Turkmenistan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 1995

Publication date: 1995

MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey TURKMENISTAN 1995 iii TABLE OF CONTENTS Page Executive Summary :······ ····· ···· ···· ······ ··· ·· ·· ·· ···· ·········· ·· ·········· ······· ·· ····· ···· ·· . I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.1. Background of the study . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.2. Organization of the survey . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.3. The target population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.4. The questionnaire and data collection method . . . 6 1.5: Sample size and sample design . . . . 6 1.6. Implementation of field survey . . . . 7 1.7. Data entry, processing and statistical analysis. . . . . 7 2. Description of the sample population. . . . . 7 2.1. Characteristics of sample population . . :. . 7 Households and number of persons in the household . 7 Number of rooms . . . . . . . 8 Number of children and sex distribution . . 8 2.2 Water and sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Water sources and distance . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Sanitation facilities . . . . . :. 10 Availability of soap . . . . . . . 11 2.3. Education . .". . . . . . . . . 11 2.4. Care of Acute Respiratory Infections . . . 13 2.5. Diarrhoea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 2.6. Breast-feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 2.7. Immunization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 BCG scar. . . . . . . 20 3. Conclusions . :. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 4. Recommendations. . . 23 MICS communication planning . . . . . . :. . 23 Immunization . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Use ofORT and the knowledge of mothers on danger signs of ARI 25 Basic education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 25 Water and sanitation . . . . . . . . :. 25 Breast-feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Acure Repiratory Infections . . . . . 25 Annexes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Annex I. Map of Turkmenistan. . . . . . 27 Annex II. Location of clusters by velayat . . . . . . . . . . :. . . 28 Dashowuz . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Balkan . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Lebab . . . . . . . . . . 30 Mary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Ashgabat city . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Ahal. . . . . 33 Annex Ill. List of interviewers and supervisors . . . . . . 34 Annex IV. List of participants, MICS results review meeting . 37 Annex V. Questionnaires. . . . . . . . . . . 38 Questionnaire I. Household module . . . 38 Questionnaire 2. Water and sanitation module . . 39 Questionnaire 3. Education module . . 40 Questionnaire 4. Care of Acute Respiratory Illness . 41 Questionnaire 5. Diarrhoea. . . . . 42 Questionnaire 6. Breast-feeding module . . . 43 Questionnaire 7. Immunization . . . . . . . . 44 MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 LIST OFT ABLES and FIGURES TABLES Page Table I. Distribution of households visited by velayat . . . . . . . . . . 8 Table 2. Sex distribution of children under II years of age by velaY,at . . . . 8 Table 3. Age distribution of children by velayat . . . . . . . . . 9 Table 4. Safe toilet facilit ies by type and velayat . . . .'. . . . . . . . . . . . II Table 5. Indicator status 12.2 by velayat and by gender: Percentage of children entering I st grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5 . . . . . . . . . 12 Table 6. School attendence: distribution of school age children by age and gender. . . . . . I2 Table 7. Indicator status I2.2 by velayat and gender: Proporti.on of children of primary school age enrolled in primary school this year. . . . . . . . . . . 13 _ Table 8. Indicator status I2.3 by velayat and gender: Proportion of children entering school at entry age Table 9. ARI indicator status by velayat . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 10. Signs and symptoms mentioned by mothers for ARI . . . . . . . . . . . Table I1 . Diarrhoea incidence rates in children under 5 years of age in the two weeks prior to the survey Table 12. Proportion of diarrhoea cases that are given ORT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table I3. Type of fluids and food the children received during the last episode of diarrhoea . . . Table 14. Changes in amount of fluids given to children with diarrhoea . . . . . . . . . Table I5. Changes ih the amount of food given to children with diarrhoea . . . . . . . , . . . Table I6. Percentage of ever and still breast-fed children under II months of age . . . Table 17. Exclusive brest-feeding for children under 4 months of age . . . . . . . . . . . Table I8. Type of fluid and food given to children under Il months of age during the previous 24 hours (percent responding) . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 19. Immunization coverage for children aged 12-23 months receiving vaccination before the first birthday (valid immunization coverage) . . ~ . . . . . . . .•. . Table 20. Immunization coverage for children aged 12-23 month receiving vaccination at the time of the survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Table 21. The interval in days between DPT2-DPTI and TPT3-DPT2 doses . . . . . . . Table 22. BCG scar by velayat (checked at home by interviewers) . . ; . . . . . Table 23. Segmenting audiences and planning for communication ofMICS methodology and results FIGURES 13 14 14 15 15 16 17 17 17 18 18 19 20 20 20 23 Figure I. Access to water sources by velayat . . . . . . . . . . IO Figure 2. Access to sanitary facilities by velayat . . . . . . . . . 10 . Figure 3. Signs and symptoms mentioned by mothers for ARI . . . . . . 14 Figure 4. lndicator .status, ORT use (old and new definition) by velayat . . . . . . . . 15 Figure 5. Type of fluid and food the children received during the last episode of diarrhoea. . . I6 Figure 6. Immunization coverage for children aged I2·23 months receiving vaccination before the first birthday (valid immunization coverage). . . . . . . . . . I9 MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 v EXECUTIVE SUMMARY F. allowing a training workshop in July 1995 to introduce the methodology, a national Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was carried out in October-November 1995 in Turkmenistan. The major objective was to evaluate the situation at mid-decade and draw recommendations for programme implementation taking into account the downward trend in standards due to the economic depression and social deterioration. Specific objectives can be summarized as follows: 1. To evaluate the 1995 situation in child immunization, diarrhoeal diseases, acute respiratory infections, water and sanitation and basic education 2. To define areas forimproved service delivery: 3. To define practical implications for improving country programmes . 4. To define areas where stronger communication work is needed to better empower families and lower level health workers. 5. To introduce an appropriate, easy~to-use methodology to health and education officials/technicians and local researchers (mainly universities) for monitoring purposes. The UNICEF Area Office for the Central Asian Republics and Kazakstan (CARKAO), in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and State Statistics Committee, supported the survey as part of the Country Programme of Cooperation. Turkmenistan and the other Central Asian Republics are in an uncommon situation. Until recently, Turkmenistan had a relatively high level of social and health indicators as well as universal literacy arid access to health services. Indicators in areas related to the Mid-Decade Goals of the Declaration of the 1990 World Summit for Children, particularly in health and education, showed that required levels had already been achieved. However, because of continuing economic depression and social deterioration, these standards are in threat of declining. Growing poverty, a fall in life expectancy, increases in infant mortality, the return of several infectious. diseases and outbreaks, increasing anemia, lack of teaching aids and school books, and deterioration in water and sanitation facilities are each seen as indicators of growing problems in Turkmenistan. UNICEF inteNened in Turkmenistan beginning in 1992, with the aim of reducing any falling away from previous accomplishments and to help compensate for the losses that did occur. UNICEF cooperation combines direct assistance with essential supplies, training and consultations on new or improved alternative means for basic service delivery, activities aimed at empowering families and parents, and advocacy for ch.ildren and women with the government. Upon starting work in the CARK area, UNICEF has, as a priority, related programme activities to maintaining indicators related to these Mid-Decade Goals and addressing countries with the most urgent rieeds for children. The MICS survey in Turkmenistan was carried out in the context of this cooperation. Summary of Findings Compulsory Education The Turkmenistan Compulsory Education System continues to serve all children, both boys and girls throughout the country. Enrolment and retention should be monitored carefully in some provinces. MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 2 Nationally, over 95% of children of school age are attending compulsory schools. Over 99% of the children who begin school remain in schOol. 99% of the children, both boys and girls, who attend first grade reach fifth grade. Drinking Water Safe drinking water is not available to almost 25% of the population. In one province (Mary) there is a much greater problem with well less than half the popul~tion having access to safe drinking water supplies. · Nationally 74.3% of the population has access to safe water sources that include: piped water supply in the dwelling, tube well or borehole and protected dugwells or protected springs. Access to safe drinking water in all provinces except Mary is found to be over 72% (Mary 41 %). Those with only trucked water services represent 42% of the population in Mary Province and 26% of the population in the Province of AhaL Sanitation Over 90% of the population have access to safe sanitation facilities. In all areas except Ashgabat the most common type of latrine is the "covered dry pit" latrine. It is considered to be in the "safe" sanit~tion category; however, our observation for more than two years showed that most of these "covered dry pit" latrines cannot be considered as "safe" due to uncleanness. The survey measure.s only the "quantitative" part of the facilities, and we cannot conclude the "qualitative" part of it. Almost 90% of homes reported have soap for washing. Safe sanitary facilities in use include: flush to sewage, flush to septic latrines, pour flush latrines and covered dry pit latrines. In Dashowuz Province almost a third of the population does not have access to safe sanitation facilities. It is the velayat with the lowest access to safe sanitation facilities (67.4%). Acute Respiratory Infections Almost 75% of the population do not know the most important signs of Acute Respiratory Infections in children. Without the parental understanding of these signs, the severity of the illness and the need to seek proper medical care may not come to attention. Fever is found to be the sign most mothers know (84.4%), and fast breathing is known by only 13 percent of the mothers. Diarrhoeal Diseases Almost all children with diarrhoea are given some form of ORT (98). However, less than half of them receive the home care that are appropriate according to WHO/UNICEF guidelines. Almost all children who have diarrhoea receive a form of ORT that does not necessarily include continued feeding (98% ). ORS is used in 58 percent of diarrhoea cases, but less than half (41%) of the mothers continue to give breast milk during diarrhoea to children under 5 MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 years of age. However, less than a third of these children receive ORT that include continued feeding during the illness. Using the up-to-date definition of ORT that includes feeding, only 14% of the children who have diarrhoea .are treated with ORT in Ahal Province. Thisnumber rises to·41% in Dashowuz Province where additional training has been done. Nationally, 30% ofchildren with diarrhoea receive unacceptable fluids. The national incidence rate of children who have had diarrhoea in the past--first 10 months of 1995--was 5.5 per 100, but was found to be higher at the time of the survey (6. 