PRODOPS Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers - Final Activity Report

Publication date: 2009

Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Final Activity Report December 15, 2009 Gregory Roche Jennifer Antilla Erin Hasselberg Sylvia Ness © John Snow, Inc. Support for this work was provided by the Program for Appropriate Technology in Health (PATH). PATH and John Snow, Inc. (JSI) shall have the right to duplicate, use, or disclose the data to the extent provided in the subgrant agreement. This restriction does not limit PATH’s right to use information contained in these data if it is obtained from another source without restriction. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Gregory Roche Jennifer Antilla Erin Hasselberg Sylvia Ness John Snow, Inc. (JSI) is a U.S.-based health care consulting firm committed to improving the health of individuals and communities worldwide. Our multidisciplinary staff works in partnership with host- country experts, organizations, and governments to make quality, accessible health care a reality for children, women, and men around the world. JSI’s headquarters are in Boston, Massachusetts, with U.S. offices in Washington, D.C.; Atlanta, Georgia; Burlington, Vermont; Concord, New Hampshire; Denver, Colorado; Providence, Rhode Island; and San Francisco, California. JSI also maintains offices in more than 40 countries throughout the developing world. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 3 Contents Contents . 3  Acronyms. 5  Preface . 6  Executive Summary . 7  Introduction. 11  Project Goal, Objectives, and Outputs . 12  Methodology . 14  1.2 Data Sources . 14  1.3 Data Collection Team . 15  Relevance and Access Criteria. 15  1.4 Specific Factors Related to the Relevance Criteria. 16  1.5 Specific Factors Related to the Access Criteria . 22  1.6 Data Collection and Analysis Tool . 26  1.7 Ranking Scale . 26  1.8 Limitations of the Study . 26  Results of the Study . 28  1.9 Results of the Logistician Survey: Expressed Needs of Public Sector Logisticians. 28  Results of the Professional Development Opportunities Inventory . 30  1.10 Overall Ranking Scale . 30  Relevance and Access Category Results . 31  1.11 Relevance Category Results . 31  1.12 Access Category Results. 37  Gap Analysis. 41  1.13 Introduction. 41  1.14 Target: The Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Manager . 41  1.15 Target: Reproductive Health Commodities . 42  1.16 Target: Health Commodities, Non-RH specific. 42  1.17 Target: Public Sector . 43  1.18 Target: The Typical Public Sector Health Commodity Manager . 44  1.19 Level of Participant-Expressed Need. 45  1.20 Indicative Target Audiences . 49  1.21 General Conclusions . 54  Recommendations. 55  List of Annexes . 61  Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 4 Annex 1: Professional development opportunities for public sector reproductive health commodity managers, questionnaire. 62  Annex 2: Organizations represented by survey recipients . 66  Annex 3: Countries represented by survey recipients. 69  Annex 4: Countries represented by the survey respondents: . 71  Annex 5: Courses included in the study. 72  Annex 6: Courses targeting a specific sector, by language of instruction and alphabetically by course name . 77  Annex 7: Public sector courses by target audience. 82  Annex 8: Courses by focus commodities. 85  Annex 9: Courses and topics covered . 89  Annex 10: Courses by type of objectives. 93  Annex 11: Courses by estimated proportion of time spent on logistics. 108  Annex 12: Accredited and nonaccredited courses . 112  Annex 13: Courses offering a certificate or certification, by language of instruction . 116  Annex 14: Courses offering other incentives. 119  Annex 15: Courses targeting public sector logistics practitioners with and without prerequisites. 120  Annex 16: Courses by estimated time spent attending course. 123  Annex 17: Courses by mode of attendance. 127  Annex 18: Courses by cost band. 131  Annex 19: Courses and course fee components. 135  Annex 20: Complete listing of information gathered for each course . 142  Tables Table 1. List of key search terms…………………………………………………… …………………15 Table 2. Number of courses by region and language…………………………………….…………….38 Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 5 Acronyms ACT artemisinin-based combination therapy AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome AMREF African Medical and Research Foundation ARV anti retroviral CSCMP Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals ESAMI Eastern and Southern Africa Management Institute FP family planning FP/RH family planning/reproductive health HIV human immunodeficiency virus HLA Humanitarian Logistics Association HMIS health management information system IAPHL International Association of Public Health Logisticians JSI John Snow, Incorporated LMIS logistics management information system MIS management information system NGO nongovernmental organization OI opportunistic infection PH public health PHSCM public health sector commodity manager PMIS procurement management information system RH reproductive health RHSC Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition SCMS Supply Chain Management System TB tuberculosis UK United Kingdom UNDP United Nations Development Program UNFPA United Nations Fund for Population Activities VoIP Voice over Internet Protocol Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 6 Preface There is no universal agreement on the use of the term logistician. For this study, the term logistician refers to any category of person who has responsibility for managing commodities or who has a role in the implementation of a commodity supply chain. In this context, the terms logistician, supply chain manager, and commodity manager can be used interchangeably. Further, while the target audience of this study is the Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Manager, the discussion at times includes any health commodities, for reasons that are explained in this report. lo·gis·ti·cian: noun a specialist in logistics lo·gis·tics: noun plural but singular or plural in construction 1: the aspect of military science dealing with the procurement, maintenance, and transportation of military matériel, facilities, and personnel 2: the handling of the details of an operation From Merriam-Webster Online, http://www.merriam-webster.com Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 7 Executive Summary Purpose The critical role of logistics and supply chain management in ensuring commodity availability has received increasing recognition in recent years. However, while professionals in other fields require prequalification and advanced degrees, when applied in the context of public sector commodity managers, these qualifications are more than likely based on a person’s medical or pharmaceutical knowledge, and not on knowledge of logistics and commodity management. In the developing world, logisticians (commodity or logistics system managers) charged with implementing, maintaining, or improving commodity management systems typically attain their jobs by rising through the ranks, even when they are minimally qualified or minimally trained. The time is right to professionalize the public health logistician position. One way of doing this is to promote or create professional development opportunities that, perhaps, lead to professional certification. Similar certifications exist in commercial and humanitarian relief logistics, and it is time to do the same for the public sector health logistician and, in this case particularly, for reproductive health (RH)/public health (PH) commodity and supply chain managers. The inability to raise the profile and professional level of the commodity manager is compounded by the scarcity of professional development opportunities accessible to public health logistics personnel in developing countries. The overall result is that public health logisticians/supply chain managers in the developing world cannot attain the level of knowledge and skills they need to improve their own abilities, and the professionalization that has become recognized as a requirement in the first-world commercial/private sector is absent from the public sector. Therefore, public sector supply chains are unable to achieve the level of effectiveness and efficiency that would enable them to provide greater rates of commodity availability and cost efficiencies and savings. The present study provides an inventory of existing professional development opportunities focused on learning objectives and skills development specific to the context of health commodity managers working in the public and NGO sectors in developing countries, where issues such as limited resources, target populations, and lack of a profit motive create an environment different from the one that exists in the private sector. The inventory examines courses or programs that focus on the development of practical skills that are directly relevant to public sector commodity management and that have the potential to result in more professional management of public sector supply chains and in improved product availability. Data Sources To create an inventory of professional opportunities available to public health logisticians and conduct the gap analysis, the team collected data on two key components: (1) professional development needs among public health logisticians and (2) courses that are available to enable logisticians to address their professional development needs. Each of the courses was then examined in the context of a number of factors that relate to how relevant the courses are to the target audiences and that define potential barriers that would prevent a member of the target audience from attending the course. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 8 Principal Findings Opportunities for professional development available to public health sector commodity managers, including those working with reproductive health commodities, are extremely limited. The study identified 94 courses that focus on logistics and commodity managers. Of these, many are university- based, and many of those are located in the United States. In addition, there are a number of factors, including cost, time required, language, and course prerequisites, that would prevent a potential participant from accessing the existing courses. Research revealed the following:  None of the 94 courses this study identified is dedicated to the management of reproductive health sector commodities.  Only 10 courses this study identified mention reproductive health commodities among the focus commodities of the course. When looking at a prototypical course candidate, as defined through composite profiles of survey respondents:  Only six of 94 courses this study identified respond to the needs of a typical potential course participant who desires a one- to two-week course.  Only three of 94 courses this study identified respond to the needs of a typical potential course participant who desires a course that is available online. A concerted effort is needed to improve the number and type of professional development opportunities that are available and to find ways to increase access to existing opportunities. Recommendations The recommendations detailed in the report are presented in the context of a wide range of potential actions that could be implemented based on the findings of the present study and in the context of the project output: “Gap analysis and resulting recommendations for actions that can be taken to improve access to professional development opportunities for public sector supply chain managers, including those identified by public health logistics professionals themselves.” The recommendations are grouped into four main themes:  increase access to existing courses;  contribute to increased relevance and access;  increase the availability of professional development opportunities; and  professionalize public sector RH and health commodity management. Implementation of these recommendations will require a concerted and coordinated effort among various partners and can and should be adopted by any interested member of the RH community, including RHSC, IAPHL, JSI and others. Suggestions for specific partners best suited to implement individual recommendations are provided in the full report. Recommendation: Increase access to existing courses. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 9 1. Develop and implement a means for disseminating the information on courses that were identified through this study. 2. Continue to research the availability of existing courses and continually update the existing database information. 3. Develop and disseminate a “one stop shop” where public sector health logisticians can access information about current/existing courses, other technical resources, and/or information exchange among colleagues. 4. Identify (or create) sponsorships, subsidies, or other means for public sector health logisticians to attend existing courses. Recommendation: Contribute to increased relevance and access. 5. Conduct additional research into existing courses and the needs of potential participants to verify the relationship among course purpose/objectives, the development of practical skills, and perceived need. 6. Conduct additional research to provide a quality check of courses that respond to typical participant profiles. 7. Identify or develop additional courses to address existing gaps in technical training topics. 8. Research, identify, and disseminate information on opportunities for supply chain knowledge and capacity building other than those based on a formal course. Recommendation: Increase the availability of professional development opportunities. 9 Actively promote and contribute to “virtual learning centers” to reinforce their role as an information exchange with an emphasis on expanding or supplementing the content to formalize a focus on building the technical knowledge and skills of public sector supply chain professionals. 10. Develop, produce, publish, and promote additional online or other distance-learning opportunities in all areas of health commodity management; in English, French, and Spanish; and with a particular emphasis on gaps identified through this study. 11. Establish and maintain a “logistics help desk” or other system for providing ongoing distance technical assistance. Recommendation: Professionalize public sector RH and health commodity management 12. Develop and implement a means of formally recognizing and disseminating demonstrated achievements in the management of public sector reproductive health commodities. 13. Identify and standardize one or more sets of core logistics competencies, by job title or a combination of logistics function and level in the system, that would serve as “minimum job skills” and/or suggested job description elements required of logistics professionals. Continue to identify gaps in professional development opportunities and explore ways to provide targeted/specific knowledge and skills development to address these gaps. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 10 14. Develop a formal/accredited certification for public sector health logistics professionals. Note: Because the analysis is based on a fixed set of courses, a cut-off date was applied after which no new courses would be added to the list, so the analysis could be done. Nevertheless, additional courses were identified through various means even after the cut-off date. While those courses are not included in the analysis in this report, they were added later to the data-gathering tool and will be available to anyone accessing this information in the future. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 11 Introduction The critical role of logistics and supply chain management in ensuring commodity availability has received increasing recognition in recent years. In the private sector, logistics has moved from the back room to the boardroom. In the public sector, and particularly in developing-country reproductive health programs, there is increasing awareness of the importance of logistics and the need to focus on logistics to achieve program goals and assure client service. However, while professionals in other fields require prequalification and advanced degrees (that is, the chief of a health services division must be a licensed physician, the storeroom manager must be a pharmacist), when applied in the context of public sector commodity managers, these qualifications are more than likely based on a person’s medical or pharmaceutical knowledge, and not on a knowledge of logistics and commodity management. In the developing world, logisticians such as commodity managers or logistics system managers charged with implementing, maintaining, or improving commodity management systems often attain their jobs by rising through the ranks or having commodity management responsibilities as part of a health program management position, even when they are minimally qualified or minimally trained in commodity management. Once in their jobs, logisticians may have the opportunity to develop their professional skills in logistics through participation in a short course or other professional development opportunity, but they more likely are left to figure things out on their own. As the environment over the last 20 years has improved and has brought increased attention to logistics and supply chain management, professional development opportunities have increased, yet logisticians may or may not be able to access these opportunities. The time is right to professionalize the position of public health logistician. One way of doing this is to promote or create professional development opportunities that lead to professional certification. Similar certifications exist in commercial and humanitarian relief logistics, and it is time to do the same for the public sector health logistician and, in this case particularly, for RH/PH commodity and supply chain managers. The inability to raise the profile and professional level of the commodity manager is compounded by the scarcity of professional development opportunities accessible to public health logistics personnel in developing countries. Courses that are available may not focus on a person’s specific area of need, or existing courses that might be appropriate may not be well known, either because people are unaware such courses exist, or because the purpose or content of the course is misunderstood. Courses may require specific degrees or other prerequisites that may disqualify some commodity managers from participating. The length of attendance or cost of the course may be prohibitive. The overall result is that public health logisticians/supply chain managers in the developing world cannot gain the level of knowledge and skills they need to improve their own abilities, and the professionalization that has become recognized as a requirement in the first-world commercial/private sector is absent from the public sector. Therefore, public sector supply chains are unable to achieve the level of effectiveness and efficiency that would enable them to provide greater rates of commodity availability and cost efficiencies and savings. The present study provides an inventory of existing professional development opportunities focused on learning objectives and skills development specific to the context of health commodity managers working in the public and NGO sectors in developing countries, where issues such as limited resources, target populations, and lack of a profit motive create an environment different from the one that exists in the private sector. The inventory examines courses or programs that focus on the development of practical skills that are directly relevant to public sector commodity management and that have the potential to result in more professional management of public sector supply chains and in improved product availability. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 12 Project Goal, Objectives, and Outputs Project Goal This project provides a study of the current availability of English-, French-, and Spanish-language professional development opportunities for public sector supply chain managers in developing countries, and attempts to identify those opportunities that are most appropriate for and relatively more accessible to such supply chain professionals. The project also identifies gaps in the current range of offerings and suggests ways to overcome these gaps, thereby contributing to greater access to professional development opportunities; the desired outcome is increased recognition of the professional status of public health sector logisticians, which contributes to increased product availability in programs managed by professional logisticians. Project Objectives The project accomplished the following objectives:  Research, analyze, and report accredited and nonaccredited programs/opportunities for health commodity supply chain managers in developing countries, focused on or relevant to the public sector, and identify gaps in technical topic/skills areas covered among currently available options, including:  classroom based courses and workshops;  self-directed distance learning programs (paper-based, online);  degree programs and executive short courses (university and other); and  professional associations and groups exchange programs, study tours.  Survey public health and NGO sector logisticians to determine areas of greatest felt need, cross- compare with current offerings, and identify concomitant gaps.  