Philippines- Demographic and Health Survey - 2014

Publication date: 2014

PhilippinesPhilippines National Demographic and Health Survey 2013 Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey 2013 Philippine Statistics Authority Manila, Philippines ICF International Rockville, Maryland, USA August 2014 This report summarizes the findings of the 2013 Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) carried out by the Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA). The NDHS is part of the worldwide MEASURE Demographic and Health Surveys program, which is designed to collect information on a variety of health-related topics including fertility, family planning, and maternal and child health. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided technical assistance through ICF International. The opinions expressed in this report are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of USAID and the Government of the Philippines. Additional information about the survey may be obtained from the Demographic and Social Statistics Division (DSSD) of the Household Statistics Department, PSA, Solicarel Building 1, Ramon Magsaysay Boulevard, Sta. Mesa, Manila; Telephone: (632) 713-7245, Fax (632) 716-1612, E-mail: info@mail.census.gov.ph. Information about The DHS Program may be obtained from ICF International, 530 Gaither Road, Suite 500, Rockville, MD 20850, USA; Telephone: +1.301-407-6500, Fax: +1.301-407-6501, E-mail: reports@dhsprogram.com, Internet: http://www.dhsprogram.com. Recommended citation: Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) [Philippines], and ICF International. 2014. Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey 2013. Manila, Philippines, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: PSA and ICF International. Contents • iii CONTENTS Page TABLES AND FIGURES . vii PREFACE . xiii MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL INDICATORS . xv MAP OF PHILIPPINES . xvi 1 INTRODUCTION . 1 1.1 Background 1 1.2 Objectives of the Survey 2 1.3 Organization of the Survey 2 1.4 Questionnaires 3 1.5 Pretest 4 1.6 Training and Fieldwork 5 1.7 Data Processing 5 1.8 Sample Design and Implementation 5 2 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS . 7 2.1 Household Characteristics. 8 2.1.1 Drinking Water . 8 2.1.2 Household Sanitation Facilities . 9 2.1.3 Housing Characteristics . 10 2.2 Household Possessions . 12 2.3 Wealth Index . 12 2.4 Household Composition . 14 2.5 Household Population by Age and Sex . 14 2.6 Education of Household Population . 16 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS . 19 3.1 Characteristics of Women Respondents 19 3.2 Mobility 21 3.3 Educational Attainment 22 3.4 Access to Mass Media and Internet 23 3.5 Employment 24 3.6 Occupation 26 3.7 Type of Employment 28 3.8 Health Insurance Coverage 29 3.9 Use of Tobacco 30 4 MARRIAGE AND EXPOSURE TO THE RISK OF PREGNANCY . 33 4.1 Current Marital Status . 33 4.2 Age at First Marriage . 34 4.3 Age at First Menstruation (Menarche). 35 4.4 Age at First Sexual Intercourse . 36 4.5 Recent Sexual Activity . 37 iv • Contents 5 FERTILITY . 41 5.1 Current Fertility . 42 5.2 Fertility Trends . 44 5.3 Children Ever Born and Living . 45 5.4 Birth Intervals . 46 5.5 Postpartum Amenorrhea, Abstinence, and Insusceptibility . 48 5.6 Menopause. 50 5.7 Age at First Birth . 51 5.8 Pregnancy and Motherhood among Youth . 52 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . 55 6.1 Desire for More Children . 55 6.2 Desire to Limit Childbearing by Background Characteristics . 58 6.3 Ideal Number of Children . 60 6.4 Fertility Planning . 63 6.5 Couple’s Consensus on Family Size . 65 7 FAMILY PLANNING . 69 7.1 Knowledge of Contraceptive Methods . 70 7.2 Current Use of Contraception. 72 7.3 Differentials in Contraceptive Use by Background Characteristics . 74 7.4 Trends in Current Use of Family Planning. 76 7.5 Timing of Sterilization . 77 7.6 Source of Modern Contraceptive Methods . 78 7.7 Cost of Family Planning Methods . 79 7.8 Informed Choice . 80 7.9 Knowledge of the Fertile Period . 81 7.10 Need for Family Planning Services . 82 7.11 Future use of Contraception . 85 7.12 Exposure to Family Planning Messages . 86 7.13 Contact of Nonusers with Family Planning Providers . 87 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY . 89 8.1 Definitions and Concepts . 90 8.2 Data Quality . 90 8.3 Levels and Trends . 91 8.4 Socioeconomic Differentials in Infant and Child Mortality . 92 8.5 Demographic Differentials in Infant and Child Mortality . 94 8.6 Perinatal Mortality. 95 8.7 High-Risk Fertility Behavior . 97 9 MATERNAL HEALTH . 99 9.1 Antenatal Care . 100 9.1.1 Antenatal Care Coverage . 100 9.1.2 Components of Antenatal Care Services . 102 9.1.3 Tetanus Toxoid Injection . 104 9.2 Delivery Care . 106 9.2.1 Place of Delivery. 106 9.2.2 Delivery Assistance . 108 9.3 Post Natal Care . 112 9.4 Newborn Care . 115 9.5 Problems in Accessing Health Care . 118 Contents • v 10 CHILD HEALTH . 121 10.1 Child’s Weight at Birth . 121 10.2 Vaccination Coverage . 122 10.2.1 Full Immunization Coverage for Children Age 12-23 Months . 123 10.2.2 Vaccination Coverage by Background Characteristics . 125 10.2.3 Trends in Vaccination Coverage . 126 10.3 Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) . 126 10.4 Fever . 128 10.5 Diarrhea . 129 10.5.1 Prevalence of Diarrhea . 130 10.5.2 Diarrhea Treatment . 130 10.5.3 Feeding Practices during Diarrhea . 131 10.5.4 Knowledge of ORS Packets . 133 10.5.5 Disposal of Stools . 134 11 BREASTFEEDING AND MICRONUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTATION . 137 11.1 Breastfeeding . 137 11.1.1 Initial Breastfeeding . 138 11.1.2 Breastfeeding Status by Age . 140 11.1.3 Duration of Breastfeeding . 140 11.2 Micronutrient Intake among Children . 141 11.3 Micronutrient Intake among Mothers . 143 12 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR . 145 12.1 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS . 146 12.2 Specific Knowledge about AIDS. 147 12.3 Coverage of HIV Testing . 149 12.4 HIV/AIDS Knowledge and Sexual Behavior among Youth . 151 12.4.1 Knowledge of Condom Sources among Young Adults . 151 12.4.2 Age at First Sexual Intercourse among Young People . 152 12.4.3 Premarital Sexual Activity . 152 12.4.4 Cross-generational Sexual Partners . 154 12.4.5 Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing among Young Women . 154 13 HEALTHCARE UTILIZATION AND FINANCING . 157 13.1 Health Insurance Coverage . 157 13.2 Health Care Treatment . 161 13.3 Hospital Care . 166 13.4 Cost of Treatment . 168 14 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT . 169 14.1 Employment and Form of Earnings . 170 14.2 Controls over Earnings . 171 14.2.1 Control over and Relative Magnitude of Women’s Earnings . 171 14.2.2 Women’s Control over their Own Earnings and Over those of their Husbands . 173 14.3 Ownership of Assets . 174 14.4 Participation in Decision Making . 174 14.5 Attitude toward Wife Beating . 177 14.6 Indicators of Women’s Empowerment . 180 14.7 Women’s Empowerment and Health Indicators . 181 vi • Contents 15 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN . 185 15.1 Measurement of Violence . 186 15.2 Experience of Physical Violence . 188 15.3 Experience of Sexual Violence . 190 15.4 Experience of Different Forms of Violence . 193 15.5 Violence during Pregnancy . 193 15.6 Marital Control by Husband . 195 15.7 Spousal Violence . 197 15.8 Recent Experience of Spousal Violence . 202 15.9 Onset of Spousal Violence . 203 15.10 Consequences of Spousal Violence . 203 15.11 Violence Initiated by Women against their Spouse . 204 15.12 Help-Seeking Behavior by Women Who Experienced Violence . 207 REFERENCES . 209 APPENDIX A SAMPLE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION . 213 A.1 Introduction . 213 A.2 Sample Design . 213 A.3 Sample Implementation . 216 A.4 Sampling Weight . 219 ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . 223 DATA QUALITY TABLES . 247 APPENDIX B APPENDIX C APPENDIX D PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 2013 NATIONAL DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY . 251 QUESTIONNAIRES. 265 APPENDIX E Tables and Figures • vii TABLES AND FIGURES Page CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION . 1 Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews . 6 CHAPTER 2 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS . 7 Table 2.1 Household drinking water . 8 Table 2.2 Household sanitation facilities . 9 Table 2.3 Housing characteristics . 10 Table 2.4 Household characteristics . 11 Table 2.5 Household possessions . 12 Table 2.6 Wealth quintiles . 13 Table 2.7 Household composition . 14 Table 2.8 Household population by age, sex and residence . 15 Table 2.9.1 Educational attainment of the female household population . 16 Table 2.9.2 Educational attainment of the male household population . 17 Figure 2.1 Housing amenities by urban-rural residence . 11 Figure 2.2 Population pyramid . 15 Figure 2.3 Median years of schooling by sex and region. 18 CHAPTER 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS . 19 Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents . 20 Table 3.2 Residence characteristics of respondents . 21 Table 3.3 Educational attainment . 22 Table 3.4 Exposure to mass media . 24 Table 3.5 Employment status . 25 Table 3.6 Occupation . 27 Table 3.7 Type of employment . 28 Table 3.8 Health insurance coverage . 29 Table 3.9 Use of tobacco . 31 Figure 3.1 Percent distribution of women age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, Philippines 2008 and 2013 . 28 CHAPTER 4 MARRIAGE AND EXPOSURE TO THE RISK OF PREGNANCY . 33 Table 4.1 Current marital status . 33 Table 4.2 Age at first marriage . 34 Table 4.3 Median age at first marriage by background characteristics . 35 Table 4.4 Age at first menstruation . 36 Table 4.5 Age at first sexual intercourse . 36 Table 4.6 Median age at first sexual intercourse by background characteristics . 37 Table 4.7 Recent sexual activity . 38 viii • Tables and Figures CHAPTER 5 FERTILITY . 41 Table 5.1 Current fertility . 42 Table 5.2 Fertility by background characteristics . 43 Table 5.3 Trends in age-specific fertility rates . 44 Table 5.4 Trends in fertility from various sources . 45 Table 5.5 Children ever born and living . 46 Table 5.6 Birth intervals . 47 Table 5.7 Postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence and insusceptibility . 49 Table 5.8 Median duration of amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence and postpartum insusceptibility . 50 Table 5.9 Menopause . 51 Table 5.10 Age at first birth . 51 Table 5.11 Median age at first birth . 52 Table 5.12 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood . 53 Figure 5.1 Age-specific fertility rates by urban-rural residence . 43 Figure 5.2 Trends in the total fertility rate . 45 Figure 5.3 Median number of months since previous birth . 48 CHAPTER 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . 55 Table 6.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children . 57 Table 6.2 Fertility preferences by age . 58 Table 6.3 Desire to limit childbearing . 59 Table 6.4 Ideal number of children by number of living children . 61 Table 6.5 Mean ideal number of children . 62 Table 6.6 Fertility planning status . 64 Table 6.7 Wanted fertility rates . 65 Table 6.8 Couples’ consensus on family size . 67 Figure 6.1 Fertility preferences among currently married women age 15-49 . 56 Figure 6.2 Percentage of currently married women who want no more children, by number of children . 57 Figure 6.3 Percentage of currently married women who want no more children, by background characteristics . 60 Figure 6.4 Mean ideal number of children for all women age 15-49 by region. 63 Figure 6.5 Trends in wanted and unwanted fertility for births in the five years preceding the survey, NDHS 2008 and NDHS 2013 . 64 Figure 6.6 Currently married women by perceived consensus with husband regarding the number of children desired . 66 CHAPTER 7 FAMILY PLANNING . 69 Table 7.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods . 70 Table 7.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods by background characteristics . 71 Table 7.3 Current use of contraception by age . 73 Table 7.4 Current use of contraception by background characteristics . 75 Table 7.5 Trends in the current use of contraception . 76 Table 7.6 Timing of sterilization . 78 Table 7.7 Source of modern contraception methods . 78 Table 7.8 Cost of modern contraceptive methods . 79 Tables and Figures • ix Table 7.9 Informed choice . 81 Table 7.10 Knowledge of fertile period . 82 Table 7.11 Need and demand for family planning among currently married women . 84 Table 7.12 Future use of contraception . 86 Table 7.13 Exposure to family planning messages . 87 Table 7.14 Contact of non-users with family planning providers . 88 Figure 7.1 Use of contraception among currently married women age 15-49 . 74 Figure 7.2 Trends in contraceptive use among currently married women . 77 Figure 7.3 Trends in unmet need for family planning . 85 CHAPTER 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY . 89 Table 8.1 Early childhood mortality rates . 91 Table 8.2 Early childhood mortality rates by socioeconomic characteristics . 93 Table 8.3 Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics . 95 Table 8.4 Perinatal mortality . 96 Table 8.5 High-risk fertility behavior . 98 Figure 8.1 Trends in early childhood mortality rates for the period 0-4 years, Philippines 2003-2013 . 92 Figure 8.2 Under-five and infant mortality by background characteristics . 94 CHAPTER 9 MATERNAL HEALTH . 99 Table 9.1 Antenatal care . 100 Table 9.2 Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit . 101 Table 9.3 Components of antenatal care . 103 Table 9.4 Tetanus toxoid injections . 104 Table 9.5 Problems experienced during pregnancy and delivery . 105 Table 9.6 Pre-term births . 106 Table 9.7 Place of delivery . 107 Table 9.8 Reasons for not delivering in a health facility . 108 Table 9.9 Assistance during delivery . 109 Table 9.10 Cost of delivery . 111 Table 9.11 Timing of first postnatal check-up . 113 Table 9.12 Type of provider of first postnatal checkup for the mother . 114 Table 9.13 Timing of first postnatal checkup for the newborn . 116 Table 9.14 Type of provider of first postnatal checkup for the newborn . 117 Table 9.15 Problems in accessing healthcare . 119 CHAPTER 10 CHILD HEALTH . 121 Table 10.1 Child’s weight at birth . 122 Table 10.2 Vaccination by source of information . 124 Table 10.3 Vaccination by background characteristics . 125 Table 10.4 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI . 127 Table 10.5 Prevalence and treatment of fever . 129 Table 10.6 Prevalence of diarrhea . 130 Table 10.7 Diarrhea treatment . 131 Table 10.8 Feeding practices during diarrhea . 132 Table 10.9 Knowledge of ORS packets or pre-packaged liquids . 134 x • Tables and Figures Table 10.10 Disposal of children’s stools . 135 Figure 10.1 Vaccination by 12 months of age . 124 Figure 10.2 Trends in vaccination coverage excluding Hepatitis B. 126 Figure 10.3 Prevalence and treatment of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under age five . 128 Figure 10.4 Trends in feeding practices during diarrhea 2003, 2008, 2013 NDHS . 133 CHAPTER 11 BREASTFEEDING AND MICRONUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTATION . 137 Table 11.1 Initial breastfeeding . 139 Table 11.2 Breastfeeding status by age . 140 Table 11.3 Median duration of breastfeeding . 141 Table 11.4 Micronutrient intake among children . 142 Table 11.5 Micronutrient intake among mothers . 144 CHAPTER 12 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR . 145 Table 12.1 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods . 147 Table 12.2 Specific knowledge about AIDS . 148 Table 12.3 Coverage of prior HIV testing . 150 Table 12.4 Knowledge about a source of condoms among young women . 151 Table 12.5 Age at first sexual intercourse among young women . 152 Table 12.6 Premarital sexual intercourse and condom use during premarital sexual intercourse among young women. 153 Table 12.7 Age-mixing in sexual relationships among women age 15-19 . 154 Table 12.8 Recent HIV tests among youth . 155 Figure 12.1 Rejection of misconception about AIDS transmission among women age 15-49 . 149 CHAPTER 13 HEALTHCARE UTILIZATION AND FINANCING . 157 Table 13.1 Health insurance coverage . 158 Table 13.2 Type of PhilHealth Insurance . 160 Table 13.3 Treatment seeking behavior . 162 Table 13.4 Specific types of health facilities utilized . 164 Table 13.5 Reasons for seeking health care . 165 Table 13.6 Average travel time to health facility visited . 166 Table 13.7 In-patient hospital care . 167 Table 13.8 Aspects of in-patient care . 168 Table 13.9 Average costs of care . 168 Figure 13.1 Percentage of household population with specific health insurance coverage . 159 Figure 13.2 Among those with PhilHealth Insurance, percentage who are paying or indigent members/dependent . 161 Figure 13.3 Percentage of household population who visited a health facility/provider in the 30 days preceding the survey . 163 Figure 13.4 Reason for seeking health care . 165 CHAPTER 14 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT . 169 Table 14.1 Employment and cash earning of currently married women . 170 Table 14.2 Control over women’s cash earning and relative magnitude of women’s cash earnings . 172 Tables and Figures • xi Table 14.3 Women’s control over their own earnings and over those of their husbands . 173 Table 14.4 Ownership of assets . 175 Table 14.5 Participation in decision making . 175 Table 14.6 Women’s participation in decision making by background characteristics . 177 Table 14.7 Attitudes toward wife beating . 179 Table 14.8 Indicators of women’s empowerment . 181 Table 14.9 Current use of contraception by women’s empowerment . 182 Table 14.10 Ideal number of children and unmet need for family planning by women’s empowerment . 183 Table 14.11 Reproductive healthcare by women’s empowerment . 183 Table 14.12 Early childhood mortality rates by women’s status . 184 Figure 14.1 Type of earnings of employed currently married women . 171 Figure 14.2 Number of decisions in which currently married women participate . 176 Figure 14.3 Specific reasons for which wife beating is justified . 178 Figure 14.4 Number of reasons for which wife beating is justified . 181 CHAPTER 15 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN . 185 Table 15.1 Experience of physical violence . 189 Table 15.2 Persons committing physical violence . 190 Table 15.3 Experience of sexual violence . 191 Table 15.4 Persons committing sexual violence . 192 Table 15.5 Age at first experience of sexual violence . 193 Table 15.6 Experience of different forms of violence . 193 Table 15.7 Experience of violence during pregnancy . 194 Table 15.8 Marital control exercised by husbands . 196 Table 15.9 Forms of spousal violence . 197 Table 15.10 Spousal violence by background characteristics . 199 Table 15.11 Spousal violence by husband’s characteristics and empowerment indicators . 201 Table 15.12 Recent physical or sexual violence by any husband\partner . 202 Table 15.13 Experience of spousal violence by duration of marriage . 203 Table 15.14 Injuries to women due to spousal violence . 204 Table 15.15 Women’s violence against their spouse . 205 Table 15.16 Women’s violence against their spouse by husband’s by characteristics . 206 Table 15.17 Help seeking to stop violence . 207 Table 15.18 Sources for help to stop the violence . 208 Figure 15.1 Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have experienced various forms of violence ever or in the 12 months preceding the survey, committed by their husband/partner . 198 APPENDIX A SAMPLE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION . 213 Table A.1 Households in sampling frame . 215 Table A.2 Sample allocation of enumeration areas . 216 Table A.3 Sample implementation . 217 Table A.4 Sample implementation . 218 xii • Tables and Figures APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLES ERRORS . 223 Table B.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors, Philippines, 2013 . 225 Table B.2 Sampling errors: Total sample, Philippines 2013 . 226 Table B.3 Sampling errors: Urban sample, Philippines 2013 . 227 Table B.4 Sampling errors: Rural sample, Philippines 2013 . 228 Table B.5 Sampling errors: National Capital Region sample, Philippines 2013 . 229 Table B.6 Sampling errors: Cordillera Administrative Region sample, Philippines 2013 . 230 Table B.7 Sampling errors: Ilocos Region sample, Philippines 2013 . 231 Table B.8 Sampling errors: Cagayan Valley sample, Philippines 2013 . 232 Table B.9 Sampling errors: Central Luzon sample, Philippines 2013 . 233 Table B.10 Sampling errors: CALABARZON sample, Philippines 2013 . 234 Table B.11 Sampling errors: MIMAROPA sample, Philippines 2013 . 235 Table B.12 Sampling errors: Bicol Region sample, Philippines 2013 . 236 Table B.13 Sampling errors: Western Visayas sample, Philippines 2013 . 237 Table B.14 Sampling errors: Central Visayas sample, Philippines 2013 . 238 Table B.15 Sampling errors: Eastern Visayas sample, Philippines 2013 . 239 Table B.16 Sampling errors: Zamboanga Peninsula sample, Philippines 2013 . 240 Table B.17 Sampling errors: Northern Mindanao sample, Philippines 2013 . 241 Table B.18 Sampling errors: Davao Region sample, Philippines 2013 . 242 Table B.19 Sampling errors: SOCCSKSARGEN sample, Philippines 2013 . 243 Table B.20 Sampling errors: Caraga sample, Philippines 2013 . 244 Table B.21 Sampling errors: ARMM sample, Philippines 2013 . 245 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES . 247 Table C.1 Household age distribution . 247 Table C.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . 248 Table C.3 Completeness of reporting . 248 Table C.4 Births by calendar years . 248 Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in days . 249 Table C.6 Reporting of age at death in months . 250 Preface • xiii   PREFACE The Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA) is pleased to present the final report on the 2013 Philippines National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). The survey is designed to provide indicators on fertility, fertility preferences, family planning practice, childhood mortality, maternal and child health, knowledge and attitude regarding HIV/AIDS and tuberculosis, and violence against women. These indicators are crucial in policymaking, program planning, and monitoring and evaluation of population and health programs, including those anchored on the attainment of related Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The 2013 NDHS is the tenth in a series of national demographic surveys conducted every five years since 1968 by the National Statistics Office (NSO), which is one of the four statistical agencies comprising the newly created Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA). Fieldwork for the survey was carried out from August 12 to October 16, 2013 covering a national sample of approximately 15,000 households and more than 16,000 women aged 15 to 49 years. The 2013 NDHS was funded by the Government of the Philippines. The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) provided technical assistance through ICF International under the MEASURE Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program. PSA would like to express its deepest gratitude to the organizations and individuals who are behind the successful completion of the 2013 NDHS. National Scientist Dr. Mercedes B. Concepcion, the Department of Health (DOH), the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI), Commission on Population (POPCOM), PSA-National Statistical Coordination Board (PSA-NSCB), University of the Philippines School of Economics (UPEcon), the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI), the Population Commission (POPCOM), the Philippine Legislators’ Committee on Population Development (PLCPD), the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth), the Philippine Commission on Women (PCW), Breastfeeding Philippines (BF), Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS), and the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD) participated in the design of the questionnaires. PSA also extends its appreciation to the ICF International team and consultants: Dr. Elizabeth M. Go, for her technical assistance throughout the planning and implementation stages of the survey; David J. Megill, for the sampling design; Alexander Izmukhambetov and Jeanne Cushing for their assistance during data processing, Anne R. Cross and Dr. Gulnara Semenov, and Natalie La Roche for their valuable assistance in the preparation of the final report. Great appreciation is also due to the survey team of the former NSO for their hard work and dedication: the staff of the Demographic and Social Statistics Division of the Household Statistics Department (HSD) who worked tirelessly throughout all stages of the survey; selected staff of the Census Planning and Operations Division and the Income and Employment Statistics Division of HSD for their support during training and preparation of the report; the Information Resources Department for their assistance during data processing, the staff of the Regional and Provincial Offices for overseeing the data collection activities, and to the 70 interviewing teams composed of team supervisors, field editors and interviewers. Finally, the PSA is grateful to the survey respondents who patiently shared us their time and information. LISA GRACE S. BERSALES, PhD National Statistician Philippine Statistics Authority Millennium Development Goal Indicators • xv MILLENNIUM DEVELOPMENT GOAL INDICATORS Millennium Development Goal Indicators by sex Philippines 2013 Value Goal Female Male Total 4. Reduce child mortality 4.1 Under five mortality rate1 31 34 31 4.2 Infant mortality rate1 22 25 23 4.3 Proportion of 1 year-old children immunized against measles 84.9 82.8 83.9 5. Improve maternal health 5.2 Percentage of births attended by skilled health personnel2 na na 72.8 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate3 55.1 na na 5.4 Adolescent birth rate4 57.1 na na 5.5a Antenatal care coverage: at least one visit5 95.4 na na 5.5b Antenatal care coverage: four or more visits6 84.3 na na 5.6 Unmet need for family planning 17.5 na na 6. Combat HIV/AIDS, malaria and other diseases 6.2 Condom use at last high-risk sex7 8.1 na na Goal Urban Rural Total 7. Ensure environmental sustainability 7.8 Percentage of population using an improved drinking water source9 98.6 92.2 95.2 7.9 Percentage of population with access to improved sanitation10 73.7 66.8 70.1 na = Not applicable 1 Expressed in terms of deaths per 1,000 live births. Mortality by sex refers to a 10-year reference period preceding the survey. Mortality rates for males and females combined refer to the 5-year period preceding the survey. 2 Among births in the five years preceding the survey 3 Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 using any method of contraception 4 Equivalent to the age-specific fertility rate for women age 15-19 for the 3-year preceding the survey, expressed in terms of births per 1,000 women age 15-19 5 With a skilled provider 6 With any healthcare provider 7 Higher-risk sex refers to sexual intercourse with a non-marital, non-cohabitating partner. Expressed as a percentage of women age 15-24 who had higher-risk sex in the past 12 months. 8 Comprehensive knowledge means knowing that consistent use of a condom during sexual intercourse and having just one uninfected faithful partner can reduce the chance of getting the AIDS virus, knowing a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus, and rejecting the two most common local misconceptions about transmission or prevention of the AIDS virus. 9 Proportion whose main source of drinking water is a household connection (piped), public standpipe, borehole, protected dug well or spring, bottled water or rainwater collection. 10 Improved sanitation technologies are: flush toilet, ventilated improved pit latrine, traditional pit latrine with a slab, or composting toilet. xvi • Map of Philippines Introduction • 1 INTRODUCTION 1 1.1 BACKGROUND he Philippines lies strategically within the arc of nations that sweeps southeastward from mainland Asia to Australia. The country is bordered by the waters of the Bashi Channel to the north, the Sulu and Celebes Seas to the south, the Pacific Ocean to the east, and the South China Sea to the west. Its total land area of 300,000 km2, comprise 7,107 islands, of which about 3,144 islands are named. Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao are the three largest groups of islands. Luzon is the largest group situated in the north, covering 47 percent of the total land area; Mindanao, the second largest group is located in the south, covering 34 percent of the total land area; and the Visayas, the smallest group consisting of island provinces between Luzon and Mindanao, accounts for 19 percent of the country’s total land area. A total of 92.3 million Filipinos are residents as of May 1, 2010. The climate in the country is characterized by two distinct seasons, the wet and the dry. The rainy or wet season occurs across the land from June to November, while the cool and dry season starts from December to May. The Philippines has 17 administrative regions namely, Regions I-XIII, the National Capital Region (NCR) or Metro Manila, Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR), and the Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (ARMM). Region IV is divided into 2 regions—IVA and IVB. Each of these regions is composed of provinces, which are subdivided into cities, municipalities and barangays. The barangays are the smallest local government unit. National government offices are usually (but not always) concentrated in the regional centers and the seat of the provincial government is situated in each of the respective provinces. As of September 30, 2011, the country has 80 provinces, 137 cities, 1,496 municipalities and 41,946 barangays (NSO, 2013). The Philippines is the third fastest growing economy in Asia with a gross domestic product (GDP) of 7.2 percent in the last three years. Despite the so-called Priority Development Assistance Fund (PDAF) scam and the natural calamities such as the earthquake and Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan) that struck the country in 2013, the government is optimistic to sustain the country’s economic growth. The Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) is tasked with creating more jobs to expand operations, shelter, livelihood, infrastructure and social services nationwide, including the provinces devastated by the typhoon and earthquake. The Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD)is spearheading poverty alleviation programs, such as the Pantawid Pamilya Pilipino Program (4Ps) and the Kapit-Bisig Laban sa Kahirapan-Comprehensive and Integrated Delivery of Social Services (Kalahi-CIDSS), serving as indicators that the country is on a path towards fighting poverty (DSWD, 2014). Along with the Aquino government’s thrust of “daang matuwid” (right way/path), aiming for good governance and hastening growth and development for empowerment of its constituents, particularly Filipino women, the Department of Health (DOH) adopted and implemented health reforms to rapidly reduce maternal and newborn mortality. The Millennium Strategic Plan 2013-2017 (Development Goals Commitments by 2015) addresses and strengthens the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) 4 and 5 through the Maternal, Newborn, Child Health and Nutrition (MNCHN) Strategy. This is an integrated package of services to ensure equitable, accessible, and efficient health services to communities, through dynamic partnerships and shared advocacy, responsibility and accountability. The program’s guiding principle covers all stages of pregnancy to T 2 • Introduction ensure its vision of “Every woman, child and their families utilize quality health services in a continuum of care”. The Philippine National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) has been successfully conducted in the country every five years since 1968to monitor and evaluate the impact of population programs being implemented in the country. The 2013 NDHS is the tenth such survey. 1.2 OBJECTIVES OF THE SURVEY The 2013 NDHS is designed to provide information on fertility, family planning, and health in the country for use by the government in monitoring the progress of its programs on population, family planning and health. In particular, the 2013 NDHS has the following specific objectives: • Collect data which will allow the estimation of demographic rates, particularly fertility rates and under-five mortality rates by urban-rural residence and region. • Analyze the direct and indirect factors which determine the level and patterns of fertility. • Measure the level of contraceptive knowledge and practice by method, urban-rural residence, and region. • Collect data on health, immunizations, prenatal and postnatal check-ups, assistance at delivery, breastfeeding, and prevalence and treatment of diarrhea, fever and acute respiratory infections among children below five years old. • Collect data on environmental health, utilization of health facilities, health care financing, prevalence of common non-communicable and infectious diseases, and membership in the National Health Insurance Program (PhilHealth). • Collect data on awareness of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, dengue fever and tuberculosis. • Determine the knowledge of women about AIDS, and the extent of misconception on HIV transmission and access to HIV testing. • Determine the extent of violence against women. 1.3 ORGANIZATION OF THE SURVEY The 2013 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) was conducted by the Philippines National Statistics Office (NSO) from August 12, 2013 to September 24, 2013. The NSO is now merged with the National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB), Bureau of Agricultural Statistics (BAS), and the Bureau of Labor and Employment (BLES), by virtue of Republic Act (R.A.) 10625 known as the “Philippine Statistical Act of 2013”,to become the newly created Philippine Statistics Authority (PSA). Funding for the 2013 NDHS came from the Philippine government. Technical assistance was provided by ICF International through the MEASURE DHS program funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID). A series of consultative meetings on four different occasions were undertaken for the development of the survey instruments through consultation with stakeholders, academics, and foreign and local partner Introduction • 3 agencies. These meetings were chaired by the former NSO Administrator Carmelita N. Ericta and co-chaired by National Scientist Dr. Mercedes B. Concepcion. Participants included representatives from USAID, ICF International, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), the World Health Organization (WHO), the Department of Health (DOH), PSA-NSCB, the University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI), the PSA-NSO, the University of the Philippines School of Economics (UPSE), the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA), the Food and Nutrition Research Institute (FNRI), the Population Commission (POPCOM), the Philippine Legislators’ Committee on Population Development (PLCPD), the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (PhilHealth), the Philippine Commission on Women (PCW), Breastfeeding Philippines (BF), Philippine Institute for Development Studies (PIDS), and the Department of Social Welfare and Development (DSWD). The group identified and recommended survey items for inclusion in the survey questionnaires; the items were reviewed and approved together with representatives and consultants from the above-mentioned agencies, as well as by ICF. The Regional Directors (RDs) of the PSA-NSO’s Regional Statistical Offices were the overseers of field activities in their respective regions. The Provincial Statistics Officers (PSOs) were the implementers and field coordinators and were mainly responsible for the administrative aspects of the survey in their respective provinces. Meanwhile, the designated Regional Supervisors were responsible for the survey’s operations phase and mainly responsible for the teams in their region. 1.4 QUESTIONNAIRES The 2013 NDHS used three questionnaires: Household Questionnaire, Individual Woman’s Questionnaire, and Women’s Safety Module. The development of these questionnaires resulted from the solicited comments and suggestions during the deliberation in the consultative meetings and separate meetings conducted with the various agencies/organizations namely: PSA-NSO, POPCOM, DOH, FNRI, ICF International, NEDA, PCW, PhilHealth, PIDS, PLCPD, UNFPA, USAID, UPPI, UPSE, and WHO. The three questionnaires were translated from English into six major languages - Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Bicol, Hiligaynon, and Waray. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify female members of the sample household who were eligible for interview with the Individual Woman’s Questionnaire and the Women’s Safety Module. The Household Questionnaire was used to obtain the following information: • Usual members and visitors in the selected households • Background information on each person listed, such as relationship to head of the household, age, sex, and highest educational attainment • Health insurance coverage for each household member • Characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as the source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used for the floor, roof and walls of the house, and ownership of various durable goods (these items are used as proxy indicators of the household’s socioeconomic status) • Utilization of health facilities of household members The Individual Woman’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all women aged 15-49 years. These women were asked questions on the following topics: 4 • Introduction • Background characteristics (e.g., place of residence, age, marital status, education, employment status, religion and ethnic group) • Reproductive history • Knowledge and use of family planning methods • Pregnancy, postnatal care, and breastfeeding initiation • Child immunization and health of mothers and children • Marriage and sexual activity • Fertility preferences • Woman’s work and husband’s background characteristics • Awareness and behavior regarding HIV/AIDS • Other health issues The Women’s Safety Module was used to collect information on domestic violence in the country, its prevalence, severity and frequency from only one selected respondent from among all the eligible women who were identified from the Household Questionnaire. The module included the following topics: • Measures of physical, sexual and emotional violence • Women’s experience of violence since age 15 and recent violence in the 12 months preceding the survey • Violence during pregnancy • Marital control • Inter-spousal violence • Help-seeking behavior by women who have experienced violence 1.5 PRETEST Three pretests were conducted prior to finalizing the design and development of survey materials. The first pretest was conducted on March 27, 2013 in Barangay Talaba II, Bacoor, Cavite. It was aimed at checking the flow, clarity of questions, and the sustainability of the respondent’s attitude and motivation in answering the questions. The second pretest was carried out in San Jose del Monte, Bulacan Province on April 8-9, 2013, to see if the Tagalog translation of the questionnaire was suitably worded and also to improve the prescribed field operation procedures. The training for the pretests field staff took place in DSSD, NSO Central Office in Manila from April 2-5, 2013. For the third pretest, a trainer’s training was conducted on May 20, 24 and 25, 2013 in Mandaluyong City, participated in by selected central office personnel and field staff of Regions V, VII and VIII. In each of the pretest regions, a four-day training for interviewers was conducted prior to data collection. Pretest III involved five teams. Each of the four teams was composed of four interviewers, a field editor and a supervisor while the team from Region VII was composed of six interviewers and a team Introduction • 5 supervisor who also acted as field editor. All five teams had their respective observer from Central Office. The objective of the third pretest was to test the correctness and clarity of the translations of the NDHS questions into the five major languages- Ilocano, Bicol, Waray, Hiligaynon and Cebuano- in the regions where these dialects are spoken. 