Swaziland - Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey - 2000

Publication date: 2000

SWAZILAND GOVERNMENT Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Model Full Report Central Statistical Office MBABANE i Contents List of Figures.2 Foreword and Acknowledgements .3 Executive Summary.1 Summary Indicators.4 I. Introduction .6 Background of the Survey .6 Survey Objectives .6 II. Survey Methodology .7 Sample Design.7 Questionnaires .7 Fieldwork and Processing.8 III. Sample Characteristics and Data Quality .8 Response Rates.8 Age Distribution and Missing Data .8 Characteristics of the Household Population .9 IV. Results .10 A. Infant and Under-Five Mortality.10 B. Education.11 Early childhood education. 11 Basic education .11 Literacy.12 C. Water and Sanitation.12 Use of drinking water .12 Use of sanitation.13 D. Child Malnutrition .13 Nutritional status .13 Breastfeeding .14 Salt iodization.15 Low birth weight .15 E. Child Health .16 Immunization coverage.16 Diarrhea.17 Acute respiratory infection .18 IMCI initiative . 18 F. HIV/AIDS.19 AIDS knowledge.19 AIDS testing .21 G. Reproductive Health.22 Contraception.22 Prenatal care .22 Assistance at delivery .24 H. Child Rights.24 Birth registration .24 Orphanhood and living arrangements of children.25 Child labour .25 Appendix A: Sample Design .26 Appendix B: List of Personnel Involved in the Swaziland MICS. 26 Appendix C: Questionnaires.26 List of Figures Figure 1: Single year age distribution of the household population by sex, Swaziland, 2000 .9 Figure 2: Estimates of infant and under five mortality based on indirect estimation, Swaziland, 2000 .11 Figure 3: Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school, Swaziland, 2000 .12 Figure 4: Percent distribution of living children by breastfeeding status, Swaziland, 2000 .15 Figure 5: Percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received immunizations by age 12 months, Swaziland, 2000 .17 Figure 6: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who have sufficient knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission by level of education, Swaziland, 2000.21 Figure 7: Percent distribution of women with a birth in the last year by type of personnel delivering antenatal care, Swaziland, 2000 . 24 Foreword and Acknowledgements The Central Statistical Office would like to express its appreciation to all those who made the production of MICS 2000 a reality. We extend special thanks to the UNICEF country office and the Regional Office for providing the financial and technical support for the survey ranging from sample design, data processing and data analysis and data archiving. We acknowledge the crucial contributions made by the Coordinator of the survey Mr. Maqhawe Gama, the regional coordinators, enumerators and their supervisors, the keypunch operators, and the team that assisted with Data processing and analysis who worked tirelessly to ensure the success of the survey. We would like to also express our sincere thanks to the members of the households who gave their time to provide the data, without their cooperation this report would not have been a reality. We particulary like to express sincere thanks to Amos Zwane and Eugene Zwane for adapting the MICS questionnaires and Data Processing applications for use in the country. Information in this report is not exhaustive, and, therefore, raw data on this survey is available. Executive Summary The 2000 Swaziland Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative survey of households, women, and children. The main objectives of the survey are to provide up- to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Swaziland at the end of the decade and to furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children and as a basis for future action. Infant and Under Five Mortality · The data suggest that the infant mortality rate was 87.7 per 1000 and the under five mortality rate was 122 per 1000. Education · Over ninety percent of children of primary school age in Swaziland are attending primary school. School attendance in the Lubombo is significantly lower than in the rest of the country at 52 percent. At the national level, there is virtually no difference between male and female primary school attendance. · More than ninety three of children who enter the first grade of primary school eventually reach grade five. · The vast majority (79.28 percent) of the population over age 15 years is literate. The percentage literate declines from 88 percent among those aged 15-34 to 35.5 percent among the population aged 65 and older. Water and Sanitation · Fifty one percent of the population has access to safe drinking water – 93 percent in urban areas and 41 percent in rural areas. The situation in the Shiselweni is considerably worse than in other regions; only 46 percent of the population in this region gets its drinking water from a safe source. · Seventy two percent of the population of Swaziland is living in households with sanitary means of excreta disposal. Child Malnutrition · Ten percent of children under age five in Swaziland are underweight or too thin for their age. Thirty percent of children are stunted or too short for their age and two percent are wasted or too thin for their height. · Children whose mothers have secondary or higher education are the least likely to be underweight and stunted compared to children of mothers with less education. Breastfeeding Approximately 31.2 percent of children aged under four months are exclusively breastfed. At age 6-9 months, 60 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods. By age 20-23 months, only 24.8 percent are continuing to breastfeed. Salt Iodization · Fifty four percent of households in Swaziland have adequately iodized salt. The percentage of households with adequately iodized salt ranges from 47 percent in the Lubombo to 61 percent in the Hhohho region. 2 Low Birth weight · Approximately 5 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth. Immunization Coverage · Ninety four percent of children aged 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months and the first dose of DPT was given to ninety three percent. The percentage declines for subsequent doses of DPT to 87.8 percent for the second dose, and 77.7 percent for the third dose. · Similarly, 91.4 percent of children received Polio 1 by age 12 months and this declines to 75.1 percent by the third dose. · The coverage for measles vaccine is lower than for the other vaccines at 72.3 percent. · Over half of children (59.2 percent) had all eight recommended vaccinations in the first 12 months of life. · Male and female children are vaccinated at roughly the same rate. · Vaccination coverage is highest among children whose mothers have secondary or higher education. The education differences are greatest for the third doses of DPT and Polio, suggesting that drop out rates are higher among children with less educated mothers. Diarrhea · Ninety two percent of the children with diarrhea received one or more of the recommended home treatments (i.e., were treated with ORS or RHF). · Only 6.9 percent of children with diarrhea received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended. Acute Respiratory Infection · Ten percent of under five children had an acute respiratory infection in the two weeks prior to the survey. Approximately 60.9 percent of these children were taken to an appropriate health provider. IMCI Initiative · Among under five children who were reported to have had diarrhea or some other illness in the two weeks preceding the MICS, 9.4 percent received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended under the IMCI programmed. · Fourty two percent of mothers know at least two of the signs that a child should be taken immediately to a health facility. HIV/AIDS · Fourty nine percent of women aged 15-49 know all two of the main ways to prevent HIV transmission – having only one uninfected sex partner and using a condom every time. · Fourty one percent of women correctly identified three misconceptions about HIV transmission – that HIV can be transmitted through supernatural means, that it can be transmitted through mosquito bites, and that a healthy looking person cannot be infected. · Over fifty nine percent of women of reproductive age in Swaziland know a place to get tested for AIDS and about 12 percent have been tested. · The percentage of women who have sufficient knowledge of HIV transmission and the percentage who know where to get tested for HIV increases with the level of education. 3 Contraception · Current use of contraception was reported by 27.9 percent of married or in union women. The most popular method is the injection which is used by 11.6 percent of the women followed by the pill, which accounts for 6 percent of married women or in union women. Prenatal Care · Seventy nine percent of the women with recent births in Swaziland are protected against neonatal tetanus. The vast majority of these women received two or more doses of tetanus toxoid within the last three years. · Virtually all women in Swaziland receive some type of prenatal care and 87 percent receive antenatal care from skilled personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife). Assistance at Delivery · A doctor, nurse, or midwife delivered about 70 percent of births occurring in the year prior to the MICS survey. This percentage is highest in the Manzini region at 77 percent and lowest in the Shiselweni at 62 percent. Birth Registration · The births of 53.5 percent of children under five years in Swaziland have been registered. There are no significant variations in birth registration across sex, age, or education categories. Orphanhood and Living Arrangements of Children · Overall, 38 percent of children aged 0-14 are living with both parents. Children who are not living with a biological parent comprise 19.7 percent and children who have one or both parents dead amount to 11 percent of all children aged 0-14. · The situation of children in the Shiselweni differs from that of other children. In this region, 34.6 percent of children live with both parents. Thirty six percent live with their mother only although their father is alive and a relatively large proportion (10 percent) are living with neither parent. Child Labour · About one percent of children aged 5-14 years engage in paid work. About 1.5 percent participate in unpaid work for someone other than a household member. · Over seventy four percent of children engage in domestic tasks, such as cooking, fetching water, and caring for other children, for less than four hours a days while 3 percent spend more than four hours a day on such tasks. Summary Indicators World Summit for Children Indicators Under-five mortality rate Probability of dying before reaching age five 122 per 1000 Infant mortality rate Probability of dying before reaching age one 87.7per 1000 Underweight prevalence Proportion of under -fives who are too thin for their age 10 percent Stunting prevalence Proportion of under -fives who are too short for their age 30 percent Wasting prevalence Proportion of under f ives who are too thin for their height 2 percent Use of safe drinking water Proportion of population who use a safe drinking water source 51 percent Use of sanitary means of excreta disposal Proportion of population who use a sanitary means of excreta disposal 72 percent Children reaching grade five Proportion of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade five 93.5 percent Net primary school attendance rate Proportion of children of primary school age attending primary school 90.6 percent Literacy rate Proportion of population aged 15+ years who are able to read a letter or newspaper 79.2 percent Antenatal care Proportion of women aged 15-49 attended at least once during pregnancy by skilled personnel 79 percent Contraceptive prevalence Proportion of married women aged 15-49 who are using a contraceptive method 27.9 percent Childbirth care Proportion of births attended by ski l led health personnel 70 percent Birth weight below 2.5 kg. Proportion of l ive births that weigh below 2500 grams 5 percent Iodized salt consumption Proport ion of households consuming adequately iodized salt 54 percent Exclusive breastfeeding rate Proportion of infants aged less than 4 months who are exclusively breastfed 31.2 percent Timely complementary feeding rate Proportion of infants aged 6 -9 months who are receiving breast milk and complementary food 60 percent Continued breastfeeding rate Proportion of children aged 12 -15 months and 20-23 months who are breastfeeding 76.6 percent (12-15) 24.8 percent (20-23) DPT immunization coverage Proportion of children immunized against diptheria, pertussis and tetanus by age one 77.2 percent Measles immunization coverage Proport ion of chi ldren immunized against measles by age one 72.3 percent Polio immunization coverage Proportion of chi ldren immunized against polio by age one 80.2 percent Tuberculosis immunization coverage Proportion of chi ldren immunized against tuberculosis by age one 94.1 percent Children protected against neonatal tetanus Proportion of one year old children protected against neonatal tetanus through immunization of their mother 79.8 percent ORT use Proportion of under-five children who had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks who were treated with oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution 92 percent Home management of diarrhea Proportion of under-five children who had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks and received increased f luids and continued feeding during the episode 6.9 percent Care seeking for acute respiratory infections Proportion of under -five children who had ARI in the last 2 weeks and were taken to an appropriate health provider 60.9 percent Preschool development Proportion of children aged 36 -59 months who are attending some form of organized early childhood education program 12 percent 5 Indicators for Monitoring Children’s Rights Birth registration Proportion of under -f ive chi ldren whose births are reported registered 53.5 percent Children’s l iving arrangements Proportion of children aged 0 -14 years in households not living with a biological parent 19.7 percent Orphans in household Proportion of children aged 0 -14 years who are orphans l iving i n households 2 percent (both parents) 5.6 percent (one parent) Chi ld labour Proportion of children aged 5 -14 years who are currently working 11.8 percent Indicators for Monitoring IMCI Home management of i l lness Proportion of under-five children reported ill during the last 2 weeks who received increased f luids and continued feeding 15.5 percent Care seeking knowledge Proportion of caretakers of under-five children who know at least 2 signs for seeking care immediately 17.4 percent Indicators for Mon itoring HIV/AIDS Knowledge of preventing HIV/AIDS Proportion of women who correctly state the 2 main ways of avoiding HIV infection 49.5 percent Knowledge of misconceptions of HIV/AIDS Proportion of women who correctly identify 3 misconceptions about HIV/AIDS 41 percent Knowledge of mother to child t ransmiss ion Proportion of women who correctly identify means of transmission of HIV from mother to child 47 percent Attitude to people with HIV//AIDS Proportion of women expressing a discriminatory attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS 77.4 percent Women who know where to be tested for HIV Proportion of women who know where to get a HIV test 59.7 percent Women who have been tested for HIV Proportion of women who have been tested for HIV 17.3 percent I. Introduction Background of the Survey At the World Summit for Children held in New York in 1990, the government of Swaziland committed itself