7 per 100): Mary Province had the highest incidence rate of diarrhoea in children (10.9 per 100). The survey was conducted in November, and due to cold season we were expecting to find lower incidence rate of diarrhoeal disease. Survey findings show that most of th.e children with diarrhoea are not taken to health facilities for care seeking and are taken care of at home by their mothers. Breast-feeding Mothers usually breast-feed their babies in Turkmenistan, and they do so for longer than the minimum recommended period. However, only about half (54%) of the mothers do not supplement breast milk with other substances. The practice of exclusive breast-feeding varies greatly among provinces (28% in Dashowuz and 81% in Ahal). 94 percent of all children under the age of one have been breast-fed atone time or another in their lives. 94 percent of them are still on breast-feeding. Nationally, 54% of the infants under 4 months of age are exclusively breast-fed. Immunization Immunization coverage of children 0-11 months of age is above 80 percent nationally for all antigens except measles (66 percent). Over 40 percent of children are vaccinated at intervals longer than recommended. · Province breakdowns show that some provinces have unacceptably low immunization rates even for the third dose of DPT (Ahal at 63 percent). Valid immunization coverage rates BCG 88% DPT3 80% OPV3 83% Measles 66% Research Communication Planning Based on the objectives noted above, and prior to the survey, a set of "audiences" or users of MICS data was projected and defined. An effort was made to identify an those who could benefit from the information as well as from its analysis and interpretation. On the basis Of the audiences identified and their presumed use of MICS information, an initial research communication plan was developed. This "plan" was then revised after data analysis and initial interpretation prior to the Survey Results Presentation workshop in Turkmenistan in March 1996. · MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 3 4 MICS Communication Plan Initial implementation of the MICS Communication Plan was carried out in Ashgabat with the leaders and supervisors of the MICS. The group worked on setting priorities for work with the various audiences/users and finalized the modes of communication and time.frame for effective presentation, discussion and uses of the national survey. A draft of "audience segmentation" table is given in "Recommendations" part. This type of communication planning is also being done for the Kyrgyzstan Survey. Summary of Method and Sample The target population was all households of Turkmenistan which numbered 179,712 according to the last population census of 1995(population 4.6 million). A questionnaire and data collection followed, which were proposed by the Planning Office, and the Evaluation and Research Office of UNICEF (Monitoring progress toward the goals of the World Summit for Children, a practical handbook for multiple-indicator surveys). A total of six modules were used to design the questionnaire (Household Module, Water and Sanitation Module, Education Module, ARI Module, Diarrhoea Module, Breast~feeding Module, Immunization Module). The questionnaire was adapted, translated into Russian, and pre-tested during a MICS workshop in Ashgabat in July 1995 . A separate sampling frame was used for each velayat (province), including the capital city, in order to reflect all territories and allow valid comparison among them. A sample of 1,020 households in 34 clusters were selected as the study sample from each velayat and Ashgabat city. This made a total of 6,120 households in 204 clusters nationally. No stratification for rural and urban difference was used in the sampling design. The field survey was conducted from 9 October to 10 November 1995, by a specially trained team of 1 02 interviewers and 18 supervisors (17 interviewers and 3 supervisors per velayat) under the supervision of Dr. Juma Gulievich, Head of the Sanitary afld Epidemiological Department at the Ministry of Health. Team .supervisors controlled the survey in all the velayats. Central headquarters, for the operation was established in the UNICEF CARK rurkmenistan country office, and daily telephone contacts were carried out with the field supervisors. The UNICEF CARK Turkmenistan country office staff also . supported the supervisors and made trips to velayats during the data collection period. Ashgabat and Aha I questionnaires were returned to Goskomstat on a daily basis after completion. The others were taken back to Ashgabat by the supervisors when the 34 clusters were completed. Local headquarters were established in each velayat centre. These offices served as the operational centres for velayat activities and storage for questionnaires. · Supervisors traveled to their respective velayats immediately after the training and worked on the actual location of clusters and compiling the lists of households for each cluster. Interviewers traveled to velayats two days prior to data collection period and were met by velayat supervisors. Data collection was completed in one week starting on 30 October 1995. One nurse for each identified cluster area polyclinic was appointed by local authorities to accompany the interviewer during the study in order to eliminate suspicion from the households. Out of 6120 households in the sample, 6109 were visited (99.8%). A "data entry room" was arranged in Goskomstat in Ashgabat. Five data clerks were trained on data entry using EPI.INF0-6. Data entry was supervised by Dr. Nicolae Beldescu, UNICEF consultant for Turkmenistan MICS. Statistical analysis was conducted by Dr. Beldescu. The survey was supervised and initial interpretation was done by UNICEF CARK Area Health Officer Dr. Omit Kartoglu. Country Operations were coordinated by Or. Serap Maktav, CARK AO RPO, Turkmenistan. · MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 5 1. INTRODUCTION F. ollowing a trainin.g workshop in July 1995 to introduce the methodology, . a national Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was carried out in October-November 1995 in Turkmenistan. Its major objective · was to evaluate the national situation at mid-decade and draw recommendations for programme implementation taking into account the decline in standards due to the economic depression and social deterioration. UNICEF Central Asian Republics and Kazakstan (CARK) Area Office in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, Ministry of Education, and State Statistics Committee, agreed to sponsor the survey. 1.1. Background oftlte study Turkmenistan, as in the other Central Asian Republics, is in an uncommon situation. Until recently, Turkmenistan had a relatively high level of social and health indicators as well as universal literacy and access to health services. The vast majority of the Mid-Decade Goals, and particularly in health and education, had already been achieved. However, due to continuing economic depression and social deterioration the standards are declining. Growing poverty rate, fall in the life expectancy, increase in infant mortality, the return of several infectious diseases and outbreaks, anemia, lack of teaching aids and school books, deterioration in water and sanitation facilities became unwelcome synonyms oftoday's life in Turkmenistan. · UNICEF intervened in Turkmenistan in 1992 with the aim of maintaining previous accomplishments and compensating for the loss of a.lternative inputs. Upon starting work in the area, our priority has been to relate programme activities targeting Mid-Decade Goals and based on the most urgent needs. The national MICS was planned in order to evaluate the situation at mid-decade and draw recommendations for programmes. 1.2. Organizationoftlte survey Organizational activities for the national MICS were carried out by the UNICEF CARK Area Office. A training activity was carried out in Ashgabat from 12 to 19 July 1995 onMICS, epidemiology and vaccinology with assistance of International Children's Centre in Paris. In attendance were three participants from Sanitary Epidemiological Stations in each velayat and Ashgabat city, representatives from education, water and sanitation, and also representatives from Kyrgyzstan and Tajikistan. The training activity included theoretical and practical sessions on survey methodology, epidemiology and vaccinology. A two-day field exercise was organized in Ashgabat city in order to test questionnaires to be used in the national survey. All participants from Turkmenistan carried out responsibilities as supervisors for the national survey. A consultant was hired to supervise national MICS and to work closely with UNICEF Turkmenistan office and the Ministry of Health. Interviewers were selected through Ministry of Health and Ministry of Education from vocational schools in Ashgabat. All interviewers were capable in communicating in Turkmen in order to prevent non-communication at household level. Interviewers and supervisors were trained by Dr. Nicolae Beldescu, UNICEF consultant in Ashgabat in October I 995 as described in the Guide. · 1.3. Tlte target population The target population was all households of Turkmenistan, which numbered 779,712 according to the last population census of 1995(population 4.6 million. The elementary sampling unit was the "household", i.e. the group of people living in the same dwelling and sharing a common household economy (residing together, connected by one budget). In the case of MICSTurkmenistan, 1995 6 Turkmenistan, a household is a distinct socioeconomic unit where several couples (families) may reside (e.g. married children and even married grandchildren may live together with the parents). The country is divided into six administrative regions (five velayats and Ashgabat city). Separate sampling was carried out for each region to represent each velayat and to compare results among velayats. 