 0.7 Cost 1.3 1.5 1.4 2.9 0,0 0.9 Religion 2.9 3.4 3, I 3.4 4.6 4.2 Respondent opposed 5.5 5.6 5.6 9.0 13.7 12.2 Partner opposed 8.6 4.6 6.6 3.1 2.5 2.7 Others opposed 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 1.0 0.7 Infrequent sex 0.9 2.8 1.8 0.0 1.5 1.0 Menopausal/hysterectomy 0.0 14.5 7.2 0.0 8.7 5.9 Subfecund/infecund 4.3 20.6 12.4 1.1 9.9 7.1 Inconvenient 0.3 0.1 0.2 0.0 1.6 L 1 Other 3.2 2.6 2.9 9.4 6.2 7.2 Don't know/Missing 0.3 1.3 0.8 0.0 0.8 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women/men 842 831 1,674 87 183 270 61 4.10 Preferred Method of Contraception for Future Use Non-users who indicated their intention to use family planning methods in the future were asked which method they would prefer to use. About one-third of women say they prefer to use the pill, and just under one-third say they prefer injectables (Table 4.15). One in five women do not know which method they prefer to use. Women who intend to use in the next 12 months have similar method preferences as women who intend to use after 12 months. Table 4.15 Preferred method of contraception for future use Percent distribution of currently married women who are not using a contraceptive method but who intend to use in the future by preferred method, according to timing of intended use, Uganda 1995 Intend to use In next Aller Preferred method 12 12 of contraception months months Total Pill 32.1 33.3 32.4 IUD 1.3 1.0 1.2 lnjectables 32.2 26.2 30.5 Diaphragm/Foam/Jelly 0.6 1.0 0.7 Condom 2.7 2.3 2.6 Female sterilisation 6.3 4.1 5.8 Periodic abstinence 2.7 3.4 2,9 Withdrawal 0.2 0.3 0.3 Folk method 3. I 3. I 3.1 Norplant 0.7 1.5 0,9 Natural family planning 0.0 0.3 0.1 Don't know/Missing 18,0 23.6 19.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 1,721 677 2,398 4.11 Exposure to Family Planning Messages Radio and television are the major potential sources of information about family planning in the media. To assess the effectiveness of such media for the dissemination of family planning information, all female and male respondents in the survey were asked if they had heard or seen messages about family planning on the radio or on television during the six months preceding the interview. Table 4.16 shows that more men than women are exposed to family planning messages on the major electronic media. More than half of the men and one-third of the women report that they have heard or seen a family planning message on radio or television in the previous six months. Radio is by far the more prominent of the two media; only 3 percent of women and 6 percent of men had seen a family planning message on television. A sharp contrast in access to family planning messages is observed between urban and rural residents; 70 percent of rural women and 53 percent of rural men have not been reached through the electronic media in the past six months, compared to 41 percent of urban women and 23 percent of urban men. The proportion of respondents who have been exposed to family planning messages on radio or television varies across regions. Forty-one percent of women and 39 percent of men in the Central Region had not seen or heard family planning messages on either the television or radio, compared to 86 percent of women and 59 percent 62 Table 4.16 Exposure to family planning messages through the media Percent distribution of women and men by whether they have heard a radio or television message about family planning in the six months prior to the interview, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Heard about t~amily planning on radio or television Women Men Heard Tele- Heard Number Heard Tele- Heard Number Background on Radio vision on of on Radio vision on of characteristic neither only only both Total women neither only only both Total men Residence Urban 40.6 44.0 1.2 14.2 100.0 1,055 22.9 50.I 1.8 25.1 100.0 281 Rural 70.0 28.7 0.1 1.2 100.0 6,015 52.8 44.1 0.3 2.7 100.0 1,715 Region Central 41.0 50.0 0.6 8.4 100.0 1,967 38.7 49.2 1.0 11.0 100.0 568 Eastern 67.7 29.9 0.2 2.2 100.0 1,738 50.3 41.1 0.4 8.0 100.0 497 Northern 86.4 13.3 0.0 0.3 100.0 1,398 59.1 39.8 0.1 1.0 16'0.0 419 Western 73.7 25.4 0.1 0.8 100.0 1,968 49.2 48.3 0.5 1.9 100.0 511 Education No education 83.9 16.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 2,161 74.5 22.6 0.6 1.6 100.0 232 Primary 63.4 34.3 0.2 2.0 100.0 3,956 53.6 43.9 0.2 2.2 100.0 1,259 Secondary+ 33.2 51.1 I.I 14.6 100.0 952 24.1 57.9 1.2 16.8 100.0 504 Total 65.6 31.0 0.2 3.1 100.0 7,070 48.6 45.0 0.5 5.9 100.0 1,996 Note: Figures may not add to 100.0 due to rounding. of men in the Northern Region. Education of respondents is closely correlated with media exposure. Eighty- four percent of women and 75 percent of men with no formal education have not heard or seen a family planning message on the radio or television. This proportion is 33 percent for women and 24 percent for men with some secondary or higher education. 4.12 Acceptability of Electronic Media to Disseminate Family Planning Messages To determine the level of acceptability of the dissemination of family planning information through the media, women and men interviewed in the 1995 UDHS were asked whether they thought it was acceptable for family planning information to be provided on radio or television. Overall 84 percent of the women and 91 percent of men report that it is acceptable to them to use radio or television for family planning information (Table 4.17). Urban respondents are more likely than rural respondents to view family planning in the media as acceptable. Women in the Central Region and men in the Western Region are most likely to accept media messages, while both men and women from the Northern Region are least likely to accept the use of radio and television for family planning messages. Women and men who have attained higher levels of education are much more likely to accept family planning messages on radio or television than those with no education. 63 Table 4.17 Acceptability of media messages on family planning Percentage of women and men who believe that it is acceptable to have messages about family planning on the radio or television, by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Acceptability of family planning messages on radio or television Women Men Not Number Not Number Background accept- Accept- of accept- Accept- of characteristic able able Unsure Total women able able Unsure Total men Age 15-19 7.3 82.0 10.8 100.0 1,606 3,8 91.4 4.8 100.0 387 20-24 7.7 87.0 5.3 100.0 1,555 3.1 95.3 1.6 100.0 367 25-29 7.5 85,3 7.1 100.0 1,270 5.4 89.0 5.6 100.0 359 30-34 7.0 86.0 7.0 100.0 976 8.0 90.9 1.1 100.0 259 35-39 8.2 83.1 8.7 100.0 783 7.1 90.7 2.2 100.0 250 40-44 11.1 79.7 9.2 100.0 499 5.1 91.8 3.1 100.0 162 45-49 12.2 76.2 I 1.6 100.0 380 8.2 89.7 2.2 100.0 118 50-54 NA NA NA NA NA 20.0 70.2 9.8 100.0 95 Residence Urban 3.6 93.3 3.0 100.0 1,055 4.1 95.5 0.3 100.0 281 Rural 8.8 82.2 9.0 100.0 6,015 6.4 89.6 4.0 100.0 1,715 Region Central 3.3 94.3 2.4 100.0 1,966 8.1 90.7 1.2 100.0 569 Eastern 6.1 86.9 7.0 100.0 1,737 5.2 91.6 3.2 1130.0 497 Northern 19.9 60.6 19.5 100.0 1,397 9.3 85.0 5.6 100.0 419 Western 5.9 87.4 6.7 100.0 1,967 1.8 93.6 4.6 100.0 511 Education No education 13.6 71.2 15.2 100.0 2,161 I 1,5 84.3 4,2 100.0 232 Primary 6.4 87.6 5.9 100.0 3,956 6.1 89.4 4.6 100.0 1,259 Secondary+ 1.8 97.0 I.I 100.0 952 3.5 96.0 0.5 100.0 504 Total 8.0 83.9 8.1 100.0 7,070 6.0 90.5 3.5 100.0 1,996 NA = Not applicable 4.13 Exposure to Family Planning Messages Through the Print Media Female respondents were asked if they had been exposed to a family planning message through a newspaper or magazine article, a poster or a leaflet during the six months prior to the interview. The results are presented in Table 4.18. Only 14 percent of the women reported that they had been exposed to family planning information through print media. The most commonly reported source of a family planning message in the print media was posters (12 percent), followed by newspapers/magazines (5 percent) and leaflets (3 percent). Women in rural areas were less likely to have been exposed to family planning messages through the print media than their urban counterparts (11 percent vs. 31 percent). Women living in the Central Region are more likely to have seen a family planning message in the print media than women in other regions. The proportion of women exposed to messages in any print media increases directly with educational level, from 5 percent among women with no formal education to 38 percent among women with at least some secondary education. 64 Table 4.18 Family planning messages in print Percentage of women who received a message about family planning through the print media in the six months prior to the interview, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Type of print media containing family planning message Number Background Any Newspaper/ Leaflet/ of characteristic source magazine Poster brochure women Residence Urban 31.4 17.2 25.4 11.3 1,055 Rural 10.8 3.2 9.5 1.3 6,015 Region Central 27.8 9.9 24.2 5.9 1,967 Eastern 8.8 4.6 7.3 2.2 1,738 Northern 6.0 2.3 5.3 1.7 1,398 Western 10.0 3.5 8.2 I. 1 1,968 Education No education 4.5 0.2 4.4 0.2 2,161 Primary 13.0 3.4 I 1.7 1.8 3,956 Secondary+ 38.3 25.0 29.4 13.0 952 Total 13.9 5.3 11.8 2.8 7,070 4.14 Contact of Non-users with Family Planning Providers Community-based distribution agents (CBDAs), who are largely based in rural areas are expected to visit women and men of reproductive age who are non-users of modem family planning methods to discuss the options and when indicated, motivate them to adopt a method of family planning. Health facility and extension workers are also expected to visit or discuss and motivate families for family planning while providing other health services. To get an indication of the frequency of such visits or discussions, women were asked whether they had been visited by a CBDA within the previous 12 months and whether a health worker had discussed family planning with her. Table 4.19 shows that only 5 percent (i.e., sum of first three columns) of non-users were visited by a CBDA during the 12 months preceding the survey. Non-users in rural areas were less likely to be visited by CBDAs than their urban counterparts. To get an insight into the level of"missed opportunities"--i.e., contacts between non-users and health workers which were not utilised to motivate non-users to adopt family planning--non-users were also asked whether they had visited a health facility in the past 12 months and whether anyone at the health facility had discussed family planning with them during their visit. Of the 48 percent of women who visited a health facility in the previous 12 months, one-fourth (13 percent of all women) said that someone at the facility spoke to them about family planning. Overall, 84 percent of non-users were neither visited by a family planning worker nor discussed family planning with a health facility staff in the 12 months preceding the survey. This represents a large pool of potential users of family planning that could be targeted for family planning counselling. To reach these women, a vigorous outreach program is needed and all health workers should be sensitised to discuss the issues of fertility preferences and the option of family planning whenever the opportunity arises. 65 Table 4.19 Contact of non-users with family planning providers Percent distribution of non-users of family planning by whether they were visited by a family planning fieldworker (CBDA) or spoke with a health facility staff member about family planning (FP) methods during the 12 months prior to interview, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Non-users of family planning Visited by CBDA Not visited by CBDA Visited Visited health facility health facility Did not Did not No FP Dis- Did not visit Dis- Did not visit services or Number Background cussed discuss health cussed discuss health inl~rmation of characteristic FP FP facility FP FP facility provided Total non-users Residence Urban 1.9 2.0 2.0 I 1.2 37.5 45.5 82.9 100.0 771 Rural 2.0 1.3 1.5 10.7 33.5 51.0 84.5 100.0 5,352 Region Central 1.4 1.7 2.6 8.9 37.1 48.3 85.4 100.0 1,552 Eastern 2.6 2.3 1.2 12.6 36.1 45.2 81.3 100.0 1,544 Northern I. I 0.5 0.6 11.5 35.8 50.5 86.2 100.0 1,233 Western 2.6 0.9 1.5 I0.3 28.4 56.3 84.7 100.0 1,795 Education No education 1.4 0.9 0.9 7.9 33.6 55.1 88.8 100.0 2,t104 Primary 2.3 1.3 1.8 12.2 33.7 48.8 82.4 100.0 3,443 Secondary+ 2.1 3.2 2.0 I 1.9 36.8 43.9 80.7 100.0 677 Total 2.0 1.4 1.5 10.7 34.0 50.3 84,3 100.0 6,124 4.15 Attitudes Towards Family Planning Use of effective contraceptive methods is facilitated when couples have a positive attitude towards family planning. Attitudinal data were collected by asking currently married women whether they approve of couples using family planning and what they perceive as their husband's attitude towards family planning. This information is useful in the formation of family planning policies, since it indicates the extent to which further education and publicity are needed to gain or increase acceptance of family planning. Widespread disapproval of contraception acts as a barrier to adoption of methods. Table 4.20 shows the level of approval of family planning among currently married persons who know at least one contraceptive method. Data indicate that almost 80 percent of married women approve of family planning. However, only 46 percent of married women say that their husbands approve of family planning. Only 43 percent of women reported that both they and their husbands approve of family planning, while 9 percent say that both they and their husbands disapprove and 15 percent did not know their husband's opinion. Among the couples in which the wife reports a difference of opinion, the husbands and not the wives were more likely to disapprove. In 23 percent of the cases, the husbands disapprove (while the wives approve), compared with 1.4 percent when the husbands approve and the wives are not agreeable. The likelihood that a woman will report that both she and her husband approve of family planning is highest (46 percent) among women age 30-34 years and declines with age to 34 percent among women age 45-49 years. The level of approval varies between urban and rural areas; couples in urban areas are more likely to approve of family planning than those in rural areas (62 and 40 percent respectively). Approval by both husband and wife was highest (54 percent) in the Central Region and lowest (27 percent) in the Northern Region. Less educated women are more likely to disapprove of family planning themselves and are also likely to say that their spouses disapprove or that they do not know their spouse's views. 66 Table 4.20 Wives' perceptions of their husbands' attitudes toward family planning Percent distribution of currently married women who know of a contraceptive method by wife's attitude toward family planning and wife's perception of her husband's attitude toward family planning, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Wife Wife Wife Wife approves, approves, disap- disapproves, husband husband's proves, Both husband's Number Background Both disap- attitude husband disap- attitude Wife Wife Husband of characteristic approve proves unknown approves prove unknown unsure Missing Total approves approves t women Age 15-19 39.3 21.8 17.5 1.0 83 2.1 9.5 05 100.0 79.1 41.4 703 20-24 42.5 23.9 15.4 1.3 8.8 1.9 6.3 0.0 100.0 81.8 44.7 1346 25-29 45. I 22.4 I 1.9 1. I 9. I 1.8 8.7 0.0 100.0 79.4 47.9 1,000 30-34 45.6 24.0 12.0 1.5 6.7 1.2 8.9 0.0 100.0 81.7 48.3 765 35-39 45.0 22.9 9.2 3.6 8.4 1.8 8.9 0.2 1(39.0 77.4 49.7 600 40-44 42.8 19.8 12.3 0.0 13.8 1.3 9.6 0.4 100.0 75.3 44.0 344 45-49 34.4 22.1 165 1.5 10.2 3.3 12.1 0.0 1(30.0 72.9 36.6 234 Residence Urban 61.6 20.0 8.6 0.8 3.2 1.3 4.2 0.3 100.0 90.4 63.2 599 Rural 40.3 23.2 142 1.5 9.6 1.9 9.1 0.1 100.O 77.8 43.1 4,195 Region Central 54.3 24.2 11.3 1.6 3.9 1.0 3.6 0. I 100.0 89.9 56.5 1,233 Eastern 40.6 22.0 17.8 1.6 6.5 1.7 9.6 0.2 100.0 80.5 43.6 1,314 Northern 27.3 230 9.3 1.5 19.8 2.5 16.4 0.2 ItF00 59.9 31.7 942 Western 46 I 221 14.3 1.0 7.9 2.1 65 B.I ItXL0 82.5 47.5 1,305 Education No education 29.4 232 14.9 1.5 12.8 2.7 15.3 01 100.0 67.6 32.4 1,545 Primary 452 23.2 14.4 1.5 79 1.6 61 0.2 100.0 82.9 47.9 2,729 Secondary+ 71.7 19.5 46 0.7 16 0.3 1.2 0.3 100.0 96.0 73.0 519 Total 43.0 22.8 13.5 1.4 8.8 1.8 8.5 0.1 100.0 79.4 45.6 4,794 I Includes cases in which the wife is unsure about her own attitude, but knows her husband's. The fact that both men and women in the same household were interviewed provided an opportunity to link responses obtained from currently married women with those obtained from their husbands. A total of 1,109 couples were linked in this way. Table 4.21 shows the percent distribution of these couples by attitude towards family planning, according to age and educational differences between spouses. For 65 percent of couples, both spouses report that they approve of family planning, while for only 4 percent of the couples, both disapprove. When only one spouse disapproves, it is just as likely to be the wife as the husband (8 vs. 7 percent). Generally, there is no real change in attitudes as difference between the husband and the wife increases. Couples are more likely to approve of family planning when both spouses are educated. Because both men and women interviewed in the 1995 UDHS were asked whether they approved of family planning and, if married, whether they thought their spouses approved of family planning, it is possible to examine the extent to which husbands and wives report accurately on their spouses' attitudes. Table 4.22 shows the percent distribution of couples by husband's and wife's actual attitude toward family planning, according to their spouse's perception of their attitude. 67 Table 4.21 Attitudes of couples toward family planning Percent distribution of couples by approval of family planning, according to age difference between spouses and level of education, Uganda 1995 Wife Husband Percent Age Both approves, approves, Don't in difference/ Both disap- husband dis- wife dis- know/ agree- education approve prove approves approves Missing ment Total Number Wife older 60.3 1.4 6.7 7.9 23.6 61.8 100.0 89 Husband older by: 0-4 years 5-9 years 10-14 years 15+ years Education One or both spouses uneducated 36.1 5.2 7.5 6.6 44.6 41.3 100.0 82 Wife educated, husband not (46.5) (5.2) (13.8) (6.8) (27.7) 51.7 100.0 46 Husband educated, wife not 50.8 4.5 9.9 9.9 24.9 55.3 100.0 315 Both educated 76.2 2.8 4.9 7.3 8.9 78.9 100.0 666 Total 64.7 3.5 6.9 8.0 16.9 O8.3 100.0 1,109 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 61.9 2.9 7.9 7.5 19.8 64.8 100.0 371 66.8 4.3 5.9 9.2 13.8 71.0 100.0 411 68.4 4.0 7.5 6.7 13.4 72.4 100.0 171 64.8 4.1 5.9 5.7 19.5 68.9 100.0 67 Table 4.22 Spouse's perception of spouse's approval of family planning Percent distribution of couples by husband's and wife's actual attitude towards family planning according to their spouse's perception of their attitude, Uganda 1995 Spouse's actual attitude Disap- Perception Approves approves Unsure Total Number Wife's perception of husband's attitude Approves 86.1 7.5 6.4 100.0 495 Disapproves 72.5 19.8 7.6 100.0 362 Don't know 74.1 9.2 16.7 100.0 252 Total 78.9 11.9 9.1 100.0 1,109 Husband's perception of wife's attitude Approves 83.5 9.4 7.0 100.0 643 Disapproves 65.5 23.5 11.0 100.0 260 Don't know 69.0 11.1 19.9 100.0 207 Total 76.6 13.0 10.4 100.0 1,109 68 The data indicate that when husbands and wives report that their spouses approve of family planning, they are generally accurate. For example, in 86 percent of the cases in which wives reported that their husbands approved of family planning, the husbands also said they approved. Similarly, for 84 percent of the couples in which the husband said his wife approved of family planning, she also said she approved. However, when husbands and wives report that their spouses disapprove of family planning, in 66-73 percent of cases, the opposite is true, that is, the spouse actually approves of family planning. A conclusion from these data that there is a considerable lack of communication between spouses about attitudes towards family planning should be taken with caution. It is also likely that at least some respondents report more favourable attitudes towards family planning than they in fact hold, perhaps in an attempt to please the interviewer or to appear more sophisticated. Another indicator of the level of acceptance of family planning is the extent to which couples discuss the topic. In the 1995 UDHS, all currently married women who had heard of a contraceptive method were asked if they had discussed the practice of family planning with friends or relatives in the few months before the survey. Almost half (48 percent) of the women said they had discussed family planning with their husbands (data not shown). The proportion varies only slightly by age of the woman, from 44 percent of women age 15-19, to a high of 52 percent of women age 20-24, and then dropping gradually to a low 0f35 percent among women age 45-49. 4.16 Problems with Contraceptive Methods Actual and perceived problems with contraceptive methods can hamper adoption of these methods, as well as reduce effectiveness of use among those who do adopt the method. In order to elicit information on possible rumors about or actual problems with specific methods, women who have heard of either the pill, IUD, or injectables were asked what they thought were the problems or disadvantages of each of these methods. The results are shown in Table 4.23 for currently married women. Table 4.23 Disadvantages of the pill/IUD/iniectables Percentage of currently married women who have heard of the pill, IUD or injectables, and who report specific problems or disadvantages with using the method, by contraceptive use status, Uganda 1995 Pill IUD lnjectables Using Not Using Not Using Using Not Disadvantage Using another using any another using any injec- another using any of method pill method method Total method method Total tables method method Total Blood pressure/nausea 47.9 23.7 12.1 14.8 3.2 2.6 2.9 21.5 10.4 6.2 7.3 Gain/lose weight 20.4 16.9 11.0 12.1 5.5 4.9 5.0 19.5 20.8 14A 15.3 Breast milk decrease 2.3 2.0 1.1 1.3 0.9 0.5 0.6 0.2 1.5 I. 1 1. I Menstrual problems/ bleeding 35.9 31.6 17.4 19.8 12.2 9.2 10.3 54.3 29.5 15.2 18.7 Unreliable 5.2 13.8 10.3 10.6 11.1 8.0 8.9 0.0 4.8 3.5 3.6 Decreased l~rtility 3.4 10.9 I 1.6 I 1.3 2.7 3.0 2.9 5.0 17.2 12.4 12.8 Destroys uterus/cancer 9.9 15.1 12.5 12.8 24.1 16.4 18.6 4.0 6.7 5.6 5.7 Problems during sex 1.5 1.2 0.7 0.7 12. I 9.0 9.9 1.0 1.4 0.4 0.5 Abnormal delivery/ malformed 10.4 17.3 17.1 16.9 1.6 2.1 1.9 0.2 4.4 3.6 3.6 Other 19.8 12,5 7.7 8.7 12.6 6.7 8.3 18.5 4.9 3.8 4.4 No problems 15.9 5.7 5.7 6.1 5.1 6.7 6.5 23.1 7.7 8.2 8.6 Don't know 2.6 13.1 31.8 28.4 39.2 50.9 47.2 3.8 27.9 47.0 42.7 Number of women 136 560 3,566 4,261 440 1,128 1,586 128 536 2,971 3,635 Note: There were too few cases to show IUD users separately. 69 More than one-quarter of married women say they do not know of any problem with the pill. The most common problem or disadvantage of the pill is that it is perceived to cause menstrual problems and/or bleeding; one-fifth of women cited this as a problem. Other commonly cited problems are that the pill causes either abnormal deliveries, blood pressure or nausea, destruction of the uterus, weight gain or loss, decreased fertility, or that it is unreliable. Those who are using the pill are much more likely to cite blood pressure, nausea, and menstrual problems as disadvantages than are those who are either using another method or not using any method. It is discouraging to note that more than 10 percent of women who are not using the pill think that the pill causes major problems resulting in abnormal deliveries or malformed children, that it destoys the uterus or causes cancer, or that it is unreliable. Such misunderstandings may result in lower levels of pill use. Almost half of women who know the IUD report that they do not know of any problems or disadvantages with it. The most commonly stated disadvantage is that the IUD destroys the uterus or causes cancer, followed by menstrual problems or bleeding, and problems during sexual intercourse. As for injectables, 43 percent of women who know about injectables say that they do not know of any problem with the method, while 19 percent believe that injectables cause menstrual problems or bleeding, 15 percent say that injectables result in weight changes, and 13 percent believe that injectables result in decreased fertility. As with the pill, women who are currently using injectables are much more likely to cite menstrual problems or bleeding, and blood pressure or nausea as problems with injectables when compared to non-users. They are also more likely to say there are no problems with injectables. 4.17 Knowledge of Family Planning Logo As a further measure of exposure to family planning information, women and men respondents were asked whether they had seen or heard of the yellow family planning flower, the logo that was recently adopted as the nationwide symbol identifying sources of family planning services. Results are presented in Table 4.24 for currently married respondents. Twenty percent of women and 28 percent of men say they are aware of the yellow flower. This knowledge varies significantly by place of residence and education. Urban women and men are more than twice as likely as rural residents to have seen or heard of the yellow flower. Similarly, residents of the Central Region and those from Kampala are more likely to have been exposed to the family planning logo as are those who live in areas covered by the DISH project. Education is also related to knowledge of the logo; over half of women and men with secondary or more education have seen or heard of the yellow flower, compared with less than 10 percent of those with no education. Respondents who know about the yellow flower were asked to describe it and to explain what it means. Among women, 32 percent accurately describe it as a yellow flower in a circle, while 18 percent say that it is a small family inside a flower, and 23 percent say it shows a man, woman and children (data not shown). Among men, 19 percent say it is a yellow flower in a circle, while 17 percent say that it is a small family inside a flower and 16 percent say it shows a man, woman and children. Since all of these responses are correct, it means that almost three-quarters of women and only one-third of men who say they have seen the logo can accurately describe it. About half of married women and men who know of the yellow flower report that it means that family planning services are available at that location (data not shown). Around 40 percent of respondents say that they do not know what the logo means, implying that their knowledge is very superficial. 70 Table 4.24 Knowledge of family planning logo Percentage of currently married women and men who have seen or heard about the yellow family planning flower logo, by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Women Men Knows Knows Background yellow All yellow All characteristic flower women flower men Residence Urban 44.2 612 55.6 157 Rural 17.0 4,522 24.3 1,095 Region Central 34.3 1,246 42.2 318 Eastern 12.3 1,400 27.5 318 Northern 25.2 1,112 22.3 273 Western 11.6 1,376 20.5 343 DISH area Kasese/Mbarara (1) 10.0 402 29.5 113 Masaka/Rakai (11) 25.3 298 33.1 71 Luwero/Masindi (Ill) 14.4 167 18.9 44 Kamuli/Jinja (IV) 22.1 274 59.9 60 Kampala (V) 50.0 282 60.3 71 Total DISH 24.0 1,423 40.1 359 Total non-DISH 18.8 3,711 23.4 893 Education No education 9.6 1,792 9.6 150 Primary 21.4 2,823 22.3 825 Secondary+ 51.0 520 55.7 277 Number ofliving children None 18.1 627 27.7 121 I 19.4 901 22.7 185 2 22.5 834 30.2 176 3 17.6 690 17.2 147 4+ 21.3 2,081 31.9 622 Total 20.3 5,134 28.2 1,252 4.18 Knowledge of Protector Condoms Women and men respondents in the UDHS were asked if they had ever heard of a condom called Protector, the brand that is sold through the social marketing programme. Results in Table 4.25 show that men are more likely than women to have heard of "Protector" condoms--27 percent of married men and 11 percent of married women have heard of this brand. As expected, knowledge of Protector condoms is higher among urban women and men, those who live in the Central Region or in Kampala, and those with secondary or more education. Knowledge of Protector condoms is also higher among women and men who live in areas covered by the DISH project than those in areas not covered by the project. There is no consistent pattern between knowledge of Protector condoms and number of living children. 71 Table 4.25 Knowledge of "Protector" condom Percentage of currently married women and men who have heard of "Protector" condom, by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Women Men Number Number Background of of characteristic Percentage women Percentage men Residence Urban 39.6 612 67.1 157 Rural 6.8 4,522 21.3 1,095 Region Central 23.7 1,246 42.6 318 Eastern 5.7 1,400 27.0 318 Northern 7.2 1,112 21.7 273 Western 6.8 1,376 17.0 343 DISH area Kasese/Mbarara (1) 6.5 402 21.3 113 Masaka/Rakai (11) 9.8 298 23.1 71 Luwero/Masindi (I11) 8.1 167 23.3 44 Kamuli/Jinja (IV) 12.9 274 53.6 60 Kampala (V) 51.3 282 75.7 71 Total DISH 17.5 1,423 38.1 359 Total non-DISH 8.1 3,711 22.6 893 Education No education 2.1 1,792 3.9 150 Primary 9.8 2,823 18.6 825 Secondary+ 45.1 520 65.0 277 Number of living children 13.3 627 25,2 121 None 14.2 901 3t,4 185 1 13.5 834 26.9 176 2 10.6 690 27.2 147 3 7.2 2,081 26.2 622 4+ Total 10.7 5,134 27.1 1,252 72 CHAPTER 5 PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY This chapter addresses the principal factors other than contraception which affect a woman's chances of becoming pregnant. These factors are marriage (including consensual unions), postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence from sexual relations, and secondary infertility. The chapter also looks at other more direct measures of the timing and level of exposure to the risk of pregnancy, that is, the age at first sexual intercourse and the frequency of intercourse. Other measures are postpartum amenorrhoea and postpartum abstinence that result in insusceptibility to the risk of pregnancy during the months immediately following a birth. Marriage is a primary indicator of exposure of women to the risk of pregnancy and is therefore important for the understanding of fertility. Marriage is seen as the beginning of regular exposure to the risk of pregnancy. Populations in which the age at first marriage is low also tend to experience early childbearing and high fertility. 5.1 Current Mar i ta l Status Data on the marital status of respondents at the time of survey are shown in Table 5.1. In this report, the term "marriage" includes both formal and informal unions. Informal unions are those in which a man and woman stay together intending to have a lasting relationship, even if a formal civil or religious ceremony has not yet occurred. Although shown separately in Table 5.1, the categories of "married" and "living together" are combined in subsequent tables and referred to as "currently married." Table 5.1 Current marital status Percent distribution of women and men by current marital status, according to age, Uganda 1995 Current marital status Never Living Not living Age married Married together Widowed Divorced together Missing Total Number WOMEN 15-19 50.2 38.9 8.1 0,3 0.3 2.3 0.0 100.0 1,606 20-24 12.3 68,6 9.4 2.3 1.4 6.1 0.0 100.0 1,555 25-29 5.8 73.8 10.3 2.0 2.4 5.8 0.0 100.0 1,270 30-34 1.9 73.4 9,5 5.4 1.9 7.8 0.0 1130.0 976 35-39 1.4 74.8 9.0 6.5 2.6 5.8 0.0 100.0 783 40-44 0.4 65.0 8,5 13.3 3.5 9.3 0.0 100.0 499 45-49 1.4 62.3 7.7 16.0 3.6 7.8 1.2 100.0 380 Total 15.7 63.5 9.1 4,2 1.8 5.7 0.1 100.0 7,070 MEN 15-19 88.6 7.1 2.9 0,0 0.7 0.7 0.0 100.0 387 20-24 44.9 46.4 2.6 0.0 1.3 4.7 0.0 100.0 367 25-29 17.4 68.7 4.3 1,0 1.7 7.0 0.0 100.0 359 30-34 3.3 86.0 2.9 1.8 1.1 5.0 0.0 100.0 259 35-39 2.9 83.1 4.5 3.1 1.9 4.4 0.0 1130.0 250 40-44 1.2 84.9 3.5 1.7 0.6 8.0 0.0 100.0 162 45-49 3.1 81.2 0.0 5.4 5.0 5.3 0.0 100.0 118 50-54 1.0 86.4 1.6 1.4 0.0 9,6 0.0 100.0 95 Total 29.7 59.6 3.1 1.3 1.4 4.9 0.0 100,0 1,996 Note: Figures may not add to 100.0 due to rounding. 73 The upper panel of Table 5.1 shows that 73 percent of women in childbearing ages are either currently married or living in some union with a man, 16 percent have never married, and 12 percent are widowed, divorced, or no longer living together. The proportion of women who have never married falls sharply with age, from 50 percent among teenagers to less than two percent of women age 30 and over. This universality of marriage among women was also observed in the 1991 Population Census. The proportion of women who are currently married increases with age until age group 35-39 and thereafter declines because of the increasing levels of widowhood with age. The proportions widowed and divorced increase with age, while the proportions who are no longer living with a man show no clear age pattern. Most marital disruption among women appears to be due to the death of the husband. For example, among teenagers, the proportion divorced is equal to the proportion widowed (0.3 percent). However, among women age 45-49, the proportion widowed is 16 percent, compared to only 4 percent divorced. The lower panel of Table 5.1 shows that about 63 percent of the men age 15-54 years are currently married, while 30 percent have never married. Men tend to marry at older ages than females. The proportion never married among teenage males is 89 percent, but decreases to 1 percent at ages 50-54 years. 5.2 Polygyny The extent of polygyny was measured in the 1995 Uganda DHS by asking married women how many other wives (if any) their husbands had. The proportion of currently married respondents who were in polygynous unions are given in Table 5.2 according to age and background characteristics and are shown in Figure 5.1. Table 5.2 Polygyny Percentage of currently married women and percentage of currently married men in a polygynous union, by age and selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Current age (women) Background All All characteristic 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50+ women men Residence Urban 19.5 17.9 29.8 37.3 42.5 31.1 29.7 NA 27.7 15.5 Rural 16.9 24.0 32.3 35.5 41.3 33.7 38.2 NA 30.2 15.0 Region Central 15.6 17.5 29.0 37.0 38.2 30.7 38.7 NA 26.9 11.1 Eastern 24.3 35.4 40.4 38.9 45.6 42.4 33.9 NA 37.0 22.3 Northern 18.1 24.1 39.0 40.8 49.1 25.6 (34,3) NA 32.3 12.3 Western 9.0 14.0 22,3 27.6 33.7 33.1 41.9 NA 23.4 14.2 Education No education 15.8 23.1 33.1 36.0 38.9 31.9 36.2 NA 31.5 12.8 Primary 16.7 24,2 33.9 36.7 42,7 34.2 37.3 NA 29,4 15.2 Secondary+ 27.1 18,1 21.6 30.5 46.8 (39,3) * NA 27.1 15.7 All women 17.2 23.2 31.9 35.7 41.4 33.4 37.7 NA 29.9 NA All men * 3.1 12.5 17,6 11.9 22.8 25,6 30.1 NA 15.1 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. NA = Not applicable 74 Percent Figure 5.1 of Married Women in Polygynous Unions by Background Characteristics RESIDENCE Urban Rural REGION Central Eastern Northern Western EDUCATION No Education Primary~ Secondary+ O 28 30 27 37 32 23 . . . . . i - . 32 28 • . 27 t 0 20 30 Percent of Married Women 40 50 UDHS 1995 Overall, 30 percent of married women and 15 percent of men are in polygynous unions. The practise of polygyny increases with age among women from 17 percent among teenagers to 41 percent among those age 35-39 years. A similar rise with age occurs among men. At any given age group, the proportion of married women in a polygynous marriage is considerably higher than that of men. The proportion of rural women and men in polygynous unions is not significantly different from that for urban women and men. There are regional variations in polygyny levels, with the Eastern region having the highest proportion of women and men in polygynous unions (37 and 22 percent, respectively), For the other three regions, the polygynous proportions among women vary between 23 percent in the Western region and 32 percent in the Northern region, while for men, the proportions are quite close (11 to 14 percent). There is a slight inverse relationship between female education and polygyny. The proportion of currently married women in a polygynous union decreases from 32 percent among women with no formal education to 27 percent among those with secondary or more education. On the contrary, among men, the level of polygyny increases with education from 13 percent among men with no education to 16 percent among those with secondary or more education. The cause of this pattern among men is not clear, although it may be due to small sample sizes. Of the 30 percent of women who are in polygynous unions, the majority have only one co-wife (17 percent of all currently married women), while 12 percent report having two or more co-wives (data not shown). The proportion of men in polygynous unions is much lower than that for women, with 13 percent having two wives and 2 percent having three or more wives. The practise of polygyny may have declined slightly over time, since the proportion of women in polygynous unions fell from 33 percent in 1988-89 (Kaljuka, et al., 1989:13) to 30 percent in 1995, with the 75 decline being faster among young women. However, some of the difference may be due to the fact that the earlier survey did not cover the entire country. 5.3 Age at First Marriage Marriage is highly associated with the level of fertility especially in the case of low levels of contraceptive use. Women who marry early will, on average, have longer exposure to reproductive risk. Therefore, early marriage tends to lead to early childbearing and subsequently high fertility levels. The percentage of women ever-married by specific ages and the median age at first marriage according to current age is shown in Table 5.3. Table 5.3 Age at first marriage Percentage of women and men who were first married by specific exact age and median age at first marriage, according to current age, Uganda 1995 WOMEN Current age 15 Percentage who were Percentage Median first married by exact age: who have Number age at never of first 18 20 22 25 married women marriage 15-19 14.2 NA NA NA NA 50,2 1,606 a 20-24 15.1 54.1 74.7 NA NA 12.3 1,555 17.7 25-29 18.0 52.8 72.1 83.4 91.0 5.8 1,270 17.8 30-34 19.7 57.1 74.9 85.9 93.1 1.9 976 17.3 35-39 24.7 58.8 75.9 85.6 93,7 1.4 783 17.1 40-44 23.4 60.7 77.8 87.1 91,3 0.4 499 17.0 45-49 27.1 55.6 73.5 82.4 90,5 1.4 380 17.3 Women 20-49 19.6 55.7 74.5 85.0 90.8 5.5 Women 25-49 21.3 56.4 74.5 84.9 92.1 MEN 2.8 5,464 17.5 3,908 17.4 Percentage who were first married by exact age: Current age 20 22 25 28 Percentage Median who have Number age at never of first 30 married men marriage 20-24 27.9 NA NA NA NA 44.9 367 a 25-29 20.9 45.1 68.7 NA NA 17.4 359 22.6 30-34 20.8 44.1 70.1 86.4 93.7 3.3 259 22.6 35-39 25.7 42.9 60.5 76.2 84.2 2.9 250 23.2 40-44 20.0 32.5 52.4 73.1 83.1 1.2 162 24,7 45-49 25,8 40.7 67.4 79.1 83,6 3.1 118 22.8 50-54 18.8 30.5 49.1 72.1 77.4 1.0 95 25.1 Men 25-54 22.0 41.3 63.6 79.4 85.0 6.8 1,242 23.1 NA = Not applicable a Omitted because less than 50 percent of the women or men in the age group x to x+4 were first married by age x. 76 The table shows that most (56 percent) of Ugandan women age 20-49 marry before they reach age 18. The median age at first marriage is 17.5 years. There has been a sharp decline in the proportion of women marrying in their early teens; the percentage who marry before reaching age 15 has fallen from 27 percent among women 45-49 to 14 percent among women 15-19 years. However, the median age at first marriage shows no clear trend over the age groups of women, implying that while very early marriage may have declined, the majority still marry before 18. Comparison with data from the men's survey shows that men enter into first union at a much later age than women; the median age at first marriage for men age 25-54 is 23 years, compared with 17.5 years for women. Only 22 percent of men are married by age 20, compared with 75 percent of women. Table 5.4 shows median age at first marriage for women age 20-49 by current age and selected background characteristics; summary data are also given for men age 25-54. It can be seen that in each age group, urban women marry later than their rural counterparts, with an overall difference of one and a half years in the median age at marriage. The median age at first marriage among women age 20-49 years in the various regions is very close, ranging between 17.1 years (Eastern Region) and 18.0 years (Central Region). Large differences are observed in the age at first marriage by educational level. The median age at first marriage for women 25-49 years old with no formal education is 16.6 years, compared with 20.5 years for those with secondary or higher education. Median age at first marriage among men generally follows the same pattern as that for women, except that there is no clear relationship with educational attainment. Table 5.4 Median age at first marriage Median age at first marriage among women age 20-49 years, by selected age groups, and selected background characteristics, and among men age 25-54 by background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Current age Women Women Men Background age age age characteristic 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 20-49 25-49 25-54 Residence Urban 19.3 19.4 18.3 18.2 18.3 17.6 18.9 18.7 24.6 Rural 17.5 17.5 17.2 17.0 16.9 17.2 17.3 17.2 22.8 Region Central 18.4 18.2 18.0 17.5 17.1 17.2 18.0 17.8 23,3 Eastern 17.4 17.6 16.7 16.6 16.3 17.7 17.1 17.0 22.9 Northern 16.8 17.2 17.3 18.0 18.0 17.4 17.2 17.4 22.3 Western 18,2 18.0 17.4 17.0 17.1 16.9 17.6 17.4 23.7 Education No education 16.8 16.6 16.5 17.0 16.7 16.5 16.7 16.6 24.3 Primary 17.5 17.7 17.4 16.8 17.0 17.9 17.4 17.4 22.3 Secondary+ a 21.0 20.3 20.2 19.7 * a 20.5 24.9 All women/men 17.7 17.8 17.3 17.1 17.0 17.3 17.5 17.4 23.1 Note: The median age for women 15-19 could not be determined because some women may still get married before reaching age 20. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. a Omitted because less than 50 percent of the women in the age group x to x+4 were first married by age x 77 5.4 Age at First Sexual Intercourse Though age at first marriage is widely used as a proxy for onset of women's exposure to sexual intercourse, it is less useful in Uganda, where some women are sexually active before marriage. The 1995 UDHS collected data on the age at which men and women had their first sexual encounters. As the upper panel of Table 5.5 shows, the median age at first intercourse of Ugandan women age 20-49 is 16, about one and a half years lower than the median age at first marriage (17.5 years, Table 5.3). By age 15, 30 percent of women have had sexual intercourse and by age 18, 72 percent of women have had sexual intercourse, whereas only 56 percent have married by this age. As with age at first marriage, the median age at first intercourse has not changed over the various age groups of women. About two-fifths of teenage women have never had sexual intercourse. However, this proportion falls dramatically to only three percent among women age 20-24 and by age group 40-44, all women have been sexually active. Table 5.5 Age at first sexual intercourse Percentage of women and men who had first sexual intercourse by exact age 15, 18, 20, 22, and 25, and median age at first intercourse, according to current age, Uganda 1995 Current age 15 18 20 22 WOMEN Percentage who had Percentage Number Median first intercourse by exact age: who of age at never had women/ first 25 intercourse men intercourse 15-19 23.8 NA NA NA NA 38.4 1,606 a 20-24 26.0 70.3 87.1 NA NA 3.2 1,555 16.5 25-29 29.3 73.6 88.5 92.2 93.6 1.1 1,270 16.0 30-34 30.5 71.1 82.5 87.3 88.9 0.3 976 16.1 35-39 35.7 73.0 84.1 89.1 91.8 0.2 783 15.8 40-44 34.7 71.2 85.7 90.4 92.2 0.0 499 15.9 45-49 35.8 70.1 81.8 87.1 90.2 0.0 380 15.9 Women 20-49 30.4 71.7 85.7 90.0 91.6 1.3 5,464 16.1 Women 25-49 32.2 72.2 85.1 89.6 91.6 0.5 3,908 16.0 MEN 15-19 19.2 NA NA NA NA 52.4 387 a 20-24 19.4 58A 80.5 NA NA 11.2 367 17.3 25-29 17.6 54.5 74.6 87.9 93.8 2.5 359 17.5 30-34 20.2 60.8 82.0 90.4 97.0 0.0 259 17.1 35-39 15.6 55.8 81.1 93.8 94.9 0.6 250 17.5 40-44 14.1 48.9 73.5 84.0 87.7 0.3 162 18.1 45-49 20.3 50.8 78.7 89.1 94.1 2.1 118 17.9 50-54 18.8 44.9 71.0 88.1 91.4 0.0 95 18.3 Men 25-54 17.6 54.3 77.4 89.2 93.7 1.1 1,242 17.6 NA = Not applicable a Omitted because less than 50 percent in the age group x to x+4 had had intercourse by age x In general, women become sexually active earlier than men. The median age at first sex for men age 25-54 is 17.6 years, compared with 16 years for women. Although men enter into marriage six years later than women on average, they start sexual relations only one and half years later than women. Unlike women, 78 the median age at first intercourse among men seems to be declining slightly over time, from 18.3 years among those age 50-54 to 17.3 years among those age 20-24. Table 5.6 shows differentials in the median age at first sexual intercourse by background characteristics for women age 20-49 years and men age 25-54. The median age at first sexual intercourse is slightly lower in rural than urban areas among females, but not among males. There is also little variation by regions for women, however, the median age at first intercourse for men in the Eastern region is two years earlier than for men in the Western region. Women with secondary or more education initiate sexual relations two years later, on average, than those with no formal education. Table 5.6 Median age at first intercourse Median age at first intercourse among women age 20-49 years, by selected age groups and selected background characteristics, and among men age 25-54 by background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Current age Women Women Men Background age age age characteristic 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 20-49 25-49 25-54 Residence Urban 16.6 16.2 16.4 16.1 16.0 16.4 16.4 16.3 17.2 Rural 16.4 16.0 16.0 15.8 15.9 15.8 16.1 15.9 17.6 Region Central 16.3 15.9 16.0 15.7 15.8 15.9 16.0 15.9 17.3 Eastern 16.0 15.6 15.3 15.3 15.3 14.8 15.5 15.4 16.5 Northern 16.4 16.3 16.5 16.3 16.8 16.5 16.4 16.4 17.8 Western 17.3 16.5 16.6 16.4 16.5 16.5 16.7 16.5 18.3 Education No education 15.9 15.6 15.8 15.7 15.9 15.7 15.8 15.7 18.1 Primary 16.3 16.0 16.0 15.7 15.7 15.9 16.0 15.9 17.4 Secondary+ 18.0 17.4 17.4 18.5 18.2 * 17.8 17.7 17.5 All women/men 16.5 16.0 16.1 15.8 15.9 15.9 16.1 16.0 17.5 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 5.5 Recent Sexual Activity In societies in which little deliberate contraception is being practised, the chance of becoming pregnant is closely related to the frequency of sexual intercourse. Thus, information on recent sexual activity further refines the measure of exposure to pregnancy. Tables 5.7.1 and 5.7.2 give data on levels of sexual activity in the four weeks prior to the survey by background characteristics for women and men respectively. Table 5.7.1 shows that three out of five women were sexually active in the four weeks prior to the survey, while 10 percent had never had sexual intercourse, 9 percent were practising postpartum abstinence and 15 percent were abstaining for reasons other than recent delivery. Seven percent of women were missing information about recent sexual activity. The likelihood of a woman being sexually active in the four weeks prior to the survey is highest in the age group 25-29 years, while it declines with duration of marriage as well as with increasing level of education. The proportion of women who are sexually active falls from 65 percent among women with no education to 48 percent of those with secondary or more education; most probably, this pattern is due to the 79 Table 5.7.1 Recent sexual activity: women Percent distribution of women by sexual activity in the four weeks preceding the survey, and among those not sexually active, the length of time they have been abstaining and whether postpartum or not postpartum, according to selected background characteristics and contraceptive method currently used, Uganda 1995 Not sexually active in last 4 weeks Background Sexually Abstaining Abstaining characteristic/ active (postpartum) (not postpartum) Never Number contraceptive in last had of method 4 weeks 0-1 years 2+ years 0-1 years 2+ years sex Missing I Total women Age 15-19 40.9 6.5 0.1 10.8 1.5 38.4 1.8 100.0 1,606 20-24 65.5 10.7 1.1 12.3 1.7 3.2 5.6 100.0 1,555 25-29 70.2 8.8 0.4 13.4 1,0 1.1 5.1 100,0 1,270 30-34 69.2 8.8 1.0 11.5 1.0 0.3 8.2 100.0 976 35-39 66.9 5.7 1.0 14.3 2.8 0.2 9.2 100.0 783 40-44 55.4 6.2 1.4 13.1 4. I 0.0 19.9 100.0 499 45-49 54.1 1.0 0.3 15.6 8.0 0.0 20.9 100.0 380 Duration of union (years) Never married 9.2 5.8 1.1 13,8 6.1 61.9 2.0 100.0 1,107 0-4 74.4 10.1 0.3 11.1 0.0 0.0 4.1 100.0 1,571 5-9 72.3 9.5 0.8 11.1 0.2 0.0 6.2 100.0 1,327 10-14 71.6 9.2 0.2 I 1.5 0.7 0.0 6.7 100.0 1,001 15-19 68.6 6.9 0.8 13.0 1.3 0.0 9.4 100.0 826 20-24 63.2 4.6 0.8 16.4 2.4 0.0 12.5 100.0 626 25-29 57.2 5.0 1.3 12.7 5.8 0.0 18.0 100.0 393 30+ 51.4 0.7 0.6 15.8 8.9 0.0 22.6 100.0 219 Residence Urban 52.9 6.0 0.7 13.8 4.5 12.3 9.7 100.0 1,055 Rural 61.3 8.1 0.7 12.3 1.6 9.2 6.8 100.0 6,015 Region Central 55.6 6.2 0.6 14.0 3.7 9.9 9.9 100.0 1,967 Eastern 63.6 8.7 0.3 14.4 1.5 6.8 4.8 100.0 1,738 Northern 59.0 12.6 1.0 11.5 1.0 9.7 5.3 100.0 1,398 Western 62.2 5.1 0.9 10.0 1.7 12.1 8.0 100.0 1,968 Education No education 64.5 8.6 0.8 12.1 1.7 4.5 7.8 100.0 2,161 Primary 60.5 7.9 0.6 12.0 1.7 10.2 7.1 100.0 3,956 Secondary+ 48.3 5.3 0.7 15.4 4.3 19.6 6.4 100.0 952 Contraceptive method z No method 57.9 8.3 0.7 12,0 2.1 11.2 7.8 100,0 6,124 Pill 86.8 1.6 0.0 10,3 0.6 0.0 0.8 100.0 162 Sterilisation 65.5 2.8 0.0 17.7 2.7 0.0 11.3 1130.0 88 Condom 65.4 7.2 0.6 18.7 5.1 0.6 2.4 100.0 230 Other 74.5 4.3 0.6 16.2 1.2 0.0 3.1 100.0 447 Total 60.1 7.8 0.7 12.5 2.1 9.7 7.2 100.0 7,070 In the UDHS questionnaire, formerly married women whose last sexual intercourse was with their husbands were not asked when they last had sex. 2 Excludes 19 IUD users. 80 Table 5.7.2 Recent sexual activity: men Percent distribution of men by sexual activity in the four weeks preceding the survey, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Not Sexually sexually active active Background in last in last Never Number characteristic 4 weeks 4 weeks had sex Total of men Age 15-19 18.9 28.7 52,4 100.0 387 20-24 52.5 36.3 11.2 100.0 367 25-29 68.8 28.7 2.5 100.0 359 30-34 79.9 20.1 0.0 100.0 259 35-39 69.1 30.3 0.6 100.0 250 40-44 76.4 23.3 0.3 100.0 162 45-49 69.7 28.2 2.1 100.0 118 50-54 71.2 28.8 0.0 100.0 95 Marital status Never married 13.3 43.3 43.4 100.0 592 Polygynous union 95.9 4,1 0.0 100.0 188 Monogamous union 82.2 17.8 0.0 100.0 1,063 Formerly married 20.8 79.2 0.0 100.0 152 Residence Urban 57.6 32.8 9.6 100,0 281 Rural 58.5 28.1 13.4 100.0 1,715 Education No education 56.6 32.9 10.5 100.0 232 Primary 60.8 26.8 12.4 100.0 1,259 Secondary+ 53.2 31.6 15.2 100.0 504 Total 58.4 28.7 12.9 100.0 1,996 fact that uneducated women tend to be older, while those with secondary schooling are likely to be younger and still unmarried. Nine percent of unmarried women have had sexual intercourse in the four weeks before the survey. The proportion sexually active is higher in rural areas than urban areas, while among the regions it varies between 56 percent (Central Region) and 64 percent (Eastern Region). Not surprisingly, women who are using a contraceptive method are more likely to be sexually active than those who are not. Fifty-eight percent of the men interviewed were sexually active in the four weeks preceding the survey, while 13 percent had never had sex and the remaining 29 percent had had sex, but not recently (Table 5.7.2). The likelihood of sexual activity increases with age to 80 percent among men age 30-34 and declines only slightly thereafter. As expected, sexual activity is higher among men in polygynous unions (96 percent) than among men in monogamous unions (82 percent). Only 21 percent of formerly married men and 13 percent of unmarried men were sexually active in the four weeks preceding the survey. There is no significant difference in current sexual activity between urban and rural men. 5.6 Postpartum Amenorrhoea, Abstinence, and Insusceptibility For women who are not using contraceptives, exposure to the risk of pregnancy in the period following a birth is influenced by two factors: breastfeeding and sexual abstinence. Postpartum protection from conception can be prolonged by breastfeeding through its effect on the length of amenorrhoea (the period after birth prior to the return of menstruation). Protection can also be prolonged by delaying the 81 resumption of sexual relations. Women are considered as insusceptible if they are not exposed to the risk of pregnancy, either because they are amenorrhoeic or still abstaining from sex following a birth. The percentages of women who gave birth in the three years before the survey and who are still amenorrhoeic, abstaining, and insusceptible are presented in Table 5.8. The data are grouped in intervals of two months to minimise fluctuations in the estimates. The estimates of median and mean duration are also shown. Within the first two months after a birth, nearly all women are insusceptible to the risk of pregnancy. The period of postpartum amenorrhoea is considerably longer than the period of postpartum abstinence and is the major determinant of postpartum insusceptibility to pregnancy. By 6-7 months following birth, three-quarters of the women are still insusceptible, however, only 17 percent are still abstaining from sexual relations. The table shows that Ugandan women are insusceptible to the risk of pregnancy--either due to amenorrhoea or to abstinence--for a median period of 13 months. The proportion of women experiencing postpartum insusceptibility falls from nearly 100 percent in the period less than 2 months prior to the survey to as low as 61 percent under one year and to 18 percent among women Table 5.8 Postpartum amenorrhoea t abstinence t and insusceptibility Percentage of births in the three years preceding the survey for which mothers are postpartum amenorrhoeic, abstaining, and insusceptible, by number of months since birth, and median and mean durations, Uganda 1995 Number Months Amenor- lnsus- of since birth rhoeic Abstaining ceptible births < 2 96.5 78.6 99.5 184 2-3 92.4 39.4 93.2 238 4-5 78.7 25.2 82.3 275 6-7 73.6 17.0 77.7 259 8-9 60.1 18.9 66.6 258 10-11 56.8 13.2 61.1 323 12-13 48.5 15.0 53.8 299 14-15 44.7 10.0 46.5 286 16-17 30.5 5.0 32.6 278 18-19 24.6 4.6 26.8 297 20-21 16.0 6.3 19.0 295 22-23 12.4 6.5 17.7 262 24-25 8.3 5.2 I 1.3 240 26-27 6.8 3.2 9.8 217 28-29 4.7 1.9 6.6 182 30-31 1.5 2.2 3.2 218 32-33 0.9 0.3 1.3 264 34-35 1.2 2.0 3.1 211 Total 37.2 13.4 40.2 4,587 Median 12.6 2.2 13.4 Mean 13.4 5.5 14.5 Prevalence/ Incidence mean I 13.2 4.7 14.3 IThe prevalence-incidence mean is borrowed from epidemiology and is defined as the number of children whose mothers are amenorrhoeic (prevalence) divided by the average number of births per month (incidence). who had a birth 22-23 months prior to the survey. The median durations of postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence, and insusceptibility are presented in Table 5.9 by various background characteristics. Women age 30 or older have a longer median duration of postpartum amenorrhoea of 16 months compared to 11 months for women under 30 years of age. Similarly, rural mothers wait considerably longer than urban mothers for their menstrual periods to return after birth (13 vs. 7 months). Women in the Northern and Western Regions have the longest duration of amenorrhoea (15 months), while women in the Central Region have the shortest (9 months) duration. Postpartum amenorrhoea is inversely related to mother's education, varying from 15 months for women with no education to 12 and 6 months for those with primary and secondary or more education, respectively. Women with no education have a median period of insusceptibility of 16 months, compared with 13 and 9 months for those with primary and secondary or more education, respectively. 82 Table 5.9 Median duration of postpartum insusceptibility by background characteristics Median number of months of postpartum amenorrhoea, postpartum abstinence, and postpartum insusceptibility, by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Postpartum Number Background Postpartum Postpartum insuscep- of characteristic amenorrhoea abstinence tibility women Age <30 10.9 2.2 12.3 3,127 30+ 15.7 2.2 16.0 1,460 Residence Urban 6.5 2.2 8.7 524 Rural 13.2 2.2 13.7 4,063 Region Central 9. I 2.0 10.3 1,186 Eastern 11.4 2.5 12.4 1,219 Northern 14.6 4.1 15.6 921 Western 14.5 1.3 15.0 1,262 Education No education 15.2 2.6 15.6 1,406 Primary I 1.9 2. I 13. I 2,700 Secondary+ 5.9 2.1 9.2 481 Total 12.6 2.2 13.4 4,587 Note: Medians are based on current status. 5.7 Termination of Exposure to Pregnancy The onset of infertility with increas- ing age reduces the proportion of women who are exposed to the risk of pregnancy. Although the onset of infecundity is difficult to determine, there are ways of estimating its effects for a population. Table 5.10 presents data on two indicators of decreasing exposure to the risk of pregnancy for women age 30 years and over: menopause and abstinence. A woman is considered to be meno- pausal if she is not pregnant, not amenor- rhoeic, and either declared herself as being menopausal or did not have a menstrual peri- od for six or more months before the survey. As expected, the proportion of menopausal Table 5.10 Termination of exposure to the risk of pregnancy Indicators of menopause and long-term abstinence among currently married women age 30-49, Uganda 1995 Long-term Menopause t abstinence 2 Age Percent Number Percent Number 30-34 1.4 419 0.3 810 35-39 3.6 402 0.3 656 40-4] 8.0 136 1.5 191 42-43 13.5 102 5.4 126 44-45 22.9 131 4.6 150 46-47 30.2 62 1.8 73 48-49 39. l 94 6.0 94 Total 9.7 1,347 1.3 2,099 i Percentage of non-pregnant, non-amenorrhoeic currently married women whose last menstrual period occurred six or more months ~receding the survey or who report that they are menopausal. Percentage of currently married women who did not have intercourse in the three years preceding the survey. women rises rapidly with age, particularly among women age 40 years or more. It rises from 8 percent among those age 40-41 years to almost 40 percent in the age group 48-49 years. A woman falls into the long-term abstinence category if she was currently married and did not have sexual intercourse for three years prior to the survey. Long-term abstinence assumes much less importance than menopause but exhibits a similar direct relationship with age, increasing from less than 1 percent among women age 30-34 to 6 percent for the oldest women of 48-49 years. Overall, 10 percent of the women in the reproductive age are menopausal, while only 1 percent are long-term abstainers. 83 CHAPTER6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES The 1995 UDHS included a number of questions to ascertain fertility preferences. Women who were either not pregnant or unsure about their status were asked the question, "Wouldyou like to have (a/another) child or would you prefer not to have any (more) children ?" On the other hand pregnant women were asked the question, "After the child you are expecting, would you like to have another child or would you prefer not to have any more children?" Those who said that they did want another child were asked how long they would like to wait before the birth of the next child. Finally, women were asked how many children they would want in total if they could start afresh. The male questionnaire also included questions on fertility preferences, since men's preferences presumably affect fertility as well. Women may not always be able to act on their preferences due to other pressures, particularly the preferences of their husbands. The data on fertility preferences produce an indication of the direction that future fertility will take, as well as an assessment of the need for family planning. It is assumed that individuals and couples will act in such a way as to achieve their preferred family sizes if the necessary family planning services are available, accessible, and affordable. 6.1 Desire for More Children Table 6.1 shows future reproductive preferences among currently married women and men according to the number of living children. Although well over half of the women and men interviewed say that they Table 6.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children Percent distribution of currently married women and men by desire for more children, according to number of living children, Uganda 1995 Desire for children Number of living children I 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Total WOMEN Have another soon 2 77,6 33.2 23.3 18.8 17.1 12.4 5.5 23.3 Have another later 3 10.2 54.9 57.2 48.7 34.6 26.0 12.0 36.3 Have another, undecided when 1.7 0.9 2.1 0.5 2.2 1.3 0.4 1.2 Undecided 1.4 1.2 2.8 4.6 5.5 5.3 4.4 3.6 Want no more 1.6 6,0 12.5 24.2 35.3 50.8 70.2 30.9 Sterilised 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.8 1.9 1.4 4.0 t .4 Declared inl~cund 7.5 3.5 1.8 2.5 3.5 2.9 3.4 3.3 Total 100,0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 I00.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 419 940 850 741 554 528 1,103 5,134 MEN Have another soon 2 90.7 56.6 44.0 48.0 34.4 33.4 27.6 44.1 Have another later ~ 5.0 39.5 44.6 40.9 40,7 24.7 18.2 29.8 Have another, undecided when 2.4 0.8 1.5 1.8 0.7 0.9 1.g 1.4 Undecided 1.1 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 1.8 2.3 0.9 Want no more 0.0 2.6 8.3 6,9 22.8 32.8 47.1 21.4 Sterilised 0.9 0.5 0.0 1.4 0.2 3.4 2.5 1.2 Declared infecund 0.0 0.0 1.5 1.0 0.2 2.9 0.5 0.g Missing 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 I00.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of men 121 185 176 147 146 137 339 1,252 i Includes current pregnancy 2 Want next birth within two years 3 Want to delay next birth for two or more years 85 want to have more children, 36 percent of women and 30 percent of men say they want to wait for two or more years before having their next child and can thus be considered potential users of contraception for the purpose of spacing births (Figure 6.1). Twenty-three percent of women and 44 percent of men say they want to have another child soon, while 5 percent of the women and 2 percent of the men are either unsure about whether they want another child or want another but are undecided on the timing of the next birth. A small proportion (3 percent of married women and less than 1 percent of married men) believe they cannot have any more children. Almost one-third of married women (31 percent) and over one-fifth of married men (21 percent) say they want no more children and can be considered potential users of contraception for the purpose of limiting their family size, Women's desire for additional children has declined noticeably over the past six years. In 1988-89, 39 percent of married women wanted another child within the next two years, compared with only 23 percent of women in 1995. The proportion of women who want no more children increased from 19 percent in 1988- 89 to 31 percent in 1995. Figure 6.1 Fertility Preferences of Currently Married Women 15-49 Want no more 32% Undecided 5% Infecund 3% Want child so_. {<2 years) 23% Nant child later • '.+ years) 36% Note; 'a/Vant no more" includes sterilised women. Figures may not add to 100% due to rounding, UDHS 1995 As expected, the proportion of currently married women who want to stop childbearing rises with the number of living children, from less than 2 percent of childless women to about two-thirds of women with six or more children (Figure 6.2). Among married men, the proportion who want to stop childbearing similarly rises with the number of living children, from 0 percent for men without children to more than one- third of men with six or more children. For those who want to space (i.e. those who want another child later), the pattern is different. Ten percent of childless women want to postpone having a child, compared to 57 percent of those with two children. Thereafter, the proportion of women who want to space their next child declines steadily to a low of 12 percent among women with six or more children. A similar pattern is displayed by married men. Five 86 Percent Figure 6.2 Fertility Preferences of Married Women by Number of Living Children [ ] Infeeund i []Undecided []Want Soon I []Want to Space 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Number of Living Children Note: "Want no more" includes sterilised women UOHS 1995 percent of childless men want to postpone having a child, compared to 45 percent of those with two children. Thereafter, the proportion of men who want to space declines steadily to a low of 18 percent. This pattern confirms that most individuals want to space their children, and at higher parities, prefer to stop childbearing altogether. As expected, the desire to have a child soon, that is, within two years of the time of the interview, also declines as the number of children increases. While 78 percent of childless women want to have a child soon, the proportion decreases to 6 percent for women with six or more children. A similar pattern is observed for the male population. Over 90 percent of childless men want to have a child within the next two years. This proportion decreases steadily to 28 percent for those with six or more children. The findings presented in Table 6.1 indicate that there is a strong desire for children and a preference for large families in Ugandan society. They also indicate that men are considerably more pronatalist than women. Among those with six or more children, 18 percent of married women want to have more children, compared to 48 percent of married men. A comparison with data from the 1988-89 UDHS indicates that there has been a downward trend in the desire for more children. For example, among women with six or more children, the proportion who want to have another child declined from 34 percent in 1988-89 to 18 percent in 1995. Table 6.2 presents the percent distribution of currently married women by reproductive preferences according to age. As expected, the desire for more children declines with age. While 33 percent of women age 15-19 want to have another child soon, the proportion drops to 9 percent for ages 45-49 years. Correspondingly, the proportion of women who express a desire to cease childbearing increases as the age of the woman increases. The proportion of women who declare themselves infecund is less than one percent at the youngest two age groups; however, it increases to 25 percent among women age 45-49 years. 