1.6 TRAINING AND FIELDWORK Training of the field staff was conducted in two levels. The first was the training of the Task Force for instructors, regional coordinators, and supervisors, and the second was the training of the interviewing teams. The Task Force training was conducted in Manila from July 15 to 26, 2013. Fifty-four persons participated as trainees: 35 from RSOs (consisting of Regional Statisticians and Team Supervisors), and 19 from the PSA- NSO Central Office. The trainers were staff of the Demographic and Social Statistics Division (DSSD) at PSA-NSO and guest lecturers and resource persons from the University of the Philippines Population Institute (UPPI), the Department of Health (DOH), the University of the Philippines School of Economics (UPEcon), and the Philippines Commission on Women (PCW). The second-level training took place from June 29 through August 10, 2013, in 17 regional training centers: NCR, CAR, I, II, III, IV-A, IV-B, V, VI, VII , VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, XIII (Caraga) and ARMM. Instructors in this training were members of the Task Force who were trained in the first level training. Data collection was carried out from August 12 through September 24, 2013, by 70 interviewing teams. A total of 284 field interviewers, 70 team supervisors and field editors, and 17 regional supervisors joined the workforce. However, due to the peace and order situation in Zamboanga City, the data collection in Region IX was extended up to October 16, 2013 to complete the survey. Each team consisted of a team supervisor, a field editor, and four female interviewers. 1.7 DATA PROCESSING All completed questionnaires and the control forms were returned to the PSA-NSO central office in Manila for data processing, which consisted of manual editing, data entry and verification, and editing of computer-identified errors. An ad-hoc group of thirteen regular employees from the DSSD, the Information Resources Department (IRD), and the Information Technology Operations Division (ITOD) of the NSO was created to work fulltime and oversee data processing operation in the NDHS Data Processing Center that was carried out at the NSO-CVEA Building in Quezon City, Philippines. This group was responsible for the different aspects of NDHS data processing. There were 19 data encoders hired to process the data who underwent training on September 12-13, 2013. Data entry started on September 16, 2013. The computer package program called Census and Survey Processing System (CSPro) was used for data entry, editing, and verification. Mr. Alexander Izmukhambetov, a data processing specialist from ICF International, spent two weeks at NSO in September 2013 to finalize the data entry program. Data processing was completed on December 6, 2013. 1.8 SAMPLE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION The sample selection methodology for the 2013 NDHS is based on a stratified two-stage sample design, using the 2010 Census of Population and Housing (CPH) as a frame. The first stage involved a systematic selection of 800 sample enumeration areas (EAs) distributed by stratum (region, urban/rural). In the second stage, 20 sample housing units were selected from each sample EA, using systematic random sampling. All households in the sampled housing units were interviewed. An EA is defined as an area with discern able 6 • Introduction boundaries consisting of contiguous households. The sample was designed to provide data representative of the country and its 17 administrative regions. For the 2013 NDHS sample, 16,732 households were selected, of which 14,893 were occupied (Table 1.1). Of these households, 14,804 were successfully interviewed, yielding a household response rate of 99.4 percent. The household response rates in urban and rural areas are almost identical. Among the households interviewed, 16,437 women were identified as eligible respondents, and the interviews were completed for 16,155 women, yielding a response rate of 98.3 percent. On the other hand, for the women’s safety module, from a total of 11,373 eligible women, 10,963 were interviewed with privacy, translating to a 96.4 percent response rate. At the individual level, urban and rural response rates showed no difference. The principal reason for non-response among women was the failure to find individuals at home, despite interviewers’ repeated visits to the household. Further details on the sample design and implementation are given in Appendix A. Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews, and response rates, according to residence (unweighted), Philippines 2013 Residence Total Result Urban Rural Household interviews Households selected 7,098 9,634 16,732 Households occupied 6,299 8,594 14,893 Households interviewed 6,251 8,553 14,804 Household response rate1 99.2 99.5 99.4 Interviews with women age 15-49 Number of eligible women 7,742 8,695 16,437 Number of eligible women interviewed 7,609 8,546 16,155 Eligible women response rate2 98.3 98.3 98.3 Women’s safety module interviews Number of eligible women 5,072 6,301 11,373 Number of eligible women interviewed 4,889 6,074 10,963 Women’s safety module response rate2 96.4 96.4 96.4 1 Households interviewed/households occupied 2 Respondents interviewed/eligible respondents Household Population and Household Characteristics • 7 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS 2 his chapter provides a summary of the socioeconomic characteristics of the household population, including household composition, source of drinking water, sanitation facility, housing characteristics, and possession of household assets. In addition, this chapter also describes the socio-demographic characteristics of the population, particularly their age, sex, and educational attainment. The 2013 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) provides valuable inputs for social and economic development planning. It is also useful for understanding and identifying the major factors that determine or influence the basic demographic indicators of the population. A household, as defined in the survey, refers to a person or group of persons who usually sleep in the same housing unit and have a common arrangement for the preparation and consumption of food. The Household Questionnaire used in the 2013 NDHS collected data on the demographic and social characteristics of the usual residents of the sample household (de jure population) as well as persons who stayed with the sample household the night before the interview (de facto population). The 2013 NDHS collected information on the household’s ownership of a number of consumer items, such as radio, television, or car, as well as on housing characteristics and sanitation facilities. The information on household assets was used to create an index representing the relative wealth of the households interviewed in the survey. T Key Findings • Almost all households in the Philippines (96 percent) use an improved source of drinking water. • Fifty-nine percent of households do not treat their water. • Seventy percent of households have improved toilet facilities that are not shared with other households. • Eighty-eight percent of households have electricity. • More than half (55 percent) of households own/amortize the lot they dwell on. • Over 3 in 5 households use solid fuel for cooking. Rural residents commonly use wood for cooking while LPG, natural gas or biogas is used by a majority of urban residents. • Urban households are more likely to own household effects than rural households. Eighty-four percent of households own a mobile telephone (91 and 78 percent for urban and rural households, respectively). • Nineteen percent of households are beneficiaries of the 4Ps or CCT program. • Education is widespread in the Philippines. Only 5 percent of the population age 6 and over have no formal education and around 40 percent have completed high school or have some college. 8 • Household Population and Household Characteristics 2.1 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS The physical characteristics of households are important indicators of health and of the general socioeconomic condition of the population. In the 2013 NDHS, respondents were asked about sources of drinking water and time taken to reach the nearest source, type of toilet facility, access to electricity, main housing materials, number of rooms used for sleeping in the dwelling, the place where cooking is done, and type of fuel used for cooking. Tables in this chapter show the percent distribution of households by housing characteristics according to urban-rural residence. 2.1.1 Drinking Water A major concern of health program managers is to control water-borne diseases. Safe drinking water is important for health and sanitation. Nationally, 96 percent of Filipino households have an improved source of drinking water (Table 2.1). Twenty-seven percent of households have water piped into the dwelling, yard, or plot as their main source of drinking water, while 37 percent drink mostly bottled water. Tube wells or boreholes are the main source of drinking water in rural areas (24 percent), while in urban areas the main source is water piped into the premises (31 percent). Table 2.1 Household drinking water Percent distribution of households and de jure population by source of drinking water, time to obtain drinking water, and treatment of drinking water, according to residence, Philippines 2013 Households Population Characteristic Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Source of drinking water Improved source 98.6 92.8 95.6 98.6 92.2 95.2 Piped into dwelling/yard/ plot 31.2 22.2 26.5 31.9 21.9 26.7 Public tap/standpipe 3.3 9.2 6.4 3.6 9.4 6.7 Tube well or borehole 8.6 23.7 16.5 8.8 23.5 16.5 Protected dug well 1.5 6.6 4.1 1.4 6.6 4.1 Semi-protected dug well 0.3 1.4 0.9 0.4 1.4 0.9 Protected spring 1.4 6.9 4.3 1.3 7.1 4.3 Rain water 0.1 0.6 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.4 Bottled water 52.2 22.3 36.6 51.0 21.6 35.7 Non-improved source 1.4 7.1 4.3 1.4 7.8 4.7 Unprotected dug well 0.3 2.4 1.3 0.3 2.6 1.5 Unprotected spring 0.9 3.9 2.5 1.0 4.3 2.7 Tanker truck/cart with drum 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.5 0.4 Surface water 0.1 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.2 Other source 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Time to obtain drinking water (round trip) Water on premises 37.0 41.3 39.2 38.0 40.7 39.4 Less than 30 minutes 59.7 50.7 55.0 58.7 51.0 54.7 30 minutes or longer 3.0 7.7 5.5 3.1 8.0 5.7 Don’t know/missing 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Water treatment prior to drinking1 Boiled 25.6 33.8 29.9 27.7 36.0 32.0 Bleach/chlorine added 0.5 2.0 1.3 0.5 2.1 1.3 Strained through cloth 6.5 11.4 9.1 6.7 11.8 9.3 Ceramic, sand or other filter 3.6 2.1 2.8 3.8 2.0 2.8 Solar disinfection 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 Other 2.8 4.5 3.7 2.9 4.5 3.7 No treatment 65.0 53.6 59.1 62.8 51.4 56.9 Percentage using an appropriate treatment method2 28.9 36.8 33.0 31.1 39.0 35.2 Number 7,104 7,700 14,804 33,607 36,493 70,100 1 Respondents may report multiple treatment methods so the sum of treatment may exceed 100 percent. 2 Appropriate water treatment methods include boiling, bleaching, filtering, and solar disinfecting. Household Population and Household Characteristics • 9 Households were additionally asked if they treat their water prior to drinking because drinking water, even from an improved source, may be contaminated during transport or storage. For 94 percent of households, their source of drinking water is either on their premises or is within 30 minutes to and from their residence. Treatment of water is not common in the Philippines; 59 percent of households do not do anything to treat their water to make it safer to drink. On the other hand, three out of ten households boil their water and 9 percent strain water through cloth (Table 2.1). Treatment of drinking water is more common among rural than urban households, presumably because fewer rural households get their water from an improved source. 2.1.2 Household Sanitation Facilities Hygienic treatment of human waste can have a positive impact on reducing disease and mortality. In the Philippines, seven in ten households use improved toilet facilities that are not shared with other households, while two in ten households use improved facilities that are shared (Table 2.2). Almost one in ten households uses a non-improved facility. The most common type of toilet is a flush toilet connected to a septic tank. This kind of toilet is most widely used in both urban and rural areas. The percentage of households having no toilet facility decreased from 10 percent in 2008 to 6 percent in 2013. Table 2.2 Household sanitation facilities Percent distribution of households and de jure population by type of toilet/latrine facilities, according to residence, Philippines 2013 Households Population Type of toilet/latrine facility Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Improved, not shared facility Flush/pour flush to piped sewer system 5.2 1.4 3.3 5.2 1.4 3.2 Flush/pour flush to septic tank 66.2 55.9 60.8 66.9 55.6 61.0 Flush/pour flush to pit latrine 1.0 6.3 3.7 1.1 6.8 4.0 Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine 0.1 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.4 Pit latrine with slab 0.4 2.1 1.3 0.4 2.4 1.4 Composting toilet 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 Total 72.9 66.4 69.6 73.7 66.8 70.1 Shared facility1 Flush/pour flush to piped sewer system 1.9 0.4 1.1 1.7 0.4 1.0 Flush/pour flush to septic tank 18.5 15.9 17.2 17.7 14.8 16.2 Flush/pour flush to pit latrine 0.7 2.7 1.8 0.7 2.7 1.8 Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.1 Pit latrine with slab 0.1 0.9 0.5 0.2 0.9 0.5 Total 21.3 20.1 20.7 20.3 19.1 19.7 Non-improved facility Flush/pour flush not to sewer/septic tank/pit latrine 1.7 0.5 1.1 1.7 0.5 1.1 Pit latrine without slab/open pit 0.3 2.2 1.3 0.4 2.4 1.4 Bucket 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Hanging toilet/hanging latrine 0.2 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.7 0.5 No facility/bush/field 2.9 9.0 6.1 3.1 9.3 6.3 Total 5.2 12.3 8.9 5.5 13.0 9.4 Public toilet 2 0.5 0.7 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.6 Other 0.0 0.4 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 7,104 7,700 14,804 33,607 36,493 70,100 1 Facilities that would be considered improved if they were not shared by two or more households. 2 It is not possible to determine if the public toilet is improved or non-improved. 10 • Household Population and Household Characteristics 2.1.3 Housing Characteristics Housing characteristics such as the type of building materials, presence of electricity, and tenure of status of the lot can be used as indicators of the socioeconomic condition of the household. As shown in Table 2.3, 88 percent of households in the country have electricity. There is an observed difference in the percentage of households with electricity in urban and rural areas: 94 percent of urban households have electricity, compared with only 82 percent of those in rural areas. There has been an increase in electrification, from 83 percent of households in 2008 to 88 percent in 2013. The increase is entirely due to an increase for rural households, from 72 percent in 2008 to 82 percent in 2013. Nationally, more than half of households (51 percent) have cement flooring. Urban households are more likely to have cement floors than rural households (55 and 48 percent, respectively). Ceramic tiles are used as flooring materials by 21 percent of households in urban areas. The overwhelming majority of households in the Philippines have roofs made of galvanized iron or aluminum (87 percent), while only 8 percent have roofs made of thatch or palm leaf (Nipa). Six in every ten households have walls made of cement or cement or hollow blocks, with both being more common in urban than in rural households. Tenure of status of the lot is a basic measure of housing security. Over half of households in the country (55 percent) own or are amortizing the lot they occupy, while 31 percent occupy their lots rent-free with the consent of the owner, and 12 percent are renting their lots. Two percent of the households are occupying their lots rent-free, without the consent of the owner. Figure 2.1 provides an overview of some of the indicators related to housing characteristics. Table 2.3 Housing characteristics Percent distribution of households by presence of electricity, housing materials, and tenure status, according to residence, Philippines 2013 Residence Total Housing characteristic Urban Rural Electricity Yes 94.1 81.5 87.5 No 5.9 18.4 12.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Main flooring material Earth, sand 4.5 13.3 9.1 Wood planks 7.5 9.2 8.4 Palm, bamboo 3.8 15.5 9.9 Parquet, polished wood 0.9 0.5 0.7 Vinyl or asphalt strips 6.8 3.1 4.9 Ceramic tiles 20.5 9.6 14.8 Cement 54.6 48.1 51.2 Carpet 0.2 0.1 0.2 Marble 1.2 0.4 0.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Main roof material Thatch, palm leaf (nipa) 2.9 13.0 8.2 Sod, grass (cogon) 0.5 3.3 2.0 Palm, bamboo 0.3 1.7 1.0 Wood planks 0.2 0.1 0.1 Makeshift, cardboard 0.2 0.1 0.1 Galvanized iron, aluminum 93.6 80.4 86.7 Wood 0.3 0.1 0.2 Calamine, cement fiber 0.4 0.1 0.3 Ceramic tiles 0.1 0.0 0.1 Cement 1.2 0.8 1.0 Roofing shingles 0.2 0.3 0.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Main wall material Cane, palm, trunks 0.6 3.6 2.2 Bamboo 7.0 22.5 15.1 Plywood 10.3 7.1 8.6 Makeshift, cardboard, reused materials 1.3 1.1 1.2 Cement 35.3 23.6 29.2 Stone with lime, cement 1.6 0.6 1.1 Bricks 0.2 0.2 0.2 Cement/hollow blocks 36.9 26.4 31.4 Wood planks, shingles 5.5 13.3 9.6 Galvanized iron, aluminium 0.8 1.2 1.0 Other/Missing 0.3 0.4 0.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Tenure status of lot Owned, being amortized 52.7 56.9 54.9 Rented 19.3 5.0 11.8 Rent-free with owner consent 24.8 36.4 30.8 Rent-free without owner consent 3.1 1.6 2.3 Missing 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 7,104 7,700 14,804 Household Population and Household Characteristics • 11 Figure 2.1 Housing amenities by urban-rural residence The number of persons in the household and the number of rooms used for sleeping are important indicators of the extent of crowding, which can have unfavorable effects on health. As shown in Table 2.4, about two in five households use only one rooms for sleeping, while the same proportion uses two rooms for sleeping and about 1 in 5 households uses three or more rooms for sleeping. There are no significant differences in the number of rooms used for sleeping in urban or rural households. Information on the type of fuel used for cooking and the place where cooking is done can be used as indicators of the socioeconomic status of the household. The location of the place where food is prepared—whether the kitchen is in the house, in a separate building or outdoor— provides an indication of the air quality inside and around the dwelling. The use of certain cooking fuels causes pollution and can have adverse consequences on health and the environment. Smoke from solid fuels is a serious health hazard, particularly for people with respiratory disorders. 94 99 73 55 82 93 66 48 88 96 70 51 With electricity With improved source for drinking water With flush toilet, not shared With cement flooring Urban Rural Total Table 2.4 Household characteristics Percent distribution of households by rooms used for sleeping, cooking characteristics, and percentage using solid fuel for cooking, according to residence, Philippines 2013 Residence TotalHousing characteristic Urban Rural Rooms used for sleeping One 37.6 37.2 37.4 Two 37.9 41.9 40 Three or more 23.7 20 21.8 Missing 0.8 0.9 0.9 Total 100 100 100 Place for cooking In the house 77.7 72.4 74.9 In a separate building 5 9.4 7.3 Outdoors 16.5 17.8 17.2 No food cooked in household 0.8 0.3 0.5 Total 100 100 100 Cooking fuel Electricity 2.2 0.6 1.4 LPG/natural gas/ biogas 55.9 17.8 36.1 Kerosene 2.4 0.1 1.2 Charcoal 16.2 14.2 15.1 Wood 22.4 65.5 44.8 Agricultural crop 0.1 1.3 0.7 No food cooked in house 0.8 0.3 0.5 Missing 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100 100 100 Percentage using solid fuel for cooking1 38.7 81.1 60.8 Number 7,104 7,700 14,804 LPG = Liquid petroleum gas 1 Includes charcoal, wood, and agricultural crops Percentage of Households NDHS 2013 12 • Household Population and Household Characteristics Table 2.4 shows that more than three in five households use solid fuel for cooking, mostly wood (45 percent) and charcoal (15 percent). Thirty-six percent of households use liquid petroleum gas (LPG), natural gas or biogas. Use of wood for cooking is most common in rural areas, while use of LPG, natural gas or biogas is more common in urban areas. The majority (75 percent) of households cook inside the house. This practice is common in both urban and rural households (78 and 72 percent, respectively). 2.2 HOUSEHOLD POSSESSIONS In the 2013 NDHS, information on the possession of selected durable consumer goods was collected at the household level. The percentage of households possessing various durable goods and various means of transportation is shown in Table 2.5. More than eight in ten households own a mobile telephone, while three-quarters have a television. Over half of households have a radio, and half have a CD/VCD or DVD player. Only 40 percent of households have a refrigerator, while one-third have a washing machine and about one-quarter have karaoke components and personal computers. Very few households (8 percent) have landline telephones. There are differences between ownership of durable goods among households in urban and rural areas, with urban households more likely to own each of the designated household effects than rural households. Ownership of radios has declined from 65 percent in 2008 to 57 percent in 2013, with the decline occurring in both urban and rural households, while television ownership increased in rural households from 58 percent to 65 percent. Between 2008 and 2013, ownership of mobile telephones and personal computers/laptops increased by 14 and 10 percentage points, respectively. With regard to means of transport, 30 percent of households own a motorcycle or tricycle, while 20 percent own a bicycle or trisikad. Only 9 percent of Filipino households own a car or truck. Urban households are more likely to own cars/trucks, jeeps or vans and bicycles or trisikad/pedicab than rural households. Ownership of motorcycles and tricycles increased from 22 percent of households in 2008 to 30 percent in 2013, with the increase occuring among both urban and rural households. Nineteen percent of households are beneficiaries of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) or the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program. There are more beneficiaries from rural residences than from urban residences (27 and 11 percent, respectively). 2.3 WEALTH INDEX Information on household assets was used to create an index that is used throughout this report to represent the wealth of the households interviewed in the 2013 NDHS. This method for calculating the country-specific wealth index was developed and tested in a large number of countries in relation to inequalities in household income, use of health services, and health outcomes (Rutstein and Johnson, 2004). It has been shown to be consistent with expenditure and income measures. Table 2.5 Household possessions Percentage of households possessing various household effects, means of transportation, and participation in government support programs, by residence, Philippines 2013 Residence Total Possession Urban Rural Household effects Radio 62.4 52.3 57.2 Television 85.3 65.4 75.0 Landline, wireless 13.4 3.2 8.1 Mobile telephone 90.9 77.5 83.9 Washing machine 47.1 21.9 34.0 Refrigerator, freezer 51.1 29.7 40.0 CD, VCD, DVD player 60.5 39.8 49.7 Component, karaoke 32.0 17.9 24.7 Personal computer, laptop 32.5 14.0 22.9 Means of transport Bicycle, trisikad (pedicab) 21.2 18.3 19.7 Animal drawn cart 1.2 4.4 2.8 Motorcycle, tricycle 28.9 30.3 29.6 Car/truck, jeep, van 11.5 5.8 8.5 Tractor 1.4 2.3 1.9 Non-motorized boat or banca 0.7 2.8 1.8 Boat or banca with a motor 0.7 3.0 1.9 Beneficiary of 4Ps or CCT1 10.9 27.1 19.3 Number 7,104 7,700 14,804 1 Refers to whether the household or any member of the household is a beneficiary of the Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program (4Ps) or the Conditional Cash Transfer (CCT) program of the government. Household Population and Household Characteristics • 13 The wealth index is constructed using household asset data, including ownership of consumer items ranging from a television to a bicycle or car, as well as dwelling characteristics, such as source of drinking water, sanitation facilities, and type of flooring material. In its current form, which takes better account of urban-rural differences in the indicators of wealth, the wealth index is created in three steps. In the first step, a subset of indicators common to both in urban and rural areas is used to create wealth scores for households in both areas. Categorical variables to be used are transformed into separate dichotomous (0-1) indicators. These indicators and those that are continuous are then analyzed using principal components analysis to produce a common factor score for each household. In a second step, separate factor scores are produced for households in urban and in rural areas using area-specific indicators (Rutstein, 2008). The third step combines the separate area-specific factor scores to produce a nationally applicable combined wealth index by adjusting the area- specific score through regression on the common factor scores. This three-step procedure permits greater adaptability of the wealth index in both urban and rural areas. The resulting combined wealth index has a mean of zero and a standard deviation of one, and once it is obtained, national-level wealth quintiles are obtained by assigning the household score to each de jure household member, ranking each person in the population by their score and then dividing the ranking into five equal parts, from quintile one (lowest-poorest) to quintile five (highest-wealthiest), each having approximately 20 percent of the population. Table 2.6 shows the distribution of the population by wealth quintile, according to urban-rural residence and region. As expected, urban residents are more likely to be in the higher wealth quintiles, while rural residents are more commonly found in the lower wealth quintiles. Among regions, NCR, CALABARZON and Central Luzon have the largest proportions of population in the two highest quintiles. In contrast, ARMM, Zamboanga Peninsula and MIMAROPA have the largest proportions in the lowest wealth quintile. Table 2.6 Wealth quintiles Percent distribution of the de jure population by wealth quintiles, and the Gini Coefficient, according to residence and region, Philippines 2013 Wealth quintile Total Number of persons Gini coefficient Residence/region Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Residence Urban 7.2 14.0 21.3 27.6 29.9 100.0 33,607 0.15 Rural 31.8 25.6 18.7 13.0 10.9 100.0 36,493 0.28 Region National Capital Region 1.0 9.0 22.4 31.3 36.4 100.0 10,440 0.13 Cordillera Admin Region 12.0 21.8 20.5 24.2 21.5 100.0 1,232 0.24 I - Ilocos Region 13.2 28.1 21.4 19.5 17.9 100.0 3,526 0.21 II - Cagayan Valley 19.1 25.5 20.9 18.7 15.8 100.0 2,512 0.25 III - Central Luzon 6.2 14.7 24.6 26.5 28.0 100.0 7,611 0.17 IVA - CALABARZON 5.2 13.9 20.1 29.1 31.8 100.0 9,387 0.16 IVB - MIMAROPA 36.5 23.1 22.1 11.2 7.1 100.0 1,825 0.29 V - Bicol 31.3 26.7 19.3 11.3 11.5 100.0 3,900 0.31 VI - Western Visayas 31.6 24.9 20.7 12.4 10.4 100.0 5,004 0.28 VII - Central Visayas 23.0 24.5 20.6 15.6 16.3 100.0 4,785 0.26 VIII - Eastern Visayas 25.3 31.3 16.7 15.5 11.2 100.0 2,812 0.26 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 38.5 25.6 16.2 10.3 9.3 100.0 2,918 0.30 X - Northern Mindanao 33.1 25.0 16.1 14.6 11.1 100.0 3,200 0.29 XI - Davao 31.0 20.3 16.9 16.1 15.7 100.0 3,615 0.28 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 35.2 26.1 17.7 14.3 6.7 100.0 3,327 0.29 XIII - Caraga 31.1 25.8 21.5 12.4 9.2 100.0 1,917 0.27 ARMM 73.1 17.2 6.2 2.0 1.5 100.0 2,087 0.29 Total 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 70,100 0.22 Also included in Table 2.5 is the Gini coefficient, which indicates concentration of wealth, with 0 being an equal distribution and 1 a totally unequal distribution. The figures indicate that the economic status of urban households is more equal or homogeneous compared to rural households. Between regions, it can be observed that urbanized areas like NCR, Central Luzon and CALABARZON have less economic inequality of 14 • Household Population and Household Characteristics economic status among households (0.13, 0.17 and 0.16, respectively). Meanwhile, Bicol region (0.31) and Zamboanga Peninsula (0.30) have greater inequality in the distribution of household wealth. 2.4 HOUSEHOLD COMPOSITION Information on the distribution of the households by selected background characteristics such as household headship, sex, and household size is useful for several reasons. For example, female-headed households are often found to be poorer than male-headed households. The size and composition of the household influence the allocation of limited resources and affect the living condition of individuals in the household. Information on the size and composition of the sample households by urban-rural residence is presented in Table 2.7. Nineteen percent of households are headed by women. The proportion of female-headed households is higher among households in urban areas than in rural areas (22 and 17 percent, respectively). The proportion of households headed by women has been increasing gradually over time, from 15 percent in 2003 to 17 percent in 2008 and 19 percent in 2013. On average, a household is composed of 4.7 persons, and the figure is the same in urban and rural areas. 2.5 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION BY AGE AND SEX Age and sex are important demographic variables and are the primary basis of demographic classification in vital statistics, censuses and surveys. They are also important variables in the study of mortality, fertility, and nuptiality. In general, the presentation of indicators according to sex is useful for analysis. The 2013 NDHS collected information on a total of 67,429 persons. This number is almost equally divided between males and females, and the overall sex ratio (number of males per 100 females) is 99. The sex ratio differs by residence; it is lower in urban areas than in rural areas (95 and 103, respectively) (Table 2.8). The proportion of the population below age 15 years is larger in rural than in urban areas (37 and 32 percent, respectively), indicating a younger age structure for the rural population. Figure 2.2 shows the proportion under age 15 has declined somewhat over the past five years, leading to a narrowing of the base of the population pyramid. There has been a gradual decline in the proportion of the overall population under age 15, from 38 percent in 2003 to 36 percent in 2008 and to 34 percent in 2013. Table 2.7 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household and by household size and mean size of household, according to residence, Philippines 2013 Residence Characteristic Urban Rural Total Household headship Male 78.4 83.5 81.1 Female 21.6 16.5 18.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members 0 0.2 0.1 0.2 1 4.6 5.2 4.9 2 9.8 10.5 10.2 3 15.9 14.9 15.3 4 20.7 19.7 20.2 5 17.3 17.1 17.2 6 13.1 12.8 12.9 7 8.0 8.2 8.1 8 4.3 5.4 4.8 9+ 6.1 6.1 6.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean size of households 4.7 4.7 4.7 Number of households 7,104 7,700 14,804 Note: Table is based on de jure household members, i.e., usual residents. Household Population and Household Characteristics • 15 Table 2.8 Household population by age, sex, and residence Percent distribution of the de facto household population by five-year age groups, according to sex and residence, Philippines 2013 Urban Rural Male Female Total Age Male Female Total Male Female Total <5 11.1 9.6 10.3 11.8 11.4 11.6 11.5 10.5 11.0 5-9 11.5 10.1 10.8 12.5 12.7 12.6 12.0 11.4 11.7 10-14 11.1 10.5 10.8 12.4 12.4 12.4 11.8 11.5 11.7 15-19 10.4 10.5 10.5 10.8 9.2 10.0 10.7 9.8 10.2 20-24 9.7 9.4 9.6 8.1 7.2 7.7 8.9 8.3 8.6 25-29 7.7 7.4 7.6 5.9 5.8 5.9 6.8 6.6 6.7 30-34 7.1 7.6 7.4 6.1 6.0 6.1 6.6 6.8 6.7 35-39 6.2 6.1 6.1 5.6 5.8 5.7 5.9 6.0 5.9 40-44 5.8 6.1 6.0 5.8 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.8 5.8 45-49 5.0 5.7 5.4 4.8 5.3 5.1 4.9 5.5 5.2 50-54 4.7 4.9 4.8 4.9 4.9 4.9 4.8 4.9 4.9 55-59 3.4 3.8 3.6 3.4 4.0 3.7 3.4 3.9 3.7 60-64 2.7 3.2 3.0 2.8 3.2 3.0 2.8 3.2 3.0 65-69 1.5 1.9 1.7 1.8 2.2 2.0 1.6 2.0 1.8 70-74 0.9 1.3 1.1 1.4 1.7 1.6 1.2 1.5 1.3 75-79 0.5 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.3 1.0 0.7 1.1 0.9 80 + 0.4 0.9 0.7 0.8 1.3 1.1 0.6 1.1 0.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 15,797 16,657 32,454 17,743 17,233 34,975 33,540 33,890 67,429 Figure 2.2 Population pyramid 7 5 3 1 1 3 5 7 < 5 5 - 9 10 - 14 15 - 19 20 - 24 25 - 29 30 - 34 35 - 39 40 - 44 45 - 49 50 - 54 55 - 59 60 - 64 65 - 69 70 - 74 75 - 79 80 + Male Female Percent of total population NDHS 2013 16 • Household Population and Household Characteristics 2.6 EDUCATION OF HOUSEHOLD POPULATION Studies show that education is one of the major socioeconomic factors that influence a person’s behavior and attitudes. In general, better-educated women are more knowledgeable about the use of health facilities, family planning methods, and the health of their children. Education is highly valued by Filipino families. This is reflected in the country’s constitution, which states that education up to the high school level is a basic right of all Filipino children. Furthermore, in September 2000, the United Nations General Assembly encouraged all member countries to achieve a set of Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), including Goal 2, which is aimed at achieving universal primary education and gender equity by 2015. Information on the highest level of education attained or completed by the population age six and over, according to selected background characteristics, is presented in Tables 2.9.1 and 2.9.2 for females and males, respectively. Table 2.9.1 Educational attainment of the female household population Percent distribution of the de facto female household population age six and over by highest level of schooling attended or completed and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic No educa- tion Some elementary Completed elementary1 Some high school Completed high school2 College or higher3 Don’t know/ missing Total Number Median years completed Age 6-9 30.1 69.3 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 3,047 0.7 10-14 0.8 53.2 20.5 24.8 0.5 0.1 0.1 100.0 3,894 4.8 15-19 0.9 5.0 5.0 40.4 28.6 20.1 0.0 100.0 3,329 8.9 20-24 0.8 4.2 5.5 12.0 32.3 45.1 0.1 100.0 2,815 9.9 25-29 1.2 6.1 7.4 12.2 32.5 40.7 0.0 100.0 2,237 9.7 30-34 1.7 6.5 7.9 12.7 32.2 39.0 0.0 100.0 2,314 9.7 35-39 1.5 9.3 10.7 12.4 31.4 34.7 0.1 100.0 2,019 9.5 40-44 2.1 10.6 14.6 12.6 29.6 30.5 0.1 100.0 1,981 9.3 45-49 2.7 11.5 17.1 12.8 26.1 29.8 0.0 100.0 1,854 9.2 50-54 2.8 14.6 19.2 11.5 22.8 29.1 0.0 100.0 1,659 9.1 55-59 2.6 16.1 25.2 13.7 18.0 24.3 0.1 100.0 1,322 7.4 60-64 3.9 19.7 26.3 11.3 16.2 22.4 0.2 100.0 1,077 6.0 65+ 7.6 29.9 28.3 8.0 11.0 14.9 0.2 100.0 1,971 5.4 Residence Urban 4.0 17.7 10.4 15.1 23.1 29.7 0.1 100.0 14,711 9.1 Rural 5.9 27.1 15.2 16.2 18.1 17.5 0.1 100.0 14,810 6.3 Region National Capital Region 2.9 14.3 8.3 13.5 27.2 33.6 0.1 100.0 4,770 9.4 Cordillera Admin Region 7.2 18.7 10.5 13.6 15.0 34.9 0.2 100.0 497 9.0 I - Ilocos Region 3.2 19.7 14.6 15.4 24.1 22.9 0.0 100.0 1,413 8.5 II - Cagayan Valley 4.1 25.5 13.6 14.6 17.9 24.1 0.2 100.0 1,010 7.4 III - Central Luzon 4.2 18.9 15.5 15.6 23.1 22.6 0.1 100.0 3,127 8.2 IVA - CALABARZON 3.4 18.1 12.4 14.8 26.0 25.2 0.1 100.0 4,067 9.0 IVB - MIMAROPA 7.3 28.2 17.7 17.2 12.2 17.3 0.1 100.0 770 5.8 V - Bicol 4.5 24.8 18.2 16.7 16.5 19.3 0.1 100.0 1,573 6.4 VI - Western Visayas 4.1 26.6 13.2 16.0 18.6 21.4 0.0 100.0 2,027 7.2 VII - Central Visayas 5.6 27.6 12.5 16.0 16.5 21.8 0.1 100.0 1,987 6.9 VIII - Eastern Visayas 3.9 27.4 14.9 17.1 15.3 21.4 0.0 100.0 1,138 6.7 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 6.3 27.4 13.7 19.5 14.2 18.9 0.0 100.0 1,273 6.5 X - Northern Mindanao 7.4 26.8 12.6 16.1 16.1 21.0 0.1 100.0 1,335 6.7 XI - Davao 5.3 26.1 11.4 16.2 19.4 21.6 0.1 100.0 1,539 7.4 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 8.0 26.3 12.0 18.0 17.8 17.7 0.1 100.0 1,339 6.8 XIII - Caraga 4.6 26.6 14.9 17.4 16.6 19.8 0.1 100.0 802 6.6 ARMM 19.2 34.9 10.9 13.8 11.0 9.8 0.3 100.0 853 4.3 Wealth quintile Lowest 11.5 41.1 16.2 16.6 11.4 3.1 0.1 100.0 5,280 4.7 Second 5.6 28.0 16.4 20.0 20.2 9.7 0.1 100.0 5,545 6.0 Middle 3.4 20.6 14.7 17.6 26.1 17.6 0.1 100.0 5,774 8.0 Fourth 3.1 15.1 11.1 14.3 25.7 30.6 0.1 100.0 6,234 9.2 Highest 2.4 11.5 7.1 10.7 18.5 49.7 0.1 100.0 6,688 10.0 Total 5.0 22.4 12.8 15.6 20.5 23.6 0.1 100.0 29,520 7.9 Note: Totals include 2 women with age missing 1 Completed grade 6 at the primary level 2 Completed 4th year at the secondary level 3 Includes all post-secondary Household Population and Household Characteristics • 17 Table 2.9.2 Educational attainment of the male household population Percent distribution of the de facto male household population age six and over by highest level of schooling attended or completed and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic No educa- tion Some elementary Completed elementary1 Some high school Completed high school2 College or higher3 Don’t know/ missing Total Number Median years completed Age 6-9 32.5 67.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 3,186 0.6 10-14 1.7 60.6 18.8 18.1 0.6 0.1 0.2 100.0 3,969 4.4 15-19 1.5 13.1 10.1 38.4 23.7 13.2 0.0 100.0 3,572 8.2 20-24 1.2 10.3 8.4 15.8 29.2 35.1 0.0 100.0 2,971 9.5 25-29 1.9 11.9 9.1 14.7 28.1 34.4 0.0 100.0 2,271 9.4 30-34 0.9 13.2 9.8 13.6 30.8 31.6 0.1 100.0 2,198 9.4 35-39 1.6 16.1 11.1 13.7 27.9 29.4 0.1 100.0 1,976 9.3 40-44 2.1 16.6 15.8 12.6 25.7 27.1 0.1 100.0 1,950 9.1 45-49 2.6 18.1 15.6 12.1 25.4 26.2 0.1 100.0 1,655 9.1 50-54 2.4 18.3 16.3 10.9 23.0 28.9 0.2 100.0 1,625 9.1 55-59 2.6 21.6 20.6 10.0 20.4 24.7 0.1 100.0 1,150 7.7 60-64 3.0 23.3 23.8 9.4 19.5 20.7 0.2 100.0 928 6.0 65+ 4.8 32.4 21.6 9.2 12.4 19.3 0.3 100.0 1,373 5.6 Residence Urban 4.5 21.9 9.7 14.9 22.3 26.6 0.1 100.0 13,633 8.8 Rural 6.0 33.1 14.9 15.8 16.1 14.0 0.1 100.0 15,194 5.7 Region National Capital Region 3.4 17.2 7.6 13.9 26.4 31.4 0.1 100.0 4,246 9.3 Cordillera Admin Region 4.9 27.6 10.0 14.4 17.1 25.9 0.1 100.0 498 7.4 I - Ilocos Region 4.5 21.8 14.1 13.5 25.5 20.7 0.0 100.0 1,479 8.0 II - Cagayan Valley 4.4 30.7 13.6 15.1 15.9 20.0 0.2 100.0 1,060 6.2 III - Central Luzon 4.2 23.0 14.9 16.7 22.3 18.8 0.2 100.0 3,113 7.4 IVA - CALABARZON 4.5 19.4 11.1 15.2 25.3 24.4 0.1 100.0 3,738 8.9 IVB - MIMAROPA 6.0 35.2 16.0 18.1 12.4 12.2 0.2 100.0 740 5.5 V - Bicol 4.6 30.1 17.9 17.9 14.6 14.9 0.1 100.0 1,589 5.9 VI - Western Visayas 4.9 34.2 12.7 14.7 16.9 16.4 0.1 100.0 2,061 5.9 VII - Central Visayas 4.9 34.4 12.2 14.1 15.2 19.1 0.1 100.0 1,988 5.9 VIII - Eastern Visayas 5.3 37.2 13.2 17.0 13.2 14.0 0.1 100.0 1,186 5.6 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 6.7 33.7 14.6 17.2 11.4 16.1 0.2 100.0 1,202 5.6 X - Northern Mindanao 6.7 35.9 11.4 16.5 14.8 14.4 0.2 100.0 1,390 5.6 XI - Davao 6.6 33.9 12.2 14.4 14.2 18.5 0.1 100.0 1,463 5.8 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 8.0 31.7 13.0 17.3 15.4 14.6 0.1 100.0 1,401 5.8 XIII - Caraga 5.3 32.9 15.0 16.3 14.5 15.8 0.1 100.0 812 5.8 ARMM 16.1 44.9 11.1 10.4 9.8 7.4 0.2 100.0 863 3.6 Wealth quintile Lowest 10.6 49.7 15.3 13.5 8.3 2.5 0.1 100.0 5,895 4.0 Second 5.5 33.9 16.7 18.8 17.8 7.1 0.1 100.0 6,015 5.6 Middle 4.0 23.5 14.3 18.6 24.7 14.7 0.2 100.0 5,881 7.4 Fourth 3.2 17.5 9.1 14.6 27.4 28.2 0.1 100.0 5,673 9.2 Highest 2.8 12.8 5.9 10.7 17.1 50.5 0.1 100.0 5,364 10.1 Total 5.3 27.8 12.4 15.3 19.0 19.9 0.1 100.0 28,828 6.9 Note: Totals include 3 men with age missing 1 Completed grade 6 at the primary level 2 Completed 4th year at the secondary level 3 Includes all post-secondary The results of the 2013 NDHS indicate that the vast majority of the population has some formal education. Among females and males aged six years and over, only around 5 percent have no formal education, while about two in five attended or completed elementary education, more than three in ten attended or completed high school, and more than one in five attended or completed college or some other form of higher education. Women tend to have slightly more schooling than men, with a median of 8 years of school, compared to only 7 for men. There are substantial differences in education attainment between urban and rural population. Urban residents are more likely to have completed high school or higher education than rural residents. This finding likely reflects better access to education facilities by urban residents than by rural residents because colleges and universities are more likely to be situated in cities and urbanized areas. 