Turkey - Demographic and Health Survey - 1994

Publication date: 1994

Turkey Demograpmc ana Health Survey 1993 Ministry of Health General Directorate of Mother and Child Health and Family Planning | Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies @DHS Demographic and Health Surveys Macro IntemaUonal Inc. Turkish Demographic and Health Survey 1993 Ministry of Health, General Directorate of Mother and Child Health and Family Planning Ankara, Turkey Hacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies Ankara, Turkey Demographic and Health Surveys, Macro International Inc. Calverton, Maryland, USA October 1994 This report summarises the findings of the 1993 Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) conducted by the Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe University (HIPS), under a subcontract through an agreement between the General Directorate of Mother and Child Health and Family Planning, Ministry of Health and Macro International Inc. of Calverton, Maryland, USA. Macro International Inc. provided technical assistance. Funding was provided by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). The TDHS is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program, which is designed to collect, analyse and disseminate demographic data on fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health. The survey is also the most recent in a series of demographic surveys carried out in Turkey by HIPS to provide information on fertility and child mortality levels; family planning awareness, approval and use; and basic indicators of maternal and child health. Additional information on the TDHS can be obtained from tile General Directorate of Mother and Child Health and Family Planning, Ministry of Health, Slhhiye, Ankara, Turkey (Telephone: 312-4314871 ; Fax: 312-4314872), or from Hacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies, 06100 Ankara, Turkey (Telephone: 312-3107906; Fax: 312-311814 I). Information on the worldwide DHS program may be obtained by writing: DHS, Macro International Inc., 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705, USA (Telephone: 301-572-0200; Fax: 301-572-0999). Recommended citation: Ministry of Health [Turkey], Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies, and Macro International Inc. 1994. Turkish Demographic and Health Survey 1993. Ankara, Turkey. CONTENTS Page TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vi i F IGURES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi PREFACE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . x i i i SUMMARY OF F INDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv MAP OF TURKEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvi i i CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 by Attila Hancto~,lu 1. I Geography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.2 History . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 1.3 Administrative Divisions and Political Organisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.4 Social and Cultural Features . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1.5 Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1.6 Regional Breakdown . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.7 Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 1.8 Population and Family Planning Policies and Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.9 Health Priorities and Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 I . I0 Health Care System in Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 1.11 Objectives and Organisation of the Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 CHAPTER 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 CHARACTERIST ICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS . . . . . . . . . 1 t by Turgay Onalan and Attila Hancto~lu Characteristics of the Household Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Housing Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Background Characteristics of Survey Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 C I IAPTER 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 FERT IL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 by Aykut Toros Data Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Current Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Children Ever Born and Living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Birth Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Age at First Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Teenage Pregnancy and Motherhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 iii CHAPTER 4 Page FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 by Ay$e Akin Dervi~o~,lu and Gul ErgOr 4.1 Knowledge of Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 4.2 Ever Use of Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 4.3 Current Use of Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 4.4 Number of Children at First Use of Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.5 Problems with Current Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 4.6 Use of Name-brand Pills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . 41 4.7 Knowledge of the Fertile Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 4.8 Timing of Sterilisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 4.9 Sources for Family Planning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 4.10 Contraceptive Discontinuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 4.11 Intent to Use Family Planning Among Nonusers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 CHAPTER 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 ABORTIONS AND STILLBIRTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 I bv Ay~e Akm Dervi~o~lu and G~il ErgOr Abortion and Stillbirth Prevalence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Abortions and Stillbirths by Selected Background Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Contraceptive Use Before and After Induced Abortions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Reasons for Induced Abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Timing of Induced Abortions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 CHAPTER 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 by Banu Akadh Erg~J~men Current Marital Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Marital Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Age at First Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Postpartum Amenorrhoea, Postpartum Abstinence, and Insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . 64 Termination of Exposure to Pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 CHAPTER 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 by Turgay Onalan Desire for More Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Demand for Family Planning Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Ideal and Actual Number of Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Fertility Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 iv CHAPTER 8 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 Page INFANT AND CHILD MORTAL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 by Attila Hancto~,lu Definitions of Infant and Child Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Assessment of Data Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Levels and Trends in Infant and Child Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Differentials in Infant and Child Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 High-risk Fertility Behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 CHAPTER9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 by Mehmet Ali Biliker, Dilek Haznedaro~lu, and Nedret Emiro~,lu Antenatal Care and Delivery Assistance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Immunisation of Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Acute Respiratory Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Diarrhoea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 CHAPTER I0 INFANT FEEDING, MATERNAL AND CHILDHOOD NUTRIT ION . . . . . . 107 by Ergiil Tuncbilek 10.1 Breastfeeding and Supplementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 10.2 Nutritional Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 10.3 Maternal Nutrition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 APPENDICES APPENDIX A PERSONNEL INVOLVED IN THE TURKISH DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 APPENDIX B SURVEY DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 by Mahir Ulusoy, Alfredo Aliaga, and Attila Hanclo~lu B.I B.2 B.3 B.4 B.5 B.6 B.7 B.8 B.9 Sample Design and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Sample Frame . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Stratification . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Sample Allocation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Sample Selection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Questionnaire Development and Pretest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Data Collection Activities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 134 Data Processing and Analysis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Coverage of the Sample . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Page APPENDIX C EST IMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 by Mahir Ulusoy and Alfredo Aliaga APPENDIX D DATA QUALITY TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 159 APPENDIX E CALCULAT ION OF CONTRACEPT IVE D ISCONTINUATION RATES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 APPENDIX F SURVEY INSTRUMENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 vi LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1 Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 2,3 Table 2.4 Table 2.5 Table 2.6 Table 2.7 Table 2.8 Table 2,9 Table 2.10 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4 Table 3.5 Table 3.6 Table 3.7 Table 3,8 Table 3.9 Table 3.10 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 Page Results of the household and individual interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l0 Household population by age, residence and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Population by age from selected sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Household composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Educational level of the household population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 School enrollment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Housing characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Household durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 Background characteristics of respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Level of education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 Access to mass media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Current fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Fertility by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Age-specific fertility rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Fertility by marital duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Children ever born and living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Birth intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Age at first birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Median age at first birth by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 l Teenage pregnancy and motherhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Children born to teenagers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Knowledge of contraceptive methods and source for methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Knowledge of modern contraceptive methods and source for methods . . . . . . . . . 35 Ewr use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Current use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Current use of contraception by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Number of children at first use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Problems with current method of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Use of social marketing brand pills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Knowledge of fertile period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 vii Table 4. I 0 Table 4. t 1 Table 4.12 Table 4.13 Table 4.14 Table 4.15 Table 4.16 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 5.3 Table 5.4 Table 5.5 Table 5.6 Table 5.7 Table 5.8 Table 5.9 Table 5.10 Table 6. I Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 6.5 Table 6.6 Table 6.7 Table 7.1 Table 7.2 Table 7.3 Table 7.4 Table 7.5 Table 7.6 Table 7.7 Table 7.8 Page Timing of sterilisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Source of supply for modem comraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Contraceptive discontinuation rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Reasons for discontinuation of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Ft ture use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Reasons for not using contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Preferred method o f contraception for future use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Abortions and stillbirths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Total abortion rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 induced abortion and stillbirths . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 induced abortions throughout life of a woman . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Method used before abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Method used after abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Method used after abortion and past use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Reasons for induced abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 T iming of induced abortion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Abortion providers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Current marital ~tatus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Marital exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Age at first marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Median age gt first marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence and insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Median duration of postpartum abstinence and insusceptibility by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Termination o f exposure to the risk o f pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Fertility preference by number of living children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Fertility preference by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Desire to limit (stop) childbearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Need for family planning services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 ideal number of children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Mean ideal number of children by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Fertility planning status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Wanted fertility zales . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 viii Table 8. I Table 8.2 Table 8.3 Table 8.4 "Fable 9.1 "Fable 9.2 Fable 9.3 Table 9.4 Table 9.5 Table 9.6 Table 9.7 Table 9.8 Table 9.9 Table 9. I 0 Table 9.1 I Table 9.12 Table 10.1 Table 10.2 Table 10.3 Table 10.4 Table 10.5 Table 10.6 'Fable 10.7 Table 10.8 Table B. I Table B.2 Table B.3 Table B.4 Table B.5 Table B.6 Table C. 1 Table C.2 Page Infant and child mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Infant and child mortality by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Inthnt and child mortality by demographic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 High-risk fertility behaviour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Antenatal care (ANC) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Number of antenatal care visits and stage of pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Tetanus toxoid vaccination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Place of delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Assistance during delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Vaccinations by source of information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Vaccinations by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Vaccinations in the first year of life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Prevalence and treatment of acute respiratory infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Prevalence of diarrhoea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Treatment of diarrhoea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Feeding practices during diarrhoea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Initial breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Breastfeeding status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Breastfeeding and supplementation by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I 1 Nutritional status by demographic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Nutritional status by socioeconomic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Anthropometric indicators of maternal nutritional statns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Differentials in maternal anthropometric indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Number of households to be selected from regions by power allocation and probability proportional to size . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Distribution of clusters in regions and urban and rural areas . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Weights for regions and compensating factors for nonresponse . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Response rates in five regions and settlement types . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Final weights for households and individual women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Results of the household and individual interviews by residence and region . . . . 139 List of selected variables for sampling errors, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Sampling errors - Entire sample, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 ix Table C.3 Table C.4 Table C.5 Table C.6 Table C.7 Table C.8 Table C.9 Table C. 10 Table C. 1 I Table C. 12 Table C. 13 Table D. I ]'able D.2 Table D.3 Table D.4 Table D.5 Table D.6 Page Sampling errors - Urban areas, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Sampling errors - Rural areas, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Sampling errors- Western Region, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Sampling errors - Southern Region, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 I Sampling errors - Central Region, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Sampling errors - Northern Region, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Sampling errors - Eastern Region, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Sampling errors - Age 15-24, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 Sampling errors - Age 25-34, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Sampling errors - Age 35-49, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Sampling errors for total fertility rates and infant mortality rates, Turkey 1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Household age distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 Completeness of reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Births by calendar year since birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Reporting of age at death in days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 Reporting of age at death in months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 X LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure4.1 Figure4.2 Figure4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3 Figure 7.1 Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 Figure 8.3 Figure 9.1 Figure 9.2 Figure 9.3 Figure 9.4 Figure 9.5 Figure 9.6 Figure 9.7 Figure 9.8 Figure 10.1 Page Population p~cramid of Turkey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 School enrollment by age and place of residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Age-specific fertility rates by urban-rural residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Age-specific fertility rates during the last 20 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Ever use of family planning, Turkey 1978-1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Current use of family planning, Turkey 1988-1993 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Current use of family planning by region and method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Knowledge of fertile period among ever-married women and users of periodic abstinence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Source of supply of modern contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Future use of contraception among nonusers currently married . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Reasons for not using contraception among nonusers currently married . . . . . . . . 49 Current marital status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Median age at first marriage among women age 25-49, by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Percentage of births whose mothers are amenorrhoeic, abstaining or insusceptible . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Fertility preferences among currently married women 15-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Trends in infant mortality in Turkey, 1993 TDHS and 1988 TPHS . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Infant mortality by selected background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Infant mortality by selected demographic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Source of antenatal care (ANC) by maternal age and birth order . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Antenatal care by region and residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Place of delivery by maternal age and birth order . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Place of delivery by region and residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Vaccination coverage among children age 12-23 months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Prevalence of acute respiratory infection by sex and birth order . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Prevalence of acute respiratory infection by residence and region . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Percentage of children under five years with diarrhoea, by age, sex, birth order and residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Growth of children under five years, mean z-scores by age in months . . . . . . . . 114 xi PREFACE The Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) is a nationwide sanaple survey of women of reproductive age designed to provide, among other things, information on fertility, family planning, child survival, and health of children. The survey was conducted by the Institute of Population Studies, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey, under an agreement through a subcontract signed between the General Directorate of Mother and Child Health and Family Planning, Ministry of Health and Macro International Inc. of Calverton, Maryland, USA, as part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys program, which is being administered by the latter organisation. Tile major objectives of the TDHS were to provide concerned circles in Turkey with data useful for making informed policy choices and for enhancing the design and implementation of programs aimed at promoting family planning and improving the health status of the population. As noted above, the survey collected data on major health phenomena, family planning, fertility, and infant and child mortality. In addition to providing information on recent demographic and health trends, tile TDHS was further intended to serve as a source of demographic data for comparison with earlier surveys conducted by tile Institute of Population Studies, particularly the 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey, the 1983 Turkish Fertility and Health Survey, and the 1978 Turkish Fertility Survey. We owe a special debt of gratitude to everyone in the TDHS team, whose untiring eflbrts and devotion made possible the successfid implementation of tile survey. We wish to record our sincere gratitude to Dr. Attila Hanclo~lu, Project Technical Director, Dr. Turgay 0nalan, Field Director, and Dr. Banu Akadh Erg69men, Head of Data Processing, who, in addition to performing tile tasks implied by their functions, participated in all pllases of the project from its inception to its completion. We also wish to thank Dr. Mahir Ulusoy, who took care of the sampling and listing activities, Dr. Turgay Co~kun, who made valuable contributions during the training of the TDHS fieldwork teams on anthropometric measurements, and Dr. G01 Erg6r, who was involved with and contributed to the study in various stages. We also thank the Steering Committee members for their valuable contributions and advice, and the staff of the State Institute of Statistics for their assistance in the sampling activities. We owe an immense debt to tile Regional Coordinators, Research Assistants, Supervisors, Interviewers, Field Editors, and Measurers for their meticulous assistance and hard work; theirs was the most delicate and risky job. We are also grateful to all the respondents for their patience and generosity with their time. We would also like to thank all the Governors of the provinces our teams visited, as well as the government officials in these provinces for their support in providing our teams with accommodation and vehicles. Very special acknowledgment is due tile U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) for prov:ding funding and technical assistance for the survey. We thank Dr. Pmar Senlet, USAID Population Advisor in Ankara, for her unfailing support to the project. We would also like to acknowledge the contribution of UNICEF Ankara to the survey, especially to the UNICEF Representative, Mr.Claudio Sepulveda. xiii We are most gratefid to Macro International Inc. for providing technical assistance. We wish to record our deepest gratitude to Dr. Edilberto Loaiza, country monitor, for his valuable contributions; Dr. Alfredo Aliaga, sampling expert, for his fruitful collaboration with the TDHS team in activities related to sampling and listing, and Jeanne Cushing, for her expertise in data processing. Dr. Ann Way, also from Macro International Inc., had a large part at the inception of the project; we thank her for her contributions. Finally, special thanks are extended to those at Macro International Inc. who reviewed and produced the TDHS report. Prof. Dr. Ergtil Tunc;bilek Survey Director Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies Prof. Dr. Ay~e Akin Dervi~o~lu Project Director Ministry of Health General Directorate of MCH/FP xiv SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The 1993 Turkish Demographic and Healtb Survey (TDHS) is a nationally representative survey of ever-married women less than 50 years old. The survey was designed to provide information on fertility levels and trends, infant and child mortality, family planning, and maternal and child bealth. Tbe TDItS was conducted by the Hacettepe University Institute of Population Studies under a subcontract tbrougb an agreement between tbe General Directorate of Mother and Cbild Health and Family Planning, Ministry of tlealth and Macro International Inc. of Calverton, Maryland. Fieldwork was conducted from August to October 1993. Interviews were carried out in 8,619 households and witb 6,519 women. Fertilit~ in Turkey is continuing to decline. If Turkish women maintain current fertility rates during their reproductive years, they can expect to have all average of 2.7 children by tbe end of their reproductive years. The highest fcrtility rate is obse~'ed for the age group 20-24. Tbere are marked regional differences in fertility rates, ranging from 4.4 children per woman in the East to 2.0 children per woman in tbe West. Fertility also varies widely by urban-rural residence and by education level. A woman living in rural areas will have almost one child more than a woman living in an urban area. Women wbo bave no education have almost one child more tban women who have a primary-level education and 2.5 children more than women wilh secondary-level education. The first requirement of success ill family planning is the knowledge of family planning methods. Knowledge of any method is almost universal among Turkish women and almost all tbose who know a method also know the source of the metbod. Eighty percent of currently married women have used a method sometime in tbeir life. One third of currently married women report ever using tbe IUD. Overall, 63 percent of currcntly married women are currently using a metbod. The majority of these women are modern method users (35 percent), but a very substantial proportion use traditional methods (28 percent). rbe I UD is the most commonly used nloderu method (I 9 percent), lbllowed by the condom (7 percent) and the pill (5 percent). Regional differences are substantial. The level of current use is 42 percent in tile East, 72 percent in tile West and more than 60 percent in tile other three regions. "File common complaints about tile methods are side efl'ects and health concerns; tbese are especially prevalent for the pill and IUD. A basic knowledge of reproductive plDsiology is necessary, especially in tile use of coitus-related methods. However, only 22 percent of cver-married v, olnen kDow the correct time of ovulation. Information on the sources of methods is important for plamling the services. The majority of users (55 percent) obtain the methods from government services. Primary health care units are tile major public sector suppliers (35 percent) and pllarmacies are the major private sector suppliers (26 percent). Tile discontinuation rate of the IUD is the lowest among all inelhods. Intbrmation on tile intentions of current non-users was also collected tbr the cstimation of futnre dcmand. Of this group, 46 percent do not intend to use any method in the future ,,,dlereas 45 percent havc the intention to use. Of lbe latter women, the majority report that their method of choice v, ill be the IUD. Abortion rates have decreased slightl) since 1990. The decrease is observed tbr induced abortions rather than spontaneous abortions. For tile 3ear preceding tile survey, the abortion rate is 29 per 100 pregnancies, tile induced abortion rate is 18 per 100 pregnancies and the spontaneous abortion rate is 12 per 100 pregnancies. The abortion incidence is twice as high in tile Central, Southern and Northern regions and ahnosl three times as high in the Western region compared to tile Eastern region. "I'here have been 1.5 stillbirths per 100 pregnancies in the last five years preceding tile survey. Overall, 72 percent of women bad had no abortions, 15 percent had one abortion, 8 percent had two abortions and 5 percent had three or more abortions. There is a very important oppontmit) for family plamling cotmselling after an abortion, ttowever, the results show that this opporttmity is not ulilised well. In tile month after an induced abortion. XV 39 percent of women did not use any inethod and 27 percent used withdrawal. The main reason for obtaining an abortion was the desire not to have any more children (58 percent). Overall, 44 percent of abortions took place in the first month of pregnanc)~ 31 percent in the second month, 13 percent in tile third inonth and 12 percent in tile fourth or later months of pregnancy. Some 67 percent of abortions were perlbrmed by private physicians and 27 percent were perlbrmed in tile government hospitals: there are no significant differences between regions in terms of the .place ",,,llere induced abortions are performed. The age at first marriage is one of the important determinants of fertility. "FI)HS results suggest tbat there has been an increase over the past 20 years in tile age at first marriage in Turkey. "File median age at first marriage among ~omen age 25-29 is 20 )'ears compared to 18.3 )'ears among women age 45-49. There are differences in the age at inarriage across places of residence and regions. Even more pronounced differences are observed by educational level of women. Among '~,,omen age 25-40, there is a difference of ahnost 5 years in the timing of entry into marriage between those with little or no education and those x,,llo completed at least tile secondary level. More than two-thirds of currently married wolnen in Turkey say that they do not want ally more children. An additional 14 percent 'e, ant to ~,,ait at least two )'ears before having another child. When asked ho',~ inany children they would like to bare i f the)were to start their reproductive lives all over again and be able to choose exactly, WOlnen reported an average ideal talnil) size of 2.4 children. Results from tile surve) suggest that i f all unwanted births were eliminated, the total fertility rate at tile national level would bc 1.8 children per V~Olnan. nearly one child lower than the actual level of 2.7. Twenty percent ofthe births in the five ,,'ears preceding the survey were un',vanted birtbs and 12 percent of them were mistimed. The unmet need for family planning in Turke) indicates that there is potential for further increases in contraceptive use. Twelve percent of curreatl) married ~,omen are considered to be in need of family planning. These are V, Olnen who want no more children (8 percent) or who want to delay the next birth (4 percent) but are not using fimlil) planning. Data on infant and child mortalit) ffOln the f l ) l lS appear to be of reasonable quality according to a preliminary assesslnent of tile qualit) of birth bistor)data. [:or the five ),ears preceding tile TD[IS, tile infant mortalit) rate is estimated at 53 per thousand, tile child Inortality rate at 9 per thousand, and the under-five mortalit~ rate at 61 per thousand. For the same period, the results show that in Turkey, the neonatal mortalit) rate is higher than the postneonatal inortalit)' rate, and that all tile indicators of infant and child mortalit) have declined rapidl~ in recent )ears. The general agreelneat of the TDI-IS results with those from previous sur~,eys confirms the plausibility of the fDIIS findings. The TDItS fhldiags point to significant differences in inthnt and child mortality between regions and urban and rural areas, and show tbat tile educational level of the inother and the presence of medical inatemity care are important correlates of infant and child mortalit). In addition to the differentials observed bet~,een socioeconomic groups, infant and child mortality rates also appear to correlate strongly vJth demographic variables. Age of mother at birth and order of birth show the expected U-shaped relationship witb inlbnt and child mortality. Elevated risksof mortalit) are also apparent in the case of short birth intervals. Among the maternal health hldicators, antenatal care was received from trained health personnel by 62 percent of pregnant women. For more than half of the births, antenatal care started before the fifth month of pregnancy. Tetanus toxoid coverage for women is Io~. with 16 percent having one dose and 26 percent having two doses or more. Tile TDtlS shows that 60 percent of all deliveries took place at a health facilit). Deliveries at home are inore likely to occur without the assistance of trained health personnel. xvi One of the major child health indicators is immunisation coverage. Among children age 12-23 months, the coverage rates for BCG and the first two doses of DPT and polio were about 90 percent, with most of the children receiving those vaccines before age one. The results indicate that 65 percent of the children had received all vaccinations at some time before the survey. On a regional basis, coverage is significantly lower in the Eastern region (41 percent), followed by the Northern and Central regions (61 percent and 65 percent, respectively). Acute respiratory infections (ARI) and diarrhoea are the two most prevalent diseases of children under age five in Turkey. In the two weeks preceding the survey, the prevalence of ARI was 12 percent and the prevalence of diarrhoea was 25 percent for children under age five. Among children with diarrhoea 56 percent were given more fluids than usual. Breastfeeding in Turkey is widespread. Almost all Turkish children (95 percent) are breastfed for some period of time. The median duration of breastfeeding is 12 months, but supplementary foods and liquids are introduced at an early age. One-third of children are being given supplementary food as early as one month of age and by the age of 2-3 months, half of the children are already being given supplementary foods or liquids. By age five, almost one-filth of children arc stunted (short for their age), compared to an international reference population. Stunting is more prevalent in rural areas, in the East, among children of mothers with little or no education, among children who are of higher birth order, and among those born less than 24 months after a prior birth. Overall, wasting is not a problem. Two percent of children are wasted (thin for their height), and I I percent of children under five are underweight for their age. The survey results show that obesity is d problem among mothers. According to Body Mass Index (BMI) calculations, 51 percent of mothers are overweight, of which 19 percent are obese. xvii TURKEY M~-I_)I I I-HHANIcAIV ,bI-A /~'1 ~¢( ~'~4 REGIONS AND PROVINCES WEST SoLrrH CENTRAL 09 Aydm 01 Adana 03 Aft/on 10 Bahkasir 07 Antalya 05 Amasya 16 Bursa 15 Burdur 06 Ankara 17 (~anakkale 27 Gaziantep 11 Bilecik 20 Denizli 31 Hatay 14 Bolu 22 Edime 32 !sparta 18 (~ankm 34 !stanbul 33 I~;el 19 C.,orum 35 Izmir 48 Mu~la 26 EskL~,ehir 39 Ktrklareli 38 Kayseri 41 Kocaeli 40 K~r~ehir 45 Manisa 42 Konya 54 Sakarya 43 KOtahya 59 Tekirda~ 50 Nev~=hir 51 Nk]de 60 Tokat 64 U~k 66 Yozgat 68 Aksaray 70 Karaman 71 Kmkkale ,HCIVAN '.ARBAIJAN) NORTH EAST 08 Artvin 02 Ad=yaman 47 Mardin 28 Giresun 04 A0n 49 Mu~ 37 Kastamonu 12 Bing{~l 56 Siirt 52 Ordu 13 Bitlis 58 Sivas 53 R~Ye 21 Diyarbak=r 62 Tunceli 55 Samsun 23 ElazL~ 63 ~.Urfa 57 Sinop 24 Erzincan 65 Van 61 Trabzon 25 E~urum 69 Bayburt 67 Zonguldak 29 G=3m0~hane 72 Batman 74 Barbn 30 Hakkafi 73 ,~mak 36 Kars 75 Ardahan 44 Malatya 76 I~d=r 46 K. Mara~ CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Attila Hanclo lu 1.1 Geograp Turkey has a surface area of 774,815 square kilometres and has land area in both Europe and Asia. About 3 percent of her total area lies in southeastern Europe (Thrace) and the remainder, in southwestern Asia (Anatolia, or Asia Minor). Turkey shares borders with Greece, Bulgaria, Syria, Iraq, Iran, Georgia, Armenia and Nahcivan (Azerbaijan). The shape of the country resembles a rectangle, stretching in the east- west direction for roughly 1,565 kilometres and in the noah-south direction for roughly 650 kilometres. Turkey is surrounded by seas in the north (the Black Sea), in the northwest (Marmara), in the west (the Aegean) and in the south (the Mediterranean), giving it a total coastline of approximately 8,333 kilometres. Anatolia consists of a semi-arid central plateau surrounded by mountains. The Northern Anatolia mountains in the north and the Taurus mountains in the south stretch parallel to the coastline, meeting in the eastern part of the country. The eastern region of the country is characterized by rugged mountainous areas. The average altitude of the country is approximately 1130 metres above sea level. However, there are vast differences in altitude among regions, ranging from an average of 500 metres in the west to 2,000 metres in the east. The climate is characterized by variations of temperature and rainfall, depending on topography. The average rainfall is 500 millimetres. In Rize, a province on the Black Sea coast, however, the average increases to 2,000 millimetres, while it is less than 300 millimetres in parts of Central Anatolia. Dry, hot summers and cold, rainy winters are the typical climatic conditions of Turkey. In summer, temperatures do not display large variations among different regions of the country, whereas in winter, temperatures range from an average of-10°C in the eastern areas to +10°C in the south. 1.2 History Anatolia was dominated by the Seljuqs for almost two centuries (1055-1243) and later became the core of the Ottoman Empire, one of the most powerful forces in the Middle East and Europe. Following the demise of the Empire, the Republic of Turkey was founded on its remnants, after the War of Independence led by Mustafa Kemal Atatfirk was won. The foundation of the modem Republic not only marked the end of the Ottoman era and drew the present borders of modem Turkey (with the exception of Hatay province, which was not annexed until 1939), but also signified a radical departure from the previous social formation. A modem constitution was introduced, the Sultanate and Caliphate were abolished, religious schools and courts were closed, Western headgear and dress were adopted, Islamic Law was abandoned and replaced with modified versions of the Swiss and Italian Civil and Penal Codes, and the Arabic alphabet was replaced with an alphabet based on Latin characters. In short, the direction of change, led by Atatiirk, was one from a religious, oriental Empire to a modern, Westernized, secular Republic. After both the death of Atattirk in 1938 and the Second World War, during which Turkey was initially neutral but eventually sided with the Allies, the country became less stable politically, but more democratic. The one-party system came to an end in 1950, when the first multiparty election was held; significantly, the Republican People's Party lost to the opposition, the Democrat Party. Turkey then entered a period of liberalization and democratization. Turkey has succeeded in preserving a parliamentary, multi- party system until today, with tbe exception of three military interventions in 1960, 1971, and 1980. Turkey is a member of the United Nations and the Council of Europe and is an associate member of the European Community. Close relations have been establisbed witb the Western world, manifested in its membership in NATO. Turkey maintains good relations with the countries of the Middle East, stemming from deep-rooted cultural and historical links. 1.3 Administrative Divisions and Political Organisation The Turkish administrative structure, since the founding of the Republic, has been shaped by three fundamental codes, namely, the Constitutions of 1924, 1961, and 1982. Tbese constitutions specify that Turkey is a Republic with a parliamentary system and that the will oftbe people is vested in tbe Turkisb Grand National Assembly (TGNA). All tbree constitutions adopt basic individual, social and political rights, and accept tbe principle of separation of powers. The legislative body of the Republic is the TGNA. The TGNA is composed of 450 deputies, who are elected in democratic elections for five-year periods. The President of the Republic is elected by the TGNA for a seven-year term. Tbe Council of Ministers, the executive branch of the Republic, is composed of the Prime Minister and tbe Cabinet Ministers. Tbe judiciary consists of tbe Constitutional Court, the Court of Appeals, the Military Court of Appeals, the Court of Jurisdictional Disputes, and the civil and military Courts. Turkey is administratively divided into 76 provinces. These are further subdivided into districts (ilq'e), subdivisions (bltcak), and villages. The head of the province is the governor, wbo is appointed by ' and responsible to the central government. The governor, as the chiefadm inistrative officer in tbe province, carries out the policies of the central government, supervises the overall administration of the province, coordinates the work of the various ministry representatives appointed by the central antlmrity in the capital Ankara, and maintains law and order within bis/her jurisdiction. At the municipality level, local governments, each administered by a mayor and a municipal council, are elected by the municipal electoral body for a term of four years. Every locality with a population of more tbau 2,000 is entitled to form a municipal administration. Municipalities are expected to provide basic services such as electricity, water, gas, the building and maintenance of roads, and sewage and garbage disposal facilities. Educational and health services are mainly provided by the central government, but municipalities also provide some health services. 1.4 Social and Cultural Features Turkey has a highly heterogeneous social and cultural structure. The "modern" and "traditiooal" exist simultaneously;there are sharp contrasts between population groups. Attitudes to life are reminiscent of those in the Western world especially for the inhabitants of metropolitan areas. People are more conservative and religious in the rural areas oftbe country. Traditional opposition to modernization persists in the less developed areas in the north and east. Family ties are strong and influence tbe formation of values, attitudes, aspirations, and goals. Altbough laws can be considered to be quite liberal on gender equality, patriarchal ideology still characterizes social life. 2 Citizens of Turkey are predominantly Muslim. About 98 percent of the population belong to the Sunni and Alevi sectsof the Muslim religion, the Sunnis forming the overwhelming majority. Ethnically, Turks predominate; Kurdish, Arabic, Greek, Circassian, Georgian, Armenian, and Jewish communities of varying sizes complete the ethnic mosaic of the rich and complex culture of the Turkish society. One of the most striking achievements since the founding of the Republic has been the increase in both literacy and education. In 1935, only 10 percent of females and 29 percent of males were literate in Turkey. According to the latest census figures, in 1990, these were 72 and 89 percent, respectively, for the population age 6 and over. Educational attainment has also increased dramatically. The rate for primary school attendance today is around 90 percent. Moderate achievements have also been made in increasing the proportions of males and females with higher than primary-level education. A five-year primary school education is compulsory in Turkey; however, this causes drop-outs after primary school. Considerable regional and urban-rural differences in literacy and educational attainment exist in the country in addition to differences between males and females (State Institute of Statistics, 1992; 1994). 1.5 Economy Turkish governments have adopted various economic strategies for the development of the country since the founding of the Republic. Liberal policies were implemented during the early years, when the economy was based almost exclusively on agriculture. These policies continued until 1929, and moderate improvements were gained in the mechanization of agriculture. This period was followed by a period of "Etatism," characterized by the strong hand of the state in economic affairs and trade protectionism. The first serious improvements in industry were achieved during this period. Turkey remained neutral during the Second World War, but the war still imposed heavy restraints on the economy, slowing down the industrialization process. After the war, a "mixed economy" regime followed, whereby private enterprise gained recognition side by side with the state economic enterprises. Also, more emphasis was placed on agricultural development. The military intervention in 1960 and tile consequent military govermnent brought about the preparation of a series of Five-Year Development Plans, the first of which became operative in 1963. Preparations for the Seventh Plan are currently under way. The Turkish economy can now he called a "free enterprise" economy; the intervention of the state in economic matters has gradually decreased since the early 1980s. The policies of the 1980s and 1990s have aimed to articulate the backward sections of the economy to the capitalist market, to provide incentives to the improvement of export-oriented industries, to ease the restrictions on imports and exports, and to facilitate the inflow of foreign capital. In general, Turkey is self-sufficient in terms of its agricultural production and does not import foodstuffs. Wheat, barley, sugar beets, potatoes, and rice are grown in the interior, and cotton, tobacco and citrus are grown for export around the coastal areas. Turkey is not rich in mineral resources. The country's main problem is the inadequacy of primary energy resources, and thus the cost of fuel oil is extremely high. Copper, chromium, borax, coal, and bauxite are among the mineral resources in the country. The main industries are steel, cement, textiles, and fertilizers. Machinery, chemicals and metals are imported mainly from the OECD countries. In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the amount of industrial goods exported to Europe and Arab countries. Turkey can be classified as a middle-income country in the 1990s. The rate of economic growth has been comparatively high in recent years and the economy has undergone a radical transformation, fi'om an agricultural base to an industrial one. 1.6 Regional Breakdown Due to the diverse geographical, climatic, cultural, social, and economic characteristics of different parts of the country, Turkey is perhaps best described by using a conventional regional breakdown of the country. Five regions (Western, Southern, Central, Northern, and Eastern) are distinguished, reflecting, to some extent, differences in socioeconomic development levels and demographic conditions among sections of the country. This regional breakdown is frequently used for sampling and analysis purposes in social surveys. The Western region is the most densely settled, the most industrialized and socioecohomically, the most advanced region of the country. It includes |stanbul (previously the capital of the Ottoman Empire), which is Turkey's largest city and the country's manufacturing and commercial centre. The region also includes |zmir, the country's third largest city. Coastal provinces form a relatively urbanized, fast-growing area. The Aegean coast is also a major agricultural area, where cotton is grown in the river valleys and fruit is cultivated on the hillsides. With dry summers and mild, rainy winters, agricultural yields from the fertile soils are good. The region contributes most of the gross domestic product of the country. Most of the industrial establishments are situated in the Western region. The Southern region includes highly fertile plains and some rapidly growing industrial centres. Adana, one of the new metropolises of Turkey, is located in this region. The semitropical coastal plains are cut off by steep mountains from the Anatolian highlands to the north. Hot, dry summers and mild, wet winters describe the climatic conditions of the region. Cultivation of cotton and citrus provide high incomes and export earnings; recent decades have witnessed an industrial boom and an inflow of migrants, especially from the Eastern region. The Central region is an arid grazing area and includes Ankara, the capital and second largest city. Industrial production in the region is low, except for some minor industries located around Ankara. The region specializes in the production of cereals. Given the dry, temperate climate, fruit tree cultivation and sheep and cattle raising are also common. The Northern region has a fertile coastal strip, but in most places it is only a few kilometres wide; the region is relatively isolated from the rest of the country by mountainous terrain. The region specializes in small-scale, labour-imensive crops like hazelnut and tea. The region receives large quantities of rainfall. Zonguldak, a western province, has extensive coal reserves and is a centre for mining and the steel industry. The Eastern region includes the least developed provinces of the country. The sparse vegetation, rugged mountainous terrain, short summers, and severe climate are suited to animal husbandry rather than settled farming. In addition to having limited potential for agriculture, the region is also poor in terms of industrial production. However, much of the arid and semi-arid earth in the south of the region will be transformed into fertile land upon the completion of a large irrigation and energy project, the Southeast Anatolia Project. The project is by far the most serious and optimistic development program planned for the region. In addition to economic benefits, the project is also expected to reverse the migration flow from the region to the rest of the country. 1.7 Population Turkey's population was 13.6 million in 1927 according to the census, which was performed four years after the establishment of the Republic. Beginning with the 1935 census, subsequent population censuses were undertaken at 5-year intervals. The last one, in 1990, put Turkey's population at 56.5 million, which showed that the country's population had quadrupled since the founding of the Republic. 4 Turkey is among the 20 most populous countries of the world and is the most populous country of the Middle East (State Institute of Statistics, 1993; United Nations, 1985). Intercensal estimates of population growth have been around 20-25 per thousand since the 1970s. The latest estimate of the population growth rate was 21.7 per thousand for the 1985-1990 period. Population growth rates have fluctuated since the first census. The fluctuations have been particularly striking in the last two decades, owing their origins to varying rates of decline in the fertility and mortality rates, as well as to changes/reversals in migration trends; Turkish workers' emigration to Western Europe in the 1960s has been largely replaced by population movements to other countries, and a new trend of an inflow of population from neighbouring countries has been observed in the last decade. An increase in the number of expatriate workers returning from work in Europe is also a phenomenon of the same period (State Planning Organisation, 1993). Turkey has a young population as a result of the high fertility and growth rates in the recent past. A third of the population is under 15 years of age, while the proportion of elderly is quite low. However, the absolute number of elderly is expected to increase considerably in the near future. Marriage, predominantly civil, is widely practiced in Turkey. Religious marriages also account for a significant proportion of the marriages; however, the main custom is to undergo a civil as well as a religious ceremony to get married. The average age at marriage is relatively low, about 18 years for females. The universality of marriage in Turkey is observed in the proportions never married; at the end of the reproductive ages, in age group 45-49, only 1.6 percent of females were never married, whereas the corresponding figure for males in the same age group was 2.6 percent, according to the 1990 Population Census. Marriages in Turkey are also known to be very stable; divorce rates are very low (Hanclo~lu and Akadh Erg6~men, 1992). Recent decades have witnessed dramatic declines in fertility rates. In the early 1970s, the total fertility rate was around 5 children per woman, whereas the latest estimates in the late 1980s had put the total fertility rate at about 3 children per woman. The crude birth rate is estimated to have been around 25 per thousand in the late 1980s. There is a considerable shortage of information on mortality in Turkey, particularly adult mortality. However, due to the relatively easy estimation of the indicator through fertility surveys, infant mortality rates can be traced back for a relatively long period of time. The infant mortality rate in the late 1950s was around 200 per thousand. It declined to about 130 per thousand during the mid 1970s and to an estimated 67 per thousand during the 1985-1990 period. Crude death rates have also declined from around 30 per thousand in the 1940s to 8 per thousand in the late 1980s. The latest estimates put life expectancy in Turkey at 62.7 years for males and 67.3 for females (Shorter, 1994). The population of Turkey has undergone an intensive process of urbanization, especially from the 1950s onwards. According to the 1970census, only 32.3percent ofthepopulationwaslivinginlocalities with more than 20,000 population. The corresponding figure in the 1990 census was 51.4 percent. The rate of urbanization has been approximately 50 per thousand during the 1970-1990 period. This process has inevitably caused problems in the provision of urban services and the emergence of large areas of squatter housing in unplanned cities. According to the projections prepared by the State Planning Organisation for the Seventh Five-Year Development Plan, the population of Turkey is expected to reach 69.5 million in the year 2000 and 82 million in 2010 (Shorter, 1994). 1.8 Population and Family Planning Policies and Programs The government of the Turkish Republic implemented a somewhat pronatalist population policy until the mid-1960s, after which an antinatalist policy was adopted. This shift in policy is manifested in the Population Planning Law of 1965 (State Planning Organisation, 1993). Due to the heavy human losses during the First World War and the War of Independence, the defense needs of the country and the shortage of manpower, as well as the high infant and child mortality rates, a need to increase fertility and population growth was perceived during the early years of the Republic. A number of laws having direct or indirect implications on fertility and population growth were passed. These laws included monetary awards to women with more than 5 children, prohibitions on the import and sale of contraceptives, and prohibitions on abortions on social grounds. The traditional attitudes of Turkish governments to population growth began to change in the 1950s, mainly due to medical problems, especially with the realization of the existence of high maternal mortality caused by illegal abortions. High urban population growth and employment problems were also factors contributing to the new antinatalist environment in government circles. The State Planning Organisation and the Ministry of Health pioneered the policy change; previous policies were liberalized by allowing limited importation of contraceptives. As mentioned, The Population Planning Law was enacted in 1965. The law mandated the Ministry of Health with the responsibility for implementing the new family planning policy. The State Planning Organisation, on the other hand, incorporated the notion of population planning in the First Five-Year Development Plan. In 1983, the Population Planning Law was revised and a more liberal and comprehensive law was passed; the name remained the same. The new law legalized abortions up to the tenth week of pregnancy and voluntary surgical contraception. It also specified the training of auxiliary health personnel in inserting IUDs and included other measures to improve family planning services and mother and child health. 1.9 Health Priorities and Programs Mother and child health and family planning services have been given a priority status in the antinatalist policies of the government in recent decades due to the large proportion of women of reproductive ages'and children in the Turkish population, the high infant, child and maternal mortality rates, the high demand for family planning services, and the limited prenatal and postnatal care. A number of programs are being implemented, with special emphasis on provinces which have been designated as priority development areas, as well as programs focusing on squatter housing districts in metropolitan cities, rural areas and special risk groups. Specific programs in immunisation, childhood diarrhoeal diseases, acute respiratory infections, promotion of breastfeeding and growth monitoring, nutrition, antenatal and delivery care, safe motherhood, Information, Education, and Communication programs for mother and child health and family planning activities are currently being implemented. 1.10 Health Care System in Turkey The Ministry of Health is officially responsible for designing and implementing nation-wide health policies and delivering health-care services. Besides the Ministry of Health, other sectors and non- Governmental Organisations contribute to carrying out some health services. 6 At the central level, the Ministry of Health is responsible for the implementation of curative and preventive health-care services throughout the country within the principles of primary health care. The responsibility for delivering the services and implementing specific Primary Health Care programs is shared by various General Directorates (Primary Health Care, Mother and Child Health and Family Planning, Health Training) and by various Departments (Departments of Tuberculosis Control, Malaria Control, Cancer Control). At the provincial level, the health care system is under the responsibility of Health Directorates, under the supervision of the Governor. The provincial Health Director is responsible for delivering all primary health-care services as well as curative services. The present network of Health Centres and Health Houses was formed on the basis of "Legislation for the Socialization of Health Services" so that services and facilities are extended down to the village level. A substantial proportion of villages have health centres or health houses. These are located so as to provide easy access to the other villages. The most basic element of the health service is tile Health House, which serves a population of 2500-3000 and is staffed by a midwife. The Health Centre serves a population of 5,000-10,000 and is staffed by a team consisting of a physician, a nurse, a health officer, midwives, an environmental health technician and a driver. Health Centres mainly offer integrated, polyvalent, primary health-care services. Mother and Child Health and Family Planning Centres and Tuberculosis Dispensaries also offer preventive health services. This network of health systems works as a health team and is mainly responsible for delivering primary health services, maternal and child health, family planning, and public education services. These health facilities are also the main sources of the health information system. 1.11 Objectives and Organisation of the Survey Objectives The Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) is a national sample survey of ever-married women of reproductive ages, designed to collect data on fertility, marriage patterns, family planning, early age mortality, socioeconomic characteristics, breastfeeding, immunisation of children, treatment of children during episodes of illness, and nutritional status of women and children. The TDHS, as part of the international DHS project, is also the latest survey in a series of national-level population and health surveys in Turkey, which have been conducted by the Institute of Population Studies, Haeettepe University (HIPS). More specifically, the objectives of the TDHS are to: Collect data at the national level that will allow the calculation of demographic rates, particularly fertility and childhood mortality rates; Analyse the direct and indirect factors that determine levels and trends in fertility and childhood mortality; Measure the level of contraceptive knowledge and practice by method, region, and urban- rural residence; Collect data on mother and child health, including immunisations, prevalence and treatment of diarrhoea, acute respiratory infections among children under five, antenatal care, assistance at delivery, and breastfeeding; Measure the nutritional status of children under five and of their mothers using anthropometric measurements. 7 The TDHS information is intended to assist policy makers and administrators in evaluating existing programs and in designing new strategies for improving family planning and health services in Turkey. Organisation The TDHS was carried out by HIPS, through a subcontract under an agreement signed by the General Directorate of Mother and Child Health and Family Planning, Ministry of Health, and Macro International Inc., of Calverton, Maryland, USA. Technical and financial support for the survey was provided by Macro International Inc. through its Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program, a project sponsored by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) to carry out population and health surveys in developing countries. The Hacettepe Institute of Population Studies began preparations to carry out a Turkish demographic survey in 1993 as far back as December 1991. With the aim of continuing the series of quinquennial demographic surveys carried out since 1968, a preliminary questionnaire was designed, based on the model questionnaires used in the World Fertility Surveys, the Contraceptive Prevalence Surveys and the Family and Fertility Surveys, and on questionnaires used in previous demographic surveys in Turkey. Several international organisations, including the United Nations, were contacted in an effort to secure funding for the survey. In December 1992, Macro International Inc. expressed an interest in providing funding for the implementation of a DHS survey in Turkey, and contacted the General Directorate of Mother and Child Health and Family Planning, Ministry of Health, and the Hacettepe Institute of Population Studies for this purpose. An agreement was signed between the General Directorate and Macro International Inc., and the General Directorate subcontracted the implementation of the survey activities to HIPS. A steering committee consisting of representatives from the General Directorate, HIPS, the Hacettepe University Department of Public Health, the State Planning Organisation, and the State Institute of Statistics was set up to provide advice on the implementation of the survey. The persons involved in the TDHS are listed in Appendix A. Questionnaires Two questionnaires were used in the main fieldwork for the TDHS: the Household Questionnaire and the Individual Questionnaire for ever-married women of reproductive age. The questionnaires were based on the model survey instruments developed in the DHS program and on the questionnaires that had been employed in previous Turkish population and health surveys. The questionnaires were adapted to obtain data needed for program planning in Turkey during consultations with population and health agencies. Both questionnaires were developed in English and translated into Turkish; the English versions are reproduced in Appendix F. The Household Questionnaire was used to enumerate all usual members of and visitors to the selected households and to collect information relating to the socioeconomic position of the households. In the first part oftbe Household Questionnaire, basic information was collected on the age, sex, educational attainment, marital status and relationship to the head of household for each person listed as a household member or visitor. The objective of the first part of the Household Questionnaire was to obtain the information needed to identify women who were eligible for the individual interview as well as to provide basic demographic data for Turkish households. In the second part of the Household Questionnaire, questions were included on the dwelling unit, such as the number of rooms, the flooring material, the source of water, and the type of toilet facilities, and on the household's ownership of a variety of consumer goods. 