87 Table 6.2 Fertility preferences by age Percent distribution of currently married women by desire for more children, according to age, Uganda 1995 Age of woman Desire for children 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total Have another soon I 33.0 28.1 24.4 20.0 15.6 15.8 8.8 23.3 Have another later 2 57.2 57.0 39.6 25.0 13.8 5.7 1.8 36.3 Have another, undecided when 1.9 0.5 1.2 2.3 1.0 0.8 0.0 1.2 Undecided 1.7 2.1 4.3 3.8 8.1 2.0 2.3 3.6 Want no more 6.0 12.0 28.8 44.8 53.8 59.6 57.5 30.9 Sterilised 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.5 3.4 5.3 4.9 1.4 Declared infecund 0.1 0.3 1.1 2.5 4.3 10.9 24.6 3.3 Total 100.0 Number of women 756 I Want next birth within two years z Want to delay next birth for two or more years 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1,212 1,067 810 656 367 266 5,134 Table 6.3 shows the extent to which couples agree on the desire for more children. Generally speaking, there is substantial agreement between couples. In 56 percent of couples, both spouses want more children, and in 15 percent of couples, neither wants more children; only 21 percent of couples disagree in their fertility desires. Agreement among couples is highest when they have between one and three children, with only 15 percent expressing different desires; disagreement is highest among couples with 4-6 children, 40 percent of whom are discordant. It is noteworthy that regardless of the number of children the couple already has, the proportion of couples in which the husband wants more children and his wife does not strongly outnumbers the proportion in which the wife wants more and her husband does not. For example, among couples with seven or more children, 21 percent of the husbands want more children while their wives do not, compared to only 6 percent in which the wives want more children and their husbands do not. Not surprisingly, as the number of l iving children increases, the proportion of couples who want more children declines and the proportion who want no more children increases. Table 6.3 Desire for more children among monogamous couples Percent distribution of monogamously married couples by desire for more children, according to number of living children, Uganda 1995 Husband Wife Both Number of Both more/ more/ want Husband/ Number living want wife husband no wife of children more no more no more more infecund Other I Total couples Same number 0 94.5 1.7 0.0 0,0 3.9 0.0 100,0 78 I-3 80.7 12.5 2.0 0.9 0.0 3.9 100.0 266 4-6 28.2 27.6 12.2 20.5 5.8 5.7 100.0 151 7+ (10.4) (21.4) (6.1) (59.1) (0.0) (2.9) 1(30.0 43 Different number Husband > wife 45.4 12.5 8.7 18.8 7.0 7.7 100.0 218 Wife > husband 44.6 21.9 2.2 27.4 1.3 2.6 100.0 98 Total 55.9 15.7 5.6 14.9 3.3 4.6 100.0 853 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. t Undecided or missing 88 Table 6.4 shows the percentage of currently married women who want no more children according to the number of children they already have and according to selected background characteristics. ~ A difference can be observed in the reproductive intentions of urban and rural women; 38 percent of urban women do not want to have another child, compared to 32 percent among their mral counterparts. The desire for smaller families among urban women can be seen by the fact that among those with four children, 54 percent want no more children, compared to 35 percent of rural women (Figure 6.3). These results corroborate the findings of higher fertility in rural than in urban areas (Chapter 3). Table 6.4 Desire to limit childbearing Percentage of currently married women who want no more children, by number of living children and selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Background Number of living children 1 characteristic 0 I 2 3 4 5 6+ Total Residence Urban 1.4 7.9 22.1 42.6 54.3 72.8 93.6 38.0 Rural 1.6 6.0 11.2 22.2 34.9 50.1 72.6 31.5 Region Central 1.0 6.4 18.1 34.0 54.4 76.0 89.6 42.2 Eastern 0.9 5.9 14.8 23.1 33.9 46.8 74.9 31.6 Northern 2.5 9.1 9.6 19.2 25.8 34.9 51.1 20.5 Western 2.2 3.6 8.3 24.2 32.6 50.1 72.8 33.6 Education No education 2.0 8,3 8.8 22.4 26,7 45.5 64.3 31.6 Primary 1.6 5.1 12.0 24.2 40.9 53.3 80.7 31.4 Secondary+ 0.0 8.2 24.9 36.2 53.9 74.7 89.8 39.7 Total 1.6 6.2 12.8 24.9 37.2 52.1 74.2 32, 3 Note: Women who have been sterilised are considered to want no more children. t Includes current pregnancy An examination of regional differences reveals that the percentage of women who want no more children is highest in the Central Region (42 percent) and lowest in the Northern Region (21 percent). This pattern generally holds true regardless of the number of children a woman has. For example, among women with four children, more than half of those in the Central Region want to stop childbearing, compared to only one-quarter of those in the Northern Region (Figure 6.3). Overall, there is no significant difference in the proportion wanting no more children between women with no education and those who attended primary level only (about 31 percent each). This agrees with the finding that there is little difference in fertility levels between women with no education and those with primary schooling (Chapter 3) as well as results from the 1991 Population and Housing Census which concluded that the effect of education on fertility becomes marked only after the primary level of education (Statistics Department, 1995b:99). However, among women with a given number of children, the data in Table 6.4 do show a generally positive relationship between education and the proportion who want to stop childbearing. For example, among women with four children, 27 percent of those with no education want no more children, compared to 41 percent of those with primary education and 54 percent of those with secondary or more education. i Data for men could not be disaggregated due to small sample sizes in some cells. 89 Figure 6.3 Percent of Married Women with Four Children Who Want No More Children by Background Characteristics RESIDENCE Urban Rural REGION Central Eastern Northern Western EDUCATION No Education Primary Secondary+ a 54 ~///// / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /~55 ~// / / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /~34 ~ 2 5 ~/// / / / / / / / / / / / / / / /~33 NNN NNN 41 54 20 40 60 80 Percent 100 UDH$ 1995 6.2 Need for Family Planning Services The data in this section address the extent of need for family planning services. Unmet need for family planning refers to the category of fecund women who either wish to postpone the next birth (spacers) or wish to stop childbearing altogether (limiters) but are not using a contraceptive method. Pregnant women are considered to have an unmet need for spacing or limiting if their pregnancy was mistimed or unwanted, respectively. Similarly, amenorrhoeic women are classified as having unmet need if their last birth was mistimed or unwanted. Women who are currently using a family planning method are said to have a met need for family planning. The total demand for family planning comprises those who fall in the met need and unmet need categories. Table 6.5 presents estimates for unmet need, met need and total demand for family planning services for unmarried women, married women, and all women, and presents data by selected background characteristics for married women only. Overall, 29 percent of currently married women have an unmet need for family planning services--18 percent for spacing births and 11 percent for limiting births. On the other hand, 15 percent of married women are using a method (met need for family planning), 7 percent for spacing and 8 percent for limiting births. If all unmet needs were satisfied, 44 percent of married women would be using a contraceptive method. Among unmarried women, both unmet and met need are lower and a higher proportion of the demand for family planning is satisfied, perhaps because unmarried women have higher motivation to use family planning. Concentrating on currently married women, the highest level of unmet need for family planning is among women age 35-39. Generally, unmet need for spacing births is higher among younger women, while unmet need for limiting childbirth is higher among older women. 90 Table 6.5 Need for family planning services Percentage of women with unmet need for family planning, met need for family planning, and the total demand for family planning services, by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Met need for Unmet need for family planning Total demand for Percentage family planning j (currently using) 2 family planning of demand Number Background For For For For For For saris- of characteristic spacing limiting Total spacing limiting Total spacing limiting Total fled women Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Central Eastern Northern Western Education No education Primary 20,6 Secondary+ 19.5 Currently married women 18.3 Unmarried women 2.2 All women 13.9 24.3 0.6 24.9 9.1 0.8 9.9 33.4 1.4 34.8 28.4 756 25.7 3.3 29.0 10.2 2.0 12.2 35.9 5.3 41.2 29.6 1,212 22.4 8.3 30.7 7.6 5.8 13.4 30.0 14.1 44.0 30.4 1,067 15.1 16.4 31.5 7.3 13.4 20.7 22.4 29.8 52.2 39.7 810 9.2 23.6 32.8 2.7 15.9 18.6 12.0 39.5 51.4 36.2 656 5.5 22.9 28.4 0.4 17.2 17.6 5.8 40.1 45.9 38.2 367 1.1 17.5 18.6 1.1 14.8 16.0 2.2 32.4 34.6 46.1 266 19.0 8.2 27.2 15.4 19.0 34.5 34.4 27.2 61.7 55.9 612 18.2 11.1 29.3 5.8 6.4 12.2 24.0 17.5 41.5 29.4 4,522 20.9 13.5 34.4 9.8 15.1 25.0 30.7 28.6 59.3 42.1 1,242 19.5 11.3 30.8 5.6 5.7 11.4 25.1 17.0 42.1 27.0 1,399 16.2 6.8 23.1 9.3 4.2 13.6 25.6 11.1 36.6 37.1 1,115 16.4 10.9 27.3 3.6 6.7 10.3 20.0 17.6 37.6 27.3 1,378 14.4 11.8 26.2 3.9 4.4 8.3 18.3 16.2 34.5 24.0 1,792 10.1 30.7 6.8 8.0 14.8 27.4 18.1 45.5 32.6 2,823 10.4 29.9 18.0 19.6 37.6 37.4 30.0 67.4 55.7 520 10.7 29.0 6.9 7.9 14.8 25.2 18.7 43.9 33.8 5,134 0.8 3.0 6.0 3.5 9.5 8.2 4.3 12.6 75.9 1,936 8.0 21.9 6.7 6.7 13.4 20.6 14.7 35.3 37.9 7,070 t Unmet need for spacing includes pregnant women whose pregnancy was mistimed, amenorrhoeic women whose last birth was mistimed, and women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrhoeic and who are not using any method of family planning but say they want to wait two or more years for their next birth. Also included in unmet need for spacing are women who are unsure whether they want another child or who want another child but are unsure when to have the birth. Unmet need for limiting refers to pregnant women whose pregnancy was unwanted, amenorrhoeic women whose last child was unwanted, and women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrhoeic and who are not using any method of family planning but want no more children. Excluded from the unmet need category are menopausal or infecund women and unmarried women who have not had sexual intercourse in the four weeks prior to the interview. 2 Using for spacing is defined as women who are using some method of family planning and say they want to have another child or are undecided whether to have another. Using for limiting is defined as women who are using and who want no more children. Note that the specific methods used are not taken into account here. An examination of unmet need by type of residence indicates that rural women present the highest level due to their greater need for limiting births; urban women have a greater unmet need for spacing births than rural women. Currently married women in the Central Region showed the greatest unmet need (34 percent), while those in the Northern Region have the lowest unmet need. There is little difference in unmet need by education level, although because contraceptive use is greater among more educated women, the percentage of demand satisfied increases with educational level. 91 It is important to note that the apparent ly large decl ine in the level o f unmet need, f rom 54 percent o f marr ied women in 1988-89 to 29 percent in 1995, is to some extent due to changes in the ca lcu lat ion of unmet need and to some extent due to changes in the parts o f the country that were surveyed. 6.3 Idea l Number o f Ch i ld ren In order to obtain insight into fert i l i ty preferences, the 1995 UDHS inc luded a quest ion asked of al l women age 15-49 and men age 15-54: "(If you could go back to the time when you did not have any children) and could choose exactly the number of children to have in your whole life, how many would that be?" Respondents with ch i ldren were asked the entire question, whi le those with no chi ldren were asked the quest ion exc lud ing the part in parentheses. Tab le 6.6 presents the distr ibut ion o f respondents by ideal number o f chi ldren, accord ing to the actual number o f l iv ing ch i ldren ( inc luding the current pregnancy) . It should be noted that respondents were not Table 6.6 Ideal and actual number of children Percent distribution of all women and men by ideal number of children, and mean ideal number of children for all women and men and for currently married women and men, according to number of living children, Uganda 1995 Ideal number of children Number ot living children I 0 I 2 3 4 5 6+ Total WOMEN 0 0.9 0.1 0.1 1 1.2 1.1 0.0 2 10.9 10.1 5.8 3 11.3 11.1 5.9 4 38.4 34.9 39.7 5 I 1.1 13.4 13.5 6+ 20.2 23.3 29.6 Non-numeric response 5.9 6.1 5.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 1,389 1,236 1,017 Mean ideal number for: All women 4.4 4.6 4.9 Number of women 1,307 1,161 963 Currently married women 4.8 4.8 5.0 Number of women 389 885 803 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.5 2.6 1.9 1.3 1.6 5.6 6.0 1.9 2.7 3.2 6.7 28.5 23.9 17.9 19.6 30.2 15.8 13.1 14.8 8.6 12.5 40.3 53.5 54.5 57.3 37.4 6.3 5.3 8.9 9.5 6.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 889 638 624 1,278 7,070 5.4 5.9 6.2 6.5 5.3 833 604 569 1,157 6,593 5.5 5.9 6.2 6.6 5.6 691 526 479 997 4,770 MEN 0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.3 1 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.9 0.1 0.3 2 8.2 5.0 2.4 0.6 3.2 2.3 2.2 4.7 3 10.1 10.2 5.7 1.1 2.0 3.1 2.9 6.5 4 38.3 32.5 32.6 22.2 19.1 11.8 14.1 28.1 5 L 1.9 10.5 15.6 21.9 15.9 11.2 9.1 12.7 6+ 27.1 40.0 40.1 53.2 55.0 67.2 67.0 44.1 Non-numeric response 3.3 1.6 3.0 1.0 4.9 2.5 4.7 3.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of men 748 228 208 162 159 143 347 1,996 Mean ideal number for: All men 4.8 5.1 5.4 6.2 6.2 7.0 7.9 5.8 Number of men 724 224 202 160 151 140 331 1,932 Currently married men 4.9 5.2 5.4 6.3 6.0 6.8 7.8 6.3 Number of men 116 181 171 145 140 133 323 1,210 Note: The means exclude respondents who gave non-numeric responses. I Includes current pregnancy 92 forced to give an exact number and 7 percent of women and 3 percent of men gave a non-numeric response to the question on ideal family size. This failure to specify an ideal family size is perhaps due to the absence of a strong feeling for a particular family size. Those who gave numeric responses generally want to have large families. Half of all women report five or more children as ideal and another 30 percent want to have four children. Only 6 percent of women report a two-child family as ideal. Men are even more pronatalist than women. Overall, women report a mean ideal number of children of 5.3, compared to 5.8 for men. Despite the high fertility preferences, the data indicate that there has been a significant decline in ideal family size among women in Uganda. The 1988-89 UDHS revealed 6.5 as the average ideal number of children for all women, compared to 5.3 in 1995 (Kaijuka et al., 1989:50). Among currently married women, the mean ideal family size declined from 6.8 to 5.6. Although the figures are not strictly comparable given the fact that the 1988-89 UDHS did not cover the entire country, the differences are large enough to imply that preferences for large families are waning. The ideal number of children tends to increase with the number of living children. This pattern may reflect the fact that people who want more children actually end up having them. Alternatively, women and men with larger families may find it difficult to admit that they would ideally like fewer children than they already have. The mean ideal number of children by age and selected background characteristics is given in Table 6.7 for all women; only aggregated data are presented for men due to small sample sizes for many cells. Ideal family size increases substantially with age, from 4.4 for women age 15-19 to 7.0 for women 45-49; the pattern is similar for men (Figure 6.4). It should be noted that urban women want one child fewer on average than rural women (4.2 vs. 5.5); this holds true for each age group. Similarly, the mean ideal family size for urban men is one child less than that of rural men (4.9 vs. 6.0). Table 6.7 Mean ideal number of children by background characteristics Mean ideal number of children tot all women by age and selected background characteristics and for all men by age, Uganda 1995 Age Background All All characteristic 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 women men Residence Urban 3.6 3.9 4.1 5.0 5.2 5.8 (6.4) 4.2 4.9 Rural 4.6 5.0 5.3 6.0 6.4 6.7 7.1 5.5 6.0 Region Central 3.9 4.3 4.5 5.2 5.7 6.0 6.6 4.7 5,6 Eastern 4.7 5.0 5.3 6.2 6.4 6.0 6.8 5,5 5.9 Northern 4.9 5.4 5.3 6.8 6.3 7.0 (6.8) 5.7 6.0 Western 4.5 4.6 5.4 5.7 6.5 7.4 7.6 5.5 5,8 Education No education 5.4 5.3 5.9 6.7 6.8 7.3 7.1 6.3 6.1 Primary 4.4 4.9 5.1 5.6 6.2 6.1 7.0 5,1 6. I Secondary+ 3.6 3.8 3.9 4.5 4.5 (4.9) * 4.0 4.9 Total women 4.4 4.8 5.1 5.9 6.2 6.6 7.0 5.3 NA Total men 5.0 5.1 5.2 6.0 6.7 7.0 7.6 NA 5.8 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Men age 50-54 have been omitted. NA = Not applicable 93 Figure 6.4 Ideal Family Size Among Women and Men by Age Mean Ideal Number of Children 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 UDHS 1995 Regional variations reveal that women in the Central Region have the lowest mean ideal family size (4.7), while those in the Northern Region have the highest (5.7). The low figure observed in the Central Region may be due to the influence of Kampala. There is little variation between the three regions of Eastern, Northem and Western. Highly educated women exhibit a lower mean ideal number of children (4.0), while those with no education suggest a higher mean of 6.3 children. Among men, little variation is observed between the four regions, while men with no education and those who have completed up to primary indicate the same mean ideal number of children (6.1). 6.4 Fertility Planning Measuring the level of unwanted fertility using 1995 UDHS data is based on the questions asked about each child born in the five years preceding the survey and any current pregnancy to determine whether the pregnancy was planned (wanted then), wanted but at a later time, (mistimed) or unwanted (wanted no more children). The answers to these questions provide some insight into the degree to which couples can control fertility. The validity of the answers depend on the extent to which respondents were conscious of what took place and how honestly they report. The limitation to such measures is that mistimed or unwanted pregnancies may turn out to be wanted children after birth and lead to rationalisation. Therefore the proportion of births that are unwanted at the time of conception is likely to be underestimated. Table 6.8 shows the percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by fertility planning status, according to birth order and mother's age at birth. Seventy percent of the births in the last five years were wanted at the time of conception, while 22 percent were mistimed, and 8 percent were not wanted at the time they were conceived. First, second- and third-order births are more likely to have been planned than fourth or higher births. One in seven births of fourth or higher order are unwanted. The percentage of births that are planned and mistimed declines with mother' s age, while the proportion unwanted increases with age. 94 Table 6.8 Fertility planning status Percent distribution of births in the three years preceding the survey and current pregnancies, by fertility planning status, according to birth order and mother's age, Uganda 1995 Birth order Planning status of birth Number and mother's Wanted Wanted Not of age then later wanted Missing Total births Birth order 1 78.9 19.6 1.4 0.2 1130.0 1,424 2 74.6 23.6 1.1 0.7 100.0 1,291 3 72.4 25.1 2.3 0.1 100.0 994 4+ 63.4 21.3 15.0 0.3 100.0 3,326 Age at birth <20 73.2 25.0 1.5 0.3 100.0 1,541 20-24 73.1 24.9 1.5 0.4 100.0 2,113 25-29 69.8 22.2 7.7 0.3 100.0 1,604 30-34 66.0 18.8 14.9 0.3 100.0 1,015 35-39 61.6 10.7 27.7 0.0 100.0 561 40-44 52.5 11.9 34.8 0.8 100.0 174 45-49 (49.8) (7.2) (43.0) (0.0) 100.0 27 Total 69.8 21.9 7.9 0.3 100.0 7,035 Note: Birth order includes current pregnancy. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Table 6.9 shows the total wanted fertility rates and the actual total fertility rates for the three years preceding the survey, by selected background characteristics. The total wanted fertility rate is calcu- lated in the same manner as the total fertility rate, but unwanted births are excluded from the numerator. For this purpose, unwanted births are defined as those which exceed the number considered ideal by the re- spondent. 2 A comparision of the two rates suggests the potential impact of the elimination of unwanted births. Overall, the wanted total fertility rate is 19 percent lower than the actual total fertility rate. If all unwanted births were to be eliminated, the total fertil- ity rate in Uganda would be 5.6 children born to ev- ery woman. The difference between wanted and ac- tual fertility rates is similar for urban and rural wom- en. By region, women in the Northern Region pre- sented the highest total wanted fertility rate (6.0), while those of the Eastern Region showed the highest total fertility rate (7.4). The gap between the wanted Table 6.9 Wanted fertility rates Total wanted fertility rates and total fertility rates for the three years preceding the survey, by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Total wanted Total Background fertility fertility characteristic rate rate Residence Urban 3.8 5.0 Rural 5.9 7.2 Region Central 4.8 6.3 Eastern 5.9 7.4 Northern 6.0 6.8 Western 5.9 7.0 Education No education 6.1 7.0 Primary 5.7 7.1 Secondary+ 4.0 5.2 Total 5.6 6.9 Note: Rates are based on births to women 15-49 in the period 1-36 months preceding the survey. The total fertility rates are the same as those presented in Table 3.2. and actual total fertility rates is somewhat larger among women in the Central and Eastern Regions than among those in the Northern and Western Regions. The gap is also larger for women with some education than for those with no education. 2 Women who did not report a numeric ideal family size are assumed to have wanted all their births. 95 CHAPTER 7 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY This chapter presents estimates of levels, trends and differentials of neonatal, postneonatal, infant and childhood mortality in Uganda. In addition, information is presented on high-risk fertility behaviour among Ugandan women. The data presented here are important not only in the understanding of the demographic profile, but also in the design of policies and programmes aimed at the reduction of infant and child mortality and the high risk to mothers arising out of childbirth. The reduction of both infant and childhood mortality, and the incidence of high risk pregnancies are major objectives of the National Population Policy in Uganda. 7.1 Assessment of Data Quality The rates ~ of childhood mortality presented in this chapter are defined as follows: • Neonatal mortality (NN): the probability of dying within the first month of life, Postneonatal mortality (PNN): the arithmetic difference between infant and neonatal mortality, • Infant mortality (iq0): the probability of dying between birth and the first birthday, Child mortality (4q~): the probability of dying between exact age one and the fifth birthday, • Under-five mortality (sq0): the probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday. All rates are expressed as deaths per 1,000 live births, except child mortality which is expressed as deaths per 1,000 children surviving to the first birthday. The information presented here is based on direct estimates obtained from the birth histories of women. Women were asked questions about each live birth they had ever had. Questions covered date of birth, sex of child, current age, survival status, and, if dead, age at death. From this information, it is possible to construct a life tables estimates of mortality for the Ugandan population broken down into different age segments. In theory, information from birth histories gives the most robust estimates of infant and child mortality, short of an actual birth and death registration. However, in practice, this information may suffer from a number of problems. Prominent among these are the omission of some births and deaths, especially infants that died shortly after birth, and the misstatement of date of birth and age at death. Omission of infant deaths is usually most severe for deaths which occur early in infancy. If early neonatal deaths are selectively underreported, the result would be an abnormally low ratio of deaths under seven days to all neonatal deaths and an abnormally low ratio of neonatal to infant mortality. Underreporting of early infant deaths is usually more common for births that occurred further back in time; hence, it is useful to examine the ratios over time. Misreporting of the age at death may distort the age pattern of mortality. J All rates in this chapter are calculated using direct techniques, unless otherwise mentioned. 97 It does not appear that early infant deaths have been severely underreported in the 1995 UDHS. First, the proportion of neonatal deaths that occur in the first week of life is quite high at 73 percent 2 (Appendix Table C.5). Furthermore, the proportion is roughly constant over 20 years before the survey (between 64 and 73 percent) which further supports the evidence that early infant deaths have not been grossly underreported. Second, the proportions of infant deaths that occur during the first month of life are plausible (37-47 percent--see Appendix Table C.6). The quality of reporting of age at death is also important. Misreporting of age at death will bias estimates of the age pattern of mortality if the net result of the misreporting is transference of deaths between age segments for which rates are calculated; for example, an overestimate of child mortality relative to infant mortality may result if children who died during the first year of life are reported as having died at age one year or older. In an effort to minimise error in the reporting of age at death, the 1995 UDHS interviewers were instructed to record the age at death in days for deaths under one month, and in months for deaths under two years. They were specifically asked to probe for deaths reported at one year of age to ensure that they had actually occurred at 12 months. Nevertheless, there is evidence of some "heaping" on age 12 months in the reporting of age at death; however, this heaping is more significant for deaths that occurred five or more years before the survey but not in recent years (see Appendix Table C.6). From this standpoint, it is not necessary to adjust for underreporting of deaths below age one. It is also gratifying to note that there was far less heaping on age at death 12 months than in the 1988-89 UDHS, indicating a substantial improvement in data quality (Kaijuka, et al., 1989:54). 7.2 Levels and Trends in Infant and Child Morta l i ty In Table 7.1, neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child and under-five mortality rates for the 15 years preceding the survey are presented in 5-year periods. Looking at the most recent period (0-4 years before the survey or mid- 1990 to mid- 1995), under-five mortality in Uganda stands at 147 per 1,000 live births. This is quite a high level of mortality such that one in every seven Ugandan children does not live to celebrate the fifth birthday. Table 7.1 Infant and child mortality Infant and child mortality rates by five-year periods preceding the survey, Uganda 1995 Years Neonatal Posmeonatal Infant Child Under-five preceding mortality mortality mortality mortality mortality survey (NN) (PNN) (Iq0) {4ql) (sqo) 0-4 27.0 54.3 81.3 71.9 147.3 5-9 37.7 54.3 92.0 82.9 167.2 10-14 43.4 53.7 97.1 87.7 176.3 The infant mortality rate stands at 81 per 1,000 births, meaning that one in every twelve babies born in Uganda does not survive to celebrate the first birthday. Of the children who survive their first year of life, one in 14 does not reach the fifth birthday. The neonatal mortality rate (mortality in the first month of life) is much lower, 27 per 1,000 live births, while postneonatal mortality stands at about 54 deaths per 1,000 births. This means that when Ugandan babies survive their first month of life their risk of dying in the next 11 months is actually doubled. 2 There are no model mortality patterns for the neonatal period. However, one review of data from several developing countries concludes that, at levels of neonatal mortality of 20 per 1,000 or higher, approximately 70 percent of neonatal deaths occur within the first six days of life (Boerma, 1988, cited in Sullivan et al., 1990). 98 The 1995 UDHS suggests a marked decline in child mortality over the years. All the mortality rates in Table 7.1 with the exception of postneonatal mortality have declined steadily over the 15 years prior to the survey, with a 16-18 percent decline in under-five, child, and infant mortality. However, the biggest improvement was made in neonatal mortality with a decline of almost 40 percent. Another way to examine the mortality trends is to compare the data from the 1995 UDHS with those from other data sources, although analytic methods, time references, and sample coverage complicate comparisons. Since there has never been a complete or reliable vital registration system, all reports of infant and child mortality historically were collected using indirect techniques. The infant mortality estimates from the indirect method are generally higher than the mortality estimated from the birth history, since the indirect techniques are usually based on births to young mothers which have a disproportionately higher probability of dying. 3 Moreover, they use models of mortality which may or may not apply to the country, giving an overestimate of infant mortality in relation to child mortality. Furthermore, the indirect estimates apply to a time further into the past than do the most recent direct estimates. However, both estimates (direct and indirect) are affected by omission of births. The indirect estimate of infant mortality derived from the 1969 census was based on the record of children ever born and children surviving to women in the age groups 20-24, 25-29, and 30-34 years at the date of inquiry. This estimate, and subsequent indirect estimates, refer to a period approximately five years prior to the date of data collection. This estimation procedure generated an infant mortality rate of 120 deaths per 1,000 live births. The 1988-89 UDHS was the first attempt at computation of direct estimates of infant mortality, using birth histories. The infant mortality rate calculated from the 1988-89 UDHS was 101 deaths per 1000 births. However, the infant mortality rate from the survey did not cover the Northern Region which has the highest infant mortality rate in Uganda, and showed evidence of considerable heaping of deaths at age 12 months (Kaijuka et al., 1989:54; Kyakulaga et al., 1993:6). Adjusting for the sample coverage and reporting error would have the effect of increasing the rate by several points. For comparison purposes, indirect techniques were also applied to the 1988-89 UDHS, yielding an infant mortality rate of 119. An infant mortality rate of 122 was estimated based on the 1991 Census using indirect techniques. (This estimate refers to the period around 1986.) Taking account of the probable underestimation of infant mortality at the national level based on the 1988-89 UDHS, it appears that there was little decline in the infant mortality rate in Uganda until the early to mid- 1980s. This is most likely due to the fact that in the 1970s and early 1980s the country suffered a prolonged civil strife which led to a decline in the standard of living and also affected the health infrastructure. The observed fall in the infant mortality rate as estimated from the 1995 UDHS is consistent with efforts put in place since the mid- 1980s to revive the level of living and restore the health infrastructure. The indirect estimate of infant mortality derived from the 1995 UDHS is 97. (In order to be consistent with previous official estimates, this estimate will be used for official purposes). It is worth noting that after adjusting for coverage the magnitude of decline in infant mortality is 20-25 absolute points, regardless of whether the direct or indirect estimates are used (Figure 7.1 ). Further studies of mortality trends in Uganda should be undertaken. 3 In addition, there is evidence that the model life tables used to derive the indirect estimates do not adequately capture the mortality pattern that is most prevalent in sub-Saharan Africa (i.e., a high concentration of deaths in the 1-4 year age group) (Sullivan et al., 1994; Bicego and Ahmad, 1996). 99 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Figure 7.1 Trends in Infant Mortality Deaths per 1,000 Live Births ~ ~ 1995 UDHS i i i 1980 1985 1990 1995 Calendar Year 7.3 Socio-economic Differentials in Childhood Mortality Socio-economic differentials in childhood mortality in Uganda are presented in Table 7.2. The mortality estimates are calculated for a 10-year period before the survey so that the rates are based on sufficient number of cases in each category to ensure statistically reliable estimates. It can be observed from this table that mortality in urban areas is consistently lower than in rural areas. Neonatal mortality in urban areas is about 22 percent lower than in rural areas, while urban postneonatal mortality is 11 percent lower. The overall mortality picture shows that of all children born in rural Uganda, one in six dies before reaching the fifth birthday, compared to one in seven of those born in urban areas. Regional differences are also prominent. The Northern Region has the highest mortality rates followed by the Eastern Region. Of all infants born in the Northern and Eastern Regions, one in 10 dies before the first birthday compared to one in 13 in the Western and Central Regions. Of those who survive until their first birthday, one in 10 children in the Northern Region dies before the fifth birthday. The corresponding ratios are one in 12 in the Eastern Region, one in 14 in the Central Region, and one in 17 in the Western Region. Equally interesting is the fact that the Western Region has overtaken the Central as the region of lowest mortality. It is possible that the insurgency of the past decade in the Central Region which destroyed some of the health infrastructure may have given rise to higher mortality. On the other hand, the Western Region is the only region in Uganda which has not been affected to any significant degree by political unrest. Consequently, the health infrastructure has not only remained intact, but improving on it has generally been a much easier task. 100 Table 7.2 Infant and child mortality by background characteristics Infant and child mortality rates for the I 0-year period preceding the survey, by selected socioeconomic characteristics, Uganda 1995 Neonatal Postneonatal Infant Child Under-five Background mortality mortality mortality mortality morhality characteristic (NN) (PNN) (lq0l (4ql) (5q0) Residence Urban 25.4 48.9 74.4 63.8 133.5 Rural 32.7 55.0 87.6 78.4 159.1 Region Central 29.6 47.0 76.6 70.1 141.3 Eastern 38.4 59.7 98.1 86.0 175.7 Northern 33.6 65.8 99.3 100.6 190.0 Western 26.8 48.3 75.1 60. I 130.7 Education No education 34.2 59.8 94.0 90.5 176.0 Primary 32.5 55.4 87.9 72.3 153.8 Secondary+ 19.5 28.5 48.0 48.2 93.9 Medical maternity care t No antenatal or delivery care 39.4 79.2 118.6 NA NA Either antenatal or delivery care 23.2 59.9 83.2 NA NA Both antenatal and delivery care 21.7 42.7 64.4 NA NA Total 31.8 54.3 86.1 76.7 156.2 I Refers to births in the lbur years before the survey NA = Not applicable As expected, education of the mother displays a strong negative relationship with infant and child mortality. It is quite clear that children born to mothers with no education, by far, suffer the highest mortality. Educating mothers up to primary level reduces the overall under-five mortality by 13 percent and child mortality by as much as 20 percent over that for women with no education. At higher levels of education the effect is even more dramatic. It can be observed that educating women up to secondary level reduces most mortality rates by nearly half. It is also quite obvious from Table 7.2 that the type of maternity care women receive is crucial in infant and child survival. Mothers who receive neither antenatal nor delivery care experience the highest neonatal and infant mortality. Receiving any medical care whether antenatal or delivery care reduces mortality substantially. The information suggests that if all Ugandan women today were to receive medical care either during pregnancy or at delivery, neonatal mortality would be reduced by as much as 41 percent, while postneonatal mortality would be reduced by 24 percent and infant mortality by 30 percent. On the other hand, if Ugandan mothers received medical care both during the antenatal period and during delivery, neonatal, postneonatal, and infant mortality would all be cut almost in half. 7.4 Demographic Differentials in Mortality Besides the socioeconomic differentials, there are some demographic factors both of mother and child that have been found to influence infant and child mortality to a great extent. These are given in Table 7.3 and Figure 7.2. They include sex of child, age of mother, birth order, birth interval, and size at birth. 101 Table 7.3 Infant and child mortality by demographic characteristics Infant and child mortality rates for the 10-year period preceding the survey, by selected demo~'aphic characteristics, Uganda 1995 Neonatal Postneonatal Infant Child Under-five Demographic mortality mortality mortality mortality mortality characteristic (NN) (PNN) (lq0) (4ql) (sq0) Sex of child Male 31,0 56.3 87.4 81.6 161.9 Female 32.6 52.3 84,9 72.0 150.8 Age of mother at birth < 20 44.0 65.2 I09.2 98.1 196.5 20-29 30.0 53.4 83.4 72.3 149.7 30-39 23.5 46.6 70.1 66.2 131.7 40-49 (32.1) 39.0 71.2 69,3 135.5 Birth order 1 42,1 64.9 107,0 85,0 182.9 2-3 28.9 54.9 83.8 79,9 157.0 4-6 29.6 49.3 78.9 75,4 148.3 7+ 28.9 49.6 78.5 63,8 137.3 Previous birth interval < 2 yrs 52.7 69.3 122.0 94,4 204.9 2-3 yrs 19.2 44.3 63.5 69,0 128.1 4 yrs + 12.3 34.7 47.0 42,6 87.6 Size at birth t Small/very small 36.9 53.5 90.4 NA NA Average or larger 20.2 54.1 74.3 NA NA Figures in parentheses are based on 250-499 births. I Refers to births in the four years betbre the survey NA = Not applicable Figure 7.2 Under, Five Mortality by Selected Demographic Characteristics AGE OF MOTHER < 20 20-29 30-39 BIRTH ORDER 1 2-3 4-6 7+ PRIOR BIRTH INTERVAL < 2 Years 2-3 Years 4+ Years ~//'./'/./'/~/~-'/.~/////./.-///"~./'-/.--~197 ~//"f//////////////'/-~//f"/////////'///////>~150 ~/////////./'///////./'//J/'/////////~132 . , , - " . . . . , 183 . . . t57 , . . - . , .148 137 . . . . . . . . . . 1205 128 188 50 100 150 200 Deaths per t,000 Live BJrths Note: Rates are for the 10-year period preceding the survey. 250 1995UDHS 102 In general, mortality among male children is slightly higher than that for female children. The only exception to this is in the case of neonatal mortality where the rates are very similar. These slight differences in mortality by sex could probably be attributed to biological differences, since no Ugandan culture is known to have such strong sex preference norms that would lead to neglect of male babies. The mortality picture portrayed by mother's age at birth is consistent with previous evidence that having children too early or too late increases the risk of death. Children born to mothers below age 20 experience the highest mortality across the board. There is a sharp decline as one moves to the children born to mothers age 20-29. For example, one in nine babies born to mothers below age 20 dies before the first birthday, compared to only one out of 12 of those born to mothers age 20-29. Babies born to mothers age 30-39 enjoy the best survival probability. The information on birth order shows an expected relationship that the lower the birth order, the higher the risk of mortality. The most striking feature is that first order mortality rates are all far higher than the rates for subsequent birth orders. Examining the first order under-five mortality rate, about one-fifth of all first births die before celebrating their fifth birthday. The most consistent findings can be observed in the relationship between the length of the preceding birth interval and risk of early childhood mortality. The 1995 UDHS data show that short birth intervals significantly reduce a child's chance of survival. Ugandan children born less than two years after a preceding sibling are about twice as likely to die in infancy as those born two to three years after a preceding sibling ( 122 vs. 64 per 1,000). During ages 1-4 years, children born after a short interval are more than twice as likely to die as their counterparts born after an interval of 4 or more years (94 vs. 43 per 1,000). This relationship persists in all the age groups examined. It suggests the need to reduce mortality risks for Ugandan children by promoting family planning use and traditional practises such as breastfeeding, so as to space births more widely. A child's size at birth is an important determinant of its survival during infancy. In the 1995 UDHS, mothers were asked whether their young children were very small, small, average size, large, or very large at birth. This type of subjective assessment has been shown to correlate closely with actual birth weight. Neonates perceived by their mothers to be small or very small are much more likely to die in the first month of life than those perceived as average or larger in size. 7.5 High-Risk Fertility Behaviour This section examines the relative importance of under-five mortality risk factors. Generally, infants and children have a greater probability of dying if they are born to mothers who are too young or too old, if they are born after a short birth interval, or if they are of high parity. In the analysis of the effects of high-risk fertility behaviour on child survival, a mother is classified as "too young" if she is less than 18 years of age, and "too old" if she is over 34 years of age at the time of delivery. A "short birth interval" is defined as a birth occurring less than 24 months after the previous birth, and a child is of "high birth order" if the mother had previously given birth to three or more children (i.e., if the child is of birth order 4 or higher). Children can be further cross-classified by combinations of these characteristics. Column one of Table 7.4 shows the percentage of births occurring in the five years before the survey that fall into these various risk categories. Table 7.4 shows that the overwhelming majority of Ugandan births are categorised as risky. Two- thirds of the children born in the five years before the survey fall into at least one risk category; 22 percent of births are characterised by two or more risk factors. Risk ratios are presented in column two; the risk ratio is the ratio of the proportion in a category who have died to the proportion of those not in any high-risk category who have died. Table 7.4 shows that high birth order is not by itself associated with higher mortality 103 Table 7.4 High-risk fertility behaviour Percent distribution of children born in the five years preceding the survey by category of elevated risk of mortality, and the percent distribution of currently married women at risk of conceiving a child with an elevated risk of mortality, by category of increased risk, Uganda 1995 Births in 5 years preceding the survey Percentage of currently Risk Percentage Risk married category of births ratio women a Not in any high-risk category 34,1 1.00 24.2 b Single high-risk category Mother's age < 18 9.0 1.85 2.7 Mother's age > 34 0.1 0.68 2,4 Birth interval < 24 months 8.2 1.41 11.4 Birth order > 3 26.2 0.84 18.6 Subtotal 43.5 1.16 35.1 Multiple high-risk category Age <18 & birth interval <24 c mo 1.0 1.40 Age >34 & birth interval <24 mo 0.0 0.00 Age >34 & birth order >3 8.4 0.65 Age >34 & birth interval <24 & birth order >3 2.0 1.82 Birth interval <24 & birth order >3 10.9 1.64 0.8 0.1 18.4 4.6 16.8 Subtotal 22.4 1.27 40.7 In any high-risk category 65.9 1.19 75.8 Total 100.0 100.0 Number 7,396 5,134 Note: Risk ratio is the ratio of the proportion dead of births in a specific high- risk category to the proportion dead of births not in any high-risk category. aWomen were assigned to risk categories according to the status they would have at the birth of a child, if the child were conceived at the time of the survey: age less than 17 years and 3 months, age older than 34 years and 2 months, latest birth less than 15 months ago, and latest birth of order 3 or ~igher. Includes sterilised women Clncludes the combined categories Age < 18 and birth order >3 risk in Uganda unless coupled with a short birth interval. Since almost half of births in Uganda are of high birth order, this operates to diminish the associated risk ratio in the overall single-high risk category. The most serious mortality risk is being born to mothers below 18 years of age. In all, 10 percent of births occur to mothers below age 18. These births suffer a mortality risk of 85 percent higher than children who fall in the "not in any risk" category; children who fall in a multiple-risk category that includes younger mothers also suffer greater risks. Short birth intervals, those less than two years, constitute yet another mortality risk. More than 22 percent of births occur less than two years after a previous birth. It can be seen from Table 7.4 that producing children at intervals of less than two years increases their risk of mortality by more than 40 percent. Another risky combination is having birth intervals of less than two years and a birth order greater than three. This combination affects about 11 percent of all births. Despite the fact that higher birth orders do not constitute any increased mortality risk for children (described earlier), it is important to note that when this phenomenon is combined with short birth intervals, the risk of mortality is raised by over 60 percent. 104 CHAPTER8 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH This chapter presents the 1995 UDHS findings in three areas of importance to maternal and child health: maternal care and characteristics of the newborn, childhood vaccinations, and common childhood illnesses and their treatment. One of the priorities of the Ministry of Health in Uganda is the provision of medical care during pregnancy and at delivery which is essential for the survival of both the mother and infant. The 1995 UDHS results provide an evaluation of utilisation of these health services as well as information with which to assess the need for additional services. This information can be used to identify women whose babies are at risk because of non-use of maternal health services. The information will assist policymakers in the planning of appropriate strategies to improve maternal and child care. 8.1 Antenatal Care Table 8. l shows the percent distribution of live births in the four years preceding the survey by source of antenatal care received during pregnancy, according to maternal and background characteristics. Inter- Table 8.1 Antenatal care Percent distribution of live births in the four years preceding the survey by source of antenatal care during preg- nancy, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Antenatal care provider I Nurse/ Number Background Trained Birth of characteristic Doctor midwife attendant 2 No one Missing Total births Mother's age at birth < 20 9.7 83.0 0.7 6.6 0.1 100.0 1,343 20-34 9.8 81.4 1.0 7.3 0.4 100.0 4,044 35+ 8.9 79.1 0.9 11.1 0.0 100.0 640 Birth order 1 10.1 82.8 1.0 5.7 0.1 100.0 1,228 2-3 10.8 81.6 0.8 6.3 0.5 100.0 1,965 4-5 10.1 81.6 0.9 7.1 0.2 100.0 1,245 6+ 7.6 80.3 1.1 10.8 0.2 100.0 1,589 Residence Urban 26.1 68.9 0.6 4.2 0.2 100.0 706 Rural 7.5 83.2 1.0 8.0 0.3 100.0 5,321 Region Central 16.7 77.7 1.1 4.3 0.2 1130.0 1,565 Eastern 5.8 86.8 0.9 6.3 0.2 100.0 1,638 Northern 3.5 86.4 0.9 9.1 0.1 100.0 1,164 Western 11.2 76.4 0.8 10.7 0.8 100.0 1,661 Mother's education No education 5.7 80.1 1.5 12.5 0.2 100.0 1,879 Primary 9.6 83.1 0.8 6.1 0.4 100.0 3,501 Secondary+ 21.3 77.3 0.2 1.2 0.0 1130.0 648 Total 9.7 81.5 0.9 7.5 0.3 100.0 6,027 Note: Figures are for births in the period 0-47 months preceding the survey. I If the respondent mentioned more than one provider, only the most qualified provider is considered. 2 Traditional midwife 105 viewers recorded all persons a woman may have seen for care, but in the table, only the provider with the highest qualification is considered (if more than one person was seen). The data indicate that a great number of pregnant women in Uganda receive antenatal care either from doctors (10 percent) or trained nurses or midwives (82 percent), while a small fraction (less than one percent) receive care from traditional birth attendants, and 8 percent do not receive any such care (Figure 8.I). Figure 8.1 Percent Distribution of Births by Antenatal Care and Delivery Characteristics ANTENATAL CARE Doctor Nurse/Midwife No One~ 8 TETANOS VADD,NA ,O0. One ~/~///J~. Two or More FT/-/~f/-~; PLACE OF DELIVERY r Health Facility . H o m e ~ OEL,VER¥ AS I TANOEL_ Traditional Birth Attendant ~,\\\\\\\\%.~ Relative/Other ~\\\\\\\\\\\"~ No One ~-\\\\\\\\\\\'~ ~ 1 0 - - - - ~ . '~. - - . ; . : , ; 82 ~/~S////f/Z/'///-'/y//~26 ~//J/-'//'/~/'/_-///'///Tf/~/////'/ '~y/'f////~A54 ~\%\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ x~ 34 ~\\\\\\\\%.\\\\\\~ 15 ~\ \ \~\%. \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \~35 ~\\\\\\\\\\\\~ 12 0 20 40 Percent Note: Based on births in the four years preceding the survey. 60 80 UDHS 1995 The mother's age at birth and the child's birth order appear to have little effect on who the woman is likely to seek for antenatal care. There is a difference in antenatal care coverage for births in urban and rural areas. In urban areas, 26 percent of pregnant women see a doctor, compared with 8 percent in rural areas. However, in rural areas, a higher percentage (83 percent) see trained nurses or midwives compared to urban women (69 percent). Women in the Central Region are more likely to receive antenatal care from a doctor than women in other parts of the country. The proportion of women who do not receive any care during pregnancy is highest (11 percent) in the Western Region. The use of antenatal care is strongly associated with the mother's education. The proportion of women who obtain antenatal care from a doctor increases from 6 percent among uneducated women to 21 percent of women with higher education. Pregnancy monitoring and detection of complications are main objectives of antenatal care. Obstetricians generally recommend that antenatal visits be made monthly for the first seven months, fortnightly in the eighth month, and then weekly until birth. If the first visit is made during the third month of pregnancy, this schedule translates to a total of about 12 to 13 visits. Data on the number of antenatal care visits made and stage of pregnancy at the first visit are given in Table 8.2. For almost half (47 percent) of the births in the four years before the survey, mothers made four or more antenatal care visits, while 37 percent made between two and three visits. Eight percent of the women did not make any visits to health facilities for antenatal care during their pregnancy. The median 106 number of antenatal care visits was 4.1, far fewer than the recom- mended number of 12. About half (49 percent) of births in Uganda benefit from antenatal care before the sixth month of gestation. How- ever, 38 percent of pregnant women do not receive antenatal care until the sixth or seventh month of pregnancy. The median time at which mothers start antenatal visits is 5.9 months. In order to investigate trends in antenatal care coverage, the 1995 UDHS data were retabulated to reflect only those areas covered in the 1988-89 UDHS areas. For these areas, the proportion of births for which the mother received antenatal care from a doctor remained constant at 11 percent, while the proportion whose mothers obtained care from a trained nurse or midwife increased slightly from 76 per- cent in 1988-89 (Kaijuka, et al., 1989:59) to 80 percent in 1995 (data not shown). 8.2 Tetanus Toxo id Vacc inat ion Tetanus toxoid injections are given during pregnancy for the prevention of neonatal tetanus, a common cause of death among in- fants in many settings around the world. For full protection, a pregnant woman needs two doses of the toxoid. However, if a woman has been vaccinated during a previous pregnancy, she may only require one dose for a current pregnancy. Five doses are considered adequate to provide lifetime protection. In order to estimate the extent of tetanus toxoid coverage during pregnancy, the 1995 UDHS collected data for each of the births that occurred in the four years before the survey as to whether the mother had received tetanus toxoid vaccinations during the pregnancy, and if so, how many. The results are presented in Table 8.3. Table 8.2 Number of antenatal care visits and stage of pregnancy Percent distribution of live births in the four years preceding the survey by number of antenatal care visits, and by the stage of pregnancy at the time of the first visit, Uganda 1995 Characteristic Percent Number of visits 0 7.5 1 6.3 2-3 37.2 4+ 47.2 Don't know/missing 1.8 Total 100.0 Median 4.1 Number of mouths pregnant at time of first visit No antenatal care 7.5 <6 months 48.6 6-7 months 37.4 8+ months 6.0 Don't know/missing 0.4 Total 100.0 Median 5.9 Number of births 6,027 Note: Figures are for births in the period 0-47 months preceding the survey. Results show that for more than half of the births, mothers receive two or more doses of tetanus tox- oid injections during pregnancy, while 26 percent receive one dose and 20 percent of births do not benefit from any tetanus toxoid vaccination during pregnancy. Younger women and women with low parity are more likely to have received two or more doses of tetanus toxoid. Compared with rural births, births occurring in urban areas are slightly more likely to have received two or more doses of tetanus toxoid and less likely to have received no tetanus toxoid. Regional differentials show that the proportion of births to mothers who received two or more tetanus toxoid doses during pregnancy is highest in the Eastern and Northern Regions (58 percent) and lowest in the Western Region (47 percent). There is a positive relationship between moth- er's education and tetanus toxoid coverage. The proportion of births whose mothers received two or more doses of tetanus toxoid during pregnancy increases from 51 percent among women with no education to 59 percent among those with secondary or higher education. Also, the proportion of births to women who did not receive any tetanus toxoid vaccine during pregnancy decreases as the level of education increases. This pattern may reflect greater access to modern medical care by educated women, their being better informed of the benefits of vaccination, and their taking advantage of available services. 107 Table 8.3 Tetanus toxoid vaccinations Percent distribution of live births in the four years preceding the survey by number of tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy, according to background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Number of tetanus toxoid injections Two Number Background One doses Don't know/ of characteristic None dose or more Missing Total births Mother's age at birth < 20 17.0 26.3 56.2 0.5 100.0 1,343 20-34 19.2 26.2 54.0 0.6 100.0 4,044 35+ 26.1 26.8 47.1 0.0 100.0 640 Birth order 1 14.7 25.7 58.7 0.9 100.0 1,228 2-3 16.9 26.8 55.7 0.6 100.0 1,965 4-5 21.2 25.3 53.3 0.2 100.0 1,245 6+ 25.0 26.8 47.8 0.6 100.0 1,589 Residence Urban 14.6 26.4 58.6 0.4 100.0 706 Rural 20.1 26.2 53.1 0.6 100.0 5,321 Region Central 20.8 25.1 53.6 0.5 100.0 1,565 Eastern 15.8 26.1 58.0 0.2 100.0 1,638 Northern 15.1 26.8 57.8 0.4 100.0 1,164 Western 24.9 27.2 46.9 1.1 100.0 1,161 Mother's education No education 26.0 23.3 50.4 0.3 100.0 1,879 Primary 17.3 27.4 54.6 0.7 100.0 3,501 Secondary+ 12.4 28.4 58.8 0.3 100.0 648 Total 19.5 26.3 53.7 0.5 100.0 6,027 Note: Figures are for births in the period 0-47 months preceding the survey. 8.3 Assistance and Medical Care at Delivery An important element in reducing health risks for mothers and children is increasing the proportion of babies that are delivered in medical facilities. Proper medical attention and hygienic conditions during delivery can reduce the risk of complications and infections that can cause death or serious illness to either the mother or the baby. In the 1995 UDHS, women were asked the type of place where they delivered each of the children they had given birth to in the four years preceding the survey (Table 8.4). Almost two out of three births (64 percent) in Uganda are delivered at home and 35 percent are delivered in health facilities. Births to older women and births of higher birth order are more likely to occur at home. A child born in a rural area is three times more likely to have been delivered at home than an urban child. A much greater proportion of births in the Central Region (57 percent) are delivered at health facilities than those in the Northern and Western Regions (21 to 22 percent). Mother's education is strongly related to place of delivery. The proportion of births delivered at health facilities increases from 19 percent among mothers with no education to 70 percent among mothers with secondary or higher education. Women who 108 Table 8.4 Place of delivery Percent distribution of births in the four years preceding the survey by place of delivery, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Place of delivery Number Background Health At Don't know/ of characteristic facility home Missing Total births Mother's age at birth < 20 42.0 56.9 1.1 100.0 1,343 20-34 34.2 64,8 1.1 100,0 4,044 35+ 29.4 70.1 0.5 100,0 640 Birth order 1 47.6 51.1 1.3 100.0 1,228 2-3 35.4 63.5 1.1 100.0 1,965 4-5 31.2 67.9 0.8 100.0 1,245 6+ 29.2 69.9 0.9 100.0 1,589 Residence Urban 76.2 23.3 0.6 100.0 706 Rural 30.0 68.9 1.1 100.0 5,321 Region Central 57.3 41.4 1.3 I00.0 1,565 Eastern 38.6 60.8 0.6 100.0 1,638 Northern 20.6 78.9 0.5 100.0 1,164 Western 22.0 76.4 1.5 100.0 1,661 Mother's education No education 18.6 80.3 1.0 100.0 1,879 Primary 38.1 60.9 1.0 100.0 3,501 Secondary+ 69.6 29.6 0.8 100.0 648 Antenatal care visits None 8.6 91.1 0.3 100.0 455 1-3 visits 25.0 74.2 0.7 100.0 2,622 4 or more visits 48.8 50.4 0.7 100.0 2,842 Don't know/Missing 48.7 34.9 17.4 100.0 108 Total 35.4 63.6 1.0 100.0 6,027 Note: Figures are for births in the period 0-47 months preceding the survey. visited health professionals during pregnancy are much more likely to deliver in a health facility than women who have had no such contact. About half of the women who make four or more antenatal visits deliver at health facilities, compared to 9 percent of those who do not obtain any antenatal care. The type of assistance a woman receives during the birth of her child has important health consequences for both mother and child. Table 8.5 shows the percent distribution of live births in the four years before the survey by type of assistance during delivery, according to background characteristics. Data indicate that assistance at delivery varies by characteristics of the mother. Maternal age and child's birth order are associated with type of assistance at delivery; births to older women and those of higher order are more likely to occur with no assistance, whereas, first births and births to younger women tend to receive better care during delivery. This is encouraging, since first births pose greater risks than subsequent births. As might be expected, births in urban areas are more likely to be assisted by medical personnel (doctor, or trained nurse or midwife) than rural births. Regional differences in types of assistance at delivery are also prominent. Medical persons assisted with the highest proportion of births (60 percent) in the Central 109 Table 8.5 Assistance during delivery Percent distribution of births in the four years preceding the survey by type of assistance during delivery, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Assistance during delivery Nurse/ Traditional Don't Number Background Trained birth Relative/ No know/ of characteristic Doctor midwife attendan0 Other one Missing Total births Mother's age at birth < 20 4.4 39.7 16.2 33.4 6.1 0.3 100.0 1,343 20-34 4.1 32.7 15.3 35.2 12.3 0.5 100.0 4,044 35+ 2.6 28. I 12.6 36.2 20.6 0.0 100.0 640 Birth order 1 6.4 43.0 16.0 30.3 4.0 0.4 100.0 1,228 2-3 4.2 34.2 15.0 37.2 8.9 0.5 100.0 1,965 4-5 3.0 30.5 16.0 36.4 13.9 0.2 100.0 1,245 6+ 2.6 28.7 14.3 34.3 19.8 0.2 100.0 1,589 Residence Urban 15.1 63.8 5.9 10.8 4.3 0.2 100.0 706 Rural 2.5 29.8 16.5 38.1 12.8 0.4 100.0 5,321 Region Central 8.5 51.4 11.6 22.0 6.3 0.2 100.0 1,565 Eastern 2.7 38.7 9.1 36.8 12.7 0.1 100.0 1,638 Northern 1.6 21.0 35.5 28.9 12.8 0.3 100.0 1,164 Western 2.7 21.3 10.4 49.3 15.4 0.9 100.0 1,661 Mother's education No education 2.0 18.7 17.4 43.2 18.4 0.3 100.0 1,879 Primary 4.0 36.4 15.4 34.3 9.4 0.4 100.0 3,501 Secondary+ 10.0 63.3 7.8 13.6 5.3 0.0 100.0 648 Antenatal care visits None 0.8 8.5 18.0 47.8 24.8 0.0 100.0 455 1-3 visits 1.8 25.4 16.9 42.1 13.7 0.0 100.0 2,622 4 or more visits 6.4 45.3 13.4 26.7 8.1 0.2 100.0 2,842 Don't know/Missing 7.6 40.1 10.2 19.9 7.2 13.5 100.0 108 Total 4.0 33.8 15.2 34.9 11.8 0.3 100.0 6,027 Note: Figures are for births in the period 0-47 months preceding the survey. If the respondent mentioned more than one attendant, only the most qualified attendant was considered in this table. I Traditional midwife Region and lowest in the Northern (23 percent) and Western Regions (24 percent). Maternal education is closely related to better supervision at delivery. The proportion of births assisted by doctors, nurses, and midwives increases from 21 percent of births to women with no education to 73 percent of births to women with secondary or higher education. Not surprisingly, women who receive antenatal care during pregnancy are more likely to deliver with medical assistance than women who receive no antenatal care. Only 9 percent of births whose mothers had no antenatal visits were assisted by doctors, nurses, or midwives, compared with over half of the births whose mothers had four or more antenatal visits. 8.4 Character ist ics of Del ivery The 1995 UDHS collected information on several other aspects relating to the delivery of births. Questions on birth weight and size of the baby at birth were included to estimate the proportion of low birth weight infants. Low birth weight infants generally face higher risks of infant mortality and the prevalence of such births is a good indicator of the nutritional status of the mother. 110 Based on the reports of mothers, 3 percent of babies born in Uganda are delivered by Caesarean section (Table 8.6). Caesarean sections (C-sections) are less common amongst older women, women with more children, rural women, and those with little or no education. Prevalence of Caesarean deliveries varies from 2 percent in the Northern and Western Regions to 4 percent in the Central Region. Birth weights are not available for three-quarters of the births. Among the 25 percent for which data are available, 3 percent weighed less than 2.5 kilograms and thus can be classified as low birth weight infants. According to the respondent's own assessment of her infant's size, 19 percent of births are smaller than average or very small in size and 79 percent are average. Table 8.6 Delivery characteristics: caesarean section~ birth weight and size Among live births in the four years preceding the survey, the percentage of deliveries by caesarean section, and the percent distribution by birth weight and the mother's estimate of baby's size at birth, according to selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Birth weight Size of child at birth Delivery Less 2.5 kg Don't Smaller Average Don't Number Background by than or know/ Very than or know/ of characteristic C-section 2.5 kg more Missing small average larger Missing Total births Age <20 3.0 4.1 25.8 70.2 6.2 16.9 75.3 1.7 100.0 1,343 20-34 2.8 2.6 22.6 74.8 4.5 14.1 80.0 1.4 100.0 4,044 35+ 1.0 1.8 17.6 80.6 4.8 11.9 81.2 2.1 100.0 640 Birth order 1 4.1 4.8 30.2 65.0 6.2 17.6 74.9 1.3 10(I.0 1,228 2-3 2.5 3.1 23.0 73.9 4.6 15.1 78.6 1.6 100.0 1,965 4-5 2.1 1.8 21.3 76.8 5.1 [2.1 81.3 1.5 100.0 1,245 6+ 2.1 2.0 17.8 80.2 4.3 13.0 81.1 1.6 100.0 1,589 Residence Urban 6.6 6.2 59.7 34.1 3.4 13.1 82.2 1.3 100.0 706 Rural 2.1 2.4 17.8 79.7 5.1 14.6 78.7 1.6 109.0 5,321 Region Central 4.4 4.5 38.9 56.6 3.6 12.4 83.6 0.4 100.0 1,565 Eastern 2.5 2.9 23.8 73.3 6.5 14.6 76.6 2.3 100.0 1,638 Northern 1.6 2.3 15.9 81.7 6.6 22.6 68.7 2.1 100.0 1,164 Western t.9 1.7 11.3 87.1 3.4 10.5 84.5 1.5 1130.0 1,661 Mother's education No education 1.3 2.0 10.2 87.8 6.6 16.1 75.6 1.7 100.0 1,879 Primary 2.9 2.9 23.7 73.4 4.3 14.0 80.1 1.5 100.0 3,501 Secondary+ 5.0 5.2 53.9 40.8 3.3 12.0 83.3 1.4 100.0 648 Total 2.6 2.9 22.8 74.4 4.9 14.5 79.1 1.5 100.0 6,027 Note: Figures are lot births in the period 0-47 months preceding the survey. 8.5 Childhood Immunisation In order to assist the Uganda National Expanded Programme on Immunisation (UNEPI) of the Ministry of Health, the 1995 UDHS collected information on vaccination coverage for all children born in the four years preceding the survey; the data presented here are restricted to children who were alive at the time of the survey. l l l The UNEPI recommends the following schedule of childhood vaccinations: polio and BCG at birth; polio and DPT at 6, 10, and 14 weeks; and measles at 9 months of age. BCG confers protection against tuberculosis and DPT protects against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus. A child is considered fully vaccinated if he or she has received: a BCG vaccination; three doses of DPT vaccine; at least three doses of polio vaccine; and one dose of measles vaccine. Information on vaccination coverage was collected in two ways in the UDHS--from vaccination cards shown to the interviewer and from mothers' verbal reports. In Uganda, most health facilities, including hospitals, health centres, and outreach centres for immunisation, provide cards on which vaccinations are recorded. If a mother was able to present such a card to the interviewer, this was used as the source of information, with the interviewer recording the vaccination dates directly from the card. The mother was then asked if the child had received other vaccinations that were not recorded on the card, and if so, they too were noted on the questionnaire. If the mother was not able to provide a card for the child, she was asked to recall whether or not the child had received BCG, polio (including the number of doses for each), DPT, and measles vaccinations. Information on vaccination coverage is presented in Table 8.7, according to the source of information used to determine coverage, i.e., the vaccination card or mother's report. Data are presented for children age 12-23 months, thereby including only those children who have reached the age by which they should be fully vaccinated. Table 8.7 Vaccinations by source of inlormation Percentage of children 12-23 months who had received specific vaccines at any time before the survey, by whether the information was from a vaccination card or from the mother, and the percentage vaccinated by 12 months of age, Uganda 1995 Percent- Percentage of children who received: age Number Background with of characleristic BCG DPTI DPT2 DPT3 Polio0 a Poliol Polio2 Polio3 Measles All I None acard children Vaccinated at any time before the survey Vaccination card 59.2 58.7 53.2 46.1 15.1 58.4 53.3 46.1 44.3 38.6 0.0 60.5 960 Mother's report 24.4 23.0 20.3 15.0 7.8 23.8 19.7 12.9 15.3 8.9 14.4 39.5 628 Either source 83.6 81.7 73.5 61.1 22.9 82.2 73.0 59.0 59.6 47.4 14.4 100.0 1,588 Vaccinated by 12 months of age 79.4 76.8 68.7 54.5 22.3 77.4 68.1 52.6 45.2 35.6 18.9 U 1,588 Note: For children whose information was based on the mother's report, the proportion of vaccinations given during the first year of life was assumed to be the same as for children with a written record of vaccination. I Children who are fully vaccinated (i.e., those who have received BCG, measles, and three doses of DPT and polio) U = Unknown a Polio 0 is given at birth. According to information from both the vaccination cards and mothers' recall, 84 percent of children age 12-23 months have received a BCG vaccination. Coverage of the polio vaccine at birth is low, with only 23 percent of children given vaccinations at birth against polio. Eighty-two percent have received the first doses of DPT and polio. There is a steep drop-off between the first and third doses of DPT and polio, from 82 percent of children receiving the first doses of the DPT and polio vaccines (not polio at birth), to only 112 about 74 percent who receive the second doses, and roughly 60 percent who receive the third doses. This yields a dropout rate x of 25 percent for DPT and 28 percent for polio. Sixty percent of children age 12-23 months have been vaccinated against measles; 45 percent having received it before their first birthday. Based on both the health card and the mother's report, 47 percent of children age 12-23 months have received all of the recommended vaccinations; only 14 percent have not received any vaccinations. Information for most children (61 percent) was available from their vaccination cards, while for 40 percent of the children age 12-23 months, no card was available and the information was taken from the mother's recall. 8.6 Immunisat ion by Background Characterist ics Table 8.8 presents vaccination coverage (according to card information and mother's report) among children age 12-23 months by selected background characteristics. The differentials in coverage are similar for the various types of vaccine. The data indicate that children of high birth order (six or more) are less Table 8.8 Vaccinations by background characteristics Percentage of children 12-23 months who had received specific vaccines by the time of the survey (according to the vaccination card or the mother's report), and the percentage with a vaccination card, Uganda 1995 Percent- Percentage of children who received: age Number Background with of characteristic BCG DPTI DPT2 DPT3 Polio0 a Poliol Polio2 Polio3 Measles All I None acard children Sex of child Male 85.0 84.0 75.7 63.0 22.7 83.8 75.5 60.2 60.4 48.3 13.1 63.5 771 Female 82.4 79.5 71.5 59.4 23.0 80.7 70.8 57.9 58.9 46.6 15.6 57.6 817 Birth order 1 86.2 83.6 75.3 63.5 28.8 84.3 75.0 59.7 64.0 46.3 12.6 59.2 307 2-3 86.3 86.1 76.9 66.0 27.2 85.0 76.2 63.1 62.2 50.9 12.1 60.8 533 4-5 83.3 80.3 74.3 58.6 20.2 84.3 74.3 57.5 57.0 46.7 14.1 59.9 329 6+ 78.6 75.9 67.4 55.2 15.1 75.4 66.5 54.6 55.2 44.3 18.7 61.3 419 Residence Urban 93.7 91.7 87.2 75.3 49.7 92.8 86.9 67.4 74.2 56.1 5.3 55.1 173 Rural 82.4 80.5 71.9 59.4 19.6 80.9 71.3 58.0 57.8 46.3 15.5 61.1 1,414 Region Central 85.8 86.3 82.1 70.8 24.5 86.1 81.8 67.2 65.8 53.4 12.4 63.4 397 Eastern 80.8 77.5 65.4 49.1 31.2 78.7 65.0 46.9 48.0 34.4 15.1 57.6 431 Northern 82.7 77.2 64.3 47.7 19.8 79.2 62.7 43.4 51.5 34~7 16.1 52.7 335 Western 85.3 85.2 81.1 74.9 15.3 84.6 81.2 76 .0 72.0 65.1 14.0 66.7 425 Mother's education No education 75.9 72.5 62.0 47.4 15.6 74.3 62.0 48.7 49.1 38.3 21.4 56.8 486 Primary 85.6 83.7 76.0 64.4 22.8 83.7 75.3 61.2 60.8 48.4 12.9 61.5 935 Secondary + 95.3 97.5 93.3 82.7 44.5 96.6 92 .4 77.0 83.3 68.1 2.2 65.4 167 Total 83.6 81.7 73.5 61.1 22.9 82.2 73.0 59.0 59.6 47.4 14.4 60.5 1,588 1 Children who are fully vaccinated (i.e., those who have received BCG, measles, and three doses of DPT and polio) a Polio 0 is given at birth i The dropout rate is defined as the percentage of children receiving the first dose who do not subsequently receive the third dose of DPT or polio vaccine. The formula is as follows: Dropout rate for DPT = [(DPT3 - DPTI)/DPT1] 100. Dropout rate for polio = [(polio1 - polio3)/poliol]* 100. 