18 • Household Population and Household Characteristics The distribution of population by highest level of education completed varies substantially among the regions of the country (Figure 2.3). Residents of the National Capital Region (NCR), and CALABARZON and women in CAR tend to have more years of education than residents in the rest of the country. The median years of schooling in these regions is 9 or more years, compared with only 5 to 7 years in most of the other regions. Residents of the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM) have the lowest median duration of schooling which is 4 years for both men and women. Figure 2.3 Median years of schooling by sex and region 3.6 5.8 5.8 5.8 5.6 5.6 5.6 5.9 5.9 5.9 5.5 8.9 7.4 6.2 8.0 7.4 9.3 9.4 ARMM XIII - Caraga XII - SOCCSKSARGEN XI - Davao X - Northern Mindanao IX - Zamboanga Peninsula VIII - Eastern Visayas VII - Central Visayas VI - Western Visayas V- Bicol IVB - MIMAROPA IVA - CALABARZON III - Central Luzon II - Cagayan Valley I - Ilocos Region Cordillera Admin Region National Capital Region Female Male Note: De facto household population age six and over NDHS 2013 Characteristics of Respondents • 19 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS 3 he purpose of this chapter is to provide a demographic and socio economic profile of women aged 15-49 in the Philippines. Background information about each respondent such as age, marital status, residence, education, literacy, access to media and employment status was gathered in the 2013 NDHS. This information will help in understanding factors that affect reproductive behavior, contraceptive use and other health practices of women. 3.1 CHARACTERISTICS OF WOMEN RESPONDENTS Table 3.1 shows the background characteristics of women respondents aged 15-49 such as age, religion, ethnic group, marital status, residence, region, education and wealth quintile. Results of the survey show that over half of the women respondent aged 15-49 (51 percent) are under age 30. Three out of five respondents are either married or living together with a man. Over one-third are never married (35 percent), while the remaining 5 percent are either divorced, separated or widowed. Four out of 5 respondents are Roman Catholic (79 percent); much lower proportions are Muslim (6 percent) and Protestant (5 percent). Tagalog is the predominant ethnic group of the respondents (35 percent). This was followed by Cebuano (19 percent), Ilonggo (9 percent), Ilocano (8 percent) and Bicolano (6 percent). Tausog and Maranao, Muslim ethnic groups, together comprise three percent of respondents. T Key Findings • Over half of women age 15 to 49 are under 30 years old. • Three out of five women aged 15 to 49 are married or living together with a man. • Only one percent of women age 15-49 have no formal education. • Almost three in women aged 15-49 (58 percent) were born in the barrios. • Three in ten women check email or surf the internet at least once a week. Younger women access the internet more than older women. • Almost 3 out of 5 women aged 15-49 (57 percent) were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey. • The proportion of women employed in sales and services occupations (18 percent) has decreased since 2008 (30 percent). • One out of ten employed women aged 15-49 receive no pay for their work. • There has been a sharp decline in the proportion of women not covered by any health insurance, from 57 percent in 2008 to 38 percent in 2013. • Only 6 percent of women aged 15-49 use tobacco products. 20 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by selected background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Weighted percent Weighted number Unweighted number Age 15-19 20.0 3,237 3,261 20-24 17.3 2,789 2,809 25-29 13.3 2,156 2,171 30-34 13.9 2,250 2,206 35-39 12.2 1,976 1,974 40-44 11.9 1,924 1,916 45-49 11.3 1,823 1,818 Religion Roman Catholic 78.6 12,702 12,078 Protestant 5.1 817 894 Iglesia Ni Kristo 3.0 481 466 Aglipay 0.8 122 123 Islam 5.5 881 1,346 Other 7.0 1,132 1,228 None 0.0 3 4 Ethnic group Tagalog 35.2 5,691 4,571 Cebuano 19.1 3,086 3,168 Ilocano 7.8 1,257 1,406 Ilonggo 8.6 1,384 1,346 Bicolano 5.5 886 827 Waray 3.3 532 518 Kapampangan 2.3 379 309 Maranao 1.4 225 361 Tausog 1.3 212 351 Other 15.4 2,495 3,291 Missing 0.0 7 7 Marital status Never married 34.8 5,615 5,512 Married 45.8 7,392 7,645 Living together 14.5 2,336 2,221 Divorced/separated 3.6 588 547 Widowed 1.4 223 230 Residence Urban 53.1 8,585 7,609 Rural 46.9 7,570 8,546 Region National Capital Region 18.1 2,924 2,249 Cordillera Admin Region 1.6 252 672 I - Ilocos Region 4.3 691 708 II - Cagayan Valley 3.4 550 694 III - Central Luzon 10.6 1,720 1,380 IVA - CALABARZON 14.2 2,293 1,590 IVB - MIMAROPA 2.3 372 576 V - Bicol 4.9 798 796 VI - Western Visayas 6.2 996 930 VII - Central Visayas 6.4 1,030 957 VIII - Eastern Visayas 3.5 571 592 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 4.5 725 936 X - Northern Mindanao 4.3 697 699 XI - Davao 5.5 893 898 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 4.6 744 754 XIII - Caraga 2.7 435 803 ARMM 2.9 465 921 Education No education 1.2 188 248 Elementary 16.1 2,593 2,819 High school 49.0 7,916 7,747 College 33.8 5,458 5,341 Wealth quintile Lowest 16.2 2,620 3,194 Second 17.9 2,886 3,087 Middle 19.8 3,199 3,127 Fourth 22.1 3,572 3,286 Highest 24.0 3,878 3,461 Total 15-49 100.0 16,155 16,155 Note: Education categories refer to the highest level of education attended, whether or not that level was completed. Characteristics of Respondents • 21 Access to services and exposure to mass media pertaining to reproductive health and other aspects of life are often determined by one’s area of residence. More than half of the women respondents are living in urban areas (53 percent). Almost three out five are from Luzon (59 percent), with 18 percent from National Capital Region (NCR). One-sixth (16 percent) of respondents live in the Visayas region, while 25 percent come from Mindanao. Only one percent of women aged 15-49 have no formal education, while almost two-thirds (65 percent) have some elementary or secondary education, and one-third of the respondents have attended college (33 percent). Socio-economic status often influences the health practices of the population. Sixteen percent of the respondents belong to the lowest quintile while 24 percent belong to the highest quintile. 3.2 MOBILITY Residential mobility has some relationship with contraceptive use and health practices of the population. The urban population has more access to information and services than the rural population. Women interviewed in the 2013 NDHS were asked several questions concerning residential mobility. They were asked the type of place of residence of their mother at the time of their birth—a city, a town, a barrio or rural area, or abroad. They were also asked what type of place they lived in five years ago. This type of question is used to determine migration pattern in a five-year interval. Table 3.2 Residence characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by type of residence at birth, in 2008, and at the time of the survey, Philippines 2013 Number of women Background characteristic Weighted percent Weighted number Unweighted number Type of residence at birth City 23.0 3,716 3,275 Town/poblacion 18.6 3,004 2,800 Barrio/rural area 58.0 9,374 10,015 Abroad 0.1 23 23 Don’t know 0.2 39 42 Total 100.0 16,155 16,155 Type of residence in 2008 City 32.4 5,241 4,644 Town/poblacion 17.3 2,790 2,637 Barrio/rural area 49.7 8,029 8,772 Abroad 0.3 56 61 Don’t know 0.2 39 41 Total 100.0 16,155 16,155 Type of residence in 2013 Urban 53.1 8,585 7,609 Rural 46.9 7,570 8,546 Total 100.0 16,155 16,155 Table 3.2 shows that almost three in five women were born in a barrio/rural area (58 percent) while about 42 percent were born in a city or town/poblacion. Five years before the survey, half of women aged 15- 49 lived in the barrio/rural areas and the other half lived in cities and towns. Currently, there are more women living in urban areas (53 percent) than in rural areas (47 percent). These figures reflect the movement from rural to urban areas. 22 • Characteristics of Respondents 3.3 EDUCATIONAL ATTAINMENT Education is one of the most influential determinants of an individual’s knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors. It enhances one’s ability to achieve desired demographic and health goals. Table 3.3 presents differentials in the educational attainment of women in terms of age group, residence, region, and socio-economic status. Table 3.3 Educational attainment Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Highest level of schooling Total Median years completed Number of women Background characteristic No education Some elementary Completed elementary1 Some high school Completed high school2 College or higher3 Age 15-24 0.5 4.4 5.3 27.5 30.7 31.5 100.0 9.4 6,026 15-19 0.4 4.8 5.0 40.8 29.0 19.9 100.0 9.0 3,237 20-24 0.7 4.0 5.6 12.1 32.7 45.0 100.0 9.8 2,789 25-29 0.8 6.0 7.4 12.3 32.8 40.8 100.0 9.7 2,156 30-34 1.3 6.5 7.7 12.6 33.0 38.9 100.0 9.7 2,250 35-39 1.5 9.0 10.9 12.6 31.7 34.3 100.0 9.5 1,976 40-44 1.8 10.4 14.7 12.8 29.9 30.4 100.0 9.3 1,924 45-49 2.5 11.6 17.3 13.0 26.0 29.6 100.0 9.2 1,823 Residence Urban 0.7 4.2 6.6 16.6 32.1 39.9 100.0 9.7 8,585 Rural 1.7 10.2 11.8 20.0 29.3 26.9 100.0 9.2 7,570 Region National Capital Region 0.0 2.4 4.7 13.9 35.7 43.4 100.0 9.8 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 0.7 4.3 4.9 16.1 21.3 52.6 100.0 10.3 252 I - Ilocos Region 0.1 2.2 7.3 16.7 37.9 35.7 100.0 9.6 691 II - Cagayan Valley 1.3 9.7 9.6 16.0 27.5 35.9 100.0 9.5 550 III - Central Luzon 0.4 3.9 11.3 17.4 34.4 32.7 100.0 9.5 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 0.4 4.1 7.6 15.3 38.2 34.3 100.0 9.6 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 2.9 12.3 15.3 21.7 20.7 27.1 100.0 8.8 372 V - Bicol 0.2 5.9 14.9 21.6 27.3 30.1 100.0 9.3 798 VI - Western Visayas 0.9 6.7 7.6 19.9 31.9 33.0 100.0 9.5 996 VII - Central Visayas 0.8 11.4 9.8 19.1 26.8 32.1 100.0 9.3 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 0.5 10.1 9.8 22.3 24.7 32.6 100.0 9.3 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 1.9 10.9 12.6 25.2 21.5 28.0 100.0 8.9 725 X - Northern Mindanao 2.7 11.7 10.8 21.0 23.8 30.0 100.0 9.2 697 XI - Davao 1.4 11.9 8.9 18.8 28.2 30.7 100.0 9.3 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 4.8 10.2 9.2 23.9 26.5 25.4 100.0 9.1 744 XIII – Caraga 1.0 8.6 12.9 21.5 25.9 30.0 100.0 9.2 435 ARMM 9.6 23.0 13.1 20.2 18.6 15.6 100.0 6.9 465 Wealth quintile Lowest 5.2 23.9 19.1 25.1 21.2 5.5 100.0 6.3 2,620 Second 0.9 9.4 13.5 26.0 33.9 16.3 100.0 9.0 2,886 Middle 0.3 3.7 9.8 20.3 39.1 26.8 100.0 9.4 3,199 Fourth 0.2 1.9 4.3 14.0 35.8 43.8 100.0 9.8 3,572 Highest 0.2 1.2 2.7 9.8 23.5 62.4 100.0 11.4 3,878 Total 1.2 7.0 9.1 18.2 30.8 33.8 100.0 9.5 16,155 1 Completed grade 6 at the primary level 2 Completed 4th year at the secondary level 3 Includes all post-secondary As mentioned above, only a tiny fraction of women aged 15-49 (1 percent) have never attended school, while almost two-thirds have completed high school. The median number of years of school completed is 9.5. Younger women have reached higher levels of schooling than older women. For example, women age 20-24 have the highest percentage with at least some college education (45 percent). This proportion falls in older age groups, with the lowest for age group 45-49 (30 percent). From age group 20-24, the median years of schooling shows a steady decline with increasing age. Characteristics of Respondents • 23 Urban women have more education than rural women. Table 3.3 shows that two in five women in urban areas (40 percent) have some college education, compared to only just over one in five women living in rural areas (27 percent). The distribution of women by educational attainment across regions shows that a majority of women have at least some high school education except for Zamboanga Peninsula, MIMAROPA and ARMM (49 percent, 48 percent and 34 percent, respectively). Interestingly, Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) has a higher proportion of women who attended college than NCR (53 percent and 43 percent, respectively). Central Luzon and CALABARZON which are adjacent to NCR show only 33 percent and 34 percent of respondents with some college education. The wealth status of women is highly associated with their level of education. Analysis of education by household wealth status indicates that women in the highest wealth quintile are much more likely to have some college education than women in other wealth quintiles. Table 3.3 shows that the proportion of women with at least some college education increases from 6 percent of those in the lowest quintile to 62 percent of those in the highest wealth quintile. 3.4 ACCESS TO MASS MEDIA AND INTERNET Access to information is essential to increasing people’s knowledge and awareness of what is taking place around them that may eventually affect their perceptions and behavior. It is important to know which groups are likely to be reached by the media for purposes of planning programs intended to disseminate information about health and family planning. In the 2013 NDHS, exposure to mass media was assessed by asking how often a respondent reads a newspaper or magazine, listens to the radio, watches television and checks email or surfs the internet. Table 3.4 shows that television is the most popular mass media for women (81 percent watching at least once a week). Majority of respondents are exposed to radio at least once a week (53 percent), while only 27 percent read a newspaper or magazine at least once a week. Almost one in three women accesses the internet at least once a week (30 percent). There is no significant difference across ages in terms of access to different mass media except for internet access. Younger women access the internet more than older women. More than two out of five women ages 15-19 access the internet at least once a week (43 percent), compared with only 12 percent of those age 45-49. Table 3.4 shows that women in urban areas have more access to mass media. For example, access to the internet is more than double for women in the urban areas (40 percent) compared to those in rural areas (18 percent). Among regions, there is no distinct pattern of exposure to mass media. However, women in ARMM are least likely to have access to television, radio and the internet; three in five women do not have access to any of the four media on a weekly basis (59 percent). Media exposure increases with both educational level and wealth quintile of the respondent. For example, 89 percent of women with some college education watch television at least once per week, compared with 27 percent of women with no education at all. In addition, 42 percent of women with some college education read a newspaper or magazine at least once a week, compared with 3 percent of women with no education. Similarly, 92 percent of women in the highest wealth quintile watch television at least once a week, compared with only 27 percent of women with no schooling. More than half of women with at least some college education (56 percent) and three in five women in the highest wealth quintile access the internet at least once a week. 24 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.4 Exposure to mass media Percentage of women age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Accesses all three media at least once a week Accesses none of the three media at least once a week Checks e- mail or surfs the internet at least once a week Accesses none of the four media at least once a week Number of women Age 15-19 29.4 83.0 55.3 21.6 10.5 42.9 9.1 3,237 20-24 28.7 82.1 55.7 21.3 10.4 41.5 9.6 2,789 25-29 29.7 81.7 51.2 20.7 11.3 32.4 10.8 2,156 30-34 26.9 81.3 51.4 19.2 11.1 27.7 10.4 2,250 35-39 25.8 78.8 49.5 17.8 12.9 22.1 12.4 1,976 40-44 23.4 78.5 51.3 17.3 13.6 16.8 13.0 1,924 45-49 23.9 77.2 51.9 16.7 13.7 12.6 13.4 1,823 Residence Urban 34.6 86.7 55.9 25.5 7.1 40.4 6.1 8,585 Rural 18.8 74.0 49.0 12.9 16.9 18.3 16.4 7,570 Region National Capital Region 47.2 87.0 60.0 34.4 5.2 48.2 4.0 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 35.4 77.4 51.2 24.3 12.7 29.8 12.6 252 I - Ilocos Region 16.7 85.5 57.4 13.2 8.9 23.1 8.4 691 II - Cagayan Valley 22.4 76.4 55.1 15.9 12.7 23.1 12.6 550 III - Central Luzon 27.0 92.3 55.2 21.5 4.6 34.9 4.1 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 22.4 88.5 44.0 17.1 8.1 37.1 6.9 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 9.2 63.6 34.8 4.7 23.7 12.2 22.8 372 V - Bicol 15.9 77.6 48.1 11.2 13.4 17.2 13.0 798 VI - Western Visayas 22.8 80.1 61.8 15.6 8.9 22.9 8.7 996 VII - Central Visayas 43.4 80.7 64.3 30.1 9.4 34.4 8.1 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 14.9 84.5 43.9 9.8 12.3 18.4 11.5 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 13.5 69.1 42.7 8.6 21.3 17.4 20.7 725 X - Northern Mindanao 20.7 74.3 51.4 13.9 17.5 23.0 16.2 697 XI - Davao 21.2 71.9 50.9 11.4 15.1 23.9 14.7 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 26.4 74.8 58.2 21.2 16.2 18.6 15.5 744 XIII - Caraga 24.1 82.1 59.9 18.3 12.2 23.1 12.1 435 ARMM 11.9 28.6 24.0 5.8 59.0 6.0 58.5 465 Education No education 3.3 27.2 26.7 1.5 58.7 2.5 58.2 188 Elementary 11.0 63.5 43.9 7.6 24.7 4.0 24.5 2,593 High school 23.0 81.7 52.6 16.3 10.6 21.4 10.0 7,916 College 41.7 89.3 57.9 30.6 5.4 55.9 4.1 5,458 Wealth quintile Lowest 10.9 45.1 41.8 6.5 37.0 3.4 36.8 2,620 Second 17.3 77.7 48.7 11.5 13.3 11.5 12.9 2,886 Middle 23.9 87.6 52.8 16.8 6.7 22.1 5.9 3,199 Fourth 31.9 90.7 56.1 23.6 4.7 37.7 3.6 3,572 Highest 44.0 92.1 59.8 33.0 4.0 61.5 2.9 3,878 Total 27.2 80.7 52.7 19.6 11.7 30.1 10.9 16,155 3.5 EMPLOYMENT Measuring employment status is difficult in part because some work, especially work in family farms or business or in the informal sector, may not be perceived as employment. To avoid underestimating respondents’ employment, women were asked several questions to determine if they were employed or not. They were asked whether, aside from household work, they were working in the seven days before the survey and if not, whether they done any work in the 12 months preceding the survey. They were also asked about their occupation, whether they worked in a family farm or business or for someone else or if they were self- employed. Continuity of employment was also ascertained by asking if their work continued throughout the year, was seasonal or occasional. Employed women were also asked whether they were paid in cash or in kind or not paid at all. Table 3.5 shows the percent distribution of women by employment status according to selected background characteristics. More than half of women (57 percent) reported that they had been employed in the Characteristics of Respondents • 25 past 12 months, with just under half being currently employed. The proportion currently employed increases with age, from 20 percent among women aged 15-19 to 69 percent among women aged 45-49. Table 3.5 Employment status Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by employment status, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Total Number of women Background characteristic Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 20.2 8.1 71.6 100.0 3,237 20-24 42.9 13.4 43.7 100.0 2,789 25-29 48.5 10.1 41.4 100.0 2,156 30-34 54.5 9.7 35.7 100.0 2,250 35-39 60.9 7.1 32.0 100.0 1,976 40-44 63.6 7.7 28.7 100.0 1,924 45-49 68.7 6.1 25.2 100.0 1,823 Marital status Never married 40.2 8.2 51.6 100.0 5,615 Married or living together 51.3 9.6 39.0 100.0 9,729 Divorced/separated 66.4 10.8 22.9 100.0 588 Widowed 71.7 6.4 21.9 100.0 223 Number of living children 0 40.6 9.4 50.0 100.0 6,144 1-2 49.1 9.4 41.4 100.0 5,123 3-4 56.2 8.7 35.1 100.0 3,135 5+ 58.6 8.2 33.2 100.0 1,753 Residence Urban 50.2 8.5 41.4 100.0 8,585 Rural 46.2 9.9 43.9 100.0 7,570 Region National Capital Region 49.5 6.7 43.8 100.0 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 55.2 14.0 30.8 100.0 252 I - Ilocos Region 43.4 11.1 45.4 100.0 691 II - Cagayan Valley 54.6 12.8 32.6 100.0 550 III - Central Luzon 42.2 11.1 46.6 100.0 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 46.9 6.5 46.6 100.0 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 47.4 12.5 40.1 100.0 372 V - Bicol 50.5 10.3 39.1 100.0 798 VI - Western Visayas 47.2 11.9 40.8 100.0 996 VII - Central Visayas 56.0 9.5 34.5 100.0 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 53.9 6.1 40.0 100.0 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 36.7 9.2 54.1 100.0 725 X - Northern Mindanao 57.7 14.0 28.3 100.0 697 XI - Davao 50.0 11.8 38.2 100.0 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 56.9 9.3 33.8 100.0 744 XIII - Caraga 46.6 5.0 48.4 100.0 435 ARMM 29.9 3.1 67.0 100.0 465 Education No education 55.6 7.8 36.6 100.0 188 Elementary 49.7 10.3 40.0 100.0 2,593 High school 41.3 9.6 49.1 100.0 7,916 College 57.6 7.9 34.5 100.0 5,458 Wealth quintile Lowest 41.9 11.2 46.8 100.0 2,620 Second 41.6 11.8 46.6 100.0 2,886 Middle 44.9 10.6 44.5 100.0 3,199 Fourth 50.5 7.9 41.6 100.0 3,572 Highest 58.4 5.7 35.9 100.0 3,878 Total 48.3 9.1 42.6 100.0 16,155 1 “Currently employed” is defined as having done work in the past seven days. Includes persons who did not work in the past seven days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reason. 26 • Characteristics of Respondents Half of the women who are married or living with a man are currently employed (51 percent). Ten percent were not working although they had been employed in 12 months prior to survey, while the remaining 39 percent said that they had not employed in the previous 12 months. Women who were divorced/separated or widowed are more likely to be employed than currently married women. The more children women have, the more likely they are to be currently employed. Urban women are more likely than rural women to be currently employed (50 percent compared with 46 percent). Small variations are found across regions except for ARMM, where the proportion of women who were not employed at all in the 12 months before the survey is double the proportion currently employed (67 percent compared to 30 percent). Table 3.5 shows that women with some college education and those with no education are more likely to be employed than women with some elementary and high school education. For example, 58 percent of women with at least some college education are currently employed, compared to 41 percent of those with some high school education. The proportion of women with elementary education who are currently employed is less than for women with no education at all, 50 percent and 57 percent, respectively. The proportion of women who are currently employed increases with their socio economic status. For example, 58 percent of women in the highest quintile are currently employed, compared to only 42 percent of women in the lowest quintile. 3.6 OCCUPATION Women who had worked in the 12 months before the survey were asked about their occupations. As shown in Table 3.6, over one-quarter of employed women work in professional, technical, or managerial positions and almost one-fifth work in sales and services. Roughly one in ten working women are employed in each of the following sectors: domestic service, agriculture, unskilled manual jobs, and clerical positions; only 6 percent of women are employed in skilled manual jobs. Younger women are more likely to work in sales and service occupations than older women. About two out of five women in the 15-19 age group and 27 percent of those in the 20-24 age group are engaged in sales and services. Older women tend to have professional/technical/managerial occupations. About 3 out of 10 employed women in age groups 30-34, 35-39, 40-44 and 45-49 have professional, technical or managerial occupations. As expected, a larger proportion of rural women than urban women are engaged in agriculture, while there is a higher proportion of urban women than rural women engaged in clerical jobs. The proportion of women employed in agricultural occupations decreases substantially with increasing education, from 63 percent among employed women with no education to 2 percent among women with higher education. The inverse is true for women who work in professional, technical, or managerial occupations; 48 percent of those with higher education work in such jobs, compared with 8 percent of women with no education. There is a similar pattern for socio-economic status of women. Almost half (47 percent) of employed women in the lowest wealth quintile are engaged in agricultural occupations, compared with less than 1 percent of those in the highest wealth quintile. Women in the higher wealth quintiles are more likely to work in professional, technical, or managerial jobs than those in the lower quintiles. Characteristics of Respondents • 27 Table 3.6 Occupation Percent distribution of women age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Professional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Unskilled manual Domestic service Agriculture Other/ Missing Total Number of women Age 15-19 6.3 5.9 37.0 5.1 8.9 24.2 12.4 0.1 100.0 918 20-24 23.1 16.8 26.6 4.9 7.7 14.4 6.3 0.2 100.0 1,570 25-29 28.9 14.6 19.3 6.3 10.3 10.6 9.9 0.1 100.0 1,264 30-34 32.9 10.6 14.1 6.3 11.8 10.8 13.1 0.5 100.0 1,446 35-39 32.9 8.1 11.8 4.2 14.5 14.0 14.3 0.3 100.0 1,344 40-44 31.8 6.1 10.9 6.7 14.1 12.5 17.6 0.2 100.0 1,373 45-49 31.9 6.3 12.2 4.7 14.1 12.9 17.6 0.4 100.0 1,364 Marital status Never married 23.2 15.5 25.8 5.2 6.6 17.6 6.1 0.1 100.0 2,720 Married or living together 30.2 7.7 14.5 5.5 13.9 11.3 16.6 0.3 100.0 5,930 Divorced/separated 24.1 10.6 22.1 6.1 10.7 20.8 5.7 0.0 100.0 453 Widowed 27.4 4.6 11.1 4.8 18.6 19.3 13.6 0.7 100.0 174 Number of living children 0 24.9 14.7 25.1 5.0 6.9 16.7 6.6 0.1 100.0 3,072 1-2 32.9 11.5 18.0 5.3 11.4 10.5 10.1 0.3 100.0 2,999 3-4 30.8 5.3 13.2 6.4 16.2 12.3 15.7 0.2 100.0 2,035 5+ 17.1 2.6 8.5 5.3 17.3 16.8 31.7 0.7 100.0 1,171 Residence Urban 30.1 13.3 19.7 6.0 11.8 15.2 3.6 0.3 100.0 5,032 Rural 25.0 6.2 16.2 4.8 11.5 12.0 24.0 0.2 100.0 4,246 Region National Capital Region 29.1 18.8 18.4 4.4 11.8 17.0 0.1 0.4 100.0 1,644 Cordillera Admin Region 27.0 9.7 11.6 3.2 8.2 7.5 32.7 0.2 100.0 174 I - Ilocos Region 22.3 7.4 21.3 2.0 18.8 16.6 11.5 0.0 100.0 377 II - Cagayan Valley 19.0 5.4 19.3 1.9 10.7 10.1 33.6 0.0 100.0 371 III - Central Luzon 28.8 10.7 20.7 9.6 10.6 10.0 8.9 0.7 100.0 918 IVA - CALABARZON 34.0 9.0 19.3 12.6 10.6 12.8 1.6 0.1 100.0 1,225 IVB - MIMAROPA 22.4 7.5 12.8 5.5 15.9 13.4 22.5 0.0 100.0 223 V - Bicol 27.9 7.1 18.4 8.9 11.4 12.0 14.4 0.0 100.0 485 VI - Western Visayas 29.8 8.0 18.0 2.0 6.6 18.4 17.1 0.2 100.0 589 VII - Central Visayas 25.2 9.9 14.8 7.0 13.7 16.1 13.2 0.0 100.0 675 VIII - Eastern Visayas 36.4 6.0 14.4 2.8 13.5 12.7 14.0 0.3 100.0 343 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 27.3 4.2 18.9 1.2 17.7 12.8 17.8 0.2 100.0 333 X - Northern Mindanao 19.6 9.4 16.8 3.0 11.2 12.2 27.6 0.2 100.0 500 XI - Davao 24.9 8.5 21.4 1.1 11.4 14.6 18.2 0.0 100.0 552 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 22.8 7.2 18.0 2.4 12.4 13.8 22.7 0.6 100.0 492 XIII - Caraga 32.6 9.2 15.7 4.3 9.7 10.9 17.3 0.2 100.0 224 ARMM 32.0 1.5 10.9 1.3 5.6 5.0 43.1 0.6 100.0 153 Education No education 7.6 0.0 2.6 5.5 8.9 12.1 63.4 0.0 100.0 119 Elementary 11.1 1.1 10.2 5.8 13.0 23.8 34.5 0.4 100.0 1,555 High school 16.9 4.3 23.6 7.3 16.1 18.9 12.6 0.2 100.0 4,028 College 47.9 20.8 15.8 3.2 6.2 3.6 2.2 0.2 100.0 3,575 Wealth quintile Lowest 9.5 1.4 9.7 4.4 11.2 16.6 46.8 0.3 100.0 1,392 Second 15.2 4.9 20.4 5.1 16.0 18.1 20.0 0.4 100.0 1,538 Middle 23.2 8.6 23.2 7.3 16.7 11.7 9.1 0.1 100.0 1,775 Fourth 32.9 13.2 23.0 8.2 12.4 7.1 3.0 0.2 100.0 2,086 Highest 44.8 16.6 13.6 2.6 5.0 16.4 0.6 0.3 100.0 2,486 Total 27.8 10.1 18.1 5.5 11.7 13.7 12.9 0.2 100.0 9,278 The proportion of women employed in sales and services has decreased substantially from 30 percent (2008 NDHS) to 18 percent (2013 NDHS) as shown in Figure 3.1. An increase was observed for women with the following occupations: professional/technical/managerial (from 24 to 28 percent) and unskilled manual (from 4 to 12 percent). 28 • Characteristics of Respondents Figure 3.1 Percent distribution of women age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, Philippines 2008 and 2013 3.7 TYPE OF EMPLOYMENT Table 3.7 shows the percent distribution of women who were employed during the 12 months preceding the survey by the type of earnings received, type of employer, and continuity of employment, according to type of employment (agricultural or non-agricultural). Overall, 84 percent of women receive their earnings in cash only, while 6 percent are paid in cash and in kind and 10 percent work with no payment. The type of earnings differs substantially by type of employment. Almost one-third of women who work in agriculture (31 percent) receive no payment, while 88 percent of women engaged in non-agricultural work receive payment in cash only. Table 3.7 Type of employment Percent distribution of women age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by type of earnings, type of employer, and continuity of employment, according to type of employment (agricultural or nonagricultural), Philippines 2013 Employment characteristic Agricultural work Nonagricultural work Total Type of earnings Cash only 52.9 88.4 83.8 Cash and in-kind 13.0 4.6 5.7 In-kind only 3.6 0.4 0.8 Not paid 30.5 6.6 9.7 Missing 0.0 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Type of employer Employed by family member 38.6 12.0 15.4 Employed by nonfamily member 46.6 67.7 64.9 Self-employed 14.7 20.2 19.5 Missing 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Continuity of employment All year 43.5 70.5 67.0 Seasonal 49.4 23.5 26.8 Occasional 7.0 5.9 6.1 Missing 0.0 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women employed during the last 12 months 1,200 8,056 9,278 Note: Total includes 22 women with missing information on type of employment who are not shown separately. 24 7 30 7 4 14 14 28 10 18 6 12 14 13 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 Professional/  technical/  managerial Clerical Sales and  services Skilled  manual Unskilled  manual Domestic  service Agriculture 2008 NDHS 2013 NDHS Characteristics of Respondents • 29 Almost two-thirds (65 percent) of women are employed by a non-family member, while 15 percent are employed by a relative and 20 percent are self-employed. Employment by a family member is much more common for those in agricultural work (39 percent) than those engaged in non-agricultural work (12 percent). The majority of women working in non-agricultural work (68 percent) are employed by a non-family member. A large majority of working women are employed all year (67 percent). Almost half of women doing agricultural work seasonally (49 percent), while most of those in non-agricultural work are employed throughout the year (71 percent). 3.8 HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE Access to health can improve when individuals are covered by health insurance and one of the objectives of the Universal Health Program of the Philippines is to provide Filipinos with 100 percent coverage with health insurance. Table 3.8 shows that only three out of five women aged 15-49 are covered by health insurance, mostly by a government institution. Only two percent are covered by private insurance. Table 3.8 Health insurance coverage Percentage of women age 15-49 with specific types of health insurance coverage, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic PhilHealth paying member PhilHealth dependent of paying member PhilHealth indigent member PhilHealth dependent of indigent member GSIS SSS Private insurance company Other None Missing Number of women Age 15-19 1.8 28.1 0.7 23.8 0.0 1.8 0.4 0.3 44.8 0.1 3,237 20-24 20.2 11.7 2.6 7.6 0.9 18.0 1.7 0.2 55.2 0.1 2,789 25-29 26.4 13.2 6.3 11.0 1.8 23.2 2.7 0.2 39.5 0.0 2,156 30-34 26.2 20.2 7.3 14.2 3.2 22.4 2.4 0.4 29.5 0.0 2,250 35-39 21.5 21.1 9.1 17.9 3.7 18.2 2.5 0.5 26.8 0.1 1,976 40-44 20.6 18.8 9.6 19.3 3.3 18.4 2.3 0.5 28.9 0.0 1,924 45-49 21.0 18.3 10.3 16.4 4.2 18.0 3.2 0.4 29.8 0.0 1,823 Residence Urban 24.4 23.7 3.3 6.0 1.8 23.5 2.8 0.2 39.1 0.1 8,585 Rural 11.8 13.9 8.7 27.1 2.5 7.8 1.2 0.6 36.8 0.1 7,570 Region National Capital Region 28.7 22.9 1.2 1.2 1.2 30.8 3.3 0.2 41.5 0.0 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 20.7 19.3 4.0 17.7 4.3 12.3 1.2 0.0 35.4 0.0 252 I - Ilocos Region 12.5 20.1 6.0 20.2 2.5 9.5 0.6 0.0 40.7 0.0 691 II - Cagayan Valley 11.8 17.8 5.0 24.8 1.9 4.4 1.3 5.0 36.1 0.0 550 III - Central Luzon 19.9 23.7 2.3 11.6 2.8 19.3 2.4 0.0 37.6 0.2 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 24.5 25.8 2.9 6.7 1.6 19.4 3.1 0.6 37.8 0.0 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 8.7 8.5 5.0 36.5 2.4 4.7 1.2 0.2 40.0 0.0 372 V - Bicol 12.1 10.6 13.2 31.4 3.3 15.0 0.6 0.4 29.9 0.0 798 VI - Western Visayas 13.1 18.9 7.5 28.6 3.3 11.3 2.3 0.1 29.4 0.0 996 VII - Central Visayas 16.3 18.5 3.7 12.8 2.0 12.4 1.7 0.1 46.6 0.2 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 11.7 10.5 13.3 32.2 5.0 8.3 0.2 0.2 31.5 0.0 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 9.0 10.9 15.8 24.1 2.1 5.6 0.9 0.0 39.6 0.0 725 X - Northern Mindanao 13.7 10.8 18.1 27.9 2.0 11.0 2.2 0.0 28.3 0.0 697 XI - Davao 20.8 22.6 4.7 14.9 2.0 17.5 1.3 0.2 34.7 0.0 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 16.4 15.8 7.2 19.7 1.5 11.1 1.7 0.0 39.5 0.0 744 XIII - Caraga 15.5 17.1 7.7 24.2 2.6 6.1 0.6 0.0 34.5 0.1 435 ARMM 1.8 6.8 9.9 24.5 0.5 0.2 0.4 0.2 56.3 0.4 465 Education No education 1.5 1.5 10.4 28.9 0.0 1.7 0.5 0.0 56.2 0.6 188 Elementary 3.3 9.7 12.3 28.6 0.0 3.0 0.2 0.4 44.9 0.1 2,593 High school 9.6 19.9 5.7 18.4 0.1 9.9 0.8 0.3 43.6 0.1 7,916 College 39.1 23.1 2.9 5.6 6.3 32.0 4.7 0.3 26.0 0.0 5,458 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.6 5.1 13.1 40.9 0.0 1.0 0.1 0.2 39.1 0.1 2,620 Second 6.1 10.7 9.5 28.4 0.4 5.3 0.5 0.4 44.0 0.0 2,886 Middle 12.7 18.9 5.5 13.0 0.8 11.4 0.8 0.5 46.7 0.1 3,199 Fourth 25.1 26.3 2.5 5.2 2.9 22.6 1.7 0.4 36.6 0.1 3,572 Highest 37.7 28.4 1.7 1.8 5.4 32.3 5.7 0.2 26.9 0.0 3,878 Total 18.5 19.1 5.9 15.9 2.2 16.1 2.0 0.3 38.0 0.1 16,155 GSIS = Government Service Insurance System; SSS = Social Security System Note: Results refer to women interviewed with the Woman’s Questionnaire, although data are taken from answers to the Household Questionnaire; thus, answers may not be given by the woman herself but rather by the respondent to the Household Questionnaire. Numbers do not sum to 100.0 percent because women may report more than one type of insurance. 30 • Characteristics of Respondents Women aged 15-19 and 20-24 are more likely than older women to have no health insurance. As expected, the youngest women are more likely than older women to be covered as dependents of health insurance members. Health insurance coverage is slightly higher among rural than urban women, mostly because of higher coverage as dependents of indigent members. Among regions, Northern Mindanao, Western Visayas, and Bicol, (70 percent each) have the highest coverage of health insurance, while ARMM (44 percent) has the lowest coverage. Surprisingly, NCR has the third highest proportion of women with no health insurance coverage (42 percent), after ARMM (56 percent) and Central Visayas (47 percent). The proportion of women with no health insurance declines steadily as education level increases. Women who have attended college are mostly covered by being a paying member of PhilHealth (39 percent) or SSS (32 percent), while women with no education or only some elementary education are more likely than those with more education to be covered as dependents of an indigent member (29 percent each). Similar patterns are found in terms of socio-economic status of a woman, with women in the highest quintile mostly covered by being paying PhilHealth members (38 percent) and those in the lowest quintile most likely to be covered as dependents of an indigent member (41 percent). Interestingly, the proportion of women who are not covered by any health insurance fluctuates by wealth quintile; although it is lowest among those in the highest quintile, it is highest for those in the middle quintile. There has been a sharp decline in the proportion of women not covered by any health insurance, from 57 percent in 2008 to 38 percent in 2013. Coverage as a dependent of an indigent member of PhilHealth shows the largest increase (from 6 percent to 16 percent of women), but there have also been increases in coverage as a paying member of PhilHealth (from 14 to 19 percent) and as an indigent member in PhilHealth (from 2 to 6 percent), as well as in other types of insurance. 3.9 USE OF TOBACCO Smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and other forms of cancer, and it contributes to the severity of pneumonia, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis symptoms. The use of tobacco in the household adversely affects the health status of all household members. Secondhand smoke may adversely affect the health of children and aggravate childhood illnesses. In the 2013 NDHS, women were asked about their use of tobacco. As shown in Table 3.9, only 6 percent of women aged 15-49 are using tobacco, mostly cigarettes. Use of tobacco gradually increases with age. For example, women aged 45-49 are more likely to smoke cigarettes (9 percent) than women aged 15-19 (2 percent). Two percent of pregnant women and 4 percent of breastfeeding women smoke cigarettes. Women with no education are more likely to use tobacco than women with some education. Other differences in tobacco use are minimal. Characteristics of Respondents • 31 Table 3.9 Use of tobacco Percentage of women age 15-49 who smoke cigarettes or a pipe or use other tobacco products, according to background characteristics and maternity status, Philippines 2013 Uses tobacco Does not use tobacco Number of women Background characteristic Cigarettes Pipe Other tobacco Age 15-19 2.2 0.0 0.3 97.7 3,237 20-24 6.0 0.1 1.4 93.8 2,789 25-29 6.0 0.0 1.3 93.8 2,156 30-34 6.0 0.1 1.1 93.8 2,250 35-39 5.9 0.0 1.9 93.2 1,976 40-44 6.4 0.1 2.2 92.6 1,924 45-49 9.2 0.1 3.2 89.6 1,823 Maternity status Pregnant 2.3 0.0 0.9 97.3 686 Breastfeeding (not pregnant) 4.4 0.0 1.7 94.6 1,948 Neither 6.0 0.1 1.5 93.6 13,522 Residence Urban 6.7 0.1 1.4 93.1 8,585 Rural 4.4 0.0 1.6 94.7 7,570 Region National Capital Region 8.2 0.2 2.0 91.8 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 4.6 0.0 1.9 94.2 252 I - Ilocos Region 4.5 0.0 0.6 95.2 691 II - Cagayan Valley 5.0 0.0 0.9 94.3 550 III - Central Luzon 6.2 0.1 1.3 93.8 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 6.7 0.0 1.0 93.2 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 4.7 0.0 5.5 91.7 372 V - Bicol 4.7 0.0 1.0 94.5 798 VI - Western Visayas 4.3 0.0 1.8 94.2 996 VII - Central Visayas 4.2 0.1 1.7 95.3 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 4.2 0.0 2.5 94.6 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 4.2 0.0 0.6 95.4 725 X - Northern Mindanao 4.0 0.0 0.7 95.9 697 XI - Davao 6.7 0.1 1.0 93.1 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 2.9 0.0 2.1 95.4 744 XIII - Caraga 3.0 0.0 0.6 96.6 435 ARMM 4.9 0.0 1.2 94.9 465 Education No education 11.9 0.0 14.8 77.1 188 Elementary 8.1 0.0 3.2 90.3 2,593 High school 5.4 0.0 1.1 94.4 7,916 College 4.5 0.1 0.8 95.4 5,458 Wealth quintile Lowest 6.1 0.0 3.6 91.5 2,620 Second 5.5 0.0 1.3 94.2 2,886 Middle 6.3 0.0 0.9 93.5 3,199 Fourth 5.3 0.1 1.2 94.7 3,572 Highest 5.2 0.1 0.9 94.7 3,878 Total 5.6 0.1 1.5 93.9 16,155 32 • Characteristics of Respondents Marriage and Exposure to the Risk of Pregnancy • 33 MARRIAGE AND EXPOSURE TO THE RISK OF PREGNANCY 4 his chapter presents findings related to some key factors that affect a woman’s risk of becoming pregnant such as marriage and sexual activity. Marriage signals the regular exposure of women to the risk of becoming pregnant. It has been known that in societies where age at first marriage is low, childbearing also starts early which results in higher fertility. Specifically, this chapter explores age at first marriage, age at first sexual intercourse and recent sexual activity among Filipino women. 