8 The Individual Questionnaire for women covered the following major topics: Background characteristics Reproduction Marriage Knowledge and use of family planning Other issues relating to contraception Maternal care and breastfeeding Immunisation and health Fertility preferences Husband's background, women's work and residence Values, attitudes and beliefs Matemal and child anthropometry. The woman's questionnaire included a monthly calendar, which was used to record fertility, contraception, postpartum amenorrhoea and abstinence, breastfeeding, marriage, and migration histories for periods of more than five years, beginning in January 1988, up to the survey month. In addition, the fieldwork teams measured the heights and weights of children under age five and of their mothers, as well as mothers' ann circumference. Sample The sample for the TDHS was designed to provide estimates of population and health indicators, including fertility and mortality rates for the nation as a whole, fOr urban and rural areas, and for the five major regions of the country. A weighted, multistage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used in the selection of the TDHS sample. Sample selection was undertaken in three stages. The sampling units at the first stage were settlements that differed in population size. The frame for the selection of the primary sampling units (PSUs) was prepared using the results of the 1990 Population Census. The urban frame included provinces and district centres and settlements with populations of more than 10,000; the rural frame included subdistricts and villages with populations of less than 10,000. Adjustments were made to consider the growth in some areas right up to survey time. In addition to the rural-urban and regional stratifications, settlements were classified in seven groups according to population size. The second stage of selection involved the list of quarters (administrative divisions of varying size) for each urban settlement, provided by the State Institute of Statistics (SIS). Every selected quarter was subdivided according tothe number of divisions(approximately 100 households)assigned to it. In rural areas, a selected village was taken as a single quarter, and wherever necessary, it was divided into subdivisions of approximately 100 households. In cases where the number of households in a selected village was less than 100 households, the nearest village was selected to complete the 100 households during the listing activity, which is described below. After the selection of the secondary sampling units (SSUs), a household listing was obtained for each by the TDHS listing teams. The listing activity was carried out in May and June. From the household lists, a systematic random sample of households was chosen for the TDHS. All ever-married women age 12-49 who were present in the household on the night before the interview were eligible for the survey. A more technical and detailed description of the TDHS sample design, selection and implementation is presented in Appendix B. Fieldwork and Data Processing Data collection for the TDHS was carried out by 17 teams; each team consisted of four to five interviewers, a field editor, a measurer and the team supervisor. Six of the teams used notebook-type computers lbr data entry and editing in the field. In these teams, the field editor used a data entry program written in ISSA (Integrated System for Survey Analysis). In the other teams, editing was done manually. The field staff, including the editors working with notebooks, were trained during a four-week period in July 1993. The main fieldwork began in August 1993 and was completed in late October. All callbacks and re-interviews were completed by the end of October. Questionnaires were returned to the Hacettepe Institute of Population Studies in Ankara for data processing. The office editing teams checked that the questionnaires for all selected households and eligible respondents were returned from the field. The comparatively few questions that had not been precoded (e.g., occupation) were coded at this time. The data were then entered and edited using microcomputers and the ISSA package. The office editing and data processing activities were initiated almost immediately atter the beginning of fieldwork and were completed in November 1993. The results of the household and individ- ual questionnaires are summarized in Table I.I. Information is provided on the overall coverage of the sample, including household and individual response rates. In all, 10,63 t households were se- lected tbr the TDHS. At the time of tile survey, 8,900 households were considered as occnpied and, thus, available for interview. The main rea- sons field teams were unable to interview some households were that some dwelling units that were listed were found to be vacant at the time of the interview or the household was away for an extended period. Of the 8,900 occupied house- holds, 97 percent (8,619 households) were suc- cessfully interviewed. Table I I Resulls of the houschold and individual interviews Nnmber of households, number of" interviews, and response rates, Turkey 1993 Urban Rural Total I Iousebolds selected 7065 3566 I (163 I IIouseholds tbund 5752 3148 8900 I Iouseholds interviewed 5491 3128 8619 Household response rate 95.5 99.4 96.8 Eligible women 4344 2518 6862 Eligible women interviewed 4125 2394 6519 Eligible women response rate 95.(I 95.1 95.0 Overall response rate 90.6 94.5 92.(I In the interviewed households, 6,862 women were identified as eligible for the individual interview, i.e., they were ever-married women younger than 50 years of age who were present in the household on the night before the interview. Interviews were successfully completed with 6,519 of these women (95 percent). Among the small number of eligible women not interviewed in the survey, the principal reason for nonresponse was the failure to find the woman at home after repeated visitsto the household. The overall response rate for the women's sample was 92 percent. A more complete description of the fieldwork, coverage of the sample, and data processing is presented in Appendix B. 10 CHAPTER 2 CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS Turgay Unalan Attila Hanclo~lu Information on the background characteristics of tile households included in tile survey and tile individual respondents is essential for'the interpretation of survey findings and provides a rough measure of the representativeness of the sample of women and households. The information in this chapter is presented in three sections: characteristics of the household population (age-sex structure and education), housing characteristics (including water supply, sanitation, flooring material and ownership of consumer goods), and background characteristics of survey respondents (age, marital status, residence, and education levels)• 2.1 Characteristics of the Household Population The Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) household questionnaire included two questions that would distinguish between the de jure population (persons who are usual residents in the selected household) and the de facto population (persons who spent the night before the interview in the selected household). Unless otherwise indicated, all tabulations in this report are based on the de filcto survey poptllation in the selected households. A household was defined as a person or a group of persons living together and sharing a commou source of food• Age Tile age distribution of the household population in the TDHS is shown in Table 2.1 and Figure 2. I by five-year age groups, ~ according to sex. The population pyramid (Figure 2.1 ) reflects the effects of past demographic trends on the population and gives an indication of future trends. The narrowing oftbe base of the pyramid is indicative of a recent decline in fertility, whereas the narrow top points to high mortality in the past; the greater concentration of the population in the 10-19 age group implies that large cohorts will be entering reproductive ages in the next decade• Table 2.2 presents the population age structure found in the TDHS and in other data sources ill the country. The age groups used allow the computation of the age dependency ratio at different points ill time. The age dependency ratio is the ratio of non-productive persons (persons age 0 to 14 and those age 65 and over) to persons age 15 to 64. It is an indicator of the dependency responsibility of adults in their productive years. The percentage of the population under 15 years of age appears to have declined between 1989 and 1993. As a result, the percentages in the 15-64 and 65 and over categories show an increase. This pattcrn is typical of populations that are experiencing a fertility decline. The dependency ratio also decreased, from 66 in 1989 to 63 in 1993. The decline in the dependency ratio indicates a lessening of the economic burden on persons in the productive age groups, i.e., those who support people in the non- productive age groups• tSingle-year age distributions are presented in Appendix D, which includes tables on the quality of the TDHS data. 11 Table 2.1 Household population by age, residence and sex Percent distribution of the de facto household population by five-year age groups, according to urban-rural residence and sex, Turkey 1993 Urban Rural Total Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 0-4 9.1 8.7 8.9 10.3 8.6 9.4 9.6 8.6 9.1 5-9 11.3 10.0 10.6 12.0 11.5 11.9 11.6 10.6 11.1 10-14 12.5 11.8 12.1 14.5 I3.0 13.7 13.2 12.2 12.7 15-19 11.3 11.8 11.5 11.1 12.5 11.9 11.2 12.1 11.6 20-24 8.5 10.0 9.3 7.2 9.0 8.I 8.0 9.6 8.8 25-29 8.8 8.4 8.6 6.0 6.3 6.2 7.7 7.5 7.6 30-34 7.3 8.0 7.7 5.4 5.9 5.7 6.6 7.1 6.9 35-39 7.2 6.4 6.8 5.3 5.2 5.3 6.5 5.9 6.2 40-44 5.8 5.6 5.7 3.9 4.3 4.1 5.1 5.1 5.1 45-49 4.0 3.7 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.8 4.0 3.7 3.8 50-54 3.7 4.5 4.1 3.9 4,7 4.3 3.8 4,6 4.2 55-59 3.2 3.2 3.2 4,4 4.4 4.4 3.7 3.7 3.7 60-64 3.0 2.9 3.0 4.3 4.2 4.2 3.5 3.5 3.5 65-69 2.1 2.2 2.1 3.6 3.5 3.5 2.6 2.7 2.7 70-74 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.8 1.3 1.5 1.3 1.3 1.3 75-79 0.5 0.6 0.5 1.0 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.7 0.7 80 + 0.6 1.0 0.9 1.3 1.2 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.0 Total 100.0 100.0 I00.0 I00.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 I00.0 Number 11473 11655 23128 7237 7919 15156 18710 19574 38284 Figure 2.1 Population Pyramid of Turkey 80 + 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 o-4 ~5 le 10 5 0 5 10 Percent 15 TDHS 1993 12 Table 2.2 Population by age from selected sources Percent distribution of the population by age group, selected sources, Turkey 1989-1993 TDS CP TDHS Age group 1989 1990 1993 Less than 15 35.4 35.0 33.0 15-64 60.4 60.7 61.4 65+ 4.2 4.3 5.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median age 22.0 22.2 23.1 Age dependency ratio 65.7 64.7 62.7 Sources: 1989 Turkish Demographic Survey. SIS, 1991. 1990 Census of Population. SIS, 1993. Househo ld Compos i t ion Table 2.3 presents the percent distribu- tion of households by sex of head of the house- hold, household size, and relationship of house- hold members to the head of the household, ac- cording to urban-rural residence, as calculated from the TDHS. The household composition usually affects the allocation of resources (fi- nancial, emotional, etc.) available to household members. In cases where women are heads of household, it is usually found that financial re- sources are limited. Similarly, the size of the household affects the well-being of its members. Where the size of the household is large, crowd- ing can lead to health problems. Of all households covered in the TDHS, I0 percent are headed by women. The propor- tion is slightly higher in urban than in rural areas. There are, on average, 4.5 persons in a household. Rural households are 0.8 persons larger than urban households. Considering adult household members age 15 and over only, the majority of households consist of two related adults of the opposite sex or three or more re- lated adults. Five percent of households consist of only one adult. Educat ion Table 2.3 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household, household size, and relationship structure, according to urban- rural residence, Turkey 1993 Residence Chamcteristic Urban Rural Total Household headship Male 89.3 91.4 90.0 Female 10.7 8.6 I 0.0 Number of usual members 0 1.4 2.4 1.8 I 4.3 4.6 4.4 2 13.6 14.7 14.0 3 18.0 10.9 15.5 4 24.5 15.5 21.3 5 17.3 14.5 16.3 6 9.6 I1.1 10.1 7 5.5 8.6 6.6 8 2.6 6.7 4.0 9+ 3.2 I 1.0 6.0 Mean size 4.2 5.0 4.5 Relationship structure One adult 5.0 5.2 5.0 Two related adults: Of opposite sex 44.4 32.6 40.2 Of same sex 1.7 1.0 1.5 Three or more related adults 46.6 58.6 50.9 Other 2.3 2.6 2.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households 5563 3056 8619 Note: Table is based on de .jure members, i.e., usual residents. The education level of household members is perhaps their most important characteristic. Many phenomena, such as reproductive behavior, use of contraception, health of children, and proper hygienic habits, are issues that are affected by the education of household members. Table 2.4 shows the education 13 "Fable 2.4 Educational level of the household nopulation Percent distribution of the de facto household population age six and over by highest level of education attended, according to selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Level of education Missing/ Median Background No Primary Primary Secondary Secondary Don't number characteristic education incomplete graduate incomplete graduate+ know Total Number of years MALE POPULATION Age 6-9 29.2 690 0.6 0.1 0.0 I.I I000 1801 0.0 10-14 2,1 34.9 26.3 30.1 6,5 01 1000 2480 5.4 15-19 1.7 2.2 34.8 11.9 492 0.2 1000 2100 7.9 20-24 2.5 1.5 39.7 9.5 46.7 0,1 100.0 1498 7.0 25-29 3.1 1.2 46.5 7.8 41.2 0.2 1000 1444 6,0 30-34 3.6 1.7 48.9 5.7 39.8 0.3 100.0 1231 5.9 35-39 6.7 2.5 53.6 5.1 31.8 0.3 100.0 1212 5.7 40-44 7.5 3.2 56.6 5.2 27.3 0.2 1000 953 5.7 45-49 13.7 5.7 53.1 3.4 239 02 I00.0 743 5.6 50-54 22.6 7.5 47.5 2.7 19.3 04 100.0 703 5.4 55-59 30.0 9.8 46.1 0.5 134 0.2 I00.0 687 5.2 60-64 38,8 10.5 37.9 1.5 107 06 1000 659 4.9 65+ 51.0 10.1 28.4 1.0 84 I I 100.0 1039 0.0 Missing/Don't know * * * * * * 100.0 7 * Residence Urban 9.7 14.1 32.9 10,3 327 0,3 1000 10201 5 8 Rural 18.2 18.4 42.4 7.1 13,4 0,5 1000 6356 5.3 Region West 86 13.7 38.9 9.4 29.1 0.3 I00.0 5620 5.7 South 10.7 15.8 40.8 9.6 22.6 05 1000 2591 5.5 Central 119 15.5 35,9 9.3 271 03 I00.0 3628 5.6 North 133 166 361 9.4 24.0 0.6 1000 1360 55 East 230 19.2 300 79 19.5 0,4 [00.0 3358 5.3 Total 130 158 365 9,1 253 03 I000 16557 5.6 FEMALE POPULATION Age 6-9 326 65.4 06 0.1 0,3 1.0 I00.0 1719 0.0 10-14 5.8 311 355 21,4 61 OI I00.0 2398 5.3 15-19 74 22 53.7 4.3 324 00 1000 2364 5 7 2(I-24 14.2 3.4 517 3,3 27,4 (10 I000 1872 5.6 25-29 18.1 47 513 2.4 234 01 1000 1474 5.5 30-34 22,5 5 6 51 2 23 184 00 I000 1396 5.4 35-39 31.9 72 450 18 14,1 O0 1000 1158 5.2 40~14 403 9.4 37.1 1.9 112 0 1 100.0 992 50 45-49 433) I 1.8 31.5 1.4 I 1.4 00 I000 728 0.0 50-54 54.4 10.7 25.6 1.3 74 06 I00,0 897 00 55-59 63.7 10.8 21.2 03 33 0,7 1000 730 0.0 60-64 70.8 1 I.I 13.6 0.4 3.5 06 1000 676 00 65+ 768 77 t0.6 0.3 4.1 0.5 100.0 II 19 0.0 Missing/Don'l know * * * I000 5 * Residence Urban 23.7 145 341 61 214 0.2 I000 10449 5.3 Rural 371 172 38.5 2.5 44 03 1000 7079 0.0 Region West 201 139 39.8 6.0 199 03 1000 5776 54 South 26.8 15.9 37.5 5.0 14.6 02 1000 2697 52 Central 259 17 5 37.1 4.4 14.8 0.3 I00.0 4048 52 North 333 14.8 367 3.q II I 02 1000 1614 51 East 48.1 16.3 25.9 28 66 03 I000 3393 O0 Ioml 29.1 15.6 35.9 4.7 14.5 0.2 100.0 17528 51 * Less Ihan 25 eases 14 level of household members by age group, residence, and region tbr each sex. Primary education is compulsory in Turkey; it usually starts at age 7 and lasts five years. Secondary education is for 3 years. Recent national policy, however, encourages parents to send their children to primary school at age 6. At present, therefore, a child can start school at either of two different ages. Approximately 71 percent of men and 55 percent of women have completed at least primary school, and 25 percent of men and 15 percent of women have completed secondary school or higher. Table 2.4 also shows the median number of years of schooling attained by males and females in each five-year age group. Overall, males have a median duration of schooling of 5.6 years, 0.5 years longer than females. The gap in the median uunlber of years of schooling between males and females is more than I year for the population above age 15, but is negligible among those age 10-14 years. Presented also in Table 2.4 is the level of education by urbau-rural residence and region. The proportion of persons with no education is much higher in rural areas than in urban areas, and this difference is observed for both males and females. Three-fourths of males and two-thirds of females in the urban areas are graduates of at least primary school. The proportion of secondary school graduates differs markedly between urban and rural areas, for males and, in a more pronounced way, for females. The proportion of secondary school graduates is five times higher for females in urban areas than in rural areas. Overall, regional differences in education are considerable. The overall level of education is highest in the Western region and lowest in the Eastern region. School Enrollment Table 2.5 presents information on school eurollment by age, sex, and residence. These rates are simple ratios of the number of enrolled persons in a specific age group to the total number in that age group. Figure 2.2 depicts the levels of school enrollment by age and place of residence. According to the TDHS, 73 percent of children age 6-10 were enrolled in school at the survey date. The percentage enrollment drops to 62 percent in the age group I 1-15 years. For people age 15 and under, the percentage enro;'.ed in school is higher for males titan females. Enrollment after age 15 drops significantly; whereas 2 in 3 children age 6-15 are in school, by age 16-20 the ratio drops to only I in 4 children, and by age 21-24, only 1 in 10 children are attending school. There are differences in school enrollment between urban attd rural residents at all ages for both sexes; the rural attd/or female population has consistently lower school enrollment titan the urban and/or male population. As age increases, the gap between males and females widens. Table 2.5 School enrollment Percentage of the de facto household population age 6-24 years enrolled in school, by age group, sex, and urban-rural residence. Turkey 1993 Age group Male Female Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total 6-10 75.5 72.1 74.1 72.5 68.7 70.8 74.1 70.4 72.5 11-15 78.1 62.6 71.7 64.7 35.1 5t.9 71.6 48.7 61.9 6-15 76.8 67.2 72.9 68.5 51.4 61.1 72.8 59.2 67.1 16-20 38.9 24.6 33.6 26.9 4.8 17.6 32.6 13.2 24.8 21-24 16.8 6.5 13.2 9.1 2.6 6.8 12.6 4.4 9.7 15 Figure 2.2 School Enrollment by Age and Place of Residence Percent 8O SO 40 20 0 6-15 16-20 21-24 Age TDHS 1993 2.2 Housing Characteristics In order to assess the socioeconomic conditions in which respondents live, household heads or respondents of the household questionnaire were asked to give specific infonnation about their household environment. The type of water, sanitation facilities, quality of the floor, and crowding are important determinants of the health status of household members, particularly of children. Table 2.6 presents the major housing characteristics by place of residence. Overall, 63 percent of the households get their drinking water from pipes. Sources used by households to obtain drinking water differ considerably by area of residence. Water that is piped into the residence is used by 75 percent of the households in urban areas versus 42 percent in rural areas. In rural areas, water from springs is the second main source of drinking water (27 percent) and another 16 percent obtain water from a public tap. The second source of drinking water in urban areas is bottled water. Modern sanitation facilities are not widely available in rural areas. Pit toilets are used instead (85 percent) and only 3 percent of households have no toilet facility. In urban areas, most of the population use flush toilets (86 percent). The flooring material of dwelling units is usually cement (34 percent), wood planks (25 percent), or marley (14 percent). Cement is the most common flooring material in both rural areas (38 percent) and urban areas (32 percent). The flooring material of I in 5 households in rural areas is earth. Information on the number of rooms households use for sleeping was collected as a measure of crowding. The mean number of persons per sleeping room is 2.5 for the country as a wllole; this number varies from 2.3 in urban areas to 2.8 in rural areas. The sleeping room is shared by one or two persons in about 75 percent of urban households but this figure drops to 62 percent of rural households. 16 Table 2.6 Itousing characteristics Percent distribution of households by housing characteristics, according to urban-rural residence, Turkey 1993 Residence ttousing characteristic Urban Rural Total Source of drinking water Piped into residence 74,5 42.0 62.9 Public tap 3.8 16.3 8.2 Well in residence 0.6 3.8 1.7 Public well 0.1 4.0 1.5 Spring 5.7 27.4 13.4 River, stream 0.0 1.0 0.4 Pond, lake 0.0 0.2 0.0 Dam 0.0 0.2 0. I Rainwater 0.0 0.3 0.2 Tanker truck 1.5 0.2 I, I Bottled water 12.7 0.6 8.4 Other 0.3 0.2 0.2 Stationary tank/pool 0.7 3.7 1.8 Missing/Don't know 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 I00.0 100.0 Sanitation facility Flush toilet 85.7 I 1.6 59.4 Closed pit 12.3 60.5 29.4 Open pit 1.5 24.5 9.7 No facility 0.4 3.3 1.4 Missing 0. I 0. I 0. I Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Flooring Earth 2.2 20.1 8.6 Wood planks 18.9 37.2 25.4 Parquet, polished wood 7.7 0.4 5.1 Cement 31.7 37.6 33.9 Carpet 2.2 0.6 1.6 Marley 20.3 2. I 13.8 Mosaic 13.5 1.2 9. I Square flagstone 2. I 0.5 1.6 Other 1.3 0.2 0.8 Missing/Don't know 0.1 0.1 0. I Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Persons per sleeping room I-2 74.9 61.8 70.2 3-4 21.0 27.5 23.3 5-6 3. I 6.7 4.4 7 + 0.9 3.9 2.0 Missing/Don't know 0. I 0. I 0. I Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean persons per room 2.3 2.8 2.5 Number of households 5563 3056 8619 17 Household Durable Goods The availability of durable consumer goods is a good indicator of household socioeco- nomic level. Moreover, particular goods have specific benefits. Having access to a radio or a television exposes household members to innovative ideas, a refrigerator prolongs the wholesomeness of foods, and a means of transport allows greater access to many services away from the local area. Table 2.7 presents the availability of selected consumer goods by residence. Most of the population in Turkey enjoy the convenience of electrical appliances. Around 9 in 10 Turkish households own a television set and a refrigerator, while ahnost 8 in 10 own a ra- dio cassette player and more than half own a tele- phone, an oven, a vacuum cleaner, and a washing machine. Urban households are more likely to have the convenience of all of these items than rural households. 2.3 Background Characteristics of Survey Respondents Iable 2.7 llousehold durable goods Percentage of households possessing spccilic durable consumer goods, by urban-rural rcsidcncc, lurkcy 1993 Residence Durable goods IMpart Rural Iotal Refl'igerator 94.7 74 1 874 Oven 75.4 378 62 I Washing machine 70,5 21.6 53.2 Dishwasher II1-I 0.5 6,9 Vacuum cleaner 66,7 185 496 Television 92.8 75.5 86,7 Video recorder 156 3.6 I 1.4 Radio cassette player 792 72.2 767 Music scl 22.1/ 5.3 16.0 l elephonc 68.4 37.9 57.6 Car 23.8 127 19.9 Computer 3.2 112 2. I More lhan 30 books 311 6.3 22.3 Total number of households 5563 31156 8619 General Characteristics A description of the basic characteristics of the ever-married women interviewed in the TDIIS is essential as background for interpreting findings presented later in the report. Table 2.8 provides the percent distributiou of women by age, marital status, level of education, urban-rural residence, and region. Women were asked two questions in the individual interview to assess their age: "In what month and year were you born?" and "How old are you?" Interviewers were trained to use probing techniques for situatious in which respondents knew neither their age nor date of birth; as a last resort, interviewers were iustructed to record their best estimate of the respondent's age. Five percent of women are under 20 years of age, 35 percent are age 20 to 29, 36 percent are age 30 to 39, and the rest (24 percent) are 40 or over. Of the ever-married women in the sample, 96 percent are currently married, while the rest are either widowed, divorced, or separated, indicating the rarity of marital dissolution in Turkey. One in three women interviewed in the survey has either never attended school or has some primary education but did not finish primary school, 51 percent have either completed primary school or have some secondary education, and 15 percent are at least secondary school graduates. This distribution of the respondents according to educational groups reveals a specific character of educational attaim'ncnt in "rurkey: once individuals attend school, they are likely to complete it, rather than drop out before completion. The proportions of women in the "Primary incomplete" and "Secondary incomplete" categories are low, making their use as separate categories for demographic analysis impossible. Therefore, contrary to the conventions used in most other surveys conducted in the Demographic and I lealth Surveys program, the education categories in the following sections have been arranged based on graduation from, rather than ',Ttet~&mc;. ;n the various education levels~ The first two categories are combined to form the category 18 "women who have less education than primary school graduation"; the third and fourth groups are combined to form "women who have either completed primary school or attended secondary school without completing it," and the fifth group is kept the same, i.e., "women who have at least completed secondary scbool." About two-thirds of women live in ur- ban areas and the rest live in rural areas. Ac- cording to the data, 36 percent of respondents live in the Western region, 23 percent live in the Central region, 16 percent live in tbe Eastern region, 15 percent live in the Southern region, and the remaining 9 percent live in the Northern region. Different ia ls in Educat ion "Fable 2.9 sbows thc distribution of the surveyed women by education, according to se- lected characteristics, as a first eftbrt to clarify lbe relationsbip between the explanatory or background variables used in later tabulations. O f particular importance are possible diffcrences in the educational composition of womcn from different age groups, regions, and urban-rural backgrounds. Education is inversely related to age. tbat is, older women are generally less educated than younger women. For cxample, 45 percent of women age 45-49 have had no formal education, whereas only 16 percent of women age 15-19 bave never been to school. Women in urban areas are more likely to have bigher education than their rural cotmterparts. The urban-rural difference is most pronounced at the secondary or higber level; only 3 percent of women in rural areas have secondary or nlore education, whereas the percentage in urban areas is 22. Provided also in Table 2.9 is intbrmation on women's level of Table 2.8 Background charactcristics of respondents Percent dislribution of ever-married women by selected background characteristics. I'urkcy 1993 Number of wonlen Background Weighted Un- characteristic percent Weighted ~ eightcd Age 15-19 50 332 330 20-24 16.1) 1040 1 I)3 I 25-29 18.6 1211 1230 30-34 19.7 1283 1280 35-39 16.5 11)73 1085 40-44 13.8 9111 888 45-49 10.4 679 675 Marital status Married 96.1 6271 6273 Widowed 2.3 148 149 I)iw~rced 1 2 76 73 Scparaled ()A 24 24 Education No education 27. I 1765 1769 Primal. incomplele 6.6 431 433 Primary graduate 48.8 3182 3192 Sccondar). incomplete 24 157 155 Secondary graduate + 15 1 984 970 Residence tlrban 64.1 4181 4125 Rural 35.9 2338 2394 Region Wcst 35,7 2325 1875 Soulh 15.3 998 1295 Central 23.3 15211 1471 North 9.4 612 101)4 East 16.3 1064 874 All ~omen I00.0 6519 6519 education by rcgion. The Eastern region has the highest proportion of uneducated women (56 percem). The proportion of women who have attended at least primary school is higher in the West than in othe: rcgions. 19 Table 2.9 Level of education Percent distribution of women by the highest level of education auended, according to selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Level of education Background No Pr imary Primary Secondary Secondary Number characteristic education incomplete graduate incomplete graduate+ Total of women Age 15-19 16.1 3.1 67.6 4.5 8.7 100.0 332 20-24 17.l 3.9 57.3 3.3 18.4 100.0 1040 25-29 19.1 4.4 54.6 2.5 19A 100.0 1211 30-34 21.9 6.0 52.4 2.3 17.4 100.0 1283 35-39 33.2 6.8 45.0 2.1 12.9 100,0 1073 40-44 40.2 10.3 37.1 1.6 10.8 100.0 901 45-49 44.6 12.2 31.2 1.8 10.2 100.0 679 Residence Urban 21.2 5.5 48.4 3.3 21,6 I00.0 4181 Rural 37.6 8.6 49.5 0.9 3.4 I00.0 2338 Region West 15.8 5.4 55.2 3.4 20.2 100.0 2325 South 27.6 6.8 48.6 2.3 14.7 100.0 998 Central 22.4 8.4 53.0 2.2 14.0 100.0 1520 North 30.7 6.0 48.8 2.3 12.2 100.0 612 East 55.8 6.9 29.2 0.7 7.4 100,0 1064 Total 27.1 6.6 48.8 2.4 15.1 100.0 6519 Access to Media Women were asked if they usually read a newspaper, listen to a radio or watch television at least once a week. This information is important to program planners seeking to reach women with family planning and health messages through the media. Less than half of women read a newspaper at least once a week. Overall, 89 percent of women watch television weekly and 75 percent listen to the radio weekly (see Table 2.10). Although exposure to mass media varies little across age groups, women under age 40 are slightly more exposed to mass media than older women. Media access is stronger among the urban and educated population. A much higher proportion of educated and urban women read newspapers. Similarly, the proportion of educated women who watch television and listen to the radio is higher than less educated women. 20 Table 2.10 Access to mass media Percentage of women who usually read a newspaper at least once a week, watch television at least once a week, or listen to the radio at least once a week, by selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Read Watch Listen to Number Background newspaper television radio of characteristic weekly weekly weekly women Age 15-19 46.1 84.0 79.1 332 20-24 49.3 90.1 8 I. I 1040 25-29 48.3 90.7 75.5 121 I 30-34 50.4 90.0 73.7 1283 35-39 43.4 89.1 75.5 1073 40-44 38.6 86.8 71.8 90 I 45-49 32.7 87.6 68.6 679 Residence Urban 56.7 93.1 78.8 4181 Rural 24.1 81.6 68.2 2338 Region West 57.8 93.5 77.2 2325 South 45.8 89.0 77.6 998 Central 42.8 89.7 76.1 1520 North 44.3 89.8 75.7 612 East 20.0 77.6 65.8 1064 Education No education 4.9 76.5 57.3 1765 Primary incomplete 23.2 88.0 70.4 431 PrimaD' graduate 54.3 92.7 79.9 3182 Secondary incomplete 79.5 97.7 88.9 157 Secondary graduate + 90.8 98.6 90.8 984 Total 45.0 89.0 75.0 6519 21 CHAPTER 3 FERTILITY Aykut Toros The fertility measures presented in this chapter are based on the retrospective reproductive histories of women age 15-49 interviewed in the TDItS. Each woman was asked the number of sons and daughters living with her, the number living elsewhere, and the number who had died. She was then asked fnr a history of all her births, including the month and year of each, the nalne and sex and, if deceased, the age at death. If alive, the current age and whether he/she was living with the mother were also asked. Based on this ilfformation, measures of cmupleted fertility (number of children ever born) and current fertility (age-specific rates) are examined. These measures are also analyzed in connection with various background characteristics. Cumulative fertility and children ever born are also looked at in this chapter. The tables display the data on children ever born by the woman's current age and by her age at marriage. The chapter concludes with an analysis of information on the age of the woman at the time of her first birth. The data are important because they indicate the beginning of the woman's reproductive life. 3.1 Data Quality I:,stimatiol++ oF Ibl'lility is based on the is+timber of births x+ithin a gi'+cn period of tilnc, usuall) a calendar year or Oll¢ ftdl yeaF preceding the s1.1rvcy, Data l'roln man) courdries are vuln.,,ral+Je to various sources of errors (i.e., inemory errt;rs, omissions by survival stattlS of children, etc. ). Among these sc>urccs, inc,,;rrcct rel)ortiI++g of the dates of recent births and omissions of births arc most hnportant in estimating current I'ertilh,,, levels. [Jnfortuilatcly. Tttrkish data are no exception to this. Various demographic data sources in "l'urkc+'+ have produced distributions that dircctl) or indirectly point out errors in the data sets. For htstanc+2, the 1985 Population Census counted 986,730 children at age one but 1,014,61 ] children at age zero. Similarly, the 1990 Population Census counted 1,00?.7t)'o children at age one and I,I 16,403 children at age zero. A similar relationship ~,+as observed in the 1978 lurkish l:ertility Sur, cy (681 and 728 children, respectively). l'l++ese results all impl'., at face "+aluc. htcrcashlg trends in fertility, but in ~icxs of the well-documented decline in fc+lilit3 in Turkey in the last halfcemur.~, this can not be real. Persistence "ol'a meanirtgl'ul magnitude" of such inconsistencies it++ man+', data sources indicates a regularity or a character, rather than an tmexpected finding. The Preliminary Report o1" the 1093 ID I IS that was pul+,lished earlier this .~¢ar used thrce-.~ear averages thaI ,.~. el'c sul~ject to the aboVc-lnentioned "pseudo dippings" of fcllil ity trends during 111¢ last I]',c ",.ears. l)uc Io the eXisIeltc{2 Of stlch findings |'rollt most stll'V¢)%, a number of prelil++++inar) el+seeks ~¢r¢ perlbrlned to assess xq++cther tile fcrliliI) data fronl tllc '1'I)I IS lL'lalillg to the one full :.ear preceding the survey were plausible, these included checks of the sex ratios of hirths declared, to scc if there v.'as sex- selective omission of births, and tabulalhms of the background characteristics of children born m the last 8 years to see whether births had been selectivel)omitted b3 such characteristics as sur', i,.al status, place of residence, educati,,m of moll++er, etc. In both cases, tIe+ere appeared lobc no signilicant s¢lccli', it} in the birtl++s declared. Additionally, t,.so types of analyses '.',er e undertaken ISar Ihc saint purpc~s¢. First, the ,+'~ell- ktloV+ Is+ l~;ongaarts model ~.~. as used to pr£icct a([jI.isled l~rtiliu, estimates oI" pre'. ious sur'. cys to the +xcar 1903 (for adjusted fcrlilit,, estimates of previous sur,,¢.,.s, scc IlIP%, IOWg, pp. 158-173). Sccont.l. current i~rcgnancics reported in the FI)I I% ~er¢ used to calculalc a "v.ould-bc" Iotal I~rtilh3 ratc Ior calendar )ear 1993. 'lhe total Ibrlilil~. rates eslimalcd for 190 ~ from bolh t3 pc,, t~l anal~. ,,c~. rangcd from 2.6 to 2.g.v. hich 23 are very close to the total fertility rate estimate of 2.7 3resented in this chapter. Further analysis should be carried out to gain msight into the nature of such patterns in fertility data from the TDHS, as well as in other fertility surveys in Turkey, and to assess the possible impact of these patterns on indicators other than fertility. 3.2 Current Fertility The current level of fertility is the most important topic in this chapter because of its direct relevance to popu- lation policies and programmes. Age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) for the year before the survey are presented in Table 3. I and Figure 3. I for the country as a whole and for urban and rural areas. The total fertility rate (TFR) for women 15-44 years of age in addition to that for 15-49 is shown for comparative purposes. Numerators for the age-specific fertility rates in Ta- ble 3.1 are calculated by isolating live births that occurred in the 1-12 months preceding the survey (determined from the date of birth of the child) and classifying them by age of 'Fable 3.1 Current fertility Age-specific and cumulative fertility rates and the crude birth rate for the year preceding the survey, by urban-rural residence, Turkey 1993 Residence Age group Urban Rural Total 15-|9 55 47 56 20-24 163 204 179 25-29 139 176 151 30-34 77 126 94 35-39 33 49 38 40-44 8 18 12 45-49 0 0 0 TFR 15-49 2.4 3.1 2.7 TFR 15-44 2.4 3.1 2.7 GFR 87 102 95 CBR 21.7 24.0 22.9 Note: Rates are for the period 1-12 months preceding the survey. Rates for age group 45-49 may be slightly biased due 1o truncation. TFR: Total Fertility rate expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate (births divided by number of women 15-44), expressed per I,O00 women CBR: Crude birth rate, expressed per 1,000 population Figure 3.1 Age-Specific Fertility Rates by Urban-Rural Residence Births per 1,000 women 250 190 100 0o~ 9 [ i i I1~ 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age TDHS 1993 24 the mother (in five-year age groups) of the mother at the time of birth (determined from the date of birth of the mother). The denominators of the rates are the number of woman-years lived in each of the specified five-year age groups during the 1-12 months preceding the survey. The crude birth rate (also shown in Table 3.1) is calculated by summing the product of the age- specific rates multiplied by the proportion of women in the specific age group out of the total de facto population, male and female. Age-specific fertility rates are estimated for the twelve months preceding the survey. There is a typical skewed distribution towards the younger ages. The highest fertility rate is observed for the age group 20-24. After age 24, the curve declines in an upward concave form, implying modem levels of fertility control in the upper ages. Total fertility rate (number of children a woman would bear if she lived through these rates throughout her reproductive life span) is slightly over three children (3. I) for women living in rural areas, and decreases to around two child,'en (2.4) in urban areas. The national average is 2.7 children per woman. When compared with evidence from previous surveys (see HIPS, 1980, 1987, 1989) the urban/rural gap appears to be closing. The crude birth rate has fallen to the lower twenties. As expected, birth rates are higher in rural areas (24.0 per thousand) than in urban areas (21.7 per thousand). The national average (22.9 per thousand) implies a rather low population growth rate even if the crude death rate is very low. The current total fertility for major groups in the population is summarised in Table 3.2. The table also provides a basis for inferring trends in fertility by com- paring current synthetic measures with the average num- ber of children ever born to women currently 40-49 years of age. Although comparison of completed fertility among women age 40 or more with the total fertility rate can provide an indication of fertility change, such an approach is vulnerable to an understatement of parity for older women. The findings on contraceptive use (Chapter 4) and nuptiality (Chapter 6) are also of crucial importance in reaching a balanced judgment about fertility trends. The levels of fertility show variations across background characteristics of the population. This is clearly seen among the region and education categories. Variations are true for past fertility experience (mean "Fable 3.2 Fertility by background characteristics Total fertility rate for the year preceding the survey and mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49, by selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Mean number of children Total ever born Background fertility to women characteristic rate ~ age 40-49 Residence Urban 2.4 4.0 Rural 3.1 5.6 Region West 2.0 3.5 South 2.4 4.8 Central 2.4 4.7 North 3.2 4.7 East 4.4 7,3 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 4.2 5.9 Pri. comp./Sec, incomp. 2,4 3.7 Sec. comp./+ 1,7 2.2 Total 2.7 4.6 IRate for women age 15-49 years number of children for women age 40-49) as well as current fertility levels (total fertility rates). Regional variations of fertility involve three regional groupings. The Eastern region is notable as a high fertility region, with a total fertility rate exceeding four children (4.4). Northern, Central and Southern regions constitute another group, with rates between two and three children (3.2, 2.4 and 2.4, respectively). The lowest rate (2.0) is found in the Western region and is comparable to that of many Western European countries. 25 Gronping regions according to current levels of fertility is also cogent for differences in the past " li:rtility experiences. Although the inean nulnber of children born to women age 40-49 is inucb higher (aboul twice) than the corresponding TFRs ill eacll of the regions, notable variations are observed as with currenl ['crtilil 3. The table suggests an overall decline in fertility, kceping regional diffcrences almost the same, during the last three decades. Past experience as well as current levels of fertility show strong variations by literacy and by levels of education. Both the total fertility rate and the number ofcbildrcn ever born declined nlore than fifty per- cent alnong women with at least a secondary level of education conlpared to women wilh no education. Fertility trends can be analyzed in two ways. One is to compare TDI IS data with previous surveys. Fertility trends can also be examined based on TI)I IS data alone, l laving the colnplete birth history nlakes inorc direct evidence on Irends available, thereby permitting nlorc accurate conclusions. I Iowever, use of birlh histories for analysis of trends places a great burden on the quality of data, which should always be interpreted ~vith caution. Table 3.3 shows the age-specific ferlilit> rates lbr five-year periods preceding tile survey. Tile age-specific schedule of rates in Table 3.3 is progressively truncated as time betbre tile survey increases. The bottom diagonal of estimates (enclosed in brackets) is also truncated. Total fi:rtility rates can be calculated fronl tile age-specific rates in Table 3.3. but only by sunlnling across ages nnaffected by truncation. lahlc 33 Age-specific Icrtilils rates Agc-spccili¢ 6:llilit3 rates Ibr Iixc-),.:ar periods preceding the stlr~c3, b~ nlolller's age, [tlrkex ]093 Nl l lnbcr of x cars preceding the surx¢) Molhcl's age (1-4 5-9 I O- 1.1 15 - 19 15-19 5"Z g14 121 129 20-24 174 231 269 3hi 25-29 116 Ig.I 235 255 30-34 s4 123 156 ll871 35-39 .13 71 II/J2l 4 n-.l. l 13 12t, I 45-49 121 Nolo: Ag¢-spccilic Ik:rtilil) rill¢~, ilr¢ per J.ni)n ~OIIlC11. Iisli- IllillC ~, enclosed ill brackets life IrtlllCalcd The decline of fcrtili b' over tinlc, which is implied by the earlier tables, is seen much more clearly in Figure 3.2. Considering thai fertility over age 40 is alalosl negligible, cunlnlalion of ASFRs up 1o age 40 and conlparisons using this figure shov, tllat I;.:rlili b declined b~, ahnost filly percent daring tile last decade (4.4 hi 1980 ',s 2.5 in 19901. It is interesting to iloie thai this sur',e~ produced higher Ik:rlilit> levels for the early 1980s than tile 1983 survex (a TI:I~, for age 40 o1+4.4 ',s 3.9). In fact. all of Ille quinquennial national surveys conducted in I urkcy ', icldcd higher rates I'~r the preceding 5- I 0 ~ears than the pre', ious surx c.vs" estimates of 0-4 years ( i.e. same relt:rence period~, I'ronl consecuti,, ¢ sur~ e> s ). 26 Figure 3.2 Age-Specific Fertility Rates during the Last 20 Years Births per 1,000 women 350 250 20O 150 1001 50 01 . . . . . 15-10 20-24 25-20 30-34 3S-39 40-44 45-49 Mother's Age Dates ere approximate and refer to Sept. 03, the mid-point of field work. TDHS 1993 Table 3.4 presents fertility rates for ever-married women by duration since first marriage for five-year periods preceding the survey. These rates are similar to those presented in Table 3.3 and lhe same admonitions apply in their interpretation. Fertility early in marriage often remains resistant to change, even when fertility is declining, because fertility decline usually begins at the older ages (wben women start to limit tile number of births) and not by young couples postponing births. Therefore, a complete examination of duration-specific trends requires interpretation in the light of other evidence. Fertility rates are declining ill general, bnt as shown earlier, tile decline is greater among women who are in their later years of childbearing. Table 3.4 iudicates that a decline of fertility by one-fifth, front 372 to 306, among women in the early years of childbearing is not negligible. I lowever, substantial declines by al- most one half, from 302 to 167, are observed lbr the peak fertility ages and very dramatic changes (more than sixty percent) occur in the age groups that have followed during the last two decades. Although this pattern is quite cornmon among populations with increasing fertility control, the speed of change is worth noting. The table also indicates that the decline of fertility was more rapid during the late 1980s than during the early 1980s. Table 3.4 Fertility by marital duration Fertility rates for ever-married women by duration since first marriage in years, for five-year periods preceding the survey. Turkey 1993 Marriage Number ol")'ears preceding the survey duration at birth 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-4 306 350 359 372 5-9 167 221 268 302 10-14 91 140 197 226 15-19 55 94 139 1199] 20-24 28 55 I I 161 25-29 9 {27 l Note: Fertility rates are per 1,000 women. I'stimates enclosed in brackets are truncated. 27 3.3 Children Ever Born and Living The distribution of women by number of children ever born is presented in Table 3.5 for all women and for currently married women. In the TDHS questionnaire, the total number ofchildren~ver bona was ascertained by a sequence of questions designed to maximize recall. Life-time fertility reflects the accumulation of births over the past 30 years and therefore its relevance to the current situation is limited. The results in Table 3.5 for younger wometi who are currently married differ from those for the sample as a whole because of the large number of unmarried women with minimal fertility. Differences at older ages, though minimal, generally reflect the impact of marital dissolution. The parity distribution for older currently married women provides an additional measure of primary infertility. Mean number of children ever born compared with mean number of children surviving can lead to a quick evaluation of the survival status of the children. Almost one in five of children bona by women age 45-49 had not survived at the time of the survey (4.9 vs 4.0). The proportion of children surviving among younger women is much higher. This may not only be because of shorter exposure to risk by the children of the younger cohorts, but also because of the improved mortality conditions in general. Of all children born (mean of 2.0), 87 percent (mean of 1.8) had survived at the time of the survey. Just as marriage is universal in Turkey (see Chapter 6), the proportion of women preferring to remain childless is very low. The proportion of women with no children declines in tandem with the proportion remaining single, and almost all women who are married by the age of 45-49 have children. Just over two percent of the currently married women who are about to complete their reproductive period remain childless, probably due to sterility rather than preference. Table 3.5 Children cvcr born and l iv ing Percent distribution (11" all ~malcn and of currently married women by number of children ever born (CI':B) and mean number ever born and l iving, according to l ive-year age groups. Turkey 1993 Number of children ever born (('EB) Number Mean no Mean no. Age of of of living group 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10+ Total women CEB children AI.I, WOMEN Age 15-19 93.8 5.2 09 0 1 00 00 00 00 0.0 00 0(I I000 2460 0 1 0 1 20-24 525 26.6 145 43 12 0.4 05 00 00 0.0 00 100.0 1777 0.8 07 15-29 22.1 166 324 16.5 7.3 30 12 04 0.3 I) 1 01 1000 1436 1.9 17 30-34 77 78 30.4 241 129 81 41 25 12 0.7 05 1000 1340 3.0 2.7 35-39 50 45 21.3 23.5 146 104 82 48 2.8 27 22 100.0 1093 38 3.4 40-44 4.8 44 18.4 159 157 106 96 67 48 34 5.7 100.0 921 44 3.8 45-49 29 41 123 16.4 158 142 10.3 76 43 36 85 100.0 685 49 4.0 Iotal 389 1(19 169 119 73 48 34 2.1 13 10 15 100.0 9712 2.0 18 CURRENTI.Y MARRIED WOMEN Age 15,19 544 386 64 {).6 00 00 0.0 00 00 00 00 1000 329 0.5 0.5 20-24 187 454 249 75 21 (16 08 00 00 0.0 00 1000 1026 1.3 1.3 25-29 74 195 387 197 87 37 1.5 0.4 03 01 0.0 1000 1190 2.3 21 30-34 32 78 314 258 138 87 43 27 I I 07 0.5 100.0 1254 31 28 35-39 2 t) 4 I 214 245 151 103 87 49 2.9 29 23 1000 1026 39 35 40-44 2{) 40 192 162 162 101 100 71 5 I 35 60 1000 833 46 3.9 4~-49 21 3 b II 4 165 157 153 112 79 4.2 34 87 1000 613 5.0 4.1 Lolal 90 163 252 179 109 71 52 31 18 14 21 1000 6271 3.0 2.7 28 3.4 Birth Intervals There has been a fair amount of research to indicate that short birth intervals are deleterious to the health of babies. This is particularly true for babies born at intervals of less than 24 months. Table 3.6 shows the percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by the number of months since the previous birth. The median birth interval is closeto three years (33.6 months). This is only ten months longer than the minimum considered safe. Thirty percent of the births were born with intervals of less than 24 months. This percentage shows striking variations by background variables. Among women with at least a secondary -level education, the percentage of risky birth intervals is less than one half of those with no education (16 percent and 32 percent, respectively). The smallest proportion of risky birth intervals is observed in the Table 3.6 Birth intervals [Percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by number of months since previous birth, accordill to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, Turkey 1993 Number of months since previous bird1 Characteristic 7-17 18-23 24-35 36-47 48+ Median number o1" monllls Number since of previous Iotal births birth Age of mother 15-19 (47.8) (27.3) (20.3) (4.6) (0.01 100.0 26 (19.21 20-24 24.9 26.4 28,0 13.5 7.2 100.0 456 23.7 25-29 14.3 13.2 26.8 20. I 25.6 100.0 844 33.6 30-34 I 1.3 11,6 21.6 14.6 40.9 100.0 694 39.0 35-39 1O.I 9,1 21.1 15.8 43.9 100.0 324 42.2 40-44 10,6 12.4 14.9 21.1 41.0 100.0 129 44.4 45-49 (0.0) (8.4) (24.8) (ll.0) (55.8) 100.0 25 (48.7) Birth order 2-3 15.4 15.1 22.8 15.6 31A 100.0 1501 33.8 4-6 I 1.6 13.3 26.4 17.9 30.8 100.0 665 35.2 7 + 19.3 15.4 25.6 18.6 2 I.I 100.0 332 28.7 Sex of prior birth Male 12,9 14.6 23.7 17.1 31.7 100.0 1216 35.1 Female 16,7 14.7 24.6 16,2 27.8 100.0 1282 32.0 Survival of prior birth Living 13,0 14,2 24.2 17.3 31.3 100,0 2286 35.2 Dead 34,5 20.2 23.8 9.2 12,3 100.0 212 23.0 Residence Urban 13.7 13.4 22.7 16.1 34.1 100.0 1410 36.1 Rural 16.4 16.3 26.1 17,2 24.0 100.0 1088 31.1 Region West 12.2 12.5 18.0 14.5 42.8 100.0 557 41.4 South 15.0 14.2 24.6 14.6 31.6 100.0 407 33.6 Central 17.7 13. I 21.7 16. I 31 4 100.0 545 34.4 North 13.0 15.0 22.5 17.4 32.1 100.0 235 35.7 East 15.4 17.6 30.6 19.4 17.0 100.0 754 29.2 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 16. I 15.9 28.2 17.6 22.2 100.0 I 146 30.5 Pri. comp./Scc, incomp. 15.2 14.6 21.0 15.9 33.3 100.0 1132 35.6 Sec. compJ+ 74 8.6 18.9 15.2 49.9 100.0 220 47.9 Total 14.9 14.7 24. I t 6.6 29.7 100.0 2498 33.6 Note: First-order births are excluded. "l'he interval Ibr mult ip le births is Ih~ number of months shlcc the preceding pregnancy that ended in a l ive birth. ( ) Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 cases. 29 Western region and the highest proportion in the Eastern region (25 percent and 33 percent, respectively). Sex of child appcars to be inlluential in a woman's decision of whether or not to have another child immediately. Short intervals lollowing a female birth-are more frequent than for male births (31 percent and 28 percent, respectively). Among all the factors presented in the table, survival status of the preceding child appears to be the most iiH]uential in determining the proportion of short birth intervals (27 percent for surviving children and 55 percent lbr deceased children). 3.5 Age at First Birth The age at which childbearing begins has important demographic consequences as well as important consequences for the mother and child. In many countries, postponement of first births, reflecting an increase in the age at marriage, has contributed greatly to overall fertility decline. The proportion of women who become mothers before the age of 20 is also a measure of the magnitude of adolescent fertility, which is a major health and social concern in many countries. Table 3.7 presents the distribution of Turkish women by age at first birth, according to their current age. [ab le 3.7 Age at lirst birlh Percent distrihutitm of women 15-49 b} age at tlrst birth, according to current age. lu rkex 1993 l~'tlr rent ZlgC Median W~lncn Age at first birth Number age at with no of Iirst births < 15 15-17 I 8-19 20-21 22-24 25+ I'otal women birth 15-19 93.8 0.1 3.4 23 NA NA NA 1000 2460 a 20-24 52.6 17 93 139 164 6.1 NA 100.0 1777 a 25-29 22.1 2.3 144 17.9 16,9 187 7,7 1000 1436 21.8 30-34 77 1.9 166 244 194 16,8 13.2 100,0 1340 20.7 35-39 5.0 23 Ig t l 24.5 19.6 16.4 13.6 100.0 1093 20.4 40-44 4.8 27 193 20.3 200 21.5 11.4 100.0 921 20.7 45-49 29 31 193 20.5 207 19.9 13,6 IO0.O 685 20.6 NA - Not applicable al.ess than 5a percent of the women in the age group x to x+4 have had a birth by age v Age of childbearing is increasing gradually. The median has risen from 20.6 years among women age 45-49 years to 21.8 years among women age 25-29 years, despite these women not yet having reached their upper years of childbearing. The table indicates dramatic changes in adolescent fertility. Some 25 percent of women age 20-24 during the survey had become mothers before age 20; this percentage is substantially lower than the percentage for the previous cohort (35 percent). For earlier cohorts, the proportion of women becoming mothers in lheir teens was more than a third, and even close to half, of the wonlen . "File median age at first birth lbr different cohorts is summarised in Table 3.8 and the entry age into motherhood for different subgroups of the population can be compared (the medians for cohorts 15-19 and 20-24 could not be determined because half the women had not yet had a birth). 30 Table 3.8 Median age at llrst birth by background characteristics Median age at first birth among women 25-49, by current age and selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Current age Women Background age characteristic 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 25-49 Residence Urban 22.1 21.0 20.6 20.9 20.8 21.1 Rural 21.3 19.9 20.0 20.3 211. I 20.3 Region West 22.6 21.3. 21.0 20.9 21.2 21.4 South 22.7 21.3 20.6 20.8 20.8 21.3 Central 20.9 20.3 20.0 20.3 20.2 20.3 North 22. I 20.3 20.4 20.9 19.9 20.7 least 20.5 19.7 19.5 20.3 20.2 19.9 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 19.7 19.4 19.6 20.2 20.2 19.8 I'ri. comp./Sec, ineomp. 21.5 20.5 20.3 20.5 20.5 20.6 Sec. comp./+ 25.1 24.0 24.6 23.9 24,4 24.5 Total 21.8 20.7 20.4 20.7 20.6 20.8 Note: The medians for cohorts 15-19 and 20-24 could not be determined because some women may still have a birth before reaching age 20 or 25, respectively. The median age at first birth is almost 21 years (20.8) among all women 25-49. It varies considerably according to background variables. Women living in urban areas tend to have their first birth one year later than women living in rural areas. Women living in the Eastern region become mothers about 1.5 years younger than women living in the Western region. Levels of edncation show the biggest difference among the background variables considered in this table. Women with no education become mothers at the age of 19.8 years, and women with at least a secondary level of education wait an additional four years (24.5) to become mothers. 3.6 Teenage Pregnancy and Motherhood Table 3.9 shows the percentage of women age 15-19 who are mothers or pregnant with their first child. About one in twelve (8 percent) of women age 17 have become mothers or are pregnant with their first child. The proportion increases steeply to one in seven (15 percent) among women age 18 and close to one in four (23 percent) among women age 19. Higher proportions of teenagers living in urban areas have begun childbearing than teenagers living in rural areas (10 percent vs 7 percent). Although fertility is highest in the Eastern region, the highest percentage of teenagers who have begun childbearing is found in the Northern region (I 1.4 percent). Levels of education again appear to be the most influential variable on teenage fertility, not only because of the years of schooling, which have postponed births, but also because of changed attitudes. 31 Table 3.9 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood Percentage of teenagers 15-19 who are mothers or pregnant with their firs child, by selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Percentage who are: Percentage who have Pregnant begun Number Background with first child- of characteristie Mothers child bearing teenagers Age 15 0.2 0.8 1.0 765 16 1.9 1.5 3.4 287 17 3.8 4.3 8.1 489 18 9.6 4.9 14.5 460 19 17.8 5.2 23.1 459 Residence Urban 6.7 3.3 I 0. I 1360 Rural 4.2 2.3 6.5 1419 Region West 5.2 3.2 8.3 669 South 6.8 2.8 9.5 364 Central 6.8 3.4 10.3 541 North 7.8 3.7 11.4 165 East 7.2 3.7 10.9 592 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 14.2 5.5 19.7 217 Pri. comp./Sec, incomp. 7.1 3.6 10.7 1570 Sec. comp./+ 1.6 1.4 3.0 610 Total "* 6.2 3.2 9.3 2460 Note: The sum of the absolute values does not add up to the total value it the last three categories due to the ever-married factors used. Although most teens who have begun childbearing have given birth only once, a small proportion have given birth twice. Table 3.10 shows the distribution of women age 15-19 by number of children ever born, excluding those who are currently pregnant. One percent of women age 18 and 4 percent of women age 19 have given birth to two children. By giving birth early and presumably with short intervals, these women and their children are at a higher risk of dying. The issue of high-risk childbearing is discussed in Chapter 8. Table 3.10 Children born to teenagers Percent distribution of teenagers 15-19 by number of children ever born (CEB), Turkey 1993 Number of Mean children ever born number Number of of Age 0 I 2+ Total CEB teenagers 15 99.8 0.2 0.0 100.0 0.00 765 16 98.1 1.9 0.0 100.0 0.02 287 17 96.2 3.8 0.0 100.0 0.04 489 18 90.4 8.6 1.0 100.0 0.11 460 19 82.2 13.8 4.0 100.0 0.22 459 Total 93.8 5.2 1.0 100.0 0.07 2460 32 CHAPTER4 FAMILY PLANNING Ay~e Akin Dervi~o~lu Giil ErgSr Population policy in Turkey has gone through two major phases. Starting from the early years of the Republic, pronatalist policies were in effect until 1965, when antinatalist policies were accepted. A milestone in family planning practices in the country was the 1983 law that allows abortions on request, legalizes voluntary surgical contraception for males and females, permits midwifes to insert IUDs, and authorises general practitioners to terminate pregnancies by the menstrual regulation method after certification. Family planning services are provided for the most part by the Ministry of Health, primarily through Maternal and Child Health (MCH) and Primary Health Care Centers. Government hospitals also offer family planning services and are the sites for all male and female sterilisations and pregnancy terminations. Other public sector institutions also provide family planning services, including Social Security. Except for vasectomies and pregnancy terminations, all family planning services at public health institutions are provided free of charge. Physicians in private practice are another important group of providers. Some contraceptive methods like the pill, condom and spermicides are available at pharmacies. Various issues relating to fertility regulation in Turkey are addressed in this chapter beginning with an appraisal of the knowledge of different contraceptive methods and the sources of supply and a consideration of current and past practice. Knowledge of the ovulatory cycle by users of periodic abstinence is examined as is the timing of method adoption for those relying on sterilisation~ Special attention is focused on nonuse, reasons for discontinuation, and intention to use in the future. These topics are of practical use to policymakers and program managers in several ways. The early sections concern the main preconditions to adoption of contraception, such as knowledge of methods and supply of sources. Levels of use of contraceptives provide the most obvious and widely accepted criterion of success of the program, especially when results from earlier surveys are available so that progress can be charted. The examination of use in relation to need pinpoints segments of the population for whom intensified efforts at service provision are most needed. 4.1 Knowledge of Contraception Determining the level of knowledge of contraceptive methods and of services wa s a major objective of the TDHS, since knowledge of specific methods and of the places where they can be obtained is a precondition for use. Information about knowledge of contraceptive methods was collected by asking the respondent to name ways or methods by which a couple could delay or avoid pregnancy. If the respondent failed to mention a particular method spontaneously, the interviewer described the method and asked if she recognized it. Eight modern methods - - the pill, IUD, injection, barrier methods (diaphragm, foam, foaming tablets and jelly), condoms, female sterilisation, male sterilisation, and Norplant - - were described, as well as two traditional methods - - periodic abstinence (rhythm method) and withdrawal. Any other methods mentioned by the respondent, such as herbs, vaginal douche or breastfeeding, were also recorded. For each method recognized, the respondent was asked if she knew where a person could obtain the method. If she reported knowing about the rhythm method or withdrawal, she was asked if she knew where a person 33 could obtain advice on how to use the method. Although questions on Norplant and injection were asked, these methods were not available at the time of the survey but were expected to be introduced in the country in the near future. The data on women's knowledge reported in Table 4.1 is based on the combination of probed and spontaneous answers. Knowledge of any method is almost universal among women. The pill and the IUD are the most widely known modern methods, followed by the condom. Knowledge of female sterilisation and male sterilisatiou, which were introduced into family planning programs later than other methods, is tess than knowledge of the pill, IUD or condom; however, knowledge of these methods has increased from the levels observed in the 1988 TPHS, from 65 percent to 76 percent in the case of femate sterilisation and from 28 percent to 35 percent in the case of male sterilisation. Withdrawal is the most widely recognized traditional method. Almost everyone who knows a method also knows the source of a method; 95 percent of women are aware of at least one place to obtain family planning infonnation or services. Lack o1" inlbrmation about where to obtain a method is clearly not a barrier to contraceptive use in Turkey. Table 4.1 Know, ledge of contraceptive methods and source lot methods I'crcenlagc of all ~.t.olncn and currently married ' .~ ,omen who know specific contraceptive rnethods and who know a source (lbr inlbrmalion or services), by specilic methods. Furkcy 1993 Know nlethod Know a source I Currently Currently Contraceptive All married All married nlethod women '~'~ O tTle I1 ~omen women Any method 99.0 99.1 94.7 94.8 Modern method 98.6 98.6 94.5 94.6 Pill 95.7 95.7 88.6 88.7 IUD 96.9 97. I 90.4 90.6 Injection 38.8 38.8 32.6 32.5 Vaginal methods 574 57.5 51.7 51.8 Condom 805 80.8 73.1 73 A Female steri[isation 75,5 75.6 67.1 67.2 Male sterilisation 35.1 35.1 316 31.7 Norplant 6.7 6.7 3 1 3.(1 Any traditional method 890 89.1 36.0 36.0 Periodic abstinence 34.9 34.8 21.3 21.0 Withdrawal 87.1 87.4 31.2 31.2 Vaginal douche 31 3.1 0.0 0.0 Oth~tr traditional methods 60 59 0.0 0.0 Number of women 6519 6271 6519 6271 II:or modern methods, source refizrs to a place to obtain the melhod or procedure. [:or traditional methods, source rclk'rs to a place or person to obtain advice on practicing these methods. 34 Knowledge of any modern method of contraception is chosen as a summary indicator in preference to knowledge of any method because of its greater relevance for program promotion, which is usually confined to modern methods. Knowledge of a source for information or services for modern methods is also presented as are the mean number of methods known. Questions on method and source knowledge were asked of all ever-married women; however, the results are presented for currently married women because they are the immediate potential users. There are no significant differences in the percentages knowing any modern method according to age, residence, region or level of education; however, both knowledge of a source and the mean number of methods known vary according to these background characteristics. For example, knowledge of a source is 87 percent among women with no education compared to 100 percent among women with a higher than primary education. Knowledge of a source for modem methods is 86 percent among illiterate respondents, compared to 98 percent among those who are literate (data not shown). Table 4.2 presents differences in contraceptive knowledge by background characteristics. The mean number of methods known is 6.2 methods. For modern methods, the mean is 4.9 methods and the mean for traditional methods is 1.3. The mean number of methods known is highest in the 25-29 and 30-34 age groups and increases as the level of education increases. Urban residents know somewhat more methods Table 4.2 Knowledge of contraception Mean number of all methods, modem methods and traditional methods known, by selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Mean number of: Modem Traditional Number Background Methods methods methods of characteristic known known I known 2 women Age 15-19 5.2 4.2 1.0 329 20-24 6.0 4.7 1.3 1026 25-29 6.5 5.1 1.4 1190 30-34 6.6 5.2 1.4 1254 35-39 6.3 5.0 1.3 1026 40-44 6. I 4.8 1.3 833 45-49 5.7 4.4 1.3 613 Residence Urban 6.7 5.2 t.5 4005 Rural 5.3 4.3 I.I 2266 Region West 6.6 5.0 1.5 2207 South 6.3 5.0 1.3 964 Central 6.3 5.0 1.3 1472 North 5.9 4.7 1.3 589 East 5.3 4,4 0.9 1039 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 5.2 4.2 1.0 2102 Pri. comp./Sec, incomp. 6.3 4.9 1.4 3227 Sec. comp./+ 8.() 6.0 1.9 942 Total 6.2 4.9 I 3 6271 Ilncludes pill, IUD, injection, vaginal methods (foaming tablets/diaphragm/ lbam/ielly), condom, female sterilisation, male sterilisation and Norplant. 2Includes withdrawal, vaginal douche, and periodic abstinence. 35 than rural residents, and the mean number of methods varies by region from 5.3 methods in the East to 6.6 methods in the West. 4.2 Ever Use of Contraception All women interviewed in the TDHS who said that they had heard of a method of family planning were asked if they had ever used it. If all the answers were negative, the respondents were further asked whether they had "ever used anything or tried in any way to delay or avoid getting pregnant." As seen in Table 4.3, 80 percent of currently married women have used a family planning method at some time in their lives. Among currently married women, ever use of any method is lowest for the 15- 19 age group (37 percent), it peaks at 88 percent in the 30-34 age group and then it gradually decreases to 78 percent in the 45-49 age group. 'Fable 4.3 Ever use of contraception Among currently married women, the percentage who have ever used a contraceptive method, by specific method, according to age, Turkey 1993 Age Modern methods Traditional methods Any Vaginal Female Male Any Periodic Number Any modern Injec- meth- Con- sterili- sterili- trad. absti- With- Vaginal of method method Pill IUD tion ods dora sation sation method nence drawal douche Other women 15-19 37.4 16.6 4.6 7,8 0.9 1.4 7.7 0.0 0,0 29.0 1.5 28.5 0.5 0.3 329 20-24 70.0 47.2 18.2 23.8 0.7 4.7 20.7 0.3 0.0 51.2 5.2 49.3 O.g 0,3 1026 25-29 84.7 65,7 32.8 36.8 1.6 7.8 26.9 1.7 0.2 62.4 7.2 59.7 0.7 1.2 1190 30-34 88.4 72.1 41.1 46.7 1,8 11.9 29.2 3.2 0.0 62.5 8.9 58.9 2.0 1.0 1254 35-39 87.8 71.7 43.2 42.1 3.1 13.8 25.3 4.6 0.5 62.6 7.1 59,1 2.0 1.7 1026 40"14 82.6 66.2 42.0 34.9 3.1 14.4 22.4 4.8 0.1 58.2 7.7 52.9 3.0 2.6 833 45-19 78.0 59.3 38.5 25,4 3.5 12.0 191 5.0 0.0 54.6 8.6 48.6 3.5 5.2 613 Total 80.1 61.8 34.1 34.6 2.1 10.1 23.7 2.9 0.1 57.5 7.1 54.1 1.8 1.6 6271 The age pattern varies somewhat according to the type of method. Ever use of modern methods is highest among women in their thirties, with almost three in four women in these age groups reporting that they have used a modern method at some time. The level of ever use of traditional methods reaches to more than 60 percent amdng women age 25-29 and stays at this level among women 30-39, before dropping off among women age 40 and older. Ever use of traditional methods is lower than ever use of modern methods in every age group, with the exception of women age 15-24. Considering specific methods, around one-third of currently married women report ever using the IUD or the pill while 24 percent have tried the condom. Only one in ten women or fewer have ever used any of the other modern methods. Withdrawal, the most frequently used traditional method, has been used by 54 percent of currently married women. Comparison of the levels of ever use found in the TDHS with the levels reported in earlier surveys shows that the level of ever use among ever-married women increased steadily between 1978 and 1988 (Figure 4.1). However, with the exception of the IUD, there was little or no change in the level of ever use of most methods between 1988 and 1993, and there wei'e small declines in the ever-use rates for the pill and rhythm. 