Produce a list of recommendations for the Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition (RHSC) partners and/or the RHSC Secretariat based on the findings of the study, including possible strategies for expanding the availability of professional development opportunities and strategies for improving access to existing opportunities. Project Outputs The proposal identified a number of project outputs that appear in this report and include the following:  Inventory of existing professional development opportunities for public sector supply chain professionals that the RHSC could report on its webpage (that is, material would be presented in a format that could be uploaded easily )  Objective ranking of programs based on an analysis of:  relevance to developing-country public sector supply chain management needs (specific topics versus general/survey courses; breadth and depth of courses offered)  cost of attendance (monetary and time commitment)  other barriers that would limit access to existing courses Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 13  relevance of courses to perceived needs expressed by potential course participants/public health sector logisticians  Gap analysis and resulting recommendations for actions that can be taken to improve access to professional development opportunities for public sector supply chain managers, including those identified by public health logistics professionals themselves Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 14 Methodology 1.2 Data Sources To create an inventory of professional opportunities available to public health logisticians and conduct the gap analysis, the team collected data on two key components: (1) professional development needs among public health logisticians and (2) available courses that enable logisticians to address their professional development needs. Each course was then examined in the context of a number of factors that relate to how relevant the courses are to the target audiences and that define potential barriers that would prevent members of the target audience from attending the course. Professional Logistician Training Requirements The purpose of collecting data from professional logisticians was to identify a) logistics skills and knowledge that they are seeking to develop, and b) existing or perceived barriers to accessing existing professional development opportunities. An online survey questionnaire consisting of 15 questions was developed and distributed in February 2009 to 244 public health logisticians in 50 countries (38 English, six French, two French/English, and five Spanish) and representing some 90 organizations. Annex 1 contains the survey questionnaire, and the list of organizations represented by survey recipients is shown in Annex 2. The survey was distributed in English only and was transmitted to the target audiences through English- language medium avenues otherwise accessible to and used by native speakers of languages other than English. The team identified survey respondents through membership of the International Association of Public Health Logisticians (IAPHL) and available participant lists from past training activities offered by United Nations Fund for Population Activities (UNFPA), USAID | DELIVER PROJECT, and Supply Chain Management System (SCMS), three sources of logistics professional rosters to which the training team had access. Respondents were encouraged to respond online, although electronic Microsoft® Word copies of the survey were also accepted. Courses named by respondents that had not been identified previously were added to the list of courses for potential inclusion in the master list of trainings. The survey was open from March 24 to April 20, 2009. Professional Development Opportunities To identify professional development opportunities for public health logisticians, the team used an approach mimicking the process public health logisticians must go through to find a course or training opportunity in public health logistics. The team conducted an Internet search using Google and several combinations of key terms in English, French and Spanish to locate potential course offerings. Table 1 includes a sampling of those terms. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 15 Table 1. List of key search terms English Spanish French Supply chain Cadena de suministro Chaîne d'approvisionnement Logistics Logística Logistique Course Curso Cours Training Entrenamiento Formation Class Clase Classe Public health La salud pública Santé publique Reproductive health Salud reproductiva Santé de la reproduction Commodities Insumos Produits pharmaceutique Supplies Suministros Fournitures Commodity management Gestión de insumos Gestion des produits pharmaceutiques Websites of organizations involved in public health logistics were also searched for references to training opportunities. In addition to Internet searches, the team compiled its knowledge of organizations offering courses based on electronic announcements circulated by colleagues and notices posted to groups such as the Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (CSCMP) and the International Association of Public Health Logisticians (IAPHL). Once a potential training organization or source was identified, it was added to a list of all potential agencies, universities, and organizations offering training courses in public health logistics. 1.3 Data Collection Team A core team of three advisors knowledgeable in the areas of logistics, performance improvement, and organizational strengthening collected and recorded data in the data collection tool. All three of the researchers identified and catalogued English-language courses while one of the three also focused on French-language courses and another on Spanish-language courses. A senior advisor knowledgeable in the three subject areas and a monitoring and evaluation advisor who developed the data collection tool and advised on data entry also reviewed the data. All five team members participated in analyzing the data and reporting the results. It should be noted that the team met regularly before, during, and after the data collection and analysis processes to ensure consistency in the way the data were recorded, reported, and analyzed. Nevertheless, some personal bias may have been introduced, though the team did collaborate consistently to minimize any impact this may have had on the results. The team encountered a few challenges through its review of hundreds of websites. A plethora of more private-sector-oriented supply chain courses exists at universities, and it was decided to list only a sampling from each region of the world since they are not entirely applicable to a public health audience. In addition, to document each one of these courses would take more time than the team had available. Other challenges included not being able to gather all required details from website pages or not being able to contact an appropriate person to find that additional information. Specific challenges related to individual course criteria are noted later in this report Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 16 Relevance and Access Criteria When trying to determine a potential professional development opportunity, one might consider dozens of criteria that an individual before making a decision or selecting a course to study. For example, a national RH program manager may know that, based on her country’s procurement cycle, her absence at a certain time during the year would not be possible. Therefore, she would look for a course that is being conducted during her country’s procurement “downtime.” The same would be true for every individual participant and based on any number of personal factors. It would be impossible therefore to imagine every possible scenario and to identify every possible factor that might come into play as participants search for a course. In this context, the study focused on a more limited, fixed set of criteria that the team believes would be among the more universal factors (that is, applicable to everyone) or first-cut considerations in a person’s ultimate decision and/or a person’s ability to attend a course. The set of criteria examined falls into two main categories: relevance and access, each of which is defined for this study as follows. Relevance: Relevance primarily deals with issues related to how well the course content corresponds to the participant’s job duties and responsibilities and to what degree the course provides a skill-building environment. While the factors themselves are defined by the course, the importance of each factor depends on the individual participants when deciding whether the course is appropriate for their needs. Aspects of relevance examined through this study include:  target sector  target audience/population  focus commodities  topics covered  specified course objectives  estimated proportion of course spent on logistics topics  accreditation  degree/certificate awarded  other incentives Access: Access focuses on a set of elements related to course participation that might prevent or disqualify someone from being able to attend a course that the person otherwise may have found to be relevant. Factors affecting access include:  location of the course  language of instruction  course prerequisites  time required to attend or complete the course  mode of attendance  quoted course fee 1.4 Specific Factors Related to the Relevance Criteria Relevance generally refers to how well the course responds to the needs of the participant, but also includes additional elements participants may take into account when deciding on a course to attend. Essentially, relevance summarizes the factors the participants will take into account when determining the Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 17 “value” they see in the course and the overall perception that participation in the course will be of benefit, both professionally and personally. Individuals’ consideration of each of the relevance criteria is based on their perceived needs, so it is quite subjective in nature. Further, when considering a set of factors, different individuals will assign different levels of importance to each of the various factors. For example, an individual might consider an accredited course to be inherently more valuable than a nonaccredited course, even though the actual content of the course may be less technical and, ultimately, less beneficial to the learner. A different participant may deem a course that focuses only on building knowledge, and not practical skills, to be less desirable than a skills-based course, even though the knowledge-based course provides certification. In this context, the project team has not attempted to say which courses are the best related to any of the relevance criteria. Rather, the team has only defined a set of factors that participants would need to consider, and then demonstrate how each of the factors may respond to different perceived learner needs. It will be up to individual participants to decide which of the relevance factors they judge to be more important, balance the different factors as they relate to course choices, and then select which course, if any, to attend. Relevance Factor 1: Target Sector Target sector examines to what extent the course is geared toward and would provide benefits to the management of public sector commodities. Target sector considerations range from direct emphasis on true public health sector logistics systems (developing country, public sector, for example, directly managed by Ministry of Health) to those geared directly toward the private sector, with some degree of variation in between. To identify those courses most relevant to professionals managing public sector health commodities, courses were classified into one of four sectors: Private: commercial, for-profit Public: government, not for profit NGO: not for profit, issues-based Other: any sector not related to the other three categories The research team considered that courses targeting the public sector were likely to be more relevant to the target audience of this study—public health sector logisticians. Courses designed for public health sector logistics are more likely to take into account and address the needs, levels of resources, and other factors that might be different in a public sector system when compared to the needs of the other sectors, particularly the private sector. While the specific needs of each of the sectors may be somewhat different, many logistics principles can be applied in either strict public or private sectors. Thus, a course geared toward a private sector operation might still have some relevance to public sector logistics operations. The caveat is that the course participant would have to apply or adapt such principles to the specific public sector environment. For this reason, courses geared specifically toward the public sector would be judged to be more relevant to public health sector logisticians, though content from other target sector courses would still be relevant. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 18 Relevance Factor 2: Target Audience/Population The Target Audience/Population factor is a subset of the Target Sector factor. Therefore, once a general sector was selected (public, private, NGO, or other), a specific target audience was identified. The target audience/population is directly tied to the job responsibilities of the participant. Thus, courses are not automatically more or less relevant based strictly on the target audience, but rather taking into account the tasks and responsibilities of the participants. The research team identified five categories of Target Audience/Population: Practitioner: Someone who is directly tasked with a logistics activity or activities, including one who, for example, schedules commodity distribution, processes commodity orders, enters/analyzes logistics data, and/or conducts a quantification exercise. Facility Manager: Someone who oversees the overall logistics functions at, for example, a health facility, district, or central-level warehouse. The facility manager may also supervise other staff and oversee their logistics activities at the facility, but would not actually perform day-to-day logistics functions. Program Manager: Someone who is responsible for the overall logistics functions of a health program. This person may not physically perform logistics activities, but supervises the implementation of logistics activities by others and is responsible for the program’s overall supply chain operations and, typically, at a level higher than that of Facility Manager. Technical Assistance Provider: Someone who is providing short- or medium-term interventions related to logistics and is not involved in the activities on a long-term basis. Other: If a target audience could not be identified or did not fit into one of the above categories, it is classified as “other.” Other possible categories may have included business or related health field students, general interest, etc. In the following analysis, a course geared toward program managers, for example, would be most relevant for program managers who were attending the course and perhaps less relevant for facility-level pharmacists; the topics and types of skills developed through the course would likely more readily benefit the program manager. Similarly, a course focusing on automated logistics management information system (LMIS) probably would do more to develop the job skills of an LMIS manager than those of a facility manager. Relevance Factor 3: Focus Commodities To be included in the study, a course had to fall within one of following categories: Health Products, RH Commodity Specific: The course content targets RH commodities only (contraceptives, RH supplies, etc.). Health Products, including RH: The course content targets health commodities, including RH products (for example, could include HIV test kits and ARVs, malaria, TB, and RH products). Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 19 Health Products, Non-RH-Specific: The course content targets health commodities but does not reference RH commodities (e.g., HIV test kits and ARVs; TB medicines; malaria rapid test kits). Nonhealth Products, Logistics in General: Any/other: The course content can be applied to any or all types of commodities. Nonhealth Products, Logistics in General: Not Indicated: The course content is not specified in terms of which product types are targeted; the assumption is that these courses can be applied to any or all types of commodities. Not included in the study, therefore, would be courses that focus specifically on a nonhealth product, such as beverages, automobiles, or computers. With a focus on a specific nonhealth commodity, less can be assumed to be directly applicable to the management of health commodities specifically. As with many of the other factors related to relevance, focus commodity relevance for participants would be directly dependent on the types of commodities managed by the course participants. Someone whose job is to manage HIV test kits would benefit most directly from a course that focuses specifically on the management of those HIV-related products. A person who manages HIV test kits, however, might also gain some benefit from attending a course that covers pharmaceuticals generally, although some principles might apply only to pharmaceuticals and not specifically to HIV test kits, or some might apply to HIV test kits but might not be covered in a pharmaceuticals-oriented course. It would be up to course participants to determine which principles do and do not apply to the specific commodities they are managing. Relevance Factor 4: Topics Covered Most logistics courses focus on one or more topic areas. The team compiled a list of key logistics technical topics for their reference in classifying courses:  Quantification (including Forecasting)  Procurement or Supply Planning  Warehouse Management  Transportation and Distribution  Logistics Management Information Systems  Commodity Security (a set of topics related to assuring availability of commodities, of which commodity management is an element)  Monitoring and Evaluation of Logistics Systems  Inventory Management (including storage, dispensing, assessing stock status, etc.)  Inventory Control Systems For this study, courses were classified based on the extent to which they covered technical logistics topics. Three classifications defined for the study include: One logistics function in great detail: Courses in this category look at a single function (for example, procurement, warehousing, and transportation), and then examine that function in great detail. Thus, for example, one might spend three weeks looking at various elements of procurement and learn in detail how each of these elements is implemented during the procurement process. Courses focusing on one logistics topic in great detail would be most relevant for a person whose specialty or main job responsibility is that function. At the same time, someone who is responsible for various aspects of supply Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 20 chain management, including procurement, could consider the course to be very relevant, that is, the course covers a topic of interest, even though that single course does not cover all of the areas for which the person has responsibility. Variety or range of logistics topics that are covered in some detail: Courses in this category focus 100 percent on logistics but, within that area, look at a broader range of topics, and very likely go into relatively less detail than would a specialty course devoted to any one of those topics. During a one-week course of this type, for instance, one might spend one day each on procurement, transportation/distribution, quality assurance, and storage, with another day looking at how all of these elements are interrelated and how they function within an overall logistics system. This type of course would be most relevant for participants who work within a broader range of logistics functions or who are interested in a logistics entry point, and who thus may need less depth or detail to carry out their responsibilities. For the course to be highly relevant to them, each topic required to meet their individual needs would need to be included in the range of topics offered by the course and covered in enough detail to meet that participant’s needs. General or service courses in which some logistics is included: Courses in this category would be those courses that are organized around a subject other than technical logistics, such as service provision or health systems, but that include some elements of logistics as a part of that larger overall topic. For the target audience of this study, a course of this type would be the least relevant, since the amount of time devoted to developing logistics skills would be relatively much less than in either of the other two categories defined for this relevance factor. For someone whose job responsibilities are exclusively in logistics, a general services course would be less relevant, since much of the course content will have little if anything to do with actual logistics. Relevance Factor 5: Specified Course Objectives The specified objectives for any course should define for potential participants the specific content of the course and should indicate to some extent how the material will be taught and what participants will walk away from the course knowing and being able to do. For instance, the course objectives should make clear whether participants will be able to do something (for example, prepare an annual procurement plan) or simply know something (for example, describe an annual procurement plan). When researching a course they might attend, potential participants should first examine the course objectives to determine to what extent the course will be relevant to their learning needs, particularly in relation to skills development rather than knowledge development. The objectives covered by a course do not automatically make it more or less relevant, except in relation to the needs of potential course participants. Knowing the specific objectives of the course will help individual participants to determine how relevant that course would be for them. An exact match between the objectives of the course and the learning needs of participants constitutes the degree of relevance of that course for particular participants. A course that addresses 100 percent of the participant’s individual needs would be most relevant to that participant, compared to a course that addresses only 50 percent of that participant’s needs. Relevance Factor 6: Estimated Proportion of Course Spent on Logistics Topics Another element of concern to potential participants is the portion of the course that is focused on logistics. For the person who works in a specific area of logistics, the procurement specialist, for instance, Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 21 a course that focuses 100 percent on procurement and closely related issues would be of most relevance. One might also expect that single-topic courses would typically approach 100 percent focus on the technical topic. Of greater concern would be general courses or courses that cover a number of topics. For these, a course whose content is 100 percent logistics would be more relevant (of more direct benefit) than would a course that covers 50 percent service provision, 25 percent policy, and 25 percent actual logistics functions. The logistician may be able to draw linkages among the service provision, policy, and logistics elements, but in terms of direct impact on one’s work, the greater the proportion of logistics content, the more directly relevant the course would be. Of course, there may be some who have responsibilities in several areas including logistics. Depending on the job responsibilities of the person attending the course, one might be able to get just the right mix of service provision, policy, and logistics needed to apply in that person’s context. Based on the target audience for this study, relevance of a course is correlated with the estimated proportion of the course spent on technical logistics topics, with the estimation being determined by comparing the number of technical logistics topics with any other topics covered in the course. Four relative categories are defined as follows: More than 75 percent: Courses in which more than 75 percent of the content focuses specifically on technical logistics topics would be considered most relevant. 