4.1 CURRENT MARITAL STATUS Table 4.1 shows the distribution of women in childbearing ages according to their marital status and age. As shown in the table, 35 percent have never been married, 60 percent are currently in a union, either formally married or living together but not formally married, and the remaining 5 percent have been in a union previously but their union was dissolved either through separation, divorce or death of the spouse. Table 4.1 Current marital status Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by current marital status, according to age, Philippines 2013 Marital status Total Percentage of respondents currently in union Number of respondentsAge Never married Married Living together Divorced Separated Widowed 15-19 89.6 2.1 7.6 0.0 0.7 0.0 100.0 9.7 3,237 20-24 53.9 19.8 23.0 0.0 3.0 0.2 100.0 42.9 2,789 25-29 26.1 45.0 23.8 0.0 4.7 0.3 100.0 68.8 2,156 30-34 11.7 67.5 15.3 0.1 4.6 1.0 100.0 82.7 2,250 35-39 6.8 74.8 12.5 0.0 4.2 1.6 100.0 87.3 1,976 40-44 7.1 75.5 9.6 0.1 4.6 3.1 100.0 85.1 1,924 45-49 6.3 74.1 8.8 0.1 5.5 5.3 100.0 82.9 1,823 Total 15-49 34.8 45.8 14.5 0.0 3.6 1.4 100.0 60.2 16,155 T Key Findings • Sixty percent of women ages 15 to 49 years are currently in a union, and one-quarter of these women are in a consensual union. • The percentage of women in consensual unions is highest among women in their 20s. • The median age at first marriage among women age 25-49 is 22.3 years. Women in rural areas, those with less education and those who belong to the lower wealth quintiles marry earlier than their counterpart. • The median age at menarche among Filipino women is 13.1 years. • The median age at first sexual intercourse among women ages 25-49 is 21.5 years. Women in rural areas, those with less education and those in the lower wealth quintiles have lower median ages at first sexual intercourse than urban residents, better educated women and those belonging to households in higher wealth quintiles. • Forty-six percent of women had sexual intercourse in the four weeks prior to the survey. 34 • Marriage and Exposure to the Risk of Pregnancy The percentage of women who are in a marital union increases with age and consequently, the percentage who have never married decreases. Particularly noteworthy is the percentage of young women (less than 30 years old) who are in consensual unions (living together with a partner but not formally married). The percentage of young women less than 25 years old who reported to be cohabiting with a partner is higher than the percentage to who are formally married. A third of women in their late 20s and who are in a marital union are in a live-in arrangement. The percentage of women living in informal unions has increased since 2008 at every age group. Overall, the proportion of women in informal union has increased from 11 percent in 2008 to 15 percent in 2013 (NSO and ICF Macro, 2009). 4.2 AGE AT FIRST MARRIAGE Most births in the Philippines still occur within marriage and this continues to underscore the importance of examining age at first marriage. On average, women who marry early are more likely to have their first child at a young age and give birth to more children, thus contributing to higher fertility. In this section, marriage refers to both formal and consensual marriage, unless otherwise noted. Table 4.2 shows the percentage of women who are married by selected ages and the median ages at first marriage, according to their age at the time of the survey. Age at first marriage is defined as the age at which the woman began living with her first spouse or partner. Among women ages 25-49, 15 percent were married by age 18 and this percentage more than doubles by age 20. By age 22, 48 percent of women were married, increasing further to 66 percent by age 25. Similar patterns are found in the other age groups. Overall, the median age at first marriage among women ages 25-49 is 22.3 years and this is not very different across age groups. Table 4.2 Age at first marriage Percentage of women age 15-49 who were first married by specific exact ages and median age at first marriage, according to current age, Philippines 2013 Percentage first married by exact age: Percentage never married Number of respondents Median age at first marriage Current age 15 18 20 22 25 15-19 1.5 na na na na 89.6 3,237 a 20-24 2.0 15.0 30.8 na na 53.9 2,789 a 25-29 2.8 14.2 32.8 49.4 66.8 26.1 2,156 22.1 30-34 2.1 13.5 29.5 46.4 65.5 11.7 2,250 22.5 35-39 2.8 14.5 29.6 46.5 65.8 6.8 1,976 22.4 40-44 2.5 16.7 32.6 48.3 66.6 7.1 1,924 22.2 45-49 2.8 17.1 32.2 47.8 67.0 6.3 1,823 22.3 20-49 2.4 15.1 31.2 na na 21.0 12,918 a 25-49 2.6 15.1 31.3 47.7 66.3 12.0 10,129 22.3 Note: The age at first marriage is defined as the age at which the respondent began living with her first spouse/partner na = Not applicable due to censoring a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of the women began living with their spouse or partner for the first time before reaching the beginning of the age group The median age at first marriage is further examined by the women’s background characteristics and shown in Table 4.3. Because very few women are married before age 25, the table is limited to women ages 25-49. In general, women from urban areas, those who are better educated and wealthier marry later than their counterparts. Urban women marry about two years later than women in rural areas (23.1 years versus 21.5 years). This is also reflected in the regional data in Table 4.3 where women in the National Capital Region, the only region that is 100 percent urban, register the highest median age at first marriage (23.7). Other regions with high median ages at marriage include CALABARZON (23.0 years), Ilocos (22.8 years) Marriage and Exposure to the Risk of Pregnancy • 35 and Central Visayas (22.7 years). In contrast, women in ARMM, MIMAROPA and SOCCSKSARGEN marry earlier than women in other regions. Table 4.3 Median age at first marriage by background characteristics Median age at first marriage among women age 25-49, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Age Ages 25-49 Background characteristic 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban 23.3 23.3 22.9 22.8 23.2 23.1 Rural 21.1 21.6 22.0 21.7 21.4 21.5 Region National Capital Region 23.8 23.7 23.8 23.3 23.8 23.7 Cordillera Admin Region 21.9 22.7 23.4 22.2 22.6 22.5 I - Ilocos Region 21.9 22.0 23.2 24.2 22.7 22.8 II - Cagayan Valley 20.7 21.7 21.5 20.0 21.2 21.0 III - Central Luzon 23.0 22.4 22.8 22.5 22.6 22.6 IVA - CALABARZON 23.3 23.7 22.5 22.7 22.7 23.0 IVB - MIMAROPA 19.8 21.7 20.1 20.4 20.1 20.5 V - Bicol 21.4 21.5 22.7 22.9 21.5 22.0 VI - Western Visayas 22.4 22.3 22.8 22.2 22.6 22.5 VII - Central Visayas 21.6 23.2 23.1 22.0 23.8 22.7 VIII - Eastern Visayas 21.1 21.1 21.8 22.3 21.8 21.6 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 21.2 21.3 21.4 19.9 21.2 21.0 X - Northern Mindanao 21.7 22.5 20.7 22.9 20.9 21.6 XI - Davao 21.6 21.5 21.7 21.6 21.7 21.6 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 20.9 20.8 20.8 20.4 20.4 20.7 XIII - Caraga 20.9 21.2 21.5 21.5 20.8 21.1 ARMM 19.7 19.4 20.8 20.5 20.3 20.0 Education No education * (19.2) (17.4) (17.7) 19.3 18.2 Elementary 19.0 19.3 19.6 19.9 20.1 19.6 High school 20.8 21.4 21.7 21.6 22.0 21.4 College a 25.2 25.5 25.9 25.4 a Wealth quintile Lowest 19.2 19.8 20.5 20.2 20.2 19.8 Second 20.5 20.9 21.6 20.7 21.2 20.9 Middle 22.1 22.1 22.2 21.6 21.4 21.9 Fourth 23.8 24.0 23.1 23.2 23.1 23.4 Highest a 25.4 24.9 25.0 24.6 a Total 22.1 22.5 22.4 22.2 22.3 22.3 Note: The age at first marriage is defined as the age at which the respondent began living with her first spouse/partner. Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk denotes a figure based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of the respondents began living with their spouse/partners for the first time before reaching the beginning of the age group 4.3 AGE AT FIRST MENSTRUATION (MENARCHE) Menarche, or onset of menstruation, signals the start of puberty. In 2013, the mean age at menarche among women ages 15 to 49 years is 13.1 years (Table 4.4). A look at mean age of menarche across different age groups indicates a declining trend over time. Compared to the oldest group of women (ages 45-49) where mean age at menstruation is at 13.6 years, the youngest group (15-19) have a mean age at first menstruation of 12.8 years. Over one in ten women experienced her first menstruation before age 12, while more than half of women had menarche between ages 12 or 13and 18 percent began menstruating at age 15 or older. 36 • Marriage and Exposure to the Risk of Pregnancy Table 4.4 Age at first menstruation Percentage of women age 15-49 by age at first menstruation (menarche) and mean age at menarche, according to age, Philippines 2013 Age at menarche Total Number of women Mean age at menarche Current age ≤10 11 12 13 14 15+ Never menstruated Don’t know/ missing 15-19 3.3 11.4 29.2 28.3 18.0 9.3 0.5 0.0 100.0 3,237 12.8 20-24 3.4 9.5 27.0 26.9 17.8 15.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 2,789 13.0 25-29 3.2 9.7 28.1 26.2 16.6 16.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 2,156 13.0 30-34 3.6 9.2 26.1 25.2 16.5 19.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 2,250 13.1 35-39 2.5 7.6 23.6 25.6 19.5 21.1 0.2 0.0 100.0 1,976 13.3 40-44 3.0 8.0 22.8 22.0 19.1 25.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,924 13.4 45-49 2.2 7.0 21.0 21.6 19.5 28.6 0.0 0.1 100.0 1,823 13.6 Total 3.1 9.2 25.9 25.5 18.1 18.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 16,155 13.1 4.4 AGE AT FIRST SEXUAL INTERCOURSE Age at first sexual intercourse is another indicator of the beginning of a woman’s exposure to the risk of childbearing. In the survey, women were asked how old they were when they had their first sexual intercourse. Table 4.5 shows that the median age at first sexual intercourse of women ages 25-49 is 21.5 years. Compared with the median age at first marriage shown earlier (22.3 years), these two figures indicate that first sexual intercourse (on average) occurs before first marriage. Table 4.5 Age at first sexual intercourse Percentage of women age 15-49 who had first sexual intercourse by specific exact ages, percentage who never had sexual intercourse, and median age at first sexual intercourse, according to current age, Philippines 2013 Percentage who had first sexual intercourse by exact age: Percentage who never had intercourse Number Median age at first intercourse Current age 15 18 20 22 25 15-19 2.2 na na na na 85.3 3,237 a 20-24 2.2 19.3 41.3 na na 41.9 2,789 a 25-29 2.2 17.8 40.2 58.7 75.6 18.1 2,156 21.0 30-34 1.9 17.0 35.4 53.8 71.9 8.6 2,250 21.5 35-39 2.6 16.8 36.1 52.2 69.6 4.7 1,976 21.7 40-44 2.6 18.3 37.3 53.0 71.2 5.4 1,924 21.5 45-49 3.0 18.3 36.9 52.0 71.3 5.1 1,823 21.7 20-49 2.4 18.0 38.1 na na 15.8 12,918 a 25-49 2.4 17.6 37.2 54.1 72.0 8.6 10,129 21.5 15-24 2.2 na na na na 65.2 6,026 a na = Not applicable due to censoring a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of the respondents had sexual intercourse for the first time before reaching the beginning of the age group Table 4.5 also shows that among women ages 25-49, the percentage having their first sexual intercourse increases sharply from age 15 to age 18. In fact, the percentage who had their first sexual intercourse by age 20 is almost double that found at age 18. This pattern persists across all age groups. The median ages of women at first sexual intercourse by background characteristics are shown in Table 4.6. The patterns are almost similar to median age at marriage: women in urban areas, those with higher education and women from households that belong to the highest wealth quintile had their first sexual experience at later ages than their rural, less educated, and poorer counterparts. However, the differences are not as marked as those found in median age at first marriage. For example, median age at first sexual intercourse between urban and rural areas differs by one year, while the difference in age at first marriage between the two areas is 1.6 years. Among the regions, NCR, CAR, Ilocos, Central Luzon Marriage and Exposure to the Risk of Pregnancy • 37 and CALABARZON exhibited higher median ages at first sexual intercourse than the national figure. ARMM and SOCCSKSARGEN registered the earliest median ages at first sexual intercourse. Table 4.6 Median age at first sexual intercourse by background characteristics Median age at first sexual intercourse among women age 25-49, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Age Ages 25-49 Background characteristic 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban 21.6 22.0 22.1 22.0 22.3 22.0 Rural 20.5 21.0 21.3 21.1 21.0 21.0 Region National Capital Region 21.9 22.0 22.7 22.5 23.0 22.4 Cordillera Admin Region 21.3 21.9 22.9 22.2 22.2 22.1 I - Ilocos Region 21.7 21.5 22.5 22.9 22.1 22.0 II - Cagayan Valley 20.3 20.8 21.0 19.8 19.9 20.4 III - Central Luzon 21.8 21.8 22.8 22.3 22.4 22.2 IVA - CALABARZON 22.0 22.9 21.9 21.8 22.2 22.2 IVB - MIMAROPA 19.5 21.3 20.0 21.4 19.6 20.5 V - Bicol 21.2 21.2 22.1 22.4 21.2 21.5 VI - Western Visayas 20.9 21.5 21.5 21.1 21.8 21.4 VII - Central Visayas 19.9 21.0 21.7 20.9 22.1 20.9 VIII - Eastern Visayas 20.3 20.6 20.4 22.1 21.5 20.7 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 20.7 20.9 21.2 19.7 20.8 20.6 X - Northern Mindanao 20.6 21.7 19.9 21.7 20.9 20.9 XI - Davao 20.1 21.0 21.2 20.4 20.8 20.8 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 20.3 20.6 20.2 19.9 19.5 20.1 XIII –Caraga 19.7 20.7 20.8 20.4 20.2 20.3 ARMM 19.7 19.3 20.6 20.3 20.3 20.1 Education No education * (18.7) (17.2) (17.8) 18.8 18.2 Elementary 18.6 19.0 19.3 19.1 19.5 19.2 High school 20.1 20.6 21.1 21.0 21.4 20.7 College 23.3 24.1 24.6 25.0 24.1 24.1 Wealth quintile Lowest 18.8 19.6 19.7 19.5 19.8 19.4 Second 20.1 20.3 21.1 20.1 20.4 20.3 Middle 20.9 21.2 21.4 20.7 20.8 21.0 Fourth 21.9 22.5 22.4 22.6 22.6 22.4 Highest 23.9 23.9 23.7 24.2 23.5 23.8 Total 21.0 21.5 21.7 21.5 21.7 21.5 Note: Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk denotes a figure based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. 4.5 RECENT SEXUAL ACTIVITY In the absence of contraception, the chance of pregnancy is related to the regularity of sexual intercourse. The 2013 NDHS collected information regarding the respondents’ recent sexual activity to derive an indicator of the frequency of sexual intercourse. Each woman in the survey who had ever had sexual intercourse was asked how long ago she last had intercourse, her relationship to the person with whom she last had sexual intercourse, and how long she has had sexual relations with this person. Table 4.7 shows that in general, seven out of 10 women ages 15 to 49 reported ever having sexual intercourse, with a large percentage reporting having had sex within the four weeks (46 percent) before the survey. Sixteen percent of women had sex within the year before the survey but not during the four weeks immediately before the survey, and 9 percent had their last sexual intercourse a year or more before the survey. 38 • Marriage and Exposure to the Risk of Pregnancy The percentage of women who had recently been sexually active, increases with age peaking at 67 percent among those ages 35 to 39 but decreasing thereafter. Almost three-fourths of currently married women reported being sexually active within the four weeks prior to the survey. More than three-fourths of women who are divorced, separated or widowed reported it had been one year or more since they last had sexual intercourse. The proportion of women who were sexually active in the four weeks before the survey increases slightly with marital duration up to 10-14 years of marriage, after which it falls among those married longer. Table 4.7 also shows that sexual activity in the four weeks prior to the survey is higher among women in rural areas, women with less education and those belonging to the lower wealth quintiles than among their urban, better educated and wealthier counterparts. Recent sexual activity is also highest among women in Cagayan Valley, ARMM and Caraga. Table 4.7 Recent sexual activity Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by timing of last sexual intercourse, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Timing of last sexual intercourse Never had sexual intercourse Total Number of women Background characteristic Within the past 4 weeks Within 1 year1 One or more years Missing Age 15-19 7.9 4.9 1.8 0.1 85.3 100.0 3,237 20-24 35.7 14.7 7.6 0.0 41.9 100.0 2,789 25-29 54.7 17.7 9.2 0.2 18.1 100.0 2,156 30-34 64.0 17.5 9.6 0.3 8.6 100.0 2,250 35-39 67.3 17.1 10.6 0.3 4.7 100.0 1,976 40-44 62.3 20.3 11.8 0.2 5.4 100.0 1,924 45-49 52.7 24.1 17.8 0.3 5.1 100.0 1,823 Marital status Never married 2.7 4.7 7.0 0.1 85.6 100.0 5,615 Married or living together 73.8 21.7 4.4 0.2 0.0 100.0 9,729 Divorced/separated/widowed 4.7 17.5 77.4 0.4 0.0 100.0 811 Marital duration2 0-4 years 72.0 24.8 3.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 1,832 5-9 years 77.3 18.5 3.8 0.3 0.0 100.0 1,953 10-14 years 78.1 18.3 3.5 0.2 0.0 100.0 1,717 15-19 years 75.2 20.1 4.6 0.1 0.0 100.0 1,362 20-24 years 68.7 24.4 6.6 0.3 0.0 100.0 1,118 25+ years 63.0 28.7 8.0 0.4 0.0 100.0 923 Married more than once 76.6 20.2 3.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 825 Residence Urban 41.8 15.3 10.8 0.2 31.9 100.0 8,585 Rural 49.8 15.9 6.8 0.2 27.3 100.0 7,570 Region National Capital Region 39.4 13.9 12.2 0.0 34.5 100.0 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 46.8 14.1 10.2 0.0 28.8 100.0 252 I - Ilocos Region 46.8 17.0 8.6 0.0 27.6 100.0 691 II - Cagayan Valley 54.1 15.5 5.5 0.0 24.9 100.0 550 III - Central Luzon 46.6 13.6 8.3 0.6 30.9 100.0 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 40.9 17.4 10.7 0.1 30.9 100.0 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 49.7 18.4 4.7 0.0 27.2 100.0 372 V - Bicol 44.3 19.2 8.1 0.2 28.1 100.0 798 VI - Western Visayas 46.2 18.9 7.6 0.0 27.2 100.0 996 VII - Central Visayas 46.9 16.1 9.1 0.2 27.7 100.0 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 52.3 14.2 7.3 0.2 26.0 100.0 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 43.7 15.4 7.7 0.3 32.9 100.0 725 X - Northern Mindanao 50.7 13.0 8.7 0.9 26.6 100.0 697 XI - Davao 48.6 16.6 8.0 0.1 26.7 100.0 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 49.8 15.4 6.9 0.1 27.8 100.0 744 XIII - Caraga 53.0 16.7 6.9 0.1 23.3 100.0 435 ARMM 53.5 8.5 4.4 0.4 33.2 100.0 465 Continued… Marriage and Exposure to the Risk of Pregnancy • 39 Table 4.7—Continued Timing of last sexual intercourse Never had sexual intercourse Total Number of women Background characteristic Within the past 4 weeks Within 1 year1 One or more years Missing Education No education 57.7 18.7 11.1 0.4 12.0 100.0 188 Elementary 58.5 17.8 8.9 0.2 14.5 100.0 2,593 High school 44.9 14.7 7.8 0.2 32.4 100.0 7,916 College 40.0 15.6 10.5 0.2 33.7 100.0 5,458 Wealth quintile Lowest 57.7 16.1 5.0 0.3 20.9 100.0 2,620 Second 52.4 15.0 6.8 0.1 25.7 100.0 2,886 Middle 48.1 15.5 8.2 0.2 28.0 100.0 3,199 Fourth 43.5 15.4 9.4 0.2 31.5 100.0 3,572 Highest 32.1 15.7 13.4 0.2 38.7 100.0 3,878 Total 45.6 15.6 8.9 0.2 29.8 100.0 16,155 1 Excludes women who had sexual intercourse within the last 4 weeks 2 Excludes women who are not currently married 40 • Marriage and Exposure to the Risk of Pregnancy Fertility • 41 FERTILITY 5   ertility is one of the three principal components of population dynamics, the others being mortality and migration. Collection of data on fertility levels, trends and differentials has remained a prime objective of demographic and health surveys. In the Philippines, continued collection of such data is carried out through a pregnancy history approach in the demographic and health survey being conducted every five years. Pregnancy and fertility data were collected by asking women of reproductive age (15-49 years) to provide the complete history of all of their live births, stillbirths, miscarriages, and pregnancy terminations. In order to ensure a complete enumeration of live births, women’s responses to questions about the total number of children currently living with them, those living away, and those who had died were recorded. Moreover, information about the total number of lost pregnancies was recorded. Specifically, the following information was collected for each pregnancy loss: date of loss, duration of pregnancy, and whether the pregnancy ended in a miscarriage, a stillbirth, or pregnancy termination. In cases of live births, the following information was collected: name, sex, date of birth, survival status, current age (if alive), and age at death (if dead). The 2013 NDHS used the conventional practice of recording pregnancies in the pregnancy history starting from the first pregnancy. Although efforts were made during training to impress upon the interviewers the importance of collecting accurate and complete information on pregnancy histories, it is important to note that information collected through the pregnancy history approach has limitations that might bias pregnancy and fertility levels and patterns. For instance, women may include relatives’ children as their own or omit children who died at a young age, while older women may omit grown children who have left home (United Nations, 1983). Accordingly, the results should be viewed with these caveats in mind. This chapter looks at a number of fertility indicators including levels, patterns, and trends in both current and cumulative fertility; the length of birth intervals; and the age at which women initiate childbearing. Information on current and cumulative fertility is essential for monitoring population growth. The data on birth intervals are important because short intervals are strongly associated with childhood mortality. The age at which childbearing begins can have a major impact on the health and well-being of both the mother and the child. F Key Findings • The total fertility rate for the three years preceding the 2013 NDHS is 3.0 births per woman. • Fertility decreased by 3 births between 1970 and 2012 (from 6.0 to 3.0 births per woman). • Childbearing begins early with 22 percent of women age 25-49 giving birth by age 20 and 40 percent by age 22. • Ten percent of adolescent women age 15-19 are already mothers or pregnant with their first child. • Twenty-six percent of births occur within 24 months of a previous birth. • 42 • Fertility 5.1 CURRENT FERTILITY Several measures of current fertility are derived from the pregnancy history data. Age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs) refer to the average number of live births per 1,000 women in a certain age group.1They are a valuable measure to assess the current age pattern of childbearing. The total fertility rate (TFR) is defined as the total number of births a woman would have by the end of her childbearing period if she were to pass through those years bearing children at the currently observed ASFRs. The TFR is obtained by summing the ASFRs and multiplying by five. The general fertility rate (GFR) is expressed as the annual number of live births per 1,000 women age 15-44, and the crude birth rate (CBR) is expressed as the annual number of live births per 1,000 population. The various measures of current fertility are calculated for the three-year period preceding the survey. A three-year period was chosen because it reflects the current situation without unduly increasing sampling errors. Table 5.1 shows a TFR of 3.0 children per woman for the three-year period preceding the survey. The estimated TFR in the 2008 NDHS was 3.3 children, and thus the decrease in the TFR over the past five years is only 0.3 births per woman. Fertility is considerably higher in rural areas (3.5 births per woman) than in urban areas (2.6 births per woman), a pattern that is evident at every age group. The persistence of a disparity in fertility between urban and rural women is most probably due to factors associated with urbanization, such as better education, higher status of women, better access to health and family planning information and services, and later marriage. On the whole, fertility peaks at age 20-24, a pattern evident in rural areas as well as urban areas. Fertility falls sharply after age 35-39.The age pattern of fertility rates shows an inverted U-shape as shown in Figure 5.1. Table 5.2 highlights differences between the TFR and two other fertility measures—the percentage of women age 15-49who are currently pregnant and the mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49, by background characteristics. Like the TFR, the percentage pregnant provides a measure of current fertility, although it is subject to some degree of error because women may not recognize or report all first trimester pregnancies. The mean number of children ever born (CEB) to women age 40-49 is an indicator of completed fertility. It reflects the fertility performance of women who are nearing the end of their reproductive years. If fertility has remained stable over time, the two measures, TFR and CEB, will be about equal. Although this approach may be biased because of understated parity among older women, it does provide an indication of fertility change. In the 2013 NDHS, the difference between the TFR (3.0 births per woman) and the number of children ever born to women age 40-49 (3.7) is 0.7 children, indicating a decline in fertility. Differentials between the two measures by level of education are largest for women with no education.                                                              1Numerators for age-specific fertility rates are calculated by summing the number of live births that occurred in the period 1-36 months preceding the survey (determined by the date of the interview and the date of birth of the child) and classifying them by the age of the mother (in five-year groups) at the time of birth of the child (determined by the mother’s date of birth and the date of birth of the child). The denominators for the rates are the number of woman-years lived in each specific five-year age group during the period 1 to 36 months preceding the survey. Table 5.1 Current fertility Age-specific and total fertility rates, the general fertility rate, and the crude birth rate for the three years preceding the survey, by residence, Philippines 2013 Residence Total Age group Urban Rural 15-19 52 63 57 20-24 128 174 148 25-29 127 172 147 30-34 110 147 127 35-39 75 94 84 40-44 30 45 37 45-49 4 10 7 TFR(15-49) 2.6 3.5 3.0 GFR 88 115 101 CBR 21.5 22.6 22.1 Notes: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Rates for age group 45-49 may be slightly biased due to truncation. Rates are for the period 1-36 months prior to interview. TFR: Total fertility rate expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate expressed per 1,000 women age 15-44 CBR: Crude birth rate, expressed per 1,000 population Fertility • 43 As mentioned above, women in rural areas have an average of almost one more child than women in urban areas (TFR 3.5 and 2.6 children per woman, respectively). The differences are also substantial across regions. The National Capital Region (NCR), the center of government, business, commerce, and industry in the country, has the lowest TFR (2.3 children per woman) and the lowest mean number of CEB (3.0 children per woman). Two regions have a TFR higher than 4.0 children per woman: ARMM (4.2 children per woman) and Bicol (4.1 children per woman).These regions also have the highest mean CEB. The mean CEB is 5.5 children per woman in ARMM and 4.6 children per woman in Bicol. The difference in fertility indicators between the NCR and these two cited regions is about two children, which may be interpreted as stemming from differences in levels of urbanization. This is supported with the low TFR of regions adjacent to NCR, which host the spillover from the metropolitan area, namely, Central Luzon and CALABARZON (2.8 and 2.7 births per woman, respectively). There is a negative relationship between fertility and education in the Philippines. The total fertility rate for women with at least some college or higher education (2.1 children per woman) is 0 50 100 150 200 15‐19 20‐24 25‐29 30‐34 35‐39 40‐44 45‐49 Bi rt hs  p er  1 ,0 00  w om en Figure 5.1 Age-specific fertility rates by urban-rural residence Urban Rural Total Table 5.2 Fertility by background characteristics Total fertility rate for the three years preceding the survey, percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant, and mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 years, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Total fertility rate (TFR) Percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born (CEB) to women age 40-49 Residence Urban 2.6 3.8 3.3 Rural 3.5 4.8 4.2 Region National Capital Region 2.3 3.0 3.0 Cordillera Admin Region 2.9 4.8 4.0 I - Ilocos Region 2.8 4.5 3.2 II - Cagayan Valley 3.2 6.1 3.7 III - Central Luzon 2.8 4.1 3.3 IVA - CALABARZON 2.7 3.1 3.4 IVB - MIMAROPA 3.7 5.8 4.5 V - Bicol 4.1 4.0 4.6 VI - Western Visayas 3.8 4.2 4.2 VII - Central Visayas 3.2 3.9 3.6 VIII - Eastern Visayas 3.5 5.9 4.0 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 3.5 6.4 4.5 X - Northern Mindanao 3.5 5.7 4.3 XI - Davao 2.9 5.0 3.9 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 3.2 3.8 4.2 XIII - Caraga 3.6 6.6 4.4 ARMM 4.2 4.7 5.5 Education No education 3.8 3.4 6.1 Elementary 4.6 4.8 4.9 High school 3.3 4.6 3.7 College 2.1 3.5 2.6 Wealth quintile Lowest 5.2 6.8 5.6 Second 3.7 5.3 4.6 Middle 3.1 4.1 3.8 Fourth 2.4 3.6 3.0 Highest 1.7 2.4 2.5 Total 3.0 4.2 3.7 Note: Total fertility rates are for the period 1-36 months prior to interview. 44 • Fertility less than half that of women with elementary education (4.6 children) (Table 5.2). Similar differentials are seen by wealth status, with women in households in the higher wealth quintiles having fewer children than women in the lower wealth quintiles. Table 5.2 shows that 4 percent of respondents reported being pregnant at the time of the survey. This proportion varies from 3 percent in NCR to almost 7 percent in Caraga. 5.2 FERTILITY TRENDS In addition to comparisons of current and completed fertility, trends in fertility can be assessed in two other ways. First, fertility trends can be investigated using retrospective data from birth histories collected in the 2013 NDHS. Second, the TFR from the 2013 NDHS can be compared with estimates obtained in earlier surveys. Trends in fertility over time can be examined by comparing age-specific fertility rates from the 2013 NDHS for successive five-year periods preceding the survey, as presented in Table 5.3. The rates in older age groups become progressively more truncated for periods more distant from the survey date, because women age 50 and older were not interviewed in the survey. For example, rates cannot be calculated for women age 35-39 during the period of 15-19 years before the survey because these women would have been over age 50 at the time of the survey and therefore not eligible to be interviewed. Nonetheless, the results in Table 5.3 show that fertility has dropped among all age groups over the past two decades, with the largest declines occurring between 15-19 and 10-14 years before the survey, and between 5-9 and 0-4 years before the survey. Data in Table 5.3 indicate that fertility has been declining in all age groups. For example, the age- specific fertility rate for women age 25-29 declined from 214 births per 1,000 women in the 15-19 years preceding the survey to 181 births per 1,000 women in the 5-9 year period before the survey, a 15 percent decline. More recently, between the 5-9 year period and 0-4 year period prior to the survey a similar pace in fertility decline is observed. Another way to examine fertility trends is to compare the current TFR with estimates from previous DHS surveys. Table 5.4 and Figure 5.2 show fertility rates over a 40-year period. The rates reflect five-year averages centered on mid-period years for the 1973, 1978, and 1983 surveys and a three-year rate for the 1986, 1993, 1998, 2003, 2008 and 2013 surveys. Over the four decades, the TFR declined by 3.0 births, from 6.0 children per woman in 1970 to 3.0 children in 2011. The pace of fertility decline varied over time. In the early 1970s, the TFR declined by almost one birth, from 6.0 children per woman in 1970 to 5.2 in 1975, a 2.7 percent reduction annually. The TFR remained almost constant during the succeeding five-year period. A noticeable decline similar to that in the early 1970’s occurred during the first half of the 1980s. Fertility reduction has slowed since then. The 2013 NDHS revealed that in the period 2007-2012, the TFR declined at 1.8 percent annually. The results in Table 5.4 indicate that all age groups have contributed to the decline in fertility rates. However, the decline has been more rapid among women age 35 years and over than among younger women. Age-specific fertility rates among women age 35 years and over fell 60 percent or more from 1970 to 2012, based on the 1973 NDS and the 2013 NDHS. In contrast, fertility rates among women age 25 to 34 years declined by about one-half, and among women age 20 to 24 years, by more than one-third (35 percent) during Table 5.3 Trends in age-specific fertility rates Age-specific fertility rates for five-year periods preceding the survey, by mother's age at the time of the birth, Philippines 2013 Number of years preceding survey Mother's age at birth 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 15-19 59 57 61 54 20-24 156 169 173 184 25-29 154 181 193 214 30-34 129 145 152 [173] 35-39 84 96 [118] - 40-44 37 [56] - - 45-49 [8] - - - Note: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. Rates exclude births in the month of interview. Fertility • 45 this same period. In contrast, the fertility rate of the youngest age group 15-19 has remained somewhat constant. Table 5.4 Trends in fertility from various sources Age-specific and total fertility rates from various surveys, Philippines, 1970-2011 1973 1978 1983 1986 1993 1998 2003 2008 2013 NDS RPFS NDS CPS NDS NDHS NDHS NDHS NDHS Age (1970) (1975) (1980) (1984) (1991) (1996) (2002) (2007) (2012) 15-19 56 50 55 48 50 46 53 54 57 20-24 228 212 220 192 190 177 178 163 148 25-29 302 251 258 229 217 210 191 172 147 30-34 268 240 221 198 181 155 142 136 127 35-39 212 179 165 140 120 111 95 84 84 40-44 100 89 78 62 51 40 43 38 37 45-49 28 27 20 15 8 7 5 6 7 TFR 6.0 5.2 5.1 4.4 4.1 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.0 Note: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Rates for 1970 to 1980 are five-year averages and rates for 1984 to 2012 are three- year averages centered on the year in parentheses. 5.3 CHILDREN EVER BORN AND LIVING Information on lifetime fertility is useful for examining the momentum of childbearing and for estimating levels of primary infertility. The number of children ever born (CEB) or parity is a cross-sectional view at the time of the survey. It does not refer directly to the timing of fertility of the individual respondent but is a measure of her completed fertility. Table 5.5 shows the distribution of women by number of children ever born and by women’s age, for all women and for currently married women and the corresponding mean number of children ever born, and the mean number of living children. The results show that among all women, more than one in three does not have any children. Among married women, only 7 percent do not have children. Table 5.5 shows that, on average, women have given birth to less than one child (0.65) by their early twenties, 3.1 children by their late thirties, and 4.0 children by 6.0 5.2 5.1 4.4 4.1 3.7 3.5 3.3 3.0 0 2 4 6 8 1973 NDS (1970) 1978 RPFS (1975) 1983 NDS (1980) 1986 CPS (1984) 1993 NDS (1991) 1998 NDHS (1996) 2003 NDHS (2001) 2008 NDHS (2007) 2013 NDHS (2012) Figure 5.2 Trends in the total fertility rate 46 • Fertility the end of their reproductive period. Table 5.5 also shows that, overall, the mean number of CEB is 1.9 children for all women and 2.9 for currently married women. Table 5.5 Children ever born and living Percent distribution of all women and currently married women age 15-49 by number of children ever born, mean number of children ever born and mean number of living children, according to age group, Philippines 2013 Number of children ever born Number of women Mean number of children ever born Mean number of living children Age 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10+ Total ALL WOMEN 15-19 92.3 6.8 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3,237 0.09 0.08 20-24 57.4 25.6 12.1 4.2 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2,789 0.65 0.64 25-29 28.9 24.8 24.4 13.9 5.5 1.7 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 2,156 1.51 1.46 30-34 16.0 18.4 26.1 18.0 10.8 6.3 2.3 1.2 0.6 0.2 0.0 100.0 2,250 2.29 2.22 35-39 10.4 11.7 21.8 21.6 12.9 9.0 5.3 3.5 1.6 1.1 1.0 100.0 1,976 3.07 2.96 40-44 9.4 7.8 19.2 19.8 14.1 10.6 7.3 5.2 3.1 1.7 1.7 100.0 1,924 3.54 3.38 45-49 8.6 7.6 16.1 16.3 15.7 11.5 8.0 5.3 4.3 2.3 4.2 100.0 1,823 3.97 3.72 Total 37.8 14.9 15.9 12.0 7.4 4.8 2.8 1.8 1.2 0.6 0.8 100.0 16,155 1.90 1.82 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN 15-19 36.1 55.1 7.8 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 313 0.74 0.72 20-24 16.5 46.7 25.9 9.4 1.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,196 1.33 1.29 25-29 7.4 29.2 32.8 19.4 7.6 2.3 1.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,484 2.03 1.96 30-34 6.4 18.8 29.6 20.6 12.4 7.2 2.7 1.3 0.6 0.2 0.0 100.0 1,862 2.59 2.51 35-39 4.6 11.2 23.2 23.6 13.9 9.5 5.9 3.9 1.9 1.3 1.1 100.0 1,725 3.32 3.21 40-44 3.6 7.2 20.1 21.0 15.7 11.8 7.6 5.7 3.6 1.9 1.8 100.0 1,638 3.84 3.67 45-49 3.2 7.0 16.7 17.3 16.8 12.8 8.5 5.7 4.6 2.6 4.8 100.0 1,511 4.28 4.01 Total 7.4 19.9 24.2 18.5 11.4 7.4 4.3 2.8 1.8 1.0 1.3 100.0 9,729 2.89 2.77 The proportion of women with no children is high in the younger age groups among both all women and currently married women. This pattern is partly due to the law specifying 18 as the minimum legal age for marriage, but also to the fact that most births occur within marriage. Childlessness is uncommon in Philippine society; among older married women only 3 percent are childless. Assuming that voluntary childlessness within marriage is rare, the 3 percent of married women age 45-49 who are childless may be interpreted as an estimate of primary sterility in the Philippines. The corresponding figure for all women age 45-49 is 9 percent, which reflects the combined impact of infertility, marital dissolution, and celibacy. In addition to giving a description of average family size, information on the number of children ever born and the number of children surviving gives an indication of the extent of childhood and young adult mortality. For younger women, the difference between the mean number of children ever born and the mean number of children surviving is very small. However, the difference increases with women’s age. By the end of the reproductive period, women have lost almost one in 16 children. 