36 Percent 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Modern methods Figure 4.1 Ever Use of Family Planning, Turkey 1978-1993 !i!i!~ Pill IUD Condom Female Withdrawal Rhythm sterllls. TDHS 1993 4.3 Current Use of Contraception The level of current use is the most widely used and valuable measure of the success of a family planning program. Further, it can be used to estimate the reduction in fertility attributable to contraception. Table 4.4 presents data on the proportion of currently married women who are using contraception by age. Overall, 63 percent of currently married women are using a contraceptive method. The majority of these women are modem method users (35 percent), but a substantial proportion use traditional methods (28 percent), particularly withdrawal. Withdrawal is, in fact, the most widely used method (26 percent) as it was in the previous surveys in Turkey. The tUD is the most commonly used modern method (19 percent). The condom (7 percent) and the pill (5 percent) are the second and third most popular modem methods, respectively. Current use of the 1UD has increased markedly and that of female sterilisation has increased slightly, but condom and pill use have decreased compared to the 1988 TPHS (Figure 4.2). Considering age patterns, modem method use is most prevalent in the 30-34 age group, while traditional method use peaks in the 35-39 age group. Modem methods are practiced more frequently than traditional methods in every age group except the 15-19 and 40-49 age groups. ]'able 4.4 Current use o f contraception Percent distribution of currently married women by contraceptive method currently used, according to age, Turkey 1993 Any modern Any meth- Age method od Pill Modem methods Traditional methods IUD Any Pro- Not Vaginal Female Male trial. Periodic longed using Number Injec- meth- Con- sterili- sterili- meth- absti- With- absti- Vaginal any of lion ods dora sation sation od hence drawal hence douche Other method Total women 15-19 24.1 9.3 0.6 6.2 0.0 0.0 2,5 0.0 0.0 14.8 0.0 14.2 0,0 0.2 0.4 75.9 I00.0 329 20-24 51.1 28.2 5.1 16.4 00 0.9 5.5 0.3 0.0 229 0.5 22.4 00 0.0 0.0 48.9 100.0 1026 25-29 68.0 41.7 9.0 23.3 0.1 0.6 7.0 1.7 0.0 263 0.5 25.4 0.2 0.2 00 32.0 100.0 1190 30-34 76.5 46.0 6.2 26.3 0.0 1.7 8.5 3.3 0.0 30.5 18 27.8 02 0.5 02 23.5 100.0 1254 35-39 76.8 41.0 3.9 22.1 0.3 1.7 8.2 4.6 0.2 35.8 0.7 34.2 01 0.5 0.3 23.2 1000 1026 40-14 61.0 29.2 2.1 13.4 0.1 1.8 7.0 4.8 0.0 31.8 1.6 28.4 0.0 1.3 0.5 39.0 100.0 833 45-49 41.7 175 19 6.9 0.0 1.0 2.7 5.0 0.0 24.2 0.8 20.6 0.0 2.1 0.7 58.3 100.0 613 Total 62.6 34.5 4.9 18.8 0.1 1.2 6.6 2.9 0.0 28.1 1.0 26.2 0.1 0.6 0.2 37.4 100.0 6271 Figure 4.2 Current Use of Family Planning Turkey 1988-1993 Modern methods ::l 34.5 Pill IUD :! Condom | Female atariliaation Traditional methods Rhythm :f Wlthdrmwsl 0 ~ . 6 . 2 .T ~2.9 29.1 32.3 9 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Percent TDHS 1993 The levels of current contraceptive use among main groups of the population can be compared in Table 4.5. Overall, use of any method is higher in urban than in rural areas. Much of the urban-rural difference in use is owed to the substantially higher level of use of modem methods among urban women (39 percent) compared to rural women (27 percent). In turn, almost all of the difference in modern method use is due to greater use of the IUD among urban women (22 percent) than rural women 04 percent). 38 Table 4.5 Current use of contraception by background characteristics Percent distribution of currently married women by contraceptive method currently used, according to selected background characteristics. Turkey 1993 Modem methods rradiUonal methods Any Female All Periodic Not N .nber Background Any modern Vaginal Con- slcri- wddi- absU- Wilh- currently of characteristic method method Pill IUD methods dom [isation tlonal hence drawal Other using Total women Residence Urban 66.2 38.9 5.0 21,5 1.3 7.8 3.3 27.3 1.4 24.9 0A 33.8 100.0 4005 Rural 561 26.8 4,8 14.1 I.I 4.6 2.2 29.3 0,1 28.5 07 439 1(10.0 2265 Region West 71.5 37.3 62 18.8 1.2 8.4 2,7 34.2 1.3 31.5 0.4 28.5 100.0 2207 South 62.8 36.7 4.2 20.9 2.2 6,1 33 26,0 1.0 24.7 0.3 37.2 100.0 964 Central 62.7 36.6 4.3 21.9 1.2 6.1 3.1 26.1 I.I 23.7 1,3 37.3 100.0 1472 North 64.2 29.8 52 11.5 1,7 7.1 4.3 34.4 0.4 33.6 0.4 358 100,0 589 East 42.3 26.3 36 16.5 0.7 3.7 1.8 16.0 0.3 15.6 0.1 577 100.0 1039 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 50.4 25.6 37 13,4 1,3 3.6 3.6 24.8 0.2 23.6 1.0 49.6 100.0 2102 Pri comp./Sec, incomp. 67.5 35.9 5.6 20.4 1,2 63 2.4 31,5 0.6 30,1 0.8 32.5 100.0 3227 See. comp./+ 73.0 49.7 5.3 25.3 1.7 .4.5 2.9 23.3 4.0 187 0,6 27.0 100.0 942 Living children None 8.6 2.9 1.4 0.2 0.0 1.3 00 5.7 1.0 46 0.1 914 100.0 596 I 58.0 31.4 4.8 17,5 0.8 7.6 0,7 26.5 1.0 25.3 0.2 42.0 100.0 1069 2 78,3 45.6 6.4 26,1 1.6 8.9 2,6 32.6 1,4 30.4 0.8 21.7 100.0 1778 3 733 39.8 59 20.6 1.5 78 4,0 33.6 I,I 31.1 1.3 267 100.0 1203 4+ 60.2 32.1 4.1 17,0 1.4 4.7 4,9 28.1 03 26,4 1.4 39.8 100.0 1625 Total 62.6 34.5 4.9 18.8 1.3 6,6 2.0 28.1 1.0 26.2 09 37.4 100.0 6271 Regional differences in use are substantial. The level of current use is only 42 percent in the East, whereas it exceeds 70 percent in the West and 60 percent in the other three regions. Modem method use is bigher than traditional use in all regions except the North, and it decreases from a high of 37 percent in the West to 26 percent in the East. Traditional method use is high in both the Western and Northern regions (34 percent). In fact, much of lhe difference in overall prevalence between the Western region and the Southern and Central regions is due to the higher level of traditional method use in the West. Regional differences in the current use of specific methods are presented in Figure 4.3. The main differences between regions are in pill and IUD use, which are lowest in the East and the North, respectively. Female sterilisation and withdrawal are highest in the North. Current use increases directly with education (Table 4.5). Among women who have no education, the percentages currently using modem and traditional methods are almost identical. In contrast, women with a primary or higher education are more likely to use modem than traditional methods. Women with secondary or more education are the group most likely to be using modem contraceptive methods, especially the IUD and the condom. Half of all women in this education group are users of a modern method, and a quarter are using IUDs. Use of contraception increases rapidly with number of living children, peaking at 78 percent among women with two children, after which it declines slightly among women with three or more children. There appears to be little effort to delay first birth; less than nine percent of the currently married women with no children are using a method. 39 Figure 4.3 Current Use of Family Planning by Region and Method Percent 190 75 50 25 9 West South Central North REGION J East TDHS 1993 4.4 Number of Children at First Use of Contraception In many cultures, family planning is used only when couples have already had as many children as they want. As the concept of planning families gains acceptance, however, couples may begin to use contraception for spacing births as well as for limiting family size. Moreover, young women may be particularly motivated to use family planning to delay the timing of the first child. To explore the possible motivation for use of contraceptives, a question was asked on the number of children the respondent had when contraception was first used. These results shown in Table 4.6 allows us examine cohort change (as indicated by differences between age groups) in the early adoption of contraception, One third of women start using contraception aider they have one child. There are clear distinctions between cohorts in the parity at which a method was first accepted, with women who are younger than 35 being much more likely to have adopted at lower parities than older women. 4.5 Problems with Current Method All current contraceptive users in the TDHS were asked whether they had experienced problems with the method they were using and, if so, what the problems were. Identifying problems with the use of specific methods has practical implications for future educational and promotional campaigns. In the last five years there has been more emphasis on counselling, in order to improve the qiaality of family planning services. Information, education and communication (IE&C) programs affect the continuation of methods. In general, most of the current users were pleased with their choice of method (Table 4.7). Most of the problems reported for modem methods are for the pill and, to a lesser degree, for the IUD. Most of the women who are using traditional methods did not report any problems. 40 Table 4.6 Number of children at first use of contraception Percent distribution of ever-married women by number of living children at the time of first use of contraception, according to current age, Turkey 1993 Number of living children at time Never of first use of contraception Number used of Current age contraception 0 1 2 3 4+ Total women 15-19 62.4 18.2 17.9 1.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 332 20-24 30.7 17.4 42.0 8.5 1.2 0.2 100.0 1040 25-29 15.8 14.8 42.0 17.9 6.1 3.4 I00.0 1211 30-34 11.9 10.4 39.2 19.5 9.7 9.3 I00.0 1283 35-39 13.2 8.3 30.4 17.7 12.5 17.9 I00.0 1073 40-44 18.4 6.4 23.6 19.5 11.2 20.9 I00.0 901 45-49 22.8 5.1 17.3 19.6 12.7 22.5 I00.0 679 Total 20.4 11.3 33.2 16.3 8.1 10.7 100.0 6519 In Table 4.7, of the specific problems reported, 13 percent of the women using pills complained about side effects and 8 percent had health concerns related to the method. Among IUD users, side effects and health concerns were problems for an identical percentage of users (6 percent). The percentages reporting concerns about side effects and health concerns may reflect inappropriate counselling as well as the prejudice mostly to the pills that is reflected to the women by the medical personnel (i.e., the "medical barrier"). Table 4.7 Problems with current method of contraception Percent distribution of contraceptive users by the main problem with current method, according to specific methods, Turkey 1993 Female Periodic Main Vaginal Con- sterili- absti- With- problem Pill IUD methods dom sation nence drawal No problem 78.4 87.4 94.4 94.4 92.9 93.8 96. I Husband disapproves 0.4 0.2 1.6 3.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 Side effects 13.2 6.3 2.4 0.4 2.9 0.0 0.2 Health concerns 7.6 6.1 0.0 0.0 3.5 0.0 0.6 Other t 0.4 0.0 1.6 2.2 0.7 6.2 1.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 308 1178 76 415 186 60 1642 qncludes access/availability, inconvenient to use, and can get pregnant. 4.6 Use of Name-brand Pills In order to measure the extent to which the social marketing program has reached the general pub- lic, all TDHS respondents who reported that they were currently using the pill were asked to show the packet of the pills they were using, or, i f they could not, to tell the interviewer which brand they were using. Table 4.8 presents the percentage of pill users who are using a social marketing brand. Of all the current pill users 73 percent were able to show the pills they were using to the interviewer. The most commonly 41 used pill brand was Lo-femenal (17 percent), which is distributed tree of charge by the Ministry of Health; it is followed by Desolet (16 percent), which is sold at pharmacies. Among the group who reported themselves as current users of the pill and could not show the packet, 42 percent could not remember the brand that they were using. Minipill (progesterone only) use is only I percent among the pill users ("other" category). 4.7 Knowledge of the Ferti le Period A basic knowledge of reproductive physiology is useful for successful practice of coitus-related methods such as withdrawal, the condom, or barrier methods, but it is especially important for users of periodic abstinence or the rhythm method. The successful pract:,,~e of periodic abstinence depends on an understanding of when during the ovulatory cycle a woman is most likely to conceive. Table 4.9 presents the percent distribution of all respondents and those who have ever used periodic abstinence and withdrawal by reported knowledge of the fertile period in the ovulatory cycle. Table 4.8 Use of social marketing brand pills Percent distribution of pill users who are using a social marketing brand, Turkey 1993 Brand Pills currently Pills not used shown shown Total Desolet 17.2 14.5 16.4 Eugynon 6.8 3.6 5.9 Femulen 0.9 - 1).7 Lo-fcmenal 22.6 1.3 16.8 I,o-ovral 2.7 3.6 3.11 I,yndiol 13. I 7.2 I 1.5 Microgynon 9.9 1.2 7.6 Minulet - 1.2 0 .3 Myraloo (1.5 1.2 0.7 Ovral 13.6 6.0 I 1.5 Ovulen 2.3 4.8 3.0 Triquilar 3.6 4.8 3.9 Trinordiol 3.6 - 2.6 Other 2.7 6.0 3.6 Don't know - 42.2 I 1.5 Missing 0.5 2.4 1.0 Total 100.0 100.0 I00.0 Number 221 83 304 Women in Turkey do not have sufficient knowledge on the timing of ovulation. Only 22 percent of ever-married women know the correct time of ovulation, 47 percent have no idea as to the time, and 31 percent have incorrect knowledge (Figure 4.4). Women who have ever used the rhythm method have better knowledge than all ever-married women; 80 percent know the correct time of ovulation, 8 percent report that they do not know about the time of ovulation and 12 percent have incorrect knowledge. Ever users of withdrawal have similar knowledge about time of ovulation as all women. Table 4.9 Knowledge of fertile period Percent distribution of ever-married women, women who have ever used periodic abstinence, and women who have ever used withdrawal, by knowledge of the fertile period during the ovulatory cycle, Turkey 1993 Ever users Ever users Perceived All of periodic of with- fertile period women abstinence drawal During her period 0.7 0.7 0.9 At~er period cnded 7.7 6.4 8.7 Middle o1" her cycle 22.3 79.7 24.6 Before period begins 1.0 1.7 1.0 Other 0.4 0.4 0.5 No particular time 20.5 3.0 19.4 Don't know 47.3 8. I 44.8 Missing 0. I 0.0 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 6519 465 3480 42 Figure 4.4 Knowledge of Fertile Period among Ever-Married Women and Users of Periodic Abstinence No I)articul"~ time 21% Other 10% Middle of "~e cycle 22% Don't know 47% Ever-Married Women Middle of the cycle 80% Periodic Abst inence TDHS 1993 4.8 Timing of Sterilisation In countries where contraceptive steritisation is practiced, there is interest in knowing the trend in the adoption of the method and in determining whether the age at the time of the operation is declining. Table 4.10 presents the percent distribution of sterilised women by age at the time of sterilisation, according to the number of years since the operation. The median age at the time of the operation is presented only for women less than 40 years of age to minimize problems of censoring. "Fable 4.10 Timing of sterilisation Percent distribution of sterilised women by age at the time of sterilisation, according to the number of years since the opcration, Turkey 1993 Age at time ol"sterilisation Number Ycars sincc of Median operation <25 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total women age I <2 (1.3) (26.6) (46.2) 117.61 (5.8) (2.5) 100.0 45 (32.3) 2-3 (9.2) (24.9) 131.31 (27.9) (6.7) (0.0) 100.0 36 (32.2) 4-5 (23.7) (3.6) (29.3) (28.8) (14.61 (0.0) 100.0 30 133.1) 6-7 * * * * * * 100.0 21 * 8-9 * * * * * * 100.0 22 * Ill+ (18.7) (37.1) (34.11 (10.1) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 33 Total 11.4 24.9 36.0 20.8 6.3 0.6 100.0 187 318 iMedian age was calculated only for women less than 40 years of age to avoid problems of censoring. * Less than 25 cases ( ) Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 cases 43 The results in Table 4.10 suggest that the age at which sterilisation is adopted has been decreasing slightly in Turkey. The median age at the time of sterilisation for women who have been sterilised 4-7 years before the survey was 33 years, almost one year higher than the median age (32 years) among users who adopted the method more recently. However, conclusions about the timing of sterilisation adoption must be viewed with some caution because of the comparatively small number of users in each time period. 4.9 Sources for Family Planning Methods At present, the IUD, pills, condoms and other modem methods are available free of charge in the government sector through the primary health care units and hospitals. Pharmacies and private physicians also supply methods, but charge for their services. All current users of modem methods of family planning were asked to report the most recent source of supply for their methods. Because women often do not know the exact category of the source they use (e.g., government hospital, private health center, etc.), interviewers were instructed to write the name of the source. Supervisors and field editors were to verify that the name and the type of source were consistent. This practice was designed to improve the reporting of data on sources of family planning. The results are presented in Table 4.11. The majority of users (55 percent) obtained their methods from government services (Figure 4.5). Primary health care units (health centers) are the major public sector suppliers of family planning methods (35 percent). Among private sector sources, pharmacies (25 percent) are the major suppliers of methods, followed by private doctors (15 percent) and private hospitals or clinics (3 percent). Looking at sources for specific methods (Table 4.11), pharmacies are the main source of pills, condoms and vaginal methods (69 percent, 65 percent and 91 percent, respectively). For the IUD, the principal source is government health centres/houses/MCH-FP centers (49 percent) and hospitals (22 percent); however, private doctors (24 percent) are also important providers of the IUD. The majority of female sterilisation operations take place in government hospitals (83 percent). Provision of modem methods by nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Turkey is still at insignificant levels, not exceeding one percent for any of the modem methods. Table 4.11 Sourceofsupply for modern contraceptive methods Percent distribution of current users of modem contraceptive methods by most recent source of supply, according to specific methods. Turkey 1993 Female All Vaginal Con- sterili- modern Source of supply Pill IUD methods dora sation methods Public 24.2 70.9 3.7 28.7 83.4 54.8 Government hospital 3.0 22.3 1.6 2.6 82.8 20.3 Government health centre 21.2 48.6 2.1 26.1 0.6 34.5 Medical private 75.3 28.1 96.3 66.2 15.5 43.3 Private hospital/Clinic 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.3 8.9 2.9 Pharmacy 69.4 0.3 91.2 65.2 0.0 25.6 Private doctor 5.9 24.0 5.1 0.7 6.6 14.8 Other 0.5 1.0 0.0 5.1 I.I 1.9 Total 100.0 100,0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 308 1178 76 415 186 2170 44 Figure 4.5 Source of Supply of Modern Contraceptive Methods ~arnment hospital 20~ Private hoa Pharmacy 25~ Other pHvate 2~ vale doctor lS~ TDHS 1993 4.10 Cont racept ive Discontinuation Cumulative one-year contraceptive discontinuation rates d.ueto method failure, desire for pregnancy, or other reasons are presented in Table 4.12, according to specific method. The discontinuation rates shown are true,multiple decrement life-table rates (sometimes referred to as "net rates") where the various reasons for discontinuation are treated as competing risks and are additive across reasons for discontinuing. The rates are calculated from information collected in the calendar portion of the questionnaire (see Appendix E). The rates refer to all episodes of contraceptive use occurring during the period of t ime covered by the calendar, not just those episodes that began during this period. Specifically, the rates presented in Table Table 4.12 Contraceptive discontinuation rates First-year contraceptive discontinuation rates due to method failure, desire for pregnancy, side effects, or other reasons, according to specific method All Method Desire for Side other All Method failure pregnancy effects reasons reasons Pill 6.3 5.8 22.5 20.8 55.3 IUD 1.0 0.8 6.0 2.3 10.1 Diaphragm/Foam/Jelly 16.1 4.9 2.3 36.7 60.0 Condom 8.6 5.9 0.6 33.7 48.8 Periodic abstinence 24.6 15.3 0.8 20.2 60.9 Withdrawal 14.9 6.4 0.2 17.3 38.8 Total 9.7 5.0 4.9 17. I 36.7 45 4.12 refer to the 60-month period 3-63 months prior to the survey; the month of the interview and the prior 2 months are ignored in order to avoid the bias that may be introduced by unrecognized pregnancies. Proper counselling and type of services affect the continuation of methods. Crowded family planning centres lower the quality of services, limiting one-to-one contact with the clients. Regular follow- ups or visits are required to maintain the continuation of the method. The highest discontinuation rates are for barrier methods (diaphragm, foam or jelly) and periodic abstinence (60 percent and 61 percent, respectively). The discontinuation rate for the pill (55 percent) is also quite high. The lowest discontinuation rate (10 percent) is fgr the IUD. The discontinuation rate for withdrawal, the most widely used traditional method, is relatively low (39 percent) in comparison to that for some modern methods. Side effects for the pill and IUD (23 percent and 6 percent, respectively) account for a large part of their high discontinuation rates. The highest failure rate is observed for periodic abstinence (25 percent). This may be due to the fact that periodic abstinence is used mostly by the delayers, who are not highly motivated. The failure rate for withdrawal for the first year is relatively low compared to the rates for other countries, e.g., 18 percent as reported by Hatcher et al. (1990). The high level of the failure rate for the pill (6 percent), compared to the typical first-year failure rate of 3 percent, may be due to its misuse. Table 4.13 shows the percent distribution of the discontinuation of contraceptive methods in the last five years by main reason for discontinuation, according to specific method. Major reasons for discontinuation of the pill and IUDs were side effects and health concerns (41 percent and 47 percent, respectively); discontinuation due to side effects was higher among pill users than IUD users. The main reason for discontinuation of withdrawal was becoming pregnant (42 percent) with 17 percent accounting to the desire to change to a more effective method. Similarly, 14 percent of the discontinuation of condom use resulted from changing to a more effective method, while husband disapproval accounted for 23 percent of the discontinuations. Table 4.13 Reasons Ibr discontinuation of contraception Percent distribution of contraceptive method discontinuatkm in the live 2,'cars prcccding the survey by main reason lbr discontinuation, according to spccilic methods. Turkey 1993 Modern Traditional methods methods Vaginal Periodic Reason tbr meth- Con- absti- With- All discontinuation Pill IUD ods dora nence drawal methods Became pregnant 12.2 6.9 24.0 17.9 39.6 41.7 25.9 To become pregnant 13.3 16. I 10.2 18.9 25.9 18.0 16.7 I lusband disapproved 1.0 0. I 5.7 23.3 1).5 3.8 5. I Side clli:cts 26.8 16.3 1).6 02 0.0 0.1 8.0 I Icalth concerns 14.2 31).2 4.8 1.1 2.3 0.5 8.8 Access/Availability 2,6 0.0 5.8 4.8 0.0 0.0 1.3 More effective method 3.4 0.7 1 1.6 13.6 9.9 17.3 I 0.8 Inconvenient to use 1).8 0.0 9.9 5.5 2.9 1.2 1.9 Infrequent sex 6.7 1.8 5.4 1.5 0.0 33 3.4 Cost 08 0.1 1.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 Fatalistic 0.4 0.0 (}.0 0.3 0.0 0. I 0.2 Menopause 2.3 2.5 7.8 1.3 2.5 3.0 2.9 Marital dissolution 0.0 I. 1 0.5 1).7 1.0 1).7 0.6 Other I 1.3 19. I 9.2 6.9 5.7 2.7 8.2 Missing 4.2 5.1 3. I 39 9.7 7,6 6.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 I00.0 IO0.O I00.0 Number 811 848 171 583 121 1942 4547 46 4.11 Intent to Use Family Planning Among Nonusers Intent to use contraception in the future provides a forecast of potential demand for services and is a convenient indicator of the disposition towards contraception among current nonusers. Women who were not using a contraceptive method at the time of the survey were asked if they thought they would do something to keep from getting pregnant at any time in the future. In addition, those who reported that they were intending to use were asked whether they planned to begin use within the next 12 months. The distinction between intended use in the next 12 months and later use should provide a more trustworthy indication of demand in the near future. Since intention to use family planning is closely related to the number of children a woman has and past experience with contraception, the data on future use in Table 4.14 are broken down by these two factors. The reasons for not using contraception given by women who do not intend to use a method are presented in Table 4.15. Nonusers who said that they did intend to use family planning in the future were asked which method they preferred to use. These results are presented in Table 4.16. Among currently married nonusers, 46 percent do not intend to use any method in the fitture while 31 percent intend to begin use in 12 months, 14 percent intend to use later and 8 percent are unsure of their intent or the timing (Table 4.14 and Figure 4.6). The proportion intending to use varies with number of living children, peaking at 64 percent among women with one child. The timing of the intention to use also varies with the number of living children; nonusers with two or more children are much more likely than those with no children to say that they plan to begin use within the next 12 months. Table 4.14 Futuru use of contraception Percent distribution of currently married women who are not using a contraceptive method by past experience with contraception and intention to use in the future, according to number of living children, Turkey 1993 Past experience with contraception and future intentions Number of living children I 0 I 2 3 4+ Total Never used before Intend use/12 months 2.9 29.3 Intend use later 26.3 12.6 Unsure as to timing 0.8 2.1 Unsure as to intent 10.3 5.4 Docs not intend use 44.9 19.0 Missing 0.5 0.8 Previously used Intend use/12 months 2.1 12.3 Intend use later 8.9 9.3 Unsure as to liming 0.0 0.4 Unsure as to intent 0.7 1.0 Does not intend to use 2.6 7.3 Missing 0.0 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 Nonusers currently married Intend use/12 months 5.0 41.5 Inlcnd use later 35.2 22.0 lJnsurc as to timing 0.8 2.5 Unsure as to intent I 1.0 6.4 Does not intend to use 47.5 26.4 Missing 0.5 1.2 Total 100.0 100.0 Number 361 492 11.2 9. I I 1.3 13.4 4.1 1.0 2.7 8.4 0.7 0.0 0.6 0.9 2.9 2.5 3.7 4.7 17.4 15.5 28.8 25.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.4 32.7 25.3 14.9 17.4 3.9 4.1 2.3 5.4 1.2 1.4 0.3 0.6 1.6 2.5 1.0 1.3 22.8 36.0 33.0 21.4 1.5 2.6 1.0 I.I 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 43,9 34.4 26.0 30.8 7.9 5.1 5.1 13.9 1,9 1.4 0.9 1,5 4,5 5.0 4.7 6,0 40.3 51,5 61.9 46.4 1.5 2.6 1.4 t.4 I(10.0 I00.0 I00.0 I00.0 459 346 689 2347 tlncludes current pregnancy 47 Figure 4.6 Future Use of Contraception among Nonusers Currently Married i n tends to use later 14~ Unsu~ 9~ In tends to use In 12 months 31~ Does not intend to use 47~ TDHS 1993 Nonusers are almost evenly divided be- tween past users and never users. An examination of intention to use among these two groups indi- cates that past users are only slightly more likely than never users to express an intention to use in the future; past users are more likely than never users to say that they will begin use within the next 12 months. Table 4.15 and Figure 4.7 show the rea- sons for nonuse among nonusers who do not in- tend to adopt any method in the future. Nonusers who do not intend to use in the future are mainly over the age of 30 (81 percent), and their reasons for nonuse are quite different from the reasons given by younger nonusers. The majority of these older nonusers are not exposed to pregnancy; 35 percent had a hysterectomy or are menopausal and 35 percent reported that it was difficult for them to get pregnant. The main reason for nonuse among women under age 30 was a desire for children (51 percent), and the second most frequently mentioned reason was infertility (19 percent). Table 4.15 Reasons for not using contraception Percent distribution of women who are not using a contraceptive method and who do not intend to use in the future by main reason for not using, according to age, Turkey 1993 Reason for Age not using contraception 15-29 30-49 Total Wants children 50.7 7.9 15.9 Lack of knowledge 3.5 0.9 1.3 Partner opposed 5.8 1.4 2.3 Costs too much 0.0 0.2 0.1 Side effects 2.6 1.2 1.4 Health concerns 2.7 1.7 1.9 Hard to get methods 0.1 0.6 0.5 Religion 2.5 1.8 2.0 Opposed to family planning 0.1 0.3 0.2 Fatalistic 4.4 3.7 3.9 Infrequent sex 3.0 6.8 6.1 Difficult to be pregnant 18.5 35.4 32.2 Menopausal/Had hysterectomy 0.8 34.9 28.5 Inconvenient 0.0 0.4 0.3 Other 5.4 2.8 3.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 204 886 1090 48 Figure 4.7 Reasons for Not Using Contraception among Nonusers Currently Married Difficult to gmt pregnant 32% Rallglon, fatalistic 6% Wants children 19% Other 15% Menopausal MUSOand opposes 2~ 28q TDHS 1993 In the groups who intend to use in the next 12 months or later, the majority report that their method of choice will be the IUD. Women who are not sure of the timing of future use also are more likely to pre- fer the IUD (29 percent) than other methods, but significant proportions also prefer the pill (18 percent), and 11 percent want to be sterilised (Table 4.16). Table 4.16 Preferred method of contraception for future use Percent distribution of currently married women who are not using a contraceptive method but who intend to use in the future by preferred method, according to whether they intend to use in the next 12 months or later, Turkey 1993 Intend to use In next After Preferred method 12 12 Unsure of contraception months months when Total Pill 13.1 14.2 (17.7) 13.5 IUD 54.0 46.7 (29.2) 50.6 Injection 3.2 2.2 (2.9) 2.8 Diaphragm/Foam/Jelly 1.1 1.8 (0.0) 1.3 Condom 2.9 3.1 (4.8) 3.0 Norplant 1.5 1.2 (2.9) 1.4 Female sterilisation 5.2 6.6 (11.4) 5.7 Male sterilisation 0.3 0.2 (0.0) 0.3 Periodic abstinence 0.5 0.0 (0.0) 0.3 Withdrawal 6.9 6.9 (2.9) 6.7 Abstinence 0.0 0.3 (0.0) 0.1 Other 1.2 3.0 (0.0) 1.7 Don't know/Missing 10.1 13.8 (28.2) 12.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 722 325 35 1082 ( ) Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 cases. 49 CHAPTER5 ABORTIONS AND STILLBIRTHS Ayse Akin Dervi~o~lu Gill ErgOr In this chapter, the fertility outcomes that have not been discussed in previous chapters--induced abortions, spontaneous abortions, and stillbirths--will be addressed. Greater emphasis will be placed on induced abortions due to the importance of its effects on health and fertility. Although stillbirths and spontaneous abortions are important indicators of prenatal care and maternal health, induced abortions have significance for family planning services. Abortions have been used as a method of birth control over the years, despite the fact that they were hazardous and/or illegal. Induced abortion is a worldwide problem in women's health. Illegal abortion is a major cause of death among women of reproductive age in developing countries. The aim of family planning is to eliminate unwanted pregnancies. However, lack of access to contraception or non-use of contraception due to psychosocial factors or the failure of a contraceptive method may result in an unwanted pregnancy and 'may lead women to resort to induced abortion. Legalizing abortion provides safe conditions to terminate unwanted pregnancies. In May 1983, the new population planning law was accepted, by which Turkey chose to provide safe, equally available abortion for every women who needs the service. The new law introduced the following innovations: Legalized induced abortion on request during the first ten weeks of gestation Provided for pregnancy termination by a trained General Practitioner under the supervision of an ob/gyn specialist Legalized surgical contraception on request for both sexes Authorized trained nurse-midwives to provide effective contraceptive methods like IUD insertion Further emphasized the importance of intersectoral collaboration and cooperation for successful Family Planning activities. It was a comprehensive law in that it aimed to increase contraceptive use. After 1983, induced abortions have been performed at government hospitals for a nominal fee. The private sector also provides abortion services for a fee. In the 1993 TDHS, women were asked if they had had any abortions, miscarriages or stillbirths and if so, how many. If these events took place since 1988 the dates were also marked on the calendar section of the questionnaire. Information was also collected on the duration of the pregnancy in months before the abortion, the provider of the abortion, and the reason for the last abortion. 51 5.1 Abortion and Stillbirth Prevalence Abortion rates are calculated in three different ways, by dividing the number of abortions by the number of women in a specified time period and multiplying by 100 (per 100 women), by dividing the number of abortions by the number of pregnancies in the same time period and multiplying by 100 (per 100 pregnancies), and by dividing the number of abortions by the number of live births in the same time period and multiplying by 100 (per 100 live births). The total abortion rates show a slight decrease since 1990 as can be seen in the values for the induced abortions rather than the spontaneous abortions (Table 5.1). The decrease is from 21 per 100 pregnancies in 1990 to 18 in 1992. The low rates for 1988 and 1989 may be due to recall bias, i.e., they belong to a date further in the past. The spontaneous abortion rates were between 5 to 11 per 100 pregnancies during the same time period. The stillbirth incidence, between 1.1 and 1.9, did not show a trend in the five years before the survey. At the time of the survey, respondents reported that 13 of 100 pregnancies ended in induced abortions, 8 pregnancies ended in spontaneous abortions and 2 pregnancies ended in stillbirths. Table 5.1 Abortions and stillbirths Induced and spontaneous abortions and stillbirths per 100 pregnancies, 1988-1992, Turkey 1993 1992 1991 1990 1989 1988 Total I Induced abortion 17.9 18.0 20.6 15.7 12.9 13.4 Spontaneous abortion 10.8 8.9 9.1 6.0 4.7 8.3 Stillbirth 1.1 1.9 1.2 1.8 1.6 1.6 IThis category reflects the induced and spontaneous abortions and stillbirths per 100 pregnancies that women have had at the time of the survey. Table 5.2 shows the abortion rates calcu- lated up to the time of the survey. There have been 17 induced abortions per 100 live births and 52 induced abortions per 100 women, compared to 10 spontaneous abortions per 100 live births and 31 spontaneous abortions per 100 women. Table 5.2 also shows the abortion rates for the three years preceding the survey, There were 29 total abortions for 100 pregnancies, of which 18 were induced and 11 were spontaneous. Out of 100 women, 9 women had induced abor- tions and 5 women had spontaneous abortions in the same time period. In terms of live births there have been 25 induced abortions and 15 spontane- ous abortions per 100 live births. Abortion rates for the year preceding the survey are given at the end of Table 5.2. Table 5.2 Total abortion rates Total, induced, and spontaneous abortions per 100 women, 100 pregnancies, and 100 live births, Turkey 1993 Number of abortions per 100: Live Women Pregnancies births Total Total abortions 83.8 21.4 27.6 Induced abortions 52.4 13.4 17.2 Spontaneous abortions 31.4 8.0 10.3 Three years preceding Total abortions 13.8 28.5 40.3 Induced abortions 8.7 17.9 25.4 Spontaneous abortions 5.1 10.5 14.9 One year preceding Total abortions 5.4 29.4 42.4 Induced abortions 3.3 17.9 25.8 Spontaneous abortions 2.1 11.5 16~6 52 5.2 Abortions and Stillbirths by Selected Background Characteristics The induced abortion rates according to region differ considerably from East to West. As seen in Table 5.3 the abortion rates per 100 pregnancies are almost twice as high in the Central, Southern and Northern regions, and almost three times as high in the West as the abortion rate for the East. A similar gap is seen between the rural and urban areas, where induced abortions are nearly twice as high as in the rural areas. Induced abortions per 100 pregnancies increase steadily by age, reaching the highest level in the 45-49 age group with 48 abortions. This pattern differs from the 1988 TDHS, where the highest abortion rate was seen in the 35-39 age group. The effect of education is similar to that of 1988, with the abortion rate increasing with the level of education, from 14 in the least educated group to 23 in the secondary or higher educated group. Table 5.3 Induced abortion and stillbirths Induced abortions and stillbirths per 100 women, per 100 pregnancies according to background characteristics in the five years preceding the survey, Turkey 1993 Background characteristics Induced Stillbirths abortions per per 100 100 100 100 women pregnancies women pregnancies Region West 16.3 24.9 1.0 1.5 South 13.1 16.3 1.2 1.4 Central 15.4 19.8 1.1 1.4 North 13.7 17.0 1.1 1.4 East 9.5 8.7 1.9 1.7 Residence Urban 16.5 21.3 1.1 1.4 Rural 10.2 13.4 1.3 1.6 Age of woman 15-19 2.3 3.5 0.2 0.3 20-24 8.7 6.7 1.7 1.3 25-29 17.4 13.9 1.8 1.4 30-34 21.1 23.8 0.9 1.0 35-39 20,0 34.7 1.8 3.1 40-44 11.3 37.8 0.6 1.9 45-49 5.0 48.4 0.3 3.0 Education No ¢duc./Pri. ineomp. 11.2 13.9 1.5 1.9 Pri. eomp./Sec, incomp. 15.4 19.4 1.1 1.4 See. comp./+ 17.2 22.6 0.9 1.2 Total 14.3 17.9 1.2 1.5 There have been 1.5 stillbirths per 100 pregnancies and 1.2 stillbirths per 100 women in the last five years preceding the survey. There are slightly more stillbirths in the East than in the West. The rural and urban differences are not very pronounced. Stillbirths definitely increase after age 35 to 2 or 3 stillbirths per 100 pregnancies. There are more stillbirths in the group that has never attended school or did not complete primary school than in the higher educated groups. 53 As seen in Table 5.4, overall 72 percent of women have not had an abortion throughout their lives (by the time of the survey), whereas 15 percent had one abortion, 8 percent had two abortions and 6 percent had three or more abortions. As the number of living children increases, the percent of women who had an abortion increases as well as the number of abortions a woman has had. Looking at the abortions according to the desired number of children, the highest percentage of abortions is seen among the women who desire only one child, followed by the women who desire two children. "Fable 5,4 Induced abortions throughout life of a woman Percent distribution of ever-married women by number of induced abortions, according to number of living children and desired number of children. Turkey 1993 Number of induced abortions None I 2 3+ Total Number Living children None 96.7 2.7 0.2 (1.4 100.0 623 1 87.2 9.4 2.1 1.3 100.0 I 117 2 68.0 17.9 9.0 5.1 100.0 1838 3+ 63.6 17.8 10.4 8.2 100.0 2941 Desired children None 77.2 12.1 6.8 3.9 100.0 59 I 70.6 17.0 8.3 4. t 100.0 426 2 71.6 15.2 7.9 5.3 100.0 391 I 3+ 73.0 14.1 6.8 6.1 100.0 2006 Other 72.8 12.1 10.1 5.0 100.0 117 Total 72.0 14.9 7.6 5.5 100.0 6519 5.3 Contraceptive Use Before and After Induced Abort ions Abortions result from either a failure to use contraceptives or a failure to u~e them effectively. The distribution of women according to the contraceptive method they used in the month preceding the abortion is shown in Table 5.5. In the past five years, 34 percent of women who had an abortion were not using any method whereas 45 percent were using withdrawal one month before the last abortion. The high percentage of withdrawal users among the women who chose to have an abortion implies motivation to control their fertility, but unfortunately the method they have chosen is ineffective. Among the women who terminated their pregnancy with an induced abortion, 6 percent were using condoms, 5 percent the IUD, and 4 percent the pill. "Fable 5.5 Method used before abortion Method used within one month before pregnancy for the last abortion and belbre pregnancy for all abortions reported in the five years preceding the survey, Turkey 1993 Last All Method abortion abortions Pill 4.2 4.6 IUD 4.7 4.3 Diaphragm/Foam/Jelly 2,7 2.8 Condom 5.5 5.6 Periodic abstinence 2.6 2.5 Withdrawal 45.1 44.7 Other 1.4 1.2 No method 33.8 34.3 Total 100.0 100.0 Number 799 929 54 Table 5.6 shows the aftermath of abortion in terms of method use. The time during an abortion certainly is an opportunity to offer counseling for effective contraceptive use. However, this seems to be a missed opportunity for health care providers, since 39 percent of women who had an abortion do not use any method one month after an abortion and 27 percent use withdrawal. Effective methods practiced with in one month after an abortion include the IUD (11 percent), the pill (9 percent), and the condom (9 percent). It is interesting to look at the women who used withdrawal and the nonusers, since they account for most of the women who had an abortion. Table 5.7 shows that more than half of the women who were nonusers who had an abortion are still not using any method in the first month after the abortion, only 11 percent started using the pill, 11 percent started using IUD, 8 percent started using the condom, and 12 percent started to use withdrawal. Table 5.6 Method used after abortion Method used within one month after last abortion and after all abortions reported in the five years preceding the survey, Turkey 1993 Last All Method abortion abortions Pill 9.1 9.2 IUD 1 I. I 9.9 Diaphragm/Foam/Jelly 1.6 2.1 Condom 9.3 8.8 Female sterilisation 0.5 0.5 Periodic abstinence 1.3 1.5 Withdrawal 26.8 27.6 Other 1.5 1.7 No method 38.8 38.7 Total 100.0 100.0 Number 799 929 Among the withdrawal users who had an abortion 43 percent continued to use withdrawal and 32 percent were not using any method. Only 10 percent started to use the IUD, 5 percent the pill and 7 percent the condom after the abortion. "Fable 5.7 Method used after abortion and past use Method used within I month before last abortion and method used within one month after last abortion in the five years preceding the survey, Turkey 1993 Method used one month after the abortion Peri- Method used Female odic in the month Dia- Con- sterili- absti- With- No before abortion Pill IUD phragm dom sation nence drawal Other method Total Number Pill (30.3) (21.3) (0.0) (12.0) (0.0) (0.0) (7.5) (0.0) (28.9) 100.0 33 IUD (18.6) (17.6) (0.0) (11.6) (0.0) (0.0) (22.6) (0.0) (29.6) 100.0 38 Diaphragm/Foam/Jelly * * * * * * * * * 100.0 22 Condom (7.1) (5.1) (0.0) (39.5) (0.0) (2.2) (14.1) (0.0) (32.0) 100.0 44 Periodic abstinence * * * * * * * * * 100.0 2 I Withdrawal 4.9 10.4 O.S 7.3 0.3 0.0 43.4 1.4 31.5 100.0 360 No method I1.1 10.7 0.9 7.7 1.2 0.0 12.2 2.4 53.8 100.0 270 Total 9.1 I1.1 1.6 9.3 0.5 1.3 26.8 1.5 38.8 I00.0 788 a aEleven women who were using "other" methods in the month before the abortion are not included in this table. ( ) Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 eases. * Less than 25 cases 5.4 Reasons for Induced Abortion Reasons for having an abortion for the last abortion a woman had are shown in Table 5.8. The most reported reason was not wanting any more children (58 percent). Socioeconomic reasons followed with 17 percent, physician's recommendation with 12 percent and recently ended a previous pregnancy accounted for 8 percent. 55 Table 5.8 Reasons for induced abortion Reason for last induced abortion among women who have at least one induced abortion, Turkey 1993 Reasons for induced abortion Previous Doctor Did not pregnancy Background recom- Socio- want just characteristics mended economic another ended Other t Total Number Region West 10.0 19.2 56.9 8.2 5.7 100.0 742 South 15.9 12.7 54.7 12.1 4.6 100.0 248 Central 10.6 15.6 60.6 7.4 5.8 100.0 393 North 12.2 18.1 61.0 5.5 4.2 100.0 145 East 22.4 13.1 55.1 4.5 4.9 100.0 171 Residence Urban 12.2 18.6 55.1 8.7 5.4 100.0 1269 Rural 13.4 I1.1 64.6 5.8 5.1 100.0 430 Age of woman 15-19 * * * * * 100.0 6 20-24 12.9 25.3 36.0 14.2 11.6 100.0 86 25-29 13.3 19.9 43.3 15.9 7.6 100.0 239 30-34 12.7 16.7 58.0 9.2 3.4 100.0 390 35-39 9.7 16.8 64.7 4.6 4.2 100.0 403 40-44 14.2 12.8 60.1 6.6 6.3 100.0 342 45-49 12.5 15.9 64.4 3.4 3.8 100.0 233 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 16.7 12.7 61.8 4.5 4.3 100.0 515 Pri. comp./Sec, incomp. 11.0 18.0 55.5 8.9 6.6 100.0 876 See. comp./+ 9.5 19.7 55.8 I I.I 3.9 100.0 308 Total 12.4 16.7 57.5 8.0 5.4 100.0 1699 qncludes missing values, which are 4.3.percent of the total * Less than 25 cases There were some regional differences in the reasons for abortions. In the East, physician's recommendation was 22 percent, the highest of all the other regions, which is probably due to the high number of pregnancies a woman has. In the South the short time interval seemed to be a more important factor to end a pregnancy than in the other regions. In the urban areas socioeconomic factors and birth spacing were the more important reasons, while in rural areas not wanting any more children was reported more. As the age of the woman increased, the main reason for having the last induced abortion was "not wanting any more children." Socioeconomic reasons were reported more frequently by the younger age groups. Until age 30 between 12-16 percent of pregnancies were terminated because of a recent pregnancy. Socioeconomic reasons and child spacing are perceived more as a reason to have an abortion among the higher educated women. Among the uneducated, 17 percent report physician's recommendation as a reason for their abortion and 62 percent report that they did not want a0y more children. 56 5.5 Timing of Induced Abortions Although abortions are legal for up to 10 weeks of pregnancy (2.5 months), it is safer for a woman to have an abortion as early as possible. Table 5.9 shows the distribution of women with recent induced abortions by number of months of pregnancy at the time of the abortion, according to region and place of residence. Overall, 44 percent of abortions took place in the first month, 31 percent in the second month, 13 percent in the third month and 12 percent in the fourth or later months of pregnancy, which shows that at least 12 percent of the induced abortions were performed beyond the legal limits. This is especially noticeable in the East, where one fourth of abortions were done after the legal limits. These statistics may reflect a delay in access to health services. Urban-rural differences are also more apparent for the abortions after the third month of pregnancy. Notice that 11 percent of induced abortions were carried out after the third month in the urban areas, where access to health care should be easier, compared with 16 percent in the rural areas. Table 5.9 Timing of induced abortion Percent distribution of women with recent induced abortions by number of months of pregnancy, according to place of residence, Turkey 1993 Number of months pregnant Background characteristic 1 2 3 4+ Missing Total Number Region West 51.5 29.5 10.5 8.5 0.0 I00.0 508 South 38.8 33.6 14.6 12,6 0.4 100.0 191 Central 46.8 31.0 11.4 10.8 0,0 100.0 327 North 40.6 38.2 10.8 10.4 0.0 100.0 129 East 25.8 29.2 19.5 25.5 0.0 100.0 208 Residence Urban 47.2 29.9 12.0 10.8 0.1 100.0 946 Rural 35.5 34.1 14.4 16.0 0.0 100.0 417 Total 43.6 31.2 12.7 12.4 0.1 100.0 1363 This issue might be better explained when the abortion provider is taken into consideration. Table 5.10 shows that 67 percent of abortions were performed by private physicians and 27 percent by physicians in government hospitals. Although it differs by region, the private physician's share is not lower than 64 percent in any region. The percentage for physicians at government hospitals is the highest in the Western region, followed by the Central and Eastern regions. There are no marked urban and rural differences in terms of the place where the abortion service is provided. Three percent of unsafe induced abortions are performed either by the woman herself or by a nurse-midwife. Table 5.10 Abortion providers Percent distribution of women who used induced abortion to terminate their pregnan- cies during the last five years, by provider, according to place of residence, Turkey 1993 Self/ Physician Background Nurse- (gov't. Physician characteristic midwife hospital) (private) Missing Total Number Region West 1.0 32.7 64.3 2,0 100.0 379 South 7. I 17.6 73.5 1.8 100.0 13 I Central 2.7 30.2 64.9 2.2 100.0 234 North 4.3 14.6 78.1 2,9 100.0 84 East 5.0 24.7 67.0 3.3 100.0 I 01 Residence Urban 2. I 28.6 67.4 1.9 100.0 69 I Rural 5.2 24.2 67.2 3.4 100.0 238 Total 2.9 27.4 67.4 2.3 100.0 929 58 CHAPTER 6 PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY Banu Akadh Erg6fmen The principal factors other than contraception that affect a woman's risk of becoming pregnant, namely, nuptiality, postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence from sexual relations, and secondary infertility, are addressed in this chapter. The nuptiality data collection procedure in the TDHS differs in various ways from the standard DHS questionnaire. In the TDHS, the nuptiality questions are after the fertility section and questions on recent sexual activity are not included because of the difficulty in addressing these questions to women. Instead there are some additional questions about family formation, religious marriages, and consanguinity. Although it is by no means always true, marriage is an indicator of exposure of women to the risk of pregnancy; therefore it is important for the understanding of fertility. Populations in which age at marriage is low also tend to experience early childbearing and high fertility. Trends in the age at which women marry can help to explain the trends in fertility levels. Measures of other proximate determinants of fertility are the durations of postpartum amenorrhoea and postpartum abstinence, and the level of secondary infertility. In the TDHS, only women 15-49 who had ever been married were interviewed with the Individual Questionnaire. However, some tables presented in this chapter are based on all women, i.e., on both ever- married and never-married women. In constructing these tables, the number of ever-married women interviewed in the survey is multiplied by an inflation factor that is equal to the ratio of all women to ever- married women interviewed as reported in the Household Questionnaire. With this procedure the denominators are expanded to represent all women. The inflation factors are calculated by single years of age and, where the results are presented by background characteristics, single-year inflation factors are calculated separately for each category of the characteristic. 6.1 Current Marital Status Current marital status at the time of the survey is shown in Table 6.1 and Figure 6.1. Overall, 65 percent are currently married, ~ 2 percent are widowed, 1 percent are divorced and 33 percent have never been married. In Turkey, marriage is almost universal. By the end of the reproductive years, only 1 percent of women have never married. The universality of marriage is also evident from the fact that among women age 30 and over, 96 percent or more are, or have been, married. The percentage of never married women declines rapidly with age, decreasing almost by half, from 87 percent among teenagers to 42 percent among women in their early twenties. As expected, tbe proportion of widows increases with age, from less than 1 percent of women under age 30 to 7 percent among women age 45-49. The percentage of divorced women is very low and women who are not living with their husbands are even less common than the divorced group. ~The term married refers both to "currently married" and "currently in union." 59 Table 6.1 Current marital status Percent distribution of women by current marital status, according to age, Turkey 1993 Marital status Number Never Not living of Age married Married Widowed Divorced together Total women 15-19 86.5 13.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 2460 20-24 41.5 57.7 0.1 0.4 0.3 100.0 1777 25-29 15.6 82.9 0.6 0.6 0.3 100.0 1436 30-34 4.3 93.5 1.0 1.0 0.2 100.0 1340 35-39 1.8 93.9 2.6 1.4 0.3 100.0 1093 40-44 2.2 90.5 5.2 1.9 0.2 100.0 921 45-49 0.9 89.6 7.0 1.7 0.8 100.0 685 Total 32.9 64.6 1.5 0.8 0.2 100.0 9712 Figure 6.1 Current Marital Status Percent 100 80 60 40 20 0 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age TDHS 1993 6.2 Marital Exposure Table 6.2 presents marital exposure to the risk of pregnancy. The table is based on the information collected in the calendar. Therefore it shows the percentage of months in the five years before the survey spent in a marital union and incorporates the effects of age at first marriage, marital dissolution, and remarriage. The table shows variations in exposure by age and background characteristics of women. 60 Table 6.2 Marital exposure Percentage of time spent in marital union in the five years preceding the survey by age and selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Age at time of survey Background characteristic 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total Residence Urban 5.3 41.1 76.3 93.0 93.0 90.6 89.1 60.4 Rural 3.3 39.2 75.5 92.4 95.8 94.8 93.8 50.7 Region West 4.2 39.1 74.1 92.1 92.3 90.2 89.5 61.6 South 4.8 36.5 66.4 88.9 93.0 92.5 87.4 56.1 Central 5.0 43.1 80.9 95.3 93.5 92.3 93.8 60.8 North 6.6 37.6 81.1 90.2 96.0 91.8 92.3 63.3 East 5.9 44.4 81.5 95.0 96.8 95.3 92.1 53.0 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 13.4 57.6 85.4 94.0 95.4 92.2 94.0 81.4 Pri. comp./Sec, ineomp. 5.3 43.9 78.8 93.8 94.9 93.1 87.6 54.8 Sec. comp./+ I.I 23.1 61.5 87.8 86.2 87.1 83.1 40.7 Total 4.8 40.4 76.0 92.7 93.9 91.8 90.9 58.3 Overall, women in Turkey were in marital unions for 58 percent of the time during the five years preceding the survey. The percentage of months spent married varies by age. Younger women spent less t ime in marriage than older women, because a large proportion were not yet married. The percentage of months spent married increases to 94 percent among women age 35-39 and then declines. This pattern reflects marital dissolution among women age 40 and above, mostly through widowhood, since divorce is less common. There are significant differences in marital exposure between regions. These differences are more marked in the younger age groups, indicating differences in the pace of entry into marriage. For example, women age 20-24 in the Southern region spent 37 percent of the months in the five years preceding the survey in marital union, compared to 44 percent among women in the same age group in the Eastern region. In the 25-29 age group similar differences are observed between the regions. With respect to residential variation, the percentage of months spent married is unexpectedly lower among rural women than among women living in urban areas up to age 35. After this age, a reversed pattern is observed, with rural women spending a higher percentage of months married. There are also large differences in marital exposure by the woman's level of education. T ime spent in marital union decreases as the level of education increases. Overall, women with no education spent 81 percent of the months in the five years preceding the survey in marital union, whereas women with secondary and more education spent half of that time in marital union (41 percent). 61 6.3 Age at First Marriage In Turkey, marriage is almost universal and almost all births occur within marriage. Therefore, age at first marriage is an important demographic indicator since it represents the beginning of exposure to the risk of pregnancy. An increase in age at first marriage across cohorts is clearly observed in Table 6.3. Comparison of percentages across age groups indicates an increasing age at first marriage. The percentages at each specific marriage age are all lower for the younger age groups than for the older age groups. For example, among women age 45-49, 68 percent married by age 20, whereas only 50 percent of women age 25-29 married by age 20. Getting married at very young ages is becoming less common. For example, 13 percent of women age 45-49 got married by age 15, whereas only 5 percent of the 20-24 age group did so. The median age at first marriage is 19 years when women 25-49 are considered. However, a steady increase is observed in the median age at first marriage, ranging from 18.3 years for the 45-49 age group to 20.0 years for the 25-29 age group. This implies that half of women age 25-29 marry after age 20. 'Fable 6.3 Age at first marriage Percentage of women who were first married by exact age 15, 18, 20, 22. and 25, and median age at first marriage, according Io current age, Turkey 1993 Current age 15 18 20 22 Percentage of women who were Percentage Median first married by exact age: who had Number age at never of lirst 25 married women marriage 15-19 1.8 NA NA NA NA 86.5 2460 a 20-24 4.7 23.3 41.1 NA NA 41.5 1777 a 25-29 7.5 29.2 49.9 63.7 78.3 15.6 1436 20.0 30-34 6.8 38.0 58.8 74.6 86.9 4.3 1340 19.0 35-39 9.1 43.1 66.5 79.3 90.8 1.8 1093 18.6 40-44 12.(1 44.8 66.4 82. I 91.7 2.2 921 18.5 45-49 12.9 45.4 67.8 82.0 91.9 0.9 685 18.3 20-49 8.0 35.0 55.7 69.7 79.9 14.7 7252 19.4 25-49 9.1 38.8 60.4 74.9 86.8 6.0 5475 19.0 NA = Not applicable aomitted because less than 50 percent o1" the women in the age group x to x+4 were first married by age x Differences in the median age at first marriage among women age 25-49 by residence, region, and education can be examined in Table 6.4. There is little variation in median age at first marriage by residence. Rural women marry slightly earlier than their urban counterparts (18.4 and 19.3, respectively). Itowever, substantial differences are observed in median age at first marriage by region. The lowest median age, 18.0, is found in the East and the highest, 19.6, in the West, indicating that women in the East marry nearly two years earlier than women in the West. The median ages at first marriage for the Western and Southern regions are higher than the median age for Turkey overall. Marked differences in age at first marriage are observed by educational level of women. Among women age 25-49, there is a five-year difference in the median age at first marriage between those who never attended school and those who completed at least the secondary level (Figure 6.2). For women with either 62 Table 6.4 Median age at first marriage Median age at first marriage among women age 25-49 years, by current age and selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Current age Women Background age characteristic 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 25-49 Residence Urban 20.3 19.5 18.8 18.7 18.8 19.3 Rural 19.5 18.3 18.2 18.0 17.6 18.4 Region West 21.0 19.8 19.4 189 18.8 19.6 South 20.8 19.8 18.8 18.7 18.8 19.5 Central 19.1 18.5 18.1 17.8 18.0 18.3 North 20.1 18.8 18.5 18.4 18.0 18.9 East 18.7 17.9 17.5 18.0 16.8 18.0 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 18.0 17.6 17.5 17.7 17.6 17.6 Pri. comp./Sec, ineomp. 19.8 18.9 18.6 18.5 18.7 19.0 Sec. comp./+ 23.3 22.2 22.5 22.3 22.1 22.6 Total 20.0 19.0 18.6 18.5 18.3 19.0 Note: Medians are not shown ['or women 15-19 and 20-24 because less than 50 percent have married by age 15 and 20 in all subgroups shown in the table. Figure 6.2 Median Age at First Marriage among Women Age 25-49 by Background Characteristics Median Age 24 22 1. iiiiiii!ili! . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii . .i!iiiiiiii!iii./, . 16 ~ .~ilili~iiii!.,,,. r------ Urban Rural Wasl SoulhCentralNorth East No ~Oue. Prl,eomp. ne©. Iprl. Iseo. camp, + Inoomp, Incomp. RESIDENCE REGION EDUCATION TDNS 1993 63 primary school education or at least secondary level education, tbere is an upward trend in tbe median age at first marriage from older cohorts to yotmger ones. Among tbese women entry into marriage seems to be delayed by one year. The increase in the median age at first marriage across coborts observed for women wbo have no education is not as great as tbr tbe other education groups. 6.4 Postpartum Amenorrhoea, Postpartum Abstinence, and Insusceptibility Postpartum protection from conception can be prolonged by two Ihctors: breastfceding and sexual abstinence. Breastfeeding lengthens the duration of amenorrhoea (menstruation has not yet returned) and postpartum abstinence delays the resumption of sexual relations. Women are defined as insusceptible if they are not exposed to tbe risk of pregnancy, either because lhey are amenorrhoeic or abstaining following a birth. The estimates lbr postpartunt amenorrhoea, postpartum abstinence, and insusceptibility are based on current status measures, that is, tbe proportion of birtbs at each time period bclbrc the survey Ibr whicb the mothers are still amenorrhoeic, abstaining, or insusceptible at the time of the survey. The percentage of births whose molbers are postpartum amenorrhoeic, abstaining, and postpartum insusceptible is presented in "Fable 6.5 by the number of months since the birth. Tbe median and mean duration estimates are calculated from the current status proportions at each time period. "File data are grouped by two-month intervals to minimize thc fluctuations in the estimates. lahl¢ 6.5 I'llstpanum anlcm)rrhoca, abstinence ;rod insusccplihiLit,t Percentage of births ~.~ hose n/olhcrs arc poslpartunl anlcllorrho¢ic, abstaining and insusceptible, h 3 nunlbcr O]'lTIOlllhs 5;illc¢ birth, kind incdian and nlcan durations. l u rkc ) 1993 Number Monlhs ii1" since hirlh Alncnorrrhocic Abstaining Insusceptible billhs • 2 911.2 83.2 95 6 98 2-3 64.2 18.6 69.3 [ 39 4-5 396 3.6 41.6 131 6-7 21.9 4.11 254 150 8-9 14.9 00 149 1,12 10-11 138 I)6 144 II(I 12-13 46 I I 56 154 14-15 78 (10 78 120 16-17 3.5 I I 47 I I0 18-19 1 3 0.0 I 3 137 20-21 O0 2.3 2 3 112 22-23 36 I.I 47 116 24-25 (10 (I.6 0 6 129 26-27 I I I) 0 I I 116 28-29 00 15 I 5 124 30-31 0.(I 00 0(I 12 I 32-33 0.0 13 I 3 81 34-35 0.0 00 0.0 121 Total 148 58 162 2211 Mcdiim 37 19 40 NA Mean 5.6 2 7 6 1 NA Prewllencc/ Incidence mean 5.2 2.1 5.7 NA NA - Not applicable 64 "File estimates in Table 6.5 indicate that 15 percent of the mothers have not resumed menstruation and 6 percent have not resumed sexual relations. If the two conditions are combined, 16 percent of births are to women who arc insusceptible to the risk of pregnancy. The mean duration of amenorrboea is about 6 rnonths and the mean duration of abstinence is about 3 months. The median durations are 4 months and 2 months, respectively. The period of postpartum ameuorrhoea is considerably longer than tile period of postpartum abstinence and is the major determinant of the length of the period of postpartum insusceptibility to pregnancy for Turkish women. Ninety percent of women are amenorrhoeic immediately following the delivery, but this value decreases to 64 percent 2-3 months after birth and to slightly more than 20 percent 6-7 months alter birth (Figure 6.3). In Turkey, traditionally there is a period of sexual abstinence after birth that lasts 40 days. Tile estimates in Table 6.5 are in accordance with this tradition. Eighty-three percent of mothers abstain from sexual relations immediately following a birth. At 2-3 months following a birth, the percentage of mothers abstaining decreases to 19 percent and by 6-7 months only 4 percent of mothers have not yet resumed sexual relations. Figure 6.3 Percentage of Births Whose Mothers Are Amenorrhoeic, Abstaining or Insusceptible Percent 100 , 90- - 69 49 2O 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 11 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 39 32 34 Months since Birth TDHS 1993 Table 6.6 shows the median durations of postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence, and insusceptibility by background characteristics of mothers. In the absence of contraception, variations in postpart,m amenorrhoea and abstinence are the most important determinants of the interval between births and, ultimately, of completed fertility. In some populations differentials across subgroups in the duration of postpartum amenorrhoea and abstinence also may indicate incipient changes in traditional postpartum practices. Average durations of postpartum abstinence in "Fable 6.6 do not vary greatly according to the background characteristics of women, tlowever, some variation is observed in the durations of postpartum 65 Table 6.6 Median duration of postpartum abstinence and insusceptibility by background characteristics Median number of months of postpartum amenorrhoea, postpartum abstinence, and postpartum insusceptibility, by selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Postpartum Number Background Postpartum Postpartum insusccp- of characteristic amenorrhoca abstinence tibility women Age <30 3.4 1.8 3.8 1584 30+ 4,8 1,9 4.9 627 Residence Urban 3.7 1.7 4.0 1311 Rural 3.7 2.0 4.0 900 Region West 3.1 1.4 3.3 596 South 3.3 2.0 3.7 338 Central 4.1 2.0 4.9 485 North 2.8 2, I 3.2 22 I East 4.6 1.9 4.9 571 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 4.9 2.0 5.3 759 I'ri. comp./Sec, incomp. 3.2 1,8 3.4 1145 See. comp./+ 3.4 1.7 3.8 307 Total 3.7 1.9 4.0 2211 Note: Medians are based on current status. amenorrhoea by age, region, and level of education. For example, older women, women living in the East, and women with less than primary education have the longest median durations for postparttml amenorrhoea. It is noteworthy that the shortest duration for postpartum amenorrhoea, 2.8 months, is found in the Northeru region. The differentials in the median durations of postpartum insusceptibility reflect the combined effects ofamenorrhoea and abstinence, but follow a pattern similar to that ofamenorrhoea. In general, women over 30, women living in the Central and Eastern regions, and women with no education are insusceptible for relatively longer periods. 6.5 Terminat ion of Exposure to Pregnancy Later in life, the risk of pregnancy begins to decline with age, particularly beginning around age 30. Table 6.7 presents the indicators of decreasing exposure to the risk of pregnancy for women age 30 and above, menopause and terminal infertility. 66 Table 6.7 Termination of exposure to the risk of pregnancy Indicators of menopause and terminal infertility among currently married wolaen age 30-49, by age, Turkey 1993 Terminal Menopause i infertilityZ Age Percentage Number Percentage Number 30-34 0.6 1118 32.0 157 35-39 2.7 980 58.8 156 40-41 5.1 362 64.1 99 42-43 9.6 325 79.1 87 44-45 18.1 304 86.6 108 46-47 27.6 255 90.3 97 48-49 42.5 181 95.9 90 Total 8. I 3525 68.2 794 Ipercentage of non-pregnant, non-amenorrhoeic currently married women whose last menstrual period occurred six or more months preceding the survey or who report that they are menopausal. 2Percentage of women continuously married and not using contraception during the five years preceding the survey who did not have a birth during the period and who are not pregnant. Menopausal women include women who are neither pregnant nor postpartum amenorrhoeic, but who have not had a menstrual period in the six months preceding the survey. The second indicator of infecundity is obtained from a demonstrated lack of fertility. A woman is considered terminally infertile if she was continuously married for the five years preceding the survey, did not use contraception, did not give birth in that time, and is not currently pregnant. The percentage of women in menopause increases gradually with age, rising rapidly after age 44. At age 48-49, 43 percent of women are menopausal. The same pattern is observed for terminal infertility. At the end of the reproductive age, 96 percent of women are terminally infertile. 