Qatar - Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey - 2012

Publication date: 2012

State of Qatar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2012 State of Qatar Monitoring the situation of children and women Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2012 S tate of Q atar 2012 M ultiple Indicator C luster S urvey United Nations Children’s Fund MICS M IC S Ministry of Development Planning & Statistics Qatar Foundation Supreme Council of Health 1Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey In the State of Qatar, 2012 July, 2014 H.H. Sheikh Tamim Bin Hamad Al-Thani Emir of the State of Qatar The Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was carried out in 2012 by Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics in collaboration with the Supreme Council for Health and Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community. Technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). This is the first survey in the State of Qatar, to provide documented information on maternity and child health, childhood development and other indicators to monitor the Millennium Development Goals. MICS is an international household survey programme developed by UNICEF. The Qatar MICS was conducted as part of the fourth global round of MICS surveys (MICS4). MICS provides up-to-date information on the situation of children, women and men and measures key indicators that allow countries to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments. This report was developed in accordance with UNICEF templates. Additional information on the global MICS project may be obtained from http://www.childinfo.org, and MDP&S website http://www.mdps.gov.qa © All rights reserved to Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics –July 2014 When quoting, please refer to this publication as follows: Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics, 2014, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) : 2012 Doha – Qatar Send correspondence to: Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics PO Box 7283, Doha – Qatar Telephone: +974-44594555 Fax: +974-44933664 E-mail: Icu@qsa.gov.qa Legal Deposit No: ……………………………………. ISBN:……………………………………………………. Join us: www.mdps.gov.qa www.qalm.gov.qa Our Census Our Future www.facebook.com/QatarStatisticsAuthority @QatarStatistics Tadad2010 Statistics on your mobile 5Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics The Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was carried out in 2012 by Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics in collaboration with the Supreme Council for Health and Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community. Technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). This is the first survey in the State of Qatar, to provide documented information on maternity and child health, childhood development and other indicators to monitor the Millennium Development Goals. MICS is an international household survey programme developed by UNICEF. The Qatar MICS was conducted as part of the fourth global round of MICS surveys (MICS4). MICS provides up-to-date information on the situation of children, women and men and measures key indicators that allow countries to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments. This report was developed in accordance with UNICEF templates. Additional information on the global MICS project may be obtained from http://www.childinfo.org, and MDP&S website http://www.mdps.gov.qa © All rights reserved to Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics –July 2014 When quoting, please refer to this publication as follows: Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics, 2014, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) : 2012 Doha – Qatar Send correspondence to: Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics PO Box 7283, Doha – Qatar Telephone: +974-44594555 Fax: +974-44933664 E-mail: Icu@qsa.gov.qa Legal Deposit No: ……………………………………. ISBN:……………………………………………………. Join us: www.mdps.gov.qa www.qalm.gov.qa Our Census Our Future www.facebook.com/QatarStatisticsAuthority @QatarStatistics Tadad2010 Statistics on your mobile 49 - 2014 978 - 9927 - 106 - 04 - 0 1855 +974-44958888 +974-44839999 @MDPSqatar www.facebook.com/MDPSqatar www.qalm.gov.qa www.mdps.gov.qa Icu@qsa.gov.qa http://www.childinfo.org, http://www.mdps.gov.qa 6 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Summary Table of Findings Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Indicators, State of Qatar, 2012 Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value Qataris Non-Qataris Total unit Nutrition Breastfeeding and infant feeding 2.4 Children ever breastfed 94.5 94.7 94.6 Percent 2.5 Early initiation of breastfeeding – within one hour of birth 42.0 30.0 33.5 Percent 2.6 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 18.6 35.0 29.3 Percent 2.7 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 49.0 69.6 65.0 Percent 2.8 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 18.2 38.4 31.9 Percent 2.9 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 26.2 44.4 38.1 Percent 2.10 Duration of breastfeeding 13.7 18.3 16.4 Months 2.11 Bottle feeding – for children aged 0-23 months 68.9 60.4 62.9 Percent 2.12 Introduction of solid, semi- solid or soft foods 50.8 50.0 50.2 Percent 2.13 Minimum meal frequency 62.9 45.1 50.1 Percent 2.14 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 19.6 26.0 24.1 Percent 2.15 Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children 95.6 90.5 92.2 Percent Low birth weight 2.18 Low birth-weight infants 10.2 11.0 10.6 Percent 2.19 Infants weighed at birth 86.2 88.0 87.5 Percent Child Health Care of illness 3.8 Oral re-hydration therapy with continued feeding 66.4 (69.8) 68.5 Percent Reproductive Health 5.3 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate 39.4 36.9 37.5 Percent 5.4 5.6 Unmet need 13.4 12.1 12.4 Percent Maternal and newborn health 5.5 Antenatal care coverage 5.5 a At least once by skilled personnel 96.2 88.7 90.8 Percent 5.5 b At least four times by any provider 92.3 81.4 84.5 Percent 5.6 Content of antenatal care 95.4 85.2 88.1 Percent 5.7 5.2 Skilled attendant at delivery 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percent 5.8 Institutional deliveries 100.0 98.4 98.9 Percent 5.9 Caesarean section 13.4 22.0 19.5 Percent Post-natal health checks 5.10 Post-partum stay in a health facility 90.7 90.8 90.8 Percent 5.11 Post-natal health check for the newborn 95.8 95.5 95.6 Percent 5.12 Post-natal health check for the mother 89.0 91.7 90.9 Percent 7Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Summary Table of Findings Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Indicators, State of Qatar, 2012 Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value Qataris Non-Qataris Total unit Nutrition Breastfeeding and infant feeding 2.4 Children ever breastfed 94.5 94.7 94.6 Percent 2.5 Early initiation of breastfeeding – within one hour of birth 42.0 30.0 33.5 Percent 2.6 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 18.6 35.0 29.3 Percent 2.7 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 49.0 69.6 65.0 Percent 2.8 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 18.2 38.4 31.9 Percent 2.9 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 26.2 44.4 38.1 Percent 2.10 Duration of breastfeeding 13.7 18.3 16.4 Months 2.11 Bottle feeding – for children aged 0-23 months 68.9 60.4 62.9 Percent 2.12 Introduction of solid, semi- solid or soft foods 50.8 50.0 50.2 Percent 2.13 Minimum meal frequency 62.9 45.1 50.1 Percent 2.14 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 19.6 26.0 24.1 Percent 2.15 Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children 95.6 90.5 92.2 Percent Low birth weight 2.18 Low birth-weight infants 10.2 11.0 10.6 Percent 2.19 Infants weighed at birth 86.2 88.0 87.5 Percent Child Health Care of illness 3.8 Oral re-hydration therapy with continued feeding 66.4 (69.8) 68.5 Percent Reproductive Health 5.3 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate 39.4 36.9 37.5 Percent 5.4 5.6 Unmet need 13.4 12.1 12.4 Percent Maternal and newborn health 5.5 Antenatal care coverage 5.5 a At least once by skilled personnel 96.2 88.7 90.8 Percent 5.5 b At least four times by any provider 92.3 81.4 84.5 Percent 5.6 Content of antenatal care 95.4 85.2 88.1 Percent 5.7 5.2 Skilled attendant at delivery 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percent 5.8 Institutional deliveries 100.0 98.4 98.9 Percent 5.9 Caesarean section 13.4 22.0 19.5 Percent Post-natal health checks 5.10 Post-partum stay in a health facility 90.7 90.8 90.8 Percent 5.11 Post-natal health check for the newborn 95.8 95.5 95.6 Percent 5.12 Post-natal health check for the mother 89.0 91.7 90.9 Percent Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value Qataris Non-Qataris Total unit Child Development 6.1 Support for learning 85.5 89.9 88.4 Percent 6.2 Father's support for learning 80.9 86.9 84.9 Percent 6.3 Learning materials: children’s books 37.7 40.3 39.5 Percent 6.4 Learning materials: playthings 47.9 55.7 53.3 Percent 6.5 Inadequate care 11.1 11.9 11.6 Percent 6.6 Early child development index 82.8 84.5 83.9 Percent 6.7 Attendance to early childhood education 32.3 45.0 40.8 Percent Education 7.2 School readiness 77.3 84.6 81.9 Percent 7.3 Net intake rate in primary education 93.4 92.2 92.7 Percent 7.4 2.1 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 96.7 96.4 96.5 Percent 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 91.6 94.7 93.2 Percent 7.6 2.2 Children reaching last grade of primary education 99.8 100.0 99.9 Percent 7.7 Primary completion rate 92.7 93.0 92.9 Percent 7.8 Transition rate to secondary school 95.4 98.9 97.5 Percent 7.9 Gender parity index (primary school) 1.00 1.01 1.00 Percent 7.10 Gender parity index (secondary school) 1.01 0.98 0.99 Percent Early marriage and polygamy 8.6 Marriage before age 15 women age 15-49 years 0.0 0.0 0.0 Percent men age 15-49 years 0.0 0.0 0.0 Percent 8.7 Marriage before age 18 women age 15-49 years 7.4 5.6 6.2 Percent men age 15-49 years 1.0 0.7 0.8 Percent 8.8 Young age 15-19 years currently married women 3.4 4.5 4.0 Percent men 0.5 0.7 0.6 Percent 8.9 Polygyny women age 15-49 years 4.4 2.0 2.6 Percent men age 15-49 years 1.6 0.5 0.7 Percent Spousal age difference 8.10 b women age 20-24 years 9.8 16.6 14.6 Percent Domestic violence 8.14 Attitudes towards domestic violence women age 15-49 years 6.2 6.7 6.6 Percent men age 15-49 years 20.5 13.7 15.9 Percent HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS knowledge and 9.1 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value Qataris Non-Qataris Total unit Child Development 6.1 Support for learning 85.5 89.9 88.4 Percent 6.2 Father's support for learning 80.9 86.9 84.9 Percent 6.3 Learning materials: children’s books 37.7 40.3 39.5 Percent 6.4 Learning materials: playthings 47.9 55.7 53.3 Percent 6.5 Inadequate care 11.1 11.9 11.6 Percent 6.6 Early child development index 82.8 84.5 83.9 Percent 6.7 Attendance to early childhood education 32.3 45.0 40.8 Percent Education 7.2 School readiness 77.3 84.6 81.9 Percent 7.3 Net intake rate in primary education 93.4 92.2 92.7 Percent 7.4 2.1 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 96.7 96.4 96.5 Percent 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 91.6 94.7 93.2 Percent 7.6 2.2 Children reaching last grade of primary education 99.8 100.0 99.9 Percent 7.7 Primary completion rate 92.7 93.0 92.9 Percent 7.8 Transition rate to secondary school 95.4 98.9 97.5 Percent 7.9 Gender parity index (primary school) 1.00 1.01 1.00 Percent 7.10 Gender parity index (secondary school) 1.01 0.98 0.99 Percent Early marriage and polygamy 8.6 Marriage before age 15 women age 15-49 years 0.0 0.0 0.0 Percent men age 15-49 years 0.0 0.0 0.0 Percent 8.7 Marriage before age 18 women age 15-49 years 7.4 5.6 6.2 Percent men age 15-49 years 1.0 0.7 0.8 Percent 8.8 Young age 15-19 years currently married women 3.4 4.5 4.0 Percent men 0.5 0.7 0.6 Percent 8.9 Polygyny women age 15-49 years 4.4 2.0 2.6 Percent men age 15-49 years 1.6 0.5 0.7 Percent Spousal age difference 8.10 b women age 20-24 years 9.8 16.6 14.6 Percent Domestic violence 8.14 Attitudes towards domestic violence women age 15-49 years 6.2 6.7 6.6 Percent men age 15-49 years 20.5 13.7 15.9 Percent HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS knowledge and 9.1 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention 8 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value Qataris Non-Qataris Total unit attitudes women age 15-49 years 17.6 22.4 20.8 Percent men age 15-49 years 28.5 30.6 29.9 Percent 9.2 6.3 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people women age 15-24 years 16.2 15.1 15.6 Percent men age 15-24 years 24.2 26.3 25.2 Percent 9.3 Knowledge of mother-to- child transmission of HIV women age 15-49 years 28.7 28.2 28.4 Percent men age 15-49 years 31.9 26.8 28.5 Percent 9.4 Accepting attitude towards people living with HIV women age 15-49 years 0.7 4.5 3.3 Percent men age 15-49 years 1.4 7.8 5.8 Percent 9.5 Knowledge a place for HIV testing women 30.3 48.0 42.1 Percent men 54.5 61.7 59.3 Percent 9.6 Have been tested in the last 12 months and have been told result women 0.2 3.5 2.4 Percent men 0.2 7.8 5.3 Percent 9.8 HIV counselling during antenatal care 7.9 9.3 8.9 Percent 9.9 HIV testing during antenatal care 0.3 3.5 2.6 Percent Access to mass media use of information/communication technology Access to mass media MT.1 Exposure to mass media women 15-49 years 50.3 46.7 47.9 Percent men 15-49 years 74.8 64.7 68.0 Percent Use of Information / communication technology MT.2 Use of computers women 15-24 years 93.0 89.3 91.0 Percent men 15-24 years 96.6 93.6 95.2 Percent MT.3 Use of internet women 15-24 years 91.8 89.5 90.6 Percent men 15-24 years 97.4 94.5 96.0 Percent Tobacco use Tobacco use TA.1 Tobacco use women 15-49 years 0.5 3.2 2.3 Percent men 15-49 years 16.5 17.4 17.1 Percent TA.2 Smoking before age 15 years Women 0.1 0.4 0.3 Percent Men 2.3 2.9 2.7 Percent SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING Subjective well-being SW.1 Life satisfaction Women 15-49 years 88.8 83.2 85.1 Percent Men 15-49 years 90.4 78.3 82.2 Percent Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value Qataris Non-Qataris Total unit SW.2 Happiness Women 15-49 years 96.8 94.6 95.3 Percent Men 15-49 years 92.0 93.3 92.9 Percent SW.3 Perception of a better life Women 15-49 years 80.0 73.1 75.4 Percent Men 15-49 years 75.6 64.0 67.8 Percent ( ) Between 25-49 unweighted cases 9Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value Qataris Non-Qataris Total unit attitudes women age 15-49 years 17.6 22.4 20.8 Percent men age 15-49 years 28.5 30.6 29.9 Percent 9.2 6.3 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people women age 15-24 years 16.2 15.1 15.6 Percent men age 15-24 years 24.2 26.3 25.2 Percent 9.3 Knowledge of mother-to- child transmission of HIV women age 15-49 years 28.7 28.2 28.4 Percent men age 15-49 years 31.9 26.8 28.5 Percent 9.4 Accepting attitude towards people living with HIV women age 15-49 years 0.7 4.5 3.3 Percent men age 15-49 years 1.4 7.8 5.8 Percent 9.5 Knowledge a place for HIV testing women 30.3 48.0 42.1 Percent men 54.5 61.7 59.3 Percent 9.6 Have been tested in the last 12 months and have been told result women 0.2 3.5 2.4 Percent men 0.2 7.8 5.3 Percent 9.8 HIV counselling during antenatal care 7.9 9.3 8.9 Percent 9.9 HIV testing during antenatal care 0.3 3.5 2.6 Percent Access to mass media use of information/communication technology Access to mass media MT.1 Exposure to mass media women 15-49 years 50.3 46.7 47.9 Percent men 15-49 years 74.8 64.7 68.0 Percent Use of Information / communication technology MT.2 Use of computers women 15-24 years 93.0 89.3 91.0 Percent men 15-24 years 96.6 93.6 95.2 Percent MT.3 Use of internet women 15-24 years 91.8 89.5 90.6 Percent men 15-24 years 97.4 94.5 96.0 Percent Tobacco use Tobacco use TA.1 Tobacco use women 15-49 years 0.5 3.2 2.3 Percent men 15-49 years 16.5 17.4 17.1 Percent TA.2 Smoking before age 15 years Women 0.1 0.4 0.3 Percent Men 2.3 2.9 2.7 Percent SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING Subjective well-being SW.1 Life satisfaction Women 15-49 years 88.8 83.2 85.1 Percent Men 15-49 years 90.4 78.3 82.2 Percent Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value Qataris Non-Qataris Total unit SW.2 Happiness Women 15-49 years 96.8 94.6 95.3 Percent Men 15-49 years 92.0 93.3 92.9 Percent SW.3 Perception of a better life Women 15-49 years 80.0 73.1 75.4 Percent Men 15-49 years 75.6 64.0 67.8 Percent ( ) Between 25-49 unweighted cases 10 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Table of Contents Summary Table of Findings .4 Table of Contents .8 List of Tables .10 List of Figures .13 List of Abbreviations .14 Preface .15 Acknowledgements.16 Executive Summary . 17 I. Introduction .22 Background .22 Survey Objectives .25 II. Sample and Survey Methodology .26 Sample Design .26 Questionnaires .26 Training and Fieldwork .27 Data Processing .28 III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents .29 Sample Coverage .29 Characteristics of Households .30 Characteristics of Female and Male Respondents 15-49 Years of Age and Children Under-5 .33 IV. Nutrition .37 Breastfeeding and Infant and Young Child Feeding .37 Low Birth Weight .45 V. Child Health.47 Oral Rehydration Treatment .47 Care Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia .52 VI. Reproductive Health .54 Early Childbearing .54 Contraception .54 Unmet Need .57 Antenatal Care .60 Assistance at Delivery .63 Place of Delivery .64 Post-natal Health Checks .65 6 10 12 15 17 19 21 23 28 28 31 32 32 32 33 34 35 35 36 39 43 43 51 53 53 58 60 60 60 63 66 69 70 71 VII. Child Development . 72 Early Childhood Education and Learning . 72 Early Childhood Development . 78 VIII. Literacy and Education . 81 School Readiness . 81 Primary and Secondary School Participation . 82 IX. Child Protection . 92 Child Discipline . 92 Early Marriage and Polygyny . 94 Attitudes toward Domestic Violence . 100 X. HIV/AIDS . 103 Knowledge about HIV Transmission and Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS . 103 Accepting Attitudes toward People Living with HIV/AIDS . 112 Knowledge of a Place for HIV Testing, Counselling and Testing during Antenatal Care . 115 XI. Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology . 118 Access to Mass Media . 118 Use of Information/Communication Technology . 121 XII. Tobacco use . 125 XIII. Subjective Well Being . 130 Appendix A. Sample Design . 140 Appendix B. Estimates of Sampling Errors . 145 Appendix C. Data Quality Tables . 153 Appendix D. MICS4 Indicators: Numerators and Denominators . 162 Appendix E. Qatar MICS Questionnaires . 169 Household questionnaire . 170 Questionnaire for individual women . 179 Questionnaire for individual men . 204 Questionnaire for children under five . 216 11Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Table of Contents Summary Table of Findings .4 Table of Contents .8 List of Tables .10 List of Figures .13 List of Abbreviations .14 Preface .15 Acknowledgements.16 Executive Summary . 17 I. Introduction .22 Background .22 Survey Objectives .25 II. Sample and Survey Methodology .26 Sample Design .26 Questionnaires .26 Training and Fieldwork .27 Data Processing .28 III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents .29 Sample Coverage .29 Characteristics of Households .30 Characteristics of Female and Male Respondents 15-49 Years of Age and Children Under-5 .33 IV. Nutrition .37 Breastfeeding and Infant and Young Child Feeding .37 Low Birth Weight .45 V. Child Health.47 Oral Rehydration Treatment .47 Care Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia .52 VI. Reproductive Health .54 Early Childbearing .54 Contraception .54 Unmet Need .57 Antenatal Care .60 Assistance at Delivery .63 Place of Delivery .64 Post-natal Health Checks .65 VII. Child Development . 72 Early Childhood Education and Learning . 72 Early Childhood Development . 78 VIII. Literacy and Education . 81 School Readiness . 81 Primary and Secondary School Participation . 82 IX. Child Protection . 92 Child Discipline . 92 Early Marriage and Polygyny . 94 Attitudes toward Domestic Violence . 100 X. HIV/AIDS . 103 Knowledge about HIV Transmission and Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS . 103 Accepting Attitudes toward People Living with HIV/AIDS . 112 Knowledge of a Place for HIV Testing, Counselling and Testing during Antenatal Care . 115 XI. Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology . 118 Access to Mass Media . 118 Use of Information/Communication Technology . 121 XII. Tobacco use . 125 XIII. Subjective Well Being . 130 Appendix A. Sample Design . 140 Appendix B. Estimates of Sampling Errors . 145 Appendix C. Data Quality Tables . 153 Appendix D. MICS4 Indicators: Numerators and Denominators . 162 Appendix E. Qatar MICS Questionnaires . 169 Household questionnaire . 170 Questionnaire for individual women . 179 Questionnaire for individual men . 204 Questionnaire for children under five . 216 78 78 84 87 87 88 98 98 100 106 109 109 118 121 124 124 127 131 135 145 150 159 169 175 175 185 210 222 12 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics List of Tables Summary of Table Findings . 4 Table HH.1: Results of household, women's, men’s and under-5 interviews . 29 Table HH.2: Household age distribution by sex .30 Table HH.3: Household composition .32 Table HH.4: Women's background characteristics . 34 Table HH.4M: Men's background characteristics . 35 Table HH.5: Under-5’s background characteristics . 36 Table NU.2: Initial breastfeeding .39 Table NU.3: Breastfeeding .40 Table NU.4: Duration of breastfeeding .41 Table NU.5: Age-appropriate breastfeeding .42 Table NU.6: Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods. 43 Table NU.7: Minimum meal frequency .44 Table NU.8: Bottle feeding .45 Table NU.11: Low birth weight infants .46 Table CH.5: Feeding practices during diarrhoea . 49 Table CH.6: Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding and other treatments . 51 Table CH.8: Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia . 53 Table RH.2: Early child bearing .54 Table RH.4: Use of contraception .56 Table RH.5: Unmet need for contraception .59 Table RH.6: Antenatal care coverage .61 Table RH.7: Number of antenatal care visits .62 Table RH.8: Content of antenatal care .63 Table RH.9: Assistance during delivery .64 Table RH.10: Place of delivery .65 Table RH.11: Post-partum stay in health facility .66 Table RH.12: Post-natal health checks for newborns . 67 Table RH.13: Post-natal care (PNC) visits for newborns within one week of birth . 68 Table RH.14: Post-natal health checks for mothers . 69 Table RH.15: Post-natal care (PNC) visits for mothers within one week of birth . 70 Table RH.16: Post-natal health checks for mothers and newborns . 71 Table CD.1: Early childhood education .72 Table CD.2: Support for learning.74 Table CD.3: Learning materials.76 Table CD.4: Inadequate care .77 Table CD.5: Early child development index . 79 Table ED.2: School readiness . 81 Table ED.3: Primary school entry . 83 Table ED.4: Primary school attendance . 84 Table ED.5: Secondary school attendance . 87 Table ED.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school . 88 Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school . 90 Table ED.8: Education gender parity . 91 Table CP.4: Child discipline . 93 Table CP.5: Early marriage and polygyny among women . 96 Table CP.5M: Early marriage and polygyny among men . 97 Table CP.6: Trends in early marriage among women . 98 Table CP.6M: Trends in early marriage among men . 98 Table CP.7: Spousal age difference . 99 Table CP.11: Attitudes toward domestic violence among women . 101 Table CP.11M: Attitudes toward domestic violence among men . 102 Table HA.1: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among women (15-49 years) . 105 Table HA.1M: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among men (15-49 years) . 