Turkmenistan - Demographic and Health Survey - 2001

Publication date: 2001

Turkmenistan 2000Demographic andHealth SurveyDem ographic and H ealth Survey Turkm enistan 2000 World Summit for Children Indicators, Turkmenistan 2000 Childhood mortality Childhood undernutrition Clean water supply Sanitary excreta disposal Basic education Family planning Antenatal care Delivery care Low birth weight Iodized salt intake Vitamin A supplements Exclusive breastfeeding Continued breastfeeding Timely complementary feeding Vaccinations Diarrhea control Acute respiratory infection Home management of illness Children in especially difficult situations HIV/AIDS Infant mortality rate Under-five mortality rate Percent stunted (children under 5 years) Percent wasted (children under 5 years) Percent underweight (children under 5 years) Percent of households within 15 minutes of safe water supply1 Percent of households with flush toilets, pit toilet/latrine Net primary school attendance rate2 Contraceptive prevalence rate (any method, currently married women) Contraceptive prevalence rate (any method, all women) Percent of women who received antenatal care from a health professional3 Percent of births in the 5 years preceding the survey attended by a health professional Percent of births in the 5 years preceding the survey at low birth weight4 Percent of households that use iodized salt5 Percent of children age 6-59 months who received a vitamin A dose in the six months preceding the survey Percent of children under 6 months who are exclusively breastfed Percent of children age 12-15 months still breastfeeding Percent of children age 20-23 months still breastfeeding Percent of children age 6-9 months receiving breast milk and complementary foods Percent of children age 12-23 months with BCG vaccination Percent of children age 12-23 months with at least 3 doses of DPT vaccinations Percent of children age 12-23 months with at least 3 doses of polio vaccinations Percent of children age 12-23 months with measles vaccination Percent of children age 0-59 months with diarrhea in the 2 weeks preceding the survey who received oral rehydration salts (ORS) or recommended home fluids (RHF) Percent of children age 0-59 months with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in the 2 weeks preceding the survey who were taken to a health provider Percent of children age 0-59 months with diarrhea who were taken to a health provider Percent of children with at least one parent dead6 Percent of children who do not live with either biological parent6 Percent of women age 15-49 who correctly state 2 ways of avoiding HIV infection7 Percent of women age 15-49 who believe that AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery and breastfeeding, Percent of women age 15-49 who know of a place to get tested for the AIDS virus Percent of women age 15-49 who have been tested for the AIDS virus 74 per 1,000 94 per 1,000 22.3 5.7 12.0 62.1 99.2 84.9 61.8 39.2 98.1 97.2 6.0 75.3 15.3 15.9 75.1 26.1 70.6 99.1 97.9 97.1 92.9 46.7 50.9 38.5 4.5 1.1 40.6 52.6 12.4 4.2 1 Piped water or protected well water 2 Based on de facto children 3 For the last live birth in the five years preceding the survey 4 For children without a reported birth weight, the proportion with low birth weight is assumed to be the same as the proportion with low birth weight in each birth size category among children who have a reported birth weight. 5 15 parts per million or more 6 Based on de jure children 7 Having sex with only one partner who has no other partners and using a condom every time they have sex Turkmenistan Demographic and Health Survey 2000 Gurbansoltan Eje Clinical Research Center for Maternal and Child Health Ministry of Health and Medical Industry Ashgabad, Turkmenistan ORC Macro Calverton, Maryland, USA September 2001 Gurbansoltan Eje Clinical Research Center for Maternal and Child Health ORC Macro The report summarizes the findings of the 2000 Turkmenistan Demographic and Health Survey (2000 TDHS), which was conducted by the Gurbansoltan Eje Clinical Research Center for Maternal and Child Health of the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan. ORC Macro provided technical assistance. Funding was provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and logistical support was provided by UNFPA/Turkmenistan. The TDHS is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program, which is designed to collect data on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health. Additional information on the Turkmenistan survey may be obtained from Gurbansoltan Eje Clinical Research Center for Maternal and Child Health Ministry of Health and Medical Industry 28 Khalmamedo Street Ashgabad, Turkmenistan Telephone: 993-12-43-5191 Fax: 73272-43-5315 E-mail: nkcozmr@online.tm Additional information about the DHS program may be obtained by contacting: MEASURE DHS+ ORC Macro 11785 Beltsville Drive Suite 300 Calverton, MD 20705 USA Tel: 301-572-0200 Fax: 301-572-0999 E-mail: reports@macroint.com Internet: http://www.measuredhs.com Recommended citation: Gurbansoltan Eje Clinical Research Center for Maternal and Child Health (GECRCMCH), Ministry of Health and Medical Industry [Turkmenistan], and ORC Macro. 2001. Turkmenistan Demographic and Health Survey 2000. Calverton, Maryland, USA: GECRCMCH and ORC Macro. Contents * iii CONTENTS Page Tables and Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Foreword . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Summary of Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv Map of Turkmenistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xx CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION, OBJECTIVES, AND SURVEY DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 B.S. Sopyev and C.M. Nazarov 1.1 Geography and Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.3 Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.4 Health Care System and Epidemiological Situation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.5 Reproductive Health Policy and Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.6 Demographic and Health Data Collection System in Turkmenistan . . . . . . . . . . 5 1.7 Objectives and Organization of the Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 CHAPTER 2 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 B.S. Sopyev and K. Fair 2.1 Demographic Characteristics of Households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Household Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.3 Educational Level of Household Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.3.1 Educational Attainment of Household Members . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.3.2 School Attendance Ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.4 Housing Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 CHAPTER 3 WOMEN’S CHARACTERISTICS AND STATUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 A.Y. Khaitova, B.A. Gairova, and S. Kishor 3.1 Characteristics of Survey Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.1.1 Background Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 3.1.2 Educational Level of Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 3.1.3 Access to Mass Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 3.1.4 Employment Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 3.1.5 Occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 3.1.6 Employer and Forms of Earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 3.1.7 Decision making Regarding Use of Cash Earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 3.2 Direct measures of women’s empowerment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.2.1 Household Decisionmaking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 3.2.2 Women’s Agreement with Reasons for Refusing Sexual Relations . . . . . 33 iv * Contents Page CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 C.M. Nazarov, A. Mukhamedova, and K. Weinstein 4.1 Current Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.2 Fertility Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 4.3 Children Ever Born and Living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4.4 Birth Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.5 Age at First Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4.6 Pregnancy and Motherhood among Women Age 15-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 CHAPTER 5 CONTRACEPTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 S.M. Turayeva, N.M. Bekmuradov, and K. Weinstein 5.1 Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 5.2 Ever Use of Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 5.3 Current Use of Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 5.4 Number of Children at First Use of Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 5.5 Knowledge of the Fertile Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 5.6 Source of Contraceptive Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 5.7 Informed Choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 5.8 Discontinuation within 12 Months of Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 5.9 Intention to Use Contraception among Nonusers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5.10 Reasons for Nonuse of Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 5.11 Exposure to Family Planning Messages in the Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 5.12 Contact of Nonusers with a Service Provider . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 5.13 Spousal Communication on the Use of Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 CHAPTER 6 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 A.S. Ezimova, A.Y. Khaitova, and G.A. Akmuradova 6.1 Pregnancy Outcomes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 6.2 Lifetime Experience with Induced Abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 6.3 Rates of Induced Abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 6.4 Trends in Induced Abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 6.5 Use of Contraception before Abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 6.6 Service Providers and Medical Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 6.7 Attitudes toward Abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 CHAPTER 7 OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 C.M. Nazarov, G.K. Ezizova, and D. Sharman 7.1 Marital Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 7.2 Age at First Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 7.3 Exposure to Intercourse Before and After Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 7.4 Recent Sexual Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Contents * v Page 7.5 Postpartum Amenorrhea, Abstinence, and Insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 7.6 Menopause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 CHAPTER 8 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 S.M. Turayeva, E.A. Shellenov, and G.S. Murikova 8.1 Fertility Preferences . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 8.2 Need for Contraceptive Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 8.3 Ideal Family Size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 8.4 Unplanned and Unwanted Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 CHAPTER 9 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 V.R. Charyeva, E.Y. Samarkina, and J.M. Sullivan 9.1 Mortality Rates Based on MOHMI Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 9.2 Mortality Rates Based on TDHS Data . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 9.3 Comparison of Mortality Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 9.4 Socioeconomic Differentials in Childhood Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 9.5 Demographic Differentials in Childhood Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 9.6 Mortality Differentials by Women’s Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 9.7 Perinatal Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 9.8 High-Risk Fertility Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 CHAPTER 10 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 S.M. Turayeva, A.B. Dzhunelov, and N.S. Gandimova 10.1 Antenatal Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 10.2 Timing of Antenatal Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 10.3 Content of Antenatal Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 10.4 Place and Assistance during Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 10.5 Delivery Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 10.6 Postnatal Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 10.7 Vaccinations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 10.8 Acute Respiratory Infection and Fever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 10.9 Diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 CHAPTER 11 NUTRITION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 G.R. Dzhorayeva, G.Y. Khodzhayeva, and T.R. Tagirova 11.1 Breastfeeding and Supplementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 11.2 Breastfeeding by Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 11.3 Duration and Frequency of Breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 11.4 Complementary Foods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 11.5 Nutritional Status of Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 11.6 Nutritional Status of Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 vi * Contents Page 11.7 Micronutrients . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 11.8 Use of Iodized Salt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 CHAPTER 12 ANEMIA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 G.K. Kariyeva, A. Magtymova, and A. Sharman 12.1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 12.2 Prevalence of Anemia among Women Age 15-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 12.3 Iron Supplementation during Pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 12.4 Anemia Prevalence among Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 CHAPTER 13 SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 J.M. Sullivan, S.M. Turayeva, and A.Y. Khaimova 13.1 Awareness of HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 13.2 Knowledge of HIV/ AIDS Prevention . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 13.3 Programmatically Important Risk-reducing Practices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 13.4 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-related Issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 13.5 Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS Prevention and Mitigation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 13.6 Acceptability of HIV/AIDS Messages in the Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 13.7 Knowledge of Symptoms of Sexually Transmitted Infections . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 13.8 Sexual Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 13.9 Knowledge of Condoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 13.10 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 APPENDIX A: SAMPLE DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 A. Aliaga APPENDIX B: ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 APPENDIX C: DATA QUALITY TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 APPENDIX D: QUESTIONNAIRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Tables and Figures * vii TABLES AND FIGURES Page CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION, OBJECTIVES, AND SURVEY DESIGN Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 CHAPTER 2 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS Table 2.1 Household population by age, residence, and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table 2.2 Population by age according to selected sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Table 2.3 Household composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Table 2.4 Fosterhood and orphanhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Table 2.5 Educational attainment of household population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Table 2.6 School attendance ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Table 2.7 Housing characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Table 2.8 Household durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Figure 2.1 Population pyramid of Turkmenistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Figure 2.2 Age-specific attendance ratios . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 CHAPTER 3 WOMEN’S CHARACTERISTICS AND STATUS Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Table 3.2 Religion, ethnicity, and residence by region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Table 3.3 Educational attainment by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Table 3.4 Access to mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Table 3.5 Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Table 3.6 Occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Table 3.7 Employment and form of earnings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Table 3.8 Decision of use of earnings and contribution of earnings to household expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Table 3.9 Control over earnings according to contributions to household expenditures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Table 3.10 Household decision making . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Table 3.11 Final say in household decisions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Table 3.12 Women’s agreement with reasons for refusing sexual relations . . . . . . . 35 Figure 3.1 Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by employment status . . . . . . 25 CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY Table 4.1 Current fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Table 4.2 Fertility by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Table 4.3 Trends in age-specific fertility rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 viii * Tables and Figures Page Table 4.4 Children ever born and living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Table 4.5 Birth intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Table 4.6 Age at first birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Table 4.7 Median age at first birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Table 4.8 Pregnancy and motherhood among women age 15-19 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Figure 4.1 Age-specific fertility rates by ethnicity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Figure 4.2 Total fertility rate by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Figure 4.3 Trends in age-specific fertility rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Figure 4.4 Percent of nonfirst birth born within 24 hours of previous birth . . . . . . 44 CHAPTER 5 CONTRACEPTION Table 5.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Table 5.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods by background characteristics . . . 52 Table 5.3 Ever use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Table 5.4 Current use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Table 5.5 Current use of contraception by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . 55 Table 5.6 Current use of contraception by women’s status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Table 5.7 Number of children at the time of first use of contraception . . . . . . . . . 57 Table 5.8 Knowledge of fertile period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Table 5.9 Source of supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Table 5.10 Informed choice . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Table 5.11 First-year contraceptive discontinuation rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Table 5.12 Reasons for discontinuing contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Table 5.13 Future use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Table 5.14 Preferred method of contraception for future use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Table 5.15 Reason for not intending to use contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Table 5.16 Exposure to family planning messages on radio and television . . . . . . . 64 Table 5.17 Exposure to family planning messages in print media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Table 5.18 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Table 5.19 Discussion of family planning with husband . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Table 5.20 Attitudes of couples toward family planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Figure 5.1 Current Use of Contraception among Currently Married Women age 15-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Figure 5.2 Percentage of married women age 15-49 currently using contraception by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 CHAPTER 6 INDUCED ABORTION Table 6.1 Pregnancy outcome by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Table 6.2 Pregnancy outcome by women’s status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Table 6.3 Lifetime experience with induced abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Table 6.4 Induced abortion rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Table 6.5 Induced abortion by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Table 6.6 Trends in age-specific induced abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Tables and Figures * ix Page Table 6.7 Use of contraception prior to pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Table 6.8 Source of services and procedure used for induced abortion . . . . . . . . . 78 Table 6.9 Timing of induced abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Table 6.10 Women’s attitude toward induced abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Figure 6.1 Age-specific rates of fertility (ASFR) and induced abortion (ASAR) . . . 74 Figure 6.2 Total induced abortion rate by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . 75 CHAPTER 7 OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY Table 7.1 Current marital status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Table 7.2 Age at first marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Table 7.3 Median age at first marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Table 7.4 Age at first sexual intercourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Table 7.5 Median age at first intercourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Table 7.6 Sexual relationships of nonmarried women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Table 7.7 Recent sexual activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Table 7.8 Postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence and insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Table 7.9 Median duration of postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Table 7.10 Menopause . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Figure 7.1 Marital Status of Women 15-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Figure 7.2 Percentage of Women Married by Specific Exact Ages . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 CHAPTER 8 FERTILITY PREFERENCES Table 8.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Table 8.2 Fertility preferences by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Table 8.3 Desire to limit childbearing by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . 93 Table 8.4 Need for contraception among currently married women . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Table 8.5 Ideal number children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Table 8.6 Mean ideal number of children by background characteristics . . . . . . . 97 Table 8.7 Fertility planning status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Table 8.8 Wanted fertility rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Figure 8.1 Fertility preferences for currently married women 15-49 . . . . . . . . . . . 92 CHAPTER 9 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY Table 9.1 Infant mortality rates government of Turkmenistan . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Table 9.2 Infant and child mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Table 9.3 Infant and child mortality by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . 106 Table 9.4 Infant and child mortality by demographic characteristics . . . . . . . . . 107 Table 9.5 High-risk fertility behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 x * Tables and Figures Page Table 9.6 Perinatal mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Table 9.7 High-risk fertility behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Figure 9.1 Trends in mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 CHAPTER 10 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH Table 10.1 Antenatal care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Table 10.2 Number of antenatal care visits and stage of pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Table 10.3 Antenatal care content . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Table 10.4 Place of delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Table 10.5 Assistance during delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Table 10.6 Delivery characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Table 10.7 Timing of postnatal care and care providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Table 10.8 Vaccinations by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Table 10.9 Prevalence of symptoms of acute respiratory infection and fever . . . . 123 Table 10.10 Knowledge of oral rehydration solution (ORS) packets . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Table 10.11 Prevalence of diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Table 10.12 Treatment of diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Table 10.13 Feeding practices during diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 CHAPTER 11 NUTRITION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN Table 11.1 Initial breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Table 11.2 Breastfeeding status by child’s age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Table 11.3 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Table 11.4 Foods consumed by children in preceding 24 hours . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Table 11.5 Nutritional status of children by demographic characteristics . . . . . . . 134 Table 11.6 Nutritional status of children by background characteristics . . . . . . . . 135 Table 11.7 Anthropometric indicators of women’s nutritional status . . . . . . . . . . 137 Table 11.8 Nutritional status of women by background characteristics . . . . . . . . 138 Table 11.9 Micronutrient intake among children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Table 11.10 Iodization of household salt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 CHAPTER 12 ANEMIA Table 12.1 Anemia among women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 142 Table 12.2 Anemia among women by nutritional status, reproductive history, and IUD use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 Table 12.3 Iron supplementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Table 12.4 Anemia among children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 Table 12.5 Anemia among children by demographic characteristics and nutritional status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Tables and Figures * xi Page CHAPTER 13 SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS Table 13.1 Knowledge of AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Table 13.2 Knowledge of ways to avoid AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Table 13.3 Knowledge of specific ways to avoid AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Table 13.4 Knowledge of AIDS related issues . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Table 13.5 Discussion of AIDS with partner . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Table 13.6 Social aspects of AIDS prevention and migration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Table 13.7 Discussion of AIDS in the media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Table 13.8 Knowledge of signs and symptoms of STIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Table 13.9 Number of sexual partners of married women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Table 13.10 Number of sexual partners of married men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 Table 13.11 Knowledge and source of male condom and access . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 APPENDIX A: SAMPLE DESIGN Table A.1 Sample allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Table A.2 Sample implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 APPENDIX B: ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS Table B.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 Table B.2 Sampling errors for women - Total sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Table B.3 Sampling errors for women - Urban sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 Table B.4 Sampling errors for women - Rural sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Table B.5 Sampling errors for women - Ashgabad City sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 Table B.6 Sampling errors for women - South sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Table B.7 Sampling errors for women - Balkan sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Table B.8 Sampling errors for women - Dashoguz sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Table B.9 Sampling errors for women - Lebap sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Table B.10 Sampling errors for women - Mary sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 APPENDIX C: DATA QUALITY TABLES Table C.1 Household age distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 Table C.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Table C.3 Completeness of reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Table C.4 Births by calendar years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Table C.6 Reporting of age at death in months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 xii * Tables and Figures Foreword * xiii FOREWORD Protecting and strengthening the health of each citizen is a priority goal of the National program of the President of Turkmenistan, Saparmurat Turkmenbashi, “Strategy for Social- economic Transformation to the Year 2010.” The Ministry of Health and Medical Industry directs significant efforts to improve quality and accessibility of medical services in Turkmenistan. Special attention is paid to medical services for women and children as well as preventive care and medical services in rural areas. Preventive care is a fundamental principle of the national health policy. The 2000 Turkmenistan Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) was the first national-level population and health survey in Turkmenistan. The purpose of the survey was to provide objective information on fertility, health, and nutrition of women and children. This information is important for understanding the factors that influence the reproductive health of women and the health and survival of infants and young children. It can be used in planning effective policies and programs regarding the health and nutrition of women and their children in Turkmenistan. The 2000 TDHS was implemented by the Gurbansoltan Eje Clinical Research Center for Maternal and Child Health. It was sponsored by the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry. Sampling design and listing operations for the survey were carried out by the staff of the National Institute of State Statistics and Information. The 2000 TDHS survey was funded by the U. S. Agency for International Development (USAID) through the UNFPA Turkmenistan country office. Technical assistance for the program was provided by the MEASURE DHS+ project of ORC Macro in Calverton, Maryland, USA. I would like to express my thanks to the USAID Regional Office for Central Asia, the USAID Mission in Turkmenistan and the UNFPA Country Office in Turkmenistan for their support of the survey. I am grateful to the staff of the MEASURE DHS+ program for their technical backstopping. Also, my sincere thanks go to the 2000 TDHS senior technical staff and to the members of all interviewing teams and the data processing team for their devotion and efforts in accomplishing the survey activities on time. Gurbanguly M. Berdymukhamedov Minister of Health and Medical Industry Turkmenistan Summary of Findings * xv SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The Turkmenistan Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) is a nationally represen- tative survey of 7,919 women of reproductive age (15-49). Survey fieldwork was conducted from June to September 2000. The TDHS was sponsored by the Minis- try of Health and Medical Industry (MOHMI) of the Republic of Turkmenistan. The Gurbansoltan Eje Clinical Research Center for Maternal and Child Health implemented the survey with technical assistance from the De- mographic and Health Surveys Program. The National Institute of State Statistics and Infor- mation (Turkmenmelihasabat) conducted sampling activities for the survey. The U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) provided funding for the survey. UNFPA/Turkmenistan assisted with survey coordination and logistic support. The TDHS was designed to provide policymakers and program managers at MOHMI with detailed information on the health status of women and children. Some of the health indicators provided by the TDHS—such as fertility and infant mortality rates—are available from other sources. However, other survey indicators are not available from other sources—for example anemia status and nutritional indices for women and children. Thus, when taken to- gether, the TDHS and existing data provide a more complete picture of health conditions in Turkmenistan than was previously available. RESPONDENT CHARACTERISTICS______________________________________ Marital status and ethnicity. Sixty-two percent of women age 15-49 are currently married, 6 percent are widowed, divorced or separated and 32 percent have never been married. The great majority of respondents practice Islam (93 percent) and most are of Turkmen ethnicity (78 percent). Education and media exposure. Women in Turkmenistan are well educated. Seventy-two percent have attended primary/secondary school, another 20 percent have attended secondary-special and 7 percent have a higher education. Access to the mass media is good; 94 percent of respondents reported watching television weekly. Employment and earnings. Women participate extensively in economic activities. Approximately half of respondents (49 percent) were working and almost all working women (99 percent) reported cash earnings. Most respondents (77 percent) said that they had full or partial control over how their earnings were spent. FERTILITY______________________________________ Fertility rates. For the three years preceding the survey (mid-1997 to mid-2000), the estimated crude birth rate was 24.6 births per 1,000 population. This is higher than the MOHMI rate of 20.3 (the average of the annual rates for calendar years 1997 to 1999). Another index of current fertility is the total fertility rate (TFR). The TFR indicates the number of children a woman would have if she passed through the childbearing ages at the current age-specific fertility rates. The survey estimate of the TFR was 2.9 children per woman. This is significantly higher than the TFR for the neighboring country of Kazakhstan (2.1 children per woman) for approximately the same period. The TFR is lower by about one child in urban areas (2.5 children per woman) than in rural areas (3.3 children per woman). By region, fertility is lowest in Ashgabad City (2.1 children per woman) and highest in Dashoguz (3.1 children per woman). Trends over time. Official estimates of the crude birth rate (CBR) for the 1990s indi- cate substantial fertility decline. For example, between 1993 and 1997 the CBR declined by xvi * Summary of Findings 37 percent (from 33.1 per 1,000 to 21.6 per 1,000). The survey confirmed this rapid de- cline, indicating a decline in fertility of 25 per- cent over approximately the same period. Age at first birth. Childbearing in the teenage years is associated with increased social and health problems for both the mother and her child. The TDHS found that only 2.6 percent of women age 15-19 have given birth. Moreover, almost all births to teenage women occurred at age 19. Thus, the median age at initiation of childbearing in Turkmenistan is 23 years, which is older than in Kazakhstan, Uzbekistan, or the Kyrgyz Republic. Birth intervals. Children born soon after a previous birth, especially those born within 24 months of the previous birth, have an increased risk of illness and death. In Turkmenistan, 36 percent of second and higher order births occurred after a birth interval of less than 24 months. The percentage of births following a birth interval of less than 24 months was greater among women in rural areas (40 percent) than among women in urban areas (30 percent). CONTRACEPTION_________________________________________ Knowledge. Knowledge of contracep- tive methods is widespread in Turkmenistan. Among currently married women, knowledge of at least one method is universal (99 per- cent). Married women have knowledge of, on average, six methods of contraception. Married women of all ages, all educational levels, all ethnic groups, and all regions of the country have a high level of knowledge of contraceptive methods. Ever use. Among currently married women, 89 percent have used contraception at some time. As expected, older women are more likely to have used contraception than younger women. Current use. Among currently married women, 62 percent are currently using contra- ception. Fifty-three percent are using a modern method and 9 percent are using a traditional method. The IUD is by far the most commonly used method: two out of three current users have an IUD (39 percent of currently married women). Among the 9 percent of traditional users, withdrawal is the most popular method (5 percent of currently married women). As expected, contraceptive prevalence rates increase with the respondent’s age and the number of living children that she has. However, there is little difference in levels of current use by background characteristics. For example, current use is virtually the same for married women in both urban (62 percent) and rural areas (61 percent). Discontinuation of use. An important issue in the provision of contraceptive services to current users is the rate of discontinuation of use and the reasons for discontinuation. Among women who began to use a method in the five years preceding the survey, 58 percent stopped using that method within 12 months. The rate of discontinuation was highest among users of the lactation amenorrhea method, the condom, and withdrawal (85, 56, and 44 percent). The most frequently reported reasons for discon- tinuation were switching to another method, health concerns, and desire to become preg- nant. Source of supply. Most users of mod- ern contraceptive methods obtain their method through the public sector (96 percent). Fifty- four percent obtain their method from hospitals or public health clinics, 15 percent from women’s consulting centers, and 27 percent from public pharmacies. Fertility preferences. Among currently married women, 60 percent reported that they want no more children (53 percent) or that they are infecund or have been sterilized (7 percent). Another 32 percent want another child, and 8 percent are undecided about having another child. Future use. Of the 38 percent of cur- rently married women who are not using contraception, almost half (47 percent) re- ported that they intend to use in the future. Most women (89 percent) who intend to use in the future indicated that the IUD is their pre- ferred method. Summary of Findings * xvii INDUCED ABORTION_________________________________________ In Turkmenistan, as in most of the former Soviet Union, induced abortion has long been used as a means of fertility control. In a manner analogous to the analysis of fertility, the total abortion rate (TAR) provides a useful measure of the incidence of induced abortion. The TAR is the number of induced abortions a woman would have in her lifetime if she passed through her childbearing ages at the current age-specific abortion rates. Abortion rates. For the three-year period preceding the survey (mid-1977 to mid- 2000), the total abortion rate for Turkmenistan was 0.9. The total abortion rate was higher in urban areas (1.0 abortions per woman) than in rural areas (0.7 abortions per woman). The highest levels of induced abortion were in Ashgabad City and the Lebap Region (1.1 and 1.2 abortions per woman, respectively). Attitudes toward abortion. Sixty per- cent of respondents indicated that they disap- prove of induced abortion. However, about one-quarter of respondents reported that if confronted with an unintentional pregnancy, they would have an abortion, and another one- quarter said they were undecided about whether they would have an abortion if they unintentionally became pregnant. MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH_________________________________________ Turkmenistan has a well-developed health system with an extensive infrastructure of facilities. This system includes general hospi- tals, delivery hospitals, women’s consulting centers, and doctor’s assistant/midwife posts. There is an extensive network of the latter facilities in rural areas. Antenatal care. Almost all respondents who gave birth in the last five years (98 per- cent) received antenatal care from either a doctor (81 percent) or a nurse/midwife (17 percent). In general, in Turkmenistan women seek antenatal care early and continue to receive care throughout their pregnancy. The median number of antenatal care visits is ten. Place of delivery. Most births in Turkmenistan (95 percent) occur in public facilities, primarily hospitals (89 percent). Almost all deliveries (97 percent) are under the supervision of a doctor (82 percent) or a nurse/ midwife (15 percent). Vaccination rates. Among children 12- 23 months of age (i.e., children who should be fully vaccinated), the survey found high levels of coverage for the vaccines recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO). Cover- age exceeds 97 percent for BCG (protection against tuberculosis), DPT/DT (protection against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus), polio, and measles. Overall, 90 percent of children have received all of these WHO-recom- mended vaccinations. Breastfeeding. Breastfeeding is nearly universal in Turkmenistan: 97 percent of children born in the three years preceding the survey were breastfed. Overall, 18 percent of children are breastfed within an hour of deliv- ery, and 76 percent are breastfed within 24 hours of delivery. The median duration of breastfeeding is 18 months. However, the median duration of exclusive breastfeeding, which WHO recommends for six months, is only 0.5 months. Among breastfed children, there is little complementary feeding in the period immedi- ately after birth. At 2-3 months of age, only 7 percent of children receive solid foods. This figure increases to 43 percent for children 4-5 months of age and exceeds 90 percent for children 8-9 months of age. Nutritional status of children. Two important nutritional indicators for children are the proportion stunted (short for their age) and the proportion wasted (underweight relative to their height). In a well-nourished population, it is expected that about 2.3 percent of children will be moderately or severely stunted or wasted. Among children under age five in Turkmenistan, 22 percent are stunted and 6 percent are wasted. There are regional differ- xviii * Summary of Findings ences, particularly for stunting. The percentage of children stunted in Dashoguz (27 percent) is twice as high as in Ashgabad City (13 percent). INFANT MORTALITY RATES_________________________________________ Official government estimates of infant mortality are based on data collected according to protocols established during the time of the former Soviet Union. Those protocols classify a pregnancy that ends at less than 28 weeks of gestation as a miscarriage unless the infant survives for at least seven days. In the TDHS, infant mortality data were collected based on the international definition of a live birth, i.e., a birth that shows any sign of life, irrespective of the gestational age at the time of delivery (United Nations, 1999). Be- cause of the difference between the govern- ment data collection system and that of the TDHS in the definition of a live birth, the TDHS estimate of the infant mortality rate (IMR) would be expected to exceed the official gov- ernment estimates. IMR estimates. The government esti- mate of the IMR for the five-year period 1996- 2000 is 32 per 1,000. The survey IMR estimate for that period is 74 per 1,000. The IMR esti- mate for Kazakhstan, for approximately the same period, is 62 per 1,000. IMR differentials. It is known that closely spaced births (i.e., births within 24 months of a previous birth) put infants at relatively high risk of dying. In Turkmenistan, 36 percent of second and higher order births occur within 24 months of a previous birth. Infant mortality for those births (94 per 1,000) is almost twice as high as for births occurring after an interval of 48 or more months (49 per 1,000). This suggests that a program promoting birth spacing could reduce infant mortality. The survey also found significant differ- ences in the IMR between urban areas (60 per 1,000) and rural areas (80 per 1,000). ANEMIA STATUS_________________________________________ The TDHS was the first study of anemia in Turkmenistan based on a nationally repre- sentative sample of women and children. The survey measured the hemoglobin level of capillary blood. Anemia among women. Nine percent of respondents in the TDHS had hemoglobin levels indicating moderate (8 percent) or severe anemia (1 percent). These figures are identical to recent findings for Kazakhstan. There were notable differences in the level of moderate to severe anemia by region. The level was twice as high in the Balkan and Dashoguz regions (12 percent) as in Ashgabad City (6 percent). Anemia among children. Seventeen percent of children under the age of five exhib- ited moderate (16 percent) or severe anemia (1 percent). Again, these figures are almost identical to recent findings for Kazakhstan (17 percent moderate and 1 percent severe anemia). ACQUIRED IMMUNE DEFICIENCY SYNDROME (AIDS)__________________________________________ Compared with other parts of the world, Turkmenistan has been relatively untouched by the AIDS epidemic. Currently, there is only one known case of AIDS and one other person known to be HIV positive in Turkmenistan. Almost no respondents reported that they knew an HIV-infected person or anyone who had died of AIDS. Knowledge. Awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS is limited. Seventy-three percent of respondents reported having heard of HIV/ AIDS, but only 50 percent believe that they could adopt behavior patterns that would reduce their risk of contracting the disease. Further evidence of limited knowledge of HIV/AIDS was the fact that only 31 percent of respondents recognized that condom use is a risk-reducing behavior. Summary of Findings * xix Attitudes toward infected individuals. The survey found unsympathetic attitudes toward HIV-infected individuals. Only a small proportion of respondents (24 percent) re- ported that an infected person should be al- lowed to keep that information private, and a large proportion (73 percent) reported that they believe an infected person should not be allowed to work alongside other people in a shop or office. These findings suggest that respondents have the mistaken idea that they can become HIV-infected through ordinary human contact. Use of the media for AIDS education. The survey indicates that much needs to be done to educate the population about HIV/AIDS. It is significant that more than 95 percent of respondents felt it would be acceptable to provide HIV/AIDS educational messages via radio, television, and the print media. Introduction, Objections, and Survey Design * 1 INTRODUCTION, OBJECTIVES, AND SURVEY DESIGN 1 B.S. Sopyev and C.M. Nazarov 1.1 GEOGRAPHY AND POPULATION Turkmenistan is situated in the center of central Asia to the north of the Kopetdag mountain range, bounded by the Caspian Sea to the west and the Amu Daria River to the east. The territory of Turkmenistan is 491,200 square kilometers; it stretches 1,100 kilometers from west to east and 650 kilometers from north to south. The country borders Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the east and northeast, Iran to the south, and Afghanistan to the southeast. The Karakum Desert occupies a large part of the territory of Turkmenistan. The Kopetdag Mountains and Small and Big Balkan ranges stretch from Turkmenbashy City to the Serax Region. The official state language is Turkmen, which belongs to the Turkic language group. The main religion is Sunni Islam. According to the data of the National Institute of State Statistics and Information (Turkmenmelihasabat), as of January 1, 2001, the population of Turkmenistan was 5.2 million people. Forty-five percent of the population is urban. Currently, Turkmenistan is experiencing intensive socioeconomic changes with significant impact on population and health. The demographic changes in Turkmenistan are characterized by population growth in urban and rural areas primarily due to high natural increase. High population growth has resulted in a unique population age structure. The percentage of children and teenagers in the population is high (40.3 percent). The proportion of the population that is working is also large (53.6 percent). Women now represent 50 percent of the population. The main factors currently determining the demographic situation in Turkmenistan are the following: a high proportion of married women, a low level of divorce, and a high birth rate. Nevertheless, in recent years, it has become evident that the birth rate has decreased. Another demographic feature of Turkmenistan is that the majority of women give birth at a young age, which is more favorable for childbearing and birth. One of the most important components of population growth in addition to the birth rate is the mortality rate. According to government statistics, the mortality rate has declined. In urban and rural areas, male mortality prevails over female mortality. As a result, average life expectancy for men is 63.4 years, compared with 70.4 years for women. The level of population replacement is comparatively high in Turkmenistan: there are 3.5 births for each death. The birth rate in rural areas is 1.8 times higher than in urban areas. Life expectancy at birth is 66.8 years in Turkmenistan. Life expectancy is constantly increasing through decline in newborn and maternal mortality. The number of fertile women increased during the last 5 years to approximately 1,570,000. Migration and natural translocations influence population growth. In the process of international migration, the contribution of different republics of the former Soviet Union is not 2 * Introduction, Objections, and Survey Design equal: Russian Federation, 60.3 percent; Uzbekistan, 14.5 percent; Ukraine, 3.4 percent; Kazakhstan, 13.1 percent; Azerbaijan, 2 percent. Of the total migration, 66 percent is rural population migration. 1.2 HISTORY Turkmenistan has a unique history and in both a geographical and political sense, plays an important role in the development of central Asia. Turkmen from ancient times have inhabited the territory of modern Turkmenistan. They have broad multilateral relationships with Asian countries, especially neighboring states such as Iran and Afghanistan. The Russian-Turkmen trade relationship has existed since the 10th century. Until gaining its independence, Turkmenistan did not have full sovereignty in conducting internal and foreign policy as a part of Russia and as a part of the Soviet Union. Turkmenistan was founded as a result of the people’s will, as expressed in an independence referendum on October 27, 1991, that was adopted by the Parliament. The first elections for the President of Turkmenistan were held October 27,1990, after the new Turkmenistan Constitution had been adopted. On June 21, 1992, recurring elections for the President of Turkmenistan were held. Saparmurad Ataevich Niazov was unanimously elected as President of Turkmenistan. On December 12, 1995, Turkmenistan was granted the status of neutrality by the United Nations (UN) General Assembly. Turkmenistan is the only country that has been granted constant- neutrality status in the history of the UN. State neutrality status demonstrates the will of Turkmenistan to follow a hands-off policy and peaceful coexistence with neighboring countries and all nations of the world. Neutrality also has a positive influence on internal human rights protection and creates an environment for providing for the welfare of the population. 1.3 ECONOMY During its years of independence, Turkmenistan has developed its own state and economic model, which is based on historical, national, ethnic, and social traditions of the Turkmen nation. The model of governmental development for Turkmenistan has proved highly effective. The social security of the population and equal opportunities for the commonwealth are based on economic achievements and internal production growth. Turkmenistan has large mineral resources, such as oil, gas, sulfate, salt, and limestone. The country possesses 64 percent of all oil reserves in central Asia and is the fourth largest natural gas producer in the world. Besides mineral products, other components of the Turkmenistan economy are the growth and export of cotton, the production of chemicals, the construction of machinery, the production of construction materials, the textile industry, and carpet weaving. Imports include mainly industrial and technical goods. Besides Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) countries, the main trade partners of Turkmenistan are Turkey, Iran, Japan, Germany, Italy, and Israel. In agriculture, the government considers it most important to have efficient composition of economic relations, liberalization, and governmental protection. In agrobusiness, priority is given Introduction, Objections, and Survey Design * 3 to food production and the integration of different levels of producers into the manufacturing of final products. Turkmenistan pays close attention to the expansion and modification of road and railway networks and the development of new air and sea routes. Such attention helps not only for the development of internal transportation networks but also for including them in the international communications system. Civil aviation and the sea fleet are constantly increasing their pool of aircraft and vessels. Overall, structural shifts in the economy have supported the development of the market structure of the country, ensuring that the country will move forward, maintain food security and advance the well-being of the population. For example, Turkmenistan, is the only country in the world where gas, water, electricity, and salt are free of charge for its citizens. Public transportation costs are subsidized, and flour is available at a privileged price for children, students, invalids, and retired people. The literacy level in Turkmenistan is 99 percent. The education system includes preschools, secondary schools, vocational schools, and high schools. Prior to independence, Turkmenistan was developing as a regional subsystem of one national economic complex of a large country. The structure of its economy was determined by interunion labor subdivision. The supply of national consumer goods and food for the population was provided through a centralized system. The government now implements an active policy aimed at ensuring economic stability. The main document for the policy is the program “Ten Years of Stability.” In 2000, the national program “The Strategy for Social Economic Reform till 2010” was adopted. High levels of gas, oil, and cotton production are foreseen in it. Food independence is also an area of focus in the program. The technological context is aimed at a high production of fuel, energy, mineral, and agricultural resources. All of this will ensure high rates of economic growth, which will promote human development. 1.4 HEALTH CARE SYSTEM AND EPIDEMIOLOGICAL SITUATION The highest value for every country is a healthy nation, and the main objective of state policy is the creation of conditions for the thorough development of each citizen. For improvement of health services delivery, the President of Turkmenistan approved the program “Health in 1995.” The objective of the national program was the improvement of health through reforming the health care system. The priority directions for the health care system were identified: mother and child health protection; tuberculosis (TB) control; sexually transmitted infections (STIs), AIDS, viral hepatitis, and cardiovascular disease prevention. For solving those problems, it was indicated as necessary to retrain medical staff, to modify treatment protocols, to improve the population information system, and to guarantee the drug supply and the medical equipment supply for primary health units. The reforms in health care are in the spheres of health management, financing, primary health care, hospital services, drug supply and use of people’s resources, infrastructure, medical science, and legislation. The governmental allocations to the health care system are aimed first of all at preventive medicine. 4 * Introduction, Objections, and Survey Design Beginning in 1996, family practice was implemented all over the country, and the state system of voluntary health insurance began to work. Currently, 92 percent of the population participates in the insurance system. Insurance payments go directly to the State Fund of Health Development and compose about 90 percent of it. The purchase of essential drugs, vaccines, and immune-prevention drugs are provided for by the fund. Essential drugs are sold for insurance receipts. The contract system of hiring staff is operating in all health institutions. Beginning in February 1996, the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry (MOHMI) of Turkmenistan started to implement state licensing of medical and pharmaceutical activities. With the aim to concentrate financial, human, and technical resources, all inefficient, small etrap (regional), velayat (district), and central health institutions were disbanded and replaced by large multifunctional medical facilities that were renamed hospitals. A total of 1,470 health- preventive institutions were disbanded and replaced by rural or urban houses of health, central hospitals, and maternal and child health (MCH) centers at the regional, town, and district levels. The network of district multiprofile hospitals has successfully developed, merging with diagnostic centers and consultative departments. Such merging helps to avoid profile duplications and to reorient the main part of the resources from inpatient care to primary health and preventive medicine. The number of hospitalizations significantly decreased by means of controlling the number of directions for hospitalization. That was achieved by improving the level of primary and medicosanitary services. The level of bed use increased through the decrease of average length of stay in the hospital (from 14.8 days in 1995 to 11.8 days in 1999). The use of international standards for calculation of bed rotation helped to decrease the average length of staying in bed for the patient to 9.1 days (during a 10-month period in 2000). Medical staff resources in health care are undergoing reform through revision of the quantity and quality of medical education. Beginning in 1995 in the area of health reform, 20,000 jobs (about 18.4 percent) were eliminated. This was done mainly by the elimination of vacant positions for doctors (2,000) and middle medical personal (12,500). Currently, the third step of the reform is underway, causing the elimination 10,000 more jobs. Reducing the number of staff in health institutions will improve the professional level and will help to distribute the staff rationally. For successful implementation of the above-named objectives, MOHMI and the World Health Organization (WHO) have designed and are implementing the pilot project, including a model for a village primary-health treatment-prevention unit, founded on the basis of former FAPs (feldsher- obstetrician points) and SVAs (village ambulances) using the staff of former units. Pilot project activities are oriented toward effective integrated medical service delivery, which will ensure delivery of a number of services: health improvement, reproductive health for families, prevention, diagnostics, and treatment. The pilot site experience will be applied to other primary health units around the country. For decreasing infant mortality rates, MOHMI has focused on the prevention of acute respiratory infection (ARI), acute intestinal infection (AII), and poliomyelitis. The United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) support the implementation of these projects. In 1999, MOHMI adopted recommendations on “Adaptation and Implementation of WHO/UNICEF Materials on Integrated Management of Child Infections in Turkmenistan.” An orientation meeting has been held to provide health workers information on WHO/UNICEF clinical approaches to integrated management of child infections. The pilot regions have been Introduction, Objections, and Survey Design * 5 chosen—Turkmenabat City and Gizilarbat Region. Data on child mortality and morbidity has been provided to WHO experts for program planning purposes. 1.5 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH POLICY AND PROGRAMS The government is paying close attention to the issues of maternal and child health. After adopting the Cairo Program of Actions, MOHMI, together with UNFPA, approved the Strategic Plan on reproductive health through 2005. According to this plan, Turkmenistan will provide the reproductive health services to give women the opportunity to successfully complete pregnancy and labor and to give couples a good chance to have a healthy child. The government gives families and individuals the right to decide the number of their children, as well as optional birth spacing, and supplies families with information on these issues. The most important medical-social problems for women are reproductive health and decrease of mortality and morbidity. In 1998, after rationalization of primary health institutions, polyclinics were reorganized into houses of health, and women’s consultations were moved to the houses of health according to district principals. Each institution provides an exact list of reproductive health services at the level of primary contact with a patient. In Turkmenistan reproductive health services do not pursue the objective of decreasing the birth rate in the country or limiting the number of children. According to national interests, it is oriented toward avoiding pregnancy for women from high-risk groups, toward preventing maternal mortality, and toward ensuring optimal birth spacing. Of all methods of contraception, the IUD is the most commonly used (20 percent of women of fertile age) due to its security and convenience of use. Less popular are hormonal pills (1.3 percent) and injectables (0.6 percent). Surgical methods of sterilization are familiar but are not in demand. Overall, government statistics indicate that approximately 22 percent of women in the fertile age use modern contraceptives. In connection with the implementation of the Reproductive Health Program, the tendency of the abortion rate to decrease becomes obvious. Recently, miniabortions have begun to prevail in the total abortion rate. Currently, with the decrease of the total abortion rate, the number of miniabortions has also decreased. Because of the availability of medical abortions up to 12 weeks of pregnancy, criminal abortions are not frequent. Their part in the total abortion rate was only 0.4 percent to 0.06 percent for 1998-1999. The number of abortions for women under 15 was even less (0.1 percent in 1998 and 0.01 percent in 1999). 1.6 DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH DATA COLLECTION SYSTEM IN TURKMENISTAN The demographic and health data collection system in Turkmenistan is based on the registration of events and a periodical census. Demographic data collection and analysis is the prerogative of the Turkmenmelihasabat (National Institute of State Statistics and Information). The data on birth, death, marriage, and divorce are registered at the local administrative level. These data are forwarded to the Turkmenmelihasabat through regional and district statistical offices. The Turkmenmelihasabat is responsible for conducting censuses and demographic analysis during the periods between censuses. The last census in Turkmenistan was conducted in 1995, and its results were published in 1996. The Turkmenmelihasabat is also responsible for the tabulation of health data for the country and the publication of demographic data and social and economic information. 6 * Introduction, Objections, and Survey Design 1.7 OBJECTIVES AND ORGANIZATION OF THE SURVEY The Turkmenistan Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS 2000) is the first national survey of maternal and child health in Turkmenistan. The survey was implemented by the Gurbansoltan Eje Clinical Research Center for Maternal and Child Health (MCH Institute) and was financed through the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Technical support was provided by the MEASURE DHS+ project of ORC Macro and logistical support by UNFPA/Turkemenistan. The purpose of the survey was to develop a single integrated set of data for the government of Turkmenistan to use in planning effective policies and programs in the areas of health and nutrition. TDHS 2000 collected data on women’s reproductive history, knowledge and use of contraceptive methods, breastfeeding practices and nutrition, vaccination coverage, and episodes of diseases among children under the age of five. Information on the knowledge of and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS, other sexually transmitted infections, and tuberculosis were also collected. The survey also included the measurement of the hemoglobin level in the blood to assess the prevalence of anemia and measurements of height and weight to assess nutrition status. The TDHS 2000 also contributes to the growing international database on demographic and health-related variables. Sampling Design and Implementation Sampling and listing of households were designed and implemented by the Turkmenmelihasabat (National Institute of State Statistics and Information) with support from the MEASURE DHS+ project of Macro International Inc. The TDHS 2000 was designed to collect demographic and health data from a nationally representative sample of women in the reproductive ages (i.e., women 15-49). The design specification was based on the objectives of estimating sociodemographic and health indicators, including fertility and mortality rates, at the national level, for urban and rural areas and for the six regions of the country (Ashgabad City and Akhal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap and Mary). The sample design was specified in terms of households. The design called for a two-stage stratified probability sample that was self-weighting within each of the six regions. In the first stage, standard segments were selected with probability proportional to size. Overall, 231 PSUs were selected: 118 in urban areas and 113 in rural areas. A complete household listing was conducted in the PSUs. In the second stage, households were selected with probability proportional to the inverse of the first stage probability of PSU selection. Among the 6,391 currently occupied households in the selected sample, the Household Schedule was completed in 6,302, for a response rate of 98.6 percent. Of the eligible 8,250 women age 15-49 in those households, 7,919 were interviewed for a response rate of 96.0 percent. The overall survey response rate was 94.7 percent. Additional details of sampling procedures are given in Appendix A and estimates of the sampling errors for selected statistics are given in Appendix B. Introduction, Objections, and Survey Design * 7 Questionnaires Two questionnaires were used for TDHS 2000: the Household Questionnaire and Women’s Questionnaire. These questionnaires were based on the model survey instruments developed for the MEASURE DHS+ project and were adapted to the data needs of Turkmenistan during consultations with specialists in the area of reproductive health and child health and nutrition. The questionnaires were developed at first in English and then translated into Russian and Turkmen. A pretest was conducted in April 2000. Based on the pretest, the questionnaires were revised and finalized. The Household Questionnaire was used to enumerate all usual members and visitors in a sample household and to collect information related to the socioeconomic status of the household. In the first part of the Household Questionnaire, information was collected on age, sex, education attainment, and relationship to the head of household for each person listed as a household member or visitor. A primary objective of the first part of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women who would be eligible for the individual interview. In the second part of the Household Questionnaire, information was collected on the characteristics of the dwelling unit, such as the source of water and the type of toilet facilities, and on the availability of a variety of consumer goods. The Women’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from eligible respondents (i.e., women age 15-49 who were usual household members or who were present in the household the night before interviewer’s visit) on the following major topics: · Background characteristics · Pregnancy history · Outcome of pregnancies, antenatal and postnatal care · Child health and nutrition practices · Child immunization and episodes of diarrhea and respiratory illness · Knowledge and use of contraception · Marriage and fertility preferences · Husband’s background and women’s work · Knowledge of HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections · Maternal and child anthropometry · Hemoglobin measurement of women and children. Training and Fieldwork The TDHS 2000 questionnaires were pretested in April 2000. Eight interviewers were trained during a one-week period at the MCH Institute of Turkmenistan. The pretest included one week of interviewing in an urban area (Ashgabad City). A total of 100 women were interviewed. Pretest interviewers were retained to serve as supervisors and field editors for the main survey. Fifty-five people, mostly physicians, were recruited as field supervisors, editors, health investigators, and interviewers for the main survey fieldwork. They were trained at the MCH Institute for three and a half weeks in June 2000. Training consisted of lectures and practice in the classroom, as well as role playing. The training of health investigators, who were responsible for anthropometric measurements (height and weight) and hemoglobin testing of women and children, was accomplished in two days in the classroom and three days in the field. 8 * Introduction, Objections, and Survey Design Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews and response rates, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________ Residence _________________ Result Urban Rural Total ________________________________________________________ Household interviews Households sampled Households found Households interviewed Household response rate Individual interviews Number of eligible women Number of eligible women interviewed Eligible woman response rate 3,688 3,162 6,850 3,347 3,044 6,391 3,277 3,026 6,303 97.9 99.4 98.6 3,836 4,414 8,250 3,693 4,226 7,919 96.3 95.7 96.0 At the end of the training, the field staff was divided into six survey teams. Each team consisted of eight people, including one supervisor, one editor, five interviewers, and one health investigator. Besides this, six field coordinators were recruited from the staff of the MCH Institute and were responsible for communication and coordination of activities between the center and field teams. The personnel for the survey teams were partly recruited from the staff of the MCH Institute and partly from different regions of the country. All six teams started data collection on June 28, 2000, in Ashgabad. Beginning in mid-July, all six teams started data collection in the field. Data collection was completed on September 15, 2000. Data Processing Questionnaires were returned to the MCH Institute for final editing and data processing. The office editing staff checked that questionnaires for all selected households and eligible respondents were returned from the field. Additionally, final editing included coding for a set of categories such as occupation and type of iron pills. Data were then entered and edited on computers using the Integrated System for Survey Analysis (ISSA) package, with data software translated into Russian. Office editing and data entry activities began on August 15 and were completed on October 14, 2000. Survey Response Rates Table 1.1 summarizes the results of the fieldwork for the TDHS 2000. Overall, the household response rate was 98.6 percent and the individual women response rate was 96.0 percent. As is usually the case in household surveys, response rates were somewhat higher in rural than in urban areas. Household Population and Housing Characteristics * 9 2HOUSEHOLD POPULATION ANDHOUSING CHARACTERISTICS B.S. Sopyev and K. Fair This chapter provides a descriptive summary of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the household population and the individual respondents in the 2000 Turkmenistan Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS). This information is useful for interpreting the survey findings and serves as an approximate indicator of the representativeness of the survey and of the quality of the data. This chapter is divided into three parts. The first part deals with the characteristics of the household population in terms of age-sex composition, household size and distribution, and educational background. The second part describes the housing environment in which the respondents and their children live. The background characteristics of women age 15 to 49 years are discussed in the last part of the chapter. 2.1 DEMOGRAPHIC CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS The Household Questionnaire was used in the TDHS 2000 to collect data on the demographic and social characteristics of all the usual residents of the sampled household and visitors who had spent the previous night in the household. A household, as defined in the survey, refers to a person or group of people usually living and eating together and jointly running the household’s economy (de jure population). A visitor is someone who is not a usual resident of the household but slept in the household the night before the interview. The distribution of the TDHS 2000 household population is presented in Table 2.1 and Figure 2.1, by five-year age groups according to urban-rural residence and sex. The total de facto population in the selected households was 30,830 people. In general, the survey results show that females outnumber males in Turkmenistan (52 and 48 percent, respectively). The male/female ratio varies by age. It is as high as 108 males per 100 females among those below age 15 and as low as 75 males per 100 females among those, age 65 and older. The ratio is almost similar in urban and rural areas (94 and 95 males per 100 women, respectively) More than one-third (36 percent) of the population consists of children 14 years of age and under, with the proportion of children in rural areas greater than in urban areas (38 and 34 percent, respectively). Starting with age group 10-14, there is a gradual decrease in the proportion of the population in each successive age group. The relatively small size of the male and female populations in age group 55-59 is a reflection of the low birth rates during World War II (i.e., 55 to 60 years prior to the TDHS 2000). Women 15-49 years of age, who are the main TDHS respondents, constitute about one-half of the de facto household population: 51 percent. The results further indicate that 59 percent of the population of Turkmenistan is in the 15-64 age group, and the population age 65 years and older accounts for 5 percent of the total population. A distinct feature of the age distribution of the population is that the proportion of the dependent population—those younger than 15 or older than 65—is higher in rural areas (43 percent) than in urban areas (39 percent). This difference may be attributed to rural-urban migration of the economically active population—those age 15 to 65—especially youth, in search of jobs. 10 * Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.1 Household population by age, residence, and sex Percent distribution of the de facto household population by five-year age group, according to sex and urban- rural residence, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Urban Rural Total ______________________ _____________________ _______________________ Age Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80+ Missing/don’t know Total Number 9.8 9.5 9.6 13.1 11.6 12.3 11.7 10.6 11.1 12.5 11.4 11.9 13.2 12.3 12.7 12.9 11.9 12.4 13.0 11.3 12.2 13.3 13.2 13.2 13.2 12.4 12.8 9.8 9.3 9.5 10.6 11.2 10.9 10.2 10.4 10.3 8.6 8.8 8.7 9.1 10.8 10.0 8.9 9.9 9.4 8.4 7.9 8.2 9.1 7.9 8.5 8.8 7.9 8.3 7.7 7.5 7.6 6.8 6.1 6.4 7.1 6.7 6.9 6.8 6.7 6.7 5.2 5.8 5.5 5.9 6.2 6.0 5.7 5.9 5.8 4.9 5.0 5.0 5.3 5.4 5.3 4.9 5.2 5.0 3.8 3.6 3.7 4.3 4.3 4.3 4.0 4.5 4.2 2.6 3.3 3.0 3.2 3.8 3.5 2.0 2.2 2.1 1.8 1.9 1.8 1.9 2.0 1.9 2.8 3.4 3.1 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.6 2.9 2.8 1.7 2.1 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.8 1.8 2.0 1.9 1.5 2.1 1.8 1.3 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.8 1.6 0.7 1.3 1.0 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.6 1.0 0.8 0.3 1.0 0.7 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 6,497 6,947 13,443 8,449 8,938 17,387 14,946 15,885 30,830 Male Female Household Population and Housing Characteristics * 11 The percent distribution of the population by broad age groups according to the 1995 Turkmenistan Census and the TDHS 2000 is presented in Table 2.2. There appears to be a progressive decline since the 1995 Census in the proportion of the population under 15, as well as a concomitant increase in the median age. The growth of the 15-64 age group results in a declining dependency ratio, calculated as the ratio of people in the dependent age groups to people in the economically active age group. This slight aging of the population is the result of a continuous decline in fertility levels since 1990. Correspondence of the percent distribution of the population in broad age groups between the TDHS 2000 and the 1995 Turkmenistan Census confirms the overall quality of the TDHS sample. 2.2 HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION Information on the size and composition of sample households by urban-rural residence is presented on Table 2.3. The head of household (as recognized by other members) and the relationship of each household member to the head was determined in each household. In general, heads of households are male (74 percent). In urban areas the proportion of households headed by men (65 percent) is less than the proportion in rural areas (81 percent). About 42 percent of households consist of between one and four members, with the average size of a household in Turkmenistan being 5.1 members. There are significant differences in the household size between urban and rural areas, with the average urban household consisting of 4.4 members compared to 5.7 in rural households. Only 3 percent of households include a child under 15 neither of whose parents were household members. Table 2.4 presents information on children under age 15 by survival status of the parents according to selected socio- biological factors. Eighty-eight percent of children under age 15 live with both parents. As children get older, fewer of them live with both par- ents; 94 percent of children in the age group 0-live with both parents, compared to 84 per- cent in the age group 10-14 years. Rural children are more likely than urban children to live with both parents. Eight percent of Table 2.2 Population by age, according to select sources Percent distribution of the population by age group, according to selected sources, Turkmenistan 2000 ___________________________________ 1995 2000 Age group Census TDHS ___________________________________ <15 40.5 36.3 15-64 56.0 58.8 65+ 3.4 4.9 Missing/DK 0.1 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 Median age 19.6 21.8 Table 2.3 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household, household size, and presence of foster children in household, according to urban-rural residence, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________ Residence Characteristic Urban Rural Total_________________________________________________ Sex of household head Male 65.6 81.4 73.5 Female 34.4 18.6 26.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members 1 9.5 3.9 6.7 2 12.3 4.4 8.4 3 13.8 7.6 10.7 4 19.2 13.8 16.5 5 17.5 18.8 18.1 6 11.5 18.1 14.8 7 7.6 13.6 10.6 8 3.5 7.7 5.6 9+ 4.8 12.1 8.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean size 4.4 5.7 5.1 Percentage with foster children 3.6 3.2 3.4 _________________________________________________ Note: Table is based on de jure household members, i.e., usual residents 12 * Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.4 Fosterhood and orphanhood Percent distribution of de jure children under age 15 by survival status of parents and child’s living arrangements, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Living Living with mother with father Not living with but not father but not mother either parent Living ____________ ____________ _______________________ Missing with Father Mother info. on Number Background both Father Father Mother Mother Both only only Both father/ of characteristic parents alive dead alive dead alive alive alive dead mother Total children _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 0-2 3-5 6-9 10-14 Sex Male Female Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Total 93.9 4.5 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 2,058 91.0 4.5 1.6 0.3 0.5 1.