Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2005: Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women

Publication date: 2005

SERBIASERBIA MULTIPLE INDICATORMULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEYCLUSTER SURVEY 20052005 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Publisher UNICEF Belgrade For publisher Ann-Lis Svensson UNICEF Area Representative for Serbia, Croatia and Montenegro Editor Oliver Petrovic UNICEF Belgrade Programme Specialist Proofreading Rowland Palairet Design Rastko Toholj Cover photo Zoran Jovanovic Maccak Printed by Stojkov, Novi Sad Print run 600 Published in May, 2007 Contributors to the report MICS Global team Oliver Petrovic Ivana Bjelic Dragisa Bjeloglav Dragana Djokovic–Papic The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) in Serbia was carried out by the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia (SORS) and Strategic Marketing Research Agency (SMMRI). Financial and technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The survey has been conducted as part of the third round of MICS (MICS3), carried out around the world in more than 50 countries, in 2005–2006, following the first two rounds of MICS surveys that were conducted in 1995 and 2000. Survey tools are based on the models and standards developed by the global MICS project, designed to collect information on the situation of children and women in countries around the world. Additional information on the global MICS project may be obtained from www.childinfo.org. Suggested citation Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia and Strategic Marketing Research Agency. 2006. Republic of Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2005, Final Report. Belgrade, Republic of Serbia: Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia and Strategic Marketing Research Agency. SERBIASERBIA MULTIPLE INDICATOR MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2005CLUSTER SURVEY 2005 AcknowledgementsAcknowledgements The completion of the survey and this report would not be possible without the commitment and professionalism of teams of people, at home and abroad. UNICEF’s Global MICS team conceptualized and designed the MICS survey. Tessa Wardlaw, Edilberto Loiaiza, Trevor Croft, Marco Segone assisted in the survey design and provided excellent technical support throughout the whole process. Emma Holmberg and Ngagne Diakhate gave excellent on-line technical support on data processing and analysis. Turgay Unalan made some very valuable contributions to the draft report. Particularly valuable was the assistance provided by Attila Hancioglu and George Sakvarelidze. Their leadership, timely advice and team spirit were of critical importance in overcoming numerous constraints during both the complex and quality research. The Area representative for Serbia, Croatia and Montenegro, Ann-Lis Svensson, made some very thoughtful inputs in adapting the survey to national priorities, particularly with regards to the inclusion of the most excluded population group in the survey design. The Director of the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia, Dragan Vukmirovic, accepted the challenge of implementing this very comprehensive survey for the first time. Their team was very competently led by Dragana Djokovic–Papic. The other implementing partner, the Strategic Marketing Research Agency was led by Dragisa Bjeloglav, whose experience and knowledge was especially helpful in overcoming constraints. Ivana Bjelic of the Strategic Marketing Team, took on the challenge of operational coordination and communication with the global team. Both partners showed great commitment and flexibility in adopting all the changes emerging throughout the process, as well as professionalism in completing all the tasks to the highest standard and in a timely manner. Oliver Petrovic from UNICEF’s Belgrade Office successfully dealt with the challenge of overall coordination and reporting. Support of the line ministries, the Ministries of Health, Education and Social Welfare, was very important not only during the survey design phase, but also for the use of data for evidence-based policy changes. Particularly valuable were contributions from the Poverty Reduction Strategy implementation team, who supported us in maintaining focus on the most marginalized families in the country and who have already used the MICS3 findings for the second national PRS report. The technical contributions of the members of the Council for Children’s Rights in Serbia were very important, and their role in data use and dissemination is crucial. The National Roma Council and local Roma NGOs played an important role in conducting the survey with Roma families in the field. The implementation of the survey was made possible thanks to the Canadian International Developmental Agency, the Swedish International Developmental Agency, and UNICEF Set Aside Funds, who contributed with the funds required. ContentsContents LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 SUMMARY TABLE OF FINDINGS . . . . . . . . . . 9 EXECUTIVE SUMMARY. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Survey Objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 SAMPLE AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY. . . . . . . 21 Sample Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Questionnaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Training and Fieldwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Data Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 SAMPLE COVERAGE AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Sample Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Characteristics of Households . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Characteristics of Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . 26 CHILD MORTALITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 NUTRITION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Nutritional Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Low Birth Weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 CHILD HEALTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Immunization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Oral Rehydration Treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Care Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Solid Fuel Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 ENVIRONMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Water and Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Security of Tenure and Durability of Housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Unmet Need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Antenatal Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Assistance at Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 CHILD DEVELOPMENT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 EDUCATION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Pre-School Attendance and School Readiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Primary and Secondary School Participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Adult Literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 CHILD PROTECTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Birth Registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Child Labour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Child Discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Early Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Domestic Violence. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Child Disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 HIV/AIDS AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR . . . . . . . . 61 Knowledge of HIV Transmission and Condom Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Sexual Behaviour Related to HIV Transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 List of References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 APPENDICES Appendix A SAMPLE DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Appendix B LIST OF PERSONNEL INVOLVED IN THE SURVEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Appendix C ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Appendix D DATA QUALITY TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Appendix E MICS INDICATORS: NUMERATORS AND DENOMINATORS . . . . . . . . 97 Appendix F QUESTIONNAIRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 TABLE HH.1 Results of household and individual interviews . . . . . . . . . 143 TABLE HH.2 Household age distribution by sex. . . . . 144 TABLE HH.3 Household composition . . . . . . . . . . 145 TABLE HH.4 Women’s background characteristics . . . 146 TABLE HH.5 Children’s background characteristics . . . 147 TABLE CM.1 Child mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 TABLE CM.2 Children ever born and proportion dead. . . . . . . . . . . . 149 TABLE NU.1 Child malnourishment . . . . . . . . . . . 150 TABLE NU.2 Initial breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 TABLE NU.3 Breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 TABLE NU.4 Adequately fed infants . . . . . . . . . . 153 TABLE NU.5 Low birth weight infants . . . . . . . . . 154 TABLE CH.1 Vaccinations in first year of life . . . . . . 155 TABLE CH.1a Vaccinations in first year of life (BCG vaccine calculated to mother’s report only) . . . . . . . . . . 156 TABLE CH.2 Vaccinations by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 TABLE CH.3 Oral rehydration treatment . . . . . . . . 158 TABLE CH.4 Home management of diarrhoea . . . . . 160 TABLE CH.5 Care seeking for suspected pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 162 TABLE CH.6 Antibiotic treatment of pneumonia . . . . 163 TABLE CH.6a Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 TABLE CH.7 Solid fuel use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 TABLE CH.8 Solid fuel use by type of stove or fire . . . 166 TABLE EN.1 Use of improved water sources . . . . . . 167 TABLE EN.2 Household water treatment . . . . . . . . 168 TABLE EN.3 Time to source of water . . . . . . . . . 169 TABLE EN.4 Person collecting water . . . . . . . . . . 170 TABLE EN.5 Use of sanitary means of excreta disposal . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 TABLE EN.6 Disposal of child’s faeces . . . . . . . . . 172 TABLE EN.7 Use of improved water sources and improved sanitation. . . . . . . . . . 173 TABLE EN.8 Security of tenure . . . . . . . . . . . . . 174 TABLE EN.9 Durability of housing . . . . . . . . . . . 175 TABLE EN.10 Slum housing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 TABLE RH.1 Use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . 177 TABLE RH.2 Unmet need for contraception. . . . . . . 178 TABLE RH.3 Antenatal care provider . . . . . . . . . . 179 TABLE RH.4 Antenatal care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 TABLE RH.5 Assistance during delivery . . . . . . . . 181 TABLE CD.1 Family support for learning . . . . . . . . 182 TABLE CD.2 Learning materials. . . . . . . . . . . . . 183 TABLE CD.3 Children left alone or with other children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 TABLE ED.1 Early childhood education . . . . . . . . . 185 TABLE ED.2 Primary school entry . . . . . . . . . . . 186 TABLE ED.3 Primary school net attendance ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 TABLE ED.4 Secondary school net attendance ratio. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 TABLE ED.4w Secondary school age children attending primary school . . . . . . . . . 189 TABLE ED.5 Children reaching grade 5 . . . . . . . . . 190 TABLE ED.6 Primary school completion and transition to secondary education. . . 191 TABLE ED.7 Education gender parity . . . . . . . . . . 192 TABLE ED.8 Adult literacy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 TABLE CP.1 Birth registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 TABLE CP.2 Child labour . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 TABLE CP.3 Labourer students and student labourers . . . . . . . . . . . 196 TABLE CP.4 Child discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 TABLE CP.5 Early marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 TABLE CP.6 Spousal age difference . . . . . . . . . . 199 TABLE CP.7 Attitudes toward domestic violence . . . . 200 TABLE CP.8 Child disability . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 201 TABLE HA.1 Knowledge of preventing HIV transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 TABLE HA.2 Identifying misconceptions about HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 203 TABLE HA.3 Comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission . . . . . . . . . 204 TABLE HA.4 Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . 205 TABLE HA.5 Attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 206 TABLE HA.6 Knowledge of a facility for HIV testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 TABLE HA.7 HIV testing and counselling coverage during antenatal care . . . . . . 208 TABLE HA.8 Sexual behaviour that increases risk of HIV infection . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 TABLE HA.9 Condom use at last high-risk sexual encounter . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 List of TablesList of Tables List of FiguresList of Figures FIGURE HH.1 Age and sex distribution of household population, Serbia, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 FIGURE NU.1 Percentage of children under-5 who are undernourished, Serbia, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 FIGURE NU.1a Distribution of weight-for-age among children under five, Serbia, 2005 . . . . . . 32 FIGURE NU.1b Distribution of height-for-age among children under five, Serbia, 2005 . . . . . . 32 FIGURE NU.1c Distribution of weight-for-height among children under five, Serbia, 2005 . . . . . . 32 FIGURE NU.1d Prevalence of malnutrition in children under five, Serbia, 1996–2005 . . . . . . . 33 FIGURE NU.2 Percentage of mothers who started breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth, Serbia, 2005 . . . . . . . 34 FIGURE NU.3 Infant feeding patterns by age: Percentage distribution of children under the age of 3 by feeding pattern by age group, Serbia, 2005 . . . . . . . . 35 FIGURE NU.3a Progress in major breastfeeding indicators, Serbia, 1996–2005 . . . . . . . 36 FIGURE CH.1 Percentage of children aged 18–29 months who received the recommended vaccination by the age of 12 months (by 18 months in case of MMR). . . . . . . 39 FIGURE EN.1 Percentage distribution of household members by source of drinking water, Serbia, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 FIGURE RH.1 Use of contraception, modern and traditional contraceptive methods, Serbia, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 FIGURE ED.1 Percentage of children aged 36–59 months who are attending some form of organised early childhood education program, Serbia, 2005 . . . . . . . . . . . 54 FIGURE HA.1 Percentage of women who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, Serbia, 2005 . . . . . . . . . 62 FIGURE HA.2 Sexual behaviour that increases risk of HIV infection, Serbia, 2005 . . . . . . . 64 7MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN List of AbbreviationsList of Abbreviations AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome BCG Bacillis-Cereus-Geuerin (Tuberculosis) CSPro Census and Survey Processing System DPT Diphteria Pertussis Tetanus EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization GPI Gender Parity Index HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus IPV Inactivated Polio Vaccine IUD Intrauterine Device LAM Lactational Amenorrhea Method MDG Millennium Development Goals MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MMR Measles, Mumps, and Rubella MoH Ministry of Health NAR Net Attendance Rate NGO Non Governmental Organization ORS Oral Rehydration Solution ORT Oral Rehydration Therapy SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences SRSWoR Simple Random Sampling Without Replacement STI Sexually Transmitted Infection UNAIDS United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund WFFC World Fit For Children WHO World Health Organization 9MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN SummarySummary Table of FindingsTable of Findings Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Indicators, Serbia, 2005 TO P I C M I C S INDICATOR NUMBER M D G INDICATOR NUMBER I N D I C AT O R VA LU E CHILD MORTALITY Child mortality 1 1 13 Under-five mortality rate – Roma in Roma settlements 28 per thousand 2 14 Infant mortality rate – Roma in Roma settlements 25 per thousand NUTRITION Nutritional status 6 4 Underweight prevalence 1.6 percent 7 Stunting prevalence 5.9 percent 8 Wasting prevalence 3.3 percent Breastfeeding 45 Timely initiation of breastfeeding 17.4 percent 15 Exclusive breastfeeding rate 15.1 percent 16 Continued breastfeeding rate at 12–15 months 22.4 percent at 20–23 months 8.2 percent 17 Timely complementary feeding rate 39.0 percent 18 Frequency of complementary feeding 33.5 percent 19 Adequately fed infants 24.6 percent Low birth weight 9 Low birth weight infants 5.0 percent 10 Infants weighed at birth 97.9 percent CHILD HEALTH Immunization 25 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 74.1 percent 26 Polio immunization coverage 88.2 percent 27 DPT immunization coverage 89.7 percent 28 15 Measles (MMR) immunization coverage 84.1 percent 31 Fully immunized children 43.6 percent 1 The module on child mortality was used only for Roma living in Roma settlements 10 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT TO P I C M I C S INDICATOR NUMBER M D G INDICATOR NUMBER I N D I C AT O R VA LU E Care of illness 33 Use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) 94.0 percent 34 Home management of diarrhoea 26.2 percent 35 Received ORT or increased fluids, and continued feeding 71.0 percent 23 Care seeking for suspected pneumonia 92.5 percent 22 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 56.8 percent Solid fuel use 24 29 Solid fuels 33.5 percent ENVIRONMENT Water and Sanitation 11 30 Use of improved drinking water sources 98.9 percent 13 Water treatment 4.5 percent 12 31 Use of improved sanitation facilities 99.8 percent 14 Disposal of child’s faeces 36.7 percent Security of tenure and durability of housing 93 Security of tenure 16.5 percent 94 Durability of housing 0.4 percent 95 32 Slum household 18.9 percent REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Contraception and unmet need 21 19c Contraceptive prevalence 41.2 percent 98 Unmet need for family planning 28.5 percent 99 Demand satisfied for family planning 59.1 percent Maternal and newborn health 20 Antenatal care 98.2 percent 44 Content of antenatal care 99.0 percent Blood test taken 95.6 percent Blood pressure measured 95.5 percent Urine specimen taken 95.4 percent Weight measured 93.5 percent 4 17 Skilled attendant at delivery 99.0 percent 5 Institutional deliveries 98.8 percent CHILD DEVELOPMENT Child development 46 Support for learning 84.4 percent 47 Father’s support for learning 70.0 percent 48 Support for learning: children’s books 79.3 percent 49 Support for learning: non-children’s books 75.7 percent 50 Support for learning: materials for play 20.9 percent 51 Non-adult care 8.8 percent 11MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN EDUCATION Education 52 Pre-school attendance 32.5 percent 53 School readiness 89.0 percent 54 Net intake rate in primary education 93.6 percent 55 6 Net primary school attendance rate 98.4 percent 56 Net secondary school attendance rate 83.8 percent 57 7 Children reaching grade fi ve 99.8 percent 58 Transition rate to secondary school 97.1 percent 59 7b Primary completion rate 90.7 percent 61 9 Gender parity index primary school 1.00 ratio secondary school 1.08 ratio Literacy 60 8 Adult literacy rate 95.6 percent CHILD PROTECTION Birth registration 62 Birth registration 98.9 percent Child labour 71 Child labour 4.4 percent 72 Labourer students 93.4 percent 73 Student labourers 4.5 percent Child discipline 74 Child discipline Any psychological/physical punishment 72.7 percent Early marriage 67 Marriage before age 15 0.8 percent Marriage before age 18 8.4 percent 68 Young women aged 15–19 currently married/in union 5.8 percent 69 Spousal age diff erence Women aged 15–19 26.3 percent Women aged 20–24 13.7 percent Domestic violence 100 Attitudes towards domestic violence 6.2 percent Disability 101 Child disability 11.3 percent TO P I C M I C S INDICATOR NUMBER M D G INDICATOR NUMBER I N D I C AT O R VA LU E 12 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT HIV/AIDS AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes 82 19b Comprehensive knowledge about HIVprevention among young people 42.3 percent 89 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 57.0 percent 86 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS 36.5 percent 87 Women who know where to be tested for HIV 69.4 percent 88 Women who have been tested for HIV 7.0 percent 90 Counselling coverage for the preventionof mother-to-child transmission of HIV 14.3 percent 91 Testing coverage for the preventionof mother-to-child transmission of HIV 8.9 percent Sexual behaviour 84 Age at fi rst sex among young people 1.1 percent 92 Age-mixing among sexual partners 7.4 percent 83 19a Condom use with non-regular partners 74.4 percent 85 Higher risk sex in the last year 60.8 percent TO P I C M I C S INDICATOR NUMBER M D G INDICATOR NUMBER I N D I C AT O R VA LU E 13MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The Serbia Multiple Indicator Survey 2005 is a nationally representative sample survey of households, women and children. The results pertain to October 2005 – January 2006, when the fieldwork was conducted. Child mortality � The infant mortality rate among the Roma children living in Roma settlements is esti- mated at 25 per thousand live births, while the probability of dying under the age of 5 is around 28 per thousand live births (almost three times higher than national average). Nutritional status � 15 percent of children under the age of five are overweight. � The prevalence of child malnourishment (moderate and severe) in Serbia is relatively low: the prevalence of underweight is nearly 2 percent, 6 percent of children are stunted and 3 percent are wasted. � The opposite nutritional status is found among Roma children living in Roma settlements – while prevalence of malnourishment is several times higher than the national average (nearly 8 percent of children are underweight and 20 percent stunted), the prevalence of obesity is over two times lower (nearly 7 percent of Roma children are moderately or severely obese). Breastfeeding � Approximately 23 percent of children aged under four months were exclusively breastfed, whereas all infants should still be breastfed exclusively at this age. The percentage of ex- clusively breastfed children aged under six months is significantly lower, at 15 percent. � Only every sixth child was breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth. The practice is much less present in Belgrade (9 percent) than in West and South-East Serbia (23 and 25 percent, respectively). 67 percent of children in Serbia started breastfeeding within one day of birth. � Between the ages of 6–9 months, 39 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods. By the ages of 12–15 months and 20–23 months respectively, 22 and 8 percent of children are still being breastfeed. Roma children from Roma settlements are more likely to continue to be breastfed than the entire population, since 60 percent of Roma children by age 12–15 months and 34 percent by age 20–23 months are still breastfed. Low birth weight � Out of 98 percent of weighed live births, 5 percent were below 2500 grams. In the Roma population, only 90 percent were weighed, and 9 percent of those live births were underweight. Immunization � Roughly two thirds of children had their own personal health card recording their vaccines. � Only 74 percent of children aged 18–29 months received a BCG vaccination in the first year EXECUTIVE SUMMARYEXECUTIVE SUMMARY 14 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT of life. This result is quite unexpected and is most probably due to the lack of information on the BCG vaccination from their vaccination cards, since according to the mother’s report, the BCG vaccine was received by nearly all children aged 18–29 months. � All three doses of DPT and oral polio were given to 90 percent and 88 percent, respective- ly. 84 percent of children aged 18–29 months received a measles vaccine in the form of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine by the age of 18 months. � Only 44 percent of children had all eight recommended vaccinations according to the national immunization schedule. The low coverage is mostly due to the low immuniza- tion coverage against tuberculosis. The figure is not realistic and mainly shows that per- sonal immunization records are not a reliable source of information. � There are significant territorial differences in immunization coverage – the lowest percentage of fully immunized children is in South-East Serbia, at 31 percent, and the highest in Vojvodina and East Serbia, at 81 and 63 percent, respectively. Children liv- ing in urban settlement s are more likely to be fully immunized; 62 percent of children living in urban, compared to 52 percent of children from rural areas have received all the recommended vaccinations. � Ethnicity is strongly related to immuniza- tion coverage. While 57 percent of Serbian children aged 18–29 have been fully im- munized, only 27 percent of Roma children living in Roma settlements have received all vaccinations. Oral rehydration treatment � Overall, 5 percent of children under the age of five had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey. High prevalence of diarrhoea is noticed among children living in Roma settlements and in the poorest households, at 13 and 7 percent respectively. � The use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), which is the application of ORS fluid or other recommended home made fluids is satisfacto- rily high, at 94 percent. � However, home management of diarrhoea is only 26 percent in Serbia, with significant gen- der (29 percent of boys compared to 23 percent of girls) and urban/rural differences (29 percent and 22 percent respectively) among children re- ceiving home management of diarrhoea. Also, home management of diarrhoea is much lower (18 percent) among children from the poorest households. � 71 percent of children who had diarrhoea in two weeks prior to the survey received ORT (or increased fluids) and continued feeding, with the same pattern as for home manage- ment of diarrhoea. Care seeking and antibiotic treatment of pneumonia � 3 percent of children aged 0–59 months had suspected pneumonia during the two weeks preceding the survey. 92 percent of children with suspected pneumonia were taken to an appropriate health provider (94 percent of boys and 90 percent of girls). � 57 percent of children with suspected pneumo- nia received antibiotics in the last two weeks. Antibiotics were given more to boys (61 percent) than girls (52 percent) and more in urban (59 percent) than in rural (54 percent) areas. � Every third mother/caretaker recognizes two danger signs of pneumonia (fast and difficult breathing). Knowledge is strongly correlated to the region, ethnicity and wealth index. While 57 percent of mothers/caregivers in Belgrade recognize the two danger signs of pneumonia, only 15 percent of mothers/caregivers in West Serbia have similar knowledge. Poorer knowledge is noticed among Muslim/Bosnians and Roma mothers – only 8 and 12 percent respectively, re- cognize both signs of pneumonia. 28 percent of mothers from the poorest households, compared to 40 percent from the richest know those signs. 15MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN � Interestingly, fever is considered as the most dangerous sign of child illness in Serbia – 82 percent of mothers think that their child should be taken to a health facility as soon as it develops a fever. Solid fuel use � One third of households in Serbia are using solid fuels for cooking. A much higher propor- tion of solid fuels usage is noticed among the poorest socio-economic classes (86 percent), in Roma households (85 percent) and in rural areas (61 percent). Water sanitation � 99 percent of the population have access to an im- proved drinking water source, if one uses a broad definition of access which, by improved drinking water source, includes piped water, a public tap/ standpipe, a tubewell/borehole, a protected well and spring. 77 percent of the population uses wa- ter piped into their dwelling or yard from a public or local water supply as the main source of drink- ing water. Such access is much higher in urban areas (91 percent) than in rural areas (60 percent). In rural areas, 15 percent of the population have a tubewell/borehole with a pump, and 18 percent have a protected well or spring. � Virtually the entire population uses sanitary means of excreta disposal. 89 percent have a flush toilet connected either to a sewage system or septic tank. Septic tanks are much more common in rural areas; 64 percent of the rural population uses a septic tank, compared to 13 percent of the urban population. Usage of traditional pit latrines is quite common among the Roma population (48 percent of them use one). 5 percent of the Roma popu- lation do not even have sanitation facilities. Security of tenure and durability of housing � 13 percent of households do not have formal residential documentation. Regional differ- ences are significant, with the best situation in Belgrade, where 7 percent of households do not have formal documentation, and worst in South-East Serbia, where 18 percent of house- holds are missing formal documentation. The least security of tenure is found among Roma living in Roma settlements where 38 percent of households do not have formal residen- tial documentation, and among the poorest households, with 26 percent of the house- holds without formal documentation. � Almost the entire population lives in durable housing – less than 1 percent of households and household members are living in dwell- ings which are considered non-durable. The situation in Roma settlements is quite differ- ent, with as much as 12 percent of the Roma population living in non-durable households. Contraception � Current use of any contraception was reported by 41 percent of married women/in union women. Among women in Serbia, traditional methods are more popular than modern ones, 23 compared to 19 percent. The most popular traditional methods are withdrawal and peri- odical abstinence (14 and 8 percent respective- ly), while the most popular modern method is the condom (8 percent). � Contraceptive prevalence ranges from 27 per- cent in Central Serbia to 54 percent in East Serbia. Contraceptive prevalence increases with age, up to the age of 40, and then there is a pattern of decreased contraception use. Women’s education level, ethnicity and wealth index are significantly linked to con- traceptive prevalence. � Contraceptive usage is highest among Hungarian women, where 57 percent of women are using mainly modern methods of contraception. Only one in four married Roma women are using any contraceptive method, usually withdrawal (every fifth). Traditional methods of contraception are also present among Muslim/Bosnian women whose main choice is periodical abstinence. 16 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Unmet need � Almost one third of married or in union women in Serbia have an unmet need for con- traception. The need for contraception is less satisfied among the “highest risk” population: Roma women living in Roma settlements, and the poorest and most uneducated women. Antenatal care � 99 percent of pregnant women received antenatal care one or more times during pregnancy. Lower antenatal care coverage is noticed among Roma, the youngest and less educated women, and women from the poorest households. � 98 percent of women aged 15–49 who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey received antenatal care from skilled personnel. Antenatal care provided by medical person- nel, especially a doctor, is significantly lower among Roma and less educated women. Assistance at delivery � With 99 percent of women, skilled personnel assisted at the delivery. Approximately the same percentage of women was delivered in a health facility. Roma women from Roma settlements and Muslim/Bosnian women are behind the national average – 93 and 94 percent of those women respectively were delivered by skilled personnel. � Medical doctors assisted in 87 percent of the deliveries and an auxiliary midwife assisted in 10 percent of cases. Child development � For about 84 percent of children under the age of 5, an adult engaged in four or more activities that promote learning and school readiness during the 3 days preceding the survey. The average number of activities was 5. The involvement of fathers in such activities was significantly lower, 70 percent, with the average number of activities at 2.3. � Children from the poorest and Roma families, as well as children whose parents are less well educated are less likely to be involved in activi- ties that promote learning than average. � About 9 percent of children under the age of 5 in Serbia were left with inadequate care in the week preceding the survey. Female, older chil- dren and children from rural areas are more often left with inadequate care. This prac- tice is particularly present among Roma and Muslim/Bosnian families (18 and 16 percent of children left without proper care, respectively). Pre-school attendance and school readiness � 32 percent of children aged 36–59 months were attending some form of organised early childhood education programme. Attendance was three times higher in urban than rural ar- eas. Higher education of a child’s mother and higher household wealth status imply a higher proportion of children attending pre-school. � Roma children attend pre-school eight times less than the rest of the population. Primary and secondary school participation � 94 percent of children of primary school entry age in Serbia are currently attending first grade. Roma children start primary education on time more rarely than other children (66 percent). � 98 percent of children of primary school age attend primary school. Only 74 percent of Roma children of this age attend school. � Almost all of the children who entered the first grade of primary school eventually reach grade five. � About 84 percent of children in Serbia, be- tween the ages of 15 and 18, are attending secondary or higher school. Only 10 percent of Roma children from Roma settlements are attending school at that age. Children of secondary school age from wealthier house- holds are more likely to attend secondary school or higher. 17MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN � The Gender Parity Index (GPI) for primary school in Serbia is 1.0, indicating no difference in primary school attendance of girls and boys. However, the indicator goes up to 1.1 for sec- ondary education. � The disparity of girls is only pronounced in Roma settlements, where the GPI for primary and sec- ondary schools are 0.94 and 0.42, respectively. Adult literacy � The literacy rate of females, aged between 15 and 24 in Serbia is 96 percent. The literacy level is lower among women with no or primary edu- cation. Younger women aged 15–19 are less lit- erate than women aged 20–24 (93 compared to 98 percent). Roma women living in Roma settle- ments showed a lower level of literacy; only 52 percent of young Roma women are considered literate. The second and middle wealth index quintile classes are the most literate. Birth Registration � The births of 99 percent of children under five years of age in Serbia have been registered. There are no significant variations in birth reg- istration across sex, age, or education categories. Only Roma from Roma settlements are some- what less likely to have their births registered than other children (95 percent registered). Child Labour � 4 percent of children aged between 5 and 14, in Serbia are involved in child labour. � Children living in rural areas are twice as involved in child labour activities (6 percent), than urban children (3 percent). Even 8 percent of children from the poorest households and 7 percent of Roma children are involved in child labour. � Out of the 92 percent of children aged between 5 and 14 who are attending school, 5 percent are involved in child labour activities. On the other hand, out of the 4 percent of children classified as child labourers, the majority of them are also attending school (93 percent). Child Discipline � In Serbia, 73 percent of children aged be- tween 2 and 14 were subjected to at least one form of psychological or physical pun- ishment by their mothers/caretakers or other household members. � 62 percent of children were exposed to psy- chological punishment, 51 percent to minor physical punishment and 7 percent were sub- jected to severe physical punishment. Severe physical punishment is a frequently used dis- ciplinary method among Roma (21 percent) and Muslims/Bosnians (15 percent). � 6 percent of mothers/caretakers in Serbia believe that in order to raise their children properly, they need to physically punish them. � Every fifth child in Serbia has been disciplined through non-violent methods. � Male children were subjected more to both minor and severe physical discipline (53 and 8 percent) than female children (49 and 5 percent). Violent disciplining is most prac- tised in South-East Serbia. Less educated mothers and mothers from the poorest households are using violent methods more in child disciplining. Early marriage � The proportion of women aged between 15 and 49 who got married before the age of 15 is very low (1 percent). 6 percent of women aged 15 to 19 are currently married or in union. This practice is more present in East Serbia, rural areas, among the less educated, the poorest and particularly among Roma, where almost half of Roma women from Roma settlements were married before the age of 18. � 26 percent of young married women aged 15 to 19 are married to a partner 10 or more years older. The percentage is much lower (14 percent), among married women aged 20 to 24 years. This phenomenon is mainly correlated to poverty and lower education. 18 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Domestic violence � 6 percent of women in Serbia feel that their husband/partner has a right to hit or beat them for at least one of a variety of reasons. Women who approve their partner’s violence, in most cases agree and justify violence in in- stances when they neglect the children (6 per- cent), or if they demonstrate their autonomy, e.g. go out without telling their husbands or argue with them (2 percent). � Domestic violence is more accepted in South and West Serbia (approximately 12 percent) than in other parts of the country. Acceptance is more present among the poorest and less educated, and also currently married women. It is also strongly correlated to ethnicity – ev- ery third Muslim/Bosnian and Roma woman believes it is justified for a husband to beat his wife/partner. Child disability � 11 percent of children aged between 2 and 9 have at least one reported disability. Child disabilities are more frequent among Roma children from Roma settlements (23 percent), children from the poorest households (17 percent) and those whose mothers are less educated (15 percent). Knowledge of HIV transmission � In Serbia, 98 percent of the women inter- viewed have heard of AIDS. Yet, the number of women who knew all three main ways of preventing HIV transmission (having only one faithful uninfected partner, using a condom during each act of sexual intercourse, and abstaining from sex) is only 36 percent. � Only half of the women correctly identify the two most common misconceptions about HIV transmission (that HIV cannot be transmit- ted by sharing food and that HIV cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites) and know that a healthy looking person can be infected. This percentage is higher among more educated and wealthier women. � Only 37 percent of women in Serbia have compre- hensive knowledge about HIV transmission (iden- tify 2 prevention methods and 3 misconceptions). 42 percent of women aged 15–24 have compre- hensive knowledge about HIV transmission. � 57 percent of women of reproductive age know the three ways in which HIV can be transmit- ted from mother to child. � 69 percent of women know a place to get test- ed for AIDS. Seven percent have been tested, of whom 84 percent have been given the result. � 64 percent of women expressed a discrimina- tory attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS. Sexual Behaviour � Only 1 percent of women aged 15 to 19 had sex before the age of 15, while 19 percent of women aged 20 to 24 reported having sex be- fore the age of 18. A different pattern is found among Roma women from Roma settlements (16 percent had sex before the age of 15 and 51 percent before the age of 18) and girls who terminate their education at primary school (3 percent had sex before the age of 15 and 42 percent before the age of 18). � Having sex with a partner 10 or more years older is reported by one in twelve women. It appears that women with primary or less education and women from the poorest house- holds are more inclined to these kinds of rela- tionship (20 and 12 percent respectively). � Over 60 percent of women aged 15–24 report having sex with a non-regular partner in the 12 months prior to the MICS. Three-quarters of those women reported condom usage when they had sex with the high risk partner. 19MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Background This report is based on the Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, conducted in 2005 by UNICEF, the Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia and the Strategic Marketing Research Agency. The survey provides valuable information on the situation of children and women in Serbia. It was based, to a large extent, on the need to monitor progress towards goals and targets deriving from recent international agreements: the Millennium Declaration, adopt- ed by all 191 United Nations Member States in September 2000, and the World Fit for Children Plan of Action, adopted by 189 Member States at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002. Both of these commitments build upon promises made by the international com- munity at the 1990 World Summit for Children. In signing these international agreements, gov- ernments committed themselves to improving conditions for their children and to monitoring progress towards that end. UNICEF was assigned a supporting role in this task. The Government of the Republic of Serbia ad- opted the Poverty Reduction Strategy Plan in 2003, the National Plan of Action for Children (NPA) in 2004, and in 2005 the United Nations Millennium Declaration. By undertaking these international obligations, the Republic of Serbia committed itself to monitor and assess progress towards interna- tionally defined goals and targets. MICS3 is the third round of a nation-wide household Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey. The survey provides the largest single source of data for reporting on progress towards the aforementioned goals, which will give a rich foundation of comparative data for comprehensive progress reporting. This final report presents the results of the indicators and topics covered in the survey. Survey Objectives The 2005 Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey has the fallowing primary objectives: � To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Serbia; � To learn about existing disparities in the status of children and women in Serbia; � To provide data needed for monitoring progress towards goals established by the Millennium Development Goals, the goals of A World Fit For Children (WFFC), and other internationally agreed-upon goals, as a basis for future action; � To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Serbia and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems. INTRODUCTIONINTRODUCTION 20 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT A Commitment to Action: National and International Reporting Responsibilities The governments that signed the Millennium Declaration and the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitoring progress towards the goals and objectives they contained: “We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child-focused research. We will enhance international cooperation to support statistical capacity-building efforts and build community capacity for monitoring, assessment and planning.” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60) “…We will conduct periodic reviews at national and subnational levels of progress in order to address obstacles more effectively and accelerate procedures…” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 61) The Plan of Action (paragraph 61) also calls for the specific involvement of UNICEF in the preparation of periodic progress reports: “…As the world’s lead agency for children, the United Nations Children’s Fund is requested to continue to prepare and disseminate, in close collaboration with Governments, relevant funds, programmes and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system, and all other relevant actors, as appropriate, information on the progress made in the implementation of the Declaration and the Plan of Action.” Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) calls for periodic reporting on progress: “…We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action.” 21MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Sample Design The sample for the Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was designed to provide estimates on a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for six regions: Vojvodina, Belgrade, West, Central, East and South-East Serbia. Belgrade has a large population (almost one-quarter of the total) and its predomi- nantly urban characteristics make it necessary to separate it from the rest of Central Serbia, to which it administratively belongs. In order to look more deeply into existing ethnic disparities and to provide national estimates, a separate sample was designed for Roma living in Roma settlements. Important factors which influenced the sample design of both Serb and Roma samples are the fertility rate and number of household members. For example, one generation of Serb children makes up less than 1 percent of the population, and the average number of Serb household mem- bers is around three. But the situation in Roma settlements is quite different; the average house- hold size is around five and there is a significant- ly higher proportion of children under the age of 5 in the total Roma population. Because of these differences, the sample plan had to be modified. For both samples, regions were identified as the main sampling domains and the samples were selected in two stages. SAMPLE AND SURVEY SAMPLE AND SURVEY METHODOLOGYMETHODOLOGY In the case of Serbia without the Roma settle- ments sample, 400 census enumeration areas within each region with probability proportional to size were selected during the first stage. Since the sample frame (Census 2002) was not up to date, household lists in all selected enumera- tion areas were updated prior to the selection of households. Owing to the low fertility rate and small household size, households were stratified into two categories. One category of households consists of households with under 5 children, while the other category consists of households without children under 5. The allocation of the sample in the category of households with chil- dren was significantly greater than the allocation of the sample in the category of households with- out children. Based on the updated information, selected units were divided into clusters of 18 households on average, plus 3 backup households. Backup households were interviewed only if some of the first 18 households were not found. In the event that a household refused to be interviewed, a backup household was not contacted. In each cluster, the number of households with children was selected with probability proportional to size. In the case of the Roma population, the uni- verse could be defined only for Roma who live in separate settlements. During the first stage, 106 census enumeration areas were selected. The updating of household lists was done prior 22 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT to household selection, but there was no need for sample stratification of households with and without children under 5. The average number of households selected in each cluster was 18 on average, plus 3 backup households. Secondly, after the household listing was car- ried out within the selected enumeration areas, a systematic sample of 7.974 households in Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements and 1.979 Roma households from Roma settlements was drawn up, which makes a total of 9.953 sampled households. Each selected enumeration area was visited during the field work period. The Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey sample is not self-weighted. For reporting of national level re- sults, sample weights were used. A more detailed description of the sample design can be found in Appendix A. Questionnaires Three sets of questionnaires were used in the survey: 1) a household questionnaire which was used to collect information on all de jure house- hold members, the household, and the dwelling; 2) a women’s questionnaire; and 3) an under-5’s questionnaire. The Household Questionnaire included the following modules: � Household listing � Education � Water and Sanitation � Household characteristics � Child Labour � Child Discipline � Child Disability � Roma in Roma settlements The Questionnaire for Individual Women was completed by all women aged 15–49 living in the households, and included the following modules: � Women’s information panel � Child Mortality (this module was used only in Roma households living in Roma settlements) � Maternal and Newborn Health � Security of tenure � Marriage/Union � Contraception � Attitudes toward domestic violence � Sexual behaviour � HIV/AIDS The Questionnaire for Children Under Five2 was completed by mothers of under-5 children; in cases when the mother was not listed in the household roster, a primary caretaker for the child was iden- tified and interviewed. The questionnaire included the following modules: � Under-Five Child’s Information Panel � Birth Registration and Early Learning � Child Development � Breastfeeding � Care of Illness � Immunization � Anthropometry The questionnaires are based on the MICS3 model questionnaire3. Certain changes were made ac- cording to country specific situations. Some of the original modules (tetanus, polygamy, Vitamin A modules, etc.) were not covered by this sur- vey since they were not applicable. On the other hand, some of the modules were expanded with additional questions in order to obtain data that 2 The terms “children under 5”, “children age 0–4 years”, and “children aged 0–59 months” are used interchangeably in this report. 3 The model MICS3 questionnaire can be found at www.childinfo.org. 23MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN is missing, but important for finding out more about existing practices and for future activity planning. For example, the Education module was expanded with additional questions concern- ing commuting to school – distance, cost, means and duration of the journey. Questionnaires used among the Roma population differ slightly from those used in non-Roma settlements. They were expanded with a new module which included ques- tions about the language spoken in the household, the type of Roma settlement, the main source of household income, etc. Questionnaires from the MICS3 model English version were translated into Serbian. After adaptation, they were translated into Albanian and Hungarian, and were pre-tested in several places in Serbia: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Subotica, Kraljevo, Kragujevac, Valjevo and Nis, at the end of September 2005. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the word- ing of the questionnaires. A copy of the Serbia MICS questionnaires is provided in Appendix F. In addition to the administration of question- naires, fieldwork teams measured the weight and height of children under 5 years of age. Details and findings of these measurements are provided in the respective sections of this report. Training and Fieldwork The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia and the Strategic Marketing Research Agency were responsible for data collection. The whole territory of Serbia was divided into 18 districts according to the regional network of responsible institutions. In each district a team of people was selected – one supervisor for the district and the interviewers (whose number depended on the number of clusters in the region). The interviewers and supervisors were recruited according to their qualifications, communication skills, experience in fieldwork and knowledge of the region where the research was to be conducted. All field staff were selected before the updating of household listing started. Training of supervisors was conducted in September 2005, before the pre-test. Towards the end of the supervisor training period, supervisors spent five days to practise interviewing and check- ing questionnaires and methodology in several places: Belgrade, Novi Sad, Subotica, Kraljevo, Kragujevac, Valjevo and Nis. The field interview- ers, all highly skilled professionals with previous experience in similar surveys, were trained for three days in October 2005. Training included lectures on interview techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and the interactive approach of practising interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. A separate process was applied for the interviewers that were to conduct interviews in Roma settlements. Roma women included in the fieldwork received addi- tional special training. The data was collected by 47 teams; each com- prised of three to four interviewers. Each team in charge of data collection in Roma settlements included one or two members from the Roma women’s network, and one professional inter- viewer. One supervisor was in charge of two or three teams. Fieldwork began in October 2005 and concluded in January 2006. Data Processing Data was entered using the CSPro software into twenty computers by twenty data entry operators and four data entry supervisors. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were entered twice and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS3 project and adapted to the Serbia questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in October 2005 and was completed in March 2006. Data was analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software programme, Version 14, and the model syntax and tabulation plans devel- oped by UNICEF for this survey. 24 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Sample Coverage O f the 9.953 households selected for the sample, 9.372 were found to be occupied. Of these, 8.730 were successfully inter- viewed for a household response rate of 93 percent. In the interviewed households, 7.895 women (aged 15–49) were identified. Of these, 7.516 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 95 percent. In addition, 3.838 children under the age of five were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 3.777 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 98 percent. Overall response rates of 89 and 92 percent are calculated for the women’s and under-5s’ inter- views respectively (Table HH.1). Response rates were similar across regions and areas. Despite the busy lifestyle of Belgrade resi- dents, surprisingly high response rates were re- corded in the capital. This can be attributed to a successful media campaign and interviewers’ dili- gent efforts. Although the inclusion of the Roma women’s network in fieldwork helped interviewers to gain the trust of Roma communities, the re- sponse rate in Roma settlements was still slightly lower than that of the total population. Thanks to previously updated lists of households in select- ed enumeration areas, there were no significant differences between the number of sampled and occupied households. Characteristics of Households The age and sex distribution of the surveyed population is provided in Table HH.2. The dis- tribution is also used to produce the population pyramid in Figure HH.1. In the 8.730 households successfully interviewed in the survey, 28.163 household members were listed. Of these, 13.614 were male, and 14.549 were female. These figures also indicate that the survey estimated the average household size at 3.2 persons. The age and sex distribution of the surveyed pop- ulation is in accordance with the 2002 Census and indicates negative population growth during the past decade. Serbia is characterised by a low proportion of under-five children and a high pro- portion of elderly. The majority of the population SAMPLE COVERAGE AND SAMPLE COVERAGE AND THE CHARACTERISTICSTHE CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTSAND RESPONDENTS 25MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN is in the 50–55 age group, i.e. the post Second World War baby boom generation. Children (up to 18 years of age) constitute 22 percent of the population. The single year age distribution (Table DQ.1 and Figure DQ.1a in Appendix D) shows a decrease in population after the fifties (expected, natural), and a constant decline in the young population. The male-female ratio shows small variations in the first 50 years of life after which the number of women increases and exceeds that of men. The Roma population single year distribution is completely different (Figure DQ.1b in Appendix D), and is comparable with other underdeveloped populations. The proportion of children under 5 in the Roma population is highest (about 12 percent), and then in each subsequent age band the propor- tion of the population progressively decreases. As a basic check on the quality of age reporting, the percentage of missing data is shown in the Table DQ.6 in Appendix D. The age of almost all the surveyed population was collected. 