1.4. The questionnaire and data collection method The questionnaire and data collection. followed the method proposed by the Planning Office, Evaluation and Research Office and the Programme Division of UNICEF (Monitoring progress toward the goals of the World Summit for Children, A Practical Handbook for Multiple-Indicator Surveys). A total of six modules were used in questionnaire (Household Module, Water and Sanitation Module, Education Module, ARI Module, Diarrhoea Module, Breast-feeding Module, Immunization Module). At the same time, as the Guide permitted adaptation to the local conditions for each country, some of the questions were added, revised and/or excluded (See Anne V). The questionnaire was translated into Russian and tested during July 1995 MICS workshop in Ashgabat. Interviewers were given a list of houses with family names and addresses by the supervisors on a daily basis at the field. In each household, interviewers carried out the interview with all mothers or principal caretakers of children under 11 years. Household module and water and sanitation module were completed for all household disrega~;ding the number of children they had. Education module was given to mothers with children between · the age of 6-li (age composition for the education module is revised based on the education system in Turkmenistan). Care of Acute Respiratory Infections Module was given to all mothers with children under 5 years of age . Breast-feeding Module was used.for mothers with children under I year of age. Immunization Module was used for children between 23 months and 12 years of age. All modules were completed at household level except the Immunization Module. Main task of the interviewers with the Immunization Module at the household level was to identifY the name of the child, identifY the polyclinic where immunization takes place and check whether the child had any BCG scar. Immunization dates were filled in from polyclinic records by the interviewer on the same day. 1.5. Sample size and sample design A separate sampling frame was used for each velayat (including the capital city) in order to represent all territories and allow comparison among them. Ten percent margin error was used for sub-national sampling. The other basic assumptions used in the calculation of required number of households for each velayat were as follows: (a) design effect2, (b) persons per household 6, ©percentage of population under 5 years of age 0.15, and (d) prevalence of diarrhoea 15 days 0.2. As for the indicators, 70 percent was used as an estimated prevalence for DPT3, OPV3 andMeasles coverage; 80 percent for BCG coverage, 70 percent for ORT use, 90 · percent for school enrollment, 44 percent for safe water and 16 percent for sanitation facilities. Based on these assumptions and estimated prevalence, 933 households were needed. in each velayat. Finally, a sample of 1,020 households in 34 clusters were selected as study sample from each velayat and Ashgabat city, which added up to 6,120 households in 204 clusters nationally. No stratification for rural and urban difference was used in sampling design. A detailed list of the smallest administrative units (genislik) with population for each velayat was obtained froin the Goskomstat, the State Statistical Committee. From each velayat frame, 34 clusters were selected with PPS (Probability Proportional to Size). The actual location of clusters in relatively big administrative units (i.e. city centres)was defined at the velayat level by supervisors with random selection among the zones in the city. The final stage of household selection was completed by the supervisors assigned to each velayat. Supervisors complied the most recent census lists provided by village and/or city polyclinics (each dwelling unitre- enumerated and a list of occupants updated every year). This list of occupied dwellings was numbered and 30 households were selected randomly from each, allowing for a reserve Jist of households in case of the need for replacement. · MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 7 1.6. Implementation of field survey The field survey was conducted from 9 October to 10 November 1995, by a specially trained team of 102 interviewers and 18 supervisors ( 17 interviewers and 3 supervisors per velayat) under the supervision of Dr. Juma Gulievich, Head of Sanitary and Epidemiological Department in the Ministry of Health. Team supervisors controlled the survey in all the velayats. Central headquarters, was established in UNICEF Turkmenistan office, and daily telephone contacts were made with the field supervisors. UNICEF Turkmenistan office staff also backed up the supervisors and carried out field trips to velayats during the data collection period. Ashgabat and Aha! questionnaires were returned to Goskomstat on a daily basis and others were returned after the completion of the 34 clusters were taken back to Ashgabat by the supervisors. Local headquarters were established in each velayat centre. These offices served as the operational centre for velayat activities and storage for questionnaires. Local authorities in the survey area were visited before the survey by Ms. Serap Maktav, the UNICEF Resident Project Officer for Turkmenistan, and an explanatory letter was circulated by the Ministry of Health to all local authorities for their coordination. Supervisors traveled to their velayats right after the training and worked on the actual location of clusters and compiling the lists of households for each cluster in order to select households. Interviewers traveled to velayats two days prior to data collection period and were met by velayat supervisors. Data collection was completed in one week starting on 30 October 1995. One nurse for each identified cluster area polyclinic was appointed by local authorities to accompany the interviewer during the study in order to eliminate suspicion from the households. I. 7. Data entry, processing and statistical analysis Data entry room was set up in Goskomstat in Ashgabat. Five data clerks were trained on EPI.INF06, and carried out the data entry under the supervision of Dr. Nicolae Beldescu, UNICEF consultant for Turkmenistan MICS. Data entry started with completed clusters from Ashgabat and Aha! in October and continued with other velayats. Statistical analysis was carried out by Dr. Beldescu. 2. DESCRIPTION OFTHE SAMPLE POPULATION 2.1. Characteristics of sample population Households and number of persons in the household Out of6,120 households 6,109 were visited (99.8%). Distribution ofhouseholds visited in each velayat is shown in Table 1. MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 8 Table I. Distribution of households visited, by velayat, MICS 1995 Turkmenistan . Velayat Number of Percent· Households visited Ashgabat 1,020 100.0 Aha! I,OI8 99.8 Balkan l,OI8 99.8 Dashowuz I,Ol7 99.7 Lebab I,OI8 99.8 Mary I,OI8 99.8 TOTAL 6,I09 99.8 According to the survey, the mean size of household was 6.0 persons (95% confidence limits 5.9-6.2) which matched the assumptions made prior to the sample design. The smallest size households were found in Ashgabat and Balkan (5.I). Dashowuz had the highest number of persons in a household with 7.I. Modal household size varied between 4 to 6 among velayats. Number of rooms The national average number of rooms was four. The average was the lowest in Ashgabat (3 rooms) and highest in Dashowuz (5 rooms). About 20 percent of the families were living in houses with fewer than 3 rooms. Number of children and sex distribution I7,77I children under II years of age were found in 6,I09 houses visited. Females were 65 percent while males remained at 35 percent. Sex distribution of children under II years of age was similar in all velayats. Sex distribution of all children up to II years of age by velayats is shown in Table 2. Table 2. Sex distribution ofchildren under 11 years of age, by velayat, MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Sex Ashgabat A hal Balkan Dashowuz Lebap Mary Nationwide Male 845 996 949 1,217 1,068 1,144 6,218 Female 1,679 1,788 1,758 2,190 2,017 2,123 11,553 Total 2,524 2,784 2,707 3,407 3,085 3,267 17,771 In 6, I 09 houses, 6,268 caretakers were found, 6,026 of which were mothers (96.1 percent) while the rest was relatives in charge of children (3.9 percent). Age distribution of children by velayats is shown in Table 3. MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 9 Table 3. Age distribution of children, by velayat, M/CS 1995 Turkmenistan ba~tiolYuz < r:.:, ;;:~•rr< ,N!ttionwide Age Ashgabat Aha I Balkan Lebab',;, group . 1· .••.• ;<·;';} •;,,, ;t;;,.; ' \'; 0 227 250 253 265 322 332 1,648 I 180 199 236 222 268 253 1,358 2 156 194 182 228 210 242 1,212 3 132 191 145 242 201 179 1,089 4 125 170 150 208 191 193 1,037 5 138 184 159 219 166 227 1,092 6 132 161 141 186 160 189 969 7 121 140 134 229 149 158 931 8 153 138 136 201 170 176 974 9 114 125 123 204 134 150 850 10 136 144 128 185 123 148 864 Total 1,614 1,896 1,787 2,389 2,094 2,247 12,024 2.2. Water and Sanitation The questions in this survey focused on identifying the following with regard to water and sanitation: * the main sources of drinking water and, as applicable, their relative distances to the dwelling * the various toilet facilities used, also in relation to distance to the dweUing * the availability of soap as a yardstick for personal hygiene practices. Water Sources and Distance Nationally, 74.3% ofall respondents indicated to have access to safe water sources, i.e piped water supply in the dwelling, tube well, borehole, protected dugwells, or protected springs. Unprotected dugwells or springs, ponds, rivers or streams, and any other sources is considered unsafe in this regard. Figures from the various regions show that almost the total population ofthe capital Ashgabat has access to piped water supply. Mary is the velayat with the lowest percentage of the population with access to safe water sources. The majority of the respondents( 91.6 %) indicated that an average distance between the water source and their dwellings were less than 100 meters. Dashowtiz velayat is the area with the smallest number of people having to walk less than 100 meters; 71.2 % have water on the premises through house connections, standpipes in the yard or street standpipes at Jess than 1 00-meter distance. This figure is close to the national average of 91.6 % in the other areas. It is noted that trucked water service may be seen as having a source on the premises! 42% and 25.8% of the total population in Mary and Aha!, respecti~ely, rely on trucked water services, which is an indication of the unavailability of "safe" water sources in these velayats: this accounts for the harsh living conditions in these velayats regarding water availability compared to other velayats, where this percentage varies between 1.2- 13 %. In the other areas studied, 72-80 % have access to safe sources. MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 10 100 80 60 i:: u u . u Cl. 40 20 0 Ashgabad Aha! Balkan Dashowuz Lehap Mary Nationwide • Unsafe • Safe Figure 1. Access to water sources by velayat, Turkmenistan Sanitation facilities Various types of latrines are seen in the country such as flush-to-sewerage systems, flush-to-septic tanks, pour flush latrines, and covered dry pit latrines which are considered safe sanitary facilities, and uncovered latrines which are characterized as unsafe. The outcome of the survey is presented in the figure below. 