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.8 100.0 2,175 87.1 5.1 3.4 0.6 0.9 0.9 0.1 0.2 0.2 1.5 100.0 3,164 83.6 4.9 5.5 0.7 1.6 0.8 0.1 0.2 0.2 2.4 100.0 3,999 88.2 4.4 3.3 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.0 0.1 0.1 1.7 100.0 5,736 87.5 5.2 3.3 0.4 1.1 0.8 0.2 0.2 0.1 1.2 100.0 5,660 81.7 9.1 4.4 0.7 0.8 1.2 0.0 0.2 0.1 1.7 100.0 4,656 92.1 1.8 2.5 0.3 1.0 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.2 1.3 100.0 6,740 77.5 13.0 4.6 0.5 0.3 1.4 0.0 0.3 0.1 2.2 100.0 1,104 90.7 2.5 3.4 0.4 0.8 0.6 0.3 0.1 0.1 1.2 100.0 1,732 86.8 4.9 4.6 0.4 0.8 1.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.9 100.0 975 91.2 3.1 2.0 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.3 100.0 2,334 86.8 4.5 3.7 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.2 0.1 0.2 2.3 100.0 2,736 89.0 4.7 2.8 0.2 1.5 0.5 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.9 100.0 2,514 87.9 4.8 3.3 0.5 0.9 0.8 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.5 100.0 11,396 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Orphans are children with both parents dead children under 15 are living with only their mother; of these, 3 percent have lost their fathers and 5 percent have fathers who are still alive. Regarding orphanhood, about 3 percent of children under age 15 have fathers who have died, and less than 1 percent have mothers who have died, while an insignificant proportion (0.1 percent) have lost both parents. 2.3 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS The high correlation between level of education and positive health and other social indicators makes education an important variable in any study of households. Higher education, especially for women, is usually associated with greater knowledge and use of sound health practices and family planning methods. 1 Youth who are overage for a given level of schooling may have started school overage, or may have repeated one or more grades in school, or may have dropped out of school and later returned. Household Population and Housing Characteristics * 13 Turkmenistan’s primary and secondary educational system has three levels: primary (classes 1 through 4, age 7 to 10 years), principal (classes 5 through 9, age 11 to 15 years), secondary (classes 10 and 11, age 16 to 17 years). Most schools in Turkmenistan offer all three levels of primary/secondary education. The primary and principal education levels are compulsory. Students who leave school after the principal level may continue in secondary-special (vocational) education. Students who finish all three levels of primary/secondary school can continue on in higher education at universities or in academic training classes. 2.3.1 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT OF HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Table 2.5 presents information on the highest level of education attained by the population according to sex, age, residence, and region. The data shows the high educational level of Turkmenistan’s population with about 97 percent of men and 95 percent of women having had at least some education. Educational attainment is slightly higher among men than women, although the differences are minor. Most of household members age 6 and older have attended school, and 10 percent of men and nearly 6 percent of women have some higher education. There are noticeable attainment differences by residence, with urban residents being more likely than rural residents to have attended secondary special or higher education. Educational attainment is also significantly higher in Ashgabad City than elsewhere. Patterns in educational attainment among female respondents (women age 15-49) are similar to those among the entire female household population. Nearly all women have attended school, with younger women being more likely than older women to have attended school and attained higher levels of schooling. The greatest differences in attainment are between urban and rural areas, and between Ashgabad City and other regions. 2.3.2 SCHO OL ATTENDANCE RATIOS Table 2.6 presents net and gross attendance ratios by school level, sex, and residence. The net attendance ratio (NAR) indicates participation in schooling among those of official school age, which is age 7-10 for primary and 11-17 for secondary. The gross attendance ratio (GAR) indicates participation in schooling among youth of any age, from age 7-24, and is expressed as a percentage of the school-age population for that level of schooling. The GAR is always higher than the NAR for the same level, because the GAR includes participation by youth who may be older, or younger, than the official age range for that level.1 A NAR of 100 percent would indicate that all of the children in the official age range for the level are attending that level. The GAR can exceed 100 percent, if there is significant overage or underage participation at that level of schooling. The difference between these ratios indicates the incidence of overage and underage participation. School participation among those household members of school age is generally high, though participation is lower at the secondary level. The primary NAR is slightly higher among male than female children (86 versus 84 percent) and at the secondary level, is virtually the same among male and female youth (both about 79 percent). The NAR at both the primary and secondary levels is comparable in urban and rural areas. 14 * Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.5 Educational attainment of household population Percent distribution of the de facto male and female household population age six and over by highest level of education attended, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Level of education _________ _____________________________________________________ Median Background No Primary/ Secondary- Don’t’ know/ number of characteristic education secondary special Higher missing Total Number years _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ MALES ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 6-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Missing/DK Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Total 21.9 78.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,154 0.9 1.1 98.8 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 1,969 4.7 0.5 93.2 3.4 3.0 0.0 100.0 1,527 8.5 0.7 73.7 17.1 8.5 0.0 100.0 1,326 9.6 0.2 61.9 26.4 11.5 0.0 100.0 1,312 9.8 1.1 53.7 30.9 14.2 0.0 100.0 1,068 9.9 0.6 52.0 31.1 16.1 0.2 100.0 881 10.0 1.0 52.5 26.7 19.8 0.0 100.0 789 9.9 0.8 44.3 29.0 25.6 0.2 100.0 636 11.2 0.1 45.8 24.2 29.6 0.2 100.0 479 11.3 1.5 47.5 25.7 25.2 0.0 100.0 279 11.0 3.1 58.7 19.8 17.7 0.7 100.0 388 9.5 8.8 68.2 9.9 12.9 0.3 100.0 622 6.7 68.7 31.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3 0.0 2.9 63.9 19.5 13.7 0.1 100.0 5,540 9.3 3.5 76.2 12.6 7.6 0.0 100.0 6,893 9.1 2.1 56.1 18.6 22.9 0.3 100.0 1,505 9.6 2.2 75.6 14.5 7.7 0.0 100.0 1,848 9.1 3.4 69.9 18.4 8.3 0.0 100.0 1,206 9.2 3.5 78.5 10.6 7.4 0.0 100.0 2,436 9.2 3.5 66.2 20.9 9.4 0.1 100.0 2,797 9.2 3.9 73.6 12.8 9.7 0.0 100.0 2,641 9.1 3.2 70.7 15.7 10.3 0.1 100.0 12,434 9.2 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ FEMALES ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 6-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65+ Missing/DK Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Total 24.3 75.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,115 0.8 1.4 98.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,965 4.8 0.7 93.6 4.5 1.1 0.1 100.0 1,647 8.5 0.6 78.2 16.3 4.8 0.1 100.0 1,577 9.5 1.6 62.5 27.9 8.0 0.0 100.0 1,257 9.8 1.3 55.4 31.3 12.1 0.0 100.0 1,064 9.9 2.1 63.5 26.3 7.9 0.2 100.0 979 9.7 2.0 69.3 18.6 9.9 0.2 100.0 852 9.7 3.2 64.4 21.9 10.5 0.0 100.0 683 9.6 2.5 63.2 17.7 16.1 0.5 100.0 603 9.6 4.1 78.1 9.3 7.6 0.9 100.0 318 7.4 5.2 74.1 12.6 7.9 0.1 100.0 460 6.9 17.6 68.8 8.2 5.3 0.1 100.0 891 6.2 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2 0.0 3.9 66.0 20.7 9.3 0.2 100.0 5,964 9.2 5.3 83.6 8.2 2.8 0.0 100.0 7,450 8.7 3.4 57.1 21.8 17.2 0.5 100.0 1,709 9.5 5.0 85.8 7.5 1.6 0.0 100.0 1,969 8.7 5.0 77.0 14.8 3.0 0.1 100.0 1,236 8.9 4.8 81.1 10.5 3.6 0.0 100.0 2,540 9.0 4.2 68.5 20.2 7.1 0.0 100.0 3,106 9.1 5.5 82.7 8.7 3.0 0.1 100.0 2,853 8.9 4.7 75.8 13.8 5.7 0.1 100.0 13,414 9.0 Household Population and Housing Characteristics * 15 Table 2.6 School attendance ratios Net attendance ratios (NAR) and gross attendance ratios (GAR) for the de facto household population, by level of schooling, sex and residence, Turkmenistan 2000 ________________________________________________________________________ Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 ______________________ ______________________ Residence Male Female Total Male Female Total ________________________________________________________________________ PRIMARY SCHOOL________________________________________________________________________ Urban Rural Total 86.4 84.0 85.3 102.1 98.4 100.3 84.9 84.3 84.6 100.8 100.6 100.7 85.6 84.2 84.9 101.3 99.7 100.5 ________________________________________________________________________ SECONDARY SCHOOL________________________________________________________________________ Urban 78.8 80.1 79.4 86.8 87.1 87.0 Rural 78.2 78.3 78.3 83.6 81.6 82.5 Total 78.5 79.0 78.7 85.0 83.8 84.4 ________________________________________________________________________ 1 The NAR for primary school is the percentage of the primary-school age (7-10 years) population that is attending primary school. The NAR for secondary school is the percentage of the secondary-school-age (11-17 years) population that is attending secondary school. By definition the NAR cannot exceed 100%. 2 The GAR for primary school is the total number of primary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official primary-school-age population. The GAR for secondary school is the total number of secondary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official secondary-school-age population. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100%. There is significant overage participation at the primary school level, as indicated by the gap between the net and gross attendance ratios: About 15 percent of the students are either older than age 10 or younger than age 7, with most being overage rather than underage. At the secondary level, a far smaller proportion of students are overage (5 percent). Figure 2.2 presents the age-specific attendance rates (ASAR) for the population age 7-24, by sex. The ASAR indicates participation in schooling at any level, from primary through higher education. The closer the ASAR is to 100 percent, the higher is the proportion of people of the given age that is attending school. Most of youth of primary to secondary school age (7-17) attend school, and there are no significant differences by gender. The relatively lower age-specific attendance rate (ASAR) among children age 7 (32 percent) reflects the fact that many of these 7- year-olds were likely only age 6 during the school year covered by the survey, and hence were not eligible to attend school at that point in time. From age 17-24, a successively smaller proportion of individuals attend school. 16 * Household Population and Housing Characteristics 2.4 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS Table 2.7 provides information on selected housing characteristics by residence. This information is helpful in assessing the general socioeconomic conditions of the population. To assess the conditions in which respondents live, they were asked questions about certain characteristics of their households, including electricity, source of drinking water, type of sanitation facilities, time to water sources, handwashing facilities, type of fuel for cooking, quality of the floor, and ownership of a garden or dacha and animals. As seen from Table 2.7, virtually all sampled households are supplied with electricity. The source of drinking water usually determines its quality. Fifty-five percent of households in Turkmenistan have piped water. Most other households use well water. Eighty-one percent of urban households use piped water, most of which (50 percent) have the pipes inside. In rural areas, 29 percent of households have piped water, while more than one-third of the population uses water from wells, and 20 percent uses water from open sources. Tanker trucks provide water to 6 percent of rural households. Most or urban and rural households are within 15 minutes of a source of water. One indicator of sanitary conditions is the type of toilet in a household. In Turkmenistan, a majority of households (71 percent) have traditional pit toilets (latrines) and 28 percent have flush toilets. In urban areas, 55 percent of households have a flush toilet, compared with 1 percent in rural areas. Ninety-eight percent of rural households have traditional pit toilets. Handwashing facilities are available in most households: 78 percent or more of households have water, soap or another cleaning agent, and a basin available for handwashing. Household Population and Housing Characteristics * 17 Table 2.7 Housing characteristics Percent distribution of households by housing characteristics, according to residence, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________ Residence ________________ Background characteristic Urban Rural Total _______________________________________________________ Electricity Yes No Missing Total Source of drinking water Piped into residence Piped into yard/plot Public tap Open well in residence Open well in yard/plot Open public well Open water Tanker truck Bottled water Other Missing Total Time to water source <15 minutes (%) Sanitation facilities Own flush toilet Traditional pit toilet No facility/bush Other Missing Total Handwashing facilities Water/tap in household Soap/cleansing agent in household Basin in household Type of cooking fuel Electricity LPG, natural gas Biogas Charcoal Firewood, straw Missing Total Flooring material Earth/sand Wood planks Parquet/polished wood Linoleum PVC tiles Cement Other Missing Total Household owns A dacha or access to garden Animals Total 99.7 99.6 99.6 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 49.9 1.1 25.7 31.1 27.9 29.5 8.1 5.6 6.9 0.3 3.2 1.7 6.1 24.4 15.2 1.6 10.4 6.0 0.6 20.0 10.2 1.9 6.3 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.0 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 96.3 88.6 92.5 54.5 0.9 27.9 44.9 98.0 71.3 0.3 0.9 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 90.1 66.0 78.2 91.8 75.8 83.9 89.7 73.5 81.6 0.6 0.4 0.5 97.9 94.1 96.0 1.3 4.9 3.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 0.8 4.1 2.4 70.7 90.9 80.7 0.9 0.0 0.5 24.6 0.8 12.8 2.7 4.1 3.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 23.1 79.4 51.1 32.4 86.6 59.3 3.174 3,129 6,303 Virtually all households in Turkmenistan use biogas or natural gas for cooking. Regarding the type of flooring material, a large percentage (81 percent) of households have wood planks, which are slightly more common in rural house- holds (91 percent) than urban house- holds (71 percent). Twenty-five percent of urban households have linoleum floors. In the TDHS 2000, households were asked if any member owned a da- cha or had access to a garden from which he or she obtained fruits and vegetables during the growing season. The data indicate that 23 percent of urban house- holds and 79 percent of rural households in Turkmenistan have access to a dacha or garden. Households were also asked about ownership of animals. Eighty-seven percent of rural households own animals, compared with only 32 percent in urban areas. Household Durable Goods Table 2.8 indicates the percentage of households owning specific durable goods by residence. Ownership of a radio or a television is a measure of access to mass media; refrigerator ownership indi- cates the capacity for hygienic food stor- age; and ownership of a bicycle, motorcy- cle, or private car shows the means of transportation available to the household. The availability of durable consumer goods is a rough measure of household socioeconomic status. The results show that 46 percent of households have a radio, 93 percent have a television, 86 percent have a re- frigerator, 42 percent have a telephone, 13 percent have a bicycle, 18 percent have a private motorcycle, and 29 per- cent have a car. About 3 percent of households have none of these durable goods. 18 * Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.8 Household durable goods Percentage of households possessing various durable consumer goods, by residence, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________ Residence Durable consumer goods Urban Rural Total _________________________________________________ Radio Television Telephone Refrigerator Bicycle Motorcycle Car/truck None of the above Number of households 47.1 43.9 45.5 94.3 92.1 93.2 66.0 17.3 41.9 90.5 81.5 86.1 9.9 16.3 13.1 9.7 26.1 17.8 27.2 30.8 29.0 2.1 2.9 2.5 3,174 3,129 6,303 Urban-rural differentials can be seen in the ownership of specific durable goods. In general, these goods are more available in urban households than in rural households except for the car and motorcycle ownership. For example, more than half of urban households have a telephone (66 percent), while the proportion in rural areas is only 17 percent. Ninety-one percent of households in urban areas have a refrigerator, compared with 82 percent in rural areas. A higher proportion of both urban and rural households own a television (94 and 92 percent, respectively). Rural households are almost three times more likely to own a motorcycle than urban households due to the greater need for transportation in rural areas. Women’s Characteristics, and Status * 19 WOMEN’S CHARACTERISTICS AND STATUS 3 A.Y. Khaitova, B.A. Gairova, and S. Kishor The purpose of this chapter is to present a profile of the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of women age 15-49 who were identified by the TDHS 2000 Household Questionnaire as eligible respondents for the Women’s Questionnaire. In addition, data are presented on women’s status in Turkmenistan. This information is useful for understanding the context of reproduction and health and provides indicators of the status of women and of women’s empowerment. Three aspects of women’s situation are presented: education, employment, and direct measures of empowerment. While education and employment can contribute to women’s empowerment, direct measures of women’s empowerment allow an evaluation of women’s perception of their own rights and their degree of control over their own lives. 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS 3.1.1 BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS Table 3.1 presents the percent distribution of women by age, current marital status, residence, region, highest educational level, and ethnicity. Women were asked two questions to determine their ages: “In what month and year were you born?” and “How old were you at your last birthday?” Interviewers were trained in probing techniques for situations in which respondents did not know their age or date of birth. Results show that the percentage of women in five-year age groups declines steadily with increasing age. About 39 percent of women are in the age group 15-24 and 29 percent of women are in the age group 25-34. Married women comprise large proportions of the total women interviewed (62 percent), while never-married women constitute 32 percent. Two percent of women are widowed and 4 percent of women are divorced. Forty-seven percent of respondents reside in urban areas and 53 percent live in rural areas. The percent distribution of the interviewed women by region of residence is as follows: 13 percent live in Ashgabad City, 15 percent in Akhal Region, 9 percent in Balkan Region, 21 percent in Dashoguz Region, 20 percent in Lebap Region, and 23 percent in Mary Region. Almost all TDHS 2000 respondents had attended at least primary/secondary school, 20 percent had a secondary-special education, and 7 percent had a higher education. Ethnically, the respondents in the TDHS 2000 are distributed as follows: ethnic Turkmens, 78 percent; ethnic Uzbeks, 11 percent; ethnic Russians, 5 percent; ethnic Kazakhs, 1 percent and other ethnic groups 5 percent. Table 3.2 shows the distribution of women by ethnicity, religion, and residence according to region. The data indicates that Turkmens are dominant ethnic group in all survey regions. Dashoguz and Lebap regions have relatively high concentration of women of Uzbek ethnicity. Russian women make up 27 percent of the respondents in Ashgabad City and present in less than 5 percent in other survey regions. 20 * Women’s Characteristics, and Status Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000__________________________________________________ Number of women __________________ Background Weighted Un- characteristic percent Weighted weighted____________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Marital status Never married Married/living together Widowed Divorced/separated Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education No education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Russian Kazakh Other Total 19.9 1,574 1,589 19.5 1,541 1,580 15.9 1,256 1,260 13.4 1,060 1,059 12.3 974 958 10.7 845 817 8.4 669 656 32.4 2,563 2,655 61.8 4,892 4,829 2.2 174 168 3.7 289 267 46.6 3,691 3,693 53.4 4,228 4,226 13.1 1,038 585 14.5 1,145 1,081 9.0 709 1,000 20.6 1,628 2,833 20.3 1,607 1,263 22.6 1,791 1,157 1.0 76 76 72.3 5,725 5,843 19.6 1,556 1,515 7.1 563 485 78.2 6,191 5,906 10.8 857 1,269 5.3 420 299 1.0 80 133 4.7 371 312 100.0 7,919 7,919 ___________________________________________________ Note: Education categories refer to the highest level of education attended, whether or not that level was competed. The dominant religion in Turkmenistan is Muslim: more than 90 percent of the respondents in all survey regions except Ashgabad City reported that they are Mus- lims. In the capital city of Ashgabad, which has high concentration of women of Russian ethnicity, 27 percent of women said they are Christians. The majority of women in Turkmenistan reside in rural areas. An exception is Balkan region, where 80 per- cent of women reside in urban areas. 3.1.2 EDUCATIONAL LEVEL OF RESPONDENTS Table 3.3 shows the percent distribu- tion of women by the highest level of educa- tion attended according to background characteristics. Approximately 72 percent of respondents have attended primary/second- ary school, 20 percent have attended secondary-special school, and 7 percent have had higher education. There are significant differences in education between urban and rural areas and between regions. The proportion of respondents with higher education in urban areas is more than three times higher than in rural areas. This proportion is also higher in Ashgabad City compared to other regions. The proportion of respondents with secondary-special education in urban areas is more than two times higher than in rural areas This proportion is higher in Ashgabad City, Balkan and Lebap regions compared to other survey regions. The level of education of Turkmen and Uzbek women is about similar. More than 70 percent of Turkmen and Uzbek women have primary/secondary education. Sixteen percent of Turkmen and 22 percent of Uzbek women have secondary-special education. Seven percent of Turkmen and 5 percent of Uzbek women have higher education. Among women of other ethnic groups 41 percent have attended secondary-special school, and 12 percent have had higher education. Women’s Characteristics, and Status * 21 Table 3.2 Residence, ethnicity, and religion by region Percent distribution of women by residence, ethnicity, and religion, according to region, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Region ______________________________________________________ Background Ashgabad characteristic City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Total ______________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Russian Kazakh Other Religion Muslim Christian Other Not religious Don't know Total Number 100.0 32.0 79.6 32.8 44.3 26.5 46.6 0.0 68.0 20.4 67.2 55.7 73.5 53.4 67.4 94.1 88.7 59.0 80.1 85.8 78.2 0.5 0.2 0.3 36.5 14.9 0.8 10.8 23.8 2.3 4.0 0.6 2.5 3.9 5.3 0.0 0.4 2.4 2.6 0.2 0.7 1.0 8.3 3.1 4.6 1.3 2.4 8.8 4.7 71.6 97.1 94.8 99.1 96.8 93.5 93.1 27.3 2.8 5.1 0.7 2.9 5.2 6.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 1.1 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 1,038 1,145 709 1,628 1,607 1,791 7,919 Table 3.3 Educational attainment by background characteristics Percent distribution of women by highest level of schooling attained, and median number of years of schooling, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________ Highest level of education attended _________________________________ None/ Median Background Primary/ Secondary- Number of years of characteristic secondary special Higher Total women schooling ___________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 94.0 4.5 1.4 100.0 1,574 8.5 79.3 15.8 4.9 100.0 1,541 9.5 64.2 28.1 7.8 100.0 1,256 9.8 56.8 31.0 12.2 100.0 1,060 9.9 65.4 26.0 8.6 100.0 974 9.7 71.2 19.2 9.6 100.0 845 9.7 67.6 21.5 10.9 100.0 669 9.6 60.5 28.0 11.4 100.0 3,691 9.7 84.3 12.3 3.3 100.0 4,228 9.4 51.7 27.5 20.8 100.0 1,038 9.9 86.4 11.4 2.2 100.0 1,145 9.3 73.6 22.1 4.3 100.0 709 9.5 79.7 15.5 4.8 100.0 1,628 9.5 59.1 31.9 9.0 100.0 1,607 9.8 84.0 12.2 3.8 100.0 1,791 9.4 76.9 16.4 6.7 100.0 6,191 9.5 73.6 21.6 4.8 100.0 857 9.6 46.9 40.9 12.2 100.0 871 10.8 73.2 19.6 7.1 100.0 7,919 9.5 22 * Women’s Characteristics, and Status Table 3.4 Access to mass media Percentage of women who usually read a newspaper once a week, watch television once a week, or listen to the radio daily, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ___________________________________________________________________________ Mass media ____________________________________ No Reads a Watches Listens to All Number Background mass newspaper television the radio three of characteristic media weekly weekly daily media women ___________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 4.1 29.8 95.3 28.8 13.1 1,574 4.7 31.1 93.9 30.7 15.0 1,541 4.6 34.2 93.9 31.4 15.6 1,256 4.4 33.7 93.7 36.1 17.1 1,060 5.6 30.5 92.7 34.8 16.7 974 6.9 32.8 92.1 36.3 16.9 845 5.0 26.6 92.2 38.4 13.6 669 3.3 38.6 95.4 35.5 19.2 3,691 6.2 25.1 92.2 30.7 11.8 4,228 1.5 40.6 97.5 44.8 24.0 1,038 8.9 11.2 89.7 33.6 6.5 1,145 8.0 41.0 88.8 38.5 19.2 709 4.0 28.6 94.9 31.6 18.0 1,628 4.1 37.8 94.8 29.1 15.5 1,607 4.6 32.0 93.7 28.0 11.6 1,791 6.1 23.1 92.4 29.8 10.6 5,800 1.9 46.7 96.5 38.3 23.1 1,556 0.6 75.2 98.7 50.7 42.2 563 5.2 30.2 93.4 33.7 15.0 6,191 3.5 28.5 95.5 24.2 12.8 857 4.3 42.6 93.8 35.9 19.5 871 4.9 31.4 93.7 32.9 15.3 7,919 3.1.3 ACCESS TO MASS MEDIA During the TDHS 2000 interviews, women were asked about their exposure to the mass media which is an indicator of their access to information about health and family planning. Table 3.4 shows that 94 percent of women watch TV weekly, 33 percent listen to the radio weekly, while 31 percent read a newspaper at least once a week. There is little difference by age in access to the mass media. Women in Ashgabad City, Balkan and Dashoguz regions have more access to all three types of mass media (24, 19 and 18 percent, respectively) than women in Akhal, Lebap and Mary regions (7, 16 and 12 percent, respectively). There is an association between a respondent’s exposure to mass media and her education level; the higher the education level, more likely they are to avail themselves of all three media. Women’s Characteristics, and Status * 23 3.1.4 EMPLOYMENT STATUS The TDHS 2000 asked a series of questions to determine women’s employment status over the 12 months preceding the survey. For women who were employed, information was also obtained on the nature of employment including occupation and type of earnings, if any. Like education, employment can also be a source of empowerment for women, especially if it puts them in control of income. The measurement of women’s employment is difficult, however. The difficulty arises largely because some of the work that women do, especially work on family farms, family businesses or in the informal sector is often not perceived by women themselves as employment, and hence not reported as such. To avoid underestimating women’s employment, the TDHS 2000 asked women several questions to ascertain their employment status. First women were asked “Aside from your own housework, are you currently working?” Women who answered “No” to this question were then asked “As you know, some women take up jobs for which they are paid in cash or kind. Others sell things, have a small business, or work on the family farm or in the family business. Are you currently doing any of these things or any other work?” Women who answered “No” to this question were asked “Have you done any work in the last 12 months?” Women are currently employed if they answered “Yes” to either of the first two questions. Women who answered “Yes” to the third question are not currently employed but have worked in the past 12 months. All employed women were asked their occupation, whether they were paid in cash, in kind, or not paid at all, and where and for whom they worked. Table 3.5 and Figure 3.1 show that, in Turkmenistan, half of all women age 15-49 were either currently employed or had worked during the 12 months preceding the survey. Almost all women who had worked at all during the 12 months preceding the survey, were also working at the time of the survey. Only 2 percent of women who had worked at any time during the past 12 months (1 percent of all women) were not currently working. Women’s current work participation first increases with age from 27 percent for women age 15-19 to 57 percent for women age 30-34 and then plateaus at 61-62 percent for women in the older age groups (age 35-49). Urban women are slightly more likely than rural women to be employed, although the differential by residence, especially in the proportion currently employed, is small. By region, the proportion of women employed at any time in the past 12 months is highest in the Lebap Region (55 percent) and lowest in the Dashoguz, Akhal, and Mary regions (46-47 percent). The likelihood of employment varies sharply with education. Only 42 percent of women who have no more than secondary education worked at any time in the 12 months preceding the survey compared with 70 percent of women with secondary-special education and 80 percent of women with higher education. Uzbek women (47 percent), followed by Turkmen women (50 percent) are less likely than women of other ethnicities (60 percent) to have been employed at any time in the 12 months preceding the survey. In Turkmenistan, almost all women who work earn cash for the work they do (Table 3.5). Overall, only 1 percent of women who are employed are not earning cash, and this proportion is never greater than 2 percent for any subgroup of employed women. 24 * Women’s Characteristics, and Status Table 3.5 Employment Percent distribution of women by employment status in the 12 months preceding the survey and, among those currently working, whether or not they earned cash, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Employed in the 12 months preceding Not the survey employed Currently working ________________ in the 12 ________________ Not months Did not Background Currently currently preceding Earned earn characteristic employed employed the survey Missing Total Number cash cash Total Number ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Marital status Never married Married/living together Widowed Divorced, separated Number of living children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education None/primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 27.1 1.0 71.6 0.3 100.0 1,574 97.9 2.1 100.0 426 46.4 1.2 52.2 0.2 100.0 1,541 99.0 1.0 100.0 715 51.1 1.2 47.5 0.1 100.0 1,256 99.2 0.8 100.0 643 57.1 0.6 42.3 0.0 100.0 1,060 99.4 0.6 100.0 605 61.1 0.6 38.1 0.2 100.0 974 98.6 1.4 100.0 595 61.2 0.5 38.3 0.0 100.0 845 98.1 1.9 100.0 517 61.5 1.3 37.2 0.0 100.0 669 99.6 0.4 100.0 411 41.1 1.2 57.4 0.3 100.0 2,563 98.3 1.7 100.0 1,055 52.3 0.9 46.8 0.1 100.0 4,892 99.1 0.9 100.0 2,557 68.8 0.4 30.8 0.0 100.0 174 97.3 2.7 100.0 120 62.4 0.6 37.0 0.0 100.0 289 100.0 0.0 100.0 181 41.3 1.2 57.2 0.3 100.0 2,942 98.5 1.5 100.0 1,214 50.7 0.9 48.4 0.0 100.0 2,334 99.5 0.5 100.0 1,183 57.0 0.7 42.2 0.1 100.0 1,710 98.7 1.3 100.0 975 57.9 0.6 41.4 0.1 100.0 934 98.5 1.5 100.0 541 51.2 1.5 47.2 0.1 100.0 3,691 98.8 1.2 100.0 1,891 47.8 0.5 51.5 0.2 100.0 4,228 98.9 1.1 100.0 2,021 51.4 2.1 46.3 0.2 100.0 1,038 99.4 0.6 100.0 534 46.9 0.1 52.7 0.3 100.0 1,145 98.6 1.4 100.0 537 51.7 4.4 43.7 0.1 100.0 709 98.8 1.2 100.0 367 46.3 0.2 53.3 0.1 100.0 1,628 98.4 1.6 100.0 754 54.7 0.4 44.7 0.2 100.0 1,607 98.3 1.7 100.0 879 47.0 0.6 52.5 0.0 100.0 1,791 99.6 0.4 100.0 841 41.4 1.0 57.5 0.1 100.0 5,800 98.4 1.6 100.0 2,399 68.7 0.9 30.3 0.2 100.0 1,556 99.5 0.5 100.0 1,068 79.0 0.6 20.4 0.0 100.0 563 99.4 0.6 100.0 445 48.5 1.0 50.4 0.1 100.0 6,191 98.7 1.3 100.0 3,000 46.2 0.5 53.2 0.1 100.0 857 98.4 1.6 100.0 396 59.3 0.9 39.6 0.2 100.0 871 100.0 0.0 100.0 516 49.4 0.9 49.5 0.1 100.0 7,919 98.9 1.1 100.0 3,912 Women’s Characteristics, and Status * 25 3.1.5 OCCUPATION Table 3.6 shows the occupational profiles of currently employed women by background characteristics. Over one-third (39 percent) of all employed women are in professional, technical, or managerial occupations, 28 percent are in agricultural occupations, 14 percent are in skilled manual occupations, and 9 percent are in the unskilled manual occupations. Sales and service occupations account for only 5 percent of women’s employment. The largest variation in the proportion of women in the professional, technical, or managerial occupations is by level of education. Only 19 percent of women who have completed at most secondary school are in professional, technical, or managerial occupations compared with 66 percent of women who have secondary-special education and 86 percent of women who have higher education. Notably, these occupations also account for about half of all employed women who are divorced or separated, have 1-2 children, live in urban areas, live in Ashgabad City, belong to ethnic groups other than Turkmen and Uzbek, or are age 25-34. Working women who have no children, and those in the Dashoguz area are about equally likely to be in agricultural occupations as in professional, technical, or managerial occupations. By contrast, working women who are age 15-19, are never married, have five or more children, live in rural areas or in the Akhal or Mary regions, or have only secondary education or less, are much more likely to be in agricultural occupations than in any other kind of occupations. Sales and service occupations are relatively more important in the occupational profiles of urban women and women who are not Turkmen, whereas unskilled manual occupations are relatively more important in the occupational profiles of the oldest women, widowed or other formerly married women, women with three or more children, and women with secondary education or less, than for any other women. Women’s participation in skilled manual occupations declines sharply with age and number of living children. One-fourth or more of employed women age 15-19, never-married women, and women living in the Akhal and Balkan regions are employed in skilled manual occupations. 26 * Women’s Characteristics, and Status Table 3.6 Occupation Percent distribution of currently employed women by occupation (agricultural or nonagricultural occupation) and type of nonagricultural occupation, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Nonagricultural occupation ______________________________________________ Professional/ Background Technical/ Sales, Skilled Unskilled characteristic Agriculture Managerial services manual manual Missing Total Number _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Marital status Never married Married/living together Widowed Divorced/separated Number of living children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 39.7 15.0 4.0 30.8 6.9 3.5 100.0 426 26.5 35.0 4.5 19.4 7.9 6.6 100.0 715 20.9 49.7 3.7 14.0 5.8 5.9 100.0 643 21.2 47.2 5.9 10.3 10.1 5.3 100.0 605 30.1 43.5 3.7 8.8 8.9 5.0 100.0 595 31.2 39.2 6.2 9.8 9.8 3.8 100.0 517 29.6 37.4 4.6 6.9 15.2 6.4 100.0 411 31.7 27.9 3.9 24.9 6.5 5.0 100.0 1,055 28.2 42.7 4.7 10.0 9.3 5.2 100.0 2,557 18.0 44.6 8.9 8.1 16.1 4.3 100.0 120 3.9 52.8 6.0 15.2 13.1 9.1 100.0 181 29.6 30.4 4.3 23.7 6.7 5.2 100.0 1,214 14.7 53.6 4.2 11.2 7.8 8.5 100.0 1,183 28.8 41.1 6.2 9.4 11.7 2.8 100.0 975 49.9 24.1 3.4 8.1 11.6 2.9 100.0 541 0.8 54.8 7.7 17.0 10.8 8.8 100.0 1,891 52.8 24.6 1.8 11.5 7.2 2.0 100.0 2,021 0.3 55.2 6.8 12.9 9.1 15.7 100.0 534 36.3 20.4 2.2 27.6 9.9 3.7 100.0 537 2.2 40.1 5.4 37.4 10.3 4.6 100.0 367 40.8 39.0 4.0 6.1 7.3 2.7 100.0 754 23.9 45.5 6.9 9.7 10.2 3.8 100.0 879 43.0 34.4 2.7 8.2 7.9 3.9 100.0 841 42.7 18.7 4.3 18.4 12.2 3.8 100.0 2,399 5.4 65.8 5.9 9.8 5.5 7.6 100.0 1,068 0.4 86.4 3.3 1.9 0.0 7.9 100.0 445 32.1 35.8 3.5 15.6 9.1 3.8 100.0 3,000 23.1 45.1 8.3 11.3 8.2 4.0 100.0 396 5.8 54.5 8.3 8.2 8.4 14.8 100.0 516 27.7 39.2 4.6 14.2 9.0 5.3 100.0 3,912 3.1.6 EMPLOYER AND FORMS OF EARNINGS Table 3.7 shows the percent distribution of employed women by type of employer and type of earnings according to background characteristics. In Turkmenistan, 3 percent of women who are currently working are self employed, 17 percent are employed by a family member, and the vast majority, 81 percent, are employed by someone else. Almost all women who work, irrespective of the type of employer, work for cash. Although the majority of working women in all subgroups of the population are working for someone else, the type of employer does vary substantially by the background characteristics of women. The youngest women (age 15-19), followed by women age 20-24, are much more likely than women in older age groups to be working for a family member Women’s Characteristics, and Status * 27 Table 3.7 Employer and form of earnings Percent distribution of currently employed women by employer and type of earnings, (cash, in kind, no payment), according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Employed by a Self-employed nonrelative Employed by a relative _____________ ______________ ______________________ Does Does Does not not not Background Earns earn Earns earn Earns earn characteristic cash cash cash cash cash cash Missing Total Number __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Occupation Agricultural Nonagricultural Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 3.1 0.7 58.5 0.1 36.3 0.9 0.3 100.0 426 3.4 0.4 77.2 0.2 18.4 0.4 0.0 100.0 715 2.1 0.6 85.6 0.1 11.5 0.2 0.0 100.0 643 2.2 0.2 84.6 0.3 12.3 0.0 0.3 100.0 605 1.6 0.0 83.6 0.4 13.4 1.0 0.0 100.0 595 1.3 0.0 82.9 1.6 13.9 0.4 0.0 100.0 517 0.9 0.0 85.7 0.4 12.6 0.0 0.4 100.0 411 3.1 0.3 84.8 0.2 11.0 0.6 0.0 100.0 1,891 1.3 0.2 76.1 0.7 21.3 0.2 0.2 100.0 2,021 4.9 0.3 87.4 0.0 7.1 0.3 0.0 100.0 534 0.4 0.8 53.8 0.0 44.4 0.6 0.0 100.0 537 4.4 0.0 64.9 0.0 29.5 1.1 0.2 100.0 367 1.5 0.1 91.4 1.4 5.6 0.1 0.0 100.0 754 2.2 0.3 87.6 0.6 8.6 0.7 0.1 100.0 879 1.1 0.2 81.9 0.2 16.3 0.0 0.4 100.0 841 2.3 0.4 72.0 0.6 24.0 0.5 0.2 100.0 2,399 2.1 0.0 92.6 0.2 4.9 0.3 0.0 100.0 1,068 1.7 0.4 95.3 0.2 2.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 445 0.5 0.1 71.1 1.1 26.8 0.3 0.1 100.0 1,084 2.8 0.3 83.8 0.2 12.3 0.4 0.1 100.0 2,828 2.2 0.3 77.8 0.5 18.6 0.5 0.1 100.0 3,000 2.1 0.5 85.1 0.4 11.1 0.4 0.3 100.0 396 1.9 0.0 91.1 0.0 7.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 516 2.2 0.3 80.3 0.4 16.3 0.4 0.1 100.0 3,912 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Earns cash includes both women who receive only cash and those who receive both cash and in-kind payment. Does not earn cash includes both women who receive only in-kind payment and those who receive no payment. or to be self employed. Only 59 percent of working women age 15-19 work for someone else, compared with 83 percent or more of women age 25 or older. Rural working women (22 percent) are about twice as likely as urban working women (12 percent), to be working for a family member. Twenty-five percent of working women who have at most completed secondary education work for a family member, compared with 5 percent or less of working women with secondary-special or higher education. One in five Turkmen working women work for a family member compared with about one in ten or less of women from other ethnic groups. Women working in agricultural occupations are also more than twice as likely as those working in nonagricultural occupations to be employed by a family member. Working for a family member is most common, however, in the Akhal and Balkan regions. In these regions, 45 percent and 31 percent, respectively, of working women work for a family member, higher than in any other subgroup of the population. Although very few women are self employed, the proportion self employed is much higher among working women in Ashgabad City and in the Balkan Region (4-5 percent) than among women in most of the other subgroups of the population. 28 * Women’s Characteristics, and Status 3.1.7 DECISIONMAKING REGARDING USE OF CASH EARNINGS Employed women who earn cash for their work were asked who the main decisionmaker is with regard to the use of their earnings. This information allows the assessment of women’s control over their own earnings. Table 3.8 shows how working women’s control over their own earnings varies by background characteristics. While 24 percent of women alone decide how their earnings are to be used, the majority, 54 percent, take these decisions jointly with their partner or someone else. More than one out of five women (22 percent) have no part in the decision on how their earnings are used. The likelihood that women do not participate at all in the decision about how their earnings are to be used declines sharply with age, from 51 percent for women age 15-19 to 5 percent for women age 45-49. Among currently married women the proportion not participating in this decision is only 14 percent, but few also make this decision alone (19 percent). Almost all (91 percent) of widowed, divorced, or separated women tend to take this decision alone, however. In addition, working women who belong to ethnicities other than Turkmen or Uzbek (48 percent) or who live in Ashgabad City (45 percent) are also more likely than most other women to take the decision about the use of their earnings by themselves. About one-third of women who live in urban areas, have secondary-special education, live in the Balkan Region, or have 1-2 children, take these decisions alone. Notably, about one-third or more of women who are never married, have no children, live in rural areas, or live in the Mary Region do not participate at all in decisions about how their earnings are to be used. In order to assess the relative importance of women’s earnings in meeting household expenditures, TDHS 2000 asked employed women who earned cash “On average, how much of your household’s expenditure do your earnings pay for: almost none, less than half, about half, more than half, or all?” This information not only allows an evaluation of the relative importance of women’s earnings in the household economy, but has implications for the empowerment of women. It is expected that employment and earnings are more likely to empower women if they perceive their earnings as important for meeting the needs of their households. The variation by background characteristics in the extent to which women’s earnings pay for their households’ expenditures (for women who are employed and earn cash), is also shown in Table 3.8. From Table 3.8, it is clear that when women work for cash, their earnings are critical to meeting household expenditures in a substantial proportion of cases. Specifically, in the case of 35 percent of women who earn cash, the woman’s earnings alone pay for at least half of her household’s expenditures. This suggests that the households of almost one in five women age 15-49 are dependent on the earnings of women alone to meet the majority of their expenditures. For women who earn cash, the likelihood that their earnings pay for at least half of their household’s expenditures rises with age, from 16 percent for women age 15-19 to over 40 percent for women age 30-49. At least half of the household’s expenditures are met by the woman’s earnings in the case of 40 percent or more of working women with 1-4 children. Notably too, households’ of at least half of the women who are divorced, separated, or widowed, who live in the Balkan Region, who have higher education, or who belong to ethnicities other than Turkmen or Uzbek depend on women’s earnings to meet at least half of their expenditures. The earnings of women play a much more important role in meeting household expenditures in urban than rural areas. Table 3.9 shows whether working women’s control over their own earnings varies by the extent to which their earnings help to meet household expenditures. With the exception of women whose earnings pay for almost none of their households’ expenditures, among all other women who work for cash, the proportion who alone take the decision about how their earnings are to be used increases with the extent to which their earnings pay for household expenditures. For example, Women’s Characteristics, and Status * 29 among currently married women 15 percent of women whose earnings pay for less than half of household expenditures, 21 percent of women whose earnings pay for half or more of household expenditures, and 53 percent of women whose earnings pay for all household expenditures alone take the decision on how their earnings should be used. Surprisingly, however, among currently married women, the proportion who do not participate at all in the decision on the use of their earnings first declines from 17 percent to 9 percent as contributions to household expenditures increase from less than half to half or more than half, but then rises again to 14 percent for women whose earnings are used to meet all of the household’s expenditures. Among women, whose earnings meet almost none of their households’ expenditures, the use of earnings is about equally likely to be decided alone by women themselves as by a husband or someone else if the woman is currently married; but if she is not currently married, she alone is most likely to decide how her earnings are to be used. Table 3.8 Decision of use of earnings and contribution of earnings to household expenditures Percent distribution of women receiving cash earnings by person who decides how earnings are used and by proportion of household expenditures met by earnings, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Person who decides how earnings Proportion of household expenditures met are used by earnings _______________________________ _______________________________________ Less Half Background Self Someone Almost than or characteristic only Jointly else Missing Total none half more All Missing Total Number _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Marital status Never married Married or in union Divorced, separated, widowed Number of living children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 12.8 35.7 51.1 0.4 100.0 3.9 80.0 15.4 0.4 0.3 100.0 418 17.2 39.7 42.9 0.2 100.0 4.3 72.6 20.1 2.8 0.2 100.0 708 24.0 49.8 26.0 0.2 100.0 2.6 65.2 28.5 3.7 0.0 100.0 637 25.2 62.7 12.1 0.0 100.0 1.4 54.5 39.3 4.8 0.0 100.0 602 27.6 65.0 7.4 0.0 100.0 1.1 56.9 33.5 8.5 0.0 100.0 587 24.2 66.1 9.7 0.0 100.0 0.7 54.4 39.6 5.3 0.0 100.0 507 38.8 56.6 4.6 0.0 100.0 0.6 56.4 33.9 9.1 0.0 100.0 410 17.4 34.1 48.1 0.4 100.0 4.5 76.2 18.0 1.0 0.3 100.0 1,037 18.6 67.2 14.2 0.0 100.0 1.3 60.8 34.3 3.6 0.0 100.0 2,533 91.3 5.4 3.3 0.0 100.0 1.6 34.0 35.3 29.0 0.0 100.0 297 19.6 35.3 44.7 0.4 100.0 4.4 74.7 18.9 1.7 0.2 100.0 1,196 30.8 52.1 17.1 0.0 100.0 1.5 55.0 35.1 8.4 0.0 100.0 1,177 23.4 68.6 8.0 0.0 100.0 0.7 58.7 35.2 5.4 0.0 100.0 962 19.1 70.7 10.2 0.0 100.0 1.3 61.1 34.4 3.1 0.0 100.0 533 35.5 50.8 13.6 0.1 100.0 1.9 54.6 35.7 7.9 0.0 100.0 1,869 13.1 56.1 30.7 0.1 100.0 2.5 70.6 24.7 2.0 0.1 100.0 1,998 44.9 44.6 10.4 0.0 100.0 1.0 56.0 33.3 9.7 0.0 100.0 530 13.4 61.2 25.3 0.0 100.0 0.8 85.5 12.3 1.4 0.0 100.0 530 32.1 52.9 15.0 0.0 100.0 2.7 43.2 51.3 2.8 0.0 100.0 362 20.0 61.0 18.8 0.2 100.0 1.5 70.0 25.2 3.2 0.2 100.0 743 24.3 57.2 18.6 0.0 100.0 3.9 57.6 34.4 4.2 0.0 100.0 864 16.7 44.5 38.5 0.3 100.0 2.4 60.6 29.8 7.0 0.2 100.0 838 18.9 52.0 29.0 0.1 100.0 2.5 69.2 24.9 3.4 0.1 100.0 2,362 32.7 54.1 13.2 0.0 100.0 1.9 54.6 36.1 7.4 0.0 100.0 1,063 29.7 60.5 9.3 0.5 100.0 1.3 49.0 42.9 6.7 0.1 100.0 442 19.4 54.5 26.0 0.1 100.0 2.4 66.0 28.3 3.3 0.1 100.0 2,961 26.5 59.0 14.2 0.3 100.0 1.9 59.9 29.7 8.3 0.2 100.0 389 47.5 44.2 8.3 0.0 100.0 1.3 47.2 40.3 11.2 0.0 100.0 516 23.9 53.6 22.4 0.1 100.0 2.2 62.9 30.0 4.9 0.1 100.0 3,867 30 * Women’s Characteristics, and Status 3.2 DIRECT MEASURES OF WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT In addition to information on women’s education, employment status, and earnings control, TDHS 2000 also obtained information on some additional direct measures of women’s status and empowerment. Specifically, questions were asked on women’s participation in household decisionmaking and on their opinions about when a wife should be able to refuse sex to her husband. These data provide insight into women’s control over their lives and their environment and their attitudes toward traditional gender roles, which are all important aspects of women’s empowerment relevant for understanding demographic and health behaviors. These questions are used to define two different indicators of women’s empowerment: women’s participation in decisionmaking and their degree of acceptance of a wife’s right to refuse her husband sex. The first measure requires little justification since the ability to take decisions about ones own life is essential to the concept of empowerment. Beliefs about whether and when a woman can refuse sex to her husband reflect issues of gender equity with regard to sexual rights and bodily integrity. Besides yielding an important measure of empowerment, the information about women’s attitudes toward sexual rights will be useful for improving and monitoring reproductive health programs that depend on women’s willingness and ability to control their own sexual lives. 3.2.1 HOUSEHOLD DECISIONMAKING In order to assess women’s decisionmaking roles, women were asked who in their families usually has the final say in five different decisions, namely, decisions about the respondent’s own health care, making large household purchases, making household purchases for daily needs, visits to family, friends, or relatives, and what food should be cooked each day. Table 3.10 shows the percent distribution of women according to who in the household usually has the final say on each one of the different types of decisions. Most currently married women, three out of four, usually take decisions alone on what food to cook each day. Only a minority of women, however, alone have the final say on each of the other decisions. Even in decisions about their own health care, only 41 percent of women alone have the final say, and in decisions about daily household purchases, only 33 percent alone have the final say. One in ten women or less alone have the final say about visits to family or relatives or about large household purchases. In addition, for 17 percent of currently married women, husbands or someone else takes decisions about the woman’s health care without her involvement in the final say. Similarly, more than one-fifth of currently married women are not involved at all (either alone or jointly with someone else in the final say) in each of the decisions about large household purchases, daily household purchases, and visits to family and relatives. Notably, women who are currently not married are even more likely than married women to not have the final say at all in each of the different decisions. For example, about half of unmarried or formerly married women do not participate in decisions about their own health care and in decisions about what food to cook; the proportion not involved at all rises to two-thirds for decisions about daily household purchases and large household purchases. Table 3.11 shows how participation in decisionmaking varies for all women by background characteristics. Women are said to participate in a decision if they alone or jointly with a husband or someone else have the final say. The proportion of women who participate in all five decisions increases more or less steadily with age, from 18 percent for women age 15-19 to 78 percent for women age 45-49. At least 3 out of 4 women in all the age groups 30-34 and above participate in Women’s Characteristics, and Status * 31 Ta bl e 3. 10 H ou se ho ld d ec isi on m ak in g Pe rc en t d ist rib ut io n of w om en b y pe rs on w ho m ak es s pe ci fic h ou se ho ld d ec isi on s an d m ar ita l s ta tu s, ac co rd in g to ty pe o f d ec isi on , T ur km en ist an 2 00 0 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ M ar rie d/ liv in g to ge th er N ot m ar rie d/ no t l iv in g to ge th er __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ Jo in tly Jo in tly Jo in tly w ith So m eo ne Jo in tly w ith So m eo ne Se lf w ith so m eo ne H us ba nd el se Se lf w ith so m eo ne H us ba nd el se H ou se ho ld d ec isi on on ly hu sb an d el se on ly on ly M iss in g To ta l N um be r on ly hu sb an d el se on ly on ly M iss in g To ta l N um be r __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ O w n he al th c ar e 40 .3 40 .4 2. 6 9. 3 7. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 4, 89 2 32 .3 0. 3 20 .4 0. 1 46 .8 0. 0 10 0. 0 3, 02 7 La rg e ho us eh ol d pu rc ha se s 7. 2 61 .1 4. 0 13 .6 14 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 4, 89 2 13 .4 0. 5 18 .2 0. 2 67 .7 0. 0 10 0. 0 3, 02 7 D ai ly h ou se ho ld p ur ch as es 32 .3 39 .1 3. 6 10 .9 14 .0 0. 1 10 0. 0 4, 89 2 17 .4 0. 5 16 .3 0. 1 65 .6 0. 1 10 0. 0 3, 02 7 V isi ts to fa m ily , f rie nd s, o r r el at iv es 9. 8 64 .2 3. 8 10 .4 11 .8 0. 0 10 0. 0 4, 89 2 17 .3 0. 7 24 .1 0. 1 57 .8 0. 1 10 0. 0 3, 02 7 W ha t f oo d to c oo k ea ch d ay 76 .3 9. 8 5. 4 0. 9 7. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 4, 89 2 28 .9 0. 2 22 .8 0. 0 48 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 3, 02 7 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ N ot e: N ot m ar rie d/ no t l iv in g to ge th er in cl ud es n ev er m ar rie d, d iv or ce d, w id ow ed a nd s ep ar at ed w om en . Ta bl e 3. 9 C on tro l o ve r e ar ni ng s ac co rd in g to c on tri bu tio n to h ou se ho ld e xp en di tu re s Pe rc en t d ist rib ut io n of w om en r ec ei vi ng c as h ea rn in gs b y pe rs on w ho d ec id es h ow e ar ni ng s ar e us ed a nd m ar ita l s ta tu s, a cc or di ng to h ow m uc h of h ou se ho ld ex pe nd itu re s ar e m et b y ea rn in gs , T ur km en ist an 2 00 0 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ M ar rie d/ liv in g to ge th er N ot m ar rie d/ no t l iv in g to ge th er __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ Jo in tly Jo in tly C on tri bu tio n Jo in tly w ith So m eo ne w ith So m eo ne to h ou se ho ld Se lf w ith so m eo ne H us ba nd el se Se lf so m eo ne el se ex pe nd itu re s on ly hu sb an d el se on ly on ly To ta l N um be r on ly el se on ly M iss in g To ta l N um be r __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ Pr op or tio n of h ou se ho ld e xp en di tu re s m et b y ea rn in gs Al m os t n on e (2 6. 5) (4 2. 7) (4 .9 ) (1 7. 2) (8 .6 ) 10 0. 0 32 52 .1 6. 0 41 .8 0. 0 10 0. 0 52 Le ss th an h al f 15 .1 65 .8 2. 6 7. 6 9. 0 10 0. 0 1, 54 0 21 .4 32 .7 45 .5 0. 4 10 0. 0 89 1 H al f o f m or e 21 .0 69 .0 0. 6 7. 7 1. 7 10 0. 0 87 0 48 .6 24 .8 26 .6 0. 0 10 0. 0 29 1 Al l 53 .0 28 .4 3. 6 14 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 91 95 .8 2. 5 1. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 To ta l1 18 .6 65 .2 2. 0 8. 0 6. 1 10 0. 0 2, 53 3 33 .9 27 .7 38 .1 0. 3 10 0. 0 1, 33 4 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ N ot e: N ot m ar rie d/ no t l iv in g to ge th er in cl ud es n ev er m ar rie d, d iv or ce d, w id ow ed a nd s ep ar at ed w om en . P ar en th es es in di ca te th at a fi gu re is b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s. 1 To ta l i nc lu de s 3 ca se s fo r w hi ch p ro po rti on o f h ou se ho ld e xp en di tu re s m et b y ea rn in gs w as m iss in g. 32 * Women’s Characteristics, and Status 3.11 Final say in household decisions Percentage of women who say that they alone or jointly have the final say in specific household decisions, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Alone or jointly have say in _____________________________________________________ Visits to Has final Has final Own Making Making family, What food say in all say in no Background health large daily relatives, to cook specified specified Number of characteristic care purchases purchases friends daily decisions decisions women _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 41.1 19.9 22.6 31.0 43.2 17.7 43.3 1,574 20-24 60.9 35.4 38.8 45.4 61.4 28.9 25.2 1,541 25-29 76.6 58.6 60.1 65.0 82.2 48.1 9.7 1,256 30-34 84.8 77.2 77.5 80.2 93.5 63.4 2.9 1,060 35-39 88.8 82.4 83.7 85.6 96.0 72.7 2.4 974 40-44 89.9 83.9 89.8 91.3 97.6 73.5 0.6 845 45-49 90.9 87.7 90.0 92.1 95.5 78.4 1.9 669 Marital status Never married 46.3 22.9 25.2 34.1 45.2 19.9 39.3 2,563 Married/living together 83.3 72.3 75.0 77.8 91.6 61.0 4.8 4,892 Widowed 95.9 92.3 93.3 92.2 94.9 86.8 1.2 174 Divorced, separated 87.1 78.2 78.9 82.0 84.4 72.6 6.7 289 Number of living children 0 50.0 26.2 28.7 37.1 49.1 22.5 36.2 2,942 1-2 80.8 68.9 70.5 73.5 88.1 58.2 6.7 2,334 3-4 87.4 79.2 82.6 84.2 96.2 67.6 2.0 1,710 5+ 88.9 83.3 86.0 89.1 96.7 72.6 1.0 934 Residence Urban 78.4 63.9 66.5 71.9 80.9 55.1 11.0 3,691 Rural 65.9 50.9 53.3 57.3 72.4 43.1 20.3 4,228 Region Ashgabad City 81.3 64.9 68.1 74.1 81.8 55.8 9.0 1,038 Akhal 81.4 66.3 67.3 77.6 79.0 61.4 12.4 1,145 Balkan 83.8 67.8 64.1 79.2 80.6 57.0 8.3 709 Dashoguz 78.3 60.9 61.7 64.4 78.4 57.3 13.2 1,628 Lebap 67.9 49.6 53.7 55.1 73.3 40.9 18.2 1,607 Mary 52.6 45.1 50.7 51.5 70.8 32.2 25.8 1,791 Education Primary/secondary 67.3 52.0 54.3 59.7 73.0 44.4 19.2 5,800 Secondary-special 82.4 69.6 71.6 74.2 84.7 59.0 7.9 1,556 Higher 87.6 72.7 78.5 81.8 88.3 63.8 4.4 563 Ethnicity Turkmen 69.1 54.5 57.1 62.0 74.6 46.4 17.9 6,191 Uzbek 79.2 61.0 63.5 64.4 81.9 53.5 9.4 857 Other 82.9 70.3 72.4 78.9 83.6 60.2 8.8 871 Current em ployment Not employed 65.7 48.9 51.4 55.7 70.9 41.6 21.3 3,995 For cash 78.1 65.4 67.8 72.8 82.1 56.0 10.4 3,867 Not for cash (69.5) (55.8) (61.2) (64.5) (71.1) (48.7) (16.6) 43 Total1 71.7 57.0 59.4 64.1 76.4 48.7 16.0 7,919 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Parentheses indicate that a figure is based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Total includes 13 cases for which information employment status was missing. Women’s Characteristics, and Status * 33 each decision. Among younger women, however, participation varies greatly by type of decision. By marital status, never-married women are least likely to participate in each decision and widowed women are the most likely to do so. Notably, more than one-third of never-married women do not participate in all of these decisions. Participation in all decisions, as well as in each of the different decisions increases with the number of children. Twenty-three percent of women with no children participate in all decisions compared with 73 percent of women with five or more children. Urban women are more likely than rural women to participate in decisionmaking, and participation in each decision increases with education. By region, participation in all decisions varies from 61 percent for women in the Akhal Region and 56-57 percent for women in the Dashoguz, Balkan, and Ashgabad City regions, to 32 percent for women in the Mary Region. One in four women in the Mary Region and one in five in the Lebap Region do not participate in any of these decisions at all. Turkmen women are somewhat less likely to participate in each of the decisions than Uzbek women, as well as women of other ethnicities. As expected women who work, especially women who work for cash, are more likely than women who do not work, to participate in all decisions. Women may have a say in some and not in other decisions. To assess each woman’s overall degree of engagement in household decisionmaking, the total number of decisions she participates in (i.e., she alone has the final say or does so jointly with her husband or someone else) are added together. The total number of decisions a woman participates in yields a very simple measure of her empowerment in terms of decisionmaking control. Figure 3.3 shows the percent distribution of women in Turkmenistan according to this measure. Overall, about half (49 percent) of the women participate in all five of the decisions, and 16 percent do not participate in any of the decisions. The remainder of the women are distributed about equally among those who participate in only one, only two, only three, and only four decisions. 3.2.2 WOMEN’S AGREEMENT WITH REASONS FOR REFUSING SEXUAL RELATIONS The extent of control women have over when and with whom they have sex has important implications for demographic and health outcomes. To measure women’s agreement with a woman’s right to refuse her husband sex, TDHS 2000 asked respondents whether a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband under four circumstances: she is tired or not in the mood, she has recently given birth, she knows her husband has sex with other women, and she knows her husband has a sexually transmitted disease. These four circumstances for which women’s opinions are sought were chosen because they are effective in combining issues regarding women’s rights and women’s health. Table 3.12 shows the percentage of women who say that women are justified in refusing sex to their husbands for specific reasons by background characteristics. The table also shows how this indicator of women’s empowerment varies with the women’s participation in decisionmaking. It is worth noting that, unlike in the case of the previous indicator of empower- ment, this indicator is positively related to empowerment: the more the reasons women agree with, the higher is their empowerment in terms of their belief in women’s sexual rights. Overall, 52 percent of women in Turkmenistan agree that women can refuse sex to their husbands for all of the four reasons they were asked about. Women are least likely to say that a wife is justified in refusing her husband sex if she is tired or not in the mood (61 percent) and most likely to agree that a wife is justified in refusing sex (75 percent) if she has recently given birth. Notably, however, 20 percent of women say that a wife is not justified in refusing her husband sex for any of the four reasons. Rural women are more likely than urban women to not agree with any of the reasons, and by region, women in the Akhal Region, followed by those in the Mary and Dashoguz regions are more likely than women in other regions to not agree with any of the reasons for refusing sex. However the women who appear least empowered in terms of this indicator are the 34 * Women’s Characteristics, and Status Table 3.12 Women’s agreement with reasons for refusing sexual relations Percentage of women who agree with specific reasons for justifying a wife refusing to have sexual relations with her husband, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Reason justifying wife refusing sexual relations with husband _________________________________________ Knows husband has sexual Agrees Agrees Tired, not Gave relations Knows with all with no Number Background in the birth with other husband specified specified of characteristic mood recently women has AIDS1 reasons reason women _______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Marital status Never married Married or in union Divorced, separated, widowed No. of living children 0 1-2 3-4 5+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education None/primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Current employment Not employed For cash Not for cash Number of decisions in which women has final say2 0 1-2 3-4 5 Total3 32.8 41.3 37.4 38.5 26.0 51.9 1,574 54.9 66.8 59.1 64.5 46.7 26.7 1,541 68.8 86.7 77.1 83.3 60.5 8.8 1,256 72.4 88.0 77.9 85.8 63.8 6.3 1,060 71.7 89.3 78.5 84.0 63.3 7.3 974 73.3 88.4 76.4 84.0 62.5 7.8 845 72.6 90.5 78.0 83.6 63.0 6.2 669 35.2 43.9 39.9 42.5 28.8 49.2 2,563 72.9 89.6 78.6 85.1 63.3 5.9 4,892 71.5 88.8 77.3 84.1 63.7 7.3 463 39.7 49.2 44.2 47.3 32.6 44.0 2,942 75.1 91.1 80.9 87.5 67.0 5.0 2,334 71.9 89.8 78.4 85.7 62.5 5.7 1,710 69.5 87.4 74.5 79.4 58.0 8.2 934 68.0 80.7 73.0 78.4 60.3 14.6 3,691 54.2 69.6 59.9 65.0 45.1 24.7 4,228 72.0 84.4 77.4 81.5 65.5 12.7 1,038 49.6 61.7 53.9 50.9 43.7 36.0 1,145 67.5 83.1 75.7 74.8 58.9 12.4 709 61.6 67.9 59.6 70.1 53.5 22.5 1,628 72.9 85.9 75.8 80.2 61.3 9.4 1,607 46.3 70.7 60.2 69.9 37.8 24.3 1,791 54.1 69.4 60.4 64.8 45.2 24.9 5,800 76.8 89.6 80.6 88.4 69.4 6.6 1,556 82.2 90.1 83.5 90.8 76.5 6.8 563 57.8 73.3 64.2 69.0 49.4 21.5 6,191 68.1 76.4 68.5 75.5 58.8 16.3 857 72.8 83.9 76.2 83.0 65.1 13.0 871 55.1 69.9 61.5 65.5 46.9 24.6 3,995 66.1 79.9 70.6 77.2 57.6 15.3 3,867 71.1 83.2 74.1 76.0 63.4 13.7 43 34.7 43.4 40.7 42.0 28.9 49.1 1,264 55.7 71.5 62.9 67.1 45.9 21.9 1,535 63.2 84.3 69.9 77.9 52.4 11.3 1,265 70.2 83.3 74.2 80.3 62.2 12.6 3,855 60.6 74.8 66.0 71.2 52.2 20.0 7,919 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Parentheses indicate that a figure is based on 25-49 unweighted cases 1 Acquired Immuno Deficiency Syndrome 2 Either by herself or jointly with others 3 Total includes 13 cases for which information on employment status was missing Women’s Characteristics, and Status * 35 youngest women (age 15-19), never-married women, women with no children, and women who do not participate in any household decisions. Almost half of all of these women say that women are not justified in refusing their husbands sex for any of the four reasons asked about. Employed women are more likely to agree with each of the four reasons for refusing sex, than unemployed women. Also the likelihood that women will agree with all of the four reasons increases sharply with women’s participation in decision making: only 29 percent of women who do not participate in any decision say that women can refuse sex to their husbands for all of the four reasons compared with 62 percent of women who participate in all five decisions. Women in Turkmenistan, in general, score high on this measure of empowerment. Nonetheless, the fact that 48 percent of all women, as well as 23 percent of the most educated women and 38 percent of women with the highest level of decision making participation, say that there is at least one reason out of these four for which women are not justified in refusing sex to their husbands does suggest that a significant proportion of women do not feel that a wife has the right to unconditionally decide whether and when she wishes to have sex with her husband. This has implications not only for women’s empowerment, but also for those health initiatives that rest implicitly on the assumption that women can control sexual encounters or feel justified in doing so. 36 * Women’s Characteristics, and Status 1 Numerators for age-specific fertility rates are calculated by summing the number of live births that occurred in the 1 to 36 months preceding the survey (determined from the date of interview and birth date of the child) and classifying them by age (in five-year groups) of the mother at the time of birth (determined from the birth date of the mother). The denominators of the rates are the number of woman-years lived in each of the specified five-year age groups during the 1 to 36 months preceding the survey. Fertility * 37 FERTILITY 4 C.M. Nazarov, A. Mukhamedova, and K. Weinstein For the TDHS 2000 data to accurately describe the fertility status of the population of Turkmenistan, it was necessary for women to state their complete pregnancy history. To promote reporting of all pregnancies that women have had, the TDHS asked women to make separate accountings of live births, abortions (both induced and miniabortions), miscarriages, and stillbirths. The accounting of live births was achieved by asking separately about the number of sons and daughters living with the respondent, the number living elsewhere, and the number who had died. The accounting of all pregnancies was double-checked by interviewers probing for intervening pregnancies in all pregnancy intervals. Each woman’s pregnancy history was obtained in reverse chronological order, from the most recent pregnancy to the respondent’s first pregnancy. The outcome of each pregnancy was recorded (live birth, induced abortion, miniabortion, miscarriage, or stillbirth), as was the date the pregnancy ended. For each pregnancy that resulted in a live birth, information was collected on the sex of the child, survival status, and age (for living children) or age at death (for deceased children). For each pregnancy that did not result in a live birth, duration of the pregnancy was collected and recorded in the calendar portion of the questionnaire. This chapter presents the findings pertaining to live births. Findings pertaining to pregnancy loss are presented in chapter 6 of this report. 4.1 CURRENT FERTILITY Age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs) and the total fertility rate (TFR) presented in Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1 were calculated directly from the information obtained in the pregnancy history. The reported rates refer to the three-year period preceding the survey. Age-specific fertility rates were calculated by dividing the number of births to women in a five-year age interval by the number of woman-years lived in that age interval.1 The total fertility rate is a construct of the age- specific rates computed by summing the age-specific rates and multiplying by five. The TFR is expressed per woman and is calculated to provide a snapshot view of current fertility levels. The TFR is interpreted as the number of children a woman would have in her lifetime if she experienced the currently observed age-specific fertility rates during her childbearing years. If fertility were to remain constant at current levels, Turkmen women would give birth to an average of 2.9 children. Fertility among urban women is lower than it is among rural women during most of the childbearing years, resulting in a TFR among urban women that is 0.8 children lower than among rural women. If fertility were to remain constant at current levels, urban women would have 2.5 children, while rural women would have 3.3 children. Urban women experience their peak childbearing years during their early twenties (age 20-24) while rural women go on to experience their highest rates of childbearing in their late twenties (25-29). 38 * Fertility Table 4.1 Current fertility Age-specific and cumulative fertility rates and the crude birth rate for the three years preceding the survey, by residence and ethnicity, Turkmenistan 2000 _____________________________________________________________________ Residence Ethnicity ________________ _________________________ Age group Urban Rural Turkmen Uzbek Other Total _____________________________________________________________________ 15-19 36 26 26 61 21 30 20-24 165 199 179 255 143 184 25-29 144 244 213 147 105 195 30-34 87 124 118 65 44 105 35-39 50 47 51 42 33 48 40-44 11 17 15 9 9 14 45-49 0 3 2 (0) (0) 1 TFR 15-49 2.46 3.30 3.02 2.90 1.78 2.89 TFR 15-44 2.46 3.28 3.01 2.90 1.78 2.88 GFR 87 116 107 114 59 103 CBR 20.5 28.2 - - - 24.6 ____________________________________________________________________ Note: Rates are for the period 1-36 months preceding the survey. Rates for age group 45-49 may be slightly biased due to truncation. Rates in parentheses indicate that they are based on fewer than 250 woman-years of exposure. TFR: Total fertility rate, expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate (births divided by number of women 15-44), expressed per 1,000 women CBR: Crude birth rate, expressed per 1,000 population 2 The Ministry of Health and Medical Industry reports the following crude birth rates: 28.1 in 1995, 24.0 in 1996, 21.6 in 1997, 20.8 in 1998, and 18.5 in 1999. Fertility * 39 Table 4.2 Fertility by background characteristics Total fertility rate for the three years preceding the survey, percentage currently pregnant and mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________ Mean number of children Total Percentage ever born Background fertility currently to women characteristic rate1 pregnant1 age 40-49 _________________________________________________________ Residence Urban 2.46 3.65 4.05 Rural 3.30 5.07 5.71 Region Ashgabad City 2.10 3.46 3.25 Akhal 2.91 4.68 5.27 Balkan 2.68 3.41 4.82 Dashoguz 3.14 4.98 5.77 Lebap 2.97 5.40 4.78 Mary 3.09 3.79 4.92 Education Primary/secondary 3.03 4.58 5.40 Secondary-special 2.59 3.76 3.57 Higher 2.59 4.42 3.52 Ethnicity Turkmen 3.02 4.52 5.25 Uzbek 2.90 5.25 5.31 Other 1.78 2.80 2.87 Total 2.89 4.41 4.84 ________________________________________________________ 1Women age 15-49 years Women of Turkmen and Uzbek ethnicity exhibit similar overall levels of fertility: Turkmen women exhibit a TFR of 3.0 and Uzbek women exhibit a TFR of 2.9. Women of other ethnicities exhibit a significantly lower level of fertility than either Turkmen or Uzbek women, exhibiting a TFR of only 1.8 children. Table 4.1 also presents two other summary measures of fertility: the general fertility rate (GFR) and the crude birth rate (CBR). These measures are calculated from the birth history data for the three-year period preceding the survey and the age and sex distribution of the household population. The GFR represents the annual number of births in the population per 1,000 women age 15-44. The crude birth rate is the annual number of births in the population per 1,000 population. The CBR of 24.6 as calculated from the TDHS data is higher than that reported by the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry for 1999 of 18.5.2 Table 4.2 and Figure 4.2 present TFRs for the three years preceding the survey by background characteristics. The greatest regional variation in fertility is seen between Ashgabad City and the rest of Turkmenistan. With a TFR of 2.1, women in Ashgabad City exhibit a TFR that is one child fewer than women elsewhere in Turkmenistan, who exhibit TFRs between 2.9 and 3.1, with the exception of the Balkan Region, which exhibits a slightly lower TFR of 2.7. 40 * Fertility Women in Turkmenistan exhibit a childbearing pattern, observed in many societies, of lower fertility among women with higher education. The TFR declines from 3 children per woman among women with primary or secondary education to 2.6 children among women with either secondary- special or higher education. Table 4.2 also shows the percentage of women who report themselves to be currently pregnant. Because women at early stages of pregnancy may not yet know they are pregnant, this proportion may be underestimated. Percentages are generally low, commensurate with fertility that is relatively low overall. Table 4.2 also shows the mean number of children ever born (CEB) to women age 40-49. Trends in fertility can be inferred by comparing the TFR (a measure of current fertility) with the mean number of CEB (a measure of completed fertility). If there had been no change in fertility for three or more decades before the survey, the TFR and CEB would be nearly the same. That the TFR (2.9 children per woman) is as much as two children lower than the CEB (4.8) indicates that fertility has declined in Turkmenistan over the past three decades. The TFR is lower than the CEB among both urban and rural women and in every region, educational level, and ethnic group. 3 Truncation progressively limits how far into the past fertility rates can be calculated. For example, rates cannot be calculated for women age 40-44 for the period 10-14 years before the survey because these women would have been over age 50 years at the time of the survey and therefore not interviewed. Partial rates (based on partial exposure time) can be calculated for women age 40-44 for the period 5-9 years before the survey because some of these women were age 45-49 at the time of the survey and therefore included for interview. Partial rates that are subject to truncation are shown in brackets in Table 4.3. Fertility * 41 Table 4.3 Trends in age-specific fertility rates Age-specific fertility rates for five-year periods preceding the survey, by mother’s age at the time of birth, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________ Number of years preceding the survey _________________________________ Mother’s age 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 _________________________________________________ 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 29 30 21 24 192 224 243 256 204 267 307 310 113 179 208 [214] 50 78 [128] - 16 [30] - - [2] - - - _________________________________________________ Note: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. 4.2 FERTILITY TRENDS To examine fertility trends more directly, it is possible to look at the ASFRs over time. Age-specific fertility rates can be calculated for the preceding 20 years from the TDHS data.3 Table 4.3 presents age- specific fertility rates for five-year periods preceding the survey using data on live births from respondents’ pregnancy histories. With the exception of 15- to 19- year-olds, there is evidence of a decline in fertility for all cohorts for which rates can be calculated. The decline in fertility from 5 to 9 to 0 to 4 years prior to the survey increases from a 14 percent decline among 20- to 24-year-olds to a 36 percent decline among 35- to 39-year-olds. The TDHS data indicate that fertility among 25- to 29-year-olds has fallen by one-quarter over the past 20 years. Figure 4.3 provides a graphical representation of these declines. 42 * Fertility 4.3 CHILDREN EVER BORN AND LIVING Table 4.4 presents the distribution of all women and currently married women by number of children ever born. The main difference between the data for currently married women and the total sample occurs among women under the age of 25, the majority of whom are unmarried, with no children. The table also shows the mean number of children ever born by five-year age group of the mother. The mean number of children ever born among all women is only two children; among currently married women, it is three children. Again, the difference is largely due to the fact that the youngest women have not yet had their children. The mean number of children ever born rises steadily with age, reaching five children among women age 45-49. A cursory view of the survival status of children can be made by comparing the mean number of children ever born to the mean number surviving, which is also shown in Table 4.4. Overall, 10 percent of live births had not survived to the time of the survey. The proportion of children who have not survived to the time of the survey slowly increases from 8 percent among women currently age 20-24 to 13 percent among women age 45-49. 4.4 Children ever born and living Percent distribution of all women and currently married women by number of children ever born, and mean number of children ever born and mean number of ever born living children, according to five-year age group, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mean Number of children ever born (CEB) Number Mean number __________________________________________________________________________ of number of living Age group 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10+ Total women of CEB children _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ALL WOMEN _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 97.4 2.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,574 0.03 0.03 20-24 61.4 21.6 13.3 3.2 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,541 0.60 0.55 25-29 21.4 20.6 36.2 16.1 4.4 1.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,256 1.66 1.52 30-34 6.7 9.8 26.4 30.2 17.8 5.4 2.8 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 1,060 2.75 2.51 35-39 5.1 5.3 14.3 22.5 22.8 18.3 7.7 2.7 0.5 0.5 0.3 100.0 974 3.61 3.21 40-44 2.6 3.6 9.3 13.8 18.2 18.1 16.5 8.7 4.9 2.4 1.8 100.0 845 4.68 4.14 45-59 1.4 6.8 8.7 11.8 11.1 18.3 14.4 12.8 6.8 4.0 4.0 100.0 669 5.05 4.38 Total 36.6 10.90 15.4 12.5 8.8 6.7 4.3 2.5 1.2 0.7 0.6 100.0 7,919 2.12 1.90 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 55.5 42.7 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 83 0.46 0.42 20-24 18.3 44.5 29.1 7.3 0.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 682 1.28 1.19 25-29 7.2 23.2 43.1 19.6 5.3 1.3 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,015 1.98 1.82 30-34 1.8 8.4 27.3 32.5 19.9 6.0 3.1 0.8 0.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 934 2.97 2.70 35-39 2.6 4.8 12.8 23.3 24.2 19.3 8.6 2.9 0.6 0.5 0.3 100.0 857 3.79 3.38 40-44 1.6 2.9 8.5 12.4 19.0 19.2 17.9 9.4 4.8 2.3 2.0 100.0 765 4.84 4.28 45-49 0.7 5.4 7.3 11.3 11.1 18.0 16.2 13.7 7.2 4.7 4.3 100.0 556 5.27 4.59 Total 6.1 15.3 22.6 18.6 13.5 9.9 6.8 3.7 1.7 1.0 0.9 100.0 4,892 3.18 2.85 Fertility * 43 Table 4.5 Birth intervals Percent distribution of non-first births in the five years preceding the survey by number of months since previous birth, according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of months since previous birth Median Number ______________________________________ number of of Characteristic 7-17 18-23 24-35 36-47 48+ Total months births _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age of mother 15-19 * * * * * 100.0 * 2 20-29 27.1 23.0 33.0 9.5 7.4 100.0 24.0 1,161 30-39 10.5 14.8 33.5 13.9 27.3 100.0 31.7 1,093 40+ 2.6 6.2 19.5 17.0 54.8 100.0 55.0 146 Birth order 2-3 21.3 20.7 32.3 10.9 14.9 100.0 26.1 1,666 4-6 11.6 12.4 33.0 13.8 29.3 100.0 32.3 626 7+ 5.5 15.4 30.2 18.5 30.4 100.0 34.9 109 Sex of prior birth Male 17.3 19.1 30.1 12.5 21.0 100.0 28.3 1,168 Female 18.8 17.5 34.5 11.4 17.8 100.0 27.3 1,233 Survival of prior birth Yes 15.2 18.8 33.1 12.7 20.3 100.0 28.3 2,113 No 38.7 14.7 27.6 6.8 12.2 100.0 22.9 288 Residence Urban 14.7 15.2 29.5 12.9 27.6 100.0 29.9 920 Rural 20.1 20.2 34.2 11.4 14.2 100.0 26.4 1,481 Region Ashgabad City 14.4 11.9 34.9 9.2 29.6 100.0 30.0 220 Akhal 15.7 19.0 31.8 12.4 21.0 100.0 27.9 340 Balkan 12.3 12.2 28.1 16.6 30.7 100.0 34.8 177 Dashoguz 17.3 21.5 35.7 11.1 14.3 100.0 26.6 564 Lebap 18.2 18.9 30.2 14.2 18.5 100.0 27.3 480 Mary 22.7 18.4 31.7 10.5 16.7 100.0 26.9 620 Education Primary/secondary 18.4 18.9 34.1 11.6 17.0 100.0 27.4 1,679 Secondary-special 17.9 18.2 27.6 12.7 23.6 100.0 28.2 538 Higher 14.9 13.0 30.9 13.7 27.5 100.0 30.6 184 Ethnicity Turkman 18.8 18.8 32.6 11.9 17.8 100.0 27.3 1,994 Uzbek 14.9 18.1 34.5 14.0 18.6 100.0 28.2 276 Other 13.9 10.5 24.2 8.2 43.2 100.0 36.5 132 Total 18.0 18.3 32.4 12.0 19.3 100.0 27.7 2,401 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: First births are excluded. The interval for multiple births is the number of months since the preceding pregnancy that ended in a live birth. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 4.4 BIRTH INTERVALS The length of birth intervals is an important component of childbearing. Research has shown that children born too close to a previous birth have an increased risk of dying, especially when the interval between births is less than 24 months. Table 4.5 presents the percent distribution of second- and higher-order births in the five years prior to the survey by the number of months since the previous birth. The median birth interval length is 27.7 months, just over 2 years. Overall, 36 percent of births occur within 24 months of the previous birth (see Figure 4.4). 44 * Fertility Two-thirds of closely spaced births occur to women who are in their twenties. Half the births these women had were born within 24 months of the previous birth. Because these are young women, the lowest birth orders (two or three births) also show the greatest likelihood of being born soon after the previous birth. Births that occur after a prior death are more likely than births following a living child to be born within 24 months: half versus one-third, respectively. Table 4.5 shows that the distribution of births by birth interval length varies by other background characteristics as well. Forty percent of births born to rural women were born within 24 months of the previous birth, whereas 30 percent of births to urban women were born so soon thereafter. Births to women in the regions of Mary, Dashoguz, Lebap, and Akhal are all more likely to be born within 24 months of the previous birth (35 to 41 percent are born within this interval) than are births to women in Ashgabad City or the Balkan Region, where one-quarter of births are born within this interval. A differential of the same magnitude is observed by education and ethnicity. Thirty-seven percent of births to women with primary, secondary, or secondary-special education are born within 24 months of the previous birth, whereas 28 percent of births to women with higher education are born within this interval. Thirty-eight percent of births to Turkmen women and 33 percent of births to Uzbek women are born within 24 months of the previous birth, whereas 24 percent of births born to women of other ethnicities are born within this interval. Fertility * 45 Table 4.6 Age at first birth Percent distribution of women 15-49 by age at first birth, according to current age, Turkmenistan 2000 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Women Median with Age at first birth Number age at no _________________________________________ of first Current age births <15 15-17 18-19 20-21 22-24 25+ Total women birth ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 97.4 0.0 1.0 1.6 na na na 100.0 1,574 a 20-24 61.4 0.1 1.8 12.6 14.8 9.4 0.0 100.0 1,541 a 25-29 21.4 0.1 1.7 11.0 22.4 30.6 12.9 100.0 1,256 23.3 30-34 6.7 0.1 0.8 9.1 21.8 38.1 23.5 100.0 1,060 23.4 35-39 5.1 0.0 1.5 8.6 24.7 34.9 25.3 100.0 974 23.3 40-44 2.6 0.0 1.2 17.7 30.0 30.6 18.0 100.0 845 22.1 45-49 1.4 0.2 3.9 21.5 28.8 28.7 15.6 100.0 669 21.7 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ na = Not applicable a Median not included because less than 50 percent of the women in the age group x to x+4 had a birth by age x 4.5 AGE AT FIRST BIRTH The age at which childbearing begins has important demographic consequences for society as a whole as well as for the health and welfare of mother and child. Early initiation into childbearing is generally associated with large family size and rapid population growth when family planning is not widely practiced. Table 4.6 presents the percent distribution of women by age at first birth according to current age. Initiation into childbearing is heavily concentrated within the ages of 20-24. Women now in their twenties and thirties are less likely than women now in their forties to have begun childbearing in their teens. So while initiation into childbearing is concentrated within the early twenties, there has been a slight shift, resulting in a median age of initiation among women in their late twenties and thirties that is 1 year later than the median age among women in their early forties and 1.5 years later than women in their late forties. This slight increase among women age 25-39, compared with women in their forties, can also be seen in Table 4.7, which presents the median age at first birth for cohorts age 25 and above across background characteristics. The only other differential of note is by ethnicity. Turkmen women initiate childbearing, on average, at a later age than do Uzbek women or women of other ethnicities. Turkmen women age 25-29 have a median age at first birth (23.7) that is two years later than Uzbek women (21.6) or women of other ethnicities (21.4). 46 * Fertility Table 4.7 Median age at first birth Median age at first birth among women age 25-49 years, by current age and background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________ Current age _________________________________________________ Background Ages characteristic 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 25-49 __________________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 22.8 23.1 23.2 22.1 21.9 22.7 23.6 23.7 23.3 22.1 21.6 23.0 23.2 22.8 23.7 22.3 22.5 23.0 23.6 23.2 23.2 22.2 21.5 22.9 23.7 24.3 24.0 23.0 21.6 23.5 23.9 24.3 23.5 21.9 21.8 23.2 22.3 22.7 22.6 22.5 21.1 22.3 23.4 23.5 22.8 21.7 21.7 22.8 23.1 23.3 23.0 21.7 21.4 22.5 23.0 23.2 23.4 22.7 21.7 23.0 a 24.4 24.8 25.1 24.5 24.8 23.7 23.7 23.5 22.3 21.7 23.2 21.6 22.4 21.9 21.5 21.4 21.7 21.4 21.7 22.4 21.6 21.7 21.8 23.3 23.4 23.3 22.1 21.7 22.9 __________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: The medians for cohorts 15-19 and 20-24 could not be determined because half the women have not had a birth before reaching age 15 and age 20, respectively. a Omitted because less than 50 percent of the women in the age group x to x+4 have had a birth by age x. 4.6 PREGNANCY AND MOTHERHOOD AMONG WOMEN AGE 15-19 Fertility among women age 15-19 warrants special attention because young mothers at this age as, well as their children, are at high risk of encountering social and health problems. There has been much research done on this topic, but the causality of the problems has proven difficult to identify. Children born to young mothers are associated with higher levels of illness and mortality during childhood than are children born to older mothers. Table 4.8 presents the percentage of women age 15-19 who are mothers or pregnant with their first child. The TDHS reports that early childbearing is minimal in Turkmenistan, almost nonexistent before the age of 19. Twelve percent of women age 19 have begun childbearing in Turkmenistan. Fertility * 47 Table 4.8 Pregnancy and motherhood among women age 15-19 Percentage of women 15-19 who are mothers or pregnant with their first child, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________________ Percentage who are: Percentage _____________________ who have Number Pregnant with begun child of Background characteristic Mothers 1st child bearing women _______________________________________________________________________ Age 15 16 17 18 19 Residence Urban Rural Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 0.0 0.0 0.0 296 0.0 0.2 0.2 319 1.4 1.9 3.3 320 3.1 2.4 5.5 307 8.3 3.3 11.7 333 2.8 1.0 3.8 659 2.5 2.1 4.6 915 2.8 1.5 4.3 1,480 0.0 4.1 4.1 71 * * * 23 0.0 0.0 0.0 157 3.4 2.1 5.5 241 4.1 2.9 7.0 128 2.4 1.3 3.7 336 2.8 2.2 5.0 349 2.8 1.3 4.1 364 2.5 1.4 3.9 1,263 4.3 2.0 6.3 178 1.8 3.6 5.4 132 2.6 1.6 4.3 1,574 _______________________________________________________________________ Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 1 Women were asked about both the male condom and the female condom. Use of the word condom in this text will refer to the male condom; the female condom will be referred to explicit ly as the female condom. 2 Emergency contraception refers to pills that a woman can take the day after having sexual intercourse to avoid becom ing pregnant. The lactational amenorrhea method refers to a specifically taught method of pregnancy avoidance to delay the return of the menstrual period by feeding an infant only but breast milk for up to six months after birth. Contraception * 49 CONTRACEPTION 5 S.M. Turayeva, N.M. Bekmuradov, and K. Weinstein A primary function of reproductive health programs is to advocate conscious entry into parenthood for both men and women, i.e., to grant families the right to define their desired number of children and provide the means to achieve that goal. This involves the control of reproductive behavior, including conception, preservation of the fetus, and childbearing, as well as prevention of conception and interruption of pregnancy. Contraception not only helps couples avoid undesired pregnancies but also allows them to control the timing of their childbearing. By controlling the time they enter into parenthood, the time they stop childbearing, and the intervals between births, couples can achieve their ultimate desired family size. Appropriate spacing of pregnancies and births has positive effects on the overall health of both mother and child and is also a contributing factor in the reduction of maternal and infant mortality and secondary sterility. The efficacy of contraception depends on people’s knowledge of methods and on the availability of methods to meet the varying needs of a wide spectrum of potential users. Availability of methods, in turn, depends on the quality and quantity of service providers and on available financial and technical resources. The topics addressed in this chapter include knowledge of contraceptive methods, sources of supply, use of methods in the past and present, reasons for nonuse, desire to use in the future, and attitudes and exposure to messages about contraception. These data can serve as an information base for the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry to better define the need for contraceptives and better define the allocation of resources. 5.1 KNOWLEDGE OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS Determining levels of knowledge and use of contraceptive methods was one of the major objectives of the TDHS survey. Data on contraceptive knowledge were collected by asking the respondent to name ways or methods by which a couple could delay or avoid pregnancy. If the respondent did not mention a particular method spontaneously, the interviewer would describe the unmentioned method and ask whether the respondent had heard of such a method. Thus, knowledge of a contraceptive method is defined simply as having heard of a method. Contraceptive methods include both modern and traditional methods. Modern methods include the pill, the IUD, injectables, female and male sterilization, implants, barrier methods (diaphragm, foam, jelly, and both male and female condoms1), emergency contraception, and the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM).2 Traditional methods include periodic abstinence (rhythm method) and withdrawal. 50 * Contraception Table 5.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods Percentage of all women, of currently married women, of sexually active unmarried women, of sexually inactive unmarried women, and of women with no sexual experience who know any specific contraceptive method, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________________________ Unmarried women _________________ Women Currently Not with no Contraceptive All married Sexually sexually sexual method women women active active experience ______________________________________________________________________________________________ Any method Any modern method Pill IUD Injection Diaphragm/cervical cap Foam/jelly Female condom Male condom Female sterilization Male sterilization Implants Emergency contraception Lactational amenorrhea (LAM) Any traditional method Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Mean number of methods known Number of women 93.5 99.3 * 98.7 81.5 93.5 99.3 * 98.7 81.5 67.1 79.2 * 78.8 41.8 92.3 98.5 * 97.9 79.4 62.9 75.0 * 69.2 38.6 7.7 9.3 * 16.9 2.9 13.4 16.3 * 24.8 5.9 6.3 7.5 * 10.4 3.4 59.6 68.4 * 69.7 41.1 34.2 42.3 * 44.1 17.0 8.9 10.9 * 16.1 3.7 3.2 4.0 * 3.3 1.6 7.7 9.6 * 12.9 3.1 64.6 87.5 * 80.6 17.9 44.6 61.2 * 57.1 10.6 28.9 38.6 * 40.8 8.2 33.2 46.7 * 40.8 6.2 4.8 6.8 * 8.8 0.3 4.9 6.0 * 6.1 2.7 7,919 4,892 6 460 2,561 ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Unmarried sexually active: Unmarried women who have had sexual intercourse in the 30 days preceding the survey. Unmarried not sexually active: Unmarried women who have had sexual intercourse but have not had sexual intercourse in the 30 days preceding the survey. Women with no sexual experience: Women who have never had sexual intercourse. LAM: Knowledge of lactational amenorrhea method includes women who know that to use the method, a woman must be exclusively or fully breastfeeding, be less than six months postpartum, be postpartum, be postpartum amenorrheic and who know to use another contraceptive method when any of the previous criteria do not hold. Information on knowledge of contraception is presented in Table 5.1. Every married woman has heard of the IUD (99 percent). Five modern methods are known to more than two-thirds of married women: the IUD (99 percent), LAM (88 percent), the pill (79 percent), injectables (75 percent), and the condom (68 percent). Female sterilization is known to 42 percent of married women. The remaining modern methods are known only to a minority of married women. Knowledge of a traditional method of contraception is substantial, but not universal; 39 percent of married women have heard of periodic abstinence, and 47 percent have heard of withdrawal. The mean number of methods known, also shown in Table 5.1, is a rough indicator of the breadth of knowledge of family planning methods. Married women know an average of six methods. Contraception * 51 Unmarried women are classified into three categories: unmarried women who have had sexual intercourse at some time in the past but are not currently sexually active, unmarried women who are currently sexually active, and finally, those who have never had sexual intercourse. Unmarried women who have had sexual intercourse at some time but are not currently sexually active have essentially the same levels of knowledge as currently married women. This is not surprising since most of these women are formerly married, either currently widowed or divorced. Unmarried women are considered to be not sexually active if they have not had intercourse in the 30 days preceding the survey. There were only six unmarried women who have had sexual intercourse who are currently sexually active, too few to show in the table. One method stands out as being known to women who have never had sexual intercourse; more than three-quarters of such women have heard of the IUD. All other methods are known to fewer than half the women who have never had sexual intercourse. Women who have never had sexual intercourse have heard of an average of 2.7 methods. For purposes of communicating information about methods of contraception, women of reproductive age who have not yet engaged in sexual intercourse are an audience as important as sexually active women because they are certain to engage in sexual activity in the near future. Table 5.2 presents the percentage of currently married women who know of at least one method of contraception (modern or traditional) and the percentage who know of at least one modern method, by background characteristics. Essentially every married woman knows of at least one modern method of contraception. The only category of women for whom knowledge is less than universal is women age 15-19, among whom nine out of ten know of a method. 5.2 EVER USE OF CONTRACEPTION All respondents who had heard of a method of contraception were asked whether they (or a partner with them) had ever used the method; each method was inquired about separately. An additional probe was made for women who reported no contraceptive use. The results are presented in Table 5.3 for all women and for currently married women by five-year age groups. Overall, 89 percent of currently married women have used a method of contraception at some time in their life, 87 percent have used a modern method. Most of women who have ever used a method have used either the IUD (61 percent of married women) or LAM (63 percent of married women). Other modern methods have been used by comparatively few married women. Condoms are the next most commonly used modern method with 10 percent of currently married women having used a condom at some time. Other modern methods have been used at some time by fewer than 10 percent of married women. Although more women have used modern methods more often than traditional methods, one-quarter of married women have in fact used a traditional method at some time. Sixteen percent of currently married women have used withdrawal, and 8 percent have used periodic abstinence. Only 59 percent of all women age 15-49 have used a method of contraception at some time. Levels of ever use among all women are lower than among currently married women because most of women who are not married have not yet had sexual intercourse and have not yet had cause to use a method. Thirty-two percent of respondents have never had sexual intercourse. Knowledge of contraception among these women is important since most of women who have not yet had sexual intercourse will do so at some time in the future, but statistics on use do not yet apply to these women. 52 * Contraception Table 5.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods by background characteristics Percentage of currently married women who know at least one contraceptive method and who know at least one modern method, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________ Knows Knows any Number Background any modern of characteristic method method1 women __________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 91.2 91.2 83 99.0 99.0 682 99.9 99.8 1,015 99.8 99.8 934 99.2 99.2 857 99.4 99.4 765 99.2 99.2 556 99.1 99.1 2,307 99.6 99.5 2,585 98.9 98.9 639 99.6 99.6 699 98.1 98.1 424 99.2 99.2 950 99.3 99.2 1,030 100.0 100.0 1,150 99.1 99.1 3,347 99.9 99.9 1,149 99.7 99.7 396 99.4 99.4 3,776 98.7 98.7 554 99.6 99.6 563 99.3 99.3 4,892 _________________________________________________________ 1 Female sterilization, pill, IUD, injectables, implants, male condom, female condom, diaphragm, foam or jelly, lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), and emergency contraception. 5.3 CURRENT USE OF CONTRACEPTION Table 5.4 presents levels of current use of contraception for all women and for currently married women by five-year age groups. Figure 5.1 shows the distribution of currently married women by method currently used. More than half of currently married women (53 percent) are currently using a modern method of contraception, while only 9 percent are using a traditional method. As discussed in the section on ever use, most of women who are not married have not yet had sexual intercourse, so the discussion of use will focus on married women. Contraception * 53 Table 5.4 Current use of contraception Percent distribution of all women and currently married women, by contraceptive method currently used, according to age, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Modern method Traditional method ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________ Lac- tational Any Female amenor- Any tra- Periodic Not Number Any modern Inject- Foam/ Male sterili- rhea ditional absti- With- using a of Age method method Pill IUD ables jelly condom zation (LAM) method nence drawal Other method Total women _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ALL WOMEN _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 1.5 1.2 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.7 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.1 98.5 100.0 1,574 20-24 24.1 21.6 0.3 12.1 0.2 0.0 0.4 0.1 8.4 2.5 0.3 1.4 0.7 75.9 100.0 1,541 25-29 50.2 45.0 1.5 29.1 0.6 0.0 2.2 0.6 10.9 5.2 0.8 3.8 0.7 49.8 100.0 1,256 30-34 63.2 54.8 1.2 42.2 1.0 0.2 2.8 1.1 6.3 8.4 1.7 5.4 1.3 36.8 100.0 1,060 35-39 66.9 57.2 1.1 46.5 1.0 0.0 1.4 3.1 4.1 9.6 3.0 5.2 1.4 33.1 100.0 974 40-44 63.4 52.5 1.5 42.9 1.6 0.0 2.2 3.6 0.7 10.9 3.4 6.7 0.8 36.6 100.0 845 45-49 33.1 26.6 0.0 22.3 0.6 0.0 0.4 3.2 0.1 6.5 1.9 3.6 1.0 66.9 100.0 669 Total 39.2 33.8 0.8 24.9 0.6 0.0 1.3 1.3 4.9 5.4 1.3 3.3 0.8 60.8 100.0 7,919 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ CURRENTLY MARRIED WOM EN ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 26.6 20.9 0.0 5.1 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.0 13.9 5.6 0.0 3.5 2.2 73.4 100.0 83 20-24 52.7 47.1 0.8 25.7 0.5 0.0 1.0 0.2 18.9 5.6 0.6 3.3 1.7 47.3 100.0 682 25-29 61.5 55.0 1.9 35.7 0.7 0.0 2.7 0.7 13.3 6.5 1.0 4.7 0.9 38.5 100.0 1,015 30-34 70.3 60.8 1.3 46.6 1.0 0.2 3.2 1.3 7.2 9.5 1.9 6.1 1.5 29.7 100.0 934 35-39 74.1 63.2 1.3 51.4 1.2 0.0 1.6 3.3 4.5 10.9 3.4 5.9 1.6 25.9 100.0 857 40-44 67.5 55.5 1.6 45.5 1.8 0.0 2.5 3.4 0.7 12.0 3.7 7.4 0.8 32.5 100.0 765 45-49 37.8 30.0 0.0 25.8 0.7 0.0 0.5 2.8 0.1 7.8 2.3 4.3 1.2 62.2 100.0 556 Total 61.8 53.1 1.2 39.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 1.8 7.9 8.7 2.1 5.3 1.3 38.2 100.0 4,892 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: If more than one method was used, only the most effective method is considered in this tabulation. Table 5.3 Ever use of contraception Percentage of all women and of currently married women who have ever used any contraceptive method, by specific method and age, Turkmenistan 2000 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Modern method Traditional method _______________________________________________________________________________ ____________________________ Lac- Emer- tational Any Diaphragm/ Female gency amenor- Any tra- Periodic Number Any modern Inject- cervical Foam/ Female Male sterili- contra- rhea ditional absti- With- of Age method method Pill IUD ables cap jelly condom condom zation ception (LAM) method nence drawal Other women _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ALL WOMEN _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 2.2 2.1 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.4 0.0 0.3 0.1 1,574 20-24 35.4 34.4 2.1 15.5 0.9 0.1 0.6 0.0 2.6 0.1 0.1 28.5 7.4 1.9 4.4 2.3 1,541 25-29 75.7 73.2 5.6 43.6 2.7 0.0 0.3 0.0 9.1 0.6 0.7 56.5 19.6 5.3 13.5 3.8 1,256 30-34 88.5 86.2 6.3 64.2 3.6 0.0 1.1 0.2 12.7 1.1 0.4 61.6 24.4 9.1 15.5 4.1 1,060 35-39 89.5 87.4 8.1 71.2 4.0 0.1 0.4 0.0 11.8 3.1 0.0 58.9 25.5 8.3 16.1 5.1 974 40-44 92.2 90.2 8.1 74.8 3.6 0.0 0.9 0.1 9.5 3.6 0.2 61.5 26.5 11.2 16.9 3.9 845 45-49 87.3 84.5 5.8 63.8 4.2 0.6 1.3 0.0 8.9 3.2 0.3 57.5 24.0 9.9 12.4 5.0 669 Total 59.4 57.8 4.5 40.8 2.3 0.1 0.6 0.0 6.9 1.3 0.2 41.7 15.9 5.5 10.0 3.1 7,919 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ CURRENTLY MARRIED WOM EN ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 38.2 36.0 0.0 7.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.2 0.0 0.0 29.7 7.6 0.0 5.4 2.2 83 20-24 75.6 73.4 4.0 32.5 1.7 0.2 1.3 0.0 5.0 0.2 0.2 61.5 15.7 3.7 9.5 4.6 682 25-29 89.9 86.9 6.6 52.3 3.3 0.0 0.4 0.0 10.6 0.7 0.8 66.8 23.6 6.1 16.3 4.7 1,015 30-34 95.0 92.6 7.0 69.0 3.9 0.0 1.2 0.2 13.2 1.3 0.5 66.0 27.0 9.7 17.6 4.7 934 35-39 92.6 90.4 7.9 74.4 4.4 0.1 0.3 0.0 11.9 3.3 0.0 61.2 27.4 8.1 18.2 5.7 857 40-44 93.8 91.7 8.0 76.7 3.8 0.0 1.0 0.1 10.2 3.4 0.3 62.5 28.3 12.1 18.0 3.9 765 45-49 90.4 87.8 6.7 67.3 4.5 0.4 1.3 0.0 9.3 2.8 0.4 60.8 25.3 10.6 14.3 4.2 556 Total 89.1 86.7 6.6 61.4 3.5 0.1 0.9 0.1 10.2 1.8 0.4 62.9 24.5 8.2 15.8 4.6 4,892 54 * Contraception The IUD is by far the most commonly used method—39 percent of currently married women are using the IUD. The next most commonly used method is LAM, reported by 8 percent of married women to be their current method; 15 percent of women age 15-29 are using LAM. Other modern methods of contraception account for only a small amount of use among currently married women: condoms and female sterilization (2 percent each) and pills and injectables (1 percent each). The use of contraception in Turkmenistan relies heavily on a single method, the IUD, although other methods are known (the pill, injectables and condoms are each known to more than 60 percent of married women). One out of every two married women age 35-39 is using the IUD, the peak age of use. Use of a modern method of contraception increases steadily by age, peaking at age 35-39, and then declines. The desire to avoid pregnancy varies greatly over the course of one’s reproductive life; use of contraception in relation to the fertility preferences of women is discussed in the next chapter. Levels of contraceptive use by background characteristics of respondents are presented in Table 5.5 and Figure 5.2 for currently married women. Perhaps the most significant finding of Table 5.5 is that the level of use of the IUD observed for the population as a whole is maintained across background characteristics of respondents. Although there is some variation, level of use of the IUD is of the same magnitude across residence, region, education, and ethnicity. Since use of the IUD largely overwhelms use of any other method, use of a modern method is also largely maintained across background characteristics. The greatest variation in use is seen by number of living children. It is rare for married women with no children to be using a method (only 5 percent are using a modern or traditional method). Nearly half the women with one child are using a method of contraception (48 percent), and by the time they have three living children, three out of four women are using either a modern or traditional method of contraception. Contraception * 55 Table 5.5 Current use of contraception by background characteristics Percent distribution of currently married women by contraceptive method currently used, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Modern method Traditional method ___________________________________________________________ __________________________ Lac- tational Any Any Female amenor- tradi- Periodic Not Number Background Any modern Inject- Foam/ Male sterili- rhea tional absti- With- using a of characteristic method method Pill IUD ables jelly condom zation (LAM) method nence drawal Other method Total women __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Number of living children 0 1 2 3 4+ Total 62.3 52.6 2.0 38.2 1.3 0.1 3.4 1.9 5.6 9.7 3.2 4.8 1.7 37.7 100.0 2,307 61.4 53.5 0.5 39.8 0.7 0.0 0.8 1.7 10.0 7.8 1.1 5.8 0.9 38.6 100.0 2,585 59.7 51.8 3.2 34.9 1.1 0.3 6.4 0.8 5.0 7.9 4.3 3.1 0.5 40.3 100.0 639 66.3 60.9 2.2 43.5 0.8 0.0 3.4 2.6 8.4 5.4 0.9 4.4 0.2 33.7 100.0 699 61.1 48.7 0.3 37.2 1.1 0.0 1.8 1.7 6.7 12.4 2.0 5.3 5.1 38.9 100.0 424 55.8 54.8 0.5 40.5 0.5 0.0 0.5 1.1 11.8 1.0 0.3 0.7 0.0 44.2 100.0 950 62.9 48.5 0.5 36.1 1.8 0.0 1.5 2.3 6.2 14.4 3.3 8.7 2.4 37.1 100.0 1,030 64.5 53.3 1.1 40.7 0.6 0.0 0.6 2.2 8.1 11.2 2.0 8.1 1.1 35.5 100.0 1,150 60.1 52.6 1.0 39.0 0.7 0.0 1.3 1.7 8.9 7.5 1.0 5.3 1.2 39.9 100.0 3,347 64.7 54.5 1.9 39.8 2.0 0.0 2.1 2.4 6.3 10.2 4.1 4.6 1.5 35.3 100.0 1,149 68.0 53.1 1.5 37.0 0.2 0.5 8.2 1.5 4.2 14.8 5.2 8.4 1.2 32.0 100.0 396 61.7 53.0 0.7 39.6 0.8 0.0 1.8 1.8 8.3 8.7 1.6 5.9 1.2 38.3 100.0 3,776 61.4 56.1 1.2 42.3 1.0 0.0 0.6 1.2 9.7 5.3 2.1 3.2 0.0 38.6 100.0 554 62.8 50.7 4.5 32.0 2.3 0.4 5.4 2.7 3.5 12.1 5.3 3.7 3.2 37.2 100.0 563 5.3 4.7 1.1 1.5 0.2 0.0 1.6 0.3 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.6 0.0 94.7 100.0 330 47.7 40.4 1.8 18.5 0.7 0.2 2.8 0.8 15.7 7.4 0.8 4.6 2.0 52.3 100.0 821 69.6 60.5 1.6 45.2 0.7 0.0 2.3 2.2 8.5 9.1 2.6 4.9 1.6 30.4 100.0 1,264 74.8 64.8 0.8 49.8 1.3 0.0 2.6 1.9 8.3 10.0 3.1 5.4 1.5 25.2 100.0 927 67.2 57.1 0.9 46.4 1.4 0.0 1.3 2.4 4.8 10.1 2.1 7.1 0.8 32.8 100.0 1,550 61.8 53.1 1.2 39.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 1.8 7.9 8.7 2.1 5.3 1.3 38.2 100.0 4,892 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: If more than one method was used, only the most effective method is considered in this tabulation. 56 * Contraception Other findings of note that are elucidated in Table 5.5 include the higher use of condoms among women with higher education (8 percent of married women with higher education are using condoms). Women using condoms are most likely to be women of ethnicities other than Turkmen or Uzbek. Use of LAM and use of traditional methods also vary by education. Nine percent of women with primary or secondary education report themselves to be using LAM, and use declines with increasing education, down to 4 percent among women with higher education. Use of traditional methods, on the other hand, increases with increasing education. Eight percent of women with primary or secondary education report themselves to be using a traditional method of contraception, and use increases to 15 percent among women with higher education. The percentage of married women not currently using a method of contraception decreases with increasing education, from 40 percent among women with primary or secondary education to 32 percent among women with higher education. Of course, socioeconomic characteristics are not the only factors that influence contraceptive use. A woman’s ability to use contraceptive methods to control her fertility is also likely to be affected by her status and degree of empowerment. The TDHS survey collected information on indicators of women’s empowerment: number of decisions in which the respondent has the final say and the number of reasons for which a woman can refuse to have sexual relations with her husband. The first of these indicators, which ranges from 0 to 5, is based on the total number of decisions from among five specified decisions (see Table 3.9 for the list of specific decisions) that the respondent participates in. This indicator is positively related to women’s empowerment and reflects the degree of decisionmaking control women are able to exercise in areas that affect their own life and environment. The second measure, which ranges from 0 to 4, is the total number of circumstances from among four specified circumstances (see Table 3.11 for the list of circumstances) in which the respondent feels that a woman is justified in refusing sexual relations with her husband. This indicator reflects perceptions of sexual roles and women’s rights over their body and sexuality and relates positively to women’s sense of self and empowerment. Table 5.6 shows how current use of contraception by currently married women age 15-49 varies by each of these indicators of women’s empowerment. Women who are more empowered are expected to be better able to control all aspects of their lives including being better able to meet their fertility goals. Table 5.6 shows that women’s contraceptive use is strongly associated with women’s participation in household decisionmaking. Only 44 percent of women who do not participate in any household decisions are using a contraceptive method, compared with 63 to 64 percent of women who participate in almost all or all (three to five) of the decisions. Of particular interest is the fact that the use of the IUD, the most popular modern method, as well as the use of traditional methods, particularly withdrawal, increases sharply with women’s participation in household decisionmaking. Women not participating in any decisions are only about half as likely as women participating in all decisions to use each of these methods. The use of LAM, however, which accounts for 13 percent of all contraceptive use, is inversely related to women’s participation in decisionmaking. Women’s contraceptive use does not, however, appear to vary consistently or strongly with the other indicator of empowerment. 5.4 NUMBER OF CHILDREN AT FIRST USE OF CONTRACEPTION To make some assessment of the motivations behind contraception, women were asked how many living children they had at the time they first used a method. Women who use a method before ever having a child presumably want to delay their childbearing to some time in the future. Women who first employ a method after they have had one or two children may either want to delay the next child (child spacing) or limit their childbearing to one or two children. Women who use a method for the first time after having several children are more likely to want to stop childbearing, rather than simply space their childbearing. Contraception * 57 5.6 Current use of contraception by women’s status Percent distribution of currently married women by contraceptive method currently used, according to indicators of women’s status, Turkmenistan 2000 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Modern method Traditional method _________________________________________________________ _____________________________ Lac- tational Any Not Indicator of Any Female amenor- tradi- Periodic using Number women’s Any modern Inject- Foam/ Male sterili- rhea tional absti- With- a of status method method Pill IUD ables jelly condom zation (LAM) method nence drawal Other method Total women ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of decis ions with woman having final say1 0 44.1 39.6 0.6 22.7 0.5 0.0 2.5 0.5 12.8 4.5 0.0 3.4 1.1 55.9 100.0 235 1-2 57.6 51.2 0.2 34.2 0.1 0.0 1.5 1.6 13.6 6.4 1.5 3.7 1.3 42.4 100.0 675 3-4 62.8 53.1 1.3 38.8 0.9 0.0 2.3 2.2 7.4 9.7 2.1 5.8 1.8 37.2 100.0 998 5 63.8 54.6 1.5 41.5 1.2 0.1 2.0 1.9 6.4 9.3 2.4 5.7 1.1 36.2 100.0 2,984 Number of reasons to refuse sexual relations 0 61.8 58.7 1.0 43.7 0.6 0.0 1.6 2.5 9.3 3.1 0.6 2.2 0.3 38.2 100.0 288 1-2 58.1 51.4 0.4 37.8 0.5 0.0 2.2 1.3 9.2 6.7 0.8 5.1 0.9 41.9 100.0 700 3-4 62.5 53.0 1.4 38.9 1.1 0.1 2.1 1.9 7.6 9.5 2.4 5.6 1.4 37.5 100.0 3,905 Total 61.8 53.1 1.2 39.0 1.0 0.0 2.0 1.8 7.9 8.7 2.1 5.3 1.3 38.2 100.0 4,892 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: If more than one method was used, only the most effective method is considered in this tabulation. 1 Either by herself or jointly with others. Table 5.7 presents the percent distribution of all ever-married women by the number of living children they had at the time they first used contraception. Use of contraception to delay the first pregnancy is uncommon in Turkmenistan (only 2 percent of women have done so). However, beginning use at low parities is fairly common and has been becoming more common over time. Forty-seven percent of women in their forties first used contraception after having one child, while as many as 60 percent of women in their twenties initiated use of contraception after having their first child. Table 5.7 also presents the median number of children at first use of contraception, but because this median is calculated only among those who have ever used a method of contraception, the reader should note that the medians among young women are biased toward low numbers since young women who have used contraception must have done so at low parities. Table 5.7 Number of children at first use of contraception Percent distribution of ever-married women by number of living children at the time of first use of contraception and median number of children at first use, according to current age, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Median number of children Never at first used Number of living children at time of first use of contraceptive use of Number Current contra- _______________________________________________________ contra- of age caption 0 1 2 3 4+ Missing Total ception women ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 63.9 1.1 35.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.5 93 20-24 25.2 2.8 60.4 9.1 1.1 0.0 1.5 100.0 0.6 729 25-29 10.8 2.9 60.9 20.8 3.7 0.6 0.2 100.0 0.7 1,065 30-34 7.6 0.9 52.8 22.3 10.7 5.4 0.3 100.0 0.9 1,015 35-39 8.2 0.3 46.6 19.5 10.8 14.4 0.1 100.0 1.0 950 40-44 7.1 0.6 46.7 14.8 10.3 20.4 0.0 100.0 1.0 838 45-49 12.3 1.3 47.8 9.1 6.1 23.1 0.3 100.0 0.9 665 Total 12.2 1.5 52.4 16.5 7.2 9.8 0.4 100.0 0.8 5,356 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Median number or children at first use of contraception is calculated only among those who have ever used contraception. 3 Data collection included recording the name of the source so that team supervisors and editors could verify the sources. 58 * Contraception Table 5.8 Knowledge of fertile period Percent distribution of women who use periodic abstinence, of women who do not use periodic abstinence, and of all women, by knowledge of fertile period during the ovulatory cycle, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________ Nonusers Users of of Perceived periodic periodic All fertile period abstinence abstinence women ____________________________________________________________ Just before period begins During menstrual period Right after period has ended Halfway between periods No special time Other Don’t know Missing Total Number of women 0.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.3 0.3 7.0 8.0 8.0 88.5 23.9 24.8 1.2 32.7 32.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 34.2 33.7 0.0 0.1 0.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 102 7,817 7,919 5.5 KNOWLEDGE OF THE FERTILE PERIOD Knowledge of reproductive physiology is an important prerequisite for successful practice of coitus-associated methods such as withdrawal, condoms, and vaginal methods. To successfully practice periodic abstinence, a woman must know at which point during the ovulation cycle she is most likely to become pregnant. All women were asked whether they thought there was a time during their monthly cycle that they were more likely to become pregnant, and if so, to identify when that was. Table 5.8 presents the percent distribution of both users and nonusers of periodic abstinence by their knowledge of the fertile period. Only one-quarter of all women properly identified the middle of the cycle as the most likely time to become pregnant. Most of the remaining respondents said either that there is no time that is more likely than another (32 percent of all women) or simply did not know (34 percent of all women). On the other hand, most women who are using periodic abstinence do know of the varying likelihood to become pregnant. Eighty-nine percent of women who are using periodic abstinence could properly identify the time during which they are most fertile. 5.6 SOURCE OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS All women currently using a modern method were asked where they most recently obtained their method.3 Table 5.9 shows the percent distribution of all current users of modern contra- ceptives by the source from which they most recently obtained their method. Nearly all women obtained their contraceptives through the public sector (99 percent). Forty-four percent obtained their method from a health clinic, 35 percent obtained their method from a hospital, and 16 percent obtained their method from a women’s consulting center. Contraception * 59 Table 5.9 Source of supply Percent distribution of current users of modern contraceptive methods by most recent source of supply, according to specific method, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________ All Male Female modern Source Pill IUD Injectables condom sterilization methods1 _______________________________________________________________________________________ Public sector Government hospital Rural and urban health clinic Women’s consulting center Public pharmacy Other public Private medical sector Private hospital/clinic Private pharmacy Private doctor Other private medical Other Don’t know Total Number of women (96.4) 99.2 (100.0) 84.0 100.0 98.5 (25.0) 34.3 (13.1) 1.1 93.4 34.8 (29.2) 46.8 (69.8) 19.9 0.6 43.5 (15.4) 17.6 (15.0) 1.6 0.0 16.0 (26.8) 0.6 (0.0) 57.2 0.0 3.8 (0.0) 0.1 (2.1) 4.2 6.0 0.6 (3.6) 0.6 (0.0) 9.8 0.0 1.0 (0.0) 0.5 (0.0) 0.0 0.0 0.5 (3.0) 0.0 (0.0) 2.4 0.0 0.2 (0.7) 0.1 (0.0) 0.0 0.0 0.1 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 7.4 0.0 0.3 (0.0) 0.0 (0.0) 3.0 0.0 0.2 (0.0) 0.1 (0.0) 3.3 0.0 0.3 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 60 1,971 49 100 104 2,286 ________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Parentheses indicate that a figure is based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Includes 2 users of foam/jelly. Source of supply does vary depending on the method being used. Pill users exhibit the greatest variation in where they get their method; they report having last obtained their method from government hospitals (25 percent), health clinics (29 percent), women’s consulting centers (15 percent), and public pharmacies (27 percent). The majority of condom users obtain their method from public pharmacies (57 percent). The majority of women who use injectables obtain their method from health clinics (70 percent). Most of users are using the IUD and nearly half obtain the method from health clinics; one-third of IUD users obtain their method from hospitals, and the remainder obtain their method from women’s consulting centers. 5.7 INFORMED CHOICE Ideally, women would become users of contraceptives only after having obtained all the information pertaining to method use that would lead one to make an informed choice about using a method. This would include the decision whether to use contraception, as well as which method to use. An informed choice would be one that is made with the knowledge of what methods are available to choose from, as well as all risks associated with each method. The TDHS survey asked women who are currently using a modern method of contraception whether they were informed of the possible side effects of the method they are using, and if so, whether they were informed of what they should do if they experience any side effects. The results are presented in Table 5.10. Most of users of modern methods in Turkmenistan are using the IUD, among whom only half report that they were informed about possible side effects and what to do in the event they experience side effects. Women in Ashgabad City are the least likely of all regions (38 percent) to have been informed about side effects, while women in the Lebap Region are the most likely to have been told about side effects (65 percent). Users of the pill and injectables are much more likely to have been told about side effects and what to do if they experience them (about 80 percent were so informed), although they do constitute a minority of all users. 60 * Contraception Table 5.10 Informed choice Percentage of current users of modern contraceptive methods who were informed that sterilization is permanent, who were informed about the side effects of the method used, who were informed what to do if side effects were experienced, and who were informed of other methods that could be used for contraception, by specific method, initial source of method, and background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________ Informed Informed Informed Informed of Method, that about what other source, sterilization side to do if methods background is effects of experience that could characteristic permanent1 method used2 side effects2 be used3 ___________________________________________________________________________ Method Pill IUD Injectables Female sterilization Other4 Initial source of method Government hospital Rural and urban health clinic Women’s consulting center Public pharmacy Other public Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total Number of women - (82.8) 77.5 (77.7) - 48.4 46.9 38.1 - (83.8) (83.8) (83.8) 87.7 37.4 31.6 16.2 - - - 48.0 87.7 49.7 47.9 40.5 87.5 45.1 43.7 36.1 * 53.9 52.1 43.7 * 47.5 44.8 39.9 * * * * * * * * 83.3 46.0 43.4 39.1 (93.0) 53.1 52.1 41.8 * 37.9 32.3 35.8 * 45.0 45.0 29.3 * 45.9 44.9 32.0 * 53.0 52.3 47.8 * 64.5 62.2 52.8 * 45.0 43.5 37.1 92.5 46.9 45.5 36.9 (82.3) 56.7 54.6 48.4 * 49.8 44.9 48.0 94.0 50.0 48.6 39.5 * 55.4 53.9 49.0 * 41.2 36.6 38.1 87.7 49.6 47.8 40.5 104 2,184 2,184 2,577 ____________________________________________________________________________ Note: Parentheses indicate that a figure is based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 1 Among users of sterilization 2 Among users of female sterilization, pill, IUD, injectables and implants 3 Among users of female sterilization, pill, IUD, injectables, implants, vaginal methods and LAM. 4 Users of foam/jelly or LAM Women who are using female sterilization were asked whether they were informed that they would no longer be able to bear children after the operation. Eighty-eight percent of sterilized women were informed that they would not be able to bear children after the sterilization operation. Women were also asked whether they were told about other methods of family planning they could use, other than the one they were using. Only 41 percent of women reported having been told about alternatives to their method. Of course, in Turkmenistan, this is also highly dependent on the availability of other methods. Contraception * 61 Table 5.11 First-year contraceptive discontinuation rates Proportion of contraceptive users who discontinue use of a method by 12 months after beginning its use in the five years preceding the survey, by reason for discontinuation, according to specific method, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________________________ Reason for discontinuation __________ _______________________________ Switched Desire to Method Method to become another All discontinued failure pregnant method1 Other reasons _______________________________________________________________________________ Pill 6.6 12.3 26.6 27.3 72.8 IUD 0.8 3.0 1.9 5.9 11.7 Condom 2.3 16.9 27.9 11.3 58.5 Withdrawal 12.0 3.4 8.7 19.6 43.6 Lactational amenorrhea 0.6 0.5 22.3 61.3 84.6 Other 16.3 6.3 12.8 10.0 45.4 All methods 2.2 2.5 15.3 38.0 58.0 _______________________________________________________________________________ Note: Discontinuation rates are based on multiple decrement life table calculations. 1 Used a different method in the month following discontinuation or said that they wanted a more effective method and started another method within two months of discontinuation. 5.8 DISCONTINUATION WITHIN 12 MONTHS OF USE The circumstances surrounding the discontinuation of contraception is of interest because it can inform strategies to reach the target population. Table 5.11 presents first-year contraceptive discontinuation rates by reason for discontinuing a method, according to each method discontinued. This is the proportion of women who have started using a contraceptive method at some time in the 5 years prior to the survey, but then stopped using that method within 12 months of having started it. One would expect the rates to vary by method by virtue of the nature of the methods. For example, the IUD is not generally intended as a short-term method, and so a low discontinuation rate of 12 percent is to be expected. On the other hand, coitus-related methods are more easily discontinued; 59 percent of condom users discontinued within one year of use. Nearly half of those who did discontinue use of condoms switched to another method. Although one might assume that the desire to become pregnant might be one of the main reasons for discontinuing use of a method of contraception, only 3 percent of users discontinued within 12 months of initiating use for that reason. Table 5.12 presents the distribution of all discontinuations in the five years prior to the survey by main reason for discontinuation and presents these distributions for each method. The main reasons given for discontinuing use of the IUD are wanting to become pregnant and health concerns, each reported for one-third of discontinuations. Note that there is a large quantity of reported LAM discontinuations; these may be more the result of collection teams recording uses of LAM whenever women were breastfeeding than being cases of women being taught how to meet the requirements of LAM. Ninety-two percent of LAM discontinuations had no accompanying reasons reported for discontinuation. 62 * Contraception Table 5.12 Reasons for discontinuing contraceptive methods Percent distribution of discontinuations of contraceptive methods in the five years preceding the survey by main reason for discontinuation, according to specific method, Turkmenistan 2000 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Method discontinued _________________________________________________________________________ Diaph. Periodic Reason for Inject- foam/ absti- With Lactational All discontinuation Pill IUD ables jelly Condom nence drawal amenorrhea Other methods ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Became pregnant while using Wanted to become pregnant Husband disapproved Side effects Health concerns Access/availability Wanted a more effective method Inconvenient to use Infrequent sex/husband away Cost too much Difficult to get pregnant/menopausal Marital dissolution/separation Other Don’t know Missing Total Number of discontinuations 8.3 4.8 0.0 * 5.4 19.7 25.4 1.0 27.3 4.7 13.4 33.0 10.2 * 26.6 14.9 11.7 0.5 14.2 10.3 0.9 0.6 0.0 * 19.7 2.9 5.9 0.0 1.2 1.3 21.1 10.5 17.0 * 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.2 22.1 34.6 29.6 * 1.4 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.8 1.0 0.0 0.0 * 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 12.3 4.4 11.9 * 23.2 8.0 10.1 2.5 20.0 5.1 6.2 0.3 0.0 * 6.6 1.4 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.5 4.2 3.6 2.9 * 3.9 3.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.9 0.0 * 0.6 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.3 0.1 0.0 * 3.0 2.2 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 1.5 2.6 * 0.0 0.0 0.4 3.9 20.0 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 * 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.1 2.8 25.8 * 8.8 45.2 44.8 91.9 17.2 60.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 140 1,090 76 13 158 85 308 2,949 121 4,940 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Table 5.13 Future use of contraception Percent distribution of currently married women who are not using a contraceptive method by intention to use in the future, according to number of living children, Turkmenistan 2000___________________________________________________________________________________ Number of living children1 _______________________________________ Intention 0 1 2 3 4+ Total ___________________________________________________________________________________ Intends to use later Unsure as to intention Does not intend to use Missing Total Number of women 47.4 61.2 60.1 46.1 24.1 46.6 18.9 14.8 14.3 12.0 10.4 13.5 32.6 22.5 24.1 40.5 65.1 38.9 1.0 1.5 1.4 1.5 0.3 1.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 197 432 424 278 537 1,868 _____________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Includes current pregnancy 5.9 INTENTION TO USE CONTRACEPTION AMONG NONUSERS Intentions of women to use a method of contraception in the future provide a basis for forecasting potential need for contraceptives. The TDHS survey asked currently married nonusers of contraception whether they intend to use a method of contraception at some time in the future. Table 5.13 presents the results according to the number of living children the nonusers have. Contraception * 63 Table 5.14 Preferred method of contraception for future use Percent distribution of currently married women who are not using a contraceptive method but who intend to use in the future by preferred method, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________ Preferred All Method women __________________________________________ Pill IUD Injectables Condom Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Lactational amenorrhea Foam and jelly Other Missing Total Number of women 2.6 89.0 1.8 2.0 0.7 0.3 0.6 0.4 0.1 2.5 100.0 870 Table 5.15 Reasons for not intending to use contraception Percent distribution of currently married women who are not using a contraceptive method and who do not intend to use in the future, by main reason for not intending to use, Turkmenistan 2000 ___________________________________________________ Age ____________ All Reason < 30 30+ ages ___________________________________________________ Wants children 41.2 6.6 10.1 Side effects 0.0 0.7 0.6 Health concerns 6.9 4.7 4.9 Access/availability 0.0 0.1 0.1 Religion 1.4 0.5 0.6 Opposed to family planning 21.2 28.6 27.8 Partner opposed 1.4 0.5 0.6 Infrequent sex/no sex 4.5 12.1 11.3 Difficult to get pregnant 18.9 13.2 13.8 Menopausal/hysterectomy 0.4 30.6 27.5 Other 2.0 1.9 1.9 Don’t know/missing 2.2 0.5 0.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 73 653 726 Overall, 47 percent of currently married nonusers do intend to use a method of contracep- tion at some time in the future, 39 percent state that they do not intend to use a method, and 14 percent say that they are not sure about future use. Women with one or two children are more likely to intend to use a method at some time in the future than are women with three or more children. In fact, most women with one or two children intend to use a method at some time in the future (60 percent). Most (89 percent) of women who intend to use a method at some time in the future report that they intend to use the IUD (Table 5.14). 5.10 REASONS FOR NONUSE OF CONTRACEPTION As was seen in Table 5.13, the percentage of married women who do not intend to use a method of family planning increases as the number of children increases, from 23 percent among women with one child up to 65 percent among women with four or more children. Since motivations to use family planning change over one’s reproductive lifespan, Table 5.15 presents reasons nonusers state for having no intention to use family planning for women below and above age 30. The most common reason stated for not intending to use a method among younger nonusers is wanting more children (41 percent). Women over the age of 30 are as likely to report being opposed to the use of contraception as being meno- pausal for their reason for nonuse (each about 30 percent). Few women over the age of 30 report wanting children as the reason for not using contraception. 5.11 EXPOSURE TO FAMILY PLANNING MESSAGES IN THE MEDIA Mass media provide an opportunity to communicate information to a broad spectrum of the population. All TDHS respondents were asked whether they had heard a message about the benefits of spacing their children and using contracep- tion on the radio or television in the few months prior to the survey. They were also asked whether they had seen a message in a newspaper or magazine. The results for the electronic media are presented in Table 5.16 and for the print media in Table 5.17. 64 * Contraception Table 5.16 Exposure to messages about contraception on radio and television Percent distribution of women by whether or not they have heard a radio or television message about contraception in the last few months prior to the interview, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________ Heard message about contraception on radio or television _________________________________________ Tele- Number Background Radio vision of characteristic Both only only Neither Missing Total women ____________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 7.5 0.4 17.8 73.9 0.3 100.0 1,574 12.0 0.6 24.1 62.8 0.4 100.0 1,541 16.6 0.5 27.0 56.0 0.0 100.0 1,256 16.7 0.4 29.1 53.3 0.5 100.0 1,060 17.4 0.3 24.2 57.9 0.3 100.0 974 17.6 0.5 27.5 54.3 0.0 100.0 845 15.8 0.7 26.3 57.1 0.2 100.0 669 15.8 0.4 27.2 56.4 0.2 100.0 3,691 12.5 0.5 22.2 64.4 0.3 100.0 4,228 19.7 0.4 35.5 44.1 0.3 100.0 1,038 1.0 0.5 23.1 75.3 0.1 100.0 1,145 3.0 0.1 20.9 76.1 0.0 100.0 709 29.0 1.2 11.2 58.6 0.0 100.0 1,628 11.6 0.2 18.4 69.6 0.2 100.0 1,607 12.1 0.3 38.2 48.8 0.7 100.0 1,791 12.0 0.5 22.2 64.9 0.3 100.0 5,800 18.7 0.6 29.1 51.7 0.0 100.0 1,556 22.2 0.0 35.9 41.7 0.2 100.0 563 12.4 0.5 23.7 63.1 0.3 100.0 6,191 22.4 0.5 15.5 61.6 0.0 100.0 857 17.3 0.5 39.6 42.3 0.3 100.0 871 14.0 0.5 24.5 60.7 0.3 100.0 7,919 Television is the most common of the three sources of messages about the benefits of spacing children and using contraception (television, radio, or print media). Nine out of ten women in Turkmenistan report watching television weekly; one out of three women report listening to the radio weekly (data presented in Chapter 2). Overall, 39 percent of respondents have seen a television message in the few months prior to the survey. Fifteen percent of respondents had heard a message on the radio. Exposure to television messages varies by residence. Twice as many respondents in Ashgabad City and Mary Region (50-55 percent) had seen a television message as had respondents in the Akhal and Balkan regions (24 percent). Although television messages are independent of the educational level of the audience, the likelihood that a respondent has seen a message increases with increasing education. Thirty-four percent of respondents with primary or secondary education, respectively, have recently seen a family message, while 48 and 58 percent of women with secondary-special and higher education, respectively, have seen such a message. Contraception * 65 Table 5.17 Exposure to messages about the use of contraception in print media Percent distribution of women who saw a message about contraception in the print media (newspaper or magazines) in the last few months prior to the interview, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________ Saw a contraceptive message in print media _____ __________________________ Number Background of characteristic Yes No Missing Total women ______________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 17.4 82.4 0.2 100.0 1,574 23.9 75.6 0.5 100.0 1,541 30.9 69.1 0.0 100.0 1,256 28.1 71.4 0.5 100.0 1,060 29.5 70.1 0.3 100.0 974 29.4 70.5 0.1 100.0 845 25.9 74.1 0.0 100.0 669 31.3 68.5 0.2 100.0 3,691 20.8 78.9 0.3 100.0 4,228 37.7 62.0 0.3 100.0 1,038 2.8 97.0 0.2 100.0 1,145 21.1 78.9 0.0 100.0 709 37.2 62.8 0.0 100.0 1,628 27.4 72.5 0.1 100.0 1,607 23.3 75.9 0.8 100.0 1,791 19.9 79.8 0.3 100.0 5,800 38.7 61.2 0.1 100.0 1,556 49.8 50.0 0.2 100.0 563 22.7 77.0 0.3 100.0 6,191 31.2 68.8 0.0 100.0 857 41.6 58.0 0.4 100.0 871 25.7 74.0 0.3 100.0 7,919 Overall, 30 percent of women report reading a newspaper or magazine on a weekly basis (data presented in Chapter 2). Twenty-six percent of respondents report having recently seen a message concerning the spacing of children or use of contraception message in a newspaper or magazine. Women in Ashgabad City and the Dashoguz Region are the most likely to have read such a message (38 percent), while women in the Akhal Region are very unlikely to have seen such a message (3 percent). Women of other ethnicities are more likely than Turkmen or Uzbek women to have recently seen a message in print, they are also more likely to have seen a television message. Not surprisingly, the likelihood of having seen a message in the print media climbs with increasing education, from 20 to 50 percent. 5.12 CONTACT OF NONUSERS WITH A SERVICE PROVIDER Successful adoption of a contraception method first necessitates information about what is available. Messages in the electronic and print media may be able to inform a wide audience, but personal contact with individuals is also necessary. Whenever a woman of reproductive age walks 66 * Contraception Tab le 5.18 C ontac t of non users w ith providers Percent dis tr ibut ion of women who a re no t u sing contracept ion by whether or not they were v is ited by a heal th worker or spoke with a heal th facil ity staff member about contraceptive methods dur ing the 12 months pr ior to the interview, according to background character is tics , Turkmenistan 2000 Visited by a h ealth w orker Visi ted by a health worker Neither visited by he alth worker nor discussed contraception at health facility2 Total Number of wom en Yes No MissingCh aracter istic Attended health facility, discussed use of contraception1 Did not at tend health facility Atten ded hea lth fac ility, discussed use of contraception1 Did n ot attend health facilityYes No Yes No Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Ashg abad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Ma ry Education Primary/sec ond ary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Oth er Total 1.5 0.4 5.0 0.4 13.5 79.0 0.1 0.0 92.5 100 .0 1,550 3.9 1.3 6.5 2.2 22.7 63.4 0.0 0.0 86.1 100 .0 1,170 10.0 2.8 7.6 6.3 27.6 45.7 0.0 0.0 73.3 100 .0 625 10.4 3.1 8.8 4.8 25.1 47.4 0.0 0.4 72.4 100 .0 390 12.4 2.3 8.2 6.2 23.3 46.9 0.0 0.6 70.2 100 .0 323 4.5 2.2 12.7 2.5 24.3 53.5 0.0 0.2 77.8 100 .0 309 4.8 1.4 10.1 2.1 29.2 52.4 0.0 0.0 81.6 100 .0 447 5.5 1.4 5.4 3.3 25.4 58.7 0.0 0.2 84.1 100 .0 2,182 4.9 1.5 8.7 2.1 17.8 64.9 0.1 0.0 82.7 100 .0 2,632 3.3 0.6 2.2 3.8 30.2 59.3 0.0 0.6 89.5 100 .0 633 1.6 0.5 1.9 1.2 24.5 70.4 0.0 0.0 94.8 100 .0 679 0.7 0.4 2.2 4.3 15.7 76.5 0.2 0.0 92.2 100 .0 440 6.9 1.7 12.3 2.6 10.3 66.2 0.0 0.1 76.4 100 .0 1,086 8.7 2.2 13.0 3.0 25.2 47.9 0.0 0.0 73.1 100 .0 942 5.5 2.3 5.2 1.9 24.1 60.9 0.2 0.0 85.0 100 .0 1,034 3.9 1.2 7.1 2.3 20.0 65.4 0.1 0.1 85.4 100 .0 3,745 9.3 2.7 8.0 4.1 25.6 50.2 0.0 0.0 75.9 100 .0 782 10.3 1.7 6.3 3.4 25.9 51.5 0.0 0.8 77.4 100 .0 288 5.0 1.5 7.0 2.4 21.2 62.8 0.1 0.0 84.0 100 .0 3,809 7.8 1.9 10.2 3.1 13.9 63.0 0.0 0.1 76.9 100 .0 508 3.7 1.0 5.7 4.3 29.3 55.7 0.0 0.4 85.0 100 .0 497 5.2 1.5 7.2 2.7 21.3 62.1 0.0 0.1 83.4 100 .0 4,815 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Spoke w ith a health facility staff mem ber about co ntraceptive methods. 2 W as no t visited by a hea lth wo rker and e ither did not atten d a hea lth facility in preceding 1 2 m onth s or attend ed facility but did no t speak with a s taf f member about use of contraception. into a health facility, health care professionals could see this as an opportunity to discuss the contraceptive needs of that individual. To assess whether women are discussing family planning with health care professionals, the THDS survey asked women whether they had visited a health care facility within the previous 12 months (either for themselves or their child) and if so, had they spoken with any staff member at the facility about contraception. Women were also asked whether they had been visited by a fieldworker in the previous 12 months who had discussed contraception with them. The results are presented in Table 5.18 for those women who are not using a method. Most of nonusers have not discussed the use of contraception in the previous year with a health care provider or fieldworker (83 percent). This may either be because they had no need to visit a health facility or because they did visit a health facility but did not discuss the use of contraception with anyone, and they were not visited by a fieldworker. It is important to note that half of the nonusers are women under age 25 (56 percent) and are surely going to be in need of contraception in the near future. Perhaps the easiest and most cost-efficient population to reach is that which presents itself to a health facility. One in five nonusers attended a health facility at some time in the previous year but did not speak to anyone there about the use of contraception. These represent missed opportunities. In Ashgabad City, 30 percent of nonusers had visited a health facility but had spoken with no one about the use of contraception. Contraception * 67 Table 5.19 Discussions about contraception with husband Percent distribution of currently married women who know a contraceptive method by the number of times contraception was discussed with their husband in the past year, according to current age, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________ Number of times contraception was discussed with husband __________ _______________ Three or Once or more Number of Age Never twice times Total women ____________________________________________________________ 15-19 56.5 35.7 7.9 100.0 75 20-24 29.2 56.0 14.7 100.0 675 25-29 24.7 58.7 16.6 100.0 1,014 30-34 25.7 56.4 17.8 100.0 932 35-39 32.2 52.0 15.9 100.0 851 40-44 34.6 51.2 14.2 100.0 761 45-49 52.4 39.0 8.6 100.0 552 Total 32.0 52.9 15.0 100.0 4,860 5.13 SPOUSAL COMMUNICATION ON THE USE OF CONTRACEPTION Although husband and wife discussion of an agreement to use contraception is not a necessary pre- condition for employing certain meth- ods, its occurrence may increase the likelihood of use. Table 5.19 presents the percent distribution of currently married women by the number of times they have discussed the use of contraception with their husband in the previous year. One-third of wives have not discussed the use of contra- ception with their husband in the pre- vious year. Twenty-five to 30 percent of women in their peak childbearing years (women in their twenties) have not discussed method use with their husband in the previous year. A woman may not be willing to discuss method use with her spouse if she believes him to hold a negative attitude toward the use of contraception. Married women were asked whether they themselves approve or disapprove of a couple using family planning and also whether they perceive their husband to approve or disapprove of family planning. Percent distribution of married women and their perceptions are presented in Table 5.20. The lowest approval rating among married women is among those age 15-19, among whom only three-quarters report that they approve of the use of contraception. Eighteen percent of married 15- to 19-year-old women report that they are unsure whether they approve of method use. They are also the most likely not to know the attitude of their husband toward method use (29 percent). Women embarking on their reproductive careers are a target audience for counseling on the use of contraception. Women in the Akhal Region are the most likely not to know the attitudes of their husband toward method use (13 percent), while the women in Ashgabad City are the most likely to report that their husband does not approve of method use (8 percent). The overwhelming majority of women (nine out of ten) in Turkmenistan approve of method use, and about eight out of ten report that their husband also approves of method use. 68 * Contraception Table 5.20 Atti tudes of couples toward fami ly planning Percent distribution of currently married wom en wh o know of a metho d of contraception, by approva l of the use of contraception and their perception of their husband’s attitude toward the use of contracept ion, according to background character is tics , Turkmenistan 2000 Wife approves of contracept ion Wife disapproves of contraception W ife unsu re Total Total approval Nu mb er of wom en Background character istic Husband approves Husband disapproves Hu sband’s attitude unknown Husband approves Husband disapproves Hu sband’s attitude unknown W ife approves Husbands approves1 Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Ashg abad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Ma ry Education Primary/sec ond ary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Oth er Total 40.5 5.6 28.3 1.6 5.0 0.8 18.1 100.0 74.4 47.7 75 73.6 3.2 12.1 0.6 0.9 1.9 7.8 100.0 88.9 76.4 675 81.7 2.8 8.3 0.7 1.7 0.3 4.5 100.0 92.9 84.2 1,014 85.3 2.5 5.2 1.4 1.9 0.6 3.3 100.0 92.9 88.0 932 83.4 1.8 5.3 0.8 1.6 1.1 6.0 100.0 90.5 86.3 851 83.4 1.5 6.0 1.8 1.0 1.4 4.9 100.0 91.0 87.2 761 74.8 3.0 7.6 2.5 3.5 2.7 5.8 100.0 85.4 79.2 552 81.3 2.8 6.9 1.6 1.9 0.9 4.6 100.0 91.0 84.7 2,286 79.6 2.2 8.2 0.9 1.6 1.4 6.1 100.0 90.0 82.5 2,574 78.3 3.5 6.4 1.4 4.1 1.4 4.9 100.0 88.1 81.6 632 79.0 1.8 12.4 0.2 1.2 0.9 4.6 100.0 93.2 79.9 696 81.6 1.7 6.6 1.5 1.0 2.0 5.7 100.0 89.9 84.6 416 80.0 3.3 6.6 0.8 2.2 1.6 5.5 100.0 89.9 82.8 943 83.3 1.8 4.5 1.9 1.0 0.8 6.7 100.0 89.6 88.1 1,023 79.8 2.6 9.2 1.4 1.4 0.8 4.8 100.0 91.7 83.0 1,150 77.3 2.5 9.0 1.3 1.9 1.4 6.5 100.0 88.8 80.9 3,317 85.9 2.9 4.5 1.0 1.5 0.7 3.5 100.0 93.3 88.1 1,147 90.3 1.3 4.7 0.8 0.9 0.5 1.6 100.0 96.3 92.4 395 79.6 2.2 8.0 1.3 1.8 1.2 5.9 100.0 89.9 83.0 3,753 . 83.8 2.3 5.7 1.4 1.8 1.2 3.8 100.0 91.8 86.9 546 82.2 4.3 6.5 0.7 1.7 1.2 3.4 100.0 93.0 83.9 561 80.4 2.5 7.6 1.2 1.7 1.2 5.4 100.0 90.5 83.5 4,860 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Includes women wh o are unsure about their own attitude but who know their husband’s attitude. 1 The term abortion as used in the remainder of this report includes miniabortions unless otherwise indicated. Induced Abortions * 69 INDUCED ABORTION 6 A.S. Ezimova, A.Y. Khaitova, and G.A. Akmuradova, Induced abortion as a means of fertility control has a long history in Turkmenistan, as it does in other republics of the former Soviet Union. Induced abortion was legal when the Turkmen S.S.R. formally became one of the USSR’s constituent republics; it had been declared legal in the Soviet Union in 1920. In 1936, the Soviet Union adapted pronatalist policies and declared induced abortion illegal. The decision was reversed in 1955 when abortion for nonmedical reasons was again legalized throughout the former Soviet Union. Information about induced abortion was collected in the reproductive section of the questionnaire (see Appendix E). The section began with a series of questions to determine the total number of live births, induced abortions, miscarriages, and stillbirths that a respondent has had. When reporting the number of abortions, respondents were told to include pregnancies terminated by vacuum aspiration (i.e., miniabortions).1 Next, an event-by-event pregnancy history was collected. For each pregnancy, the type of outcome and year and month of termination were recorded. The pregnancy history was structured to ensure as complete reporting of abortions as possible, especially for the period just prior to the survey. Data were collected in reverse chronological order (i.e., information was first collected about the most recent pregnancy and then about the next to last and so on). This procedure was designed to result in more complete reporting of events for the years immediately prior to the survey than collecting information in chronological order would. At the end of the pregnancy history, interviewers were required to check the consistency between the aggregate data collected at the outset of the reproductive section and the number of events reported in the pregnancy history. Finally, interviewers were required to probe pregnancy intervals of four years or more to detect omitted events. 6.1 PREGNANCY OUTCOMES Table 6.1 shows the percent distribution of outcomes for pregnancies terminating during the three-year period preceding the survey (mid-1997 to mid-2000). In Turkmenistan, 72 percent of pregnancies end in a live birth and 28 percent end in fetal loss (i.e., one in four pregnancies ends in an induced abortion, miscarriage, or stillbirth). Induced abortion is the most common type of pregnancy loss, accounting for 65 percent of all pregnancy losses, 18 percent of all pregnancy outcomes. Table 6.1 also shows the percent distributions of pregnancy outcomes by background characteristics. Women of all characteristics shown have used induced abortion as a means of fertility control, but the extent to which they do so varies substantially. For example, urban women abort 25 percent of their pregnancies, while rural women abort 13 percent. 70 * Induced Abortions Table 6.1 Pregnancy outcomes by background characteristics Percent distribution of pregnancies ending during the three years preceding the survey, by type of outcome, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________________________________ Pregnancy outcome _______________________________________ Number Background Live Induced Mis- Still- of characteristic birth abortion carriage birth Total pregnancies _______________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 63.3 25.1 10.8 0.7 100.0 1,309 78.1 13.1 8.0 0.9 100.0 1,643 60.4 29.3 10.3 0.0 100.0 352 79.3 10.7 9.5 0.5 100.0 385 74.1 20.4 5.5 0.0 100.0 219 78.4 12.8 7.3 1.5 100.0 599 67.1 22.0 10.5 0.4 100.0 654 70.5 18.0 10.1 1.4 100.0 743 75.3 14.0 9.8 0.8 100.0 2,015 63.5 27.1 8.5 1.0 100.0 697 63.1 29.9 7.0 0.0 100.0 240 73.4 16.1 9.8 0.7 100.0 2,357 74.4 16.7 8.1 0.8 100.0 335 50.7 41.4 6.1 1.8 100.0 259 71.6 18.4 9.2 0.8 100.0 2,952 Recourse to induced abortion also varies substantially by region, education, and ethnicity. The proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion is highest in Ashgabad City (29 percent) and lowest in the Akhal Region (11 percent) and the Dashoguz Region (13 percent); the three regions of Mary, Balkan, and Lebap fall in the midrange, aborting 18 to 22 percent of pregnancies. The proportion of pregnancies ending in abortion is also higher among women with higher education (30 percent) than it is among women with primary or secondary education (14 percent). Substantially more pregnancies end in abortion among women of other ethnicities (41 percent) than among women of Turkmen (16 percent) or Uzbek (17 percent) ethnicity. Table 6.2 shows the percent distribution of pregnancy outcomes by selected indicators of women’s status. These indicators are intended to reflect women’s sense of empowerment. Women who are more empowered are expected to be better able to maintain control over their own lives, including being better able to meet their fertility goals. The two indicators reported in Table 6.2 are the following: the number of decisions in which the respondent participates in the final say of the household and the number of reasons for which a woman can refuse to have sexual relations with her husband. The first indicator is intended to reflect the degree of decisionmaking control women are able to exercise in areas that affect their own life and environment. The second indicator is intended to reflect perceptions of sexual roles and women’s rights over their body and sexuality. See Chapter 3 for more details about the components of the indicators. Induced Abortions * 71 Table 6.2 Pregnancy outcomes by women’s status Percent distribution of pregnancies ending during the three years preceding the survey, by type of outcome, according to selected indicators of women’s status, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________________________________ Pregnancy outcome _______________________________________ Number Indicator of Live Induced Mis- Still- of women’s status birth abortion carriage birth Total pregnancies _______________________________________________________________________________________ Number of decisions with woman having final say 0 1-2 3-4 5 Number of reasons to refuse sexual relations 0 1-2 3-4 Total 82.4 6.8 10.6 0.3 100.0 217 79.7 9.3 10.0 1.0 100.0 546 70.1 19.3 9.2 1.3 100.0 646 67.8 22.9 8.8 0.6 100.0 1,543 75.7 16.7 7.2 0.4 100.0 153 73.3 15.8 10.7 0.3 100.0 466 70.9 19.0 9.1 0.9 100.0 2,333 71.6 18.4 9.2 0.8 100.0 2,952 The first indicator is positively associated with the percentage of pregnancies that end in abortion; that is to say, the percentage of abortions increases as the number of decisions in which the respondent participates increases. The increase is fairly steady. The second indicator shows no clear pattern in relation to pregnancy outcomes. Interpretation of these results should be done carefully since the realm of fertility control and decisionmaking is more complex than can be summarized here. 6.2 LIFETIME EXPERIENCE WITH INDUCED ABORTION Table 6.3 shows the lifetime experience of women with abortion. It should be noted that the statistics on the proportion of women who have ever had an abortion are based on all women 15-49 irrespective of their exposure to the risk of pregnancy. Overall, 18 percent of women of reproductive age in Turkmenistan have had at least one abortion. Of course, the percentage who have had an abortion increases with age, a significant proportion of the youngest women have not yet had intercourse (for example, 94 percent of those under the age of 20 have never had intercourse). One-third of women age 35 and over have had an abortion. There are significant differentials across background characteristics in the percentage of women who have had at least one abortion. Urban women are much more likely than rural women to have had an abortion: one in four versus one in ten. Regional variation ranges from 11 percent of women in the Akhal and Dashoguz regions having had an abortion to 29 percent in Ashgabad City. Women with secondary-special or higher education are twice as likely to have had an abortion as women with primary or secondary education are (30 percent and 13 percent, respectively). Forty-three percent of women of other ethnicities have had an abortion, whereas 14 percent of Turkmen women have done so. 72 * Induced Abortions Table 6.3 Lifetime experience with induced abortion Percentage of women who have had at least one induced abortion and, among these women, the percent distribution by the number of induced abortions and the mean number of induced abortions, according to selected background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Percentage of Among women who have had women an abortion, percent distribution Mean Number who had Number of women by number of abortions number of women Background an induced of ________________________________________ of who had characteristic abortion women 1 2-3 4-5 6+ Total abortions an abortion ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age <20 20-24 25-34 35+ No. of living children 0 1 2-3 4-5 6+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Marital status Never married Married Ever-married Total 0.1 1,574 * * * * * * 1 5.0 1,799 75.0 22.5 2.4 0.0 100.0 1.3 90 21.6 2,058 61.2 33.9 4.4 0.5 100.0 1.6 444 34.6 2,488 44.7 43.0 8.2 4.1 100.0 2.1 861 0.6 2,942 * * * * * * 18 18.7 946 56.1 32.3 11.0 0.6 100.0 1.9 176 30.7 2,381 50.2 38.5 8.1 3.2 100.0 2.0 731 30.3 1,199 54.7 40.4 2.9 2.1 100.0 1.7 363 24.1 451 49.2 43.0 3.2 4.6 100.0 2.1 109 25.3 3,691 45.0 42.5 8.7 3.8 100.0 2.1 934 10.9 4,228 66.2 31.1 2.4 0.3 100.0 1.5 461 28.9 1,038 37.7 45.4 12.1 4.8 100.0 2.4 300 10.7 1,145 49.7 45.1 3.6 1.6 100.0 1.8 123 16.4 709 57.0 35.7 3.7 3.6 100.0 1.8 115 10.7 1,628 62.1 32.6 3.8 1.5 100.0 1.7 174 21.1 1,607 51.0 39.9 5.7 3.4 100.0 1.9 339 19.2 1,791 59.4 33.6 6.3 0.7 100.0 1.7 344 12.9 5,800 59.5 35.0 4.1 1.4 100.0 1.7 748 30.8 1,556 43.5 42.8 9.4 4.4 100.0 2.2 479 29.6 563 42.7 44.1 10.0 3.2 100.0 2.2 167 14.0 6,191 59.6 35.1 3.6 1.7 100.0 1.7 867 18.2 857 55.8 38.7 3.9 1.6 100.0 1.7 156 42.7 871 32.5 47.2 14.9 5.4 100.0 2.5 372 0.0 2,563 * * * * * * 0 25.6 4,892 52.2 39.1 6.2 2.4 1.9 100.0 1,252 31.4 463 49.7 35.2 10.1 4.9 100.0 2.3 145 17.6 7,919 52.0 38.7 6.6 2.7 100.0 1.9 1,396 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Table 6.3 also presents information on repeat use of induced abortion. Among women who have ever had an abortion, half (48 percent) have had more than one. Patterns of repeat abortion are similar to patterns of exposure to abortion. Wherever percentages of women who have had an abortion are higher, percentages with more than one abortion are likely to be higher. For example, urban women are more likely to have had an abortion (25 versus 11 percent), and among those who have had an abortion, they are also more likely to have had more than one abortion (55 versus 34 percent) than rural women are. The same is true for education and ethnicity. Induced Abortions * 73 Table 6.4 Induced abortion rates Age-specific induced abortion rates, total abortion rates, and general abortion rates for the three-year period before the survey, by residence and ethnicity, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Ethnicity _______________ ____________________________ Age group Urban Rural Turkmen Uzbek Other Total ____________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Rates Total abortion rate 15-49 Total abortion rate 15-44 General abortion rate 1 1 1 2 1 1 27 11 15 15 48 18 63 33 42 50 96 48 55 43 44 51 83 49 38 33 36 32 37 35 20 16 14 12 41 18 0 0 0 (0) (0) 0 1.02 0.69 0.75 0.81 1.53 0.85 1.02 0.69 0.75 0.81 1.53 0.85 34 20 23 24 50 26 __________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Rates in parentheses indicate that they are based on fewer than 250 unweighted woman-years of exposure. Total abortion rate is induced abortions expressed per woman; general abortion rate is induced abortions divided by the number of women 15-44 expressed per 1,000 women. 6.3 RATES OF INDUCED ABORTION Rates of abortion for the three-year period prior to the survey (i.e., from mid-1997 to mid- 2000) are shown in this section. Age-specific rates represent the probability that a woman of a particular age will have an abortion in a period of one calendar year. These rates are shown per 1,000 women. Table 6.4 shows age-specific rates of abortion for all of Turkmenistan, by urban-rural residence and by ethnicity. The age pattern of the rates is similar in each population subgroup. Rates are nearly nonexistent among the youngest women, increase during the primary years of childbearing, peak at just after the primary years of childbearing, and then decline. This pattern prevails among each ethnic group and residence group. For example, urban women attain their peak childbearing years at age 20-24 (165 births per 1,000 women) and their peak abortion rates at age 25-29 (63 abortions per 1,000 women). Rural women attain their peak childbearing years at age 25-29 (244 births per 1,000 women) and their peak abortion rates at age 30-34 (43 abortions per 1,000 women). Turkmen women attain their peak childbearing years at age 25-29 (213 births per 1,000 women) and their peak abortion rates at age 30-34 (44 abortions per 1,000 women). The same pattern is true for Uzbek women and women of other ethnicities. At the national level, childbearing peaks at age 25-29 (195 births per 1,000 women), and the induced abortion rate peaks at age 30-34 (49 abortions per 1,000 women); national rates are shown in Figure 6.1. 