1 percent of all eligible women interviewed did not know their complete date of birth (ie. day, month and year). Yet, the year of birth and age were gathered for these women. For all children under 5, the complete date of birth (month and year) was col- lected, because field supervisors were instructed to repeat interviews in case information was missing. Table HH.3 provides basic background informa- tion on the households. Within households, the area (Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements or Roma in Roma settlements), the sex of the head of the household, the region, urban/rural status, the number of household members, and the ethnicity4 of the household head are shown in the table. These background characteristics are also used in subsequent tables in this report; the figures in the table are also intended to show the numbers of observations by major categories of analysis in the report. In addition to being useful in interpretation of survey results, background characteristics serve as a basic check on sample implementation. The totals of weighted and unweighted number of households are equal, since sample weights were normalised (See Appendix A). Table HH.3 also shows the proportions of households where at least one child under 18, at least one child under 5, and at least one eligible woman aged 15–49 were found. Looking at the number of households in each back- ground category, we can notice a significant differ- ence between weighted and unweighted numbers of Roma households from Roma settlements (the weighted number is 85 and the unweighted 1716). According to the 2002 Census data, the proportion of Roma in the general population is approximately 1 percent. In order to gain qualitative results for the Roma population it was necessary to do over-sam- pling, and later by using sample weights, the model was adjusted to Census data. About 60 percent of households are urban, while the rest are rural. The regional distribution is in accordance with Census data. The Vojvodina re- gion comprises the largest number of households with nearly one third of the total, while the smallest 4 This was determined by asking the respondents what ethnic group the head of household belonged to. MALES FEMALES 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 Figure HH.1 Age and sex distribution of household population, Serbia, 2005 0–4 5–9 10–14 15–19 20–24 25–29 30–34 35–39 40–44 45–49 50–54 55–59 60–64 65–69 70–74 75–79 80+ 26 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT number of households is from East Serbia at 9 percent. In two thirds of interviewed households the head of the household is male, which corre- lates strongly with Serbian tradition in which the male figure represents the guardian and bread- winner of the family. Household distribution by the ethnicity of the head of the household shows that the biggest ethnic group is Serbian (87 per- cent), while the proportion of other ethnic groups is less than 5 percent each. The majority of households have between two and five members. In 56 percent of interviewed house- holds, lives at least one woman aged 15 to 49, and in 14 percent of interviewed households at least one child under 5 years of age. The fact that in 38 percent of households lives only one child under 18, shows that the Serbian population is “old”. Characteristics of Respondents Tables HH.4 and HH.5 provide information on the background characteristics of female respon- dents 15–49 years of age and of children under the age of 5. In both tables, the total numbers of weighted and unweighted observations are equal, since sample weights have been normalised (standardised). In addition to providing useful information on the background characteristics of women and children, the tables are also intended to show the number of observations in each back- ground category. These categories are used in the subsequent tabulations of this report. Like in the description of households’ background information, the weighted numbers of Roma women and children under 5 are significantly lower than unweighted numbers, due to over-sampling. By using sample weights, the model was adjusted to Census data. Table HH.4 provides background characteristics of female respondents 15–49 years of age. The table includes information on the distribution of women according to area, region, urban-rural set- tlements, age, marital status, motherhood status, education5, ethnicity and wealth index quintiles.6 Approximately, one third of interviewed eli- gible women live in Vojvodina, and one fifth in Belgrade. Distribution among the other four re- gions is approximately equal, with the exception of East Serbia where the proportion of eligible women in the interviewed population is 9 per- cent. This pattern is expected and follows the Census data. The majority of the sample are women 30–34 years of age, around 17 percent. The proportion of young women is significantly lower: there are 13 percent of both 15–19 and 20–24 age groups which could be the consequence of systematical negative natality growth in past years. Around two thirds of all women in this sample are married, while 30 percent have never been married. Distribution by motherhood status is similar: 65 percent of women have given birth, compared to 35 percent that have never given birth. The majority of interviewed women have secondary education (59 percent), while the pro- portion of women with none or primary educa- tion, and those with higher education is approxi- mately the same (20 percent). Additional analysis which is not shown in the table HH.4 indicates a 5 Unless otherwise stated, “education” refers to the educational level attended by the respondent throughout this report when it is used as a background variable. 6 Principal components analysis was performed by using information on the ownership of household goods and amenities (assets) to assign weights to each household asset, and obtain wealth scores for each household in the sample. The assets used in these calculations were as follows: number of rooms for sleeping per member; floor, roof and walls material of dwelling; type of water and sanitations; the type of fuel used for cooking; radio, mobile, phone, fridge, washing machine, dishwasher, computer, air conditioner, central heating and car. Each household was then weighted by the number of household mem- bers, and the household population was divided into five groups of equal size, from the poorest quintile to the richest quintile, based on the wealth scores of households they were living in. The wealth index is assumed to include the underlying long-term wealth through information on the household assets, and is intended to produce a ranking of households bv wealth, from poorest to richest. The wealth index does not provide information on absolute poverty, current income or expenditure levels, and the wealth scores calculated are applicable for only the particular data set they are based on. Further information on the construction of the wealth index can be found in Rutstein and Johnson, 2004, and Filmer and Pritchett, 2001. 27MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN strong correlation between woman’s educational level and the type of settlement she lives in. While only one in five women in urban settlements have either none or primary education, in rural areas there are as many as 30 percent of such women. Conversely, while approximately one third of ur- ban women have high education, this applies to only one in ten women living in rural settlements. It is important to notice that education levels are categorised, according to the country’s educational system, into three groups: none or primary, sec- ondary and higher/high. In accordance with household ethnic distribu- tion, the majority of women live in households where the ethnicity of the head of the house- hold is Serbian. The proportion of other ethnic groups is under 5 percent. As far as wealth index quintiles are concerned, less women live in the poorest households – about 15 percent – while the largest group are those living in the richest households, 23 percent. Some background characteristics of children un- der 5 are presented in Table HH.5. These include distribution of children according to several attributes: area of residence, sex and region; ur- ban/rural settlements; age in months; mother’s or caretaker’s education, ethnicity and wealth. The proportion of male and female children in the under-5 sample is approximately the same. Age distribution of children 0–59 months is well bal- anced. The proportion of mothers with secondary education is approximately the same as in the women’s sample. This is not the case with moth- ers with higher education; it seems that women with higher education tend to have less children, since the proportion is lower than in the women’s sample and is around 17 percent. For children whose mother did not live in the household the educational level of the caretaker was taken into consideration. The majority of children live in households where the ethnicity of the head of the household is Serbian (82 percent). The number of children living in Roma and Muslim – ie. Bosnian fami- lies is higher than average. As a result, the percentage of these children is higher than the percentage of household or women’s distribution of these ethnic groups. 28 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT One of the overarching goals of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and the World Fit for Children (WFFC) is to reduce infant and under-five mortality. Specifically, the MDGs call for the reduction in under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Monitoring progress towards this goal is an important but difficult objective. Measuring childhood mortality may seem easy, but attempts using direct questions, such as “Has anyone in this household died in the last year?” give inaccurate results. Alternatively, indirect methods developed to measure child mortality produce robust estimates that are comparable with the ones obtained from other sources. Indirect methods minimise the pitfalls of memory lapses, inexact or misinterpreted definitions, and poor interviewing technique. The infant mortality rate is the probability of dying before the first birthday. The under-five mortality rate is the probability of dying be- fore the fifth birthday. In MICS surveys, infant and under-five mortality rates are calculated, based on an indirect estimation technique known as the Brass method (United Nations, 1983; 1990a; 1990b). The data used in the es- timation is: the mean number of children ever born to five year age groups of women from aged 15 to 49, and the proportion of these children who are dead, similarly for five-year age groups of women. The technique converts this data into probabilities of dying by tak- ing into account both the mortality risks to which children are exposed and their length of exposure to the risk of dying, assuming a par- ticular model age pattern of mortality. Based on previous information on mortality in Roma settlements in Serbia, the East model life table was selected as the most appropriate. All esti- mates have been calculated by averaging mor- tality estimates obtained from women aged 25–29 and 30–34, and refer to mid-2003. The module on child mortality was used just for Roma living in Roma settlements for several reasons: there was no data on Roma child mor- tality in the regular statistics, and the estima- tion was that it was higher than the national average. Secondly, it was estimated that regular statistics provide accurate data for the general population, and also that mortality is low, so with this research technique we could not compile reliable data. Table CM.1 provides estimates of child mortal- ity by various background characteristics, while Table CM.2 provides the basic data used in the calculation of mortality rates for Roma in Roma settlements. The infant mortality rate is estimated at 25 per thousand, while the probability of dying under 5 years of age is around 28 per thousand live births. There is a significant difference be- tween the likelihood of dying among males and CHILDCHILD MORTALITYMORTALITY 29MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN females: the infant mortality rate among boys is 32, and among girls 20, and the under-five mortality rate among boys is 36, compared to 23 per thousand among girls. Infant and under- 5 mortality rates are lowest in Vojvodina, while the figures for Central Serbia7 are almost twice as high as that of Vojvodina. There are also significant differences in mortality in terms of educational levels and wealth. However, all those differences should be regarded with cau- tion, owing to the small number of children in the sample. 7 Since all results are estimated using the Brass method, in order to obtain qualitative findings, grouping of some background variables was necessary. As the number of Roma women who gave birth was not big enough to provide estimates on the level of six regions, the results are shown on three regional levels: Vojvodina, Belgrade and Central Serbia (which includes Central, West, East and South East Serbia). 30 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Nutritional Status Children’s nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they reach their growth potential and are considered well-nourished. Malnutrition is associated with more than half of all children’s deaths worldwide. Undernourished chil- dren are more likely to die from common childhood ailments, and those who survive have recurring sicknesses and faltering growth. Three-quarters of children who die from causes related to malnutri- tion were only mildly or moderately malnourished, showing no outward sign of their vulnerability. The Millennium Development target is to reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger between 1990 and 2015. The World Fit for Children goal is to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition among children under five years of age by at least one-third (between 2000 and 2010), with special attention to children under 2 years of age. A re- duction in the prevalence of malnutrition will as- sist in the goal to reduce child mortality. In a well-nourished population, there is a refer- ence distribution of height and weight for children under the age of five. Under-nourishment in a population can be gauged by comparing children to a reference population. The reference popula- tion used in this report is the WHO/CDC/NCHS reference, which was recommended for use by UNICEF and the World Health Organization at the time the survey was implemented. Each of the three nutritional status indicators can be expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of the reference population. Weight-for-age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight-for- age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are con- sidered moderately or severely underweight while those whose weight-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classi- fied as severely underweight. Height-for-age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the ref- erence population are considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Those whose height-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflec- tion of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. Finally, children whose weight-for-height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as mod- erately or severely wasted, while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. On the other hand, NUTRITIONNUTRITION 31MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN children whose weight-for-height is two or more standard deviations above the median of the ref- erence population are considered as moderately or severely obese. Obesity is mostly a result of bad nutritional practices (low intake of proteins, fruit and vegetables, high intake of saturated fats and sugar…) and is a risk factor for some of the chronic diseases in future life, like cardiovascu- lar diseases and diabetes. In assessing child nutritional status the following determinants were used: height (in centimetres), weight (in kilos), age (in months) and sex. Table NU.1 shows the percentages of children classified into each of the described malnutrition categories, and also the percentage of children who are overweight. Children who were not weighed and measured (approximately 12 percent of children) and those whose measurements are outside a plausible range are excluded. Almost 2 percent of children under the age of five in Serbia are moderately underweight and almost no child is classified as severely underweight (Table NU.1). 6 percent of children are stunted or too short for their age and 3 percent are wast- ed or too thin for their height. By each measure – underweight, wasting and stunting – figures for children from the poor- est and Roma households significantly exceed the average. Stunting prevalence among Roma from Roma settlements is 20 percent, which is three times higher than average. Underweight and stunting is two times higher among chil- dren from poor households and children whose mothers are less educated. Regional distribution shows that children in Belgrade are more likely to be undernourished than other children, which is quite an unexpected result. In contrast, the percentage of all indicators is lowest in the West region. The age pattern shows that the child becomes vulnerable to wasting during the first six months of life when complementary food is introduced and breastfeeding is discontinued. That is also the age when stunting begins, which is very difficult to recover from (Figure NU.1). 15 percent of children are overweight. There is a significant difference between urban and rural prevalence: 17 percent of children from rural ar- eas compared to 14 percent of urban children are overweight. Looking at age distribution we can conclude that obesity starts right after birth, and constantly continues to grow, reaching its maxi- mum at a child’s second year, when every fourth child becomes overweight. The distribution of indicators, shown in Figures NU.1a, NU.1b and NU.1c confirms that the main nutrition problem in Serbia is not malnutrition, which is even below the values of the reference population, but obesity. Analysing the trends in malnutrition, we found that malnutrition remains at a very low level, with small insignificant variations. The decrease in prevalence of underweight and wasting since the year 2000 can be explained by the differ- ent seasons the survey was conducted in, which entail insensitivity to infections, consumption of different types of food etc (differences shown 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 Figure NU.1 Percentage of children under-5 who are undernourished, Serbia, 2005 Age (in months) UNDERWEIGHT STUNTED WASTED [%] 32 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT on the Figure NU.1d are not statistically signifi- cant). There is a continuation of the rising trend of stunting prevalence during the past ten years. Overweight prevalence has also shown some growth, but the differences are not statistically significant. Figure NU.1a Distribution of weight-for-age among children under five, Serbia, 2005 Figure NU.1b Distribution of height-for-age among children under five, Serbia, 2005 Figure NU.1c Distribution of weight-for-height among children under five, Serbia, 2005 [%] 0 10 20 30 40 –5.5 –4.5 –3.5 –2.5 –1.5 –0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 Standard deviations SERBIA REFERENCE POPULATION +2SD –2SD [%] 0 10 20 30 40 –5.5 –4.5 –3.5 –2.5 –1.5 –0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 Standard deviations SERBIA REFERENCE POPULATION –2SD +2SD [%] 0 10 20 30 40 –3.5 –2.5 –1.5 –0.5 0.5 1.5 2.5 3.5 4.5 5.5 Standard deviations SERBIA REFERENCE POPULATION –2SD +2SD 33MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Breastfeeding Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon and there are often pressures to switch to infant for- mula, which can contribute to growth difficulties and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. WHO/UNICEF have the following feeding recommendations: � Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months � Continued breastfeeding for two years or more � Safe, appropriate and adequate complemen- tary foods beginning at 6 months � Frequency of complementary feeding: 2 times per day for 6–8 month olds; 3 times per day for 9–11 month olds It is also recommended that breastfeeding be initiated within one hour of birth. Figure NU.1d Prevalence of malnutrition in children under five, Serbia, 1996–2005 2.74 2.10 2.79 4.86 3.72 6.84 1.06 1.10 1.59 2.54 2.59 2.30 4.96 1.90 1.60 2.19 3.70 3.30 3.01 6.00 3.40 4.70 5.90 0.70 0.50 0.60 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 Underweight 1996 Underweight 2000 Underweight 2005 Wasting 1996 Wasting 2000 Wasting 2005 Stunting 1996 Stunting 2000 Stunting 2005 % o f c hi ld re n w ith m od er at e or se ve re m al nu tr iti on 4.01 34 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT The indicators of recommended child feeding practices are as follows: � Exclusive breastfeeding rate � Timely complementary feeding rate � Continued breastfeeding rate � Timely initiation of breastfeeding � Frequency of complementary feeding � Adequately fed infants Also, additional indicators are calculated (pre- dominant breastfeeding and total breastfeeding rate) in order to compare the results with the MICS 2000. The goal of this module was to assess the exist- ing feeding practices of young children in Serbia. The MICS remain the only national source of data for this purpose. Table NU.2 shows the proportion of women who started breastfeeding their infants within one hour of birth, and women who started breastfeeding within one day of birth (in- cluding those who started within one hour). Although a very important step in manage- ment of lactation and establishment of a physical and emotional relationship between the baby and the mother, only every sixth baby is breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth, while 67 percent of newborns in Serbia start breastfeeding within one day of birth. The practice of breastfeeding within one hour of birth is much less present in Belgrade (9 percent) than in West and South-East Serbia (23 and 25 percent, respectively). The percent- age falls, the higher the mothers’ education and socioeconomic status of the household. Roma children from Roma settlements are twice as likely to be breastfed within one hour of birth. 67 73 65 56 76 67 64 74 63 71 67 17 33 1717 9 23 18 11 25 16 19 Figure NU.2 Percentage of mothers who started breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth, Serbia, 2005 Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a in R om a se tt le m en ts Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts Vo jv od in a Be lg ra de W es t Ce nt ra l Ea st So ut hE as t Ur ba n Ru ra l Se rb ia [%] WITHIN ONE HOURWITHIN ONE DAY 35MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN In Table NU.3, breastfeeding status is based on the reports of mothers/caretakers concern- ing their children’s consumption of food and fluids in the 24 hours prior to the interview. Exclusively breastfed refers to infants who re- ceived only breast milk (and vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine). The table shows ex- clusive breastfeeding of infants during the first six months of life (separately for 0–3 months and 0–5 months), as well as complementary feeding of children 6–9 months and continued breastfeeding of children at 12–15 and 20–23 months of age. Approximately 15 percent of children aged less than six months are exclusively breastfed, a level significantly lower than recommended. Exclusive breastfeeding is more frequent in urban settlements and among girls. However, all the conclusions should be regarded with caution, owing to the small sample size. At age 6–9 months, 39 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods. By the ages of 12–15 and 20–23 months respectively, 22 and 8 percent of children are still being breastfed. Roma children from Roma settlements are more likely to continue to be breastfed than the entire population, since 60 percent of Roma children by age 12–15 months and 34 percent by age 20–23 months are still breastfed. Figure NU.3 shows the detailed pattern of breastfeeding status by the child’s age in months. Even at the earliest ages, the majority of children are receiving liquids or foods other than breast milk. 32 percent of infants aged 0 – 1 months were exclusively breastfed, and this proportion drops off rapidly until it falls below 4 percent by the fifth month. Looking at the trends over the past decade, an increasing trend of key breastfeeding indicators is noted (Figure NU.3a). Exclusive breastfeeding 0–1 2–3 4–5 6–7 8–9 10–11 12–13 14–15 16–17 18–19 20–21 22–23 24–25 26–27 28–29 30–31 32–33 34–35 Figure NU.3 Infant feeding patterns by age: Percentage distribution of children under the age of 3 by feeding pattern by age group, Serbia, 2005 [%] Age (in months) WEANED (NOT BREASTFED) BREASTFED AND COMPLEMENTARY FOODS BREASTFED AND OTHER MILK/ FORMULA BREASTFED AND NON-MILK LIQUIDS BREASTFED AND PLAIN WATER ONLY EXCLUSIVELY BREASTFED 36 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT during the first four months rose from 3 percent in 1996, up to 23 percent in 2005, which is almost 8 times higher. The continued and predominant breastfeeding rates have also improved, while the percentage of the total number of breastfed chil- dren is slightly decreasing (although the change is not statistically significant). The adequacy of infant feeding in children under 12 months is provided in Table NU.4. Different criteria for adequate feeding are used depend- ing on the age of the child. For infants aged 0–5 months, exclusive breastfeeding is considered to be adequate feeding. Infants aged 6–8 months are considered to be adequately fed if they are receiv- ing breastmilk and complementary food at least twice a day, while infants aged 9–11 months are considered to be adequately fed if they are receiv- ing breastmilk and eating complementary food at least three times a day. When we add all the above recommended practices together, we will come to the sum indicator – the percentage of infants aged 0–11 months who are adequately fed. Every third child aged 6–8 months has re- ceived breastmilk and complementary food according to the recommended schedule. This practice is more used for girls than boys, more in rural areas, and much more in Vojvodina than in the rest of the country. The recom- mendation is more practised by more edu- cated mothers, and by the middle class. While every tenth Muslim/Bosnian child is receiv- ing breastmilk and complementary food at this age, much more Roma (42 percent) and Hungarian (66 percent) are benefiting from this practice. The percentage is growing, but not significantly between the ages of 9 and 11 months, showing similar patterns, as already explained. In total, when we look at the feeding pattern for all infants (aged 0–11), only each fourth infant is adequately fed, following the recom- mendations. Girls are better fed than boys; infants in Vojvodina and Central Serbia are better fed than infants from the West and East. There are no urban/rural differences. Interestingly, Roma children from Roma settle- ments have a better chance of being adequately fed, mainly owing to the higher percentage of breastfed children, but also owing to the fact that they follow more closely the other feeding recommendations. The worst feeding practices are noted among the poorest and the richest children, but the reasons are completely dif- ferent. While only 17 percent of the poorest children aged 0–11 months are adequately fed, mainly owing to the fact that they are not even receiving complementary food the minimum recommended times a day, children from the richest households are not appropriately fed mainly because very few of them are exclusive- ly breastfed. A mother’s education and appro- priate child nutrition are strongly correlated. The more educated the mother is, the better the child’s chance of being adequately fed. The percentage of children under 12 months who are adequately fed rises from 20 percent among those children whose mother has primary or no education to 24 percent among children whose mothers have secondary education, and up to 33 percent among mothers with higher education. Figure NU.3a Progress in major breastfeeding indicators, Serbia, 1996–2005 2000 20051996 Exclusive breastfeeding Continued breastfeeding rate 12–15 months Predominant breastfeeding rate Ever breastfed [%] 37MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Low Birth Weight Weight at birth is a good indicator not only of a mother’s health and nutritional status but also the newborn’s chances for survival, growth, long-term health and psychosocial development. Low birth weight (less than 2500 grams) carries a range of grave health risks for children. Babies who were undernourished in the womb face a greatly in- creased risk of dying during their early months and years. Those who survive have an impaired immune function and increased risk of disease; they are likely to remain undernourished, with reduced muscle strength throughout their lives, and suffer a higher incidence of diabetes and heart disease in later life. Children born under- weight also tend to have a lower IQ and cogni- tive disabilities, affecting their performance in school and their job opportunities as adults. In the developing world, low birth weight stems primarily from the mother’s poor health and nutrition. Three factors have most impact: the mother’s poor nutritional status before concep- tion, short stature (due mostly to under nutri- tion and infections during her childhood), and poor nutrition during the pregnancy. Inadequate weight gain during pregnancy is particularly important since it accounts for a large propor- tion of foetal growth retardation. Moreover, diseases such as diarrhoea and malaria, which are common in many developing countries, can significantly impair foetal growth if the mother becomes infected while pregnant. In the industrialised world, cigarette smoking during pregnancy is the leading cause of low birth weight. In developed and developing countries alike, teenagers who give birth when their own bodies have yet to finish growing run the risk of bearing underweight babies. The percentage of births weighing below 2500 grams is estimated from two items in the ques- tionnaire: the mother’s assessment of the child’s size at birth (i.e., very small, smaller than average, average, larger than average, very large) and the mother’s recall of the child’s weight or the weight as recorded on a health card if the child was weighed at birth8. Overall, 98 percent of births were weighed at birth and approximately 5 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth (Table NU.5). While there are no significant dif- ferences in the percentage of weighed infants at birth (with the exception of Roma babies, where 10 percent are not weighed at birth) there are certainly differences in the low birth weight measured. Roma children (9 percent) and the poorest children (9 percent) are twice as likely to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth than average children. The indicator improves, the higher the mother’s education. The percentage of low birth weight does not vary much by region or urban and rural areas. 8 For a detailed description of the methodology, see Boerma, Weinstein, Rutstein and Sommerfelt, 1996. 38 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Immunization The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to reduce child mortality by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. Immunization plays a key part in this goal. Immunizations have saved the lives of millions of children in the three decades since the launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974. Worldwide there are still 27 million children overlooked by routine immunization and as a result, vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than 2 million deaths every year. A World Fit for Children goal is to ensure full im- munization of children under one year of age at 90 percent nationally, with at least 80 percent coverage in every district or equivalent administrative unit. According to UNICEF and WHO guidelines, a child should receive a BCG vaccination to pro- tect against tuberculosis, three doses of DPT to protect against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, three doses of the polio vaccine, and a measles vaccination by the age of 12 months. The national immunization calendar in Serbia differs slightly, with the measles vaccine being ad- ministered between the ages of 12 and 18 months in the MMR form (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella). Mothers were asked to provide vaccination cards for children under the age of five. Interviewers copied vaccination information from the cards onto the MICS3 questionnaire. Overall, 71 percent of children aged 18 to 29 months have vaccination cards. If the child did not have a card or the card was not shown, the mother was asked to recall whether or not the child had received each of the vaccinations and, for DPT and Polio, how many times. The percent- age of children aged 18 to 29 months who had re- ceived each of the vaccinations is shown in Table CH.1. The denominator for the table is comprised of children aged 18–29 months, so that only chil- dren who are old enough to be fully vaccinated are counted. In the top panel, the numerator includes all children who had been vaccinated at any time before the survey, according to the vaccination card or the mother’s report. In the bottom panel, for BCG, DPT and polio vaccines, only those who had been vaccinated before their first birthday are included. For MMR vaccine, in the bottom panel, the numerator includes only those children who were vaccinated before 18 months of age. For children without vaccination cards, the proportion of vaccinations given before the first birthday (18 months in the case of MMR) is assumed to be the same as for children with vaccination cards. According to survey results, only 74 percent of children aged 18–29 months received a BCG vaccine by the age of 12 months. This result is quite unexpected and probably not accurate. It is much more an indicator of weaknesses in the BCG registration than of accurate BCG vac- cination coverage. Namely, only 44 percent of children aged 18 to 29 months who had the vac- cination card have the BCG vaccine registered, while according to the mother’s report all chil- dren received a BCG. Most likely the problem CHILD HEALTHCHILD HEALTH 39MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN arises from lack of communication between different health facilities where the vaccine is given and where the vaccination card is pro- vided for a child. Usually, a child receives the BCG vaccine in a maternity ward, and gets the vaccination card later, in the health post. The first dose of DPT was given to 97 percent of children. The percentage declines for sub- sequent doses of DPT to 96 percent for the second dose, and 90 percent for the third dose (Figure CH.1). Similarly, 95 percent of children received polio 1 by age 12 months and this declines to 88 percent by the third dose. Polio and DPT are normally administered simulta- neously. The slight difference in coverage rates can be explained by the introduction of the new practice whereby children are receiving IPV instead of the oral polio vaccine. The cov- erage for the MMR vaccine for children was somewhat lower: 84 percent of children aged 18–29 months received the measles vaccine before 18 months of age. The percentage of children who had all eight recommended vaccinations by the specified age is 44 percent, far below the international and na- tional target. When we change the denominator and include all children, we see that 57 percent of children aged 18 to 29 months have received all the recommended vaccinations. That indicates delayed vaccination, where some children, prob- ably due to false temporary contra-indications, are receiving vaccines after the defined time. Since there is a suspicion in validation of BCG vaccination coverage results, additional calcu- lation of fully immunized children was done. The figures for fully immunized children are shown in the table CH.1a, and they indicate children receiving vaccinations according to all the aforementioned criteria and, in the case of all vaccines except the BCG, are based on infor- mation from both cards and mothers’ reports. According to the aforementioned analysis of BCG vaccine registration, in this calculation, information on the BCG is only based on the mothers’ report, while the probability that the child received it at the recommended time was based on the vaccination card. Taking this “mix” of information into account was necessary for estimation of the BCG, and consequently esti- mation of full immunization coverage of chil- dren in Serbia. Based on this calculation, the proportion of fully immunized children accord- ing to the recommended schedule in Serbia is 60 percent, while 80 percent of children aged 18 to 29 months of age received vaccinations at some point preceding the survey. Tables CH.2 show vaccination coverage rates among children 18–29 months by background characteristics. The figures indicate children receiving the vaccinations at any time up to the date of the survey, and are based on informa- tion from both the vaccination cards and moth- ers’/caretakers’ reports. Regional distribution indicates that the lowest percentage of fully immunized children is in South-East Serbia, at 31 percent, while the highest proportion of children who received all recom- mended vaccinations is in Vojvodina and East Serbia, at 81 and 63 percent, respectively. Figure CH.1 Percentage of children aged 18–29 months who received the recommended vaccinations by 12 months (by 18 months in case of MMR), Serbia, 2005 BCG DP T1 DP T2 DP T3 Po lio 1 Po lio 2 Po lio 3 MMR All 74 97 96 90 95 93 88 84 44 [%] 40 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Children living in urban settlements are more likely to be fully immunized; 62 percent of children living in urban, compared to 52 per- cent of children from rural areas have received all recommended vaccinations. Whether the child will receive all the recommended vac- cinations, depends on the mother’s education. The percentage of children who received all vaccinations rises from 54 percent for chil- dren whose mothers are less educated to 65 percent for children whose mothers have at- tended university. As far as household wealth is concerned, the majority of children from the middle and fourth quintile have been fully immunized, while nearly every second child from other socio-economic classes has re- ceived all the recommended vaccinations. A specially jeopardized group of Roma chil- dren are those living in Roma settlements, with only 27 percent of them having received all vaccinations. No significant differences between boys’ and girls’ immunization coverage have been found. The findings presented are much lower than routine statistical data shows. Oral Rehydration Treatment Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children under five worldwide. Most di- arrhoea-related deaths in children are due to de- hydration from loss of large quantities of water and electrolytes from the body in liquid stools. Management of diarrhoea – either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) – can prevent many of these deaths. Preventing dehydration and malnutri- tion by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhoea. The goals are to: 1) reduce by half deaths due to diarrhoea among children under five by 2010 compared to 2000 (A World Fit for Children); and 2) reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five by 2015 compared to 1990 (Millennium Development Goals). In addition, the World Fit for Children calls for a reduction in the incidence of diarrhoea by 25 percent. The indicators are: � Prevalence of diarrhoea � Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) � Home management of diarrhoea � (ORT or increased fluids) AND continued feeding Official figures show that in the past few years acute diarrhoea diminishes as one of the most fre- quent causes of child mortality. In Serbia, the last case of death caused by diarrhoea of a child under 5 was registered in 2004. In the MICS questionnaire, mothers (or caretak- ers) were asked to report whether their child had had diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the sur- vey. If so, the mother was asked a series of ques- tions about what the child had had to drink and eat during the episode of diarrhoea. Overall, 5 percent of under-five children had had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey (Table CH.3), which would correspond to 1.4 episodes per child annually (assuming no seasonal variations and that the child only had had one diarrhoeal episode during the previ- ous two weeks). High prevalence of diarrhoea is noticed among Roma and the poorest chil- dren, at 13 and 7 percent respectively. Regional distribution shows that the smallest number of children with diarrhoea was in Belgrade and East Serbia, while in South East Serbia almost one out of twelve children under five had had diarrhoea. A strong correlation between the mother’s education and the child’s health is noticeable; the percentage of children with di- arrhoea falls from 7 percent for children whose mothers have primary or no education, to 5 and 4 percent for those whose mothers have 41MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN secondary, ie. higher education. With regards to a child’s age, the peak of diarrhoea preva- lence occurs in the weaning period, among children aged 6–23 months. Table CH.3 also shows the percentage of chil- dren receiving various types of recommended liquids during the episode of diarrhoea. For this, so-called Oral Rehydration Therapy varie- ties of liquids are recommended for use during the episode of diarrhoea in Serbia: ORS fluid, mother’s milk, porridge, soup, yoghurt, tea, sugar and salt solution and unsweetened juice. Since mothers were able to name more than one type of liquid, the percentages do not nec- essarily add up to 100. Using this wide defini- tion of ORT, we found that a high percentage of under-five children (94 percent) are receiving some of the recommended liquids during diar- rhoea episodes. Mainly children are receiving porridge or soup (63 percent) or yoghurt, tea, sugar and salt solution (68 percent). Use of ORS is relatively low, only 17 percent of children with diarrhoea received ORS fluids, being the highest in Belgrade – 26 percent. There are some variations in ORT use according to the type of settlement and mothers’ education, but owing to the small number of children with diarrhoea in each sample group, those variations are not statistically significant. The only significance is the difference with Roma children, where one out of ten Roma children with diarrhoea is left without treatment. More than one third (36 percent) of under- five children with diarrhoea drank more than usual while 64 percent drank the same or less (Table CH.4). Three-quarters of children ate somewhat less, the same or more (continued feeding), but one-quarter ate much less or ate almost nothing. In all, only 26 percent of chil- dren received home management of diarrhoea. Regional differences are significant, with half of the children in South East Serbia receiving home management of diarrhoea and only 15 percent of children in Vojvodina. Urban/ru- ral differences are also strongly marked, with 29 percent of urban and 22 percent of rural children being managed by the recommended model. Roma children from Roma settlements are poorly treated; only every seventh Roma child received home management of diarrhoea. A child’s treatment is strongly dependent on the mother’s educational level. The more edu- cated the mother is, the more likely the child will be appropriately cared for. Overall 71 percent of children with diarrhoea received ORT or increased fluids and continued feeding, with significant urban/rural differ- ences (76 and 64 percent respectively). Care Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children and the use of antibiotics in under-5s with suspect- ed pneumonia is a key intervention. A World Fit for Children goal is to reduce by one-third the deaths due to acute respiratory infections. Children with suspected pneumonia are those who had an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or difficult breathing and whose symptoms were NOT due to a problem in the chest and a blocked nose. The indicators are: � Prevalence of suspected pneumonia � Care seeking for suspected pneumonia � Antibiotic treatment for suspected pneumonia � Knowledge of the danger signs of pneumonia In the MICS questionnaire, children with acute respiratory infection are defined as those who had an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or difficult breathing, and whose symptoms were due to a problem in the chest, or both a problem in the chest and a blocked nose, or whose mother did not know the source of the problem. Table CH.5 presents the prevalence of suspect- ed pneumonia and, if care was sought outside 42 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT the home, the location of that care. 3 percent of children aged 0–59 months were reported to have had symptoms of pneumonia during the two weeks preceding the survey. The propor- tion of children with suspected pneumonia is significantly higher among Roma children, at 10 percent. Of all children with suspected pneumonia, 93 percent were taken to an appropriate provider. Boys and younger children were taken to an appropriate health provider more often. Table CH.6 presents the use of antibiotics for the treatment of suspected pneumonia in under-5s by sex, age, region, residence and socio-economic factors. In Serbia, 57 percent of under-5 children with suspected pneumo- nia had received an antibiotic during the two weeks prior to the survey. Antibiotic treat- ment of suspected pneumonia is very low among Roma households, at only 45 percent. Mothers’ knowledge of the danger signs of pneumonia are presented in Table CH.6a. Overall, every third woman knows the two danger signs of pneumonia – fast and diffi- cult breathing. 39 percent of mothers identi- fied fast breathing and 48 percent of moth- ers identified difficult breathing as symp- toms for taking children immediately to a health care provider. The most commonly identified symptom for taking a child to a health facility is when the child develops a fever (82 percent). The percentage of mothers who know the two danger signs of pneumonia is extremely low among Roma and Muslim – ie. Bosnian mothers – at only 12 and 7 percent, respec- tively. Regional distribution shows that wom- en living in Belgrade are most familiar with these two signs (57 percent), while in West Serbia this figure is only 15 percent. A moth- er’s educational level is an important factor in recognising symptoms, since a higher number of women with secondary or higher education named both signs. Solid Fuel Use More than 3 billion people around the world rely on solid fuels (biomass and coal) for their basic energy needs, including cooking and heat- ing. Cooking and heating with solid fuels leads to high levels of indoor smoke, a complex mix of health-damaging pollutants. The main prob- lem with the use of solid fuels is products of incomplete combustion, including CO, polyaro- matic hydrocarbons, SO2, and other toxic ele- ments. Use of solid fuels increases the risks of acute respiratory illness, pneumonia, chronic obstructive lung disease, cancer, and possibly tuberculosis, low birth weight, cataracts, and asthma. The primary indicator is the propor- tion of the population using solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy for cooking. Overall, one third of all households in Serbia use solid fuels for cooking. Use of solid fuels is characteristic of Roma settlements, where 85 percent use solid fuels, almost three times above the national average. Use of solid fuels is lower in urban areas (14 percent), than in ru- ral households (61 percent), as shown in Table CH.7. Differentials with respect to household wealth and the educational level of the head of the household are also significant. The propor- tion of households that use solid fuels for cook- ing rapidly decreases from 86 percent among poorest households to 21 percent among the middle class, while hardly any rich household uses solid fuel for cooking. Cooking with electricity is highest in Belgrade, where 84 percent of interviewed households use electricity, and lowest in West Serbia at 27 percent. In Vojvodina the usage of electricity and gas is approximately the same, with 43 per- cent of households in Vojvodina cooking with electricity and 38 percent using gas. With re- gards to household wealth, as expected, cook- ing with electricity is inversely proportional to solid fuel usage: 89 percent of the richest, as opposed to 8 percent of the poorest households cook with electricity. 43MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Solid fuel use alone is a poor proxy for indoor air pollution, since the concentration of the pollutants is different when the same fuel is burnt in differ- ent stoves or fires. Use of closed stoves with chim- neys minimises indoor pollution, while an open stove or fire with no chimney or hood means that there is no protection from the harmful effects of solid fuels. The type of stove used with a solid fuel is depicted in Table CH.8. Approximately 96 percent of households that use solid fuels for cooking have a closed stove with a chimney. The proportion of other types of stoves are 1 or below 1 percent, with the exception of Belgrade, where 6 percent of households have an open stove or fire with a chimney. Still, barely a single household cooks on a type of stove, without protection from the effects of solid fuels. 44 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Water and Sanitation Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Unsafe drinking water can be a signifi-cant carrier of diseases such as trachoma, chol- era, typhoid, and schistosomiasis. Drinking water can also be tainted with chemical, physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to its association with disease, access to drinking water may be particu- larly important for women and children, especially in rural areas, who bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, often over long distances. The MDG goal is to reduce by half, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people with- out sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. The World Fit for Children goal calls for a reduction in the proportion of house- holds without access to hygienic sanitation facili- ties and affordable and safe drinking water by at least one-third. The list of indicators used in MICS are as follows: Water � Use of improved drinking water sources � Use of adequate water treatment methods � Time to source of drinking water � Person collecting drinking water Sanitation � Use of improved sanitation facilities � Sanitary disposal of child faeces The distribution of the population according to the source of drinking water is shown in Table EN.1 and Figure EN.1. The population using improved sources of drinking water are those using any of the following types of supply: piped water (into their dwelling, yard or plot, from a public or local piped system), a public tap/standpipe, a tubewell/bore- hole, a protected well and spring. Bottled water is considered an improved water source only if the household is using an improved water source for other purposes, such as hand washing and cooking. Overall, 99 percent of the population uses an improved source of drinking water – 99 percent in urban areas and 98 percent in rural areas. The source of drinking water for the population slightly varies according to region (Table EN.1). In West Serbia, 66 percent of the population uses drinking water from a public or local water sup- ply, and there is the highest percentage of tube- well/borehole and protected well or spring water use at 32 percent. In Vojvodina, 14 percent of the household population that has access to improved water sources uses bottled water, while in the West region use of bottled water is nearly zero. The more interesting information for the country is the proportion of the population with a water source that is piped into the dwelling or yard from a water supply system. 77 percent of the popula- tion uses water from a public or local water sup- ply as a main source of drinking water. There is a significant difference in terms of water supply between urban and rural settlements. 91 percent of people in towns in Serbia use water from public ENVIRONMENTENVIRONMENT 45MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN or local water-supply installations in their dwell- ings or yards as a main source of drinking water. In rural settlements only 60 percent of people get their drinking water in the dwelling/yard from a public or local water-supply system. There are regional differences in Serbia: whereas 87 percent of the population in the Belgrade uses water piped into the dwelling or yard, the proportion in West Serbia is lowest, at 66 percent. If we look at this restrictive definition, we can notice that the poorest households are a more jeopardized group. Only 49 percent of the poorest compared to 89 percent of the richest population has access to water from public or local water supply systems. Use of in-house water treatment is presented in Table EN.2. Households were asked about ways they may be treating water at home to make it safer to drink – boiling, adding bleach or chlorine, using a water filter, and using solar disinfection were considered to be proper drinking water treatments. The table shows the percentage of household members using appropriate water treatment methods, separately for all households, and for households using improved and unim- proved drinking water sources. In Serbia, only 4 percent of the population uses appropriate water treatment. Use of appropriate water treatment greatly depends on the region the household lives in. While in Belgrade, 9 percent of the population treats water to make it safer, only 1 percent of the East Serbian popu- lation does the same. More importantly, only 8 percent of the population that has unimproved water sources apply appropriate water treat- ment methods. The socioeconomic status and educational level of the head of the household have a great influence on practising water treat- ment. Wealthier households and those with highly educated heads of the household appro- priately treat their drinking water more often than poorer households and those with less educated heads of the family. The Roma popu- lation living in Roma settlements represents the most unaware group of users of correct water treatment methods – only 1 percent of them use any water treatment. The amount of time it takes to obtain water is presented in Table EN.3, and the person who usually collected the water in Table EN.4. Note that these results refer to one round trip from home to the drinking water source. Information on the number of trips made in one day was not collected. In most of the households (96 percent) the drinking water source is on the premises. For 3 percent of all households, it takes less than 30 minutes to get to the water source and bring water, while about 1 percent of households spend 30 minutes or more for this purpose. When we exclude the households with water on the prem- ises, the average time to the source of drinking water is 22 minutes. Unexpectedly, more time for collecting water is spent in urban settlements (33 minutes) than in rural ones (19 minutes). It is also interesting that the average time to collect water in Belgrade as a typical urban city is quite high, 31 minutes. Although the percentage of the Roma population that has water on the premises is under the national average – 86 percent – they spent less time collecting water (19 minutes), since they usually have a source of water in the Roma settlement they live in. In the majority of households (53 percent), an adult male is usually the person collecting the water, when the source of drinking water is not on the premises. Adult women collect water in 41 percent of cases, while in about 1 percent of households, a female or male child under the age of 15 collects water. In Roma settlements, Figure EN.1 Percentage distribution of household members by source of drinking water Serbia, 2005 BOTTLED WATER TUBEWELL/BOREHOLE PUBLIC TAP/STANDPIPE LOCAL WATER SUPPLY PROTECTED WELL OR SPRING UNPROTECTED WELL OR SPRING OTHER UNIMPROVED PUBLIC WATER SUPPLY 62.8 13.8 1.4 7.1 5.5 8.5 0.4 0.5 46 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT the situation is a little different. In nearly two thirds of Roma households, an adult woman is the person in charge of collecting water. Inadequate disposal of human excreta and per- sonal hygiene is associated with a range of dis- eases. Improved sanitation facilities for excreta disposal include: flush or pour flush to a piped sewer system, a septic tank, no flush with a wa- ter-proof septic tank and traditional pit latrine. Nearly 100 percent of the population of Serbia is liv- ing in households using improved sanitation facili- ties (Table EN.5), with no differences between the population living in urban and rural settlements. A more appropriate analysis for the country is when breaking down the sanitary means according to type: toilets linked to sewage systems; toilets linked to septic tanks, and latrines. The safest way of disposing of human excreta and liquid waste is by means of a sewage system; 53 percent of the population live in a household with such means. 