Tanzania - Demographic and Health Survey - 2005

Publication date: 2005

7DQ]DQLD 'HPRJUDSKLF�DQG +HDOWK�6XUYH\ ���� Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2004-2005 National Bureau of Statistics Dar es Salaam, Tanzania ORC Macro Calverton, Maryland, USA December 2005 This report summarizes the findings of the 2004-05 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (2004-05 TDHS), which was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics of the United Republic of Tanzania. ORC Macro provided technical assistance. The 2004-05 TDHS is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) programme which assists countries in the collection of data to monitor and evaluate population, health, and nutrition programmes. Funding for technical assistance and equipment was provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). Local costs of the survey were financed completely by the pooled funds of the Poverty Eradication Division (PED) in the Vice President’s Office. The opinions expressed herein are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID or the Government of Tanzania. Additional information about the 2004-05 TDHS may be obtained from the headquarters of the National Bureau of Statistics, Kivukoni Front, P.O. Box 796, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania; Telephone: (255) 22 212-2722/3, Fax: (255) 22 213-0852, E-mail: dg@nbs.go.tz. Additional information about the MEASURE DHS project may be obtained from ORC Macro, 11785 Beltsville Drive, Suite 300, Calverton, MD 20705; Telephone: 301-572-0200, Fax: 301-572-0999, E-mail: reports@orcmacro.com, Internet: www.measuredhs.com. Recommended citation: National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) [Tanzania] and ORC Macro. 2005. Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey 2004-05. Dar es Salaam, Tanzania: National Bureau of Statistics and ORC Macro. Contents | iii CONTENTS TABLES AND FIGURES . vii FOREWORD . xiii ACKNOWLEDGMENTS . xv SUMMARY OF FINDINGS . xvii MAP OF TANZANIA . xxiv CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Geography, History, and the Economy. 1 1.2 Population . 2 1.3 Population, Family Planning, and HIV Policies and Programmes. 3 1.4 Objectives and Organisation of the Survey . 4 CHAPTER 2 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 2.1 Population by Age and Sex. 9 2.2 Household Composition . 10 2.3 Children’s Living Arrangements and Parental Survival . 11 2.4 Education of the Household Population . 13 2.5 Household Environment . 21 CHAPTER 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS AND THE STATUS OF WOMEN 3.1 Characteristics of Survey Respondents. 27 3.2 Educational Attainment . 29 3.3 Access to Mass Media . 34 3.4 Employment . 37 3.5 Measures of Women’s Status. 43 CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY 4.1 Fertility Levels And Trends . 57 4.2 Birth Intervals. 62 4.3 Age at First Birth. 64 4.4 Adolescent Fertility. 65 CHAPTER 5 FERTILITY REGULATION 5.1 Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods. 69 5.2 Ever Use of Contraception . 71 5.3 Current Use of Contraceptive Methods . 73 5.4 Number of Children at First Use of Contraception. 78 5.5 Knowledge of Fertile Period . 79 iv │ Contents 5.6 Source of Supply. 80 5.7 Informed Choice. 81 5.8 Contraceptive Discontinuation . 83 5.9 Future Use of Contraception . 84 5.10 Exposure to Family Planning Messages on Radio and Television . 86 5.11 Contact of Nonusers with Family Planning Providers . 92 5.12 Discussion about Family Planning with Husband. 94 5.13 Attitudes towardss Family Planning. 94 CHAPTER 6 OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY 6.1 Current Marital Status . 97 6.2 Polygyny . 98 6.3 Age at First Marriage . 100 6.4 Age at First Sexual Intercourse. 101 6.5 Recent Sexual Activity . 103 6.6 Postpartum Amenorrhoea, Abstinence, and Insusceptibility. 107 6.7 Menopause. 110 CHAPTER 7 FERTILITY PREFERENCES AND NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING 7.1 Desire for More Children . 111 7.2 Desire to Limit Childbearing. 112 7.3 Unmet Need for Family Planning . 113 7.4 Ideal Family Size . 115 7.5 Ideal Number of Children by Background Characteristics . 117 7.6 Wanted and Unwanted Fertility . 118 7.7 Ideal Family Size and Unmet Need by Women’s Status. 120 CHAPTER 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY 8.1 Levels and Trends in Infant and Child Mortality. 123 8.2 Data Quality . 125 8.3 Socioeconomic Differentials in Infant and Child Mortality . 126 8.4 Demographic Differentials in Infant and Child Mortality. 127 8.5 Differentials in Infant and Child Mortality by Women’s Status . 128 8.6 Perinatal Mortality. 129 8.7 High-Risk Fertility Behaviour . 129 CHAPTER 9 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH 9.1 Antenatal Care . 131 9.2 Delivery Care. 139 9.3 Postnatal Care. 145 9.4 Reproductive Health Care by Women’s Status . 147 9.5 Birth Registration. 148 9.6 Women’s Perceptions of Problems in Obtaining Health Care . 149 9.7 Child Immunisation. 151 9.8 Acute Respiratory Infection and Fever . 154 9.9 Diarrhoeal Disease. 156 Contents | v 9.10 Children’s Health Care by Women’s Status . 161 9.11 Smoking. 162 CHAPTER 10 MALARIA 10.1 Mosquito Nets . 163 10.2 Use of Antimalarial Drugs during Pregnancy. 169 10.3 Treatment of Children with Fever. 171 CHAPTER 11 CHILDREN AND WOMEN’S NUTRITION 11.1 Breastfeeding and Supplementation . 177 11.2 Micronutrient Intake . 184 11.3 Nutritional Status of Children Under Five . 196 11.4 Nutritional Status of Women. 200 CHAPTER 12 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOUR 12.1 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Transmission and Prevention Methods . 204 12.2 Stigma Associated with AIDS and Attitudes Related to HIV/AIDS. 212 12.3 Higher-Risk Sex. 218 12.4 Testing for HIV. 222 12.5 Reports of Recent Sexually Transmitted Infections . 226 12.6 Injections . 228 12.7 HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge and Behavior among Youth . 230 12.8 Recent Sexual Activity among Young Women and Men . 236 12.9 Orphans and Vulnerable Children. 244 CHAPTER 13 FEMALE GENITAL CUTTING 13.1 Knowledge of Female Genital Cutting . 247 13.2 Prevalence of Female Genital Cutting. 249 13.3 Age at Circumcision . 251 13.4 Circumcision of Daughters . 252 13.5 Attitudes towards Female Circumcision . 254 CHAPTER 14 ADULT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY 14.1 Assessment of Data Quality . 257 14.2 Estimates of Adult Mortality. 258 14.3 Estimates of Maternal Mortality . 260 REFERENCES . 263 APPENDIX A SAMPLE IMPLEMENTATION . 265 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS. 267 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES . 283 vi │ Contents APPENDIX D PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 2004-05 TANZANIA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY. 289 APPENDIX E QUESTIONNAIRES . 293 APPENDIX F MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL INDICATORS . 379 Tables and Figures | vii TABLES AND FIGURES Page CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION Table 1.1 Basic demographic indicators. 2 Table 1.2 Results of the household and individual interviews. 8 CHAPTER 2 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS Table 2.1 Household population by age, sex, and residence. 10 Table 2.2 Household composition. 11 Table 2.3 Children's living arrangements and orphanhood. 12 Table 2.4.1 Educational attainment of household population: female. 14 Table 2.4.2 Educational attainment of household population: male. 15 Table 2.5.1 School attendance ratios: primary school . 17 Table 2.5.2 School attendance ratios: secondary school . 18 Table 2.6.1 Grade repetition and dropout rates: repetition rates. 20 Table 2.6.2 Grade repetition and dropout rates: dropout rates . 21 Table 2.7 Household characteristics . 22 Table 2.8 Household possessions . 24 Table 2.9 Household food security . 25 Figure 2.1 Population pyramid . 10 Figure 2.2 Age-specific attendance rates . 19 CHAPTER 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS AND THE STATUS OF WOMEN Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents . 28 Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment by background characteristics: women . 30 Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment by background characteristics: men. 31 Table 3.3.1 Literacy: women. 32 Table 3.3.2 Literacy: men. 33 Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: women. 35 Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: men. 36 Table 3.5.1 Employment status: women . 38 Table 3.5.2 Employment status: men. 39 Table 3.6.1 Occupation: women. 41 Table 3.6.2 Occupation: men . 42 Table 3.7 Type of employment: women. 43 Table 3.8 Decision on use of earnings . 44 Table 3.9 Women's participation in decisionmaking by marital status . 46 Table 3.10.1 Women's participation in decisionmaking by background characteristics: women . 48 Table 3.10.2 Women's participation in decisionmaking by background characteristics: men. 49 Table 3.11.1 Women's attitude towards wife beating. 51 Table 3.11.2 Men's attitude towards wife beating . 52 viii | Tables and Figures Table 3.12.1 Women's attitude towards refusing sex with husband. 54 Table 3.12.2 Men's attitude towards wife refusing sex with husband. 55 Figure 3.1 Employment status of women and men . 40 Figure 3.2 Women’s ownership of assets . 45 Figure 3.2 Number of decisions in which women participate in the final say . 50 CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY Table 4.1 Current fertility . 58 Table 4.2 Fertility by background characteristics . 60 Table 4.3 Trends in age-specific fertility rates. 60 Table 4.4 Trends in fertility rates. 61 Table 4.5 Children ever born and living. 62 Table 4.6 Birth intervals. 63 Table 4.7 Age at first birth . 64 Table 4.8 Median age at first birth by background characteristics. 65 Table 4.9 Adolescent pregnancy and motherhood. 66 Figure 4.1 Age-specific fertility rates by residents . 58 Figure 4.2 Total fertility rates in selected sub-Saharan countries . 59 Figure 4.3 Adolescent childbearing. 66 CHAPTER 5 FERTILITY REGULATION Table 5.1.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods: women. 70 Table 5.1.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods: men . 71 Table 5.2 Ever use of contraception: women. 72 Table 5.3 Ever use of contraception: men. 73 Table 5.4 Current use of contraception . 74 Table 5.5 Current use of contraception by background characteristics . 76 Table 5.6 Current use of contraception by women’s status . 78 Table 5.7 Number of children at first use of contraception . 79 Table 5.8 Knowledge of fertile period. 80 Table 5.9 Source of contraception. 81 Table 5.10 Informed choice . 82 Table 5.11 First-year contraceptive discontinuation rates . 83 Table 5.12 Reasons for discontinuation . 84 Table 5.13 Future use of contraception . 84 Table 5.14 Reason for not intending to use contraception . 85 Table 5.15 Preferred method of contraception for future use. 85 Table 5.16.1 Exposure to family planning messages: women . 87 Table 5.16.2 Exposure to family planning messages: men. 88 Table 5.17.1 Exposure to family planning dramas: women . 89 Table 5.17.2 Exposure to family planning dramas: men. 90 Table 5.18 Mama Ushauri family planning message. 91 Table 5.19 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers . 93 Table 5.20 Discussion of family planning with husband . 94 Table 5.21 Attitudes towards family planning . 95 Figure 5.1 Contraceptive use among currently married women, Tanzania 1991-2005 . 75 Tables and Figures | ix Figure 5.2 Current use of any contraceptive method among currently married women age 15-49, by background characteristics. 77 CHAPTER 6 OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY Table 6.1 Current marital status. 97 Table 6.2 Number of cowives and wives . 99 Table 6.3 Age at first marriage . 100 Table 6.4 Median age at first marriage. 101 Table 6.5 Age at first sexual intercourse . 102 Table 6.6 Median age at first intercourse . 103 Table 6.7.1 Recent sexual activity: women. 104 Table 6.7.2 Recent sexual activity: men. 106 Table 6.8 Postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence, and insusceptibility. 108 Table 6.9 Median duration of postpartum insusceptibility by background characteristics . 109 Table 6.10 Menopause . 110 Figure 6.1 Marital status of respondents. 98 CHAPTER 7 FERTILITY PREFERENCES AND NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING Table 7.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children . 111 Table 7.2 Desire to limit childbearing . 113 Table 7.3 Need for family planning . 114 Table 7.4 Ideal number of children . 116 Table 7.5 Mean ideal number of children by background characteristics . 118 Table 7.6 Fertility planning status. 119 Table 7.7 Wanted fertility rates. 120 Table 7.8 Ideal number of children and unmet need by women's status . 121 Figure 7.1 Desire for more children among currently married women . 112 Figure 7.2 Trends in mean ideal family size among women and men, 1991-2005 . 117 CHAPTER 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY Table 8.1 Early childhood mortality rates . 124 Table 8.2 Early childhood mortality rates by background characteristics. 126 Table 8.3 Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics. 127 Table 8.4 Early childhood mortality rates by women's status . 128 Table 8.5 Perinatal mortality. 129 Table 8.6 High-risk fertility behaviour. 130 Figure 8.1 Trends in under-five mortality . 124 CHAPTER 9 MATERNAL AND CHILD CARE Table 9.1 Antenatal care. 132 Table 9.2 Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit . 134 Table 9.3 Components of antenatal care . 136 Table 9.4 Tetanus toxoid injections . 138 Table 9.5 Place of delivery . 140 x | Tables and Figures Table 9.6 Assistance during delivery . 142 Table 9.7 Delivery characteristics . 144 Table 9.8 Postnatal care by background characteristics . 146 Table 9.9 Reproductive health care by women's status . 147 Table 9.10 Registration and birth certificate. 148 Table 9.11 Problems in accessing health care . 150 Table 9.12 Vaccinations by source of information. 152 Table 9.13 Vaccinations by background characteristics . 153 Table 9.14 Vaccinations in first year of life. 154 Table 9.15 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI and fever. 155 Table 9.16 Disposal of children's stools. 157 Table 9.17 Prevalence of diarrhoea . 158 Table 9.18 Knowledge of ORS packets . 159 Table 9.19 Diarrhoea treatment . 160 Table 9.20 Feeding practices during diarrhoea . 161 Table 9.21 Children’s health care by women's status . 162 Table 9.22 Use of smoking tobacco. 162 Figure 9.1 Trends in number of antenatal care visits . 134 Figure 9.2 Trends in feeding practices during diarrhoea. 161 CHAPTER 10 MALARIA Table 10.1 Household possession of mosquito nets . 165 Table 10.2 Use of mosquito nets by children. 167 Table 10.3 Use of mosquito nets by women. 168 Table 10.4 Use of intermittent preventive treatment (IPT) by women during pregnancy. 170 Table 10.5 Prevalence and prompt treatment of children with fever . 172 Table 10.6 Type and timing of antimalarial drugs received by children with fever . 174 Table 10.7 Availability at home of antimalarial drugs received by children. 175 Figure 10.1 Ownership of mosquito nets by residence. 166 Figure 10.2 Treatment of children under five years with fever by mother’s education . 173 CHAPTER 11 CHILDREN AND WOMEN’S NUTRITION Table 11.1 Initial breastfeeding. 178 Table 11.2 Breastfeeding status by age . 180 Table 11.3 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding . 182 Table 11.4 Foods consumed by children in the day or night preceding the interview. 183 Table 11.5 Frequency of foods consumed by children in the day or night preceding the interview. 184 Table 11.6 Iodisation of household salt. 186 Table 11.7 Micronutrient intake among children . 188 Table 11.8 Micronutrient intake among mothers . 191 Table 11.9 Prevalence of anaemia in children . 193 Table 11.10 Prevalence of anaemia in women . 195 Table 11.11 Nutritional status of children . 198 Table 11.12 Nutritional status of women by background characteristics. 202 Figure 11.1 Feeding practices among children age 0-23 months . 181 Tables and Figures | xi Figure 11.2 Trends in the nutritional status of children under five years . 199 CHAPTER 12 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOUR Table 12.1 Knowledge of AIDS. 204 Table 12.2 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods. 206 Table 12.3.1 Beliefs about AIDS: women . 208 Table 12.3.2 Beliefs about AIDS: men . 209 Table 12.4 Knowledge of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. 211 Table 12.5.1 Accepting attitudes towards those living with HIV: women . 213 Table 12.5.2 Accepting attitudes towards those living with HIV: men . 214 Table 12.6 Attitudes towards negotiating safer sex with husband . 216 Table 12.7 Adult support for education about condom use to prevent AIDS. 217 Table 12.8.1 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: women . 219 Table 12.8.2 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: men . 220 Table 12.9 Payment for sexual intercourse by men and condom use at last paid sexual intercourse. 222 Table 12.10 Prior HIV testing . 223 Table 12.11 Pregnant women counselled and tested for HIV. 225 Table 12.12 Self-reporting of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and STI symptoms . 227 Table 12.13 Prevalence of injections . 229 Table 12.14 Comprehensive knowledge about AIDS and of a source for condoms among youth . 231 Table 12.15 Age at first sex among young women and men . 233 Table 12.16 Condom use at first sex among young women and men. 235 Table 12.17 Premarital sexual intercourse and condom use during premarital sexual intercourse among youth . 237 Table 12.18 Higher-risk sex and condom use at last higher-risk sex in the past year among young women and men . 239 Table 12.19 Age-mixing in sexual relationships. 241 Table 12.20 Drunkenness during sexual intercourse among youth. 242 Table 12.21 Recent HIV test among youth . 243 Table 12.22 Orphanhood and children's living arrangements. 244 Table 12.23 School attendance by survivorship of parents and by OVC status . 245 Table 12.24 Property dispossession . 246 Figure 12.1 Perceptions and beliefs about abstinence and faithfulness. 218 Figure 12.2 Treatment-seeking among women and men who reported having an STI in the past 12 months . 228 Figure 12.3 Trends in age at first sex, Tanzania 1999-2005. 234 Figure 12.4 Scale of risk for young women and men: Abstinence, being faithful, and using condoms (ABC) among young women and men, Tanzania 1999-2005. 240 CHAPTER 13 FEMALE GENITAL CUTTING Table 13.1 Knowledge of female circumcision. 248 Table 13.2 Prevalence of female circumcision and type of circumcision . 250 Table 13.3 Age at circumcision. 252 Table 13.4 Daughter's circumcision experience . 253 xii | Tables and Figures Table 13.5 Aspects of daughter's circumcision . 254 Table 13.6.1 Attitudes towards female circumcision : women . 255 Table 13.6.2 Attitudes towards female circumcision: men . 256 Figure 13.1 Percentage of women circumcised by age. 251 CHAPTER 14 ADULT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY Table 14.1 Data on siblings . 258 Table 14.2 Adult mortality rates. 259 Table 14.3 Maternal mortality . 261 Figure 14.1 Trends in adult mortality, Tanzania 1988-1996 and 1998-2004. 260 APPENDIX A SAMPLE IMPLEMENTATION Table A.1 Sample implementation: women . 265 Table A.2 Sample implementation: men. 266 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS Table B.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors . 270 Table B.2 Sampling errors for national sample . 271 Table B.3 Sampling errors for urban sample. 272 Table B.4 Sampling errors for rural sample. 273 Table B.5 Sampling errors for Western zone . 274 Table B.6 Sampling errors for Northern zone . 275 Table B.7 Sampling errors for Central zone . 276 Table B.8 Sampling errors for Southern zone . 277 Table B.9 Sampling errors for Lake zone. 278 Table B.10 Sampling errors for Eastern zone . 279 Table B.11 Sampling errors for Southern zone . 280 Table B.12 Sampling errors for Zanzibar region . 281 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES Table C.1 Household age distribution . 283 Table C.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women and men . 284 Table C.3 Completeness of reporting . 285 Table C.4 Births by calendar years . 286 Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in days . 287 Table C.6 Reporting of age at death in months. 288 Foreword | xiii FOREWORD This report presents the results of the 2004-05 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) that was carried out from October 2004 through January 2005. The survey, which is the latest in a series of periodic surveys that are conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics, was conducted in collaboration with various stakeholders led by the Ministry of Health. The main objective of this survey was to measure levels, patterns, and trends in demographic and health indicators in both Tanzania Mainland and Tanzania Zanzibar. For the first time, informa- tion on the status of anaemia in women and in children under age five was collected and the indicators presented. Height and weight measurements were taken for the same population. Iodine testing of household salt was conducted, and information on birth registrations was collected. This survey was designed to produce estimates at the regional level for most indicators. The tables, figures, and text are related to the most important indicators consistent with the objectives of the survey. They are targeted for use by policymakers, planners, and researchers, especially in the health sector. Cletus P.B. Mkai Director General National Bureau of Statistics Dar es Salaam Acknowledgments | xv ACKNOWLEDGMENTS The Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) 2004-05 has been a success story due to efforts from various government ministries, organizations, departments and individuals. We would like to acknowledge their participation and contributions to the successful completion of the survey. The National Bureau of Statistics wishes to extend its sincere gratitude to the Poverty Eradication Division (PED) in the Vice President’s Office for fully financing the local costs of the survey through the pooled fund. Also we would wish to thank the Demographic and Health Surveys programme of ORC Macro in Maryland, U.S.A., with funding from USAID, for the provision of technical assistance in all aspects of the survey. Our sincere gratitude is also extended to all organizations which contributed to the questionnaire contents and/or the field staff training, including the Reproductive and Child Health Section—Ministry of Health, the Policy and Planning Department—Ministry of Health, the Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre as well as development partners and stakeholders. Likewise, a considerable number of individuals contributed significantly to the successful completion of this survey. We would like to thank Ms. Holly Newby and Ms. Ladys Ortiz from the DHS programme of ORC Macro for their technical assistance in the survey, and Said M. Aboud, the survey manager, Mlemba Abassy, the desk officer of the survey both from the National Bureau of Statistics, as well as Ms. Mayasa M. Mwinyi, and Omary S. Salahi both from the Office of Chief Government Statistician, Zanzibar. Their long days of working overtime served to make this survey successful. Similarly, the nurses from the Ministry of Health who worked as interviewers, and NBS and MoH staff who worked as field supervisors for the survey deserve our heartfelt gratitude. We are even more grateful to the survey respondents who generously contributed part of their time to enable the survey teams gather crucial information for our country. Finally, we would like to thank the authors of this report: Mr. S.M. Aboud, Ms. A.A. Chuwa, Mr. Mlemba Abassy, Mr. A.M. Makbel, and E.N. Karugendo from the NBS, Mr. Omari I.G. Abdallah from the President’s Office Planning and Privatization, Mr. M.O. Mbwana from Office of the Chief Government Statistician, Zanzibar, Mr. R.K. Khamis from Safe Motherhood Initiatives, Zanzibar, Mr. J.J. Rubona, and Dr. E.M. Kwesi from the department of Policy and Planning, Ministry of Health, Dr. C. Sanga, and Dr. C. Mpemba from Reproductive and Child Health Section, Ministry of Health, Dr. A.B. Sanga, and Ms. M.M. Ngonyani from Tanzania Food and Nutrition Centre, and ORC Macro staff. Cletus P.B. Mkai Director General National Bureau of Statistics Dar es Salaam Summary of Findings | xvii SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The 2004-05 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) is the sixth in a series of Demographic and Health Surveys conducted in Tanzania. The 2004-05 TDHS is a nationally rep- resentative survey of 9,735 households selected from 475 sample points throughout Tanzania. All women age 15-49 in these households and all men age 15-49 in a subsample of one-third of the households were