74 * Induced Abortions Age-specific abortion rates can be expressed in a summary index called the total abortion rate (TAR). This rate is interpreted as the number of abortions a woman would have during her lifetime if she moved through her reproductive years experiencing the current age-specific rates. For Turkmenistan, the total abortion rate for the period from mid-1997 to mid-2000 is 0.85 abortions per woman. This level falls between rates estimated in nationally representative surveys conducted in Kazakhstan (mid-1996 to mid-1999) of 1.44 abortions per woman (APM and MI, 1999) and Uzbekistan (mid-1993 to mid-1996) of 0.67 abortions per woman (IOG and MI, 1997). Total abortion rates by background characteristics of respondents are shown in Table 6.5 and Figure 6.2. There are greater differentials in rates of abortion by region, education, and ethnicity than by urban-rural residence; TARs differ by approximately a factor of two by the former characteristics. The lowest TAR of only 0.48 is seen in the Akhal Region and the highest is double that in the Lebap Region at 1.16 abortions per woman. Women with higher education (1.25 abortions per woman) have a TAR nearly double that of women with primary or secondary education (0.68 abortions per woman). Finally, women of other ethnicities (who make up 11 percent of the sample) have a TAR of 1.53 abortions per woman, which is double that of Turkmen women (0.75 abortions per woman). Induced Abortions * 75 6.4 TRENDS IN INDUCED ABORTION Trends in induced abortion can be observed by comparing the total abortion rate with the mean number of abortions reported by women who are nearing the end of their fertile years (i.e., women age 40-49). Table 6.5 indicates that at the national level, the TAR (0.85 abortions per woman) is about the same as the mean number of abortions reported by women age 40-49 (0.82 abortions per woman). Table 6.5 implies that resorting to inducing abortions has actually increased among some population subgroups, while it has decreased among others. The TARs are greater than the mean number of abortions reported by older women among women in rural areas (0.7 versus 0.4), all regions other than Ashgabad City, women with higher education (1.3 versus 1.0), and among Turkmen women (0.8 versus 0.5). The TARs are less than the mean number of abortions reported by older women, implying some movement away from induced abortion, among women in urban areas (1.0 versus 1.2), women in Ashgabad City (1.2 versus 1.6), women with secondary-special education (1.2 versus 1.5), and women of other ethnicities (1.5 versus 2.0). The TDHS data allow for a more direct assessment of time trends in abortion. Table 6.6 shows age-specific rates of induced abortion for consecutive five-year periods prior to the survey. The age-specific rates show an increase in abortion rates among women age 25 and older. The age- specific rates can be summarized in terms of the TAR restricted to women age 15-44. The TAR increased by 14 percent between the periods 5 to 9 and 0 to 4 years before the survey, from 0.7 to 0.8 abortions per woman. 2 As was discussed in the contraception chapter, levels of use of the lactational amenorrhea method may be more the result of labeling breastfeeding than of the use of the lactational amenorrhea method as a method of contraception. 76 * Induced Abortions Table 6.5 Induced abortion by background characteristics Total induced abortion rates for the three-year period preceding the survey, and mean number of induced abortions had by women age 40-49, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________ Mean Total number of induced abortions Background abortion to women characteristic rate1 age 40-49 _____________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 1.02 1.21 0.69 0.38 1.12 1.58 0.48 0.40 0.75 0.62 0.60 0.47 1.16 1.00 0.94 0.77 0.68 0.59 1.17 1.51 1.25 0.99 0.75 0.53 0.81 0.83 1.53 2.02 0.85 0.82 ______________________________________________ 1 Women age 15-49 6.5 USE OF CONTRACEPTION BEFORE ABORTION For each pregnancy terminated by abortion in the three years preceding the survey, respondents were asked whether they were using a method of contraception at the time they became pregnant, and if so, what method. Table 6.7 shows the relevant statistics. Nearly one-third of abortions (32 percent) are reported to be preceded by a contraceptive failure. Although this is much higher than the level reported in Uzbekistan (12 percent of abortions were reported to be preceded by a contraceptive failure), most of the difference is that in Turkmenistan, a substantial proportion of women reported contraceptive failures after the use of withdrawal and the lactational amenorrhea method.2 Women reported 9 percent of abortions to be preceded by use of withdrawal and 7 percent of abortions to have been preceded by use of the lactational amenorrhea method. Reports of induced abortions preceded by use of the IUD (10 percent) are not that dissimilar from the level reported in Uzbekistan (7 percent) (IOG and MI, 1997). Induced Abortions * 77 Table 6.6 Trends in age-specific induced abortion Age-specific induced abortion rates, for five-year periods preceding the survey, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________ Number of years preceding the survey Age group 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 _________________________________________________ 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 TAR 15-49 TAR 15-44 1 4 5 1 21 21 20 25 40 38 41 48 44 40 45 [56] 32 23 [40] - 18 [9] - - [0] - - - 0.78 - - - 0.78 0.68 _________________________________________________ Note: Age-specific induced abortion rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. TAR: Total abortion rate expressed per woman. Table 6.7 Use of contraception prior to pregnancy Percent distribution of pregnancy outcomes during the three years preceding the survey, by contraceptive method used (if any) at the time of conception, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________ Result of the pregnancy _______________________________ All Contraceptive Live Induced Mis- Still- preg- method birth abortion carriage birth nancies __________________________________________________________________________ No contraception Any method Any modern method Pill IUD Injection Condom Foam/jelly Any traditional method Lactational amenorrhea Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Total Number of pregnancies 89.8 67.9 82.0 (93.4) 85.1 10.2 32.1 18.0 (6.6) 14.9 2.4 13.3 8.0 (1.2) 4.9 0.2 1.3 1.3 (0.0) 0.5 1.8 9.8 6.0 (1.2) 3.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 (0.0) 0.0 0.2 2.2 0.7 (0.0) 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 (0.0) 0.1 7.8 18.9 10.0 (5.4) 10.0 4.1 6.7 4.1 (0.0) 4.6 0.4 1.9 0.9 (0.0) 0.7 2.4 9.0 4.9 (5.4) 3.9 0.9 1.3 0.0 (0.0) 0.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2,093 541 275 23 2,933 _________________________________________________________________________ Note: Parentheses indicate that a figure is based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 78 * Induced Abortions Table 6.8 Source of services and procedures used for induced abortion Percent distribution of induced abortions during the three years preceding the survey by source of services and type of procedure, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________ Characteristic Percent__________________________________________ Source of services Delivery hospital 24.3 Government hospital 39.9 Fee for service department of hospital 22.5 Women’s consulting center 6.2 Family group practice 0.6 Missing 6.5 Abortion procedure Dilation and curettage 28.1 Vacuum aspiration 71.9 Total 100.0 Number of induced abortions 541 6.6 SERVICE PROVIDERS AND MEDICAL PROCEDURES All women who had an abortion in the three years preceding the survey were asked where the abortion was performed and what method was used. Table 6.8 indicates that 87 percent of abortions were performed in a hospital and 6 percent were performed in a women’s consulting center. Most abortions are performed using vacuum aspiration (72 percent), while 28 percent are done after dilation and curretage. All women who reported an abortion in the three years preceding the survey were also asked how far into the pregnancy the procedure was performed. Table 6.9 indicates that about two-thirds of abortions are performed at two months of pregnancy. The greatest variation in timing is seen across regions. The percentage of abortions done at three or more months is highest in the Akhal Region (although the figure is based on a small number of cases) and lowest in the Lebap Region. Women in the Lebap Region exhibited the highest total abortion rate, and they are also the most likely to abort at two months duration (82 percent). 6.7 ATTITUDES TOWARD ABORTION In an attempt to assess women’s satisfaction with undergoing an induced abortion in order to control fertility, the TDHS survey asked all respondents three questions about their stance on abortion. The first question was of a general nature, “Do you approve or disapprove of a woman having an abortion?” The second question was more pointed, asking the respondent, “Would you have an abortion if you unintentionally become pregnant sometime in the future?” The third question was asked to assess satisfaction with abortion as a means of fertility control, asking, “Would you prefer to use a method in the future or rely on abortion or do neither?” Table 6.10 indicates that most women, in general, actually disapprove of abortion (61 percent). Nearly one- quarter (23 percent) of women say that they would have an abortion if they were to become pregnant unintentionally; an additional one-quarter of women report not knowing what they would do if they became unintentionally pregnant. Almost no one reports a preference to rely on abortion as a method of fertility control; two-thirds of women report they would prefer to use a contraceptive method. Induced Abortions * 79 Table 6.9 Timing of induced abortion Percent distribution of induced abortions during the three years preceding the survey, by duration of pregnancy in months, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________ Number of months pregnant _______________________________________ Number Background of characteristic 1 2 3+ Total abortions ____________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 1.2 64.7 34.1 100.0 327 2.7 60.3 36.9 100.0 215 0.0 75.7 24.3 100.0 103 (0. 0) (15.2) (84.8) 100.0 41 0.0 78.1 21.9 100.0 45 1.0 65.9 33.1 100.0 77 1.5 82.3 16.2 100.0 144 5.1 40.0 54.9 100.0 132 1.5 60.1 38.3 100.0 281 2.5 63.8 33.7 100.0 189 1.0 71.7 27.2 100.0 72 1.4 63.2 35.4 100.0 378 1.3 67.0 31.7 100.0 56 3.4 60.1 36.5 100.0 107 1.8 63.0 35.2 100.0 541 ____________________________________________________________________________ Parentheses indicate that a figure is based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 80 * Induced Abortions Ta bl e 6. 10 W om en ’s a tti tu de to w ar d in du ce d ab or tio n Pe rc en t d ist rib ut io n of w om en b y at tit ud e to w ar d in du ce d ab or tio n, a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, T ur km en ist an 2 00 0 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ W he th er w ou ld h av e an a bo rti on W he th er a pp ro ve s of a bo rti on if be ca m e un in te nt io na lly p re gn an t W he th er p re fe rs a bo rti on o r a m et ho d of c on tra ce pt io n __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ P re fe rs N um be r Ba ck gr ou nd D on ’t M iss in g or D on ’t M iss in g/ to u se a Re ly o n P re fe rs to D on ’t M iss in g/ o f ch ar ac te ris tic A pp ro ve D isa pp ro ve D ep en ds kn ow s te ril iz ed N o Ye s kn ow st er ili ze d m et ho d ab or tio n do n ei th er kn ow st er ili ze d w om en __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ Re si de nc e U rb an 8. 5 60 .0 20 .7 9. 1 1. 7 48 .2 29 .3 20 .6 1. 9 70 .1 1. 3 11 .1 15 .1 2. 3 3, 69 1 Ru ra l 6. 7 62 .0 14 .8 15 .3 1. 2 55 .5 17 .8 25 .4 1. 3 64 .7 0. 5 9. 3 23 .3 2. 2 4, 22 8 Re gi on As hg ab ad C ity 7. 9 54 .9 29 .3 6. 6 1. 3 41 .6 38 .3 18 .3 1. 8 72 .6 1. 4 10 .7 13 .1 2. 2 1, 03 8 Ak ha l 8. 0 55 .1 14 .9 20 .3 1. 7 52 .7 16 .9 28 .5 2. 0 64 .9 0. 3 5. 9 26 .3 2. 6 1, 14 5 Ba lk an 3. 2 61 .3 24 .0 10 .2 1. 3 60 .2 14 .8 23 .6 1. 4 68 .4 1. 2 12 .7 16 .2 1. 5 70 9 D as ho gu z 2. 7 60 .4 22 .9 13 .2 0. 8 61 .0 14 .9 23 .2 0. 9 73 .2 0. 7 6. 1 18 .9 1. 1 1, 62 8 Le ba p 17 .1 65 .6 3. 3 12 .1 1. 9 48 .6 30 .8 18 .7 1. 9 68 .3 1. 8 11 .6 16 .1 2. 2 1, 60 7 M ar y 4. 7 64 .7 17 .9 11 .2 1. 6 49 .4 22 .4 26 .5 1. 7 58 .7 0. 2 13 .9 23 .8 3. 4 1, 79 1 Ed uc at io n Pr im ar y/ se co nd ar y 6. 7 60 .6 16 .2 15 .3 1. 2 52 .4 19 .5 26 .7 1. 4 63 .2 0. 8 10 .6 23 .3 2. 0 5, 80 0 Se co nd ar y sp ec ia l 10 .0 62 .8 19 .8 5. 1 2. 4 51 .9 32 .3 13 .3 2. 5 77 .2 1. 2 8. 9 9. 3 3. 3 1, 55 6 H ig he r 10 .3 60 .5 25 .3 2. 5 1. 4 48 .7 35 .8 14 .1 1. 4 81 .1 0. 7 8. 3 8. 4 1. 5 56 3 Et hn ic ity Tu rk m en 7. 4 61 .4 16 .1 13 .9 1. 2 53 .3 20 .4 24 .9 1. 4 65 .9 0. 7 10 .2 21 .3 1. 9 6, 19 1 U zb ek 5. 5 64 .8 18 .4 10 .2 1. 1 59 .5 22 .2 17 .1 1. 2 74 .3 2. 2 7. 1 15 .0 1. 4 85 7 O th er 11 .1 54 .6 27 .3 4. 0 3. 1 35 .8 44 .0 17 .0 3. 1 69 .8 0. 8 12 .9 11 .2 5. 3 87 1 To ta l 7. 6 61 .0 17 .6 12 .4 1. 4 52 .1 23 .2 23 .2 1. 6 67 .2 0. 9 10 .1 19 .5 2. 2 7, 91 9 Proximate, Determinants of Fertility * 81 Table 7.1 Current marital status Percent distribution of women by current marital status, according to age, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________ Marital status _________________________________________________________ Never Living Age married Married together Widowed Divorced Separated Total Number _________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total 94.1 5.3 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.2 100.0 1,574 52.7 43.3 1.0 0.3 2.3 0.5 100.0 1,541 15.2 77.3 3.5 0.6 2.5 0.9 100.0 1,256 4.2 85.6 2.5 1.7 4.7 1.3 100.0 1,060 2.5 85.4 2.6 4.0 4.6 0.9 100.0 974 0.8 87.5 3.1 4.5 3.7 0.5 100.0 845 0.5 79.6 3.6 10.1 4.9 1.4 100.0 669 32.4 59.7 2.0 2.2 2.9 0.7 100.0 7,919 _________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Figures may not add to 100.0 due to rounding. OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY 7 C.M. Nazarov, G.K. Ezizova, and D. Sharman This chapter addresses the principal factors, other than contraception and abortion, that affect a woman’s risk of becoming pregnant. These include nuptiality, sexual activity, postpartum amenorrhea, and abstinence from sexual relations. Marriage is an overall indicator of exposure to the risk of pregnancy. More direct measures of exposure relate directly to sexual activity: age at first sexual intercourse and the frequency of intercourse. Postpartum amenorrhea and abstinence affect the interval between births. These factors determine the length and pace of reproductive activity and are therefore important in understanding fertility. 7.1 MARITAL STATUS Table 7.1 and Figure 7.1 show the distribution of all women by marital status at the time of the survey. The term “married” refers to legal or formal marriage (civil or religious), while “living together” refers to informal unions. In subsequent tables, these two categories are combined and referred to collectively as “currently married” or “currently in union.” Women who are widowed, divorced, or not living together (separated) make up the remainder of the “ever-married” or “ever in union” category. Marriage is nearly universal in Turkmenistan. Although it is rare for a woman age 15-19 to be married, nearly half the women age 20-24 are currently married. Nine out of ten women age 30-44 are currently married. By age 45-49 the percentage of women married begins to decline as the number of widows begins to increase. Only 4 percent of women are divorced or separated. Overall, 60 percent of women of reproductive age are currently married; most of the unmarried women are age 15-24 and have not yet married. 1 For each cohort, the accumulated percentages stop at the lower age boundary of the cohort to avoid censoring problems. For instance, accumulation for the cohort currently age 20-24 stops with the percentage married by exact age 20. 82 * Proximate, Determinants of Fertility 7.2 AGE AT FIRST MARRIAGE Marriage generally marks the point in a woman’s life when childbearing first becomes welcome; it is therefore an important demographic and social indicator. Information on age at first marriage was obtained by asking all ever-married respondents the month and year they started living with their first spouse. Table 7.2 presents the cumulative distributions of women married by specific ages for successive age groups.1 These data allow an examination of cohort trends in age at marriage. Half the women now age 45-49 had married by the time they were age 20, whereas only one-quarter of women now in their twenties had married by age 20. Three-quarters of the women now age 45-49 had married by the time they were age 22, whereas only half of the women now age 25-39 had married by age 22. Figure 7.2 graphically portrays the cumulative distributions for successive age groups. These findings are also reflected in the increasing median age at marriage, also shown in Table 7.2. The median age has increased from 20 among women age 45-49 to 20.8 among women age 40-44 to around 22 for women age 25-39. About half the women in Turkmenistan wait until after the age of 22 to marry. Table 7.3 presents the median age at marriage for women age 25-49 by selected background characteristics. Proximate, Determinants of Fertility * 83 Table 7.2 Age at first marriage Percentage of women who were first married by specific exact ages and median age at first marriage, according to current age, Turkmenistan 2000____________________________________________________________________________________________ Percentage who were first married Percentage Median by exact age: who had Number age at ___________________________________________ never of first Current age 15 18 20 22 25 married women marriage ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 20-49 25-49 0.1 na na na na 94.1 1,574 a 0.0 9.1 26.2 na na 52.7 1,541 a 0.2 6.5 26.4 51.5 77.4 15.2 1,256 21.9 0.7 4.4 22.3 48.9 82.2 4.2 1,060 22.1 0.1 4.8 23.5 51.5 81.5 2.5 974 21.9 0.3 9.0 38.8 66.7 88.4 0.8 845 20.8 0.6 16.8 49.1 75.6 90.8 0.5 669 20.1 0.3 7.9 29.2 na na 17.0 6,345 a 0.4 7.5 30.2 57.0 83.1 5.6 4,804 21.5 __________________________________________________________________________________________ na = Not applicablea Omitted because less than 50 percent in the age group x to x+n had married by age x. 84 * Proximate, Determinants of Fertility Table 7.3 Median age at first marriage Median age at first marriage among women age 25-49 years, by current age and background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ________________________________________________________________________ Current age Women Background ________________________________________ age characteristic 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 25-49 ________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 21.4 21.7 21.9 20.8 20.1 21.2 22.3 22.4 21.9 20.7 20.0 21.6 21.5 21.4 22.3 20.6 20.4 21.2 22.3 21.8 21.5 20.5 19.7 21.3 22.4 23.0 22.4 21.0 19.6 21.9 22.4 22.9 22.2 20.7 20.3 21.8 21.1 21.5 21.4 21.5 19.8 21.2 21.9 22.2 21.6 20.5 20.2 21.5 21.7 21.9 21.5 20.3 19.8 21.1 21.7 21.9 22.1 21.5 20.1 21.6 23.9 23.2 23.7 23.6 22.5 23.4 22.4 22.4 22.1 20.9 20.0 21.8 20.5 20.8 20.6 20.2 20.1 20.5 19.9 20.4 21.0 20.3 20.2 20.4 21.9 22.1 21.9 20.8 20.1 21.5 _______________________________________________________________________ Note: Medians for women age 15-19 and 20-24 could not be determined because less than 50 percent of those women were married by age 15 and 20, the lower boundary of the age groups, respectively. Perhaps the most notable finding in Table 7.3 is the fact that the increasing median age at marriage is due to the behavior of Turkmen women, whose median age at marriage has increased from 20 to 21 to 22 years of age over recent decades. Median ages at marriage among Uzbek women and women of other ethnicities show no clear pattern of change over time, hovering at 21 and 20 years of age. Women currently age 25-29 exhibit an urban-rural differential that did not exist among the older cohorts; urban women are marrying on average one year earlier than rural women. Another differential in Table 7.3 is one that is observed in many societies—age at marriage increases with increasing education. Among women over the age of 40, the median age at marriage increases by nearly four years with increasing education, from age 20 to age 24. The differential in median age at marriage is more dichotomous among younger women; for example, women age 25-29 with primary, secondary, or secondary-special education exhibit a median age of nearly 22, while women with higher education exhibit a median age of marriage of 24 years. Proximate, Determinants of Fertility * 85 Table 7.4 Age at first sexual intercourse Percentage of women who had first sexual intercourse by exact age 15, 18, 20, 22, and 25, and median age at first intercourse, according to current age, Turkmenistan 2000____________________________________________________________________________________________ Percentage who had Percentage Median first intercourse by exact age: who Number age at ___________________________________________ never had of first Current age 15 18 20 22 25 intercourse women intercourse ____________________________________________________________________________________________ 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 20-49 25-49 0.1 na na na na 94.1 1,574 a 0.0 9.0 25.9 na na 52.6 1,541 a 0.2 6.7 25.7 49.7 74.9 15.2 1,256 22.0 0.6 4.4 21.4 47.0 79.9 4.2 1,060 22.2 0.0 4.8 22.8 49.3 78.5 2.5 974 22.1 0.3 9.0 38.5 65.5 86.5 0.8 845 20.8 0.6 16.1 46.6 72.6 86.7 0.5 669 20.2 0.3 7.9 28.5 51.4 72.3 17.0 6,345 a 0.3 7.5 29.3 55.0 80.4 5.6 4,804 21.6 ___________________________________________________________________________________________ na = Not applicable a Omitted because less than 50 percent in the age group x to x+n had intercourse by age x. 7.3 EXPOSURE TO INTERCOURSE BEFORE AND AFTER MARRIAGE Before settling on marriage as a proxy for exposure to intercourse, it is best to verify that the two events coincide, i.e., to verify whether or not some women engage in sexual relations prior to marriage. If women do engage in sexual relations prior to marriage, then the proportion of married women would underestimate the percentage of women who are sexually active. The TDHS survey asked women to state the age at which they first had sexual intercourse. The results, presented in Tables 7.4 and 7.5, mirror almost exactly the figures relating to age at marriage, indicating that in Turkmenistan, first exposure to sexual intercourse coincides with marriage. Table 7.6 also confirms that women who have not yet married are not yet engaging in sexual relations. All single women reported that they have not yet had sexual intercourse. But marriage can also be an insufficient proxy for exposure to intercourse by not including women who engage in sexual relations after marriage, i.e., not including widowed and divorced women, although in Turkmenistan only 6 percent of women of reproductive age are widowed or divorced. The TDHS survey asked all women whether they are engaging in sexual relations, regardless of marital status. Table 7.6 presents the percent distribution of all nonmarried women by sexual relationship. Most (85 percent) of the nonmarried population in Turkmenistan are the women who have not yet married and not yet engaged in a sexual relationship. The majority of the widowed and divorced population also report themselves to have no sexual partner. Overall, only 3 percent of nonmarried women of reproductive age report themselves to have a regular sexual partner. 86 * Proximate, Determinants of Fertility Table 7.5 Median age at first intercourse Median age at first sexual intercourse among women age 25-49 years, by current age and background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000__________________________________________________________________________________ Current age Women Background ___________________________________________ age characteristic 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 25-49 __________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 21.6 21.8 22.1 20.8 20.3 21.4 22.4 22.6 22.0 20.7 20.1 21.8 21.9 21.4 22.4 20.6 20.4 21.3 22.4 21.9 21.6 20.5 19.7 21.4 23.0 23.1 22.6 21.0 19.9 22.1 22.6 23.1 22.4 20.8 20.5 22.0 21.3 21.9 21.6 21.6 20.0 21.4 21.9 22.3 21.9 20.5 20.4 21.5 21.9 22.1 21.7 20.4 19.9 21.2 21.9 22.0 22.2 21.5 20.3 21.8 24.0 23.2 23.7 23.8 22.7 23.5 22.4 22.5 22.3 21.0 20.2 21.9 20.8 21.0 20.7 20.4 20.5 20.7 19.8 20.4 21.5 20.3 20.2 20.4 22.0 22.2 22.1 20.8 20.2 21.6 _______________________________________________________________________________ Note: Medians for women age 15-19 and 20-24 could not be determined because less than 50 percent of the women had had intercourse for the first time by age 15 and 20, respectively. 7.4 RECENT SEXUAL ACTIVITY In the absence of contraceptive use, frequency of sexual intercourse is a direct determinant of pregnancy; therefore, knowledge of frequency is a useful indicator of exposure to pregnancy. Table 7.7 shows the percent distribution of women by sexual activity in the four weeks prior to the survey and the duration of abstinence by whether or not the women have recently had a birth (i.e., whether they are postpartum). Women are considered to be sexually active if they have had sexual intercourse at least once in the four weeks prior to the survey. Overall, 56 percent of all women interviewed were sexually active in the four weeks preceding the survey. Fewer than 2 percent of women are postpartum abstaining, 10 percent of women are not sexually active for reasons unrelated to childbirth, and 32 percent of women have never had sexual intercourse. Most of the women who are not sexually active are women in their teens and twenties who have never had intercourse. Not surprisingly, women who are using a method of family planning are more likely to be sexually active than women who are not using a method. The IUD is by far the most commonly used method, and 92 percent of women with an IUD report themselves to be sexually active. One- third of women who are not using any method are sexually active. Proximate, Determinants of Fertility * 87 7.5 POSTPARTUM AMENORRHEA, ABSTINENCE, AND INSUSCEPTIBILITY Postpartum amenorrhea refers to the interval between childbirth and the return of menstruation. During this period, the risk of pregnancy is reduced. The duration of reduced risk of conception largely depends on two factors: the length and intensity of breastfeeding, which tends to suppress the resumption of ovulation, and the length of time before the resumption of sexual intercourse. Women who are either amenorrheic or abstaining (or both) are considered insusceptible to the risk of pregnancy. The percentage of births during the last three years whose mothers are presently postpartum amenorrheic, abstaining, or insusceptible is shown in Table 7.8 by the number of months since birth. These distributions are based on current status data, i.e., on the proportion of births occurring x months before the survey for which mother is still amenorrheic, abstaining, or insusceptible. The estimates of the median and mean durations shown in Tables 7.8 and 7.9 are calculated from the current status proportions at each time period. The data are grouped in two- month intervals to minimize fluctuations in the estimates. 7.6 Sexual relationships of nonmarried women Percent distribution of women who are not currently married or living with a man by type of current sexual relationship, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Never married women Formerly married women _________ _________________________________________ Regular Occasional Number Background No sexual sexual sexual No sexual of characteristic partner partner partner partner Missing Total women __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 99.3 0.4 0.0 0.3 0.0 100.0 1,491 20-24 94.5 1.7 0.2 3.6 0.0 100.0 859 25-29 79.2 7.4 0.0 13.4 0.0 100.0 241 30-34 35.4 11.9 1.1 51.5 0.0 100.0 126 35-39 20.7 9.8 0.0 69.6 0.0 100.0 117 40-44 8.3 8.6 0.0 80.9 2.2 100.0 80 45-49 2.8 7.7 0.0 89.5 0.0 100.0 113 Residence Urban 76.4 4.4 0.2 18.8 0.1 100.0 1,383 Rural 91.6 1.1 0.0 7.2 0.0 100.0 1,643 Region Ashgabad City 70.9 5.0 0.4 23.3 0.4 100.0 399 Akhal 89.2 1.0 0.0 9.8 0.0 100.0 447 Balkan 82.9 3.5 0.0 13.6 0.0 100.0 285 Dashoguz 89.3 1.7 0.2 8.8 0.0 100.0 678 Lebap 83.3 4.1 0.0 12.7 0.0 100.0 577 Mary 87.3 1.6 0.0 11.1 0.0 100.0 641 Education Primary/secondary 89.3 1.8 0.1 8.8 0.1 100.0 2,453 Secondary-special 62.1 7.7 0.4 29.9 0.0 100.0 407 Higher 71.7 3.3 0.0 25.0 0.0 100.0 166 Ethnicity Turkmen 87.6 2.4 0.1 9.9 0.0 100.0 2,145 Uzbek 81.7 4.3 0.5 13.6 0.0 100.0 303 Other 64.7 2.9 0.0 31.9 0.6 100.0 308 Total 84.7 2.6 0.1 12.5 0.1 100.0 3,027 __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Formerly married refers to widowed or divorced women and women not currently living together with a man. 88 * Proximate, Determinants of Fertility Table 7.7 Recent sexual activity Percent distribution of women by sexual activity in the four weeks preceding the survey, and among those not sexually active, the duration of abstinence and whether postpartum or not postpartum abstaining, according to background characteristics and contraceptive method currently used, Turkmenistan 2000 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Not sexually active in last 4 weeks ___________________________________ Background Abstaining Abstaining characteristic/ Active (postpartum) (not postpartum) Never Number contraceptive in last _________________ ________________ had of method 4 weeks 0-1 years 2+ years 0-1 years 2+ years sex Missing Total women __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Duration of union (years) Never married 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Contraceptive method No method Pill IUD Sterilization Periodic abstinence Other Total 3.9 0.4 0.0 1.4 0.0 94.1 0.1 100.0 1,574 37.8 3.0 0.2 5.1 1.1 52.6 0.3 100.0 1,541 74.1 2.5 0.2 5.6 1.5 15.2 0.8 100.0 1,256 82.4 0.8 0.3 6.5 4.9 4.2 0.8 100.0 1,060 83.3 0.6 0.1 6.2 6.4 2.5 0.9 100.0 974 81.6 0.4 0.1 10.3 6.4 0.8 0.4 100.0 845 71.0 0.0 0.4 13.7 12.9 0.5 1.5 100.0 669 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 99.9 0.0 100.0 2,563 80.5 6.5 0.4 10.7 0.9 0.1 0.9 100.0 1,132 86.9 1.3 0.4 7.0 3.5 0.0 0.8 100.0 1,188 86.8 0.8 0.2 5.7 5.4 0.0 1.0 100.0 976 84.5 0.5 0.1 7.3 6.7 0.0 0.9 100.0 791 81.9 0.0 0.1 9.5 8.2 0.0 0.3 100.0 633 70.2 0.2 0.1 15.8 12.2 0.0 1.5 100.0 635 56.1 1.2 0.2 7.9 5.3 28.6 0.8 100.0 3,691 55.7 1.4 0.1 4.4 2.3 35.6 0.5 100.0 4,228 54.4 1.0 0.4 9.3 6.5 27.1 1.3 100.0 1,038 56.2 1.1 0.1 4.4 3.1 34.8 0.3 100.0 1,145 54.7 0.8 0.5 6.0 4.4 33.2 0.4 100.0 709 53.0 1.3 0.1 4.7 3.0 37.2 0.7 100.0 1,628 58.4 1.6 0.1 6.4 3.4 29.9 0.3 100.0 1,607 57.3 1.5 0.1 6.2 2.9 31.2 0.7 100.0 1,791 52.0 1.2 0.1 5.5 2.9 37.7 0.5 100.0 5,800 67.6 1.8 0.3 7.5 6.1 16.2 0.6 100.0 1,556 63.9 0.8 0.6 7.2 4.6 21.2 1.5 100.0 563 55.4 1.2 0.1 5.6 3.0 34.2 0.5 100.0 6,191 58.4 2.4 0.1 5.2 3.9 28.9 1.1 100.0 857 57.1 1.1 0.5 9.8 7.9 22.7 0.8 100.0 871 33.6 1.0 0.3 6.1 5.1 53.2 0.7 100.0 4,815 (96.7) (0.0) (0.0) (3.3) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 60 91.8 0.0 0.0 6.1 1.7 0.0 0.4 100.0 1,971 71.8 2.9 0.0 15.0 10.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 104 95.7 0.0 0.0 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 102 88.7 6.1 0.0 4.8 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 867 55.9 1.3 0.2 6.1 3.7 32.3 0.6 100.0 7,919 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted women. Proximate, Determinants of Fertility * 89 Table 7.8 Postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility Percentage of births in the three years preceding the survey for which mothers are postpartum amenorrheic, abstaining, and insusceptible, by number of months since birth, and median and mean durations, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________ Number Months Amenor- Insus- of since birth rheic Abstaining ceptible births ______________________________________________________ <2 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 24-25 26-27 28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 Total Median Mean 89.1 76.3 92.5 97 72.3 16.7 75.8 136 59.9 6.0 62.9 126 44.9 2.3 45.9 118 31.9 1.1 31.9 112 31.4 3.7 34.2 130 17.6 0.9 18.5 141 21.7 2.0 22.4 98 10.5 0.3 10.8 117 8.2 0.0 8.2 113 5.0 0.0 5.0 107 3.4 1.2 4.0 114 4.2 3.2 7.4 136 4.6 0.6 5.2 119 0.8 0.0 0.8 113 0.7 0.8 1.5 92 0.6 0.0 0.6 117 0.0 0.0 0.0 107 22.9 5.9 24.1 2,093 5.9 1.7 6.2 - 8.4 2.7 8.8 - Although both postpartum amenorrhea and postpartum abstinence are fairly short in duration, the former is longer than the latter and is therefore the principal determinant of the length of postpartum insusceptibility. Nearly all women (93 percent) are insusceptible to pregnancy in the first two months after a birth but become susceptible to the risk of pregnancy steadily thereafter. Few women abstain for more than two or three months after a birth. The median duration of abstinence is only 1.7 months. By 4 to 5 months after a birth, one-third of women are already susceptible to the risk of pregnancy, and by 10 to 11 months, two-thirds of women are once again susceptible to the risk of pregnancy. The median duration of insusceptibility is 6.2 months; half of women are once again susceptible to pregnancy just 6 months after giving birth. Table 7.9 presents the median durations of postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility by background characteristics. Median durations of postpartum abstinence are generally short, varying from one to three months. Median durations of amenorrhea do vary by residence, region, education, and ethnicity. Rural women exhibit a median duration of amenorrhea that is nearly two months longer than urban women (1.8), and women in the Dashoguz Region exhibit a median that is three months longer than the median among women in Ashgabad City. Median durations of amenorrhea decrease with increasing education, from 6.5 months among women with primary or secondary education to 3.6 months among women with higher education. With a median duration of four months of amenorrhea, women of other ethnicities have shorter durations of amenorrhea than Turkmen or Uzbek women do. 90 * Proximate, Determinants of Fertility Table 7.9 Median duration of postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility by background characteristics Median number of months of postpartum amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence, and postpartum insusceptibility, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________________________ Postpartum Number Background Postpartum Postpartum insuscep- of characteristic amenorrhea abstinence tibility births __________________________________________________________________________ Age <30 30+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 5.8 1.8 6.1 1,452 6.2 1.3 6.2 641 4.9 1.7 5.2 823 6.7 1.8 6.9 1,270 4.2 1.4 4.2 213 6.0 1.8 6.2 302 6.4 1.6 6.4 161 7.3 1.7 7.4 466 5.6 1.5 5.7 436 4.7 2.2 5.8 515 6.5 1.7 6.7 1,502 4.8 2.1 5.3 440 3.6 0.6 3.6 151 6.2 1.6 6.4 1,717 6.2 2.0 6.5 246 4.0 2.7 4.4 131 5.9 1.7 6.2 2,093 __________________________________________________________________________ Note: Medians are based on current status. Table 7.10 Menopause Prevalence of menopause among women age 30-49, by age, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________ Age Percent Number ______________________________________ 30-34 35-39 40-41 42-43 44-45 46-47 48-49 Total 1.1 913 2.7 907 5.5 323 8.0 324 13.1 325 34.8 288 54.1 233 10.5 3,313 ______________________________________ Note: Percentage of nonpregnant, nonamenor- rheic, currently married women whose last menstrual period occurred six or more months preceding the survey or who report that they are menopausal. 7.6 MENOPAUSE After age 30, the risk of pregnancy declines with age as increasing proportions of women become menopausal. Although the onset of menopause is difficult to determine for an individual woman, there are ways of estimating it for a population as a whole. Table 7.10 presents data on the percentage of women age 30 and over who are menopausal, that is, who have not menstruated for six months or longer in the period preceding the survey or who reported being menopausal. Few women are menopausal before reaching their forties, after which time the proportion of menopausal women increases with age, from 8 percent among women age 42-43 to 54 percent among women age 48-49. Fertility Preferences * 91 Table 8.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children Percent distribution of currently married women by desire for children, according to number of living children, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of living children1 Desire for _____________________________________________________________ children 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Total ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Have another soon2 Have another later3 Have another, undecided when Undecided Wants no more Sterilized Declared infecund Missing Total Number of women 53.1 29.9 13.3 6.8 2.9 1.2 0.6 12.8 2.4 40.3 25.9 13.2 4.2 1.4 0.0 17.1 4.2 5.1 2.6 1.8 0.5 0.3 0.2 2.2 3.5 7.8 11.8 10.3 4.6 1.8 3.4 7.8 2.7 10.3 40.9 62.7 83.6 89.1 89.6 53.2 0.5 0.8 2.2 1.8 2.4 2.4 2.1 1.8 32.6 5.9 3.4 3.3 1.8 3.9 4.0 5.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 215 824.0 1,304 971 686 468 424 4,892 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Includes current pregnancy 2 Wants next birth within 2 years 3 Wants to delay next birth for 2 or more years FERTILITY PREFERENCES 8 S.M. Turayeva, E.A. Shellenov, and G.S. Murikova Understanding the fertility desires in a population is important for estimating the need for contraceptive services and for predicting the general course of future fertility. This chapter presents data on the fertility preferences of women and their need for contraceptive services. Data are also presented on the ideal family size reported by respondents. The data on ideal family size, in conjunction with the number of children that respondents currently have, allow the estimation of unwanted fertility in the population. 8.1 FERTILITY PREFERENCES Respondents to the TDHS were asked whether they wanted to have another child, and if so, how soon. Table 8.1 and Figure 8.1 show the percent distribution of currently married women by their fertility preferences. The salient finding is that 60 percent of currently married women either want no more children (53 percent), are infecund (5 percent), or are sterilized (2 percent). Another 32 percent of women want another child either soon (13 percent) or after two years (17 percent) or are unsure about the desired timing of another child (2 percent). A final 8 percent of women are undecided about having another child. It is clear that the majority of fecund currently married women, 70 percent, want to either limit or space their childbearing and are potentially in need of contraceptive services. 92 * Fertility Preferences Table 8.1 also shows that the desire for having a child or having another child is strongly related to the number of living children the woman has. Fifty-three percent of woman who have no living children want to have a child within two years. This figure declines to 30 and 13 percent, respectively, for women with one and two living children. Table 8.2 shows the fertility preferences of currently married women by age. As expected, older women are much more likely to want no more children than younger women. The proportion of married women who want no more children is only 6 percent among women 15-19, increases to 15 percent among those 20-24, and reaches 87 percent among women 40-44. Although younger women generally desire to have additional children, they nevertheless have a need for contraception. Among women in the age groups 15-19, 20-24 and 25-29, more than 30 percent report wanting another child but only after waiting at least two years. Thus, a substantial proportion of women under age 30 have a potential need for contraceptive services to space their children. Table 8.3 indicates the percentage of currently married women who want no more children by number of living children and background characteristics (residence, region, education, and ethnicity). The results indicate that urban women express a desire to limit family size at lower parities than rural women. For example, 52 percent of urban women with two children want to stop childbearing, compared with 32 percent of rural women with two children. The urban-rural differential in the desire for children narrows among women with four or more children. Fertility Preferences * 93 Table 8.2 Fertility preferences by age Percent distribution of currently married women by desire for children, according to age, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age Desire for __________________________________________________________ children 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total _______________________________________________________________________________________________ Have another soon1 Have another later2 Have another, undecided when Undecided Wants no more Sterilized Declared infecund Missing Total Number of women 30.8 23.5 19.8 15.7 8.2 2.6 0.9 12.8 39.5 45.7 31.8 14.7 3.4 0.5 0.3 17.1 9.8 3.2 2.7 4.0 1.0 0.1 0.5 2.2 8.2 8.3 13.4 10.9 5.6 2.4 2.0 7.8 5.5 15.3 27.4 49.4 73.8 86.9 82.1 53.2 0.0 0.2 0.7 1.3 3.3 3.4 2.8 1.8 6.1 3.8 4.0 4.1 4.5 4.1 11.3 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 83 682 1,015 934 857 765 556 4,892 __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Wants next birth within 2 years 2 Wants to delay next birth for 2 or more years Table 8.3 Desire to limit childbearing by background characteristics Percentage of currently married women who want no more children, by number of living children and background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of living children1 Background ___________________________________________________________ characteristic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Total ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education No/primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 3.8 16.8 52.0 68.5 85.4 89.6 88.9 55.5 2.6 4.9 32.3 60.6 86.3 92.5 93.0 54.6 * 25.7 59.2 66.6 (84.6) * * 53.7 (0.0) 6.7 39.2 63.2 86.7 84.2 97.1 55.1 * 7.8 38.2 54.2 78.4 (82.8) 82.7 47.1 * 5.1 39.7 58.1 80.0 86.7 88.2 54.2 (1.9) 5.1 44.0 69.0 86.4 97.2 94.7 58.4 * 12.0 37.4 68.4 93.1 98.5 94.0 56.4 2.9 7.6 39.1 64.4 85.9 92.5 92.8 55.8 (5.3) 16.6 49.5 61.1 85.0 82.9 87.6 52.3 * 20.6 49.1 76.7 (89.2) * * 57.0 3.9 6.7 36.9 62.6 86.9 92.1 91.6 54.3 (1.2) 3.5 36.9 59.7 78.5 88.1 91.3 51.5 (1.6) 32.6 77.4 82.4 (85.6) * * 63.7 3.2 11.1 43.0 64.5 85.9 91.5 91.7 55.0 ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Women who have been sterilized are considered to want no more children. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1Includes current pregnancy 1 For a more complete definition of unmet need and the procedure for its calculation, see footnote 1, Table 8.4. 2 The degree to which the question asked of a respondent who already had children succeeded in its purpose of eliciting responses that are independent of the respondent’s current family size is unclear. Many previous surveys have found a correlation between the actual number of children that respondents have and their reported ideal family size. This correlation may be because women who want larger families tend to have more children or because respondents adjust their ideal family size to match their actual family size or because of some combination of these factors. 94 * Fertility Preferences Differentials in the desire to limit childbearing are also strongly associated with place of residence, with women residing in the capital city having distinctly lower fertility desires. In Ashgabad City, among currently married women with two living children, 59 percent want no more children. In all other regions, among women with two living children, the percentage wanting no more children is between 37 and 44 percent. In terms of education, among women with one, two, or three living children, greater percentages with a higher or secondary special education report wanting no more children than women with a primary/secondary education. 8.2 NEED FOR CONTRACEPTIVE SERVICES Currently married, fecund women who either want no more children or want to wait at least two years before having another child, but who are not using contraception, are considered to have an unmet need for contraception.1 Current users of family planning methods are said to have a met need for contraception. The total demand for contraception is the sum of met and unmet need for contraception. Table 8.4 shows estimates of unmet need, met need, and total demand for contraception among currently married women. Among all currently married women, 10 percent have an unmet need for contraceptive services; half of this need represents desire to space the next birth, and half represents a desire to limit childbearing. On the other hand, 62 percent of women are in the category of having met their need for contraception. One-third of these women want to space their next birth, and two-thirds want to limit their childbearing. Overall, the total demand for contraception comprises 72 percent of married women in Turkmenistan. A high proportion of the total demand for contraception is being met. Eighty-six percent of currently married women with a need for contraception are current users. There is relatively little variation in the statistics on unmet and met need by urban-rural residence, region, education, or ethnicity. However, as expected, there are differences across age groups. Both unmet need and met need for spacing decline with increasing age. Alternatively, both unmet need and met need for limiting increase with increasing age. 8.3 IDEAL FAMILY SIZE The discussion so far in this chapter focused on the respondent’s future fertility preferences within the framework of the number of living children that she already has. The topic of this section, ideal family size, is meant to measure fertility desires independent of the number of children that a respondent already has. To collect the relevant data, a somewhat different question was asked for respondents with no living children and for those with living children. The former group was asked directly how many children they would like to have if they could choose the number. Respondents who already had living children were asked how many children they would like to have if they could go back to the time when they had no children and could choose the number to have.2 Fertility Preferences * 95 Table 8.4 Need for contraception among currently married women Percentage of currently married women with an unmet need for contraception, and with met need for contraception, and the total demand for contraception, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Unmet need for Met need for contraception Total demand for contraception1 (currently using)2 contraception3 _____________________ _____________________ _____________________ Percentage Number Background For For For For For For of demand of characteristic spacing limiting Total spacing limiting Total spacing limiting Total satisfied women _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education No/primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 13.1 1.2 14.3 23.2 3.4 26.6 36.3 4.6 40.9 65.0 83 12.8 1.0 13.8 41.5 11.1 52.7 55.2 12.1 67.3 79.5 682 8.5 1.9 10.4 39.6 21.8 61.5 48.7 23.7 72.4 85.6 1,015 5.3 5.3 10.6 29.2 41.1 70.3 34.7 46.4 81.0 86.9 934 2.0 6.2 8.2 8.9 65.2 74.1 10.8 71.5 82.4 90.1 857 0.4 8.9 9.3 2.0 65.5 67.5 2.5 74.4 76.8 87.9 765 0.1 7.7 7.8 1.2 36.7 37.8 1.3 44.3 45.6 82.9 556 4.2 5.1 9.3 22.5 39.8 62.3 27.1 44.9 72.1 87.0 2,307 6.1 4.7 10.8 21.5 39.9 61.4 27.7 44.6 72.3 85.0 2,585 4.4 4.6 9.0 20.7 39.0 59.7 25.6 43.6 69.3 87.0 639 3.9 3.3 7.2 22.6 43.6 66.3 26.5 47.0 73.5 90.2 699 3.9 4.8 8.7 29.8 31.3 61.1 34.5 36.2 70.7 87.7 424 6.9 6.1 12.9 18.9 36.9 55.8 25.9 43.0 68.9 81.2 950 6.2 4.4 10.6 22.0 40.9 62.9 28.7 45.3 74.0 85.6 1,030 4.7 5.6 10.3 22.0 42.5 64.5 26.7 48.1 74.8 86.2 1,150 5.3 5.0 10.3 20.7 39.3 60.1 26.3 44.4 70.7 85.4 3,347 4.6 5.4 10.0 25.0 39.7 64.7 29.9 45.1 75.1 86.6 1,149 6.2 2.5 8.7 23.8 44.2 68.0 30.0 46.7 76.7 88.6 396 5.4 4.9 10.3 22.3 39.5 61.7 27.9 44.4 72.3 85.8 3,776 6.6 4.1 10.6 24.9 36.5 61.4 31.5 40.6 72.1 85.2 554 3.0 5.6 8.5 17.3 45.5 62.8 20.7 51.1 71.8 88.1 563 5.2 4.9 10.1 22.0 39.8 61.8 27.5 44.7 72.2 86.0 4,892 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1Unmet need for spacing includes pregnant women whose pregnancy was mistimed, amenorrheic women who are not using family planning and whose last birth was mistimed, and fecund women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic and who are not using any method of family planning and say they want to wait two or more years for their next birth. Also included in unmet need for spacing are fecund women who are not using any method of family planning and say they are unsure whether they want another child or who want another child but are unsure when to have the birth unless they say it would not be a problem if they discovered they were pregnant in the next few weeks. Unmet need for limiting refers to pregnant women whose pregnancy was unwanted, amenorrheic women whose last child was unwanted, and to fecund women who are neither pregnant nor amenorrheic and who are not using any method of family planning and who want no more children. Excluded from the unmet need category are pregnant and amenorrheic women who becam e pregnant wi le using a method (these women are in need of better contraception). 2 Using for spacing is defined as women who are using some method of family planning and say they want to have another child or are undecided whether to have another. Using for limiting is defined as women who are using and who want no more children. Note that the specific methods used are not taken into account here. 3 Nonusers who are pregnant or amenorrheic and whose pregnancy was the result of a contraceptive failure are not included in the category of unmet need, but are included in the total demand for contraception (since they would have been using had their method not failed). 96 * Fertility Preferences Table 8.5 Ideal number of children Percent distribution of all women by ideal number of children and mean ideal number of children for all women and for currently married women, according to number of living children, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of living children1 Ideal number ___________________________________________________________ of children 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Total ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Nonnumeric response Total Number of women Mean ideal number for2: All women Number of women Currently married women Number of women 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.6 5.1 1.3 0.8 0.3 0.3 0.0 1.9 53.3 47.5 36.9 13.7 6.4 4.5 3.8 34.3 11.6 14.3 16.3 19.7 2.2 2.9 1.3 11.8 21.8 26.9 39.8 51.4 68.3 31.8 19.1 34.3 1.3 2.1 2.0 7.0 7.8 29.9 5.8 4.9 0.9 2.1 1.5 3.5 10.1 23.2 53.8 6.8 8.3 2.2 2.0 3.8 4.9 7.5 16.2 5.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2,826 949 1,427 1,038 734 491 454 7,919 2.7 2.8 3.1 3.6 4.2 4.8 6.0 3.3 2,950 929 1,399 999 698 454 380 7,449 3.2 2.9 3.1 3.6 4.2 4.8 6.0 3.7 200 805 1,280 937 657 435 357 4,670 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Includes current pregnancy 2 The means exclude women who gave nonnumeric responses. Table 8.5 shows statistics on ideal family size for all women and for currently married women. For all women, the mean ideal number of children is 3.3, while for currently married women, the figure is 3.7—higher by almost half a child. Table 8.5 also shows the ideal family size by the number of children that the respondent already has. Among all women, the mean ideal number of children increases steadily from 2.7 for childless women to 6.0 for women with 6 or more children. The mean ideal family size for all women by five-year age group and background characteristics is shown in Table 8.6. The ideal number of children increases with increasing age of respondents. Women age 15-19 report an ideal of 2.6 children; that number increases to 4.6 for women age 45-49. The differentials by background characteristics are all in the expected direction. Rural women and less-educated women report higher ideal numbers of children than urban women and more-educated women. The greatest differentials are by region: the mean ideal number of children for women in Ashgabad City (2.9) is lower than those for women in all other regions (between 3.3 and 3.5). Fertility Preferences * 97 Table 8.6 Mean ideal number of children by background characteristics Mean ideal number of children for all women by age and background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________ Age Background _______________________________________________________ characteristic 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total _________________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education No/Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 2.5 2.7 3.0 3.2 3.4 3.9 4.0 3.1 2.7 2.9 3.3 3.7 4.1 4.7 5.5 3.5 2.4 2.6 2.9 3.1 3.1 3.4 3.0 2.9 2.6 3.0 3.3 3.6 4.2 4.9 5.1 3.5 2.8 2.7 3.1 3.3 4.0 4.5 5.1 3.4 2.7 2.8 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.7 5.5 3.5 2.6 2.8 3.1 3.5 3.7 4.1 4.8 3.3 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.6 3.7 4.2 4.6 3.4 2.6 2.9 3.3 3.6 4.0 4.7 5.1 3.4 2.6 2.7 2.9 3.4 3.5 3.4 3.6 3.2 * 2.8 3.1 3.1 3.1 3.6 3.5 3.1 2.6 2.9 3.2 3.6 4.0 4.5 5.1 3.4 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.4 4.0 4.7 5.1 3.5 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.7 2.5 3.1 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.8 3.1 3.5 3.8 4.3 4.6 3.3 ________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 8.4 UNPLANNED AND UNWANTED FERTILITY Several indicators of the level of unwanted fertility can be derived from the TDHS data. Respondents were asked a series of questions about each child who was born in the five years preceding the survey—and, if pregnant, their current pregnancy—to determine whether the pregnancy was wanted then (planned), wanted later (mistimed), or not wanted (unplanned). It is worth noting that the data collected may underestimate unplanned childbearing since women may rationalize unplanned births and report them as planned. Table 8.7 shows the percent distribution of births in the five years before the survey by whether the birth was wanted then, wanted later, or not wanted. More than 96 percent of births in the last five years were wanted, i.e., either wanted then (94 percent) or wanted later (2 percent). As expected, the percentage of unwanted births (slightly more than 1 percent) increases with the birth order and the age of the respondent. Table 8.8 presents wanted fertility rates and total fertility rates for the three-year period before the survey for various population subgroups. Wanted fertility rates indicate the level of fertility that would result if all unwanted births were prevented. Unwanted births are those that exceed the ideal family size that was reported by a respondent. The comparison of wanted fertility rates with observed total fertility rates indicates the extent to which women successfully control their fertility. 98 * Fertility Preferences Table 8.7 Fertility planning status Percent distribution of births (including current pregnancy) in the five years preceding the survey by fertility planning status, according to birth order and mother's age at birth, Turkmenistan 2000_________________________________________________________________________ Planning status of birth Birth order _________________________ Number and mother's Wanted Wanted Wanted of age at birth then later no more Missing Total births _________________________________________________________________________ Birth order 1 2 3 4+ Age at birth <19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total 97.1 0.8 0.2 2.0 100.0 1,282 92.6 4.1 0.9 2.4 100.0 1,137 93.8 3.0 1.2 2.0 100.0 709 92.7 1.3 3.3 2.6 100.0 805 97.1 1.2 0.1 1.6 100.0 247 94.3 2.7 0.6 2.4 100.0 1,481 94.6 2.6 0.7 2.2 100.0 1,291 94.4 1.7 1.5 2.4 100.0 597 94.0 0.5 3.4 2.1 100.0 244 82.6 0.0 16.0 1.4 100.0 68 * * * * 100.0 3 94.3 2.2 1.2 2.2 100.0 3,933 _________________________________________________________________________ Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 births (and current pregnancies) and has been suppressed. In Turkmenistan, wanted fertility rates are somewhat less than observed total fertility rates at the national level (2.7 verses 2.9 children per woman) as well as for population subgroups. It appears that, on average, women are only marginally exceeding their reported ideal family size. Fertility Preferences * 99 Table 8.8 Wanted fertility rates Total wanted fertility rates and total fertility rates for the three years preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _____________________________________________ Total wanted Total Background fertility fertility characteristic rate rate _____________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashbagad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education No/primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 2.29 2.46 3.00 3.30 1.96 2.10 2.75 2.91 2.53 2.68 2.88 3.14 2.66 2.97 2.81 3.09 2.80 3.03 2.37 2.59 2.29 2.59 2.78 3.02 2.71 2.90 1.56 1.78 2.66 2.89 ______________________________________________ Note: Rates are based on births to women 15-49 in the period 1-36 months preceding the survey. The total fertility rates are the same as those presented in Table 4.2. 1 In cases in which the gestational age is unknown, fetuses that weigh less than 1,000 grams or measure less than 35 centimeters in length are considered premature and are classified as miscarriages. Infant and Child Mortality * 101 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY 9 V.R. Charyeva, E.Y. Samarkina, and J.M. Sullivan This chapter presents mortality rates for infancy and early childhood based on data from the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry and from the TDHS 2000. For Turkmenistan as a whole, mortality rates are shown for the period from 1985 to 2000. To identify population subgroups exposed to particularly high mortality, mortality estimates are presented by the background characteristics of mothers and by demographic characteristics. Perinatal mortality rates are also shown in this chapter. 9.1 MORTALITY RATES BASED ON MOHMI DATA Turkmenistan has a long history of demographic and health data collection—primarily through the use of national registration systems. For births and infant deaths, MOHMI collects the data from local health officials who primarily document events occurring in health facilities. The reports are forwarded up the reporting hierarchy to the regional level and to MOHMI. Official government statistics on infant mortality are published in annual statistical reports. Mortality rates for the main subintervals of infancy based on MOHMI data are shown in Table 9.1. The estimates are expressed per 1,000 live births. Estimates are shown for single calendar years and for five-year calendar periods. The following rates are shown: • Neonatal mortality (NN): the probability of dying under 28 days after birth. • Postneonatal mortality (PNN): the difference between infant and neonatal mortality. • Infant mortality (1q0): the probability of dying between birth and exact age one. There is a clear declining trend in all of the mortality rates. Similarly, a decline is indicated by the infant mortality rates for five-year periods. Overall, between the period 1986-90 and the period 1996-00, infant mortality declined from 53 to 32 per 1,000, a decline of approximately 40 percent. It is important to note that MOHMI data on births and infant deaths are recorded according to protocols that were established during the time of the former Soviet Union. The definitions of live birth and infant death in those protocols differ from the definitions currently advocated by the World Health Organization. The most important difference is for pregnancies ending at a gestational age of less than 28 weeks. The Soviet protocols classify such pregnancies as miscarriages (even if signs of life are present at the time of delivery) unless the child survives for seven days.1 On the other hand, the World Health Organization defines a birth showing any sign of life (i.e., breathing, beating of the heart, or movement of voluntary muscles) as a live birth, irrespective of the gestational age at termination of the pregnancy (WHO, 1993). 102 * Infant and Child Mortality Table 9.1 Infant mortality rates, government of Turkmenistan Neonatal, postneonatal, and infant mortality rates, 1985-2000 ___________________________________________ Neonatal Postneonatal Infant Calendar mortality mortality mortality year (NN) (PNN) (1q0)__________________________________________ 2000 6.5 14.8 21.3 1999 8.1 17.3 25.4 1998 8.0 24.8 32.8 1997 9.5 28.4 37.9 1996 11.0 31.0 42.0 1995 8.4 34.4 42.8 1994 11.9 31.0 42.9 1993 14.0 30.2 44.2 1992 12.8 30.4 43.2 1991 15.3 31.6 46.9 1990 na na 45.2 1989 na na 54.8 1988 na na 54.1 1987 na na 55.7 1986 na na 57.3 1985 na na 51.5 Mean 1996-00 8.6 23.3 31.9 Mean 1991-95 12.5 31.5 44.0 Mean 1986-90 na na 53.4 ___________________________________________ Sources: 1985-1998. World Health Organization, Database; 1999-2000 Clinical Research Center for Maternal and Child Health, Ashgabad, Turkmenistan na = Not applicable A second difference between the Soviet protocols and WHO’s definitions concerns pregnancies ending at 28 or more weeks of gestation. According to the definitions of the Soviet protocols, these events are classified as live births if the child breathes and as stillbirths if breathing is not evident at delivery. The World Health Organization defines these events as live births if any sign of life is present at delivery (i.e., breathing, beating of the heart, or movement of voluntary muscles) and otherwise as stillbirths. Official government infant mortality rates in other republics of the former Soviet Union, based on registration systems similar to that which exists in Turkmenistan, have been found to be lower than estimates from population-based household surveys. For example, the survey infant mortality rate (IMR) estimate from the Kazakhstan DHS of 62 per 1,000 (1992-1997) was more than double the rate based on government statistics, 26 per 1,000 (APM and MI, 2000). Similarly, the survey estimate from the Kyrgyz Republic DHS of 61 per 1,000 was about double the rate based on government statistics, 29 per 1,000 (RIOP and MI, 1998). 2 An examination of the ratio of the neonatal to the infant mortality rate can be used to detect gross underreporting of deaths in the first month of life. However, this data quality test is not sufficiently sensitive to detect underreporting that is not substantial. Thus, the absence of a finding of underreporting of neonatal deaths when applying this test does not imply that neonatal deaths are completely and accurately reported. 3 For example, see the neonatal and infant mortality rates for Hungary (1953), Singapore (1952), and Sri Lanka (1952) in the U.N. Demographic Yearbook, 1961 (Table 13). Infant and Child Mortality * 103 9.2 MORTALITY RATES BASED ON TDHS DATA In the TDHS, survey respondents were asked to report all of their pregnancies and the outcome of each pregnancy in terms of the international definitions advocated by the World Health Organization. Live birth was defined as any birth irrespective of the duration of pregnancy that, after separation from the mother, showed any sign of life such as breathing, beating of the heart, or movement of voluntary muscles. For each live birth, questions were asked about the date of birth (month and year), sex, survivorship status, and current age (for surviving children) or age at death (for deceased children). Infant death was defined as the death of a child under one year of age (WHO, 1993). Mortality rates from the TDHS are shown in Table 9.2. In addition to estimates of neonatal, postneonatal, and infant mortality, mortality rates for the early childhood years are shown: • Child mortality (4q1): the probability of dying between exact ages one and five. • Under-five mortality (5q0): the probability of dying between birth and exact age five. All the rates in Table 9.2 are expressed as deaths per 1,000 live births, except child mortality (4q1), which is expressed as deaths per 1,000 children surviving to age one. The accuracy of mortality estimates from the TDHS depends on 1) the completeness and accuracy with which births and deaths are reported (i.e., nonsampling error) and 2) the sampling variability of the estimated rates. An assessment of nonsampling error is considered next. Sampling variability is discussed later in this section. In a retrospective survey such as the TDHS, respondents are required to report events that occurred in the past. It is well established that the most likely source of error is the underreporting of deceased children. Based on the plausible assumption that survey respondents do not overreport deceased children, this review of data quality focuses on event underreporting. When deceased children are underreported, it is typically most substantial for deaths that occur in early infancy (i.e., in the neonatal period) or long before the survey. The underreporting of neonatal deaths can result in an abnormally low ratio of neonatal mortality to infant mortality (United Nations, 1982). To detect underreporting of deceased children in the TDHS, the survey values of the neonatal/infant mortality ratio were compared with values for national populations known to have relatively complete reporting of infant deaths.2 Neonatal and infant mortality rates from the TDHS are shown in Table 9.2. The value of the neonatal/infant mortality ratio for the periods 1985-1990, 1990-1995, and 1995-2000 are 0.32, 0.46, and 0.46, respectively. In countries with relatively complete mortality data at a level of infant mortality between 70 and 80 per 1,000 (about the level of infant mortality estimated by the TDHS), the value of this ratio is typically greater than 0.45.3 The ratio for the Turkmenistan survey for 1985-1990 (0.32) is less than this value, which suggests underreporting of neonatal deaths for that 4 Standard errors and 95 percent confidence intervals of mortality rates are shown in Appendix B. 104 * Infant and Child Mortality Table 9.2 Infant and child mortality Infant and child mortality rates by five-year periods preceding the survey, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________ Under- Years Neonatal Postneonatal Infant Child five preceding Calendar mortality mortality mortality mortality mortality survey perioda (NN) (PNN) (1q0) (4q1) (5q0) ____________________________________________________________________________ 0-4 1995-2000 33.8 40.1 73.9 22.0 94.3 5-9 1990-1995 32.1 37.4 69.5 14.2 82.7 10-14 1985-1990 26.9 56.8 83.7 17.6 99.8 ____________________________________________________________________________ a Periods are from midyear to midyear. Fieldwork for the survey was conducted in the summer of 2000, so the period 1995-2000 refers to the period from midyear 1995 to midyear 2000. period. For the periods 1990-1995 and 1995-2000, periods that are closer to the survey date and for which respondents may be less susceptible to recall error, the ratios are slightly greater than 0.45. Accordingly, this inspection of the data does not suggest substantial underreporting of neonatal deaths for the periods 1990-1995 and 1995-2000. At the national level, the estimate of infant mortality for the period 1995-00 was 74 per 1,000 live births. The estimates of neonatal and postneonatal mortality were 34 and 40 per 1,000 births, respectively. The estimate of child mortality (age one to exact age five) was much lower: 22 per 1,000. The overall under-five mortality rate for the period was 94 per 1,000. The survey estimates of mortality are subject to sampling variability. Sampling variability arises because a different sample of women, with different experience of child mortality, would have produced different mortality estimates. Sampling error is concerned with how different such an estimate might be. The survey estimate of infant mortality for 1995-2000 (74 per 1,000) has a standard error of 5.4 and a 95 percent confidence interval of 63.2 to 84.7 per 1,000.4 Thus, the point estimate of 74 per 1,000 cannot be considered exact, and due to sampling variability, the true estimate could be higher or lower. Over the 15 years prior to the survey, the TDHS estimates indicate a decline in infant mortality: from 84 per 1,000 (1985-1990) to 74 per 1,000 (1995-2000). This represents a 12 percent decline. The overall under-five mortality rate declined during the period from 100 per 1,000 to 94 per 1,000. The estimated rates suggest improving mortality conditions from the late 1980s to the late 1990s. 9.3 COMPARISON OF MORTALITY RATES Mortality rates over the past 15 years based on MOHMI data and the TDHS data are shown in Figure 9.1. Two points should be noted. First, MOHMI rates are between 35 and 50 percent lower than the survey estimates. The estimates based on MOHMI data lie outside of the 95 percent confidence interval for the survey estimates, which indicates that sampling variability of the survey estimates cannot fully account for the differences in the estimated rates. The second point to note is that the time trends of the two sets of rates are similar. Both sets of rates show a declining trend in infant mortality over the last 15 years. Thus, both time trends indicate improvements in the survivorship of infants. Infant and Child Mortality * 105 With the available data, it is not possible to conclusively determine the reasons for the differences between MOHMI rates and those of the TDHS. The best way to resolve the issue of the differences is to conduct a longitudinal survey in which a sample of households are visited periodically (say, every three months) for a period of 18 to 24 months. Pregnant women would be identified in each round of the survey, and in subsequent rounds, the outcome of those pregnancies and the survivorship of live births would be determined. One of the main recommendations of this report is that a longitudinal survey be conducted as soon as practicable. 9.4 SOCIOECONOMIC DIFFERENTIALS IN CHILDHOOD MORTALITY Table 9.3 shows infant and child mortality rates by selected socioeconomic variables (urban- rural residence, region, education, and ethnicity). The estimated rates are for the ten-year period preceding the survey. A ten-year period is used to calculate the rates for population subgroups to reduce the sampling variability. The rates for residence show a pattern that is similar to that found in most countries of the world. The mortality estimates for rural areas exceed the estimates for urban areas at all ages. The estimate of infant mortality for rural areas (80 per 1,000) exceeds the estimate for urban areas (60 per 1,000). There is substantial variation in the mortality estimates by region. Infant mortality estimates are highest for the Mary and Dashoguz regions (99 and 80 per 1,000, respectively) and lowest for Ashgabad City and Lebap (48 and 49 per 1,000, respectively). It is surprising that the infant mortality estimates for Ashgabad City and Lebap are so similar. Mortality estimates by mother’s education display the expected differentials. The rates of infant mortality for women with a primary/secondary education (77 per 1,000) exceed the rates for women with a secondary-special education (59 per 1,000) or higher education (61 per 1,000). 106 * Infant and Child Mortality Table 9.3 Infant and child mortality by background characteristics Infant and child mortality rates for the ten-year period preceding the survey, by background, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________________ Neonatal Postneonatal Infant Child Under-five Background mortality mortality mortality mortality mortality characteristic (NN) (PNN) (1q0) (4q1) (5q0)_________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education No education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 32.2 27.9 60.1 13.4 72.7 33.4 46.5 79.9 21.6 99.8 (33.4) (14.3) (47.7) (11.7) (58.8) 29.9 44.5 74.4 9.7 83.4 30.0 20.9 50.9 12.2 62.5 29.5 50.9 80.4 18.8 97.7 20.9 27.7 48.6 18.9 66.6 48.9 49.7 98.6 26.8 122.7 * * * * * 32.8 43.7 76.5 22.1 96.9 28.4 30.2 58.6 9.7 67.7 (45.9) (15.2) (61.2) (6.7) (67.5) 33.8 39.7 73.5 19.5 91.5 22.4 38.1 60.5 10.2 70.0 38.9 29.0 68.0 13.9 80.9 32.9 38.7 71.6 18.0 88.3 ________________________________________________________________________ Note: An asterisk indicates that the rate is based on fewer than 250 unweighted births and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 250 to 499 unweighted births. 9.5 DEMOGRAPHIC DIFFERENTIALS IN CHILDHOOD MORTALITY The relationship between early childhood mortality and selected demographic variables is shown in Table 9.4. As was the case with the socioeconomic differentials, the rates are shown for the ten-year period preceding the survey. In Turkmenistan, as in almost all populations, the infant mortality rate for male children (83 per 1,000) exceeds the rate for female children (60 per 1,000). The relationship between mortality and mother’s age at birth indicates a clear relationship, with births to women under age 20 having higher mortality than births to older women. On the other hand, the data show only a weak association between a child’s birth order and the risk of mortality. Among the demographic variables in Table 9.4, the strongest association with mortality is shown by the length of the preceding birth interval. For births occurring less than two years after a previous birth, the risk of death before reaching age five (119 per 1,000) is 50 percent greater than for births following a two- to three-year interval and 100 percent greater than for births following a four-year birth interval. This relationship suggests that some reduction in mortality would result if the proportion of births occurring after a birth interval of less than two years were reduced. Infant and Child Mortality * 107 Table 9.4 Infant and child mortality by demographic characteristics Infant and child mortality rates for the ten-year period preceding the survey, by demographic characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________________ Neonatal Postneonatal Infant Child Under-five Demographic mortality mortality mortality mortality mortality characteristic (NN) (PNN) (1q0) (4q1) (5q0)_______________________________________________________________________ Sex of child Male Female Age of mother at birth <20 20-29 30-39 40-49 Birth order 1 2-3 4-6 7+ Previous birth interval <2 yrs 2-3 yrs 4+ yrs Total 36.6 46.4 83.0 19.0 100.5 29.0 30.7 59.7 17.0 75.6 (51.1) (35.4) (86.5) (24.1) (108.6) 29.6 40.1 69.7 19.1 87.5 38.2 36.4 74.5 14.6 88.0 * * * * * 31.9 35.1 67.0 15.2 81.2 31.9 40.6 72.5 21.2 92.2 34.5 41.3 75.7 17.5 91.9 (41.2) (32.8) (74.0) (11.8) (84.9) 39.3 54.9 94.2 27.7 119.3 26.8 37.1 63.9 15.6 78.6 33.2 15.8 49.0 8.8 57.4 32.9 38.7 71.6 18.0 88.3 _______________________________________________________________________ Note: An asterisk indicates that the rate is based on fewer than 250 unweighted and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 200 to 499 unweighted births. 9.6 MORTALITY DIFFERENTIALS BY WOMEN’S STATUS Several questions were included in the Turkmenistan DHS survey in order to develop indicators of women’s status and empowerment. A woman’s status is an important determinant of her ability to access information, make decisions, and act effectively in her own interest and in the interest of those who depend on her. It follows that if women, the primary caretakers of children, enjoy high status the health and survival of their infants should be enhanced. A series of questions were asked about the respondent’s participation in household decisionmaking. An indicator was developed that scales a woman’s participation in decisionmaking. The higher the score on this indicator, the higher a woman’s status and the more empowered she is to care for her children. Table 9.5 shows mortality rates for values of this indicator. The table indicates that as the number of decisions for which a mother has the final say increases, infant and child mortality declines. 108 * Infant and Child Mortality Table 9.5 Infant and child mortality by women’s status Infant and child mortality rates for the ten-year period preceding the survey, by women’s status, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________________ Neonatal Postneonatal Infant Child Under-five Women’s mortality mortality mortality mortality mortality status indicator (NN) (PNN) (1q0) (4q1) (5q0)_________________________________________________________________________ Number of decisions with woman having final say 0 1-2 3-4 5 Total (52.4) (50.6) (103.1) * * 36.6 51.7 88.2 27.4 113.2 37.1 38.2 75.3 14.9 89.1 29.2 35.1 64.3 16.7 79.9 32.9 38.7 71.6 18.0 88.3 ________________________________________________________________________ Note: An asterisk indicates that the rate is based on fewer than 250 cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 250 to 499 births. 9.7 PERINATAL MORTALITY Perinatal mortality rates indicate the level of mortality from the time of prenatal viability (i.e., the late fetal period beginning at 28 weeks of gestation) through labor, delivery, and the early neonatal period of life (i.e., the first week of life). Pregnancies that terminate without signs of life after the 28th week of gestation are referred to as stillbirths. Stillbirths and early neonatal deaths share many of the same underlying causes leading to mortality (e.g., congenital malformations), and for this reason, these events are aggregated into the perinatal mortality rate. Perinatal mortality rates are reported for the five-year period preceding the survey (i.e.,mid- 1995 to mid-2000). It should be noted that data quality is always an issue when considering perinatal mortality rates, because both stillbirths and early neonatal deaths are susceptible to underreporting. Table 9.6 shows perinatal mortality rates per 1,000 pregnancies for all Turkmenistan as well as by background characteristics. The overall perinatal mortality rate is 35 per 1,000. In general, perinatal mortality rates display the same pattern as neonatal mortality rates (Tables 9.3 and 9.4). Infant and Child Mortality * 109 Table 9.6 Perinatal mortality Number of stillbirths and early infant deaths, and the perinatal mortality rate for the five-year period preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________________ Number Number of Number of early Perinatal pregnancies Background of neonatal mortality of 7+ months characteristic stillbirths deaths rate duration ____________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education No education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Age of mother at birth <20 20-29 30-39 40-49 Previous pregnancy interval 1st pregnancy <15 months 15-26 months 27-38 months 39+ months Total 22.8 32.6 38.6 1,435 23.1 48.8 32.8 2,194 3.2 6.9 * 359 5.3 11.5 (32.8) 513 1.8 8.4 (36.5) 279 14.6 10.2 30.5 815 6.3 9.4 21.3 735 14.7 35.0 53.6 928 0.0 0.0 * 33 33.1 60.2 37.0 2,523 12.8 12.4 31.3 806 0.0 8.8 * 267 3.2 9.2 * 227 27.0 50.0 30.1 2,560 13.4 20.0 43.0 776 2.2 2.2 67.6 66 18.6 17.3 33.3 1,077 6.0 21.3 57.3 476 4.9 20.4 25.8 980 7.2 11.0 33.2 546 9.4 11.4 37.7 550 45.9 81.4 35.1 3,629 _____________________________________________________________________ Note: An asterisk indicates that the rate is based on fewer than 250 unweighted pregnancies and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses based on 250 to 499 unweighted pregnancies. 9.8 HIGH-RISK FERTILITY BEHAVIOR Previous research has shown a strong relationship between the fertility patterns of women and the mortality risks of their children (United Nations, 1994). Typically, mortality risks are greater for children who are born to mothers who are too young or too old, who are born after a short birth interval, or who have a high birth order. In this analysis, a mother is classified as too young if she is less than 18 years of age and too old if she is older than 34 years of age. A short birth interval is defined as a birth occurring within 24 months of the previous birth, and a child is of high birth order if the mother had already given birth to three or more children. Table 9.7 shows the distribution of children born in the five years before the survey by risk category. Although first births to women age 18-34 are considered an unavoidable risk, they are included in the analysis and are shown as a separate risk category. 110 * Infant and Child Mortality Table 9.7 High-risk fertility behavior Percent distribution of children born in the five years preceding the survey by category of elevated risk of dying and the percent distribution of currently married women at risk of conceiving a child with an elevated risk of dying, by category of increased risk, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________ Births in five years preceding the survey Percentage of ___________________ currently Risk Percentage Risk married category of births ratio womena __________________________________________________________________ Not in any high-risk category Unavoidable risk category First birth between ages 18 and 34 Single high-risk category Mother’s age <18 Mother’s age >34 Birth interval <24 months Birth order >3 Subtotal Multiple high-risk category Age >34 & birth interval <24 mo. Age >34 & birth order >3 Age >34 & birth interval <24 & birth order >3 Birth interval <24 & birth order >3 Subtotal Any avoidable high-risk category Total Number of births 26.0 1.0 21.5b 31.8 1.0 5.2 0.7 2.7 0.1 1.5 1.1 7.2 19.3 1.5 11.2 10.0 1.2 11.4 31.5 1.4 29.8 0.1 4.0 0.3 5.7 0.8 36.5 0.6 1.4 1.9 4.2 1.4 4.8 10.7 1.1 43.5 42.2 1.3 73.3 100.0 na 100.0 3,583 na 4,892 __________________________________________________________________ Note: Risk ratio is the ratio of the proportion dead of births in a specific high- risk category to the proportion dead of births not in any high-risk category. na = Not applicable a Women were assigned to risk categories according to the status they would have at the birth of a child, if the child were conceived at the time of the survey: age less than 17 years and 3 months, age older than 34 years and 2 months, latest birth less than 15 months ago, and latest birth of order 3 or higher. b Includes sterilized women Column 1 of Table 9.7 shows that in the five-year period before the survey, 32 percent of births were in a single high-risk category and 11 percent were in a multiple high-risk category. Column 2 of the table shows risk ratios for births in various high-risk categories relative to births not having any high-risk characteristics. Overall, the risk ratio for births in a single high-risk category is 1.4 (40 percent elevated risk over births in the no high-risk category). For births with multiple high-risk characteristics, the risk ratio is 1.1 (10 percent elevated risk). Surprisingly, this represents less of an elevated risk than is the case for births characterized by a single risk category. Column 3 of Table 9.7 looks to the future and addresses the question, How many currently married women have the potential for having a high-risk birth? The results were obtained by simulating the risk category into which a birth to a currently married woman would fall if she were to become pregnant at the time of the survey. For example, a woman who was 37 years old at the Infant and Child Mortality * 111 time of the survey and had three previous births, the last of which occurred three years earlier, would be classified in the multiple high-risk category for being too old (35 or older) and at risk of having a high order birth (greater than 3). Overall, 73 percent of currently married women have the potential to give birth to a child with an elevated risk of dying. Seventeen percent of women have the potential to give birth to a child with multiple high-risk factors. Maternal and Child Health * 113 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH 10 S.M. Turayeva, A.B. Dzhunelov, and N.S. Gandimova This chapter presents findings on maternal and child health in Turkmenistan. Information is presented on maternal care (antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care), birth weight, vaccinations of children, and child illnesses (respiratory infection, fever, and diarrhea) in the two weeks preceding the survey. 