5.4 BIRTH INTERVALS Children’s health status is closely related to the length of the preceding birth interval. Research has shown that children born too soon after a previous birth (i.e., within 24 months) are at greater risk of illness and death than those born after a longer interval. In addition, short birth intervals may have consequences for other children in the family. The occurrence of closely spaced births gives the mother insufficient time to restore her health, which may limit her ability to take care of her children. The duration of breastfeeding for the older child may also be shortened if the mother becomes pregnant within a shorter interval. The influence of the timing of births on both fertility and mortality is well documented. Evidence that women with closely spaced births have higher fertility than women with longer birth intervals has been observed in many countries. Fertility • 47 It has also been shown that short birth intervals, particularly those less than two years, elevate risks of death for mother and child. In the Philippines, the median interval between births is 35 months (Table 5.6). While 24 percent of births occur five or more years after a previous birth, a similar proportion, one in four non-first births, occurs within two years of a previous birth. The large proportion of births that take place after a short birth interval is a cause for concern because it has negative implications for maternal and child health and survival. Table 5.6 Birth intervals Percent distribution of non-first births in the five years preceding the survey by number of months since preceding birth, and median number of months since preceding birth, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Months since preceding birth Number of non-first births Median number of months since preceding birth Background characteristic 7-17 18-23 24-35 36-47 48-59 60+ Total Age 15-19 (52.7) (18.3) (20.6) (8.5) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 32 (17.3) 20-29 16.5 20.5 29.9 14.4 9.2 9.5 100.0 1,768 28.3 30-39 8.0 12.4 24.7 14.4 10.8 29.7 100.0 2,315 39.8 40-49 3.9 7.5 20.4 15.9 9.6 42.7 100.0 706 50.7 Sex of preceding birth Male 11.8 14.3 25.3 14.7 10.9 22.9 100.0 2,464 35.2 Female 9.7 15.1 26.6 14.6 9.0 25.1 100.0 2,356 34.9 Survival of preceding birth Living 10.2 14.4 26.1 14.7 10.2 24.4 100.0 4,651 35.5 Dead 26.2 22.1 21.7 12.8 4.1 13.0 100.0 170 24.6 Birth order 2-3 12.1 14.9 22.8 14.0 10.6 25.7 100.0 2,861 36.2 4-6 8.4 13.6 29.3 15.5 9.3 23.8 100.0 1,436 35.3 7+ 10.2 16.5 34.2 15.5 8.5 15.2 100.0 524 31.1 Residence Urban 11.1 13.9 23.8 14.5 9.9 26.9 100.0 2,127 36.8 Rural 10.6 15.3 27.7 14.7 10.0 21.7 100.0 2,694 33.8 Region National Capital Region 13.3 13.1 19.8 14.9 11.4 27.6 100.0 637 38.3 Cordillera Admin Region 9.0 17.0 26.5 14.7 8.5 24.3 100.0 66 34.8 I - Ilocos Region 10.3 14.2 30.1 17.4 8.5 19.6 100.0 218 33.7 II - Cagayan Valley 9.5 14.7 24.6 12.7 12.3 26.2 100.0 174 37.5 III - Central Luzon 9.8 14.1 23.4 13.3 10.4 29.1 100.0 442 38.9 IVA - CALABARZON 8.3 15.4 26.6 13.4 10.2 26.1 100.0 574 35.9 IVB - MIMAROPA 14.3 13.7 21.8 11.4 14.2 24.6 100.0 142 36.1 V - Bicol 9.2 17.4 34.5 13.5 7.4 18.1 100.0 327 31.7 VI - Western Visayas 6.8 10.8 25.5 19.7 10.2 27.1 100.0 348 39.3 VII - Central Visayas 10.5 16.4 27.6 13.8 9.5 22.0 100.0 327 33.3 VIII - Eastern Visayas 10.0 17.1 24.8 12.4 14.8 20.9 100.0 202 34.8 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 9.7 16.5 29.5 12.5 9.7 22.1 100.0 248 32.8 X - Northern Mindanao 14.3 11.5 23.9 18.9 6.0 25.4 100.0 216 36.1 XI - Davao 11.3 14.9 22.5 14.9 9.5 26.9 100.0 274 36.7 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 9.4 14.8 31.2 14.3 7.0 23.3 100.0 241 33.6 XIII - Caraga 13.6 14.3 27.8 15.6 10.9 17.9 100.0 163 33.5 ARMM 18.7 17.6 28.1 15.0 8.6 11.9 100.0 221 28.6 Education No education 14.7 12.7 31.3 21.4 9.1 10.7 100.0 93 32.0 Elementary 10.3 15.0 33.1 13.2 9.2 19.2 100.0 1,243 31.8 High school 10.9 16.0 24.6 15.0 10.0 23.5 100.0 2,401 34.8 College 10.8 11.7 20.3 14.8 10.8 31.6 100.0 1,083 42.3 Wealth quintile Lowest 10.7 16.3 32.9 14.4 9.8 15.8 100.0 1,570 31.2 Second 11.9 15.7 27.3 15.3 9.5 20.3 100.0 1,104 33.3 Middle 10.5 13.5 23.4 15.0 9.4 28.2 100.0 911 37.1 Fourth 11.0 14.7 19.0 14.6 8.9 31.8 100.0 702 41.1 Highest 8.9 9.8 16.4 13.3 13.5 38.1 100.0 534 50.6 Total 10.8 14.7 25.9 14.6 10.0 24.0 100.0 4,821 35.1 Note: First-order births are excluded. The interval for multiple births is the number of months since the preceding pregnancy that ended in a live birth. Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 48 • Fertility Younger women have shorter birth intervals than older women. The median birth interval is 28 months for women age 20-29 and 51 months for women age 40 and older. There is a decreasing relationship between birth order and median birth interval, from 36 months for second and third births to 35 months for fourth through sixth births, and to 31 months for higher-order births (Figure 5.3). The length of the birth interval does not vary by sex of previous child, but it does vary by survival status of the previous birth. For births whose prior sibling survived, the median birth interval is 36 months; for those with a non-surviving previous birth, the birth interval is 25 months. The difference is due to a variety of mechanisms through which infant and child mortality influence birth intervals and fertility, particularly whether the mother seeks to replace a dead child as soon as possible. Mother’s education is also associated with the length of birth intervals, but its association is not as strong as that with the mother’s economic status. Mothers with at least some college or higher education have a longer birth interval than mothers with lower education. For such mothers, the median birth interval is 42 months compared to 32 months for mothers with no education or with at most an elementary education, and 35 months for those with at most a high school education. By comparison, women in the lowest and second wealth quintiles have the shortest birth interval (31 to 33 months), while those in higher wealth quintiles have longer birth intervals (41 to 51 months). 5.5 POSTPARTUM AMENORRHEA, ABSTINENCE, AND INSUSCEPTIBILITY A woman who has just given birth can reduce the risk of becoming pregnant if she breastfeeds her newborn or delays the resumption of sexual intercourse. Postpartum amenorrhea refers to the interval between childbirth and the return of menstruation. The length and intensity of breastfeeding influence the duration of amenorrhea, which offers protection from conception. Postpartum abstinence refers to the period between childbirth and the time when a woman resumes sexual activity. Women are considered to be insusceptible to pregnancy if they are not exposed to the risk of conception either because their menstrual period has not resumed since a birth or because they are abstaining from intercourse after childbirth. (17.3) 28.3 39.8 50.7 36.2 35.3 31.1 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 15‐19  20‐29  30‐39  40‐49  2‐3 4‐6 7+  Age of mother                                                               Birth order Figure 5.3 Median number of months since previous birth Fertility • 49 Table 5.7 shows the percentage of births in the three years preceding the survey for which mothers are postpartum amenorrheic, abstaining, and insusceptible by the number of months since birth. The results are grouped in two-month intervals to minimize fluctuations in the estimates. Overall, 17 percent of women who gave birth in the three years preceding the survey are amenorrheic, 14 percent are abstaining, and 23 percent are insusceptible to pregnancy. Women are amenorrheic for a median of 4.1 months and abstain for a median of 2.7 months, resulting in a median period of insusceptibility of 5.7 months. The median duration of amenorrhea went down from 4.6 to 4.1 months; otherwise, the figures are slightly higher than those recorded in the 2008NDHS. The results in Table 5.7 show that for births less than two months of age, 92 percent of women are amenorrheic, 86 percent are abstaining, and 99 percent are insusceptible. These proportions decrease sharply for the period 2-3 months after birth and decline steadily thereafter. The percentage of women abstaining is less than the percentage who are amenorrheic up through the period 14 to 15 months after birth; thereafter, the pattern reverses. Table 5.7 Postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility Percentage of births in the three years preceding the survey for which mothers are postpartum amenorrheic, abstaining, and insusceptible, by number of months since birth, and median and mean durations, Philippines 2013 Percentage of births for which the mother is: Number of births Months since birth Amenorrheic Abstaining Insusceptible1 < 2 92.2 86.1 98.7 181 2-3 57.2 48.1 75.6 251 4-5 45.7 28.8 57.1 220 6-7 36.0 18.0 44.0 245 8-9 21.7 10.4 29.4 229 10-11 20.3 10.8 27.4 251 12-13 13.7 7.1 19.8 237 14-15 8.9 4.4 12.5 243 16-17 8.9 9.0 15.2 217 18-19 4.0 4.8 8.9 204 20-21 1.8 5.2 6.4 269 22-23 0.9 4.4 4.8 244 24-25 0.0 3.2 3.2 213 26-27 1.4 7.1 7.6 211 28-29 1.5 4.1 5.7 216 30-31 0.7 3.7 3.9 200 32-33 0.5 3.7 3.7 254 34-35 2.6 4.5 6.1 216 Total 17.2 14.0 23.4 4,102 Median 4.1 2.7 5.7 na Mean 6.7 5.6 8.9 na Note: Estimates are based on status at the time of the survey. na = Not applicable 1 Includes births for which mothers are either still amenorrheic or still abstaining (or both) following birth Table 5.8 shows differences in the median duration of postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence and insusceptibility according to background characteristics. In general, the differences in the median duration of postpartum insusceptibility are small. Women in urban areas are insusceptible to pregnancy for about one month less than women in rural areas because of a slightly shorter duration of amenorrhea. During the postpartum period, better-educated women are more susceptible to the risk of pregnancy than women with less education because they have a shorter duration of amenorrhea. The median duration of insusceptibility is 4.8 months for women with college or higher level of education and 8.4 months for women with at most an elementary education. With respect to economic status, the duration of postpartum 50 • Fertility insusceptibility is longest among women in households in the poorest wealth quintile (7.4 months) and shortest for women in households from middle to the highest wealth quintile (5.1 months). This is attributable to longer durations of postpartum amenorrhea among women in the lowest quintile or poorest households (6.4 months) compared with women in the highest quintile or wealthiest households (3.2 months). Table 5.8 Median duration of amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence, and postpartum insusceptibility Median number of months of postpartum amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence, and postpartum insusceptibility following births in the three years preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Postpartum amenorrhea Postpartum abstinence Postpartum insusceptibility1 Mother's age 15-29 4.0 2.7 5.8 30-49 4.2 2.8 5.5 Residence Urban 3.3 2.9 5.1 Rural 4.9 2.5 6.2 Region National Capital Region 2.8 2.8 4.6 Cordillera Admin Region (4.6) * (5.2) I - Ilocos Region * * (4.8) II - Cagayan Valley (4.5) * (5.2) III - Central Luzon 3.1 * 4.9 IVA - CALABARZON 3.1 3.9 5.0 IVB - MIMAROPA (6.7) (3.5) (7.8) V - Bicol (6.0) (3.0) (7.9) VI - Western Visayas 6.4 (2.9) (8.7) VII - Central Visayas (6.1) * (6.8) VIII - Eastern Visayas * * * IX - Zamboanga Peninsula (3.7) (2.5) (6.6) X - Northern Mindanao (5.8) * (8.9) XI - Davao (4.3) (3.1) (5.1) XII - SOCCSKSARGEN (2.5) * (4.4) XIII - Caraga (5.1) (2.9) (6.1) ARMM 4.6 a 5.4 Education No education * * * Elementary 7.5 (2.4) 8.4 High school 4.0 2.7 5.4 College 2.8 3.0 4.8 Wealth quintile Lowest 6.4 2.2 7.4 Second 4.2 (2.5) 5.9 Middle 3.6 3.3 5.1 Fourth 3.0 3.2 5.0 Highest 3.2 3.4 5.1 Total 4.1 2.7 5.7 Note: Medians are based on the status at the time of the survey (current status). Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (using smoothed data); an asterisk denotes a figure based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. 1 Includes births for which mothers are either still amenorrheic or still abstaining (or both) following birth a Not possible to calculate     5.6 MENOPAUSE After age 30, women’s susceptibility to pregnancy declines as an increasing proportion of women become infecund. The term infecundity denotes a process rather than a well-defined event. Although the onset of infecundity is difficult to determine for an individual woman, one indicator of infecundity is menopause.     Fertility • 51 Menopause is the culmination of a gradual decline in fecundity with increasing age. Women were considered menopausal if they were neither pregnant nor postpartum amenorrheic at the time of the survey and had not had a menstrual period for at least six months prior to the survey. Women who report that they have had a hysterectomy are also defined as menopausal. Table 5.9 presents data on menopause for women age 30 and older. Six percent of women age 30-49 are estimated to be menopausal. The proportion of women who are menopausal increases with age, from 1 percent among women age 30-34 to 32 percent among women age 48-49. 5.7 AGE AT FIRST BIRTH Age at first birth has a direct impact on fertility. Early initiation of childbearing lengthens the reproductive period and subsequently increases fertility. In many countries, postponement of first births— reflecting an increase in the age at marriage—has contributed greatly to overall fertility declines. Moreover, bearing children at a young age involves substantial risks to the health of both the mother and the child. Early childbearing also tends to restrict educational and economic opportunities for women. Table 5.10 presents, by age cohort, the percentage of all women who gave birth by specific ages. Overall, the median age at first birth is 23.5 years. This median fluctuates between 23.0 and 23.6 years across age groups and shows a slight tendency to rise among the older age groups. Slightly more than one-fifth of women in the Philippines give birth before reaching age 20, while almost two-fifths give birth by age 22 and about three-fifths by age 25.Changes in the median age at first birth among women age 25-49 over time (23.5 years in 2013 versus 23.2 years in 2008) are small. Table 5.10 Age at first birth Percentage of women age 15-49 who gave birth by exact ages, percentage who have never given birth, and median age at first birth, according to current age, Philippines 2013 Percentage who gave birth by exact age Percentage who have never given birth Number of women Median age at first birth Current age 15 18 20 22 25 15-19 0.4 na na na na 92.3 3,237 a 20-24 0.3 8.4 24.4 na na 57.4 2,789 a 25-29 0.7 8.6 23.7 41.9 61.9 28.9 2,156 23.0 30-34 0.4 7.3 20.8 38.7 59.6 16.0 2,250 23.5 35-39 0.5 7.4 22.4 38.7 58.7 10.4 1,976 23.6 40-44 0.8 8.9 22.7 40.0 59.4 9.4 1,924 23.5 45-49 0.7 9.1 21.7 38.0 59.9 8.6 1,823 23.6 18-24 0.4 8.4 na na na 65.4 3,956 a 20-49 0.6 8.2 22.7 na na 24.2 12,918 a 25-49 0.6 8.2 22.3 39.5 59.9 15.1 10,129 23.5 na = Not applicable due to censoring a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of women had a birth before reaching the beginning of the age group   As shown in Table 5.11, women in the urban areas have their first birth about two years later than their rural counterparts. Women with higher education and those in higher socioeconomic strata have a higher Table 5.9 Menopause Percentage of women age 30-49 who are menopausal, by age, Philippines 2013 Age Percentage menopausal1 Number of women 30-34 0.9 2,250 35-39 1.5 1,976 40-41 2.8 786 42-43 4.0 767 44-45 7.9 818 46-47 15.6 699 48-49 31.8 677 Total 6.2 7,973 1 Percentage of all women who are not pregnant and not postpartum amenorrheic whose last menstrual period occurred six or more months preceding the survey 52 • Fertility median age at first birth than other women. Regional variation in age at first birth ranges from 21.6 years in MIMAROPA to 25.0 years in NCR. Table 5.11 Median age at first birth Median age at first birth among women age 25-49 years, according to age group and background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Age Ages Background characteristic 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 25-49 Residence Urban 24.2 24.4 24.3 24.2 24.3 24.3 Rural 22.1 22.6 22.9 22.9 22.9 22.6 Region National Capital Region 24.7 24.9 25.2 25.2 24.9 25.0 Cordillera Admin Region 22.4 24.1 24.2 23.1 23.6 23.4 I - Ilocos Region 22.8 22.9 24.1 25.5 24.3 23.8 II - Cagayan Valley 22.0 23.1 22.7 21.3 23.2 22.3 III - Central Luzon 24.2 23.2 24.0 23.7 23.7 23.8 IVA - CALABARZON 24.2 24.7 23.7 23.9 24.0 24.1 IVB - MIMAROPA 20.8 22.6 21.3 21.7 21.3 21.6 V - Bicol 22.6 23.1 24.0 24.5 23.4 23.3 VI - Western Visayas 22.8 23.5 23.6 22.9 24.1 23.4 VII - Central Visayas 22.1 23.3 24.1 23.2 24.0 23.4 VIII - Eastern Visayas 21.8 22.3 23.0 23.3 23.3 22.8 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 22.0 22.7 22.6 21.5 22.4 22.2 X - Northern Mindanao 23.0 23.1 22.0 23.9 22.9 22.9 XI - Davao 22.3 22.4 23.2 22.1 22.5 22.5 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 22.1 21.9 21.7 21.6 21.5 21.8 XIII - Caraga 21.8 23.1 22.6 22.9 22.6 22.4 ARMM 21.5 21.0 22.3 23.1 22.9 22.0 Education No education * (21.2) (18.5) (19.4) 21.6 20.1 Elementary 20.3 20.6 21.0 21.1 21.5 21.0 High school 21.8 22.3 22.9 22.9 23.3 22.5 College a 26.3 26.9 27.3 26.4 a Wealth quintile Lowest 20.3 20.9 21.4 21.6 21.8 21.1 Second 21.4 21.8 22.6 22.0 22.6 21.9 Middle 22.9 22.9 23.4 22.6 22.7 22.9 Fourth a 25.3 24.5 24.5 24.0 24.7 Highest a 26.7 26.2 26.2 25.7 a Total 23.0 23.5 23.6 23.5 23.6 23.5 Note: Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk denotes a figure based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of the women had a birth before reaching the beginning of the age group   5.8 PREGNANCY AND MOTHERHOOD AMONG YOUTH Teenage pregnancy and motherhood is a major social and health concern. Early pregnancy can cause health problems for the mother as well as the child. Teenage mothers are more likely to suffer from severe complications during delivery, which result in higher morbidity and mortality for both themselves and their children. In addition, young mothers may not be sufficiently emotionally mature to bear the burden of childbearing and child rearing. Moreover, an early start to childbearing often reduces women’s educational and employment opportunities and is associated with higher levels of fertility. Table 5.12 shows that 27 percent of young women age 15-24 in the Philippines have begun childbearing. Twenty-four percent of young women have given birth, and another 3 percent are pregnant with their first child. As expected, the proportion of women who have begun childbearing rises with age, from less than 2 percent among women age 15 to 22 percent of women age 19 and to 59 percent of those age 24. Fertility • 53 Early childbearing varies by urban-rural residence. The proportion of young women who have begun childbearing is 25 percent in urban areas and 29 percent in rural areas. Early childbearing is more common in Caraga (38 percent) than in other regions, especially NCR, CALABARZON and ARMM (24 percent). It is less common among women with a higher education and among women in the highest wealth quintile. Table 5.12 Early pregnancy and motherhood Percentage of women age 15-24 who have had a live birth or who are pregnant with their first child, and percentage who have begun childbearing, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage who: Percentage who have begun childbearing Number of women Background characteristic Have had a live birth Are pregnant with first child Age 15 1.0 0.6 1.6 781 16 2.6 2.4 5.0 650 17 6.7 2.3 9.0 638 18 13.1 3.9 17.0 632 19 18.3 3.8 22.1 535 20 27.7 5.1 32.8 618 21 36.2 2.8 39.0 549 22 45.9 2.9 48.8 542 23 49.3 4.5 53.8 578 24 56.9 2.2 59.1 503 15-19 7.7 2.5 10.1 3,237 20-24 42.6 3.6 46.2 2,789 Residence Urban 22.2 2.6 24.9 3,264 Rural 25.8 3.4 29.2 2,762 Region National Capital Region 21.9 2.4 24.3 1,086 Cordillera Admin Region 24.6 3.9 28.5 96 I - Ilocos Region 27.7 2.4 30.1 237 II - Cagayan Valley 30.6 5.9 36.5 216 III - Central Luzon 22.3 3.6 25.9 619 IVA - CALABARZON 22.7 1.5 24.2 844 IVB - MIMAROPA 24.2 3.9 28.1 134 V - Bicol 23.5 3.1 26.6 290 VI - Western Visayas 24.3 2.3 26.6 370 VII - Central Visayas 22.9 1.8 24.6 367 VIII - Eastern Visayas 20.9 3.9 24.8 194 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 21.6 4.9 26.4 301 X - Northern Mindanao 26.3 2.6 28.9 266 XI - Davao 26.2 4.0 30.2 346 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 25.6 3.9 29.5 301 XIII - Caraga 32.8 4.8 37.6 170 ARMM 22.3 2.1 24.4 190 Education No education (43.5) (0.0) (43.5) 32 Elementary 39.8 4.3 44.1 584 High school 24.5 2.8 27.2 3,510 College 17.5 3.1 20.5 1,900 Wealth quintile Lowest 34.0 3.3 37.3 902 Second 29.6 4.4 34.0 1,134 Middle 27.8 3.2 30.9 1,236 Fourth 21.7 2.7 24.4 1,338 Highest 11.4 1.8 13.2 1,415 Total 23.9 3.0 26.8 6,026 Note: Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 54 • Fertility Fertility Preferences • 55 FERTILITY PREFERENCES 6 nformation on fertility preferences is of considerable importance to family planning policies and programs as this allows planners to assess not only the desire of women and couples for children but also the extent of unwanted and mistimed pregnancies. In recognition of the right of couples to decide their own family size, the Philippine Family Planning Program (PFPP) regularly monitors the following five key fertility preferences indicators: 1) desire for additional children; 2) desire to limit childbearing; 3) ideal number of children; 4) fertility planning status (wanted and unwanted fertility); and 5) couples’ consensus on family size. This chapter updates these indicators with data collected from the 2013 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) using the same series of questions asked in previous NDHS rounds to ascertain women’s fertility preferences (NSO and ICF Macro, 2009). Interpretation of data on fertility preferences is often difficult since it is understood that respondents’ reported preferences are, in a sense, hypothetical and are thus subject to change and rationalization. Still, data on fertility preferences indicate the direction of future fertility to the extent that individuals and couples will act to achieve their preferred family sizes (NIPS and ICF International, 2013). 6.1 DESIRE FOR MORE CHILDREN Desire for additional children among currently married women age 15-49 is determined by asking whether or not they want to have another child and, if so, how soon. The question was phrased differently in I Key Findings • More than half (54 percent) of married women age 15-49 do not want another child and an additional 9 percent are already sterilized. Nineteen percent of married women want to have another child but would prefer to wait two or more years. Thus, 81 percent of married women want either to space their births or to limit childbearing altogether. Only 12 percent of women would like to have a child soon (within two years). These figures are similar to those reported in the 2008 NDHS. • The proportion of currently married women who want no more children increases with increasing number of living children and age of the women. • The mean ideal number of children for all women is 2.8 children which remains unchanged from the 2008 NDHS figure. For currently married women, the mean ideal family size is 3.0 children, slightly lower than the mean of 3.1 children in the 2008 NDHS. • Unplanned pregnancies are common in the Philippines. Nearly three in ten births are either unwanted (11 percent) or mistimed and wanted later (17 percent). These figures are lower than those reported in the 2008 NDHS (16 percent and 20 percent, respectively). • The total wanted fertility rate for the Philippines is 2.2 children per woman, 27 percent lower than the actual total fertility rate of 3.0 children. 56 • Fertility Preferen the case of women we more child Fi 15-49. Thr more child child at so birth for a women ar unable to reported in birth or to F T child, acco child decr childbearin child soon child, but percent of In number of increasing percent am percent am rounds (20 nces f pregnant wo ere not asked dren (NSC, M igure 6.1 illus ree in five wo dren, while 9 ome time in th at least two ye re undecided o become pregn n the 2008 ND limit childbea Figure 6.1 F able 6.1 show ording to the reases rapidly ng at the time n, that is, with nearly half (4 f women with n contrast wit f living childr g number of liv mong women mong those w 003 and 2008) anot d w U omen to refer t questions abo OH, and ICF strates the bre omen in the P percent have b he future, but m ears while 12 on the timing nant (infecund DHS. In all, a aring altogethe Fertility pre ws the percent number of liv y with increa e of the surve hin the next tw 49 percent) w six or more ch th the proport ren, the propo ving children with two chil with four or mo ). Have ther, undecide when, < 1% Undecided, 5% to a subsequen out their desire International, eakdown of th hilippines wan been sterilized most do not w percent want g of their next d). This distri a vast majority er. ferences am distribution o ving children. asing number ey want to hav wo years. Sev want to wait at hildren want to tion of women ortion of wom (Figure 6.2), f ldren, to 82 pe ore children. T Have an later, nt child after c e for more chil 2013). he desire for c nt to stop chil d. In addition, want a child so t to have a ch t birth. Two p ibution of fert y of Filipino m mong curre of currently m . As expected of children. ve a child wit ven in ten wom t least two ye o have anothe n who want t men who wan from 21 perce ercent among The same pat Have soo nother 19% Want no mo 54% completion of ldren because children amon ldbearing: 54 , 31 percent o oon. Nineteen hild within the percent of ma tility preferenc married wome ently marrie married women d, the proporti Nine in ten th a majority ( men who have ears before ha er child. to have anoth nt to limit chi ent among mar women with ttern was obse e another on, 12% ore Sterilized, 9% f the current pr they were con ng currently m percent do no of married wom percent prefer e next two yea arried women ces is very sim en want either d women ag n age 15-49 by ion of women n women who (76 percent) p e one child w aving the next her child that ildbearing inc rried women w three children erved in the tw Declared infecund, 2% Missing, < 1% regnancy. Ster nsidered to wa married wome ot want to hav men want to h r to delay thei ars. One perc declare them milar to the p r to space thei ge 15-49 y desire for an n who want an o have not s preferring to h ant to have an t child. Less t decreases wi reases rapidly with one child n, and to arou wo previous N % rilized ant no en age ve any have a ir next ent of selves pattern ir next nother nother started have a nother than 5 th the y with d to 64 und 90 NDHS Fertility Preferences • 57 Table 6.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 by desire for children, according to number of living children, Philippines 2013 Desire for children Number of living children1 Total 15-49 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Have another soon2 75.7 19.8 7.7 4.1 3.3 2.1 2.5 12.0 Have another later3 13.1 49.2 20.1 8.9 3.9 3.3 1.8 18.7 Have another, undecided when 2.5 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.6 Undecided 0.6 7.2 5.4 3.1 3.7 2.4 3.4 4.5 Want no more 1.9 21.0 59.5 65.0 71.5 75.8 78.2 53.7 Sterilized4 0.0 0.4 4.9 17.0 15.8 15.0 11.3 8.6 Declared infecund 6.0 1.7 1.7 1.1 1.4 0.7 2.4 1.8 Missing 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.5 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 10.0 10.0 Number 550 2,031 2,494 1,845 1,151 686 972 9,729 1 The number of living children includes the current pregnancy 2 Wants next birth within 2 years 3 Wants to delay next birth for 2 or more years 4 Includes both female and male sterilization Figure 6.2 Percentage of currently married women who want no more children, by number of children Table 6.2 shows the percent distribution of currently married women by their desire for more children, according to age. The proportion of married women who want the next birth within two years is highest among women age 30-34 (17 percent) and lowest among women age 45-49 (6 percent). Meanwhile, the proportion of women who want to delay the next birth for two or more years is highest among women age 15-19 (58 percent) then decreases to less than one percent among women age 45-49. As expected, the proportion of women who want no more children or are sterilized, increases with increasing age: 20 percent of women age 15-19 want no more children, compared with 84 percent among women age 45-49. The proportion of women who said they were unable to have any more children (infecund) is less than one percent among women under age 35, but rises to 8 percent among women age 45-49. 2 21 64 82 87 91 90 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Number of children Percent 58 • Fertility Preferences Table 6.2 Fertility preferences by age Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 by desire for children, according to age, Philippines 2013 Desire for children Age Total 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Have another soon1 11.0 10.7 12.7 17.0 13.4 10.3 6.4 12.0 Have another later2 57.9 49.5 37.4 18.2 7.1 1.7 0.3 18.7 Have another, undecided when 0.3 1.2 0.7 0.4 0.9 0.2 0.2 0.6 Undecided 10.9 6.8 6.4 5.3 3.9 2.7 1.0 4.5 Want no more 19.6 31.2 40.1 51.0 62.7 67.0 70.3 53.7 Sterilized3 0.0 0.5 2.6 7.7 10.7 16.1 13.5 8.6 Declared infecund 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.2 1.9 7.7 1.8 Missing 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 313 1,196 1,484 1,862 1,725 1,638 1,511 9,729 1 Wants next birth within 2 years 2 Wants to delay next birth for 2 or more years 3 Includes both female and male sterilization 6.2 DESIRE TO LIMIT CHILDBEARING BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS The proportion of women who want no more children is an important and easily understood measure of fertility preference. Table 6.3 shows the percentage of currently married women who want to stop childbearing by the number of living children and background characteristics. The proportion of women who desire to stop childbearing increases substantially as the number of living children increases; from 2 percent among women with no child to 22 percent among women with one child, to 64 percent among women with two children, and to 90 percent among women with five or more children. Overall, the same proportion of married women (62 percent) in urban and rural areas wants to limit childbearing (Figure 6.3). However, as observed in the 2003 and 2008 NDHS, when the number of living children is considered, the proportion of women who want to limit childbearing is consistently higher among women in urban areas than in rural areas (NSO and ORC Macro, 2004 and NSO and ICF Macro, 2009). For example, among women who have two living children, 68 percent in urban areas want to limit childbearing, compared with 61 percent in rural areas. The desire to limit childbearing varies substantially across the administrative regions. The proportion who want no more children is highest among married women in Western Visayas (69 percent) and Cagayan Valley (68 percent) and lowest among women in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (31 percent). In addition to ARMM, another region with less than half of women wanting no more children is Zamboanga Peninsula (49 percent). Fertility Preferences • 59 Table 6.3 Desire to limit childbearing Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 who want no more children, by number of living children, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Number of living children1 Total Background characteristic 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ Residence Urban 1.4 23.2 67.8 85.1 89.4 93.5 90.9 62.4 Rural 2.4 19.4 60.5 79.0 85.5 89.0 88.8 62.2 Region National Capital Region 1.5 20.9 72.2 87.2 93.0 94.5 94.5 62.3 Cordillera Admin Region * 14.3 46.3 84.0 91.7 (89.7) (97.4) 57.8 I - Ilocos Region (3.8) 20.3 67.5 81.1 (98.0) (100.0) (100.0) 64.4 II - Cagayan Valley * 21.4 70.9 90.9 (92.7) (97.1) (93.8) 68.2 III - Central Luzon 0.0 14.2 63.2 89.5 93.5 (93.0) 95.1 62.2 IVA - CALABARZON 0.0 30.6 69.3 85.6 92.4 97.3 89.2 66.0 IVB - MIMAROPA * 16.1 63.8 73.6 83.2 (86.0) 86.5 62.5 V - Bicol (3.8) 24.7 61.7 73.5 90.4 (88.4) 94.4 66.1 VI - Western Visayas 0.0 17.9 67.1 85.6 94.6 (97.5) 93.4 69.0 VII - Central Visayas (2.9) 27.5 69.3 86.8 87.9 (90.9) 91.5 66.2 VIII - Eastern Visayas * 25.2 51.1 70.8 87.6 (88.9) 93.0 61.1 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula (6.9) 10.5 47.8 64.0 58.5 (77.8) 83.1 48.8 X - Northern Mindanao 0.0 16.6 60.9 84.9 88.9 (97.1) 93.0 62.2 XI - Davao (2.9) 28.5 64.4 84.8 77.4 (92.5) (86.7) 61.8 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN * 23.2 61.1 76.3 86.2 (93.3) 92.2 62.5 XIII - Caraga (2.3) 20.0 56.2 81.2 87.6 (86.0) 92.0 60.0 ARMM * 2.5 17.2 24.0 39.3 50.0 54.3 31.4 Education No education * (19.9) (46.5) * * (83.4) 75.9 61.1 Elementary 5.5 23.1 61.5 76.5 84.4 87.6 89.0 71.3 High school 1.0 22.8 64.0 82.2 88.1 93.3 91.7 63.2 College 1.5 19.5 66.6 85.6 90.3 91.5 90.3 54.7 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.1 20.0 48.8 70.4 77.4 83.9 86.2 63.7 Second 2.5 20.4 60.0 80.4 87.5 93.8 92.5 65.0 Middle 1.8 20.1 64.3 85.5 90.1 94.1 90.4 63.2 Fourth 1.4 21.4 70.7 87.1 93.3 95.2 95.7 60.3 Highest 1.5 24.1 70.8 84.7 94.3 92.8 (85.3) 59.2 Total 1.9 21.5 64.3 82.0 87.3 90.7 89.5 62.3 Note: Women who have been sterilized are considered to want no more children. Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk denotes a number based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. 1 The number of living children includes the current pregnancy The proportion of women who want no more children generally decreases as the level of education increases, starting with elementary (71 percent) to women with college education (55 percent). However, the proportion of women who want no more children among those with no education (61 percent) is lower than the corresponding proportions among women with elementary or high school education. Examining the relationship between fertility desire and educational attainment by number of living children shows a positive relationship between education and desire for no more children among women who have two to four children. 60 • Fertility Preferences Figure 6.3 Percentage of currently married women who want no more children, by background characteristics There are small differences in the desire to limit childbearing by household wealth status, with the proportion wanting to limit childbearing generally decreasing with increasing wealth quintile (except for the lowest wealth quintile). However, among women with two or four children, the proportion of women who want to stop childbearing generally increases with increasing wealth quintile. Overall, the levels and patterns in the desire to stop childbearing across residence, education and wealth quintile as shown in Figure 6.3 are similar to those observed in the 2008 NDHS (NSO and ICF Macro, 2009). 6.3 IDEAL NUMBER OF CHILDREN To ascertain the ideal number of children, respondents were asked to consider abstractly, and independent of their actual family size, the number of children they would choose if they could start childbearing again. Most women provided numeric responses to the questions on ideal family size but a few women gave non-numeric responses, such as: “It’s up to God” or “It is not for me to say”, etc. These non- numeric responses are excluded in the computation of mean ideal number of children. Although the questions on ideal number of children are based on hypothetical situations, two measures of fertility can be derived from the results. First, for women who have not yet started childbearing, the data provide an idea of future fertility. Second, for older and high-parity women, the excess of past fertility over the ideal family size provides a measure of unwanted fertility. Table 6.4 presents the percent distribution of women by ideal number of children according to their actual number of living children. Forty-three percent of women in the Philippines consider two children as the ideal family size, while 28 percent prefer three children, 13 percent prefer four children and 8 percent prefer five or more children. Among women who have two or fewer children, more than half think that a two-child family size is ideal. 62  62  62  61  71  63  55  64  65  63  60  59  0  10  20  30  40  50  60  70  80  Total Urban  Rural  No edu‐ cation  Ele‐ men‐ tary  High school  College  Lowest  Second  Middle  Fourth  Highest  Percent Residence Education Wealth quintile Fertility Preferences • 61 Table 6.4 Ideal number of children by number of living children Percent distribution of women 15-49 by ideal number of children, and mean ideal number of children for all respondents and for currently married women, according to the number of living children, Philippines 2013 Ideal number of children Number of living children1 Total 0 1 2 3 4 5 6+ 0 2.7 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 1.1 1 7.9 12.0 4.3 3.8 2.7 2.4 0.6 6.3 2 54.9 51.3 50.4 23.0 28.7 18.6 13.7 43.4 3 23.4 26.6 26.2 44.4 18.9 34.8 30.3 27.6 4 7.2 7.5 14.5 16.7 37.3 13.1 23.4 13.3 5 2.0 1.4 2.5 7.5 5.5 20.5 9.1 4.2 6+ 1.1 0.9 1.9 4.1 6.3 9.9 22.0 3.7 Non-numeric responses 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.8 0.5 Total 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Number 5,909 2,533 2,721 1,972 1,234 742 1,045 16,155 Mean ideal number of children for:2 All women 2.4 2.4 2.7 3.2 3.4 3.7 4.3 2.8 Number of women 5,860 2,530 2,720 1,968 1,230 736 1,036 16,080 Currently married women 2.5 2.5 2.7 3.2 3.4 3.7 4.3 3.0 Number of currently married women 549 2,029 2,493 1,841 1,147 680 965 9,703 1 The number of living children includes current pregnancy 2 Means are calculated excluding respondents who gave non-numeric responses. The mean ideal family size in the Philippines of 2.8 children for all women remains unchanged from the 2008 NDHS figure, while there is a slight decline in the mean ideal family size for currently married women, from 3.1 children in 2008 to 3.0 children in 2013. As parity increases, the ideal number of children also increases: from a mean ideal family size of 2.4 children among women with no children to 4.3 children among women with six or more children. The data indicate a high level of surplus fertility that exceeds the ideal. For example, almost 70 percent of women with five children say they would ideally like fewer than five and 77 percent of those with six or more children say their ideal number is five or fewer. Table 6.5 shows information on the mean ideal number of children for all women age 15-49 by age group, according to background characteristics. The mean ideal number of children increases as women’s age increases, from 2.4 children among women age 15-19 to 3.3 children among women age 45-49. Ideal family size is higher among rural than urban women, and it is negatively associated with education and wealth quintile. 62 • Fertility Preferences Table 6.5 Mean ideal number of children Mean ideal number of children for all women age 15-49 by age according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Age Total Number of women1 Background characteristic 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Residence Urban 2.3 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.1 2.6 8,549 Rural 2.5 2.6 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.4 3.6 3.0 7,531 Region National Capital Region 2.2 2.3 2.3 2.5 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.4 2,911 Cordillera Admin Region 2.7 2.4 2.9 3.0 3.3 4.0 4.0 3.1 249 I - Ilocos Region 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.8 2.8 2.9 3.3 2.7 689 II - Cagayan Valley 2.4 2.4 2.5 3.0 2.9 3.1 3.2 2.7 550 III - Central Luzon 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 3.0 3.1 3.1 2.7 1,707 IVA - CALABARZON 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.8 2.9 3.1 2.6 2,278 IVB - MIMAROPA 2.4 2.7 3.0 3.1 3.4 3.5 3.8 3.1 372 V - Bicol 2.3 2.3 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.1 3.3 2.8 795 VI - Western Visayas 2.3 2.4 2.7 2.6 2.9 3.0 3.2 2.7 994 VII - Central Visayas 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.7 3.1 3.3 3.5 2.8 1,028 VIII - Eastern Visayas 2.5 2.6 2.9 3.1 3.2 3.5 3.4 3.0 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 2.5 2.7 2.8 3.3 3.2 3.5 3.5 3.0 715 X - Northern Mindanao 2.6 2.7 2.7 3.0 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.0 696 XI - Davao 2.2 2.5 2.5 2.8 3.2 3.2 3.3 2.7 885 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 2.3 2.6 3.0 3.1 3.3 3.7 3.5 3.0 743 XIII - Caraga 2.3 2.6 2.6 3.1 3.5 3.6 3.8 3.0 434 ARMM 4.0 4.5 4.9 5.4 6.1 5.9 6.4 5.1 464 Education No education * * * (4.0) (4.5) (5.1) 4.7 4.2 186 Elementary 2.5 2.9 3.1 3.4 3.6 3.5 3.9 3.4 2,581 High school 2.4 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.1 3.2 2.7 7,874 College 2.4 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.9 2.9 2.6 5,439 Wealth quintile Lowest 2.7 3.0 3.3 3.7 4.0 3.9 4.3 3.5 2,605 Second 2.4 2.6 2.7 2.9 3.1 3.3 3.5 2.9 2,874 Middle 2.3 2.3 2.6 2.6 3.0 3.1 3.2 2.7 3,189 Fourth 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.6 2.8 3.0 3.2 2.6 3,555 Highest 2.3 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.5 3,857 Total 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.8 3.1 3.2 3.3 2.8 16,080 Note: Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk indicates that the figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 1 Means are calculated for women who gave numeric responses. There are notable variations in ideal family size across regions (Figure 6.4). The mean ideal family size is lowest in the National Capital Region (2.4 children) which is less than half of the mean ideal family size in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (5.1 children). Fertility Preferences • 63 Figure 6.4 Mean ideal number of children for all women age 15-49 by region 6.4 FERTILITY PLANNING There are two ways of estimating levels of unwanted fertility from the NDHS data. One is based on women’s responses to a question as to whether each birth in the five years preceding the survey was planned (wanted then), mistimed (wanted but a later time), or unwanted (wanted no more children). These data are likely to result in underestimates of planned childbearing because women may rationalize unplanned births and declare them to be planned once the children are born. Another way of measuring unwanted fertility uses information on ideal family size to calculate what the total fertility rate would be if all unwanted births were avoided. This measure may also suffer from underestimation, to the extent that women are unwilling to report an ideal family size lower than their actual family size (NSO and ICF Macro, 2009). Estimates of unwanted fertility using both of these approaches are presented in this section. In the 2013 NDHS, women were asked a series of questions about each child born in the five years preceding the survey and any current pregnancy to determine whether each birth or current pregnancy was wanted then, wanted at a later time, or unwanted. These results form a particularly powerful indicator of the degree to which couples successfully plan their childbearing. In addition, the data can be used to gauge the effect of the prevention of unwanted births on fertility rates. 