individually interviewed. The sample was designed to produce separate esti- mates on key indicators for the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for seven zones. Some estimates can be calculated at the regional level. The survey collected information on fertility levels and preferences, marriage, sexual activity, awareness and use of family planning methods, maternal and child health, breastfeeding practices, nutritional and anaemia status of women and young children, childhood mortality, use of bed- nets and antimalarials, awareness and behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmit- ted infections (STIs), female genital cutting (FGC), and adult and maternal mortality. The National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) con- ducted the survey, which was in the field from October 2004 to February 2005. Technical assis- tance was provided by ORC Macro through the MEASURE DHS programme. The local costs of the survey were fully financed through the pooled fund of the Poverty Eradication Division (PED) in the Vice President’s Office. Technical assistance was funded by the United States Agency for Inter- national Development (USAID)/Tanzania. FERTILITY Fertility Levels and Trends. The total fertil- ity rate (TFR) in Tanzania is 5.7 children per women. This means that at current fertility levels, the average Tanzanian woman will give birth to 5.7 children by the end of her lifetime. The 2004-05 TDHS estimate of fertility is statistically at the same level as rates estimated by the 1996 TDHS (5.8 births) and the 1999 Tanzania Repro- ductive and Child Health Survey (TRCHS) (5.6 births). Thus, there is no evidence of fertility decline in Tanzania during the past eight years. The fact that 11 percent of all women age 15-49 are pregnant indicates that fertility will continue to be high, at least in the near future. Fertility Differentials. The TFR differs greatly within Tanzania. The TFR in Mainland rural areas is 6.5, compared with 3.6 in urban ar- eas. Rural women have, on average, 3 more births than their urban counterparts. The TFR in Zanzi- bar is 5.3. The TFR ranges from a low of 3.6 in the Eastern zone to a high of 7.3 in the Western zone. Fertility is closely associated with the edu- cational attainment of the mother. While the TFR for women with no education is 6.9, women with secondary education or higher have a TFR of 3.3. Initiation of Childbearing. One-fourth of women age 15-19 have begun childbearing: 20 percent are already mothers and 7 percent are pregnant with their first child. The percentage of women age 15-19 who have begun childbearing has remained constant over the past 15 years ac- cording to the results of the 1991-92, 1996, and 2004-05 TDHS surveys and the 1999 TRCHS. Median age at first birth is 19.4, meaning that half of women give birth before age 20. Age at first birth differs the most by education, ranging from 18.7 years among women with no education to 23.8 years among women with at least some secondary education. Fertility Preferences. Although two-thirds of currently married women say that they want more children, 42 percent say they want to wait for two or more years before having their next child. The data indicate that over time, the desire to space births among currently married women may have increased slightly. According to the 1999 TRCHS, 36 percent of married women wanted to wait before having another child com- pared with 42 percent in the 2004-05 TDHS. However, the desire to limit births has changed little. Unplanned Fertility. Reflecting the gap be- tween desired and actual fertility, many births in Tanzania are wanted later or not at all. The pro- portion of births that are mistimed is 18 percent. Five percent of births are unwanted. The propor- tion of wanted births has changed little since the xviii | Summary of Findings 1999 TRCHS. However, the proportion of births not wanted at all has decreased, and the proportion of births wanted later has increased. FAMILY PLANNING Knowledge of Contraception. Knowledge of contraception is widespread in Tanzania. Ninety-six percent of women and 97 percent of men know at least one modern method. This is an increase from 91 percent of women and 92 percent of men in the 1999 TRCHS. The most commonly known methods among both men and women are the birth control pill, injectables, and male con- doms. Use of Contraception. Approximately one- fourth of married women (26 percent) are cur- rently using any method of contraception, includ- ing 20 percent who are using a modern method. Injectables are the leading method, used by 8 per- cent of married women. The pill and traditional methods (both 6 percent) are also common. Current contraceptive use is higher among sexually active unmarried women than among married women (41 and 26 percent, respectively). The male condom is favoured among sexually active unmarried women (15 percent). Trends in Contraceptive Use. The percent- age of married women using any method of con- traception has changed little since the 1999 TRCHS; however, there has been a small shift from traditional to modern methods. Modern method use has increased from 17 percent in 1999 to 20 percent in 2004-05. The most notable change in the mix of modern methods used by married women has been a slight increase in the proportion using injectables. Differentials in Contraceptive Use. There are significant differences in contraceptive use by background characteristics. Married women in urban areas are almost twice as likely to use a family planning method as their rural counterparts (42 and 22 percent, respectively). Current use of any method increases with education. Slightly more than half of married women with secondary education are currently using contraception com- pared with 13 percent of women with no educa- tion. Women in the Lake and Western zones are least likely to be using contraception (13 percent each). Source of Modern Methods. Government or parastatal facilities are the most common sources of contraceptives, serving as the point of distribu- tion for more than two-thirds of modern method users. Among these facilities, dispensaries are the level of facility most commonly used as the source for reversible methods of contraception, and dis- trict hospitals are the primary source for sterilisa- tion. Private pharmacies and shops are the most important sources for male condoms. Discontinuation Rates. Data from the 2004- 05 TDHS show that 38 percent of contraceptive users discontinued use of a method within 12 months of starting its use. The most common reason for discontinuation is switching to another method (9 percent of users), followed by a desire to become pregnant (8 percent), concerns about health or side effects (8 percent), and failure of the method resulting in unintended pregnancy (4 per- cent). Male condom is the method with the highest rate of discontinuation (45 percent of users) and periodic abstinence has the lowest (31 percent). Unmet Need for Family Planning and Fu- ture Use. The total demand for family planning among currently married women is 50 percent, and more than half of that demand (56 percent) is satisfied. The demand for spacing purposes is al- most twice as high as the demand for limiting purposes (32 and 18 percent, respectively). Twenty-two percent of currently married women have an unmet need for family planning: 15 per- cent have unmet need for spacing and 7 percent for limiting. Among currently married nonusers who in- tend to use in the future, the preferred method is injectables (46 percent), followed by the pill (26 percent). Method preference among women under age 30 and those over 30 is similar. How- ever, almost one-fifth of older women who intend to use a method in the future (18 percent) reported female sterilisation as their preferred method. Almost one-third of women who are not us- ing family planning (31 percent) reported visiting a health facility but not speaking with staff about family planning during the visit. This is an indica- tion of missed opportunities for increasing family planning acceptance and use. CHILD HEALTH Childhood Mortality. The 2004-05 TDHS estimates infant mortality to be 68 per 1,000 live Summary of Findings | xix births for the 5 years preceding the survey. The overall under-five mortality rate for the period is 112 per 1,000. The 2004-05 TDHS data indicate a recent, rapid decline in mortality. Infant mortality estimates show a decline from 100 in the period 5-9 years preceding the survey (approximately 1995-1999) to 68 during the 2000-2004 period. It is notable that the 2004-05 TDHS estimate for the period 5-9 years preceding the survey is almost identical to the 1999 TRCHS rate of 99 deaths per 1,000 births for the same period (i.e., 0-4 years before). Thus, the comparison of the two separate surveys—the 1999 TRCHS and the 2004-05 TDHS—as well as the 2004-05 TDHS data itself, indicate a significant decrease in infant and child mortality rates in recent years. Shorter birth intervals are associated with higher mortality, both during and after infancy. In terms of under-five mortality, births following an interval of at least three years are at almost half the risk of death as births occurring within two years of a preceding birth. Childhood Vaccination Coverage. Findings from the 2004-05 TDHS show that 71 percent of children age 12-23 months are fully immunised according to vaccination cards or mother’s report. Childhood immunisation remains at a similar level to that measured in the 1999 TRCHS (68 percent). With the exception of measles, virtually all the reported vaccinations were received by 12 months of age as recommended. Only 4 percent of chil- dren have not received any vaccination at all. Childhood Illness and Treatment. Accord- ing to mothers’ reports, 8 percent of children un- der age 5 had symptoms of acute respiratory infec- tion (ARI), 24 percent had fever, and 13 percent had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the sur- vey. More than half of the children with ARI or fever (57 percent) were taken to a health facility. Among children with diarrhoea, almost half (47 percent) were taken to a health care provider. Seven in ten were given oral rehydration salt packets, recommended home fluids, or increased fluids. Although 36 percent of mothers said they gave their sick child more liquid than usual to drink, one-third of mothers said they curtailed fluid intake. NUTRITION Breastfeeding Practices and Complemen- tary Feeding. Almost all children in Tanzania are breastfed (96 percent). Placing the child to the breast during the first day is also very common (92 percent). However, only 59 percent of children are breastfed within the first hour after birth. These figures show little change since the 1996 TDHS. The median duration of breastfeeding in the 2004-05 TDHS is 21 months. Although WHO recommends exclusive breastfeeding for six months, complementary feeding in Tanzania starts early. One-fourth of children age 2-3 months receive liquids other than breast milk and one-third receive complementary foods. Among all children less than 6 months, 41 percent are exclusively breastfed. This is an increase from 32 percent in the 1999 TRCHS. Nine in 10 children age 6-9 months are fed com- plementary foods. Foods made from grains consti- tute the majority of their diet. Intake of Vitamin A. About half of children under age 3 ate fruits and vegetables rich in vita- min A during the day and night before the inter- view (54 percent). Forty-six percent of children age 6 months to 5 years received a vitamin A sup- plement in the six months before the survey, a three-fold increase over the 14 percent estimated in the 1999 TRCHS. Prevalence of Anaemia. Anaemia contrib- utes to several serious health problems for women and children. The 2004-05 TDHS tested the hae- moglobin of children 6-59 months and women 15-49 years. The data show that 72 percent of children have some level of anaemia. One-fourth of children have mild anaemia, 43 percent have moderate anaemia, and 4 percent have severe anaemia. Anaemia is less prevalent among women. Almost half of women (48 percent) have some level of anaemia, with 33 percent mildly anaemic, 15 percent moderately anaemic, and 1 percent se- verely anaemic. Nutritional Status of Children. The 2004-05 TDHS measured three anthropometric indicators of nutritional status in children: height- for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age. At the national level, 38 percent of children under 5 have low height-for-age or are stunted, 3 percent have low weight-for-height or are wasted, and 22 percent have low weight-for-age, which re- flects both chronic and acute undernutrition. These results reflect an improvement in nutritional status from the 1999 TRCHS when these indicators were measured at 44, 5, and 29 percent, respectively. xx | Summary of Findings The children of the Southern zone are particularly disadvantaged—half are stunted, which reflects long-term undernutrition in the area. Nutritional Status of Women. A body mass index (BMI) of less than 18.5 is considered un- dernourished. In the 2004-05 TDHS, 10 percent of women were found to fall below this cutoff, com- parable with the 9 percent measured in the 1996 TDHS. Almost one-fifth of Tanzanian women weigh more than they should, 13 percent are over- weight and 4 percent are obese. MATERNAL HEALTH Antenatal Care. Almost all women (94 per- cent) who gave birth in the five years preceding the survey received antenatal care (ANC) from a health professional at least once. A lower propor- tion of women received the recommended 4+ ANC visits (62 percent), and only 14 percent received their first ANC visit during the first tri- mester of pregnancy. Nurses and midwives are the attendants that provide most ANC. In terms of the components of ANC, most women were weighed during an antenatal visit (94 percent), about two-thirds had their blood pressure measured, more than half had a blood sample taken, and less than half had a urine sam- ple taken. Half of women were informed of the signs of pregnancy complications. Most women (56 percent) received at least two tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy. Care During Childbirth. A skilled attendant at birth with the proper equipment and environ- ment can reduce the incidence and severity of ob- stetric and newborn complications. In the 2004-05 TDHS, 47 percent of births occur in health facili- ties, compared with 44 percent in the 1999 TRCHS. Nearly all institutional births take place in public sector facilities. Almost half of births (46 percent) are assisted by health professionals. Nurses and midwives are the most common birth attendants, assisting 37 percent of births. Doctors/AMOs attend 4 per- cent of births. Nineteen percent of births are as- sisted by trained or traditional birth attendants, and 30 percent of births are attended by relatives or other untrained people. Three percent of births are delivered by caesarean section, roughly the same percentage as was observed in the 1999 TRCHS. Care after Childbirth. Postnatal care is im- portant both for the mother and the child to treat complications arising from the delivery, and to provide the mother with important information on how to care for herself and her child. The postna- tal period is defined as the time between the deliv- ery of the placenta and 42 days (6 weeks) follow- ing the delivery. The 2004-05 TDHS results show that a large proportion of women whose last live birth occurred outside a health facility did not re- ceive a postnatal checkup (83 percent). Just 13 percent were examined within 2 days of deliv- ering, as recommended. Female Genital Cutting. Fifteen percent of women in Tanzania are circumcised. The 2003-04 Tanzania HIV/AIDS Indicator Survey (THIS) and the 1996 TDHS measured the prevalence of FGC at 18 percent. Younger women in the 2004-05 TDHS are less likely to be circumcised, especially those age 15-19. Female genital cutting is com- mon in the Northern and Central zones (more than 40 percent). It is much less common (less than 10 percent) in the rest of the country. More than 80 percent of women in Manyara region have been circumcised. Almost all women and men (approximately nine in ten) say that they favour the discontinua- tion of the practice of FGC. Even among women who are circumcised themselves, 78 percent be- lieve that FGC should be discontinued. Maternal Mortality. The 2004-05 TDHS in- cluded questions on survival of siblings to meas- ure adult and maternal mortality. The estimate of the maternal mortality ratio (MMR) for the 10-year period preceding the survey is 578 mater- nal deaths per 100,000 live births. Although this estimate is higher than the 1996 TDHS estimate of 529, the difference between the two estimates is not statistically significant, and it is not possible to conclude that there has been any change in mater- nal mortality. Mortality rates at age 15-49 are slightly higher among females than males (6.6 and 6.2 deaths per 1,000 years of exposure, respectively). A comparison of the 2004-05 TDHS and the 1996 TDHS rates indicates substantially higher adult mortality rates for both males and females at all ages in the later survey, with the exception of men age 15-24. The summary measure of mortality for age group 15-49 shows an increase of 68 percent in female mortality rates and 24 percent in male Summary of Findings | xxi mortality rates from the 1996 TDHS rates. How- ever, the 1996 TDHS report indicates the possibil- ity of underreporting of deceased siblings. Thus, it is not possible to conclude that adult mortality has increased. Malaria Nets. Forty-six percent of households own at least one mosquito net, but only 23 percent own an insecticide-treated net (ITN). Urban households are much more likely to own both types of nets than rural households. One in three children under age five slept un- der a net the night before the interview, and 16 percent slept under an ITN. Similar net use was observed among pregnant women. Net use is most common for children under one year, and decreases slightly with each year up to age five. There is no difference in net use by sex of the child, but urban children have more ac- cess to nets than rural children. Antimalarials. Approximately half of preg- nant women (52 percent) reported receiving at least one dose of SP/Fansidar during an antenatal care visit. However, just one-fifth (22 percent) of pregnant women received complete intermittent preventative treatment, or 2+ doses of SP/Fansidar during ANC visits. Among children with fever, 58 percent re- ceived an antimalarial drug, and the vast majority of these received the medication on the day the fever started or the day after. HIV/AIDS and Other STIs Awareness of AIDS. Knowledge of AIDS is widespread, with 99 percent of respondents hav- ing heard of AIDS. At least 95 percent of all re- spondents, regardless of background characteris- tics, have heard of the epidemic. An in-depth un- derstanding of AIDS, however, is less common. Comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS is de- fined as 1) knowing that both consistent condom use and limiting sex to one uninfected partner are HIV prevention methods, 2) being aware that a healthy-looking person can have HIV, and 3) re- jecting the two most common local misconcep- tions—that HIV/AIDS can be transmitted through mosquito bites and by sharing food with someone who has AIDS. Less than half of the respondents have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission and prevention methods: 47 percent of women and 44 percent of men. Comprehensive knowledge is slightly lower among young people age 15-24. HIV Testing and Counselling. In Tanzania, only 14 percent of the respondents have ever been tested for HIV. Twelve percent of women and men have been tested at some time and received the results of their HIV test, and 6 percent of women and 7 percent of men were tested during the year preceding the survey. HIV testing is far more common among the most educated and wealthy respondents. Respondents in urban areas are more likely than those in rural areas to have been tested. Regional variations are substantial, and differ among women and men. Among women, the prevalence of HIV testing in the past 12 months ranges from a low of 1 percent in Pemba North and Zanzibar North to a high of 16 percent in Dar es Salaam city. Among men, rates vary from 2 percent in Rukwa and Kagera, to 17 percent in Town West. Although 27 percent of women who deliv- ered a baby in the two years before the survey were counselled about HIV/AIDS, only 13 percent had an HIV test and received the results. The per- centage of women who received information or counselling during an antenatal care visit rises steadily with increasing education and wealth, and is two times higher in urban than rural areas (45 and 22 percent, respectively). HIV-Related Behavioural Indicators. Among those who reported having sex in the 12 months preceding the survey, a larger proportion of men than women reported having had more than one sexual partner (30 percent for men and 4 percent for women) and higher-risk sex, defined as sex with a nonmarital, noncohabiting partner (45 and 24 percent, respectively), at some time in the past 12 months. Twenty-two percent of men who are currently married or cohabiting reported having had sex with a nonmarital, noncohabiting partner in the past 12 months, compared with 9 percent of women. Just over half of men and one- fourth of women reported using a condom the last time they had sex with a nonmarital, noncohabit- ing partner. Paid sex is considered a special category of higher-risk sex. Eleven percent of men had com- mercial sex in the year before the survey. This is a much higher proportion than estimated in the 2003-04 THIS, but it should be noted that the xxii | Summary of Findings question was worded differently. Six in ten men reported condom use during the most recent time they paid for sex. The period between the initiation of sexual activity and marriage is often a time of sexual ex- perimentation and may involve risky behaviours. Twelve percent of young women age 15-24 and 9 percent of young men had had sex by age 15. The data indicate that Tanzanian young people are waiting longer before initiating sexual activity. For example, among women age 15-19, 15 percent had had sex by the age of 15 in the 1999 TRCHS compared with 11 percent in the 2004-05 TDHS. Among men age 15-19, the decrease was even more striking, from 24 to 13 percent. Among sexually active youth age 15-24, 34 percent of women and 83 percent of men engaged in higher- risk sexual activity in the last 12 months. One- third of these women and almost half of these men reported condom use in their last high-risk en- counter. Orphanhood. One percent of children under age 18 have lost both parents. However, 10 per- cent of children have lost one or both parents. The percentage of children under age 18 with one or both parents dead is slightly higher in urban areas (13 percent) than in rural areas (9 percent). Thir- teen percent of children in the Southern highlands have lost one or both parents—the highest zonal prevalence in the country and the same as in Dar es Salaam city. A majority of children live with both parents (61 percent), but 16 percent live with neither parent. xxiv | Map of Tanzania Introduction | 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 GEOGRAPHY, HISTORY, AND THE ECONOMY Geography The United Republic of Tanzania is the largest country in East Africa, covering 940,000 square kilometres, 60,000 of which are inland water. Tanzania lies south of the equator and shares borders with eight countries: Kenya and Uganda to the north; Rwanda, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, and Zambia to the west; and Malawi and Mozambique to the south. Tanzania has an abundance of inland water, with several lakes and rivers. Lake Tanganyika runs along the western border and is Africa’s deepest and longest freshwater lake and the world’s second deepest lake. Lake Victoria is the world’s second largest lake and drains into the Nile River and then to the Mediterranean Sea. The Rufiji River is Tanzania’s largest river and drains into the Indian Ocean south of Dar es Salaam. Although there are many rivers, only the Rufiji and Kagera are navigable by anything larger than a canoe. One of Tanzania’s most distinctive geological features is the Great Rift Valley, which was caused by geological faulting throughout eastern Africa and is associated with volcanic activity in the northeastern regions of the country. Two branches of the Great Rift Valley run through Tanzania. The western branch holds Lakes Tanganyika, Rukwa, and Nyasa, while the eastern branch ends in northern Tanzania and includes Lakes Natron, Manyara, and Eyasi. Except for a narrow belt of 900 square kilometres along the coast, most of Tanzania lies 200 metres or more above sea level and much of the country is higher than 1,000 metres. In the north, Mount Kilimanjaro rises to 5,895 metres—the highest point in Africa. The main climatic feature for most of the country is the long dry spell from May to October, followed by a period of rainfall between November and April. The main rainy season along the coast and the areas around Mount Kilimanjaro is from March to May, with short rains between October and December. In the western part of the country, around Lake Victoria, rainfall is well distributed throughout the year, with the peak period between March and May. History Tanzania (then Tanganyika) became independent of British colonial rule in December 1961. One year later, on December 9, 1962, it became a republic, severing all links with the British crown except for its membership in the Commonwealth. The off-shore island of Zanzibar became independent on January 12, 1964, after the overthrow of the rule of the Sultanate. On April 26, 1964, Tanganyika and Zanzibar joined to form the United Republic of Tanzania. Tanzania is currently operating under a multi-party democratic system of government with the president and National Assembly members elected every five years. Tanzania’s president can hold office for a maximum of two five-year terms. For administrative purposes, the Mainland of Tanzania is divided into 21 regions1 and Zanzibar into 5 regions. Each region is subdivided into several districts. 