10.1 ANTENATAL CARE The health care that a woman receives during pregnancy is important to her well-being and that of her child. In this chapter, antenatal care is described in terms of whether or not care was received, the type of health care provider, the stage of pregnancy at the time of the first visit to a health provider, and the medical procedures performed during antenatal care visits. Respondents were asked to report the information about antenatal care for the last live births that occurred in the five-year period preceding the survey. Table 10.1 provides information on whether antenatal care was received and, if so, the type of health care provider who gave the care. Respondents were asked to report all people seen for antenatal care. However, in Table 10.1, receipt of antenatal care is tabulated according to the provider with the highest level of training. Virtually all women who delivered in the last five years (98 percent), received antenatal care from a health care professional, i.e., either a doctor (81 percent) or a trained nurse or midwife (17 percent). Table 10.1 also indicates that receipt of antenatal care was 97 percent or higher for all population subgroups. However, differentials were found in the type of health professional providing the care. In urban areas, doctors provided 93 percent of antenatal care, while nurses and midwives provided 5 percent. In rural areas, doctors provided 73 percent of antenatal care, while nurses and midwives provided 25 percent of care. Regional differentials were also found. The percentage of mothers who received antenatal care from a doctor was greater in Ashgabad City (96 percent) than in any other region (from 71 to 89 percent). Differences in the source of antenatal care are also evident by birth order. Mothers having a first birth are more likely to receive care from a doctor (83 percent) than are mothers having a sixth or higher order birth (75 percent). Mother’s education is also associated with source of antenatal care. Women with a higher education are more likely to receive antenatal care from a doctor than are less-educated women. 114 * Maternal and Child Health Table 10.1 Antenatal care Percent distribution of women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey by antenatal care provider during pregnancy, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Antenatal care provider ______________________________________ Trained Background nurse/ Other/ characteristic Doctor midwife No one missing1 Total Number _______________________________________________________________________________________ Mother's age at birth <20 20-34 35+ Birth order 1 2-3 4-5 6+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 78.5 19.5 1.0 1.1 100.0 126 81.4 16.7 1.4 0.5 100.0 2,087 81.7 16.4 1.5 0.4 100.0 257 83.4 15.0 1.4 0.2 100.0 614 81.7 16.3 1.4 0.6 100.0 1,252 79.8 18.2 1.6 0.4 100.0 430 74.8 23.0 1.3 0.9 100.0 174 92.7 5.2 1.6 0.6 100.0 1,052 72.9 25.4 1.2 0.5 100.0 1,417 96.4 2.1 0.8 0.7 100.0 266 83.9 12.8 2.1 1.2 100.0 352 89.4 7.6 2.7 0.3 100.0 215 81.0 18.2 0.3 0.5 100.0 520 80.5 19.3 0.2 0.0 100.0 513 71.2 25.5 2.7 0.6 100.0 603 78.6 19.1 1.8 0.5 100.0 1,715 86.7 12.6 0.4 0.3 100.0 560 89.8 8.7 0.5 0.9 100.0 194 80.2 17.8 1.4 0.5 100.0 1,992 86.6 12.2 0.4 0.8 100.0 295 84.3 13.1 2.6 0.0 100.0 182 81.3 16.8 1.4 0.5 100.0 2,470 ______________________________________________________________________________________ Note: For women with two or more live births in the five-year period, data refer to the last live birth. If more than one source of antenatal care was mentioned, only the provider with the highest qualifications is considered in this tabulation. 1Includes traditional birth attendant. 10.2 TIMING OF ANTENATAL CARE Antenatal care is most beneficial when it is sought early in pregnancy and is continued throughout pregnancy. The initial visit to a women’s consulting center should occur before the fourth month of pregnancy so that timely assessment of each woman’s health can be made and appropriate procedures can be followed in the management of the pregnancy. Table 10.2 shows data on the timing and number of visits to health care providers during pregnancy. In Turkmenistan, the majority of women (72 percent) make their initial antenatal visit before the fourth month of pregnancy. The median duration of pregnancy at the initial antenatal visit is 3.4 months. Maternal and Child Health * 115 Table 10.2 Number of antenatal care visits and stage of pregnancy Percent distribution of women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey by number of antenatal care visits, and by the timing of the first visit, Turkmenistan 2000_______________________________________________ Number and timing of ANC visits Total _______________________________________________ Number of ANC visits None 1 visit 2-3 visits 4+ visits Don't know/missing Total Median number of visits (for those with ANC) Number of months pregnant at the time of the first ANC visit No antenatal care <4 months 4-5 months 6-7 months 8+ months Don't know/missing Total Median months pregnant at first visit (for those with ANC) Number 1.4 0.8 3.4 82.8 11.7 100.0 9.9 1.4 72.4 20.6 4.4 0.5 0.7 100.0 3.4 2,470 _______________________________________________ Note: For women with two or more live births in the five- year period, data refer to the last live birth. Table 10.2 also indicates that 83 percent of women make four or more antenatal care visits. The median number of antenatal care visits is ten. Overall, in Turkmenistan, antenatal care is initiated early in pregnancy and is continued throughout pregnancy. 10.3 CONTENT OF ANTENATAL CARE Pregnancy complications are an important source of maternal and child mortality and morbidity and can be detected if expectant mothers are aware of the signs of pregnancy complications. Pregnancy complications can also be detected through procedures that are typically administered during antenatal visits, such as blood pressure measurement, blood and urine testing, and weighing and measuring the height of mothers. In the TDHS women were asked whether they had been told about the signs of pregnancy complications during their antenatal visits. They were also asked whether each of a series of standard procedures was done at least once during their most recent pregnancy in the five years before the survey. 116 * Maternal and Child Health Table 10.3 Antenatal care content Percentage of women with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey who received antenatal care, by content of antenatal care and background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Informed of signs of Blood Urine Blood Received Background pregnancy pressure sample sample Weight Height iron characteristic complications measured given given measured measured tablets Number ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mother's age at birth <20 20-34 35+ Birth order 1 2-3 4-5 6+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Mother's education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 84.0 97.9 98.6 98.6 95.1 95.5 33.4 123 89.9 99.4 98.6 99.2 94.5 93.8 32.6 2,049 90.8 99.6 98.4 99.0 95.8 92.3 34.1 252 87.9 98.8 98.9 99.2 95.1 94.6 32.8 604 90.7 99.6 98.7 99.2 94.8 94.1 32.1 1,228 89.2 99.7 98.3 99.5 94.8 92.9 32.7 421 89.8 98.8 97.4 98.3 92.2 90.4 37.8 171 86.5 99.9 99.8 99.8 98.6 97.7 32.2 1,029 92.0 99.0 97.7 98.7 91.8 90.8 33.2 1,395 84.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.3 98.6 36.8 262 94.4 98.5 98.2 98.2 97.8 88.4 10.6 342 57.8 99.2 96.6 96.6 94.4 94.1 17.6 209 96.5 99.7 99.7 99.7 95.8 95.7 69.4 516 96.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 29.8 512 88.2 98.9 96.8 99.2 85.2 87.3 19.6 583 88.9 99.1 98.2 98.9 93.6 92.2 31.8 1,677 90.5 100.0 99.4 99.7 97.4 97.5 34.6 556 93.9 100.0 100.0 100.0 96.8 96.5 35.6 191 89.9 99.2 98.4 99.0 94.6 93.5 29.8 1,955 95.0 100.0 99.8 99.8 95.2 95.2 53.2 291 78.5 100.0 99.1 100.0 94.7 94.1 32.3 178 89.7 99.4 98.6 99.2 94.7 93.7 32.8 2,425 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: For women with two or more live births in the five-year period, data refer to the last live birth. Table 10.3 shows the percentage of mothers who were informed about the signs of pregnancy complications and who received routine antenatal care procedures. Overall, 90 percent of the respondents reported that they were informed about the signs of pregnancy complications. Additionally, virtually all mothers (99 percent) reported that blood pressure measurement and urine and blood sampling was performed during their antenatal visits. Height and weight measurement was reported by 95 percent of women. It is noteworthy that the proportion of women reporting that they received the various antenatal services is high in all components of the population. The greatest difference in the provision of antenatal care was in terms of the percentage of respondents informed about signs of pregnancy complications. The Balkan Region is distinctive in terms of the relatively low percentage of mothers informed about signs of pregnancy complications (58 percent). Provision of iron tables is not a routine practice in Turkmenistan. Thirty-three percent of women received iron tables during pregnancy. Maternal and Child Health * 117 Table 10.4 Place of delivery Percent distribution of live births in the five years preceding the survey by place of delivery, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Place of delivery _________________________________________________________ Public Private Background Public health Other facility/ Don’t know/ characteristic Home hospital clinic public other missing Total Number ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mother's age at birth <20 20-34 35+ Birth order 1 2-3 4-5 6+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Mother's education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Number of antenatal care visits None 1-3 visits 4+ visits Don't know/missing Total 4.6 90.7 3.8 0.5 0.0 0.3 100.0 224 3.9 89.3 5.6 0.5 0.1 0.7 100.0 3,075 7.3 83.3 7.8 0.6 0.0 0.9 100.0 284 2.4 91.9 4.2 0.5 0.2 0.7 100.0 1,176 3.9 89.2 5.6 0.5 0.0 0.7 100.0 1,672 6.9 83.8 8.5 0.5 0.0 0.3 100.0 523 9.3 81.8 7.0 0.0 0.5 1.3 100.0 212 1.4 95.5 1.7 0.1 0.2 1.1 100.0 1,413 6.0 84.6 8.2 0.7 0.0 0.5 100.0 2,171 0.5 95.9 2.1 0.0 0.5 1.0 100.0 356 7.4 84.3 6.8 0.0 0.2 1.2 100.0 507 5.1 89.2 4.5 0.0 0.0 1.2 100.0 277 10.2 75.9 13.7 0.2 0.0 0.1 100.0 801 0.5 96.1 2.8 0.3 0.0 0.4 100.0 729 1.2 94.3 2.0 1.5 0.0 0.9 100.0 914 5.4 87.1 6.2 0.7 0.0 0.6 100.0 2,523 1.4 92.5 4.8 0.1 0.2 1.0 100.0 793 1.3 95.4 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 267 3.9 89.8 5.2 0.3 0.0 0.7 100.0 2,939 6.0 83.9 9.4 0.6 0.0 0.1 100.0 423 5.3 86.7 4.0 2.1 0.8 1.2 100.0 221 (22.2) (77.8) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 34 13.5 75.2 8.7 4.6 0.0 0.0 100.0 104 3.5 89.8 5.9 0.3 0.1 0.5 100.0 2,044 2.4 92.7 3.4 0.0 0.0 2.1 100.0 288 4.2 88.9 5.6 0.5 0.1 0.7 100.0 3,583 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Figures are for births in the period 0-59 months preceding the survey except in the case of number of antenatal care visits. Figures for antenatal care visits are based on last live births in the past five years, i.e., 2,470. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 10.4 PLACE AND ASSISTANCE DURING DELIVERY The risk of adverse outcomes to both a woman and her child are reduced when childbirth occurs where there is immediate access to emergency medical procedures and trained medical professionals assist with the delivery. In the TDHS, data were collected on the place of delivery and whether trained medical personnel assisted with the delivery. These data were collected for all births occurring in the five years preceding the survey. Table 10.4 indicates that 95 percent of births are delivered at public health facilities; most at public hospitals (89 percent) and a relatively small number at public health clinics (6 percent). 118 * Maternal and Child Health Table 10.5 Assistance during delivery Percent distribution of live births in the five years preceding the survey by type of assistance during delivery, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Attendant assisting during delivery1 ___________________________________________________________________ Trained Traditional Background nurse/ birth Relative/ Don’t know/ characteristic Doctor midwife attendant other No one missing Total Number ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mother's age at birth <20 20-34 35+ Birth order 1 2-3 4-5 6+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Mother's education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other No. of antenatal care visits None 1-3 visits 4+ visits Don’t know/missing Total 82.0 14.9 1.0 1.5 0.0 0.6 100.0 224 81.9 15.4 0.9 0.6 0.1 1.1 100.0 3,075 80.5 16.5 1.2 1.5 0.0 0.4 100.0 284 85.3 13.0 0.5 0.4 0.1 0.8 100.0 1,176 82.0 14.9 1.0 0.5 0.1 1.4 100.0 1,672 76.0 20.6 1.7 1.1 0.0 0.7 100.0 523 74.9 20.5 1.0 3.4 0.0 0.3 100.0 212 88.1 10.1 0.2 0.4 0.1 1.1 100.0 1,413 77.7 18.9 1.4 1.0 0.1 1.0 100.0 2,171 94.5 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 356 81.8 10.9 4.2 1.2 0.0 1.9 100.0 507 77.2 19.0 1.1 1.6 0.0 1.2 100.0 277 82.9 14.2 1.1 1.4 0.0 0.4 100.0 801 73.4 26.4 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 729 83.9 13.2 0.0 0.3 0.4 2.1 100.0 914 80.9 15.5 1.3 1.0 0.1 1.1 100.0 2,523 82.1 17.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.7 100.0 793 88.8 9.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 100.0 267 81.7 15.3 1.0 0.8 0.1 1.2 100.0 2,939 78.4 19.6 1.2 0.1 0.0 0.8 100.0 423 89.3 8.6 0.0 1.4 0.7 0.0 100.0 221 (65.5) (15.3) (9.2) (0.0) (10.0) (0.0) 100.0 3.4 72.8 19.6 2.7 2.3 0.0 2.6 100.0 104 83.7 14.5 0.6 0.7 0.0 0.4 100.0 2,044 79.0 17.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 3.0 100.0 288 81.8 15.4 0.9 0.7 0.1 1.0 100.0 3,583 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Figures are for births in the period 0-59 months preceding the survey, except in the case of antenatal care visits. Figures for antenatal care visits are based on last live births in the last five years, i.e., 2,740. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1If the respondent mentioned more than one attendant, only the most qualified attendant is considered. Only 4 percent of births were reported to occur outside a health facility (primarily at the respondent’s home). However, it should be noted that the frequency of home delivery is decidedly higher among older women (7 percent), high order births (9 percent), and women residing in the Akhal (7 percent) and Dashoguz (10 percent) regions. Reliance on home delivery is greatest among women who had no antenatal care (22 percent) or between one and three antenatal visits (14 percent). These women are a small proportion of women giving birth in the last five years, but they represent a group that is disadvantaged both in terms of antenatal care and place of delivery. Table 10.5 presents information on the person assisting at delivery for all births during the five years before the survey. Almost all births (97 percent) are delivered under the supervision of a medically trained person: 82 percent by a doctor and 15 percent by a nurse or midwife. Maternal and Child Health * 119 Although trained medical staff attend the delivery of most births, differentials by urban-rural residence and by region exist in the percentage of deliveries attended by a doctor or, alternatively, by a nurse or midwife. As might be expected, doctors attend more deliveries in urban areas (88 percent) than in rural areas (78 percent). Similarly, doctors attend more deliveries in Ashgabad City (95 percent) than in the other regions (between 73 and 84 percent). As observed with antenatal care, the likelihood of delivery occurring under a doctor’s supervision increases with a women’s education. 10.5 DELIVERY CHARACTERISTICS The TDHS obtained information on a number of other indices of maternal and child health, including whether delivery was by caesarean section and the child’s birth weight. Respondents were asked whether their children were weighed at the time of birth, and if so, how much each baby weighed. They were also asked for their subjective assessment of their baby’s size at birth (very large, larger than average, average size, smaller than average, or very small). Delivery by caesarean section is generally performed when a woman has medical problems or experiences complications at the time of delivery. Table 10.6 shows that 3 percent of births in the five-year period before the survey were delivered by caesarean section. Delivery by caesarean section was more common among births to women age 35 and older, women residing in urban areas, women with a higher education, and women of other ethnicity. The rate of caesarean section among births in Ashgabad City (8 percent) is significantly higher than among births in the other regions (from 2 to 4 percent). Birth weight is a major determinant of infant and child mortality. In the TDHS, for all births during the five-year period preceding the survey, mothers were first asked to subjectively assess the size of their baby and then asked to report the actual weight if the baby had been weighed after delivery. Table 10.6 shows that the majority of babies were weighed at birth (97 percent). The incidence of low birth weight (i.e., less than 2.5 kilograms), which is considered to elevate the risk of early infant death, was 6 percent. 10.6 POSTNATAL CARE Because rates of maternal and infant mortality are particularly high in the first few days after delivery, safe motherhood programs stress the importance of postnatal care within two days of delivery. In the TDHS, all women whose last live birth in the five years preceding the survey occurred outside a health facility were asked whether they received postnatal care. Deliveries outside a health facility constitute a small percentage of all deliveries in Turkmenistan, on the order of 5 percent. Table 10.7 indicates that the majority of the women delivering outside a health facility (72 percent) had a postnatal health check by either a doctor (30 percent) or a nurse or midwife (42 percent). Additionally, the majority of these women (61 percent) received postnatal care within two days of delivery. 120 * Maternal and Child Health Table 10.6 Delivery characteristics: Percent distribution of live births in the five years preceding the survey by whether the delivery was by caesarean section, by birth weight, and by mother’s estimate of baby's size at birth, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Birth weight Size at birth ____________________________________ _________________________________ Had Does not Smaller Average Does not Background caesarean Not know/ Very than or know/ characteristic section weighted <2.5 kg 2.5+ kg missing small average larger missing Total ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Mother’s age at birth <20 20-34 35+ Birth order 1 2-3 4-5 6+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Mother's education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 1.0 3.1 8.9 85.9 2.1 3.1 11.4 82.4 3.2 224 3.0 2.4 5.6 89.7 2.4 1.8 11.0 84.7 2.5 3,075 5.8 3.3 4.6 89.1 2.9 1.8 7.4 86.8 4.0 284 3.5 1.7 7.7 88.6 1.9 1.9 15.1 81.0 2.0 1,176 2.8 2.4 5.0 90.8 1.8 2.1 9.0 86.5 2.4 1,672 2.6 2.8 4.4 89.3 3.5 1.8 7.6 88.0 2.6 523 4.5 6.8 3.7 82.5 6.9 0.0 8.1 83.7 8.1 212 4.2 0.9 4.7 92.6 1.8 1.8 9.6 86.8 1.9 1,413 2.4 3.5 6.4 87.3 2.8 1.9 11.5 83.4 3.1 2,171 8.1 0.9 2.9 95.6 0.6 1.0 6.9 91.1 1.1 356 2.7 5.3 3.2 89.6 1.8 2.1 10.4 82.4 5.2 507 3.8 0.6 7.9 86.8 4.6 2.0 16.9 77.3 3.7 277 2.5 5.6 6.2 83.3 5.0 2.1 12.8 81.1 4.0 801 3.3 0.3 6.3 92.6 0.7 1.1 6.6 92.1 0.2 729 1.6 1.1 6.7 90.4 1.9 2.5 12.0 83.2 2.3 914 2.2 3.2 6.4 87.6 2.8 1.8 12.2 82.7 3.2 2,523 5.1 0.8 4.3 93.4 1.5 1.9 8.0 88.9 1.1 793 5.5 1.1 3.4 94.4 1.1 2.7 4.4 91.5 1.3 267 2.7 2.3 5.5 89.5 2.7 1.9 10.8 84.4 2.8 2,939 2.7 3.0 7.5 88.9 0.6 1.8 10.6 85.8 1.8 423 9.3 4.4 5.0 88.8 1.8 1.4 9.5 87.5 1.6 221 3.1 2.5 5.7 89.4 2.4 1.9 10.7 84.8 2.6 3,583 10.7 VACCINATIONS The Ministry of Health and Medical Industry has adopted the child immunization guidelines developed by the World Health Organization. The guidelines indicate that before 12 months of age, a child should receive a BCG vaccination to protect against tuberculosis; three doses of DPT/DT to protect against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus; three doses of the polio vaccine; and a measles vaccination. Maternal and Child Health * 121 Table 10.7 Timing of postnatal care and care providers Percent distribution of women who had a live birth outside of a health facility in the five years preceding the survey by timing and type of postnatal care provider, Turkmenistan 2000_______________________________________________ Background characteristic Percent _______________________________________________ Timing of first postnatal checkup Within 2 days of birth 3-7 days of birth 4+ weeks after birth Don't know/missing Did not receive postnatal care Provider of postnatal care1 Doctor Trained nurse/midwife Traditional birth attendant Don’t know/missing No postnatal care Total Number 61.3 10.8 0.7 1.3 25.9 29.6 42.1 0.6 1.9 25.9 100.0 115 ______________________________________________ Note: For women with two or more live births in the five-year period, data refer to the last live birth. 1If the respondent mentioned more than one provider, only the most qualified is considered in this tabulation. In Turkmenistan, as in many countries of the former Soviet Union, child vaccination data are recorded on health cards maintained at health facilities. The supervisors of the TDHS interviewing teams were responsible for collecting these data. With the help of health facility personnel, usually a nurse or archive clerk, the team supervisors obtained the health cards of the surviving children of survey respondents who were born within the last five years. The team supervisors recorded the vaccination data for each child on forms designed for that purpose. Table 10.8 shows rates of vaccination coverage for children 12-23 months of age, (i.e., children who should be fully vaccinated). The rates are based on the information from the health cards found for 94 percent of all children 12-23 months of age. The rates indicate that the childhood immunization program in Turkmenistan has achieved a high level of coverage. BCG vaccination and an initial dose of polio (polio 0), both of which are given in delivery hospitals, were found to be nearly universal (99 percent). Almost all children (99 percent) had received the first doses of polio and DPT/DT. Coverage for the second and third doses of polio and DPT/DT was also very high (98 and 97 percent). Ninety-seven percent of children had received a measles vaccination. Because of the high levels of coverage for BCG, measles, and individual doses of polio and DPT/DT vaccines, the percentage of children age 12-23 months who had received all WHO-recommended vaccinations was high (90 percent). 122 * Maternal and Child Health Table 10.8 Vaccinations by background characteristics Among children age 12-23 months with a vaccination card, the percentage who had received specific vaccines by the time of the survey by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Percentage of children who had received: _______________________________________________________________________________________ Number Background of characteristic BCG DPT 1 DPT 2 DPT 3 Polio 01 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Measles All2 children _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Sex of child Male Female Birth order 1 2-3 4-5 6+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 99.1 99.5 98.2 98.2 98.0 100.0 100.0 98.5 92.7 90.4 287 99.0 98.9 97.9 97.6 99.0 98.3 97.0 95.9 93.2 89.8 322 98.3 100.0 99.1 99.1 96.7 99.9 99.3 98.4 89.6 86.2 208 99.2 98.6 96.8 96.8 99.2 98.2 97.4 96.5 94.4 92.0 287 00.0 99.2 99.2 99.2 100.0 100.0 100.0 96.1 95.6 92.4 86 (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (96.3) (100.0) (100.0) (97.0) (97.0) (94.1) (91.1) 28 99.8 99.2 97.0 97.0 98.5 99.0 98.1 96.6 91.7 89.8 250 98.6 99.2 98.8 98.5 98.6 99.2 98.6 97.5 93.8 90.2 358 (100.0) (100.0) (96.9) (96.9) (94.4) (100.0) (100.0) (96.8) (90.6) (87.4) 56 97.6 100.0 97.5 96.3 97.6 98.8 97.5 96.1 81.8 79.3 85 98.8 97.3 96.1 96.1 98.8 100.0 98.3 96.9 91.3 88.3 49 00.0 99.5 99.5 99.5 100.0 98.9 98.9 97.6 92.9 91.0 124 00.0 99.1 97.3 97.3 100.0 99.1 97.4 96.6 98.3 94.8 143 97.9 99.0 99.0 99.0 97.9 99.0 99.0 97.9 95.5 92.4 152 99.0 99.5 98.4 98.2 99.0 99.4 98.9 97.4 91.9 88.7 420 98.8 97.9 96.2 96.2 98.8 97.9 96.2 95.4 95.1 92.2 138 (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (93.7) (100.0) (100.0) (99.4) (95.8) (95.3) 51 99.2 99.5 98.4 98.2 98.5 99.4 98.5 97.2 92.8 90.3 494 00.0 100.0 98.3 98.3 100.0 99.0 99.0 97.4 93.8 89.5 77 (95.9) (94.2) (92.6) (92.6) (95.9) (95.9) (95.9) (95.1) (93.4) (88.5) 39 99.1 99.2 98.1 97.9 98.5 99.1 98.4 97.1 92.9 90.0 609 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1Polio 0 is the polio vaccination given at birth. 2Children who are fully vaccinated, i.e., those who have received BCG, measles, and three doses each of DPT and polio vaccine (excluding polio vaccine given at birth) 10.8 ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION AND FEVER Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is a primary cause of morbidity among children and a leading cause of infant mortality throughout the world. In the TDHS, mothers were asked whether their children under five years of age had been ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing in the two weeks preceding the survey. These symptoms are compatible with ARI. It should be noted that the morbidity data collected in the TDHS are subjective in the sense that they are based on the mother’s perception of illness without validation by medical personnel. Also, the data apply to the period from June to September, while the peak prevalence of ARI is in midwinter. Table 10.9 indicates that 0.8 percent of children under five years of age were ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing in the two weeks preceding the survey. Differentials in the prevalence of ARI exist by background characteristics, in particular by age, urban-rural Maternal and Child Health * 123 Table 10.9 Prevalence of symptoms of acute respiratory infection and fever Percentage of children under five years of age who had a cough accompanied by short rapid breathing (symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI)) during the two weeks preceding the survey, and the percentage of children who had a fever during the two weeks preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ___________________________________________________________________ Percentage of children Percentage Background with symptoms of children Number of characteristic of ARI with fever children __________________________________________________________________ Child’s age <6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 35-47 months 48-59 months Sex of child Male Female Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Total 0.5 2.1 356 0.3 7.5 336 0.8 5.3 646 1.2 5.2 629 1.0 3.7 690 0.6 0.8 635 1.0 4.3 1,664 0.5 3.6 1,628 1.3 6.3 1,310 0.4 2.5 1,982 3.2 9.2 332 0.0 3.0 466 1.3 4.6 259 0.0 0.5 735 0.2 2.6 692 1.3 6.5 808 0.6 3.1 2,305 1.2 5.6 742 1.5 7.0 245 0.8 4.0 3,292 residence and region. The reported prevalence of ARI symptoms is higher for urban than for rural areas and for Ashgabad City than for any other region. Whether these differentials reflect genuine differences in morbidity or are due to differences in perceptions of illness cannot be ascertained from these data. Table 10.9 also indicates that 4 percent of children had an episode of fever during the two weeks prior to the survey. Differentials in the prevalence of fever show a pattern similar to that for symptoms of ARI. The reported prevalence of fever is higher for urban than for rural areas and for Ashgabad City than for any other region. Overall, 51 percent of children with symptoms of ARI or fever were taken to a health facility or health care provider for treatment. 10.9 DIARRHEA Dehydration caused by severe diarrhea is a major cause of morbidity among young children and an important cause of infant and child death. Rehydration through the prompt increase in a child’s fluid intake is a simple and effective procedure to prevent diarrhea from developing into a life-threatening illness. Increased fluid intake should be administered in the form of a sugar, salt, and water solution, i.e., oral rehydration salts (ORS). An ORS product called Rehydron is widely available throughout Turkmenistan. 124 * Maternal and Child Health Table 10.11 Prevalence of diarrhea Percentage of children under five years of age with diarrhea during the two weeks preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _____________________________________________ Diarrhea Background in preceding Number of characteristic 2 weeks children _____________________________________________ Child's age < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Sex Male Female Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 1.5 356 6.5 336 6.2 646 1.9 629 2.4 690 1.5 635 3.3 1,664 3.1 1,628 4.7 1,310 2.2 1,982 4.7 332 2.1 466 3.2 259 1.5 735 3.2 692 4.8 808 2.9 2,305 3.2 742 6.2 245 2.8 2,681 3.6 401 8.1 210 3.2 3,292 Table 10.10 Knowledge of ORS packets Percentage of mothers with births in the five years preceding the survey who know about ORS packets for treatment of diarrhea in young children, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _____________________________________________ Percentage of mothers who know Background about ORS Number characteristic packets of mothers ____________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total (85.3) 42 92.5 579 95.1 831 94.8 581 95.4 437 95.2 1,052 93.6 1,417 96.6 266 95.0 352 92.4 215 92.8 520 98.2 513 91.6 603 93.0 1,715 96.8 560 99.0 194 95.2 1,992 92.1 295 88.5 182 94.3 2,470 _____________________________________________ Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. ORS = Oral rehydration salts Women who had had a birth in the past five years were asked some basic questions about how to care for a child with diarrhea; namely, if the intake of liquids and solid foods should be increased and if they had ever heard of Rehydron as a treatment for diarrhea. As indicated in Table 10.10, most women reported that they had heard of Rehydron (94 percent). Mothers of children under age five were also asked whether their children had an episode of diarrhea in the past two weeks and, if so, whether Rehydron or any other treatment was given for the diarrhea and whether fluid intake was increased or decreased. Table 10.11 indicates that 3 percent of children under five had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. The age pattern of diarrhea shows a peak at 6-11 and 12-23 months (i.e., around the time when a child begins to crawl and experience more exposure to the environment). Maternal and Child Health * 125 10.12 Treatment of diarrhea Among children under five years who had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey, the percentage taken for treatment to a health provider, the percentage who received oral rehydration therapy (ORT) (solution prepared from ORS packets or increased fluids), Turkmenistan 2000 _____________________________________________ Treatment Percentage received of children _____________________________________________ Taken to a health facility or provider1 Received oral rehydration salts (Rehydron) Received increased fluids Received ORT (ORS or increased fluids) Number of children 38.5 46.7 61.5 75.9 105 _______________________________________________ 1Includes health center, hospital, clinic, and private doctor. 10.13 Feeding practices during diarrhea Percent distribution of children under five years of age who had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey, by amount of liquid given and amount of food given compared with normal practice, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________ Variable and category Total_________________________________________ Amount of liquid offered Same as usual More Much less Don’t know/missing Amount of food offered Same as usual More Much less Don’t know/missing Total Number 29.7 61.5 7.8 1.0 31.5 4.5 62.4 1.6 100.0 105 Table 10.12 shows that 39 percent of children with diarrhea were taken to a health facility for treatment, 47 percent of children received Rehydron, and 62 percent of children received increased fluids. Overall, 76 percent of children with diarrhea received some form of oral rehydration therapy (Rehydron or increased fluids). Table 10.13 summarizes the feeding practices that mothers followed when children had diarrhea. Ninety-one percent of children with diarrhea were given fluids in either the same or increased amounts, whereas only 8 percent were given reduced amounts of fluids. Alternatively, mothers reported a tendency to give less food to children with diarrhea. Nutrition of Women and Children * 127 NUTRITION OF WOMEN AND CHILDREN 11 G.R. Dzhorayeva, G.Y. Khodzhayeva, and T.R. Tagirova This chapter looks at several important aspects of the nutritional status of children and their mothers in Turkmenistan. It covers the following topics: 1) infant feeding practices, including breastfeeding and complementary feeding patterns and the prevalence of bottle-feeding; 2) current nutritional status of children under age five as well as that of their mothers based on anthropometric data (height and weight) collected in the survey; 3) levels of consumption of foods rich in vitamin A multivitamin supplementation, and the iodization of salt used in the household. 11.1 BREASTFEEDING AND SUPPLEMENTATION The pattern of infant feeding has an important influence on the health of children. Feeding practices are the principal determinant of a young child’s nutritional status, and poor nutritional status has been shown to increase the risk of illness and death among children. Breastfeeding practices also have an effect on the mother’s fertility. Frequent breastfeeding for long durations is associated with longer periods of postpartum amenorrhea and thus longer birth intervals and lower fertility. Early initiation of breastfeeding is beneficial for a number of reasons. For the mother, early suckling promotes the release of a hormone that helps the uterus achieve a contracted state and reduces the risk of postpartum hemorrhage. For the child, it is important to receive the colostrum, which is contained in the first breast milk after delivery. Colostrum is rich in antibodies that are needed since the child’s own immune system is immature. According to the results in Table 11.1, almost all Turkmen children are breastfed for some period. Differentials in the proportion of children ever breastfed are small, with 95 percent or more of children in every subgroup reported as ever breastfed. Among Turkmen children who were ever breastfed, Table 11.1 shows that only 18 percent were put to the breast within an hour after delivery, and 76 percent were breastfed within the first day. Initiation within an hour of birth is more likely among urban women (21 percent) than among rural women (16 percent) and more likely in Akhal Region (33 percent) and Balkan Region (41 percent) than in other regions. Prelacteal feeding is the practice of giving other liquids to a child during the period after birth before the mother’s milk is flowing freely. Overall, according to Table 11.1, 18 percent of children born in the five years prior to the survey received prelacteal feeds during the first three days after birth. Infants in the Balkan and Lebap regions as well as infants born to mothers with secondary or higher education were much more likely to have received prelacteal feeds than other children. 128 * Nutrition of Women and Children Table 11.1 Initial breastfeeding Percentage of children born in the five years preceding the survey who were ever breastfed, who started breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth, and who received a prelacteal feed, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Percentage who started breastfeeding Percentage who _____________________________ received Background Percentage Within 1 hour With in 1 day prelacteal Number of characteristic ever breastfed of birth of birth1 feeds2 children ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Sex of child Male Female Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Total 97.1 17.0 75.1 18.9 1,830 97.2 19.1 76.5 16.7 1,753 97.1 20.6 75.2 19.2 1,413 97.2 16.3 76.1 16.9 2,171 95.7 18.4 72.2 17.9 356 96.9 33.0 84.2 14.4 507 97.5 41.1 82.9 22.8 277 98.7 16.7 85.6 4.8 801 98.4 8.2 67.4 31.8 729 95.4 11.5 68.1 18.3 914 97.1 18.0 75.8 17.8 3,583 ________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Figures are based on all children born in the five years preceding the survey, whether living or dead at the time of the interview. 1Includes children who started breastfeeding within one hour of birth 2Children given something other than breast milk during the first three days of life before the mother started breastfeeding regularly; excludes children given plain water. 11.2 BREASTFEEDING BY AGE According to the UNICEF recommendation, during the first six months of life, children should be exclusively breastfed; that is, they should be given only breast milk and should not receive other complementary liquids (including plain water) or solids. Early complementary feeding is discouraged for a number of reasons. The early introduction of other liquids or foods increases the exposure of an infant to pathogens that may cause diarrheal disease. Malnutrition is another risk. The complementary foods given to a child may not provide all of the calories that the infant needs, particularly if they are watered down. Since the production of breast milk is influenced by the intensity and frequency of suckling, early complementary feeding may reduce breast milk output, again increasing the risk of malnutrition. To obtain information on feeding patterns, mothers were asked about the breastfeeding status of all children under the age of five in the 24-hour period before the survey and about what other (if any) liquids or solids had been given to the child during the period. These data were used to derive the information on the age patterns of breastfeeding and supplementation presented in Table 11.2 and Figure 11.1. The data shown in Table 11.2 and Figure 11.1 indicate that breastfeeding continues for most Turkmen children beyond the first year of life. At age 12-13 months, about three-quarters of all children are still being breastfed, and 61 percent of the children 16-17 months continue to be breastfed. Weaning takes place rapidly after this age, and about one in six children age 24- 25 months are still breastfed. Nutrition of Women and Children * 129 Table 11.2 Breastfeeding status by child’s age Percent distribution of living children under three years of age by current breastfeeding status, according to child's current age in months, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Breastfeeding and: _______________________________________ Not Exclusively Plain Water- Comple- Using a Number Child’s age breast- breast- water based- Other mentary bottle with of in months feeding fed only liquids, juice milk foods Total a nipple children __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 24-25 26-27 28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 2.5 26.5 35.3 31.2 3.0 1.6 100.0 35.2 96 4.6 8.4 20.2 48.4 7.9 10.5 100.0 38.4 135 5.6 5.1 9.5 28.2 7.2 44.3 100.0 35.0 125 10.9 4.3 4.6 16.1 2.6 61.5 100.0 34.0 109 14.8 0.0 0.0 2.4 2.7 80.1 100.0 28.1 103 12.8 1.3 1.6 0.8 0.0 83.5 100.0 18.6 124 25.5 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 74.2 100.0 11.3 136 22.9 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 76.4 100.0 8.8 92 39.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 60.9 100.0 5.5 102 62.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 37.1 100.0 4.7 105 69.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 30.4 100.0 7.4 102 77.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 23.0 100.0 3.6 108 82.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.7 100.0 3.4 127 90.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.8 100.0 0.6 109 90.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 10.0 100.0 3.3 103 95.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 100.0 0.0 87 97.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 100.0 1.8 110 97.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 100.0 1.6 92 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Breastfeeding status refers to a 24 hour recall period (the day and night preceding the interview). Children classified as breastfeeding and plain water only receive no supplements. The categories of not breastfeeding, exclusively breastfeeding, breastfeeding and plain water, water-based liquids, other milk, and complementary foods (solids and semi-solids) are hierarchical and mutually exclusive, and their percentages add to 100 percent. Thus, a child who receives beast milk and water-based liquids and who does not receive complementary foods is classified in the water-based liquid category even though she/he may also get plain water. Any child who gets complementary food is classified in that category as long as she/he is breastfeeding as well. The percentages who use a bottle are based on all children. Exclusive breastfeeding is not common in very early infancy in Turkmenistan. Only a minority of children are exclusively breastfed throughout the first six months of life. Table 11.2 shows that among infants under two months of age, 27 percent received only breast milk. The proportion exclusively breastfed then dropped off to just 8 percent among children 2-3 months of age, and 5 percent among children 4-5 months of age. It is important to introduce complementary foods by age 6 months since at that stage, the mother’s breast milk no longer provides adequate nutrition for the child. The results in Table 11.2 indicate that most older children were receiving other foods or milk in addition to breast milk. At 8-9 months, however, about one in six children was not being given complementary foods or other milk in addition to breast milk. The extent to which Turkmen children are bottle-fed is also examined in Table 11.2 Bottle- feeding is discouraged for the potential negative effects that it may have on the child’s health. Feeding with a bottle with a nipple increases the risk of illness, especially diarrheal disease among young children because it is difficult to properly sterilize the nipple. The use of a bottle with a nipple can also reduce the period when the mother is not at risk of conception since bottle-feeding is associated with a lessening of the intensity of breastfeeding and a consequent shortening of the period of postpartum amenorrhea. 1 Current status estimates of the median and mean durations of breastfeeding are calculated from the proportion of children who were reported to be currently breastfeeding by age. The current status mean and median durations differ because the mean is affected by the small number of extreme values at the upper end of the distribution, while the median is not. 130 * Nutrition of Women and Children Overall, only a minority of Turkmen children are fed with a bottle. Only about one-third of children under the age of 9 months are fed with a bottle. With increasing age, the percentage of children fed with a bottle decreases. 11.3 DURATION AND FREQUENCY OF BREASTFEEDING Median durations of breastfeeding are presented in Table 11.3. The table also includes estimates of the mean duration of breastfeeding for all children under age three years. Estimates of the mean durations are based on current status information1 and are presented to allow comparison with other studies of breastfeeding that report mean rather than median durations. The median duration of breastfeeding is 17.5 months. Children are exclusively breastfed or predominantly breastfed for less than the recommended 6 months (0.5 months and 4.5 months, respectively). Considering differentials in the median duration of breastfeeding, there were no differences between male and female children or between urban and rural children. By place of residence, the shortest median duration of breastfeeding was in Ashgabad City (15.1 months). Nutrition of Women and Children * 131 Table 11.3 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding Median duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and predominant breastfeeding among children under three years of age living with their mother, and the percentage of breastfeeding children under six months who were breastfed six or more times in the 24 hours preceding the survey, and the mean number of feeds (day/night), by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Median duration of breastfeeding among children under 3 years of age1 Children under six months2 _______________________________________ _________________________________________________ Percentage Any Exclusive Predominant breastfed 6+ Mean Mean Number Background breast- breast- breast- Number of times in last number of number of of characteristic feeding feeding feeding3 children 24 hours day feeds night feeds children _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Sex Male Female Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Mother's education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total Mean for all children 17.9 0.6 4.4 996 95.6 6.2 2.9 181 17.3 0.5 4.6 969 97.0 6.3 3.2 159 17.2 0.6 4.2 774 98.8 6.7 3.4 121 17.8 0.4 4.6 1,190 94.8 6.0 2.9 219 15.1 1.5 4.0 198 * * * 40 17.5 0.6 4.4 285 (95.5) (5.7) (3.4) 48 20.8 0.8 4.8 156 90.5 6.9 2.6 24 19.2 0.5 5.4 441 98.5 6.6 2.9 82 18.0 0.4 4.9 419 97.1 6.5 2.6 81 16.7 0.4 3.3 466 (92.8) (5.5) (3.1) 65 17.7 0.5 4.5 1,406 96.1 6.3 3.1 257 17.1 0.4 3.6 413 97.5 6.6 2.9 59 16.2 0.6 5.6 145 * * * 24 17.6 0.5 4.5 1,600 96.1 6.3 3.1 279 17.6 0.5 5.3 240 96.0 6.3 3.0 45 15.6 0.5 3.2 124 * * * 16 17.5 0.5 4.5 1,965 96.2 6.3 3.1 340 18.3 1.6 5.3 na na na na na _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Medians and means are based on current status. Figures in parenthesis are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. na = Not applicable 1 All children whether living or dead 2 Excludes children for whom there is no valid answer on the number of times breastfed. 3 Either exclusively breastfed or received breast milk and plain water, liquids, and/or juice only. The frequency of breastfeeding during the 24-hour period before the survey is examined in Table 11.3. The duration of postpartum amenorrhea for a mother is related not only to the duration of breastfeeding but also to the frequency of breastfeeding. Among children under age 6 months, 96 percent were breastfed at least 6 times during the 24-hour period before the survey. Mothers reported a mean number of 6.3 daytime feeds and 3.1 nighttime feeds. No significant differences in the measures of breastfeeding frequency were observed by background characteristics. 132 * Nutrition of Women and Children Table 11.4 Foods consumed by children in preceding 24 hours Percentage of youngest child under three years of age living with the mother who received specific foods in the 24 hours preceding the interview, by breastfeeding status and child’s age, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Other Liquids Grains/ Meats/ Child’s milk/ other bread Beans/ fish/ Foods age in Infant cheese/ than cereal/ Fruit legumes/ poultry Any solid rich in Number of months formula yogurt water porridge vegetables lentils eggs food vitamin A children _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ BREASTFEEDING CHILDREN1_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ <2 2.2 0.9 34.5 0.0 1.6 0.0 0.0 1.6 1.6 93 2-3 6.6 12.1 64.4 3.0 5.7 0.5 0.0 7.4 4.3 129 4-5 6.5 34.9 79.0 30.9 31.5 0.0 8.0 43.2 27.9 118 6-7 5.4 44.9 89.6 53.6 57.1 2.2 26.6 68.4 54.4 97 8-9 8.6 78.1 95.4 83.7 90.4 14.7 51.9 93.3 87.0 88 10-11 3.2 82.1 95.8 90.6 91.5 15.8 61.3 95.8 83.5 108 12-13 2.5 91.5 98.4 95.5 95.4 13.8 74.5 98.4 88.4 101 14-15 3.0 85.0 96.3 96.8 96.3 25.4 84.6 99.1 86.7 71 16-17 0.0 91.4 99.0 96.9 99.0 29.0 81.9 100.0 95.2 62 18-23 4.2 94.6 99.3 99.3 98.1 21.8 82.9 99.3 96.8 96 24-35 0.0 91.2 100.0 98.7 100.0 17.7 84.1 100.0 93.3 53 <4 4.8 7.4 51.8 1.7 4.0 0.3 0.0 4.9 3.1 222 4 to 5 6.5 34.9 79.0 30.9 31.5 0.0 8.0 43.2 27.9 118 6 to 9 6.9 60.6 92.3 67.9 73.0 8.2 38.6 80.2 69.9 185 Total 4.3 59.7 84.6 62.6 64.2 11.1 45.0 68.3 60.1 1,016 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ NONBREASTFEEDING CHILDREN1_________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 0-11 44.2 75.1 90.4 76.8 76.2 7.9 45.8 80.0 65.8 59 12-15 (7.1) (97.8) (100.0) (100.0) (93.9) (28.2) (92.6) (100.0) (88.0) 56 16-17 (9.5) (100.0) (98.2) (94.9) (100.0) (22.4) (87.6) (100.0) (91.6) 40 18-23 3.5 94.2 98.5 96.8 100.0 29.1 91.2 100.0 94.5 220 24-29 2.0 95.5 99.6 99.1 100.0 32.8 93.0 100.0 95.2 295 30-35 2.3 92.1 100.0 96.6 99.8 28.6 95.9 100.0 94.8 280 Total 5.7 93.2 98.9 96.3 98.1 28.4 90.3 98.8 92.5 949 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Percentages may sum to more than 100.0 because a child may have received more than one type of supplement in the last 24 hours. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Breastfeeding status refers to a 24 hour recall period (i.e., the day and night preceding the interview). 11.4 COMPLEMENTARY FOODS More detailed information on the types of foods given to children during the 24-hour period before the survey is shown in Table 11.4 for children under age 3, according to the breastfeeding status of the child. Overall, the results suggest that Turkmen mothers are much less likely to give a child infant formula than other types of milk (e.g., fresh milk or powdered milk) or other liquids. As expected, milk supplements are introduced at an earlier age among nonbreastfeeding children than among breastfeeding children. Looking at semisolid or solid foods, fruits and vegetables (e.g., apples/sauce, pears, tomatoes) are the most common weaning foods, followed by grain-based foods (e.g., porridge), meat, fish, and poultry. In general, all of these foods are introduced earlier into the diets of nonbreastfeeding children than breastfeeding children, and especially during the first year of life, nonbreastfeeding children are much more likely than breastfeeding children to be given these types of foods. After age 12 months, breastfeeding children continue to be less likely than nonbreast- feeding children to receive most foods in the 24-hour period before the survey. 2 Although the term “height” is used, children younger than 24 months were measured lying on a measuring board, while standing height was measured for older children. Weight data were obtained using a digital scale that displays weights in increments of 0.1 kg. Nutrition of Women and Children * 133 After age 12 months, about 90 percent of breastfeeding and nonbreastfeeding children receive foods rich in vitamin A. 11.5 NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF CHILDREN Nutritional status is a primary determinant of a child’s health and well-being. Both inadequate or unbalanced diets and chronic illness are associated with poor nutritional status among children. The TDHS 2000 included the collection of anthropometric data that permit an assessment of the nutritional status of young children in Turkmenistan. To assess nutritional status, measurements of height and weight2 were obtained for all children living in the household who were under age 5. Using these anthropometric measurements as well as information on the ages of the children, three standard indices of physical growth describing the nutritional status of children were constructed: C height-for-age C weight-for height C weight-for-age As recommended by the World Health Organization, evaluation of nutritional status in this report is based on the comparison of the three indices for the population of children in the survey with those reported for a reference population of well-nourished children. The use of a reference population to identity malnourished children is based on the finding that well-nourished children in all population groups follow similar growth patterns and thus exhibit similar distributions of height and weight at given ages (Martorell and Habicht, 1986). One of the most commonly used reference populations, and the one used for this study, is the international reference population defined by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and accepted by WHO and the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Each of the indices measures somewhat different aspects of nutritional status. The height- for-age index provides an indicator of linear growth retardation. Children whose height-for-age is below minus two standard deviations (-2 SD) from the median of the reference population are considered short for their age, or stunted. Children who are below minus three standard deviations ( -3 SD) from the reference population are considered severely stunted. Stunting of a child’s growth may be the result of a failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period of time or of the effects of recurrent or chronic illness. Height-for-age therefore represents a measure of the outcome of malnutrition in a population over a long period and does not vary appreciably with the season of data collection. The weight-for-height index measures body mass in relation to body length. Children whose weight-for-height measures are below minus two standard deviations (-2 SD) from the median of the reference population are too thin for their height, or wasted, while those whose measures are below minus three standard deviations (-3 SD) from the reference population median are severely wasted. Wasting represents the failure to receive adequate nutrition during the period immediately before the survey. It may be the result of recent episodes of illness or acute food shortages. 134 * Nutrition of Women and Children Table 11.5 Nutritional status of children by demographic characteristics Percentage of children under five years c lassified as malnourished according to three anthropometric indices of nutritional status: height-for-age, weight- for-height, and weight-for-age, by demographic characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Height-for-age Weight-for-height Weight-for-age _____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Number Demographic below below Mean Z- below below Mean Z- below below Mean Z- of characteristic -3 SD -2 SD1 score (SD) -3 SD -2 SD1 score (SD) -3 SD -2 SD1 score (SD) children ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age <6 months 6-9 months 10-11 months 12-15 months 16-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Sex Male Female Birth order 1 2-3 4-5 6+ Birth interval First birth <24 months 24-47 months 48+ months Total 2.4 8.6 -0.1 0.9 5.5 0.1 0.4 4.8 0.1 309 6.1 20.1 -0.8 1.0 8.1 0.1 3.7 14.6 -0.6 182 2.9 17.9 -0.8 1.2 2.9 0.0 3.4 13.5 -0.7 113 1.2 31.3 -1.3 0.6 7.3 -0.2 5.0 25.1 -1.1 201 2.4 36.3 -1.5 1.9 6.4 -0.2 1.2 16.2 -1.0 369 8.3 22.6 -1.1 0.3 4.8 -0.1 1.7 10.8 -0.8 572 7.9 22.0 -1.0 1.9 5.3 -0.2 1.7 10.7 -0.9 622 5.1 19.3 -1.0 1.5 6.1 -0.2 0.6 10.0 -0.8 560 7.6 23.9 -1.1 1.6 6.5 -0.1 1.8 12.4 -0.8 1,478 7.1 20.8 -0.9 0.9 5.0 -0.1 1.7 11.6 -0.7 1,449 7.8 21.1 -1.0 1.5 5.8 -0.1 1.7 10.9 -0.7 972 6.9 22.1 -1.0 0.9 5.1 -0.1 1.5 11.9 -0.7 1,352 7.5 22.6 -1.1 1.5 7.8 -0.2 2.2 13.4 -0.8 430 7.8 30.5 -1.3 1.5 5.5 -0.2 2.2 15.3 -1.0 174 7.8 21.1 -1.0 1.5 5.7 -0.1 1.7 10.9 -0.7 976 6.3 24.1 -1.1 1.3 5.3 -0.2 1.8 12.2 -0.8 704 8.2 23.7 -1.1 1.4 6.7 -0.2 2.3 14.2 -0.8 856 6.3 19.3 -0.8 0.2 4.4 -0.1 0.5 9.6 -0.6 392 7.4 22.3 -1.0 1.2 5.7 -0.1 1.7 12.0 -0.7 2,928 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Figures are for children under age five whose mother was a survey respondent. Each index is expressed in terms of the number of standard deviation (SD) units from the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO Internationa l Reference Population. Children are classified as undernourished if their z-scores are below minus two or minus three standard deviations (-2 SD or -3SD) from the median of the reference population. 1Includes children who are below -3 SD from the International Reference Population median. Weight-for-age is a composite index of height-for-age and weight-for-height. Children whose weight-for-age measures are below minus two standard deviations (-2 SD) from the median of the reference population are underweight for their age, while those whose measures are below minus three standard deviations (-3 SD) from the reference population median are severely underweight. A child can be underweight for his age because he is stunted, because he is wasted, or because he is both stunted and wasted. Anthropometric data collection was conducted in all households in the TDHS 2000 sample. The anthropometric data were reported for the survey respondents (women age 15-49) and their children born since 1995. Table 11.5 shows the proportions of children born to TDHS respondents and under age five who are classified as malnourished according to the three measures of nutritional status, i.e., height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age, by selected demographic characteristics of the child. Nutrition of Women and Children * 135 An examination of the data on height-for-age in Table 11.5 shows that overall, 22 percent of children under age five are stunted, and 7 percent are severely stunted. A child’s age is associated with the likelihood of stunting. Stunting increases rapidly with age, from only 9 percent among children under 6 months of age to 36 percent among children 16-23 months, before falling to 19 percent among children age 4 and older. Levels of stunting are slightly higher for male children than for female children. Stunting is higher among children of birth order six or higher compared with other children. It varies inversely with the length of the birth interval. A child born less than 24 months after an elder sibling is more likely to be stunted than a child born 48 months or longer after an elder sibling. The weight-for-height index provides a measure of wasting, or acute malnutrition. Overall, nearly 6 percent of Turkmen children are wasted. Wasting is more common among children 6- 9 months (8 percent) than among children under 6 months of age (6 percent) or age 10-11 month (3 percent). The levels of wasting among children of age 12-59 months are between 5 and 7 percent. Regarding the other demographic characteristics presented in Table 11.5, there are generally only minor variations in the level of wasting. Reflecting the effects of both chronic and short-term malnutrition, 12 percent of children under age five are underweight for their age. Low weight-for-age is more common among children 12-15 months (25 percent) than among older or younger children. It generally increases with birth order and is higher among children born less than 48 months than among children born more than 48 months after a prior birth. Table 11.6 shows the proportions of children born to TDHS respondents and under age five who are classified as malnourished according to socioeconomic characteristics of the child’s mother. The table shows that there are marked socioeconomic differentials in stunting. Children in rural areas are more likely to be stunted than urban children (24 percent and 20 percent, respectively). The percentage stunted varies greatly by place of residence, ranging from only 13 percent in Ashgabad City to 27 percent in Dashoguz Region. The educational level of the mother is inversely related to the level of stunting. Among children whose mother has primary/secondary or no education, 23 percent are stunted, compared with 20 and 19 percent of children whose mother completed the secondary-special or higher levels of education, respectively. Children of mothers of Turkmen or Uzbek ethnicities are somewhat more likely to be stunted than children of other ethnicities (23, 22, and 19 percent, respectively). With respect to weight-for height (wasting) index, Table 11.6 shows that wasting is more common among children living in Ashgabad City and Mary Region than in other survey regions. Surprisingly, children born to mothers with higher education are more likely to be wasted than children born to mothers with lower levels of education. Children of Uzbek ethnicity are less likely to be wasted than children of Turkmen and other ethnicities. Considering the effects of both chronic and short-term malnutrition, low weight-for-age is slightly more common among children living in Dashoguz Region (16 percent) than among children living in other regions (between 8 and 12 percent). The index is lower among children born to a mother with higher education (9 percent) and among children of other ethnicities (7 percent) than among children with other socioeconomic characteristics. 136 * Nutrition of Women and Children Table 11.6 Nutritional status of children by background characteristics Percentage of children under five years of age classified as malnourished according to three anthropometric indices of nutritional status: height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Height-for-age Weight-for-height Weight-for-age _____________________________ ____________________________ _____________________________ Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Number Background below below Mean Z- below below Mean Z- below below Mean Z- of characteristic -3 SD -2 SD1 score (SD) -3 SD -2 SD1 score (SD) -3 SD -2 SD1 score (SD) children ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad city Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Mother's education Primary/Secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 6.8 19.5 -0.9 1.9 6.6 -0.1 2.1 12.0 -0.7 1,101 7.7 24.1 -1.1 0.9 5.2 -0.1 1.5 12.0 -0.8 1,827 7.9 13.3 -0.7 3.9 10.9 -0.2 2.6 11.7 -0.6 228 7.2 24.0 -1.0 1.2 5.3 -0.0 1.0 7.6 -0.6 430 4.2 14.3 -0.8 1.3 3.8 -0.3 2.7 11.6 -0.8 247 8.6 27.2 -1.2 0.9 5.0 -0.1 2.6 16.0 -0.9 635 7.0 21.9 -1.0 0.6 3.6 -0.0 1.3 12.1 -0.6 668 7.7 23.1 -1.0 1.2 7.6 -0.2 1.1 11.2 -0.8 720 7.7 23.4 -1.1 1.0 5.4 -0.1 1.8 12.3 -0.8 2,054 6.5 20.0 -0.9 1.6 5.8 -0.2 1.7 11.8 -0.7 662 6.6 19.2 -0.8 2.7 8.7 -0.1 1.2 9.3 -0.6 212 7.4 22.6 -1.0 1.2 6.0 -0.1 1.7 12.3 -0.8 2,405 7.1 22.0 -1.1 0.5 3.2 0.0 2.1 12.3 -0.6 358 6.9 19.1 -0.7 3.1 7.7 -0.1 1.4 7.0 -0.6 164 7.4 22.3 -1.0 1.2 5.7 -0.1 1.7 12.0 -0.7 2,928 ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Figures are for children under age five whose mother was a survey respondent. Each index is expressed in terms of the number of standard deviation (SD) units from the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO International Reference Population. Children are classified as undernourished if their z-scores are below minus two or minus three standard deviations (-2 SD or -3SD) from the median of the reference population. 1Includes children who are below -3 SD from the International Reference Population median. 11.6 NUTRITIONAL STATUS OF WOMEN In the TDHS 2000, data were collected on the height and weight of women 15-49 years of age. The anthropometric measurements were obtained for 7,340 of the surveyed women. Three indices of women’s nutritional status are presented in this report: height, weight, and body mass index (BMI)—an indicator combining height and weight data. Table 11.7 shows the percent distribution of women by height. Maternal height is an outcome of nutrition during childhood and adolescence. It is useful in predicting the risk of difficult delivery since small stature is frequently associated with small pelvis size. The risk of low birth weight babies is also higher for short women. The cutoff point, i.e., the height below which a woman is considered to be at nutritional risk, is in the range of 140 to 150 centimeters. The mean height of mothers measured in the TDHS 2000 was 159 centimeters. About 5 percent fell below the cutoff point; less than 1 percent were shorter than 145 centimeters and 4 percent were in the 145 to 149 centimeter range. Low prepregnancy weight is associated with unfavorable pregnancy outcomes, although maternal height must also be taken into account. Excluding women who were pregnant or had a birth within two months of the interview, the mean weight of women age 15-49 in Turkmenistan is 60 kilograms. Nutrition of Women and Children * 137 Table 11.7 Anthropometric indicators of women’s nutritional status Percent distribution, mean, and standard deviation for all women by height, weight, and body mass index (BMI), Turkmenistan 2000 ________________________________________________ Percent distribution of women ____________________ Excluding Including Indicator missing missing ________________________________________________ Height (cm) 130.0-134.9 135.0-139.9 140.0-144.9 145.0-149.9 150.0-154.9 155.0-159.9 160.0-164.9 165.0-169.9 170.0-174.9 175.0-179.9 180.0+ Missing Mean Standard deviation Number of women Weight (kg) 35.0-39.9 40.0-49.9 50.0-59.9 60.0-69.9 70.0+ Missing Mean Standard deviation Number of women BMI1 (Kg/m2) 12.0-15.9 (Severe) 16.0-16.9 (Moderate) 17.0-18.4 (Mild) 18.5-20.4 (Normal) 20.5-22.9 (Normal) 23.0-24.9 (Normal) 25.0-26.9 (Overwt.) 27.0-28.9 (Overwt.) 29.0-29.9 (Overwt.) 30.0+ (Obese) Missing Mean Standard deviation Number of women 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.6 4.3 4.2 18.2 17.8 32.1 31.5 28.9 28.3 12.3 12.1 2.9 2.8 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.1 - 2.1 159.0 - 5.8 - 7,754 7,919 1.1 1.1 22.1 21.6 37.3 36.5 22.1 21.6 17.5 17.1 - 2.0 59.5 - 13.1 - 7,319 7,472 0.9 0.8 2.0 1.9 7.0 6.9 19.1 18.6 26.5 26.0 15.9 15.6 9.3 9.1 6.6 6.4 2.6 2.5 10.2 10.0 - 2.2 23.5 - 5.0 - 7,308 7,472 ________________________________________________ 1Excludes women who are pregnant and women who gave birth in the preceding 2 months. Body mass indices, which take into account both height and weight, provide a better measure of a woman’s nutritional status than height or weight alone. The most com- monly used body mass index is the BMI, which is defined as weight in kilograms di- vided by the squared height in meters (kg/m2). For the BMI, a cutoff of 18.5 has been recommended for assessing chronic energy deficiency among nonpregnant women. At the other end of the BMI scale, women are considered overweight if their BMI ranges between 25.0 and 29.9 and obese if their BMI is 30.0 or higher. As Table 11.7 shows, excluding those who are pregnant, the mean BMI of Turkmen women is 23.5. Ten percent of women have a BMI below 18.5, the level indicating chronic energy deficiency. However, a substantial proportion of women (29 percent) had a BMI of 25.0 or higher, and about 10 percent had a BMI of 30.0 or higher; i.e., they are obese. Table 11.8 shows mean values for women’s height and BMI by background characteristics. There is little variation in women’s mean height. There are significant differentials in the percentage of women with a BMI less than 18.5. Women in the 15-19 age group, those residing in rural areas and the Balkan and Mary regions, those with a pri- mary/secondary education, and those of Turkmen and other ethnicities have relatively high percentages with a BMI below 18.5. 11.7 MICRONUTRIENTS Vitamin A and other micronutrients such as iodine are found in small quantities in some foods. They are considered essential for normal sight, growth, and development. For example, vitamin A is important in protecting the body against some infectious illnesses such as measles and diarrheal disease. Severe vitamin A deficiency is associated with total loss of vision or with other vision impair- ments, including night blindness. 138 * Nutrition of Women and Children Table 11.8 Nutritional status of women by background characteristics Among women age 15-49, mean height and percentage under 145 cm, mean body mass index (BMI), percentage whose BMI is below 18.5 and 30.0 or higher, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________ Height Body mass index (kg/m2)1 ___________________________ ______________________________________ Mean Percentage Number Number Background height below of Mean of characteristic in cm 145 cm women BMI <18.5 30.0+ women ___________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Mother's education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Ethnicity Turkmen Uzbek Other Total 158.6 0.8 1,548 21.3 16.2 1.6 1,517 159.3 0.2 1,517 21.9 12.3 3.0 1,351 159.8 0.4 1,236 22.9 11.3 7.4 1,088 159.3 0.9 1,033 24.0 7.6 11.7 972 158.6 0.9 944 24.8 6.1 14.9 922 158.6 1.2 830 26.4 4.6 21.3 821 158.2 1.2 645 27.2 3.1 28.0 645 159.4 0.9 3,563 23.9 9.4 11.8 3,392 158.6 0.6 4,191 23.2 10.2 9.0 3,923 160.3 1.2 957 24.2 7.1 12.4 907 159.6 0.5 1,134 23.6 8.7 10.6 1,066 158.5 0.8 702 23.6 13.4 12.1 675 158.0 1.2 1,608 23.1 10.4 8.4 1,511 158.9 0.6 1,602 23.7 8.4 10.5 1,494 159.0 0.4 1,751 23.3 11.5 9.7 1,663 158.7 0.8 5,696 23.3 10.6 9.5 5,372 159.7 0.9 1,516 24.2 8.0 13.0 1,435 160.2 0.0 542 24.1 8.1 10.6 508 158.9 0.6 6,073 23.4 10.1 9.9 5,724 158.4 1.0 847 23.5 8.0 9.5 789 160.3 1.1 834 24.0 9.8 13.6 803 159.0 0.7 7,754 23.5 9.9 10.3 7,316 ______________________________________________________________________________________________ 1 Excludes women who are pregnant and women who gave birth in the preceding 2 months Table 11.9 presents information on children under three years of age who consumed foods rich in vitamin A, such as foods made from pumpkin, carrots, green leafy vegetables, meat, poultry, fish, or eggs. Eighty percent of children in Turkmenistan received foods rich in vitamin A. There is little variation in the percentage of children who received food rich in vitamin A by their age, sex, birth order, residence, region, and mother’s age. Table 11.9 also shows the percentage of children under age three who received supplements of multivitamins during the six months preceding the survey according to the mother’s report. The table shows that 15 percent of children in Turkmenistan have received a multivitamin cap- sule/tablet. Boys are more likely than girls to receive multivitamins (17 and 14 percent, respectively), and the likelihood of having received them generally decreases with the child’s birth order. Percentage of children who had received the multivitamins is higher in urban areas (18 percent) than in rural areas (14 percent). Nutrition of Women and Children * 139 Table 11.9 Micronutrient intake among children Percentage of living children under three years who received foods rich in vitamin A, percentage who received multivitamin supplements during the past 6 months, percentage who lived in households with iodized salt, and percentage of last-born children under three whose mother took iron on 90+ days during pregnancy, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Percentage of last-born children Percentage of children under 3 years who received: under 3 _______________________________________________________________ years whose Multivitamin mother took Number of Foods supplement Iodine in household salt Number of iron on 90+ last-born Background rich in in past ______________________________ living days during living characteristic vitamin A 6 months None <15 ppm 15+ ppm children pregnancy children __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Child’s age <7 months 7 -11months 12-17 months 18-23 months 24-35 months Sex Male Female Birth order 1 2-3 4-5 6+ Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Mother’s age at birth 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total 17.9 5.5 10.3 10.3 77.1 409 12.4 417 87.0 18.0 10.7 12.7 74.2 283 8.9 301 95.0 16.8 12.0 11.1 74.6 329 10.1 339 99.2 19.9 8.6 14.7 74.3 315 11.1 273 . 99.2 17.4 11.2 10.6 76.1 628 10.6 449 79.3 16.7 11.0 11.5 75.1 996 11.0 918 80.3 13.9 10.3 11.7 75.8 969 10.5 861 79.8 16.9 8.8 13.5 75.3 660 9.0 522 80.7 14.9 11.0 10.3 75.8 941 11.9 890 76.6 15.0 12.6 12.9 74.3 268 9.5 271 81.0 9.9 14.4 7.7 77.3 96 12.8 95 81.3 18.1 12.1 12.8 72.6 774 8.7 727 78.8 13.6 9.7 10.8 77.4 1,190 12.1 1,052 79.4 17.4 6.4 12.3 75.0 198 2.9 188 81.5 6.8 11.3 9.4 78.1 285 0.0 258 82.6 13.6 19.6 14.0 65.9 156 1.5 143 75.4 11.4 11.3 9.0 78.4 441 43.0 386 78.2 25.8 11.5 11.9 76.0 419 2.6 370 83.6 14.6 7.7 14.1 74.0 466 1.7 434 (65.2) ( 6.3) (13.8) (6.4) (79.8) 40 (11.8) 40 75.6 14.8 8.2 13.2 77.8 601 11.2 522 81.5 16.3 11.2 11.1 73.9 727 10.6 637 83.4 15.0 11.2 11.0 75.4 384 10.2 358 79.6 15.1 14.5 9.1 74.7 160 10.9 168 (88.7) (16.8) (12.0) (15.4) (72.6 44 (5.7) 43 * * * * * 9 * 9 79.8 15.3 10.7 11.6 75.5 1,965 10.7 1,779 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. ppm = Parts per million Vitamin supplementation is more common for children living in Ashgabad City (17 percent) and Lebap Region (26 percent) compared with other survey regions of Turkmenistan. 140 * Nutrition of Women and Children Table 11.10 Iodization of household salt Percentage of households in which salt was tested for iodine and the percent distribution of households by level of iodine in household salt (parts per million), according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Percentage Iodine level in households tested Number of households Number _________________________________ of Background in which salt of Inadequate Adequate households characteristic was tested households None (<15 ppm) (15+ ppm) Missing Total tested _________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Residence Urban Rural Total 99.8 959 7.4 8.3 81.5 2.9 100.0 957 100.0 859 10.9 7.4 80.5 1.2 100.0 859 99.8 642 17.8 13.5 68.5 0.2 100.0 641 99.9 1,054 11.2 10.5 77.0 1.2 100.0 1,053 99.9 1,350 11.1 14.6 73.1 1.2 100.0 1,350 100.0 1,436 11.2 13.1 72.0 3.7 100.0 1,436 99.9 3,174 11.9 11.3 74.8 2.0 100.0 3,171 99.9 3,128 10.5 11.7 75.9 1.9 100.0 3,126 99.9 6,301 11.2 11.5 75.3 1.9 100.0 6,297 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________ ppm = Parts per million 11.8 USE OF IODIZED SALT Iodine is another important micronutrient. Low levels of iodine in the diet are associated with a number of problems including miscarriages and among children, retarded mental development. Turkmenistan has adopted a program of fortifying salt with iodine to prevent iodine deficiency. In the TDHS 2000, the iodine content of the salt used in the household was measured using a rapid-test kit provided by UNICEF. The test kit consisted of ampoules of a stabilized starch solution and a weak acid-based solution. A drop of the starch solution was squeezed onto a salt sample obtained in the household, causing the salt to change color. The TDHS interviewer conducting the test matched the color of the salt to a color chart included with the test kit to determine the level of iodine. Table 11.10 shows the percentage of households using iodized salt. Overall, the iodine content of the salt exceeded 15 ppm (parts per million) in 75 percent of households. In 12 percent of the households, the iodine content of the salt fell below 15 ppm (inadequate salt content), while the salt used by 11 percent of the households was not found to contain iodine. By place of residence, the proportion of households using noniodized salt ranged from 7 percent in Ashgabad City to 18 percent in Balkan Region. There are no differences by urban-rural residence in the proportion of households using iodized salt. 1 A microcuvette is a small, transparent laboratory vessel. Anemia * 141 ANEMIA 12 G.K. Kariyeva, A. Magtymova, and A. Sharman 12.1 INTRODUCTION Anemia is a condition characterized by a decrease in the concentration of hemoglobin in the blood. Hemoglobin is necessary for transporting oxygen to tissues and organs in the body. The reduction in oxygen available to organs and tissues when hemoglobin levels are low is responsible for many of the symptoms experienced by anemic people. The consequences of anemia include general body weakness, frequent tiredness, and lowered resistance to disease. Anemia can be a particularly serious problem for pregnant women, leading to premature delivery and low birth weight. It is of concern in children since anemia is associated with impaired mental and physical development. Overall, morbidity and mortality risks increase for individuals suffering from anemia (Sharmanov, 1998). Hemoglobin testing is the primary method of anemia diagnosis. The TDHS 2000 included direct measurement of hemoglobin levels in all women 15-49 and their children age 5 and under (born since January 1995). The HemoCue system was used in the TDHS 2000 for hemoglobin testing. This system consists of a battery-operated photometer and a disposable microcuvette,1 coated with a dried reagent that serves as the blood-collection device. After obtaining consent from each respondent (in the case of children, the consent of the child’s mother), a drop of capillary blood taken from a person’s fingertip or heel was drawn into a microcuvette. The blood in the microcuvette was analyzed using the photometer, which displayed the hemoglobin concentration (Sharmanov, 2000). Medically trained personnel, primarily doctors, assigned to each of the TDHS teams conducted the testing. The personnel responsible for the testing received extensive classroom training and field practice prior to the survey. During the fieldwork, each respondent was given the results of the test immediately. In cases in which the hemoglobin reading was below 7.0 g/dl (grams per deciliter), the respondent was referred to the local health care facilities for followup. With the permission of the respondent, the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry of Turkmenistan was also advised of the names of the individuals with a reading below 7.0 g/dl to help ensure that they would receive followup. Anemia is classified as mild, moderate, or severe based on the concentrations of hemoglobin in the blood. Mild anemia corresponds to a level of hemoglobin concentration of 10.0-10.9 g/dl for pregnant women and children under age 5 and 10.0-11.9 g/dl for nonpregnant women. For all of the tested groups, moderate anemia corresponds to a level of 7.0-9.9 g/dl, while severe anemia corresponds to a level less than 7.0 g/dl. 142 * Anemia Table 12.1 Anemia among women Percentage of women age 15-49 classified as having anemia, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________ Percentage of women with anemia _________________________________________ Background Severe Moderate Mild Number characteristic anemia1 anemia2 anemia3 measured _______________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 0.5 4.1 33.0 1,534 20-24 0.6 7.1 38.6 1,507 25-29 1.3 9.6 38.4 1,228 30-34 1.3 9.5 43.4 1,028 35-39 1.4 10.6 38.6 943 40-44 1.4 11.3 38.5 832 45-49 1.8 10.2 35.3 642 Residence Urban 1.1 7.6 36.7 3,528 Rural 1.0 9.0 38.7 4,186 Region Ashgabad City 0.8 5.0 31.0 928 Akhal 1.0 6.4 37.4 1,130 Balkan 1.8 12.8 44.9 705 Dashoguz 1.8 10.5 40.1 1,606 Lebap 0.9 6.4 30.6 1,601 Mary 0.6 9.5 43.4 1,774 Education Primary/secondary 1.1 8.7 38.3 5,678 Secondary-special 1.0 7.8 37.2 1,502 Higher 0.5 6.3 34.3 534 Ethnicity Turkmen 1.1 8.6 37.8 6,051 Uzbek 1.2 9.0 38.2 846 Other 1.0 5.9 37.2 817 Total 1.1 8.4 37.8 7,714 _________________________________________________________________ 1 Hemoglobin level less than 7g/dl 2 Hemoglobin level 7-9.9 g/dl 3 Hemoglobin level 10-11.9 g/dl (10-10.9 g/dl for pregnant women) 12.2 PREVALENCE OF ANEMIA AMONG WOMEN AGE 15-49 Table 12.1 shows anemia levels among the women 15-49 interviewed in the TDHS 2000. Almost every second woman had some degree of anemia. The level of anemia was severe in about 1 percent of the women, while 8 percent had a moderate level and 38 percent had mild anemia. Age was associated with anemia levels, with older women being somewhat more likely to be moderately or severely anemic than younger women. The rate of moderate-to-severe anemia (moderate and severe anemia combined) among women age 35-49 is almost three times as high as among women age 15-19. Anemia * 143 Table 12.2 Anemia among women by nutritional status, reproductive history, and IUD use Percentage of women age 15-49 years classified as having anemia by nutritional status, reproductive history, and IUD use, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________ Iron-deficiency anemia _________________________________________ Severe Moderate Mild Number Characteristic anemia1 anemia2 anemia3 measured _______________________________________________________________ Nutritional status BMI <18.5 BMI >18.5 Reproductive history No pregnancies Number of births <2 Number of births >2 Average birth interval <24 months Average birth interval >24 months Use of IUD Currently using Currently not using Total 1.3 9.8 39.2 732 1.0 8.3 37.8 6,954 0.5 4.9 34.0 2,765 0.5 5.9 35.6 3,658 1.6 10.6 40.0 4,036 1.9 10.4 39.1 1,516 1.5 12.0 41.5 1,340 1.7 9.8 44.0 1,923 0.9 7.9 35.9 5,771 1.1 8.4 37.9 7,694 _________________________________________________________________ 1 Hemoglobin level less than 7g/dl 2 Hemoglobin level 7-9.9 g/dl 3 Hemoglobin level 10-11.9 g/dl (10-10.9 g/dl for pregnant women) High rates of moderate and severe anemia were found among women living in the Balkan and Dashoguz regions (15 percent and 12 percent, respectively), while only 6 percent of women in Ashgabad City were diagnosed as having moderate or severe anemia. Women with a higher education are less frequently anemic than women with a primary or secondary-special education. The rates of moderate and severe anemia are higher among ethnic Turkmen and Uzbek women (10 percent each) than among women of other ethnic groups (7 percent). There are differentials in the anemia rates by nutritional and reproductive health characteristics. Table 12.2 shows that the prevalence of moderate-to-severe anemia is higher among women with a body mass index (BMI) less than 18.5 (11 percent) than among women with a higher BMI (9 percent). The prevalence of moderate-to-severe anemia among women with two or more births (12 percent) is twice as high as that among women with fewer than two births or no pregnancies (6 and 5 percent, respectively). There is a relatively small association between the birth intervals and the rate of anemia. Studies also suggest that IUD use can lead to iron depletion and iron-deficiency anemia. Table 12.2 also shows that among women who are using intrauterine devices as a method of contraception, the prevalence of moderate-to-severe anemia (12 percent) is higher than among women who are not using the IUD (9 percent). According to the TDHS 2000 data, 25 percent of women age 15-49 in Turkmenistan were using an IUD at the time of the survey, i.e., when they were tested for anemia. 