113 likely than children of lower birth orders (except first births) to receive the basic childhood immunisations. The vaccination program is more successful in urban areas, although almost half of children in rural areas have been fully immunised (Figure 8.2). Children in the Western Region are more likely to be immunised than children in other regions, whereas those in the Eastern and Northern Regions lag behind the national average. Coverage of children of women with no education is 38 percent, compared with 68 percent for children whose mothers have attended secondary school Figure 8.2 Percentage of Children Age 12-23 Months Who Have Received All Vaccinations by Background Characteristics TOTAL RES IDENCE Urban Rural REGION Central E~stern Nor thern Western MOTHER'S EDUCATION No education Primary Secondary + 47 59 !; i ; ; i I 46 . . L . , , 2 . 53 - • . . . . . a4 ~" . . . . . . . . 35 . , , . - . , 65 1 O 20 30 40 50 60 70 Percent 80 UDHS 1995 There are two ways to assess trends in vaccination coverage. One is to compare the data from the 1995 and 1988-89 surveys. This is made difficult by the fact that the questions were substantially altered between the two surveys. In the 1988-89 UDHS, if mothers could not produce a vaccination card for their children, they were merely asked if the child had ever been vaccinated, while in the 1995 survey, they were asked about specific vaccinations the child might have received. Rough estimates of what coverage rates would be if mothers interviewed in the 1988-89 UDHS had been asked to report on specific vaccinations have been produced indirectly. They indicate that approximately 31 percent of children age 12-23 months in 1988- 89 were fully immunised (Boerma et al., 1990:10). However, there was also a problem in that the 1988-89 UDHS did not cover the northern part of the country (20 percent of the population). For comparison purposes, the 1995 UDHS analysis has been redone based on the areas that were covered in the 1988-89 UDHS. This calculation shows that in 1995, 49 percent of children age 12-23 months living in the areas covered by the 1988-89 UDHS have been fully immunised. This implies that coverage has increased substantially between 1988-89 and 1995 (from 31 to 49 percent) (Figure 8.3). Although this increase is gratifying, still less than half of the children in Uganda are fully immunised. 114 Figure 8.3 Trends in Vaccination Coverage Among Children Age 12-23 Months Percent Vaccinated 100 90 80 70 6O 50 40 30 20 10 0 All ~ BCG DPTf DPT2 DPT3 Polio1 Poilu2 Polio8 Measles Note: 1988.89 UDHS data refer to roughly 80 percent of Uganda's population. ~lneludes BCG, Measles, and three doses each of DPT and Polio 8.7 Immunisations by First Year of Life In addition to data from multiple surveys, coverage trends can be assessed with the 1995 UDHS data. Data on vaccination status of children age 12-47 months allow for an evaluation of coverage in the first year of life among different age groups. Table 8.9 shows the percentage of children by age group who had been vaccinated by 12 months of age (in order to maintain comparability). Data are derived from either vaccination cards or the mothers' reports. For children whose information was based on the mother's recall, the distribution of vaccinations during the first year of life was assumed to be the same as that for children for whom a vaccination record was available. The coverage estimates, based on the card and mother's recall for each age group refer to a specific period of time before the survey. For instance, coverage by 12 months among children 12-23 months roughly refers to the programme performance the year before the survey (i.e., 1994, since the fieldwork for the 1995 UDHS was carried out during March-September 1995), data on children 24-35 months refer roughly to 1993, and data on children 36-47 months refer roughly to 1992, Hence these results may be used to assess the immunisation coverage during the first year of life for the period 1992-1994. Several points emerge from Table 8.9. Vaccination cards were less likely to be shown for older children, making those coverage estimates somewhat less accurate. Overall, vaccination cards were produced for 54 percent of the children. The percentage of children for whom a vaccination card was seen decreases with age, from 61 percent of children 12-23 months to 46 percent of those age 37-47 months. This decline is most likely due to a tendency to misplace or lose the cards once children have been fully vaccinated. 115 Table 8.9 Vaccinations in first year of life Percentage of children one to four years of age for whom a vaccination card was shown to the interviewer and the percentage vaccinated for BCG, DPT, polio, and measles during the first year of life, by current age of the child, Uganda 1995 /accine Current age of child in months All children 12-47 12-23 24-35 36-47 months Vaccination card shown to interviewer 60.5 52.1 45.7 53.5 Percent vaccinated at 0-1l months a BCG 79.4 73.9 70.3 75.0 DPT 1 76.8 72.5 66.9 72.5 DPT 2 68.7 63.0 58.2 63.8 DPT 3 54.5 52~0 47. I 51.5 Polio 0 22.3 23.9 21.7 22.6 Polio 1 77.4 72.5 67.4 72.9 Polio 2 68. I 63.7 57.0 63.4 Polio 3 52.6 50.6 43.7 49.3 Measles 45.2 44.7 38.9 43.2 A0 vaccinations b 35.6 33.9 29.6 33.3 No vaccinations 18.9 24.4 28.9 23.6 Number of children 1,588 1,174 1,203 3,965 a Information was obtained either from a vaccination card or from the mother if there was no written record. For children whose information was based on the mother's report, the proportion of vaccinations given during the first year of life was assumed to be the same as that for children with a written gaccination record. Children who have received BCG, measles, and three doses each of DPT and polio vaccines The proportion of children who were fully immunised by their first birthday rose from 30 percent of those who were age 36-47 months at the time of the survey to 36 percent for those age 12-23 months. Over the same time, the proportion of children not receiving any vaccination decreased from 29 percent of children age 36-47 months to 19 percent of children age 12-23 months. 8.8 Childhood Illness and Treatment Three illnesses that are of major importance for infant and child survival in Uganda are discussed in this section. They are acute respiratory infection, fever, and diarrhoea. Acute Respiratory Infection Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is one of the major causes of morbidity and mortality among children in Uganda. Common symptoms associated with severe respiratory infection include fever, cough, and difficult or rapid breathing. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics can prevent a large proportion of deaths from respiratory infection, especially pneumonia. The prevalence of symptoms of ARI is estimated in the 1995 UDHS by asking mothers if their children under age four had been ill with coughing accompanied by short, rapid breathing during the two 116 weeks before the survey. Mothers whose children had experienced these symptoms were asked what they had done to treat the illness. Information on disease prevalence is highly dependent on correct reporting and interpretation of symptoms, while information on treatment practices depends on how much mothers know about the medicines their children receive. Mothers may not know whether the tablets or syrups their children receive contain antibiotics or not. Thus, the reporting may vary widely within the country due to differences in reporting. Information on the prevalence and treatment of ARI and of fever is presented in Table 8.10. Table 8.10 Prevalence and treatment of acute respiratory infection and prevalence of tever Percentage of children under four years who were ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing (acute respiratory infection) during the two weeks preceding the survey, the percentage of ill children who were taken to a health facility, and the percentage of children with fever during the two weeks preceding the survey, by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Percentage of children with Percentage cough and rapid of children breathing who were Percentage Background with cough and taken to a health of children Number of characteristic rapid breathing facility or provider t with a fever children Child's age < 6 months 28.8 56.4 36.4 684 6-11 months 34. I 67.6 56.4 798 12-23 months 30.8 65.2 55.5 1,588 24-35 months 23.8 55.7 42.1 I, 174 36-47 months 20.0 57. I 37.2 1,203 Sex M ale 28. I 60. I 48.0 2,659 Female 26.2 62.6 44.7 2,788 Birth order 1 28.2 60.9 44.7 1,077 2-3 25.4 60.7 45.8 1,778 4-5 26.2 63.3 46.2 1,132 6+ 29.1 61.0 48.2 1,460 Residence Urban 19.0 76.3 35.2 635 Rural 28.2 60.0 47.8 4,812 Region Central 21.4 74.4 39.3 1,410 Eastern 23.0 65.7 58.8 1,454 Northern 30.8 53.0 58.2 1,057 Western 33.7 56.2 32.6 1,525 Mother's education No education 27.8 52.2 48.5 1,694 Primary 28.6 65.3 46.2 3,154 Secondary+ 17.7 69.0 40.6 599 Total 27.1 61.4 46.3 5,447 Note: Figures are for children born in the period 0-47 months preceding the survey. I Includes health centre, hospital, clinic, and private doctor 117 Results from the 1995 UDHS indicate that 27 percent of children under four years of age had a cough and fast breathing in the two weeks before the survey. Prevalence of respiratory illness varies by age of the child, rising to a peak at 6-11 months of age (one-third of whom had a cough with rapid breathing) then falling slowly to a low at 36-47 months of age (Figure 8.4). There is no significant difference in ARI prevalence by sex or birth order, but rural children are more likely than urban children to have ARI symptoms. The prevalence of ARI was the highest (34 percent) among children in the Western Region and lowest in the Central Region. Education of the mother appears to have an impact on whether or not her children have respiratory illness. Seventeen percent of children whose mothers had secondary education had ARI during the two weeks preceding the survey, compared to 28 and 29 percent of those whose mothers had no education or primary education, respectively. Overall, 61 percent of children who have symptoms of ARI are taken to a health facility. Children of educated mothers, from the Central Region, and from urban areas are more likely to be taken to a health facility, compared to those whose mothers are less educated, from the other regions and from rural areas. Figure 8.4 Prevalence of Respiratory Illness and Diarrhoea in the Last Two Weeks by Age of the Child 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 ~ercent , r i i i i i 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 Age of Chi ld (Months) I -=-Respiratory illness ")~Diarrhoea i UOHS 1995 Fever Malaria is endemic in much of Uganda and accounts for a significant proportion of morbidity and mortality in certain areas. Since the major manifestation of malaria is fever, mothers were asked whether their children under age four have had fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. Table 8.10 shows that 46 percent of children under four years of age were reported to have had fever in the two weeks prior to the survey. Fever is more prevalent among children age 6-23 months, those who live in rural areas, and those in the Eastern and Northern Regions. No pronounced differences were observed in the prevalence of fever by either sex, birth order, or maternal education. l l8 Diarrhoea Dehydration due to severe diarrhoea is a major cause of morbidity and mortality among Ugandan children. A simple and effective re- sponse to a child's dehydration is a prompt in- crease in fluid intake, i.e., oral rehydmtion thera- py (ORT). ORT consists of providing either a solution made by mixing a commercially-pro- duced packet of oral rehydration salts (ORS) with water or a recommended home-made solu- tion consisting of sugar, salt, and water. ORS packets are distributed through hospitals, health centres, and pharmacies in Uganda. In the 1995 UDHS, mothers were asked whether their children under age four had had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey. Table 8. I 1 presents data about the prevalence of diarrhoea in children under four years of age. Twenty-four percent of children experienced diarrhoea at some time in the two weeks pre- ceding the survey; 5 percent of children experi- enced bloody diarrhoea, often a symptom of dys- entery. As with fever and respiratory infection, diarrhoea is more common among children age 6 to 23 months than among older or younger children (Figure 8.4). Diarrhoea prevalence is slightly higher among rural than urban children. It is also higher among children in the Northern and Eastern Regions and lowest among children in the Central Region. The children of women with more education are less likely to have been sick with diarrhoea and bloody diarrhoea than children whose mothers have less education. Women interviewed in the UDHS who had had a birth in the four years preceding the Table 8.11 Prevalence of diarrhoea Percentage of children under four years who had diarrhoea and diarrhoea with blood in the two weeks preceding the survey, by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Diarrhoea in the preceding 2 weeks Number Background All Diarrhoea of characteristic diarrhoea with blood children Child's age < 6 months 17.7 2.0 684 6-11 months 33.3 5.5 798 12-23 months 34.3 7.3 1,588 24-35 months 17.1 4.4 1,174 36-47 months 12.2 3.5 1,203 Sex Male 25.1 5.3 2,659 Female 21.9 4.5 2,788 Birth order I 23.6 4.7 1,078 2-3 23.8 4.9 1,778 4-5 23.7 5.0 1,132 6+ 22.7 5.1 1,460 Residence Urban 19.4 2.5 635 Rural 24.0 5.2 4,812 Region Central 16.3 2.8 1,410 Eastern 26.2 6.4 1,454 Northern 34.3 7.6 1,057 Western 20.0 3.6 1,525 Mother's education No education 26.5 6.0 1,694 Primary 23.1 4.8 3,154 Secondary+ 16.5 2.5 599 Total 23.5 4.9 5,447 Note: Figures are for children born in the period 0-47 months preceding the survey. survey were asked questions regarding their knowledge of sugar-salt-water solution and treatment of diar- rhoea in general. Almost three out of four mothers know about the use of sugar-salt-water-solutions; yet when asked about specific eating and drinking regimes for sick children, the findings are less encouraging (Table 8.12). Among women with children under four, only two-thirds say that a child who is sick with diarrhoea should get more to drink, and more than half say a child with diarrhoea should be given less to eat than usual. Urban women, those living in the Central Region, and those who are more educated tend to be more knowledgeable about the use of sugar-salt-water solutions and about appropriate feeding and drinking practices for children with diarrhoea. 119 Table 8.12 Knowledge of diarrhoea care Percentage of mothers with births in the last four years who know about the use of sugar-salt-water solution for treatment of diarrhoea (oral rehydration therapy) and the percent distribution by knowledge of appropriate feeding during diarrhoea, according to background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Quantities that should be given during diarrhoea Know about sugar- Liquids Solid foods salt-water solution for Don't Don't Number Background treatment know/ know/ of characteristic of diarrhoea Less Same More Missing Less Same More Missing Total mothers Age 15-19 68.3 25.6 8.4 64.5 1.5 57.6 20.3 20.2 1.9 100.0 525 20-24 73.4 22.1 8.1 67.1 2.6 54.7 19.8 22.7 2.8 100.0 1,179 25-29 76.3 20.0 8.8 69.1 2.0 51.3 21.5 24.7 2.5 100.0 916 30-34 71.6 22.7 9.5 67.1 0.7 51.8 26.1 20.5 1.6 100.0 661 35+ 69.9 20.7 6.6 71.6 1.2 53.9 19.3 25.4 1.4 109.0 602 Residence Urban 89.2 9.8 6.3 83.4 0.5 50.2 24.8 23.2 1.7 100.0 442 Rural 70.4 23.5 8.6 65.9 1.9 54.1 20.8 22.8 2.2 100.0 3,441 Region Central 84.7 6.0 3.9 90.0 0.1 45.1 17.8 35.6 1.4 100.0 987 Eastern 69.5 27.0 9.3 62.0 1.6 60.9 20.3 17.1 1.6 100.0 1,030 Northern 59.6 43.8 12.0 41.4 2.7 60.3 19.9 16.5 3.4 100.0 797 Western 73.8 15.6 8.7 73.0 2.8 49.7 26.4 21.4 2.5 100.0 1,068 Mother's education No education 61.5 31.5 11.3 54.7 2.5 56.0 23.4 18.0 2.6 100.0 1,210 Primary 75.4 19.2 7.3 71.9 1.6 53.7 19.4 24.8 2.0 100.0 2,265 Secondary+ 89.3 9.2 5.2 85.1 0.4 46.6 25.1 26.6 1.7 100.0 408 Total 72.5 22.0 8.3 67.9 1.8 53.7 21,3 22.9 2.2 100.0 3,883 Table 8.13 presents information regarding treatment of recent episodes of diarrhoea among children under age four. Data indicate that 55 percent of children under four whose mothers report that they had diarrhoea in the two weeks before the survey were taken to a health facility for consultation. Of all children with diarrhoea, 48 percent were given ORS fluid, 5 percent received recommended home fluids (RHF), while 49 percent received either ORS or RHF. Almost half (49 percent) of mothers reported that they increased the amount of fluids given to their children with diarrhoea, while 9 percent of mothers reported giving injections, and 66 percent provided home remedies. About one-third were given neither ORT nor increased fluids to treat their diarrhoea. The proportion of children with diarrhoea who were taken to a health facility was more or less the same regardless of age, sex, and birth order. The data indicate that urban children with diarrhoea are more likely to be taken to a health facility and are also more likely to receive ORS fluid and increased fluids of any kind. The proportion of children with diarrhoea who are taken to health facilities is highest in the Eastern Region and lowest in the Western Region. Children in the Northern Region are more likely to be given fluid made from ORS packets; injections are more commonly administered for diarrhoea in the Eastern Region, 120 Table 8.13 Treatment of diarrhoea Among children under four years who had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey, the percentage taken for treatment to a health facility or provider, the percentage who received oral rehydration therapy (either solution prepared from ORS packets or recommended home fluids) and increased fluids, the percentage who received neither oral rehydration therapy nor increased fluids, and the percentage receiving other treatments, by background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Percentage Oral rehydration Other treatments taken to therapy (ORT) Neither a health In- ORT nor Home No Number Background facility or ORS ORS or creased increased lnjec- remedy/ treat- of characteristic provider I packets RHF RHF fluids fluids tion Other ment Missing children Child's age < 6 months 50.6 35.0 3.7 35.9 35.3 50.3 6.9 56.3 23.0 0.0 121 6-11 months 53.4 50.8 4.8 51.3 50.1 34.6 8.8 65.3 10.2 0.1 266 12-23 months 58.8 51.0 5.1 51.9 49.0 28.3 9.6 68.2 11.9 0.0 544 24-35 months 50.2 43.5 5.9 46.2 52.9 32.3 l 1.2 69.0 12.4 0.2 201 36-47 months 55.1 50.2 3.6 50.2 49.3 27.6 8.7 61.6 9.8 0.9 146 Sex Male 54.6 45.5 4.9 46.6 50.0 33.3 8.0 65.3 13.3 0.1 669 Female 55.6 51.1 4.9 52.0 47.0 31.0 10.7 66.5 11.5 0.2 610 Birth order 1 49.6 44.0 5.4 45.3 48.3 32.7 9.4 61.7 13.9 0.0 254 2-3 54.5 48.6 4.6 49.4 47.1 32.7 10.3 66.7 12.1 0.0 424 4-5 58.0 52.9 6.6 53.9 49.3 30.6 9.3 68.7 13.6 0.0 269 6+ 57.7 46.9 3.5 48.0 50.1 32.5 8.1 65.6 10.9 0.6 332 Residence Urban 62.6 55.0 5.5 56.4 65.0 20.6 9.5 64.4 7.6 0.6 123 Rural 54.3 47.4 4.8 48.4 46.8 33.5 9.3 66.0 13.0 0.1 1,155 Region Central 57.9 44.3 2.2 45.2 72.1 23.8 10.4 64.9 11.7 0.0 230 Eastern 60.1 46.2 7.1 46.6 42.7 38.3 13.7 71.4 15.8 0.1 381 Northern 56.6 57.2 3.3 58.0 32.2 33.1 9.8 67.3 9.6 0.4 362 Western 45.0 42.7 5.9 45.1 57.6 30.0 2.3 57.7 12.3 0.1 305 Mother's education No education 50.3 49.4 3.5 50.6 42.3 35.4 7.0 61.4 15.6 0.1 449 Primary 56.9 46.5 5.5 47.6 49.7 32.3 10.5 67.8 11.9 0.2 730 Secondary+ 64.2 54.5 6.7 54.5 69.3 17.6 10.9 71.5 2.7 0.0 99 Total 55.1 48.2 4.9 49.2 48.6 32.2 9.3 65.8 12.5 0.2 1,278 ORS = Oral rehydration salts RHF = Recommended home fluid : I Includes health centre, hospital, and private doctor 121 while home remedies are more common in the Eastern Region and least common in the Western Region. As expected, children of mothers with secondary or more education are more likely to be taken to a health facility when they have diarrhoea than are children whose mothers are less educated. A notable difference is that educated women are more likely than those with less education to give increased fluids to their children with diarrhoea. In the 1995 UDHS, all mothers who had a child with diarrhoea were also asked whether they had changed the amount that the child was given to drink during the diarrhoeal episode. Table 8.14 shows that about 60 percent of children sick with diarrhoea were given less food during the illness, while 30 percent received less to drink. These results suggest that, although the benefits of increasing fluid intake during a diarrhoeal episode is quite widely understood in Uganda, still a good proportion of mothers reduce fluid intake when their children have diarrhoea. Table 8.14 Feeding practices during diarrhoea Percent distribution of children ruder four who had diarrhoea in the past two weeks by amount of solid foods given and amount of fluids given, Uganda 1995 Feeding 3ractices Total Amount of solid foods Same 24.1 Increase 12.6 Decrease 60.5 Don't know/missing 2.9 Amount of fluids Same 20.4 Increase 48.6 Decrease 29.7 Don't know/missing 1.4 Total 100.0 Number of children 1,278 Note: Figures are for children born in the period 0-47 months ~receding the survey. 122 CHAPTER 9 MATERNAL AND CHILD NUTRITION The findings presented in this chapter relate to infant feeding, including breastfeeding practices, introduction of complementary foods, and the use of feeding bottles; and the nutritional status of young children and their mothers. The 1995 UDHS collected data from mothers regarding the feeding patterns of all of their children under four years of age. As a part of the survey, the heights and weights of all children under four and their mothers were also measured. 9.1 Breastfeeding and Supplementation Early childhood feeding practices and patterns are important determinants of the nutritional status of children which in turn influence their health status. The mother's nutritional well-being before and during conception influences the health of the baby at birth, her own ability to breastfeed successfully, as well as her general health. The health benefits of breastfeeding for both mother and baby are undisputed and they are influenced by both the duration and intensity of breastfeeding and by the age at which the child receives supplementary foods and other liquids. Prevalence of Breastfeeding The data presented in Table 9.1 confirm that breastfeeding in Uganda is almost universal, with 98 percent of the children born in the four years preceding the survey having been breastfed at some time. The proportion of children ever breastfed was high across all regions and did not vary significantly by other background characteristics. Early initiation of breastfeeding is beneficial for mother and child. From the mother's perspective, early suckling stimulates the release of a hormone that helps her uterus to maintain a contracted state. From the child's perspective, the first breast milk (colostrum) is important, since it is rich in antibodies. Data show that about half the children in Uganda are put to the breast within one hour of birth. Babies in the Western and Eastern Regions are more likely to start breastfeeding within one hour of birth than their counterparts in the Central and Northern Regions. Timing of Introduction of Supplementary Foods The timing of introduction of supplementary foods in addition to breast milk has important implications for the child and the mother. Early supplementation, especially under unhygienic conditions, can result in infection with foreign organisms and lower immunity to disease. The timing of introduction of food supplements also has an impact on the length of the mother's postpartum amenorrhoea. Early initiation of supplementation results in earlier resumption of the mother's menstrual periods, since supplementation diminishes infants' dependence on breast milk and reduces the frequency of suckling. Table 9.2 shows data concerning breastfeeding practices from birth until the child's third birthday. During the first three months of life, 70 percent of children are exclusively breastfed, that is, they are given nothing but breast milk. By the time infants are age 4-6 months, however, only 34 percent are still being exclusively breastfed. By age 22-23 months, only 32 percent are still receiving any breast milk, and by the time they reach 34-35 months of age, 97 percent of all children have been completely weaned. 123 Table 9.1 Initial breastfeeding Percentage of children born in the four years preceding the survey who were ever breastfed, and the percentage who started breastfeeding within one hour of birth and within one day of birth, by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Percentage who started breastfeeding: Percentage Within Within Number Background ever 1 hour 1 day of characteristic breastted of birth of birth children Sex Male 98.0 50.2 86.0 2,941 Female 98.3 51.4 87.6 3,086 Residence Urban 98.0 50.3 86,6 706 Rural 98.1 50.9 86.9 5,321 Region Central 97.7 48.2 84.7 1,565 Eastern 98.0 53.8 88.1 1,638 Northern 98.4 45.7 88.2 1,164 Western 98.4 53.9 86.6 1,661 Mother's education No education 98.6 53.3 87.0 1,879 Primary 97.9 49.5 86.5 3,501 Secondary+ 97.9 50.2 87.9 648 Assistance at delivery Health professional 97.5 53.2 89.1 2,277 Traditional midwife 97.8 55.3 89.0 918 Other or none 98.8 47.8 85.0 2,811 Place of delivery Health facility 97.5 53.0 88.9 2,134 At home 98.5 50.0 86.1 3,832 All children 98.1 50.8 86.8 6,027 Note: Total includes 22 children for whom data on assistance at delivery are missing and 61 children for whom place of delivery is missing. Supplementation of breast milk starts relatively late in Uganda. In the first two months, only 17 percent of children have received supplements other than water and breast milk. However, by 4-5 months, 57 percent of children are given some form of food supplementation, and by 10-11 months, 87 percent of children have received supplementations. 124 Table 9.2 Breastfeeding status Percent distribution of living children by current breast feeding status, according to child's current age in months, Uganda 1995 Percentage of living children who are: Breastfeeding and: Number Not Exclusively Plain of breast- breast- water Supple- living Age in months feeding fed only ments Total children <2 0.6 76.9 5.2 17.2 100.0 180 2-3 0.6 64.8 3.3 31.4 100.0 233 4-5 2.5 36.2 4.6 56.7 100.0 271 6-7 1.0 18.5 5.2 75.4 100.0 251 8-9 4.0 8.3 3.4 84.2 100.0 247 10-11 5.7 5.6 1.5 87.3 100.0 300 12-13 10.0 1.8 0.3 87.9 100.0 278 14-15 13.7 2.7 1.5 82~1 1130.0 259 16-17 24.7 1.8 0.1 73.3 I00.0 251 18-19 36.7 1.0 0.0 62.3 100.0 279 20-21 53.5 1.2 0.0 45.3 100.0 280 22-23 67.8 0.2 0.0 32.0 100.0 241 24-25 77.7 0.0 0.6 21.7 100.0 221 26-27 84.8 0.2 0.0 15.1 100.0 191 28-29 92.9 0.0 1.0 6.1 100.0 154 30-31 97.3 0.0 0.0 2.7 100.0 193 32-33 95.6 0.0 0.0 4.4 100.0 234 34-35 96.9 0.0 0.0 3.1 100.0 181 0-3 months 0.6 70.1 4.1 25.2 100.0 412 4-6 months 2.3 34.1 5.8 57.8 100.0 387 7-9 months 2.7 8.7 3.0 85.6 100.0 382 Note: Breastfeeding status refers to preceding 24 hours. Children classified as breastfeeding and plain water only receive no supplements. Table 9.3 shows the differentials in duration and frequency of breastfeeding by background characteristics of the child and mother. At the national level, the median duration of any breastfeeding is just under 20 months. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding and full breastfeeding (breastfeeding plus plain water only) are both about 3 months. There is very little variation between the breastfeeding duration of male and female children. Rural children are breastfed longer (20 months) than urban children (17 months). Breastfeeding duration is the longest in the Northern Region (25 months) and the shortest in the Central Region (17 months). The most striking feature, however, is the decrease in breastfeeding duration with increasing level of education of mothers. Frequent breastfeeding must be practised in order for mothers to reap all the benefits of breastfeeding. The data in Table 9.3 indicate that 86 percent of children under six months of age were breastfed six or more times in the 24 hours preceding the interview. 125 Table 9.3 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding Median duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and full breastfeeding among children under three years of age, and the percentage of children under six months of age who were breastfed six or more times in the 24 hours preceding the interview, according to background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Children under 6 months Median duration in months I Number of Breastfed children 6+ times Any Exclusive Full under in Number Background breast- breast- breast- 3 years preceding of characteristic feeding feeding feeding 2 of age 24 hours children Sex Male 19.4 3.1 3.8 2,279 87.9 329 Female 19.7 3.0 3.4 2,380 83.9 354 Residence Urban 16.9 1.8 1.9 532 82.8 82 Rural 19.9 3.3 3.8 4,127 86.2 602 Region Central 17.4 2.2 2.3 1,201 76.2 172 Eastern 19.0 2.3 3.0 1,245 88.1 173 Northern 24.8 5.7 6.6 925 86.8 150 Western 20.1 3.1 3.6 1,289 91.7 189 Education No education Primary Secondary+ Assistance at delivery Health professional 17.8 2.2 2.4 1,722 82.3 248 Traditional midwil~ 22.0 4.2 4.9 746 89.8 124 Other or none 20.5 3.5 3.8 2,183 87.0 312 Total 19.5 3.0 3.5 4,659 85.8 684 Mean 19.5 4.6 5.1 98.3 Prevalence/Incidence 3 19.8 3.8 4.3 Note: Total includes seven children for whom data on assistance at delivery are missing. I Medians and means are based on current status 2 Either exclusive breastfeeding or breastfeeding and plain water only 3 Prevalence-incidence mean 22.6 4.3 4.7 1,432 87.9 214 18.6 2.7 3.2 2,735 84.9 399 17.7 2.0 2.0 491 84.6 71 Types of Supplemental Foods Table 9.4 presents information on the types of food received by children under age three in the 24 hours prior to the survey interview, according to whether or not the child is still being breastfed. The results indicate negligible use of infant formula. Mothers seem to prefer giving other milks and liquids to giving infant formula. Meat, poultry, fish, and eggs contain protein and other nutrients that are important for growth, recovery from illness, and mental development. The proportion of children receiving these foods rises from 5 percent at age 4-5 months to more than 30 percent at age 10-11 months. Foods made from grains, flour, or cereals (such as porridge), and tubers and plantains are common foods for children starting age 6-7 months. By age 7-9 months, more than one-third of children are getting these foods on a daily basis. 126 Table 9.4 Types of food received by children in preceding 24 hours Percentage of children under 36 months of age who received specific types of food in the 24 hours before the interview, and the percentage using a bottle with a nipple, by breastfeeding status and child's age in months, Uganda 1995 Meat/ Using Breast poultry/ Grain/ bottle Number Age milk Infant Other Other fish/ flour/ Tubers/ with a of (in months) only formula milk liquid eggs cereal plantains Other nipple children BREASTFEEDING CHILDREN 0-i 77.4 1.4 14.1 2.9 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 3.3 179 2-3 65.2 2.1 18.4 10.6 0.1 3.4 0.6 3.4 7.1 231 4-5 37.2 1.9 29.4 29.5 5.4 8.3 5.1 12.2 9.6 265 6-7 18.6 2.0 32.0 43.7 17.5 22.9 24.0 30.2 5.1 249 8-9 8.7 3.4 37.7 44.2 23.7 34.9 45.9 42.7 10.8 237 10-1l 5.9 1.5 30.5 50.7 30.6 40.4 48.7 46.2 8.9 283 12-13 2.0 3.9 30.3 50.7 32.5 44.5 65.8 50.1 8.8 250 14-15 3.1 0.2 31.9 53.7 32.7 47.4 66.6 46.2 7.5 223 16-17 2.4 1.2 21.8 56.8 26.9 50.1 67.5 51.5 4.6 189 18-23 1.8 0.8 22.2 49.3 28.2 57.5 66.8 51.5 6.6 384 24-29 0.3 0.0 20.0 42.8 27.1 62.9 67.8 45.8 2.3 89 30-35 * * * * * * * * * 21 0-3 months 70.5 1.8 16.5 7.2 0.1 2.2 0.3 1.9 5.5 410 4-6 months 34.9 1.8 28.9 31.0 7.1 9.6 9.1 16.7 8.7 379 7-9 months 8.9 3.0 36.9 46.9 23.5 33.7 39.7 39.1 8.3 372 NON-BREASTFEEDING CHILDREN 12-13 NA (9.6) (46.7) (54.0) (49.3) (49.3) (51.5) (53.9) (16.4) 28 14-15 NA (6.7) (56.2) (61.1) (31.2) (58.0) (61.9) (28.3) (10.3) 35 16-17 NA 5.6 40.0 46.0 25.0 41.2 77.0 48.9 10.8 62 18-23 NA 2.0 42.2 56.4 42.0 53.3 68.9 43.6 2.0 416 24-29 NA 0.9 33.6 59.8 38.0 53.9 71.7 53.2 1.9 477 30-35 NA 1.0 26.2 55.7 29.7 48.8 69.4 48.7 3.4 587 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. NA = Not applicable Bottlefeeding is not commonly practised in Uganda. Only 3 percent of breastfed children under two months were given a bottle with a nipple. Among children still breastfeeding, bottlefeeding peaks at age 8-9 months (11 percent). Frequency of Food Supplementation A balanced diet is achieved by regularly eating a nutritious variety of foods in sufficient quantities. Young children are more likely to consume an adequate diet if given small but frequent meals each day (4-5 times). In the 1995 UDHS, interviewers read from a list of specific types of food, asking the mother to report the number of days over the last seven days that the child received each of these foods. Table 9.5 presents the percentage of children who received specific types of food in the seven days preceding the survey. As expected, the very youngest children tend to be given little other than breast milk, water, and other milk. As children get older, more of them are given foods such as poultry, fish, 127 Table 9.5 Types of food received by children in preceding week Percentage of children under 36 months of age who received specific types of food in the week before the interview among children fed these foods, by breastfeeding status and child's age in months, Uganda 1995 Poultry/ Number Age Plain Other Eggs/ Grain/ Tubers/ of (in months) water Milk liquids Fish Meat Flour Plantains Other children BREASTFEEDING CHILDREN 0-1 10.5 18.3 5.2 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 179 2-3 18.1 23.0 17.5 3.8 2.9 4.2 0.6 1.8 231 4-5 31.1 36.0 34.4 9.3 4.6 13.8 8.1 16.5 265 6-7 60.2 39.0 55.9 32.8 13.7 39.9 36.4 41.7 249 8-9 67.5 48.0 62.3 44.3 26.4 49.7 63.4 54.2 237 10-11 74.2 43.3 66.8 50.2 29.2 60.7 73.9 56.0 283 12-13 83.5 41.6 68.3 55.8 34.8 65.2 80.9 60.5 250 14-15 88.1 45.4 61.6 62.4 42.1 70.0 82.8 58.1 223 16-17 87.6 36.8 65.1 51.5 33.6 72.2 86.5 64.9 189 18-23 91.8 33.5 62.8 56.3 36.3 71.2 84.1 64.9 384 24-29 88.6 28.3 55.2 63.6 39.2 85.2 85.3 59.9 89 30-35 * * * * * * * * 21 0-3 months 14.8 20.9 12.1 2.1 1.6 2.7 0.3 1.0 410 4-6 months 38.5 34.5 37.7 11.7 5.7 18.1 12.8 20.4 379 7-9 months 66.3 47.1 63.2 44.9 23.4 49.8 57.5 53.4 372 NON-BREASTFEEDING CHILDREN 12-13 (90.7) (64.6) (57.0) (70.8) (38.9) (61.7) (77.6) (63.5) 28 14-15 (72.8) (71.9) (76.5) (60.8) (53.7) (74.4) (83.3) (49.0) 35 16-17 81.2 46.2 53.7 53.3 29.3 60.9 84.0 49.1 62 18-23 83.7 54.5 68.1 63.8 44.3 70.9 88.5 54.6 416 24-29 87.0 45.6 67.2 61.4 50.1 74.1 88.4 63.3 477 30-35 84.6 38.6 63.7 53.7 43.8 68.5 84.4 57.9 587 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25~49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. eggs, grains, and especially tubers (root crops like potatoes and cassava). For example, the proportion of children receiving eggs, poultry, or fish increases with age from 2 percent of breastfed children age 0-3 months, to almost half of children at age 7-9 months. Meat is less commonly given to young children; the proportion of children who were given meat in the seven days before the survey increases from about 2 percent of children age 0-3 months to 23 percent at age 7-9 months. Differentials in Food Supplementation Table 9.6 shows information on the types of supplemental food given to children under age four in the seven days before the survey, according to selected background variables. The table also shows the mean number of days that children were fed each type of food. Urban children are more likely to be fed poultry, eggs, and fish (63 percent) and meat (51 percent) than rural children (47 and 32 percent, respectively). This could be a reflection of the lower socio-economic status of rural parents as well as the higher cost of these foods which may not be within the means of parents in rural areas. Generally, tubers seem to be more popularly used as a supplemental food than cereals. This is true in all regions, except in the Eastern Region where grains and cereal-based foods are just as common. Since the mother's level of education is closely related to the economic status of the household, it is not 128 Table 9.6 Types of food received by chi ldren by background characteristics Percentage of chi ldren under 48 months of age who were fed selected types of food in the last week and mean number of days fed in the last week, according to selected background characteristics. Uganda 1995 Poultry/ Water Milk Other Eggs/ Grains/ Tubers/ only only liquids fish Meat flour Plantains Other Number Age of (in months) Percent Mean Percent Mean Percent Mean Percent Mean Percent Mean Percent Mean Percent Mean Percent Mean children Sex of child Male 75.5 6.0 39.9 4.9 58.9 51 48.8 2.8 34.3 1.7 60.6 4.9 70.4 5.3 51.2 4,8 2,659 Female 74.5 6.0 39.8 5.0 58.4 5.1 49.1 2.7 35.0 1.7 59.3 4.8 71.0 5.3 51.7 4.9 2,788 Residence Urban 70.4 5.9 65.3 5.5 65.7 5.3 62.6 33 51.3 2.3 58.0 4.7 65.4 4.7 55.5 4.9 635 Rural 75.6 6.0 36.5 4.8 57.7 5.0 47.2 2.7 32.4 16 60.2 4.9 71,4 5.4 50.9 4.9 4,812 Region Central 64.8 5.8 53.8 5.4 66.0 5.4 57.2 3.1 39.8 2.0 46.3 4.6 69.0 5.5 50.1 5.1 1,410 Eastern 84.6 6.6 41.6 4.6 62.3 5.3 51.0 3.2 31.0 1.9 72.1 5.5 70.4 5.0 57.0 4.8 1,454 Northern 81.6 6.9 16.2 4.5 39.2 4.9 52.5 2.5 25.9 1.5 58.6 5.1 66.8 5.4 42.7 5.0 1,057 Western 70.7 4.8 41.9 4.9 61.9 4.6 36.9 2.1 39.4 1.4 61.8 4.1 75.3 5.3 53.4 4.7 1,525 Education No education 76.4 6.1 27.1 4.5 52.9 5.0 42.4 2.5 30.6 1.5 63.0 5.0 70.8 5.4 50.9 4.9 1.694 Prinm~ 743 5.9 41.6 4.9 59.1 5.0 49.7 2.8 33.5 1.7 57.7 4.8 70.4 5.3 50.2 48 3.154 Secondary+ 748 6.1 67.I 5.6 72.7 5.4 63.5 3.3 51.9 2.1 63.0 4.8 72.0 4.9 59.4 5.2 599 Total 75.0 6.0 39.9 5.0 58.7 5.1 49.0 2.8 34.6 17 59.9 4.8 70.7 5.3 51.4 4.9 5,447 surprising that the children of educated mothers have greater access to a wide variety of foods. For example, 31 percent of children of women with no formal education were given some meat in the week prior to the survey, compared with 52 percent of children of women with secondary or more education. 9.2 Nutritional Status of Children The nutritional status of children is an outcome of many interrelated factors. These include environmental, economic, political, biological, educational, cultural, and food security factors. Of these factors, however, feeding practices and infections have the most direct effect on nutritional status. The nutritional status of children can thus be used as an indicator of the socio-economic development of a community or nation. Measures of Nutritional Status Evaluation of nutritional status is based on the rationale that in a well-nourished population, one observes a statistically predictable distribution of children of a given age with respect to height and weight. In the 1995 UDHS, the nutritional status of children is analysed and evaluated in comparison with the commonly used U.S. National Centre for Health Statistics (NCHS) standard, which is recommended by World Health Organisation (WHO). The use of this reference population is based on the finding that well- nourished young children of all population groups follow very similar growth patterns. Although variations in height and weight exist, these approximate a normal distribution when the population under study is large. In the 1995 UDHS, all children whose mothers were interviewed and who had been born since January 1991 were weighed using a digital scale with an accuracy of 100 grams. Their standing height (for children age 24 months and older) or recumbent length (for children under age 24 months) was also measured using the Shorr height board. Height and weight data as well as information on the child's age in months was used to construct the three standard indices of physical growth that describe the nutritional status of children: height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age. Each of these indices provides somewhat different information about the nutritional status of a population of children. Height-for-age is a measure of linear growth. Children who are more than two standard deviations below (-2 SD) the median of the NCHS reference population are considered short for their age or "stunted," and those who are below minus three standard deviations (-3 SD) from the median of the reference population are considered severely stunted. Stunting is a condition that reflects failure to receive adequate food intake over a long period of time and is also affected by repeated episodes of illness. Height-for-age thus represents a measure of the long-term effects of undernutrition in a population and does not vary appreciably according to the season of data collection. The weight-for-height index describes current nutritional status. Children who are below -2 SD from the median of the reference population are considered "wasted" or too thin for their height, and children whose weight-for-height is below -3 SD of the reference median are considered severely wasted. Wasting represents the failure to receive adequate nutrition in the period immediately preceding the survey and may be the result of recent episodes of illness. Severe wasting is closely linked to mortality risk and may reflect acute shortage of food. Weight-for-age is an index which combines the information of both weight-for-height and height- for-age. Children whose weight-for-age is below -2 SD from the median of the reference population are classified as "underweight," and those below -3 SD are classified as severely underweight. However, a child can be underweight for his age because he is stunted, wasted, or both. 130 In a population in which children are healthy and well fed, only 2.3 percent of children are expected to fall below -2 SD for each of the three indices, whereas less than 1 percent are expected to fall below -3 SD. Levels of Childhood Undernutrition Table 9.7 shows the percentage of children under age four classified as undernourished according to height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age indices, and by background characteristics. Overall, 38 percent of Ugandan children are classified as stunted and 15 percent are severely stunted. The Table 9.7 Nutritional status of children by background characteristics Percentage of children under 48 months of age who are classified as undernourished according to three anthropometric indices of nutritional status: height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-Ibr-age, by background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Background characteristic Height-for-age Weight-for-height Weight-lot-age Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Number below below below below below below of -3 SD -2 SD j -3 SD -2 SD j -3 SD - 2 SD I children Age <6 months 1.9 6.8 0.1 2.0 0.3 3.9 603 6-11 months 6.0 26,5 1.4 7.3 9.4 28.6 752 12-23 months 18.0 45.4 1.4 9.0 9.4 35.3 1,45 I 24-35 months 20. I 44.9 0.6 2.7 7.2 26.6 1,010 36-47 months 20.5 49.8 0.7 2.9 3.8 20.9 959 Sex Male 16.0 40.0 1.1 6.1 7.6 27. I 2,334 Female 14.1 36.7 0.7 4.6 5.8 24.1 2,442 Birth order 1 14.7 37.7 0.9 4.9 6.5 24.9 903 2-3 14.0 38.6 I.I 5.1 6.0 24.1 1,548 4-5 15.3 37.6 0.4 4.6 7.0 25.7 1,028 6+ 16.3 39.1 1.2 6.4 7.3 27.6 1,297 Birth interval 2 < 24 months 16.7 40.7 0.7 5,2 5.6 26.7 966 24-47 months 14.6 37.7 1. I 5,6 7.1 25.3 2,351 48+ months 14.4 37.5 0.6 5.2 6.9 25.5 551 Residence Urban 7.9 22.5 1.2 4.9 3.0 15.3 537 Rural 15.9 40.3 0.9 5.4 7.1 26.8 4,239 Region Central I 1. I 33.5 0.7 3.5 4.8 21.1 1,224 Eastern 14.3 35.6 0.5 6.6 7.1 27.3 1.268 Northern 17.8 41.9 1.4 7.6 9.1 31.6 930 Western 17.4 42.8 1.1 4.1 6,3 23.8 1,354 Education No education 18.4 43. I 1.7 7.2 8.5 29.7 1,484 Primary 14.1 38.2 0.7 4.9 6.5 25.0 2,764 Secondary+ 10.1 25.7 0.0 2.4 2.6 16.6 527 Total 15.0 38.3 0.9 5.3 6.7 25.5 4,775 Note: Figures are for children born in the period 0-47 months preceding the survey. Each index is expressed in terms of the number of standard deviation (SD) units from the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO international reference population. Children are classified as undernourished if their z-scores are below minus two or minus three standard deviations (-2 SD or -3 SD) from the median of the reference population. i Includes children who are below -3 SD 2 Excludes first births 131 prevalence of stunting is low among children below six months, but increases with age. There is little relationship between stunting and either sex, birth order, or birth interval of the child. Stunting is more prevalent among rural children than urban children. Sixteen percent of rural children are severely stunted, compared to 8 percent of urban children. The proportion of stunted children is highest in the Western (43 percent) and Northern (42 percent) Regions and lowest in the Central Region (34 percent). The level of mother's education is associated with her children's nutritional status. The proportion of stunted children ranges from 43 percent among children whose mothers have no education to 26 percent among those whose mothers have secondary or higher education. About 5 percent of children under four in Uganda are wasted; 1 percent are severely wasted. Variations in the level of wasting by background characteristics show that it is high among children in the 6-23 month age group, indicating that food supplementation during the weaning period may be inadequate. Differences in the prevalence of acute undernutrition between rural and urban children are not as marked as they are for chronic undemutrition. The highest prevalence of wasting is reported in the Northem Region (8 percent) and the lowest in the Central Region (4 percent). Prevalence of wasting among children is inversely related to the educational level of their mothers. More than a quarter of Ugandan children under four are underweight for their age, which may reflect stunting, wasting, or both. Low weight-for-age is most common during the second year of life (ages 12-23 months). The prevalence of low weight-for-age is higher among children living in rural than in urban areas (27 vs. 15 percent). Children from the Northern Region are much more likely to be underweight than children in other regions, and underweight children are more common among those whose mothers have less education. Figure 9.1 shows the distribution of children by age and by the extent to which they deviate from the reference population in terms of the Z-scores for three anthropometric indices. This demonstrates the -1 -2 -3 Figure 9.1 Nutritional Status of Children Under Four Years, Mean Z-scores by Age in Months Z-score , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , . . . . . , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 6 t 2 18 24 30 36 42 Age in months Note: Compared to the median of the International Reference Population UDHS lgg5 132 remarkable deterioration in nutritional status that begins shortly after birth, continuing through the first year and a half, and then levelling off or improving slightly thereafter to the third birthday. Trends in Undernutrition in Uganda The anthropometric data collected in the 1995 UDHS are very similar to those obtained during the 1988-89 UDHS, except that the age range of eligibility for collecting data changed from under five years in the earlier survey to under four years in the present survey. In addition, the 1988-89 UDHS was not representative of the entire country. To allow comparisons, results from both surveys were re-analysed using only children that fall into the shared age range 0-47 months and that live in the same areas covered in the 1988-89 UDHS. The results are presented in Table 9.8. One factor that could not be controlled was the difference in the timing of the surveys--the 1988-89 UDHS fieldwork took place from September 1988 to Febmary 1989, while the 1995 survey was conducted from late March to mid-August 1995. Nutritional status is known to be subject to seasonal variations, often deteriorating just prior to the peak harvest time and improving after harvest; it also varies with fluctuations in disease prevalence. However, it is difficult to assess what effect, if any, the different timing of the data collection in the two surveys might have on the results concerning nutritional status of children. Results show that the propor- tion of children under age four who have chronic undernutrition or stunting (low height-for-age) decreased from 43 percent in 1988-89 to 39 percent in 1995, while acute undernutrition or wasting (low weight-for-height) rose from 2 to 5 percent. Since the change in wasting refers to conditions immedi- ately preceding the two surveys, the overall trend in nutrition using this measure may be misleading. The per- centage of children who are under- weight (low weight-for-age) has in- creased slightly from 23 to 25 percent. 9.3 Maternal Nutritional Status All mothers of children born since January 1991 were eligible to be weighed and measured ~ in the 1995 Table 9.8 Trends in nutritional status of children Among children under four years of age, the percentage classified as undernourished according to height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-tot-age, 1988-89 UDHS and 1995 UDHS Areas covered by All Uganda 1988-89 UDHS 1995 1995 1988-89 Index UDHS UDHS UDHS Height-for-age < -2 SD 38.3 38.8 43.0 < -3 SD 15.0 14.9 17.0 Weight-for-height < -2 SD 5.3 5.1 1.9 < -3 SD 0.9 1.0 0. I Weight-for-age < -2 SD 25.5 25.0 23.0 < -3 SD 6.7 6.5 5.1 Number of children 4,775 3,991 3,185 UDHS. The objective was to obtain a picture of the nutritional status of women of reproductive age, but in considering the cost and length of the survey, a decision was made to limit the anthropometric section to women with young children who would be measured anyway. 2 In reviewing the results of the maternal anthropometric data collection, it is important to remember that the sample of women is not representative of all women 15-49 and will overrepresent high fertility age groups, for example, women 25-34 years. 1 The measuring boards and scales used to measure the mothers were the same as those used to collect anthropometric measurements of children. 2 Interviewers were instructed to weigh and measure all women who had had a birth since January 1991, regardless of whether or not the child was still living. 133 Several measures must be used to assess the nutritional status of women (Krasovec and Anderson, 1991). In this report, two indices are presented: height, and body mass index (BMI). Maternal height is associated with past socio-economic status and nutritional status in childhood and adolescence. It is related to the risk of difficult delivery, since small stature is often associated with small pelvic size. Short women also often stand the risk of bearing infants with low birth weight. The cut-off point below which a woman can be identified as at risk is in the range of 140-150 centimetres (cm). Table 9.9 shows that the mean height of mothers measured in the 1995 UDHS is 158 cm. Those whose height is less than 145 cm accounts for less than 2 percent. Table 9.9 Nutritional status of mothers by background characteristics Among mothers of children under four years, mean height and percentage of women shorter than 145 centimetres, mean body mass index (BMI) and the percentage of women whose BMI is less than 18.5 (kg/m2), by selected background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Height BMI Percent Background Percent < 18.5 characteristic Mean <145 cm Number Mean (kg/m 2) Number Age 15-19 156.7 2.7 522 21.2 10.6 409 20-24 158.0 1.5 1,216 21.2 9.6 954 25-29 158.7 1.3 949 21.5 9.0 714 30-34 159.1 10 713 21,7 10.2 547 35-49 158.5 1.9 69(1 21.7 10.8 583 Residence Urban 158.8 0.8 476 22.8 5.2 396 Rural 158.2 1.7 3,615 21.3 10.6 2,811 Region Central 157.2 1.8 1,067 22.2 5.4 830 Eastern 159.0 0.6 1,078 20.7 14.1 792 Northern 160.9 0.2 830 20.6 14.0 674 Western 156.6 3.4 1,116 22,1 7.3 911 Education No education 158.3 1.4 1,274 21.2 10.4 997 Primary 158.1 1.8 2,380 21.4 10.1 1,863 Secondary+ 159.1 0.9 438 22.3 7.4 347 Total 158.3 1.6 4,091 21.5 9.9 3,207 Note: Table includes only women who had a birth in the four years preceding the survey. The BMI index excludes pregnant women and those who are less than three months postpartum. Another commonly used index is the body mass index (BMI), that is derived by dividing the weight in kilograms (kg) by the square height in metres (m2). This indicator is used to assess thinness or obesity. A cut-off point of 18.5 kg/m 2 has been recommended for defining chronic undemutrition, while a level below 16 classifies severe undernutrition (James et al., 1988) which is associated with increased mortality. The results of the 1995 UDHS show that the mean BMI among non-pregnant mothers was 21.5; 10 percent of mothers had a BMI below the 18.5 cut-off point, reflecting chronic nutritional deficit. Examining the matemal nutritional status indicators by background characteristics in Table 9.9, the data indicate that a greater proportion of the mothers in the 15-19 age group, those in rural areas, and those from the Central and Western Regions fall below 145 cm in height. In addition, there are more mothers who are thin among those in the Eastern and Northern Regions and in rural areas. Mothers with lower levels of education have a mean BMI that is indicative of nutritional risk. 134 CHAPTER 10 MATERNAL MORTALITY Although maternal mortality is an important issue in Uganda, no national survey has been carried out for the purpose of estimating maternal mortality. Maternal mortality in Uganda is currently estimated at 600 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births (Ministry of Health, 1993). However, this estimate is based on small-scale studies, most of which are hospital-based. Such studies are likely to underestimate maternal mortality to the extent that those who experience higher rates of mortality (e.g., the poor, those in remote areas) are less likely to deliver babies in hospitals. On the other hand, hospital-based studies are likely to overstate the true maternal mortality rate to the extent that women who develop complications during pregnancy or delivery are more likely to deliver in hospitals. The estimates presented in this chapter are therefore of unique importance; they fill a vacuum for reliable, national estimates of maternal mortality. These estimates have no parallel against which they can be compared. Therefore, there is need for further national-level investigation of this problem. The maternal mortality estimates presented in this chapter are based on information about the survivorship of respondents' sisters. Estimates are made using both direct and indirect estimation techniques. The direct technique utilises data on the ages of surviving siblings and, in the case of those who died, age at death, as well as number of years since their death. This allows data to be aggregated to determine the number of person-years of exposure to mortality risk and the number of sibling deaths occurring in defined calendar periods. Rates of maternal and adult mortality are obtained by dividing maternal (or all female or male adult) deaths by person-years of exposure (Rutenberg and Sullivan, 199 I). The indirect technique of estimation essentially consists of what has been termed the "sisterhood method" (Graham et al. 1989). In this case, the data obtained from respondents about their sisters are used to estimate the lifetime risk of maternal mortality. Such an estimate would naturally run into the problem of reference period, since it combines the mortality experience of the previous 50 years. However, as Graham et al. (1989) point out, combining data from respondents age 15-49 into a single estimate narrows the reference period to about 12 years prior to the survey. Nevertheless, the biggest drawback in using this method is the uncertainty as to how much it estimates current maternal mortality, unless one assumes that mortality has been relatively constant over the years. 10.1 Assessment of Data Completeness In the 1995 UDHS, both female and male respondents were asked to list all their siblings, that is, all the children born to their mother, starting with the first-born, and whether or not each of these siblings was still alive at the survey date. For those who were alive, current age was collected, while for the deceased siblings, information was sought on the year of death and age at death. In order to establish deaths that were maternity-related, respondents were further asked four questions for all sisters who died at age 12 years or older: "Was [NAME OF SISTER] pregnant when she died?"; and if not, "Did she die during childbirth?"; and if not, "Did she die within two months after the end of a pregnancy or childbirth?"; and if so, "Was her death due to complications of pregnancy or childbirth?" It can be seen that this information will not only give an estimate of maternal risk but a complete profile of person-years of exposure to the risk of mortality for the adult population. 135 Utilisation of the techniques presented here presupposes the existence of both accurate and complete data regarding the number of siblings, their survival status, and the circumstances surrounding their deaths. It is therefore important to see at the outset how well the present data meet this assumption. Table 10.1 shows the number of siblings reported by UDHS female respondents ~ and the level of completeness of the data on survivorship status, current age, age at death, and years since death of siblings. The sex ratio of reported siblings (the ratio of brothers to sisters) was a little low (l.01), possibly indicating slight underreporting of brothers. Respondents were highly knowledgeable about their siblings' survival status; in only 0.1 percent of the cases were respondents unable to report the survival status of their siblings, with only negligible differences in reporting for sisters and brothers. In 1 percent of the cases, the respondents could not tell the ages of their surviving siblings. Again, the difference between female and male siblings was negligible. As expected, information regarding deceased siblings is less complete than for living siblings. For 15 percent of deceased siblings, either the age at death or the year of death or both were not reported by the respondents. Rather than exclude the siblings with missing data from the analysis, information on the birth order of siblings in conjunction with other information was used to impute the missing data. 2 Table 10.1 Data on siblings Number of siblings reported by female survey respondents and completeness of reported data on sibling age, age at death (AD) and years since death (YSD), Uganda 1995 Sisters Brothers All siblings Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage All siblings 21,762 100.0 22,084 100.0 43,846 100.0 Living 17,262 79.3 17,016 77.1 34,278 78.2 Dead 4,481 20.6 5,030 22.8 9,511 21.7 Missing survival information 19 0. I 38 0.2 56 0. I Living siblings 17,262 100.0 17,016 100.0 34,278 100,0 Age reported 17,070 98.9 16,839 99.0 33,909 98.9 Age missing 192 I.I 177 1.0 369 1.1 Dead siblings 4,481 100.0 5,030 100.0 9,511 100.0 AD and YSD reported 3,787 84.5 4,269 84,9 8,056 84.7 AD OR YSD or both missing 694 15.5 761 15.1 1,455 15.3 1 Although data were collected from male respondents, the analysis here is restricted to female respondents, because techniques for merging the two datasets have not yet been established. 2 The imputation procedure is based on the assumption that the reported birth ordering of siblings in the birth history is correct. The first step is to calculate birth dates. For each living sibling with a reported age and for each dead sibling with complete information on both age at death and years since death, the birth date was calculated. For a sibling missing these data, a birth date was imputed within the range defined by the birth dates of the bracketing siblings. In the case of living siblings, an age was then calculated from the imputed birth date. In the case of dead siblings, if either age at death or years since death was reported, that information was combined with the birth date to produce the missing information. If both pieces of information were missing, the distribution of the ages at death for siblings for whom the years since death was unreported, but age at death was reported, was used as a basis for imputing the age at death. 136 10.2 Direct Estimates of Adult Mortality It is useful to begin by estimating overall adult mortality on the theory that if the overall mortality estimates display a generally stable and plausible pattern, this lends greater credence to the maternal mortality estimates derived thereafter. Table 10.2 presents age-specific mortality estimates for males and females for the period 0-9 years before the survey. Table 10.2 Adult mortality rates Estimates of female and male adult mortality rates for the period 0-9 years before the survey, and model life table rates, Uganda 1995 WOMEN Age Deaths Model Li~ Table Rates t Coale- UDHS Demeny Uganda mortality NORTH Census Exposure rates (54 yrs) 1991 15-19 109 29,619 3.68 4.03 4.31 20-24 193 29,640 6.52 4.83 5.13 25-29 196 24,468 7.99 5.59 5,32 30-34 179 16,686 10.75 6.43 6.12 35-39 105 9,929 10.59 7.38 7.03 40-44 53 5,499 9.70 8.48 8.12 45-49 42 2,703 15.46 9.46 9.11 15-49 877 118,545 7.88 a MEN Model Life Table Rates I Coale- UDHS Demeny Uganda mortality NORTH Census Age Deaths Exposure rates (51 yrs) 1991 i5-19 87 29,545 2.94 4.16 5.14 20-24 155 29,521 5.26 5.96 7.35 25-29 248 23,609 10.50 6.24 7.72 30-34 236 16,132 14.61 6,67 8.10 35-39 130 9,834 13.25 7.54 9.17 40-44 95 5,246 18.15 9.12 11.03 45-49 52 2,691 19,45 11.19 13.36 15-49 1,003 116,578 9.52 a t Model life tables were selected at a level of mortality approximately corresponding to a sex-specific probability of dying between birth and age 5 for the period 0-9 years before the survey (i.e., 162 per 1,000 for males, 151 per 1,000 for females). Mortality rates are expressed per 1,000 population. Life expectancies are given in parentheses. a Age-adjusted rates Source: Statistics Department, 1995b: 317-318 137 The number of reported female and male deaths in the age range 15-49 were 877 and 1003, respectively. Generally, male mortality is higher than female mortality with the exception of the ages below 25. The age patterns also differ somewhat. For females, mortality rates increase with age until a plateau is reached at ages 30-44. Thereafter, there is a sharp increase to reach the peak mortality level in the 45-49 age group. For the males, the age pattern of mortality displays a steady increase from the youngest ages, 15-19, to the oldest, 45-49. The only slight fluctuation is observed in the age group 35-39. These rates can be taken to be reasonably stable. However, their plausibility, and hence reliability, can be established by comparing them to measures from other sources as well as to schedules of mortality rates from relevant model life tables. It can be seen in Table 10.2 and Figures 10.1 and 10.2 that the adult mortality rates calculated from the 1995 UDHS data are generally similar at the younger age groups and then considerably higher than those observed from two other sources, namely, the Coale and Demeny "North" model life table 3 and the 1991 census (Statistics Department, 1995b:317-318). The recent upsurge in adult deaths due to the AIDS epidemic may explain why the rates from the survey are higher than those from the other two sources, especially those from the model life table which are based on pre- AIDS mortality patterns. In any case, these findings indicate that underreporting of deceased siblings is unlikely to be a serious problem in the UDHS data. Figure 10.1 Female Adult Mortality for the Period 0-9 Years Before the Survey, by Age, from Various Sources Death per 1,000 population 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 2 0 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 Age Group 45-49 3 The life table was selected by finding the level that corresponds to the under five mortality rates of 162 per 1,000 for males and 151 per 1,000 for females estimated from UDHS data for the period 0-9 years before the survey (see Table 7.3). 