37 percent use a toilet that flushes into a septic tank. Altogether, 89 percent of the population has flush toilets either linked to a sewage system or a septic tank. Geographical distribution shows all the varia- tions within the country: in Vojvodina households mostly used a flush to a septic tank – 55 percent – while in Belgrade (76 percent), Central (56 per- cent) and South-East Serbia (56 percent) a flush to piped sewer system is predominant. In West and East Serbia both systems are equally used. A high- er percentage of traditional pit latrines are used in the poorest regions (in the South East, 19 percent; and in the West, 15 percent). There are important urban/rural differences when it comes to sanitation facilities. The urban population mostly (84 percent) uses a flush toilet linked to a sewage system, while in rural areas the population mainly (64 percent) uses a flush to a septic tank, and then traditional pit latrine (19 percent). Only 15 percent of rural households have a toilet in a piped sewer system. Use of a flush to the sewer system, as the most appropriate type of toilet facility is much higher among the richest households – 97 percent, com- pared to 7 percent of the poorest who are con- nected to the piped sewer system. Half of the Roma living in Roma settlements use the traditional pit latrine. A third of their house- holds are connected to the piped sewer system – mainly those in peri-urban areas. 5 percent live without toilet facilities. Safe disposal of child faeces is the child’s last stool which was disposed of, using a toilet or rinsed into a toilet or latrine. Disposal of the faeces of children between 0 and 2 years of age is presented in Table EN.6. In one out of three households with children aged 0 to 2 years the child faeces are safely disposed of. Namely, in 11 percent of households, children use a toilet, and in 26 percent of the cases their faeces were put/inserted into the toilet of a latrine. Findings show that the most frequently used meth- od of disposing of child faeces in Serbia is throwing it into the rubbish (58 percent of the households). Regional distribution shows that the lowest number of safe disposals of child faeces is in East Serbia, at 21 percent. This practice is more used in Vojvodina, West and Central Serbia, at about 40–42 percent. Only 20 percent of Roma households with chil- dren aged 0 to 2 years are disposing of their children’s faeces safely. 62 percent of them throw child faeces into the rubbish. An overview of the percentage of households with improved sources of drinking water and sanitary means of excreta disposal is presented in Table EN.7. Overall, 99 percent of the population in Serbia has access to improved water sources and sanitation. Exceptions are Roma and the poorest households, where slightly lower percentages have access to both improved water sources and sanita- tion facilities. 47MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Security of Tenure and Durability of Housing Target 11 of MDG is the achievement of significant improvements in the lives of at least 100 million slum dwellers, and the related indicator is the pro- portion of urban household members living in slum housing. In MICS, three indicators were introduced to measure issues related to slum housing: security of tenure, durability of housing, and the proportion living in slum households. An urban household is considered a slum in MICS if it fulfils one of the following conditions: improved drinking water sources are not used; improved sanitation facilities are not used; the living area is not sufficient; hous- ing is not durable, or security of tenure is lacking. Lack of security of tenure is defined as the lack of formal documentation for the residence or the perceived risk of eviction. Table EN.8 is on the security of tenure. In urban areas covered in Serbia MICS, 13 percent of households do not have formal documentation for their residence, and 7 percent of respondents to the household questionnaire indicated that there is a risk of evic- tion. Combining these figures, it is observed that 17 percent of households do not have security of tenure. As additional information, the table also shows that 13 percent of household members have indeed been evicted from a dwelling they were residing in during the last 15 years. Lack of security of tenure is highest among the Roma population living in Roma settlements. As many as 38 percent of Roma households live in dwellings without formal documentation, and every fifth Roma household feels that there is a risk of eviction. Security of tenure is highly linked to household wealth. The wealthier the household is, the more secure the tenure. The proportion of households that do not have security of tenure decreases from 31 to 11 percent from the poorest to the richest house- holds. These results are not only a consequence of lack of formal documentation; they are highly cor- related with the perceived risk of eviction. Finding that every eighth household was forced to move in the last 15 years is not so surprising con- sidering the political situation and the civil wars that happened during this period. The fact that 22 percent of these households are from the poorest class, indicates that they were not in a position to improve their socio-economic status. Structures that households are inhabiting con- sidered non-durable in MICS are those where the floor material is natural and two or more bad conditions were identified, like cracks or openings in the wall; no windows or windows with broken glass; visible holes in the walls; an incomplete roof or an insecure door; or where conditions of vulnerability to accidents in terms of the dwelling’s surroundings exist, or if the structure is located in or near a hazardous area (eg. a landslide area, a flood-phone area, a river bank, a steep hill, a rubbish tip, an industrial pollution area, a railway line, power plant or flyover). Table EN.9 provides information on the findings of the survey. The proportion of households and household members that live in dwellings which are considered non-durable is very low, under 1 percent, with the exception of Roma households. As many as 12 percent of Roma live in non-durable dwellings. 14 percent of dwellings inhabited by Roma have a natural floor, and 4 percent of them are located in haz- ardous areas. Table EN.10 brings together all 5 components of slum housing (see above). Overall, 19 percent of households are considered to be slum housing. 21 percent of the population is living in those households. The Roma population represents the most jeopardized group regarding security of tenure and poor dwelling conditions. Around 60 percent of Roma households and as many as 63 percent of Roma household members live in slum housing. 48 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Contraception Appropriate family planning is important to the health of women and children by: 1) preventing pregnancies that are too early or too late; 2) ex- tending the period between births; and 3) limiting the number of children. A World Fit for Children goal is access for all couples to information and ser- vices to prevent pregnancies that are too early, too closely spaced, too late or too numerous. Current use of contraception was reported by less than half (41 percent) of women currently married or in union (Table RH.1). Women in Serbia are more frequently using traditional contraceptive methods – 23 percent. The most popular contraceptive methods are withdrawal and periodic abstinence, at 14 and 8 percent, re- spectively. The next most popular contraceptive method is the condom at 8 percent. 6 percent use intrauterine devices, 3 percent use the pill and less than 1 percent of married women reported the use of some other method for preventing pregnancy. Contraceptive prevalence ranges from 27 percent in Central Serbia to 54 percent in East Serbia. Each area has its own characteristics in terms of practices used. For example, in East and South- east Serbia, which are considered underdeveloped parts of the country, women predominantly use traditional contraceptive methods, while in Belgrade and Vojvodina, the most developed areas, modern methods of contraception are prevalent. Contraceptive prevalence of both traditional and modern methods seemed to increase with age, up to the age of 40, and then there is a pattern of decreased contraception use. Women’s education level, ethnicity and wealth index are significantly linked to contraceptive prevalence (Figure RH.1). The percentage of women using any method of contraception rose from 33 percent among those with primary or no education to 41 percent among women with secondary education, and up to 52 percent among women with higher education. Also, as the educational level increases, the propor- tion using modern methods – particularly the con- dom – increases, and the proportion using with- drawal as a method decreases. A similar pattern is noticed with regards to wealth: women from the richest households are using modern contraceptive methods more than average. The use of any contra- ceptive method decreases as poverty increases. Contraceptive usage is highest among Hungarian women, where 57 percent of women are using mainly modern methods of contraception. Only one in four married Roma women are using any contraceptive method, usually withdrawal (every fifth). Only 4 percent of Roma women use modern methods. Traditional methods of contraception are also present among Muslims – i.e. Bosnians – but their main choice is periodic abstinence. In both of these ethnic groups, condom usage is ex- tremely low. REPRODUCTIVEREPRODUCTIVE HEALTHHEALTH 49MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Unmet Need The unmet need9 for contraception refers to fe- cund women who are not using any method of contraception, but who wish to postpone the next birth or who wish to stop childbearing altogether. Unmet need is identified in MICS by using a set of questions eliciting current behaviour and prefer- ences pertaining to contraceptive use, fecundity, and fertility preferences. Women with an unmet need for spacing include women who are currently married (or in union), fe- cund (are currently pregnant or think that they are physically able to become pregnant), are currently not using contraception, and want to space their births. Pregnant women are considered to want to space their births when they did not want the child at the time they got pregnant. Women who are not pregnant are classified in this category if they want to have a(nother) child, but want to have the child at least two years later, or after marriage. Women with an unmet need for limiting are those women who are currently married (or in union), fecund (are currently pregnant or think that they are physically able to become pregnant), are cur- rently not using contraception, and want to limit their births. The latter group includes women who are currently pregnant but had not wanted the pregnancy at all, and women who are not currently pregnant but do not want to have a(nother) child. The total unmet need for contraception is simply the sum of the unmet need for spacing and the unmet need for limiting. Using information on contraception and unmet need, the percentage of demand for contracep- tion satisfied is also estimated from the MICS data. The percentage of demand for contraception satisfied is defined as the proportion of women currently married or in union who are currently using contraception, out of the total demand for contraception. The total demand for contra- ception includes women who currently have an unmet need (for spacing or limiting), plus those who are currently using contraception. Table RH.2 shows the results of the survey on contraception, unmet need, and the satisfied demand for contraception. 28 percent of married women or women in union in Serbia have an unmet need for contraception. Since there is a close link to contraception use, the findings according to background character- istics are very similar to those of contraceptive prevalence. We notice that as women’s education and wealth decrease, so too does their satisfac- tion of their demand for contraception. Above all, needs for contraception are not satisfied among the “most at risk” population: Roma women liv- ing in Roma settlements, uneducated women, and women from the poorest households. Regional distribution shows that an unmet need for contraception is lowest in East Serbia. Figure RH.1 Use of contraception, modern and traditional contraceptive methods, Serbia, 2005 SERBIAN HUNGARIAN MUSLIM \ BOSNIAN ROMA OTHER PRIMARY OR NONE SECONDARY UNIVERSITY POOREST SECOND MIDDLE FOURTH RICHEST SERBIA 40.6 56.6 38.2 27.1 46.9 33.4 41.4 51.7 33.1 38.3 42.2 42.6 48.6 41.2 9 Unmet need measurement in MICS is somewhat different to that used in other household surveys, such as the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS). In DHS, more detailed information is collected on additional variables, such as postpartum amenhorrea, and sexual activity. Results from the two types of surveys are strictly not comparable. 50 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Conversely, women from West Serbia, to the larg- est degree, have unmet needs for contraception. Unmet need for contraception mainly manifests as unmet need for limiting, with the exception of younger women, 15 to 24 years old, whose needs are mainly manifested as a need for spacing. Antenatal Care The antenatal period presents important op- portunities for reaching pregnant women with a number of interventions that may be vital to their health and well-being, and that of their infants. Better understanding of foetal growth and development and its relationship to the mother’s health has resulted in increased at- tention to the potential of antenatal care as an intervention to improve both maternal and newborn health. For example, if the antenatal period is used to inform women and families about the danger signs and symptoms and the risks of labour and delivery, it may provide the route for ensuring that pregnant women do, in practice, deliver with the assistance of a skilled health care provider. The antenatal period also provides an opportunity to supply information on birth spacing, which is recognized as an important factor in improving infant survival. The prevention and management of anaemia during pregnancy and treatment of STIs can significantly improve foetal outcomes and im- prove maternal health. Adverse outcomes such as low birth weight can be reduced through a combination of in- terventions to improve women’s nutritional status and prevent infections (e.g., STIs) during pregnancy. More recently, the potential of the antenatal period as an entry point for HIV pre- vention and care, in particular for the preven- tion of HIV transmission from mother to child, has led to renewed interest in access to and use of antenatal services. The WHO recommends a minimum of four antenatal visits based on a review of the effective- ness of different models of antenatal care. WHO guidelines are specific on the content of antenatal care visits, which include: � Blood pressure measurement � Urine testing for bacteriuria and proteinuria � Blood testing to detect syphilis and severe anaemia � Weight/height measurement (optional) Coverage of antenatal care (by a doctor, nurse, or midwife) is almost universal in Serbia, with 99 percent of women receiving antenatal care at least once during pregnancy. Lower antenatal care cov- erage is noticed among Roma, the youngest and less educated women, and women from the poor- est households. Looking at the content of antenatal care received, almost all women in Serbia have their blood pres- sure measured, a blood sample and urine speci- men taken. 6 percent of women are not weighed. A Papanicolau test is performed on half of the women in Serbia during the antenatal care pro- vided, and is performed mostly in Belgrade. Those interventions are performed more frequently on the more educated and richest women. Coverage of Roma women with almost all reported inter- ventions is 20 percent lower than average. The type of personnel providing antenatal care to women aged 15–49 years who gave birth in the two years preceding is presented in Table RH.3. 98 percent of women have received antenatal care from a professional health worker (doctor, nurse or midwife). In the majority of cases, care is provided by a medical doctor (98 percent), while other medical personnel represent 1 percent or less. Contrary to these general results, antenatal care provided by medical personnel, especially a doctor is significantly lower among Roma and less educated women. 51MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Assistance at Delivery Three quarters of all maternal deaths occur dur- ing delivery and the immediate post-partum pe- riod. The single most critical intervention for safe motherhood is to ensure that a competent health worker with midwifery skills is present at every birth, and that transport is available to a referral facility for obstetric care in case of emergency. A World Fit for Children goal is to ensure that women have ready and affordable access to skilled attendance at delivery. The indicators are the pro- portion of births with a skilled attendant and the proportion of institutional deliveries. The skilled attendant at delivery indicator is also used to track progress towards the Millennium Development target of reducing the maternal mortality rate by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. The MICS included a number of questions to as- sess the proportion of births attended by a skilled attendant. A skilled attendant includes a doctor, nurse, midwife or auxiliary midwife. About 99 percent of births occurring in the two years prior to the MICS survey were delivered by skilled personnel (Table RH.5). There are no statistically significant differences in any of the categories, except ethnicity. Roma women from Roma settlements and Muslim/Bosnian women are slightly behind the national average – 93 and 94 percent of those women respectively were delivered by skilled personnel. In most of the cases (87 percent) doctors assisted at the delivery. Doctors assisted at the delivery in a higher percentage to the youngest, more edu- cated and richest women. On average, an auxiliary midwife assisted in 10 percent of births in two years prior to the MICS survey. The other type of assistance during delivery is practically absent in Serbia (the exception are Roma again where 6 per- cent were delivered without assistance or with the assistance of a relative or friend). Roma women from Roma settlements more frequently delivered with the help of an auxiliary midwife. In Serbia, 99 percent of births which occurred in the past two years were delivered in health facilities. Similar to all other indicators, women from the “most at risk population”, Roma in Roma settlements happened to deliver in health facilities less than the average female population, 93 per- cent. Although there are some disparities regard- ing women’s education and living standard, they are not of statistical significance. 52 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT It is well recognized that a period of rapid brain development occurs in the first 3–4 years of life, and the quality of home care is the major determinant of a child’s development during this period. In this context, adult activities with children, the presence of books in the home, for the child, and the conditions of care are impor- tant indicators of quality of home care. A World Fit for Children goal is that “children should be physically healthy, mentally alert, emotionally secure, socially competent and ready to learn.” Information on a number of activities that sup- port early learning was collected in the survey. These included the involvement of adults with children in the following activities: reading books or looking at picture books, telling sto- ries, singing songs, taking children outside the home, compound or yard, playing with chil- dren, and spending time with children naming, counting, or drawing things. For more than four in five (84 percent) un- der-five children, an adult engaged in more than four activities that promote learning and school readiness during the 3 days pre- ceding the survey (Table CD.1). The average number of activities that adults engaged in with children was 5. The father’s involvement in such activities was somewhat limited, with about 70 percent of fathers involved in, on average, 2 activities with the child. Around 5 percent of under-5 children in Serbia live in a household without their fathers. There are no gender or urban/rural differences found in family support for learning. The most significant differences concerning the parents’ involvement in development activities were in the terms of the child’s age. Children aged 2 to 5 years are more likely to be supported in different activi- ties by their parents, than younger children (94 as opposed to 69 percent). The higher the parents’ education is, the more they are involved in sup- porting child development. The same statement goes for wealth index – the richer families are, the more they are involved in child development (particularly fathers). While more or less all ethnic groups are showing similar behaviour patterns, Roma parents are showing a different habit – every second Roma child received development support from family members, with also a lower (on aver- age 3) number of activities. Paternal involvement in child activities among the Roma population is much lower – only one third of fathers are involved in child development, with less than one activity. Exposure to books in early years not only provides the child with greater understanding of the nature of print, but may also give the child opportunities to see others reading, such as older siblings doing school work. The presence of books is important for later school performance and IQ scores. In Serbia, in four out of five households, three or more books (children’s and non-children’s) are present (Table CD.2). The median number of books is 10. There are no gender differences, but it is found that a child’s exposure to books CHILDCHILD DEVELOPMENTDEVELOPMENT 53MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN is strongly influenced by household wealth and the mother’s education. While only 54 percent of children whose mother has primary or less education live in a household where more than 3 non-children’s books are present, that percentage is as much as 90 among children whose moth- ers are highly educated. Socio-economic status shows a similar pattern regarding book owner- ship. Only 50–54 percent of the poorest house- holds own 3 or more books from both categories, while this figure is 91–94 percent in rich families. The number of children’s books present in the household varies according to the child’s age. 87 percent of children aged between 2 and 5, as op- posed to 67 percent of younger children live in a household where 3 or more children’s books are present. Regional distributions show the highest percentage of books present in Belgrade (about 90 percent), and the lowest in Central Serbia (about 69 percent). Books are more present in urban than rural households. There are significant dif- ferences regarding exposure to books between Roma children and the rest of the population. One in four Roma children is living in a house- hold with books. The median number of books present in Roma households is zero. Table CD.2 also shows that 21 percent of children aged 0–59 months had 3 or more playthings to play with in their homes, while 5 percent had no playthings. The playthings in MICS included household objects, homemade toys, toys that came from a store, and objects and materi- als found outside the home. Most children, 88 percent, play with toys that come from a store; one third of them play with household objects or objects and materials found outside the house. Just 20 percent of children are playing with homemade toys. Gender differences are not noticed. Interestingly, playthings are less present in Belgrade than in other regions. As expected in rural areas, there are more objects and materials found outside the home than in urban areas (34 vs 27 percent). As many as 13 percent of Roma and of Muslim children do not have any playthings. Roma children play with objects and homemade toys above average, and with toys that came from a store below average. The percentage of children from the poorest households that play with toys that came from a store is significantly below aver- age, but they more often play with homemade toys and objects and materials found outside the home. Leaving children alone or in the presence of other young children is known to increase the risk of accidents. In MICS, two questions were asked to find out whether children aged 0–59 months were left alone during the week preceding the inter- view, and whether children were left in the care of other children under 10 years of age. Table CD.3 shows that 9 percent of children were left with inadequate care during the week preced- ing the survey – 7 percent of children aged 0–59 months were left in the care of other children, while 5 percent were left alone during the week preceding the interview. Female and children from rural areas are more often left with inadequate care. This practice is more present in Belgrade, West and Central Serbia (10–11 percent) than in Vojvodina (5 percent). Older children (aged 24–59 months) were left with inadequate care more than younger ones. Mothers with primary or no educa- tion and the poorest tended to leave the child with inadequate care more than others. This practice is also more present in Roma and Muslim/Bosnian families (18 and 16 percent of children left without proper care, respectively). 54 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Pre-School Attendance and School Readiness Attending pre-school education in an organ-ised learning or child education programme is important for children’s readiness for school. One of the World Fit for Children goals is the promotion of early childhood education. In Serbia, every third child aged between 3 and 5 years is attending some form of organised early education programme (Table ED.1). While there are no gender differences, all other differences are very prominent (see Figure ED.1). The small national coverage is even smaller among Roma (4 percent coverage), the poorest, mothers with primary or no education (7 per- cent) and in rural areas (14 percent). Regionally it is more prevalent in Belgrade (57 percent), and lowest in the East and South East region (18 and 21 percent respectively). Those facts are strong evidence that the system favours the better-off, the richest, and working families in the main urban centres. The table ED.1 also shows the proportion of children in the first grade of primary school who attended pre-school the previous year (Table ED.1), an important indicator of school readiness. Overall, 89 percent of children who are currently aged 7 and attending the first grade of primary school were attending pre- school the previous year. This proportion was somewhat expected, mainly owing to the fact that the pre-school programme before first grade is obligatory in Serbia. Again, the biggest difference is coverage of Roma and children from the poorest households, where just 62 percent of Roma and 77 percent of the poorest children attended pre-school programmes one year prior to the first grade. No significant dif- ferences in terms of child gender, region and type of settlement were found. EDUCATIONEDUCATION Figure ED.1 Percentage of children aged 36–59 months who are attending some form of organised early childhood education program, Serbia, 2005 Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fr om Ro m a se tt le m en ts Ro m a in R om a se tt lm en ts Ur ba n Ru ra l Pr im ar y o r n on e Se co nd ar y Un iv er sit y Po or es t Se co nd M id dl e Fo ur th Ri ch es t Se rb ia 33.4 3.9 45.2 14.4 7.4 33.1 57.6 7.4 11.9 25.6 45.9 64.1 32.5 55MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Primary and Secondary School Participation Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world’s children is one of the most important goals of the Millennium Development Goals and A World Fit for Children. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protect- ing children from hazardous and exploitative labour and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environ- ment, and influencing population growth. The indicators for primary and secondary school attendance include: � Net intake rate in primary education � Net primary school attendance rate � Net secondary school attendance rate � Net primary school attendance rate of children of secondary school age � Female to male education ratio (GPI) The indicators of school progression include: � Survival rate to grade five � Transition rate to secondary school � Net primary completion rate Of children who are of primary school entry age (children that are to turn 7 in the observed cal- endar year) in Serbia, 94 percent are attending the first grade of primary school (ED.2). The only significant difference concerning intake rate in primary education is detected in the case of Roma children. Only 66 percent of them enter primary school on time. Table ED.3 shows the percentage of children of primary school age attending primary or second- ary school. The majority of children of primary school age are attending school (98 percent of children that are to turn 7 to 14 in the observed calendar year). Similar to the intake rate findings, the only category that is significantly lower is the category of Roma children. The rate of pri- mary school attendance among this population is significantly lower, at 74 percent. On average, there are no significant differences between boys and girls in regard to elementary education at- tendance. Again, exceptions are Roma children, where 76 percent of boys compared to 71 percent of girls are attending primary school. Among Roma children, the child’s age has a strong influ- ence on the school attendance rate. The atten- dance rate is lowest in the first grade. The maxi- mum is reached between the ages of 8 and 10, and after that, a serious drop is visible at the age of 11 with girls, and at the age of 12 with boys. The difference between the rate of primary education and the primary school attendance rate indicates that there are certain children who start their education later than expected. This occurrence is more frequent among Roma children, since the difference between rates is higher in their case than the average (8 to 5 percent). 84 percent of children of secondary school age are attending secondary school (Table ED.4). Of the remaining 16 percent, 1.5 percent are attend- ing primary school (Table ED.4w), while the rest are out of school. The proportion of children attending secondary school among the Roma population is drastically below average, at 10 percent (Table ED.4). Again, among this ethnic group, gender differences are significant: the proportion of boys in second- ary school is twice as high as the proportion of girls (14 and 6 percent), which is the complete opposite of the rest of the population, where the percentage of girls in secondary school is slightly higher. Secondary school attendance is influenced by household wealth. About 64 percent of chil- dren from the poorest households are attending secondary school, while that is the case with 94 percent of children from the richest households. Children from urban areas are more likely to continue their education after primary school. 56 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT The percentage of children entering first grade who eventually reach grade 5 is presented in Table ED.5. Nearly all children starting grade one will eventually reach grade five. The only exception is Roma children from Roma settlements. Data shows that 97 percent of Roma children entering first grade will eventually reach grade five. No other significant differences were observed. Notice that this number includes children that repeat grades and that eventually move up to reach grade five. The net primary school completion rate and tran- sition rate to secondary education is presented in Table ED.6. At the time of the survey, 91 percent of children of primary completion age (14 years) were attending the last grade of primary educa- tion. A significantly lower percentage of Roma children (28 percent) attended the last grade of primary education. This value should be distin- guished from the gross primary completion ratio which includes children of any age attending the last grade of primary. The majority of children who successfully completed the last grade of pri- mary school (97 percent) were found to be attend- ing the first grade of secondary school. No signifi- cant gender, regional or socioeconomic influences on education continuance were detected. The ratio of girls to boys attending primary and secondary education is provided in Table ED.7. These ratios are better known as the Gender Parity Index (GPI). Notice that the ratios in- cluded here are obtained from net attendance ratios rather than gross attendance ratios. The latter ratios provide an erroneous description of the GPI mainly because in most of the cases the majority of over-aged children attending primary education tend to be boys. The table shows that gender parity for primary school is close to 1.0, indicating no difference in the at- tendance of girls and boys to primary school. However, the indicator goes up to 1.1 for sec- ondary education. The disparity of girls is only pronounced in the Roma in Roma settlements, where the GPI for primary and secondary school are 0.94 and 0.42, respectively. Adult Literacy One of the World Fit for Children goals is to assure adult literacy. Adult literacy is also an MDG indicator, relating to both men and women. In MICS, since only a women’s ques- tionnaire was administered, the results are based only on females aged 15–24. Literacy was assessed on the ability of women to read a short simple statement, or on school attend- ance. The literacy percentage is presented in Table ED.8. The literacy rate of females, aged 15–24 years in Serbia is 96 percent. As expect- ed, the literacy level is lower among women with no or primary education. Younger women aged 15–19 are less literate than women aged 20–24 (93 compared to 98 percent). 52 percent of Roma women aged 15 to 24 years are literate – much lower than the national average. The women from the second and middle wealth index quintile classes are the most literate. 57MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Birth Registration The Convention on the Rights of the Child states that every child has the right to a name and a nationality and the right to pro- tection from being deprived of his or her iden- tity. Birth registration is a fundamental means of securing these rights for children. The World Fit for Children states the goal of developing systems to ensure the registration of every child at or shortly after birth, and fulfil his or her right to acquire a name and a nationality, in accordance with national laws and relevant in- ternational instruments. The indicator is the percentage of children under 5 years of age whose birth is registered. The births of 99 percent of children under five years in Serbia have been registered. There are no significant variations in birth registration across sex, age, type of settlement, mother’s education or wealth index. Only Roma from Roma settlements are somewhat less likely to have their births regis- tered than other children (95 percent registered). Child Labour Article 32 of the Convention on the Rights of the Child states: “Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic ex- ploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child’s education, or to be harmful to the child’s health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development…” The World Fit for Children mentions nine strategies to combat child labour and the MDGs call for the protection of children against exploitation. In the MICS questionnaire, a number of ques- tions addressed the issue of child labour, that is, children 5–14 years of age involved in labour activities. A child is considered to be involved in child labour activities at the moment of the survey if during the week preceding the survey: � Ages 5–11: at least one hour of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week. � Ages 12–14: at least 14 hours of economic work or 28 hours of domestic work per week. This definition allows one to differentiate child labour from child work and to identify the type of work that should be eliminated. As such, the esti- mate provided here is a minimum of the prevalence of child labour since some children may be involved in hazardous labour activities for a number of hours that could be less than the numbers specified in the criteria explained before. Table CP.2 presents the results of child labour by the type of work. 4 percent of children aged 5 to 14 years in Serbia are involved in child labour, mainly unpaid and working for the family business. There is a strong correlation between child labour and the type of settlement a child is liv- ing in. Children living in rural areas are twice as involved in child labour activities (6 percent), than CHILD PROTECTIONCHILD PROTECTION 58 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT urban children (3 percent). The poorest children and Roma children from Roma settlements are the most exploited group when it comes to child labour. As many as 8 percent of children from the poorest households and 7 percent of Roma children are involved in child labour. The pattern is the same – it is mainly unpaid, family business- type work. The exception are Roma children, who work outside home, doing an equal amount of paid and unpaid work. Children whose mothers have secondary or higher education are less likely to be involved in labour (4 percent), than children whose mothers have primary or no education (6 percent). Table CP.3 shows the percentage of children clas- sified as student labourers or as labourer students. Student labourers are children attending school that were involved in child labour activities at the time of the survey. More specifically, of the 92 percent of children aged 5–14 attending school, 4 percent are also involved in child labour activities. The proportion of student labourers is almost two times higher among the poorest and Roma chil- dren, at 8 percent and 6 percent respectively. On the other hand, out of the 4 percent of chil- dren classified as child labourers, the majority of them are also attending school (93 percent). This percentage is slightly lower among the poorest children; 89 percent of those who work are also attending school, while among Roma children this percentage is significantly lower (58 percent). Statistically, it is important to emphasise that only 90 percent of children from the poorest house- holds and 67 percent of Roma children aged 5 to 14 are attending school. Child Discipline As stated in A World Fit for Children, “children must be protected against any acts of violence…” and the Millennium Declaration calls for the protection of children against abuse, exploitation and violence. In the Serbia MICS survey, moth- ers/caretakers of children aged between 2 and 14 were asked a series of questions on the methods parents tended to use to discipline their children when they misbehaved. Note that for the child discipline module, one child aged 2–14 per house- hold was selected randomly during fieldwork. Out of these questions, the following indicators used to describe aspects of child discipline are: 1) the number of children aged 2–14 that experi- ence psychological aggression as punishment or minor physical punishment or severe physical punishment; and 2) the number of parents/care- takers of children 2–14 years of age that believe that in order to raise their children properly, they need to physically punish them. In Serbia, 73 percent of children aged 2–14 years were subjected to at least one form of psychologi- cal or physical punishment by their mothers/care- takers or other household members. Two thirds of those children were exposed to psychological punishment, half of them to minor physical pun- ishment and 7 percent were subjected to severe physical punishment. The latter figure correlates with the percentage of mothers/caretakers who believed that children should be physically pun- ished, which unfortunately implies that they are applying this belief in practice. Every fifth child in Serbia has been disciplined through non-violent methods, and 6 percent of children have neither been punished nor disciplined which leaves an open question: how are they disciplined? Male children were subjected more to both minor and severe physical discipline (53 and 8 percent) than female children (49 and 5 percent). Violent disciplining is most practised in South-East Serbia, where two-thirds of children experienced minor, and one in seven children severe physical punishment. A seed of a good practice can be seen in Belgrade, where 27 percent of caregivers are using non-violent disciplinary methods. Physical punishment decreases with the age of the child. The mother’s education is strongly correlated with the child disciplining methods used – less educated mothers use non-violent methods less, and violent methods more in child disciplining. The same pattern is seen looking at the wealth index – use of violent methods decreases and use of non-violent methods increases according to the degree of wealth. 14 percent of the poorest car- egivers use severe physical punishment for disci- 59MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN plining the child – twice the national average. The ethnicity of the head of the household is strongly correlated with the disciplinary method used. While Serbs and Hungarians show similar prac- tices (the difference is that Hungarians use more psychosocial and less physical punishment), Roma and Muslims/Bosnians practise completely dif- ferent methods – 89 and 86 percent respectively use some form of punishment in child disciplin- ing. Severe physical punishment is a frequently used disciplinary method (22 among Roma and 15 among Muslims/Bosnians). Only 6 percent of Roma and 9 percent of Muslim/Bosnian children are disciplined using non violent methods. Early Marriage Marriage before the age of 18 is a reality for many young girls. According to UNICEF’s worldwide estimates, over 60 million women aged 20–24 were married/in union before the age of 18. Factors that influence child marriage rates include: the state of the country’s civil registration system, which pro- vides proof of age for children; the existence of an adequate legislative framework with an accompa- nying enforcement mechanism to address cases of child marriage; and the existence of customary or religious laws that condone the practice. In many parts of the world parents encourage the marriage of their daughters while they are still children in the hope that the marriage will benefit them both financially and socially, while also re- lieving financial burdens on the family. In actual fact, child marriage is a violation of human rights, compromising the development of girls and often resulting in early pregnancy and social isolation, with little education and poor vocational training reinforcing the gendered nature of poverty. The right to ’free and full’ consent to a marriage is rec- ognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights – with the recognition that consent cannot be ’free and full’ when one of the parties involved is not sufficiently mature to make an informed de- cision about a life partner. The Convention on the Elimination of all Forms of Discrimination against Women mentions the right to protection from child marriage in article 16, which states: “The betrothal and the marriage of a child shall have no legal effect, and all necessary action, including legislation, shall be taken to specify a minimum age for marriage…” While marriage is not consid- ered directly in the Convention on the Rights of the Child, child marriage is linked to other rights – such as the right to express their views freely, the right to protection from all forms of abuse, and the right to be protected from harmful traditional practices – and is frequently addressed by the Committee on the Rights of the Child. Young married girls are often required to perform large amounts of domestic work, are under pres- sure to demonstrate fertility, and are responsible for raising children while still children them- selves. Women who married at younger ages were more likely to believe that it is sometimes accept- able for a husband to beat his wife and were more likely to experience domestic violence themselves. The age gap between partners is thought to con- tribute to these abusive power dynamics and to increase the risk of untimely widowhood. Closely related to the issue of child marriage is the age at which girls become sexually active. Women who are married before the age of 18 tend to have more children than those who marry later in life. Pregnancy related deaths are known to be a leading cause of mortality for both married and unmarried girls between the ages of 15 and 19, particularly among the youngest of this group. Two indicators are to estimate the percentage of women married before 15 years of age and the percentage married before 18 years of age. The percentage of women married at various ages is provided in Table CP.5. In Serbia, according to the Family Law, marriage is not allowed before the age of 19. However, under special circumstances marriage is allowed after the age of 16. Nearly 1 percent of women aged 15 to 49 had married before the age of 15. The tendency towards early marriage is significantly higher among Roma women from Roma settlements, 60 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT where 12 percent of interviewed women married before the age of 15. 8 percent of all women aged 20 to 49 married be- fore the age of 18. This practice is more present in East Serbia, rural areas, among the less educated, the poorest and particularly among Roma. For example, almost half of Roma women from Roma settlements were married before the age of 18, ev- ery third woman with primary or no education and every fifth woman from the poorest households. Another component is the spousal age difference with an indicator being the percentage of married/ in union women with a difference of 10 or more years of age compared to their current spouse. Table CP.6 shows the results of the age difference between husbands and wives. While 26 percent of young married women aged 15 to 19 are married to a partner 10 or more years older, among married women aged 20 to 24 years this percentage is much lower – 14 percent. Interestingly this phenomenon is mainly correlated with poverty and lower educa- tion – every third young women is married to a husband who is more than 10 years older, for ex- ample. On the other hand, Roma women, although entering marriage very early, are mainly married to slightly older partners, and very seldom to partners 10 years older. Domestic Violence A number of questions were asked of women aged 15–49 to assess their attitudes towards whether husbands are justified to hit or beat their wives/partners for a variety of scenarios. These questions were asked to have an indication of cultural beliefs that tend to be associated with the prevalence of violence against women by their husbands/partners. The main assumption here is that women that agree with the statements indicating that husbands/partners are justified to beat their wives/partners under the circumstances described in reality tend to be abused by their own husbands/partners. The responses to these questions can be found in Table CP.7. Overall, 6 percent of women in Serbia feel that their husband/partner has a right to hit or beat them, mostly in cases when they neglect the chil- dren (6 percent), or if they demonstrate their au- tonomy, e.g. go out without telling their husbands or argue with him (2 percent). Regionally, domestic violence is more accepted in South and West Serbia (approximately 12 percent) than in other parts of the country, owing to the same reasons as stated above. Acceptance is more present among the poorest and less educated, and also currently married women. However, it is mainly correlated with ethnicity – every third Muslim/Bosnian and Roma woman believes it is justified for a husband to beat his wife/partner, mainly when she neglects the children or goes out or argues with him, and in the case of Roma women also if she refuses to have sex with him. Child Disability One of the World Fit for Children goals is to pro- tect children against abuse, exploitation, and vio- lence, including the elimination of discrimination against children with disabilities. For children aged between 2 and 9 years, a series of questions were asked to assess the number of disabilities/impair- ments, such as sight impairment, deafness, and dif- ficulties with speech. This approach is based on the concept of functional disability developed by the WHO and aims to identify the implications of any impairment or disability for the development of the child (e.g. health, nutrition, education, etc.). Table CP.8 shows the results of these questions. According to the mothers’ report, every tenth child aged between 2 and 9 in Serbia displays some kind of disability. This appears to be more frequent among Roma children from Roma set- tlements (23 percent), children from the poorest households (17 percent) and those whose moth- ers are less educated (15 percent). Also, child dis- abilities are more frequent among children from rural (13 percent), than children from urban settlements (9 percent). 61MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Knowledge of HIV Transmission and Condom Use One of the most important prerequisites for reducing the rate of HIV infection is accurate knowledge of how HIV is transmitted and strategies for preventing transmission. Correct in- formation is the first step towards raising aware- ness and giving young people the tools to protect themselves from infection. Misconceptions about HIV are common and can confuse young people and hinder prevention efforts. The UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) called on governments to improve the knowledge and skills of young people to protect themselves from HIV. The indicators to measure this goal as well as the MDG of reducing HIV infections by half include improving the level of knowledge of HIV and its prevention, and chang- ing behaviour to prevent further spread of the disease. The HIV module was administered to women 15–49 years of age. One indicator which is both an MDG and UNGASS indicator is the percentage of young women who have comprehensive and correct knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission. Women were asked whether they knew of the three main methods of HIV transmission – hav- ing only one faithful uninfected partner, using a condom every time, and abstaining from sex. HIV/AIDS AND SEXUALHIV/AIDS AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOURBEHAVIOUR The results are presented in Table HA.1. In Serbia, 98 percent of the interviewed women had heard of AIDS. Although this percentage is significantly high, the percentage of women who know all three main ways of preventing HIV transmission is only 36 percent. Comprehensive and correct knowledge of HIV prevention is more frequent among young women, women who are wealthier and have secondary or higher education. On the other hand, women who have primary educa- tion, or belong to the poorest class are less aware of AIDS existence, and their correct knowledge about HIV transmission is below average. Roma women from Roma settlements are fairly unfa- miliar with AIDS. Only 72 percent of them had ever heard of AIDS, and only 14 percent of them are aware of all three ways of transmission. An alarming fact is that one in two Roma women are unaware of any way HIV transmission can be prevented. 86 percent of women know about using a condom every time, 67 percent about having one faith- ful uninfected sex partner, and 50 percent know about abstaining from sex as the main ways of preventing HIV transmission. While 91 percent of women know at least one way, almost one in ten do not know any of the three ways. 62 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT The results show a high correlation between women’s place of residence and knowledge of HIV. Women living in urban settlements are likely to be better informed about HIV and its preven- tion, as well as those living in Belgrade (a highly urban city) and in Vojvodina. On the other hand, 16 and 10 percent of women respectively, living in Central and East Serbia, do not know any way of preventing transmission. Table HA.2 shows the percentage of women who can correctly identify misconceptions concerning HIV. The indicator is based on the two most com- mon and relevant misconceptions in Serbia: that HIV can be transmitted by sharing food with an infected person and mosquito bites. The table also provides information on whether women know that HIV cannot be transmitted by supernatural means, and that HIV can be transmitted by shar- ing needles. Only half of the interviewed women reject the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy-looking person can be infect- ed. The table shows that the most common mis- conception is that mosquitoes can transmit HIV, since almost one third of women in Serbia believe in this kind of transmission. 79 percent of women know that HIV can not be transmitted by sharing food with an infected person and 77 percent of women know that a healthy-looking person can be infected. One in ten women believes that HIV can be transmitted by supernatural means. This misconception is particularly common among Roma and the poorest women; every second Roma woman and every fourth woman from a poor household believes in this misconception. In general, misconceptions are more common in rural areas, and among poorer and less educated women. Looking at territory distribution, we notice that the most informed are women from Belgrade and Vojvodina. Table HA.3 summarises information from Tables HA.1 and HA.2 and shows the percentage of women who know two ways of preventing HIV transmission and reject three common miscon- ceptions. Although a large proportion of women have heard of AIDS, only 37 percent of women in Serbia have comprehensive knowledge regarding this topic. This figure indicates that comprehensive knowl- edge of HIV prevention methods and transmis- sion in Serbia is still fairly low, although there are differences according to age groups, areas of residence, education, and women’s wealth. There is a significant lack of knowledge among Roma women from Roma settlements. Only 5 percent of Roma women know two ways of preventing transmission and reject the three most common misconceptions. The highest level of knowledge is registered among adolescents and younger women, but still, it is below 50 percent. Women from urban areas have a slightly higher knowledge of HIV transmission. As expected, the percentage of women with comprehensive knowledge in- creases with the woman’s education level (Figure HA.1). While in Vojvodina, Belgrade and West Serbia almost every second women has above average knowledge (from 44 to 46 percent), in Central, East and South-East Serbia, comprehen- sive knowledge is registered only in every fourth woman (from 24 to 28 percent). Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is also an important first step for women to seek HIV testing when they are pregnant to Figure HA.1 Percentage of women who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, Serbia, 2005 Primary or none Secondary University Serbia KNOWS 2 WAYS TO PREVENT HIV IDENTIFY 3 MISCONCEPTIONS COMPREHENSIVE KNOWLEDGE 45 28 19 67 52 38 70 72 53 63 51 37 63MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN avoid infection of the baby. Women should know that HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy, delivery, and through breastfeeding. The level of knowledge among women aged 15–49 years concerning mother-to-child transmission is presented in Table HA.4. Overall, 87 percent of women know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child. The percentage of women who know all three ways of mother-to-child transmis- sion is 57 percent, while 11 percent of women did not know of any specific way. The knowledge of HIV transmission during pregnancy is most com- mon among women. When two other ways are in question, the values decrease slightly. 