100 80 60 i:i u u . u Cl. 40 20 0 Ashgabad Aha! Balkan Dashowuz Lehap Mary Nationwide • Unsafe • Safe Figure 2. Access to sanitary facilities by velayat, Turkmenistan Nationwide, 91.3 % of the respondents have access to either flush-to-sewage or flush-to-septic latrines, pour flush latrines or covered dry pit latrines. A detailed analysis of the figures from the various areas shows that 67.4 % of the total population of Dashowuz Velayat have safe sanitary facilities while the same figure for the other areas is in the range of94 -96 %, and 99.4% for Ashgabat. The figures in the following table show that MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 II most people in areas other than Ashgabat are mainly using covered dry pit latrines. The very low figures for flush-to-septic tank or pour flush latrines niay be due to various reasons such as unfamiliarity about the flush to septic of pour flush system at community level, lack of adequate amounts of water, cultural unacceptability, etc. Table 4. Safe toilet facilities by type and velayat, MJCS 1995 Turkmenistan (in percent) Type Ashgabat A hal Balkan Dashowuz· Lebab Mary Nationwide Flush to sewage system 79.2 5.9 38.5 8.5 15.3 17.7 27.5 Flush to septic tank 2.1 9.0 2.4 0.7 0.5 0.1 2.5 Pour flush latrine - 0.2 8.8 - - - 1.5 Covered dry pit latrine 18.1 81.0 45.1 58.2 79.6 76.8 59.8 Many of the facilities are located within 50 meters from the dwelling except for Lebab and Dashowuz, where 23 .7% and 15.1 %of the toilet facilities, respectively, are located at further distances. Nationally, 76.1 %of the toilets are located in the dwelling, with figures varying froni 98.3% for Ashgabat to 46.2 %in Lebab and 71.4 % in Dashowuz. · Availability of Soap Soap is widely available in the country, with an average use of88.8 %. Whether soap is used for purposes such as washing hands after defecation is not clear. · Questions have been raised in the past concerning the affordability of soap. The outcome of this exercise shows that only 12% of the population have difficulties obtaining soap. 2.3. Education Education Module was used for all children in the household aged 6-11 years. The questions focused on identifying the following: *· * * Whether the children have ever attended school Current attendance Attendance in the past year Out of 4,368 respondents, 3,530 (80.8 percent) were found to have attended school at one time or another. 99.5 percent of them were currently attending school at the time of the survey. There were only 16 children who had attended school in the past but were currently not in school. The indicator 12.1 (percentage of children entering 1st grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5) was 99%nationally. The lowest percentage was found in the males in Lebab(89 percent). All the other areas had high percentages (over 98 percent). Indicator status by velayats is shown in Table 5. MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 12 Table 5. Indicator status 12.1 by velayat and by gender: Percentage of children entering 1st grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5 {n=4,368), MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Velayat Male Female · TO'fAL> Ashgabat 99 100 99 Aha! 100 100 100 Balkan 100 100 100 Dashowuz 100 100 100 Lebab 89 100 94 Mary 100 100 100 TOTAL 98 100 99 The Indicator 12.2 (proportion of children of primary-s~hool age actually enrolled in primary school) was 80% nationally. Similarly, the lowest proportion was found in Lebab (79 percent). However, it should be noted that the great majority of children who are not attending school was at 6 years of age. Although school entry age is 6 in Turkmenistan, most of the parents prefer to send their children when they reach 7. Nationally, out of 4,368 schooi age children, 838 were not enrolled in school, and 83 percent of these children were at the age of6. Table 6 shows the age distribution of school attendance in the national scale by gender. Table 6. School attendance: distribution of school age children by age and gender, MICS, Turkmenistan, 4,369 children Female'; '. I ~ TO'fAL ' Age in years Male · .Totak ; . ·· · • ,, f,. ,,. .·~- ~ ., . ,. . <;<: ~; ~ ' ~' ~ _.;:' . 1.\"ri' ;,;:;,i,•;<;': ~ -vis· (~, __ ,_ ->-:--.·:. , . No Yes No . , No\· : I ~~';X~~~-:v . ·''·''.;. \ . 1>:·:, 6 346 81 347 69 .693 150 843 7 60 418 46 377 107 795 902 8 12 508 12 420 24 928 952 9 4 435 3 397 7 832 839 10 2 384 4 420 6 804 810 11 - 9 1 12 I 21 22 TOTAL 424 1,835 414 1,695 838 3,530 4,368 Indicator status 12.2 by velayats and by gender is shown in Table 7. MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 13 Table 7. Indicator status 12.2 by velayat and gender: Proportion of children of primary school age enrolled in primary schqol this year (n=4,369), MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Velayat Male Female TOTAL Ashgabat 78 80 79 A hal 79 81 80 Balkan 84 82 83 Dashowuz 83 82 82 Lebab 79 79 79 Mary 81 79 80 TOTAL 81 80 80 The indicator 123 (proportion of children entering school at entry age) was 17.4% nationally. This is also due to the aforementioned reasons. Velayat figures range from 13.6 percent in Lebab to 27.5 percent in AhaL The indicator status by velayats and gender is shown in Table 8. Table 8. Indicator status 12.3 by velayat and gender: Proportion of children entering school at entry age, MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Velayat Male Female TOTAL Total Attending Total Attending Total Attending children school children school children school 6 years 6 years 6 years Ashgabat 66 9 (13.6%) 51 8 (16.6%) 117 17 (14.5%) A hal 78 24 (30.8%) 60 14 (23.3%) 138 38 (27.5%) Balkan 59 13 (22.0%) 57 10 (17.5%) 116 23 (19.8%) Dashowuz 75 8(10.7) 89 18 (~0.2%) 164 26 (15.9%) Lebab 66 9 (13.6%) 88 12 (13.6%) 154 21 (13.5%) Mary 83 15 (18.1%) 71 7 (9.9%) 154 22 (14.3%) TOTAL 427 78 (18.3%) 416 69 (16.6%) 843 147 (17.4%) If the school entry age is regarded as 7, 87.6 percent of this age group was found in school (72% attending Grade 1 and 15.6% attending Grade 2). 2.4. Care of acute respiratory infections (CARl) CARl module was directed to all mothers of children aged under five in the households. The questionnaire focused on learning what symptoms and signs would lead the mother to take the child to a health worker/doctor. Mothers were asked when their children were ill with a cough and/or cold what signs or symptoms would lead them to take the child to a clinic. ,, The indicator shows the proportion of mothers of children under 5 years of age who know the signs of ARI at 27 percent (with 95% confidence limits LCL 23 and UCL 31 ). MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 14 Table 9. ARI Indicator status by velayat (Percent of mothers who know the signs of AR!), MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Ashgabat A hal Balkan Dashowuz Lebab Mary Nationwide 45 24 24 15 30 28 27 Based on the 9 5% confidence limits of the national average, A hal, Balkan, Lebab and Mary fell within limits. We can conclude that the Ashgabat mothers know significantly more than the mothers in other velayats, and Dashowuz is significantly low compared with the others. However, the percentage of mothers who knew the signs of ARI in Ashgabat was also very low. In general, fever was the most mentioned sign of ARI (84 percent of mothers nationally). Blocked nose was in the second rank (50 percent). 408 out of3,640 mother~ (11 percent) did notknow any signs or symptoms of ARI. Table 10. Signs and symptoms mentioned by mothers for ARI, MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Sign/symptom Ashgabat A hal Balkan Dashowuz Lebab Mary Nationwide Fever 91.5 85.5 78.3 85.5 81.2 85.3 84.4 Blocked nose 47.8 56.8 35.3 39.9 67.1 48.8 50.3 Trouble sleeping/eating 31.0 28.7 26.0 27.5 23.4 36.7 28.9 Difficult breathing 44.6 27.5 26.2 12.5 23 .3 24.3 25.9 Being ill for a long time 42.4 17.7 17.9 6.0 9.8 36.6 22.0 Fast breathing 26.3 9.6 8.7 4.9 13.7 13.5 12.6 Don't know 3.7 13.8 17.0 9.3 11.6 11.2 11.2 Blocked nose · Trouble sleepiog/eating Difficult breathing Feast breathing 0 20 40 60 80 100 percent Figure 3. Signs and symptoms mentioned by mothers for ARI, National percentage, Turkmenistan MlCS Turkmenistan, 1995 15 The majorindicator for pneumonia (fast breathing) was known by only 12.6 percent of mothers nationally. The lowest percentage was observed in Dashowuz (4.0 percent) while the highest was in Ashgabat (26.3 percent). 2.5. Diarrhoea Diarrhoea module was directed to mothers of all children under five years of age in the household. The questions focused on three major points: * * * Whether the child had diarrhoea during the last 2 weeks Food and fluids children received during the last episode Changes in the amount of fluids and food given to children Due to the season of the data collection, fewer diarrhoeal cases were found than estimated. The incidence rate for diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the survey was the highest in Mary (I 0.9.percent) and Balkan (9.9 percent) and the lowest in Dashowuz (3.1 percent). Table II. Diarrhoea incidence rates in children under 5 years of age in the two weeks prior to the survey, MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Definition Ashgabat A hal Balkan Dashowuz Lebab Mary Nationwide Number of cases 53 58 96 37 50 131 425 Incidence rate (percent) 6.4 5.7 9.9 3.1 4.1 10.9 6.7 The indicator of use ofORT (old and new definition) is shown in Table 12. When the old definition is used Turkmenistan has very high percentage of use ofORT (percentage of diarrhoea cases among children under five in the two weeks prior to the survey who received ORT and/or recommended home fluid) . However, when the new definition is used--it covers continued eating--all figures dramatically decrease. The lowest figure is found in Aha! (14 percent) while the highest is in Dashowuz (41 percent). Table /2. Proportion ofdiarrhoea cases that are given ORT, MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Definition Ashgabat A hal Balkan Dashowuz Lebab Mary Nationwide OLD 91 97 97 95 100 100 98 NEW 32 14 27 41 32 36 31 Nationwide I Ashgabad I A hal f----1 Balkan Dashowuz Lebab Mary 0 20 40 60 80 100 percent • Old definition 0 New Definition Figure 4. Indicator status, ORT use (old and new definition) by velayat, Turkmenistan MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 16 Table 13. Type of fluids and food the children received during the in ,, , , MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Description Ashgabat A hal Balkan Dashowuz Lebab Breast-milk 32.1 Gruels 62.3 Local home fluids 40.4 .