67 CHAFFER 7 FERTILITY PREFERENCES *o Turgay Unalan In the TDHS, several questions were asked to ascertain women's fertility preferences: their desire to have another child, the length of time they wanted to wait before having that child, and the number of children they would want if they could start afresh. The resulting data make the quantification of fertility preferences possible and, in combination with information on contraceptive use, allow us to estimate the demand for family planning, either to space or to limit births. The first two questions were asked of nonsterilised, currently married women; the question to ascertain ideal family size was asked of all women. Interpretation of data on fertility preferences has always been the subject of controversy. Survey questions have been criticized on the grounds that answers are misleading because a) they reflect unformed, ephemeral views, which are held with weak intensity and little conviction; and b) they do not take into account the effect of social pressures or the attitudes of other family members, particularly the husband, who may exert a major influence on reproductive decisions. Overall, however, the data on fertility preferences provide an indicator of the direction that future fertility will take, as well as an assessment of the need for family planning and the extent of unwanted fertility. 7.1 Desire for More Children In order to obtain information on future childbearing, currently married women were asked: "Would you like to have another child or would you prefer not to have any more children ?" If they did indeed want another child, they were asked: "How long would you like to wait from now before the birth of another child?" These questions were appropriately phrased if the woman had not yet had any children; if the woman was pregnant, she was asked about her desire following the arrival of the baby she was expecting. Figure 7.1 shows the percent distribution of currently married women by their intention to have more children and Table 7.1 shows the distribution according to the number of living children. Approximately I out of every 10 currently married women indicate that they wanted another child soon, 14 percent of women want another child later, and 70 percent want no more children (including 3 percent who have been sterilised). The proportion of currently married women who want another child decreases rapidly as the number of living children increases. For instance, 78 percent of women with no living children want to have a child soon, whereas less than 1 percent of women with 6 or more living children want another child soon. Conversely, the proportion wanting no more children varies from 2 percent among women with no living children, to 88 percent of women with at least 6 children. The table indicates a considerable interest it] controlling fertility, and therefore a potential demand for family planning services for spacing as well as for limiting births. The percent distribution of currently married women by desire for children according to age is shown it] Table 7.2. The desire to space births is concentrated among young women (under age 25). Interest in limiting child bearing increases rapidly with age; 15 percent of currently married women age 15-19 want no more children, whereas more than 80 percent of those age 30-44 and 75 percent of those age 45-49 want to stop childbearing. 69 Figure 7.1 Fertility Preferences among Currently Married Women Age 15-49 Want no more* ~,n~. ln fecund 4% Undec ided 3% Iant soon z years 10% Want la ter >- -2 years 14% * Inc ludes s ter l l l sed TDHS 1993 Table 7.1 Fertility preference by number of living children Percent distribution of currently married women by desire for more children, according to number of living children, Turkey 1993 Number of living children I Desire for more children 0 I 2 3 4 5 6+ Total Have another soon 2 77.5 15.5 3.9 2,4 0.7 1.2 0.7 9.7 Have another later 3 8.9 56.0 8.7 2.3 1.4 0.8 1.7 13.9 Have another, undecided when 2.1 I,I 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.0 0.6 Undecided 0.0 4.6 3.2 1.5 0.6 0.1 0.6 2.2 Wants no more 2.0 20.0 78.3 86.6 85.8 86.9 88.3 66.8 Sterilised 0.0 0.7 2.6 3.9 5.4 6.0 2.9 2.9 Declared infecund 9.5 2.1 2.9 2.9 5.8 4.5 5.8 3.9 Missing 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 413 1t l l 1850 1228 707 419 543 6271 ]Includes current pregnancy 2Wants next birth within 2 years 3Wants to delay next birth lbr 2 or more years 70 Table 7.2 Fertility preference by age Percent distribution of currently married women by desirc for more children, according to age, Turkey 1993 Age of woman l)csire lbr more children 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total I lave another soon I 29.4 19.4 12.2 8.1 4.0 1.9 0.9 9.7 Itave anolher later -~ 50.2 40.3 18.(1 4.6 1.6 0.3 0.0 13.9 I lave another, undecided when 3.1 0,7 0,3 0.8 0.4 0,2 0.0 (1.6 Undecided 2.2 4,6 4.0 2.0 0.6 (I.4 0.0 2.2 Wants no more 15. I 34.3 63.2 8(I.4 84.9 84.4 74.7 66.8 Stcrilised 0.0 0.3 1.7 3.2 4.8 4.8 5.0 2.9 Declared inl~cund 0.0 0.3 0.5 0.9 3.6 8.0 19.4 3.9 Missing 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.l 0.0 0.0 0.0 I'otal 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 10(I.0 100.(I Number 329 1026 1190 1254 1026 833 613 6271 IWants next birth within 2 years 2Wants to delay next birth for 2 or more years The desire to stop childbearing varies slightly by background characteristics of the respondent (see Table 7.3). Overall, there is only a small variation between rural and urban residence. Also, the percentage of currently married women who want no more children does not show any major regional differences. Education is negatively associated with the desire to stop childbearing. The proportion of women who want no more children decreases as the level of education increases, from 79 percent arnong uneducated women to 62 percent among women who have completed secondary school or more. Uneducated women may be more likely to want to stop childbearing because they already have more children than educated women. Table 7.3 Desire to limit (stop) childbearing Percentage of currently married women who want no more children, by number of living children and selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Number of living children t Background characteristic 0 I 2 3 4 5 6+ Total Residence Urban 2.2 22,2 81,5 91.5 91.8 91.8 92.2 68.8 Rural 1.4 17.6 79.4 88.7 90.6 94.3 90.6 71.6 Region West 1.9 25.9 86.6 93.4 90.4 90.0 (83.3) 70.6 South 3.2 17.2 77.4 87.6 88.5 97.5 90.8 68.5 Central 0.0 20.3 79.7 92.7 96.5 93.3 92.0 71.5 North 5. I 14.6 76,8 90. I 88.4 95.7 93.5 67.8 Fast 1.5 13.5 63.9 82.8 87.8 90.2 92.0 68. I Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 0,7 25.7 73,3 86.4 88.2 93.1 91, I 78.5 Pri. comp./Sec, incomp. 1.7 15,3 80.5 93.1 95,1 92.9 91.7 66.5 Sec. comp./+ 4. I 30, I 87.6 90.6 89.1 81.5 * 61.6 Total 2.0 20.8 80.9 90.5 91.2 93.0 91.2 69.8 Note: Women who have been sterilised are considered to want no more children. Ilncludes current pregnancy ( ) Figure in parentheses is based on 25-49 cases * Less than 25 cases 71 7.2 Demand for Family Planning Services ln|brmation on fertility preferences alone is not sufficient to assess the need for family planning services. Many women who do not want to have another child or who want to space the next birth are already using contraception or are not exposed to the risk of pregnancy because they are menopausal or infecund. In general, women who are currently married, and who declare either that they do not want to have any more children (they want to limit their childbearing) or that they want to wait two or more years before having another child (they want to space their births), but are not currently using contraception, have an umnet needJbr family planning. The calculation of unmet need, being a current status measure, is further refined by excluding women who are currently amenorrhoeic and, therefore, not in need of family planning at present. For an exact description of the calculation, see footnote I, "Fable 7.4. Women with unrnet need and those currently using contraception constitute the total demand fi;r family phnming. Table 7.4 Need Ibr family planning services Percentage of currently married women with unmet need lbr lamily planning, met need Ibr I~mily planning, and the total demand for i~mily planning services, by selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Met need Ibr Unmet need tbr l~mily planning Total demand Ior Percentage family planning I (currently using) 2 Ihmily planning ~ of demand Background For For For For For For sails- characteristic spacing limiting Total Spacing limiting Total spacing limiting Total lied Age 15-19 17.1 3.1 20.2 20.0 4.1 24.1 39,4 7.1 46.5 56.7 20-24 9.7 6.7 16.4 33.1 18.0 51.1 45.0 25.6 70.6 76.8 25-29 3.7 7.0 10.6 19.0 49.0 68.0 24.6 57.5 82.1 87.1 30-34 1.7 9.2 10.8 8.0 68.5 76.5 10.1 78.7 88.8 87.8 35-39 0.7 9.4 10.1 2.0 74.8 768 2.8 84.8 87.6 88.5 40-44 0.4 12.4 12.7 0.4 60.6 61.(I 0.8 73. I 73.9 82.8 45-49 0.0 g.0 8.0 0.0 41.7 41.7 0.0 49.7 49.7 83.9 Residence Urban 3.1 6.6 9.7 14.0 52.2 66.2 18.1 59.5 77.6 87.6 Rural 4.7 11.5 16.2 8.6 47.5 56.1 14.1 59.9 74.0 78.1 Region West 2.1 3.8 5.9 14.6 56.9 71.5 17.5 61.1 78.6 92.5 South 3.3 7.8 I 1.0 12.2 50.5 62.8 16.5 59.3 75.8 85.4 Central 3.2 7.4 10.6 11.4 51.3 62.7 15.6 59.6 75.2 85.9 North 3.7 7.0 10.8 12.7 51.5 64.2 17.7 59.8 77.5 86.1 East 8.0 20.7 28.7 6.9 35.3 42.3 16.0 569 73.0 60.6 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 3.9 16.4 20.3 3.3 47.1 50.4 8.0 64.4 72.4 71.9 Pri. comp./See, incomp. 3.9 4.7 8.6 14.6 52.8 67.5 19.5 58.2 77.7 88.9 Sec. comp./+ 2.3 3, I 5.3 22.7 50,3" 73.0 26.5 54.2 80.7 93.4 Total 3.7 8.4 12.0 12.0 50.5 62.6 16,7 59.7 76,3 84,2 I Unmet need for splicing ret~:rs to pregnant women whose pregnancy was mistimed, amenorrhocic women whose last birth was mistimed, and women who arc neither pregnanl nor amenorrhoeic, who are Blot using any method of lamily planning and who say they want to wait two or more years Ibr their next birth. Unmet needJor limiting rcl~rs to pregnant women whose pregnancy was unwanted, amenorrhoeic women whose last child was unwanted, and women who are neither pregnant nor amcnorrhoeic, who are not using any method of l~mily planning and ~11o want no more children, Also excluded are menopausal and inl~cund women, delined in Footnotes I and 2 in Table 6.7. 2rising for spacing refers to women who are using some method of lamily planning and who say they want to wait two or more ~'ears Ibr tbeir next child. Using for limiting refers to women who are using and who want no more children. Pregnant and amenorrhoeic women whose pregnancy was the result of a contraceptive l~ilurc are not included in the category of umnet need (they need a better method of contraception), but are included in total dentand Ior contraception (since they would have been using had their method not failed). 72 The data in Table 7.4 indicate that 12 percent of currently married women in Turkey are in need of a family planuing method, either lbr spacing (4 percent) or for limiting (8 percent). Of the 63 percent of women using contraception, 12 percent use it to delay their next birth and 51 percent want to stop childbearing. An additional 2 percent of women have need of a better method, since the one they were nsiug thiled to protect them from pregnancy. Thus, the total demand for family planning among currently married women in Turkey is 76 percent. Out of this total demand for family planning 17 percent is a demand for spacing purposes and 60 percent is a demand for limiting purposes. More than 80 percent of the total demand has been satisfied by womeu who are currently using contraception and women who had used it but failed. The total demand for family planning and the percentage of demand that is satisfied are highest for the most educated women; 81 percent of those who have completed at least secondary school have a demand for family planning and the demand of 93 percent of those women is satisfied. Demaud is higher in urban areas (78 percent) than in rural areas (74 percent); only 12 percent of the demand in urban areas remains unsatisfied compared to 22 percent in rural areas. For the great majority of the women, the need for family planning is fulfilled (84 percent). Although the unmet need for spacing purposes is very low when all women are taken into account (4 percent), the proportion increases to 17 percent among younger women. There is no crucial difference between regions in terms of need for family planning. However, the lowest demand is in the East (73 percent), where only 61 percent is being fulfilled. 7.3 Ideal and Actual Number of Children Thus far in this chapter, interest has focused on the respondent's wishes for the future, implicitly taking into account the number of children that she already has. To ascertain the ideal number of children (sometimes expressed as desired family size) the respondent is required to perform the more difficult task of considering abstractly and independently of her actual family size, the number of children she would choose if she could start again. In order to ascertain what women consider to be the ideal number of children, they were asked: "If you could go back to the time you did not have any children and could choose exactly the number of children to have in your whole life, how many would that be?" Table 7.5 shows the ideal number of children according to number of living children (including current pregnancy), and Table 7.6 shows the mean ideal number of children by age and selected background characteristics of the respondents. Table 7.5 indicates that most women want small families; 60 percent of women prefer a two-child family and another 20 percent consider a three-child family ideal. The mean ideal number of children is 2.4 among ever-married women as well as currently married women. Only 2 percent of women gave non-numeric responses. Table 7.5 reveals all association between the ideal number of children and the actual number of living children. The mean ideal number of children increases from 2.1 among childless women to 3.3 among women with 6 or more living children. The reason for this correlation is twofold. On the one hand, women may successfully attain their desired family size, and consequently those who want more children have more. On the other hand, women may rationalize and adjust their ideal number of children to the actual number of children that they have already had. 73 Table 7.5 hlea] number of children Percent distribution of ever-married women by ideal number of children and mean ideal number of children Ibr ever- married women and Ior currently married women, according to number of living children, Turkey 1993 Number of living children I Ideal number ol" children I) I 2 3 4 5 6+ Total (J 1.9 (1.5 (1.8 (I.7 1.4 0,7 1.3 0.9 I 115 12.3 5.9 5.7 4,4 1.7 1.3 6.5 2 64.(I 67,0 75.3 49.9 56.4 43.5 3(I.5 60.(I 3 14.4 14.7 12.5 33.5 15.7 32.1 26.3 2(I.(I 4 6.4 3.5 3.5 7.0 17.7 12.9 25.2 8.5 5 (1.3 0.6 (1.4 11.7 (I.7 3.7 4.0 I. I 6+ 0.2 (I.7 11.5 116 0.9 2.0 7. I 1.2 Non-numeric response 1.3 0.7 I.I 1.9 2.8 3.4 4,3 1.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 440 1158 1911 1276 733 439 562 6519 Ever -marr ied women Mean ideal number 2 2. I 2.1 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.8 3.3 2.4 Number of women 435 1151 1891 1252 712 424 538 6403 Current ly marr ied women Mean ideal number 2 2.1 2.1 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.8 3.3 2.4 Number of women 4(18 1104 1832 12(15 687 405 518 6159 qncludes current pregnancy. -l:xcludes women who gave non-numeric responses. Table 7.6 presents the mean ideal number of children for ever-married women by age and selected background characteristics. The mean ideal family size increases slightly with age, from 2.3 children among women age 15-19 to 2.5 children among women age 45-49. Typically, urban and more educated women have a smaller ideal family size. Women who live ill the East have the largest mean ideal number of children (2.9), whereas women who live in the West have the smallest (2.2). 'Fable 7.6 Mean ideal number of children by background characteristics Mean ideal number oF children Ibr ever-married women, by age and selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Background Age of woman characteristic 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Total Residence Urban 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.4 2.3 Rural 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.5 Region West 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.2 South 2. I 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.7 2.5 Central 2.3 2. I 2.2 2.3 2.6 2.4 2.5 2.3 North 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.7 2.6 2.4 East 2.5 2.6 2.8 2.9 3.2 3.3 3.3 2.9 Educat ion No educ./Pri, incomplete 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.7 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.7 Pri. comp./Sec, incomp. 2.2 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.3 2.3 Sec. comp./+ (2.0) 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2. I 2.0 Total 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.4 ( ) Figure in parentheses is based on 25-49 cases. 74 7.4 Ferti l ity Planning Since the issue of mistimed and unwanted fertility is an important one, respondents were asked whether each birth in the five years preceding the survey was planned (wanted then), tmplanned (wanted later), or not wanted at all (wanted no more). These questions fore1 a potentially powerful indication of the degree to which couples are successfully controlling lheir fertility. Flowever, it must be noted that these questions require the respondent to recall accurately her wishes at one or more points in the last five years and to report theln honestly. The danger of rationalization is present; an unwanted conception might ~cll have become a cherished child. Theretbre, the values presented here are likely to be undcrestimatc~, of unplanned and unwanted fertility. The results by birth order and mother's age at the birth of the child are presented in TAN," 7.7. This is a birlh-based rather than a woman-based table. Table 7.7 shows that 68 percent of births in the past five years were wanlcd at the time they were conceived whereas 12 percent were wanted later and 20 percent were not wanted at all. The proportion of births that are reported as not wanted or as mistimed increases wilh birth order: 55 percent of the fourth or higher order births werc not wanted and 5 percent of births of this order were wanted but at a later time. The proportion of births that were not wanted increases with mother's age at the lime of the birth of the child. Compared to 64 percent of births to women age 40-44, 3 percent o[" birlhs to thc youngest women were not wanted, Iab lc 77 Fcllilil} phlnning slalus Percent distribulion of births in file li~c ~¢ars preceding the sur'¢c3 b3 g:llilit) planning status, according to birth ~rdcr and mother's age at birlh, l t l lk¢} 1993 Phmning slatus of birth Birib order Ntnnbcr ltnd molller's ~A'anlcd W~lnlcd Nol of age ill birth IIictl hacr x~antcd Missing I'otal billhs Birth order I 906 8.6 0 8 0.0 I000 1412 2 (189 23 7 73 (1.1 10(} [) 1095 3 599 [ 2 1 28 (I 0.0 10a0 614 4+ 40.8 4(i 54 5 0.1 100() I 1(17 Mother ' s age at b irth • 2(I 80.2 Its9 2.9 O0 I000 673 2(I-24 75.7 143 9.8 0.2 IO0.0 1540 25-29 640 12,2 237 0.1 fOOl) 1125 30-34 53.8 5.3 4(I.8 [) I 1000 576 35-39 386 I.,1 60.0 U.O I0(}0 2,17 40-44 358 I).o 64.2 0.0 I000 (,~ 45-49 * * * * * 3 Io la l 67.5 12.0 2(I.4 0.1 I00 0 4228 Nolo: Birlh order includes current pregnant3. * Less than 25 cases 75 Another way of measuring the extent of unwanted fertility is to calculate what the fertility rate .`.`ould be if all unwanted births ',,,'ere avoided. This rate, known as the wantedfi, rtili(v rate, is calculated in the same manner as the total fertility rate, but with unwanted births excluded from the numerator. In this context, unwanted births are defined as births that exceed the nurnber considered ideal by the respondent (women who do not report a numcric ideal family size are assumed to want all their births). This rate represents the level o f fertility that ~otild have prevailed in lhe one year preceding the survey if all unwanted births had been prevented A comparison of the total wanted fertility rate and the actual total fcrlilit) rate is believed to suggest the potential demographic impact o f the elimination of unwanted births. Table 7.8 presents the total wanted l~rtility rate and the total fertility rate by selected background characteristics. The total wanted fertility rate for Turkey is 1.8 births per women, almost one child less than tile actual total fertility rate (2.7 births). This implies that the total fertility rate is about one-third higher than it v.ould be if unwanted births were avoided. The gap between tile wanted and actual fertility rates is largest alnong rural x+,olnen, X+olnen living in tile East, and women who have no education. labtc 78 Wanted I~rlilil', hires I ntal Xtilliic'd Icrl i] i l) rates i i l ld tolal I{:riilil) rlitcs Ior the )car preceding tilts surx c3. b) selected backgrotlnd Cllaractciistics. lurkc], L993 I oral t~ anted I oral [tti~2kgrotlnd Icriil i b It:iailit,, characteristic ra lc r i l l¢ Residence Urban 17 2,1 Rural 20 3 1 ReRion \.` csl 17 20 ~lluth 18 ],I ('cnlral I 7 2.4 North 2.4 32 liasi 23 44 Education Nu cduc IprJ. incolnp. 26 ,12 I'ri comp/Scc mcomp 18 24 Y~CC colnp /+ t.5 17 I nt~ll 18 27 Note: lhc total Iciailit', rates ilfe lhc S~l[ll¢ IIS those presented itl lahlc 32 76 CHAPTER 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY Attila Hancto lu The level of infant and child mortality is an important indicator of the general standard of living in a society, and of health conditions in particular. Information on mortality rates during infancy and childhood can form the basis for informed decisions on health, as well as on population policies and programs. Such information can be used for population projections and as a means of identifying population groups where children face higher mortality risks, so that detailed short- and long-term strategies can be developed to improve child survival and welfare. Infant and child mortality rates have been attracting the unmatched interest of decision and policy makers in Turkey. not only because of the aforementioned reasons, but also because these rates have been found to be very high in the past. More specifically, infant and child mortality rates have beeo considered to be higher than what would be expected on the basis of other indicators of development, particularly demographic indicators. Presented in this chapter are findings from the TDHS on the levels, trends and differentials in neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child, and under-five mortality. A preliminary assessment of data quality is also presented. The chapter ends with an analysis of high-risk fertility behaviour, 8.1 Definitions of Infant and Child Mortality All female respolldents Io the TDI15; individual questiolnmire were asked to provide a complete birth history, illchtding the sex. birth date, survival status, and current age or age at death for each of their live births. The data were used to calculate the lbllowing cstiluates of intant and child mortality tbr 5- year pcrit~ds preceding the TDItS: Neonatal mortality: the probability of dying in the first month of life: Postneonatal mortality: the difl'erencc bet~veen inlhnt and neonatal mortality: Infant mortality (iq,): the probability of dying in the Iirst year of life; Child mortality (~q0: the probability of dying between tile first and fifth birtllday; Under-five mortality (~q0): the probability of dying before the Iifth birlhday. A detailed description of the method used to calculate these probabilities is given in Rtutstein (1984). 8.2 Assessment of Data Quality Inl'ant and child mortality rates are subject to both sampling and nonsampling errors. Nonsampling errors co~cr a wide range: from tmderreporting of births and deaths to errors by the interviewers in recording responses. Presented ill this section are some basic checks for various nons~nlplillg errors. Birth histories are po,,~ erful tools used in delnographic surveys to collect retrospective intbrmation on births and deaths. IIo~,,ever, as Ibr any retrospective data collection procedure, birth histories are 77 subject to respondent recall errors, and these errors may result in biased rates and treads over time. It is therefore necessary to undertake a preliminary assessment of the quality of birth history data before one can start to examine estimates derived from them. In this section, such an assessment is made with respect to completeness aud accuracy of date reporting, heaping of age at death, and sex selective omission of births. Unreported birth dates and ages at death are potential problems in birth history data. Completeness of information on dates of birth and ages at death in the birth history section of the TDHS individual questionnaire appear to be of acceptable quality (see Appendix D, Table D.3 and Table D.4). The percentage of live births in the 15 years preceding the survey for which inforrnation on month of birth was missing is 2 percent, whereas both month and year of birth were inissing for only 0.2 percent of all live birlhs in the same period. Interviewers were required to recover fnll information on birth date (i.e., month and year of birth) for births in the 5 years immediately preceding the survey. Table D.4 shows that complete inforrnation on birth dates were indeed collected for all births in this period. Unreported ages at death were also uncommon in the TDHS data; only 0.4 percent of deaths recorded in the birth histories lacked an age at death. This is also a good indication of the completeness of information collected in the TDFIS regarding dates of birth and ages at death. Table D.4 also shows that there is a deficit of births in the TDHS in the calendar year 1988 and an excess of births in calendar year 1987. This pattern is one found in Demographic and Health Surveys (DI IS) data from other countries; it is thought to result, at least partly, from the transference of births by interviewers out of the period for which health and calendar data were collected (January 1988 through lhc date of the ~urvey) in order to reduce their workload. A problem common to most retrospective surveys is heaping of age at death on "convenient" digits, for example, 6, 12, and 18 months. This phenomenon introduces biases in the calculation of rates, if tile net result is to shift deaths from one age segment to another. Despite the fact that heaping of age at death at 12 months in the TDHS was minimal (see Appendix D, Table D.6) and interviewers at times recorded deaths as "1 year," even though instructions required them to record deaths under two years of age in months, an tmkaown fraction of these deaths might have actually occurred before tile first birthday. Thus, the infant mortality rate might be biased downward solncwhat and child mortality biased upward; undcl'-fivc mortality would be unaffected. Earlier simulation studies nsing DHS data from other countries indicate that m isrcporting of age at death can be tronblesome (Sullivan ct al., 1990). Due to the fact that heaping of age at death at 12 mouths x~'as minimal in tile TDttS, application of the simulation model indicated that any bias in tile infant mortality rate from this source would be on the order of I percent. The rates presented here are therefore unadjusted; that is, all deaths reported at 12 months or "1 year" are assigned to the post-infant age period. One other check that can be performed to assessthe reliability of birth history data is to calculate sex ratios at birth for all live birlhs. These ratios are expected to be around 105 male births per 100 female births. Sex ratios for single calendar years are likely to be affected by random fluctuations; this appears to have been the case in the TDItS (see Table D.4 in Appendix D). 11owcver, when sex ratios based on five-year periods are considered, the findings point to the high quality of data, especially in the last two five-year periods (sex ratios for these periods are calculated as 105.4 and 105.6). The overall sex ratio lbr all births in the birth history is 106.4, which is also within expected limits. The only problem appears to be with the births that occurred during the years 1979-1983, approximately 10-14 years preceding tile survey, where tile sex ratio at birlh is estimated at 108.6, raising tile possibility of Imderreportiug of female deaths. Iligher-than-cxpected ratios of this magnitude, however, are unlikely to affect the reliability of rates based on this period. 78 8.3 Levels and Trends in Infant and Child Mortality Presented in Table 8.1 are infant and child mortality rates for periods 0-4, 5-9, and 10-14 years preceding the survey. These periods refer approximately to calendar periods of 1988-1993, 1983-1988, and 1978-1983, respectively. The estimated infant mortality rate for the most recent period (0-4 years preceding the survey) is 53 per 1,000 live births. More than half of infant deaths (56 percent) occurred in the first four weeks of life, during the neonatal period. Child mortality (4ql) is found to be approximately 9 per 1,000 during this period. The results also show that the probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday is around 61 per 1,000. Consequently, a large proportion of under-five deaths occurs before the first birthday (86 percent). This finding is consistent with previous information on the pattern of Turkish under-five mortality, where the magnitude of infant mortality rates was found to be high relative to child mortality rates. The figures in Table 8.1 show that mortality risks during infancy and childhood have been declining at a relatively fast pace in Turkey. For the two most recent periods, the rates of decline seem to have been fastest; with the exception of the child mortality rate, all rates were found to have declined by about 35 percent. For the child mortality rate, the decline is even larger, i.e., about 48 percent. In other words, the child mortality rate has almost halved between the 1983-1988 and 1988-1993 periods, causing the proportion of infant deaths to under five deaths to increase. Table 8.1 Infant and child mortality Infant and child mortality rates by five-year periods preceding the 1988 TPHS and 1993 TDHS Years Approximate Neonatal Postneonatal Infant Child Under-five preceding reference mortality mortality mortality mortality mortality survey period (NN) (PNN) (Iq0) (4ql) (5q0) 1993 TDHS 0-4 1988-1993 29.2 23.4 52.6 8.8 60.9 5-9 1983-1988 44.6 36.9 81.5 16.8 96.9 10-14 1978-1983 37.5 54.5 92.0 23.7 113.5 1988 TPHS 0-4 1983-1988 34.7 47.4 82.2 16.7 97.5 5-9 1978-1982 41.5 58.4 99.9 26.4 123.7 The declines in the mortality rates appear to have been somewhat slower during the period between 10-14 and 5-9 years preceding the survey. This can be attributable to a genuine acceleration of the rates of decline in more recent periods, as well as to the fact that the rates from the 10-14 years preceding the survey might be slightly biased downward due to the truncated nature of the data for this period (rates for this period exclude births to women older than 40 years of age; these births are known to face elevated risks of mortality) and possible underestimation of mortality, since the sex ratio of births for this period is higher than expected, as mentioned in the previous section. The TDHS findings are also interesting in the sense that for the first time in a demographic survey in Turkey, the neonatal mortality rate is higher than the postneonatal rate (29 versus 23 per 1,000). This pattern is found for the two most recent 5-year periods preceding the TDHS. 79 Also presented in Table 8.1 are the comparable mortality estimates of the 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey, the last national demographic survey to have included a birth history, therefore making possible the calculation of mortality estimates using the same methodology of calculation. The consistency between the estimates of the 1988 TPHS and the TDHS is impressive (Figure 8. I). The period 5-9 years preceding the TDHS is comparable with the 0-4 year period preceding the 1988 TPHS (referring to calendar years 1983-1988), during which both surveys indicate infant, child, and under-five mortality rates that are very close. In fact, the rates are within I per 1,000 of each other for all three indicators. The TDHS estimates for the period 1978-83 are slightly lower than those for the 1978-82 period from the 1988 TPHS. However, it should be kept in mind that there is a one-year difference in the reference periods and that the TDHS data are slightly truncated for this period. The only inconsistency between the findings of tile TDHS and those of the 1988 TPHS relates to the relative magnitudes of the neonatal and postneonatal mortality rates. The 1988 TPHS findings indicate higher postneonatal mortality than neonatal mortality during the 1983-88 period, whereas the TDHS findings point to a reverse pattern where the neonatal rates are higher. The consistency of the infant mortality rates from the surveys makes it difficult to postulate that postneonatal deaths in the TDHS have been underreported for this period. The inconsistency may well be due to differential heaping of age at death on "one month" in the two surveys, for instance. Further analysis of both the TDttS and TPHS data is needed before any conclusions can be made in this respect. Figure 8.1 Trends in Infant Mortality in Turkey, 1993 TDHS and 1988 TPHS In fant Morta l i ty Rata (per 1,000 births) 110 100 9O 00 7O 6O 5O 4O 1970 L 1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 Calendar Ysars l g92 TDHS 1993 80 8.4 Differentials in Infant and Child Mortality Presented in Table 8.2 are infant and child mortality rates by urban-rural residence, region of residence, level of mother's education, and use of basic maternal health services for the five years preceding tile survey. Figure 8.2 shows inlhnt mortality rates by these background characteristics. The findings imply that the infant mortality rate in the rural areas is about 1.5 times higher than in urban areas (65 versus 44 per 1,000). It is clearly obscrved that the difference between the infant mortality rate of urban and rural areas mainly derives from the difference in the postneonatal mortality rates. Neonatal mortality ratcs for urban and rural areas are very, close. The composition of infant mortality in urban areas is dominated by neonatal deaths, where the proportion of postneonatal mortality in infant mortality is less than 50 percent. Infant and under-five mortality rates are lower than the national average in the West and the North, whereas the rates from the Eastern region are about 15 percent higher than the national average. The proportion of ilffant deaths in under-live mortality in the Western and Northern regions appears to be higher than the national average. This finding confirms the expected pattern that the proportion of inlhnI deaths in under-five deaths increases as the overall under-five mortality rates decline. Also provided in Table 8.2 are the TDHS findings regarding the age pattern of infant mortality rates in the five regions. The unustmlly low neonatal mortality rate in the Northern region (16 per 1,000, as compared with the national average of 29 per 1,000 for the same period) is striking and suggests some problems in the rates estinmled lbr this region, which could be due to underreporting of some neonatal deaths and/or differential heaping of ages at death among regions. The table also includes the interesting finding that the postneonatal rates are higher than the neonatal rates in two regions out of fve, the Eastern and Northcrn regions. lahlc 8.2 Inlhnt and child n'torlalil~, by background characteristics Inthnt and child moaalit~, rate,; Ibr the live-year period preceding the survey, by selected background charactcri:,lics, lurkcy 1993 Nconalal Postnconalal Infant Child Under-five Background mortality mortality mortality mortality mortality charactcrislic (NN) (I'NN) (Iq0) (4ql) (5q(I) Residence I)rban 29.9 14. I 44.(I 6.8 50.5 Rural 28.1 37.4 65.4 I 1.8 76.4 Region ~cst 29.7 13.0 42.7 5.6 48.0 South 34.6 20.8 55.4 7.8 62.8 Central 29.4 28.5 57.9 12.0 69.2 Noah 16.2 28.0 44.2 5.6 49.5 I'ast 293) 30. I 60.0 I 1.0 70.4 Education Nonc/Pri. incomp. 31.4 36.5 68.0 12.6 79.7 Pri. compJ+ 27.9 15.7 43.6 6.1 49.7 Medical maternity care No antenatal/ deliver3 care 27.9 38,9 66.8 10.7 76.8 Eilhcr care 29.6 14.3 43.0 6.1 49.7 Total 29.2 23.4 52.6 8.8 60.9 81 Figure 8.2 Infant Mortality by Selected Background Characteristics RESIDENCE Urban Rural REGION West South Central North Ea I t MATERNAL EDUCATION None/pr lm. lncomp. Prim. comp./+ ~;i i! ~/i~'!~il i~i~ii ii il ~iiii~i i~!i~iiii!ii~ ~ !, ~! ~, i! !~ii,!~ii~ i i!i i ~i'i~,i! ~i':ii~ii!i'i !,~i!i,iii~, ~i i~ !1 ii!!!ii!ili~iiiiiii!ili!!ii~iii!iiiiiiiiiiiii!!~iiii!iiiiiiii!!i!!i!ill I t i i~i~iiC~i!i~!i~ii~i~ii~iii!i~i~ii~ii~.~:ii~i~i~Ci~ii~ii~iii~i~!~ F ~iii/ii~i~ ~ :i ilJ 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Infant Mortality Rate (per 1,000 births) TOHS 1993 Child survival chances in Turkey are closely related to tile level of education of the mother. For this analysis, mothers are classified into two educational groups to provide sufficient numbers of cases for the calculation of the rates. Children of mothers with no education (thosc who have never attended school or did not complete tile primary level) experience over 1.6 times the level of infant and under-five inortality as children of mothers who have at least completed primary school. The strong influence of mother's education is apparent when the postneonatal and child mortality rates of the two groups are compared. Both rates are more than twice as high for children of mothers with no education as those with primary school education or more, demonstrating tile positive effects of education on child care. In tile case of neonatal rates, tile figures are close for the two educational groups. Medical maternity care is an important factor in tile reduction of mortality rates during infancy and childhood. Under-five mortality is 55 percent higher (77 per 1,000) among children born to women who received neither antenatal care (ANC) nor delivery care from a trained health professional, compared to children whose mothers received either or both of these services (50 per 1,000). A similar differential exists when the infant mortality rates for the two groups are compared. As with tile differentials by mother's education, tile difference between these two groups is manifested in the postneonatal and child mortality rates. Showu in Table 8.3 are differentials in infant and child mortality by various demographic characteristics for the 10-year period preceding the TDHS. Figure 8.3 shows infant mortality rates by these demographic characteristics, hr order to maintain adequate numbers of events and thus ensure statistically reliable estimates, the rates are based on the IO-year period before the survey. 82 "rablc 8.3 Infant and child mortality by dcmugraphic characteristics Inlhnt and child mortality rates for the ten-year period preceding the survey, by selected demographic characteristics, Turkey 1993 Neonatal Posmeonatal Infant Child Under-five Demographic mortality mortality mortality mortality mortality characteristic (NN) (PNN) (,qo) (4ql) (sqo) Sex of child Male 41).7 29.7 70.5 I2,4 82.0 Female 34.0 32,0 66.0 13.6 78.7 Age of mother at birth < 20 52.0 40.8 92.8 I 1.9 103.5 20-29 27.7 27.3 55.0 13.5 67.8 30-39 55.8 32. I 87.9 12.7 99.5 40-49 (41.8) (60.2) (101.9) (0.0) (101.9) Birth order I 37.4 26.6 64.0 8.8 72.2 2-3 26.2 24.4 50.6 I 1.0 61.0 4-6 41.1 39.3 80.3 20.0 98.7 7 + 75.4 49.7 125.1 16.5 139.5 Previous birth interval < 2 years 63.3 50.1 113.4 24.5 135.1 2-3 years 23.2 27.3 50.4 I 1.5 61.3 ' 4 years and + 20.4 15.0 35.4 3.9 39.1 ( ) Rates based on fewer than 500 cases (exposed children) are enclosed in parentheses. Figure 8.3 Infant Mortality by Selected Demographic Characteristics SEX OF CHIL n Male Female AGE OF MOTHER AT BIRTH <20 20-25 30-3g 40.49 ° BIRTH ORDER 44 ?÷ PREVIOUS BIRTH INTERVAL <2 2.,~ 4+ ~ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ' ~ ~\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \~] \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \~ 20 40 60 80 100 120 Infant Modellty Rate (per 1,000 blahs) • Rate based on less than 500 exposed ch i ld ren 140 TDHS 1993 83 The expected biological effects of sex on neonatal, infant, and under-five i11ortality are observed, i.e., rates for males are higher than those for females. The difl~:rentials arc not as strong as expected, however (the sex ratio of infant deaths is about 1.07). The reverse sittmtion is observed when postueonatal and child mortality rates are taken into account, i.e., the rates for the females are higher than those of the males. This is by no means an unprecedented finding: the same differentials by sex of the child were also found in the 1978 Turkish Fertility Survey (Rutstein, 1983). This patlern may be explained by child care practices favouring male children, which may lead to lower postneonatal and child mortality rates for males than females (Sullivan et al., 1990). ttowevcr, the differences are not significant. Age of mother at birth and order of birth show the expected U-shaped relationship with infant and child mortality rates. Lowest mortality rates are associated with children whose mothers were age 20-29 years at their birth: infant mortality rates are 69 and 60 percent higher in cascs where the mother was younger than 20 years or was age 30-39 years, respectively. The strongest ell'eel of mother's age on childhood mortality occurs in the case of neonatal mortality. For example, children of mothers who were younger than 20 at the time of birth experienced 88 percent higher mortalit,, risks during the first months of life than children of mothers who were age 20-29 at their birth. The comparable estimate for children of mothers age 30-39 is even higher, about twice that for children whose mothers were age 20-29 at their birth. First-order births are known to be under risks of elevated mortality, but these births are unavoidable. Higher order births, however, also experience these elevated risks of mortality. According to the findings in Table 8.3, the lowest mortality risks are associated with birth orders of 2 and 3, whereas very high rates are observed for births of order 7 and more. The infant mortality rate for births of orders of 7 and more is 2.5 times higher than that of the births of orders 2-3, and the differential in the neonatal mortality rate is even greater (75 per 1,000 for births of order 7 and more, as compared to 26 per 1,000 for second- and third-order births). In fact, one does not have to analyse mortality risks of extremely high order births; elevated risks are apparent for fourth to sixth order births as well. The pace of childbearing has a powerfnl ef|~ct on the survival chances of Turkish children. The differentials in this case are even greater than those observed for the other demographic variables. Short birth intervals are known to be associated witb higher mortality risks: Table 8.3 provides convincing evidence of this relationship. According to the table, the longer the birth interval, the lower the mortality rates. Mortality rates for children born after a short interval, i.e., less than 2 years, are especially striking: for instance, such children are found to have experienced mortality risks before their first birthdays 3.2 times higher than those of children born after an interval of 4 years or more. 8.5 High-risk Fertility Behaviour Demographic research has consistently shown that a strong relationship exists between a mother's pattern of fertility and her children's survival chances. Infants and young children face higher risks of dying if they are born to very young mothers or to older mothers, if they are born after a short birth interval, or if their mothers have already had many children. In the following analysis, mothers are classified as "too young" if they were less than 18 years old at the time of the birth, and "too old" if they were 34 or older at the time of the birth. A "short birth interval" is defined as less than 24 months, and a "high birth order" as one occurring after three or more previous births (i.e., birth order four or higher). Children can be further cross-classified by combinations of these characteristics. First births, although often at increased risk, are not included in this analysis because they are not considered an avoidable risk. 84 Cohmm I in Table 8.4 shows the percentage of children born in the five years preceding the snrvey who are included in specific risk categories (due to mother's age, time elapsed since previous birth, or number of previous births). In order to calculate the increase in risk attributable to fertility behaviour, risk ratios wcre calculated for each of the risk categories (see column 2, Table 8.4). A risk ratio in this case is the ratio of the proportion of children in the category who have died to the proportion who have died in the not in any risk category, i.e., children whose mothers were age I8-34 at delivery, who were born after an interval of 24 or more months atter the previous birth, and who are parity of 3 or less. Table 8.4 Iligh-risk I~rtility behaviour Percent distribution of children born in the five years preceding the survey who are at elevated risk of mortality, and the percent distribution of currently married women at risk of conceiving a child with an elevated risk of mortality, by category of increased risk, Turkey 1993 Births in last 5 years Percentage preceding the survey of currently Risk Percentage Risk married category of births ratio women a Not in any risk category Single risk categories 31.2 Mother's age < 18 4.1 Mother's age > 34 1.2 Birth interval < 24 I 1.4 Birth order > 3 14.4 Multiple risk categories 13.1 Age <18 and birth interval <24 c 0.8 Age >34 and birth interval <24 0.0 Age >34 and birth order >3 4.8 Age >34. birth interval <24 and birth order >3 1.4 Birth interval <24 and birth order >3 6.1 In any risk category Total Number 55.7 1.00 32.1 b 1.45 33.3 (2A4) 0.6 0,29) 10.4 1.48 9.4 1.25 13.0 3.44 34.6 (2.93) 0.1 (0.00) 0.2 (I.57) 28.6 (7.51) 1.3 4.10 4.4 44.3 2.04 67.9 100.0 NA 100.0 3700 NA 6271 Note: Risk ratio is the ratio of the proportion dead of births in a specific risk category 1o the proportion dead of births not in any risk category. aWomen were assigned to risk categories according to the status they would have at the birth of a child, if the child were conceived at the time of the survey: age less than 17 years and 3 months, age older than 34 years and 2 months, latest birth less than 15 months ago, and latest birth of order 3 or ~igher. Includes sterilised women ¢lneludes the combined categories age <18 and birth order >3. NA = Not applicable ( ) Figures in parentheses are ratios based on fewer than 200 cases. 85 Forty-four percent of children born in the five years preceding the survey are at elevated risk of dying. Of these, 31 percent have an increased risk due to a single risk category (mother's age, birth order, or birth interval), and 13 percent have an increased risk due to multiple risk categories. It is evident from the table that birth order higher than 3 is a major factor contributing to elevated risks of mortality. Approximately 14 percent of births in the last five years are found to have occurred alter the mother had already had 3 or more births, whereas the comparable figure for births after short intervals is around 11 percent. The other two factors appear to have operated for smaller groups of children. The second column in the table shows the elevated risk of dying for children according to the risk categories their mothers were in at the time of their birth. The figures show that the proportion deceased among children whose mothers were in a single risk category at the time of birth was 1.5 times that of children whose mothers were not in a risk category. The comparable figure among children whose mothers were in a multiple risk category is as high as 3.4. Although the number is relatively small, those children who were born after a short interval, who had been born after at least three births and whose mothers were older than 34 years of age were 7.5 times more likely to have died. It is also noteworthy that young maternal age alone increases the risk ratio to 2.1; however, the number of births occurring to such mothers in Turkey appears to be relatively low. The final column of Table 8.4 includes tile distribution of currently married women according to category of increased risk if they were to conceive at the time of the survey. Women who have been sterilised are categorized as not being in a high-risk category. In other words, a woman's current age, time elapsed since last birth, and parity are used to determine into which category her next birth would fall if she were to conceive at the time of the survey. For example, if a woman age 37 who has five children and had her last birth three years ago were to become pregnant, she would fall into the multiple risk category of being too old (35 or older) and at too high a parity (4 or more children). Since women who have the potential for a high-risk birth can avoid experiencing the risk by using contraception to avqid pregnancy (either to space or limit the pregnancy, depending on which risk category she is in), this analysis should pose a challenge to policy makers and program managers alike - to generate the demand for family planning and to improve the availability of contraceptive methods, so that high-risk births can be avoided. By the same token, the figures in the third column of the table should be interpreted with some caution, especially in relation to provision of services, since some women in these risk categories may well be using effective contraception or be in a situation where they would not need to take any current precautions (amenorrhoeic or pregnant women, for instance). Sixty-eight percent of the 6,271 women who were married at the time of the TDHS were found to be at risk of conceiving a child with an increased risk of dying. Children of only one-third of women would fall into none of the risk categories. Children of 35 percent of women would fall into a multiple risk category, where the survival chances of a child to be conceived would be considerably lower, according to the findings in the second column of the table. The largest group of women would fall into the multiple risk category where the child to be born would have, at the time of birth, a mother who would be older than 34 and who would already have had at least three births. Coupled with the findings on demographic differentials of infant and child mortality presented in the previous section, the findings in Table 8.4 indicate that for further reductions in infant and child mortality rates in Turkey, concerted efforts are needed to minimize the number of high-risk births. 86 CHAPTER 9 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH Mehmet Ali Biliker Dilek Haznedaro~lu Nedret Emiro~lu Basic questions on maternal and child health care were included in the 1993 TDHS because of the importance and priority of maternal and child health for Turkey. This chapter presents findings on the following maternal and child health areas: ANC, assistance and place of delivery, preventive child health measures such as vaccinations, and common childhood diseases and their treatment. The vaccination.coverage information focuses on the age group of 12-23 months; it is one of the most important sections of child health care. Overall coverage levels by the time of the survey and by 12 months of age are calculated. A written vaccination card or the mother's recall are the sources of the vaccination information. Treatment practices and contact with health services for children with common childhood illnesses, diarrhoea, and acute respiratory infection (ARI), help to assess the impact of a national programme aimed at reducing the effect of these illnesses. 9.1 Antenatal Care and Delivery Assistance Data regarding ANC and delivery were obtained for all live births that occurred in the five years preceding the survey. Antenatal care is defined according to the type of provider, the number of visits made, the stage of pregnancy at the time of the first visit, and the number of tetanus toxoid (TT) doses received. Similarly, the delivery services are described according to the person assisting and the type and place of the delivery. Source of Antenatal Care Table 9.1 shows the percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by source of ANC received during pregnancy, aecordiag to the maternal background characteristics and birth order. The interviewers were instructed to record all responses if more than one source of ANC was mentioned for the same pregnancy. However, for this tabulation only the provider with the highest qualifications is considered if there were more than one response. As seen in Table 9.1, the majority of the mothers (62 percent) received at least one ANC visit from trained health personnel; 47 percent from a doctor and 16 percent from a nurse or midwife. In the 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey (1988 TPHS), only 43 percent of women received ANC from medical or trained health personnel for their last births. There are marked differences in ANC by background characteristics. Younger mothers are more likely to seek ANC from trained health personnel than women over age 35. Likewise, there are striking differences in the proportions of live births with ANC according to birth order. Children whose birth order is 4 or more are less likely to have received ANC than lower order births (Figure 9.1). 87 l'ablc 9.1 Antenatal care (ANC) Percent distribution of births in the live years preceding the survey, by source of ANC during pregnancy, according to selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Antenatal care provider I Trained Othcr/ Background nurse/ No No charactei'istic.,, Doctor Midwife response ANC Total Number Mother's age at birth ,- 20 42.8 20.0 1.3 35.9 100,0 580 20-34 48.7 15.4 0.6 35.3 1000 2845 35 + 35.4 64 0.8 57.4 100.0 275 Birth order I 60.1 16.4 I.I 22.4 100.0 1208 2-3 49.5 17.7 0.5 32.3 100,0 1504 4-5 30.8 12.8 0.0 56.4 I00.0 513 6+ 21.5 9.2 0.9 68.4 . 100.0 475 Residence Urban 57.7 15.3 0.5 26.5 1(}0.0 2211 Rural 30.6 15.8 1.0 52.6 100.() 1489 Region West 71.3 14.6 0.4 13.7 100.0 985 South 48.8 25.6 0.4 25.2 100.0 584 Central 40.2 18.5 1.0 40.3 100.0 825 North 48.3 14.9 0.0 36.8 100.0 357 East 25.3 7.8 I.I 65.8 100.tt 949 Mother's education No educ./Pri, incomp. 23.9 13.0 1.0 62.1 100.0 1351 Pri. comp./See, incomp. 53.4 19.4 0.5 26.7 100.0 1852 Sec. comp./+ 84.6 7.8 0.2 7.4 100.0 497 All births 46.8 15.5 0.7 37.0 100.0 3700 Note; Figures arc for births in the period 1-59 months preceding the survey. Il l the respondent mentioned more than one provider, only the most qualified provider is considered. Res ident ia l and regional d i f ferent ia ls in ANC are also apparent. Those l iv ing in c i t ies are more l ike ly to have ANC than those l iv ing in rural areas (73 percent and 46 percent, respect ive ly) (F igure 9.2). Antenata l care coverage exceeds 60 percent in all regions except the East, where it was rece ived by only one third o f the mothers in the f ive years pr ior to the survey. Antenatal care coverage increases sharply by educat ional level . 88 100 80 90 40 20 0 Figure 9.1 Source of Antenatal Care (ANC) by Maternal Age and Birth Order Percent <20 21-34 35 + MATERNAL AGE 1 2-3 4 -5 9 + BIRTH ORDER TDHS 1993 Percent 100 90 90 40 20 O West Figure 9.2 Antenatal Care by Region and Residence South Central North East REGION Urban Rural RESIDENCE TDHS 1993 89 Number and Timing of Antenatal Care Visits Antenatal care can be more effective when it is sought early in pregnancy. The first antenatal visit should take place before the third month of pregnancy. The advantage of early detection of pregnancy is that a woman's normal baseline health status can be assessed; knowledge of a woman's baseline health will make early diagnosis of any abnormalities easier. The total number of antenatal visits also is an important indicator in assessing the adequacy of ANC. According to the required schedule, health institutions should provide three visits up to 28 weeks (7th month), with subsequent visits in the 32nd, 36th and 39th weeks. Regular visits allow proper monitoring of the mother and child throughout pregnancy. As shown in Table 9.2, ANC is usually sought relatively early in the pregnancy; for more than half of the births, ANC visits started before the fifth month. With regard to the frequency of care, although 37 percent of women received no ANC, 36 percent had 4 or more vis- its. Among those who received ANC, the median number of ANC visits is 4.7, and the median time at first visit was 3. I months. Tetanus Toxoid Coverage Tetanus toxoid (TT) vaccination is one of the important pre- ventive measures for neonatal tetanus. According to the Turkish vaccination schedule, during pregnancy two doses of TT are necessary for full immunisation of unvaccinated woman. However, if a woman has been vaccinated during a previous pregnancy, she might only require one dose for the current pregnancy. Table 9.2 Number of antenatal care visits and stage of pregnancy Percent distribution of live births in the five years preceding the survey by number of antenatal care visits, and by the stage of pregnancy at the time of the first visit, Turkey 1993 Characteristic Percent Number of visits 0 37.0 I 8.2 2-3 18.3 4 + 35.9 Don't know/Missing 0.6 Total 100.0 Median 4.7 Months pregnant at time of first visit No antenatal care 37.0 Less than 5 months 53.6 6-7 months 7.0 8 + months 1.7 Don't know/Missing 0.7 Total 100.0 Median 3. I Numbcr of births 3700 Note: Figures are tbr births in the period 1-59 months preceding the survey. Table 9.3 presents TT coverage during pregnancy for all births in the five years preceding the survey. Among these births, 16 percent had one dose, and 26 percent had two or more doses. In the 1988 TPHS, these figures were 8 percent and 3 percent for the last birth, respectively. The difference in TT vaccination coverage according to background characteristics in Table 9.3 are similar to those observed for ANC coverage. Both age and level of education show a marked impact on the percent receiving TT vaccinations. Similarly, the data show that there are apparent differentials in TT vaccination by region. The Southern region had both the highest overall TT coverage and the greatest proportion receiving the second dose; this pattern was similar in the 1988 TPHS findings. 90 Table 9.3 Tetanus toxoid vaccination Percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the suryey, by number of tetanus toxoid ir~jections given to the mother during pregnancy, according to selected background characteristics Turkey 1993 Number of tetanus toxoid injections Two Number Background One doses Don't know/ of characteristic None dose or more Missing Total births Mother's age at birth < 20 55.4 14.7 29.5 0.4 100.0 580 20-34 56.4 16.2 26.9 0.5 100.0 2845 35+ 74.8 12.4 12.6 0.2 100.0 275 Birth order I 50.0 15.5 34.0 0.5 100.0 1208 2-3 55.0 17.8 26.8 0.4 100.0 1504 4-5 66.8 13.8 18.7 0.7 100.0 513 6+ 75.4 10.9 12.8 0.9 100.0 475 Residence Urban 54.8 16.1 28.6 0.5 100.0 2211 Rural 61.8 15.0 22.7 0.5 100.0 1489 Region West 56.4 15.0 28.1 0.5 100.0 985 South 35.5 19. I 45.0 0.4 100.0 584 Central 57.4 16.8 25. I 0.7 100.0 825 North 50.5 21.6 27.6 0.3 100.0 357 East 75.4 I 1.0 13.3 0.3 100.0 949 Mother's education No educ./Pri, iucomp. 72.2 12.1 15.5 0.2 100.0 1351 Pri. comp./Sec, incomp. 48.3 17.5 33.6 0.6 100.0 1852 Sec. comp./+ 53. I 18.5 27.8 0.6 100.0 497 All births 57.6 15.7 26.2 0.5 100.0 3700 Note: Figures are for births in the period 1-59 mouths preceding the survey. Place of Delivery and Assistance During Delivery Table 9.4 and Figure 9.3 show the distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by place of delivery according to background characteristics. Table 9.5 presents the distribution of these births by type of assistance during delivery. The type ofassistancea woman receives during the birth of her child depends to a great extent on the place of delivery, with births delivered outside the health facility being much less likely than other births to receive assistance from a doctor or other trained health professional. The 1993 TDHS showed that 60 percent of all births were delivered at a health facility. This figure is similar to that reported in the 1988 TPHS. The proportion of all births delivered with the assistance of a doctor or trained health personnel was 76 percent. It is interesting to note that lhe likelihood of having a birth assisted by qualified health personnel is greater than the likelihood of receiving ANC from a medical care provider (62 percent). 91 [able 9.4 I'lacc of deli~erx l)crccn| dislribulion of births m Ihc five years preceding the survc.,,, by place of dclivcr?., according to selected background dlaraclcristics. [urkc3 1993 Background 1 Icallh AI characteristic FaciliL', home Other Total Number Mother's age at birth < 20 61.6 38.2 0 2 IO00 580 2O-34 6O.5 39.4 I l l 1000 2845 35 + 46.3 53.7 0(I 10(I.0 275 Birth order I 776 22 3 () I I()() () [ 208 2-3 61.7 38. I 02 I OIL0 1504 4-5 41 0 58.8 02 I000 513 6 + 27.5 723 ll.2 I000 475 Residence l.Jrban 725 27,1 O I IOO0 2211 Rural 4(1.5 592 0 3 [O0.U 1489 Region West 8U2 198 O0 IO00 985 South 628 370 11.2 1000 584 Central 640 35.9 O. I I(RL0 825 North 66 1 336 11.3 I00.O 357 East 30.2 69 6 ()2 IO0.O 949 Mother's education No cduc/l)ri, incomp 340 (15.7 (13 100,() 135 I I'ri comp./Sec, inconlp 7(1.7 29 I 02 lOO(l 1852 See comp/+ 88 0 12 0 0[) 1(100 497 Antenatal care visits None 34.8 649 03 I Ofl() 137 I I-3 * isits 612 387 O.l tO00 9811 4 or more visils 83.9 16 1 0.0 I000 1328 I )on't know/Missing * * * IO0.0 21 All birlhs 59.6 402 11.2 I()O.O 3700 Nolo: Figures arc Ibr birlhs m tile period 1-59 months preceding the survey * l ess Iharl 25 ,2asgs 92 Figure 9.3 Place of Delivery by Maternal Age and Birth Order Percent 100 80 60 40 20 0 >20 20-34 35 + 1 2 -3 4-S MATERNAL AGE BIRTH ORDER 6+ TDHS 1993 Table 9.5 Assistance dur ing deliver,? Percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey, by type of assistance dur ing delivery, according to selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Attendant assisting during delivery Tradi- Background Nurse/ tional Relative/ characteristic Doctor Midwife midwife ()tiler No one Tolal Number Mother's age at birth < 20 30.0 46.8 12.5 9.8 09 100.0 580 20-34 34.8 42.6 120 9.3 1.3 100.0 2845 35 + 29.8 29.0 231 15.0 3A 100.0 275 Birth order I 46.3 434 5.7 4.2 0.4 100.0 1208 2-3 34.4 45.8 9.9 9.0 09 100.0 1504 4-5 20.4 417 20.0 14.8 31 100.0 513 6 + 13.8 28.3 33.1 209 3.9 100.0 475 Residence Urban 44.5 42.5 6.8 5.2 1.0 100.0 2211 Rural 17.5 419 22.1 166 I 9 1000 1489 Region West 59.1 34.5 3.5 2.3 0.6 100.0 985 South 27.3 567 7.4 7.1 1.5 100.0 584 Central 33.7 433 11.3 10.2 1.5 100.0 825 North 31.7 476 130 68 09 1000 357 East I 1.9 38.4 27.4 20 0 2 3 100.0 949 Molher's education No educ./Pri incomp 160 37.0 263 184 23 It)00 1351 Pri comp./See, incomp. 387 479 65 57 12 100.0 1852 Sec comp./+ 629 35.3 () 3 1.5 O0 1000 497 Antcnatal care visits None 140 383 257 198 22 1000 1371 I-3 visits 285 51.9 105 75 16 1000 980 4 or more visits 574 305 I 7 10 04 1000 1328 I)on't know/Missing * * * 1000 21 Total 33.7 422 129 98 I 4 I 0t)3) 3700 Note: If the respondent mentioned more than one attendant, only thc most qualilied a0endant is considered • l.css than 25 cases tlome deliveries are more likely to occur without tile assistanceot trained health personnel. In rural ureas 59 percent of births took place at home, whereas 73 percent took place at a health facility in urban areas (Figure 9.4). The level of education is strongly related to the utilisation of health institutions for delivery. The percentage of home deliveries shows a sharp decrease with increasing educational levels. In cases where the mother has graduated from at least secondary school, 88 percent of births take place in a health facility and almost all births (98 percent) are assisted by a doctor or nurse/midwife, compared to only 34 percent and 53 percent respectively, of births to mothers who have 11o education. A similar positive relationship is observed between both births occurring in a health facility and the percentage assisted by medical personnel and the number of antenatal care visits. 94 Percent 1OO~ 90 90 4O 2O 0 West Figure 9.4 Place of Delivery by Region and Residence South Central North E l i t Urban Rural REGION RESIDENCE TDHS 1993 Deliver)' Characteristics Respondents were asked about the duration of pregnancy and whether the delivery was by Caesarian section. Overall, 8 percent ol'the births in the last five years were delivered by Cacsarian section and 3 percent of babies were born fi~llowing a pregnancy of less than 9 months duration (data not shown). 9.2 lmmunisation of Children The World Health Organization (WI IO) guidelines on childhood immunisation call lbr all children to receive a BCG vaccination against tubcrculosis: three doscs of DPT vaccine to prevent diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus: three doses of polio vaccine: and one dose of measles vaccine before they reach 12 months of age. hnmunisation activities in Turkey go back to the 1950s, when tile Ministry of Healtb (MOlt) latmched a BCG vaccination campaign. The DPT vaccine, the oral polio vaccine (OPV), and more recently tile measles vaccine were later added to the imlnUlfisatioa programme. Turkey joined the Expanded Programme oil hmnunisation (EPI) in 1981. Tile programme ~,,as hilldcl'ed b) luany obstacles until 1985, when a mass inmltmisatiol~ campaign was conducted in order to increase the coverage rates and vaccinate susceptible children. Since 1985. EPI has become a part of routine primary health care service delivery. In the 1903 TDHS survey, infbl'matioll on vaccinution status was collected tbr all children born in the five ),ears preceding the survc),, tlowcver, the data presented here are restricted to children who were alive at the time of the survey fieldv.ork. Fo obtain imnlunisatiou data for each eligible child, nlothers were asked whether they bud a vaccination card for the chikl, and if so. to show the card to the interviewer. Tbe dates of tile vaccinations were copied from the card to the qucstiolmaire. Mothers were also asked whetller the chikl had becn given 95 any vaccinations not recorded on the card. if the vaccination card was not available Ibr the child, lhc mother was asked a number of questions in order to deterlnine the vaccilmtion slatus of the child for each specific vaccine, and, in the case of DPT and polio, the number of doses of Ihc vaccine that the child had received. Children who had received one dose of BCG, three doses of I)PT and OPV, and one dose of measles vaccine were considered to be Iidly vaccinated. Coverage of Children Age 12-23 Months Table 9.6 presents information OIl both the percentage of children cvcr w~ccinatcd and Ihe percentage of these children vaccinated during the first year of lifc lbr childrcn age 12-23 nlonlhs b) source of information. The information was gathered from a vaccination card in the case o1"42 pcrccnt ofchildlcn, while inothers supplied the information for lhe rclnail~ing cases (58 percent). For childrcn whose information was based on the mother's report, the proportion ~accilmtcd during the ilrst 3car of lil~: is assumed to be the same as for children with a written record of vaccinations, and thc I)PT covcragc rate for children without a written record is also assunled to be the samc ;Is Ihat for polio vaccinc, since nlolhcrs were asked whether the child had received polio vaccine. Among children age 12-23 months, the coverage rates for BCG and the first two doscs of polio V.cl'e found to be around 90 percent, and most of the children received those vaccincs before the age of one. l lowever, due to high drop-out rates, coverage 1~:11 to 76 percent for DI~T/OPV3. Measles vaccination coverage rate was even lower at only 69 percent. fable 9.6 Vaccinatitms h~ source ofinlbrnlali~rl Percentage o[chi ldrdn 12-23 nlonths ~11o had tccci~cd specific \ilCtLill¢5 ~1[ illl~, lilIIC bch~lc lilt: Sltl'~C 3 and lilt: p~:rc¢lllilk2t ~accinatcd by 12 iiiOlllh~, ii1 age. b 3 ~hc lhcr the iIlltwIlllttion ~[IS iitllll it xaccinalion card or Ir~lnl tile mmhc~, lu lk¢ 3 1993 I~cl'ccnta~c oJ chJ]drc[1 ~IlO rccci% ud: PC I'CC III ~I~2C DIM I't~lit~ ~acci- Nlunhcr Sotlrcc o1" nathul ol inlolmation B( ( i [ - ' - 2 3 ~ I 2 3+ Mca~lcs All I Nqmc cald childlcn Vaccinated at any l ime before the survey Vaccination card 38.8 41 6 41 1 39.4 41 6 41.1 394 36.6 34.3 0 0 41 6 298 Mother's report 50.3 51.9 464 37.7 524 46.8 378 41 2 304 31 584 418 Iiilhcr source 891 93.5 875 77.1 940 S7,9 772 778 647 3 I 1000 716 Vaccinated hy 12 months of age 87.4 91.8 867 76.2 92.3 g7.1 76.4 690 5911 47 ?16 I:rom vaccinati~m card 62.2 99.7 95.7 90.5 99.7 95.7 905 S2 1 51 I (13 298 Note: For children x~hos¢ inlbmlation was based on Ihc m~Lhcr's rcp~rl. Ihc prl~pOllJOll ~1' xa~cm;lliclns gi'~cn during the J~rsl )t~ar o f lilt2 ~as ~lssu11112d i l l bc 1~112 s~111112 as [()1" chJJdrcll x~.ilh ~1 x~ri[lel l I'cC~ll'd tl[" %~lCCillOiiOII IChildrcll x~lii~ arc fuLly ~accinatcd (i.e. IIlq~sc ~ho Jla'~c retched BC(L measles and lhlcc do'~¢~, ol I)PI and po]iok 96 The 1993 TDHS results can be compared to the findings of an immunisation survey conducted in 1989 in all provinces of Turkey. The 1989 survey, which collected information on the vaccination status of 14099 children age 12-23 months old, relied both on the child's vaccination card and the i~nother's recall for immunisation inlbrmation. The vaccination coverage rates reported in the 1989 survey for DPT/OPV and measles vaccines in children vaccinated by 12 months of age were very close to the figures gathered in tile 1993 TI)I IS. The percentage of children receiving tile third dose of DPT and OPV by age 12 months was 77 percent for each and 65 percent ibr measles. The coverage fbr BCG (67 percent) in the 1989 survey was based on the percentage of children having a BCG scar. Therelbre, it is not directly comparable to the 1993 TDHS rate (87 percent). Table 9.6 shows the percentage of children in the 12-23 month age group who had received all the recommended doses (i.e., who were ['ully inlmunised) and the percentage who had not received any immunisations. The results indicate that 65 percent of the children had received all of the immunisations at some time before the survey. Only 3 percent had not received any vaccination at all. The remaining 32 percent were partially vaccinated. The percentage of children who were fully immunised by 12 months of age was 59 percent (Figure 9.5). Figure 9.5 Vaccination Coverage among Children Age 12-23 Months Percent 100 g 90 60 49 20 i O 7 7 7 BCG DPTIOPV1 DPTIOPV2 DPT/OPV3 Meae lea ANTIGENS i Fully Vice lnatad TDHS 1993 Coverage Rates by Background Characteristics Vaccination coverage rates for children in the 12-23 month age group are presented in Table 9.7 by background characteristics, in order to provide information about the success of EPI in covering various subgroups. There are definite residential differences ill vaccination coverage. The percentages receiving the first doses of DPT and OPV are high (over 90 percent) for both urban and rural children and the high 97 Table 9.7 Vaccinations by backgrotmd dmrilcleristics Percentage of chddrcn 12-23 nlonlhs ;)hi) had reccked specilic ~accincs b~ the time (ll Ihc sure.c) (according 1() Ihc vaccinalion card or the mother's report) and the percentage ~Ailk a ~accinatmn card. b 3 selected b~lckgrotmd characteristics. Turkey 1993 [icrt.:ClllilgtI i l l c ] l i idrcn ~l l t ) r ccc i~cd I ) l ) l I>olio Background characteristic B('(i I 2 3, I • ~ ~ r~icllxlc~ .