to a Declaration and Plan of Action for Children. Subsequently, a National Programme of Action for Children was developed and implemented. The country committed to the following goals for Child Survival, Development and Protection: · With an infant and under five mortality of 98 per 1000 and 141 per 1000 live-births the country undertook to reduce the infant and under-five child mortality rate by one third between 1990 and 2000; . · Between 1990 and 2000, reduce the maternal mortality rate of 110 per 100 000 by half · Between 1990 and 2000, reduce severe and moderate malnutrition among under-five children; · Universal access to safe drinking water and to sanitary means of excreta disposal. · That by the year 2000 the country will have achieved universal basic education and completion of primary education by at least 80% of primary school-age children; · Reduction of the illiteracy rate to at least half its 1990 level with emphasis on female literacy; · To improve protection of children in especially difficult circumstances. The Plan of Action also called for the establishment of mechanisms for monitoring progress toward the goals and objectives set for the year 2000. Toward this end, UNICEF, in collaboration with WHO, UNESCO and others, has developed a core set of 75 indicators of specific aspects of the situation of children. The 2000 Swaziland MICS survey has been conducted in order to provide end-decade information on many of these indicators. The Swaziland MICS was conducted by the Central Office of Statistics, with funding provided by the UNICEF Swaziland office and the Government of Swaziland. This report presents results on the principal topics covered in the survey and on World Summit indicators. Survey Objectives The 2000 Swaziland Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey has as its primary objectives: · To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Swaziland at the end of the decade and for looking forward to the next decade; 7 · To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children and a basis for future action; · To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Swaziland and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems. II. Survey Methodology Sample Design The sample for the Swaziland Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2000 was designed to provide estimates of health indicators at the national level, urban, rural and company town areas and for the four regions: Hhohho, Manzini, Shiselweni and Lubombo. The sample was selected in two stages. At the first stage , 300 clusters were selected with probability proportional to size. After a household listing was carried out within the selected clusters, a systematic sample of 4500 households was drawn. Because the sample was stratified by region, it is not self-weighting. For reporting national level results, sample weights are used. Full technical details of the sample are included in Appendix A. Questionnaires The questionnaires for the Swaziland MICS were based on the MICS Model Questionnaire with some modifications and additions. A household questionnaire was administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age, literacy, marital status, and orphanhood status. The household questionnaire also includes education, child labor, water and sanitation, and salt iodization modules. In addition to a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15- 49 and children under age five. For children, the questionnaire was administered to the mother or caretaker of the child. The questionnaire for women contains the following modules: Child mortality Tetanus toxoid Maternal and newborn health Contraceptive use HIV/AIDS. The questionnaire for children under age five includes modules on: Birth registration and early learning Vitamin A Breastfeeding Care of Illness Malaria Immunization Anthropometry. 8 Information on Vitamin A and Malaria have not been analysed . Reasons for not incuding Vitamin A is that there is no current programme in place on Vit A supplement in the country. Reasons for living malaria module out is that data collection was conducted in the off season for malaria in the country. Fieldwork and Processing The field staff was trained for five days in early July 2000. Sixteen teams collected the data; each was comprised of four interviewers, one driver, and a supervisor. In addition there were four regional coordinators who assisted the MICS Coordinator in the provision of overall supervision. The field work began in July 2000 and concluded in September 2000. Data were entered on four microcomputers using the IMPS software. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs developed under MICS and adapted to the Swaziland questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began in October 2000 and finished in December 2000. III. Sample Characteristics and Data Quality Response Rates Although 4500 households were selected, 4192 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 90 percent (Table 1). In the interviewed households 5320 eligible women (age 15-49) were identified. Of these, 5271 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 99 percent. In addition, 3525 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Of these, questionnaires were completed for 3509 for a response rate of 99 percent. Age Distribution and Missing Data As shown in Table 2 and Figure 1, the single year age distribution of household members by sex exhibits some distortions centered around ages 5 and 10 for males. There appears to be significantly less males between ages 20 to 28. There appears to be significant heaping of women on ages 14-17 and perhaps a slight dearth of women ages 18-19. For both sexes, some digit preference is evident for ages ending in 0 and 5, a pattern typical of populations in which ages are not always known. 9 Figure 1: Single year age distribution of the household population by sex, Saziland, 2000 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 4 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Age Male Female As a basic check on the quality of the survey data, the percentage of cases missing information on selected questions is shown in Table 3. Except with the variable on date of tetanus toxiod injection where a high proportion of missing information there is virtually no missing information on the other selected questions as shown in Table 3. The reason attributed to the tetanus toxiod is the large numbers of women who had no ANC card during the survey. However, the low levels of missing data on most of the selected questions suggest that there were not significant problems with the questions or the fieldwork. The data on weight and height are the most likely among the selected information to be missing. Less than one percent of children are missing this information, which may be the result of the child not being present, refusal, or some other reason. By international standards, this percentage is relatively low in comparison to other surveys in which anthropometric measurements are taken (Sommerfelt and Boerma, 1994). Characteristics of the Household Population Information on the characteristics of the household population and the survey respondents is provided to assist in the interpretation of the survey findings and to serve as a basic check on the sample implementation. Table 4 presents the percent distribution of households in the sample by background characteristics. About 24 percent of the households (1028 households) are urban and 65.5 percent (2737 households) are rural and 10.2 percent (427) are company towns. The Manzini region comprises the largest of the four regions with 31.3 percent of households while Hhohhol is next largest with 28.8 percent. The remaining regions each contain between 17.4 and 22.1 percent of households. Most of the households have between two and five members. Thirty seven percent of the households contain at least one child under age five and 79 percent contain at least one woman age 15-49. 10 Table 5 shows the characteristics of female respondents aged 15-49. Women age 15-19 comprise the greatest percentage of the sample at 24 percent. This percentage declines steadily across age groups until age 45-49 where it is 6.1 percent. This pattern is typical of countries in the region. Approximately 47.8 percent of women in the sample are currently married and 71.1 percent have ever had a birth. The majority of women have had at least some secondary education while only seven percent have had no education. Table 6 shows the characteristics of children under age five. Fifty one percent of the children are male and 49 percent are female. Approximately 13 percent of mothers of children under age five have no education, a percentage that is almost two times greater than the overall percentage of women with no education in the sample. Note that, for children whose mothers did not live in the household, the education of the child’s caretaker is used. There are slightly more children aged under six months than aged 6-11 months, a pattern which is unexpected. IV. Results A. Infant and Under-Five Mortality The infant mortality rate is the probability of dying before the first birthday. The under five mortality rate is the probability of dying before the fifth birthday. In MICS, infant and under five mortality rates are calculated based on an indirect estimation technique (the Brass method). The data used in the estimation are: the mean number of children ever born for five year age groups of women from age 15 to 49, and the proportion of these children who are dead, also for five year age groups of women. The technique converts these data into probabilities of dying by taking account of both the mortality risks to which children are exposed and their length of exposure to the risk of dying. The data used for mortality estimation are shown in Table 7. The mean number of children ever born rises from 0.16 among 15-19 year olds to 4.18 among 45-49 year olds as expected. However, the proportion of children dead has an irregular pattern. In particular, the proportion of children dead among women aged 30-39 is low. This pattern may be affected by the age heaping noted in Figure 1 above. If some women in their twenties underreported their ages but reported the births and deaths of their children correctly then the deaths would effectively be moved downward toward age 25 Mortality estimates were obtained using the United Nations QFIVE program. Based on previous estimates of infant and child mortality for Swaziland, the South model life table was selected as most appropriate. Estimates of infant and under five mortality for several reference years are plotted in Figure 2. The figure indicates that childhood mortality in Swaziland has been declining up to the year 1991 where it was at its lowest. From this period it appears that mortality has taken another turn and is now rising. 11 Figure 2: Estimates of infant and under five mortality based on indirect estimation, Swaziland, 2000 105 72 78 87 155 89 106 122 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 1985 1988 1991 1994 1997 2000 Reference year Infant mortality Under five mortality B. Education Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world’s children is one of the most important goals of the World Summit for Children. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative labor and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environment, and influencing population growth. Early childhood education Twelve percent of the children aged 36-59 months are attending an organized early childhood education programmed, such as kindergarten or community childcare with organized learning activities (Table 9). There are more girls attending these programmes than boys. There are large variations according to region ranging from 10.5 percent of children in the Lubombo to 14.3 percent in the Manzini region. In addition, children in urban and company towns areas are over three times as likely to attend early learning activities as children in rural areas. Relatively few children attend at age three (36-47 months) while the majority of children attend at age four (48- 59 months). Finally, the education of the mother is strongly related to the likelihood that a child will attend an early childhood education programmed. Basic education Overall, 90.6 percent of children of primary school age in Swaziland are attending primary school (Table 10). In urban areas, 97 percent of children attend school while in rural areas 87 percent attend. School attendance in the Lubombo is significantly lower than in the rest of the country at 52 percent. At the national level, there is no significant differences between male and female primary school attendance. 12 Figure 3: Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school, Swaziland, 2000 0 20 40 60 80 100 Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Urban Company Rural Percent More than 93 percent of children who enter the first grade of primary school eventually reach grade five (Table 11). However, there are regional and urban-rural disparities in the achievement of grade five. Approximately 96.5 percent of urban children who enter grade one reach grade five compared to 93 percent of children in rural areas. Literacy The vast majority of the population over age 15 years in Swaziland is literate (Table 12). The literate population includes those who are reported to read ‘easily or with difficulty’. Overall, females are slightly less likely than males to be literate (80.4 vs. 78.1 percent). The percentage literate is lower in the Lubombo and Shiselweni regions than in the Manzini and Hhohho regions. Literacy declines with increasing age. The percentage literate declines from 88.1 percent among those aged 15-24 to 35.5 percent among the population aged 65 and older. C. Water and Sanitation Use of drinking water Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Unsafe drinking water can be a significant carrier of diseases such as trachoma, cholera, typhoid, and schistosomiasis. Drinking water can also be tainted with chemical, physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to its association with disease, access to drinking water may be particularly important for women and children, particularly in rural areas, who bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, often for long distances. About 12.6 percent of the population uses drinking water from that is piped into their dwelling and 11.6 percent used water piped into their yard or plot. Rainwater collection and rivers and streams are also important sources of drinking water. 