51 percent–75 percent: Courses in which 51 percent to 75 percent of the course focuses specifically on technical logistics topics would be considered somewhat less relevant. 26 percent–50 percent: Courses in which 26 percent to 50 percent of the course focuses specifically on technical logistics topics would be considered even less relevant. Less than 25 percent: Courses in which less than 25 percent of the course focuses specifically on technical logistics topics would be considered least relevant. Determining relevance from most to least is subjective, as are the percentages designated by the study team. The use of the categories, however, does enable some objective comparison by potential course participant. The final determination of true relevance will rest with the potential participants based on how the specific course content corresponds with the specific mix of which logistics knowledge and skills they to develop to meet the job responsibilities. Relevance Factor 7: Accreditation An accredited course or institution is one that is certified to meet a minimum set of established standards and should imply a high level of quality associated with the specific course or, generally, the offerings of that institution. While course accreditation does not make a course more or less relevant in terms of content, it could be a factor in making a course more or less attractive to attend. For example, potential participants may be more likely to attend an accredited course because of the implied quality and prestige that accreditation confers. Equally, an organization funding participation in a course may be more likely to provide funding for the same reasons, especially if the organization is required to justify spending on such activities. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 22 Relevance Factor 8: Degree/Certificate Awarded As with accreditation, the fact that a degree or certificate is awarded does not necessarily make a course more or less relevant to the content of the course, to the learner, or to the potential positive impact on a person’s job performance. A degree or certificate may, however, increase its desirability for participants and organizations funding participation in those courses that offer degrees or certification. A course could be perceived as more relevant to the participant (or funding organization) if it offers a degree, diploma, certificate, or certification. A degree or diploma is likely to convey more prestige than a certificate, and the specific type of certificate would come into play as well. The participant may receive a certificate of competency, or one simply acknowledging participation in or attendance at a course. To participants who do value a degree or certificate, a course offering none of these would be less relevant. Relevance Factor 9: Other Incentives Other incentives would include any other potential incentives that may be associated with a particular course but not already included among the other relevance factors. Such other factors would be limited to incentives specifically mentioned in the course information, such as professional memberships, increased ability to respond to technical challenges, and ongoing access to other professionals. 1.5 Specific Factors Related to the Access Criteria Access refers to the ability to obtain, make use of, or take advantage of a particular resource, such as training in logistics management. In the context of professional development in logistics management, several factors influence a professional’s ability to obtain and take advantage of existing professional development opportunities. Examples of such factors include knowledge that the course exists, availability of an appropriate course, prerequisites, the cost of attending a course, the amount of time away from the workplace that participation in a course might require, and, for online courses particularly, the presence of a reliable Internet connection. Taken individually, some of these factors may not be significant barriers; yet, in combination with other factors, they may become larger obstacles to attending a course. For instance, being able to spend two or three weeks away from the workplace to attend a course may require negotiation with a logistician’s supervisor, and in combination with raising the funds to cover course fees, accessing the course becomes more challenging. Access can be based on similar analyses, such as the cost-to-time ratio, to identify any opportunities that would still provide substantial benefits to the course participant. Access Factor 1: Location of the Course Location of courses will likely be of high relevance to potential participants. The location of a course has cost, travel, language, and time implications. For example, participants traveling from lower-income developing countries may not be able to afford a year-long course in Europe or the United States, or they may not be able to obtain the necessary visa. Participants who speak Portuguese, as another example, may only want to look for courses in Portugal, Brazil, or Mozambique (to name a few). In this study, the team merely identifies the location or locations at which the course is offered (with “online” courses being considered a home-based location). It would be up to individual participants to identify which locations Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 23 would or would not be a barrier to attending the course, depending on variables such as visa requirements, travel costs, and travel policies of the home country/organization. Access Factor 2: Language of Instruction Recognizing the fact that all potential participants from the among the target audience are not all English speakers, and that (notwithstanding Asia) English, French, and Spanish cover much of the target group’s geographical area, the research attempted to go beyond English-language courses and include French- and Spanish-language course options as well. Generally, the more languages in which a course is offered, the more accessible it would be in terms of total potential audience. In practical terms, however, accessibility is directly based on the individual participants and which language or languages they speak. Even if a course is “widely accessible” because it is offered in English, French, and Spanish (or other languages as well), participants can attend only if they speak the language of instruction. Of course, any participants would be free to use an interpreter, although course materials probably would still be unavailable in their native language, and additional costs would be involved. Access Factor 3: Course Prerequisites Training institutions may use prerequisites to ensure that all course participants are sufficiently proficient in the basic concepts or otherwise have the knowledge and skills needed to complete a higher or more focused course of study. Prerequisites can take the form of attendance at, completion of, or graduation from a specified course, program, or type of school, which typically is demonstrated by presenting a certificate, diploma, or degree; taking an assessment examination or exercise; or providing documents and materials detailing the content of courses or programs a logistician has taken. In practice, then, any prerequisite can be an impediment to participation in a course. Those courses that are open to any and all potential participants are thus more accessible to anyone with an interest in the course topic. Courses that have one or more prerequisites would be less accessible than would courses that have fewer or no prerequisites, and the more prerequisites a course has, the less accessible it becomes. The accessibility of the prerequisite itself would further influence how great a barrier a particular prerequisite is to attending a specific course. Access Factor 4: Time Required to Attend or Complete the Course Attending and completing courses of study requires a certain amount of time working through the course material, usually in a classroom and with a teacher, tutor, or mentor. For working public health professionals, time spent completing course requirements means time spent away from the workplace that a supervisor must approve, and that and may or may not require the use of annual or unpaid leave. Thus, a course requiring a shorter time commitment would be more accessible than one demanding a greater time commitment. An example of a low-time-commitment course would be a single session, 40-contact-hour (one-week) course, whereas a high-time-commitment course could be a 720-contact-hour (~ six-month) course with multiple sessions held at various times during the year. Thus, researchers recorded the total number of contact hours and the number of trips required for each course. To facilitate the eventual ordering of courses by time to attend or complete the course, the research team Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 24 grouped courses into the following categories, with some categories reflecting rounding:  one–three days: the course requires from one to three days to complete  one week: the course requires four to seven days to complete  two weeks: the course requires eight to 14 days to complete  three weeks: the course requires 15 to 21 days to complete  one month to one year: the course requires 22 days to 1 year to complete  more than one year: the course requires more than one year to complete In addition to spending time in the classroom, a laboratory, or with a tutor, course participants must travel to the university or course venue. This aspect of time commitment depends on a public health logistician’s location and the location of the course under consideration. Given the scattered distribution of courses and public health logisticians, travel time was not included in estimates of total time commitment. Access Factor 5: Mode of Attendance Mode of attendance refers to what type of presence is required to attend the course. In the past, this would have been limited to physical presence, in which the participant goes to the site where the course is being conducted, or perhaps a correspondence course managed through the mail system. Nowadays, however, advances in technology and the expansion of its reach worldwide have transformed the meaning of attendance. Today, courses may be held in a classroom, self-guided from a distance (either online or via another medium), or use a combination of in-person and self-guided distance-learning sessions. The study team recognizes that participants today have a variety of options and, as a result, courses included in this research encompass four categories of mode of attendance: in-person, online, other self- guided, and combination, each of which has its own barriers. In-person: The extent to which an in-person course presents a barrier to access depends in part on the location of the participant and the location of the course. An in-person course offered in or near the participant’s home country would be more accessible than would a course farther away. The greater the distance from the participant’s home country, the greater the influence of other factors on course accessibility, such as time required and transportation costs. Online: While an online course eliminates the need to travel to the country where the course is being offered, it does require adequate online access, a potential issue in some countries. If Internet access does not exist in the country or at the person’s work site, or the person does not have access to a computer, then the course is not accessible. If computer or Internet access does exist but is slow or unreliable, then the course may not be accessible. Other self-guided: Distance learning can also take place using written correspondence, CD-ROM, and/or tele- or videoconferencing. Any correspondence course would require access to a reliable mail system or would rely on services such as DHL or FedEx, in which case cost may come into play. Tele- or videoconferencing also requires a basic level of telephone service or connectivity and may introduce additional costs as well. Combination: A course that combines elements of an in-person course and a distance-learning course also combines the strengths and weaknesses of each type of attendance. For instance, a course consisting of some online sessions and some in-person sessions at a venue far from the participants’ home country, Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 25 and where the Internet connection is of poor quality, limited, or expensive to access, becomes less accessible. Similarly, if the Internet is easy to access and reliable, yet traveling to the venue is difficult to achieve, accessibility to the course decreases significantly. Thus, to be easily accessible, a combination course must be accessible to participants in terms of all three factors: cost, travel time, and Internet connectivity/reliability. In addition to the access issues related to the various types of courses, each of these options has the potential to influence participants’ access to a particular course in a less tangible way. Participants may view in-person courses as more valuable in terms of content mastery than are self-guided or other distance courses. Participants may also value the in-person course more highly because they prefer to learn in a group situation or through direct contact with the instructor. Access Factor 6: Quoted Course Fee The cost of attending the course is perhaps one of the first considerations potential participants will take into account. When seeking a course to attend, the eye is most likely drawn first to what it would cost to attend the course. In some cases, participants might know the total budget available to attend a training course, in which case they would look for a course that fits within that budget, most likely starting with the least expensive option. Another option would be to find a course and then mobilize the funds needed to attend it; in this case, less expensive is probably viewed as more likely to be funded. Thus, for the purposes of this study, cost and accessibility are inversely proportional: a more expensive course is de facto less accessible. The research identifies the base fee as given by the course provider, the base fee being the minimum up- front amount paid to the course provider. Because the fee will vary based on the course provider, a description of the specific costs covered by the quoted fee is included. The various cost elements that would have to be considered include:  transportation costs to and from the training venue (for example, round-trip airfare)  lodging/meals en route to the training venue  lodging at the training venue  meals and incidental expenses  textbooks and other course-related materials  general stationery supplies  access to computer/Internet  any other miscellaneous costs As with the time required to take or complete the course, course fees ranges are used to facilitate general classification of courses by course fee as follows:  no cost  less than $1,000  $1,000–$2,500  $2,501–$5,000  more than $5,000  no cost stated Additional variables would include things such as the sponsoring agency’s per diem policies, the home location of the participant, and current flight schedules. Because the study could not possibly quantify Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 26 each of these variables, the base fee with description is shown as a starting point; determining and quantifying other cost elements would be left up to potential participants. 1.6 Data Collection and Analysis Tool To catalogue all of the information collected about each of the courses researched during this exercise, the research team’s monitoring and evaluation advisor created an electronic Excel-based data collection tool to store all of the information in one central repository. This spreadsheet includes all of the variables the team identified as relevant for ranking and categorizing the courses to identify any gaps in the current range of offerings. As mentioned earlier, courses are categorized according to their accessibility and relevance, using a series of factors in each category. The reasoning behind the spreadsheet was to create a single repository necessary for analyzing the information about the courses. The spreadsheet could be used for sorting the courses according to the criteria used for ranking and to create a scoring system for the ranking itself. However, as the tool was developed, it became clear that the spreadsheet itself would be an extremely valuable tool to share publicly so users could sort the courses according to their own priority criteria and filter out those that did not meet their individual needs (whether by course topic, location, cost, etc.). This spreadsheet will be provided to the RHSC as an additional deliverable and can be made available online for individual use. The spreadsheet is distributed with the electronic version of this report as an electronic annex. 1.7 Ranking Scale The study proposed the objective ranking of programs based on an analysis of the various relevance and barriers to access elements. Numerical rankings would be assigned to each of the criteria with an overall score produced for each of the course offerings studied. This would be done to provide potential participants with a rapid means of identifying those courses that would be of more interest based on their professional needs and personal criteria. Note: While the original intent was to produce numerical rankings of courses, this ultimately proved to be unfeasible, for reasons noted in the results section of this report. 1.8 Limitations of the Study It would be impossible to identify, catalogue, and research every existing course/program of study. For instance, there are dozens of universities in the United States alone that offer management courses/degrees and that may include logistics to a greater or lesser extent. Because of this, the study attempted to identify, with limited success, one or two courses per region as a sample representation of what was available in each region. In this context, the examples in the study are representative of typical offerings and not an exhaustive inventory. In fact, as is discussed later, the barriers to attendance for the sample courses probably would be applicable for any similar commercial or university-based course or program. In addition, it was much easier to identify university courses based in the United States, so English- Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 27 language courses may seem to be overly favored. Nevertheless, the analyses that follow are based on each of the relevance and access factors, with each being considered as “primary”; at such times, language is treated as a secondary factor. And as also emphasized below, a participant’s final decision to attend the course will be based on a combination of factors, not on language alone. Because the analysis is based on a fixed set of courses, a cut-off date was applied after which no new courses would be added to the list, so the analysis could be completed. Nevertheless, additional courses were identified through various means even after the cut-off date. While those courses are not included in the analysis in this report, they were added later to the data-gathering tool and will be available to anyone accessing this information. In addition, new courses will appear, because they were not identified during this study or they did not exist before this study. Equally, a course that was identified during the study may be discontinued or may be modified in the future for new target audiences, new products, or the like. Because of these and other factors, the list of courses on which this study is based should be viewed as a snapshot of an ever- changing environment. Because this study is based solely on a desk review of published documentation related to the courses, readers should draw no conclusions or inferences in terms of the quality or exact content of each course. Citing a course in this study is in no way an endorsement of that course. Related to the survey of current logisticians, to allow for any desired level of anonymity, survey respondents were not required to provide a full personal profile. Thus, the analysis that follows is based solely on the information provided. To some extent, categorization of the courses is somewhat subjective: some of the terminology is open to interpretation, and some of the information gathered leads to inferences, based on either the type of information that was provided or the way in which the information is presented. Still, it is hoped that the analyses and results of the study do represent a fair determination based on the information that was available to the research team. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 28 Results of the Study 1.9 Results of the Logistician Survey: Expressed Needs of Public Sector Logisticians Thirty-one logisticians from 19 countries responded to the questionnaire on Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector RH Commodity Managers; this represents a response rate of 12 percent (31 people). Of these there were:  22 respondents (71 percent) representing 13 different English-speaking countries  six respondents (19 percent) representing 4 different French-speaking countries  two respondents (6 percent) representing a Spanish-speaking country  one respondent (3 percent) representing a trilingual country The full listing of countries represented by the survey respondents is included in Annex 4. While it would have been preferable to have a higher survey response rate than the 31 of 244 who received the survey (12.7 percent), the responses do provide at least some basis for analysis. Respondent Profile The majority of respondents work at the central level in the public or NGO sector. Almost two-thirds of them are practitioners involved in integrated or vertical supply chains and managing contraceptives, RH supplies, essential drugs, or HIV/AIDS and OI commodities. The training 81 percent of respondents received covered general logistics concepts, with eight of these respondents attending more focused training courses on commodity security, quantification, procurement planning, and warehousing. Those who had received training indicated that their trainings met their professional needs well (36 percent) or very well (56 percent). Logistics Competencies In terms of specific logistics skills in which respondents believe they need to gain competency, the three most frequently cited areas were logistics management information systems (48 percent), procurement (45 percent), and general logistics (35 percent). Other areas mentioned were consultancy skills, warehousing/storage, forecasting, project management, monitoring and evaluation, distribution, strategic sourcing, and demand management. Procurement (26 percent) and monitoring and evaluation (22 percent) were the two primary areas in which respondents saw the need for refresher training. Course Preferences The majority of respondents strongly prefer attending a one- to two-week course in person (67 percent); a month-long course in person (63 percent); or a combined, self–guided, distance-learning program with periodic in-person sessions (62 percent). Half of the respondents indicated that a general course on logistics is more useful for them than a course focusing on one or two specific logistics topics. English was the first choice preferred language of instruction for 77 percent of respondents, followed by 17 percent who preferred French, and 7 percent whose first choice language was Spanish. This almost exactly reflects the language groups noted above and confirms that participants prefer to take a course in Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 29 their native language. Barriers to Attendance Awareness of training opportunities in their preferred language did not present a problem for respondents. Forty-five percent of them agreed or strongly agreed that they knew of several courses that would provide them with training in areas specifically related to their logistics responsibilities and were offered in their language. Distance did not appear to be a significant barrier to those who responded to the questionnaire. Three- quarters were willing to consider courses outside of their countries, and 86 percent could spend as many as two to three days traveling to attend a course. Forty percent indicated that they would be able to leave their workplace for 15 days or longer to attend training courses. For 58 percent of survey respondents, an Internet-based course would be very possible given their easy access to a good Internet connection. It is interesting to note that while an email-based survey would create some bias toward Internet accessibility, it is curious that this number is not higher, for the same reason. Some organizational support for continued professional development exists. While 37 percent neither agreed nor disagreed that they received encouragement from their supervisor to attend workshops or courses to improve their professional capacity, 39 percent agreed that their employer provides good opportunities and benefits to those who have demonstrated a certain level of competency in logistics. A greater challenge for the respondents was covering the costs associated with training course participation. More than 70 percent agreed or strongly agreed that paying tuition or fees was difficult, and 67 percent agreed or strongly agreed that travel and per diem costs were prohibitive to their attending a training course. Perhaps more important, 67 percent did not know whom they could contact to sponsor their participation. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 30 Results of the Professional Development Opportunities Inventory 1.10 Overall Ranking Scale As mentioned earlier, the research team abandoned production of an objective overall ranking scale for a variety of practical reasons related to what an overall score would reflect and how the scale might be used as originally envisioned. In theory, the scale would produce an overall ranking of the courses studied from “high” to “low” and would allow potential participants to quickly identify a short list of courses for consideration. The presentation of scores might look as follows: Relevance Factors (10 = high relevance; 0 = low relevance or not applicable) Course Target Sector Target Audience Focus Commodities Specified Objectives No. of Topics Covered % of Course on Logistics Topics Accredited Degree/ Certificate Other Incentives Course 1 9 7 10 8 8 9 0 0 7 Course 2 10 10 2 10 2 4 10 10 0 Course 3 2 2 2 2 10 10 10 10 10 Access Factors (10 = highly accessible; 0 = not accessible) Course Prerequisites Total Time Required Mode of Attendance Quoted Course Fee Language of Instruction Course 1 3 7 6 2 8 Course 2 0 3 3 10 10 Course 3 10 2 10 1 3 Course Relevance Barriers Overall Score Course 1 58 26 84 Course 2 58 26 84 Course 3 58 26 84 In practice, however, the envisioned “overall score” was judged to be relatively meaningless: all of the total scores shown in the example above are the same, yet they are the result of wide variations in the individual criteria. From an “objective numerical score” standpoint, therefore, the total score provides little if any useful information to potential participants. In fact, given that each individual participant will have his or her own preferences and sets of priority factors, the “overall score” for the course for any given participant would be based on that individual’s own assessment of how relevant the course is and how accessible it is to the individual. For instance, it may or may not be important to the participant whether the course is accredited or the topic is highly relevant and would provide significant benefit in the workplace. It may or may not be important to the participant whether the course focuses completely on one’s specialty area if the content that does focus on the specialty area is exactly what the person needs. In the end, participants would rate each of the criteria for themselves and judge to what extent the course fulfills their own needs (relevance) and which course- Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 31 related factors would prevent them from attending (barriers). Additional relevant comments are included with the discussions of the specific relevance and access criteria below. Courses Identified and Included in the Analysis Ninety-four courses were identified through the study and were used to produce the analyses below. Abbreviated listings of the 94 courses, showing only course title, institution, location, and language, are shown in Annex 5. Complete listings for each course showing all information gathered by course are shown in Annex 20. Relevance and Access Category Results In the sections that follow, the relevance and access category results are summarized and discussed at the macro level, looking primarily at the individual factors in isolation. More detailed analyses taking multiple factors into consideration are presented in the Gap Analysis. 1.11 Relevance Category Results Relevance Factor 1 Results: Target Sector Of the 94 courses included in this study:  55 courses (59 percent) target the public sector  four courses (4 percent) focus on the NGO sector  32 courses (34 percent) deal primarily with the private sector  three courses (3 percent) do not target any of these sectors specifically While the two latter categories of courses may be very relevant and have fewer barriers to access than do public sector logistics management courses, prospective participants will need to process the information provided by these courses and apply it independently to their public sector context. The complete list of courses by target sector is shown in Annex 6. Of interest, the 55 courses that target public sector are presented by a total of only 18 organizations, with a range from one course per organization (11 different organizations or institutions) to 11 courses (Crown Agents) per organization. The number of courses taught by organization, organized from highest number of courses taught to lowest, follows:  Crown Agents (11 courses)  Institut Bioforce Développement (9 courses)  La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA-Perú (8 courses)  i+solutions (8 courses)  UNDP (4 courses)  Eastern and Southern Africa Management Institute (ESAMI) (2 courses)  ARV Access for Africa/Fuel/i+solutions (2 courses)  AMREF (1 course) Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 32  Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals (1 course)  Grupo Terra Farma (1 course)  SEAS, Centro de Formación Abierta (1 course)  Tecnologico de Monterrey (1 course)  Universidad Austral, IAE Business School (1 course)  Universidad Tecnológica de Chile (INACAP) (1 course)  University of Lieges- Belgium (1 course)  USAID | DELIVER PROJECT (1 course)  USAID Bureau of Global Health/Global Health e-learning Center (1 course)  www.directivoglobal.com Grupo Arrima (Spain) (1 course) Additionally, of the 55 courses that target the public sector, 29 are presented in English, 14 in Spanish, and 12 in French. Relevance Factor 2 Results: Target Audience/Population As with other professional fields, public health logistics management includes professionals with various and specific logistics management responsibilities, such as program management, facility management, or hands-on activities. Courses that provide skills and knowledge specific to one of four target audiences were identified as being appropriate for that category of participant. Of the 55 courses targeting public sector:  32 courses target the practitioner  one course targets the facility manager  16 courses target the program manager  one course targets the technical assistance provider  five courses do not specify a target audience (“open enrollment”) The complete listing of public sector courses by target audience is shown in Annex 7. Relevance Factor 3 Results: Focus Commodities Based on the five categories used for the study, the 94 courses examined showed that:  none of the courses focuses on RH Commodities only  10 courses (11 percent) focus on health products, including RH  17 courses (17 percent) focus on health products that are non-RH specific  56 courses (60 percent) cover any or all commodities  11 courses (12% percent) of the courses did not indicate which commodities were or were not covered The full list of courses by focus commodity is provided in Annex 8. In theory, the fact that a course does not indicate the commodities covered should mean that the course covers logistics principles that could be applied to any commodity group; otherwise, the course description should have listed a specific commodity category. The challenge would be in cases where participants’ specific target commodity group is not mentioned explicitly in the course descriptions. In Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 33 such cases, it would be up to participants to recognize which commodity management practices apply directly to the products they manage, which apply indirectly, and which may not apply at all. Relevance Factor 4 Results: Topics Covered Of the courses identified through this study:  36 (38 percent) cover one logistics topic in great detail.  52 (55 percent) cover a range of logistics topics in some detail.  six (6 percent) are considered to be general/service courses with some logistics content. The complete set of courses and topics covered is shown in Annex 9. Regardless of the specific category into which each of the courses would fall, the following general observations can be made:  Courses that cover a range of topics may cover anything from the complete supply chain to some subset of that supply chain. Complete courses would cover all topics, from product selection through delivery to the client, whereas partial supply chain coverage may focus on product selection through distribution, from procurement to delivery, or just the storage and distribution aspects.  Some courses take a very general view of supply chain activities that would be most appropriate only for “high level” logisticians: those who have national-level responsibility (one course specifically mentions “global supply chain”); other courses are more directly applicable to managing in-country supply chains.  Some of the “general view” courses are geared specifically to a limited category of products, HIV/AIDS products, or ACTs, for example.  While one might assume that logistics management information systems are a part of any supply chain, few courses specifically mention that element as a part of the course content (though, of course, it could be subsumed under one or more other topics that are mentioned, yet could not be identified through the course information available).  Courses that cover a range of topics may also supplement the technical logistics topics with other nonlogistics topics. In this sense, the course may provide more of a systems approach than look at the logistics system in isolation, or it may combine nonlogistics topics with other topics of interest to a particular target group. While this does have certain advantages, the benefits would also depend on the extent to which participants can or might influence the overall system based on what their exact job and set of responsibilities include. Nonlogistics topics that may be combined with the logistics topics include such topics as: o organizational management o drugs policy and regulations o rational use o financing o outsourcing Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 34 Relevance Factor 5 Results: Specified Course Objectives As with the topics discussion above, it would be impossible to rank the courses based on the objectives to be covered during the course. Each course not only has different specific objectives, but the way the objectives are phrased makes cross-comparison unfeasible. However, courses can be grouped based on the type of objectives they define, and the type of objectives can give potential participants at least some indication of the content of the course as well as how closely the course content may match their needs. Based on the type of information found during the study, courses were divided into five categories:  Skills-focused: At least some of the course objectives use action verbs to indicate specific logistics skills that learners will gain through participation in the course—“what the participant will be able to do at the end of the course.” This implies that participants, for example, will be able to correctly forecast product requirements, schedule transportation resources, and maximize storage utilization.  Skills implied: The objectives are not written in terms of skills, but use terminology such as “skills development,” “basic skills,” or other that would demonstrate that the course goes beyond knowledge alone.  Knowledge-focused: The objectives are phrased in terms of the logistics topics that participants will “know” or “understand” through participating in the course. One would hope that skills are developed, even if they are not explicitly stated in the objectives, but it is entirely possible to have a course based on knowledge. Unless the objectives gave clear indication of a focus on skills, the researchers could not be assumed this.  Unable to determine: The objectives could not be classified into one of the categories above because of how they were phrased in the literature. Specific instances of this are explained below.  Not indicated: No course objectives were provided. Based on the category descriptions noted, course objectives were determined to fit as follows:  59 courses (63 percent) are skills-focused  9 courses (10 percent) are skills-implied  10 courses (11 percent) are knowledge-focused  five courses (5 percent) are unable to determine  11 courses (12 percent) have objectives not indicated From among the five courses classified as unable to determine, the inability to determine was based on the following factors:  The objectives reflect what the course will do, not what the participants will be able to do (four instances).  The objectives do not mention logistics (1 instance). The lists of courses by type of objective are presented in Annex 10. Qualitatively, one would expect that the courses described as using skills-focused objectives would give the participants the best indicator of what will be accomplished through the course, although any objective could be open to some interpretation. For example, one objective mentions “proper handling of cargoes.” This could mean air, sea, or land freight, not all of which may be applicable to a particular Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 35 participant. Some objectives mention “key areas,” which also would be open to some interpretation. Equally, what is learned in a course whose objective states “basic” skills may simply repeat what participants already know or may have a limited view of what “basic” implies. Each of the other levels of classification would move further and further from giving participants a clear idea of what they will be able to do as a result of the course. In a course whose objective is to have the participant “demonstrate knowledge,” such knowledge could be demonstrated by reciting a dictionary definition or by doing an action; participants probably would value the latter more than the former. Obviously, participants would have a difficult time evaluating a course for attendance if that course does not advertise its objectives. In this case, th potential participants would have to conduct additional research before deciding to attend the course. Relevance Factor 6 Results: Estimated Proportion of Course Spent on Logistics Topics The type of information available during the study did not permit the researchers to determine this relevance factor precisely. In theory, the team would have had a course schedule and the ability to link course sessions to specific topics. Absent this information, the team still attempted to provide an estimate, based on the number of logistics topics that were covered during the course and the total number of topics covered. While this is only a rough estimate based on the information available during the study, it does provide an additional indicator of the extent to which the course might be relevant to potential participants. Of the 94 courses that comprise this study, the estimated amount of time spent on technical logistics topics breaks down as follows:  83 courses (88 percent) between 76 percent and 100 percent  three courses (3 percent) between 51 percent and 75 percent  two courses (2 percent) between 26 percent and 50 percent  six courses (6 percent) less than 25 percent The full listing of courses of courses categorized by estimated proportion of time spent on logistics is included in Annex 11. Based on the proportion of course time spent on logistics topics, it is clear that the vast majority spend most, if not all, of the time focusing on the technical area. From among the courses that focus less than 75 percent on technical logistics, a sampling of other topics covered includes:  organizational management  strategic planning  working with multicultural teams  maintaining laboratory equipment  sanitation  English  budgetary control systems  operations management While it would be ideal if the nonlogistics technical topics were presented in the context of logistics, such an assumption cannot be made based on the information available to the researchers. We must assume, therefore, that the topics are presented as nonlogistics topics, and in any case, they are clearly not technical logistics topics. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 36 Relevance Factor 7 Results: Accreditation Accredited courses generally indicate to potential participants that their content meets established, minimum standards. Thus, completing an accredited course or program denotes that participants have reached a certain level of competency. As a result, prospective participants may give greater value to accredited courses that meet their identified needs than similar, nonaccredited courses. Of the 94 courses identified through the study, 50 are accredited and 44 are not. The lists of accredited and nonaccredited courses are shown in Annex 12. As might be expected, accredited courses tend to be university-based and more expensive than those offered by private companies or institutions: 74 percent of all accredited courses included in the study are university-based. Relevance Factor 8 Results: Degree/Certificate Awarded Each course examined was categorized as awarding a degree/diploma, certification, certificate, or nothing. In instances where a course did not indicate whether it provided some type of degree or certificate, these courses were categorized as “no.” If a degree, diploma, certification, or certificate is awarded, the type of degree, diploma, certification, or certificate is identified. The complete list of courses that offer a certificate or certification is shown in Annex 13. Of the courses included in this study:  65 courses (69 percent) award certificates of some kind;  15 courses (16 percent) confer degrees or diplomas;  two courses (2 percent) offer professional certification upon completion of the course; and  12 courses (13 percent) do not offer any type of degree or certificate. Twenty-six percent of certificate courses and 6 percent of degree or diploma courses are aimed at practitioners. Relevance Factor 9 Results: Other Incentives Only 16 courses (17 percent) from among those identified in the study provide any incentive beyond a certificate or degree. The majority of courses providing incentives focused on one of three kinds:  free membership to a professional group  academic credits  the possibility of receiving a scholarship or internship Several of the courses that offer incentives are provided by the same institution. For instance, the six courses in English that offer incentives are all organized by Crown Agents, Ltd., and the incentive for Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 37 these six courses is the same: a one-year membership with Chartered Institute of Purchasing and Supply. In addition to degrees, diplomas, and certificates, or other tangible incentives, participants may view the professional development opportunity of the training itself as an incentive, or they may look to receive other benefits from completing a course. The list of courses offering other incentives is shown in Annex 14. 