1 The Mainland added the 21st region with the recent subdivision of Arusha into two regions: Arusha and Manyara. 2 | Introduction Economy Tanzania has a mixed economy in which agriculture plays a key role. Agriculture, which comprises crop, animal husbandry, forestry, fishery, and hunting subsectors, contributes the largest share of any sector to the gross domestic product (GDP). Major exports include coffee, cotton, tea, tobacco, cashew nuts, and sisal. The GDP increased by 6.7 percent in 2004 according to the constant 1992 prices, compared with 5.7 percent in 2003. This increase is mainly attributed to growth in a number of subsectors, including agriculture; trade, hotels, and restaurants (including tourism); transport and communication; and financial and business services (President’s Office, Planning and Privatization, 2005). The growth of the GDP is considered to be the result of government initiatives to achieve sustainable economic growth and reduce nationwide poverty. For example, the government has initiated programmes to promote private sector participation in the economy. Such programmes are undertaken in line with the National Strategy for Growth and Reduction of Poverty (NSGRP)— which in Kiswahili is known as MKUKUTA—and the Millennium Development Goals (MDG). 1.2 POPULATION Tanzania has so far undertaken four population censuses since independence in 1961. The first census in 1967 reported a total population of 12.3 million whereas, according to the 2002 census, the population has increased to 34.4 million (see Table 1.1). While the population of Tanzania has nearly trebled in the last four decades, the country is still sparsely populated, though population density is high in some parts of the country and has been increasing over time. In 1967, the average population density was 14 persons per square kilometre; by 2002, it had increased to 39 persons per square kilometre. The high growth rate of the population in Tanzania is brought about by high fertility and declining mortality levels. According to the 2002 Population and Housing Census, the life expectancy at birth for Tanzanians is 51 years. The population of Tanzania has continued to be predominantly rural despite the fact that the proportion of urban residents has been increasing over time. The proportion of urban residents was just 6 percent in 1967, compared with 18 percent in 1988, and 23 percent in 2002. Table 1.1 Basic demographic indicators Selected demographic indicators for Tanzania, 1967, 1978, 1988, 2002 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Year –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Indicator 1967 1978 1988 2002 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Population (millions) 12.3 17.5 23.1 34.4 Intercensal growth rate (percent) 2.6 3.2 2.8 2.9 Sex ratio 95.2 96.2 94.2 96.0 Crude birth rate 47 49 46 43 Total fertility rate 6.6 6.9 6.5 6.3 Crude death rate 24 19 15 14 Infant mortality rate 155 137 115 95 Percent urban 6.4 13.8 18.3 23.1 Density (pop./km2) 14 20 26 39 Life expectancy at birth (years) 42 44 50 51 –––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––––– Source: Bureau of Statistics, 1967; 1978; 1988; National Bureau of Statistics, 2002 Introduction | 3 1.3 POPULATION, FAMILY PLANNING, AND HIV POLICIES AND PROGRAMMES National Population Policy The National Population Policy was adopted in 1992 to reinforce national development by improving the quality of life of Tanzanians (President’s Office, the Planning Commission, 1992). Special emphasis is placed on regulating the population growth rate, enhancing population quality, and improving the health and welfare of women and children. The policy provides guidelines for integrating population variables in the preparation and implementation of socioeconomic development plans. In this way, it acts as a critical guide to enable the government to monitor and evaluate national development plans more accurately and efficiently. Other policy goals include the following: • Improve the standard of living and the quality of life of the people through protection and improvement in the provision of basic human needs in such areas as health, nutrition, clean and safe water, housing, and environment • Promote improvement in the health and welfare of the mother and child through the prevention of illness and premature deaths • Strengthen family planning services to promote the health and welfare of the family, community, and nation and eventually reduce the rate of population growth • Promote sustainable relationships between the population, resources, and environment • Promote a more harmonious relationship between rural, urban, and regional development to achieve spatial distribution of the population conducive to the optimal use of the nation’s resources • Promote and strengthen proper youth upbringing and growth, including the creation of an environment that will allow optimal development of their various talents • Urge the society at all levels to ensure that the elderly and the disabled are accorded due respect, care, and assistance in securing reliable means of sustaining their lives. Reproductive and Child Health Strategies Reproductive and child health strategies aim to address key interventions as stipulated in the National Package of Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) Interventions (MOH, 1999; MOH, 2005). In line with the guiding principles of WHO Africa Region and the Tanzania Health Sector Reform, the RCH strategy also links and relates to a number of existing strategies. These include the following: • The second health sector strategic plan July 2003-June 2008 • National malaria medium term strategic plan 2003-2007 • Health sector HIV/AIDS strategic plan July 2003-June 2007 • National plan of action for prevention of female genital mutilation and other harmful traditional practices 2001-2015 • National reproductive and child health communication strategy 2005-2010 • Expanded Programme on Immunisation strategic plan 2002-2007 • Integrated Management of Childhood Illness strategy 1998-2003 • Community-based RCH strategy • National Adolescent Health and Development Strategy 2004-2008. 4 | Introduction The vision of the RCH strategy is a healthy and well-informed Tanzanian population with access to high quality reproductive and child health services that are accessible, affordable, and sustainable, and which are provided through an efficient and effective support system. The mission of the strategy is to promote, facilitate, and support in an integrated manner the provision of reproductive and child health services to men, women, adolescents, and children in Tanzania. Such services include obstetrics and gynaecological care; safe motherhood programmes; diagnosis, treatment and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS; family planning; integrated management of childhood illnesses (IMCI); immunisation; and prevention and treatment of nutritional deficiencies. The goal of the RCH strategy is to reduce morbidity and mortality among men, women, adolescents, and children resulting from reproductive and child health problems by promoting and facilitating planning, implementation, monitoring, and evaluation of priority interventions at all levels of service delivery. To address the aforementioned goal, several key categories of care have been identified for implementation, including 1) maternal health, 2) child health, 3) family planning, 4) adolescent reproductive health, 5) male involvement and participation in reproductive health, and 6) elderly reproductive health. The National Policy on HIV/AIDS As the HIV/AIDS epidemic affects all sectors, its control demands a well coordinated response. It is necessary to have policies that provide a framework, direction, and general principles for the national response, including prevention, care, and support to those infected and affected by the epidemic, and mitigation of its impact. The National Policy on HIV/AIDS was adopted in November 2001 with the goal of providing a framework for leadership and coordination of the national multisectoral response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. This includes formulation by all sectors of appropriate interventions to prevent the transmission of HIV/AIDS and other STIs, to protect and support vulnerable groups, and mitigate the social and economic impact of HIV/AIDS. It also provides a framework for strengthening the capacity of institutions, communities, and individuals in all sectors to stop the spread of the epidemic. The Tanzania Commission for AIDS (TACAIDS) provides strategic leadership and coordination of multisectoral responses, including monitoring and evaluation, research, resource mobilisation, and advocacy. The National Policy on HIV/AIDS and the National Multisectoral Strategic Framework are tools to guide the implementation of national multisectoral responses. 1.4 OBJECTIVES AND ORGANISATION OF THE SURVEY The 2004-05 Tanzania Demographic and Health Survey (TDHS) is the sixth in a series of national sample surveys conducted in Tanzania to measure levels, patterns, and trends in demographic and health indicators. The first one was the 1991-92 TDHS, which was followed by the Tanzania Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Survey (TKAPS) in 1994, the 1996 TDHS, the 1999 Tanzania Reproductive and Child Health Survey (TRCHS), and the 2003-04 Tanzania HIV/AIDS Indicator Survey (THIS). The principal objective of the 2004-05 TDHS was to collect data on household characteristics, fertility levels and preferences, awareness and use of family planning methods, childhood mortality, maternal and child health, breastfeeding practices, antenatal care, childhood immunisation and diseases, nutritional status of young children and women, malaria prevention and treatment, women’s status, female circumcision, sexual activity, and knowledge and behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS and other STIs. The 2004-05 TDHS was implemented by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) in collabo- ration with the Office of the Chief Government Statistician—Zanzibar; the Reproductive and Child Health Section and the Policy and Planning Department of the Ministry of Health; and the Safe Motherhood Initiatives at the Ministry of Health and Social Welfare—Zanzibar. A Task Force Team Introduction | 5 composed of members from the above institutions was formed to oversee all technical issues related to the survey. Local costs pertaining to the survey were fully funded by the Poverty Eradication Division (PED) in the Vice President’s Office through the Poverty Eradication pooled fund arrangement. Technical assistance was provided by ORC Macro through the MEASURE DHS programme and funded by USAID. ORC Macro also provided anthropometric equipment and haemoglobin testing supplies. Sample Design The sample for the 2004-05 TDHS was designed to provide estimates for the entire country, for urban and rural areas of the Mainland, and for Zanzibar. Additionally, the sample design allowed for specific indicators, such as contraceptive use, to be calculated for each of the 26 regions. To estimate geographic differentials for certain demographic indicators, this report collapses the regions of mainland Tanzania into seven geographic zones. Although these are not official administrative zones, this classification is used by the Reproductive and Child Health Section, Ministry of Health. The reason for using zones is that each geographic area will have a relatively large number of cases and sampling error will thus be reduced. It should be noted that the zones, which are defined below, are slightly different from the zones used in the 1991-92 and 1996 TDHS reports— Western: Tabora, Shinyanga, Kigoma Northern: Kilimanjaro, Tanga, Arusha, Manyara Central: Dodoma, Singida Southern Highlands: Mbeya, Iringa, Rukwa Lake: Kagera, Mwanza, Mara Eastern: Dar es Salaam, Pwani, Morogoro Southern: Lindi, Mtwara, Ruvuma Zanzibar: Zanzibar North, Zanzibar South, Town West, Pemba North, Pemba South A representative probability sample of 10,312 households was selected for the 2004-05 TDHS sample to provide an expected sample of 10,000 eligible women. The sample was selected in two stages. In the first stage, 475 clusters were selected from a list of enumeration areas from the 2002 Population and Housing Census. Eighteen clusters were selected in each region except Dar es Salaam, where 25 clusters were selected. In the second stage, a complete household listing exercise was carried out between June and August 2004 within all the selected clusters. Households were then systematically selected for participation in the survey. Twenty-two households were selected from each of the clusters in all regions except for Dar es Salaam where 16 households were selected. All women age 15-49 who were either permanent residents of the households in the 2004-05 TDHS sample or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey were eligible to be interviewed. In a subsample of one-third of all the households selected for the survey, all men age 15- 49 were eligible to be interviewed if they were either permanent residents or visitors present in the household on the night before the survey. Tables pertaining to the sample implementation are presented in Appendix A. Questionnaires Three questionnaires were used for the 2004-05 TDHS: the Household Questionnaire, the Women’s Questionnaire, and the Men’s Questionnaire. The content of these questionnaires was based on the model questionnaires developed by the MEASURE DHS programme. To reflect relevant issues in population and health in Tanzania, the questionnaires were adapted during a series of technical 6 | Introduction meetings with various stakeholders from government ministries and agencies, nongovernmental organisations, and international donors. The final draft of the questionnaire was discussed at a large stakeholders’ meeting organised by the NBS. The adapted questionnaires were translated from English into Kiswahili and pretested during July and August 2004. The final versions of the English questionnaires are attached in Appendix E. The Household Questionnaire was used to list all the usual members and visitors in the selected households. Some basic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including age, sex, education, and relationship to the head of the household. For children under 18, survival status of the parents was determined. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for the individual interview. The Household Questionnaire also collected information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used for the floor of the house, ownership of various durable goods, and ownership and use of mosquito nets. The Household Questionnaire was also used to record height, weight, and haemoglobin measurements of women age 15-49 and children under age 6, and to record whether a household used cooking salt fortified with iodine. The Women’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics: • Background characteristics (e.g., education, residential history, media exposure) • Birth history and childhood mortality • Knowledge and use of family planning methods • Fertility preferences • Antenatal and delivery care • Breastfeeding and infant feeding practices • Vaccinations and childhood illnesses • Marriage and sexual activity • Woman’s work and husband’s background characteristics • Awareness and behaviour regarding AIDS and other STIs • Female genital cutting • Maternal mortality. The Men’s Questionnaire was administered to all men age 15-49 living in every third household in the 2004-05 TDHS sample. The Men’s Questionnaire collected much of the same information found in the Women’s Questionnaire, but was shorter because it did not contain a detailed reproductive history or questions on maternal and child health or nutrition. Training of Field Staff More than 100 people were recruited by the NBS to serve as supervisors, field editors, male and female interviewers, quality control personnel, and reserves. As in the previous surveys, the Ministry of Health was requested to secure the service of trained nurses to work as field staff. They all participated in the main interviewer training, which began on September 13, 2004 in Moshi and lasted for three weeks. Staff from the NBS and invited experts led the training, which was conducted mainly in Kiswahili and included lectures, presentations, practical demonstrations, and practice interviewing in small groups. The training included two days of field practice. The participants also received training on height and weight measurements and haemoglobin testing. Two experts from the Tanzanian Food and Nutrition Centre led those training sessions. A series of lectures was also held Introduction | 7 specifically for the group comprising supervisors, field editors, quality control personnel, and field coordinators. Fieldwork Data collection began on October 7, 2004 and was completed in mid-February 2005. There was a total of 14 data collection teams, each consisting of 4 female interviewers, 1 male interviewer, a supervisor, a field editor, and a driver. The field editor and supervisor were responsible for reviewing all questionnaires for quality and consistency before the team’s departure from the cluster. Fieldwork supervision was also coordinated at NBS headquarters. Four officers periodically visited teams to review their work and monitor data quality. Quality control personnel also independently reinter- viewed certain households after the departure of the teams. Close contact between NBS headquarters and the data collection teams was maintained using cell phones. ORC Macro staff participated in field supervision of interviews, height and weight measurements, and haemoglobin testing. Data Processing The processing of the 2004-05 TDHS results began shortly after the fieldwork commenced. Completed questionnaires were returned periodically from the field to NBS headquarters, where they were entered and edited by data processing personnel who were specially trained for this task. The data processing personnel included a supervisor, a questionnaire administrator who ensured that the expected number of questionnaires from all clusters were received, three office editors, ten data entry operators, and a secondary editor. Data were entered using the computer package CSPro. All data were entered twice (100 percent verification). The concurrent processing of the data was an advantage because NBS was able to advise field teams of problems detected during the data entry. In particular, tables were generated to check various data quality parameters. As a result, specific feedback was given to the teams to improve performance. The data entry and editing phase of the survey was completed in April 2005. Response Rates Table 1.2 shows household and individual response rates for the 2004-05 TDHS. Response rates are important because high nonresponse may affect the reliability of the results. A total of 10,312 households were selected for the sample, of which 9,852 were found to be occupied during data collection. The shortfall was largely the result of structures that were found to be vacant or destroyed. Of the 9,852 existing households, 9,735 were successfully interviewed, yielding a household response rate of 99 percent. In these households, 10,611 women were identified as eligible for the individual interview. Interviews were completed with 97 percent of them. Of the 2,871 eligible men identified in the sub- sample of households selected, 92 percent were successfully interviewed. The principal reason for nonresponse among both eligible women and men was the failure to find them at home despite repeated visits to the household. The lower response rate for men reflects the more frequent and longer absences of men from the household. 8 | Introduction Table 1.2 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews, and response rates, according to residence, Tanzania 2004-05 Residence Mainland Result Urban Rural Total Zanzibar Total Household interviews Households selected 1,952 6,370 8,322 1,990 10,312 Households occupied 1,818 6,114 7,932 1,920 9,852 Households interviewed 1,783 6,064 7,847 1,888 9,735 Household response rate 98.1 99.2 98.9 98.3 98.8 Interviews with women Number of eligible women 2,044 6,303 8,347 2,264 10,611 Number of eligible women interviewed 1,985 6,132 8,117 2,212 10,329 Eligible woman response rate 97.1 97.3 97.2 97.7 97.3 Interviews with men Number of eligible men 528 1,751 2,279 592 2,871 Number of eligible men interviewed 475 1,621 2,096 539 2,635 Eligible man response rate 90.0 92.6 92.0 91.0 91.8 Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 9 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 2 The purpose of this chapter is to provide a descriptive summary of some demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the population in the households sampled in the 2004-05 TDHS. Also examined are environmental conditions, such as housing facilities and household characteristics. The information provided is intended to facilitate interpretation of the key demographic, socio- economic, and health indices. It is further intended to assist in the assessment of the representa- tiveness of the survey. For the purpose of the 2004-05 TDHS, a household was defined as a person or a group of persons, related or unrelated, who live together and share a common source of food. The Household Questionnaire (see Appendix E) was used to collect information on all usual residents and visitors who spent the night preceding the interview in the household. This method of data collection allows the analysis of either de jure (usual residents) or de facto (those who are there at the time of the survey) populations. The wealth index, which is used as a background characteristic in many tables, has been tested in a number of countries in relation to inequities in household income, use of health services, and health outcomes (Rutstein and Johnson, 2004; Rutstein et al., 2000). It is an indicator of the level of wealth that is consistent with expenditure and income measures (Rutstein, 1999). The wealth index was constructed using household asset data and principal components analysis. Asset information was collected in the 2004-05 TDHS Household Questionnaire and covers information on household ownership of a number of consumer items ranging from a television to a bicycle or car, as well as dwelling characteristics such as source of drinking water, type of sanitation facilities, and type of materials used in dwelling construction. Each asset was assigned a weight (factor score) generated through principal component analysis, and the resulting asset scores were standardized in relation to a standard normal distribution with a mean of zero and standard deviation of one (Gwatkin et al., 2000). Each household was then assigned a score for each asset, and the scores were summed for each household. Individuals were ranked according to the total score of the household in which they resided. The sample was then divided into quintiles from one (lowest) to five (highest). 2.1 POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX Age and sex are important demographic variables and are the primary basis of demographic classification in vital statistics, censuses, and surveys. They are also very important variables in the study of mortality, fertility, and marriage. The distribution of the de facto household population in the 2004-05 TDHS is shown in Table 2.1 by five-year age groups, according to sex and residence. Because of relatively high levels of fertility in the past, Tanzania has a larger proportion of its population in the younger age groups than in the older age groups. Table 2.1 indicates that just less than half (47 percent) of the population is under age 15, with most of the other half (49 percent) age 15 to 64; the remaining 4 percent is age 65 and above. With only about half of the population in the economically productive age range (15-64), a substantial burden is placed on persons age 15-64 to support older and younger household members. The age dependency ratio, an indicator of the dependency responsibility of adults in their productive years, is 104 in Tanzania, indicating that there are 104 dependents for every 100 persons in the productive age group (15-64). This pattern is similar to that found in the 1996 TDHS and the 1999 TRCHS. 