74 percent of women know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child at delivery, and 62 percent are aware of HIV transmission through breast- feeding. As in the case of other indicators, lack of mother-to-child HIV transmission is more promi- nent among Roma women, women from the poor- est households and women who are less educated. Only one in five of Roma women are aware of the ways of mother-to-child transmission of HIV. The indicators on attitudes towards people living with HIV measure stigma and discrimination in the community. Stigma and discrimination are low if respondents report an accepting attitude to the following four questions: 1) would care for a family member suffering from AIDS; 2) would buy fresh vegetables from a vendor who was HIV positive; 3) thinks that a female teacher who is HIV positive should be allowed to teach in school; and 4) would not want to keep the HIV status of a family member a secret. Table HA.5 shows the attitudes of women towards people living with HIV/AIDS. In Serbia, 64 percent of women who have heard of AIDS agree with at least one discriminatory statement. According to the survey results, the most common discriminative attitude is rejec- tion of buying food from a person with HIV/ AIDS. Half the women who have heard of AIDS would not buy food from an infected person. Less educated women and those from the poor- est households have more severe prejudices than the ones with a better wealth status and higher education. Ethnicity is strongly correlated to discriminatory attitudes. Data shows that about 80 percent of Muslims/Bosnians and Roma agree with at least one of the discriminatory state- ments. A very low percentage of women who have heard about AIDS would not take care of a family member infected with HIV (2 percent). But Roma women from Roma settlements have a more discriminative attitude towards this statement: as many as 7 percent of Roma women wouldn’t take care of a family member who was suffering from AIDS, although the percentage of them who would keep it a secret is lower than the national average. All this data confirms the facts that lack of knowledge is a serious source of fear and not an acceptance of differences. Another important indicator is the knowledge of where to be tested for HIV and use of such servic- es. Questions related to knowledge among women of a facility for HIV testing and whether they have ever been tested is presented in Table HA.6. 69 percent of women know where to be tested, while 7 percent have actually been tested. This informa- tion is known only to every fifth Roma woman from a Roma settlement and about every second woman with a low level of education and from the poorest households. A slightly larger percent- age applies to women from rural settlements (59 percent) and from South-East Serbia (52 percent). Although the knowledge of a place to get tested is not so low, only 7 percent of all women have been tested. This percentage is significantly higher among women living in Belgrade and in East Serbia, as well as among more educated women and those from wealthier households. Among women who had given birth within the two years preceding the survey, the percentage who had received counselling and HIV testing during antenatal care is shown in Table HA.7. Although the coverage of antenatal care in Serbia is quite high (98 percent), information about HIV was provided to only every seventh women (14 percent), and only every tenth women has been tested and received her results within the ante- natal care program. East Serbia is the only region where HIV counselling and testing during ante- natal care is well provided: 35 percent of women from East Serbia have been tested and received 64 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT results during antenatal care. On the other hand, the population from Roma settlements barely receive any antenatal care at all. Only 2 percent of Roma women received their test results within the antenatal care program. Sexual Behaviour Related to HIV Transmission Promoting safer sexual behaviour is critical for reducing HIV prevalence. The use of condoms during sex, especially with non-regular partners, is especially important for reducing the spread of HIV. In most countries over half of new HIV infections are among young people between the ages of 15 and 24, thus a change in behaviour among this age group will be especially important to reduce new infections. A module of questions was administered to women aged 15–24 to assess their risk of HIV infection. Risk factors for HIV include sex at an early age, sex with older men, sex with a non-marital non-cohabitating partner, and failure to use a condom. The frequency of sexual behaviour that increases the risk of HIV infection among women is pre- sented in Table HA.8 and Figure HA.2. With the exception of Roma women from Roma settlements, the number of young women who had sex before the age of 15 in Serbia is very low. Only 1 percent of women aged 15 to 19 had sex before the age of 15. On the other hand Roma women from Roma settlements start their sexual activities as very young girls, 16 percent of them had sex before the age of 15. The situation is simi- lar regarding sex at the age of 18. Namely, while in Serbia 19 percent of women aged 20 to 24 report- ed having sex before the age of 18, among Roma women this percentage is 51, which is over two times higher. Girls who terminate their education at primary school level tend to have sex at an early age; 3 percent before the age of 15 and 42 percent before the age of 18. Having sex with a partner 10 or more years older is reported by one in twelve women. It appears that women with primary or less education are more inclined to these kinds of relationships. One in every five women from the poorest house- holds had had sex with a partner 10 or more years older in the 12 months prior to the MICS. Condom use during sex with men other than husbands or live-in partners (non-marital, non-cohabiting) was assessed in women aged 15–24 who had had sex with such a partner in the previous year (Table HA.9). Over 60 percent of women aged 15–24 report having sex with a non-regular partner in the 12 months prior to the MICS. Three-quarters of those women reported condom usage when they had sex with the high risk partner. Figure HA.2 Sexual behaviour that increases risk of HIV infection, Serbia, 2005 Urban Rural Serbia WOMEN 15–19 WHO HAD SEX BEFORE AGE 15 WOMEN 20–24 WHO HAD SEX BEFORE AGE 18 WOMEN 20–24 WHO HAD SEX IN LAST 12 MONTHS WITH A MAN 10 YEARS OR MORE OLDER 18 6 20 9 111 19 7 65MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN List of ReferencesList of References Boerma, J. T., Weinstein, K. I., Rutstein, S. O., and Sommerfelt, A. E., 1996. Data on Birth Weight in Developing Countries: Can Surveys Help? Bulletin of the World Health Organisation, 74(2), 209–16. Filmer, D. and Pritchett, L., 2001. Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data – or tears: An application to educational enrolments in states of India. Demography 38(1): 115–132. Rutstein, S.O. and Johnson, K., 2004. The DHS Wealth Index. DHS Comparative Reports No. 6. Calverton, Maryland: ORC Macro. UNICEF, 2006. Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Manual, New York. United Nations, 1983. Manual X: Indirect Techniques for Demographic Estimation (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.83.XIII.2). United Nations, 1990a. QFIVE, United Nations Program for Child Mortality Estimation. New York, UN Pop Division United Nations, 1990b. Step-by-step Guide to the Estimation of Child Mortality. New York, UN www.childinfo.org. 67MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN AppendicesAppendices APPENDIX A SAMPLE DESIGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 APPENDIX B LIST OF PERSONNEL INVOLVED IN THE SURVEY . . . . . . . . . 74 APPENDIX C ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 APPENDIX D DATA QUALITY TABLES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 APPENDIX E MICS INDICATORS: NUMERATORS AND DENOMINATORS. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 APPENDIX F QUESTIONNAIRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 68 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT 69MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The major features of sample design are de-scribed in this appendix. Sample design features include target sample size, sample allocation, sample frame and listing, choice of domains, sampling stages, stratification, and the calculation of sample weights. The primary objective of the sample design for the Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at national level, for urban and rural areas, and for the six regions of the coun- try: Vojvodina, Belgrade, West, Central, East and South-East Serbia. In order to look more deeply into ethnic disparities and to provide national estimates, a separate sample was designed for Roma living in Roma settlements. A stratified, two-stage random sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample. Sample Size and Sample Allocation The Serbia MICS3 sample was created by merg- ing two samples: Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements and Roma living in Roma settlements. The average household size and the percentage of children under five in the total population were the factors which caused slightly different sample design for each of the samples. Serbia is characterised by a very low fertility rate and a small number of household members. For example, one generation of children born makes up less than 1 percent of the population, and the average number of household members is around 3. Owing to these facts, the modification of the recommended sample plan had to be made, and that was the stratification of households in se- lected census block units into two categories: households with children and households without children under 5. The allocation of the sample in the category of households with children was sig- nificantly bigger than the allocation of the sample in the category of households without children. In the case of the Roma population, the universe could be defined only for Roma who live in sepa- rate settlements. The birth rate and household size among Roma living in Roma settlements is higher than in other population groups, so key determinants were different to those used in calculations for Serbia. The target sample size for the Serbia MICS was calculated as 7200 households in Serbia exclud- ing Roma settlements and 1900 Roma households from Roma settlements. For the calculation of the sample size, for both Serbia without Roma and Roma samples, the key indicator used was the percentage of children aged 0–4 years who had had Acute Respiratory infections. The following formula was used to estimate the required sample size for these indicators: n = [4 (r) (1–r) (f) (nr)] (1)[(me)2 (r)2 (p) (nh)] where � n is the required sample size, expressed as the number of households � 4 is a factor to achieve the 95 per cent level of confidence � r is the predicted or anticipated prevalence (coverage rate) of the indicator Appendix A Sample DesignSample Design 70 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT � nr is the factor necessary to raise the sample size by 100(nr – 1) percent for non-response � f is the shortened symbol for deff (design effect) � me * r is the margin of error to be tolerated at the 95 percent level of confidence, defined as me percent of r (relative sampling error of r) � p is the proportion of the total population upon which the indicator, r, is based � nh is the average household size. As far as the sample size for Serbia excluding Roma settlements is concerned, the following levels of parameters were included: r (percentage of children aged 0–4 years who had had Acute Respiratory infections) was assumed to be 12 percent. The expected non-response rate nr, was determined at 15 percent. The value of deff (de- sign effect) was taken as 1.5 based on estimates from previous surveys. The maximum relative error allowed (me) was 12 percent, p (percentage of children aged 0–4 years in the total popula- tion) was taken as 4.5 percent and nh (average household size) was taken as 3. For the Roma sample: r (percentage of children aged 0–4 years who had had Acute Respiratory infections) and the expected non-response rate (nr) were assumed to be 12 and 15 percent, respec- tively, like the Serbia sample. Also the predicted value for design effect was the same, 1.5. The rela- tive margin of error wanted (me) was 20 percent. The percentage of children 0–4 years in the total population, p was taken as 9.5, and nh (average household size) as 4.7. The resulting number of households from these exercises was as follows: In the case of Serbia, excluding Roma settlements, the calculated sample size was 26000 households. Only a sample of that size would provide a signifi- cant number of children under 5 for drawing reli- able conclusions. Therefore, in order to cut down the number of households in the sample, but not to lose estimation reliability, the stratification of the sample into categories with and without chil- dren aged 0–4 years was needed. For calculation of the necessary number of households in each category, the following formula was used: n = (ns) (nc) (ps) (2) where � n is the required sample size, expressed as the number of households � ns is the expected number of households with, or the number of households without children under 5 in a cluster, depending on what cat- egory the calculation is used � nc is the number of clusters in the sample, and � ps is the probability of selection of the house- hold in each category. Taking into account that the proportion of children under 5 in the total population, p was 4.5 percent, and if the average household size is 3, the estimated number of households with children was 13.5 per 100 households (the average number of households in each cluster). So the ns was assumed to be 13.5 for the category with children, and 86.5 for the category without children. The probability of selec- tion of a household (ps) with at least one child out of all households with children was assumed to be 0.67, and the probability of selecting a household without children from all households with children in each cluster was 0.1. Supposing that 400 clus- ters were about to be selected, the total number of households was calculated at 3600 households with, and 3400 of households without children un- der 5, which makes a total of 7000 households. For the Roma sample, the stratification of primary units was not needed. Using formula (1), the cal- culated sample size was 1800 households. The average cluster size in the Serbia MICS was determined as 18 households, plus 3 backup households for both Serbia and Roma samples. Back-up households were to be interviewed only if some of the first 18 households were not found. In cases where a household refused to be inter- viewed, the substitution with a back-up household was not possible. The calculation was based on a 71MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN number of considerations, including the budget available, and the time that would be needed per team to complete one cluster. Dividing the total number of households by the number of house- holds per cluster, it was calculated that the selec- tion of a total number of 400 clusters in Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements and 106 clusters in Roma settlements would be needed in all regions. Table SD.1 Allocation of Sample Clusters (Primary Sampling Units) to Sampling Domains Region Population (Census 2002) Roma Population (Census 2002) Number of Clusters Serbia without Roma Number of Clusters Roma in Roma settlements Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Vojvodina 2031992 1152295 879697 29057 12593 16464 62 45 107 13 13 26 Belgrade 1576124 1281801 294323 19191 16040 3151 67 17 84 17 5 22 West Serbia 835225 322919 512306 6294 1345 4949 18 26 44 1 3 4 Central Serbia 1301656 636412 665244 7320 5446 1874 36 37 73 4 2 6 East Serbia 694905 326326 368579 8452 6924 1528 17 20 37 7 1 8 South-East Serbia 1058099 506143 551956 37879 24415 13464 29 26 55 27 13 40 Total 7498001 4225896 3272105 108193 66763 41430 229 171 400 69 37 106 Sampling Frame and Selection of Clusters The 2002 Serbian Population Census framework was used for the selection of clusters. Census enu- meration areas (app. 100 households) were de- fined as primary sampling units (PSUs), and were selected from each of the sampling domains by using systematic pps (probability proportional to size) sampling procedures, based on the estimated sizes of the enumeration areas from the 2002 Population Census. The first stage of sampling was thus completed by selecting the required number of enumeration areas from each of the 6 regions by urban and rural areas separately. Listing Activities Since the sample frame (the 2002 Population Census) was not up to date, household lists in all selected enumeration areas were updated prior to the selection of households. For this purpose, listing teams were formed, who visited each enu- meration area, and listed the occupied households. The Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia and The Strategic Marketing Research Agency were responsible for updating household lists. The list- ing exercise was performed by teams which were the direct implementers of the field work during the course of data collection that came later. The whole territory of Serbia was divided into 18 dis- tricts according to the regional network of institu- tions responsible for listing and fieldwork. In each district a team of people was selected – one super- Allocation of the total sample size to the six re- gions was targeted with probability proportional to the regions’ size. Therefore, 400 Serbia exclud- ing Roma, plus 106 Roma sample clusters were allocated across the regions, with the final sample size calculated at 9108 households [(400+106) clusters x 18 households per cluster]. In each re- gion, the clusters (primary sampling units) were distributed to urban and rural domains, propor- tional to the size of the urban and rural popula- tions in that region. The table below shows the allocation of clusters to the sampling domains. 72 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT visor for the district and the interviewers (whose number depended on the number of clusters in the region). Criteria for the selection of the inter- viewers and supervisors were their qualifications, communication skills, experience in fieldwork and knowledge of the region where research was to be conducted. A total of 47 teams were formed. For each team, the list of all households in the selected cluster from the last census was provided. The interviewers’ task was to go to the addresses listed and to mark any change that had happened, e.g. the dwelling didn’t exist any more, the household had moved away from the dwelling and another household was living there, and to note the num- ber of children under five living in the house- hold. The listing process was performed during September 2005. Besides providing updated infor- mation on households, updating household lists made interviewers more acquainted with the field. Selection of Households Lists of households were prepared by the listing teams in the field for each enumeration area. The households were then sequentially numbered from 1 to n (the total number of households in each enumeration area) at the Strategic Marketing Research Agency. Selection of 18 plus 3 back-up households with equal probability in each enu- meration area was carried out using the method of random start and equal random walk (simula- tion of the SRSWoR scheme). In the case of the Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements sample, before the selection of households, up- dated census block units were put into two cat- egories: households with children and households without children under 5. Calculation of Sample Weights The Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey sample is not self-weighted. In order to report the results at the national level sample weights were used. The use of sample weights was needed for the following reasons: � one sample was created by merging two samples (Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements and Roma in Roma settlements) � stratification of each of the separate samples by region and type of settlement. For the Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements sample, two more strata were included – households with under-5 children and households without un- der-5 children. Calculated sample weights were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data. The major component of weight for both samples is the reciprocal value of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in that particular sampling domain: Wh = 1 / fh (3) The term fh, the sampling fraction at the h–th stratum, is the product of probabilities of selec- tion at every stage in each sampling domain: fh = P1h * P2h (4) where Pih is the probability of selection of the sampling unit in the i–th stage for the h–th sampling domain. Since the estimated numbers of households per enumeration area prior to the first stage selec- tion (selection of primary sampling units) and the updated number of households per enumera- tion area were different, individual sampling fractions for households in each enumeration area (cluster) were calculated. The sampling fractions for households in each enumeration area (cluster) therefore included the probability of selection of the enumeration area in that par- ticular sampling domain, and the probability of selection of a household in the sample enumera- tion area (cluster). A second component which has to be taken into account in the calculation of sample weights is the level of non-response for household and indi- vidual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response is equal to the inverse value of: 73MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN RR = Number of interviewed households / Number of occupied households listed (5) After completion of the fieldwork, response rates were calculated for each sampling domain. These were used to adjust the sample weights calculated for each cluster. Response rates in the Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey are shown in Table HH.1 in this report. Similarly, the adjustment for non-response at the individual level (women and under-5 children) is equal to the inverse value of: RR = Completed women’s (or under-5’s) questionnaires / Eligible women (or under-5’s) (6) The numbers of eligible women and under-5 children were obtained from the household listing in the Household Questionnaire in households where interviews were completed. The unadjusted weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each enumeration area. These weights were then standardised (or normalised), one purpose of which is to make the sum of the interviewed sam- ple units equal to the total sample size at national level. Normalisation is performed by multiplying the aforementioned unadjusted weights by the ratio of the number of completed households to the total unadjusted weighted number of house- holds. A similar standardisation procedure was followed in obtaining standardised weights for the women’s and under-5s questionnaires. Adjusted (normalised) weights varied between 0.36 and 1.5 in the 400 enumeration areas (clusters) in Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements, and be- tween 0.39 and 3.47 in the 106 clusters among Roma settlements in Serbia. For merged Serbia and Roma samples, additional customisation of calculated weights was performed. Since according to the 2002 Census, the proportion of Roma households in the total Serbia household population is 1 percent, the proportion of women aged 15 to 49 is 1.3 percent and the proportion of children under 5 is 3.4 percent; the final weights are products of normalised weights and the ratio of pro- portion of both the Roma and non-Roma population. Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting each house- hold, woman and under-5 with these sample weights. MUNICIPALITIES IN WHICH THE SERBIA SAMPLE WAS SELECTED ROMA SETTLEMENTS FROM THE ROMA SAMPLE NOTE: A GREY ZONE REPRESENTS KOSOVO, WHICH IS OFFICIALLY (ACCORDING TO UN RESOLUTION 1244) TERRITORY UNDER JURISDICTION OF UNMIK AND THE INTERNATIONAL COMMUNITY Map SD.1 Allocation of Sample Clusters 74 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Overall supervision and management Ann-Lis Svenson Project Management Oliver Petrovic Coordination team Dragisa Bjeloglav Dragana Djokovic–Papic Oliver Petrovic Head of the Steering Committee Vesna Piperski–Tucakov Sampling Dragisa Bjeloglav Questionnaire Design Natalija Biliskov Ivana Bjelic Dragisa Bjeloglav Dragana Djokovic–Papic Ljiljana Djordjevic Tatjana Jovanov Oliver Petrovic Data Processing/Programming Ivana Bjelic Aleksandar Zoric Field Coordinators Natalija Biliskov Dragana Djokovic–Papic Ljiljana Djordjevic Tatjana Jovanov Field Supervisors Ruzica Antunovic Branko Dragisic Slavica Janjic Milan Jelenkovic Jasmina Jugovic Aleksandra Lazovic Jelena Lukic Olgica Miletic Bojan Ognjanovic Negosava Perovic Ksenija Rakic Dusan Randjelovic Andjelka Stojicevic Vesna Todorovic Radmila Vicentijevic Jasna Vidakovic Mirko Vukomanovic Ljiljana Vukovic Appendix B List of Personnel List of Personnel Involved in the SurveyInvolved in the Survey 75MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN The sample of respondents selected in the Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey is only one of the samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey results. The following sampling error measures are pre- sented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators: � Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usu- ally measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the vari- ance. The Taylor linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors. � Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator � Design effect (deff ) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple ran- dom sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple Appendix C EstimatesEstimates of Sampling Errorsof Sampling Errors random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates the increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design. � Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall. For any given statistic calculated from the sur- vey, the value of those statistics will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the stan- dard error (p + 2.se or p – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identi- cal size and design. For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, the SPSS Version 14 Complex Samples module has been used. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator. Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national total, for the regions, and for urban and rural areas. One of the selected indicators is based on households, 6 are based on household members, 11 are based on women, and 12 are based on children under the age of 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions. Table SE.1 shows the list of indicators for which sampling errors are calculat- ed, including the base population (denominator) for each indicator. Tables SE.2 to SE.10 show the calculated sampling errors. 76 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table SE.1 Indicators selected for sampling error calculations List of indicators selected for sampling error calculations, and base populations (denominators) for each indicator, Serbia, 2005 MICS INDICATOR BASE POPULATION HOUSEHOLDS 74 Child discipline Children aged 2–14 years selected HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS 11 Use of improved drinking water sources All household members 12 Use of improved sanitation facilities All household members 55 Net primary school attendance rate Children of primary school age 56 Net secondary school attendance rate Children of secondary school age 59 Primary completion rate Children of primary school completion age 71 Child labour Children aged 5–14 years WOMEN 4 Skilled attendant at delivery Women aged 15–49 years with a live birthin the last 2 years 20 Antenatal care Women aged 15–49 years with a live birthin the last 2 years 21 Contraceptive prevalence Women aged 15–49 currently married/in union 60 Adult literacy Women aged 15–24 years 67 Marriage before age 18 Women aged 20–49 years 82 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people Women aged 15–24 years 83 Condom use with non-regular partners Women aged 15–24 years who had a non-marital,non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 months 84 Age at first sex among young people Women aged 15–24 years 86 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS Women aged 15–49 years 88 Women who have been tested for HIV Women aged 15–49 years 89 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Women aged 15–49 years UNDER-5s 6 Underweight prevalence Children under age 5 25 Tuberculosis immunization coverage Children aged 18–29 months 26 Polio immunization coverage Children aged 18–29 months 27 Immunization coverage for DPT Children aged 18–29 months 28 Measles immunization coverage Children aged 18–29 months 31 Fully immunized children Children aged 18–29 months – Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks Children under age 5 22 Antibiotic treatment of suspectedpneumonia Children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the last 2 weeks – Diarrhoea in last two weeks Children under age 5 35 Received ORT or increased fluidsand continued feeding Children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks 46 Support for learning Children under age 5 62 Birth registration Children under age 5 77MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table SE.2 Sampling errors: Total sample Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Serbia, 2005 Table Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweight- ed count Confidence limits r – 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Child discipline CP.4 0.7269 0.0116 0.0160 2.6733 1.6350 2716 3939 0.704 0.750 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources EN.1 0.9893 0.0020 0.0020 3.1945 1.7873 28163 8730 0.985 0.993 Use of improved sanitation facilities EN.5 0.9983 0.0006 0.0006 1.8672 1.3665 28163 8730 0.997 0.999 Net primary school attendance rate ED.3 0.9844 0.0023 0.0024 1.2910 1.1362 2669 3612 0.980 0.989 Net secondary school attendance rate ED.4 0.8385 0.0120 0.0144 1.6540 1.2861 1264 1548 0.814 0.863 Primary completion rate ED.6 0.9066 0.0112 0.0123 0.5657 0.7521 322 383 0.884 0.929 Child labour CP.2 0.0441 0.0055 0.1242 3.3301 1.8249 3390 4678 0.033 0.055 WOMEN Skilled attendant at delivery RH.5 0.9900 0.0036 0.0036 1.9037 1.3798 662 1445 0.983 0.997 Antenatal care RH.3 0.9824 0.0040 0.0040 1.3135 1.1461 662 1445 0.975 0.990 Contraceptive prevalence RH.1 0.4118 0.0102 0.0248 2.3583 1.5357 4844 5492 0.391 0.432 Adult literacy ED.8 0.9557 0.0051 0.0054 1.2661 1.1252 1916 2051 0.945 0.966 Marriage before age 18 CP.5 0.0836 0.0046 0.0549 1.8093 1.3451 6578 6583 0.074 0.093 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people HA.3 0.4228 0.0153 0.0361 1.9560 1.3986 1916 2051 0.392 0.453 Condom use with non-regular partners HA.9 0.7445 0.0187 0.0251 0.6498 0.8061 547 354 0.707 0.782 Age at first sex among young people HA.8 0.0112 0.0032 0.2882 0.8743 0.9351 938 933 0.005 0.018 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS HA.5 0.3646 0.0104 0.0286 3.2201 1.7945 7345 6847 0.344 0.385 Women who have been tested for HIV HA.6 0.0704 0.0056 0.0796 3.6061 1.8990 7516 7516 0.059 0.082 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV HA.4 0.5701 0.0114 0.0200 3.9676 1.9919 7516 7516 0.547 0.593 UNDER-5s Underweight prevalence NU.1 0.0164 0.0030 0.1819 1.8223 1.3499 3337 3306 0.010 0.022 Tuberculosis immunization coverage CH.2 0.7455 0.0179 0.0240 1.3009 1.1406 769 769 0.710 0.781 Polio immunization coverage CH.2 0.9378 0.0081 0.0086 0.7772 0.8816 711 696 0.922 0.954 Immunization coverage for DPT CH.2 0.9559 0.0058 0.0061 0.5548 0.7449 705 691 0.944 0.968 Measles immunization coverage CH.2 0.8658 0.0149 0.0172 1.3963 1.1817 747 735 0.836 0.896 Fully immunized children CH.2 0.5747 0.0226 0.0394 1.4423 1.2010 700 689 0.529 0.620 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks CH.5 0.0336 0.0036 0.1058 1.4717 1.2131 3777 3777 0.027 0.041 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia CH.6 0.5681 0.0243 0.0427 0.4826 0.6947 127 202 0.520 0.617 Diarrhoea in last two weeks CH.3 0.0523 0.0045 0.0864 1.5554 1.2472 3777 3777 0.043 0.061 Received ORT or increased fluids and continued feeding CH.4 0.7095 0.0206 0.0290 0.5856 0.7652 198 286 0.668 0.751 Support for learning CD.1 0.8442 0.0095 0.0113 2.5956 1.6111 3777 3777 0.825 0.863 Birth registration CP.1 0.9890 0.0022 0.0022 1.7231 1.3127 3777 3777 0.985 0.993 78 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table SE.3 Sampling errors: Urban areas Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Serbia, 2005 Table Value(r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweight- ed count Confidence limits r – 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Child discipline CP.4 0.7060 0.0165 0.0233 3.0650 1.7507 1524 2342 0.673 0.739 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources EN.1 0.9942 0.0017 0.0017 2.4054 1.5509 15419 5116 0.991 0.997 Use of improved sanitation facilities EN.5 0.9985 0.0005 0.0005 0.9588 0.9792 15419 5116 0.997 1.000 Net primary school attendance rate ED.3 0.9837 0.0028 0.0029 1.0518 1.0256 1407 2110 0.978 0.989 Net secondary school attendance rate ED.4 0.8734 0.0140 0.0160 1.6922 1.3008 703 956 0.845 0.901 Primary completion rate ED.6 0.9118 0.0156 0.0171 0.7385 0.8594 190 245 0.881 0.943 Child labour CP.2 0.0332 0.0071 0.2125 4.2792 2.0686 1810 2757 0.019 0.047 WOMEN Skilled attendant at delivery RH.5 0.9889 0.0060 0.0060 2.7559 1.6601 350 856 0.977 1.000 Antenatal care RH.3 0.9811 0.0066 0.0067 2.0187 1.4208 350 856 0.968 0.994 Contraceptive prevalence RH.1 0.4258 0.0138 0.0324 2.4265 1.5577 2514 3111 0.398 0.453 Adult literacy ED.8 0.9454 0.0078 0.0083 1.4165 1.1902 1056 1201 0.930 0.961 Marriage before age 18 CP.5 0.0467 0.0044 0.0939 1.6723 1.2932 3756 3873 0.038 0.055 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people HA.3 0.4663 0.0205 0.0440 2.0264 1.4235 1056 1201 0.425 0.507 Condom use with non-regular partners HA.9 0.7308 0.0260 0.0355 0.7605 0.8721 361 223 0.679 0.783 Age at first sex among young people HA.8 0.0089 0.0040 0.4568 1.0657 1.0323 513 572 0.001 0.017 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS HA.5 0.4176 0.0135 0.0322 2.9386 1.7142 4191 3944 0.391 0.445 Women who have been tested for HIV HA.6 0.0887 0.0092 0.1041 4.6902 2.1657 4269 4445 0.070 0.107 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV HA.4 0.5700 0.0157 0.0275 4.4613 2.1122 4269 4445 0.539 0.601 UNDER-5s Underweight prevalence NU.1 0.0194 0.0046 0.2353 2.2081 1.4860 1878 2013 0.010 0.029 Tuberculosis immunization coverage CH.2 0.8105 0.0196 0.0242 1.1448 1.0700 411 457 0.771 0.850 Polio immunization coverage CH.2 0.9461 0.0102 0.0108 0.8602 0.9275 386 419 0.926 0.967 Immunization coverage for DPT CH.2 0.9439 0.0089 0.0094 0.6176 0.7859 382 415 0.926 0.962 Measles immunization coverage CH.2 0.8492 0.0213 0.0251 1.5546 1.2468 402 440 0.807 0.892 Fully immunized children CH.2 0.6239 0.0277 0.0444 1.3548 1.1639 381 415 0.568 0.679 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks CH.5 0.0346 0.0051 0.1479 1.7903 1.3380 2097 2286 0.024 0.045 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia CH.6 0.5933 0.0138 0.0232 0.1061 0.3257 72 136 0.566 0.621 Diarrhoea in last two weeks CH.3 0.0522 0.0066 0.1257 1.9913 1.4111 2097 2286 0.039 0.065 Received ORT or increased fluids and continued feeding CH.4 0.7627 0.0254 0.0333 0.6488 0.8055 110 183 0.712 0.814 Support for learning CD.1 0.8552 0.0132 0.0154 3.2089 1.7913 2097 2286 0.829 0.882 Birth registration CP.1 0.9895 0.0028 0.0028 1.7485 1.3223 2097 2286 0.984 0.995 79MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table SE.4 Sampling errors: Rural areas Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Serbia, 2005 Table Value(r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweight- ed count Confidence limits r – 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Child discipline CP.4 0.7536 0.0159 0.0211 2.1724 1.4739 1193 1597 0.722 0.785 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources EN.1 0.9835 0.0039 0.0039 3.3183 1.8216 12744 3614 0.976 0.991 Use of improved sanitation facilities EN.5 0.9980 0.0012 0.0012 2.4824 1.5756 12744 3614 0.996 1.000 Net primary school attendance rate ED.3 0.9852 0.0038 0.0039 1.5000 1.2247 1262 1502 0.978 0.993 Net secondary school attendance rate ED.4 0.7946 0.0211 0.0265 1.6098 1.2688 561 592 0.752 0.837 Primary completion rate ED.6 0.8993 0.0155 0.0172 0.3615 0.6012 132 138 0.868 0.930 Child labour CP.2 0.0566 0.0086 0.1515 2.6477 1.6272 1580 1921 0.039 0.074 WOMEN Skilled attendant at delivery RH.5 0.9913 0.0037 0.0038 0.9555 0.9775 312 589 0.984 0.999 Antenatal care RH.3 0.9840 0.0039 0.0040 0.5725 0.7566 312 589 0.976 0.992 Contraceptive prevalence RH.1 0.3966 0.0151 0.0381 2.2716 1.5072 2329 2381 0.366 0.427 Adult literacy ED.8 0.9683 0.0061 0.0063 1.0329 1.0163 860 850 0.956 0.981 Marriage before age 18 CP.5 0.1327 0.0088 0.0665 1.8322 1.3536 2822 2710 0.115 0.150 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people HA.3 0.3695 0.0228 0.0617 1.8973 1.3774 860 850 0.324 0.415 Condom use with non-regular partners HA.9 0.7711 0.0228 0.0296 0.3844 0.6200 186 131 0.725 0.817 Age at first sex among young people HA.8 0.0140 0.0052 0.3706 0.6997 0.8365 425 361 0.004 0.024 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS HA.5 0.2940 0.0164 0.0556 3.7383 1.9335 3154 2903 0.261 0.327 Women who have been tested for HIV HA.6 0.0465 0.0045 0.0961 1.3813 1.1753 3247 3071 0.038 0.055 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV HA.4 0.5701 0.0164 0.0287 3.3572 1.8323 3247 3071 0.537 0.603 UNDER-5s Underweight prevalence NU.1 0.0125 0.0034 0.2735 1.2198 1.1045 1459 1293 0.006 0.019 Tuberculosis immunization coverage CH.2 0.6709 0.0304 0.0453 1.3023 1.1412 358 312 0.610 0.732 Polio immunization coverage CH.2 0.9279 0.0127 0.0137 0.6668 0.8166 325 277 0.902 0.953 Immunization coverage for DPT CH.2 0.9702 0.0073 0.0075 0.5064 0.7116 323 276 0.956 0.985 Measles immunization coverage CH.2 0.8851 0.0208 0.0235 1.2466 1.1165 345 295 0.844 0.927 Fully immunized children CH.2 0.5160 0.0355 0.0688 1.3763 1.1731 320 274 0.445 0.587 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks CH.5 0.0325 0.0048 0.1488 1.1070 1.0521 1680 1491 0.023 0.042 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia CH.6 0.5347 0.0543 0.1015 0.7701 0.8776 55 66 0.426 0.643 Diarrhoea in last two weeks CH.3 0.0524 0.0060 0.1145 1.0800 1.0392 1680 1491 0.040 0.064 Received ORT or increased fluids and continued feeding CH.4 0.6427 0.0362 0.0563 0.5810 0.7622 88 103 0.570 0.715 Support for learning CD.1 0.8304 0.0137 0.0165 1.9858 1.4092 1680 1491 0.803 0.858 Birth registration CP.1 0.9884 0.0036 0.0036 1.6460 1.2830 1680 1491 0.981 0.996 80 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table SE.5 Sampling errors: Vojvodina Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Serbia, 2005 Table Value(r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweight- ed count Confidence limits r – 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Child discipline CP.4 0.7428 0.0171 0.0230 1.5418 1.2417 757 1006 0.709 0.777 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources EN.1 0.9919 0.0020 0.0021 1.1928 1.0922 7767 2294 0.988 0.996 Use of improved sanitation facilities EN.5 0.9988 0.0003 0.0003 0.1610 0.4012 7767 2294 0.998 0.999 Net primary school attendance rate ED.3 0.9859 0.0039 0.0039 0.9848 0.9924 747 905 0.978 0.994 Net secondary school attendance rate ED.4 0.8417 0.0229 0.0272 1.6177 1.2719 368 411 0.796 0.888 Primary completion rate ED.6 0.9143 0.0048 0.0053 0.0324 0.1799 102 110 0.905 0.924 Child labour CP.2 0.0439 0.0116 0.2632 3.7020 1.9241 936 1164 0.021 0.067 WOMEN Skilled attendant at delivery RH.5 0.9971 0.0009 0.0009 0.1086 0.3295 180 376 0.995 0.999 Antenatal care RH.3 0.9903 0.0041 0.0041 0.6523 0.8076 180 376 0.982 0.999 Contraceptive prevalence RH.1 0.4824 0.0171 0.0354 1.6481 1.2838 1352 1411 0.448 0.517 Adult literacy ED.8 0.9581 0.0099 0.0103 1.2841 1.1332 550 532 0.938 0.978 Marriage before age 18 CP.5 0.0742 0.0090 0.1214 1.9990 1.4139 1811 1694 0.056 0.092 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people HA.3 0.5366 0.0335 0.0625 2.4008 1.5495 550 532 0.470 0.604 Condom use with non-regular partners HA.9 0.6783 0.0383 0.0565 0.8152 0.9029 191 122 0.602 0.755 Age at first sex among young people HA.8 0.0135 0.0077 0.5723 1.0727 1.0357 269 241 0.000 0.029 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS HA.5 0.4201 0.0156 0.0372 1.8242 1.3506 2057 1822 0.389 0.451 Women who have been tested for HIV HA.6 0.0368 0.0060 0.1625 1.9501 1.3964 2080 1935 0.025 0.049 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV HA.4 0.5367 0.0207 0.0385 3.3196 1.8220 2080 1935 0.495 0.578 UNDER-5s Underweight prevalence NU.1 0.0162 0.0040 0.2487 0.9290 0.9639 979 915 0.008 0.024 Tuberculosis immunization coverage CH.2 0.9259 0.0217 0.0234 1.3491 1.1615 223 198 0.883 0.969 Polio immunization coverage CH.2 0.9568 0.0145 0.0152 0.9525 0.9759 212 187 0.928 0.986 Immunization coverage for DPT CH.2 0.9798 0.0071 0.0073 0.4787 0.6918 212 187 0.966 0.994 Measles immunization coverage CH.2 0.9160 0.0298 0.0325 2.2230 1.4910 218 194 0.856 0.976 Fully immunized children CH.2 0.8138 0.0364 0.0447 1.6314 1.2773 214 188 0.741 0.887 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks CH.5 0.0488 0.0088 0.1795 1.6343 1.2784 1052 989 0.031 0.066 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia CH.6 0.5028 0.0323 0.0642 0.2545 0.5045 51 62 0.438 0.567 Diarrhoea in last two weeks CH.3 0.0500 0.0088 0.1768 1.6256 1.2750 1052 989 0.032 0.068 Received ORT or increased fluids and continued feeding CH.4 0.7226 0.0112 0.0155 0.0387 0.1968 53 63 0.700 0.745 Support for learning CD.1 0.8879 0.0128 0.0144 1.6321 1.2775 1052 989 0.862 0.914 Birth registration CP.1 0.9918 0.0031 0.0031 1.1712 1.0822 1052 989 0.986 0.998 81MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table SE.6 Sampling errors: Belgrade Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Serbia, 2005 Table Value(r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweight- ed count Confidence limits r – 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Child discipline CP.4 0.6078 0.0337 0.0555 3.5692 1.8892 524 749 0.540 0.675 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources EN.1 0.9953 0.0036 0.0037 5.0114 2.2386 5535 1758 0.988 1.000 Use of improved sanitation facilities EN.5 0.9997 0.0001 0.0001 0.1176 0.3429 5535 1758 0.999 1.000 Net primary school attendance rate ED.3 0.9744 0.0084 0.0086 1.8169 1.3479 450 648 0.958 0.991 Net secondary school attendance rate ED.4 0.8631 0.0312 0.0362 2.2910 1.5136 198 279 0.801 0.925 Primary completion rate ED.6 0.8574 0.0370 0.0432 0.7394 0.8599 62 67 0.783 0.931 Child labour CP.2 0.0227 0.0087 0.3859 3.0250 1.7393 606 877 0.005 0.040 WOMEN Skilled attendant at delivery RH.5 0.9972 0.0013 0.0013 0.1432 0.3784 98 251 0.995 1.000 Antenatal care RH.3 0.9755 0.0062 0.0063 0.4013 0.6335 98 251 0.963 0.988 Contraceptive prevalence RH.1 0.3960 0.0232 0.0587 2.1984 1.4827 827 974 0.349 0.442 Adult literacy ED.8 0.9587 0.0076 0.0079 0.5956 0.7717 387 408 0.943 0.974 Marriage before age 18 CP.5 0.0428 0.0068 0.1578 1.4419 1.2008 1370 1295 0.029 0.056 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people HA.3 0.4189 0.0297 0.0708 1.4724 1.2134 387 408 0.360 0.478 Condom use with non-regular partners HA.9 0.8747 0.0195 0.0223 0.3325 0.5766 154 97 0.836 0.914 Age at first sex among young people HA.8 0.0139 0.0107 0.7701 1.6222 1.2736 183 195 0.000 0.035 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS HA.5 0.4549 0.0284 0.0624 4.3601 2.0881 1536 1342 0.398 0.512 Women who have been tested for HIV HA.6 0.1366 0.0200 0.1461 5.0319 2.2432 1554 1490 0.097 0.177 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV HA.4 0.4998 0.0252 0.0504 3.7735 1.9425 1554 1490 0.449 0.550 UNDER-5s Underweight prevalence NU.1 0.0365 0.0125 0.3427 2.7695 1.6642 604 623 0.011 0.062 Tuberculosis immunization coverage CH.2 0.8091 0.0443 0.0547 1.7373 1.3181 117 138 0.721 0.898 Polio immunization coverage CH.2 0.9231 0.0142 0.0154 0.3398 0.5830 107 120 0.895 0.952 Immunization coverage for DPT CH.2 0.8607 0.0247 0.0287 0.6003 0.7748 104 119 0.811 0.910 Measles immunization coverage CH.2 0.7538 0.0425 0.0564 1.2945 1.1378 116 134 0.669 0.839 Fully immunized children CH.2 0.4711 0.0665 0.1413 2.1149 1.4543 103 120 0.338 0.604 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks CH.5 0.0221 0.0069 0.3135 1.5962 1.2634 671 719 0.008 0.036 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia CH.6 0.3464 0.0087 0.0250 0.0083 0.0911 15 26 0.329 0.364 Diarrhoea in last two weeks CH.3 0.0391 0.0089 0.2265 1.4999 1.2247 671 719 0.021 0.057 Received ORT or increased fluids and continued feeding CH.4 0.4836 0.0750 0.1551 1.3295 1.1530 26 60 0.334 0.634 Support for learning CD.1 0.8710 0.0285 0.0328 5.1997 2.2803 671 719 0.814 0.928 Birth registration CP.1 0.9783 0.0068 0.0069 1.5584 1.2484 671 719 0.965 0.992 82 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table SE.7 Sampling errors: West Serbia Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Serbia, 2005 Table Value(r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweight- ed count Confidence limits r – 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Child discipline CP.4 0.7432 0.0321 0.0432 1.8988 1.3780 296 352 0.679 0.807 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources EN.1 0.9851 0.0048 0.0049 1.3470 1.1606 3155 863 0.976 0.995 Use of improved sanitation facilities EN.5 0.9995 0.0005 0.0005 0.4008 0.6331 3155 863 0.999 1.000 Net primary school attendance rate ED.3 0.9979 0.0017 0.0017 0.4365 0.6607 309 308 0.994 1.000 Net secondary school attendance rate ED.4 0.8818 0.0266 0.0302 0.8012 0.8951 137 119 0.829 0.935 Primary completion rate ED.6 0.9613 0.0402 0.0418 1.3477 1.1609 38 32 0.881 1.000 Child labour CP.2 0.0506 0.0127 0.2515 1.3462 1.1603 391 400 0.025 0.076 WOMEN Skilled attendant at delivery RH.5 0.9917 0.0082 0.0083 1.0670 1.0330 84 131 0.975 1.000 Antenatal care RH.3 0.9927 0.0071 0.0071 0.8966 0.9469 84 131 0.979 1.000 Contraceptive prevalence RH.1 0.3162 0.0246 0.0777 1.4695 1.2122 554 528 0.267 0.365 Adult literacy ED.8 0.9796 0.0121 0.0124 1.3272 1.1520 211 182 0.955 1.000 Marriage before age 18 CP.5 0.1119 0.0128 0.1140 1.0845 1.0414 754 663 0.086 0.137 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people HA.3 0.5272 0.0444 0.0843 1.4328 1.1970 211 182 0.438 0.616 Condom use with non-regular partners HA.9 0.8587 0.0279 0.0325 0.1793 0.4235 45 29 0.803 0.914 Age at first sex among young people HA.8 0.0088 0.0013 0.1504 0.0132 0.1151 88 67 0.006 0.011 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS HA.5 0.3324 0.0337 0.1015 3.6884 1.9205 829 720 0.265 0.400 Women who have been tested for HIV HA.6 0.0540 0.0114 0.2115 1.8602 1.3639 842 730 0.031 0.077 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV HA.4 0.7378 0.0223 0.0302 1.8706 1.3677 842 730 0.693 0.782 UNDER-5s Underweight prevalence NU.1 0.0053 0.0039 0.7373 0.8391 0.9160 377 288 0.000 0.013 Tuberculosis immunization coverage CH.2 0.6571 0.0569 0.0866 1.0780 1.0383 102 76 0.543 0.771 Polio immunization coverage CH.2 0.8807 0.0260 0.0295 0.4051 0.6364 85 64 0.829 0.933 Immunization coverage for DPT CH.2 0.9810 0.0028 0.0028 0.0263 0.1623 87 65 0.975 0.987 Measles immunization coverage CH.2 0.8814 0.0400 0.0454 1.1159 1.0564 99 74 0.801 0.961 Fully immunized children CH.2 0.4376 0.0567 0.1297 0.8240 0.9077 85 64 0.324 0.551 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks CH.5 0.0135 0.0066 0.4868 1.0457 1.0226 427 324 0.000 0.027 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia CH.6 0.5160 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 0.0000 6 5 0.516 0.516 Diarrhoea in last two weeks CH.3 0.0549 0.0100 0.1815 0.6174 0.7858 427 324 0.035 0.075 Received ORT or increased fluids and continued feeding CH.4 0.7894 0.0699 0.0886 0.5289 0.7273 23 19 0.650 0.929 Support for learning CD.1 0.8830 0.0205 0.0233 1.3199 1.1489 427 324 0.842 0.924 Birth registration CP.1 0.9938 0.0063 0.0063 2.0782 1.4416 427 324 0.981 1.000 83MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table SE.8 Sampling errors: Central Serbia Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Serbia, 2005 Table Value(r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweight- ed count Confidence limits r – 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Child discipline CP.4 0.7532 0.0278 0.0369 2.4324 1.5596 428 588 0.698 0.809 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources EN.1 0.9852 0.0072 0.0074 4.9497 2.2248 4653 1379 0.971 1.000 Use of improved sanitation facilities EN.5 0.9947 0.0035 0.0035 3.1255 1.7679 4653 1379 0.988 1.000 Net primary school attendance rate ED.3 0.9919 0.0041 0.0041 0.9977 0.9989 424 488 0.984 1.000 Net secondary school attendance rate ED.4 0.8600 0.0301 0.0350 1.5018 1.2255 202 201 0.800 0.920 Primary completion rate ED.6 0.9342 0.0285 0.0305 0.6740 0.8210 54 52 0.877 0.991 Child labour CP.2 0.0663 0.0180 0.2718 3.3336 1.8258 528 636 0.030 0.102 WOMEN Skilled attendant at delivery RH.5 0.9749 0.0165 0.0170 2.5099 1.5843 122 226 0.942 1.000 Antenatal care RH.3 0.9648 0.0175 0.0181 2.0182 1.4206 122 226 0.930 1.000 Contraceptive prevalence RH.1 0.2745 0.0252 0.0918 2.6652 1.6325 823 837 0.224 0.325 Adult literacy ED.8 0.9667 0.0109 0.0112 1.0947 1.0463 325 300 0.945 0.988 Marriage before age 18 CP.5 0.0905 0.0105 0.1160 1.3519 1.1627 1057 1010 0.070 0.112 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people HA.3 0.3425 0.0305 0.0891 1.2360 1.1118 325 300 0.282 0.404 Condom use with non-regular partners HA.9 0.7137 0.0534 0.0748 0.5439 0.7375 62 40 0.607 0.820 Age at first sex among young people HA.8 0.0038 0.0033 0.8798 0.3666 0.6055 161 125 0.000 0.011 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS HA.5 0.3550 0.0261 0.0736 3.2511 1.8031 1209 1093 0.303 0.407 Women who have been tested for HIV HA.6 0.0304 0.0080 0.2622 2.4440 1.5633 1218 1135 0.014 0.046 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV HA.4 0.5738 0.0290 0.0505 3.8914 1.9727 1218 1135 0.516 0.632 UNDER-5s Underweight prevalence NU.1 0.0140 0.0062 0.4408 1.3061 1.1428 534 473 0.002 0.026 Tuberculosis immunization coverage CH.2 0.6864 0.0253 0.0369 0.3686 0.6071 143 125 0.636 0.737 Polio immunization coverage CH.2 0.9631 0.0171 0.0178 0.9324 0.9656 132 114 0.929 0.997 Immunization coverage for DPT CH.2 0.9723 0.0127 0.0131 0.6733 0.8205 131 113 0.947 0.998 Measles immunization coverage CH.2 0.8875 0.0300 0.0338 1.0436 1.0216 135 117 0.828 0.947 Fully immunized children CH.2 0.5491 0.0413 0.0752 0.7583 0.8708 128 111 0.466 0.632 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks CH.5 0.0279 0.0059 0.2103 0.7589 0.8711 656 598 0.016 0.040 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia CH.6 0.4797 0.1116 0.2325 0.9473 0.9733 18 20 0.257 0.703 Diarrhoea in last two weeks CH.3 0.0535 0.0133 0.2477 2.0703 1.4389 656 598 0.027 0.080 Received ORT or increased fluids and continued feeding CH.4 0.7293 0.0312 0.0428 0.1583 0.3978 35 33 0.667 0.792 Support for learning CD.1 0.8087 0.0200 0.0247 1.5379 1.2401 656 598 0.769 0.849 Birth registration CP.1 0.9983 0.0017 0.0017 1.0607 1.0299 656 598 0.995 1.000 84 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table SE.9 Sampling errors: East Serbia Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Serbia, 2005 Table Value(r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweight- ed count Confidence limits r – 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Child discipline CP.4 0.7674 0.0230 0.0300 1.0515 1.0255 251 355 0.721 0.813 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources EN.1 0.9920 0.0033 0.0033 1.0222 1.0110 2548 744 0.985 0.999 Use of improved sanitation facilities EN.5 0.9990 0.0009 0.0009 0.5834 0.7638 2548 744 0.997 1.000 Net primary school attendance rate ED.3 0.9821 0.0049 0.0049 0.4489 0.6700 253 336 0.972 0.992 Net secondary school attendance rate ED.4 0.8084 0.0482 0.0596 2.0829 1.4432 113 140 0.712 0.905 Primary completion rate ED.6 0.8305 0.0749 0.0902 1.1161 1.0565 21 29 0.681 0.980 Child labour CP.2 0.0199 0.0115 0.5793 2.9355 1.7133 313 431 0.000 0.043 WOMEN Skilled attendant at delivery RH.5 0.9969 0.0019 0.0019 0.1797 0.4240 62 152 0.993 1.000 Antenatal care RH.3 0.9841 0.0102 0.0103 0.9971 0.9985 62 152 0.964 1.000 Contraceptive prevalence RH.1 0.5352 0.0285 0.0532 1.6258 1.2751 451 499 0.478 0.592 Adult literacy ED.8 0.9371 0.0265 0.0282 2.2107 1.4869 171 187 0.884 0.990 Marriage before age 18 CP.5 0.1453 0.0269 0.1852 3.1485 1.7744 549 541 0.092 0.199 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people HA.3 0.3203 0.0504 0.1574 2.1723 1.4739 171 187 0.219 0.421 Condom use with non-regular partners HA.9 0.6568 0.0337 0.0513 0.1009 0.3176 34 21 0.589 0.724 Age at first sex among young people HA.8 0.0040 0.0007 0.1631 0.0098 0.0991 95 92 0.003 0.005 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS HA.5 0.2480 0.0309 0.1246 2.8528 1.6890 631 558 0.186 0.310 Women who have been tested for HIV HA.6 0.1712 0.0289 0.1691 3.7315 1.9317 644 633 0.113 0.229 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV HA.4 0.5248 0.0350 0.0667 3.1089 1.7632 644 633 0.455 0.595 UNDER-5s Underweight prevalence NU.1 0.0086 0.0049 0.5704 0.9128 0.9554 292 325 0.000 0.018 Tuberculosis immunization coverage CH.2 0.7305 0.0575 0.0787 1.2413 1.1142 70 75 0.616 0.845 Polio immunization coverage CH.2 0.9954 0.0022 0.0022 0.0732 0.2706 65 70 0.991 1.000 Immunization coverage for DPT CH.2 0.9953 0.0023 0.0023 0.0736 0.2713 64 69 0.991 1.000 Measles immunization coverage CH.2 0.9285 0.0209 0.0225 0.4456 0.6675 65 69 0.887 0.970 Fully immunized children CH.2 0.6255 0.0628 0.1004 1.0947 1.0463 62 66 0.500 0.751 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks CH.5 0.0510 0.0145 0.2839 1.6173 1.2717 337 374 0.022 0.080 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia CH.6 0.9065 0.0833 0.0918 1.3087 1.1440 17 17 0.740 1.000 Diarrhoea in last two weeks CH.3 0.0288 0.0097 0.3356 1.2443 1.1155 337 374 0.009 0.048 Received ORT or increased fluids and continued feeding CH.4 0.7518 0.0510 0.0679 0.2513 0.5013 10 19 0.650 0.854 Support for learning CD.1 0.7086 0.0475 0.0670 4.0704 2.0175 337 374 0.614 0.804 Birth registration CP.1 0.9980 0.0010 0.0010 0.1815 0.4260 337 374 0.996 1.000 85MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table SE.10 Sampling errors: South-East Serbia Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators, Serbia, 2005 Table Value(r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweight- ed count Confidence limits r – 2se r + 2se HOUSEHOLDS Child discipline CP.4 0.7795 0.0314 0.0403 5.0956 2.2573 461 889 0.717 0.842 HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources EN.1 0.9833 0.0069 0.0071 4.9380 2.2222 4505 1692 0.969 0.997 Use of improved sanitation facilities EN.5 0.9980 0.0008 0.0008 0.6014 0.7755 4505 1692 0.996 1.000 Net primary school attendance rate ED.3 0.9775 0.0070 0.0071 2.0567 1.4341 487 927 0.964 0.991 Net secondary school attendance rate ED.4 0.7853 0.0250 0.0318 1.4670 1.2112 244 398 0.735 0.835 Primary completion rate ED.6 0.9128 0.0105 0.0116 0.1284 0.3584 46 93 0.892 0.934 Child labour CP.2 0.0548 0.0139 0.2538 4.3637 2.0889 616 1170 0.027 0.083 WOMEN Skilled attendant at delivery RH.5 0.9840 0.0089 0.0090 1.5399 1.2409 115 309 0.966 1.000 Antenatal care RH.3 0.9863 0.0065 0.0066 0.9670 0.9834 115 309 0.973 0.999 Contraceptive prevalence RH.1 0.4451 0.0320 0.0718 5.1416 2.2675 837 1243 0.381 0.509 Adult literacy ED.8 0.9263 0.0161 0.0173 1.6664 1.2909 272 442 0.894 0.958 Marriage before age 18 CP.5 0.0934 0.0107 0.1142 1.8523 1.3610 1037 1380 0.072 0.115 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people HA.3 0.2775 0.0373 0.1343 3.0540 1.7476 272 442 0.203 0.352 Condom use with non-regular partners HA.9 0.6181 0.0835 0.1352 1.3010 1.1406 61 45 0.451 0.785 Age at first sex among young people HA.8 0.0179 0.0059 0.3273 0.4151 0.6443 141 213 0.006 0.030 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS HA.5 0.2341 0.0237 0.1013 4.1077 2.0268 1083 1312 0.187 0.281 Women who have been tested for HIV HA.6 0.0407 0.0077 0.1882 2.3923 1.5467 1178 1593 0.025 0.056 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV HA.4 0.6226 0.0351 0.0564 8.3631 2.8919 1178 1593 0.552 0.693 UNDER-5s Underweight prevalence NU.1 0.0087 0.0041 0.4735 1.3412 1.1581 552 682 0.000 0.017 Tuberculosis immunization coverage CH.2 0.4909 0.0582 0.1185 2.1128 1.4536 115 157 0.375 0.607 Polio immunization coverage CH.2 0.8946 0.0291 0.0325 1.2561 1.1208 110 141 0.836 0.953 Immunization coverage for DPT CH.2 0.9375 0.0206 0.0219 0.9881 0.9940 108 138 0.896 0.979 Measles immunization coverage CH.2 0.8078 0.0418 0.0518 1.6444 1.2823 112 147 0.724 0.891 Fully immunized children CH.2 0.3093 0.0626 0.2025 2.5515 1.5973 108 140 0.184 0.435 Acute respiratory infection in last two weeks CH.5 0.0309 0.0078 0.2537 1.5826 1.2580 634 773 0.015 0.047 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia CH.6 0.7083 0.0276 0.0389 0.2613 0.5112 20 72 0.653 0.763 Diarrhoea in last two weeks CH.3 0.0797 0.0114 0.1435 1.3751 1.1726 634 773 0.057 0.103 Received ORT or increased fluids and continued feeding CH.4 0.7545 0.0580 0.0769 1.6530 1.2857 50 92 0.639 0.871 Support for learning CD.1 0.8260 0.0222 0.0269 2.6560 1.6297 634 773 0.781 0.870 Birth registration CP.1 0.9783 0.0084 0.0086 2.5535 1.5980 634 773 0.962 0.995 86 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Appendix D Data Quality TablesData Quality Tables Table DQ.1 Age distribution of household population Single-year age distribution of household population according to sex (weighted), Serbia, 2005 Males Females Males Females Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 0 140 1.0 140 1.0 33 205 1.5 180 1.2 1 161 1.2 144 1.0 34 193 1.4 224 1.5 2 160 1.2 159 1.1 35 200 1.5 182 1.3 3 152 1.1 146 1.0 36 208 1.5 192 1.3 4 153 1.1 158 1.1 37 222 1.6 166 1.1 5 206 1.5 163 1.1 38 184 1.4 205 1.4 6 179 1.3 169 1.2 39 174 1.3 157 1.1 7 190 1.4 163 1.1 40 163 1.2 176 1.2 8 140 1.0 142 1.0 41 195 1.4 171 1.2 9 181 1.3 165 1.1 42 173 1.3 170 1.2 10 173 1.3 176 1.2 43 180 1.3 180 1.2 11 170 1.3 173 1.2 44 168 1.2 204 1.4 12 184 1.3 181 1.2 45 179 1.3 185 1.3 13 163 1.2 133 .9 46 169 1.2 176 1.2 14 159 1.2 180 1.2 47 194 1.4 171 1.2 15 159 1.2 185 1.3 48 159 1.2 209 1.4 16 148 1.1 148 1.0 49 188 1.4 162 1.1 17 142 1.0 166 1.1 50 211 1.5 233 1.6 18 167 1.2 145 1.0 51 234 1.7 241 1.7 19 149 1.1 188 1.3 52 211 1.5 254 1.7 20 178 1.3 170 1.2 53 229 1.7 270 1.9 21 159 1.2 195 1.3 54 213 1.6 191 1.3 22 171 1.3 185 1.3 55 229 1.7 230 1.6 23 161 1.2 155 1.1 56 212 1.6 239 1.6 24 200 1.5 194 1.3 57 186 1.4 219 1.5 25 187 1.4 182 1.3 58 170 1.2 180 1.2 26 195 1.4 181 1.2 59 132 1.0 163 1.1 27 168 1.2 217 1.5 60 129 .9 132 .9 28 195 1.4 203 1.4 61 150 1.1 143 1.0 29 188 1.4 230 1.6 62 146 1.1 138 .9 30 198 1.5 215 1.5 63 138 1.0 166 1.1 31 225 1.7 210 1.4 64 140 1.0 160 1.1 32 206 1.5 224 1.5 65 178 1.3 172 1.2 87MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Males Females Males Females Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 66 153 1.1 212 1.5 74 103 .8 178 1.2 67 124 .9 165 1.1 75 130 1.0 130 .9 68 141 1.0 159 1.1 76 90 .7 111 .8 69 149 1.1 159 1.1 77 72 .5 102 .7 70 126 .9 175 1.2 78 89 .7 112 .8 71 127 .9 178 1.2 79 54 .4 112 .8 72 117 .9 147 1.0 80+ 237 1.7 421 2.9 73 121 .9 146 1.0 DK/ Missing 11 .1 14 .1 Total 13614 100.0 14549 100.0 Figure DQ.1a Single year age distribution of the household population by sex, Serbia, 2005 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 96 Age Co un t MALE FEMALE Figure DQ.1b Single year age distribution of the household population by sex, Roma in Roma settlements, 2005 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40 44 48 52 56 60 64 68 72 76 80 84 88 92 Age Co un t MALE FEMALE 88 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table DQ.