Republic of Cameroon - adolescent contraceptive use

Publication date: 2016

Adolescent contraceptive use DATA FROM L’ ENQUÊTE DÉMOGRAPHIQUE ET DE SANTÉ ET À INDICATEURS MULTIPLES DU CAMEROUN (EDSC-MICS), 2011 REPUBLIC OF CAMEROON What can be done to support Cameroonian adolescents to prevent unintended pregnancy? Plan for how, when and where different groups of sexually active adolescents (married and unmarried, boys and girls, rural and urban) use and do not use contraception. Learn the reasons why adolescents are not using contraception, and develop policies and programmes to better address their needs. Understand that adolescents may get contraception from a variety of sources and ensure that each of these sources can provide high quality services for adolescents. COMPILED IN 2016 | UPDATED NOVEMBER 2016 Adolescent population: who are they? In the Republic of Cameroon, there are 5.4 million adolescents aged 10–19 years – 23.2% of the country’s total population.i More than half of adolescents live in urban areas, 55.5% of adolescent girls and 57.3% of adolescent boys.i By age 19, the mean number of years of schooling attended by adolescent girls is 7.3, while for adolescent boys it is 8.4.ii Among adolescents who become parents before age 20, the average age at which Cameroonian adolescent girls have their first baby is 16.8 years.ii Sexual activity and marital status Analysis of data from the EDSC-MICSii shows that nearly 900 000 Cameroonians aged 15–19 are currently sexually active – they are either unmarried and have had sex in the last three months or they are in a union (i.e. married or living together). On average, among adolescents who had sex before age 20, adolescent girls first have sexual intercourse at age 16.1 years and adolescent boys at 16.3 years. Among unmarried adolescents, 34.8% of adolescent girls report ever having sex and 21.6% are currently sexually active; among adolescent boys, 37.6% report ever having sex, while 23.3% are currently sexually active. Among all Cameroonian adolescents, 24.2% of adolescent girls and 1.9% of adolescent boys are in a union. Among these adolescents, the mean age of the first union is 16.0 years for adolescent girls and 17.4 for adolescent boys. Contraceptive use and non-use among adolescent girls FIGURE 1. Use and non-use of contraception: unmarried sexually active adolescent girls, aged 15–19 years (%) Not using Withdrawal Periodic abstinence Female condom Male condom Pill Injectable contraceptives FIGURE 2. Use and non-use of contraception: adolescent girls in union, aged 15–19 years (%) LISTED FROM LEAST EFFECTIVE TO MOST EFFECTIVE LISTED FROM LEAST EFFECTIVE TO MOST EFFECTIVE Unmarried, sexually active According to EDSC-MICSii analyses, 72.5% of unmarried, sexually active adolescent girls report not wanting a child in the next two years, and 64.8% of them are currently using a method to prevent pregnancy. Among these adolescents, the main reasons these adolescents report for not using a contraceptive method include: • infrequent sex (50.6%) • fear of side-effects or health concerns (12.3%) • knows no source (11.4%) Among all unmarried, sexually active adolescent girls aged 15–19, 43.9% are not using a method of contraception. Male condoms are the most common modern method used (45.6% of these adolescent girls). Traditional methods (withdrawal or periodic abstinence) are used by 7.6% (see Figure 1). In union According to EDSC-MICSii analyses, 43.0% of adolescent girls in a union report not wanting a child in the next two years, and only 22.6% of them are currently using any method to prevent pregnancy. The main reasons these adolescents report for not using a contraceptive method include: • breastfeeding (24.0%) • not having sex (18.4%) • knows no source (18.2%) Among all adolescent girls in a union aged 15–19, most (83.9%) are not using a method of contraception. Among users, male condoms are the most common modern method used (9.6% of these adolescent girls). IUDs and implants, among the most effective methods, are used by 0.1% and 0.2% of these adolescent girls, respectively. Other modern methods each used by 1% or less of these adolescent girls include injectable contraceptives, pill, female condoms, and lactational amenorrhea (LAM). Traditional methods (withdrawal or period abstinence) are used by 3.8% (see Figure 2). i Urban and rural population by age and sex, 1980–2015 [online database]. New York (USA): United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division; 2014 (https://esa. un.org/unpd/popdev/urpas/urpas2014.aspx, accessed 4 November 2016). ii Institut National de la Statistique (INS) [Cameroon], ICF International. Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples du Cameroun 2011 [datasets]. CMIR61.DTA and CMMR61.DTA. Calverton (MD): ICF International; 2012 (http://dhsprogram.com/data/dataset/Cameroon_Standard-DHS_2011.cfm?flag=0, accessed 4 November 2016). Not using Withdrawal Periodic abstinence Female condom Male condom Pill Injectable contraceptives Lactational amenorrhea (LAM) Implants IUD 9.6 0.4 0.4 1.1 0.40.2 0.1 2.9 0.9 83.9 43.9 0.50.7 7.1 45.6 1.20.8 LEARN MORE AT who.int/reproductivehealth/adol-contraceptive-use Source: analysis of EDSC-MICS 2011ii Source: analysis of EDSC-MICS 2011ii Unmarried, sexually active adolescents who are using a modern method most often get it from a shop (43.6%) or friends or relatives (34.6%). Adolescents in a union who are using a modern method most often get it from a shop (39.8%) or friends (26.4%). Adolescent contraceptive use R E P U B L I C O F C A M E R O O N Use and non-use of contraception adolescent girls, aged 15-19 million adolescents ages 10-19 5.4 16.1 years for adolescent girls 16.3 years for adolescent boys Among adolescents who had sex before age 20, the average age at first sex is Among adolescents who become parents before age 20, the average age at first birth is What can be done to support Cameroonian adolescents to prevent unintended pregnancy? Main reasons for not using contraception Report not wanting a child in the next two years Sexually active, unmarried In union 72.5% sexually active, unmarried adolescent girls 43.0% adolescent girls in union 43.6% from a shop 39.8% from a shop 34.6% from friends or relatives 26.4% from friends Understand that adolescents may get modern contraception from a variety of sources. Learn the reasons why adolescents are not using contraception. Plan for how, when, and where different groups of adolescents use or don’t use contraception. ANALYSIS OF L’ENQUÊTE DÉMOGRAPHIQUE ET DE SANTÉ ET À INDICATEURS MULTIPLES DU CAMEROUN, 2011 COMPILED IN 2016 | UPDATED NOVEMBER 2016 Institut National de la Statistique (INS) [Cameroon], ICF International. Enquête Démographique et de Santé et à Indicateurs Multiples du Cameroun 2011 [datasets]. CMIR61.DTA and CMMR61.DTA. Calverton (MD): ICF International; 2012 (http://dhsprogram.com/data/dataset/Cameroon_Standard-DHS_2011.cfm?flag=0, accessed 4 November 2016). 16.8 for adolescent girls LEARN MORE AT who.int/reproductivehealth/adol-contraceptive-use Sexually active, unmarried In union 50.6% infrequent sex 24.0% breastfeeding 12.3% fear of side-effects or health concerns 18.4% not having sex 11.4% knows no source 18.2% knows no source Method Sexually active, unmarried In union Not using 43.9% 83.9% Withdrawal 0.5% 0.9% Periodic abstinence 7.1% 2.9% Female condom 0.7% 0.4% Male condom 45.6% 9.6% Pill 0.8% 0.4% Injectable contraceptives 1.2% 1.1% Implants -- 0.2% IUD -- 0.1% REASONS FOR NON-USE: Not married Not having sex Infrequent sex Menses has not returned after birth Breastfeeding Fatalistic (up to god) She is opposed Husband/partner is opposed Religious prohibition Knows no method Knows no source Fear of side effects/health concerns Inconvenient to use Others opposed Lack of access/too far SOURCE OF METHOD: Government facility Private facility Pharmacy Shop Friends or parents Other Community Health Worker Icon Directory METHODS: Not using Withdrawal Periodic abstinence Rhythm/calendar Female condom Male condom Standard days/cycle beads Pill Injectable contraceptives Lactational amenorrhea (LAM) Implants IUD Male sterilization Female sterilization © WHO 2016. Some rights reserved. This work is available under the CC BY-NC-SA 3.0 IGO licence WHO/RHR/16.18

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