10 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.1 Household population by age, sex, and residence Percent distribution of the de facto household population by five-year age groups, according to sex and residence, Tanzania 2004-05 Mainland urban Mainland rural Zanzibar Total Age Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total <5 16.0 14.2 15.1 19.7 18.7 19.2 16.8 15.4 16.0 18.8 17.5 18.2 5-9 13.3 12.0 12.6 16.7 14.7 15.7 16.3 14.2 15.2 15.9 14.0 15.0 10-14 12.5 12.5 12.5 14.9 13.3 14.1 14.7 13.5 14.1 14.4 13.1 13.7 15-19 10.9 12.2 11.6 9.4 9.0 9.2 11.2 11.3 11.3 9.8 9.8 9.8 20-24 9.7 11.1 10.4 6.7 7.9 7.4 7.7 9.0 8.4 7.4 8.7 8.1 25-29 8.9 10.6 9.8 6.2 7.2 6.7 6.4 7.6 7.0 6.8 8.0 7.4 30-34 7.0 8.1 7.6 5.3 6.2 5.8 5.0 6.1 5.6 5.7 6.7 6.2 35-39 5.3 4.5 4.9 4.0 4.4 4.2 4.5 5.0 4.8 4.3 4.4 4.4 40-44 4.0 3.2 3.6 3.9 3.6 3.7 4.5 4.4 4.5 4.0 3.5 3.7 45-49 2.8 3.1 3.0 2.5 3.3 2.9 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.6 3.2 2.9 50-54 2.9 2.7 2.8 2.3 3.0 2.6 2.3 3.5 2.9 2.4 2.9 2.7 55-59 2.3 1.7 2.0 2.0 2.4 2.2 2.1 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.1 60-64 1.6 1.0 1.3 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.9 1.8 1.8 1.7 1.6 1.6 65-69 1.3 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.6 1.4 1.0 1.2 1.1 1.3 1.5 1.4 70-74 0.7 0.6 0.7 1.5 1.4 1.5 1.2 1.2 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 75-79 0.3 0.4 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.7 0.6 0.4 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.6 80 + 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.9 1.1 1.0 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 5,044 5,459 10,502 16,617 17,711 34,328 634 693 1,326 22,294 23,863 46,156 Figure 2.1 illustrates the age structure of the household population in a population pyramid. The wide base of the pyramid reflects the young age structure of the Tanzanian population and is an indication of high fertility. This pattern is similar to but smoother than the ones observed in the 1996 TDHS, 1999 TRCHS, and 2002 Population and Housing Census. Figure 2.1 Population Pyramid 80+ 75-79 70-74 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 0246810 0 2 4 6 8 10 TDHS 2004-05 Age Male Percent Female 2.2 HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION Information about the composition of households by sex of the head of the household and size of the household is presented in Table 2.2. These characteristics are important because they are associated with aspects of household welfare. Female-headed households are, for example, typically Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 11 poorer than male-headed households. Larger households are generally associated with greater crowding in the dwelling, as well as poverty and unfavourable health conditions. Table 2.2 shows that women head one-quarter of Tanzanian households, similar to the level observed in the 1999 TRCHS. The average household size is 4.9 persons, with the average number of members lower on the Mainland (4.8) than in Zanzibar (5.6). Households with 9 or more members account for 7 percent of Mainland urban households, compared with 10 percent of Mainland rural households and 14 percent of households in Zanzibar. Conversely, the proportion of single-person households is higher in Mainland urban households (14 percent) than in Mainland rural households (7 percent) or Zanzibar (5 percent). Table 2.2 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household and by household size, according to residence, Tanzania 2004-05 Residence Mainland Characteristic Urban Rural Total Zanzibar Total Sex of head of household Male 77.2 74.9 75.5 77.1 75.5 Female 22.8 25.1 24.5 22.9 24.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members 1 13.9 7.2 8.9 4.6 8.8 2 13.2 10.7 11.4 8.6 11.3 3 16.8 15.0 15.5 13.1 15.4 4 15.3 15.6 15.5 13.1 15.5 5 12.8 15.0 14.5 13.9 14.4 6 9.4 12.2 11.5 12.1 11.5 7 6.5 8.3 7.9 12.3 8.0 8 5.0 5.5 5.4 8.4 5.5 9+ 7.0 10.3 9.4 13.9 9.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households 2,492 6,990 9,483 252 9,735 Mean size 4.3 5.0 4.8 5.6 4.9 Note: Table is based on de jure members (i.e., usual residents). 2.3 CHILDREN’S LIVING ARRANGEMENTS AND PARENTAL SURVIVAL Table 2.3 presents data on the prevalence of orphanhood in Tanzania. The table shows that 61 percent of children under age 18 are living with both parents, 19 percent live with their mothers but not their fathers; 5 percent live with their fathers but not their mothers; and 15 percent live with neither of their natural parents. Not surprisingly, the proportion of children living with both parents decreases with age. That is, younger children are more likely than older children to live with both natural parents. Among children under age 18, urban children are more likely not to live with either parent than rural children (20 and 14 percent, respectively). Table 2.3 also provides data on the extent of orphanhood, or the proportion of children whose natural fathers or mothers have died. The data reveal that 3 percent of children under age 18 have lost at least one natural parent, and 1 percent have lost both natural parents. 12 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.3 Children's living arrangements and orphanhood Percent distribution of de jure children under age 18 by children's living arrangements and survival status of parents, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Living with mother but not father Living with father but not mother Not living with either parent Background characteristic Living with both parents Father alive Father dead Mother alive Mother dead Both alive Only father alive Only mother alive Both dead Missing informa- tion on father/ mother Per- centage orphaned1 Total Number of children Age <2 77.6 19.7 1.1 0.1 0.0 0.9 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.4 100.0 3,447 2-4 69.0 17.1 2.2 2.0 0.3 7.6 0.5 0.5 0.2 0.6 3.8 100.0 4,896 5-9 61.5 13.9 4.5 4.4 1.2 10.7 0.9 1.4 0.7 0.9 8.7 100.0 7,012 10-14 52.2 12.0 5.6 6.1 2.0 13.1 2.5 3.2 2.2 1.0 15.8 100.0 6,409 15-17 41.5 11.8 6.8 4.3 2.5 19.5 2.9 4.4 3.4 2.9 20.4 100.0 2,858 Sex Male 61.2 14.8 4.2 4.0 1.4 9.0 1.3 1.9 1.1 1.1 10.0 100.0 12,441 Female 59.7 14.5 4.0 3.5 1.0 11.7 1.5 1.8 1.3 1.0 9.8 100.0 12,180 Residence Urban 54.7 14.6 4.1 4.2 1.4 12.8 1.6 2.7 2.6 1.3 12.5 100.0 5,130 Rural 62.0 14.6 4.1 3.6 1.2 9.7 1.3 1.6 0.9 1.0 9.2 100.0 19,491 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 60.3 14.7 4.2 3.8 1.3 10.2 1.4 1.8 1.2 1.0 10.0 100.0 23,913 Total urban 54.3 14.6 4.2 4.6 1.4 12.5 1.7 2.6 2.7 1.3 12.8 100.0 5,030 Dar es Salaam city 53.8 11.9 2.5 6.2 1.5 14.3 2.6 2.5 4.2 0.7 13.3 100.0 1,362 Other urban 54.5 15.7 4.9 3.9 1.4 11.9 1.4 2.7 2.1 1.5 12.6 100.0 3,668 Total rural 62.0 14.8 4.1 3.6 1.2 9.6 1.3 1.6 0.9 1.0 9.3 100.0 18,883 Zanzibar 64.9 10.6 2.7 3.2 0.4 13.9 1.4 2.2 0.4 0.4 7.0 100.0 708 Unguja 61.5 11.5 2.3 3.9 0.2 16.0 1.5 2.4 0.3 0.4 6.8 100.0 443 Pemba 70.7 9.2 3.3 2.0 0.7 10.4 1.2 1.7 0.5 0.3 7.4 100.0 265 Zone Western 65.3 12.5 3.3 4.3 1.4 9.2 1.4 1.6 0.5 0.5 8.1 100.0 4,989 Northern 58.8 16.9 5.1 2.5 0.8 11.1 1.1 1.4 1.1 1.1 9.7 100.0 3,482 Central 61.5 13.8 4.3 2.9 1.8 10.2 1.6 0.9 1.2 1.8 10.0 100.0 2,102 Southern highlands 62.7 14.3 5.9 2.3 1.3 7.1 1.6 2.1 1.9 0.8 12.9 100.0 3,621 Lake 59.5 15.9 4.3 3.6 1.2 10.7 0.8 2.0 0.8 1.2 9.3 100.0 4,831 Eastern 56.4 13.8 2.7 5.3 1.4 12.8 2.0 2.0 2.6 1.0 11.0 100.0 3,050 Southern 52.6 17.1 3.0 6.7 1.2 12.1 1.5 2.9 1.5 1.5 10.2 100.0 1,838 Region Dodoma 60.5 12.6 5.4 2.4 2.3 11.1 2.0 0.7 1.5 1.5 11.9 100.0 1,258 Arusha 63.6 13.7 5.3 2.4 0.3 10.6 0.7 1.1 1.5 0.8 9.0 100.0 828 Kilimanjaro 60.0 11.7 5.2 1.9 1.5 13.8 1.1 2.1 1.1 1.6 11.1 100.0 926 Tanga 49.2 25.2 6.0 3.6 0.5 9.3 1.4 1.8 1.3 1.6 11.4 100.0 945 Morogoro 60.5 13.9 1.6 4.8 1.4 11.8 1.3 2.0 1.5 1.4 8.1 100.0 1,108 Pwani 54.9 18.1 5.5 3.9 1.1 11.3 2.2 1.1 1.0 0.8 11.3 100.0 581 Dar es Salaam 53.8 11.9 2.5 6.2 1.5 14.3 2.6 2.5 4.2 0.7 13.3 100.0 1,362 Lindi 50.5 18.5 3.2 6.4 1.3 12.4 3.4 3.5 0.3 0.5 11.7 100.0 437 Mtwara 50.4 19.8 3.4 7.5 1.3 12.3 1.1 2.6 0.7 1.0 9.3 100.0 721 Ruvuma 56.3 13.4 2.3 6.0 1.1 11.6 0.6 2.9 3.1 2.7 10.2 100.0 680 Iringa 56.1 14.2 9.4 1.4 1.8 7.0 3.3 3.0 3.1 1.0 20.7 100.0 973 Mbeya 62.8 15.8 4.2 2.8 0.5 8.2 1.3 2.0 1.4 1.0 9.4 100.0 1,773 Singida 63.1 15.5 2.7 3.7 1.1 8.8 1.2 1.2 0.6 2.2 7.1 100.0 843 Tabora 62.7 11.5 3.1 5.8 1.4 10.7 1.6 2.1 0.3 0.8 8.6 100.0 1,270 Rukwa 69.8 11.3 5.5 2.3 2.5 5.2 0.6 1.2 1.5 0.2 11.3 100.0 875 Kigoma 74.1 11.0 4.7 1.8 0.9 4.3 1.6 0.9 0.6 0.2 8.6 100.0 1,339 Shinyanga 61.7 14.0 2.5 5.0 1.6 11.2 1.2 1.7 0.5 0.6 7.6 100.0 2,380 Kagera 65.3 13.7 5.7 3.4 0.6 7.0 0.5 1.9 1.5 0.3 10.5 100.0 1,465 Mwanza 58.5 15.1 2.4 3.8 1.5 13.5 0.9 2.2 0.5 1.7 7.6 100.0 2,392 Mara 53.4 20.9 6.9 3.5 1.3 9.5 0.8 1.8 0.6 1.4 11.5 100.0 975 Manyara 63.7 16.6 3.8 1.9 0.7 10.5 1.2 0.5 0.4 0.5 6.7 100.0 783 Zanzibar North 72.5 6.6 1.8 2.6 0.0 14.0 0.9 1.4 0.0 0.3 4.2 100.0 121 Zanzibar South 54.6 11.1 2.7 4.8 0.2 21.3 0.9 3.1 0.3 0.9 7.5 100.0 65 Town West 58.1 13.8 2.5 4.2 0.3 15.6 1.9 2.7 0.5 0.3 7.9 100.0 257 Pemba North 71.7 8.4 4.3 1.5 0.5 11.0 0.8 1.4 0.3 0.2 7.3 100.0 141 Pemba South 69.5 10.1 2.2 2.7 0.8 9.7 1.6 2.0 0.8 0.5 7.6 100.0 124 Wealth quintile Lowest 60.1 17.4 5.9 3.1 1.2 8.2 1.1 1.5 0.6 0.8 10.4 100.0 5,273 Second 64.0 13.8 4.3 4.0 1.0 8.7 1.2 1.5 0.5 1.1 8.6 100.0 5,014 Middle 61.7 14.0 4.2 2.7 1.2 10.4 1.4 2.0 1.1 1.2 10.1 100.0 5,085 Fourth 59.7 15.2 3.3 4.1 1.2 10.9 1.4 1.7 1.4 0.9 9.2 100.0 5,018 Highest 56.3 12.1 2.6 5.1 1.4 14.3 1.8 2.7 2.8 1.0 11.4 100.0 4,232 Total <15 63.0 15.0 3.8 3.7 1.1 9.1 1.2 1.5 0.9 0.8 8.5 100.0 21,763 Total <18 60.5 14.6 4.1 3.8 1.2 10.3 1.4 1.8 1.2 1.0 9.9 100.0 24,621 1 Those whose mother or father or both have died; includes those who have information about one parent but not other parent Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 13 2.4 EDUCATION OF THE HOUSEHOLD POPULATION Education is a key determinant of the lifestyle and status an individual enjoys in a society. Studies have consistently shown that educational attainment has a strong effect on reproductive behaviour, contraceptive use, fertility, infant and child mortality, morbidity, and attitudes and awareness related to family health and hygiene. Results from the 2004-05 TDHS can be used to look at educational attainment among household members and school attendance, repetition, and drop-out rates among youth. It is worth noting that calculating education indicators is particularly challenging for Tanza- nia, given the differences in the formal education system between the Mainland and Zanzibar, as well changes in the different systems over time. For the purposes of the analysis presented below, all education indicators have been calculated using the following assumptions: the official age for entry into the primary level is age seven; the official primary level of schooling consists of seven standards; those with at least some post-primary training are assumed to have completed the primary level; and the number of years assumed for completion of secondary school is six. Educational Attainment Tables 2.4.1 and 2.4.2 present data on educational attainment of household members age six and older for each sex. The results confirm that there is a gap in educational attainment between males and females. Although the majority of the household population age 6 and older has some education, 25 percent of males have never attended school, compared with 33 percent of females. The median number of years of schooling for males is 3.2, which is nearly 1 year more than the median number of years of schooling for females (2.4). Urban residents are more likely to have attended school and to have remained in school for a longer period than rural residents. The median number of years of schooling is 6.1 years among both urban males and females, compared with just 2.5 and 1.5 years of schooling for rural males and females, respectively. Educational attainment also differs significantly among regions. For example, the highest proportions of the population who have never been to school are in Tabora (44 percent for males and 55 percent for females) and Pemba North (37 percent for males and 47 percent for females). The regions with the lowest proportions of household members who have never attended school are Dar es Salaam (12 percent for males and 14 percent for females) and Kilimanjaro (12 percent for males and 15 percent for females). The most extreme variation in educational attainment among household members is evident across wealth quintiles. Among males, just 9 percent of those from the wealthiest households have never been to school, compared with 42 percent of those from the poorest households. A similar pattern applies to the female household population, though the wealth disparity is even wider for females than males. More than half of females (53 percent) from the poorest households have never been to school, compared with 13 percent from the wealthiest households. 14 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.4.1 Educational attainment of household population: female Percent distribution of the de facto female household population age six and over by highest level of education attended or completed, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Background characteristic No education/ pre- primary Some primary Completed primary1 Secondary+ Don't know/ missing Total Number Median number of years Age 6-9 53.0 46.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 2,689 0.0 10-14 11.9 83.8 3.7 0.6 0.1 100.0 3,126 2.3 15-19 21.4 27.9 39.9 10.8 0.0 100.0 2,341 6.0 20-24 22.2 16.3 51.1 10.5 0.0 100.0 2,071 6.2 25-29 18.5 15.7 56.4 9.2 0.2 100.0 1,915 6.3 30-34 19.4 16.1 55.3 8.9 0.3 100.0 1,587 6.3 35-39 23.1 15.6 55.2 6.0 0.1 100.0 1,056 6.2 40-44 34.4 19.1 41.7 4.7 0.1 100.0 837 5.5 45-49 53.9 23.2 18.6 4.0 0.2 100.0 771 0.0 50-54 60.7 24.5 12.1 2.3 0.4 100.0 696 0.0 55-59 66.7 25.7 6.5 0.6 0.5 100.0 526 0.0 60-64 79.1 18.6 1.7 0.6 0.0 100.0 373 0.0 65+ 86.8 12.0 0.9 0.0 0.4 100.0 1,029 0.0 Residence Urban 17.7 32.0 35.4 14.6 0.2 100.0 4,758 6.1 Rural 38.5 34.3 25.2 1.8 0.2 100.0 14,259 1.5 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 33.3 33.8 28.2 4.5 0.2 100.0 18,450 2.4 Total urban 17.7 32.2 36.4 13.5 0.2 100.0 4,666 6.0 Dar es Salaam city 14.4 27.6 39.7 18.4 0.0 100.0 1,448 6.3 Other urban 19.3 34.3 35.0 11.2 0.2 100.0 3,218 5.1 Total rural 38.6 34.4 25.4 1.4 0.2 100.0 13,784 1.5 Zanzibar 31.5 32.0 12.1 24.3 0.1 100.0 567 3.3 Unguja 26.0 31.1 14.2 28.6 0.1 100.0 378 4.6 Pemba 42.4 33.8 8.1 15.5 0.2 100.0 189 0.9 Zone Western 41.3 32.1 24.8 1.5 0.4 100.0 3,492 1.1 Northern 27.7 35.5 29.8 6.8 0.2 100.0 2,817 3.3 Central 40.0 32.9 25.2 1.9 0.1 100.0 1,608 1.4 Southern highlands 38.5 33.1 25.5 2.8 0.1 100.0 2,669 1.2 Lake 31.1 36.8 29.1 3.0 0.1 100.0 3,435 2.5 Eastern 23.8 30.8 34.3 11.1 0.1 100.0 2,835 4.5 Southern 32.2 35.8 28.0 3.6 0.4 100.0 1,595 2.6 Region Dodoma 40.8 32.3 25.3 1.5 0.2 100.0 956 1.1 Arusha 27.8 31.1 30.6 10.5 0.0 100.0 674 4.3 Kilimanjaro 15.0 43.6 32.5 8.5 0.5 100.0 802 4.5 Tanga 31.6 35.1 28.0 5.2 0.1 100.0 792 2.2 Morogoro 31.1 36.8 27.5 4.3 0.2 100.0 880 2.2 Pwani 38.3 29.2 30.4 2.0 0.0 100.0 507 2.4 Dar es Salaam 14.4 27.6 39.7 18.4 0.0 100.0 1,448 6.3 Lindi 39.3 31.5 26.1 2.7 0.4 100.0 418 1.5 Mtwara 39.7 33.1 25.4 1.3 0.5 100.0 631 1.3 Ruvuma 18.2 42.2 32.5 7.0 0.2 100.0 546 3.7 Iringa 28.8 36.1 31.7 3.3 0.2 100.0 766 2.7 Mbeya 41.2 30.7 25.4 2.6 0.1 100.0 1,304 0.8 Singida 38.8 33.7 25.1 2.5 0.0 100.0 652 1.9 Tabora 54.5 23.6 20.1 1.4 0.5 100.0 930 0.0 Rukwa 44.9 34.5 17.7 2.7 0.2 100.0 599 0.1 Kigoma 33.9 35.0 29.0 2.0 0.1 100.0 894 2.2 Shinyanga 37.9 35.3 25.1 1.3 0.5 100.0 1,668 1.4 Kagera 32.3 38.2 28.4 1.0 0.0 100.0 1,062 2.4 Mwanza 31.2 36.5 28.4 3.6 0.2 100.0 1,679 2.5 Mara 28.8 35.1 31.5 4.4 0.2 100.0 693 2.8 Manyara 40.7 29.9 27.4 2.0 0.0 100.0 550 0.7 Zanzibar North 41.0 34.1 8.1 16.7 0.1 100.0 90 0.7 Zanzibar South 22.0 40.6 12.4 24.9 0.0 100.0 48 4.4 Town West 21.2 28.0 16.8 33.9 0.1 100.0 239 6.1 Pemba North 47.4 30.1 7.7 14.6 0.2 100.0 100 0.0 Pemba South 36.7 38.0 8.5 16.5 0.3 100.0 89 1.7 Wealth quintile Lowest 52.6 29.7 17.0 0.3 0.3 100.0 3,689 0.0 Second 45.3 32.8 21.5 0.3 0.1 100.0 3,759 0.4 Middle 35.2 35.9 27.6 1.0 0.3 100.0 3,740 1.8 Fourth 22.5 39.8 33.9 3.6 0.1 100.0 3,706 3.5 Highest 13.0 30.8 37.5 18.5 0.2 100.0 4,123 6.2 Total 33.3 33.8 27.7 5.0 0.2 100.0 19,017 2.4 Note: Totals include a small number of cases missing information. 1 Completed Standard 7 or 8 Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 15 Table 2.4.2 Educational attainment of household population: male Percent distribution of the de facto male household population age six and over by highest level of education attended or completed, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Background characteristic No education/ pre- primary Some primary Completed primary1 Secondary+ Don't know/ missing Total Number Median number of years Age 6-9 60.4 39.3 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 2,830 0.0 10-14 13.1 84.3 2.2 0.3 0.1 100.0 3,199 1.8 15-19 12.3 45.8 33.2 8.8 0.0 100.0 2,182 5.0 20-24 16.2 19.0 51.5 13.2 0.1 100.0 1,659 6.3 25-29 12.8 17.6 57.2 12.3 0.1 100.0 1,518 6.4 30-34 13.2 15.2 59.9 11.4 0.3 100.0 1,273 6.4 35-39 10.3 14.3 65.3 10.0 0.1 100.0 968 6.4 40-44 13.2 16.4 57.9 12.0 0.5 100.0 885 6.4 45-49 19.2 26.8 43.4 10.6 0.0 100.0 580 6.2 50-54 25.8 32.5 31.9 9.8 0.0 100.0 540 3.9 55-59 34.1 37.4 19.6 8.5 0.4 100.0 462 3.4 60-64 34.7 46.7 11.4 7.2 0.0 100.0 385 3.1 65+ 56.2 35.5 6.0 2.3 0.0 100.0 895 0.0 Residence Urban 12.3 35.7 34.2 17.5 0.2 100.0 4,255 6.1 Rural 28.7 40.8 27.3 3.2 0.1 100.0 13,123 2.5 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 24.7 39.5 29.5 6.1 0.1 100.0 16,872 3.2 Total urban 13.1 35.3 35.0 16.4 0.2 100.0 4,208 6.1 Dar es Salaam city 12.1 27.5 38.2 22.0 0.1 100.0 1,423 6.4 Other urban 13.6 39.2 33.4 13.5 0.2 100.0 2,786 5.8 Total rural 28.6 41.0 27.7 2.7 0.1 100.0 12,664 2.5 Zanzibar 22.9 39.7 12.6 24.6 0.2 100.0 505 3.9 Unguja 18.0 38.7 14.2 29.0 0.2 100.0 338 4.9 Pemba 32.9 41.8 9.3 15.8 0.3 100.0 168 2.1 Zone Western 30.7 39.1 27.3 2.8 0.1 100.0 3,154 2.4 Northern 20.4 45.1 27.5 6.9 0.1 100.0 2,580 3.3 Central 33.1 35.5 28.4 2.9 0.1 100.0 1,413 2.4 Southern highlands 29.1 38.1 28.3 4.4 0.1 100.0 2,368 2.5 Lake 23.3 42.7 28.9 4.9 0.1 100.0 3,161 3.1 Eastern 17.6 32.7 35.5 14.2 0.1 100.0 2,713 6.1 Southern 20.7 42.8 31.1 5.3 0.1 100.0 1,484 3.4 Region Dodoma 34.8 34.1 27.8 3.1 0.2 100.0 804 1.7 Arusha 24.4 36.1 29.9 9.3 0.3 100.0 566 3.7 Kilimanjaro 11.6 49.0 30.1 9.1 0.3 100.0 755 4.6 Tanga 18.1 49.7 25.7 6.4 0.0 100.0 703 3.0 Morogoro 21.3 39.4 32.8 6.4 0.1 100.0 828 3.6 Pwani 27.8 36.5 31.8 3.9 0.0 100.0 461 3.0 Dar es Salaam 12.1 27.5 38.2 22.0 0.1 100.0 1,423 6.4 Lindi 25.7 39.5 28.7 5.9 0.2 100.0 389 3.0 Mtwara 24.1 45.5 27.9 2.3 0.2 100.0 584 2.7 Ruvuma 12.9 42.1 36.7 8.4 0.0 100.0 510 4.8 Iringa 21.6 40.3 32.8 5.3 0.0 100.0 638 3.3 Mbeya 31.9 36.7 27.1 4.2 0.2 100.0 1,171 2.1 Singida 30.9 37.3 29.2 2.5 0.1 100.0 609 3.3 Tabora 44.1 31.3 21.5 3.1 0.1 100.0 850 0.7 Rukwa 31.7 38.6 25.6 4.1 0.0 100.0 559 2.0 Kigoma 21.0 50.2 24.7 4.2 0.0 100.0 819 2.8 Shinyanga 28.3 37.5 32.0 2.0 0.2 100.0 1,485 2.9 Kagera 24.4 40.5 31.8 3.1 0.2 100.0 903 3.3 Mwanza 25.8 41.8 26.1 6.1 0.2 100.0 1,643 2.8 Mara 15.0 48.5 31.9 4.6 0.0 100.0 615 3.3 Manyara 31.1 43.0 23.7 2.3 0.0 100.0 556 1.6 Zanzibar North 29.6 49.1 6.7 14.7 0.0 100.0 78 1.9 Zanzibar South 17.8 46.6 12.1 23.6 0.0 100.0 49 4.2 Town West 13.8 33.0 17.5 35.5 0.3 100.0 211 6.3 Pemba North 36.7 39.1 7.7 16.3 0.2 100.0 88 1.7 Pemba South 28.6 44.8 11.0 15.2 0.3 100.0 79 2.5 Wealth quintile Lowest 41.6 38.3 19.4 0.4 0.2 100.0 3,285 0.8 Second 32.0 40.4 26.8 0.8 0.0 100.0 3,490 2.1 Middle 25.7 42.7 29.0 2.5 0.1 100.0 3,398 2.7 Fourth 16.7 44.0 33.7 5.5 0.1 100.0 3,576 3.8 Highest 9.2 32.4 35.2 23.0 0.2 100.0 3,628 6.4 Total 24.7 39.6 29.0 6.7 0.1 100.0 17,377 3.2 Note: Totals include a small number of cases missing information. 1 Completed Standard 7 or 8 16 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics School Attendance Rates Tables 2.5.1 and 2.5.2 present primary school and secondary school net and gross attendance ratios (NAR and GAR) for the school year that started in 2004 by household residence and zones. The NAR for primary school is the percentage of the primary-school-age (7-13 years) population that is attending primary school. The NAR for secondary school is the percentage of the secondary-school- age (14-19 years) population that is attending secondary school. By definition, the NAR cannot exceed 100 percent. The GAR for primary school is the total number of primary school students, of any age, expressed as a percentage of the official primary-school-age population. The GAR for secondary school is the total number of secondary school students, of any age, expressed as a percentage of the official secondary-school-age population. If there are significant numbers of over- age and under-age students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100 percent. Youth are considered to be attending school currently if they attended formal academic school at any point during the given school year. The gender parity index (GPI) measures the sex-related differences in school attendance rates and is calculated by dividing the GAR for females by the GAR for males. A GPI of 1 indicates parity or equality between the rates of participation for males and females. The closer the GPI is to 0, the greater is the gender disparity in favour of males, meaning that a higher proportion of males than females attends that level of schooling. A GPI greater than 1 indicates a gender disparity in favour of females. As illustrated in Table 2.5.1, 73 percent of the primary-school-age children (age 7-13) in Tanzania attend primary school. Females age 7-13 are slightly more likely than males to attend primary school (75 and 71 percent, respectively). There is a sizable urban-rural difference in the net attendance ratio: 85 percent of children in urban areas attend primary school, compared with 70 percent in rural areas. School-age children from the wealthiest households are also far more likely to attend primary school than those in the least wealthy households (88 and 58 percent, respectively). In Tanzania, a substantial proportion of primary school pupils fall outside the official age range for primary schooling: whereas the primary school NAR is 73 percent, the GAR is 102, indicating that for every 73 pupils age 7-13, there are 29 primary school pupils who are either younger than age 7 or older than age 13. The male GAR (104) slightly exceeds the female GAR (101), producing a GPI of 0.97. Regional differences in both net and gross attendance ratios are substantial. The primary school NAR ranges from a high of 90 percent in Kilimanjaro to a low of 47 percent in Tabora. A similar pattern exists for the primary school GAR, with the highest GAR in Kilimanjaro (122 percent) and the lowest in Tabora (65 percent). The NAR and GAR are extremely low at the secondary school level. Table 2.5.2 indicates that only 7 percent of the secondary-school-age population in Tanzania attend secondary school and just 9 percent of youth of any age attend secondary school. There is little difference between the NAR for secondary-school-age males and females (7 and 8 percent, respectively). The secondary school GPI is 0.98, indicating near gender parity at the secondary level (GAR of 9 for both males and females). Secondary-school-age youth in urban areas, however, are substantially more likely than their counterparts in rural areas to attend secondary school (19 and 3 percent, respectively). Perhaps most striking are the differences in the secondary school NAR across wealth quintiles. The secondary school NAR in the wealthiest households (23 percent) far exceeds that in the least wealthy households (0.4 percent), as well as households in the second, third, and fourth wealth quintiles (NAR of 1, 2, and 7 percent, respectively), suggesting that only youth from the most advantaged households have meaningful access to secondary schooling. Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 17 Table 2.5.1 School attendance ratios: primary school Primary school net attendance ratios (NAR) and gross attendance ratios (GAR) for the de jure household population by sex, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Background characteristic Male Female Total Male Female Total Gender parity index3 Residence Urban 84.8 85.7 85.2 115.8 110.4 113.0 0.95 Rural 67.4 72.4 69.8 100.9 98.0 99.5 0.97 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 71.0 75.4 73.2 103.8 100.6 102.2 0.97 Total urban 84.0 86.0 85.0 114.2 110.9 112.5 0.97 Dar es Salaam city 84.2 87.4 85.8 105.9 114.9 110.5 1.09 Other urban 83.9 85.5 84.7 117.4 109.4 113.2 0.93 Total rural 67.6 72.3 69.9 101.1 97.6 99.4 0.97 Zanzibar 68.8 74.1 71.4 105.8 107.5 106.6 1.02 Unguja 71.5 79.5 75.3 107.6 113.8 110.6 1.06 Pemba 63.8 65.0 64.4 102.6 96.8 99.7 0.94 Zone Western 62.0 65.0 63.5 97.6 91.6 94.7 0.94 Northern 79.7 82.1 80.8 111.4 108.0 109.8 0.97 Central 64.0 71.8 68.1 97.6 95.6 96.6 0.98 Southern highlands 67.8 71.6 69.7 94.2 94.7 94.5 1.01 Lake 71.9 79.0 75.4 107.2 105.9 106.6 0.99 Eastern 79.9 84.8 82.5 110.5 107.4 108.9 0.97 Southern 72.9 75.7 74.3 110.0 101.9 106.1 0.93 Region Dodoma 63.1 70.6 66.9 87.5 93.9 90.8 1.07 Arusha 72.0 76.9 74.4 97.5 97.6 97.5 1.00 Kilimanjaro 88.1 91.0 89.6 125.1 119.1 122.1 0.95 Tanga 85.1 85.3 85.1 118.1 112.0 115.5 0.95 Morogoro 77.7 83.9 81.1 112.8 102.3 106.9 0.91 Pwani 74.1 80.9 77.5 116.6 101.2 108.8 0.87 Dar es Salaam 84.2 87.4 85.8 105.9 114.9 110.5 1.09 Lindi 71.5 70.6 71.0 106.1 98.6 102.3 0.93 Mtwara 71.1 72.0 71.5 106.8 101.5 104.4 0.95 Ruvuma 76.1 82.2 79.3 116.5 104.4 110.2 0.90 Iringa 78.4 88.7 83.4 105.3 120.9 112.9 1.15 Mbeya 64.1 64.2 64.1 85.2 86.4 85.8 1.01 Singida 65.6 73.8 70.0 115.7 98.3 106.3 0.85 Tabora 50.4 44.1 47.4 72.6 57.0 65.1 0.79 Rukwa 62.0 66.7 64.5 99.6 81.3 89.8 0.82 Kigoma 75.0 72.9 74.0 117.9 111.2 114.8 0.94 Shinyanga 60.4 71.0 65.9 98.8 98.5 98.6 1.00 Kagera 66.9 76.0 72.1 103.5 101.0 102.1 0.98 Mwanza 69.7 79.9 74.2 103.9 111.3 107.2 1.07 Mara 83.8 82.6 83.2 120.5 102.4 112.1 0.85 Manyara 70.5 70.4 70.4 100.4 98.4 99.5 0.98 Zanzibar North 63.8 72.6 67.9 98.5 112.9 105.2 1.15 Zanzibar South 77.3 87.6 82.0 115.0 123.2 118.7 1.07 Town West 74.0 80.7 77.3 110.4 111.9 111.2 1.01 Pemba North 62.1 60.3 61.2 97.3 85.9 91.4 0.88 Pemba South 65.7 70.6 68.1 108.4 109.7 109.0 1.01 Wealth quintile Lowest 58.1 58.6 58.3 86.2 78.2 82.3 0.91 Second 62.6 69.1 65.7 97.7 93.8 95.8 0.96 Middle 71.3 75.5 73.3 107.3 104.4 105.9 0.97 Fourth 78.8 84.8 81.8 115.1 112.1 113.6 0.97 Highest 87.0 89.4 88.3 115.4 116.1 115.8 1.01 Total 70.9 75.4 73.1 103.9 100.8 102.3 0.97 1 The NAR for primary school is the percentage of the primary-school-age (7-13 years) population that is attending primary school. By definition the NAR cannot exceed 100 per- cent. 2 The GAR for primary school is the total number of primary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official primary-school-age population. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100 percent. 3 The gender parity index for primary school is the ratio of the primary school GAR for females to the GAR for males. 18 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.5.2 School attendance ratios: secondary school Secondary school net attendance ratios (NAR) and gross attendance ratios (GAR) for the de jure household population by sex, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Background characteristic Male Female Total Male Female Total Gender parity index3 Residence Urban 20.3 17.8 18.9 26.2 21.9 23.8 0.83 Rural 2.6 3.6 3.1 4.2 4.3 4.3 1.04 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 6.2 6.8 6.5 8.6 8.3 8.4 0.97 Total urban 19.4 16.5 17.8 25.0 20.2 22.3 0.81 Dar es Salaam city 27.0 14.3 19.8 30.3 21.4 25.3 0.71 Other urban 16.5 17.5 17.0 22.9 19.6 21.1 0.86 Total rural 2.2 3.1 2.7 3.6 3.7 3.6 1.04 Zanzibar 22.7 26.1 24.4 31.5 34.8 33.2 1.11 Unguja 25.6 30.4 28.0 36.0 39.9 38.0 1.11 Pemba 17.8 18.2 18.0 23.7 25.5 24.6 1.08 Zone Western 2.4 1.6 2.0 4.5 2.3 3.4 0.51 Northern 8.1 14.4 11.2 9.3 16.9 13.1 1.83 Central 2.8 3.0 2.9 5.0 3.3 4.2 0.67 Southern highlands 6.0 7.5 6.8 8.0 7.9 7.9 0.99 Lake 3.8 4.8 4.3 8.0 5.1 6.5 0.64 Eastern 16.3 11.3 13.6 17.9 15.6 16.7 0.87 Southern 6.0 6.5 6.2 8.9 8.0 8.5 0.90 Region Dodoma 2.1 3.4 2.8 4.7 3.4 4.1 0.73 Arusha 8.1 12.2 10.5 8.1 14.1 11.6 1.74 Kilimanjaro 10.8 23.8 17.1 14.6 26.9 20.6 1.85 Tanga 9.6 14.3 11.9 9.6 19.0 14.1 1.97 Morogoro 6.7 7.7 7.2 6.7 7.7 7.2 1.14 Pwani 4.4 6.4 5.3 4.4 7.9 6.0 1.81 Dar es Salaam 27.0 14.3 19.8 30.3 21.4 25.3 0.71 Lindi 6.1 5.7 5.9 8.7 6.9 7.8 0.79 Mtwara 2.4 2.5 2.5 4.6 2.5 3.6 0.56 Ruvuma 9.1 11.2 10.0 12.8 14.6 13.6 1.14 Iringa 13.5 11.4 12.4 13.5 11.4 12.4 0.85 Mbeya 3.8 7.1 5.5 7.5 8.0 7.8 1.06 Singida 3.6 2.4 3.1 5.3 3.2 4.3 0.61 Tabora 0.7 0.0 0.3 3.0 0.0 1.4 0.00 Rukwa 2.4 3.0 2.7 3.2 3.0 3.1 0.95 Kigoma 7.5 4.3 5.9 9.5 5.5 7.5 0.58 Shinyanga 0.0 0.8 0.4 2.2 1.6 1.9 0.76 Kagera 2.0 0.0 1.0 6.4 1.3 3.8 0.20 Mwanza 5.2 6.1 5.7 9.7 6.1 7.8 0.63 Mara 3.0 7.8 5.3 6.2 7.8 6.9 1.25 Manyara 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 2.1 0.96 Zanzibar North 8.0 22.7 15.8 16.0 32.6 24.8 2.04 Zanzibar South 26.1 30.9 28.3 34.2 31.8 33.1 0.93 Town West 33.2 33.8 33.5 45.3 45.2 45.2 1.00 Pemba North 22.5 20.0 21.2 28.5 25.3 26.9 0.89 Pemba South 12.4 15.8 14.0 18.2 25.9 21.8 1.42 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.5 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.3 0.5 0.53 Second 1.2 0.9 1.1 1.4 1.1 1.3 0.80 Middle 2.0 2.6 2.3 4.4 3.3 3.9 0.76 Fourth 5.9 7.6 6.7 8.5 8.4 8.5 0.98 Highest 25.1 20.9 22.7 32.9 26.1 28.9 0.79 Total 6.8 7.5 7.1 9.3 9.1 9.2 0.98 1 The NAR for secondary school is the percentage of the secondary-school-age (14-19 years) population that is attending secondary school. By definition the NAR cannot exceed 100 percent. 2 The GAR for secondary school is the total number of secondary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official secondary-school-age population. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100 percent. 3 The gender parity index for secondary school is the ratio of the secondary school GAR for females to the GAR for males. Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 19 Figure 2.2 illustrates age-specific attendance rates (i.e., the percentage of a given age cohort who attend school, regardless of the level attended [primary, secondary, or higher]). The figure shows a greater proportion of female than male youth attending school from age 6-9, roughly the same proportion of male and female youth age 10-13 attending school, and a higher proportion of male youth attending than female youth from age 14 onward. Attendance rates peak around age 11, with nearly 9 in 10 males and females attending school at that age. Figure 2.2 Age-Specific Attendance Rates 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 Age 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent Male Female TDHS 2004-05 Grade Repetition and Dropout Rates Repetition and dropout rates describe the flow of pupils through the system at the primary level. The repetition rates produced using data from the 2004-05 TDHS indicate the percentage of pupils who attended a particular grade during the school year that started in 2003, who again attended that same class during the following school year. The dropout rates show the percentage of pupils in a grade during the school year that started in 2003 who no longer attended school the following school year. Tables 2.6.1 and 2.6.2 present repetition and dropout rates by primary school class, according to pupils’ background characteristics. Tanzania is a country with an automatic promotion policy, where students are nearly always promoted to the next grade at the end of a given school year. Accordingly, the 2004-05 TDHS reveals the existence of few repeaters in primary school. Table 2.6.1 shows that the highest repetition rate is in Standard 1, with 5 percent of pupils repeating. Repetition rates in the remaining classes are less than 2 percent. There is no clear pattern of gender differences in repetition rates, nor is there a clear pattern by urban-rural residence. With the exception of standard 7, the dropout rate is extremely low in Tanzania, ranging from less than 1 to 3 percent in Standards 1 through 6. In Standard 7, the final year of the primary cycle, 64 percent of the pupils attending in the academic year starting in 2003 dropped out of school before the start of the following school year. It should be noted, however, that “dropout” is perhaps not the most accurate term for leaving school at the end of the primary school cycle, as some pupils leaving school likely would stay in school if offered a place at secondary school. 20 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.6.1 Grade repetition and dropout rates: repetition rates Repetition rates for the de jure household population age 5-24 years by school grade, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Standard Background characteristic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sex Male 4.7 1.6 1.5 0.6 0.9 1.1 1.3 Female 5.8 1.2 1.3 1.3 0.8 0.5 0.3 Residence Urban 6.1 1.3 1.0 1.8 0.5 1.9 0.0 Rural 5.0 1.4 1.5 0.6 0.9 0.2 1.3 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 5.2 1.4 1.4 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 Total urban 7.5 1.3 1.0 1.8 0.5 2.0 0.0 Dar es Salaam city (13.0) (3.8) (1.7) (0.0) * (2.2) (0.0) Other urban 5.8 0.3 0.8 2.4 0.7 1.9 0.0 Total rural 4.6 1.4 1.5 0.6 0.9 0.2 1.4 Zanzibar 4.3 1.0 0.8 1.4 1.2 1.1 0.3 Unguja 5.8 1.5 0.7 1.6 1.4 0.6 0.0 Pemba 1.7 0.0 0.8 0.9 0.8 2.4 1.2 Zone Western 5.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 Northern 6.3 3.3 3.6 1.5 2.2 0.8 2.0 Central 4.9 2.6 2.6 0.8 2.4 0.0 (0.0) Southern highlands 5.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 (2.0) Lake 2.2 0.2 0.3 0.0 1.0 1.2 0.9 Eastern 10.4 2.8 2.1 1.1 0.0 1.5 0.0 Southern 3.4 1.2 2.1 4.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 Wealth quintile Lowest 4.8 1.4 1.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 Second 6.1 0.8 2.0 0.8 0.7 0.8 1.7 Middle 4.0 2.6 1.1 0.0 1.2 0.1 0.0 Fourth 6.0 0.8 1.0 1.4 0.7 0.1 0.6 Highest 5.0 1.7 1.5 1.4 1.0 1.9 0.4 Total 5.2 1.4 1.4 1.0 0.8 0.8 0.8 Note: The repetition rate is the percentage of students in a given grade in the previous school year who are repeating that grade in the current school year. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Females are slightly more likely to drop out in Standard 7 than their male classmates (66 and 62 percent, respectively). About half of pupils in urban areas drop out of Standard 7 compared with three-fourths of pupils in rural areas. Most notably, nearly all pupils (92 percent) from the least wealthy households drop out during Standard 7 compared with less than half (48 percent) from the wealthiest households. Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 21 Table 2.6.2 Grade repetition and dropout rates: dropout rates Dropout rates for the de jure household population age 5-24 years by school grade, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Standard Background characteristic 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Sex Male 0.3 0.6 1.4 1.2 2.9 2.8 61.7 Female 0.6 0.8 1.2 2.2 2.5 2.0 66.2 Residence Urban 0.2 0.9 0.6 0.7 2.2 0.7 48.9 Rural 0.5 0.6 1.5 2.1 2.8 3.2 74.2 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 0.4 0.7 1.3 1.8 2.8 2.4 66.6 Total urban 0.1 0.9 0.6 0.8 2.2 0.6 52.0 Dar es Salaam city (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (3.0) * (0.0) 68.2 Other urban 0.2 1.2 0.8 0.0 1.6 1.0 45.1 Total rural 0.5 0.6 1.5 2.2 2.9 3.2 77.0 Zanzibar 0.8 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.7 2.6 3.9 Unguja 1.3 1.0 0.9 0.0 1.1 3.2 4.9 Pemba 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 0.0 1.1 1.6 Zone Western 0.8 1.0 1.4 2.0 3.1 1.6 78.3 Northern 0.7 0.4 2.4 0.4 2.1 4.5 56.5 Central 0.0 0.5 1.3 0.8 3.8 4.8 (89.7) Southern highlands 0.8 0.9 1.5 3.9 1.7 2.2 (64.7) Lake 0.0 0.7 0.9 0.9 2.0 1.3 57.7 Eastern 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.7 3.2 1.4 68.5 Southern 0.0 1.8 0.7 3.3 5.0 3.2 64.8 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.4 0.9 1.8 3.5 1.9 7.4 91.5 Second 0.6 1.0 0.9 1.2 3.1 2.2 87.6 Middle 0.4 1.0 1.6 1.5 4.7 4.1 72.4 Fourth 0.5 0.5 2.2 2.1 2.9 2.1 63.9 Highest 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.9 1.0 0.1 47.9 Total 0.4 0.7 1.3 1.7 2.7 2.4 64.0 Note: The dropout rate is the percentage of students in a given grade in the previous school year who are not attending school. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 2.5 HOUSEHOLD ENVIRONMENT Housing Characteristics The physical characteristics of households are important determinants of the health status of household members, especially children. They can also be used as indicators of the socioeconomic status of households. The 2004-05 TDHS respondents were asked about their household environment, including questions on access to electricity, the source of drinking water, type of sanitation facility, type of flooring, walls, and roof, and number of rooms in the dwelling. This information is summarized in Table 2.7. Only 11 percent of Tanzanian households have electricity, with a very large disparity between Mainland urban and rural households. On the Mainland, 38 percent of urban households have electricity, compared with just 1 percent of those in rural areas. In Zanzibar, 24 percent of households have electricity. 22 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.7 Household characteristics Percent distribution of households by household characteristics, according to residence, Tanzania 2004-05 Residence Mainland Household characteristic Urban Rural Total Zanzibar Total Electricity Yes 38.4 1.3 11.1 23.6 11.4 No 61.5 98.4 88.7 76.3 88.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source of drinking water Piped into dwelling/yard/plot 18.6 2.1 6.4 36.2 7.2 Public tap 15.5 16.8 16.5 34.1 16.9 Neighbor’s tap 32.8 3.5 11.2 9.5 11.2 Open well in dwelling/yard/plot 1.0 0.6 0.7 0.8 0.7 Open public well 5.2 28.5 22.4 15.9 22.2 Neighbor's open well 2.0 1.2 1.4 0.5 1.4 Protected well in dwelling/yard/plot 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.7 0.2 Protected public well 6.3 14.4 12.2 1.0 12.0 Neighbor's borehole 3.3 0.2 1.0 0.5 1.0 Spring 1.6 8.2 6.5 0.1 6.3 River, stream 1.6 17.7 13.5 0.0 13.1 Pond/lake/dam 3.1 5.8 5.1 0.1 4.9 Tanker truck 3.2 0.5 1.2 0.4 1.2 Water vendor 4.0 0.3 1.3 0.1 1.2 Other 1.5 0.1 0.5 0.0 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Time to water source Percentage <15 minutes 67.5 28.5 38.8 78.9 39.8 Median time to source 5.9 27.1 19.4 4.4 19.2 Sanitation facility Flush toilet 8.8 0.4 2.6 8.4 2.7 Traditional pit toilet 76.7 82.0 80.6 51.6 79.9 Ventilated improved pit latrine 12.1 0.9 3.8 7.9 3.9 No facility, bush, field 2.4 16.7 12.9 32.0 13.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Flooring material Earth, sand 28.7 89.1 73.2 43.0 72.4 Dung 0.2 0.6 0.5 0.3 0.5 Cement 69.8 10.1 25.8 56.0 26.6 Other 1.3 0.3 0.6 0.6 0.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Wall material Grass 0.2 1.3 1.0 0.7 1.0 Poles and mud 14.7 39.9 33.3 39.1 33.4 Sun dried bricks 19.3 36.4 31.9 1.6 31.1 Baked bricks 14.1 17.8 16.8 1.2 16.4 Cement bricks 50.8 3.0 15.6 37.3 16.1 Other 0.9 1.6 1.4 20.0 1.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Roof material Grass/leaves/mud 10.5 63.3 49.4 30.9 49.0 Iron sheets 86.9 36.3 49.6 65.9 50.0 Tiles/concrete/asbestos 2.4 0.1 0.7 3.2 0.8 Other 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Rooms for sleeping 1 room 41.3 26.8 30.6 19.4 30.3 2 rooms 29.0 40.1 37.2 36.3 37.1 3 rooms 19.2 19.5 19.4 32.1 19.8 4 rooms 6.4 8.6 8.0 7.9 8.0 5+ rooms 4.2 4.9 4.7 4.3 4.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households 2,492 6,990 9,483 252 9,735 Note: Percentages for electricity, source of drinking water, sanitation facility, roof material, and rooms for sleeping may not add to 100 because of missing cases (no more that 0.2 percent of cases in any category). Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 23 The source of drinking water is important because waterborne diseases including diarrhoea and dysentery are prevalent in Tanzania. Sources of water expected to be relatively free of these diseases are piped water, protected wells, and protected springs. Other sources such as unprotected wells, rivers or streams, ponds, lakes, or dams are more likely to carry disease-causing agents. Table 2.7 indicates that a majority of Tanzanian households have access to clean water sources (35 percent from piped water, 13 percent from a protected well, and 6 percent from a spring). Households in Zanzibar are more likely than those on the Mainland to have access to clean water. For example, 80 percent of households in Zanzibar use piped water compared with 34 percent in the Mainland. Forty percent of Tanzanian households are within 15 minutes of a water source, with the median time to a source of drinking water about 20 minutes. With regard to sanitation facilities, Table 2.7 shows that 80 percent of Tanzanian households are still using traditional pit toilets and only 3 percent use a modern flush toilet. In Zanzibar, one-third of households have no sanitation facilities at all, compared with 17 percent of households in rural areas and just 2 percent of households in urban areas on the Mainland. The type of material used for housing construction is an indicator of the economic status of the household as well as potential exposure to disease-causing agents. The most commonly used flooring materials are earth or sand (72 percent) or cement (27 percent). The predominant materials used for constructing walls in Tanzanian dwellings are poles and mud (33 percent) and sundried bricks (31 percent). About half of households use iron sheeting for roofing, while about half use grass, leaves, or mud. Crowded living conditions may affect health as well as the quality of life. Most Tanzanians live in dwellings with one or two rooms for sleeping (30 and 37 percent, respectively), though the number of bedrooms varies by place of residence. On the Mainland, about four in ten urban households have just one room for sleeping, compared with about one-quarter of rural Mainland households and one-fifth of Zanzibari households. Household Possessions The availability of durable consumer goods is a good indicator of a household’s socioeconomic status. Moreover, particular goods have specific benefits. For instance, having access to a radio or a television exposes household members to innovative ideas; a refrigerator prolongs the wholesomeness of foods; and a means of transport allows greater access to many services away from the local area. Table 2.8 shows the availability of selected consumer goods by residence. Nationally, the most commonly owned items are radios (58 percent), paraffin lamps (39 per- cent), and bicycles (38 percent). Only 9 percent of Tanzanian households own a telephone, 6 percent own a television, and just 4 percent own a refrigerator. On the Mainland, urban households are more likely than rural households to own each of the items with the exception of a bicycle. The vast majority of households in Zanzibar own a radio (80 percent) and more than half own a bicycle. Ownership of agricultural land is common in Tanzania, with nearly eight in ten households possessing land. Not surprisingly, rural households on the Mainland are much more likely than urban households to own agricultural land (93 and 42 percent, respectively). Almost half (48 percent) of households in Zanzibar report ownership of agricultural land. 24 | Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.8 Household possessions Percentage of households possessing various durable consumer goods and agricultural land, by residence, Tanzania 2004-05 Residence Mainland Type of possession Urban Rural Total Zanzibar Total Household effects Radio 75.5 51.6 57.8 80.4 58.4 Television 19.9 0.7 5.7 20.1 6.1 Telephone 27.5 2.3 8.9 23.2 9.3 Refrigerator 12.5 0.3 3.5 14.7 3.8 Paraffin lamp 63.0 30.3 38.9 45.3 39.0 Iron 45.6 14.7 22.8 26.3 22.9 Means of transport Bicycle 26.6 41.9 37.9 53.4 38.3 Motorcycle 1.9 0.5 0.9 8.7 1.1 Car/truck 4.6 0.5 1.6 2.0 1.6 Ownership of agricultural land 42.0 93.0 79.6 48.4 78.8 Number of households 2,492 6,990 9,483 252 9,735 Household Food Security The 2004-05 TDHS also included several questions related to household food security. The questions concerned the number of meals the household usually takes each day, the number of days in the week preceding the survey in which the household consumed meat, and how often the household had problems satisfying food needs in the year before the survey. Results are shown in Table 2.9. The data show that nearly two-thirds of households (64 percent) report usually having at least three meals per day, although a sizeable proportion (34 percent) have only two meals per day. The national averages are very close to those in both the Mainland and Zanzibar. However, on the Mainland, urban households are far more likely than those in rural areas to have three or more meals a day (81 and 58 percent, respectively). Meat consumption is not common in Tanzania. Half of the households interviewed reported that they had consumed no meat in the previous week, 20 percent took meat once, 16 percent took it twice, and only 13 percent had meat three or more times. A larger proportion of households in Zanzibar (65 percent) did not consume meat at all in the week preceding the survey, compared with rural and urban households on the Mainland (56 and 32 percent, respectively). When asked how often they have problems in meeting the food needs of the household, 42 percent of the households reported never having a problem in the year before the survey and just 4 percent reported always having a problem meeting their food needs. Eighteen percent of households say they often have a problem, 19 percent say they sometimes have a problem, and 17 percent say they seldom have a problem meeting the food needs of the household. Household Population and Housing Characteristics | 25 Table 2.9 Household food security Percentage of households by usual number of meals per day, number of days that meat was consumed during the last week, and frequency of problems satisfying food needs in the past year, according to residence, Tanzania 2004-05 Residence Mainland Food security characteristic Urban Rural Total Zanzibar Total Usual number of meals per day 1 meal 1.2 2.2 1.9 0.6 1.9 2 meals 17.9 39.7 34.0 32.9 33.9 3+ meals 80.8 58.0 64.0 66.5 64.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of days consumed meat in past week 0 32.4 56.2 50.0 65.0 50.3 1 20.2 20.5 20.4 18.4 20.4 2 21.9 13.7 15.8 10.2 15.7 3 12.2 6.1 7.7 3.2 7.6 4 4.9 1.8 2.6 1.5 2.5 5 1.7 0.5 0.8 0.4 0.8 6 0.9 0.3 0.5 0.2 0.5 7 5.7 0.5 1.9 0.8 1.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Frequency of problems satisfying food needs in past year Never 54.7 36.8 41.5 62.7 42.1 Seldom 15.0 17.4 16.7 13.1 16.6 Sometimes 14.6 20.5 19.0 13.9 18.8 Often 13.4 19.9 18.2 9.8 18.0 Always 2.3 5.2 4.4 0.5 4.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households 2,492 6,990 9,483 252 9,735 Note: Totals may not add to 100 because of a small number of missing cases. Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 27 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS AND THE STATUS OF WOMEN 3 The objective of this chapter is to provide a descriptive summary of the demographic and socioeconomic profile of respondents in the 2004-05 TDHS. This basic information on the character- istics of women and men interviewed in the survey is essential for the interpretation of findings presented later in the report and can provide an approximate indication of the representativeness of the survey. The chapter begins by describing basic background characteristics, including age, marital status, residential characteristics, and educational levels. Next, more detailed information on educa- tion, literacy, and exposure to mass media are provided. Data are then presented on employment, decisionmaking in households, and attitudes related to women’s status. 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS Table 3.1 presents the distributions of interviewed women age 15-49 and men age 15-49 by key background characteristics—age, marital status, and residence. Other characteristics presented are the distribution of these populations by region, education level, and religion. A total of 10,329 women and 2,635 men were interviewed. The composition of population for both sexes decreases with increasing age, reflecting, in part, the young age structure of the population of Tanzania. About 6 in 10 women and 5 in 10 men are currently married, and an additional 9 percent of women and 5 percent of men are in ‘informal’ unions. The proportion never married stands at only 23 percent among all women compared with 42 percent of men. The difference can be attributed to the older age at first marriage among males compared with females. Ten percent of women and 5 per- cent of men are divorced, separated, or widowed. The regional distribution of population shows no marked differences between sexes, with 28 percent of women and 27 percent of men reported to be living in urban areas. Ninety-seven percent of the nationally representative sample, for either sex, is from the Mainland. Nine percent of women and 10 percent of men reside in the capital city of Dar es Salaam. A sizable proportion of respondents are observed in Dar es Salaam, Mwanza, and Shinyanga regions, which are also the leading regions in population size as observed in the 2002 Population Census. Equally true, the low proportions of respondents in Zanzibar reflect the size of administrative areas in the Islands. About half of all respondents have completed primary education only. An additional one-fifth of all respondents have some basic (but incomplete) primary education. Only one in ten respondents (9 percent of women and 11 percent of men) have attained at least a secondary education. Women are more disadvantaged in terms of educational attainment, with more than twice as many women as men having no education. About three in ten respondents fall into each of the three main religious groups in Tanzania: Islam, Catholicism, and Protestantism. Only about one in ten Tanzanians report no religious affili- ation. 