13 The source of drinking water for the population varies strongly by region (Table 13). In the Manzini region, 30.4 percent of the population uses drinking water that is piped into their dwelling or into their yard or plot. In the Hhohho and Lubombo, 29.3 and 23.7 percent respectively use piped water. In contrast, only about 10 percent of those residing in the Shiselweni piped water. The population using safe drinking water sources are those who use any of the following types of supply: piped water, public tap, borehole/tubewell, protected well, protected spring or rainwater. Overall, 51 percent of the population has access to safe drinking water – 93 percent in urban areas and 41.2 percent in rural areas. The situation in the Shiselweni is considerably worse than in other regions, go in company towns, 85 percent in urban areas Use of sanitation Inadequate disposal of human excreta and personal hygiene is associated with a range of diseases including diarrheal diseases and polio. Sanitary means of excreta disposal include: flush toilets connected to sewage systems or septic tanks, other flush toilets, improved pit latrines, and traditional pit latrines. Seventy two percent of the population of Swaziland is living in households with sanitary means of excreta disposal (Table 14). This percentage is 95.9 percent in company towns, 96.5 percent in urban areas and 65.7 percent in rural areas. Residents of the Hhohho and Manzini are much more likely than others to use sanitary means of excreta disposal. D. Child Malnutrition Nutritional status Children’s nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply and are not exposed to repeated illness, they reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. In a well-nourished population, there is a standard distribution of height and weight for children under age five. Undernourishment in a population can be gauged by comparing children to this standard distribution. The standard or reference population used here is the NCHS standard, which is recommended for use by UNICEF and the World Health Organization. Each of the three nutritional status indicators are expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of this reference population. Weight for age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight for age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely underweight while those whose weight for age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. Height for age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height for age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Those whose height for age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. 14 Finally, children whose weight for height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely wasted while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. Almost one in ten children under age five in Swaziland are underweight and two percent are classified as severely underweight (Table 15). Thirty percent of children are stunted or too short for their age and three percent are wasted or too thin for their height. Children in the Shiselweni are more likely to be underweight and stunted than other children. Those whose mothers have secondary or higher education are the least likely to be underweight and stunted compared to children of mothers with less education. Boys appear to be slightly more likely to be underweight, stunted, and wasted than girls. The age pattern shows that a higher percentage of children aged 12-23 months are undernourished according to all three indices in comparison to children who are younger and older (Figure 2). This pattern is expected and is related to the age at which many children cease to be breastfed and are exposed to contamination in water, food, and environment. Breastfeeding Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon, and there are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. The World Summit for Children goal states that children should be exclusively breastfed for four to six months, that breastfeeding should be complemented with appropriate foods from the age of around six months, and that children continue to be breastfed for two or more years. In Table 16, breastfeeding status is based on women’s reports of children’s consumption in the 24 hours prior to the interview. Exclusive breastfeeding refers to children who receive only breast milk and vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine. Complementary feeding refers to children who receive breast milk and solid or semi-solid food. The last two columns of the table include children who are continuing to be breastfed at one and at two years of age. Percentages according to region and mother’s education are not shown due to small sample sizes. For the same reason, the sex and urban-rural residence breakdowns should be interpreted with caution. Approximately 31.2 percent of children aged less than four months are exclusively breastfed, a level considerably lower than recommended. At age 6-9 months, 60.2 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods. By age 12-15 months, 76.6 percent of children are still being breastfed and by age 20-23 months, 24.8 percent are still breastfed. Figure 3 shows the detailed pattern of breastfeeding status by the child’s age in months. Even at the earliest ages, the majority of children are receiving liquids or foods other than breast milk. The percentage of children exclusively breastfed diminishes rapidly to close to zero after three months. By the end of one year, fewer than half of children are still breastfed. 15 Figure 4: Percent distribution of living children by breastfeeding status, Swaziland, 2000 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 Age in months Exclusively breastfed Breast milk and water only Breast milk and supplements Not breastfed Salt iodization A deficiency of iodine in the diet causes goitre, an enlargement of the thyroid gland, and can cause brain damage due to such a deficiency before birth or during infancy or childhood. The iodization of salt is a low-cost way of preventing iodine deficiency disorders (IDD). In MICS, interviewers tested household salt for iodine levels by means of a testing kit. Adequately iodized salt contains 15 ppm (parts per million) of iodine or more. Approximately 83.3 percent of households had salt that was tested during the MICS (Table 17). Among households in which salt was tested, 54.4 percent had adequately iodized salt. The percentage of households with adequately iodized salt ranges from 46.6 percent in the Shiselweni to 60.8 percent in the Hhohho. 63.6 percent of urban households had adequately iodized salt compared to 74 percent of rural households. Low birth weight Infants who weigh less than 2500 grams (2.5 kg.) at birth are categorized as low birth weight babies. Since many infants are not weighed at birth and those who are weighed may be a biased sample of all births, reported birth weight cannot be used to estimate the prevalence of low birthweight among all children. Therefore, the percentage of births weighing below 2500 grams is estimated from two items in the questionnaire: the mother’s assessment of the child’s size at birth (i.e., very small, smaller than average, average, larger than average, very large) and the mother’s recall of the child’s weight or the weight as recorded on a health card if the child was weighed at birth. Sixty eight percent of births in the Swaziland MICS were weighed at birth. First, the two items are cross-tabulated for those children who were weighed at birth to obtain the proportion of births in each category of size who weighed less than 2500 grams. This proportion is then multiplied by the total number of children falling in the size category to obtain the estimated number of children in each size category who were of low birth weight. The numbers 16 for each size category are summed to obtain the total number of low birth weight children. This number is divided by the total number of live births to obtain the percentage with low birth weight. In Swaziland, approximately 5 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth (Table 20). The prevalence of low birth weight births varies slightly across regions, urban and rural areas and as well as by mother’s education. E. Child Health Immunization coverage According to UNICEF and WHO guidelines, a child should receive a BCG vaccination to protect against tuberculosis, three doses of DPT to protect against diptheria, pertussis, and tetanus, three doses of polio vaccine, and a measles vaccination by the age of 12 months. In MICS, mothers were asked to provide vaccination cards for children under the age of five. Interviewers copied vaccination information from the cards onto the MICS questionnaire. Mothers were also probed to report any vaccinations the child received that did not appear on the card. Overall, 86 percent of children had health cards. If the child did not have a card, the mother was read a short description of each vaccine and asked to recall whether or not the child had received it and, for DPT and Polio, how many times. Table 21 shows the percentage of children aged 12 to 23 months who received each of the vaccinations. The denominator for the table is comprised of children aged 12-23 months so that only children who are old enough to be fully vaccinated are counted. In the top panel, the numerator includes all children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey according to the vaccination card or the mother’s report. In the bottom panel, only those who were vaccinated before their first birthday are included. For children without vaccination cards, the proportion of vaccinations given before the first birthday is assumed to be the same as for children with vaccination cards. Approximately 94 percent of children aged 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months and the first dose of DPT was given to 92.6 percent. The percentage declines for subsequent doses of DPT to 87.8 percent for the second dose, and 77.7 percent for the third dose (Figure 4). Similarly, 91.4 percent of children received Polio 1 by age 12 months and this declines to 75.1 percent by the third dose. The coverage for measles vaccine by 12 months is lower than for the other vaccines at 72.3 percent. This is primarily because, although 61 percent of children received the vaccine, only around 40 percent received it by their first birthday. As a result, the percentage of children who had all eight recommended vaccinations by their first birthday is low at only 59.2 percent. 17 Figure 5: Percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received immunizations by age 12 months, Swaziland 2000 0 20 40 60 80 100 BCG DPT Polio Measles Dose 1 Dose 2 Dose 3 In Table 22, the percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases is shown according to background characteristics. Unlike the previous table, the estimates in this table refer to children who received the vaccinations by the time of the survey, even if they did not occur prior to the age of 12 months. Male and female children are vaccinated at roughly the same rate. Urban children are more likely to be vaccinated than rural children. Regional breakdowns are based on small numbers of cases and should be viewed with caution, but it appears that the Hhohho region has the highest coverage rates for most vaccinations and the highest percentage of children who have received all of the recommended vaccinations. The Hhohho also has the highest percentage of children with health cards at 83.3 percent. Vaccination coverage is highest among children whose mothers have secondary or higher education. Diarrhea Dehydration caused by diarrhea is a major cause of mortality among children in Swaziland. Home management of diarrhea – either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) - can prevent many of these deaths. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhea. In the MICS questionnaire, mothers (or caretakers) were asked to report whether their child had had diarrhea in the two weeks prior to the survey. If so, the mother was asked a series of questions about what the child had to drink and eat during the episode and whether this was more or less than the child usually ate and drank. Overall, 21 percent of under five children had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey (Table 23). Diarrhea prevalence was significantly 18 higher in the Lubombo region at 23 percent than in other regions. The peak of diarrhea prevalence occurs in the weaning period, among children age 6-23 months. Table 23 also shows the percentage of children receiving various types of recommended liquids during the episode of diarrhea. Since mothers were able to name more than one type of liquid, the percentages do not necessarily add to 100. Over 46 percent of the children received breast milk while they had diarrhea. Children under age 12 months are especially likely to have received breast milk. About 32.6 percent of children received gruel and 66.3 percent received ORS. Children of mothers with other post high appear to be less likely than other children to receive ORS and breast milk and gruel. Approximately 92 percent of the children with diarrhea received one or more of the recommended home treatments (i.e., were treated with ORS or RHF). About 27 percent of under five children with diarrhea drank more than usual while 57.2 percent drank the same or less (Table 24). About 30 percent ate somewhat less, the same, or more than usual while 66 percent ate much less than usual or none. Overall, only 6.9 percent of children with diarrhea received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended. Acute respiratory infection Acute lower respiratory infections, particularly pneumonia, are one of the leading causes of child deaths in Swaziland. In the MICS questionnaire, children with acute respiratory infection are defined as those who had an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or difficult breathing and whose symptoms were due to a problem in the chest, or both a problem in the chest and a blocked nose, or whose mother did not know the source of the problem. Only ten percent of under five children had an acute respiratory infection in the two weeks prior to the survey according to these criteria (Table 25). Of these, 21.6 percent were taken to a hospital, 31 percent were taken to a Health Centre. Fewer than five percent were taken to any other type of health provider. Overall, almost 60.9 percent of children with ARI were taken to an appropriate health provider (i.e., doctor, specialist, nurse/health assistant, hospital). IMCI initiative The Integrated Management of Childhood Illnesses (IMCI) is a programme developed by UNICEF and WHO that combines strategies for control and treatment of five major killers of children – acute lower respiratory tract infections, diarrheal dehydration, measles, malaria, and malnutrition. The programmed focuses on the improvement of case management skills by health workers, improvement of the health system, and improvement of family and community practices in the prevention and early management of childhood illnesses. Appropriate home management of illness is one component of IMCI. The approach teaches mothers that appropriate home management of diarrhea or any other illness requires giving more fluids and continuing to feed sick children as they are normally fed. Table 26 presents information on the drinking and eating behavior of sick children. Over 41 percent of children were reported to have had diarrhea or some other illness in the two weeks preceding the survey. Of these, 28.4 percent drank more liquids during the illness and 36.7 percent continued eating (i.e., ate somewhat less, the same, or more). Overall, only 9.4 percent of ill children received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended under the IMCI programmed. Promoting knowledge among caretakers about when it is appropriate to seek care for ill children is another important component of the IMCI programmed. In the Swaziland MICS, mothers or caretakers of children were asked to name all of the symptoms that would cause them to take a 19 child to a health facility right away. The most common response, given by 45.6 percent of mothers, was that they would take their child to a health facility right away if he/she developed a fever (Table 27). Thirty nine percent said that the child becoming sicker would cause them to take the child to a health facility, 20 percent mentioned child failing to drink beer and 14.8 percent mentioned difficulty breathing. Between 7 and 13.8 percent of mothers cited a drinking poorly difficult in breathing, blood in stools, as reasons for taking a child to a health facility right away. Among the regions, mothers in the Manzini and, to a lesser extent, in the Hhohhot are more likely than mothers in