138 Figure 10.2 Male Adult Mortality for the Period 0-9 Years Before the Survey, by Age, from Various Sources Death per 1,000 population 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 i 2 0 t5-19 i i i i i 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 Age Group r ~-1995UDHS --199, Census ~C-D North Model i 45-49 10.3 Direct Estimates of Maternal Mortality The direct age specific estimates of maternal mor- tality are presented in Table 10.3. These are derived by fil- tering through the reported survivorship of sisters. In all, the number of maternal deaths for the period 1986-1995 is 149. The age pattern of the estimated rates is somewhat erratic. The general pattern, however, is of high maternal mortality over all the age groups. Nevertheless, there is a slight ten- dency toward higher rates at the younger ages peaking in the 30-34 age group. Taking the entire childbearing period (15- 49), the rate of mortality due to causes related to pregnancy and child bearing is 1.260 maternal deaths per 1,000 wom- an-years of exposure. Maternal deaths represent 17 percent of all deaths to women ages 15-49. The maternal mortality rate is conventionally con- vetted to a maternal mortality ratio and expressed per 100,000 live births by dividing the mortality rate by the gen- eral fertility rate of 0.249 for the same reference period. The advantage of this type of conversion is that it highlights the obstetric risk, which has a high programmatic signifi- cance. Thus for Uganda between 1986-1995, the maternal mortality ratio is estimated as 506. In other words, for every 100,000 live births in Uganda during this period, 506 women died of pregnancy-related causes. Table 10.3 Direct estimates of maternal mortality Direct estimates of maternal mortality for the period 0-9 years betbre the survey, Uganda 1995 Mortality Age Deaths Exposure rates t 15-19 24.0 29,619 0.81I 20-24 30.7 29,640 1.034 25-29 34.6 24,468 1.415 30-34 36.6 16,686 2.196 35-39 17.7 9,929 1.779 40-44 3.1 5,499 0.567 45-49 2.7 2,703 1.001 15-49 149.4 118,545 1.260 General Fertility Rate (GFR) 0.249 Maternal Mortality Ratio (MMR) 2 506 i Expressed per 1,000 woman-years of exposure 2 Per 100,000 live births; calculated as the maternal mortality rate divided by the general fertility rate. 139 10.4 Indirect Estimates of Maternal Mortality Maternal mortality can also be generated by an indirect technique, i.e., the sisterhood method. In this method, the data are aggregated by five-year age groups of respondents. For each age group, information on the number of maternal deaths among all sisters of respondents and on the number of "sister units" of risk is used to estimate the lifetime risk of dying from maternal causes. The method also provides an overall estimate of maternal mortality for sisters of all respondents combined which refers to a period in time centred 12-13 years prior to the survey. The indirect maternal mortality estimates from the sisterhood method are presented in Table 10.4. The estimates of the lifetime risk of maternal mortality vary by age group and are somewhat erratic. When the data are aggregated across all age groups, the overall lifetime risk of maternal mortality is 0.039, implying a risk of dying from pregnancy-related causes of about 1 in 26 women. Converting the lifetime maternal mortality risks to a maternal mortality ratio produces an estimate of 498 maternal deaths per 100,000 live births. This figure is only slightly lower than the one arrived at through the direct approach and is applicable to the mid-1980s. Table 10.4 Indirect estimates of maternal mortality Estimates of maternal mortality using the indirect method, Uganda 1995 Number Number Sister LiIetime Number of of units of risk of of sisters maternal Adjustment exposure maternal Age respondents 15+ deaths factor to risk death group (a) (b) (c) (d) (e)=(b)x(d) (0=(c)/(e) 15-19 1,606 3,894 15.4 0.107 417 0.037 20-24 1.555 3,770 34.6 0.206 777 0.045 25-29 1,270 3,078 38.5 0.343 1,056 0.036 30-34 976 2,443 50. I 0.503 1,229 0.04 I 35-39 783 2,016 66.5 0.664 1,339 0.050 40-44 499 1,160 27.9 0.802 930 0.030 45 -49 380 855 19.9 0.900 769 0.026 Total ( 15-49 ) 7,070 17,214 252.2 6,515 0.039 TFR 1981-85 7.9 children per woman MMR 498 per 100,000 live births TFR = Total fertility rate MMR = Maternal Mortality Ratio = (1 - [(1 - Lifetime risk] LrfFR) x 100,000, where TFR represents the total fertility rate 10-14 years preceding the survey. Note: Figures in column (b) are adjusted for age distribution of respondents' sisters (see Graham et al., 1989) 10.5 Conclusion The maternal mortality ratios arrived at whether through direct or indirect techniques are very similar (506 deaths per 100,000 live births by direct method, applicable to approximately 1986-1995 and 498 deaths per 100,000 live births by the indirect method referring to the mid-1980s). Although the estimates given here are lower than the currently cited figure, it might be misleading to conclude that there has been a decline. This is because the latter estimate is based on small-scale studies whose generalisability may be questionable. This therefore calls for more national surveys in order to arrive at not only more reliable estimates of maternal mortality, but also the important components and differentials thereof in order to guide policy formulation in this area. 140 CHAPTER 11 AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES 11.1 Introduction AIDS and HIV infection have been identified as serious health and socio-economic problems in Uganda. The AIDS virus was probably introduced in Uganda in the late 1970s or early 1980s. The first cases of AIDS were recognised among traders and prostitutes along the trans-Africa highway in Rakai in 1983. These were the high risk groups at the time. Due to its spread among the heterosexual population, the control of AIDS has become a top government priority. In 1986, the government set up the AIDS Control Programme (ACP) under the Ministry of Health. Together with non-governmental organisations, the ACP has been responsible for the dissemination of information on AIDS. On realising that HIV/AIDS is no longer purely a health/medical issue, the government of Uganda adopted a multi-sectoral approach to control AIDS. This approach ensures the contribution of other players who are involved in dealing with the effects of HIV/AIDS in a co-ordinated and planned manner. The Uganda AIDS Commission was thus established to redefine roles of the different players, co-ordinate activities, plan, develop policies, monitor and evaluate activities, mobilise resources and advocate for AIDS control. With the multi-sectoral approach in place, other ministries like Education, Agriculture, Information, Labour, Justice, Defense, and Intemal Affairs are working with the ACP in the Ministry of Health under the overall co-ordination of the Uganda AIDS Commission. Other sexually-transmitted diseases (STDs) apart from AIDS have been identified as co-factors in HIV transmission. In 1993, the STD Control Unit was merged with the AIDS Control Programme to form the STD/ACP which is now charged with control of all STDs. It is estimated that about 1.5 million Ugandans are infected with HIV, while about 350,000 have already developed AIDS (WHO, 1995). Data on the actual number of AIDS cases is usually obtained from hospitals, while information on HIV prevalence is gathered twice a year from 20 sentinel surveillance sites throughout the country. Although all districts and regions are affected, the Central Region has the highest number of AIDS cases and prevalence rates. Data obtained from sentinel surveillance sites show HIV infection rates ranging from 5 to 30 percent among pregnant women attending antenatal clinics (STD/ACP 1995). Though there has been a stabilisation and in some cases a decline in infection rates among pregnant women in the urban sites, these sites report particularly high rates compared with the rural ones. For example, at one site in Kampala, the largest city of Uganda, the HIV prevalence rates recorded were 25, 25, 28, 30, 27, 22, and 20 percent for the years 1989 through 1995, compared with a site in Bundibugyo District, where the rates were 5, 3, 4 and 7 percent for 1991, 1992, 1993, and 1994, respectively (STD/ACP 1995). These data show that the rural prevalence rates are still lower than the urban ones. By December 1995, 48,312 AIDS cases had been reported to the STD/ACP. This is thought to be only about one-sixth of the actual number of cases, due to under-reporting and under-diagnosing. The overall mean age (of all AIDS cases reported to STD/ACP) for adults is 32.5 years, with a statistically significant difference in the mean age by sex (34.3 for males and 30.4 for females). The sex ratio of cases differs by age group. For example, the total number of AIDS cases in the age group 15-19 years was 2,949. Of those who had both sex and age recorded, 341 (12 percent) were male and 2,231 (88 percent) were female for a male to female ratio of 1:7 (STD/ACP 1996). 141 Data on other STDs are collected at selected sentinel sites. The frequencies of STDs at a site in Mbale showed 45 percent (of clinic attendees) with genital ulcer disease, 20 percent with urethral discharge, and 21 percent with vaginal discharge. Data from other sites also show similar patterns of genital ulcer disease, with syphilis recorded most frequently. The 1995 UDHS included questions on STDs to assess the level of knowledge of STDs, the proportion of respondents who have had a STD, whether they sought advice or treatment for the disease, and whether they took measures to protect their sexual partners. The UDHS also included a section of questions on AIDS in order to assess the knowledge and attitudes of respondents regarding transmission mechanisms and prevention of infection with the AIDS virus. Female and male respondents were asked if they had heard of AIDS and if so, the source from which they had received the most information. To assess the level of awareness, respondents were asked to name the modes of transmission of the AIDS virus. They were also asked if they thought it was possible to prevent AIDS and if so, how, and whether they had changed their sexual behaviour to prevent getting AIDS and if so, how. 11.2 Awareness of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Tables 11.1.1 and 11.1.2 show the percentage of women and men who spontaneously mentioned knowing about specific STDs, by various background characteristics. Among both women and men, AIDS is by far the most widely known STD. Without probing, over 90 percent of respondents cited AIDS. The next most commonly reported STD was gonorrhoea, with 75 percent of women and 88 percent of men spontaneously reporting knowledge of the disease. However, this gender-related pattern also occurs regarding knowledge of syphilis, with men more likely (58 percent) than women (53 percent) to mention this disease. Only 6 percent of women and 2 percent of men could not cite a single STD. Both women and men are less likely to be informed about STDs if they lack formal education, if they live in rural areas, and if they are younger (15-19 years). Differences by region are not large, except that 16 percent of women from the Northern Region could not cite a single STD. Having had sexual intercourse and being married or formerly married significantly contributes to having knowledge of STDs. Among women who have never married, 10 percent of those who never had sexual intercourse do not know any STD, compared with 2 percent among those who have had sex. 142 Table 11.1.1 Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases: women Percentage of women who know of specific sexually transmitted diseases, by background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Number Background HIV/ Genital Don't of characteristic Syphilis Gonorrhoea AIDS I warts Other know any women Age 15-19 40.8 60.4 89.4 1.7 1.9 9.5 1,606 20-24 54.5 77.9 92.6 4.1 1.9 5.5 1,555 25-29 54.7 78.1 93.1 5.2 2.6 5.0 1,270 30-39 57.0 80.5 93.5 6.7 2.1 5.0 1,759 40-49 59.9 83.8 93.3 7.0 2.9 4.4 880 Current marital status Never married 45.3 63.7 92.1 2.2 2.1 6.7 L107 Never married, no sex 2 37.8 54.0 89.5 0.9 2.5 9.5 685 Never married, had sex 2 57.4 79.4 96.3 4.2 1.4 2.0 421 Currently in union 53.4 76.8 92.1 5.2 1.9 6.1 5,134 Formerly in union 58.0 81.5 93.8 5.7 4.1 4.8 825 Residence Urban 63.8 80.5 95.2 6.6 2.7 1.8 1,055 Rural 50.8 74.4 91.8 4.4 2.1 6.8 6,015 Region Central 52.3 74.7 93.0 5,3 5,7 4.0 1,967 Eastern 62.0 73.7 94.7 1.3 0.9 3.7 1,738 Northern 46.3 66.4 82.7 3.1 1.3 16.2 1,398 Western 49.5 83.7 96.1 8.5 0.5 2.9 1,968 DISH project region Kasese, Mbarara (1) 40.6 82.0 95.2 12.3 I,I 3.2 564 Masaka, Rakai (II) 29.8 69.5 92.0 4.6 10.8 6.5 476 Luwero, Masindi (111) 58.2 72.3 93.9 1.7 3.0 3.3 222 Kamuli, Jinja (IV) 72.9 77.4 96.3 2.5 1.5 2.0 341 Kampala (V) 66.8 81.5 95.7 8.2 1.7 1.3 502 DISH district 51.5 77.3 94.6 6.9 3.7 3.3 2,106 Non-DISH district 53.2 74.5 91.3 3.9 1.6 7.2 4,964 Education No education 44.7 69.9 86.9 4.1 1.7 11.7 2,161 Primary 51.5 75.3 94.1 4.9 2.3 4.3 3,956 Secondary+ 75.9 87.7 97.0 5.5 2.6 0.4 952 Total 52.7 75.3 92.3 4.8 2.2 6.0 7,070 Note: Figures are based on spontaneous knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (i.e., without [~robing). See Table 11.4.1 for level of knowledge of H1V/AIDS after probing. 2 Sub-group of never married. 143 Table 11.1.2 Knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases: men Percentage of men who know of specific sexually transmitted diseases, by background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Number Background HIV/ Don't of characteristic Syphilis Gonorrhoea AIDS t Other know any men Age 15-19 45.1 77.1 95.8 4.7 3.5 387 20-24 57.2 88.2 95.3 5.1 3.7 367 25-29 61.8 89.8 95.9 8.2 0.9 359 30-39 62.0 89.5 96.2 8.1 0.8 509 40-49 63.4 92.8 94.2 8.7 2.1 280 50-54 67.5 91.0 97.6 12.3 0.0 95 Current marital status Never married 51.9 78.8 95.8 5.6 3.4 592 Never married, no sex 2 37.7 71.1 94.7 3.9 5.3 257 Never married, had sex 2 62.8 84.8 96.6 7.0 2.0 335 Currently in union 60.5 91.4 95.9 7.6 1.2 1,252 Formerly in union 64.4 88.5 93.2 10.0 2.9 152 Residence Urban 76.4 91.2 95.8 I 1.5 1.0 281 Rural 55.3 86.8 95.6 6.5 2.2 1,715 Region Central 65.6 87.3 94.0 21.3 1.7 568 Eastern 50.7 8L0 93.1 2.2 4.4 497 Northern 53.2 86.9 96.9 1.0 1.1 419 Western 61.7 94.4 98.9 1.5 0.8 511 DISH project region Kasese, Mbarara (1) 53.9 96.1 99.7 2.9 0.1 159 Masaka, Rakai (11) 42.0 83.3 93.5 33.2 1.7 138 Luwero, Masindi (I11) 59.2 81.9 99.6 9.3 0.4 72 Kamuli, Jinja (IV) 72.8 84.3 99.1 1.3 0.2 85 Kampala (V) 80.0 91.6 96.1 13.5 1.3 141 Non-DISH district 57.3 86.9 95.0 4.7 2.5 1,401 DISH district 60.6 88.7 97.3 13.0 0.8 595 Education No education 48.7 80.2 93.7 6.8 4.1 232 Primary 50.4 86.7 95.6 7.1 2.3 1,259 Secondary+ 82.3 92.8 96.8 7.6 0.3 504 Total 58.3 87.5 95.7 7.2 2.0 1,996 Note: Figures are based on spontaneous knowledge of sexually transmitted diseases (i.e., without probing). I See Table 11.4.2 for level of knowledge of HIV/AIDS after probing. 2 Sub-group of never married 144 11.3 Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Diseases Tables 11.2.1 and 11.2.2 show that about 4 percent of women and 6 percent of men report having had an STD in the year prior to the survey. These levels are likely to be underestimates of the true prevalence of STDs for two reasons. First, many STD cases will be unrecognised because: (a) no obvious, prolonged symptoms were experienced, (b) no health care was sought, or (c) the problem was misdiagnosed or misunderstood by the respondent when diagnosed. Perhaps more importantly, many women and men will fail to report a recent STD because of the social stigma. As mentioned earlier, the prevalence of STDs reported from some selected sentinel sites are considerably higher than the levels reported in the survey. Table 11.2.1 Self-reporting of sexually transmitted diseases in the last year: women Percentage of women who report having sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during the 12 months preceding the survey, by specific STDs and background characteristics, Uganda I995 Number Background Any HIV/ Genital of characteristic STD Syphilis Gonorrhoea AIDS warts Other women Age 15-19 2.0 1.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.3 1,606 20-24 4.5 3. I 0.7 0, I 0.4 0.2 1,555 25-29 4.5 2.9 0.8 0. I 0.3 0.2 1,270 30-39 3.0 2.1 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.1 1,759 40-49 4.4 2.9 1.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 880 Current marital status Never married 1.2 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.1 0. I 1,107 Currently in union 3.6 2.4 0.7 0.1 0.2 0.2 5,134 Formerly in union 6.5 4.2 1.0 0.7 0.2 0.2 825 Residence Urban 5.9 4.2 0.4 0.3 0. I 0.6 1,055 Rural 3.1 2.1 0.6 0, 1 0.2 0.1 6,015 Region Central 7.6 6.1 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.5 1,967 Eastern 2.0 1.3 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.0 1,738 Northern 1.6 0.3 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1,398 Western 2.2 1. I 0.6 0. I 0, 1 0.1 1,968 Education No education 2.4 1.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 2,161 Primary 4.2 2.8 0.7 0.2 0.3 0.2 3,956 Secondary+ 3.4 2. I 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.5 952 Total 3.5 2.4 0.6 0. I 0.2 0.2 7.070 Those who report having had an STD are more likely to be in the more sexually active age groups (20-39 years) and are more likely to have been formerly married than currently married or never married. Urban respondents are more likely to have had a STD than their rural counterparts. Both women and men from the Central Region are much more likely to have had an STD than respondents from other regions; 8 percent of women in the Central Region vs. 2 percent each in all other regions report having had an STD, while for men the figures are 14 percent in Central vs. 2 percent in Western and Eastern. Data obtained from STD/ACP also show a higher prevalence of STDs in the Central Region than in other regions (STD/ACP, 1995: 6). 145 Table I 1.2.2 Self-reporting of sexually transmitted diseases in the last year: men Percentage of men who report having sexually transmitted diseases (STDs) during the 12 months preceding the survey, by specific STDs and background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Discharge Sore/ Number Background Any HIV/ from ulcer of characteristic STD Syphilis Gonorrhoea AIDS penis on penis Other men Age 15-19 3.9 0.6 0.8 0.0 1.8 2.5 0.0 387 20-24 6.7 2.3 1.4 0.0 2.0 5.1 0,2 367 25-29 7.4 2.8 1.2 0.0 3.1 5.2 0.0 359 30-39 7.6 3.1 1.1 0.7 1.7 5.3 0.7 509 40-49 6.0 2.0 1.2 0.9 2.1 4.4 0.3 280 50-54 3.9 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.3 2.1 0.3 95 Current marital status Never married 4.2 I. 1 1.0 0.0 1.6 3.1 0.0 592 Currently married 6.5 2.7 0.9 0.3 1.5 4.7 0.4 1,252 Formerly married 12.4 1.8 3.0 1.6 8.0 7.5 0.2 152 Residence Urban 9.0 2.7 0.9 0.0 3. I 6.4 0.6 281 Rural 5.8 2.1 1.1 0.3 1.9 4.1 0.2 1,715 Region Central 13.9 5.9 I.I 0.6 2.8 9.5 0.6 568 Eastern 2. I 0.4 0.3 0.3 1.0 1.6 0.4 497 Northern 6.2 0.7 1.9 0.0 3.5 4.7 0.0 419 Western 1.9 0.9 1.0 0.2 1.0 1.2 0.0 511 Education No education 4.0 1.1 1.0 0.0 1.9 2.6 0.2 232 Primary 6.5 2.1 1.1 0.2 2.0 4.6 0.1 1,259 Secondary+ 6.8 2.8 l. l 0.6 2.1 4.8 0.8 504 Total 6.3 2.2 1.1 0.3 2.0 4.4 0.3 1,996 Table 11.3 presents information on the 251 women and 125 men who report having had an STD in the 12 months preceding the survey. A large majority of respondents (78 percent of women and 68 percent of men) sought treatment for their STDs, but a smaller proportion of men (58 percent) than women (74 percent) informed their partners of the infection. When asked what, if anything, was done to prevent infecting the respondent's partner, one-third of the respondents said that they did nothing, while about one in five respondents mentioned that their partners were already infected. Seventeen percent of women who had an STD reported that they avoided sex, while 23 percent said that they took medication and only 3 percent used condoms. Among men who reported having had an STD, 25 percent said that they either avoided sex or took medicine and only 5 percent used condoms. Table I 1.3 Action taken by respondents who reported a sexually transmitted disease in the last year Among respondents who reported a sexually transmitted disease (STD) during the 12 months prior to the survey, the percentage who sought advice or treatment, the percentage who informed their partner(s) and the percentage who took measures to avoid infecting their partner(s), according to sex of the respondent, Uganda 1995 Among respondents who had an STD: Percentage who took action to avoid infecting partner Percent Percent Partner Number who who infected/ No of Sex of sought informed Avoid Used Took no measure measure women/ respondent treatment partners sex condoms medicine Other taken taken men Women (15-49) 78.1 74.0 17.2 2.5 22.9 2.7 20.0 33.1 251 Men (15-54) 67.8 57.6 24.9 4.6 24.9 4.6 18.8 31.5 125 146 11.4 AIDS Knowledge and Awareness Dissemination of AIDS information is a joint effort between government agencies like the ACP, the Uganda AIDS Commission, non-governmental organisations, and donor agencies. The messages channelled to the public include information about basic transmission modes and prevention strategies. Respondents in the 1995 UDHS were asked if they had heard of AIDS and if so, they were asked about sources of information from which they had learned most about AIDS. Tables 11.4.1 and 11.4.2 show that virtually all women (99 percent) and men (100 percent) in Uganda know of AIDS) The widest single source of information mentioned is friends and relatives, with Table 11.4.1 Knowledge of AIDS and sources of AIDS information: women Percentage of women who have ever heard of AIDS, percentage who have received information about AIDS from specific sources, and mean number of sources of information about AIDS, by background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Sources of AIDS information Ever Corn- Mean heard munity Friend/ number Background of News- Pam- Health Mosque/ meet- Rela- Work Other Num- of characteristic AIDS Radio TV paper phlet worker church School ing tire place source bet sources I Age 15-19 98.7 38.1 3.1 3.8 2.2 10.7 13.5 22.2 11.5 77.2 1.2 3.9 1,606 1.9 20-24 98.6 44.8 3.5 4.7 1.9 16.5 15.6 8.8 15.9 82.9 2.1 3.6 1,555 2.0 25-29 99.1 42.0 3.1 4.3 2.6 17.9 17.3 3.9 18.8 81.1 3.4 3.1 1,270 2.0 30-39 99.4 41.9 2.1 3.8 1.8 16.0 16.4 2.6 19.5 83.5 3.3 4.1 1,759 2.0 40M.9 98.6 37.5 2.0 2.6 1.6 14.4 17.2 1.7 25.0 85.8 2.4 3.7 880 2.0 Marital status Never married 98.9 39.6 6.6 8.7 2.4 11.1 14.6 32.6 12.0 72.5 1.3 4.6 1,107 2.1 Currently in union 99.0 41.7 2.1 2.8 2.0 16.1 16.4 4.3 17.8 83.5 2.5 3.6 5,134 1.9 Formerly in union 98.5 40.0 2.2 4.6 1.6 13.6 14.2 2.5 21.7 83.8 4.0 2.9 825 1.9 Residence Urban 99.8 58.7 l l . l 12.1 3.7 15,8 11.0 15.6 15.3 73,8 5.8 3.7 1,055 2.3 Rural 98.7 38.1 1.3 2.5 1.8 14.9 16.7 7.3 17.8 83.2 1.9 3.7 6,015 1.9 Region Central 99.9 51.9 6.2 5.4 2.8 8.0 5.9 11.2 14.9 74.9 3.0 2.7 1,967 1.9 Eastern 99.5 47.4 2.4 2.8 1.5 11.9 13.4 8.4 9.7 87.5 3.0 2.0 1,738 1.9 Northern 95.5 21.5 0.7 3.2 2.9 28.2 21.1 8.4 14.9 83.9 2.6 6.6 1,398 2.0 Western 99,7 38.9 1.2 4.0 1.2 15.5 24.2 6.0 28.5 82.2 1.4 4.1 1,968 2.1 DISH project region Kasese, Mbarara(l) 99.6 39.7 2.3 5.0 0.3 6.9 26.7 5.0 22.0 82.9 1.3 3.1 564 2.0 Masaka, Rakai (11) 100.0 29.3 3.2 1.8 1.9 6.0 2.7 7.1 19.2 71.0 1.1 2,6 476 1.5 Luwero, Masindi (III) 99.5 48.4 0.5 1.0 0.8 21.4 5.8 7.0 26.0 75.9 4.2 1.2 222 1.9 Kamuli, Jinja (IV) 99.7 59.7 5.0 4.6 3.3 12.5 8.8 10.0 13.2 80.0 8.1 1.0 341 2.1 Kampala (V) 100.0 63.0 13.5 13.1 2.8 15.4 9.6 14.2 16.8 72.5 4.2 3.5 502 2.3 Non.DISH district 98.5 38.6 1.7 3.2 2.2 16.7 17.4 8.4 16.7 84.1 2.l 4.2 4,964 2.0 DISH district 99.8 47.0 5.4 5.7 1.8 11.2 12.1 8.7 19,1 76.5 3.4 2.5 2,106 1.9 Education No education 97.5 25.5 0.2 0.1 0.8 11.9 17.9 0.9 17.7 84.9 2.0 4.0 2,161 1.7 Primary 99.4 43.2 1.6 2.0 1.5 15.5 15.3 7.3 17.5 83,0 2.2 3,4 3,956 1.9 Secondary+ 100.0 68.3 13.6 20.7 7.0 20.4 13.4 30.8 16.4 69.9 4,8 4,3 952 2.7 Total 98.9 41.1 2.8 3.9 2.1 15.0 15.8 8.5 17.4 81.8 2.5 3.7 7,070 2.0 I Mean number of sources is based on respondents who have heard of AIDS. 1 As mentioned earlier, the proportion who reported knowing about AIDS without probing was 92 percent among women and 96 percent among men. 147 Table I 1.4.2 Knowledge of A IDS and sources of A IDS information: men Percentage of men who have ever heard of AIDS, percentage who have received information about A IDS from specific sources, and mean number of sources of information about AIDS, by background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Ever heard Background of characteristic AIDS Radio TV Sources of AIDS information Corn- Mean munity Friend/ number News- Pare- Health Mosque/ meet- Rela- Work Olber Num- of paper phlet worker church School ing tire place source bet sources j Age 15-19 99.7 57.9 7.8 101 5.8 142 9.9 38.5 14.6 68.5 09 7.6 387 2.4 20-24 100.0 65.9 9.6 15.3 5.3 22.3 10.0 22.2 28.8 70.3 3.5 8.3 367 2.6 25-29 100.0 57.8 7.1 16.0 7.9 21.1 10.3 9.1 28.3 68.0 4.3 11.7 359 2.4 30-39 100.0 68.3 5.9 15.5 10.1 21.4 12.6 5.3 32.1 73.2 6.1 10.6 509 2.6 40-49 99.6 67.0 5.0 16.0 5.8 19.9 14.2 1.4 37.2 67.4 5.8 9.5 280 2.5 50-54 100.0 43.3 2.8 82 3.6 21.8 [6.5 0.5 32.4 68.2 5.9 6.5 95 2.1 Vlarital status Never married 99.6 58.8 11.4 17.0 7.8 17.8 9.8 34.2 18.8 665 2.0 9.5 592 2.5 Currently in union 100.0 64.9 5.3 13.3 6.7 20.5 12.5 6.6 32.8 70.8 4.9 9.7 1,252 2.5 Formerly in union 1000 58.1 1.9 l 1.4 7.4 23.9 10.7 6.5 26.2 73.8 7.7 7.7 152 2.4 Residence Urban 10I)./) 732 27.7 38.0 16.7 245 12.0 179 26.6 67.3 10.3 13.1 281 3.3 RuraL 99,9 608 3.5 10.4 5.5 192 11.5 14,2 28.4 70.1 3.2 8.9 1,715 2.4 Region Central 99.8 59.8 12.5 18.5 8.2 30.0 7.1 14.1 20.4 64.2 4.8 26.2 568 2.7 Eastern 997 65.3 8.5 12.4 5.6 9.3 14 12.3 22.4 73.0 6.0 2.0 497 22 Northern 100.0 58.9 3.3 16.5 8.2 24.6 8.9 23.4 31.3 77.6 4.0 3.8 419 26 Western 100.0 66.1 L.9 9.4 6.3 15.3 287 10.8 39.8 66.3 2.0 2.8 511 2.5 DISH project region Kascse, Mbarara (1) 1000 781 2.5 113 9.9 12,8 41.3 I t ,0 450 73.8 2.5 1.0 159 2.9 Masaka, Rakai (11) I(XI.0 46.3 2.8 60 5,8 32.6 2.9 177 18.5 68.0 1,1 25.1 138 2.3 Luwero, Masindi (II[) 100.0 48.3 0.4 3.5 69 260 I L.3 5. I 25.2 50.2 3.9 26, [ 72 2.1 Kamuli, JinJa (IV) 100.0 56.0 10.7 103 7.2 178 3.0 13.8 47,5 829 27.5 4.3 85 2.8 Kampala IV) L00.0 76.2 38.1 45.8 19,4 23.9 14.9 20.(I 284 67.8 123 9.0 141 3.6 ~on-DISH district 99.8 62.2 4.7 13.0 5.6 18.9 9.3 14.9 26.1 699 26 8.4 1,401 2.4 D ISH district 100.0 635 I 1.9 17.2 10.4 22.3 17.0 14.4 32.9 695 8.2 12.0 595 2.8 Education 9o education 99.5 48.9 0.2 0.2 0.0 16.1 8.4 1 2 309 80.9 3.5 6.6 232 2.0 Primary 999 61.1 2.6 6.9 42 16.7 126 96 27.3 72.4 31 8.7 1,259 2.3 Secondary+ 100.0 72.6 20.6 39.1 175 29.8 106 33.9 290 580 74 125 504 3.3 Total 99,9 62.6 6.9 14.2 7.1 199 11.6 14,8 28.2 69.7 42 95 1,996 2.5 Mean number of sources is based on respondents who have beard of AIDS. 82 percent of women and 70 percent of men citing them as a source. More men (63 percent) than women (41 percent) obtain information on AIDS from the radio. One in seven men has read about AIDS in a newspaper, compared with one in 25 women. Fifteen percent of women and 20 percent of men say they have heard about AIDS from a health worker. Men are more likely to receive information about AIDS from community meetings than women (28 vs. 17 percent). Religious institutions such as churches and mosques are also sources of information on AIDS, as are schools. Sixteen percent of women and 12 percent of men have received information from religious institutions, while 9 percent of women and 15 percent of men have heard about AIDS from schools. 148 Urban respondents tend to receive more information about AIDS from radio, television, newspapers, and pamphlets than rural dwellers. These media are also more widely cited as sources of AIDS information for the more educated women and men. Schools are more common sources of information among the younger respondents and among those who have never married. Tables 11.5.1 and 11.5.2 show the percentage of women and men who know of specific ways to avoid getting HIV/AIDS. About 10 percent of women and 6 percent of men report that there is no way to avoid getting AIDS. Of the remainder, all but 14 percent of women and 9 percent of men could cite Table 11.5.1 Knowledge of ways to avoid HIV/AIDS: women Percentage of women who have heard of AIDS and who know of specific ways to avoid HIV/AIDS and percentage with misinformation, by background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Ways to avoid AIDS Have Percent- No only Avoid age with way to Abstain one sex with Avoid Avoid Don't any Number Background avoid from Use sexual prosti- trans- injec- Other know misin- of characteristic AIDS sex condoms partner tutes fusions tions ways any way formation I women Age 15-19 9,2 38.7 24.8 51.9 3.8 10.8 29.5 6.2 14.4 0.6 1,585 20-24 9.6 31.6 24.3 64.9 3.9 10.4 32.3 5.6 13.4 0.4 1,533 25-29 10.5 32.2 22.2 66.3 4.0 10.8 32.9 5.7 13.8 0.8 1,258 30-39 9.7 31.8 19.6 66.4 4.4 8.9 30.9 5.8 13.1 0.3 1,749 40-49 8.9 37.9 12.8 62.1 3.6 7.4 27.7 6.2 13.5 1.2 867 Marital status Never married 6.3 49.3 30.8 46.5 3.6 15.4 37.8 7.7 10.6 0.9 1,095 Currently in union 10.5 28.8 18.6 67.4 4.3 8.8 29.4 5.4 14.5 0.5 5,081 Formerly in union 8.6 47.0 26.4 51.1 2.2 8.8 30.8 6.2 12.0 0.8 813 Residence Urban 3.7 38.4 44.5 57,8 4.9 18.9 37.6 6.0 5.4 0.5 1,053 Rural 10.7 33.4 17.3 63.0 3.8 8.2 29.6 5.8 15.1 0.6 5,939 Region Central 2.4 39.8 37.6 59.4 3.6 9.8 29.5 4.5 4.7 0.5 1,965 Eastern 8.0 34.7 18.3 69.2 4.5 7.2 26.3 4.3 11.7 0.2 1,730 Northern 29.6 6.6 11.0 50.6 8. I 5.4 28.5 7.0 37.1 1.4 1,336 Western 4.7 46.9 15.1 66.8 1.0 15.1 37.8 7.9 8.3 0.5 1,962 DISH project region Kasese, Mbarara (I) 6.1 49.1 11.5 64.5 0.6 12.1 30.6 6.0 9.7 0.0 562 Masaka, Rakai (II) 3.4 40.4 21.5 55.1 4.7 2.5 21.0 5.1 7.7 0.3 476 Luwero, Masindi (111) 8.0 40.0 22.9 66.6 0A 8.6 26.9 3.9 10.9 1,9 221 Kamuli, Jinja (IV) 4.0 57.2 27.7 69.2 3.8 12.3 43.5 1.6 5.5 0.1 340 Kampala (V) 0,7 38.1 51. I 54.0 5.7 22.7 36.6 6.7 2.2 0.2 502 Non-DISH district 12.0 29.6 19.0 62.9 4.3 8.8 30.5 6.2 16.5 0.7 4,891 DISH district 4.1 44.8 27.0 60.8 3.2 12.2 31.6 5.0 6.9 0.3 2,102 Education No education 14.7 28,6 8.4 58.6 4.1 4.1 20.2 3.9 22.3 0.5 2,108 Primary 8.8 34.9 21.8 63.8 3.8 9.3 31.6 6.2 11.8 0.6 3,932 Secondary+ 1.6 43.3 48.8 63.7 4.3 24.4 51.1 8.9 1.8 0.7 952 Total 9.6 34.2 21.4 62.2 4.0 9.8 30.8 5.9 13.6 0.6 6,993 i Includes avoiding mosquito bites, kissing, and seeking protection from a traditional healer, 149 Table 11.5.2 Knowledge of ways to avoid HIV/AIDS: men Percentage of men who have heard of AIDS and who know of specific ways to avoid HIV/AIDS and percentage with misinformation, by background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Ways to avoid AIDS Have Percent- No only Avoid age with way to Abstain one sex with Avoid Avoid Don't any Number Background avoid from Use sexual prosti- trans- injec- Other know misin- of characteristic AIDS sex condoms partner tutes fusions tions ways any way formation t men Age 15-19 6.7 49.5 35.9 45.6 9.0 10,2 35.3 4.8 10.4 0.4 385 20-24 7.1 37.3 44.9 53.0 11.2 8.4 34.3 3.0 10.7 1.3 367 25-29 4.5 34.2 33.8 62.1 10.7 10,5 37.2 4.1 6.0 2.8 359 30-39 4.6 30.7 28.6 66.0 18.1 11.1 32.2 1.6 6.1 1.1 509 40-49 5.5 32,7 18.8 64.4 12.2 8.8 32.6 3.3 9.5 1.2 279 50-54 12.4 32.3 16.4 59.6 9.5 6.1 16.6 3.2 15.4 0,3 95 Marital status Never married 6.5 49.0 39.7 44.1 7.4 10.3 35.2 4.4 10.5 1.7 590 Currently in union 5.5 30.9 28.1 66.3 14.2 9.2 33.5 2.4 7.6 0.9 1,252 Formerly in union 7.2 34.5 34.0 48.9 18.6 12.1 25.5 5.2 10.0 3.7 152 Residence Urban 1.5 44,5 57.6 55.5 8.7 13,5 36.9 5.4 1.8 2.1 281 Rural 6.7 35,2 27.8 58.9 13.1 9.1 32.8 2.9 9.8 1.2 1,713 Region Central 1,6 33.9 46.8 65.3 20.2 7.6 27.2 7.9 3.3 1.6 567 Eastern 6.4 38.8 33.0 47,4 6.2 2.9 22,0 1.6 11.5 0.2 496 Northern 14.3 29.2 25.6 66,6 14.8 6,9 37.4 1.0 17.8 2.4 419 Western 3.4 43.3 19.7 54.9 8.2 21.1 48. I 1.5 4.4 1.2 511 DISH project region Kasese, Mbarara (I) 2.6 48.8 18.8 52.7 6.3 27.0 57.0 2.4 2.6 1.0 159 Masaka, Rakai (ll) 3.3 24.4 40.0 65.1 35.1 4.4 19.1 11.0 8.5 0.9 138 Luwero, Masindi (Ill) 5.3 52.1 20.4 68.7 12.8 6.9 24.1 4.6 5.3 1.9 72 Kamuli, Jinja (IV) 4.1 51.8 52.2 44.1 3.0 4.2 16.5 0.0 5.0 0.0 85 Kampala (V) 0.6 47.1 66.5 55.5 7.1 12.3 37.5 5.8 0.6 2.6 14l Non-DISH dlstrict 7.3 33.6 28.6 59.1 12.1 8.6 33.2 2,4 10.6 1.3 1,399 DISH district 2.8 43.5 40.0 57.0 13,5 12.6 33.8 5,1 4.2 1.3 595 Education No education 12,5 30.8 14.5 49.5 12.3 3.1 17.8 1.8 20.4 0.0 231 Primary 6.7 37.2 26.7 58.4 12.3 8.3 31.1 2.5 9.5 1.2 1,258 Secondary+ 1.1 37,6 53.0 62.6 13.1 16.3 46.2 5.8 1.2 2.2 504 Total 5.9 36.5 32.0 58.4 12.5 9,8 33.4 3.2 8,7 1.3 1,994 i Includes avoiding mosquito bites, kissing, and seeking protection from a traditional healer. at least one way to avoid HIV/AIDS. About 60 percent of respondents say that limiting the number of sexual partners or having only one partner can help prevent the spread of the disease and more than one- third of respondents report that abstaining from sex can prevent getting the disease. Surprisingly, only 21 percent of women and 32 percent of men cite use of condoms as a way to avoid AIDS and about one in three respondents mentioned avoiding unsterilised needles. Only one in 10 respondents mentioned that avoiding blood transfusions is a means of avoiding HIV/AIDS. Only 1 percent of women and men report 150 a way to avoid AIDS that reflected misinformation such as mosquito bites, kissing, or seeking protection from a traditional healer. Knowledge of ways to avoid HIV/AIDS follows expected patterns by level of education. For both women and men, safe patterns of sexual behaviour (i.e., abstinence, use of condoms, l imiting the number of sexual partners) are less commonly reported by respondents who have little or no education than by those with more education. Although urban respondents are more likely to report condom use as a way to avoid AIDS than their rural counterparts, rural women and men are slightly more likely than urban respondents to mention restricting the number of sexual partners as a way to avoid AIDS. It is also notable that women and men in the Northern Region are more likely to say that there is no way to avoid AIDS or that they do not know of any ways to avoid AIDS. Tables 11.6.1 and 11.6.2 show the percentage of women and men who are aware of certain AIDS- related health issues, by background characteristics. Results show that over 80 percent of women and men Table 11.6.1 Awareness of AIDS health issues: women Percentage of women who are aware of certain AIDS-related health issues, by background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Can Can Can a healthy- AIDS be AIDS be looking person transmitted transmitted have the Is AIDS from mother through AIDS virus? fatal? to ch i ld? breastfeeding? Number Background Don't Don't Don't of characteristic Yes No know Yes No know Yes No know Yes No women Age 15-19 78.5 13.7 7.8 90.8 6.5 2.6 84.5 8.3 7.1 0.5 99.5 1,585 20-24 87.0 7.3 5.7 92.3 5.5 2.1 88.5 6.0 5.6 0.4 99.6 1,533 25-29 85.5 8.9 5.6 89.9 6.9 3.3 86.8 6.5 6.6 1.1 98.9 1,258 30-39 83.0 8.4 8.7 89.5 7. I 3.3 85.2 7.0 7.7 0.6 99.4 1,749 40-49 82.2 7.3 10.2 89.6 5.7 4.4 83.4 7.1 9.5 0.3 99.7 867 Current marital status Never married 81.8 12.3 5.8 90.3 7.4 2.3 85.7 7.1 7.1 0.6 99.4 1,095 Currently in union 82.9 9.1 7.9 90.6 6.1 3.2 85.2 7.5 7.2 0.6 99.4 5,081 Formerly in union 87.3 6.6 6.1 90.2 7.1 2.4 90.0 4.1 5.8 0.3 99.7 813 Residence Urban 91.4 6.1 2.4 89.7 8.4 1.7 89.4 5.7 4.8 0.6 99.4 1,053 Rural 81.8 9.9 8.3 90.6 6.0 3.2 85.2 7.2 7.5 0.6 99.4 5,939 Region Central 90.3 6.1 3.6 92.9 4.5 2.5 90.7 4.3 5.0 0.7 99.3 1,965 Eastern 83.3 9.1 7.6 84.4 10.9 4.7 84.0 8.9 7.1 0.8 99.2 1,730 Northern 70.8 16.7 12.5 90.9 5.9 2.9 86.2 7.2 6.7 0.7 99.3 1,336 Western 84.4 7.7 7.8 93.2 4.6 2.0 82.3 7.9 9.6 0.2 99.8 1,962 Education No education 72.6 13.4 13.9 88.8 6.2 4.9 78.9 9.2 11.8 0.3 99.7 2,108 Primary 86.0 8.5 5.5 91.5 5.9 2.5 87.8 6.1 6.0 0.7 99.3 3,932 Secondary+ 95. I 3.6 1.2 90.1 8.9 0.9 92.7 5.8 1.4 0.9 99.1 952 Total 83.2 9.3 7.4 90.5 6.4 3.0 85.8 7.0 7.1 0.6 99.4 6,993 Note: Total includes some missing values 151 Table 11.6.2 Awareness of AIDS health issues: men Percentage of men who are aware of certain AIDS-related health issues, by background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Can Can Can a healthy- AIDS be AIDS be looking person transmitted transmitted have the Is AIDS from mother through AIDS virus? fatal? to ch i ld? breastfeeding? Number Background Don't Don't Don't of characteristic Yes No know Yes No know Yes No know Yes No men Age 15-19 81.2 15.0 3.8 94.6 4.9 0.5 85.1 9.0 5.3 0.0 100.0 385 20-24 91.0 6.9 2.2 92.4 6.6 1.0 84.3 10.5 4.8 0.0 100.0 367 25-29 91.8 5.3 2.9 94.3 5.7 0.0 83.7 8.5 7.8 2.0 98.0 359 30-39 90.3 7.2 2.5 95.4 4.0 0.6 86.5 8.1 5.4 0.6 99.4 509 40-49 86.1 6.6 7.3 96.9 2.7 0.4 84.5 5.8 9.3 0.0 100.0 279 50-54 81.1 13.3 5.6 91.0 4.8 4.3 73.6 13.3 13.1 0.0 100.0 95 Current marital status Never married 86.2 10.6 3.2 93.6 5.2 1.2 85.2 8.7 5.8 0.2 99.8 590 Currently in union 88.3 8.1 3.6 95.1 4.5 0.4 84.5 8.4 7.0 0.8 99.2 1,252 Formerly in union 91.6 3.8 4.6 93.1 6.1 0.8 81.3 11.2 6.5 0.0 100.0 152 Residence Urban 93.4 4.6 2.0 94.2 5.2 0.5 91.5 4.7 3.8 0.5 99.5 281 Rural 87.0 9.1 3.8 94.5 4.8 0.7 83.3 9.4 7.1 0.5 99.5 1,713 Region Central 92.9 4.6 2.5 96.3 3.0 0.7 88.8 4.5 6.7 0.2 99.8 567 Eastern 81.1 12.1 6.8 89.2 9.2 1.6 84.7 8.2 6.8 0.0 100.0 496 Northern 91.1 7.5 1.4 92.4 7.3 0.4 89.3 6.1 3.8 1.3 98.7 419 Western 86.4 10.1 3.5 99.3 0.7 0.0 75.4 16.0 8.6 0.7 99.3 511 Education No education 80.7 10.7 8.6 93.7 4.0 2.3 75.2 11.1 13.7 0.1 99.9 231 Primary 85.7 10.5 3.8 95.1 4.3 0.6 84.1 9.1 6.5 0.6 99.4 1,258 Secondary+ 96.6 2.5 0.9 93.3 6.5 0.2 89.6 6.7 3.7 0.4 99.6 504 Total 87.9 8.5 3.6 94.5 4.8 0.7 84.4 8.7 6.6 0.5 99.5 1,994 Note: Total includes some missing values realise that it is possible for a healthy-looking person to have the AIDS virus, while well over 90 percent know that AIDS is a fatal disease for which there is no cure at this time. About 85 percent of respondents know that the AIDS virus can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy or child birth, while almost all women and men say that the AIDS virus cannot be transmitted through breastfeeding. Women and men who live in rural areas and those who have no formal education are slightly more likely to be misinformed on these issues. The 1995 UDHS included a question on whether respondents personally knew somebody who has AIDS or who has died of AIDS. Table 11.7 presents the distribution of respondents by their responses to this question, according to selected background characteristics. Overall, 86 percent of women and 92 percent of men report that they know someone who has AIDS or has died from AIDS. Respondents living in urban areas are more likely than rural respondents to know someone with AIDS. This slight residential 152 Table 11.7 Personal acquaintance with AIDS Percent distribution of women and men by whether they know someone with AIDS or someone who died of AIDS, according to background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Women Men Knows someone with AIDS Knows someone with AIDS or who died from AIDS or who died from AIDS Number Number Background Don't of Don't of characteristic Yes No know Total I women Yes No know Total t men Age 15-19 85.5 13.7 0.8 100.0 1,585 89.5 9,8 0.7 100.0 385 20-24 87.2 12.2 0.2 100.0 1,533 91.1 8.5 0,3 100.0 367 25-29 87.5 11.7 0,6 100.0 1,258 93.1 5.9 0.7 100.0 359 30-39 86.2 13.6 0.2 100.0 1,749 91.6 7.8 0.3 100.0 509 40-49 85,7 13.3 0.8 100,0 867 94.4 5.6 0.0 100.0 279 50-54 NA NA NA NA NA 85,2 13.0 1.8 100.0 95 Marital status Never married 88.1 I1,1 0.8 100.0 1,095 90.0 9.3 0.7 100.0 590 Currently in union 85.7 13.7 0.4 100.0 5,081 91.8 7,6 0.4 100.0 1,252 Formerly in union 88.7 I0.6 0.7 100.0 813 94.5 5.5 0.0 100.0 152 Residence Urban 93.9 4.6 0.6 100.0 1,053 95.7 2.9 0.5 100.0 281 Rural 85.1 14.4 0.5 100,0 5,939 90.8 8.7 0.5 100.0 1.713 Region Central 93.2 6.0 0.4 100.0 1,965 97.8 1.3 0.4 100.0 567 Eastern 85.2 14.5 0.3 100.0 1,730 86.8 12.0 1.2 100.0 496 Northern 76.0 23.4 0.6 100.0 1,336 86.2 13,8 0.0 100.0 419 Western 87.9 11.5 0.6 100.0 1,962 93.2 6.6 0,3 100.0 51 I Education No education 77.1 21.8 0.9 100.0 2,108 86.2 12.5 1.3 100.0 231 Primary 89.1 10.5 0.3 100.0 3,932 91.2 8.4 0.3 100.0 1,258 Secondary+ 95.9 3.2 0.4 100.0 952 94.6 4.6 0,5 100.0 504 Total 86.4 12.9 0.5 100.0 6,993 91.5 7.9 0.5 100.0 1,994 NA = Not applicable ] Total includes some missing values difference supports STD/ACP figures that AIDS is more prevalent in urban areas. It should be noted that personal acquaintance with AIDS in both urban and rural settings is very high. The data show that 93 percent of women and 98 percent of men in the Central Region know someone with AIDS, compared with 76 percent and 86 percent, respectively, in the Northern Region. These pattems reflect the fact that HIV prevalence is higher in the Central Region than in other regions (STD/ACP, 1995). The higher the educational level, the higher the chances that an Ugandan knows someone with AIDS, though for all educational levels the probability of knowing someone with AIDS is high. 11.5 Perception of the Risk of Getting HIV/AIDS Female and male respondents who have heard of AIDS were asked whether they thought that their chances of getting the AIDS virus were great, moderate, small, or nil. Interviewers then asked respondents why they thought their chances were great/moderate or small/nil. Tables 11.8.1 and 11.8.2 show that 65 percent of women and 84 percent of men say that they have little or no chance of being infected. Women are more likely than men to report that their chances of getting AIDS are great (13 vs. 6 percent). 153 Table 11.8.1 Perception of the risk of getting AIDS: women Percent distribution of women who have heard of AIDS by their perception of the risk of getting AIDS, according to background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Chances of getting AIDS Number Background No risk Don't of characteristic at all Small Moderate Great know Total women Age 15-19 31.6 47.2 12.8 8.1 0,2 100.0 1,585 20-24 16.5 47.3 23.3 12.4 0.5 100.0 1,533 25-29 15.1 42.1 25.2 17.3 0.3 100.0 1,258 30-39 17.2 41.1 25,1 16.2 0.3 100.0 1,749 40-49 23.6 46.2 18.1 11.9 0.2 100.0 867 Marital status Never married 34.6 47.7 10.0 7.4 0.2 100.0 1,095 Currently in union 18.0 43.8 23.9 14.0 0.4 100.0 5,081 Formerly in union 18.8 46,0 18.6 16.3 0.2 100.0 813 No. of sexual partners other than husband in last 12 months 0 21.1 44.8 20.9 12.9 0.3 100.0 6,815 1 6.4 43.5 27.4 22.7 0.0 100.0 134 2-3 * * * * * * 23 4+ * * * " * * 4 Residence Urban 12.6 47.1 20,8 18.5 1.0 100.0 1,053 Rural 22.2 44.2 21.1 12.3 0.2 100.0 5,939 Region Central 10.8 50.4 21.4 16.6 0.6 100.0 1,965 Eastern 18.8 48.7 19.3 13.1 0.2 100.0 1,730 Northern 37.8 32.2 19.0 10.7 0.5 1(30.0 1,336 Western 20.9 43.8 23.8 11.6 0.0 100.0 1,962 Education No education 26.7 41.9 19.4 11.7 0.3 100,0 2,108 Primary 19.1 45.6 21.7 13.3 0.3 100.0 3,932 Secondary+ 14.4 46.9 22.0 16.2 0.6 100.0 952 Total 20.7 44.7 21.1 13.2 0.3 100.0 6,993 Note: Total includes 17 women who reported "don't know" to number of sexual partners in last 12 months. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 154 Table 11.8.2 Perception of the risk of getting AIDS: men Percent distribution of men who have heard of AIDS by their perception of the risk of getting AIDS, according to background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Chances of getting AIDS Number Background No risk Don't of characteristic at all Small Moderate Great know Total men Age 15-19 56.9 32.1 6.0 4.9 0.1 100.0 385 20-24 31.6 46.4 12.9 9.1 0.0 100.0 367 25-29 28.3 52.7 12.4 6.3 0.3 100.0 359 30-39 36.3 46.8 11.3 5.3 0.4 100.0 509 40-49 41.6 46.2 7.9 4.3 0.0 100.0 279 50-54 40.4 46.8 10.0 2.8 0.0 100.0 95 Marital status Never married 48.8 36.2 9.4 5.5 0.1 100.0 590 Currently in union 35.9 49.5 9.7 4.7 0.2 100.0 1,252 Formerly in union 25.0 40.8 17.6 16.5 0.0 100.0 152 No. of sexual partners other than wife in last 12 months 0 42.8 44.0 8.2 4.9 0.1 100.0 1,726 1 13.6 58.2 21.2 7.0 0.0 100.0 I69 2-3 15.3 30.7 33.6 20.5 0.0 100.0 63 4+ * * * * * 100.0 8 Residence Urban 22.0 56.7 15.7 4.5 I.I 100.0 281 Rural 41.7 42.9 9.3 6.1 0.0 100.0 1,713 Region Central 35.0 48.9 9.5 6.1 0.5 100.0 567 Eastern 39.5 36.6 15.4 8.5 0.0 100.0 496 Northern 49.4 35.4 9.4 5.8 0.0 100.0 419 Western 34.1 56.2 6.7 3.0 0.0 10O.0 511 Education No education 45.2 38.1 9.6 7.2 0.0 100.0 231 Primary 41.3 43.7 9.1 5.7 0.1 100.0 1,258 Secondary+ 30.0 50.8 13.2 5.6 0.4 100.0 504 Total 38.9 44.9 10.2 5.8 0.2 100.0 1,994 Note: Total includes 27 men who reported "don't know" to number of sexual partners in last 12 months. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. As might be expected, the proportion who feel that they have no chance of getting AIDS is higher among younger women and men, among those who have never married, and among those who had no sexual partners other than their spouses in the preceding 12 months. The proportion reporting no risk is also higher among rural than urban residents and among those in the Northern Region. Women and men with no education are more likely than educated respondents to feel they are not at risk of getting AIDS. The 1995 UDHS made use of the fact that in some households, both women and men were interviewed, making it possible to link data on currently married men and their wives living in the same household and look at couples in Uganda as units of study. Data regarding couples' perception of their risk of getting AIDS are presented in Table 11.9. 155 Table 11.9 Perception of the risk of getting HIV/AIDS among couples Percent distribution of couples who know about AIDS by husband's and wife's perceptions of risk of getting AIDS, Uganda 1995 Chances of getting AIDS: husband Number Perception of No risk of risk of AIDS at all Small Moderate Great Total couples Chances of getting AIDS: wife No risk at all 10.2 9.1 0.9 0.3 20.6 226 Small 15.6 22.8 4.7 1.5 44,7 491 Moderate 7.0 10.6 2.3 I.I 21.1 232 Great 3.4 6.4 1.8 1.8 13.3 146 Total 36.3 48.9 9.9 4.7 100.0 1,099 Number 399 538 109 51 1,099 1,099 Note: Total includes two couples with missing inlbrmation. The results show that there is a considerable difference of opinion between married couples as to their risk of getting AIDS. For only 37 percent of the couples do both spouses report the same level of risk; in 10 percent, both say they have no risk at all, while for 23 percent of couples, both say they have a small risk of getting AIDS, and for 2 percent, both say they have either a moderate or great risk of getting AIDS. For couples in which there is disagreement between spouses in the assessment of risk, the cases in which the wives feel at greater risk of getting AIDS than their husbands outnumber the cases in which the reverse is true (45 vs. 18 percent). For example, in 16 percent of the couples, the husbands believe they have no risk of getting AIDS, while their wives say they have a small risk and in 10 percent of couples, the husbands believe they have no risk, while their wives believe they have a moderate or great risk of getting AIDS. Table 11.10 shows information on reasons why individual women and men perceive their risk of getting the AIDS virus as low or nil. Roughly equal proportions of women and men state that their risk is low or nil because they were abstaining from sex altogether (23 and 25 percent, respectively). Seventy Table 11.10 Reasons for perception of small/no risk of getting HIV/AIDS Percentage of women and men who think they have a small or no risk of getting AIDS, by reasons for that perception of risk, Uganda 1995 One sex Number partner/ No No of Marital Abstain Use Limit homosexual blood No injec- women/ status from sex condom partners contact transfusion tions Other men WOMEN Never in union 69.4 8.5 15.4 0.6 5.6 7.7 9.1 901 Currently in union 1.6 1.1 94.1 0.3 3.3 3.8 6.5 3,141 Formerly in union 68.2 5.5 22.4 0.6 3.8 6.9 7.3 527 All women 22.7 3. I 70.3 0.4 3.8 4.9 7.1 4,574 MEN Never in union 64.3 12.4 21.7 0.0 2.9 2.7 10.3 501 Currently in union 2.6 4.1 96.5 0.1 1.4 2.3 2.9 1,069 Formerly in union 59.8 17.8 27.4 0.0 7.2 1.4 6.6 100 All men 24.5 7.4 69.9 0.0 2.2 2.4 5.3 1,670 156 percent of women and men report that sticking to one sexual partner or limiting the number of partners is the reason for their low risk. Although low, men (7 percent) are more likely than women (3 percent) to report that condom use is the reason for their low risk of getting AIDS. Table 11.11 presents the percentage of women and men who think they have a moderate or great risk of getting AIDS, by the stated reason for their perceptions. Eleven percent of women and 35 percent of men believe that they are at moderate or great risk because they do not use condoms. Nine percent of women and 35 percent of men report that they are at moderate or great risk because they have more than one sexual partner. More than half of women, but only 10 percent of men believe they are at risk because their spouse has multiple partners. Twelve percent of respondents (both women and men) say they are at moderate or great risk because they have had injections. Table 11.11 Reasons for perception of moderate/great risk of getting HIV/AIDS Percentage of women and men who think they have a moderate or great risk of getting AIDS, by reasons for that perception of risk, Uganda 1995 Spouse Number Don't Multiple has Had of Marital use sex multiple Had blood women/ status condom partners partners injections transfusion Other men WOMEN Never in union 15.5 9.3 15.1 29.7 7.9 29.1 191 Currently in union i0.0 8.0 57.5 8.9 2.6 6.4 1,922 Formerly in union 14.6 13.0 32.3 17.6 2.6 26.1 284 All women 11.0 8.7 51.1 11.6 3.0 10.5 2,397 MEN Never in union 31.4 33.7 4.9 9.1 0.2 37.2 88 Currently in union 33.3 38.4 12.4 14.6 0.4 17.8 180 Formerly in union 44.7 25.5 12.4 9.1 0.0 45.7 52 All men 34.6 35.0 10.3 12.2 0.3 27.6 320 Respondents were asked if they had changed their sexual behaviour in order to try to prevent getting AIDS and if so, in what way. Tables 11.12.1 and 11.12.2 show the percentages of women and men who have adopted various ways to avoid AIDS, according to selected background characteristics. Results show that 36 percent of women and 11 percent of men say that they have not changed their behaviour (Figure 11.1). Only 2 percent of women and 11 percent of men say they began using condoms to avoid AIDS, while 53 percent of women and 55 percent of men began restricting sexual activity to one partner, and 7 percent of women and 10 percent of men stopped having sex altogether. Respondents living in rural areas and those with no education are more likely not to have changed their sexual behaviour in response to the perceived risk of AIDS than respondents living in urban areas and those who are more educated. Thirty-eight percent of women in rural areas have not changed their sexual behaviour, compared with 21 percent in urban areas; 12 percent of men in rural areas, compared with 5 percent in urban areas, have not changed their sexual behaviour in order to avoid AIDS. While it is perhaps not surprising that those who perceive their risk of getting AIDS to be small or who do not know that AIDS is a fatal disease have not changed their sexual behaviour, it is disturbing that almost one- 157 Table 11.12.1 AIDS prevention behaviour: women Percentage of women who have heard of AIDS and have ever had sex, by specific changes in behaviour in order to avoid AIDS, perception of AIDS risk, and background characteristics, Uganda 1995 No Change in behaviour to avoid AIDS change Began Restricted Other Number Background in sexual Stopped using to one Fewer sexual of :haracteristic behaviour sex condom partner partners behaviour women Perception of AIDS risk Among those who believe AIDS always fatal No/small risk 37.4 8.9 2.2 49.9 2.7 2.0 3,588 Moderate/great risk 30.7 4.3 1.6 59.5 5.2 2.6 2,122 Among those who do not believe AIDS always fatal, or don't know No/small risk 44.5 8.3 3.6 41.8 2.3 2.9 364 Moderate/great risk 33.2 4.7 2.7 55.0 5.7 3.1 224 Age 15-19 34.2 5.5 3.7 53.4 4.0 2.4 980 20-24 34.6 5.4 2.7 54.4 4.6 1.6 1,483 25-29 33.3 3.8 2.6 58.2 3.5 2.6 1,245 30-39 37.8 6.7 1.1 52.2 3.1 2.2 1,744 40-49 36.9 17.4 0.6 42.5 2.6 3.0 867 Marital status Never married 38.2 0.6 1.0 57.6 3.0 2.4 5,081 Currently in union 26.8 38.4 3.1 28.6 5.7 1.9 813 Formerly in union 19.9 24.6 14.1 42.0 6.5 1.7 420 Residence Urban 20.9 12.8 8.7 56.8 6.2 2.3 924 Rural 38.0 6.1 1.0 52.1 3.2 2.3 5,395 Region Central 28.7 I 1.7 5.0 53.5 5.2 1.6 1,771 Eastern 33.4 4.7 1.5 56.4 4.7 1.2 1,613 Northern 41.8 4.7 0.4 50.1 3.3 2.3 1,210 Western 39.9 6.3 0.9 50.6 I. 1 4.0 1,725 Education No education 42.6 6.1 0.1 48.6 2.9 1.4 2,016 Primary 33.9 6.9 2.1 54.1 3.9 2.8 3,537 Secondary+ 24.2 10.6 7.6 57.7 4.5 2.4 766 Total 35.5 7.1 2.1 52.8 3.6 2.3 6,319 Note: "No change" category includes those who say "don't know." third o f women who be l ieve their r isk of gett ing A IDS is moderate or great and who are aware that A IDS is a fatal d isease have not modi f ied their sexual behav iour in order to lower their risk. The behav ioura l changes reported by survey respondents are in l ine with the A IDS prevent ion messages channel led to the genera l publ ic. A l though results o f the survey show some behav ioura l change, there is sti l l a need to intensify the behavioura l change campaign. 158 Table 11.12.2 AIDS prevention behaviour: men Percentage of men who have heard of AIDS and have ever had sex, by specific changes in behaviour in order to avoid AIDS, perception of AIDS risk, and background characteristics, Uganda 1995 Change in behaviour to avoid AIDS No change Began Restricted Avoid Other Number Background in sexual Stopped using to one Fewer sex with sexual of characteristic behaviour sex condom partner partners prostitutes behaviour men Perception of AIDS risk Among those who believe AIDS always fatal No/small risk 10.3 Moderate/great risk 15.1 10.8 9.8 58.7 26.0 12.6 1.4 1,353 7.2 13.1 36.0 42.1 15.4 1.9 292 Among those who do not believe AIDS always fatal, or don't know No/small risk 7.0 10.9 17.7 62.5 24.8 13.5 0.4 72 Moderate/great risk 0.0 7.0 13.7 51.7 32.5 0.0 7.2 19 Age 15-19 12.8 31.6 18.6 33.9 16.3 8.5 0.7 184 20-24 8.9 10.1 21.6 54.2 26.3 11.6 1.5 326 25-29 7.3 9.4 11.4 59.9 30.7 10.6 1.8 350 30-39 11.0 4.7 5.8 61.4 31.7 18.2 2.0 507 40-49 12.6 7.3 3.9 55.2 30.7 12.3 0.8 277 50-54 24.3 8.7 1.8 44.1 31.6 9.5 1.4 95 Marital status Never married I 1.0 0.8 5.4 65.8 31.6 14.2 1.5 1,252 Currently in union 15.0 29.1 16.6 27.4 21.7 18.6 2.0 152 Formerly in union 9.3 36.4 27.8 26.6 20.9 6.0 1.2 336 Residence Urban 5.4 12.1 26.3 50.0 34.6 9.0 3.0 254 Rural 12.0 9.8 8.0 55.7 27.7 13.7 1.2 1,485 Region Cenlral I 1.1 13.9 20.1 47.5 36.0 19.9 2.6 497 Eastern 4.4 7.7 8.2 58.2 38.5 6.8 0.9 431 Northern 13.2 8.5 8.4 57.6 20.7 15.6 2.1 364 Western 15.6 9.6 4.6 57.7 17.7 9.1 0.3 447 Education No education 18.0 14.6 3.4 51.7 18.4 13.6 0.1 208 Primary 11.4 8.6 7.2 57.0 28.2 12.9 1.1 1,104 Secondary+ 6.6 12.0 23.2 50.9 35.0 12.8 3.2 428 Total 11.0 10.I 10.7 54.9 28.7 13.0 1.5 1,739 Note: "No change" category includes those who say "don't know." 159 Figure 11.1 Changes in Behaviour after Learning about HIV/AIDS, among Men and Women NO CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR I CHANGE IN BEHAVIOUR Restricted to one partner Fewer partners Stopped all sex Began using condom 0 10 20 30 40 50 Percent 60 1995UDHS 160 CHAPTER 12 AVAILABILITY OF FAMILY PLANNING AND HEALTH SERVICES Use of family planning and health services is determined by supply as well as demand. As part of the 1995 UDHS, a separate team of interviewers conducted a Service Availability (SA) survey to assess the availability, or supply, of family planning and health services in the community. The questionnaire was applied at the community level, that is, one questionnaire was filled out for each Local Council (LCI) (see Chapter 1) in the selected cluster. Information was gathered by the supervisors of the household listing teams. The supervisors were instructed to gather information by first contacting the local LC1 leaders and asking them to assemble a group of knowledgeable residents to include at least one nurse or health worker, and a woman. The supervisor would then ask the appropriate questions of this group, facilitating a discussion and encouraging a consensus in indentfying the facilities. Besides, respondents were asked about distance, time, and services offered by the facilities. The number of independent data points is greater than the number of clusters ~ (sample points) for which the information was collected; 121 points for the Central Region, 97 points for the Eastern Region, 68 for the Northern and 131 data points for the Western region. Due to the small number of data points, the service availability estimates are subject to larger sampling errors than the estimates based on data from the individual women in the main survey. This analysis focuses on urban and rural residence as well as the four regions. Moreover, the results are presented for women, which are actually the results of 417 interviews at the LCI level. 12.1 Service Availability Questionnaire The Service Availability Questionnaire was designed to provide a picture of the family planning and health service environments available to Ugandan women. There are two mechanisms for providing family planning and health services: (1) via outreach programmes which carry the services to the community, and (2) via stationary facilities which require men and women to come to them. Outreach services can consist of a person based in a community (community-based distribution), a person who periodically visits a community (a family planning or health worker), or a vehicle that periodically visits the community (a mobile clinic). Many types of stationary facilities exist. Community informants were asked to identify the facilities from the following types: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) private doctor; pharmacy/drug shop; dispensary, sub-dispensary, or delivery maternity unit; health centre; and hospital. 210 clusters have one LC1, 61 clusters have two, 16 clusters have three, eight clusters have four and one cluster has five LC 1 s: therefore, a total of 417 community questionnaires were completed in 296 clusters. 161 12.2 Availability of Family Planning Services Outreach Services Sixteen percent of women live in a community served by a community-based distribution (CBD) worker who provides family planning services at least three times a year (Table 12.1). CBD workers are available to provide family planning services to 26 percent of urban women and 14 percent of rural women. The highest coverage (28 percent) of CBD workers is in the Central Region and the lowest (5 percent) is in the Northern Region. One in nine women in Uganda are served by a family planning fieldworker and only 1 percent of women have family planning services available from a mobile clinic. Stationary Family Planning Facilities Table 12.1 shows that about one-fifth of women live within 1 kilometre of a facility that provides family planning services and nearly half of them live within 5 kilometres of such a facility. Urban women are generally closer to a source of family planning than rural women. The median distance to a stationary family planning outlet is about 1 kilometre in urban areas compared to 6 kilometres in rural areas. Women living in the Central and Eastern regions are generally closer to a source of family planning than women in the other two regions. Sixty-four percent of women in the Central Region live within 5 kilometres of a family planning outlet, compared to only about 30 percent of women in the Northern and Western regions. Table 12.1 Distance to nearest family planning services Percentage of currently married women with community level family planning (FP) resources and percent distribution of married women by distance (kilometres) to the nearest family planning services, according to residence and region, Uganda 1995 Residence Region Resources/Distance to nearest facility Urban Rural Central Eastern Northern Western Total Community based distribution 25.5 14.1 28.1 17.9 5.2 10.0 15.5 FP fieldworker t 15.7 10.4 11.8 14.3 0.4 15.7 11.1 FP mobile clinic I 2.9 1. I 2.0 2.6 0.0 0.4 1.3 Health mobile clinic I 4.0 3.5 3.9 6.9 3.4 0.0 3.6 Distance to nearest facility <1 km 52.7 14.8 32.9 20.4 17.5 7.4 19.3 I-4 km 45.5 24.4 31.4 38.7 11.5 23.3 26.9 5-9 km 0.8 23.9 16.2 14.9 32.7 22.6 21.2 10-14 km 0.0 13.6 10.0 9.8 17.2 11.7 12.0 15-29 km 0.0 10.4 6.5 12.7 4.1 12.1 9.2 30+ km 0.0 8.3 2.9 0.0 2.0 22.9 7.3 Distance unknown 0.0 0.7 0.0 2. I 0.0 0.0 0.6 No services known 1.0 4.0 0.0 1.3 15. I 0.0 3.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 612 4,522 1,242 1,399 1,115 1,378 5,134 Median distance 0.9 6.0 3.2 4.4 6.6 8.8 5.2 I Visit community at least three times a year. 162 Availability of Family Planning by Type of Facility Tab les 12.2.1 and 12.2.2 present the distr ibut ion o f current ly marr ied women by d is tance and one- way travel t ime to the nearest faci l i ty prov id ing fami ly p lanning services. Overal l , the median d is tance (of Table 12.2.1 Distanceto family planning services byt' lpeof facility Percent distribution of currently married women by distance (kilometres) to the nearest facility providing family planning services/supplies, according to facility type and urban-rural residence, Uganda 1995 Type of facility Dispensary/ Sub-dispensary/ Delivery maternity Distance to Private unit Health Any nearest facility doctor Pharmacy (DMU) centre Hospital facility Urban <1 km 27.2 41.4 9.9 6.0 8.9 52,7 1-4 km 24.6 40.2 36~0 32.3 61.9 45.5 5-14 km 0.0 0.0 3.1 7.3 14.2 0.8 15+ km 2.4 I. l 0.0 1.7 8.7 0.0 Distance unknown 5.3 0.8 2.2 6.6 4.3 0.0 No known facility 4.4 1.6 38.3 34.9 0.0 0.6 No facility with family planning services 36.1 15.0 10,6 I I. 1 2.0 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 612 612 612 612 612 612 Median distance 1.0 1,0 1.9 3.3 3.2 0,9 Rural <l km 1.2 8.1 5.2 2.6 2.6 14.8 1-4 km 3.2 13.7 16.4 9.3 6.4 24.4 5-14 km 8.2 14.9 19.4 22. I 20.7 37.5 15+ km I I.l 8.2 8.4 21.1 62.0 18.7 Distance unknown 2.1 2.0 3.7 5.2 3.2 0.7 No known facility 39.1 22.7 12.9 19.7 2. l 4.0 No facility with family planning services 35.1 30.4 34.0 20.0 3.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100,0 100.0 Number of women 4,522 4,522 4,522 4,522 4,522 4,522 Median distance 14.3 5.1 5.6 10.3 20.7 6.0 Total <1 km 4.3 12.1 5.8 3.0 3.4 19.3 1-4 km 5.8 16.9 18.8 12.0 13.0 26.9 5-14 km 7.2 13.1 17.4 20.3 19.9 33.1 15+ km 10.1 7.4 7,4 18.7 55.7 16.4 Distance unknown 2.5 1.8 3.5 5,4 3.4 0.6 No known facility 34.9 20. I 15.9 21.5 1.8 3.6 No facility with family planning services 35.2 28.5 31.2 19.0 2.9 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 Median distance 7.5 3.5 5.0 8.8 18.8 5.2 163 Table 12.2.2 Time to family planning services by type of facility Percent distribution of currently married women by one-way travel time (minutes) to nearest facility providing family planning services/supplies, according to facility type and urban-rural residence, Uganda 1995 Type of facility Dispensary/ Sub-dispensary/ Delivery Time to maternity nearest Private unit Health Any facility doctor Pharmacy (DMU) centre Hospital facility Urban <15 rain 35.1 51.3 19.8 18.9 27.6 65.6 15-29 min 10.9 15.4 14.4 16.1 27.6 23.4 30-59 min 4.2 10.5 10.6 5.6 33.5 9.0 60-119 min 2.4 3.0 0.5 4.8 3.1 0.5 120+ min 1.1 1.6 2.9 5.2 4.1 0.5 Time unknown 5.8 1.7 2.8 3.3 2.0 0.0 No known facility 4.4 1.6 38.3 34.9 0.0 0.6 No facility with family planning services 36.1 15.0 10.6 11. I 2.0 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 612 612 612 612 612 612 Rural <15 min 0.5 5.2 3.4 4.1 3.2 12.6 15-29 min 1.4 8.4 6.2 5.2 6.7 12.5 30-59 min 8.8 12.8 10.6 6.2 14.6 17.6 60-119 min 2.7 7.8 10.4 18.3 20.0 23.4 120+ min 10.8 11.3 18.9 22.5 48.7 29.3 Time unknown 1.6 1.4 3.7 4.1 1.8 0.7 No known facility 39. I 22.7 12.9 19.7 2.1 4.0 No facility with lamily planning services 35.1 30.4 34.0 20.0 3.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 4,522 4,522 4,522 4,522 4,522 4,522 Total <15 rain 4.6 10.7 5.3 5.8 6.1 18.9 15-29 min 2.5 9.3 7.2 6.5 9.2 13.8 30-59 rain 8.3 12.6 10.6 6.1 16.9 16.6 60-119 min 2.7 7.2 9.2 16.7 18.0 20.7 120+ min 9.6 10.1 17.0 20.4 43.3 25.8 Time unknown 2.1 1.4 3.6 4,0 1.8 0.6 No known facility 34.9 20.1 15.9 21.5 1.8 3.6 No facility with family planning services 35.2 28.5 31,2 19.0 2.9 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 164 those reporting a distance) to any facil- ity providing family planning is 5 kilometres. 2 Dispensaries are closer than hospitals. The median distance for women 15-49 (for known facility) is 5 kilometres for dispensaries com- pared to 19 kilometres for hospital. As expected, women living in urban areas are closer to all types of stationary family planning outlets than women living in rural areas. The median dis- tance for rural women to a hospital providing family planning services is seven times longer than for women living in urban areas (21 km vs. 3 km). About half of Ugandan wom- en live within one hour's travel time to a source of family planning; one-third live within 30 minutes of a family planning outlet. Two-thirds of urban women live within 15 minutes of a fa- cility compared to only 13 percent of rural women (Table 12.2.2). Availabil ity of Specific Methods Tabulations on distance to the nearest source of specific modem methods show that not all methods are equa l ly access ib le (Tab le 12.3). Twenty-two percent of Ugandan wom- en live within 1 kilometre of a modem method provider. As might be expect- ed, supply methods such as the pill and condom are generally more readi- ly available to women than are clinical methods such as injectables, IUD, and sterilisation. More than half of wom- Table 12.3 Distance to family planning services by type of method Percent distribution of currently married women by distance (kilometres) to the nearest facility providing family planning services/supplies by method offered, according to urban-rural residence, Uganda 1995 Type of method Distance to Any nearest facility Sterilisation Clinical Supply method Urban <1 km 13.8 14.7 59.2 59.2 1-4 km 63.2 65.1 40.8 40.8 5-14 km 12.0 11.1 0.0 0.0 15+ km 9.2 8.8 0.0 0.0 No known facility 1.8 0.4 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 612 612 612 612 Median distance 3.0 2.9 0.8 0.8 Rural <1 km 1.9 2.0 16.8 16.8 I-4 km 5.2 6.5 27.2 27.2 5-14 km 19.7 23.6 37.0 37.0 15+ km 65.8 62.8 17.2 17.2 Distance unknown 0.0 0.0 1.9 1.9 No known facility 7.3 5.0 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 4,522 4,522 4,522 4,522 Median distance 24.2 20.5 5.7 5.7 Total <1 km 3.3 3.5 21.9 21.9 I-4km 12.2 13.5 28.8 28.8 5-14 km 18.8 22.1 32.6 32.6 15+km 59.1 56.4 15.1 15.1 Distance unknown 0.0 0.0 1.6 1.6 No known facility 6.7 4.5 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 1130.0 100.0 Number of women 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 Median distance 20.1 18.5 4.8 4.8 en live within 5 kilometres of a source of a supply method compared with only 16-17 percent for a source of clinical methods or sterilisation. The median distance to a source of supply method is 5 kilometres, compared with 19 kilometres to a source for any clinical method and 20 kilometres for sterilisation. However, urban women live closer to a source of modem methods than their rural counterparts. 2 About 30 percent of women living in a community with community informants mention unavailability of family planning services from the dispensaries. However, hospitals are well-known for family planning services by the informants. 165 Availability of Family Planning by User Status This section examines the relationship between physical access to a family planning provider and actual contraceptive use: Do contraceptive users live in communities with better access? This information can be used as a very rough test of the assumption that wider availability of family planning services leads to higher levels of contraceptive use. Table 12.4 shows the percent distribution of all currently married women in terms of users of clinical and supply methods and non-users by presence of outreach services and by distance to the nearest stationary facility providing family planning services. Results show that users are slightly more likely than non-users to live in areas that are covered by CBD workers (18 percent vs. 15 percent). However, there is virtually no difference between the proportion of users and non-users who live in areas covered by family planning fieldworkers. Somewhat larger proportions of women who are using clinical or supply methods (22 percent) live in areas covered by CBD workers compared to non-users. Table 12.4 Distance to nearest family planning services by use of family planning Percentage of currently married women with community level family planning (FP) resources and percent distribution of married women by distance (kilometres) to the nearest family planning services, according to use of family planning and type of method, Uganda 1995 Type of method Resources/Distance Non- All to nearest facility users Clinical Supply users Total Community based distribution 15.0 21.5 21.5 18.3 15.5 FP fieldworker I I 1.0 16.6 18.7 11.7 11.1 FP mobile clinic I 1.2 2.2 3.1 1.8 1.3 Health mobile clinic I 3.8 1.7 3.9 2.2 3.6 Distance to nearest facility <1 km 18.4 37.1 31.7 24.6 19.3 1-4 km 26.1 35.0 38.9 31.6 26.9 5-9 km 21.2 12.1 15.2 20.8 21.2 10-14 km I 1.8 12.3 8.4 13.1 12.0 15-29 km 9.9 0.0 3.6 4.9 9.2 30+ km 8.0 3.4 1.4 3.0 7.3 Distance unknown 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.6 No services known 4.0 0.2 0.7 1.7 3.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 4,372 148 180 762 5,134 Median distance 5.4 1.9 2.4 4.1 5.2 i Visit community at least three times a year Fifty-six percent of all users live within 5 kilometres of fixed facilities offering family planning services, compared to 45 percent of non-users. The median distance to a stationary facility providing family planning is 4 kilometres for users compared to 5 kilometres for non-users. It should be noted that differences in contraceptive users status by distance from contraceptive source are small and subject to high levels of sampling errors. Table 12.5 analyses distance and contraceptive status for Ugandan women; it contrasts current contraceptive users with women who have an unmet need for family planning. The data suggest that women who live closer to family planning providers are more likely to use a method than women who may be similarly motivated but live farther from a facility. There is a general tendency for women with an unmet need for family planning to be farther away from a provider than current users. 166 o ~ o ~ a8 = = e-i ~ .~ ~ - N £ N N N ~ d ~ ~ .~ ~ m --~ ~ M m d d ~ N m d ~ N ~ N _.= ~ ~ 1 6 7 12.3 Availability of Health Services to Women and Children Antenatal Care Table 12.6 shows the percent distribution of currently married women by distance and time to the nearest facility providing antenatal care, according to type of facility, residence, and region. The data indicate that nearly half (48 percent) of women in Uganda live within 5 kilometres of a facility providing antenatal care (column 5). Moreover, 32 percent of women live within 5 kilometres of a known dispensaries with antenatal services, compared to only 17 percent who live within 5 kilometres of a hospital with these services. The accessibility of health centre for health services are in between the dispensaries and hospitals. Table 12.6 Distance and time to nearest facility providing antenatal care according to type of facility, residence and region Percent distribution of currently married women by distance (kilometres) and time (minutes) to the nearest facility providing antenatal care services according to type of facilities, residence and region, Uganda 1995 Distance/Time DISTANCE TO NEAREST FACILITY Type of facility Dispensary/ Sub-dispensary/ Delivery maternity Residence Region Private unit Health Any doctor (DMU) centre Hospital facility Urban Rural Central Eastern NorthernWestern Distance <1 km 3.5 7.9 3.7 3.4 12.9 37.2 9.6 28,4 10.1 5.8 7.4 l -4km 8.0 24.0 14.9 13.6 34.9 59.9 31.5 31.3 39.3 34.8 33.9 5-9km 6.9 20.1 18.2 8.7 27.3 2.2 30.7 23.6 23,6 41.1 23.1 10-14 km 4.6 8.8 9.4 12.0 12.0 0.0 13.6 12.7 13.3 7.2 13.9 15-29 km 7.2 4.4 21.1 24.6 8.3 0.0 9.4 3.9 9.7 2.3 15.5 30+ km 5.2 1.7 5.0 34.1 2.8 0.0 3.1 0.0 4.0 0.0 6.3 Distance unknown 0.7 0.0 1.6 1.8 0.1 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 No services known 34.9 15.9 21.5 1.8 1.8 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 8.4 0.0 No facility with services 29.0 17.3 4.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 612 4,522 1,242 1,399 1,115 1,378 Median distance 9.0 5.2 8.9 18.9 5.2 1.4 5.8 4.0 5.0 6.1 6.0 TIME TO NEAREST FACILITY Time <15 min 5.5 7.1 6.9 6,9 17.1 58.5 11.5 28.8 21.2 2.0 14.7 15-29 min 3.0 9.8 7.9 9.9 15.9 26.4 14.4 12.8 26.5 15.0 8.5 30-59 min 4.5 12.3 10,9 16.9 20.5 14.7 21.2 17.0 16.9 16.7 30.2 60-119 min 9.2 17,3 22.2 18.6 25.9 0.5 29.3 27.2 21.5 28.2 27.3 120+ min 13.9 20.2 25.6 45.5 18.8 0.0 21.4 14.2 13,9 29.7 19.3 Time unknown 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 1.8 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 8.4 0.0 No known facility 34.9 15.9 21.5 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 No facility with services 29.0 17.3 4.