106 Table HA.2: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among young women (15-24 years) . 107 Table HA.2M: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among young men (15-24 years) . 108 Table HA.3: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission among women . 110 Table HA.3M: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission among men . 111 Table HA.4: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS among women . 113 Table HA.4M: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS among men . 114 Table HA.5: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing among women . 115 Table HA.5M: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing among men . 116 Table HA.7: HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care . 117 Table MT.1: Exposure to mass media among women . 120 Table MT.1M: Exposure to mass media among men . 121 Table MT.2: Use of computers and internet among young women . 123 Table MT.2M: Use of computers and internet among young men . 124 Table TA.1: Current and ever use of tobacco among women . 126 Table TA.1M: Current and ever use of tobacco among men . 127 Table TA.2: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use among women . 129 Table TA.2M: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use among men . 129 6 35 36 38 40 41 42 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 55 57 59 60 62 65 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 80 82 83 13Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics List of Tables Summary of Table Findings . 4 Table HH.1: Results of household, women's, men’s and under-5 interviews . 29 Table HH.2: Household age distribution by sex .30 Table HH.3: Household composition .32 Table HH.4: Women's background characteristics . 34 Table HH.4M: Men's background characteristics . 35 Table HH.5: Under-5’s background characteristics . 36 Table NU.2: Initial breastfeeding .39 Table NU.3: Breastfeeding .40 Table NU.4: Duration of breastfeeding .41 Table NU.5: Age-appropriate breastfeeding .42 Table NU.6: Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods. 43 Table NU.7: Minimum meal frequency .44 Table NU.8: Bottle feeding .45 Table NU.11: Low birth weight infants .46 Table CH.5: Feeding practices during diarrhoea . 49 Table CH.6: Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding and other treatments . 51 Table CH.8: Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia . 53 Table RH.2: Early child bearing .54 Table RH.4: Use of contraception .56 Table RH.5: Unmet need for contraception .59 Table RH.6: Antenatal care coverage .61 Table RH.7: Number of antenatal care visits .62 Table RH.8: Content of antenatal care .63 Table RH.9: Assistance during delivery .64 Table RH.10: Place of delivery .65 Table RH.11: Post-partum stay in health facility .66 Table RH.12: Post-natal health checks for newborns . 67 Table RH.13: Post-natal care (PNC) visits for newborns within one week of birth . 68 Table RH.14: Post-natal health checks for mothers . 69 Table RH.15: Post-natal care (PNC) visits for mothers within one week of birth . 70 Table RH.16: Post-natal health checks for mothers and newborns . 71 Table CD.1: Early childhood education .72 Table CD.2: Support for learning.74 Table CD.3: Learning materials.76 Table CD.4: Inadequate care .77 Table CD.5: Early child development index . 79 Table ED.2: School readiness . 81 Table ED.3: Primary school entry . 83 Table ED.4: Primary school attendance . 84 Table ED.5: Secondary school attendance . 87 Table ED.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school . 88 Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school . 90 Table ED.8: Education gender parity . 91 Table CP.4: Child discipline . 93 Table CP.5: Early marriage and polygyny among women . 96 Table CP.5M: Early marriage and polygyny among men . 97 Table CP.6: Trends in early marriage among women . 98 Table CP.6M: Trends in early marriage among men . 98 Table CP.7: Spousal age difference . 99 Table CP.11: Attitudes toward domestic violence among women . 101 Table CP.11M: Attitudes toward domestic violence among men . 102 Table HA.1: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among women (15-49 years) . 105 Table HA.1M: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among men (15-49 years) . 106 Table HA.2: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among young women (15-24 years) . 107 Table HA.2M: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission among young men (15-24 years) . 108 Table HA.3: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission among women . 110 Table HA.3M: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission among men . 111 Table HA.4: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS among women . 113 Table HA.4M: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS among men . 114 Table HA.5: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing among women . 115 Table HA.5M: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing among men . 116 Table HA.7: HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care . 117 Table MT.1: Exposure to mass media among women . 120 Table MT.1M: Exposure to mass media among men . 121 Table MT.2: Use of computers and internet among young women . 123 Table MT.2M: Use of computers and internet among young men . 124 Table TA.1: Current and ever use of tobacco among women . 126 Table TA.1M: Current and ever use of tobacco among men . 127 Table TA.2: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use among women . 129 Table TA.2M: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use among men . 129 85 87 89 90 93 94 96 97 99 102 103 104 104 105 107 108 111 112 113 114 116 117 119 120 121 122 123 126 127 129 130 131 132 134 134 14 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Table SW.1: Domains of life satisfaction among women . 132 Table SW.1M: Domains of life satisfaction among men . 133 Table SW.2: Life satisfaction and happiness among women . 135 Table SW.2M: Life satisfaction and happiness among men . 136 Table SW.3: Perception of a better life among women . 138 Table SW.3M: Perception of a better life among men . 139 Table SE.1: Indicators selected for sampling error calculations . 145 Table SE.2: Univariate statistics for household listing . 147 Table SE.3: Univariate statistics for household . 147 Table SE.4: Univariate statistics among women . 148 Table SE.4: Univariate statistics among men . 150 Table SE.6: Univariate statistics among child . 151 Table DQ.1: Age distribution of household population . 153 Table DQ.2: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . 155 Table DQ.2M: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men . 155 Table DQ.3: Age distribution of under-5s in household and under-5 questionnaires . 156 Table DQ.4: Women's completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households . 156 Table DQ.4M: Men's completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households . 157 Table DQ.5: Completion rates for under-5 questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households . 159 Table DQ.6: Completeness of reporting among household listing , household, women, men and child . 159 Table DQ.13: Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 . 161 Table DQ.15: School attendance by single age . 161 137 138 140 141 143 144 151 152 152 153 155 157 159 161 161 162 162 163 165 165 167 168 List of Figures Figure HH.1: Age and sex distribution of household population . 31 Figure NU.1: Proportion of mothers who started breastfeeding their children within one hour and one day of delivery . 38 Figure NU.2: Proportion of children who exclusively breastfed for the first six months . 40 Figure NU.3: Proportion of infants weighted at birth . 46 Figure CH.1: Proportion of under five children who had diarrhea and received oral rehydration treatment . . 48 Figure CH.2: Proportion of under five children who had diarrhea and received oral rehydration treatment or increased fluids, AND continued feeding . 50 Figure CH.3: Children who had diarrhea and did not receive any treatment . 50 Figure RH.1: Current use of contraceptives . 55 Figure RH.2: Proportion of currently married women aged 15-49 years who have unmet need for contraception . 58 Figure RH.3: Proportion of women aged 15-49 years who delivered a live birth within the two years preceding the survey who were assisted during delivery by skilled health professionals . 61 Figure CD.1: Proportion of children aged 36-59 months with whom an adult family member engaged in activities to promote enhanced learning and preparation for school . 73 Figure CD.2: Proportion of under five children who have ten or more children books in the household . 75 Figure CD.3: Early Child Development Index (ECDI) . 80 Figure ED.1: Net primary school attendance . 85 Figure ED.2: Net secondary school attendance . 86 Figure ED.3: Primary school completion rate . 89 Figure ED.4: Transition to secondary school . 89 Figure ED.5: Gender parity index (GPI) of adjusted NAR attendance in primary and secondary schools, Qatar Figure CP.1 Proportion of children age 2-14 years who were subject to violent discipline . 92 Figure CP.2: Proportion of women age 15-19 years who are currently married . 95 Figure CP.3: Percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife under various circumstance . 101 Figure HA.1: Percentage of women in age group(15-49 years) who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV transmission . 104 Figure HA.2: Percentage of women in age group (15-49 years) with comprehensive knowledge of means of HIV transmission …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………104 Figure MT.1: Proportion of women age 15-49 years who are exposed to all three forms media at least once a week on regular basis . 119 Figure MT.2: Percentage of population age 15-24 years who used a computer within the last twelve months . 122 Figure MT.3: Percentage of population age 15-24 years who used internet within the last twelve months . 123 Figure SW.1: Population age 15-49 years who feel very satisfied or somehow satisfied in selected aspects of life . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….131 Figure SW.2: Proportion of population who feel very satisfied or somehow satisfied . 134 Figure SW.3: Proportion of population age 15-49 years who expect their life will improve after one year . 137 15Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Table SW.1: Domains of life satisfaction among women . 132 Table SW.1M: Domains of life satisfaction among men . 133 Table SW.2: Life satisfaction and happiness among women . 135 Table SW.2M: Life satisfaction and happiness among men . 136 Table SW.3: Perception of a better life among women . 138 Table SW.3M: Perception of a better life among men . 139 Table SE.1: Indicators selected for sampling error calculations . 145 Table SE.2: Univariate statistics for household listing . 147 Table SE.3: Univariate statistics for household . 147 Table SE.4: Univariate statistics among women . 148 Table SE.4: Univariate statistics among men . 150 Table SE.6: Univariate statistics among child . 151 Table DQ.1: Age distribution of household population . 153 Table DQ.2: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . 155 Table DQ.2M: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men . 155 Table DQ.3: Age distribution of under-5s in household and under-5 questionnaires . 156 Table DQ.4: Women's completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households . 156 Table DQ.4M: Men's completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households . 157 Table DQ.5: Completion rates for under-5 questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households . 159 Table DQ.6: Completeness of reporting among household listing , household, women, men and child . 159 Table DQ.13: Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 . 161 Table DQ.15: School attendance by single age . 161 List of Figures Figure HH.1: Age and sex distribution of household population . 31 Figure NU.1: Proportion of mothers who started breastfeeding their children within one hour and one day of delivery . 38 Figure NU.2: Proportion of children who exclusively breastfed for the first six months . 40 Figure NU.3: Proportion of infants weighted at birth . 46 Figure CH.1: Proportion of under five children who had diarrhea and received oral rehydration treatment . . 48 Figure CH.2: Proportion of under five children who had diarrhea and received oral rehydration treatment or increased fluids, AND continued feeding . 50 Figure CH.3: Children who had diarrhea and did not receive any treatment . 50 Figure RH.1: Current use of contraceptives . 55 Figure RH.2: Proportion of currently married women aged 15-49 years who have unmet need for contraception . 58 Figure RH.3: Proportion of women aged 15-49 years who delivered a live birth within the two years preceding the survey who were assisted during delivery by skilled health professionals . 61 Figure CD.1: Proportion of children aged 36-59 months with whom an adult family member engaged in activities to promote enhanced learning and preparation for school . 73 Figure CD.2: Proportion of under five children who have ten or more children books in the household . 75 Figure CD.3: Early Child Development Index (ECDI) . 80 Figure ED.1: Net primary school attendance . 85 Figure ED.2: Net secondary school attendance . 86 Figure ED.3: Primary school completion rate . 89 Figure ED.4: Transition to secondary school . 89 Figure ED.5: Gender parity index (GPI) of adjusted NAR attendance in primary and secondary schools, Qatar Figure CP.1 Proportion of children age 2-14 years who were subject to violent discipline . 92 Figure CP.2: Proportion of women age 15-19 years who are currently married . 95 Figure CP.3: Percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife under various circumstance . 101 Figure HA.1: Percentage of women in age group(15-49 years) who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV transmission . 104 Figure HA.2: Percentage of women in age group (15-49 years) with comprehensive knowledge of means of HIV transmission …………………………………………………………………………………………………………….…………104 Figure MT.1: Proportion of women age 15-49 years who are exposed to all three forms media at least once a week on regular basis . 119 Figure MT.2: Percentage of population age 15-24 years who used a computer within the last twelve months . 122 Figure MT.3: Percentage of population age 15-24 years who used internet within the last twelve months . 123 Figure SW.1: Population age 15-49 years who feel very satisfied or somehow satisfied in selected aspects of life . ……………………………………………………………………………………………………………………………….131 Figure SW.2: Proportion of population who feel very satisfied or somehow satisfied . 134 Figure SW.3: Proportion of population age 15-49 years who expect their life will improve after one year . 137 37 44 46 52 54 56 56 61 64 79 81 86 91 92 95 95 97 98 101 67 107 110 110 125 128 129 136 139 142 List of Abbreviations Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromeAIDS Computer Aided Personal Interviewing CAPI Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against WomenCEDAW Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities CRPD Census and Survey Processing SystemCSPro Gulf Cooperation Council GCC Gender Parity IndexGPI Human Immunodeficiency VirusHIV Intrauterine Device IUD Lactational Amenorrhea Method LAM Millennium Development GoalsMDG Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MICS Fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster SurveyMICS4 Net Attendance Rate NAR Oral rehydration treatment ORT Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics MDP&S Personal Digital Assistants PDA Qatar Foundation QF Supreme Council of Health SCH Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNAIDS United Nations Development Programme UNDP United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS UNGASS United Nations Children’s Fund UNICEF World Fit For Children WFFC World Health Organization WHO 17Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics List of Abbreviations Acquired Immune Deficiency SyndromeAIDS Computer Aided Personal Interviewing CAPI Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against WomenCEDAW Convention on the Rights of the Child CRC Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities CRPD Census and Survey Processing SystemCSPro Gulf Cooperation Council GCC Gender Parity IndexGPI Human Immunodeficiency VirusHIV Intrauterine Device IUD Lactational Amenorrhea Method LAM Millennium Development GoalsMDG Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MICS Fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster SurveyMICS4 Net Attendance Rate NAR Oral rehydration treatment ORT Ministry of Development Planning and Statistics MDP&S Personal Digital Assistants PDA Qatar Foundation QF Supreme Council of Health SCH Statistical Package for Social Sciences SPSS United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNAIDS United Nations Development Programme UNDP United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS UNGASS United Nations Children’s Fund UNICEF World Fit For Children WFFC World Health Organization WHO Preface It is our pleasure to present in this report the final results of the State of Qatar “Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey – (MICS)” carried out in 2012 as part of the fourth round of the global MICS programme (MICS4). It contains the key social sector indicators of the population in the State of Qatar and serves as a primary source for measuring the progress achieved through the efforts of the State of Qatar for the realisation of the Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF developed the global MICS programme in 1995 to gain a better understanding of the situation of children and women with regard to the achievement of the World Summit Goals. Since then, the survey has been implemented in successive rounds of five years. A wide range of indicators can be obtained from this survey, which are internationally comparable estimates and, are used to showcase the progress on fulfilling the basic rights of children and women around the world and serves as an important monitoring tool for the Millennium Development Goals In recognition of the importance of this survey, Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics (MDP&S) of the State of Qatar conducted the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), in collaboration with the Supreme Council of Health, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community and UNICEF for a sample size of 4600 households (2300 Qatari households and 2300 non-Qatari households). Children under 18 years of age comprise nearly forty percent of the household. Investments for their development will provide a promising future for the State of Qatar. We strongly believe that Qatar MICS4 will contribute to shaping and defining the priorities for these efforts, for the development and prosperity of children and women in the State. The survey has provided crucial and credible information to support the national efforts, and for reducing inequalities. This will particularly help the relevant agencies and organisations to prioritise action for the development and growth of children to help them achieve their full potential. The MDP&S is also honoured to have chosen to pilot this survey on behalf of the GCC States as part of the statistical initiative of GCC States. This pilot also allowed Qatar to contribute to the global MICS piloting of the Computer Aided Personal Interviewing (CAPI) techniques for the MICS programme. I hope the learning from these efforts will benefit not only the GCC states but also inform the global MICS programme. Saleh Bin Mohamed Al Nabit, Ph.D. Minister of Development Planning and Statistics 19Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Preface It is our pleasure to present in this report the final results of the State of Qatar “Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey – (MICS)” carried out in 2012 as part of the fourth round of the global MICS programme (MICS4). It contains the key social sector indicators of the population in the State of Qatar and serves as a primary source for measuring the progress achieved through the efforts of the State of Qatar for the realisation of the Millennium Development Goals. UNICEF developed the global MICS programme in 1995 to gain a better understanding of the situation of children and women with regard to the achievement of the World Summit Goals. Since then, the survey has been implemented in successive rounds of five years. A wide range of indicators can be obtained from this survey, which are internationally comparable estimates and, are used to showcase the progress on fulfilling the basic rights of children and women around the world and serves as an important monitoring tool for the Millennium Development Goals In recognition of the importance of this survey, Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics (MDP&S) of the State of Qatar conducted the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), in collaboration with the Supreme Council of Health, Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community and UNICEF for a sample size of 4600 households (2300 Qatari households and 2300 non-Qatari households). Children under 18 years of age comprise nearly forty percent of the household. Investments for their development will provide a promising future for the State of Qatar. We strongly believe that Qatar MICS4 will contribute to shaping and defining the priorities for these efforts, for the development and prosperity of children and women in the State. The survey has provided crucial and credible information to support the national efforts, and for reducing inequalities. This will particularly help the relevant agencies and organisations to prioritise action for the development and growth of children to help them achieve their full potential. The MDP&S is also honoured to have chosen to pilot this survey on behalf of the GCC States as part of the statistical initiative of GCC States. This pilot also allowed Qatar to contribute to the global MICS piloting of the Computer Aided Personal Interviewing (CAPI) techniques for the MICS programme. I hope the learning from these efforts will benefit not only the GCC states but also inform the global MICS programme. Saleh Bin Mohamed Al Nabit, Ph.D. Minister of Development Planning and Statistics Acknowledgements Within the framework of cooperation between Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics (MDP&S), United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF), the Supreme Council for Health and Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community, the MDP&S conducted the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), which is a primary source of information on the health, social and educational indicators of the Qatari and non-Qatari population in 2012. This is also the first survey providing data on reproductive health issues and on the development and health of child in Qatar. The survey aims at providing up to date information, for assessing the health, social and educational status of men, women and children, for follow up and monitoring the national efforts and progress achieved, with regard to the fulfilment of the “Millennium Development Goals”, and the survival, protection and growth of the Qatari child. Though children in Qatar comprise over a one third of the population, they represent the future of Qatar and therefore are of paramount importance. The MDP&S has the pleasure of publishing the final report and avails the opportunity of extending its deep gratitude for the support provided by UNICEF, the Supreme Council for Health and Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community throughout the implementation of the survey and in the finalisation of the report. The MDP&S would like to acknowledge the technical support provided by the UNICEF Regional Office and the MICS team at the Headquarter level for their contribution for the successful implementation of the first MICS survey using the Computer Aided Personal Interviewing (CAPI) techniques in the MICS surveys. The pilot in Qatar will go a long way to support the introduction of this methodology in the global MICS and in particular the GCC countries where this technology will be widely used. The support of M/S Realsoft Advanced Applications contracted by UNICEF who helped with the customisation of the application and provided field support services is also gratefully acknowledged. The management, data collection teams and the staff at MDP&S deserve a special mention for their diligence and dedication through all stages of implementation of the survey from design to the publishing of this report. The MDP&S would like to extend its special thanks to all the members of the households who willingly participated and responded to the survey. We hope that the results of this survey will be widely used in accordance with the needs of the competent agencies, to prepare the policies and programme to benefit the men, women and children living in Qatar. 21Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Acknowledgements Within the framework of cooperation between Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics (MDP&S), United Nations Children Fund (UNICEF), the Supreme Council for Health and Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community, the MDP&S conducted the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), which is a primary source of information on the health, social and educational indicators of the Qatari and non-Qatari population in 2012. This is also the first survey providing data on reproductive health issues and on the development and health of child in Qatar. The survey aims at providing up to date information, for assessing the health, social and educational status of men, women and children, for follow up and monitoring the national efforts and progress achieved, with regard to the fulfilment of the “Millennium Development Goals”, and the survival, protection and growth of the Qatari child. Though children in Qatar comprise over a one third of the population, they represent the future of Qatar and therefore are of paramount importance. The MDP&S has the pleasure of publishing the final report and avails the opportunity of extending its deep gratitude for the support provided by UNICEF, the Supreme Council for Health and Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community throughout the implementation of the survey and in the finalisation of the report. The MDP&S would like to acknowledge the technical support provided by the UNICEF Regional Office and the MICS team at the Headquarter level for their contribution for the successful implementation of the first MICS survey using the Computer Aided Personal Interviewing (CAPI) techniques in the MICS surveys. The pilot in Qatar will go a long way to support the introduction of this methodology in the global MICS and in particular the GCC countries where this technology will be widely used. The support of M/S Realsoft Advanced Applications contracted by UNICEF who helped with the customisation of the application and provided field support services is also gratefully acknowledged. The management, data collection teams and the staff at MDP&S deserve a special mention for their diligence and dedication through all stages of implementation of the survey from design to the publishing of this report. The MDP&S would like to extend its special thanks to all the members of the households who willingly participated and responded to the survey. We hope that the results of this survey will be widely used in accordance with the needs of the competent agencies, to prepare the policies and programme to benefit the men, women and children living in Qatar. Executive Summary This is the final report of the results of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted in Qatar during the period from May to June 2012. This survey was conducted within the framework of the fourth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS4), prepared and developed by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and implemented in about 50 countries worldwide during the period 2009-2012. The implementation of the fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was led by the Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics in collaboration with the Supreme Council of Health, the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community and UNICEF. In Qatar, the sample was designed to cover the entire household population living in Qatar. The sample size was calculated using the guidelines for the MICS. It was decided that the survey provides results of similar reliability for both Qataris and non-Qataris. Accordingly, the sample size was determined to be 2,300 households for each group, a total of 4,600 households (1). The survey aimed to provide updated information needed to assess the situation of children, women and men in Qatar. This information would be used to measure progress towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, the goals of "A World Fit for Children" and other national objectives. The survey was part of an overall GCC statistical initiative to collect data on children and women in all the GCC States. The State of Qatar offered to serve as a pilot country and share experiences of implementing the MICS in the GCC. The findings of this pilot will contribute to experience sharing while providing important data for national planning. In view of the technological advances in the GCC and Qatar’s recent experience of using technological options during the Census the Qatar MICS also contributed to refining the tools for conducting Computer Aided Personal Interviewing techniques for the Global MICS programme and served as the first pilot in Middle East and North Africa region of UNICEF using this technology. Data was collected from only households and included information on the sex and age of each household member. In all the surveyed households, a total number of 13,415 household members were enumerated. Information was obtained on their access to education services at various levels, the methods of child discipline, and other living conditions. A total of 5,699 women aged 15-49 years living within these households were interviewed to obtain information about marriage, access to mass media and information/communication technology, the use of contraceptives, the health of mothers and babies, attitudes towards domestic violence, and attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, life satisfaction and tobacco use. In addition, mothers/caregivers of more than 2,082 children under the age of five were interviewed to collect information on child education, development, immunization, breastfeeding, and care during illness. Information on 5,630 men living within these households was obtained about marriage, attitudes towards domestic violence, and their attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, subjective well-being and tobacco use. (1) The first survey report, page 4. 23Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Executive Summary This is the final report of the results of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted in Qatar during the period from May to June 2012. This survey was conducted within the framework of the fourth round of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS4), prepared and developed by the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), and implemented in about 50 countries worldwide during the period 2009-2012. The implementation of the fourth round of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was led by the Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics in collaboration with the Supreme Council of Health, the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community and UNICEF. In Qatar, the sample was designed to cover the entire household population living in Qatar. The sample size was calculated using the guidelines for the MICS. It was decided that the survey provides results of similar reliability for both Qataris and non-Qataris. Accordingly, the sample size was determined to be 2,300 households for each group, a total of 4,600 households (1). The survey aimed to provide updated information needed to assess the situation of children, women and men in Qatar. This information would be used to measure progress towards the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals, the goals of "A World Fit for Children" and other national objectives. The survey was part of an overall GCC statistical initiative to collect data on children and women in all the GCC States. The State of Qatar offered to serve as a pilot country and share experiences of implementing the MICS in the GCC. The findings of this pilot will contribute to experience sharing while providing important data for national planning. In view of the technological advances in the GCC and Qatar’s recent experience of using technological options during the Census the Qatar MICS also contributed to refining the tools for conducting Computer Aided Personal Interviewing techniques for the Global MICS programme and served as the first pilot in Middle East and North Africa region of UNICEF using this technology. Data was collected from only households and included information on the sex and age of each household member. In all the surveyed households, a total number of 13,415 household members were enumerated. Information was obtained on their access to education services at various levels, the methods of child discipline, and other living conditions. A total of 5,699 women aged 15-49 years living within these households were interviewed to obtain information about marriage, access to mass media and information/communication technology, the use of contraceptives, the health of mothers and babies, attitudes towards domestic violence, and attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, life satisfaction and tobacco use. In addition, mothers/caregivers of more than 2,082 children under the age of five were interviewed to collect information on child education, development, immunization, breastfeeding, and care during illness. Information on 5,630 men living within these households was obtained about marriage, attitudes towards domestic violence, and their attitudes and knowledge about HIV/AIDS, subjective well-being and tobacco use. (1) The first survey report, page 4. 24 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Nutrition According to the global recommendation, all children under the age of six months must be exclusively breastfed, only 29 percent of these children were exclusively breastfed (19 percent, and 35 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari children, respectively). The percentage of children in Qatar under the age of 24 months receiving appropriate feeding was 24 percent. Bottle feeding is prevalent in Qatar with 63 percent of children under two years of age being fed using bottles with nipples. It was estimated that 11 percent of infants weighed less than 2,500 grams at birth, 10 percent and 11 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari children, respectively. This percentage of low birth weight does not differ when comparing mother’s level of education. Eight percent of newborns were weighed at birth. Child Health Four percent of children under the age of five suffered from diarrhea during the two weeks preceding the survey, five percent for Qatari children versus four percent for non-Qataris. It was noted that 16 percent of children affected by diarrhea did not receive any medical treatment or medicine for diarrhea. Reproductive Health Thirty eight percent of married women reported using contraception at the time of the survey; 39 percent of Qatari women and 37 percent of non-Qatari women. The most common means of contraception used by married women in Qatar was the pill, used by one in seven women. The overall percentage of the unmet need for contraception, which was the proportion of women 15 - 49 years of age who wished to stop childbearing but were not using contraception was five percent; with four percent for Qatari women, and six percent for non-Qatari women. With regard to antenatal healthcare by professional staff: a doctor, a qualified nurse or midwife, 91 percent of women received antenatal care at least once, 96 percent of Qatari women and 89 percent of non-Qatari women. The majority of mothers (85 percent) received antenatal care at least four times. Skilled staff assisted all births during the two years preceding the MICS, with more than one in every eight births (12 percent) during the two years preceding the MICS delivered with the help of a nurse or a midwife. Doctors assisted in 88 percent of cases. Nearly all births in Qatar took place in a health facility, 85 percent of births took place in public sector facilities, 14 percent of births took place at private sector facilities, and no births occurred at home. With respect to postnatal care, 91 percent of women remained at the health facility for 12 hours or more, and 54 percent remained for one or two days, and 34 percent stayed for 3 days or more. Ninety six percent of newborns received postnatal medical examination either at the health facility or at home, and 96 percent of newborns received postnatal care. Nearly three quarters of postnatal care visits for newborns took place in a public facility. And about 100 percent of initial postnatal visits for newborns were conducted by a doctor, nurse or midwife. Ninety one percent of mothers also received postpartum care visits. Child Development Forty one percent of children aged 36 to 59 months were enrolled in an organised early childhood education programme, 45 percent of whom were non-Qatari children and 32 percent were Qataris. During the week preceding the survey, 88 percent of children five between the ages of 36 to 59 months benefitted from the participation of an adult household member in four or more activities to develop learning and readiness for school. This percentage did not differ between Qatari and non-Qatari children. In Qatar, 84 percent of children aged 36 to 59 months were considered to be developmentally on track, 85 percent of whom were non-Qatari children, and 83 percent Qatari children. Being developmentally on track is correlated to attendance in early childhood education (pre- school), among both Qatari and non-Qatari children. Analysing the four domains of child development showed that 87 percent of children were developmentally on track in the learning domain yet a higher proportion of children (92 percent) were on track in the physical, only 63 percent were on track in literacy and numeracy, and 76 percent were on track in social-emotional domains. There was no difference in the benchmarks established for Early Childhood Index for Qatari and non-Qatari children did not differ in the patterns of the development path and demonstrated similar patterns of progress in each of the four domains. Literacy and Education Eighty two percent of first grade children had attended pre-school education in the previous year. Higher rates of enrolment in pre-school were observed in the previous year among non-Qatari children, 85 percent, than their Qatari counterparts; 77 percent, and the proportion of male children was generally slightly less than that of females (79 percent versus 85 percent). Ninety seven percent of children of primary school age (6-11 years) were enrolled in primary school. No significant differences were observed in this indicator between Qatari and non-Qatari children. Both groups recorded a high percentage with regard to this indicator. As for secondary education, 93 percent of children of secondary school age (12 - 17 years) were enrolled in school. The gender parity index for primary and secondary education was 1 and 0.99, respectively. Child Protection Fifty percent of children aged 2-14 years old were subjected to at least one type of physical or psychological punishment at the hands of their parents, other caregivers, or another family member. Six percent of children were subjected to severe physical punishment, and 14 percent of mothers/caretakers believed that children should be physically punished. Although around half of all children in the age group 2-14 years were exposed to at least one form of psychological or physical punishment, this percentage was slightly higher among Qatari children (54 percent) than their non-Qatari peers (48 percent Four percent of young women in the age group 15-19 years were married at the time of the survey). This percentage was strongly correlated with educational level where the percentage decreased with the higher levels of female education. In general, seven percent of women in Qatar believed that a husband is justified to beat his wife for at least one of the five reasons: if she went out without his permission or knowledge, if she neglected her children, if she argued with him, if she refused to participate in an intimate relationship with him, or if she burned the food. Men are more likely to agree than women with one of the reasons to justify wife beating (16 percent among men compared to 7 among women). The percentage is higher among Qatari males (21 percent) compared to non-Qatari (14 percent). 25Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Nutrition According to the global recommendation, all children under the age of six months must be exclusively breastfed, only 29 percent of these children were exclusively breastfed (19 percent, and 35 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari children, respectively). The percentage of children in Qatar under the age of 24 months receiving appropriate feeding was 24 percent. Bottle feeding is prevalent in Qatar with 63 percent of children under two years of age being fed using bottles with nipples. It was estimated that 11 percent of infants weighed less than 2,500 grams at birth, 10 percent and 11 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari children, respectively. This percentage of low birth weight does not differ when comparing mother’s level of education. Eight percent of newborns were weighed at birth. Child Health Four percent of children under the age of five suffered from diarrhea during the two weeks preceding the survey, five percent for Qatari children versus four percent for non-Qataris. It was noted that 16 percent of children affected by diarrhea did not receive any medical treatment or medicine for diarrhea. Reproductive Health Thirty eight percent of married women reported using contraception at the time of the survey; 39 percent of Qatari women and 37 percent of non-Qatari women. The most common means of contraception used by married women in Qatar was the pill, used by one in seven women. The overall percentage of the unmet need for contraception, which was the proportion of women 15 - 49 years of age who wished to stop childbearing but were not using contraception was five percent; with four percent for Qatari women, and six percent for non-Qatari women. With regard to antenatal healthcare by professional staff: a doctor, a qualified nurse or midwife, 91 percent of women received antenatal care at least once, 96 percent of Qatari women and 89 percent of non-Qatari women. The majority of mothers (85 percent) received antenatal care at least four times. Skilled staff assisted all births during the two years preceding the MICS, with more than one in every eight births (12 percent) during the two years preceding the MICS delivered with the help of a nurse or a midwife. Doctors assisted in 88 percent of cases. Nearly all births in Qatar took place in a health facility, 85 percent of births took place in public sector facilities, 14 percent of births took place at private sector facilities, and no births occurred at home. With respect to postnatal care, 91 percent of women remained at the health facility for 12 hours or more, and 54 percent remained for one or two days, and 34 percent stayed for 3 days or more. Ninety six percent of newborns received postnatal medical examination either at the health facility or at home, and 96 percent of newborns received postnatal care. Nearly three quarters of postnatal care visits for newborns took place in a public facility. And about 100 percent of initial postnatal visits for newborns were conducted by a doctor, nurse or midwife. Ninety one percent of mothers also received postpartum care visits. Child Development Forty one percent of children aged 36 to 59 months were enrolled in an organised early childhood education programme, 45 percent of whom were non-Qatari children and 32 percent were Qataris. During the week preceding the survey, 88 percent of children five between the ages of 36 to 59 months benefitted from the participation of an adult household member in four or more activities to develop learning and readiness for school. This percentage did not differ between Qatari and non-Qatari children. In Qatar, 84 percent of children aged 36 to 59 months were considered to be developmentally on track, 85 percent of whom were non-Qatari children, and 83 percent Qatari children. Being developmentally on track is correlated to attendance in early childhood education (pre- school), among both Qatari and non-Qatari children. Analysing the four domains of child development showed that 87 percent of children were developmentally on track in the learning domain yet a higher proportion of children (92 percent) were on track in the physical, only 63 percent were on track in literacy and numeracy, and 76 percent were on track in social-emotional domains. There was no difference in the benchmarks established for Early Childhood Index for Qatari and non-Qatari children did not differ in the patterns of the development path and demonstrated similar patterns of progress in each of the four domains. Literacy and Education Eighty two percent of first grade children had attended pre-school education in the previous year. Higher rates of enrolment in pre-school were observed in the previous year among non-Qatari children, 85 percent, than their Qatari counterparts; 77 percent, and the proportion of male children was generally slightly less than that of females (79 percent versus 85 percent). Ninety seven percent of children of primary school age (6-11 years) were enrolled in primary school. No significant differences were observed in this indicator between Qatari and non-Qatari children. Both groups recorded a high percentage with regard to this indicator. As for secondary education, 93 percent of children of secondary school age (12 - 17 years) were enrolled in school. The gender parity index for primary and secondary education was 1 and 0.99, respectively. Child Protection Fifty percent of children aged 2-14 years old were subjected to at least one type of physical or psychological punishment at the hands of their parents, other caregivers, or another family member. Six percent of children were subjected to severe physical punishment, and 14 percent of mothers/caretakers believed that children should be physically punished. Although around half of all children in the age group 2-14 years were exposed to at least one form of psychological or physical punishment, this percentage was slightly higher among Qatari children (54 percent) than their non-Qatari peers (48 percent Four percent of young women in the age group 15-19 years were married at the time of the survey). This percentage was strongly correlated with educational level where the percentage decreased with the higher levels of female education. In general, seven percent of women in Qatar believed that a husband is justified to beat his wife for at least one of the five reasons: if she went out without his permission or knowledge, if she neglected her children, if she argued with him, if she refused to participate in an intimate relationship with him, or if she burned the food. Men are more likely to agree than women with one of the reasons to justify wife beating (16 percent among men compared to 7 among women). The percentage is higher among Qatari males (21 percent) compared to non-Qatari (14 percent). 