2.8 2.4 3.1 2.7 2.7 2.7 2.6 3.1 2.8 2.7 2.8 3.0 3.0 3.0 2.7 3.0 3.0 5.1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 64 • Fertility Preferences Table 6.6 shows the percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey (including current pregnancies) by planning status of the birth, according to birth order and mother’s age at birth. Seventy-two percent of births in the Philippines are planned at the time of conception, while 17 percent are wanted but at a later time, and 11 percent are not wanted at all. These figures represent a sizeable decline in unwanted and mistimed births since 2008 indicating an improvement in fertility planning over the past five years (Figure 6.5). The proportion of births that were wanted at the time they occurred increased from 63 to 72 percent, while the proportion of mistimed births declined from 20 to 17 percent, and the proportion of births that were unwanted declined from 16 to 11 percent (NSO and ICF Macro, 2009). Table 6.6 Fertility planning status Percent distribution of births to women age 15-49 in the five years preceding the survey (including current pregnancies), by planning status of the birth, according to birth order and mother’s age at birth, Philippines 2013 Birth order and mother’s age at birth Planning status of birth Total Number of births Wanted then Wanted later Wanted no more Missing Birth order 1 76.9 21.1 1.6 0.5 100.0 2,395 2 74.8 20.1 4.7 0.4 100.0 1,870 3 70.7 16.5 12.5 0.2 100.0 1,276 4+ 64.2 10.3 25.1 0.5 100.0 2,127 Mother’s age at birth <20 66.6 29.5 3.1 0.7 100.0 953 20-24 72.6 22.6 4.5 0.3 100.0 2,110 25-29 75.6 16.4 7.6 0.5 100.0 1,807 30-34 74.2 11.1 14.3 0.3 100.0 1,487 35-39 67.6 8.7 23.2 0.5 100.0 898 40-44 63.0 3.0 33.3 0.8 100.0 378 45-49 (71.1) (0.0) (28.9) (0.0) 100.0 34 Total 71.8 17.1 10.7 0.4 100.0 7,667 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. Figure 6.5 Trends in wanted and unwanted fertility for births in the five years preceding the survey, NDHS 2008 and NDHS 2013 63  20  16  72  17  11  0  20  40  60  80  100  Wanted then Wanted later Wanted no more Percent 2008 NDHS 2013 NDHS Fertility Preferences • 65 The proportion of births that are wanted at the time of conception and the proportion of mistimed births both decrease with increasing birth order (Table 6.6). In contrast, the proportion of births that are unwanted increases as birth order increases. For example, only 2 percent of first-order births are unwanted compared with 25 percent among fourth- or higher-order births. A similar pattern is evident for the age of the mother at the time of birth. The proportion of unwanted births increases with increasing mother’s age: 3 percent of births to women under 20 years old are not wanted at the time of conception, compared with 33 percent of births to those ages 40-44. The impact of unwanted fertility can be measured by comparing the total wanted fertility rate (TWFR) with the total fertility rate (TFR). The total wanted fertility rate represents the level of fertility that theoretically would result if all unwanted births were prevented. A comparison of the TFR with the total wanted fertility indicates the potential demographic impact of the elimination of all unwanted births. The total wanted fertility rates presented in Table 6.7 are calculated in the same manner as the total fertility rate (TFR), but unwanted births are excluded from the numerator. For this purpose, unwanted births are defined as those that exceed the number considered ideal by the respondent. Women who did not report a numeric ideal family size were assumed to want all their births. Overall, the total wanted fertility rate for the Philippines is 2.2 children, 27 percent lower than the actual total fertility rate of 3 children. This implies that if all unwanted births could be eliminated, the TFR would drop to 2.2 children per woman, close to the “replacement fertility” level of 2.1 children. The total wanted fertility rate of 2.2 children per woman declined from 2.5 children in 2003 and 2.4 children in 2008 (NSO and ORC Macro, 2004 and NSO and ICF Macro, 2009). Wanted fertility is lower than replacement level in urban areas, in four regions (National Capital Region, Ilocos, Central Luzon and CALABARZON), among college-educated women and among women in the fourth and highest wealth quintiles. The gap between wanted and observed total fertility rates, as measured by the ratio of observed fertility rate to wanted fertility rate is largest for women in Bicol and Western Visayas, as well as for women with elementary education and women in the lowest wealth quintile. The gap between wanted and actual fertility is smallest for women in the Autonomous Region of Muslim Mindanao (ARMM), women who have college education and women in the highest wealth quintile, indicating that these women have been more successful at implementing their fertility preferences than their counterparts. 6.5 COUPLES’ CONSENSUS ON FAMILY SIZE A couple’s agreement on family size is often thought to be instrumental in the achievement of their desired number of children. In the 2013 NDHS, married women were asked if their husbands wanted the same Table 6.7 Wanted fertility rates Total wanted fertility rates and total fertility rates for the three years preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Total wanted fertility rates Total fertility rates Residence Urban 1.9 2.6 Rural 2.5 3.5 Region National Capital Region 1.7 2.3 Cordillera Admin Region 2.3 2.9 I - Ilocos Region 2.0 2.8 II - Cagayan Valley 2.4 3.2 III - Central Luzon 2.0 2.8 IVA - CALABARZON 2.0 2.7 IVB - MIMAROPA 2.5 3.7 V - Bicol 2.6 4.1 VI - Western Visayas 2.4 3.8 VII - Central Visayas 2.2 3.2 VIII - Eastern Visayas 2.6 3.5 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 2.4 3.5 X - Northern Mindanao 2.5 3.5 XI - Davao 2.1 2.9 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 2.3 3.2 XIII - Caraga 2.6 3.6 ARMM 3.6 4.2 Education No education 3.0 3.8 Elementary 3.1 4.6 High school 2.3 3.3 College 1.7 2.1 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.3 5.2 Second 2.5 3.7 Middle 2.2 3.1 Fourth 1.9 2.4 Highest 1.4 1.7 Total 2.2 3.0 Note: Rates are calculated based on births to women age 15-49 in the period 1-36 months preceding the survey. The total fertility rates are the same as those presented in Table 5.2. 66 • Fertility Preferen number of sterilized Table 6.8 the numbe more child than they d T between th their husb for the pro F L family siz children th that their h nces f children as t women by th and Figure 6. er of children dren than they do. here is little he woman and ands increase oportion of wo Figure 6.6 C ess than half ze as their hu han they do. M husband/partn they do, or mo eir perceived .6. Nearly sev n they would y do, while on variation in c d her husband s with increas omen who resp Currently ma regard of married w usband. A nea MIMAROPA ner wants fewe Husban wants fewer th wife 7% Don’t  know/  missing 3% ore or fewer c consensus wi ven in ten wom like to have. nly 7 percent couples’ fertil . The proporti sing level of e ponded that th arried wom ding the num women in ARM arly equal pro and SOCCSK er children tha nd  s  han  children. The p ith their husba men reported One-fifth of t of the women ity desires by ion of women education and heir husband/p en by perce mber of chi MM (44 perc oportion (46 KSARGEN h an they do. w percent distrib and regarding that there is c the women re n said that the y age of the w with the same wealth quintil partner wants m eived conse ildren desir ent) reported percent) said ave high prop H a w Husband  wants more  than wife 21% bution of curr g desired fami consensus with eported that th eir husbands w woman or by e preferred nu le. The revers more children ensus with red that they hav that their hu portions of wo Husband  and wife  ant same 70% rently married ily size is sho h their husban heir husbands want fewer ch the age diffe umber of child se pattern hold than they do. husband ve the same d usband wants omen who rep d, non- own in nds on s want hildren erence dren as ds true desired more ported Fertility Preferences • 67 Table 6.8 Couples’ consensus on family size Percent distribution of currently married nonsterilized women by perceived consensus with husband regarding the number of children desired, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Couple’s consensus on desired number of children1 Total Number of women Husband and wife want same number Husband wants more than wife Husband wants fewer than wife Don’t know/ Missing Age 15-19 70.0 18.7 7.8 3.4 100.0 313 20-24 69.9 20.5 5.9 3.7 100.0 1,191 25-29 71.3 20.4 5.9 2.4 100.0 1,446 30-34 71.0 19.8 7.7 1.5 100.0 1,719 35-39 69.0 22.1 6.8 2.1 100.0 1,541 40-44 68.7 20.9 7.2 3.3 100.0 1,374 45-49 68.0 21.3 7.1 3.6 100.0 1,307 Difference in age between woman and husband/partner 0-1 year 70.3 20.6 6.8 2.4 100.0 2,420 2-3 years 70.1 20.1 7.3 2.5 100.0 2,332 4-5 years 70.4 20.7 6.7 2.2 100.0 1,533 6+ years 68.6 21.4 6.7 3.3 100.0 2,581 Region National Capital Region 69.7 21.9 6.3 2.0 100.0 1,341 Cordillera Admin Region 67.4 18.4 7.0 7.2 100.0 124 I - Ilocos Region 71.3 20.5 5.8 2.3 100.0 418 II - Cagayan Valley 69.7 19.0 8.5 2.8 100.0 334 III - Central Luzon 74.5 19.6 3.8 2.1 100.0 882 IVA - CALABARZON 71.0 16.0 7.1 5.9 100.0 1,204 IVB - MIMAROPA 68.9 17.5 12.5 1.1 100.0 237 V - Bicol 65.3 24.9 7.4 2.4 100.0 491 VI - Western Visayas 70.4 18.3 9.7 1.6 100.0 608 VII - Central Visayas 73.5 18.1 6.5 1.8 100.0 594 VIII - Eastern Visayas 66.7 24.0 7.3 2.0 100.0 341 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 70.1 21.1 7.0 1.9 100.0 411 X - Northern Mindanao 70.2 24.9 4.0 1.0 100.0 401 XI - Davao 70.3 19.8 7.2 2.7 100.0 508 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 72.5 16.7 10.5 0.2 100.0 431 XIII - Caraga 69.6 20.7 8.4 1.4 100.0 278 ARMM 44.3 45.6 2.1 7.9 100.0 286 Education No education 53.7 35.0 7.8 3.6 100.0 142 Elementary 66.2 24.6 6.6 2.6 100.0 1,836 High school 70.4 19.4 7.4 2.8 100.0 4,255 College 71.8 19.4 6.1 2.6 100.0 2,656 Wealth quintile Lowest 65.8 25.0 6.4 2.8 100.0 1,851 Second 69.8 21.3 6.9 2.0 100.0 1,784 Middle 69.3 20.1 7.7 2.9 100.0 1,818 Fourth 71.2 18.9 7.3 2.7 100.0 1,784 Highest 72.9 18.1 5.9 3.1 100.0 1,651 Total 69.7 20.7 6.8 2.7 100.0 8,889 Note: Total includes 25 women for whom no age was given for husband. 1 Based on wife’s perception of her husband’s desires. 68 • Fertility Preferences Family Planning • 69 FAMILY PLANNING 7 his chapter begins with an assessment of contraceptive knowledge among 2013 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) respondents before moving on to a consideration of current family planning practices. Special attention is focused on sources of contraception, informed choice, nonuse, reasons for discontinuation, unmet need for family planning, and intention to use contraception in the future. The chapter concludes by examining exposure to media coverage on the topic of family planning and level of contact with family planning providers. These topics are of practical use to reproductive health programs in several ways. A discussion of women’s knowledge of family planning methods provides insight into one of the main preconditions to adoption of contraception. Levels of contraceptive use provide the most obvious and widely accepted criterion of success of a family planning program. Examination of contraceptive use in relation to need pinpoints segments of the population for whom intensified service provision efforts are most needed. Since most women have tried at least one method, practical problems with particular methods or in obtaining supplies may be important obstacles to further program advances. The 2013 NDHS findings on these topics can provide important guidance for improving family planning services. T Key Findings • Knowledge of at least one method of contraception is universal among women in the Philippines. • More than half of currently married women of reproductive age (55 percent) are using a method of contraception, with most women using a modern method (38 percent). • There has been a steady increase in contraceptive use from 49 percent of married women in 2003 to 55 percent in 2013. • The three most popular modern methods used by married women are the pill (19 percent), female sterilization (9 percent), and injectables and IUD (4 percent each). • About a third (32 percent) of Filipino women know that the most fertile time for a woman is halfway between two menstrual periods. • Most current contraceptive users were provided information essential to making an informed choice; 66 percent were told about potential side effects or problems, 67 percent were advised what to do if they experienced side effects or problems, and 68 percent were informed about other methods. • Eighteen percent of married women have an unmet need for family planning, 7 percent because they want to delay their next pregnancy and 11 percent because they want no more children. 70 • Family Planning 7.1 KNOWLEDGE OF CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS The 2013 NDHS collected information on knowledge and use of contraception. To obtain these data, the names and/or descriptions of 17 contraceptive methods were read aloud, and respondents were asked if they had heard of each method. For analytical purposes, contraceptive methods were grouped into two types: modern and traditional. Modern methods include female sterilization, male sterilization, the pill, IUD, injectables, implants, male condoms, female condoms, the patch, the lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), mucus/billings/ovulation, the basal body temperature method, the symptothermal method, the standard days method and emergency contraception. Traditional methods include the rhythm (calendar) method, withdrawal, and other traditional and folk methods. Respondents were also asked whether they had heard of any other methods in addition to those listed. The 2013 NDHS results indicate that all currently married women in the Philippines know at least one method of family planning (Table 7.1). Among modern methods, the pill is the best known (99 percent), followed by male condom (97 percent), and female sterilization (96 percent). The least recognized methods were the patch and emergency contraception, with 10 percent and 15 percent, respectively, of currently married women having heard of these methods. Withdrawal is also known to most currently married women (94 percent), whereas rhythm is less widely known (85 percent). Table 7.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods Percentage of all women, currently married women and sexually active unmarried women age 15-49 who know any contraceptive method, by specific method, Philippines 2013 Method All women Currently married women Sexually active unmarried women1 Any method 98.9 99.6 99.7 Any modern method 98.9 99.5 99.7 Female sterilization 90.3 95.5 89.6 Male sterilization 69.5 77.2 66.4 Pill 97.9 99.0 99.2 IUD 81.8 90.9 79.5 Injectables 86.2 94.3 88.4 Implants 17.2 18.1 23.3 Patch 9.9 10.0 16.9 Male condom 95.5 96.8 99.0 Female condom 20.0 19.3 33.5 Mucus/ Billings/ Ovulation 28.7 31.7 40.5 Basal body temperature 27.4 29.6 35.8 Symptothermal 14.9 16.1 22.3 Standard days method 26.2 29.4 31.5 Lactational amenorrhea (LAM) 32.7 38.6 31.2 Emergency contraception 14.0 14.8 25.3 Any traditional method 88.8 96.1 95.6 Rhythm 76.0 84.8 80.0 Withdrawal 84.3 94.3 93.4 Folk method 2.4 3.2 2.4 Mean number of methods known by women 15-49 8.8 9.4 9.6 Number of women 16,155 9,729 188 1 Had last sexual intercourse within 30 days preceding the survey In general, sexually active unmarried women are more knowledgeable about contraceptive methods than currently married women and all women. The average number of methods known is 8.8 for all women, 9.4 for currently married women, and 9.6 for sexually active unmarried women. Family Planning • 71 Table 7.2 presents differentials in contraceptive knowledge among all women age 15-49. The differentials are small because almost all currently married women know at least one method of contraception. Knowledge of any method of contraception is notably lower in ARMM, where only nine in ten currently married women have ever heard of any method or any modern method of contraception. Table 7.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods by background characteristics Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 who have heard of at least one contraceptive method and who have heard of at least one modern method by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Heard of any method Heard of any modern method1 Number Age 15-19 99.3 99.3 313 20-24 99.6 99.4 1,196 25-29 99.6 99.4 1,484 30-34 99.8 99.7 1,862 35-39 99.7 99.5 1,725 40-44 99.7 99.7 1,638 45-49 99.4 99.4 1,511 Residence Urban 99.9 99.9 4,734 Rural 99.4 99.2 4,995 Region National Capital Region 100.0 100.0 1,475 Cordillera Admin Region 100.0 100.0 151 I - Ilocos Region 100.0 100.0 460 II - Cagayan Valley 99.8 99.8 376 III - Central Luzon 100.0 99.9 1,052 IVA - CALABARZON 100.0 100.0 1,349 IVB - MIMAROPA 99.7 99.7 252 V - Bicol 99.8 99.8 511 VI - Western Visayas 100.0 100.0 636 VII - Central Visayas 99.8 99.8 636 VIII - Eastern Visayas 100.0 100.0 370 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 99.6 99.5 425 X - Northern Mindanao 98.8 98.8 424 XI - Davao 100.0 100.0 557 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 99.4 99.2 469 XIII - Caraga 100.0 99.8 293 ARMM 92.2 90.0 295 Education No education 90.8 88.8 147 Elementary 99.1 98.8 2,015 High school 99.9 99.9 4,641 College 100.0 100.0 2,925 Wealth quintile Lowest 98.5 98.1 1,945 Second 99.7 99.6 1,919 Middle 100.0 100.0 1,996 Fourth 100.0 100.0 2,012 Highest 100.0 100.0 1,857 Total 15-49 99.6 99.5 9,729 1 Female sterilization, male sterilization, pill, IUD, injectables, implants, patch, male condom, female condom, mucus/Billings/ovulation, basal body temperature, symptothermal, standard days method, lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), emergency contraception, and other modern methods. Because knowledge of at least one method of contraception is nearly universal, there are only minimal differences in knowledge by age, residence and wealth quintile. Almost all currently married women with education know at least one modern method, compared with 89 percent of women with no education. 72 • Family Planning 7.2 CURRENT USE OF CONTRACEPTION The level of current contraceptive use is the most widely used and valuable measure of the success of a reproductive health planning program. Furthermore, it can be used to estimate reductions in fertility attributable to contraception. To obtain information on current use of contraception, all female NDHS respondents who were not pregnant at the time of the survey were asked if they (or their partners) were currently using a method. Table 7.3 shows the level of current contraceptive use by method for all women and currently married women according to age. More than half (55 percent) of currently married women are using some method of contraception (the contraceptive prevalence rate or CPR). Most contraceptive users rely on a modern method (38 percent), with only 18percent relying on a traditional method. By far the most popular method is the pill, used by 19 percent of married women; thus, one of every three married women who are using contraception use the pill. Withdrawal is used by 12 percent of married women, female sterilization is used by 9 percent of married women, withdrawal is used by 5 percent of currently married women, and IUD and injectables are each used by 4 percent of married women. Only two percent of currently married women have partners who use condoms (Figure 7.1). Table 7.3 also shows how the current use of contraception varies with age. The results conform to the inverted U-shaped pattern of prevalence by age typically observed for currently married women. Use is lower among young women (because they are in an early stage of family building) and among older women (some of whom are no longer fecund) than among those at intermediate ages. Contraceptive use levels are quite low among married women under age 20 but rise rapidly with age, peaking at 62 percent among women age 30-34 before declining to 40 percent among women age 45-49. The pill is the most frequently used method in age groups 20-39; withdrawal is the main method used by married women age 15-19 and female sterilization is the main method among older women ages 40-49. It is nice to note that among sexually active unmarried women, the preferred methods are the pill and the male condom, each used by 14 percent of women. Fa m ily P la nn in g • 7 9 Ta bl e 7. 3 C ur re nt u se o f c on tra ce pt io n by a ge P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of a ll w om en , c ur re nt ly m ar rie d w om en , a nd s ex ua lly a ct iv e un m ar rie d w om en a ge 1 5- 49 b y co nt ra ce pt iv e m et ho d cu rr en tly u se d, a cc or di ng to a ge , P hi lip pi ne s 20 13 A ge A ny m et ho d A ny m od er n m et ho d M od er n m et ho d A ny tr ad i- tio na l m et ho d Tr ad iti on al m et ho d N ot cu rr en tly us in g To ta l N um be r o f w om en Fe m al e st er ili - za tio n M al e st er ili - za tio n P ill IU D In je ct - ab le s M al e co nd om M uc us / B illi ng s/ ov ul at io n S ta nd ar d da ys LA M O th er R hy th m W ith - dr aw al O th er A LL W O M E N 15 -1 9 4. 4 2. 4 0. 0 0. 0 1. 2 0. 2 0. 6 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 2. 1 0. 1 2. 0 0. 0 95 .6 10 0. 0 3, 23 7 20 -2 4 24 .7 16 .2 0. 2 0. 0 10 .9 1. 2 2. 3 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 8. 5 1. 1 7. 3 0. 1 75 .3 10 0. 0 2, 78 9 25 -2 9 42 .5 30 .6 1. 7 0. 1 20 .2 2. 1 3. 6 2. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 12 .0 2. 3 9. 5 0. 1 57 .5 10 0. 0 2, 15 6 30 -3 4 52 .4 37 .7 6. 4 0. 1 22 .4 3. 0 3. 3 1. 8 0. 0 0. 2 0. 5 0. 0 14 .6 3. 9 10 .6 0. 2 47 .6 10 0. 0 2, 25 0 35 -3 9 54 .0 37 .7 9. 6 0. 1 17 .8 3. 9 3. 6 2. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 4 0. 1 16 .3 5. 7 10 .3 0. 4 46 .0 10 0. 0 1, 97 6 40 -4 4 50 .6 33 .9 14 .2 0. 3 10 .4 3. 8 2. 6 1. 9 0. 1 0. 2 0. 2 0. 2 16 .7 6. 3 10 .3 0. 1 49 .4 10 0. 0 1, 92 4 45 -4 9 33 .9 20 .2 11 .9 0. 0 4. 0 2. 8 0. 5 0. 8 0. 1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 13 .7 5. 9 7. 5 0. 3 66 .1 10 0. 0 1, 82 3 To ta l 34 .6 23 .5 5. 4 0. 1 11 .8 2. 2 2. 3 1. 4 0. 0 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 11 .0 3. 2 7. 7 0. 2 65 .4 10 0. 0 16 ,1 55 C U R R EN TL Y M AR R IE D W O M EN 15 -1 9 36 .5 20 .6 0. 0 0. 0 11 .5 1. 5 5. 6 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 3 0. 0 15 .9 0. 7 15 .2 0. 0 63 .5 10 0. 0 31 3 20 -2 4 51 .0 34 .3 0. 5 0. 0 23 .8 2. 8 5. 0 1. 5 0. 0 0. 1 0. 8 0. 0 16 .7 2. 3 14 .2 0. 2 49 .0 10 0. 0 1, 19 6 25 -2 9 58 .5 42 .3 2. 5 0. 1 28 .4 3. 0 5. 1 2. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 0. 1 16 .3 3. 0 13 .1 0. 2 41 .5 10 0. 0 1, 48 4 30 -3 4 62 .4 44 .9 7. 6 0. 1 26 .7 3. 5 4. 0 2. 1 0. 1 0. 2 0. 7 0. 0 17 .5 4. 5 12 .7 0. 2 37 .6 10 0. 0 1, 86 2 35 -3 9 61 .0 42 .5 10 .6 0. 1 20 .2 4. 4 4. 2 2. 3 0. 2 0. 1 0. 4 0. 1 18 .5 6. 5 11 .6 0. 5 39 .0 10 0. 0 1, 72 5 40 -4 4 58 .2 38 .8 15 .8 0. 3 12 .3 4. 3 3. 0 2. 3 0. 2 0. 2 0. 2 0. 2 19 .4 7. 4 11 .9 0. 2 41 .8 10 0. 0 1, 63 8 45 -4 9 39 .8 23 .5 13 .5 0. 0 4. 8 3. 3 0. 6 1. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 16 .4 7. 1 9. 0 0. 3 60 .2 10 0. 0 1, 51 1 To ta l 55 .1 37 .6 8. 5 0. 1 19 .1 3. 5 3. 7 1. 9 0. 1 0. 1 0. 5 0. 1 17 .5 5. 1 12 .1 0. 2 44 .9 10 0. 0 9, 72 9 S EX U A LL Y A C TI VE U N M A R R IE D W O M E N 1 To ta l 53 .2 31 .1 0. 0 0. 0 14 .2 0. 7 2. 0 13 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 0. 0 22 .1 3. 1 18 .4 0. 5 46 .8 10 0. 0 18 8 N ot e: If m or e th an o ne m et ho d is u se d, o nl y th e m os t e ffe ct iv e m et ho d is c on si de re d in th is ta bu la tio n. na = N ot a pp lic ab le LA M = L ac ta tio na l a m en or rh ea m et ho d 1 W om en w ho h av e ha d se xu al in te rc ou rs e w ith in 3 0 da ys p re ce di ng th e su rv ey Family Planning • 73 74 • Family Planning 7.3 DIFFERENTIALS IN CONTRACEPTIVE USE BY BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS Knowledge of differentials in contraceptive use by background characteristics is important to identify targets for family planning services. Table 7.4 shows that there is a strong positive association between use of family planning methods and number of children. Only 7 percent of married women with no living children use contraception. This percentage increases sharply to 56 percent among women with one or two children, peaks at 67 percent among women with three to four children, and slightly decreases to 55 percent among women with five and more children. Use of the pill is highest among married women with one or two living children (23 percent). Use of female sterilization rises with parity, from 3 percent of women with one or two living children to 17 percent of women with three to four children; it then decreases to 13 percent among women with five or more children. As can be seen in Table 7.4, married women in urban areas are more likely to use a family planning method than women in rural areas. The contraceptive prevalence rate for modern methods is the same for both urban and rural areas. Pill, 19% Withdrawal, 12% Female Sterilization, 9% Calendar/Rhythm, 5% Injectables, 4% IUD, 4%Male Condom, 2% Other Methods, 1% Not Using, 45% Figure 7.1 Use of contraception among currently married women age 15-49 Fa m ily P la nn in g • 7 9 Ta bl e 7. 4 C ur re nt u se o f c on tra ce pt io n by b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of c ur re nt ly m ar rie d w om en a ge 1 5- 49 b y co nt ra ce pt iv e m et ho d cu rre nt ly u se d, a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, P hi lip pi ne s 20 13 A ny m et h- od A ny m od - er n m et h- od M od er n m et ho d A ny tra di - tio na l m et h- od Tr ad iti on al m et ho d N ot cu rr - en tly us in g To ta l N um be r of w om en B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic Fe - m al e st er ili - za tio n M al e st er ili - za tio n P ill IU D In je ct - ab le s M al e co n- do m M uc us / B illi ng s/ ov ul at io n S ta n- da rd da ys LA M O th er R hy th m W ith - dr aw al O th er N u m b e r o f li v in g c h il d re n 0 6. 9 1. 9 0. 0 0. 0 1. 6 0. 0 0. 1 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 0 1. 0 4. 0 0. 0 93 .1 10 0. 0 74 4 1- 2 55 .5 36 .9 2. 9 0. 1 23 .3 3. 4 4. 1 2. 3 0. 1 0. 1 0. 5 0. 1 18 .7 4. 7 13 .8 0. 2 44 .5 10 0. 0 4, 43 3 3- 4 67 .0 49 .2 16 .8 0. 2 20 .5 4. 6 4. 1 2. 2 0. 1 0. 2 0. 6 0. 1 17 .8 6. 1 11 .3 0. 3 33 .0 10 0. 0 2, 92 6 5+ 54 .6 35 .1 12 .9 0. 2 13 .3 3. 6 3. 5 1. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 0. 1 19 .4 6. 4 12 .5 0. 5 45 .4 10 0. 0 1, 62 5 R e s id e n c e U rb an 56 .5 37 .8 9. 6 0. 2 17 .9 3. 5 3. 4 2. 2 0. 1 0. 2 0. 6 0. 0 18 .7 4. 9 13 .6 0. 2 43 .5 10 0. 0 4, 73 4 R ur al 53 .8 37 .5 7. 5 0. 0 20 .3 3. 6 3. 9 1. 6 0. 1 0. 1 0. 3 0. 1 16 .3 5. 3 10 .7 0. 3 46 .2 10 0. 0 4, 99 5 R e g io n N at io na l C ap ita l R eg io n 61 .1 40 .1 8. 9 0. 2 19 .5 3. 3 4. 1 2. 3 0. 0 0. 4 1. 5 0. 1 21 .0 4. 1 16 .8 0. 0 38 .9 10 0. 0 1, 47 5 C or di lle ra A dm in R eg io n 61 .2 44 .0 17 .6 0. 0 14 .0 2. 3 6. 7 3. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 17 .2 3. 7 13 .4 0. 0 38 .8 10 0. 0 15 1 I - Il oc os R eg io n 54 .4 37 .5 9. 2 0. 0 20 .6 0. 6 4. 9 2. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 17 .0 2. 7 14 .2 0. 0 45 .6 10 0. 0 46 0 II - C ag ay an V al le y 58 .9 51 .5 11 .2 0. 0 27 .4 3. 8 6. 5 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 7. 4 1. 3 6. 1 0. 0 41 .1 10 0. 0 37 6 III - C en tra l L uz on 61 .2 44 .9 16 .0 0. 1 19 .9 1. 1 4. 0 2. 6 0. 0 0. 1 0. 9 0. 0 16 .4 4. 3 12 .0 0. 1 38 .8 10 0. 0 1, 05 2 IV A - C A LA B A R ZO N 55 .7 36 .1 10 .6 0. 1 16 .0 4. 0 3. 4 1. 8 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 19 .6 3. 2 16 .3 0. 0 44 .3 10 0. 0 1, 34 9 IV B - M IM A R O P A 51 .2 39 .7 5. 9 0. 0 23 .8 2. 1 5. 7 1. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 5 11 .5 3. 6 6. 7 1. 3 48 .8 10 0. 0 25 2 V - B ic ol 44 .9 21 .2 3. 9 0. 0 11 .8 1. 4 2. 7 1. 2 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 23 .7 8. 2 15 .3 0. 2 55 .1 10 0. 0 51 1 V I - W es te rn V is ay as 55 .4 34 .3 4. 0 0. 3 20 .4 2. 2 4. 5 2. 0 0. 2 0. 2 0. 2 0. 3 21 .0 7. 4 13 .6 0. 0 44 .6 10 0. 0 63 6 V II - C en tra l V is ay as 54 .8 34 .0 6. 4 0. 2 16 .2 5. 8 2. 5 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 20 .8 9. 6 11 .0 0. 2 45 .2 10 0. 0 63 6 V III - Ea st er n V is ay as 61 .7 37 .0 7. 8 0. 0 21 .1 2. 9 2. 3 2. 1 0. 5 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 24 .8 10 .4 14 .4 0. 0 38 .3 10 0. 0 37 0 IX - Za m bo an ga P en in su la 47 .3 36 .2 3. 3 0. 0 22 .7 6. 5 2. 9 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 11 .1 5. 5 4. 2 1. 5 52 .7 10 0. 0 42 5 X - N or th er n M in da na o 50 .7 37 .6 5. 2 0. 2 20 .2 8. 5 1. 9 1. 2 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 2 13 .1 5. 1 7. 1 0. 9 49 .3 10 0. 0 42 4 X I - D av ao 53 .8 39 .3 8. 6 0. 2 22 .1 4. 1 2. 3 1. 4 0. 4 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 14 .5 5. 0 9. 1 0. 4 46 .2 10 0. 0 55 7 X II - S O C C S K S A R G E N 57 .5 44 .2 8. 0 0. 0 23 .4 6. 3 4. 2 1. 7 0. 0 0. 4 0. 2 0. 0 13 .3 6. 1 6. 5 0. 6 42 .5 10 0. 0 46 9 X III - C ar ag a 54 .2 39 .0 5. 2 0. 0 21 .1 6. 3 3. 0 2. 8 0. 2 0. 4 0. 2 0. 0 15 .2 7. 0 7. 6 0. 6 45 .8 10 0. 0 29 3 A R M M 23 .9 15 .3 3. 1 0. 0 7. 6 0. 5 2. 9 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 8. 6 1. 8 6. 6 0. 2 76 .1 10 0. 0 29 5 E d u c a ti o n N o ed uc at io n 29 .3 16 .1 3. 8 0. 0 8. 6 2. 0 1. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 13 .3 5. 8 6. 8 0. 7 70 .7 10 0. 0 14 7 E le m en ta ry 52 .9 36 .1 8. 8 0. 1 18 .4 3. 5 3. 6 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 2 16 .7 5. 4 10 .6 0. 7 47 .1 10 0. 0 2, 01 5 H ig h sc ho ol 58 .2 40 .1 8. 2 0. 1 20 .7 4. 0 4. 3 1. 8 0. 1 0. 2 0. 6 0. 0 18 .2 4. 1 13 .9 0. 1 41 .8 10 0. 0 4, 64 1 C ol le ge 53 .0 35 .9 9. 1 0. 1 17 .7 2. 8 2. 9 2. 6 0. 1 0. 1 0. 4 0. 1 17 .1 6. 5 10 .5 0. 1 47 .0 10 0. 0 2, 92 5 W e a lt h q u in ti le Lo w es t 49 .9 33 .0 4. 8 0. 1 19 .6 3. 3 3. 9 0. 7 0. 1 0. 1 0. 3 0. 1 16 .9 5. 5 10 .7 0. 7 50 .1 10 0. 0 1, 94 5 S ec on d 58 .3 40 .3 7. 0 0. 1 21 .3 4. 7 5. 0 1. 5 0. 1 0. 1 0. 6 0. 1 17 .9 4. 8 12 .9 0. 2 41 .7 10 0. 0 1, 91 9 M id dl e 59 .6 41 .4 8. 8 0. 1 21 .7 4. 0 3. 6 2. 5 0. 0 0. 2 0. 5 0. 0 18 .2 4. 6 13 .5 0. 1 40 .4 10 0. 0 1, 99 6 Fo ur th 57 .1 39 .1 11 .1 0. 2 18 .5 3. 3 3. 3 1. 9 0. 1 0. 1 0. 4 0. 1 17 .9 4. 6 13 .3 0. 1 42 .9 10 0. 0 2, 01 2 H ig he st 50 .3 34 .0 11 .0 0. 1 14 .3 2. 3 2. 6 2. 9 0. 1 0. 1 0. 5 0. 1 16 .3 6. 3 10 .0 0. 1 49 .7 10 0. 0 1, 85 7 To ta l 55 .1 37 .6 8. 5 0. 1 19 .1 3. 5 3. 7 1. 9 0. 1 0. 1 0. 5 0. 1 17 .5 5. 1 12 .1 0. 2 44 .9 10 0. 0 9, 72 9 N ot e: If m or e th an o ne m et ho d is u se d, o nl y th e m os t e ffe ct iv e m et ho d is c on si de re d in th is ta bu la tio n. A ny m et ho ds n ot s ho w n w er e re po rte d by fe w er th an 0 .0 5 pe rc en t o f c ur re nt ly m ar rie d w om en o ve ra ll. LA M = L ac ta tio na l a m en or rh ea m et ho d. Family Planning • 75 76 • Family Planning Differentials by region are pronounced. Married women in Eastern Visayas have the highest CPR (62 percent), followed by women in Cordillera Administrative Region, Central Luzon and National Capital Region (61 percent). The lowest level of family planning use is in ARMM (24percent). Differentials in the use of any modern method by region are similar to differentials in the use of any traditional method. Among modern methods, female sterilization is the method of choice in Cordillera Administrative Region. The most commonly reported method in Bicol and CALABARZON is withdrawal. The pill is the most popular method in all other regions. Table 7.4 also shows that contraceptive use has a positive association with education. The CPR increases from 29 percent among married women with no education to 53 percent among women with an elementary education and 58 percent among women with a high school education. Contraceptive use slightly decreases among women who had college education or higher (53 percent). CPR does not vary consistently with women’s household wealth. Women from the lowest and highest wealth quintile have the same contraceptive use rate of 50 percent. The CPR increases to 60 percent among women in the middle wealth quintile. A similar pattern is seen in the use of modern methods. 7.4 TRENDS IN CURRENT USE OF FAMILY PLANNING Trends in current use of family planning can be used to monitor the progress of family planning programs over time. Table 7.5 and Figure 7.2 show trends in contraceptive use among currently married women from 2003 to 2013. Data from the three DHS surveys conducted in the Philippines over the past decades show an increase of 6 percentage points in the use of contraception, from 49 percent of married women in 2003 to 55 percent in 2013. As can be seen in Figure 7.2, use of pill and withdrawal has increased over the past 10 years. Use of female sterilization, IUD, and rhythm method decreased slightly since 2003, whereas use of male condom remained constant at 2 percentage points. Table 7.5 Trends in the current use of contraception Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 by contraceptive method currently used, according to several surveys Method 2003 NDHS 2008 NDHS 2013 NDHS Any method 48.9 50.7 55.1 Any modern method 33.4 34.0 37.6 Female sterilization 10.5 9.2 8.5 Pill 13.2 15.7 19.1 IUD 4.1 3.7 3.5 Male condom 1.9 2.3 1.9 Injectables 3.1 2.6 3.7 Other modern method 0.5 0.5 0.9 Any traditional method 15.5 16.7 17.5 Rhythm 6.7 6.4 5.1 Withdrawal 8.2 9.8 12.1 Other 0.6 0.4 0.2 Not currently using 51.1 49.3 44.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 8,671 8,418 9,729 Family Planning • 77 7.5 TIMING OF STERILIZATION Given the importance of female sterilization as a way of preventing pregnancies among women in high-risk groups, family planning program managers support the dissemination of information about this method and the provision of services in accordance with a woman’s age and health status. Policy makers consider the optimal target age for sterilization for women to be age 30-35. The 2013 NDHS collected from women using female sterilization the age at which they had the procedure. When considering the data on the age at which female sterilization was adopted, the problem of censoring must be taken into account. Because the survey includes only women age 15-49, the experience of sterilized women age 50 and over is not included. Table 7.6 shows the percent distribution of currently married, sterilized women by age at the time of sterilization, according to the number of years since the operation. The results indicate that the median age at sterilization among women in the Philippines is 31.4 years. Median age at sterilization is highest for women who were sterilized between six and seven years before the survey (33.0 years). The largest proportion of women were sterilized when they were age 30-34. Overall, a gradual increase has been observed in median age at sterilization, from 30.1 years in 2003 to 30.8 years in 2008 and 31.4 years in 2013. 8 7 16 2 3 4 13 11 33 49 10 6 17 2 3 4 16 9 34 51 12 5 18 2 4 4 19 9 38 55 Withdrawal Rhythm Any traditional Male condom Injectables IUD Pill Female sterilization Any modern ANY METHOD Percentage of currently married women Figure 7.2 Trends in contraceptive use among currently married women 2013 NDHS 2008 NDHS 2003 NDHS 78 • Family Planning Table 7.6 Timing of sterilization Percent distribution of sterilized women age 15-49 by age at the time of sterilization and median age at sterilization, according to the number of years since the operation, Philippines 2013 Age at time of sterilization Total Number of women Median age1 Years since operation <25 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 <2 4.4 26.3 33.3 25.5 8.3 2.3 100.0 139 32.3 2-3 6.5 16.3 36.5 25.5 15.2 0.0 100.0 116 32.4 4-5 5.9 19.5 32.8 29.3 12.5 0.0 100.0 100 32.7 6-7 2.5 28.3 33.4 25.6 10.3 0.0 100.0 141 33.0 8-9 5.4 14.9 45.1 29.1 5.5 0.0 100.0 103 32.9 10+ 13.4 42.9 36.8 7.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 267 a Total 7.4 28.2 36.2 20.7 7.1 0.4 100.0 867 31.4 a = Not calculated due to censoring 1 Median age at sterilization is calculated only for women sterilized before age 40 at less than 40 years of age to avoid problems of censoring 7.6 SOURCE OF MODERN CONTRACEPTIVE METHODS Table 7.7 documents the main sources of contraception for users of different contraceptive methods. This information is useful for reproductive health program managers, particularly those responsible for program logistics. The results in Table 7.7 show that the public and private sectors provide an almost equal proportion of modern method users in the Philippines. The principal public sector sources for contraceptives are barangay health stations (serving 18 percent of current users), government hospitals (serving 17 percent of current users), and rural health units/urban health centers (serving 12 percent of current users). Pharmacies are the principal private sector provider for contraceptives, serving 39 percent of users. Private hospitals and clinics serve 8 percent of current users. Table 7.7 Source of modern contraception methods Percent distribution of users of modern contraceptive methods age 15-49 by most recent source of method, according to method, Philippines 2013 Source Female sterili- zation Pill IUD Inject- ables Male condom Total Public sector 75.1 25.2 81.9 81.7 14.4 47.2 Government hospital 66.7 0.2 10.4 1.9 0.0 16.7 Rural health unit/ Urban health center 8.4 6.2 37.9 30.7 4.8 12.2 Barangay health station 0.0 17.7 32.9 47.8 9.2 17.5 Barangay supply/ Service point officer/BHW 0.0 1.1 0.0 1.3 0.4 0.8 Other public 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.1 Private medical sector 23.7 68.1 16.6 17.5 72.2 47.8 Private hospital/clinic 22.8 0.9 12.2 6.0 0.9 7.7 Pharmacy 0.0 66.5 0.0 7.0 70.8 38.7 Private doctor 0.8 0.4 3.2 1.5 0.0 0.9 Private nurse, midwife 0.0 0.1 1.0 2.2 0.0 0.4 NGO 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.7 0.0 0.2 Industry-based clinic 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 Other private 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Other source 0.0 6.5 0.3 0.5 13.4 4.4 Puericulture center 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 Store 0.0 5.7 0.0 0.5 10.7 3.6 Church 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 Friends relatives 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 2.7 0.6 Other 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.1 Missing 1.0 0.3 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 867 1,911 352 366 220 3,755 Note: Total includes other modern methods (male sterilization, implants, basal body temperature, Mucus/Billings, symptothermal and standard days) but excludes lactational amenorrhea method (LAM). Family Planning • 79 Considering specific methods, almost all female sterilization, IUD, and injectables users obtain their methods from a public sector provider (75 percent, 82 percent, and 82 percent, respectively). Sterilized women most often obtain their method from government hospitals (67 percent), followed by rural health unit/urban health center (8 percent). The main providers of IUDs and injectables are barangay health stations and rural health unit/urban health centers. The majority of male condom and pill users rely on private sector providers, principally pharmacies (71 percent and 67 percent, respectively), for their method. About 1 in 4 pill users (25 percent) obtain their method from the public sector. 