1.12 Access Category Results Access Factors 1 and 2 Results: Location and Language [Note: Because the location where the course is offered and the language in which the course is taught are closely linked, the two access factors are combined here for analysis. Nevertheless, there are instances where a course is taught in a language other than the language of the country in which it is taught. Total numbers of courses may exceed 94 as some courses are offered in more than one location or more than one language.] From among the 94 courses identified in the study:  31 are held in Europe;  23 are held in the United States and Canada;  22 are held in Africa;  nine are held in South/Central America;  five are held in the Middle East;  five are held in Asia; and  16 are based on online access. For language of instruction, of the 94 courses identified:  67 courses are taught in English;  13 courses are taught in French; and  15 courses are taught in Spanish. Table 2 summarizes courses by region, disaggregated by language of instruction. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 38 Table 2: Number of courses by region and language Region/Language Number of Courses Africa 22 English 20 French 2 Asia 5 English 5 Latin America & Caribbean 9 Spanish 9 Middle East 5 English 5 Europe 31 English 22 French 10 United States & Canada 23 English 23 French 0 n/a (online only) 16 English 9 French 1 Spanish 6 Specific information on course location and language of instruction by course is shown in Annex 5 and Annex 20. For the target audience of this study, commodity managers in the developing world, relatively few courses could be considered to be available “locally.” This would result in increased travel and cost factors in order to attend these courses. More detailed information related to the specific courses held in the developing world will be presented below. Access Factor 3 Results: Course Prerequisites Thirty-six of the courses (38 percent) included in this study have some kind of prerequisite that candidates must meet to enroll. The prerequisites imposed by these 36 courses can be grouped into four types:  administrative prerequisites (that is, visa or application payment): 3 courses  proof of completion of basic degree (that is, diploma or degree): 22 courses  completion of another course or module (that is, basic logistics course, Excel): 6 courses  technical specifications needed to complete online sessions successfully: 5 courses Any prerequisite would present an additional potential barrier to course attendance. The remaining 58 courses (62 percent) do not have prerequisites, so they are relatively more accessible. From among the 58 courses with no prerequisites, 41 focus on the public sector. Of these 41, 24 are designed for logistics practitioners, with almost half providing information on a variety of logistics topics and the other half focusing on a particular logistics function. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 39 The full list of courses with and without prerequisites targeting public sector logistics practitioners is shown in Annex 15. Access Factor 4 Results: Time Required to Attend/Complete the Course Time commitment is usually one of the greatest barriers to accessing a course due to competing priorities at work, home, and/or school. Of the 94 courses identified:  13 require 1–3 days;  28 require 1 week ;  16 require 2 weeks;  14 require 3 weeks;  17 require 1 month to 1 year; and  six require more than 1 year. The full list of courses by estimated time spent attending is shown in Annex 16. Of the 57 courses with a duration of two weeks or less of course time:  48 (84 percent) require only one trip;  eight are available online or on CD-ROM; and  one requires multiple trips to the course site. Overall, only 23 of the 94 courses require attendance of one month or more, making 71 of the courses relatively more accessible. Access Factor 5 Results: Mode of Attendance Of the 94 courses in the study:  62 (66 percent) require only one trip;  13 (14 percent) require multiple trips;  three are self-guided and require no trips but do require Internet access; and  four are “combination” and require Internet or Internet and trips. Of course, mode of attendance can have a compounding effect: participants who cannot make one or more trips may still not have access to the online courses if Internet connectivity is a problem in their country. The complete list of courses by mode of attendance is shown in Annex 17. Access Factor 6 Results: Quoted Course Fee Course fees identified through this study range from a low of free (some online or CD-based courses) to a Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 40 high of $48,000 (for a master’s degree in logistics). In an effort to compare courses more easily, the team established cost bands to group the courses by level of affordability with the following classifications: no cost, less than $1,000, $1,000–$2,500, $2,501– $5,000, and $5,000 or above. Using these classifications, the 94 courses break down as follows: Quoted Course Fee Number of courses Percentage of courses No cost 3 3% Less than $1000 21 22% $1,000–$2,500 19 20% $2,501–$5,000 20 21% $5,001+ 26 27% No cost stated 5 5% The three no-cost courses are online (two in English, one in Spanish), so participants would only have to factor in any relevant Internet access fees. Still, these courses, while limited in the types of material they can present, would be the most affordable. The full listing of courses by cost band is shown in Annex 18. Many of the quoted course fees, particularly for those having the lowest quoted fees, do not include items such as lodging or meals, and no course fees include transportation. Most quoted course fees do include materials and meals/tea break, however. As an indication, the costs covered by course fees include the following: Costs covered by quoted course fees Number of courses Percentage of courses No fee (all online/distance learning) 3 3% Course fee only 28 30% Course fee and materials only 11 12% Course fee, materials, and 1 or more meals/tea break 31 33% Course fee, materials, meals/tea breaks, and lodging 13 14% No cost stated 8 9% From the participants’ perspective, a course that covers more of the total costs required to attend (not including transportation) may be more accessible and may facilitate the planning process given that fewer additional costs would have to be estimated and factored into the total cost of attendance. The complete list of courses and course fee components is shown in Annex 19. Additionally, several of the courses offer some form of financial assistance. Financial assistance information by course is listed in the full course descriptions in Annex 20. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 41 Gap Analysis 1.13 Introduction When looking at individual relevance and access fees in isolation, one can only gain a partial view of the types of professional development opportunities that are available to and accessible by the target group. While there may be a number of relatively inexpensive courses available, final accessibility may depend on the location of the course. Having many courses available nearby would not be an advantage if the courses did not cover topics of interest or need to participants. For this reason the gap analyses presented below focus on various combinations of factors that, when taken together, provide a more realistic view of what opportunities are actually available, accessible, and of interest to the target audience. Based on the findings documented in this report, a number of gaps and shortcomings appear that reflect a lack of professional development opportunities for public sector reproductive health commodity managers. These gaps and shortcomings are presented in two different yet related contexts. First, the courses identified are examined in the context of the specific target audience of this study, that is, public health sector reproductive health commodity managers. Second, the courses are looked at in the context of a “typical profile” reflecting a number of the relevance and access factors survey respondents identified as important in this study. 1.14 Target: The Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Manager Although the study did identify courses that focus on the public sector, courses that cover reproductive health products, and courses that are geared toward commodity managers, it did not identify any courses that focused on public sector reproductive health commodity managers as the exclusive target audience. In this respect, public sector reproductive health commodity managers appear not to have the option of attending a course that is specifically geared to their needs alone. Any such person wanting to attend a course would have to make some level of trade-off or compromise. While this may be an immediate disadvantage, viewed in the larger context, few courses identified overall focused on a specific category of products, HIV/AIDS and ACTs being the exceptions (and even in these cases there were only a few courses devoted to these products). In this regard, at least public sector RH commodity managers are at no greater disadvantage than their colleagues working with TB, vaccines, or any other program-specific products. In addition, taking into account the relatively small number of public sector RH commodity managers compared to the total audience of health commodity managers, and certainly compared to the vast number of overall commodity managers, could a more limited target audience support such a course or courses and make offering it worthwhile, at least on a commercial basis? Given the fact that no identified courses were designed specifically for the target audience of the study, the next step would be to identify any courses that are geared in any way for one or more of the Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 42 characteristics that define the target audience of the study. These would include courses that incorporate:  reproductive health commodities as a part of the course (though not the exclusive target)  health commodities (though not necessarily reproductive health)  public sector (targeting any set of commodities managed in the public sector) 1.15 Target: Reproductive Health Commodities As was the case for RH commodity managers as the target audience of the course, none of the 94 courses identified is geared specifically toward reproductive health commodities. There are, however, 10 courses that specifically mention reproductive health commodities or “family planning” products among their focus commodities. While “family planning” does not cover the entire range of what is now considered “reproductive health” commodities, it is at least a subset of RH commodities generally. While none of these courses focuses entirely on RH, and some may include other health commodity sets, they do at least include some references to RH in their course descriptions. The full list of courses that include mention of RH commodities is included in Annex 8. The advantage of having the products mentioned within the course description is that it assures that issues specific to reproductive health commodities are addressed during the course. That said, it remains uncertain to what extent those specific issues are addressed or the relative treatment of the RH commodities compared to the other product categories mentioned in the course descriptions. Still, some focus on RH issues is better than none, and in fact there are enough similarities between the management of RH and other products that it may well make sense to group the products in this way. For the 10 courses that specifically mention RH commodities in the course description, the following factors have a positive impact on relevance and accessibility:  All of the courses are geared toward the public sector.  All of the courses are focused 76 percent–100 percent on logistics.  Five of the courses target commodity managers (practitioners), while three target program managers and two are open to all.  In terms of course topics the 10 courses cover: o Commodity Security (1 course); o Quantification and Procurement Planning (2 courses); o Warehousing and Storage (2 courses); and o Overview/Logistics Basics (5 courses).  One online course and the CD-ROM logistics course are currently free, and five of the remaining eight cost less than $1,000.  Eight of the courses require two weeks’ or less attendance. Factors that may limit access include:  there are no French-language courses among the 10;  the in-person English and Spanish courses are based in Tanzania and Peru, respectively; and  Six of the 10 courses have prerequisites. 1.16 Target: Health Commodities, Non-RH specific Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 43 Moving up a level, the next type of course that might be of interest is one that does not target FP/RH specifically, but that does focus on health commodities generally; the study identified 17 such courses. As stated earlier, this additional move away from the specific target commodities would require individual participants to correctly apply to their own subcategory of products the principles being taught in the context of health products generally. In addition, participants would have to learn in other ways any of the specific requirements of FP/RH products that are required to manage those exact products. (Examples of such requirements include conversion factors for demographic forecasting, product packing sizes, and sole source providers of some products.) Nevertheless, learning logistics in the context of health products would be better than doing so without that context. Many of the issues related to the management of FP/RH products, such as data and storage requirements and distribution, probably are very similar for many health products, including FP/RH. In this sense, participants should be able to correctly apply a majority of what is covered in the course to their product category. From among the 17 courses that have a health focus, though not mentioning FP:  Sixteen target the public sector.  Fourteen focus 76 percent–100 percent on logistics.  Seven target commodity managers (practitioners), and seven target program managers.  There is some variety in terms of course content: o health commodity sets include laboratory supplies, medical equipment, ACTs, HIV/AIDS commodities, and commodities requiring cold chain, and o logistics functions include Logistics Basics, Warehousing and Storage, Procurement and Quantification, Cold Chain, and Laboratory logistics.  Ten are offered in English, four in French, and three in Spanish (one of which is online).  Nine are only one to two weeks in duration.  Only three have prerequisites.  Three cost less than $1,000, and five are less than $5,000.  Scholarships are available for three courses. Factors limiting access include:  16 of the courses require in-person attendance (Europe, 11; Africa,5; Peru,2), and  courses offering scholarships are all taught in Spanish 1.17 Target: Public Sector Because of the relatively limited number of courses with an RH element or with a health focus generally, public sector reproductive health commodity managers might instead begin their search by looking for course opportunities that are focused on the public sector, since public sector issues are sometimes different from those in the private sector. Once potential participants have identified the public sector course options, they can examine those courses for other characteristics that might make them more relevant or more accessible. The following scenario uses public sector as the first-cut criterion and is independent of the discussions above. The study identified 33 courses geared toward public sector practitioners or facility managers. On the surface this is much more encouraging than the fewer courses that were identified by looking first at Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 44 commodity types. In addition, several of the relevance criteria point to relevance, and several of the access criteria would not seem to present barriers. For instance:  Fourteen are presented in English, 10 in French, and nine in Spanish.  The English-language courses are dispersed around the world, including Africa and Europe.  Six of the 15 Spanish-language courses are available online.  Thirteen focus on health commodities. and 11 are applicable to any products.  Thirty focus 76 percent–100 percent on logistics.  Twenty-seven are less than 1 month in duration.  Twenty-four do not have prerequisites. However, these courses do present challenges, such as:  Only 15 cover a range of topics, 15 focus on one logistics function, and two are general service courses.  From among the 15 single-function courses, there are: o six English-language courses that focus on procurement and one that focuses on warehousing; o three Spanish-language courses, including two on warehousing and one on cold chain; and o five French-language courses; two on procurement (one with a prerequisite); and one each on transport, storage, and distribution. Thus, while public sector target courses may appear to be more available when looking at the number of courses, only about half of them respond to the general audience, and the remaining courses are very limited in the range of topics they offer. 1.18 Target: The Typical Public Sector Health Commodity Manager [Note: While about two-thirds of survey participants indicated that they work in health commodity supply chains, this factor was not used as a disqualifying factor for the analyses below; it has already been shown that the number of health commodity-specific courses is severely limited. If this factor were included here again, it would only emphasize that point further.] The input of those who participated in the logisticians survey provides a snapshot view of what the perceived needs are in terms of logistics skills development as well as what some of the limiting factors would be when identifying a course to attend. When looking at these various needs and limiting factors, a comparison can be made between the courses that have been identified through this study to determine to what extent they meet those needs and in which cases the limiting factors would actually prevent someone from participating. This represents the second type of gap analysis resulting from this study. As noted above, the results of the survey showed that in terms of course relevance:  50 percent prefer a general logistics course to one that focuses on only 1 or 2 topics;  48 percent feel a need to increase their skills in logistics management information systems;  45 percent judge skill building in procurement to be important; and  procurement and monitoring and evaluation were identified as areas where refresher training would be useful. Instances where access would not be a barrier include: Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 45  67 percent could attend a course of one to two weeks’ duration;  63 percent could attend a course of one month’s duration; and  58 percent have adequate Internet access for online courses. Factors that would limit access to the courses include:  tuition would be a problem for 70 percent of the respondents, and  travel and per diem costs would be a problem for 67 percent of respondents. 1.19 Level of Participant-Expressed Need Fifty percent of survey respondents prefer a general logistics course to one that focuses on only one or two topics. The desire for a general course may be linked to a number of possible factors, among which may be that survey respondents:  hold positions that involve multiple elements of supply chain management;  want to develop basic skills in multiple areas of supply chain management; or  want to understand supply chain management issues outside their area of expertise. As mentioned earlier, more than half of the courses identified (52 of 94, or 55 percent) would be considered general logistics courses; of those, 50 percent of the general courses target the public sector, but only 13 have fees of less than $1,000. In addition to the earlier observations, from among the general logistics courses, participants would have to take into account the following relevance factors:  37 courses are taught in English, nine in Spanish, four in French, and one in both English and French;  only seven of the courses are available online only: three in English and four in Spanish;  42 of the courses (82 percent) are not commodity-specific, while seven are geared toward health commodities and two focus specifically on HIV/AIDS products; and  46 of the courses (90 percent) focus 76 percent–100 percent on logistics. Access factors that will have to be considered:  30 of the courses are available without prerequisites; 21 of them have prerequisites, and  34 of the courses are one month or less in duration. Based on the survey respondents’ preference for general logistics courses, there would be at least a number of options to consider. Forty-eight percent of survey respondents feel a need to increase their skills in logistics management information systems (LMIS). LMIS is a key supply chain management component: it is through the information system that data are available for decision making at all levels, from reordering at the facility level to procurement activities at the national level. That so many survey respondents indicated this topic as a high priority may be based Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 46 on their recognition of this fact. Although LMIS can be thought of as a single topic, practice skills development in LMIS could include one or more of a range of specific areas, including:  determining which data items are required to manage the target commodities;  establishing a paper-based LMIS and procedures for data collection;  establishing a reporting system to communicate data to higher-level decision makers;  establishing a feedback reporting system to promote logistics system improvements;  linking a paper-based LMIS to a computer-based LMIS or other information system; or  assessing and revising an existing LMIS. In addition, one would have to consider at what level the LMIS learning would be applied. While LMIS typically refers to a national system covering the central level down to the health facility, participant only might want to implement an information system to improve the management of their own facility. Whatever the specific needs of the survey respondents, no courses were identified through this study that focus specifically on LMIS. On the other hand, a few courses do include specific mention of LMIS as one component of their general logistics course, which would also fit with the respondents’ desire for a general course. Of the 94 courses reviewed for this study, only 12 specifically mention information systems as a component of the course. Among these 12:  seven specified logistics management or supply chain management information systems;  two mentioned drugs management information systems; and  three mentioned procurement management information systems (PMISs). While any of the last two sets might