26 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics HIV / AIDS Eighty three percent of women between the ages of 15 - 24 years old in Qatar heard of HIV, and the proportion of non-Qatari women who had heard of HIV was 87 percent; slightly higher than their Qatari counterparts, (84 percent). The counterpart percentages for men were 91 percent, 92 percent, and 88 percent respectively. Results showed that the percentage of women who knew the two main methods of preventing the transmission of HIV was 45 percent. Among non-Qatari women, the percentage was 48 percent, being higher than their Qatari counterparts, 39 percent. Overall, 21 percent of women in Qatar had comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention. Also noted was the high percentage of comprehensive knowledge about the prevention of HIV among non-Qatari women, 22 percent, compared to 18 percent of Qatari women. Men are more knowledgeable than women in this regard with a percentage of 30 percent (29 percent for Qataris and 31 percent for non-Qataris). Access to mass media and Use of Information /Communication Technology Results showed that 48 percent of women had been exposed to three forms of media at least once a week; 50 percent for Qatari women and 47 percent for non-Qatari women. The proportion of men aged (15-49 years), who read newspaper, listen to the radio and watch TV, at least once a week was 68 percent, indicating that men are more exposed to all three forms of media than women. This proportion reached 75 percent for Qatari men, being higher than for non-Qatari men (65 percent). TV was the most common form of media. Non-Qatari women tended to read the newspapers more than Qatari women. Only three percent of women in Qatar were not exposed to any of the three types of media, not even once a week. As far as men are concerned, television is the most common media among men in Qatar, where 97 percent of men were exposed to television at least once a week, being similar for both Qataris and non- Qataris. Results indicated that 93 percent of women aged (15-24 years) had used a computer, 95 percent and 92 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari women, respectively. ). The corresponding figure for men is 96 percent, where 98 percent of Qatari men had ever used a computer compared to 95 percent for non-Qatari. As for the internet, 94 percent of young women aged (15-24 years) had used the internet, 96 percent and 92 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari, respectively. For men the proportion of who previously used the internet was 97 percent, with the proportion of Qatari men who used the internet being higher at 98 percent compared to non-Qatari men at 95 percent. Tobacco Use Five percent of women in Qatar used a tobacco product, seven percent of non-Qatari women and two percent of Qatari women. No woman in Qatar aged (15-49 years) had consumed an entire cigarette before the age of 15. It was generally noted that the use of tobacco products in Qatar was more common among men, the results being 25 percent, compared with only 5 percent of women. Subjective Wellbeing The percentage of women who were very or somewhat satisfied in life exceeded 90 percent. In all cases the level of satisfaction was highest with respect to family life and health, especially among women in the (15-24 years). It was relatively lower in their satisfaction in the areas of school and the living environment. Subjective well-being was higher among women than men in various fields, and among Qatari versus non-Qatari households. The percentage of women who felt satisfied with life was 85 percent, higher than that for men, 82 percent, in Qatar. This was also the case in non-Qatari households where the percentages were 83 percent for women, and 78 percent for men. However the opposite was true for Qatari households, where 90 percent of men felt satisfied with life as opposed to 89 percent for women. This illustrated that there was a difference between Qatari and non-Qatari women and women. Results indicated that 77 percent of women in Qatar believed that their lives had improved during the last year, 94 percent believed that their lives will improve after one year, and that 75 percent believed both. The corresponding percentages for men in Qatar were 70 percent, 87 percent, and 68 percent, respectively. These perceptions were stronger among men and women in Qatari households compared to non-Qatari households. 27Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics HIV / AIDS Eighty three percent of women between the ages of 15 - 24 years old in Qatar heard of HIV, and the proportion of non-Qatari women who had heard of HIV was 87 percent; slightly higher than their Qatari counterparts, (84 percent). The counterpart percentages for men were 91 percent, 92 percent, and 88 percent respectively. Results showed that the percentage of women who knew the two main methods of preventing the transmission of HIV was 45 percent. Among non-Qatari women, the percentage was 48 percent, being higher than their Qatari counterparts, 39 percent. Overall, 21 percent of women in Qatar had comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention. Also noted was the high percentage of comprehensive knowledge about the prevention of HIV among non-Qatari women, 22 percent, compared to 18 percent of Qatari women. Men are more knowledgeable than women in this regard with a percentage of 30 percent (29 percent for Qataris and 31 percent for non-Qataris). Access to mass media and Use of Information /Communication Technology Results showed that 48 percent of women had been exposed to three forms of media at least once a week; 50 percent for Qatari women and 47 percent for non-Qatari women. The proportion of men aged (15-49 years), who read newspaper, listen to the radio and watch TV, at least once a week was 68 percent, indicating that men are more exposed to all three forms of media than women. This proportion reached 75 percent for Qatari men, being higher than for non-Qatari men (65 percent). TV was the most common form of media. Non-Qatari women tended to read the newspapers more than Qatari women. Only three percent of women in Qatar were not exposed to any of the three types of media, not even once a week. As far as men are concerned, television is the most common media among men in Qatar, where 97 percent of men were exposed to television at least once a week, being similar for both Qataris and non- Qataris. Results indicated that 93 percent of women aged (15-24 years) had used a computer, 95 percent and 92 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari women, respectively. ). The corresponding figure for men is 96 percent, where 98 percent of Qatari men had ever used a computer compared to 95 percent for non-Qatari. As for the internet, 94 percent of young women aged (15-24 years) had used the internet, 96 percent and 92 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari, respectively. For men the proportion of who previously used the internet was 97 percent, with the proportion of Qatari men who used the internet being higher at 98 percent compared to non-Qatari men at 95 percent. Tobacco Use Five percent of women in Qatar used a tobacco product, seven percent of non-Qatari women and two percent of Qatari women. No woman in Qatar aged (15-49 years) had consumed an entire cigarette before the age of 15. It was generally noted that the use of tobacco products in Qatar was more common among men, the results being 25 percent, compared with only 5 percent of women. Subjective Wellbeing The percentage of women who were very or somewhat satisfied in life exceeded 90 percent. In all cases the level of satisfaction was highest with respect to family life and health, especially among women in the (15-24 years). It was relatively lower in their satisfaction in the areas of school and the living environment. Subjective well-being was higher among women than men in various fields, and among Qatari versus non-Qatari households. The percentage of women who felt satisfied with life was 85 percent, higher than that for men, 82 percent, in Qatar. This was also the case in non-Qatari households where the percentages were 83 percent for women, and 78 percent for men. However the opposite was true for Qatari households, where 90 percent of men felt satisfied with life as opposed to 89 percent for women. This illustrated that there was a difference between Qatari and non-Qatari women and women. Results indicated that 77 percent of women in Qatar believed that their lives had improved during the last year, 94 percent believed that their lives will improve after one year, and that 75 percent believed both. The corresponding percentages for men in Qatar were 70 percent, 87 percent, and 68 percent, respectively. These perceptions were stronger among men and women in Qatari households compared to non-Qatari households. 28 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics I. Introduction Background This report is based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, conducted by the Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics in cooperation with the Qatar’s Supreme Council of Health and the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community in 2012. The survey provided valuable information on the situation of children, women and men in Qatar, and was based, in large part, on the needs to monitor progress towards goals and targets emanating from recent international agreements: the Millennium Declaration, adopted by all 191 United Nations Member States in September 2000, and the Plan of Action of A World Fit For Children, adopted by 189 Member States at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002. Both of these commitments build upon promises made by the international community at the 1990 World Summit for Children, as well as decisions of the League of Arab States, relevant institutions and organizations, related Arab Framework for the Rights of the Arab Child, the Cairo Declaration” Towards the Arab World Fit for Children”, and the Second Arab Plan for (2004 - 2015) adopted by the Arab summit conferences. In signing these international agreements, governments committed themselves to improving conditions for their children and to monitoring progress towards that end. UNICEF was assigned a supporting role in this task (see table below). A Commitment to Action: National and International Reporting Responsibilities The governments that signed the Millennium Declaration and the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitoring progress towards the goals and objectives they contained: “We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child-focused research. We will enhance international cooperation to support statistical capacity-building efforts and build community capacity for monitoring, assessment and planning.” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60) “…We will conduct periodic reviews at the national and subnational levels of progress in order to address obstacles more effectively and accelerate actions.…” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 61) The Plan of Action (paragraph 61) also calls for the specific involvement of UNICEF in the preparation of periodic progress reports: “… As the world’s lead agency for children, the United Nations Children’s Fund is requested to continue to prepare and disseminate, in close collaboration with Governments, relevant funds, programmes and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system, and all other relevant actors, as appropriate, information on the progress made in the implementation of the Declaration and the Plan of Action.” Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) calls for periodic reporting on progress: “…We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action.” In less than ten years, Qatar achieved distinguished economic and social progress. By 2012, Qatar was ranked 36th on the Human Development Index among 179 countries, compared to the 57th place it had occupied during the previous decade. The eight main objectives highlighted by the Millennium Summit Declaration were, and still are, considered key priorities in the plans of economic and social development in Qatar. Successive development plans aimed at increasing the well-being of citizens, improving income and guaranteeing the best ways of promoting education for males and females. In addition, plans paid special attention to the health sector, the environment and the empowerment of women. The Qatar National Vision was developed to cover the period until the year 2030, and it was adopted with the Emiri Decree No. 44 of the year 2008. The Vision aims at transform Qatar by the year 2030 to an advanced country capable of achieving sustainable development, and to ensure the continuation of a decent life for its people, one generation after another. The Vision also provides a framework for the development of national strategies and operational plans. Work to develop a national strategy for Qatar has been launched to achieve this vision. The Qatar National Vision is based on four pillars: human development, social development, economic development, and environmental development. The Vision confirmed that women will play an active role in all aspects of community life, particularly participation in economic and political decision-making. Qatar's accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) had its impact on developing mechanisms for the advancement of women and children, and on developing appropriate strategies for doing so. A summary of achievements in this context are as follows:  Article (25) of Qatar’s Constitution affirmed education as a fundamental pillar of social progress, guaranteed, sponsored and promoted by the State." Compulsory education was approved by Emiri Decree (25) in September 2001, hence, the educational system in the country now abounds about 600 public and private schools, covering various stages of primary education all around the country. In addition, there are institutions for higher education such as the University of Qatar. Of the objectives of the Qatar National Vision 2030 is to establish a society based on justice and equality.  Qatar adopts a comprehensive policy for the development of its educational system. The policy is based on the principle of equal gender-opportunity. In 2002, the Supreme Education Council as the supreme authority responsible for educational policy-making. The Emiri Decree No. (14) for the year 2009 was issued to organize the SEC within the framework of implementing Qatar's vision for the development 2030. The SEC is the highest authority on higher education aiming to develop and upgrade education so as to ensure fulfilling Qatar’s needs of qualified human resources in various fields. The SEC is implementing an initiative to develop public education under the banner of “Education for a New Era”. The essence of the initiative is to establish autonomous schools (Independent Schools), funded by the government. The initiative is based on four principles: independence, accountability, diversity and choice.  The State of Qatar provides high-quality health services to its citizens as stated by Article 23 of the Constitution, which emphasizes that the "The State shall provide public healthcare, and means for the prevention and treatment of diseases and epidemics, according to the law."  A draft for the Overall Strategy of the Family in Qatar, which includes a national strategy on women, and the population policy for Qatar, which has a special focus to women. 29Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics I. Introduction Background This report is based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, conducted by the Ministry Of Development Planning and Statistics in cooperation with the Qatar’s Supreme Council of Health and the Qatar Foundation for Education, Science and Community in 2012. The survey provided valuable information on the situation of children, women and men in Qatar, and was based, in large part, on the needs to monitor progress towards goals and targets emanating from recent international agreements: the Millennium Declaration, adopted by all 191 United Nations Member States in September 2000, and the Plan of Action of A World Fit For Children, adopted by 189 Member States at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002. Both of these commitments build upon promises made by the international community at the 1990 World Summit for Children, as well as decisions of the League of Arab States, relevant institutions and organizations, related Arab Framework for the Rights of the Arab Child, the Cairo Declaration” Towards the Arab World Fit for Children”, and the Second Arab Plan for (2004 - 2015) adopted by the Arab summit conferences. In signing these international agreements, governments committed themselves to improving conditions for their children and to monitoring progress towards that end. UNICEF was assigned a supporting role in this task (see table below). A Commitment to Action: National and International Reporting Responsibilities The governments that signed the Millennium Declaration and the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitoring progress towards the goals and objectives they contained: “We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child-focused research. We will enhance international cooperation to support statistical capacity-building efforts and build community capacity for monitoring, assessment and planning.” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60) “…We will conduct periodic reviews at the national and subnational levels of progress in order to address obstacles more effectively and accelerate actions.…” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 61) The Plan of Action (paragraph 61) also calls for the specific involvement of UNICEF in the preparation of periodic progress reports: “… As the world’s lead agency for children, the United Nations Children’s Fund is requested to continue to prepare and disseminate, in close collaboration with Governments, relevant funds, programmes and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system, and all other relevant actors, as appropriate, information on the progress made in the implementation of the Declaration and the Plan of Action.” Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) calls for periodic reporting on progress: “…We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action.” In less than ten years, Qatar achieved distinguished economic and social progress. By 2012, Qatar was ranked 36th on the Human Development Index among 179 countries, compared to the 57th place it had occupied during the previous decade. The eight main objectives highlighted by the Millennium Summit Declaration were, and still are, considered key priorities in the plans of economic and social development in Qatar. Successive development plans aimed at increasing the well-being of citizens, improving income and guaranteeing the best ways of promoting education for males and females. In addition, plans paid special attention to the health sector, the environment and the empowerment of women. The Qatar National Vision was developed to cover the period until the year 2030, and it was adopted with the Emiri Decree No. 44 of the year 2008. The Vision aims at transform Qatar by the year 2030 to an advanced country capable of achieving sustainable development, and to ensure the continuation of a decent life for its people, one generation after another. The Vision also provides a framework for the development of national strategies and operational plans. Work to develop a national strategy for Qatar has been launched to achieve this vision. The Qatar National Vision is based on four pillars: human development, social development, economic development, and environmental development. The Vision confirmed that women will play an active role in all aspects of community life, particularly participation in economic and political decision-making. Qatar's accession to the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (CRPD) and the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) had its impact on developing mechanisms for the advancement of women and children, and on developing appropriate strategies for doing so. A summary of achievements in this context are as follows:  Article (25) of Qatar’s Constitution affirmed education as a fundamental pillar of social progress, guaranteed, sponsored and promoted by the State." Compulsory education was approved by Emiri Decree (25) in September 2001, hence, the educational system in the country now abounds about 600 public and private schools, covering various stages of primary education all around the country. In addition, there are institutions for higher education such as the University of Qatar. Of the objectives of the Qatar National Vision 2030 is to establish a society based on justice and equality.  Qatar adopts a comprehensive policy for the development of its educational system. The policy is based on the principle of equal gender-opportunity. In 2002, the Supreme Education Council as the supreme authority responsible for educational policy-making. The Emiri Decree No. (14) for the year 2009 was issued to organize the SEC within the framework of implementing Qatar's vision for the development 2030. The SEC is the highest authority on higher education aiming to develop and upgrade education so as to ensure fulfilling Qatar’s needs of qualified human resources in various fields. The SEC is implementing an initiative to develop public education under the banner of “Education for a New Era”. The essence of the initiative is to establish autonomous schools (Independent Schools), funded by the government. The initiative is based on four principles: independence, accountability, diversity and choice.  The State of Qatar provides high-quality health services to its citizens as stated by Article 23 of the Constitution, which emphasizes that the "The State shall provide public healthcare, and means for the prevention and treatment of diseases and epidemics, according to the law."  A draft for the Overall Strategy of the Family in Qatar, which includes a national strategy on women, and the population policy for Qatar, which has a special focus to women. 30 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics  Qatar has adopted practical policies in addressing violence against women through the creation of independent institutions specialized in addressing this phenomenon. The National Institution for the Protection of the Child and Woman established in 2002 is one institution. In addition, the National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking, established by the Supreme Council for Family Affairs in 2005 was transformed into an independent institution with the name Qatar Foundation for Combating Human Trafficking by Decision No. 1 of the President of the Supreme Council for Family Affairs for the year 2008.  The Qatar Foundation for the Protection of the Child and Women, the Qatar Foundation for Combating Human Trafficking and the National Commission for Human Rights provide hotlines to receive violence cases. The Family Counseling Center offers a hotline for marital and familial counseling.  As a result of Qatar's accession to the International Convention on the Rights of the Child, decisions have been issued for establishing private institutions for children's rights. Also, many legislations on children's rights were issued, for example: - Law No. (20) of 2007 amending some provisions of Law No. (5) of 1982 on the organization of the registration of births and deaths. - The prohibition of all forms of forced labor, and taking effective measures for the immediate and complete abolition of forced labor or work. - The eligibility of female employees to receive a paid maternity leave for a period of sixty days. Article (109) of the Law includes a mother’s right to have two hours of daily breastfeeding, and Article (110) thereof allows granting her a leave to care for her disabled children, and other children.  