\11 i Sex Male 87,0 93.2 87.8 "', _ ~ 9~8 885 77_~ 7~8 f~3 I Female 91.6 93 7 87(I 7671 94 I 872 7fi tj 78 [I (~¢) 5 ])¢rcctltagc with x ;It:el- ~ ulnher II~llitlll OI N(III¢ c~lrtl C]lddrcll () 13.1 385 2(1 394 331 Birth order I 91,9 93.2 884 799 94.2 8<)1 801 816 683 2.5 50.6 261 2-3 92.1 96.4 903 798 96.8 ttO "r 800 82 4 667 I 5 43 I 293 4-5 79.1 87,1 82.8 71.3 87,1 828 " " ~1":, ~53 , l , 7 I 28 I 8(; 6+ 79.4 90,1 78.1 633 O01 781 63" • ~ ~ I , 6. . . . . . 60 2(1. I 7Z Residence Urban 932 943 90.7 85.9 943 90 ? 85 9 82 I 743 2 4 '~1 7 421 Rural 832 92.2 828 64.5 934 838 (149 71(I 509 ~9 27 I 295 Region West 96.1 955 92.9 88.3 96,1 935 883 838 7611 I t ) 578 Iql South 97.2 98 6 93.0 83 2 986 03 0 83.2 ';~ 0 81 1 0 () 51 7 I I0 Central 9(116 q5.3 92.3 82.3 953 923 82 3 81 2 fi59 I 2 391 17f) North 96.5 947 88.6 78 I 98.2 91 2 79 8 7X I .3 2 l) II 34 2 7(1 Iiast 713 85 3 72.1 545 85 3 72 I 54 s 5 ~ X I l l . 9 5 22 2 169 Mother 's education No cduc./Pri, incomp. 74.6 873 800 62,6 883 81,0 63 1 4 s 48 (I 8 4 27 4 "48 Pri. comp./Scc, inconlp. 96.2 962 905 829 96.6 t.~O (I 82 9 83 8 7I) t) u ~ 4q 4 87(I See, conlp./+ 990 98 4 94.8 91 6 98 4 948 ~tl 6 149.3 8~ I, u o ,18 () '18 All children 891 934 87,l 771 93 9 879 77 2 77.9 61 7 ; I II I) 716 IChildren ~ho are lhlly vaccinated (i.e. Ihose x~iltl ha~c rcccixcd IIt'(i. measles iuld Ihlcc doses (~1 I)PI .tlld p.l i ,u coverage rate is sustained in urban settlements. Ilowever. as a result of high drop-out rates, coverage in rural children falls to 65 percent for the third dose of Dlrl/OPV. I?,CG and measles coverage talcs arc also lower for rural children Ihan urban children. Overall. nearl5 three qtmrlcrs of urban chikhcn arc fully vaccinated compared to only about half of rural children. Considering regional differences, coverage is significantly lower in the I-astcrn region (41 pcrccnt), followed by the Northern and the Central rcgions (63 pcrccnt and 66 pcrccnl, rcspcctbcl3). lhc Southcrn region has the highest vaccination coverage: 81 percent of children 2-23 months in the %onth arc full 3 immunised. The data in "fable 9.7 also ~erify the thct that the drop-out rate is signil]cantl> high in d~c I-astern region and is the main result of Io',~, coverage rates. 'lhe vaccinalioa card rates arc Iov~esi mttong children in rural areas and in the East; only 27 percent of mothers ofrur,d children and 22 percent of mothers living in the Eastern region were able to sho',~ Ihcir children's "~accinatlon card. The mother's educational level is also related to the likelihood that a child will be vaccinated. The percentage of children who arc fully vaccinated varies from 48 percent among children whose mothers have IlO cducation to around 84 percent among children whose inothers had a secondary or higher education. The DIrV/OPV drop-out rates arc higher Ibr children of motbers with no education titan for other children, with DPT/OPV coverage rmcs among children of women with no education falling from 87 percent in the casc of the tirst dose to 63 percent Ibr the third dose. Only 65 percent of children of women with no education received a measles vaccination, and only 75 percent received a BCG vaccination. A child's birth order also is related to coverage rates. The percentage fillly immunised among children o1" birth order 4 or higher is 55 percent, which is considerably lower titan the rate for first-born children (68 percent) and for second- and third-order births (67 percent). Coverage falls from 90 percent lbr the Iirst dose of DPT/OPV in mothers with 6 or more children to 63 percent for the tbird dose of DPT/OPV, further illustrating the high drop-out rate. There seems to be little difference between the vaccination levels of male and female children. Trend in Vaccination Coverage During First Year of Life Table 9.8 provides information on children 12-59 rnontbs and shows the percentage ofcbildren who have a vaccination record as well as the percentage who have received each vaccine during the first year of life according to iulbrmation from the vaccination records and mother's recall. As was tbe case in earlier tables, the distribution of vaccinations during the first year of life for children whose information was based on the mother's recall was assumed to be the same as that lbr children for wltom a vaccination record was available. Table 9.8 Vaccinations in the Iirst year of lil~ Percentage of children one to lbnr years of age fi~r whom a vaccination card was shown to the intcrvic',,,,er and the percentage vaccinated Ibr BCG, DH', polio, and measles during the lirst year of life, by current age of the child, Turkey 1993 Vaccine Current age of child in months All children 12-59 12-23 24-35 36-47 48-59 months Vaccination card s hown to interviewer 41.6 26.7 19.0 15. I 25.6 Percent vaccinated at 0- I t months a BCG 87.4 84.3 86.7 74.8 83.3 DPT l 91.8 89.6 85.3 80.4 86.8 I)lrf 2 86.7 84.9 81.5 75.4 82.1 I)PT 3 76.2 70.9 68.8 67.9 71.0 Polio I 92.3 911.4 86.1 81.3 87.5 F'olio 2 87. I 85.5 81.9 76.0 82.6 F'olio 3 76.4 71.2 69.3 68.2 71.3 Measles 69.0 70.2 59.4 58.0 64. I All vaccinations b 59.0 50.0 51.5 45.3 51.5 No vaccinations 4.7 5.7 8.8 13.6 8.3 Number of children 716 653 717 697 2783 alnlbrmafion was obtained either from a vaccination card or from the mother if there was no written record. For children whose inlbrmation was based on the mother's repon, the proportion of vaccinations given during the first year of life was assumed to ~e the same as that for children with a written vaccination record. Children who have received BCG. measles and three doses of DPT and polio vaccines. 99 The first row in Table 9.8 shows tile proportion of children agc 12-59 inonths for whom a vaccination card was seen by the interviewer. The proportion Ibr v~hom vaccination cards were seen declines with increasing age of child, from 42 percent among children age 12-23 inonths k) only 15 pcrcent among children age 48-59 months. Tile variation in vaccination coverage rates by Ihc child's age suggests that coverage rates have increased in the recent past. The proportion of children with no vaccinations dttriug the first year of life has decreased from 14 percent alnong children age 48-59 months to only 5 pcrccnl among childrell age 12- 23 months. The proportion of children who were full3 vaccinated during the first y car o1" life also increased from 45 percent among children age 48-59 months to 59 percent alnong children age 12-23 months. This might be an indicator of some progress in routine immunisation scrviccs or it might be cvahlaled as a result of lower vaccination card keeping in older age groups. The results ol" Ihc 1989 Cluster Survey on Vaccination are higher than the coverage rates |'ouud for children 48-59 months old in the 1993 TDttS. The drop-out rates between DPTI-DPT3 and DPTl-measlcs arc almost the same in all age groups. 9.3 Acute Respiratory Infection Acute respiratory infection (ARI) is tile most prevalent disease among infants and children under age five in Turkey, especially during the winter mouths. ARI has long been known to contribute significantly to child mortality. For example, a study carried out in the Etilnesgnt district during 1970 indicated that 34 percent of infant deaths and 32 percent of child deaths were due to pnetanonia. In 1986, the Control of Acute Respiratory Infections Programme (CARl) was launched in Turkey. By 1993, the programme was being carried out in 33 provinccs out of a total of 76 provinces. In other words, the CARl progralnme covers 34 percent of the total population. In this survey, tile prevalence of ARI was estimated by asking mothers if their children had experienced coughing, accompanied by short, rapid breathing, in the two weeks preceding the survey. For children who had experienced these symptoms, questions were asked about the type of treatment given and the proportion who had contact with the health services. Figures 9.6 and 9.7 shows the distribution of ARI by sex, birth order, residence and region. According to Table 9.9, 12 percent of children under five years ofagc werc ill with cough and rapid breathing, in other words ARI, at some time in the two weeks preccdiug the survey. This percentage is SOlnewhat lower than expected; however, one should take into consideration that the data collection activities were carried out during the summer and early fall when ARI levels would be lower than in the winter. Considering treatment patterns, 37 percent of children who have ARI v, ere taken to a health facility, 30 percent were reported to have received antibiotic treatment including injections, 44 percent received cough syrup and 41 percent received other inediciues. There is no apparent differential by sex of the child in using a health facility for ARI treatment or in prescribing antibiotics including injections. However, cough syrup was used somewhat more often for female children than for male children (52 percent and 36 percent, respectively). "Other remedies" for ARI treatment are also used more for female children than for male children (45 percent and 36 percent, respectively). Parents seem to be more sensitive to seeking health care for babies under age one. Similarly, luothers have used both antibiotics and cough syrup more often to treat their first-born children than other children. I00 Male Female SEX Figure 9.6 Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infection by Sex and Birth Order Percent TDHS 1993 H H H H H H ~ ~ ~ 1 2 -3 BIRTH ORDER 4-5 6+ Percent Figure 9.7 Prevalence of Acute Respiratory Infection by Residence and Region 18 18 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 Urban Rura l RES IDENCE West South Cent ra l Nor th East REGION TDHS 1993 101 Table 9.9 Prevalence and treatment of acute respirator'f inlbclion Percentage of children under live years who ~erc ill x~ith a cough accompanied h) rapid breathing during the tx~o ~cek! preceding the survey, and the percentage of ill children who x~cre trcalcd ~ith specific relncdics, b 3 ~.elccled background characteristics, 'lurkey 1993 Anlong children ~ flh cough and rapid breathing Percentage I'crcclllagc Percentage treated x~ith: of children lakcn Io with cough a heal01 Antibiolic None/ Number Background and rapid laciliD or pill or C~lugh Ihlmc Don't know/ of characteristic breathing provider I syrup hl.icctiol~ s.~rup reined) Other Missing children Child's age < 6 months 13.6 46.6 2116 00 408 1.4 55.1 17.8 329 6-11 months 14.5 51.2 26.7 140 497 2.2 40.6 19.7 380 12-23 months 17.6 322 20.0 72 45.8 12 39.(I 29.9 716 24-35 months 9.7 42.5 23.2 74 46.8 0.0 30.5 28.6 653 36-47 months 9.6 36.5 24.3 8.5 457 98 42.8 21.9 717 48-59 months la.g 26.3 21.4 5.8 32.3 2.1 40.6 333 696 Sex Male 13.11 36.1 22.5 6.7 36.2 .,._ .,6. 31.9 1803 Female I 1.8 .38 7 22.0 8.0 52.3 2. I 452 20.1 1694 Birth order I 11.5 49.g 255 7.7 57(I 19 34.6 21A 1147 2-3 12.9 33.5 20.4 47 43 ~ 36 437 230 1447 4-5 13.8 273 217 11.7 25.5 12 42.8 430 471 6+ 11.6 31.5 21.8 106 327 3.6 41.1 32.2 432 Residence Urban 10.3 44.3 28.8 7.5 50.9 39 45.9 15.5 2108 Rural 15.7 30.3 15.9 72 364 1.5 35 2 373 1389 Region West 7.5 56. I 24.6 3.5 56. I 5.3 49 1 10 5 940 South t3.3 42,1 24.2 13.7 68.4 4.2 5a.5 14.7 550 Central 13.6 28.2 12.6 4.8 39.8 19 41.7 28.1 776 Norlh t3.9 39,7 256 26 41.0 3.8 48.7 16.7 342 East 15.4 31.3 26.5 9.5 27.7 08 27.0 43.[I 889 Mother's education No educ./Pri, incomp, 15.3 32.8 21.7 I 1.2 35.6 2.2 396 34.6 1255 Pri. comp./Sec, incomp. 11.2 37.3 20.9 4.5 45.7 2,1 41).1 23.3 1753 Sec. comp./+ 9.5 55,8 31.0 33 67.6 7.3 46.2 6.4 489 All children 12.4 37.3 223 7.3 43.6 2,7 40.5 26.5 3497 Note: I:igutcs arc Ibr children born in the period 1-59 months preceding tile survey. qncludes health house, health ccnlr•, hospital, and private doctor. Tile percentage of children taken to a health facility is higher ill urban areas (44 percent) than rural areas (30 percent), despite the lower ARI prevalence in urban areas. Urban children suffering from ARI symptoms are also more likely than rural children to receive autibiotics, cough syrup or other treatments. By region, children with ARI are less likely to be taken to a health facility in the Central region, followed by tile Eastern region. The Eastern region has the highest percentage of children with ARI symptoms receiving no treatment, while tile lowest antibiotic treatment rate is reported in the Central region. 102 The likelihood that a child with ARI will be taken to a health facility or given at least sorne treatment increases with the mother's level of education. Only 6 percent of mothers with a secondary or higher education reported that they did nothing to treat ARI symptoms in their children compared to 35 percent of mothers ~ith no education. 9.4 Diarrhoea Dehydration brought on by severe diar- rhoea is an important cause of morbidily and mortality among children in Turkey. The Na- tional Control of Diarrhoeal Diseases Programme was implemented in 1986. The main objcctive of the programme was prevention of deaths by pre- vention of dehydration. For this reason, Oral Re- hydration Therapy tORT) has been taught active- ly since the 1980s. In tile 1993 TDHS, mothers of children under age five were asked if their children had experienced a bout of diarrhoea within the past two weeks and in tile 24 hours prior to interview• Mothers were also asked what treatment they had given to those children who had diarrhoea. In interpreting these findings, one should take into consideration that the TDHS ficldwork took place between August and October. Since the prevalence of diarrhoea varies seasonally, the results do not represent the average prewdcnce of diarrhoea throughout the year in Turkcy. Table 9. I 0 and Figure 9.8 show the per- centage of children under five years of age with diarrhoea during the two weeks preceding the survey. Overall one-quarter of the children had lub lc 91U I 'rcxalencc of diarrhoea I)~:rccnlugc of children under lixc ~ cars x~ho had diarrhoea ill the Ix+() x+eck~, preceding Ih,2 surx cx, and tilt" percentage of children who had diarrhoea in the preceding 24 hours, h? ~,cleclcd background characlcrb, tic~,, lurkc3 1993 l)iarrhocu I)iarrhoca ill Ihc ill the Nltl1111~21 Background prcccdin[z past o l characteristic 2 ~ccks 24 hlulr~ children (h i ld ' s age • 6 111onths 260 154 329 fl- I I morlths 4110 188 IR6 12-23 IIIOlllhs ]6 I 17 1 71 b 24-35 nlonths 267 12 0 653 36-47 months 14 0 5.5 717 48-5 ~) months 133 4.2 t~9I+ Sex Mille 2fi7 12.3 1803 Female 22 7 IlL I 1694 Birth order I 2.16 10 4 1147 2-3 235 10.5 1447 4-5 250 131 471 6* 2~2 14 (I 432 Residence t !rban 22 7 9. I 2108 R urul 28 O 14.5 1389 Region Wcsl 199 7 8 94(I South 21 7 *).7 550 Central 240 q.8 776 North 22,5 8.7 3,12 last 333 18 I 889 Mother ' s education No cduc/Pri, incomp 28.2 13.8 1255 Pri. COlllp /S¢C incolllp 24.3 la.7 1753 SCC. comp./+ 177 6.5 489 All children 248 I 1+2 34q7 Nolo: Figures arc IPr children born in tile period 1-59 months preceding the survc). experienced diarrhoea at some time in tile tx~o weeks preceding the survey, and 1 I percent were still having an episode of diarrhoea at the time of the survey. In the 1988 TPI IS, the two-week prevalence of diarrhoea Ibr the same period (August-September) was 24 percent. This finding suggests that measures designated to prevent diarrhoea, which were introduced following the 1988 survey, have not resuhed in any change in diarrhoea prevalence during last five years• Children age 6-1 I months and 12-23 months were the most likely to have experienced diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey (40 percent and 36 percent, respectively). This pattern has been observed in many surveys, including the 1988 TPHS, and is believed to be associated with tile effects of weaning practices and poor sanitation, especially the use of contaminated water supplies. 103 Figure 9.8 Pecentage of Children under Five Years with Diarrhoea, by Age, Sex, Birth Order and Residence CHILD 'S AGE (months) < 6 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 -11 12 .23 L . . . . . . . . . . 24-35 t . . . . . . . . . : - 36-47 . . . . . 48-59 ~+,~-~Z" : -" - B IRTH ORDER i ] 2-3 ] 4= 5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] 6+ SEX Male Female RES IDENCE Urbml ~ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ ~ R u ral ~\ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \ \~ 0 10 20 30 40 Percent TDHS 1993 There are no marked dilti~rcnccs in diarrhoea prevalence by sex or birth order. The prevalence of dian'hoca appears to be slightly higher among rnral children (28 percent), children in the East (33 percent) and children whose mothers are without any education (28 percent) than among other children. 'fhese findings are similar to the 1988 TPI IS results. Table 9. I I shows the practices of mothers in treating diarrhoea. Mothers reported that 24 percent of children with diarrhoea were not given any treatment. Rfiral children, children living in the Eastern and Western regions and children whose mothers had no education were the least likely to receive treatment. With regard to treatment practices, one-fourth of children who had diarrhoea were taken to the health facility tbr treatment. Fhfids made using a packet of oral rehydration salts (ORS) were used in treating the diarrhoea in I I percent of cases and 5 percent were given recommended home fluids; in 57 percent of the cases fluids were increased. The proportion of mothers who took their child to a healtll facility is higher in urban areas than in rural areas (30 percent and 19 percent, respectively), and urban mothers were more likely than rural mothers to use some form of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) or to increase fluids (69 percent and 52 percent, respectively). The Southern region shows both the highest percentages seeking health care (30 percent) and using ORS packets ( 14 percent). Use of ORS is highest in children age 6-23 mouths. This finding supports tile theory that these mothers may be receiving training in diarrhoea treatment during weaning instruction by health personnel. 104 Table 9.1 I Treatment of diarrhoea Percentage of children under five years ~ho had diarrhoea n he wo ~eeks preceding the survey who were taken liar treatment to a health l~cility or providen the percentage who received increased fluids and oral rehydralion ther~lp~ tORT), the percentage ',~ho received neither ORT nor increased Iluids. and the percentage receiving olher Ireatmcnls. acc~rdin~, to selected background chamclerislics. Turkey 1993 Oral rchydration Percentage receiving therapy tORT) Percentage other treatlncnts: Percentage Percentage receiving taken to Recom- receiving neither Number of a health mended in- OI~.T nor I lome Nl~ children Background l~cility or ORS home creased increased Anf- In- remedy/ treat- ~ilh characteristic provider I packets "~ sohltion Iluids lluids hiotics jet(inn Other ment diarrhoea Child's age < 6 months 27.3 9.7 58 36.5 55.1 15.3 42 33.4 33.1) 86 6-11 nlolaths 35.7 15.4 3.7 52.6 42.3 23.0 3.4 27 1 26.7 154 12-23 months 28.4 15.2 5.6 63.4 31.9 21.5 4.2 36.3 21).6 259 24-35 mt~nths 20.9 9.8 4.4 58.8 38.(I 2(I.I 1.1 37.4 233 174 36-47 months 12.1 6.6 2.8 57.3 4(16 15.0 2.11 35.5 25.9 I(111 48-59 m~nths 15.7 4.0 6.9 61.3 37.(I 153. I 0,0 36.6 21.5 93 Male 25.7 12.1 4.9 56.8 39.2 20.7 3.6 34.5 23.4 481 Female 23.7 111.5 4.9 57.1 38.4 18.1 1.7 34.6 25.2 385 Birth order I 27.3 13.4 3.1 58.7 35.9 21.6 1.9 36.2 23.1 282 2-3 25.0 9.9 6.4 58.4 38.8 17.5 2.6 35.7 23.3 340 4-5 23.0 7.8 4.8 53.2 43.0 13.0 4.1 39.3 28.(I I Ig 6 + 20.4 14.3 4.7 52.7 41.5 26.5 3.6 23.2 25.5 126 residence Urban 29.9 12.2 4.4 64.7 31.2 22.7 3.6 39.0 17.4 478 Rural 18.6 10.4 5.4 47.4 48.2 15.6 1.7 29.(I 32.6 388 Region West 27.8 11.3 7.9 52.3 41.1 14.6 2.6 35.1 27.2 187 South 29.7 14.2 2.6 70.3 24.5 3(I.3 3.9 48.4 14.8 119 Central 18.8 6.6 3.8 59.0 39.3 17.1 2.7 38.2 22.7 186 North 21.4 9.5 I1.1 62.7 33.3 15.1 (1.8 37.3 19.0 78 East 25.6 13.8 2.9 51.8 44.3 21.0 2.9 25.6 28.4 296 Mother's education No educ./Pri. 23.9 80 2.9 48.0 48.9 22.3 4.0 26.9 30.0 354 incomp. Pri. comp./Scc. incomp. 24.6 13.7 7.1 61.4 33.3 16.5 1.5 38.7 22.1 425 Sec. colnp./+ 29.7 13.8 2.3 71.9 24.4 23.1 3.5 45.3 11.0 87 All children 24.8 11.4 4.9 57.0 38.8 t9.5 2.7 34.5 24.2 866 Ilncludcs health house, health centre, hospital, and private doctor. 2OraI rehydration salts 105 Ihe I ~¢)3 I1 )1 IN al~o direcll.~ in~ estigated Ihe exteill Io ~,', h i~:h illolher~ made cllallges in Ihe alllOtllll o f Iiquid~ thai ~i d l i ld recei~ ed durillg a diarrhoeal cpNode. I 'o oblain tile dala. illolliers ~.~,lio repel'led lilal the) ~ei'~.' stilt breaslfe~.,dillg a ,,:hild ~ufl~ring fronl diarrhoea ~¢n.' licked ~h¢lller Ih¢)had changed the p:illern o1" hrc.a~ill.'edin7 dtirhlg Ihe diarrhoeal episode. Ii1 addition, all mothers ~ll~ had a cllild ~i i l i dial'rho~.'a v, ere asked i f Ihey lind ¢hilllged lhe anlounl o f tluid.~ gi~,en to file child lla ~, inl~ lh¢ diarrhoeal episode. lablc 9.12 shm~ thai tnolhers o f I q percent el'children ~l lo had diarrhoea and ~ele still being brea~,llTd repelled thai tile) had increased llic I?equcnc) ol'breasl I{'eding during the dhirrhoeal episode, and 74 per,~:enl rl~pOlll2d lhi.iI the) had nlailllaiiled II~c ~alne I'reqllCn¢) o1" IL'eding~. Molhers o f Oli]) 4 p¢l'¢c'nl o f Ihe children repelled a reduced fi'equeil~:) o f brea~tfeeding. In lhe I~)g14 IP I IS . a sonlc~hal higher perceillage ((i percenl) o f Ihe nlolhers ~ he ~,~.'l'e brea~ll{'edin7 bcl'ore diarrhoea Sial'led rcporled Ihal they slopped brc'asllTedillg dtlrillg a diarrlioeal ailack. lable i;. 12 also MIm~ thai. ~lllhllll~ all children ~i i l l diarrhoea, the nlajorii) either were given more Iluid.~ {56 perc¢lll) or rec:ei~ed Ihe ~1111¢ ~illiOtlnl (.l(i pcrccnlJ Ihe [inlOtllll o f l]uid gi~eil ~as redilced in onl) 7 pel'cCnl o f lhe cases. I , ihl¢ ij 12 I ccdiln~ piaciicc~ duriu~ d iill'l-hoc',l I'crcclil dis i l iht l l i l l l l i~l d i i ldrc l l i lnd¢l 11~¢ %c{11"~ t lho had di~lllhO¢ll ill Ih• t'~%ll *l%¢ck~ plc'cc'dill~ Ih¢ ~tlr'~c). h~+ 17cdiil 7 pi~lciiccs duri l ig diarihoca. I iirkc3 199.t I cedinu pial:llcc s Pcrc~nl Breastfeeding frequency ~ ~1n1¢ tD, LI~LILll 744 Increased 192 Rcdtl¢¢d 4 I Nmppcd 05 [)Oli ' l kllo'~ iMissiilg 18 Nttlllbcr of childrcrl 733 Amount of fluids given Name as usual 35.6 Mm'c 55.6 I.css 74 I)on'i knm~/Missing 14 Nunlhc'r of ,,:hildrcn ~ illi diarrhoea 2 g66 IApplies only 1o children vdm arc slill hrcasUL'd % luldrcn born tn the pcliod 1-59 monlhs prccc,.ling Ih¢ surv¢). 106 1 CtlAPTER I0 INFANT FEEDING, MATERNAL AND CHILDHOOD NUTRITION Ergiil Tunfbilek This chapter c(Yvers two related topics: infant feeding and nutritional status. Infant feeding includes brcastfeeding practices, introduction of supplementary weaning foods, and use of feeding bottles. Nutritional status is based on height and weight measurements of buth children under the age of five years and their nlothers. II).l Bre',tsffeeding and Supplementation Inl~ull fecdiog has fill impact on both the child and the mother. Feeding practises are important dclerminallls of tile child's nulritional status, which in turn inlltJences tile risk of dying. The mother is all':clod by breast feeding through its effects on postpartum infertility, which is related to the length of birth intcrxals, and thus to l~:nility levels, These el'fi:cts are inlluenced b~ both the duration and intensity of brca~,tfi:cding and the age at ~hich tile child receives supplemental tbods and liquids. Breast milk is sterile and coulaJns all tile nutrients needed by children in the first I'c~s rnontbs of life. In addition, it provides some iummn it~ to disease through tile motller's antibodies and helps in reducing the prevalence of diarrhoea and nt~lritional deficiencies, International guidelines ~ l~r tbe feeding ol" infants and yotmg children recommend that infants receive o111~ breast milk for tile first 4 to 6 nlonths of life. During this time, IlO other lbods or liquids arc needed. Begilming at about 4 inonths, adeqtmte and appropriate complementary foods should gradtmlly be added to the infant's diet in order to provide sufficient nutrients for optimal growth. Breastfeeding shotlld continue, along witb the COlnplelnentary foods, up to the second birthday or beyond. It is recommended that a t~:eding bottle should not be used at any age. In addition, the recommendations of the Baby Friendly I lospilals Initiative, launched by WHO. include the early initiation of breastfeeding. As Table 10.1 indicates, breastfeeding is almost universal in Turkey; 95 percent of all children are breastfi:d for some period of time. DifFerentials in the proportion of children breastt~:d are quite small. No subgroup has less than 94 percent of children as having ever been breastfed. liarly iniOation of breastfeeding is of benelit to both mother and infant. Suekliug stimulates production ol" oxylocin, a hormone thai causes the inother's uterus to contract. "File first breast milk, colos- tl-Um, protects Ihc nexsborn infant froln int~ctions because of its high concentration of antibodies. hll'ormation prcsenled on the liming of initiation of" breastfecding for last-born children indicates that initiation to brcastl~eding is rather late (Table 10.1). Only one-fifth of last-born children were started breast feeding as early as x~ ilhin one hour of birth. As regards the subgroups, there is almost no variation in the initiation of breastfizeding xsith respect to sex ofthe child, residence, educational level of the mother, and utilisation of health services during delivery. The only marked variation in the timing of initiation of breast feeding is obserxed among regions. The percentage of last-born children who started breastfeeding v¢ithin one hour of birth is highest in tbe Northern region (24 percent) and lowest in tile Eastern region ( 17 percent). ~lhc 1990 hmocenti Declaration on tile Protection, Promotion and Support of Breastfeeding resulted from a irlecting sponsored by WItO and UNICEF, and cosponsored by SIDA and USAID. 107 Table It).l Initial hrcastllzeding Percentage of children born in the live years preceding the survey ;',ho were ever breastfcd, and Ihe perccnlagc of lasl-born children v, ho started brcastl~eding within one hour of birth and within one da) of birth, b) selected background characteristics, lurkc) 1993 Among all children: Among last-born children, percentage who started brcastl~cding: I'crcenlagc Number Within Within Number Background c',cr of 1 hour I day of characteristic brcastli:d children of birth of birth children Sex Male 94 6 ] 924 20.0 74.t) 1478 I:cmalc 958 1812 19.8 780 1322 Residence I Irban 94.2 2236 20.2 76.8 1748 Rural 96.7 1500 19.4 74.3 105? Region West 94.9 996 186 80. I 820 South 95.6 59I 208 74.2 445 Central 95.7 833 22.4 77.4 638 North 959 359 243 75.7 273 East 945 957 16.5 70. I 624 Education N~ cduc./l'ri incomp. 95.4 1362 19.0 70.3 899 I'ri Ct~lnp./%cc. incomp. 94.7 1872 2(I.I 78.1 1464 Scc ctmlp./,', 96.5 502 21.2 798 437 Assistance at delivery Mcdicall? Iramcd person 95.0 2838 19.6 77.6 2233 I raditional inidx~ ili: 969 480 206 69.5 288 Olhcr. nolle or nfissillg ~.~44 418 21 6 683 279 Place of delivery I Iculth I]lcilil) 94.4 2233 189 76.1 1795 AI home. other or missing 96.6 151)3 217 755 1005 All children 95.2 3736 199 75.9 2800 Note: l'ablc is based on all children born in the five )'cars preceding the surge). ~hcthcr li~ing or dead ~ll the time of the ilnervic~. A large proportion of children did not start breastfeeding within one day of birtlL In the East, wbere mothers are usually less educated and give birth witllout tile assistance of a medically trained person, 30 percent of last-born children were not put to tile breast during the first day. This delayed exposure to the mother's breast may be inlluenccd by cuhural norms. In Turkey, there is a religious practice that calls for breastfeeding to start after 3 calls to prayer (ezan) following the child's birth, wbich means that there is almost a 15-hour delay. The percent distribution of living children by breastfeeding status at the time oftbe survey is sbown in Table 10.2 (based on feeding practises ill the last 24 hours before tbe interview). "Fxclusively brcastfed" denotes cbildren wbo receive breast milk only. "Children who are fully brcastfed" includes those who are exclusively breastfed and those who receive only plain water in addition to breast milk. 108 Table 10.2 shm~s that c~cn in 1110 hrsl inontll of life, onl3 19 perccnl of children were cxclusi,.cl 3 brcastl'cd. I Im'*c~ or. Ihe percentage o1" Ihlly breast fed children in the first nlontll o f lilb reaches 46 perccnl. One-third of the chihtrcn (33 pcrccnt) arc being given supplementary Ibod as carly as one month of age. The percentage o1" children rccci~ ing supplcmcnts rapidly increases to 53 percent among children 2-3 nlonths el" age. Earl 3 introduction of supplenlcnlary food Io inlhnt nutrilion increases the risk of gastrointestinal inlbctions, ~'*hich is OllC oJ' lhc leading caases O J" infant nlortality in ]'urkc.v. I able I0 2 Breaslli:cdimz slillut, Ihdrcctlt tli~lribullnn e l li~ing d~ilthcn b} breastli.,cding status, accordill~2 Io child's it2¢ ill inonths. I urkc~ It)9~ I'crt'Clll;tI2¢ e l li,.ing children ~ho ;ire: I~reas{li:¢dillg nnd: NtlmbCr Not I':\clu',i~ cl 2 , Plain Su[2ar o1 brea~l- breaM- x~,alcr and Supple- li',ing \ - c m in,mthr, Iccdin~2 I~:d onl} X~ill¢l' IllClllN la ta l children ~- I t .fl 18.9 27.5 197 32 t) 100.0 95 2- Ifl [ 11).3 211.7 56 53.3 I00.0 139 -ft. 43 98 11.9 64.7 I 0(I.0 13{) 6-7 ~ " ,0_ 09 4.6 13 630 I()0.0 144 8-9 383 (19 30 (},0 57,8 I00.0 135 I~-I I 393 2.9 3.6 O0 54.2 I00.0 107 12-13 54Jh 14 110 (}0 .14.0 100.0 145 14-15 49.9 II.O 0.0 0.0 501 I00,0 118 Ih-17 61,3 I0 1.2 0.0 3&5 I00.0 102 18-19 82.3 0.0 (1.8 0.0 16.9 I00.0 129 20-21 ~60 0.0 11.() 0.0 14.0 I00.0 I08 22-23 85. I O0 1.0 0.0 13.9 I{}0.0 I 13 2,1-25 91.8 06 0.0 11.0 7.6 I00.0 127 26-27 9{).6 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.4 100.0 I (17 28-29 91.1 {l.O 0.0 0.0 8.9 I00,{I 116 3o-31 90 5 O0 0.0 0.0 9.5 I000 I I I 32-33 97. I flO 011 0.0 2.9 I()().(] 76 34-35 98.8 O0 0{) 0.0 1.2 I00.0 116 Note: P, reastti:cding statur; rclbrs Io prcccdin# 24 hours Children classit3cd as hreast[eedmgan6 plltlll Illllt'l" OII/l' FCcq2i%c 1]0 Stlpplelnt2fas. "Fable 10.3 shows the percentage of breast feeding children receiving various types of supplements: the categories are not mutually exclusive, that is, a cllild may be receiving more tban one type of supplement. Looking at tile type of supplement received by breasttizd children in more detail, one sees that 15 percent of cbildren 0-I months of age receives infant formula and this percentage increases rapidly to 28 percent among children 4-5 months of age, and then drops slowly as age incrcases. Children are more likely to receive other kinds of milk or liquids other than infant lbrmula after 0-1 months of age. Nearly half of the children 10-18 months of age ','*'ere given other milk, most probably cow's m ilk. as a supplement to weaning food (Table 10.3). 109 l~lble 10.3 Brcustl~cding and supplementation by age Pcrcenlag¢ of hrcasl(cedmg children ~ho arc recei,,ing specific l}pes of I~)od supplclnenlution, and the percentage ;',l'to are using a botlle wilh a nipple, by age in monlhs. I urkc3 1993 Percentage of brcaslfizcding children ,,',ho arc: Receiving supplement IIsing a holtle Number Age Inlhnl Other 1 )lher Solid/ with a o1" in months lbrmula milk liquid Mushy n ipp le children (I-I 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 I0 -1 I 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 24-25 26-27 28-29 3O-3 I 32-33 34-35 14 7 6.3 21.2 20.7 28.7 44.9 27.5 34.9 73.5 2O2 42.2 86.4 12.1 38.5 92.6 10.5 49.2 882 185 40.9 96.0 8.3 52. I 982 (5.6) (321) (94.5) 0.0 177 94 8.3 30.4 125 28.6 30.9 I(14 35.0 350 I01 47.(I 139 83 48.6 23.1 65 55.9 286 66 67.4 113 59 (5551 (185) 40 23 15 17 10 l0 10 II 2 I Note: Breasllceding status rcl~rs to preceding 24 hours Percents h) type o1" supplclncnl among hrcasllccding children nla3 sum Io nlorc than 100 pcrccnl. ~ls children Ina3 ha'.c recei'.cd more than one type of supplerncnl. ( ) Figures in parentheses arc based on 25-49 cases. * I.css than 25 c;iscs One of the most striking results is thc early introduction ol'solid or mushy food into tile diet. Solid or mushy food begins to be introduced into the diet as early as 2-3 months of age, and the proportion of children receiving it rises to 20 percent by age 4-5 months. On the other hand, almost half of the breastfed children do not receive any solid or mushy Ibod unlil the', are around one ycar of ~lge. Tlus deleterious practice may be considered as one of the tmderlying factors of undernutrition amoag Turkish children. In 'Fable 10.3, tile extent to which bottles arc used to feed in|hnts is also presented. Although tilt majority of infants are not led with a bottle, bottle feeding is bc3ond tile desirable level. Around one-third of the breastfed children 2-7 months of age arc bottle fed. During this period children are vtdnerable to various gaslrointestinal inlL'ctions. Table 10.4 presents the estilnates o[" inedians and durations of breastfeeding patterns among subgroups: tile mean duration is shown for all children. The median duration ofbreastfeeding is 12 months. fhere is some variation in breastl;aeding duration across subgroups. The longest durations observed are for women living in tile East (I 7 nlOllllls) and for illitcrate w(.)ll"lell ( 16 nlontlls). Children living in rural areas, children of women will] less Ihan primary education, and (hose children who are not assisted by inedically trained personnel at delivery are more likely to have longer breastfeeding durations fllan others. Shorter median durations of 8-9 momhs are observed tbr children of inothers wilh secondary edtlcation and ibr those from Ibc Western and Northern regions. Median durations Ibr cxclusive and fidl breastfeeding are very short, and there are no luarked variations m the median durations of full and exclusive breastfeeding according to wuious background characteristics. I I0 Frequency of breastli:eding is also presented in Table 10.4. Eighty-one percent of children under 6 months of age were breastfed 6 or more times in the 24 hours preceding the interview. This feeding pattern occurs less often for children whose mothers have at least a secondary school education. Although breastfeeding is very common and the median duration is 12 months in Turkey, early introduction of supplementary food to the diet of some children and frequency of feeding are not enough to stimtdate the contraceptive effect of breast milk. The limi|ed contraceptive effect of breastfeeding is reflected in the relatively short median duration of postpartum amenorrhoea (4 months, see Table 6.5). Table 10.4 Mediari duration and li'equenc,t of breastlbeding Median duration ,.)1" any breasllEcding and Ihll breastl~ecding, and the percentage of children under six months of age v, ho were breaslli:d six or more times in the 24 hours preceding Ihc survey, by selected background chamclcrislics. Turkey 1993 Median duration in months Percentage < 6 months Number An). Exclusive Full Number breastfed of Background breast- breast- breast- of 6+ times in children characteristic I~eding I~:eding feeding I children last 24 hours < 6 months Sex Mide 12.8 0.5 0.7 I 151 79.9 185 FemaF¢ I 1.5 0.4 0.7 1083 82.6 178 Residence I Irhan 10,6 0.5 0,6 1326 80.7 218 P, uml 14.0 I).5 0.7 908 82.0 145 Region West 8.7 0.4 0.6 603 77.3 93 South 13.1 0.5 1.4 338 80.9 52 Central 10.8 0.5 0.7 494 86.4 83 North 7.5 0.5 0.6 223 (63.6) 40 East 173 0.5 0.6 576 88.2 95 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 15.6 0.5 0.6 767 85.2 117 F'ri. comp./Sec, ineomp. 10.3 0.4 O.7 1160 80.9 192 Scc. eornp./+ 8.8 0.5 0.9 307 73.8 54 Assistance at delivery Medically trained person 10.3 0.5 0,7 1731 79.0 275 Traditional midwilb 10.3 0.6 0.6 256 (90.6) 48 t)lher or none 14,4 0.4 0.5 247 (85.5) 40 All children I 1.9 0,5 0.7 2234 81.2 363 Mean 13 3 1,5 2.7 NA NA NA I'revalcncc/Iricidcncc mean 13.3 0.7 2. I NA NA NA Nolc: Medians and means arc based on current slalus. IEithcr exclusi',cl) breastlbd ,.)r received plain water only in addition to breaslfeeding. NA - Not applicable ( ) Figures in parentheses arc based on 25-49 cases. I11 10.2 Nutritional Status One of the major contributions of the TDHS to the study of child health status is the anthropometric data collected on the children of respondents. These data on children under five years of age allow for calculation of indicators of nutritional status. These indicators are important because children's nutritional status influences their susceptibility to disease and untimely death. Children's nutritional status reflects infant and child feeding practices as well as recurrent and chronic infections. Both the height and weight of children were measured and three indices were constructed based on the data and the child's age: height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age. 2 As recommended by WHO, the nutritional status of children in the survey is compared with an international reference population defined by the U.S. National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) and accepted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control (CDC). Use of this reference population is based on the finding that well-nourished young children of all population groups (for which data exist) follow very similar growth patterns (see Martorell and Habieht, 1986). In any large population, there is variation in height and weight; this variation approximates a normal distribution. The reference population serves as a point of comparison, facilitating the examination of differences in the anthropometric status of subgroups in a population and of changes in nutritional status over time. The height-for-age index isan indicator of linear growth retardation. Children whose height-for-age is below minus two standard deviations (-2 SD) from the median of the reference population are considered short for their age ("stunted"), and are chronically undernourished. Children who are below minus three standard deviations (-3 SD) from the median of the reference population are considered severely stunted. Stunting reflects the outcome of a failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period of time, and is also affected by recurrent and chronic illness. Height-for-age, therefore, represents a measure of the long- term effects of undemutrition in a population and does not vary appreciably according to the season of data collection. Stunted children are not immediately obvious in a population; a stunted three-year-old child could look like a well-fed two-year-old. The weight-for-height index measures body mass in relation to body length and describes current nutritional status. Children who are below minus two standard deviations (-2 SD) from the median of the reference population are considered thin ("wasted") and are acutely undernourished. Wasting represents a failure to receive adequate nutrition in the period immediately preceding the survey and may be the result of recent episodes of illness, causing loss of weight and the onset of undernutrition. Wasting may also reflect acute food shortage. Children whose weight-for-height is below minus three standard deviations (-3 SD) from the median of the reference population are considered to be severely wasted. Weight-for-age is a composite index of height-for-age and weight-for-height; it takes into account both acute and chronic undernutrition. It is a useful tool in clinical settings for continuous assessment of nutritional progress and growth. Children whose weight-for-age is below minus two standard deviations from the median of the reference population are classified as "underweight." In the reference population only 2.3 percent of children fall below minus two (-2 SD) for each of the three indices. Table 10.5 shows the percentage of children under five years of age classified as undernourished according to height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age indices, by the child's age group and selected demographic characteristics. ZAIthough the term "height" is used here, children younger than 24 months were measured lying down on a measuring board (recumbent length), whereas standing height was measured for older children. 112 Table 10.5 Nutritional status by demographic characteristics Percentage of children under five years who are classified as undernourished according to three anthro- pometric indices of nutritional status: height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age, by selected demographic characteristics, Turkey 1993 Detnographic characteristic Height-for-age Weight-for-height Weight-for-age Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Percentage Number below below below below below below of -3 SD -2 SD I -3 SD -2 SD I -3 SD - 2 SD t children Age <6 months 0.5 3.7 0.0 1.9 0.0 0.7 313 6-11 naonths 0.6 7.4 0.6 2.9 2.8 9.2 348 12-23 months 2.3 15.8 0.1 5.0 1.3 9.7 638 24-35 months 8.4 19.9 0.4 3.0 3.4 12.0 570 36-47 months 9. I 25.3 0.7 2.0 0.9 10.3 643 48-59 months 9,4 28.6 0.6 2.4 2.0 10.9 622 Sex Male 5.4 19.1 0.4 3.3 1.7 9.3 1617 Female 6.3 18.7 0.4 2.6 1.9 9.8 t 517 Birth order 1 3.4 13,0 0.2 2, I 0.9 7.3 1020 2-3 4.7 18.4 0.2 2.1 1.0 8.0 1316 4-5 10.1 24.3 1.3 4.9 3.4 13.0 407 6 + 11.9 30.5 0.5 6.0 4.8 16.7 391 Birth interval First birth 3.3 13.1 0.2 2. I 0.9 7.3 1029 < 2 years I 1.3 30.0 0.3 3.2 2.9 16.2 575 2-3 years 8. I 24.8 0.7 4. I 2.8 10.8 89 I 4 or more years 2.0 10.1 0.4 2.5 0.7 5.5 639 All children 5.9 18.9 0.4 3.0 1.8 9.5 3134 Note: Figures are for children born in the period 1-59 months preceding the survey. Each index is expressec in terms of the number of standard deviation (SD) units from the median of the NCHS/CDC/WHO international reference population. Children are classified as undernourished if their z-scores arc below minu: two or minus three standard deviations (-2 SD or -3 SD) from the median of the reference population. tlncludes children who are below -3 SD In the TDHS, all children under five years of age whose mothers were present in the sample household the night before the interview were eligible to be included in the anthropometric data collection. However, not all eligible children are included in the results presented here; the height or weight measurement is missing for 9.5 percent of eligible children (see Appendix D). Two of the indices (height- for-age and weight-for-age) are influenced by the accuracy of the reporting ofthc child's age, and the month and year of birth is not known for only 0.2 percent of the cases. Hence, height and weight data are shown for only 89 percent of the eligible children. The height-for-age index is an important indicator of chronic undernutrition. A period of at least 12 months or even 24 months is necessary to see the outcome of chronic nutritional problems. But, according to the survey results there is a marked deterioration in nutritional status after 6 months of age (Figure 10.1). This may imply that, contrary to expectations, height can be affected in a shorter duration than 2 years. We believe these findings should be investigated further. For each indicator of nutritional 113 Figure 10.1 Growth of Children Under Five Years, Mean Z-scores by Age in Months Z-scores 1 0.5 0 -0 .5 -1 -1 .5 -2 0 • , , , , , , , , , i , , , r , i , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , 6 12 18 24 30 '36 42 48 'S4' 69 Age in Months TOHS 1993 status, a comparison is made with the reference population and expressed as tbe mean number of z-scores from the median oftbc reference population. The xvcight-for-height z-score is close to that of the reference population except lbr children in tile second half of the first year, when the z-scores are negative (i.e., the children are thinner). There is a rapid dccline in the hcigbt-for-age and wcight-tbr age z-scores after tbe first 6 months of life. Height-for-age contimtes to decline until the fourth )'car of life and reaches one-third of the children between 48-59 months of age. I lowever, weight-for-age stabilizes around the second birlhday. Overall, tile youngest cbildrcn show no cvidcncc of undcrnutrition (Table 10.5). However, tbe proportion classified as stunted shows a steady iacrcasc starting in thc first year of life. The deterioration in nutritional status continues tbrough the second and third years of life, and thereafter appears to reach a plateau. Among children 24-59 months of age, 25 percent are classified as stunted (weighted average of the percentages in age groups 24 to 5¢)). According to the survey (Table 10.5), by age 5 nearly one-fiflb oftbe children are chronically mldernourished and about 10 percent are severely stunted. These patterns reflect inadequate feeding practiccs and the presence of recurrent and chronic illness. One of tile important observations is that increasing birth order is associated with an increase in tile percentage of undernutrition. Nearly one-third of children wbose birlh order is 6 or above and one-fourth of children wbose birth order is 4-5 are stunted and about 10 percent of these children are severely undernourished. Birtll interval is one of the most important variables affecting the height-for-age index. Children wbo are born witb all interval of less than two years are intlcb more prone to be stunted. Of tbcse children, 30 percent are stunted and I I percent arc severely stunted. 114 Overall, wasting is not a problem. Three percent of children have a weight-for-height z-score below -2SD which is very close to the reference population. However, this figure increases to 5 percent among children between 12-23 months of age and lbr those with a birth order of 4-5 whereas it increases to 6 percent amoug children whose birth orders are more than 6. Weight-fbr-age is an index retlecting both height-lbr-agc and weight-for-height. According to the survey results, nearly 10 pcrcent of all children are tmdcrweighl and almost 2 percent are severely underweight. Birth order and birth interval are the two most important ['actors affecting this index. Table 10.6 shows the percentage of children under five years of age classified as undernourished (according to the three anthropmnetric indices) by socioeconomic characteristics. There are striking differences in the percentage classified as stunted according to the mother's level of education. Uudernutritiml is not a problem among children of mothers with secondary education or higher; the percentage of children who are below the -2 SD cut-off point (4.4 percent) is close to that seen for the reference population (2.3 percent), hi contrast, almost one-third of children whose mothers lack formal education are classified as stunted. There are also urban-rural and regional differences. Stunting is more common in rural (25 percent) than in urban areas (15 percent). The highest levels of stunting are seen in the Eastern region (33 percent) and the lowest levels are in the Western and Northern regions (10-13 percent). Similar findings hold for weight-for-height and weight-for-age. There are also marked regional differences. I'ablc 10.6 Nutritional status by socioeconomic characteristics Percentage of children under live years who are classified as undernourished according to three anthro- pometric indices of nutritional status: height-for-age, weight-[br-height and weight-lbr-age, by selected socioeconomic characteristics, Turkey 1993 Socioeconomic characteristic 11cight-lbr-age Wcight-lbr-height Weighl-lbr-age Percentage I:'crecntage F'ercenlage F'ercentage r'ercentage Percentage Number below below bclo;v below below below of -3 St) -2 SI) I -3 SD -2 SI) I -3 SD -2 SD I children Residence Urban 3.7 14.8 0,4 2.9 1.2 7.9 1892 Rural 9.2 25.2 0.5 3.0 2.6 12.0 1242 Region Wesl 1.6 10.2 0.3 2.6 0.4 4.8 852 South 3.7 14.8 0.2 1.4 0.6 6.8 486 Central 5.1 18.8 0.3 1.8 1.3 7.0 703 North 5.2 12.9 1).2 1.4 0.4 6.4 303 East 12.7 33.3 0.9 5.9 4.8 19.7 790 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. I 1.6 30.3 0.7 4.5 3.8 16.2 I 115 Pri. com./See, incomp. 3.2 14.9 0.3 2.3 0.8 6.7 1583 S¢c. comp./+ (].8 4.4 0.3 1.5 0.0 2.5 436 Total 5.9 18.9 0.4 3.0 1.8 9.5 3134 Note: Figures are lbr children born in the period 1-59 months preceding the survey. Each index is expresse~ in terms of the number of standard deviation (SD) units Ii"om the median of the NCHS/CDC/WtlO inlernational reli:renee population. Children are classilied as undernourished if their z-scores are below minu two or minus three standard deviations (-2 SD or -3 SD) from the median of the reference population. 1Includes children who are below -3 SD 115 10.3 Maternal Nutrition Several indicators can be used to assess women's nutritional status (Krasovec and Anderson, 1991). In the TDHS, women who had given birth in the last 5 years before the interview were weighed and measurements were taken of their height and mid-upper-arm circumference. The same equipment, i,e., an electronic scale with accuracy of+/- 100 grams and an expandable wooden measuring board, was used to measure the weight and height of both women and children. Women's arm circumference was measured using an insertion tape. Height or weight measurements are missing for 4 percent of respondents. Table 10.7 shows the distribution as well as the means and standard deviations of the anthropometric indicators: height, weight, body mass index, and mid-upper-ann circumference. Indicators based on a woman's weight are not shown for currently pregnant women. Attained adult height is associated with socioeconomic status, reflecting the end result of access to food and severity of illness during the childhood and adolescent years. Maternal height can be used to predict the risk of delivery complications because short stature is associated with a small pelvis. Cut-off points between 140 and 150 centimetres are usually used to identify women who are at risk of potentially complicated deliveries. In the TDHS, the average height for mothers was 155 centimetres. Two percent are shorter than 145 centimetres and 16 percent were below 150 eentimetres. The body mass index (BMI) relates a woman's weight to her height: it is defined as the weight in kilograms divided by the squared height in metres. A cut-off point of 18.5 has been suggested for defining chronic undemutrition. In the TDHS, 2.3 percent of the women measured fall in this category, and the mean value of the BMI is found to be 25.8. Clear guidelines for defining obesity are not agreed upon; however, it has been suggested that those with a BMI above 25.0 are overweight. Fifty-one percent of the mothers measured fall in this category, including 19 percent who have a BMI of at least 30.0, indicating obesity. Maternal mid-upper-ann circumference can be used as an indicator of maternal nutritional status. It is useful even in pregnant women because of a correlation with pre-pregnant weight-for-height indicators. Cut-off points of 21.0-23.5 centimetres have been suggested. Seven percent of the mothers have an arm circumference below 23 centimetres, the mean being 28 centimetres. Thirty-eight percent have an arm circumference above 29 centimetres. The findings suggest that obesity is a problem among mothers. Table 10.8 summarises maternal nutritional status by background characteristics, showing mean height and percent with a height below 145 cantimetres, mean BMI and percent with a BMI below 18.5, and mean arm circumference and percent with arm circumference below 23.0 centimetres. There was a consistent difference in height by the woman's levd of education: increasing from a mean height of 154.7 cantimetres among those who had never been to school or not completed their primary education to 156.7 centimetres for women who had completed secondary education. Differences by age should be interpreted cautiously because of the nature of the sample. However, it is interesting to note that the youngest mothers (< 20 years) are taller than women 20-34 years of age, suggesting that there might be an overall improvement in nutritional status over time. The proportion with BMI below a cut-off point of 18.5 was slightly higher in the Western and Eastern regions than in the other areas of the country. The proportion with arm circumference below a 23.0 cantimetre cut-off was 11 percent in the Eastern region compared to 5-6 percent in the other regions. A higher proportion of woman in rural areas had arm circumference below tbe cut-off point than in urban areas (8 versus 6 percent). 116 Table 10.7 Anthropometric indicators of maternal nutritional status Percent distribution and mean and standard deviation for women who had a birth in the five years preceding the survey by selected anthropometric indicators (height, weight, body mass index (BMI), and arm circumference), Turkey 1993 Distribution including Indicator Total missing Height (cm) < 140 03 0.3 140-144 1.9 1.9 145-149 13.4 12.9 150-159 64.3 61.5 160-169 19.7 18.8 170-179 0.3 0.3 > 180 0.1 0.1 Missing 4.2 Total 100.0 100.0 Number of women 2646 2763 Mean 155.4 Standard deviation 5.5 Weight (kg) < 40 0.4 0.4 40-49 14.0 13.5 50-59 34.3 33.0 60-69 27.6 26.5 70 23.7 22.8 Missing 3.8 Total ! 00.0 100.0 Number of women 2311 2402 Mean 62.2 Standard deviation 12.1 BMI < 16.0 0.0 0.0 16.0-18.4 2.3 2.2 18.5-20.4 9.0 8.6 20.5-22.9 21. I 20.2 23.0-24.9 16.9 16.2 25.0-26.9 14.7 14.0 27.0-28.9 12.4 I 1.8 29.0-29.9 4.9 4.7 > 30.0 18.7 18.0 Missing 4.3 Total 100.0 100.0 Number of women 2300 2402 Mean 25.8 Standard deviation 4.9 Arm circumference (cm) < 21.0 0.7 0.6 21.0-21.9 2.0 2.0 22.0-22.9 4.2 4.1 23.0-23.9 5.9 5.7 24.0-24.9 7.3 7.0 25.0-25,9 10.2 9.8 26.0-26.9 12.8 12.3 27.0-27.9 8.1 7.8 28.0-28.9 10.6 10.2 29.0-29.9 9.5 9. I -> 30.0 28.7 27.6 Missing - 3.8 Total 100.0 100.0 Number of women 2658 2763 Mean 28.1 Standard deviation 3.7 117 Table 10.8 Differentials in maternal anthropometric indicators Mean height and percentage of women shorter than 145 centimclrcs, mean body mass index (BMI) and percentage of women whose BMI is less than 18.5, and mean aml circumli:rcnce and percentage of women with arm circumference less than 23 centimetres, according to selected background characteristics, Turkey 1993 Ileight BMI Arm circumllzrence Background Percent Percent Percent characteristic Mean <145 cm Number Mean <18.5 Number Mean <23 cm Number Residence Urban 155.7 2.0 1643 26.0 3.0 1446 28.3 6.2 1650 Rural 154.9 2.6 1003 25.5 1.8 854 27.7 8.2 101'18 Region West 155.5 1.9 764 25.8 3.5 678 28.3 5.8 765 South 155.5 1.8 418 26.5 1.5 368 28.6 5.2 426 Central 155.3 2.4 604 26.0 1.8 526 28.0 6.1 6(16 North 154.3 4.9 262 25.9 1.3 231 28.0 6.3 261 Fast 155.8 1.4 598 24.9 3.6 497 27.4 10.6 600 Age of woman < 20 156.2 0.5 146 23.3 4.6 110 25.8 12.9 148 20-34 155.5 2.2 2133 25.5 2.9 1850 27.9 7.3 2138 35 + 154.6 2.9 367 28.0 0.0 340 29.8 2.6 372 Children ever born I 156.1 1.9 782 24.1 4.6 626 26.9 9.9 788 2-3 155.3 2.1 1161 26.1 2.5 1052 28.3 6.1 1166 4-5 154.8 2.7 375 27.0 0.6 326 28.9 5.9 374 6 + 154.7 2.5 328 26.9 0.7 296 28.8 4.0 330 Education No educ./Pri, incomp. 154.7 3.3 855 26.2 2.0 712 28.1 8.2 861 Pri. comp./Sec, incomp. 155.4 1.7 1387 25.8 2.4 1216 28.1 6.2 1391 Sec. comp./+ 156.9 1.8 4114 24.8 4.3 372 27.8 6.5 406 Total 155.4 2.2 2646 25.8 2.6 2300 28.1 6.9 2658 118 REFERENCES Hacenepe University, Institute of Population Studies (HIPS). 1980. Turkish Fertility Survey, 1978. First Report, Volume 1: Methodology and Findings. Ankara: HIPS. Hacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies (HIPS). 1987. 1983 Turkish Population and Health Survey. Ankara: HIPS. Hacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies (HIPS). 1989. 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey. Ankara: HIPS. Hancloglu, A. 1991. Estimation of Levels and Trends in Mortality from Information on the Survival Status of a Close Relative: Turkey 1970-1985. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation. Ankara: Hacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies. Hancloglu, A. and B. Akadh Erg/~:men. 1992. Some Social Aspects of Turkish Marital Unions and their Relationship with Early Age Mortality. The Turkish Journal of Population Studies, 14:3-26. Hatcher, R.A., O. Kowal, F. Guest, J. Trussell, F. Stewart, S. Bowen, and W. Gate. 1990. Contraceptive Technology: International Edition. Atlanta. Krasovec, K. and M.A. Anderson. 1991. Maternal Nutrition and Pregnancy Outcomes: Anthropometric Assessment, Scientific Publication No. 529. Washington D.C.: Pan American Health Organization. Martorell, R. and J.P. Habicht. 1986. Growth in Early Childhood in Developing Countries, in Human Growth: A Comprehensive Treatise. ed. F. Falkner and J.M. Tanner, 3:241-262. New York: Plenum Press. Rutstein, S.O. 1983. Infant and ChiM Mortality: Levels, Trends, and Demographic Differentials. WFS Comparative Studies No. 38. Voorburg, Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Rutstein, S.O. 1984. Infant and Child Mortality: Levels, Trends, and Demographic Differentials. Revised Edition. WFS Comparative Studies No. 43. Voorburg, Netherlands: International Statistical Institute. Shorter, F. 1994. An Assessment of the Demographic Situation: Part 1. Unpublished manuscript prepared for the Scientific Advisory Committee of the Demographic Analysis Unit, the State Institute of Statistics. Ankara, Turkey. State Institute of Statistics (SIS). 1991. 1989 Turkish Demographic Survey. Ankara: SIS. State Institute of Statistics (SIS). 1992. Statistical Yearbook of Turkey, 1991. Ankara: SIS. State Institute of Statistics (SIS). 1993. 1990 Census of Population: Social and Economic Characteristics of Population. Ankara: SIS. State Institute of Statistics (SIS). 1994. Basic Indicators for Women, 1978-1993. Ankara: SIS. State Planning Organisation. 1993. Turkey: National Report to the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development. Ankara: State Planning Organisation. Sullivan, J., G.T. Bicego and S.O. Rutstein. 1990. Assessment of the Quality of Data Used for the Direct Estimation of Infant and Child Mortality in the Demographic Surveys. In An Assessment of DHS-I Data Quality. DHS Methodological Reports, No.1. Columbia, Maryland: Institute for Resource Develop- ment/Macro Systems, Inc. United Nations Department of International Economic and Social Affairs. 1985. Socio-economic Development and Fertility Decline in Turkey. Background paper prepared for the Project on Socio- Economic Development and Fertility Decline. New York: United Nations. 119 APPENDIX A PERSONNEL INVOLVED IN THE TURKISH DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY APPENDIX A PERSONNEL INVOLVED IN THE TURKISH DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY Project Director Prof.Dr.Ay~;e Akin Dervi~o~lu General Directorate of MCI1/FP, Ministry of llealth Project Technical Director Assist.ProfiDr.Attila Hanclo~lu Ilacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies Field Director Assist.Pro f.Dr.Turgay Unalan Itacettepe University, Institute oJ Population Studies Anthropometric Consultant Assoc.ProEDr.Turgay Co~kun /Ictcellepe UnivcrsiO,, I)elxwtment of l'aediatrics Research Assistants Selma Tokcan I hwemy~e I,)liver~iO', hlstitute ~'l'opulation Studies Funda Albayrak Ilacettepe I,'niversiO'. hlslitute qf Polmlation ,t,'htdles Steering Committee ProfiDr.Ay~e Akin Dervi~;o~lu General I)irectorate of M('I III"P, Ministry oJ l h, ahh Prof.Dr.Ergiil Tun?bilek Ihtcettepe I/niversiO,, Institute of l'opulation Studies Prof.Dr.Aykut Toros Ilacettepe University, Institute of Population Studies Assist.Prof.Dr.Attila Hancm~,lu Ilacettepe (hliversit); his/little of Poptdation Studies Siihendan Ekni State Institute o/Statistics Assoc.Prof.Dr.Nesrin (~ilingiro~,lu State I'lanning Organisation Dr.Mehmet All Biliker General Directorate of M('IIIFP, Ministry of llealth Pro f.Dr.Mi.inevvcr Bertan lhtcettepe University. l)epartment of l'ttblic Ilealth U~ur Ayta? ( ieneral Directorate of MCI I/ll'. Ministry of l lealth Pmar Senlet Popuhttion Advisor, I/SAID Nuran 0 stihlo~,lu ( ;ene ral Directorate o/',~ t('I I, I"P, Mtnistt T o/Health Survey Director Profi Dr.Ergiil Tun~;bilek Ilacettepe UniversiO', Institute of Population Studies Head of Data Processing Assist.ProEDr.Banu Akadh Erg6qmen Ihtcettepe I/nA,ersity, Institute of l'opulation Studies Ilead of Sampling and Listing Assoc.Prof.Dr.Mahir Ulusoy Ilacettepe ~h#versity, hTstitltte oJ Popukltion Studies Regional Coordinators Giiler Sel Ihtcettepe Universi(v, btstitttte of Poptdation ,t;tmhes lsmet Ko? Ihtcettepe L'niversio', hLrtitute oJ l'oplthttirnt Similes All Erman 0zsoy Iklcettepe I 'nil'ersiO,, htstilltte o/Polnthttion ,%'tmhes Dr.Giil lirgfr Ihwettelw Univerxitv, Department o/I'uhhc I h,ulth DHS/MACRO Staff Dr.Edilberto I.oaiza ( "olmlrv 3[onitor l)r.Alfrcdo Aliaga A~unpling Dr.Ann Way Ihtta I)issemincltion cmd l 'ti l isattoll Kayc Mitchell Doc'lllllenl Pl'Odllclion Aylcnc Kovcnsk~ h'dltor Jonathan Dammons ¢ ;raphics 123 APPENDIX B SURVEY DESIGN APPENDIX B SURVEY DESIGN Mahir Ulusoy, Alfredo Aliaga, and Attila Hanclo lu The major features of sample design and implementation for the Turkish Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) are described in this section. Sample design features include: target sample size, choice of domains, sampling stages, stratification, degree of clustering, and the relationship of design decisions to the nature of the sample frame. For a more complete description of the material covered in the description of sample designs of DHS surveys, see the DHS Sampling Manual, Basic Documentation Series, No. 8, pp. 59-66. Sample implementation refers to any cartographic and listing work that was needed to update, improve, or generate the ultimate sample lists of households or individuals, and includes procedures for the final household selection. This section also presents information on fieldwork, including descriptions of recruitment and training of interviewers, the composition of interviewing teams, quality control procedures, and various practical problems encountered. Response rates for urban and rural areas and regions are presented. For a more complete discussion of the calculation of response rates, see the DHS Sampling Manual, Basic Documentation Series, No. 8, pp. 55-57. An account is also given of the data collection, data processing and analysis, which covers such topics as questionnaire design, pretest, training, and the final weighting factors (design plus nonresponse weights) used for tabulations. B.1 Sample Design and Implementation A weighted, multistage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used in the selection oftbe TDHS sample. The TDHS was designed so that a variety of characteristics would be analyzed for various domains. These domains, which are distinguished in the tabulation of important characteristics, are: Turkey as a whole; Urban and rural areas (each as a separate domain); Each of the major five regions of the country, namely the Western, Southern, Central, Northern and Eastern regions. The major focus of the TDHS was to provide estimates with acceptable precision for important ,iemographic characteristics, such as fertility, infant and child mortality, and contraceptive prevalence, as ~' ell as several health indicators. The universe of the TDHS was defined as the total population of Turkey ,or the Household Questionnaire, and as a subset, all ever-married women younger than age 50 for the individual Questionnaire. The aim was to survey the population by designing a sample of households and 127 interviewing an adult member of the household in order to collect information on household members. In addition, all eligible women who were present in the household were interviewed.t B.2 Sample Frame Currently Turkey is divided administratively into 76 provinces. This figure was 67 for a long time; new provinces have been formed since the late 1980s. At the time of the last Turkish population census, in October 1990, there were 73 provinces. Turkey is divided geographically into five regions, as described in Chapter 1. This regional breakdown of the country was used for sampli0g purposes in previous demographic surveys and has been popularised as a powerful variable for understanding the demographic, social, cultural, and economic differences between different parts of the country. These five regions, Western, Southern, Central, Northern and Eastern regions, include varying numbers of provinces of geographical proximity. In other words, borders of provinces divide the five regions. Different criteria have been used to describe "urban" and "rural" settlements in Turkey. In the demographic surveys of the 1970s a population size of 2,000 was used to differentiate between urban and rural settlements. In the 1980s, this was increased to 10,000 and, in some surveys in the 1990s, to 20,000. A number of surveys used the administrative status of settlements in combination with population size for the purpose of differentiation. The urban frame of the TDHS consists of a list of provincial centres, district centres, and settlements with populations larger than 10,000, regardless of administrative status. The rural frame, on the other hand, consists of all subdistricts and villages not included in the urban frame. Initial information on these settlements was obtained from the 1985 census and the 1990 Population Census report (State Institute of Statistics, Census o f Population." Administrative Division. Ankara, 1992). However, the final sampling frame was redefined, mainly due to the transference of a number of rural settlements in the 1990 Population Census into urban settlements due to population growth. Additionally, the administrative status of a number of settlements had changed during the period between the 1990 Population Census and the fieldwork date; several subdistricts and villages were made district centres. The final frame was also corrected to encompass these changes. The 1990 Population Census report provides the list of urban settlements (provincial and district centres) and their population. Every urban settlement in Turkey is divided administratively into quarters. Each quarter contains a number of streets within its boundaries. Since probability proportional to size (PPS) sampling was intended in the selection of urban settlements, it was essential to estimate the populations of settlements as of the fieldwork date. For this purpose, the compound interest formula Pt = Po * er' was used. The growth rates of individual settlements were calculated by using their 1985 and 1990 census populations. The 1990 census populations of urban settlements were then extrapolated to the fieldwork date, using the estimated growth rates. ~Although all women who were permanent residents of or were visitors to the sampled households were interviewed during the fieldwork, the tabulations were restricted to those who had slept in the household the night before the interview, i.e., the analysis was based on the de facto population. 