other regions to know the signs for seeking care immediately. Overall, 53.7 percent of mothers in the Manzini know at least two signs for seeking care compared to 40.8 percent in the Hhohho, 39 percent in the Lubombo region, and 32.8 percent in Shiselweni region. Differences are also reflected in the urban and rural areas; and as well as between educational levels. Mothers with no education were more likely to mention at least two signs for seeking care than other mothers. F. HIV/AIDS AIDS knowledge One of the most important strategies for reducing the rate of HIV/AIDS infection is the promotion of accurate knowledge of how AIDS is transmitted and how to prevent transmission. Among women aged 15-49 in Swaziland, 97.3 percent have ever heard of AIDS (Table 30). This percentage is higher in urban areas (98.6 percent) and there are no differences between company town and rural areas Women in the MICS were read several statements about means of HIV/AIDS transmission and asked to state whether they believed the statements were true. Sixty percent believe that having only one uninfected sex partner can prevent HIV transmission. Sixty two percent believe that using a condom every time one has sex can prevent HIV transmission. Overall, 49.5 percent knew both ways and 72.7 percent were aware of at least one of the means of preventing transmission. Accurate knowledge of the means of HIV/AIDS transmission is substantially less among women in the Lubombo than among other women. Also, education is a very important factor in AIDS knowledge. The percentage who know both means of preventing transmission is among women with secondary or more education compared to women with no education. Differences across age groups are not particularly large; the percentage of women who know both means ranges from 38.4 percent among 45-49 year olds to 51.5 percent among 30-34 year olds. Seventy one percent of women correctly stated that AIDS can’t be transmitted by supernatural means whereas 51 percent stated that AIDS can’t be spread by mosquito bites (Table 31). Eight in ten women correctly believe that a healthy looking person can be infected. Women in the Lubombo are more likely to believe misconceptions about AIDS transmission than other women. Women in the Manzini region are most likely to recognize all three misconceptions. Seventy two percent of women in Swaziland know that AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child (Table 32). When asked specifically about the mechanisms through which mother to child transmission can take place, 68.8 percent said that transmission during pregnancy was possible, 61.3 percent said that transmission at delivery was possible, and only 55.7 percent agreed that 20 AIDS can be transmitted through breast milk. About 47 percent of the women knew all three modes of transmission. This percentage varies according background categories. The MICS survey also attempted to measure discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS. To this end, respondents were asked whether they agreed with two questions. The first asked whether a teacher who has the AIDS virus but is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching in school. The second question asked whether the respondent would buy food from a shopkeeper or food seller who the respondent knew to be infected with AIDS. The results are presented in Table 33. Over seventy percent of the respondents believe that a teacher with HIV/AIDS should not be allowed to work. This percentage is highest in the Manzini region at 79.5 percent and lowest in the Lubombo at 62.3 percent. Urban women and those with secondary or higher education are more likely to express this discriminatory attitude than rural women and those with no or primary education. Fifty seven percent of women would not buy food from a person infected with AIDS. Women in the Manzini are the most likely and women in the Hhohho region are the second most likely to express a discriminatory attitude on this question. Overall, 22.6 percent of women agree with at least one of the discriminatory statements. Table 34 summarizes information from two previous tables on AIDS knowledge (Tables 30 and 31). The second column shows the percentage of women who know all two means of preventing HIV transmission – having one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time. Fourty nine percent of women know all two ways. The third column of the table shows the percentage of women who correctly identified all three misconceptions about HIV transmission – that HIV can be transmitted through supernatural means, that it can be transmitted through mosquito bites, and that a healthy looking person cannot be infected. Forty one percent of women correctly identified these misconceptions. Finally, the fourth column of the table shows the percentage of women who have ‘sufficient knowledge’ of HIV/AIDS transmission. These are women who know all two ways of preventing HIV transmission and correctly identified all three misconceptions. Only 26 percent of women aged 15-49 fall into this category. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission varies dramatically by level of education (Figure 5). Women with secondary or higher education are almost eight times more likely to know all three ways to prevent transmission than women with no education. They are also seven times more likely to correctly identify all three misconceptions about AIDS and 14 times more likely to have sufficient knowledge of HIV/AID transmission 21 Figure 6: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who have sufficient knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission by level of education, Swaziland, 2000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 Knows 2 ways to prevent transmission Correctly identified 3 misconceptions Has sufficient knowledge None Primary Secondary + AIDS testing Voluntary testing for AIDS, accompanied by counseling, allows those infected to seek health care and to prevent the infection of others. Testing is particularly important for pregnant women who can then take steps to prevent infecting their babies. The indicators shown in Table 35 are designed to monitor whether women are aware of places to get tested for HIV/AIDS, the extent to which they have been tested, and the extent to which those tested have been told the result of the test. In some places, a relatively large proportion of people who are tested do not return to get their results due to fear of having the disease, fear that their privacy will be violated, or other reasons. About sixty percent of women of reproductive age in Swaziland know a place to get tested for AIDS. Women living in Hhohho region are most likely to know a place, followed by those in the Manzini, Lubombo, and Shiselweni regions, respectively. Over 45 percent of women with no education know of a place to get tested compared to 52 percent of women with primary school education and 70 percent of women with secondary or higher education. About 17.3 percent of women have been tested for AIDS. This percentage is highest in Manzini region at 14 percent, lowest in the South at 8 percent and 9-10 percent in the other regions. The vast majority of women who have been tested were told the result, however, there is some variation across regions, age groups, and education levels. Among the regions, women in the Lubombo are least likely to have been told their result. Adolescent women (age 15-19) are the least likely of any age group to have been tested and least likely to know the result. Finally, women with no education are less likely than women with more education to be tested and least likely to have been told the result of the test. 22 G. Reproductive Health Contraception Current use of contraception was reported by 27.9 percent of married or in union women (Table 36). The most popular method is the injection which is used by women in Swaziland. The next most popular method is which accounts for 6.0 percent of married women. Between one and 1.8 percent of women reported use of the IUD, and the condom. Fewer than one percent use periodic abstinence, withdrawal, male sterilization, vaginal methods, or the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM). Contraceptive prevalence is highest in the Manzini region at 31.4 percent and the lowest is Shiselweni at 24.9 percent. Adolescents are far less likely to use contraception than older women. Only about 20 percent of married or in union women aged 15-19 currently use a method of contraception compared to 28 percent of 20-24 year olds and 28.4 percent of older women. Women’s education level is strongly associated with contraceptive prevalence. The percentage of women using any method of contraception rises from 19 percent among those with no education to 23 percent among women with primary education, and to 37 percent among women with secondary or higher education. In addition to differences in prevalence, the method mix varies by education. Prenatal care Quality prenatal care can contribute to the prevention of maternal mortality by detecting and managing potential complications and risk factors, including pre-eclampsia, anemia, and sexually transmitted diseases. Antenatal care also provides opportunities for women to learn the danger signs of pregnancy and delivery, to be immunized against tetanus, to learn about infant care, and be treated for existing conditions, such as malaria and anemia. Tetanus toxoid injections are given to women during pregnancy to protect infants from neonatal tetanus, a major cause of infant death that is due primarily to unsanitary conditions during childbirth. Two doses of tetanus toxoid during pregnancy offer full protection. However, if a woman was vaccinated during a previous pregnancy, she may only need a booster to give full protection. Five doses are thought to provide lifetime protection. Over seventy nine percent women with recent births in Swaziland are protected against neonatal tetanus (Table 37). The vast majority of these women received two or more doses of tetanus toxoid within the last three years. Among the regions, women living in the Lubombo are most likely to be protected (87 percent) while those living in the Hhohho are the least likely to be protected (73 percent). Note, however, that the regional estimates are based on small numbers of cases and should be interpreted with caution. Women with primary education are more likely to be protected against tetanus than those with either no education or secondary or higher education. Female respondents who had had a birth in the year prior to the Swaziland MICS were asked whether they had received antenatal care for the birth and, if so, what type of person provided the care. If the woman saw more than one type of provider, all were recorded in the questionnaire. Table 38 presents the percent distribution of women with a birth in the year prior to the MICS by the type of personnel who delivered antenatal care. If more than one provider was mentioned by the respondent, she is categorized as having seen the most skilled person she mentioned. 23 Virtually all women in Swaziland receive some type of prenatal care and 87 percent receive antenatal care from skilled personnel (doctor, nurse, midwife). Over 70% of women with a birth in the year prior to the survey received antenatal care from a from a nurse, and 8 percent from a doctor (Figure 6). Traditional Birth Attendants provided prenatal care for 3.6 percent of women and for 10 percent. Relative/friends and Traditional Birth Attendants assisted 10.7 and 9.7 percent respectively. A majority of these come from the Shiselweni region. 24 Figure 7: Percent distribution of women with a birth in the last year by type of personnel delivering antenatal care, Swaziland, 2000 Doctor 56% Nurse 6% Midwife 12% Health Asst. 16% TBA 10% None 0% Assistance at delivery The provision of delivery assistance by trained attendants can greatly improve outcomes for mothers and children by the use of technically appropriate procedures, and accurate and speedy diagnosis and treatment of complications. Skilled assistance at delivery is defined as assistance provided by a doctor, nurse, or midwife. About 70 percent of births occurring in the year prior to the MICS survey were delivered by skilled personnel (Table 39). This percentage is highest in the Manzini region at 77 percent and lowest in the Sheselweni at 62 percent. The more educated a woman is, the more likely she is to have delivered with the assistance of a skilled person. More than one half of the births in the year prior to the MICS survey were delivered with assistance by a midwife. H. Child Rights Birth registration The International Convention on the Rights of the Child states that every child has the right to a name and a nationality and the right to protection from being deprived of his or her identity. Birth registration is a fundamental means of securing these rights for children. The births of 53.5 percent of children under five years in Swaziland have been registered (Table 40). There are no significant variations in birth registration across sex, age, or education categories. Children in the Sheselweni and Lubombo are somewhat less likely to have their births registered than other children but this appears to be due primarily to a relatively large proportion of mothers who indicated that the process cost too much. 25 Orphanhood and living arrangements of children Children who are orphaned or living away from their parents may be at increased risk of impoverishment, discrimination, denial of property rights and rights to inheritance, various forms of abuse, neglect, and exploitation of their labor or sexuality. Monitoring the level of orphanhood and the living arrangements of children assists in identifying those who may be at risk and in tracking changes over time. In Swaziland, 38 percent of children aged 0-14 are living with both parents (Table 41). A substantial percentage - 29 percent – are living with their mother only although their father is alive. About 14 percent are living with neither parent although both parents are alive. Children who are not living with a biological parent comprise 19.7 percent and children who have one or both parents dead amount to 11 percent of all children aged 0-14. Older children are more likely to live away without their biological parents than younger children. While only eleven percent of children under age five are not living with a biological parent, 26 percent of children aged 10-14 do so. The situation of children in the Shiselweni differs from that of other children in Swaziland. In the Shiselweni region, 34.6 percent of children live with both parents. Over 23 percent are not living with abiological parent. This pattern is most likely due to labour migration of men and, to some extent women, from this region to the other regions and South Africa. Child labour It is important to monitor the extent to which children work and the type of work in which they participate for several reasons. Children who are working are less likely to attend school and more likely to drop out. This pattern can trap children in a cycle of poverty and disadvantage. Working conditions for children are often unregulated with few safeguards against potential abuse. In addition, many types of work are intrinsically hazardous and others present less obvious hazards to children, such as exposure to pesticides in agricultural work, carrying heavy weights and scavenging in garbage dumps. In Swaziland, the MICS survey estimates that only about one percent of children aged 5-14 years engage in paid work (Table 42). About 1.5 – 4 percent – participate in unpaid work for someone other than a household member. ‘Domestic work’ is defined as cooking, shopping, cleaning, washing clothes, fetching water, and caring for children. Over 74 percent of children do these tasks for less than four hours a days while 3 percent spend more than four hours a day on such tasks. Overall, girls are somewhat more likely than boys and older children (aged 10-14) are more likely than younger children (aged 5-9 years) to do domestic work. Children who have done any paid or unpaid work for someone who is not a member of the household or who did more than four hours of housekeeping chores in the household or who did other family work are considered to be ‘currently working’. Overall, 11.8 percent of children are classified as currently working. There is virtually no difference between boys and girls (11.8 percent of boys and 11.9 percent of girls). Regionally, the percentage of children working is lowest in the Shiselweni region at 8.6 percent and highest in the Manzini at 13.3 percent. Urban children are more likely to work than rural children. 