Article (32) of the Article (32) of the Constitution ensures that the State shall care for the young, shall prevent them from causes of corruption, protect them from exploitation and physical, mental and spiritual neglect, and provide the appropriate conditions for them to develop their talents in various fields guided by sound education. In addition to relevant rights and freedoms granted by the Constitution, Article (47) guarantees freedom of opinion and expression for all, including children. The MICS is an important source of securing the data necessary to track the Millennium Goals and to monitor and evaluate the effects of developmental plans on maternal and child health. Box (1): Basic Principles of the Constitution The Permanent Constitution of Qatar was issued in 2004. The basic principles thereof read as follows: • Justice, benevolence, freedom, equality and high moral standards are core values of the Qatari society. • The State shall safeguard equal opportunities for all citizens. • The family is the basis of society. A Qatari family is founded on religion, ethics and patriotism. The Law shall regulate as necessary to protect the family, support its structure, strengthen its ties and protect mothers, children/and the elderly. • Equality between citizens in public rights and duties. • Equality before the law without discrimination on grounds of gender, origin, language and religion. • Equality in political rights (nomination and election). \ Box (2): The Convention on the Rights of the Child The Convention on the Rights of the Child adopted several rights on children, including: the child's right to life, survival, development, registration after birth, to be named, to have a nationality, to maintain an identity and not to be separated from the parents, as well as their right to express their opinions, to be heard in any judicial proceedings, in the freedom of thought conscience, religion and association, the right not to be subjected to any arbitrary action, the right to legal protection, access to information, education, protection from all forms of violence, injury or abuse, and the right to provide alternative care, and the right to take appropriate measures in the case of asylum. There are also the rights established for the child with disabilities and the right to healthcare, social security, education and participation in cultural and artistic life and protection from economic exploitation, the right to protection from the illicit use of narcotic drugs, the right to protection from sexual exploitation, the right to protection from abduction, sale or trafficking, the right to be subjected to harsh punishment, the right not to be involved in armed conflict, the right to rehabilitation and integration and the right to obtain guarantees when infringing upon penal law. The final report presents the results of indicators and topics covered by the survey. Survey Objectives The 2010 Qatar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey has as its primary objectives:  To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Qatar;  To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established in the Millennium Declaration and other internationally agreed upon goals, as a basis for future action;  To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Qatar and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems.  To generate data on the situation of children women and men, including the identification of vulnerable groups and of disparities, to inform policies and interventions.  To pilot the CAPI application for use in the MICS programme globally.  To provide GCC States an opportunity to gain experience of the global MICS programme and its applicability in the GCC. 31Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics  Qatar has adopted practical policies in addressing violence against women through the creation of independent institutions specialized in addressing this phenomenon. The National Institution for the Protection of the Child and Woman established in 2002 is one institution. In addition, the National Bureau to Combat Human Trafficking, established by the Supreme Council for Family Affairs in 2005 was transformed into an independent institution with the name Qatar Foundation for Combating Human Trafficking by Decision No. 1 of the President of the Supreme Council for Family Affairs for the year 2008.  The Qatar Foundation for the Protection of the Child and Women, the Qatar Foundation for Combating Human Trafficking and the National Commission for Human Rights provide hotlines to receive violence cases. The Family Counseling Center offers a hotline for marital and familial counseling.  As a result of Qatar's accession to the International Convention on the Rights of the Child, decisions have been issued for establishing private institutions for children's rights. Also, many legislations on children's rights were issued, for example: - Law No. (20) of 2007 amending some provisions of Law No. (5) of 1982 on the organization of the registration of births and deaths. - The prohibition of all forms of forced labor, and taking effective measures for the immediate and complete abolition of forced labor or work. - The eligibility of female employees to receive a paid maternity leave for a period of sixty days. Article (109) of the Law includes a mother’s right to have two hours of daily breastfeeding, and Article (110) thereof allows granting her a leave to care for her disabled children, and other children.  Article (32) of the Article (32) of the Constitution ensures that the State shall care for the young, shall prevent them from causes of corruption, protect them from exploitation and physical, mental and spiritual neglect, and provide the appropriate conditions for them to develop their talents in various fields guided by sound education. In addition to relevant rights and freedoms granted by the Constitution, Article (47) guarantees freedom of opinion and expression for all, including children. The MICS is an important source of securing the data necessary to track the Millennium Goals and to monitor and evaluate the effects of developmental plans on maternal and child health. Box (1): Basic Principles of the Constitution The Permanent Constitution of Qatar was issued in 2004. The basic principles thereof read as follows: • Justice, benevolence, freedom, equality and high moral standards are core values of the Qatari society. • The State shall safeguard equal opportunities for all citizens. • The family is the basis of society. A Qatari family is founded on religion, ethics and patriotism. The Law shall regulate as necessary to protect the family, support its structure, strengthen its ties and protect mothers, children/and the elderly. • Equality between citizens in public rights and duties. • Equality before the law without discrimination on grounds of gender, origin, language and religion. • Equality in political rights (nomination and election). \ Box (2): The Convention on the Rights of the Child The Convention on the Rights of the Child adopted several rights on children, including: the child's right to life, survival, development, registration after birth, to be named, to have a nationality, to maintain an identity and not to be separated from the parents, as well as their right to express their opinions, to be heard in any judicial proceedings, in the freedom of thought conscience, religion and association, the right not to be subjected to any arbitrary action, the right to legal protection, access to information, education, protection from all forms of violence, injury or abuse, and the right to provide alternative care, and the right to take appropriate measures in the case of asylum. There are also the rights established for the child with disabilities and the right to healthcare, social security, education and participation in cultural and artistic life and protection from economic exploitation, the right to protection from the illicit use of narcotic drugs, the right to protection from sexual exploitation, the right to protection from abduction, sale or trafficking, the right to be subjected to harsh punishment, the right not to be involved in armed conflict, the right to rehabilitation and integration and the right to obtain guarantees when infringing upon penal law. The final report presents the results of indicators and topics covered by the survey. Survey Objectives The 2010 Qatar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey has as its primary objectives:  To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Qatar;  To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established in the Millennium Declaration and other internationally agreed upon goals, as a basis for future action;  To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Qatar and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems.  To generate data on the situation of children women and men, including the identification of vulnerable groups and of disparities, to inform policies and interventions.  To pilot the CAPI application for use in the MICS programme globally.  To provide GCC States an opportunity to gain experience of the global MICS programme and its applicability in the GCC. 32 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics II. Sample and Survey Methodology Sample Design The sample for the State of Qatar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4) was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the situation of children, women and men at the national level. Due to the rapid economic growth of the Qatari economy, and its ensuing impact of the massive influx of expatriates for employment the 2010 population census frame was used to draw the sample. The sample frames have been developed with separate domains for Qataris and non-Qataris, to ensure that the Qatari population has sufficient representation in survey sample. The sample was then selected in two stages. Within each stratum, a specified number of census enumeration areas (EAs) were selected systematically with probability proportional to size. After a household listing was carried out within the selected enumeration areas, in the second stage 23 households were selected in each cluster representing a systematic sample of 2300 Qatari households, and 2300 non- Qatari households. Three enumeration areas, of the selected areas for Qatari households, were not visited, for cultural reasons. These enumeration areas had previously been selected for more than one recent survey, and would thus place a heavy burden on these households., In addition, two enumeration areas, of the selected areas for non-Qatari households, were not visited, as these had been since been demolished. The sample included all municipalities. A more detailed description of the sample design can be found in Appendix A. Questionnaires Four sets of questionnaires were used in the survey: 1) a household questionnaire which was used to collect information on all de jure household members (usual residents), and the dwelling; 2) a women’s questionnaire administered in each household to all women aged 15-49 years; and 3) a men’s questionnaire administered in each household to all men aged 15-49 years 4) an under-5 questionnaire, administered to mothers or caretakers for all children under 5 living in the household. The questionnaires included the following modules: The Household Questionnaire included the following modules: o Household Listing Form o Education o Child Discipline The Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered to all women aged 15-49 years living in the households (excluding domestic help), and included the following modules: o Women’s Background o Access to media, and use of information/communication technology. o Desire for Last Birth o Marriage o Maternal and Newborn Health o Post-natal health checks o Illness Symptoms o Contraception o Unmet Need o Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence o HIV/AIDS o Tobacco use o Life satisfaction. The questionnaire for individual men was administered to all for men aged 15-49 years, living in the household (excluding domestic help) and included the following modules: o Men’s Background. o Access to media, and use of information/communication technology. o Attitudes towards domestic violence. o Marriage. o HIV/AIDS o Tobacco use. o Life satisfaction. The Questionnaire for Children under Five was administered to mothers or caretakers of children under 5 years of age2 living in the households. Normally, the questionnaire was administered to mothers of under-5 children; in cases when the mother was not listed in the household roster, a primary caretaker for the child was identified and interviewed. The questionnaire included the following modules: o Age o Early Childhood Development o Breastfeeding o Care of Illness o Immunization3 The questionnaires are based on the MICS4 model questionnaire4. From the MICS4 standard questionnaire version in Arabic, the questionnaires were customised to the local context and were pre-tested during April 2012. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires and the standard data entry application. A copy of the State of Qatar MICS questionnaires is provided in Appendix F. Training and Fieldwork Training for the fieldwork was conducted for two weeks, starting on 18 April 2012, and continued until the beginning of May. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. The last few days of the training were devoted to familiarising the enumerators with the data processing work processes and use of the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) application. The data were collected by 27 field teams; each comprising three interviewers, one driver, and a supervisor. Fieldwork began in May 2012 and concluded in June 2012.Field work monitoring was conducted by one general supervisor and seven inspectors. 2 The terms “children under 5”, “children age 0-4 years”, and “children aged 0-59 months” are used interchangeably in this report. 3 Although data on children’s immunization was collected, it was excluded from the analysis because of the small number of observations. 4 The model MICS4 questionnaires can be found at www.childinfo.org 33Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics II. Sample and Survey Methodology Sample Design The sample for the State of Qatar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS4) was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the situation of children, women and men at the national level. Due to the rapid economic growth of the Qatari economy, and its ensuing impact of the massive influx of expatriates for employment the 2010 population census frame was used to draw the sample. The sample frames have been developed with separate domains for Qataris and non-Qataris, to ensure that the Qatari population has sufficient representation in survey sample. The sample was then selected in two stages. Within each stratum, a specified number of census enumeration areas (EAs) were selected systematically with probability proportional to size. After a household listing was carried out within the selected enumeration areas, in the second stage 23 households were selected in each cluster representing a systematic sample of 2300 Qatari households, and 2300 non- Qatari households. Three enumeration areas, of the selected areas for Qatari households, were not visited, for cultural reasons. These enumeration areas had previously been selected for more than one recent survey, and would thus place a heavy burden on these households., In addition, two enumeration areas, of the selected areas for non-Qatari households, were not visited, as these had been since been demolished. The sample included all municipalities. A more detailed description of the sample design can be found in Appendix A. Questionnaires Four sets of questionnaires were used in the survey: 1) a household questionnaire which was used to collect information on all de jure household members (usual residents), and the dwelling; 2) a women’s questionnaire administered in each household to all women aged 15-49 years; and 3) a men’s questionnaire administered in each household to all men aged 15-49 years 4) an under-5 questionnaire, administered to mothers or caretakers for all children under 5 living in the household. The questionnaires included the following modules: The Household Questionnaire included the following modules: o Household Listing Form o Education o Child Discipline The Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered to all women aged 15-49 years living in the households (excluding domestic help), and included the following modules: o Women’s Background o Access to media, and use of information/communication technology. o Desire for Last Birth o Marriage o Maternal and Newborn Health o Post-natal health checks o Illness Symptoms o Contraception o Unmet Need o Attitudes Towards Domestic Violence o HIV/AIDS o Tobacco use o Life satisfaction. The questionnaire for individual men was administered to all for men aged 15-49 years, living in the household (excluding domestic help) and included the following modules: o Men’s Background. o Access to media, and use of information/communication technology. o Attitudes towards domestic violence. o Marriage. o HIV/AIDS o Tobacco use. o Life satisfaction. The Questionnaire for Children under Five was administered to mothers or caretakers of children under 5 years of age2 living in the households. Normally, the questionnaire was administered to mothers of under-5 children; in cases when the mother was not listed in the household roster, a primary caretaker for the child was identified and interviewed. The questionnaire included the following modules: o Age o Early Childhood Development o Breastfeeding o Care of Illness o Immunization3 The questionnaires are based on the MICS4 model questionnaire4. From the MICS4 standard questionnaire version in Arabic, the questionnaires were customised to the local context and were pre-tested during April 2012. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires and the standard data entry application. A copy of the State of Qatar MICS questionnaires is provided in Appendix F. Training and Fieldwork Training for the fieldwork was conducted for two weeks, starting on 18 April 2012, and continued until the beginning of May. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions. The last few days of the training were devoted to familiarising the enumerators with the data processing work processes and use of the Personal Digital Assistant (PDA) application. The data were collected by 27 field teams; each comprising three interviewers, one driver, and a supervisor. Fieldwork began in May 2012 and concluded in June 2012.Field work monitoring was conducted by one general supervisor and seven inspectors. 2 The terms “children under 5”, “children age 0-4 years”, and “children aged 0-59 months” are used interchangeably in this report. 3 Although data on children’s immunization was collected, it was excluded from the analysis because of the small number of observations. 4 The model MICS4 questionnaires can be found at www.childinfo.org 34 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Data Processing Data were entered using the CSPro software. The data was collected using a PDA device. Procedures and standard MICS data processing and analysis application for Computer Aided Personal Interviewing (CAPI) developed under the global MICS4 programme were adapted to the State of Qatar questionnaire and were used throughout data collection and analysis. Data were shared with the central office and field work was monitored on a daily basis. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, Version 19, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were used for this purpose. Data processing support was provided for the entire period of field work through the UNICEF Regional Office data processing consultants and through regular interaction with the data processing team at UNICEF HQs III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents Sample Coverage Of the 4,580 households selected for the sample, 4541 were found to be occupied. Of these, 4501 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 99 percent. In the interviewed households, 5,809 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 5699 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 98 percent. Similarly, the interviewed households, 5,705 men (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 5,630 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 99 percent. In addition, 2,121 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 2,082 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 98 percent within interviewed households. Overall response rates for all interviews with adult women 97percent, adult men 98 percent, and for children below the age of five 97 percent. Table: HH.1 Results of household, women's, men's and under-5 interviews Number of households, women, men, and children under 5 by results of the household, women's, men's and under-5's interviews, and household, women's, men's and under-5's response rates, Qatar, 2012 ( Excluding Domestic Servants and Drivers5) Qatari Households Non-Qatari Households Total Households Households Sampled 2298 2282 4580 Households Occupied 2271 2270 4541 Households Interviewed 2235 2266 4501 Household response rate 98.4 99.8 99.1 Women Eligible 3496 2313 5809 Women Interviewed 3419 2280 5699 Women's response rate 97.8 98.6 98.1 Women's overall response rate 96.2 98.4 97.2 Men Eligible 3378 2327 5705 Men Interviewed 3320 2310 5630 Men's response rate 98.3 99.3 98.7 Men's overall response rate 96.7 99.1 97.8 Children under 5 1229 892 2121 Children under 5 Mother/Caretaker Interviewed 1203 879 2082 Under-5's response rate 97.9 98.5 98.2 Under-5's overall response rate 96.3 98.4 97.3 5 Information at the individual level of domestic servants and drivers was not collected. 35Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Data Processing Data were entered using the CSPro software. The data was collected using a PDA device. Procedures and standard MICS data processing and analysis application for Computer Aided Personal Interviewing (CAPI) developed under the global MICS4 programme were adapted to the State of Qatar questionnaire and were used throughout data collection and analysis. Data were shared with the central office and field work was monitored on a daily basis. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software program, Version 19, and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were used for this purpose. Data processing support was provided for the entire period of field work through the UNICEF Regional Office data processing consultants and through regular interaction with the data processing team at UNICEF HQs III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents Sample Coverage Of the 4,580 households selected for the sample, 4541 were found to be occupied. Of these, 4501 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 99 percent. In the interviewed households, 5,809 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 5699 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 98 percent. Similarly, the interviewed households, 5,705 men (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 5,630 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 99 percent. In addition, 2,121 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 2,082 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 98 percent within interviewed households. Overall response rates for all interviews with adult women 97percent, adult men 98 percent, and for children below the age of five 97 percent. Table: HH.1 Results of household, women's, men's and under-5 interviews Number of households, women, men, and children under 5 by results of the household, women's, men's and under-5's interviews, and household, women's, men's and under-5's response rates, Qatar, 2012 ( Excluding Domestic Servants and Drivers5) Qatari Households Non-Qatari Households Total Households Households Sampled 2298 2282 4580 Households Occupied 2271 2270 4541 Households Interviewed 2235 2266 4501 Household response rate 98.4 99.8 99.1 Women Eligible 3496 2313 5809 Women Interviewed 3419 2280 5699 Women's response rate 97.8 98.6 98.1 Women's overall response rate 96.2 98.4 97.2 Men Eligible 3378 2327 5705 Men Interviewed 3320 2310 5630 Men's response rate 98.3 99.3 98.7 Men's overall response rate 96.7 99.1 97.8 Children under 5 1229 892 2121 Children under 5 Mother/Caretaker Interviewed 1203 879 2082 Under-5's response rate 97.9 98.5 98.2 Under-5's overall response rate 96.3 98.4 97.3 5 Information at the individual level of domestic servants and drivers was not collected. 