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women Household population of women aged 10–54, interviewed women aged 15–49, and percentage of eligible women who were interviewed (weighted), by five-year age group, Serbia, 2005 Age Household population of women aged 10–54 Interviewed women aged 15–49 Percentage of eligible women interviewed Number Number Percent 10–14 843 na na na 15–19 831 766 12.4 92.1 20–24 900 807 13.1 89.7 25–29 1013 963 15.6 95.0 30–34 1051 1031 16.7 98.1 35–39 902 877 14.2 97.2 40–44 902 872 14.1 96.7 45–49 904 864 14.0 95.5 50–54 1190 na na na 15–49 6504 6180 100.0 95.0 na Not applicable Note: Weights for both household population of women and interviewed women are household weights. Age is based on the household schedule. 89MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table DQ.3 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed under-5s Household population of children aged 0–7, children whose mothers/caratekers were interviewed and percentage of under-5 children whose mothers/caretakers were interviewed (weighted), by five-year age group, Serbia, 2005 Age Household population of children age 0–7 Interviewed children age 0–4 Percentage of eligible children interviewed Number Number Percent 0 280 275 18.4 98.2 1 305 299 20.0 98.2 2 320 319 21.3 99.8 3 299 296 19.8 99.2 4 311 305 20.4 97.9 5 369 na na na 6 348 na na na 7 353 na na na 0–4 1514 1494 100.0 98.7 na Not applicable Note: Weights for both household population of children under-5 and interviewed mothers/caretakers are household weights. Age is based on the household schedule. 90 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table DQ.4 Age distribution of under-5 children Age distribution of under-5 children by 3-month groups (weighted), Serbia, 2005 Age in months Males Females Total Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent 0–2 57 3.0 59 3.1 115 3.0 3–5 110 5.7 91 4.9 201 5.3 6–8 78 4.1 95 5.1 173 4.6 9–11 82 4.3 83 4.5 165 4.4 12–14 92 4.8 93 5.0 185 4.9 15–17 125 6.5 103 5.5 228 6.0 18–20 106 5.5 84 4.5 190 5.0 21–23 86 4.5 84 4.5 170 4.5 24–26 116 6.1 93 5.0 209 5.5 27–29 104 5.4 109 5.8 213 5.6 30–32 101 5.3 97 5.2 197 5.2 33–35 87 4.5 95 5.1 182 4.8 36–38 96 5.0 104 5.6 199 5.3 39–41 94 4.9 77 4.1 171 4.5 42–44 98 5.1 94 5.0 192 5.1 45–47 96 5.0 96 5.2 192 5.1 48–50 102 5.3 109 5.8 211 5.6 51–53 91 4.8 89 4.8 180 4.8 54–56 96 5.0 93 5.0 189 5.0 57–59 101 5.3 114 6.1 215 5.7 Total 1917 100.0 1860 100.0 3777 100.0 91MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table DQ.5 Age and Period Heaping Age and period ratios at boundaries of eligibility by type of information collected (weighted), Serbia, 2005 Age and period ratios* Eligibility boundary (lower–upper) Module or questionnaireMales Females Total Age in household questionnaire 1 1.05 .97 1.01 2 1.01 1.07 1.04 Lower Child discipline and child disability 3 .98 .95 .96 4 .90 1.02 .95 Upper Under-5 questionnaire 5 1.15 1.00 1.08 Lower Child labour and education 6 .93 1.02 .98 8 .82 .91 .86 9 1.10 1.02 1.06 Upper Child disability 10 .99 1.03 1.01 13 .97 .81 .89 14 .99 1.08 1.04 Upper Child labour and child discipline 15 1.02 1.08 1.06 Lower Women’s questionnaire 16 .99 .89 .94 17 .93 1.08 1.01 18 .93 1.00 .96 23 .91 .87 .89 24 1.10 1.10 1.10 Upper Education 25 .96 .98 .97 48 .88 1.16 1.02 49 1.01 .80 .90 Upper Women’s questionnaire 50 1.00 1.10 1.05 Age in women’s questionnaire 23 na .87 na 24 na 1.08 na Upper Sexual behaviour 25 na 1.01 na Months since last birth in women’s questionnaire 6–11 na .97 na 12–17 na 1.11 na 18–23 na .92 na Upper Maternal and child health 24–29 na 1.09 na 30–35 na .96 na * Age or period ratios are calculated as x / [(xn–1+xn+xn+1) / 3], where x is age or period. na Not applicable 92 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table DQ.6 Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations missing information for selected questions and indicators (weighted), Serbia, 2005 Questionnaire and Subject Reference group Percent with missing information* Number of cases Women Date of Birth All women aged 15–49 Month only .2 7516 Month and year missing .0 7516 Date of first birth Roma women from Roma settlementsaged 15–49 with at least one live birth Month only 6.3 78 Month and year missing 3.7 78 Completed years since first birth Roma women from Roma settlements aged 15–49 with at least one live birth 10.9 3 Date of last birth All women aged 15–49 withat least one live birth Month only .2 4897 Month and year missing .1 4897 Date of first marriage/union Total married women aged 15–49 Month only 7.8 5306 Month and year missing 4.8 5306 Age at first marriage/union Total married women aged 15–49 2.6 5306 Age at first intercourse All women aged 15–24 who have ever had sex 3.0 1916 Time since last intercourse All women aged 15–24 who have ever had sex 6.2 1006 Under-5s Date of Birth All under-five children surveyed Month only .1 3777 Month and year missing .0 3777 Anthropometry All under-five children surveyed Height 6.5 3777 Weight 7.9 3777 Height or Weight 8.0 3777 * Includes ”Don’t know” responses 93MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table DQ.7 Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire Distribution of children under five according to whether the mother lives in the same household, and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire (weighted), Serbia, 2005 Age Mother in the household Mother not in the household Total Number of children aged 0–4 yearsMother interviewed Father interviewed Father interviewed Other adult female interviewed Other adult male interviewed 0 99.7 .0 .3 .0 .0 100.0 280 1 99.5 .0 .2 .3 .0 100.0 305 2 98.9 .3 .4 .4 .0 100.0 320 3 98.2 .2 1.0 .6 .0 100.0 299 4 98.7 .0 .7 .6 .0 100.0 311 Total 99.0 .1 .5 .4 .0 100.0 1514 94 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ag e Pr e- sc ho ol Pr im ar y s ch oo l Se co nd ar y s ch oo l Hi gh er Un iv er sit y No n- st an da rd cu rri cu - lu m Do n’ t kn ow No t at te nd in g sc ho ol To ta l Nu m be r Gr ad e 1 Gr ad e 2 Gr ad e 3 Gr ad e 4 Gr ad e 5 Gr ad e 6 Gr ad e 7 Gr ad e 8 Gr ad e 1 Gr ad e 2 Gr ad e 3 Gr ad e 4 5 50 .9 .2 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 49 .0 10 0. 0 36 9 6 67 .9 18 .2 .2 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 13 .7 10 0. 0 34 8 7 3. 0 71 .3 23 .0 .2 .4 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 2. 2 10 0. 0 35 3 8 .0 1. 4 79 .6 18 .0 .2 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .8 10 0. 0 28 2 9 .0 .0 5. 0 83 .6 10 .1 .4 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .8 10 0. 0 34 7 10 .0 .2 .3 5. 0 82 .5 11 .2 .0 .4 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .1 .0 .3 10 0. 0 34 9 11 .0 .2 .1 .6 5. 2 82 .7 9.4 1. 0 .4 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .1 .0 .3 10 0. 0 34 3 12 .0 .0 .2 .1 .9 5. 9 76 .4 15 .4 .4 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .1 .0 .6 10 0. 0 36 5 13 .0 .0 .0 .1 .2 1. 2 4. 9 81 .7 10 .0 .0 .0 .5 .0 .0 .0 .2 .0 1. 2 10 0. 0 29 6 14 .0 .0 .0 .2 .1 .0 .6 5. 4 78 .6 11 .3 1. 3 .4 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 2. 0 10 0. 0 33 9 15 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .1 .0 .3 1. 9 80 .7 12 .3 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 4. 6 10 0. 0 34 4 16 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 1. 3 7.5 65 .3 14 .4 .0 .0 .0 .1 .0 11 .3 10 0. 0 29 6 17 .0 .0 .0 .5 .0 .0 .0 .0 .1 1.1 7.9 64 .5 12 .9 .0 .5 .0 .0 12 .6 10 0. 0 30 7 18 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .5 .2 .0 8. 2 46 .2 3. 5 4. 9 .0 .0 36 .6 10 0. 0 31 2 19 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .4 .5 .0 1. 0 4. 5 10 .6 36 .5 .0 .0 46 .5 10 0. 0 33 7 20 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 1. 0 5. 8 33 .2 .0 .0 60 .0 10 0. 0 34 8 21 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 1. 0 8. 8 27 .1 .0 .0 63 .0 10 0. 0 35 4 22 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .4 .0 .0 6. 3 29 .6 .0 .0 63 .7 10 0. 0 35 6 23 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .2 5. 2 23 .4 .0 .0 71 .3 10 0. 0 31 6 24 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .0 .4 .0 3. 2 12 .0 .4 .1 83 .9 10 0. 0 39 5 To ta l 6. 4 4. 8 4. 8 5. 4 5.1 5. 2 4. 9 4. 8 4. 6 5.1 3. 9 4.1 3.1 2. 2 8. 5 .1 .0 27 .1 10 0. 0 67 56 Ta bl e DQ .8 Sc ho ol a tt en da nc e by si ng le a ge Di st ri bu ti on o f h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ag ed 5 –2 4 by e du ca ti on al le ve l an d gr ad e at te nd ed in th e cu rr en t y ea r ( w ei gh te d) , S er bi a, 2 00 5 95MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table DQ.9 Sex ratio at birth among total children born and living Sex ratio at birth among total children born, children living, and deceased children, by age of women (weighted), Serbia – Roma women from Roma settlements, 2005 Age Children ever born Children living Children deceased Number of womenTotal number of sons born Total Number of daughters born Sex ratio Number of sons living Number of daughters living Sex ratio Number of deceased sons Number of deceased daughters Sex ratio 15–19 82 74 1.12 81 71 1.15 1 3 .31 378 20–24 225 230 .98 219 223 .98 6 7 .88 297 25–29 403 355 1.14 387 349 1.11 16 6 2.93 301 30–34 417 394 1.06 404 383 1.05 13 10 1.22 279 35–39 419 381 1.10 381 350 1.09 38 31 1.23 246 40–44 401 367 1.09 382 345 1.11 19 22 .88 238 45–49 279 277 1.01 249 268 .93 30 10 3.15 187 Total 2226 2078 1.07 2103 1990 1.06 123 88 1.41 1927 Note: Sex ratios are calculated as number of males/number of females. Weights for Roma sample were used. 96 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table DQ.10 Distribution of women according to time since last birth Distribution of women aged 15–49 with at least one live birth, by months since last birth (weighted), Serbia, 2005 Months since last birth Number Percent 0 13 1.3 1 13 1.4 2 28 2.9 3 33 3.4 4 30 3.1 5 29 3.0 6 23 2.4 7 30 3.2 8 27 2.8 9 27 2.8 10 18 1.9 11 34 3.5 12 33 3.4 13 27 2.8 14 25 2.6 15 38 4.0 16 39 4.0 17 25 2.7 18 25 2.6 19 25 2.7 20 32 3.4 21 22 2.3 22 22 2.3 23 32 3.3 24 25 2.6 25 31 3.3 26 27 2.9 27 27 2.8 28 31 3.3 29 28 2.9 30 27 2.9 Total 959 100.0 97MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN INDICATOR NUMERATOR DENOMINATOR 1 Under-five mortality rate Probability of dying by exactly 5 years of age 2 Infant mortality rate Probability of dying by exactly 1 year of age 4 Skilled attendantat delivery Number of women aged 15–49 with a birth in the 2 years preceding the survey that were attended during childbirth by skilled health personnel Total number of women surveyed aged 15–49 with a birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 5 Institutional deliveries Number of women aged 15–49 with a birth in the 2 years precedingthe survey that delivered in a health facility Total number of women surveyed aged 15–49 with a birth in 2 years preceding the survey 6 Underweightprevalence Number of children under age five that fall below minus two standard deviations from the median weight for age of the NCHS/WHO standard (moderate and severe); number that fall below minus three standard deviations (severe) Total number of children under age five that were weighed 7 Stunting prevalence Number of children under age five that fall below minus two standard deviations from the median height for age of the NCHS/WHO standard (moderate and severe); number that fall below minus three standard deviations (severe) Total number of children under age five measured 8 Wasting prevalence Number of children under age five that fall below minus two standard deviations from the median weight for height of the NCHS/WHO standard (moderate and severe); number that fall below minus three standard deviations (severe) Total number of children under age five weighed and measured 9 Low-birthweightinfants Number of last live births in the 2 years preceding the survey weighing below 2500 grams Total number of last live births in the 2 years preceding the survey 10 Infants weighedat birth Number of last live births in the 2 years preceding the survey that were weighed at birth Total number of last live births in the 2 years preceding the survey 11 Use of improveddrinking water sources Number of household members living in households using improved sources of drinking water Total number of household members in households surveyed 12 Use of improvedsanitation facilities Number of household members using improved sanitation facilities Total number of household members in households surveyed 13 Water treatment Number of household members using water that has been treated Total number of household members in households surveyed 14 Disposal of child’s faeces Number of children under age three whose (last) stools were disposed of safely Total number of children under age three surveyed 15 Exclusivebreastfeeding rate Number of infants aged 0–5 months that are exclusively breastfed Total number of infants aged 0–5 months surveyed Appendix E MICS Indicators:MICS Indicators: Numerators and Numerators and DenominatorsDenominators 98 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT INDICATOR NUMERATOR DENOMINATOR 16 Continuedbreastfeeding rate Number of infants aged 12–15 months, and 20–23 months, that are currently breastfeeding Total number of children aged 12–15 months and 20–23 months surveyed 17 Timely complementary feeding rate Number of infants aged 6–9 months that are receiving breastmilk and complementary foods Total number of infants aged 6–9 months surveyed 18 Frequency of complementary feeding Number of infants aged 6–11 months that receive breastmilk and complementary food at least the minimum recommended number of times per day (two times per day for infants aged 6–8 months, three times per day for infants aged 9–11 months) Total number of infants aged 6–11 months surveyed 19 Adequately fed infants Number of infants aged 0–11 months that are appropriately fed: infants aged 0–5 months that are exclusively breastfed and infants aged 6–11 months that are breastfed and ate solid or semi-solid foods the appropriate number of times (see above) yesterday Total number of infants aged 0–11 months surveyed 20 Antenatal care Number of women aged 15–49 years that were attended to at least once during pregnancy in the 2 years preceding the survey by skilled health personnel Total number of women surveyed aged 15–49 with a birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 21 Contraceptive prevalence Number of women currently married or in union aged 15–49 years that are using(or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method (either modern or traditional) Total number of women aged 15–49 years that are currently married or in union 22 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia Number of children aged 0–59 months with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks receiving antibiotics Total number of children aged 0–59 months with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks 23 Care-seeking forsuspected pneumonia Number of children aged 0–59 months with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks that are taken to an appropriate health provider Total number of children aged 0–59 months with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks 24 Solid fuels Number of residents in households that use solid fuels (wood, charcoal,crop residues and dung) as the primary source of domestic energy to cook Total number of residents in households surveyed 25 Tuberculosis immunization coverage Number of children aged 18–29 months receiving BCG vaccine before their first birthday Total number of children aged 18–29 months surveyed 26 Polio immunization coverage Number of children aged 18–29 months receiving OPV3 vaccine before their first birthday Total number of children aged 18–29 months surveyed 27 Immunization coverage for diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) Number of children aged 18–29 months receiving DPT3 vaccine before their first birthday Total number of children aged 18–29 months surveyed 28 MMR immunization coverage Number of children aged 18–29 months receiving MMR vaccine before 18 months of age Total number of children aged 18–29 months surveyed 31 Fully immunized children Number of children aged 18–29 months receiving DPT1-3, OPV-1-3, BCG and MMR vaccines within recommended time (DPT1-3, OPV-1-3, BCG before first birthday and MMR before 18 months of age) Total number of children aged 18–29 months surveyed 33 Use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT) Number of children aged 0–59 months with diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks that received oral rehydration salts and/or an appropriate household solution Total number of children aged 0–59 months with diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks 34 Home managementof diarrhoea Number of children aged 0–59 months with diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks that received more fluids AND continued eating somewhat less, the same or more food Total number of children aged 0–59 months with diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks 35 Received ORT or increased fluids and continued feeding Number of children aged 0–59 months with diarrhoea that received ORT (oral rehydration salts or an appropriate household solution) or received more fluids AND continued eating somewhat less, the same or more food Total number of children aged 0–59 months with diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks 99MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN INDICATOR NUMERATOR DENOMINATOR 44 Content of antenatal care Number of women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the surveythat received antenatal care during the last pregnancy Total number of women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 45 Timely initiationof breastfeeding Number of women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey that put the newborn infant to the breast within 1 hour of birth Total number of women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 46 Support for learning Number of children aged 0–59 months living in households in which an adult has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the past 3 days Total number of children aged 0–59 months surveyed 47 Father’s supportfor learning Number of children aged 0–59 months whose father has engaged in one or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the past 3 days Total number of children aged 0–59 months 48 Support for learning: children’s books Number of households with three or more children’s books Total number of households surveyed 49 Support for learning:non-children’s books Number of households with three or more non-children’s books Total number of households surveyed 50 Support for learning: materials for play Number of households with three or more materials intended for play Total number of households surveyed 51 Non-adult care Number of children aged 0–59 months left alone or in the care of anotherchild younger than 10 years of age in the past week Total number of children aged 0–59 months surveyed 52 Pre-school attendance Number of children aged 36–59 months that attend some formof early childhood education programme Total number of children aged 36–59 months surveyed 53 School readiness Number of children in first grade that attended some form of pre-schoolthe previous year Total number of children in the first grade surveyed 54 Net intake rate in primary education Number of children of school-entry age that are currently attending first grade Total number of children of primary–school entry age surveyed 55 Net primary school attendance rate Number of children of primary-school age currently attending primary or secondary school Total number of children of primary–school age surveyed 56 Net secondary school attendance rate Number of children of secondary-school age currently attending secondary school or higher Total number of children of secondary-school age surveyed 57 Children reachinggrade five Proportion of children entering the first grade of primary school that eventually reach grade five 58 Transition rate to secondary school Number of children that were in the last grade of primary school during the previous school year that attend secondary school Total number of children that were in the last grade of primary school during the previous school year surveyed 59 Primarycompletion rate Number of children (of any age) attending the last grade of primary school (excluding repeaters) Total number of children of primary school completion age (age appropriate to final grade of primary school) surveyed 60 Adult literacy rate Number of women aged 15–24 that are able to read a short simplestatement about everyday life Total number of women aged 15–24 years surveyed 61 Gender parity index Proportion of girls in primary and secondary education Proportion of boys in primary and secondary education 62 Birth registration Number of children aged 0–59 months whose births are reported registered Total number of children aged 0–59 months surveyed 100 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT INDICATOR NUMERATOR DENOMINATOR 67 Marriage before age15 and age 18 Number of women that were first married or in union by the exact age of 15 and the exact age of 18, by age groups Total number of women aged 15–49 years and 20–49 years surveyed, by age groups 68 Young women aged 15–19 years currently married or in union Number of women aged 15–19 years currently married or in union Total number of women aged 15–19 years surveyed 69 Spousal age difference Number of women married/in union aged 15–19 years and 20–24 years witha difference in age of 10 or more years between them and their current spouse Total number of women aged 15–19 and 20–24 years surveyed that are currently married or in union 71 Child labour Number of children aged 5–14 years that are involved in child labour Total number of children aged 5–14 years surveyed 72 Labourer students Number of children aged 5–14 years involved in child labour activitiesthat attend school Total number of children aged 5–14 years involved in child labour activities 73 Student labourers Number of children aged 5–14 years attending school that are involvedin child labour activities Total number of children aged 5–14 years attending school 74 Child discipline Number of children aged 2–14 years that (1) experience only non-violent aggression, (2) experience psychological aggression as punishment, (3) experience minor physical punishment, (4) experience severe physical punishment Total number of children aged 2–14 years selected and surveyed 82 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people Number of women aged 15–24 years that correctly identify two ways of avoiding HIV infection and reject three common misconceptions about HIV transmission Total number of women aged 15–24 years surveyed 83 Condom use withnon-regular partners Number of women aged 15–24 years reporting the use of a condom during sexual intercourse with their last non-marital, non-cohabiting sex partner in the previous 12 months Total number of women aged 15–24 years surveyed that had a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner in the previous 12 months 84 Age at first sex among young people Number of women aged 15–24 years that have had sex before age 15 Total number of women aged 15–24 surveyed 85 Higher risk sex in the last year Number of sexually active women aged 15–24 that have had sex with a non-marital, non-cohabitating partner in the previous 12 months Total number of women aged 15–24 that were sexually active in the previous 12 months 86 Attitude towards people with HIV/AIDS Number of women expressing acceptance on all four questions about people with HIV or AIDS Total number of women surveyed 87 Women who know where to be tested for HIV Number of women that state knowledge of a place to be tested Total number of women surveyed 88 Women who have been tested for HIV Number of women that report being tested for HIV Total number of women surveyed 89 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Number of women that correctly identify all three means of vertical transmission Total number of women surveyed 90 Counselling coverage for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Number of women that gave birth in the previous 24 months and received antenatal care reporting that they received counselling on HIV/AIDS during this care Total number of women that gave birth in the previous 24 months surveyed 91 Testing coverage for the prevention of mother-to- child transmission of HIV Number of women that gave birth in the previous 24 months and received antenatal care reporting that they received the results of an HIV test during this care Total number of women that gave birth in the previous 24 months surveyed 101MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN INDICATOR NUMERATOR DENOMINATOR 92 Age-mixing amongsexual partners Number of women aged 15–24 years that had sex in the past 12 months with a partner who was 10 or more years older than they were Total number of sexually active women aged 15–24 surveyed 93 Security of tenure Number of household members living in urban households that lack formal documentation for their residence or that feel at risk of eviction Number of urban household members in households surveyed 94 Durability of housing Number of household members living in urban dwellingsthat are not considered durable Number of urban household members in households surveyed 95 Slum household Number of household members living in urban slums Number of household members in urban households surveyed 98 Unmet need for family planning Number of women that are currently married or in union that are fecund and want to space their births or limit the number of children they have and that are not currently using contraception Total number of women interviewed that are currently married or in union 99 Demand satisfiedfor family planning Number of women currently married or in union that are currently using contraception Number of women currently married or in union that have an unmet need for contraception or that are currently using contraception 100 Attitudes towards domestic violence Number of women that consider that a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife under at least one of the following circumstances: (1) she goes out without telling him, (2) she neglects the children, (3) she argues with him, (4) she refuses to have sex with him, (5) she burns the food Total number of women surveyed 101 Child disability Number of children aged 2–9 years with at least one of nine reported disabilities: (1) delay in sitting, standing or walking, (2) difficulty seeing, either in the daytime or at night, (3) appears to have difficulty hearing, (4) difficulty in understanding instructions, (5) difficulty walking or moving arms or has weakness or stiffness of limbs, (6) has fits, becomes rigid, loses consciousness, (7) does not learn to do things like other children his/her age, (8) cannot speak or cannot be understood in words, (9) appears mentally backward, dull or slow Total number of children aged 2–9 surveyed Appendix F QuestionnairesQuestionnaires 105MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN We are from Statistical Office of the Republic of Serbia / Research Agency Strategic Marketing. We are working on a project concerned with family health and education. I would like to talk to you about this. The interview will take about 20 minutes. All the information we obtain will remain strictly confidential and your answers will never be identified. During this time I would like to speak with the household head and all mothers or others who take care of children in the household. May I start now? If permission is given, begin the interview. MODULE HH – HOUSEHOLD INFORMATION PANEL HH1. Cluster number: HH2. Household number: HH3. Interviewer name: HH4. Supervisor name: Interviewer number: Supervisor number: HH5. Day/Month/Year of interview: HH7. Telephone of household: (Must enter area code)HH6. Address of household: HH8. Name of head of household: Interviewer: GO to MODULE HL – LIST OF HOUSEHOLD MEMBERS on the inside of the folder/cover in which you will put all questionnaires. After all questionnaires for the household have been completed, fill in the following information: HH9. Result of HH interview: HH10. Respondent to HH questionnaire: Completed 1 Not at home 2 Name: Refused 3 HH not found/destroyed 4 Line No. from List of Household Members (MODULE HL) Other (specify) 6 HH11. Total number of household members: HH12. No. of women eligible for interview: HH13. No. of women questionnaires completed: HH14. No. of children under age 5: HH15. No. of under-5 questionnaires completed: Interviewer/supervisor notes: Use this space to record notes about the interview with this household, such as call-back times, incomplete individual interview forms, number of attempts to re-visit, etc. HH16. Data entry clerk: / / 2 0 0 5 106 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT MODULE HL – HOUSEHOLD LISTING FORM First, please tell me the name of each person who usually lives here, starting with the head of the household. List the head of the household in line 01. List all household members (HL2), their relationship to the household head (HL3), and their sex (HL4). Then ask: Are there any others who live here, even if they are not at home now? (These may include children in school or at work). If yes, complete listing. Then, ask questions starting with HL2A for each person at a time. Add a continuation sheet if there are more than 15 household members. Tick here if continuation sheet used. Record in line 01 the name of household head. After HH proceed with names of other household members (column HL2). Then ask questions, beginning with HL2A for each member of household separately. HL1. Line No. HL2. Name HL2A. Activity of household members: 01 Employed 02 Works outside official employment 03 Delf-employed 04 Farmer 05 Unemployed 06 Pensioner 07 Housewife 08 Child, pupil, student 09 Lives abroad 10 Other HL3. What is the relationship of (name) to the head of the household? HL4. Is (name) male or female? 1 Male 2 Female HL5. How old is (name)? How old was (name) on his/her last birthday? Record in completed years 998 = DK* � HL6 For each child and woman write down age in completed years HL5A. Date of (name’s) birth? For each child and woman write down at least the year of birth 98 = DK day 98 = DK month 9998 = DK year LINE NAME ACTIVITY RELATIONSHIP M F AGE BIRTH DATE * Codes for HL3: Relationship to head of household: 01 = Head 02 = Wife or Husband 03 = Son or Daughter 04 = Son or Daughter In-Law 05 = Grandchild 06 = Parents 07 = Parent-In-Law 08 = Brother or Sister 09 = Brother or Sister-In-Law 10 = Uncle/Aunt 11 = Niece/Nephew By Blood 12 = Niece/Nephew By Marriage 13 = Other Relative 14 = Adopted/Foster/Stepchild 15 = Not Related 98 = Don’t Know 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 20 101 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 10 11 12 13 14 15 107MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Eligible for For children age 0–17 years ask HL9–HL12Women’s Interview Child labour module Under-5 interview HL6. Circle Line no. if woman is age 15–49 HL7. For each child age 5–14: Who is the mother or primary caretaker of this child? Record Line no. of mother/caretaker HL8. For each child under 5: Who is the mother or primary care- taker of this child? Record Line no. of mother/caretaker in corresponding line for child under 5 HL9. Is (name’s) natural mother alive? 1 Yes 2 No � HL11 8 DK � HL11 HL10. If alive: Does (name’s) natural mother live in this household? Record Line no. of mother or 00 for ‘no’ HL11. Is (name’s) natural father alive? 1 Yes 2 No� next line 8 DK� next line HL12. If alive: Does (name’s) natural father live in this household? Record Line no. of father or 00 for ‘no’ 15–49 MOTHER MOTHER YES NO DK MOTHER YES NO DK FATHER 01 1 2 8 1 2 8 02 1 2 8 1 2 8 03 1 2 8 1 2 8 04 1 2 8 1 2 8 05 1 2 8 1 2 8 06 1 2 8 1 2 8 07 1 2 8 1 2 8 08 1 2 8 1 2 8 09 1 2 8 1 2 8 10 1 2 8 1 2 8 11 1 2 8 1 2 8 12 1 2 8 1 2 8 13 1 2 8 1 2 8 14 1 2 8 1 2 8 15 1 2 8 1 2 8 Are there any other persons living here – even if they are not members of your family or do not have parents living in this household? Including children at work or at school? If yes, insert child’s name and complete form. Then, complete the totals below. WOMEN 15–49 CHILDREN 5–14 UNDER-5s Now you should prepare separate questionnaires for each woman aged 15 to 49 years, and each child under 5, who live in this household. For each woman aged 15 to 49 years prepare the Questionnaire for Woman aged 15–49 years and write her name and line number and other identifying information in the information panel of the Women’s. For each child under 5 prepare a Questionnaire for Child Under 5, and, write his/her name and line number and the line number of his/her mother or caretaker in the information panel of the Questionnaire for Children Under Five. PROCEED WITH FILLING QUESTIONNAIRE FOR HOUSEHOLD. * See instructions: to be used only for elderly household members (code meaning “do not know/over age 50”). Now for each woman aged 15–49 years, write her name and line number and other identifying information in the information panel of the Women’s Questionnaire. For each child under age 5, write his/her name and line number AND the line number of his/her mother or caretaker in the information panel of the Questionnaire for Children Under Five. You should now have a separate questionnaire for each eligible woman and each child under five in the household. 108 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT 1. Q UE ST IO NN AI RE FO R HO US EH OL D – Q UE ST IO NS FR OM TH IS Q UE ST IO NN AI RE CA N BE A NS W ER ED B Y AN Y AD UL T H OU SE HO LD M HH 1. C lu st er n um be r: HH 2. H ou se ho ld n um be r: M OD UL E E D – ED UC AT IO N (F or e ac h ho us eh ol d m em be r k ee p lin e nu m be r f ro m ta bl e HL ) Fo r h ou se ho ld m em be rs a ge 5 a nd a bo ve Fo r h ou se ho ld m em be rs a ge 5 –2 4 ye ar s 1. g ra de ED 1. Li ne No . ED 1A . Na m e ED 2. Ha s ( na m e) ev er a tt en de d sc ho ol o r p re - sc ho ol ? 1 Ye s � E D3 2 No � ne xt li ne ED 3. W ha t i s t he h ig he st le ve l o f sc ho ol (n am e) a tt en de d? W ha t i s t he h ig he st g ra de (n am e) co m pl et ed at th is le ve l? Ci rc le co de fo r s ch oo l in co lu m n: 0 – Pr e- sc ho ol 1 – Pr im ar y 2 – Se co nd ar y 3 – Hi gh er 4 – Un iv er sit y 6 – No n- st an da rd cu rr icu lu m 8 – Dk Gr ad e 98 – D k If le ss th an 1 g ra de , e nt er 0 0. ED 4. Di d (n am e) at te nd sc ho ol or p re -s ch oo l in st itu tio n du rin g sc ho ol ye ar 20 05 /2 00 6. ? 1 Ye s 2 No � E D7 ED 5. Si nc e la st (d ay o f t he w ee k) , h ow m an y d ay s di d (n am e) at te nd sc ho ol ? In se rt n um be r of d ay s i n sp ac e b el ow . ED 6. Du rin g th is/ th at sc ho ol ye ar , w hi ch le ve l a nd g ra de is (n am e) a tt en di ng ? Ci rc le co de fo r s ch oo l in co lu m n: 0 – Pr e- sc ho ol 1 – Pr im ar y 2 – Se co nd ar y 3 – Hi gh er 4 – Un iv er sit y 6 – No n- st an da rd cu rr icu lu m 8 – Dk Gr ad e 98 – D k If le ss th an 1 g ra de , e nt er 0 0. ED 7. Di d (n am e) at te nd sc ho ol or p re -s ch oo l in st itu tio n at a ny ti m e du rin g th e pr ev io us sc ho ol ye ar , th at is (2 00 3– 20 04 )? 1 Ye s 2 No � n ex t l in e 8 Dk � n ex t l in e ED 8. Du rin g th at p re vi ou s s ch oo l ye ar , w hi ch le ve l a nd g ra de d id (n am e) a tt en d? Ci rc le co de fo r s ch oo l in co lu m n: 0 – Pr e- sc ho ol 1 – Pr im ar y 2 – Se co nd ar y 3 – Hi gh er 4 – Un iv er sit y 6 – No n- st an da rd cu rr icu lu m 8 – Dk Gr ad e 98 – D k If le ss th an 1 g ra de , e nt er 0 0. ED 9. As k on ly fo r c hi ld re n w ho g o to fir st g ra de of p rim ar y sc ho ol : Di d (n am e) at te nd pr e- sc ho ol in st itu tio n fo r a t l ea st 2 ho ur s i n 6 m on th s du rin g la st 12 ? LIN E NA M E YE S NO LE VE L GR AD E YE S N O DA YS LE VE L GR AD E YE S N O D K LE VE L GR AD E YE S N O 01 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 02 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 03 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 04 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 05 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 06 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 07 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 08 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 09 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 10 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 11 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 12 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 13 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 14 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 15 1 2 � ne xt . 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 6 8 1 2 109MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN M OD UL E E D – ED UC AT IO N (F or e ac h ho us eh ol d m em be r k ee p lin e nu m be r f ro m ta bl e HL ) Fo r a ll ho us eh ol d m em be rs a ge d fro m 5 to 2 4 ye ar s w ho a tte nd ed sc ho ol in sc ho ol ye ar 2 00 5/ 20 06 (A ns w er ed “ Ye s” to q ue st io n ED 4, o n pr ev io us p ag e) . ED 1. Li ne No ED 1A . Na m e ED 10 . W ha t i s t he d ist an ce in k ilo m et er s f ro m ho us e/ fla t t o sc ho ol w hi ch (n am e of ch ild ) at te nd s? • If sc ho ol is lo ca te d at d ist an ce < th an 1 k m , w rit e do w n 00 0 • If ho us eh ol d m em be r a ge d fro m 5 to 24 ye ar s d oe s n ot li ve w ith p ar en ts , th at is , i f h e/ sh e at te nd s s ch oo l i n ot he r pl ac e, w rit e do w n 99 8 an d go to o th er ho us eh ol d m em be r ED 11 . Ho w d oe s ( na m e o f c hi ld ) u su al ly go to sc ho ol ? 1. O n fo ot � E D1 3. 2. P ub lic tr an sp or t � E D1 2. 3. C ar , m ot or cy cl e � E D1 2. 4. O th er (b ic yc le e tc .) � E D1 3. ED 12 . W ha t i s ( na m e o f c hi ld ’s) t ot al m on th ly co st o f tr an sp or ta tio n to sc ho ol a nd b ac k fro m sc ho ol ? W rit e d ow n an sw er in D in ar s. ED 13 . Ho w m an y m in ut es d oe s (n am e o f c hi ld ) s pe nd g oi ng to /f ro m sc ho ol ? LI NE NA M E DI ST AN CE O F S CH OO L (IN K M ) W AY DI NA RS M IN UT ES 01 1 2 3 4 02 1 2 3 4 03 1 2 3 4 04 1 2 3 4 05 1 2 3 4 06 1 2 3 4 07 1 2 3 4 08 1 2 3 4 09 1 2 3 4 10 1 2 3 4 11 1 2 3 4 12 1 2 3 4 13 1 2 3 4 14 1 2 3 4 15 1 2 3 4 110 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT MODULE WS – WATER AND SANITATION WS1. What is the main source of drinking water for members of your household? City/town water-supply system 11 WS5 Rural (local) water-supply system 12 Public tap/standpipe 13 WS3 Tubewell/borehole 21 Protected well or spring 31 Unprotected well or spring 32 Tanker-truck 61 Surface water (river, stream, dam, lake, pond, canal, irrigation channel) 81 Bottled water 91 WS2 Other (specify) 96 WS3 WS2. What is the main source of water used by your household for other purposes such as cooking and hand washing? City/town water-supply system 11 WS5 Rural (local) water-supply system 12 Public tap/standpipe 13 WS3 Tubewell/borehole 21 Protected well or spring 31 Unprotected well or spring 32 Tanker-truck 61 Surface water (river, stream, dam, lake, pond, canal, irrigation channel) 81 Other (specify) 96 WS3. How long does it take to go there, get water, and come back? No. of minutes WS4 Water on premises 995 WS5 Don’t know 998 WS4 WS4. Who usually goes to this source to fetch the water for your household? Probe: Is this person under age 15? What sex? Circle code that best describes this person. Adult woman 1 WS5 Adult man 2 Female child (under 15 g.) 3 Male child (under 15 g.) 4 Don’t know 8 WS5. Do you treat your water in any way to make it safer to drink? Yes 1 WS6 No 2 WS7 Don’t know 8 WS6. What do you usually do to the water to make it safer to drink? Anything else? Record all items mentioned. “Z” is circled only if no answer is given. Boil A WS7 Add bleach/chlorine B Strain it through a cloth C Use water filter (ceramic, sand, composite, etc.) D Solar disinfection E Let it stand and settle F Other (specify) X Don’t know Z 111MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN WS7. What kind of toilet facil- ity do members of your household usually use? If “flush” or “pour flush”, probe: Where does it flush to? If necessary, ask permis- sion to observe the facility Flush to piped sewer system 11 WS8 Flush to septic tank 12 No flush with a water-proof septic tank 21 Latrine 22 No toilet facility 95 Section HC Other (specify) 96 WS8 WS8. Do you share this facility with other households? Yes 1 WS9 No 2 Section HC WS9. How many households in total use this toilet facility? No. of households (if less then 10) Section HCTen or more households 10 Don’t know 98 MODULE HC – HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS HC1A. What is the religion of the head of this household? Orthodox 11 HC1B Catholic 12 Islamic 13 Protestant 14 Nonbeliever 17 Other (specify) 96 HC1B. What is the mother tongue/native language of the head of this household? Serbian 11 HC1C Hungarian 12 Bosnian 13 Roma 14 Albanian 15 Other (specify) 96 HC1C. To what ethnic group does the head of this household belong? Serbian 11 HC2 Montenegrin 12 Hungarian 13 Bosniak 14 Muslim 15 Roma 16 Albanian 17 Other (specify) 96 HC2. What is the area of house/flat you live in? Write down area in square meters. Area in m2 HC2A HC2A. How many rooms do you use in house/flat that you live in other than kitchen, hall and auxiliary rooms? No. of rooms HC2B HC2B. How many rooms in this household are used for sleeping? No. of rooms for sleeping HC3 0 112 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT HC3. Main material of the dwelling floor Record observation. Natural floor HC4 Earth 11 Rudimentary floor Wood planks 21 Finished floor Parquet or polished wood 31 Vinyl or asphalt strips 32 Ceramic tiles 33 Cement 34 Other (specify) 96 HC4. Main material of the roof Record observation. No Roof 11 HC5 Natural roofing Straw 12 Rudimentary Roofing Reed 21 Wood planks 23 Finished roofing Metal 31 Wood 32 Calamine/cement fiber 33 Ceramic tiles 34 Cement 35 Roofing shingles 36 Other (specify) 96 HC5. Main material of the walls Record observation. No walls 11 HC6 Natural walls Cane/palm/trunks 12 Dirt 13 Rudimentary walls Bamboo with mud 21 Stone with mud 22 Uncovered adobe 23 Plywood 24 Carton 25 Reused wood 26 Finished walls Cement 31 Stone with lime/cement 32 Bricks 33 Cement blocks 34 Covered adobe 35 Wood planks/shingles 36 Other (specify) 96 113MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN HC6. What type of fuel does your household mainly use for cooking? One answer. Electricity Liquid Propane Gas (LPG) Natural gas 01 02 03 HC8 HC7 Coal/Lignite Charcoal Wood Straw/shrubs/grass Agricultural crop residue Other (specify) 06 07 08 09 11 96 HC7. In this household, is food cooked on an open fire, an open stove or a closed stove? Probe for type. Open fire/fireplace 1 HC7A Open stove (without plate) 2 Closed stove (with plate) 3 HC8 Other (specify) 6 HC7A. Does the fire/stove have a chimney or a hood? Yes 1 HC8 No 2 HC8. Is the cooking usually done in the house, in a separate building, or outdoors? One answer. In the house 1 HC9 In a separate building 2 Outdoors 3 Other (specify) 6 HC9. Does your household have: Read the list. Yes No Electricity HC10 Radio Television Non-Mobile Telephone Refrigerator Water heater Washing machine Dishwashing machine Computer Air conditioner Heating HC10. Does any member of your household have: Read the list. Yes No HC10A Mobile Telephone Bicycle Motorcycle Tractor Car Truck Boat with motor 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 114 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT HC10A. How would you evaluate the standard of your household? Do not read answers. Very bad 1 HC10B Bad 2 Medium 3 Good 4 Very good 5 DK/Not sure 8 HC10B. In your opinion, what is the minimal monthly amount needed to cover basic costs of your household? If DK or not sure, write down “999998”. Dinars HC11 HC11. Does any member of this household own any land that can be used for agriculture? Yes 1 HC12 No 2 HC13 HC12. How many hectares of agricultural land do members of this household own? If unknown, record ‘98’. Hectares HC13 HC13. Does this household own any livestock, herds, or farm animals? Yes 1 HC14 No 2 HC15A HC14. How many of the following animals does this household have? If none, record ‘000’. If unknown, record ‘998’. Write answers from the list in given order. Total Cattle HC15A Milk cows Horses, donkeys, or mules Goats Sheep Poultry (including chicken, ducks, gees) Pigs Bee hive HC15A. Do you or someone in this household own this dwelling, or do you live in state-owned dwelling? For owners – write down line number from List of household members. If more than one owner – write down “95”. Owner HC15B Rent 2 HC15DState-owned flat 3 Rent free/squatter/other 4 HC15B. Do you or someone in this household have a title deed, or sale contract for this dwelling? Yes 1 HC15F No 2 HC15C HC15C. What kind of document do you have for the ownership of this dwelling? Anything else? Record all items mentioned. Certificate of occupation (or adjudication certificate) A HC15F Property tax certification B Utility bills C Other (specify) X None/No document Y HC15D. Do you have a written rental contract for this dwelling? Yes 1 HC15F No 2 HC15E 1 115MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN HC15E. Do you have any documentation or agreement for the rental of this dwelling? If Yes, What kind of document or agreement do you have for the rental of this dwelling? Anything else? If no documentation, ask on what basis they rent the dwelling. Record all items mentioned. Informal agreement (written) A HC15F Verbal agreement (no document) B Occupied rent free With knowledge of owner C Without the owner’s knowledge D Other (specify) X None/No document Y HC15F. Do you feel secure from eviction from this dwelling? Yes 1 HC15GNo 2 Don’t know 8 HC15G. Have you been evicted from your home at any time during the past 15 years? If Yes, probe: Has this happened only once, or more than once? Yes, once 1 HC15H Yes, several times 2 No 3 HC15H. Dwelling located in or near: Observe, and circle all items that describe the location of dwelling. Multiple answer. Circle “Y” only if none of the above. Landslide area A Flood-prone area B River bank C Steep hill D Garbage mountain/pile E Industrial pollution area F Railroad G Power plant H Flyover I None of the above Y HC15I. Condition of dwelling: Multiple answer. Observe, and circle all items that describe the condition of dwelling. Circle “Y” only if none of the above. Cracks/openings in walls A No windows B Windows with broken glass/no glass C Visible holes in the roof D Incomplete roof E Insecure door F None of the above G HC15J. Dwelling surroundings: Multiple answer. Observe, and circle all items that describe the dwelling surroundings. Circle “Y” only if none of the above. Very narrow passage between houses instead of road A Too many power cables connecting to neighborhood’s main distribution post B None of the above Y HC15I HC15J Section CL 116 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT M OD UL E C L – C HI LD L AB OU R (F or e ac h ho us eh ol d nu m be r k ee p lin e nu m be r f ro m ta bl e HL – LI ST O F H OU SE HO LD M EM BE RS ) To b e a dm in ist er ed to m ot he r/c ar et ak er o f e ac h ch ild in th e h ou se ho ld a ge 5 th ro ug h 14 ye ar s. Fo r h ou se ho ld m em be rs b el ow a ge 5 o r a bo ve a ge 14 , l ea ve ro w s b la nk . No w I w ou ld li ke to a sk a bo ut a ny w or k ch ild re n in th is ho us eh ol d m ay d o. CL 1. Li ne No CL 2. Na m e CL 3. Du rin g th e pa st w ee k, di d (n am e) d o an y k in d of w or k fo r s om eo ne w ho is n ot a m em be r o f th is ho us eh ol d? If ye s: Fo r p ay in ca sh or k in d? 1 Ye s, fo r p ay ( ca sh o r k in d) 2 Ye s, un pa id 3 No � to C L5 . CL 4. If ye s: Si nc e la st (d ay o f t he w ee k) , ab ou t h ow m an y h ou rs di d he /s he d o th is w or k fo r s om eo ne w ho is no t a m em be r o f t hi s ho us eh ol d? If m or e t ha n on e j ob , in clu de a ll ho ur s a t a ll jo bs . Re co rd re sp on se th en � CL .6 CL 5. At a ny ti m e du rin g th e pa st ye ar , d id (n am e) do a ny k in d of w or k fo r s om eo ne w ho is no t a m em be r o f t hi s ho us eh ol d? If ye s: Fo r p ay in ca sh o r k in d? 1 Ye s, fo r p ay ( ca sh o r k in d) 2 Ye s, un pa id 3 No CL 6. Du rin g th e pa st w ee k, di d (n am e) h el p w ith ho us eh ol d ch or es su ch a s s ho pp in g, co lle ct in g fir ew oo d, cl ea ni ng , f et ch in g w at er , o r c ar in g fo r ch ild re n? 1 Ye s 2 No � to C L8 CL 7. If ye s: Si nc e la st (d ay o f t he w ee k) , ab ou t h ow m an y ho ur s d id h e/ sh e sp en d do in g th es e ch or es ? CL 8. Du rin g th e pa st w ee k, d id (n am e) do a ny o th er fa m ily w or k (o n th e fa rm o r i n a bu sin es s o r s el lin g go od s i n th e st re et ?) 1 Ye s 2 No � ne xt li ne CL 9. If ye s: Si nc e la st (d ay o f t he w ee k) , ab ou t h ow m an y ho ur s d id h e/ sh e do th is w or k? LI NE NA M E YE S NO NO . H OU RS YE S PA ID UN PA ID NO YE S N O NO . H OU RS YE S N O NO . H OU RS PA ID UN PA ID 01 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 02 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 03 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 04 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 05 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 06 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 07 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 08 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 09 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 10 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 11 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 12 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 13 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 14 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 15 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 1 2 117MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN MODULE CD – CHILD DISCIPLINE Ask mother/caretaker questions from module CD – Child Discipline Module for one child aged from 2 to 14 years. If no children of this age in the household, go to next module DA – Disability. If more than one child aged 2 to 14 years, the questions will refer to the child whose birthday comes first after the date of interview. Find this information in List of Household Members (Table HL – question HL5A). Ask questions for that particular child. After establishing to which child the questions from this module will refer, administer to mother/caretaker of this child. CD11. Write name and line no. of the child selected from Table HL – List of household members, questions HL1 I HL2. Name Line no. CD12. All adults use certain ways to teach children the right behavior or to address a behavior problem. I will read various methods that are used and I want you to tell me if you or anyone else in your household has used this method with (name) in the past month. CD12A. Took away privileges, forbade something (name) liked or did not allow him/her to leave house. Yes 1 CD12B No 2 CD12B. Explained why something (the behavior) was wrong. Yes 1 CD12C No 2 CD12C. Shook him/her. Yes 1 CD12D No 2 CD12D. Shouted, yelled at or screamed at him/her. Yes 1 CD12E No 2 CD12E. Gave him/her something else to do. Yes 1 CD12F No 2 CD12F. Spanked, hit or slapped him/her on the bottom with bare hand. Yes 1 CD12G No 2 CD12G. Hit him/her on the bottom or elsewhere on the body with something like a belt, hairbrush, stick or other hard object. Yes 1 CD12H No 2 CD12H. Called him/her dumb, lazy, or another name like that. Yes 1 CD12I No 2 CD12I. Hit or slapped him/her on the face, head or ears. Yes 1 CD12J No 2 CD12J. Hit or slapped him/her on the hand, arm, or leg. Yes 1 CD12K No 2 CD12K. Beat him/her up with an implement (hit over and over as hard as one could). Yes 1 CD13 No 2 CD13. Do you believe that in order to bring up (raise, educate) (name) properly, you need to physically punish him/her? Yes 1 Section DANo 2 Don’t know/no opinion 8 CD12 118 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT M OD UL E D A – DI SA BI LI TY (F or e ac h ho us eh ol d nu m be r k ee p lin e nu m be r f ro m ta bl e HL – LI ST O F H OU SE HO LD M EM BE RS ) To b e ad m in ist er ed to ca re ta ke rs o f a ll ch ild re n 2 th ro ug h 9 ye ar s o ld li vi ng in th e ho us eh ol d. Fo r h ou se ho ld m em be rs b el ow a ge 2 o r a bo ve a ge 9, le av e ro w s b la nk I w ou ld li ke to a sk yo u if an y c hi ld re n in th is ho us eh ol d ag ed 2 th ro ug h 9 ha s a ny o f t he h ea lth co nd iti on s I a m g oi ng to m en tio n to yo u. DA 1. Li ne No DA 2. Ch ild ’s na m e: DA 3. Co m pa re d w ith o th er ch ild re n, d oe s or d id (n am e) ha ve an y se rio us d el ay in si tt in g, st an di ng , o r w al ki ng ? DA 4. Co m pa re d w ith o th er ch ild re n, d oe s (n am e) h av e di ff icu lty se ei ng , e ith er in th e d ay tim e or at n ig ht ? DA 5. Do es (n am e) ap pe ar to ha ve d iff icu lty he ar in g? (u se s he ar in g ai d, he ar s w ith di ffi cu lty , co m pl et ely de af ?) DA 6. W he n yo u te ll (n am e) to d o so m et hi ng , do es h e/ sh e se em to un de rs ta nd w ha t y ou ar e sa yi ng ? DA 7. Do es (n am e) ha ve d iff icu lty in w al ki ng or m ov in g hi s/ he r a rm s or d oe s h e/ sh e ha ve w ea k- ne ss an d/ or st iff ne ss in th e ar m s o r l eg s? DA 8. Do es (n am e) so m et im es ha ve fi ts , be co m e r ig id , or lo se co n- sc io us ne ss ? DA 9. Do es (n am e) le ar n to d o th in gs li ke ot he r c hi ld re n hi s/ he r a ge ? DA 10 . Do es (n am e) sp ea k a t a ll (c an h e/ sh e m ak e h im or he rs el f u nd er - sto od in w or ds ; ca n sa y a ny re co gn iza bl e w or ds )? DA 11 . (F or 3 –9 ye ar ol ds ): Is (n am e’s ) sp ee ch in an y w ay d iff er en t fro m n or m al (n ot cl ea r en ou gh to b e un de rs to od by pe op le ot he r th an th e i m m e- di at e f am ily )? DA 12 . (F or 2 -y ea r- ol ds ): Ca n (n am e) na m e a t l ea st on e o bj ec t ( fo r ex am pl e, an an im al , a to y, a cu p, a s po on )? DA 13 . (F or al l c hi ld re n 2 th ro ug h 9 ye ar s) : Co m pa re d w ith o th er ch ild re n of th e s am e a ge , do es (n am e) ap pe ar in an y w ay m en ta lly ba ck w ar d, d ul l or sl ow ? LI NE NA M E YE S N O YE S N O YE S N O YE S N O YE S N O YE S N O YE S N O YE S N O YE S N O YE S N O YE S N O 01 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 02 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 03 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 04 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 05 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 06 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 07 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 08 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 09 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 10 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 11 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 12 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 13 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 14 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 15 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 1 2 119MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN R1. Which language is spoken in your household? Only Roma 1 R2 Only Serbian 2 Neither Roma nor Serbian 3 Combined Roma and Serbian 4 Combined Roma and other language other than Serbian 5 R2. What is the ethnical composition of the settlement you live in? Are the people living in it Only Roma 1 R3 Majority are Roma 2 Roma are a minority 3 No other Roma except you 4 R3. What is the composition of your household like? All household members are Roma 1 R4Majority of household members are Roma 2 Majority of household members are not Roma 3 R4. Type of settlement: Slum – community of extreme poverty 1 R5 Old inner city tissue – partaja 2 Older rural settlement within town 3 Poor village or hamlet 4 Newer inner city/suburban settlement 5 Typified settlement/shacks/containers 6 Collective residential buildings 7 R5. Does any of your children attend programs organised by NGO-s? Yes 1 R6 No 2 R7 R6. If attends NGO programs, ask: How satisfied are you with these programs? Very satisfied 1 R8Satisfied 2 Dissatisfied 3 R8. Did your children speak Serbian language before going to school? Yes, all children did 1 R9 Some did, some didn’t 2 None of them did 3 No children of school age 4 R9. What is the main source of income of your household? Respondent should specify the most important source of income. Circle up to two answers. Salary of household member with full time or part time job 1 SI2 Agriculture 2 Various trades 3 Selling and black marketeering 4 Some household members are beggars 5 Collect and sell various junk and old items (paper, iron.) 6 Seasonal work 7 Social assistance and child allowances 8 Some household members have pension 9 Helped by relatives and friends 10 Humanitarian aid from the Red Cross and other humanitarian organizations 11 Some other income, which 12 DK 98 MODULE R – ROMA IN ROMA SETTLEMENTS 120 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Sl2. Is there any woman aged from 15–49 years who lives in this household? Check list of household members – column HL6. For each woman who satisfies the condition it is necessary to have a previously prepared questionnaire for woman aged from 15 to 49 years with filled information panel. Yes � Go to QUESTIONNAIRE FOR WOMAN AGED FROM 15 TO 49 YEARS. No � Go to Sl3. Sl3. Are there any children aged under 5 years who live in this household? Check list of household members – column HL8. For each child who satisfies the condition it is necessary to have a previously prepared questionnaire for Children under five with filled information panel. Yes � Go to QUESTIONNIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE. No � Finish the interview and thank the respondent for cooperation. Collect all questionnaires for this household, put them in “cover” and fill fields HH9–HH15 on the first page. 121MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN MODULE WM – WOMEN’S INFORMATION PANEL This questionnaire is to be administered to all women aged 15 through 49 (see column HL6 of HH listing). Fill in one form for each eligible woman, aged 15–49 years Fill in the cluster and household number, and the name and line number of the woman in the space below. Fill in interviewer’s name, code and the date of interview. WM1. Cluster number: WM2. Household number: WM3. Woman’s Name: WM4. Woman’s Line Number: WM5. Interviewer’s name: WM6. Day/Month/Year of interview: Interviewer’s code: WM7. Result of women’s interview: Completed 1 Not at home 2 Refused 3 Partly completed 4 Incapacitated 5 Other (specify) 6 Repeat greeting if not already read to this woman: We are from Statistical Office of Serbia / Research agency Strategic Marketing. We are working on a project concerned with family health and education. I would like to talk to you about this. The interview will take about 15 minutes. the information we obtain will remain strictly confidential and your answers will never be identified. Also, you are not obliged to answer any question you don’t want to, and you may withdraw from the interview at any time. May I start now? If permission is given, begin the interview. if the woman does not agree to continue, thank her, complete wm7, and go to the next interview. discuss this result with your supervisor for a future revisit. WM8. In what month and year were you born? Month DK month 98 Year WM9 / / 2 0 0 5 WM9. How old are you? Age (in completed years) WM10 WM10. Have you ever attended school? Yes No 1 2 WM11 WM14 WM11. What is the highest level of school you attended: primary, secondary, higher, or high? Primary 1 Secondary 2 Higher 3 High 4 Non-standard curriculum 6 WM12 2. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR WOMAN AGED 15 TO 49 YEARS 122 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT WM12. What is the highest grade you completed at that level? Grade or year WM13 WM13. Check WM11: Secondary school, higher or high. � Go to next MODULE CM – Child Mortality. Primary school or Non-standard curriculum. � Continue with WM14. WM14. Now I would like you to read this sentence to me. Show sentences to respondent. If the respondent doesn’t speak any language in which the sentences are written, circle code “4”. If respondent cannot read whole sentence, probe: Can you read part of the sentence to me? Show card with sentences. Mind the language in which the sentences are written. Example sentences for literacy test: 1. The child is reading a book. 2. This summer was very rainy. 3. Parents must care for their children. 4. Farming is hard work. MODULE CM Cannot read at all 1 Able to read only parts of sentence 2 Able to read whole sentence 3 No sentence in required language 4 (specify language) Blind/mute, visually/speech impaired 5 MODULE CM – CHILD MORTALITY This module is to be administered to all women age 15–49. Questions CM2A to CM10 ask only Roma women living in Roma settlements. All questions refer only to LIVE births. CM1. Now I would like to ask about all the births you have had during your life. Have you ever given birth? Probe: I mean, have you even given birth to a child who ever breathed or cried or showed other signs of life – even if he or she lived only a few minutes or hours? CM2AYes 1 No 2 MODULE MA CM12 CM11. Can you tell me the date when you last time gave birth to a child? If day not known, enter code “98” in day box. Day / month / year of last birth: CM12. Check CM11: Did the woman give birth during the last 2 years, that is, since (day and month of survey) 2003. No live births in the past 2 years. � Go to MODULE MA – Marriage/UNION. There were live births in past 2 years. � Go to next MODULE MN – maternal and newborn health module. CM2A. What was the date of your first birth? Explain: I mean the very first time you gave birth, even if the child is no longer living, or whose father is not your current partner. Date of first birth: Day DK day 98 Month DK month 98 Year DK year 98 Completed years since first birth: CM2B. How many years ago did you have your first birth? CM3. Do you have any sons or daughters to whom you have given birth who are now living with you? CM3 CM2B Yes No 1 2 CM4 CM5 CM3 123MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN CM4. How many sons live with you? How many daughters live with you? CM5. Do you have any sons or daughters to whom you have given birth who are alive but do not live with you? CM6. How many sons are alive but do not live with you? How many daughters are alive but do not live with you? CM7. Have you ever given birth to a boy or girl who was born alive but later died? CM8. How many boys have died? How many girls have died? CM9. Sum answers to CM4, CM6 and CM8. CM10. Just to make sure that I have this right, you have had in total (total number FROM CM9) births during your life. Is this correct? Yes � Go to CM11. No � Check responses and make corrections before proceeding to CM11. CM11. Of these (total number) births you have had, when did you deliver the last one (even if he or she has died)? If day is not known, enter ‘98’ in space for day. CM12. Check CM11: Did the woman’s last birth occur within the last 2 years, that is, since (day and month of interview in 2003). No live birth in last 2 years. � Go to MARRIAGE/UNION MODULE. Yes, live birth in last 2 years. � Continue with CM13. CM13. At the time you became pregnant with (name), did you want to become pregnant then, did you want to wait until later, or did you want no (more) children at all? Sons at home Daughters at home CM5 Yes No 1 2 CM6 CM7 Sons elsewhere Daughters elsewhere CM7 Yes No 1 2 CM8 CM9 Boys dead Girls dead CM9 CM10Sum // CM12 Then Later No more 1 2 3 MODULE MN 124 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT MODULE MN – MATERNAL AND NEWBORN HEALTH MODULE This module is to be administered to all women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding date of interview. All questions in this module refer to the last born child. Check child mortality module CM12. Use this child’s name in the following questions, where indicated. MN2. Did you see anyone for antenatal care during your last pregnancy? Prompt the respondent to remember and circle all answers given. Health professional MN3 Doctor A Nurse B Midwife C Visiting nurse G Other person Traditional birth attendant F Relative/friend H Other (specify) X MN7No one Y MN3. As part of your antenatal care, were any of the following done at least once: MN3A. Were you weighed? MN3B. Was your blood pressure measured? MN3C. Did you give a urine sample? MN3D. Did you give a blood sample? MN3E. Did they perform Papanikolau test? Yes No MN4 Weight 1 2 Pressure 1 2 Urine analysis 1 2 Blood analysis 1 2 Papanikolau test 1 2 MN4. During any of the antenatal visits for the pregnancy, were you given any information or counselled about AIDS or the AIDS virus? Yes 1 MN5No 2 DK 8 MN5. I don’t want to know the results, but were you tested for HIV/AIDS as part of your antenatal care? Yes 1 MN6 No 2 DK 8 MN6. I don’t want to know the results, but did you get the results of the test? Yes 1 MN7No 2 DK 8 MN7. Who assisted with the delivery of your last child? Did anyone else assist? Probe for the type of person assisting and circle all answers given. Health professional MN8 Doctor A Nurse B Midwife C Visiting nurse G Other person Traditional birth attendant F Relative/friend H Other (specify) X No one Y MN7 125MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN MN8. Where did you give birth to (name of child)? Probe to identify the type of institution and circle the appropriate code. Home MN9 Your home 11 Other home 12 Public sector Public hospital 21 Private Sector Private health institution 31 Other (specify) 96 MN9. When the child was born, was he/she very large, larger than average, average, smaller than average, or very small? Very large 1 MN10 Larger than average 2 Average 3 Smaller than average 4 Very small 5 DK 8 MN11 MN12 From card (kilograms) 1 MN12From recall (kilograms) 2 DK 99998 MN12. Did you ever breastfeed (name)? Yes 1 MN13 No 2 MODULE MA MN13. How long after birth did you first put (name) to the breast? If less than 1 hour, record ‘00’ hours. If less than 24 hours, record hours. Otherwise, record days. Immediately 000 Hours 1 Days 2 Don’t know/remember 998 MODULE MA MODULE MA – MARRIAGE/UNION MA1. Are you currently married or living together with a man in de facto marriage? Yes, currently married 1 Yes, living with a man 2 No 3 MA2 MA3 MA2. How old was your husband/partner on his last birthday? Age in years DK 98 MA3. Have you ever been married or lived together with a man? Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 MN10. Was (name) weighed at birth? MN11. How much did (name) weigh at birth? Record weight from health card, if available. MA5 Yes, formerly married 1 Yes, de facto marriage 2 MA4 No 3 MODULE ST 126 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT MA5 MA6 MA4. What is your marital status now: are you widowed, divorced or separated? Widowed 1 Divorced 2 Separated 3 MA5. How many times have you been married or de facto married? Only once 1 More than once 2 MA6. In what month and year did you first marry or start living with a man as if married? MA7. Check question MA6. on previous page: Both month and year of marriage/union known? � Go to Next MODULE ST – SECURITY OF TENURE. Either month or year of marriage/union not known? � Continue with MA8. MA8. How old were you when you started living with your first husband/partner? MODULE STAge in years MODULE ST – SECURITY OF TENURE ST1. Do you feel secure from eviction from this dwelling? Yes 1 MODULE CPNo 2 DK 8 MODULE CP – CONTRACEPTION CP1. I would like to talk with you about another subject – family planning – and your reproductive health. Are you pregnant now? Yes, currently pregnant 1 CP1A No 2 CP2 Unsure/DK 8 CP1A. When you got pregnant did you wish to get pregnant then, or to delay pregnancy, or to avoid pregnancy altogether? Yes, then 1 CP4BYes, later 2 Avoid pregnancy 3 CP2. Some people use various ways or methods to delay or avoid a pregnancy. Are you currently doing something or using any method to delay or avoid getting pregnant? Yes 1 CP3 No 2 CP4A Month DK month 98 Year DK year 9998 MA7 127MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN CP3. Which method are you using to protect yourself from unwanted pregnancy? Do not prompt. If more than one method is mentioned, circle each one. Female sterilization A CP4A Male sterilization B Pill C IUD D Injections E Implants F Condom G Female condom H Diaphragm I Foam/jelly J Lactational amenorrhoea method (LAM) K Periodic abstinence L Interrupted coitus M Other (specify) X CP4A. Now I would like to ask some questions about the future. Would you like to have (a/another) child, or would you prefer not to have any (more) children? Do not read the answers. Yes 1 CP4C No 2 CP4D Says she cannot get pregnant 3 MODULE DV Indecisive/DK 8 CP4D CP4B. If currently pregnant: Now I would like to ask some questions about the future. After the child you are now expecting, would you like to have another child, or would you prefer not to have any (more) children? Do not read the answers. Yes 1 CP4C No 2 CP4D Indecisive/DK 8 CP4C. How long would you like to wait before the birth of (a/another) child? Months 1 Years 2 Soon, now 993 Says she cannot get pregnant 994 After marriage 995 Other 996 DK 998 CP4D MODULE DV CP4D CP4D. Check CP1. on previous page: Respondent is currently pregnant � Go to next MODULE DV – ATTITUDES TOWARD DOMESTIC VIOLENCE. Respondent not currently pregnant or unsure � Continue with CP4E. CP4E. Do you think you are physically able to get pregnant at this time? Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 MODULE DV 128 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT MODULE DV – ATTITUDES TOWARD DOMESTIC VIOLENCE DV1. Sometimes a husband is annoyed or angered by things that his wife does. In your opinion, is a husband justified in hitting or beating his wife in the following situations: MODULE SB Yes No DK DV1A. If she goes out without telling him? If she goes out without telling him 1 2 8 DV1B. If she neglects the children? If she neglects the children 1 2 8 DV1C. If she argues with him? If she argues with him 1 2 8 DV1D. If she refuses sex with him? If she refuses sex with him 1 2 8 DV1E. If she burns the food? If she burns the food 1 2 8 MODULE SB – SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR Check for the presence of others. Before continuing, ensure privacy. SB0. Check question WM9. on the first page of this questionnaire: Age of respondent is 15 to 24 years? Age 15 to 24 years � Continue with SB1. Age 25 to 49 years � Go to MODULE HA – HIV/AIDS SB1. Now I need to ask you some questions about sexual activity in order to gain a better understanding of some family life issues. The information you supply will remain strictly confidential. How old were you when you first had sexual intercourse (if ever)? MODULE HANever had intercourse 00 Age in years First time when started living with (first) husband/partner 95 SB2. When was the last time you had sexual intercourse? If less than 7 days ago circle 1 and write the answer in days. If less than 4 weeks, circle 2 and write the answer in weeks. If less than 12 months, circle 3 and write the answer in months. If more than 12 months, circle 4 and write the answer in years. Days ago 1 Weeks ago 2 Months ago 3 Years ago 4 SB3. The last time you had sexual intercourse was a condom used? SB4 Age of sexual partner DK Yes No 1 2 SB4. What is your relationship to the man with whom you last had sexual intercourse? If man is ‘boyfriend’ or ‘fiancée’, ask: Was your boyfriend/fiancée living with you when you last had sex? If ‘yes’, circle 1. If ‘no’, circle 2. SB6 SB5 SB5 How old is this person? If response is DK, probe: About how old is this person? 98 SB6 SB6. Have you had sex with any other man in the last 12 months? SB7. The last time you had sexual intercourse with this other man, was a condom used? SB7 MODULE HA SB3 MODULE HA Yes No Spouse/cohabiting partner 1 Boyfriend/fiancée 2 Friend 3 Casual acquaintance 4 Other (specify) 6 1 2 Yes 1 No 2 SB8 0 0 129MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 HA7 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 HA5 SB8. What is your relationship to this man? If man is ‘boyfriend’ or ‘fiancée’, ask: Was your boyfriend/fiancée living with you when you last had sex? If ‘yes’, circle 1. If ‘no’, circle 2. SB9. How old is this person? If response is DK, probe: About how old is this person? SB10. Other than these two men, have you had sex with any other man in the last 12 months? SB11. In total, with how many different men have you had sex in the last 12 months? MODULE HA – HIV/AIDS HA1. Now I would like to talk with you about something else. Have you ever heard of the virus HIV or an illness called AIDS? HA2. Can people protect themselves from getting infected with the AIDS virus by having one sex partner who is not infected and also has no other partners? HA3. Can people get infected with the AIDS virus because of witchcraft or other supernatural means? HA4. Can people reduce their chance of getting the AIDS virus by using a condom every time they have sex? HA5. Can people get the AIDS virus from mosquito bites? Spouse/cohabiting partner 1 Boyfriend/fiancée 2 Friend 3 Casual acquaintance 4 Other (specify) 6 SB10 SB9 Age of sexual partner DK SB10 Yes 1 No 2 SB11 MODULE HA Number of partners MODULE HA Yes 1 No 2 HA2 Next questionnaire Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 HA3 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 HA4 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 HA6 HA7A HA6. Can people reduce their chance of getting infected with the AIDS virus by not having sex at all? HA7. Can people get the AIDS virus by sharing food with a person who has AIDS? Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 HA8 HA7A. Can people get the AIDS virus by getting injections with a needle that was already used by someone else? 130 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT HA12 Yes 1 No 2 DK/not sure/depends 8 HA11 HA10 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 HA9 Yes 1 No 2 Yes 1 No 2 HA17 HA16 HA18 During pregnancy During delivery By breastfeeding Yes No DK 1 2 8 1 2 8 1 2 8 Yes 1 No 2 DK/not sure/depends 8 Yes 1 No 2 DK/not sure/depends 8 HA13 HA14 Yes 1 No 2 DK/not sure/depends 8 Check: ”If respondent is mother/custodian of child under 5 years of age”? If YES, go to Questionnaire for children under 5, and fill special questionnaire for each child under 5 years of age to whom the respondent is mother/custodian. If NO, ask: ”Is there any other woman aged from 15 to 49 years in your household”? If YES, finish the interview with this woman, extend thanks for cooperation, and start interview with other woman from the household who satisfies the condition. If NO, finish the interview with this woman, extend thanks for cooperation. Check whether there are any children under 5 in the household. If YES, ask mother/custodian to answer the questions from Questionnaire for children under 5. Asked for the test 1 Offered and accepted 2 Required 3 HA8. Is it possible for a healthy-looking person to have the AIDS virus? HA9. Can the AIDS virus be transmitted from a mother to a baby: HA9A. During pregnancy? HA9B. During delivery? HA9C. By breastfeeding? HA10. If a female teacher has the AIDS virus but is not sick, should she be allowed to continue teaching in school? HA11. Would you buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor if you knew that this person had the AIDS virus? HA12. If a member of your family became infected with the AIDS virus, would you want it to remain a secret? HA13. If a member of your family became sick with the AIDS virus, would you be willing to care for him or her in your household? HA14. Check question MN5 on the third page of this questionnaire: Were you tested for HIV during antenatal care? Yes � Go to HA18A. No, DK or did not answer questions from MODULE MN on 3rd page � Continue with HA15. HA15. I do not want to know the results, but have you ever been tested to see if you have HIV, the virus that causes AIDS? HA16. I do not want you to tell me the results of the test, but have you been told the results? HA17. Did you, yourself, ask for the test, was it offered to you and you accepted, or was it required? HA18. At this time, do you know of a place where you can go to get such a test to see if you have the AIDS virus? Next questionnaire Next questionnaire Yes 1 No 2 Yes 1 No 2 Next questionnaire HA18A. If tested for HIV during antenatal care: Other than at the antenatal clinic, do you know of a place where you can go to get a test to see if you have the AIDS virus? 131MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN 3. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE MODULE UF – UNDER-FIVE CHILD INFORMATION PANEL UF This questionnaire is to be administered to all mothers or caretakers (see household listing, column HL8) who care for a child that lives with them and is under the age of 5 years (see household listing, column HL5). A separate questionnaire should be used for each eligible child. Fill in the cluster and household number, and names and line numbers of the child and the mother/caretaker in the space below. Insert your own name and number, and the date. Repeat greeting if not already read to this respondent: We are from Republic Statistical Office / Strategic Marketing Research. We are working on a project concerned with family health and education. I would like to talk to you about this. The interview will take about 20 minutes. All the information we obtain will remain strictly confidential and your answers will never be identified. Also, you are not obliged to answer any question you don’t want to, and you may withdraw from the interview at any time. May I start now? If permission is given, begin the interview. If the respondent does not agree to continue, thank him/her and go to the next interview. Discuss this result with your supervisor for a future revisit. UF10. Now I would like to ask you some questions about the health of each child under the age of 5 in your care, who lives with you now. Now I want to ask you about (name). In what month and year was (name) born? Probe: What is his/her birthday? If the mother/caretaker knows the exact birth date, also enter the day; otherwise, circle 98 for day. If the mother/caretaker does not know the exact month of birth, circle 98 for month. Year of birth must be entered. Day DK day 98 Month DK month 98 Year UF1. Cluster number: UF2. Household number: UF3. Child’s Name: UF4. Child’s Line Number: UF5. Mother’s/Caretaker’s Name: UF8. Day/Month/Year of interview: Interviewer number: UF9. Result of interview for children under 5: (Codes refer to mother/caretaker.) Completed 1 Not at home 2 Refused 3 Partly completed 4 Incapacitated 5 Other (specify) 6 / / 2 0 0 5 UF7. Interviewer name: UF6. Mother’s/Caretaker’s Line Number: 132 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT UF11. How old was (name) at his/her last birthday? Record age in completed years. Age in completed years MODULE BR – BIRTH REGISTRATION AND EARLY LEARNING BR BR1. Does (name) have a birth certificate? May I see it? Yes, seen 1 Yes, not seen 2 No 3 DK 8 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 Costs too much 1 Must travel too far 2 Did not know it should be registered 3 Did not want to pay fine 4 Does not know where to register 5 BR5 BR2 BR5 BR2. Has (name’s) birth been registered with the civil authorities? BR3 BR4 BR3. Why is (name’s) birth not registered? BR4 Other (specify) 6 DK 8 BR4. Do you know how to register your child’s birth? BR5. Check age of child in UF11: Child is 3 or 4 years old? Yes � Continue with BR6. No � Go to BR8. BR6. Does (name) attend any organised learning or early childhood education program, such as a private or government facility, including kindergarten or community child care? BR7. Within the last seven days, about how many hours did (name) attend? BR8. In the past 3 days, did you or any household member over 15 years of age engage in any of the following activities with (name): If yes, ask: Who engaged in this activity with the child – the mother, the child’s father or another adult member of the household (including the caretaker/respondent)? Circle all that apply. BR8A. Read books or look at picture books with (name)? BR8B. Tell stories to (name)? BR8C. Sing songs with (name)? BR8D. Take (name) outside the home, compound, yard or enclosure? BR8E. Play with (name)? BR8F. Spend time with (name) naming, counting, and/or drawing things? Yes 1 No 2 BR5 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 BR7 BR8 No. of hours BR8 Mother Father Other No one A B X Y A B X Y A B X Y A B X Y A B X Y A B X Y MODULE CE 133MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN MODULE CE – CHILD DEVELOPMENT CE Question CE1 is to be administered only once to each caretaker . CE1. How many books are there in the household? Please include schoolbooks, but not other books meant for children, such as picture books. If ‘none’ enter 00. Number of non-children’s books 0 CE2 Ten or more non-children’s books 10 CE2. How many children’s books or picture books do you have for (name)? If ‘none’ enter 00. CE3. I am interested in learning about the things that (name) plays with when he/she is at home. What does (name) play with? Does he/she play with: Household objects, such as bowls, plates, cups or pots? Objects and materials found outside the living quarters, such as sticks, rocks, animals, shells, or leaves? Homemade toys, such as dolls, cars and other toys made at home? Toys that came from a store? If the respondent says “YES” to any of the prompted categories, then probe to learn specifically what the child plays with to ascertain the response Code Y if child does not play with any of the items mentioned. Number of children’s books 0 CE3 Ten or more books 10 Household objects (bowls, plates, cups, pots) A Objects and materials found outside the living quarters (sticks, rocks, animals, shells, leaves) B Homemade toys (dolls, cars and other toys made at home) C Toys that came from a store D No playthings mentioned Y CE4. Sometimes adults taking care of children have to leave the house to go shopping, wash clothes, or for other reasons and have to leave young children with others. Since last (day of the week) how many times was (name) left in the care of another child (that is, someone less than 10 years old)? If ‘none’ enter 00. CE5 CE5. In the past week, how many times was (name) left alone? If ‘none’ enter 00. CE4 No. of times No. of times MODULE BF 134 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT MODULE BF – BREASTFEEDING BF BF1. Has (name) ever been breastfed? BF2. Is he/she still being breastfed? BF2A. How long after birth did you first put (name) to the breast? If less than 1 hour, record ‘00’ hours. If less than 24 hours, record hours. Otherwise, record days. BF2B. How often is/was (name) breastfed? Don’t read answers. BF3. Since this time yesterday, did he/she receive any of the following: Read each item aloud and record response before proceeding to the next item. BF3I Yes No DK BF3A. Vitamin, mineral supplements or medicine? A. Vitamin supplements 1 2 8 BF3B. Plain water? B. Plain water 1 2 8 BF3C. Sweetened, flavored water or fruit juice or tea or infusion? C. Sweetened water or juice 1 2 8 BF3D. Oral rehydration solution (Orosal or Nelit)? D. ORS 1 2 8 BF3E. Infant formula? (Bebelac, Impamil.)? E. Infant formula 1 2 8 BF3F. Powdered or fresh milk? F. Milk 1 2 8 BF3G. Any other liquids? G. Other liquids 1 2 8 BF3H. Solid or semi-solid (mushy) food? H. Solid or semi-solid food 1 2 8 BF3I. Since this time yesterday, was he/she given to drink from a bottle with the pacifier? BF4 BF4. Check BF3H: Child received solid or semi-solid (mushy) food? Yes � Continue with BF5. No or DK � Go to Next Module. BF5. Since this time yesterday, how many times did (name) eat solid, semisolid, or soft foods other than liquids? If 7 or more times, record ‘7’. MODULE CA Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 BF2 BF3 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 BF2A Immediately 000 Hours 1 Days 2 DK/Doesn’t remember 998 BF2B According to established daily schedule 1 Whenever child wanted 2 DK 8 BF3 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 No. of times DK 8 135MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 CA2 CA5 MODULE CA – CARE OF ILLNESS CA CA1. Has (name) had diarrhea in the last two weeks, that is, since (day of the week) of the week before last? Diarrhea is determined as perceived by mother or caretaker, or as three or more loose or watery stools per day, or blood in stool. CA2. During this last episode of diarrhea, did (name) drink any of the following: Read each item aloud and record response before proceeding to the next item. CA3 Yes No DK CA2A. Breast milk 1 2 8 CA2B. Porridge (from cereals, leguminous plants, root vegetables) or soup 1 2 8 CA2C. Other (yogurt, sour milk, tea, sugar and salt solution, sugar-free fruit juice) 1 2 8 CA2D. Oral saline solutions for rehydration (Orosat, Nelit.) 1 2 8 CA2E. Cow/sheep/goat milk or adapted baby milk 1 2 8 CA2F. Water and food combined 1 2 8 CA2G. Only water 1 2 8 CA2H. Sweetened water, sweetened tea or sweetened fruit juice 1 2 8 CA3. During (name’s) illness, did he/she drink much less, about the same, or more than usual? CA4 Much less or none 1 About the same (or somewhat less) 2 More 3 DK 8 CA4. During (name’s) illness, did he/she eat less, about the same, or more food than usual? If “less”, probe: Much less or a little less? None 1 Much less 2 Somewhat less 3 About the same 4 More 5 DK 8 CA5 CA5. Has (name) had an illness with a cough at any time in the last two weeks, that is, since (day of the week) of the week before last? CA6 CA12 CA6. When (name) had an illness with a cough, did he/she breathe faster than usual with short, quick breaths or have difficulty breathing? CA7 CA12 CA7. Were the symptoms due to a problem in the chest or a blocked nose? CA8Problem in chest 1 Blocked nose 2 CA12 Both 3 CA8 Other (specify) 6 CA12 DK 8 CA8 CA8. Did you seek advice or treatment for the illness outside the home? Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 CA9 CA10 136 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT CA9. From where did you seek care? Anywhere else? Circle all providers mentioned, but do NOT prompt with any suggestions. Surgery A CA10 Health center B Hospital C Ambulance service D Private doctor E Chemist/pharmacist F Traditional healer H Relative/friend I Other (specify) X CA10. Was (name) given medicine to treat this illness? Yes 1 CA11 CA12 No 2 DK 8 CA11. What medicine was (name) given? Circle all medicines given. Cough syrup A CA12 Antibiotic B Medicine to reduce fever C Domestic/traditional remedy D Tea E Other (specify) X DK Z CA12. Check UF11: Child aged under 3? Yes � Continue with CA13. No � Go to CA14. CA13. The last time (name) passed stools, what was done to dispose of the stools Child used toilet/latrine 01 Put/rinsed into toilet or latrine 02 Put/rinsed into drain or ditch 03 Thrown into garbage (solid waste) 04 Buried 05 Left in the open 06 Other (specify) 96 DK 98 CA14 Ask the following question (CA14) only once for each caretaker. CA14. Sometimes children have severe illnesses and should be taken immediately to a health facility. What types of symptoms would cause you to take your child to a health facility right away? Keep asking for more signs or symptoms until the caretaker cannot recall any additional symptoms. Circle all symptoms mentioned, But do NOT prompt with any suggestions. Child not able to drink or breastfeed A Child becomes sicker B Child develops a fever C Child has fast breathing D Child has difficult breathing E Child has blood in stool F Child is drinking poorly G Child has convulsions/fits H Child vomits I Child has strong cough J Child complains of strong pains K MODULE IM 137MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Child injured him/herself L Child swallowed some object M Child burnt him/herself N Other (specify) X Other (specify) Y CA14. MODULE IM MODULE IM – IMMUNIZATION IM If an immunization card is available, copy the dates in IM2A–IM8D for each type of immunization or vitamin A dose recorded on the card. IM10–IM18A are for recording vaccinations that are not recorded on the card. IM10–IM18 will only be asked when a card is not available. IM1. Is there a vaccination card for (name)? (A) Copy dates for each vaccination from the card. (B) Write ‘44’ in day column if card shows that vaccination was given but no date recorded. Vaccine Day Month Year Vaccine Day Month Year IM2A. BCG V IM6A. OPV (Polio) I IM2B. BCG R IM6B. OPV (Polio) II IM3A. DPT I IM6C. OPV (Polio) III IM3B. DPT (DiTePer) II IM6D. OPV (Polio) R1 IM3C. DPT (DiTePer) III IM6E. OPV (Polio) R2 IM3D. DPT (DiTePer) R1 IM6F. OPV (Polio) R3 IM3E. DT R2 IM7A. MMR (Morbili) V IM3F. dt R3 IM7B. MMR (Morbili) R IM4. TT R IM8A. Hep.B*HBsAg I IM5A. Hep.B I IM8B. Hep.B*HBsAg II IM5B. Hep.B II IM8C. Hep.B*HBsAg III IM5C. Hep.B III IM8D. Hep.B*HBsAg IV IM9. In addition to the vaccinations shown on this card, did (name) receive any other vaccinations – including vaccinations received in campaigns or immunization days? Record ‘Yes’ only if respondent mentions vaccinations that are on vaccinations card list. IM10. Has (name) ever received any vaccinations to prevent him/her from getting diseases, including vaccinations received in a campaign or immunization day? IM11. Has (name) ever been given a BCG vaccination against tuberculosis – that is, an injection in the arm or shoulder that caused a scar? IM12. Has (name) ever been given any “vaccination drops in the mouth” to protect him/her from getting diseases – that is, polio? Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 IM2A IM10 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 IM19A (Probe for vaccinations and write ‘66’ in the corresponding day column on IM2A to IM8D.) Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 IM11 IM19A Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 IM12 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 IM13 IM15 138 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT IM13. How old was he/she when the first dose was given – just after birth (within two weeks) or later? Just after birth (within two weeks) 1 Later 2 IM14. How many times has he/she been given these drops? No. of times DK 98 IM15 IM15. Has (name) ever been given “DPT vaccination injections” – that is, an injection in the thigh or buttocks – to prevent him/her from getting tetanus, whooping cough, diphtheria? (sometimes given at the same time as polio) IM17 IM16. How many times? No. of times DK 98 IM17 IM17. Has (name) ever been given “Measles vaccination injections” or MMR – that is, a shot in the arm between the age of 12 and 18 months – to prevent him/her from getting measles? IM18 IM18. Has (name) ever been given hepatitis B vaccination, to prevent him/her from getting hepatitis B, that is, an injection in buttocks or arm in three doses administered between the age of 12 and 24 months? IM18A IM19A IM18A. How many times? No. of times DK 98 IM19A IM19A. Has (name) ever participated in any nonregular vaccination action besides the regular vaccinations? IM20 IM20. Does another eligible child reside in the household for whom this respondent is mother/caretaker? Check household listing, column HL8. Yes � End the current questionnaire and then Go to QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE to administer the questionnaire for the next eligible child. No � End the interview with this respondent by thanking him/her for his/her cooperation. If this is the last eligible child in the household, go on to ANTHROPOMETRY MODULE. IM14 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 IM16 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 Yes 1 No 2 DK 8 139MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN ANTHROPOMETRY MODULE AN After questionnaires for all children are complete, the measurer weighs and measures each child. Record weight and length/height below, taking care to record the measurements on the correct questionnaire for each child. Check the child’s name and line number on the household listing before recording measurements. AN1. Child’s weight: Kilograms (kg) . AN2 AN2. Child’s length or height. Check age of child in UF11: Child under 2 years old. � Measure length (lying down). Child age 2 or more years. � Measure height (standing up). Length (cm), lying down 1 AN3 Height (cm), standing up 2 AN3. Measurer’s identification code: AN4Measurer code AN5AN4. Result of measurement. Measured 1 Not present 2 Refused 3 Other (specify) 6 AN5. Is there another child in the household who is eligible for measurement? Yes. � Record measurements for next child. No. � End the interview with this household by thanking all participants for their cooperation. Gather together all questionnaires for this household and check that all identification numbers are inserted on each page. Tally on the Household Information Panel the number of interviews completed. . . TablesTables 143MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e HH .1 Re su lt s o f h ou se ho ld a nd in di vi du al in te rv ie w s N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s, w om en , a nd ch ild re n un de r 5 b y re su lt s o f t he h ou se ho ld , w om en ’s an d un de r- fi ve s’ in te rv ie w s, a nd h ou se ho ld , w om en ’s an d un de r- fi ve ’s re sp on se ra te s, S er bi a, 2 00 5 Ar ea Ty pe of se tt le m en t Re gi on To ta l Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fr om R om a se tt le m en ts Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts Ur ba n Ru ra l Vo jv od in a Be lg ra de W es t Ce nt ra l Ea st So ut h- Ea st Sa m pl ed h ou se ho ld s 79 74 19 79 59 20 40 33 25 69 21 08 98 3 15 83 85 8 18 52 99 53 Oc cu pi ed h ou se ho ld s 75 22 18 50 55 16 38 56 24 68 18 86 94 6 14 80 82 0 17 72 93 72 In te rv ie w ed h ou se ho ld s 70 14 17 16 51 16 36 14 22 94 17 58 86 3 13 79 74 4 16 92 87 30 Ho us eh ol d re sp on se ra te 93 .2 92 .8 92 .7 93 .7 92 .9 93 .2 91 .2 93 .2 90 .7 95 .5 93 .1 El ig ib le w om en 58 50 20 45 46 48 32 47 19 95 15 50 75 7 12 30 67 4 16 89 78 95 In te rv ie w ed w om en 55 89 19 27 44 45 30 71 19 35 14 90 73 0 11 35 63 3 15 93 75 16 W om en ’s re sp on se ra te 95 .5 94 .2 95 .6 94 .6 97 .0 96 .1 96 .4 92 .3 93 .9 94 .3 95 .2 W om en ’s ov er al l re sp on se ra te 89 .1 87 .4 88 .7 88 .6 90 .2 89 .6 88 .0 86 .0 85 .2 90 .1 88 .7 El ig ib le ch ild re n un de r 5 26 20 12 18 23 22 15 16 99 3 72 7 32 7 61 2 37 9 80 0 38 38 M ot he r/ Ca re ta ke r In te rv ie w ed 25 85 11 92 22 86 14 91 98 9 71 9 32 4 59 8 37 4 77 3 37 77 Ch ild re sp on se ra te 98 .7 97 .9 98 .4 98 .4 99 .6 98 .9 99 .1 97 .7 98 .7 96 .6 98 .4 Ch ild re n’ s o ve ra ll re sp on se ra te 92 .0 90 .8 91 .3 92 .2 92 .6 92 .2 90 .4 91 .0 89 .5 92 .3 91 .7 144 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table HH.2 Household age distribution by sex Percent distribution of the household population by five-year age groups and dependency age groups, and number of children aged 0–17 years, by sex, Serbia, 2005 Sex Total Male Female Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Age 0–4 767 5.6 747 5.1 1514 5.4 5–9 896 6.6 803 5.5 1698 6.0 10–14 849 6.2 843 5.8 1692 6.0 15–19 765 5.6 831 5.7 1597 5.7 20–24 869 6.4 900 6.2 1769 6.3 25–29 933 6.9 1013 7.0 1946 6.9 30–34 1029 7.6 1051 7.2 2080 7.4 35–39 988 7.3 902 6.2 1890 6.7 40–44 879 6.5 902 6.2 1780 6.3 45–49 890 6.5 904 6.2 1794 6.4 50–54 1097 8.1 1190 8.2 2287 8.1 55–59 928 6.8 1031 7.1 1959 7.0 60–64 702 5.2 739 5.1 1441 5.1 65–69 746 5.5 867 6.0 1612 5.7 70+ 1278 9.4 1825 12.5 3103 11.0 Dependency age groups <15 2511 18.4 2393 16.4 4904 17.4 15–64 9080 66.7 9464 65.1 18544 65.8 65+ 2023 14.9 2692 18.5 4715 16.7 Age Children aged 0–17 2960 21.7 2891 19.9 5851 20.8 Adults 18+/Missing/DK 10654 78.3 11658 80.1 22312 79.2 Total 13614 100.0 14549 100.0 28163 100.0 145MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HH.3 Household composition Percentage distribution of households by selected characteristics, Serbia, 2005 Weighted percentage Number of households weighted Number of households unweighted Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 99.0 8645 7014 Roma in Roma settlements 1.0 85 1716 Sex of head of the household Male 73.7 6435 6753 Female 26.3 2295 1977 Region Vojvodina 28.3 2468 2294 Belgrade 21.9 1911 1758 West 10.6 927 863 Central 15.8 1384 1379 East 9.0 788 744 South-East 14.3 1252 1692 Type of settlement Urban 58.4 5097 5116 Rural 41.6 3633 3614 Number of household members 1 17.4 1518 1108 2–3 40.0 3494 2858 4–5 31.8 2772 3072 6–7 9.6 835 1351 8–9 1.0 90 238 10+ .2 20 103 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 86.7 7565 6172 Hungarian 4.5 389 285 Muslim\Bosnian 1.8 154 242 Roma 1.2 108 1608 Other 5.9 514 423 Total 100.0 8730 8730 At least one child aged <18 years 38.3 8730 8730 At least one child aged <5 years 13.8 8730 8730 At least one woman aged 15–49 56.3 8730 8730 146 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table HH.4 Women’s background characteristics Percentage distribution of women aged 15–49 by background characteristics, Serbia, 2005 Weighted percent Number of women weighted Number of women unweighted Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 98.7 7415 5589 Roma in Roma settlements 1.3 101 1927 Region Vojvodina 27.7 2080 1935 Belgrade 20.7 1554 1490 West 11.2 842 730 Central 16.2 1218 1135 East 8.6 644 633 South-East 15.7 1178 1593 Type of settlement Urban 56.8 4269 4445 Rural 43.2 3247 3071 Age 15–19 12.5 938 933 20–24 13.0 978 1118 25–29 15.4 1161 1417 30–34 16.6 1251 1361 35–39 14.2 1069 988 40–44 14.2 1064 864 45–49 14.0 1056 835 Marital/Union status Currently married/in union 64.4 4844 5492 Formerly married/in union 6.0 451 448 Never married/in union 29.6 2221 1576 Motherhood status Given birth 65.1 4897 5605 Never given birth 34.9 2619 1911 Education Primary or none 20.5 1539 2945 Secondary 59.1 4439 3482 University 20.5 1538 1089 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 87.2 6550 4937 Hungarian 3.7 277 191 Muslim\Bosnian 2.2 167 258 Roma 1.7 125 1804 Other 5.3 397 326 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 15.5 1163 2243 Second 19.2 1442 1425 Middle 21.9 1649 1412 Fourth 20.8 1567 1231 Richest 22.6 1695 1205 Total 100.0 7516 7516 147MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HH.5 Children’s background characteristics Percentage distribution of children under five years of age by background characteristics, Serbia, 2005 Weighted percent Number of women weighted Number of women unweighted Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 96.6 3647 2585 Roma in Roma settlements 3.4 130 1192 Sex Male 50.8 1917 1922 Female 49.2 1860 1855 Region Vojvodina 27.9 1052 989 Belgrade 17.8 671 719 West 11.3 427 324 Central 17.4 656 598 East 8.9 337 374 South-East 16.8 634 773 Type of settlement Urban 55.5 2097 2286 Rural 44.5 1680 1491 Age <6 months 8.4 316 339 6–11 months 9.0 338 348 12–23 months 20.5 773 800 24–35 months 21.2 802 782 36–47 months 20.0 754 736 48–59 months 21.0 795 772 Mother’s education Primary or none 21.6 818 1638 Secondary 61.0 2304 1684 University 17.4 656 455 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 81.7 3086 2209 Hungarian 2.9 111 76 Muslim\Bosnian 4.9 186 209 Roma 4.4 166 1119 Other 6.1 229 164 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 17.4 656 1342 Second 19.7 742 682 Middle 22.7 858 662 Fourth 22.0 830 610 Richest 18.3 690 481 Total 100.0 3777 3777 148 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table CM.1 Early childhood mortality Infant and under-five mortality rates by background and demographic characteristics, Roma in Roma settlements, 2005 Infant mortality rate* Under-five mortality rate** Area Urban 28 32 Rural 20 22 Sex Male 32 36 Female 20 23 Region Vojvodina 16 18 Belgrade 26 29 Central 29 33 Mother’s education None 29 34 Attended school 25 28 Wealth index quintiles Poorest/Second 30 33 Middle/Fourth/Richest 23 26 Total 25 28 * MICS indicator 2; MDG indicator 14 ** MICS indicator 1; MDG indicator 13 149MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CM.2 Total children born and proportion dead Total mean number of children born and proportion dead according to age of women, Roma in Roma settlements, 2005 Total mean number of children born Proportion dead Number of women Age 15–19 .412 .023 378 20–24 1.532 .028 297 25–29 2.515 .029 301 30–34 2.902 .028 279 35–39 3.254 .086 246 40–44 3.220 .054 238 45–49 2.979 .071 187 Total 2.233 .049 1927 150 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table NU.1 Child malnourishment Percentage of children aged 0–59 months who are severely or moderately malnourished, Serbia, 2005 Weight for age Height for age Weight for height Number of children 0–59 months % below – 2 SD* % below – 3 SD % below – 2 SD** % below – 3 SD % below – 2 SD*** % below – 3 SD % above + 2 SD Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 1.4 .1 5.4 1.2 3.2 .4 15.6 3226 Roma in Roma settlements 7.7 1.3 20.0 5.3 4.1 1.2 6.7 112 Sex Male 1.6 .1 6.0 1.4 3.3 .2 14.9 1699 Female 1.7 .1 5.7 1.2 3.2 .7 15.7 1638 Region Vojvodina 1.6 .1 5.6 2.0 2.7 .2 13.9 979 Belgrade 3.7 .5 7.6 1.3 7.9 1.5 13.5 604 West .5 .0 4.7 .4 1.5 .0 17.9 377 Central 1.4 - 5.3 1.3 1.9 - 18.0 534 East .9 .1 8.8 1.8 3.0 .0 17.0 292 South-East .9 .0 4.2 .5 1.8 .6 14.4 552 Type of settlement Urban 1.9 .2 5.8 1.1 3.4 .5 13.6 1878 Rural 1.2 .0 6.0 1.6 3.1 .4 17.4 1459 Age <6 months 1.2 - 5.4 1.2 3.9 .0 10.1 281 6–11 months 1.7 .0 6.2 .6 7.1 1.6 13.2 300 12–23 months .9 .1 6.6 1.4 2.3 .3 24.1 675 24–35 months 2.3 .0 7.7 1.2 2.9 .5 12.0 701 36–47 months 2.2 .3 4.2 1.4 1.9 .0 13.8 666 48–59 months 1.3 .3 5.0 1.5 4.0 .7 14.5 715 Mother’s education Primary or none 4.0 .4 9.9 3.2 5.1 1.1 15.3 707 Secondary 1.0 - 5.0 .8 2.6 .3 15.9 2052 University 1.0 .3 4.1 .7 3.4 .3 13.2 578 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 1.2 .1 5.1 1.0 3.2 .3 15.9 2723 Hungarian 1.4 - 4.1 1.4 1.4 - 15.4 105 Muslim\Bosnian 1.7 - 4.6 1.7 .1 .1 18.8 162 Roma 12.0 2.1 19.3 4.7 8.5 4.1 6.6 144 Other .8 - 8.9 2.9 4.4 .8 11.0 204 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 4.4 .5 9.0 2.9 3.8 1.1 15.5 557 Second 1.6 .0 6.6 2.0 2.3 .0 15.5 666 Middle .5 - 3.9 .5 2.3 .6 17.9 763 Fourth .4 - 5.9 .2 3.1 .2 15.9 723 Richest 2.2 .2 4.7 1.4 5.2 .5 11.0 628 Total 1.6 .1 5.9 1.3 3.3 .5 15.3 3337 * MICS indicator 6; MDG indicator 4 ** MICS indicator 7 *** MICS indicator 8 151MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table NU.2 Initial breastfeeding Percentage of women aged 15–49 years with a birth in the two years preceding the survey who breastfed their baby within one hour of birth and within one day of birth, Serbia, 2005 Percentage who started breastfeeding within one hour of birth* Percentage who started breastfeeding within one day of birth Number of women with live birth in the two years preceding the survey Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 16.9 66.8 642 Roma in Roma settlements 33.0 72.5 20 Region Vojvodina 17.0 65.3 180 Belgrade 8.6 56.3 98 West 23.3 76.4 84 Central 17.9 66.7 122 East 10.6 63.9 62 South-East 24.6 73.8 115 Type of settlement Urban 15.7 63.0 350 Rural 19.4 71.4 312 Months since last birth <6 months 16.8 66.6 145 6–11 months 17.2 62.2 159 12–23 months 17.8 69.3 357 Education Primary or none 19.9 72.0 144 Secondary 18.2 66.9 403 University 11.5 61.1 114 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 16.4 66.5 538 Hungarian (9.7) (55.1) 21 Muslim\Bosnian 13.5 76.9 36 Roma 27.4 71.4 27 Other 32.6 68.0 39 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 19.8 71.7 127 Second 19.6 72.3 123 Middle 20.0 68.8 157 Fourth 15.5 67.0 139 Richest 11.3 53.7 116 Total 17.4 67.0 662 * MICS indicator 45 152 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ta bl e NU .3 Br ea st fe ed in g Pe rc en ta ge o f l iv in g ch ild re n ac co rd in g to b re as tf ee di ng st at us a t e ac h ag e gr ou p, S er bi a, 2 00 5 Ch ild re n 0– 3 m on th s Ch ild re n 0– 5 m on th s Ch ild re n 6– 9 m on th s Ch ild re n 12 –1 5 m on th s Ch ild re n 20 –2 3 m on th s Pe rc en t ex clu siv el y br ea st fe d Nu m be r of ch ild re n Pe rc en t ex cl us iv el y br ea st fe d* Nu m be r of ch ild re n Pe rc en t r ec ei v- in g br ea st m ilk an d so lid /m us hy fo od ** Nu m be r of ch ild re n Pe rc en t br ea st fe d* ** Nu m be r of ch ild re n Pe rc en t br ea st fe d* ** Nu m be r of ch ild re n Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a in R om a s et tle m en ts 23 .2 17 6 14 .9 30 2 38 .7 22 0 20 .9 25 7 7.1 23 6 Ro m a i n Ro m a s et tle m en ts 26 .6 8 18 .0 14 48 .0 8 59 .9 10 34 .1 10 Se x M al e 21 .0 90 13 .1 16 6 37 .5 11 2 24 .3 13 5 6. 9 13 2 Fe m al e 25 .7 95 17 .2 14 9 40 .5 11 6 20 .5 13 2 9. 8 11 3 Re gi on Vo jv od in a (3 1. 8) 43 16 .5 84 45 .9 59 21 .3 76 1. 4 81 Be lg ra de (1 8. 2) 19 9. 0 37 (3 5.1 ) 42 (2 5. 2) 41 (7 .0 ) 27 W es t (* ) 23 (4 .2 ) 34 (* ) 34 (1 6. 0) 37 (* ) 30 Ce nt ra l (2 5. 3) 38 18 .4 59 (4 0. 9) 43 (1 6. 5) 53 (2 1. 0) 40 Ea st (* ) 19 (9 .0 ) 34 (* ) 19 (3 7.0 ) 25 (* ) 24 So ut h- Ea st (2 7.8 ) 43 22 .3 68 (3 9. 7) 31 (2 6. 9) 35 6. 2 43 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 25 .7 84 17 .8 14 6 36 .6 13 5 23 .9 14 5 8. 4 13 3 Ru ra l 21 .5 10 1 12 .7 17 0 42 .5 93 20 .7 12 3 8. 0 11 2 M ot he r’s ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 20 .7 54 13 .6 83 26 .8 51 25 .8 63 14 .4 67 Se co nd ar y 22 .1 10 4 13 .8 18 8 41 .6 13 6 21 .6 15 7 7.4 14 4 Un iv er sit y (* ) 26 (2 2. 8) 46 (4 5. 5) 41 20 .6 48 (* ) 35 Et hn ici ty of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 21 .7 14 1 13 .8 25 1 39 .3 18 7 20 .4 21 4 6. 7 19 7 Hu ng ar ia n – 6 – 12 (* ) 6 – 12 – 3 M us lim \B os ni an (* ) 15 (* ) 18 (* ) 14 (* ) 9 (* ) 16 Ro m a 16 .5 12 12 .5 17 51 .2 13 40 .7 14 19 .7 15 Ot he r (* ) 10 (* ) 18 (* ) 7 (* ) 18 – 15 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 23 .7 47 15 .4 73 26 .8 40 42 .6 41 12 .5 65 Se co nd (2 3. 6) 37 13 .2 66 (4 1. 3) 31 (1 5. 0) 46 (6 .3 ) 43 M id dl e (1 7.1 ) 41 11 .2 76 (4 5. 7) 50 17 .1 70 (9 .5 ) 57 Fo ur th (* ) 33 (2 4. 6) 53 (4 4. 6) 63 (2 2. 3) 54 (2 .4 ) 53 Ri ch es t (* ) 26 (1 2. 6) 48 (3 2. 6) 44 (2 0. 7) 56 (* ) 28 To ta l 23 .4 18 4 15 .1 31 6 39 .0 22 8 22 .4 26 7 8. 2 24 6 * M IC S i nd ica to r 1 5 ** M IC S i nd ica to r 1 7 ** * M IC S i nd ica to r 1 6 153MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table NU.4 Adequately fed infants Percentage of infants under 6 months of age exclusively breastfed, percentage of infants 6–11 months who are breastfed and who ate solid/semi-solid food at least the minimum recommended number of times the previous day and percentage of infants adequately fed, Serbia, 2005 0–5 months exclusively breastfed 6–8 months who received breastmilk and complementary food at least 2 times in prior 24 hours 9–11 months who received breastmilk and complementary food at least 3 times in prior 24 hours 6–11 months who received breastmilk and complemen- tary food at least the minimum recom- mended number of times per day* 0–11 months who were appropriately fed** Number of infants aged 0–11 months Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 14.9 31.9 34.5 33.2 24.4 628 Roma in Roma settlements 18.0 45.7 37.6 41.4 29.2 26 Sex Male 13.1 28.9 29.8 29.4 21.1 327 Female 17.2 35.2 39.4 37.2 28.0 327 Region Vojvodina 16.5 43.5 34.6 39.5 28.3 172 Belgrade 9.0 26.6 31.2 28.8 21.4 100 West 4.2 16.9 36.2 24.4 15.0 74 Central 18.4 32.5 36.0 34.2 26.6 122 East 9.0 24.7 37.2 31.8 19.1 61 South-East 22.3 36.9 34.6 35.6 28.4 126 Type of settlement Urban 17.8 30.0 30.7 30.3 25.0 343 Rural 12.7 35.6 40.2 37.9 24.1 311 Mother’s education Primary or none 13.6 23.6 33.2 27.1 19.7 149 Secondary 13.8 35.5 31.5 33.5 24.1 395 University 22.8 34.1 45.2 40.1 33.0 110 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 13.8 32.4 32.0 32.2 23.5 529 Hungarian – 66.4 100.0 79.9 (*) 19 Muslim\Bosnian 42.7 11.1 26.2 17.9 (29.0) 40 Roma 12.5 42.0 48.7 45.0 28.9 35 Other 16.7 33.7 51.3 45.5 (*) 31 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 15.4 23.3 16.5 20.2 17.5 130 Second 13.2 47.4 20.4 33.4 22.5 123 Middle 11.2 37.3 51.2 43.5 26.7 146 Fourth 24.6 28.4 53.3 40.4 34.5 140 Richest 12.6 28.0 23.3 25.5 20.1 115 Total 15.1 32.3 34.7 33.5 24.6 654 * MICS indicator 18 ** MICS indicator 19 154 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table NU.5 Low birth weight infants Percentage of live births in the 2 years preceding the survey that weighed below 2500 grams at birth, Serbia, 2005 Percent of live births below 2500 grams* Percent of live births weighed at birth** Number of live births Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 4.9 98.1 642 Roma in Roma settlements 9.3 90.1 20 Region Vojvodina 5.0 99.6 180 Belgrade 4.9 94.8 98 West 6.4 100.0 84 Central 4.8 97.4 122 East 5.0 97.7 62 South-East 4.4 96.8 115 Type of settlement Urban 4.9 97.9 350 Rural 5.2 97.8 312 Education Primary or none 6.3 96.7 144 Secondary 4.8 97.7 403 University 4.0 100.0 114 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 4.9 98.4 538 Hungarian (2.2) (100.0) 21 Muslim\Bosnian 3.8 94.3 36 Roma 9.6 90.6 27 Other 6.6 98.1 39 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 8.6 96.1 127 Second 5.0 98.7 123 Middle 3.3 98.2 157 Fourth 4.3 96.6 139 Richest 4.3 100.0 116 Total 5.0 97.9 662 * MICS indicator 9 ** MICS indicator 10 155MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e CH .1 Va cc in at io n in th e fi rs t y ea r o f l ife (1 8 m on th s i n th e ca se o f M M R) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8– 29 m on th s i m m un iz ed a ga in st ch ild ho od d is ea se s a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey a nd b ef or e 12 m on th s o f a ge (b ef or e 18 m on th s o f a ge in ca se o f M M R) , S er bi a, 2 00 5 BC G* DP T 1 DP T 2 DP T 3 ** Po lio 1 Po lio 2 Po lio 3 ** * M ea sle s (M M R) ** ** Al l * ** ** No ne Nu m be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 1 8– 29 m on th s Va cc in at io n ca rd 44 .2 72 .7 78 .0 77 .8 70 .0 72 .5 75 .1 64 .1 43 .5 .0 78 2 M ot he r’s re po rt 30 .4 25 .8 19 .3 17 .8 26 .9 22 .5 18 .7 22 .5 14 .0 .3 78 2 Ei th er 74 .5 98 .5 97 .3 95 .6 96 .9 95 .1 93 .8 86 .6 57 .5 .3 78 2 Va cc in at ed b y 1 2 m on th s o f a ge 74 .1 97 .1 95 .9 89 .7 95 .0 93 .5 88 .2 84 .1 43 .6 .3 78 2 * M IC S in di ca to r 2 5 ** M IC S in di ca to r 2 7 ** * M IC S in di ca to r 2 6 ** ** M IC S in di ca to r 2 8; M DG in di ca to r 1 5 ** ** * M IC S In di ca to r 3 1 156 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table CH.1a Vaccination in the first year of life (BCG vaccination is calculated according to the mother’s report only) Percentage of children aged 18–29 months immunized against childhood diseases at any time before the survey and before 12 months of age, 18 months in case of MMR, Serbia, 2005 All vaccinations No vaccination Number of childrenaged 18–29 months Vaccination card 65.6 0 782 Mother’s report 14.0 .3 782 Either 79.6 .3 782 Vaccinated by 12 months of age 60.3 .3 782 157MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e CH .2 Va cc in at io ns b y ba ck gr ou nd ch ar ac te ri st ic s Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8– 29 m on th s c ur re nt ly v ac ci na te d ag ai ns t c hi ld ho od d is ea se s, S er bi a, 2 00 5 BC G DP T1 DP T2 DP T3 Po lio 1 Po lio 2 Po lio 3 M M R Al l No ne Pe rc en t w ith he al th ca rd Nu m be r of ch ild re n ag ed 18 –2 9 m on th s Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 75 .0 98 .8 97 .8 96 .4 97 .3 95 .5 94 .6 87 .3 58 .5 .2 71 .0 75 5 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 59 .9 88 .6 79 .8 70 .0 86 .1 81 .0 68 .1 63 .0 26 .6 3. 7 65 .9 27 Se x M al e 73 .9 98 .8 97 .8 96 .6 98 .6 96 .0 95 .1 88 .6 57 .8 .1 70 .1 41 2 Fe m al e 75 .3 98 .2 96 .7 94 .5 95 .1 94 .0 92 .3 84 .3 57 .1 .6 71 .5 37 1 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 92 .6 99 .0 98 .8 98 .0 97 .5 96 .7 95 .7 91 .6 81 .4 .2 82 .8 22 3 Be lg ra de 80 .9 96 .4 90 .1 86 .1 99 .2 94 .7 92 .3 75 .4 47 .1 .2 46 .5 11 7 W es t 65 .7 10 0. 0 99 .8 98 .1 92 .7 85 .3 88 .1 88 .1 43 .8 - 71 .5 10 4 Ce nt ra l 68 .6 99 .2 99 .0 97 .2 98 .3 98 .2 96 .3 88 .7 54 .9 - 69 .0 14 5 Ea st 73 .1 10 0. 0 99 .7 99 .5 10 0. 0 99 .7 99 .5 92 .8 62 .5 - 70 .2 73 So ut hE as t 49 .1 96 .6 95 .9 93 .7 93 .6 93 .2 89 .5 80 .8 30 .9 1. 6 74 .0 12 1 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 81 .0 98 .0 96 .4 94 .4 98 .1 96 .3 94 .6 84 .9 62 .4 .2 69 .9 41 7 Ru ra l 67 .1 99 .0 98 .3 97 .0 95 .6 93 .6 92 .8 88 .5 51 .6 .5 71 .8 36 5 M ot he r’s ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 70 .3 96 .9 95 .8 93 .1 94 .4 92 .7 92 .0 82 .0 53 .8 1. 