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 612 4,522 1,242 1,399 1,115 1,378 Women in urban areas are closer to antenatal services than women in rural areas. Nearly all (97 percent) urban women in Uganda live within 5 kilometres of a health facility that offers antenatal services, compared to 41 percent of women in rural areas. Antenatal care services are more widely available for women living in the Central Region, compared with women living in other regions. More than half (54 168 percent) of Ugandan women live within one hour's travel time to antenatal services; one-third live within 30 minutes to antenatal services. Delivery care According to Table 12.7, 43 percent of women live in communities where delivery care is available within 5 kilometres, and 70 percent within 10 kilometres. Although hospitals are farther from communities than dispensaries and health centres, more community informants mention hospitals as a known source of delivery care compared to other facilities. The median distance for urban women for delivery care is 2 kilometres and 6 kilometres for rural women. Women in the Central Region are nearer to delivery care services (median distance is 4 kilometres) than women in other regions; the median distance for women in the Northern Region is 6 kilometres and 10 kilometres for the Westem Region. Table 12.7 Distance and time to nearest facility providing delivery care according to type of lhcility~ residence r and region Percent distribution of currently married women by distance (kilometres) and time (minutes) to the nearest facility providing delivery care services according to type of facilities, residence and region, Uganda 1995 Distance/ Time Type of facility Dispensary/ Sub-dispensary/ Delivery maternity Residence Region Private unit Health Any doctor (DMU) centre Hospital facility Urban Rural Central Eastern NorthernWestern DISTANCE TO NEAREST FACILITY Distance <1 km 1.6 6.3 3.7 3.4 11,7 31.6 9,0 26.1 10. I 5.8 5.1 I -4km 4.5 19.6 12.5 13.6 31.5 66.3 26.8 34.0 38.8 30.2 23.0 5-9 km 4.1 18.6 17.0 8.5 27.2 1.4 30.7 23.2 25.7 42.5 20.1 10-14 km 3.1 7.2 9.1 12.0 12.2 0.0 13.8 12.7 11.8 10.4 13.5 15-29 km 2.7 3.7 20.1 24.6 9.2 0.0 10.4 3.9 9.7 2.4 18.9 30+ km 1.6 1.2 5.0 34. I 5.8 0.0 6.6 0.0 4.0 0.0 17.5 Distance unknown 0.4 0.0 0.8 1.8 0.6 0.8 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.9 No services known 34.9 15.9 21.5 1.8 1.8 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 8.4 0.0 No facility with services 46.9 27.4 10.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 1(90.0 1(30.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1(30.0 100.0 100.0 Numberofwomen 5,I34 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 612 4,522 1,242 1,399 1,115 1,378 Median distance 7.0 5.4 10.1 19.0 5.7 1.5 6.3 3.9 5.1 6.2 10.1 TIME TO NEAREST FACILITY Time <15 rain 3.2 6.7 6.4 6.9 16.0 56.7 10.5 28.2 21.2 2.0 11.1 15-29 rain 1.0 8.9 6.4 9.8 15.2 25.0 13.8 12.4 26.5 15.0 6.1 30-59 rain 2.4 8.4 10,1 16.9 19.2 17.8 19,3 18.0 15.6 12.2 29.5 60-119 rain 3.7 13.8 20.0 18.6 26.1 0.5 29.5 25.5 21.5 29.6 28.4 120+ rain 7.8 18.8 25.3 45.5 21,8 0.0 24.7 15.8 15.2 32.8 24.9 Time unknown 0.0 0. I 0.0 0.3 1.8 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 8.4 0.0 No known facility 34.9 15.9 21.5 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 No facility with services 46.9 27.4 10.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1(30,0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100,0 Number of women 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 612 4,522 1,242 1,399 1,115 1,378 169 Twenty - four percent o f women l ive with in one hour 's travel t ime f rom a known d ispensary with del ivery care, compared to 34 percent o f women with a hospital within one hour 's travel . Notably , 43 percent o f the women l ive in communi t ies where ei ther there is no dispensary known to the informants or the d ispensary does not prov ide del ivery care; about one-third of women l ive in communi t ies where del ivery care is not ava i lab le f rom the health centre or no health centre is known. Immunisat ion Tab le 12.8 shows the distr ibut ion of current ly marr ied women by d istance and one-way travel t ime to the nearest faci l i ty prov id ing immunisat ion services. F i f ty-three percent o f marr ied women l ive with in 5 k i lometres o f a source of immunisat ion services. About one-third o f women l ive with in one hour o f a d ispensary and hospital prov id ing immunisat ions. Table 12.8 Distance and time to nearest facility providing immunisation services according to type of facility~ residence T and region Percent distribution of currently married women by distance (kilometres) and time (minutes) to the nearest facility providing child immunisation services, according to type of lhcilities, residence, and region, Uganda 1995 Distance (km)/ Time (minutes) Type of facility Dispensary/ Sub-dispensary/ Delivery maternity Residence Region Private unit Health Any doctor (DMU) centre Hospital facility Urban Rural Central Eastern NorthernWestern DISTANCE TO NEAREST FACILITY Distance <1 km 1.0 6.8 4.1 3.4 11.6 24.3 9.8 20.7 13.5 5.8 6.1 l -4km 2.1 27.1 15.8 13.6 41.5 71.9 37.3 40.8 47.9 34.8 40.9 5-9kin 3.1 22.1 19.4 8.7 26.0 2.2 29.2 19.9 19.9 45.1 22.3 10-14 km 2.0 8.6 9.2 12.0 10.5 0.9 11.8 12.9 10.4 5.0 12.9 15-29 km 1.1 5.1 20.7 24.6 5.7 0.0 6.5 3.8 6.1 0.5 11.1 30+ km 1.1 2.3 5.0 34.1 2.9 0.0 3.2 2.0 2.1 0.0 6.7 Distance unknown 0.4 0.0 1.6 1.8 0. I 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 No services known 34.9 15.9 21.5 1.8 1.8 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 8.4 0.0 No facility with services 54.2 12. I 2.7 0. I 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Numberofwomen 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 5A34 612 4,522 1,242 1,399 1,115 1,378 Median distance 8.1 5.3 8.7 18.9 4.7 1.7 5.2 4.0 4.5 6.1 5.3 TIME TO NEAREST FACILITY Time <15 rain 2,0 4.9 7.8 6.9 14.7 49.5 10.0 20.7 22.7 2.0 I 1.3 15-29 min 0.4 11.2 7.9 9.9 17.4 27.7 16.0 19.3 26.3 15.6 8.5 30-59 rain 1.8 14.1 10,9 16.9 22.1 20.9 22.2 20.9 16.7 16.7 32.8 60-119 min 1,7 18.8 22.8 18.6 26.5 0.5 30.0 24.9 23,6 30.7 27.5 120+ rain 5.0 22.9 26.1 45.5 17.6 1.4 19.8 14.2 10.7 27.1 19.9 Time unknown 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.3 1.8 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.0 8.4 0.0 No known facility 34.9 15.9 21.5 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 No facility with services 54.2 12.1 2.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 1(30.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Numberofwomen 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 5,134 612 4,522 1,242 1,399 1,115 1,378 170 Availability of selected health services Table 12.9 indicates that only 17 percent of married women live within 5 kilometres of a facility where screening for AIDS can be done. About 62 percent of women in Uganda live within 5 kilometres of a source of ORS packets. More than two-fifths of women live within 5 kilometres of a place where their children can be treated for respiratory diseases. Table 12.9 Distance to nearest selected health sources Percent distribution of currently married women 15-49 by distance (kilometres) to nearest sources of health services, by type of services, Uganda 1995 Type of services Respiratory Distance to AIDS ORS disease nearest thcility screening packet treatment <1 km 3.6 22.5 13.8 1-4 km 13.7 39.8 31.5 5-9 km 8.0 25.5 23.7 10-14 km 6.4 6.6 9.8 15-29 km 21.8 4.4 12.8 30+ km 41.6 0.5 7.2 No known |acility 4.9 0.7 1.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 5,134 5,134 5,134 Median distance 25.2 3.9 6.0 It is of interest to see if those who use maternal and child health (MCH) services are more likely to live closer to these services than those who do not use them. Table 12.10 shows the percent distribution of births in the four years preceding the survey by distance to the nearest facility providing MCH services, according to whether the mothers received antenatal and/or delivery care. This table also shows the percentage of children age 1-4 by distance to MCH services according to whether they themselves received all vaccinations against childhood diseases. The data show that children whose mothers received both antenatal and delivery care are more likely to live within 5 kilometres of a facility providing MCH services (70 percent) than either those whose mothers received only one of these services (46 percent) or those whose mothers received neither antenatal or delivery care (39 percent). The median distance to MCH services is only 3 kilometres for children whose mothers received both antenatal and delivery care compared with 6 kilometres for children whose mothers did not receive any of these services. Children who are fully vaccinated are slightly more likely than those not fully vaccinated to live within 5 kilometres of a facility providing MCH services (60 percent vs. 55 percent). 171 Table 12.10 Distance to nearest maternal and child health services for children Percent distribution by distance (kilometres) to nearest maternal and child health services for children under age four according to type of maternity care their mothers received, and for children age 1-4 years according to immunisation status, Uganda 1995 Maternity care received for mothers of children under age four Received all Mobile clinic/ vaccinations Total Distance to ANC & ANC or 1-4 years nearest facility DA DA Neither Total Yes No old Health mobile clinic 5. I 6.6 6.3 6.0 4.4 6.0 5.6 Distance to facility <1 km 25.0 9.0 7.8 14.9 19.5 14.0 15.2 1-4 km 44.9 37.3 30.9 39.6 40.4 40.7 40.7 5-9 km 20.7 3 I.l 30.6 27.2 20.8 27.4 26.0 10-14km 6.8 12.2 14.8 10.4 11.8 9.8 10.2 15-29 km 1.5 5.8 8.0 4.3 5.0 4.2 4.4 30+ km 0.5 1.8 6.3 1.7 0.4 2.0 1.7 Distance unknown 0.2 0.0 0.0 0. I 0.2 0.1 0.1 No services known 0.3 2.8 1.6 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of children 2,256 3,287 483 6.025 868 3,097 3,965 Median distance 3.1 5.2 5,9 4.6 4.0 4.6 4.4 ANC = Antenatal care DA = Delivery assistance 172 REFERENCES Arnold, Fred. 1990. Assessment of the quality of birth history data in the Demographic and Health Surveys. In An assessment of DHS-I data quality. DHS Methodological Reports No. 1. Columbia, Maryland: Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems Inc. Bicego, George T. and Omar B. Ahmad. 1996. Infant and child mortality. DHS Comparative Studies No. 20. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc. Boerma, J. Ties, A. Elisabeth Sommerfelt, Shea O. Rutstein, and Guillermo Rojas. 1990. Immunization: Levels, trends, and differentials. DHS Comparative Studies No. 1. Columbia, Maryland: Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems Inc. Ezeh, Alex C., Michka Seroussi and Hendrik Raggers. 1996. Men's fertility, contraceptive use, and reproductive preferences. DHS Comparative Studies No. 18. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc. Graham, Wendy, William Brass, and Robert W. Snow. 1989. Estimating maternal mortality: The sisterhood method. Studies in Fami(y Planning 20(3): 125-135. James, W.P.T., A. Ferro-Luzzi, and J.C. Waterlow. 1988. Definition of chronic energy deficiency in adults. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition 42(12):969-981. Kaijuka, Emmanuel M., Edward Z.A. Kaija, Anne R. Cross, and Edilberto Loaiza. 1989. Uganda Demographic andHealth Survey 1988/1989. Columbia, Maryland: Ministry of Health [.Uganda] and Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems, Inc. Krasovec, Katherine and Mary Ann Anderson. 1991. Maternal nutrition and pregnancy outcomes: Anthropometric assessment. Washington, D.C.: Pan American Health Organisation. Kyakulaga, J., G. Turyasingura, N. Ayiga, D. Serwadda, A. Mukulu, I. Makumbi. 1993. A review of current knowledge on the infant mortality rate and its trends in Uganda. Kampala: UNICEF/Uganda. Ministry of Health. 1993. Evaluation of maternal morbidity and mortality in 12 selected districts in Uganda. Entebbe, Uganda: Ministry of Health. Population Secretariat, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. 1995. National Population Policy for sustainable development. Kampala, Uganda: Population Secretariat. Rutenberg, Naomi and Jeremiah M. Sullivan. 1991. Direct and indirect estimates of maternal mortality from the sisterhood method. In Proceedings of the Demographic and Health Surveys World Conference, Vol.3. Columbia, Maryland: IRD/Macro International Inc. 1669-1696. Rutstein, Shea O. and George T. Bicego. 1990. Assessment of the quality of data used to ascertain eligibility and age in the Demographic and Health Surveys. In An assessment of DHS-I data quality. DHS Methodological Reports No. 1. Columbia, Maryland: Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems Inc. Statistics Department, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. 1991. Report on Uganda National Household Budget Survey 1989-90. Entebbe, Uganda: Statistics Department. 173 Statistics Department, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. 1994. Report on the Uganda National lntegrated Household Survey 1992-93. Entebbe, Uganda: Statistics Department. Statistics Department, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. 1995a. The 1991 Population and Housing Census Final Results (Main Release). Entebbe, Uganda: Statistics Department. Statistics Department, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. 1995b. The 1991 Population and Housing Census Analytical Report, Vol.l: Demographic characteristics. Entebbe, Uganda: Statistics Department. Statistics Department, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. 1995c. The 1991 Population and Housing Census Analytical Report, Vol.3: Household and housing characteristics. Entebbe, Uganda: Statistics Department. Statistics Department, Ministry of Finance and Economic Planning. 1995d. Background to the budget 1995- 1996. Entebbe, Uganda: Statistics Department. STD/AIDS Control Programme (ACP), Ministry of Health. 1995. HIV/AIDS surveillance report. Entebbe, Uganda: Ministry of Health. STD/AIDS Control Programme (ACP), Ministry of Health. 1996. HIV/AIDS surveillance report. Entebbe, Uganda: Ministry of Health. Sullivan, Jeremiah M., George T. Bicego, and Shea Oscar Rutstein. 1990. Assessment of the quality of data used for the direct estimation of infant and child mortality in the Demographic and Health Surveys. In An assessment of DHS-I data quality. DHS Methodological Reports No. 1. Columbia, Maryland: Institute for Resource Development/Macro Systems Inc. Sullivan, Jeremiah M., Shea Oscar Rutstein, and George T. Bicego. 1994. Infant and child mortality. DHS Comparative Studies No. 15. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc. World Health Organisation. 1995. Globalprogrummes on AIDS (WHO/GPA). Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organisation. 174 APPENDIX A SAMPLE IMPLEMENTATION TableA.l Sample implementation: women Percent distribution of households and eligible women in the DHS sample by results of the interviews and house- hold, eligible women, and overall response rates, according to region and residence, Uganda 1995 Region Residence Result Central Eastern Northern Western Urban Rural Total Selected households Completed (C) 91.5 93.3 92.4 96.0 89.9 95.0 93.3 Household present but no competent respondent at home (HP) 2.3 1.3 1.0 0.7 2.6 0.9 1.4 Refused (R) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Dwelling not found (DNF) 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Household absent (HA) 1.1 1.4 2.4 0.6 1.7 1.0 1.2 Dwelling vacant (DV) 3.7 3.3 3.6 2.2 4.7 2.5 3.2 Dwelling destroyed (DD) 1.3 0.6 0.5 0.4 1.0 0.6 0.8 Total percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 2,700 2.133 1,152 2,108 2,682 5,411 8,093 Household response rate (HRR) 1 97.4 98.6 99.0 99.2 97.1 99.1 98.4 Eligible women Completed (EWC) 95.8 96.3 95.7 95.6 94.8 96.4 95.8 Not at home (EWNH) 2.9 3.0 2.7 3.5 4.0 2.6 3. I Refused (EWR) 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 Partly completed (EWPC) 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.2 Incapacitated (EWI) 0.4 0.5 1.0 0.6 0.4 0.7 0.6 Other (EWO) 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 Total percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 2,336 1,985 1,168 1,888 2,573 4,804 7,377 Eligible woman response rate (EWRR) 2 95.8 96.3 95.7 95.6 94.8 96.4 95.8 Overall response rate (ORR) 3 93.3 94.9 94.7 94.8 92.0 95.5 94.3 Note: The household response rate is calculated for completed households as a proportion of completed, no competent respondent, refused, and dwelling not found. The eligible woman response rate is calculated for completed interviews as a proportion of completed, not at home, postponed, refused, partially completed, incapacitated and "other." The overall response rate is the product of the household and woman response rates. J Using the number of households falling into specific response categories, the household response rate (HRR) is calculated as: C C+HP+R+DNF 2 Using the number of eligible women falling into specific response categories, the eligible woman response rate (EWRR) is calculated as: EWC EWC ÷ EWNH + EWP + EWR + EWPC + EWI + EWO 3 The overall response rate (ORR) is calculated as: ORR = HRR * EWRR 177 Table A.2 Sample implementation: men Percent distribution of households and eligible men in the DHS sample by results of the interviews and household, eligible men, and overall response rates, according to region and residence, Uganda 1995 Region Residence Result Central Eastern Northern Western Urban Rural Total Selected households Completed (C) 91.2 93.9 93.3 95.9 88.8 95.7 93.4 Household present but no competent respondent at home (HP) 2.1 1.7 1.3 0.7 3.1 0.7 1.5 Refused (R) 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 Household absent (HA) 1.7 0.6 1.8 0.6 1.8 0.8 I. I Dwelling vacant (DV) 3.7 3.2 3.1 2.6 5.0 2.3 3.2 Dwelling destroyed (DD) 1.2 0.6 0.5 0.3 I. I 0.5 0.7 Total percent 100.0 10~.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 902 708 389 703 894 1,808 2,702 Household response rate (HRR) ~ 97.6 98.2 98.6 99.3 96.5 99.3 98.4 Eligible men Completed (EMC) 87.7 90. I 88.0 93.5 85.8 91.8 89.7 Not at home (EMNH/ 9.5 8.9 10.1 4.9 12.3 6.3 8.4 Postponed (EMP) 0.7 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.3 Refused (EMR) 0.5 0.2 1.1 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.5 Partly completed (EMPC) 0.5 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.2 Incapacitated (EMI) 0.9 0.5 0.5 [.0 0.1 I. I 0.8 Other (EMO) 0. I 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0. I 0.1 Total percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 740 606 367 511 766 1,458 2,224 Eligible man response rate (EMRR) z 87.7 90.1 88.0 93.5 85.8 91.8 89.7 Overall response rate (ORR) 3 85.6 88.5 86.8 92.9 82.7 91.2 88.3 Note: The household response rate is calculated for completed households as a proportion of completed, no competent respondent, refhsed, and dwelling not found. The eligible man response rate is calculated for completed interviews as a proportion of completed, not at home, postponed, refused, partially completed, incapacitated and "other." The overall response rate is the product of the household and man response rates. i Using the number of households falling into specific response categories, the household response rate (HRR) is calculated as: C C+HP+R+DNF Using the number of eligible men falling into specific response categories, the eligible man response rate (EMRR) is calculated as: EMC EMC + EMNH + EMP + EMR + EMPC + EMI + EMO 3 The overall response rate (ORR) is calculated as: ORR= HRR * EMRR 178 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: (1) nonsampling errors, and (2) sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the UDHS to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically. Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the UDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results. A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the s tandarder ror fo r a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design. If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the UDHS sample is the result of a two-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the UDHS is the ISSA Sampling Error Module (ISSAS). This module used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jacknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates. The Taylor linearization method treats any percentage or average as a ratio estimate, r = y/x, where y represents the total sample value for variable y, and x represents the total number of cases in the group or subgroup under consideration. The variance of r is computed using the formula given below, with the standard error being the square root of the variance: Ira; var(r) - h--1 mh-1 Zhi mh in which Zhi = Yh i - r .Xh i , and z h = Yh- r .xh 181 where h m h xh, f represents the stratum which varies from 1 to H, is the total number of enumeration areas selected in the h 'h stratum, is the sum of the values of variable y in EA i in the h th stratum, is the sum of the number of cases in EA i in the h th stratum, and is the overall sampling fraction, which is so small that it is ignored. The Jacknife repeated replication method derives estimates of complex rates from each of several replications of the parent sample, and calculates standard errors for these estimates using simple formulae. Each replication considers all but one clusters in the calculation of the estimates. Pseudo-independent replications are thus created. In the UDHS, there were 295 non-empty clusters. Hence, 295 replications were created. The variance of a rate r is calculated as follows: var(r) = k( 1) .-- ( r i - r)2 in which where r i = k r - (k -1 ) r (o r r~) k is the estimate computed from the full sample of 295 clusters, is the estimate computed from the reduced sample of 294 clusters (i th cluster excluded), and is the total number of clusters. In addition to the standard error, ISSAS computes the design effect (DEFT) for each estimate, which is defined as the ratio between the standard error using the given sample design and the standard error that would result if a simple random sample had been used. A DEFT value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a value greater than 1.0 indicates the increase in the sampling error due to the use of a more complex and less statistically efficient design. ISSAS also computes the relative error and confidence limits for the estimates. Sampling errors for the UDHS are calculated for selected variables considered to be of primary interest. The results are presented in this appendix for the country as a whole, for urban and rural areas, and for each of the four regions: Central, Eastern, Northern, and Western. For each variable, the type of statistic (mean, proportion, or rate) and the base population are given in Table B.1. Tables B.2 to B.8 present the value of the statistic (R), its standard error (SE), the number of unweighted (N) and weighted (WN) cases, the design effect (DEFT), the relative standard error (SE/R), and the 95 percent confidence limits (R±2SE), for each variable. The DEFT is considered undefined when the standard error considering simple ramdom sample is zero (when the estimate is close to 0 or I ). In general, the relative standard error for most estimates for the country as a whole is small, except for estimates of very small proportions. There are some differentials in the relative standard error for the estimates of sub-populations. For example, for the variable contraceptive use for currently married women age 15-49, the relative standard errors as a percent of the estimated mean for the whole country, for urban areas, and for rural areas are 5.2 percent, 5.0 percent, and 6.2 percent, respectively. The confidence interval (e.g., as calculated for contraceptive use for currently married women age 15-49) can be interpreted as follows: the overall national sample proportion is 0.148 and its standard error is .008. Therefore, to obtain the 95 percent confidence limits, one adds and subtracts twice the standard error to the sample estimate, i.e. 0.148--_2(.008). There is a high probability (95 percent) that the true average proportion of contraceptive use for currently married women age 15 to 49 is between 0.132 and 0.164. 182 TableB.I List of selected variables for sampling errorsr Uganda , 1995 Variable Description Base population WOMEN URBAN NOEDUC EDUC NEVMAR CURMAR AGEM20 SEXI8 EVBORN EVB40 SURVIV KMETHO KMODME EVUSE CUSE CUMODE CUPILL CU1UD CUINJ CUCOND CUFSTER CUPABS PSOURC NOMORE DELAY IDEAL TETANU MEDELI DIAR2W ORSTRE MEDTRE HCARD BCG DPT POLIO MEASLE FULLIM WGTHGT HGTAGE WGTAGE TFR NMORT PNMORT INMORT CMORT U5MORT Urban residence Proportion No education Proportion With secondary education or higher Proportion Never married (in union) Proportion Currently married (in union) Proportion Married before age 20 Proportion Had first sexual intercourse before 18 Proportion Children ever born Mean Children ever born to women over 40 Mean Chidren surviving Mean Knowing any contraceptive method Proportion Knowing any modern contraceptive method Proportion Ever used any contraceptive method Proportion Currently using any metbod Proportion Currently using a modern method Proportion Currently using pill Proportion Currently using IUD Proportion Currently using injectables Proportion Currently using condom Proportion Currently using l~male sterilisation Proportion Currently using periodic abstinence Proportion Using public sector source Proportion Want no more children Proportion Want to delay at least 2 years Proportion Ideal number of children Mean Mothers received tetanus injection Proportion Mothers received medical care at birth Proportion Had diarrhoea in tbe last 2 weeks Proportion Treated with sugar-salt-water solution Proportion Sought medical treatment Proportion Having health card, seen Proportion Received BCG vaccination Proportion Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Proportion Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Proportion Received measles vaccination Proportion Fully immunised Proportion Wcight-Ior-heigbt (below -2SD) Proportior~ Height-for-age (below -2SD) Proportion Weight-for-age (below -2SD) Proportion Total fertility rate (3 years belore survey) Rate Neona a mot a y rtte (0 -9 years) I Rate Postneonatal mortality rate (0-9]years) t Rate Infant mortality rate (0-9 years) Rate C ~ d nortality rate (0-9 years) I Rate Under-five mortality rate (0-9 years) t Rate All women 15-49 All women 15-49 All women 15-49 All women 15-49 All women 15-49 Women 20-49 Women 20-49 All women 15-49 Women age 40-49 All women 15-49 Currently married women 15-49 Currently married women 15-49 Currently married women 15-49 Currently married women 15-49 Currently married women 15-49 Currently married women 15-49 Currently married women 15-49 Currently married women 15-49 Currently married women 15-49 Currently married women 15-49 Currently married women 15-49 Current users of modern method Currently married women 15-49 Currently married women 15-49 All women 15-49 Births in last 4 years Births in last 4 years Children 0-47 months Children under 4 with diarrhoea in last 2 weeks Children under 4 with diarrhoea in last 2 weeks Children 12-23 months Children 12-23 months Children 12-23 months Children 12-23 months Children 12-23 months Children 12-23 months Children 0-47 months Children 0-47 months Children 0-47 months All women Number of births Number of births Number of births Number of births Number of births MEN URBAN NOEDUC EDUC NEVMAR CURMAR AGEM20 SEXI8 KMETHO KMODME EVUSE CUSE CUMODE CUPILL CUIUD CUINJ CUCOND CUPSTER CUPABS NOMORE DELAY IDEAL Urban residence Proportion No education Proportion With secondary education or higher Proportion Never married (in union) Proportion Currently married (in union) Proportion Married before age 20 Proportion Had first sexual intercourse before 18 Proportion Knowing any contraceptive method Proportion Knowing any modem contraceptive method Proportion Ever used any contraceptive method Proportion Currently using any method Proportion Currently using a modern method Proportion Currently using pill Proportion Currently using IUD Proportion Currently using injectables Proportton Currently using condom Proportion Currently using tcmale sterilisation Proportion Currently using periodic abstinence Proportion Want no more children Proportion Want to delay at least 2 years Proportion Ideal number of children Mean All men 15-54 AI[ men 15-54 All men 15-54 All men 15-54 All men 15-54 Men 20-54 Men 20-54 Currently married men 15-54 Currently married men 15-54 Currently married men 15-54 Currently married men 15-54 Currently married men 15-54 Currently married men 15-54 Currently married men 15-54 Currently married men 15-54 Currently married men 15-54 Currently married men 15-54 Currently married men 15-54 Currently married men 15-54 Currently married men 15-54 All men 15-54 ~Fortotal(0-4 years) 183 Table B.2.1 Sampl ing errors - National sample: women r Uganda 1995 Number of cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (RI (SE) (NI (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0.149 .010 7070 7070 2.369 NOEDUC 0,306 .015 7070 7070 2.661 EDUC 0.135 .008 7070 7070 1.969 NEVMAR 0.157 .006 7070 7070 1.352 CURMAR 0.726 .008 7070 7070 1.520 AGEM20 0.746 .008 5446 5464 1.427 SEXI8 0.717 .008 5446 5464 1.370 EVBORN 3.407 .040 7070 7070 1.094 EVB40 7,282 .123 826 880 1.091 SURVIV 2.827 .035 7070 7070 1.131 KMETHO 0.934 .009 4898 5134 2.586 KMODME 0.916 .011 4898 5134 2.659 EVUSE 0,339 .012 4898 5134 1.714 CUSE 0.148 .008 4898 5134 1.505 CUMODE 0.078 .006 4898 5134 1.476 CUPILL 0.026 .003 4898 5134 1.386 CUIUD 0,004 .001 4898 5134 0.932 CUINJ 0.025 .(~3 4898 5134 1.270 CUCOND 0,008 .001 4898 5134 1.022 CUFSTER 0.014 .002 4898 5134 1.166 CUPABS 0.035 .003 4898 5134 1.150 PSOURC 0.474 .027 726 524 1,442 NOMORE 0.309 .010 4898 5134 1.443 DELAY 0363 .010 4898 5134 1.396 IDEAL 5.300 .051 6692 6593 1.807 TETANU 0.802 .009 5756 6027 1.621 MEDELI 0.378 .014 5756 6027 1.874 DIAR2W 0,235 .010 5188 5447 1.620 ORSTRE 0.482 .016 1172 1278 1.094 MEDTRE 0.551 ,021 1172 1278 1.445 HCARD 0.605 .016 1475 1588 1.315 BCG 0.836 .013 1475 1588 1.330 DPT 0.611 .019 1475 1588 1.510 POLIO 0.590 .018 1475 1588 1.425 MEASLE 0.596 .018 1475 1588 1.460 FULLIM 0.474 .019 1475 1588 1.480 WGTHGT 0.053 .004 4520 4776 1.187 HGTAGE 0.383 .009 4520 4776 1.273 WGTAGE 0.255 .009 4520 4776 1.350 TFR 6.858 .124 7070 7070 1.379 NMORT 26•989 2.458 7346 7681 1.212 PNMORT 54•283 3.636 7379 7717 1.367 INMORT 81•272 4.573 7381 7719 1.375 CMORT 71•879 4.157 7487 7834 1.183 U5MORT 147.309 6.086 7524 7875 1.358 • 067 0.129 0.169 .048 0•277 0.335 .059 0.119 0.151 .037 0.145 0.168 .011 0.710 0.742 .011 0.729 0763 .012 0.700 0.733 .012 3.326 3.488 .017 7.036 7.528 .012 2.757 2898 .010 0.915 0.952 .012 0.894 0.937 .034 0.315 0.362 .052 0.133 0,164 .073 0.067 0089 ,120 0.020 0.033 .223 0.002 0.005 .114 0.019 0.031 • 163 0.005 0.011 .139 0.010 0.018 .087 0.029 0.041 .056 0.420 0527 .031 0.290 0328 .026 0.344 0382 .010 5.198 54(12 .012 0.783 0.820 .037 0.350 04(16 .042 0.215 0.254 .034 0.449 0.514 .039 0,509 0594 .027 0.572 0.637 .015 0.811 0•862 .031 0.574 0.649 .030 0.554 0.626 .031 0.560 0.633 .040 0.437 0512 .074 0.045 0061 .024 0.365 0402 .035 0,238 0.273 .018 6.610 7.106 ,091 22.072 31.~)6 .067 47.012 61.555 .056 72.125 90.419 .058 63,566 80.192 .041 135.138 159,481 184 Table B.2.2 Sampling errors - National sample: men~ Uganda 1995 Number of cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/RI R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0.141 .010 1996 1996 1.306 0.072 0.120 0.161 NOEDUC 0.116 .010 1996 1996 1.349 0.083 0.097 0.136 EDUC 0.253 .014 1996 1996 1.450 0.056 0.225 0.281 NEVMAR 0.297 .015 1996 1996 1.497 0.052 0.266 0.327 CURMAR 0.627 .016 1996 1996 1.444 0.025 0.596 0.658 AGEM20 0.234 .013 1621 1609 1.268 0.057 0.207 0.260 SEXI8 0.585 .016 1621 1609 1.271 0.027 0.554 0.616 KMETHO 0.982 .004 1241 1252 1.181 0.005 0.973 0.991 KMODME 0.952 .013 1241 1252 2.171 0.014 0.926 0.979 EVUSE 0.430 .017 1241 1252 1.233 0.040 0.396 0.465 CUSE 0.252 .015 1241 1252 1.240 0.061 O.221 0.282 CUMODE 0.103 .010 1241 1252 1,104 0.093 0.084 0.122 CUPILL 0.034 .005 1241 1252 0.939 0.143 0.024 0.043 CUIUD 0.003 .001 1241 1252 0.753 0,425 0.000 0.005 CUINJ 0.026 .005 1241 1252 1,082 0.187 0.016 0.036 CUCOND 0.025 .004 1241 1252 0.994 0.175 0.016 0.034 CUFSTER 0.014 .004 1241 1252 1.055 0,252 0.007 0.021 CUPABS 0.112 .012 1241 1252 1.395 0.112 0.087 0.137 NOMORE 0.239 .018 1243 1253 1.039 0.076 0,202 0.275 DELAY 0.322 .021 1243 1253 1.144 0.065 0.280 0.364 IDEAL 5.801 .090 1939 1932 1.288 0.015 5.622 5,981 185 Table B.3.1 Sampling errors - Urban sample: women T Uganda 1995 Numberofc~es Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable IR) (SE) (N) (WN/ /DEFT) (SE/R/ R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 1,000 0.000 2439 1055 NA .000 1.000 1.000 NOEDUC 0106 0.0[2 2439 1055 1935 .114 0.082 0130 EDUC 0.397 0.019 2439 1055 1.940 .048 0.358 0435 NEVMAR 0263 0,011 2439 1055 1.261 .043 0.241 0.286 CURMAR 0.580 0.013 2439 1055 1.318 .023 0.554 0.607 AGEM20 0608 0.017 1820 778 1,478 ,028 0.574 0641 SEXI8 0.688 0.018 1820 778 1640 .1126 0653 0724 EVBORN 2.473 11,070 2439 1055 1.298 .028 2.334 2.612 EVB40 6.372 0.265 214 84 1.158 ,(142 5,843 6902 SURVIV 2.148 0.057 2439 1055 1209 .1126 2035 2.262 KMETHO 0.979 0.006 1430 612 1.622 .006 0.966 0.991 KMODME 0.967 0.008 1430 612 1736 (gl8 0951 0.984 EVUSE 0.638 0.019 1430 612 1.489 030 0.601 11.676 CUSE 0.345 0.017 1430 612 1.362 .0511 I13111 0.379 CUMODE 0.281 0.017 1430 612 1452 .062 0246 0315 CUPILL 0.105 0,010 1430 612 1.170 .090 0.086 0.125 CUIUD 0022 0.005 1430 612 1.298 232 0d)12 0031 CUINJ 0.069 0.010 1430 612 1.429 .139 0.050 0.088 CUCOND 0036 0.007 1430 612 1.434 .197 0d)22 (I.050 CUFSTER 0043 0.008 1430 612 1.526 191 (1026 0,059 CUPABS 0.032 0.004 1430 612 0.935 .137 0.023 0,040 PSOURC 039(I 0.030 493 233 1.360 .077 0.330 0450 NOMORE 0.337 0.(116 1430 612 1.303 .048 0.304 0369 DELAY 0350 0.015 1430 612 1.155 .042 0.321 0379 IDEAL 4,249 0,058 2383 1033 1,536 014 4.133 4364 TETANU 0.852 0.014 163(I 706 1.490 .017 0823 (1881 MEDELI 0788 0.018 [630 7(16 1555 .023 0.751 0.825 DIAR2W 0194 (I.014 1473 635 1368 .(/74 (I. 165 (/.222 ORSTRE (I.55(I 0.030 292 123 I(X)3 .055 0.490 0.61 I MEDTRE 0.626 0.039 292 123 1.309 .062 0,548 0.704 HCARD 0.551 0030 389 173 I.[82 .054 0.492 (/61(I BCG 0.937 0.016 389 [73 1.245 017 0.906 0.968 DPT 0,753 0.034 389 173 1.555 .045 (I.684 (I.821 POLIO 0.674 0.026 389 173 I.I13 039 0.621 0.727 MEASLE 0,742 0.032 389 173 1.441 043 0.677 0.806 FULLIM 0.561 0.038 389 173 [.522 .(/68 0,485 0.637 WGTHGT 0.049 0.009 1257 537 1.405 .179 0.032 0.067 HGTAGE 0.225 0.1112 1257 537 [.000 .(155 0.200 0.249 WGTAGE 0153 0.(111 1257 537 1.100 .(175 0.130 0176 TFR 4072 0.192 2439 [055 1,199 .039 4.588 5356 NMORT 25.437 3.704 3681 [596 1.303 .146 18.1)18 32.846 PNMORT 48935 5.874 3689 1598 1.532 120 37.186 60683 INMORT 74.372 7,512 3690 1599 1613 101 59.347 89397 CMORT 63.826 5.701 371 I 1609 1.212 .089 52.423 75.228 U5MORT 133.451 9,725 3721 1613 1.533 (173 114,(X)0 152901 NA = Not available 186 Table B.3.2 Sampling errors - Urban sample: men~ Uganda 1995 Number of cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 1.000 .000 657 281 NA .000 1.000 1.000 NOEDUC 0.054 .014 657 281 1.536 .252 0.027 0.081 EDUC 0.572 .026 657 281 1.345 .045 0.520 0.623 NEVMAR 0.377 .027 657 281 1.437 .072 0.323 0.431 CURMAR 0.557 .026 657 281 1.337 .047 0.505 0.609 AGEM20 0.157 .019 534 228 1.197 .120 0.119 0.195 SEXIg 0.662 .022 534 228 1.065 .033 0.618 0.705 KMETHO 0.994 .006 378 157 1.450 .006 0.983 1.000 KMODME 0.992 ,006 378 157 1.324 .006 0.980 1.000 EVUSE 0.629 .030 378 157 1.219 ,048 0.568 0.690 CUSE 0.420 ,031 378 157 1.238 .075 0.358 0.483 CUMODE 0.317 .029 378 157 1.226 .093 0.258 0.376 CUPILL 0.121 .019 378 157 1.108 .154 0.084 0.158 CUIUD 0.013 .007 378 157 1.220 .545 0.000 0.027 CUINJ 0.063 .017 378 157 1.326 .263 0.030 0.096 CUCOND 0.083 .021 378 157 1.454 .248 0.042 0.125 CUFSTER 0,029 .010 378 157 1.115 .330 0.010 0.049 CUPABS 0.073 .014 378 157 1,066 .196 0.044 0.101 NOMORE 0.288 .055 379 157 1.257 .191 0.178 0.398 DELAY 0.405 .061 379 157 1.371 .152 0.282 0.528 IDEAL 4.860 .107 647 276 1.057 .022 4.646 5.075 NA = Not applicable 187 Table B.4.1 Sampl ing errors - Rural sample: women t Uganda 1995 Num~rofc~es Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SI~ URBAN 0.000 0.000 4631 6015 NA NA 0.000 0.000 NOEDUC 0.341 0.016 4631 6015 2.356 .048 0.308 0.374 EDUC 0.089 0.008 4631 6015 1.926 .091 0.073 0.105 NEVMAR 0.138 0.006 4631 6015 1.251 .046 0.125 0.151 CURMAR 0.752 0.009 4631 6015 1.403 .012 0.734 0.770 AGEM20 0.769 0.009 3626 4686 1.303 .012 0.751 0.787 SEXI8 0.721 0.009 3626 4686 1.247 .013 0.703 0.740 EVBORN 3.571 0.046 4631 6015 0.993 .013 3.479 3.663 IeVB40 7.378 0.134 612 796 1.033 .018 7.109 7.646 SURVIV 2,947 0.041 4631 6015 1.048 .014 2.865 3.028 KMETHO 0.928 0.010 3468 4522 2.345 .011 0.907 0.948 KMODME 0.909 0.012 3468 4522 2.420 .013 0.885 0,932 EVUSE 0.298 0.012 3468 4522 1.535 .040 0.274 0.322 CUSE 0.122 0.008 3468 4522 1.369 ,062 0.107 0.137 CUMODE 0.051 0.005 3468 4522 1.337 .098 0.041 0.061 CUPILL 0.016 0.003 3468 4522 1.463 .197 0.010 0.022 CUIUD 0.001 0.000 3468 4522 0.813 .408 0.000 0.002 CUINJ 0.019 0.003 3468 4522 1.217 .149 0.013 0.025 CUCOND 0.004 0.001 3468 4522 1.053 .275 0.002 0.007 CUFSTER 0.010 0.002 3468 4522 1.080 .180 0.007 0.014 CUPABS 0.035 0.003 3468 4522 1.075 .096 0.029 0.042 PSOURC 0.540 0.041 233 291 1.239 .075 0.459 0.621 NOMORE 0.305 0.011 3468 4522 1.353 ,035 0.284 0.326 DELAY 0.365 0.011 3468 4522 1.310 029 0.344 0.386 IDEAL 5.495 0.059 4309 5560 1.653 ,011 5.377 5612 TETANU 0.795 0.010 4126 5321 1.462 .013 0.774 0.816 MEDELI 0.323 0.014 4126 5321 1.681 .045 0.294 0.352 DIAR2W 0.240 0.011 3715 4812 1.466 .045 0.218 0.262 ORSTRE 0.474 0.018 880 1155 0.994 .038 0.439 0.510 MEDTRE 0.543 0.023 880 I 155 1.297 ,042 0.497 0.589 HCARD 0.611 0.018 1086 1414 1.202 .029 0.575 0.647 BCG 0.824 0.014 1086 1414 1.192 .017 0.796 0.852 DPT 0,594 0.021 1086 1414 1.364 ,035 0.553 0.635 POLIO 0.580 0.020 1086 1414 1.305 ,034 0.540 0.620 MEASLE 0.578 0.020 1086 1414 1.314 ,034 0.539 0.618 FULLIM 0.463 0.020 1086 1414 1.340 .044 0.423 0.504 WGTHGT 0.054 0.004 3263 4239 1.067 .080 0.045 0.062 HGTAGE 0.403 0.010 3263 4239 1.155 .025 0.383 0.424 WGTAGE 0.268 0.010 3263 4239 1.217 .036 0.249 0.288 TFR 7.166 0.134 4631 6015 1.251 .019 6.899 7.434 NMORT 32.659 2.079 9511 12280 1.018 .064 28.501 36.817 PNMORT 54.973 3.103 9526 12295 1.216 .056 48.766 61.180 INMORT 87.632 4.027 9527 12297 1,238 .046 79.578 95.686 CMORT 78.380 4.613 9613 12418 1.371 .059 69.155 87.606 U5MORT 159.144 6.004 9630 12436 1.346 .038 147.135 171.152 NA = Not available 188 Table B.4.2 Sampling errors - Rural sample: men T Uganda 1995 Number of cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0.000 .000 NOEDUC 0.126 .011 EDUC 0.201 .015 NEVMAR 0.284 .017 CURMAR 0.639 .018 AGEM20 0.247 ,015 SEXI8 0.573 .018 KMETHO 0.981 .005 KMODME 0.946 ,015 EVUSE 0.402 .019 CUSE 0.227 .017 CUMODE 0.072 .009 CUPILL 0.021 .005 CUIUD 0,001 .001 CUINJ 0.021 .005 CUCOND 0.017 ,004 CUFSTER 0.012 .004 CUPABS 0.117 .014 NOMORE 0.231 .019 DELAY 0.31 I .022 IDEAL 5.958 .103 1339 1715 NA NA 0.000 0.000 1339 1715 1,212 .087 0.104 0.149 1339 1715 1.377 ,075 0.170 0.231 1339 1715 1.409 .061 0.249 0.318 1339 1715 1.362 .028 0.603 0.674 1087 1381 1.162 .062 0.216 0.277 1087 1381 1.180 .031 0.537 0.608 863 1095 1.062 .005 0.971 0.991 863 1095 1.945 .016 0.917 0.976 863 1095 1.142 .047 0.364 0.440 863 1095 1.172 .074 0.194 0.261 863 1095 1.054 .129 0.054 0.091 863 1095 0.915 .211 0.012 0.030 863 1095 0.663 .708 0.000 0.002 863 1095 1.023 .238 0.011 0.031 863 1095 0.901 .234 0.009 0.025 863 1095 1.030 .322 0.004 0.019 863 1095 1.280 .120 0.089 0.145 864 1096 0.985 .083 0.193 0.270 864 1096 1.084 .072 0.266 0.355 1292 1656 1.191 .017 5.752 6.165 NA = Not available 189 Table B.5.1 Sampling errors - Central region sample: women~ Uganda 1995 Number of cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN NOEDUC EDUC NEVMAR CURMAR AGEM20 SEXI8 EVBORN EVB40 SURVIV KMETHO KMODME EVUSE CUSE CUMODE CUPILL CUIUD CUINJ CUCOND CUFSTER CUPABS PSOURC NOMORE DELAY IDEAL TETANU MEDELI DIAR2W ORSTRE MEDTRE HCARD BCG DPT POLIO MEASLE FUt,LIM WGTHGT HGTAGE WGTAGE TFR NMORT PNMORT INMORT CMORT U5MORT 0.351 0.027 2218 1967 0.144 0.013 2218 1967 0.236 0.017 2218 1967 0.207 0.010 2218 1967 0.632 0.013 2218 1967 0.696 0.018 1656 1465 0.741 0.015 1656 1465 3.205 0.071 2218 1967 7.304 0.231 235 227 2.695 0.061 2218 1967 0.993 0.003 1357 1242 0.984 0.005 1357 1242 0.508 0,022 1357 1242 0.250 0.019 1357 1242 0.162 0.015 1357 1242 0.057 0009 1357 1242 0.009 0.003 1357 1242 0.049 0.008 I357 1242 0.018 0004 1357 1242 0.026 0.005 1357 1242 0036 0.095 1357 1242 I) 408 0.034 370 287 0,396 0.016 1357 1242 0.336 0,014 1357 1242 4727 0.067 2182 1933 0790 0015 [679 1565 0.599 0.024 1679 1565 0.163 0014 1515 141(/ 0443 0.032 256 23 I 0.579 0,034 256 231 06~5 0.023 421 397 0858 0.019 421 397 0.708 0.025 421 397 0672 0.022 421 397 0658 0028 421 397 (I.534 0.030 421 397 0.035 0.006 1312 1224 0,335 0.015 1312 1224 021[ 0.013 1312 1224 6277 0.230 2218 1967 29.558 3,817 3871 3579 47.044 4709 3878 3585 76.602 6.348 3879 3586 70.098 6.129 3907 3612 141,330 9.575 3916 3621 2.651 .077 0.297 0.405 1.683 .087 0.119 0.169 1.935 .074 0.201 0.271 1.218 .051 0.186 0.228 1.308 .021 0.605 0.659 1.563 .025 0.661 0.732 1.347 .020 0.712 0.770 1.076 .022 3.064 3.347 1084 ,032 6.842 7.767 1094 ,023 2.573 2.817 1.190 003 0,987 0.998 1.458 .005 0.975 0.994 1.647 044 0.463 0.553 1.575 .074 0,213 0.287 1.502 .093 0.132 0.192 1.348 .149 0.040 0.074 1.035 300 0.003 0.014 1,339 .159 0.034 0.065 I 149 229 0010 0.027 1120 186 0016 0.036 1.022 143 0.026 0,047 1,316 .083 0.340 0.475 1,212 .041 0.364 0.428 1.064 .041 0.309 0.363 I 506 .014 4.593 4.861 I 373 .019 0.759 0.820 1716 .040 0.551 0,647 1451 .086 0135 0.191 0 978 .071 0.380 0.506 1.065 .059 0.511 0.647 0.981 .035 0.590 0.680 I 164 .022 0.820 0.897 I 175 ,036 0.658 0.759 0991 .033 0.628 0.716 1243 .042 0,602 0.714 1275 .057 0,474 0.594 1 105 .159 0.024 0.046 1.096 043 0.306 0.364 1.096 .059 0.186 0.236 1,191 .037 5.8[8 6.736 1.266 .129 21.923 37.192 1.298 .[00 37,627 58.461 1.392 083 63905 89.298 1.261 .087 57.841 82.356 1.561 068 122.179 160.481 190 Table B.5.2 Sampl ing errors - Central region sample: men, Uganda 1995 Numberofc~es Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value e~xor Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SFJR) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0.329 .026 641 569 1.419 .080 0.276 0.382 NOEDUC 0.097 .012 641 569 1.064 .128 0.072 0.122 EDUC 0.380 .023 641 569 1.223 .062 0.333 0.427 NEVMAR 0.338 .026 641 569 1.388 .077 0.286 0.390 CURMAR 0.557 .025 641 569 1.261 .044 0.508 0.607 AGEM20 0.232 .020 526 463 1.081 .086 0.192 0.271 SEXI8 0.605 .023 526 463 1.066 .038 0.559 0.650 KMETHO 0.994 .004 364 317 1.055 .004 0.985 1.000 KMODME 0.990 .006 364 317 1.097 .006 0.979 1.000 EVUSE 0.446 .032 364 317 1.236 .072 0.381 0,510 CUSE 0.265 .027 364 317 1.187 104 0.210 0.320 CUMODE 0.195 .027 364 317 1.280 .137 0.142 0.248 CUPILL 0.059 .012 364 317 0.965 .202 0.035 0.083 CUIUD 0.005 .003 364 317 0.886 .674 0.000 0.011 CUINJ 0.053 .014 364 317 1.157 .257 0.026 0.080 CUCOND 0.061 .015 364 317 1.170 .241 0.031 0.090 CUFSTER 0.014 .007 364 317 1,066 .462 0.001 0.028 CUPABS 0.030 .008 364 317 0.914 .274 I).013 0.046 NOMORE 0.279 .037 365 318 1026 .133 0.205 0.353 DELAY 0,337 .035 365 318 0.960 .105 0.267 0.408 IDEAL 5,55g .171 632 560 1.368 .031 5.216 5,901 191 Table B.6.1 Sampling errors - Eastern region sample: women~ Uganda 1995 Number of cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Variable URBAN NOEDUC EDUC NEVMAR CURMAR AGEM20 SEXI8 EVBORN EVB40 SURVIV KMETHO KMODME EVUSE CUSE CUMODE CUPILL CU1UD CUINJ CUCOND CUFSTER CUPABS PSOURC NOMORE DELAY IDEAL TETANU MEDELI DIAR2W ORSTRE MEDTRE HCARD BCG DPT POLIO MEASLE FULLIM WGTHGT HGTAGE WGTAGE TFR NMORT PNMORT INMORT CMORT U5MORT 0.093 0.007 1911 1738 1.113 ,080 0.078 0.107 0.295 0.017 1911 1738 1.607 .057 0.261 0.328 0.121 0.012 1911 1738 1.639 .lOl 0.096 0,145 0.105 0.008 1911 1738 1.201 .080 0.089 0.122 0.805 0.012 1911 1738 1,343 .015 0.780 0.829 0,780 0.015 1518 1388 1.402 .019 0.751 0.810 0.792 0.015 1518 1388 1.412 .019 0.762 0.821 3.568 0.091 1911 1738 1~284 .025 3.386 3.750 7,237 0.261 231 225 1.155 .036 6.715 7.759 2,926 0.070 1911 1738 1.175 .024 2.787 3.066 0.939 0.008 1450 1399 1.346 .009 0.922 0.956 0.921 0.010 1450 1399 1.361 .010 0,902 0.940 0.290 0.019 1450 1399 1.567 .064 0.252 0.327 0.114 0.013 1450 1399 1.533 .113 0,088 0.139 0.055 0.008 1450 1399 1.365 .149 0,039 0.071 0.014 0.005 1450 1399 1.458 .319 0.005 0.023 0.003 0,001 1450 1399 0.660 .332 0.001 0.005 0.017 0.005 1450 1399 1.453 .290 0.007 0.027 0.007 0.002 1450 1399 0.991 .300 0.003 0.012 0.014 0.003 1450 1399 1,111 .249 0.007 0.020 0.020 0.003 1450 1399 0,866 ,159 0,014 0.026 0.541 0.051 151 92 1.256 .095 0.438 0.643 0.303 0.016 1450 1399 1.298 .052 0.271 0.334 0.350 0.021 1450 1399 1.699 ,061 0,308 0,393 5.511 0.070 1863 1693 1.362 .013 5.371 5.650 0.841 0.018 1698 1638 1,788 .021 0.805 0.876 0.413 0.023 1698 1638 1.679 .056 0.367 0.460 0.262 0.018 1506 1454 1.556 .069 0.226 0.298 0,462 0,024 394 381 0.923 .052 0.414 (I.510 0.601 0,032 394 381 1.283 .054 0.537 0.666 0.576 0.027 443 431 1,196 .048 0.521 0.631 0.808 0.024 443 431 1.307 .029 0.760 0.855 0.491 0.030 443 431 1.291 .061 0.431 0.551 0.469 0.032 443 431 1.381 .068 0.405 0.533 0.480 0.028 443 431 1.227 .059 0.423 0.537 0.344 0.029 443 431 1.309 .084 0.286 0.401 0.066 0.009 1299 1268 1.272 .131 0.049 0.084 0.356 0.020 1299 1268 1.553 ,057 0.316 0.396 0.273 0.021 1299 1268 1.679 ,077 0.231 0.315 7.381 0.223 1911 1738 1.443 .030 6.934 7.828 38.383 3.694 3724 3615 1.072 .095 31.076 45.691 59.715 4.878 3737 3623 1.251 .082 49.958 69.472 98.098 6.587 3737 3623 1.271 .067 84.925 111.271 86.012 7.192 3773 3665 1.311 .084 71.629 100.396 175.673 9.593 3786 3672 1.426 .055 156.487 194.859 192 Table B.6.2 Sampling errors - Eastern region sample: men T Uganda 1995 Number of cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEBT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0.086 .007 546 497 0.615 .086 0.071 0.101 NOEDUC 0.122 .022 546 497 1.559 .179 0.079 0.166 EDUC 0.227 .027 546 497 1.520 .120 0.172 0.282 NEVMAR 0.294 .028 546 497 1.426 .095 0.239 0.350 CURMAR 0.641 .026 546 497 1.256 .040 0.589 0.692 AGEM20 0.227 .023 442 403 1.164 .102 0.181 0.273 SEXI8 0.689 .026 442 403 1.179 .038 0.637 0.741 KMETHO 0.992 .006 350 318 1.182 .006 0.981 1.000 KMODME 0.980 .009 350 318 1.189 .009 0.963 0.998 EVUSE 0.454 .033 350 318 1.255 .074 0.387 0.521 CUSE 0.250 .030 350 318 1.308 .121 0.189 0.311 CUMODE 0.102 .017 350 318 1.025 .163 0.069 0.135 CUPILL 0.032 .009 350 318 0.912 .269 0.015 0.049 CUIUD 0.005 .003 350 318 0.726 .536 0.000 0.011 CUINJ 0.016 .005 350 318 0.698 .297 0.006 0.025 CUCOND 0.019 .008 350 318 1.140 .434 0.003 0.036 CUFSTER 0.030 .010 350 318 1.064 .322 0.011 0.050 CUPABS 0.102 .022 350 318 1.388 .221 0.057 0.146 NOMORE 0.221 .031 351 319 1.071 .142 0.158 0.283 DELAY 0.266 .037 351 319 1.221 .139 0.192 0.340 IDEAL 5.915 .186 541 492 1.304 .031 5.543 6.287 193 Table B.7A Sampling errors - Northern region sample: women~ Uganda 1995 Number of cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (I)EPT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0,070 0.009 1136 1398 1.233 .134 0.051 0.088 NOEDUC 0.476 0.054 1136 1398 3.621 .113 0.368 0.583 EDUC 0.065 0.013 1136 1398 1.781 .201 0.039 0.091 NEVMAR 0.119 0.013 1136 1398 1,353 109 0.1193 0.145 CURMAR 0.798 0.017 1136 1398 1.410 .021 0.764 0.832 AGEM20 0.787 0.014 850 1054 11.990 .018 0.760 0.815 SEXI8 0,691 0.020 850 1054 1.273 ,029 0.651 0.731 EVBORN 3.171 0.068 1136 1398 11.800 .022 3.035 3.308 EVB40 6.551 0.286 125 159 1.076 ,044 5.978 7.124 SURVIV 2520 0.069 1136 1398 1.014 .027 2.382 2657 KMETHO 0.845 0.036 863 1115 2.916 .043 0.773 0.917 KMODME 11.794 0.041 863 1115 2.955 .051 0,713 0876 EVUSE 0358 0.029 863 1115 1.800 .082 0.299 11.416 CUSE 0.136 0.013 863 1115 1.140 .098 0.109 0,162 CUMODE 0025 0.005 863 1115 11.921 .197 0.015 0.034 CUPILL 0.005 0.002 863 1 115 I).858 ,427 0.001 0009 CUIUD 00(11 11.000 863 1115 11.482 .717 0.000 00(11 CU[NJ 0.012 0.004 863 1115 1.140 .357 0.003 0.020 CUCOND (/.01/3 0.001 863 1 I 15 I).800 499 0000 0006 CUFSTER 0.003 0002 863 1 115 0.898 544 0000 0.007 CUPABS 0.071 11.1110 863 1115 1.174 .144 0.1151 /1092 PSOURC I).740 0.102 45 31 1.539 .138 0.536 0.944 NOMORE 0.202 0027 863 1115 1.982 134 0.148 0.256 DELAY 0.397 0.022 863 1 115 1.302 ,055 0353 0.440 IDEAL 5.695 0171 966 1152 2.244 .030 5354 6.1137 TETANU 0.848 0019 908 1164 1.562 1123 0.809 0.886 MEDELI /).226 0027 908 1164 1.731 ,118 0.173 0.279 DIAR2W 1/.343 11.029 810 1057 1641 ,083 {).285 0.400 ORSTRE 0572 0033 252 362 1072 057 11506 0.637 MEDTRE 0 566 0,056 252 362 1.838 100 0.453 0.678 HCARD 0527 0038 248 335 1.251 .073 11451 1/.604 BCG /).827 0,033 248 335 1.392 .039 0.762 I).892 DPT 0.479 1/.062 248 335 2.021 .129 11355 0.603 POLIO 11.434 0.054 248 335 1.769 ,124 0.327 0.541 MEASLE 0.515 0.052 248 335 1.682 .100 /1412 11.619 FULLIM 0347 0.054 248 335 1.853 155 0.240 0.455 WGTHGT 0.076 0.0[1 711 930 1.118 .141 0,054 0097 tIGTAGE 0.419 0.018 711 930 0.984 .043 0,383 11.455 WGTAGE 0316 0.019 711 930 1.086 ,059 0.278 0.353 TFR 6823 I).306 1136 1398 1.453 .045 6.21/) 7436 NMORT 33588 4.885 2059 2653 I . I I6 .145 23.817 43359 PNMORT 65754 8.266 2/1611 2655 1,397 .126 49.222 82286 INMORT 99342 10.306 2060 2655 1.391 .1114 78730 119955 CMORT 100607 13.760 2081 2693 1.786 .137 73.087 128.127 U5MORT 189955 13.665 21182 2965 1.246 d172 [62.625 217284 194 Table B.7.2 Sampl ing errors - Northern region sample: men~ Uganda 1995 Number of cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (R) (SE) IN) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN 0.055 .014 NOEDUC 0.098 .023 EDUC 0.209 .037 NEVMAR 0.283 ,043 CURMAR 0.654 .049 AGEM20 0.313 .042 SEXI8 0.554 .041 KMETHO 0.976 .008 KMODME 0.865 .051 EVUSE 0.590 .042 CUSE 0.343 .040 CUMODE 0.038 .011 CUPILL 0.016 .009 CUIUD 0.000 .000 CUINJ 0.005 .005 CUCOND 0.016 .002 CUFSTER 0.00l .001 CUPABS 0.257 .038 NOMORE 0.210 .051 DELAY 0.388 .066 IDEAL 5,993 .187 331 419 1.083 0.248 0.028 0.082 331 419 1.414 0.237 0,051 0.144 331 419 1.659 0.178 0.135 0.283 331 419 1.741 0.153 0.196 0.369 331 419 1.879 0.075 0.555 0.752 262 326 1.450 0.133 0.230 0.396 262 326 1.336 0.074 0.472 0.637 217 274 0.741 0.008 0.960 0.991 217 274 2.179 0.059 0.764 0.966 217 274 1.263 0.072 0.505 0.674 217 274 1.246 0.117 0.263 0.424 217 274 0.883 0.303 0.015 0.061 217 274 1.034 0.543 0.000 0.034 217 274 NA NA 0.000 0.000 217 274 1.074 1.063 0.000 0.015 217 274 0.224 0.121 0.012 0.019 217 274 0.474 0.994 0.000 0.003 217 274 1,264 0.146 0.181 0,332 217 274 1.009 0,244 0.107 0.313 217 274 1.228 0,171 0.255 0.520 310 395 1.148 0.031 5.619 6.366 195 Table B.8.1 Sampl ing errors - Western region sample: women~ Uganda 1995 Number of cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFr) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN NOEDUC EDUC NEVMAR CURMAR AGEM20 SEXI8 EVBORN EVB40 SURVIV KMETHO KMODME EVUSE CUSE CUMODE CUPILL CUIUD CUINJ CUCOND CUFSTER CUPABS PSOURC NOMORE DELAY IDEAL TETANU MEDELI DIAR2W ORSTRE MEDTRE HCARD BCG DPT POLIO MEASLE FULLIM WGTHGT HGTAGE WGTAGE TFR NMORT PNMORT INMORT CMORT U5MORT 0.054 0.007 1805 1968 1246 .123 0.041 0.067 0.357 0.021 1805 1968 1890 .060 0.314 0.399 0.095 0.013 1805 1968 1943 .141 0.068 0.122 0.178 0.012 1805 1968 1,301 .066 0.155 0.202 0.700 0.017 1805 1968 1.540 .024 0.667 0.733 0.734 0.017 1422 1557 1.461 .023 0.700 0.768 0.644 0.019 1422 1557 1.481 .029 0.606 0.682 3.633 0.075 1805 1968 0.981 .021 3.483 3.783 7.731 0.207 235 269 1.015 .027 7.317 8.145 3.091 0.067 1805 1968 1.031 .022 2.957 3.226 0.947 0.006 1228 1378 1.005 .007 0.934 0.960 0.946 0.007 1228 1378 1.053 .007 0.933 0.960 0.220 0.018 1228 1378 1.525 .082 0.184 0.256 0.103 0013 1228 1378 1.456 .123 0.078 0.128 0.069 0.010 1228 1378 1.331 .140 0.050 0.088 0.029 0.006 1228 1378 1305 ,218 0.016 0.041 0.002 0001 1228 1378 0.977 .582 0.000 0.005 0.021 0.005 1228 1378 1129 .218 0.012 0.031 0.003 0.001 1228 1378 0893 .444 0(300 0.006 0.013 0.004 1228 1378 1.338 .331 0.004 0.022 0.019 0.005 1228 1378 1.329 .275 0.008 0.029 0.512 0.066 160 114 1676 .130 0,379 0.645 0.323 0018 1228 1378 1346 .056 0.287 0.359 0.374 0018 1228 1378 1339 .049 0.337 0.411 5.461 0.111 1681 1815 1836 020 5.240 5.683 0.742 0.020 1471 1661 1594 .027 0.701 0.782 0,241 0,026 1471 1661 1.995 .107 0.189 0.292 0.200 0.011 1357 1525 1.034 .057 0.177 0.223 0.427 0.039 270 305 1.227 .090 0.350 0.505 0.450 0.037 270 305 1.166 .081 0.376 0.523 0.667 0.037 363 425 1522 .056 0.593 0.741 0.853 0.026 363 425 1,353 .030 0.801 0.904 0.747 0.035 363 425 1.543 .047 0.676 0.817 0.760 0.033 363 425 1.474 .044 0.693 0.826 0720 0.035 363 425 1.504 .049 0.649 0.790 0.651 0.035 363 425 1.414 .054 0.580 0.721 0,041 0.007 1198 1354 1.171 .166 0.028 0.055 0.428 0.(118 1198 1354 1.249 .043 0.391 0.464 0.238 0.015 1[98 1354 1.188 .062 0.208 0267 6,985 0.248 1805 1968 1.384 .035 6.489 7.481 26785 3.050 3538 4029 1.058 .114 20.686 32.885 48.336 5,558 3540 4030 1.419 .115 37.220 59,452 75.121 6.927 3541 4032 1.435 .092 61.267 88.976 60.065 6.347 3563 4057 1321 .106 47.372 72.759 130.674 9.996 3567 4061 1.520 076 110.682 150.666 196 Table B.8.2 Sampling errors - Western region sample: men T Uganda 1995 Numberofc~es Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R÷2SE URBAN 0.054 ,007 478 511 0.657 .125 0.041 0.068 NOEDUC 0.147 .020 478 511 1.221 .135 0.107 0.186 EDUC 0172 ,025 478 511 1.449 .145 0.122 0.222 NEVMAR 0,265 .028 478 511 1.372 .105 0.210 0.320 CURMAR 0,670 029 478 51 I 1.364 .044 0.611 0.729 AGEM20 0.181 .025 391 418 1.281 ,138 0,131 0.231 SEXI8 0.487 .036 391 418 1.434 ,075 0.414 0.560 KMETHO 0,968 .013 310 343 1.302 .014 0.941 0.994 KMODME 0.960 .014 310 343 1.246 .014 0.933 0.988 EVUSE 0.267 .023 310 343 0.912 .086 0.221 0.312 CUSE 0.167 .022 310 343 1.044 .133 0.123 0.212 CUMODE 0.070 .015 310 343 1.047 .217 0.040 0.100 CUPILL 0.026 .008 310 343 0.901 .312 0.010 0.043 CUIUD 0.000 ,000 310 343 NA NA 0.000 0.000 CUINJ 0.029 .011 310 343 I, 110 .366 0.008 0.050 CUCOND 0.006 .003 310 343 0.814 .620 0.000 0.012 CUFSTER 0.009 .006 310 343 1.177 .719 0.000 0.021 CUPABS 0.081 .0[7 310 343 1,099 .211 0.047 0.115 NOMORE 0.241 .027 310 343 0.976 .110 0.188 0.294 DELAY 0309 .028 310 343 0.962 .090 0.253 0.364 IDEAL 5.811 177 456 486 1,319 .030 5.458 6.164 NA = Not available 197 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABULATIONS Table C.1 Household age distribution Single-year age distribution of the de facto household population by sex (weighted), Uganda 1995 Males Females Males Females Age Number Percent Number Percent Age Number Percent Number Percent < 1 766 4.4 771 4.2 37 123 0.7 102 0.6 1 690 4.0 764 4.2 38 170 1.0 184 1.0 2 619 3.6 658 3.6 39 95 0.5 90 0.5 3 690 4.0 684 3.7 40 243 1.4 222 1.2 4 683 4.0 708 3.9 41 50 0,3 62 0.3 5 682 4.0 715 3.9 42 122 0.7 77 0.4 6 659 3.8 696 3.8 43 86 0.5 63 0.3 7 580 3.4 589 3.2 44 54 0.3 46 0.3 8 597 3.5 647 3.5 45 147 0.9 125 0.7 9 533 3,1 518 2.8 46 54 0.3 39 0.2 10 616 3.6 610 3,3 47 69 0.4 48 0.3 11 364 2.1 413 2.3 48 74 0.4 67 0.4 12 567 3.3 562 3.1 49 46 0.3 39 0.2 13 488 2.8 530 2.9 50 136 0.8 139 0.8 14 492 2.9 424 2.3 51 42 0.2 115 0.6 15 375 2.2 273 1.5 52 85 0.5 141 0.8 16 340 2.0 353 1.9 53 53 0.3 77 0.4 17 293 1.7 268 1.5 54 54 0.3 87 0.5 18 350 2.0 468 2.6 55 72 0.4 99 0.5 19 223 1.3 324 1.8 56 84 0.5 78 0.4 20 374 2.2 478 2.6 57 60 0.3 40 0,2 21 166 1.0 239 1.3 58 67 0.4 95 0.5 22 232 1.3 319 1.7 59 36 0.2 25 0.1 23 255 1.5 286 1,6 60 135 0.8 178 1.0 24 232 1.3 303 1.7 61 25 0.i 32 0.2 25 331 1.9 368 2.0 62 52 0.3 43 0,2 26 222 1.3 234 1.3 63 44 0.3 43 0.2 27 190 1.1 218 1,2 64 23 0.1 25 0.1 28 273 1.6 329 1.8 65 113 0.7 105 0.6 29 145 0.8 179 1.0 66 24 0.1 18 0.1 30 285 1.7 420 2.3 67 40 0.2 25 0.1 31 140 0.8 94 0,5 68 42 0.2 31 0.2 32 204 1.2 238 1.3 69 18 0,1 24 0.1 33 128 0.7 139 0.8 70+ 370 2, I 351 1.9 34 116 0.7 121 0.7 Don't know/ 35 262 1,5 278 1.5 Missing 45 0.3 20 0.1 36 128 0.7 148 0.8 Total 17,240 100.0 18,323 100.0 Note: The de facto population includes all residents and nonresidents who slept in the household the night before the interview. 201 Table C.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women and men Percent distribution of the de facto household population of women age 10-54 and men age 10-69, and of interviewed women age 15-49 and men age 15-54, and the percentage of eligible women and men who were interviewed (weighted) by five-year age groups, Uganda 1995 Household population Persons interviewed Age Number Percent Number Percent Percent interviewed (weighted) WOMEN 111-14 2,539 - 15-19 1,685 23.3 1,609 23.1 95.4 20-24 1,626 22.5 1,568 22.6 96.5 25-29 1,328 18.3 1,289 18.5 97.1 30-34 1,011 14./) 970 14.0 95.9 35-39 8(13 11,1 766 11.0 95.4 40-44 471 6,5 445 6.4 94.6 45-49 31 g 4.4 302 4.3 94.9 50-54 559 15-49 7,243 6,949 95.9 MEN 1(I-14 950 15-19 454 20.6 394 19.8 86.8 20-24 405 18.4 362 18.1 89.2 25-29 390 17.7 353 17.7 90.6 3/)-34 281 12.8 257 12.9 91.4 35-39 256 I 1.6 244 12.3 95.3 40-44 202 9.2 183 9.2 90.7 45-49 121 5.5 1(17 5.4 88.9 50-54 96 4.3 92 4.6 95.7 55-59 I 13 0.0 0 0.0 0.0 60-64 113 65-69 75 15-54 2,206 1,993 90.4 Note: The de facto populalion includes all residents and nonresidents who slept in the household the night before the interview. 202 Table C.3 Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations missing information for selected demographic and health questions (weighted), Uganda 1995 Percentage Number missing of Subject Reference group information cases Birth date Births in last 15 years Month only 5,97 18,266 Month and year 0,06 18,266 Age at death 0.09 2,716 Age/date at first union I 0.99 5,963 Respondent's education 0.00 7,070 Child's size at birth 5.04 1,627 Anthropometry 2 Height missing 7.07 5,447 Weight missing 6.97 5,447 Height or weight missing 7.20 5,447 Diarrhoea in last 2 weeks Deaths to births in last 15 years Ever-married women All women Births in last 35 months Living children age 0-35 months Living children age 0-35 months 3.66 5,447 i Both year and age missing 2 Child not measured 203 Table C.4 Births by calendar years Distribution of births by calendar years for l iving (L), dead (D). and all (T) children, according to reporting completeness, sex ratio at birth, and ratio of births by calendar year, Uganda 1995 Percentage with Sex ratio Number of births complete birth date I at birth 2 Calendar ratio 3 Male Female Year L D T L D T L D T L D T L D T L D T 94 1,627 143 1.769 99.5 95.6 99.2 95.6 150.5 99.1 - 795 86 881 832 57 889 93 1,389 156 1.544 98.8 94.0 98.3 89.9 87.7 89.7 95.8 100.2 963 657 73 730 731 83 814 92 1,271 168 1,438 97.1 91.5 96.4 102.8 89.8 101.2 104,5 107.2 104.9 644 79 723 627 88 715 91 1,043 157 1,200 97.3 88.6 96.2 94.5 60,8 89.3 78.9 69.6 77.6 506 59 566 536 98 634 90 1.371 284 1,655 95.1 85.1 93.4 94.0 1003 95.1 128,9 150.5 132.1 664 142 807 707 142 848 89 1,085 220 1,305 94,4 85,7 92.9 90.0 105.9 92.5 896 87,5 89,3 514 113 627 571 107 678 88 1.050 219 1,270 93.5 85.0 92.1 90.4 112,6 93.9 100.8 103.2 101.2 499 116 615 551 103 655 87 998 205 1.202 934 82.9 91,6 88.1 100.8 90.1 97.5 99.7 97.9 467 103 570 530 102 632 86 997 191 1,188 93.5 82.4 91.8 103.7 1535 110.4 103.8 95,4 102.3 507 116 623 489 75 565 85 923 196 1,119 92.6 84.1 91.1 94.4 I03.1 95,9 448 100 548 475 97 571 90-94 6.700 907 7,607 97.6 90.1 96.7 95.2 939 95.0 - 3,267 439 3.707 3.432 468 3,900 85-89 5,053 1.032 6.085 93.5 84.1 91.9 93.1 113.1 96.2 2.436 548 2.983 2.617 484 3,101 80-84 3.507 843 4,350 92.0 85.8 90.8 95.2 118.9 99,4 1,710 458 2.168 1.797 385 2,182 75-79 2.195 650 2,844 90.4 82.5 88.6 102.5 105,1 103,1 - 1.111 333 1.444 1,084 317 1.400 <75 1,946 644 2,589 91.1 82.9 89,1 102.7 106.8 103.7 - 986 332 1,318 960 311 1,271 All 19.400 4,07523,475 94.1 85.3 92,5 96,2 107.4 98.0 9.5102.11011,620 9,890 1,96511.855 NA = Not applicable i Both year and month of birth given 2 (BJB~)* 100. where B m and B I are the numbers of male and female births, respectively {2Bx/(B x i+Bx+l)]* 100, where B x is the number of births in calendar year x 204 Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in days Distribution of reported deaths under one month of age by age at death in days and the percentage of neonatal deaths reported to occur at ages 0-6 days, for five-year periods preceding the survey, Uganda 1995 Number of years preceding the survey Age at death Total (in days) 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-19 <1 69 82 62 48 261 1 26 32 28 24 110 2 18 16 13 9 55 3 12 18 10 2 42 4 8 11 6 5 31 5 6 3 4 2 15 6 8 6 2 2 18 7 27 26 24 19 97 8 2 7 12 2 23 9 4 3 4 2 14 I0 0 4 I 1 7 I1 0 1 0 0 1 12 1 0 2 0 4 13 3 1 2 0 6 14 6 9 16 13 44 15 1 0 2 0 3 16 2 2 3 I 8 20 I 0 2 0 3 21 I 5 0 0 7 22 0 1 0 0 1 24 2 1 0 0 3 25 0 0 0 1 2 26 0 I 1 0 2 28 I 3 0 0 3 29 0 I 0 0 1 30 3 I 0 0 4 31+ 0 0 0 1 1 Total 0-30 202 235 194 133 765 Percent early neonatal I 72.9 71.2 64.3 69.2 69.6 I (0-6 days/0-30 days) * 100 205 Table C.6 Reporting of age at death in months Distribution of reported deaths under two years of age by age at death in months and the percentage of infant deaths reported to occur at ages under one month, for five-year periods preceding the survey, Uganda 1995 Number of years preceding the survey Age at death Total (in months) 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-19 <1 a 202 235 196 133 766 I 36 35 25 19 115 2 48 49 22 16 135 3 37 45 26 20 128 4 27 29 17 23 96 5 27 19 14 16 76 6 30 42 29 19 120 7 43 41 20 15 118 8 25 34 31 35 125 9 38 42 19 15 113 10 19 5 9 2 35 11 18 10 11 12 51 12 19 39 28 24 111 13 4 23 13 8 48 14 23 19 18 6 66 15 15 14 6 4 39 16 7 4 7 4 22 17 5 7 14 4 30 18 17 32 22 17 88 19 7 6 10 3 25 20 7 12 3 0 23 21 2 3 5 2 12 22 3 6 1 3 13 23 6 6 7 3 22 24+ 0 0 I 0 1 I year 34 27 21 16 97 Total 0-11 551 586 417 326 1,879 Percent neonatal b 36.7 40.2 47.0 40.8 40.8 a Includes deaths under 1 month reported in days b (Under 1 month/under 1 year) * 100 206 APPENDIX D PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 1995 UGANDA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY APPENDIX D PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 1995 UGANDA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY Administrative Dr. E.S.K. Muwanga-Zake, Commissioner for Statistics Dr. J. Musinguzi, Director, Population Secretariat/Chairman, Technical Committee Mr. M.N. Kiwesi, Deputy Commissioner for Statistics Statistics Department Mr. S.K. Gupta, Consultant Mr. Z.E.A. Kaija, Project Director Mr. LL. Kagugube, Statistician/Demographer Ms. I.N. Nviid (Late), Statistician/Demographer Mr. J. Muwonge, Statistician Mr. P.K. Das, Administration and Finance Management Officer Macro International Staff Dr. Tulshi Saha, Country Monitor Ms. Anne R. Cross, Regional Coordinator Dr. Alfredo Aliaga, Senior Sampling Specialist Mr. Keith Purvis, Data Processing Specialist Dr. Ann Blanc, Demographic Analysis Coordinator Dr. Jacob Adetunji, Fellow Ms. Trina Yannicos, Editor Ms. Kaye Mitchell, Document Production Specialist Mr. Jonathan Dammons, Graphics Specialist Chapters Authors 1, 2 Mr. Z.E.A. Kaija 3, 5 Mr. Andrew Mukulu 4 Dr. Florence Ebanyat 6 Mr. J.L. Kagugube 7, 10 Dr. John Ssekamatte Ssebuliba 8 Dr. Kiboneka Katunze 9 Ms. Ursula Wangwe 11 Dr. N. Bakyaita 12 Dr. Tulshi Saha 209 J. Musinguzi E.S.K. Muwanga-Zake J. Kabera J. Bazirake I. Tumwesigire Francois Farah E. Sekatawa Ssekamatte Ssebuliba Z.E.A.Kaija I. Nabulya Nviiri (Late) David Kigongo I.O. Lojwero Joseph Atiku L. Sserunjogi Andrew Mukulu Odongkara Fred G. Rutaremwa Tony Kakuba Steering Committee/Technical Committee H. Burunde F. Ebanyat J. Kafuko Robert Jenkins Jessica Jitta Evas Kansiime Muwonge James J.L. Kagugube Mbonye Kabanza J.P.M. Ntozi S.K. Gupta Tulshi Saha M.L. Srivastava G.W. Lutaya-Kamya Henry Kalule Sebastian O. Baine Grace Ekudu Victoria Matovu R. Sempebwa Dr. Tulshi Saha Mr. Irwin Shorr Dr. Pav Govindasamy Ms. M. Omara Dr. Kiboneka Katunze Training Dr. N. Bakyaita Ms. Ursula Wangwe Mr. Z.E.A. Kaija Mr. James Muwonge Ms. Irene Nabulya Nviiri (Late) Mr. Johnson L. Kagugube Luganda - J. Mubiru Runyoro/Rutoro - G.W. Kasigwa, Sabiiti Winyi, Justine Biingi Translation Runyankole/Rukiga - F. Mugisha Luo - Betty Amono, Ochieng William Ateso - Atim Allen, Elidat George William Lugbara - Deboru Grace, Enzama Wilson 210 Field Officers Matsiko Geradine Ojaku Matua Supervisors Sentamu David Kizza Charles Mulyagonja Norah Kifuko Freda Nabende Stephen Editors Mukiibi Julliet Namata Stella Kiguli Lillian Kintu Margaret Atim Allen Interviewers Lwanga W.W. Nalule Rose Nambalirwa Norah Nabuuma Diana Musoke Lydia Kyasikane Livingstone Nantongo Jane Zalwango Rehanah Kaweesa Hadijah Namata Jane Francis Wandera Naftali Kaigula Joan Nankwalu Monica Kansiime Evas Namanya Emilly Wandwasi Isreal Kibooli Grace Kharunda Lydia Meya Eunice Namutebi Rosemary Eyagu Francis Nakirya Rosette Araakit Jaquiline Ecweikin Angella Field Staff Mpatswe Aloysious Epalitai William Ochieng William Enzama Wilson Turyaheebwa Hannington Turyamureeba John Baptist Sabiiti Winyi Angulo-Atim Santa Avua Nelda Musekura Ruth Tumwebaze Jenifer Biingi Justine Ajore Ane Onywarong Albon Akech Lillian Ekwau Hellen Olwoch Josephine Adongakulu Robert Alonzi Francis Viko Hadija Deboru Grace Aluma Christine Tiakoru Julliet Mugisha Albert Tuhairwe Proscovia Kyalimpa Caroline Bigirwenkya Jenifer Kiiza Alfred Mugisha Jimmy Atwine Naome Kyalimpa Diana Agasha Juliet Kamugisha Richard Baguma Fred Tibamwenda Julliet Kiiza Phoebe Ayesiza Rosemary 211 Edumu Martin Tamusuza Anthony Maedero Samuel Nabuyobo Anna Babirye Prosvia Data Processing Okecha Alice Mutangana Grace Angolikin Winnifred Kaitesi Cossy Munduru Irene Lukwago Aloysious Kityamuweesi Moses Masembe Josephine UDHS Office/Transport/Finance Inenu Rose Ochola Francis Shaban Abdalla 212 APPENDIX E QUESTIONNAIRES UGANDA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE IDENTIF ICAT ION REGION DISTRICT COUNTY SUB-COUNTY/TOWN PARISH/RC2 NAME EA NAME UDHS NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . URBAN/RURAL (Urban=l , Rura l=2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C ITY /MUNIC IPAL ITY~TOWN/COUNTRYSIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (C l ty=l , mun ic ipa l i ty=2, town=3, count rys ide=4) HOUSEHOLD NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NAME OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD HOUSEHOLD SELECTED FOR MALE SURVEY? (YES=l, NO=21 El_ INTERVIEWER V IS ITS 1 2 DATE INTERVIEWER'S NAME RESULT* NEXT V IS IT : DATE T IME *RESULT CODES: 1 COMPLETED 2 NO HOUSEHOLD MEMBER AT HOME OR NO COMPETENT RESPONDENT AT HOME AT T IME OF V IS IT 3 ENT IRE HOUSEHOLD ABSENT FOR EXTENDED PERIOD 4 POSTPONED 5 REFUSED 6 DWELL ING VACANT OR ADDRESS NOT A DWELL ING 7 DWELL ING DESTROYED 8 DWELL ING NOT FOUND 9 OTHER 3 F INAL V IS IT DAY MONTH Y EAR NAME RESULT TOTAL - - NUMBER OF V IS ITS TOTAL IN HOUSEHOLD~ TOTAL WOMEN 15-49 MEN 15-54~- - - ] L INE NO. OF RESP. I [ ] OF HOUSE- HOLD SCHEDULE LANGUAGE OF QUEST IONNAIRE: ENGL ISH SUPERVISOR F IELD EDITOR .AME .AME DATE DATE OFF ICE EDITOR KEYED BY 215 t-J HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE NOW we ~J ld Like some informat ion about the people who usua l ly Live in your household or who are staying u i th you rm~. I +.OE.+ NO. VISITORS TO HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD* I GEX I AGE EDUCATION PARENTAL SURVIVORSHIP AND RESIDENCE I FOR PERSONS LESS THAN 15 YEARS OLD*** IF AGE 6 YEARS OR OLDER PLease g ive me the i~hat i s the Does Did Is Ho~ old Has ~ames of the persons re la t ionsh ip (NAME) (MAPLE) :MANE) is -,',MANE) v/liD usua l ly Live in of (NAME) to us•a l l s leep mate (NAME)? ever four household and the heed Live here or been auests of the house- of the here? Last :emate to 1old who stayed here household? n ight? ? ;chooi? Last n ight , s ta r t ing ~ith the heed of the ~ousehotd. (11 I (2) I 131 I (41 (51 1(61 I (71 Im~ml YES NO rES NO M F [N YEARS 'ES NO 01 ~ 1 Z 1 2 1 2 ~ 1 2 02 ~ 1212 12~12 o+ ~ 12 12 12 ~, i2 o, ~ 12 12 12 ~. ,2 1 08 ~ 12 12 1 2 ~ 1 2 • • i i • • i i • i i • • i i IF ATTENDED ECHOIC. ~hat is %F AGE the hLghest LESS Level of THAN school 25 (MANE) YEARS attended? What is the highest IS grade (NAME) ( MAME ) still i r completed school? at that Level?** (9I (10) I LEVEL GRADE YES NO I IS IIF ALIVE I IS (N~) 'S (N~) 'S ~turat O~ ~tura I mther (N~) ' s father a l ive? mturat at i~? ~ther l iw in , th i s h~e- ho(~ iF YES: ~at is her name? I RE~D NOTHERIS LINE N~ER (11) (12) (13) YES NO DK YES NO DK 128 ~ 28 i i 128 ~--~ 28 i i 128 ~ 28 i m 128 ~ 28 i i 128 ~ 28 i i 12D ~ 28 i i 128 ~- -~ 28 i i 128 ~]~ 28 i i 128 ~ 28 i i 128 [~ 28 ELIGI- HUSBAND ELiGI- • BIL[TY • LINE • BILZTY WOMEN NUMBER MEN IF ALIVE CIRCLE WRITE CIRCLE LINE LZNE LiNE Does NUMBER NLINDER NUMBER (NA~E)~s OF ALL OF THE OF ALL natura l WOMEN HUSBAND MEN father AGED OF EACH AGED Live in 15-/.9 ELIGIBLE 15-54 th i s i WOMAN (IF ho~se- I I HOUSE - hold? ~ ITE (~ HOLD IF YES: iF NOT FALLS ~at Ls MARRIED IN h i s name? OR IF MAN RECORD HUSBAND SAMPLE) FATHER*E NOT IN I I LIME HOUSEHOLD NUMEER i (14) (15) (16) (17) • 01 • ~ • 01 M. D2 .~ . °2 M. °' .~ . o' ~ . ~ . ~ . ~ ~ . ~ . ~ . ~ 10 ~ 10 HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE CONTINUED (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) (11) m l I I m Immm Immm m l I I fES NO rES NO M F IN YEARS ~fES NO LEVEL GRADE YES NO YES NO DK 11 ~ 1 2 1 2 2 ~ 1 2 ~ 1 2 1 2 8 13 M I , 2 2 [ -~12r~9 12 12 , • • m • • , , F-~ FFTL F] [~ 15 1 2 2 2 1 2 1 ' 1 2 B 1~, M 1 , 2 2 F T ~ I 2 R ~ 12 i , , 1, ~ i , 2 2 [ ~ 1 2 [ ~ 1 2 12B 1, . i , . 2 . 2. 12. 12!12 , 2o ~ 1 ,12 2[ -~12 [~E~ 12 12~ I I I I I 1 I I I I TICK HERE IF CONTINUATION SHEET USED [ ] TOTAL NUMBER OF ELIGIBLE ~ E N ~ Just to make sure that [ have a complete l i s t ing : 1) Are there any other persons s~h as smaLL ch i ld ren or in fants that we have not Listed? 