144 * Anemia Table 12.3 Iron supplementation Percentage of women who were given or bought iron tablets during current or last pregnancy and average number of days women took iron tablets during the last pregnancy by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________ Iron supplementation for current pregnancy or last birth ______________________________ Percentage Weighted who Average number Background took iron number of characteristic pills of days women ____________________________________________________ Age 15-19 (32.9) (8.1) 42 20-24 33.9 13.6 579 25-29 30.7 15.2 831 30-34 33.1 13.1 581 35-39 33.5 14.0 304 40-44 29.9 15.1 107 46-49 (30.0) (10.0) 26 Residence Urban 31.5 15.4 1,052 Rural 33.0 12.9 1,417 Region Ashgabad City 36.2 18.5 266 Akhal 10.3 18.8 352 Balkan 17.4 10.6 215 Dashoguz 69.6 15.1 520 Lebap 29.7 11.9 513 Mary 18.9 11.1 603 Education Primary/secondary 31.4 14.1 1,715 Secondary-special 34.3 13.0 560 Higher 35.1 15.6 194 Ethnicity Turkmen 29.3 13.8 1,992 Uzbek 53.4 14.5 295 Other 31.5 14.7 182 Total 32.3 14.0 2,470 ____________________________________________________ Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 12.3 IRON SUPPLEMENTATION DURING PREGNANCY Supplementation of iron during pregnancy is one of the main components of the Anemia Control and Prevention Strategy of the UNICEF Area Office for Central Asian Republics. The government of Turkmenistan supports this program by promoting iron supplementation dur- ing pregnancy and the postpartum pe- riod. The recommended dosage of iron supplementation for pregnant women is currently 60 mg per day for six months. This dosage may be increased to 120 mg if the duration of supplementation is short. In addition to the iron supplemen- tation, supplementation of 400 mg of folic acid around the time of conception not only prevents megaloblastic anemia but also significantly reduces the inci- dence of neural tube defects, which are severe birth defects (Stoltzfus and Dreyfuss, 1998). In the TDHS 2000 women were asked whether they received iron pills during their last pregnancy. As shown in Table 12.3, 32 percent of women in Turkmenistan received iron pills during their last pregnancy. On average, women took iron pills for 14 days. Iron supplementation is most common in Dashoguz region in terms of the percent- age of women taking iron pills: 70 per- cent. The Akhal region has the lowest percentage of women who took iron pills during their last pregnancy (10 percent). However, the average length of the iron supplementation among the women in Akhal region (19 days) was greater than in any other survey region of Turkmenistan. Iron supplementation is more common among Uzbek women (53 percent) than among Turkmen women or women of other ethnicities (29 and 32 percent, respectively). There was no significant difference in the percentage of women who received iron supplements by their age, type of residence, and level of education. Anemia * 145 Table 12.4 Anemia among children Percentage of children under five years of age classified as having anemia, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _______________________________________________________________ Iron-deficiency anemia __________________________________________ Background Severe Moderate Mild Number characteristic anemia1 anemia2 anemia3 measured _______________________________________________________________ Residence Urban 0.3 18.0 22.6 1,115 Rural 0.8 14.6 17.2 1,835 Region Ashgabad City 0.0 19.3 20.8 228 Akhal 0.0 10.1 20.4 444 Balkan 1.2 23.2 25.8 258 Dashoguz 1.3 23.9 27.0 574 Lebap 0.9 19.3 21.6 683 Mary 0.0 6.7 8.1 763 Education Primary/secondary 0.6 15.1 18.8 2,076 Secondary-special 0.7 16.3 21.8 667 Higher 0.1 22.5 16.0 207 Ethnicity Turkmen 0.5 15.3 18.4 2,444 Uzbek 1.4 18.9 25.3 340 Other 0.3 18.8 19.8 166 Total 0.6 15.9 19.3 2,950 _________________________________________________________________ 1 Hemoglobin level less than 7g/dl 2 Hemoglobin level 7-9.9 g/dl 3 Hemoglobin level 10-10.9 g/dl Thus, despite efforts promoting iron supplementation, more than half of the women in Turkmenistan did not receive iron supplements during their last pregnancy. Even women who received iron pills took them for a shorter period than recommended. 12.4 ANEMIA PREVALENCE AMONG CHILDREN Table 12.4 presents anemia rates for children in Turkmenistan by background characteris- tics. Thirty-six percent of the children under the age of five suffer from some degree of anemia; 16 percent have moderate anemia, and 1 percent are severely anemic. As was the case with women, there are substantial differences in the anemia rates among children by residence, region, level of mother’s education, and ethnicity. The prevalence of moderate-to-severe anemia among children living in urban areas is higher than among children living in rural areas (18 and 15 percent, respectively). As with the women, the rate of moderate-to- severe anemia is highest among children living in Balkan and Dashoguz regions (24 and 25 percent, respectively). Prevalence of moderate-to-severe anemia is relatively low among children living in Mary and Akhal regions: 7 and 10 percent, respectively. As in Ashgabad City, in Mary and Akhal regions, no cases of severe anemia were diagnosed among children. Intermediate levels of moderate-to-severe anemia were found among children in Ashgabad City and Lebap Region: 19 and 20 percent, respectively. 146 * Anemia Table 12.5 Anemia among children by demographic characteristics and nutritional status Percentage of children under five years of age classified as having anemia by demographic characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________ Iron-deficiency anemia ________________________________________ Demographic Severe Moderate Mild Number characteristic anemia1 anemia2 anemia3 measured ______________________________________________________________ Sex of child Male 0.8 17.4 18.2 1,492 Female 0.3 14.3 20.4 1,458 Age of child 0-24 months 0.5 18.0 19.3 601 24-59 months 0.6 15.4 19.2 2,349 Birth order 1 0.7 15.4 17.7 985 2-3 0.4 16.8 19.2 1,366 4-5 0.9 15.0 22.8 426 6+ 0.4 13.6 19.7 174 Birth interval First birth 0.7 15.4 17.8 990 < 24 months 0.7 16.6 19.7 706 24-47 months 0.5 16.0 20.1 869 48+ months 0.2 15.7 20.4 384 Weight at birth < 2.5 kg 2.5 21.2 20.5 138 > 2.5 kg 0.5 15.6 19.2 2,812 Height for age Below -2 SD4 1.1 21.6 19.5 660 -2 SD or above 0.4 14.2 19.2 2,290 Weight for height Below -2 SD4 0.7 18.6 15.4 173 -2 SD or above 0.6 15.7 19.5 2,777 Weight for age Below -2 SD4 1.2 24.5 22.7 348 -2 SD or above 0.5 14.7 18.8 2,602 Total 0.6 15.9 19.3 2,950 ______________________________________________________________ 1 Hemoglobin level less than 7g/dl 2 Hemoglobin level 7-9.9 g/dl 3 Hemoglobin level 10-10.9 g/dl 4 Includes children who are below -3 SD Table 12.4 also shows that children of mothers who have a primary or secondary education are less likely to have anemia than children whose mother has a higher education. The rate of moderate-to-severe anemia among Turkmen children (16 percent) is relatively lower than among children of Uzbek and other ethnicities (20 and 19 percent, respectively). Table 12.5 presents anemia rates for children in Turkmenistan by demographic and nutritional characteristics. The results show that moderate-to-severe anemia is more common Anemia * 147 among male children than among female children (18 and 15 percent, respectively) and among younger children up to 24 months of age (19 percent) than among children age 24 months and older (16 percent). No significant differences in the children’s anemia rates were observed by birth order or birth interval. Looking at children’s weight at birth (according to their mother’s recollection), the rate of moderate-to-severe anemia was higher among children with a weight at birth less than 2.5 kg (24 percent) than among children with a birth weight of more than 2.5 kg (16 percent). Considering differentials by child’s nutritional status, the greatest variation in moderate-to- severe anemia is observed for height-for-age (stunting) and weight-for-age. The rate of moderate-to- severe anemia among children with height-for-age below -2 SD was 23 percent, compared with 15 percent among children with height-for-age -2 SD or above. The moderate-to-severe anemia rate among children with weight-for-age below -2 SD was 26 percent, compared with 15 percent among the children with weight-for-age -2 SD or above. HIV/AIDS and Other STIs * 149 13HIV/AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS J.M. Sullivan, S.M. Turayeva, and A.Y. Khaimova Acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a condition caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) that weakens the immune system, making the body susceptible to and unable to recover from other diseases such as tuberculous or pneumonia. HIV/AIDS is a pandemic with cases reported from virtually every country in the world. The current worldwide estimate of the number of cases of HIV infection is 32 million adults and 1 million children. The World Health Organization estimates that approximately 11 million adults and 3 million children infected with HIV have died since the beginning of the epidemic (Fauci and Lane, 2000). Compared with other parts of the world, Turkemenistan has been relatively untouched by the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Currently, there is only one known case of AIDS and one other known HIV-positive case in Turkmenistan. Nevertheless, the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry, considering the potential seriousness of the HIV/AIDS problem, has with assistance from the United Nations Program on AIDS (UNAIDS) developed a National Program on AIDS Prevention (MOHMI, 1999). The program is comprehensive and has components on population education via the mass media about AIDS and sexually transmitted infections, protection of the national blood supply, addressing drug abuse, increasing access to condoms, and providing care and support to HIV- infected people. The establishment of the National Program in Turkmenistan is noteworthy because the prevalence of STIs appears to be on the rise. Evidence for this is a sevenfold increase in the reported rate of syphilis between 1992 and 1998, when the rate reached 45 cases per 100,000 population. Drug addiction, another factor that has contributed to the AIDS epidemic in many countries, is also on the rise and increased fourfold between 1995 and 1997, when the rate reached 53 per 100,000 population (MOHMI, 1999). The TDHS 2000 included a section on HIV/AIDS in order to obtain baseline information on the level of awareness and knowledge about HIV/AIDS among women of reproductive age. Questions were included about behavior patterns that could reduce the risk of becoming infected with the AIDS virus, about attitudes toward infected individuals, and about attitudes toward broadcasting messages about HIV/AIDS on radio and television. Questions were also asked to determine the level of knowledge of sexually transmitted infections other than AIDS and knowledge of places to obtain condoms. This chapter summarizes this information at the national level and for geographic and socioeconomic subgroups of the population. 13.1 AWARENESS OF HIV/AIDS In the TDHS, respondents were asked whether they had heard of an illness called AIDS. Table 13.1 indicates that knowledge of AIDS is widespread but not universal among women of childbearing age. Overall, 73 percent of respondents reported having heard of AIDS. Among certain population groups the percentage of women reporting awareness of AIDS was lower than the national rate: women age 15-19 (58 percent), never-married women (64 percent), rural women 150 * HIV/AIDS and Other STIs Table 13.1 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Percentage of women who have heard of HIV/AIDS and who believe there is a way to avoid HIV/AIDS, by background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________ Believes there is Has a way to Number Background heard avoid of characteristic of AIDS AIDS women ______________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Marital status Married/living together Divorced/separated, or widowed Never married Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Total 58.2 31.5 1,574 70.5 42.7 1,541 81.2 58.2 1,256 78.6 59.0 2,034 76.9 57.4 1,513 77.4 55.6 4,892 77.2 56.9 463 64.0 37.9 2,563 80.1 59.2 3,691 66.9 41.9 4,228 86.1 69.8 1,038 73.9 51.6 1,145 56.3 44.1 709 69.7 44.1 1,628 76.2 43.5 1,607 71.8 50.7 1,791 66.6 40.2 5,800 88.8 72.3 1,556 96.3 87.9 563 73.1 49.9 7,919 (67 percent), women residing in the Balkan Region (56 percent), and women with pri- mary/secondary education (67 percent). Respondents who had heard of AIDS were also asked, “Is there anything a person can do to avoid getting AIDS or the virus that causes AIDS?” Table 13.1 indicates that approximately three-quarters of women who had heard of AIDS believed that the disease could be avoided. Thus, 50 percent of all respondents had heard of AIDS and believed that the disease could be avoided. There were significant differentials by background characteristics in the percentage of respondents reporting that they believed that the disease could be avoided. Recognition that the disease could be avoided was especially low among women 15-19 (32 percent), never-mar- ried women (38 percent), rural women (42 percent), and women with primary/ secondary education (40 percent). 13.2 KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/ AIDS PREVENTION Respondents who had heard of HIV/ AIDS and who reported that they believed that a person could do something to avoid the disease were asked, “What can a person do?” Respondents were requested to spontaneously report as many ways to avoid AIDS as they knew. This information is useful for determin- ing the percentage of respondents who know about the correct methods of preventing HIV infection. It is also helpful for identifying whether there are common misconceptions about HIV/AIDS transmission. Table 13.2 indicates that among the 50 percent of respondents who knew of AIDS and believed that the disease could be avoided, only 2 percent were unable to report a specific way to avoid AIDS. Among those reporting specific behaviors, the two most frequently mentioned practices were to avoid sex with prostitutes and to limit sex to one partner/stay faithful to one partner (both reported by 22 percent of respondents). Two additional frequently mentioned responses were to abstain from sexual relations and to use condoms (both reported by 16 percent of respondents). Significant percentages of respondents also reported avoiding injections (10 percent) and avoiding blood transfusions (7 percent). The reporting of erroneous behaviors to avoid contracting HIV/AIDS was infrequent. Only a small percentage of respondents reported that AIDS could be avoided by refraining from kissing (1.6 percent) or by avoiding mosquito bites (0.2 percent). HIV/AIDS and Other STIs * 151 Table 13.2 Knowledge of ways to avoid HIV/AIDS Percentage of women who spontaneously mentioned ways to avoid HIV/AIDS, Turkmenistan 2000 ___________________________________________________________ Percentage Ways to avoid HIV/AIDS of women ___________________________________________________________ Does not know of AIDS or if AIDS can be avoided 48.1 Believes no way to avoid AIDS 2.0 Does not know specific way to avoid AIDS1 1.8 Ways to avoid AIDS Abstain from sex 15.7 Use condoms 16.1 Limit sex to one partner/stay faithful to one partner 21.7 Limit number of sexual partners 8.8 Avoid sex with prostitutes 22.1 Avoid sex with homosexuals 0.8 Avoid sex with persons who inject drugs intravenously 4.7 Avoid blood transfusions 7.4 Avoid injections 9.6 Avoid sharing razors/blades 0.3 Avoid kissing 1.6 Avoid mosquito bites 0.2 Seek protection from a traditional healer 0.2 Other 1.2 Number 7,919 ___________________________________________________________ 1 Believes there is something a person can do to avoid AIDS, but cannot spontaneously mention any specific way. 13.3 PROGRAMMATICALLY IMPORTANT RISK-REDUCING PRACTICES Abstaining from sex, using condoms, and limiting the number of sexual partners have been identified as programmatically important ways to avoid the spread of AIDS. Accordingly, in addition to asking respondents to spontaneously report their beliefs about behaviors that could reduce the risk of AIDS, respondents were explicitly asked whether they thought that the risk of becoming infected with the AIDS virus could be reduced by 1) abstaining from all sexual relations, 2) limiting the number of sexual partners, and 3) using condoms. Table 13.3 presents information on the percentage of women who either spontaneously or in response to a specific question reported knowledge of the three programmatically important risk- reducing practices. Overall, 53 percent of all respondents did not cite any of the three risk-reducing practices (27 percent of respondents reported no knowledge of AIDS and another 26 percent reported that they had heard of AIDS but knew of no way to avoid the disease). The remaining 47 percent of respondents reported knowledge of either one (13 percent) or more (34 percent ) of the three programmatically important ways to avoid AIDS. Overall, 37 percent of respondents indicated that abstaining from all sexual relations would reduce the risk of AIDS, 43 percent indicated that limiting the number of sexual partners would do so, and 31 percent indicated that using condoms would do so. There were significant differentials 152 * HIV/AIDS and Other STIs Table 13.3 Knowledge of specific ways to avoid HIV/AIDS Percent distribution of women by knowledge of programmatically important ways to avoid HIV/AIDS, and percentage of women who know of two specific ways to avoid HIV/AIDS, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Programmatically Specific ways to avoid HIV/AIDS Knows of important ____________________________ HIV/AIDS ways to avoid Abstain but not HIV/AIDS from all Limiting Does not how to ______________ sexual number Number Background know of avoid One Two or inter- Using of sexual of characteristic HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS way more ways Total course condoms partners women ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Marital status Married/living together Divorced, separated, or widowed Never married Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Total 41.7 31.1 6.3 20.8 100.0 20.5 15.4 22.8 1,574 29.5 30.1 7.0 33.5 100.0 30.3 26.7 35.1 1,541 18.8 25.5 5.5 50.3 100.0 45.2 38.9 51.8 1,256 21.4 22.0 5.8 50.8 100.0 45.7 38.4 52.8 2,034 23.1 22.1 8.0 46.7 100.0 41.5 36.1 50.9 1,513 22.6 24.2 6.0 47.2 100.0 41.9 36.0 49.6 4,892 22.8 22.8 7.2 47.2 100.0 42.4 39.1 49.4 463 35.9 29.9 7.3 26.9 100.0 26.1 20.4 28.8 2,563 19.9 23.6 6.7 49.7 100.0 42.6 42.8 50.7 3,691 33.0 28.0 6.3 32.7 100.0 31.8 21.0 36.1 4,228 13.9 17.9 8.4 59.8 100.0 46.0 56.2 61.5 1,038 26.1 30.7 6.2 37.0 100.0 31.1 30.3 40.9 1,145 43.7 13.0 4.6 38.7 100.0 36.4 31.6 39.0 709 30.3 28.6 9.2 31.9 100.0 30.7 21.8 37.1 1,628 23.8 35.0 5.4 35.8 100.0 33.5 26.5 36.6 1,607 28.1 22.2 4.9 44.7 100.0 43.9 29.8 45.8 1,791 33.4 29.1 5.7 31.8 100.0 30.3 22.2 33.9 5,800 11.2 19.7 8.3 60.9 100.0 53.1 51.4 63.3 1,556 3.7 10.8 9.8 75.6 100.0 58.5 68.0 78.9 563 26.9 25.9 6.5 40.6 100.0 36.8 31.2 42.9 7,919 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: The programmatically important ways to avoid HIV/AIDS are abstaining from all sex, using condoms and limiting the number of sexual partners. by background characteristics in recognition of the risk-reducing effects of these behaviors. For example, the percentage of all respondents reporting that condom use could lower the risk of HIV infection was particularly low among women age 15-19 (15 percent), never-married women (20 percent), rural women ( 21 percent), and women with primary/secondary education (22 percent). 13.4 KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/AIDS-RELATED ISSUES Respondents who had heard of AIDS were asked questions to determine the depth of their knowledge. These questions concerned whether a healthy-looking person can be infected with the AIDS virus, whether AIDS can be passed from a woman to her child, and whether the respondent knew anyone who was infected with the AIDS virus or who had died of AIDS. The results are presented in Table 13.4 in terms of the percentage of all respondents having specific knowledge (i.e., respondents reporting no knowledge of AIDS are included in the analysis as people lacking knowledge on the issues). HIV/AIDS and Other STIs * 153 Table 13.4 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS-related issues Percent distribution of women by responses to questions on various AIDS-related issues, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _____________________________________________________________________________ Percentage who say HIV/AIDS can be transmitted from Percentage Percentage mother to child: who know who say a ____________________________ someone healthy- personally looking Through who has Number Background person can During Through breast- AIDS of characteristic have AIDS delivery pregnancy feeding virus women ____________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Marital status Married/living together Divorced, separated, or widowed Never married Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Total 36.7 38.9 43.1 39.0 1.1 1,574 48.1 55.1 58.0 53.5 1.3 1,541 56.6 64.7 68.9 64.5 1.7 1,256 56.1 64.9 68.7 64.4 1.0 2,034 53.9 64.1 66.8 63.2 1.5 1,513 54.1 63.3 66.6 62.8 1.4 4,892 58.7 64.5 68.1 61.7 1.4 463 41.7 45.6 49.6 45.0 1.1 2,563 58.3 64.0 67.8 61.9 1.4 3,691 43.4 52.1 55.4 52.7 1.2 4,228 63.7 70.5 73.6 62.7 1.5 1,038 46.3 64.8 66.2 59.5 0.4 1,145 48.7 48.3 49.2 48.6 0.5 709 43.8 56.4 59.5 60.5 1.5 1,628 45.0 58.2 61.4 54.7 0.4 1,607 56.7 49.9 57.0 54.2 2.6 1,791 43.4 50.7 54.0 51.0 1.3 5,800 66.4 73.4 78.0 71.3 1.4 1,556 77.9 85.3 89.2 78.8 1.3 563 50.3 57.6 61.2 57.0 1.3 7,919 An important concept in HIV/AIDS prevention is the knowledge that a person can become HIV infected by having unprotected sex with a healthy-looking person who is HIV infected. Table 13.4 indicates that 50 percent of all respondents were aware that a healthy-looking person could be infected with the AIDS virus. In terms of transmittal of the AIDS virus from mother to child during pregnancy, delivery or when breastfeeding, between 57 and 61 percent of respondents were aware that such transmittal was possible. The percentage of respondents with personal knowledge of someone who is HIV infected or who has died of AIDS was very low, about 1 percent. This is undoubtedly a consequence of the fact that HIV/AIDS was relatively rare in Turkmenstan at the time of the survey. 154 * HIV/AIDS and Other STIs Table 13.5 Discussion of HIV/AIDS with partner Percent distribution of women who are currently married or living with a partner by whether they ever discussed HIV/AIDS prevention with their husband/partner, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________ Discussed with partner how to prevent AIDS virus ________________________________ Has not Number Background heard of of characteristic Yes No AIDS Total women _____________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Total 10.3 51.1 38.5 100.0 83 22.5 49.2 28.4 100.0 682 29.8 51.9 18.3 100.0 1,015 28.8 49.2 22.0 100.0 1,791 24.5 52.3 23.3 100.0 1,321 30.3 52.0 17.8 100.0 2,307 23.4 49.4 27.2 100.0 2,585 31.4 55.7 12.9 100.0 639 3.6 74.2 22.2 100.0 699 16.0 45.9 38.1 100.0 424 23.7 49.3 27.1 100.0 950 38.3 40.6 21.2 100.0 1,030 34.0 45.3 20.7 100.0 1,150 20.6 50.4 29.0 100.0 3,347 37.2 52.1 10.7 100.0 1,149 46.8 48.4 4.8 100.0 396 26.7 50.6 22.7 100.0 4,892 13.5 SOCIAL ASPECTS OF HIV/AIDS PREVENTION AND MITIGATION The discussion of HIV/AIDS prevention with a spouse or cohabiting partner is an important aspect of preventive behavior. Table 13.5 indicates the proportion of currently married women who have ever discussed AIDS prevention with their partner. Approximately one-quarter (23 percent) of currently married women have no knowledge of AIDS. One-half of women (50 percent) know about AIDS but have not discussed AIDS prevention with their partner. And a final one-quarter of respondents (27 percent) have knowledge of AIDS and have discussed AIDS prevention with their partner. The level of respondent communication with their partner about AIDS prevention is lowest among women 15-19 (10 percent), rural women (23 percent), women residing in Akhal (4 percent) and women with primary/secondary education (21 percent). The social aspects of HIV/AIDS include, among other things, whether there is a negative attitude toward people with AIDS. Such attitudes can arise when the public perceives that this disease is primarily found among marginalized groups such as commercial sex workers and injecting drug users. Such attitudes are sometimes expressed by open discrimination, which is of concern to programs responsible for the mitigation of the effects of HIV/AIDS. HIV/AIDS and Other STIs * 155 Table 13.6 Social aspects of HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation Among women who have heard of AIDS, the percentage providing specific responses to various questions on social aspects of HIV/AIDS prevention and mitigation, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________ Believes a Does not believe person with a person with HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS should be Not willing should be allowed to to care allowed to work keep that for relative along side other Number Background information with AIDS people in an of characteristic confidential in home office or shop women _____________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Marital status Married/living together Divorced, separated, or widowed Never married Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Total 24.4 46.0 73.1 917 26.8 42.9 69.4 1,087 23.4 44.1 71.5 1,021 21.4 46.1 74.5 1,598 24.9 44.8 76.2 1,163 23.3 44.8 73.8 3,787 25.8 41.9 71.4 358 24.9 45.8 71.8 1,641 26.4 43.0 67.6 2,955 21.4 46.8 78.8 2,831 26.4 38.5 58.8 894 29.2 52.5 63.3 847 36.1 32.1 56.2 399 5.1 79.5 85.6 1,135 39.9 25.4 76.0 1,225 16.4 36.3 81.0 1,286 22.9 47.1 76.6 3,862 26.1 42.4 67.5 1,382 25.9 35.7 62.5 542 23.9 44.9 73.1 5,786 In the TDHS, respondents who had heard of AIDS were asked several questions designed to measure their attitude toward individuals infected with the AIDS virus. For example, respondents were asked whether they felt that a person who has the AIDS virus should be allowed to keep this information private or whether that information should be made available to the community. Table 13.6 indicates that only a minority of respondents, 24 percent, felt that a person infected with HIV should be allowed to keep that information private. Regarding caring for a relative who has AIDS in their home, 45 percent of respondents indicated that they would not be willing to do so. Seventy-three percent of respondents indicated that a person with AIDS should not be allowed to continue working alongside other people in a shop or office. Overall, these findings indicate an unsympathetic attitude toward individuals infected with the AIDS virus and, quite possibly, a mistaken idea that the virus can be readily transmitted through ordinary contact with an infected person. 156 * HIV/AIDS and Other STIs Table 13.7 Discussion of AIDS in the media Among women who have heard of AIDS, the percentage who think that discussion of AIDS in the media is acceptable, by media type and background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 _____________________________________________________________________ Discussion Discussion of AIDS acceptable of AIDS not __________________________ acceptable Number Background On On In in any of characteristic radio TV newspaper media women ____________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Marital status Married/living together Divorced, separated, or widowed Never married Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Total 94.5 95.3 95.3 4.5 917 95.8 96.0 96.0 3.9 1,087 96.6 96.5 96.5 3.2 1,021 96.9 97.3 97.2 2.6 1,598 97.3 97.5 97.6 2.4 1,163 96.9 97.1 97.1 2.7 3,787 97.0 97.2 97.2 2.8 358 94.9 95.4 95.4 4.3 1,641 95.7 96.0 96.0 3.8 2,955 97.0 97.3 97.3 2.6 2,831 95.1 95.9 95.7 4.1 894 94.7 95.0 95.0 5.0 847 89.1 90.3 90.9 9.1 399 98.3 98.4 98.4 1.4 1,135 97.3 97.3 97.3 2.5 1,225 97.9 98.1 97.9 1.8 1,286 95.2 95.7 95.6 4.2 3,862 98.4 98.4 98.5 1.4 1,382 99.1 99.2 99.2 0.6 542 96.4 96.6 96.6 3.2 5,786 13.6 ACCEPTABILITY OF HIV/AIDS MESSAGES IN THE MEDIA Respondents who reported that they knew about AIDS were asked to report whether they thought it was acceptable for HIV/AIDS educational messages to be broadcast on radio and television or to be published in newspapers. As indicated in Table 13.7, more than 95 percent of women indicated that it was acceptable for such messages to be presented in the mass media. High rates of media acceptability were indicated by respondents of all background characteristics. 13.7 KNOWLEDGE OF SYMPTOMS OF SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED INFECTIONS The presence of sexually transmitted infections, such as syphilis, gonorrhea, and chlamydia, increases the likelihood that HIV will spread rapidly throughout a population. Therefore, HIV/AIDS prevention programs should address the prevention and treatment of STIs. Improving knowledge of STIs and their symptoms, along with promotion of changes in sexual behavior, are important components of such programs. HIV/AIDS and Other STIs * 157 Table 13.8 Knowledge of signs and symptoms of STIs Percent distribution of women by knowledge of signs and symptoms associated with sexually transmitted infections (STIs) in men and women, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Knowledge of symptoms Knowledge of symptoms of STIs in men of STIs in women _______________________________ _____________________________ No Does not Knows Does not Knows knowledge know Knows two know Knows two Background of any STI one or more any STI one or more characteristic STIs symptoms symptom symptoms symptoms symptom symptoms Number ___________________________________________________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Marital status Married/living together Divorced, separated, or widowed Never married Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Total 70.6 17.2 5.9 6.0 15.0 5.5 8.5 1,574 56.8 20.7 7.6 14.7 15.4 7.4 20.2 1,541 45.4 20.4 10.6 23.5 12.0 9.8 32.8 1,256 44.0 21.4 10.5 23.7 13.0 10.3 32.3 2,034 42.6 22.4 9.4 25.3 14.2 10.5 32.5 1,513 45.8 21.1 10.1 22.7 13.0 9.9 31.0 4,892 39.8 23.0 9.4 27.8 14.4 12.7 33.1 463 65.2 18.8 6.3 9.5 15.7 5.9 13.0 2,563 40.1 22.7 10.3 26.7 15.4 10.0 34.2 3,691 61.9 18.6 7.6 11.8 12.7 7.7 17.5 4,228 30.3 19.4 13.6 35.7 15.5 11.9 41.4 1,038 50.8 3.3 19.4 26.4 2.6 16.7 29.9 1,145 60.6 15.3 8.1 15.9 9.9 6.9 22.5 709 62.6 14.2 5.9 17.0 8.9 6.8 21.4 1,628 39.7 41.6 6.4 12.2 26.5 8.9 24.8 1,607 62.3 20.8 4.4 12.5 15.2 4.3 18.2 1,791 62.7 17.8 7.9 11.5 12.7 8.1 16.3 5,800 24.7 27.1 12.6 35.3 16.7 11.5 46.8 1,556 13.8 30.0 7.9 48.0 18.9 8.2 58.8 563 51.8 20.5 8.8 18.7 13.9 8.8 25.3 7,919 In the TDHS, respondents were asked whether they had heard of any STIs other than AIDS. Table 13.8 indicates that only 48 percent of respondents reported that they had heard of any STIs other than AIDS. This is less than the percentage of respondents reporting knowledge of AIDS (73 percent). The percentage of women with knowledge of STIs was particularly low among women 15-19 (29 percent), never-married women (35 percent), rural women (38 percent), and those with the lowest level of education (37 percent). Respondents reporting knowledge of STIs were also asked which signs and symptoms would be evident in an infected man and in an infected woman. Overall, only 28 percent of respondents mentioned one or more specific signs or symptoms of male STIs. A total of 73 percent of respondents were unaware of any sign or symptom of male STIs (52 percent were unaware of STIs, and 21 percent were unable to indicate any symptom). Respondent knowledge of female STIs differed little from their knowledge of male STIs. Overall, only 34 percent of respondents mentioned one or more specific signs or symptoms of female STIs. A total of 66 percent of respondents were unaware of any sign or symptom of female STIs (52 percent were unaware of STIs, and 14 percent were unable to indicate any symptom). 158 * HIV/AIDS and Other STIs Table 13.9 Number of sexual partners of married women Percent distribution of currently married women by number of persons with whom they had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, excluding spouse or cohabitating partner, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________ Number of partners excluding spouse or cohabiting partner _______________________________ Background characteristic 0 1 2+ Total Number _______________________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Total 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 83 98.2 1.8 0.0 100.0 682 95.9 3.8 0.3 100.0 1,015 97.4 2.5 0.0 100.0 1,791 97.0 2.7 0.2 100.0 1,321 94.3 5.4 0.3 100.0 2,307 99.7 0.3 0.0 100.0 2,585 91.8 7.9 0.3 100.0 639 98.3 1.7 0.0 100.0 699 96.7 2.7 0.4 100.0 424 99.5 0.5 0.0 100.0 950 97.6 2.3 0.1 100.0 1,030 97.3 2.6 0.2 100.0 1,150 98.6 1.4 0.0 100.0 3,347 93.3 6.3 0.4 100.0 1,149 96.3 3.7 0.0 100.0 396 97.1 2.7 0.1 100.0 4,892 13.8 SEXUAL BEHAVIOR The promotion of safe sexual behavior has been the most significant component of HIV/AIDS prevention programs to date. This component includes encouraging mutually monogamous relationships, eliminating sexual contacts outside marriage, and using condoms, especially with noncohabiting sexual partners. Accordingly, information on sexual behavior is important to designing and monitoring HIV/AIDS prevention programs. The TDHS included questions about the sexual relations of respondents during the last 12 months by type of partner (spouse/cohabiting partner or noncohabiting partner). These questions determined the proportion of currently married and unmarried respondents who have had sex with a noncohabiting partner in the recent past. Table 13.9 presents results for married women. Overall, 3 percent of married women reported having had sexual relations with someone other than their spouse or cohabiting partner during the past 12 months. This percentage tends to increase with the age of the respondent and is higher among women residing in urban areas (5 percent) than in rural areas (0.3 percent) and highest among women residing in Ashgabad (8 percent). HIV/AIDS and Other STIs * 159 Table 13.10 Number of sexual partners of unmarried women Percent distribution of unmarried women by number of persons with whom they had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________ Number of partners ______________________ Background characteristic 0 1 Total Number ____________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Marital status Divorced, separated, or widowed Never married Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Total 99.6 0.4 100.0 1,491 98.2 1.8 100.0 859 93.9 6.1 100.0 241 88.5 11.5 100.0 243 89.4 10.6 100.0 192 82.0 18.0 100.0 463 100.0 0.0 100.0 2,563 95.4 4.6 100.0 1,383 98.8 1.2 100.0 1,643 94.4 5.6 100.0 399 98.8 1.2 100.0 447 97.3 2.7 100.0 285 98.3 1.7 100.0 678 96.1 3.9 100.0 577 97.8 2.2 100.0 641 98.2 1.8 100.0 2,453 91.9 8.1 100.0 407 96.1 3.9 100.0 166 97.2 2.8 100.0 3,027 Table 13.10 shows results for unmarried women. About 3 percent of unmarried women reported having sex during the last 12 months. As might be expected, the percentage who reported having had sex increased with the respondent’s age, was higher among women residing in urban areas (5 percent) than in rural areas (1 percent), and was highest among women residing in Ashgabad (6 percent). It should be noted that virtually all unmarried women who had sexual relations in the last 12 months were formerly married but, at the time of the survey, were either divorced, separated, or widowed. Among formerly married respondents, 18 percent reported having sexual relations in the last 12 months. 160 * HIV/AIDS and Other STIs Table 13.11 Knowledge and source of male condom and access Percentage of women who know about male condoms, percentage who know a source for male condoms, and the percentage who think they themselves could get a male condom, according to background characteristics, Turkmenistan 2000 ____________________________________________________ Knows Knows a Could about source get a male Background male for male condom characteristic condoms condoms herself Number ____________________________________________________ Age 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-39 40-49 Marital status Married/living together Divorced, separated, or widowed Never married Residence Urban Rural Region Ashgabad City Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Education Primary/secondary Secondary-special Higher Total 37.9 27.3 13.3 1,574 56.1 39.7 25.2 1,541 70.7 51.7 40.6 1,256 72.3 53.5 43.2 2,034 66.3 50.8 41.8 1,513 69.7 50.3 40.9 4,892 71.0 59.6 47.8 463 42.3 31.6 15.5 2,563 73.5 61.5 46.5 3,691 49.9 30.2 21.4 4,228 81.5 74.4 61.2 1,038 62.3 55.6 38.2 1,145 56.9 38.8 28.4 709 34.6 25.3 15.2 1,628 76.0 56.6 43.0 1,607 60.0 30.3 22.8 1,791 51.4 34.3 23.8 5,800 84.9 70.2 54.8 1,556 92.0 83.6 68.4 563 60.9 44.8 33.1 7,919 13.9 KNOWLEDGE OF CONDOMS Knowledge and use of condoms can play an important role in preventing the spread of AIDS. Table 13.11 provides information on condom awareness among women in Turkmenistan. Among all respondents, 61 percent indicated that they knew about male condoms, and 45 percent indicated that they knew of a place where they could obtain condoms, but only 33 percent indicated that they, themselves, could get condoms if they wanted to do so. Knowledge and access to condoms varied widely by background characteristics of respondents. Younger women, never-married women, rural women, and less educated women were less aware of condoms, less aware of where to obtain condoms, and less confident of their ability to obtain them. These are the same categories of women that were identified earlier in this chapter as having less knowledge about HIV/AIDS and less knowledge of the signs and symptoms of STIs. HIV/AIDS and Other STIs * 161 13.10 SUMMARY The survey revealed that women of reproductive age have a limited degree of awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS. Seventy-three percent of respondents reported having heard of HIV/AIDS, and only 50 percent believed that they could adopt behavior patterns that would reduce their risk the disease. The limited knowledge about AIDS was further indicated by the low percentage who reported that condom use was a risk-reducing behavior. Thus, many more respondents could report name-recognition of AIDS than had an understanding of its means of transmission or of risk- reducing behavior patterns. Significant difference in awareness and knowledge of HIV/AIDS was found by background characteristics of respondents. Women age 15-19 (and to some extent women age 20-24), never-married women, rural women, and women with primary/secondary education were much less informed. Thus, although it appears that the depth of knowledge about HIV/AIDS is limited throughout the population of women of reproductive age, there are specific sectors of the population that should be targeted by HIV/AIDS education programs. The survey also found that in Turkmenistan there is social stigma associated with HIV/AIDS. A high percentage of respondents who had heard of AIDS indicated that infected people should not be allowed to keep that information confidential but that it should be available to members of the community (76 percent). Additionally, a relatively high percentage of respondents reported that an infected person should not be allowed to work alongside other people in a shop or office (73 percent). These results suggest that respondents hold the mistaken idea that the HIV virus can be transmitted through ordinary contact between people. The survey has made it clear that much more could be done in terms of educating the population about HIV/AIDS. It is significant for education programs that more than 95 percent of respondents felt it would be acceptable to use the media (radio, television, and newspapers) to provide HIV/AIDS educational messages to the public. Thus, although Turkmenistan is not in the grip of the AIDS epidemic that has struck many parts of the world, greater effort in the area of HIV/AIDS education would seem to be appropriate. Characteristics of Households * 163 REFERENCES Academy of Preventive Medicine (APM) [Kazakhstan] and Macro International Inc. (MI). 2000. Kazakhstan Demographic and Health Survey 1999. Calverton, Maryland USA: APM and MI. Church, M. and E. Koutanev. 1995. Health sector indicators available through government institutions in the Central Asian Region of the former Soviet Union. Almaty, Kazakhstan: Zdrav/Reform, Abt Associates, Inc. Institute of Obstetrics and Gynecology (IOG) [Uzbekistan] and Macro International Inc. (MI). 1997. Uzbekistan Demographic and Health Survey, 1996. Calverton, Maryland: IOG and MI. Fauci, A., and H.C. Lane. 2000. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease: AIDS and related disorders. In Harrison’s principles of internal medicine, 14th Edition (cd-ROM version). New York: McGraw-Hill. Martorell, R. and J.P. Habicht. 1986. Growth in early childhood in developing countries. In Human growth: A comprehensive treatise, Vol. 3, eds. F. Falkner and J.M. Tanner. New York: Plenum Press. 241-262. Ministry of Health and Medical Industry (MOHMI) [Turkmenistan]. 1999. The National Programme on AIDS/STIs Prevention in Turkmenistan for 1999-2003. MOHMI document 09.09.99 N337, Ashgabad, Turkmenistan: MOHMI. Research Institute of Obstetrics and Pediatrics (RIOP) [Kyrgyz Republic] and Macro International Inc. (MI). 1998. Kyrgyz Republic Demographic and Health Survey 1997. Calverton, Maryland USA: RIOP and MI. Sharmanov, A. 1998. Anemia in Central Asia: Demographic and health survey experience. Food and Nutrition Bulletin 19(4):307-317. Sharmanov, A. 2000. Anemia testing manual for population-based surveys. Calverton, Maryland: Macro International Inc. Stoltzfus, R.J., and M. Dreyfuss. 1998. Guidelines for the use of iron supplements to prevent and treat iron deficiency anemia. The International Nutritional Anemia Consultative Group (INACG), the World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Washington, D.C., USA: INACG, WHO, and UNICEF. United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) [Turkmenistan] and National Institute of Statistics and Forecasting [Turkmenistan]. 1998. Living conditions in Turkmenistan. Ashgabad, Turkmenistan: UNDP. United Nations. 1962. 1961 Demographic yearbook. New York: United Nations. United Nations. 1982. Non-sampling errors in household surveys: Sources, assessment and control. National Household Survey Capability Programme. New York: United Nations. 164 * Characteristics of Households World Health Organization (WHO). 1993. International classification of diseases and related health problems, tenth revision. Geneva, Switzerland: WHO. Appendix A * 165 Table A.1 Sample allocation Distribution of standard segments in the DHS sample by region and urban-rural residence, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________ Number of Number of Number of Target selected urban rural number of standard standard standard Region households segments segments segments _______________________________________________________________________ Ashgabad Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Total 800 1000 1000 2000 1000 1000 6800 34 35 35 57 35 35 231 34 11 27 22 15 9 118 0 24 8 35 20 26 113 SAMPLE DESIGN APPENDIX A A. Aliaga A.1 SAMPLE DESIGN The sample for the 2000 TDHS was designed to allow statistical analysis at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the six regions of the country (Ashgabad City, Akhal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap, and Mary). The sample design was specified in terms of a target number of households in the six regions of Turkmenistan. The overall target number of households was set at 6,800. This number was allocated to the regions as follows: 800 to Ashgabad City, 1,000 to each of 4 regions (Akhal, Balkan, Lebap and Mary) and 2,000 to the remaining region (Dashoguz), for which more intensive analysis was desired (see Table A.1). The six regions of the country were further stratified into urban areas (cities, towns and small settlements) and rural areas (villages). The sampling frame consisted of the list of standard segments. Each standard segment was created on the basis of contiguous blocks that have clear boundaries—coinciding to the extent possible with census supervisor areas—and have between 200 and 500 households according to measures of size estimated by projection from to the 1995 Census data. 166 * Appendix A A.2 SAMPLE SELECTION The sample was designed as a two-stage probability sample. Within regions the sample was to be self-weighting. The first stage involved the selection of standard segments (PSUs) by systematic sampling with probability proportional to size. This resulted in the selection of 231 standard segments:118 in urban areas and 113 in rural areas. A household listing operation was conducted in each selected standard segment. In the second stage, households were selected with probability proportional to the inverse of the first stage selection probability. On average, the number of households selected per standard segment was 28. Since the sample for each of the six survey regions was self-weighting, the sampling fraction for each region was an important design parameter. The sampling fractions were estimated with projected census figures. The weighting factors for the six survey regions are inversely proportional to the sampling fractions. A.3 SAMPLE IMPLEMENTATION Implementation of the sample design resulted in the selection of 6,850 households. The data on household membership and age collected in the Household Questionnaire identified 8,250 women eligible for the Women’s Questionnaire (i.e., women age 15-49 who were usual household members or who stayed in the household the night before the interviewer’s visit) (Table A.2). From the 6,850 selected households, 6,391 were identified as current households and household interviews were completed in 6,302. This yields a household response rate of 98.6 percent. Of the 8,250 women who were eligible respondents, a total of 7,919 were interviewed. This yields an eligible woman response rate of 96.0 percent. The overall response rate (94.7 percent) is the product of the household response rate and the eligible woman response rate. The overall response rate varies by region from 85.6 percent in Ashgabad City to 97.4 percent in the Balkan Region. Appendix A * 167 A.2 Sample implementation Percent distribution of households and eligible women in the DHS sample by results of the interview and household, eligible woman, and overall response rates, according to sample domain and urban-rural residence, Turkmenistan 2000 _____________________________________________________________________________________________________ Result of Region Residence interview and ________________________________________________ _____________ response rate Ashgabad Akhal Balkan Dashoguz Lebap Mary Urban Rural Total ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Selected households Completed (C) Household present but no competent respondent at home (HP) Postponed (P) Refused (R) Dwelling not found (DNF) Household absent (HA) Dwelling vacant/address not a dwelling (DV) Dwelling destroyed (DD) Other (O) Total Number of households Household response rate (HRR)1 Eligible women Completed (EWC) Not at home (EWNH) Postponed (EWP) Refused (EWR) Partly completed (EWPC) Incapacitated Other Total Number of women Eligible woman response rate (EWRR)2 Overall response rate (ORR)3 80.5 89.2 91.8 95.6 94.4 93.9 88.9 95.7 92.0 2.1 0.3 0.9 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.8 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 3.3 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 8.6 4.8 4.0 2.3 2.7 3.5 5.5 1.9 3.9 4.4 4.2 2.8 1.6 1.8 2.0 3.5 1.5 2.5 0.5 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.0 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 780 956 992 2,032 1,040 1,050 3,688 3,162 6,850 93.0 98.3 98.9 99.7 99.5 99.5 97.9 99.4 98.6 92.0 93.8 98.4 96.9 96.8 95.2 96.3 95.7 96.0 4.6 5.4 0.6 2.1 2.0 3.4 2.3 3.1 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.8 1.0 0.8 0.9 0.7 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 636 1,153 1,016 2,925 1,305 1,215 3,836 4,414 8,250 92.0 93.8 98.4 96.9 96.8 95.2 96.3 95.7 96.0 85.6 92.1 97.4 96.6 96.3 94.7 94.3 95.2 94.7 __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: The household response rate is calculated for completed households as a proportion of completed, no competent respondent, refused, and dwelling not found. The eligible woman response rate is calculated for completed interviews as a proportion of completed, not at home, postponed, refused, partially completed, incapacitated and "other." The overall response rate is the product of the household and eligible woman response rates. 1 Using the number of households falling into specific response categories, the household response rate (HRR) is calculated as: C _______________________ * 100 C + HP +P+ R + DNF 2 Using the number of eligible women falling into specific response categories, the eligible woman response rate (EWRR) is calculated as: EWC ___________________________________ * 100 EWC + EWNH + EWR + EWI + EWO 3 The overall response rate (ORR) is calculated as: ORR = (HRR * EWRR) ÷ 100 Appendix B * 169 ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS APPENDIX B The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: 1) nonsampling errors and 2) sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the TDHS 2000 to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically. Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the TDHS 2000 is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results. A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design. If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 2000 Turkmenistan DHS sample is the result of a two-stage stratified design, and consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the TDHS 2000 is the ISSA Sampling Error Module (SAMPERR). This module used the Taylor linearization method of variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jackknife repeated replication method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates. The Taylor linearization method treats any percentage or average as a ratio estimate, r = y/x, where y represents the total sample value for variable y, and x represents the total number of cases in the group or subgroup under consideration. The variance of r is computed using the formula given below, with the standard error being the square root of the variance: in which 170 * Appendix B where h represents the stratum that varies from 1 to H, mh is the total number of clusters selected in the h th stratum, yhi is the sum of the weighted values of variable y in the i th cluster in the hth stratum, xhi is the sum of the weighted number of cases in the i th cluster in the hth stratum, and f is the overall sampling fraction, which is so small that it is ignored. The Jackknife repeated replication method derives estimates of complex rates from each of several replications of the parent sample and calculates standard errors for these estimates using simple formulae. Each replication considers all but one cluster in the calculation of the estimates. Pseudoindependent replications are thus created. In the TDHS 2000, there were 231 non-empty clusters. Hence, 231 replications were created. The variance of a rate r is calculated as follows: in which where r is the estimate computed from the full sample of 231 clusters, r(I) is the estimate computed from the reduced sample of 230 clusters (i th cluster excluded), and k is the total number of clusters. In addition to the standard error, SAMPERR computes the design effect (DEFT) for each estimate, which is defined as the ratio between the standard error using the given sample design and the standard error that would result if a simple random sample had been used. A DEFT value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a value greater than 1.0 indicates the increase in the sampling error due to the use of a more complex and less statistically efficient design. SAMPERR also computes the relative error and confidence limits for the estimates. Sampling errors for the TDHS 2000 are calculated for selected variables considered to be of primary interest. One set of results for women is presented in this appendix for the country as a whole, for urban and rural areas, for each of the six domains: Ashgabad City, Akhal, Balkan, Dashoguz, Lebap, and Mary regions. For each variable, the type of statistic (mean, proportion, or rate) and the base population are given in Table B.1. Tables B.2 to B.10 present the value of the statistic (R), its standard error (SE), the number of unweighted (N) and weighted (WN) cases, the design effect, the relative standard error (SE/R), and the 95 percent confidence limits (R±2SE), for each variable. The DEFT is considered undefined when the standard error considering simple random sample is zero (when the estimate is close to 0 or 1). In general, the relative standard error for most estimates for the country as a whole is small, except for estimates of very small proportions. There are some differentials in the relative standard error for the estimates of subpopulations. For example, for the variable using any contraceptive method, the relative standard errors as a percentage of the estimated mean for the whole country, for urban areas, and for rural areas are 1.1 percent, 1.6 percent, and 1.5 percent, respectively. Appendix B * 171 The confidence interval (e.g., as calculated for the variable using any method can be interpreted as follows: the overall national sample proportion is 0.618 and its standard error is 0.007. Therefore, to obtain the 95 percent confidence limits, one adds and subtracts twice the standard error to the sample estimate, i.e., 0.618±2(0.007). There is a high probability (95 percent) that the true proportion of all women 15-49 using a contraceptive method is between 60.4 and 63.2 percent. 172 * Appendix B Table B.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Variable Estimate Base Population ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Urban resident Proportion All women 15-49 Primary/secondary education Proportion All women 15-49 Secondary-special education Proportion All women 15-49 Never in union Proportion All women 15-49 Currently in union Proportion All women 15-49 Ever in union before 20 Proportion All women 15-49 Sex before 18 Proportion All women 15-49 Children ever born Mean All women 15-49 Children ever born to women over 40 Mean All women 40-49 Children surviving Mean All women 15-49 Knowing any method Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Knowing any modern method Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Ever used any method Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Using any method Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Using any modern method Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Using pill Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Using IUD Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Using condom Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Using female sterilization Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using abstinence Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Using withdrawal Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Using LAM Proportion All women 15-49 Public source user Proportion User modern method Desires no more children Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Wants to delay child at least 2 years Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Ideal number of children Mean All women 15-49 BMI < 18.5 Proportion All women 15-49 BMI between 18.5 and 30.0 Proportion All women 15-49 BMI > 30.0 Proportion All women 15-49 Women’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Proportion All women 15-49 Women with severe anemia Proportion All women 15-49 Women with moderate anemia Proportion All women 15-49 Women with mild anemia Proportion All women 15-49 Mother received medical care at birth Proportion Birth in last 5 years Had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks Proportion Children under 5 Treated with ORS packets Proportion Children under 5 with diarrhea in last 2 weeks Sought medical treatment Proportion Children under 5 with diarrhea in last 2 weeks Received BCG vaccination Proportion Children 12-23 months Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Proportion Children 12-23 months Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Proportion Children 12-23 months Received measles vaccination Proportion Children 12-23 months Fully immunized Proportion Children 12-23 months Children’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Proportion Children under 5 who were measured Children’s height-for-age (< -2 SD) Proportion Children under 5 who were measured Children’s weight-for-age (< -2 SD) Proportion Children under 5 who were measured Children with severe anemia Proportion Children under 5 who were tested Children with moderate anemia Proportion Children under 5 who were tested Children with mild anemia Proportion Children under 5 who were tested Total fertility rate (3 years) Rate Woman-years of exposure to childbearing Neonatal mortality rate Rate Number of births Infant mortality rate Rate Number of births Child mortality rate Rate Number of births Under-five mortality rate Rate Number of births Postneonatal mortality rate Rate Number of births Total abortion rate (3 years) Rate Woman-years of exposure to childbearing ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ 1Five years for the total rate Appendix B * 173 Table B.2 Sampling errors for women: Total sample, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of cases Stan- ______________ Rela- Confidence dard Un- Weight- Design tive intervals Value error weighted ed effect error ____________ Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Urban resident Primary/secondary education Secondary-special education Never in union Currently in union Ever in union before 20 Sex before 18 Children ever born Children ever born to women over 40 Children surviving Knowing any method Knowing any modern method Ever used any method Using any method Using any modern method Using pill Using IUD Using condom Using female sterilization Currently using abstinence Using withdrawal Using LAM Public source user Desires no more children Wants to delay child at least 2 years Ideal number of children BMI < 18.5 BMI between 18.5 and 30.0 BMI > 30.0 Women’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Women with severe anemia Women with moderate anemia Women with mild anemia Mother received medical care at birth Had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks Treated with ORS packets Sought medical treatment Received BCG vaccination Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Received measles vaccination Fully immunized Children’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Children’s height-for-age (< -2 SD) Children’s weight-for-age (< -2 SD) Children with severe anemia Children with moderate anemia Children with mild anemia Total fertility rate (3 years) Neonatal mortality rate (5 years) Infant mortality rate (5 years) Child mortality rate (5 years) Under-five mortality rate (5 years) Postneonatal mortality rate (5 years) Total abortion rate (3 years) 0.466 0.013 7,919 7,919 2.371 0.029 0.439 0.493 0.732 0.008 7,919 7,919 1.604 0.011 0.717 0.748 0.268 0.008 7,919 7,919 1.604 0.030 0.252 0.283 0.324 0.007 7,919 7,919 1.267 0.021 0.310 0.337 0.618 0.006 7,919 7,919 1.133 0.010 0.605 0.630 0.292 0.008 6,330 6,345 1.323 0.026 0.277 0.308 0.079 0.005 6,330 6,345 1.378 0.059 0.069 0.088 2.122 0.027 7,919 7,919 1.057 0.013 2.068 2.176 4.842 0.073 1,473 1,513 1.218 0.015 4.695 4.989 1.896 0.024 7,919 7,919 1.068 0.013 1.848 1.944 0.993 0.001 4,829 4,892 1.216 0.001 0.991 0.996 0.993 0.001 4,829 4,892 1.211 0.001 0.990 0.996 0.891 0.004 4,829 4,892 0.982 0.005 0.883 0.900 0.618 0.007 4,829 4,892 0.985 0.011 0.604 0.632 0.531 0.007 4,829 4,892 1.014 0.014 0.516 0.545 0.012 0.002 4,829 4,892 1.164 0.150 0.009 0.016 0.390 0.007 4,829 4,892 1.035 0.019 0.376 0.405 0.020 0.003 4,829 4,892 1.260 0.125 0.015 0.026 0.018 0.002 4,829 4,892 1.215 0.128 0.014 0.023 0.021 0.002 4,829 4,892 1.038 0.102 0.017 0.025 0.053 0.004 4,829 4,892 1.086 0.066 0.046 0.061 0.049 0.003 7,919 7,919 1.093 0.054 0.044 0.055 0.841 0.008 2,653 2,678 1.105 0.009 0.826 0.857 0.532 0.009 4,829 4,892 1.242 0.017 0.514 0.550 0.171 0.006 4,829 4,892 1.135 0.036 0.159 0.184 3.341 0.022 7,357 7,449 1.306 0.007 3.296 3.386 0.099 0.004 7,340 7,310 1.165 0.041 0.091 0.107 0.799 0.006 7,340 7,310 1.195 0.007 0.788 0.811 0.102 0.004 7,340 7,310 1.238 0.043 0.094 0.111 0.050 0.003 7,328 7,298 1.188 0.060 0.044 0.056 0.011 0.001 7,765 7,714 1.141 0.124 0.008 0.013 0.084 0.004 7,765 7,714 1.368 0.051 0.075 0.092 0.378 0.008 7,765 7,714 1.439 0.021 0.362 0.394 0.972 0.004 3,624 3,583 1.136 0.004 0.964 0.980 0.032 0.004 3,342 3,292 1.138 0.112 0.025 0.039 0.759 0.046 96 105 1.098 0.061 0.666 0.851 0.385 0.057 96 105 1.167 0.149 0.271 0.499 0.933 0.013 634 646 1.292 0.014 0.908 0.959 0.922 0.013 634 646 1.214 0.014 0.896 0.948 0.915 0.013 634 646 1.215 0.015 0.888 0.942 0.875 0.016 634 646 1.186 0.018 0.844 0.906 0.848 0.017 634 646 1.165 0.019 0.815 0.881 0.057 0.005 2,974 2,928 1.043 0.081 0.048 0.067 0.223 0.009 2,974 2,928 1.127 0.040 0.205 0.242 0.120 0.007 2,974 2,928 1.156 0.060 0.106 0.134 0.006 0.002 2,632 2,647 1.150 0.297 0.002 0.009 0.157 0.009 2,632 2,647 1.182 0.055 0.140 0.175 0.196 0.011 2,632 2,647 1.340 0.054 0.175 0.217 2.889 0.084 na 22,320 1.466 0.029 2.721 3.058 33.790 3.322 3,723 3,681 1.040 0.098 27.146 40.435 73.874 5.398 3,741 3,696 1.174 0.073 63.078 84.669 22.019 2.414 3,746 3,706 1.007 0.110 17.192 26.846 94.266 6.140 3,766 3,724 1.238 0.065 81.985 106.547 40.083 4.154 3,739 3,693 1.219 0.104 31.775 48.391 0.847 0.052 na 22,320 1.276 0.062 0.742 0.952 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ na = Not applicable 174 * Appendix B Table B.3 Sampling errors for women: Urban sample, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of cases Stan- ______________ Rela- Confidence dard Un- Weight- Design tive intervals Value error weighted ed effect error ____________ Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Urban resident Primary/secondary education Secondary-special education Never in union Currently in union Ever in union before 20 Sex before 18 Children ever born Children ever born to women over 40 Children surviving Knowing any method Knowing any modern method Ever used any method Using any method Using any modern method Using pill Using IUD Using condom Using female sterilization Currently using abstinence Using withdrawal Using LAM Public source user Desires no more children Wants to delay child at least 2 years Ideal number of children BMI < 18.5 BMI between 18.5 and 30.0 BMI > 30.0 Women’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Women with severe anemia Women with moderate anemia Women with mild anemia Mother received medical care at birth Had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks Treated with ORS packets Sought medical treatment Received BCG vaccination Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Received measles vaccination Fully immunized Children’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Children’s height-for-age (< -2 SD) Children’s weight-for-age (< -2 SD) Children with severe anemia Children with moderate anemia Children with mild anemia Total fertility rate (3 years) Neonatal mortality rate (10 years) Infant mortality rate (10 years) Child mortality rate (10 years) Under-five mortality rate (10 years) Postneonatal mortality rate (10 years) Total abortion rate (3 years) 1.000 0.000 3,693 3691 na 0.000 1.000 1.000 0.605 0.013 3,693 3691 1.645 0.022 0.579 0.632 0.395 0.013 3,693 3,691 1.645 0.034 0.368 0.421 0.286 0.012 3,693 3,691 1.581 0.041 0.263 0.310 0.625 0.010 3,693 3,691 1.249 0.016 0.605 0.645 0.328 0.011 3,018 3,032 1.314 0.034 0.306 0.351 0.093 0.008 3,018 3,032 1.425 0.081 0.078 0.108 1.992 0.043 3,693 3,691 1.284 0.021 1.906 2.077 4.051 0.113 757 790 1.481 0.028 3.824 4.278 1.809 0.038 3,693 3,691 1.297 0.021 1.733 1.885 0.991 0.003 2,288 2,307 1.257 0.003 0.986 0.996 0.991 0.003 2,288 2,307 1.257 0.003 0.986 0.996 0.897 0.006 2,288 2,307 1.002 0.007 0.884 0.910 0.623 0.010 2,288 2,307 1.014 0.016 0.603 0.644 0.526 0.012 2,288 2,307 1.121 0.022 0.503 0.549 0.020 0.003 2,288 2,307 1.182 0.172 0.013 0.027 0.382 0.011 2,288 2,307 1.118 0.030 0.359 0.404 0.034 0.005 2,288 2,307 1.332 0.148 0.024 0.044 0.019 0.004 2,288 2,307 1.233 0.183 0.012 0.027 0.032 0.004 2,288 2,307 1.094 0.126 0.024 0.040 0.048 0.005 2,288 2,307 1.206 0.112 0.037 0.059 0.036 0.004 3,693 3,691 1.233 0.105 0.028 0.044 0.879 0.011 1,282 1,284 1.257 0.013 0.856 0.902 0.536 0.014 2,288 2,307 1.304 0.025 0.508 0.563 0.156 0.009 2,288 2,307 1.232 0.060 0.137 0.174 3.149 0.041 3,487 3,536 1.648 0.013 3.068 3.230 0.095 0.007 3,427 3,390 1.377 0.073 0.081 0.108 0.788 0.009 3,427 3,390 1.348 0.012 0.769 0.807 0.118 0.008 3,427 3,390 1.428 0.067 0.102 0.133 0.045 0.004 3,423 3,384 1.148 0.090 0.037 0.053 0.011 0.002 3,586 3,528 1.250 0.195 0.007 0.016 0.076 0.005 3,586 3,528 1.228 0.071 0.065 0.087 0.367 0.012 3,586 3,528 1.512 0.033 0.343 0.392 0.982 0.005 1,470 1,413 1.196 0.005 0.972 0.993 0.047 0.007 1,373 1,310 1.131 0.143 0.034 0.061 0.706 0.061 60 62 1.037 0.086 0.585 0.827 0.310 0.070 60 62 1.181 0.226 0.170 0.450 0.890 0.026 277 281 1.377 0.029 0.838 0.941 0.865 0.027 277 281 1.293 0.031 0.811 0.918 0.861 0.027 277 281 1.291 0.031 0.808 0.915 0.818 0.030 277 281 1.297 0.037 0.757 0.878 0.801 0.031 277 281 1.278 0.038 0.740 0.863 0.066 0.009 1,176 1,101 1.162 0.136 0.048 0.084 0.195 0.014 1,176 1,101 1.139 0.072 0.166 0.223 0.120 0.011 1,176 1,101 1.087 0.092 0.098 0.142 0.003 0.001 1,042 1,005 0.739 0.439 0.000 0.005 0.178 0.012 1,042 1,005 0.996 0.070 0.153 0.203 0.231 0.016 1,042 1,005 1.188 0.069 0.199 0.263 2.458 0.116 na 10,444 1.517 0.047 2.226 2.689 32.213 3.726 3,281 3,204 1.087 0.116 24.761 39.664 60.103 6.697 3,282 3,205 1.447 0.111 46.710 73.496 13.372 2.098 3,287 3,209 1.037 0.157 9.176 17.568 72.671 7.051 3,288 3,209 1.429 0.097 58.569 86.773 27.890 4.533 3,282 3,205 1.477 0.163 18.823 36.957 1.024 0.079 na 10,444 1.249 0.077 0.866 1.182 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ na = Not applicable Appendix B * 175 Table B.4 Sampling errors for women: Rural sample, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of cases Stan- _____________ Rela- Confidence dard Un- Weight- Design tive intervals Value error weighted ed effect error ____________ Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Urban resident Primary/secondary education Secondary-special education Never in union Currently in union Ever in union before 20 Sex before 18 Children ever born Children ever born to women over 40 Children surviving Knowing any method Knowing any modern method Ever used any method Using any method Using any modern method Using pill Using IUD Using condom Using female sterilization Currently using abstinence Using withdrawal Using LAM Public source user Desires no more children Wants to delay child at least 2 years Ideal number of children BMI < 18.5 BMI between 18.5 and 30.0 BMI > 30.0 Women’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Women with severe anemia Women with moderate anemia Women with mild anemia Mother received medical care at birth Had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks Treated with ORS packets Sought medical treatment Received BCG vaccination Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Received measles vaccination Fully immunized Children’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Children’s height-for-age (< -2 SD) Children’s weight-for-age (< -2 SD) Children with severe anemia Children with moderate anemia Children with mild anemia Total fertility rate (3 years) Neonatal mortality rate (10 years) Infant mortality rate (10 years) Child mortality rate (10 years) Under-five mortality rate (10 years) Postneonatal mortality rate (10 years) Total abortion rate (3 years) 0.000 0.000 4,226 4,228 na na 0.000 0.000 0.843 0.010 4,226 4,228 1.708 0.011 0.824 0.863 0.157 0.010 4,226 4,228 1.708 0.061 0.137 0.176 0.356 0.008 4,226 4,228 1.045 0.022 0.341 0.372 0.611 0.008 4,226 4,228 1.032 0.013 0.596 0.627 0.260 0.010 3,312 3,313 1.320 0.039 0.240 0.280 0.065 0.006 3,312 3,313 1.320 0.087 0.054 0.077 2.236 0.035 4,226 4,228 0.927 0.016 2.166 2.306 5.707 0.086 716 723 1.037 0.015 5.536 5.878 1.972 0.030 4,226 4,228 0.921 0.015 1.911 2.033 0.996 0.001 2,541 2,585 1.139 0.001 0.993 0.999 0.995 0.002 2,541 2,585 1.134 0.002 0.992 0.998 0.886 0.006 2,541 2,585 0.958 0.007 0.874 0.898 0.614 0.009 2,541 2,585 0.962 0.015 0.595 0.632 0.535 0.009 2,541 2,585 0.904 0.017 0.517 0.553 0.005 0.002 2,541 2,585 1.268 0.351 0.002 0.009 0.398 0.009 2,541 2,585 0.959 0.023 0.379 0.416 0.008 0.002 2,541 2,585 1.141 0.247 0.004 0.012 0.017 0.003 2,541 2,585 1.195 0.178 0.011 0.024 0.011 0.002 2,541 2,585 1.008 0.190 0.007 0.015 0.058 0.005 2,541 2,585 0.999 0.080 0.049 0.067 0.061 0.004 4,226 4,228 0.982 0.059 0.054 0.068 0.806 0.011 1,371 1,393 0.989 0.013 0.785 0.827 0.529 0.012 2,541 2,585 1.182 0.022 0.505 0.552 0.186 0.008 2,541 2,585 1.076 0.045 0.169 0.202 3.515 0.023 3,870 3,912 0.976 0.007 3.469 3.561 0.103 0.005 3,913 3,920 0.966 0.046 0.093 0.112 0.809 0.006 3,913 3,920 1.028 0.008 0.796 0.822 0.089 0.004 3,913 3,920 0.988 0.051 0.080 0.098 0.054 0.004 3,905 3,914 1.207 0.081 0.045 0.063 0.010 0.002 4,179 4,186 1.034 0.157 0.007 0.014 0.090 0.006 4,179 4,186 1.449 0.071 0.077 0.103 0.387 0.010 4,179 4,186 1.369 0.027 0.366 0.408 0.966 0.006 2,154 2,171 1.122 0.006 0.954 0.977 0.022 0.004 1,969 1,982 1.130 0.175 0.014 0.030 0.834 0.069 36 43 1.208 0.083 0.696 0.971 0.492 0.086 36 43 1.094 0.175 0.320 0.665 0.967 0.010 357 365 1.082 0.011 0.946 0.987 0.966 0.010 357 365 1.029 0.010 0.947 0.986 0.956 0.011 357 365 1.058 0.012 0.934 0.979 0.920 0.015 357 365 1.050 0.016 0.890 0.950 0.885 0.018 357 365 1.047 0.020 0.849 0.920 0.052 0.005 1,798 1,827 0.941 0.097 0.042 0.062 0.241 0.012 1,798 1,827 1.130 0.049 0.217 0.264 0.120 0.009 1798 1,827 1.195 0.079 0.101 0.139 0.007 0.003 1,590 1,642 1.219 0.349 0.002 0.012 0.145 0.012 1,590 1,642 1.284 0.080 0.121 0.168 0.175 0.014 1,590 1,642 1.427 0.079 0.147 0.202 3.296 0.112 na 11,876 1.265 0.034 3.072 3.519 33.406 2.906 4,507 4,491 0.971 0.087 27.595 39.218 79.938 4.886 4,511 4,495 1.117 0.061 70.166 89.709 21.578 2.638 4,517 4,501 1.118 0.122 16.302 26.853 99.791 5.528 4,523 4,507 1.135 0.055 88.735 110.846 46.532 3.608 4,509 4,492 1.084 0.078 39.316 53.747 0.686 0.067 na 11,876 1.283 0.098 0.551 0.820 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ na = Not applicable 176 * Appendix B Table B.5 Sampling errors for women: Ashgabad City sample, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of cases Stan- _____________ Rela- Confidence dard Un- Weight- Design tive intervals Value error weighted ed effect error ____________ Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Urban resident Primary/secondary education Secondary-special education Never in union Currently in union Ever in union before 20 Sex before 18 Children ever born Children ever born to women over 40 Children surviving Knowing any method Knowing any modern method Ever used any method Using any method Using any modern method Using pill Using IUD Using condom Using female sterilization Currently using abstinence Using withdrawal Using LAM Public source user Desires no more children Wants to delay child at least 2 years Ideal number of children BMI < 18.5 BMI between 18.5 and 30.0 BMI > 30.0 Women’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Women with severe anemia Women with moderate anemia Women with mild anemia Mother received medical care at birth Had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks Treated with ORS packets Sought medical treatment Received BCG vaccination Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Received measles vaccination Fully immunized Children’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Children’s height-for-age (< -2 SD) Children’s weight-for-age (< -2 SD) Children with severe anemia Children with moderate anemia Children with mild anemia Total fertility rate (3 years) Neonatal mortality rate (10 years) Infant mortality rate (10 years) Child mortality rate (10 years) Under-five mortality rate (10 years) Postneonatal mortality rate (10 years) Total abortion rate (3 years) 1.000 0.000 585 1,038 na 0.000 1.000 1.000 0.517 0.032 585 1,038 1.566 0.063 0.452 0.582 0.483 0.032 585 1,038 1.566 0.067 0.418 0.548 0.273 0.017 585 1,038 0.904 0.061 0.239 0.306 0.616 0.016 585 1,038 0.817 0.027 0.583 0.648 0.337 0.025 495 882 1.159 0.073 0.288 0.387 0.096 0.017 495 882 1.265 0.174 0.063 0.130 1.722 0.112 585 1,038 1.591 0.065 1.498 1.947 3.254 0.257 127 225 1.538 0.079 2.739 3.768 1.583 0.105 585 1,038 1.644 0.067 1.372 1.793 0.989 0.006 360 639 1.152 0.006 0.976 1.000 0.989 0.006 360 639 1.152 0.006 0.976 1.000 0.895 0.015 360 639 0.900 0.016 0.866 0.924 0.597 0.022 360 639 0.857 0.037 0.553 0.641 0.518 0.021 360 639 0.813 0.041 0.475 0.561 0.032 0.011 360 639 1.145 0.332 0.011 0.053 0.349 0.016 360 639 0.635 0.046 0.317 0.381 0.064 0.016 360 639 1.210 0.244 0.033 0.095 0.008 0.005 360 639 1.015 0.582 0.000 0.018 0.043 0.009 360 639 0.855 0.213 0.025 0.061 0.031 0.008 360 639 0.915 0.270 0.014 0.048 0.031 0.005 585 1,038 0.763 0.178 0.020 0.041 0.879 0.020 201 354 0.858 0.022 0.840 0.919 0.528 0.022 360 639 0.842 0.042 0.484 0.573 0.142 0.020 360 639 1.104 0.143 0.101 0.183 2.887 0.108 559 994 1.790 0.037 2.672 3.103 0.071 0.012 513 907 1.078 0.172 0.047 0.096 0.804 0.021 513 907 1.212 0.026 0.761 0.847 0.124 0.021 513 907 1.466 0.172 0.082 0.167 0.033 0.009 512 905 1.103 0.265 0.015 0.050 0.008 0.005 525 928 1.207 0.598 0.000 0.017 0.050 0.010 525 928 1.020 0.193 0.031 0.070 0.310 0.029 525 928 1.433 0.093 0.252 0.368 0.994 0.005 201 356 1.035 0.005 0.984 1.000 0.047 0.018 188 332 1.043 0.371 0.012 0.082 0.646 0.172 9 16 1.014 0.266 0.302 0.990 0.217 0.140 9 16 0.980 0.643 0.000 0.496 0.752 0.081 43 75 1.223 0.108 0.589 0.914 0.728 0.082 43 75 1.198 0.113 0.564 0.892 0.728 0.082 43 75 1.194 0.112 0.564 0.892 0.681 0.084 43 75 1.172 0.123 0.513 0.849 0.657 0.084 43 75 1.143 0.127 0.490 0.824 0.109 0.031 130 228 1.071 0.288 0.046 0.171 0.133 0.025 130 228 0.807 0.189 0.083 0.183 0.117 0.031 130 228 1.063 0.264 0.055 0.179 0.000 0.000 113 198 na na 0.000 0.000 0.186 0.029 113 198 0.771 0.157 0.127 0.244 0.230 0.036 113 198 0.901 0.156 0.158 0.301 2.101 0.243 na 2,979 1.307 0.116 1.615 2.587 33.379 8.270 438 779 0.977 0.248 16.839 49.918 47.698 9.304 438 779 0.895 0.195 29.089 66.306 11.672 4.356 439 781 0.846 0.373 2.960 20.384 58.813 8.158 439 781 0.716 0.139 42.496 75.130 14.319 5.738 438 779 0.875 0.401 2.844 25.794 1.118 0.158 na 2,979 0.819 0.142 0.801 1.434 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ na = Not applicable Appendix B * 177 Table B.6 Sampling errors for women: Akhal sample, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of cases Stan- _____________ Rela- Confidence dard Un- Weight- Design tive intervals Value error weighted ed effect error ____________ Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Urban resident Primary/secondary education Secondary-special education Never in union Currently in union Ever in union before 20 Sex before 18 Children ever born Children ever born to women over 40 Children surviving Knowing any method Knowing any modern method Ever used any method Using any method Using any modern method Using pill Using IUD Using condom Using female sterilization Currently using abstinence Using withdrawal Using LAM Public source user Desires no more children Wants to delay child at least 2 years Ideal number of children BMI < 18.5 BMI between 18.5 and 30.0 BMI > 30.0 Women’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Women with severe anemia Women with moderate anemia Women with mild anemia Mother received medical care at birth Had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks Treated with ORS packets Sought medical treatment Received BCG vaccination Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Received measles vaccination Fully immunized Children’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Children’s height-for-age (< -2 SD) Children’s weight-for-age (< -2 SD) Children with severe anemia Children with moderate anemia Children with mild anemia Total fertility rate (3 years) Neonatal mortality rate (10 years) Infant mortality rate (10 years) Child mortality rate (10 years) Under-five mortality rate (10 years) Postneonatal mortality rate (10 years) Total abortion rate (3 years) 0.320 0.023 1,081 1,145 1.621 0.072 0.274 0.366 0.864 0.014 1,081 1,145 1.325 0.016 0.836 0.891 0.136 0.014 1,081 1,145 1.325 0.101 0.109 0.164 0.348 0.017 1,081 1,145 1.189 0.050 0.314 0.382 0.610 0.015 1,081 1,145 1.026 0.025 0.580 0.640 0.292 0.028 853 905 1.769 0.094 0.237 0.347 0.094 0.017 853 905 1.654 0.176 0.061 0.127 2.192 0.069 1,081 1,145 0.962 0.032 2.053 2.331 5.266 0.156 201 212 0.999 0.030 4.955 5.578 1.939 0.065 1,081 1,145 1.032 0.034 1.809 2.070 0.996 0.003 660 699 0.989 0.003 0.991 1.000 0.996 0.003 660 699 0.989 0.003 0.991 1.000 0.903 0.009 660 699 0.821 0.010 0.884 0.922 0.663 0.013 660 699 0.704 0.020 0.637 0.689 0.609 0.014 660 699 0.747 0.023 0.580 0.637 0.022 0.005 660 699 0.911 0.239 0.011 0.032 0.435 0.022 660 699 1.123 0.050 0.392 0.479 0.034 0.006 660 699 0.792 0.163 0.023 0.046 0.026 0.008 660 699 1.267 0.303 0.010 0.041 0.009 0.004 660 699 1.015 0.415 0.002 0.016 0.044 0.008 660 699 1.010 0.184 0.028 0.060 0.051 0.006 1,081 1,145 0.942 0.123 0.039 0.064 0.857 0.016 404 429 0.935 0.019 0.825 0.890 0.525 0.015 660 699 0.783 0.029 0.495 0.556 0.226 0.012 660 699 0.755 0.054 0.201 0.251 3.514 0.042 1,045 1,108 0.877 0.012 3.430 3.599 0.087 0.010 1,005 1,065 1.159 0.118 0.067 0.108 0.808 0.014 1,005 1,065 1.140 0.018 0.780 0.837 0.106 0.010 1,005 1,065 1.033 0.095 0.086 0.126 0.042 0.007 1,002 1,062 1.033 0.156 0.029 0.055 0.010 0.004 1,066 1,130 1.211 0.379 0.002 0.017 0.064 0.009 1,066 1,130 1.181 0.138 0.046 0.082 0.374 0.018 1,066 1,130 1.239 0.049 0.337 0.411 0.927 0.016 480 507 1.037 0.018 0.895 0.960 0.021 0.006 441 466 0.942 0.306 0.008 0.034 0.681 0.192 9 10 1.250 0.282 0.297 1.000 0.316 0.075 9 10 0.489 0.237 0.166 0.467 0.928 0.024 84 89 0.858 0.026 0.879 0.976 0.915 0.024 84 89 0.772 0.026 0.867 0.962 0.913 0.022 84 89 0.719 0.024 0.869 0.957 0.778 0.042 84 89 0.919 0.054 0.694 0.861 0.753 0.040 84 89 0.846 0.053 0.674 0.833 0.053 0.009 408 430 0.792 0.169 0.035 0.072 0.240 0.023 408 430 1.013 0.095 0.194 0.285 0.076 0.012 408 430 0.879 0.154 0.052 0.099 0.000 0.000 374 396 na na 0.000 0.000 0.102 0.021 374 396 1.329 0.201 0.061 0.143 0.208 0.029 374 396 1.380 0.137 0.151 0.265 2.912 0.212 na 3,230 1.248 0.073 2.488 3.336 29.908 5.836 1,064 1,127 0.983 0.195 18.235 41.580 74.395 8.401 1,066 1,129 0.998 0.113 57.592 91.198 9.730 3.201 1,064 1,127 1.055 0.329 3.328 16.131 83.401 8.600 1,067 1,130 0.966 0.103 66.202 100.600 44.487 6.372 1,065 1,128 1.018 0.143 31.742 57.232 0.481 0.117 na 3,230 1.276 0.244 0.247 0.715 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ na = Not applicable 178 * Appendix B Table B.7 Sampling errors for women: Balkan sample, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of cases Stan- _____________ Rela- Confidence dard Un- Weight- Design tive intervals Value error weighted ed effect error ____________ Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Urban resident Primary/secondary education Secondary-special education Never in union Currently in union Ever in union before 20 Sex before 18 Children ever born Children ever born to women over 40 Children surviving Knowing any method Knowing any modern method Ever used any method Using any method Using any modern method Using pill Using IUD Using condom Using female sterilization Currently using abstinence Using withdrawal Using LAM Public source user Desires no more children Wants to delay child at least 2 years Ideal number of children BMI < 18.5 BMI between 18.5 and 30.0 BMI > 30.0 Women’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Women with severe anemia Women with moderate anemia Women with mild anemia Mother received medical care at birth Had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks Treated with ORS packets Sought medical treatment Received BCG vaccination Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Received measles vaccination Fully immunized Children’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Children’s height-for-age (< -2 SD) Children’s weight-for-age (< -2 SD) Children with severe anemia Children with moderate anemia Children with mild anemia Total fertility rate (3 years) Neonatal mortality rate (10 years) Infant mortality rate (10 years) Child mortality rate (10 years) Under-five mortality rate (10 years) Postneonatal mortality rate (10 years) Total abortion rate (3 years) 0.796 0.015 1,000 709 1.147 0.018 0.766 0.825 0.736 0.022 1,000 709 1.548 0.029 0.693 0.779 0.264 0.022 1,000 709 1.548 0.082 0.221 0.307 0.333 0.021 1,000 709 1.407 0.063 0.291 0.375 0.598 0.017 1,000 709 1.116 0.029 0.563 0.633 0.231 0.019 821 581 1.275 0.081 0.194 0.269 0.064 0.010 821 581 1.112 0.148 0.045 0.083 2.024 0.078 1,000 709 1.098 0.039 1.868 2.181 4.819 0.235 207 147 1.458 0.049 4.349 5.289 1.849 0.063 1,000 709 0.980 0.034 1.723 1.974 0.981 0.007 595 424 1.199 0.007 0.967 0.994 0.981 0.007 595 424 1.199 0.007 0.967 0.994 0.860 0.015 595 424 1.055 0.017 0.830 0.890 0.611 0.023 595 424 1.138 0.037 0.566 0.657 0.487 0.020 595 424 0.968 0.041 0.448 0.527 0.003 0.002 595 424 0.929 0.697 0.000 0.007 0.372 0.023 595 424 1.138 0.061 0.327 0.417 0.018 0.006 595 424 1.013 0.307 0.007 0.029 0.017 0.003 595 424 0.627 0.197 0.010 0.023 0.020 0.006 595 424 1.054 0.306 0.008 0.032 0.053 0.012 595 424 1.297 0.224 0.029 0.077 0.040 0.010 1,000 709 1.545 0.240 0.021 0.059 0.861 0.029 306 216 1.471 0.034 0.802 0.919 0.454 0.023 595 424 1.102 0.050 0.409 0.499 0.149 0.014 595 424 0.935 0.092 0.122 0.177 3.434 0.065 965 684 1.228 0.019 3.305 3.563 0.135 0.014 950 672 1.305 0.107 0.106 0.163 0.746 0.013 950 672 0.891 0.017 0.721 0.771 0.120 0.013 950 672 1.224 0.108 0.094 0.146 0.075 0.009 949 672 1.062 0.121 0.057 0.093 0.018 0.005 995 705 1.153 0.273 0.008 0.027 0.128 0.012 995 705 1.147 0.095 0.104 0.153 0.449 0.019 995 705 1.209 0.042 0.411 0.487 0.961 0.012 386 277 1.059 0.012 0.938 0.985 0.032 0.009 362 259 1.023 0.295 0.013 0.051 0.772 0.105 12 8 0.855 0.136 0.563 0.982 0.307 0.147 12 8 1.086 0.477 0.014 0.600 0.873 0.046 78 55 1.212 0.052 0.782 0.965 0.849 0.047 78 55 1.084 0.055 0.756 0.942 0.856 0.045 78 55 1.132 0.053 0.766 0.946 0.807 0.050 78 55 1.063 0.062 0.707 0.906 0.781 0.057 78 55 1.176 0.073 0.666 0.895 0.038 0.013 343 247 1.281 0.346 0.012 0.064 0.143 0.020 343 247 1.054 0.139 0.104 0.183 0.116 0.021 343 247 1.244 0.183 0.073 0.158 0.013 0.007 322 233 1.067 0.515 0.000 0.026 0.246 0.027 322 233 1.071 0.110 0.192 0.300 0.252 0.029 322 233 1.195 0.116 0.194 0.310 2.681 0.213 na 2,020 1.398 0.079 2.255 3.107 29.971 5.496 869 625 0.944 0.183 18.978 40.964 50.907 8.040 870 626 1.064 0.158 34.828 66.986 12.197 4.307 870 626 1.227 0.353 3.584 20.811 62.484 8.004 871 626 0.994 0.128 46.476 78.492 20.936 4.865 870 626 0.968 0.232 11.206 30.667 0.754 0.134 na 2,020 1.333 0.178 0.485 1.022 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ na = Not applicable Appendix