28 | Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women and men by selected background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Number of women Number of men Background characteristic Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Age 15-19 21.7 2,245 2,297 24.2 637 675 20-24 19.4 2,007 1,958 18.7 493 461 25-29 18.3 1,885 1,832 15.4 405 395 30-34 14.9 1,542 1,487 14.7 387 372 35-39 10.2 1,053 1,100 10.5 278 284 40-44 8.1 834 904 10.1 265 275 45-49 7.4 763 751 6.5 170 173 Marital status Never married 23.0 2,371 2,524 41.7 1,100 1,131 Married 58.5 6,041 6,042 48.0 1,264 1,264 Living together 8.8 910 744 5.2 136 115 Divorced/separated 7.2 740 766 4.7 124 113 Widowed 2.6 267 253 0.4 11 12 Residence Urban 28.4 2,935 2,513 27.2 716 601 Rural 71.6 7,394 7,816 72.8 1,919 2,034 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 97.0 10,016 8,117 97.0 2,556 2,096 Total urban 27.9 2,885 2,011 27.2 716 486 Dar es Salaam city 9.4 969 412 10.1 267 110 Other urban 18.6 1,916 1,599 17.1 450 376 Total rural 69.0 7,131 6,106 69.8 1,840 1,610 Zanzibar 3.0 313 2,212 3.0 79 539 Unguja 2.1 216 1,365 2.0 53 319 Pemba 0.9 97 847 1.0 26 220 Zone Western 18.2 1,880 1,376 17.8 468 337 Northern 14.5 1,496 1,494 13.7 362 354 Central 7.7 799 784 8.0 212 227 Southern highlands 13.9 1,440 1,136 13.6 358 293 Lake 18.1 1,865 1,226 17.0 448 292 Eastern 16.2 1,670 1,071 17.5 462 289 Southern 8.4 866 1,030 9.3 245 304 Region Dodoma 4.5 468 351 4.3 113 92 Arusha 3.8 391 402 3.1 82 86 Kilimanjaro 3.7 380 349 3.9 104 90 Tanga 4.2 431 358 3.6 94 76 Morogoro 4.3 449 325 4.8 127 93 Pwani 2.4 253 334 2.6 68 86 Dar es Salaam 9.4 969 412 10.1 267 110 Lindi 2.1 221 324 2.5 65 103 Mtwara 3.4 346 344 3.7 98 96 Ruvuma 2.9 299 362 3.1 83 105 Iringa 4.0 412 331 3.9 102 80 Mbeya 6.9 712 402 6.4 170 96 Singida 3.2 331 433 3.8 99 135 Tabora 5.0 520 485 4.8 127 122 Rukwa 3.1 316 403 3.3 87 117 Kigoma 4.8 499 414 4.8 127 95 Shinyanga 8.3 861 477 8.1 215 120 Kagera 5.3 545 376 4.6 122 82 Mwanza 9.1 939 435 8.7 229 105 Mara 3.7 381 415 3.7 98 105 Manyara 2.8 293 385 3.1 83 102 Zanzibar North 0.5 48 441 0.4 11 97 Zanzibar South 0.3 26 387 0.2 6 93 Town West 1.4 143 537 1.4 36 129 Pemba North 0.5 52 433 0.5 13 108 Pemba South 0.4 45 414 0.5 12 112 Education1 No education 24.2 2,503 2,532 11.8 312 325 Primary incomplete 18.0 1,855 1,940 24.5 646 692 Primary complete 49.2 5,086 4,440 52.4 1,381 1,226 Secondary+ 8.6 885 1,417 11.2 296 392 Religion Muslim 30.0 3,095 4,578 30.3 798 1,161 Catholic 28.5 2,944 2,445 28.7 755 639 Protestant 29.0 3,000 2,373 28.0 739 580 None 12.4 1,284 929 13.0 342 254 Other 0.0 3 2 0.0 1 1 Total 100.0 10,329 10,329 100.0 2,635 2,635 Note: The total includes two women for whom information on religion is missing. 1 Primary complete includes those who attended post-primary training. Secondary+ includes those who attended or completed secondary in addition to those with higher levels of education. Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 29 3.2 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Education provides people with the knowledge and skills that can lead them to a better quality of life. Education is correlated with the health of mothers and their children, and with reproductive behaviour. Tables 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 provide an overview of the relationship between the respondent’s level of education and other background characteristics. Fifty-eight percent of women and 64 percent of men have completed primary school. These proportions are slightly higher than those estimated from the 1996 TDHS and the 1999 TRCHS, but slightly lower than in the THIS. Increasing age is generally associated with lower levels of education, particularly for women. Most disadvantaged are the oldest women (age 45-59), of whom more than half have no education. Educational differentials are also found by residence. The rural-urban differentials, as expected, show wide variation. Among urban women, 9 percent have had no education, compared with 30 percent among rural women. Among urban men, negligible proportions (3 percent) have had no education, compared with 15 percent among rural men. More than one-fifth of urban women and more than a quarter of urban men have attended secondary education, compared with less than 6 per- cent of men and 3 percent of women in rural areas (this may, in part, reflect the predominantly urban locations of secondary and tertiary learning institutions). Though 33 percent of men and 24 percent of women in Dar es Salaam city have attended at least some secondary education, approximately 4 in 10 of both women and men living in the Islands of Zanzibar have some secondary education. There are also significant differentials among administrative regions. The median years of schooling, indicating the number of years spent in school by half the population, shows no great variations among regions. Differences are found in few regions, namely Tabora and for women, Rukwa, reflecting the high proportions with no education. As expected, for both men and women, educational attainment increases with economic status as reflected by wealth quintiles. Literacy The ability to read and write is an important personal asset, allowing women and men increased opportunities in life. Knowing the distribution of the literate population can help program managers, especially for health and family planning, know how to reach women and men with their messages. In the 2004-05 TDHS, information on the ability to read was collected from each individual who had less than post-primary training or a secondary education. The respondents were asked to read from a card containing sentences such as the following: 1 Children should go to school. 2 Today is a sunny day. 3 Birds fly in the sky. 4 The child is reading a book. 5 The rains came late this year. These sentences were translated into Kiswahili to test respondents on their reading proficiency. A person was defined as literate if— 1 He/she had some post-primary training or secondary education. 2 He/she was able to read all or part of a sentence in Kiswahili, English, or both. 30 | Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment by background characteristics: women Percent distribution of women by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median number of years of schooling, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Highest level of schooling attended or completed Background characteristic No education Some primary Completed primary Secondary+ Total Number of women Median years of schooling Age 15-19 20.7 26.4 41.5 11.4 100.0 2,245 6.1 20-24 23.0 15.3 51.7 10.1 100.0 2,007 6.2 25-29 18.2 14.2 58.4 9.2 100.0 1,885 6.3 30-34 19.3 14.7 57.3 8.7 100.0 1,542 6.3 35-39 22.7 14.5 57.7 5.2 100.0 1,053 6.2 40-44 34.1 16.4 44.6 4.9 100.0 834 5.8 45-49 54.4 22.5 20.1 3.0 100.0 763 0.0 Residence Urban 9.3 14.3 54.9 21.5 100.0 2,935 6.5 Rural 30.2 19.4 47.0 3.4 100.0 7,394 6.0 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 24.3 17.9 50.2 7.5 100.0 10,016 6.2 Total urban 9.5 14.4 56.6 19.6 100.0 2,885 6.5 Dar es Salaam city 7.6 12.0 56.9 23.6 100.0 969 6.6 Other urban 10.4 15.6 56.4 17.6 100.0 1,916 6.4 Total rural 30.4 19.4 47.7 2.6 100.0 7,131 6.0 Zanzibar 20.9 19.0 17.6 42.5 100.0 313 6.8 Unguja 15.7 16.6 19.4 48.2 100.0 216 7.5 Pemba 32.4 24.1 13.6 29.8 100.0 97 4.9 Zone Western 33.0 19.6 44.6 2.8 100.0 1,880 5.2 Northern 19.1 15.1 54.0 11.8 100.0 1,496 6.3 Central 29.0 17.5 49.8 3.8 100.0 799 6.1 Southern highlands 30.4 18.5 45.8 5.3 100.0 1,440 6.0 Lake 22.8 19.7 52.5 5.0 100.0 1,865 6.1 Eastern 14.7 13.8 55.2 16.3 100.0 1,670 6.4 Southern 22.0 22.9 49.2 5.9 100.0 866 6.1 Region Dodoma 29.6 16.6 50.7 3.1 100.0 468 6.1 Arusha 18.8 10.0 54.2 17.0 100.0 391 6.4 Kilimanjaro 3.9 15.0 64.9 16.2 100.0 380 6.5 Tanga 24.1 19.6 47.6 8.7 100.0 431 6.1 Morogoro 24.6 17.3 50.3 7.8 100.0 449 6.2 Pwani 24.6 14.4 57.7 3.3 100.0 253 6.2 Dar es Salaam 7.6 12.0 56.9 23.6 100.0 969 6.6 Lindi 25.4 21.8 48.2 4.5 100.0 221 6.1 Mtwara 28.5 26.1 42.9 2.5 100.0 346 5.3 Ruvuma 12.1 19.9 57.2 10.8 100.0 299 6.3 Iringa 18.4 17.4 57.5 6.6 100.0 412 6.3 Mbeya 30.9 19.1 45.4 4.6 100.0 712 6.0 Singida 28.1 18.8 48.5 4.6 100.0 331 6.1 Tabora 43.7 18.6 34.9 2.7 100.0 520 2.7 Rukwa 45.0 18.5 31.4 5.1 100.0 316 2.1 Kigoma 24.5 21.7 50.0 3.8 100.0 499 6.1 Shinyanga 31.5 19.0 47.2 2.3 100.0 861 5.9 Kagera 26.5 17.0 54.3 2.2 100.0 545 6.1 Mwanza 23.1 21.0 50.4 5.5 100.0 939 6.1 Mara 16.8 20.3 54.9 8.0 100.0 381 6.2 Manyara 31.8 15.1 49.3 3.8 100.0 293 6.1 Zanzibar North 34.0 21.2 13.5 31.4 100.0 48 5.2 Zanzibar South 12.4 24.2 20.8 42.6 100.0 26 7.0 Town West 10.2 13.7 21.2 54.9 100.0 143 9.0 Pemba North 39.6 20.2 12.6 27.6 100.0 52 4.3 Pemba South 24.2 28.6 14.8 32.4 100.0 45 5.5 Wealth quintile Lowest 45.6 20.6 33.1 0.6 100.0 1,840 1.9 Second 37.4 21.4 40.7 0.4 100.0 1,944 3.7 Middle 26.3 20.2 51.4 2.1 100.0 1,943 6.1 Fourth 13.7 19.3 60.9 6.1 100.0 2,004 6.3 Highest 5.8 10.8 56.4 27.0 100.0 2,597 6.6 Total 24.2 18.0 49.2 8.6 100.0 10,329 6.2 1 Completed Standard 7 at the primary level and/or attended post-primary training Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 31 Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment by background characteristics: men Percent distribution of men by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median number of years of schooling, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Highest level of schooling attended or completed Background characteristic No education Some primary Completed primary Secondary+ Total Number of men Median years of schooling Age 15-19 9.8 43.5 36.5 10.2 100.0 637 5.5 20-24 12.0 20.9 55.0 12.1 100.0 493 6.3 25-29 14.2 15.1 57.8 12.8 100.0 405 6.4 30-34 11.6 20.3 58.7 9.4 100.0 387 6.3 35-39 8.7 12.3 62.9 16.1 100.0 278 6.5 40-44 12.1 17.8 62.5 7.7 100.0 265 6.3 45-49 18.5 26.6 44.3 10.6 100.0 170 6.1 Residence Urban 3.0 16.7 53.6 26.6 100.0 716 6.6 Rural 15.1 27.4 51.9 5.5 100.0 1,919 6.1 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 11.9 24.4 53.3 10.3 100.0 2,556 6.3 Total urban 2.9 16.3 55.5 25.4 100.0 716 6.6 Dar es Salaam city 0.7 11.6 54.3 33.3 100.0 267 6.7 Other urban 4.1 19.0 56.2 20.7 100.0 450 6.5 Total rural 15.5 27.6 52.5 4.5 100.0 1,840 6.1 Zanzibar 9.1 27.9 22.5 40.5 100.0 79 6.5 Unguja 5.8 20.9 27.2 46.1 100.0 53 6.8 Pemba 15.8 42.3 13.0 28.9 100.0 26 4.9 Zone Western 17.6 27.7 50.6 4.2 100.0 468 6.1 Northern 9.8 20.6 56.9 12.7 100.0 362 6.4 Central 17.2 24.9 55.0 2.9 100.0 212 6.1 Southern highlands 14.1 20.4 57.1 8.5 100.0 358 6.3 Lake 9.9 32.3 50.1 7.6 100.0 448 6.1 Eastern 6.3 16.3 54.5 22.9 100.0 462 6.5 Southern 11.1 30.0 49.9 9.0 100.0 245 6.2 Region Dodoma 17.3 26.5 54.5 1.7 100.0 113 6.1 Arusha 15.5 10.9 59.2 14.3 100.0 82 6.4 Kilimanjaro 2.4 9.9 69.5 18.2 100.0 104 6.6 Tanga 13.1 27.9 45.7 13.3 100.0 94 6.2 Morogoro 11.1 21.7 57.5 9.7 100.0 127 6.3 Pwani 18.9 24.5 49.8 6.8 100.0 68 6.1 Dar es Salaam 0.7 11.6 54.3 33.3 100.0 267 6.7 Lindi 16.2 28.6 46.4 8.8 100.0 65 6.1 Mtwara 14.0 37.9 45.2 3.0 100.0 98 5.3 Ruvuma 3.7 21.7 58.3 16.3 100.0 83 6.4 Iringa 8.0 17.5 66.8 7.7 100.0 102 6.4 Mbeya 18.2 16.5 57.8 7.5 100.0 170 6.3 Singida 17.0 23.2 55.5 4.3 100.0 99 6.2 Tabora 36.6 26.3 31.0 6.2 100.0 127 2.9 Rukwa 13.1 31.4 44.3 11.2 100.0 87 6.1 Kigoma 8.9 41.6 46.9 2.5 100.0 127 6.0 Shinyanga 11.4 20.2 64.4 3.9 100.0 215 6.3 Kagera 16.6 25.3 53.3 4.8 100.0 122 6.2 Mwanza 8.1 38.1 43.9 9.8 100.0 229 6.1 Mara 5.9 27.6 60.6 6.0 100.0 98 6.3 Manyara 9.4 35.5 51.7 3.4 100.0 83 6.1 Zanzibar North 15.4 46.8 16.9 21.0 100.0 11 4.9 Zanzibar South 4.1 19.4 27.1 49.4 100.0 6 6.7 Town West 3.2 13.1 30.4 53.3 100.0 36 7.2 Pemba North 18.5 36.0 15.7 29.9 100.0 13 5.5 Pemba South 12.9 49.2 10.1 27.8 100.0 12 4.7 Wealth quintile Lowest 28.0 34.4 36.7 1.0 100.0 484 3.6 Second 16.5 31.1 51.1 1.3 100.0 504 6.0 Middle 9.2 29.0 57.7 4.2 100.0 516 6.2 Fourth 7.4 20.1 63.2 9.3 100.0 517 6.4 Highest 1.3 11.4 52.4 35.0 100.0 615 6.7 Total 11.8 24.5 52.4 11.2 100.0 2,635 6.3 Tables 3.3.1 and 3.3.2 show the literacy levels by background characteristics of respondents. Two-thirds of women and 80 percent of men are reported to be literate. These rates have not changed since the last assessment of literacy in the 1999 TRCHS, which registered 64 percent literacy among women and 78 percent among men. Illiteracy, expressed as the proportion of those who cannot read at all, is observed to increase directly with age among women age 30 and older. The association between age and literacy for men is not as strong. 32 | Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women Table 3.3.1 Literacy: women Percent distribution of women by level of schooling attended and by level of literacy, and percent literate, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 No schooling or primary school Background characteristic Post- primary, secondary school, or higher Can read a whole sentence Can read part of a sentence Cannot read at all No card with required language/ blind Missing Total Number of women Percent literate1 Age 15-19 12.7 53.4 4.5 29.4 0.0 0.1 100.0 2,245 70.5 20-24 11.1 51.3 4.2 33.2 0.1 0.1 100.0 2,007 66.6 25-29 10.6 57.2 4.6 27.5 0.0 0.2 100.0 1,885 72.4 30-34 9.6 55.3 6.2 28.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,542 71.1 35-39 6.3 57.8 5.5 30.1 0.3 0.0 100.0 1,053 69.6 40-44 7.4 45.9 7.2 39.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 834 60.5 45-49 4.8 33.0 5.5 56.4 0.3 0.0 100.0 763 43.3 Residence Urban 24.2 56.7 4.0 15.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 2,935 84.9 Rural 4.2 50.6 5.6 39.6 0.1 0.0 100.0 7,394 60.3 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 8.8 53.0 5.1 32.9 0.1 0.1 100.0 10,016 67.0 Total urban 22.4 58.2 4.0 15.3 0.0 0.1 100.0 2,885 84.6 Dar es Salaam city 26.6 56.9 3.9 12.6 0.0 0.0 100.0 969 87.4 Other urban 20.2 58.8 4.1 16.7 0.0 0.1 100.0 1,916 83.2 Total rural 3.4 50.9 5.5 40.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 7,131 59.8 Zanzibar 42.6 29.1 5.2 22.9 0.0 0.2 100.0 313 76.8 Unguja 48.3 30.0 5.0 16.5 0.0 0.2 100.0 216 83.2 Pemba 29.9 27.1 5.5 37.3 0.0 0.2 100.0 97 62.5 Zone Western 2.9 48.5 3.9 44.7 0.0 0.1 100.0 1,880 55.2 Northern 15.5 56.5 3.3 24.6 0.1 0.1 100.0 1,496 75.2 Central 5.1 54.3 5.1 35.3 0.2 0.0 100.0 799 64.5 Southern highlands 5.9 48.2 6.4 39.3 0.0 0.2 100.0 1,440 60.5 Lake 5.8 54.1 7.4 32.5 0.2 0.0 100.0 1,865 67.3 Eastern 18.5 55.9 5.4 20.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,670 79.8 Southern 6.9 55.7 3.2 34.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 866 65.7 Region Dodoma 4.5 55.3 6.4 33.5 0.3 0.0 100.0 468 66.2 Arusha 23.3 51.4 1.1 24.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 391 75.9 Kilimanjaro 21.2 68.7 1.7 8.1 0.3 0.0 100.0 380 91.6 Tanga 10.1 53.3 4.5 31.8 0.0 0.3 100.0 431 67.9 Morogoro 9.5 51.4 6.6 32.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 449 67.5 Pwani 3.6 59.8 9.0 27.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 253 72.5 Dar es Salaam 26.6 56.9 3.9 12.6 0.0 0.0 100.0 969 87.4 Lindi 6.0 56.8 2.4 34.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 221 65.2 Mtwara 2.5 51.9 4.3 41.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 346 58.7 Ruvuma 12.5 59.2 2.5 25.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 299 74.3 Iringa 7.9 59.2 3.5 28.7 0.0 0.8 100.0 412 70.5 Mbeya 4.8 46.3 9.4 39.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 712 60.5 Singida 5.8 53.0 3.2 38.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 331 62.0 Tabora 2.7 38.9 4.9 53.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 520 46.5 Rukwa 5.5 38.4 3.5 52.6 0.0 0.0 100.0 316 47.4 Kigoma 4.0 55.0 5.8 35.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 499 64.8 Shinyanga 2.3 50.5 2.2 44.8 0.0 0.2 100.0 861 55.0 Kagera 3.1 56.3 7.2 33.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 545 66.6 Mwanza 6.2 54.7 7.2 31.6 0.3 0.0 100.0 939 68.1 Mara 8.6 49.4 8.2 33.5 0.3 0.0 100.0 381 66.2 Manyara 5.5 52.1 6.3 36.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 293 63.9 Zanzibar North 31.4 27.4 4.8 36.0 0.2 0.2 100.0 48 63.6 Zanzibar South 42.9 30.6 8.1 17.9 0.0 0.5 100.0 26 81.6 Town West 54.9 30.7 4.5 9.8 0.0 0.2 100.0 143 90.0 Pemba North 27.8 23.5 4.6 43.8 0.0 0.3 100.0 52 55.9 Pemba South 32.4 31.2 6.6 29.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 45 70.1 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.8 36.5 5.8 56.8 0.1 0.0 100.0 1,840 43.1 Second 0.6 45.0 6.6 47.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,944 52.2 Middle 2.6 56.1 5.3 35.6 0.2 0.2 100.0 1,943 64.0 Fourth 7.5 66.2 5.2 21.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 2,004 78.9 Highest 30.5 55.4 3.3 10.7 0.0 0.1 100.0 2,597 89.2 Total 9.9 52.3 5.1 32.6 0.1 0.1 100.0 10,329 67.3 1 Refers to women who attended at least post-primary training, secondary school or higher, and women who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 33 Table 3.3.2 Literacy: men Percent distribution of men by level of schooling attended and by level of literacy, and percent literate, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 No schooling or primary school Background characteristic Post- primary, secondary school, or higher Can read a whole sentence Can read part of a sentence Cannot read at all No card with required language/ blind Total Number of men Percent literate1 Age 15-19 11.0 66.3 4.8 17.9 0.0 100.0 637 82.1 20-24 14.0 57.3 5.7 23.0 0.0 100.0 493 77.0 25-29 16.1 57.8 3.4 22.4 0.3 100.0 405 77.3 30-34 14.4 59.2 5.5 20.9 0.0 100.0 387 79.1 35-39 21.6 59.1 1.2 18.1 0.0 100.0 278 81.9 40-44 12.6 66.0 1.4 20.0 0.0 100.0 265 80.0 45-49 13.1 68.0 6.0 12.9 0.0 100.0 170 87.1 Residence Urban 32.5 57.2 2.4 7.9 0.0 100.0 716 92.1 Rural 7.4 63.2 4.9 24.4 0.1 100.0 1,919 75.5 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 13.4 62.2 4.2 20.1 0.1 100.0 2,556 79.9 Total urban 31.3 58.3 2.3 8.1 0.0 100.0 716 91.9 Dar es Salaam city 40.1 52.9 1.6 5.5 0.0 100.0 267 94.5 Other urban 26.0 61.6 2.8 9.6 0.0 100.0 450 90.4 Total rural 6.5 63.8 4.9 24.8 0.1 100.0 1,840 75.2 Zanzibar 40.9 40.5 4.6 14.0 0.0 100.0 79 86.0 Unguja 46.7 41.7 0.4 11.2 0.0 100.0 53 88.8 Pemba 28.9 38.1 13.3 19.7 0.0 100.0 26 80.3 Zone Western 5.6 65.4 4.4 24.7 0.0 100.0 468 75.3 Northern 19.0 59.5 6.5 14.6 0.4 100.0 362 85.0 Central 5.0 61.4 15.4 18.2 0.0 100.0 212 81.8 Southern highlands 11.2 64.8 3.8 20.1 0.0 100.0 358 79.9 Lake 8.5 62.2 0.6 28.8 0.0 100.0 448 71.2 Eastern 27.3 61.2 1.8 9.7 0.0 100.0 462 90.3 Southern 13.6 59.4 2.2 24.8 0.0 100.0 245 75.2 Region Dodoma 3.6 65.3 13.1 18.0 0.0 100.0 113 82.0 Arusha 24.4 59.5 0.0 16.0 0.0 100.0 82 84.0 Kilimanjaro 26.0 57.5 10.3 6.1 0.0 100.0 104 93.9 Tanga 17.1 54.5 13.1 13.9 1.4 100.0 94 84.7 Morogoro 11.6 76.5 1.2 10.7 0.0 100.0 127 89.3 Pwani 6.8 64.9 4.0 24.3 0.0 100.0 68 75.7 Dar es Salaam 40.1 52.9 1.6 5.5 0.0 100.0 267 94.5 Lindi 17.3 51.0 2.9 28.8 0.0 100.0 65 71.2 Mtwara 6.0 59.2 3.2 31.6 0.0 100.0 98 68.4 Ruvuma 19.6 66.3 0.5 13.5 0.0 100.0 83 86.5 Iringa 8.9 77.8 2.5 10.9 0.0 100.0 102 89.1 Mbeya 11.1 57.8 5.7 25.3 0.0 100.0 170 74.7 Singida 6.5 57.1 18.1 18.3 0.0 100.0 99 81.7 Tabora 6.2 56.1 1.6 36.2 0.0 100.0 127 63.8 Rukwa 14.1 63.3 1.8 20.8 0.0 100.0 87 79.2 Kigoma 4.9 66.3 4.8 24.1 0.0 100.0 127 75.9 Shinyanga 5.7 70.3 5.8 18.2 0.0 100.0 215 81.8 Kagera 6.2 59.0 0.0 34.8 0.0 100.0 122 65.2 Mwanza 9.8 62.8 0.0 27.3 0.0 100.0 229 72.7 Mara 8.0 64.7 2.8 24.6 0.0 100.0 98 75.4 Manyara 6.8 67.6 0.9 24.7 0.0 100.0 83 75.3 Zanzibar North 21.0 52.8 0.9 25.3 0.0 100.0 11 74.7 Zanzibar South 49.4 39.1 2.2 9.4 0.0 100.0 6 90.6 Town West 54.1 38.7 0.0 7.2 0.0 100.0 36 92.8 Pemba North 29.9 36.5 12.7 21.0 0.0 100.0 13 79.0 Pemba South 27.8 39.8 14.0 18.4 0.0 100.0 12 81.6 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.9 52.9 4.5 40.3 0.3 100.0 484 59.4 Second 2.2 65.8 6.2 25.8 0.0 100.0 504 74.2 Middle 6.0 67.2 6.1 20.7 0.0 100.0 516 79.3 Fourth 12.7 72.7 2.4 12.2 0.0 100.0 517 87.8 Highest 42.1 50.9 2.2 4.8 0.0 100.0 615 95.2 Total 14.2 61.6 4.2 19.9 0.1 100.0 2,635 80.0 1 Refers to men who attended at least post-primary training, secondary school or higher, and men who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence 34 | Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women Literacy rates for women and men are 85 and 92 percent, respectively, in urban areas compared with 60 and 76 percent, respectively, in rural areas. By administrative regions, Kilimanjaro, Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar South, and Town West have literacy levels exceeding eight in ten for women and nine in ten for men. Literacy increases directly with wealth for both women and men. 3.3 ACCESS TO MASS MEDIA The 2004-05 TDHS collected information on the exposure of respondents to various common print and electronic media. Respondents were asked how often they read a newspaper, listen to the radio, or watch television in a week. This information is useful in determining the media channels to use in disseminating health information to targeted audiences. Findings of the survey, given in Tables 3.4.1 and 3.4.2, indicate that about one-third of women and 17 percent of men are not exposed to any type of media. However, 62 percent of women and 80 percent of men listen to the radio, the most common type of mass media in Tanzania, at least once a week. One-fifth of women read a newspaper, and 17 percent watch television once a week. Respective rates for men are 36 and 25 percent. Nine percent of women and 16 percent of men have exposure to all three media types. This indicates a significant increase in mass media exposure over the last five years. According to the 1999 TRCHS, just 1 percent of women and 4 percent of men had weekly exposure to all three types of media. As expected, women and men living in urban areas are more likely than those living in rural areas to be exposed to mass media. A quarter of urban women are exposed to all forms of media as are 42 percent of urban men. Respective proportions for rural dwellers are 2 of women and 7 percent of men. The main media source accessed by urban respondents is the radio: 80 percent of urban women and 89 percent of urban men listen to the radio at least once a week. Television is the least popular media, although there are higher proportions of viewers in urban areas than in rural areas. Geographically, exposure to all forms of media is highest in the Eastern zone. There is also a positive relationship between levels of education and wealth and exposure to mass media. Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 35 Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: women Percentage of women who usually read a newspaper at least once a week, watch television at least once a week, and listen to the radio at least once a week, by background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week All three media No media Number of women Age 15-19 23.8 23.2 61.1 10.5 32.3 2,245 20-24 21.8 19.5 65.2 10.3 30.9 2,007 25-29 23.8 17.6 64.9 10.6 30.9 1,885 30-34 20.0 14.5 64.2 7.7 31.4 1,542 35-39 16.7 13.0 60.0 7.0 37.3 1,053 40-44 15.7 11.3 57.3 6.3 39.7 834 45-49 11.0 8.3 56.4 4.1 41.5 763 Residence Urban 42.8 45.8 80.2 25.9 12.1 2,935 Rural 11.7 5.7 55.2 2.1 41.9 7,394 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 20.5 16.4 61.6 8.7 34.1 10,016 Total urban 43.2 44.4 79.8 25.8 12.7 2,885 Dar es Salaam city 51.5 63.3 78.6 37.2 8.8 969 Other urban 39.0 34.9 80.4 20.0 14.7 1,916 Total rural 11.3 5.1 54.2 1.9 42.8 7,131 Zanzibar 21.8 37.4 84.8 13.9 11.6 313 Unguja 27.3 48.9 90.0 18.6 5.5 216 Pemba 9.8 11.9 73.3 3.4 25.0 97 Zone Western 13.3 8.6 55.4 3.9 40.9 1,880 Northern 26.3 18.7 68.8 9.1 26.3 1,496 Central 7.6 5.8 38.1 2.0 58.7 799 Southern highlands 21.8 12.5 55.4 6.5 39.7 1,440 Lake 15.0 8.8 64.5 4.9 33.1 1,865 Eastern 35.3 42.5 73.8 24.2 18.8 1,670 Southern 18.9 11.7 64.6 7.1 32.9 866 Region Dodoma 10.7 6.7 42.4 2.4 53.1 468 Arusha 23.2 27.4 78.7 12.6 20.0 391 Kilimanjaro 34.4 22.2 68.8 11.6 23.2 380 Tanga 33.0 13.8 68.2 8.0 25.1 431 Morogoro 15.8 16.9 66.9 8.1 32.4 449 Pwani 7.9 8.2 67.4 3.1 32.6 253 Dar es Salaam 51.5 63.3 78.6 37.2 8.8 969 Lindi 19.9 14.9 70.7 8.6 26.1 221 Mtwara 14.9 5.2 56.8 3.6 41.2 346 Ruvuma 22.6 17.1 69.1 9.9 28.1 299 Iringa 25.1 12.9 66.1 7.3 28.5 412 Mbeya 22.4 12.2 55.0 5.7 40.3 712 Singida 3.2 4.5 32.0 1.4 66.7 331 Tabora 12.5 9.4 51.2 5.5 47.0 520 Rukwa 16.0 12.4 42.7 7.2 52.7 316 Kigoma 17.9 10.5 50.8 3.6 41.4 499 Shinyanga 11.1 7.0 60.6 3.2 37.0 861 Kagera 8.7 0.8 56.1 0.5 42.8 545 Mwanza 15.6 10.9 69.4 5.6 27.8 939 Mara 22.4 15.2 64.2 9.4 32.0 381 Manyara 10.3 9.9 56.2 3.0 40.1 293 Zanzibar North 10.8 11.2 88.0 2.4 11.8 48 Zanzibar South 19.8 33.0 93.3 9.1 5.2 26 Town West 34.1 64.3 90.0 25.8 3.5 143 Pemba North 6.4 8.3 67.4 1.8 31.0 52 Pemba South 13.6 16.0 80.2 5.3 18.2 45 Education No education 0.5 3.5 44.4 0.0 55.0 2,503 Primary incomplete 13.2 11.7 57.8 4.1 38.3 1,855 Primary complete 26.3 18.0 68.4 9.4 26.0 5,086 Secondary+ 59.1 60.9 86.8 41.1 4.9 885 Wealth quintile Lowest 4.9 1.5 26.3 0.3 71.2 1,840 Second 7.6 3.4 56.0 1.2 41.6 1,944 Middle 11.5 4.3 60.1 1.4 37.1 1,943 Fourth 23.0 10.2 74.7 4.6 20.7 2,004 Highest 46.1 53.1 84.5 29.7 7.6 2,597 Total 20.5 17.1 62.3 8.9 33.4 10,329 36 | Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: men Percentage of men who usually read a newspaper at least once a week, watch television at least once a week, and listen to the radio at least once a week, by background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week All three media No media Number of men Age 15-19 33.0 26.3 75.9 14.3 18.5 637 20-24 38.5 26.4 78.8 16.9 18.2 493 25-29 38.2 30.3 86.3 20.6 11.7 405 30-34 38.6 24.8 83.5 16.5 13.0 387 35-39 37.1 24.4 79.9 18.4 17.3 278 40-44 32.6 19.7 73.6 11.8 20.8 265 45-49 32.0 18.3 83.4 13.8 15.2 170 Residence Urban 60.5 59.6 88.9 42.4 7.0 716 Rural 26.8 12.5 76.5 6.5 20.0 1,919 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 35.9 24.4 79.6 15.9 16.8 2,556 Total urban 59.8 57.6 88.9 41.6 7.2 716 Dar es Salaam city 67.9 62.4 88.1 48.0 7.4 267 Other urban 55.0 54.8 89.4 37.8 7.1 450 Total rural 26.6 11.5 76.0 5.9 20.5 1,840 Zanzibar 38.1 54.1 86.4 25.5 7.0 79 Unguja 41.8 65.5 88.9 32.0 4.3 53 Pemba 30.3 30.8 81.2 12.2 12.5 26 Zone Western 26.9 14.7 81.0 9.9 18.4 468 Northern 44.1 28.5 84.3 17.0 10.9 362 Central 32.0 17.9 73.2 12.5 25.4 212 Southern highlands 32.0 17.6 83.8 10.7 12.5 358 Lake 39.6 18.9 76.4 13.7 17.9 448 Eastern 50.4 47.1 79.6 33.4 15.3 462 Southern 16.2 20.0 75.7 7.8 21.9 245 Region Dodoma 39.5 22.3 79.0 17.9 21.0 113 Arusha 44.5 54.1 90.7 30.2 6.8 82 Kilimanjaro 39.1 17.5 81.4 14.0 16.1 104 Tanga 52.5 21.5 80.5 13.3 12.7 94 Morogoro 33.2 32.4 74.0 18.6 19.1 127 Pwani 14.2 14.9 57.0 3.5 38.8 68 Dar es Salaam 67.9 62.4 88.1 48.0 7.4 267 Lindi 12.2 31.9 83.7 9.6 12.1 65 Mtwara 9.0 10.2 69.9 3.1 29.0 98 Ruvuma 27.9 22.2 76.2 11.8 21.2 83 Iringa 56.3 25.7 71.0 24.4 20.5 102 Mbeya 20.1 14.6 87.2 3.9 10.8 170 Singida 23.4 12.9 66.6 6.3 30.4 99 Tabora 40.4 19.2 80.3 16.7 17.4 127 Rukwa 26.8 14.0 92.2 7.9 6.4 87 Kigoma 35.0 26.5 90.9 11.2 9.1 127 Shinyanga 14.1 5.1 75.5 5.1 24.5 215 Kagera 32.6 8.2 62.7 4.6 29.3 122 Mwanza 48.0 27.8 82.4 20.9 11.4 229 Mara 28.5 11.5 79.2 8.1 19.1 98 Manyara 40.4 24.8 85.8 11.8 6.5 83 Zanzibar North 15.8 43.8 94.0 9.8 3.7 11 Zanzibar South 29.0 62.4 94.7 19.7 2.2 6 Town West 52.0 72.6 86.3 40.9 4.8 36 Pemba North 26.3 24.7 82.0 8.2 13.2 13 Pemba South 34.6 37.4 80.3 16.4 11.9 12 Education No education 4.0 9.7 63.7 1.0 34.8 312 Primary incomplete 24.9 19.3 74.4 7.8 20.9 646 Primary complete 39.3 24.1 83.3 16.0 13.2 1,381 Secondary+ 78.3 60.5 92.6 51.7 2.8 296 Wealth quintile Lowest 20.0 6.1 56.1 2.0 38.2 484 Second 20.9 9.3 78.3 3.5 18.7 504 Middle 24.8 12.7 80.5 4.7 16.0 516 Fourth 37.2 23.8 89.8 13.7 8.8 517 Highest 69.3 65.5 90.8 49.6 4.4 615 Total 36.0 25.3 79.8 16.2 16.5 2,635 Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 37 3.4 EMPLOYMENT Like education, employment can also be a source of empowerment for both women and men. It may be particularly empowering for women if it puts them in control of income. Respondents were asked a number of questions to elicit their employment status at the time of the survey, the continuity of their employment in the 12 months preceding the survey, and, if employed, details about their employment. Tables 3.5.1 and 3.5.2 present information relating to the respondent’s employment status. The employed are those who say that they are currently working and those who worked at any time during the 12-month period preceding the survey. The level of current employment for women stands at 79 percent, with an additional 4 percent who worked in the 12 months preceding the survey, putting the level of employment at 83 percent. Corresponding proportions for men are similar: 82 percent are currently employed, with almost 2 percent who worked in the last 12 months, putting the level of employment at 83 percent. The proportions employed are lowest in the age group 15-19 for both sexes, and increase gradually with age. The low participation rate at young ages is expected, for part of the labour force in those ages are students at secondary and higher learning institutions, and therefore not available for work. Teenage girls are much more likely to be working than teenage boys. Women who are divorced, separated, or widowed are comparatively more likely to be employed (93 percent), as are men who are married or living together with a partner (99 percent). Variations in employment are also found with residence. Those in rural areas are more likely to be employed than those in urban areas, with 85 percent of both women and men currently employed. Interestingly, for both men and women, those with the most education and those in the highest wealth quintile are least likely to be currently employed. There is significant regional variation in employment. 38 | Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women Table 3.5.1 Employment status: women Percent distribution of women by employment status, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Background characteristic Currently employed Not currently employed Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Total Number of women Age 15-19 57.6 3.5 38.9 100.0 2,245 20-24 77.2 5.4 17.3 100.0 2,007 25-29 82.5 4.5 13.0 100.0 1,885 30-34 86.6 4.2 9.2 100.0 1,542 35-39 87.2 5.4 7.4 100.0 1,053 40-44 91.3 3.1 5.5 100.0 834 45-49 90.4 3.5 6.0 100.0 763 Marital status Never married 56.6 3.6 39.7 100.0 2,371 Married or living together 84.2 4.8 11.0 100.0 6,950 Divorced/separated/widowed 90.1 2.8 7.1 100.0 1,007 Number of living children 0 58.4 4.0 37.5 100.0 2,705 1-2 82.1 4.3 13.6 100.0 3,348 3-4 86.2 4.9 8.9 100.0 2,269 5+ 90.7 4.2 5.2 100.0 2,007 Residence Urban 61.6 5.3 33.1 100.0 2,935 Rural 85.1 3.9 10.9 100.0 7,394 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 79.3 4.3 16.3 100.0 10,016 Total urban 62.0 5.5 32.5 100.0 2,885 Dar es Salaam city 45.3 6.1 48.5 100.0 969 Other urban 70.5 5.2 24.3 100.0 1,916 Total rural 86.3 3.9 9.8 100.0 7,131 Zanzibar 50.2 4.2 45.6 100.0 313 Unguja 53.7 5.7 40.7 100.0 216 Pemba 42.5 0.8 56.7 100.0 97 Zone Western 82.2 5.4 12.4 100.0 1,880 Northern 72.0 5.4 22.6 100.0 1,496 Central 86.7 3.1 10.2 100.0 799 Southern highlands 86.5 3.8 9.6 100.0 1,440 Lake 86.1 3.4 10.4 100.0 1,865 Eastern 60.0 5.8 34.2 100.0 1,670 Southern 89.7 1.3 8.9 100.0 866 Region Dodoma 85.7 4.9 9.4 100.0 468 Arusha 65.6 6.3 28.0 100.0 391 Kilimanjaro 75.8 0.0 24.2 100.0 380 Tanga 76.8 5.9 17.3 100.0 431 Morogoro 82.0 5.8 12.2 100.0 449 Pwani 77.0 4.3 18.6 100.0 253 Dar es Salaam 45.3 6.1 48.5 100.0 969 Lindi 88.2 2.7 9.1 100.0 221 Mtwara 92.7 0.8 6.1 100.0 346 Ruvuma 87.4 0.7 11.9 100.0 299 Iringa 80.6 6.4 13.0 100.0 412 Mbeya 86.6 4.0 9.4 100.0 712 Singida 88.1 0.6 11.3 100.0 331 Tabora 75.3 8.5 16.2 100.0 520 Rukwa 94.1 0.2 5.7 100.0 316 Kigoma 77.5 10.6 11.9 100.0 499 Shinyanga 89.1 0.6 10.3 100.0 861 Kagera 91.3 0.2 8.5 100.0 545 Mwanza 83.4 6.1 10.3 100.0 939 Mara 85.3 1.2 13.5 100.0 381 Manyara 68.4 10.3 21.2 100.0 293 Zanzibar North 58.9 7.9 33.2 100.0 48 Zanzibar South 70.6 5.1 24.4 100.0 26 Town West 48.8 5.0 46.1 100.0 143 Pemba North 48.0 0.2 51.8 100.0 52 Pemba South 36.2 1.5 62.3 100.0 45 Education No education 87.1 4.7 8.2 100.0 2,503 Primary incomplete 70.8 5.0 24.1 100.0 1,855 Primary complete 81.4 4.1 14.5 100.0 5,086 Secondary+ 52.9 3.3 43.8 100.0 885 Wealth quintile Lowest 85.5 5.5 9.0 100.0 1,840 Second 88.1 3.7 8.1 100.0 1,944 Middle 87.3 3.0 9.6 100.0 1,943 Fourth 81.0 4.3 14.7 100.0 2,004 Highest 57.6 4.9 37.4 100.0 2,597 Total 78.5 4.3 17.2 100.0 10,329 Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 39 Table 3.5.2 Employment status: men Percent distribution of men by employment status, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Background characteristic Currently employed Not currently employed Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Total Number of men Age 15-19 40.6 2.2 56.3 100.0 637 20-24 87.7 2.6 9.7 100.0 493 25-29 97.0 1.7 1.3 100.0 405 30-34 97.3 0.3 2.4 100.0 387 35-39 96.6 1.3 2.2 100.0 278 40-44 97.7 1.6 0.7 100.0 265 45-49 96.6 0.5 2.9 100.0 170 Marital status Never married 59.7 2.7 37.1 100.0 1,100 Married or living together 98.1 0.7 1.2 100.0 1,401 Divorced/separated/ widowed 90.1 3.3 6.6 100.0 135 Number of living children 0 76.7 1.6 21.3 100.0 721 1-2 84.5 2.4 12.9 100.0 886 3-4 86.9 1.1 12.0 100.0 565 5+ 77.7 0.9 21.3 100.0 463 Residence Urban 73.4 3.3 23.0 100.0 716 Rural 84.8 1.0 14.1 100.0 1,919 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 82.1 1.7 16.0 100.0 2,556 Total urban 73.9 3.3 22.4 100.0 716 Dar es Salaam city 72.1 2.6 24.3 100.0 267 Other urban 75.0 3.8 21.2 100.0 450 Total rural 85.3 1.0 13.5 100.0 1,840 Zanzibar 66.5 0.4 32.9 100.0 79 Unguja 69.2 0.0 30.8 100.0 53 Pemba 61.0 1.3 37.2 100.0 26 Zone Western 83.3 0.9 15.5 100.0 468 Northern 79.4 4.0 16.6 100.0 362 Central 89.8 0.0 10.2 100.0 212 Southern highlands 87.2 0.0 12.8 100.0 358 Lake 83.8 0.7 15.5 100.0 448 Eastern 74.6 3.6 21.3 100.0 462 Southern 81.2 1.8 16.3 100.0 245 Region Dodoma 93.7 0.0 6.3 100.0 113 Arusha 84.6 3.4 12.0 100.0 82 Kilimanjaro 70.6 6.4 23.0 100.0 104 Tanga 73.9 4.0 22.2 100.0 94 Morogoro 80.1 5.0 14.9 100.0 127 Pwani 74.1 4.6 21.3 100.0 68 Dar es Salaam 72.1 2.6 24.3 100.0 267 Lindi 89.4 2.6 7.9 100.0 65 Mtwara 82.5 1.1 15.6 100.0 98 Ruvuma 73.1 2.1 23.7 100.0 83 Iringa 93.7 0.0 6.3 100.0 102 Mbeya 85.7 0.0 14.3 100.0 170 Singida 85.4 0.0 14.6 100.0 99 Tabora 87.8 0.0 11.4 100.0 127 Rukwa 82.3 0.0 17.7 100.0 87 Kigoma 75.3 2.3 22.4 100.0 127 Shinyanga 85.4 0.7 13.9 100.0 215 Kagera 92.9 0.0 7.1 100.0 122 Mwanza 77.3 1.4 21.3 100.0 229 Mara 87.6 0.0 12.4 100.0 98 Manyara 91.6 1.5 6.9 100.0 83 Zanzibar North 70.3 0.0 29.7 100.0 11 Zanzibar South 75.7 0.0 24.3 100.0 6 Town West 67.7 0.0 32.3 100.0 36 Pemba North 61.2 0.0 38.8 100.0 13 Pemba South 60.7 2.8 35.6 100.0 12 Education No education 96.5 1.2 2.3 100.0 312 Primary incomplete 66.0 1.1 32.2 100.0 646 Primary complete 89.1 1.9 9.1 100.0 1,381 Secondary+ 65.7 2.2 31.8 100.0 296 Wealth quintile Lowest 84.8 0.4 14.6 100.0 484 Second 84.7 1.5 13.8 100.0 504 Middle 85.8 0.9 13.0 100.0 516 Fourth 81.7 1.9 16.3 100.0 517 Highest 73.3 3.1 23.2 100.0 615 Total 81.7 1.6 16.5 100.0 2,635 Note: Total includes five cases (weighted) with missing information. 40 | Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women The survey findings indicate that 17 percent of both women and men were not employed during the 12 months preceding the survey (Figure 3.1). Occupation Respondents who are currently employed or who were employed during the year preceding the survey were asked to state their principal occupation. Tables 3.6.1 and 3.6.2 show the percent distribution of respondents by main occupational category, according to background characteristics. Tanzania, like many developing countries, is an agrarian economy. The agriculture sector remains the main employer, with 78 percent of women and 71 percent of men in agricultural occupations. Unskilled manual labour is another emerging sector, constituting 11 and 9 percent, respectively, of total employment for women and men. Professional, technical, and managerial occupations engage only 2 percent of women and 4 percent of men. Residence has great effect on the type of occupation. Most rural women and men are engaged in agriculture, and urban dwellers are mostly found in other occupations. Though Mainland residents are engaged in various occupations, residents of Zanzibar, with limited land, are more likely to be engaged in both the skilled and unskilled occupations, compared with the Mainland. The proportion of respondents in the professional, technical, and managerial occupations is also higher in Zanzibar (10 percent of women, and 14 percent of men) than on the Mainland (2 percent of women and 3 percent of men). Analysis by age suggests little association with occupational categories, with the exception of the professional, technical, and managerial occupations, the proportions of which generally increase with age. As expected, those women and men with at least some secondary education are most likely to be employed in a professional, technical, or managerial job. Women in the wealthiest quintile are most likely to be engaged in an unskilled manual occupation, while the corresponding men are most likely to have a skilled manual occupation. Figure 3.1 Employment Status of Women and Men Women Men Currently employed 79% Not currently employed 4% Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey 17% Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey 17% Currently employed 82% Not currently employed 2% TDHS 2004-05Note: Totals may not add to 100 percent because of rounding. Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 41 Table 3.6.1 Occupation: women Percent distribution of women employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Background characteristic Profes- sional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Unskilled manual Domestic service Agricul- ture Missing Total Number of women Age 15-19 0.1 0.1 2.7 3.8 6.8 7.8 77.5 1.3 100.0 1,370 20-24 1.0 0.3 3.1 4.0 10.3 2.9 78.2 0.2 100.0 1,659 25-29 2.6 1.0 4.6 3.1 13.2 1.3 74.2 0.0 100.0 1,640 30-34 2.7 1.2 4.7 2.3 13.1 0.6 75.2 0.1 100.0 1,400 35-39 2.3 0.2 2.8 1.7 12.5 0.4 80.2 0.0 100.0 975 40-44 4.7 0.8 1.0 1.3 8.8 0.2 83.1 0.0 100.0 787 45-49 3.4 0.3 1.9 0.7 7.4 0.0 86.3 0.0 100.0 717 Marital status Never married 3.2 1.3 5.0 6.2 11.8 10.7 60.5 1.4 100.0 1,427 Married or living together 1.9 0.4 2.7 2.0 9.3 0.4 83.1 0.1 100.0 6,187 Divorced/separated/widowed 1.8 0.4 4.0 2.3 17.6 1.5 72.4 0.0 100.0 936 Number of living children 0 2.6 1.1 4.6 5.6 9.1 8.5 67.4 1.2 100.0 1,687 1-2 2.4 0.6 4.4 2.9 12.5 1.2 75.9 0.1 100.0 2,893 3-4 2.3 0.6 2.7 1.5 11.9 0.5 80.4 0.0 100.0 2,066 5+ 1.0 0.1 1.0 1.2 7.8 0.1 88.8 0.0 100.0 1,904 Residence Urban 6.1 2.3 11.5 7.8 31.6 7.7 32.1 0.8 100.0 1,962 Rural 0.9 0.1 0.8 1.2 4.4 0.6 91.9 0.1 100.0 6,587 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 2.0 0.5 3.3 2.5 10.2 2.2 79.0 0.3 100.0 8,379 Total urban 5.6 2.2 11.5 7.9 31.8 7.7 32.6 0.8 100.0 1,949 Dar es Salaam city 6.3 6.2 16.7 11.1 44.2 13.3 2.2 0.0 100.0 498 Other urban 5.3 0.8 9.7 6.7 27.6 5.7 43.0 1.1 100.0 1,450 Total rural 0.9 0.0 0.8 0.9 3.7 0.6 93.0 0.1 100.0 6,431 Zanzibar 9.8 2.4 3.7 13.8 29.1 2.2 38.4 0.5 100.0 170 Unguja 10.9 2.7 4.6 12.9 34.1 2.9 31.3 0.6 100.0 128 Pemba 6.8 1.7 1.0 16.5 13.6 0.0 60.4 0.0 100.0 42 Zone Western 0.5 0.1 1.1 1.1 6.6 0.3 89.8 0.5 100.0 1,647 Northern 3.8 0.3 4.8 3.8 11.7 4.5 70.9 0.1 100.0 1,157 Central 1.8 0.2 1.3 2.4 4.2 1.1 88.2 0.7 100.0 717 Southern highlands 0.8 0.1 1.5 1.3 8.1 1.1 87.0 0.1 100.0 1,302 Lake 1.5 0.2 3.4 2.1 10.0 1.5 81.0 0.4 100.0 1,670 Eastern 4.4 2.9 10.2 5.8 25.1 7.0 44.6 0.0 100.0 1,098 Southern 2.1 0.3 0.2 1.6 4.6 0.9 90.4 0.0 100.0 788 Region Dodoma 1.6 0.3 1.7 3.1 4.0 1.0 87.5 0.8 100.0 424 Arusha 5.8 0.0 8.6 6.5 20.9 9.1 48.8 0.4 100.0 282 Kilimanjaro 4.0 0.8 4.7 5.6 7.9 3.9 73.1 0.0 100.0 288 Tanga 2.4 0.0 2.8 2.0 10.6 3.0 79.3 0.0 100.0 356 Morogoro 4.0 0.0 5.5 1.5 6.9 2.3 79.8 0.0 100.0 394 Pwani 0.7 0.4 3.5 1.3 13.5 0.5 80.1 0.0 100.0 206 Dar es Salaam 6.3 6.2 16.7 11.1 44.2 13.3 2.2 0.0 100.0 498 Lindi 3.2 0.3 0.4 1.0 6.3 0.7 88.1 0.0 100.0 201 Mtwara 0.0 0.3 0.0 3.0 4.9 0.3 91.5 0.0 100.0 324 Ruvuma 3.8 0.4 0.4 0.3 2.8 1.7 90.8 0.0 100.0 263 Iringa 1.1 0.4 1.5 1.1 8.0 2.6 85.0 0.4 100.0 359 Mbeya 0.6 0.0 1.4 1.9 10.1 0.3 85.7 0.0 100.0 645 Singida 2.2 0.0 0.8 1.3 4.6 1.2 89.3 0.6 100.0 293 Tabora 0.5 0.5 1.7 1.5 10.1 0.5 84.4 0.7 100.0 435 Rukwa 0.9 0.0 1.9 0.3 4.0 0.8 92.1 0.0 100.0 298 Kigoma 0.9 0.0 1.1 1.7 9.9 0.2 85.0 1.2 100.0 440 Shinyanga 0.2 0.0 0.7 0.6 2.7 0.3 95.4 0.0 100.0 772 Kagera 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.2 2.6 0.3 95.3 0.0 100.0 499 Mwanza 2.2 0.3 6.1 2.9 14.3 2.7 70.9 0.7 100.0 841 Mara 2.0 0.3 0.8 1.4 10.2 0.3 85.0 0.0 100.0 330 Manyara 3.2 0.3 3.6 1.2 7.1 2.0 82.4 0.3 100.0 231 Zanzibar North 3.6 0.4 2.9 7.0 21.7 0.3 64.2 0.0 100.0 32 Zanzibar South 6.1 0.4 1.9 17.1 19.0 1.1 54.4 0.0 100.0 20 Town West 15.1 4.2 6.0 14.2 43.1 4.5 11.7 1.1 100.0 77 Pemba North 3.9 0.9 0.9 7.0 12.4 0.0 75.0 0.0 100.0 25 Pemba South 11.0 3.0 1.1 30.5 15.5 0.0 39.0 0.0 100.0 17 Education No education 0.3 0.0 0.4 0.4 4.2 0.9 93.8 0.0 100.0 2,297 Primary incomplete 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.9 10.0 3.2 83.6 0.8 100.0 1,406 Primary complete 1.0 0.3 4.1 3.8 13.1 2.7 75.0 0.1 100.0 4,350 Secondary+ 26.4 7.6 13.7 9.3 20.5 2.0 18.9 1.7 100.0 497 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 2.5 0.1 96.7 0.0 100.0 1,675 Second 0.2 0.0 1.0 0.5 2.7 0.2 95.3 0.2 100.0 1,785 Middle 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.8 4.1 0.4 93.5 0.2 100.0 1,755 Fourth 1.2 0.1 2.4 2.6 13.3 0.7 79.3 0.4 100.0 1,709 Highest 9.5 2.8 12.8 9.5 31.9 10.4 22.6 0.6 100.0 1,625 Total 2.1 0.6 3.3 2.7 10.6 2.2 78.2 0.3 100.0 8,550 42 | Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women Table 3.6.2 Occupation: men Percent distribution of men employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Background characteristic Profes- sional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Unskilled manual Domestic service Agricul- ture Missing Total Number of men Age 15-19 0.0 0.1 3.8 8.9 5.9 1.1 79.9 0.4 100.0 273 20-24 1.1 0.6 6.7 10.0 11.3 0.6 69.7 0.1 100.0 445 25-29 3.2 0.4 3.1 11.0 13.6 0.0 68.4 0.3 100.0 400 30-34 4.6 0.8 4.9 10.6 11.5 1.0 65.9 0.7 100.0 378 35-39 7.1 1.1 2.8 12.1 7.5 0.4 68.9 0.0 100.0 272 40-44 4.9 0.2 4.5 11.3 3.6 0.0 75.1 0.5 100.0 263 45-49 5.3 0.0 3.8 9.0 4.9 0.0 77.0 0.0 100.0 165 Marital status Never married 1.9 0.6 6.4 10.2 10.6 1.2 68.8 0.3 100.0 686 Married or living together 4.1 0.4 3.2 10.0 8.0 0.1 73.9 0.2 100.0 1,383 Divorced/separated/widowed 4.6 0.5 6.3 16.9 15.6 0.9 54.1 1.1 100.0 126 Number of living children 0 5.0 0.3 5.6 11.1 11.6 0.4 65.7 0.3 100.0 564 1-2 4.5 0.7 6.1 13.5 10.2 0.2 64.2 0.5 100.0 770 3-4 1.8 0.7 2.5 9.4 7.4 1.1 76.9 0.0 100.0 497 5+ 1.0 0.0 1.6 4.7 5.8 0.3 86.5 0.1 100.0 364 Residence Urban 9.5 1.1 13.4 27.5 24.0 1.0 22.5 0.9 100.0 550 Rural 1.4 0.3 1.4 4.8 4.3 0.3 87.4 0.1 100.0 1,646 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 3.2 0.5 4.3 10.2 9.0 0.5 72.0 0.2 100.0 2,143 Total urban 9.3 1.1 13.3 27.4 24.4 1.0 22.8 0.8 100.0 553 Dar es Salaam city 13.1 2.1 16.1 34.4 29.7 1.8 2.9 0.0 100.0 199 Other urban 7.2 0.6 11.7 23.4 21.5 0.5 33.9 1.2 100.0 354 Total rural 1.1 0.3 1.2 4.2 3.7 0.3 89.2 0.0 100.0 1,589 Zanzibar 14.3 0.4 8.2 21.8 16.9 0.0 36.3 2.2 100.0 53 Unguja 16.6 0.5 9.5 23.7 20.2 0.0 26.8 2.6 100.0 37 Pemba 9.0 0.0 5.2 17.3 9.2 0.0 58.0 1.3 100.0 16 Zone Western 1.1 0.0 2.5 3.5 3.6 0.3 89.1 0.0 100.0 394 Northern 3.7 0.0 5.8 14.3 12.2 1.4 61.0 1.5 100.0 302 Central 0.9 0.0 2.6 5.5 2.8 0.0 88.0 0.3 100.0 190 Southern highlands 2.3 0.4 2.8 8.6 10.1 0.0 75.8 0.0 100.0 312 Lake 2.0 0.4 1.8 7.3 7.2 0.0 81.3 0.0 100.0 379 Eastern 8.9 2.0 10.4 23.5 19.6 1.3 34.3 0.0 100.0 361 Southern 2.1 0.3 3.4 5.8 3.6 0.3 84.5 0.0 100.0 204 Region Dodoma 1.6 0.0 4.0 5.2 1.2 0.0 87.5 0.5 100.0 106 Arusha 2.8 0.0 5.9 14.7 17.0 1.4 54.8 3.3 100.0 72 Kilimanjaro 4.0 0.0 12.5 20.1 10.5 4.0 47.1 1.8 100.0 80 Tanga 7.2 0.0 3.5 14.6 15.9 0.0 58.8 0.0 100.0 73 Morogoro 3.9 2.8 2.7 10.7 4.8 1.1 74.0 0.0 100.0 108 Pwani 3.5 0.0 4.9 8.8 12.1 0.0 70.7 0.0 100.0 54 Dar es Salaam 13.1 2.1 16.1 34.4 29.7 1.8 2.9 0.0 100.0 199 Lindi 4.3 1.0 2.2 5.1 3.3 1.0 83.1 0.0 100.0 60 Mtwara 1.3 0.0 4.8 6.1 4.9 0.0 82.9 0.0 100.0 82 Ruvuma 1.1 0.0 2.6 6.1 2.2 0.0 88.0 0.0 100.0 62 Iringa 3.0 1.4 5.1 7.1 3.1 0.0 80.2 0.0 100.0 95 Mbeya 1.1 0.0 1.1 11.4 16.5 0.0 69.9 0.0 100.0 145 Singida 0.0 0.0 0.9 5.9 4.6 0.0 88.6 0.0 100.0 85 Tabora 1.9 0.0 2.9 0.0 4.1 1.0 90.1 0.0 100.0 111 Rukwa 3.8 0.0 3.1 5.0 6.2 0.0 81.9 0.0 100.0 72 Kigoma 2.1 0.0 2.8 5.8 2.4 0.0 86.9 0.0 100.0 98 Shinyanga 0.0 0.0 2.1 4.3 4.0 0.0 89.6 0.0 100.0 185 Kagera 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.7 4.2 0.0 89.1 0.0 100.0 113 Mwanza 3.7 0.8 3.2 9.0 10.0 0.0 73.3 0.0 100.0 180 Mara 1.0 0.0 1.3 4.7 5.4 0.0 87.6 0.0 100.0 86 Manyara 1.0 0.0 1.0 7.8 6.1 0.0 83.2 1.0 100.0 77 Zanzibar North 6.7 0.0 12.4 15.3 7.3 0.0 56.8 1.6 100.0 8 Zanzibar South 10.3 0.0 7.2 9.4 10.6 0.0 62.6 0.0 100.0 5 Town West 21.0 0.8 9.0 29.2 26.2 0.0 10.4 3.4 100.0 24 Pemba North 9.5 0.0 3.5 9.4 9.2 0.0 67.1 1.3 100.0 8 Pemba South 8.5 0.0 7.0 25.4 9.2 0.0 48.6 1.2 100.0 8 Education No education 0.0 0.0 1.9 0.9 3.4 0.7 93.0 0.0 100.0 305 Primary incomplete 0.1 0.0 1.0 6.3 8.5 1.5 82.3 0.2 100.0 434 Primary complete 1.2 0.1 5.0 13.0 9.7 0.2 70.4 0.4 100.0 1,256 Secondary+ 30.1 4.7 11.5 18.4 16.4 0.0 18.6 0.1 100.0 201 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.0 0.0 1.0 2.2 1.3 0.0 95.3 0.2 100.0 412 Second 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.0 3.0 0.5 94.3 0.0 100.0 435 Middle 1.1 0.0 1.0 3.1 5.4 0.2 89.1 0.0 100.0 447 Fourth 1.1 0.4 3.5 13.2 11.5 0.2 69.6 0.4 100.0 432 Highest 14.0 1.9 15.4 30.1 23.4 1.4 13.0 0.8 100.0 470 Total 3.5 0.5 4.4 10.5 9.2 0.5 71.2 0.3 100.0 2,195 Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 43 Table 3.7 presents information on women’s employment status, the form of earnings, and the continuity of employment. The table takes into account whether women are involved in agricultural or nonagricultural occupations, because all of the employment variables shown in the table are strongly influenced by the sector in which a woman is employed. The data show that the majority of women employed in agricultural work are not paid (78 per- cent). Almost all women in this sector report that they are employed by a family member (92 percent) and that they work seasonally (83 percent). Among women employed in nonagricultural work, 91 per- cent earn cash only. They are most likely to report that they are self-employed and that they work all year. Table 3.7 Type of employment: women Percent distribution of women employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by type of earnings, type of employer, and continuity of employment, according to type of employment (agricultural or nonagricultural), Tanzania 2004-05 Employment characteristics Agricultural work Nonagricultural work Total Type of earnings Cash only 5.5 91.3 24.0 Cash and in-kind 7.9 1.4 6.5 In-kind only 8.8 0.4 6.9 Not paid 77.8 6.9 62.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Type of employer Employed by family member 91.9 28.2 78.1 Employed by non-family member 0.6 29.8 7.0 Self-employed 7.5 42.0 14.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Continuity of employment All year 14.4 70.7 26.7 Seasonal 82.5 17.0 68.2 Occasional 2.8 12.3 4.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of respondents 6,684 1,842 8,550 Note: Total includes 24 women (weighted) with missing information on type of employment who are not shown separately. Continuity of employment totals do not add to 100 percent because of a small number of missing cases. 