include LMIS, drugs management could focus equally on client or disease data, while PMIS may only focus on data management at the procurement level. Additionally, while a course may discuss using data in the context of the course topic (for example, for forecasting), that is quite different from providing instruction on the design and implementation of a LMIS. Forty-five percent of survey respondents judge skills building in procurement to be important. As mentioned earlier, procurement is the one area that is well represented among the courses identified through the study. Of the 37 courses that focus on a single topic, 17 of them (46 percent) focus on procurement. Of these courses, one focuses on UN procurement practices, one on South African law, and one on the monitoring and evaluation of procurement processes, and each of these may be too specific for a general audience. Of the remaining 17 procurement courses:  all target the public sector;  all are relevant to all product categories;  all focus 76 percent–100 percent on logistics;  16 are presented in English, one in French;  eight target the program manager, six target the practitioner’  none of the courses has a prerequisite; and  all courses are three weeks or less in duration. On the other hand:  only one of the courses is accredited; Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 47  all courses require in-person attendance;  only three of the courses are less than the $1,000 quoted course fee; and  seven of the English-language courses are in the UK. Thus, those participants seeking a course in procurement would have a relatively easier time identifying a course to attend than would those seeking courses in other technical topics, although there are significant barriers that might prevent someone from attending the course. Survey participants identified monitoring and evaluation as another area of interest. Aside from the course on monitoring and evaluation of procurement mentioned earlier, no courses specifically focus on the monitoring and evaluation of logistics, although some do mention monitoring and evaluation as elements of a larger, more comprehensive course. As with LMIS, participants would have to attend a more comprehensive course to get information about monitoring and evaluation. Sixty-seven percent of survey respondents could attend a course of one to two weeks’ duration. This is perhaps the criterion for which participant desires can be accommodated best. As noted earlier, 57 of the 94 courses identified (60 percent) are of two weeks’ duration or less, so that in terms of this criterion alone, there is some level of choice. However, it is doubtful that participants would attend a course simply because it fits the time they are available. More important would be factors such as course content, location, and cost. From among these factors, for the 57 courses of two weeks’ duration or less:  24 cover a variety of logistics topics;  four are general services courses (likely to be of less interest to the logistician);  29 focus on one topic in great detail, including: o 12 on procurement o 7 on warehousing/storage o 5 on transportation/distribution o 5 on other specific topics;  11 are based in the United States (taught in English);  14 are based in Africa, with 7 in South Africa specifically (12 in English, 2 in French);  eight are based in France (taught in French); and  seven are based in South America (taught in Spanish). Elements that would have a negative effect on the participants’ ability to access the course include:  seven of the courses are presented online; 48 require in-person attendance;  17 of the courses carry prerequisites; and  35 of the courses list fees of $1,000 or more (plus 1 course with fee not available). Thus, while the number of courses that fit into the one- to two-week time frame that participants prefer is relatively large, actual ability to attend would be affected by a number of important factors. Sixty-three percent of survey respondents could attend a course of one month’s duration. In addition to the courses that take two weeks or less noted above, this group would also have as an option those courses identified that are three weeks to one month’s duration. Sixteen such courses were identified through the study. As with the two weeks or less courses, time is not the only element Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 48 participants would consider; similar factors would be taken into account as well. Thus:  10 courses cover a variety of logistics topics;  six courses focus on one topic in great detail, including: o five focusing on procurement o one focusing on warehousing/storage;  six of the courses are based in the United Kingdom (taught in English);  three of the courses are based in South Africa (taught in English); and  five of the courses are based in the Netherlands (three taught in English, two in French). Elements that would affect participants’ ability to access the course include:  none of the courses are presented entirely online; all require in-person attendance, and  only one of the courses lists fees of less than $1,000. While some participants may be able to attend a course of up to a month in duration, the limiting factors appear to make the few options that are available more difficult to access. Fifty-eight percent of survey respondents have adequate Internet access for online courses. Based on this factor alone, a majority of the survey respondents theoretically would be able to access the 12 courses that are presented entirely online. However, as with the other factors, online access alone will not enable participants to take the course their needs and resources would have to fall within the following limits:  seven of the courses cover a variety of topics, while five focus on one topic (with warehousing/storage accounting for 3 of these);  five courses are quoted at more than $2,500; 3 at less than $1,000 (with two courses requiring no fee);  10 of the courses carry prerequisites; and  seven of the courses require a time commitment of two weeks or less; the other five require a month to a year. If participants could combine online participation with in-person attendance, then four more “combination” courses would be an option. From among these four:  all cover a variety of logistics topics;  two are based in the United States, one in Belgium, and one in Chile;  three are quoted with a fee of more than $5,000;  three require a time commitment of more than one month; and  three carry prerequisites. Clearly, the combination courses are relatively less accessible to participants than are the online-only courses, not leaving out the expense of transportation to the course location. Travel and per diem costs would be a problem for 67 percent of respondents and tuition would be a problem for 70 percent of the respondents. It is not surprising that the majority of respondents indicated that cost plays an important role in their ability to attend a course, and this includes both tuition and travel costs. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 49 Costs associated with the course location would depend, of course, on a number of factors mentioned earlier, including the country where the logistician is based, the country where the course is offered, and the sponsoring agency’s policy on per diem payments and class of travel regulations, among others. While dollar amounts for travel costs cannot be attached for each specific course, it goes without saying that any travel/per diem costs would be in addition to any tuition costs. However, because the target audience for this study is “developing world logisticians,” it is worth pointing out that, for courses requiring in-person attendance (either for the entire course or as part of a combination course):  21 are based in Africa;  eight are based in South or Central America; and  five are conducted in multiple locations, including one that can be arranged at any location. An additional note of interest is that several of the less-than-$1,000 courses offer some form of financial assistance, through scholarships or some form of discount. (Georgia Tech also offers discounts, though qualification is limited and the quoted course fees range from more than $1,000 to $5,000. MIT-Zaragoza also has scholarships available, though its course has a quoted fee of more than $5,000.) Courses with a quoted course fee of less than $1,000 offer the following types of financial assistance:  one offers a scholarships;  one offers a corporate discount;  one offers a group discount; and  four offer various means to achieve a reduction in course fees (though all are Spanish-language courses). 1.20 Indicative Target Audiences Having looked in isolation at some of the individual factors survey participants expressed as being important to them, another way of highlighting the opportunities available is to look at how many courses are available to a single “aggregated” target audience member, with the elements to be aggregated taken from some of the survey respondents’ “majority” characteristics. Recognizing that the aggregation is developed from information from only 31 respondents, we nevertheless consider the number of courses that respond to all of the factors listed below. Target: The Aggregate Public Sector Health Commodity Manager Public Sector Health Commodity Manager #1 The typical public sector health commodity manager (practitioner) among our respondents would like to attend a course that:  targets the public/NGO sector;  is taught in English;  covers a variety/range of logistics topics;  includes LMIS or procurement; and  is one to two weeks in length. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 50 Of the 94 courses identified, six respond to the typical requirements of a course participant as defined by the majority preferences of the survey respondents and, thus, would be of interest to this “average” potential course participant. The six courses are: Course Title Name of Institution CSCMP On-site Education Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals Logistics and Incoterms UNDP Logistics Management of Drugs and Medical Commodities AMREF Overview of Supply Chain Management Eastern and Southern Africa Management Institute (ESAMI) Stores and Inventory Management Crown Agents The Supply Chain Management of HIV/AIDS medicines and the related supplies. ARV Access for Africa/i+solutions Of note:  One of the courses is offered at multiple sites, though the documentation shows it is typically in Europe, the United States, or Asia.  One of the courses can be organized in the home country of the learner, though this assumes enough local participants or the option to combine with participants from other countries.  Four of the courses are offered in Africa.  All courses focus 76 percent–100 percent on technical logistics.  None of the courses has prerequisites. For these six courses, individual participants would have to base their final decision in part on the following additional factors:  only 1 course has a fee of less than $1,000, and  several of the courses have a specific target logistics function or commodity group. Public Sector Health Commodity Manager #2 Because 58 percent of the survey respondents also indicated that Internet access would not present a serious barrier to participating in an online course, we also look at another subset, this time expanding to practitioner and open enrollment: This potential participant would desire a course that:  targets the public/NGO sector;  is taught in English;  covers general logistics; and  includes LMIS or procurement. This set acknowledging access to Internet continues with:  is available online, and  is of any length. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 51 Three of the 94 courses respond to the typical requirements of a course participant as defined by the majority preferences of survey respondents and taking into account Internet access. The three courses are: Course Title Name of Institution Certification in Humanitarian Logistics Fritz Institute/Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport UK Lessons in Logistics Management for Health Commodities USAID | DELIVER PROJECT Logistics for Health Commodities USAID Bureau of Global Health/Global Health e-learning Center It is interesting to note that aside from the online component, the Certification in Humanitarian Logistics course has very little in common with the other two, which are relatively similar. Thus, participants would have to base their final decision on factors such as those noted in the comparison table below: Certification in Humanitarian Logistics Lessons in Logistics Management for Health Commodities and Logistics for Health Commodities  Is geared toward the practitioner  Does not target a specific audience  Includes access to an online coach  Involves the individual working alone  Focuses on logistics in the context of humanitarian aid  Is applicable to any/all commodities but uses examples from health  Is accredited  Is not accredited  Awards certification  Awards a certificate  Requires a time commitment of 1 month to 1 year  Can be completed in 1 – 3 days  Has a quoted course fee of between $1,000 and $2,500  Has no fee The courses are different enough that participants would have to examine them carefully and weigh the various costs and benefits associated with each one. Because the format of the certification course involves work with a coach, it is likely to include a wider variety of skills development, whereas the other two courses are based only on the participants’ interacting with the computer, and would thus have less ability to do so. Target: The Central-Level Public Sector Reproductive Health Program Manager Principles of supply chain management are not only critically important to those individuals who manage the commodities; they are equally important to those individuals managing the programs at a higher level. Having commodity management skills and knowledge can enable program managers to monitor and manage their programs better, and respond to supply chain challenges. Of the 31 survey respondents, six identified themselves as program managers of central-level (83.3 percent), vertical (66.7 percent), or public sector (66.7 percent) health programs who focus on contraceptives (100 percent) and RH supplies (66.7 percent). Based on the survey responses, a typical public sector, central-level program manager would like to attend a course that:  targets the central level public sector; Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 52  is taught in English;  covers a variety/range of logistics topics;  includes LMIS or procurement; and  is one to two weeks in length or is offered online with periodic in-person sessions. Of note, this profile closely matches the aggregate public health sector commodity managers #1 and #2 above, and this is not surprising with the addition of the central-level factor.  Of the 94 courses identified through the study, 18 specifically target program managers as the target audience.  Of the 18 courses geared toward program managers, 16 target the public sector.  Of these 16 courses, 12 are offered in English.  Of these 12 courses, five cover a variety of logistics topics.  Of these five courses, three include LMIS, procurement, or both as course topics.  Of these three courses, all are three weeks in duration and none is offered online. Thus, we would have to ignore the time/online element to identify courses that otherwise would be of interest to program managers. These are: Course Title Name of Institution Supply Chain Management of HIV/AIDS Medicines and Supplies/ARV Procurement and Supply Management i+solutions Procurement and Supply Management of Artemesinin Based Combination Therapies (ACTs) i+solutions Managing Drug Supply in Low and Middle Income Countries i+solutions In terms of relevance, the three courses target health commodities and/or pharmaceutical products, including HIV/AIDS, ACTs for malaria, TB, and neglected tropical diseases, but none of these courses specifically targets reproductive health supplies. In terms of access to the courses:  all of these courses are based in the Netherlands, and  all cost more than $5,000. Target: The French-Speaking Commodity Manager The study identified 13 courses that are offered in French, including one in English and in French. The characteristics of these courses include the following positive attributes:  All 13 courses target the public or NGO sector.  Eleven courses target the practitioner.  Six courses target one logistics function, five cover a variety of functions, and two are general services courses.  Ten courses focus 76percent–100 percent of the course time on the technical subject.  Five courses offer a certificate or certification.  Ten courses have no prerequisites. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 53  Eight courses require one week or less in attendance.  Six courses are offered at less than $1,000. In the context of the public health commodity managers from the scenarios above, the factors just noted indicate that the French-speaking subset has at least some variety in courses that are relevant and relatively accessible. Other factors and details related to this set of courses, however, reveal the following limitations:  Twelve of the courses require in-person attendance, and the one online course also has a telephone component.  Only two of the courses are offered outside of Europe.  Seven courses have fees greater than $1,000.  Eight courses do not specify a focus commodity group.  Eight courses do not specify course objectives. The first three factors present the greatest burdens to the participants in terms of limiting access to existing courses. The last two factors would present challenges to participants in terms of identifying which if any of the courses respond to their actual needs. Additionally, all of the eight courses that focus primarily on logistics (76 percent–100 percent logistics focus) and do not have prerequisites, target a relatively specific group, in terms of logistics function, commodity group (ACT or HIV/AIDS), or context (humanitarian logistics). French-speaking participants in fact appear to have a very limited choice of professional development opportunities. Target: The Spanish-Speaking Commodity Manager The study identified 15 courses that are offered in Spanish. The characteristics of these courses include the following positive attributes:  14 target the public sector;  eight target the practitioner;  five target one logistics function, nine cover a variety of functions, and one is a general services course;  nine mention a focus on health commodities, with six of these specifically mentioning RH commodities;  12 focus 76 percent–100 percent of the course time on the technical subject;  11 offer a certificate or certification;  all of the in-person courses are offered in Central or South America;  nine require two weeks or less in attendance;  10 are offered at less than $1,000, including one at no cost; and  six are offered online. In the context of the public health commodity managers from the scenarios above, the factors just noted indicate that, as with its French-speaking counterpart, the Spanish-speaking subset has variety of choice in courses that are relevant and relatively accessible, and to a slightly greater extent than the French-speaker, in terms of the location of the courses relative to the likely location of the target population. Despite this, Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 54 there are still some barriers for the Spanish-speaker:  10 of the 15 courses have prerequisites (although some are administrative), and  four of the online courses require one month to one year to complete, and three have nonadministrative prerequisites Spanish-speaking participants have fewer apparent barriers than do French speakers, so they would have a relatively easier time finding a course that is both relevant to their needs and accessible. There is more choice as well for Spanish speakers in terms of the number of courses that cover a range of topics, while the courses that cover a specific logistics function are more limited for them than they are for French speakers. 1.21 General Conclusions It has been observed that there are no courses specifically designed for the target audience of this study: public sector reproductive health commodity managers. In addition, only a limited number of courses specifically mentions contraceptives as one of its target commodities. It has also been shown that few courses focus on health commodities. A majority of the courses identified through the study are geared toward the management of any commodities. While these courses would still be of benefit to the target audience, it is only with the caveat that health- or RH-specific commodity managers would then have to supplement what they learn during the course, or otherwise gain access to any health- or RH-commodity information. It has also been observed that, even when taking into account the courses that do exist, a number of barriers might prevent a member of the target audience from participating in such courses. These barriers include:  course fees which, even at less than $1,000, may be out of reach to the typical member of the target audience;  relatively inexpensive courses that are largely limited to speakers of Spanish;  the need to travel to the location where the course is being offered; and  course prerequisites that disqualify some from attending a course. Clearly, if public sector health commodity managers, and RH commodity managers in particular, are to improve their commodity management abilities, then important steps must be taken to provide access to existing professional development opportunities, to come up with new and different opportunities, or some combination of the two. In any case, a continued lack of professional development opportunities will hinder improved commodity management and commodity availability and may, in fact, cause recent gains to be lost. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 55 Recommendations The recommendations are presented in the context of a wide range of potential actions that could be implemented based on the findings of the present study and to support the project output: “Gap analysis and resulting recommendations for actions that can be taken to improve access to professional development opportunities for public sector supply chain managers, including those identified by public health logistics professionals themselves.” As such, the recommendations are largely based directly on the results of the survey, though some are based on inferences and observations the research team made during the course of the study or that seek to make general contributions to the professional development of public sector commodity managers. The recommendations are grouped into four main themes:  increase access to existing courses;  contribute to increased relevance and access;  increase the availability of professional development opportunities; and  professionalize public sector RH and health commodity management. Increase access to existing courses. 