Republic of Tajikistan - adolescent contraceptive use
Publication date: 2016
Adolescent contraceptive use DATA FROM THE TAJIKISTAN DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY (TJDHS), 2012 R E P U B L I C O F TA J I K I S TA N What can be done to support Tajik adolescents to prevent unintended pregnancy? Plan for how, when and where different groups of sexually active adolescents (married and unmarried, boys and girls, rural and urban) use and do not use contraception. Learn the reasons why adolescents are not using contraception, and develop policies and programmes to better address their needs. Understand that adolescents may get contraception from a variety of sources and ensure that each of these sources can provide high quality services for adolescents. Adolescent population: who are they? In the Republic of Tajikistan, there nearly 1.7 million adolescents aged 10–19 years – 19.6% of the country’s total population.i Nearly three quarters of all adolescents live in rural areas, 74.0% of adolescent girls and 72.4% of adolescent boys.i By age 19, the mean number of years of schooling attended by adolescent girls is 9.8.ii Among adolescents who become parents before age 20, the average age at which Tajik adolescent girls have their first baby is 18.5 years.ii Sexual activity and marital status Analysis of data from the TjDHSii shows that, on average, among adolescents who had sex before age 20, adolescent girls first have sexual intercourse at 18.0 years. Among unmarried adolescents, 0.1% of adolescent girls report ever having sex and none report being currently sexually active. Among all Tajik adolescent girls, 13.2% are in a union. Among these adolescent girls, the mean age of the first union is 18.0 years. i Urban and rural population by age and sex, 1980–2015 [online database]. New York (USA): United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; 2014 (https://esa. un.org/unpd/popdev/urpas/urpas2014.aspx, accessed 4 November 2016). ii Statistical Agency under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan (SA), Ministry of Health [Tajikistan], ICF International. Tajikistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012 [Datasets]. TJIR61.DTA. Calverton (MD): ICF International; 2013 (http://dhsprogram.com/data/dataset/Tajikistan_Standard-DHS_2012.cfm?flag=0, accessed 4 November 2016). Contraceptive use and non-use among adolescent girls FIGURE 1. Use and non-use of contraception: adolescent girls, aged 15–19 years (%) LISTED FROM LEAST EFFECTIVE TO MOST EFFECTIVE In Union According to TjDHSii analyses, 14.2% of adolescent girls in a union report not wanting a child in the next two years, yet only 1.7% of them are currently using any method to prevent pregnancy. The main reasons these adolescents report for not using a contraceptive method include: • breastfeeding (37.3%) • up to God or fatalistic (23.3%) • menses has not returned after giving birth (23.0%) Among all adolescent girls in a union aged 15–19, 97.6% are not using a method of contraception. IUDs, one of the most effective methods, are the most common modern method used (0.9% of these adolescent girls). Male condoms are used by 0.4% while lactational amenorrhea (LAM) is used by 0.5%. Withdrawal, a traditional method, is used by 0.6% of these adolescent girls (see Figure 1). Source: analysis of TjDHS 2012ii Adolescents in a union who are using a modern method most often get it from a government facility (67.1%) or a pharmacy (33.0%). Not using Withdrawal Male condom Lactational amenorrhea (LAM) IUD 0.4 0.5 0.90.6 COMPILED IN 2016 | UPDATED NOVEMBER 2016 LEARN MORE AT who.int/reproductivehealth/adol-contraceptive-use 97.6 Adolescent contraceptive use R E P U B L I C O F T A J I K I S T A N Use and non-use of contraception adolescent girls, aged 15-19 million adolescents ages 10-19 1.7 18.0 years for adolescent girls Among adolescents who had sex before age 20, the average age at first sex is Among adolescents who become parents before age 20, the average age at first birth is What can be done to support Tajik adolescents to prevent unintended pregnancy? Main reasons for not using contraception Report not wanting a child in the next two years In union 14.2% adolescent girls in union Understand that adolescents may get modern contraception from a variety of sources. Learn the reasons why adolescents are not using contraception. Plan for how, when, and where different groups of adolescents use or don’t use contraception. ANALYSIS OF THE TAKIJISTAN DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY, 2012 COMPILED IN 2016 | UPDATED NOVEMBER 2016 Statistical Agency under the President of the Republic of Tajikistan (SA), Ministry of Health [Tajikistan], ICF International. Tajikistan Demographic and Health Survey 2012 [Datasets]. TJIR61.DTA. Calverton (MD): ICF International; 2013 (http:// dhsprogram.com/data/dataset/Tajikistan_Standard-DHS_2012.cfm?flag=0, accessed 4 November 2016). 18.5 for adolescent girls LEARN MORE AT who.int/reproductivehealth/adol-contraceptive-use In union 37.3% breastfeeding 23.3% up to God or fatalistic 23.0% menses has not returned after giving birth Method In union Not using 97.6% Withdrawal 0.6% Male condom 0.4% Lactational amenorrhea (LAM) 0.5% IUD 0.9% 33.0% from a pharmacy 67.1% from a government facility REASONS FOR NON-USE: Not married Not having sex Infrequent sex Menses has not returned after birth Breastfeeding Fatalistic (up to god) She is opposed Husband/partner is opposed Religious prohibition Knows no method Knows no source Fear of side effects/health concerns Inconvenient to use Others opposed Lack of access/too far SOURCE OF METHOD: Government facility Private facility Pharmacy Shop Friends or parents Other Community Health Worker Icon Directory METHODS: Not using Withdrawal Periodic abstinence Rhythm/calendar Female condom Male condom Standard days/cycle beads Pill Injectable contraceptives Lactational amenorrhea (LAM) Implants IUD Male sterilization Female sterilization © WHO 2016. 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