36 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Males Females Total Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent adult populations Adults age 18+ years 6073 60.6 5809 61.9 11882 61.2 Missing/DK 17 0.2 14 0.2 31 0.2 Total 10024 100.0 9385 100.0 19410 100.0 The population of Qatar is characterised as a young population, with children (0-17 years) representing around 39 percent of the population, and adults 61 percent, The elderly (65 years and above) represent small proportion of around 2 percent of the population .The number of females are less than males in all cases except for the age group 20-39 years. This proportion also differs between Qataris and non-Qataris, representing 61 percent among Qataris compared to 66 percent among non-Qataris. The structure in the sample is somewhat different than the Census 2010 where the percentage of individuals aged (15-64 years) was 69 percent of total percent population. Figure: HH.1 Age and sex distribution of household population, Qatar, 2012 Table HH.3 - HH.5 and table HH.4M provide basic information on the households, female and male respondents age 15-49, and children under-5 by presenting the unweighted, as well as the weighted numbers. Information on the basic characteristics of households, women and children under-5 interviewed in the survey is essential for the interpretation of findings presented later in the report and also can provide an indication of the representativeness of the survey. The remaining tables in this report are presented only with weighted numbers. See Appendix A for more details about the weighting. Table HH.3 provides basic background information on the households. Within households, the sex of the household head, number of household members, and education of household. These background characteristics are used in subsequent tables in this report; the figures in the table are also intended to show the numbers of observations by major categories of analysis in the report. 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75+ percentage Females Males Age groups Response rates for households, adult women and adult men ranged between 97 percent and 100 percent. In general, response rates for children were lower than other response rates. In general, response rates for non-Qatari households were higher than those for Qatari households. Characteristics of Households The weighted age and sex distribution of survey population is provided in Table HH.2. The distribution is also used to produce the population pyramid in Figure HH.1. In the 4,501 households successfully interviewed in the survey, 19,410 household members were listed. Of these, 10,024 were males, (representing 52 percent of household members) and 9,385 were females (representing 48 percent of household members). The average household size is estimated to be 5 persons per household. It may be noted that while the household information was collected on all individuals in the households, individual interviews with domestic servants and drivers were not conducted in view of the fact that the information in individual interviews includes retrospective information which would affect the overall national findings and may not reflect the situation of the women, men and children in Qatar. Table: HH.2 Household age distribution by sex Percent and frequency distribution of the household population by five-year age groups, dependency age groups, and by child (age 0-17 years) and adult populations (age 18 or more), by sex, Qatar, 2012 ( Excluding Domestic Servants and Drivers 6) Males Females Total Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Age 0-4 1008 10.1 968 10.3 1976 10.2 5-9 1267 12.6 1141 12.2 2409 12.4 10-14 1187 11.8 1021 10.9 2208 11.4 15-19 754 7.5 734 7.8 1488 7.7 20-24 617 6.2 745 7.9 1362 7.0 25-29 731 7.3 911 9.7 1642 8.5 30-34 883 8.8 896 9.5 1779 9.2 35-39 774 7.7 899 9.6 1673 8.6 40-44 778 7.8 627 6.7 1404 7.2 45-49 583 5.8 432 4.6 1015 5.2 50-54 609 6.1 525 5.6 1134 5.8 55-59 393 3.9 216 2.3 609 3.1 60-64 219 2.2 134 1.4 353 1.8 65-69 89 0.9 55 0.6 144 0.7 70-74 61 0.6 37 0.4 98 0.5 75+ 53 0.5 30 0.3 83 0.4 Missing/DK 17 0.2 14 0.2 31 0.2 Dependency age groups 0-14 3462 34.5 3130 33.4 6593 34.0 15-64 6341 63.3 6119 65.2 12460 64.2 65+ 204 2.0 122 1.3 326 1.7 Missing/DK 17 0.2 14 0.2 31 0.2 Children and Children age 0-17 years 3934 39.2 3562 38.0 7497 38.6 6 Information at the individual level of domestic servants and drivers was not collected. Response rates for households, adult women and adult men ranged between 97 percent and 100 percent. In general, response rates for children were lower than other response rates. In general, response rates for non-Qatari households were higher than those for Qatari households. Characteristics of Households The weighted age and sex distribution of survey population is provided in Table HH.2. The distribution is also used to produce the population pyramid in Figure HH.1. In the 4,501 households successfully interviewed in the survey, 19,410 household members were listed. Of these, 10,024 were males, (representing 52 percent of household members) and 9,385 were females (representing 48 percent of household members). The average household size is estimated to be 5 persons per household. It may be noted that while the household information was collected on all individuals in the households, individual interviews with domestic servants and drivers were not conducted in view of the fact that the information in individual interviews includes retrospective information which would affect the overall national findings and may not reflect the situation of the women, men and children in Qatar. Table: HH.2 Household age distribution by sex Percent and frequency distribution of the household population by five-year age groups, dependency age groups, and by child (age 0-17 years) and adult populations (age 18 or more), by sex, Qatar, 2012 ( Excluding Domestic Servants and Drivers 6) Males Females Total Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Age 0-4 1008 10.1 968 10.3 1976 10.2 5-9 1267 12.6 1141 12.2 2409 12.4 10-14 1187 11.8 1021 10.9 2208 11.4 15-19 754 7.5 734 7.8 1488 7.7 20-24 617 6.2 745 7.9 1362 7.0 25-29 731 7.3 911 9.7 1642 8.5 30-34 883 8.8 896 9.5 1779 9.2 35-39 774 7.7 899 9.6 1673 8.6 40-44 778 7.8 627 6.7 1404 7.2 45-49 583 5.8 432 4.6 1015 5.2 50-54 609 6.1 525 5.6 1134 5.8 55-59 393 3.9 216 2.3 609 3.1 60-64 219 2.2 134 1.4 353 1.8 65-69 89 0.9 55 0.6 144 0.7 70-74 61 0.6 37 0.4 98 0.5 75+ 53 0.5 30 0.3 83 0.4 Missing/DK 17 0.2 14 0.2 31 0.2 Dependency age groups 0-14 3462 34.5 3130 33.4 6593 34.0 15-64 6341 63.3 6119 65.2 12460 64.2 65+ 204 2.0 122 1.3 326 1.7 Missing/DK 17 0.2 14 0.2 31 0.2 Children and Children age 0-17 years 3934 39.2 3562 38.0 7497 38.6 6 Information at the individual level of domestic servants and drivers was not collected. 37Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Males Females Total Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent adult populations Adults age 18+ years 6073 60.6 5809 61.9 11882 61.2 Missing/DK 17 0.2 14 0.2 31 0.2 Total 10024 100.0 9385 100.0 19410 100.0 The population of Qatar is characterised as a young population, with children (0-17 years) representing around 39 percent of the population, and adults 61 percent, The elderly (65 years and above) represent small proportion of around 2 percent of the population .The number of females are less than males in all cases except for the age group 20-39 years. This proportion also differs between Qataris and non-Qataris, representing 61 percent among Qataris compared to 66 percent among non-Qataris. The structure in the sample is somewhat different than the Census 2010 where the percentage of individuals aged (15-64 years) was 69 percent of total percent population. Figure: HH.1 Age and sex distribution of household population, Qatar, 2012 Table HH.3 - HH.5 and table HH.4M provide basic information on the households, female and male respondents age 15-49, and children under-5 by presenting the unweighted, as well as the weighted numbers. Information on the basic characteristics of households, women and children under-5 interviewed in the survey is essential for the interpretation of findings presented later in the report and also can provide an indication of the representativeness of the survey. The remaining tables in this report are presented only with weighted numbers. See Appendix A for more details about the weighting. Table HH.3 provides basic background information on the households. Within households, the sex of the household head, number of household members, and education of household. These background characteristics are used in subsequent tables in this report; the figures in the table are also intended to show the numbers of observations by major categories of analysis in the report. 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75+ percentage Females Males Age groups Response rates for households, adult women and adult men ranged between 97 percent and 100 percent. In general, response rates for children were lower than other response rates. In general, response rates for non-Qatari households were higher than those for Qatari households. Characteristics of Households The weighted age and sex distribution of survey population is provided in Table HH.2. The distribution is also used to produce the population pyramid in Figure HH.1. In the 4,501 households successfully interviewed in the survey, 19,410 household members were listed. Of these, 10,024 were males, (representing 52 percent of household members) and 9,385 were females (representing 48 percent of household members). The average household size is estimated to be 5 persons per household. It may be noted that while the household information was collected on all individuals in the households, individual interviews with domestic servants and drivers were not conducted in view of the fact that the information in individual interviews includes retrospective information which would affect the overall national findings and may not reflect the situation of the women, men and children in Qatar. Table: HH.2 Household age distribution by sex Percent and frequency distribution of the household population by five-year age groups, dependency age groups, and by child (age 0-17 years) and adult populations (age 18 or more), by sex, Qatar, 2012 ( Excluding Domestic Servants and Drivers 6) Males Females Total Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Age 0-4 1008 10.1 968 10.3 1976 10.2 5-9 1267 12.6 1141 12.2 2409 12.4 10-14 1187 11.8 1021 10.9 2208 11.4 15-19 754 7.5 734 7.8 1488 7.7 20-24 617 6.2 745 7.9 1362 7.0 25-29 731 7.3 911 9.7 1642 8.5 30-34 883 8.8 896 9.5 1779 9.2 35-39 774 7.7 899 9.6 1673 8.6 40-44 778 7.8 627 6.7 1404 7.2 45-49 583 5.8 432 4.6 1015 5.2 50-54 609 6.1 525 5.6 1134 5.8 55-59 393 3.9 216 2.3 609 3.1 60-64 219 2.2 134 1.4 353 1.8 65-69 89 0.9 55 0.6 144 0.7 70-74 61 0.6 37 0.4 98 0.5 75+ 53 0.5 30 0.3 83 0.4 Missing/DK 17 0.2 14 0.2 31 0.2 Dependency age groups 0-14 3462 34.5 3130 33.4 6593 34.0 15-64 6341 63.3 6119 65.2 12460 64.2 65+ 204 2.0 122 1.3 326 1.7 Missing/DK 17 0.2 14 0.2 31 0.2 Children and Children age 0-17 years 3934 39.2 3562 38.0 7497 38.6 6 Information at the individual level of domestic servants and drivers was not collected. 38 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Table: HH.3 Household composition Percent distribution of households by selected characteristics, Qatar, 2012 (Excluding Domestic Servants and Drivers7) Qatari households Non-Qatari households Total of households Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Sex of household head Male 93.1 1057 2073 95.9 3229 2171 95.2 4286 4244 Female 6.9 78 162 4.1 137 95 4.8 215 257 Number of household members 1 1.5 18 34 8.8 297 232 7.0 314 266 2 3.4 39 78 18.0 606 373 14.3 645 451 3 6.5 74 146 19.6 658 432 16.3 732 578 4 8.7 98 194 24.9 839 563 20.8 938 757 5 11.1 126 242 13.8 466 316 13.2 592 558 6 12.1 137 270 7.4 249 174 8.6 386 444 7 13.6 154 290 3.3 110 82 5.9 264 372 8 13.4 152 290 2.0 68 45 4.9 220 335 9 8.9 101 209 0.8 27 19 2.8 128 228 10+ 20.8 236 482 1.4 46 30 6.3 282 512 Education of household head None 11.6 132 263 2.3 77 62 4.6 208 325 Primary 11.3 128 257 2.3 76 53 4.6 205 310 Preparatory 13.8 157 317 2.4 79 54 5.2 236 371 Secondary 27.4 311 616 15.1 510 348 18.2 821 964 University and above 35.8 406 782 77.9 2623 1748 67.3 3030 2530 Missing/DK 0.0 1 1 0.0 1 1 Households with at least: one child age 0-4 years 35.0 1135 2235 31.0 3366 2266 31.8 4501 4501 Households with at least: one child age 0-17 years 76.0 1135 2235 64.3 3366 2266 67.2 4501 4501 Households with at least: one woman age 15-49 years 87.3 1135 2235 83.5 3366 2266 84.5 4501 4501 Households with at least: one man age 15-59 years 84.6 1135 2235 83.4 3366 2266 83.7 4501 4501 Mean household size 7.3 1135 2235 3.8 3366 2266 4.7 4501 4501 Total 100.0 1135 2235 100.0 3366 2266 100.0 4501 4501 The weighted and unweighted numbers of households are equal, since sample weights were normalized (See Appendix A). The table also shows the proportions of households with at least one child under 18, at least one child under 5, and at least one eligible woman age 15-49. The table also shows the weighted average household size estimated by the survey. The aggregate number of Qataris and non-Qataris conceal the differences between them, which must be taken in consideration, when analysing the household characteristics and the indicators derived from the survey in Qatar. The mean household size for Qataris and their characteristics clearly differ from non-Qatari households. This is expected in non-Qatari 7 Information at the individual level of domestic servants and drivers was not collected. households as in line with the policies of the State of Qatar, the hiring of individuals is in accordance with the State’s development priorities and therefore expatriate workers may not be accompanied by all family members. The average family size in the sample is 5 persons, being around 7 persons for Qatari households compared to around four in non-Qatari households. As for the sex of the head of the household, it was found that the percentage of households headed by females was five percent among Qataris compared to around four among non-Qataris. About 58 percent of the households residing in Qatar, comprise of four persons or less, (the corresponding percentage for Qataris is 20 percent and 71 percent for non-Qatari). Moreover, 21 percent of Qatari households comprised of ten people or more. On the other hand, non-Qatari households are smaller, where 27 percent of them comprised of one or two persons. Around 32 percent of total households have one child in the age group (0-4 years), where the percentage was 35 percent in Qatari households, and 31 percent in non-Qatari households. Pertaining to the educational status of the head of the household, 86 percent of head of households have secondary education or higher; this percentage varies between Qatari and non-Qatari head of households, because the majority of the non-Qatari head of households hold university degree (78 percent). Notwithstanding, the education level of head of the Qatari households is also considered to be high, as the findings indicate that 36 percent of them acquired university education or higher, and 27 percent have secondary education. Characteristics of Female and Male Respondents 15-49 Years of Age and Children Under-5 Tables HH.4 and HH.5 provide information on the background characteristics of female respondents 15-49 years of age and of children under age 5. In both tables, the total numbers of weighted and unweighted observations are equal, since sample weights have been normalized (standardized). In addition to providing useful information on the background characteristics of men, women and children, the tables are also intended to show the numbers of observations in each background category. These categories are used in the subsequent tabulations of this report. Table HH.4 provides information background characteristics for the respondents in the Age group 15-49 years. The tables provide information on those women by, age, marital status, current status of motherhood, and births in the last two years, for the Qatari and non-Qatari households. The percentage of currently married women was 66 percent, as opposed to 32 percent who never married, and 2 percent who were previously married. The percentage of currently married Qatari women is lower ( 48 percent) , which could be attributed to the fact that a larger proportion of Qatari women are of ages 15-19 years, representing 21 percent of total sample of Qatari women. With regard to the motherhood status, 84 percent of women had previously given birth compared to 16 percent of women who have never delivered. However, this percentage is higher among percent Qatari women (88 percent). Of the sampled women, only 11 percent obtained intermediate education or less, 31 percent obtained secondary education, and 58 percent obtained university education. Eighty four percent of Qatari women obtained secondary or university education, which is a high percentage, when comparing this indicator for developing countries. As table HH.4M reveals, many characteristics for men mirror those for women. However, the percentage of currently married men was 60 percent compared to 66 percent of women. The percentage of Qatari men, who are currently married is 41 percent which is lower than 39Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics households as in line with the policies of the State of Qatar, the hiring of individuals is in accordance with the State’s development priorities and therefore expatriate workers may not be accompanied by all family members. The average family size in the sample is 5 persons, being around 7 persons for Qatari households compared to around four in non-Qatari households. As for the sex of the head of the household, it was found that the percentage of households headed by females was five percent among Qataris compared to around four among non-Qataris. About 58 percent of the households residing in Qatar, comprise of four persons or less, (the corresponding percentage for Qataris is 20 percent and 71 percent for non-Qatari). Moreover, 21 percent of Qatari households comprised of ten people or more. On the other hand, non-Qatari households are smaller, where 27 percent of them comprised of one or two persons. Around 32 percent of total households have one child in the age group (0-4 years), where the percentage was 35 percent in Qatari households, and 31 percent in non-Qatari households. Pertaining to the educational status of the head of the household, 86 percent of head of households have secondary education or higher; this percentage varies between Qatari and non-Qatari head of households, because the majority of the non-Qatari head of households hold university degree (78 percent). Notwithstanding, the education level of head of the Qatari households is also considered to be high, as the findings indicate that 36 percent of them acquired university education or higher, and 27 percent have secondary education. Characteristics of Female and Male Respondents 15-49 Years of Age and Children Under-5 Tables HH.4 and HH.5 provide information on the background characteristics of female respondents 15-49 years of age and of children under age 5. In both tables, the total numbers of weighted and unweighted observations are equal, since sample weights have been normalized (standardized). In addition to providing useful information on the background characteristics of men, women and children, the tables are also intended to show the numbers of observations in each background category. These categories are used in the subsequent tabulations of this report. Table HH.4 provides information background characteristics for the respondents in the Age group 15-49 years. The tables provide information on those women by, age, marital status, current status of motherhood, and births in the last two years, for the Qatari and non-Qatari households. The percentage of currently married women was 66 percent, as opposed to 32 percent who never married, and 2 percent who were previously married. The percentage of currently married Qatari women is lower ( 48 percent) , which could be attributed to the fact that a larger proportion of Qatari women are of ages 15-19 years, representing 21 percent of total sample of Qatari women. With regard to the motherhood status, 84 percent of women had previously given birth compared to 16 percent of women who have never delivered. However, this percentage is higher among percent Qatari women (88 percent). Of the sampled women, only 11 percent obtained intermediate education or less, 31 percent obtained secondary education, and 58 percent obtained university education. Eighty four percent of Qatari women obtained secondary or university education, which is a high percentage, when comparing this indicator for developing countries. As table HH.4M reveals, many characteristics for men mirror those for women. However, the percentage of currently married men was 60 percent compared to 66 percent of women. The percentage of Qatari men, who are currently married is 41 percent which is lower than 40 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics the national average and percent could be attributed to the increase of the percentage of Qataris in the younger age group 15-19 years (22 percent of total males in the sample are aged 15-19 years.) Of the sampled men, only 10 percent have intermediate education or less, (15 percent for Qataris and 7 percent among Non-Qataris). Thirty two percent of men attained secondary education, while 59 percent have obtained a university degree. The proportion of Qatari men, who obtained secondary education was 52 percent, and 33 percent of them have university education, compared to 22 percent and 71 percent respectively for non-Qataris. It may be noted that the percentage of Qatari women who obtained university education is higher compared to men. This pattern is consistent with the trend seen in the GCC, in general, where men are satisfied with secondary education, to join the labour market, while women prefer to continue with their education process. Table: HH.4 Women's background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of women age 15-49 years by selected characteristics, Qatar, 2012 Qatari women Non-Qatari women Total women Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Age 15-19 20.8 397 694 10.4 393 13.9 13.9 790 935 20-24 17.8 340 629 12.4 471 14.2 14.2 811 908 25-29 16.1 308 562 18.0 683 17.4 17.4 991 955 30-34 12.3 235 432 19.4 736 17.0 17.0 972 867 35-39 12.8 244 419 19.5 739 17.3 17.3 983 862 40-44 11.4 217 385 12.4 471 12.1 12.1 688 682 45-49 8.7 166 298 7.9 299 8.1 8.1 464 490 Marital status Currently married 48.3 920 1644 74.8 2835 65.9 65.9 3755 3341 Widowed 0.5 10 20 0.3 11 0.4 0.4 21 27 Divorced 1.8 34 63 0.5 17 0.9 0.9 52 74 Separated 0.2 4 9 0.3 13 0.3 0.3 17 14 Never married 49.1 937 1681 24.2 917 32.5 32.5 1853 2241 Motherhood status Ever gave birth 88.4 857 1535 82.0 2360 83.6 83.6 3216 2965 Never gave birth 11.3 110 197 17.9 514 16.2 16.2 624 485 Missing 0.3 3 4 0.1 2 0.1 0.1 5 6 Births in last two years Had a birth in last two years 12.1 232 428 15.0 567 14.0 14.0 799 770 Had no birth in last two years 87.7 1672 2987 85.0 3223 85.9 85.9 4895 4923 Missing 0.1 3 4 0.1 2 0.1 0.1 5 6 Education of household head None 3.3 64 118 2.5 