· ORS 36.5 Milk/infant formula 46.2 Water w/feeding 44.2 Water alone - Unacceptable fluids 28.8 ORS Gruels Water with feeding Local home fluids Milk/infant formula Unacceptable fluids Water alone 0 10 20 39.2 64.0 56.3 77.4 34.5 37.3 1.7 26.0 30 percent 46,5 51.2 33.3 44,8 42.0 48.8 - 28.7 40 so 44.4 58.0 41.7 64.0 63.9 48.0 47.2 52.0 47.2 52.0 66.7 54.0 - - 30.6 14.0 60 ''· !iurrh(lea(in percent), ·- ·"' Mary Nationwide 34.4 41.0 42.0 52.0 29.2 40.1 71.8 57.7 16.9 35.3 33 .8 44.2 - 0.2 37.7 29.6 Figure 5. Type of fluid and food the children received during the last episode of diarrhoea (in percent), Turkmenistan Kefir, ayran and yandak (boiled) were the most mentioned local home fluids. Coke-type of soft drinks and sweetened juices were considered as unacceptable fluids. ORS was given to 57.7 percent of children with diarrhoea. The highest rates were observed in Aha! (77.4 percent) and in Mary (71.8 percent). Ashgabat had the lowest figure (36.5 percent). Breast-feeding was continued for more than 40 percent of the children with diarrhoea nationally. However, unacceptable fluids were given to children with diarrhoea in about 30 percent of the cases. · MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 Table 14. Changes in the amount of fluids given to children with diarrhoea (percent responding), MICS /995 Turkmenistan Drinking status Ashgabat A hal Balkan Dashowuz Lebab Mary Nationwide Much less or none 11.3 8.6 11.5 13.5 18.0 10.7 11.8 About the same 50.9 58.6 49.0 35.1 34.0 25.2 40.2 More 35.8 29.3 35.4 51.4 48.0 60.3 45.2 Don't know 1.9 3.4 4.2 - - 3.8 2.8 Table 15. Changes in the amount of foods given to children with diarrhoea (percent responding), MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Eating status Ashgabat A hal Balkan Dashowuz Lebab Mary Nationwide None - 1.7 2.1 10.8 - 3.8 2.8 Much less 17.0 27.6 18.8 18.9 26.0 26.0 22.8 Somewhat less 24.5 19.0 21.9 24.3 36.0 31.3 26.6 About the same 41.5 29.3 35.4 45.9 32.0 29.8 34.1 More 3.8 - 7.3 - 2.0 0.8 2.6 Don't know 13.2 22.4 14.6 - 4.0 8.4 11.1 17 In terms of changes in the amount of fluids given to the children with diarrhoea, most of the children received about the same or more amounts of fluids (85 percent together). However, only about 35 percent of the children were given about the same or more foods during the last diarrhoea episode. 2.6. Breast-feedillg Breast-feeding module was directed to the mothers of all children under II months of age. The questions focused mainly on two points: * * Ever and still breast-feeding rates 24-hour recall on what babies received · 93 .6 percent of all children under one year of age was breast-fed at one time or another, and 93.5 percent of them were still on breast-feeding. Table 16. Percentage of ever and still breast-fed children under 11 months of age, MICS 1991 Turkmenistan Status Ashgabat A hal Balkan Dashowuz Lebab Mary Nationwide Ever breast-fed 88.6 94.2 92.3 96.2 94.2 94.7 93.6 Currently on 87.5 94.7 87.7 95.3 95.9 97.0 93 .5 breast-feeding Although the breast-feeding rates were high, exclusive breast-feeding rates for children under 4 months of age were relatively low. Dashowuz had the lowest exclusive breast~feeding rate at 28 percent, while the rate was the highest in Ahal (81 percent). MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 18 Table 17. Exclusive breast-feeding/or children under 4 months of age, M1CS 1995 Turkmenistan Ashgabat A hal Balkan Dashowuz Lebab Mary Nationwide (63) (74) (59) (78) (86) (90) (450) 51 81 68 28 40 67 54 Table 18. Type of fluid and food given to children under 11 months of age during the previous 24 hours (Percent responding), M1CS 1995 Turkmenistan ' Received Ashgabat A hal 6alka Dashowu Lebab Mary Nationwide n z Vitamin, mineral supplements or 10.1 3.2 8.7 10.3 3.7 8.6 7.4 medicine Plain water ' 58.4 35.9 44.1 78.5 57.4 49.5 54.5 Sweetened, flavored water or fruit 51.1 36.2 34.8 58.3 52.5 47.9 47.6 juice or tea or infusion ORS 11.8 2.2 9.0 7.4 5.1 4.3 6.4 Tinned, powdered or fresh milk or 34.8 38.2 36.7 26.4 24.5 28.5 30.7 infant formula Other liquids 10.7 5.4 12.3 11.6 9.1 10.8 10.1 Solid, semi-solid food 26.4 26.9 29.0 34.7 39.6 34.4 32.7 Only breast-milk 28.7 56.6 46.9 14.5 23.5 41.6 34.1 Plain water and sweetened/flavored water/fruit juice and tea were given to about 50 percent of the children under one year of age. Only 34.1 percent of the children under one year of age received only breast-milk during the previous 24 hours. - - 2. 7. Immunization Immunization module was used for children aged 12-23 months. There were mainly three focuses in the questionnaire: * * * Immunization coverage Intervals between doses BCG scar. BCG scar was checked by interviewers at home, and all other information was collected at the polyclinic level where the children received their vaccination. At the polyclinic level, there wasno missing immunization cards. However, in some velayats (Ashgabat, Lebab and Mary) the percentage of positive BCG scar (controlled at home) was higher than the BCG coverage rates, and this may be due to the fact that some children who received BCG vaccine had no records at the polyclinic level. For example, in Ashgabat, positive BCG scar was found in 96.1 percent of the children aged 12-23 months while the immunization coverage at the time of the survey for BCG was 93. Similar discrepancies were observed in Lebab andMary. - - MICS Turkmenistan, 19_95 Table 19. Antigen BCG DPT3 OPV3 Measles Overall = . <> . . p. Figure 6. Immunization coverage for children aged I 2-23 months receiving vaccination before the first birthday (valid immunization coverage) n=/339, MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Ashgabat A hal Balkan Dashowuz Lebap Mary (179) (194) (234) (217) (265) (250) 82 80 84 95 91 90 71 82 63 86 l!4 81 ' 75 83 59 85 93 86 59 58 36 65 81 72 53 51 24 58 69 69 100- 80 60 40 Ashgabad Ahal BalkanDashowuz Lebab Mary National B BCG D OPVJ • DPTJ • Measles Nationwide (1,339) 88 80 83 66 59 Immunization coverage far children aged 12-23 months receiving vaccination before their first birthday, MJCS 1995 Turkmenistan 19 When the coverage rates were analyzed for the same children, higher rates were found. This coverage over a period oftwo years can be used to interpret the extension of backlog coverage. For example, valid BCG coverage rate was 88% nationally, with the remaining 12 percent backlog, and the coverage at the time of the survey was 92%, with the remaining 8 percent backlog for the third year cycle. This means only one third of the backlog was cleared in the second 12-month cycle. Similarly, backlog clearance was 10 percent in DPT3, 18 percent in OPV3 and 30 percent in measles. MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 20 .· Table 20. Antigen BCG OPT3 OPV3 Measles Overall lmmunizatioii coverage for children aged 12-23 months receiving vaccination at the time of the survey 17=1,339, MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Ashgabat A hal Balkan n. · L. ·•· Le6J; ' M-~ry Nationwide ~"('t'tv7)u~ (179) (194) (~34) •••• ••••• ••• . (f6.S) (~50) (1,.3~?) . 93 90 89 96 92 90 92 71 I 82 65 92 87 83 82 75 88 74 88 94 86 86 66 72 52 82 87 78 76 61 68 39 76 79 75 70 The analysis of intervals between doses showed that about 40 percent of children received their 2nd and 3rd dose of DPT with an interval of over 40 days. This was over 50 percent in Ashgabat and Balkan velayat. Table 21. The interval in days between DPT2-DPTJ (n'= I 226) and DPT3-DPT2doses (n= 1.124), MICS 1995 Turkmenistan · Interval DPT2~DPTI DPT3-DPT2 Frequency Percentage Under 30 .days 96 7.8 104 9.3 30-39 621 50.7 550 48.9 40-49 184 15.0 178 15.8 50-59 112 9.1 113 . 10.1 60 days and over 213 17.4 179 15.9 Total 1,226. 100.0 1,124 100.0 Longer intervals between doses indicate false contra-indications and missed opportunities. Although the Ministry of Health revised the immunization schedule and contra-indicationsin 1994, old practices still exist at the tiled level. BCG scar Table 22. BCG scar by velayats (checked at home by interviewers), MICS 1995 Turkmenistan Scar Ashgabat · ·Ahal Positive 96.1 90.1 87.3 85.6 95.5 96.7 91.9 Negative 1.7 7.8 10.6 8.8 3.8 2.9 6.0 Not examined 2.2 2.1 2.0 5.6 0.8 0.4 2.1 MICS Turkmenistan, 19.95 -----------~---------·--·-------- 21 3. CONCLUSIONS I. This was the first nationwide survey conducted with the MICS methodology in Turkmenistan. The survey design was new to the epidemiologists, and international expertise was needed at all stages of the survey. The survey methodology was introduced in an eight-day training which included two days of field work and introduction ofEPI INFO computer software for data entry and analysis. The participants of this workshop took the role of supervision during the survey and were trained for four additional days on how to use and control the questionnaires. Students and teachers from vocationa.l schools and medical faculties were trained as interviewers. Workers from the State Statistics Committe.e were trained and utilized for data entry. Data clearance and analysis were carried out by the UNICEF consultant. 2. A total of 102 interviewers and 18 supervisors actively participated in data collection. Datacollection lasted one full week. Serious logistic planninghad to be carried out, due to the large number of interviewers, in order to complete the field work in a relatively short period oftime. All participants ofthe survey were enthusiastic about the work and were very cooperative. However, in terms of capacity of organizing and conducting such surveys, more technical support is needed in the country. 3. Mid-Decade Goals: 3.1. Immunization National immunization coverage rate was over 80 percent, except for measles (66 percent). Lebab and Mary had the highest coverage rates among velayats while Balkan had the lowest. Backlog clearance which was interpreted from the immunization coverage rates in the survey was designated as an area of attention. After 23 months, measles still lags behind all other antigens, at 76 percent. The interval between DPT2- DPTI and DPT3-DPT2 showed that around 40 percent of children were vaccinated with a 40-day or longer interval. Balkan had the highest intervals betwec.m doses. BCG scar examination had a higher positive percentage compared to the records at health facilities. Positive scar was found in 92 percent of the children nationwide while only 88 percent coverage was recorded at health facilities. The MOH reported 96% coverage for BCG, 94% coverage for DPT3, 94% coverage for OPV3, and 90 percent coverage for Measles inl994. Although the coverage rates from the MICS survey does not cover the full calendar year of 1994, the discrepancy was found too great, especially for measles ( 66% in MICS and 90% in routine reporting). It was also reported that no vaccine shortages were observed during 1994 and 1995 in Turkmenistan. Therefore, interms ofvaccination coverages for BCG, DPT and OPV, Mid- Decade Goal status can be concluded as achieved. 3.2. Use ofORT ORS was widely used. Around half of the mothers continued to give about the same ofmore amounts of fluid to their children during diarrhoea. However, the use of the new definition ofORT was very low in all the velayats. This is mainly due to continued feeding. Unacceptable home fluids were also found to be highly in use (30%}. In Turkmenistan, there is no study that shows the use ofORT and continued feeding as part of the programme to control diarrhoeal diseases in the country. However, the CDD programme evaluation which was conducted only in Dashowuz velayat in September 1995 showed that ORS was widely used, and this finding also matches with MICS results. In practice, ORS is available in all health centres, and mothers with children under 5 years of age receive several packages of ORS in the beginning of diarrhoeal season (100 percent accessibility). On the other hand, continued feeding seems to be the problem and needs more attention. 