1. Develop and implement a means for disseminating the information on courses that were identified through this study. The database that was developed through this study can serve as the starting point for a comprehensive information clearinghouse on professional development opportunities and should be made available to a variety of audiences, including:  public sector health RH commodity managers  public sector health commodity managers  organizations that employ public sector health commodity managers (RH and others)  organizations that might sponsor course participation for a public sector health commodity manager In particular, the existence of the online courses should be widely disseminated, for example, through IAPHL, the RH Supplies Coalition, project websites, and other relevant online locations. JSI has several networks through which it will disseminate these results, and it is recommended that RHSC and others would do so as well. 2. Continue to research the availability of existing courses and continually update the existing database information. As mentioned here, there are more existing courses/programs than could be identified and documented during implementation of this project, and additional courses had even been identified after the cut-off date of the research period. It is certain that other courses, programs, or similar opportunities exist that may be relevant (and possibly more accessible) to the target audience of this study. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 56 The Professional Development of Supply Chain Managers work stream of the RHSC’s System Strengthening Working Group should identify a means to ensure that this research can be expanded and updated routinely. Further extensions of this activity would include conducting regular assessments of the current needs of public health logisticians and eventually making the system “live” so those implementing and using it could interact with the database, for example, users could document a course or other offering of which they are aware but which is not included in the database, or they could provide reviews of courses they have attended. 3. Develop and disseminate a “one stop shop” where public sector health logisticians can access information about current/existing courses, other technical resources, and/or information exchange among colleagues. In addition to the actual courses identified through this study, anecdotal evidence shows that a variety of resources exist (online and through other means) that would be of value and benefit to public sector health logisticians. The problem arises in trying to identify and locate such resources through a number of sources (course websites, project websites, etc.). While this recommendation could be accomplished through reinforced and ongoing support of IAPHL, other means should not be excluded, for example, something as simple as a Facebook page or other means that is relatively accessible to the target audience. This recommendation could be implemented by any interested partner or through a specific activity/project specifically funded for and geared toward this purpose. 4. Identify (or create) sponsorships, subsidies, or other means for public sector health logisticians to attend existing courses. Despite the relative lack of professional development opportunities, such courses do exist, yet they are out of reach of the target sector, due in part to costs. If some level of sponsorship, subsidy, or the like could be identified and implemented, then existing courses might be more accessible to the target audience. This recommendation should be viewed as a direct investment in the development of local, in-country resources and thus implemented by any partner that currently provides short-term assistance but wishes to promote and move toward local ownership and responsibility. Contribute to increased relevance and access. 5. Conduct additional research into existing courses and the needs of potential participants to verify the relationship among course purpose/objectives, the development of practical skills, and perceived need. As mentioned, the way in which the various institutions advertise their courses is not completely consistent; such variety can make it difficult for potential participants to identify the course or courses that would provide the most benefit or respond most closely to their needs. Additional research into the existing (identified) courses could help to better define and uniformly report the course objectives so participants could better gauge the level of appropriateness for attendance, and thus lead to a better ability to gauge the relevance of the course to their needs. Furthermore, potential participants should be polled Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 57 from time to time to understand their ongoing and evolving needs and to update course information over time. This recommendation could be implemented by any interested partner or through a specific activity/project specifically funded for and geared toward this purpose. 6. Conduct additional research to provide a quality check of courses that respond to typical participant profiles. While this study did identify and assess courses based on the various relevance and access factors and in the context of the expressed needs of potential participants, the assessment could be based only on the available written documentation. No attempt could be made to assess the level of quality and actual relevance each course achieves. Courses should be assessed through in-person attendance by a supply chain professional to provide some level of subjective assessment of quality and relevance. This recommendation could be implemented by any interested partner or through a specific activity/project specifically funded for and geared toward this purpose. 7. Identify or develop additional courses to address existing gaps in technical training topics. As shown here, specialty courses covering some content areas such as procurement are relatively more available than are courses for other topics, some of which seem to be underrepresented and others not represented at all. A prime example is the apparent lack of courses that focus on logistics management information systems, which was also one of the survey respondents’ interest areas. The identification or development of additional courses would make available professional development opportunities that cover a greater range of logistics areas/functions and gear them specifically to the public sector target audience. Content areas would also be informed by the competency areas identified in association with recommendation 13 and through the periodic survey of potential participants as mentioned in recommendation 5. This recommendation could be implemented by any interested partner or through a specific activity/project specifically funded for and geared toward this purpose. 8. Research, identify, and disseminate information on opportunities for supply chain knowledge and capacity building other than those based on a formal course. The present study focused on formal courses and program of study. Because time, distance, and cost all come into play when identifying a formal training course to attend, and because these factors may tend to limit participants’ ability to attend or access a course, other existing means and opportunities for building supply chain knowledge and capacity should be identified and disseminated. Non-course-based opportunities may include existing written documentation that can be disseminated more widely, webinars or other formats that are available online, or through other means altogether. This recommendation would also tie in with Recommendation 8 and could be implemented by the same partner. This recommendation could be implemented by any interested partner or through a specific activity/project specifically funded for and geared toward this purpose. Increase the availability of professional development opportunities. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 58 9 Actively promote and contribute to “virtual learning centers” to reinforce their role as an information exchange with an emphasis on expanding or supplementing the content to formalize a focus on building the technical knowledge and skills of public sector supply chain professionals. IAPHL, HLA, and others can provide for a means through which information is exchanged among public sector supply chain professionals to contribute, for instance, to their overall knowledge or provide solutions to existing problems. Using IAPHL as a working example, a topic is designated as “topic of the month,” and members are encouraged to contribute their thoughts based on their experience. However, the responses are moderated loosely if at all, so no definitive answers or guidance is necessarily provided. The reader is thus left to determine which responses might or might not be technically sound. A more formal approach would have the discussions moderated consistently by a supply chain professional who would guide the discussion as a formal learning opportunity. This recommendation should be implemented by partners within the entire RH/health community, although it is also recommended that IAPHL leadership focus on this role for the association. 10. Develop, produce, publish, and promote additional online or other distance-learning opportunities in all areas of health commodity management; in English, French, and Spanish; and with a particular emphasis on gaps identified through this study. Many survey respondents indicated that Internet access would not pose a significant barrier to their participating in online training opportunities, so it would be beneficial to create more such opportunities, including Internet-based, CD-based, or some combination of the two. This could be achieved by transforming existing in-person content to an online format and/or creating new content for online use. A component of this activity would be to conduct some research on existing online courses to identify their successes as well as factors that have had a negative impact on use of/participation in such courses, so new or additional courses can be designed with a view to avoiding or overcoming the negative impact factors. This recommendation should be adopted and implemented by any or all of the following:  Reproductive Health Supplies Coalition;  partners who provide RH or other health commodities and want to help ensure that they are managed correctly;  partners who provide technical assistance for commodity management and who want to expand the range of assistance they can provide; and  partners who provide technical assistance for systems strengthening or organizational development and who want to expand the range of assistance that they can provide. 11. Establish and maintain a “logistics help desk” or other system for providing ongoing distance technical assistance. In addition to the more passive types of resources suggested above, a further step would be to create and support a position (or part of a position) such as “logistics help desk” to provide proactive, ongoing support directly to the target audience, perhaps through email exchange, moderated website forum/chat, or even through VoIP (Skype). Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 59 Such a system could be based within IAPHL or other venue and, with a dedicated moderator, would expand on the now-informal (and minimally controlled) question-and-answer format of current IAPHL discussion threads. Professionalize public sector RH and health commodity management. 12. Develop and implement a means of formally recognizing and disseminating demonstrated achievements in the management of public sector reproductive health commodities. Upgrade the IAPHL “Supply Chain Management Professional of the Month” to serve as a formal recognition of specific technical contributions to highlight achievements and advance the profession of supply chain management in public sector health, while at the same time providing a learning opportunity for the community of commodity managers at large. Another option for recognition could be designating or accrediting people as, for example, “supply chain champions” based on one or more of the following factors: years of supply chain experience, degrees held, trainings attended, or specific accomplishments. A precursor to this activity would be to define specific performance criteria and/or areas to target for recognition, and to define a sanctioning body charged with vetting and naming the “person of the month.” IAPHL is already in a position to begin undertaking such an activity, and it is recommended that IAPHL expand its role in this regard. In addition, the RHSC or the RHSC Secretariat might serve as the sanctioning body. 13. Identify and standardize one or more sets of core logistics competencies, by job title or a combination of logistics function and level in the system, that would serve as “minimum job skills” and/or suggested job description elements required of logistics professionals. Continue to identify gaps in professional development opportunities and explore ways to provide targeted/specific knowledge and skills development to address these gaps. This recommendation expands on the preceding recommendations and highlights the need to identify specific knowledge and skills areas that public sector health logisticians require, and that could then feed into one or more of the activities recommended above, in addition to serving as an independent resource document on recommended/required logistics skills and knowledge. Implementation could take place through IAPHL or other means, such as the RHSC Systems Strengthening Working Group work stream. Acknowledging that this recommendation may be difficult to implement because it will be an arduous and painstaking task to facilitate consensus on this level of detail, we believe this is an essential activity that underpins the whole notion of professional development. 14. Develop a formal/accredited certification for public sector health logistics professionals. Certification would need to combine at least two elements: identification of the set of core competencies needed by a logistician of any capacity (referenced in recommendation 12) and identification of the course or courses that are acknowledged to provide skills building in the competency areas. Additional consideration could be given to years of job experience or demonstrated competency. Any certification or sanction would need to be accorded or otherwise approved by a neutral party and managed through an objective process. As is the case with recommendation 12, implementing this recommendation will be a challenge as well. There may be many organizations that will want their Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 60 courses “accredited,” so there would need to be some level of independent and neutral quality control process, looking at course conception (course objectives, etc.) through course implementation, even including evaluation/assessment of previous course participants. IAPHL or RHSC could serve as the certifying board, and RHSC could manage the certification process. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 61 List of Annexes Annex 1: Professional development opportunities for public sector reproductive health commodity managers questionnaire Annex 2: Organizations represented by survey recipients Annex 3: Countries represented by survey recipients Annex 4: Countries represented by survey respondents Annex 5: Courses Included in the study Annex 6: Courses targeting a specific sector, by language of instruction and alphabetically by course name Annex 7: Courses geared towards a specific target audience Annex 8: Courses by focus commodities Annex 9: Courses and topics covered Annex 10: Courses by type of objectives Annex 11: Courses by estimated proportion of time spent on logistics Annex 12: Accredited and nonaccredited courses Annex 13: Courses offering a certificate or certification, by language of instruction Annex 14: Courses offering other incentives Annex 15: Courses targeting public sector logistics practitioners with and without prerequisites Annex 16: Courses by estimated time spent attending course Annex 17: Courses by mode of attendance Annex 18: Courses by cost band Annex 19: Courses and course fee components Annex 20: Complete listing of information gathered for each course Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 62 Annex 1: Professional development opportunities for public sector reproductive health commodity managers, questionnaire 1. What is your country of residence? 2. What sector do you work in? Private Public Non-governmental organization Other 3. What is the administrative level at which you work? International Central Regional/Provincial District Other 4. What category best describes your current position? Facility Manager Program Manager Practitioner Other: please explain: 5. In which type of logistics system(s) do you work? Vertical Integrated None of the above Other: please explain 6. What commodities do you manage? Contraceptives Reproductive health supplies Essential drugs HIV/AIDS and OIs TB Malaria-related commodities Laboratory commodities Other: please explain Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 63 7. Have you received any training in public health supply chain management? Yes No If yes, please provide the name of the training course, who conducted the training, and its location. : 8. How well did the training course you attended meet your professional needs? Very well Well Neutral Not well Not very well 9. What are the most critical logistics and professional skills and knowledge you believe you need to gain (i.e., general, procurement, logistics information management systems, warehousing, consultant, etc)? LMIS Procurement General Consultant Warehousing/storage forecasting Project management M&E distribution strategic sourcing Demand management 10. Are there any areas in which you require refresher training? Procurement M&E Forecasting General LMIS Design Warehousing Lab Cold Chain Governance Contract Management CS Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 64 Demand management 11. What type and length of course attendance do you prefer? Strongly prefer Prefer No preference In person, one to two week course In person, month long course In person, six month program In person, year long program Self guided, distance learning program Combined self guided, distance learning program with periodic in person sessions 12. In what language do you prefer training sessions be conducted? First Choice Second Choice Third Choice Fourth Choice English Spanish French 13. Please use the scale below to indicate how strongly you agree or disagree with the following statements: S tro ng ly D is ag re e D is ag re e N eu tra l A gr ee S tro ng ly A gr ee I know of several courses that will train me in areas specifically related to my logistics responsibilities I have a difficult time paying tuition/fees Courses on the logistics topics that interest me are not offered in my language. I never consider courses that are located outside of my country Travel and per diem costs too much to allow me to attend most courses My supervisor encourages me to attend courses and workshops that will improve my skills. Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 65 S tro ng ly D is ag re e D is ag re e N eu tra l A gr ee S tro ng ly A gr ee I know who to contact if I need a sponsor to cover all of my training-related costs. I can travel for two or three days to attend a course. My employer provides good opportunities and benefits for those who have a degree or certificate in logistics. A general course that goes into some detail about logistics topics is more useful to me than one that focuses on one or two logistics topics. 