3.5 MEASURES OF WOMEN’S STATUS Control over Women’s Earnings and Assets In the 2004-05 TDHS, employed women who earn cash were asked about who the main decisionmaker is with regard to the use of their earnings. Table 3.8 shows the distributions of 2004-05 TDHS respondents who earn cash for the work they do by the person who decides how those earnings are to be used. Eighty-four percent of women who receive cash earnings report that they themselves or jointly with another person decide how their earnings are used. Only 16 percent of women report that someone else decides how their earnings will be used. 44 | Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women Table 3.8 Decision on use of earnings Percent distribution of women employed in the 12 months preceding the survey receiving cash earnings by person who decides how earnings are to be used, according to background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Person who decides how earnings are used Background characteristic Self only Jointly1 Someone else only2 Total Number of women Age 15-19 64.6 14.6 20.8 100.0 369 20-24 63.7 19.9 16.4 100.0 490 25-29 60.3 27.1 12.7 100.0 578 30-34 60.5 23.6 15.7 100.0 473 35-39 60.2 21.4 18.4 100.0 291 40-44 59.8 26.8 13.4 100.0 224 45-49 60.9 25.7 13.4 100.0 184 Marital status Never married 82.7 7.4 10.0 100.0 593 Married or living together 47.4 31.9 20.6 100.0 1,672 Divorced/separated/widowed 94.0 3.2 2.5 100.0 343 Number of living children 0 75.2 11.2 13.5 100.0 609 1-2 60.0 23.3 16.7 100.0 938 3-4 56.2 26.5 17.3 100.0 616 5+ 53.6 31.2 15.3 100.0 446 Residence Urban 78.0 14.4 7.6 100.0 1,322 Rural 44.7 31.0 24.3 100.0 1,287 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 60.1 23.5 16.4 100.0 2,484 Total urban 76.7 15.1 8.1 100.0 1,307 Dar es Salaam city 83.2 10.0 6.8 100.0 463 Other urban 73.2 17.9 8.8 100.0 844 Total rural 41.6 32.9 25.5 100.0 1,177 Zanzibar 90.7 4.0 5.3 100.0 125 Unguja 90.0 4.1 5.9 100.0 107 Pemba 95.1 3.7 1.2 100.0 18 Zone Western 51.4 14.8 33.6 100.0 409 Northern 77.0 19.3 3.7 100.0 341 Central 69.6 12.2 18.2 100.0 75 Southern highlands 73.2 21.1 5.7 100.0 179 Lake 45.8 45.4 8.8 100.0 542 Eastern 66.4 17.4 16.2 100.0 778 Southern 44.8 18.3 36.9 100.0 159 Region Dodoma 67.2 12.7 20.1 100.0 48 Arusha 75.8 21.7 2.5 100.0 142 Kilimanjaro 79.1 17.7 3.2 100.0 78 Tanga 75.3 19.1 5.7 100.0 77 Morogoro 40.0 32.2 27.7 100.0 213 Pwani 44.9 20.3 34.8 100.0 102 Dar es Salaam 83.2 10.0 6.8 100.0 463 Lindi 50.2 20.5 29.3 100.0 48 Mtwara 35.2 15.2 49.6 100.0 89 Ruvuma 71.2 25.8 3.0 100.0 22 Iringa 82.1 12.9 5.0 100.0 54 Mbeya 69.9 24.4 5.7 100.0 104 Singida 73.8 11.4 14.8 100.0 27 Tabora 42.1 12.0 45.3 100.0 170 Rukwa 67.0 25.5 7.5 100.0 22 Kigoma 53.4 18.9 27.7 100.0 205 Shinyanga 84.6 4.2 11.2 100.0 35 Kagera 20.9 74.0 5.1 100.0 133 Mwanza 51.5 38.4 10.1 100.0 358 Mara 70.4 19.9 9.7 100.0 51 Manyara 80.5 14.9 4.5 100.0 44 Zanzibar North 87.4 6.0 6.5 100.0 20 Zanzibar South 87.2 6.3 6.5 100.0 17 Town West 91.3 3.0 5.6 100.0 70 Pemba North 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 7 Pemba South 92.3 5.8 1.9 100.0 11 Education No education 44.7 29.2 26.1 100.0 374 Primary incomplete 58.1 21.2 20.6 100.0 360 Primary complete 62.8 22.6 14.6 100.0 1,480 Secondary+ 76.2 17.6 6.2 100.0 394 Wealth quintile Lowest 34.2 29.0 36.8 100.0 312 Second 34.3 39.3 26.4 100.0 292 Middle 47.5 32.6 19.9 100.0 297 Fourth 61.7 23.2 14.9 100.0 501 Highest 78.6 14.2 7.2 100.0 1,207 Total 61.6 22.6 15.8 100.0 2,609 Note: Totals may not add to 100 percent because of a small number of missing cases. 1 With husband or someone else 2 Includes husband Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 45 Almost all divorced, separated, or widowed women (94 percent) say that they alone are responsible for deciding how to use their earnings. About half (47 percent) of the women in the married and living together category report that they alone decide how their earnings are used, and an additional 32 percent say that such decisions are reached jointly with someone else. Similarly, 83 per- cent of the never-married women report that they alone decide on the way to use their earnings. The proportion of women deciding alone on the way to use their earnings is inversely related to the number of living children she has. With regard to regional differentials, more urban women than rural have a say in decisions about the way to use their earnings. Three-quarters of the rural women and 92 percent of urban women decide, either alone or jointly, on the use of their earnings. Great differentials are observed with respect to residence and administrative regions. Women’s decisionmaking autonomy regarding the use of their earnings is strongly related to their level of education. More than three-fourths of women with at least a secondary education make their own decision on how to use their earnings compared with 45 percent of women with no education. Decisionmaking also increases with wealth quintile. Ownership of assets can be another source of empowerment for women. In Tanzania, approximately half of women report that they alone or jointly own land or their current residence (Figure 3.2). Approximately one-quarter of women report that they alone or jointly own another dwelling, jewellery or gems, or livestock. However, even among those women with sole ownership of an asset, sizable minorities (ranging from one-fifth to one-third) report that they could not sell the asset without permission (data not shown). Women’s Empowerment The 2004-05 TDHS also collected information from both women and men on other measures of women’s status and empowerment. In particular, questions were asked on women’s roles in making household decisions, on acceptance of wife beating, and on opinions about when a wife should be able to refuse sex with her husband. These questions are used to define three different indicators of women’s empowerment, namely women’s participation in decisionmaking, the degree of acceptance of wife beating, and the degree of acceptance of a wife’s right to refuse sex with her husband. 44 46 22 20 24 6 5 2 5 2 Land Current house/dwelling Any other house, apartment, or dwelling Jewelry or gems Livestock 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Percent Jointly Alone Figure 3.2 Women’s Ownership of Assets TDHS 2004-05 46 | Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women The first measure—women’s participation in decisionmaking, requires little explanation because the ability to make decisions about one’s own life is of obvious importance to practical empowerment. The other two measures derive from the notion that gender equity is essential to empowerment. Responses indicating a view that the beating of wives by husbands is justified reflect an attitude in favour of lower women’s status, both absolutely and relative to men. Although such attitudes do not necessarily signify approval of men beating their wives, they do signify acceptance of norms that give men the right to discipline women with force. Similarly, beliefs about whether and when a woman can refuse sex with her husband reflect issues of gender equity regarding sexual rights and bodily integrity. Besides yielding an important measure of empowerment, the information about women’s attitudes toward sexual rights will be useful for improving and monitoring reproductive health programs that depend on women’s willingness and ability to control their own sexual lives. Household Decisionmaking The ability of women to make decisions that affect the circumstances of their own lives is an essential aspect of empowerment. Table 3.9 shows the percent distribution of women by the person that the woman considers to usually have the final say in making decisions in four areas— 1. The woman’s own health care 2. Large household purchases 3. Visits to family/friends 4. How many children to have and when. The results are presented separately by marital status. Women are considered to participate in decisionmaking if they make decisions alone or jointly with their husband or someone else. The role women have in decisionmaking varies with the type of decision. A majority of currently married women participate in making decisions about what food to cook each day (79 per- cent) and on their own health (59 percent), but less so in making daily purchases and visits to family or relatives. Only one-third of women have a say in decisionmaking about large purchases, which largely remains the domain of husbands. Women in the “not married” category uniformly report having little in the way of decisionmaking power in any dimension, except with regard to their own health. This is likely a result of the fact that the majority of unmarried women are dependent girls living in their parents’ households who play no role in household decisionmaking. Table 3.9 Women's participation in decisionmaking by marital status Percent distribution of women by person who has the final say in making specific decisions, according to current marital status and type of decision, Tanzania 2004-05 Currently married or living together Not married1 Decision Self only Jointly with hus- band Jointly with some- one else Hus- band only Some- one else only Total Number of women Self only Jointly with some- one else Some- one else only Decision not made/ not applicable Total Number of women Own health care 42.8 16.3 0.3 38.5 2.1 100.0 6,950 43.3 6.5 48.6 1.6 100.0 3,379 Large household purchases 10.6 23.4 0.5 61.2 3.9 100.0 6,950 24.2 5.7 66.6 3.4 100.0 3,379 Daily household purchases 29.3 20.1 0.6 45.9 3.9 100.0 6,950 25.8 5.9 65.3 2.9 100.0 3,379 Visits to family or relatives 12.6 36.6 0.6 47.3 2.6 100.0 6,950 30.8 9.8 56.9 2.5 100.0 3,379 What food to cook each day 69.4 9.1 1.5 15.5 4.4 100.0 6,950 28.5 7.5 61.5 2.5 100.0 3,379 Note: Totals may not add to 100 percent because of a small number of missing cases. 1 Never married, divorced, separated or widowed women Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 47 Table 3.10.1 shows how women’s participation, alone or jointly, in five types of decision- making varies by background characteristics. Women are considered to participate in decisionmaking if they alone or jointly with a husband or someone else have a final say in that decision. Results indicate that only one-quarter of women (26 percent) participate in all of the specified decisions, and 21 percent of women report that they do not participate in any of the decisions (Figure 3.3). Women’s participation in all decisionmaking increases with age, from a low of 8 percent among women age 15-19 to 47 percent among the oldest women (age 45-49). Divorced, separated, and widowed women are more likely to participate in decisionmaking. Sixty-three percent of these women have a say on each decisionmaking item, as opposed to never-married women, of whom only 13 percent have a say in all decisions. Women who have no children, women who are not employed, and those living in the Western zone show low participation in decisionmaking process. Level of education shows no consistent relationship to participation in decisionmaking. Women who are employed for cash have a higher level of participation in making decisions than women who do not have cash earnings. Table 3.10.2 indicates that 28 percent of men believe that a wife, alone or jointly, should have a final say in making large household purchases. This corresponds fairly well to the 33 percent of women who say that they do make decisions about large purchases. Although only 44 percent of women say that they alone or jointly have a final say in making daily purchases, 73 percent of men say that women should be able to participate in this kind of decisionmaking. Men are less likely to say that women should have a say in visits to family or relatives (33 percent) than women are to report actual decisionmaking in this area (47 percent). Only 56 percent of men believe that a wife should be able to have a say in how her own earnings are spent, and 54 percent believe she should be able to have a say in how many children to have. The meaning of the latter, however, is unclear, because some of the respondents may believe that only God has a say over how many children a couple might have. Only 11 percent of men think a wife should have a say in all specified decisions, and 10 per- cent of men think that a wife should have a say in none. 48 | Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women Table 3.10.1 Women's participation in decisionmaking by background characteristics: women Percentage of women who say that they alone or jointly have the final say in specific decisions, by background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Alone or jointly have final say in: Background characteristic Own health care Making large purchases Making daily purchases Visits to family or relatives What food to cook each day All specified decisions None of the specified decisions Number of women Age 15-19 32.5 10.0 14.1 21.1 23.5 8.4 56.8 2,245 20-24 52.5 27.3 37.0 42.9 62.6 20.0 20.7 2,007 25-29 64.1 35.7 50.1 51.9 77.2 26.9 10.5 1,885 30-34 64.2 42.2 57.6 56.2 81.0 32.9 9.3 1,542 35-39 65.5 46.2 59.7 59.0 85.2 36.2 7.9 1,053 40-44 69.4 49.1 61.0 61.4 86.0 40.3 6.2 834 45-49 73.2 55.0 68.1 67.5 89.1 46.7 4.7 763 Marital status Never married 36.3 13.8 15.4 25.0 19.6 12.6 57.7 2,371 Married or living together 59.4 34.6 50.0 49.8 80.1 25.1 10.5 6,950 Divorced/separated/widowed 81.6 67.8 70.0 77.2 74.4 63.2 10.4 1,007 Number of living children 0 35.8 13.6 17.7 25.3 26.8 11.2 52.8 2,705 1-2 61.2 36.1 48.7 50.9 73.2 28.0 13.6 3,348 3-4 65.2 42.0 57.4 56.9 84.1 32.9 7.7 2,269 5+ 65.5 44.0 56.5 57.1 84.6 34.5 7.1 2,007 Residence Urban 59.7 37.7 49.9 50.0 64.6 29.8 23.1 2,935 Rural 54.9 31.2 41.7 45.5 66.1 24.4 20.6 7,394 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 56.7 33.6 44.8 47.1 66.2 26.4 20.8 10,016 Total urban 60.3 38.5 51.0 50.6 65.2 30.3 22.4 2,885 Dar es Salaam city 59.0 37.8 49.7 49.2 63.7 29.7 24.6 969 Other urban 61.0 38.9 51.6 51.3 66.0 30.5 21.2 1,916 Total rural 55.3 31.6 42.4 45.7 66.6 24.8 20.2 7,131 Zanzibar 41.2 15.6 17.7 36.0 47.9 11.6 38.4 313 Unguja 38.4 14.0 17.0 37.1 51.6 9.6 36.1 216 Pemba 47.4 19.2 19.5 33.6 39.7 16.0 43.7 97 Zone Western 33.3 17.9 25.9 27.5 62.2 10.6 29.1 1,880 Northern 66.5 32.5 52.4 53.0 70.9 27.3 16.5 1,496 Central 50.4 38.8 54.4 39.9 69.4 27.8 24.4 799 Southern highlands 58.1 48.5 60.1 65.7 74.2 39.5 18.3 1,440 Lake 80.8 30.7 37.5 45.2 59.3 26.3 11.7 1,865 Eastern 54.9 39.6 50.4 51.3 65.5 30.7 24.8 1,670 Southern 45.9 34.5 43.9 51.0 66.8 27.7 22.8 866 Region Dodoma 51.0 40.4 56.8 38.0 70.3 27.8 22.6 468 Arusha 52.8 27.1 49.7 53.7 68.5 19.4 18.7 391 Kilimanjaro 81.5 44.9 59.7 54.3 66.5 41.1 16.2 380 Tanga 73.0 27.7 50.2 45.7 74.8 26.2 15.7 431 Morogoro 50.9 42.5 53.3 55.1 67.1 31.9 25.9 449 Pwani 46.5 41.8 47.7 52.6 69.6 32.3 23.7 253 Dar es Salaam 59.0 37.8 49.7 49.2 63.7 29.7 24.6 969 Lindi 61.5 42.7 49.1 51.8 71.6 38.5 17.8 221 Mtwara 51.9 36.7 43.3 52.1 62.9 30.8 25.7 346 Ruvuma 27.4 25.8 40.9 49.2 67.8 16.1 23.1 299 Iringa 45.8 43.2 64.6 64.4 75.6 30.4 17.6 412 Mbeya 58.6 49.6 59.3 65.7 72.8 40.0 19.6 712 Singida 49.5 36.5 51.0 42.7 68.2 27.9 27.0 331 Tabora 23.7 13.7 24.2 28.2 59.1 6.2 32.1 520 Rukwa 72.9 52.9 56.0 67.6 75.4 50.3 16.0 316 Kigoma 35.2 21.8 27.2 38.9 54.9 12.5 33.2 499 Shinyanga 38.0 18.1 26.2 20.4 68.2 12.1 25.0 861 Kagera 80.0 22.1 30.3 44.5 51.9 17.8 14.6 545 Mwanza 89.5 35.2 40.6 47.4 59.0 30.5 6.2 939 Mara 60.6 32.0 39.9 40.6 70.6 27.9 21.3 381 Manyara 55.9 30.9 49.6 61.1 74.4 21.7 15.4 293 Zanzibar North 34.9 8.9 11.1 31.5 43.4 6.4 39.0 48 Zanzibar South 52.2 14.0 16.9 49.5 51.3 7.8 25.2 26 Town West 37.0 15.7 18.9 36.7 54.3 11.0 37.1 143 Pemba North 40.7 20.4 20.5 33.0 43.2 18.9 48.8 52 Pemba South 55.0 17.7 18.3 34.2 35.6 12.6 37.9 45 Education No education 53.6 31.4 40.1 44.8 68.3 25.1 19.7 2,503 Primary incomplete 51.3 30.0 38.4 42.7 58.5 24.2 28.8 1,855 Primary complete 59.7 35.3 48.5 49.5 69.3 27.1 17.6 5,086 Secondary+ 54.7 31.1 41.1 45.0 52.2 25.4 31.9 885 Employment Not employed 41.7 19.0 29.1 33.3 47.2 13.6 39.6 2,222 Employed for cash 69.2 42.8 55.2 61.5 72.8 35.0 13.9 2,431 Employed not for cash 56.4 34.4 45.1 45.7 69.8 26.9 17.4 5,672 Wealth quintile Lowest 53.3 31.7 41.9 43.9 67.2 24.8 21.3 1,840 Second 52.5 30.0 39.8 44.6 67.8 24.2 20.3 1,944 Middle 56.1 31.2 40.3 45.1 64.2 24.8 21.1 1,943 Fourth 56.9 35.2 48.0 50.8 66.4 26.1 20.4 2,004 Highest 60.7 36.0 48.4 48.5 63.4 28.7 23.0 2,597 Total 56.3 33.0 44.0 46.8 65.7 25.9 21.3 10,329 Note: Total includes four cases (weighted) with missing information on employment. Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 49 Table 3.10.2 Women's participation in decisionmaking by background characteristics: men Percentage of men who say that the wife alone or jointly should have the final say in specific decisions, by background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Wife alone or jointly should have final say in: Background characteristic Making large purchases Making daily purchases Visits to family or relatives What to do with money she earns How many children to have All specified decisions None of the specified decisions Number of men Age 15-19 22.5 68.5 28.3 51.4 46.0 6.0 10.9 637 20-24 23.7 73.7 26.3 50.4 54.0 7.0 10.1 493 25-29 32.5 73.5 33.0 58.9 56.7 15.1 9.3 405 30-34 28.8 77.2 34.4 58.3 58.4 14.0 9.2 387 35-39 29.1 75.6 40.4 62.6 56.6 11.6 8.8 278 40-44 32.9 73.1 34.8 57.5 54.7 10.9 10.8 265 45-49 33.5 75.8 44.3 60.6 55.2 18.0 9.5 170 Marital status Never married 25.0 71.3 30.2 53.1 52.2 8.4 9.6 1,100 Married or living together 29.9 75.1 35.2 58.3 54.7 12.8 9.5 1,401 Divorced/separated/widowed 25.9 68.4 23.2 51.0 52.4 6.5 17.6 135 Number of living children 0 27.7 72.7 32.0 53.4 54.2 11.2 10.6 721 1-2 30.2 75.2 33.2 57.5 57.9 11.9 8.8 886 3-4 27.3 74.5 35.8 60.2 54.6 12.1 10.0 565 5+ 23.0 68.6 28.0 50.8 42.9 5.6 11.0 463 Residence Urban 36.0 82.3 40.7 66.5 67.2 17.3 3.2 716 Rural 24.5 69.8 29.5 51.8 48.4 8.2 12.5 1,919 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 27.8 73.7 32.6 55.5 53.3 10.7 9.9 2,556 Total urban 36.4 82.2 40.2 66.3 65.4 17.3 3.5 716 Dar es Salaam city 36.9 76.5 42.9 72.8 66.6 18.4 4.2 267 Other urban 36.1 85.6 38.6 62.5 64.6 16.7 3.1 450 Total rural 24.4 70.4 29.7 51.3 48.5 8.2 12.4 1,840 Zanzibar 24.2 56.2 29.4 65.0 62.8 6.7 11.6 79 Unguja 23.3 61.5 32.0 65.1 60.7 7.9 11.1 53 Pemba 26.1 45.4 24.0 64.8 67.1 4.3 12.4 26 Zone Western 16.7 75.4 21.6 36.3 36.1 5.4 13.3 468 Northern 23.9 73.4 33.1 51.4 51.2 10.9 12.8 362 Central 18.3 73.1 50.7 56.6 61.9 11.5 12.9 212 Southern highlands 22.8 76.8 29.9 66.7 56.9 9.9 6.6 358 Lake 37.6 73.4 31.7 66.7 60.3 9.8 6.4 448 Eastern 38.7 78.9 41.2 62.1 62.3 18.5 5.5 462 Southern 31.3 57.7 26.9 47.7 46.4 8.4 15.8 245 Region Dodoma 24.3 69.2 55.2 59.6 67.1 16.5 13.9 113 Arusha 35.3 69.8 39.7 53.3 48.7 14.6 13.1 82 Kilimanjaro 29.4 91.2 48.0 64.6 64.1 18.8 4.6 104 Tanga 11.1 62.5 21.6 44.1 46.1 4.0 18.1 94 Morogoro 43.8 86.5 42.5 46.9 59.2 20.0 4.8 127 Pwani 36.4 74.2 32.1 48.5 51.1 16.1 11.8 68 Dar es Salaam 36.9 76.5 42.9 72.8 66.6 18.4 4.2 267 Lindi 36.7 57.9 30.1 44.6 42.2 10.7 16.8 65 Mtwara 36.0 40.7 17.0 40.2 46.8 7.2 21.1 98 Ruvuma 21.5 77.7 35.9 59.0 49.2 8.0 8.7 83 Iringa 25.4 85.2 34.6 61.3 63.5 11.0 5.0 102 Mbeya 25.3 70.3 31.4 78.1 55.7 10.7 7.1 170 Singida 11.5 77.4 45.7 53.3 56.0 5.7 11.8 99 Tabora 11.9 69.5 18.8 32.3 34.9 2.5 13.5 127 Rukwa 14.8 79.7 21.6 50.6 51.5 6.9 7.5 87 Kigoma 18.2 75.6 24.3 41.9 49.4 5.5 9.5 127 Shinyanga 18.7 78.8 21.7 35.4 28.9 7.0 15.5 215 Kagera 56.0 61.3 44.4 82.2 74.3 11.0 1.2 122 Mwanza 35.3 84.8 33.0 68.8 62.8 11.5 2.5 229 Mara 20.2 61.8 12.5 42.5 37.0 4.5 21.9 98 Manyara 20.1 67.0 20.8 41.5 43.2 5.2 17.0 83 Zanzibar North 25.4 49.1 31.7 63.4 45.8 4.7 13.8 11 Zanzibar South 18.1 75.3 25.8 70.7 72.3 4.0 4.5 6 Town West 23.5 62.9 33.2 64.6 63.3 9.5 11.5 36 Pemba North 25.7 41.3 25.7 64.0 72.1 5.0 10.2 13 Pemba South 26.6 49.7 22.3 65.5 61.7 3.6 14.7 12 Education No education 19.9 57.8 19.5 42.2 34.5 5.0 18.6 312 Primary incomplete 20.9 69.1 25.4 48.4 42.7 4.5 12.1 646 Primary complete 28.5 76.4 33.1 57.1 57.1 10.4 8.5 1,381 Secondary+ 46.5 83.5 58.8 80.0 80.9 31.0 2.4 296 Employment Not employed 31.5 76.4 34.5 59.8 56.0 14.2 7.9 622 Employed for cash 36.5 77.0 41.9 63.8 64.6 16.3 6.3 575 Employed not for cash 22.5 70.3 27.9 50.8 48.1 6.8 12.3 1,438 Wealth quintile Lowest 19.1 63.1 24.0 47.4 39.5 3.3 16.3 484 Second 22.4 68.9 30.4 45.5 44.8 7.5 14.9 504 Middle 24.9 71.6 26.8 49.6 49.1 7.0 10.2 516 Fourth 30.9 77.7 33.5 62.6 57.6 13.7 6.3 517 Highest 38.1 82.3 44.9 70.2 72.1 19.4 3.6 615 Total 27.6 73.2 32.5 55.8 53.5 10.6 9.9 2,635 50 | Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women Attitude towards Wife Beating Violence against women is receiving considerable attention because it has serious conse- quences for women’s physical and mental well-being, including their reproductive and sexual health (WHO, 1999). The 2004-05 TDHS collected information on the degree of acceptance of wife beating by asking about whether a husband would be justified in beating his wife in each of the following five situations: if she burns the food, if she argues with him, if she goes out with telling him, if she neglects the children, or if she refuses to have sex with her husband. Tables 3.11.1 and 3.11.2 present the proportions of women and men who agreed that the husband would be justified in hitting his wife in the case of each specific situation. The sixth column in the table includes the percentage of respondents who feel a husband is justified in beating his wife for at least one of the reasons. A high proportion of respondents agreeing that wife beating is accept- able is an indicator that respondents generally accept violence as part of male-female relationships. A low proportion shows that the majority of respondents does not accept such violence and is an indi- cator that women are more “empowered.” Three in every five women agree that wife beating by the husband is justified in at least one of the specified situations. Almost half of women agree that it is acceptable for a husband to hit a wife if she argues with him (46 percent), if she goes out without telling him (43 percent), or if she neglects the children (47 percent). Women are less likely to find violence from a husband acceptable when a wife refuses sex (29 percent) or burns the food (20 percent). Marital status and number of children are not associated with women’s attitudes towards wife beating. With respect to residence, rural women and those from the Mainland are more inclined to agree with justifications of wife-beating than women living in urban areas and in Zanzibar. Wide variations are observed between administrative regions, with women least likely to agree with wife beating in Pemba North (21 percent) and most likely to agree in Kigoma (92 percent). Only women with at least secondary education are considerably less likely than less educated women to approve of wife-beating. Figure 3.3 Number of Decisions in Which Women Participate in the Final Say TDHS 2004-05 No decisions 21% One to two decisions 32% Three to four decisions 20% Five decisions 26% Characteristics of Respondents and the Status of Women | 51 Table 3.11.1 Women's attitude towards wife beating Percentage of women who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife for specific reasons, by background characteristics, Tanzania 2004-05 Husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she: Background characteristic Burns the food Argues with him Goes out without telling him Neglects the children Refuses to have sex with him Percentage who agree with at least one specified reason Number of women Age 15-19 21.6 45.4 43.8 48.0 25.6 60.3 2,245 20-24 19.5 47.6 43.3 48.6 27.9 60.9 2,007 25-29 19.3 45.4 43.7 48.1 31.3 60.6 1,885 30-34 18.6 43.7 41.8 45.6 29.8 57.7 1,542 35-39 17.4 47.0 42.1 46.1 28.1 59.4 1,053 40-44 19.6 46.7 40.8 46.4 31.6 58.3 834 45-49 18.8 45.7 42.1 44.4 32.8 56.8 763 Marital status Never married 18.9 41.5 38.9 44.5 22.7 55.2 2,371 Married or living together 19.6 47.6 44.5 48.2 30.7 61.4 6,950 Divorced/separated/ widowed 20.3 44.0 40.3 46.2 31.8 57.1 1,007 Number of living children 0 18.8 41.7 39.5 44.2 23.7 55.6 2,705 1-2 20.2 47.5 44.9 48.4 30.0 61.6 3,348 3-4 18.8 46.3 43.3 48.5 29.9 61.1 2,269 5+ 20.3 48.3 43.4 47.6 33.4 59.8 2,007 Residence Urban 15.7 40.3 35.4 40.8 23.4 52.2 2,935 Rural 21.1 48.1 45.8 49.7 31.2 62.5 7,394 Mainland/Zanzibar Mainland 19.9 46.7 43.4 48.0 29.3 60.3 10,016 Total urban 16.2 41.0 36.0 41.8 23.9 53.0 2,885 Dar es Salaam city 18.4 35.7 32.4 39.0 25.1 48.9 969 Other urban 15.1 43.7 37.8 43.2 23.3 55.1 1,916 Total rural 21.5 48.9 46.3 50.5 31.5 63.3 7,131 Zanzibar 6.8 21.2 26.0 20.6 18.0 35.9 313 Unguja 6.2 22.0 26.3 22.4 17.7 38.6 216 Pemba 8.2 19.3 25.4 16.5 18.9 29.9 97 Zone Western 26.9 59.2 57.7 60.9 40.0 79.3 1,880 Northern 14.3 45.9 45.6 52.5 29.0 60.6 1,496 Central 27.1 51.5 46.1 52.1 34.0 62.9 799 Southern highlands 22.6 41.8 39.3 43.1 27.3 55.1 1,440 Lake 13.4 42.4 36.9 42.5 24.1 52.1 1,865 Eastern 16.7 36.3 33.8 35.9 24.0 48.4 1,670 Southern 23.9 53.5 44.8 51.5 27.5 65.7 866 Region Dodoma 25.4 51.8 46.0 51.4 34.7 61.7 468 Arusha 18.3 53.8 50.8 62.4 29.1 72.0 391 Kilimanjaro 8.2 25.3 27.7 29.4 14.8 32.7 380 Tanga 10.7 44.9 50.3 51.3 35.8 61.3 431 Morogoro 16.0 39.5 35.7 36.9 25.0 51.1 449 Pwani 11.7 32.8 35.5 22.4 18.0 41.7 253 Dar es Salaam 18.4 35.7 32.4 39.0 25.1 48.9 969 Lindi 21.7 47.3 38.7 43.4 23.5 58.5 221 Mtwara 19.8 50.6 43.2 47.1 24.2 59.3 346 Ruvuma 30.3 61.5 51.2 62.7 34.2 78.5 299 Iringa 31.1 62.8 58.4 66.1 30.3 80.1 412 Mbeya 18.1 33.2 32.1 34.1 26.7 46.5 712 Singida 29.6 51.1 46.3 53.2 33.1 64.7 331 Tabora 29.1 62.3 58.8 54.7 42.4 84.4 520 Rukwa 21.5 34.0 30.4 33.4 24.6 41.8 316 Kigoma 34.2 68.5 68.9 80.5 51.8 92.2 499 Shinyanga 21.3 51.9 50.7 53.3 31.6 68.6 861 Kagera 9.4 34.0 29.0 38.2 16.2 43.6 545 Mwanza 8.2 34.3 27.3 32.4 16.4 42.7 939 Mara 31.8 74.3 71.8 73.4 54.6 87.2 381 Manyara 22.4 63.6 55.0 71.1 37.2 80.9 293 Zanzibar North 9.0 22.9 30.6 25.5 20.3 42.6 48 Zanzibar South 9.6 22.2 30.5 24.0 18.7 42.4 26 Town West 4.6 21.6 24.1 21.1 16.6 36.5 143 Pemba North 4.9 11.0 17.3 10.6 11.9 21.0 52 Pemba South 12.0 28.8 34.7 23.2 26.9 40.0 45 Education No education 21.8 48.1 45.0 46.7 32.9 61.1 2,503 Primary incomplete 22.2 49.7 47.5 50.9 32.7 64.7 1,855 Primary comple

View the publication

You are currently offline. Some pages or content may fail to load.