3.3. Education The rate of children who have attended school at one time or another in their life time was 80.8% nationally. However, the majority of children not attending school was 6-year-olds. Proportion of children of primary school age enrolled in school was 17.4% due to the same reason. It was found thatmost children do not enter school until they reach 7 years of age. No difference was observed between boys and girls in terms of enrollment and retention rates. MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 22 Official data indicates that more than 95 percent ofaH primary school age population are enrolled in primary school, and 95 percent of all school children entering first grade of primary s.chool reach grade 5. Lower figures were found in MICS for primary school enrollment (which means the cut-off point for school entry age is taken differently by the government), but higher figures were found (99 percent) in all primary school children entering first grade who eventually reach grade 5. 3.4. Water and Sanitation In general, access to safe water sources and safe sanitary facilities was high. However, considerably low figures were observed in Mary for safe water sources and in Dashowuz for safe sanitary facilities. Soap was found available in an average of 89 percent of households nationally. However, based on this figure, no further interpretation can be done in terms of use ofthe soap. Access to safe water sources and safe sanitation facilities were reported officially at 63% and 21%, respectively, in Turkmenistan (1993). The figures found in MICS were higher than official reports(74% for safe water sources and 91% for safe sanitation facilities). Safe sanitation facilities include flush-to-sewage or to-septic latrines, pour flush latrines and dry pit latrines. MICS results showed that except in Ashgabat, most people in other areas mainly used covered dry pit latrines (60 percent nationally). However, field visits since 1994 in differentregions in Turkmenistan showed that most of these dry pit latrines are not kept clean and cannot be considered as "safe". In that case, ~uch high figure is not surprising since the water and sanitation module is only focused on the availability of sanitation facilities by types and not the "quality". 3.5. Breast-feeding Very high breast-feeding rates were observed among velayats (Ashgabat had the lowest current breast- feeding rate with 87.5% forchildren0-11 months of age). However, exclusive breast-feeding rates in children under 4 months of age were found relatively low. National average was 54 percent while Aha! had the highest (81 percent) arid Dashowuz the lowest rate (28 percent). More than half of the children under 1 I months of age received plain/sweetened water andjuices during the previous 24 hours. 34.1 percent of children under II months ofage received only breast-milk. The only data available on breast-feeding practices was provided by the UNICEF/WHO Report Collaborative Mission in February I 992 stated that periods of exclusive breast-feeding have declined considerably and quoted figures of 44 percent at six months in rural areas and 14 percent in urban areas. 3.6. Acute Respiratory Infections The indicator showed the proportion of mothers of children under 5 years of age who recognized the signs of ARlwas very low(27%). Among all ARI signs and symptoms, fever and blocked nose were the most mentioned signs. Very low percentage of responded mothers mentioned "fast breathing" as a sign. There is no other study on the knowledge of mothers about the danger signs of ARI in Turkmenistan. However, analysis of routine reporting on ARI shows that most children receive care from health workers and institutions relatively late, and this can be due to the lack ofknowledge at the family level about the danger signs of ARL MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 23 4. RECOMMENDATIONS A meeting was held in Ashgabat on 18 March 1996 with the supervisors and leaders of the MICS to review the results, draw recommendations and to finalize communication plan of the survey. In the meeting, the following communication plan which was developed in the initial stages of the survey was presented and discussed: MICS Communication Planning, Turkmenistan Table 23. Segmenting audiences and planning for communication of MICS methodology and results Audiences • (Users of data( Not listed by priority LEADERS and Feed-back, presentation of Written Report copies, Translation of National SUPERVISORS planning for - report and presentation, flip chart, blank report gathering OF THE effective communication transparencies, transparencies, IUS$500) 19 March SURVEY communication plan and blank chart tot overhead Materials 1996 brainstorming discussion projector, production permanent and (US$100) non-permanent Support for pens, board- travel markers (US$100) COMMUNITY Individual, community Printed hand- Printed hand- Translation of Communit FAMILIES group behavior level visits, outs with . outs copies, hand-outs y level INDiVIDUALS change, group results, blank blank flip charts (US$100) visits project discussions of chart for Materials Health participation findings and discussion production programme implications IUS$100) ev.aluation PERIPHERAL Improved presentation of Summary Summary report Translation of Regional LEVEL HEALTH service report, report copies, report meetings WORKERS delivery, discussion of blank chart for blank flip charts (US$2501 at IF API effective implications discussion Materials velayat/etr communication and action production ap level with families in (US$100) immunization, breast-feeding, diarrhoeal diseases and ARI MID-LEVEL EPI Improved Group Summary Summary report Materials Mid-level MANAGERS service discussions of report copies, production (see EPI delivery findings and blank chart fo.r blank flip charts above) managers implications, discussion meeting information circular from the MOH COMMUNITY Better support Group Printed hand- Printed hand- Materials Primary TEACHERS to preventive discussions of outs showing out copies, production (see school health findings and results, blank blank flip chart above) teachers education on implications for chart for meetings immunization, schools discussion as part of diarrhoeal CDD/ARI diseases and training at ARI regional level MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 24 . , Audiences MICS Planned mode Planned Planned Additional Timing of {Users of datal communication for effective supporting . equipment and budget for activities Not listed by goals communication ·· ' techniques and ' inataJ"!als '· . · . ' communii:atiiln ,·,· priority rolltariafs · · · · ··· needed for . •''coiT)ffiijl#c~ti9r( '· , . . VELAYAT Better planning Formal Written Report . copies, Materials National KHOKIMS, and monitoring presentation of presentation, flip chart, blank production (see gathering HEALTH and report followed transparencies, transparencies, above) with MOH EDUCATION by discussion blank charts overhead Support for and MOE OFFICIALS for discussion projector, travel (one day permanent and IUS$300) meeting) non-p.ermanent pens, board- markers LOCAL Greater Presentation of Written Report copies, Materials One day RESEARCH participation, methodology presentation, Copies of MICS production (see meeting COMMUNITY better research and summary MICS methodology, above) (following and age.nda results presentation, EPI.INFO national UNIVERSITIES transparencies handbooks and gathering diskettes for MOH and MOE) PEDJATRICIAN Better research Oral Summary Will be available Participation in Presentatio S OTHER agenda presentation article, at conference Conference nat IlL CARK Original .article, facilities (one) Pediatric COUNTRIES 'Transparencies US$1,000 Conferenc e in Almaty, September 1996 INTERNA TION Increased Presentation of Written report Copies of Personnel cost Pres.entatio AL AGENCIES resources. help report at Transparencies report IUS$?) n matched with advocacy meetings to policy/deci sian cycle OTHER Better e-mail, fax discussions computer, e- Minimal As long as UNICEF communication mail it is OFFICES planning. needed effective use of survey results In the meeting "audience prioritization" was done as follows: I. VeJayat khokims, health and education officials 2. Mid-level EPI managers and Peripheral Health Level Workers (FAP) 3. Community teachers · · 4. Community, families and individuals 5. Local research community and universities 6. International agencies 7. Pediatricians from other CARK countries The following recommendations were drawn during the meeting: Immunization Three major areas of intervention were defined by the participants: I. To increase coverage rates of all antigens and especially of measles 2. To supervise filed staff in order to prevent false contra~ indications 3. To improve reporting system. MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 25 The low coverage ofmeasles was the major concern. It is recommended that the MOH prepare a special plan of action to increase measles coverage to the level of 80 percent by the end of 1996. It is also recommended that MOH use the opportunity of all training activities related to EPI to present the EPI results of MICS and stress the importance of increasing the coverage rates and reduce false contraindications. As for the reporting system, it is recommended that the MOH introduce the "immunization monitor follow-up" charts into the system for monthly monitoring. EPI mid-level training workshops could be used for this opportunity. Use of ORT and the knowledge of mothers on danger signs of ARI ORS was found to be widely known and used. However, the use of the new de.finition ofORT which includes continuedfeeding was found to be very low. As for ARI, danger signs of ARI were not known by most of the mothers. The group also referred to the COD evaluation in Dashowuz, and recommended that a communication plan for diarrhoeal diseases/acute respiratory infections be prepared by the MOH and Turkmen National TV with technical assistance from UNICEF. It is also recommended that the communication skills of health personnel be improved through workshops (speCial workshops should be designed to improve communication and managerial skills of health personnel). It is recommended that the MOH conducts a qualitative evaluation on ARI and defines areasfor intervention. Basic Education The proportion of children over seven years of age and not attending school was found to be very low. However, it is strongly recommended that the Ministry of Education focus on the issue as a potential problem and identifi.es the reasons of non-attendance. Water and Sanitation Mary and Aha! velayats were defined as priority areas for intervention. It is recommended that international support be focused on these two velayats, especially in upgrading the water sources (in both velayats a very high proportion of population is using trucked wateras a source). Survey results showed a very high coverage of safe sanitation facilities. However, these figures included "covered dry pit latrines". From the field observations, it is well known that almost all of the pit latrines is not kept in hygienic way and cannot be considered as "safe". A special programme is recommended to improve sanitation situation throughout the whole country, focusing on sub-national level (starting with Dashowuz which has the lowest figures). The "School Hygiene and Sanitation Package" whiCh was developed by UNICEF CARK can serve as an entry point to address the problem. Breast-feeding Breast-feeding is a common tradition in Turkmenistan. Exclusive breast-feeding for infants under 4 months of age was found to be 54 percent. MOH officials report no written official programme for breast-feeding (the old decree on breast-feeding is still on power). It is recommended that the MOH review new decrees developed by other CARK countries (i.e. Kyrgyz Republic) and define ways to improve policy on breast-feeding. Acute Respiratory Infections Mothers' knowledge on the danger signs of ARI was very little. The findings ofMICS should be combined with the qualitative evaluation of ARI programme which is planned to be carried out in May 1996 in Dashowuz. Specific recommendations will be drawn based on ARI evaluation; MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 26 Annex I. Annex l/. Annex 11/. Annex1V. Annex V. Map of Turkmenistan Location of clusters by ve/ayat List of interviewers and supervisors List of participants (MICS evaluation meeting, ]8 March /996) Questionnaires MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 ANNEXES ~ ~ t:':i· ~ !'