3 70 .4 19 6 Se co nd ar y 73 .6 99 .1 97 .9 96 .6 98 .4 96 .0 94 .6 89 .2 57 .1 - 71 .9 45 8 Un iv er sit y 84 .5 98 .8 97 .3 95 .9 95 .5 95 .0 93 .3 84 .3 64 .7 .0 67 .7 12 9 Et hn ici ty o f he ad o f t he ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 73 .6 98 .8 97 .7 96 .1 97 .0 94 .9 94 .2 87 .3 57 .3 .3 71 .9 62 6 Hu ng ar ia n (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) - (* ) 19 M us lim \B os ni an (7 3. 1) (1 00 .0 ) (9 9. 5) (9 6. 6) (1 00 .0 ) (9 9. 5) (9 2. 9) (8 8. 3) (5 2. 6) - (6 2. 2) 48 Ro m a 75 .8 89 .1 83 .6 77 .5 91 .4 88 .7 80 .7 70 .1 47 .7 2. 4 59 .2 40 Ot he r (8 0. 1) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (8 5. 8) (6 4. 3) - (6 6. 5) 50 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 64 .3 97 .4 96 .3 93 .2 94 .2 90 .9 90 .6 86 .5 50 .1 1. 6 69 .1 16 2 Se co nd 64 .5 98 .4 97 .0 96 .8 97 .3 94 .4 93 .2 85 .9 48 .9 - 75 .8 17 2 M id dl e 79 .0 99 .9 99 .9 99 .8 98 .3 98 .2 96 .9 90 .5 68 .0 - 71 .4 17 3 Fo ur th 87 .0 98 .0 96 .0 93 .0 96 .2 95 .0 93 .1 85 .4 65 .3 - 67 .6 15 4 Ri ch es t 79 .8 98 .7 97 .3 94 .5 99 .1 96 .6 95 .1 83 .7 53 .7 - 69 .1 12 2 To ta l 74 .5 98 .5 97 .3 95 .6 96 .9 95 .1 93 .8 86 .6 57 .5 .3 70 .8 78 2 158 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Had diarrhoea in last two weeks Number of children aged 0–59 months Fluid from ORS packet Breast milk Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 5.0 3647 16.7 19.3 Roma in Roma settlements 13.0 130 19.8 37.5 Sex Male 5.8 1917 16.8 23.5 Female 4.6 1860 17.3 17.4 Region Vojvodina 5.0 1052 16.8 15.4 Belgrade 3.9 671 26.0 21.7 West 5.5 427 (*) (*) Central 5.3 656 (1.0) (28.3) East 2.9 337 (*) (*) South-East 8.0 634 27.7 24.5 Type of settlement Urban 5.2 2097 17.3 24.5 Rural 5.2 1680 16.6 16.4 Age <6 months 4.2 316 (*) (*) 6–11 months 8.6 338 (6.2) (48.5) 12–23 months 7.7 773 22.4 22.5 24–35 months 5.2 802 19.4 5.3 36–47 months 4.7 754 (15.6) (1.0) 48–59 months 2.4 795 (17.1) (1.0) Mother’s education Primary or none 7.0 818 26.9 22.7 Secondary 4.9 2304 10.6 19.6 University 4.1 656 (*) (*) Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 5.1 3086 14.6 18.7 Hungarian 8.0 111 (*) – Muslim\Bosnian 5.3 186 (*) (*) Roma 10.4 166 28.0 35.5 Other 1.9 229 (*) (*) Wealth index quintiles Poorest 7.1 656 20.8 26.2 Second 5.7 742 (15.5) (21.5) Middle 3.6 858 (10.7) (9.4) Fourth 5.3 830 (7.7) (19.8) Richest 4.8 690 (*) (*) Total 5.2 3777 17.0 20.9 * MICS indicator 33 Ta bl e CH .3 Or al re hy dr at io n tr ea tm en t Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s w it h di ar rh oe a in th e la st tw o w ee ks an d tr ea tm en t w it h or al re hy dr at io n so lu ti on o r o th er re co m m en de d liq ui ds (O RS ), Se rb ia , 2 00 5 159MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Porridge (from cereals, leguminous plants, root vegetables) or soup Other (yoghurt, sour milk, tea, sugar and salt solution, sugar- free fruit juice) Cow/sheep /goat milk or adapted baby milk Water and food combined Only water Sweetened water, sweetened tea or sweetened fruit juice No treat- ment ORT use rate* Number of children aged 0–59 months with diarrhoea 63.9 69.2 41.6 59.7 72.0 64.4 5.5 94.5 181 50.8 54.3 27.6 63.7 83.7 69.4 11.1 88.9 17 57.4 60.2 33.4 60.9 74.2 67.5 8.6 91.4 112 69.7 78.0 49.5 58.9 71.5 61.2 2.6 97.4 86 61.1 84.3 61.2 45.2 66.2 65.1 3.4 96.6 53 35.5 49.5 31.3 38.4 73.3 34.9 7.2 92.8 26 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 23 (69.4) (78.1) (27.9) (68.5) (68.9) (75.0) (6.8) (93.2) 35 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 10 69.3 55.7 30.4 71.4 84.1 76.3 7.8 92.2 50 64.6 71.4 42.9 58.6 77.7 58.2 6.1 93.9 110 60.5 63.6 37.3 61.8 67.2 73.0 5.8 94.2 88 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 13 (84.1) (58.3) (36.5) (73.7) (60.8) (66.1) (.0) (100.0) 29 66.7 73.0 39.8 61.2 74.1 66.3 3.1 96.9 59 64.3 71.2 43.3 58.2 79.1 69.1 5.1 94.9 42 (59.9) (71.3) (38.3) (57.4) (75.6) (77.6) (12.4) (87.6) 35 (60.6) (82.4) (47.7) (60.4) (68.4) (50.4) (15.7) (84.3) 19 50.8 57.9 34.9 52.9 75.3 76.0 3.3 96.7 57 67.9 74.7 44.7 64.8 70.6 60.1 7.3 92.7 114 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 27 68.2 69.1 39.9 61.0 74.1 63.4 6.4 93.6 157 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) – (*) 9 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 10 45.5 57.5 33.1 58.8 85.0 62.9 9.4 90.6 17 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) – (*) 4 60.4 52.2 29.2 54.2 74.8 81.8 3.3 96.7 47 (56.6) (64.7) (43.1) (61.6) (66.4) (65.9) (9.6) (90.4) 43 (58.7) (74.1) (44.3) (84.9) (85.3) (57.3) (14.8) (85.2) 31 (76.2) (85.7) (38.1) (61.3) (77.4) (64.2) (.2) (99.8) 44 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 33 62.7 67.9 40.4 60.1 73.0 64.8 6.0 94.0 198 160 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Had diarrhoea in last two weeks Number of children aged 0–59 months Children with diarrhoea who drank more Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 5.0 3647 37.4 Roma in Roma settlements 13.0 130 26.4 Sex Male 5.8 1917 38.8 Female 4.6 1860 33.3 Region Vojvodina 5.0 1052 23.1 Belgrade 3.9 671 48.4 West 5.5 427 – Central 5.3 656 (47.4) East 2.9 337 (*) South-East 8.0 634 56.8 Type of settlement Urban 5.2 2097 35.6 Rural 5.2 1680 37.4 Age 0–11 months 6.5 654 22.9 12–23 months 7.7 773 37.0 24–35 months 5.2 802 42.5 36–47 months 4.7 754 (53.7) 48–59 months 2.4 795 (19.1) Mother’s education Primary or none 7.0 818 32.6 Secondary 4.9 2304 37.7 University 4.1 656 (*) Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 5.1 3086 38.6 Hungarian 8.0 111 (*) Muslim\Bosnian 5.3 186 (*) Roma 10.4 166 26.1 Other 1.9 229 (*) Wealth index quintiles Poorest 7.1 656 24.4 Second 5.7 742 (42.2) Middle 3.6 858 (45.9) Fourth 5.3 830 (38.7) Richest 4.8 690 (*) Total 5.2 3777 36.4 * MICS indicator 34 ** MICS indicator 35 Ta bl e CH .4 Ho m e m an ag em en t o f d ia rr ho ea Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s w it h di ar rh oe a in th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho to ok in cr ea se d fl ui ds a nd co nt in ue d to fe ed d ur in g th e ep is od e, S er bi a, 2 00 5 161MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Children with diarrhoea who drank the same or less Children with diarrhoea who ate somewhat less, same or more Children with diarrhoea who ate much less or none Home management of diarrhoea* Received ORT or increased fluids AND continued feeding** Number of children aged 0–59 months with diarrhoea 62.6 76.3 23.7 27.3 72.6 181 73.6 61.5 38.5 15.1 53.6 17 61.2 79.8 20.2 28.7 72.9 112 66.7 68.9 31.1 23.0 68.4 86 76.9 75.5 24.5 14.6 72.3 53 51.6 49.1 50.9 25.6 48.4 26 (*) (*) (*) – (*) 23 (52.6) (79.7) (20.3) (33.8) (72.9) 35 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 10 43.2 79.8 20.2 47.7 75.5 50 64.4 80.7 19.3 29.3 76.3 110 62.6 68.0 32.0 22.4 64.3 88 77.1 82.5 17.5 17.8 81.6 42 63.0 70.5 29.5 32.2 67.8 59 57.5 68.8 31.2 27.4 67.8 42 (46.3) (80.4) (19.6) (37.5) (72.9) 35 (80.9) (76.2) (23.8) (2.7) (60.4) 19 67.4 64.5 35.5 21.9 62.2 57 62.3 81.1 18.9 26.8 75.2 114 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 27 61.4 81.8 18.2 30.4 77.3 157 (*) (*) (*) – (*) 9 (*) (*) (*) – (*) 10 73.9 57.1 42.9 14.9 50.8 17 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 4 75.6 65.2 34.8 18.4 62.7 47 (57.8) (77.7) (22.3) (30.9) (71.8) 43 (54.1) (78.2) (21.8) (24.1) (63.7) 31 (61.3) (89.6) (10.4) (32.4) (89.6) 44 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 33 63.6 75.1 24.9 26.2 71.0 198 162 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ta bl e CH .5 Ca re se ek in g fo r s us pe ct ed p ne um on ia Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s i n th e la st tw o w ee ks ta ke n to a h ea lt h pr ov id er , S er bi a, 2 00 5 Ha d ac ut e re sp ira to ry in fe ct io n Nu m be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 0– 59 m on th s Am bu la nc e He al th ce nt re Ho sp it al Pr iv at e do ct or Ot he r An y ap pr op ria te pr ov id er * Nu m be r o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0– 59 m on th s w ith su sp ec te d pn eu m on ia Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a in R om a se tt le m en ts 3. 1 36 47 18 .2 71 .0 14 .1 8. 5 – 92 .8 11 4 Ro m a i n R om a s et tle m en ts 10 .4 13 0 14 .2 70 .1 17 .2 .8 .8 90 .2 13 Se x M al e 3. 6 19 17 11 .3 79 .9 18 .9 4. 5 .2 94 .2 69 Fe m al e 3. 1 18 60 25 .5 60 .3 9. 2 11 .4 – 90 .5 58 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 4. 9 10 52 18 .0 60 .7 12 .4 8. 5 – 87 .5 51 Be lg ra de 2. 2 67 1 (1 1.1 ) (9 7. 3) (1 3. 0) – – (9 8. 0) 15 W es t 1. 3 42 7 – (* ) (* ) – – (* ) 6 Ce nt ra l 2. 8 65 6 – (* ) – (* ) – (* ) 18 Ea st 5. 1 33 7 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) – (* ) 17 So ut h- Ea st 3. 1 63 4 45 .8 58 .9 12 .9 7. 6 .6 98 .3 20 Ty pe o f se ttl em en t Ur ba n 3. 5 20 97 17 .8 70 .8 12 .3 9. 8 .2 90 .6 72 Ru ra l 3. 2 16 80 17 .8 71 .1 17 .3 4. 8 – 95 .0 55 Ag e 0– 11 m on th s 1. 9 65 4 (3 .3 ) (9 1. 6) (5 .1) – – (9 7.7 ) 12 12 –2 3 m on th s 3. 7 77 3 (2 7. 8) (6 7.0 ) (1 8. 0) – – (9 5. 1) 28 24 –3 5 m on th s 4. 0 80 2 (2 0. 1) (8 3. 8) (1 .6 ) (3 .9 ) (.3 ) (9 9. 2) 32 36 – 47 m on th s 2. 9 75 4 (7 .2 ) (7 2. 6) (2 1. 5) (3 1. 0) – (9 3. 1) 22 48 –5 9 m on th s 4. 0 79 5 (1 9. 7) (5 2. 4) (2 2. 8) (4 .9 ) – (8 1.1 ) 32 M ot he r’s ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 4. 2 81 8 26 .6 63 .6 10 .9 .3 .3 92 .5 35 Se co nd ar y 3. 3 23 04 17 .8 71 .6 15 .4 5. 5 – 92 .7 76 Un iv er sit y 2. 6 65 6 – (* ) (* ) (* ) – (* ) 17 Et hn ici ty of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 3. 1 30 86 15 .3 75 .0 15 .0 8. 4 – 92 .9 97 Hu ng ar ia n 4. 0 11 1 (* ) (* ) – (* ) – (* ) 4 M us lim \B os ni an 1. 4 18 6 – (* ) (* ) (* ) – (* ) 3 Ro m a 7.7 16 6 14 .9 72 .1 16 .5 – .9 91 .6 13 Ot he r 4. 5 22 9 (* ) (* ) (* ) – – (* ) 10 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 3. 2 65 6 21 .3 64 .1 23 .8 – .5 88 .7 21 Se co nd 3. 6 74 2 (1 7. 2) (7 2. 1) (1 1. 6) (5 .8 ) – (9 5. 0) 27 M id dl e 4. 0 85 8 (1 7.1 ) (7 0. 4) (1 6. 6) (7 .5 ) – (9 1. 7) 35 Fo ur th 3. 8 83 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) – (* ) 31 Ri ch es t 1. 9 69 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) – (* ) 13 To ta l 3. 4 37 77 17 .8 70 .9 14 .4 7. 6 .1 92 .5 12 7 * M IC S in di ca to r 2 3 163MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CH.6 Antibiotic treatment of pneumonia Percentage of children aged 0–59 months with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotic treatment, Serbia, 2005 Percentage of children aged 0–59 months with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotics in the last two weeks* Number of children aged 0–59 months with suspected pneumonia in the two weeks prior to the survey Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 58.2 114 Roma in Roma settlements 45.1 13 Sex Male 61.0 69 Female 51.9 58 Region Vojvodina 50.3 51 Belgrade (34.6) 15 West (*) 6 Central (*) 18 East (*) 17 South-East 70.8 20 Type of settlement Urban 59.3 72 Rural 53.5 55 Age 0–11 months (50.8) 12 12–23 months (53.5) 28 24–35 months (66.3) 32 36–47 months (70.3) 22 48–59 months (43.3) 32 Mother’s education Primary or none 62.9 35 Secondary 54.2 76 University (*) 17 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 60.8 97 Hungarian (*) 4 Muslim\Bosnian (*) 3 Roma 45.0 13 Other (*) 10 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 60.1 21 Second (66.5) 27 Middle (45.9) 35 Fourth (*) 31 Richest (*) 13 Total 56.8 127 * MICS indicator 22 164 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ta bl e CH .6 a Kn ow le dg e of th e tw o da ng er si gn s o f p ne um on ia Pe rc en ta ge o f m ot he rs /c ar et ak er s o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s b y kn ow le dg e of ty pe s o f s ym pt om s f or ta ki ng a ch ild im m ed ia te ly to a h ea lt h fa ci lit y, a nd p er ce nt ag e of m ot he rs /c ar et ak er s w ho re co gn is e fa st a nd d if fi cu lt b re at hi ng a s s ig ns fo r se ek in g ca re im m ed ia te ly , S er bi a, 2 00 5 Pe rc en ta ge o f m ot he r/ ca re ta ke rs o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s w ho th in k th at a ch ild sh ou ld b e ta ke n im m ed ia te ly to a h ea lth fa ci lit y if th e ch ild M ot he rs / ca re ta ke rs w ho re co g- ni se th e tw o da ng er sig ns o f pn eu m on ia Nu m be r o f m ot he rs / ca re ta ke rs o f ch ild re n ag ed 0– 59 m on th s Is n ot a bl e to d rin k or br ea st fe ed Be co m es sic ke r De ve lo ps a fe ve r Ha s f as t br ea th in g Ha s di ff ic ul ty br ea th in g Ha s b lo od in st oo l Is d rin ki ng po or ly Ch ild h as sh oc ks Ha s o th er sy m pt om s Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a in R om a s et tle m en ts 30 .8 42 .1 81 .3 39 .8 48 .7 41 .3 22 .7 44 .8 – 33 .6 36 47 Ro m a i n Ro m a se tt le m en ts 13 .1 17 .5 90 .1 16 .9 19 .8 16 .0 8. 9 18 .7 – 12 .3 13 0 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 14 .7 41 .4 65 .6 35 .5 45 .8 31 .2 16 .6 32 .6 – 29 .3 10 52 Be lg ra de 59 .7 67 .7 88 .1 62 .2 68 .4 72 .4 45 .4 74 .6 – 57 .2 67 1 W es t 18 .7 22 .2 92 .7 21 .3 21 .5 29 .8 14 .3 32 .5 – 14 .6 42 7 Ce nt ra l 28 .7 35 .1 79 .1 33 .0 63 .2 41 .6 13 .1 54 .3 – 28 .7 65 6 Ea st 35 .7 35 .3 84 .1 34 .8 36 .1 33 .5 13 .5 32 .9 – 31 .9 33 7 So ut h- Ea st 30 .8 35 .2 95 .1 40 .7 36 .7 31 .7 26 .4 33 .1 – 30 .1 63 4 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 33 .3 44 .8 82 .6 41 .7 51 .0 43 .9 23 .0 46 .8 – 35 .6 20 97 Ru ra l 26 .2 36 .8 80 .4 35 .6 43 .6 36 .2 21 .2 40 .3 – 29 .4 16 80 M ot he r’s ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 29 .0 37 .0 83 .3 35 .8 42 .7 36 .1 23 .4 38 .8 – 31 .1 81 8 Se co nd ar y 28 .8 41 .6 81 .3 39 .3 48 .4 40 .1 21 .4 43 .7 – 33 .0 23 04 Un iv er sit y 36 .3 45 .3 80 .5 42 .1 51 .7 47 .3 23 .4 51 .1 – 34 .7 65 6 Et hn ici ty of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 30 .6 42 .3 80 .7 40 .0 48 .2 41 .6 22 .1 45 .4 – 33 .3 30 86 Hu ng ar ia n 7.9 32 .9 64 .4 22 .4 30 .3 25 .1 10 .6 26 .5 – 15 .9 11 1 M us lim \B os ni an 16 .9 8. 9 99 .1 11 .0 32 .0 13 .3 4. 2 13 .8 – 7.7 18 6 Ro m a 25 .1 30 .4 87 .7 30 .0 34 .2 29 .4 21 .2 34 .4 – 27 .1 16 6 Ot he r 49 .8 65 .1 83 .3 63 .1 72 .2 63 .3 44 .8 63 .3 – 59 .8 22 9 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 25 .0 32 .0 82 .1 33 .2 37 .3 31 .0 17 .9 35 .9 – 28 .0 65 6 Se co nd 25 .2 36 .5 81 .2 33 .6 44 .9 38 .2 20 .2 40 .8 – 28 .3 74 2 M id dl e 29 .5 40 .4 82 .4 37 .3 45 .4 38 .1 22 .0 40 .9 – 31 .0 85 8 Fo ur th 31 .3 46 .6 79 .8 42 .6 54 .6 42 .4 21 .9 46 .3 – 36 .5 83 0 Ri ch es t 39 .9 49 .6 82 .8 48 .1 55 .2 52 .5 29 .1 55 .8 – 40 .4 69 0 To ta l 30 .2 41 .2 81 .6 39 .0 47 .7 40 .5 22 .2 43 .9 – 32 .9 37 77 165MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e CH .7 So lid fu el u se Pe rc en ta ge d is tr ib ut io n of h ou se ho ld s a cc or di ng to ty pe o f c oo ki ng fu el , an d pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s u si ng so lid fu el s f or co ok in g, S er bi a, 2 00 5 Ty pe o f f ue l u se d fo r c oo ki ng To ta l So lid fu el s fo r c oo ki ng * Nu m be r of h ou se ho ld s El ec tr ic ity Ga s Co al W oo d Ot he r so lid fu el Ot he r Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fro m R om a s et tle m en ts 52 .5 14 .1 1. 3 31 .5 .2 .3 10 0. 0 33 .0 86 45 Ro m a i n Ro m a se tt le m en ts 14 .5 .4 .9 81 .6 2. 0 .5 10 0. 0 84 .5 85 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 43 .5 38 .2 1. 3 16 .1 .6 .4 10 0. 0 17 .9 24 68 Be lg ra de 84 .0 4. 2 3. 5 7.5 .2 .7 10 0. 0 11 .2 19 11 W es t 27 .1 1. 5 .8 70 .4 .2 .2 10 0. 0 71 .3 92 7 Ce nt ra l 39 .9 7.7 .1 51 .8 .2 .3 10 0. 0 52 .1 13 84 Ea st 47 .6 4. 7 1.1 46 .5 – .1 10 0. 0 47 .6 78 8 So ut h- Ea st 55 .6 3. 3 .1 41 .1 .0 .0 10 0. 0 41 .1 12 52 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 70 .4 15 .4 .9 12 .9 .0 .5 10 0. 0 13 .7 50 97 Ru ra l 26 .6 12 .1 2. 0 58 .8 .5 .1 10 0. 0 61 .3 36 33 Ed uc at io n of h ea d of th e h ou se ho ld Pr im ar y o r n on e 31 .6 9. 5 2. 0 56 .0 .6 .2 10 0. 0 58 .6 32 64 Se co nd ar y 59 .9 17 .6 1. 0 21 .2 .0 .2 10 0. 0 22 .2 40 56 Un iv er sit y 77 .3 13 .8 .8 7.3 – .8 10 0. 0 8. 1 14 10 Et hn ici ty o f he ad o f t he ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 53 .9 12 .3 1. 4 32 .0 .2 .3 10 0. 0 33 .6 75 65 Hu ng ar ia n 42 .9 40 .7 .5 14 .6 .8 .4 10 0. 0 16 .0 38 9 M us lim \B os ni an 19 .2 5. 5 2. 3 73 .1 – .0 10 0. 0 75 .3 15 4 Ro m a 19 .0 1. 4 2. 2 75 .5 1. 5 .4 10 0. 0 79 .2 10 8 Ot he r 50 .9 24 .4 .4 23 .4 – .9 10 0. 0 23 .8 51 4 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 8. 1 5. 7 1. 9 83 .2 .8 .3 10 0. 0 85 .8 19 34 Se co nd 28 .5 16 .9 2. 6 51 .5 .2 .2 10 0. 0 54 .4 16 27 M id dl e 56 .6 22 .5 1. 2 19 .5 .1 .1 10 0. 0 20 .8 16 59 Fo ur th 80 .8 16 .8 .8 1.1 .1 .4 10 0. 0 2. 0 17 05 Ri ch es t 89 .5 9. 7 .2 .0 – .6 10 0. 0 .2 18 05 To ta l 52 .1 14 .0 1. 3 32 .0 .2 .3 10 0. 0 33 .5 87 30 * M IC S i nd ica to r 2 4; M DG in di ca to r 2 9 166 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ta bl e CH .8 So lid fu el u se b y ty pe o f s to ve o r f ir e Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s u si ng so lid fu el s f or co ok in g by ty pe o f s to ve o r f ir e, S er bi a, 2 00 5 Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s u si ng so lid fu el s f or co ok in g To ta l Nu m be r of h ou se ho ld s us in g so lid fu el s fo r c oo ki ng Cl os ed st ov e w ith ch im ne y Op en st ov e or fi re w it h ch im ne y or h oo d Op en st ov e or fi re w ith n o ch im ne y or h oo d Ot he r s to ve DK st ov e ty pe /m is si ng Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fro m R om a se tt le m en ts 96 .0 1. 0 .1 .1 2. 8 10 0. 0 28 56 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 99 .4 .1 .2 .3 – 10 0. 0 72 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 97 .7 .7 .4 .0 1. 2 10 0. 0 44 2 Be lg ra de 88 .8 6. 2 .7 – 4. 3 10 0. 0 21 3 W es t 97 .3 – – – 2. 7 10 0. 0 66 1 Ce nt ra l 96 .9 .5 – .3 2. 4 10 0. 0 72 1 Ea st 91 .4 2. 2 – – 6. 4 10 0. 0 37 5 So ut h- Ea st 98 .6 – – .0 1. 4 10 0. 0 51 5 Ty pe o f s et tle m en t Ur ba n 95 .2 1. 9 – .1 2. 8 10 0. 0 70 1 Ru ra l 96 .4 .6 .1 .1 2. 7 10 0. 0 22 27 Ed uc at io n of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Pr im ar y o r n on e 95 .4 1. 3 .2 .1 3. 0 10 0. 0 19 13 Se co nd ar y 97 .5 .4 – .0 2. 1 10 0. 0 90 1 Un iv er sit y 96 .8 – – .0 3. 2 10 0. 0 11 4 Et hn ici ty o f h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 96 .1 .8 .1 .1 3. 0 10 0. 0 25 42 Hu ng ar ia n (9 7.4 ) – – (.0 ) (2 .6 ) (1 00 .0 ) 62 M us lim \B os ni an 98 .2 1. 4 – .4 – 10 0. 0 11 6 Ro m a 94 .7 4. 1 .2 .3 .7 10 0. 0 86 Ot he r 94 .1 3. 0 1. 3 .0 1. 7 10 0. 0 12 2 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 96 .1 1.1 .2 .1 2. 5 10 0. 0 16 60 Se co nd 96 .4 .9 – .0 2. 6 10 0. 0 88 5 M id dl e 95 .4 .3 – .1 4. 1 10 0. 0 34 5 Fo ur th (9 3. 3) – – (.0 ) (6 .7 ) (1 00 .0 ) 35 Ri ch es t (* ) – – – – (* ) 4 To ta l 96 .1 1. 0 .1 .1 2. 8 10 0. 0 29 28 167MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e EN .1 Us e of im pr ov ed w at er so ur ce s Pe rc en ta ge d is tr ib ut io n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to m ai n so ur ce o f d ri nk in g w at er an d pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n us in g im pr ov ed d ri nk in g w at er so ur ce s, S er bi a, 2 00 5 M ai n so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er To ta l Im pr ov ed so ur ce o f dr in ki ng w at er * Nu m be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Im pr ov ed so ur ce s Un im pr ov ed so ur ce s Pu bl ic w at er su pp ly Lo ca l w at er su pp ly Pu bl ic ta p/ st an dp ip e Tu be w el l/ bo re ho le Pr ot ec te d w el l o r sp rin g Bo tt le d w at er Un pr ot ec te d w el l o r sp rin g Ta nk er – tr uc k Bo tt le d w at er Ot he r Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t Ro m a i n Ro m a se tt le m en ts 62 .8 13 .9 1. 3 7.1 8. 5 5. 4 .5 .1 .1 .4 10 0. 0 99 .0 27 78 2 Ro m a i n Ro m a se tt le m en ts 61 .7 9. 6 10 .1 10 .3 4. 5 .5 .6 – – 2. 7 10 0. 0 96 .7 38 1 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 54 .9 20 .0 2. 2 7.9 .6 13 .6 .0 .4 .2 .2 10 0. 0 99 .2 77 67 Be lg ra de 82 .8 4. 2 .1 2. 5 5. 2 4. 8 .3 .1 – .1 10 0. 0 99 .5 55 35 W es t 52 .6 13 .4 .5 11 .7 20 .0 .3 1.1 – – .4 10 0. 0 98 .5 31 55 Ce nt ra l 59 .2 17 .3 .7 5. 6 13 .2 2. 4 .3 – – 1.1 10 0. 0 98 .5 46 53 Ea st 56 .6 14 .1 3. 3 11 .4 13 .0 .8 .7 – – .1 10 0. 0 99 .2 25 48 So ut h- Ea st 65 .9 11 .6 1. 9 7.4 10 .4 1. 0 1. 2 – .0 .5 10 0. 0 98 .3 45 05 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 89 .5 1.1 .7 .4 1. 0 6. 7 .2 .1 .1 .1 10 0. 0 99 .4 15 41 9 Ru ra l 30 .5 29 .2 2. 3 15 .2 17 .5 3. 7 .8 .1 – .7 10 0. 0 98 .3 12 74 4 Ed uc at io n of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Pr im ar y or n on e 44 .9 21 .0 1. 9 12 .3 16 .1 2. 3 .9 – – .7 10 0. 0 98 .4 10 08 8 Se co nd ar y 70 .6 11 .4 1. 2 4. 9 4. 9 6. 5 .2 .2 .0 .2 10 0. 0 99 .4 13 75 5 Un iv er sit y 79 .7 4. 9 1. 0 2. 3 2. 2 8. 7 .5 .1 .3 .3 10 0. 0 98 .8 43 20 Et hn ici ty of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 63 .5 12 .8 1. 3 7.2 9. 3 4. 9 .4 .1 .1 .4 10 0. 0 99 .0 24 31 0 Hu ng ar ia n 50 .8 26 .2 .6 9. 8 .9 11 .7 – – – – 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 78 M us lim \B os ni an 77 .6 20 .5 1. 4 .4 – .1 – – – .0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 67 5 Ro m a 65 .8 8. 4 8. 0 8. 9 6.1 .3 .5 – – 2. 0 10 0. 0 97 .5 47 5 Ot he r 52 .3 18 .9 1. 7 7.4 5. 5 11 .6 2. 2 .2 – .2 10 0. 0 97 .4 16 26 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 25 .6 23 .7 3. 6 18 .4 25 .0 1. 0 1. 4 .1 – 1.1 10 0. 0 97 .4 56 34 Se co nd 47 .1 23 .3 1. 3 11 .8 12 .6 2. 9 .3 .2 – .5 10 0. 0 99 .1 56 26 M id dl e 69 .1 14 .9 1. 7 4. 6 3. 7 5.1 .5 .2 .0 .2 10 0. 0 99 .1 56 39 Fo ur th 84 .3 5. 5 .4 .8 .9 7.5 .3 .1 .1 .1 10 0. 0 99 .4 56 34 Ri ch es t 87 .6 1. 6 .1 – .1 10 .2 .0 – .2 .1 10 0. 0 99 .6 56 29 To ta l 62 .8 13 .8 1. 4 7.1 8. 5 5. 3 .5 .1 .1 .4 10 0. 0 98 .9 28 16 3 * M IC S in di ca to r 1 1; M DG in di ca to r 3 0 168 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ta bl e EN .2 Ho us eh ol d w at er tr ea tm en t Pe rc en ta ge d is tr ib ut io n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to d ri nk in g w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d us ed in th e ho us eh ol d, an d pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n th at a pp lie d an a pp ro pr ia te w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d, S er bi a, 2 00 5 W at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d us ed in th e ho us eh ol d Al l d rin ki ng w at er so ur ce s: Ap pr op ria te w at er tr ea t- m en t m et ho d* Nu m be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Im pr ov ed dr in ki ng w a- te r s ou rc es : Ap pr op ria te w at er tr ea t- m en t m et ho d Nu m be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Un im pr ov ed dr in ki ng w a- te r s ou rc es : Ap pr op ria te w at er tr ea t- m en t m et ho d Nu m be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs No ne Bo il Ad d bl ea ch / ch lo rin e Us e w at er fil te r Le t i t st an d an d se tt le Ot he r Do n’ t kn ow Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a in R om a s et tle m en ts 93 .9 1. 8 .9 1. 9 .3 1. 4 .1 4. 6 27 78 2 4. 5 27 49 4 8. 1 28 8 Ro m a i n Ro m a se tt le m en ts 98 .5 .8 .5 .1 .1 .2 – 1. 4 38 1 1. 4 36 8 – 13 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 93 .9 2. 7 – 2. 6 .8 .3 .0 5. 2 77 67 5. 2 77 04 (2 .6 ) 63 Be lg ra de 88 .8 4. 0 .9 4. 3 .2 1. 7 .4 9. 2 55 35 9. 0 55 09 (* ) 26 W es t 93 .6 .5 1. 0 .7 .3 4. 3 – 2. 2 31 55 2. 0 31 08 (* ) 47 Ce nt ra l 95 .2 .7 1. 9 .9 .1 1. 7 – 3. 4 46 53 3. 4 45 84 (* ) 69 Ea st 98 .0 .1 .5 .1 .2 1. 2 – .7 25 48 .7 25 28 – 20 So ut h- Ea st 96 .9 .4 1. 7 .6 – .4 – 2. 7 45 05 2. 8 44 29 – 75 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 93 .8 2.1 .3 2. 7 .4 1. 0 .2 5.1 15 41 9 5. 0 15 32 9 17 .7 90 Ru ra l 94 .1 1. 4 1. 7 .9 .3 1. 8 – 3. 9 12 74 4 3. 9 12 53 3 3. 5 21 1 Ed uc at io n of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Pr im ar y o r n on e 94 .8 1. 2 1. 5 .7 .6 1. 7 .0 3. 2 10 08 8 3. 2 99 27 7.8 16 2 Se co nd ar y 94 .1 2. 0 .8 2.1 .2 1.1 .0 4. 8 13 75 5 4. 7 13 66 7 (1 2. 2) 88 Un iv er sit y 91 .4 2. 5 .2 4. 0 .1 1. 5 .4 6. 8 43 20 6. 9 42 68 – 52 Et hn ici ty of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 93 .7 1. 7 1.1 2. 0 .3 1. 5 .1 4. 6 24 31 0 4. 6 24 06 3 8. 8 24 6 Hu ng ar ia n 92 .4 4. 5 – 2. 4 .6 .0 .3 6. 9 10 78 6. 9 10 78 – 0 M us lim \B os ni an 98 .6 .5 – .0 – .9 – .5 67 5 .5 67 4 – 0 Ro m a 98 .9 .6 .4 .0 – .1 – 1. 0 47 5 1. 0 46 3 – 12 Ot he r 94 .9 2. 9 – 1. 6 .6 – .3 4. 4 16 26 4. 5 15 83 (* ) 42 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 94 .6 1.1 2. 0 .3 .3 2. 2 – 3. 2 56 34 3. 2 54 90 3. 2 14 4 Se co nd 95 .1 1. 0 1. 7 .6 .6 1. 2 – 3. 2 56 26 3. 2 55 74 (* ) 53 M id dl e 94 .5 1. 7 .6 1. 9 .3 1. 2 .1 4.1 56 39 4. 0 55 87 (* ) 52 Fo ur th 94 .5 2.1 .4 2. 4 .2 .8 .0 4. 8 56 34 4. 7 56 02 (* ) 32 Ri ch es t 90 .9 3.1 – 4. 3 .2 1. 3 .4 7.4 56 29 7.5 56 09 – 20 To ta l 93 .9 1. 8 .9 1. 9 .3 1. 3 .1 4. 5 28 16 3 4. 5 27 86 2 7.7 30 1 * M IC S i nd ica to r 1 3 169MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e EN .3 Ti m e to so ur ce o f w at er Pe rc en ta ge d is tr ib ut io n of h ou se ho ld s a cc or di ng to ti m e to g o to so ur ce o f d ri nk in g w at er , g et w at er a nd re tu rn , an d m ea n ti m e to so ur ce o f d ri nk in g w at er , S er bi a, 2 00 5 T im e to so ur ce o f d rin ki ng w at er To ta l M ea n tim e to so ur ce o f dr in ki ng w at er (e xc lu di ng th os e on p re m is es ) Nu m be r of h ou se ho ld s W at er o n pr em is es Le ss th an 15 m in ut es 15 m in ut es to le ss th an 30 m in ut es 30 m in ut es to le ss th an 1 ho ur 1 ho ur or m or e DK /M is si ng Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fro m R om a se tt le m en ts 95 .5 2. 0 1. 0 .6 .4 .5 10 0. 0 22 .4 86 45 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 86 .5 8. 8 1. 9 1. 7 1.1 – 10 0. 0 19 .3 85 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 94 .5 1. 8 2. 1 .4 .6 .6 10 0. 0 26 .5 24 68 Be lg ra de 98 .3 .6 .0 .5 .2 .4 10 0. 0 30 .8 19 11 W es t 95 .0 3. 6 .4 .6 – .5 10 0. 0 10 .9 92 7 Ce nt ra l 97 .6 1. 2 .3 .3 .1 .4 10 0. 0 18 .3 13 84 Ea st 89 .8 4. 4 1. 8 1. 2 1. 4 1. 3 10 0. 0 23 .4 78 8 So ut h- Ea st 94 .5 2. 7 1. 2 1.1 .4 .1 10 0. 0 20 .1 12 52 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 98 .3 .5 .4 .3 .3 .1 10 0. 0 33 .1 50 97 Ru ra l 91 .6 4. 0 1. 8 1.1 .5 .9 10 0. 0 19 .2 36 33 Ed uc at io n of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Pr im ar y o r n on e 93 .0 3. 6 1. 4 .6 .5 .9 10 0. 0 18 .5 32 64 Se co nd ar y 96 .8 1. 2 .7 .7 .4 .2 10 0. 0 25 .5 40 56 Un iv er sit y 97 .6 .6 .7 .5 .4 .3 10 0. 0 35 .7 14 10 Et hn ici ty o f h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 95 .4 2. 1 1. 0 .7 .3 .5 10 0. 0 20 .4 75 65 Hu ng ar ia n 96 .7 .6 1.1 .5 .5 .6 10 0. 0 24 .3 38 9 M us lim \B os ni an 98 .9 .7 – .0 .3 – 10 0. 0 25 .5 15 4 Ro m a 88 .2 6. 4 1. 4 1. 2 2. 8 – 10 0. 0 29 .0 10 8 Ot he r 95 .7 1. 4 .7 .4 1. 5 .3 10 0. 0 47 .5 51 4 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 88 .6 6. 6 2. 1 1.1 .9 .9 10 0. 0 18 .1 19 34 Se co nd 95 .1 1. 3 1. 5 1.1 .3 .7 10 0. 0 23 .3 16 27 M id dl e 96 .5 1.1 .9 .7 .4 .5 10 0. 0 28 .1 16 59 Fo ur th 98 .8 .3 .2 .0 .4 .2 10 0. 0 53 .8 17 05 Ri ch es t 99 .6 – .1 .2 – .1 10 0. 0 29 .9 18 05 To ta l 95 .5 2. 0 1. 0 .6 .4 .5 10 0. 0 22 .3 87 30 170 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ta bl e EN .4 Pe rs on co lle ct in g w at er Pe rc en ta ge d is tr ib ut io n of h ou se ho ld s a cc or di ng to th e pe rs on co lle ct in g dr in ki ng w at er u se d in th e ho us eh ol d, S er bi a, 2 00 5 Pe rs on co lle ct in g dr in ki ng w at er To ta l Nu m be r o f ho us eh ol ds Ad ul t w om an Ad ul t m an Fe m al e ch ild (u nd er 1 5) M al e ch ild (u nd er 1 5) M is si ng Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fro m R om a se tt le m en ts 40 .0 53 .3 .8 .4 5. 4 10 0. 0 36 5 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 63 .5 33 .1 1. 7 .5 1. 3 10 0. 0 11 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 30 .6 62 .1 1. 5 1. 4 4. 4 10 0. 0 11 9 Be lg ra de 39 .0 56 .1 .1 – 4. 8 10 0. 0 31 W es t (6 2. 0) (3 5. 0) – – (3 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) 47 Ce nt ra l (3 0. 1) (6 1. 6) – – (8 .3 ) (1 00 .0 ) 32 Ea st 41 .8 45 .0 1. 8 – 11 .4 10 0. 0 80 So ut h- Ea st 48 .3 51 .6 – .1 .1 10 0. 0 68 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 29 .8 65 .9 2. 2 2. 0 .2 10 0. 0 81 Ru ra l 43 .7 49 .1 .5 .0 6. 7 10 0. 0 29 5 Ed uc at io n of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Pr im ar y o r n on e 46 .2 45 .2 1. 5 .0 7.1 10 0. 0 22 2 Se co nd ar y 32 .3 63 .0 – 1. 3 3. 3 10 0. 0 12 2 Un iv er sit y (* ) (* ) – – – (* ) 31 Et hn ici ty o f h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 41 .0 52 .7 .5 .5 5. 3 10 0. 0 33 0 Hu ng ar ia n – (* ) (* ) – (* ) (* ) 11 M us lim \B os ni an (* ) (* ) – – – (* ) 2 Ro m a 69 .7 27 .7 1. 0 .4 1.1 10 0. 0 13 Ot he r (* ) (* ) – – – (* ) 20 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 52 .7 43 .6 .1 .0 3. 7 10 0. 0 21 9 Se co nd 27 .2 58 .1 4. 0 – 10 .7 10 0. 0 77 M id dl e (2 3. 0) (6 8. 8) – (2 .9 ) (5 .4 ) (1 00 .0 ) 56 Fo ur th (* ) (* ) – – (* ) (* ) 18 Ri ch es t (* ) (* ) – – – (* ) 6 To ta l 40 .7 52 .7 .9 .4 5. 3 10 0. 0 37 6 171MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e EN .5 Us e of sa ni ta ry m ea ns o f e xc re ta d is po sa l Pe rc en ta ge d is tr ib ut io n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ac co rd in g to ty pe of to ile t f ac ili ty u se d by th e ho us eh ol d, a nd th e pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld po pu la ti on u si ng sa ni ta ry m ea ns o f e xc re ta d is po sa l, Se rb ia , 2 00 5 Ty pe o f t oi le t f ac ili ty u se d by h ou se ho ld To ta l Pe rc en ta ge of p op ul at io n us in g sa ni ta ry m ea ns of e xc re ta di sp os al * Nu m be r o f ho us eh ol ds m em be rs Im pr ov ed sa ni ta tio n fa ci lit y Un im pr ov ed sa ni ta tio n fa ci lit y Fl us h to p ip ed se w er sy st em Fl us h to se pt ic ta nk Pi t l at rin e w ith w at er tig ht ta nk Tr ad iti on al pi t l at rin e No fa ci lit ie s Ot he r Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a in R om a s et tle m en ts 53 .1 36 .8 .5 9. 5 – .1 10 0. 0 99 .9 27 78 2 Ro m a i n Ro m a s et tle m en ts 30 .4 15 .6 1. 0 47 .7 4. 9 .4 10 0. 0 94 .7 38 1 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 39 .1 54 .9 .1 5. 7 .1 .0 10 0. 0 99 .9 77 67 Be lg ra de 75 .9 20 .3 .0 3. 7 .0 – 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 55 35 W es t 42 .9 40 .0 1. 7 15 .3 – .0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 31 55 Ce nt ra l 56 .5 31 .0 .8 11 .2 – .5 10 0. 0 99 .5 46 53 Ea st 44 .8 43 .5 .2 11 .3 .0 .1 10 0. 0 99 .9 25 48 So ut h- Ea st 55 .5 24 .1 .8 19 .3 .2 .0 10 0. 0 99 .8 45 05 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 83 .7 13 .5 .1 2. 6 .1 .1 10 0. 0 99 .9 15 41 9 Ru ra l 15 .3 64 .4 1. 0 19 .0 .1 .1 10 0. 0 99 .8 12 74 4 Ed uc at io n of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Pr im ar y o r n on e 28 .7 49 .3 .8 20 .8 .2 .1 10 0. 0 99 .7 10 08 8 Se co nd ar y 60 .8 33 .8 .4 4. 9 .0 .1 10 0. 0 99 .9 13 75 5 Un iv er sit y 83 .4 15 .4 .2 1. 0 – – 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 43 20 Et hn ici ty of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 53 .6 36 .4 .4 9. 5 .0 .1 10 0. 0 99 .9 24 31 0 Hu ng ar ia n 34 .8 58 .1 – 7.1 – – 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 78 M us lim \B os ni an 76 .0 6. 2 5. 0 12 .8 .1 .0 10 0. 0 99 .9 67 5 Ro m a 28 .3 20 .9 .8 46 .1 3. 6 .2 10 0. 0 96 .1 47 5 Ot he r 50 .0 41 .2 .8 8. 0 .0 .0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 16 26 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 6. 9 51 .4 1. 5 39 .9 .3 .0 10 0. 0 99 .6 56 34 Se co nd 26 .1 65 .7 .6 7.6 – .0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 56 26 M id dl e 51 .3 45 .4 .6 2. 4 – .4 10 0. 0 99 .6 56 39 Fo ur th 83 .0 16 .8 – .1 – .1 10 0. 0 99 .9 56 34 Ri ch es t 96 .6 3. 4 – – – – 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 56 29 To ta l 52 .8 36 .5 .5 10 .0 .1 .1 10 0. 0 99 .8 28 16 3 * M IC S in di ca to r 1 2; M DG in di ca to r 3 1 172 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ta bl e EN .6 Di sp os al o f c hi ld fa ec es Pe rc en ta ge d is tr ib ut io n of ch ild re n ag ed 0 –2 y ea rs a cc or di ng to pl ac e of d is po sa l o f c hi ld fa ec es , a nd th e pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –2 y ea rs w ho se st oo ls a re d is po se d of sa fe ly , S er bi a, 2 00 5 W ha t w as d on e to d isp os e of th e st oo ls To ta l Pr op or tio n of ch ild re n w ho se st oo ls ar e di sp os ed of sa fe ly * Nu m be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 0– 2 ye ar s Ch ild u se d to ile t Pu t/ rin se d in to to ile t or la tr in e Pu t/ rin se d in to d ra in or d itc h Th ro w n in to ga rb ag e Ot he r DK /M is si ng Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a in R om a s et tle m en ts 11 .4 25 .9 2. 9 58 .1 1.1 .6 10 0. 0 37 .3 21 77 Ro m a i n Ro m a s et tle m en ts 4. 7 15 .2 9.1 62 .5 6. 4 2. 2 10 0. 0 19 .8 82 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 12 .6 27 .3 1. 6 57 .1 1. 2 .2 10 0. 0 39 .9 62 6 Be lg ra de 16 .4 17 .7 4. 8 58 .2 1. 7 1. 3 10 0. 0 34 .1 36 7 W es t 10 .7 31 .6 3. 3 52 .3 1. 0 1. 0 10 0. 0 42 .3 28 0 Ce nt ra l 10 .4 31 .5 2. 6 54 .3 1.1 .1 10 0. 0 41 .9 40 9 Ea st 7.4 13 .2 3. 2 73 .3 1. 5 1. 5 10 0. 0 20 .6 19 4 So ut h- Ea st 6. 8 25 .8 4.1 61 .1 1. 3 .9 10 0. 0 32 .6 38 2 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 11 .5 24 .5 2. 5 59 .9 .9 .7 10 0. 0 36 .0 12 02 Ru ra l 10 .8 26 .8 3. 7 56 .3 1. 8 .6 10 0. 0 37 .5 10 56 M ot he r’s ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 10 .9 20 .2 10 .5 54 .3 3. 3 .6 10 0. 0 31 .2 52 4 Se co nd ar y 11 .3 29 .2 1.1 57 .0 .9 .6 10 0. 0 40 .5 13 49 Un iv er sit y 10 .9 20 .0 – 67 .9 – 1. 2 10 0. 0 30 .9 38 6 Et hn ici ty o f h ea d of th e h ou se ho ld Se rb ia n 11 .0 27 .6 1. 8 58 .2 .7 .7 10 0. 0 38 .6 18 16 Hu ng ar ia n (1 0. 0) (3 0. 0) (2 .0 ) (5 2. 0) (6 .0 ) – (1 00 .0 ) (4 0. 0) 73 M us lim \B os ni an 19 .4 12 .5 5. 2 61 .3 1. 5 .1 10 0. 0 31 .9 12 4 Ro m a 5. 9 14 .6 16 .6 52 .9 8. 7 1. 4 10 0. 0 20 .4 10 9 Ot he r 10 .7 16 .5 8. 1 63 .5 .0 1. 2 10 0. 0 27 .2 13 7 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 8. 5 21 .1 12 .2 52 .8 4. 7 .7 10 0. 0 29 .6 42 2 Se co nd 14 .4 32 .2 1. 0 50 .0 1. 2 1.1 10 0. 0 46 .6 44 0 M id dl e 9. 8 29 .8 2. 0 57 .6 .3 .5 10 0. 0 39 .6 53 2 Fo ur th 11 .2 25 .6 .3 62 .3 .3 .3 10 0. 0 36 .8 47 4 Ri ch es t 12 .3 16 .9 .4 69 .3 .3 .8 10 0. 0 29 .2 39 0 To ta l 11 .2 25 .5 3.1 58 .2 1. 3 .7 10 0. 0 36 .7 22 59 * M IC S i nd ica to r 1 4 173MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table EN.7 Use of improved water sources and improved sanitation Percentage of household population using both improved drinking water sources and sanitary means of excreta disposal, Serbia, 2005 Percentage of household population using improved sources of drinking water* Percentage of household population using sanitary means of excreta disposal** Percentage of household population using improved sources of drinking water and using sanitary means of excreta disposal Number of household members Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 99.0 99.9 98.9 27782 Roma in Roma settlements 96.7 94.7 91.9 381 Region Vojvodina 99.2 99.9 99.1 7767 Belgrade 99.5 100.0 99.5 5535 West 98.5 100.0 98.5 3155 Central 98.5 99.5 98.0 4653 East 99.2 99.9 99.1 2548 South-East 98.3 99.8 98.1 4505 Type of settlement Urban 99.4 99.9 99.3 15419 Rural 98.3 99.8 98.1 12744 Education of head of the household Primary or none 98.4 99.7 98.1 10088 Secondary 99.4 99.9 99.2 13755 University 98.8 100.0 98.8 4320 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 99.0 99.9 98.9 24310 Hungarian 100.0 100.0 100.0 1078 Muslim\Bosnian 100.0 99.9 99.9 675 Roma 97.5 96.1 94.0 475 Other 97.4 100.0 97.4 1626 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 97.4 99.6 97.1 5634 Second 99.1 100.0 99.0 5626 Middle 99.1 99.6 98.7 5639 Fourth 99.4 99.9 99.3 5634 Richest 99.6 100.0 99.6 5629 Total 98.9 99.8 98.8 28163 * MICS indicator 11; MDG indicator 30 ** MICS indicator 12; MDG indicator 31 174 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table EN.8 Security of tenure Percentage of household members living in households in urban areas which lack formal documentation for their residence in the dwelling or who feel at risk of eviction from the dwelling, and percentage of household members who were evicted from any dwelling in prior 5 years, Serbia, 2005 Household does not have formal documentation for the residence Respondent feels there is a risk of eviction Household does not have security of tenure* Household members evicted from any dwelling in prior 15 years Numbers of households members Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 12.7 6.4 16.1 12.8 15167 Roma in Roma settlements 37.6 22.0 43.1 16.1 252 Region Vojvodina 15.9 7.1 19.8 15.1 4240 Belgrade 7.1 5.8 10.8 14.4 4290 West 16.9 4.3 18.3 10.7 1175 Central 13.4 5.2 16.2 13.2 2340 East 11.5 10.3 17.9 10.1 1260 South-East 17.8 8.0 20.0 7.6 2114 Education of head of the household Primary or none 9.9 6.9 13.5 10.4 3122 Secondary 15.0 7.0 18.5 13.8 8747 University 11.1 5.5 14.2 12.6 3550 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 12.6 6.1 15.6 12.8 13251 Hungarian 10.0 7.9 16.5 8.1 604 Muslim\Bosnian 18.3 6.3 21.7 13.8 461 Roma 37.1 21.7 44.8 22.9 300 Other 11.6 9.6 17.5 12.5 802 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 26.2 15.6 31.2 22.4 924 Second 17.3 11.9 24.1 14.1 1691 Middle 13.0 7.3 17.6 13.1 3146 Fourth 13.8 5.6 16.1 11.4 4368 Richest 8.9 3.8 11.2 11.8 5289 Total 13.1 6.6 16.5 12.8 15419 * MICS indicator 93 175MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e EN .9 Du ra bi lit y of h ou si ng Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s a nd h ou se ho ld m em be rs li vi ng in d w el lin gs in u rb an a re as (o r i n ca pi ta l c it y) th at a re n ot co ns id er ed d ur ab le , b y ba ck gr ou nd ch ar ac te ri st ic s, S er bi a, 2 00 5 Dw el lin g ha s n at ur al flo or m at er ia l Dw el lin g is in p oo r co nd iti on Dw el lin g is v ul ne ra bl e to a cc id en ts Dw el lin g lo ca te d in ha za rd ou s lo ca tio n Pe rc en t of h ou se ho ld s liv in g in d w el l- in gs co ns id er ed no n du ra bl e* Nu m be r o f ho us eh ol ds Pe rc en t o f h ou se - ho ld m em be rs liv in g in d w el lin g co ns id er ed no n- du ra bl e Nu m be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fro m R om a se tt le m en ts .2 1. 6 .2 .1 .3 50 43 .3 15 16 7 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 14 .5 24 .5 1. 5 3. 7 11 .5 53 11 .2 25 2 Re gi on Vo jv od in a .7 1. 9 – .3 .7 14 09 .7 42 40 Be lg ra de .2 1. 4 .6 .1 .7 15 84 .9 42 90 W es t – 3. 6 – – – 37 1 – 11 75 Ce nt ra l .0 1. 2 – – .0 72 0 .0 23 40 Ea st .4 1. 5 – .1 .2 39 7 .3 12 60 So ut h- Ea st .6 2. 4 .0 – .2 61 5 .3 21 14 Ed uc at io n of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Pr im ar y o r n on e 1. 4 4. 9 .1 .3 1. 0 11 40 1. 5 31 22 Se co nd ar y .1 1.1 .3 .1 .4 27 59 .4 87 47 Un iv er sit y .0 .4 – .1 .1 11 98 .1 35 50 Et hn ici ty o f h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n .2 1. 2 .2 .1 .3 44 18 .3 13 25 1 Hu ng ar ia n .5 1. 2 – – .3 23 0 .4 60 4 M us lim \B os ni an .3 8. 0 .0 .2 .4 10 6 .5 46 1 Ro m a 11 .0 26 .6 2. 1 2. 4 9. 3 65 9. 4 30 0 Ot he r .8 4. 0 .0 .0 .8 27 7 .7 80 2 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 3. 6 16 .4 .7 .6 2. 9 32 1 4. 4 92 4 Se co nd .8 2. 9 .6 .3 1. 2 61 1 1.1 16 91 M id dl e .1 1. 4 .0 .1 .1 10 40 .2 31 46 Fo ur th – .2 .2 .1 .3 14 04 .3 43 68 Ri ch es t .1 .2 – – – 17 21 – 52 89 To ta l .4 1. 8 .2 .1 .4 50 97 .5 15 41 9 * M IC S in di ca to r 9 4 176 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ta bl e EN .1 0 Sl um h ou si ng Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s a nd h ou se ho ld m em be rs in u rb an a re as th at a re co ns id er ed to b e liv in g in sl um ho us in g, b y ba ck gr ou nd ch ar ac te ri st ic s, S er bi a, 2 00 5 Dw el lin g co ns id er ed no n du ra bl e La ck o f se cu rit y of te nu re Ov er cr ow di ng m or e th an th re e pe rs on s pe r s le ep in g ro om La ck o f u se of im pr ov ed w at er so ur ce La ck o f u se of im pr ov ed sa ni ta tio n Pe rc en t o f ho us eh ol ds co ns id er ed to be li vi ng in sl um h ou si ng * Nu m be r o f ho us eh ol ds Pe rc en t o f ho us eh ol ds m em be rs co n- si de re d to b e liv in g in sl um ho us in g Nu m be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fro m R om a s et tle m en ts .3 15 .4 4. 2 .4 .1 18 .5 50 43 20 .5 15 16 7 Ro m a i n Ro m a s et tle m en ts 11 .5 44 .6 27 .1 2. 8 5. 2 60 .1 53 63 .2 25 2 Re gi on Vo jv od in a .7 18 .3 3. 5 .9 .1 20 .7 14 09 23 .2 42 40 Be lg ra de .7 9. 5 3. 9 .4 .0 12 .9 15 84 16 .2 42 90 W es t – 18 .8 4. 9 .0 .4 20 .7 37 1 21 .2 11 75 Ce nt ra l .0 16 .8 5. 9 .1 .4 21 .4 72 0 23 .1 23 40 Ea st .2 19 .7 9.1 .1 .0 24 .4 39 7 24 .7 12 60 So ut h- Ea st .2 20 .3 3. 0 .3 .2 22 .2 61 5 22 .9 21 14 Ed uc at io n of h ea d of th e h ou se ho ld Pr im ar y o r n on e 1. 0 12 .2 3. 5 .4 .4 14 .7 11 40 18 .5 31 22 Se co nd ar y .4 18 .0 5. 7 .5 .1 21 .9 27 59 23 .7 87 47 Un iv er sit y .1 13 .8 2. 6 .4 – 15 .9 11 98 17 .3 35 50 Et hn ici ty o f h ea d of th e h ou se ho ld Se rb ia n .3 15 .2 4. 0 .4 .1 18 .2 44 18 19 .9 13 25 1 Hu ng ar ia n .3 13 .8 2. 0 – – 15 .7 23 0 19 .6 60 4 M us lim \B os ni an .4 22 .7 13 .2 .1 .1 29 .2 10 6 31 .0 46 1 Ro m a 9. 3 43 .1 25 .8 1. 9 3. 8 54 .8 65 60 .2 30 0 Ot he r .8 17 .3 5. 6 .8 .0 20 .0 27 7 22 .4 80 2 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 2. 9 26 .2 10 .2 1.1 .9 32 .1 32 1 42 .4 92 4 Se co nd 1. 2 22 .0 5. 4 .5 – 25 .5 61 1 29 .9 16 91 M id dl e .1 17 .3 5.1 .6 .4 21 .0 10 40 22 .9 31 46 Fo ur th .3 15 .7 4. 7 .5 – 19 .1 14 04 20 .7 43 68 Ri ch es t – 10 .6 2. 5 .2 – 12 .7 17 21 14 .0 52 89 To ta l .4 15 .7 4. 5 .4 .1 18 .9 50 97 21 .2 15 41 9 * M IC S in di ca to r 9 5; M DG in di ca to r 3 2 177MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e RH .1 Us e of co nt ra ce pt io n Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge d 15 – 49 y ea rs cu rr en tl y m ar ri ed o r i n un io n w ho a re us in g (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ) a co nt ra ce pt iv e m et ho d, S er bi a, 2 00 5 Pe rc en t o f w om en (c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on ) w ho a re u sin g To ta l An y m od er n m et ho d An y t ra - di tio na l m et ho d An y m et ho d* Nu m be r of w om en cu rre nt ly m ar rie d or in un io n No t u s- in g a ny m et ho d Fe m al e st er ili za - tio n M al e st er ili za - tio n Pi ll IU D In je ct - io ns Im pl an ts Co nd om Fe m al e co nd om Di ap hr ag m /fo am /je lly LA M Pe rio di c ab st i- ne nc e W ith - dr aw al Ot he r Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t Ro m a f ro m R om a se tt le m en ts 58 .6 .2 .0 3. 4 6. 0 .0 .0 8. 6 .2 .4 .3 8.1 13 .9 .2 10 0. 0 18 .8 22 .6 41 .4 47 67 Ro m a i n Ro m a se tt le m en ts 71 .9 .3 .1 1. 2 1. 3 – – 1. 3 – .0 .3 2. 7 20 .6 .2 10 0. 0 4. 2 23 .8 28 .1 77 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 51 .8 .5 .0 4.1 7.2 – .1 11 .6 .2 .4 .7 6. 9 16 .1 .4 10 0. 0 24 .2 24 .1 48 .2 13 52 Be lg ra de 60 .4 – – 3. 2 7.8 .1 – 15 .1 – .2 .0 6. 6 6. 4 .2 10 0. 0 26 .4 13 .2 39 .6 82 7 W es t 68 .4 .1 – 4. 8 7.4 – – 4. 8 – 1.1 .4 5. 8 6. 6 .6 10 0. 0 18 .2 13 .4 31 .6 55 4 Ce nt ra l 72 .6 .1 – 2. 6 4.1 .1 – 5. 2 .1 .5 .1 7.6 7.1 – 10 0. 0 12 .7 14 .8 27 .4 82 3 Ea st 46 .5 – – 2. 9 4. 6 – – 6. 6 .7 – .6 17 .9 20 .1 .1 10 0. 0 14 .8 38 .7 53 .5 45 1 So ut h- Ea st 55 .5 .2 – 2. 6 3. 8 – – 3. 4 – – .1 7.6 26 .8 .1 10 0. 0 10 .0 34 .6 44 .5 83 7 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 57 .4 .4 .0 4.1 6. 2 .0 – 10 .6 .1 .4 .2 7.7 12 .5 .2 10 0. 0 21 .9 20 .7 42 .6 25 14 Ru ra l 60 .3 .1 – 2. 6 5. 7 .0 .0 6.1 .2 .4 .4 8. 3 15 .6 .3 10 0. 0 15 .0 24 .7 39 .7 23 29 Ag e 15 –1 9 73 .8 – – 1. 3 1. 2 – – 3. 6 – – 1. 5 7.3 11 .4 – 10 0. 0 6. 0 20 .2 26 .2 54 20 –2 4 69 .2 .2 – 1. 8 .8 .4 – 8. 4 – – 1.1 8. 3 9. 7 – 10 0. 0 11 .6 19 .1 30 .8 32 6 25 –2 9 58 .3 – – 4. 2 2. 4 – .1 11 .0 .5 .3 .8 7.3 14 .9 .1 10 0. 0 18 .5 23 .2 41 .7 75 7 30 –3 4 53 .9 .1 – 4. 4 6. 4 – – 10 .7 .1 .2 .3 8. 9 14 .9 .1 10 0. 0 21 .9 24 .2 46 .1 10 38 35 –3 9 50 .9 .5 – 3. 7 9. 2 – – 9.1 .2 .7 .2 8. 8 16 .4 .3 10 0. 0 23 .4 25 .7 49 .1 92 4 40 –4 4 56 .8 .5 – 3. 9 5. 8 – – 7.6 – .6 .1 9.1 15 .1 .5 10 0. 0 18 .5 24 .7 43 .2 87 8 45 –4 9 70 .7 – .0 1. 5 7.5 – – 4. 0 – .2 – 5. 6 10 .3 .2 10 0. 0 13 .1 16 .2 29 .3 86 6 Ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 66 .6 .1 .0 2. 2 3. 7 – – 2. 4 .1 .3 .5 7.4 16 .4 .3 10 0. 0 8. 8 24 .6 33 .4 11 16 Se co nd ar y 58 .6 .1 – 3. 3 6. 7 .0 – 8. 4 .1 .4 .3 8.1 13 .7 .2 10 0. 0 19 .1 22 .3 41 .4 29 68 Un iv er sit y 48 .3 .6 – 5. 5 6. 6 – .1 17 .3 .4 .5 .1 8. 4 11 .9 .4 10 0. 0 31 .0 20 .7 51 .7 75 9 Et hn ici ty of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 59 .4 .2 – 3.1 6.1 .0 .0 8. 3 .2 .4 .3 7.6 14 .2 .2 10 0. 0 18 .3 22 .3 40 .6 42 08 Hu ng ar ia n 43 .4 1.1 – 5. 7 11 .0 – – 19 .5 – – .8 7.2 11 .3 – 10 0. 0 37 .3 19 .3 56 .6 17 2 M us lim \B os ni an 61 .8 .5 – 5. 5 3. 0 – – 1.1 – – – 24 .5 3. 7 – 10 0. 0 10 .1 28 .1 38 .2 11 9 Ro m a 72 .9 .3 .1 .9 1. 0 – – 1. 7 – .0 .3 5. 2 17 .6 .1 10 0. 0 3. 9 23 .2 27 .1 98 Ot he r 53 .1 – – 6. 4 3. 3 – – 10 .0 – – .9 9. 0 16 .8 .5 10 0. 0 19 .7 27 .2 46 .9 24 8 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 66 .9 .2 .0 2. 0 4. 0 – – 3.1 .1 .2 .3 8. 7 14 .5 .0 10 0. 0 9. 6 23 .5 33 .1 82 3 Se co nd 61 .7 .0 – 2. 2 5. 0 .1 – 6. 0 .2 .4 .4 8. 3 15 .2 .6 10 0. 0 13 .8 24 .5 38 .3 10 06 M id dl e 57 .8 .1 – 3.1 5. 4 .1 .1 8. 9 .2 .1 .5 8. 6 14 .9 .3 10 0. 0 17 .9 24 .3 42 .2 10 49 Fo ur th 57 .4 .2 – 3. 6 5. 9 – – 10 .3 – .4 .3 7.5 14 .3 .1 10 0. 0 20 .4 22 .2 42 .6 10 20 Ri ch es t 51 .4 .7 – 6.1 9.4 – – 13 .1 .2 .7 .2 7.0 11 .1 .1 10 0. 0 30 .2 18 .5 48 .6 94 6 To ta l 58 .8 .2 .0 3. 4 6. 0 .0 .0 8. 4 .2 .4 .3 8. 0 14 .0 .2 10 0. 0 18 .6 22 .6 41 .2 48 44 * M IC S in di ca to r 2 1; M DG in di ca to r 1 9c 178 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ta bl e RH .2 Un m et n ee d fo r c on tr ac ep ti on Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge d 15 – 49 y ea rs cu rr en tl y m ar ri ed o r i n un io n w it h an u nm et n ee d fo r f am ily p la nn in g an d pe rc en ta ge o f d em an d fo r c on tr ac ep ti on sa ti sf ie d, S er bi a, 2 00 5 Cu rr en t u se o f co nt ra ce pt io n* Un m et n ee d fo r co nt ra ce pt io n – Fo r s pa ci ng Un m et n ee d fo r co nt ra ce pt io n – Fo r l im iti ng Un m et n ee d fo r co nt ra ce pt io n – To ta l* * Nu m be r o f w om en cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on Pe rc en ta ge o f de m an d fo r c on tr a- ce pt io n sa tis fie d* ** Nu m be r o f w om en cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ith n ee d fo r c on tr ac ep tio n Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fr om R om a s et tle m en ts 41 .4 3. 3 25 .1 28 .4 47 67 59 .3 33 26 Ro m a i n Ro m a s et tle m en ts 28 .1 3.1 29 .7 32 .8 77 46 .1 47 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 48 .2 2. 7 24 .4 27 .1 13 52 64 .1 10 18 Be lg ra de 39 .6 4. 9 23 .7 28 .5 82 7 58 .1 56 4 W es t 31 .6 3. 0 32 .3 35 .3 55 4 47 .2 37 1 Ce nt ra l 27 .4 3. 7 28 .5 32 .3 82 3 46 .0 49 1 Ea st 53 .5 1. 5 19 .0 20 .5 45 1 72 .3 33 4 So ut h- Ea st 44 .5 3. 4 23 .2 26 .6 83 7 62 .6 59 5 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 42 .6 3. 0 23 .2 26 .2 25 14 61 .9 17 31 Ru ra l 39 .7 3. 5 27 .3 30 .8 23 29 56 .3 16 42 Ag e 15 –1 9 26 .2 19 .7 4. 2 23 .8 54 52 .4 27 20 –2 4 30 .8 17 .4 7.6 25 .0 32 6 55 .1 18 2 25 –2 9 41 .7 6. 9 16 .6 23 .5 75 7 63 .9 49 3 30 –3 4 46 .1 3.1 23 .3 26 .4 10 38 63 .5 75 2 35 –3 9 49 .1 .5 30 .7 31 .2 92 4 61 .1 74 2 40 –4 4 43 .2 .0 32 .1 32 .1 87 8 57 .4 66 1 45 –4 9 29 .3 .2 30 .0 30 .2 86 6 49 .2 51 5 Ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 33 .4 2. 5 31 .0 33 .5 11 16 50 .0 74 7 Se co nd ar y 41 .4 3. 6 25 .0 28 .6 29 68 59 .2 20 76 Un iv er sit y 51 .7 3. 2 17 .5 20 .7 75 9 71 .5 55 0 Et hn ici ty of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 40 .6 3. 2 25 .4 28 .6 42 08 58 .7 29 14 Hu ng ar ia n 56 .6 5. 4 15 .2 20 .6 17 2 73 .3 13 2 M us lim \B os ni an 38 .2 6. 3 22 .5 28 .7 11 9 57 .0 79 Ro m a 27 .1 4. 8 32 .7 37 .5 98 41 .9 63 Ot he r 46 .9 1. 7 25 .8 27 .5 24 8 63 .1 18 4 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 33 .1 3. 5 32 .6 36 .1 82 3 47 .8 57 0 Se co nd 38 .3 2. 6 26 .0 28 .7 10 06 57 .2 67 4 M id dl e 42 .2 3. 6 24 .4 28 .0 10 49 60 .1 73 6 Fo ur th 42 .6 3. 6 22 .9 26 .5 10 20 61 .7 70 4 Ri ch es t 48 .6 3. 0 21 .1 24 .1 94 6 66 .8 68 9 To ta l 41 .2 3. 3 25 .2 28 .5 48 44 59 .1 33 73 * M IC S in di ca to r 2 1; M DG in di ca to r 1 9C ** M IC S in di ca to r 9 8 ** * M IC S in di ca to r 9 9 179MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e RH .3 An te na ta l c ar e pr ov id er Pe rc en ta ge d is tr ib ut io n of w om en a ge d 15 – 49 w ho g av e bi rt h in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey b y ty pe o f p er so nn el p ro vi di ng a nt en at al ca re , S er bi a, 2 00 5 Pe rs on p ro vi di ng a nt en at al ca re To ta l An y sk ill ed pe rs on ne l* Nu m be r o f w om - en w ho g av e b irt h in th e p re ce di ng tw o ye ar s M ed ic al do ct or Nu rs e/ m id w ife /A ux ili ar y m id w ife /H ou se v is iti ng n ur se Re la tiv e/ Fr ie nd /T ra di tio na l b irt h at te n- da nt /O th er /M iss in g No a nt en at al ca re re ce iv ed Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fro m R om a se tt le m en ts 98 .1 .6 .7 .7 10 0. 0 98 .6 64 2 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 85 .3 .5 3. 1 11 .1 10 0. 0 85 .8 20 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 99 .0 .0 .5 .5 10 0. 0 99 .0 18 0 Be lg ra de 97 .5 – .8 1. 7 10 0. 0 97 .5 98 W es t 98 .5 .8 – .7 10 0. 0 99 .3 84 Ce nt ra l 94 .5 2. 0 2. 0 1. 5 10 0. 0 96 .5 12 2 Ea st 97 .3 1.1 .1 1. 5 10 0. 0 98 .4 62 So ut h- Ea st 98 .6 – .9 .5 10 0. 0 98 .6 11 5 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 97 .2 .9 1. 0 .9 10 0. 0 98 .1 35 0 Ru ra l 98 .2 .2 .5 1.1 10 0. 0 98 .4 31 2 Ag e 15 –1 9 92 .7 2. 7 .3 4. 3 10 0. 0 95 .4 22 20 –2 4 97 .0 .5 1. 0 1. 5 10 0. 0 97 .5 16 7 25 –2 9 98 .2 .5 .8 .4 10 0. 0 98 .7 23 5 30 –3 4 98 .2 .4 .4 1. 0 10 0. 0 98 .6 16 3 35 –3 9 98 .5 – 1.1 .5 10 0. 0 98 .5 66 40 – 44 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 8 45 – 49 (* ) – – – (* ) (* ) 0 Ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 93 .6 1. 0 1. 8 3. 6 10 0. 0 94 .6 14 4 Se co nd ar y 98 .6 .5 .6 .3 10 0. 0 99 .1 40 3 Un iv er sit y 99 .5 .5 – – 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 11 4 Et hn ici ty o f he ad o f t he ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 98 .6 .5 .4 .6 10 0. 0 99 .0 53 8 Hu ng ar ia n (1 00 .0 ) – – – (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) 21 M us lim \B os ni an 89 .2 1. 7 5. 6 3. 4 10 0. 0 91 .0 36 Ro m a 87 .5 .4 4. 4 7.7 10 0. 0 87 .9 27 Ot he r 98 .5 1. 5 – – 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 39 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 95 .8 .6 1. 5 2. 1 10 0. 0 96 .4 12 7 Se co nd 97 .5 .5 .0 2. 0 10 0. 0 98 .0 12 3 M id dl e 98 .3 .4 .5 .9 10 0. 0 98 .7 15 7 Fo ur th 96 .9 1. 3 1. 8 – 10 0. 0 98 .2 13 9 Ri ch es t 10 0. 0 – – – 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 11 6 To ta l 97 .7 .6 .8 1. 0 10 0. 0 98 .2 66 2 * M IC S in di ca to r 2 0 180 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table RH.4 Antenatal care Percentage of pregnant women receiving antenatal care among women aged 15–49 who gave birth in two years preceding the survey and percentage of pregnant women receiving specific care as part of the antenatal care received, Serbia, 2005 Percentage of pregnant women receiving ANC one or more times during pregnancy* Percentage of pregnant women who had Number of women who gave birth in two years preceding survey Blood sample taken Blood pressure measured Urine specimen taken Weight measured Papanicolau test Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 99.3 96.3 96.1 96.0 94.1 51.6 642 Roma in Roma settlements 88.9 76.3 76.6 75.5 76.5 26.7 20 Region Vojvodina 99.5 96.5 97.3 96.9 93.5 52.6 180 Belgrade 98.3 96.5 97.0 95.6 95.8 80.6 98 West 99.3 97.6 97.6 98.4 96.8 39.4 84 Central 98.5 94.4 91.2 92.6 88.9 44.8 122 East 98.5 96.8 95.9 95.8 94.8 50.0 62 South-East 99.5 92.8 94.2 93.3 93.5 38.0 115 Type of settlement Urban 99.1 95.9 95.4 95.7 93.7 53.9 350 Rural 98.9 95.3 95.7 95.0 93.4 47.4 312 Age 15–19 95.7 90.4 86.6 90.2 86.9 38.7 22 20–24 98.5 93.5 94.1 94.4 89.0 44.8 167 25–29 99.6 96.7 95.2 95.8 94.7 52.2 235 30–34 99.0 97.2 97.0 96.0 95.3 55.4 163 35–39 99.5 94.6 99.2 95.9 98.2 53.6 66 40–44 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 8 45–49 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) – 0 Education Primary or none 96.4 87.2 89.1 87.4 87.0 35.9 144 Secondary 99.7 97.7 97.2 97.8 94.9 53.3 403 University 100.0 98.9 97.7 96.9 97.0 61.2 114 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 99.4 98.2 97.2 97.6 95.5 54.4 538 Hungarian (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (90.8) (54.5) 21 Muslim\Bosnian 96.6 85.7 80.8 81.0 74.5 11.4 36 Roma 92.3 75.9 76.1 75.4 76.4 28.5 27 Other 100.0 81.5 96.5 89.0 96.5 51.4 39 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 97.9 89.6 90.5 88.5 87.8 33.6 127 Second 98.0 96.3 96.4 95.4 92.9 51.0 123 Middle 99.1 96.3 96.1 97.7 94.6 52.8 157 Fourth 100.0 97.2 97.3 97.2 96.2 54.7 139 Richest 100.0 98.9 97.0 97.6 95.9 62.3 116 Total 99.0 95.6 95.5 95.4 93.5 50.9 662 * MICS indicator 44 181MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table RH.5 Assistance during delivery Percentage distribution of women aged 15–49 with a birth in two years preceding the survey by type of personnel assisting at delivery, Serbia, 2005 Person assisting at delivery Total Any skilled personnel* Delivered in health facility** Number of women who gave birth in preceding two years Medical doctor Nurse /midwife Auxiliary midwife Traditional birth attendant Relative /friend Other /missing No atten- dant Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 87.8 1.8 9.7 .1 .1 .6 – 100.0 99.2 99.0 642 Roma in Roma settlements 66.6 2.4 23.9 .9 1.4 3.2 1.5 100.0 92.9 93.3 20 Region Vojvodina 85.8 2.8 11.1 .1 .1 .1 .1 100.0 99.7 99.3 180 Belgrade 85.8 2.1 11.8 .1 .1 .1 – 100.0 99.7 99.7 98 West 93.6 .0 5.5 – – .8 – 100.0 99.2 99.2 84 Central 87.1 1.4 9.0 – .4 2.0 .0 100.0 97.5 97.5 122 East 83.3 2.3 14.1 – – .1 .2 100.0 99.7 99.8 62 South-East 87.6 1.4 9.4 .7 .0 .9 .0 100.0 98.4 97.8 115 Type of settlement Urban 87.5 2.0 9.5 .0 .0 1.0 .0 100.0 98.9 98.7 350 Rural 86.7 1.6 10.8 .3 .2 .3 .1 100.0 99.1 98.9 312 Age 15–19 91.1 .9 7.5 – – .3 .1 100.0 99.6 99.6 22 20–24 84.5 3.2 11.3 .1 .3 .6 – 100.0 99.0 99.0 167 25–29 89.2 1.0 8.7 – .0 1.1 .0 100.0 98.8 98.5 235 30–34 87.1 1.3 11.1 – .1 .4 – 100.0 99.5 99.1 163 35–39 84.7 2.9 10.7 1.2 .1 .1 .2 100.0 98.3 98.3 66 40–44 (*) – (*) – – (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 8 45–49 – – (*) – – – – (*) (*) (*) 0 Education Primary or none 79.7 3.2 14.7 .7 .2 1.4 .2 100.0 97.5 97.1 144 Secondary 88.0 1.5 9.8 – .1 .6 – 100.0 99.2 99.1 403 University 93.4 1.2 5.4 – – – – 100.0 100.0 100.0 114 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 89.6 1.5 8.5 – .1 .4 – 100.0 99.5 99.4 538 Hungarian (77.9) (9.2) (12.9) – – – – (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) 21 Muslim\Bosnian 84.9 .1 9.4 – – 5.6 .1 100.0 94.3 94.3 36 Roma 61.7 6.9 26.9 .7 .9 2.0 1.0 100.0 95.4 95.7 27 Other 78.4 – 19.7 1.9 – – – 100.0 98.1 96.3 39 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 83.8 3.1 10.9 .7 .2 1.0 .2 100.0 97.8 97.3 127 Second 84.9 2.6 12.0 – .5 .0 – 100.0 99.5 99.5 123 Middle 85.0 2.2 12.3 – – .5 – 100.0 99.5 99.5 157 Fourth 90.2 .4 7.6 – – 1.8 – 100.0 98.2 98.2 139 Richest 92.2 .5 7.3 – – – – 100.0 100.0 99.4 116 Total 87.1 1.8 10.1 .1 .1 .7 .0 100.0 99.0 98.8 662 * MICS indicator 4; MDG indicator 17 ** MICS indicator 5 182 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table CD.1 Family support for learning Percentage of children aged 0–59 months for whom household members are engaged in activities that promote learning and school readiness, Serbia, 2005 Percentage of children aged 0–59 months Number of children aged 0–59 months For whom house- hold members engaged in four or more activities that promote learning and school readiness* Mean number of activities household members engage in with the child For whom the father engaged in one or more activi- ties that promote learning and school readiness** Mean number of activities the father engaged in with the child Living in a household without their natural father Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 85.7 5.1 71.3 2.4 4.7 3647 Roma in Roma settlements 47.4 3.1 34.7 .8 6.2 130 Sex Male 83.6 5.0 70.8 2.3 4.7 1917 Female 85.3 5.1 69.2 2.3 4.9 1860 Region Vojvodina 88.8 5.3 72.6 2.2 4.4 1052 Belgrade 87.1 5.2 77.8 3.2 6.1 671 West 88.3 5.2 71.7 2.6 5.2 427 Central 80.9 4.8 72.5 2.1 3.7 656 East 70.9 4.7 73.4 2.6 6.2 337 South-East 82.6 4.8 52.0 1.5 4.1 634 Type of settlement Urban 85.5 5.1 73.9 2.6 5.5 2097 Rural 83.0 5.0 65.3 2.0 3.9 1680 Age 0–23 months 68.8 4.3 65.9 2.0 3.5 1427 24–59 months 93.9 5.5 72.5 2.5 5.6 2350 Mother’s education Primary or none 71.9 4.4 54.1 1.5 6.4 818 Secondary 87.2 5.2 72.1 2.4 4.5 2304 University 90.4 5.4 82.5 3.0 3.8 656 Father’s education Primary or none 72.1 4.4 59.1 1.7 – 685 Secondary 86.5 5.2 75.6 2.5 – 2415 University 90.7 5.3 83.7 3.0 – 496 Father not in household 86.2 5.2 – – 100.0 181 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 87.0 5.2 73.3 2.5 4.6 3086 Hungarian 84.1 5.1 64.2 2.1 10.5 111 Muslim\Bosnian 74.0 4.3 67.8 1.8 4.9 186 Roma 46.6 3.1 33.8 .8 6.9 166 Other 85.2 5.0 57.4 1.9 3.3 229 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 72.7 4.4 53.8 1.6 5.2 656 Second 83.5 5.0 69.6 2.2 4.2 742 Middle 84.5 5.1 68.3 2.1 4.8 858 Fourth 90.6 5.4 74.5 2.6 5.2 830 Richest 89.0 5.3 82.6 3.0 4.5 690 Total 84.4 5.0 70.0 2.3 4.8 3777 * MICS indicator 46 ** MICS Indicator 47 183MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e CD .2 Le ar ni ng m at er ia ls Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s l iv in g in h ou se ho ld s c on ta in in g le ar ni ng m at er ia ls , S er bi a, 2 00 5 3 or m or e no n- ch ild re n’ s bo ok s* M ed ia n nu m be r of n on - ch ild re n’ s bo ok s 3 or m or e ch ild re n’ s bo ok s* * M ed ia n nu m be r o f ch ild re n’ s bo ok s Ch ild p la ys w ith 3 or m or e ty pe s of p la y- th in g* ** Nu m be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s Ho us eh ol d ob je ct s Ob je ct s a nd m at er ia ls fo un d ou ts id e th e ho m e Ho m em ad e to ys To ys th at ca m e fr om a st or e No pl ay th in gs m en tio ne d Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a in R om a se tt le m en ts 77 .5 10 .0 81 .4 10 .0 31 .1 29 .7 20 .0 89 .3 5. 