14. I would be able to leave my workplace to attend a course lasting: 2-3 days 4-7 days 8-14 days 15 days or longer 15. An Internet-based course would be: Very possible (easy access and good Internet connection) Possible but difficult (limited access to computer and/or good Internet connection) Difficult (no access to computer) Difficult (no or unreliable access to Internet) Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 66 Annex 2: Organizations represented by survey recipients 1. Adcem Pharmaceuticals Limited 2. AIBEF 3. APIN/HARVARD PEPFAR 4. Asociacion Benefica PRISMA 5. AWARE 6. Axios Foundation- Nigeria & Uganda 7. Bioforce 8. Bugando University College of Health Sciences 9. CDC-Thailand 10. Central Medical Stores- Ghana, Malawi & Nigeria 11. Centre Africain D'Etudes Supérieures Gestion (CESAG) 12. Christian Health Association of Malawi 13. College of Medicine- Malawi 14. Country Support Team for LAC/UNFPA 15. Crown Agents- India, Namibia, UK & Zimbabwe 16. Crown Agents/EPW MoHFW- India 17. CRS/AIDS Relief Project 18. CU-ICAP 19. Department of Health Services- Nepal 20. Dept of Public Health, Federal Ministry of Health- Abuja, Nigeria 21. Division of Malaria Control, Ministry of Health- Kenya 22. DOD HIV Program-Nigeria 23. Egypt-MOHP 24. EU PRIME 25. Family Health Bureau, Ministry of Health- Sri Lanka 26. Federal Ministry of Health- Nigeria 27. GFATM Indonesia Malaria Component 28. Ghana Health Service 29. Health & Human Services Secretariat, FCT Administration- Nigeria 30. Hospitals- Nepal & Botswana 31. Hygeia Foundation 32. ICRC 33. IDA Solutions- Netherlands 34. Inter-Religious Council of Uganda 35. INTRA HEALTH 36. Joint Medical Store- Uganda 37. JSI - SCMS 38. JSI / MMIS 39. JSI- Georgia 40. JSI Global Fund- Kenya 41. JSI Research and Training Institute, Inc. 42. JSI/Gestion y Calidad en Salud Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 67 43. JSI/NUMAT 44. Kuje General Hospital, Kuje 45. KUMI-HBCT Program 46. Lagos State University Teaching Hospital-Nigeria 47. Lagos University Teaching Hospital- Nigeria* 48. Malawi Adventist University, Malamulo College of Health Sciences 49. Ministry of Health- Barbados, Ghana, Guyana, Kenya, Malta, Malawi, Nicaragua, Uganda & Zimbabwe 50. Ministry of Health & Child Welfare- Zimbabwe 51. Ministry of Health and Social Welfare- Tanzania 52. MSH- Kenya & Vietnam 53. Mushonga Logistics Consultants- South Africa 54. National Centre for AIDS and STD Control- Nepal 55. National AIDS Control Program- Ghana 56. National AIDS/STIs Control Program- Kenya 57. National Dept of Health- South Africa 58. National Medical Stores- Uganda 59. National Tuberculosis and Leprosy Control Programme- Nigeria 60. NATPHARM- Zimbabwe 61. National Program for Family Planning & Primary Health Care, MOH- Islamabad, Pakistan 62. NUPCO 63. PATH 64. Pathfinder International- Ethiopia 65. PFIZER- Nigeria 66. Pharmaciens Sans Frontières Comite International (PSFCI) 67. Pharmaceutical Healthcare Distributors (PHD)- South Africa 68. Population Services International (PSI)- Ethiopia 69. Prime Minister's Program for Prevention & Control of Hepatitis- Pakistan 70. PRINCESS MARINA HOSPITAL 71. Project AXxes, IMA World Health - Eglise du Christ au Congo 72. Provincial Health Office- Philippines 73. SCMS- Botswana, Guyana, Haiti, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Rwanda, Uganda & Zimbabwe 74. SCMS (IDA Solutions) 75. SCMS Mozambique 76. Social Marketing Company- Bangladesh 77. Society for Education in Contraception and Sexuality (SECS)- Romania 78. STD/AIDS Control program Ministry of Health- Uganda 79. STOP AI / DAI 80. TACMIL Health Project/ Abt Associates Inc; USAID- Pakistan 81. Tanzania Network of Community Health Funds 82. TUC/IEIP 83. UNFPA- various countries 84. UNICEF 85. University of Malawi Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 68 86. USAID- Dominican Republic 87. USAID/JICA 88. USAID|DELIVER PROJECT 89. World Health Organization 90. World Vision- Somalia Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 69 Annex 3: Countries represented by survey recipients 1. Bangladesh 2. Barbados 3. Benin 4. Bolivia 5. Botswana 6. Burkina Faso 7. Cote d'Ivoire 8. Democratic Republic of the Congo 9. Dominican Republic 10. Egypt 11. Ethiopia 12. Georgia 13. Ghana 14. Guinea 15. Guyana 16. Haiti 17. India 18. Indonesia 19. Iraq 20. Kenya 21. Malawi 22. Malta 23. Mexico 24. Mozambique 25. Namibia 26. Nepal 27. Netherlands 28. Nicaragua 29. Nigeria 30. Norway 31. Pakistan 32. Peru 33. Philippines 34. Romania 35. Rwanda 36. Saudi Arabia 37. Senegal 38. South Africa 39. Sri Lanka 40. Switzerland 41. Tajikistan 42. Tanzania 43. Thailand 44. Uganda Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 70 45. Ukraine 46. United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland 47. United Republic of Tanzania 48. United States of America 49. Uzbekistan 50. Viet Nam 51. Zimbabwe Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 71 Annex 4: Countries represented by the survey respondents: 1. Bangladesh 2. Benin 3. Botswana 4. Democratic Republic of the Congo 5. Ethiopia 6. Ghana 7. Guinea 8. Guyana 9. Malawi 10. Nepal 11. Nigeria 12. Pakistan 13. Peru 14. Senegal 15. Switzerland 16. Tanzania 17. Uganda 18. Ukraine 19. Zimbabwe Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 72 Annex 5: Courses included in the study The 94 courses that were identified through the study and which served as the basis for the analyses are shown here. The courses are listed in alphabetical order along with the institution, location and language of instruction. The full listings of information collected for each course is detailed in Annex 20. Course Title Institution Location Language Achats Institut Bioforce Développement France French Advanced Programme in Supply Chain Management University of Pretoria, South Africa Pretoria, South Africa English Approvisionnement Institut Bioforce Développement France French Bachelor of Science in Supply Chain Management University of Maryland-College Park; Robert H Smith School of Business; Dept of Logistics, Business, and Public Policy College Park, Maryland, USA English Buenas Prácticas de almacenamiento y distributición importancia de la cadena de suministro Grupo Terra Farma La Paz, Bolivia Spanish Certificate in Procurement for Senior Executives Crown Agents UK English Certificate in Supply Chain Management Crown Agents UK English Certification in Humanitarian Logistics Fritz Institute/Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport UK online and telephone English, French Certification in Humanitarian Supply Chain Management Fritz Institute/Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport UK online and telephone English Contract and Suppliers Relations Management UNDP Bangkok, Vienna, Dubai, New York, Copenhagen (recurring) English Contract Management University of Pretoria, South Africa Pretoria, South Africa English CSCMP On-site Education Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals Any location; at worksite English Curso Gratis Online de Logistica y Distribución www.directivoglobal.com Grupo Arrima (Spain) online Spanish Curso Taller: Certificación en Buenas Prácticas de Almacenamiento La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú Lima, Peru Spanish Diplomado Gestión de la Cadena de Suministro de Medicamentos Esenciales La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú online Spanish Diplomado Técnico Nivel Superior Logistica Universidad Tecnológica de Chile (INACAP) Santiago, Chile Spanish Disponibilidad Asegurada de Insumos: Principios y Practica La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú Lima, Peru Spanish Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 73 Course Title Institution Location Language Distribution Institut Bioforce Développement France French E-Procurement: Strategies for Success Crown Agents UK English Effective Procurement Skills Crown Agents Nigeria English Estimación y Programación de las Necesidades de Insumos La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú Lima, Peru Spanish Executive Seminar: Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Management i+solutions Netherlands English Exercice d'application du module d'Approvisionnement Institut Bioforce Développement France French FinListics®: The Financial Supply Chain Management Connection Workshop Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA English Fundamentals of Procurement UNDP Bangkok, Vienna, Dubai, New York, Copenhagen (recurring) English Gerencia de la Cadena Logística La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú Lima, Peru Spanish Gestion des Achats et des Stocks des Combinaisons Thérapeutiques à base d'Artémisinine i+solutions Netherlands French Gestión en Almacén y Buenas Prácticas de Almacenamiento La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú online Spanish Gestión y Planificación en la cadena de suministros - Supply Chain Universidad Austral, IAE Business School Buenos Aires, Argentina Spanish Global Supply Chain Strategy Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA English Hands-on Supply Chain Management University of Pretoria, South Africa Pretoria, South Africa English Humanitarian Logistics Global Fields Institute, Kenya Kenya English Hygiène, Assainissement & Gestion des Déchets en Milieu de Soins Institut Bioforce Développement Burkina Faso, France French La gestion optimale de l´approvisionnement des programmes de VIH/SIDA dans les pays en développement i+solutions Netherlands French Lessons in Logistics Management for Health Commodities USAID | DELIVER PROJECT online or CD- ROM English Licenciado en Logistica Internacional en Monterrey Tecnológico de Monterrey Mexico Spanish Logística para Suministros de Salud La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú online Spanish Logisticien de la Solidarité Internationale Institut Bioforce Développement France French Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 74 Course Title Institution Location Language Logistics and Incoterms UNDP Bangkok, Vienna, Dubai, New York, Copenhagen (recurring) English Logistics for Health Commodities USAID Bureau of Global Health/Global Health e-learning Center online English Logistics for Non-Logisticians University of Pretoria, South Africa Pretoria, South Africa English Logistics Management of Drugs and Medical Commodities AMREF Kenya English Logistics Performance, Cost & Value Measures Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA English Logistics Short Course Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA English M.S. in Logistics and Supply Chain Management Wright State University, Raj Soin College of Business Ohio, USA English Maintenance des Equipements Biomédicaux Institut Bioforce Développement Burkina Faso, France French Managing Drug Supply in Low and Middle Income Countries i+solutions Netherlands English Manejo e Implementación de la Cadena de Frío en el Suministro de Medicamentos La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú online Spanish Master of Advanced Studies in Humanitarian Logistics & Management University of Lugano (USI)- Switzerland Lugano, Switzerland English Master of Engineering in International Logistics & Supply Chain Management (ZLOG) Massachusetts Institute of Technology- Zaragoza University, Spain Zaragoza, Spain English Master of Engineering in Logistics Massachusetts Institute of Technology Cambridge, Massachusetts USA English Master Programme in Supply Chain Management University of Pretoria, South Africa Pretoria, South Africa English MBA Elective courses in Supply Chain Management University of Maryland-College Park; Robert H Smith School of Business; Dept of Logistics, Business, and Public Policy College Park, Maryland, USA English Monitoring and Evaluation of Procurement and Supply Management i+solutions Netherlands English Monitoring and Evaluation of Procurement Performance Crown Agents UK English Overview of Supply Chain Management Eastern and Southern Africa Management Institute (ESAMI) Tanzania English Ph.D. in Logistics and Transportation University of Maryland-College Park; Robert H Smith School of Business; Dept of Logistics, Business, and Public Policy College Park, Maryland, USA English Postgrado enLogística SEAS, Centro de Formación Abierta online Spanish Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 75 Course Title Institution Location Language Procurement and Materials Management University of Pretoria, South Africa Pretoria, South Africa English Procurement and Quantification of Medicines and Medical Supplies i+solutions Netherlands English Procurement and Supply Management of Artemesinin Based Combination Therapies (ACTs) i+solutions Netherlands English Procurement of Works and Dispute Management Crown Agents UK English Procurement Strategy Development UNDP Bangkok, Vienna, Dubai, New York, Copenhagen (recurring) English Professional Diploma in Logistics Management Global Fields Institute, Kenya Kenya English Programme in Supply Chain Management University of Pretoria, South Africa Pretoria, South Africa English Quantification and Procurement Planning Eastern and Southern Africa Management Institute (ESAMI) Tanzania English Risk Management in Procurement Crown Agents UK English Salud y Sociedad V Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego Facultad de Medicina Peru Spanish Service Management Operations and Strategy University of Pretoria, South Africa Pretoria, South Africa English Stock Institut Bioforce Développement France French Stores and Inventory Management Crown Agents Zambia English Strategic Procurement in Practice Crown Agents Kenya English Successful Tender Design Crown Agents UK English Successful Tender Design and Contract Management Crown Agents UK English Supply Chain & Logistics Certificate Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA English Supply Chain & Logistics Certificate Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute online English Supply Chain & Logistics Certificate Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA and online English Supply Chain Analytics Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA English Supply Chain Management University of Lieges- Belgium Lieges, Belgium French Supply Chain Management of HIV/AIDS Medicines and Supplies/ARV Procurement and Supply Management i+solutions Netherlands English The Supply Chain Management of HIV/AIDS medicines and the related supplies. ARV Access for Africa/i+solutions South Africa English Transports Institut Bioforce Développement France French Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 76 Course Title Institution Location Language Warehouse Operations Management ARV Access for Africa/Fuel/i+solutions South Africa English Warehouse/Distribution Center Layout Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA English Warehousing Management Skills University of Pretoria, South Africa Pretoria, South Africa English Warehousing Short Course Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA English World Class Inventory Planning and Management Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA English World Class Inventory Planning and Management Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute online English World Class Logistics and Supply Chain Strategy Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA English World Class Logistics and Supply Chain Strategy Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute online English World Class Transportation and Distribution Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA English World Class Transportation and Distribution Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute online English World Class Warehousing and Material Handling Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Georgia, USA English World Class Warehousing and Material Handling Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute online English Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 77 Annex 6: Courses targeting a specific sector, by language of instruction and alphabetically by course name Courses targeting the public sector Courses taught in English Course Title Name of Institution Certificate in Procurement for Senior Executives Crown Agents Certificate in Supply Chain Management Crown Agents Contract and Suppliers Relations Management UNDP CSCMP On-site Education Council of Supply Chain Management Professionals E-Procurement: Strategies for Success Crown Agents Effective Procurement Skills Crown Agents Executive Seminar: Pharmaceutical Supply Chain Management i+solutions Fundamentals of Procurement UNDP Lessons in Logistics Management for Health Commodities USAID | DELIVER PROJECT Logistics and Incoterms UNDP Logistics for Health Commodities USAID Bureau of Global Health/Global Health e-learning Center Logistics Management of Drugs and Medical Commodities AMREF Managing Drug Supply in Low and Middle Income Countries i+solutions Monitoring and Evaluation of Procurement and Supply Management i+solutions Monitoring and Evaluation of Procurement Performance Crown Agents Overview of Supply Chain Management Eastern and Southern Africa Management Institute (ESAMI) Procurement and Quantification of Medicines and Medical Supplies i+solutions Procurement and Supply Management of Artemesinin Based Combination Therapies (ACTs) i+solutions Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 78 Course Title Name of Institution Procurement of Works and Dispute Management Crown Agents Procurement Strategy Development UNDP Quantification and Procurement Planning Eastern and Southern Africa Management Institute (ESAMI) Risk Management in Procurement Crown Agents Stores and Inventory Management Crown Agents Strategic Procurement in Practice Crown Agents Successful Tender Design Crown Agents Successful Tender Design and Contract Management Crown Agents Supply Chain Management of HIV/AIDS Medicines and Supplies/ARV Procurement and Supply Management i+solutions The Supply Chain Management of HIV/AIDS medicines and the related supplies. ARV Access for Africa/i+solutions Warehouse Operations Management ARV Access for Africa/Fuel/i+solutions Courses taught in Spanish: Course Title Name of Institution Buenas Prácticas de almacenamiento y distributición importancia de la cadena de suministro Grupo Terra Farma Curso Gratis Online de Logistica y Distribución www.directivoglobal.com Grupo Arrima (Spain) Curso Taller: Certificación en Buenas Prácticas de Almacenamiento La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú Diplomado Gestión de la Cadena de Suministro de Medicamentos Esenciales La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú Diplomado Técnico Nivel Superior Logistica Universidad Tecnológica de Chile (INACAP) Disponibilidad Asegurada de Insumos: Principios y Practica La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú Estimación y Programación de las Necesidades de Insumos La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú Gerencia de la Cadena Logística La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú Gestión en Almacén y Buenas Prácticas de Almacenamiento La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú Gestión y Planificación en la cadena de suministros - Supply Chain Universidad Austral, IAE Business School Licenciado en Logistica Internacional en Monterrey Tecnológico de Monterrey Logística para Suministros de Salud La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú Manejo e Implementación de la Cadena de Frío en el Suministro de Medicamentos La Asociación Benéfica PRISMA- Perú Postgrado enLogística SEAS, Centro de Formación Abierta Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 79 Courses taught in French: Course Title Name of Institution Achats Institut Bioforce Développement Approvisionnement Institut Bioforce Développement Distribution Institut Bioforce Développement Exercice d'application du module d'Approvisionnement Institut Bioforce Développement Gestion des Achats et des Stocks des Combinaisons Thérapeutiques à base d'Artémisinine i+solutions Hygiène, Assainissement & Gestion des Déchets en Milieu de Soins Institut Bioforce Développement La gestion optimale de l´approvisionnement des programmes de VIH/SIDA dans les pays en développement i+solutions Logisticien de la Solidarité Internationale Institut Bioforce Développement Maintenance des EquipementsBiomédicaux Institut Bioforce Développement Stock Institut Bioforce Développement Supply Chain Management University of Lieges- Belgium Transports Institut Bioforce Développement Courses targeting the NGO Sector Courses taught in English Course Title Name of Institution Certification in Humanitarian Supply Chain Management Fritz Institute/Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport UK Humanitarian Logistics Global Fields Institute, Kenya Professional Diploma in Logistics Management Global Fields Institute, Kenya Course taught in English and in French Course Title Name of Institution Certification in Humanitarian Logistics Fritz Institute/Chartered Institute of Logistics and Transport UK Courses targeting the Private Sector Note: All courses targeting the private sector identified during the study are taught in English. Course Title Name of Institution Advanced Programme in Supply Chain Management University of Pretoria, South Africa Bachelor of Science in Supply Chain Management University of Maryland-College Park; Robert H Smith School of Business; Dept of Logistics, Business, and Public Policy Contract Management University of Pretoria, South Africa FinListics®: The Financial Supply Chain Management Connection Workshop Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 80 Course Title Name of Institution Global Supply Chain Strategy Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Hands-on Supply Chain Management University of Pretoria, South Africa Logistics for Non-Logisticians University of Pretoria, South Africa Logistics Performance, Cost & Value Measures Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Logistics Short Course Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute M.S. in Logistics and Supply Chain Management Wright State University, Raj Soin College of Business Master of Engineering in Logistics Massachusetts Institute of Technology Master Programme in Supply Chain Management University of Pretoria, South Africa MBA Elective courses in Supply Chain Management University of Maryland-College Park; Robert H Smith School of Business; Dept of Logistics, Business, and Public Policy Ph.D. in Logistics and Transportation University of Maryland-College Park; Robert H Smith School of Business; Dept of Logistics, Business, and Public Policy Procurement and Materials Management University of Pretoria, South Africa Programme in Supply Chain Management University of Pretoria, South Africa Service Management Operations and Strategy University of Pretoria, South Africa Supply Chain & Logistics Certificate Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Supply Chain & Logistics Certificate Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Supply Chain & Logistics Certificate Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Supply Chain Analytics Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Warehouse/Distribution Center Layout Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Warehousing Management Skills University of Pretoria, South Africa Warehousing Short Course Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute World Class Inventory Planning and Management Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute World Class Inventory Planning and Management Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute World Class Logistics and Supply Chain Strategy Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute World Class Logistics and Supply Chain Strategy Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute World Class Transportation and Distribution Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute World Class Transportation and Distribution Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute World Class Warehousing and Material Handling Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute World Class Warehousing and Material Handling Georgia Tech, Supply Chain & Logistics Institute Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 81 Courses with no specific Target Sector (Open Enrollment) Courses taught in English Course Title Name of Institution Master of Advanced Studies in Humanitarian Logistics & Management University of Lugano (USI)- Switzerland Master of Engineering in International Logistics & Supply Chain Management (ZLOG) Massachusetts Institute of Technology- Zaragoza University, Spain Course taught in Spanish Course Title Name of Institution Salud y Sociedad V Universidad Privada Antenor Orrego Facultad de Medicina Professional Development Opportunities for Public Sector Reproductive Health Commodity Managers Confidential © John Snow, Inc. Use or disclosure of data contained on this sheet is subject to the restriction on the title page of this document. 82 Annex 7: Public sector courses by target audience Courses targeting the Practitioner: Course Institution Achats Institut Bioforce Développement Approvisionnement Institut Bioforce Développement Buenas Prácticas de almacenamiento y distributición importancia de la cadena de suministro Gru

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