7.7 COST OF FAMILY PLANNING METHODS Information on the cost of obtaining contraceptive methods is useful to family planning programs. In the 2013 NDHS, women who were using modern methods of contraception were asked how much they paid (in total) the last time they obtained their method, including the cost of the method and any consultation costs they may have paid. Table 7.8 shows the percentage of women who obtained their method free and, for those who paid, the median cost by method and source. These results should be used with caution; however, because of the large proportion of respondents who were unable to report the cost of the contraceptive method they were using especially sterilization users. Table 7.8 Cost of modern contraceptive methods Percent distribution of current users of modern contraception age 15-49 by whether they got their method free, do not know the cost of the method or do know the cost of the method and the median cost of the method, by current method, according to source of current method, Philippines 2013 Source of method/cost Female sterilization Pill IUD Injectables Male condom Total Public sector Method free 28.7 48.0 40.3 27.5 (71.4) 39.0 Do not know cost 42.8 0.3 0.0 0.0 (0.0) 7.2 Know cost 28.5 51.7 59.7 72.5 (28.6) 53.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median cost (pesos)1 2,479 35 100 119 * 50 Number of women 219 482 288 299 32 1,319 Private medical sector/Other Method free 13.7 0.9 5.3 5.3 3.1 2.0 Do not know cost 59.2 0.4 4.8 0.0 17.5 4.7 Know cost 27.1 98.7 89.9 94.7 79.4 93.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median cost (pesos)1 * 42 499 149 29 43 Number of women 76 1,429 64 67 188 1,823 Total Method free 24.8 12.8 34.0 23.4 13.0 17.6 Do not know cost 47.0 0.3 0.9 0.0 15.0 5.8 Know cost 28.2 86.8 65.2 76.6 72.0 76.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median cost (pesos)1 2,958 41 150 119 29 44 Number of women 294 1,911 352 366 220 3,143 Note: Table excludes lactational amenorrhea method (LAM). Costs are based on the last time current users obtained method. Costs include consultation cost, if any. For condom, costs are per package; for pills, per cycle. For sterilization, data are based on women who received the operation in the 5 years before the survey. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk denotes a figure based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. 1 Median cost is based only on those women who reported a cost. The median cost is calculated based on users who paid for their method. For example, 29 percent of sterilization users who had their operation in a public facility did not pay for the service, and 43 percent did not know how much the operation cost. Therefore the median cost was based on the remaining 29 percent of women (62 women) who paid for the sterilization operation. Similarly, 14 percent of users who had the operation in a private facility did not pay for the service and 59 percent did not know how much they paid for 80 • Family Planning the sterilization. Therefore, the cost was only available for the remaining 27 percent of women (21 women) who paid for the sterilization operation. The reason respondents were unable to report the cost of sterilization services they received is partly due to payment procedures, especially in the private sector where the claims are handled by the service providers. Overall, male condoms are the least expensive contraceptive method (Php 29) and female sterilization is the most expensive (Php 2,958). The cost for contraception varies markedly between public and private sectors. For example, the cost of an IUD in the public sector is Php 100 compared with Php 499 in the private sector. While a cycle of pills costs Php 35 in the public sector, it is Php 42 in the private sector. 7.8 INFORMED CHOICE Women who were currently using a modern method of contraception and had adopted the method within the five years preceding the survey were asked whether they were informed about the side effects of the methods they were using, whether they were told what to do if they experienced any side effects, and whether they were informed about other methods of contraception they could use. Women who had been sterilized were asked if they were informed that they could not have any more children because of the operation. This information assists users in coping with side effects and decreases unnecessary discontinuations. In addition, these data serve as a measure of the quality of family planning services and inform program managers for future improvements. Table 7.9 shows that 74 percent of women were informed about the side effects of the method they were using at the time of the survey, while 67 percent were informed about what to do if they experienced side effects. Seventy-seven percent of women were informed about alternative methods. The majority of women who use injectables were relatively well informed: 81 percent had been told about side effects, 71 percent knew what to do when they had side effects, and 83 percent were informed about other available methods of contraception. Users of the IUD and female sterilization were almost as well informed about side effects, while pill users were the least likely to have been informed about side effects (72 percent). IUD users were the most likely to have been told of what to do if they experienced side effects (77 percent) and to have been told about other methods they could use (85 percent). It should be noted that 74 percent of sterilized women were informed about side effects and only 69 percent were informed about what to do if they experienced side effects; 64 percent were informed about other methods. Family Planning • 81 Table 7.9 Informed choice Among current users of modern methods age 15-49 who started the last episode of use within the five years preceding the survey, the percentage who were informed about possible side effects or problems of that method, the percentage who were informed about what to do if they experienced side effects, and the percentage who were informed about other methods they could use, by method and initial source, Philippines 2013 Among women who started last episode of modern contraceptive method within five years preceding the survey: Method/source Percentage who were informed about side effects or problems of method used Percentage who were informed about what to do if experienced side effects Percentage who were informed by a health or family planning worker of other methods that could be used Number of women Method Female sterilization 74.3 68.5 64.3 294 Pill 72.0 64.1 77.0 1,480 IUD 80.9 76.6 85.4 166 Injectables 81.4 71.0 82.8 305 Initial source of method1 Public sector 81.6 75.1 81.4 1,126 Government hospital 71.4 66.1 65.9 224 Rural health unit/urban health center 84.8 77.5 81.3 312 Barangay health station 83.9 77.1 87.0 573 Private medical sector 67.3 58.3 72.3 1,033 Private hospital or clinic 82.5 75.5 81.6 132 Private doctor * * * 18 Pharmacy 64.2 55.0 70.3 868 Other private sector 60.4 54.7 69.4 83 Total 74.3 66.6 76.7 2,246 Note: Table includes users of only the methods listed individually. Total includes 55 weighted cases whose contraceptive source was cited by too few users to be shown separately. 1 Source at start of current episode of use Contraceptive users who obtained their methods from a public source were more likely to have received information about the method’s side effects than those who went to a private source (82 percent and 67 percent, respectively). Women who obtained their methods from public rural health unit/urban health centers were more likely than users who obtained their method from government hospitals to have received information about side effects (85 percent and 71 percent, respectively) and what to do if they experienced side effects (78 percent and 66 percent). Among private sector users, those who obtained their method from private hospitals or clinics were relatively better informed than those who used other sources. 7.9 KNOWLEDGE OF THE FERTILE PERIOD An elementary knowledge of reproductive physiology provides a useful background for successful practice of coitus-associated methods such as withdrawal, condoms, and vaginal methods. Knowledge is particularly critical in the case of the rhythm method. In the NDHS, respondents were asked two questions to ascertain their level of understanding of the ovulatory cycle. The first question determined if respondents had a general understanding that there are certain days during a woman’s menstrual cycle when she is more likely to become pregnant. Respondents who indicated that there were certain days a woman was more likely to become pregnant were then asked if that time was just before the woman’s period begins, during her period, right after her period has ended, or halfway between two periods. Table 7.10 shows that Filipino women generally have a limited understanding of the ovulatory cycle. A large percentage of women believe that a woman is more likely to get pregnant right after her menstrual 82 • Family Planning cycle has ended (46 percent). Only one in three women (32 percent) are aware that a woman is most at risk of pregnancy if she has intercourse halfway between two periods. Table 7.10 Knowledge of fertile period Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by knowledge of the fertile period during the ovulatory cycle, according to current use of cycle-related methods, Philippines 2013 Perceived fertile period Users of cycle-related methods1 Nonusers of cycle-related methods All women Just before her menstrual period begins 5.2 6.8 6.8 During her menstrual period 2.0 1.4 1.4 Right after her menstrual period has ended 40.4 46.1 45.9 Halfway between two menstrual periods 46.5 31.2 31.7 No specific time 4.6 6.6 6.5 Don't know 1.2 7.9 7.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 535 15,620 16,155 1 Includes users of mucus/Billings/ovulation, basal body temperature, symptothermal, standard days, and rhythm methods. Among users of ovulatory cycle-related methods, or those using mucus/Billings/ovulation method, basal body temperature, symptothermal, standard days, or rhythm method, 47 percent were able to correctly identify when during a woman’s cycle she is most likely to get pregnant, although 40 percent incorrectly reported that a woman’s fertile period is right after menstruation has ended. The proportion of women who know that a woman is most likely to get pregnant halfway between her periods decreased slightly from 35 percent in 2008 to 32 percent in 2013. The proportion who do not know when a woman is most at risk of becoming pregnant also decreased from 13 percent in 2008 to 8 percent in 2013. 7.10 NEED FOR FAMILY PLANNING SERVICES Information on fertility preferences is insufficient by itself to estimate the need for family planning services. Many women who do not want to have another child soon are not exposed to the risk of pregnancy, either because they are using contraception or for other reasons. Clearly, a more detailed analysis of unmet need for family planning is needed. In the past, the definition of unmet need used information from the contraceptive calendar and other questions that were not included in every survey, which led to unmet need being calculated inconsistently between surveys. The revised definition uses only information that has been collected in every survey so that unmet need can be measured in the same way over time. Unmet need for family planning refers to fecund women who are not using contraception but who wish to postpone the next birth (spacing) or stop childbearing altogether (limiting). Specifically, women are considered to have unmet need for spacing if they are: • At risk of becoming pregnant, not using contraception, and either do not want to become pregnant within the next two years, or are unsure if or when they want to become pregnant. • Pregnant with a mistimed pregnancy. • Postpartum amenorrheic for up to two years following a mistimed birth and not using contraception. • Women are considered to have unmet need for limiting if they are: Family Planning • 83 • At risk of becoming pregnant, not using contraception, and want no (more) children. • Pregnant with an unwanted pregnancy. • Postpartum amenorrheic for up to two years following an unwanted birth and not using contraception. Women who are classified as infecund have no unmet need because they are not at risk of becoming pregnant. Women using contraception are considered to have met need. Women using contraception who say they want no (more) children are considered to have met need for limiting, and women who are using contraception and say they want to delay having a child, or are unsure if or when they want a/another child, are considered to have met need for spacing. Unmet need, total demand, percentage of demand satisfied, and percentage of demand satisfied by modern methods are defined as follows: • Unmet need: the sum of unmet need for spacing plus unmet need for limiting • Total demand for family planning: the sum of unmet need plus total contraceptive use • Percentage of demand satisfied: total contraceptive use divided by the sum of unmet need plus total contraceptive use • Percentage of demand satisfied by modern methods: use of modern contraceptive methods divided by the sum of unmet need plus total contraceptive use Table 7.11 shows that nearly 18 percent of currently married women in the Philippines have an unmet need for family planning. The percentage is split between a need for spacing births (7 percent) and a need for limiting births (11 percent). Fifty-five percent of women have a met need for contraception; in other words, they are currently using a method. Sixteen percent of women are using contraception to delay their next birth, while 39 percent want to stop childbearing. The total demand for family planning among currently married women in Philippines is 73 percent. Seventy-six percent of women have had their demand for family planning satisfied. The definition of unmet need for family planning has been revised to make levels of unmet need comparable over time and across surveys. The aspect of the change in the definition that has the largest impact on levels of unmet need is the removal of information collected from the contraceptive calendar, which has not been included in all DHS surveys across countries. Previously, in surveys that included a calendar, women who were pregnant or postpartum amenorrheic resulting from contraceptive failure were not considered to have unmet need, even if their last pregnancy/birth was unwanted or mistimed. By contrast, if the survey did not collect information on contraceptive failure in the calendar, all pregnant and postpartum amenorrheic women whose last pregnancy/birth was unwanted or mistimed were considered to have unmet need. To make the definition of unmet need comparable in both types of surveys, the new definition does not take information on contraceptive failure into account for any woman when assigning unmet need status. Removing contraceptive failure from the calculation can result in a small increase in the estimated level of unmet need by moving some women who were in the failure category into the unmet need category. All of the numbers in Figure 7.3 have been recalculated using the revised definition of unmet need and may differ slightly from 84 • Family Planning numbers published in the final reports for each previous survey. Results show a large decline from 30 percent in 1993, 25 percent in 1998, 23 percent in 2003, 22 percent in 2008, to 18 percent in 2013.1 Table 7.11 Need and demand for family planning among currently married women Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 with unmet need for family planning, percentage with met need for family planning, the total demand for family planning, and the percentage of the demand for contraception that is satisfied, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Unmet need for family planning Met need for family planning (currently using) Total demand for family planning1 Percentage of demand satisfied2 Percentage of demand satisfied by modern methods3 Number of women Background characteristic For spacing For limiting Total For spacing For limiting Total For spacing For limiting Total Age 15-19 24.9 3.9 28.7 28.6 8.0 36.5 53.4 11.8 65.2 56.0 31.7 313 20-24 15.5 6.6 22.2 34.9 16.1 51.0 50.4 22.8 73.2 69.7 46.9 1,196 25-29 11.7 6.5 18.2 30.7 27.8 58.5 42.4 34.4 76.8 76.2 55.1 1,484 30-34 6.2 8.5 14.7 19.5 42.9 62.4 25.6 51.4 77.1 80.9 58.2 1,862 35-39 3.7 12.4 16.1 9.0 52.0 61.0 12.7 64.4 77.1 79.2 55.1 1,725 40-44 1.6 15.2 16.8 2.7 55.5 58.2 4.3 70.6 74.9 77.6 51.7 1,638 45-49 0.5 16.1 16.6 0.8 39.0 39.8 1.3 55.1 56.5 70.5 41.6 1,511 Residence Urban 6.4 10.4 16.7 16.3 40.3 56.5 22.6 50.6 73.3 77.2 51.6 4,734 Rural 7.0 11.2 18.2 15.3 38.4 53.8 22.3 49.7 72.0 74.7 52.0 4,995 Region National Capital Region 5.5 8.6 14.0 18.3 42.8 61.1 23.8 51.3 75.1 81.3 53.4 1,475 Cordillera Admin Region 5.7 6.7 12.4 20.6 40.6 61.2 26.3 47.3 73.6 83.1 59.8 151 I - Ilocos Region 4.0 15.3 19.3 16.0 38.4 54.4 20.1 53.7 73.7 73.9 50.8 460 II - Cagayan Valley 5.0 10.6 15.6 14.5 44.4 58.9 19.5 55.0 74.5 79.0 69.1 376 III - Central Luzon 6.3 6.8 13.1 16.9 44.3 61.2 23.2 51.1 74.3 82.4 60.4 1,052 IVA - CALABARZON 6.0 11.8 17.8 15.9 39.8 55.7 21.9 51.6 73.5 75.8 49.1 1,349 IVB - MIMAROPA 8.2 12.6 20.8 14.9 36.3 51.2 23.1 48.9 72.0 71.1 55.1 252 V - Bicol 7.3 20.2 27.4 12.2 32.8 44.9 19.4 52.9 72.4 62.1 29.3 511 VI - Western Visayas 6.4 13.6 20.0 13.3 42.1 55.4 19.7 55.7 75.4 73.4 45.5 636 VII - Central Visayas 5.9 13.2 19.1 13.5 41.3 54.8 19.5 54.5 73.9 74.1 46.0 636 VIII - Eastern Visayas 3.1 8.8 11.9 19.3 42.4 61.7 22.4 51.2 73.7 83.8 50.2 370 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 12.0 8.9 21.0 18.4 28.9 47.3 30.4 37.9 68.3 69.3 53.0 425 X - Northern Mindanao 6.4 13.9 20.2 15.0 35.7 50.7 21.4 49.5 70.9 71.5 53.0 424 XI - Davao 7.5 10.0 17.5 14.6 39.1 53.8 22.1 49.1 71.3 75.4 55.1 557 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 7.6 8.0 15.6 15.2 42.3 57.5 22.7 50.3 73.0 78.7 60.5 469 XIII - Caraga 5.9 7.8 13.7 14.8 39.3 54.2 20.7 47.1 67.8 79.8 57.5 293 ARMM 19.2 8.4 27.6 11.7 12.2 23.9 31.0 20.5 51.5 46.5 29.7 295 Education No education 11.9 11.6 23.5 7.6 21.8 29.3 19.5 33.3 52.8 55.5 30.4 147 Elementary 5.7 12.3 17.9 10.0 42.9 52.9 15.6 55.2 70.8 74.7 51.1 2,015 High school 7.0 10.8 17.8 17.2 41.0 58.2 24.2 51.8 76.0 76.6 52.7 4,641 College 6.6 9.8 16.4 18.0 35.0 53.0 24.5 44.9 69.4 76.4 51.7 2,925 Wealth quintile Lowest 8.5 12.7 21.3 13.1 36.8 49.9 21.6 49.5 71.2 70.1 46.4 1,945 Second 6.5 10.2 16.7 16.1 42.2 58.3 22.6 52.4 75.0 77.7 53.8 1,919 Middle 6.2 9.3 15.5 17.4 42.3 59.6 23.6 51.6 75.2 79.3 55.1 1,996 Fourth 6.2 9.9 16.1 17.3 39.8 57.1 23.5 49.7 73.2 78.0 53.5 2,012 Highest 5.9 12.0 17.9 14.9 35.4 50.3 20.9 47.4 68.3 73.7 49.8 1,857 Total 6.7 10.8 17.5 15.8 39.3 55.1 22.5 50.1 72.6 75.9 51.8 9,729 Note: Numbers in this table correspond to the revised definition of unmet need described in Bradley et al., 2012. 1 Total demand is the sum of unmet need and met need 2 Percentage of demand satisfied is met need divided by total demand 3 Modern methods include female sterilization, male sterilization, pill, IUD, injectables, implants, male condom, female condom, and lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), Mucus/Billings/ovulation, basal body temperature, symptothermal, standard days method, and other modern methods 1Data do not match the published figure because it was recalculated with the new definition. Family Planning • 85 Unmet need for contraception for purposes of spacing births declines in relation to a woman’s age, whereas the need for limiting births increases as a woman ages. The needs for spacing and limiting are complementary, as evidenced by the fact that total unmet need generally varies little by age of the woman. Unmet need varies little by place of residence. Unmet need is lowest in Eastern Visayas and Cordillera Administrative Region (12 percent) and highest in ARMM (28 percent). Unmet need is linearly associated with education. Women with no education have the highest level of unmet need (24 percent) and women with higher education the lowest (16 percent). Since educated women are more likely to use a contraceptive method than uneducated women, a higher proportion of their total demand for family planning is satisfied. Unmet need is higher among women in the lowest wealth quintile (21 percent) than in all other wealth quintiles. As expected, met need (i.e., the level of current contraceptive use) for limiting is more than twice that for spacing. Met need is higher for spacing among young women and for limiting among older women. The higher level of met need for limiting than for spacing persists for residence, region, education, and wealth index. Total demand for family planning is also associated with age and peaks at 77 percent among women age 25-39. Differentials in total demand by residence, region, and wealth quintile are minimal, except for the low levels among women in ARMM region (52 percent) and women with no education (53 percent). 7.11 FUTURE USE OF CONTRACEPTION An important indicator of the changing demand for family planning is the extent to which nonusers of contraception plan to use family planning in the future. In the 2013 NDHS, currently married women age 15- 49 who were not using a contraceptive method were asked about their intention to use family planning in the future. The results are presented in Table 7.12. Forty-one percent of currently married women who reported that they were not using any family planning method said that they intend to use a family planning method in the future; 56 percent have no intention to use contraception, and 2 percent are unsure. The percentage of nonusers indicating that they plan to adopt contraception is highest among those with one child (47 percent), after which it declines to 45 percent among women with 2 children, and to 34 percent among women who have four or more children. 30 25 23 22 18 1993 DHS 1998 NDHS 2003 NDHS 2008 NDHS 2013 NDHS Figure 7.3 Trends in unmet need for family planning 86 • Family Planning Table 7.12 Future use of contraception Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 who are not using a contraceptive method by intention to use in the future, according to number of living children, Philippines 2013 Number of living children1 Total Intention to use in the future 0 1 2 3 4+ Intends to use 31.7 47.4 45.2 45.5 34.4 41.3 Unsure 5.7 2.2 1.6 0.8 1.9 2.2 Does not intend to use 62.4 50.3 52.8 53.1 63.1 56.1 Missing 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 499 1,068 994 609 1,196 4,367 1 Includes current pregnancy 7.12 EXPOSURE TO FAMILY PLANNING MESSAGES Data on the media through which subgroups of the population typically receive family planning messages are useful in assessing the coverage of current information, education, and communication efforts and in planning future media campaigns. To assess the extent to which they receive family planning information through mass media, NDHS respondents were asked if they had heard or seen a message about family planning on the radio, on television, in a newspaper or magazine, or on the internet in the past few months. Table 7.13 shows that televised messages about family planning reach the largest audience of women (70 percent). Forty-five percent of women recently heard about family planning on the radio, 33 percent read about family planning in a newspaper or magazine, and 24 percent saw a family planning message online or on the internet. About a quarter of women (24 percent) did not receive family planning information from any of the four sources. Women in rural areas, women from ARMM region, and women with no education are most likely not to have been recently exposed to family planning messages through any of the media. Among women, the percentage who are not exposed to any family planning messages through the media generally decreases with increasing wealth. Family Planning • 87 Table 7.13 Exposure to family planning messages Percentage of women age 15-49 who heard or saw a family planning message on radio, on television, in a newspaper or magazine, or on the internet in the past few months, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Radio Television Newspaper/ magazine/ poster/leaflet Online or internet None of these four media sources Number of women Age 15-19 35.3 63.7 26.9 27.9 29.7 3,237 20-24 43.9 71.1 32.8 35.6 22.3 2,789 25-29 47.0 74.2 36.0 29.0 19.9 2,156 30-34 49.4 74.5 36.5 23.0 19.3 2,250 35-39 48.8 69.3 34.0 18.5 24.0 1,976 40-44 48.4 68.5 33.7 13.6 24.8 1,924 45-49 52.2 69.3 33.8 10.5 24.2 1,823 Residence Urban 44.3 74.0 37.4 30.2 21.1 8,585 Rural 46.7 65.0 27.9 16.6 26.8 7,570 Region National Capital Region 45.3 80.5 46.0 34.5 16.3 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 45.9 68.4 43.5 30.7 20.3 252 I - Ilocos Region 44.4 65.1 31.4 21.5 27.4 691 II - Cagayan Valley 56.4 72.0 33.5 20.9 18.9 550 III - Central Luzon 45.2 77.6 31.6 25.1 18.7 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 33.2 64.7 26.1 24.7 30.6 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 48.7 66.5 27.9 13.6 21.2 372 V - Bicol 49.3 71.5 29.7 17.4 19.7 798 VI - Western Visayas 54.6 74.3 37.6 24.3 19.6 996 VII - Central Visayas 56.9 71.9 45.3 28.9 18.0 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 43.6 72.2 43.7 22.5 20.4 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 46.7 61.5 17.1 15.2 31.2 725 X - Northern Mindanao 46.5 62.9 26.3 22.4 28.1 697 XI - Davao 34.7 55.7 19.2 14.8 36.2 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 54.5 65.6 32.3 18.6 25.2 744 XIII - Caraga 54.3 72.5 27.1 21.1 22.0 435 ARMM 37.9 39.9 11.5 4.9 50.8 465 Education No education 25.5 22.6 2.3 1.0 64.8 188 Elementary 41.3 51.4 15.8 2.5 38.7 2,593 High school 44.4 69.6 28.5 15.6 24.6 7,916 College 49.7 80.4 48.6 46.8 14.0 5,458 Wealth quintile Lowest 42.3 45.1 15.5 3.3 41.9 2,620 Second 46.9 66.7 25.4 9.9 25.2 2,886 Middle 47.1 74.7 32.6 19.0 20.7 3,199 Fourth 45.4 77.7 37.1 29.9 18.6 3,572 Highest 45.1 77.3 46.7 46.6 17.6 3,878 Total 15-49 45.4 69.8 32.9 23.9 23.8 16,155 7.13 CONTACT OF NONUSERS WITH FAMILY PLANNING PROVIDERS Health providers are an important source of family planning information for nonusers who may be in need of family planning. The 2013NDHS included several questions to determine if nonusers had any contact with health providers in the year before the survey and, if they did, whether they received any information about family planning from the provider. Table 7.14 shows that 12 percent of nonusers were visited in their home by a health worker who discussed family planning and that 15 percent had discussed family planning during a visit they had made to a health facility in the past 12 months. The results also show that some potential opportunities for discussing family planning with nonusers are missed; one in five nonusers (20 percent) had visited a health facility in the past year without receiving any information on family planning. Overall, 80 percent of nonusers had not discussed family planning with a fieldworker or at a health facility in the past year. This percentage was lowest among women age 35-39 (69 percent), women in rural areas (75 percent), those in Caraga Region (67 percent), and those in the lowest wealth quintile (66 percent). 88 • Family Planning Table 7.14 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers Among women age 15-49 who are not using contraception, the percentage who during the past 12 months were visited by a fieldworker who discussed family planning, the percentage who visited a health facility and discussed family planning, the percentage who visited a health facility but did not discuss family planning, and the percentage who did not discuss family planning either with a fieldworker or at a health facility, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage of women who were visited by fieldworker who discussed family planning Percentage of women who visited a health facility in the past 12 months and who: Percentage of women who did not discuss family planning either with fieldworker or at a health facility Background characteristic Discussed family planning Did not discuss family planning Number of women Age 15-19 6.5 4.1 14.8 90.8 3,094 20-24 9.6 15.3 19.3 79.7 2,100 25-29 14.5 22.1 20.9 72.3 1,239 30-34 15.4 23.6 22.2 70.9 1,072 35-39 16.7 24.4 21.8 69.4 909 40-44 16.9 18.4 22.3 74.3 950 45-49 16.1 14.7 24.4 76.8 1,205 Residence Urban 9.7 11.6 17.4 83.0 5,725 Rural 14.4 18.3 22.0 75.3 4,842 Region National Capital Region 6.9 8.8 11.7 87.4 1,944 Cordillera Admin Region 13.3 18.7 21.5 73.7 158 I - Ilocos Region 11.0 12.7 21.8 82.8 439 II - Cagayan Valley 9.5 15.0 22.1 80.5 326 III - Central Luzon 8.0 11.3 17.5 84.7 1,054 IVA - CALABARZON 9.7 8.8 13.1 84.2 1,517 IVB - MIMAROPA 18.6 19.4 26.2 72.5 240 V - Bicol 13.4 21.4 28.2 74.7 561 VI - Western Visayas 14.9 22.2 20.0 71.6 633 VII - Central Visayas 11.5 15.4 23.0 79.9 664 VIII - Eastern Visayas 14.1 21.8 37.7 70.1 335 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 19.5 19.1 17.0 71.4 522 X - Northern Mindanao 17.5 21.6 34.9 72.3 467 XI - Davao 15.9 15.5 27.4 74.7 577 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 13.3 19.9 26.4 74.2 467 XIII - Caraga 21.7 25.9 15.6 67.1 271 ARMM 14.1 14.0 12.7 78.2 393 Education No education 15.1 16.0 19.5 77.6 144 Elementary 19.5 23.2 22.3 69.3 1,509 High school 12.4 14.3 17.9 79.2 5,121 College 7.9 11.7 20.7 84.0 3,792 Wealth quintile Lowest 20.5 27.1 21.1 65.5 1,646 Second 17.2 19.1 22.0 72.6 1,747 Middle 12.0 14.9 17.8 78.7 1,957 Fourth 9.0 10.5 19.7 84.1 2,346 Highest 5.9 8.0 18.2 88.5 2,871 Total 11.9 14.7 19.5 79.5 10,567 Infant and Child Mortality • 89 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY 8 ortality rates reflect a country’s health development and quality of life of the citizens, especially mortality rates of children. These include infant, child, neonatal, post-neonatal, and under-five mortality. It is in the worldwide agenda to reduce the high levels of child mortality as reflected in the objective of Millennium Development Goal 4—to reduce the under-5 mortality rate by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Information in this chapter was obtained from the reproductive history section of the Woman’s Questionnaire of the 2013 NDHS. There are two types of data collected in this section. The first refers to a woman’s total number of pregnancies, classified as live births and non-live births. To elicit complete reporting of all live births, interviewers asked the respondents to report the number of children still living and those who died, each classified by sex. The second type of data relates to detailed information on each of the woman’s pregnancies from the first to the last. The following information was collected: whether the pregnancy resulted in single or multiple births and the outcome of the pregnancy (born alive, born dead, or lost before full term), and the length or duration of pregnancy (to get data on pre-term live births). For all live births, the name, sex, date of birth, and survival status of the child were recorded. For surviving children, their age in completed years at last birthday was recorded. For dead children, the age at death was noted. If the child was born dead (stillbirth) or the pregnancy was lost before full term (miscarriage), the date of pregnancy termination and duration of pregnancy at the time of loss were also recorded. For these pregnancies, the women were asked whether the pregnancy loss was induced. The accuracy of these estimates depends on the respondent’s full recall about all of her births, particularly those who have died, and her ability to accurately report the children’s date of birth and age at death. M Key Findings • Infant and under-5 mortality rates for the five-year period preceding the survey are 23 and 31 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively. Hence, one in every 43 babies dies before their first birthday and one in every 32 babies dies before reaching their fifth birthday. These results indicate a continuation of the slow decline in childhood mortality in the Philippines. • More than half of infant deaths occur during the first month of life (neonatal mortality). • Infant and under-5 mortality is highest among babies living in rural areas and SOCCSKSARGEN, among those whose mothers have less education or are in the lowest wealth quintile, and among those born to mothers aged 40-49 and mothers of high parity (7+). Children born after short birth intervals also have higher mortality. • The perinatal mortality rate is 22 per 1,000 pregnancies. 90 • Infant and Child Mortality 8.1 DEFINITIONS AND CONCEPTS Included in this chapter are estimates and definitions of childhood mortality as to the following: a. Neonatal mortality (NN) - the probability of dying within the first month of life b. Postneonatal mortality (PNN) - the difference between infant and neonatal mortality c. Infant mortality (1q0) - the probability of dying before the first birthday d. Child mortality (4q1)- the probability of dying between the first and fifth birthday e. Under-five mortality(5q0) - the probability of dying between birth and fifth birthday f. Perinatal mortality - the number of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths that occurred 0-4 years preceding the survey per 1,000 pregnancies of seven or more months’ duration. All rates are expressed per 1,000 live births, except for child mortality, which is expressed per 1,000 children surviving to 12 months of age. Newborns’, infants’ and young children’s health is a primary concern of the Department of Health (DOH). Children’s Health 2025 is the blueprint for a holistic and integrated approach to promote the health of Filipino children through sector-specific plans of action. 8.2 DATA QUALITY The quality of mortality estimates calculated from retrospective birth histories depends upon the completeness with which births and deaths are reported and recorded. Even though the training and field procedures for the 2013 NDHS were designed to minimize data problems, no amount of attention to field procedures can eliminate errors in data altogether. Retrospective birth history data are known to be susceptible to several possible types of errors. One source of error relates to the facts that only surviving women age 15-49 were interviewed, eliminating data on children of women who were not represented in the sample because they have died. Resulting mortality estimates will be biased if the fertility of surviving and non-surviving women would differ substantially. A second factor that affects childhood mortality estimates is the quality of reporting of age at death, which may distort the age pattern of mortality. If age at death is misreported, it will bias the estimates, especially if the net effect of the age misreporting results in transference from one age bracket to another. For example, a net transfer of deaths from under one month to a higher age will affect the estimates of neonatal and post-neonatal mortality. To minimize errors in reporting of age at death, interviewers were instructed to record age at death in days if the death took place in the month following the birth, in months if the child died before age two, and in years if the child was at least two years of age. They were also asked to probe for deaths reported at one year to determine a more precise age at death in terms of months. Because transference and omission occur more frequently for very early deaths, it is useful to examine patterns in the reported age at death in a more detailed manner. Data in Appendix Tables C.5 and C.6 do show some evidence of heaping on ages at death of 7 days, 6 months, and 12 months, but the problem is not severe for the periods closer to the survey date. Another possible error is underreporting of events; respondents are more likely to forget distant events than recent events. Thus, deaths that occurred in the more distant past are less likely to be reported than recent deaths, resulting in underreporting of deaths. If selective omission of childhood deaths occurs, it is usually Infant and Child Mortality • 91 most severe for deaths early in infancy. Generally, if deaths are substantially underreported, the result is a low ratio of early neonatal deaths (deaths within the first week of life) to all neonatal deaths and a low ratio of neonatal deaths to infant deaths. An examination of the proportion of early neonatal deaths to all neonatal deaths (Appendix Table C.5) shows that early neonatal represented 80 percent of all neonatal deaths for the five-year period prior to the 2013 NDHS.1 As expected, the percentage of early neonatal deaths decreases for earlier periods before the survey. An examination of the proportion of neonatal deaths to infant deaths (Appendix Table C.6) shows that neonatal deaths represented 59 percent of infant deaths for the five-year periods prior to the 2013 NDHS, with little change across the five-year periods prior to the survey. Misreporting of date of birth can also bias mortality rates. This can occur if an interviewer knowingly records a birth as occurring in a different year, which could happen if an interviewer were trying to cut down on his or her overall work load, because live births occurring during the five years preceding the interview are the subject of a lengthy set of additional questions. In the 2013 NDHS questionnaire, the cut-off year for these questions was 2008. Appendix Table C.4 shows no evidence of transference of children from 2008 to earlier years either for living children or children who died. 8.3 LEVELS AND TRENDS Table 8.1 shows early childhood mortality rates calculated from the 2013 NDHS birth history for three successive five-year periods prior to the survey. These periods correspond roughly to 1999 to 2013. Child mortality in the Philippines is relatively low, compared with other countries in the Southeast Asian region. Under‐five mortality for the period 0‐4 years before the survey or approximately the calendar years 2009‐2013 is 31 deaths per 1,000 live births. This means that one in 32 children born in the Philippines dies before the fifth birthday. Following the usual pattern, most of the early childhood mortality occurs in the first year of life: infant mortality is 23 deaths per 1,000 live births, while mortality between the first and the fifth birthday is 9 deaths per 1,000. The neonatal mortality rate is 13 deaths per 1,000 live births and the post-neonatal mortality rate is 10 deaths per 1,000 live births. Data from the 2013 NDHS indicate that there has been no significant change in childhood mortality. For example, child mortality is the same for both the period 5‐9 and 10‐14 years Table 8.1 Early childhood mortality rates Neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child, and under-five mortality rates for five-year periods preceding the survey, Philippines 2013 Years preceding the survey Neonatal mortality (NN) Post-neonatal mortality (PNN)1 Infant mortality (1q0) Child mortality (4q1) Under-five mortality (5q0) 0-4 13 10 23 9 31 5-9 15 10 24 10 34 10-14 15 9 25 10 34 1 Computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates Comparison of mortality data from the four past DHS surveys indicates that while mortality has declined over the past 20 years, the decline has been slow (Figure 8.1). For example, infant mortality has decreased from 35 deaths per 1,000 births in the 1998 NDHS to 29 deaths per 1,000 in the 2003 NDHS and to 25 deaths per 1,000 in the 2008 NDHS and to 23 deaths per 1,000 in the 2013. Child mortality rates show a 1 There are no models for mortality pattern during the neonatal periods. However, one review of data from several developing countries concluded that, at neonatal mortality levels of 20 per 1,000 or higher approximately 70 percent of neonatal deaths occur within the six days of life (Boerma, 1988). 92 • Infant and Child Mortality similar decline, from 14 deaths per 1,000 in the 1998 NDHS to 12 deaths per 1,000 in the 2003 NDHS to 9 deaths per 1,000 in the 2008 and 2013 NDHS (NSO and Macro International Inc., 2008). However, the Philippines made significant progress in reducing infant mortality and is likely to meet the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) Target 4.A particularly to reduce by two-thirds, between 1990 and 2015, the under-five mortality rate. MDG indicator 4.1 is to reduce under-five mortality to 27 deaths per 1,000 live births while MDG indicator 4.2 is to reduce infant mortality rate to 19 deaths per 1,000 live births. Figure 8.1 Trends in early childhood mortality rates, Philippines 2003-2013  8.4 SOCIOECONOMIC DIFFERENTIALS IN INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY Differentials in childhood mortality by place of residence, region, educational level of the mother, and socioeconomic status are presented in Table 8.2. A sufficient number of births are needed in order to analyze mortality differentials across population subgroups, hence, period-specific rates are presented for the ten-year period preceding the survey (approximately 2004 to 2013). The result reveals that mortality rates in urban areas are much lower than those in rural areas (Figure 8.2). The under-five mortality rate in urban areas is 25 deaths per 1,000 live births, compared with 38 deaths per 1,000 live births in rural areas. In addition, the infant mortality rate in urban areas (19 deaths per 1,000 live births), is lower than in rural areas (28 deaths per 1,000 live births). 