26 Appendix A: Sample Design Appendix B: List of Personnel Involved in the Swaziland MICS Appendix C: Questionnaires Table 1: Number of households and women, and response rates, Swaziland, 2000 2735 1028 427 4190 2735 1028 427 4190 2735 1028 427 4190 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 3802 1122 364 5288 3559 1066 341 4966 93.6 95.0 93.7 93.9 2827 509 161 3497 2685 488 155 3328 95.0 95.9 96.3 95.2 Sampled households Occupied households Completed households Household response rate Eligible women Interviewed women Women response rate Children under 5 Interviewed children under 5 Child response rate Rural Urban Company Town Area Total Table 2: Single year age distribution of household population by sex, Swaziland, 2000 14276 3.1 14753 3.1 12803 2.8 12916 2.7 14200 3.1 14143 2.9 14903 3.2 13682 2.8 16497 3.6 13818 2.9 15091 3.3 13920 2.9 14750 3.2 15749 3.3 14005 3.0 13004 2.7 14216 3.1 13614 2.8 15084 3.3 12815 2.7 17002 3.7 15653 3.3 13499 2.9 12643 2.6 14130 3.1 14014 2.9 13199 2.9 13157 2.7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Age Number Percent Male Number Percent Female Sex Page 1 Table 2: Single year age distribution of household population by sex, Swaziland, 2000 12326 2.7 14356 3.0 12989 2.8 9776 2.0 13498 2.9 10407 2.2 9666 2.1 10113 2.1 11687 2.5 11508 2.4 9046 2.0 9522 2.0 9403 2.0 11096 2.3 7605 1.6 9530 2.0 5224 1.1 8800 1.8 6145 1.3 8882 1.8 5705 1.2 8233 1.7 5503 1.2 8015 1.7 5902 1.3 7499 1.6 5055 1.1 7003 1.5 6070 1.3 6903 1.4 4730 1.0 4892 1.0 5847 1.3 7771 1.6 4117 .9 4987 1.0 6559 1.4 7587 1.6 3791 .8 4235 .9 3726 .8 4563 .9 5058 1.1 5685 1.2 3809 .8 5972 1.2 3726 .8 4085 .8 3972 .9 5337 1.1 4113 .9 3620 .8 4971 1.1 5831 1.2 2756 .6 3540 .7 4943 1.1 4093 .9 3299 .7 2732 .6 2645 .6 2845 .6 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 Age Number Percent Male Number Percent Female Sex Page 2 Table 2: Single year age distribution of household population by sex, Swaziland, 2000 3580 .8 3581 .7 2568 .6 2685 .6 2283 .5 2456 .5 3319 .7 2847 .6 2027 .4 1863 .4 4041 .9 5568 1.2 2061 .4 3122 .6 3124 .7 4404 .9 2567 .6 3205 .7 1874 .4 1795 .4 2324 .5 2417 .5 2185 .5 1792 .4 1200 .3 1516 .3 1909 .4 2223 .5 1676 .4 1366 .3 3198 .7 3192 .7 1444 .3 859 .2 1677 .4 1245 .3 1401 .3 1676 .3 1285 .3 1168 .2 1436 .3 1132 .2 623 .1 665 .1 701 .2 893 .2 1411 .3 1292 .3 1092 .2 934 .2 7027 1.5 8444 1.8 6800 1.5 5487 1.1 462376 100.0 481127 100.0 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70+ Missing/DK Age Total Number Percent Male Number Percent Female Sex Page 3 Table 3: Percentage of cases missing information for selected questions, Swaziland, 2000 .0 620448 .0 630788 .0 10594 Level of education Year of education Number of hours worked Percent missing Number Table 3: Percentage of cases missing information for selected questions, Country, Year .0 5642 .0 76 .0 5431 Complete birth date Date of last tetanus toxoid injection Ever been tested for HIV Percent missing Number Table 3: Percentage of cases missing information for selected questions, Country, Year .0 3681 .0 3681 .8 3681 .2 3681 Complete birth date Diarrhoea in last 2 weeks Weight Height Percent missing Number Page 4 Table 4: Percent distribution of households by background characteristics, Swaziland, 2000 28.6 1199 1199 31.2 1309 1309 17.8 746 746 22.3 936 936 65.3 2735 2735 24.5 1028 1028 10.2 427 427 17.2 719 719 20.7 867 867 20.4 856 856 16.5 690 690 10.5 440 440 14.7 618 618 100.0 4190 4190 Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10+ Number of HH members Total Percent Number Unweighted Table 4: Percent distribution of households by background characteristics, Swaziland, 2000 69.3 4189 4189 48.1 4189 4189 73.1 4190 4190 At least one child age < 15 At least one child age < 5 At least one woman age 15-49 Percent Number Unweighted Page 5 Table 4a: Percent distribution of households by background characteristics, Swaziland, 2000 26.2 41.1 14.1 28.6 25.2 50.1 24.6 31.2 25.0 5.9 .0 17.8 23.5 2.9 61.4 22.3 8.9 28.6 42.6 17.2 15.5 32.3 25.8 20.7 20.7 20.7 17.8 20.4 20.3 9.5 8.4 16.5 13.9 4.8 2.3 10.5 20.6 4.1 3.0 14.7 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 2735 1028 427 4190 2735 1028 427 4190 Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region 1 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10+ Number of HH members Total Number Unweighted Rural Urban Company Town Area Total Table 4a: Percent distribution of households by background characteristics, Country, Year 80.7 51.8 38.9 69.3 57.3 32.3 26.9 48.1 77.6 69.2 53.6 73.1 2735 1028 427 4190 2735 1028 427 4190 At least one child age < 15 At least one child age < 5 At least one woman age 15-49 Number Unweighted Rural Urban Company Town Area Total Page 6 Table 5: Percent distribution of women 15-49 by background characteristics, Swaziland, 2000 28.1 1586 1476 31.2 1763 1683 20.6 1163 1037 20.0 1130 1075 72.8 4110 3801 20.3 1146 1104 6.8 386 366 24.0 1355 1263 20.9 1177 1102 15.5 877 821 13.0 735 686 11.6 656 614 8.8 496 462 6.1 346 323 47.8 2696 2516 8.3 469 440 43.9 2478 2315 71.0 4009 3745 29.0 1634 1526 18.0 1017 948 .2 10 9 78.0 4401 4113 3.7 207 194 .1 7 7 100.0 5642 5271 Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age Currently married Formerly married Never married Marital status Yes No Ever given birth None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Percent Number Unweighted Page 7 Table 6: Percent distribution of children under 5 by background characteristics,Swaziland, 2000 51.4 1847 1760 48.6 1749 1668 25.6 919 874 28.3 1019 998 24.7 890 813 21.4 768 743 82.0 2949 2793 13.3 479 473 4.7 169 162 9.4 338 323 11.4 407 389 19.9 712 678 20.1 718 685 20.4 728 694 18.8 674 641 .2 6 6 46.8 1319 1252 51.7 1457 1396 1.0 27 26 .2 6 6 100.0 2816 2686 Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Percent Number Unweighted Page 8 Table 9: Percentage of children aged 36-59 months who are attending some form of organized early childhood education programme, Swaziland, 2000 4.7 321 5.9 369 10.2 279 20.9 216 41.0 143 11.5 747 13.2 655 12.6 371 14.2 381 11.4 353 10.5 297 8.6 1163 29.9 183 31.7 56 8.5 728 16.3 674 .0 2 6.6 528 23.4 507 .0 9 100.0 1 14.7 1048 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Attending programme Number of children World Summit for Children Goal => Number 26 Page 9 Table 10b: Percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5, Swaziland, 2000 78.1 79.7 81.2 81.0 40.9 84.7 81.0 85.7 85.9 50.5 85.0 87.4 83.7 88.3 54.9 79.2 88.1 83.9 86.2 50.4 81.1 89.4 84.3 91.8 56.1 80.8 83.3 83.4 84.3 47.3 84.1 85.2 83.8 88.0 52.8 83.6 86.4 87.0 89.1 56.0 78.5 81.2 80.1 81.9 41.8 89.0 89.3 82.6 90.1 59.1 77.5 78.2 86.1 83.3 43.5 82.9 84.6 84.2 86.6 51.1 74.2 82.4 75.2 82.9 38.1 100.0 78.2 90.4 82.6 58.4 82.3 84.2 83.6 86.1 49.8 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area 1.00 Percent in grade 1 reaching grade 2 Percent in grade 2 reaching grade 3 Percent in grade 3 reaching grade 4 Percent in grade 4 reaching grade 5 Percent who reach grade 5 of those who enter grade 1 World Summit for Children Goal => Number 6 Page 10 Table 11: Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school, Swaziland, 2000 3.5 28188 4.1 26718 3.8 54906 3.0 32541 4.8 29205 3.9 61746 5.7 24498 5.5 23407 5.6 47905 4.6 16697 5.8 15298 5.2 31995 12.4 10581 10.3 11305 11.3 21886 4.0 30927 5.8 29063 4.9 59991 5.8 33530 7.1 31905 6.4 65435 3.8 29939 3.6 28649 3.7 58587 6.0 23381 5.5 21795 5.7 45177 3.9 102534 4.7 94373 4.3 196907 11.6 11539 10.3 13022 10.9 24561 10.5 3703 8.7 4017 9.6 7720 20.3 15091 20.2 13920 20.2 29011 9.7 14750 14.6 15749 12.2 30498 2.5 14005 3.0 13004 2.7 27009 2.7 14216 1.7 13614 2.2 27829 1.3 15084 .6 12815 1.0 27899 .7 17002 1.3 15653 1.0 32655 .3 13499 .6 12643 .5 26142 .8 14130 .6 14014 .7 28144 4.8 117777 5.5 111412 5.2 229189 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Age Total Attending Number Attending primary school Male Attending Number Attending primary school Female Sex Attending Number Total World Summit for Children Goal => Number 6 Page 11 Table 12: Percentage of the population aged 15 years and older that is literate, Swaziland, 2000 64.5 .9 45671 63.2 .4 52854 63.8 .6 98525 77.8 .5 53070 72.8 .3 61016 75.1 .4 114086 82.8 .9 48377 81.6 .5 51856 82.2 .7 100233 87.7 .4 44932 85.8 .4 44276 86.8 .4 89208 93.2 .2 37020 92.6 .3 42972 92.9 .2 79992 85.2 .4 67444 79.4 .3 73279 82.2 .4 140724 83.5 .9 72619 82.7 .5 84518 83.1 .6 157137 75.2 .7 48486 77.5 .1 57662 76.5 .3 106148 74.6 .4 51046 69.1 .5 51943 71.8 .4 102990 78.1 .7 177443 75.1 .3 201328 76.5 .5 378771 88.5 .3 43226 87.8 .3 50437 88.1 .3 93663 83.9 .0 18926 84.5 .8 15638 84.2 .3 34564 86.7 .3 90970 89.4 .4 97867 88.1 .3 188836 86.6 .4 51299 86.7 .2 63454 86.6 .3 114753 83.1 .4 39293 78.9 .0 43740 80.9 .2 83033 74.0 1.1 27444 60.8 .5 31527 66.9 .8 58971 60.7 1.5 18300 49.9 .9 17455 55.4 1.2 35755 42.7 1.6 12290 28.9 .6 13360 35.5 1.1 25650 80.4 .6 239595 78.1 .3 267403 79.2 .5 506998 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area 15-24 25-34 35-44 45-54 55-64 65+ Age Total Literate Not known Number Male Literate Not known Number Female Sex Literate Not known Number Total World Summit for Children Goal => Number 7 Page 12 Table 13: Percentage of the population using improved drinking water sources, Swaziland, 2000 16.3 13.0 16.8 4.5 5.9 .0 .1 17.2 25.3 12.5 17.9 12.7 3.0 2.7 .0 .0 10.2 37.6 4.7 5.3 23.2 2.6 10.3 .0 .1 19.0 30.8 16.3 7.4 16.1 7.9 3.0 .2 1.5 8.5 37.8 4.8 8.2 17.0 5.2 6.1 .0 .4 16.2 40.0 34.9 26.6 19.3 1.2 3.3 .0 .0 4.6 4.6 62.8 18.7 8.8 .0 .0 .0 .0 3.7 6.0 12.5 11.5 16.9 4.3 5.3 .0 .3 13.7 32.8 Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area Total Piped into dwelling Piped into yard or plot Public tap Tubewell/b orehole with pump Protected dug well Protected spring Rainwater collection Unprotected dug well Pond, river or stream Main source of water World Summit for Children Goal => Number 4 Page 13 Table 13: Percentage of the population using improved drinking water sources, Swaziland, 2000 .2 .7 .2 100.0 56.4 253305 2.3 .9 .2 100.0 48.7 280179 .3 1.6 2.2 100.0 46.0 216099 1.0 .2 .1 100.0 50.9 193921 .5 .8 .8 100.0 41.3 748773 3.8 1.5 .3 100.0 84.9 143752 .1 .0 .0 100.0 90.3 50979 1.0 .9 .7 100.0 50.6 943504 Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area Total Tanker truck vendor Other Missing/DK Main source of water Total Total with safe drinking water Number of persons World Summit for Children Goal => Number 4 Table 14: Percentage of the population using sanitary means of excreta disposal, Swaziland, 2000 15.0 1.5 14.2 42.2 .4 26.6 100.0 72.9 253305 13.5 1.1 13.3 54.5 1.5 16.0 100.0 81.7 280179 3.0 .7 27.8 33.3 5.7 29.5 100.0 64.7 216099 18.0 1.1 8.8 37.4 1.0 33.7 100.0 64.9 193921 3.5 .9 17.3 44.2 2.5 31.6 100.0 65.6 748773 36.4 1.2 12.6 46.9 .7 2.3 100.0 96.6 143752 76.1 3.9 5.4 10.9 .0 3.6 100.0 96.0 50979 12.4 1.1 16.0 42.8 2.1 25.6 100.0 72.0 943504 Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area Total Flush to sewage system/septic tank Pour flush latrine Improved pit latrine Traditional pit latrine Other No facilities/b ush/field Type of toilet facility Total Total with sanitary means of excreta disposal Number of persons World Summit for Children Goal => Number 5 Page 14 Table 15: Percentage of under-five children with missing height or weight, Swaziland, 2000 .6 858 1.4 913 .8 751 .4 542 1.6 384 1.0 1847 .9 1749 1.0 919 .7 1019 .6 890 1.5 768 .9 2949 .4 479 3.1 169 .3 338 .8 407 2.0 712 .6 718 .4 728 1.1 674 .0 6 .8 1319 1.1 1457 .0 27 .0 6 .9 2816 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Missing height or weight Number of children World Summit for Children Goal => Number 3, 9, 26 Page 15 Table 15: Percentage of under-five children who are severely or moderately undernourished, Swaziland, 2000 15.5 3.0 38.2 15.7 1.6 .1 761 9.2 1.8 32.4 11.9 1.4 .1 840 10.4 2.8 31.7 12.7 1.5 .3 692 7.8 1.4 22.8 9.1 .6 .2 508 3.0 .3 13.6 3.0 1.2 .3 346 10.5 2.5 31.8 12.2 1.6 .3 1714 9.9 1.7 28.2 11.0 1.0 .1 1594 10.1 2.3 28.1 9.3 2.2 .4 871 8.9 1.6 26.8 10.7 .7 .1 940 12.4 2.5 38.3 15.7 1.5 .1 793 9.5 2.2 27.8 11.1 .9 .2 703 10.8 2.4 31.9 12.3 1.4 .2 2706 7.4 1.2 23.9 9.1 .7 .0 444 8.1 1.4 17.5 5.9 1.4 .7 157 2.3 .0 9.0 2.3 .8 .4 282 12.7 4.7 26.1 11.9 1.4 .3 385 13.6 3.9 39.9 14.3 2.5 .3 653 12.3 2.7 30.3 13.5 2.1 .3 674 9.3 .8 32.8 11.1 .3 .0 680 7.5 .7 28.9 11.4 .5 .0 620 50.5 16.5 67.0 33.0 .0 .0 6 12.1 2.8 33.2 13.6 1.3 .4 1193 7.3 1.3 24.6 8.8 1.3 .2 1343 .0 .0 22.8 4.4 .0 .0 23 .0 .0 33.5 33.5 .0 .0 6 9.6 2.0 28.7 11.1 1.2 .2 2572 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Weight for age: -2 SD Weight for age: -3 SD Height for age: -2 SD Height for age: -3 SD Weight for height: -2 SD Weight for height: -3 SD Number of children World Summit for Children Goal => Number 3, 9, 26 Page 16 Table 16: Percent of living children by breastfeeding status, Swaziland, 2000 34.8 115 62.0 145 78.8 138 29.6 106 56.8 123 75.8 122 20.3 57 70.7 71 78.3 63 32.3 66 63.4 72 71.0 78 42.0 54 49.1 58 81.4 65 35.8 43 53.0 66 80.8 54 32.2 171 59.5 209 78.8 213 34.3 38 69.3 40 70.9 32 27.6 11 42.1 20 71.5 15 . 0 . 0 100.0 1 29.9 75 55.2 78 79.3 92 36.2 101 66.3 140 78.3 105 .0 3 .0 1 100.0 1 50.0 2 100.0 1 . 0 33.1 181 62.2 220 79.0 199 Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Children 0-3 months Number of children Exclusive breastfeeding Children 6-9 months Number of children Complementary feeding rate Children 12-15 months Number of children Continued breastfeeding rate World Summit for Children Goal => Number 16 Page 17 Table 16: Percent of living children by breastfeeding status, Swaziland, 2000 20.4 98 27.8 155 31.8 69 20.0 61 21.4 67 26.0 56 22.7 210 41.9 29 23.2 13 .0 2 29.7 100 24.9 97 .0 2 . 