94 2.8 2.8 158 180 Primary 4.2 80 144 2.4 92 3.0 3.0 172 203 Preparatory 8.6 163 296 3.6 137 5.3 5.3 300 372 Secondary 40.7 775 1402 26.0 987 30.9 30.9 1763 2008 University and above 43.0 819 1453 65.2 2474 57.8 57.8 3293 2925 Missing/DK 0.3 5 6 0.2 7 0.2 0.2 13 11 Total 100.0 1907 3419 100.0 3792 2280 100.0 5699 5699 41Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics the national average and percent could be attributed to the increase of the percentage of Qataris in the younger age group 15-19 years (22 percent of total males in the sample are aged 15-19 years.) Of the sampled men, only 10 percent have intermediate education or less, (15 percent for Qataris and 7 percent among Non-Qataris). Thirty two percent of men attained secondary education, while 59 percent have obtained a university degree. The proportion of Qatari men, who obtained secondary education was 52 percent, and 33 percent of them have university education, compared to 22 percent and 71 percent respectively for non-Qataris. It may be noted that the percentage of Qatari women who obtained university education is higher compared to men. This pattern is consistent with the trend seen in the GCC, in general, where men are satisfied with secondary education, to join the labour market, while women prefer to continue with their education process. Table: HH.4 Women's background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of women age 15-49 years by selected characteristics, Qatar, 2012 Qatari women Non-Qatari women Total women Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Age 15-19 20.8 397 694 10.4 393 13.9 13.9 790 935 20-24 17.8 340 629 12.4 471 14.2 14.2 811 908 25-29 16.1 308 562 18.0 683 17.4 17.4 991 955 30-34 12.3 235 432 19.4 736 17.0 17.0 972 867 35-39 12.8 244 419 19.5 739 17.3 17.3 983 862 40-44 11.4 217 385 12.4 471 12.1 12.1 688 682 45-49 8.7 166 298 7.9 299 8.1 8.1 464 490 Marital status Currently married 48.3 920 1644 74.8 2835 65.9 65.9 3755 3341 Widowed 0.5 10 20 0.3 11 0.4 0.4 21 27 Divorced 1.8 34 63 0.5 17 0.9 0.9 52 74 Separated 0.2 4 9 0.3 13 0.3 0.3 17 14 Never married 49.1 937 1681 24.2 917 32.5 32.5 1853 2241 Motherhood status Ever gave birth 88.4 857 1535 82.0 2360 83.6 83.6 3216 2965 Never gave birth 11.3 110 197 17.9 514 16.2 16.2 624 485 Missing 0.3 3 4 0.1 2 0.1 0.1 5 6 Births in last two years Had a birth in last two years 12.1 232 428 15.0 567 14.0 14.0 799 770 Had no birth in last two years 87.7 1672 2987 85.0 3223 85.9 85.9 4895 4923 Missing 0.1 3 4 0.1 2 0.1 0.1 5 6 Education of household head None 3.3 64 118 2.5 94 2.8 2.8 158 180 Primary 4.2 80 144 2.4 92 3.0 3.0 172 203 Preparatory 8.6 163 296 3.6 137 5.3 5.3 300 372 Secondary 40.7 775 1402 26.0 987 30.9 30.9 1763 2008 University and above 43.0 819 1453 65.2 2474 57.8 57.8 3293 2925 Missing/DK 0.3 5 6 0.2 7 0.2 0.2 13 11 Total 100.0 1907 3419 100.0 3792 2280 100.0 5699 5699 Table: HH.4M Men's background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of men age 15-49 years by selected background characteristics, Qatar, 2012 Qatari Men Non-Qatari Men Total Men Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Age 15-19 22.3 412 739 11.1 421 14.8 14.8 833 1009 20-24 19.8 366 679 8.0 304 11.9 11.9 670 877 25-29 16.5 305 552 13.2 499 14.3 14.3 803 858 30-34 12.5 231 416 19.5 740 17.2 17.2 971 842 35-39 9.1 168 289 18.0 681 15.1 15.1 849 709 40-44 11.6 213 374 17.1 646 15.3 15.3 859 759 45-49 8.1 150 271 13.0 494 11.4 11.4 644 576 Marital status Currently married 41.0 756 1349 69.3 2620 60.0 60.0 3377 2904 Widowed 0.1 1 2 0.1 5 0.1 0.1 7 5 Divorced 1.1 21 37 0.5 18 0.7 0.7 39 49 Separated 0.2 5 8 0.1 5 0.2 0.2 9 11 Never married 57.5 1060 1920 29.9 1130 38.9 38.9 2189 2653 Missing 0.0 1 0.1 5 0.1 0.1 5 4 Education of household head None 0.7 13 27 1.1 43 1.0 1.0 56 60 Primary 3.8 71 123 1.7 64 2.4 2.4 134 162 Preparatory 10.5 194 360 4.2 157 6.2 6.2 351 460 Secondary 51.6 952 1708 22.3 843 31.9 31.9 1794 2239 University and above 33.3 615 1100 70.7 2677 58.5 58.5 3292 2706 Missing/DK 0.1 1 2 0.0 1 0.0 0.0 2 3 Total 100.0 1846 3320 100.0 3784 2310 100.0 5630 5630 Some background characteristics of children under 5 are presented in Table HH.5. These include the distribution of children by several attributes: sex, age, mother’s or caretaker’s education disaggregated by Qatari and non-Qatari households. Male children represent 51percent of the sampled children under 5 years of age, compared to 49 percent for females. As for under-5 age structure, the data reveals that the highest proportion was of children aged 12-23 months, representing 22percent of total sample of children. A similar pattern was observed for non-Qatari children; representing 23 percent. On the other hand, the highest proportion of Qatari children belong to the age group 36-47 months. Children of age 0-5 months constitute the lowest share, for both Qatari and non-Qatari children. Children whose mothers have a university degree or higher constitute 65 percent of the sample. There is a statistically significant difference between Qatari and non-Qatari in this respect (44 percent for Qatari and 74 percent for non-Qatari. Only five percent of Qatari children have mothers with no education and 14 percent of mothers have obtained primary or preparatory education. The corresponding figures for non-Qatari children are two percent and six percent respectively. 42 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics IV. Nutrition Children’s nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. Breastfeeding and Infant and Young Child Feeding Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon and there are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. WHO/UNICEF have the following feeding recommendations: • Exclusive breastfeeding for first six months. • Continued breastfeeding for two years or more. • Safe and age-appropriate complementary foods beginning at 6 months. • Frequency of complementary feeding: 2 times per day for 6-8 month olds; 3 times per day for 9-11 month olds. It is also recommended that breastfeeding be initiated within one hour of birth. The indicators related to recommended child feeding practices are as follows: • Early initiation of breastfeeding (within 1 hour of birth). • Exclusive breastfeeding rate (< 6 months). • Predominant breastfeeding (< 6 months). • Continued breastfeeding rate (at 1 year and at 2 years). • Duration of breastfeeding. • Age-appropriate breastfeeding (0-23 months). • Introduction of solid, semi-solid and soft foods (6-8 months). • Minimum meal frequency (6-23 months). • Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfeeding children (6-23 months). • Bottle feeding (0-23 months). Table NU.2 shows the proportion of children born in the last two years who were ever breastfed, those who were first breastfed within one hour and one day of birth, and those who received a prelacteal feed. Although a very important step in management of lactation and establishment of a physical and emotional relationship between the baby and the mother, only 34 percent of babies were breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth (42 percent among Qatari, and 30 percent among non-Qatari households) Eighty five percent of newborns in Qatar start breastfeeding within the first day of birth (83 percent and 85 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari) respectively It was noticed that percentage of children who were breastfed during the first hour and first day of birth, reaches its maximum when the educational level of mothers is primary, and declines gradually with increasing levels of education. Table: HH.5 Under-5's background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of children under five years of age by selected characteristics, Qatar, 2012 Total number of Qatari children Total number of Non-Qatari children Total number of children Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Weighted percent Weighted Unweighted Sex Male 51.4 334 618 50.6 724 447 50.9 1059 1065 Female 48.6 317 585 49.4 707 432 49.1 1023 1017 Age in months 0-5 8.7 56 108 7.4 106 68 7.8 163 176 6-11 10.1 66 125 11.7 167 106 11.2 233 231 12-23 19.5 127 240 22.8 326 194 21.7 453 434 24-35 19.8 129 237 19.8 284 178 19.8 413 415 36-47 22.0 143 265 20.0 287 170 20.7 430 435 48-59 19.9 129 228 18.2 260 163 18.7 390 391 Mother's education of household head * None 4.5 29 52 1.8 25 15 2.6 54 67 Primary 5.5 36 72 2.5 36 22 3.4 71 94 Preparatory 8.9 58 107 3.6 52 26 5.3 110 133 Secondary 36.8 240 450 18.1 259 154 24.0 499 604 University and above 44.3 289 522 74.0 1059 662 64.8 1348 1184 Total 100.0 651 1203 100.0 1431 879 100.0 2082 2082 * Mother's education refers to educational attainment of mothers and caretakers of children under 5 43Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics IV. Nutrition Children’s nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. Breastfeeding and Infant and Young Child Feeding Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon and there are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. WHO/UNICEF have the following feeding recommendations: • Exclusive breastfeeding for first six months. • Continued breastfeeding for two years or more. • Safe and age-appropriate complementary foods beginning at 6 months. • Frequency of complementary feeding: 2 times per day for 6-8 month olds; 3 times per day for 9-11 month olds. It is also recommended that breastfeeding be initiated within one hour of birth. The indicators related to recommended child feeding practices are as follows: • Early initiation of breastfeeding (within 1 hour of birth). • Exclusive breastfeeding rate (< 6 months). • Predominant breastfeeding (< 6 months). • Continued breastfeeding rate (at 1 year and at 2 years). • Duration of breastfeeding. • Age-appropriate breastfeeding (0-23 months). • Introduction of solid, semi-solid and soft foods (6-8 months). • Minimum meal frequency (6-23 months). • Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfeeding children (6-23 months). • Bottle feeding (0-23 months). Table NU.2 shows the proportion of children born in the last two years who were ever breastfed, those who were first breastfed within one hour and one day of birth, and those who received a prelacteal feed. Although a very important step in management of lactation and establishment of a physical and emotional relationship between the baby and the mother, only 34 percent of babies were breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth (42 percent among Qatari, and 30 percent among non-Qatari households) Eighty five percent of newborns in Qatar start breastfeeding within the first day of birth (83 percent and 85 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari) respectively It was noticed that percentage of children who were breastfed during the first hour and first day of birth, reaches its maximum when the educational level of mothers is primary, and declines gradually with increasing levels of education. 44 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Figure: NU.1 Proportion of mothers who started breastfeeding their children within one hour and one day of delivery, Qatar, 2012 38 43 30 42 30 34 75 84 86 83 85 85 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Mother's education of household head Below Secondary Secondary University and above Nationality Qatari Non-Qatari Total of state of Qatar Percentage Within one hour of birth Within one day of birth Table: NU.2 Initial breastfeeding Percentage of last-born children in the 2 years preceding the survey who were ever breastfed, percentage who were breastfed within one hour of birth and within one day of birth, and percentage who received a prelacteal feed, Qatar, 2012 Percentage ever breastfed [1] Percentage who were first breastfed: Within one hour of birth [2] Percentage who were first breastfed: Within one day of birth Percentage who received a prelacteal feed Number of last-born children in the two years preceding the survey Months since last birth 0-11 months 93.4 36.7 82.4 33.8 394 12-23 months 95.9 30.4 86.6 38.3 405 Assistance at delivery Skilled attendant 94.6 33.5 84.5 36.1 799 Place of delivery Public sector health facility 95.2 33.2 85.9 35.0 679 Private sector health facility 90.7 35.0 75.8 43.5 111 Home/missing/other * * * * 9 Mother's education of household head Below Secondary 93.0 38.3 75.2 30.6 80 Secondary 95.2 42.6 83.9 34.9 168 University and above 94.7 30.0 86.1 37.3 551 Nationality Qatari 94.5 42.0 83.3 33.1 232 Non-Qatari 94.7 30.0 85.0 37.3 567 Total 94.6 33.5 84.5 36.1 799 [1] MICS indicator 2.4 [2] MICS indicator 2.5 * Less than 25 unweighted cases In Table NU.3, breastfeeding status is based on the reports of mothers/caretakers of children’s consumption of food and fluids during the previous day or night prior to the interview. Exclusively breastfed refers to infants who received only breast milk (and vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine). The table shows exclusive breastfeeding of infants during the first six months of life, as well as continued breastfeeding of children at 12-15 and 20-23 months of age. About 29 percent of children below age six months are exclusively breastfed; (19 percent and 35 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari children respectively). This percentage is a much lower than the recommended level, which is 100 percent. Sixty five percent of children aged 12-15 months are still being breastfed (49 percent and 67 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari children respectively). Among children aged 20-23 months, 32 percent are still breastfed (18 percent and 38 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari children respectively). The data shows that girls were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than boys. 45Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Figure: NU.1 Proportion of mothers who started breastfeeding their children within one hour and one day of delivery, Qatar, 2012 38 43 30 42 30 34 75 84 86 83 85 85 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Mother's education of household head Below Secondary Secondary University and above Nationality Qatari Non-Qatari Total of state of Qatar Percentage Within one hour of birth Within one day of birth Table: NU.2 Initial breastfeeding Percentage of last-born children in the 2 years preceding the survey who were ever breastfed, percentage who were breastfed within one hour of birth and within one day of birth, and percentage who received a prelacteal feed, Qatar, 2012 Percentage ever breastfed [1] Percentage who were first breastfed: Within one hour of birth [2] Percentage who were first breastfed: Within one day of birth Percentage who received a prelacteal feed Number of last-born children in the two years preceding the survey Months since last birth 0-11 months 93.4 36.7 82.4 33.8 394 12-23 months 95.9 30.4 86.6 38.3 405 Assistance at delivery Skilled attendant 94.6 33.5 84.5 36.1 799 Place of delivery Public sector health facility 95.2 33.2 85.9 35.0 679 Private sector health facility 90.7 35.0 75.8 43.5 111 Home/missing/other * * * * 9 Mother's education of household head Below Secondary 93.0 38.3 75.2 30.6 80 Secondary 95.2 42.6 83.9 34.9 168 University and above 94.7 30.0 86.1 37.3 551 Nationality Qatari 94.5 42.0 83.3 33.1 232 Non-Qatari 94.7 30.0 85.0 37.3 567 Total 94.6 33.5 84.5 36.1 799 [1] MICS indicator 2.4 [2] MICS indicator 2.5 * Less than 25 unweighted cases In Table NU.3, breastfeeding status is based on the reports of mothers/caretakers of children’s consumption of food and fluids during the previous day or night prior to the interview. Exclusively breastfed refers to infants who received only breast milk (and vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine). The table shows exclusive breastfeeding of infants during the first six months of life, as well as continued breastfeeding of children at 12-15 and 20-23 months of age. About 29 percent of children below age six months are exclusively breastfed; (19 percent and 35 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari children respectively). This percentage is a much lower than the recommended level, which is 100 percent. Sixty five percent of children aged 12-15 months are still being breastfed (49 percent and 67 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari children respectively). Among children aged 20-23 months, 32 percent are still breastfed (18 percent and 38 percent for Qatari and non-Qatari children respectively). The data shows that girls were more likely to be exclusively breastfed than boys. 46 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Table: NU.4 Duration of breastfeeding Median duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and predominant breastfeeding among children age 0-35 months, Qatar, 2012 Median duration (in months) of Number of children age 0- 35 months Any breastfeeding [1] Exclusive breastfeeding Predominant breastfeeding Sex Male 18.0 0.6 0.6 633 Female 15.5 1.2 1.7 629 Nationality Qatari male 13.8 0.6 0.6 191 Qatari female 13.5 0.6 0.7 187 Non-Qatari male 20.1 0.5 0.5 442 Non-Qatari female 15.7 2.1 2.9 441 Mother's education of household head Below Secondary 19.9 0.6 1.5 137 Secondary 16.0 0.7 0.7 290 University and above 16.1 0.7 0.7 836 Median Qatari 13.7 0.6 0.6 378 Non Qtari 18.3 0.8 1.4 884 Total 16.4 0.7 0.7 1262 Mean for all children (0-35 months) 15.3 2.0 2.8 1262 [1] MICS indicator 2.10 The adequacy of infant feeding in children under 24 months is provided in Table NU.5. Different criteria of feeding are used depending on the age of the child. For infants aged 0-5 months, exclusive breast feeding is considered as age-appropriate feeding, while infants aged 6-23 months are considered to be appropriately fed if they are receiving breast milk and solid, semi-solid or soft food. In Qatar, the percentage of children below 24 months of age, who receive age appropriate feeding was 24.percent (20 percent for Qataris and 26 percent for non-Qataris. The proportion of male children below the age of 24 months in Qatar, who were appropriately fed was 27 percent and 22 percent for females of the same age. Figure: NU.2 Proportion of children who exclusively breastfed for the first six months, Qatar, 2012 Table: NU.3 Breastfeeding Percentage of living children according to breastfeeding status at selected age groups, Qatar, 2012 Children 0-5 months Children 12-15 months Children 20-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed [1] Percent predominantly breastfed [2] Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 1 year) [3] Number of children Number of children Percent breastfe d (Continu ed breastfe eding at 2 years) [4] Sex Male 23.8 34.2 82 66.1 81 32.5 67 Female 34.9 42.1 81 63.7 71 31.3 67 Nationality Qatari 18.6 26.2 56 )49.0( 34 )18.2( 43 Non- Qatari 35.0 44.4 106 69.6 118 38.4 92 Total 29.3 38.1 163 65.0 152 31.9 134 [1] MICS indicator 2.6 [2] MICS indicator 2.9 [3] MICS indicator 2.7 [4] MICS indicator 2.8 ( ) Between 25-49 unweighted cases. Table NU.4 shows the median duration of breastfeeding by selected background characteristics. Among children under age 3, the median duration is 15 months for any breastfeeding, two months for exclusive breastfeeding, and nearly three months for predominant breastfeeding. It was noticed that the median for any kind of breastfeeding among males was higher than that of females. However, the median for predominant breastfeeding among females was higher than that of males. It was noticed the exclusive breastfeeding was highest among children, whose mothers did not receive any education at all. 24 35 19 35 29 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Sex Male Female Nationality Qatari Non- Qatari Total of state of Qatar Percentage Number of children Percent breaslfed (Continued breaslfeding at 2 years) [4] 67 32.5 67 31.3 43 (18.2) 92 38.4 134 31.9 47Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Table: NU.4 Duration of breastfeeding Median duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and predominant breastfeeding among children age 0-35 months, Qatar, 2012 Median duration (in months) of Number of children age 0- 35 months Any breastfeeding [1] Exclusive breastfeeding Predominant breastfeeding Sex Male 18.0 0.6 0.6 633 Female 15.5 1.2 1.7 629 Nationality Qatari male 13.8 0.6 0.6 191 Qatari female 13.5 0.6 0.7 187 Non-Qatari male 20.1 0.5 0.5 442 Non-Qatari female 15.7 2.1 2.9 441 Mother's education of household head Below Secondary 19.9 0.6 1.5 137 Secondary 16.0 0.7 0.7 290 University and above 16.1 0.7 0.7 836 Median Qatari 13.7 0.6 0.6 378 Non Qtari 18.3 0.8 1.4 884 Total 16.4 0.7 0.7 1262 Mean for all children (0-35 months) 15.3 2.0 2.8 1262 [1] MICS indicator 2.10 The adequacy of infant feeding in children under 24 months is provided in Table NU.5. Different criteria of feeding are used depending on the age of the child. For infants aged 0-5 months, exclusive breast feeding is considered as age-appropriate feeding, while infants aged 6-23 months are considered to be appropriately fed if they are receiving breast milk and solid, semi-solid or soft food. In Qatar, the percentage of children below 24 months of age, who receive age appropriate feeding was 24.percent (20 percent for Qataris and 26 percent for non-Qataris. The proportion of male children below the age of 24 months in Qatar, who were appropriately fed was 27 percent and 22 percent for females of the same age. Figure: NU.2 Proportion of children who exclusively breastfed for the first six months, Qatar, 2012 Table: NU.3 Breastfeeding Percentage of living children according to breastfeeding status at selected age groups, Qatar, 2012 Children 0-5 months Children 12-15 months Children 20-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed [1] Percent predominantly breastfed [2] Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 1 year) [3] Number of children Number of children Percent breastfe d (Continu ed breastfe eding at 2 years) [4] Sex Male 23.8 34.2 82 66.1 81 32.5 67 Female 34.9 42.1 81 63.7 71 31.3 67 Nationality Qatari 18.6 26.2 56 )49.0( 34 )18.2( 43 Non- Qatari 35.0 44.4 106 69.6 118 38.4 92 Total 29.3 38.1 163 65.0 152 31.9 134 [1] MICS indicator 2.6 [2] MICS indicator 2.9 [3] MICS indicator 2.7 [4] MICS indicator 2.8 ( ) Between 25-49 unweighted cases. Table NU.4 shows the median duration of breastfeeding by selected background characteristics. Among children under age 3, the median duration is 15 months for any breastfeeding, two months for exclusive breastfeeding, and nearly three months for predominant breastfeeding. It was noticed that the median for any kind of breastfeeding among males was higher than that of females. However, the median for predominant breastfeeding among females was higher than that of males. It was noticed the exclusive breastfeeding was highest among children, whose mothers did not receive any education at all. 24 35 19 35 29 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 Sex Male Female Nationality Qatari Non- Qatari Total of state of Qatar Percentage 48 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Table: NU.6 Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft food Percentage of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi-solid or soft foods during the previous day, Qatar, 2012 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods Number of children age 6-8 months Percent receiving solid, semi- solid or soft foods Number of children age 6-8 months Percent receiving solid, semi- solid or soft foods [1] Number of children age 6- 8 months Nationality Qatari (42.1) 18 * 9 )50.8( 27 Non- Qatari 37.5 55 * 37 50.0 92 Total 38.7 73 68.3 46 50.2 119 [1] MICS indicator 2.12 * Less than 25 unweighted cases ( ) Between 25-49 unweighted cases. Table NU.7 presents the proportion of children age 6-23 months who received semi-solid or soft foods the minimum number of times or more during the previous day according to breastfeeding status (see the note in Table NU.7 for a definition of minimum number of times for different age groups). Overall, half of the children age 6-23 months (50 percent) received solid, semi-solid and soft foods the minimum number of times. No gender differentials were noted in feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months. Among currently breastfeeding children age 6-23 months, nearly 15 percent) were receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods the minimum number of times and this proportion was higher among males 17 percent) compared to females 13 percent. Among non-breastfeeding children, nearly 89 percent of the children were receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods or milk feeds 4 times or more. Table: NU.5 Age-appropriate breastfeeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were appropriately breastfed during the previous day, Qatar, 2012 Children age 0-5 months Children age 6-23 months Children age 0-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed [1] Number of children Percent currently breastfeeding and receiving solid, semi- solid or soft foods Number of children Percent appropriately breastfed [2] Number of children Sex Male 23.8 82 27.2 332 26.5 414 Female 34.9 81 18.8 354 21.8 435 Nationality Qatari 18.6 56 19.9 193 19.6 249 Non-Qatari 35.0 106 24.0 493 26.0 600 Mother's education of household head Below Secondary * 16 28.9 67 26.4 83 Secondary (24.0) 34 23.0 154 23.2 188 University and above 32.8 113 22.0 465 24.1 578 Total 29.3 163 22.9 686 24.1 849 [1] MICS indicator 2.6 [2] MICS indicator 2.14 * Less than 25 unweighted cases ( ) Between 25-49 unweighted cases. Appropriate complementary feeding of children from 6 months to two years of age is particularly important for growth and development and the prevention of under nutrition. Continued breastfeeding beyond six months should be accompanied by consumption of nutritionally adequate, safe and appropriate complementary foods that help meet nutritional requirements when breast milk is no longer sufficient. This requires that for breastfed children, two or more meals of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed if they are six to eight months old, and three or more meals if they are 9-23 months of age. For children 6-23 months and older who are not breastfed, four or more meals of solid, semi-solid or soft foods or milk feeds are needed. Overall, 50 percent of infants age 6-8 months received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (Table NU.6). Among currently breastfeeding infants this percentage is 39 percent while it is 68 percent among infants currently not breastfeeding. 49Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Table: NU.6 Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft food Percentage of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi-solid or soft foods during the previous day, Qatar, 2012 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods Number of children age 6-8 months Percent receiving solid, semi- solid or soft foods Number of children age 6-8 months Percent receiving solid, semi- solid or soft foods [1] Number of children age 6- 8 months Nationality Qatari (42.1) 18 * 9 )50.8( 27 Non- Qatari 37.5 55 * 37 50.0 92 Total 38.7 73 68.3 46 50.2 119 [1] MICS indicator 2.12 * Less than 25 unweighted cases ( ) Between 25-49 unweighted cases. Table NU.7 presents the proportion of children age 6-23 months who received semi-solid or soft foods the minimum number of times or more during the previous day according to breastfeeding status (see the note in Table NU.7 for a definition of minimum number of times for different age groups). Overall, half of the children age 6-23 months (50 percent) received solid, semi-solid and soft foods the minimum number of times. No gender differentials were noted in feeding practices among children aged 6-23 months. Among currently breastfeeding children age 6-23 months, nearly 15 percent) were receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods the minimum number of times and this proportion was higher among males 17 percent) compared to females 13 percent. Among non-breastfeeding children, nearly 89 percent of the children were receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods or milk feeds 4 times or more. Table: NU.5 Age-appropriate breastfeeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were appropriately breastfed during the previous day, Qatar, 2012 Children age 0-5 months Children age 6-23 months Children age 0-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed [1] Number of children Percent currently breastfeeding and receiving solid, semi- solid or soft foods Number of children Percent appropriately breastfed [2] Number of children Sex Male 23.8 82 27.2 332 26.5 414 Female 34.9 81 18.8 354 21.8 435 Nationality Qatari 18.6 56 19.9 193 19.6 249 Non-Qatari 35.0 106 24.0 493 26.0 600 Mother's education of household head Below Secondary * 16 28.9 67 26.4 83 Secondary (24.0) 34 23.0 154 23.2 188 University and above 32.8 113 22.0 465 24.1 578 Total 29.3 163 22.9 686 24.1 849 [1] MICS indicator 2.6 [2] MICS indicator 2.14 * Less than 25 unweighted cases ( ) Between 25-49 unweighted cases. Appropriate complementary feeding of children from 6 months to two years of age is particularly important for growth and development and the prevention of under nutrition. Continued breastfeeding beyond six months should be accompanied by consumption of nutritionally adequate, safe and appropriate complementary foods that help meet nutritional requirements when breast milk is no longer sufficient. This requires that for breastfed children, two or more meals of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed if they are six to eight months old, and three or more meals if they are 9-23 months of age. For children 6-23 months and older who are not breastfed, four or more meals of solid, semi-solid or soft foods or milk feeds are needed. Overall, 50 percent of infants age 6-8 months received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (Table NU.6). Among currently breastfeeding infants this percentage is 39 percent while it is 68 percent among infants currently not breastfeeding. 50 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Table: NU.7 Minimum meal frequency Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (and milk feeds for non-breastfeeding children) the minimum number of times or more during the previous day, according to breastfeeding status, Qatar, 2012 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent receiving solid, semi- solid and soft foods the minimum number of times Number of children age 6-23 months Percent receiving at least 2 milk feeds [1] Percent receiving solid, semi- solid and soft foods or milk feeds 4 times or more Number of children age 6-23 months Percent with minimum meal frequency [2] Number of children age 6-23 months Sex Male 16.8 182 93.0 89.6 150 49.6 332 Female 12.6 177 91.6 88.6 177 50.6 354 Nationality Qatari 18.5 82 95.6 95.6 111 62.9 193 Non-Qatari 13.6 277 90.5 85.7 216 45.1 493 Age 6-8 months 27.8 73 96.3 * 46 52.0 119 9-11 months 8.5 75 87.9 (87.0) 40 35.6 115 12-17 months 8.6 143 96.1 92.3 94 41.8 237 18-23 months 20.4 69 89.7 87.1 147 65.9 216 Mother's education of household head Below Secondary (15.0) 41 93.9 * 26 47.0 67 Secondary 22.7 80 91.8 87.0 74 53.7 154 University and above 12.0 238 92.2 88.8 226 49.4 465 Total 14.7 359 92.2 89.0 327 50.1 686 [1] MICS indicator 2.15 [2] MICS indicator 2.13 * Less than 25 unweighted cases ( ) Between 25-49 unweighted cases. Note: Among currently breastfeeding children age 6-8 months, minimum meal frequency is defined as children who also received solid, semi-solid or soft foods 2 times or more. Among currently breastfeeding children age 9-23 months, receipt of solid, semi-solid or soft foods at least 3 times constitutes minimum meal frequency. For non-breastfeeding children age 6-23 months, minimum meal frequency is defined as children receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods, and milk feeds, at least 4 times during the previous day. The continued practice of bottle-feeding is a concern because of the possible contamination due to unsafe water and lack of hygiene in preparation. Table NU.8 shows that bottle- feeding is prevalent in Qatar. Sixty three percent of children under 6 months are fed using a bottle with a nipple. Percentage of bottle-feeding was higher among males (68 percent), compared to females (58 percent). Table: NU.8 Bottle feeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Qatar, 2012 Percentage of children age 0-23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple [1] Number of children age 0-23 months Sex Male 67.7 414 Female 58.4 435 Nationality Qatari 68.9 249 Non-Qatari 60.4 600 Age 0-5 months 53.6 163 6-11 months 71.9 233 12-23 months 61.6 453 Mother's education of household head Below Secondary 71.6 83 Secondary 62.0 188 University and above 61.9 578 Total 62.9 849 [1] MICS indicator 2.11 Low Birth Weight Weight at birth is a good indicator not only of a mother's health and nutritional status but also the newborn's chances for survival, growth, long-term health and psychosocial development. Low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams) carries a range of grave health risks for children. Babies who were undernourished in the womb face a greatly increased risk of dying during their early months and years. Those who survive have impaired immune function and increased risk of disease; they are likely to remain undernourished, with reduced muscle strength, throughout their lives, and suffer a higher incidence of diabetes and heart disease in later life. Children born underweight also tend to have a lower IQ and cognitive disabilities, affecting their performance in school and their job opportunities as adults. In the developing world, low birth weight stems primarily from the mother's poor health and nutrition. Three factors have most impact: the mother's poor nutritional status before conception, short stature (due mostly to under nutrition and infections during her childhood), and poor nutrition during the pregnancy. Inadequate weight gain during pregnancy is particularly important since it accounts for a large proportion of foetal growth retardation. Moreover, diseases such as diarrhoea and malaria, which are common in many developing countries, can significantly impair foetal growth if the mother becomes infected while pregnant. In the industrialized world, cigarette smoking during pregnancy is the leading cause of low birth weight. In developed and developing countries alike, teenagers who give birth when their own bodies have yet to finish growing run the risk of bearing underweight babies. One of the major challenges in measuring the incidence of low birth weight is the fact that more than half of infants in the developing world are not weighed. In the past, most estimates of low birth weight for developing countries were based on data compiled from 51Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics Table: NU.7 Minimum meal frequency Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (and milk feeds for non-breastfeeding children) the minimum number of times or more during the previous day, according to breastfeeding status, Qatar, 2012 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent receiving solid, semi- solid and soft foods the minimum number of times Number of children age 6-23 months Percent receiving at least 2 milk feeds [1] Percent receiving solid, semi- solid and soft foods or milk feeds 4 times or more Number of children age 6-23 months Percent with minimum meal frequency [2] Number of children age 6-23 months Sex Male 16.8 182 93.0 89.6 150 49.6 332 Female 12.6 177 91.6 88.6 177 50.6 354 Nationality Qatari 18.5 82 95.6 95.6 111 62.9 193 Non-Qatari 13.6 277 90.5 85.7 216 45.1 493 Age 6-8 months 27.8 73 96.3 * 46 52.0 119 9-11 months 8.5 75 87.9 (87.0) 40 35.6 115 12-17 months 8.6 143 96.1 92.3 94 41.8 237 18-23 months 20.4 69 89.7 87.1 147 65.9 216 Mother's education of household head Below Secondary (15.0) 41 93.9 * 26 47.0 67 Secondary 22.7 80 91.8 87.0 74 53.7 154 University and above 12.0 238 92.2 88.8 226 49.4 465 Total 14.7 359 92.2 89.0 327 50.1 686 [1] MICS indicator 2.15 [2] MICS indicator 2.13 * Less than 25 unweighted cases ( ) Between 25-49 unweighted cases. Note: Among currently breastfeeding children age 6-8 months, minimum meal frequency is defined as children who also received solid, semi-solid or soft foods 2 times or more. Among currently breastfeeding children age 9-23 months, receipt of solid, semi-solid or soft foods at least 3 times constitutes minimum meal frequency. For non-breastfeeding children age 6-23 months, minimum meal frequency is defined as children receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods, and milk feeds, at least 4 times during the previous day. The continued practice of bottle-feeding is a concern because of the possible contamination due to unsafe water and lack of hygiene in preparation. Table NU.8 shows that bottle- feeding is prevalent in Qatar. Sixty three percent of children under 6 months are fed using a bottle with a nipple. Percentage of bottle-feeding was higher among males (68 percent), compared to females (58 percent). Table: NU.8 Bottle feeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Qatar, 2012 Percentage of children age 0-23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple [1] Number of children age 0-23 months Sex Male 67.7 414 Female 58.4 435 Nationality Qatari 68.9 249 Non-Qatari 60.4 600 Age 0-5 months 53.6 163 6-11 months 71.9 233 12-23 months 61.6 453 Mother's education of household head Below Secondary 71.6 83 Secondary 62.0 188 University and above 61.9 578 Total 62.9 849 [1] MICS indicator 2.11 Low Birth Weight Weight at birth is a good indicator not only of a mother's health and nutritional status but also the newborn's chances for survival, growth, long-term health and psychosocial development. Low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams) carries a range of grave health risks for children. Babies who were undernourished in the womb face a greatly increased risk of dying during their early months and years. Those who survive have impaired immune function and increased risk of disease; they are likely to remain undernourished, with reduced muscle strength, throughout their lives, and suffer a higher incidence of diabetes and heart disease in later life. Children born underweight also tend to have a lower IQ and cognitive disabilities, affecting their performance in school and their job opportunities as adults. In the developing world, low birth weight stems primarily from the mother's poor health and nutrition. Three factors have most impact: the mother's poor nutritional status before conception, short stature (due mostly to under nutrition and infections during her childhood), and poor nutrition during the pregnancy. Inadequate weight gain during pregnancy is particularly important since it accounts for a large proportion of foetal growth retardation. Moreover, diseases such as diarrhoea and malaria, which are common in many developing countries, can significantly impair foetal growth if the mother becomes infected while pregnant. In the industrialized world, cigarette smoking during pregnancy is the leading cause of low birth weight. In developed and developing countries alike, teenagers who give birth when their own bodies have yet to finish growing run the risk of bearing underweight babies. One of the major challenges in measuring the incidence of low birth weight is the fact that more than half of infants in the developing world are not weighed. In the past, most estimates of low birth weight for developing countries were based on data compiled from 52 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics V. Child Health Oral Rehydration Treatment Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children under five worldwide. Most diarrhoea-related deaths in children are due to dehydration from loss of large quantities of water and electrolytes from the body in liquid stools. Management of diarrhoea – either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) - can prevent many of these deaths. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhoea. The goals are to: 1) reduce by one half death due to diarrhoea among children under five by 2010 compared to 2000 (A World Fit for Children); and 2) reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five by 2015 compared to 1990 (Millennium Development Goals). In addition, the World Fit for Children calls for a reduction in the incidence of diarrhoea by 25 percent. In the MICS prevalence of diarrhoea was estimated by asking mothers or caretakers whether their child under age five years had an episode of diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the survey. In cases where mothers reported that the child had diarrhoea, a series of questions were asked about the treatment of the illness, including what the child had to drink and eat during the episode and whether this was more or less than the child usually drinks and eats. The indicators are:  Prevalence of diarrhoea.  Oral rehydration therapy (ORT).  Home management of diarrhoea.  ORT with continued feeding. Overall, four percent of under five children had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey (Table CH.5). Diarrhoea prevalence was not significantly higher for Qatari children (5 percent) compared to (4 percent) non Qatari children. Given the small number of cases, these results need to be interpreted with caution. health facilities. However, these estimates are biased for most developing countries because the majority of newborns are not delivered in facilities, and those who are represent only a selected sample of all births. However, this trend was not observed in Qatar as there is near universal coverage to health services and all births are facility-based. The percentage of low birth weight was estimated using mother’s recall of the child’s weight or the weight as recorded on a health card. Overall, 87 percent of births were weighed at birth and approximately 11 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth (Table NU.11 and Figure NU.3). There was no difference in the prevalence of low weight at birth by nationality, or the educational level of the mother. Figure: NU.3 Proportion of infants weighted at birth, Qatar, 2012 Table: NU.11 Low birth weight infants Percentage of last-born children in the 2 years preceding the survey that are estimated to have weighed below 2500 grams at birth and percentage of live births weighed at birth, Qatar, 2012 Percent of live births: Number of last-born children in the two years preceding the surveyBelow 2500 grams [1] Weighed at birth [2] Nationality Qatari 10.2 86.2 232 Non-Qatari 11.0 88.0 567 Education of household head Below Secondary 11.5 92.0 80 Secondary 11.9 88.7 168 University and above 10.1 86.4 551 Total 10.6 87.5 799 [1] MICS indicator 2.18 [2] MICS indicator 2.19 92 89 86 86 88 87 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Education of household head Below Secondary Secondary University and above Nationality Qatari Non-Qatari Total of state of Qatar Percentage 53Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of QatarMinistry of Development & Planning Statistics V. Child Health Oral Rehydration Treatment Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death among children under five worldwide. Most diarrhoea-related deaths in children are due to dehydration from loss of large quantities of water and electrolytes from the body in liquid stools. Management of diarrhoea – either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) - can prevent many of these deaths. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhoea. The goals are to: 1) reduce by one half death due to diarrhoea among children under five by 2010 compared to 2000 (A World Fit for Children); and 2) reduce by two thirds the mortality rate among children under five by 2015 compared to 1990 (Millennium Development Goals). In addition, the World Fit for Children calls for a reduction in the incidence of diarrhoea by 25 percent. In the MICS prevalence of diarrhoea was estimated by asking mothers or caretakers whether their child under age five years had an episode of diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the survey. In cases where mothers reported that the child had diarrhoea, a series of questions were asked about the treatment of the illness, including what the child had to drink and eat during the episode and whether this was more or less than the child usually drinks and eats. The indicators are:  Prevalence of diarrhoea.  Oral rehydration therapy (ORT).  Home management of diarrhoea.  ORT with continued feeding. Overall, four percent of under five children had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey (Table CH.5). Diarrhoea prevalence was not significantly higher for Qatari children (5 percent) compared to (4 percent) non Qatari children. Given the small number of cases, these results need to be interpreted with caution. health facilities. However, these estimates are biased for most developing countries because the majority of newborns are not delivered in facilities, and those who are represent only a selected sample of all births. However, this trend was not observed in Qatar as there is near universal coverage to health services and all births are facility-based. The percentage of low birth weight was estimated using mother’s recall of the child’s weight or the weight as recorded on a health card. Overall, 87 percent of births were weighed at birth and approximately 11 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2500 grams at birth (Table NU.11 and Figure NU.3). There was no difference in the prevalence of low weight at birth by nationality, or the educational level of the mother. Figure: NU.3 Proportion of infants weighted at birth, Qatar, 2012 Table: NU.11 Low birth weight infants Percentage of last-born children in the 2 years preceding the survey that are estimated to have weighed below 2500 grams at birth and percentage of live births weighed at birth, Qatar, 2012 Percent of live births: Number of last-born children in the two years preceding the surveyBelow 2500 grams [1] Weighed at birth [2] Nationality Qatari 10.2 86.2 232 Non-Qatari 11.0 88.0 567 Education of household head Below Secondary 11.5 92.0 80 Secondary 11.9 88.7 168 University and above 10.1 86.4 551 Total 10.6 87.5 799 [1] MICS indicator 2.18 [2] MICS indicator 2.19 92 89 86 86 88 87 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Education of household head Below Secondary Secondary University and above Nationality Qatari Non-Qatari Total of state of Qatar Percentage 54 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), State of Qatar Ministry of Development & Planning Statistics Figure: CH.1 Proportion of under five children who had diarrhea and received oral dehydration treatment, Qatar, 2012 Just over one fourth (28 percent) of under five children with diarrhoea drank more than usual while 20 percent drank the same or less (Table CH.5 Thirty eight percent ate somewhat less, while 29 percent were given about the same to eat and 6 percent were given more food. However, 18 percent ate much less and another 4 percent ate almost none. Data shows that the percentage of children below the age of five, who were suffering from diarrhea, and who were given fluids or food, more than they usually eat or drink was higher for girls ; (31 percent and 7 percent) respectively, than their male counterparts; (24 percent and 5 percent). As the prevalence is low and the number of cases are less than 50, these results need to be interpreted with care. Table CH.6 provides the proportion of children age 0 - 59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who received oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding, and percentage of children with diarrhoea who received other treatments. Overall, 53 percent of children with diarrhoea received ORS or increased fluids, four percent received ORT (ORS or recommended homemade fluids or increased fluids). Combining the information in Table CH.5 with those in Table CH.4 on oral rehydration therapy, it is observed that si

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