B * 179 Table B.8 Sampling errors for women: Dashoguz Region sample, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of cases Stan- ______________ Rela- Confidence dard Un- Weight- Design tive intervals Value error weighted ed effect error ____________ Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Urban resident Primary/secondary education Secondary-special education Never in union Currently in union Ever in union before 20 Sex before 18 Children ever born Children ever born to women over 40 Children surviving Knowing any method Knowing any modern method Ever used any method Using any method Using any modern method Using pill Using IUD Using condom Using female sterilization Currently using abstinence Using withdrawal Using LAM Public source user Desires no more children Wants to delay child at least 2 years Ideal number of children BMI < 18.5 BMI between 18.5 and 30.0 BMI > 30.0 Women’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Women with severe anemia Women with moderate anemia Women with mild anemia Mother received medical care at birth Had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks Treated with ORS packets Sought medical treatment Received BCG vaccination Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Received measles vaccination Fully immunized Children’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Children’s height-for-age (< -2 SD) Children’s weight-for-age (< -2 SD) Children with severe anemia Children with moderate anemia Children with mild anemia Total fertility rate (3 years) Neonatal mortality rate (10 years) Infant mortality rate (10 years) Child mortality rate (10 years) Under-five mortality rate (10 years) Postneonatal mortality rate (10 years) Total abortion rate (3 years) 0.328 0.031 2,833 1,628 3.526 0.095 0.266 0.390 0.797 0.010 2,833 1,628 1.340 0.013 0.777 0.818 0.203 0.010 2,833 1,628 1.340 0.050 0.182 0.223 0.372 0.015 2,833 1,628 1.629 0.040 0.342 0.402 0.584 0.012 2,833 1,628 1.275 0.020 0.560 0.607 0.285 0.012 2,244 1,293 1.259 0.042 0.261 0.309 0.086 0.007 2,244 1,293 1.250 0.086 0.072 0.101 2.206 0.050 2,833 1,628 1.035 0.023 2.106 2.305 5.774 0.152 481 283 1.320 0.026 5.470 6.078 1.946 0.045 2,833 1,628 1.068 0.023 1.857 2.035 0.992 0.002 1,656 950 1.152 0.003 0.987 0.997 0.992 0.002 1,656 950 1.152 0.003 0.987 0.997 0.903 0.008 1,656 950 1.154 0.009 0.886 0.920 0.558 0.014 1,656 950 1.134 0.025 0.530 0.586 0.548 0.014 1,656 950 1.152 0.026 0.520 0.577 0.005 0.002 1,656 950 1.138 0.386 0.001 0.009 0.405 0.014 1,656 950 1.183 0.035 0.377 0.434 0.005 0.001 1,656 950 0.733 0.267 0.002 0.007 0.011 0.003 1,656 950 1.068 0.251 0.005 0.016 0.003 0.001 1,656 950 0.946 0.434 0.000 0.005 0.007 0.002 1,656 950 1.201 0.361 0.002 0.011 0.069 0.005 2,833 1,628 1.008 0.069 0.060 0.079 0.786 0.014 925 533 1.011 0.017 0.759 0.813 0.531 0.015 1,656 950 1.198 0.028 0.502 0.561 0.154 0.011 1,656 950 1.191 0.069 0.133 0.175 3.475 0.033 2,476 1,427 1.087 0.010 3.408 3.542 0.105 0.007 2,624 1,510 1.181 0.067 0.090 0.119 0.813 0.009 2,624 1,510 1.157 0.011 0.795 0.830 0.083 0.009 2,624 1,510 1.594 0.103 0.066 0.100 0.058 0.004 2,618 1,506 0.980 0.077 0.049 0.067 0.018 0.003 2,792 1,606 1.084 0.154 0.012 0.023 0.105 0.008 2,792 1,606 1.307 0.072 0.090 0.120 0.401 0.011 2,792 1,606 1.238 0.029 0.378 0.424 0.971 0.008 1,384 801 1.342 0.008 0.955 0.987 0.015 0.004 1,275 735 1.084 0.249 0.007 0.022 0.814 0.078 22 11 0.864 0.096 0.658 0.970 0.596 0.126 22 11 1.104 0.211 0.344 0.847 0.989 0.007 214 126 1.029 0.007 0.974 1.000 0.984 0.008 214 126 0.878 0.008 0.969 0.999 0.965 0.012 214 126 0.967 0.012 0.941 0.989 0.918 0.025 214 126 1.334 0.027 0.868 0.967 0.899 0.025 214 126 1.233 0.028 0.849 0.949 0.050 0.006 1,093 635 0.962 0.127 0.038 0.063 0.272 0.016 1,093 635 1.134 0.058 0.241 0.304 0.160 0.015 1,093 635 1.263 0.092 0.131 0.190 0.014 0.003 895 526 0.894 0.252 0.007 0.020 0.238 0.016 895 526 1.121 0.069 0.205 0.271 0.268 0.017 895 526 1.126 0.062 0.235 0.301 3.137 0.112 na 4,574 1.185 0.036 2.912 3.361 29.522 3.331 2,932 1,707 0.980 0.113 22.859 36.185 80.402 6.896 2,934 1,708 1.233 0.086 66.610 94.194 18.772 3.115 2,942 1,713 1.218 0.166 12.543 25.002 97.665 7.560 2,944 1,714 1.262 0.077 82.545 112.785 50.880 5.454 2,934 1,708 1.211 0.107 39.971 61.788 0.599 0.064 na 4,574 1.161 0.107 0.471 0.727 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ na = Not applicable 180 * Appendix B Table B.9 Sampling errors for women: Lebap Region sample, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of cases Stan- ______________ Rela- Confidence dard Un- Weight- Design tive intervals Value error weighted ed effect error ____________ Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Urban resident Primary/secondary education Secondary-special education Never in union Currently in union Ever in union before 20 Sex before 18 Children ever born Children ever born to women over 40 Children surviving Knowing any method Knowing any modern method Ever used any method Using any method Using any modern method Using pill Using IUD Using condom Using female sterilization Currently using abstinence Using withdrawal Using LAM Public source user Desires no more children Wants to delay child at least 2 years Ideal number of children BMI < 18.5 BMI between 18.5 and 30.0 BMI > 30.0 Women’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Women with severe anemia Women with moderate anemia Women with mild anemia Mother received medical care at birth Had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks Treated with ORS packets Sought medical treatment Received BCG vaccination Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Received measles vaccination Fully immunized Children’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Children’s height-for-age (< -2 SD) Children’s weight-for-age (< -2 SD) Children with severe anemia Children with moderate anemia Children with mild anemia Total fertility rate (3 years) Neonatal mortality rate (10 years) Infant mortality rate (10 years) Child mortality rate (10 years) Under-five mortality rate (10 years) Postneonatal mortality rate (10 years) Total abortion rate (3 years) 0.443 0.048 1,263 1,607 3.429 0.108 0.347 0.539 0.591 0.020 1,263 1,607 1.411 0.033 0.552 0.630 0.409 0.020 1,263 1,607 1.411 0.048 0.370 0.448 0.299 0.017 1,263 1,607 1.327 0.057 0.265 0.333 0.641 0.014 1,263 1,607 1.049 0.022 0.613 0.669 0.349 0.017 996 1,258 1.157 0.050 0.314 0.384 0.078 0.009 996 1,258 1.115 0.121 0.059 0.097 2.189 0.052 1,263 1,607 0.828 0.024 2.085 2.293 4.780 0.145 234 307 1.061 0.030 4.490 5.070 2.007 0.044 1,263 1,607 0.788 0.022 1.918 2.096 0.993 0.004 817 1,030 1.285 0.004 0.986 1.000 0.992 0.004 817 1,030 1.243 0.004 0.984 1.000 0.858 0.008 817 1,030 0.680 0.010 0.842 0.875 0.629 0.016 817 1,030 0.940 0.025 0.597 0.661 0.485 0.017 817 1,030 0.983 0.035 0.451 0.520 0.005 0.003 817 1,030 0.989 0.474 0.000 0.010 0.361 0.015 817 1,030 0.876 0.041 0.331 0.390 0.015 0.004 817 1,030 0.871 0.244 0.008 0.023 0.023 0.005 817 1,030 0.924 0.209 0.014 0.033 0.033 0.005 817 1,030 0.788 0.148 0.023 0.043 0.087 0.009 817 1,030 0.942 0.107 0.068 0.106 0.041 0.008 1,263 1,607 1.349 0.183 0.026 0.056 0.847 0.026 414 516 1.459 0.030 0.796 0.899 0.560 0.018 817 1,030 1.058 0.033 0.524 0.597 0.212 0.014 817 1,030 0.987 0.067 0.184 0.240 3.326 0.057 1,248 1,588 1.376 0.017 3.213 3.440 0.084 0.011 1,173 1,494 1.418 0.137 0.061 0.107 0.811 0.014 1,173 1,494 1.193 0.017 0.784 0.839 0.105 0.006 1,173 1,494 0.710 0.061 0.092 0.117 0.037 0.007 1,173 1,494 1.216 0.182 0.023 0.050 0.009 0.003 1,258 1,601 1.096 0.325 0.003 0.015 0.064 0.007 1,258 1,601 1.057 0.114 0.049 0.078 0.306 0.015 1,258 1,601 1.142 0.049 0.276 0.335 0.998 0.002 590 729 0.932 0.002 0.995 1.000 0.032 0.007 560 692 0.932 0.220 0.018 0.045 0.776 0.086 18 22 0.855 0.111 0.604 0.948 0.356 0.142 18 22 1.232 0.400 0.071 0.641 0.992 0.008 116 144 0.977 0.008 0.975 1.000 0.965 0.016 116 144 0.954 0.017 0.932 0.998 0.958 0.018 116 144 0.969 0.019 0.921 0.994 0.975 0.014 116 144 0.950 0.014 0.947 1.000 0.940 0.022 116 144 0.977 0.023 0.896 0.983 0.036 0.006 539 668 0.723 0.170 0.024 0.048 0.219 0.018 539 668 0.955 0.082 0.183 0.256 0.121 0.016 539 668 1.040 0.128 0.090 0.152 0.008 0.006 483 598 1.511 0.775 0.000 0.020 0.176 0.017 483 598 0.988 0.098 0.141 0.210 0.226 0.028 483 598 1.430 0.125 0.169 0.283 2.970 0.201 na 4,487 1.340 0.068 2.568 3.373 20.857 3.887 1,290 1,592 0.950 0.186 13.083 28.632 48.584 6.278 1,290 1,592 1.030 0.129 36.028 61.140 18.885 3.559 1,292 1,594 0.878 0.188 11.768 26.002 66.552 7.130 1,292 1,594 0.942 0.107 52.291 80.812 27.727 5.571 1,290 1,592 1.180 0.201 16.586 38.869 1.158 0.128 na 4,487 1.158 0.111 0.901 1.414 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ na = Not applicable Appendix B * 181 Table B.10 Sampling errors for women: Mary Region sample, Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Number of cases Stan- ______________ Rela- Confidence dard Un- Weight- Design tive intervals Value error weighted ed effect error ____________ Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ Urban resident Primary/secondary education Secondary-special education Never in union Currently in union Ever in union before 20 Sex before 18 Children ever born Children ever born to women over 40 Children surviving Knowing any method Knowing any modern method Ever used any method Using any method Using any modern method Using pill Using IUD Using condom Using female sterilization Currently using abstinence Using withdrawal Using LAM Public source user Desires no more children Wants to delay child at least 2 years Ideal number of children BMI < 18.5 BMI between 18.5 and 30.0 BMI > 30.0 Women’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Women with severe anemia Women with moderate anemia Women with mild anemia Mother received medical care at birth Had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks Treated with ORS packets Sought medical treatment Received BCG vaccination Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Received measles vaccination Fully immunized Children’s weight-for-height (< -2 SD) Children’s height-for-age (< -2 SD) Children’s weight-for-age (< -2 SD) Children with severe anemia Children with moderate anemia Children with mild anemia Total fertility rate (3 years) Neonatal mortality rate (10 years) Infant mortality rate (10 years) Child mortality rate (10 years) Under-five mortality rate (10 years) Postneonatal mortality rate (10 years) Total abortion rate (3 years) 0.265 0.030 1,157 1,791 2.312 0.113 0.205 0.325 0.840 0.014 1,157 1,791 1.322 0.017 0.812 0.869 0.160 0.014 1,157 1,791 1.322 0.089 0.131 0.188 0.312 0.013 1,157 1,791 0.974 0.042 0.286 0.339 0.642 0.016 1,157 1,791 1.114 0.024 0.611 0.674 0.247 0.012 921 1,427 0.860 0.050 0.222 0.271 0.057 0.009 921 1,427 1.200 0.160 0.039 0.076 2.212 0.058 1,157 1,791 0.895 0.026 2.095 2.328 4.917 0.138 223 340 0.994 0.028 4.641 5.194 1.924 0.050 1,157 1,791 0.892 0.026 1.825 2.024 1.000 0.000 741 1,150 na 0.000 1.000 1.000 1.000 0.000 741 1,150 na 0.000 1.000 1.000 0.914 0.010 741 1,150 0.996 0.011 0.893 0.934 0.645 0.016 741 1,150 0.886 0.024 0.614 0.676 0.533 0.015 741 1,150 0.830 0.029 0.503 0.564 0.011 0.003 741 1,150 0.874 0.304 0.004 0.018 0.407 0.016 741 1,150 0.912 0.040 0.374 0.440 0.006 0.004 741 1,150 1.194 0.545 0.000 0.013 0.022 0.007 741 1,150 1.220 0.301 0.009 0.035 0.020 0.005 741 1,150 0.947 0.243 0.010 0.030 0.081 0.009 741 1,150 0.909 0.113 0.063 0.099 0.052 0.006 1,157 1,791 0.862 0.108 0.041 0.063 0.844 0.015 403 629 0.826 0.018 0.815 0.874 0.542 0.027 741 1,150 1.464 0.049 0.488 0.596 0.141 0.016 741 1,150 1.227 0.111 0.109 0.172 3.358 0.034 1,064 1,647 0.876 0.010 3.291 3.426 0.115 0.007 1,075 1,662 0.738 0.063 0.101 0.129 0.790 0.012 1,075 1,662 0.982 0.015 0.765 0.814 0.096 0.008 1,075 1,662 0.936 0.088 0.079 0.113 0.059 0.008 1,074 1,660 1.157 0.141 0.042 0.075 0.006 0.002 1,129 1,744 1.023 0.396 0.001 0.011 0.095 0.013 1,129 1,744 1.503 0.138 0.068 0.121 0.434 0.019 1,129 1,744 1.304 0.044 0.395 0.472 0.972 0.010 583 914 1.193 0.011 0.951 0.992 0.048 0.010 516 808 0.988 0.198 0.029 0.067 0.795 0.069 26 39 0.852 0.087 0.657 0.934 0.445 0.098 26 39 0.946 0.221 0.249 0.642 0.946 0.024 99 157 1.069 0.025 0.898 0.994 0.956 0.021 99 157 1.060 0.022 0.914 0.999 0.947 0.024 99 157 1.058 0.025 0.899 0.994 0.923 0.030 99 157 1.114 0.032 0.864 0.982 0.893 0.034 99 157 1.100 0.038 0.825 0.960 0.076 0.011 461 720 0.861 0.144 0.054 0.098 0.231 0.023 461 720 1.170 0.100 0.184 0.277 0.112 0.016 461 720 1.083 0.145 0.079 0.144 0.000 0.000 445 697 na na 0.000 0.000 0.074 0.018 445 697 1.374 0.240 0.038 0.109 0.081 0.017 445 697 1.339 0.214 0.047 0.116 3.088 0.187 na 5,029 1.384 0.061 2.713 3.462 48.908 5.420 1,195 1,865 0.734 0.111 38.069 59.748 98.570 10.213 1,195 1,865 1.056 0.104 78.144 118.997 26.764 5.114 1,197 1,868 0.996 0.191 16.536 36.992 122.696 11.290 1,198 1,870 1.082 0.092 100.116 145.275 49.662 7.155 1,194 1,864 1.118 0.144 35.352 63.972 0.941 0.129 na 5,029 1.112 0.137 0.683 1.200 ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________ na = Not applicable Appendix C * 183 Table C.1 Household age distribution Single-year age distribution of the de facto household population by sex (weighted), Turkmenistan 2000 __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Males Females Males Females ________________ ________________ ______________ ________________ Age Number Percent Number Percent Age Number Percent Number Percent __________________________________________________________________________________________________ 0 382 2.6 342 2.2 1 301 2.0 347 2.2 2 343 2.3 310 2.0 3 366 2.5 345 2.2 4 348 2.3 347 2.2 5 360 2.4 371 2.3 6 410 2.7 408 2.6 7 364 2.4 369 2.3 8 393 2.6 360 2.3 9 396 2.7 386 2.4 10 422 2.8 400 2.5 11 362 2.4 366 2.3 12 387 2.6 406 2.6 13 447 3.0 382 2.4 14 351 2.4 411 2.6 15 329 2.2 326 2.1 16 380 2.5 336 2.1 17 344 2.3 326 2.0 18 287 1.9 328 2.1 19 187 1.3 332 2.1 20 188 1.3 305 1.9 21 275 1.8 321 2.0 22 290 1.9 289 1.8 23 282 1.9 339 2.1 24 292 2.0 322 2.0 25 309 2.1 258 1.6 26 260 1.7 267 1.7 27 268 1.8 252 1.6 28 262 1.8 238 1.5 29 213 1.4 243 1.5 30 232 1.6 231 1.5 31 230 1.5 247 1.6 32 213 1.4 185 1.2 33 193 1.3 192 1.2 34 199 1.3 210 1.3 35 167 1.1 207 1.3 36 157 1.0 179 1.1 37 184 1.2 174 1.1 38 182 1.2 208 1.3 39 191 1.3 212 1.3 40 196 1.3 157 1.0 41 154 1.0 177 1.1 42 175 1.2 151 1.0 43 141 0.9 189 1.2 44 124 0.8 178 1.1 45 136 0.9 150 0.9 46 132 0.9 145 0.9 47 125 0.8 146 0.9 48 114 0.8 140 0.9 49 129 0.9 102 0.6 50 140 0.9 188 1.2 51 77 0.5 107 0.7 52 104 0.7 124 0.8 53 92 0.6 112 0.7 54 68 0.5 72 0.5 55 37 0.2 61 0.4 56 38 0.3 40 0.2 57 52 0.4 41 0.3 58 73 0.5 97 0.6 59 78 0.5 80 0.5 60 93 0.6 111 0.7 61 61 0.4 75 0.5 62 85 0.6 98 0.6 63 93 0.6 87 0.5 64 57 0.4 89 0.6 65 49 0.3 54 0.3 66 46 0.3 63 0.4 67 60 0.4 69 0.4 68 60 0.4 66 0.4 69 48 0.3 60 0.4 70+ 359 2.4 580 3.7 Don’t know/ missing 3 0.0 2 0.0 Total 14,946 100.0 15,885 100.0 __________________________________________________________________________________________________ Note: The de facto population includes all residents and nonresidents (visitors) who slept in the household the night before the interview. DATA QUALITY TABLES APPENDIX C 184 * Appendix C Table C.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women Percent distribution of the de facto household population of women age 10-54, and of interviewed women age 15-49, and percentage of eligible women who were interviewed (weighted) by five-year groups, Turkmenistan 2000 ______________________________________________________________ Household population Percentage of women Interviewed women of eligible age 10-54 age 15-49 women __________________ ________________ interviewed Age Number Percent Number Percent (weighted) ______________________________________________________________ 10-14 1,965 na na na na 15-19 1,647 20.4 1,554 20.2 94.4 20-24 1,577 19.6 1,517 19.7 96.2 25-29 1,257 15.6 1,206 15.7 95.9 30-34 1,064 13.2 1,026 13.3 96.4 25-39 979 12.2 941 12.2 96.1 40-44 852 10.6 811 10.5 95.2 45-49 683 8.5 645 8.4 94.5 50-54 603 na na na na 15-49 8,059 na 7,700 na 95.5 ______________________________________________________________ Note: The de facto population includes all residents and nonresidents (visitors) who slept in the household the night before the interview. Weights for both the household population of women and interviewed women are the household weights. Classification by age is based on the age reported in the household schedule. na = Not applicable Appendix C * 185 Table C.3 Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations missing information for selected demographic and health questions, Turkmenistan 2000 ________________________________________________________________________________ Percentage Number missing of Subject Reference group information cases ________________________________________________________________________________ Birth date Births in the past 15 years Month only 0.22 11,312 Month and year 0.00 11,312 Age at death Deaths among births in past 15 years 0.07 1,006 Age at/date of first union1 Ever-married women age 15-49 0.07 5,356 Respondent’s education All women age 15-49 0.00 7,919 Anthropometry Living children age 0-59 months 2.47 3,494 Height 6.84 3,292 Weight 6.74 3,292 Height or weight 7.47 3,292 Diarrhea in last 2 weeks Living children age 0-59 months 0.36 3,292 Anemia Children Living children age 6-59 months 10.32 2,936 Women All women age 15-49 0.00 7,719 _______________________________________________________________________________ 1 Both year and age missing 186 * Appendix C C .4 B irt hs b y ca le nd ar y ea rs D ist rib ut io n of b irt hs b y ca le nd ar y ea rs fo r l iv in g (L ), de ad (D ), an d al l ( T) c hi ld re n, a cc or di ng to re po rti ng c om pl et en es s, s ex ra tio a t b irt h, a nd ra tio o f b irt hs , T ur km en ist an 2 00 0 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ Pe rc en ta ge w ith N um be r o f b irt hs co m pl et e bi rth d at e1 Se x ra tio a t b irt h2 C al en da r y ea r r at io 3 M al e F em al e __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ Ye ar (L ) (D ) (T ) (L ) (D ) (T ) (L ) (D ) (T ) (L ) (D ) (T ) (L ) (D ) (T ) (L ) (D ) (T ) __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ 20 00 4 36 1 7 4 53 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 1 20 .1 6 1. 1 1 17 .0 n a na n a 2 38 7 2 45 1 98 1 1 2 09 19 99 6 67 5 4 7 21 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 8 7. 6 1 41 .3 9 0. 8 1 23 .5 1 63 .7 1 25 .9 3 12 3 2 3 43 3 55 2 2 3 78 19 98 6 44 4 9 6 92 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 1 03 .8 1 63 .8 1 07 .1 9 9. 1 7 8. 7 9 7. 3 3 28 3 0 3 58 3 16 1 8 3 34 19 97 6 32 7 0 7 02 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 1 11 .3 1 52 .0 1 14 .8 9 6. 8 1 16 .3 9 8. 4 3 33 4 2 3 75 2 99 2 8 3 27 19 96 6 63 7 1 7 34 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 1 07 .1 1 00 .5 1 06 .5 9 8. 6 9 1. 8 9 7. 9 3 43 3 6 3 78 3 20 3 5 3 55 19 95 7 13 8 5 7 98 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 8 8. 5 1 97 .5 9 6. 2 1 01 .5 1 21 .8 1 03 .3 3 35 5 7 3 91 3 78 2 9 4 07 19 94 7 42 6 9 8 11 9 9. 8 1 00 .0 9 9. 8 1 04 .4 1 12 .7 1 05 .0 1 00 .3 8 0. 8 9 8. 3 3 79 3 7 4 16 3 63 3 2 3 96 19 93 7 67 8 5 8 52 1 00 .0 9 7. 7 9 9. 8 9 6. 9 1 69 .6 1 02 .3 1 07 .9 1 13 .5 1 08 .4 3 77 5 4 4 31 3 90 3 2 4 21 19 92 6 80 8 2 7 61 9 9. 9 9 8. 7 9 9. 8 1 03 .6 9 4. 8 1 02 .7 9 3. 3 1 16 .1 9 5. 3 3 46 4 0 3 86 3 34 4 2 3 76 19 91 6 90 5 5 7 45 9 9. 8 1 00 .0 9 9. 9 1 01 .4 1 77 .2 1 05 .6 n a n a n a 3 47 3 5 3 83 3 43 2 0 3 62 19 96 -2 00 0 3 ,0 41 2 61 3 ,3 02 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 1 00 .0 1 04 .3 1 27 .4 1 06 .0 n a n a n a 1 ,5 53 1 46 1 ,6 99 1 ,4 89 1 15 1 ,6 03 19 91 -1 99 5 3 ,5 91 3 76 3 ,9 68 9 9. 9 9 9. 2 9 9. 8 9 8. 7 1 43 .5 1 02 .3 n a na na 1 ,7 84 2 22 2 ,0 06 1 ,8 07 1 55 1 ,9 62 19 86 -1 99 0 3 ,4 69 3 43 3 ,8 11 9 9. 8 9 7. 2 9 9. 6 1 05 .8 1 35 .4 1 08 .2 na n a na 1 ,7 83 1 97 1 ,9 80 1 ,6 85 1 46 1 ,8 31 19 81 -1 98 5 2 ,5 42 3 62 2 ,9 04 9 9. 7 9 8. 5 9 9. 6 1 03 .0 1 22 .2 1 05 .2 n a n a n a 1 ,2 90 1 99 1 ,4 89 1 ,2 52 1 63 1 ,4 15 < 1 98 1 2 ,3 73 4 46 2 ,8 19 9 9. 7 9 9. 0 9 9. 6 1 03 .0 1 23 .6 1 06 .0 na n a n a 1 ,2 04 2 47 1 ,4 51 1 ,1 69 2 00 1 ,3 69 A ll 15 ,0 16 1 ,7 89 16 ,8 04 9 9. 8 9 8. 7 9 9. 7 1 02 .9 1 30 .1 1 05 .5 n a n a n a 7 ,6 14 1 ,0 11 8 ,6 25 7 ,4 02 7 77 8 ,1 79 __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ na = N ot a pp lic ab le 1 B ot h ye ar a nd m on th o f b irt h gi ve n 2 ( B m /B f)* 10 0, w he re B m a nd B f a re th e nu m be rs o f m al e an d fe m al e bi rt hs , r es pe ct iv el y 3 [ 2B x/( B x -1 + B x + 1) ]* 10 0, w he re B x i s th e nu m be r b irt hs in c al en da r y ea r x Appendix C * 187 Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in days Distribution of reported deaths under 1 month of age by age at death in days and the percentage of neonatal deaths reported to occur at ages 0-6 days, for five-year periods preceding the survey, Turkmenistan 2000 ________________________________________________________________ Number of years preceding survey Age at death _________________________________ Total (in days) 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-19 _______________________________________________________________ 0 12 11 18 8 50 1 23 22 26 20 92 2 16 13 4 13 45 3 17 19 18 13 67 4 4 10 4 9 27 5 6 4 3 7 19 6 4 0 2 2 7 7 13 9 4 9 35 8 1 0 2 0 2 9 2 1 2 1 6 10 6 7 1 4 18 11 0 0 4 1 5 12 0 3 2 1 6 13 0 1 3 1 5 14 0 1 0 0 1 15 6 3 5 2 16 16 2 1 0 1 4 17 2 2 0 2 6 18 0 2 2 0 3 19 0 1 0 0 1 20 5 9 2 4 19 22 2 2 0 0 3 23 1 0 0 0 1 24 1 1 0 0 2 25 2 4 0 0 5 27 0 1 1 1 3 28 1 2 1 1 4 31+ 0 1 1 2 4 Total 0-301 123 128 101 100 452 Percent early neonatal2 66.2 61.9 73.5 72.1 67.9 ________________________________________________________________ 1 Includes cases for which age at death (in exact days) is not known. Total may not equal column sum due to rounding. 2 (0-6 days/0-30 days) * 100 188 * Appendix C Table C.6 Reporting of age at death in months Distribution of reported deaths under 2 years of age by age at death in months and the percentage of infant deaths reported to occur at ages under one month, for five-year periods preceding the survey, Turkmenistan 2000 _____________________________________________________________ Number of years preceding the survey Age at deaths _______________________________ Total (in months) 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-19 _____________________________________________________________ <11 123 128 101 100 452 1 8 18 21 22 69 2 17 30 25 14 86 3 23 24 19 24 90 4 11 14 31 25 81 5 17 19 11 22 69 6 18 8 17 32 75 7 11 12 21 16 60 8 8 14 8 12 42 9 5 8 11 13 37 10 1 3 6 4 13 11 11 7 9 7 35 12 5 4 5 3 17 13 3 1 1 1 6 14 4 2 4 0 10 15 1 1 0 1 2 16 0 0 1 1 2 18 1 3 2 1 8 19 0 0 0 1 1 20 0 0 1 0 1 24+ 0 0 0 1 1 1 Year 22 35 18 21 96 Total 0-112 252 285 281 292 1,110 Percent neonatal3 48.8 44.8 36.0 34.2 40.7 _____________________________________________________________ 1 Includes deaths under 1 month reported in days 2 Includes cases for which age at death in exact months is not known 3 (under 1 month/under 1 year) * 100 Appendix D * 189 QUESTIONNAIRES APPENDIX D 1 2000 TURKMENISTAN DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE CLINICAL RESEARCH CENTER FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND MEDICAL INDUSTRY OF TURKMENISTAN IDENTIFICATION1 PLACE NAME NAME OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD CLUSTER NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOUSEHOLD NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LARGE CITY/SMALL CITY/TOWN/COUNTRYSIDE (LARGE CITY=1, SMALL CITY=2, TOWN=3, COUNTRYSIDE=4) . . . . . . URBAN/RURAL (URBAN=1, RURAL=2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOUSEHOLD ELIGIBLE FOR WOMEN’S INTERVIEW, ANTHROPOMETRY AND ANEMIA TESTING (YES = 1, NO = 2) . . . INTERVIEWER VISITS 1 2 3 FINAL VISIT DATE INTERVIEWER’S NAME RESULT* DAY MONTH YEAR 2 0 0 0 NAME RESULT NEXT VISIT: DATE TOTAL NO. OF VISITS +))), *!!!* .)))-TIME *RESULT CODES: 1 COMPLETED 2 NO HOUSEHOLD MEMBER AT HOME OR NO COMPETENT RESPONDENT AT HOME AT TIME OF VISIT 3 ENTIRE HOUSEHOLD ABSENT FOR EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME 4 POSTPONED 5 REFUSED 6 DWELLING VACANT OR ADDRESS NOT A DWELLING 7 DWELLING DESTROYED 8 DWELLING NOT FOUND 9 OTHER (SPECIFY) TOTAL PERSONS IN HOUSEHOLD +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- TOTAL ELIGIBLE WOMEN +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- TOTAL ELIGIBLE MEN +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- LINE NO. OF RESP. TO HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- SUPERVISOR FIELD EDITOR OFFICE EDITOR KEYED BY NAME +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- NAME +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))-DATE DATE 2 HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE Now we would like some information about the people who usually live in your household or who are staying with you now. L INE NO. USUAL RESIDENTS AND VISITORS RE LAT ION SH IP TO HEAD OF HOUS EHOLD SEX RESIDENCE AGE ELIGIBILITY Please give me the names of the persons who usually l ive in your household and guests of the hous ehold who staye d here last night, start ing with the head of the household. What is the relationship of (NAME ) to the head of the household?* Is (NA ME ) ma le or female? Does (NAME) usually l ive here? Did (NAME) stay here la st nigh t? How old is (NAM E)? CIRCLE LINE NUMBER OF ALL WOMEN AGE 15-49 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) M F YES NO YES NO IN YEARS 1 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 2 3 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 3 4 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 4 5 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 5 6 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 6 7 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 7 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 8 9 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 9 10 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 10 * CO DE S F OR Q.3 RELATIONSHIP TO HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD: 01 = HEAD 02 = WIFE OR HUSBAND 03 = SON OR DAUGHTER 04 = SON- IN -LAW OR DAUGHTER-IN-LAW 05 = GRAND CHILD 06 = PARENT 07 = PARENT-IN-LAW 08 = BROTHER OR SISTER 10 = OTHER RELATIVE 11 = ADOPTED/FOSTER/ STEPCHILD 12 = NOT RELATED 98 = DON’T KNOW 3 LINE NO. PARENTAL SURVIVORSHIP AND RESIDENCE FOR PE RSON S LESS TH AN 15 YEAR S OLD** EDUCATION Is (NA ME )’s natural mother alive? IF ALIVE Is (NA ME )’s natural father alive? IF ALIVE IF AGE 6 YEARS OR OLDER IF AGE 6-24 YEARS Does (NA ME )’s natural mother l ive in this household? IF YES: What is her name? RECORD MOTHER’S LINE NUMBER Does (NA ME )’s natural father live in this household? IF YES: W hat is his name? RECORD FATHER’S LINE NUMBER Has (NAME) ever attended sch ool? What is the highest level of school (NAME) has attended?*** What is the highest grade (NAME ) completed at that level?*** During the school year ende d in Ma y 200 0, did (NAME ) attend school at any time? During that school year, what level and grade [was ] (NAME) attending? During the previous school year ende d in May 1999, d id (NAME) attend school at any t ime? During that school year, what level and grade d id (NAME) attend? (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (17) (18) (19) (20) YES NO DK YES NO DK YES NO LEVEL GRADE YES NO LEVEL GRADE YES NO LEVEL GRADE 1 1 2 8 G O TO 12 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 G O TO 14 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 2 1 2 8 G O TO 12 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 G O TO 14 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 3 1 2 8 G O TO 12 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 G O TO 14 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 4 1 2 8 G O TO 12 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 G O TO 14 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 5 1 2 8 G O TO 12 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 G O TO 14 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 6 1 2 8 G O TO 12 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 G O TO 14 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 7 1 2 8 G O TO 12 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 G O TO 14 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 8 1 2 8 G O TO 12 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 G O TO 14 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 9 1 2 8 G O TO 12 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 G O TO 14 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 10 1 2 8 G O TO 12 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 G O TO 14 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- ** Q.10 THROUG H Q.13 THESE QUESTIONS REFER TO THE B IOLOGICAL PARENTS OF THE CHILD. IN Q .11 A ND Q.13 , RE CO RD ‘00' IF P AR EN T NO T LIS TE D IN HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE. ***CODE S FOR Q s. 15, 18 AND 20 EDUCA TION LEVEL: 1 = PRIMARY/SECONDARY 2 = SECONDARY SPECIAL 3 = HIGHER 8 = DON’T KNOW EDUCATION GRADE: 00 = LESS THAN 1 YEAR COMPLETED 98 = DON’T KNOW 4 L INE NO. USUAL RESIDENTS AND VISITORS RE LAT ION SH IP TO HEAD OF HOUS EHOLD SEX RESIDENCE AGE ELIGIBILITY Please give me the names of the persons who usually l ive in your household and guests of the hous ehold who staye d here last night, start ing with the head of the household. What is the relationship of (NAME ) to the head of the household?* Is (NAME) male or female? Does (NAME) usually l ive here? Did (NAME) stay here la st nigh t? How old is (NAM E)? CIRCLE LINE NUMBER OF ALL WOMEN AGE 15-49 (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) M F YES NO YES NO IN YEARS 11 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 11 12 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 12 13 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 13 14 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 14 15 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 15 16 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 16 17 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 17 18 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 18 19 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 19 20 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 1 2 1 2 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 20 * CO DE S F OR Q.3 RELATIONSHIP TO HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD: 01 = HEAD 02 = WIFE OR HUSBAND 03 = SON OR DAUGHTER 04 = SON- IN -LAW OR DAUGHTER-IN-LAW 05 = GRAND CHILD 06 = PARENT 07 = PARENT-IN-LAW 08 = BROTHER OR SISTER 10 = OTHER RELATIVE 11 = ADOPTED/FOSTER/ STEPCHILD 12 = NOT RELATED 98 = DON’T KNOW ** Q.10 THROUG H Q.13 THESE QUES TIONS REFER TO THE BIOLOGICAL PARENTS OF THE CHILD. IN Q .11 A ND Q.13 , RE CO RD ‘00' IF PA RE NT NO T LIS TE D IN HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE. ***CODE S FOR Q s. 15, 18 AND 20 EDUCA TION LEVEL: 1 = PRIMARY 2 = SECONDARY 3 = HIGHER 8 = DON’T KNOW EDUCATION GRADE: 00 = LESS THAN 1 YEAR COMPLETED 98 = DON’T KNOW 5 LINE NO. PARENTAL SURVIVORSHIP AND RESIDENCE FOR PE RSON S LESS TH AN 15 YEAR S OLD** EDUCATION Is (NA ME )’s natural mother alive? IF ALIVE Is (NA ME )’s natural father alive? IF ALIVE IF AGE 6 YEARS OR OLDER IF AGE 6-24 YEARS Does (NA ME )’s natural mother l ive in this household? IF YES: What is her name? RECORD MOTHER’S LINE NUMBER Does (NA ME )’s natural father live in this household? IF YES: W hat is his name? RECORD FATHER’S LINE NUMBER Has (NAME ) ever attende d sch ool? What is the highest leve l o f schoo l (NAME) has attended?*** What is the highest g rade (NAME) completed at that level?*** During the school year ended in May 2000, d id (NAME) attend school at any t ime? During that school year, what level and grade [was ] (NAME) attending? During the previous school year ende d in May 1999, d id (NAME) attend school at any t ime? During that school year, what level and grade d id (NAME) attend? (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) (17) (18) (19) (20) YES NO DK YES NO DK YES NO LEVEL GRADE YES NO LEVEL GRADE YES NO LEVEL GRADE 11 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 12 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 13 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 14 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 15 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 16 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 17 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 18 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 19 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 20 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 8 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 GO TO=- 19 +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1 2 NEXT =- LINE +))), *!!!* .)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- TICK HERE IF CONTINUATION SHEET USED +)), .))- Just to make sure that I have a complete list ing: 1) Are there any other persons such as small children or infants that we have not listed? YES +))), .)))2))< ENTER EACH IN TAB LE NO +))), .)))- 2) In addit ion, are there any other people who may not be members of your family, such as domestic servants, lodgers or friends who usually l ive here? YES +))), .)))2))< ENTER EACH IN TAB LE NO +))), .)))- 3) Are there any guests or temporary visitors staying here, or anyone else who slept here last night, who have not been listed? YES +))), .)))2))< ENTER EACH IN TAB LE NO +))), .)))- 6 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 21 What is the main source of drinking water for members of your household?1 PIPED WATER PIPED INTO DWELLING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 PIPED INTO YARD/PLOT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 PUBLIC TAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 WATER FROM OPEN WELL OPEN WELL IN DWELLING . . . . . . . . . . . 21 OPEN WELL IN YARD/PLOT . . . . . . . . . . 22 OPEN PUBLIC WELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 TANKER TRUCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 BOTTLED WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) ))< 23 ))< 23 ))< 23 ))< 23 ))< 23 22 How long does it take you to go there, get water, and come back? +)))0)))0))), MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!*!!!* .)))2)))2)))- ON PREMISES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996 23 What kind of toilet facility do most members of your household use? FLUSH TOILET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 PIT TOILET/LATRINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 NO FACILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) ))< 25 24 Do you share this facility with other households? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 25 Does your household have: Electricity? A radio? A television? A telephone? A refrigerator? YES NO ELECTRICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 TELEVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 TELEPHONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 REFRIGERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 26 What type of fuel does your household mainly use for cooking? ELECTRICITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 LPG/NATURAL GAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 BIOGAS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 KEROSENE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 COAL, LIGNITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 CHARCOAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 FIREWOOD, STRAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 TEZEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 27 MAIN MATERIAL OF THE FLOOR. RECORD OBSERVATION. NATURAL FLOOR EARTH/SAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 RUDIMENTARY FLOOR WOOD PLANKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 FINISHED FLOOR PARQUET OR POLISHED WOOD . . . . . . 31 LYNOLEUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 CEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 CARPET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 7 28 Does any member of your household own: A bicycle? A motorcycle or motor scooter? A car or truck? YES NO BICYCLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 MOTORCYCLE/SCOOTER . . . . . . . . . 1 2 CAR/TRUCK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 33 Does your household have any place which is used for hand washing? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))< 35 34 ASK TO SEE THE PLACE USED MOST OFTEN AND OBSERVE IF THE FOLLOWING ITEMS ARE PRESENT. YES NO WATER/TAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 SOAP, WASH OR OTHER CLEANSING AGENT . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 BASIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 34A Ask respondent to bring the package of salt and note: Type of package (Name of producer) PLASTIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PAPER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO PACKAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NO SALT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 ))< 35 ))< 35 34B Salt iodized or not iodized IODIZED SALT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NOT IODIZED SALT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NOT WRITTEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 35 ASK RESPONDENT FOR A TEASPOONFUL OF SALT. TEST SALT FOR IODINE. RECORD PPM (PARTS PER MILLION). 0 PPM (NO IODINE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 7 PPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 15 PPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 30 PPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 75 PPM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 35A Where do you usually keep your salt? IN THE CLOSED PACKAGE/AWAY FROM PLACE OF COOKING/ IN THE DARK PLACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 IN THE OPENED PACKAGE/NEAR TO PLACE OF COOKING/ IN THE LIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 35B Do you know, that it is necessary to include into ration iodized salt to reduce risk of getting the number of deceases ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 36 Does anybody in your household own dacha, or have access to a garden from which you obtain fruits and vegetables during the growing season? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) 37 Does anybody in your household have animal husbandry? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) 2000 TURKMENISTAN DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY INDIVIDUAL WOMEN’S QUESTIONNAIRE CLINICAL RESEARCH CENTER FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND MEDICAL INDUSTRY OF TURKMENISTAN IDENTIFICATION PLACE NAME NAME OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD CLUSTER NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . HOUSEHOLD NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . LARGE CITY/SMALL CITY/TOWN/COUNTRYSIDE (LARGE CITY=1, SMALL CITY=2, TOWN=3, COUNTRYSIDE=4) . . . . . . . . . URBAN/RURAL (URBAN=1, RURAL=2) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NAME AND LINE NUMBER OF WOMAN______________________________________________________________________ INTERVIEWER VISITS 1 2 3 FINAL VISIT DATE INTERVIEWER’S NAME RESULT* DAY MONTH YEAR 2 0 0 0 NAME RESULT NEXT VISIT : DATE TOTAL NO. OF VISITSTIME * RESULT CODES: 1 COMPLETED 2 NOT AT HOME 3 POSTPONED 4 REFUSED 5 PARTLY COMPLETED 6 INCAPACITATED 7 OTHER ______________ (SPECIFY) TURKMEN RUSSIAN OTHER 1. LANGUAGE OF INTERVIEW 1 2 3 2. NATIVE LANGUAGE OF RESPONDENT 1 2 3 YES NO 3. WHETHER TRANSLATO R USED 1 2 SUPERVISOR FIELD EDITOR OFFICE EDITOR KEYED BY NAME NAME DATE DATE SECTION 1A. RESPONDENT’S BACKGROUND INFORMED CONSENT Hello. My name is_______________________________________ and I am working with the National Clinical Research Center for Maternal and Child Health of Turkmenistan. W e are conducting a national survey about the health of women and children. W e would very much appreciate your participation in this survey. I would like to ask you about your health (and the health of your children). This inform ation will help the governm ent of Turkm enistan to plan health services. The survey usually takes between 20 and 45 minutes to complete. Whatever information you provide will be kept strictly confidential and will not be shown to other persons. Participation in this survey is voluntary and you can choose not to answer any individual question or all of the questions. However, we hope that you will participate in this survey since your views are important.1 At this time, do you want to ask me anything about the survey? May I begin the interview now? Signature of interviewer: ____________________________________ Date: __________________2000 RESPONDENT AGREES TO BE INTERVIEWED. 1 RESPONDENT DOES NOT AGREE TO BE INTERVIEWED. 2 )<END ? NO. QUESTION AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 101 RECORD THE TIME. +)))0))), HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 102 First I would like to ask some questions about you and your household. For most of the time until you were 12 years old, did you live in a city, in a town, or in the countryside? CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TOWN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 COUNTRYSIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 103 How long have you been living continuously in (NAME OF CURRENT PLACE OF RESIDENCE)? IF LESS THAN ONE YEAR, RECORD ‘00' YEARS. +)))0))), YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- ALWAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 VISITOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 ), )2<105 104 Just before you moved here, did you live in a city, in a town, or in the countryside? CITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TOWN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 COUNTRYSIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 105 In what month and year were you born? +)))0))), MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- DON’T KNOW MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 +)))0)))0)))0))), YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!*!!!*!!!* .)))2)))2)))2)))- DON’T KNOW YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9998 NO. QUESTION AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 106 How old were you at your last birthday? COMPARE AND CORRECT 105 AND/OR 106 IF INCONSISTENT. +)))0))), AGE IN COMPLETED YEARS . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 107 Have you ever attended school? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<110 108 What is the highest level of school you attended: primary, secondary, secondary-special or higher? PRIMARY/SECONDARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SECONDARY-SPECIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 HIGHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 109 What is the highest (grade/form/year) you completed at that level? +)))0))), GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 110 Do you read a newspaper or magazine almost every day, at least once a week, less than once a week or not at all? ALMOST EVERY DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 111 Do you listen to the radio almost every day, at least once a week, less than once a week or not at all? ALMOST EVERY DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 112 Do you watch television almost every day, at least once a week, less than once a week or not at all? ALMOST EVERY DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 113 What is your religion: Are you Muslim, Christian,, another religion, or do you not practice any religion? MUSLIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHRISTIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER _______________________ 6 (SPECIFY) NOT RELIGIOUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 DON`T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 114 What is your nationality? Are you Turkmen? Russian? Kazakh? Uzbek? Other? TURKMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RUSSIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 KAZAKH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 UZBEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER________________________ 6 (SPECIFY) DON`T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 114À Before proceeding further with the questionnaire, let me measure your blood pressure and pulse on the left hand. MEASURE THE BLOOD PRESSURE AND PULSE AND RECORD THE RESULTS BLOOD PRESSURE: SYSTOLIC DIASTOLIC PULSE 114B Before proceeding further with the questionnaire, let me measure your blood pressure and pulse on the right hand. MEASURE THE BLOOD PRESSURE AND PULSE AND RECORD THE RESULTS. BLOOD PRESSURE: SYSTOLIC DIASTOLIC PULSE SECTION 1B. ACCESS TO HEALTH CARE AND HEALTH STATUS NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 115 The next questions are about places people go for their health problems. Is there a place that you usually go to when you are sick or need advice about your health? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER __________________________________ 6 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ))<118 ))<119 ))<119 116 What kind of place is it - a Rural or Urban Health House, a Women Counseling Center, Hospital, or some other place? _________________________________________ (RECORD NAME OF FACILITY) RHH/UHH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER __________________________________6 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 117 Do you have a choice of changing place you usually go to for health care? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )3<119 )- 118 What is the reason why you do not have a usual source of care? NO SOURCE IS AVAILABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO REASON TO HAVE BECAUSE SELDOM OR NEVER SICK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RECENTLY MOVED INTO THE AREA . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER ___________________________________6 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 119 During the past 12 months did you visit a doctor because of an illness or for preventive health care, including visits for prenatal care? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<123 120 In what month and year was your most recent visit to a doctor for health care? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9998 121 At that visit, was the doctor you saw a family doctor, who treats a variety of illnesses and gives preventive care, or was he or she a specialist who mainly treats just one type of problem? FAMILY DOCTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SPECIALIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER ___________________________________6 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 122 Was this visit in (MONTH OF VISIT) to the place you usually go to when you are sick or need advice about your health? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 123 During the past 12 months has a doctor or nurse visited you at home for a health check? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<125 123A Who has visited: doctor, or nurse or someone else? DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NURSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER__________________________________ 6 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), /<125 * )- 124 At that visit, was the doctor you saw a family doctor, who treats a variety of illnesses and gives preventive care, or was he or she a specialist who mainly treats just one type of problem? FAMILY DOCTOR. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SPECIALIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER___________________________________6 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 125 During the past 12 months, about how much did you spend out-of-pocket for medical care: less than 100 000 manat, more than 100 000 manat or did not spend any money? NO SPENDING. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LESS THAN 100 000 MANAT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MORE THAN 100 000 MANAT. . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ))< 126 ))< 126 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 125A Did you spend this money for medications, medical service, treatment or other? MEDICATIONS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MEDICAL SERVICE. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B TREATMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C OTHER. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X DON’T KNOW. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 126 Are you aware of a new Presidential health reform program which promotes primary health care and particularly family group practices? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 127 Now I would like to ask you about your own health. Has a doctor or nurse or staff member at a clinic or at hospital told you that you have any of the following conditions? 128 Anemia? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<130 129 When was the first time that you were told you had anemia? IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MORE THAN A YEAR AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 130 Hypertention or high blood pressure? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<132 131 When was the first time that you were told you had high blood pressure? IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MORE THAN A YEAR AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 132 Diabetes or blood sugar? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<134 133 When was the first time that you were told you had diabetes? IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MORE THAN A YEAR AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 134 Kidney diseases, such as pyelonephritis or glomerulonephritis? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<136 135 When was the first time that you were told you had diabetes? IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MORE THAN A YEAR AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 136 Hepatitis or Botkin’s Disease? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<138 137 When was the first time that you were told you had hepatitis? IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MORE THAN A YEAR AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 138 Are currently taking any tablets for prevention and treatment of anemia? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ))< 143 139 Have you been given or have you bought any iron tablets for prevention and treatment of anemia in the past? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<142 140 When was the last time you took iron tablets for prevention and treatment of anemia MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9998 140A Was it during your last pregnancy? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))< 142 141 When you were taking the tablets last time, for how many days did you take them? DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 142 Are you currently taking any medicine, injections or other drug treatment regularly? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<144 ))<146 143 Are you currently taking regularly any medicine, injections or other drug treatment other than tablets which you are taking for prevention and treatment of anemia? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<146 144 Do you know what the medication is for? IF YES, against what disease? DISEASE 145 Can you show me the package of medication which you are taking? IF SHOWS, RECORD THE NAMES OF MEDICATIONS DOES NOT SHOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 8 146 Have you heard of illness called tuberculosis? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))< 156 147 Did you know that tuberculosis can be completely cured with proper medication? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 148 Have you or has anyone in your family ever had tuberculosis? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 149 Other than your family, is there anyone with whom you have frequent contact (neighbors, colleagues, or close friends) who has ever had tuberculosis? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 150 What signs or symptoms would lead you think that a person has tuberculosis? COUGHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A COUGHING WITH SPUTUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B COUGHING MORE THAN 3 WEEKS . . . . . . . . C FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D BLOOD IN SPUTUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E LOSS OF APPETITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F NIGHTSWEATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G PAIN IN A CHEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H TIREDNESS/FATIGUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I WEIGHT LOSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K LETHARGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L OTHER _________________________________ X (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y ))< 152 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 151 What are the symptoms of tuberculosis which would convince you to seek medical assistance? COUGHING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A COUGHING WITH SPUTUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B COUGHING MORE THAN 3 WEEKS . . . . . . . . C FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D BLOOD IN SPUTUM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E LOSS OF APPETITE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F NIGHTSWEATING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G PAIN IN A CHEST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H TIREDNESS/FATIGUE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I WEIGHT LOSS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K LETHARGY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L OTHER _________________________________ X (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y 152 When a person first discovers that he or she has tuberculosis, how should that person be treated initially: hospitalized, treated at home, or both? HOSPITALIZED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 TREATED AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 INITIALLY HOSPITALIZED FOLLOWED BY HOME TREATMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER _________________________________ 6 (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 153 How does tuberculosis spread from one person to another? THROUGH THE AIR WHEN COUGHING . . . . . 1 OTHER _________________________________ 6 (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 154 Where would you go for help if you thought you or your child had tuberculosis? PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 POLYCLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 FGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 TB DISPENSARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 OTHER PUBLIC ______________________________________ 16 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE. HOSPITAL/CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 PRIVATE. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL______________________________ 26 (SPECIFY) OTHER _______________________________ 96 (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 SECTION 2: REPRODUCTION NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 201 Now I would like to ask about all the births you have had during your life. Have you ever given birth? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<206 202 Do you have any sons or daughters to whom you have given birth who are now living with you? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<204 203 How many sons live with you? And how many daughters live with you? IF NONE, RECORD ‘00'. +)))0))), SONS AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 DAUGHTERS AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 204 Do you have any sons or daughters to whom you have given birth who are alive but do not live with you? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<206 205 How many sons are alive but do not live with you? And how many daughters are alive but do not live with you? IF NONE, RECORD ‘00'. +)))0))), SONS ELSEWHERE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 DAUGHTERS ELSEWHERE . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 206 Have you ever given birth to a boy or girl who was born alive but later died? IF NO, PROBE: Any baby who cried or showed signs of life but survived only a few hours or days? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<208 207 How many boys have died? And how many girls have died? IF NONE, RECORD ‘00'. +)))0))), BOYS DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 GIRLS DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 208 SUM ANSWERS TO 203, 205, AND 207, AND ENTER TOTAL. IF NONE, RECORD ‘00'. +)))0))), TOTAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 209 CHECK 208: Just to make sure that I have this right: you have had in TOTAL _____ births during your life. Is that correct? +))), +))), PROBE AND YES /)))-NO .)))2))< CORRECT * 201-208 AS ? NECESSARY. 209A Women sometime have pregnancies which do not result in a live born child. That is, a pregnancy can ended very early by a mini abortion or by an induced abortion, a miscarriage or a stillbirth. In total how many mini abortions, and induced abortions have you had? +)))0))), TOTAL ABORTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 209B How many miscarriages? +)))0))), TOTAL MISCARRIAGES . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 209C How many stillbirths? +)))0))), TOTAL STILLBIRTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 209D SUM ANSWERS TO 208, 209A, 209B,209C, AND ENTER TOTAL. IF NO PREGNANCIES, RECORD ‘00' +)))0))), TOTAL PREGNANCIES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 210 CHECK 209D: ONE OR MORE PREGNANCIES +))), /)))- ? NO PREGNANCIES +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))) ))))))))))))))) ))<228 211 Now I want to talk to you about each of your pregnancies, including those which ended in a live birth, an induced abortion, mini abortion, a miscarriage, and a stillbirth. Starting with your last pregnancy, please tell me the following information 212 When did your (last/next-to- last/etc.) p regna ncy end? In what m onth and ye ar? 213 Did this pregnancy end in a live birth, an induced abortion, mini abortion, a misc arriage, or a sti llbirth? 214 WAS THERE ANY OTHER PREGNANCY BETWEEN THIS AND THE PREVIOUS PREGNANCY? 215 CHECK 213: R E CO R D S A M E RESPONSE 216 Was this a single or a mult iple birth? 217 What name was given to this child? 218 Is (NAM E) a boy o r girl? 219 Is (NAME) sti ll al ive? 220 How old was (NAME) on his/her last birthday? RE CO RD AG E IN COMPLETED YEARS 221 Is (NAME) living w ith you? 222 RECORD HOUS EHOLD LINE NUMBER OF CHILD. RE CO RD ‘00' IF CHILD NOT LIST ED IN HOUS EHOLD 223 How old was (NAME) when he/she died? I f ‘1 YR.’ , PROBE: How ma ny m onths old was (NAME)? RECORD DAYS IF LESS THAN 1 MO NT H; M ON TH S IF L ES S TH A N T W O YEARS. 01 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 02 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 03 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 04 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 05 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 06 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 07 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 08 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 09 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 10 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 11 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 12 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 13 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 14 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 15 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 16 +)))0))), MONTH . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YEAR LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . 1 INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MINI ABORTION . . . 3 MISCARRIAGE . . . . 4 STILLBIRTH . . . . . . . 5 YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2 LIVE BIRTH . . . . . . . . . 1 ABORTION . . . 2 MISCARRIAGE 3 STILLBIRTH . . . 4 NEXT SING . . . . . . 1 MULT . . . . . 2 N A M E ___________ BOY . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . 2 YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 * ? 223 AGE IN YEARS +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- YES . . . . 1 NO . . . . . 2 L INE NUMBER +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT PREGNANCY +)))0))), DAYS 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS 3 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- * ? NEXT 225 COMPARE 209D WITH NUMBER OF PREGNANCIES IN HISTORY ABOVE AND MARK: NUMBERS +))), NUMBERS ARE +))), ARE SAME /)))- DIFFERENT .)))2))< (PROBE AND RECONCILE) * ? CHECK: FOR EACH PREGNANCY: YEAR OF PREGNANCY ENDED IS RECORDED. FOR EACH LIVING CHILD: CURRENT AGE IS RECORDED. FOR EACH DEAD CHILD: AGE AT DEATH IS RECORDED. FOR AGE AT DEATH 12 MONTHS OR 1 YR.: PROBE TO DETERMINE EXACT NUMBER OF MONTHS. +))), *!!!* /)))1 *!!!* /)))1 *!!!* /)))1 *!!!* .)))- 226 CHECK 212 AND 213, AND ENTER THE NUMBER OF BIRTHS IN JANUARY 1995 OR LATER. IF NONE, RECORD ‘0’. +))), *!!!* .)))- 227 FOR EACH PREGNANCY THAT ENDED IN JANUARY 1994 OR LATER IN COLUMN 1 OF THE CALENDAR ENTER THE CODE OF THE PREGNANCY OUTCOME IN THE MONTH OF PREGNANCY ENDED: • ‘B’ FOR LIVE BIRTHS, • ‘S’ FOR STILLBIRTH , • ‘M’ FOR MISCARRIAGE, • ‘D’ INDUCED ABORT BY D&C, • ‘V’ INDUCED ABORT BY VACUUM ASPIRATION. THEN ASK THE NUMBER OF MONTHS THAT EACH PREGNANCY LASTED. RECORD “P” IN EACH OF THE PRECEDING MONTHS OF CALENDAR ACCORDING TO THE DURATION OF PREGNANCY. (NOTE: THE NUMBER OF ‘P’s MUST BE ONE LESS THAN THE NUMBER OF MONTHS THAT THE PREGNANCY LASTED.) FINALLY, FOR EACH BIRTH WRITE THE NAME OF THE CHILD TO THE LEFT OF THE ‘B’ CODE. FOR EACH ABORTION ASK: WHERE ABORTION WAS PERFORMED AND IN COLUMN 5 ENTER THE CODE FOR THE FACILITY. NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 228 Are you pregnant now? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<231 229 How many months pregnant are you? RECORD NUMBER OF COMPLETED MONTHS. ENTER ‘P’s IN COLUMN 1 OF CALENDAR, BEGINNING WITH THE MONTH OF INTERVIEW AND FOR TOTAL NUMBER OF COMPLETED MONTHS. +)))0))), MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 230 At the time you became pregnant did you want to become pregnant then, did you want to wait until later, or did you not want to have any (more) children at all? THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 231 When did your last menstrual period start? ____________________________________________________ (DATE, IF GIVEN) +)))0))), DAYS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 WEEKS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- IN MENOPAUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994 BEFORE LAST BIRTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995 NEVER MENSTRUATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996 232 From one menstrual period to the next, is there a time when a woman is more likely to become pregnant if she has sexual relations? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<301 233 Is this time just before her period begins, during her period, right after her period has ended, or half way between two periods? JUST BEFORE HER PERIOD BEGINS . . . . . . . . . . 1 DURING HER PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RIGHT AFTER HER PERIOD HAS ENDED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 HALF WAY BETWEEN PERIODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OTHER __________________________________ 6 (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 SECTION 3. CONTRACEPTION Now I would like to talk about family planning - the various ways or methods that a couple can use to delay or avoid a pregnancy. CIRCLE CODE 1 IN 301 FOR EACH METHOD MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY. THEN PROCEED DOWN COLUMN 301, READING THE NAME AND DESCRIPTION OF EACH METHOD NOT MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY. CIRCLE CODE 1 IF METHOD IS RECOGNIZED, AND CODE 2 IF NOT RECOGNIZED. THEN, FOR EACH METHOD WITH CODE 1 CIRCLED IN 301, ASK 302. 301 Which ways or methods have you heard about? FOR METHODS NOT MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY, ASK: Have you ever heard of (METHOD)? 302 Have you ever used (METHOD)? 01 FEMALE STERILIZATION Women can have an operation to avoid having any more children. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? Have you ever had an operation to avoid having any more children? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 02 MALE STERILIZATION Men can have an operation to avoid having any more children. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? Have you ever had a partner who had an operation to avoid having children? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 03 PILL Women can take a pill to avoid pregnancy. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 04 IUD Women can have a loop or coil placed inside them by a doctor or a nurse. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 05 INJECTIONS Women can have an injection by a doctor or nurse which stops them from becoming pregnant for several months. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 06 IMPLANTS Women can have several small rods placed in their upper arm by a doctor or nurse which can prevent pregnancy for several years. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 07 CONDOM Men can put a rubber sheath on their penis before sexual intercourse. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 08 FEMALE CONDOM Women can place a rubber sheath in their vagina before intercourse YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 09 DIAPHRAGM Women can place a diaphragm in their vagina before intercourse. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 10 FOAM AND GELLY Women can place a suppository, jelly or cream in their vagina before intercourse. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 11 LACTATIONAL AMENORRHEA METHOD (LAM) Women can use a specially taught method of pregnancy avoidance to delay the return of the menstrual period by feeding their child nothing but breast milk for up to six months after a birth. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 12 RHYTHM OR PERIODIC ABSTINENCE Every month that a woman is sexually active she can avoid having sexual intercourse on the days of the month she is most likely to get pregnant. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 13 WITHDRAWAL Men can be careful and pull out before climax. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 14 EMERGENCY CONTRACEPTION Women can take pills the day after sexual intercourse to avoid becoming pregnant. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 15 Have you heard of any other ways or methods that women or men can use to avoid pregnancy? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ___________________ (SPECIFY) ___________________ (SPECIFY) NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ), ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 303 CHECK 302: NOT A SINGLE “YES”(NEVER USED) +))), /)))- ? AT LEAST ONE “YES” (EVER USED) +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))) ))<307 304 Have you ever used anything or tried in any way to delay or avoid getting pregnant? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<306 305 ENTER ‘0' IN COLUMN 1 OF CALENDAR IN EACH BLANK MONTH. )))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))<327 306 What have you used or done? CORRECT 302 AND 303 (AND 301 IF NECESSARY). 307 Now I would like to ask you about the first time that you did something or used a method to avoid getting pregnant. How many living children did you have at that time, if any? IF NONE, RECORD ‘00. +)))0))), NUMBER OF CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 308 CHECK 302 (01): WOMAN STERILIZED ? WOMAN NOT STERILIZED +))), .)))2)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) )))))))))) ))<309 308A Was the sterilization done with purpose of medical indications or family planning ? MEDICAL INDICATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON`T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), /<311A * )- 309 CHECK 228: NOT PREGNANT OR UNSURE ? PREGNANT +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))))))))))) ))<319 310 Are you currently doing something or using any method to delay or avoid getting pregnant? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<319 311 311A Which method are you using? CIRCLE ‘A’ FOR FEMALE STERILIZATION. IF MORE THAN ONE METHOD MENTIONED, FOLLOW SKIP INSTRUCTION FOR HIGHEST METHOD. FEMALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E IMPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G FEMALE CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H DIAPHRAGM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J LACT. AMEN. METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K PERIODIC ABSTINENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M OTHER_________________________________________ X (SPECIFY) ), * * * * * * * * /<318 * * * )- NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 313 Where did the sterilization take place? IF SOURCE IS HOSPITAL, RURAL OR URBAN HEALTH CLINIC, OR WOMEN`S CONSULTING CENTER, WRITE THE NAME OF THE PLACE. PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. _________________________________________________________ (NAME OF PLACE) PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 RURAL OR URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 WOMEN`S CONSULTING CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 OTHER PUBLIC ___________________________ 16 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRV. HOSPITAL/CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 PRV. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL________________________________ 26 (SPECIFY) OTHER_____________________________________ 96 (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 314 Before the sterilization operation, were (you/your husband/your partner) told that you would not be able to have any (more) children? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 316 In what month and year was the sterilization perfomred? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 317 CHECK 316: STERILIZED BEFORE JANUARY 1995 +))), /)))- +))))))))))))))))))))))- ? ENTER CODE FOR STERILIZATION IN MONTH OF INTERVIEW IN COLUMN 1 OF THE CALENDAR AND EACH MONTH BACK TO JANUARY 1995 THEN SKIP TO )))))))))<320 STERILIZED IN JANUARY 1995 OR LATER +))), /)))- +))))))))))))))))))))))- ? ENTER CODE FOR STERILIZATION IN MONTH OF INTERVIEW IN COLUMN 1 OF THE CALENDAR AND IN EACH MONTH BACK TO THE DATE OF THE OPERATION. ENTER METHOD SOURCE CODE IN COLUMN 2 OF CALENDAR IN MONTH OF DATE OF OPERATION. THEN SKIP TO )))))))))<319 318 ENTER METHOD CODE FROM 311 IN CURRENT MONTH IN COLUMN 1 OF CALENDAR. THEN DETERMINE WHEN SHE STARTED USING METHOD THIS TIME. ENTER METHOD CODE IN EACH MONTH OF USE. IF CURRENT METHOD STARTED IN JANUARY 1995 OR LATER, ENTER METHOD SOURCE CODE IN COLUMN 2 OF CALENDAR IN THE SAME MONTH THAT USE OF CURRENT METHOD BEGAN. ILLUSTRATIVE QUESTIONS: • When did you start using this method continuously? • How long have you been using this method continuously? • When you started using this method, where did you obtain it? NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 319 I would like to ask you some questions about the times you or your partner may have used a method to avoid getting pregnant during the last few years. USE CALENDAR TO PROBE FOR EARLIER PERIODS OF USE AND NONUSE, STARTING WITH MOST RECENT USE, BACK TO JANUARY 1995. USE NAMES OF CHILDREN, DATES OF BIRTH, AND PERIODS OF PREGNANCY AS REFERENCE POINTS. IN COLUMN 1, ENTER METHOD USE CODE OR ‘0’ FOR NONUSE IN EACH BLANK MONTH. ILLUSTRATIVE QUESTIONS: COLUMN 1: • When was the last time you used a method? Which method was that? • When did you start using that method? How long after the birth of (NAME)? • How long did you use the method then? IN COLUMN 2, ENTER METHOD SOURCE CODE IN FIRST MONTH OF EACH USE. ILLUSTRATIVE QUESTIONS: COLUMN 2: • Where did you obtain the method when you started using it? • Where did you get advice on how to use the method [ for LAM, rhythm, or withdrawal]? IN COLUMN 3, ENTER CODES FOR DISCONTINUATION NEXT TO LAST MONTH OF USE. NUMBER OF CODES IN COLUMN 3 MUST BE SAME AS NUMBER OF INTERRUPTIONS OF METHOD USE IN COLUMN 1. ASK WHY SHE STOPPED USING THE METHOD. IF A PREGNANCY FOLLOWED, ASK WHETHER SHE BECAME PREGNANT UNINTENTIONALLY WHILE USING THE METHOD OR DELIBERATELY STOPPED TO GET PREGNANT. ILLUSTRATIVE QUESTIONS: COLUMN 3: • Why did you stop using the (METHOD)? • Did you become pregnant while using (METHOD), or did you stop to get pregnant, or did you stop for some other reason? IF DELIBERATELY STOPPED TO BECOME PREGNANT, ASK: • How many months did it take you to get pregnant after you stopped using (METHOD)? AND ENTER ‘0' IN EACH SUCH MONTH IN COLUMN 1. 320 CHECK 311/311A: CIRCLE METHOD CODE: NOT ASKED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 FEMALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 MALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 IMPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 FEMALE CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 DIAPHRAGM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 LACTATIONAL AMEN. METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 PERIODIC ABSTINENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 OTHER METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 ))<327 ))<325 ))<325 ))<324 ))<324 ))<324 ))<324 ))<325 ))<325 ))<325 321 CHECK COLUMN 1 OF CALENDAR FOR LENGTH OF USE OF CURRENT METHOD: STARTED USING AFTER +))), JANUARY 1995 /)))- ? STARTED USING IN JANUARY 1995 OR BEFORE +))), .)))2)))))))))))))))))))))))) ))))))))))) ))<325 322 You first obtained (CURRENT METHOD) from (SOURCE OF METHOD FROM CALENDAR) on (DATE). At that time, were you told about side effects or problems you might have with the method? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<324 323 Were you told what to do if you experienced side effects? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 324 When you were given the (CURRENT METHOD), were you told about other methods of family planning which you could use? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 325 CHECK 311/311A: CIRCLE METHOD CODE: NOT ASKED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 FEMALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 MALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 IMPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 FEMALE CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 DIAPHRAGM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 LACTATIONAL AMEN. METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 PERIODIC ABSTINENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 OTHER METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 ))<327 ))<401 ))<401 ))<329 ))<329 ))<329 ))<329 326 Where did you obtain (CURRENT METHOD) the last time? IF SOURCE IS HOSPITAL, RURAL OR URBEN HEALTH CLINIC, OR WOMEN’S CONSULTING CENTER, WRITE THE NAME OF THE PLACE. PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. _________________________________________________________ (NAME OF PLACE) PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 RURAL OR URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 WOMEN’S CONSULTING CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 OTHER PUBLIC ________________________________ 16 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRV. HOSPITAL/CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRV. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL__________________________________ 26 (SPECIFY) OTHER________________________________________ 96 (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ), * * * * * * * * * * /<329 * * * * * * * )- 327 Do you know of a place where you can obtain a method of family planning? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<329 328 Where is that? IF SOURCE IS HOSPITAL, RURAL OR URBAN HEALTH CLINIC, OR WOMEN’S CONSULTING CENTER, WRITE THE NAME OF THE PLACE. PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. _________________________________________________________ (NAME OF PLACE) PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 RURAL OR URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 WOMEN’S CONSULTING CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 OTHER PUBLIC_______________________________ 16 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRV. HOSPITAL/CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRV. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL__________________________________ 26 (SPECIFY) OTHER________________________________________ 96 (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 329 In the last 12 months, were you visited by a field worker who talked to you about family planning? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 330 In the last 12 months, have you attended a health facility for care for yourself (or your children)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<341 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 331 Did any staff member at the health facility speak to you about family planning methods? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 341 How easy is it to get pills? Is it a problem to get them ? PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 342 Do you think that pills are a reliable method of contraception ? RELIABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO RELIABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 343 Are any health problems or side effects with pills that would make you reluctant to use them ? PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 350 Do you approve or disapprove of a woman having an abortion ? APPROVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DISAPPROVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DEPENDS ON SITUATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 351 Would you have an abortion if you unintentionally become pregnant sometimes in the future ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 352 Would you prefer to use a method in the future or rely on abortion, or do neither ? PREFER TO USE A METHOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 RELY ON ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PREFER TO DO NEITHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 353 Before proceeding further with the questionnaire, let me measure your blood pressure and pulse on the left hand. MEASURE THE BLOOD PRESSURE AND PULSE AND RECORD THE RESULTS BLOOD PRESSURE: SYSTOLIC DIASTOLIC PULSE 353B Before proceeding further with the questionnaire, let me measure your blood pressure and pulse on the right hand. MEASURE THE BLOOD PRESSURE AND PULSE AND RECORD THE RESULTS BLOOD PRESSURE: SYSTOLIC DIASTOLIC PULSE SECTION 4A. PREGNANCY, POSTNATAL CARE AND BREASTFEEDING 401 CHECK 226: ONE OR MORE BIRTHS IN JAN. 1995 OR LATER +)), /))- ? NO BIRTHS IN JAN. 1995 OR LATER +)), .))-))))))))))))))))))) )< 486 402 ENTER THE LINE NUMBER, NAME, AND SURVIVAL STATUS OF EACH BIRTH SINCE JANUARY 1994 IN THE TABLE. ASK THE QUESTIONS ABOUT ALL OF THESE BIRTHS. BEGIN WITH THE LAST BIRTH. Now I would like to ask you some questions about the health of all your children born in the last five years, (We will talk about each separate ly) 403 LINE NUMBER FROM 212 LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH LINE NUMBER . LINE NUMBER . . . . LINE NUMBER . . . 404 FROM 217 AND 219 NAME____________________ NAME _________________ NAME _________________ ALIVE +)), /))- ? DEAD +)), /))- ? ALIVE +)), /))- ? DEAD +)), /))- ? ALIVE +)), /))- ? DEAD +)), /))- ? 405 At the time you became pregnant with (NAME), did you want to become pregnant then, did you want to wait until later, or did you want no (more) children at all? THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 407)=)))))))- LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 (SKIP TO 407)=)))))))- THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 422)=)))))))- LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 (SKIP TO 422)=)))))))- THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 422)=)))))))- LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 (SKIP TO 422)=)))))))- 406 How much longer would you like to have waited? MONTHS . . 1 MONTHS . 1 MONTHS . . . . 1 YEARS . . . . 2 YEARS . . . 2 YEARS . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 998 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . 998 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . 998 ALL CATEGORIES SHOULD (SKIP TO 422)=)))))))- ALL CATEGORIES SHOULD (SKIP TO 422)=)))))))- 407 Did you see anyone for antenatal care for th is pregnancy? IF YES: Whom did you see? Anyone else? PROBE FOR THE TYPE OF PERSON AND RECORD ALL PERSONS SEEN. HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . . . C OTHER PERSON TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . . D OTHER _________________________ X (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y (SKIP TO 416)=)))))))- LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME____________________ NAME ________________ NAME__________________ 408 How many months pregnant were you when you first received antenatal care for th is pregnancy? MONTHS . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 409 How many times did you receive antenatal care during this pregnancy? NO. OF TIMES . . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 410 CHECK 409: NUMBER OF TIMES RECEIVED ANTENATAL CARE ONCE +)), /))- ? (SKIP TO 412) MORE THAN ONCE OR DON’T KNOW +)), /))- ? 411 How many months pregnant were you the last time you received antenatal care? MONTHS . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 412 During this pregnancy, were any of the following done at least once? Were you weighed? Was your height measured? Was your blood pressure measured? Did you give a urine sample? Did you give a blood sample? YES WEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 BLOOD PRESSURE . . . 1 URINE SAMPLE . . . . . . 1 BLOOD SAMPLE . . . . . 1 NO 2 2 2 2 2 413 Were you told about the signs of pregnancy complications? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 416)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 414 Were you told where to go if you had these problems? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 416 During this pregnancy, were you given or did you buy any iron tablets? SHOW TABLET. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 422)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 417 During the whole pregnancy, for how many days did you take the tablets? NUMBER OF DAYS . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . 998 LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME____________________ NAME ________________ NAME__________________ 422 When (NAME) was born, was he/she: very large, larger than average, smaller than average, or very small? VERY LARGE . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LARGER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . . . . . . . 2 AVERAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SMALLER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 VERY SMALL . . . . . . . . . . . 5 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 VERY LARGE . . . . . . . 1 LARGER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . . . . 2 AVERAGE . . . . . . . . . . 3 SMALLER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . . . . 4 VERY SMALL . . . . . . . 5 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . 8 VERY LARGE . . . . . . . . . 1 LARGER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . . . . . . 2 AVERAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SMALLER THAN AVERAGE . . . . . . . . . . . 4 VERY SMALL . . . . . . . . . . 5 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . 8 423 Was (NAME) weighed at birth? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 425)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . 8 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 425)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . 8 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 425)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . 8 424 How much did (NAME) weigh? RECORD WEIGHT FROM HEALTH CARD, IF AVAILABLE. GRAMS FROM CARD . . . . . 1 GRAMS FROM CARD . . . . . 1 GRAMS FROM CARD . . . . . 1 GRAMS FROM RECALL . . . . 2 GRAMS FROM RECALL . . . . 2 GRAMS FROM RECALL . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . 99998 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . 99998 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . 99998 425 Who assisted with the delivery of (NAME)? Anyone else? PROBE FOR THE TYPE OF PERSON AND RECORD ALL PERSONS ASSISTING. HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . C OTHER PERSON TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . . D RELATIVE/FRIEND . . . . . . E OTHER __________________X (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . A NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . C OTHER PERSON TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . D RELATIVE/FRIEND . . . E OTHER ________________ X (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . A NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . C OTHER PERSON TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . D RELATIVE/FRIEND . . . . . E OTHER _________________ X (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y 426 Where did you g ive birth to (NAME)? HOME YOUR HOME . . . . . . . . . . 11 (SKIP TO 428)=)))))))1 OTHER HOME . . . . . . . . . 12 PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . 21 DELIVERY HOSPITAL . . 22 RURAL OR URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . . . 23 OTHER PUBLIC ________________________26 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL/ CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL ______________________ .36 (SPECIFY) OTHER _________________ 96 (SPECIFY) (SKIP TO 428)=)))))) HOME YOUR HOME . . . . . . . . 11 (SKIP TO 428)=)))))))1 OTHER HOME . . . . . . . 12 PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . 21 DELIVERY HOSPITAL 22 RURAL OR URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . 23 OTHER PUBLIC ______________________26 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL/ CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . 31 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL _____________________36 (SPECIFY) OTHER _______________ 96 (SPECIFY) (SKIP TO 428)=)))))) HOME YOUR HOME . . . . . . . . . 11 (SKIP TO 428)=)))))))1 OTHER HOME . . . . . . . . 12 PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . 21 DELIVERY HOSPITAL . 22 RURAL OR URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . . 23 OTHER PUBLIC _______________________ 26 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL/ CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL _____________________ 36 (SPECIFY) OTHER ________________ 96 (SPECIFY) (SKIP TO 428)=)))))) 426A When you delivered (NAME) how many nights did you stay in the hosp ital? NIGHTS . . . . . . . . . . NIGHTS . . . . . . . . NIGHTS . . . . . . . . . 427 Was (NAME) delivered by caesarian section? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 433)=)))))))1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 434)=)))))))1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 434)=)))))))1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME____________________ NAME ________________ NAME__________________ 428 After (NAME) was born, did anyone check on your health? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 433)=)))))))- YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 434)=)))))))1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 434)=)))))))1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 429 How many days or weeks after the delivery did the first check take place? RECORD ‘00’ DAYS IF SAME DAY. DAYS AFTER DELIVERY . . . 1 WEEKS AFTER DELIVERY . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . 998 430 Who checked on your health at that time? PROBE FOR MOST QUALIFIED PERSON. HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NURSE/MIDWIFE . . . . . . . 3 OTHER PERSON . . . . . . . . . 4 TRADITIONAL BIRTH ATTENDANT . . . . . . . . . . 21 OTHER _________________ 6 (SPECIFY) 431 Where did this first check take place? HOME YOUR HOME . . . . . . . . . . 11 OTHER HOME . . . . . . . . . 12 PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . 21 DELIVERY HOSPITAL . . 22 RURAL OR URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 WOM EN’S CONSULTING CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . 24 FGP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 OTHER PUBLIC ________________________26 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL/ CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL ______________________ 36 (SPECIFY) OTHER _________________ 96 (SPECIFY) 433 Has your period returned since the birth of (NAME)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 435)=)))))))- NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 436)=)))))))- 434 Did you period re turn between the birth of (NAME) and your next pregnancy? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 438)=)))))))- YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 438)=)))))))- 435 For how many months after the birth of (NAME) did you not have a period? MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . MONTHS . . . . MONTHS . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . 98 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . 98 LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME____________________ NAME__________________ NAME__________________ 436 CHECK 228: RESPONDENT PREGNANT? NOT PREGNANT +)), /))- ? PREGNANT OR UNSURE +)), /))- ? (SKIP TO 438) 437 Have you resumed sexual relations since the birth of (NAME)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 439)=)))))))- 438 For how many months after the birth of (NAME) did you not have sexual relations? MONTHS . . . . . . . MONTHS . . . MONTHS . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . 98 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . 98 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . 98 439 Did you ever breastfeed (NAME)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 444)=)))))))- YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 444)=)))))))- YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 444)=)))))))- 440 How long after birth did you first put (NAME) to the breast? IF LESS THAN 1 HOUR, RECORD ‘00’ HOURS. IF LESS THAN 24 HOURS, RECORD HOURS. OTHERWISE, RECORD DAYS. IMMEDIATELY . 000 IMMEDIATELY . 000 IMMEDIATELY . 000 MINUTES . . . . . . 0 MINUTES . . . 0 MINUTES . . . . 0 HOURS . . . . . . . . 1 HOURS . . . . . 1 HOURS . . . . . . 1 DAYS . . . . . . . . . 2 DAYS . . . . . . 2 DAYS . . . . . . . 2 440A Within the first three days after delivery, before your milk began flowing regularly, was (NAME) given anything to drink other than breast milk? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 441)=)))))))- YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 441)=)))))))- YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 441)=)))))))- 440B What was (NAME) given to drink before your milk began flowing regularly? Anything else? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. MILK (OTHER THAN BREAST MILK) . . . . . . . A PLAIN WATER . . . . . . . . . B SUGAR OR GLUCOSE WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . C GRIPE WATER . . . . . . . . . D SALT AND SUGAR SOLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . E FRUIT JUICE . . . . . . . . . . F INFANT FORMULA . . . . . . G TEA/INFUSIONS . . . . . . . H HONEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I OTHER_________________X (SPECIFY) MILK (OTHER THAN BREAST MILK) . . . . . . A PLAIN WATER . . . . . . . B SUGAR OR GLUCOSE WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . C GRIPE WATER . . . . . . . D SALT AND SUGAR SOLUTION . . . . . . . . . . E FRUIT JUICE . . . . . . . . . F INFANT FORMULA . . . . G TEA/INFUSIONS . . . . . . H HONEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I OTHER_______________ X (SPECIFY) MILK (OTHER THAN BREAST MILK) . . . . . . . A PLAIN WATER . . . . . . . . . B SUGAR OR GLUCOSE WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . C GRIPE WATER . . . . . . . . D SALT AND SUGAR SOLUTION . . . . . . . . . . . E FRUIT JUICE . . . . . . . . . . F INFANT FORMULA . . . . . G TEA/INFUSIONS . . . . . . H HONEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I OTHER _______________ X (SPECIFY) 441 CHECK 404: CHILD ALIVE? ALIVE +)), /))- ? DEAD +)), /))- ? (SKIP TO 443) ALIVE +)), /))- ? DEAD +)), /))- ? (SKIP TO 443) ALIVE +)), /))- ? DEAD +)), /))- ? (SKIP TO 443) 442 Are you still breastfeeding (NAM E)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 445)=)))))))- NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 445)=)))))))- NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 445)=)))))))- NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME____________________ NAME__________________ NAME__________________ 443 For how many months did you breastfeed (NAM E)? MONTHS . . . . . . . . MONTHS . . . . . MONTHS . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 98 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . 98 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . 98 444 CHECK 404: CHILD ALIVE? ALIVE +)), /))- * * * * * * ? (SKIP TO 447) DEAD +)), /))- * ? (GO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT COLUMN OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 451 (SKIP TO 447) ALIVE +)), /))- * * * * * * ? (SKIP TO 447) DEAD +)), /))- * ? (GO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT COLUMN OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 451 (SKIP TO 447) ALIVE +)), /))- * * * * * * ? (SKIP TO 447) DEAD +)), /))- ? (GO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT COLUMN OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 451 (SKIP TO 447) 445 How many times did you breastfeed last night between sunset and sunrise? IF ANSWER IS NOT NUMERIC, PROBE FOR APPROXIMATE NUMBER. NUMBER OF NIGHTTIME FEEDINGS . . . . . . . NUMBER OF NIGHTTIME FEEDINGS . . . NUMBER OF NIGHTTIME FEEDINGS . . . . . 446 How many times did you breastfeed during the daylight hours? IF ANSWER IS NOT NUMERIC, PROBE FOR APPROXIMATE NUMBER. NUMBER OF DAYTIME FEEDINGS . . . . . . . NUMBER OF DAYTIME FEEDINGS . . . NUMBER OF DAYTIME FEEDINGS . . . . . 447 Did (NAME) drink anyth ing from a bott le with a nipple yesterday or last night? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 448 Now I would like to ask you about the types of foods [NAME] has been fed over the last seven days, including yesterday. How many days during the last seven days was [NAME] given each of the following? LAST 7 DAYS YESTERDAY /LAST NIGHT LAST 7 DAYS YESTERDAY/ LAST NIGHT LAST 7 DAYS YESTERDAY / LAST NIGHT FOR EACH ITEM GIVEN AT LEAST ONCE IN LAST SEVEN DAYS, ASK: How many times yesterday or last night was [NAME] given [ITEM]? NUMBER OF DAYS NUMBER OF TIMES NUMBER OF TIMES NUMBER OF TIMES NUMBER OF DAYS NUMBER OF TIMES Plain water? Tea? Commercially prepared baby formula? Any other milk such as tinned, powdered or fresh milk? Fruit juice? LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME____________________ NAME__________________ NAME__________________ Any other liquids such as sugar water, tea, coffee? Bread, food made from flour? Any food made from grains [e.g. wheat, porridge, rice]? Pumpkin, squash, red or yellow yams, carrots, or red potatoes? Candies, sweets? Any green leafy vegetables? Any other fruits and vegetables [e.g. applesauce, pears, tomatoes]? Meat, poultry, or eggs? Fish, shellfish and other seafood? Any food made from legumes [e.g. lentils, beans, soybeans, pulses or peanuts ]? Cheese, kefir, kumys or yogurt? 449 How many times was (NAM E) fed solid or semi- solid (mashed or pureed) food yesterday or last night? IF 7 OR MORE TIMES, RECORD ‘7’. NUMBER OF TIMES . . . . . . . . . . NUMBER OF TIMES . . . . . . . . NUMBER OF TIMES . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . 8 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 450 GO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 451. GO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 451. GO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 451. SECTION 4B. IMMUNIZATION AND HEALTH 451 ENTER THE NAME AND LINE NUMBER OF EACH LIVING CHILD BORN SINCE JANUARY 1995 IN THE TABLE. ASK THE QUESTIONS ABOUT ALL OF THESE CHILDREN. BEGIN WITH THE YOUNGEST CHILD. 452 LINE NUMBER FROM 212 LAST BIRTH +)))0))), LINE NUMBER . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH +)))0))), LINE NUMBER . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- NEXT-TO- NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH +)))0))), LINE NUMBER . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 453 FROM 212 AND 219 NAME __________________________ NAME _______________________ NAME ________________________ ALIVE +)), /))- * * * * * ? DEAD +)), /))- ? (GO TO 453 IN NEXT COLUMN OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 481) ALIVE +)), /))- * * * * * ? DEAD +)), /))- ? (GO TO 453 IN NEXT COLUMN OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 481) ALIVE +)), /))- * * * * * ? DEAD +)), /))- ? (GO TO 453 IN NEXT COLUMN OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 481) 454 Did (NAME) receive a Vitamin A/polyvitamins dose like this during the last 6 months? SHOW AMPULE/CAPSULE OR TABLETS YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 455 Do you have a card where (NAME’S) vaccinations are written down? IF YES: May I see it please? YES, SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 457)=)))))))- YES, NOT SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 463)=)))))))- NO CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 YES, SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 457)=)))))))- YES, NOT SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 463)=)))))))- NO CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 YES, SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 457)=)))))))- YES, NOT SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 463)=)))))))- NO CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 456 Did you ever have a vaccination card for (NAME)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 463)=)))))))1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 463)=)))))))1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 463)=)))))))1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 457 (1) COPY VACCINATION DATE FOR EACH VACCINE FROM THE CARD. (2) WRITE ‘44 IN ‘DAY’ COLUMN IF CARD SHOWS THAT A VACCINATION WAS GIVEN, BUT NO DATE IS RECORDED. DAY MONTH YEAR DAY MONTH YEAR DAY MONTH YEAR A BGG BCG BCG BCG B POLIO 0 (POLIO GIVEN AT BIRTH) P0 P0 P0 C POLIO 1 P1 P1 P1 D POLIO 2 P2 P2 P2 E POLIO 3 P3 P3 P3 G DPT 1 D1 D1 D1 H DPT 2 D2 D2 D2 I DPT 3 D3 D3 D3 K DPT 4 D4 D4 D4 L MEASLES M M M M PARTUSIS PER PER PER N HEPATITIS B (B1) VACCINE HEP 1 HEP 1 HEP 1 O HEPATITIS B (B2) VACCINE HEP 2 HEP 2 HEP 2 P HEPATITIS B (B3) VACCINE HEP 3 HEP 3 HEP 3 458 Has (NAME) received any vaccinations that are not recorded on this card, including vaccinations received in a national immunization day campaign? RECORD ‘YES’ ONLY IF RESPONDENT MENTIONS BCG, POLIO 0-3, DPT 1-3, AND/OR MEASLES VACCINE(S). YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (PROBE FOR =)- VACCINATIONS AND WRITE ‘66' IN THE CORRESPONDING DAY COLUMN IN 457) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (PROBE FOR VACCINATIONS =)- AND WRITE ‘66’ IN THE CORRESPONDING DAY COLUMN IN 457) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (PROBE FOR VACCINATIONS =)- AND WRITE ‘66’ IN THE CORRESPONDING DAY COLUMN IN 457) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 463 Has (NAME) been ill with a fever at any time in the last 2 weeks? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 464 Has (NAME) had an illness with a cough at any time in the last 2 weeks? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 466)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 466)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 466)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 465 When (NAME) had an illness with a cough, did he/she breathe faster than usual with short, fast breaths? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 466 CHECK 463 AND 464: FEVER OR COUGH? “YES” IN 463 OR 464 +)), /))- ? NO OR DK +)), /))- * ? (SKIP TO 472) “YES” IN 463 OR 464 +)), /))- ? NO OR DK +)), /))- * ? (SKIP TO 472) “YES” IN 463 OR 464 +)), /))- ? NO OR DK +)), /))- * ? (SKIP TO 472) 467 Did you seek advice or treatment for the illness? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 472)=)))))))- YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 472)=)))))))- YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 472)=)))))))- 467A What signs or symptoms led you to seek advice or treatment? WHEN HE/SHE: HAS BLOCKED NOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A HAS TROUBLE SLEEPING/EATING . . . B HAS A FEVER . . . . . . . . . C IS BREATHING FAST . . . D IS ILL FOR A LONG TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E OTHER ________________X (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . Z WHEN HE/SHE: HAS BLOCKED NOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A HAS TROUBLE SLEEPING/EATING . . . . B HAS A FEVER . . . . . . . . . . C IS BREATHING FAST . . . . D IS ILL FOR A LONG TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E OTHER _________________X (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . Z WHEN HE/SHE: HAS BLOCKED NOSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A HAS TROUBLE SLEEPING/EATING . . . . . B HAS A FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . C IS BREATHING FAST . . . . . D IS ILL FOR A LONG TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E OTHER__________________ X (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . Z 468 Where did you seek advice or treatment? Anywhere else? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . A RURAL/URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . . B PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . E OTHER PUBLIC_______________F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PVT. HOSPITAL/ CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . G PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . H PVT. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . I OTHER PVT. MEDICAL _______________________ J (SPECIFY) PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . A RURAL/URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . . . B PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . E OTHER PUBLIC_______________F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICALSECTOR PVT. HOSPITAL/ CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . G PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . H PVT. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . I OTHER PVT. MEDICAL _______________________ J (SPECIFY) OTHER SOURCE TRAD. PRACTITIONER . . . . . . . K OTHER _________________X (SPECIFY) PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . A RURAL/URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . . . . B PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . E OTHER PUBLIC ________________ F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PVT. HOSPITAL/ CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . G PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . H PVT. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . I OTHER PVT. MEDICAL ________________________ J (SPECIFY) OTHER SOURCE TRAD. PRACTITIONER . . . K OTHER__________________ X (SPECIFY) 472 Has (NAME) had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 480)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 480)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 480)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 473 When (NAME) had diarrhea, was he/she given less than usual to drink, about the same amount, or more than usual to drink? LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 474 Was he/she given less than usual to eat, about the same amount, or more than usual to eat? LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 475 Was he/she given any of the following to drink: YES NO DK YES NO DK YES NO DK A fluid, made from a special packet called REHYDRON? REHYDRON . . . . . 1 2 8 REHYDRON . . . . . 1 2 8 REHYDRON . . . . . . 1 2 8 Water? WATER . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 WATER . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 WATER . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 Milk or Infant formula? MILK/INFANT FORMULA . . . . . . 1 2 8 MILK/INFANT FORMULA . . . . . . . 1 2 8 MILK/INFANT FORMULA . . . . . . . 1 2 8 Soup? SOUP . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 SOUP . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 SOUP . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 Kefir, airan? KEFIR/AIRAN . . . . . 1 2 8 KEFIR/AIRAN . . . . . 1 2 8 KEFIR/AIRAN . . . . . . 1 2 8 Coca cola/Pepsi Cola/ Sprite/Fanta? SOFT DRINK . . . . . 1 2 8 SOFT DRINK . . . . . 1 2 8 SOFT DRINK . . . . . . 1 2 8 Other fluids? OTHER FLUIDS . . . 1 2 8 OTHER FLUIDS . . . 1 2 8 OTHER FLUIDS . . . . 1 2 8 476 Was anything (else) given to treat the diarrhea? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 478)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 478)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 478)=)))))))1 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 477 What was given to treat the diarrhea? Anything else? RECORD ALL MENTIONED PILL OR SYRUP . . . . . . . . A INJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . B (I.V.) INTRAVENOUS . . . . C HOME REMEDIES/ HERBAL MEDICINE . . . D OTHER ________________ X (SPECIFY) PILL OR SYRUP . . . . . . . . . A INJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . B (I.V.) INTRAVENOUS . . . . . C HOME REMEDIES/ HERBAL MEDICINE . . . . D OTHER_________________ X (SPECIFY) PILL OR SYRUP . . . . . . . . . . A INJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B (I.V.) INTRAVENOUS . . . . . . C HOME REMEDIES/ HERBAL MEDICINE . . . . . . D OTHER_________________ X (SPECIFY) 478 Did you seek advice or treatment for the diarrhea? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 480)=)))))))- YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 480)=)))))))- YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 480)=)))))))- 479 Where did you seek advice or treatment? Anywhere else? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . A RURAL/URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . . B PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . E OTHER PUBLIC_________________ F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PVT. HOSPITAL/ CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . G PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . H PVT. DOCTOR . . . . . . . I OTHER PVT. MEDICAL ___________________ J (SPECIFY) OTHER SOURCE TRAD. PRACTITIONER . . . K OTHER ________________ X (SPECIFY) PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . A RURAL/URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . . B PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . E OTHER PUBLIC_________________ F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PVT. HOSPITAL/ CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . G PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . H PVT. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . I OTHER PVT. MEDICAL ___________________ J (SPECIFY) OTHER SOURCE TRAD. PRACTITIONER . . . K OTHER ________________ X (SPECIFY) PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . A RURAL/URBAN HEALTH CLINIC . . . . . B PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . E OTHER PUBLIC__________________ F (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PVT. HOSPITAL/ CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . G PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . H PVT. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . I OTHER PVT. MEDICAL ____________________ J (SPECIFY) OTHER SOURCE TRAD. PRACTITIONER . . . . K OTHER _________________ X (SPECIFY) 480 GO BACK TO 453 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 481. GO BACK TO 453 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 481. GO BACK TO 453 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 481. NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 481 CHECK 453, ALL COLUMNS: NUMBER OF LIVING CHILDREN BORN SINCE JANUARY 1994 ONE OR MORE +))), NONE +))), /)))- .)))2)))))))))))))))))))) ? ))<486 482 The last time you fed your children, did you wash your hands immediately before feeding them? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 483 The last time you had to clean (your child/one of your children) after (he/she) defecated, did you wash your hands immediately afterwards? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHILD DO HIM/HERSELF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 485 CHECK 475, ALL COLUMNS: NO CHILD RECEIVED ORS FROM PACKET +))), /)))- ? ANY CHILD RECEIVED ORS FROM PACKET +))), .)))2)))))))))))))))))))))))) ))<487 486 Have you ever heard of a special product called [REHYDRON] you can get for the treatment of diarrhea? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 487 CHECK 221: HAS ONE OR MORE CHILDREN LIVING WITH HER +))), /)))- ? HAS NO CHILDREN LIVING WITH HER +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))<489 488 When (your child/one of your children) is seriously ill, can you decide by yourself whether the child should be taken for medical treatment? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 489 Have you washed hands before cooking food for your family? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NEVER COOK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SECTION 5. MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 501 Are you currently married or living with a man? YES, CURRENTLY MARRIED . . . . . . . . . 1 YES, LIVING WITH A MAN . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO, NOT IN UNION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ), )2<505 502 Have you ever been married or lived with a man? YES, FORMERLY MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES, LIVED WITH A MAN . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ))<504 ))<509 503 ENTER ‘0’ IN COLUMN 4 OF CALENDAR IN THE MONTH OF INTERVIEW, AND IN EACH MONTH BACK TO JANUARY 199 ))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))<516 504 What is your marital status now: are you widowed, divorced, or separated? WIDOWED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DIVORCED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SEPARATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ), )3<509 )- 505 Is your husband/partner living with you now or is he staying elsewhere? LIVING WITH HER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 STAYING ELSEWHERE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 506 RECORD THE HUSBAND’S LINE NUMBER FROM THE HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE. IF HE IS NOT LISTED IN THE HOUSEHOLD, RECORD ‘00'. +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 509 Have you been married or lived with a man only once, or more than once? ONCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MORE THAN ONCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 510 CHECK 509: MARRIED/LIVED WITH A MAN ONLY ONCE +))), /)))- +)))))))))))))))- ? In what month and year did you start living with your husband/partner? MARRIED/LIVED WITH A MAN MORE THAN ONLY ONCE +))), /)))- +)))))))))))))))- ? Now we will talk about your first husband/partner. In what month and year did you start living with him? ))<512 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9988 511 How old were you when you started living with him? +)))0))), AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 512 DETERMINE MONTHS MARRIED OR LIVING WITH A MAN SINCE JANUARY 1994. ENTER ‘X’ IN COLUMN 4 OF CALENDAR FOR EACH MONTH MARRIED OR LIVING WITH A MAN, AND ENTER ‘0' FOR EACH MONTH NOT MARRIED/NOT LIVING WITH A MAN, SINCE JANUARY 1994. FOR WOMEN WITH MORE THAN ONE UNION: PROBE FOR DATE WHEN CURRENT UNION STARTED AND, IF APPROPRIATE, FOR STARTING AND TERMINATION DATES OF ANY PREVIOUS UNIONS. FOR WOMEN NOT CURRENTLY IN UNION: PROBE FOR DATE WHEN LAST UNION STARTED AND FOR TERMINATION DATE AND, IF APPROPRIATE, FOR THE STARTING AND TERMINATION DATES OF ANY PREVIOUS UNIONS. 513 CHECK 501: CURRENTLY MARRIED OR LIVING WITH A MAN +))), /)))- ? NOT CURRENTLY MARRIED AND NOT CURRENTLY LIVING WITH A MAN +))), .)))2)))))))))))))))))))) )))))))))))) ))<516 514 CHECK 311/311A: ANY CODE CIRCLED +))), /)))- ? NOT ASKED (NO CODE CIRCLED) +))), .)))2)))))))))))))))))))) )))))))))))) ))<516 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 515 You have told me that you are using contraception. Would you say that using contraception is mainly your decision, mainly your husband’s/partner’s decision or did you both decide together? RESPONDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HUSBAND/PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 JOINT DECISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER________________________ 6 (SPECIFY) 516 Now I need to ask you some questions about sexual activity in order to gain a better understanding of some family life issues. How old were you when you first had sexual intercourse (if ever)? NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00 +)))0))), AGE IN YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- FIRST TIME WHEN MARRIED . . . . . . . . 96 ))<526 517 When was the last time you had sexual intercourse? +)))0))), DAYS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 WEEKS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS AGO . . . . . . . . . 3 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . 4 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- ))<526 518 The last time you had sexual intercourse, was a condom used? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW/NOT SURE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 519 What is your relationship to the man with whom you last had sex? SPOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GIRL FRIEND/FIANCEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER FRIEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CASUAL ACQUAINTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . 4 RELATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER ___________________________ 6 (SPECIFY) ))<521 520 For how long have you had a sexual relationship with this man? +)))0))), DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 WEEKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 521 Have you had sex with anyone else in the last 12 months? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<526 522 The last time you had sexual intercourse with this other man, was a condom used? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW/NOT SURE . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 523 What is your relationship to this man? SPOUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 GIRL FRIEND/FIANCEE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER FRIEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CASUAL ACQUAINTANCE . . . . . . . . . . . 4 RELATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER ___________________________ 6 (SPECIFY) ))<525 524 For how long have you had a sexual relationship with this man? +)))0))), DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 WEEKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 525 Altogether, with how many different men have you had sex in the last 12 months? +)))0))), NUMBER OF PARTNERS . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 526 Do you know of a place where one can get condoms? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<529 527 Where is that? IF SOURCE IS POLYCLINIC, FGP, FAP, WOMEN`S CONSULTING CENTER (WCC), WRITE THE NAME OF THE PLACE. PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. ________________________________________________________________________ (NAME OF PLACE) PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 WCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 URBAN/RUARAL HEALTH CLINIC . . 13 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 OTHER PUBLIC __________________ 16 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PVT. HOSPITAL/CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . 20 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 PVT. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 OTHER PVT. MEDICAL_____________________ 26 (SPECIFY) OTHER SOURCE SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATION . . . . . . 31 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 OTHER __________________________ 36 (SPECIFY) 528 If you wanted to, could you yourself get a condom? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW/UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 529 Do you know of a place where one can get female condoms? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<601 530 Where is that? IF SOURCE IS POLYCLINIC, FGP, FAP, WOMEN`S CONSULTING CENTER (WCC0, WRITE THE NAME OF THE PLACE. PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. _________________________________________________________________________ (NAME OF PLACE) PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 WCC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 URBAN/RUARAL HEALTH CLINIC . . 13 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 OTHER PUBLIC _________________ 16 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PVT. HOSPITAL/CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . 20 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 PVT. DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 OTHER PVT. MEDICAL _____________________ 26 (SPECIFY) OTHER SOURCE SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 RELIGIOUS ORGANIZATION . . . . . . 31 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 OTHER __________________________ 36 (SPECIFY) 531 If you wanted to, could you yourself get a female condom? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW/UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 SECTION 6. FERTILITY PREFERENCES NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 601 CHECK 311/311A: NEITHER STERILIZED +))), /)))- ? HE OR SHE STERILIZED +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))<614 602 CHECK 228: NOT PREGNANT +))), OR UNSURE /)))- * ? Now I have some questions about the future. Would you like to have (a/another) child, or would you prefer not to have any (more) children? PREGNANT +))), /)))- * ? Now I have some questions about the future. After the child you are expecting now, would you like to have another child, or would you prefer not to have any more children? HAVE (A/ANOTHER) CHILD . . . . . . 1 NO MORE/NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SAYS SHE CAN’T GET PREGNANT 3 UNDECIDED/DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . 8 ))<604 ))<609 ))<608 603 CHECK 226: NOT PREGNANT +))), OR UNSURE /)))- * ? How long would you like to wait from now before the birth of (a/another) child? PREGNANT +))), /)))- * ? After the birth of the child you are expecting now, how long would you like wait before the birth of another child? +)))0))), MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- SOON/NOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993 SAYS SHE CAN’T GET PREGNANT . .994 AFTER MARRIAGE . . . . . . . . . . . 995 OTHER_______________________ 996 (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 ), * * /<609 * * )- 604 CHECK 228: NOT PREGNANT +))), OR UNSURE /)))- ? PREGNANT +))), .)))2)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))<610 605 CHECK 310: USING A METHOD? NOT ASKED +))), /)))- ? NOT CURRENTLY USING +))), /)))- ? CURRENTLY USING +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))<608 606 CHECK 603: NOT ASKED +))), /)))- ? 24 OR MORE MONTHS OR 02 OR MORE YEARS +))), /)))- ? 00-23 MONTHS OR 00-01 YEAR +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))<610 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 607 CHECK 602: WANTS +)), A/ANOTHER CHILD /))- ? You have said that you do not want (a/another) child soon, but you are not using any method to avoid pregnancy. Can you tell me why? WANTS NO (MORE) +)), CHILDREN /))- ? You have said that you do not want any (more) children, but you are not using any method to avoid pregnancy. Can you tell me why? NOT MARRIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A FERTILITY-RELATED REASONS NOT HAVING SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . B INFREQUENT SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . C MENOPAUSAL/HYSTERECTOMY. D SUBFECUND/INFECUND . . . . . . . E POSTPARTUM AMENORRHEIC . . F BREASTFEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . G FATALISTIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H OPPOSITION TO USE RESPONDENT OPPOSED . . . . . . . I HUSBAND OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . J OTHERS OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . K RELIGIOUS PROHIBITION . . . . . . L LACK OF KNOWLEDGE KNOWS NO METHOD . . . . . . . . . M KNOWS NO SOURCE . . . . . . . . . . N METHOD-RELATED REASONS HEALTH CONCERNS . . . . . . . . . . O FEAR OF SIDE EFFECTS . . . . . . . P LACK OF ACCESS/TOO FAR . . . . Q COST TOO MUCH . . . . . . . . . . . . R INCONVENIENT TO USE . . . . . . . S INTERFERES WITH BODY’S NATURAL PROCESSES . . . . . . T OTHER ________________________ X (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 608 In the next few weeks, if you discovered that you were pregnant, would that be a big problem, a small problem, or no problem for you? BIG PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SMALL PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO PROBLEM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SAYS SHE CAN’T GET PREGNANT 4 609 CHECK 310: USING A METHOD? NOT ASKED +))), /)))- ? NOT CURRENTLY USING +))), /)))- ? CURRENTLY USING +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))<614 610 Do you think you will use a method to delay or avoid pregnancy at any time in the future? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<612 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 611 Which method would you prefer to use? FEMALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . 01 MALE STERILIZATION . . . . . . . . . . 02 PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 IMPLANTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 FEMALE CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 DIAPHRAGM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 LACT. AMEN. METHOD . . . . . . . . . 11 PERIODIC ABSTINENCE . . . . . . . . 12 WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 OTHER_______________________ 96 (SPECIFY) UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ), * * * * * * /<614 * * * * * * * * )- 612 What is the main reason that you think you will not use a method at any time in the future? NOT CURRENTLY MARRIED . . . . 11 FERTILITY-RELATED REASONS INFREQUENT SEX . . . . . . . . . . . 22 MENOPAUSAL/HYSTERECTOMY 23 SUBFECUND/INFECUND . . . . . . 24 WANTS AS MANY CHILDREN AS POSSIBLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 OPPOSITION TO USE RESPONDENT OPPOSED . . . . . 31 HUSBAND OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . 32 OTHERS OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . 33 RELIGIOUS PROHIBITION . . . . . 34 LACK OF KNOWLEDGE KNOWS NO METHOD . . . . . . . . 41 KNOWS NO SOURCE . . . . . . . . . 42 METHOD-RELATED REASONS HEALTH CONCERNS . . . . . . . . . 51 FEAR OF SIDE EFFECTS . . . . . . 52 LACK OF ACCESS/TOO FAR . . . 53 COST TOO MUCH . . . . . . . . . . . 54 INCONVENIENT TO USE . . . . . . 55 INTERFERES WITH BODY’S NORMAL PROCESSES . . . . . . 56 OTHER________________________ 96 (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ), * * * * * * * * * * * * /<614 * * * * * * * * * * * * * )- 613 Would you ever use a method if you were married? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 614 CHECK 219: +)), HAS LIVING CHILDREN /))- ? If you could go back to the time you did not have any children and could choose exactly the number of children to have in your whole life, how many would that be? +)), NO LIVING CHILDREN /))- ? If you could choose exactly the number of children to have in your whole life, how many would that be? +)))0))), NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- OTHER _______________________ 96 (SPECIFY) ))<616 PROBE FOR A NUMERIC RESPONSE. NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 615 How many of these children would you like to be boys, how many would you like to be girls and for how many would it not matter? BOYS +)))0))), NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- OTHER _______________________ 96 (SPECIFY) GIRLS +)))0))), NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- OTHER _______________________ 96 (SPECIFY) EITHER +)))0))), NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- OTHER ______________________ 96 (SPECIFY) 616 Would you say that you approve or disapprove of couples using a method to avoid getting pregnant? APPROVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DISAPPROVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW/UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . 8 617 In the last few months have you heard about family planning: On the radio? On the television? In a newspaper or magazine? YES NO RADIO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 TELEVISION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 NEWSPAPER OR MAGAZINE . 1 2 619 In the last few months, have you discussed the practice of family planning with your friends, neighbors, or relatives? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<621 620 With whom? Anyone else? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. HUSBAND/PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . A MOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B FATHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C SISTER(S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D BROTHER(S) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E DAUGHTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F SON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G MOTHER-IN-LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H FRIENDS/NEIGHBORS . . . . . . . . . . . I OTHER ________________________ X (SPECIFY) 621 CHECK 501: YES, CURRENTLY MARRIED +))), /)))- ? YES, LIVING WITH A MAN +))), /)))- ? NO, NOT IN UNION +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))<625 622 Now I want to ask you about your husband’s/partner’s views on family planning. Do you think that your husband/partner approves or disapproves of couples using a method to avoid pregnancy? APPROVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DISAPPROVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 623 How often have you talked to your husband/partner about family planning in the past year? NEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ONCE OR TWICE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MORE OFTEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 624 Do you think your husband/partner wants the same number of children that you want, or does he want more or fewer than you want? SAME NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MORE CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 FEWER CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 625 Husbands and wives do not always agree on everything. Please tell me if you think a wife is justified in refusing to have sex with her husband when: YES NO DK She is tired or not in the mood? She has recently given birth? She knows he has sex with other women?1 She knows he has the AIDS virus? TIRED/MOOD . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 RECENT BIRTH . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 OTHER WOMEN . . . . . . . 1 2 8 HAS THE AIDS VIRUS . . . 1 2 8 SECTION 7. HUSBAND'S BACKGROUND AND WOMAN'S WORK NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 701 CHECK 501 AND 502: CURRENTLY MARRIED/ LIVING WITH A MAN +))), /)))- ? FORMERLY MARRIED +))), .)))2)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))<703 NEVER MARRIED AND NEVER LIVED WITH A MAN +))), .)))2)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))<707 702 How old was your husband/partner on his last birthday? +)))0))), AGE IN COMPLETED YEARS . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 703 Did your (last) husband/partner ever attend school? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<706 704 What was the highest level of school he attended: primary, secondary, secondary-special, or higher? PRIMARY/SECONDARY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SECONDARY-SPECIAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 HIGHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ))<706 705 What was the highest (grade/form/year) he completed at that level? +)))0))), GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 706 CHECK 701: CURRENTLY MARRIED/ LIVING WITH A MAN +))), /)))- ? What is your husband’s/partner’s occupation? That is, what kind of work does he mainly do? FORMERLY MARRIED/ LIVED WITH A MAN +))), /)))- ? What was your (last) husband’s/ partner’s occupation? That is, what kind of work did he mainly do? +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 707 Aside from your own housework, are you currently working? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<710 708 As you know, some women take up jobs for which they are paid in cash or kind. Others sell things, have a small business or work on the family farm or in the family business. Are you currently doing any of these things or any other work? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<710 709 Have you done any work in the last 12 months? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<719 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 710 What is your occupation, that is, what kind of work do you mainly do? +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- _________________________________ _________________________________ _________________________________ 711 CHECK 710: WORKS IN AGRICULTURE +))), /)))- ? DOES NOT WORK IN AGRICULTURE +))), .)))2)))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))<713 712 Do you work mainly on your own land or on family land, or do you rent land or do you work on someone else's land? OWN LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 FAMILY LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RENTED LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SOMEONE ELSE'S LAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 713 Do you do this work for a member of your family, for someone else, or are you self-employed? FOR FAMILY MEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 FOR SOMEONE ELSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SELF-EMPLOYED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 714 Do you usually work throughout the year, or do you work seasonally, or only once in a while? THROUGHOUT THE YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SEASONALLY/PART OF THE YEAR . . . . . . . . 2 ONCE IN A WHILE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 715 Are you paid in cash or kind for this work or are you not paid at all? CASH ONLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CASH AND KIND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 IN KIND ONLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NOT PAID . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 ), )2<718 716 Who mainly decides how the money you earn will be used? RESPONDENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HUSBAND/PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RESPONDENT AND HUSBAND/PARTNER JOINTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 SOMEONE ELSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 RESPONDENT AND SOMEONE ELSE JOINTLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 717 On average, how much of your household’s expenditures do your earnings pay for: almost none, less than half, about half, more than half, or all? ALMOST NONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 LESS THAN HALF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ABOUT HALF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 MORE THAN HALF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 NONE, HER INCOME IS ALL SAVED. . . . . . . . 6 718 Do you usually work at home or away from home? HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 AWAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 719 Who in your family usually has the final say on the following decisions: RESPONDENT = 1 HUSBAND/PARTNER = 2 RESP. & HUSBAND/PARTNER JOINTLY = 3 SOMEONE ELSE = 4 RESPONDENT & SOMEONE ELSE JOINTLY = 5 Your own health? Large household purchases? Daily household purchases? Visits to family, friends, or relatives? What food should be cooked each day? 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 720 PRESENCE OF OTHERS AT THIS POINT (PRESENT AND LISTENING, PRESENT BUT NOT LISTENING OR NOT PRESENT) PRES/ PRES/ NOT LISTEN. NOT PRS LISTEN. CHILDREN <10 . . . . 1 2 3 HUSBAND . . . . . . . . 1 2 3 OTHER MALES . . . . 1 2 3 OTHER FEMALES . . 1 2 3 721 Sometimes a husband is annoyed or angered by things which his wife does. In your opinion, is a husband justified in hitting or beating his wife in the following situations: YES NO DK If she goes out without telling him? If she neglects the children? If she argues with him? If she refuses sex with him? If she burns the food? GOES OUT . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 NEGL. CHILDREN . . 1 2 8 ARGUES . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 8 REFUSES SEX . . . . . 1 2 8 BURNS FOOD . . . . . 1 2 8 722 Have you ever been beaten by your husband? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 REFUSED TO ANSWER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DOESN’T REMEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 723 Is your husband your relative? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ))<801 ))<801 724 How close is he to you: cousin or other ? COUSIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OTHER RELATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 SECTION 8A: AIDS AND OTHER SEXUALLY TRANSMITTED DISEASES NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 801 Now I would like to talk about something else. Have you ever heard of an illness called AIDS? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<818 802 Is there anything a person can do to avoid getting AIDS or the virus that causes AIDS? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<810 803 What can a person do? Anything else? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. ABSTAIN FROM SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A USE CONDOMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B LIMIT SEX TO ONE PARTNER/STAY FAITHFUL TO ONE PARTNER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C LIMIT NUMBER OF SEXUAL PARTNERS . . . . . D AVOID SEX WITH PROSTITUTES . . . . . . . . . . . E AVOID SEX WITH PERSONS WHO HAVE MANY PARTNERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F AVOID SEX WITH HOMOSEXUALS . . . . . . . . . G AVOID SEX WITH PERSONS WHO INJECT DRUGS INTRAVENOUSLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H AVOID BLOOD TRANSFUSIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . I AVOID INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J AVOID KISSING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K AVOID MOSQUITO BITES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L SEEK PROTECTION FROM TRADITIONAL HEALER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M AVOID SHARING RAZORS, BLADES . . . . . . . . N OTHER _________________________________ W (SPECIFY) OTHER _________________________________ X (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 804 Is it possible to avoid AIDS by having only one not infected sexual partner who doesn’t have other sexual partners? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 805 Is it possible to get AIDS through mosquito bite? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 806 Is it possible to avoid AIDS using condom during every sexual intercourse? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 807 Can a person get AIDS through eating together with sick person? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 808 Is it possible to prevent AIDS by abstain from sexual intercourses at all? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 810 Is it possible for a healthy-looking person to have the AIDS virus? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 811 Do you know someone personally who has the virus that causes AIDS or someone who died from AIDS? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 812 Can the virus that causes AIDS be transmitted from a mother to a child? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<814 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 813 When can the virus that causes AIDS be transmitted from a mother to a child? Can it be transmitted. During pregnancy? During delivery? During breastfeeding? YES NO DK 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 814 CHECK 501: CURRENTLY MARRIED/ LIVING WITH A MAN +))), /)))- ? NOT CURRENTLY MARRIED/ NOT LIVING WITH A MAN +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))<815A 815 Have you ever talked about ways to prevent getting the virus that causes AIDS with (your husband/the man you are living with)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 815A In your opinion, is it acceptable or unacceptable for AIDS to be discussed: On the radio? On the TV? In newspapers? ACCEPT. UNACCEPT.DK/NOTSURE 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 816 If a person learns that he/she is infected with the virus that causes AIDS, should the person be allowed to keep this fact private or should this information be available to the community? CAN BE KEPT PRIVATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 AVAILABLE TO COMMUNITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK/NOT SURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 817 If a relative of yours became sick with the virus that causes AIDS, would you be willing to care for her or him in your own household? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK/NOT SURE/DEPENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 817b Should persons with the AIDS virus who works with other persons such as in a shop, office, or farm be allowed to continue their work or not? CAN CONTINUE WORK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SHOULD NOT CONTINUE WORK . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK/NOT SURE/DEPENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 817c Should children aged 12-14 be taught about using a condom to avoid AIDS? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK/NOT SURE/DEPENDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 817d Have you ever been tested to see if you have the AIDS virus? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 )< 817gx 817e Would you want to be tested for the AIDS virus? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW/UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 817f Do you know a place where you could go to get an AIDS test? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<818 817g 817gx Where can you go for the test? Where did you go for the test? IF SOURCE IS HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTER, OR CLINIC, WRITE THE NAME OF THE PLACE. PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. __________________________________________ (NAME OF PLACE) PUBLIC SECTOR HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 STD CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 URBAN/RURAL CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 ANONYMOUS SECTORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 OTHER PUBLIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 ________________________________________ (SPECIFY) PRIVATE MEDICAL SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL/CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL _____________________________ 26 (SPECIFY) OTHER SOURCE SHOP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 CHURCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 OTHER _________________________________ 96 (SPECIFY) 818 (Apart from AIDS), have you heard about (other) infections that can be transmitted through sexual contact? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<831 818A Have you ever heard about these diseases? SYPHILIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A TRYPANOSOMIASIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B GONORHEYA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C BACTERICAL VAGINOSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D HLAMIDOSIS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E GENITAL HERPES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F OTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . X DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 819 In a man, what signs and symptoms would lead you to think that he has such an infection? Any others? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. ABDOMINAL PAIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A GENITAL DISCHARGE/DRIPPING . . . . . . . . . . B FOUL SMELLING DISCHARGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . C BURNING PAIN ON URINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . D REDNESS/INFLAMMATION IN GENITAL AREA E SWELLING IN GENITAL AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . F GENITAL SORES/ULCERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G GENITAL WARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H BLOOD IN URINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I LOSS OF WEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J IMPOTENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K NO SYMPTOMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L OTHER _______________________________ W (SPECIFY) OTHER ________________________________ X (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 820 How do you think, what symptoms represent weather a woman is been infected or not? ABDOMINAL PAIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A GENITAL DISCHARGE/DRIPPING . . . . . . . . . . B FOUL SMELLING DISCHARGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . C BURNING PAIN ON URINATION . . . . . . . . . . . . D REDNESS/INFLAMMATION IN GENITAL AREA E SWELLING IN GENITAL AREA . . . . . . . . . . . . . F GENITAL SORES/ULCERS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G GENITAL WARTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H BLOOD IN URINE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I LOSS OF WEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J NO SYMPTOMS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . K OTHER ________________________________ W (SPECIFY) OTHER_________________________________ X (SPECIFY) DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Z 822 During the last 12 months, have you had a sexually- transmitted disease? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 ), )2<831 823 Now I would like to ask you some questions about your health in the last 12 months. Sometimes, women experience a genital discharge. During the last 12 months, have you had a genital discharge? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 824 Sometimes, women experience a genital sore or ulcer. During the last 12 months, have you had a genital sore or ulcer? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 825 CHECK 822, 823, and 824: HAS HAD AN INFECTION +))), /)))- ? HAS NOT HAD AN INFECTION +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))) ))<831 826 The last time you had (INFECTION FROM 822/823/824), did you seek any kind of advice or treatment? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<828 827 The last time you had (INFECTION FROM 822/823/824) did you do any of the following? Did you. Seek advice from a health worker in a clinic or hospital? Seek advice or medicine from a traditional healer? Seek advice or buy medicines in a shop or pharmacy? Ask for advice from friends or relatives? YES NO 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 828 When you had (INFECTION FROM 822/823/824), did you inform the persons with whom you were having sex? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SOME/ NOT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 829 When you had (INFECTION FROM 822/823/824) did you do something to avoid infecting your sexual partner(s)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PARTNER ALREADY INFECTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 )), ))2<831 830 What did you do to avoid infecting your partner? Did you. Stop having sex? Used a condom when having sex? Take medicine? YES NO 1 2 1 2 1 2 SECTION 8B. LIFESTYLE NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 831 Following questions will concern about you nutrition and you habits as well. 832 How do you think about yourself, are you normal weight or stout? THIN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NORMAL WEIGHT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STOUT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 833 Do you usually eat food with moderate salt, very salty, or without salt at all? VERY SALTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MODERATE SALT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 WITHOUT SALT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 834 Do add salt into food before eating? NEVER ADD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES BUT FIRSTLY TASTE IT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ALWAYS ADD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 835 Have you ever smoked cigarettes, cigarettes with hardboard holder, or other? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<118 836 Have you smoked at least 100 cigarettes or other for the whole life? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 837 Do you smoke daily, from time to time, or not at all? DAILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 FROM TIME TO TIME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 838 Did you smoke daily in the past? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<118 839 How much time past when you smoked daily? SMOKE AT THE PRESENT MOMENT . . . . . . . . . . . 11 LESS 1 MONTH AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 1-6 MONTHS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 6-12 MONTHS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 1-5 YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 5-10 YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 MORE THAN 10 YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 DON`T REMEMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 840 How many years did you smoke every day? YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 841 How many cigarettes did (do) you smoke a day? QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 842 How old were you when you started to smoke every day? AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 843 Have you tried to quit smoking? YES. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 844 Do you live in the family where other people smoke every day? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 845 Do you work in a place where people smoke daily? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DOESN’T WORK AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 846 Have you ever drunk alcoholic drinks? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))<854 847 Do you drink alcoholics now? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ONLY ON HOLIDAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ))<854 ))<854 848 How many glasses do you usually drink a week in average? QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 849 How many glasses do you usually drink on weekends in average? QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 850 Did you think that you should stop drinking alcoholics? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 851 Have you been criticized or run down by somebody that you drink alcoholics? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 852 Did you feel guilty that you drink alcoholics? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 853 Does it happen you drink on the mornings to calm or to cure a hang over? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 854 Have you been injected last three months? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ))< 857 855 How many times have you been injected last three months? QUANTITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DON’T KNOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 856 How have made you injection last time? SPECIALIST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 PHARMACEUTIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 PRACTITIONER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 FRIEND/RELATIVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 HERSELF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER _____________________________________ 6 (SPECIFY) 857 Before proceeding further with the questionnaire, let me measure your blood pressure and pulse on the left hand. MEASURE THE BLOOD PRESSURE AND PULSE AND RECORD THE RESULTS BLOOD PRESSURE: SYSTOLIC DIASTOLIC PULSE NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 857A Before proceeding further with the questionnaire, let me measure your blood pressure and pulse on the right hand. MEASURE THE BLOOD PRESSURE AND PULSE AND RECORD THE RESULTS BLOOD PRESSURE: SYSTOLIC DIASTOLIC PULSE 858 RECORD THE TIME. +)))0))), HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* /)))3)))1 MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- SECTION 9. HEIGHT AND WEIGHT IN 901 AND 902, RECORD THE HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF THE RESPONDENT. NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES 901 RESPONDENT’S HEIGHT (IN CENTIMETERS) +)))0)))0))), +))), *!!!*!!!*!!!* *!!!* .)))2)))2)))-.)))- 902 RESPONDENT’S WEIGHT (IN KILOGRAMS) +)))0)))0))), +))), *!!!*!!!*!!!* *!!!* .)))2)))2)))-.)))- 903 RESULT MEASURED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NOT PRESENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER _______________________ 6 (SPECIFY) 904 CHECK 215 AND 219: ONE OR MORE LIVING CHILDREN BORN IN JAN. 1995 OR LATER +))), /)))- ? NO LIVING CHILDREN BORN IN JAN. 1995 OR LATER +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))< 1001 IN 905 AND 906 RECORD THE LINE NUMBER AND NAME OF EACH CHILD BORN SINCE JANUARY 1995 AND STILL ALIVE. IN 907 RECORD THE BIRTH DATE FOR ALL LIVING CHILDREN BORN SINCE JANUARY 1995. IN 908 AND 910 RECORD HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF THE LIVING CHILDREN. 1) YOUNGEST LIVING CHILD 2) NEXT-TO-YOUNGEST LIVING CHILD 3) NEXT-TO-NEXT-TO- YOUNGEST LIVING CHILD 905 LINE NO. FROM 212 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 906 NAME FROM 217 (NAME) _____________________ (NAME) _______________________ (NAME) __________________________ 908 HEIGHT (IN CENTIMETERS) +)))0)))0))), +))), *!!!*!!!*!!!* *!!!* .)))2)))2)))-.)))- +)))0)))0))), +))), *!!!*!!!*!!!* *!!!* .)))2)))2)))-.)))- +)))0)))0))), +))), *!!!*!!!*!!!* *!!!* .)))2)))2)))-.)))- 909 WAS LENGTH/HEIGHT OF CHILD MEASURED LYING DOWN OR STANDING UP? LYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 STANDING . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 STANDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LYING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 STANDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 910 WEIGHT (IN KILOGRAMS) +)))0))), +))), *!!!*!!!* *!!!* .)))2)))-.)))- +)))0))), +))), *!!!*!!!* *!!!* .)))2)))-.)))- +)))0))), +))), *!!!*!!!* *!!!* .)))2)))-.)))- 911 DATE WEIGHED AND MEASURED DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DAY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONTH . . . . . . . . . . MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES 912 RESULT OF WEIGHING AND MEASURING MEASURED . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHILD SICK . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . . . 3 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . . 4 MOTHER REFUSED . . . . . 5 OTHER ____________________ 6 (SPECIFY) MEASURED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHILD SICK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . . . . . . . 3 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . . 4 MOTHER REFUSED . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER _______________________ 6 (SPECIFY) MEASURED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHILD SICK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . . . . . . 3 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . 4 MOTHER REFUSED . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER _______________________ 6 (SPECIFY) 913 NAME OF MEASURER : ____________________________ NAME OF ASSISTANT : _______________________ SECTION 10. HEMOGLOBIN MEASUREMENT IN THE BLOOD READ TO THE RESPONDENT THE FOLLOWING INFORMATION ABOUT ANEMIA AND REQUEST HER PARTICIPATION IN THE ANEMIA TESTING PART OF THE SURVEY. IF THE RESPONDENT AGREES TO PARTICIPATE, ASK HER TO SIGN AND DATE THE RESPONDENT CONSENT FORM. THEN RECORD THE OUTCOME OF THIS REQUEST BY CIRCLING THE APPROPRIATE CODE ON THE NEXT PAGE. CLINICAL-RESEARCH CENTER FOR MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH Dear Respondent: The Clinical Research Center for Maternal and Child Health is conducting Demographic and Health Survey in Turkmenistan. As part of this program we study the prevalence of anemia among the women and their children. We ask you to participate in this program, which will assist the Ministry of Health and Medical Industry to develop the specific measures to prevent and treat anemia. Anemia is a disease, which is characterized by a low count of red blood cells. It results from poor nutrition and can be especially damaging to the health of pregnant and breastfeeding women. Today, it is possible to rapidly (within a few minutes) diagnose this disease. A low level of hemoglobin can be determined by a Hemocue machine on the basis of a single drop of blood. If you decide to participate in this program, we will ask you to provide a drop of blood from your finger for the analysis. Also, if you have a child of age 5 or less, please let our nurse to obtain drop of blood from him. The procedure will be done by sterile instruments. The blood will be analysed using the new sophisticated American equipment, Hemocue. The result of analysis will be available to you right after the blood is taken and assessed by Hemocue. We will also keep the results confidential. If you decide to participate in this program , please sign at the bottom of this form that you agree to provide a drop of blood from your child. If you decide not to participate , it is your right, and we will respect your choice. I am _____________________________ __________________________________________________________ ____________________________ Last name, First name Middle name agree to donate a drop of blood for the purpose of anemia diagnosis. I also allow a drop of blood to be taken from my child(children) for the purposes of anemia diagnosis. Signature: _____________________________________________________________________________________ Date: _______ ________________2000 1001 RESPONDENT AGREES TO TESTING OF HERSELF AND/OR HER CHILD(REN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 1002 RESPONDENT DOES NOT AGREE TO TESTING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9 END 1002 RESPONDENT’S HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL (G/DL) +)))0))), +))), *!!!*!!!* *!!!* .)))2)))-.)))- 1003 RESULT MEASURED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NOT PRESENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER ___________________________________________________________________6 (SPECIFY) 1004 CHECK 212 AND 219: ONE OR MORE LIVING CHILDREN BORN IN JAN. 1995 OR LATER +))), /)))- ? NO LIVING CHILDREN BORN IN JAN. 1995 OR LATER +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))))))))< 1009 IN 1005 AND1006 RECORD THE LINE NUMBER AND NAME OF EACH CHILD BORN IN JANUARY 1994 OR LATER AND STILL ALIVE. IN 1007 RECORD THE HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL IN THE BLOOD OF THE LIVING CHILDREN. 1) YOUNGEST LIVING CHILD 2) NEXT-TO-YOUNGEST LIVING CHILD 3) NEXT-TO-NEXT-TO- YOUNGEST LIVING CHILD 1005 LINE NO. FROM 212 +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- +)))0))), *!!!*!!!* .)))2)))- 1006 NAME FROM 217 (NAME) _________________________ (NAME) ________________________ (NAME) ______________________ 1007 HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL IN THE BLOOD (G/DL) +)))0))), +))), *!!!*!!!* *!!!* .)))2)))-.)))- +)))0))), +))), *!!!*!!!* *!!!* .)))2)))-.)))- +)))0))), +))), *!!!*!!!* *!!!* .)))2)))-.)))- 1008 RESULT MEASURED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHILD SICK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . . . . . 3 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . . . . 4 MOTHER REFUSED . . . . . . . 5 OTHER ________________________ 6 (SPECIFY) MEASURED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHILD SICK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . . . . . . 3 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . 4 MOTHER REFUSED . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER ________________________ 6 (SPECIFY) MEASURED . . . . . . . . . . . 1 CHILD SICK . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . . 3 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . 4 MOTHER REFUSED . . . . 5 OTHER _____________________ 6 (SPECIFY) 1009 NAME OF HEMOGLOBIN MEASURER:_______________________________________________________ 1010 CHECK 1002 AND 1007: NO VALUES BELOW 7 G/DL +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))< GIVE MOTHER RESULT OF HEMOGLOBIN MEASUREMENT AND END THE INTERVIEW ONE OR MORE VALUES BELOW 7 G/DL +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))< GIVE MOTHER RESULT OF HEMOGLOBIN MEASUREMENT AND CONTINUE WITH 1011. 1011 CHECK HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE Q5: RESPONDENT IS USUAL RESIDENT +))), /)))- ? RESPONDENT IS VISITOR +))), .)))2))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))))<END 1012 Dear Respondent: We detected the low level of hemoglobin in your (your child`s) blood. This indicates that you (your child) have developed severe anemia, which is serious health problem. We would like to inform about this the doctor at health care facility in your area. That would help you to meet appropriate further diagnosis and treatment of your (your child`s) condition. If you agree with this please sign at the bottom of this form. Thank you for your cooperation. I am _____________________________ _____________________________________________________ ____________________________ Last name, First Name Middle Name agree that the information about the level of hemoglobin in my (my child`s) blood will be disclosed to the doctor at the local health care facility. Signature ________________________________________________________ Date “___________” ______________________2000 RESPONDENT AGREES TO REFERRAL OF HERSELF AND/OR HER CHILD(REN) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 RESPONDENT DOES NOT AGREE TO REFERRAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 9 END 1013 RECORD NAMES OF WOMEN AND CHILD(REN) WITH HEMOGLOBIN LEVEL LESS THAN 7G/DL ON REFERRAL FORM RESULTS OF HEMOGLOBIN MEASUREMENTS IN THE BLOOD Date ___________ ____________________ 1999 Name Hemoglobin level in the blood (G//Dl) Respondent ___________________________ Youngest child __________________________________ Next-to-youngest child _________________________ You have Your child has Your child has W HO CLA SS IFICA TIO N O F A NE MIA Normal leve l Hb level above 11 G/DL Mild anemia Hb (10-11 G/DL) Moderate anemia Hb (7- 10 G/DL) Severe anemia Hb (less than 7 G/DL) Normal level Mild anem ia Mo derate anem ia Severe anemia Norm al leve l Mild anemia Moderate anemia Severe anemia Norm al leve l Mild anemia Mo derate anem ia Severe anemia In case of severe anemia (Hb level less than 7 G/DL), we recommend you to imm ediately contact your doctor. INTERVIEWER’S OBSERVATIONS TO BE FILLED IN AFTER COMPLETING INTERVIEW COMMENTS ABOUT RESPONDENT: COMMENTS ON SPECIFIC QUESTIONS: ANY OTHER COMMENTS: SUPERVISOR’S OBSERVATIONS NAME OF THE SUPERVISOR: ______________________________________ DATE: ___________________________________ EDITOR’S OBSERVATIONS NAME OF EDITOR: _______________________________________________ DATE: ___________________________________ CALENDAR INSTRUCTIONS: ONLY ONE CODE SHOULD APPEAR IN ANY BOX. FOR COLUMNS 1 AND 4, ALL MONTHS SHOULD BE FILLED IN. INFORMATION TO BE CODED FOR EACH COLUMN COL.1: BIRTHS, REGNANCIES, PREGNANCY TERMINATIONS, CONTRACEPTIVE USE B BIRTHS P PREGNANCIES S STILLBIRTH M MISCARRIAGE D INDUCED ABORTIONS BY D&C V INDUCED ABORTION BY VACUUM ASPIRATION 0 NO METHOD 1 FEMALE STERILIZATION 2 MALE STERILIZATION 3 PILL 4 IUD 5 INJECTIONS 6 IMPLANTS 7 CONDOM 8 FEMALE CONDOM 9 DIAPHRAGM F FOAM OR JELLY L LACTATIONAL AMENORRHEA METHOD A PERIODIC ABSTINENCE W WITHDRAWAL X OTHER ____________________________ (SPECIFY) COL. 2: SOURCE OF CONTRACEPTION 1 HOSPITAL 2 POLYCLINIC 3 WOMEN’S CONSULTING CENTER 4 FGP 5 FAP 6 OTH ER PU BLIC 7 PVT. HOSPITAL/CLINIC 8 PHARMACY 9 PRIVATE DOCTOR A NON GOVT. MO BILE CLINIC B NON GOVT. FIELD WORKER C OTHER PRIVATE MEDICAL D SHOP E CHURCH F FRIENDS/RELATIVES X OTHER ____________________________ (SPECIFY) NAME OF CHILD DATA 1 2 3 4 5 DATA 12 DEC 11 NOV 10 OCT 09 SEP 08 AUG 07 JUL 06 JUN 05 MAY 04 APR 03 MAR 02 FEB 01 JAN 01 01 12 DEC 11 NOV 10 OCT 09 SEP 08 AUG 07 JUL 06 JUN 05 MAY 04 APR 03 MAR 02 FEB 01 JAN 02 02 03 03 04 04 ___________ 2 0 0 0 05 05 2 0 0 0 06 06 07 07 08 08 09 09 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 DEC 11 NOV 10 OCT 09 SEP 08 AUG 07 JUL 06 JUN 05 MAY 04 APR 03 MAR 02 FEB 01 JAN 13 13 12 DEC 11 NOV 10 OCT 09 SEP 08 AUG 07 JUL 06 JUN 05 MAY 04 APR 03 MAR 02 FEB 01 JAN 14 14 15 15 16 16 ___________ 1 9 9 9 17 17 1 9 9 9 28 28 29 29 20 20 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 12 DEC 11 NOV 10 OCT 09 SEP 08 AUG 07 JUL 06 JUN 05 MAY 04 APR 03 MAR 02 FEB 01 JAN 25 25 12 DEC 11 NOV 10 OCT 09 SEP 08 AUG 07 JUL 06 JUN 05 MAY 04 APR 03 MAR 02 FEB 01 JAN 26 26 27 27 28 28 ___________ 1 9 9 8 29 29 1 9 9 8 30 30 31 31 32 32 33 33 34 34 35 35 36 36 COL. 3: DISCONTINUATION OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE 0 INFREQUENT SEX/HUSBAND AWAY 1 BECAME PREGNANT WHILE USING 2 WANTED TO BECOME PREGNANT 3 HUSBAND DISAPPROVED 4 WANTED MORE EFFECTIVE METHOD 5 HEALTH CONCERNS 6 SIDE EFFECTS 7 LACK OF ACCESS/TOO FAR 8 COST TOO MUCH 9 INCONVENIENT TO USE F FATALIST IC A DIFFICULT TO GET PREGNANT/MENOPAUSAL D MARITAL DISSOLUTION/SEPARATION X OTHER ________________________ (SPECIFY) Z DON’T KNOW COL.4: MARRIAGE/UNION X IN UNION (MARRIED OR LIVING TOGETHER) 0 NOT IN UNION COL. 5: PLACE OF ABORTION 1 DELIVERY HOSPITAL 2 GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL 3 FEE-FOR SERVICE DEPARTMENT OF HOSPITAL 4 PRIVATE CLINIC 5 WOMEN’S CONSULTING CENTER 6 FAMILY GROUP PRACTICE 7 OTHER _______________________ (SPECIFY) NAME OF CHILD DATA 1 2 3 4 5 DATA 12 DEC 11 NOV 10 OCT 09 SEP 08 AUG 07 JUL 06 JUN 05 MAY 04 APR 03 MAR 02 FEB 01 JAN 37 37 12 DEC 11 NOV 10 OCT 09 SEP 08 AUG 07 JUL 06 JUN 05 MAY 04 APR 03 MAR 02 FEB 01 JAN 38 38 39 39 40 40 _____________ 1 9 9 7 41 41 1 9 9 7 42 42 43 43 44 44 45 45 46 46 47 47 48 48 12 DEC 11 NOV 10 OCT 09 SEP 08 AUG 07 JUL 06 JUN 05 MAY 04 APR 03 MAR 02 FEB 01 JAN 49 49 12 DEC 11 NOV 10 OCT 09 SEP 08 AUG 07 JUL 06 JUN 05 MAY 04 APR 03 MAR 02 FEB 01 JAN 50 50 51 51 52 52 ____________ 1 9 9 6 53 53 1 9 9 6 54 54 55 55 56 56 57 57 58 58 59 59 60 60 12 DEC 11 NOV 10 OCT 09 SEP 08 AUG 07 JUL 06 JUN 05 MAY 04 APR 03 MAR 02 FEB 01 JAN 61 61 12 DEC 11 NOV 10 OCT 09 SEP 08 AUG 07 JUL 06 JUN 05 MAY 04 APR 03 MAR 02 FEB 01 JAN 62 62 63 63 64 64 ____________ 1 9 9 5 65 65 1 9 9 5 66 66 67 67 68 68 69 69 70 70 71 71 72 72 Front Matter World Summit Indicators Title Page Citation Table of Contents Tables and Figures Foreword Summary of Findings Map Chapter 1 - Introduction, Objectives, and Survey Design Chapter 2 - Household Population and Houseing Characteristics Chapter 3 - Women's Characteristics and Status Chapter 4 - Fertility Chapter 5 - Contraception Chapter 6 - Induced Abortion Chapter 7 - Other Proximate Determinants of Fertility Chapter 8 - Fertility Preferences Chapter 9 - Infant and Child Mortality Chapter 10 - Maternal and Child Health Chapter 11 - Nutrition of Women and Children Chapter 12 - Anemia Chapter 13 - HIV/AIDS and Other Sexually Transmitted Infections References - References Appendix A - Sample Design Appendix B - Estimates of Sampling Errors Appendix C - Data Quality Tables Appendix D - Questionnaires Household Questionnaire Individual Women's Questionnaire

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