0 26.8 201 Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Children 20-23 months Number of children Continued breastfeeding rate World Summit for Children Goal => Number 16 Page 18 Table 16w: Percent distribution of children by breastfeeding status, Swaziland, 2000 1.1 42.2 1.1 47.5 8.1 100.0 90 3.6 22.4 .9 38.9 34.1 100.0 116 4.7 7.8 3.8 27.1 56.6 100.0 109 7.0 4.1 .8 27.4 60.8 100.0 134 9.5 2.7 2.6 20.3 65.0 100.0 121 12.8 3.0 2.4 17.4 64.4 100.0 133 16.2 1.7 9.4 15.4 57.3 100.0 123 20.6 4.6 6.4 17.2 51.2 100.0 117 34.2 1.2 1.1 21.7 41.8 100.0 92 51.2 .0 2.3 15.3 31.2 100.0 90 63.2 2.0 3.1 6.0 25.7 100.0 106 84.4 .0 .8 4.1 10.7 100.0 127 89.5 .0 .8 1.5 8.2 100.0 140 95.3 .0 .9 .9 2.8 100.0 111 91.5 1.0 .0 .0 7.5 100.0 100 95.6 1.2 .0 1.1 2.2 100.0 95 99.0 .0 .0 .0 1.0 100.0 105 97.1 .0 .0 .0 2.9 100.0 110 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 24-25 26-27 28-29 30-31 32-33 34-35 Age Not breastfeeding Exclusively breastfed Breast milk and water only Breast milk and liquids only Breast milk and solid/mushy food Breastfeeding status Total Number of children Total Exclusively breastfed includes vitamin, mineral supplements and medicine Page 19 Table 17: Percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt, Swaziland, 2000 11.0 80.4 43.1 56.9 837 8.8 82.5 41.5 58.5 838 5.4 84.6 38.4 61.6 838 6.8 83.9 40.5 59.5 838 5.2 85.0 40.0 60.0 839 5.3 87.1 35.3 64.7 1199 9.0 82.8 37.7 62.3 1309 8.8 74.8 43.4 56.6 746 6.8 85.8 49.7 50.3 936 8.1 82.7 43.3 56.7 2735 5.8 85.7 32.0 68.0 1028 7.3 81.3 45.5 54.5 427 7.4 83.3 40.7 59.3 4190 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area Total Percent of households with no salt Percent of households in which salt was tested < 15 PPM 15+ PPM Result of test Total Number of household s interviewe d World Summit for Children Goal => Number 14 Page 20 Table 17a: Percentage of population consuming adequately iodized salt, Swaziland, 2000 8.0 83.1 46.1 53.9 202282 6.6 85.1 40.5 59.5 228921 5.0 86.3 41.5 58.5 190588 3.4 90.1 44.2 55.8 152554 3.2 88.8 41.8 58.2 122295 3.2 89.5 37.0 63.0 253305 7.9 85.1 40.1 59.9 280179 6.9 79.3 45.7 54.3 216099 5.0 89.7 51.3 48.7 193921 6.3 85.2 44.1 55.9 748773 4.0 88.8 34.2 65.8 143752 4.2 88.0 50.3 49.7 50979 5.8 85.9 42.8 57.2 943504 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area Total Percent of population with no salt Percent of population in which salt was tested < 15 PPM 15+ PPM Result of test Total Number of persons World Summit for Children Goal => Number 14 Page 21 Table 18: Percent distribution of children aged 6-59 months by whether they received a high dose of Vitamin A supplement in the last 6 months, Swaziland, 2000 3.6 2.9 1.8 14.2 77.5 100.0 769 2.7 3.8 2.0 16.4 75.1 100.0 829 4.9 4.2 3.5 16.9 70.6 100.0 669 4.8 5.0 1.1 17.5 71.6 100.0 478 7.4 3.3 2.4 14.6 72.4 100.0 345 3.6 4.0 2.6 16.5 73.4 100.0 1678 4.7 3.6 2.0 15.5 74.2 100.0 1577 5.7 3.3 2.9 14.0 74.1 100.0 830 4.6 4.5 2.0 14.1 74.7 100.0 924 4.2 4.0 2.1 24.8 64.9 100.0 804 1.5 3.3 2.2 10.7 82.4 100.0 696 3.8 3.9 2.3 16.4 73.6 100.0 2680 5.3 3.9 2.4 14.9 73.6 100.0 422 6.0 2.1 2.7 12.5 76.7 100.0 152 8.2 1.1 .3 10.1 80.4 100.0 407 4.0 2.9 1.8 16.2 75.1 100.0 712 3.7 5.3 2.3 14.1 74.6 100.0 718 3.6 4.4 3.3 18.5 70.2 100.0 728 2.9 4.1 2.8 18.7 71.5 100.0 674 .0 32.9 .0 16.5 50.6 100.0 6 3.3 4.6 1.6 16.4 74.2 100.0 1196 5.1 3.7 2.3 14.5 74.4 100.0 1279 4.4 9.2 13.8 13.6 58.9 100.0 23 .0 .0 .0 25.7 74.3 100.0 4 4.2 4.2 2.0 15.4 74.1 100.0 2508 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Received: within last 6 months Received: prior to last 6 months Received: not sure when Not sure if received Not received Vitamin A Total Number of children Total World Summit for Children Goal => Number 15 Page 22 Table 19: Percentage of women with a birth in the last 12 months by whether they received a high dose of Vitamin A supplement before the infant was 8 weeks old, Swaziland, 2000 19.2 7.5 203 15.4 9.2 209 19.2 5.1 169 17.6 8.5 126 17.7 10.7 107 20.8 9.1 212 14.3 7.5 279 17.5 5.7 199 22.2 9.0 176 18.9 7.3 668 16.1 10.5 149 15.8 6.9 47 19.8 6.1 174 17.7 8.5 668 20.2 .0 21 50.0 .0 2 18.2 7.8 865 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area None Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Received Vitamin A supplement Not sure if received Number of women World Summit for Children Goal => Number 15 Page 23 Working table for table 20 50.5 1.1 .02 88.3 2.0 111.9 2.1 .02 178.8 3.4 289.1 8.5 .03 433.0 12.8 58.8 13.9 .24 90.9 21.4 20.6 13.0 .63 31.4 19.7 .0 .0 .00 24.5 .0 2.1 .0 .00 8.5 .0 Very large Larger than average Average Smaller than average Very small Missing Don't know Size of child Number of weighed births Number of weighed births below 2500 grams Proportion of live births below 2500 grams Total number of births Estimated percent of live births below 2500 grams Page 24 Table 20: Percentage of live births in the last 12 months that weighed below 2500 grams at birth, Swaziland, 2000 7.6 49.1 203 8.2 62.2 209 8.7 63.1 169 8.8 68.0 126 6.5 81.4 107 6.5 64.5 212 8.4 67.9 279 9.0 53.0 199 7.9 58.5 176 8.0 58.6 668 8.0 73.5 149 7.3 68.7 47 9.4 56.8 174 7.7 62.2 668 2.6 84.9 21 13.3 100.0 2 8.0 61.8 865 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area None Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Percent of live births below 2500 grams Percent of live births weighed at birth Number of live births World Summit for Children Goal => Number 12 Page 25 Table 20a. Birth weight and size at birth 4.3 56.0 6.5 33.3 2.6 67.4 6.8 23.3 7.1 65.4 4.4 23.1 9.2 75.5 3.5 11.8 3.9 87.3 2.9 5.8 4.6 74.1 4.1 17.3 6.0 73.5 4.2 16.3 5.1 52.5 10.2 32.2 4.2 66.3 4.2 25.2 4.9 63.1 6.2 25.8 6.3 84.0 3.5 6.3 4.5 75.6 2.2 17.6 5.5 63.6 3.7 27.3 5.2 67.4 6.0 21.4 .0 94.9 5.1 .0 .0 100.0 .0 .0 5.1 67.4 5.5 22.0 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area None Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total <2500 2500+ DK/Missing Not weighted at birth Birth weight Page 26 Table 20a. Birth weight and size at birth 11.5 25.3 47.6 10.2 3.3 2.1 100.0 200 12.1 17.6 50.0 10.9 4.2 5.2 100.0 207 7.7 18.6 54.5 11.4 5.2 2.5 100.0 168 7.6 21.5 51.0 11.2 2.7 6.0 100.0 123 10.6 21.5 51.3 7.8 3.9 4.9 100.0 107 5.2 23.8 53.6 8.2 1.5 7.7 100.0 209 6.8 19.7 52.6 14.1 3.1 3.8 100.0 276 17.6 15.9 50.0 10.2 6.2 .0 100.0 197 13.9 24.9 44.7 8.5 4.3 3.6 100.0 174 10.5 21.2 51.2 10.1 4.1 2.9 100.0 662 8.4 15.5 52.1 14.1 2.1 7.9 100.0 147 13.4 34.3 38.4 6.9 2.3 4.8 100.0 46 7.8 25.5 50.4 11.9 2.6 1.9 100.0 169 11.2 19.5 50.2 10.5 4.1 4.5 100.0 664 4.9 30.2 64.9 .0 .0 .0 100.0 21 .0 .0 50.0 50.0 .0 .0 100.0 2 10.3 20.9 50.6 10.6 3.7 3.9 100.0 855 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area None Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Very large Larger than average Average Smaller than average Very small Don't know Size of child Total Number Page 27 Table 21 Percentage of children 12-23 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey, Swaziland, 2000 65.4 28.9 5.7 65.6 27.3 7.1 64.8 23.6 11.6 71.7 6.7 21.7 69.3 20.3 10.4 66.4 25.3 8.2 66.6 18.2 15.2 66.3 9.4 24.3 52.8 25.3 21.9 48.7 16.2 35.1 3.1 96.9 712.0 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated BCG Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated DPT1 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated DPT2 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated DPT3 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated Polio 0 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated Polio 1 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated Polio 2 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated Polio 3 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated Measles Vaccination Card Mother's Report Doesn't have all vaccinations All vaccinations Mother's Report Has some vaccinations No vaccinations Number of children World Summit for Children Goal => Number 22 Page 28 Table 21 Percentage of children 12-23 months immunized against childhood diseases before the first birthday, for children who had a complete date on their vaccination card, Country, Year 99.6 99.3 99.0 98.8 99.6 99.3 99.0 98.8 92.0 90.5 .0 BCG DPT 1 DPT 2 DPT 3 Polio 0 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Measles All vaccinations No vaccinations World Summit for Children Goal => Number 22 Page 29 Table 21 Percentage of children 12-23 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey, Country, Year 65.4 28.9 5.7 65.6 27.3 7.1 64.8 23.6 11.6 71.7 6.7 21.7 69.3 20.3 10.4 66.4 25.3 8.2 66.6 18.2 15.2 66.3 9.4 24.3 52.8 25.3 21.9 48.7 16.2 35.1 3.1 96.9 712.0 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated BCG Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated DPT1 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated DPT2 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated DPT3 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated Polio 0 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated Polio 1 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated Polio 2 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated Polio 3 Vaccination Card Mother's Report Not vaccinated Measles Vaccination Card Mother's Report Doesn't have all vaccinations All vaccinations Mother's Report Has some vaccinations No vaccinations Number of children World Summit for Children Goal => Number 22 Page 30 Table 21 Percentage of children 12-23 months immunized against childhood diseases before the first birthday, for children who had a complete date on their vaccination card, Country, Year 99.6 99.3 99.0 98.8 99.6 99.3 99.0 98.8 92.0 90.5 .0 BCG DPT 1 DPT 2 DPT 3 Polio 0 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Measles All vaccinations No vaccinations World Summit for Children Goal => Number 22 Table 21 Percentage of children 12-23 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey and before the first birthday, Cote d'Ivoire, 2000 65.4 65.6 64.8 71.7 69.3 66.4 66.6 66.3 52.8 48.7 28.9 27.3 23.6 6.7 20.3 25.3 18.2 9.4 25.3 16.2 94.3 92.9 88.4 78.3 89.6 91.8 84.8 75.7 78.1 64.9 93.9 92.2 87.6 77.4 99.6 91.1 84.0 74.7 71.9 58.7 Vaccination card Mother's report Either Vaccinated by 12 months of age BCG DPT 1 DPT 2 DPT 3 Polio 0 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Measles All World Summit for Children Goal => Number 22 Page 31 Table 21 Percentage of children 12-23 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey and before the first birthday, Cote d'Ivoire, 2000 .0 712.0 3.1 712.0 3.1 712.0 3.1 712.0 Vaccination card Mother's report Either Vaccinated by 12 months of age None Number of children World Summit for Children Goal => Number 22 Table 22: Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases, Cote d'Ivoire, 2000 93.6 92.6 88.4 73.7 88.4 91.9 86.0 71.4 70.1 95.6 92.5 87.5 76.8 90.0 91.9 83.1 74.3 78.0 92.6 91.9 89.2 79.7 89.8 91.2 85.8 79.0 79.6 95.6 92.3 85.7 82.3 92.2 90.0 82.3 79.0 79.0 97.3 96.1 94.8 86.5 94.7 93.3 89.2 83.7 91.8 94.4 92.0 86.7 77.2 89.5 92.3 84.8 75.4 77.2 94.1 93.6 89.9 79.3 89.6 91.3 84.8 75.9 79.0 96.4 95.8 92.9 82.1 93.5 91.7 87.5 79.2 81.0 91.0 90.5 85.6 77.1 87.1 90.5 83.6 76.6 76.1 94.6 94.7 88.7 76.7 88.1 92.9 84.5 74.3 73.6 95.8 90.2 86.6 77.5 90.1 92.2 83.8 71.8 83.1 94.6 92.9 88.9 77.5 89.4 92.3 85.7 75.5 77.4 90.3 90.4 83.9 81.8 88.2 89.3 80.7 77.4 78.4 100.0 100.0 93.7 84.0 96.7 90.3 80.5 74.1 90.4 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 65.2 92.6 91.2 83.8 70.9 88.0 90.7 82.2 68.6 75.5 96.2 96.2 94.7 87.4 92.8 94.3 88.5 84.0 85.2 100.0 80.3 80.3 40.5 100.0 40.5 40.5 40.5 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 94.5 93.6 89.3 79.0 90.6 92.1 85.0 76.2 80.5 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total BCG DPT 1 DPT 2 DPT 3 Polio 0 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Measles Page 32 Table 22: Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases, Cote d'Ivoire, 2000 56.7 2.9 82.0 181 64.3 1.9 80.6 168 67.4 5.4 78.9 154 66.8 1.1 83.3 94 80.9 2.7 80.9 75 64.5 3.1 81.1 337 65.2 3.1 79.2 375 69.0 3.6 83.3 177 64.2 4.0 79.6 205 61.7 2.4 80.9 183 64.8 2.1 76.0 147 64.1 2.7 80.0 585 67.7 6.5 82.8 95 70.9 .0 74.0 32 65.2 .0 100.0 3 58.8 3.9 76.8 271 73.7 1.9 83.2 275 40.5 .0 60.2 5 100.0 .0 100.0 1 66.1 2.8 80.0 555 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total All None % with health card Number of children Page 33 Table 23: Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks and treatment with ORS or ORT, Swaziland, 2000 24.8 858 48.8 30.8 30.9 66.5 24.9 21.4 913 48.0 36.0 34.5 72.6 23.7 19.7 751 44.1 29.9 31.1 60.7 25.5 18.2 542 44.3 32.7 26.3 62.1 34.5 18.1 384 49.4 34.3 26.8 73.2 26.6 21.7 1847 48.8 32.2 32.1 65.8 24.9 20.4 1749 43.3 33.8 29.3 67.9 28.4 21.7 919 47.1 31.2 34.0 68.9 22.7 19.4 1019 42.3 38.2 24.2 68.6 27.8 20.5 890 50.4 34.2 24.1 59.6 24.7 23.2 768 45.4 27.8 41.3 69.8 31.3 21.1 2949 47.0 34.8 32.2 67.3 26.9 18.8 479 45.1 16.7 20.3 61.5 22.4 27.3 169 38.6 40.2 32.2 70.5 29.4 18.7 338 77.0 13.1 18.4 58.5 30.3 40.2 407 80.0 31.9 24.9 70.4 33.2 34.3 712 56.6 36.3 32.3 66.3 28.3 19.1 718 13.0 35.2 38.9 68.8 21.2 10.4 728 8.5 36.3 46.2 73.3 19.6 10.6 674 9.0 33.7 17.7 58.5 19.1 65.9 6 50.0 .0 25.0 50.0 25.0 21.2 1319 45.8 35.5 37.2 68.8 27.5 20.1 1457 53.7 29.5 27.9 65.0 27.5 22.8 27 33.7 .0 34.1 65.9 33.7 .0 6 . . . . . 20.7 2816 49.7 31.9 32.4 66.7 27.5 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Had diarrhea in last two weeks Number of children under 5 Breast milk Gruel Local acceptable ORS packet Other milk or infant formula World Summit for Children Goal => Number 23 Page 34 Table 23: Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks and treatment with ORS or ORT, Swaziland, 2000 24.8 91.0 9.0 213 34.3 94.1 5.9 195 34.6 91.5 8.5 148 32.6 94.7 5.3 99 43.3 94.1 5.9 70 32.6 93.2 6.8 401 31.9 91.7 8.3 357 33.8 95.3 4.7 199 38.2 92.3 7.7 198 19.9 87.9 12.1 183 36.7 94.2 5.8 178 31.4 92.5 7.5 622 29.6 88.6 11.4 90 49.7 100.0 .0 46 18.4 93.4 6.6 63 27.3 95.4 4.6 164 33.8 93.5 6.5 244 37.4 90.9 9.1 137 34.9 93.0 7.0 75 37.9 83.7 16.3 71 50.0 100.0 .0 4 31.5 93.9 6.1 279 36.4 93.2 6.8 293 33.0 100.0 .0 6 . . . 0 34.1 93.6 6.4 583 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Water with feeding Any recommende d treatment No treatment 1.00 Number of children with diarrhea World Summit for Children Goal => Number 23 Page 35 Table 24: Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks who took increased fluids and continued to feed during the episode, Swaziland, 2000 24.8 858 8.5 16.3 4.6 29.4 21.4 913 7.0 16.4 3.6 27.0 19.7 751 5.2 10.4 4.8 20.4 18.2 542 4.1 7.9 1.6 13.6 18.1 384 2.4 6.2 1.0 9.6 21.7 1847 29.4 53.6 17.0 100.0 20.4 1749 25.2 61.2 13.6 100.0 21.7 919 31.8 56.6 11.6 100.0 19.4 1019 25.8 57.7 16.5 100.0 20.5 890 19.0 61.3 19.8 100.0 23.2 768 33.0 53.0 13.9 100.0 21.1 2949 27.0 58.1 14.8 100.0 18.8 479 27.8 49.7 22.5 100.0 27.3 169 31.9 59.1 9.0 100.0 18.7 338 16.7 56.5 26.8 100.0 40.2 407 25.4 59.9 14.7 100.0 34.3 712 25.8 60.9 13.4 100.0 19.1 718 34.2 52.1 13.8 100.0 10.4 728 35.8 57.2 7.0 100.0 10.6 674 26.4 47.1 26.5 100.0 65.9 6 .0 75.0 25.0 100.0 21.2 1319 27.0 58.2 14.8 100.0 20.1 1457 25.5 59.1 15.4 100.0 22.8 27 .0 82.9 17.1 100.0 .0 6 .0 .0 .0 .0 20.7 2816 25.8 59.0 15.2 100.0 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Had diarrhea in last two weeks Number of children under 5 More Same/Less Missing/DK Drinking during diarrhea Total World Summit for Children Goal => Number 23 Page 36 Table 24: Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks who took increased fluids and continued to feed during the episode, Swaziland, 2000 7.1 21.3 1.0 29.4 4.5 213 10.1 16.1 .7 27.0 6.4 195 5.8 13.3 1.3 20.4 7.8 148 4.3 8.8 .6 13.6 9.5 99 3.1 6.2 .3 9.6 10.3 70 29.3 67.4 3.4 100.0 7.8 401 30.4 64.6 5.0 100.0 5.8 357 33.4 63.5 3.2 100.0 9.0 199 29.9 67.0 3.1 100.0 7.2 198 29.3 64.8 5.9 100.0 3.6 183 26.2 69.2 4.6 100.0 7.5 178 29.6 66.5 3.9 100.0 5.8 622 28.0 64.2 7.8 100.0 12.4 90 36.3 63.7 .0 100.0 11.4 46 38.1 53.5 8.4 100.0 4.9 63 23.6 72.6 3.8 100.0 6.3 164 28.1 68.5 3.4 100.0 4.3 244 41.2 55.0 3.8 100.0 15.2 137 22.2 74.9 2.9 100.0 2.8 75 28.2 65.9 6.0 100.0 7.5 71 50.0 50.0 .0 100.0 .0 4 32.2 66.7 1.1 100.0 6.0 279 26.0 69.4 4.7 100.0 6.4 293 66.3 16.6 17.1 100.0 .0 6 .0 .0 .0 .0 . 0 29.6 67.4 3.1 100.0 6.1 583 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total somewhat less/same/ more Much less/none Missing/DK Eating during diarrhea Total Received increased fluids and continued eating 1.00 Number of children with diarrhea World Summit for Children Goal => Number 23 Page 37 Table 25: Percentage of under-five children with acute respiratory infection in the last two weeks and treatment by health providers, Swaziland, 2000 9.9 858 22.3 28.3 .0 1.3 12.5 1.2 9.7 913 15.3 42.5 2.4 3.5 1.2 1.2 10.8 751 27.0 32.3 1.3 2.6 3.9 .0 10.4 542 22.3 32.0 3.6 .0 3.7 3.6 9.4 384 28.6 19.7 2.8 .0 11.7 8.5 10.0 1847 21.5 28.8 2.8 1.7 6.9 3.3 10.2 1749 22.2 34.7 1.7 1.8 5.9 .6 9.7 919 24.6 24.8 1.2 1.2 4.7 1.2 9.2 1019 22.8 38.0 4.3 3.3 3.3 6.5 12.0 890 17.1 23.4 1.0 2.1 7.2 .0 9.4 768 24.3 44.3 2.8 .0 11.4 .0 10.0 2949 20.5 32.6 2.5 2.2 7.2 1.4 11.4 479 27.6 23.9 1.9 .0 .0 5.6 8.7 169 28.4 43.0 .0 .0 14.3 .0 9.0 338 24.0 51.5 6.9 .0 7.2 .0 12.7 407 20.3 36.4 .0 .0 6.0 2.0 12.5 712 25.6 26.9 2.3 2.4 10.7 1.1 10.1 718 21.8 38.9 1.4 1.4 5.8 2.8 9.4 728 18.2 27.5 .0 1.5 3.2 1.5 7.3 674 18.9 19.2 6.2 4.3 4.2 4.2 32.9 6 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 10.4 1319 21.5 31.6 1.6 3.9 3.9 .7 10.0 1457 25.1 30.1 2.1 .7 7.3 4.2 .0 27 . . . . . . .0 6 . . . . . . 