128 A number of settlements in the 1990 Population Census report were administratively classified as "villages" but had populations larger than 10,000. Some of these villages had populations much less than 10,000 in the 1985 Population Census. Individual projections of such settlements yielded unreasonably large populations for the fieldwork date. Thus, a different procedure was implemented; a single growth rate (r) was calculated for the total population of all "villages" with more than 10,000 population and was then used to estimate the populations of these settlements, as of the fieldwork date. A high rate of growth (33.4 per thousand) was observed in the urban population of Turkey during the 1985-1990 intercensal period. Because a number of settlements with populations less than 10,000 in the 1990 Population Census would be expected to exceed 10,000 at the time of the survey, a modified procedure was used for all those with populations between 7,000 and 9,999. The total population of these settlements was forecast by extrapolation to the fieldwork date, using the estimated intercensal growth rate of these settlements. Settlements exceeding 10,000 as of the fieldwork date were included in the urban frame. In addition, information on administrative status was combined with information on population size for the classification of settlements as "urban." In Turkey, a district centre, no matter what its population size, is entitled to receive health and education investments (such as a state hospital) from the central government. In order to distinguish such settlements in the sample, as well as to enable their separate analysis, all settlements designated as district centres despite having less than 10,000 population were also added to the urban frame. Therefore, the rural frame of the TDHS consisted of all subdistricts and villages with populations less than 10,000 (projected population by the fieldwork date). To estimate the populations of rural settlements as of the date of the field work, it was assumed that the growth rates of individual subdistrict centres and villages that appear in the same district were the same, and the "rural" population of each district was projected separately. This frame was initially updated to allow for the fact that some "villages" in the 1990 Population Census had been made into district centres after the census was taken. Such settlements were excluded from the projections of the rural populations. B.3 Stratification One of the priorities of the TDHS was to produce a sample design that was methodologically and conceptually consistent with the designs of previous demographic surveys carried out by the Hacettepe Institute of Population Studies. For this reason, comparable subregions and settlement-size categories were used as the criteria of stratification. In the prior surveys, a five-region division of the country was used for stratification purposes. In the TDHS, a more detailed regional stratification was used to obtain a better dispersion of the selected sample. The criteria selected for further subdividing the five major regions into subregions were the infant mortality rates of each province, estimated from the 1990 Population Census using indirect techniques (see Hanclo~lu, A. 1991. lndirect estimation of mortality from information on the survival status of a close relative: Turkey 1970-1985. Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation, Hacettepe Institute of Population Studies, Ankara). Using geographical proximity and infant mortality as the two variables, the provinces in each region were further grouped into subregions. This procedure created a total of 14 subregions embedded in the initial five major regions. 129 The provinces of Turkey were classified into 5 regions and 14 subregions as follows: Sub- Number Region region Provinces of Provinces West 1 Edime, istanbul, Kirklareli, Tekirda~ 4 West 2 Bahkesir, Kocaeli, Sakarya, (~anakkale, Bursa 5 West 3 l~nir, Denizli, Manisa, Aydln 4 South 4 Mu~,la, Burdur, Isparta, Antalya 4 South 5 Hatay, Adana, l~el, Gaziantep 4 Central 6 (~anktr=, (~orum, Yozgat, Tokat, Amasya 5 Central 7 Bilecik, Eski~ehir, U~ak, K0tahya, Afyon 5 Central 8 Ankara, Ktr~ehir, Nev~ehir, Bolu, Konya, Kayseri, Ni~de, Aksaray, Karaman, Ktrtkkale 10 North 9 Trabzon, Rize, Giresun, Ordu, Artvin 5 North 10 Samsun, Kastamonu, Zonguldak, Sinop, Bartm 5 East 11 Mardin, Diyarbaklr, Siirt, Hakkari, Bitlis, Van, Batman, ~hrnak 8 East 12 Kars, Bing61, A~,rl, Mug, Erzurum, Ardahan, l~,dlr 7 East 13 Urfa, Malatya, Adtyaman, K.Mara~, Sivas 5 East 14 Tunceli, Elaztg, Erzinean, G0mO~hane, Bayburt 5 The second criterion for stratification was the population size category of each settlement. Again, in order to be consistent with previous surveys and with the stratification conventions of other government organisations, such as the State Planning Organisation and the State Institute of Statistics (SIS), settlement size categories were formed as follows : Rural: I, Urban: 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Subdistrict centres and villages with populations less than 10,000 District centres with populations less than 10,000 Settlements with populations of; 10,000-19,999 20,000-49,999 50,000-499,999 500,000-999,999 1,000,000 and more. It should be noted here that although these strata are defined primarily for sampling purposes, it is possible to combine all settlement size categories and subregions for analytical purposes. B.4 Sample Allocation Sampling errors were evaluated for 20 variables from the 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey, using the CLUSTERS computer software program (see Ulusoy, M. 1991."Sampling errors for selected variables from the 1988 Turkish Population and Health Survey," Turkish Journal of Population Studies, 13:33-55 ). The target sample size of 10,000 households was determined using the sampling error estimates in combination with the power allocation technique (see Bankier, M.D., 1988. "Power allocations: Determining sample sizes for subnational areas," The American Statistician, 42:(3 ): 174-177) with the expectation that this target sample size would provide about 8,000 completed individual interviews. The optimal distribution of the target sample size of 10,000 Table B.I Number of households to be selected from regions by power allocation and allocation proportional for each region Number of households selected by: Power Proportional Region allocation allocation West 2,700 3,400 South 1,700 1,400 Central 2,100 2,300 North 1,500 900 East 2,000 2,000 households among the five major regions was performed; the results are shown in Table B.I. 130 To have an adequate representation of clusters within each of the five major regions, it was decided that selection of an average of 20 households per standard segment (each consisting of 100 households) would be sufficient. On such a basis, the total number of selected standard segments by regions is shown in Table B.2. B.5 Sample Selection In Turkey, lack of information on standard segments made it unfeasible to obtain well-defined standard segments with clear boundaries. Therefore, the Table B.2 Distribution of clusters in regions and urban and rural areas Urban Rural No. of Region segments segments segments West 104 31 135 South 53 32 85 Central 63 42 105 North 33 42 75 East 49 51 100 Total 302 198 500 standard segments had to be selected by increasing the number of sampling stages, first by selecting administrative area units that were larger than the standard segments. The lists of the provinces and the district centres for the urban areas and of subdistricts and villages for the rural areas constituted the sample frame for the first stage of the sample selection. The list of quarters for each selected province or district centre constituted the sample frame for the second sampling stage. Every selected quarter (or combined quarter having a minimum size of 75 households according to the 1990 Population Census) was subdivided according to the number of divisions (in terms of 100 households in the 1990 Census) assigned to it. B.5.1 Selection Procedures For the selection of the urban sample, the list of urban centres by region and size stratum were grouped and a systematic PPS random sample was selected from these settlements. Lists of quarters were then obtained for each selected urban centre. If any quarter had less than 100 households according to the 1990 Population Census, it was combined with a neighbouring quarter to attain a total of at least 90 households. Quarters were selected according to the assigned numbers for the selection of standard segments. Every selected quarter was subdivided in terms of standard segments, according to the 1990 Population Census, meaning they were of almost equal sizes but having clear boundaries. During the listing activity, described below, every selected segment was completely listed. In the rural areas, villages and subdistricts were selected directly; therefore, each village was subdivided into standard segments during the listing activity and the households in one of the segments were listed completely. B.5.2 Listing and Mapping Activities The SIS prepared the household urban frame in Turkey that could be used for sampling purposes. The frame was created in April 1989 during the preparations for the 1990 Population Census. It contained a list of dwelling units with their full addresses (quarter, area, avenue, street, building and door number, etc.). The frame was created by a quick count of buildings; however, the quality ofthe resulting lists varied primarily due to two reasons: first, the quality of work produced by the listers varied across listing teams, and second, circumstances in some areas of Turkey allowed listers to produce detailed lists of quarters, but other areas were very restrictive in the quality of work to be produced. Although the SIS had a set of dwelling lists, they did not have the corresponding maps. For this reason, the selected clusters were formed with streets that were not always adjacent to each other. The cluster (standard segment) size was around 100 households for most of the clusters in urban areas. Only two urban clusters had extremely high numbers of households; these were truncated at 200 households. 131 The lists provided by the SIS did not reflect the changes that may have occurred during the period from the 1990 Population Censusto the survey date. Two types of changes were possible: those that could be updated during listing, such as the construction of a new building on the street, a change in the use of a building (e.g., a fiat can be used as an office instead of a dwelling), or changes in the names of streets, and those that were more problematic, e.g., the appearance of new quarters in urban centres. The latter places had a probability of zero of being selected to the TDHS sample since they were not included in the SIS lists. An attempt to identify the possible problems that could arise during the actual listing work was made by undertaking a listing activity in the capital, Ankara, before the actual listing activity began. Listing forms and listing and mapping manuals were developed based on this experience. Listing teams were formed following a four-day training program in May 1993. Each team was provided with the necessary materials, as well as with maps describing the location of the settlements they were expected to visit. The performance of the listers was supervised by research assistants of the Hacettepe Institute of Population Studies. More than 60 percent of the clusters in the sample were listed under the supervision of the research assistants. In 15 of the selected 198 villages, the total populations were too small, and therefore did not yield the standard segment size of 100 households. In these cases, the village that was nearest to the selected village was also included in the sample, and the names of these villages were provided to the listing teams; the lists of 100 households were completed from the two villages. Most of the listing activity was completed before the training for the main fieldwork began in July; however, listing of 25 clusters was completed independently by separate listing teams atter the main fieldwork began. A number of clusters could not be listed due to problems of accessibility; information on these clusters is presented later in this Appendix. B.6 Questionnaire Development and Pretest B.6.1 Questionnaires Two main types of questionnaires were used to collect the TDHS data: the Household Questionnaire and the Individual Questionnaire for ever-married women of reproductive ages. The contents of these questionnaires were based on the DHS Model "A" Questionnaire, which was designed for the DHS program for use in countries with high contraceptive prevalence. Additions, deletions and modifications were made to the model questionnaire in order to collect information particularly relevant to Turkey; a number of questions were included to ascertain the comparability of the TDHS findings with previous demographic surveys carried out by the Hacettepe Institute of Population Studies. In the process of designing the TDHS questionnaires, national and international population and health agencies were consulted for their comments. A third type of questionnaire used in the TDHS was the Cluster Questionnaire, which was designed slightly differently for urban and rural areas. This questionnaire was based on community-type questionnaires used in previous surveys in Turkey. The aim was to collect information on each cluster in the TDHS sample that related to the general economic and social environment in which the cluster was situated. All TDHS questionnaires were developed in English and then translated into Turkish. English versions of the Household and Individual questionnaires are reproduced in Appendix F. 132 The Household Questionnaire was used to enumerate all usual members of and visitors to the selected households and to collect information relating to the socioeconomic position of the households. In the first part of the Household Questionnaire, basic information was collected on the age, sex, educational attainment, marital status, and relationship to the head of household of each person listed as a household member or visitor. The objective of the first part of the Household Questionnaire was to obtain the information needed to identify women who were eligible for the individual interview as well as to provide basic demographic data for Turkish households. In the second part of the Household Questionnaire, questions were included on the dwelling unit, such as the number of rooms, the flooring material, the source of water, and the type of toilet facilities, and on the household's ownership of a variety of consumer goods. The Individual Questionnaire for women was designed with the following section headings: Background characteristics Reproduction Marriage Contraception Pregnancy and breastfeeding Immunisation and health Fertility preferences Husband's background and woman's work Values, attitudes and beliefs Maternal and child anthropometry. The Individual Questionnaire included a monthly calendar, which was used to record fertility, contraception, postpartum amenorrhea and abstinence, breastfeeding, marriage and migration histories for a period of approximately six years beginning in January 1988 up to the survey month. In addition, fleldwork teams measured the heights and weights of children under age five and of their mothers, as well as mothers' arm circumference. As mentioned earlier, the DHS Model "A" Questionnaire was modified to include subjects of particular interest in Turkey. The following is a list of some of the main differences between the standard DHS questionnaire and the TDHS questionnaire. Information on the mother tongues and second languages known by the respondent, her husband, and their parents was collected in the TDHS. Additional questions were asked to respondents regarding their cumulative numbers of abortions, miscarriages and stillbirths; specific questions regarding the last abortion were also included. A separate section on nuptiality was included in the Individual Questionnaire of the TDHS; this included a number of questions already in the standard DHS questionnaire, as well as questions on the type of marriage, arrangement of marriage, and consanguinity, etc. Withdrawal users were asked two additional questions to determine whether they were using this method in combination with other methods. Respondents were asked a series of additional questions concerning their attitudes and beliefs regarding the pill, the IUD, the condom and withdrawal. The questions probed whether women thought these methods were reliable, easy to use, or harmful to their health and whether their husbands opposed their use. 133 A number of questions regarding recent sexual activity as well as initiation of sexual activity were not included in the TDHS. A separate section dealing with the attitudes, beliefs and behaviour of women regarding intramarital relationships, child rearing, and status of women was included in the TDHS Individual Questionnaire. B.6.2 Pretest In May 1993, a pretest was conducted to ensure that the questions in the TDHS questionnaires were in a logical sequence; that the wording of the questions was comprehensible, appropriate and meaningful; and that the precoded answers were adequate. Fifteen interviewers were trained at the Hacettepe Institute of Population Studies for a period of two weeks. The training period included both classroom training and interviews in the field. The interviewers were mostly university graduates who had worked on previous surveys. In addition to the interviewers, research assistants, who would later become regional coordinators and supervisors, also received training. Fieldwork for the pretest was carried out in one district in central Ankara, two districts in squatter housing areas of Ankara, and a village in Ankara province. Notebook computers were used by the research assistants to enter data in the field. Some 180 interviews were completed during the pretest. Frequency distributions and cross tabulations were obtained shortly after the completion of the interviews. Based on the evaluation of these results and on the feedback obtained from the interviewers, several minor changes were made to the TDHS questionnaires. B.7 Data Collection Activities Staff Recruitment. Candidates for the positions of interviewers, field editors, supervisors and measurers were solicited from newspaper advertisements and Institute of Population Studies files of field editors and supervisors who had worked on previous surveys. All candidates for the field staff positions were interviewed in three groups by the staff of the Institute of Population Studies using interview guidelines prepared for this purpose. Individuals who met a number of the requirements and had the necessary qualifications were accepted into the training program. All candidates for the field staff positions were at least high school graduates and the majority were university students. Previous survey experience was not among the qualifications for the candidates for the position of interviewers to ensure that the trainees had no biases that might result from their previous experience. Approximately 120 applicants were accepted for the training program. Training. Training of the candidates for the fieldwork positions began on 19 July 1993 at the Hacettepe Institute of Population Studies. The training program included general lectures related to the demographic situation in Turkey, family planning and mother and child health, questionnaire training, role playing and mock interviews, field practice in areas not covered in the survey and quizzes to test the progress and capabilities of the candidates. A variety of materials were used during the training sessions, including manuals for supervisors and editors, and for interviewers. All trainees received the same classroom training during the first two weeks of the training period; at the beginning of the third week, supervisors, field editors, and measurers were selected from among the 134 candidates, and a number of unsuccessful candidates were eliminated at this stage. Separate classroom training sessions were organised for supervisors, field editors, and measurers. Towards the end of the third week of the training program, teams that would eventually participate in the main fieldwork were selected. Six field editors were randomly selected to do data entry and editing in the field using notebook-type computers and were trained separately for this purpose. The training program continued for about 20 days. Fieldwork. Fieldwork for the TDHS, including initial interviews, callbacks and reinterviews began in the first week of August 1993 and was completed at the end of October 1993. Fieldwork activities were completed in two stages. In the first stage, data collection was carried out by 13 teams, each consisting of a supervisor, a field editor, a measurer and 4 or 5 interviewers, depending on the workload of that specific team. All teams worked in Ankara in the beginning and as soon as all initial visits to all the selected households were completed they left for the other provinces. The first stage of the fieldwork was completed by the end of September, at which point a number of fieldwork staff, as agreed initially, discontinued working in the field. Four new teams were set up from among the 13 teams who worked in the first stage of fieldwork. The teams at this second stage had the same composition as those in the first stage but only one team used a notebook to enter and edit data rather than five in the first stage. This stage continued until the end of October. Four regional coordinators were responsible for visiting the fieldwork teams in turn, checking the quality of data collected, and reporting periodically to the field director in Ankara. All interviewers and field editors were female and all measurers were male; both male and female supervisors were present. Fieldwork teams visited 68 of the 76 provinces in Turkey. Some 41 percent of the clusters in the sample were from provincial centres, 21 percent were from district centres, and 38 percent were from subdistrict centres and villages. The TDHS fieldwork was a relatively fast operation because of the specific conditions prevailing in the country, i.e., a large proportion of the fieldwork staffconsisted of students who had to begin school in October and climatic conditions in many parts of the country limited access to many areas after October. A total of 500 clusters were selected for the TDHS sample. Of these, interviews were successfully completed in 478 clusters. Due to accessiblity problems and lack of security, 8 clusters were not listed and consequently were not visited by the fieldwork teams; 14 clusters were listed but fteldwork teams could not visit them because of the problems mentioned before. B.8 Data Processing and Analysis Office Editing. The questionnaires were returned to the Institute of Population Studies by the fieldwork teams for data processing as soon as each provincial interview was completed. The office editing staff checked that the questionnaires for all the selected households and eligible respondents were returned from the field. The comparatively few questions that had not been precoded (e.g., occupation) were coded at this time. Machine Entry and Editing. The data were entered and edited on microcomputers using the Integrated System for Survey Analysis (ISSA), a packaged program specifically developed to process DHS data. ISSA allows range, skip, and consistency errors to be detected and corrected at the data entry stage. The machine entry and editing activities were initiated within two days after the beginning of the fieldwork and were completed 10 days after the completion of the fieldwork. 135 Advantage was taken of the fact that data processing activities ran concurrently with fieldwork. Field check tables from edited data were periodically produced for each interviewing team. These focused on such potential problems as high proportions of incomplete households and displacement of eligible respondents and were used to check the progress and quality of data from the field. The Weight ing Procedur~ An important aspect of the TDHS data is that analysis has to be performed using weights. As mentioned earlier, the TDHS sampling plan is not a self-weighted one; in order to have sufficient numbers of observations for meaningful statistical analyses, more sample units were chosen from the Northern and Southern regions, which would have yielded inadequate numbers of observations if the target number of households had been allocated by PPS. The number of households that were selected in each region according to power allocation as well as the expected numbers of households assuming a PPS distribution of the targeted 10,000 households can be seen in Table B.I. The weight assigned to any stratum is simply the reciprocal of the sampling fraction employed in calculating the number of units in that particular stratum: w (i) = / f (i) . The term f(i), the sampling fraction at the i 'h stratum, is the product of the probabilities of selection at every stage in a stratum: f (i) = P (i,l) * P (i,2) * . * P (i,s) where s is the stage. The weights for the regions were assumed to be compensated for the nonresponse to the Household Questionnaire and to the Individual Questionnaire during fieldwork. The compensating factor for the nonresponse for the Household Questionnaire is the inverse value of: R (i,2) = Completed households/Eligible households. Eligible households include the households where interviews were completed, households where there were no competent respondents, households where interviews were postponed and eventually not completed, refusals, and those dwellings.that were not found by the fieldwork teams. Similarly, the compensating factor for the nonresponse to the Individual Questionnaire is the inverse value of: R (i,3) = Completed individual questionnaires/Eligible women. The weights for the regions and the compensating factors for nonresponse are shown in Table B.3. Since selection was carried out proportionately in the urban/rural breakdown within the regions, and since there is almost no variation in nonresponse rates among the rural areas of the five regions, there was no need to calculate separate weights for rural and urban areas. The resoonse rates in the rural and urban areas of the five regions are presented in Table B.4. 136 Table B.3 Weights for regions and compensating factors for nonresponse Compensating factor for: Selection Household Individual Region probability Questionnaire Questionnaire West 20869813 / (2720 * 5) 2801 / 2673 1985 / 1875 South 8617554 / (1700 * 5) 1751 / 1731 1341 / 1295 Central 13888833 / (2080 * 5) 1966 / 1932 1523 / 1471 North 5777776 / (1500 * 5) 1200/ 1186 1080/ 1009 East 11995698 / (2000 * 5) 1151 / 1098 936 / 877 Note: 5 is the average household size. Table B.4 Response rotes in five regions and settlement types Region Urban Rural West 0.9409 0.9956 South 0.9889 0.9933 Central 0.9730 0.9986 North 0.9939 0.9928 East 0.9665 0.9950 Weights should also include compensating factors for the missing clusters that were not visited at all for various reasons. Since sample selection was done in subregions, it would be better to have compensating factors in the subregional level. The subregions and compensating factors for miss ing clusters are given below: Compensating Subregion factor Central (Ankara) 21/20 East 11 urban 19/16 12 urban 6/5 " I 1 rural 17/8 " 12 rural 13/6 " 13 rural 17/16 137 The weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each region and subregion. They were then standardized by multiplying these weights by the ratio of the number of interviewed households to the total weighted number of households. Standardization of the weights of individual women was undertaken by multiplying the individual weights by the ratio of the number of interviewed women to the total weighted number of women. The final weights for households and individual women are shown in Table B.5. Table B.5 Final weights for households and individual women Region Household Women Central Ankara 1.082846 1.073883 Central (rest) 1.031282 1.022746 North 0.591379 0.609340 South 0.777267 0.770961 West 1.222905 1.240095 East subregion 11 Urban 1.130194 1.156888 East subregion I I Rural 2.022452 2.070221 East subregion 12 Urban 1.142090 1.169066 East subregion 12 Rural 2.062108 2.110814 East subregion 13 Rural 1.011226 1.035110 East (rest) 0.951742 0.974222 B.9 Coverage of the Sample The results of sample implementation for the household and the individual interviews for the country as a whole, for urban and rural areas, and for the five regions of Turkey are shown in Table B.6. The results indicate that of the 10,631 households selected, the TDHS fieldwork teams successfully completed interviews with 8,619 (81 percent). The main reasons fieldwork teams were unable to interview some households were that some of the listed dwelling units were found to be vacant at the time of the interview or the household was away for an extended period. Eight thousand nine hundred households were identified as being occupied, and 8,619 households were successfully interviewed. Consequently, the household response rate was calculated as 96.8 percent. The household response rate was higher in rural areas than in urban areas and highest in the Southern and Northern regions. In the interviewed households, 6,862 eligible women were identified, of whom 95 percent were interviewed. Eligibility for the individual interview required that the woman be ever-married, be younger than 50 years of age, and be present in the household on the night before the interview. Among the small number of eligible women not interviewed in the survey, the principal reason for nonresponse was the failure to find the woman at home after repeated visits to the household. The eligible woman response rate was higher in rural areas than in urban areas and was higher in the Southern and Central regions than in the other three regions. The overall response rate for the TDHS was calculated as 92 percent, ranging from 89 percent in the Eastern region to 95 percent in the Southern region. 138 Table B.6 Results of the household and individual interviews by residence and reeion Percent distribution of households and eligible women in the sample by results of the bt, usehold and individual and household, eligible women and overall response rates, according to residence and region, Turkey 1993 interviews, Residence Region Result Urban Rural West South Central North East Total Selected households Completed (C) 77.7 87.7 79.2 84.6 85.1 76.3 79.0 81.1 No competent respondent 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.2 0.3 at home (HP) Refused (R) 2.8 0.1 3.7 0.5 1.3 0.5 1.9 1.9 Dwelling not found (DNF) 0.6 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.2 1.7 0.4 Household absent (HA) 11.8 7.0 9.8 7.9 8.6 16.0 10.7 10.2 Dwelling vacant/address not 6.3 4.1 6.2 5.7 4.1 6.1 5.5 5.6 a dwelling (DV) Dwelling destroyed (DD) 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.6 0.3 Other (O) 0.1 0.4 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.2 Total percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 7065 3566 3374 " 2045 2269 1554 1389 10631 Household response rate (HRR) a 95.5 99.4 94.9 98.6 97.9 98.5 95.3 96.8 Eligible women Completed (EWC) 95.0 95.1 94.5 96.6 96.6 93.0 93.7 95.0 Not at home (EWNH) 3.2 3.4 3.2 2.4 2.5 5.2 4.0 3.3 Postponed (EWP) 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.1 Refused(EWR) 0.9 0.2 t. 1 0.1 0.3 0.6 1.1 0.6 Partly completed (EWPC) 0.5 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.6 1.1 0.5 Incapacitated (EWl) 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.2 Other (EWO) 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.2 Total percent 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 4344 2518 1985 1341 1523 1080 933 6862 Eligible women response rate (EWRR) b 95.0 Overall response rate (ORR) c 90.6 95.1 94.5 96.6 96.6 93.0 93.7 95.0 94.5 89.6 95.2 94.6 91.6 89.3 92.0 aUsing the number of households falling into specific response categories, the household response rate (HRR) is calculated as: C C +HP+P+R+DNF busing the number of eligible women falling into specific response categories, the eligible woman response rate (EWRR) is calculated as: EWC EWC + EWNH + EWP + EWR + EWPC + EWI + EWO CThe overall response rate (ORR) is calculated as: ORR = HRR * EWRR 139 APPENDIX C ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS APPENDIX C ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS Mahir Ulusoy and Alfredo Aliaga The estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors--nonsampling and sampling. Nonsampling errors result from mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made to minimise this type of error during the implementation of the TDHS, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically. Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of women selected in the TDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and expected size. Each of these samples would yield results that would differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. The sampling error is a measure of the variability between all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey results. Sampling error is usually.measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which isthe ratio of the standard deviation to the square root of the sample size. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design. If the sample of women had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the TDHS sample is the result of a three-stage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulas. The computer package CLUSTERS, developed by the International Statistical Institute for the World Fertility Survey, was used to compute the sampling errors for 42 variables with the proper statistical methodology. The CLUSTERS package treats any percentage or average as a ratio estimate, r = y/x, where y represents the total sample value for variable y, and x represents the total number of cases in the group or subgroup under consideration. The variance of r is computed using the formula given below, with the standard error being the square root of the variance, var(r) = 1 - f mh 2 Zh x 2 mh-----i i=1 k in which Zhi = Yh i - r .Xh i , and Z h = yh- r .xh 143 where h II1 h Yhi xhi f represents the stratum that varies from I to H is the total number of standard segments selected in tile la th s t ra tum is the sum of the values of variable y in standard segments i in the h th stratum is the sum of the number of cases (women) in standard segments i in the la th stratum is the overall sampling fraction, which is so small that CLUSTERS ignores it. In addition to tile standard errors, CLUSTERS computes the design effect (DEFT) for each estimate, which is defined as the ratio of the standard error using the given sample design to the standard error that would result if a simple random sample had been used. A DEFT value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, whereas a value greater than 1.0 indicates the increase in tile sampling error due to the use of a more complex and less statistically efficient design. CLUSTERS also computes the relative error and confidence limits for the estimates. The results for the 42 variables mentioned, which are those considered to be of primary interest, are presented in this appendix for the country as a whole, for urban and rural areas, for the five regions, and for age groups. The type of statistic (mean or proportion) and the base population for each variable are given in Table C.1. Tables C.2 to C.12 present the value of the statistic (R), its standard error (SE), the number of unweighted (N) and weighted (WN) cases, file design effect (DEFT), the relative standard error (SE/R), and the 95 percent confidence limits (R_+2SE), for each variable. Additionally, sampling errors were calculated for tile total fertility rote of the last year prior to the survey date and the infant mortality rate for the 5 years preceding the survey, for the national total, and for urban-rural areas. These calculations were undertaken using the Jacknife methodology rather than the CLUSTERS package because of the nature of these two estimates. The Jacknife methodology is based on having replicate values for the estimates and applying the sim pie standard error formulae to these replicates. Tile TDHS included 478 clusters. Each replication considers all clusters but deletes one cluster at a time for the calculations and then creates pseudoindependent replicates. In total, 478 replications for the infant mortality and total fertility rates create tile pseudoindependent values: e(.i) = 478 * estimate (all clusters) - 477 * estimate (all minus i ~h) e estimate (all clusters) and tile sampling errors for the estimate is given by: SE (estimate) = {5- (e(.i) - e)-" / (478 * (478-1)) }'/2. The results of the calcnlations using the Jacknife methodology to estimate sampling errors for the infant mortality rate and tile total fertility rate for the national total, for urban and rural areas, and for the five major regions is shown in Table C.13. Tile confidence interval (e.g., as calculated for EVBORN) can be interpreted as follows: the overall average from the national sample is 3.041 and the standard error is 0.044. Therefore, to obtain the 95 percent confidence limits, one adds and subtracts twice the standard error to the sample estimate, i.e., 3.041 _+ 0.088. There is a high probability (95 percent) that the true average number of children ever born to all women age 15 to 49 is between 2.954 and 3.128. Of the 42 variables for which CLUSTERS was used for the estimation of sampling errors, 28 are based on women, and 14 are based on children under age 5. Ill general, the relative standard error for most 144 estimates for the country as a whole is small, except for estimates of very small proportions. There are some differentials in the relative standard error for the estimates of subpopulations such as urban and rural areas. For example, for the variable SECATT (secondary school attendance), the relative standard errors as a percent of the estimated proportion for urban and rural areas are 4.6 percent and 12.5 percent, respectively. The same istrue for SECGRD(proportion of women who completed secondary school) with values of 5 percent and 14.2 percent, for XCUPIL (current use of the pill) with values of 8.1 and 13.6 percent, for XCUIUD (current use of IUD) with values of 3.4 and 8.5 percent, and for XCUPAB (current use of periodic abstinence) with values of 17 percent and 0 percent, for urban and rural areas, respectively for each variable. Of the 42 variables, 24 were found to have SE/R values of less than 0.03, which means that the SE of those variables is at most 3 percent of the estimate. SE/R values are between 0.031 and 0.059 for 13 variables, and greater than 0.06 for only 5 variables; the maximum value being 16.6 percent. The variables with the highest SE/R ratio are the ones calculated for relatively rare events. The DEFT value is less than 1.3 for 24 variables; between 1.31 and 1.5 for 13 variables; and greater than 1.51 for only 5 variables. The maximum DEFT value obtained is 1.668. The average of 42 variables is 1.301. The average is 1.213 in urban areas and 1.293 in rural areas for 41 variables (due to the exclusion of the URBAN variable). 145 Table C.I List of selected variables for sampling errors, Turkey 1993 Variable Estimate Base Population URBAN SECATT SECGRD CURMAR AGEMAR PREGNT NUPRFG NUMISC F, VBORN XEVB XI'VB40 SURVIV KMETIIO XKMOD XKSOUR XEVUSI" XCUSE XCUPII. XCUIUD XCUCON XCUWlT XCUSTE XCUPAB XCUMOD XPSOUR XNOMOR XDELAY IDI~AL TH 'ANU MEDEL1 DIARRI DIARR2 ORSTRE MEDTRE RESPI2 RESPI I IICARD BCG I) P 1"3 POL3 Mh:ASLE FULIAM Urban Proportion Attended secondary or higher Proporlion Graduated secondary or higher Proportion Currently married Proportion Age at marriage Mean Currently pregnant Proporlion Number of pregnancies Mean Number of miscarriages Mean Children ever born Mean Children ever born Mean Children ever born Mean Children surviving Mean Know any method Proportion Know modem method Proporlion Know source of method Proporlion I'ver used any method I'roporlion Currently using any method Proporlion Current use pill Proportion Current use IUD Proportion Current u~,e condom Proportion Current use withdrawal Proportion Current use female sterih Proportion Current use periodic abst. Proportion Currently using modem method Proportion Using public source Proportion Want no more children Proportion Delay at least two years Proportion Ideal number of children Mean Mother received tetanus injection Proportion Mother received medical attention Proportion Ilad diarrhoea in last 2 weeks Proportion Itad diarrhoea in last 24 hours Proportion Children ORS treated diarrhoea Proportion Children medical treated diarrhoea Proportion I lad resp. disease last 2 weeks Proportion Itad resp. disease last 24 hours Proporlion Chitdren having health card Proportion Children with BCG Proportion Children with DPT (3 doses) Proportion Children with Polio (3 doses) Proportion Children with measles Proportion Children lidly immunised Proportion I'ver-man'ied v, omcn Fvcr-married women Fver-married women Evcr-marricd women Evcr-marricd ~ omen Ever-married womcn Ever-married women Ever-married womcn l-vcr-married women Currently marricd women Currently marricd women 40-49 l'ver-married women I'ver-marricd women Currently married women Currently married women Currently married women Currently married women Currently married women Currently married women Currently married women Currently married women Currently married women Currently married women Currently married women Modem users married women Currently married women Currently married women Ever-married women Birlhs last live years Births last llvc years Children under live years Children under live years Children with diarrhoea last 2 weeks Children with diarrhoea last 2 weeks Children under five years Children under live years Children 12 to 23 months Children 12 to 23 months Children 12 to 23 montlrs Children 12 to 23 months Children 12 to 23 months Children 12 to 23 months Table C.2 Sampling errors- Entire sample, Turkey 1993 Standard Value error Variable (R) (SE) Number of c~es Design Re la t ive Confidence limits Unweighted Weighted effect error (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN .641 .010 S ECATT . 175 .008 SECGRD .151 .007 CURMAR .962 .003 AGEMAR 18.499 .064 PREGNT .076 .004 NUPREG 3.910 .047 NUMISC .314 .010 EVBORN 3.041 .044 XEVB 3.035 .044 XEVB40 4.740 .101 SURVIV 2.671 .034 KMETHO .990 .002 XKMOD .986 .002 XKSOUR .94g .004 XEVUSE .802 .008 XCUSE .626 .008 XCUPIL .049 .004 XCUIUD .188 .006 XCUCON .066 .004 XCUWlT .262 .007 XCUSTE .029 .002 XCU PAB .010 .002 XCUMOD .345 .007 XPSOUR .547 .014 XNOMOR .701 .006 XDELAY .141 .005 IDEAL 2.396 .018 TE'rAN U .424 .013 MEDELI .759 .015 DIARRI .248 .009 DIARR2 . I 12 .007 ORSTRE .161 .014 MEDTRE .248 .017 RESPI2 .I 55 .008 RESPII .397 .01 I ItCARD .416 .023 BCG .891 .017 DPT3 .776 .02 I POL3 .772 .020 MEASLE .779 .019 FULLIM .642 .020 6519 6519 1.636 .015 .622 .661 6519 6519 1.664 .045 t~9 .191 6519 6519 1.668 .049 .Io~ .166 6519 6519 1.154 .003 ,956 .967 6519 6519 1.466 .003 18.371 18.628 6519 6519 1.089 .047 .06g .083 6519 6519 1.290 .012 3.815 4.005 6519 6519 1.060 .031 .294 .333 6519 6519 1.492 .014 2.954 3.128 6273 6271 1.475 .014 2.947 3.122 1433 1447 1.384 .021 4.538 4.942 6519 6519 1.440 .013 2.603 2.738 6519 6519 1.307 .002 .987 .993 6273 6271 1.233 .002 .983 .990 6273 6271 1.495 .004 .940 .957 6273 6271 1.513 .009 .787 .817 6273 6271 1.331 .013 .609 .642 6273 6271 1.283 .071 .042 .056 6273 6271 1.290 .034 .175 .201 6273 6271 1.215 .058 .059 .074 6273 6271 1.338 .028 .247 .277 6273 6271 .958 .070 .025 .033 6273 6271 1.294 .166 .006 .013 6273 6271 1.221 .021 .331 .360 2161 2164 1.272 .025 .520 .574 6273 6271 1.002 .009 .689 .713 6273 6271 1.054 .036 .131 .151 6399 6402 1.328 .007 2.361 2.432 3688 3700 1.421 .032 .397 .451 3688 3700 1.630 .019 .730 .788 3493 3497 1.221 .038 .229 .266 3493 3497 1.175 .059 .099 .126 836 866 1.050 .085 .134 .189 836 866 1.106 .068 .214 .282 3493 3497 1.231 .053 .138 .171 3493 3497 1.270 .029 .374 .419 716 716 1.204 .054 .371 .461 716 716 1.463 .019 .857 .925 716 716 1.309 .026 .735 .817 716 716 1.272 .026 .732 .813 716 716 1.195 .024 .741 .816 716 716 1.130 .032 .601 .683 147 Table C.3 Sampling errors - Urban areas~ Turkey 1993 Number of cases Standard Design Re la t ive Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Variable SI!CAJ'I" 249 .011 4125 4181 1.691 .046 .226 .272 SF, CGRD .216 .011 4125 4181 1,692 .050 .195 .238 C U RM A R .958 .004 4125 41 g I I. 143 .004 .951 .965 AGEMAR 18.820 .082 4125 4181 1.464 .004 18.655 18.985 PREGNT .071 .004 4125 4181 1.090 .062 .062 .079 NUPREG 3.669 .048 4125 4181 1.102 .013 3.573 3.765 NUMISC .306 .01 I 4125 4181 .982 .036 .284 .328 [-VBORN 2.710 .042 4125 4181 1.317 .015 2.627 2.794 XEVB 2.700 .042 3957 4005 1.318 .016 2.616 2.785 XEVB40 4.130 .095 868 884 1.198 .023 3.939 4.321 SURVIV 2.439 .036 4125 4181 1.355 .015 2.367 2.510 K M FTI IO .995 .001 4125 4181 I. 133 .001 .992 .997 XKMOD .992 .002 3957 4005 1.149 .002 .989 .995 XKSOUR .975 .003 3957 4005 1.175 .003 .969 .981 XEVUSE .837 .008 3957 4005 1.424 .010 .820 .854 XCUSE .662 .009 3957 4005 1.252 .014 .643 .681 XCUPIL .050 .004 3957 4005 1.170 .081 .042 .058 XCUIUD .215 .007 3957 4005 1.126 .034 .200 .229 XCUCON .078 .005 3957 4005 1.289 .070 .067 .089 XCUWIT .249 .009 3957 4005 1.293 .036 .231 .267 XCIJSTli .033 .003 3957 4005 .932 .081 .027 .038 XCUPAB .014 .002 3957 4005 1.292 .170 .010 .019 XCUMOD .389 .008 3957 4005 1.006 .022 .372 .406 XPSOUR .532 .015 1548 1558 1.162 .028 .502 .561 XNOMOR .691 .008 3957 4005 .988 .01 I .676 .706 XDI'LAY .146 .007 3957 4005 1.080 .045 .133 .159 II)EAL 2.321 .020 4062 4118 1.233 .009 2.282 2.361 TElAN 1.1 .452 .016 2203 2211 1.328 .035 .420 .484 MEDELI .870 .014 • 2203 2211 1.551 .016 .842 .899 DIARRI .227 .011 2101 2108 I.III .047 .205 .248 DIARR2 .091 .007 2101 2108 1.021 .074 .078 .105 ORSTRE .167 .017 475 478 .958 .103 .I 32 .201 MEI)TRI! .299 .023 475 478 1.074 .078 .252 .345 RESPI2 .133 .008 2101 2108 1.045 .060 .117 .149 RFSPII .372 ,012 2101 2108 1.060 .032 .348 .396 I ICA RD .517 ,027 417 421 1.075 .052 .464 .57 I BCG .932 ,015 417 421 1.205 ,016 .903 .962 DPT3 .865 ,025 417 421 1.464 .028 .816 .914 POL3 .859 ,024 417 421 1.421 .028 ,810 .908 MEASI,E .821 .022 417 421 1.145 .027 ,777 .864 FULLIM .739 .025 417 421 1.147 .034 ,689 .789 148 Table C.4 Sampling errors - Rural areas, lurkcy 1993 Number o1" cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unwcightcd Weighted cfl~ct crror Variable (R) (SIS) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SI! R+2SE Sli('AI"I' .043 .005 2394 2338 1.297 ,125 .032 .053 SI!CGRI) .034 .005 2394 2338 1300 .142 .024 .044 CURMAR .969 .004 2394 2338 1.174 .004 .961 .977 AGEMAR 17.925 101 2394 2338 1.500 .006 17.722 18.128 PREGN'I' .084 .006 2394 2338 1.087 .073 .(172 .097 NUI'REG 4,341 .098 2394 2338 1.498 .023 4.144 4.538 NUMISC .327 .019 2394 2338 1.177 .057 .290 ,364 liVBORN 3.634 .091 2394 2338 1.623 .025 3.452 3.815 XEVB 3.626 .090 2316 2265 1587 .025 3.445 3,806 XI-VB40 5.697 .191 565 563 1.478 .034 5.314 6.080 SURVIV 3,(185 .068 2394 2338 1.537 ~022 2949 3,222 KMH'I IO .982 .004 2394 2338 1,373 .01)4 .974 .989 XKMOI) .976 .004 2316 2265 1,269 .004 .968 .984 XKSOUR .901 .010 2316 2265 1.670 .011 .881 .922 XIiVUSE .741 ,015 2316 2265 1623 .020 ,711 .770 XCUSE .561 .I)15 2316 2265 1.430 .026 .532 .591 XCUPIL .048 007 2316 2265 1.472 .136 .035 .061 XCUIUI) .141 ,012 2316 2265 1.663 .085 .I 17 .165 XCUCON .(146 .004 2316 2265 .901 .086 .038 .(153 XCUWI'I .285 .013 2316 2265 1.427 ,047 .258 ,312 XCUSTE .022 .003 2316 2265 1.006 .139 .016 .028 XCUPAB 001 000 2316 2265 .000 .000 0(11 .001 XCI, JMOI) .268 ,013 2316 2265 1.465 .05(I .241 .295 XPSOUR .587 .030 613 606 1.494 ,051 .527 646 XNOMOR .718 .010 2316 2265 .998 ,014 .698 .738 XDELAY .I 33 .0118 23 I6 2265 .985 .057 . I 18 .I 48 IDEAl. 2.532 .035 2337 2284 1.506 .014 2.462 2.602 TE'['ANU .382 .{)23 1485 1488 1.539 .061 .335 ,428 MEDI:A,I .594 .026 1485 1488 1.679 .044 .541 .646 I)IARRI .280 .017 1392 1389 1.346 .062 .245 .314 I)IARR2 .145 .013 1392 1389 1.311 .091 .119 .171 ORSTRI! .155 .022 361 388 1.163 .142 .111 .199 MliD'I'RE ,186 .022 361 388 1.062 .117 ,142 .230 RESPI2 .188 .016 1392 1389 1.339 .084 .156 ,219 RESPII .434 (121 1392 1389 1.472 .049 .391 .477 IICARD .271 .035 299 295 1.347 .128 .202 .340 BCG .832 .034 299 295 1.565 .041 .765 .900 I)H'3 .650 .032 299 295 1.164 .050 .586 .714 POI.3 .649 ,031 299 295 1.135 ,048 .586 .712 MEASLE .719 .033 299 295 1.252 .I}46 .653 .785 FULLIM .504 .032 299 295 1.102 .064 .440 .568 149 "Fable C.5 Sampling errors - Western Region~ Turkey 1993 Number of cases Standard Design Re la t ive Coalidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Variable URBAN .761 ,016 1875 2325 1.600 .021 .730 .793 SECATT ,236 .013 1875 2325 1.372 .057 .209 .263 SECGRD .202 .013 1875 2325 1.405 .065 .176 .228 CURMAR .949 .006 1875 2325 1.108 .006 .938 .961 AGEMAR 19.119 .116 1875 2325 1.402 .006 18.888 19.350 PREGNT .057 .005 1875 2325 1.016 .096 .046 .067 NUPREG 3.395 .070 1875 2325 1,178 .02t 3.255 3.535 NUMISC .273 .015 1875 2325 .967 .056 .242 .303 EVBORN 2.446 .050 1875 2325 1.272 .021 2.346 2.547 XEVB 2.439 .051 1780 2207 1.270 .021 2.338 2.540 XEVB40 3.590 .112 441 547 1.224 .031 3.366 3.813 SURVIV 2.197 .040 1875 2325 1.256 .018 2.117 2,277 KMETHO .996 .002 1875 2325 1.012 .002 .993 .999 XKMOD .991 .003 1780 2207 1.122 .003 ,986 ,996 XKSOUR .964 .006 1780 2207 1.305 .006 .953 .976 XEVUSE .878 .009 1780 2207 1.163 .010 ,860 .896 XCUSE .715 .010 1780 2207 .936 .014 .695 .735 XCUPIL .062 .007 1780 2207 1.249 .115 .048 .076 XCUIUD .188 .010 1780 2207 1.062 .052 .169 .208 XCUCON .084 .008 1780 2207 1.288 .101 .067 .101 XCUWIT .315 .013 1780 2207 1.188 .042 .289 .341 XCUSTE .027 .004 1780 2207 .927 .I 32 .020 .034 XCUPAB .013 .004 1780 2207 1.312 .272 .006 .020 XCUMOD .373 .013 1780 2207 1,098 .034 .348 .398 XPSOUR .468 .020 664 823 1.024 .042 .429 .508 ~(NOMOR .711 .012 1780 2207 1.039 .017 .686 .735 XDELAY .137 .010 1780 2207 I.II0 .077 .116 .157 IDEAL 2.155 .021 1848 2292 1.011 .010 2.113 2.197 TETANU .436 .021 794 985 1.074 .047 .395 .477 MEDELt .936 .012 794 985 1.106 .012 .913 .959 DIARRI .199 .018 758 940 1,220 .091 ,163 .236 DIARR2 .078 .011 758 940 1.122 ,142 ,056 .100 ORSTRE .192 .034 151 187 1.044 .180 .123 .261 MEDTRE .278 .040 151 187 1.061 .143 .198 .358 RESPI2 . 108 .010 758 940 .922 .097 .087 . 129 RESPII .354 .021 758 940 1.147 .059 .312 .395 IICARD .578 .040 154 191 .993 .069 .499 .657 BCG .96l .013 154 191 .837 .014 .935 .987 DPT3 .890 .024 154 191 .954 .027 .841 ,938 POL3 .883 .023 154 191 .895 .026 .837 .930 MEASLE .838 .030 154 191 1.025 .036 .777 .899 FULLIM .760 .031 154 191 .91 I .041 .697 .823 150 Table C.6 Sampling errors - Southern Region, Turkey 1993 Number of cases Standard I)csign Re la t ive Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted ell~ct error (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Variable URBAN .677 .017 1295 998 1.330 .026 .643 .712 SECATT .171 .02(I 1295 998 1.910 .l l7 .131 .211 SECGRD .147 .019 1295 998 1.968 .132 .109 ,186 CURMAR .964 .006 1295 998 1.125 .006 .953 .976 AGEMAR 18.812 .134 1295 998 1.330 ,007 18.543 19.080 PREGNT .073 .008 1295 998 1.048 .104 .057 .088 NUPREG 3.967 .092 1295 998 I.III .023 3.783 4.151 NUMISC .337 .021 1295 998 .998 .062 .295 .378 EVBORN 3.101 .079 1295 998 1.222 .025 2.944 3.259 XEVB 3.080 .080 1249 963 1.225 .026 2.921 3.239 XEVB40 4.933 .198 285 220 1.236 .040 4.538 5.329 SURVIV 2.778 .065 1295 998 1.213 ,023 2,648 2.909 KMETItO .990 .003 1295 998 1.087 .003 ,984 ,996 XKMOD .989 .003 1249 963 1.002 ,003 ,983 .995 XKSOUR .965 .007 1249 963 1.391 .008 .950 .979 XEVUSE .813 .014 1249 963 1.271 .017 .785 .841 XCUSE .628 .014 1249 963 1.047 .023 .599 .656 XCUPIL .042 .008 1249 963 1.329 .181 .027 .057 XCUIUD .209 .013 1249 963 1.106 .061 .184 ,234 XCUCON .061 .006 1249 963 .886 .098 .049 .073 XCUWIT .247 .016 1249 963 1.333 .066 .215 ,280 XCUSTE .033 .005 1249 963 .927 .142 .023 .042 XCUPAB .010 .003 1249 963 1.012 .279 .005 ,016 XCUMOD .367 .013 1249 963 .919 .034 .342 .393 XPSOUR .584 .033 459 354 1.422 .056 .518 ,649 XNOMOR .685 .011 1249 963 .836 .016 .663 ,707 XDELAY .139 .010 1249 963 .976 .069 .I 20 ,I 58 IDEAl. 2.515 .038 1269 978 1.225 .015 2.440 2.591 TETANU .645 ,030 758 584 1.481 .047 .584 .706 MEDELI .840 .024 758 584 1.435 .029 .792 .888 DIARRI ,217 .016 714 551 .983 .073 .I 85 .249 DIARR2 .097 .013 714 551 1.123 .137 .070 .123 ORSTRE .168 .028 155 120 .838 .166 .112 .223 MEDTRE .297 .045 155 120 1.166 ,153 .206 .387 RESPI2 .181 .018 714 551 1,172 .100 .145 .217 RESP[I .437 .021 714 551 1.022 .047 ,396 .478 IICARD ,517 .046 143 I10 1,101 .089 .425 .609 BCG .972 .019 143 II0 1.408 .020 .933 1.011 DPT3 .839 .038 143 110 1,245 .046 .763 .916 POL3 .832 .039 143 110 1.234 .046 .755 .909 MEASLE .930 .019 143 110 .896 .021 .892 .968 FULLIM .811 .040 143 II0 1.221 .049 .731 .891 151 "Fable C.7 Sampling errors - Central Region, Turkey 1993 Standard Value error Variable (R) (SE) Number of cases Design Reladvc Confidence limits Unweighted Weighted eflkct error (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SI! ]~.+2SI! URBAN .616 .I)20 1471 1520 1.585 033 .575 .656 SECATT .163 .018 1471 1520 1.881 .111 .127 .199 SECGRD .141 .016 1471 152(I 1.801 .116 .108 .174 CU RMA R .969 .006 1471 1520 1.291 .006 .957 .980 AGEMA R 18.082 .132 1471 1520 1.537 007 17 818 18.346 PREGNT .078 .007 1471 1520 1.025 .092 .063 .092 NUPREG 4.007 .082 1471 152(I 1066 .020 3.842 4.171 NUMISC .367 .023 1471 1520 1.064 .062 .321 .413 EVBORN 3.072 .071 1471 1520 1.209 .023 2.930 3.213 XEVB 3.062 .071 1425 1472 1.201 .I)23 2.920 3.205 XEVB40 4.773 .166 341 352 1163 035 4.442 5.105 SURVIV 2.642 .059 1471 1520 1.287 .022 2.524 2.760 KMETItO .994 .002 1471 1520 1.015 .002 .990 998 XKMOD .992 .002 1425 1472 1.013 002 .987 .997 XKSOU R .950 .007 1425 1472 I. 175 007 936 963 XEVUSE .832 .010 1425 1472 1.006 .012 .812 .851 XCUSE .627 .015 1425 1472 I. 140 .023 598 .656 XCUPll. .043 .007 1425 1472 1.239 154 030 ,057 XCUIUD .219 .015 1425 1472 1.379 .069 189 ,249 X('UCON .061 .007 1425 1472 1.079 . I 12 .047 ,075 XCUWIT .237 .015 1425 1472 1.350 .064 .206 .267 XCUSTI" .031 .004 1425 1472 934 .138 .022 ,040 XCUI'A13 .01 I .003 1425 1472 1.274 .326 .004 .018 XCUMOI) .366 .017 1425 1472 1297 045 333 .399 XPSOUR .580 .030 520 538 1379 051 520 640 XNOMOR .715 .01 I 1425 1472 895 .015 .694 .737 XDELAY .131 .008 1425 1472 .856 .058 .116 .146 IDEAL 2.343 .033 1451 1499 1.434 014 2277 2.408 TETANU .426 .027 800 825 1.307 .063 .372 .480 MEDEI.I .770 .021 800 825 1.137 027 .729 .812 I)IARRI .240 .019 752 776 I. 104 .077 .203 .277 I)IA RR2 .098 .012 752 776 1.031 .125 .074 .123 ORSTRE 105 .021 181 186 .909 .199 .063 .147 MliDTR E .188 .030 181 186 .980 158 128 .247 RI-S PI2 .188 .016 752 776 1.058 .086 156 .221 RESPII .404 .023 752 776 1.198 ()58 .357 .450 IICARD .391 .042 171 176 1.077 .107 .3(17 .475 BCG .906 .025 171 176 1112 .027 .857 .956 DPT3 823 .027 171 176 .927 .033 .769 .878 POL3 .823 .028 171 176 .939 034 .768 .879 MEASLE .812 .031 171 176 986 038 749 .874 FUI.LIM .647 .035 171 176 .935 .055 .577 .718 152 Table C.8 Sampling errors - Northern Region, Turkey 1993 Number of cases Standard Design Re la t ive Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Variable URBAN .384 .025 1004 612 1.601 .064 .335 .434 SECATT .145 .017 1004 612 1.503 .115 .112 .179 SECGRD .123 .016 1004 612 1.515 .128 ,091 .154 CURMAR .963 .005 1004 612 .792 .005 ,954 .973 AGEMAR 18.594 .163 1004 612 1.551 .009 18,268 18.920 PREGNT .060 .008 1004 612 1.085 .136 .044 .076 NUPREG 3.826 .112 1004 612 1,249 .029 3.601 4.050 NUMISC .322 .027 1004 612 1.103 .083 .269 .375 EVBORN 3.025 .091 1004 612 1,278 .030 2.844 3.206 XEVB 3.030 .092 967 589 1.284 .030 2.846 3.214 XEVB40 4.844 .I 87 199 121 1.043 .039 4.471 5.218 SURVIV 2.665 .076 1004 612 1.306 .029 2.513 2.818 KMETHO .987 .004 1004 612 1.217 .004 .978 .996 XKMOD .983 .005 967 589 1.317 .005 .973 .994 XKSOUR .948 .011 967 589 1.605 .012 .925 .971 XEVUSE .841 .016 967 589 1.331 .019 .809 .872 XCUSE .642 .016 967 589 1.047 .025 .610 .674 XCUPIL .052 .009 967 589 1.289 .178 .033 .070 XCUIUD .115 .013 967 589 1.244 .111 .089 .140 XCUCON .071 .009 967 589 L066 .124 .054 .089 XCUWlT .336 .016 967 589 1.050 .047 .304 .368 XCUSTE .043 .007 967 589 1.126 .170 .029 .058 XCUPAB .004 .002 967 589 1.003 .501 .000 .008 XCUMOD .298 .014 967 589 .979 .048 .269 .327 XPSOUR .500 .040 288 176 1.369 .081 .419 .581 XNOMOR .688 .019 967 589 1.094 .028 .650 .726 XDELAY .163 .019 967 589 1.266 .I 15 .126 .201 IDEAL 2.371 .030 985 600 1.076 .013 2.311 2.430 TETANU .495 .031 584 356 1.383 .063 .433 .557 MEDELI .793 .034 584 356 1.642 .043 .724 .862 DIARRI .225 .016 561 342 .898 .072 .192 .257 DIARR2 .087 .009 561 342 .706 .100 .070 .105 ORSTRE .I 90 .034 126 77 .935 .178 .I 23 .258 MEDTRE .214 .031 126 77 .780 .142 .153 .275 RESPI2 .103 .020 561 342 1.429 .189 .064 .142 RESPII .392 .025 561 342 1.180 .064 .342 .442 HCARD .342 .062 114 70 1.386 .181 .218 .466 BCG .965 .021 114 70 1.228 .022 .923 1.007 DPT3 .781 .039 114 70 .986 .050 .702 .859 POL3 .798 .044 114 70 1.127 .055 .711 .886 MEASLE .781 .049 114 70 1.230 .063 .682 ~879 FULLIM .614 .055 114 70 1.183 .089 .505 .723 153 "Fable C.9 Sampling errors - I'astem Region, Turkey 1993 Standard Value error Variable (R) (SI') Number of cases Design Re la t ive Conlidence [imils Unweighted Weighted effect error (N) (WN) (D[!FT) (SE/R) R-2SE P,+2SE URBAN .531 .028 SECATT .081 .016 SECGRD .074 .015 CURMAR .976 .005 AGEMAR 17.393 .182 PREGNT . 126 .012 NUPREG 4.893 .155 NUMISC .302 .027 EVBORN 4.252 .157 XEVB 4.221 .154 XEVB40 7.468 .334 SURVIV 3.649 .12 I KMETIIO .975 .007 XKMOD .968 .007 XKSOUR .898 .017 XEVUSE .567 .031 XCUSE .423 .031 XCUPIL .036 .007 XCUIUD .165 .019 XCUCON .037 .007 XCUWlT .156 .019 XCUSTE .018 .004 XCUPAB .003 .002 XCUMOD .263 .021 XPSOUR .703 .035 XNOMOR .681 .015 XDELAY .156 .01 I IDEAL 2.912 .072 TETANU .247 .027 MEDELI .503 .036 DIARRI .333 .023 DIARR2 .181 .017 ORSTRE .167 .027 MEDTRE .256 .033 RESPI2 .178 .022 RESPII .413 .029 HEARD .222 .043 BCG .713 .050 DPT3 .557 .05 I POL3 .545 .048 MEASLE .578 .047 FULLIM .406 .038 874 1064 1.631 .052 .476 .586 874 1064 1.736 .198 .049 .113 874 1064 1.742 .208 .043 .105 874 1064 .981 .005 .966 .987 874 1064 1.543 .010 17.029 17.757 874 1064 I.II4 .099 ,101 .151 874 1064 1.295 .032 4.583 5.204 874 1064 1.130 .089 .249 .356 874 1064 1.448 .037 3.939 4.565 852 1039 1.407 .036 3.913 4.529 167 206 1.397 .045 6.799 8.136 874 1064 1.384 .033 3.406 3.891 874 1064 1.409 .008 .961 .990 852 1039 1.216 .008 .954 .983 852 1039 1.591 .018 .864 .931 852 1039 1.847 .055 .505 .630 852 1039 1.843 .074 .360 .485 852 1039 1.053 .186 .023 .050 852 1039 1.511 .117 .126 .203 852 1039 1.008 .175 .024 .050 852 1039 1.543 .123 .117 .194 852 1039 .967 .246 .009 .027 852 1039 .963 .585 .1101 .007 852 1039 1.391 .080 .221 .305 230 273 1.152 .050 .633 .772 852 1039 .935 .022 .651 .710 852 1039 .899 .072 .134 .178 846 1033 1.435 .025 2.767 3.057 752 949 1.469 Al l .192 .302 752 949 1.595 .072 .431 .576 708 889 1.236 .069 .287 .379 708 889 1.158 .097 .146 .216 223 296 1.092 .163 .112 .222 223 296 1.141 .128 .191 .322 708 889 1.360 .125 .133 222 708 889 1.434 .069 .356 .470 134 169 1.207 .196 .135 .309 134 169 1.293 .070 .614 .813 134 169 1.192 .091 .456 .658 134 169 1.128 .088 .449 .640 134 169 1.121 .082 .483 .672 134 169 .908 .094 .329 .482 154 ]ab le C.I(} Sampl ing errors - Age 15-24. l 'urkcy 1993 Nunlb,2r 01" cases Standard I)csign Relative Value error Unweightcd Wcightcd effect error Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DH:r) (SE/R) ('tmlidcnc¢ limits I/.-2SE R+2SE URBAN .623 .016 SECATI" ,196 .013 SI{C(iRD .160 .(}1 I CURMAR .987 .(}03 A(}IiMAR 17659 ,(}811 PRli{IN'I .203 .(}l I NIH}REG 1.379 036 NUMISC 142 .(}12 l iVBORN I. 140 032 XEVI] I. 145 032 SI.JRVIV 1.062 027 KMEHIO .997 004 XKM(}I) .984 (}04 XKSOI IR .926 .008 XI!VUSl i 621 015 XCUSI .446 015 XCI Ip IL .040 006 X(' l IIUI} .139 .(}1 I X('[JCON .048 .006 XCUWH .204 .013 XCI IS lE .002 .001 XCUI 'AB 004 002 XCUMOI} ,236 013 X PSOI l R 582 ,029 XNOM( }R ,299 ,012 XI)I(1.AY 427 .014 IDEAl, 2244 025 I li1 ANU 464 .020 MEI )H . I ,790 .024 I} IARI{ I ,286 0 l 5 I}IARR2 128 .012 (}I{S I'RI! ,185 025 MI{I)'I RI' 272 .025 RliSPI2 .171 ,014 RI!SPII .421 .016 I I{'A RI) .419 .032 I',{'(i .890 ,022 DP'I3 .739 .031 POI,3 ,733 {)32 MEASI,I¢ .783 .027 I:UI,IAM .616 .033 1361 1372 1.245 ,026 .5911 .655 1.361 1372 1.206 .1166 .1711 .222 I.~61 la7- I 131 3}70 .138 183 1361 1372 ,935 ,003 . 98 "~_ . {19.~ • 1361 1372 1 223 005 17.498 17,819 1361 1372 1,O50 ,056 AgO 226 1.361 1.372 I I 14 1121"1 1.307 1.452 1361 I.~7- I .O64 084 . I 18 .166 1361 1372 1.135 .1128 11177 1.203 1.~4. I.)_5 I 134 .1128 1.081 1.209 I .~61 I.~ 7. I 06X (125 1.009 I. I 16 1361 I o7. 1 295 I1114 .979 995 1342 bS . I _a4 .11114 .976 . . 1342 1355 1.130 .009 .910 .{142 1342 1355 1123 .024 .591 651 1342 1355 1.123 .034 .415 .476 1342 1355 IO34 .139 .029 1151 1342 1355 I I I I 075 .118 160 1342 1355 IO62 .129 .035 060 1342 1355 I 155 062 .[79 230 1342 1355 111115 5'15 -.000 (}(}5 1342 1355 1.056 .458 000 ,O(18 l a4 . 1o.5 I.I 17 .I155 .210 "~ "~ 318 320 1.057 .050 523 640 1342 I.,55 953 .040 _75 ~ ~9 1342 1355 1.002 .{b. 400 .454 1346 1357 IO65 .011 2 1'13 . , . L 1261 1281 1.244 {144 .-123 .5115 1261 1281 1.623 O3O 743 837 1195 12111 1118 115.1 256 317 1195 12111 1164 093 1115 152 331 346 1119 133 136 234 331 .341.} IO09 .Or)2 222 322 1195 12111 1188 1181 141 199 1195 12111 I 091 .039 .398 ,454 294 299 1102 .075 356 .182 294 299 1233 .025 846 935 294 299 1232 .I14.1 .677 802 294 299 1236 .043 670 .797 2(14 299 I 119 (134 72'1 836 294 29tl I 172 .054 .550 1,82 155 "Fable C.II Sampling errors - Age 25-34, Turkey 1993 Number of cases Standard Design Re la t ive Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Variable URBAN .666 .013 2510 2494 1.368 .019 .640 .692 SECATT .208 .01 I 2510 2494 1.385 .054 .186 .230 SECGRD .184 .011 2510 2494 1.365 .057 .163 .205 CURMAR .980 .003 2510 2494 1.149 .003 .973 .986 AGEMAR I8.993 ,099 2510 2494 1.377 .005 18.796 19,190 PREGNT .074 .006 2510 2494 1.112 .078 ,063 .086 NUPREG 3.407 .052 2510 2494 1.282 ,015 3.302 3.511 NUMISC .263 .012 2510 2494 1.018 .047 .238 .288 EVBORN 2.675 .048 2510 2494 1.477 .018 2,579 2.771 XEVB 2.694 .048 2460 2443 1.464 .018 2.598 2.790 SURVIV 2.438 .040 2510 2494 1.438 .016 2.359 2.518 KMETHO .995 .002 2510 2494 1.125 .002 .992 .998 XKMOD .994 .002 2460 2443 I.I l0 .002 ,990 .997 XKSOUR .967 .005 2460 2443 1.279 .005 .958 .977 XEVUSE .866 .009 2460 2443 1.361 .01 I .848 .885 XCUSE .724 .012 2460 2443 1.313 .016 .700 .747 XCUPIL .076 .006 2460 2443 1.204 .085 .063 .089 XCUIUD .249 .01 I 2460 2443 1.245 .044 .227 .270 XCUCON .078 .006 2460 2443 1.105 .077 .066 .090 XCUWIT .267 ,01 I 2460 2443 1.184 .040 .246 .288 XCUSTE .025 ,003 2460 2443 1.043 .132 .018 .031 XCUPAB .012 ,002 2460 2443 1.129 .207 .007 .017 XCUMOD .439 .012 2460 2443 1.210 .028 .415 .463 XPSOUR .545 .018 1072 1073 1.216 .034 .508 .582 XNOMOR .745 ,009 2460 2443 1.031 .012 .727 .763 XDELAY . l l2 .007 2460 2443 1.133 .064 .097 .126 IDEAL 2.334 .019 2479 2462 1.026 .008 2.296 2.372 TETANU ,430 .016 1945 1935 1.226 .037 .398 .462 MEDELI .767 ,018 1945 1935 1.485 ,024 .730 .803 DIARRI .223 .012 1853 1843 1.130 .052 .200 .246 DIARR2 .099 .008 1853 1843 1.070 .079 .083 .l l5 ORSTRE .138 .017 396 41 I .964 .123 .104 .172 MEDTRE .231 .025 396 41 I 1.137 .106 .182 .28 I RESPI2 .147 ,010 1853 1843 1.120 .069 .127 .168 RESPII .382 .015 1853 1843 1.224 ,040 .352 .412 IICARD .439 .033 342 340 1.196 .074 .373 .504 BCG .898 .019 342 340 1.182 .022 .859 .936 DPT3 .815 .I)26 342 340 1.205 .031 .764 .866 POL3 .81 I .027 342 340 1.262 .033 .757 .865 MEASLE .775 .025 342 340 1.079 .032 .725 .825 FUI,I,IM .663 .027 342 340 1.041 .041 .609 .717 156 Table C.12 Sampling errors - Age 35-49, Turkey 1993 Number of cases Standard Design Relative Confidence limits Value error Unweighted Weighted effect error Variable (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE URBAN .628 .012 2648 2653 1.329 .020 .603 .653 SECATT .133 .010 2648 2653 1.541 .076 .113 .153 SECGRD .115 .009 2648 2653 1.485 .080 .097 .133 CURMAR .932 .005 2648 2653 1.052 .006 .922 .942 AGEMAR 18.470 .1189 2648 2653 1.179 .005 18.292 18.647 PRFGNT .011 .002 2648 2653 .939 .I 77 .007 .014 NLJI'REG 5.692 .082 2648 2653 1.308 .014 5.529 5.856 NUMISC .451 .020 2648 2653 1.087 .044 .411 .490 EVBORN 4.370 .075 2648 2653 1.474 .017 4.220 4.519 XEVB 4.406 .077 2471 2473 1.474 .018 4.251 4.560 XEVB40 4.740 .101 1433 1447 1.384 .021 4.538 4.942 SURVIV 3.720 .056 2648 2653 t.420 .015 3.608 3.833 KMETIIO .988 .003 2648 2653 1.198 .003 .983 .993 XKMOD .981 .003 2471 2473 1.159 .003 .974 .987 XKSOUR .942 .006 2471 2473 1.328 .007 .929 .954 XEVUSE .838 .009 2471 2473 1.257 .011 .819 .857 XCUSE .628 .010 2471 2473 1.003 .016 .608 .647 XCUPIL .028 .004 2471 2473 1.073 .127 .021 .035 XCUIUD .154 .009 2471 2473 1.230 .058 .136 .172 XCUCON .1165 .006 2471 2473 1.129 .086 .053 .076 XCUWIT .289 010 2471 2473 I . I I5 .035 .268 .309 XCUSTE .048 .004 2471 2473 1.018 .092 .039 .056 XCUPAB .010 .003 2471 2473 1.259 .249 .005 .015 XCUMOD .312 .011 2471 2473 1.126 .034 .291 .333 XPSOUR .535 .020 771 772 1.085 .036 .496 .574 XNOMOR .877 .007 2471 2473 .898 .008 .862 .891 XI)ELAY .014 .005 2471 2473 1.025 .373 .004 .025 IDEAl, 2.536 .I133 2574 2583 1.342 .013 2.470 2.602 TH'ANU .291 .026 482 484 1.087 .088 .240 .342 MF=I)ELI .647 .035 482 484 1.291 .054 .578 .717 DIARRI .244 .024 445 444 I . I I3 .098 .196 .292 DIARR2 .124 .019 445 444 1.146 .154 .086 .163 ORSTRE .173 .041 109 108 1.078 .238 .091 .255 MEI) IRE 235 .038 109 108 .923 .164 .158 .312 gliSl'12 .139 .019 445 444 1.092 .137 .101 .177 RESPII .392 .029 445 444 1.157 .074 .334 .451 I It_'A RI) .301 .056 80 77 .987 .187 .189 .413 BeG .866 .050 80 77 1.282 .058 .766 .966 DH3 .748 .053 80 77 1.056 .071 .643 .854 I'O1~3 .754 .054 80 77 1.091 .072 .646 .863 MEASI,E .779 .046 80 77 .953 .058 .688 .870 FUIAAM .652 .058 80 77 1.048 .089 .536 .768 157 I 'ablc C.13 Sampl ing errors lot total I~rlility rates and infant mortality,, rates, Iu rkcy 1993 Number of cases Standard Design Rclativc Conlidcncc limits Value error Unwcightcd Weighted cllect error Variable (R) (SI!) (N) (WN) (DI~FT) (SI!/R) R-2S[! R+2SI! "l'otal fertil ity rate Urban 2.373 .I 14 5703 5775 1.159 .048 2.144 2.602 Rural 3 101 .248 3672 3687 1.575 .080 2.604 3.598 It)tal I 2,647 . 112 92(11 9263 1.324 .042 2.423 2.870 In fant mnrta l i ty rate Urban 44.038 4.992 2277 2284 1.027 . 113 34.053 54.022 Rural 65.442 7860 1538 1539 1.276 .120 49.722 81.163 Total 52.574 4.391 3815 3823 1.148 .084 43.793 61.355 ill should be noted that adding the number otcases Ibr urban and rural areas does not provide the total number of cases for the entire ctmntry rhe calculation of the total t~:rliiity rate is based on years of exposure by women and tbe cases are not addilive in separate domains. 