2) In add i t ion , are there any other people uhomay not be members of your fami ly , such as domestic servants, Lodgers or f r iends who usua l ly Live here? 3) Are there any guests or temporary v i s i to rs staying here, or anyone else who s lept here Last n ight that have not been Listed? * CODES FOR O.] RELATIORSHIP TO HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD: 01= NEhD 05= C, RANOCH%LD 09=- CO-WIFE 02= SPOUSE 06= PARENT 10= OTHER RELATIVE 03= SON OR DAUGHTER 07= PARENT-IN-LAW 11= ADORTED/FOSTER CHILD/STEP CHILD 04= SON-IN-LAW OR DAUGHTER-IN-LAW 08= BROTHER OR SISTER 12= NOT RELATED 98= DOES NOT KNOW *** These quest ions refer to the bioLogicaL parents of the ch i ld . Record O0 i f parent not member Yes YES ~ YES (12) (13) (14) (15) i l i l I YES RO OK ]3 2, , , • 3-1 " I -~ z , • ]-'1 2, I~ 13 -F-1 2, I~ 1, -13 2 , ] -~ 15 -7-1 " M 1~ ] ] " I~ 1, 1 2 8 I I I TOTAL NUMBER OF ELIGIBLE MEN I ]3 I-F-1 I-7-1 11 • ~ • 11 __ . r ~ . 13 _ . [ -~ . 14 __! r~ 1o - - . ~- -~ • 17 - - . ~ • 18 - - . [ ~ • 19 20 [ ~ 20 (16) (17) '~ ENTER EACH IN TABLE NO ,- ENTER EACH IN TABLE NO [ ] ENTER EACH IN TABLE NO [ ] ** COOES FOR D.9 LEVEL OF EDUCATION GRADE: 1= PRIMARY 1-7 2= JUN ]OR 1-3 3= SE~Y 1-6 4= UNIVERSITY 1-5 8= DOES ROT KNOW 8= ~S ROT KN~ NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 18A What i s the main source o f d r ink ing water fo r members o f your household? COOING CATEGCRIES ~ SKIP PIPED INTO RESIDENCE/YARD/PLOT.,.11 ~20 PUBLIC TAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 I WELL IN RESIDENCE/YARD/PLOT . . . . . . . 21 ~20 PUBLIC WELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 BONEHOLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 SPR%HG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 RIVER/STREAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 POND/LAKE/DAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 GRAV%TY FL~,i SCHEME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 RAINWATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 ----~ZO BOTTLED WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 ~ZO OTHER 96 I 18B I Where do you s tore the drinking water? POT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I JERRY CAN . 2 PAN . 3 KALABASH . 4 OTHER 6 18el How ,~h water i s used in th i s household every day? I LITREs . I I I I I I 19 I HOW lon, g does it take to go there, get water, I and come back? I : HuTEB . I PREMISES . 996 20 What k ind o f to i le t fac i l i ty does your household have? FLUSH TOILET O~dN FLUSH TOILET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 SHARED FLUSH TOILET . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 PiT TOILET/LATRINE TRADITIONAL PXT TOILET . . . . . . . . . . 21 %NPROVED PIT LATRINE . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 NO FACILITY/BUSH/FIELD . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 OTHER 96 21 Does your househo ld have: E lec t r i c i ty? A rad io? A te lev i s ion? A te lephone? A re f r igerator? A V ideo An Etect r i¢ cooker YES NO ELECTRICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TELEVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TELEPHONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 REFRIGERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 VIDEO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ELECTRIC COOKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 22 How many ro~ i n your household are used fo r s leep ing? 23 MA%N MATERIAL OF THE FLOOR. REC(~D ONSERVATION. m ~ 24 | Does any member of your household own: I A b icyc le? A motorcyc le? A Motor veh lc te (CAR, BUS, LORRY, TRACTOR) EARTH/SAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 CON DUNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 PARgUET OR POLISHED WK]O0 . . . . . . . . . . 21 VINYL OR ASPHALT STRIPS . . . . . . . . . . . 22 CERAMIC TILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 CEHENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) YES NO BICYCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 MOTORCYCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 MOTOR VEHICLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 m m 25 ghat Type o f sa l t i s usua l ly used fo r cook ing in your household? (ASK TO SEE SALT PACKAGE) LOCAL SALT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PACKAGED SALT ( IODIZED) . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PACKAGED SALT (NOT %00]ZED) . . . . . . . . 3 SALT FOR ANIMALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER SALT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 25A| TEST THE SALT AND WRITE THE RESULT. I IODINE READING (PPM) . . . . . . ~ _ _ 26 | How many mats d id the household have yesterday? I (HEALS: OTHER THAN TEA AND SNACKS) I HUMBER OF MEALS D _ _ 27 In terms o f household consumpt ion , do you th ink that your household i s : Surp lus househo ld Ne i ther surp lus nor de f i c i t Occas iona l ly de f i c i t A lways de f i c i t SURPLUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NEITHER SURPLUS NOR DEFICIT . . . . . . . 2 OCCASIONALLY DEFICIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] ALWAYS DEFICIT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 DOES NOT KNON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 218 UGANDA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY WOMAN'S QUEST IONNAIRE IDENTIF ICAT ION REGION DISTRICT COUNTY SUB-COUNTY/TOWN PARISH/RC2 NAME EA NAME UDHS NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . URBAN/RURAL (Urban=l , Rura l=2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CITY /MUNIC IPAL ITY~TOWN/COUNTRYSIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (City=l , mun ic ipa l i ty=2, town=3, count rys ide=4) HOUSEHOLD NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NAME OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD NAME AND L INE NUMBER OF WOMAN RES IDENTIAL STATUS OF WOMAN (Res ident =i, V i s i to r=2) . DATE INTERVIEWER'S NAME RESULT* NEXT V IS IT : DATE T IME *RESULT CODES: 1 COMPLETED 2 NOT AT HOME 3 POSTPONED INTERVIEWER V IS ITS 1 2 3 4 REFUSED 5 PARTLY COMPLETED 6 INCAPACITATED F INAL V IS IT DAY MONTH YEAR NAME RESULT TOTAL NUMBER OF V IS IT 7 OTHER LANGUAGE OF QUEST IONNAIRE: ENGL ISH LANGUAGE USED IN INTERVIEW** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RESPONDENT'S LOCAL LANGUAGE** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TRANSLATOR USED (NOT AT ALL=l ; SOMETIMES=2; ALL THE T IME=3) . . . . . . . ** LANGUAGE: i ATESO-KARAMOJONG 4 LUO 7 ENGL ISH 2 LUGANDA 5 RUNYANKOLE-RUKIGA 8 OTHER 3 LUGBARA 6 RUNYORO-RUTORO NAME DATE SUPERVISOR NAME DATE F IELD EDITOR OFF ICE EDITOR KEYED BY 219 220 SECTION 1: RESPONDENT'S BACKGROUND NO. I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS I COOING CATEGORIES I SKIP 102 RECORD THE T IME. First I WOULd Like to ask some questions about you and your household, For most of the tfme untiL you were 12 years old, did you l ive in a c i ty , in a i lu l i c ipat i ty , in a town or in the countryside? HOUR,,,., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; CITY (KAMPALA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I MUNICIPALLTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TONR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 COUNTRYSIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 I I 103 HOW Lor~g have you been t i r ing continuously in (NAME OF I YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 1 CONREWT PLACE OF RESLDENOE)? I I I I I J ALWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 VISITOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 ~ - -b i05 m CITY ( KAMPALA ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l 104 Just before you moved here, did you Live in a c l ty, in a COJNTRYS]DEMUNICIPALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 I municibeLity, in a town, or in the countryside? TOWN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 105 J In ~at ~onth and year were you born? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I DOES MOT KNOW MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ DOES NOT KNOW YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 106 J Now : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : : INCONSISTENT, AGE ,N COMPLETED YEARS . . . . . . . . ~ J 107 I Have you ever attended schooL? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~114 I I - . '1 108 What is the highest revel of school you attended: JUNIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 primary, junior , secondary or university? SECONDARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 UNIVERSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CHECK 106: I AGE 26 AGE 25 OR BELOW! D OR ABOVE ~ r11: 111 I Are you current ly atterxJtn R schooL? J I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 r113 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I 112 What Was the main reason you stopped attending school? GOT PREGNANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 GOT MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 HAD TO CARE FOB YOUNGER CHILDREN,,03 FAM[LY NEEDED HELP ON FARM OR IN BUSINESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 COULD ROT PAY SCHOOL FEES . . . . . . . . . 05 NEEDED TO EARN MONEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 GRADUATED/HAD ENOUGH SCHOOLING.,.,07 FAILED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 DID ROT LIKE SCHOOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 SCHOOL NOT ACOESSIBLE/TO0 FAR . . . . . 10 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) DOES ROT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ENG W~4N 2 221 I 114 ] WouLd you please read th is sentence? I SHOW SENTENCE TO RESPONDENT AND CIRCLE CORRECT COOL I READ EASILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I WITH OIFFICULTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 riOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ~116A I I 115 | Do you usuatty read a newsp~Hoer or ~gazJne at least I once a ~eek? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 116A I How often do you t i s ten to the radio? I EVERY DAY/ALMOST EVERY DAY . . . . . . . . . 1 I AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I AT LEAST ONCE A MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 LESS THAN ONCE A MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 HARDLY/VIRTUALLY NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 ~117A DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ---~117A I 116B W11at times do you usual ly Listen To the radio? CIRCLE ALL TIMES MENTIONED, EARLY MORNING (6.00-8.00) . . . . . . . . . . A MID MORNING (D.OO=lO.OO) . . . . . . . . . . . B LATE MORNING (10.00-12.00) . . . . . . . . . C LUNCH TIME (12.00-14.00) . . . . . . . . . . . D AFTERNOON (14.00-16.00) . . . . . . . . . . . . E LATE AFTERNOON (16.00-18.00) . . . . . . . F EARLY EVENING (18.00-ZO.OO) . . . . . . . . G LATE EVENING (20.DO-STATION CLOSE).H DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 116c What day of the week do you usual ly l ike to l i s ten to the radio? CIRCLE ALL DAYS MENTIONED. MONDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A TUESDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 WEDNESDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C THURSDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D FRIDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E SATURDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F SUNDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G DOES ROT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 117A I How often do you watch te lev is ion (TV)? I EVERY DAY/ALMOST EVERY DAY . . . . . . . . . 1 | AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I AT LEAST ONCE A MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 LESS THAN ONCE A MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 HARDLY/VIRTUALLY NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 - - -P l18 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- - -~118 I 117B I~hat times do yo~ usuatty watch TV? CIRCLE ALL TIMES MENTIONED. EARLY MORNING (6.00-8.00) . . . . . . . . . . A MID MORNING (E.O0-10.O0) . . . . . . . . . . . B LATE MORNING (10.00-12,00) . . . . . . . . . C LUNCH TIME (12.OO-14.00) . . . . . . . . . . . D AFTERNOON (14.00-16,00) . . . . . . . . . . . . E LATE AFTERNOON (16,00-18,00) . . . . . . . F EARLY EVENING (18.0O-2O.00) . . . . . . . . G LATE EVENING (20,OO-STATION CLOSE).H DOES NOT KNON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 117C What day of the week do you usual ly l i ke to watch television? CIRCLE ALL DAYS MENTIONED, MONDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A TUESDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B WEDNESDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C THURSDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D FRIDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E SATURDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . f SUNDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z ENG ~N 3 222 MO. OLIESTIONS ANO FILTERS 11B What i s your re l ig ion? CODING CATEGORIES I SKIP m CATHOLIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PROTESTANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I MUSLIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SEVENTH DAY ADVENTIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) 119 120 121 What i s your Tribe? CHECK RESIDENTIAL STATUS OF THE WOMAN AT COVER PAGE: THE WOMAN INTERVIEWED THE k~4AN INTERVIEWED %S NOT A USUAL IS A USUAL RESIDENT (VISITOR) 9 RESIDENT [~ Now I would Like to ask about The place in which you usua l ly l i ve . Do you usau l ly l i ve i n a ciTy, in a mun ic ipa l i ty , in a town or i n the countryside? ACHOLI . . . . . . . . 01 BANYORO . . . . . . . . 17 ALUR . . . . . . . . . . 02 BARULL[ . . . . . . . . 18 BAAHBA . . . . . . . . 03 BARUND[ . . . . . . . . 19 BACHOPE . . . . . . . 04 BASOGA . . . . . . . . . 20 BADAMA . . . . . . . . 05 BAT(~O . . . . . . . . . 21 BAFUMB[RA . . . . . 06 BATWA . . . . . . . . . . 22 BAGANDA . . . . . . . 07 ITESO . . . . . . . . . . 23 BAGIBU . . . . . . . . 08 KANWA . . . . . . . . . . 24 BAG~E . . . . . . . . . 09 KARIMOJONG . . . . . 25 BAGWERE . . . . . . . 10 KUMAN . . . . . . . . . . 26 BAHORORO . . . . . . 11 LANGI . . . . . . . . . . 27 SAKIGA . . . . . . . . 12 LENDU . . . . . . . . . . 28 BAKONJO . . . . . . . 13 LUGSARA . . . . . . . . 29 BANYANKOLE.,,,14 MAGI . . . . . . . . . . . 30 BAHYABWANDA.15 BUBIAM . . . . . . . . . 31 BANYOLE . . . . . . . 16 BAHIA . . . . . . . . . . 32 SEBE] . . . . . . . . . . 33 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) CITY (KAMPALA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MUNICIPALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TOWN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 COUNTRYSIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1¢20 ! I 122 I In ~t~ich (DISTRICT) i s that located? (NAME OF THE DISTRICT) ~ I 123 Now I would Like to ask about the household in which you usua l ly Live. What is the main source of d r ink ing water for n~T/Ders of your household? PIPED WATER I PIPED INTO RESIDENCE/YARD/PLOT . . . . . . . . . . . 11 - -~125 PUBLIC TAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 m I WELL WATER WELL IN RESIDENCE/YARD/PLOT . . . . . 21 ~125 PUBLIC WELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 | I BORE HOLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 SURFACE WATER SPRING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 RIVER/STREAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 POND/LAKE/DAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 GRAVITY FLOW SCHEME . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 RAIBWATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 ~-~125 BOTTLED WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 ,125 OTHER 96 I (SPECIFY) 12]A I Where do you store the dr ink ing water? I POT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I JERRY CAB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 KALADABH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) ck' I MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON PREMISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996 EHG WNN 4 223 NO. m 125 126 GOESTIO~S AND FILTERS ~at kind of to i le t fac t t l ty does your househotd have? COOING CATEGORIES FLUSH TOILET OWN FLUSH TOILET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 SHARED FLUSH TOILET . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 PIT TOILET/LATRINE TRADITIONAL PIT TOILET . . . . . . . . . . 21 IMPROVED PIT LATRINE . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 NO FACILITY/BUSH/FIELD . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 OTHER 96 Does your househotd have: E lec t r i c i ty? A radio? A tetevlsion? A telephone? k ref r igerator? A video? An e lec t r i c cooker? (SPECIFY) YES NO ELECTRICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 TELEVISXON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 TELEPHONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 REFRIGERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 VIDEO., . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 ELECTRIC COOKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 SKIP 127 CouLd you deacrfbe the main materiat of the f loor of your home? NATURAL FLOOR EARTH/SAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 DUNG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 FINISHED FLOOR PARQUET OR POLISHED k~3aO . . . . . . . . 21 VINYL OR ASPHALT STRIPS . . . . . . . . . 22 CERAMIC TILES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 CEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 OTHER 96 iSPEC[FY) 128 I Does any member of your household o~n: A bicycte? A motorcycle? A motor vehicle (CAR, BUS, LORRY, TRACTOR) YES NO BICYCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 NOTORCYCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 MOTOR VEHICLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 ENG WNN 5 224 ~;[CTION Z, REPROOUCTION :l~111~:~Jri~dylo~krel'~ea,$kH:Ev;Tult:Slie:Nt;eEg%bL~TrEtnRhS~|rYt°~?have [ COD%NG CATEGONZES I SKiP m YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ,206 I l I I 202 J Do you have any sons or daughters to WhOm you have J YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I given b i r th who are now l i v ing with you? J NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 .204 I And how many daughters l i ve wi th you? DAUGHTERS AT HORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . iF NONE RECORD JOO I . 204 J Do yocl have any sons or daughters to Nhom you have YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I given b i r th who are a l ive but do ~t l i ve with you? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z - - - *206 I And how many daughters are a l i ve but do not l i ve with you? DAUGHTERS ELSEWHERE . . . . . . . . . . . IF NONE RECORD mOO% 206 I E~t f~S i t happens that Bed takes a ch i ld away too soon, I This happens to many mothers here in Uganda. Have you ever given b i r th to a boy or g l r l who was born a l ive bot la ter YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 died? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~208 IF NO, RROBE: Any baby ~ho cr ied or showed signs of Life I but survived only a few hours or days? I I 2071 ,ow many boys have died? I And how many g i r l s have die<]? IF NONE RECORD iO01. 2081B :S:::C::,::ABD20"A OENTER'O'AL" 209 CHECK 208: Just to make sure that l have th i s r ight : you have had in TOTAL b i r ths dur ing your l i fe . Is that correct? PROBE AND CORRECT YES [~ r~ • 201-208 AS NECESSARY NO BIRTHS r~ TOTAL . FF l l ' 22 t END WHN 6 225 211 Now i would l ike to record the r~s of a l l your births, whether s t i l l alive or not, starting with the f i rs t o~e you had. RECORD gAMES OF ALL THE BIRTHS IN 212. RECORD TWINS AND TRIPLETS ON SEPARATE LINES. 212 What name was given to your ( f i rst /next) baby? (NAME) 0, I % % % o, I 213 Were any of these births twins? SING.1 NULT.2 SING.1 NULT.2 SING.1 MOLT.2 214 213 Is In what month (NAME) and year was a boy (NAME) born? or a gir l? PROBE: ~hat is his/ her birthday? OR: In what sea$~ was he/she born? I BOY.1 MONTH. G[RL.2 YEAR,,, BOY,.1 GIRL.2 BOY.,1 GIRL.2 216 I s (NAME) s t i l l alive? 217 IF ALIVE: HOW old was (NAME) at his/her Last birthday? RECORD AGE IN COMPLETED YEARS, YES. ,1 AGE IN YEARS Mo! 29 218 219 IF ALIVE IF DEAD: Iwith How old (NAME) WaS (NAME) when he/she died? Living you? IF '1 YR. ~, PROBE: HOW a'~ny months old was (NAME)? RECORD DAYS IF LESS THAN 1 MONTH; MONTHS IF LESS THAN TWO YEARS; OR YEARS. YES.,1 DAYS,,.,1 NO,,.it HONTHS,.2 YEA,.] 220 221 FROM Were YEAR OF there ! gIRTH any OF (NAME) other SUBTRACT l ive YEAR OF births PREVIOUS between BIRTH. (NAME) and IS THE (NAME ] FFERENCE OF 4 OR PREVIOUS MORE? gIRTH?) SING,1 BOY.1 MULT.2 GIRL.2 SING.1 BOY,.1 NULT,2 GIRL.2 NONTH.I I I YES.1 AGE IN YEARS YEAR. NO,.! [ ~ 29 YES.1 DAYS.,.,1 NO.2] MONTHS.2 (G~ ;~.2 YEARS.3 YES.1 NO . . . . . 2 (NEXT •] BIRTH) YES.L NO.E SING.I 180Y.1 MULT,2 GIRL.2 YEAR., NO,,. 29 YES.1 DAYS,.,.1 NO,.,.2] MONTHS.E (G~2~, YEARS.3 YES.1 NO . . . . . 2 (NEXT 4J BIRTH) YES.1 NO.2 MONTH. I J YES,.1 AGE IN YEARS YEAR RO! 29 YES.1 1 . . -2 t NO. ] DAYS.L MONTHS.2 YEARS.] YES.1 NO . . . . . 2 (NEXT •] gIRTH) YES.1 NO.2 MOHTH. .~ YES.,1 AGE YEARS IN YES.1 t DAYS,.1 ~ YES.1 YES.,1 YEAR. go. . . ! [ ~ NO.2 MOHTHS. ,2 (G . YEARS.3 NO(NEXT . . . . . ,J2 NO.,.2 29 ~2~ 0 B I RTH) MONTH.I I I YES,.1 AGE IN YEARS YEAR. NO,,.! [ ~ 219 YES.,.1 DAYS,,,.1 NO.2 MONTHS.,2 YEARS 3 YES.1 NO . . . . . 2 (NEXT 4 j BIRTH) YES, .1 go.2 YES.1 DAYS.1 YES.,1 YES.1 S ING.1 BOY. 1 MONTH. YEARS NO.2 MONTHS,.2 NO . . . . . 2 NO,.,2 MOLT.2 GIRL.2 YEAR. ,. NO. ,. / (G • YEARS.3 (NEXT •J 2, giRTH, EgG t~4N 7 226 212 ~J~lat ~ was given to your next baby? (NAHE) o, I ,o I 213 I 216 Mere Is any of (MANE) these a boy bLrths or a twins? gir l? SING.11 BOY.1 NULT.2 GIRL.2 215 In bdlat month and year was (NAME) born? PROBE: |~hat is his/ her birthday? OR: In Ldlat season was he/she born? 216 Is (NAME) stftL alive? YES.1 NO.! 29 SING,11 BOY.1 NULT.2 GIRL.2 SING.11 BOY.,1 MULT,2 GIRL.2 217 218 219 IF ALIVE: [F ALIVE IF DEAD: HOW old Is HOW old ~as (NAME) was (NAME) when he/she died? (NAME) at Living his/her with Last you? birthday? IF I1 YR. I, PROBE: Nov many n~nths RECORO old was (NAME)? AGE IN RECORD DAYS IF COMPLETED LESS THAN 1MO~TH; YEARS, MONTHS IF LESS THAN T~'O YEARS; OR YEARS. YES.1 DAYS.1 AGE IN ~ YEARS NO.2 MONTHS,,2 [ ~ YEARS.,3 (G~2 220 221 FROM Were YEAR OF there BIRTH any OF (NAME) other SUBTRACT live YEAR OF births PREVIOUS be(weep BIRTH. (NAME) MORE? I~TH?) IS THE (MANE t[FFERENCE OF A OR PREVIOUS YES.1 YES.1 NO . . . . . 2 NO.2 (NEXT , ] BIRTH) NONTH.I I I YES.1 AGE IN YEARS YEAR. NO.,.! 29 YES.1 DAYS.1 t . NO.2 MONTHS.2 (G~ ;~,2 YEARS.' YES.1 NO . . . . . 2 (NEXT J BIRTH) YEAR BO! HO EMONTHS2 NO . . . . . 2 (G • YEARS.3 (NEXT J 29 02~0 BIRTH) S NGIlOY1 YES i AOE MONTH., YES.,,1 DAYS,.1 YES.,,1 YEARS NO.2 MONTHS.2 NO . . . . . 2 HULT.2 GIRL.2 TEAR. NO. (GO ;0, YEARS.3 (NEXT, 2 9 2 BIRTH) 2221 FROM YEAR OF [NTERVIEU SUBTRACT YEAR OF LAST BIRTH. I IS THE DIFFERENCE 4 TEARS OR MORE? YES.1 NO.2 YES.1 NO.2 YES ~GO TO 223 NO ~GO TO 224 224 Have you had any Live births since the birth of (NAME OF LAST BIRTH)? COMPARE 208 WITH NUMBER OF BIRTHS IN HISTORY ABOVE AND MARK: NUMBERS r~ NUMBERS ARE ARE SAME L~J DIFFERENT I [ ~ (PROBE AHD RECONCILE) / CHECK: FORVEACH BIRTH: YEAR OF BIRTH IS RECORDED, [ ] FOR EACH LIVING CHILD: CURRENT AGE IS RECORDED. FOR EACH DEAD CHILD: AGE AT DEATH IS RECORDED. FOR AGE AT DEATH 12 MONTHS OR 1 YR.: PROBE TO DETERMIHE EXACT NUMBER OF MONTHS, YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHECK 215 AND ENTER THE NUMBER OF BIRTHS SINCE JANUARY 1991. IF NONE, RECORD °O', D ENG 'p,IHM 8 227 BO I 226 I Are you pregnant no~? OUESTIONS AND FILTERS I COOING CATEGOEIES I SKIP YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 m .231 221 - - - -h - - ° r °u HONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Bid you see anyone for a check on th i s pregnancy? IF YES: i~homdid you see? Anyone else? PROBE FOR THE TYPE OF PERSON AND RECONO ALL PERSONS SEEN. HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B AUXILIARY NIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C OTHER PERSON TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D OTHER X (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y 229 Since you have been pregnant, have you been g~ven an in jec t ion in the arm to prevent the baby f r~ Rett ing tetanus, that i s , convuls ions a f ter b i r th? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 230 At the t ime you became pregnant, d id you want to become pregnant then, d id you want to wait unt i l ta ter , d id you not want to become pregnant at alL? THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 301 NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 231 lthen d id your Last ¢enstruat per iod star t? (BATE, ]F GIVER) DAYS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WEEKS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MONTHS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 IN MENOPAUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994 BEFORE LAST S%RTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995 NEVER NENSTRUATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996 ENG WNN 9 228 ~CTIOI~ T" CONTRACEPTIOH I No~ I would l i ke to talk about family planning--the various ways or metheds that a couple can use to delay or evoid a pregnancy. CIRCLE CODE 1 IN 301 FOR EACH MET~ MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY. THEN PROCEED DOWN COLUMN 302, READING THE NAME AND DESCRIPTION OF EACH METHOD NOT MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY. CIRCLE CODE 2 IF METHOD IS AECOGNISED, AND CODE 3 I f gOT NEC(~NISED. TNENf FON EACH METHOD UITH CODE 1 ON 2 CIRCLED IN 301 OM 302, ASK 303. 301 ~ ich ways or mtheds have you heard about? 302 Have you ever 303 Rave you ever heard of(METHOD)? used (METHOD)? YES YES NO ;PONTAHEOUS PROBED 11 PILL Women can take a p i l l every day. 1 2 O~j IUO Women can have a loop or co i l placed inside them by a ~tor or a I 2 nurse, 1 2 3J INJECTIONS Woe~ can have an in ject ion ~ a doctor or r~Jrae which stops them from~comir41 pregnant for several months. 04J IMPLANTS Women can have several small nods placed in the i r ~r arm bya doctor or nurse which can prevent pregnancy for several years. 05J DIAPHRAOM,FOAM,JELLY W~n can place a sponge, SUl:~ository, dia~ragm, je l l y , or cream inside themselves ~fore intercourse. 06J CONDOM Men can use a rubber sheath during sexual intercourse. O~ FENJ~LE STERILISATION women can have an operation to avoid having any more chi ldren. 81 MALE STERILISATION Men can have operation to avoid having any n~re chi ldren. 09 RHYTHM, COUNTING DAYS Every 9} ¢eonth that a woman is sexual ly act ive she can avoid having sexual intercourse o~ the days of the month she is most Likely to get pregnant. 01 NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING A woman can take her tefnperature every day or check her vaginal mucus to te l l which days to avoid having sexual intercourse. 11 WITHDRAWAL Nan can be careful and pol l out before clin!ax. 21 Have you heard of any other ways or methods that women or men can use to avoid pregnancy? 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 I 2 1 2 1 CHECK 303: NOT A SINGLE aYES" (NEVER USED) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) AT LEAST ONE "YES" (EVER USED) R YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HO,,°, . . . . . • . . . . . . . , ° , ° , 2 Z7 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 39 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 7 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 / YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Have you ever had an operation to avoid having 3 any more children? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Have you ever had a partner who had an operation to 3 avoid having children? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 gO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3~ NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 3 7 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 39 3 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,o.o2 ISKIP TO 309 EgG NMN 10 229 NO. I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS m I Have you ever used anything or t r ied in any way 305 to I delay or 8void get t ing pregnant? CODING CATEGORIES I SKIP YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 R NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ---~332 I 307 ~hat have you used or done? CORRECT 303 AgO 304 (AND 302 IF NECESSARY). 309 No~ I Mould l i ke to ask you about the f i r s t thne that you d id something or used a nmthed to avoid get t ing pregnant. Hoa many L iv ing ch i ld ren d id you have at that time, if any? IF NORE, RECORD '00 ' , NUMBER OF CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . IJOMAN STERIL]ZED r~ PREGNANT 312 I Are you cur rent ly doing something or using any method to delay or avoid get t ing pregnant? r3131 I 1 333 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~332 I 313 313A Which method are you using? CIRCLE '07' FOR FEMALE STERILIZATZON. I PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O1 | IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 | IMPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 ~325 DIAPHRAGM~FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 CONDOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 FEMALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 HALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 -*L-'~-317 RHYTHM, COUNTING DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 NATURAL FP, MUCUSI TEMPERATURE.,.lO ~322 W]T HDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 ~ 325 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) | I 314 I May l see the package of p i l l s you are now using? I RECORD NAME OF BRAND IF PACKAGE IS SEEN, I PACKAGE SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I BRAND NAME - - I ~ L 3 1 6 1 PACKAGE ?lOT SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I I ]15 | DO you know the brand name of the p i l l s you are now I using? RECORD NAME OF BRAND BRAND NAME DOES HOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 I 316 J I f a woman is using the p i t t for fami ly p lanning, hou TIMES A DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J J~l I many times a day i s she supposed to take it? ~325 DOES NOT KNO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ENG t~N 11 230 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 317 Where did the s ter i t i sa t (on take place? IF SOURCE 15 HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTRE, OR CLINIC, WRITE THE NM4E OF THE PLACE. PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. MISSION/CHURCH FACILITIES ARE CONSIDERED "PRIVATE". (NAME OF THE PLACE) PUBLIC SECTOR GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 GOVERNMENT HEALTH CENTRE . . . . . . . 12 GOVERNMENT MOBILE CL IN IC . . . . . . . 14 OTHER PUBliC 16 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL/CLINIC . . . . . . . . . 21 PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 PRIVATE MOBILE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . 24 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL 26 (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 322 I Between the f i r s t day of a woman,s berind and the f i r s t YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1 I day of her next period, are there certain times when she NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 has a greater chance of becoming preBnant than other times? DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ~325 I I 323 | During which times of the monthly cycle does a woman have L the greatest chance of becoming pregnant? DURING HER PERIO0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I RIGHT AFTER HER PERIOD HAS ENBED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 iN THE MIDDLE Of THE CYCLE . . . . . . . . . 3 JUST BEFORE HER PERIOD BEGINS . . . . . . 4 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 324 Row do you determine which days of your monthly cycle not to have sexual relations? BASED ON CALENDAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I BASED ON BOOT TEMPERATURE . . . . . . . . . . 2 BASED ON CERVICAL MUCUS (BILLINGS METHOD) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 BASED ON BODY TEMPERATURE AND CERVICAL MUCUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A NO SPECIFIC SYSTEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) ]25 For how many months have you been using (METHOD) ~ I continuously? MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 I IF LESS THAN I MONTH, RECORD PO0 ~, 8 YEARS OR LONGER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 326 some people use family planning because they have talked to the i r husberK~ or f r iend, heard something on the radio or TV, or read something that encouraged them to use family planning, What motivated you to use family ptannln9? RECORD ALL MENTIONED TALKED TO HUSBAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A TALKED TO A FRIEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B TALKED TO A HEALTH WORKER . . . . . . . . . . C HEARD FP DRAMA ON RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . D HEARD ADVERTISEMENT ON RADIO . . . . . . . E HEARD SOMETHING ELSE ON RADIO . . . . . . F SAW SOMETHING ON TV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G SAW THE YELLOW FP FLC~JER (FP LOGO),H READ A POSTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I READ A LEAFLET/FLYER/BROCHURE . . . . . . J ATTENOEO A HEALTH TALK ON FP . . . . . . . K SELF MOTIVATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES HOT KNOW/NO REASON . . . . . . . . . . . . Z ENG I,A~N 12 231 NO. 328 329 CHECK 313: CIRCLE NETItO0 CODE: OUESTIORS AND FILTERS Mhere did you Obtain (METHGO) the last time? IF SOURCE IS HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTRE, OR CLINIC, WRITE THE NAME OF THE PLACE. PROBE TO IOENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE COOE. MISSIOn/CHURCH FACILITIES ARE CI~4SIDERED "PRIVATE". (NAME OF PLACE) COOING CATEGORIES F PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 IMPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 D IAPNRAOR/FOAH/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OS CONDOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 FEMALE STER|LIZAT %ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 HALE STERZLIZATIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 ~330 J RRYTNMj COUNTING DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 -1 NATURAL FP, MUCUS, TEMPERATURE.IO WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 333 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 PUBLIC SECTOR GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 GOVERNMENT HEALTH CENTRE . . . . . . . . 12 GOUT.DISPENSARY/HEALTH UNIT,.,13 GOVERNMENT MOBILE CLINIC . IA GOVERNMENT FIELD UORKER . 15 OTHER PUBLIC 16 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE RED]CAL SECTOR PR%VATE HOSP%TAL/CLIN[C . . . . . . . . . 21 PHARHACY/DRUG STORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 PRIVATE MOBILE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . 24 PRIVATE FIELD k~RKER . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL 26 (SPECIFY) OTHER PRIVATE SECTOR SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 CHURCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) I 330 | Do you know another place where you could have obtained I (METHOD) the last time? 330A At the time of The s ter i t i sa t ion operation, did you kno~ another place kCere you could have received The operation? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ---'~335 I 331 People select the place where they get family planning service for various reasons . t~ftet WaS the main reason you went to (NAME OF PLACE IN 0.329 OR 0.317) instead of the other place you know about? RECORD RESPONSE AND CIRCLE COOE. ACCESS-RELATED REASONS CLOSER TO HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 - CLOSER TO MARKET/~/ORR . . . . . . . . . . . 12 AVAILABILITY OF TRANSPORT . . . . . . . 13 SERVICE-RELATED REASONS STAFF MORE COMPETENT/ FRIENDLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 CLEANER FACILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 OFFERS MORE PRIVACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 SHORTER WAITIHG TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 LONGER HRS. OF OPERATION . . . . . . . . 25 USE OTHER SERVICES AT THE FACILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 LOWER COST/CHEAPER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 i WANTED ANONYR%TY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 -~335 ENG Wl4H 13 232 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 332 k~l t is the main reason you sre not using s method of contraception to avoid prlgnarcy? COOING CATEGORIES NOT MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 FERTILITY'RELATED REASOMS NOT HAVING SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 IHFREGUEET SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 MEHOPAUSAL/HYSTERECTOIY . . . . . . . . . 23 SUSFECUND/IHFECUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 POSTPARTUM/BREASTFEEDING . . . . . . . . 25 WANTS MORE CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 OPPOSITION TO USE RESPONDENT OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 HUSBAND OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 OTHERS OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 RELIGIOUS PROHIBITION . . . . . . . . . . . 34 LACK OF KNOULEDGE KNO~S NO METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A1 KNOUS NO SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 METHOD-RELATED REASONS HEALTH CONCERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 FEAR OF SIDE EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 LACK OF ACCESS/TO0 FAR . . . . . . . . . . 53 COST TOO MUCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 INCONVENIENT TO USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 INTERFERES WITH BODY'S NORMAL PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 SKIP OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) DOES HOT KHO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 333 Do you kno~ of a place where you can obtain a method YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I of family planning? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z ---~335 I 334 Where is that? IF SOURCE IS HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTRE, OR CLINIC, WRITE THE NAME OF THE PLACE. PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. MISSION/CHURCH FACILITIES ARE CONSIDERED "PRIVATE". (NAME OF PLACE) PUBLIC SECTOR GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 GOVERNMENT HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . 12 GOV'T,DISPEHSARY/HEALTH UNIT.,, .13 GOVERNMENT MOBILE CLINIC . . . . . . . . 14 GOVERNMENT FIELD !,K3RKER . . . . . . . . . 15 OTHER PUBLIC 16 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE/NGO MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL/CLINIC . . . . . . . . . 21 PHARMACY/CHEMISTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 PRIVATE MOBILE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . 24 PRIVATE FIELD WORKER . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL 26 (SPECIFY) OTHER PRIVATE SECTOR SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 CHURCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 336 I Rave you v is i ted a health fac i l i ty ] YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I in the last 12 months for any reason? I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 .3~ I ENG ~atN 14 233 NO I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 337 I Did anyone a t the hea l th fac i l i ty speak to you about fami ly I p[ anni ng methods? I COOING CATEGORIES I SKIP I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I 338 Do you th ink that breast feed lng can a f fec t a woman's YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I chance of becoming pregnant? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~343 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I I I i 339 Do you th ink a woman's chance of becoming pregnant is INCREASED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~343 increased or decreased by breast feeding? DECREASED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DEPENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DOES NOT KNON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 NO BIRTHS 341 I Have you ever re l ied on breast feed ing to avo id pregnancy? I I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~343 342 344 346 348 Are you cur rent |y re ly ing on breast feed ing to avo id pregnancy? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHECK 302 (1) I HAS HEARD Of PILL (COOE 1 OR 2) ~ NEVER HEARD OF PILLS [~ YOU to ld me that you know the p i l l . What problems or d isadvantages are there w i th us ing the p i l l ? RECORD ALL MENTIONED NEVER HEARD OF [UD You to ld me that you know the [UD. What problems or d isadvantages are there w i th us ing the [UD? RECORD ALL MENTIONED YOU to ld me that you know the in jec t ion . What problems or d isadvantages are there w i th us ing the in jec t ion? RECORD ALL MENTIONED ,3G BLOOD PRESS/NAUSEA/DIZZ%HESS . . . . . . . A GAIN/LOSS WEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B BREAST MILK DECREASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C MENST. PROBLEMS/BLEED%NG . . . . . . . . . . . D CAN GET PREGNANT/UNRELIABLE . . . . . . . . E DECREASED FERTILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F DESTROYS UTERUS / CANCER . . . . . . . . . . . G PROBLEM DURING SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H ABNORMAL DELIVERY/MALFORMED CHILD.,/ OTHER X (SPECIFY) NO PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z .34 t BLO00 PRESS/NAUSEA/DIZZINESS . . . . . . . A GAIN/LOSS WEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H BREAST Mi lk DECREASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C MENST, PROBLEMS/BLEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . D CAN GET PREGNANT/UNRELIABLE . . . . . . . . E DECREASED FERT]L]TY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F DESTROYS UTERUS / DANCER . . . . . . . . . . . G PROBLEM DURING SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H ABNORMAL DELIVERY/MALFORMED CHILD./ OTHER X (SPEC]FY) NO PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z CTION ~ ~GOl~ BLO00 PRESS/NAUSEA/DIZZINESS . . . . . . . A GAIN/LOSS WEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g BREAST MILK DECREASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C MENST, PROgLEMS/BLEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . D CAN GET PREGNANT/UNRELIABLE . . . . . . . . E DECREASED FERTILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F DESTROYS UTERUS / CANCER . . . . . . . . . . . G PROBLEM DURING SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H ABNORMAL DELIVERY/MALFORMED CHILD,,] OTHER X (SPECIFY) NO PROBLEMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y DOES NOT KNOU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z END WNN 15 234 SECTION 4A. PREGNANCY AND BREASTFEED]NG 4oz m ENTER THE LINE NUMBER, NAME, AND SURVIVAL STATUS OF EACH BIRTH SINCE JAN.1991 IN THE TABLE. ASK QUESTIONS I ABOUT ALL OF THESE BIRTHS. BEGIN WITH THE LAST BIRTH. (IF MORE ?HAN 2 BIRTHS, USE ADOIT]ONAL FORMS). Mow I would Like to ask you some more quest ions about the heal th of a t l your ch i ld ren barn in the bast three years, (We w i l t ta lk about one ch i ld at a t ime.) 4031 LINE NONBENLAST BIRTH I LINENEXT-TO'LASTHUMBER BIRTH I-F-1 I'INE NUMBER FROM O212 . . . . . . . . . I L l . . . . . . . . . I I I I FRON 0212 AND Q216 'O ' I AT the t ime you became pregnant with (NAME), I did you want to become pregnant then, d id you want to wait unt i l Later, or d id you want no (mere) ch i ld ren at a l l ? NAME I NAME AI.IVE [~ DEAD [~ ALIVE [~ DEAD [~ V U y v l y 1 THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- (SKIP TO 407)q ~ (SKIP TO 407).~ LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27l I LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NO MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- (SKIP TO 407)4 (SKIP TO 407)< 406 | HOW much Longer would you Like to have I waited? I'---F--I MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I l l YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOER NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . 998 F ~ MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I~ J rF1 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOER HOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . 998 407 When you were pregnant with (NAME), d id you see anyone for antenatal care for th i s pregnancy? IF YES: ~nom did you see? Anyone else? PROSE FOR THE TYPE OF PERSON AND RECORD ALL PERSONS SEEN. HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . . B AUXILIARY MIDWIFE . . . . . . C OTHER PERSON TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . D OTHER X (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y~ / (SKIP TO 410), HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . . B AUXILIARY MIDWIFE . . . . . . C OTHER PERSON TRADITIONAL, BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . D OTHER X (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y- (SKIP TO 410)~ 408 Row many months pregnant were yOU when ~ you f i r s t received antenatal care? MONTHS . I l l MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l l DOES HOT KHO~ . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 98 409 Howmany times d idyou receive antenatal ~ care dur ing th i s pregnancy? NO. OF TIMER . . . . . . . . NO. OF TIMES . . . . . . . . DOES HOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DOER NOT KNO~ . . . . . . . . . . . 98 the baby from get t ing tetanus, that is , NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-1 convuls ions a f te r b i r th? (SKIP TO 411A)4 (SKIP TO 411A)4 DOES NOT KROg . . . . . . . . . . . . DOES MOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 411 During th i s pregnancy, how many times d id I ~ you get th i s in jec t ion? TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOES ROT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 411A I Did you eat special d ie t dur ing th i s YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I pregnancy? (DIET MEANS OTHER THAN HORMAL FO00) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 EMG WI4N 16 235 412 Where d id you g ive b i r th to (NAME)? LAST BIRTH NAME HONE YOUR HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 OTHER HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT. HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . 21 GOVT. HEALTH CENTER.,.22 GOVT. HEALTH UH[T . . . . . 23 OTHER PUBLIC 26 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PVT. HOSP%TAL/CLIN%C.]I OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL 36 (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 (SPEC%FY) I NAMENEXT-TO-LAST giRTH I HONE YOUR HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 OTHER HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT. HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . 21 GOVT. HEALTH CENTER.22 GOVT. HEALTH UNIT . . . . . 23 OTHER PUBLIC 26 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PVT. HOSPITAL/CL %N%C.31 OTHER PE%VATE MEDICAL 36 (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 (SPECZFY) 413 Who msststed with the de l ivery of (MANE)? Anyone else? PROBE FOR THE TYPE OF PERSON AND RECORD ALL PERSONS ASSISTING. HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A NURSE/H[DUIFE . . . . . . . . . . B AUXILIARY MIDWIFE . . . . . . C OTHER PERSON TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . D RELATIVE/FRIEND . . . . . . . . E OTHER X (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . . B AUXILIARY N%DW%FE . . . . . . C OTHER PERSON TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . D RELATIVE/FRIEND . . . . . . . . E OTHER X (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y 414 At the t ime of the b i r th of (NAME), d id you have any of the followiP4J problems: Long Labour, that i s , d id the strong and regular contrect io~s Last more than 12 hours? Excessive b leeding that so much that you feared i t was l i fe threatening? A high fever with bad smel l ing vaginal discharge? ConvuLsions not caused by fever? YES NO LABOUR MORE THAN 12 HOURS . . . . . . . . . 1 2 EXCESS[VE BLEED[NG . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 HIGH FEVER WITH HAD VAG, DISCHARGE . . . . . . . I 2 CONVULS[OHS . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 YES NO LABOUR MORE THAN 12 HOURS . . . . . . . . . 1 2 EXCESSIVE BLEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 HIGH FEVER WITH BAD VAG. DISCHARGE . . . . . . . 1 2 CONVULSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 IYEs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , lYE , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 416 i When (N/~E) Was born, Was he/she: I I very large, VERY LARGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 VERY LARGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I larger than average, LARGER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . . 2 LARGER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . . 2 average, AVERAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 AVERAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 smal ler than average, SHALLER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . 4 SMALLER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . 4 or very small? VERY SHALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 VERY SMALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - , I - (--E' "ished "t b'rth? IYES . IYES . NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO 419), 2~ NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO 42814 27 I GRAMS FROM GRAMS FROM 418 HOW much d id (NAME) weigh? CARD . . . . . . . 1 ~ CARD . . . . . . . . 1 RECOMD I~E | ONT FROM HEALTH CARD, GRAMS FROM F - -~- - -~ GRAHS FROM I - -~- - - ~ IF AVAILABLE. RECALL . . . . . 2 RECALL . . . . . 2 DOES HOT KNOW . . . . . . . . 99998 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . 99998 ENG WNN 17 236 II 419 I Has your per iod returned since the b i r th I of (NAME)? NAME LAST BIRTH I NEXT'TO'LAST BIRTH NAME YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 -"1 (SKIP TO 421)4 / NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 422), 420 Did your parted return between the b i r th YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 of (NAME) and your next pregnancy? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - (SKIP TO 424)4 421 For how litany months a f te r the b i r th of many (NAME) d id you not have a period? 422 CHECK 226: RESPONDENT PREGNANT? 423 I Have you resumed sexuat re la t ions since I the b i r th of (NAME)? MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOES ROt KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 98 NOT PREGNANT ~ YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 "1 (SKIP TO 425)~ / MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ ~ DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 98 I 424 I For how mny~onths a f te r the b i r th of I (NAME) d id you not have sexual re lat ions? MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~- -~ DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 98 425 Did you ever breastfeed (NAME)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 432). ~ (SKIP TO 432)4 -7 426 How tong a f te r b i r th d id you f i r s t put (NAME) to the breast? IF LESS THAN 1 HOUR, RECORD '00' HOURS. IF LESS THAN 24 HOURS, RECORD HOURS. OTHERWISE, RECORD DAYS. I IMMEDIATELY . . . . . . . . . . . . OO~ HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 IMMEDIATELY . . . . . . . . . . . . OOO HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E 427 Soon a f te r b i r th , was (NAME) given any of the fo l towing? Pta in water? Sugar water Juice? Baby formula? Fresh milk? Tinned or pooderedmilk? Any other tiClUids? YES NO DK PLAIN WATER . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 SUGAR WATER . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 JUICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 BABY FORMULA . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 FRESH MILK . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 T]NHED/PO~R'D MLK.1 2 B OTHER LIQUIDS . . . . . . . 1 2 8 YES NO DK PLAIN WATER . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 SUGAR WATER . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 JUICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 BABY FORMULA . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 FRESH MILK . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 TINNED/PO~DRID MLK,,1 2 8 OTHER LIQUIDS . . . . . . . 1 2 O CHECK 404: CHILD ALIVE? DEAD [~ (SKIP TO 430) EHG ~HH 18 237 I I i LAS'"" I 'E**'oLAsT'*" ,. .E I I . 429 Are you s t i r [ b reast feed ing (NAME)? (SKIP TO 433)~ I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DOES HOT KNO~ . . . . . . . . . . . 98 431 Uhy d id you stop breast feed ing tNAHE)? 433 MOTHER ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . 01 CHILD ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . . D2 CHILD DIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 NIPPLE/BREAST PROBLEM.D4 INSUFFICIENT MILK . . . . . . . OS MOTHER 1~3RKING . . . . . . . . . . 06 CHILD STOPPED . . . . . . . . . . . 07 WEANING AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 BECAME PREGNANT . . . . . . . . . 09 STARTED USING CONTRACEPT[OB . . . . . . . . . . 1G OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) MOTHER ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . 01 CHILD ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . . 02 CHILD DiED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 NIPPLE/BREAST PROBLEN.04 INSUFFICIENT MILK . . . . . . . 05 MOTHER WORKING . . . . . . . . . . 06 CHILD STOPPED . . . . . . . . . . . 07 WEANING AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 8ECN4E PREGNANT . . . . . . . . . 09 STARTED USING CONTRACEPTION . . . . . . . . . . 10 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) CHECK 404: ALIVE DEAD ALIVE [~ DEAD [~ CHILD ALIVE? ~ [~ " SK P TO 435 (GO RACK TO 405 (SKIP TO 435) (GO SACK TO A IN NEXT COLUMN IN NEXT COLU OR, IF NO OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 443) DO TO 443) NUMBER OF HOW many times d id you breast feod tes t n ight hetween sunset and sunr ise? NUMBER OF I IF ANSWER IS NOT NUHERIC, PROGE FOR APPROXIMATE NUMBER. 634 HOW inany times d id you breast feed yesterday I dur ing the day l ight hours? NUMBER OF I NUMBER OF DAYLIGHT ~F-1 DAYLIGHT IF ANSWER IS NOT NUMERIC, FEEDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . FEEDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . PROBE FOB APPROXIMATE NUMBER. 435 Did (NAHE) dr ink anyth ing From a bot t le YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I with a n ippte yesterday or tes t n ight? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 436 At any t ime yesterday or Last n ight , was (NAME) g iven any of the fo l low ing : P la in water? Juice? Baby formula? Any mitk? Any other (i~ids? Food made From rot i fer /sorghum/maize? Food made from potato /cassava /yam/matooke? Eggs, f i sh , or pout t ry? Meat? Any o ther so t id or semi -sot id Foods? YES NO DK PLAIN WATER . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 JUICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 BABY FORMULA . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 ANY MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 OTHER LIOUIDS . . . . . . . 1 Z 8 FO00 MADE FROM MI LLET/RORDAM . . . . . . 1 2 8 FO00 MADE FRO~4 POTATO/CASSAVA.,.1 2 8 EGGS/FISH/POULTRY.1 2 8 HEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 OTHER SOLID/ SEMI'SOLID FOQOS.I 2 8 YES NO DK PLAIN WATER . . . . . . . . . 1 2 6 JUICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 BABY FORMULA . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 ANY MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 OTHER LIQUIDS . . . . . . . 1 2 8 FO00 MADE FROM NILLET/SORGAM . . . . . . 1 2 8 FO00 MADE FROM POTATO/CASSAVA.1 2 8 EGGS/FISH/PC(JLTRY.1 Z 8 MEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 OTHER SOLID/ SEMI-SOLID FO00S.1 2 8 END ~N 19 238 CHECK 436: FOQO OR LIOOID GIVEN YESTERDAY? I 440 I (Aside from breast feeding,) how many t in~s I did (NAME) eat yesterday? MEALS ONLY IF 7 OR MORE TIMES, RECORD 17t. LAST BIRTH NAME "NO/OK" TO ALL (SKIP TO 441) NUMBER OF TIMES . . . . . . . . I I DOES HOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME "YES" [~ "NO/DK" [~ TO ONE / TO ALL OR MORE (SKIP TO 441) i NUMBER OF TIMES . . . . . . . . [~ I DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 441 On how many days dur ing the last seven days was (gAME) given any of the fo l lowing: P la in water? Any kind of mi lk (other than breast mi lk)? Any other Liquids? Food made f r~mi l te t / sorghum/malze? Foo<l r~sde frown ~tato/cassava/yam/matooke? Eggs, f f sh , or poul t ry? Meat? Any other so l id or semi -so l id fo~s? IF DON'T KNOt/, RECORD '8 ' RECORD THE NUMBER OF DAYS, PLAIN WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER LIQUIDS . . . . . . . . . . FO00 MADE FROM M[LLET/BORGAM/MAIZE. FO00 MADE FROM POTATO/CASSAVA . . . . . . . EGGB/F]SH/PDJLTRY . . . . . . MEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER SOLID/SEMI" SOLID FOODS . . . . . . . . . . GO BACK TO 4D5 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 443. RECORD THE NUMBER OF DAYS, PLAIN WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 MILK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ! OTHER LIQUIDS . . . . . . . . . . FCOD MADE FROM M[LLET/SORGAM/MAIZE. FO00 MADE FROM POTATO/CASSAVA . . . . . . . EGGS/FISH/POULTRY . . . . . . MEAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER SOLID/SEMI- SOLID FO00S . . . . . . . . . . CO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 443. ENB t~'MN 20 239 SECTION 4B. IMk~IN]SATION AND HEALTH ENTER LINE NUMBER, NAME, AND SURVIVAL STATUS OF EACH BIRTH SINCE JANUARY 1991 IN THE TASLE. ASK THE QUESTIONS ABOUT ALL OF THESE BIRTHS. BEGIN WITH THE LAST BIRTH. (IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 2 BIRTHS USE ADDITIONAL FORMS.) 445 FROM BEll AND 0216 I 446 J DO you have a card where (NAME'S) vaccinations I are written don? IF YES: May l see i t please? LAST BIRTH LiNE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NAME ALIVE n OEAD@ (GO TO 444 IR e NEXT COLUMN; OR IF NO HONE SIRTHS GO TO 468.) YES, SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 (SKIP TO 448 )• / YES, NOT SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . E~ (SKIP TO 450)4 / SO CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NEXT'TO'LAST BIRTH LINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NAME ALIVE DEAD [~ (GO TO 444 IN NEXT COLL~4N; OR IF NO MORE BIRTHS GO TO 46B.) YES, SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- (SKIP TO A48 )~ YES, NOT SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . Z- (SKIP TO 450)4 NO CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 I 447 Did for you(NkHE)?ever have a vaccination card YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO 450)4 l~Jj YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO 450)4 1- NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- 448 (I) COPY VACCiNATiON DATES FOR EACH VACCINE FROM THE CARD. (2) WRITE %4 ~ IN 'DAY ~ COLUMN IF CARD SHONS THAT A VACC]NATZON WAS GIVEN, BUT NO DATE IS RECORDED. BCG Polio 0 (at birth) PoLio ( Potio 2 Pollo 3 DPT I OPT 2 DPT 3 Measles BEG . . . . PO . . . . . P1 . . . . . P2 . . . . . P3 . . . . . DPTI,,. DPTE. DPT3. MEA . . . . DAY MO YR DAY NO YR 449 Has (NAME) received any vaccinations that are not recorded on th is card? RECORD (YES' ONLY IF RESPONDENT MENTIONS BEG e POLIO 0-3, DPT 1-3, AND/OR MEASLES VACCINE(S). YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1~ (PROBE FOR VACCINATIONS • AND WRITE '66' IN THE CORRESPONDING DAY COLUMN IN 448) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- (SKIP TO 452 )q YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (PROBE FOR VACCXNATIONS AND WRITE '061 IN THE CORRESPONDING DAY COLUMN IN 448) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-- DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-- (SKIP TO 452 ) , 450 Did (NN4E) ever receive any vaccinations To prevent him/her from sett ing diseases? ],Es . li,Es . '1 N°~i~i ; i~z~; ; . ~] N° i ;~; ; ; ;z~; ; : . ~l DoRS Not KNO . . . . . . . . . . . . DOES NOT KNON . . . . . . . . . . . . ENG WMN 21 240 '51 451A ' 51B 451C ,51D '51E 451F '51G PLease te l l me i f (HAME) received any of the fol lowing vacc i~t i~s A BEG vmcclnat|on against tubercutosis, that Is an In ject ion fn the lrm or shoulder that le f t a scar? Polio vacc ine , thmt is~ drops in in the~th? How many r ims? When WaS the f i r s t ~ l io vacc i~ given, just a f te r b i r th or tater? DPT vaccination, that IS, an in ject ion, usually Riven at the same Time as ~( io drop? How many t f~s? An in ject ion to prevent ~asles? LAST BIRTH I NEXT-TO'LAST BIRTH NAME I NAME YES°. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . o . . .1 NO, , , . ° . ° , . . . . . . . . . . . , , . °2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- (SK IP TO 451E)~ DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . B- NUMBER OF TIMES . . . . . . . . ~-~ JUST AFTER BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- (SKIP TO 4516)4 DOES HOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- NUMBER OF TIMES . . . . . . . . [--I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES HOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . * . . . .1 NO. . . . . . . o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-- (SKIP TO 451E)= DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - NUMBER OF TIMES . . . . . . . . D JUST AFTER BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z- (SKIP TO '51G)= DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- NUMBER OF TIMES . . . . . . . . [~ YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 452 | Has (NANE) been i l l with a fever at any I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I t i~ in the last 2 weeks? I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ] NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DOES MOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 453 | Has (NAME) been i l l with a c~gh at any YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I t im in the Last 2 weeks? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2E NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 457)~ (SKIP TO 457)~ DOES HOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . DOES NOT KNO~/ . . . . . . . . . . . . 45, i When (NAME) was i l l with a cough, did YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I he/she breathe faster than usual with NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 short, Fast breaths? DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DOES HOT KNOU . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 455 Did you seek advice or t reat~nt I (SKIP TO 457), 7 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 for the cough? (SKIP TO 457)4 J '56 Where did you seek advice or treatment? Anthers else? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT, HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . A GOVT. HEALTH CEMTER.,.B GOVT. HEALTH UNIT . . . . . . C GOVIT.MOB1LE CL%N%C.D COMM. HEALTH ~JORKER.E UTHER PUBLIC F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PVT. HOSPITAL/CLIHIC.G PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . l PRIVATE MOBILE CLlHlC.J COflM. HEALTH ~ORKER.K OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL L (SPECIFY) OTHER PRIVATE SECTOR SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H TRAD. PRACTITIONER . . . . . N OTHER X (SPECIFY) PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT, HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . A GOVT. HEALTH CENTER.B GOVT. HEALTH UNIT . . . . . . C GOVPT.MORILE CLINIC,.,.D CORM, HEALTH WORKER.,.,E OTHER PUBLIC F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PUT. HOSPITAL/CLINIC,.,G PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . ] PRIVATE MOBILE CLINIC.J COMM. HEALTH WORKER,,.,K OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL L (SPECIFY) OTHER PRIVATE SECTOR SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M TRAD. PRACTITIONER . . . . . N OTHER X (SPECIFY) ENG ~q'qH 22 241 I LAST BIRTH NAME 657 I ,as CRY) hod d ia r rhoea tn the Last two YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I weeks? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 467)~ DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 467)q J DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8J 4581 was there any b lood in the s too ls? J YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . B DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . B 459 m ~ the wors t day o f the d ia r rhoea , how many NOMBER OF BOWEL ~ NUMBER OF BOWEL I bowel movements d id (NAME) have? MOVEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . I I I MOVEMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . I l l DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DOES NOT KNOU . . . . . . . . . . . 98 460 | Was he /she R iven the s~ amount to d r ink SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I as be fore the d ia r rhoea~ or more, or less? MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 461 | Was he /she R iven the sa~ amount of food SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I to eat as be fore the d ia r rhoea , or ~ore , MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 or Less? LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DOES HOT NNO~4 . . . . . . . . . . . . B 462 | Was (NAME) R iven a f lu id made f rom a I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I spec ia l packet ca l led da loz i to d r ink? I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 d ia r rhoea? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- (SKIP TO 465), (SKIP TO 465)~ DOES NOT KNOt4 . . . . . . . . . . . . DOES HOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 464 I ~at WaS R iven to t reat the d ia r rhoea? I Anyth ing e l se? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. RECOMMENDED HOME FLUID. . .A P ILL OR SYRUP . . . . . . . . . . . . B INJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C ( [ ,V , ) INTRAVENOUS . . . . . . . D HOME REMEDIES/ HERBAL MEDICINES . . . . . . . . E OTHER X (SPECIFY) RECOMMENDED HOME FLUID.A PILL OR SYRUP . . . . . . . . . . . . B INJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C ( I .V . ) INTRAVENOUS . . . . . . . D HOME REMEDIES/ HERBAL MEDICINES . . . . . . . . E OTHER X (SPECIFY) 465 | Old you seek advice or treatment for the I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I diarrhoea? l No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- (SKIP TO 467 • J (SKIP TO 467)~ 466 Where d id you seek adv ice or t reatment? Anywhere e l se? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT. HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . A GOVT. HEALTH CENTER.B GOVT. HEALTH POST . . . . . . C BOVZT.MOB[LE CL IB IC . . . .D COMM. HEALTH WORKER.E OTHER PUBLIC F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PVT. HOSPITAL/CLIHIC.G PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . I PRIVATE MOBILE CLINIC.J COMM. HEALTH WONKER.K OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL L (SPECIFY) OTHER PRIVATE SECTOR SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M TRAD. PRACTITIONER . . . . . N OTHER X (SPECIFY) GO BACK TO 445 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 468. PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT. HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . A GOVT. HEALTH CENTER.B GOVT. HEALTH POST . . . . . . C GOV'T.MOBILE CL IN IC . . . .D COMB. HEALTH WORKER.E OTHER PUBLIC F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PVT. HOSPITAL/CLINIC. . .G PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . I PRIVATE MOBILE CLIBIC.J COMM. HEALTH WORKER.K OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL L (SPECIFY) OTHER PRIVATE SECTOR SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B TRAD. PRACTITIONER . . . . . N OTHER X (SPECIFY) GO BACK TO 445 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 468, ENG WMN 23 242 NO. ] OUESTIONS AND FILTERS m 468 JUhen a ch i ld has diarrhoea, should he/she be m I given Less f lu ids than usual, about the saeee Biiount, or more than usoal. I COOING CATEGORIES J SKIP J LESS FLUIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J ABOUT SAME AMOUNT OF FLUIDS . . . . . . . . 2 MORE FLUIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I I L ssF° . I Less food than usual ABOUT SAME AMOUNT OF FOOD . . . . . . . . . . 