--< ~ '"j ~ ~ §'" ~ ::s 1:;• . ~ I~ ::s ANNEX 11. Location of clusters by ve/ayat •••• ·.· Velayat Cluster number Place (or sector code) Population Dashowuz 1, 2, 3, 33, 34 Dashowuz city 141,100 4 Aktepe city, Aktepe etrap 20,176 5 . Kizil Yap, Aktepe etrap 1,372 6 Shorumsa, Aktepe etrap 2,080 7 Boldumsaz city, Boldumsaz etrap 28,787 8 Yaldiray, Boldulllsaz etrap 423 9 Gubadag city, Gubadag etrap 13,718 10 Merin-Oba, Gubadag etrap 1,403 II Gekchage, Gubadag etrap . 957 12 . Gek Yap, Gubadag etrap 970 13 Yangiyal, Dashowuz etrap 1,960 14 Panahan, Dashowuz etrap 2,371 15 Bayashmereen, Dashwoz etrap 801 16 Rozmetov, Novbahar,Dashowuz etrap 244 17 Yilanly centre, Yilanly etrap 22,234 18 Dormen, Yilanly etrap 1,561 19 Kizil Takir, Yilanly etrap 1;075 20 Magarif, Yilanly etrap 2,858 21 Koneurgench city, Koneurgench etrap 31,217 22 Tamdirlivoz, Koneurgench etrap 736 23 Galkinish, Koneurgench etrap . 1,657 24 Kundjulio, Koneurgench etrap 497 25 Turkmenbashi city, Turkmenbashi etrap 10,809 26 Ayrich Agal, Turkmenbashi etrap 663 27 Nazarbaidegshi, Turkmenbashi etrap 1,844 28 Uchtam, Turkmenbashi etrap 2,136 29 Tagta city, Tagta etrap 14,507 30 Agoi, Tagta etrap 1,858 31 Yani Yap, Tagta etrap 2,505 32 Akgui, Tagta etrap 653 MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 29 Velayat Cluster number Place{()rsector code) Population Balkan 34 Akdash, Turkmenbashi etrap 2,071 I Kizii-Sub, Turkmenbashi etrap 660 2 Chagil,.Turkmenbashi etrap 1,046 3,4,5,6, 7,8,9 Nebitdag, Turkmenbashi etrap 86,079 10 Dzebel, Turkmenbashi etrap 7,752 u, 12, 13, 14, Turkmenbasi, Turkmenbashi etrap 60,790 15, 16 17, 18 Gumdag, Turkmenbashi etrap 21,304 19 Chemken, Turkmenbashi etrap 12,491 20 Kiziletrek city, Kiziletrek etrap 7,129 21 Madav, Kiziletrek etrap 4,584 22,23,24,25 Kizilarbat city, Kizilarbat etrap 44,392 26 JID Raz. Zavoda 355 27 Garragali city, Garragali etrap 9,052 28 Kurujdei, Garragali etrap 8.56 29 Gazahdchik, Gazandchik etrap 15,537 30 Gulmach, Gazandchik etrap 1,779 31 Oboy, Gazandchik etrap 1,565 32 Garadepe, Esengul etrap 4,191 33 Gogerendag, Esengul etrap 1,117 MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 30 Velayat Cluster number . Place(or secJ~rc~de) ' / I > Population ' . i ·' ' Lebab 34 Odey, Boyniuzin etrap 2,801 I Islam, Garabekovul etrap 3,305 2 Gurultay, Garabekovul etrap 675 J Hodjalik, Darganatin etrap 1,967 4 Kerku city, Kerku etrap 19,153 5 Gabshal, Kerku etrap 4,874 6 Ussalar, Kerku etrap 2,737 7 Pushkin, Kerku etrap 765 8 Mukriova, Kerku etrap 1,361 9 Opamsurhi, Niyazova etrap 2,805 10 Chapmum, Sakar etrap 5,856 II Tejribechiler, Sakar etrap 1,096 12 Garkin, Sayat etrap 1,123 13 Satyatli, Sayat etrap 1,356 14 Tayzeel, Farap etrap 1,054 15 Gulegendje, Ha1ach etrap 1,941 16 Mashnaya, Halach etrap 2,573 17 Halach, Halach etrap 6,009 18 Sabinli, Hodjambas etrap 2,304 19 Gulshak, Hodjambas etrap I ,511 20 Gokler, Chardjev etrap 1,342 21 Iskra, Chardjev etrap 2,091 22 Jodjariik, Chardjew etrap 1,105 23 Charshangin city, Charshangin etrap 10,795 24 Akgumolam, Charshangin city 3,157 25, 26, 27, 28, Chardjew city, Chardjew etrap 184,675 29, 30,31 32 Govurdak 26,801 33 Seyidi 18,090 MIGS Turkmenistan, 1995 31 : Cluster ~~~h¢t I ,_ ~'~~:~ (~i~~~i~ · XL I >••• ,>•-••• t••·•f~~uJ~tiri~•••• Velayat :-:-: ~,~ ,"7·0 ·"'"' . : -:. :-. . :' -/ Mary 33 Arik, Bayramal etrap 3,350 34 Turkmenistan, Bayramal etrap 5,832 I Sherekem, Bayramal etrap 1,042 2 Halil, Vekilbaz etrap 4,315 3 Egriguzer, Vekilbaz etrap 5,957 4 Hashirdik, Vekilbaz etrap 4,476 5 Charlakyap, Vekilbaz etrap 2,566 6 Gizilmes, Eloten etrap 1,511 7 Gadir, Eloten etrap 1,556 8 Gizil Hodjanazar, Eloten etrap 1,836 9 Shatlik oba, Garagum etrap 4,380 . 10 Galaymor, Garakum etrap 3,476 II Govki Zeren, Mary etrap 3,269 12 Arikkorhashirdik, Mary etrap 5,307 13 Yabigaragonur, Mary etrap 4,568 14 Godjuklar, Mary etrap . 2;072 15 Alashayap, Murgal etrap 2,797 16 Im. H. Djumaeva, Murgal etrap 5,501 17 Arigoba, Murgal etrap 2,713 18 Shatlik, Niyazov etrap 10,949 19 Agzibir, Niyazov etrap 2,982 20 Garayap, Niyazov etrap 5,228 21 Guroma, Niyazov ettap 2,869 22 Yalkym, Sakarchaga etrap 1,835 23 Niyazov, Tagtabaz~r etrap 5,726 24 Marchak, Tagtabazar etrap 5,342 25 Kemine, Turkmengala etrap 2,062 26 Kirkkishik, Turkmengala etrap 3,309 27,28,29,' 30 Mary city 104,336 31,32 Bayramal city 51,437 MJCS Turkmenistan, 1995 32 Velayat Cluster number . . nxr$ect6rcQ.ae) < I••·••·•• _. • •• P()PillatiQn . ••••• •••••• . raac~wr / < < ·····•••••••·••··• Ashgabat city 34 P01S05 258 I POISI4 317 2 P02S02 470 3 P02S07 433 4 P02SI3 350 5 P03SOI 437 6 P03S07 243 7 P05S06 155 8 P05SI5 162 9 P06S07 749 10 P06SII 564 II P06SI4 1,516 12 P07SII 185 13 P07S25 ·. 180 14 P07S40 310 15 P08S02 288 16 P08SI2 174 17 P08S21 368 18 P08S28 188 19 P09S08 224 20 P09SI9 250 21 P09S29 257 22 P09S40 256 23 P09S50 257 24 PIOS07 230 25 PIIS05 139 26 PllS22 158 27 PIIS40 143 28 PIIS57 167 29 P12S04 125 30 PI2S24 ISO 131 P13S05 189 32 PI4S04 . 162 33 PI4SI8 205 Population figures correspond to number of households in each cluster 33 . ··· ·· ···•• J>I~c~ ·(ir ~~~t~f ~;~~)··· . Velayat Cluster number .· . Population Aha! 34 0. Kulieva, Ashgabat etrap 4,815 I Bagir, Ashgabat etrap 12,345 2 Buzmeyn, Ashgabat etrap 17,490 3 Gekdje, Ashgabat etrap 9,433 4 Keshi, Ashgabat etrap 9,284 5 Herrikga1a, Ashgabat etrap 7,707 6 Gektepe city, Gektepe etrap 18,309 7 Aha!, Gektepe etrap 8,116 8 Bovcha, Gektepe etrap 2,028 9 Gektepe/Bayratburieva, Gektepe etrap 5,458 10 Ribnoe Hoz-Vo, Gektepe etrap 789 II Uch. Tayzeova, Gektepe etrap 409 12 Y ashildepe, Gektepe etrap 3,226 13 Etev, Gektepe etrap 11,914 14 Kaahkin city, Kaahkin etrap 16,510 15 Govshut, Kaahkin etrap 5,704 16 Onbegu, Kaahkin etrap · 3,689 17 Uzbati, Kaahkin etrap 4,585 18, 19 Tedjen city, Tedjen etrap 46,488 20 Babadayhan, Tedjen etrap 5,535 21 Vatan, Tedjen etrap 1,239 22 Komsoso1, Tedjen etrap 5,528 23 Niyazova, Tedjen etrap 783 24 Akaltin, Babadayhan etrap 4,984 25 Garuvekil, Babadayhan ctrap 8,736 26 Yarigekdje, Babadayhan etrap 5,157 27 Ata, Seran etrap 2,705 28 Kichiaga, Seran etrap 4,607 29 Bahardel, Bahardel ctrap 25,289 30 Bati, Bahardel etrap 5,544 31 Durun, Bahardel etrap 5,403 32 Yaradji, Bahardel etrap 4,577 33 Bejtey 32,943 MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 34 LIST of INTERVIEWERS and SUPERVISORS Velayat · . > Tasl<. . ·. ._-. _. __ - Dashowuz Supervisor Interviewer . Lcbab Supervisor Interviewer MIGS Turkmenistan, 1995 ~ ­ ANNEX lll. List of interviewers and supervisors •••••• <•• > h -••••••-• ·••-u •• N'$_fu~••• -••••••••·•••·••••••,••-··- < ·_- ·--·- - . Galandarov Sh. Orazov D. Toraeva 0. Marnetdzumaeva M. Khasanova G ~ Guseva E. AshirovaA Meredov B. Klichmarnedova M. Tilleva D . Altibaeva N. Khanova U. Gorelovskaya V. Annaev M. Jumatov N. Churguliev G. Akinijazov Y. Kurnasokhotov K. Sapargeldiev K. Khajatmuradov B. Permanov Kh. Bekmuradov S. KochievaZ. Barazova G. Kalieva Sh. Ta.SirovaA Kurbangeldieva Kakadzanova A. Mamedov B. Forsova N. Dzoraeva M. Berdieva G. Anniunuradov M; Bekiev A. Akiev Sh. Allaguliev D. Allaberenov B. Gapbarov S. Guseinov A 35 Velayat •·· .••••••• T~.sk < >···· Na~e > . ·.·····•··· ! / < ··••····•·••••••·••·•·• / / .• . Balkan Supervisor Shirditova A. Arzumanova V. Vclmyradov I. Interviewer Nuriev 0. Babaliev D. Khashimov R. Amanmamedov · 0. Jumaev S. Kuliev 0. Khusdnov A. Garadzakulov G. Tashliev K. Ashirova A. Kerimov M. Agishev B. Saparov S. Emekov G. Annasakhatov M. Seidov M. Makhaev D. Mary Supervisor Mcdzinov A. Dzumaev A. Kurrikov 0. Interviewer Kakadzanova 0. Babadzanova S. Charikulieva Perniyazov B. Annaev G. Mashrikova D. Ataeva G. Uscnova T. Goshamuradova 0. Purlieva T. Garli.ev G. Ovezmuradov A. Sojunov J. Khodzamiradov M. Amangiliov M. Rakhmankulov A. Nazarov G. MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 36 Velayat Task Name Aha! Supervisor I vantsova L. Golovanova 0. Bedareva G. Interviewer Dzumaev A. Nurgddiev B. Amandurdiev M. Begenchev G. Annamukhammedov R. Bashimova 0. Getmanskaya K. . Aralbaeva N . Ataguliev M. Serdarov K. AmanovaM. Saparov T. Bekiev T. Choliev P. Gulzarov D. Gokiev M. Tadzibaev G. Ashgabat city Supervisor Orazov S. Annamamedova N. BairamovN. Interviewer Shakulov M. Chegodaeva Karadzaeva G. Orazmamedova M. KazakovaG. Nurmamedova A. DurdievaB. BurasovaN. Dolgova I. Djachuk N. Khudainazarov P. Sariev S. Dadaev A. Sariev M. MammedovM. Meredov S. Tekebaev M. MIGS Turkmenistan, 1995 37 ANNEX IV. List of Participants, MICS Review Meeting LIST OF PARTICIPANTS, MICS RESULTS REVIEW MEETING, 18 March 1996, ASHGABAT, Turkmenistan · · · MINISTRY OF HEALTH ' Iliev Sapar Deputy Minister of Health Akmarnedov Jumaguly Head, SANEPID Department, MOH Badereva Greta Head, epidemiological Department, Central SES lvantsova Lidia Head, Epidemiological Depat1ment, Aha! Velayat SES Golovanova Olga Head, Statistical Department, Aha! Velayat Health Department Shirdatova Mengli Head, Statistical Department, Balkan Velayat Health Department Arzymanova Victor ' Head, Methodological Department, Balkan Velayat Health Department Orazov Dayanch Head, Epidemiological Department, Dashowuz Velayat Health Department Permanov Chaidar Head, Epidemiological Department, Lebab Velayat SES Bekmuradov Sapargeldy Head, Epidemiological Department, Mary Velayat SES Kurrikov Orazkylch Head, Epidemiological Department, Mary Velayat Health Department Djumaev Aman Head, Statistical Department, Mary V~layat Health Department MINISTRY OF EDUCATION Bairamov Nyrsahat Chief Officer, Department of High Education and International Relations Velmuradov ltalmaz · Head, Balkan Velayat Education Department Garaev Tirkesh Deputy head, Dashowuz Velayat Education Department Khaitmuradov Balta Deputy Head, Lebab Velayat Education Department Mejidov Allanazar Deaputy Head, Mary Velayat Education Department Ataev Jumarnuchmmed Chief Officer, Aha! Velayat Education Department GOSKOMSTAT Annarnarnedova Nurtach Head, Department of Social Statistics and Levels of Life, Goskomstat MINISTRY OF WATER MANAGEMENT Khanmamedov Mamed Head, Scientific and Technical Department, Ministry of Water Saparov Usman Head, Water Monitoring Expedition, Ministry of Water Management UNICEF Maktav Serap Resident Project Officer, Turkmenistan Kartoglu Umit Health Officer, CARK ACO Guichard Stephane EPI Officer, CARK ACO Abramov Anatoly National Officer, Turkmenistan Goldstein Mirra National Officer, Turkmenistan MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 . 