10.1 2816 23.2 30.6 1.8 2.2 5.6 2.5 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Had acute respitory infection Number of children under 5 Hospital Health centre Dispensary Village health worker MCH clinic Private physician World Summit for Children Goal => Number 24 Page 38 Table 25: Percentage of under-five children with acute respiratory infection in the last two weeks and treatment by health providers, Swaziland, 2000 5.0 5.0 63.2 85 6.2 1.2 61.2 89 3.8 10.4 60.7 81 1.8 9.3 61.5 56 .0 8.6 65.6 36 1.7 7.4 58.3 185 6.6 5.3 63.5 178 4.7 9.3 54.1 89 2.2 5.4 70.7 94 6.2 5.1 47.7 107 2.8 5.7 75.7 73 4.4 4.7 60.6 294 3.7 15.0 57.1 55 .0 7.3 78.4 15 3.5 3.6 78.8 31 4.0 4.0 62.7 52 6.0 3.5 64.4 89 3.0 8.6 67.9 73 4.7 6.3 48.7 68 2.1 12.6 46.5 49 .0 100.0 .0 2 5.5 3.1 57.7 137 .7 8.0 64.5 145 . . . 0 . . . 0 3.0 6.3 60.8 284 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Traditional healer Other Any appropriate provider 1.00 Number of children with ARI World Summit for Children Goal => Number 24 Page 39 Table 26: Percentage of children 0-59 months of age reported ill during the last two weeks who received increased fluids and continued feeding, Swaziland, 2000 43.3 858 7.9 15.2 2.8 25.9 42.4 913 7.1 17.4 2.5 27.0 38.6 751 5.3 12.4 2.4 20.1 40.7 542 5.0 9.5 .9 15.4 43.6 384 3.1 7.7 .8 11.7 41.2 1847 31.3 58.8 9.9 100.0 42.2 1749 25.2 66.1 8.7 100.0 43.0 919 32.0 61.9 6.1 100.0 40.4 1019 25.1 65.3 9.7 100.0 40.2 890 24.5 63.2 12.3 100.0 43.6 768 31.8 58.6 9.6 100.0 40.9 2949 27.5 63.1 9.3 100.0 43.5 479 32.9 56.4 10.7 100.0 50.1 169 27.3 66.5 6.2 100.0 42.5 338 10.2 75.8 14.0 100.0 59.5 407 23.2 65.6 11.2 100.0 50.8 712 26.1 64.2 9.6 100.0 40.0 718 34.3 58.1 7.7 100.0 34.1 728 36.2 59.2 4.6 100.0 30.8 674 33.3 55.1 11.6 100.0 65.9 6 .0 75.0 25.0 100.0 41.4 1319 26.8 63.5 9.7 100.0 41.5 1457 29.8 62.0 8.1 100.0 38.3 27 .0 89.8 10.2 100.0 50.3 6 .0 100.0 .0 100.0 41.5 2816 27.9 63.1 8.9 100.0 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Reported illness in last two weeks Number of children under 5 More Same/Less Missing/DK Drinking during illness Total Monitoring IMCI and Malaria Indicator Page 40 Table 26: Percentage of children 0-59 months of age reported ill during the last two weeks who received increased fluids and continued feeding, Swaziland, 2000 8.6 16.6 .7 25.9 8.9 372 11.8 14.7 .5 27.0 9.5 388 7.0 12.4 .7 20.1 8.7 289 5.4 9.7 .3 15.4 9.9 221 4.4 6.9 .4 11.7 11.5 168 36.9 60.6 2.5 100.0 10.9 761 36.3 60.8 2.9 100.0 7.7 738 43.0 55.1 1.9 100.0 12.0 395 35.5 62.8 1.7 100.0 8.4 411 34.0 61.8 4.3 100.0 7.9 358 33.3 63.6 3.1 100.0 8.6 335 37.5 60.0 2.6 100.0 8.8 1206 31.6 65.0 3.4 100.0 13.1 209 36.9 60.6 2.5 100.0 7.5 85 41.6 51.0 7.4 100.0 2.8 144 27.2 70.2 2.6 100.0 6.4 242 33.8 63.9 2.3 100.0 7.0 362 42.8 55.4 1.8 100.0 15.3 287 37.1 61.6 1.3 100.0 10.6 248 39.5 57.4 3.1 100.0 11.2 207 50.0 50.0 .0 100.0 .0 4 38.1 60.3 1.6 100.0 8.5 546 34.7 62.7 2.6 100.0 10.9 605 69.4 20.5 10.2 100.0 .0 10 34.6 65.4 .0 100.0 .0 3 36.6 61.2 2.2 100.0 9.6 1168 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total somewhat less/same/ more Much less/none Missing/DK Eating during illness Total Received increased fluids and continued eating 1.00 Number of sick children Monitoring IMCI and Malaria Indicator Page 41 Table 27: Percentage of caretakers of children 0-59 months who know at least 2 signs for seeking care immediately, Swaziland, 2000 24.9 39.5 49.9 14.6 12.0 12.8 7.3 23.0 38.8 45.3 12.7 10.4 14.5 6.0 19.1 40.2 44.7 16.7 13.9 15.2 8.6 13.7 37.0 44.5 14.5 13.8 11.1 7.3 14.2 39.6 42.5 17.7 19.5 17.4 6.7 27.9 38.8 39.8 16.4 12.5 8.7 6.1 22.9 47.6 55.5 15.9 12.8 19.1 8.8 16.4 28.5 41.0 8.8 7.1 14.2 7.5 12.4 40.5 45.8 18.3 19.4 12.3 5.5 20.9 37.9 47.0 13.1 11.1 13.2 7.2 20.3 48.3 43.2 24.7 18.5 19.8 6.0 10.5 34.4 33.0 15.4 24.8 7.5 7.9 17.6 82.4 49.5 33.0 .0 33.0 .0 20.5 39.0 47.4 13.5 11.6 14.3 8.2 20.2 41.0 44.1 15.7 14.3 14.2 6.6 30.6 64.9 57.6 26.7 19.0 22.8 18.9 .0 48.3 32.2 .0 .0 17.4 .0 20.4 40.4 45.8 14.8 13.0 14.3 7.4 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Not able to drink/breas tfeed Becomes sicker Develops a fever Has fast breathing Has difficult breathing Has blood in stool Is drinking poorly Monitoring IMCI and Malaria Indicator Page 42 Table 27: Percentage of caretakers of children 0-59 months who know at least 2 signs for seeking care immediately, Swaziland, 2000 46.1 858 42.6 913 43.3 751 38.6 542 38.6 384 40.9 919 53.5 1019 33.3 890 39.0 768 42.0 2949 46.5 479 33.9 169 49.5 6 43.4 1319 41.8 1457 53.4 27 32.2 6 42.7 2816 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Knows at least two signs Number of caretakers Monitoring IMCI and Malaria Indicator Page 43 Table 28: Percentage of children 0-59 months of age who slept under an insecticide-impregnated bednet during the previous night, Swaziland, 2000 .2 98.7 1.0 857 51.6 48.4 2 .1 97.4 2.5 913 100.0 .0 1 .1 97.2 2.6 751 .0 100.0 1 .0 98.4 1.6 542 .0 .0 0 .5 98.7 .8 384 47.0 53.0 2 .2 97.9 1.9 1846 68.3 31.7 3 .2 98.3 1.6 1749 29.8 70.2 3 .0 99.7 .3 919 .0 .0 0 .1 99.6 .3 1019 .0 100.0 1 .5 93.5 6.1 889 73.8 26.2 4 .1 99.5 .4 768 .0 100.0 1 .2 97.7 2.1 2947 41.1 58.9 5 .2 99.4 .4 479 100.0 .0 1 .0 100.0 .0 169 .0 .0 0 .0 97.7 2.3 338 .0 .0 0 .5 97.9 1.6 406 47.0 53.0 2 .2 98.6 1.2 712 100.0 .0 1 .3 97.1 2.6 718 51.6 48.4 2 .2 98.5 1.3 728 .0 100.0 1 .0 98.2 1.8 674 .0 .0 0 .2 98.1 1.8 3577 49.6 50.4 6 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age Total Yes No DK/missing Slept under a bednet Number of children Yes No Bednet treated Children who slept under a bednet Monitoring IMCI and Malaria Indicator Page 44 Table 29: Percentage of children 0-59 months of age who were ill with fever in the last two weeks who received anti-malarial drugs, Swaziland, 2000 2.5 858 55.0 30.1 25.2 .0 5.1 2.8 913 36.8 12.0 4.3 .0 4.0 3.2 751 43.5 25.8 4.3 .0 8.9 6.1 542 62.9 28.1 .0 .0 3.1 8.6 384 87.5 18.8 .0 .0 3.1 3.8 1847 62.6 25.4 7.7 .0 2.9 4.1 1749 57.0 18.9 4.5 .0 6.0 3.5 919 84.0 19.3 .0 .0 .0 5.8 1019 63.8 25.8 1.7 .0 6.9 4.3 890 42.6 20.1 17.2 .0 5.7 1.5 768 27.4 18.1 9.0 .0 .0 3.0 2949 54.7 21.8 9.9 .0 6.0 9.1 479 62.7 28.0 .0 .0 2.3 6.1 169 89.7 .0 .0 .0 .0 3.1 338 50.1 .0 .0 .0 .0 5.9 407 47.7 12.7 4.6 .0 8.4 5.5 712 58.9 21.6 11.1 .0 5.4 3.2 718 49.7 31.7 4.8 .0 4.4 3.6 728 87.7 24.4 4.2 .0 .0 2.5 674 56.3 30.8 6.2 .0 6.6 .0 6 . . . . . 3.8 1319 44.3 23.5 13.2 .0 4.2 5.0 1457 68.7 19.9 .0 .0 5.7 .0 27 . . . . . .0 6 . . . . . 4.4 2816 58.7 21.4 5.4 .0 5.1 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Had a fever in last two weeks Number of children under 5 Paracetamol Chloroquine Fansidar Other Don't know Monitoring IMCI and Malaria Indicator Page 45 Table 29: Percentage of children 0-59 months of age who were ill with fever in the last two weeks who received anti-malarial drugs, Swaziland, 2000 35.2 22 16.3 26 30.1 24 28.1 33 18.8 33 27.0 70 23.5 71 19.3 33 25.8 59 28.7 38 27.1 11 26.8 87 28.0 44 .0 10 .0 10 17.2 24 27.1 39 31.7 23 28.6 26 30.8 17 . 0 30.0 50 19.9 73 . 0 . 0 24.0 123 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Any appropriate anti-malarial drug 1.00 Number of childern with fever Monitoring IMCI and Malaria Indicator Page 46 Table 30: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, Cote d'Ivoire, 2000 96.1 50.0 51.5 41.5 59.9 40.1 1027 96.3 56.3 62.1 47.6 70.7 29.3 1208 97.9 61.9 63.3 50.7 74.6 25.4 1073 98.3 66.7 68.2 55.8 79.2 20.8 987 98.3 69.6 66.4 53.7 82.3 17.7 998 98.0 65.8 64.1 53.3 76.6 23.4 1586 97.3 65.1 64.8 53.7 76.1 23.9 1763 97.2 57.1 64.0 49.6 71.5 28.5 1163 96.5 48.0 52.2 37.3 62.8 37.2 1130 97.0 58.2 61.3 49.0 70.5 29.5 4110 98.6 68.5 65.5 52.5 81.5 18.5 1146 97.3 57.2 58.0 45.4 69.8 30.2 386 96.5 58.8 60.6 48.8 70.6 29.4 1355 97.5 64.2 66.1 52.7 77.5 22.5 1177 97.6 61.9 64.1 50.6 75.4 24.6 877 98.0 62.3 64.8 51.4 75.7 24.3 735 98.4 59.0 60.5 49.8 69.7 30.3 656 97.9 58.6 57.4 45.9 70.1 29.9 496 95.1 47.8 50.4 38.3 59.9 40.1 346 94.5 49.7 49.4 39.3 59.8 40.2 1017 88.6 33.1 44.5 33.1 44.5 55.5 10 97.9 62.0 64.1 51.2 74.8 25.2 4401 99.5 77.4 77.8 63.4 91.7 8.3 207 100.0 15.1 56.8 15.1 56.8 43.2 7 97.3 60.2 61.9 49.4 72.7 27.3 5642 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Heard of AIDS Have only one faithful uninfected sex partner Using a condom every time Knows both (two) ways Knows at least one way Doesn't know any way 1.00 Number of women Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Page 47 Table 30a: Percentage of women aged 15-19 who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, Swaziland, 2000 94.1 49.3 51.6 56.6 40.4 64.1 95.5 56.0 61.3 60.5 42.5 74.3 98.0 61.5 64.4 67.1 45.0 80.0 96.4 63.5 63.8 64.8 45.0 78.4 98.6 66.2 60.3 68.0 40.5 86.4 97.1 62.2 61.9 64.8 45.3 78.2 96.4 63.6 60.6 65.5 46.7 77.9 95.7 56.2 66.3 65.9 43.5 77.2 96.7 49.6 51.5 53.9 33.7 68.2 95.8 57.7 60.8 62.4 44.3 74.3 99.1 66.2 61.8 67.0 41.4 84.4 97.4 52.4 53.8 63.0 33.5 72.8 96.5 58.8 60.6 63.2 43.1 76.0 93.5 47.6 51.9 59.1 37.6 66.3 100.0 .0 34.0 34.0 .0 34.0 96.8 60.2 61.5 63.7 43.9 77.1 100.0 85.6 85.6 71.7 42.9 100.0 96.5 58.8 60.6 63.2 43.1 76.0 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area 15-19Age None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Woman's education level Total Heard of AIDS Have only one faithful uninfected sex partner Using a condom every time Abstaining from sex Knows all three ways Knows at least one way Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Page 48 Table 30a: Percentage of women aged 15-19 who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, Swaziland, 2000 35.9 242 25.7 305 20.0 269 21.6 211 13.6 232 21.8 375 22.1 412 22.8 310 31.8 258 25.7 1033 15.6 239 27.2 83 24.0 1355 33.7 148 66.0 3 22.9 1196 .0 7 24.0 1355 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area 15-19Age None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Woman's education level Total Doesn't know any way 1.00 Number of women Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Page 49 Table 31: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who correctly identify misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, Swaziland, 2000 96.1 60.3 39.1 72.4 29.9 83.8 96.3 67.3 46.6 77.5 36.1 88.8 97.9 73.5 49.7 79.3 37.6 92.3 98.3 75.5 54.5 83.8 44.2 93.3 98.3 83.1 68.2 89.0 58.3 95.4 98.0 76.5 56.2 75.2 42.0 91.4 97.3 73.0 55.8 86.4 47.8 93.1 97.2 63.2 43.8 80.7 33.2 88.6 96.5 69.0 45.0 75.9 36.5 86.7 97.0 68.7 48.2 77.8 37.7 89.0 98.6 78.1 61.0 87.2 50.2 95.5 97.3 77.0 55.2 81.4 48.0 90.2 96.5 73.5 56.1 77.8 43.1 91.0 97.5 76.0 53.1 83.6 43.6 93.1 97.6 73.8 53.6 81.6 43.1 91.3 98.0 71.9 51.5 81.3 42.6 90.9 98.4 64.7 46.1 79.7 35.9 89.1 97.9 64.6 45.3 79.6 37.0 87.4 95.1 59.3 37.8 69.9 29.2 82.0 94.5 59.3 39.0 70.3 31.6 81.2 88.6 44.5 22.3 88.6 22.3 88.6 97.9 73.3 52.9 81.6 42.0 92.2 99.5 87.1 78.3 91.3 65.5 98.5 100.0 56.8 27.4 84.9 27.4 84.9 97.3 71.2 51.3 80.0 40.9 90.4 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Heard of AIDS AIDS can't be transmitted by supernatural means AIDS can't be transmitted by mosquito bites A healthy looking person can be infected Knows all three misconce ptions Knows at least one misconce ption Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Page 50 Table 31: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who correctly identify misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, Swaziland, 2000 16.2 1027 11.2 1208 7.7 1073 6.7 987 4.6 998 8.6 1586 6.9 1763 11.4 1163 13.3 1130 11.0 4110 4.5 1146 9.8 386 9.0 1355 6.9 1177 8.7 877 9.1 735 10.9 656 12.6 496 18.0 346 18.8 1017 11.4 10 7.8 4401 1.5 207 15.1 7 9.6 5642 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Doesn't correctly identify any misconcepti on 1.00 Number of women Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Page 51 Table 32: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who correctly identify means of HIV transmission from mother to child, Swaziland, 2000 64.4 61.6 52.2 51.8 42.5 36.2 1027 68.5 66.4 57.8 52.8 45.3 31.6 1208 71.0 68.3 60.9 54.5 47.5 29.0 1073 76.7 72.6 64.1 58.5 48.0 23.4 987 80.6 74.8 70.2 60.8 50.7 19.5 998 70.7 67.2 63.8 52.7 47.3 29.6 1586 73.8 71.1 63.4 57.3 49.1 26.0 1763 70.9 67.5 54.3 55.5 42.9 29.1 1163 73.1 68.3 61.2 57.8 47.4 27.5 1130 68.6 65.6 57.4 52.9 44.5 31.7 4110 84.7 80.5 74.6 65.3 55.9 15.3 1146 73.8 67.4 61.9 57.4 46.5 26.2 386 72.0 67.5 59.5 56.8 46.5 28.3 1355 75.8 72.4 63.3 59.2 49.3 24.2 1177 76.0 73.1 64.2 57.2 47.8 24.2 877 72.0 68.0 62.1 55.0 46.0 27.7 735 71.0 67.4 60.6 53.1 45.5 29.1 656 67.7 66.0 60.4 52.3 48.1 32.9 496 60.0 57.5 53.5 46.8 42.4 40.3 346 65.5 63.3 56.5 51.2 44.8 34.8 1017 55.5 55.5 44.1 33.7 22.3 44.5 10 73.2 69.6 61.5 56.6 47.4 27.0 4401 85.1 76.7 78.5 60.0 49.5 14.9 207 71.2 71.2 71.2 57.5 57.5 28.8 7 72.2 68.7 61.2 55.7 47.0 28.0 5642 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Know AIDS can be transmitted from mother to child Transmission during pregnancy possible Transmission at delivery possible Transmission through breastmilk possible Knows all three Did not know any specific way 1.00 Number of women Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Page 52 Table 33: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who express a discriminatory attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS, Swaziland, 2000 56.9 44.7 63.3 36.7 1027 64.2 51.4 71.2 28.8 1208 73.3 57.5 78.1 21.9 1073 80.2 64.2 84.8 15.2 987 89.0 70.2 92.0 8.0 998 74.1 60.1 78.8 21.2 1586 79.5 62.0 83.8 16.2 1763 67.3 48.4 71.2 28.8 1163 62.3 52.3 71.2 28.8 1130 67.9 53.4 73.7 26.3 4110 85.2 65.8 88.2 11.8 1146 76.5 65.0 82.8 17.2 386 71.5 56.4 77.9 22.1 1355 77.5 61.6 82.1 17.9 1177 77.7 62.0 82.0 18.0 877 72.1 55.4 77.1 22.9 735 68.3 53.8 74.1 25.9 656 65.7 51.4 70.8 29.2 496 57.0 44.1 62.0 38.0 346 55.8 42.4 61.8 38.2 1017 77.7 55.5 77.7 22.3 10 74.8 59.2 79.9 20.1 4401 92.9 75.7 96.9 3.1 207 41.7 42.5 56.1 43.9 7 72.0 56.7 77.3 22.7 5642 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Believe that a teacher with HIV should not be allowed to work Would not buy food from a person with HIV/AIDS Agree with at least one discriminatory statement Agree with neither discriminatory statement 1.00 Number of women Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Page 53 Table 34: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who have sufficient knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, Swaziland, 2000 96.1 37.7 29.9 17.1 1027 96.3 40.1 36.1 19.9 1208 97.9 43.7 37.6 20.2 1073 98.3 46.7 44.2 25.4 987 98.3 44.9 58.3 30.5 998 98.0 45.4 42.0 23.2 1586 97.3 46.4 47.8 27.6 1763 97.2 42.3 33.2 19.0 1163 96.5 31.8 36.5 17.5 1130 97.0 42.0 37.7 21.6 4110 98.6 44.3 50.2 24.3 1146 97.3 39.8 48.0 27.8 386 96.5 43.1 43.1 23.6 1355 97.5 46.5 43.6 24.4 1177 97.6 43.3 43.1 23.4 877 98.0 42.3 42.6 23.7 735 98.4 40.0 35.9 19.8 656 97.9 38.5 37.0 20.9 496 95.1 32.8 29.2 15.4 346 94.5 33.9 31.6 17.1 1017 88.6 33.1 22.3 10.8 10 97.9 44.0 42.0 23.2 4401 99.5 50.0 65.5 38.0 207 100.0 15.1 27.4 .0 7 97.3 42.3 40.9 22.6 5642 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Heard of AIDS Know 3 ways to prevent HIV transmission Correctly identify 3 misconception s about HIV transmission Have sufficient knowledge 1.00 Number of women Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Page 54 Table 35: Percentage of women aged 15-49 who know where to get an AIDS test and who have been tested, Swaziland, 2000 45.7 12.8 74.4 1027 52.9 14.8 74.6 1208 60.5 17.0 75.2 1073 66.5 19.6 76.5 987 75.9 23.4 84.3 998 66.6 18.3 76.6 1586 61.5 19.8 80.8 1763 51.4 15.7 76.0 1163 55.1 13.4 72.3 1130 54.1 15.1 74.9 4110 76.8 25.5 83.6 1146 65.9 15.1 71.0 386 51.4 8.9 63.3 1355 63.9 20.3 75.0 1177 67.6 23.0 78.9 877 62.8 21.1 84.1 735 59.9 17.5 80.6 656 57.9 18.2 80.9 496 51.2 14.5 80.8 346 46.5 14.0 75.0 1017 44.1 .0 . 