2 about the same ae~unt~ or more than usual? MORE FO00 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] DOES ROT KMO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 470 When should a ch i ld ~ho is sick ~ith diarrhoea be taken to a health Worker or health fac i l i ty? RECORD ALL MENTIONED, REPEATED WATERY STOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . A ANY WATERY STOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B REPEATED vOMITING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C AHY VOMIT]NG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D BLOOD %R STOOLS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F MARKED TH%RST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G NOT EATING/NOT DRINKING WELL . . . . . . . H GETTING $1CKER/VERY SICK . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NOT GETTIHG BETTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 471 Uhen should a ch i ld who is sick with a cough be taken to a health worker or health fac i l i ty? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. ANY CHILD RECEIVED ORS ~ 473 I Have you ever heard of a special produot called daLozi you J can get for the treatment of diarrhea? FAST BREATHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A DIFFICULT BREATHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B NOISY BREATHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D UNABLE TO DRINK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E NOT EAFIHG/NOT DRINKING WELL . . . . . . . F GETTING BICKER/VERY BICK . . . . . . . . . . . G NOT GETTING BETTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES HOT KNO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z i°J I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . -~-475 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I I I 474 J Have you ever seen a ~cket t i l e th is before? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SH~ PACKET). 4 JB°'"nyti'sl°Y°°r'h°elf°diOy°°ra°°ivea° i n jec t i~ in the arm to prevent tetanus? NUMBER OF TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . REVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O0 ~501 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ERG I84N 24 243 NO. 302 SECT%ON 5. MARR%AGE AND SEXUA~ BEHAVIOUR QUESTIONS AND FILTERS PRESENCE OF OTHERS AT THIS POINT. I Are you cur rent ly married or t l v in i with a man? CODING CATEGORIES I SKIP ++11 CHILDREN UNDER 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HUSBAND/PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER MALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 OTHER FEMALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 I YES, CURRENTLY MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES, LIVING WZTH A HAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~SOS NO, NOT IN UNION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 I I I I 503 I Nave yoga ever been married or [ivecl with a I~n? i YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z ---bS12 504 I Mhat i s your mar i ta l status rot+: are you separated, SEPARATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 -n I I divorced or wi~ed? DIVORCED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 _~509 WIDOWED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SOS I IS your h~.tsMnd/partner L iv ing with you now or fs he LIVES WITH HER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I staying elsewhere? STAYING ELSEWHERE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I 506 I Does your husband/partner have any other wives YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I bosides yourse l f? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 -~P509 I 507 I How many other wives does he have? NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ J J I I DOES NOT KNO~J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 -~509 I+ '+ '++" , +" . + l . 509 I Hive you been married or Lived with a man only once, ONCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I or more than once? MORE THAN ONCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 510 CHECK 509: MARR%EO/LiVEO WiTH [~ A NAN {)ELY ONCE I In what month and year d id you s tar t L iv ing with your husband/partner? MARRIED/LIVED WITH A MAR HaRE THAN ONCE r 9 Now we wiLL ta lk about your f i r s t husband/partner. in what month and year d id you s tar t L iv ing with him? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I ~ DOES NOT KNOW MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~--~ DOES HOT KNOg YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ~512 511 How old were you When you started L iv ing with him? AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I ~ 512 DO you have m regular partner (apart from your husband)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , i I mean someone with whom you have been having sex for about NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ---~514 a year Or more? I 513 How many regular partners do you have (aside from your husband)? NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . END ~d4N 25 244 NO. 515 ¢UESTIOND AND FILTERS CHECK 502 AND 512 MARRIED OR LIVING WITH ~ NOT KARRIEO AND NO A MAN OR NAg A REGULAR LT--J REGULAR PARTNER I I / PARTNER Now I ~ to I l k you iome quart |ors about sexual ac t iv i ty in order to gain • better understanding of some fwn i ty p lanning i$sueg, klhe~ was the t in t t ime yo~ hed sexua[ intercourse with your (husband/regular Partner)? CODING CATEGORIES I SKIP LJ I NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 000-~517 DAYS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I WEEKS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MONTHS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 BEFORE LAST BIRTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996 IF RESPONDENT HAS BOTH HUSBAND AND REGULAR PARTNER, ASK WHEN SHE LAST HAD SEX WITH EITHER, 516 I For that sexual intercourse, was a condom used? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z I 5. I Ha. you hed--uaL Lntercour-- w"h ,el.e) IVES . '1 i n the Last 6 mnths? , l man, with i~one other than NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~520 your husband or regular partner that you mentioned ear l ie r ) I 518 I Mlth how many d i f fe rent people have you had sexual I NUHBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I intercourse Jn the Last 6 months (apart from your I I I I husband or regular partners)? I YES, EACH PERSON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 i 519 Was a cond~used with any of these men? YES, SOHE PERSON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO, WiTH NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] 520 ~&~en was the Last t im you had sexual intercourse (apart from your husband/regular partner)? NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 000-~527 DAYS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WEEKS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MOHTHS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 BEFORE LAST BERTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996 I 521 For that last sexual Intercourse, d id you receive CASH/MONEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I i mo~ey, g i f t s or favours in re turn for sex? GIFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 BOTH CASH AND GIFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 522 Was th i s ~rson s~one you had met Pafore or s~one NET 8EFORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I you met for the f i r s t t i~7 MET FOR FIRST TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I 523 I Was a condom used for that Last sexual intercourse? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~SZ4A NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 | 524 t/nat was the main reaso~ that you d id not use a condom that time? NO KNOWLEDGE ASOUT CONDOM . . . . . . . . . 01 CONDOMS NOT AVAILABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 CONDO/4 TO0 COSTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 WABTED MORE CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 TRUST EACH OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 PARTNER DOES HOT APPROVE . . . . . . . . . . 06 CONDOH USE IS CUMBERSOHE . . . . . . . . . . 07 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 245 ENG kI4N 26 NO. OUESTIONS AND F[LTERS ] COOING EATECK~IES CHECK 515 AND 520: NO SEX IN LAST HAD SEX IN LAST 4 WEEKS ~ L_J I I 4 WEEKS 525 in the las t four weeks, how many times have you had sexuat in tercourse? 526 Was a cor~m used on any of these occasions? [ YES, EACH TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 IF YES: Was i t each t ime or sometimes? J YES, SOMETIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 527 I NUMBER OF TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOES NOT KNOll . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 J SKIP t l s29 j Who d id you have sex w i th the Last t ime you had sexual in tercourse? Was i t with (your husband / the man you are L iv ing w i th ) o r Was i t w i th someone else? USED CONDOM AS E~ CONTRACEPTIVE METHO0 Do you know where you can get condoms? HUSBAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 REGULAR PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SONEOME ELSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] NO ONE/NEVER HAD SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 s31 J YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~532 530 tJhere i s that? IF SOURCE IS HOSPITAL~ HEALTH CENTER, OR CLIRIC~ WRITE THE NAME OF THE PLACE. PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. (NAME OF PLACE) PUBLIC SECTOR GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 GOVERNMENT HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . 12 DISPENSARY/HEALTH UNIT . . . . . . . . . . 13 MOBILE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 FIELD WORKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 OTHER PUBLIC 16 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL/CLINIC . . . . . . . . . 21 PHARMACY/DRUG STORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 MOBILE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 FIELD WORKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL 26 (SPECIFY) OTHER PRIVATE SECTOR SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 CHURCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ]2 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] ] OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 531 I Have you heard of a condom cat ted ,Protector~? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 532 In genera| , do you th ink that most women t ike men to use condoms, they don ' t ( i ke men to use condoms, or i t does not matter? LIKE MEN TO USE CONDOMS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DON'T LIKE MEN TO USE CONDOMS . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT MATTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] OTHER 6 (SPEC] FY) DOES NOT KNOt,/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I 533 I NOW th ink back to the past . HOW o ld were you when I you had sexual in tercourse fo r the f i r s t time? I AOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEVER HAD SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 FIRST TIME WHEN MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . 96 ENG Ta4N 27 246 NO. 602 SECTION 6, FERTILITY PREFERENCES QUESTIONS AND FILTERS I CHECK 313: NEITHER STERILISED CHECK 226: NOT PREGNANT OR UNSURE [~ / i Now ] have some quest ions about the fu ture , Would you l i ke to have (a/another) ch i ld or would y~ prefer ~t to have any (more) ch i ldren? HE OR SHE STERILISED PREGNANT NOW ] have same questions about the future. After the ch i ld you are expecting, would you Like to have another ch i ld or would you prefer not to have any more chi ldren? COOING CATEGORIES I SKIP I,o,31 HAVE (A/ANOTHER) CHILD . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO MORE/NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SAYS SHE CAMIT GET PREGNANT . . . . . . . . 3 ~606 UNDECIDED/DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 -~,6O4 603 CHECK 226: PREGNANT OR UNSURE NOT / ( How tong would you l i ke to wait from now before the b i r th of (a/another) ch i ld? PREGNANT 9 HOW long would you l l ke to wait a f ter the b i r th of the ch i ld you are expecting before the b i r th of another ch i ld? [~ PREGNANT ~1 605 I f you bec~e pregnant in the next few weeks, would you be happy, u~happy, or would i t not matter very much? uRRENTLY Do you th ink you w i l l use a fami ly p lanning method MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I J J YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SOON/NOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993 SAYS SHE CAN'T GET PREGNANT . . . . . . 994 ~606 AFTER MARRIAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995 OTHER 996 NAPPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I UNHAPPY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~WlY JLD NOT MATTER . 3 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I ~609 607 in the next 12 months? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 m DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I 608 [ DO you th ink you w i l l use a method of fami ly p lanning J YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J I at any time in the future? I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ~ 1610 609 Which method would you prefer to use? PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 IMPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OA DIAPHRAGM/FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 FEMALE STERILIZAIION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 MALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 RHYTHM/COUNTING DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 NATURAL FP, MUCUS, TEMPERATURE.,,,IO WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 -~613 ENG ~AN 28 247 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 610 ~at ts them l ln reason that you th ink you wiLt never u4e • method7 CODING CATEGORIES NOT HAVING SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 FERTILITY-RELATED REASONS INFREQUENT SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 MENOEAUSAL/HYSTERECTONY . . . . . . . . . 23 SUDFECUND/INFECUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 WANTS NORE CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . E6 OPPOSITION TO USE RESPONDENT OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 HUSBAND OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ]2 OTHERS OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 RELIGIOUS PROHIBITION . . . . . . . . . . . 34 LACK OF KNOWLEDGE KNO~S NO METHO0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 KNOWS NO SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 METHOO-RELATED REASONS HEALTH CONCERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 FEAR OF SIDE EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 LACK OF ACCESS/TO0 FAR . . . . . . . . . . 53 COST TOO MUCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 INCONVENIENT TO USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 INTERFERES WITH DODY*S NORNAL PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) DOES NOT NNO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 SKIP 613 CHECK 216: HAS LIVING CHILDREN E~ / I I f you could go beck to the t im you did ~t have any ch l td r~ and could ch~ae exact ly the number of chi ldren to have In your ~hote l i fe , ho~ ~ny would that be? NO LIVING CHILDREN / I f you could choose exactly the number of chi ldren to have in your whole l i fe , how many would that be? PROBE FOE A NUMERIC RESPONSE. NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ ~ OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) ~615 616 HOW many of these chi ldren Mould you l i ke To be boys and how many Would you l i ke to be girts? BOYS GIRLS EITHER OTHER 969696 (SPECIFY) 615 I Would you -y that you ap~orove of couples using [ APPROVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 m I DISAPPROVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 a mthod to avoid gett ing preg~nt? I NO OPINION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ~617 61- - r - - - - " - - °° " I . I relmtive or anyone else? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 617 I Is I t accuptabta or not acceptable to you for information on NOT DOES I I fat',lily planning to be provided: ACCEPT- ACCEPT- NOT I ABLE ABLE KNOU On the radio? RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 the televis ion? TELEVISION . . . . . . 1 2 8 ENG ~4N 29 248 NO J 618 619 QUESTIONS AND FILTERS COOING CATEGORIES l SKIP In the Lest six months have you heard about family planning: On the radio? On the television? In a r~tlaplll~r or nmgazlne? From s poster? PrOm LeafLets or brochures? YES NO RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 TELEVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 NEWSPAPER OR HAGAZ]NE . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 POSTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 LEAFLETS OR BROCHURES . . . . . . . . . . I 2 Which progrm or mssage have you heard? Any others? I DID NOT HEAR PROoNA. 1 ON RADIO I KONONEEKA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A J l ADVEHTISEHEHT FOR DONDON/PILL . . . . . . B OTHER X ON THE RADIO AND TELEVISION. (SPECIFY) 620 In the |ast few months have you discussed the practice YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J of family ptanning wLth your fr iends or retatives? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ---~622 I 621 With whom? Anyone else? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. HUSBAND/PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A HOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B FATHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G SISTER(S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D BROTHER(S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E DAUGHTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F MOTHER-IN-LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G FRIENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H OTHER X (SPECIFY) I 622 Do you think most, some, or none of the women you know HOST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J use some kind of fmi ty planning? SONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES, ~ NO, 6~ LIVING WITH NOT IN ~ 62 A MAN UHION 624 Spouses/partners do not always agree on everything. How I want to ask you about your husband's/partner's views on fmi ty planning. Do you think that your husl~nd/partner approves or i disepproves of couples using a method to avoid pregnancy? APPROVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DISAPPROVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 625 IHaveyouandyourhusband/par tnereverd iscussed the YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I number of chi ldren you would Like to have? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 626 JDovou think your huspand/partner wants the same I SAME HUHBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I number of chi ldren that you want, or does he want more HORE CHZLDREH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 fewer than you went? FEWER CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ENG WI4N 30 249 NO. I OUESTIONS AND FILTERS 626Am Do you th ink that us ing fami ly p ta~ing uitt I rake a w~n rare pr~ isc~s? I COOING CATEGORIES I SKIP YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . , . . . .2 I DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 "'1 °° y°'''°k'h'' °''n'''''' °''~'°''''' I 'E' . ' 1 ~ke a wn ~re pr~ isc~us? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z DOES NOT KNC~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 626C What do you unders tand by the Term " fami ly p lanning '*? RECORD ALL HENTIONED ADVICE ON PROOUCING CHILDREN . . . . . . . A NOT TO HAVE MANY CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . B SPACING CHILDREN TO HAVE A MANAGEABLE FAMILY . . . . . . . . . . . . C PLAN[NG A RR[GHT FUTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . D PROOOCE FEW CHILDREN, EDUCATE AND FEED THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 62601 I n a re la t ionsh ip , who do y~ Think shou ld have the I major ro te us ing f~ i ty p la~ing? NAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | WOHAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I BOTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 IT DEPENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 FAMILY PLANNING SHOULD NOT BE USED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 626E| Uho shou ld be respons ib le in get t ing in fo rmat ion about I f~ity p lann ing? MAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~HAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 BOTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] IT DEPENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . & FAHILY PLANNING SHOULD NOT BE USED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 626F m Have you seen or heard about The YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I Ye l low F~i ty Ptar~ning Flower? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES ROT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ~627 I 626G I Can you descr ibe i t ? YELLOW FLOWER IN A CIRCLE . . . . . . . . . . 1 I SHALL FAMILY INSIDE THE FLOI,/ER . . . . . 2 I A NAN, WOHAN, AND TWO CHILDREN . . . . . 3 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 626H I Hat does i t man? 628 J S~T i~S a w~n becks pregnant when she does not I want to b~. Nave you ever b4~c~ pregnant when you d id not want to be? I FP SERVICES ARE AVAILABLE . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I HIGH QUALITY SERVICES ARE AVAILASL.2 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 NEVERHAD I I SEXUAL INTERCOURSE [~ L7Ol YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~701 I 2 I° ~" °° - h " h Y°°'--ore°°° I ~I when you d id not want to be? YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 630 ~Jhen That hashed To you, ~hat d id you do about i t ? STOPPED THE PREGNANCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 | I ~ ATTEMPTED TO STOP THE PREGNANCY BUT FAILED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 HAD A MISCARRIAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 ~633 NOTHING/CONTINUED THE PREGNANCY.D4 ~637 OTHER 96 1 (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNO~J . 98 ENG klNN 31 250 NO. OUESTIOMS AND FILTERS 631 What wag do~e to s top the pregnancy? COOING CATEGORIES BITTER DRINKS (HERBS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . O1 TABLETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 HARD MASSAGE/SQUEEZiNG ABDOHEfl . . , .03 CATHETER/OBJECT IN WOHB . . . . . . . . . . . OA INJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 SUCTLOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 CURRETAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 STRENUOUS ~/ORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 SCRUBB%NG FLOORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 OTHER 96 LSPEC]FY) DOES ROT KHO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 !SKIP 632 Who prov ided the methods fo r you? Anyone e l se? DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A TRAINED NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B TRADITIONAL HEALER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C TRAINED BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . O UNTRA%NED BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . E PHARMACIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F RELATiVE/FRIEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G OTHER X (SPECIFY) RO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y --~634 633 ghat do you th ink caused you to have a miscar r iage? HITTER DRINKS (HERBS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 TABLETS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 HARD MASSAGE/SQUEEZING ABDO#4EN,,.03 CATHETER/OBJECT iN ;/OMB . . . . . . . . . . . D4 ]NJECTLOH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 SUCTIOB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 CURRETAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D7 STRENUOUS WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 SCRUBBING FLOORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 SOHETHING WRONG W%TH BABY . . . . . . . . . 10 HAD A FIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 HAD AN ACCIDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 gAS SICK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 634 D id you have any hea l th problems as a resu l t? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I J NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 -~P637 I 635 ~as it necessary fo r you to be hosp i ta l i zed? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ] NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B - - -~637 I 636 How many n ights d id you spend in the hosp i taL? ~ I RIGHTS IN HOSP%TAL . . . . . . . . . . . I I I I IF NO NIGHTS, RECORD '00% 637 D id you ever have an ear l ie r unwanted pregnancy that YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z you or someone e l se stopped? ENG ~qN 32 251 NO. CHECK 50]: SECTION 7. HUSBAND'S BACKGROUND AND~JOI4AN'SEK)RK QUESTIONS AND FILTERS l COOING CATEGORIES NOT ASKED [~ YES [~ NO ASK QUESTIONS ABOUT ASK QUESTIONS ABOUT CURRENT HUSBAND/PARTNER NOST RECENT HUSBAND/PARTNER I r708 I I I 702 I Did your ( tes t ) husl :~nd/pirtner ever attend school? | YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - - -*705 703 J Uhat was the h ighest level of school he 8ttended: PRIMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J I primary, jun io r , secondary or un ivers i ty? JUNIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I SECONDARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 UNIVERSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 DOES NOT KNO~,/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ~705 GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 705 J ~ :~ i , (W.S)your (I.st)husband/partnerls main occupatlon? is , what k ind of work does (d id) he mainly do? I DOES (DID) NOT UORK B IN AGRICULTURE r~ ~708 I I 707 I (Does/did) your husl~nd/pertner work rrainly on h is I own land or on fami ly lend, or (does/did) he rent land, or (does/did) he work on someone e l se ' s land? I HIS LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I FAMILY LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I RENTED LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] SOMEONE ELSE*B LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 LABOR ON SOREONE ELSE~S FARM LAND.5 PUBL%C LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 I I 708 Aside from your own housework, are you cur rent ly working? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~711 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I in cash on k ind. Others se l l th ings , have a small business or work o~ The fami ly farm or in the f~ i ly business. Are you cur rent ly doing eny of these Things or any other work? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ----~711 I INo . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 , 710 J Have yo~J done any work in the l i s t 12 months? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J J I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - - - .801 HUT I I IN AGRICULTURE [~ =714 or do you rent lend, or work on someone else s Land? I C'~JN LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I FAHILY LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RENTED LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SOMEONE ELSE'S LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 i LABOR ON SOHEORE ELSE S FARm LAND.5 PUBLIC LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 EMG ~MN 33 252 NO. I DeJESTION$ AND FILTERS ,1, J J:hZr.:r:rE:; 'yo, 'Y COOING CATEGORIES FOR FAMILY MEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 FOR SOMEONE ELSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SELF-EMPLOYED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 l SKIP I I I 715 Do you usual ly Mork throughout the year, or THROUGHOUT THE YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 --~P717 do you work seasonaLLy, or o~ty once in a white? SEASONALLY/PART OF THE YEAR . . . . . . . . 2 i ONCE IN A WHILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 -~718 716 I Ouri~ the Last 12 months, ho~ many months did you work? ~ i I NUMBER OF HOHTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . t l l I " l (I° the yOu'°rknd'' HO'-y doys a -H °I° Y°° D ' " usual ly ~ork? NUMBER OF DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I did you work? NUMBER OF DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . 719 On a typica l working day, how many hours do you spend ~ I working? NUMBER OF HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l l I DOES NOT KNOU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 720 | DO you earn cash For your work? J YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~TE] PROBE: Do you make money for working? | 721 How much do you usuaLLy earn for th i s work? PROBE: Is th i s by the day, by the week, or by the month? PER HOUR.1 PER DAY . . . . . 2 PER ~EEK.3 PER MONTH.6 PER YEAR.S OTHER (SPECIFY) 99999996 722 CHECK 502: YES, CURRENTLY HABRIED YES, LIVING ~ITH A NAN ~ho mainly decides ho~ the n~oney you earn u i t l be used: you, your husbend/partner o you and your husband/partner jo in t ly , someor~ else? NO, NOT IN UNION l Who mainly decides how the money you earn w~tt be used: you, someone else, or you and someone else jo in t ly? RESPONDENT DECIDES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HUSBAND/PARTNER DECIDES . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 JOINTLY WITH HUSBAND/PARTNER . . . . . . . 3 SOHEOHE ELSE DECIDES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 JOINTLY WITH SOHEOHE ELSE . . . . . . . . . . 5 723 I Do yOU usuaLLy work at hoar or away from home? HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 AWAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 725 CHECK 217 AND 218: IS A CHILD LIVING AT HOME WHO IS AGE 5 OH LEGS? YES ,1~ Who usuaLLy takes care of (NAME OF YOUNGEST CHILD AT HOME) while you are working? RESPONDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 HUSBAND/PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 OLDER FEMALE CHILD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 OLDER HALE CHILD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 OTHER RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 NEIGHBORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 FRIENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 SERVANTS/HIRED HELP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 CHILD IS IN SCHOOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 INSTITUTIONAL CNILDCANE . . . . . . . . . . . 10 HAS NOT t~DRREO SINCE LAST BIRTH. . l l OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) I EHG WNN 34 253 SI~CT~ON I~. AIDS NO. I QUESTIONS AND FZLTERS =' I d i - - . , th . , .o . t ransmi t ted I COOING CATEGORIES ~ SKIP I :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 802 ~,/hich diseases do you know? RECOND ALL RESPONSES HAS NEVER HAD SEX 804 I ~usr~eta~e last 12 mo~ths, d id you have any of these I EYPHI L I E/KABOTONGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .A GONORRNEA/NZ I KO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B AIDS/SLIM DISEASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .E GENITAL WART S/CONDY LI]4ATA . . . . . . . . . .D OTHER W (SPECIFY) OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,Z L806 I I YEB. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: :::~'806 l 805 Which? RECORD ALL RESPONSES SYPH [ L I S/KABOTONGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A GOBORRHEA/NZ I KO, . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .B AIDS/SLIM DISEASE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .C GENITAL WARTS/COHDYLORATA. . . . . . . . . .O OTHER W (SPECIFY) OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNO~/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 806 I During the lest lZ months, did you have a vaginal discharDe? J DON'T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 YES" .2 I l 807 I 04q your Ourir~ the lmatgenitals?lZ months, did you have B sore or ulcer I DON'T . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . KNOW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .8 NO" .1 I CHECK 805, NO6, AND 80;' I~EAO~[sOR MORE NONED] SEAsEsOF THE I ~81t 809 I ~:nyyouthak~e IM~lvice or treatment? th is disease (DISEASE FROR 8OS, 806 AND 807) 810 Where did you seek advice or treatment? Any other place or person? RECORD ALL MENTIORED PU~OLVI ECRSEC~OR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A - GOVERNNENT HEALTH CENTER. . . . . . . . .B DI SPENSARY/HEALTH UNIT. . . . . . . . . . .C GOVERHNENT NOBILE CL[NIC. . . . . . . . .D GOVERSNENT FIELD DJORKER . . . . . . . . . .E OTHER PUBLIC F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPI TAL/CL i NIC. . . . . . . . . .G PHARMACY/DRUG STORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R PRIVATE DOCTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ PRIVATE NUBILE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . J PRIVATE FIELD b/ORKER. . . . . . . . . . . . .K OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL L (SPECIFY) OTHER PRIVATE SECTOR SHOP. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .N CHURCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .N FR] EBDS/RELAT IVES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .0 TRADITIONAL HEALER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . .P OTHER X ( SPEDI FT ) DOES HOT KHOU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,Z ~0108 ENG WINN 35 254 81OAf Why did not you seek advice or tremtment? EMBARRASSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TOO EXPENSIVE/COSTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TREATMENT IS NOT AVAILABLE . . . . . . . . . 3 , DOES NOT KNON WHERE TO GO . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) 810S CNEEK 52, i , ~ . ~ ~ ~ [ ~ hAS NEVER MAD SEX ~ ,814 "° I . ' I did you inform your partner? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 812 When you had (DISEASE FROM 8OEA AND 8058) did you do • YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | so~th ing so as not to infect your partner? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PARTNER ALREADY INFECTED . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ~814 I 813 What did you dot go SEXUAL INTERCOURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A USED CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . B • TOOK MEDICINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C . OTHER X (SPECIFY) 814 I CHECK 802: vE~ DID NOT MENTION ,AIDS' MENTIONED 'AIDS' 815 I Have you ever heard of an i l tness catted AIDS? I [--1 Iz 016 J YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ------~901 816 From which sources of information have you learned most about AIDS? Any other sources? RECORD ALL MENTIONED, RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A TV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S NEWSPAPERS/MAGAZINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C PAMPHLETS/POSTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O HEALTH WORKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E MOSQUES/CHURCHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F SCHOOLS/TEACHERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G COMMUNITY MEETINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ WORK PLACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J OTHER X (SPECIFY) 817 How can a person get AIDS? Any other WayS? RECORD ALL RESPONSES SEXUAL iNTERCOURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A SEX WITH PROSTITUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S HOHOSEXUAL CONTACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C SEXUAL INTERCOURSE WITH MULTIPLE PARTNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D SLO00 TRANSFUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E UNSTERIL]SEO EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . F MOTHER TO CHILD (AT BIRTH) . . . . . . . . . G BREASTFEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H KISSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] MOSQUITO SITES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J OTHER W (SPECIFY) OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNC~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 818 Is there anything a person can do to avoid gett ing AIDS I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I or the v i rus that causes AIDS? J go . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S ~ ~820 I I END 'd1'Ig ]6 255 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 819 ~st can a person do to avo id set t ing AIDS or the v i rus that cmuses AIDS? Any o ther ways? RECORD ALL MENTZONED SKIP CODING CATEGORIES DO NOT HAVE SEX AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . A USE CONDONS DURING SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . B 90NJF HAVE SEX WITH PHOSTITUTES.C DON'T HAVE SEX UITH HONOSEXUALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D 00 NOT HAVE ~NY SEX PARTNERS . . . . . . E HAVE ONE FAITHFUL PARTNER (ZERO GRAZING) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F AVOID BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . G AVOID UNSTERILISED EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . H AVOID KISSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] AVOID MOSQUITO BITES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J SEEK PROTECTION FROM TRADITIONAL HEALER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K DO NOT DRINK TOO MUCH ALCOHOL . . . . . . L OTHER W (SPECIFY) OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 820 | Is i t pass ib le fo r a hea l thy - look ing perso~ to have the AIDS I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I v l r~? I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I DOES NOT KNON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I ' ' ' ' ° ' ' ' ' ' ' ' ° - ' ' ' ' ' ' I . I AIDS d ie f r~ the disease? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOt# . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I"ooO . . o o . I 823 | Can AIDS be t ransmi t ted through breast feed ins? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 m I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 826 m Do you persona l ty know s~one who has AIDS or I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 m I has d ied of AIDS? I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ~825 8Z4A I ; /hat re la t i~sh ip to you? SPOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A SIRLINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C NE[GHSOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D OTHERS X (SPECIFY) 825 DO you th ink your chances of get t ing AIDS are smtL , SMALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I moderate, great~ or no r i sk a t a r t? NODERATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GREAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3~827 HO RISK AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 | 826 Why do you th in that you have (NO RISK/A SMALL CHANCE) of get t ing AIDS? Any o ther reas~s? RECORD ALL MENTIONED, ABSTAIN FRON SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A USE CORDONS DURING SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . B HAVE ONLY ORE SEX PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . C LIMITED HUMBER OF PARTNERS . . . . . . . . . O NO HOtIOSEXUAL CONTACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E NO BLO00 TRANSFUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F NO INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z ~828 827 ~y do you th ink that you have a (MODERATE/GREAT) chance of Ret t ing AIDS? Any o ther reasons? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. DO NOT USE CONDQI4S . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MULTIPLE SEX PARTNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B SPOUSE HAS MULTIPLE PARTNERS . . . . . . . C HOMOSEXUAL CONTACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D HAD BLOCO TRANSFUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E HAD INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z ENG IJMN 37 256 NO. | QUESTIONS AND FILTERS J COOING CATEGORIES J SKIP 828 | Since you he l rd of AIDS, have you changed your aexuaI I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I behavlour to prevent get t ing AIDS? [ NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8~830 829 What d id you do? Anyth ing else? RECORD ALL MENTIONED RESTRICTED SEX TO ONE PARTNER . . . . . . A STARTED USING CONDORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B REDUOEO NUI4BER OF PARTNERS . . . . . . . . . C STOPPED ALL SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNO~/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 830 831 J Nave you ever used a condom dor ing sex to avo id I get t ing or t ransmi t t ing diseases, such as AIDS? soe!e people use a condom dur ing sexual in tercourse to avo id YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J get t ing AIDS or o ther sexua l ly t ransmi t ted diseases. NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 -~ .832 , Have you ever heard of th i s? J I MASNBVBR ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: J 832 I Have you ever been tested tO see i f you have the YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . ,836 I AIDS v i rus? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I DOES NOT KNOU/NOT SURE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 83] I Would you Like To be tested for the AIDS VirUS? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J I NO . . . . . . . . . , , . . . . . . . . , , , , . . . . . . . . . 2 I DOES NOT KNOW/NOT SURE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 8]4 I DO yOU know a place i~here you could go to get an YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I AIDS tes t? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2~ DOES HOT KNOW/NOT SURE . . . . . . . . . . . . S / L836 835 Where could you go? 836 What do you suggest i s the most important th ing the government should do fo r people who have AIDS? 837 I I f a member of your fami ly Is su f fe r ing from A]DS I ~ould you be Wi l l ing to care fo r him or her a t home? PUBLIC SECTOR GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A GOVERNMENT HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . . g DISPENSARY/HEALTH UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . C MOBILE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D FIELD UORKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E OTHER PUBLIC F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL/CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . G PHARMACY/DRUG STORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; MOBILE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J FIELD WORKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL L (SPECIFY) OTHER PRIVATE SECTOR SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H CHURCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KMO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z PROVIDE MEDICAL TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . 1 | HELP RELATIVES PROVIDE CARE . . . . . . . . 2 I ISOLATE/QUARANTINE/JAIL PEOPLE . . . . . 3 NOT BE INVOLVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DEPENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER. 6 (SPECIFY) NOT SURE/DOES MOT KNOb/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . D ENG WI4N 38 257 SECTION 9. NATERNAL NORTALITY 901 | Now I woutd Like to ask you some questions about your brothers I I and s isters, that is, aL| of the chi ldren born to your natural I mother, inci~Rlir41 those kt~o are Living with you, those l i v ing elsewhere, and those bdlo have died. NUMBER OF BIRTHS TO r ~ HO~ many chi ldren did your mother give b i r th to, incloding you? NATURAL MOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . I ] I 902 CHECK 901: TWO OR NORE BIRTHS ONLY ONE BIRTH [~v (RESPONDENT ONLY) ~1 J- SKIP TO 916 903 I HOW many of these b i r ths did your mother have before you were NUI48ER OF ~ | I born? PRECEDING BIRTHS . . . . . . . . i r l I ENG ;~4N 39 258 (1] (2] [3] [4] [53 [63 904 What was the name g iven to your 0(dest (next o tdbst ) b ro ther or s i s te r? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I I ] 905 I s (NAME) MALE . . . . . . . 1 HALE . . . . . . . 1 HALE . . . . . . . 1 HALE . . . . . . . 1 MALE . . . . . . . 1 MALE . . . . . . . 1 mate or female? FEMALE . . . . . 2 FEMALE . . . . . 2 FEMALE . . . . . 2 FEMALE . . . . . 2 FEMALE . . . . . 2 FEHALE . . . . . 2 I I I 1 t I 906 i s (NAME) YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 s t i LL a l ive? NO . . . . . . . . . 2 90 . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 GO TO 908<] GO TO 908< ] GO TO 908< ] GO TO 908< ] GO TO 908< ] GO TO 908< ] DK . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . DK DK . . . . . . . . o DK . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . GO TO ,2]< ~ GO TO (3] <8] 90 TO [4, <~ G; 'T ; ' [ ; i <~ GO TO [6] <~ GO TO (~j<8~ i i i i ! °Ld is GO TO [2] GO TO [3] GO TO [4] GO TO [53 GO TO [6] GO TO [7] I I I I I I I year d id (NAME) d ie? GO TO 910 GO TO 910 GO TO 910 GO TO 910 GO TO 919 GO tO 910 DK . . . . . . . . 98 OK . . . . . . . . 98 OK . . . . . . . . 98 OK . . . . . . . . 98 OK . . . . . . . . 98 DK . . . . . . . . 98 I I I I ~ I )09 How many (NAME) d ie? 910 How o ld WaS (NAME) when she/he d ied? z === ====== ========== == 911 ~as (NAME) pregnant when she d ied? IF MALE OR OIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [2) ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 914< ' ] NO . . . . . . . . . 2 of pregnancy or ch i ldb i r th? IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [33 =============: YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 914< '~ NO . . . . . . . . . 2 I I I I I I I i IF MALE OR IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 ) lED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE YEARS OF AGE GO TO [4] GO TO [5) ============== ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 914< ~] GO TO 914< '~ NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 I I IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [6] ============== I YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 914< '] NO . . . . . . . . . 2 IF MALE DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [7] ============== YES . . . . . . . . I GO TO 916< '~ ' 90 . . . . . . . . . 2 912 D id (NAME) YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 d ie dur ing GO TO 915< ' ] GO TO 915< '~ GO TO 915< '~ GO TO 915< '~ GO TO 915< '~ GO TO 915< '~ ch i ldb i r th? 90 . . . . . . . . . 2 90 . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 90 . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 I I I I I I 91B D id (NAME) d ie w i th in two YES . . . . . . . . I ;YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . I YES . . . . . . . . I YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 months a f te r the end of a NO . . . . . . . . . 21 NO . . . . . . . . . ~12 NO . . . . . . . . . c]2 NO . . . . . . . . . ~]2 90 . . . . . . . . . ¢]2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 pregnancy or GO TO 915<-- , 00 TO 915< ~ GO TO 915< ~ GO TO 915<~ GO TO 915<-- GO TO 915< ~] ch i ldb i r th? / I t I I I 914 Was her death ~ to YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 co~l~oLicatio~s NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 I I R15 How many ch i ld ren d id (NAME) g ive b i r th to dur ing her L i fe t ime? ENG WI4N 40 259 [7 ] [85 [93 [103 [11] J [12] 9O4 Uhat N,8 the I gfv~ to your o ldest (next o ldes t ) b ro ther or s i s te r? I I I I I 905 I s tHANE) MALE . . . . . . . 1 MALE . . . . . . . 1 MALE . . . . . . . 1 HALE . . . . . . . 1 HALE . . . . . . . 1 MALE . . . . . . . 1 mate or fm[eT FEMALE . . . . . 2 FEMALE . . . . . 2 FEMALE . . . . . 2 FEMALE . . . . . 2 ; FEMALE . . . . . 2 FEMALE . . . . . 2 I I I i I 906 I s (NAME) YES . . . . . . . . I YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 ! YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 s t i l l a l i ve? NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 GO TO 908<] GO TO 908< ] GO TO 908< ] GO TO 908<] GO TO 908<] GO TO 908<] OK . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . 81 OK . . . . . . . . . OK . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . GO TO [8]< ~ GO TO [9]< 8~ GO TO [10]~ GO TO [11]< 8~ GO TO [12] - - GO TO [13]~ I I J I I I GO TO [85 GO TO [95 GO TO [105 GO TO [11] GO TO [12] GO TO [13] ] I I I I I 908 In what 191--F1 191--T--1 i191 191-T1 19V1--1 GO TO 910 GO TO 910 GO TO 910 : GO TO 910 GO TO 910 GO TO 910 OK . . . . . . . . 98 OK . . . . . . . . 98 DK . . . . . . . . 98 OK . . . . . . . . 98 OK . . . . . . . . 98 DK . . . . . . . . 98 i i i i i 1 909 HOW many (NAME) d ie? I I I I I I 910 HOW Did she/he d ied? J = == = = === === == = z l l Jn l== 911 Was (NN4E5 pregnant b~hen she d ied? IF MALE OR DiED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO 48] ===========llz YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 914< ~J NO . . . . . . . . . 2 915 Howmny b i r th to dur ing her L i fe t ime? i I 916 J RECORD THE TIME, IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [9] ==¢=========== YES . . . . . . . . 1 TO 914<'1 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 IF HALE OR ~IED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [10] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 914< ~ gO . . . . . . . . . 2 IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [11] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 914< ~ NO . . . . . . . . . 2 IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [12] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 914< '~ NO . . . . . . . . . 2 IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [13] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 914~ '~ NO . . . . . . . . . 2 912 D id (NAME) YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 ] YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 d ie dur ing GO TO 915< ~ GO TO 915< '1 GO TO 915< '~ GO TO 915<'1 GO TO 915< -~ GO TO 915<'1 chi L~irth? NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 I i I I I I 913 D id (NAME) d ie w i th in two YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 months a f te r the end o f a i NO . . . . . . . . . E NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 pregrmncy or I GO TO 915< ~ GO TO 915< ~ GO TO 915<~ GO TO 915< ~ GO TO 915< ~ GO TO 915< ~] ch i Iclbi r th? i i i i i i 914 Was her death due to YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 compl i ca t ions o f pregnancy NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 or ch i tdb i r th? I I I I [ I ch i ld ren d id ENG l,'~qN 41 260 SECTION 10. HEIGHT ANB WEIGHT CHECK 215: ORE OR MORE gIRTHS ~ NO BIRTHS SINCE JAN. 1991 L~ SINCE JAN. 1991 IL END INTERVIE',,IER: IN 1002 (COLUMNS 2-3) RECORD THE LINE NUI4BER FOR EACH CHILD BORN SINCE JANUARY 1991 AND STILL ALIVE. IN 1003 AND 1004 RECORD THE NAHE AND BIRTH DATE FOR THE RESPONDENT AND FOR ALL LIVING CHILDREN BORN SINCE JANUARY 1991. IN 1005 AND 1008 RECORD HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF THE RESPONDENT AND THE LIVING CHILDREN. (NOTE: ALL RESPONDENTS WITH ORE OR HORE BIRTHS SINCE JANUARY 1991 SHOULD BE UEIGHEB AND MEASURED EVEN IF ALL OF THE CHILDREN HAVE DIED. IF THERE ARE MORE THAN Z LIVING CHILBREN BORN SINCE JAHUARY 1991, USE ADDITIONAL FORHS). I I 1002 I LINE NO, FROI4 0.212 I I~l RESPONDENT i q--oES' I I LIVING CHILD YOUNGEST LIVING CHILD 1003 i N~E I (NAHE) ] (MANE) J (NAME) FROH D.212 FOR CHILDREN 100/* I DATE OF BIRTH BAY . . . . . . . . . DAY . . . . . . . . . FROM G.215, AND ASK FOR DAY OF B%RTH MONTH . . . . . . . H(~qTH . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . OF LEFT SHOULDER SCAR SEEN . . . . . . . . . 1 SCAR SEEN . . . . . . . . . 1 NO SCAR . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO SCAR . . . . . . . . . . . 2 '°°°1"~'°",:oo,o"-'o~, I ~ .D ~-n.DI ~ .D 1007 I WAS LENGTH/HEIGHT OF CHILD [ ~ASURED LYING DOMN LYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 STANDING UP? STANDING . . . . . . . . . . 2 STANDING . . . . . . . . . . 2 10°81WEI°N(:° ki'°Br--' I ~n .s I ~n .s l ~-rn.n 1009 DATE I DAY . . . . . . . . . WEIGHED DAY . . . . . . . . . DAY . . . . . . . . . AND MONTH . . . . . . . MEASURED NOHTH . . . . . . . MONTH . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . 1010 I RESLILT NEASURED . . . . . . . . . . 1 NOT PRESENT . . . . . . . 3 REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 (SPECIFY) CHILD MEASURED,.,.1 CHILD SICK . . . . . . . . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . . . . . . . . . . 3 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . 4 MOTHER REFUSED,.5 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 (SPECIFY) CHILD MEASURED.,,.1 CHILD SICK . . . . . . . . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . . . . . . . . . . 3 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . 4 MOTHER REFUSED.5 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 (SPECIFY) 1011 [NAHE OF MEASURER: ~ NAME OF ASSISTANT: ~-~ ENG ~4N A2 261 Commmlts about Respondent: INTERVIEWER'S OBSERVATIONS To be fitted in a f ter completing interv iew Comments o~ Spec i f i c Questton~: Any Other Coane~ts: SUPBRVISOR'S OBSERVATIONS Name of Supervisor: Date: EDITOR'S OBSERVATIONS M~ of Editor: Date: 262 UGANDA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY MAN'S QUEST IONNAIRE IDENTIF ICAT ION REGION DISTRICT COUNTY SUB-COUNTY/TOWN PARISH/RC2 NAME EA NAME UDHS NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . URBAN/RURAL (Urban=l , Rura l=2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CITY~MUNIC IPAL ITY[TOWN~COUNTRYSIDE. . . : . . . . ~ . . . . . . . . . . . (City=l , mun ic ipa l i ty=2, town=3, coun~rys iae=4) HOUSEHOLD NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NAME OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD NAME AND L INE NUMBER OF MAN NAME AND L INE NUMBER OF F IRST WIFE NAME AND L INE NUMBER OF SECOND WIFE NAME AND L INE NUMBER OF THIRD WIFE NAME AND L INE NUMBER OF FOURTH WIFE I INTERVIEWER V IS ITS 1 2 3 F INAL V IS IT DATE INTERVIEWER'S NAME RESULT* NEXT V IS IT : DATE T IME *RESULT CODES: 1 COMPLETED 2 NOT AT HOME 3 POSTPONED DAY MONTH YEAR NAME RESULT REFUSED PARTLY COMPLETED INCAPACITATED TOTAL NUMBER i I OF VISIT 7 OTHER LANGUAGE OF QUEST IONNAIRE: ENGL ISH ~ | LANGUAGE USED IN INTERVIEW** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . . . . . . . RESPONDENT'S LOCAL LANGUAGE** . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TRANSLATOR USED (NOT AT ALL=l ; SOMETIMES=2; ALL THE T IME=3) . . . . . . . LANGUAGE: 1 ATESO-KARAMOJONG 2 LUGANDA 3 LUGBARA 4 LUO 5 RUNYANKOLE-RUKIGA 6 RUNYORO-RUTORO 7 ENGL ISH 8 OTHER SUPERVISOR NAME ~ NAME DATE DATE F IELD EDITOR OFF ICE EDITOR KEYED BY 263 SECTION 1. RESPONDEMT'S BACKGROUND NO. OUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES 101 I RECORD THE TIME. HOUR i MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 SKIP I F i rst I would Like to ask some questions about you and your CITY (KAHPALA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I household. For most of the time unt i l you were 12 years old, NUN[C[PALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I did you Live in a c i ty , in a munic ipal i ty, in a town or in TO~JN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 the countryside? COUNTRYSIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1031 CURRENTM°W tOngpLAcEhmVe oFY°UREsZDENCE)7been tLving continuously in (NAME OF YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ - -~ I I I ALWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 V] SITON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 ~105 10/* I Just before you moved hene, d id you t i re in a c i ty , in a CITY (KAMPALA) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I nlunicipality+ in a town, or in the countryside? HUNICIPALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I TOWN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 COUNTRYSIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ; 105 In what l~th and year were you born? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ ~ DK MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ DOES NOT KNO~ YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 +1 I AGE IN COMPLETED YEARS . . . . . . . . COMPARE AND CORRECT 105 AND/OR 106 IF INCONSISTENT, 107 I Nave you ever attended school? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 -~p l l 1 ,081 What is the highest Level of school you attended: PRIMARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I prinwry, jun ior , secondary or university? JUNIOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I SECONDARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] UNIVERSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 I D ,1~ 109 ghat is the highest grade you completed at that Level? 110 CHECK 10B: ~ lOB: PRIMARY 9 JUNIOR OR HIGHER | 1111 WouLd you please read th is sentence? I SHC4~ SENTENCE TO RESPONDENT AND CIRCLE CORRECT COOE. I READ EASILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I WITH DIFFICULTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] ~ l l ]A "+1 oo +u +u''',-d' o - - r or o++z'o+.''-+' I +EL . , I once a week? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 113A I Now often do you l i s ten to the radio? EVERY DAY/ALMOST EVER; DAY . . . . . . . . . 1 I I AT LEAS; ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I AT LEAST ONCE A NORTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 LESS THAN ONCE A HONTN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 NARDLY/V;RTUALLY NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 -----~114A DOES HOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 - - -bl14A ENG MEN 2 264 NO. I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 1138 ~hmt times do you ~s~qnLLy l i s ten to the radio? {CIRCLE ALL TINES MENTIONED) I COOING CATEGORIES EARLY MORNING (6,00-8,00) . . . . . . . . . . A MID MORNING (8.00-10,00) . . . . . . . . . . . B LATE MORNING (10.OO-12.OO) . . . . . . . . . C LUNCH TIME (12.00-1A,OO) . . . . . . . . . . . D AFTERNOON (14.00-16.00) . . . . . . . . . . . . E LATE AFTERNOON (16,00-18,0O) . . . . . . . F EARLY EVENING (18.00-20,00) . . . . . . . . G LATE EVENING (20,O0-STATION CLOSE).H DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z I SKIP I 113C:| What day of The week do you usual ly Like to l i s ten to I the radio? (CIRCLE ALL DAYS MENTIONED) MONDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A TUESDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B WEDNESDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 THURSDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D FRIDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E SATURDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F SUNDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 114A] Now often do you watch te lev is ion (TV)? I EVERY DAY/ALMOST EVERY DAY . . . . . . . . . 1 I AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I AT LEAST ONCE A MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 LESS THAN ONCE A MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 HARDLY/VIRTUALLY NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ ---~115 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 -~ .115 I 11~8 What times do you usual ly watch TV? (CIRCLE ALL TIMES MENTIONED) EARLY MORNING (6.00-8.00) . . . . . . . . . . A HID MORNING (S.O0-10.OO) . . . . . . . . . . . B LATE MORNING (10.00-12.00) . . . . . . . . . C LUNCH TIME (12.00-14,00) . . . . . . . . . . . D AFTERNOON (14,00-16.00) . . . . . . . . . . . . E LATE AFTERNOON (16.00-18,00) . . . . . . . F EARLY EVENING (18.00-20.00) . . . . . . . . G LATE EVENING (2O.OO-STAT]ON CLOSEI.H OOEB NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 114c What day of the week ~> you usual ly watch TV? (CIRCLE ALL DAYS MENTIONED) MONDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A TUESDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B WEDNESDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C THURSDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 FRIDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E SATURDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F SUNDAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 11, l z : : . ur ooo ,i T,., i , .,.E k,nd o, .o k do you I DOES NOT N~ORK IN AGRICULTURE [~ t118 I I 117 I Do you work mainly c~ your own land or on family Land, OWN LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I or do you rent tend, or work on someone else's Land? FAMILY LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RENTED LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SOHEONE ELBE'S LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 LABOR ON SOHEONE ELSEIS FARM LAND.5 PUBLIC LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 ENG MEN 3 265 NO. I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 118 I DO you earn cash for th i s WOrk? I I COOING CATEGORIES I SKIP YES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 N O " .2 I 119 I What iS your ret ig ion? CATHOLIC. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IOTHERSEVENTHMUSL % M" * 2 0 A Y ( SPEC 1 FY )ADVENT I ST" "46 I 120 I What is your nat iona l i ty? 121 What is your t r ibe? ACHOL I . . . . . . . . 01 SANYORO, . . . . . . . 1}' i ALUR. . . . . . . . . .02 SARULL] . . . . . . . . 18 SAAMSA . . . . . . . . O] BARUNDI . . . . . . . . 19 BACflOPE . . . . . . . 04 BASOGA . . . . . . . . . 20 BADAMA . . . . . . . . 05 BATORO . . . . . . . . . 21 BAFUMBIRA . . . . . 06 BATWA . . . . . . . . . . 22 SAGANDA . . . . . . . 07 [TESO. . . . . . . . . ,23 BAG] SU . . . . . . . .08 KAK~A . . . . . . . . . . 24 BAGWE . . . . . . . . . 09 KAR IMOJONG . . . . . 25 BAGWERE . . . . . . . 10 KUMAM . . . . . . . . . . 26 BAHORORO . . . . . . 11 LANG[ . . . . . . . . . .27 BAK] OA. . . . . . . .12 LENDU . . . . . . . . . . 28 BAKONJO . . . . . . . 13 LUGBARA . . . . . . . . 29 BANYA•KOLE., 14 MAOI . . . . . . . . . . .30 BANYARWAROA,. 15 NUBIAH . . . . . . . . .]1 BARYOLE . . . . . . . 16 SAMIA, . . . . . . . . . 32 SEBEI . . . . . . . . . .33 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 266 E.G .E . 4 SECTION 2. REPROOUCTION NO, OUESTIORS AND FILTERS 201 Now ] would l i ke to ask about a l l the ch i ld ren you have had dur ing your l i fe . [ mean your ~n ch i ld ren , not ones you may have adopted or care fo r as a father but Hose real father is someone else. Do you have ch i ldren? COOING CATEGORIES I SKIP I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I [ NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~206 I I zoz I Do you have any sons or daughters who are now l i v ing I ~ith you? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | gO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E -~204 I 203 I How many sons Live with you? Ar~ how many daughters l i ve with you? I f NONE RECORD IDOl. 204 I Do you have any sons or daughters uho are a l i ve but do not l i ve ~ i th you? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 --'-'~206 I I 20, I Ho~ many sons are a l i ve but do not Live with you? I And how many daughters are a l i ve but do not Live with you? IF NONE RECORD '00 m. 206 Have you ever had a son or daughter who ~as burn a l i ve but tater dlc~d? IF NO, ASK: Any baby aho cr ied or showed signs of l i fe but surv ived on ly a few hours or days? : :::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::::: 1.2o8 I 207 Now many 10oys have d ie c I? And how many g i r t s have died? IF NONE RECORD '00% 208 SIX4 ANSWERS TO 203, 205, AND 207, AND ENTER TOTAL. I f BONE RECORD '00 ' . TOTAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 CHECK 208: Just to make sure that I have th i s r ight : you have had in TOTAL ch i ld ren dur ing your l i fe . Is that correct? PROBE AND CORRECT YES ~ NO I I ~ 201-208 AS NEEDED EgG MEN 5 267 SECTION 3. CONTRACEPTION I Mow I would Like to ta lk about fami ly p lann ing- - the var ious ways or methods that a couple can use to delay or avoid a pregnancy. CIRCLE CODE 1 IN 301 FOR EACH METHO0 MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY. THEN PROCEED DOWN COLUMN 302, READING THE NN4E AND DESCRIPTION OF EACH METHO0 NOT MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY. CIRCLE COOE 2 IF METHO0 IS RECOGNISEO, AND COOE 3 iF NOT RECOGNISED. THEN, FOR EACH METHOD WITH COOE I OR 2 CIRCLED iN 301 OR 302, ASK 303. 301 Which ways or methods have yo~J heard aboutT 302 Have yt~J ever 303 Have you ever heard of(METRO0)? used (METRO0)? SPONTANEOUS PROBED YES YES NO O • PILL Women can take a p i t t every day. 1 2 21 IUO Women can have a loop or co i l placed inaid~ them by a doctor or a 1 2 nurse, 0_~ INJECTIONS Wo~en can have an i n jec t i~ by I doctor or nurse I 2 which ato l~ them from becoming pregnant fo r several months. O~ IMPLANTS women can have several smal l rods placed in the i r upper 1 2 arm by a doctor or nurse which can prevent pregnancy For several years. 05~ DIAPHRAGM,FOAM,JELLY women can place a sponge, supf>ository, 1 2 diaphragm, je l l y , or cream ins ide themselves before intercourse. 61 CONDOM Man can use a rutY~er sheath dur ing sexual intercourse. 1 2 71 FEMALE STERILIZATION Women can have an oparat ion to avoid having 1 2 any more ch i ld ren . 81 MALE STERILIZATION Men can have operat ion to avoid having any more 1 2 ch i ld ren . 091 RHYTHM, COUNTING DAYS Every month that a ~x~an is sexua l ly 1 2 ac t ive she can avoid having sexual intercourse on the days of the month she i s moat l i ke ly to get pregnant. 01 NATURAL FAMILY PLANNING A woman can take her tee~oerature every day 1 2 or check her vaginal mucus to tell ~hich days to avoid having sexual intercourse, 111 WITHDRAWAL Men can be carefu l and putt out before c l imax. 1 2 21 Have you heard of any other ways or mithods that women or men can use 1 to avoid pregnancy? (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) YES .1 3 7 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 7 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES. 1 3 7 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 3~ NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 / YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3~ NO .2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 3 7 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Have you ever had a partner who had an operat ion to 3~ avoid having ch i idren? I YES ,1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Have you ever had an operation to avoid having 3 9 any more chi Idren? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3~ NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 3 7 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 / YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 3 7 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3 YES . . . . . . . . . 1 NO. . , . . . . , . , , . . , , . , , . , , .2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 3HE "YES" t USED) I I uSKIP TO 307 ENG MEN 268 NO, J QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 305 J Nave you ever u~ed anything or t r ied anything in any way I to delay or avoid having a chitd? I COOING CATEGORIES I SKIP I I . / 306 ~Jhat have you used or done? iiEi!)E!i~)~;!iEil)i!)~!))i)[)i)#i~i~!~i~) CORRECT 303"304 (AND 302 IF NECESSARY) "~"i~1~"m~m~m~m~!!E~iIm~i!~"aai`i"~i~m~e~"imi~me~!"`!`~`~m~"~'E~ I 307 I Are you current ly doing something or using any method to I detay or avoid having a child? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ,601 308 Which method are you using? Anything else? RECORO FIRST, SECOND, THIRD AND FOURTH PARTNER IN SEPARATE COLUNNS 1ST END 3RD 4TH WIFE WIFE WIFE WIFE PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 01 01 01 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 02 02 02 INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . 03 03 03 03 IHPLANTS/NORPLANT,.,04 04 04 04 DIAPHRAC.~/FOAN/JELL.05 05 05 05 CONDOR . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 06 06 06 FEHALE STERILIZAT[.07 07 07 07 HALE STERILIZATION.08 08 08 08 RHYTHH,COUNTING DAY.09 09 09 09 NATURAL FP,NUCUS.IO 10 10 10 WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . 11 11 11 11 NO (OTHER) NETHOD.95 95 95 95 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) ENG HEN 7 269 SECTION 4. MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL REHAV%OUR NO. I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS I COOING CATEGORIES I Sl IP PRESENCE OF OTHERS AT THIS POINT. YES NO CHILDREN UNDER 10 . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 WIFE/PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 OTHER MALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 OTHER FEMALES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 402 I Are y~ I YES, CURRENTLY MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES, LIVING WITH A ~OFIAN . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~.405 NO, NOT IN UNION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 | cur rent ly married or l i v ing with a womn? 403 | Have you ever been married or l i ved with a woman? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~409 404 What i s your mar i ta l status now: are you separated, divorced SEPARATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 or widowed? DIVORCED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 407 WIDOWED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 407 I In what month and year d id you s tar t l i v ing with your ( f i r s t ) MONTH F ~ I wi fe/partner? . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l l I I DOES NOT KNC~ MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ r409 I I I DOES NOT KN~ YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 I AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 409 I DO yOU have a regular partner (apart from your wife/wives)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J I I mean someone with whom you have been having sex for about NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~411 a year or .ore? I j Row ony reso,ar partners do you h,ve la,lde Fro yoor w iE , / - - ) ? I NONSER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 412 CHECK 402 AND 409 J MARRIED OR LIVING WITH NOT MARRIED AND NO I A ~AN OR HAS A ~ REGULAR PARTNER ~ tG14 REGULAR PARTNER | | NOW I need to ask you some quest ions about sexual ac t iv i ty in order to Rain a better understanding of sc~ fami ly p lanning issues. When was the Last t in~ you had sexual intercourse with your (w i fe / regu lar partner)? IF RESPONDENT HAS BOTH WIFE AND REGULAR PARTNER, ASK WHEN HE LAST HAD SEX WITH EITHER. I NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ODD B414 DAYS ADO . 1 WEEKS AGO . 2 MONTHS AGO . 3 YEARS AGO . 4 413 FOP that sexual intercourse, was a cor~:Jom used? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E ENG MEN 8 270 NO. I 04JESTIONS AND FILTERS 414 I Have you had sexual intercourse with anyone (e lse) I i n the Last 6 gmnths? ( I mean, with soateone other than your wife or regular partner that you mentioned ear l ie r ) I COOING CATEGORIES I SKIP IYES . '1ol, go . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I I'ONE" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 416 I WaS a condom used with any of these wo~n? I YES, EACH PERSON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I I YES, SaNE PERSON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I NO, WITH NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 417 When was the last t ime you had sexual intercourse (apart from your w i fe / regu lar partner)? NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OOO -----P424 DAYS AGO . I WEEKS AGO . 2 MONTHS AGO . 3 YEARS AGO . 4 418 | For that last sexual intercourse, d id you give CASH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I money, g i f t s or favours in return for sex? GIFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I BOTH CASH AND GIFT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 419 I Was th i s person someone you had met before or someone I MET BEFORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I you ~t for the f i r s t time? MET FOR FIRST TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 420 I Was a condor used for that last sexual intercourse? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~421A NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 | 421 What was the main reason that you d id not use a co¢~1~ that t lce? I I 422 | In the last four weeks, how many thnes have you had ] I sexusL intercourse? I NO KNOWLEDGE ABOUT CONDOM . . . . . . . . . 01 CONDOMS NOT AVAILABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 CONDOM TOO COSTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 WANTED MORE CH[LONEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 TRUST EACH OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 PARTNER DOES NOT APPROVE . . . . . . . . . . O6 CONDOM USE IS CUMBERSOME . . . . . . . . . . 07 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) i DOES NOT KN(~W . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 F ~ NUMBER OF TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l l DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ~4241 I 423 | Was a condom used on any of these occasion? YES, EACH TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I IF YES: Was i t each time or sometimes? YES, SOMETIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 424 I Who d id you have sex with the Last time you had sexual I SPOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I intercourse? Was i t with (your wife / the woman are I REGULAR PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 L iv ing with) or WaS i t with someone else? S(~HEONE ELSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] NO ONE / NEVER HAD SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 EgG MEN 9 271 NO. I QUESTIDNS AND FILTERS 425 I CHECK 303: I DID NOT USE CONDOM AS USED CONDOM AS CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD 9 CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD 4261 Do yo4J know where you can get condoms? CODING CATEGORIES I SKiP J YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~429 427 Where i s that? IF SOURCE IS HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTER a OR CLINIC, MITE THE NAME OF THE PLACE. PROBE TO IDERT%FY THE TYPE OF SOURCE ANO CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. (NAME OF PLACE) PUBL%C SECTOR GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 GOVERNMENT HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . 12 DISPENSARY/HEALTH UR%T . . . . . . . . . . 13 NOS]LE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 FIELD ~RKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 OTHER PUBL%C 16 (SPEC]FY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL/CLIN]C . . . . . . . . . 21 PHARHACY/DRUG STORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 HOS%LE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 FIELD WORKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL 26 (SPEC]FY) OTHER PRIVATE SECTOR SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 CHURCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ]2 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ]3 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 428 I Have you heard of • condom cat Lad 'Protector '? JYes NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 11 I 429 | In generaL, do you th ink that most women ( ike men to use I concloms, they don ' t l i ke men to use condoms, or i t does not matter? J LIKE MEN TO USE CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DON~T LIKE MEN TO USE CONDOM . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT MATTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] OTHER 6 DOES NOT KNO~/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 430 I Now th ink back to the past. How otd were you when you had sexual intercourse fo r the f i r s t time? AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEVER HAD SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 FIRST TIME WHEN MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . 96 ENG MEN 10 272 NO. 502 SECTION ~; FERTILITY PREFERENCES QUESTIOWS AND FILTERS CHECK 402 AND 409: CURRENTLY IN UNION OR HAVING A REGULAR PARTNER I COOING CATEGORIES NOT CURRENTLY IN UNION N(~q HAVING A REGULAR PARTNER Spouses/partners do not alwaYS agree on everything. Now I went to ask you about your wi fe,s/partner 's views on family )tanning. you think that your wife/partner approves or disapproves of coL~otes using • metho<t to avoid pregnancy? WIFE WIFE WIFE WIFE I 2 3 4 APPROVES . . . . . . . . 1 1 1 1 DISAPPROVES . . . . . 2 2 E 2 DOES NOT KNOW.,B E B B I SKIP I I 503 DO you think your wives/~mrtners wants the sam nkaT~er of chi ldren that you want. or ~oes she want more or fewer then you want? 504A CHECK 308 NEITHER STERILISED v~ 504B Now 1 have SCdne questions about the future. Woutd you l i ke to have (a/another) ch i ld or would you prefer not to have any (more) children? WIFE WIFE WIFE WIFE 1 2 3 4 SAME NUMBER . . . . . 1 1 1 1 MORE CHILDREN.2 2 2 2 FEWER CHILDREN.3 3 3 3 DOES NOT KNOW.8 B 8 8 HE OR SHE ~ '~51'~ STERILISED I HAVE (A/ANOTHER) CHILD . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I NO MORE/NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 HIS WIFE CAN T GET PREGNANT . . . . . . . . 3 ~506 HE CANIT HAVE CHILDREN ANYMORE . 4 UNDECIDED OR DOES NOT KNOW . 8 I 505 506 Now tong Would you l ike to wait before the b i r th of (a/another) child? m-- ~NTHE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SOON/ROW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993 SHE OR HE CAN'T HAVE CHILDREN.994 AFTER MARRIAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995 OTHER 996 (SPECIFY) DOES HOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 CHECK 307: USING A METHOD? HOT NOT CURRENTLY ASKED ~ CURRENTLY v[ ~ USING I • USING I = 507 J Do you intend to use e method to delay or avoid pregnancy I within the next 12 months? 508 Do you intend to uee • ~thod at any time in the future? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B ~S lO I ,511 I , I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~509 NO . 2 | DOES NOT KN(~d . 8 I ENG MEN 11 273 NO. ~JEETIONS AND FILTERS 509 Wh|ch method would you pre fer to use? COOING CATEGORIES P]LL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 IUO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 [NJECT]ONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 ]MPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OA D IAPHRAGH/FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 CONDOH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 FEMALE STEM] LIZAT ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 MALE STEM I L % ZATIOB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 PER|OO%C ASST] NENEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 W]THDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 SKIP --~511 510 What i s the main reason that you th ink you w i l l never use a method? NOT MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 FERT%L]TY-RELATED REASONS %NFNEOUENT SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 WIFE MENOPAUSAL/HYSTER . . . . . . . . . . Z3 SUBFECUND/]NFECUND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 WANTS NORE CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 OPPOSITION TO USE RESPONDENT OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 WIFE/PARTNER OPPOSED . 32 OTHERS OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 RELIGIO(JS PROH[BITION . . . . . . . . . . . 34 LACK OF KNOWLEDGE KNOWS NO METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 KNC~S NO SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 METHOB-RELATED REASONS HEALTH CONCERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 FEAR OF SIDE EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 LACK OF ACCESS/TO0 FAR . . . . . . . . . . 53 COSTS TOO MUCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 INCONVENIENT TO USE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 INTERFERES WITH BOOY'S NORMAL PROCESSES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9S 511 CHECK 203 AND 205: HAS LIVING CHILDREN i i If you could go beck to the t ime you d id not have any ch i ld ren and cou ld choose exact ly the number o f ch i ld ren to have in your whole l i fe , how many would that be? PROBE FOB A NUMERIC RESPONSE. NO LIVING CHILDREN 9 I f you cou ld choose exact ly the number of ch i ld ren to have in your whole l i fe , how many would that be? NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 4513 512 Now many o f these ch i ld ren would you l i ke to be boys and how many would you l i ke to be g i r t s? BOYS GIRLS EITHER NUMSER"" 969696 OTHER (SPECIFY) 513 J In genera l , do you approve or d i sapprove o f coup les us ing APPROVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J I a method to avo id pregnancy? OISAPPROVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I NO OPINION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ENG MEN 12 274 gO. I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS I 514 | Is i t accept~le or not acceptable to you for tnformatio~ I on fami ly p lanning to be provided: On the radio? On the Televis ion? I COOING CATEGORIES I SKIP NOT ACCEPT" ACCEPT" NOT ABLE ABLE K OW RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 TELEVISION . . . . . . 1 2 515 517 %n the Last mix mo~lths have you heard or teamed about fami ly p lanning: On the radio? On the te lev i s ion? In a neuspaber or magazine? FrOm a poster? From lea f le ts or brochures? YES NO RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Z TELEVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 NEWSPAPER OR NAGAZINE . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 POSTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 LEAFLETS OR BROCHURES . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 l/nich progrB or message have you heard? Any others? ? ON THE RADIO AND TELEVISION. °'° °''°' I ' " . ' l woman more promiscuous? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 519 ~ Do you th ink that the using of fami ly planning w i l t make I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 a man more promiscuous? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I I I DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 520 NO, Dig I NOT HEAR ~ ~518 I KONOWEEKA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A I ADVERTISEMENT FOR CONDOR/PILL . . . . . . B OTHER - - X (SPECIFY) What do you urK~erstand by the Term "family ptar~ing"? RECORD ALL MENT%ONED ADVICE ON PROOUCIND CHILDREN . . . . . . . A NOT TO HAVE MANY CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . B SPACING CHILDREN TO HAVE A MANAGEABLE FAN]LY . . . . . . . . . . . . C PLANING A BRIGHT FUTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . O PROOUCE FEW CH%LDREN, EDUCATE AND FEED THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 521 In a re la t ionsh ip , who do you th ink should have the major ro le using fami ly planning? MAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I WOI4AN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 BOTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] IT DEPENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A FAMILY PLANNING SHOULD NOT BE USED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 522 I" . '1 fami ly planning? ~G#'IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 BOTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] IT DEPENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 FAMILY PLAgNING SHOULD NOT BE USED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 DOES NOT KNOU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O $23 1 Have you seen/heard abouT the Yellow Family Planning Flower? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~ ~601 I I DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 524 I Can you describe i t ? I YELLOtJ FLOWER IN A CIRCLE . . . . . . . . . . 1 SMALL FAMILY INSIDE THE FLOtJER . . . . . Z A RAN, ~351AN, AND T~,~ CHILDREN . . . . . 3 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 525 I~at does i t mean? FP SERVICES ARE AVAILABLE . . . . . . . . . . 1 | HIGH QUALITY SERVICES ARE AVA]LABL.2 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 END MEN 13 275 SECTIOR 6. AIDS NO, I QUESTIOR$ AND FILTERS 601 I Have you heard about disease that can be t ransmitted I through sex? I CORING CATEGORIES I SKIP I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~ 602 Which diseases do you kno~? RECORD ALL RESPONSES SYPHILIS/KABOTONGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A GONORRHEA/NZ]NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B AIDS/SLIM DISEASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C OTHER W (SPECIFY) OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOl~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 60/* I During the las t 12 months, d id you have any of these I diseases? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON'T KNC~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- -L~606 605 I Which? RECORD ALL RESPONSES SYPHILIS/KASOTONGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A GONORRHEA/NZIKO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g AIDS/SLIM DISEASE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C OTHER W (SPECIFY) OTHER X (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 606 l During The Last 12 months, d id you have a discharge I from your penis? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON~T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 607 During the Last 12 months, d id you have a sore or u lcer on your penis? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON'T NHOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 CHECK 605, 606 AND 607: HAD ONE OR MORE DISEASES NONE OF THE DISEASES ~-1 609 I When you had the most recent episode of I (DISEASE FROM 605, 606, AND 607) d id you seek advice or treatment? ADVICE/TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SELF TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DID ROT DO ANYTHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S I ~610A I 610 Where d id yOU seek advice or t reat~nt? Any other place or person? RECORD ALL MENTIONED PUBLIC SECTOR GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A GOVERNMENT HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . . B DISPENSARY/HEALTH UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . C MOBILE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D FIELD WORKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E OTHER PUBLIC F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MED]CAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSP]TAL/CL]NIC . . . . . . . . . . G PHARMACY/DRUG STORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ HOBILE DL%NID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J FIELD ~/ORKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL L (SPECIFY) OTHER PRIVATE SECTOR SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M CHURCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N TR]ENDS/RELAT]VES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 TRADITIONAL HEALER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . P OTHER X (SPECIFY) DON'T NNO~J . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z --b610B ENG NEN 14 276 NO. I QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 610Al~hy d idnot you seek advice or treatment? I J CODING CATEGORIES J EMBARRASSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TOO EXPENSWE/COSTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TREATMENT IS NOT AVAICABLE . . . . . . . . . 3 DOES NOT KNO~ WHERE TO GO . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) HAS NEVER HAD SEX [---1 I s i, 611 ~lhe~ you had the most recent episode of YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (DISEASE FRON 605, 606, AND 607) did NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 you inform your partner? I when you had the most recent episode of I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 J m 612 (DISEASE FRON 605, 606, AND 607) did [ NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 you do something not to infect your partner? PARTBER ALREADY INFECTED . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ~ .61A I ,61• I 613 I What dtd you do? J NO SEXUAL INTERCOURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A I USED CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S TOOK MEDICINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C OTHER X (SPECIFY) B MENTIONED 'AIDS' [~ [,6J l I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I SO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ---bTOl 615 J Have you ever heard of an i ttness caLlad AlOS? 616 FrOm which sources of information have you teamed most about AIDS? Any other sources? RECORD ALL NENT[ORED. RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A TV . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R NEWSPAPERS/MAGAZINES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C PAMPHLETS/POSTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D HEALTH WORKERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E MOSQUES/CHURCHES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F SCHOOLS/TEACHERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G COHMUN[TY MEETINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . % WORK PLACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J OTHER X (SPECIFY) 617 How can a person get AIDS? Any other ways? RECORD ALL RESPONSES SEXUAL INTERCOURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A PAY FOR SEX (PROSTITUTES) . . . . . . . . . . B HOHOSEXUAL CONTACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C SEXUAL INTERCOURSE WITH MULTIPLE PARNTERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D BLOO0 TRANSFUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E UNSTERIL]SED EQU]PMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . F MOTHER TO CHILD (AT BIRTH) . . . . . . . . . G BREASTFEEDISG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H KISSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ ROEQUITO BITES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J OTHER W (SPECIFY) OTHER X (SPECIFY) DONIT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 6181 l , there anything a person can do to avoid sett ing AIDS YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I or the virus that causes AIDS? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ~620 ENG MEN 15 277 NO. ~JESTION$ ANO FILTERS 619 Hat can m person do to avoid Re( t in R AIDS or the v i rus that ca~es AIDS? Any other Ways? RECORD ALL MENTIONED COOING CATEGORIES DO NOT HAVE SEX AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . A USE CONDORS DURING SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . B DOn'T HAVE SEX WITH PROST[TUTES,.C DON IT HAVE SEX WITH HOMOSEXUALS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D DO MOT HAVE MANY SEX PARNTERS . . . . . . E HAVE ONE FAITHFUL PARTNER (ZERO GRAZING) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F AVOID BLOCO TRANSFUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . G AVOID UNSTERILISED EQUIPMENT . . . . . . . H AVOID KISSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I AVOID NOSQUITO RITES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J SEEK PROTECTION FRON TRADITIONAL HEALER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K DO NOT DRINK TO() NUCH ALCOHOL . . . . . . L OTHER W (SPECIFY) OTHER X SKIP (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z ~°1 '~'' ~"~° ' ' ' °~ ' ' ' '~ ' °°~ ~'° ~ I ~" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' 1 the AIDS v i rus? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D 621 | Is AIDS a fa ta l disease, that is , do a l l ~op le with J YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I AIDS d ie from the disease? J NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ~I ~'°''°s ~' - ' '~ '~'r '~'~'° °~'~°' I '" oo~ ~o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ,o, ~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ' I 62'1 ~ '° ' ' °~" ~ ' - '~ ~ ~-~' ' ' ° '~ I ~ oo~ "° . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~o~ ~o~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ~ ~1 624 I 0o you personal ly know someone who has AIDS or YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 m DOES HOT KHOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 has died of AIDS? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~ ~625 I 624A I What re la t ionsh ip to you? I SPCUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A 1 SIBLINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C NEIGHBOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D OTHERS X 625 J Do you th ink your chances of get t ing AIDS are s~l l , SMALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | mcderate, great, or no r i sk at a l l ? MOOERATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z I GREAT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ~627 NO RISK AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 m 6E6 Why do you th ink that you have (NO RISK/A SMALL CHANCE) of get t ing AIDS? Any other reasons? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. ABSTAIN FRO~4 SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A - USE CONDOI4S DURING SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . B HAVE ONLY ONE SEX PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . C LIMITED NUMBER OF PARTNERS . . . . . . . . . D NO HOttOSEXUAL CONTACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E NO BLOOO TRANSFUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F NO INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z ~628 627 Why do you th ink that you have a (MODERATE/GREAT) chance of Rett ing AIDS? Any other reasons? RECORD ALL NENTIOWED. DO HOT USE CONDOMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MULTIPLE SEX PARTNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B SPOUSE HAS MULTIPLE PARTNERS . . . . . . . C HOMOSEXUAL CONTACT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D HAD BLOOO TRANSFUSION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E HAD INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . z EgG MEW 16 278 NO, ~ QUESTIONS AND FILTERS I 628 | Since you heard of AIDS, have you changed your sexual I behaviour to prevent gett ing AIOS? I COOING CATEGORIES I SKIP l YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I | NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOES NOT KNC44 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ~630 629 What did you do? Anyth{n4Z else? RECORD ALL MENTIONED RESTRICTED SEX TO ONE PARTNER . . . . . . A STARTED USING CONDOHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g REDUCED NUMBER OF PARTNERS . . . . . . . . . C STC4)PED ALL SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O NO MORE HOHOSEXUAL DOHTACT . . . . . . . . . E STOPPED SEN WITH PROSTITUTE . . . . . . . . F OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 630 | Sam people use a condom during sexual intercourse to avoid { YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I gett ing AIDS or other sexually transmitted diseases? I Ha . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~632z I Have you ever heard of this? | 630AICflECK 424: 9 1'632 HAS HAD HAS NEVER SEX HAD SEX ,3, i Have you ever aged. oo . during s , to.void {?ES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ' l gett ing or t ransmitt ing diseases, such as AIDS? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 632 | Have you ever been tested to see i f you have the YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . r636 I AIDS virus? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I DOES NOT KNOW/NOT SURE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 633 | Would you l i ke to be tested for the AIDS virus? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I DOES HOT KNOW/NOT SURE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 634 J Do you know a ptace where you could go to get an YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 l I AIDS test? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 DOES HOT KNOW/NOT SURE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ~636 635 Where could you go? 636 t~lat ~ you suggest is the n~st important thing the government should do for p~ople who have AIDS? 637 I I f a member of your family is suffer ing from AIOS I would you be Wi l l ing to care for him or her at home? GOVERNMENT AND PARASTATAL PUBLIC SECTOR GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A GOVERNMENT HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . . B DISPENSARY/HEALTH UNIT . . . . . . . . . . . C MOBILE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D FIELD WORKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E OTHER PUBLIC F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL/CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . G PHARMACY/DRUG STORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I MOBILE CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J FIELD WORKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL E (SPECIFY) OTHER PRIVATE SECTOR SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M CHURCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . N FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 OTHER X (SPECIFY) DOES NOT KNO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z PROVIDE MEDICAL TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . 1 | HELP RELATIVES PROVIDE CARE . . . . . . . . 2 t ISOLATE/QUARANTINE/JAIL PEOPLE . . . . . ] NOT BE INVOLVED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DEPENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) NOT SURE/DOES NOT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 279 ENG MEN 17 280 ~TIOR 7. HAT[RNAL MORTALITY Bow I ~ouLd Like to msk you some quest ions about your brothers ind I i I te r I , th l t i s , I l l of the ch i ld ren born to your natura l mother, inc lud ing thosI k~lo ere L iv ing with you, those l i v ing elset~here, and those who h ive died. Ho~ many ch i ld ren d id your mother give b i r th to, including you? 702 I CHECK 701: TWO OR BORE BIRTHS I v 703 I Ho. many of these b i r ths d id your mother have before you were I born? ONLY ONE BIRTH r~7 (RESPONDENT ONLY) I I r SKIP TO 716 NUHBER OF PRECEDING BIRTHS . . . . . . . . II I ENG MEN 18 281 704 What was the name R iven to your o ldes t (next o tdest ) b ro ther o r s i s te r? 705 Is (NAME) ma le o r femate? 706 I s (NAME) s t i t l a l i ve? [13 MALE . . . . . . . 1 FEMALE . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . 1 go . . . . . . . . . Z GO TO 708 J DK . . . . . . . . . GO TO [21< 8~ [2) MALE . . . . . . . 1 FEMALE . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 GO TO 708< ] DK . . . . . . . . . GO TO [31<8] [3] MALE . . . . . . . 1 FEMALE . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 GO TO 708<] [43 MALE . . . . . . . 1 FEMALE . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 GO TO 708<] OK . . . . . . . . . GO TO [51~ [51 MALE . . . . . . . 1 FEMALE . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 GO TO 708<] DK . . . . . . . . . GO TO [61< ~j [6] MALE . . . . . . . 1 FEMALE . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 GO TO 708< 1 DK . . . . . . . . . GO TO (71< 8~ GO TO [2] GO TO [3] GO TO [4] GO TO [5] GO TO [6] GO TO [7] I I I I I I 708 In what GO TO 710 GO TO 710 GO TO 710 GO TO 710 GO TO 710 GO TO 710 DK . . . . . . . . 98 DK . . . . . . . . 98 OK . . . . . . . . 98 DK . . . . . . . . 98 DK . . . . . . . . 98 DK . . . . . . . . 98 [ i i i i 709 How many (NAME) die? 710 HOW otd she /he d ied? IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [2] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 ~TO 714< ~ NO . . . . . . . . . 2 711 Was (NAME) pregnant when she d fed? IF HALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [6 ] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 714< ~ NO . . . . . . . . . 2 IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [3] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 714< ~ go . . . . . . . . . 2 IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [5] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 714< ~ NO . . . . . . . . . 2 IF MALE O~ DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [4] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 714< ~ NO . . . . . . . . . 2 IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [7] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 714< ~ NO . . . . . . . . . 2 712 D~d (NAME) YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 d ie d~Jr ing GO TO 715< ~ GO TO 715< '~ GO TO 715< ~ GO TO 715< '~ GO TO 715< ~ GO TO 715< ~] chf l~ i r th? NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 i i ) i L I I 71] D id (NAME) ! d ie w i th in two YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 I YES . . . . . . . . 1 ~onths a f te r the end o f a NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 p regnancy or GO TO 715< ~ GO TO 715< ~ GO TO 715< ~ GO TO 715< ~ GD TO 715< ~] GO TO 715< ~ ch l tdb i r th? i 714 ~as her death due to YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 co~xoL icat ions of p regnancy NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 go . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 or ch iLQ~bi r th? i i i i i i i T15 Bow many :h i [d ren d id oirth to during Jher lifetime? ENG MEN 19 282 Z04 What was the name g iven to your o tdest (next o ldes t ) b ro ther or s i s te r? 705 I s (NAME) male o r femate? 706 I s (NAME) s t [ I t a l i ve? 707 How o ld i s (NAME)? 708 In what year d id (NAME] d ie? [7] MALE . . . . . . . 1 FEMALE . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 GO TO 708< ] DK . . . . . . . . . DO TO [8] 18] F-n GO TO [8) lgF- GO TO 710 = DK . . . . . . . . 98 [8] MALE . . . . . . . I FEMALE . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 DO TO 708<] DK . . . . . . . . . GO TO [9118] GO TO [g] GO TO 710 DK . . . . . . . . 98 [11] MALE . . . . . . . 1 FEMALE . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 DO TO 708< ] GO TO [12] GO TO 710 DK . . . . . . . . 98 [9] [10] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I MALE . . . . . . . 1 MALE . . . . . . . 1 FEMALE . . . . . 2 FEMALE . . . . . 2 I I YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 GO TO 708< ] GO TO 708< ] DK . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . GO TO [10] <8] GO TO [11] <8] I I GO TO [10] GO TO [111 lgl l oo ,o71o Go FO71O DK . . . . . . . . 98 DK . . . . . . . . 98 I IF MALE OR IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE YEARS OF AGE GO TO [10] GO TO [11] ============== ============== YES . I YES . I ;0 TO 714< '~ GO TO 714< '~ [12] MALE . . . . . . . I FEMALE . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . 2- GO TO 708<- DK . . . . . . . . . 8 GO TO [13]< GO TO [13) GO TO 710 DK . . . . . . . . 98 709 HOW many (NAME) d ie? IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [8] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 714< '] 710 Row o ld Was [NAME) when she/he d ied? IF MALE OR 3IEB BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [9] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 DO TO 714< '] IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 12 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [12] ============== YES . . . . . . . . 1 DO TO 714< j IF MALE OR DIED BEFORE 1 YEARS OF AGE GO TO [13] ============= YES . . . . . . . . 1 GO TO 714c- NO . . . . . . . . . 2 o f pregnancy or ch i ldb i r th? 711Mas (NAME) " " pregnant When 4c- she d ied? NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 I NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 . . . . 2 I I I I I I 712 D id (NAME) YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 d ie dur ing GO TO 715< '~ GO TO 715< '~ GO TO 715< ~ DO TO 715< '~ GO TO 715< ~] GO TO 715<- ch i ldb i r th? NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . E NO . . . . . . . . . I I I ~ I I 713 D id (NAME) d ie w i th in two YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 • onths a f te r the end o f a NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . ; pregnancy or GO TO 715< ~] GO TO 715< ~] GO TO 715< ~] GO TO 715<- ch i tdb i r th? I I I I I I I 714 Was her death due to YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . ' compt icat ions NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . ; NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 i YES . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . Z NO . . . . . . . . . 2 GO TO 715< ~ GO TO 715< ~] NO . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . 2 715 Ho~ many ch i ld ren d id (NAME) g ive b i r th to dur ing ,her f i l e t [me? I c ~ L - ~ 7 1 6 RECORD THE TIME, HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MIHUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENG MEN 20 283 Coml~ent$ about Respondent: INTERVIEt4ER*S OBSERVATIONS To be f i t led in after completing interv iew Comment $ o~1 Spec i f i c Ouestions: Any Other Coeee~ts: SUPERVISOR'S OBSERVATIONS Name of Supervisor: Bate: EDITOR'S OBSERVATIONS Name of Ed i tor : Date: 284 SERVICE AVAILABIL ITY QUEST IONNAIRE UGANDA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY IDENTIF ICAT ION PLACE NAME REGION DISTRICT COUNTY SUB-COUNTY/TOWN PARISH/RC2 NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CENSUS/EA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DHS/CLUSTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . URBAN/RURAL (urban=l , ru ra l=2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DATE OF V IS IT INTERVIEWER NAME RESULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . COMPLETED . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 UNABLE TO COMPLETE . 2 (PLS SPECIFY) DAY MONTH YEAR NAME RESULT NAME DATE F IELD EDITED BY OFF ICE EDITED BY KEYED BY KEYED BY 285 SECTION 1A, CONNUNITY CHARACTERISTICS Bo, ] QUESTIONS J COOING CATEGORIES SKIP TO QUESTIONS 101 IS TO BE ANSWERED BY THE INTERVIEWER UPON ARRIVAL AT THE CLUSTER. 101 TYPE OF LOCALITY ( in Which c lus ter i s found) CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ~ 106 NUNICIPALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 r 106 TOUN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ~ 106 COUNTRYSIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . k THE REMAINING QUESTIONS ARE TO BE ANSWERED BY KNOWLEDGEABLE INFORMANTS FROM THE CLUSTER. 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 t10 What i s the name o f the neares t urban center? HOW far i s i t in k i lometers to the neares t urban center? 1(/4. TO NEAREST URBAN CENTER . . . . . . I L l ] What a re the most commonly used types of t ranspor ta t ion to go to the neares t urban center? MOTORIZED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A CANOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B WALKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C (CIRCLE ALL APPLICABLE) CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D OTHER . . .E i What i s the nmin access route to th i s (LOCALITY)? ALL WEATHER ROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SEASONAL ROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PATH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 i i What a re The major economic ac t iv i t ies o f the (LOCALITY) inhab i tants? RECORD THREE NAJOR ACTIVITIES I s there te lephone serv ice in the (LOCALITY ?) soermtimes ch i ld ren who p lay nor lealLy in the day have d i f f i cu l ty see ing ar~dfeoviwj a r~ in the tw i l ight a f te r the sun goes down. In the evenir~3 these ch i ld ren may s i t aLorm, ho ld o~to the i r I~other l s c lo thes , be unab le to f irKJ the i r toys , or see to eat . A re you fami l imr w i th th i s c~ i t lon? What do you caLL th i s cond i t ion? TRY TO GET THE LOCAL BANE Of THIS DISEASE Do you know of any ch i ld ren in the coernunity who have ( th i s cor~d i t i c~) in the past month? AGRICULTURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A LIVESTOCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B FISHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C TRADING/MARKETING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D SERVICE SECTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E HANUFACTUR]NG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F NIN]NG/QUERRY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G OTHER X (SPECIFY) YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 286 SAG 2 No. 111 QUESTIONS CORING CATEGORIES SKIP TO PLease te t l me i f the fottowing things are in the (LOCALITY) Is there a primary schoot here? Is there a secondary school here? Is there a post of f ice here? Is there a local market here? Is there a c inma/video halt here? Is there any protected wett/porehote here/spring eater? Is there any t rad i t ioner healer here? Is there a bank here? Is there a publ ic transportation here? KILOMETERS PRIHARY SCHOOL . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ' ~ SECONDARY SCHOOL . . . . . . . . . ~ - ~ POST OFFICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LOCAL mARKET . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ - ~ CINENA/VIDEO HALL . . . . . . . . PROTECTED WELL/BOREHOLE. .~-~ /SPRING MATER TRADITIONER HEALER . . . . . . . ~ - ~ SANg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . PUBLIC TRANSPORTATION. . . .~ NOTE: FOR EACH, IF IN LOCALITY, WRITE "00". IF MOT IN LOCALITY, ASK HOR FAR. WRITE IN KILOf4ETER IF DO NOT KNOW, MRITE "98". IF MORE THAN 97, WHITE "g7". SAG 3 287 SECTION lB. HEALTH ANO FAMILY PLANNtXG PROGRAHS lH THE CQI4MUN%TY No. 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 QUESTIONS COOING CATEGORIES SKIP TO Doe• • cc4wlJntty based family ptsnning d i s t r ibut ion YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 prngram cover th i s (LOCALITY)? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~ 114 Are the fol lowing methods •v• i l•bte from the cocn~i ty based d i s t r ibut ion program? • : P i l l ? b: Condcn? c: Vnginets (Diaphragm, Foam, Jetty)? PILL: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CO+lOON: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 VAGINALS: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 goes s feal i ly pt•r~iP41 f ie ld worker v i s i t th i s (LOCALITY)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~ 119 How often does the family planning f ie ld worker v i s i t ? NO. OF TIRES i l l PER MONTH.,1 YEAR.2 goes • fami ly planning f ie ld worker provide family YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 planning counselling/advice? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Are the fol lowing ~thods avai lable from the family pl•n~ing f ie ld worker? • : P i t t? b: Condom? PILL: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CONDOM: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 c: Vnginats (Diaphragm, FoMI, Je l ly)? VAGIMALS: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 HOW many fmnity planning f ie ld workers work in th is area? TOTAL NO. OF FP WORKERS . . . . . . HOW many of them •re government workers ? NO. OF GOVT WORKERS HOW many of them •re non-goverr~ent workers ? NO. OF NON-GOVT WORKER Is th i s •re• v i s i ted regular ly by • mobile family YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 planning c l in i c? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 • 122 Mow often does the mobile f~n i ly planning c l in i c v i s i t ? NO, OF TIMES I l l PER NONTH.1 I I I YEAR.2 Are the fol lowing methods avai lable froth the r~bJle fa(niLy ptar~ir'.,g c l in ic? • : P i t t? b: IUO? c: Female /Hale S ter i t i sa t ion? d: Injection? PILL: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 [UD: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . 2 FEMALE /MALE STERILZZAT[ON: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 INJECTIOg: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 gO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 288 SAO 4 ~o. 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 QUEST IONS Rave there b~ any family planning information program In the (LOCALITY) in the test year? What specificaLLy WaS th is information prou~ting? (CIRCLE ALL APPLICABLE) Is th i s area v i s i ted regular ly by a modiLe health c l in ic? NOW often does the mobile health c l in i c v i s i t ? Does the mobile health c l in i c provide: e: Basic medications? b: ORT in~struction or ORS packets? c: Vitamin A capsules? d: Growth promotion? e: Iron tablets? f : Iodized o i l capsules/injections? g: Antenatal care? h: Immunizations? i : Curative health care service? j : AIDS screening/testir~J? k: FamiLy pLanning services? ~ere do most women give birth? Is there a t red i t ionat b i r th atter~ant avai lable to Women here who regular ly assists doring delivery? Does the t rad i t iona l b i r th atteodant provide iron scT)pkementsT Has The t rad i t iona l b i r th etter~ent had any spat|at trainiP4] from the government or Min is t ry of HeaLth or other organization? COOING CATEGORIES ' SKIP IO I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - • 124 I CHILD SPACING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A BENEFITS OF BIRTH CONTROL . . . . . . . B USE OF FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . C BREAST FEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D SPEC%FIC METHOD(S) PROMOTION.,E WHERE NETHOOS AVAILABLE . . . . . . . . . F OTHER (SPECIFY). X I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - ~ 127 I OF TIMES ~ PER MONTH.1 NO, YEAR.,.2 I BASIC MEDICATIONS: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . , . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ORT/ORS: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 VITAMIN A: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GRO~ATH PROMOTION: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ZRON TRBELTS: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 IOR I ZED OIL: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ANTENATAL CARE: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 IMMUNIZATIONS: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . CURATIVE HEALTH SERVICE: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 AIDS SCREENING/TESTING YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . FAMILY PLANNING: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I I AT HQf4E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 AT TRADTIONAL BIRTH ATND HOME.,,2 AT HEALTH CENTER/HOSPITAL . . . . . . . 3 I I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 - ~ 131 I I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DONIT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S 289 SAQ 5 No. 131 13Z 133 134 OIJESTIOMS COOING CATEGORIES SKIP TO I s the area covered by a t ra ined mide i fe? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~ 133 Does the t ra ined mide i fe p rov ide i ron supplements? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E I s the area covered by a hea l th worker? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~ 136 How o f ten does the hea l th worker v i s i t ? r ~ NO. OF TIMES i l l PER MONTH.1 I I I YEAR, . .2 Does the hea l th worker p rov ide : a : Bas ic med icat ions? 135 136 13;' b: ORT ins t ruc t ion or ORS packets? c : V i tamin A capsu les? d: Growth promot ion? e: I ron tab le ts? f : I od ized o i l capsu les / in jec t ions? g: Anten~ta[ care? h: InzxcJnizat ions? i : Curat ive hea l th care serv ice? j : AIDS sc reen in9? k: Fami ly p lann ing serv ices? BASIC NED%CATiONS: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ORT/ORS: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 VITAMIN A: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GROWTH PROMOTION: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 IRON TABELTS: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 IQOI2ED OIL : YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ANTENATAL CARE: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 IMMUNIZATIONS: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CURATIVE HEALTH SERVICE: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . AIDS SCREENING: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 FAMILY PLANNING: YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Have there been any hea l th in fo rmat ion programs in th i s YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (LOCALITY) in las t year? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~ A201 What was the hea l th in fo rmat ion program? (CIRCLE ALL APPLICABLE) BENEFITS OF BREASTFEEDING . . . . . . . A IMMUNIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B DIARREAL DISEASE CONTROL . . . . . . . . C AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D DRUG ABUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E GROWTH PROMOTION/NUTRITION . . . . . . F VITAMIN A . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G %OOINE DEFICIENCY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H SANITATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I FAMILY HYGIENE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J OTHER (SPECIFY) X 290 SAD 6 SECTION 2. FACILITY IDENTIFICATION SECTION A. I /n i t i s the name of the nearest doctor with a pr ivate pract ice to th i s cc~munity? g, What i s the name of the nearest pharmacy /drug shop to th i s community? C. What i s the name of the nearest Sub-dispensary/dispensary /De l ivery Hatern i ty Uni t (OHU) to th i s com~lunity? D. I~hat is the name of the nearest health centre to th i s community? E. ~nat is the name of the nearest hosp i ta l to th i s community? SAQ 7 291 A. PRIVATE DOCTOR No. I A201 NAME OF PR]~ A202 A203 A204 N205 R206 ;207 OUESTIORS PRIVATE DOCTOR (COPY FROM SECTION 2 COVER PAGEEI. COOING CATEEGOE PRIVATE DOCTOR mS NAME NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 - - -b B201 I I Row far is i t ( in km) from here? (~RITE iN '00 ' IF LESS THAK 1KILORETER, IF 1 TO 96 KILORETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l l KILOMETERS I~lTE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 I J I KILORETERS OR M(~E, WRITE IN +97'.) i i What ts the most common type of transport TO the doctorms MOTORIZED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 place? CANOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 WALK]NG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CYCL]NG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER . . ,5 How long does i t take to get from here to (PRIVATE DOCTOR,S RN4E) using most c ~ type of transport? Does th is pr ivate doctor provide : antenate[ care? de l ivery care? ch i ld immunizatlon? fami ly planning services? ~Jho is the nearest doctor v i th a pr ivate practice who provides f~ i ty ptannins services to th is community? NOORE . I I MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES NO GK ANTIMATAL CARE . . . . . . . 1 2 8 DELIVERY CARE . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 CHILD IMMUNIZATION.1 2 8 FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . 1 2 B L PRIVATE DOCTOR=S NAME A210 NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 ---4. A210 DON'T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9B - -~ A210 I ! Hoe far i$ i t ( in kJ~) from here? (k~iTS IN eGO' IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I J [ KILONETERS WMITE IN NUNBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 I I I KILOMETERS OR NORE, IWRITE IN '97 ' . ) ~208 Uhat i t the most common type of transport to th is doctor's Dtace? 1209 ROTORIZED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CANOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 WALKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 OTHER . . .5 How long does i t take to get from here to (PRIVATE DOCTOR,S NN4E) using most common type of transport? HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L~ MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ " ~ I How many pr ivate doctor practices in tota l are here NO. PRIVATE DOCTORS w i th in 30 kilometers? WITHIN 30 KH . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I I I I SKIP TO 1210 SAQ 8 292 6. PHARNACY/DRUG SHOP 1o. 3201 B202 B203 B204 G205 8206 B207 G208 6209 B210 6211 B212 OUESTIOES NAME OF PHARMACY/DRUG ST(~E. (COPY FROM SECTION 2 COVER PAGE) COOING CATEGOES PHARMACY/DRUG STORE NAME NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 - "~ I I Is that a government pharmacy or is i t operated by a GOVERKMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 noe-government organization ? NON-GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I Now Ear Is It ( in kms) from here? (WRITE IN '00' IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. IF 1 TO 96 K%LOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I L I KILOMETERS WRITE IN NUMBER AS G%VEN IN CLUSTER, IF 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, WRITE IK ~97'.) I I What is the most co~on type of trmnsport to the MOTOKIZEO (E.G. BUS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 pharmacy/drug store? CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CANOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] UALKIMG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A OTHER 5 How long does i t take to get from here to (PHARMACY NAME) using most common type of transport? Does th is pharmacy /drug store se l l family planning supplies? Uhat is the name of the nearest pharmacy /drug store which sel ls family planning supplies to th is community? Is that a goverr,'nent pharmacy/drug store or is i t operated by a non-government organization? How far ts I t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE iN '001 iF LESS THAN 1KIL(~METER. IF 1 TO 96 KILC~4ETEKS WRITE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 9? KILUMETERS OR HORE, WRITE IN '97 ' . ) What is the most common type of transport to the pharrmcyldrug store? How long does it take to get fro~ here to (PHARMACY /DRUG STORE NAME) using most coe~ type of transport? Now many pharmacies/drug stores in total are there within 30 kilometers? HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . - - - - I SKIP TO C201 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 -~ B212 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON'T KNOU . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I PHARMACY/DRUG STORE NAME NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 - - -~ B212 DONtT KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 - - -~ G212 I I GOVERNMENT . I NON-GOVERNMENT . 2 I KILOf4ETERS . ~ I MOTORIZED (E.G. BUS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . I CYCLING . 2 CANOE . 3 WALKING . A OTHER 5 I HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] NO. PHARMACIER/D. STOKES WITHIH30KM . . . . . . . . . . . . . I [ I SAQ 9 293 C. SUB DISPENSARY/ DISPENSARY /DELIVERY NATERNITY UNIT I No. Q4JESTIOMS C201 NAME OF DISPENSARY (COMY FROM SECTION 2 COVER PAGE). C202 I• that • goverrznent d i s l :~ery or is i t operated by a non-goverr~ent organizat ion ? f C203 Now far is i t ( in kms) from here? (~ITE IN 'DO I IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS WRITE IN NOMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, WRITE IN 197%) f C20& What is the most cocoon type of transport to the dispensary? C2OS HOW Long does i t take to get from here to (DISPENSARY NAME) using most common tyro• of transport? i C2061 Does th is dispensary provide: antenatal care? det ivery care? growth procnotion? ch i ld immunization? AIDS screening? Family PLanning? I C207 What is the name of the nearest dispons•ry providing family plar~ing services to th is corNnunity? C2OD ] Is that a government dispensary or is it oporat~.d by a non-government organization? I C209 How far is i t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE IN IO01 IF LESS THAN 1KIL~4ETER, IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS WRITE IN NUMBER AS GIVER IN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, WRITE IN '97~.) I CZlO What is the most common typo of transport to the dispensary? I C211 How tong does i t take to get from here to (DISPENSARY NAME) using most co~mon type of transport? C2121 Does th is dispensary provide: antenatal care? det ivery care? growth promotion? ch i ld hflnunization? i AIDS screening? c2131 HOW ~ny dispensaries in to ta l are there within 30 kilometers? COOING CATEGORS DISPENSARY NAME NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 - GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NON'GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MOTORIZED (E.G. BUS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CAN~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] WALKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER 5 HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES NO DK ANTENATAL CARE . . . . . . . 1 2 DELIVERY CARE . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 GROWTH PROHOTIOH . . . . . 1 2 8 CHILD IMMUNIZATION,.1 2 8 AIDS SCREENING . . . . . . . 1 2 B FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . 1 2 8 L DISPENSARY NAME NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 DON~T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 - D201 I I I B -~ C213 I C213 C213 GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NON-GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NILOHETERS . . . . . . . MOTORIZED (E.D, BUS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CANOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 WALKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER 5 HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES NO DK ANTENATAL CARE . . . . . . . 1 2 8 DELIVERY CAPE . . . . . . . . 1 2 E GROWTH PHOHOTION . . . . . 1 2 8 CHILD IN4UNIZATION.,1 2 8 AIDS SCREENING . . . . . . . 1 2 8 SKIP TO NO. DISPENSARIES WITHIN 30 KM . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l l I I I 294 SA= 10 O. HEALTH CENTER No, 0201 0202 D203 0204 D205 D206 0207 0208 D209 D210 D211 D212 0213 OUESTLONS gAME OF HEALTH CENTER (COPY FROM SECTION 2 COVER PAGE), Is that a governmnt health center or is i t operated by a r~on-goverr~nt organization ? COOLNG CATEGORS Now fer is i t ( In km) from here? (WRLTE LN IO0~ IF LESS THAN 1KLLONETER. LF 1 TO 96 KLLONETERS 14RITE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, WRZTE ]g '97%) What is the most common type of transport to the health center? HOM tong does i t take to get from here to (HEALTH CENTER NAME) using cost common type of transport? Does th is health center provide: antenatal care? de l ivery care? growth promotion? ch i ld imunizat ion? A[DS screening? Fomity Ptanning? What is the name of the nearest health center providing family planning services to th is community? HEALTH CENTER NAME NOT APPLLCABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 - -~ I I GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NON'GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I KILQHETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~] I MOTORIZED (E,G, BUS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CANON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 WALKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER 5 I ] HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ----J SKIP TO E201 Does th is health center provide: YES NO DK ant~ata[ care? ANTENATAL CARE . . . . . . . 1 2 8 del ivery care? DELIVERY CARE . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 growth promotion? GROWTH PROMOTION . . . . . 1 2 8 ch i ld immunizations? CHILD IMHUNIZATION.1 2 8 AIDS screening? AIDS SCREENING . . . . . . . 1 2 8 I How many health centers in to ta l are there w i th in 30 NO. HEALTH CENTERS kilometers? WITHIN 30 KN . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I SAG 11 295 HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . _ ___ J HOW tong does i t take to get from here to (HEALTH CENTER NAME) using most coell~ type of transport? Is that a government health center or is i t operated by a GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 non-government organization? NON-GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 How far is i t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE %N *00' iF LESS THAN 1K%LOI4ETER. IF I TO 96 KiLOHETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I KILOI4ETERS WRITE IN NUMBER AS GIVER IN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, WRITE IN '97: . ) What is the most com~n type of transport to the MOTORIZED (EmG. BUS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 health center? CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CANOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] WALKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER 5 YES NO DR ANTENATAL CARE . . . . . . . 1 2 8 DELIVERY CARE . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 GRC~TH PR~4OTION . . . . . 1 2 8 CHILD IMMUNIZATION.1 2 8 AIDS SCREENING . . . . . . . 1 2 8 FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . 1 2 8 L ~ D213 I L HEALTH CENTER NAME NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 -~ D213 DON'T KNOg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ~ D21] E, HOSPITAL No, I E201 E202 E203 E204 E205 EZO6 E207 E208 E20~ E210 ~211 E212 E213 QUESTIONS NAME OF HOSPITAL (COPY FROR SECTION 2 COVER PAGE). CODING CATEGORS HOSPITAL NAME NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 - I |1 that a government hospitat or is i t operated by a GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 non-government organizat ion ? NOR-GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I Mow f i r i l i t ( in knw) from hare? (URITE IN IO0' IF LESS THAN 1KILORETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I KILONETERS UNITE IN NUNBER AS GIVEN [N CLUSTER. IF 97 I ] I KiLONETERS O~ NORE, URITE IN m97'.) I What Is the moat co~¢~ type of transport to the MOTOMIZED (E.G, BUS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 hospitaL? CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CANOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 EIALK|NG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER 5 HOW tong does i t take to get from here to (HOSP%TAL NAME) using most common type of transport? Does th i s hospital provide: antenatal care? de l ivery care? growth promotion? ch i ld immunization? AIDS screening? FamiLy PLanning? ~at is the name of the nearest hospital providing fM i ty pLaP~ing services to th is com~i ty? HOURS . . . . . . . . . . MINUTES . . . . . . . . l YES NO DK ANTENATAL CARE . . . . . . . 1 2 8 DELIVERY CARE . . . . . . . . 1 2 O GRO~TH PROMOTION . . . . . I E 8 CHILD IMMUNIZATION.,.1 E 8 AIDS SCREENING . . . . . . . 1 2 B FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . 1 2 S L HOSPITAL NAME 301 I I I E213 HOURS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . __ __ J MINUTES I I Does th i s hospital provide: YES NO OK ~t¢~ta i care? ANTENATAL CARE . . . . . . . 1 2 8 de l ivery care? DELIVERY CARE . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 growth promotion? GROWTH PROMOTION . . . . . 1 2 8 ch i ld immanization? CHILD iW4UMIZATIOR.1 2 8 AIDS screening? AiDS SCREENING . . . . . . . 1 2 8 I I Mow Iny hOspitaLs in tote[ are there w i th in 30 NO. HOSPITALS f ~ kilometers? WITHIN 30 KM . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I I I SAG 12 296 How tong does i t take to get fro~ here to (HOSPITAL NAME) ~ ing ~ost comno~ type of transport? SKIP TO NOT APPLICABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 - - -~ E213 DON*T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 - - -~ E213 I I iS that a government hospital or is i t operated by a GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 non-government organization? NON-GOVERNMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 r HOW far is i t ( in kms) from here? (k'RITE IN BOO* iF LESS THAN I KILOMETER. [F I TO 96 KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I l l KILOMETERS ~IRITE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER, IF 97 I I I KZLONETERS OR MORE, WRITE IN '97 ' . ) J ~nat is the most common type of transport to the MOTORIZED (E.G, BUS) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 hospital? CYCLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CANOE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] bALKING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A OTHER 5 SECTION 3: CONTRACEPTIVE METHO0 AND HEALTH SERVICES IDENTIFICATION Io° I01 $01D $02 $O~D 303 3030 304 3040 305 305D 306 3060 307 3070 308 3080 QUESTIORS COOING CAGORIES I I , ~, rmmt nL,ee Where b i r th co~ntroL NEAREST PILL PROVIDER NAME What i s the ~ of the nearest place where b i r th co(ntro[ p i l l can be obtsinect? Now far is I t ( In kms) f ro here? (WRITE IN 'GO' IF LESS THAN 1KILORETER. IF 1 TO 96 K[LORETESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I KILOtlETERS ;IRITE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 , KILOMETERS OR MORE, WRITE iN '97%) I What is the name of the nearest place or provider to th i s NEAREST CONDOR PROVIDER NAME coal l~nity Here condo~ns can be obtained? HOW far i s i t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE IN 'OO' IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. I F 1 TO 96 KILORETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I KILOMETERS URITE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 K%LOMETERS OR MORE, WRITE [N '97 ' . ) I What i s the name of the nearest place to th i s NEAREST INJECTION PROVIDER NAME community where fmi ty p lanning in jec t ion can be obtained? Ho~ far i s i t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE IN 'DO' [F LESS THAN 1KILOtIETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I KILORETERS URITE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN %N CLUSTER. %F 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, ~dRITE IN '97 ' . ) I ~hat Ls the r~me of the nearest fac i l i ty or provider to NEAREST ]gO PROVIDER NAME th i s community where IUOs can be inserted? How far i s i t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE XN '00' IF LESS THAN I KILOMETER. %F I TO 96 K%LO#4ETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I KILOMETERS URITE ]H NLIHBER AS GIVEN %N CLUSTER. IF 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, ~RITE IN '97 ' . ) I What Ls the name of the nearest fac i l i ty or provider to NEAREST STERILIZATION PROVIDER NAME th i s coccx~ity where s ter i l i za t ion can be obtained? Now fa r is i t ( in km) from here? (WRITE IN '00' IF LESS THAN I KILOMETER. %F 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I L l KILOMETERS WRITE IN NUNBER AS GIVEN iN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILORETERS OR k~)RE, WRXTE IN '97 ' . ) I What i s the name of the nearest fac i l i ty or provider to NEAREST AIDS TREATMENT PLACE MANE thLs comwJnity where AIOS treatment/screening can be obtained? Now far i s i t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE IN IOOl IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. IF 1 TO 96 I K%LORETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I K%L(~4ETERS WRITE IN NIJNBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 KILORETERS OR NORE~ WRITE IN 197'.) I What is name of the nearest place to th i s com~Jnity where NEAREST [MMUNIZATZON PROVIDER NAME immunizations fo r ch i ld ren can be obtained? How far i s i t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE iN '00' IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS WRITE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN iN CLUSTER. LF 97 KILOMETERS OR MORE, ;/RITE IN '97 ' . ) KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ - ~ What i s the name of the nearest place to thLs c~i ty NEAREST ORS PLACE NAME where oral r~vdretion solutLon (ORS) packets can be obtained? q I HOW far i s Lt ( in knw) fr~n here? (WRITE IN *OO* IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. %F 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I KILOMETERS WRITE IN NUNBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. %F 97 I KILOMETERS OR MORE, WRITE IN '97 ' . ) J & SAO 1] 29? SKIP TO NO. 309 3099 310 3100 311 311D • JESTIORS CCOING CAGORIES SKIP TO I I cough ( resp i ratory disease), what is NEAREST RESP, DISEASE TREATMNT PLACE I f ch i ld is sick with c© p i retory disease), of the nearest place where treatment can be ®tair~ed? HOW far is i t ( in Am) f rmhere? r ~ (UNITE IN '00' IF LESS THAN 1KILORETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I [ I KILOMETERS UNITE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 ] I I KILOMETERS OR NORE, ;~RITE IH '97 ' . ) I ~at is the name of the nearest place to th is coemunity NEAREST ANTENATAL PROVIDER NAME where entenatat care can be obtained? How far is i t ( in kms) from here? (WRITE iN JO01 IF LESS THAN 1KILOtlETER. IF 1 TO 96 KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I ] 1 KILOMETERS WHITE IN NUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 I ] I KILOMETERS OR MORE, WRITE IN ' 97 ' . ) I I f a woman has a comptlcatio~ in del ivery, what is the NEAREST DELIVERY PLACE NAME n~ne of the nearest piece where she can be treated How far is i t ( in kms) from here? r ~ (',/RITE IN 'OO' IF LESS THAN 1 KILOMETER. IF I TO 96 KILOMETERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i l l KILOHETERS WRITE ]N NUMBER AS GIVEN IN CLUSTER. IF 97 I I I KILOMETERS OR NONE, WRITE IH ' 97 ' . ) SAQ 16 298 312. CLUSTER INFORMANTS NAME POSITION/TITLE/OCCUPATION 1. 2. 3. 4. 313. TOTAL NUMBER OF INFORMANTS IN THE CLUSTER . . . . . . END OF CLUSTER INTERVIEW. 299 Front Matter World Summit for Children Indicators: Uganda 1995 Title Page Citation Page Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures Preface Summary of Findings Map of Uganda Chapter 01 - Introduction Chapter 02 - Characteristics of Households and Respondents Chapter 03 - Fertility Chapter 04 - Fertility Regulation Chapter 05 - Proximate Determinants of Fertility Chapter 06 - Fertility Preferences Chapter 07 - Infant and Child Mortality Chapter 08 - Maternal and Child Health Chapter 09 - Maternal and Child Nutrition Chapter 10 - Maternal Mortality Chapter 11 - AIDS and Other Sexually Transmitted Diseases Chapter 12 Availability of Family Planning and Health Services References Appendix A - Sample Implementation Appendix B - Estimates of Sampling Errors Appendix C - Data Quality Tabulations Appendix D - Persons Involved in The 1995 Uganda Demographic and Health Survey Appendix E - Questionnaires Household Questionnaire Woman's Questionnaire Man's Questionnaire

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