38 QUESTIONNAIRE 1. HOUSEHOLD MODULE InterViewer no: . . i_,··<) f.Z : ANNEX V. QUESTIONNAIRES Ql For all households INTERVIEWER: Begin by introducing yourself, explain to the interviewee that you would like some information that will help government improve the health .and well~being of children. Tell that the questions will take only a few minutes. Household Information Panel Cluster number: Household number: . Date of interview (date/month): Name of head of household: Number of persons in the Number of rooms in dwelling: household: INTERVIEWER: I WOULD LIKE TO ASK ALL MOTHERS OR OTHERS WHO CARE FOR CHILDREN SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT THE HEALTH AND WELL-BEING OF THE CHILDREN IN THIS HOUSEHOLD. lfthere are more than one mother/caretaker living in this household, ask to speak to each mother/caretaker, listing the mother's name in the line 0-1 . Ask mother to list the names and birth dates of the children for whom she is responsible who live in the household, starting with the youngest child, who is listed on the line .number 1-l. Stop listing when you reach a child over age 11. If there is another mother living in the same household, go on to the next woman, listing her name firston the line 0-2, and the children for whom she is responsible who are living in the same household, starting with theyoungest child with line number 2-1. Mother an.d . Child Listin.8 ~orm Line no 1. Name 2. Sex 3. Date of Birth 4. Respondent 1=male 1 =mother 2=female day month 2 • caretaker year 0-.1 (mother) Isms ,m . ! ••. , ••••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••••••• 1·· i; . i . :····················) ·····························<······· . 1-1 1-2 1-3 MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 ----------------------------------------------------------------------~39 QUESTIONNAIRE 2. WATER AND SANITATION MODULE Q2 For all households Cluster no: . H.ouseho-Jd no: . . Ask the questions in this module once for each house visited. Circle the number for only one answer in the space at right. If a respondent gives more than one answer, enter the most usual source/facility. 1. What is the main source of drinking water for members of your household? Piped-in dwelling Public tab 1 Unprotected dug well or spring 5 2 Pond, river or stream 6 Tube well or borehole Protected dug well or protected spring 3 Tanker-truck, vendor 7 4 Other · 9 2. How far is the source from your dwelling? On premises 1 500 m- 1 km Less than 1 00 meters 2 More than 1 km 1 00 m - less than 500 meters 3 Don't know 3. How longdoes it take to get there, get water and come back? No. of minutes Water on premises Don't know 888 999 4 5 9 4. Do you have soap to wash hands? (Ask to ?ee the soap and circle appropriate number) YES 1 NO 2 5. What kind of toilet facility does your household use? Flush to sewage system Flush to septic tank ~· P6ur fl ush latrine ~ i . 1 Covered by dry latrine 4 2 Uncovered latrine 5 3 No facilities . GO TO 9 NEXT MOOU~E 6. How far i.s the facility from your dwelling? lA 8w€!llin~ §Om m ffl8f@ aWil¥ Less than 50 m away 2 Don't know GO TO NEXT MODULE . MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 40~--~----------~~------------------------~--~------~~----- Q3 For ali childrenbetween 6-11 years of age QUESTIONNAIRE 3: EDUCATION MODULE -Cluster no: . Household no: ···········-•······· The questions in this module should be asked for all children in the household between 6-11 years of age. Questions Line Line Line no: . no: .•.•.••.•.•••• no: . Name: . Nam.e: . . . . Name: . . . . . 1. Has [NAME] ever attended school? Yes 1 1 1 1 No 0 -t GO ON TO NEXT 0 0 0 CHILD 9 9 9 Don't know 9 -t GO ON TO NEXt CHILD IF THERE ARE NO OTHER CHILDREN BETWEEN 6-11 YEARS GOTO NEXT MODULE -t 2. Is he/she currently at school this year? Yes 1 1 1 1 No 0 -t GO TO QUESTION 4 0 0 0 Don't know 9 -t GO TO QUESTION 4 9 9 9 J. Which grade is he/she currently attending? 4. Was he/she attending school last year? Yes 1 1 1 1 No 0 -t GO ON TO NEXT 0 0 0 CHILD 9 9 9 Don't.know 9 -t GO ON TO NEXT CHILD IF NO OTHER CHILD IS BETWEEN 6-11 YEARS OF AGE GOTO NEXT MODULE -t 5. Which grade did [NAME] attend last year? GO TO N.f:XT MODULE -t MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 Line no: . Name: . .-. , . 1 0 9 1 0 9 . ,. .1 0 9 I .I I I I I ----~------------------------~~~----------------------~--------~41 Q4 For all mothers/caretakers who has children under 5 years of age QUESTIONNAIRE 4. CARE OF ACUTERESPIRATORY ILLNESS This module is directed to the mothers or caretakers of all children under 5 years of age in the household. Fill in the cluster and household numbers first and then the name and the line number of the mother. If there are more than one mother in the household, go on to the second column and strat with copying her line number and the name from the Hosehold Questionnaire (Ql). Circle the number corresponding to the mother's response where indicated. Cluster no: . Household no: .•. Questions Line Line Line Line no: . no: . no: . no: . Name: . Name: . Name: . Name: . . . . . . . 1. COUGH AND COLD ARE COMMON ILLNESSES. WHEN YOUR CHILD IS ILL WITH ACOUGH AND/OR COLD, WHAT SIGNS OR SYMPTOMS WOULD YOU LEAD TO TAKE HIM/HER TO A HEALTH PROVIDER? Do not prompt! Circle the number for each answer mentioned. More than one answer can be circled. When he/she: 1 A. has a blocked nose 1 . 1A 1 1 1 1 lB. has trouble sleeping/eating 2 . 1B 2 2 2 2 lC. has a fever 3 ······· 1C 3 3 3 3 1 D. is breathing fast 4 . 1D 4 4 4 4 1 E. has difficulty breathing 5 . lE 5 5 5 5 lF. is ill for a long time 6 . 1F 6 6 6 6 lG. other: . 7 ······ 1G 7 7 7 7 lH. don't know 9 . 1H 9 9 9 9 MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 42 ------~------------------------~~------------------------------------- Q5 For aU children under 5 years of age QUESTIONNAIRE 5. DIARRHOEA. This module is directed to the mothers or caretakers of arl children under 5 years of age in the household. A spare form should befilled in for each child under 5 years listed in the HOUSEHOLD MODULE (Q1). Fill in the name and line number of each child along with the cluster and household numbers in the space at the top of each questionnaire. Circle the number corresponding to the mother's responsewhere indicated. Make sure aU identifying information is filled in correctly, until all children under age 5 have been covered. DIARRHOEA MODULE Cluster no: . Household no: . Chil.d no: . . QUESTIONS Response 1. Has [NAME] had diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks? (Diarrhoea is determined as perceived by the mother, or as three or more loose or watery stools/day or blood in stool) Yes 1 No 0 -t GO TO NEXT MODULE Don't know 9 -t GO TO NEXT MODULE 2. During this last episode of diarrhoea, did [NAME] drink any of the following? (Prompt and circle code for all items mentioned) l=Yes 2=No 9=Don't know(DK) y N DK 2A. breast milk? . 2A 1 0 9 2B. cereal-based gruel or gruel made from roots or soup? . 2B 1 0 9 2C. other locally"defined acceptable home fluids (e.g. yogurt drink)L . 2C 1 0 9 2D. ORS/regidron package solution? . 2D 1 0 9 2E. other milk or infant formula? . 2E 1 0 9 2F. water with feeding during some part of the day? . 2F 1 0 9 2G. wateralone? . . . 2G 1 0 9 2H. defined unacceptable fluids (specify: . :.) 2H 1 0 9 3. During [NAME)'s diarrhoea, did he/she drink much less, about the same, or more than usual? Much less or none 1 About the same 2 More 3 Don't know 4 4. During [NAME]'s diarrhoea, did he/she eat less, about the same, or more food than usual? (If less, probe: MUCH LESS OR A LITTLE LESS THAN USUAL?) None 1 Much less 2 " Somewhat less 3 About the same 4 More 5. Don't know 9 MICS Turkmenistan, 1995 ------------------------------------------------------------~------- 43 Q6 For all children under 1 year of age QUESTIONNAIRE 6. BREASTFEEDING MODULE This module is directed to the mothers or caretakers of all children under 1 year of age in the household. A spare form should be filled in for each child under 1 year listed in the HOUSEHOLD MODULE (Ql). Fill in the name and line number of each child along with the cluster and household numbers in the space at the top of each questionnaire. Circle the nuniber corresponding to the mother's response where indicated. Make sure all identifying information is filled in correctly, until all children under age 1 have been covered. ·· BREASTFEEDING MODULE CluSter no: . ~ . House.ho.ld n:o: •.•••.•. Child rio: . . QUESTIONS Response 1. Has [NAME] ever been breastfedl Yes 1 No 0 -+ GO TO QUESTION 4 Don't know 9 -+ GO TO QUESTION 4 2. Is he/she still being breastfed? Yes 1 No 0 -+ GO TO QUESTION 5 Don't know 9 -+ GO TO QUESTION 5 2. Since this time yesterday, did he/she received any of the following? Prompt and circle code for all items mentioned. 1=Yes 2=No 9=Don't know (OK) y N OK 2A. vitamin, mineral supplements or medicine? . . . . 2A 1 0 9 2B: plain water . 2C 1 0 9 2C. sweetened, flavoured water or fruit juice or tea or infusion . 20 1 0 9 20. ORS/regidron . , . 2E 1 0 9 2E. tinned, powdered or fresh milk o.r infant formula; . 2F 1 0 9 2F. any other liquids (specify: . . . . ~ . 2G 1 0 9 2G. solid br semi-solid (mushy) food . 2H 1 0 9 2H. received ONLY breastmilk . ~ . MICSTurkmenistan. 1995 44 --------~--------~----------~----~-------------------------------- .QUESTIONNAIRE 7. IMMUNIZATION MODU~E Q7 For all children between 1·2 years of age A spare form should be filled in for each child between 1-2 years of age listed in the HOUSEHOLD MODULE (Q1 ). This module (except question ·number 1) should be filled at the polyclinic from the vaccination records. Cluster no: . Household no: . Child no.: . ~ . . Before you leave the house: Fill in the name and line number of each child along with the cluster and household numbers in the space at the top of each questionnaire. Before you leave the hous·e check the BCG scar for each child between 1-2years of age and circle appropriate number. . . 1. BCG scar (Check for scar) Yes 1 No 2 Not examined 9 Thank the mother/caretaker for her cooperation. When you go to the polyclinic: Find the child's vaccination records. Make sure all identifying information is filled in correctly, until all children between age 1-2 have been covered. Make sure that you do not count.OPVO (OPVO is given at birth) as OPV1. OPVO should not be recorded in the table below. Question Record Date of Immunization exists 1 =Yes DAY 'MONTH YEAR 2 =No 2. BCG 3A. DPTl 36. OPT2 3C. DPT3 4A. OPVl 46. OPV2 4C. OPV3 5. MEASLES Thank the health workers who helped you for the polyclinic based records. MICS Turkmenistan, 1995

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