1 20 .9 36 47 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 26 .7 0. 0 22 .9 0. 0 36 .5 37 .4 25 .6 58 .1 13 .4 19 .1 13 0 Se x M al e 75 .7 10 .0 78 .3 10 .0 28 .6 32 .0 21 .1 88 .6 5. 0 20 .5 19 17 Fe m al e 75 .7 10 .0 80 .4 10 .0 33 .9 27 .9 19 .2 87 .9 5. 7 21 .2 18 60 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 69 .5 10 .0 84 .6 10 .0 38 .5 31 .9 15 .3 89 .7 3. 7 22 .0 10 52 Be lg ra de 90 .2 10 .0 87 .0 10 .0 20 .4 9. 7 18 .3 85 .8 4. 3 8. 1 67 1 W es t 71 .7 10 .0 75 .6 10 .0 28 .4 32 .8 26 .4 93 .3 2. 6 22 .5 42 7 Ce nt ra l 68 .8 10 .0 68 .9 7.0 26 .2 26 .6 14 .7 90 .2 6. 0 16 .9 65 6 Ea st 82 .0 10 .0 76 .3 10 .0 36 .4 52 .3 35 .2 81 .9 9. 9 36 .6 33 7 So ut h- Ea st 77 .3 10 .0 77 .5 10 .0 35 .1 37 .9 23 .8 86 .4 8. 0 27 .1 63 4 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 80 .0 10 .0 83 .3 10 .0 30 .0 26 .7 18 .9 88 .6 5. 4 18 .9 20 97 Ru ra l 70 .3 10 .0 74 .4 10 .0 32 .8 34 .0 21 .7 87 .9 5. 3 23 .4 16 80 Ag e 0– 23 m on th s 68 .3 10 .0 66 .9 7.0 24 .9 15 .2 11 .7 79 .0 13 .8 11 .2 14 27 24 –5 9 m on th s 80 .2 10 .0 86 .9 10 .0 35 .1 38 .9 25 .3 93 .9 .2 26 .7 23 50 M ot he r’s ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 53 .7 4. 0 53 .0 3. 0 32 .2 31 .2 21 .4 78 .1 8. 2 20 .0 81 8 Se co nd ar y 79 .4 10 .0 84 .6 10 .0 30 .3 29 .7 19 .0 91 .1 4. 6 20 .9 23 04 Un iv er sit y 90 .1 10 .0 93 .7 10 .0 33 .5 29 .4 22 .6 91 .1 4. 4 21 .9 65 6 Et hn ici ty of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 81 .0 10 .0 85 .0 10 .0 31 .8 31 .6 21 .1 89 .7 4. 7 22 .1 30 86 Hu ng ar ia n 69 .6 10 .0 73 .5 10 .0 44 .9 33 .1 15 .9 86 .8 3. 9 26 .5 11 1 M us lim \B os ni an 53 .6 5. 0 40 .1 1. 0 6. 1 4. 8 3. 8 84 .0 12 .5 1. 8 18 6 Ro m a 28 .8 0. 0 25 .8 0. 0 33 .7 28 .8 20 .0 62 .3 11 .7 13 .9 16 6 Ot he r 58 .9 10 .0 77 .0 10 .0 35 .4 28 .2 23 .0 91 .4 4. 6 22 .4 22 9 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 54 .0 5. 0 50 .4 3. 0 37 .8 40 .4 23 .6 77 .1 8. 0 25 .7 65 6 Se co nd 71 .9 10 .0 74 .4 7.0 33 .8 35 .1 20 .0 89 .6 5. 6 25 .2 74 2 M id dl e 75 .2 10 .0 83 .4 10 .0 27 .7 25 .8 21 .3 90 .7 4. 7 18 .8 85 8 Fo ur th 83 .8 10 .0 90 .1 10 .0 30 .3 27 .6 16 .8 92 .8 3. 4 19 .3 83 0 Ri ch es t 91 .4 10 .0 94 .2 10 .0 28 .0 22 .6 19 .8 89 .1 5. 8 16 .3 69 0 To ta l 75 .7 10 .0 79 .3 10 .0 31 .2 30 .0 20 .2 88 .3 5. 4 20 .9 37 77 * M IC S in di ca to r 4 9 ** M IC S in di ca to r 4 8 ** * M IC S in di ca to r 5 0 184 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table CD.3 Children left alone or with other children Percentage of children aged 0–59 months left in the care of other children under the age of 10 or left alone in the past week, Serbia, 2005 Left in the care of chil- dren under the age of 10 in past week Left alone in the past week Left with inadequate care in past week* Number of children aged 0–59 months Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 6.7 4.6 8.5 3647 Roma in Roma settlements 15.9 6.4 17.5 130 Sex Male 5.7 4.8 7.8 1917 Female 8.4 4.5 9.9 1860 Region Vojvodina 5.0 1.7 5.2 1052 Belgrade 10.5 7.3 11.0 671 West 10.1 5.5 10.4 427 Central 5.0 6.5 10.5 656 East 6.6 5.4 9.5 337 South-East 7.1 3.7 9.4 634 Type of settlement Urban 6.8 3.6 8.0 2097 Rural 7.3 6.0 9.9 1680 Age 0–23 5.2 3.5 6.6 1427 24–59 8.1 5.3 10.2 2350 Mother’s education Primary or none 9.3 4.8 11.0 818 Secondary 6.4 4.7 8.3 2304 University 6.5 4.5 8.1 656 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 6.7 4.8 8.5 3086 Hungarian 5.2 1.3 5.2 111 Muslim\Bosnian 12.0 6.6 15.7 186 Roma 11.9 5.8 14.6 166 Other 5.2 1.9 5.2 229 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 10.2 6.9 13.9 656 Second 4.8 2.9 6.0 742 Middle 6.3 4.4 8.4 858 Fourth 6.6 5.3 8.4 830 Richest 7.7 3.9 8.1 690 Total 7.0 4.6 8.8 3777 * MICS indicator 51 185MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table ED.1 Early childhood education Percentage of children aged 36–59 months who are attending some form of organised early childhood education programme and percentage of first graders who attended pre-school, Serbia, 2005 Percentage of children aged 36–59 months currently attending early childhood education* Number of children aged 36–59 months Percentage of children attending first grade who attended pre- school programme in previous year** Number of children attending first grade Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 33.4 1500 89.5 280 Roma in Roma settlements 3.9 49 62.0 5 Sex Male 33.1 774 86.7 151 Female 31.8 774 91.7 134 Region Vojvodina 34.4 437 93.9 75 Belgrade 56.9 307 (86.8) 59 West 29.4 150 95.3 25 Central 21.7 253 79.5 43 East 18.3 143 (91.3) 32 South-East 20.5 260 88.0 52 Type of settlement Urban 45.2 908 89.5 157 Rural 14.4 641 88.4 128 Age of child 36–47 months 28.0 754 na 0 48–59 months 36.7 795 na 0 7 years na 0 89.0 285 Mother’s education Primary or none 7.4 303 82.1 67 Secondary 33.1 970 89.2 173 University 57.6 275 (99.0) 45 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 35.3 1294 88.6 228 Hungarian (26.8) 38 (*) 14 Muslim\Bosnian 14.9 63 (*) 10 Roma 2.8 57 60.6 6 Other 26.2 97 (93.1) 27 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 7.4 236 76.9 55 Second 11.9 310 93.9 64 Middle 25.6 332 89.9 47 Fourth 45.9 367 91.4 62 Richest 64.1 304 91.9 56 Total 32.5 1548 89.0 285 * MICS indicator 52 ** MICS indicator 53 Na Non applicable 186 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table ED.2 Primary school entry Percentage of children of primary school entry age attending grade 1, Serbia, 2005 Percentage of children of primary school entry age currently attending grade 1* Number of children of primary school entry age Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 94.4 337 Roma in Roma settlements 66.2 9 Sex Male 92.9 183 Female 94.5 163 Region Vojvodina 94.4 89 Belgrade 91.3 68 West (98.3) 31 Central 93.0 54 East 94.5 40 South-East 92.7 64 Type of settlement Urban 92.5 190 Rural 95.0 156 Age in the calendar year 2005 7 93.6 346 Mother’s education Primary or none 89.3 82 Secondary 95.0 211 University (95.1) 52 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 93.5 277 Hungarian (*) 14 Muslim\Bosnian (99.0) 15 Roma 66.7 10 Other (98.0) 30 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 89.0 73 Second 96.7 72 Middle 98.9 58 Fourth 90.7 79 Richest 94.3 64 Total 93.6 346 * MICS indicator 54 187MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table ED.3 Primary school net attendance ratio Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school or secondary school (NAR), Serbia, 2005 Male Female Total Net attendance ratio* Number of children Net attendance ratio* Number of children Net attendance ratio* Number of children Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 99.0 1326 99.1 1275 99.1 2602 Roma in Roma settlements 76.0 34 71.1 34 73.6 68 Region Vojvodina 98.1 365 99.1 381 98.6 747 Belgrade 97.7 244 97.1 206 97.4 450 West 99.9 158 99.6 151 99.8 309 Central 98.9 227 99.5 197 99.2 424 East 98.7 131 97.7 122 98.2 253 South-East 98.3 236 97.2 251 97.8 487 Type of settlement Urban 98.3 738 98.5 669 98.4 1407 Rural 98.7 623 98.3 639 98.5 1262 Age in the calendar year 2005 7 94.0 183 94.5 163 94.2 346 8 99.7 143 98.6 137 99.1 280 9 99.2 194 99.5 169 99.4 363 10 99.5 164 99.4 187 99.5 352 11 99.8 175 99.5 169 99.6 345 12 99.5 174 99.1 165 99.3 339 13 98.8 173 98.5 150 98.7 323 14 97.6 155 98.1 168 97.8 322 Mother’s education Primary or none 95.6 298 95.6 345 95.6 642 Secondary 99.1 844 99.5 745 99.3 1589 University 99.8 219 99.0 219 99.4 438 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 99.0 1149 99.1 1074 99.0 2223 Hungarian (100.0) 48 (100.0) 60 100.0 108 Muslim\Bosnian 98.9 43 99.0 47 99.0 91 Roma 79.2 42 76.5 38 77.9 80 Other 100.0 78 98.5 89 99.2 167 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 95.1 271 95.8 298 95.5 569 Second 99.9 261 98.0 262 99.0 522 Middle 99.7 278 99.8 243 99.8 521 Fourth 98.3 282 99.5 252 98.9 533 Richest 99.2 269 99.4 255 99.3 524 Total 98.5 1361 98.4 1309 98.4 2669 * MICS indicator 55; MDG indicator 6 188 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table ED.4 Secondary school net attendance ratio Percentage of children of secondary school age attending secondary or higher school (NAR), Serbia, 2005 Male Female Total Net attendance ratio* Number of children Net attendance ratio* Number of children Net attendance ratio* Number of children Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 82.4 598 88.9 634 85.8 1232 Roma in Roma settlements 14.1 17 5.9 15 10.2 32 Region Vojvodina 81.7 187 86.7 181 84.2 368 Belgrade 82.3 87 89.4 112 86.3 198 West 85.8 78 91.3 60 88.2 137 Central 79.8 88 90.8 114 86.0 202 East 76.8 49 83.9 65 80.8 113 South-East 76.4 126 80.8 118 78.5 244 Type of settlement Urban 83.8 343 90.8 360 87.3 703 Rural 76.5 271 82.2 289 79.5 561 Age in the calendar year 2005 15 90.8 155 93.9 191 92.5 346 16 87.1 145 91.4 142 89.2 287 17 86.4 146 87.7 165 87.1 312 18 60.4 168 73.2 151 66.4 319 Mother’s education Primary or none 70.9 112 80.1 120 75.6 232 Secondary 95.3 243 97.4 261 96.4 504 University (93.2) 70 (100.0) 73 96.7 143 Mother not in household 81.6 41 70.4 66 74.7 107 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 82.5 513 89.2 537 85.9 1050 Hungarian (*) 35 (*) 23 (84.0) 58 Muslim\Bosnian (73.5) 16 (*) 12 (74.7) 28 Roma 12.8 17 16.7 18 14.8 35 Other (91.0) 34 87.3 60 88.6 93 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 64.5 125 64.3 119 64.4 244 Second 72.7 121 84.5 127 78.7 248 Middle 85.7 124 93.4 163 90.1 287 Fourth 90.4 138 92.5 111 91.3 248 Richest 89.5 107 97.5 129 93.9 236 Total 80.6 615 87.0 649 83.8 1264 * MICS indicator 56 189MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table ED.4w Secondary school age children attending primary school Percentage of children of secondary school age attending primary school, Serbia, 2005 Male Female Total Percent attending primary school Number of children Percent attending primary school Number of children Percent attending primary school Number of children Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 1.6 598 1.2 634 1.4 1232 Roma in Roma settlements 8.5 17 8.6 15 8.5 32 Region Vojvodina 1.9 187 .2 181 1.1 368 Belgrade 2.2 87 1.7 112 1.9 198 West 3.7 78 3.2 60 3.5 137 Central .1 88 1.6 114 .9 202 East 4.0 49 .1 65 1.8 113 South-East .3 126 2.2 118 1.3 244 Type of settlement Urban 1.8 343 .4 360 1.1 703 Rural 1.7 271 2.5 289 2.1 561 Age in the calendar year 2005 15 3.3 155 3.6 191 3.5 346 16 1.5 145 1.3 142 1.4 287 17 1.2 146 .0 165 .6 312 18 1.0 168 – 151 .5 319 Mother’s education Primary or none 2.3 112 3.6 120 3.0 232 Secondary .6 243 1.6 261 1.1 504 University 4.8 70 – 73 2.3 143 Mother not in household 4.0 41 .3 66 1.7 107 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 1.8 513 1.2 537 1.5 1050 Hungarian – 35 – 23 – 58 Muslim\Bosnian .4 16 4.3 12 2.1 28 Roma 7.6 17 6.7 18 7.1 35 Other .0 34 1.1 60 .7 93 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 1.8 125 3.2 119 2.5 244 Second 2.8 121 1.5 127 2.1 248 Middle .1 124 .9 163 .6 287 Fourth 1.2 138 1.4 111 1.3 248 Richest 3.1 107 – 129 1.4 236 Total 1.8 615 1.3 649 1.5 1264 190 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table ED.5 Children reaching grade 5 Percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach grade 5, Serbia, 2005 Percent attending 2nd grade who were in 1st grade last year Percent attending 3rd grade who were in 2nd grade last year Percent attending 4th grade who were in 3rd grade last year Percent attending 5th grade who were in 4th grade last year Percent who reach grade 5 of those who enter 1st grade* Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 99.8 Roma in Roma settlements 99.6 100.0 99.1 98.6 97.3 Sex Male 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.6 99.6 Female 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.9 Region Vojvodina 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.4 99.3 Belgrade 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 West 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Central 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 East 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.9 99.9 South-East 100.0 100.0 99.9 100.0 99.9 Type of settlement Urban 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.7 99.6 Rural 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mother’s education Primary or none 100.0 100.0 99.9 99.9 99.7 Secondary 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.7 99.7 University 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mother not in household . . . 100.0 . Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 99.8 Hungarian 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Muslim\Bosnian 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Roma 99.7 100.0 99.3 98.7 97.7 Other 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 100.0 100.0 99.9 99.0 98.9 Second 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Middle 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Fourth 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Richest 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 99.8 99.8 * MICS Indicator 57 ; MDG Indicator 7 191MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table ED.6 Primary school completion and transition to secondary education Primary school completion rate and transition rate to secondary education, Serbia, 2005 Net primary school completion rate* Number of children of primary school completion age Transition rate to secondary education** Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 92.1 315 97.2 351 Roma in Roma settlements 28.1 7 (77.4) 2 Sex Male 90.7 155 97.5 158 Female 90.7 168 96.7 195 Region Vojvodina 91.4 102 96.4 107 Belgrade 85.7 62 (97.4) 59 West (96.1) 38 (98.7) 44 Central 93.4 54 (98.8) 40 East (83.1) 21 (*) 31 South-East 91.3 46 94.6 72 Type of settlement Urban 91.2 190 97.9 204 Rural 89.9 132 96.0 149 Mother’s education Primary or none 73.1 80 90.3 85 Secondary 96.1 184 100.0 184 University (97.5) 58 (100.0) 59 Mother not in household – 0 (*) 23 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 92.1 262 97.8 293 Hungarian (*) 23 (*) 15 Muslim\Bosnian (*) 7 (*) 8 Roma 22.7 7 (87.4) 3 Other (*) 24 (94.2) 34 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 77.7 71 87.3 65 Second 91.8 51 100.0 67 Middle 94.6 69 99.5 91 Fourth 95.2 64 97.8 70 Richest (95.1) 67 (100.0) 59 Total 90.7 322 97.1 353 * MICS indicator 59; MDG indicator 7b ** MICS indicator 58 192 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table ED.7 Education gender parity Ratio of girls to boys attending primary education and ratio of girls to boys attending secondary education, Serbia, 2005 Primary school net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Primary school net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for primary school NAR* Secondary school net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Secondary school net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for secondary school NAR* Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 99.1 99.0 1.00 88.9 82.4 1.08 Roma in Roma settlements 71.1 76.0 .94 5.9 14.1 .42 Sex Male – 98.5 – – 80.6 – Female 98.4 – – 87.0 – – Region Vojvodina 99.1 98.1 1.01 86.7 81.7 1.06 Belgrade 97.1 97.7 .99 89.4 82.3 1.09 West 99.6 99.9 1.00 91.3 85.8 1.06 Central 99.5 98.9 1.01 90.8 79.8 1.14 East 97.7 98.7 .99 83.9 76.8 1.09 South-East 97.2 98.3 .99 80.8 76.4 1.06 Type of settlement Urban 98.5 98.3 1.00 90.8 83.8 1.08 Rural 98.3 98.7 1.00 82.2 76.5 1.07 Mother’s education Primary or none 95.6 95.6 1.00 80.1 70.9 1.13 Secondary 99.5 99.1 1.00 97.4 95.3 1.02 University 99.0 99.8 .99 100.0 93.2 1.07 Mother not in household – – – 70.4 81.6 .86 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 99.1 99.0 1.00 89.2 82.5 1.08 Hungarian 100.0 100.0 1.00 93.2 78.1 1.19 Muslim\Bosnian 99.0 98.9 1.00 76.4 73.5 1.04 Roma 76.5 79.2 .97 16.7 12.8 1.30 Other 98.5 100.0 .98 87.3 91.0 .96 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 95.8 95.1 1.01 64.3 64.5 1.00 Second 98.0 99.9 .98 84.5 72.7 1.16 Middle 99.8 99.7 1.00 93.4 85.7 1.09 Fourth 99.5 98.3 1.01 92.5 90.4 1.02 Richest 99.4 99.2 1.00 97.5 89.5 1.09 Total 98.4 98.5 1.00 87.0 80.6 1.08 * MICS indicator 61; MDG indicator 9 193MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table ED.8 Adult literacy Percentage of women aged 15–24 that are literate, Serbia, 2005 Percentage literate* Percentage not known Number of women aged 15–24 years Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 96.4 2.8 1881 Roma in Roma settlements 52.4 1.2 35 Region Vojvodina 95.8 2.2 550 Belgrade 95.9 2.5 387 West 98.0 1.2 211 Central 96.7 2.9 325 East 93.7 5.4 171 South-East 92.6 3.9 272 Type of settlement Urban 94.5 3.2 1056 Rural 96.8 2.3 860 Education Primary or none 78.1 13.8 387 Secondary 100.0 – 1143 University 100.0 – 386 Age 15–19 92.9 5.0 938 20–24 98.1 .7 978 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 96.6 2.6 1636 Hungarian 95.2 4.8 80 Muslim\Bosnian 98.2 – 45 Roma 59.6 4.9 46 Other 94.8 4.1 109 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 90.5 3.7 298 Second 97.1 1.6 393 Middle 97.0 2.4 447 Fourth 95.8 3.7 388 Richest 95.9 2.9 390 Total 95.6 2.8 1916 * MICS indicator 60; MDG indicator 8 194 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ta bl e CP .1 Bi rt h re gi st ra ti on Pe rc en ta ge d is tr ib ut io n of ch ild re n ag ed 0 –5 9 m on th s a cc or di ng to w he th er b ir th is re gi st er ed a nd re as on s f or n on -r eg is tr at io n, S er bi a, 2 00 5 Bi rt h is re gi st er ed * Do n’ t k no w if bi rt h is re gi st er ed Nu m be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 0– 59 m on th s Bi rt h is no t r eg is te re d be ca us e To ta l Nu m be r o f c hi ld re n 0– 59 m on th s w ith ou t b irt h re gi st ra tio n Co st s t oo m uc h M us t t ra ve l to o fa r Do es n’ t k no w w he re to re gi st er Ot he r Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a in R om a se tt le m en ts 99 .0 .3 36 47 – (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 23 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 95 .4 .7 13 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 5 Se x M al e 99 .0 .4 19 17 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 12 Fe m al e 98 .8 .3 18 60 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 16 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 99 .2 .0 10 52 – (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 8 Be lg ra de 97 .8 1.1 67 1 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 7 W es t 99 .4 .6 42 7 – – – – – 0 Ce nt ra l 99 .8 .2 65 6 – – – – – 0 Ea st 99 .8 .0 33 7 – – – (* ) (* ) 1 So ut h- Ea st 97 .8 .3 63 4 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 12 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 99 .0 .4 20 97 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 14 Ru ra l 98 .8 .3 16 80 – (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 14 Ag e 0– 11 m on th s 96 .1 .3 65 4 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 24 12 –2 3 m on th s 99 .5 .4 77 3 – (* ) – (* ) (* ) 1 24 –3 5 m on th s 99 .9 .0 80 2 – (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 1 36 – 47 m on th s 99 .4 .5 75 4 – (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 1 48 –5 9 m on th s 99 .2 .5 79 5 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 2 M ot he r’s ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 97 .8 .6 81 8 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 13 Se co nd ar y 99 .3 .3 23 04 – – – (* ) (* ) 10 Un iv er sit y 98 .9 .4 65 6 – (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 5 Et hn ici ty of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 99 .1 .3 30 86 – (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 18 Hu ng ar ia n 98 .7 – 11 1 – – – (* ) (* ) 1 M us lim \B os ni an 99 .8 – 18 6 – – (* ) (* ) (* ) 0 Ro m a 95 .7 1. 5 16 6 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 5 Ot he r 97 .9 .7 22 9 – – (* ) – (* ) 3 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 97 .5 .6 65 6 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 12 Se co nd 99 .2 .2 74 2 – (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 5 M id dl e 99 .1 .5 85 8 – – – (* ) (* ) 3 Fo ur th 99 .5 .3 83 0 – – (* ) – (* ) 1 Ri ch es t 98 .9 .2 69 0 – – – (* ) (* ) 6 To ta l 98 .9 .4 37 77 1.1 8. 2 18 .3 72 .5 10 0. 0 28 * M IC S in di ca to r 6 2 No te : F ig ur es fo r u nr eg ist er ed b irt hs a re n ot sh ow n in th e ta bl e sin ce th er e is a ve ry lo w n um be r o f o bs er va tio ns . 195MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table CP.2 Child labour Percentage of children aged 5–14 who are involved in child labour activities by type of work, Serbia, 2005 Working outside household Household chores for 28+ hours/week Working for family business Total child labour* Number of children aged 5–14 yearsPaid work Unpaid work Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements .2 3.1 .1 1.2 4.3 3306 Roma in Roma settlements 1.9 3.7 .3 2.8 7.0 84 Sex Male .4 3.0 .0 1.4 4.5 1744 Female .2 3.1 .1 1.0 4.4 1646 Region Vojvodina .6 3.6 .0 .5 4.4 936 Belgrade .0 1.1 .0 1.1 2.3 606 West .5 3.4 .1 1.2 5.1 391 Central – 6.4 .0 .8 6.6 528 East .1 .3 .0 1.6 2.0 313 South-East .3 2.5 .2 2.5 5.5 616 Type of settlement Urban .3 2.8 .1 .4 3.3 1810 Rural .3 3.4 .0 2.1 5.7 1580 Age 5–11 years .3 4.3 .0 1.6 6.0 2391 12–14 years .2 .0 .2 .3 .7 999 School participation Yes .2 3.2 .0 1.2 4.5 3134 No .8 1.7 .3 1.6 3.9 256 Mother’s education Primary or none .9 2.4 .2 2.7 5.7 801 Secondary .1 3.2 – .8 4.1 2024 University – 3.5 .0 .4 3.7 564 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian .1 3.0 – .9 3.9 2831 Hungarian 1.3 6.3 – – 7.6 127 Muslim\Bosnian 1.5 6.0 – .1 7.6 121 Roma 2.7 2.8 .3 3.3 6.5 97 Other .8 .8 .3 5.1 6.2 213 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 1.2 5.6 .2 2.1 8.4 688 Second .2 3.2 .0 2.1 5.5 657 Middle .0 2.5 – .4 2.9 692 Fourth – 1.7 .1 .9 2.7 680 Richest .0 2.4 – .5 2.6 673 Total .3 3.1 .1 1.2 4.4 3390 * MICS indicator 71 196 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table CP.3 Labourer students and student labourers Percentage of children aged 5–14 years who are labourer students and student labourers, Serbia, 2005 Percentage of children in child labour Percentage of children attending school Number of children aged 5–14 Percentage of child labourers who are also attending school* Number of child labourers aged 5–14 Percentage of students who are also involved in child labour** Number of students aged 5–14 Area Serbia without Roma in Roma settlements 4.3 93.1 3306 94.8 144 4.4 3078 Roma in Roma settlements 7.0 67.3 84 58.0 6 6.1 56 Sex Male 4.5 91.7 1744 91.1 78 4.4 1600 Female 4.4 93.2 1646 95.8 72 4.5 1534 Region Vojvodina 4.4 94.0 936 95.4 41 4.5 880 Belgrade 2.3 90.2 606 (81.2) 14 2.0 547 West 5.1 94.3 391 (96.8) 20 5.2 369 Central 6.6 91.7 528 (95.2) 35 6.9 484 East 2.0 92.4 313 (*) 6 2.0 290 South-East 5.5 91.8 616 91.7 34 5.5 565 Type of settlement Urban 3.3 92.4 1810 92.0 60 3.3 1673 Rural 5.7 92.5 1580 94.3 89 5.8 1461 Age 5–11 years 6.0 89.8 2391 94.5 143 6.3 2148 12–14 years .7 98.7 999 (70.3) 7 .5 986 Mother’s education Primary or none 5.7 88.4 801 88.4 46 5.7 708 Secondary 4.1 93.6 2024 94.5 83 4.1 1895 University 3.7 94.1 564 (*) 21 4.0 531 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 3.9 93.1 2831 95.3 111 4.0 2636 Hungarian 7.6 96.7 127 (*) 10 7.9 123 Muslim\Bosnian 7.6 85.4 121 (*) 9 8.8 103 Roma 6.5 71.2 97 54.1 6 5.0 69 Other 6.2 94.9 213 (*) 13 5.7 202 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 8.4 89.7 688 89.3 58 8.4 617 Second 5.5 91.5 657 (96.9) 36 5.8 602 Middle 2.9 91.6 692 (95.2) 20 3.0 634 Fourth 2.7 96.0 680 (*) 18 2.8 652 Richest 2.6 93.5 673 (*) 18 2.5 629 Total 4.4 92.5 3390 93.4 150 4.5 3134 * MICS indicator 72 ** MICS indicator 73 197MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e CP .4 Ch ild d is ci pl in e Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag ed 2 –1 4 ac co rd in g to m et ho d of d is ci pl in in g th e ch ild , S er bi a, 2 00 5 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n 2– 14 ye ar s o f a ge w ho e xp er ie nc e M ot he r /c ar et ak er b el ie ve s th at th e ch ild ne ed s t o be p hy si- ca lly p un ish ed Nu m be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 2– 14 ye ar s* * On ly n on - vi ol en t di sc ip lin e Ps yc ho - lo gi ca l p un - ish m en t M in or ph ys ic al pu ni sh m en t Se ve re ph ys ic al pu ni sh m en t An y p sy ch ol og i- ca l o r p hy sic al pu ni sh m en t* No di sc ip lin e or pu ni sh m en t M iss in g Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fro m R om a se tt le m en ts 19 .8 61 .3 51 .1 6. 7 72 .5 6. 3 1. 4 6. 0 26 65 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 7. 6 75 .7 63 .4 20 .6 81 .4 10 .0 1. 0 21 .4 51 Se x M al e 18 .9 62 .6 53 .1 8. 4 73 .7 6. 1 1. 3 6. 9 13 97 Fe m al e 20 .3 60 .4 49 .4 5. 4 71 .6 6. 6 1. 5 5. 7 13 19 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 23 .0 68 .9 42 .5 4. 5 74 .3 2. 0 .7 7.4 75 7 Be lg ra de 27 .4 49 .6 45 .1 4. 6 60 .8 9. 2 2. 7 5. 6 52 4 W es t 18 .8 61 .0 58 .9 6. 8 74 .3 5. 9 1. 0 8. 5 29 6 Ce nt ra l 13 .8 59 .3 53 .7 6. 6 75 .3 9. 5 1. 4 4. 9 42 8 Ea st 19 .0 59 .1 59 .7 7. 6 76 .7 2. 7 1. 6 7.4 25 1 So ut h- Ea st 11 .3 66 .8 61 .4 13 .8 77 .9 9. 6 1.1 4. 7 46 1 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 20 .8 58 .8 49 .5 5. 8 70 .6 6. 8 1. 8 4. 7 15 24 Ru ra l 18 .0 65 .1 53 .6 8. 5 75 .4 5. 8 .9 8. 4 11 93 Ag e 2– 4 ye ar s 18 .2 59 .6 63 .4 6. 5 75 .6 5. 7 .5 7.9 63 2 5– 9 ye ar s 18 .0 62 .5 58 .5 7.9 75 .0 6. 4 .6 6. 1 10 07 10 –1 4 ye ar s 21 .9 61 .8 37 .6 6. 4 68 .8 6. 6 2. 6 5. 7 10 78 M ot he r’s ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 18 .0 63 .7 53 .2 9. 0 73 .4 7.1 1. 4 11 .6 56 1 Se co nd ar y 18 .6 62 .6 53 .4 7.1 74 .2 5. 9 1. 3 5. 4 16 68 Un iv er sit y 24 .8 55 .4 42 .1 3. 9 66 .6 7. 0 1. 6 3. 6 48 7 Et hn ici ty o f h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 19 .6 60 .7 51 .1 6. 4 72 .3 6. 7 1. 4 5. 7 23 22 Hu ng ar ia n 23 .5 66 .9 38 .9 2. 4 71 .5 3. 4 1. 7 4. 6 98 M us lim \B os ni an 8. 5 66 .5 80 .5 15 .1 88 .7 1. 5 1. 2 16 .7 80 Ro m a 6. 2 80 .3 70 .3 22 .4 85 .5 7.4 .8 20 .5 62 Ot he r 27 .9 60 .8 39 .4 7. 6 65 .3 5. 4 1. 5 6. 3 15 4 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 14 .0 69 .0 53 .5 13 .8 77 .4 7.1 1. 6 12 .0 47 4 Se co nd 17 .1 64 .2 56 .7 5. 9 77 .4 5. 1 .5 7. 8 51 2 M id dl e 18 .0 60 .6 56 .2 6. 4 74 .2 6. 5 1. 3 4. 7 57 4 Fo ur th 20 .2 61 .1 48 .8 5. 4 72 .1 6. 1 1. 6 4. 5 58 3 Ri ch es t 27 .5 54 .5 42 .5 4. 4 63 .7 6. 9 1. 9 3. 9 57 4 To ta l 19 .6 61 .6 51 .3 7.0 72 .7 6. 3 1. 4 6. 3 27 16 * M IC S in di ca to r 7 4 ** Ta bl e is ba se d on ch ild re n ag ed 2 –1 4 ra nd om ly se le ct ed d ur in g fie ld w or k (o ne ch ild se le ct ed p er h ou se ho ld , if an y c hi ld re n in th e ag e ra ng e) fo r w ho m th e qu es tio ns o n ch ild d isc ip lin e w er e ad m in ist er ed . 198 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table CP.5 Early marriage Percentage of women aged 15–49 in marriage or union before their 15th birthday, percentage of women aged 20–49 in marriage or union before their 18th birthday, percentage of women aged 15–19 years currently married or in union, Serbia, 2005 Percentage married before age 15* Number of women aged 15–49 years Percentage married before age 18* Number of women aged 20–49 years Percentage of women 15–19 years married /in union** Number of women aged 15–19 years Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements .6 7415 7.9 6498 5.0 918 Roma in Roma settlements 12.4 101 45.9 81 40.9 20 Region Vojvodina .3 2080 7.4 1811 4.7 269 Belgrade .6 1554 4.3 1370 2.0 183 West .6 842 11.2 754 5.5 88 Central .8 1218 9.1 1057 4.1 161 East 2.1 644 14.5 549 13.9 95 South-East 1.0 1178 9.3 1037 9.3 141 Type of settlement Urban .4 4269 4.7 3756 3.1 513 Rural 1.2 3247 13.3 2822 9.0 425 Age 15–19 .5 938 – 0 5.8 938 20–24 .6 978 5.8 978 – 0 25–29 .4 1161 6.9 1161 – 0 30–34 1.1 1251 8.7 1251 – 0 35–39 1.2 1069 9.5 1069 – 0 40–44 .4 1064 8.1 1064 – 0 45–49 .9 1056 10.9 1056 – 0 Education Primary or none 2.9 1539 27.3 1270 11.4 269 Secondary .3 4439 5.1 3791 3.6 648 University – 1538 .6 1517 – 21 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian .6 6550 7.7 5773 5.0 777 Hungarian – 277 10.2 235 (*) 42 Muslim\Bosnian .2 167 14.0 149 (1.7) 18 Roma 12.0 125 44.3 100 38.3 25 Other .0 397 5.8 321 5.9 76 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 2.5 1163 19.1 995 14.9 168 Second .6 1442 11.5 1253 7.4 189 Middle .7 1649 8.1 1418 3.3 230 Fourth .2 1567 4.4 1410 2.2 156 Richest .2 1695 2.6 1501 2.1 195 Total .8 7516 8.4 6578 5.8 938 * MICS indicator 67 ** MICS indicator 68 199MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e CP .6 Sp ou sa l a ge d if fe re nc e Pe rc en ta ge d is tr ib ut io n of cu rr en tl y m ar ri ed /i n un io n w om en a ge d 15 –1 9 an d 20 –2 4, a cc or di ng to th e ag e di ff er en ce w it h th ei r h us ba nd o r p ar tn er , S er bi a, 2 00 5 Pe rc en ta ge o f c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on w om en ag ed 15 –1 9 w ho se h us ba nd o r p ar tn er is To ta l Nu m be r o f w om en a ge d 15 –1 9 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in un io n Pe rc en ta ge o f c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on w om en ag ed 2 0– 24 w ho se h us ba nd o r p ar tn er is To ta l Nu m be r o f w om en a ge d 20 –2 4 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in un io n Yo un ge r 0– 4 ye ar s ol de r 5– 9 ye ar s ol de r 10 + ye ar s ol de r* Hu sb an d /p ar tn er ’s ag e un kn ow n Yo un ge r 0– 4 ye ar s ol de r 5– 9 ye ar s ol de r 10 + ye ar s ol de r* Hu sb an d /p ar tn er ’s ag e un kn ow n Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fro m R om a s et tle m en ts – (1 7.9 ) (5 2. 7) (2 9. 4) – (1 00 .0 ) 46 4. 0 45 .8 35 .6 14 .0 .6 10 0. 0 31 5 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 4. 7 62 .8 21 .7 8. 7 2. 1 10 0. 0 8 13 .1 55 .2 25 .1 5. 1 1. 4 10 0. 0 11 Re gi on Vo jv od in a .5 30 .2 22 .4 46 .7 .2 10 0. 0 13 5. 4 51 .6 32 .6 10 .4 .0 10 0. 0 91 Be lg ra de (1 .9 ) (8 0. 4) (1 2. 8) (4 .9 ) – (1 00 .0 ) 4 8. 6 44 .4 31 .6 15 .3 – 10 0. 0 43 W es t (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) – (* ) 5 3. 9 41 .2 44 .6 10 .2 – 10 0. 0 46 Ce nt ra l – (* ) (* ) (* ) – (* ) 7 1. 0 39 .7 40 .2 19 .2 – 10 0. 0 68 Ea st (.9 ) (1 0. 0) (5 0. 7) (3 8. 1) (.3 ) (1 00 .0 ) 13 4. 9 46 .4 25 .5 19 .1 4. 1 10 0. 0 34 So ut h- Ea st .4 16 .7 80 .8 1. 3 .8 10 0. 0 13 2. 6 51 .6 34 .3 9. 8 1. 7 10 0. 0 44 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 2. 0 48 .9 27 .7 21 .0 .5 10 0. 0 16 2. 6 50 .5 31 .8 13 .9 1. 2 10 0. 0 12 2 Ru ra l .2 14 .5 56 .5 28 .6 .2 10 0. 0 38 5. 3 43 .6 37 .3 13 .6 .3 10 0. 0 20 4 Ag e 15 –1 9 .7 24 .6 48 .1 26 .3 .3 10 0. 0 54 – – – – – – 0 20 –2 4 – – – – – – 0 4. 3 46 .2 35 .2 13 .7 .7 10 0. 0 32 6 Ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 1. 2 22 .3 44 .8 31 .0 .5 10 0. 0 31 5. 7 35 .5 34 .5 22 .5 1. 8 10 0. 0 84 Se co nd ar y – (2 7. 5) (5 2. 4) (2 0. 1) – (1 00 .0 ) 23 4. 2 48 .3 35 .5 11 .7 .3 10 0. 0 21 8 Un iv er sit y – – – – – – 0 – (* ) (* ) – – (* ) 23 Et hn ici ty o f he ad o f t he ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n – (1 9. 8) (5 6. 4) (2 3. 9) – (1 00 .0 ) 39 3. 4 46 .6 34 .8 14 .7 .5 10 0. 0 27 0 Hu ng ar ia n – (* ) (* ) – – (* ) 1 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) – (* ) 15 M us lim \B os ni an – (* ) (* ) – – (* ) 0 (.0 ) (4 6. 4) (3 6. 4) (1 6. 6) (.6 ) (1 00 .0 ) 14 Ro m a 4. 1 51 .4 36 .7 6. 0 1. 8 10 0. 0 9 13 .8 56 .6 25 .9 3. 3 .5 10 0. 0 16 Ot he r – – – (* ) – (* ) 4 – (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 11 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 1. 4 20 .4 47 .4 30 .1 .7 10 0. 0 25 9.1 38 .8 35 .6 14 .6 1. 9 10 0. 0 79 Se co nd (.2 ) (1 4. 3) (7 2. 0) (1 3. 5) – (1 00 .0 ) 14 4. 0 39 .9 39 .1 17 .0 – 10 0. 0 75 M id dl e – (* ) (* ) (* ) – (* ) 8 2. 4 53 .2 33 .9 10 .5 – 10 0. 0 91 Fo ur th – (* ) (* ) – – (* ) 3 2. 4 52 .9 31 .7 12 .0 1. 0 10 0. 0 62 Ri ch es t – (* ) – (* ) – (* ) 4 – (4 5. 6) (3 6. 3) (1 7. 8) (.2 ) (1 00 .0 ) 19 To ta l .7 24 .6 48 .1 26 .3 .3 10 0. 0 54 4. 3 46 .2 35 .2 13 .7 .7 10 0. 0 32 6 * M IC S in di ca to r 6 9 200 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table CP.7 Attitudes toward domestic violence Percentage of women aged 15–49 who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife/partner under various circumstances, Serbia, 2005 Percentage of women aged 15–49 who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife Number of women aged 15–49 When she goes out without telling him When she neglects the children When she argues with him When she refuses sex with him When she burns the food For any of these reasons* Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 1.7 5.2 1.7 .9 .6 5.8 7415 Roma in Roma settlements 19.9 29.9 19.6 14.1 10.5 35.5 101 Region Vojvodina 1.1 2.5 1.1 .9 .7 3.0 2080 Belgrade .7 2.2 .9 .4 .5 2.5 1554 West 2.1 10.8 2.7 1.5 1.3 11.7 842 Central 2.1 7.7 1.7 .8 .8 8.2 1218 East 1.6 2.6 1.2 .2 .1 3.1 644 South-East 5.3 11.3 4.6 2.7 1.1 12.4 1178 Type of settlement Urban 1.3 4.0 1.3 .8 .4 4.4 4269 Rural 2.9 7.7 2.7 1.5 1.1 8.6 3247 Age 15–19 .9 4.5 .9 .7 .4 5.1 938 20–24 2.0 5.7 1.6 .9 .7 6.7 978 25–29 2.1 6.1 2.3 1.3 .8 6.6 1161 30–34 1.5 4.6 1.6 1.1 .6 4.8 1251 35–39 2.0 5.6 2.1 .7 .4 6.1 1069 40–44 2.4 6.2 1.7 .8 .8 7.2 1064 45–49 2.7 6.2 3.1 2.1 1.6 7.2 1056 Marital/Union status Currently married/in union 2.6 7.0 2.7 1.4 .9 7.8 4844 Formerly married/in union 1.6 4.2 .7 .6 .5 4.7 451 Never married/in union .7 2.8 .5 .5 .4 3.2 2221 Education Primary or none 6.4 12.0 6.4 2.9 2.4 13.6 1539 Secondary 1.0 5.0 .9 .7 .4 5.4 4439 University .5 .8 .3 .3 .1 1.1 1538 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 1.2 4.4 1.2 .8 .5 4.8 6550 Hungarian 1.2 1.7 2.1 .3 .7 4.0 277 Muslim\Bosnian 11.5 36.0 11.3 6.1 4.1 37.9 167 Roma 19.1 26.4 18.7 12.3 8.1 32.6 125 Other 5.6 7.7 3.2 1.3 .9 8.6 397 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 5.7 13.2 6.3 3.1 2.3 14.9 1163 Second 2.7 7.6 2.4 1.4 1.1 8.5 1442 Middle 1.8 5.5 1.3 1.1 .5 6.2 1649 Fourth .3 2.5 .6 .1 .0 2.7 1567 Richest .4 1.5 .3 .3 .3 1.5 1695 Total 2.0 5.6 1.9 1.1 .7 6.2 7516 * MICS indicator 100 201MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Ta bl e CP .8 Ch ild d is ab ili ty Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag ed 2 –9 w it h di sa bi lit y re po rt ed b y th ei r m ot he r or ca re ta ke r a cc or di ng to th e ty pe o f d is ab ili ty , S er bi a, 2 00 5 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag ed 2 –9 ye ar s w ith re po rt ed d is ab ili ty Nu m be r of ch ild re n ag ed 2– 9 ye ar s Sp ee ch is no t no rm al Nu m be r of ch ild re n ag ed 3– 9 ye ar s Ca nn ot na m e at le as t on e ob je ct Nu m be r of ch ild re n ag ed 2 ye ar s De la y i n sit tin g st an d- in g or w al ki ng Di ff ic ul ty se ei ng , ei th er in th e da y- tim e or a t ni gh t Ap pe ar s to h av e di f- fic ul ty he ar in g No un de r- st an di ng of in st ru c- tio ns Di ff icu lty in w al ki ng m ov in g, m ov in g ar m s, w ea kn es s o r st iff ne ss Ha ve fi ts , be co m e rig id , l os e co ns ci ou s- ne ss No t l ea rn in g to d o th in gs lik e o th er ch ild re n hi s/ he r a ge No t sp ea ki ng , ca nn ot be u n- de rs to od in w or ds Ap pe ar s m en ta lly ba ck w ar d, du ll, o r slo w Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n 2– 9 ye ar s o f a ge w ith a t l ea st on e r ep or te d di sa bi lit y* Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t Ro m a i n Ro m a se ttl em en ts .7 1. 7 .5 3. 3 .6 .8 3. 7 5. 2 1. 3 11 .0 25 59 3. 3 22 48 6. 3 31 1 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 1. 5 4. 0 1. 2 9. 4 1. 9 2. 4 5. 2 8. 4 4. 6 23 .0 69 4. 6 60 7.0 9 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 1. 2 3. 4 1. 3 4. 6 1. 2 1. 3 2. 5 3. 1 2. 3 11 .0 70 2 5. 6 61 3 3. 3 89 Be lg ra de .4 .9 .3 3. 1 .7 .7 3. 0 4. 9 1. 2 10 .4 49 9 3. 8 43 9 16 .6 60 W es t – 1. 7 – 4. 6 – 1. 3 2. 6 4. 2 .9 12 .3 28 5 1. 2 24 3 2. 7 41 Ce nt ra l – .7 .1 .7 .1 .1 3. 7 7. 2 .7 9. 7 41 8 2. 8 36 0 2. 5 58 Ea st .3 1. 3 – 8. 4 .3 .3 5. 8 5. 6 .7 15 .5 24 7 1.1 22 4 2. 4 23 So ut h- Ea st 1. 4 1. 3 .5 1. 2 1. 0 .9 6. 0 7. 6 1. 3 11 .3 47 7 2. 4 42 7 8. 8 49 Ty pe o f se ttl em en t Ur ba n .4 1. 4 .3 3. 5 .5 .3 2. 7 3. 6 .8 9. 5 14 25 3. 0 12 53 7. 2 17 2 Ru ra l 1. 0 2. 1 .8 3. 4 .8 1. 4 5. 0 7. 3 2. 0 13 .4 12 03 3. 6 10 55 5. 4 14 8 Ag e of ch ild 2– 4 .4 .6 .2 3. 4 .5 .3 3. 3 4. 5 1. 0 10 .0 92 9 5. 7 61 0 6. 3 32 0 5– 6 .8 .9 .1 3. 0 .6 1.1 4. 2 5. 8 1. 2 10 .6 71 6 2. 2 71 6 – 0 7– 9 .8 3. 4 1.1 3. 8 .9 1.1 3. 8 5. 6 1. 8 13 .0 98 2 2. 6 98 2 – 0 M ot he r’s ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 1.1 2. 3 .4 4. 9 1.1 1. 8 4. 5 6. 7 2. 7 15 .4 57 7 5. 1 50 5 7.9 73 Se co nd ar y .7 1. 5 .7 3. 1 .6 .6 3. 7 5. 3 1. 2 10 .3 15 97 3. 0 14 05 5. 5 19 2 Un iv er sit y – 1. 7 .1 2. 7 .3 .5 3. 1 3. 5 .1 9. 6 45 3 2. 0 39 8 7.4 55 Et hn ici ty of h ea d of th e ho us e- ho ld Se rb ia n .6 1. 7 .6 3. 1 .6 .8 4. 0 5. 4 1. 2 11 .0 21 77 3. 5 19 21 6. 4 25 6 Hu ng ar ia n 2. 4 4. 2 – 8. 1 2. 4 1. 7 4. 0 7.7 4. 8 18 .2 88 4. 3 76 – 12 M us lim \B os ni an .1 .1 – 1. 3 .1 .4 .2 .5 1.1 3. 5 11 0 1. 3 91 5. 1 19 Ro m a 1. 2 3. 3 1. 0 8. 8 1. 5 2. 0 3. 8 6. 4 3. 3 18 .9 82 3. 7 70 4. 7 12 Ot he r 1.1 1. 0 – 4. 3 1.1 .3 2. 6 5. 0 .7 12 .3 17 2 2. 0 15 1 (1 1. 4) 21 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 1. 0 2. 3 .5 4. 6 1.1 1. 7 6. 1 9. 6 2. 3 17 .1 47 0 3. 7 42 0 5. 0 50 Se co nd .7 2. 5 .6 3. 4 .7 1.1 3. 0 4. 8 1. 5 10 .8 53 6 4. 0 46 8 7.1 69 M id dl e .9 1.1 .7 3. 7 .7 .3 4. 7 5. 8 1. 7 12 .0 56 7 3. 7 49 0 5. 3 77 Fo ur th .5 1.1 .8 3. 4 .5 .7 2. 6 3. 0 .8 9. 0 54 8 2. 0 47 8 8. 2 70 Ri ch es t .3 1. 8 – 2. 2 .4 .4 2. 6 3. 7 .6 8. 2 50 7 3. 1 45 3 5. 8 54 To ta l .7 1. 7 .5 3. 4 .7 .8 3. 8 5. 3 1. 4 11 .3 26 28 3. 3 23 08 6. 3 32 0 * M IC S in di ca to r 1 01 202 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ta bl e HA .1 Kn ow le dg e of p re ve nt in g HI V tr an sm is si on Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge d 15 – 49 w ho k no w th e m ai n w ay s of p re ve nt in g HI V tr an sm is si on , S er bi a, 2 00 5 He ar d of A ID S Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w tr an sm iss io n ca n be p re ve nt ed b y Kn ow s a ll th re e w ay s Kn ow s a t le as t o ne w ay Do es n’ t k no w an y w ay Nu m be r o f w om en Ha vi ng o nl y o ne fa ith fu l un in fe ct ed se xu al p ar tn er Us in g a co nd om ev er y t im e Ab st ai ni ng fr om se x Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fro m R om a se tt le m en ts 98 .1 67 .2 86 .3 50 .5 36 .3 91 .8 8. 2 74 15 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 72 .2 33 .8 39 .3 23 .5 13 .9 49 .5 50 .5 10 1 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 98 .9 73 .0 90 .4 50 .4 38 .3 95 .4 4. 6 20 80 Be lg ra de 98 .9 71 .0 91 .0 54 .4 38 .6 96 .0 4. 0 15 54 W es t 98 .5 73 .8 87 .0 60 .0 47 .1 93 .1 6. 9 84 2 Ce nt ra l 99 .3 55 .4 79 .4 59 .1 40 .1 84 .0 16 .0 12 18 Ea st 97 .9 66 .7 84 .1 42 .8 31 .8 89 .9 10 .1 64 4 So ut h- Ea st 91 .9 56 .6 76 .6 31 .7 18 .7 84 .3 15 .7 11 78 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 98 .2 71 .0 90 .5 51 .7 38 .5 94 .8 5. 2 42 69 Ru ra l 97 .1 61 .1 79 .3 48 .1 32 .7 86 .4 13 .6 32 47 Ag e 15 –1 9 97 .1 65 .5 86 .7 53 .8 37 .9 91 .3 8. 7 93 8 20 –2 4 99 .0 69 .8 88 .4 51 .5 39 .5 94 .1 5. 9 97 8 25 –2 9 99 .2 69 .8 88 .0 50 .2 37 .7 92 .7 7. 3 11 61 30 –3 4 97 .8 68 .3 86 .5 48 .5 35 .3 92 .2 7. 8 12 51 35 –3 9 97 .5 68 .9 86 .8 49 .3 36 .2 92 .0 8. 0 10 69 40 – 44 96 .9 63 .7 82 .3 48 .6 32 .4 88 .0 12 .0 10 64 45 – 49 96 .5 60 .5 80 .7 49 .8 33 .3 87 .9 12 .1 10 56 Ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 90 .6 50 .1 67 .3 45 .2 29 .0 76 .1 23 .9 15 39 Se co nd ar y 99 .5 70 .3 89 .4 50 .7 37 .0 94 .3 5. 7 44 39 Un iv er sit y 99 .8 73 .1 93 .4 53 .4 39 .9 97 .4 2. 6 15 38 Et hn ici ty of h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 98 .6 67 .5 87 .0 50 .0 36 .1 92 .1 7.9 65 50 Hu ng ar ia n 99 .7 72 .0 91 .3 56 .6 40 .8 97 .9 2. 1 27 7 M us lim \B os ni an 97 .9 73 .1 83 .1 61 .7 48 .6 92 .1 7.9 16 7 Ro m a 79 .5 40 .0 49 .6 35 .3 21 .8 60 .1 39 .9 12 5 Ot he r 87 .3 55 .9 72 .9 47 .4 30 .0 81 .5 18 .5 39 7 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 94 .0 53 .2 69 .1 46 .5 30 .4 77 .6 22 .4 11 63 Se co nd 96 .3 64 .0 82 .9 51 .0 35 .9 89 .4 10 .6 14 42 M id dl e 98 .1 66 .4 87 .5 52 .4 36 .3 93 .1 6. 9 16 49 Fo ur th 99 .0 72 .0 90 .3 46 .1 35 .1 94 .5 5. 5 15 67 Ri ch es t 10 0. 0 73 .7 93 .3 53 .4 40 .4 97 .1 2. 9 16 95 To ta l 97 .7 66 .7 85 .7 50 .1 36 .0 91 .2 8. 8 75 16 203MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HA.2 Identifying misconceptions about HIV/AIDS Percentage of women aged 15–49 who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, Serbia, 2005 Percentage who know that Reject two most common mis- conceptions and know a healthy- looking person can be infected HIV cannot be transmitted by supernatural means HIV can be transmitted by sharing needles Number of women HIV cannot be transmitted by sharing food HIV cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites A healthy look- ing person can be infected Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 79.2 67.1 77.0 51.7 90.4 93.2 7415 Roma in Roma settlements 28.0 27.6 34.2 10.1 43.9 57.9 101 Region Vojvodina 81.7 70.7 84.1 57.9 90.5 93.7 2080 Belgrade 85.0 79.1 77.6 61.8 95.2 96.7 1554 West 77.2 65.2 82.2 53.5 85.5 94.3 842 Central 72.3 54.9 73.6 42.4 88.0 91.1 1218 East 78.3 68.6 56.1 36.1 92.8 92.5 644 South-East 72.0 54.5 71.3 40.6 84.4 86.4 1178 Type of settlement Urban 84.1 72.8 81.1 58.6 93.5 95.1 4269 Rural 71.3 58.3 70.3 41.3 84.8 89.6 3247 Age 15–19 82.2 72.4 79.5 58.4 89.2 93.6 938 20–24 83.0 70.8 82.5 58.3 92.3 95.3 978 25–29 80.5 69.3 80.9 54.1 91.1 94.3 1161 30–34 80.2 67.0 78.9 52.8 91.6 92.8 1251 35–39 78.9 65.7 72.7 48.8 90.4 91.9 1069 40–44 75.1 62.6 72.6 45.6 89.1 91.3 1064 45–49 70.0 58.6 68.0 40.6 84.1 89.9 1056 Education Primary or none 53.9 48.3 55.0 27.8 70.2 79.2 1539 Secondary 82.7 67.6 79.2 51.9 93.5 95.5 4439 University 91.1 81.7 90.0 72.3 98.4 98.3 1538 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 80.3 67.4 77.0 52.1 91.3 93.8 6550 Hungarian 84.6 65.4 89.7 57.5 92.0 94.4 277 Muslim\Bosnian 58.3 60.5 71.6 35.4 76.0 92.6 167 Roma 37.5 31.2 37.0 11.6 53.1 64.8 125 Other 67.4 66.6 73.2 49.0 79.1 83.2 397 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 56.9 45.3 57.0 26.4 75.2 81.2 1163 Second 72.6 59.8 71.7 41.9 85.0 91.2 1442 Middle 79.5 66.5 79.5 51.2 91.1 93.8 1649 Fourth 87.9 73.5 82.8 59.3 94.8 95.5 1567 Richest 88.9 80.4 85.1 68.3 97.7 98.3 1695 Total 78.5 66.5 76.5 51.1 89.7 92.7 7516 204 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table HA.3 Comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission Percentage of women aged 15–49 who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, Serbia, 2005 Knows 2 ways to prevent HIV transmission Correctly identify 3 misconceptions about HIV transmission Have comprehensive knowledge (identify 2 prevention methods and 3 misconceptions)* Number of women Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 63.4 51.7 37.8 7415 Roma in Roma settlements 25.6 10.1 5.4 101 Region Vojvodina 69.5 57.9 45.2 2080 Belgrade 67.4 61.8 44.4 1554 West 69.9 53.5 45.8 842 Central 52.8 42.4 26.9 1218 East 62.3 36.1 28.5 644 South-East 50.9 40.6 24.2 1178 Type of settlement Urban 67.8 58.6 43.6 4269 Rural 56.3 41.3 29.3 3247 Age 15–19 63.3 58.4 43.0 938 20–24 64.9 58.3 41.6 978 15–24 64.1 58.4 42.3 1916 25–29 66.4 54.1 39.9 1161 30–34 64.6 52.8 39.1 1251 35–39 65.5 48.8 37.2 1069 40–44 59.2 45.6 32.8 1064 45–49 55.6 40.6 28.7 1056 Education Primary or none 44.9 27.8 19.1 1539 Secondary 66.6 51.9 38.4 4439 University 69.9 72.3 53.0 1538 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 63.9 52.1 38.5 6550 Hungarian 67.8 57.5 39.1 277 Muslim\Bosnian 66.6 35.4 30.7 167 Roma 32.6 11.6 6.6 125 Other 50.0 49.0 30.8 397 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 48.1 26.4 18.6 1163 Second 59.6 41.9 30.7 1442 Middle 62.7 51.2 36.8 1649 Fourth 68.7 59.3 44.2 1567 Richest 70.6 68.3 50.3 1695 Total 62.9 51.1 37.4 7516 * MICS Indicator 82; MDG Indicator 19b 205MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HA.4 Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission Percentage of women aged 15–49 who correctly identify means of HIV transmission from mother to child, Serbia, 2005 Know HIV can be transmitted from mother to child Percentage who know HIV can be transmitted Did not know any specific way Number of womenDuring pregnancy At delivery Through breastmilk All three ways* Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 87.3 85.5 74.2 62.6 57.2 10.8 7415 Roma in Roma settlements 50.1 49.4 45.3 45.2 42.0 22.1 101 Region Vojvodina 90.7 89.3 78.5 56.8 53.7 8.2 2080 Belgrade 88.4 85.8 68.4 57.9 50.0 10.5 1554 West 87.8 86.5 83.1 76.5 73.8 10.7 842 Central 81.3 79.0 70.6 62.5 57.4 18.0 1218 East 87.1 85.8 72.9 60.6 52.5 10.9 644 South-East 82.8 81.2 70.1 68.8 62.3 9.1 1178 Type of settlement Urban 89.8 87.7 75.6 63.2 57.0 8.4 4269 Rural 82.9 81.6 71.5 61.3 57.0 14.2 3247 Age 15–19 83.1 82.0 69.7 63.5 57.6 14.1 938 20–24 87.9 85.3 73.9 61.5 56.0 11.1 978 25–29 89.2 87.2 76.5 63.4 58.6 10.0 1161 30–34 87.2 85.0 74.4 63.2 57.7 10.6 1251 35–39 88.7 86.9 74.8 60.9 55.3 8.8 1069 40–44 86.3 84.7 74.1 62.8 57.5 10.6 1064 45–49 84.8 83.5 72.6 61.1 56.1 11.7 1056 Education Primary or none 69.8 68.6 60.2 53.8 49.6 20.8 1539 Secondary 89.9 88.1 75.4 63.4 57.7 9.5 4439 University 94.8 92.7 82.9 68.0 62.4 5.1 1538 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 87.6 86.0 74.8 62.5 57.4 11.0 6550 Hungarian 93.2 92.2 78.6 67.8 62.4 6.6 277 Muslim\Bosnian 80.6 77.0 63.9 67.3 56.8 17.4 167 Roma 56.5 54.0 45.1 44.0 39.9 23.0 125 Other 80.9 77.1 68.7 59.9 52.9 6.4 397 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 74.5 73.4 66.2 58.3 54.6 19.5 1163 Second 83.6 82.3 72.3 62.9 58.4 12.7 1442 Middle 87.6 85.9 72.8 62.8 57.2 10.4 1649 Fourth 91.7 89.9 77.7 62.7 57.6 7.3 1567 Richest 92.6 90.0 77.9 63.9 56.8 7.3 1695 Total 86.8 85.0 73.8 62.4 57.0 10.9 7516 * MICS indicator 89 206 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table HA.5 Attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS Percentage of women aged 15–49 who have heard of AIDS who express a discriminatory attitude towards people living with HIV/AIDS, Serbia, 2005 Percentage of women who Number of women who have heard of AIDS Would not care for a family mem- ber who was sick with AIDS If a family member had HIV would want to keep it a secret Believe that a female teacher with HIV should not be allowed to work Would not buy food from a person with HIV/AIDS Agree with at least one dis- criminatory statement Agree with none of the discrimina- tory state- ments* Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 2.2 24.5 36.5 50.0 63.3 36.7 7272 Roma in Roma settlements 6.6 21.4 70.8 77.2 84.5 15.5 73 Region Vojvodina 3.0 27.4 30.8 41.3 58.0 42.0 2057 Belgrade 1.0 21.3 29.2 41.7 54.5 45.5 1536 West 1.6 21.8 46.8 57.0 66.8 33.2 829 Central 3.0 24.2 37.1 51.6 64.5 35.5 1209 East .8 25.6 43.0 61.5 75.2 24.8 631 South-East 3.1 24.7 47.7 66.3 76.6 23.4 1083 Type of settlement Urban 1.8 24.1 31.4 45.1 58.2 41.8 4191 Rural 2.9 24.8 44.0 57.3 70.6 29.4 3154 Age 15–19 1.5 31.6 30.9 46.3 63.3 36.7 911 20–24 2.6 27.1 32.6 45.0 61.2 38.8 968 25–29 2.3 23.8 37.9 49.1 64.0 36.0 1151 30–34 2.6 22.0 34.2 47.7 61.0 39.0 1223 35–39 2.7 22.1 37.4 50.5 63.4 36.6 1042 40–44 1.8 22.4 40.4 55.2 64.7 35.3 1031 45–49 2.2 23.5 44.1 58.3 67.6 32.4 1019 Education Primary or none 3.4 27.8 52.8 62.7 75.0 25.0 1395 Secondary 2.2 24.1 36.5 51.0 64.2 35.8 4414 University 1.5 22.4 23.3 37.0 51.4 48.6 1535 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 2.1 23.1 36.1 49.6 62.4 37.6 6459 Hungarian 2.1 46.0 29.4 48.8 71.3 28.7 276 Muslim\Bosnian 2.6 30.8 57.6 73.1 81.9 18.1 163 Roma 7.9 20.6 65.9 70.7 78.9 21.1 99 Other 3.2 29.6 39.3 47.3 65.1 34.9 346 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 2.5 24.0 50.0 62.4 72.8 27.2 1093 Second 2.7 24.4 42.1 56.1 68.8 31.2 1390 Middle 2.8 27.3 39.2 52.2 66.8 33.2 1616 Fourth 2.1 24.1 30.8 44.8 58.8 41.2 1551 Richest 1.3 22.3 27.3 40.9 54.5 45.5 1695 Total 2.3 24.4 36.8 50.3 63.5 36.5 7345 * MICS Indicator 86 207MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HA.6 Knowledge of a facility for HIV testing Percentage of women aged 15–49 who know where to get an HIV test, percentage of women who have been tested and, of those tested the percentage who have been told the result, Serbia, 2005 Know a place to get tested* Have been tested** Number of women If tested, have been told result Number of women who have been tested for HIV Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 70.0 7.1 7415 83.8 528 Roma in Roma settlements 21.4 1.2 101 (*) 1 Region Vojvodina 65.1 3.7 2080 89.5 77 Belgrade 85.8 13.7 1554 81.1 212 West 66.6 5.4 842 (72.1) 45 Central 68.4 3.0 1218 (87.1) 37 East 80.8 17.1 644 87.8 110 South-East 52.0 4.1 1178 (84.9) 48 Type of settlement Urban 77.2 8.9 4269 87.5 379 Rural 59.0 4.6 3247 74.3 151 Age 15–19 66.0 2.2 938 (*) 21 20–24 73.0 6.8 978 80.0 67 25–29 73.2 8.4 1161 82.9 98 30–34 71.2 9.9 1251 88.2 124 35–39 69.3 9.2 1069 87.1 98 40–44 68.4 5.9 1064 (85.1) 62 45–49 63.6 5.7 1056 (79.6) 60 Education Primary or none 42.6 3.2 1539 78.5 50 Secondary 71.8 7.1 4439 81.2 314 University 89.2 10.8 1538 90.2 166 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 72.2 7.6 6550 83.9 501 Hungarian 60.1 1.6 277 (*) 4 Muslim\Bosnian 40.3 1.5 167 (*) 3 Roma 25.7 4.1 125 (91.5) 5 Other 55.2 4.1 397 (*) 16 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 45.9 3.7 1163 71.8 43 Second 59.2 3.6 1442 74.6 51 Middle 66.7 6.3 1649 77.7 103 Fourth 78.4 9.2 1567 82.5 144 Richest 88.4 11.1 1695 93.2 188 Total 69.4 7.0 7516 83.7 529 * MICS Indicator 87 ** MICS Indicator 88 208 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Table HA.7 HIV testing and counselling coverageduring antenatal care Percentage of women aged 15–49 who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey who were offered HIV testing and counselling with their antenatal care, Serbia, 2005 Percentage of women who Number of women who gave birth in two years preceding the survey Received ante- natal care from a health profes- sional for last pregnancy Were provided information about HIV prevention during ANC visit* Were tested for HIV during ANC visit Received results of HIV test during ANC visit** Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements 98.5 14.6 10.2 9.2 642 Roma in Roma settlements 85.8 2.4 2.0 1.5 20 Region Vojvodina 99.0 9.5 4.2 4.2 180 Belgrade 97.5 19.3 12.8 12.2 98 West 99.3 15.1 10.5 8.9 84 Central 96.0 14.9 8.1 7.1 122 East 98.4 32.1 35.3 32.1 62 South-East 98.6 6.4 4.5 3.3 115 Type of settlement Urban 97.9 15.2 10.7 10.0 350 Rural 98.4 13.3 9.1 7.8 312 Age 15–19 95.4 8.9 15.9 9.5 22 20–24 97.5 15.4 10.6 9.8 167 25–29 98.7 13.6 8.7 7.8 235 30–34 98.6 16.4 11.2 10.0 163 35–49 97.7 10.9 8.1 8.1 74 Education Primary or none 94.2 10.3 7.4 6.8 144 Secondary 99.1 13.9 9.5 8.1 403 University 100.0 20.6 14.7 14.7 114 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 99.0 16.4 11.3 10.2 538 Hungarian (100.0) (6.5) (3.2) (3.2) 21 Muslim\Bosnian 91.0 .2 1.7 – 36 Roma 87.9 4.2 6.7 6.6 27 Other 98.5 8.6 5.1 5.1 39 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 96.4 11.7 8.7 7.0 127 Second 98.0 12.3 6.7 5.7 123 Middle 98.7 14.9 10.2 8.9 157 Fourth 97.8 15.0 11.8 11.3 139 Richest 100.0 17.4 12.5 11.9 116 Total 98.2 14.3 10.0 8.9 662 * MICS indicator 90 ** MICS indicator 91 209MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN Table HA.8 Sexual behaviour that increases risk of HIV infection Percentage of young women aged 15–19 who had sex before age 15, percentage of young women aged 20–24 who had sex before age 18, and percentage of young women aged 15–24, who had sex with a man 10 or more years older, Serbia, 2005 Percentage of women aged 15–19 who had sex before age 15* Number of women aged 15–19 years Percentage of women aged 20–24 who had sex before age 18 Number of women aged 20–24 years Percentage who had sex in the 12 months preced- ing the survey with a man 10 or more years older** Number of women who had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey Area Serbia without Roma from Roma settlements .8 918 18.6 963 7.4 879 Roma in Roma settlements 16.0 20 50.8 15 6.0 21 Region Vojvodina 1.3 269 26.5 281 6.4 283 Belgrade 1.4 183 23.3 204 5.0 196 West .9 88 13.2 123 9.4 95 Central .4 161 9.8 164 9.5 130 East .4 95 20.2 76 13.8 79 South-East 1.8 141 13.8 131 5.3 117 Type of settlement Urban .9 513 18.2 543 6.2 492 Rural 1.4 425 20.3 435 8.7 408 Age 15–19 1.1 938 na 0 10.6 190 20–24 na 0 19.2 978 6.5 709 Education Primary or none 2.7 269 41.8 118 20.2 138 Secondary .5 648 17.3 495 6.2 505 University – 21 14.3 365 2.8 256 Ethnicity of head of the household Serbian 1.0 777 16.4 859 7.0 773 Hungarian – 42 (38.7) 37 (8.1) 41 Muslim\Bosnian (.4) 18 (16.9) 28 (14.0) 16 Roma 11.7 25 61.9 21 4.1 28 Other .1 76 (42.7) 34 (12.5) 41 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 2.2 168 26.8 130 12.1 127 Second .3 189 14.9 204 8.2 179 Middle 1.0 230 20.1 217 6.1 200 Fourth 1.3 156 17.4 231 7.3 206 Richest 1.0 195 19.5 196 4.9 188 Total 1.1 938 19.2 978 7.4 900 * MICS indicator 84 ** MICS indicator 92 Na Not applicable 210 MICS3 FULL TECHNICAL REPORT Ta bl e HA .9 Co nd om u se a t l as t h ig h- ri sk se xu al e nc ou nt er Pe rc en ta ge o f y ou ng w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 w ho h ad h ig h ri sk se x in th e pr ev io us y ea r a nd w ho u se d a co nd om a t l as t h ig h ri sk se x, S er bi a, 2 00 5 Ev er h ad se x Ha d se x i n th e la st 12 m on th s Ha d se x w ith m or e th an o ne pa rt ne r i n th e la st 12 m on th s Nu m be r o f w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 Pe rc en t w ho ha d se x w ith no n- m ar ita l, no n- co ha bi tin g pa rt ne r* Nu m be r o f w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 w ho h ad se x i n la st 12 m on th s Pe rc en t w ho us ed a co nd om at la st se x w ith a no n- m ar ita l, no n- co ha bi tin g pa rt ne r* * Nu m be r o f w om en a ge d 15 –2 4 ye ar s w ho ha d se x i n la st 12 m on th s w ith a no n- m ar ita l, no n- co ha bi tin g pa rt ne r Ar ea Se rb ia w ith ou t R om a fro m R om a se tt le m en ts 52 .2 46 .7 2. 4 18 81 62 .1 87 9 74 .6 54 5 Ro m a in R om a se tt le m en ts 65 .7 60 .0 2. 6 35 7. 6 21 (2 2. 0) 2 Re gi on Vo jv od in a 59 .8 51 .4 4. 4 55 0 67 .4 28 3 67 .8 19 1 Be lg ra de 57 .1 50 .6 1. 8 38 7 78 .8 19 6 87 .5 15 4 W es t 47 .8 45 .0 2. 4 21 1 47 .0 95 (8 5. 9) 45 Ce nt ra l 44 .3 40 .0 .6 32 5 47 .7 13 0 (7 1. 4) 62 Ea st 51 .0 46 .3 2. 5 17 1 43 .5 79 (* ) 34 So ut h- Ea st 45 .6 42 .9 1. 6 27 2 51 .9 11 7 (6 1. 8) 61 Ty pe o f se tt le m en t Ur ba n 52 .6 46 .6 3. 2 10 56 73 .3 49 2 73 .1 36 1 Ru ra l 52 .4 47 .4 1. 4 86 0 45 .6 40 8 77 .1 18 6 Ag e 15 –1 9 23 .7 20 .3 .5 93 8 73 .2 19 0 86 .6 13 9 20 –2 4 80 .1 72 .5 4. 2 97 8 57 .4 70 9 70 .3 40 7 Ed uc at io n Pr im ar y o r n on e 38 .3 35 .7 1. 6 38 7 19 .5 13 8 (5 5. 2) 27 Se co nd ar y 50 .2 44 .2 1. 6 11 43 56 .9 50 5 72 .2 28 8 Un iv er sit y 73 .7 66 .4 5. 9 38 6 90 .7 25 6 79 .5 23 2 Et hn ici ty o f h ea d of th e ho us eh ol d Se rb ia n 52 .6 47 .3 2. 0 16 36 62 .7 77 3 75 .6 48 5 Hu ng ar ia n 60 .7 51 .7 10 .5 80 (7 1. 5) 41 (* ) 29 M us lim \B os ni an 39 .7 35 .2 .1 45 (2 4. 1) 16 (* ) 4 Ro m a 67 .9 60 .8 3. 3 46 10 .1 28 (3 8. 2) 3 Ot he r 43 .5 37 .8 4. 1 10 9 (6 2. 3) 41 (* ) 26 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Po or es t 47 .2 42 .6 1.1 29 8 27 .7 12 7 (3 6. 9) 35 Se co nd 50 .9 45 .5 3. 0 39 3 54 .9 17 9 82 .2 98 M id dl e 49 .3 44 .7 .7 44 7 53 .5 20 0 82 .8 10 7 Fo ur th 59 .9 53 .1 3. 2 38 8 69 .5 20 6 63 .8 14 3 Ri ch es t 54 .4 48 .3 4. 0 39 0 86 .8 18 8 81 .8 16 4 To ta l 52 .5 47 .0 2. 4 19 16 60 .8 90 0 74 .4 54 7 * M IC S in di ca to r 8 5 ** M IC S in di ca to r 8 3; M DG in di ca to r 1 9a CIP – Katalogizacija u publikaciji Narodna biblioteka Srbije, Beograd 314.613–053.2 (497.11) „2005” (083.41) Serbia Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2005 : Monitoring the situation of children and women Editor : Oliver Petrovic Belgrade : UNICEF, 2007 Novi Sad : Stojkov 210 str. : graf. prikazi, tabele ; 30 cm Tiraž 600 Napomene uz tekst Bibliografija : str. 65 ISBN 978-86-82471-75-2 1. Petrović Oliver a) Deca – Higijena – Srbija – 2005 – Statistika b) Deca – Zdravlje – Srbija – 2005 – Statistika COBISS.SR–ID 140179212

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