158 APPENDIX D DATA QUALITY TABLES Table D.I Household age distribution Single-year age distribution of the de facto household population by sex (weighted), Turkey 1993 Male Female Age Number Percentage Number Percentage Age Male Female Number Percentage Number Percentage 0 396 2.1 373 1.9 37 250 1,3 212 I.I I 328 1.8 315 1.6 38 258 1.4 271 1.4 2 329 1.8 323 1.7 39 187 1,0 183 0.9 3 365 1.9 325 1.7 40 285 1.5 297 1.5 4 374 2.0 355 1.8 41 134 0.7 149 0.8 5 362 1.9 355 1.8 42 183 1.0 188 1.0 6 385 2.1 415 2.1 43 221 1.2 224 I.I 7 468 2.5 444 2.3 44 130 0.7 135 0.7 8 481 2.6 468 2.4 45 227 1.2 217 1.1 9 467 2.5 392 2.0 46 125 0.7 139 0.7 10 517 2.8 499 2.5 47 130 0.7 134 0.7 I 1 450 2.4 419 2.1 48 [58 0.8 [57 0.8 12 521 2.8 511 2.6 49 102 0.5 81 {).4 13 546 2.9 497 2.5 50 226 1.2 198 1.0 14 446 2.4 472 2.4 51 105 0.6 169 0.9 15 444 2.4 471 2.4 52 I 18 0,6 209 I. I 16 446 2.4 498 2.5 53 150 0.8 191 1.0 17 439 2.3 521 2.7 54 104 0.6 130 0.7 18 428 2.3 492 2.5 55 248 1.3 285 1,5 19 344 1.8 382 2.0 56 127 0.7 126 0.6 20 298 1.6 453 2.3 57 100 0.5 126 0.6 21 221 1.2 352 1.8 58 126 0.7 116 0.6 22 311 1,7 389 2.0 59 87 0.5 76 0.4 23 358 1,9 360 1.8 60 269 1.4 327 1.7 24 310 1.7 317 1.6 61 95 0,5 64 0.3 25 - 360 1.9 355 1.8 62 106 0.6 99 0.5 26 261 1.4 284 1.5 63 116 0.6 108 0.6 27 297 1.6 315 1.6 64 72 0.4 78 0.4 28 298 1.6 298 1.5 65 222 1.2 239 1.2 29 228 1.2 221 I. I 66 82 0.4 116 0.6 30 355 1.9 382 1.9 67 85 0.5 97 0.5 31 203 I.I 219 I.I 68 65 0.3 57 0.3 32 221 1.2 246 1.3 69 41 0.2 27 0. I 33 250 1.3 332 1.7 70+ 544 2.9 582 3.0 34 203 I.I 218 I.I Don't know/ 35 305 1.6 292 1.5 Missing 7 0.0 5 0.0 36 212 I.l 199 1.0 Total 18710 100.0 19574 100.0 Note: The de facto population includes all residents and nonresidents who slept in the household the night before the interview. 161 q able D.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women Five-year age distribution of the de facto household population of women age 10-54, five-year age distribution of interviewed women age 15-49, and percentage of eligible women who were interviewed (weighted), Turkey 1993 Ever-married Household women in household Women Percentage Age Number Percentage Number Percentage Number Percentage interviewed 10-14 2398 NA NA NA NA NA NA 15-19 2364 23.7 321 4.7 298 4.6 92.9 20-24 1871 18.7 1089 16.0 1041 16.1 95.6 25-29 1474 14.8 1239 18.2 1196 18.5 96.5 30-34 1396 14.0 1334 19.6 1283 19.9 96.1 35-39 1158 11.6 1133 16.6 1070 16.6 94.5 40-44 992 9.9 969 14.2 899 13.9 92.8 45-49 728 7.3 721 10.6 674 10.4 93.5 50-54 897 NA NA NA NA NA NA 15-49 9983 NA 6806 NA 6461 NA 94.9 Note: The de facto population includes all residents and nonresidents who slept in the household the night before interview. NA = Not applicable 162 Table D.3 Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations missing information for selected demographic and health questions, Turkey 1993 Percentage of reference group with missing Sul~iect Rel~rence group information Number Birth date Last 15 years Month only 2.05 12639 Month and year 0.24 12639 Age at death Last 15 years 0.35 1112 Age/date at first union t Ever-married respondents 0.15 6519 Respondent's education Ever-married respondents 0.00 6519 Anthropometry 2 Living children age 1-59 months Child's weight 9.36 3532 Child's height 7.61 3532 Weight and height 9.45 3532 Diarrhoea in last 2 weeks Living children age 1-59 months 0.38 3532 IBoth year and age missing zChild not measured 163 "l~able D.4 Births by calendar year since birth Distribution of births by calendar years since birth lbr living, dead, and all children, according to reporting completeness, sex ratio at birth, and ratio of births by calendar year, Turkey 1993 Total number Percentage with Sex ratio Number of Number of of births complete birth dale t at birth 2 Calendar ratio J male births female births Ycar Living Dead All Living Dead Air Living Dead All Living Dead All Living Dead All Living Dead All 93 570 18 588 I00.0 I00.0 100.0 I08.0 368.9 III.6 - 296 14 310 274 4 278 92 724 47 771 I00.0 100.0 100.0 I I I ,9 85.0 It0.0 117.4 154.8 119.2 382 22 404 342 26 367 91 663 44 707 100.0 100.0 100.0 101,3 103.8 101.4 92.5 100.4 93.0 334 22 356 329 21 351 90 709 39 748 100.0 100.0 100.0 96.1 78.0 95.1 102A 93.0 101.9 347 17 365 361 22 383 89 722 4i 762 100.0 100.0 100.0 108.7 149.2 110.6 105.4 83.3 104.0 376 24 400 346 16 362 88 660 59 719 100.0 100.0 100.0 101.1 108.3 101.7 g2.5 96.2 83.5 332 31 362 328 28 356 87 878 81 959 98.2 93.4 97.8 103.9 126.5 105.7 119.0 119.6 119.1 448 45 493 431 36 466 86 816 77 893 97.7 92.6 97.2 112.9 86.3 110.3 95.3 97.0 95.4 433 36 468 383 41 425 85 834 78 912 97.2 86.6 96.3 95.9 93.6 95.7 106.1 88.3 104.3 40g 38 446 426 40 466 84 757 99 856 98.2 89.3 97.2 114.4 125.4 115.6 404 55 459 353 44 397 89-93 3388 189 3577 100.0 I00.0 I00.0 105.0 III.7 105.4 - 1735 I00 1835 1653 89 1742 84-88 3944 395 4339 98.2 91,9 97.6 I05.4 I07.8 105.6 - 2024 205 2229 1920 190 2110 • 79-83 4067 508 4575 97.2 89.4 96.3 I06,1 131.5 108,6 - 2093 289 2382 1974 220 2193 74-78 3160 566 3725 96.5 85.8 94,9 I03,5 I18.8 105,7 1607 307 1915 Z552 259 1811 < 74 2851 760 3610 95.5 84.1 93,1 105,7 107.7 106.1 1465 394 1859 1386 366 1752 All 17409 2418 19827 97.6 88.1 96.4 105.2 115.3 106.4 - 8925 1294 10219 8485 1123 9608 tBoth year and month of birth given 2(B,./B,)* 100. where B., and Bf are the numbers of male and female births, respectively ~I2BJ(B,.,+ ],.,)]* l IX), where ]. s the number of births in calendar year x 164 Table D.5 Renortint of age at death in days Distribution of reported deaths under I month of age by age at death in days and the percentage of neonatal deaths reported to occur at ages 0-6 days, Ibr llvc-ycar periods preceding the survey, Turkey 1993 Number of years preceding the survey Age at dcalh Total (in days) 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-19 0 27 25 13 25 91 I 24 38 29 44 135 2 9 16 II 11 45 3 9 24 22 18 72 4 4 2 0 6 12 5 6 8 9 5 28 6 I 3 3 3 I0 7 6 28 23 21 79 8 0 3 I I 4 9 2 2 2 2 8 I0 6 4 9 9 28 II 0 1 I 2 4 12 0 4 0 2 6 13 0 I 3 4 8 14 2 I 0 I 4 15 2 15 7 8 32 16 0 I 5 I 7 17 0 I 2 3 6 18 0 I 2 I 3 19 I 0 0 0 I 20 4 13 19 19 55 2t I 2 I 0 4 22 I 0 I I 3 23 0 I 0 I 2 24 0 0 I 2 3 25 2 2 4 I 8 27 I 0 I 0 2 28 I 2 0 0 3 29 0 0 0 I I 30 0 0 I 0 I 31 0 0 7 5 12 Missing I 0 0 0 I Total 0-30 107 198 168 191 664 Early neonatal(%) I 73.5 58.8 51.3 57.9 59.0 =0-6 days/O-30 days 165 Table D.6 Reporting of age at death in months Distribution of reported deaths under 2 years of age by age at death in months and the percentage of infant deaths reported to occur at age under one month, for five-year periods preceding the survey, Turkey 1993 Number of years preceding the survey Age at death Total (in months) 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-19 < I month ~ 108 198 168 191 665 I 9 22 51 39 122 2 8 17 32 34 91 3 7 21 33 36 98 4 14 14 23 27 77 5 12 10 17 19 57 6 10 23 22 27 83 7 7 17 20 14 57 8 4 10 14 21 49 9 5 4 10 14 33 10 3 4 8 5 20 I1 0 6 8 II 25 12 7 8 25 20 60 13 I 0 I 2 4 14 I I 3 I 6 15 2 0 2 I 5 16 I 0 2 3 6 17 0 I 0 2 3 18 2 II 12 10 35 20 0 I I I 3 24+ 0 0 I I 2 Total 0-11 186 345 407 437 1376 I year I 7 8 13 29 Percent neonatal 2 58.0 57.2 41.3 43.7 48.3 Ilncludes deaths under I month reported in days 2Under I month/under I year 166 APPENDIX E CALCULATION OF CONTRACEPTIVE DISCONTINUATION RATES APPENDIX E CALCULATION OF CONTRACEPTIVE DISCONTINUATION RATES The cumulative one-year discontinuation rates represent the proportion of users discontinuing a method within 12 months at~er the start of use (QI2j). The monthly rates (qij) are calculated by dividing the number of discontinuations for reason j at each duration of use i in single months (dij) by the number of women exposed at that duration (ei): d U %=- - ei Pij is the probability of continuing to use at each duration, Pij= (1-qkj) and the cumulative probability of discontinuing within 12 months is Qkj = 1 - Pkj where k = 12. Note that these are true multiple decrement life tables (sometimes referred to as "net rates"); the various reasons for discontinuation are treated as competing risks and the q's are additive across reasons for discontinuing. The tabulation program is set up to present results for three specific reasons for discontinuation--stopped to get pregnant, became pregnant while using, side effects/health concerns--plus a column for "all other reasons" and a total column. The program can be modified to include additional specific reasons for discontinuation. All episodes of contraceptive use between January of the first year of the calender and the date of interview are recorded in the calender along with the reason for any discontinuation of use during this period. In addition, in order to obtain the duration of use of any episode that was in progress in January of the first year of the calendar, the date that the respondent started this period of use is collected. Women who were using a method in January of the first year of the calender enter the life table at their duration of use as of that date. (If the woman or her husband was sterilised before January of the first year of the calendar, we use the date of sterilisation to calculate the duration at which she should enter the life table.) Thus, discontinuation rates presented in this table refer to all episodes of contraceptive use occurring during the period of time covered by the calendar, not just those episodes that began during this period. Specifically, the rates presented in Table 4.12 refer to the 60-month period 3-63 months prior to the survey; the month of interview and the prior 2 months are ignored in order to avoid the bias that may be introduced by unrecognised pregnancies. The program is currently set up to suppress results for specific contraceptive methods that have fewer than 125 women exposed in month 1. Special cases are handled as follows: 169 • If the reason for discontinuation in the calendar is missing, the discontinuation is grouped in the "All other reasons" category. If the year of the start date of the segment of use in progress in January of the first year of the calendar is missing and: - If there is a birth prior to the calendar period, then the segment of use is assumed to begin one month aRer the birth - If there is no birth prior to the calendar period, but the marriage started before the calendar, then the segment of use is assumed to begin one month after marriage. If the year of the start date of the segment of use in progress in January of the first year of the calendar is known, a range of possible start dates (January-December of the year given if the month is not known) is calculated. Note that if the month is known, the range consists of only one month. - If the lower bound of the range is on or before the date of the last birth prior to the start of the calendar, the segment is assumed to begin one month after the birth - If the lower bound of the range is after the date of the last birth prior to the start of the calendar, the segment is assumed to begin at the mid-point of the range If the date of sterilisation is on or before the date of the last birth prior to the start of the calendar, the segment is assumed to begin on the date of that birth. Note that the date of sterilisation should be before the date of the last birth only in the case of male sterilisation. 170 APPENDIX F SURVEY INSTRUMENTS 1993 TURKISH 9EMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE HOUSEHOLD IDENTIFICATION I-- CLUSTER NO . L HOUSEHOLD NO . REGION . URBAN(1)/RURAL(2) . PROVINCE DISTRICT SUB-DISTRICT VILLAGE QUARTER STREET DOOR NO INTERVIEWER VISITS 1 2 DATE : DAY AND MONTH INTERVIEWER'S NAME AND SURNAME RESULT (~) NEXT I DAY VISIT MONTH HOUR 3 FINAL VISIT F-~ n-1 [__ TOTAL [---i NUMBER I I OF VISITS (~) RESULT CODES : 1 COMPLETED 2 HOSEHOLD PRESENT BUT NO COMPETENT RESPONDENT AT HOME 3 HOUSEHOLD ABSENT 4 POSTPONED 5 REFUSED 6 DWELLING VACANT 0H ADDRESS NOT A DWELLING 7 DWELLING DESTHOYED 8 DWELLING NOT FOUND 9 OTHER (SPECIFY) TOTAL IN HOUSEHOLD . TOTAL ELIGIBLE WOMEN . FIELD EDITED BY DAY MONTH ~-l F-V1 F-n OFFICE EDITED BY DAY MONTH 11 I rT~ KEYED BY DAY MONTH r-n ~-l F-n 173 - -~ Now I wou ld l lke some in format ion about people MINUTE in th i s househo ld , such as age and sex* HOUSEHOLD L IST LINE NO. ADD BY ASK ING QUEST IONS A-B-C-D (1) 01 02 03 o~ 05 06 o? 08 09 iO A. Could you p lease te l l me the name o f the househo ld head ? B, Cou ld you please tell the names of other people l i v ing in this househo ld ? C. Is there anyone who usua l ly l i ves in th i s househo ld but i s absent at present ? D, Add i t iona l ly , are there persons who do not usua l ly ~tve here but who have s tayed here l as t n ight ? RELATIONSHIP TO HOUSEHOLD HEAD What i s the re la t ionsh ip o f . . . . . . to the household head ? What is . to the head ? USE CODE LIST (*) PROVIDED RESIDENCE SEX I s . . . . . male or Female ? Does Did usua l ly s leep l ive here here ? las t night ? YES. . . .1 YES . . . .1 NO . 2 NO . 2 I 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 MALE. . .1 FEMALE.2 AGE How o ld i s IN COMPLETED YEARS (2) (3) {4) (5) (6) (7) ;J 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 I want to be sure that I have completed the full l ist of those in this household : 1,Are there any o ther persons such as ADD TO small ch i ld ren and in fants ? YES > THE LIST NO 2,Are there any o ther persons who are not F -~ ADD TO F--~ members o f your fami ly hut l i ve here , YES ~- -> THE LIST U NO such as lodgers , f r iends , servants ? I F THE HOUSEHOLD LIST COMPRI- SES MORE THAN lO PERSONS, TICK HERE AND CONTINUE LISTING THE HOUSEHOLD ON A SEPARATE FORM. PROCEED WITH THE REST OF THE INTERVIEW ON THE U ADDIT IONAL FORM. 174 LINE NO, I s . . . . . . . 's natural mother a l ive ? AL IVE . I DEAD . 2-- DE . . . . . . . . 8- - (Q . IO)4~ L ITERACY AND EDUCATION PARENTAL SURVIVORSHIP ASK IF AGED 6 AND OVER. Is . 's RECORD LINE Is . Has . What is the natura l fa ther NO. IF l i te ra te ? ever been h ighest leve l LISTED IN THE HOUSE. RECORD "96" IF L IV ING ELSEWHERE. at tended ? RECORD LINE NO. I F L ISTED IN al ive ? THE ROUSE. RECORD "96" IF L IV ING ELSEWHERE, ALIVE . I DEAD . 2- DK . . . . . . . . 8- (Q.12)4- I 2 8 1 2 8 ] 1 2 8 I 2 8 1 2 8 2 1 8 2 1 2 8 I 1 2 8 i 1 8 2 PR IMARY . . . . . 1 SECONDARY. . .2 H IGHSCROOL. .3 UNIVERSITY . .4 DK . . . . . . . . . . 8 (8) (9) (10) (11) (12) (13) (14) (15) 01 l 2 8 i I 02 1 2 8 03 1 2 8 04 1 2 8 05 1 2 8 06 i 2 8 07 i 2 8 08 1 2 8 i 09 1 2 8 i 10 i 2 8 FO F]] FO FF] to school ? YES . 1 NO . . . . . 2-- YES . I DN . . . . . . 8-- NO . 2 DK . 8 (Q.18).-- 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 I 2 8 i 2 8 1 2 8 t 2 8 1 2 8 I 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 i 2 8 I 2 8 1 2 8 i 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 ] I 2 8 1 2 8 13,OTHER RELATIVE 14.NOT RELATED 98 .DK (*) CODES FOR RELAT IONSHIP TO HOUSEHOLD HEAD ; O1.HEAD OS.GRANDCHILD Og. BROTHER-S ISTER O2.WIFE-HUSBAND O6.MOTHER-FATHER IN LAW O3,SON-DAUGHTER O7.MOTHER-FATHEN IO.FATHERS S IBL ING O4.SON-DAUGHTER IN LAW I1 .MOTHERS S IBL ING IN LAW OS.BROTHER-E ISTER 12.STEP CHILD 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 3 ~ 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 3 ~ 8 1 2 3 h 8 What is the h ighest grade . completed at that level ? 175 IANE NO. 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 lO Did graduate f rom this school ? YE£ . . . . . . . 1 NO, 2 DK . . . . . . . . 8 ASK I F AGED LESS THAN 25 : I s . s t i l l a t tend ing schoo l ? YES, . . i NO. .2 DK . . . . 8 MARITAL STATUS AND EL IG IB IL ITY ASK IF AGED 12 AND OVER. Has . What is 's mar l - ever marr ied ? tal s tatus ? Cur rent ly YES . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . 2- - DE . . . . . . . . 8-- NEXT 4-- PERSON marr ied, widowed. d ivorced or separated? MARRIED . . . . . . . 1 WIDOWED . . . . . . . 2 - DIVORCED . . . . . . 3 Q" SEPARATED . . . . . 4 --~ 21 DK. 8- IF CURRENTLY MARRIED, RECORD LINE NO. OF SPOUSE. I F SPOUSE NOT IN TIIE HOUSEHOLD L IST , RECORD "96". How many t imes d id marry ? CIRCLE LINE NUMBER iF EL IG IBLE WOMAN. EL IG IB IL ITY : EVER-MARBlED WOMEN LESS THAN AGE 50 (16) (17) (18) (19) (20) (21) (22) III Ill Ill II Ill IE Ill IE li IE 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 3 ~ 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 3 4 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 3 4 8 ~q ~q ~q ~q Eq ~q ~q ~q O1 02 03 oh 05 06 07 08 09 10 176 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 33 What i s the source o f water your househo ld uses fo r handwash lng and d i shwash lng ? PIPED WATER PIPED WATER IN HOUSE/GARDEN.II PUBLIC TAP . 12 WELl. WATER WELL IN RESIDENCE/YARD/PLOT* . .21 PUBLIC WELL . 22 SURFACE WATER SPRING . 31 RIVER/STREAM . 32 POND/LAKE . 33 DAM . 3 ~ RAINWATER . ~I TANKER . 51 BOTTLED WATER/DEMIJOHN . 61 OTHER 71 (SPECIFY) 3S l Do you obtain drinking water front the same source as water fo r handwash lng and d i shwssh ing ? l YES . l i >37 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 36 What is the source of your drinking water ? PIPED WATER PIPED WATER IN HOUSE/GARDEN,.II PUBLIC TAP . 12 WELL WATER WELL IN RESIDENCE/YARD/PLOT.21 PUBLIC WELL . 22 SURFACE WATER SPRING . 31 RIVER/STREAM . 32 POND/LAKE . 33 DAM . 3~ RAINWATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ l TANKER . 51 BOTTLED WATER/DEMIJOHN . 61 OTHER 71 (SPECIFY) 37 Now I wou ld l i ke to ask you quest ions about the to i le t facility of your house. Is the toilet in the house or outside ? INSIDE . I OUTSIDE . 2 NO TOILET FACILITY . 3 OTHER (SPECIFY) I 0,~6 I l 38 | What type of toilet is it ? Is it a flush toilet, I a closed pit or an open pit ? I FLUSH TOILET . I I CLOSED PIT . 2 OPEN PIT . 3 39 I Is the to i le t used by on ly those in th i s household , or is it shared by members o f another househo ld ? I THIS HOUSEHOLD ONLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I SHARED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 41 i s there a p lace fo r washing hands in the to i le t ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 46 What is the source of heat ing in w in ter ? RADIATOR (CENTRAL HEATING) . . . . . . . 1 RADIATOR (PRIVATE) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STOVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CHARCOAL BRAZIER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 OVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 {SPECIFY) I 47 | [low many rooms in your household are nurmal ly used I s leep ing ? I ROOMS USED FOR SLEEPING . . . . ~ I 49 What i s the main mater ia l o f the f loor ? NATURAL FLOOR EARTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 RUDIMENTARY WOOD PLANKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 F IN ISHED FLOOR PARQUET OH POI,ISHED WOOD . . . . . . 31 CEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 CARPET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 MARLEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 MOZAIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 OTHER 41 (SPECIFY) 50 Do you have the fo l low ing in tile household ? Re f r igerator Oven for Cooking Washing Machine Dishwasher Vacuum Cleaner Te lev is ion Video Recorder Radio-Casset te P layer Music Set Telephone A Car (Exc ldu in g t rac tors and taxis etc) Computer More than 30 Books (Exc lud ing school books) YES NO REFRIGERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 OVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 WASHING MACHINE . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 DISHWASHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 VACUUM CLEANER . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 TELEVIS ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 VIDEO RECORDER . . . . . . . . . . . i 2 RADIO-CASSETTE PLAYER . . . . 1 2 MUSIC SET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 TELEPHONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 A CAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 COMPUTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 MORE THAN 30 BOOKS . . . . . . 1 2 178 52 L INE NO. OF RESPONDENT TO THE HOUSEHOLD SCHEDULE LANGUAGE USED FOR CONDUCTING THE HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE WAS AN INTERPRETER USED ? L INE NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TURKISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 ARABIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 KUSDIBH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER 4 (SPECIFY) YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I >54 I SECOND THE T IME. HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M INUTE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 1993 TURKISH DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY WOMAN'S QUESTIONNAIRE IDENTIFICATION V-- CLUSTER NO. O HOUSEHOLD NO . REGION . URBAN (1)/RURAL(2) . NAME OF WOMAN LINE NO OF WOMAN . PROVINCE DISTRICT SUB-DISTRICT VILLAGE QUARTER STREET DOOR NO INTERVIEWER VISITS 1 2 DATE : DAY AND MONTH INTERVIEWER'S NAME AND SURNAME RESULT (~) NEXT VISIT 3 FINAL VISIT F-~ F-m [__ TOTAL [---] NUMHEH I i OF VISITS DAY MONTH HOUR I (*) RESULT CODES : 1 COMPLETED 2 NOT AT HOME 3 POSTPONED 4 REFUSED 5 PARTLY COMPLETED 6 OTHER (SPECIFY) FIELD EDITED BY DAY MONTH F-~ F-~ ~-] OFFICE EDITED BY DAY MONTH KEYED BY DAY MONTH V~ C~ C~ 181 SECTION I. RESPONDENT'S BACKGROUND RECORD THE TIME, HOUR . MINUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 First I would like to ask some questions about you and your household. For most of the time until you were 12 years old, did you live in a province centre, a district centre, a sub-distrlct or a village, or abroad ? PROVINCE CENTRE . I DISTRICT CENTRE . 2 SUB-DISTRICT OR VILLAGE . 3 ABROAD . >103 I I02A I In which province was this place at that time ? (RECORD THE NAME AND CODE OF THE PROVINCE) NAME OF PROVINCE P.O i07 103 in what month and year were you born? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ DK YEAR . 98 IOt~ How old are you exactly ? What age have you completed ? JCOMPARE RESPONSES TO I03 AND 104. MAKE THE NECESSARY CALCULATIONS IN THE SPACE ON THE RIGHT. CORRECT IF INFORMATION IS INCONSISTENT. AGE IN COMPLETED YEARS . lo5 J Have you ever attended school? I YES . I I NO . 2 >109 I lo6 What is the highest level you have attended ? PRIMARY . I SECONDARY . 2 HIGH SCHOOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . UNIVERSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 What is the highest grade you have completed at that level ? I GRADE . ~ I 107A Did you graduate from this school ? I YES. * . ] NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 182 CHECK 106 : SECONDARY f---] PRIMARY L~ OR ] I IGHER V~ >I I0 1o9 110 111 112 113A I I3B Can you resd and unders tand a [e t te r o r newspaper eas i l y , w i th d i f f i cu ] ly , o r not at a l l ? I EASILY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I | I WITH D IFF ICULTY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ )111 Do you read a newspaper o r magaz ine at leas t once a week? yES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Do you l i s ten to the radio ut least once a week? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Do you watch te lev Js ion a( leas t once a week? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Do you smoke ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I ~I I4A I ,, . . . . . . .ci _t_ oy . . . . . . ' eper.ont . . . . . . . IAw'-- O.OFClGA--TES. I l 14A What is your . lothec tongue ? RECORD ONI,Y ONE RESPONSE. TURKISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O1 KURBISH, ZAZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 ARABIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 ARMENIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 C IRCASS IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 GEORGIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 HEBREW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 PERS IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 GREEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 LAZ LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I0 EAST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (BULGARIAN,RUSS IAN,SERBIAN, RUMANIAN,ETC.) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l l WEST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (ENGLISH,FRENCH,GERMAN. SPANISH. ITAL IAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . . 12 OTHER .13 (SPECIFY) 183 l l hB I t l add i t i cm to your mother t ( i t lgue , wh ich language(s ) can you speak ar id o r unders tand ? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. TURKISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A KURDISH. ZAZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B ARABIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C ARMENIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B C IRCASS IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E GEORGIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F ItEBREW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G PERSIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II GREEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i L f ' ! LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J EAST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (BULGARiAN.RUSS IAN.SERBIAN, RUMANIAN,BOSNIAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . . R WEST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES {ENGI , ISS ,FRENCH,GERMAN, SPANISH. ITAL IAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . . . L OTHER M (SPECIFY) KNOWS NO OTHER LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . P 114c What i s (was) your mother ' s mother tongue ? RECORH ONLY ONE RESPONSE. TURKIS I t . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O1 KURDISI I , ZAZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 ARABIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 ARMENIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 04 C IRCASS IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O 5 GEORGIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 HERREW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 PERS IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O8 (;REEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 LAZ LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 EAST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (BULGARIAN,RUSS IAN,SERBIAN, RUMANIAN,BOSNIAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . 11 WEST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES { ENGL I Sit, FRENCII, GERMAN, SPANI S l l , I TAL IAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . . 12 OTHER 13 ( SPEC I FY ) t l4D What i s (was) your fa ther ' s mother tongue ? RECORD ONLY ONE RESPONSE. TURKISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O1 KURDISH, ZAZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 ARABIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 ARMENIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oh C IRCASSIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O 5 GEORGIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 [{EBREW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 PERS IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 GREEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 LAZ LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . tO EAST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (BULGARIAN,RUSS IAN,SERBIAN, RUMANIAN,BOSNIAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . 11 WEST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES [ENGLISH,FRENCH,GERMAN~ SPANIS I I , I TAL IAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . . 12 OTHER 13 ( SPEC 1FY ) 184 116 CHECK QUEST ION ~ IN THE HOUSEHOLD QUEST IONNAIRE THE WOMAN INTERVIEWER IS NOT A USUAL RESIDENT ______?__.______. Now I wou ld l ike to ask about the place in wh ich you usua l ly l i ve . Do you usua l ly l l ve in a prov ince centre, a d is t r i c t centre, a sub-d is t r i c t or a vi l lage, or abroad ? THE WOMAN INTERVIEWED IS A USUAL RES IDENT PROVINCE CENTRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i D ISTR ICT CENTRE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SUB-D ISTR ICT OR V ILLAGE . . . . . . . . . 3 ABROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >201 >117A 117 In wh ich prov ince is this place ? (RECORD THE NAME AND CODE OF THE PROVINCE) NAME OF PROVINCE PROVINCE CODE I I7A How many persons do usua l ly l ive in your house ? I NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ] t18 What is the source of water your househo ld uses for handwash ing and d l shwash ing ? P IPED WATER P IPED WATER IN HOUSE/GARDEN. . . I I PUBL IC TAP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 WELL WATER WELL IN RESIDENCE~YARD~PLOT, . ,21 PUBLIC WELL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 SURFACE WATER SPRING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 R IVER/STREAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 POND/LANE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 DAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 RAINWATER, . . * . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~i TANKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 BOTTLED WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 OTHER 71 (SPECIFY) I 120 | Do you obtain drinking Water from the same source I as water for handwash ing and d i shwash ing ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 >I21A 185 121 What is the SoIJrve of your dr ink ing water ? PIPED WATER PIPED WATER IN HOUSE/GARDEN.II PUBLIC TAP . 12 WELL WATER WELL iN RESIDENCE/YARD/PLOT.21 PUBLIC WELL . 22 SURFACE WATER SPRING . 31 RIVER/STREAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 POND/LAKE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 DAM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3h RAINWATER . 41 TANKER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 BOTTLED WATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 OTHER 71 (SPECIFY) 12IA Now l would like to ask you questions about the toilet fac i l i ty of your house. Is the to i le t in the hotlse or outs ide ? INSIDE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 OUTSIDE . 2 NO TOILET FACILITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER 4 (SPECIFY) I v122C I I 121B | What type of toilet is it ? Is it a Flush toilet, I a closed p i t or an open p i t ? l FLUSH TOILET . I I CLOSED PIT . 2 OPEN PIT . 3 I 121C | is the toilet'used by only those in this household, I or is it shared by members of another household ? l THIS IIOUSEHOLD ONLY . I I SHARED . 2 122B I Is there a p lace For washing hands in the to i le t ? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 122C What is tile source of heating in winter 7 RADIATOR (CENTRAL HEATING) . I RADIATOR (PRIVATE) . 2 STOVE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 CIIARCOAL BRAZIER . OVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 ( SPEC I FY ) I 124 | How many rooms in your househo ld ace used fo r I s leep ing ? I ROOMS FOR SLEEPING . . . . . . . . . ~ I 186 125 What is the main mater ia l of the f l oor ? NATURAL FLOOR EARTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 RUDIMENTARY WOOD PLANKS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 F IN ISHED FLOOR PARQUET OR POL ISHED WOOD . . . . . . 31 CEMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 CARPET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 MARLEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 MOSAIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 OTHER 41 (SPECIFY) 126 Do you have the Fo l low ing in the househo ld ? Re f r igerator Oven fo r Cook ing Wash ing Mach ine Dishwasher Va cHtlnl C leaner Te lev is ion V ideo Recorder Rad lo -Casset te P layer Mus ic Set Tel ephone A Car (exch Jd ing t rac tors , tax i s e tc ) Computer More than 30 []ouRs (Exch ld lng schoo l boors ) YES NO REFRIGERATOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 OVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] 2 WASHING MACHINE . . . . . . . . . . ] 2 DISHWASHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 VACUUM CLEANER . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 TELEV IS ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 V IDEO RECORDER . . . . . . . . . . . i 2 RADIO-CASSETTE PLAYER . . . . I 2 MUSIC SET . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i 2 TELEPHONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 2 A CAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 COMPUTER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 MORE TIIAN 30 ROOKS . . . . . . . ] 2 187 SECTION 2A. REPRODUCTION 201 Now I wou ld 1 lEe to ask about a l l the b i r ths you have had duping your l l fe , Have you ever g iven b i r th? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . 2 >206 202 Do you have any sons or daughters 1o whom you have g iven b i r th who are now l i v ing w i th you? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . $ I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 >201] 203 How alany son~ l i ve with yOll? And how many daughters llve with you? I F NONE RECORD 'DO'. SONS AT HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l I DAUGHTEgS AT HOME . . . . . . . . . 20/4 l Do you have any sons or daughters 10 whom you have g iven b i r th who are a l i ve but do not l i ve with you? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 [ NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 >206 205 How many sorts are al ive but do not l i ve with you? And how many daughters are al ive but do not i i ve with you? I F NONE RECORD 'DO' , SONS ELSEWHERE . . . . . . . . . . . . DAUGHTERS ELSEWHERE . . . . . . . 206 I Have you ever given birth io a boy or a girl who was I YES . l I I I born alive but later died? IF NO, PROBE: Any baby who c r ied or showed any s ign o f l i fe but NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 >208 only survived a few hours or days? I I I 207 I In a l l , how many boys have ( l led? I And how marly g i r l s have d led ' t IF NONE RECORD ' 00 ' . 208 | FIND THE TOTAL NUMBER OF CHILDREN EVER BORN : I SUM ANSWERS TO 203. 205, AND 207, AND ENTER TOTAl,. IF NONE, RECORD '00'. 2o9 CHECK 208: BOYS DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . GIRLS DEAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . TOTAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jtlst to make ~ure that ] have this r ight: you have had in TOTAl. correct? YES ? I v I 210 CIIECK 208: ? ONE OR MOHE BIETI[S v l b i r ths dur ing your l l f e , Is that PROBE AND NO ] ] ) CORRECT 201-208 AS NECESSARY CONTINUE W I 'I'll 1"lIE R[RTII HIS'rOBY (q,211) NO BIRTHS >225 189 BIRTH HISTORY 211 Now I wm~ld like to talk to y(m hi)out all of your births, whether st i l l a l ive or not. s ta r t ing w i th the first one you had. RECORD NAMES OF ALL B IRTHS IN 212. RECORD TWINS AND TR IPLETS ON SEPARATE LINES. MAKE SURE TO RECORD DECEASED CHILDREN FROM MU[,TIPI,E RIRTI IS BEFORE TIIOSE SURVIVING, 212 What rlalll(! WHN g iven { f i r s t , next ) bnby ? WRITE 'BABY ' I F T I lE BABY D IED BEFORE A NAME WAS G IVEN, 213 RECORI) SINGLE OR MU[,T I PI,E R I RTI[ STATUS 21l I is (NAME) a boy or a glr l ? 21~A Where were you l i v ing a t the t ime o f (NAME)s b i r th ? Which prov ince was this p lace i n ? I F IN CURRENT PLACE. C IRCLE '*00'* AND CONTINUE, OTIIENWISE, RECORD NAME AND CODE t) E THE PROVINCE. C IRCLE "90" I F ABROAD. °, I ( NAME ) S I NGLE . . . . . . . . . . 1 MLI LT I I'I,F] . . . . . . . . 2 BOY . . . . . . . . . . i G IR l . . . . . . . . . . 2 CURRENT PROVINCE . . . . . . . . . . O0 pROVINCE NAME ABROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 (NAME) SINGLE . . . . . . . . . . 1 MULT IPLE . . . . . . . . 2 BOY . . . . . . . . . . I GIRL . . . . . . . . . 2 CURRENT PROVINCE . . . . . . . . . . O0 PROVINCE NAME ABROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 (NAME) SINGLE . . . . . . . . . . i MULT IPLE . . . . . . . . 2 BOY . . . . . . . . . . I G IRL . . . . . . . . . 2 CURRENT PROVINCE . . . . . . . . . . O0 PROVINCE NAME ABROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 (NAME) S INGLE . . . . . . . . . . 1 MULTIPLE . . . . . . . . 2 BOY . . . . . . . . . . I G IRL . . . . . . . . . 2 CURRENT PROVINCE . . . . . . . . . . O0 PROVINCE NAME ABROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 (NAME) SINGLE . . . . . . . . . . 1 MULT IPLE . . . . . . . . 2 BOY . . . . . . . . . . 1 GIRL . . . . . . . . . 2 CURRENT PROVINCE . . . . . . . . . . O0 PROVINCE NAME ABROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 215 In what month and year was (NAME) horn ? PROBE : What i s h i s /her b i r thday 7 OR : In what season was He/she born ? NOTE : TIIE YEAR OF EIRTII HAS TO BE DETERMINED I MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 I s (NAME) s t i l l a l ive ? YES . . . . . . 1 217 I F ALIVE : ( low o Id Was (NAME) at his l as t b i r thday ? RECORD AGE IN COMPLETED YEARS. MAKE CALCULAT I - ONS FOR CONSIS - TENCY AGE IN YEARS I v (NEXT BIRTH) 220 IF DEAD : How o ld was he/she when she d ied ? I F **l YEAR'* , PROBE : Row many months o ld was (NAME) ? RECORD DAYS IF LESS THAN 1 MONTI I , RECORD MONTIiS I F LESS THAN 2 YEARS, RECORD YEARS OTIIEBWISE. DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . l MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . | AGE IN YEARS I v (NEXT BIRTH) DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . 1 AGE IN YEARS M I v (NEXT BIRTH) DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . MONTIt . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . 1 AGE IN YEARS M I v (NEXT B IRT I I ) DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . 3 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . I AGE IN YEARS I v (NEXT BIRTH) DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . 3 191 2]2 What rl~Inle ' 4a~; Ri 'v l , n (nex l ) ba l )y "! VJR ITE 'X ' I F IIIF: BABY I) IED t~F:I'Olt[: A NAMI : ~AS ~HVI :N 21:~ R l : ( l lR I} SINGI,F: ()R MI:I "111H I: IH R r l l S I A ' I I S 21/ I I s (NAME) a bc~y or a Ri r l ? 2111A ~, 'hi ' Ie were ycn l l i v i l l g a t the I J rne I l l INA '* I I ) s b iz th ? ~hi (h l l r t~V i lH I " ~,aS th i s p la :e i r l ? IF IN CLHRF:NI" PI A ( I , I IR I [1: "00" AN]I +f IN I Ik l l : Iq l l l l<~, l~P: , RI:('IIRI) %AM1: %NP CHF>I ~!1 I t l l " PI~iI~-IN('E, C IR( ' IK "9 ( ; " I I ( N A'~I: ) ,g [ N G l,l': . . . . . . . . . . 1 'vlt:l 'I ] i ' l l : . . . . . . . . 2 ItOY . . . . . . . . . . ) G IR l . . . . . . . . . . 2 CURRENT ]+}+(A INCI: . . . . . . . . . . (}0 I 'R ( ]V I N( ' l : % A"d I: AI~HOAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9[) ( NAMI: ) S I N(;1F . . . . . . . . . . 1 ;111 I IP I t . . . . . . . . 2 BOY . . . . . . . . . ] GIR l . . . . . . . . 2 C[ HRHNI PIIO~ I \1 I: . . . . . . . f lH I 'R()VINCE NA~II: ~ I A l l HC)AI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I ] ( N A'QF: ) ~ INGI K . . . . . . . . . . 1 MI: I I ' I i ' I I: . . . . . . . . 2 BOY . . . . . . . . . . I G IRL . . . . . . . . . 2 {:U R REN'I I'RI)'~ I xr K . . . . . . . . . O0 JIHI)~ [ NC[: NAML [ ~ ABR(]AD . . . . . . . . r) ( NA~4E ) ~41Ni;] I . . . . . . . . . . 1 ' I t I l l iq I: . . . . . . . . 2 II()Y . . . . . . . . . . l GIR l . . . . . . . . . . 2 fURR[NT pRI l~, l%l I . . . . . . . . . Hip PROV [ NI:F NA~I ABROAD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IJ(i EJ ( NAMI : ] r l (K IIERF: IF NUMBER UF B IH I l I~ IF, :~IORH TI IAN 10 ANI i CONTINUE IN ~,NI)TIIEI~ QI KS I " I ( INNAI HE I ' ( ]RM. [] S INGI,E . . . . . . . . . . l MUI .T IP I E . . . . . . . . 2 BOY . . . . . . . . . . l GIR l . . . . . . . . . . 2 CIJRRENT PR(WIN( E . . . . . . . . . . O0 ['R(W I ]~CI: NAME [ ~ ABR()AI] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9'J ]92 215 In what month ant i year Was (NAME) born ? PROBE : What i s h i s /her b i r thday ? OR : In what season was he /she born ? NOTE : THE YEAR OF B IRTH HAS TO BE DETERMINE[} iiiiiiiiiiiiiiii 216 Is (NAME) s t i l l a l i ve ? YES . . . . . . i 217 IF AL IVE : How o ld was (NAME) at h is l as t b i r thday ? RECORD AGE IN COMPLETED YEARS. MAKE CALCULAT I - ONS FOR CONSIS - TENCY AGE IN YEARS I v (NEXT B IRTH) 220 IF DEAD : How o ld was he/she ehen she d ied ? IF " I YEAR" , PROBE : flow many months o ld was (NAME) ? RECORD DAYS I F LESS THAN 1 MONTH, RECORD MONTHS IF LESS THAN 2 YEARS, RECORD YEARS OTHERWISE. DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . 3 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . 1 AGE IN YEARS I v (NEXT B IRTH) DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . I MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . 3 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . 1 AGE IN YEARS I v (NEXT B IRTH) DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . 3 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . I o;iii 7 AGE IN YEARS I v (NEXT BIRTH) DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . I MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . 3 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR. YES . . . . . . I AGE IN YEARS I v (NEXT BIRTH) DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . 2 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . 3 193 221 COMPARE 208 WITH NUMBER OF BIRTHS IN HISTORY ABOVE AND MARK: NUMBERS ~ NUMBERS ARE ABE SAME ~ DIFFERENT v ~--~ > (PROBE AND FIND OUT THE CAUSE OF THE INCONSISTENCY.MAKE ALL NECESSARY CORRECTIONS} CHECK: FOR EACH BIRTH: YEAR OF BIRTH IS RECORDED (215) FOR EACH LIVING CHILD: CURRENT AGE IS RECORDED (217) FOR EACH DEAD CHILD: AGE AT DEATH IS RECORDED (220) FOR AGE AT DEATII 12 MONTHS: PROBE TO DETERMINE EXACT NUMBER OF MONTHS (220) 222 CHECK 215 AND ENTEB THE NUMBER OF BIRTHS SINCE JANUARY 1988. IF NONE. ENTER 0 AND SKIP TO 224. D 223 FOR EACH BIRTH AFTER JANUARY 1988 : - ENTER "D" IN MONTH AND YEAR OF BIRTH. - ENTER "H" FOR EACH OF THE 8 PRECEDING MONTHS. - WRITE THE NAME OF THE CHILD TO THE LEFT OF THE "D" CODE. NOTE : IN CASES WHEN YOU HAVE OBTAINED THE INFORMATION THAT THE PREGNANCY ENDED BEFORE 9 MONTHS, YOU SHOULD STILL MARK 8 "H"s . HOWEVER, PUT NOTES IN THE CALENDAR SECTION. 224 AT THE BOTTOM OF THE CALENDAR, ENTER THE NAME AND BIRTH DATE OF THE LAST CHILD BORN PR IOR TO JANUARY 1988, IF APPLICABLE. 225 Are you pregnant now? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I ZIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIIII 226 How N]alqy nlon~hs pregnant ~re you? I MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER "H" IN COLUMN 1 OF CALENDAR IN MONTH OF INTERVIEW AND IN EACH PRECEDING MONTH PREGNANT. 2271Atth tl oubc ep--nt dd o want to becom I T N . 11 pregnant then, did you want to wait unt i l later, LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 or did you not want to become pregnant at al l? NOT AT ALL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 194 227A Do you want this ch i ld to be a boy or a gir l ? SOY . 1 GIRL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 INDIFFERENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER (SPECIFY) I 228 I Have you ever had a pregnancy that ended in a I a l i scar r iage? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 [ NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2--)228B 228A I In all, how many miscar r iages have you had? I NUMBER OF MISCARRIAGEs . ~ I 228B I Have you ever had a pregnancy that ended in an induced abor t ion? 228C I In a l l , how many induced abor t ions have you had? NUMBER OF INDUCED ~ I ABORTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 228D| Have you ever had a pregnancy that ended in an I st i l l b i r th? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 >228F 228E 228F In a l l , how many s t i l l b i r ths hove you had? CALCULATE THE TOTAL NUMBER OF PREGNANCIES. TOTAL NUMBER OF PREGNANCIES ENDING IN MISCARRIAGES, INDUCED ABORTIONS OR STILL BIRTHS: SUM THE ANSWERS TO 228A, 228C AND 228E TOTAL NUMBER OF PREGNANCIES ENDING IN LIVE BIRTHS: SUM THE NUMBER OF SINGLE BIRTHS IN THE BIRTH HISTORY. ADD TO THAT SUM THE NUMBER OF MULTIPLE SJHTHS. TOTAL NUMBER OF PREGNANCIES: NUMBER OF ST ILL BIRTHS . . . . . TOTAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 228G CHECK 228F: J us t to make sure that i have th i s r ight : you have had in TOTAL completed pregnanc ies in your l i fe . Is that cor rec t ? ~--7 PROBE AND F-7 YES ~ NO > CORRECT 201-228F ! AS NECESSARY 2281{ CHECK 228A, 228C AND 228E 229 HAD AT LEAST ONE ABORTION, MISCARRIAGE OR STILLBIRTH ? v I Now I would l ike to ask about any recent miscar r iages , abor t ions o r s t i l l b i r ths which you may bare had . When d id the l as t ' such pregnancy end? HAl) NO ABORTIONS. MISCARRIAGES OR STI i,I.B l RTHS V7 l MON'FII . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ YHAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . >234 229A I Was th i s an induced abot ion , a miscar r iage , or a s t i l lb i r th ? J INDUCED ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I t MISCARRIAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ST ILLB [ RTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3~-~'230 I 2290 What was the main reason beh ind the dec is ion to end th i s p regnancy w i th an obor t ion ? DOCTOR'S RECOMMENDATION/DECISION.1 BIRTIt WOULD BE EXTRAMARITAL . . . . . . 2 DID NOT WANT A CHILD AT TIIAT TIME (SOCIAL-ECONOMIC SEASONS) . . . . . . . . 3 DID NOT WANT (ANOTHER) CHILD . . . . . 4 THE PREVIOUS PREGNANCY HA[) , JUST ENDED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 OTIIEN 7 (SPECIFY) 196 230 231 CHECK 229: LAST PREGNANCY ENDED SINCE JANUARY 1988 , | How , l i l r ly months pregnant were yn~l when the pregnancy ended? LAST PREGNANCY ENDED BEFORE JANUABY 1988 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . WASTED PREGNANCIES AFTEH JANUARY 1988 ( IN COLUMNS I AND 2 OF THI.: CALENDAR) - ] 'ROBE TO DETERMINE f iow PREGNANCY ENDED ( INDUCED ABORTION. M ISCARRIAGE, ST ILLB IRTH) - ENTER THE APPROPRIATE CODE IN Tile MONTII AND YEAR PREGNANCY TERMINATED. CODES : F - MISCARRIAGE K - INDUCED ABC)RT ION d - ST ILLB IBT J i - ENTER " l l " IN EACH PRECEDING MONTH PREGNANT. - I F 1'HE PREGNANCY ENDED WITH AN INDUCED ABORTION, ENTER CODE FOB THE PERSON IN IT IAT ING THE ABORTION IN COLUMN 2 OF THE CALENDAR, IN THE MONTH AND YEAR OF TERMINAT ION. CODES : h - HERSELF E - MIDWIFE/NURSE A - RELATIVE / FRIEND T - DOCTOR IN HOSPITAL N - TRADITIONAL MIDWIFE B - PRIVATE DOCTOR W - OTHER THEN ASK FOB DATES AND DURATIONS OF ANY OTHER PREGNANCIES BACK TO JANUARY 1988. REPEAT THE PROCEBUBES AS DESCRIBE{) ABOVE FOR THESE PREGNANCIES . ILLUSTRATIVE QUESTIONS : - How d id th i s p regnancy end ? (Was i t an abor t ion , a miscar r iage or a s t i l l b i r th e te ) - What was the to ta l durat ion o f th i s p regnancy ? How any months pregnant were you ? - Who in i t ia led the ubor t lon ? )23 h L__ 234 When d id your l as t menst rua l per iod s ta r t? DAYS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WEEKS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 MONTHS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 YEARS AGO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h CURRENTLY MENSTRUATING . . . . . . . . 993 IN MENOPAUSE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994 BEFORE LAST B IRTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995 NEVER MENSTRUATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . 996 235 I I Between the F i r s t day o f a woman's per iod and t i l e II YBs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l ii E i rs t ( lay o f her next per iod , a re there cer ta in NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 t imes when she has a greater ' chance of becoming pregnant DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 >250 l hBn o ther t imes? | I 197 236 Dur ing wh ich t imes o f the month ly cyc le does a woman have the greates t chance o f becoming pregnant? DURING HER PERIOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . RIGHT AFTER HER PERIOD HAS ENDED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 IN THE MIDDLE OF THE CYCLE . . . . . . 3 JUST BEFORE HER PERIOD BEGINS. . .~ OTHER 5 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 2B. MARRIAGE 250 25I What i s your cur rent mar i ta l s ta tus ? Are you marr ied , d ivorced , w idowed, o r separated ? ACCEPT THOSE L IV ING TOGETHER AS BEING MARRIED. I CURRENTLY MARRIED . 1 | WIDOWED . i ~ DIVORCED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . > SEPARATED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I LIVING WITH HER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 i STAYING ELSEWHERE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I s your husband l i v ing w i th you now or i s he s tay ing e l sewhere because o f work , mi l i ta ry serv ice , a journey abroad e tc . ? 252 252 How many t imes d id you marry ? I TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ I 253 I n what month and year d id you marry ( s ta r ted l i v ing w i th ) your ( f i r s t ) husband ? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OK YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 25h How old were you when you started l iv ing with your ( f i r s t ) husband ? 255 Row o ld was your ( f i r s t ) husband when you s tar ted l iv ing with h im ? I F THE WOMAN DOES NOT KNC44 HER HUSBAND'S AGE AT MARRIAGE, ASK HO~ MANy YEARS DIFFERENCE IS THERE BETWEEN HER AND HER HUSBAND AND ESTIMATE HER HUSBAND'S mARRIAGE AGE. AGE . DK AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 198 CHECK 253 AND 25~ : YEAR AND AGE GIVEN ? YES NO n >258 257 258 CHECK CONSISTENCY OF 253 AND 25~ : YEAR OF BIRTH (103) PLUS AGE AT MARRIAGE ( 25~) CALCULATED YEAR OF MARRIAGE IF YEAR OF BIRTH NOT GIVEN IN 103 IF NECESSARY, CALCULATE YEAR OF BIRTH > CURRENT YEAR MINUS CURRENT AGE (IOh) CALCULATED YEAR OF BIRTH IS THE CALCULATED YEAR OF MARRIAGE WITIIIN ONE YEAR OF THE REPORTED YEAR OF MARRIAGE ( 253) ? YES NO [ -7 )PROBE AND CORRECT 253 AND 25h. v DETERMINATION OF MONTHS WHEN THE WOMAN WAS MARRIED AND NOT MARRIED : BEGINNING WITH THE MONTH OF INTERVIEW, DETERMINE MONTHS SINCE JANUARY 1988 WHEN THE WOMAN WAS MARRIED. RECORD "X" IN COLUMN 6 FOR MONTHS MARRIED AND "O" FOR MONTHS NOT MARRIED. FOR WOMEN NOT CURRENTLY MARRIED OR WITH MORE THAN blADRIAGE : PROBE FOR DATE COUPLE STOPPED LIVING TOGETHER OR DATE WIDOWED, AND FOR STARTING DATE OF ANY SUBSEQUENT MARRIAGE. NOTE : ALL BOXES IN COLUMN 6 SHOULD BE PILLED AFTER YOU HAVE COMPLETED THIS SECTION. WRITE DATES AND EVENTS IMPORTANT IN COMPLETING COLL~N 6 HERE 199 I 2~9 | I}id yotl h;Ivc a r iv i [ Ilivlrri*i~o t:erethony with your I I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 26O 261 262 Did you h~ive *t re l i~ io t l~ nl;lri'i*lge rer('lllOrly w i th your ( last) hLisband ? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 CIIECK 259 AN[) 260 : HAD BOTII CIVIL AN[] RELIGIOUS CENEMONI ES ? v Did you have the c iv i l and re l ig ious ceremonies w i th your ( las t ) husband in the same week ? IIAD ONLY C IV IL OR ONLY RE[,]GIOUS CEREMONY (OR NEITHER) I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 >265 I I ~ 265 I 263 I Which one took p lace ear l ie r ? I CIV]] . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] I REI, IGiOUS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 26/I IIow mul'h time e lapsed betwecrl the two ceremonies ? RECORD "OO" MON'rNS ]F I,ESS THAN ONE MONTH. YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 265 1to~ vas your marriage with your ( las t ) husband arranged ? I WE ARRANGED OURSELVES . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I ARRANGED BY Tile FAMILIES . . . . . . . . 2 ~267 ESCAPED / ABDUCTED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~}~ OTHER I , / >269 (SPECIFY) I 266 I Did you have to seek the consent o f your Fami ly to get married to your ( las t ) husband ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 268 200 267 ( ) (d yl)tlr f ; In l i [y seek y(llJr, i'ipllV;pflt (111 yl)l]r n lar r i i l ge to pc>lie ( ]*tP;I ) h l l sbar l I ] '? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 268 I Bid yr)~lP ( l ; lm l ) hus l )* l r ld or" h is f~mi ly p~y br idesmoney t l~ y~I t l r fnmi l y ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 269 I Are (k f ' tv ) ~,,iJiJ b lo t ld x 'o la t i , ' es k=it t l yo t J r ( las t ) htJ~.t~,t f~d "/ YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I >301 I 270 What (was) i s h i s re la l io r ts l l ip to ymJ ? FATHER'S BROTHER'S SON . . . . . . . . . O1 FATHER=S S ISTER 'S SON . . . . . . . . . . 02 MOTHER'S S ISTER 'S SON . . . . . . . . . . 03 MOTHER'S BROTHER'S SON . . . . . . . . . O~ OTtlER O~ (SPECIFY) 201 SECTION 3. CONTRACEPT ION 3o ] Now I wou ld l i ke to ta lk w i th you about fami ly p lann ing . There a re var ious methods that a marr ied coup le can use to avo id pregnancy . Which ways or methods have you heard ? - L ISTEN TO THE WOMAN'S RESPONSES WITHOUT INTERRUPTING. C IRCLE CODE I IN 302 PaR EACH METHOD MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY . KEEP HER CONTINUING BY ASK ING "ANY OTHEB METHOD ?". - BEGINNING WITH TIIE UPPERMOST METHOD IN THE LIST, REAl) THE DESCRIPT IONS OF THE METHODS NOT MENTIONED SPONTANEOUSLY AND ASK WHETHER SHE HAS HEARD OF TIIE METHOD. IF SHE RECOGNIZES THE METHOD, C IRCLE "2" IN 302 ; IF NOT, C IRCLE "3". AFTEk YOU HAVE COMPLETED Tilts ROUTINE, ALL METHODS MUST HAVE BEEN CODEI IN 302. - BEGINNING WITH THE UPPERMOST METHOD IN THE LIST, ASK 303 AND 304 FOR ALL METHODS MENTIONED SPONTANE. OUSLY OR AFTER PROBING IN 302. NOTE : IP THE WOMAN SAYS *'YES" TO 3Oh, PROBE TO ASCERTAIN WHETHER THIS IS REALLY A "PLACE". PIl.l. Women can avo id a pregnancy by tak ing a p i l l every day . [UD Women can have the so ca l led spira l or IUD p laced i n them by a doctor or a nurse wh ich is left there and this avo ids pregnancy . IN JECTIONS Women can have an i n jec t ion which s top~ them f rom becoming pregnant for a cer ta in per iod o f t ime. [}IAPHRAGM,FOAM,JBLLY Women can p lace a sponge , suppos i to ry , d iaphragm, je l l y o r c ream in - s ide them before in tercourse . CONDOM There are methods that men can use so that the i r wives well not get p regnant . They can tlse a rubber sheath ca l led condom dur ing sexua l in ter - course. 302 Have you ever heard o f th i s method ? READ DESCRIPT ION OF EACH METHOD. eES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PROBED . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7 v YES/SPaN1". . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PROBED . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3~ v YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PRI)BED . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 7 v YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PBOBED . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-- ] v YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . I YES/PROBED . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3~ v NORPI.ANT Now there i s a new met tmd. A smal l capsu le i s p laced by a doctor underneath tile sk in o f the arm and this avo ids the women f rom get t ing pregnant . YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . 1 YES~PROBED . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3~ v 303 Have you ever used th i s method ? 304 Do you know where th i s method cou ld be obta ined f rom ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YBS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ! NO . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 302 }lave you ever heard o f th is method ? READ DESCRIPT ION OF EACH METHOD. 7[ TUBAL L IGAT ION Some women can have an operat ion o f tuba l l lgat ion to avo id hav ing any more children. Afterwards they continue to have their normal husband-wife relationship but they don't have children. MALE STERIL IZAT ION Some men can have an operat ion ca l led vasee- ton ly so that the i r w ives wou ld not get p regnant . A f te rwards they have the i r normal husband- wi fe re la t ionsh ip but they don ' t have ch i ld ren . RHYTHM (PERODIC ABST INENCE) Coup les can avo id hav ing sexua l in tercourse on cer ta in days o f the month when the Woman is more l i ke ly to become pregnant . lO I WITIIDRAWAL Some men pull out during sexual intercourse, that is they can be careful and pull out before climax. 1 i ABSTINENCE In order to avoid pregnancy, some couples do not have sexual intercourse for several months . YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PROBED . . . . . . . . 2 NO . 31 v YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PROBED . . . . . . . . 2 . 31 v YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . i YES/PROBED . . . . . . . . 2 NO . 3-1 v YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . I YES /PROBED . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 - - :~/: ;i)i~; }/!:/;;?!i;i;ii:ii!/i!i I: i ¸¸ 2 i }lave you heard of any other method that women or men can use tu avoid pregnancy ? (SPECIFY) 2 (SPECIFY) 3 (SPECIFY) YES/SPONT . . . . . . . . . 1 YES/PROBEI) . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 303 Have you ever used th i s method ? 304 Do you know where th is method cou ld be obta ined f rom ? Have you ever had such an operation to avoid having any more children ? YES . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Has (Had) your husband ever have such an operat ion ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ASK BY READING THE DESCRIPT ION YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Do you know a p lace where a person can get in fo rmat ion about rhythm if he /she wants to ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Do you know a p lace where a person can get in fo rma- t ion about w i thdrawa l if he /she wants to ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ":::::::: " : : : : : . . : : : . i : i : : : : . i : . : ; . . . : : . :: : : ; : :.: : : • . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . : : ; :::i.i:i: :::i:i.ii::. ":3ii: : : : i : i ? : .: :: :::;:/-i: :3::. CHECK 3o3: NOT A S INGLE "YES" (NEVER USED) v AT LEAST ONE "YES" (EVER USED) 203 m > SKIP TO 3O9 I i{f16 | II;J~.,r yo l l rv l , r' I J~o¢l I v I~lelh,~d o f I r ied $ri ; tny w; ly to I dei~a3/ -ii' ~tvoi l l ~l'~llrLb~ pl'0g~ri~lrl[ ? ~"7 I ENTER '*(1" IN ¢¢) I IMN I OF CAI ,ENDAR IN I;'XCH RI.ANK MONTH. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ]~] 1>300 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E ] I I _ I ~41~ I ~[lilt h~lve )/o1~ t]~e([ or (Jr)nr? I COHREf:I }O~-')(3"~ (AND ~O2 I1" NECESSARY), 3(') k}l~t is the f i r s t Ih i f l~ you ever d id or inelhod you ever tl~l,R t() ([( ' l ; ly ()r ~tvoid b~ettlrIR pre~nlml? PH, I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O1 [L/t} . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 l N,I FIE I ' IONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 I I l API IRAGM/FOAM/ , IFL I ,Y . . . . . . . . . . . OIj CONI]OM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 NORPI.ANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 TUBAl. I. IGAT]ON . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 MAI,E STER l l [ZAT ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 RHYTHM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 9 W l TII I IRAWA[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 AI IST I NENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | OTHER 12 (SPECIFY) >311 "]10 k~hi!re d id you g(l to get th i s 111ethrld thor f i r s t t ime ? TRY re ASCERTAIN l ' l lAr TIIE RESPONSE REFERS I'O A P I .ACE. CONTIN IE PROI t /NG F'OR RESPt lNSES SUCH AS "MY IIUSHAND', "FRIEND" ETC. PUB[ , [C SECTOR G(WERNMENT/ INST ITUT. I IOSP . . . . . . ] 1 FIEAI,TR CENTER/HEALTH HOUSE . . . . 12 PR IVATE SECTOR PR IVATE CL IN IC OR HOSP ITA l . . . . . 23 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 PR IVATE DOETOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 OTHER PR IVATE NGO LIKE TI lE PP FOUNDATION OR ']'HE FP ASSOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 OTHER Lll ( SPEC I FY ) DR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 I ~11 | ] ) [d ymz have vh i ld re t i ~lt th~l t L ime 7 IF YES: How I marly l i v inR ch i ld rer l d id yel l hffve i l l lh ; I t t ime ? [1' NONE. RF:CDKD "00" . I NUMDF;R OF CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . ~ I 204 312 3t3 313A 314 CHECK 225 : NOT PREGNANT OR UNSURE CHECK 303: v[• PREGNANT [~] WOMAN v~ WOMAN NOT STENI I , IZED [~ STERIL IZED CHECK 2~0 : CURRENTLY [~ NOT MARRIED MARRIED Are you cur rent ly do ing someth ing t(} de lay o r avo id getting pregnant ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO. . -~ >3't I )315~ 1___ >33] L_ I ~331 I HE 315A Which method nre yotl i l s lng ? CIRCLE "0 7 " ["()R TUBAl, L IGATION. I }318 P]], I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O1 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 | [ N,IECT IONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ()] / I ) [APHRAGM/F[ )AM/ JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . Dh [ ~32~ CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 NORPLANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 TUBAL LI GATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 MALE S']'ERII, IZA'I ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 ~ >32 BIIYTIIM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 9 > 32r)A WITHDRAWA[ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 ABSTINENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 OTHER 12 (SPECIFY) ]>325A I . . . . . . . . . y n th,, y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I withdrawa l , l)o yogi ( re ly ~l~;e wl thdr ; JW; l l or do you acLua l ly u~4e ano lher nleth( ld in cl)01t) in; J l lon w i th i t ? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 )325A 315C What i s U l i s me lhud ? DO NOT MAKE ANY CORRECTIONS TO 315 IF ANOTIIER METHOD IS MEN'rIONED. SKIT' TO 325A AND PROCEED [IY ACCEP'I'INC WITItDRAWAL AS ]'liE: CURRENT METIIOD USED. PILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O I - - IDD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 DIAPHRAGM/FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . Oh CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 NONPLANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 TUBAL [,IGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 MALE STER]I,IZA'rlON . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 RI{YTHM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 ADSrINENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 OILIER ]2 - !SPECIFY) ->325A 205 318 May I see the package of pills yml are using now? RECORD NAME OF BRAND, PACKAGE SEEN . I BRAND NAME PACKAGE NOT SEEN . 2 >323 319 I Do you know the brand name of the Hills you are now using? RECORD NAME OF BRAND. BK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 321 In what month and year was the sterilization operation performed? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ENTER STERILIZATION METHOD CODE IN MONTH OF INTERVIEW IN COLUMN 1 OF CALENDAR AND IN EACH MONTH BACK TO DATE OF OPERATION OR TO JANUARY 1988 IF OPERATION OCCURRED BEFORE 1988 WRITE THIS CODE UNTIL JANUARY 1988. 323 CHECK 315: SHE/HE STERILIZED ~ USING ANOTHER METHOD ~ I I v v Where d id the Where d id you obta in sterilization take (METHOD) the last time? place? (NAME OF PLACE) PUBLIC SECTOR GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . 11 HEALTH CENTER/HEALTH HOUSE. . .12 PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE CL IN IC OR HOSP ITAL , . .21 PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 OTHER PRIVATE NGO LIKE THE FP FOUNDATION OR THE FP ASSOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 OTHER 41 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 206 325A CHECK 303: ~ WOMAN WOMAN NOT STERILIZED STERILIZED l Would you like to ~Jse a different method of family p lann ing than the one you are e l , r rent ly i~sing ? YES . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I >326 >326 325B What method would you prefer to use ? P IL I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O1 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 INJECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 DIAPHRAGM/FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . 04 CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 NORPLANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 TUBAL LIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 MALE STERIL IZAT ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 RHYTHM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I0 ABSTINENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 OTHER 12 (SPECIFY) ANY METHOD . 77 NOT SURE . 8fl >326 325c What is the most important reason that you do not use that method ? DOCTOR WILL NOT PRESCRIBE IT.OI COST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 NOT AVAILABLE/UNRELIABLE SUPPLIES/DIFFICULT ACCESS . O 3 TOO FAR AWAY . Oh DO NOT KNOW HOW TO OBTAIN IT,*.O5 DO NOT KNOW HOW TO USE IT . . . . . . 06 HUSBAND OBJECTS . 07 RELIGIOUS REASONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 OTHER .O 9 (SPECIFY) DONT KNOb/ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 326 | Who dec ided to use the method you are cur rent ly ua ins ? | HERSELF . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i I Yourse l f , your husband, or d id you decide together ? I HER HUSBAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 TOGETHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 207 326A What i s the main reason you dec ided to use (CURRENT METHOD IN 315) ra ther than some other method o f fami ly p lann ing ? RECOMMENDATION OF HEALTH PHOFESS IONAL . . . . . . . . . . . 01 RECOI@aENDATION OF RELAT IVE/FR IEND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 SIDE EFFECTS OF OTHER METHODS. .03 CONVENIENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Oh EASILY OBTAINED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O~ COST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 WANTED PERMANENT METHOD . . . . . . . . 07 HUSBAND PREFERRED THIS ONE . . . . . 08 WANTED MORE EFFECTIVE METHOD, . .O9 OTHER 10 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 327 Are you hav ing any prob lems in us lns (CURRENT METHOD)? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 [ NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 >329 328 What i s the main prob lem? HUSBAND DISAPPSOVES/RELUCTANT.,O1 SIDE EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 HEALTH CONCERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O3 DIFFICULT TO OBTAIN . . . . . . . . . . . . Oh HIGH COST . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O5 INCONVENIENT TO USE . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 STERIL IZED BUT WANTS CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 OTHER 08 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 208 329 329 A CHECK 315 AND 321 : WOMAN NOT STERIL IZED v CHECK 250 : CURRENTLY MARRIED NOT [-~ MARSIED STERIL IZED BEFORE JANUARY 1988 STERILIZED SINCE JANUARY 1988 - - ' ] > 3~ >331 >331 330 ENTER METHOD CODE FROM 315 IN CURRENT MONTH IN COL.I OF CALENDAR. THEN DETERMINE WHEN SHE STARTED USING THIS METHOD THIS TIME, ENTER METHOD CODE IN EACH MONTH OF USE. ILLUSTRATIVE ~UESTIONS: - When d id you s tar t us ing th i s method cont inuous ly? - How long ha~e you been using this method continuously? NOTE : MAKE NOTES OF THE RESPONSES HERE. CHECK COLUMN 6 OF THE CALENDAR : FOR MONTHS NOT MARRIED, CODE "N" IN COLUMN 1 OF THE CALENDAR 209 CHECK COLUMN 1 OF THE CALENDAR : UNCODED BONES ~-~ ALl, BOXES CODED I >332 331B CODING METHOD USE S INCE JANUARY 1988 IN COLUMNS i AND 2 OF THE CALENDAR : BEGIN BY ASKING : I wou ld l i ke to ass some quest ions about the per iods dur ing wh ich your husband or you used a method to avo id get t ing pregnant . - BEGIN WITH THE LAST METHOD USED. USE CALENDAR TO PROBE FOP EARLIER PERIODS OF USE AND NONUSE. USE NAMES OF CHILDREN, DURATIONS OF PREGNANCY, DATES OF BIRTH, DATES OF MARRIAGE ETC, TO PROBE. - IN EACH MONTH OF USE, ENTER COPE FOR METHOD IN COLUMN 1. FOR MONTHS OF NONUSE, ENTER "O" , - ENTER CODES OF DISCONTINUATION IN COLUMN 2. DETEPMINE LAST MONTH OF USE IN COLUMN 1, AND ENTER DISCONTINUATION CODES IN THIS MONTH IN COLUMN 2, - ASK WHY SHE STOPPED USING THE METHOD. IF A PREGNANCY EOLLObJED, ASK WHETHER SItE BECAME PREGNANT UNINTENTIONALLY WHILE USING THE METHOD OR DELIBERATELY STOPPED TO BECOME PREGNANT. ENTER THE RESPONSE IN COhUMN 2, TO THE LAST MONTH OF METHOD USE, NOTE : NUMBER OF CODES ENTERED IN COLUMN 2 MUST BE THE SAME AS THE NUMBER OF INTERRUPTIONS OF CONTRACEPTIVE USE IN COLUMN 1 ILLUSTRATIVE QUESTIONS: COLUMN I : -When was the las t t ime you used a method? Which method was that? -When d id you s tar t us ing that method? flow long a f te r the b i r th o f (NAME)? -How long d id you use the method then? COLUMN 2: -Why d id you s top us ing the (METHOD) ? -D id you become pregnant wh i le us ing (METHOD), o r d id you s top to get p regnant . or stop for some other reason? IF DEL IBERATELY STOPPED TO BECOME PREGNANT, ASK: "How many months d id it take you to get pregnant af ter you stopped us ing (METHOD)? AND ENTER '0' IN EACH SUCH MONTH IN COLUMN |. NOTE : EXTRA PROBING MAY BE NECESSARY FOP LONG PERIODS OF NONUSE : THESE MAY ACTUALLY INCLUDE METHOD USE NOT MENTIONED OR A NOT MENTIONED PREGNANCY, NOTE : ALL POXES IN COLUMN 1 SHOULD BE FILLED AT THIS POINT, 210 CIIECK COLUMN 6 OF CALENDAR (AND 253 IF NECESSARY) : MARRIED IN NOT MARRIED IN JANUARY 1988, JANUARY 1988 BUT FIRST MARRIED DEFORE dAN 1988~ l FIRST MARRIED AFTER JAN 1988 [7 >334 }338 332A CHECK COLUMN 1 OF CALENDAR ; METHOD USED IN MONTH OF JAN, 1988 NO METHOD USED IN MONTH OF JANUARY 1988 >334 l m G ~ 333 I see that you were us ing (METHOD) in Jan. 1988. When did you s tar t us ing (METHOD) that time? THIS DATE SHOULD BE BEFORE JANUARY 1988 BUT SHOULD NOT PRECEDE THE DATE OF BIRTH OF ANY CHILD BORN BEFORE JANUARY 1988. :iiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiii ->338 334 I see that you were not us ing any method of cont racept ion in January 1988. Did you ever use a method before that? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 )338 335 CHECK 215: HAD BIRTH BEFORE JAN. 1988 NO BIRTH BEFORE JAN. 1988 V7 )337 336 l Did you use a method between the b i r th of (NAME OF LAST CHILD BORN BEFORE JAN. 1988) and Jan. 1988 ? I YES . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 >338 337 I When d id you stop using a method the l as t time prior to Jan. 1988 ? MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Y I L . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 211 338 338A 339 CHECK 315: NOT CURRENTLY USING A METHOD CHECK 250 : CURRENTLY MARRIED CURRENTLY US ING RHYTHM, WITHDRAWAL, ABST INENCE OR OTHER v TRADITIONAL METHOD (SKIP TO 344) v NOT MARRIED Do you in tend to use a method to de lay o r avo id pregnancy a t any t ime In the fu ture? CURRENTLY ~-~ US ING A MODERN METHOD I > 348 I 1 1344 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I >341 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 | | DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 >34h 340 What are the reasonB you do not In tend to use a method ? RECORD ALL ANSWERS IF THERE IS MORE THAN ONE ANSWER. I F ONLY ONE REASON 1S MENTIONED, ACCEPT THIS AS THE PRINCIPAL REASON AND CODE IT IN THE BOX, What Is the main (p r inc ipa l ) reason ? CODE THE PRINCIPAL REASON IN BOX WANTS CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A LACK OF KNOWLEDGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B PARTNER OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C COST TOO MUCH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D SIDE EFFECTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E HEALTH CONCERNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F HARD TO GET METHODS . . . . . . . . . . . . . U S IN/ RELIGIOUS REASONS . . . . . . . . . . H OPPOSED TO FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . I FATAL IST IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J OTHER PEOPLE OPPOSED . . . . . . . . . . . . K INFREQUENT SEX . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . L D IFF ICULT TO GET PREGNANT . . . . . . M MENOPAUSAL/HAD HYSTERECTOMY . N INCONVENIENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O OTHER P (SPECIFY) DR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . R~ ~344 34I I Do you in tend to use a method w i th in the next 12 months? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I | I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 342 When you use a method , wh ich method wou ld you pre fer to use? P ILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O1 IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 IN JECTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 DIAPHRAC~/FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . O4 CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 NORPLANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 TUBAL L IGAT ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 MALE STERIL IZAT ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 RHYTHM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 ABST INENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 OTHER 12 (SPECIFY) UNSURE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 t >3aa 212 343 Where can you Net this method (METHOD MENTIONED IN 342) PUBLIC SECTOR I GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . . . 11--" 1 HEALTH CENTER/HEALTH HOUSE . . . . 12--L>3h? PRIVATE SECTOR I PRIVATE CLINIC OR HOSPITAL.,, 21"~ I PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22~ >3h7 PRIVATE DOCTOR . 23 ---J OTHER PRIVATE I NGO LIKE FP FOUNDATION OR PP ASSOC. 31 >347 . - - OTHER 41- - ) 348 (NAME OF PLACE) I DO you know of a place where you can obtain a method of family planning? (SPECIFY) I DK . 98 I YES . 1 NO . . . 2 > 3~8 345 Where i s that? (NAME OF PLACE) PUBLIC SECTOR GOVERNMENT/INSTITUT,HOSP . II HEALTH CENTER/HEALTH HOUSE . . . . 12 PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE CLINIC OR HOSPITAL. . .2I PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 OTHER PRIVATE NGO LIKE PP FOUNDATION OR pp ASSOC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 OTHER 41---~ (SPECIFY) > OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9~ 348 347 I I s i t easy or d i f f l~ I t to get thepe? I EASY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DIFFICULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 213 3/~9 CHECK 302: HAS HEARD HAS NOT OF THE PILL IlEABD OF THE PILL I would like to ask you a few questions on the contraceptive pill. Do you think the p i l l is a reliable method to use to avo id pregnanc ies ? Does i t p rov ide sat i s fac tory pro tect ion f rom becoming pregnant ? YES, IT IS RELIABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO. IT IS NOT RELIABLE . 2 DK . 8 I > 353 350 I Do you think using the pill is easy or difficult ? I EASY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I DIFFICULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I Do ou thln usin, th pill c.nh.r . ' h"lt 71 . . . 211 352 m 35~ What (was) is your (last) husband's view on the pill ? I s he aga ins t i t ' s use . o r does he have no ob jec t ions to pill use ? CHECK 302: HAS HEARD OF CUD HAS NOT HEARD OF CUD [7 Do you th ink IUD i s a re l iab le method to use to avo id pregnanc ies ? Does i t p rov ide satisfactory protection from becoming pregnant ? HUSBAND AGAINST PILL USE . 1 HUSBAND NOT AGAINST PILL USE . 2 SAYS HUSBAND DOES NOT KNOW FILL. 3 BE . 8 I YES. IT IS RELIABLE . 1 NO, IT IS NOT RELIABLE . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . 8 355 Do you th ink us ing IUD i s easy or d i f f i cu l t ? I EASY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 DIFFICULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 356 DO yOU th ink hav ing an IUD inser ted in a woman can harm her hea l th 7 I ~EB . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 357 What (was) i s your ( las t ) husband 's v iew on the IUD ? (Was) I s he aga ins t i t ' s use, or (wou ld) does he have ob jec t ions to p i l l use ? B HUSBAND AGAINST IUD USE . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I I HUSBAND NOT AGAINST IUD USE . . . . . . 2 gAYS HUSBAND DOBSNOT KNOW IUD. . . . 3 DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 214 CHECK 302: }lAB HEARD OF THE CONDOM HAS NOT HEAR[) OF THE CONDOM I > 36~ 359 I Do you th ink that us ing condom is a re l iab le method to avoid pregnancy ? Does it prov ide sat i s fac tory pro tect ion f rom becoming pregnant ? I YES, IT IS REL IABLE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I | I NO, IT IS NOT REL IABLE . . . . . . . . . . . 2 BK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 360 I Do you th ink us ing condom is easy or d i f f i cu l t ? I EASY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I | I DIFF ICULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 361 HAS NOT HEARD OF WITHDRAWAL HUSBAND AGAINST CONDOM USE . . . . I HUSBAND NOT AGAINST CONDOM USE. . .2 SAYS HUSBAND DOESNT KNOW CONDOM. .3 I 363 Let us talk about the w i thdrawa l method. Do you th ink w l thdrawa l i s a re l lab le method to use to avo id pregnanc ies ? Does i t p rov ide sat i s fac tory pro tect ion from becoming pregnant ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 36/; I Do you th ink us ing w i thdrawa l i s easy or d i f f i cu l t ? I EASY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i | I DIFFICULT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 365 I What (was) i s your ( las t ) husband 's v iew on the w i thdrawaI? (Was) I s he aga ins t i t ' s use . o r (would) does he have no ob jec t ions to the use o f w i thdrawa l ? I HUSBAND AGAINST WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . 1 | I HUSBAND NOT AGAINST WITHDRAWAL. . .2 SAYS HUSBAND DOESNT KNOW WITHDR. .3 OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 215 366 Do you th ink that us ing fami ly p lann ing methods i s aga ins t re l ig ion ? / YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1~> 368 SOME METHODS ARE AGAINST | I RELIGION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3-7 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . a > 368 367 Which method(s ) do you th ink (a re ) i s aga ins t re l ig ion ? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. P ILL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A IUD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S IN JECT IONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C DIAPHRAGM/FOAM/JELLY . . . . . . . . . . . . . D CONDOM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E NORPLANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F TUBAL LIGATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G MALE STERIL IZAT ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H RHYTHM . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 WITHDRAWAL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . J ABSTINENCE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . g OTHER L (SPECIFY) ABORTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M 368 ~Did) Does your husband have any ob jec t ions to any fami ly p lann ing method or to fami ly p lann ing in genera l on re l ig ious grounds ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l THINKS SOME METHODS ARE AGAINST RELIGION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 SECTION 4A. PREGNANCY AND BREASTFEEDIND 402 4o3 CHECK 222: ONE OR MORE ~ NO BIRTHS BIRTHS S INCE JAN. 1988 SINCE JAN. 1988 ~ - - > (SKIP TO 444) ENTER THE LINE NUMBER. NAME, AND SURVIVAL STATES OF EACH BIRTH SINCE JANUARY 1988 IN THE TABLE. ASK THE QUEST IONS ABOUT ALL OF THESE SIRTHS. BEGIN WITH THE LAST BIRTH. (IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 3 BIRTHS, USE ADDIT IONAL FORMS - DO NOT USE THE LAST BIRTH COLUMN IN THE ADDIT IONAL FORM). Now I wou ld l i ke to ask you some more quest ions about the hea l th o f a l l your ch i ld ren born in the past f i ve years . (We wi l l tale about one ch i ld at a t ime.) L INE NUMBER FROM Q. 212 At the t ime you became pregnant w i th (NAME). d id you want to become pregnant then, d id you want to become pregnant l a te r or did yOU not want at all ? THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1] (SK IP TO 405)< LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO MORE.' . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 / (SKIP TO 405)< I THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO 405)< LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3- (SK IP TO 405)I l--Yl SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NAME THEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1] (SKIP TO 405)( LATER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO MORE., 3 4o4 How much l onger Would yOU l lke to have wa i ted? MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I I I YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 F--V3 MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 " l J YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 | I 4S5 When you were pregnant wi th (NAME), d id you see anyone for antenata l care for th i s p regnancy ? IF YES. Whom did you see? Anyone e l se? RECORD ALL PERSONS SEEN. HEALTH PROFESS IONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MIDWIFE /NURSE . . . . . . . . . . . B 3THER PERSONS TRADITIONAL MIDWIFE . D 3THEN F (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ca (SKIP TO ~09)( " ' ' | HEALTH PROFESS IONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MIDWIFE/NURSE . . . . . . . . . . . B OTHER PERSONS TRADIT IONAL MIDWIFE . . . . . D OTHER F (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ca t (SKIP TO 409)< HEALTH PROFESS IONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MIDWIFE/NURSE . . . . . . . . . . . B OTHER PERSONS TRADIT IONAL MIDWIFE . . . . . D OTHER F (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G 3 I (SK IP TO 409)~ 217 407 How many months pregnant were yo~l when you first saw someone for an antenata l check on th i s pregnancy? 408 I How many antenata l v i s i t s I d id you have dur ing the pregnancy o f (NAME)? 408A I Dur ing the pregnancy o f (NAME). d id you rece ive any adv ice on breastfeeding from this (these) person(s) that you consulted ? LAST BIRTH NAME MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ i OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 NO. OF VISITS . . . . . . . I l l DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . EK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 NO. OF VISITS . . . . . . . 11[ DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 SECOND-PROM-LAST BIRTH I NAME MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 1 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 | ! FVql NO. OF VISITS . . . . . . . [ l l l OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 I 409 When you were pregr lant w i th (NAME) were you g iven an in - jec t ion , a te tanus in jec t ion in the arm to prevent the baby Prom tetanus, that is, convulsions after birth ? YES . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2] (SKI(' TO 411)< DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO 411)< 2] EK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO 4111<~] DK . 410 41UA During this pregnancy how many times did you get th i s te tanus in jec t ion ? How many months pregnant were you when you had the te tanus i n jec t ion fo r the first time ? TIMES . OK . 8 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 TIMES . DK . 8 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 TIMES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ] DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ [ DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 411 Where did you give b i r th to (NAME) ? HOME YOUR HOME . 11 OTHER HOME . 12 PUBLIC SECTOR HOSP./MATERNITY HOSP,,,21 HEALTII CENTER.' . . . . . . . . . 22 PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE HOSP./CLINIC. .31 OTHER 41 (SPECIFY) HOME YOUR HOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 OTHER HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 PUBLIC SECTOR HOSP,/MATERNITY HOSP.21 HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE HOSP./CLINIC. .31 OTHER ~I (SPECIFY) HOME YOUR HOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I OTHER HOME . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 PUBLIC SECTOR HOSP, /b lATERNITY HOSP.21 HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . . . 22 PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE HOSP./CLINIC, , ,31 OTHER &1 (SPECIFY) 218 LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NAME NAME /~12 Who ass is ted w i th the de l ivery of (NAME) ? Anyone e lse? PROBE FOR THE TYPE OF PERSON AND RECORD ALL PERSONS ASSISTING, HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MIDWIFE/NURSE . . . . . . . . . . . B OTHER PERSONR TRADIT IONAL MIDWIFE . . . . . C NE1GHSOUR/RELAT IVE . . . . . . F OTHER G (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME !HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTO~ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MIDWIFE/NURSE . . . . . . . . . . . B OTHER PERSONR TRADIT IONAL MIDWIFE . C NE IOHBOUR/RELAT IVE . . . . . . F OTHER G (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A MIDWIFE/NURSE . . . . . . . . . . . B OTHER PERSONS TRADIT IONAL MIDWIFE . C NE IGHBOUR/RELAT IVE . . . . . . F OTHER G (SPECIFY) NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . H ~12A li12C l Now many months did your pregnancy to (NAME) last ? I CHECK 411 : BIRTH IN A HEALTH INST ITUT ION? What i s the main reason fo r not hav ing done (NAME)s b i r th in a hea l th ins t i tu t ion ? MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ACCESSIB IL ITY PROBLEMS. . .O I DISTRUST OF INSTITUTIONS OR PERSONNEL . . . . . . . . . . . 02 HAPPENED SUDDENLY . . . . . . . . 03 PROBLEMS IN USING HEALTH INST ITUT IONS . . . . . . . . . . . Oh TRADIT IONS ETC . . . . . . . . . . . O5 OTHER 06 (SPECIFY) NO SPECIF IC REASON . 07 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ~ONTNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES NO V] >,i, 7 v ACCESSIB IL ITY PROELEMS. . .O l DISTRUST OF INSTITUTIONS OR PERSONNEL . . . . . . . . . . . 02 HAPPENED SUDDENLY . O3 PROBLEMS IN USING HEALTII INSTITUTIONS . . . . . . . . . . . o l l TRADIT IONS ETC . . . . . . . . . . . 05 OTHER 06 (SPECIFY) NO SPECIF IC REASON . . . . . . . 07 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 ~ONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~- -~ YES NO R [ ACCESSIBILITY PROSLEMS.,.OI DISTRUST OF INSTITUTIONS OR PERSONNEL . . . . . . . . . . . 02 HAPPENED SUDDENLY . . . . . . . . 03 PROBLEMS IN USING IIEALTH INST ITUT IONS . . . . . . . . . . . 04 TRADIT IONS ETC . . . . . . . . . . . 05 OTHER 06 (SPECIFY) NO SPECIF IC REASON . . . . . . . 07 BK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 (SK IP TO 418) (SK IP TO 420) (SK IP TO 1120) I I by caesar ian sect ion? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 21 ¢) LAST BIRTH NAME NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NAME 420 For how many months after the birth of (NAME) did you not have a period ? ENTER "N" IN COL.3 OF CALENDAR FOR THE NUMBER OF SPECIFIED MONTHS WITHOUT A PERIOD, STARTING IN THE MONTH AFTER BIRTH. IF LESS THAN ONE MONTH WITHOUT A PERIOD, ENTER "O" IN COL.3 IN MONTH AFTER BIRTH. NOTE THE RESPONSE HERE /121 422 CHECK 225: RESPONDENT PREGNANT? Have you resumed Sexual re Ia t ions s ince the b i r th o f (NAME) ? NOT PREGNANT PREGNANT ! O ~ UNSURE v YEB . i] (SNIP TO g2k)< NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 t2~ For how many months after the Birth of (NAME} did you not have sexual re la t ions ENTER "X" IN COL.h OF CALENDAR FOR THE NUMBER OF SPECIFIED MONTHS WITHOUT SEXUAL RELATIONS, STARTING IN THE MONTII AFTER BIRTH. IF LESS THAN ONE MONTH WITHOUT SEXUAL RELATIONS. ENTER "O" IN COL.h OF CALENDAR IN THE MONTH AFTER BIRTH. NOTE THE RESPONSE HERE ~2~A I Have yotl ever swadd led (NAME) ? YES . 1 NO . 2 424R 17:A;E7:,::.::; I0d YES . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~24c I Was (NAME) given to yola soon after birth 7 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . 2 YES . E NO . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I NO . 2 42hE I Did you give the collostrum to (NAME) ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I i I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ~25 Bid you ever breast feed (NAME) ? YES . . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E I (SKIP TO ~28)< | NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 ENTER "N" IN COL.5 OF CALENDAR IN MONTH AFTER BIRTH ~BN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 1 (SKIP TO ~36)< | NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 (SKIP TO 436)< NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 221 427 Why d id you not b reast feed (NAME) ? LAST BIRTH NAME MOTHER ILL/WEAK . Ol CHILI) ILL/WEAK . 02 CHILD DIED . 03 NIPPLE/BREAST PROHLEM.O~ INSUFFICIENT MILK . 05 MOTtlER WORKING . 06 CHILD REFUSED . O7 OTHER 08 (SPECIFY) (SKIP TO ~38)( NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME MOTHER ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . 01 CHILD ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . . 02 CHILD DIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 NIPPLE/BREAST PROBLEM.,O~ INSUFFICIENT MILK . . . . . . . 05 MOTHER ~RKING . . . . . . . . . . 06 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . . 07 OTHER 08 (SPECIFY) (SKIP TO ~38)< SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NAME MOTHER ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . Ol. CHILB ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . . 02 CHILD DIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 NIPPLE/BREAST PROBLEM.O& INSUFFICIENT MILK . . . . . . . O~ MOTHER WORKING . . . . . . . . . . 06 CHILD REFUSED . 07 OTHER 08. (SPECIFY) (SKIP 'fO ~38)( - a28 t~3o /132 {~33 Bow long after birth did you first put (NAME) to the breast? IF LESS THAN t ItOUR, RECORD 'OO' IIOURS. IF LESS THAN 24 HOURS. RECORD HOURS. OTHERWISE, RECORD DAYS. I~EDIATELY . OOO HOURS. 12 DAYS. CHECK 216: CIII LD ALIVE? Are you s t i l l b reast - feed ing (NAME) ? ALIVE ! DEAF} ~v (SKIP TO 436) YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . 21 {SKIP TO /136)< ENTER "X" IN COL,5 OF CALENDAR IN MONTH AFTER BIRTH AND IN EACH MONTII TO CURRENT MONTH I How many t imes d id you breast feed (NAME) las t n ight between sunset and sunrise? IF ANSWER IS NOT NUMERIC, PROBE FOB APPROXIMATE NUMBER NUMBER OF NIGIITTIME FEEDINGS I How many times did you breastreed (NAME) yesterday during the daylight hours? IF ANSWER IS NOT NUMERIC, PROBE FOR APPROXIMATE NUMBER NUMBER OF DAYLIGD'F FEEDINGS 222 43/1 435 /'36 At any time yesterday or last n ight was (SAME) g iven any of the fo l low ing : P la in water ? Sugar water ? F ru i t ju i ce ? Tea ? Baby fo rmula ? Yoghur t ? Pudd ing ? J u i ce of cooked meal ? Turk i sh de l ight ? Cow's mi lk ? Pasteur i zed mi lk ? Other l iqu ids ? Any so l id or mushy Food ?" CHECK /.3/1 : FOOD OR L IQUID G IVEN YESTERDAY ? LAST BIRTH NAME YES NC PLAIN WATER . . . . . . 1 2 SUGAR WATER . . . . . . 1 2 FRUIT JU ICE . . . . . . I 2 TEA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 BABY FORMULA . . . . . 1 2 YOGHURT . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 PUDDING . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 JU ICE OF COOKED MEAL. I 2 TURKISH DEL IGHT . . . . . . 1 2 COW'S MILK . . . . . . . . . . . 1 2 PASTEURIZED MILK . I 2 OTHER LIQUIDS . . . . . . . . I 2 SOLID/MUSHY FOOD . . . . . l 2 "YES*' TO '*NO" TO ALL ONE OR MORE ~ v v (SKIP TO /139) (SK IP TO /./10) NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NAME NAME i " r I III i i : . . . . . . ENTER "X" IN COL.5 OF CALENDAR FOR THE NUMBER OF SPECIF IED MONTHS OF BREASTFBEDING, STARTING IN THE MONTH OF BIRTH, IF BREASTFED FOR LESS THAN ONE MONTH, ENTER "O" IN COL.5 IN MONTH AFTER BIRTH, NOTE THE RESPONSE HERE /137 Why did you stop breast feed ing (NAME) ? MOTHER I LL /WEAK . . . . . . . . O1 CHILD ILL /WEAK . . . . . . . . . . 02 CHILD DIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O~ NIPPLE/BREAST PROBLBM.O/. INSUFFICIENT MILK . . . . . . . 05 MOTHER WORKING . . . . . . . . . . 06 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . . 07 WEANING AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 BECAME PREGNANT . . . . . . . . 09 STARTED USING CONTRACEPT ION . . . . . . . . . IO OTHER II (SPECIFY) MOTHER ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . Ol CHILD ILL/WEAK . . . . . . . . . . 02 CHILD DIED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 NIPPLE/BREAST PROBLEM.O/. INSUFFICIENT MILK . . . . . . . 05 MOTHER WORKING . . . . . . . . . . 06 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . . O7 WEANING AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 BECAME PREGNANT . . . . . . . . . 09 STARTED USING CONTRACEPT ION . . . . . . . . . . 10 OTHER 11 (SPECIFY) MOTHER ILL /WEAK . . . . . . . . . O1 CHILD ILL /WEAK . . . . . . . . . . 02 CHILD B lED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O 3 N IPPLE /BREAST PROBLEM.O/1 INSUFF IC IENT MILK . . . . 05 MOTHER WORKING . . . . . . . . . . O6 CHILD REFUSED . . . . . . . . . . . O 7 WEANING AGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 BECAME PREGNANT . . . . . . . . . 09 STARTED US ING CONTRACEPT ION . . . . . . . . . . I0 OTHER 11 (SPECIFY) 223 LAST BIRTH [ NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH I SECOND-PROM-LAST BIRTH I NAME I NAME NAME 439 CHECK 216: CHILD ALIVE? Was (NAME) ever given water or anything else to drink or eat (o ther than breastmi lk ) ? ALIVE ~v DEAD ! (SKIP TO ~O) YES . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2-~ (SKIP TO ~I) < ALIVE ~v DEAD I (SKIP TO 44o) v YES . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7 (SKIP TO ~3) ( ALIVE ~ DEAD v (SKIP TO ~O) YES . i NO . 2-~ (SKIP TO ~4 3) < ~0 How many months old was (NAME) when you started g iv ing the fo l low ing on a regular basis ? Formula or milk other than breastmilk ? P la ln or sugar water ? Yoghurt ? AnN other liquids ? Any other solid or mushy food ? IF LESS THAN 1 MONTH, RECORD "GO". 7-T-q AGE IN MONTHS . I I ] NOT GIVEN . 96 AGE IN MONTHS . I I I m NOT GIVEN . 96 AGE IN MONTHS . . . . . . I I [ NOT GIVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 V-T-3 AGE IN MONTHS . . . . . . I I I NOT GIVEN . 96 AGE IN MONTHS . NOT GIVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 V-7--q AGE IN MONTHS . i l l NOT GIVER . 96 V-T-q AGE IN MONTHS . . . . . . I I I NOT GIVEN . 96 AGE IN MONTHS . I I I NOT GIVEN . 96 V-V-3 AGE IN MONTHS . I I I NOT GIVEN . 96 V-T-3 AGE IN MONTHS . i l l NOT GIVEN . 96 (SKIP TO ~3) ACE IN MONTHS . I I I NOT GIVEN . 96 AGE IN MONTHS . I I I NOT GIVEN . 96 r--T---] AGE IN MONTHS . . . . . . I l l NOT GIVEN . 96 V-Vq AGE 1N MONTHS . . . . . . [ [ ] m NOT GIVEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 AGE IN MONTHS . I I I NOT GIVEN . 96 (SKIP TO ~3) CHECK 216: CHILD ALIVE? ALIVE 224 442E I i Was (NAME) dr ink anyth ing ' e LAST BIRTH NAME YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NAME NEXT-TO-LAST B IRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NAME /I/a4 Was (NAME) g iven a dummy or teats yes terday or last n ight ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . | NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GO BACK TO 403 FOR NEXT BIRTH, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 4~. 445 Did you ever b reast feed (NAME) ? CHECK 215 : YES ? V NAME OF LAST BIRTH PRIOR TO 1987 : IS THERE ANY BIRTH IN 1985,1986 OR 1987 ? NO (NAME) 442 Vq YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . ,i . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I >4~9 I I >~7 446 For how many months d id you breast feed (NAME) ? MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~-~ I 447 For how many months a f ter the b i r th of (NAME) d id you not have a per iod? I MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ ] HAS NOT RETURNED/ DID NOT RETURN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 M~8 For how many months af ter the b i r th of (NAME) d id you not have husband-w i fe re lat ionsh ip? CHECK 401 : ONE OR MORE B IRTHS S INCE JAN, 1988 v (SKIP TO /~51) I MONTHS . ~ I NOT RESUMED . 9 6 NO BIRTHS SINCE ~ I JAN. 1988 > 601 225 SECTION ~B. IMRUNIZATION AND HEALTH 45I 452 ENTER THE LINE NUMBER AND NAME OF EACH BIRTH SINCE JANUARY 1988 IN THE TABLE. ASK THE QUESTIONS ABOUT ALL THESE BIRTHS. BEGIN W1TH THE LAST BIRTH ( IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 3 BIRTHS, USE ADDITIONAL FORMS - DO NOT USE THE LAST BIRTH COLUMN IN THE ADDITIONAL FORM). I LINE NUMBER FROM Q.212 Does (NAME) have a card where his/her vaccinations are written down? IF YES: May I see this card, p lease? ASK FOR THE IDENTITY CARD WITH THE VACCINATION CARD, TO HE USED LATER. LAST BIRTH NAME ALIVE ~ DEAD YES, CARD SEEN . . . . . . . . . . . I" (SKIP TO 454)~ YES, CARD NOT SEEN . 2- (SKIP TO 456)< NO CARD . 3 YES, CARD SEEN . 1- (SKIP TO ~5~)< YES. CARD NOT SEEN . 2- (SKIP TO 456)( NO CARD . 3 mm YES, CARD SEEN . 11 ! (SKIP TO 454)< YeS, CARD NOT SEKN . . . . . . . 2q I (SKIP TO 456)( NO CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 3101d--everh'v°a I . I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I YES . . . . . . . . I vaccination card? (SKIP TO 456) < (SKIP TO /156) < (SKIP TO ~56) < NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2J I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2J I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 454 ( i ) COPY VACCINATION DATES FOR EACH VACCINE FROM THE CARD,CHECK CONSISTENCY OF DATES AND BE CAREFUL OF APPOINTMENT DATES. (2 ) WRITE "4~" IN 'DAY' COLUMN IF CARD SHOWS THAT A VACCINATION WAS GIVEN, BUT NO DATE RECORDED. BCfi POLIO I POLIO 2 POLIO 3 HPT I DPT 2 DPT 3 MEASLES YR DAY MO DAY MO YR + DAY MO YR ~55 Has (NAME) rece ived any vacc inat ion that a re not recorded on th i s card? RECORD "YES" ONLY IF WOMAN MENTIONS BCG, DPT I-3. POLIO 1-3 AND/OR MEASLES VACCINE(S) . LAST BIRTH NAME YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (PROBE FOR ~ACCINATIONS AND WRITE '66" IN THE CORRESPONDING SAY < COLUMN IN 45~ AND SKIP TO 457A ) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO h57A)< NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (PROSE FOR VACCINAT IONS AND WRITE "66" IN THE CORRESPONDING DAY < COLUMN IN ~54 AND SKIP TO 488) so . ii t DR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SK IP TO 458) < SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NAME YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1- (PROBE FOR VACCINAT IONS AND WRITE "66" IN THE CORRESPONDING DAY C-- COLUMN IN 454 AND SKIP TO ~58) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2- DN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8- (SKIP TO h88) < 456 Did (NAME) ever receive any vacc inat ions to prevent h im/ her from d iseases ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO ~57A)< DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO ~58) ( 1 DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . 1]1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SK IP TO /158) < DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 j I I 457 Please tell me if (NAME) (has) rece ived any of the fo l low ing vacc inat ions : READ NAME OF VACCINAT ION FIRST READ DESCRIPT ION IF NAME IS NOT KNOWN A BCG vacc inat ion against tuberculos is , wh ich leaves a sear on the left arm or shoulder? A pol io vaccine, as drops i n the mouth? IF YES: How many t imes? A vacc inat ion wh ich is cal led the compos i te vacc ine and prov ides pro tect ion from diphter la , whoop lng-cough and tetanus ? IF YES: How many t imcs? An i n jec t ion aga ins t meas les? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 HOt4 MANY TIMES . . . . . . . . . D YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 f---] HOW MANY T IMES . . . . . . . I I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 HOW MANY TIMES . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 r-] HOW MANY TIMES . . . . . . . . . I I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 liOW MANY T[MES . . . . . . . . . D YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 r-] HOW MANY TIMES . . . . . . . . . I I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 227 457B NAME LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME VAECINEsCHECK 4 ,AND 4s7 : J/"TBS" TO ONE NO TO CHILD RECEIVED ANY OF THE OR MORE ? (SKIP 458) Where d id (NAME) receive the vacc inat ion the las t t ime ? MCH/FP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HOSP./MATERNITY HOSP. . .2 HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PRIVATE HOSP, /CL IN IC , . . .4 MOBILE TEAMS . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) I I I 458 CHECK 216 : ALIVE ~ DEAD [-] AL IVE? DEAD CHILD ALIVE? v v (SKIP TO 460) (SKIP TO 460) ; I 459 GO BACK TO 452 FOR NEXT BIRTH. IF NO MORE BIRTHS, SKIP TO 601. SECOND- FBOM- LAST BIRTH NAME i 7 ALIVE D AD [7 v (SKIP TO 460) ¢ I ¢ 460 I Has (NAME) been 111 with a fever at any time in the last 2 weeks ? YES . 1 NO . 2 DE . 8 YES . I NO . 2 DK . 8 YES . I NO . 2 DK . 8 461 Has (NAME) been i l l w i th a cough at any t ime in the last 2 weeks ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . (SKIP TO 465)( DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES. YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO a65)< (SKIP TO 465)< DR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 462 I Has (NAME) been i l l w i th a cough in the las t 24 hours ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . I | l NO . 2 DE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 463 For how many days (has the cough las ted / did the cough las t ) ? IF LESS TITAN l DAY,RECORD 'OO' DAYS . ~- -~ DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . [ ~ DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ I 464 I When (NAME) had the i l l ness YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 w i th a cough, d id he /she NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 breathe faster than usual with DK . 8 short, rapid breaths ? I CIIECK 460 AND 1,61 : 'YES' IN EITHER t~6o OR 4(~I FEVER OR COUGH ? El3 O~HBB >470 228 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 'YES' IN EITHER h60 OR 461 v YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 'YES' IN EITHER 46O OR 461 v 466 Was anything g iven to treat the fever / cough ? LAST BIRTH NAME YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i -~ (SKIP TO ~68)< DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t~ a NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME YES . I NO . (SKIP TO 4681< DE . , . . . . . . . . . . . . . . SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NAME YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . 2~ (SKIP TO 468)< DK . 8 467 What was g iven to t reat the fever / cough ? Anyth ing e l se ? BECORD ALL MENTIONED. INJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A ANTIBIOTIC (PILL OR SYRUP) . . . . . . . B P ILL OR SYRUP FOB FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C COUGH SYRUP . . . . . . . . . . . . D OTHER P ILL OR SYRUP, , . ,E HOME REMEDY . . . . . . . . . . . . G OTHEH H (SPECIPY) INJECTION . A ANTIBIOTIC (PILL OR SYRUP) . B P ILL OR SYRUP FOR FEVER . C COUGH SYRUP . D OTHER P ILL OR SYRUP. . . .E HOME REMEDY . G OTHER H (SPECIFY) INJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A ANTIBIOTIC (P ILL OR SYRUP) . . . . . . . B P ILL OR SYRUP FOR FEVER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C COUGH SYRUP . . . . . . . . . . . . D OTHER P ILL OR SYRUP . . . . E HOME REMEDY . . . . . . . . . . . . O OTHER H (SPECIFY) 468 I Did you seek advice or treat- ment for the feve/eough ? YES . I NO . 2 q (SKIP TO 470)< J YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2--] (SKIP TO ~70)< YES . 1 °L;;il;il I . . . . . . . 468A Where d id you seek adv ice oP t reatment ? Anywhere e lse ? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. PUBLIC SECTOR GVT,HOSPITAL . A HEALTH CENTER . B PRIVATE SECTOR PRIV.CL INIC/HOEp . . . . . F PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . G PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . H OTHER M (SPECIFY) PUBLIC SECTOR GVT.HOSPITAL . A HEALTH CENTER . B PRIVATE RECTOR PRIV .CL IN IC /HORP . . . . . F PHARMACy . . . . . . . . . . . . . G PRIVATE DOCTOR . H OTHER . , M (SPECIFY) PUBLIC SECTOR GVT.HOSPITAL . . . . . . . . . A HEALTH CENTER . . . . . . . . D PRIVATE SECTOR PRIV ,CL IN IC /HOSP . F PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . G PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . H OTHER M (SPECIFY) ~69 I HoW many Jays after the begin- I ON THE FIRST DAY . DO ON THE FIRST DAY . D O I ning of fever/cough did you F - -~ seek advice or treatment ? DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 DAYS I I I ON THE FIRST DAY . . . . . . . OO | DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I ~70 472 473 I ~ : (NAME)had d ia r rhea in las t 15 days? I Did (NAME) have d ia r rhea in the las t 24 hours? I For how many days (has the d ia r rhea las ted /d ld the d ia r rhea las t )? :c2S: oNE DAY YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . | YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~2 No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SKIP TO h89)< (SKIP TO ~89)< DK . 8~I DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . I NO . 2 DK . 8 DAYS . ~ DAYS . NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SKIP TO ~89)< DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 J | l YES . I | I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ 1 229 1176 /~77 a78 1~7q I Dur ing (NAME) ' s d ia r rhea , d id you make any changes in the f requency o f b reast feed ing? Did you increase the number o f b reast feeds or reduce them or d id you s top complete ly ? (As ide f rom breastmi lk ) Was (NAME) g iven the same amount to d r ink as before the d iar rhea , o r more , o r less ? I D id you g ive anyth ing to (NAME) to t reat the d ia r rhea? LAST BIRTH NAME v (SK IP TO 478) YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SK IP TO 4 7 8 ) < - - NMdE INCREASED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i REDUCED . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 STOPPED COMPLETELY . . . . . . . SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SK IP TO 11811 < DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH SAME . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I NAME I SAME . 1 I I MORE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 LESS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 BK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . l NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 (SK IP TO 481) ( - - -~ l . s J I DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (SK IP TO 11811 < DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~L8O What d id you g ive ? Anyth ing e l se? RECORD ALL MENI ' IONED ORS PACKAGE (SALT WATER PACKAGE FOR DIARRHEA) . . . . . . . . . . . A ORS PREPARED AT ROME (HOME MADE SALT WATER BOLUT I ON ) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B AN'T IB IOT IC (P ILL OH SYRUP) . . . . . . . . C OTIIEB P[I. I , OR SYRUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D INJECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E ( I .V . ) INTRAVENODS . . . . . . . . F TEA-AYRAN ETC . . . . . . . . . . . . G O'[ I]KB H {SPECIFY) ORS PACKAGE (SALT WATER PACKAGE FOR D IARRHEA) . . . . . . . . . . . A ORS PREPARED AT HOME (HOME MADE SALT WATER SOLUTION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . S ANTIB IOT IC (P ILL OR SYRUP) . . . . . . . . C OTHER P ILL OR SYRUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D IN JECT ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E ( I .V , ) INTRAVENOUS . . . . . . . . F TEA-AYRAN ETC . . . . . . . . . . . . G OTHER H (SPECIFY) ORS PACKAGE (SALT WATER PACKAGE FOR DIARRHEA) . . . . . . . . . . . A ORS PREPARED AT HOME (HOME MADE SALT WATER SOLUTION) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B ANTIBIOTIC (P ILL OR SYRUP) . . . . . . . . C OTHER P ILL OR SYRUP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D IN JECT ION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E ( I ,V . ) INTRAVENOUS . . . . . . . . F TEA-AYRAN ETC . . . . . . . . . . . . G OTHER H (SPECIFY) 230 481 D id you seek adv ice or treatment for the d iar rhea? LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NAME NAME NAME YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2, NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 / (SKIP TO 489)< / (SKIP TO A89)< (SKIP TO 489)< 481B Where d id you seek adv ice or t reatment ? Anywhere e l se ? RECORD ALL MENTIONED ~UBLIC SECTOR GOVERN. / INST ITUT.HOSP. . .A HEALTH CENTRE . . . . . . . . . . . B ~RIVATE SECTOR PR IVATE HOSP/CL IN IC . F PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G PR IVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . H )THER M (SPECIFY) ~UBLIC SECTOR GOVERN. / INST ITUT.HOSP. . .A HEALTH CENTRE . . . . . . . . . . . B ~RIVATE SECTOR PR IVATE HOSP/CL IN IC . . . . . F PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . H OTHER M (SPECIFY) PUBL IC SECTOR GOVERN. / INST ITUT.HOSP. . .A HEALTH CENTRE . . . . . . . . . . . B PRIVATE SECTOR PR IVATE HOSP/CL IN IC . . . . . F PHARMACY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G PRIVATE DOCTOR . . . . . . . . . . H OTHER M (SPECIFY) 482 How many days a f te r the beg in- I ON THE F IRST DAY . D O I n ing o f d ia r rhea d id you seek adv ice or t reatment ? DAYS . . . . . . , . . . . . . . . . ON THE FIRST DAY . . . . NO DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ON THE F IRST DAY . . . . . . OO DAYS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 489 Does (NAME) have an ident i ty card issued to h is name ? IF YES : May I see it ? WRITE MONTH AND YEAR OF B IRTH FROM IDENTITY CARD CHECK 215 : WRITE MONTH AND YEAR OF BIRTH AS REPORTER BY THE WOMAN COMPARE MONTH AND YEAR IN 490 AND 491 COMPARE YEAR IF MONTH NOT PROVIDED IN 491 YES, CARD SEEN . . . . . . . . . . I YES, BUT CARD NOT SEEN. .2 (SKIP TO 4951< l NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3~ DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 MONTH YEAR MONTH YEAR MONTH-YEAR SAME . . . . . I (SKIP TO ~195 ) < -~ MONTH AND/OR YEAR DIFFERENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES, CARD SEEN . . . . . . . . . . I YES, BUT CARD NOT SEEN. .2- - (SNIP TO 495)( NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8-- MONTH YEAR MONTH YEAR MONTH-YEAR SAME . . . . . . . . 1 7 (SKIP TO 495)< | MONTH AND/OR YEAR DIFFERENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 YES, CARD SEEN . . . . . . . . . . I YES, BUT CARD NOT SEEN. .2 -~ (SKIP TO /t95) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . MONTH YEAR MONTH YEAR MONTH-YEAS SAME . . . . . . . . 1 -3 (SNIP TO 495)< / MONTH AND/OR YEAR DIFFERENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 493 I see that the date o f b i r th on (NAME)s ident i ty card and the date you had g iven to me are d i f fe rent (MENTION BOTH DATES). Wh ich one is wrong ? WOMEN'S DECLARATION WRONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1~ (SKIP TO 495)< IDENTITY CARD WRONG. . . .2 WOMEN'S DECLARATION WRONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1 (SKIP TO 495)4 IDENTITY CARD WRONG. , ,2 WOMEN'S DECLARATION WRONG . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-7 (SKIP TO 495)( IDENT ITY CARD WRONG. . . .2 231 ~9t~ What is the reastln for this inaccllracy in the identity card ? LAST BIRTH NAME NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME SECOND-FROM-LAST B~[RTH I NAME GO BACK TO 1~52 FOR NEXT RIRTII. I F NO MORE EIXTHS, GO TO 601 232 SECTION 6. I'ERT[LITY PREEENENCES 6ol 602 603 CHECK 250 : CURRENTLY ? MARRIED , I CHECK 315 : NEITHER ~-~ STERILIZED CHECK 225 : NOT PREGNANT OR UNSURE I v Now I have some questions about the future. Would you like to have (a /another ) ch i ld o r wou ld you pre fer not to have any (more) ch i ld ren? NOT CURRENTLY [~ MARRIED )61g I SHE OR HE STERILIZED PREGNANT ? I v NOW 1 have some questions about the fu ture . After the child you are expecting, would you line to have another child or would you prefer not to have any more children? >612 IIAVE A (ANOTHER) ClIlLD . I NO MORE / NONE . 2 . SAYS THAT SHE CANNOT GET PREGNANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 ->610 UNDECIDED OR DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 603A CIIECK 225 : NOT PREGNANT OR UNSURE [ ] I i v How many more children would you like to have in the fu ture ? PREGNANT i v How many mnre ch i ld ren would you like to have In the fu ture , not counting the one you are cur rent ly pregnant with ? NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER ANSWERS 96 (SPECIFY) >604 603B CHECK 225 : NOT PREGNANT OR UNSURE [ ] I I v How many boys, how many g i r l s ? PREGNANT ? I v How Many Boys and how many g i r l s wou ld you l i ke to have . not count ing the one you are cur rent ly p regnant w i th ? BOYS GIRLS EITHER OTHER 99999b ( SPEC [ FY ) 233 60a CHECK 225 : NOT PREGNANT OR UNSURE [ ] / r v Now l ong wou ld you l i ke to wait from now before the b i r th o f (a /another ) ch i ld? PREGNANT F V How long wou ld you l i ke to wai t after the b i r th o f the child you ere expecting before the birth of another child? MONTHS . I YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SOON / NOW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 994 J SAYS THAT SHE CANNOT GET PREGNANT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 995- - OTHER 996 (SPECIFY) DZ . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 998 .)610 CHECK 216 AND 225 : HAS LIVING CHILD(SEN) OR PREGNANT ? YES NO >610 606 CttECK 225 : NOT PREGNANT OR UNSURE [ ] / I v Hnw o ld wou ld you l i ke your youngest ch i ld to be when your next ch i ld i s born? PREGNANT I v Now o ld wou ld you l i ke the ch i ld you are expecting to be when your next ch i ld is born? OK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 610 Have you and your husband ever discussed | YES . I | I I the number o f ch i ld ren you wou ld l i ke to have? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 611 Do you th ink your husband wants the same number o f | SAME NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 | I i ch i ld ren that you want . o r does he want more or MORE CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 fewer than you want ? FEWER . 3 UK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 612 CHECK 216 : HAS LIVING CI I I LD(REN) I v I f you cou ld go back to the t ime you d id not have any ch i ld ren and cou ld choose exact ly the number o f ch i ld ren to have i n your who le l l fe , how many wou ld that be? NO LIVING CHILH(REN)~ I v I f you cou ld choose exact ly the number o f ehiidren to have in your who le l i f e . how many would that be? RECORD SINGLE NUMBER OR OTHER ANSWER. NUMBER . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER ANSWERS 96 (SPECIFY) 613 What do you th ink i s the best per iod o f t ime between the b i r th o f one ch i ld and the b i r th of the next ch i ld? MONTHS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 YEARS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 OTHER (SPECIFY) 996 234 SECTION 7A. BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF HUSBAND AND WOMEN'S WORK 702 Did your (last) husband ever attend school ? I YES . I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 >705 7o3 What i s the h ighest level he a t tended ? PRIMARY SCHOOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 SECONDARY SCHOOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 HIGH SCHOOL . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 UNIVERSITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h 704 What is the highest grade he completed at that level ? GRADE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ I 704B Did he graduate from this school ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ] NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 7O5 What job (did) does your (last) husband do ? DO NOT WRITE IN THE BOXES 705B (Did) Does your (last) husband pay social security when doing th i s job ? IF YES : According to which schedu le ? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O Rgg . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . t EMEKI, I SANDIGI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 RAG-KUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER 4 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 7o5c (R id ) Does your ( las t ) husband have hea l th i nsurance ? i f YES : Accord ing to which schedu le ? NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 SSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 EMEKLI SANDIGI . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 HAO-KUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 PRIVATE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . h GREEN CARD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 235 I 705D I l )oes (d id ) y I l l l r ( l ; I s l l h t l shand read a newspaper or a I n l i lgaz ine , f t l r i l ' l S t} l r l rP , a t leas t (}rll'e il week "? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I i NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I 7Or~E I Does Id id l your ( las t ) h Jsband l i s i v t l I(1 rad io . I rot ittsttlrlt, e, ~lt least (}nee a week ? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 705F I I)(les Id i ( I ) yo~lr ( I i l s t ) h l ] s lmnH w~ltt:h I~ lev is ion , fa r i[ is{~lTl(,P, ~t le ;~f oneP ~1 wPPk ? I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 705G Whal i s (was) y~nJr ( last) hLlsband's mother t tmgur ? RECORI} UNLY ONE RESPONSE. TURKISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O1 KURDISH, ZAZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 ARABIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 ARMENIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O~ C IRCASS IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 05 GEORGIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 HEBREW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 PERS IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 GREEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 LAZ I.ANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . IO EAST EUROPEAN I.AN(;UA(;ES ( BULGAR tAN, RUSS [ AN, SERB ] AN, RUMANIAN,BOSNIAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . 11 WEST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (ENGI, ISH,FRENCfI,GERMAN, SPANISH, ITAL[AN ETC) . . . . . . . . . . 12 OTHER .13 (SPECIFY) 705H I n add i t ion to h i s mother tongue , wh ich la r lguage(s ) does (d id ) your ( las t ) h l l sband speak and/or unders tand ? RECI)RI) ALl, MENTIONED, TURKISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A KURBISH, ZAZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B ARABIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C ARMENIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D C IRCASS IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E GEORGIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F HEBREW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G PERS IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . }1 GREEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I LAZ LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 EAST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (BULGAR[AN,RUSSIAN,SERBIAN, RUMANIAN,BOSNIAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . . K WEST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (ENGI. ISH~FRENCII,GERMAN. SPANIRH, ITAL IAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . . . L OTHER M (SPECIFY) KNOWS NO OTI IER LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . P 236 7o51 Wh~t language(s ) do (d id ) y(3u usua l ly use to spear with yotz r ( las t ) husb~lnd ? RECf)NI) ALl. MEN'rI()NI',D. TURKISt l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A KURDISH, ZAZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I~ ARARIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C ARMEN I AN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D CIRCASSIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E GEORGIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . E HEBREW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . (; PERSIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II GREEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I LAZ LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I EAST ELIROPEA ~, I.ANI;t~AGES (RUI.(IAHIAN, RUSSIAN.SI.NBIAN, HUMAN l AN, [lOSE I AN ETC) . . . . . . . . . . K WEST EURf)I 'EAN IAN(;UA(;RS (ENGLISH, FRENCH,GERMAN, BPANIND, ITA I . IAN E'rc) . . . . . . . . . . . I, OTHER M (SPECIFY) 7OqJ Whal is (was) yt~ur (last) husharHl's mothPr ' s mother tongtlp ? RECI)RD ONLY ONE RESPONSE. 'rURKISIt . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ol KURDIS) I , ZAZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 ARABIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 ARMENIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O4 C IRCASS IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O~ GEORGIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 UEBREW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O7 PERSIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O8 GREEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 09 LAZ LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iO EAST EUROPEAN I,ANGUAGES (BUI ,GARIAN,RURSIAN*SERBIAN, RUMANIAN.BOSNIAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . II WEST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (ENGL ISH,FRENCH,GERMAN. SPANISR,ITAI. IAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . . t2 OTHER 13 (SPECIFY) 705K What Js (was) yolJr ( last) husband 's father 's mother tongue ? RECORD ONLY fINE RESPONSE. TURKIS l l . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 01 KURDISH, ZAZA . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 02 ARABIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 03 ARMENIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O4 CIRCASSIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 5 GEORGIAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 06 HEBREW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 07 PERS IAN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 08 GREEK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 0 9 thE LANGUAGE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I() EAST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (BULGARIAN,RUSSIAN,SERBIAN, RUMANIAN,BOSNIAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . II WEST EUROPEAN LANGUAGES (ENGL ISH,FRENCH,GERMAN, SPANISH,ITAI . IAN ETC) . . . . . . . . . . 12 OTHER .13 (EPECI FY) 237 708 Have you l ived i n only one set t lement of in more than one set t lements s ince J anuary 1988 ? I ONE SETTLEMENT. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . i | MORE THAN ONE SETTLEMENT . . . . . . . 2 >710 ENTER (IN COL .7 OF CALENDAR) THE APPROPRIATE CODE FOR SETTLEMENT OF CURRENT RES IDENCE ("I" PROVINCE CENTRE, "2" DISTRICT CENTRE, "3" SUB-D ISTR ICT / VILLAGE, "A*' ABROAD). BEGIN IN THE MONTH OF INTERVIEW AND CONTINUE WITH ALL PRECEDING MONTHS BACK TO JAN. 1988 >711 710 In what month and year d id you move to (NAME OF SETTLEMENT W~JMEN IS CURRENTLY RESIDING) - ENTER IN COL .7 OF CALENDAR "X" IN 'riie MONTII AND YEAR OF THE MOVE, AND IN THE SUBSEQUENT MONTHS, ENTER TIIE CODE OF THE CURHENT PLACE OF SETTLEMENT UP TO AND INCLUDING TIlE MONTH OF [NTEBVIEW. CODES : i- PROVINCE CENTRE 2- D ISTR ICT CENTRE 3- SUBBISTRICT OR VILLAGE ~- ABROAD - CONTINUE PBOItING FOB PREVIOUS SETTLEMENTS AND RECORD MOVES AND TYPES OF SETTLEMENTS ACCORD ] NGLY. - WRITE NAMES OF SETTLEMENTS TO TIiE RIG I IT OF TIIE CALENDAR. I LLUSTRAT IVE QUEST IONS - Where d i ( l y(m l i ve hefore . ? - In what mcmth ~Jnd year dld yoLl ar r ive there? - I s that p lace in an urban set t lement o r a ru ra l se t t lement ? 711 713 REPEH TO PLACE OF RESIDENCE IN JANUAHY 1988 When did you re(lye to (PLACI: OF RESIDENCE IN ,JANUARY 1988) ": TIIE ])ATE ENTERED IIEBE SHOU],I) BE BEFORE JANUARY 1988. L IVED THERE SINCE BIRTH . . . . . . . . 96 LIVED THERE SINCE MARRIAGE . . . . . 97 MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ~ DK MONTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 8 YEAR . ~-~ BK YEAR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Nt)W I Wt)t l Id l i ke to ask you quest ions abo~i t work ing , Aside Prom yol lr own housework, nre cur rent ly work in R ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I >717 I 7111 Yo~z say that yotl *)r'e riot workir)R, As yuu know, SOnle w¢)nlen se l l sma l l th ihRs , se ] l goods a t the marketp lace , work nn the fan l i l y Fkrm ()r' t)*Jsines•, ]o(ik ~Ifter chl tdren, work ~s clt ;llIJn~ LBdie~ etc* Are you ( In ing ar ly ( ) f these ~it the momenl , o r any o ther wt)rk OF ~imi ]nr r l~ l l l re ? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . . . . . . "~ I >717B i 238 717 What type of w~r 'k : l i p y(n~ d~i r lg ? Wh~It k ind of job are you i n "! I)O NOT WRITE IN THE BOXES. 717A ])I) yz)t] pay sot : i~l ] se ( ' t J r l t~ when do ing th i s j ob ? IF YES : Accord ing to which schedu le ? NO . O SSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I EMEKLI $ANDIGI . 2 BAG-KUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER (SPECIFY) 717B Are you Cove red by hea I Lh i nstlrance ? IF YES : Accord ing t(3 which schedu le NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . O SSK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I EMEKLI SANDIfil . 2 BAG-KUR . 3 PRIVATE . GREEN CARD . 5 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) 717c I id yIltJ wI)rk befc) vo yOtl got m~irriPd I CHECK 215 AND 216 YES DOES SHE IIAVE CHIL[)(REN) r-- B()RN SINCE JANUARY 1988 AND SURVIVING AT PRESENT 7 YES . I I i NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 no I No I R )733 >733 72~ | While you are working, do you us~Jally I have (NAME OF YOUNGEST CRIED AT HOME) with you, s~metlrnes have hlm/her With you, or never have h im/her w i th yo .? I USUALLY . ] I >733 SOMETIMES . 2 NEVER . 3 WORKS AT HOME, NO NEED . 726 Who takes ('are (if (NAME OF YOUNGEST CHILD) while you are work ing ? HUSBAND . O1 OLDER CHILDREN . 02 OTHER RELATIVES . 03 NEIGHBOURS . O1~ FRIENDS . 05 CHILD SITTER . 06 CHILD GOES TO SCHOOl . 07 INSTITUTIONAL CHILDCARE . 08 WORKS AT HOME, NO NEED FOR CHILD TO DE LOOKED AFTER . 09 OTHER 10 (SPECIFY) 239 SEf:PION 7B+ VALUES, ATTITUDES AND BELIEFS 73h Now I have quest ions to you regard ing hOllSe work. Can you p lease te l I ~lle who usua l l y t ; Ikes ct l r f + Of the fo l low ing in yf)t lr hf)flle ? Cook ing ? t l ean ing ? W~sh ing t i l e d i shes ? I ron ing ? ShcH~p i ng ? Keep ing the fami ly budget ? Go ing to o f f i ces outs ide home (1)ayirlK b i l l s e l i : ) ? OTHER PERSN PERSN. IIER IN OUT OF NO SELF HUSB. FAMII, FAMII*+ ONE A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A B C D E A R C D E A B C D E CIIECK 217 : HAS AT LEAST ONE L IV ING C[ I I L I I YOUNGER THAN 5 YEARS OF AGE NO [,[VING CIIII+I)RE UNDER AGE 5 > 73~ 736 Wilo Usua l ly takf+s ( tcmk) care o f the fo l low ing tasks eoncer r l lng ch l I ih -a re ? Prep+r ing food fo r ch i ld ren ? Dress ing up ch i ld ren ? Look ing a f te r ch i ld ren in t imes o f i l l ness ? P lay ing wl th ch i ld r f+n ? IIER SELF A A A A OTI IER PERSN PERSN. IN OUT OF HUSB+ FAMIL FAb l I L . B C D B C D B C D B C D NO ONE E E E E 240 737 glhn decides in yo . r fan l i [y whethi!r to lake ytmr s i ck ch i ld t() a doctor t i t ru l l ? SEhP . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 HUSBAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 SELF AND HUSRAND TOGETI IER . . . . . . . 3 MOTHER-FATHER IN LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 EESPONDENT' E PARENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) 738 ] w i l l not# read to y / i t ] i l FI!W sentences , l wou ld L ike to learn what you th ink abtn] l t i l e ideas in these sentences , l)u you think they are right or wrong ? Men are l l s t Ja l Ly w iser than won len . A man can heat tll) h i s w i fe in case o f i r lnbed i ence . A woman shou ld not a rg ,e w i th her husband i f she does n l J t share the same v iews w i th h im. I t i s qu i te n t l rma] For fl mar r ied marl to gt l out on h i s / )wn when he wan ls to . HAS NO AGREE DISAGREE IDEA i 2 8 i 2 8 i 2 8 1 2 8 739 Which o f the Fo l low ing do you th ink const i tu tes a s l l f f i c ient reason fo r seek ing d ivorce ? Husband dr inks too much Mar i ta l d i scord Aggress ive behav iour , inc lud lng bemir ing An l lnFa i thfu[ h .sh~ind ]nfec~md husband InFecl]nd wi fe Mother in law in tervenes too much HAS NO SUFF IC IENT INSUFF IC IENT IDEA 1 2 8 I 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 241 RECORD THE T IME HOUR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M INUTES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 741 PRESENCE OF OTHERS DURING INTERVIEW : CIRCLE ALL APPROPRIATE ALTERNATIVES. NO ONE . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A CHILDREN UNDER I 0 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . B HUSBAND . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . C MOTHER IN LAW . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . D RESPONDENTS MOTHER . . . . . . . . . . . . . E OTHER MEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . F OTHER WOMEN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . G I 742 [ WAS THE INTERVIEW INTERRUPTED ? l IF YES, FOR HOW LONG. APPROXIMATELY ? (IN MINUTES) NO . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 00~ I YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 743 WHAT 1S THE REL IAB IL ITY OF THE RESPONSES, IN YOUR OPIN ION ? POOR . 1 [ FA IR . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 GOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 VERY GOOD . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 744 WHAT LANGUAGE WAS USED DURING THE INTERVIEW ? TURKISH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1~1 )801 KURDIStl . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 I I ARABIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 OTHER 4 (SPECIFY) 7 IWASAN NT--USEOO INO 'EI TERVI ? I YES O . . 242 Comments About Respondent INTERVIEWERS OBSERVATIONS (To be filled in after completing interview) Comments on Specific Questions: Any Other Comments : SUPERVISOR'S OBSERVATIONS Name o f Superv i sor : Date : EDITOR'S OBSERVATIONS 243 SECTION 8. HEIGItT AND WEIGHT CHECK 222 : HAS ONE OR MORE BIRTHS I~ SINCE JANUARY 1988 HAS NO BIRTHS SINCE f - -7 JANUARY 1988 I I > END INTERVIEWER : IN 802 (COLUMNS 2 -4) RECORD THE LINE NUMBER OF EACH CHILD BORN SINCE JANUARY 1988 AND ST IL l , ALIVE, IN 803 AND 804 RECORD THE NAME AND BIRTH DATE FOR THE RESPONDENT AND FOB ALL L IV ING CHILDREN BORN SINCE JANUARY 1988. IN 806 AND 808 RECORD HEIGHT AND WEIGHT OF THE RESPONDENT AND THE L IVING CIIILDREN, IN T809 RECORD THE ARM CIRCUMFERENCE OF THE RESPONDENT. (NOTE : ALL RESPONDENTS WITH ONE OR MORE BIRTHS SINCE JANUARY 1988 StlOUI,D BE WEIGHED AND MEASURED EVEN IF ALl. TIIE CIIlLDREN HAVE DIED. IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 3 L IV ING CII[LDNEN Di)RN SINCE JANUARY 1988. USE ADDITIONAL FORMS). 802 LINE NO. FROM Q.212 803 NAME FROM Q.212 FOR CHILDREN 804 DATE OF BIRTH PROM Q.IO/I FOR RESPONDENT PROM Q.215 FOR CIIILDNEN, AND ASK FOB DAY OF B IRTH 805 BCG SCAR ON TOP OF LEFT SHOULDER (TUBERCULOSIS INJECTION SCAR 806 HEIGHT (in cent imeters ) W W YOUNGEST W NEXT-TO- W SECOND-TO- RESPONDENT L IVING CHILD YOUNGEST YOUNGEST L IV ING CHILD L IV ING CHII.D ( NAME ) ( NAME ) ( NAME ) ( NAME ) MONTH . . . . YEAR . . . . . DAY . . . . . MONTH. . . YEAR . . . . DAY . . . . . . MONTH . . . . YEAR . . . . . SCAR SEEN . . . . . . 1 SCAR SEEN . . . . . . 1 NO SCAR . . . . . . . . 2 NO SCAR . . . . . . . . 2 DAY . . . . . MONTII. YEAR . . . . SCAB SEEN . . . . . . 1 NO SCAN . . . . . . . . 2 807 WAS HEIGHT/LENGTH OP CII ILD LYING . . . . . . . . . . 1 LYING . . . . . . . . . . 1 LYING . . . . . . . . . . 1 MEASURED LYING DOWN OR STANDING UP? STANDING . . . . . . . 2 STANDING . . . . . . . 2 STANDING . . . . . . . 2 244 U U YOUNGEST U NEXT-TO- ~ SECOND-TO- RESPONDENT LIVING CHILD YOUNGEST YOUNGEST LIVING CHILD LIVING CHILD 808 808A { in cent imeters ) " 809 DATE WEIGIIED AND MEASURED 810 RESULT DAY . . . . . MONTI I . . . YEAR . . . . MEASURED . . . . . . . l NOT PRESENT. , . .3 REFUSED . . . . . . . . OTHER . . . . . . . . . . 6 (SPECIFY) DAY . . . . . . MONTH . . . . YEAR . . . . . CHILD MEASURED.I CHILD SICK . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . 3 CilILD REFUSED. .~ MOTHER EEFUSED.~ OTHER . . . . . . . . . . 6 (SPECIFY) DAY . MONTH. YEAR . DAY . MONTH . YEAR . CHILD MEASURED.I CHILD SICK . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . 3 CHILD REFUSED.~ MOTHER REPUSED.~ OTHER . . . . . . . . . . 6 CHILD MEASURED. I CH ILD S ICK . . . . . 2 CHILD NOT PRESENT . . . . . . . 3 CHILD REFUSED. .A MOTHER REFUSED.5 OTHER . . . . . . . . . . 6 (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) 811 NAME OF MEASURER: 245 C A L E N D A R 1 INSTRUCTSONS: ONLY ONE CODE SHOULD APPEAR IN 12 DEC Ol ANY BOX. FOR COLUMNS I. 6 AND 7 ALL ii NOV 02 MONTHS SHOULD BE F ILLED IN. 50 OCT 03 09 SEP 04 INFORMATION TO BE CODED FOR EACH COLUMN I 08 HUG 05 9 07 JUL 06 CO~_.~ BIRTHS. PREGNAN~ 9 OB JUN 07 CO~RACEPT IV~U~ 3 05 MAY 08 D B IRTHS 04 AFR 09 H PREGRANCIES 03 MAR i0 K INDUCED ABORTIONS 02 FEB 11 F M ISCARRIAGES 01 JAN 12 J ST ILL B IRTHS 12 DEC 13 O NO METHOD USED Ii NOV 14 i 1 P ILL iS OCT 15 2 IUD 09 SEE 16 3 IN JECT IONS 1 08 AUG 17 i 654 .ORPLKNTCONDoMDIAPHRAGM/FO~M/JELLY 992 0607JUL05 MAY JUN i i I 7 TUBAL L IGAT ION 8 MALE STERIL IZAT ION 0304 MARAPR ~l 9 RHYTHM 02 FEB G WITHDRAWAL Ol JAN 24, C ABST INENCE W OTHER 12 DEC -25 I (SPECIFY) II NOV 26 N MONTHS OUT OF WEDLOCK 10 OCT 27 (METHOD USE NOT ASKED) 09 SEE 28 1 08 AUG 29 ~QL ~3_DISCONT~NUATION Q( C0NTR.US~D 9 07 JUL 30 PE~R~OJ_ IN IT IAT~G ABORT/gj~ 9 06 JUN 31 I BECAME PREGNANT WHILE US ING 1 05 MAY 32 2 WANTED TO GET PREGN~MT 04 APR 33 3 HUSBAND DISAPPROVED 03 MAR 34 4 S IDE EFFECTS 02 FEB 35 5 HEALTH CONCERNS O1 JAN 36 6 ACCESS/AVAILABIL ITY 7 WANTED MORE EFFECT IVE METHOD 12 DEC 37 8 INCONVENIENT TO USE ii NOV 38 9 INFREQUENT SEX/HUSBAND AWAY 10 OCT 39 P COST 09 SEP 4B Y FATAL IST IC 1 08 AUG 41 M D IFF ICULT TO GET PREGNANT/MENOPAUSE 9 07 JSL 42 B DIVORCE/SEPARATION/DEATH OF HUSBAND 9 06 JUN 43 W OTHER 0 05 MAY 44 (SPECIFY) • 04 AFR 45 O DON'T KNOW 03 MAR 46 02 FEB 47 L STARTED IT HERSELF Ol JAN 48 A RELATIVE/NEIGHBOUR N TRADIT IONAL MIDWIFE E MIDWIFE/NURSE 12 DEC 49 Ii NOV 50 T DOCTOR IN HOSPITAL iS OCT 51 R DOCTOR IN PR IVATE CL IN IC 09 SEP 52 W OTHER 5 08 AUG 53 (SPECIFY) 9 07 JUL 54 CQL ~ ; POSTPARTUM AMENQKR~EA 8 06 SUN 55 X PERIOD DID NOT RETURN 9 05 MAY 56 0 LESS THAN ONE MONTH 04 APR 57 03 M~R 58 COL ~_L POSTPARTUM 02 FEB 59 ABST INENCE Ol JAN 60 X NO SEXUAL RELAT ION O LESS THAN ONE MONTH 52 DEC 61 COL 5 ." BREASTF~NG II NOV 62 X BREASTFEED~NG 10 OCT 63 O LESS THAN ONE MONTH 09 SEP 64 N NEVER BREASTFE~ 1 08 AUG 65 9 07 JUL 66 ~OL~6-~--MARRIAGE 8 06 JUN 67 X MARRIED 8 05 MAY 58 O NOT MARRIED 04 APR 69 CO~ 7 ; MovEs ~p~YPES OF SETTLEMENTS 03 MAR 70 X CHANGE OF SETTLEMENT 02 FEB 71 1 PROVINCE CENTRE 01 JAN 72 2 D ISTR ICT CENTRE 3 SUBDISTRICT / V ILLAGE 4 ABROAD 3 4 LAST CHILD BORN pRIOR TO JAN. 1988 NAME : 246 5 6 7 01 i YEAR. DEC 02 NOV 03 OCT 04 SEP 05 AUG I 06 JUL 9 07 JUN 9 OB MAy 3 09 APR i0 MAR ii FEB IZ JAN 13 DEC 14 NOV 15 OCT 16 SEE 17 AUG 1 18 JUL 9 19 JUN 9 20 MAY 2 21 APR 22 MAR 23 FEB 24 JAN 25 DEC 26 NOV 27 OCT 28 SEP 29 AUG 1 30 JUL 9 31 JUN 9 32 HAY 1 33 APR 34 MAR 35 FEB 36 JAN 37 DEC 38 NOV 39 OCT 40 SEP 41 AUG I 42 JUL 9 43 JUN 9 44 HAY 0 45 APR 46 MAR 47 FEB 48 JAN 49 DEC 50 NOV 51 OCT 52 SEP 53 AUG I 54 JUL 9 55 JUN 8 56 MAy 9 57 APE 58 MAR 59 FEB 60 JAN !61 DEC 62 NOV 63 OCT 64 SEP 65 AUG I 66 JUL 9 67 JUN 8 68 MAY 8 69 APR 70 MAR 71 FEB 72 JAN PROVINCE CODES : 01.ADANA 16.BURSA 31.HATAY 46.K.MARA$ 61.TRABZON 02. AI)I YAMAN 17,~ANAKKAI E 32, I SPARTA 117. MARl) I N 62.TUNCEL] O 3 , A F'YON l 8. ~ANK I R l 33 .1 qE L 48. MU~LA 63 . ~. URFA Oh.A~RI 19,~ORUM 311. [STANBUL 119.MU~ 611 .U~AK OS.AMASYA 20.DENIZI . I 35 . IZMIH 50, NEV~EIdR 65.VAN 06, ANKARA 21 .[)iYARDAK[R 36. KARS 51 . N [GI)E 66. ¥OZGAT 07.ANTALYA 22.ED[RNE 37. KASTAM()NU 52.ORDII 67. ZONGULI)AK 08. ARTV [ N 23. E I,AZ [ ~ 38. KAY SE R [ 53, R ] ZE 68. AKSARAY 09.AYI)IN 211 .ERZ[ NCAN 39, KI NKLARE[,I 54.SAKARYA 69.BAYBURT ]O.DAI,IKESIR 2~.ERZURUM IIO.KI RSEII]R ~5, SAMSUN 70, KARAMAN l l .B ILEC IK 26+ESKl SEll] R hl ,KOCAE],] 56.$1 iR'r 71 .KIRIKKALE 12.RING(JL 27.GAZIANTEP /12. KONYA 57.S INOP 72.BATMAN 13- R 1TI, I s 28, (;I RE SUN h 3 . Kt]TAIIYA 58. S I VAS 73. ~ l RNAK Ih . ROI,U 29. GI]M[i$1IANE 4h. MAI.ATYA 59, 'I'EK [ RDAG 74.BARTIN 15, BURI)UR 30. ]IAKKAR [ 115. MAN l SA 60. 'FOKAT 75. AR PAEAN 76,IgDIR CONVERSION OF YEARS OF BIRTil FROM DUMI CALENDAR TO MILAD[ CALENDAR YEARS : RUM[ YEAR + r)811 = M[LADI YEAR 247 Front Matter Title Page Survey Information Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures Preface Summary of Findings Map of Turkey Chapter 1 - Introduction Chapter 2 - Characteristics of Households and Respondents Chapter 3 - Fertility Chapter 4 - Family Planning Chapter 5 - Abortions and Stillbirths Chapter 6 - Proximate Determinants of Fertility Chapter 7 - Fertility Preferences Chapter 8 - Infant and Child Mortality Chapter 9 - Maternal and Child Health Chapter 10 - Infant Feeding, Maternal and Child Nutrition References Appendix A - Personnel Involved Appendix B - Survey Design Appendix C - Estimates of Sampling Errors Appendix D - Data Quality Tables Appendix E - Calculation of Contraceptive Discontinuation Rates Appendix F Pages 171-216 - Survey Instruments Appendix F Pages 217-247

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