10 61.4 17.2 76.9 4401 85.2 33.1 87.5 207 43.1 42.5 66.0 7 59.5 17.2 77.3 5642 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Know a place to get tested Have been tested If tested, have been told result 1.00 Number of women Monitoring HIV/AIDS Indicator Page 55 Table 36: Percentage of married or in union women aged 15-49 who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method, Swaziland, 2000 86.4 3.0 .0 3.7 .2 5.6 .2 .2 75.3 6.5 .0 4.0 1.0 11.3 .3 .0 69.7 8.1 .0 4.3 .6 13.0 1.1 .0 66.2 5.5 .0 4.8 1.0 17.0 3.5 .5 57.3 8.3 .3 12.3 3.6 11.9 5.1 .0 72.4 5.7 .1 4.8 1.5 10.8 2.8 .1 68.7 5.2 .0 6.9 1.5 13.1 2.2 .0 75.3 7.9 .0 4.7 1.0 10.1 .4 .0 74.3 5.4 .0 5.0 .4 12.2 1.1 .4 76.0 6.0 .1 4.0 .8 10.4 .8 .2 59.5 6.1 .0 9.4 2.8 15.3 5.8 .0 65.3 5.1 .0 11.6 .0 15.3 2.0 .0 81.0 3.6 .2 3.2 .8 8.1 1.2 .2 67.4 32.6 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 70.3 6.6 .0 5.5 1.2 13.2 1.7 .1 58.7 7.5 .0 16.8 2.8 5.7 6.6 .0 100.0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 72.4 6.0 .0 5.4 1.1 11.6 1.8 .1 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total No method Female sterilization Male sterilization Pill IUD Injections Condom LAM Current method World Summit for Children Goal => Number 10 Page 56 Table 36: Percentage of married or in union women aged 15-49 who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method, Swaziland, 2000 .0 .4 .4 100.0 12.7 1.0 13.6 561 .2 .9 .4 100.0 23.3 1.4 24.7 616 .9 1.3 1.1 100.0 27.1 3.2 30.3 498 .7 .7 .0 100.0 31.8 1.9 33.8 443 .3 .5 .5 100.0 41.5 1.3 42.7 416 .4 1.1 .3 100.0 25.8 1.9 27.6 804 .6 1.2 .6 100.0 28.9 2.4 31.3 767 .0 .2 .4 100.0 24.1 .6 24.7 554 .6 .2 .6 100.0 24.0 1.7 25.7 571 .5 .8 .5 100.0 22.1 1.9 24.0 2046 .2 .6 .2 100.0 39.5 1.1 40.5 486 .0 .6 .0 100.0 34.0 .6 34.7 164 .7 1.0 .2 100.0 17.0 2.0 19.0 638 .0 .0 .0 100.0 32.6 .0 32.6 3 .3 .7 .5 100.0 28.1 1.6 29.7 1936 .0 .9 .9 100.0 39.4 1.9 41.3 114 .0 .0 .0 100.0 .0 .0 .0 4 .4 .8 .4 100.0 25.9 1.7 27.6 2696 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Current method Total Any modern method Any traditional method Any method 1.00 Number of currently married women World Summit for Children Goal => Number 10 Page 57 Table 37: Percentage of mothers with a birth in the last 12 months protected against neonatal tetanus, Swaziland, 2000 81.2 .5 .0 81.8 203 85.5 .0 .0 85.5 209 79.1 .0 .0 79.1 169 78.9 .8 .0 79.7 126 82.4 .0 .0 82.4 107 74.1 .5 .5 75.1 212 83.6 .4 .0 83.9 279 79.7 .6 .0 80.2 199 87.4 .0 .0 87.4 176 82.6 .5 .2 83.3 668 70.7 .0 .0 70.7 149 93.0 .0 .0 93.0 47 80.2 .0 .0 80.2 174 81.5 .5 .2 82.2 668 74.4 .0 .0 74.4 21 100.0 .0 .0 100.0 2 81.1 .4 .1 81.6 865 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area None Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Received at least 2 doses, last within 3 years Received at least 3 doses, last within 10 years Received at least 5 doses during lifetime Protected against tetanus 1.00 Number of mothers World Summit for Children Goal => Number 22 Page 58 Table 38: Percent distribution of women aged 15-49 with a birth in the last year by type of personnel delivering antenatal ccare, Swaziland, 2000 3.7 6.9 80.8 1.6 4.8 2.1 100.0 5.2 5.2 78.2 1.6 6.2 3.6 100.0 5.1 3.8 85.3 1.9 1.9 1.9 100.0 5.0 11.7 75.6 .0 1.7 5.9 100.0 3.9 20.2 68.1 3.9 .0 3.9 100.0 1.0 7.6 81.7 .0 3.1 6.6 100.0 5.2 13.1 76.0 2.3 1.1 2.3 100.0 7.9 5.1 75.7 5.1 6.2 .0 100.0 4.2 4.2 82.0 .6 4.8 4.2 100.0 4.6 6.9 79.9 2.1 4.1 2.4 100.0 5.5 11.1 74.2 1.5 1.4 6.4 100.0 2.2 15.0 73.7 2.1 2.3 4.7 100.0 3.1 7.5 81.3 1.9 4.4 1.8 100.0 5.0 7.4 78.4 2.1 3.4 3.7 100.0 5.4 35.1 59.6 .0 .0 .0 100.0 .0 .0 100.0 .0 .0 .0 100.0 4.6 8.1 78.6 2.0 3.5 3.2 100.0 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area None Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total No antenatal care received Doctor Nurse/mid wife Auxiliary midwife Traditional birth attendant Other/missing Person delivering antenatal care Total World Summit for Children Goals => Numbers 9, 11 Page 59 Table 38: Percent distribution of women aged 15-49 with a birth in the last year by type of personnel delivering antenatal ccare, Swaziland, 2000 89.4 203 85.0 209 91.1 169 87.3 126 92.2 107 89.3 212 91.4 279 85.9 199 86.8 176 89.0 668 86.8 149 90.8 47 90.8 174 87.9 668 94.6 21 100.0 2 88.7 865 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area None Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Any skilled personnel 1.00 Number of women World Summit for Children Goals => Numbers 9, 11 Page 60 Table 39: Percent distribution of women aged 15-49 with a birth in the last year by type of personnel assisting at delivery Swaziland, 2000 3.2 47.5 3.2 15.6 20.9 2.6 6.9 5.8 59.7 5.2 11.3 10.8 4.1 3.2 3.8 67.3 5.1 8.5 9.6 1.9 3.8 9.3 67.0 2.5 6.0 5.1 5.9 4.2 16.6 70.7 3.8 2.0 2.0 3.9 .9 6.1 63.4 2.5 9.2 9.1 6.6 3.0 6.7 67.6 5.7 5.3 8.7 2.3 3.8 8.4 48.0 7.3 15.8 14.2 1.1 5.1 6.6 56.7 3.0 12.0 12.6 4.8 4.2 5.8 57.5 5.0 11.6 13.0 2.7 4.4 9.9 71.9 2.8 1.4 3.4 7.1 3.4 13.3 55.3 6.5 15.8 4.4 4.7 .0 9.2 54.7 3.7 11.3 15.0 3.0 3.1 5.9 60.6 5.2 10.1 10.0 3.8 4.4 20.1 79.9 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 50.0 .0 .0 50.0 .0 .0 6.9 59.9 4.7 10.0 10.9 3.6 4.0 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area None Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Doctor Nurse/mid wife Auxiliary midwife Traditional birth attendant Relative/friend Other/missing No assistance received Person assisting at delivery World Summit for Children Goal => Numbers 11 Page 61 Table 39: Percent distribution of women aged 15-49 with a birth in the last year by type of personnel assisting at delivery Swaziland, 2000 100.0 53.9 203 100.0 70.6 209 100.0 76.3 169 100.0 78.9 126 100.0 91.2 107 100.0 72.0 212 100.0 80.0 279 100.0 63.8 199 100.0 66.3 176 100.0 68.4 668 100.0 84.6 149 100.0 75.1 47 100.0 67.7 174 100.0 71.7 668 100.0 100.0 21 100.0 50.0 2 100.0 71.5 865 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urbain Company Town Area None Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Total Any skilled personnel 1.00 Number of women World Summit for Children Goal => Numbers 11 Page 62 Table 40: Percent distribution of children aged 0-59 months by whether birth is registered and reasons for non-registration, Swaziland, 2000 43.4 3.8 14.2 5.8 2.8 .6 2.3 15.9 48.2 4.2 9.3 6.5 3.3 .9 1.5 12.6 55.8 4.2 8.0 3.5 3.3 .3 1.7 14.2 57.4 4.8 5.7 3.7 4.8 .2 2.3 13.7 74.6 3.1 1.1 1.9 2.7 .8 1.0 6.2 54.2 3.5 8.2 4.8 3.7 .6 1.8 13.1 52.1 4.7 9.1 4.8 3.0 .7 1.7 13.7 52.8 3.2 6.1 4.6 2.9 .2 1.1 11.8 63.1 4.7 4.9 5.5 3.3 .2 1.3 8.3 46.7 3.4 13.9 4.2 1.4 .7 1.6 22.5 47.9 5.0 10.5 4.9 6.3 1.5 3.2 11.6 49.7 4.1 10.0 5.1 3.3 .6 1.7 14.5 71.6 4.0 2.3 3.2 3.6 .6 1.7 6.5 61.8 3.7 3.1 3.7 3.8 .6 2.5 14.0 47.4 1.3 7.2 5.6 4.3 .6 2.8 20.6 46.5 2.6 8.6 5.4 3.6 1.3 1.3 17.9 48.7 3.8 9.8 5.0 2.9 .4 1.9 16.0 58.3 4.4 6.5 5.7 3.3 .4 2.5 10.9 52.6 6.2 9.9 3.7 3.6 .6 1.0 11.5 59.7 4.2 9.3 4.2 2.9 .6 1.4 8.8 67.0 .0 33.0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 50.6 4.2 10.4 5.2 2.7 .3 2.6 13.6 60.4 3.1 5.3 4.5 3.3 1.0 1.1 12.4 31.1 11.5 11.4 3.9 .0 .0 3.8 19.2 34.9 .0 .0 .0 32.2 .0 16.1 16.8 55.5 3.7 7.8 4.8 3.0 .7 1.9 13.0 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Birth registered DK if birth registered Costs too much Must travel too far Didn't know it should be registered Late & didn't want to pay fine Doesn't know where to register Other Registration status Monitoring Children's Rights Indicator Page 63 Table 40: Percent distribution of children aged 0-59 months by whether birth is registered and reasons for non-registration, Swaziland, 2000 6.5 4.6 100.0 858 8.4 5.1 100.0 913 3.7 5.3 100.0 751 4.0 3.5 100.0 542 4.0 4.5 100.0 384 5.8 4.4 100.0 1847 5.3 4.8 100.0 1749 8.4 8.9 100.0 919 4.9 3.7 100.0 1019 2.8 2.7 100.0 890 6.2 3.0 100.0 768 6.3 4.6 100.0 2949 1.0 5.5 100.0 479 4.9 1.9 100.0 169 4.3 5.9 100.0 338 7.9 4.9 100.0 407 6.3 5.0 100.0 712 5.1 2.9 100.0 718 5.6 5.3 100.0 728 4.3 4.5 100.0 674 .0 .0 100.0 6 6.0 4.5 100.0 1319 4.2 4.6 100.0 1457 11.4 7.8 100.0 27 .0 .0 100.0 6 5.1 4.5 100.0 2816 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Reason DK or Missing 9.00 Registration status Total 1.00 Number of children Monitoring Children's Rights Indicator Page 64 Table 40: Percent distribution of children aged 0-59 months by whether birth is registered and reasons for non-registration, Swaziland, 2000 43.4 3.8 48.2 4.2 55.8 4.2 57.4 4.8 74.6 3.1 54.2 3.5 52.1 4.7 52.8 3.2 63.1 4.7 46.7 3.4 47.9 5.0 49.7 4.1 71.6 4.0 61.8 3.7 47.4 1.3 46.5 2.6 48.7 3.8 58.3 4.4 52.6 6.2 59.7 4.2 67.0 .0 50.6 4.2 60.4 3.1 31.1 11.5 34.9 .0 55.5 3.7 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Birth registered DK if birth registered Monitoring Children's Rights Indicator Page 65 Table 40: Percent distribution of children aged 0-59 months by whether birth is registered and reasons for non-registration, Swaziland, 2000 29.5 12.0 5.9 1.3 4.8 33.0 21.8 15.3 7.8 2.1 3.5 29.7 23.2 10.0 9.6 .8 4.8 41.0 16.4 10.6 13.8 .5 6.7 39.8 6.0 10.6 15.1 4.2 5.8 35.9 21.5 12.6 9.7 1.5 4.7 34.7 23.7 12.5 7.9 1.7 4.5 35.6 17.3 13.0 8.2 .6 3.2 33.8 17.3 19.4 11.6 .7 4.6 29.2 29.5 8.9 2.9 1.6 3.4 47.7 23.7 11.0 14.3 3.3 7.3 26.2 24.0 12.3 7.9 1.5 4.1 34.8 12.0 16.6 18.8 3.2 8.8 35.1 9.5 11.4 11.6 1.8 7.6 42.9 15.8 12.3 9.5 1.3 6.1 45.4 18.6 11.8 7.8 2.9 2.8 38.9 23.1 11.8 6.9 1.0 4.5 37.9 18.9 16.5 9.7 1.3 7.1 31.6 27.6 10.4 10.0 1.5 2.8 32.1 29.2 13.2 9.2 1.9 4.5 27.9 100.0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 25.5 12.7 6.6 .8 6.4 33.3 16.6 14.1 10.3 3.1 3.6 38.9 22.9 7.8 .0 .0 7.6 38.6 .0 .0 49.5 .0 24.7 25.8 21.5 13.2 8.3 1.8 5.2 35.9 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Costs too much Must travel too far Didn't know it should be registered Late & didn't want to pay fine Doesn't know where to register Other Registration status Monitoring Children's Rights Indicator Page 66 Table 40: Percent distribution of children aged 0-59 months by whether birth is registered and reasons for non-registration, Swaziland, 2000 13.4 100.0 858 19.7 100.0 913 10.5 100.0 751 12.1 100.0 542 22.4 100.0 384 15.3 100.0 1847 14.0 100.0 1749 23.8 100.0 919 17.3 100.0 1019 6.0 100.0 890 14.3 100.0 768 15.3 100.0 2949 5.4 100.0 479 15.1 100.0 169 9.6 100.0 338 17.2 100.0 407 14.9 100.0 712 14.9 100.0 718 15.6 100.0 728 14.1 100.0 674 .0 100.0 6 14.6 100.0 1319 13.3 100.0 1457 23.0 100.0 27 .0 100.0 6 14.1 100.0 2816 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area < 6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months Age None Primary Secondary Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Mother's education level Total Reason DK or Missing Registration status Total Number of children Monitoring Children's Rights Indicator Page 67 Table 41: Percentage of children 0-14 years of age in households not living with a biological parent, Swaziland, 2000 42.0 .9 2.1 12.8 1.7 30.6 5.8 2.4 38.4 .8 2.8 18.0 1.6 28.9 5.8 2.6 39.7 1.2 2.7 15.2 2.1 30.6 4.5 3.3 42.7 .6 2.6 14.1 3.4 27.8 4.0 3.3 56.6 .4 2.7 8.4 1.6 22.4 3.6 3.3 42.6 .8 2.5 14.7 2.0 28.7 4.7 2.7 42.0 .9 2.7 13.9 2.1 29.1 5.4 3.1 46.3 1.2 1.9 10.5 1.9 29.4 4.6 3.4 41.4 1.1 2.9 16.2 1.6 27.5 4.7 3.1 38.1 .4 3.0 17.8 2.5 29.1 5.7 1.8 43.7 .5 2.4 12.1 2.1 29.8 5.3 3.2 39.8 .9 2.6 15.3 2.1 30.2 5.1 2.7 56.2 .6 2.4 8.5 1.7 21.1 5.2 3.1 55.3 .2 2.4 8.3 1.5 22.5 2.9 6.1 46.3 .3 .9 9.4 .7 36.2 3.7 1.9 40.4 .8 2.5 16.6 1.8 27.6 5.6 3.5 40.3 1.3 4.4 16.9 3.5 22.8 5.9 3.2 42.3 .8 2.6 14.3 2.0 28.9 5.1 2.9 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area 0-4 years 5-9 years 10-14 years Age Total Living with both parents Living with neither: only father alive Living with neither: only mother alive Living with neither: both are alive Living with neither: both are dead Living with mother only: father alive Living with mother only: father dead Living with father only: mother alive Living arrangement Monitoring Children's Rights Indicator Page 68 Table 41: Percentage of children 0-14 years of age in households not living with a biological parent, Swaziland, 2000 .7 .9 100.0 17.5 11.3 99134 .6 .5 100.0 23.2 11.6 112147 .4 .3 100.0 21.3 10.9 88355 .6 .8 100.0 20.7 11.2 61713 .7 .2 100.0 13.1 9.0 41506 .6 .8 100.0 19.9 10.6 215982 .5 .5 100.0 19.5 11.5 208237 .6 .1 100.0 15.6 10.2 110932 .6 .8 100.0 21.8 10.9 120174 .5 1.2 100.0 23.6 12.1 107731 .6 .3 100.0 17.0 10.9 85382 .5 .7 100.0 20.9 11.2 359638 1.1 .2 100.0 13.1 10.9 48634 .7 .0 100.0 12.5 7.8 15946 .2 .4 100.0 11.3 5.8 141992 .8 .5 100.0 21.7 11.5 142247 .7 1.0 100.0 26.1 15.8 139980 .6 .6 100.0 19.7 11.0 424219 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area 0-4 years 5-9 years 10-14 years Age Total Living with father only: mother dead Impossible to determine Living arrangement Total Not living with a biological parent One or both parents dead Number of children Monitoring Children's Rights Indicator Page 69 Table 42: Percentage of children 5-14 years of age who are currently working, Swaziland, 2000 1.5 .7 74.2 4.3 5.54 11.3 65869 .7 .8 75.7 3.0 5.85 9.4 76487 .9 .8 79.2 3.2 8.20 11.6 58978 1.2 3.1 75.2 2.1 8.83 14.1 40572 .7 4.7 61.4 1.4 7.33 12.9 26475 1.1 1.3 73.2 3.0 7.57 11.8 143302 1.1 1.7 75.3 3.0 7.18 11.9 138925 1.0 1.3 69.5 3.4 7.07 11.2 74118 1.0 2.7 73.9 4.0 7.07 13.3 79506 1.0 1.0 79.2 1.0 5.89 8.7 73313 1.5 .7 74.5 3.6 10.21 14.9 55291 1.1 .7 76.5 3.1 7.16 11.1 243449 1.0 8.0 59.3 2.6 7.52 17.4 29537 .8 1.3 63.7 .8 12.69 13.5 9241 .5 1.5 65.4 1.7 4.85 8.0 142247 1.6 1.4 83.2 4.3 9.96 15.7 139980 1.4 1.3 72.1 3.8 6.66 11.9 82161 1.0 .6 77.1 3.3 6.29 10.1 107853 .9 2.8 73.4 2.0 9.14 13.8 86619 .0 .0 70.0 1.4 9.98 11.4 2752 .0 4.7 67.1 .0 .00 4.7 818 1.1 1.5 74.4 3.0 7.30 11.8 280203 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area 5-9 years 10-14 years Age None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Paid work Unpaid work Domestic work: < 4 hours/day Domestic work: 4 or more hours/day Family work (farm or business) Currently working Number of children Monitoring Children's Rights Indicator Page 70 Table 42a: Percentage of children 5-14 years of age who are currently working, Swaziland, 2000 1.5 .7 74.2 4.3 5.54 11.3 65869 .7 .8 75.7 3.0 5.85 9.4 76487 .9 .8 79.2 3.2 8.20 11.6 58978 1.2 3.1 75.2 2.1 8.83 14.1 40572 .7 4.7 61.4 1.4 7.33 12.9 26475 1.1 1.3 73.2 3.0 7.57 11.8 143302 1.1 1.7 75.3 3.0 7.18 11.9 138925 1.0 1.3 69.5 3.4 7.07 11.2 74118 1.0 2.7 73.9 4.0 7.07 13.3 79506 1.0 1.0 79.2 1.0 5.89 8.7 73313 1.5 .7 74.5 3.6 10.21 14.9 55291 1.1 .7 76.5 3.1 7.16 11.1 243449 1.0 8.0 59.3 2.6 7.52 17.4 29537 .8 1.3 63.7 .8 12.69 13.5 9241 .5 1.5 65.4 1.7 4.85 8.0 142247 1.6 1.4 83.2 4.3 9.96 15.7 139980 1.4 1.3 72.1 3.8 6.66 11.9 82161 1.0 .6 77.1 3.3 6.29 10.1 107853 .9 2.8 73.4 2.0 9.14 13.8 86619 .0 .0 70.0 1.4 9.98 11.4 2752 .0 4.7 67.1 .0 .00 4.7 818 1.1 1.5 74.4 3.0 7.30 11.8 280203 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Wealth Index Quintiles Male Female Sex Hhohho Manzini Shiselweni Lubombo Region Rural Urban Company Town Area 5-9 years 10-14 years Age None Primary Secondary + Non-standard curriculum Missing/DK Woman's education level Total Paid work Unpaid work Domestic work: < 4 hours/day Domestic work: 4 or more hours/day Family work (farm or business) Currently working Number of children Monitoring Children's Rights Indicator Page 71

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