17 29 40 16 25 34 13 23 31 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Neonatal mortality (NN) Infant mortality (1q0) Under‐five mortality (5q0) 2003 (1998‐2002) 2008 (2003‐2007) 2013 (2008‐2012) Infant and Child Mortality • 93 Table 8.2 Early childhood mortality rates by socioeconomic characteristics Neonatal, postneonatal, infant, child, and under-five mortality rates for the 10-year period preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Neonatal mortality (NN) Post-neonatal mortality (PNN)1 Infant mortality (1q0) Child mortality (4q1) Under-five mortality (5q0) Residence Urban 9 10 19 7 25 Rural 18 10 28 11 38 Region National Capital Region 7 9 16 6 22 Cordillera Admin Region 7 9 16 9 25 I - Ilocos Region 15 8 23 4 26 II - Cagayan Valley 16 3 20 2 21 III - Central Luzon 14 9 23 8 31 IVA - CALABARZON 11 8 19 4 23 IVB - MIMAROPA 17 19 36 6 43 V - Bicol 17 4 21 12 33 VI - Western Visayas 15 10 25 6 30 VII - Central Visayas 18 8 26 8 34 VIII - Eastern Visayas 10 9 19 13 32 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 11 16 27 8 35 X - Northern Mindanao 16 9 25 24 49 XI - Davao 12 14 26 12 37 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 29 8 37 16 52 XIII - Caraga 19 15 33 6 39 ARMM 11 21 32 24 55 Mother's education No education (22) (16) (37) (25) (61) Elementary 18 18 36 17 53 High school 14 9 23 7 30 College 8 4 12 4 16 Wealth quintile Lowest 19 17 36 17 52 Second 13 9 22 11 33 Middle 8 8 17 6 22 Fourth 15 6 21 2 23 Highest 9 4 13 4 17 1 Computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates Mortality differentials by the mother’s level of education show that children of mothers with high school or higher levels of education generally fare better than children of mothers with only basic elementary school. The under-five mortality rate for children whose mothers have no education is 61 deaths per 1,000 live births, compared with 16 deaths per 1,000 live births for children whose mothers who have attended college. Except for neonatal mortality, mortality levels among children in the lowest two wealth quintiles are higher than the levels among children in the middle to highest quintiles. For example, post-neonatal and child mortality are both four times higher among children living in the poorest households than among children living in the wealthiest households (17 deaths per 1,000 live births and 4 deaths per 1,000 children surviving to 12 months of age, respectively). 94 • Infant and Child T lowest in C 8.5 D T child and pattern of post-neona neonatal m T probability mortality 1,000 for s Mortality Figure 8.2 he under-five Cagayan Valle DEMOGRAPH his section ex the mother su f higher morta atal, infant an mortality is hig he 2013 NDH y of dying in rate for first-o seventh and hi Wealt Hi Ele No e Mother's  Under-five e mortality rat ey (21) and NC HIC DIFFEREN xamines differ uch as mother’ ality for males d under-five m gher for femal HS results sho childhood; th order births is igher order bir 0 Highest Fourth  Middle  Second  Lowest  th quintile College  gh school  ementary  education  education Rural  Urban  Residence and infant te is highest i CR (22). NTIALS IN IN entials in earl ’s age at birth s than females mortality rates les and child m ow that there e risk of dyin s 4 deaths per rths. 13 21 17 22 12 23 19 17 23 22 16 2 20 Deaths mortality b in ARMM (5 FANT AND C y childhood m , birth order, b s is not strong s for males are mortality is the is a clear pos ng increases w r 1,000 surviv 2 36 3 36 37 28 3 2 33 30 38 25 40 s per 1,000 live y backgrou 55), followed CHILD MORT mortality by de birth interval, gly reflected in e all somewha e same for bot sitive associat with higher ord ving children 52 53 61 60 Under‐ Infant  e births und charact by SOCCKSA TALITY emographic ch and sex of th n the results o at higher than th sexes (Table tion between der births. For to 12 months 80 ‐five mortality mortality (1q0 eristics ARGEN (52) haracteristics he child. The ty of the 2013 N for females, th e 8.3). birth order an r example, the s of age and 1 y (5q0) 0) ). It is of the ypical NDHS; hough nd the e child 19 per Infant and Child Mortality • 95 Table 8.3 Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics Neonatal, post-neonatal, infant, child, and under-five mortality rates for the 10-year period preceding the survey, by demographic characteristics, Philippines 2013 Demographic characteristic Neonatal mortality (NN) Post-neonatal mortality (PNN)1 Infant mortality (1q0) Child mortality (4q1) Under-five mortality (5q0) Child's sex Male 13 12 25 9 34 Female 14 8 22 9 31 Mother's age at birth <20 19 12 31 8 39 20-29 13 8 22 8 30 30-39 11 10 21 10 31 40-49 24 20 44 (11) (55) Birth order 1 15 6 22 4 26 2-3 10 8 19 9 27 4-6 15 14 29 13 41 7+ 19 21 40 19 58 Previous birth interval2 <2 years 16 14 30 16 45 2 years 11 15 26 13 39 3 years 10 8 18 9 26 4+ years 13 8 20 5 26 na = Not available 1 Computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates 2 Excludes first-order births 3 Rates for the five-year period before the survey Mortality rates show the expected U-shaped relationship with mother’s age at birth, i.e., mortality is higher for children born to the youngest and oldest mothers, with lower mortality for children whose mothers are in the middle age groups. The higher rates for younger and older women may be related to biological factors that lead to complications during pregnancy and delivery. Data in Table 8.3 also show that childhood mortality levels decline as the birth interval increases. For example, the under-5 mortality rate among children born less than two years after a previous birth is 45 per 1,000 compared with 26 per 1,000 among children born four or more years after a previous birth. 8.6 PERINATAL MORTALITY The perinatal mortality rate is a good indicator of the state of delivery services, both in terms of accessing the services to ensure delivery of healthy babies. Pregnancy losses occurring after seven completed months of gestation (stillbirths) plus deaths to live births within the first seven days of life (early neonatal deaths) constitute perinatal deaths. The perinatal mortality rate is calculated by dividing the total number of perinatal deaths by the total number of pregnancies reaching seven months’ gestation. Information on stillbirths and neonatal deaths were obtained from the pregnancy history. An important consideration in the evaluation of perinatal mortality is the quality or completeness of reports on stillbirths, which are susceptible to omission, underreporting, or misclassification (as early neonatal deaths). The distinction between a stillbirth and an early neonatal death may be a fine one, depending often on the observed presence or absence of some faint signs of life after delivery. The causes of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths are overlapping, and examining just one or the other can understate the true level of mortality around delivery. For this reason, it is suggested that both event types be combined and examined together. 96 • Infant and Child Mortality Table 8.4 shows the number of still births and early neonatal deaths and the perinatal mortality rate for the five-year period preceding the survey. Data show that there were 83 still births and 71 early neonatal deaths reported in the survey, resulting in a perinatal mortality rate of 22 per 1,000 pregnancies in the Philippines. Table 8.4 Perinatal mortality Number of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths, and the perinatal mortality rate for the five-year period preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Number of stillbirths1 Number of early neonatal deaths2 Perinatal mortality rate3 Number of pregnancies of 7+ months duration Mother's age at birth <20 8 11 22 879 20-29 29 36 18 3,581 30-39 38 17 25 2,216 40-49 8 8 40 389 Previous pregnancy interval in months4 First pregnancy 20 26 23 2,007 <15 14 16 20 1,489 15-26 12 11 17 1,314 27-38 11 5 24 695 39+ 25 14 25 1,560 Residence Urban 34 27 19 3,295 Rural 49 44 24 3,770 Region National Capital Region 7 5 11 1,032 Cordillera Admin Region 2 0 14 107 I - Ilocos Region 3 3 18 317 II - Cagayan Valley 5 3 34 263 III - Central Luzon 11 6 26 667 IVA - CALABARZON 7 6 15 895 IVB - MIMAROPA 3 3 30 193 V - Bicol 3 8 25 440 VI - Western Visayas 1 9 20 487 VII - Central Visayas 10 2 25 471 VIII - Eastern Visayas 6 0 21 275 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 5 3 22 344 X - Northern Mindanao 4 4 24 328 XI - Davao 5 3 20 402 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 6 9 44 336 XIII - Caraga 1 5 23 232 ARMM 6 2 30 277 Mother's education No education 3 2 45 115 Elementary 31 23 35 1,526 High school 36 32 19 3,559 College 13 15 15 1,864 Wealth quintile Lowest 35 29 32 1,951 Second 16 15 20 1,541 Middle 20 11 22 1,415 Fourth 7 12 16 1,222 Highest 5 4 10 937 Total 83 71 22 7,065 1 Stillbirths are fetal deaths in pregnancies lasting seven or more months. 2 Early neonatal deaths are deaths at age 0-6 days among live-born children. 3 The sum of the number of stillbirths and early neonatal deaths divided by the number of pregnancies of seven or more months' duration, expressed per 1,000. 4 Categories correspond to birth intervals of <24 months, 24-35 months, 36-47 months, and 48+ months. The perinatal mortality rate is higher in rural areas (24 and 19 per 1,000 pregnancies respectively). Perinatal mortality is highest among births to women in the lowest wealth quintile and lowest among those in the highest quintile. It also shows an inverse correlation with education of the mother, being highest for those with no education. Infant and Child Mortality • 97 The highest perinatal mortality rate occurs in SOCCSKSARGEN, while NCR has the lowest rate. 8.7 HIGH-RISK FERTILITY BEHAVIOR Typically, infants and young children have a greater probability of dying if they are born to very young or old, if they are born after a short birth, or if they are of high birth order. In the following analysis, mothers are classified as a risk if they are younger than age 18 or older than 35 at the time of childbirth. A short birth interval is defined as less than 24 months, and a high-order birth is defined as occurring after three or more previous births (i.e., birth order 4 or higher). A child may be at an elevated risk of dying due to a combination of factors. In Table 8.5, the first column shows the distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by risk category in relation to the fertility behavior of the mother. Overall, 26 percent of births in the Philippines are not in any high-risk category, while another 26 percent have an elevated mortality risk that is considered unavoidable (first births between ages 18-34). Almost half (48 percent) of births involved at least one avoidable risk factor, with 30 percent involving a single high risk factor and 18 percent involving multiple high-risk factor. The single high-risk categories with the highest percentage of births are birth order greater than three (11 percent) and births occurring after intervals of less than 24 months (10 percent). The second column in Table 8.5 presents risk ratios, which represent the increased risk of mortality among births in various high-risk categories relative to births not having any high-risk characteristics. Among births involving single risk factor, mother’s age less than 18 (risk ratio = 2.13) is the single factor most associated with increased risk of under-5 mortality in the Philippines. Overall, the risk ratio for births involving single risk factor was 1.59. Multiple risk factor births were generally associated with higher risk ratios than single risk factor births with an overall risk ratio of 2.16. The multiple high-risk category with the largest proportion of births is high-order births to older mothers; 10 percent of births are in this category. Compared with births with no elevated risk, these births are 1.6 times more likely to die in early childhood. The multiple high-risk categories with the highest risk ratio is the combination of mothers with birth interval less than 24 months and birth order higher than three; the 5 percent of births in this category are more than three times more likely to die as children with no elevated mortality risk. The column for currently married women in Table 8.5 looks to the future and addresses the question of how many currently married women have the potential for having a high-risk birth. The results were obtained by simulating the risk category into which a birth to a currently married woman would fall if she were to become pregnant at the time of the survey. Although many women are protected from conception through the use of family planning, postpartum insusceptibility, and prolonged abstinence, for simplicity, only those who have been sterilized are considered to be in the no-risk category solely on the basis of their contraceptive method. Two in three currently married women (66 percent) are at risk of conceiving a child with an elevated risk of dying; 32 percent of women are at risk because of a single high-risk factor, while 34 percent of women have multiple high-risk factors. The most common risk is late childbearing combined with high birth order (26 percent of currently married women). 98 • Infant and Child Mortality Table 8.5 High-risk fertility behavior Percent distribution of children born in the five years preceding the survey by category of elevated risk of mortality and the risk ratio, and percent distribution of currently married women by category of risk if they were to conceive a child at the time of the survey, Philippines 2013 Births in the 5 years preceding the survey Percentage of currently married women1 Risk category Percentage of births Risk ratio Not in any high risk category 26.0 1.00 28.5a Unavoidable risk category First order births between ages 18 and 34 years 26.4 1.02 5.1 Single high-risk category Mother's age <18 3.9 2.13 0.4 Mother's age >34 4.5 1.38 16.3 Birth interval <24 months 10.4 1.38 8.0 Birth order >3 11.1 1.67 7.8 Subtotal 30.0 1.59 32.4 Multiple high-risk category Age <18 and birth interval <24 months2 0.3 * 0.2 Age >34 and birth interval <24 months 0.4 (0.00) 0.5 Age >34 and birth order >3 10.4 1.63 26.4 Age >34 and birth interval <24 months and birth order >3 1.8 2.61 2.8 Birth interval <24 months and birth order >3 4.8 3.15 4.1 Subtotal 17.6 2.16 34.0 In any avoidable high-risk category 47.6 1.80 66.4 Total 100.0 na 100.0 Number of births/women 6,982 na 9,729 Note: Risk ratio is the ratio of the proportion dead among births in a specific high-risk category to the proportion dead among births not in any high-risk category. na = Not applicable 1 Women are assigned to risk categories according to the status they would have at the birth of a child if they were to conceive at the time of the survey: current age less than 17 years and 3 months or older than 34 years and 2 months, latest birth less than 15 months ago, or latest birth being of order 3 or higher. 2 Includes the category age <18 and birth order >3 a Includes sterilized women   Maternal Health • 99  MATERNAL HEALTH 9 ne of the Millennium Development Goals is to reduce maternal deaths by seventy-five percent by 2015 which the Philippines cannot achieve. Continuous and intensive improvement in the maternal health care services is the main strategy being implemented to reduce the high rates of death and disability caused by complications of pregnancy and delivery. Information on antenatal care (ANC) and post natal care (PNC) is necessary to identify subgroups of women who are not availing ANC and PNC services in order to have improved and more focused plans and programs for these types of health care services. This chapter discusses the findings of the 2013 NDHS on a number of antenatal care indicators, namely: type of provider, number and timing of ANC visits, services and information provided to the mothers including whether tetanus toxoid injections were received. Delivery services are assessed according to birth attendants, place of delivery, percentage of births delivered by caesarian section and cost of delivery. Information on PNC was collected for all women with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey and included time elapsed between delivery and the postnatal care received and the provider of care. Likewise, information about PNC for the baby was also gathered. Problems of women in accessing health services were also included in this chapter. O Key Findings • Almost all women (95 percent) in the Philippines receive antenatal care (ANC) from a skilled health provider (doctor, nurse and midwife) • Four out of five women (84 percent) have four or more ANC visits and 62 percent receive care in the first trimester of pregnancy • Ninety-two percent of women take iron supplements during pregnancy and 46 percent take iron with folic acid • Most women (83 percent) set aside money during pregnancy in case of emergency • More than 60 percent of births are delivered in a health facility, two- fifths (43 percent) of which was provided by the public sector. The number one reason for not delivering in a health facility was “cost” (37 percent) • Three out of four (73 percent) births are assisted by a skilled health provider • Three out of four mothers (72 percent) received a postnatal check-up within two days after the delivery • 77 percent of mothers receive postnatal care from skilled health providers • Half (53 percent) of newborns have a postnatal check-up in the first two days after birth • Getting money is the most common problem women report in accessing health care for themselves   100 • Maternal Health 9.1 ANTENATAL CARE Antenatal care aims to monitor the status of health of the mother and her baby to diagnose early any pregnancy-related problems. In this survey, information on ANC coverage was obtained from women who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey and in case she had more than one live birth in this period, the information about ANC refers to her last birth only. 9.1.1 Antenatal Care Coverage Table 9.1 shows the percent distribution of women age 15-49 who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey by the type of ANC provider during pregnancy for the most recent birth. If the woman received ANC from more than one type of provider, the provider with the highest qualifications was considered in the table. Results are shown according to background characteristics. Table 9.1 Antenatal care Percent distribution of women age 15-49 who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey by antenatal care (ANC) provider during pregnancy for the most recent birth and the percentage receiving antenatal care from a skilled provider for the most recent birth, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Antenatal care provider No ANC Total Percentage receiving antenatal care from a skilled provider1 Number of women Background characteristic Doctor Nurse Midwife Tradi- tional birth attendant (hilot) Barangay health worker Missing Mother’s age at birth <20 36.4 2.0 57.7 0.6 0.0 0.0 3.3 100.0 96.1 586 20-34 39.9 2.0 53.8 0.5 0.1 0.1 3.5 100.0 95.8 3,598 35-49 36.4 1.3 55.9 1.3 0.0 0.2 4.8 100.0 93.6 1,004 Birth order 1 50.8 1.7 45.9 0.2 0.0 0.0 1.4 100.0 98.4 1,516 2-3 42.1 1.7 52.1 0.4 0.1 0.3 3.2 100.0 96.0 2,200 4-5 25.0 2.9 65.7 1.0 0.1 0.0 5.4 100.0 93.5 871 6+ 16.9 1.5 70.0 2.2 0.0 0.3 9.0 100.0 88.4 602 Residence Urban 50.8 2.1 43.8 0.3 0.1 0.1 2.7 100.0 96.7 2,489 Rural 27.8 1.7 64.7 1.0 0.0 0.2 4.7 100.0 94.2 2,699 Region National Capital Region 74.0 2.1 22.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0 98.7 815 Cordillera Admin Region 60.0 8.1 30.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 100.0 98.1 79 I - Ilocos Region 49.2 0.8 47.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 100.0 97.4 232 II - Cagayan Valley 30.6 1.2 65.4 0.4 0.0 0.0 2.4 100.0 97.2 199 III - Central Luzon 49.2 1.5 47.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.3 100.0 97.7 495 IVA - CALABARZON 47.4 0.2 49.5 0.4 0.0 0.2 2.3 100.0 97.1 696 IVB - MIMAROPA 23.9 2.8 64.6 1.0 1.5 0.0 6.2 100.0 91.3 135 V - Bicol 26.3 2.3 68.4 1.3 0.0 0.0 1.7 100.0 97.0 301 VI - Western Visayas 31.3 2.1 64.5 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.8 100.0 97.9 352 VII - Central Visayas 25.5 2.9 70.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 100.0 98.4 333 VIII - Eastern Visayas 37.4 2.0 56.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 100.0 95.6 196 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 14.3 1.6 78.2 0.3 0.3 0.6 4.7 100.0 94.0 245 X - Northern Mindanao 23.2 2.1 69.4 0.4 0.0 1.2 3.7 100.0 94.6 242 XI - Davao 23.9 1.3 72.4 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0 97.6 295 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 12.1 1.3 78.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.4 100.0 91.6 236 XIII - Caraga 15.0 5.0 77.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 100.0 97.0 163 ARMM 12.4 3.1 37.3 11.9 0.0 0.3 35.0 100.0 52.8 173 Education No education 7.2 1.4 53.0 3.7 0.0 0.7 34.1 100.0 61.5 73 Elementary 14.6 2.5 73.4 1.5 0.1 0.1 7.8 100.0 90.5 1,017 High school 32.4 2.0 62.4 0.5 0.0 0.1 2.6 100.0 96.8 2,616 College 68.5 1.3 28.3 0.1 0.1 0.2 1.5 100.0 98.1 1,482 Wealth quintile Lowest 9.5 1.4 77.7 1.8 0.2 0.2 9.3 100.0 88.5 1,277 Second 20.9 3.3 72.2 0.7 0.0 0.3 2.7 100.0 96.3 1,098 Middle 40.7 2.1 53.9 0.2 0.0 0.1 3.0 100.0 96.7 1,062 Fourth 61.7 1.5 36.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.5 100.0 99.4 962 Highest 81.1 0.9 16.6 0.2 0.0 0.2 1.0 100.0 98.6 789 Total 38.9 1.9 54.7 0.7 0.1 0.1 3.7 100.0 95.4 5,188 Note: If more than one source of ANC was mentioned, only the provider with the highest qualifications is considered in this tabulation. 1 Skilled provider includes doctor, nurse and midwife   Maternal Health • 101  Almost all women (95 percent) with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey received ANC from a skilled provider, that is, 55 percent provided by a midwife, 39 percent provided by a doctor, and 2 percent provided by a nurse. Less than one percent of women received ANC from a traditional birth attendant (TBA) or hilot while 4 percent did not receive any antenatal care. These results indicate that there has been an increase in the proportion of births attended by a skilled provider (from 91 percent in 2008 to 95 percent in 2013) and a decline in the proportion of women who availed the services of TBA (from 5 percent in 2008 to less than 1 percent in 2013). The proportion of women who received ANC from a skilled provider is related to the mother’s level of education, birth order and economic status. Women with at least elementary education (91 percent) are almost at par in terms of ANC availment with those who had reached high school (97 percent) and those who reached college (98 percent), unlike women with no education, only three-fifths (62 percent) of whom had ANC from a skilled provider. The proportion of women who obtain ANC from a skilled provider for their first birth is 10 percentage points higher than those with birth order of six or more (98 percent vs. 88 percent). Similarly, the proportion of women receiving ANC from a skilled provider is 10 percentage points higher for those belonging to the highest wealth quintile than for those in the lowest quintile (99 percent vs. 89 percent). Across regions, only ARMM (53 percent) had a proportion of women who received ANC lower than 90 percent; other regions ranged from 91 percent in MIMAROPA to 99 percent in NCR. Consequently, ARMM had the highest proportion of women with no ANC (35 percent) followed by SOCCSKSARGEN (8 percent) and MIMAROPA (6 percent). In four Luzon regions, NCR (74 percent), CAR (60 percent), Ilocos (49 percent) and Central Luzon (49 percent), doctors are the most popular ANC provider, whereas, in the other 13 regions, midwives are more popular. ANC during the early stage of pregnancy up to delivery is vital for the prevention of any pregnancy complications that may occur. The Department of Health (DOH) requires that all pregnant women have at least four ANC visits during each pregnancy. Table 9.2 shows that 84 percent of women who had live births in the five years preceding the survey had the recommended number of ANC visits during pregnancy for the last birth. Women in urban areas (88 percent) are more likely to have the recommended number of ANC visits than those in rural areas (81 percent). Moreover, 12 percent of women had fewer than four visits, which is lower than the figure from the 2008 NDHS (18 percent). The proportion who did not have any ANC visit at all remained at 4 percent for 2008 and 2013. Early detection of pregnancy-related health problems is prime and foremost in the prenatal package of the Integrated Maternal, Newborn, Child health and Nutrition (MCHN) Service Package of DOH. Hence, DOH recommends that the first ANC visit should occur in the first trimester of pregnancy. Three out of five women (62 percent) who had a birth in the five years preceding the survey followed this recommended timing of the first ANC visit. This showed marked improvement over the 2008 NDHS figure of 54 percent. Table 9.2 Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit Percent distribution of women age 15-49 who had a live birth in the five years preceding the survey by number of antenatal care (ANC) visits for the most recent live birth, and by the timing of the first visit, and among women with ANC, median months pregnant at first visit, according to residence, Philippines 2013 Residence Number and timing of ANC visits Urban Rural Total Number of ANC visits None 2.8 4.8 3.9 1 1.7 1.8 1.8 2-3 7.8 12.0 10.0 4+ 87.6 81.3 84.3 Don’t know/missing 0.1 0.0 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of months pregnant at time of first ANC visit No antenatal care 2.8 4.8 3.9 <4 65.4 59.5 62.3 4-5 25.7 28.8 27.3 6-7 5.3 6.0 5.7 8+ 0.7 0.8 0.8 Don’t know/missing 0.1 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 2,489 2,699 5,188 Median months pregnant at first visit (for those with ANC) 3.4 3.6 3.5 Number of women with ANC 2,419 2,568 4,987   102 • Maternal Health Twenty-seven percent made their first visit on the fourth or fifth month of their pregnancy, while 7 percent had their first ANC visit when they were six or more months pregnant. Women in urban areas (65 percent) are more likely to have their first visit in the first trimester than women in rural areas (60 percent). However, there is only a slim difference in the median months of pregnancy at first ANC visit for urban women (3.4 months) and rural women (3.6 months), resulting in an average of 3.5 months nationally. 9.1.2 Components of Antenatal Care Services The MNCHN Service Package contained comprehensive routine examinations related to prenatal health care services. The 2013 NDHS includes some of the basic required elements of antenatal care such as micronutrient supplementation, deworming, informing women about the signs of pregnancy complications, measuring height, monitoring weight and blood pressure, and taking urine (for urinalysis) and blood (CBC, blood type, etc.) samples. Table 9.3 presents information on the percentage of women who received these routine antenatal care services during the pregnancy for their most recent live birth in the five years before the survey. Almost all women (92 percent) took iron tablets or syrup, 10 percentage points higher than the 2008 NDHS result. In addition, DOH is promoting folic acid and iron with folic acid to enhance the brain development of the fetus. Half of the women who took iron tablets or syrup followed DOH requirements of taking iron with folic acid (46 percent of women). Examining iron supplementation coverage across subgroups of women, coverage declines slightly with age of mother and with birth order. The most noticeable difference is by women’s education wherein 96 percent of women with at least some college education took iron supplements compared with only 59 percent of women with no education. Women in ARMM are more disadvantaged with only 56 percent coverage compared with other regions having 88 percent to 96 percent. To avoid anemia due to parasitic worms, the recommended pre-pregnancy package includes taking deworming or antihelmintic drugs. Only 5 percent of women took intestinal parasite drugs during pregnancy. Except for Davao region with 13 percent of women covered, the coverage in other regions and for other background characteristics is less than 10 percent of women. Eight in ten women who received ANC for the most recent birth in the past five years were informed of signs of pregnancy complications like vaginal bleeding, dizziness, blurred vision, swollen face, etc. Women pregnant with their first child (82 percent), women in urban areas (83 percent), women who have reached college education (85 percent) and women in the highest wealth quintile (87 percent) are more likely than other groups of women to be informed of signs of pregnancy complications. While women in Caraga are the most informed of pregnancy complications (90 percent), those in ARMM are the least informed (56 percent). Almost all women who received ANC for their last pregnancy in the five years preceding the survey had their blood pressure monitored (98 percent) and weight measured (97 percent) during at least one of their ANC visits. Eight out of ten women had their height measured (79 percent), 65 percent had a sample of their urine taken and 59 percent had a sample of their blood taken.   M at er na l H ea lth • 1 03   Ta bl e 9. 3 C om po ne nt s of a nt en at al c ar e A m on g w om en a ge 1 5- 49 w ith a li ve b irt h in th e fiv e ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey , t he p er ce nt ag e w ho to ok ir on ta bl et s or s yr up a nd d ru gs fo r i nt es tin al p ar as ite s du rin g th e pr eg na nc y of th e m os t r ec en t bi rth , an d am on g w om en r ec ei vi ng a nt en at al c ar e (A N C ) fo r th e m os t re ce nt l iv e bi rth i n th e fiv e ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey , th e pe rc en ta ge r ec ei vi ng s pe ci fic a nt en at al s er vi ce s, a cc or di ng t o ba ck gr ou nd c ha ra ct er is tic s, P hi lip pi ne s 20 13 To ok ir on ta bl et s or sy ru p1 A m on g w om en w ith a li ve b irt h in th e pa st fiv e ye ar s, th e pe rc en ta ge w ho d ur in g th e pr eg na nc y of th ei r l as t b irt h: A m on g w om en w ho re ce iv ed a nt en at al c ar e fo r t he ir m os t r ec en t b irt h in th e pa st fi ve y ea rs , th e pe rc en ta ge w ith s el ec te d se rv ic es B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic To ok ir on w ith fo lic a ci d ta bl et s or sy ru p To ok in te st in al pa ra si te dr ug s N um be r o f w om en w ith a liv e bi rth in th e pa st fi ve y ea rs In fo rm ed o f si gn s of pr eg na nc y co m pl ic a- tio ns W ei gh ed H ei gh t m ea su re d B lo od pr es su re m ea su re d U rin e sa m pl e ta ke n B lo od s am pl e ta ke n N um be r o f w om en w ith A N C fo r t he ir m os t re ce nt b irt h M ot he r’s a ge a t b irt h <2 0 93 .1 44 .5 4. 9 58 6 76 .1 97 .7 78 .5 98 .4 63 .1 56 .9 56 7 20 -3 4 92 .5 47 .9 4. 6 3, 59 8 80 .9 97 .1 79 .4 98 .4 66 .7 60 .8 3, 46 7 35 -4 9 89 .9 40 .4 4. 9 1, 00 4 80 .3 96 .3 80 .0 96 .9 60 .4 53 .4 95 3 B irt h or de r 1 94 .9 53 .5 3. 9 1, 51 6 82 .2 98 .0 80 .9 99 .1 74 .5 69 .1 1, 49 4 2- 3 92 .9 47 .9 4. 7 2, 20 0 80 .9 97 .2 80 .2 98 .4 67 .1 60 .7 2, 12 4 4- 5 90 .1 38 .7 5. 5 87 1 78 .3 97 .3 78 .5 97 .8 56 .7 49 .9 82 3 6+ 85 .4 31 .3 5. 9 60 2 75 .4 93 .7 73 .6 94 .8 44 .1 38 .2 54 5 R es id en ce U rb an 93 .7 49 .4 4. 2 2, 48 9 83 .4 98 .3 84 .2 98 .8 77 .1 70 .8 2, 41 9 R ur al 90 .7 42 .9 5. 2 2, 69 9 77 .3 95 .9 74 .8 97 .5 53 .8 47 .8 2, 56 8 R eg io n N at io na l C ap ita l R eg io n 96 .0 48 .5 5. 6 81 5 88 .7 99 .4 93 .2 99 .5 92 .4 90 .1 80 5 C or di lle ra A dm in R e g io n 95 .7 62 .9 5. 7 79 72 .9 98 .1 77 .8 98 .6 72 .9 56 .0 78 I - Il oc os R eg io n 89 .8 49 .7 3. 3 23 2 71 .5 97 .4 74 .3 98 .3 55 .5 41 .3 22 6 II - C a g ay an V al le y 88 .1 35 .2 4. 3 19 9 76 .1 96 .4 76 .7 98 .4 57 .8 48 .5 19 4 III - C en tra l L uz on 92 .5 64 .0 2. 5 49 5 84 .1 97 .7 82 .0 99 .5 82 .3 72 .6 48 3 IV A - C A LA B A R ZO N 94 .6 25 .5 1. 3 69 6 77 .1 98 .1 81 .5 98 .9 70 .2 62 .1 67 8 IV B - M IM A R O P A 92 .8 59 .7 2. 4 13 5 80 .0 91 .3 73 .0 97 .9 43 .9 33 .2 12 7 V - B ic ol 94 .0 29 .9 8. 3 30 1 68 .8 96 .3 69 .6 97 .0 43 .6 33 .8 29 6 V I - W es te rn V is ay as 96 .0 49 .2 2. 4 35 2 84 .5 97 .5 82 .6 99 .7 71 .1 65 .8 34 5 V II - C en tra l V is ay as 94 .2 58 .7 2. 6 33 3 80 .7 99 .0 76 .1 99 .3 53 .1 49 .8 32 8 VI II - E as te rn V is a y as 91 .1 42 .9 3. 4 19 6 78 .9 98 .5 82 .5 99 .0 63 .4 58 .2 18 7 IX - Za m bo an ga P en in su la 89 .0 55 .9 8. 8 24 5 79 .4 95 .0 64 .7 98 .0 17 .4 17 .0 23 2 X - N or th er n M in da na o 94 .2 53 .2 6. 1 24 2 84 .1 99 .1 81 .4 95 .7 58 .2 53 .0 23 0 X I - D av ao 92 .6 36 .7 13 .1 29 5 82 .3 95 .6 75 .4 95 .9 71 .3 68 .9 29 1 X II - S O C C S K S A R G E N 90 .8 43 .5 4. 6 23 6 75 .3 95 .9 71 .2 98 .6 43 .3 38 .3 21 6 XI II – C ar ag a 92 .4 75 .8 4. 3 16 3 89 .7 99 .7 76 .7 97 .3 69 .9 64 .4 15 8 A R M M 56 .1 23 .7 6. 7 17 3 55 .7 72 .5 56 .0 80 .3 22 .1 21 .3 11 2 Ed uc at io n N o ed uc at io n 58 .6 18 .5 9. 8 73 67 .2 81 .8 71 .7 91 .3 31 .8 24 .9 48 E le m en ta ry 86 .0 33 .7 6. 4 1, 01 7 73 .5 94 .3 72 .3 95 .2 45 .6 40 .9 93 7 H ig h sc ho ol 93 .1 43 .0 4. 9 2, 61 6 80 .5 97 .3 79 .0 98 .5 63 .7 57 .5 2, 54 6 C ol le ge 96 .1 61 .3 3. 1 1, 48 2 84 .6 98 .8 84 .9 99 .5 81 .2 74 .4 1, 45 7 W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 85 .1 34 .4 7. 2 1, 27 7 74 .0 93 .3 70 .6 94 .8 36 .9 34 .5 1, 15 5 S ec on d 92 .5 44 .1 4. 0 1, 09 8 79 .5 96 .8 77 .5 98 .2 57 .1 50 .1 1, 06 5 M id dl e 93 .9 49 .1 3. 2 1, 06 2 80 .9 98 .1 80 .0 99 .4 72 .6 65 .3 1, 03 0 Fo ur th 96 .2 49 .5 4. 7 96 2 82 .5 98 .9 84 .5 99 .5 80 .0 71 .2 95 8 H ig he st 95 .6 59 .5 3. 9 78 9 87 .1 99 .4 88 .1 99 .4 89 .5 83 .8 78 0 To ta l 92 .1 46 .1 4. 7 5, 18 8 80 .3 97 .1 79 .4 98 .1 65 .1 59 .0 4, 98 7 1 I nc lu de s th os e w ho to ok ir on w ith a nd w ith ou t f ol ic a ci d Maternal Health • 103   104 • Maternal Health 9.1.3 Tetanus Toxoid Injection In 2012, neonatal deaths comprised about 44 percent of under-five deaths (WHO, 2014). In the Philippines, almost 60 percent of infant deaths occur in the first month of life (Chapter 8). To protect newborn babies, pregnant women should be provided with tetanus toxoid immunization (TTI). Administering TTI is included in the prenatal package, thus DOH recommends that woman receive at least two TTI during their first pregnancy. Moreover, if a woman was immunized before she became pregnant, she may be required to have only one or no TTI during the pregnancy, depending on the number of TTIs she has ever received and the timing of her last injection. For a woman to have lifetime protection, a total of five doses are required during her reproductive years. Table 9.4 shows the results of the 2013 NDHS on tetanus toxoid coverage during the pregnancy for the last birth in the five years preceding the survey and whether the pregnancy was protected against neonatal tetanus. More than half (54 percent) of women who had a live birth in the five years before the survey received two or more TTI during their last pregnancy. It is important to mention that some women may have received TTI prior to the reference pregnancy and did not require further injections. This may be the case in particular for women at higher parities: 40 percent and 33 percent for birth orders 4-5 and 6 or more, respectively, versus 73 percent for first birth order and 51 percent for birth orders 2-3. When prior vaccinations are taken into account, the proportion of women whose last birth was protected against neonatal tetanus was 82 percent. The differentials in protection against neonatal tetanus among subgroups of women vary. Across region, TTI coverage ranges from 51 percent of births protected in ARMM to 93 percent in Eastern Visayas. By level of education, TTI coverage is lowest for women with no education (53 percent) while those who reached high school had 84 percent and those who had college education had 83 percent coverage.   Table 9.4 Tetanus toxoid injections Among mothers age 15-49 with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey, the percentage receiving two or more tetanus toxoid injections during the pregnancy for the last live birth and the percentage whose last live birth was protected against neonatal tetanus, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Percentage receiving two or more injections during last pregnancy Percentage whose last birth was protected against neonatal tetanus1 Number of mothers Mother’s age at birth <20 67.6 76.7 586 20-34 54.8 83.1 3,598 35-49 41.0 80.6 1,004 Birth order 1 73.1 77.2 1,516 2-3 51.1 85.2 2,200 4-5 40.0 85.5 871 6+ 33.0 76.2 602 Residence Urban 55.5 80.6 2,489 Rural 51.8 83.0 2,699 Region National Capital Region 60.3 79.6 815 Cordillera Admin Region 55.9 87.2 79 I - Ilocos Region 48.0 79.7 232 II - Cagayan Valley 65.1 84.9 199 III - Central Luzon 56.6 80.8 495 IVA - CALABARZON 51.8 79.4 696 IVB - MIMAROPA 52.5 85.7 135 V - Bicol 59.1 84.7 301 VI - Western Visayas 52.9 89.1 352 VII - Central Visayas 50.7 86.8 333 VIII - Eastern Visayas 48.2 92.6 196 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 55.2 83.6 245 X - Northern Mindanao 46.1 82.2 242 XI - Davao 47.1 80.5 295 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 56.1 85.8 236 XIII - Caraga 56.1 84.0 163 ARMM 30.8 50.9 173 Education No education 38.3 52.5 73 Elementary 45.4 78.7 1,017 High school 54.6 83.5 2,616 College 58.1 82.7 1,482 Wealth quintile Lowest 44.2 79.7 1,277 Second 53.5 84.6 1,098 Middle 58.9 84.8 1,062 Fourth 58.1 80.5 962 Highest 56.1 79.4 789 Total 53.6 81.9 5,188 1 Includes mothers with two injections during the pregnancy of her last birth, or two or more injections (the last within 3 years of the last live birth), or three or more injections (the last within 5 years of the last birth), or four or more injections (the last within 10 years of the last live birth), or five or more injections at any time prior to the last birth.   Maternal Health • 105  Table 9.5 presents data regarding problems during pregnancy and around the time of delivery experienced by mothers with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Sizeable proportions of these mothers experienced dizziness (36 percent), headache (20 percent) and vomiting (13 percent) during pregnancy. One-third (33 percent) did not experience any problem at all during pregnancy. Around the time of delivery, long labor which lasted for more than 12 hours was experienced by 23 percent of mothers with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey. Eight out of ten women (83 percent) who had a live birth in the five years before the survey set aside money for emergency. Examining the distribution by wealth quintile, the highest proportion of women who set aside money for emergency are those in the highest wealth quintile (92 percent), compared with only 76 percent for those in the lowest quintile. Table 9.6 presents the percent distribution of live births in the five years preceding the survey by whether pre-term or not by background characteristics of the mother. DOH is interested in pre-term births to assess the effectiveness of the pre-natal package component of the MNCHN, particularly the assessment of fetal growth and wellbeing. It should be noted that the data are based on mother’s reports of the duration of pregnancy in whole months, not weeks, so results provide only a crude measure of pre-term births.   Table 9.5 Problems experienced during pregnancy and delivery Among women age 15-49 with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey, the percentage who cite specific problems during pregnancy and delivery of the most recent birth and the percentage who set aside money in case of an emergency by wealth quintile, according to residence, Philippines 2013 Residence Problem Urban Rural Total During pregnancy Vaginal bleeding 3.3 2.6 2.9 Headache 20.8 20.0 20.3 Dizziness 38.3 34.2 36.2 Blurred vision 1.8 1.3 1.5 Swollen face 3.1 2.3 2.7 Swollen hands or feet 7.2 7.9 7.6 Paleness, anemia 7.0 7.5 7.2 Body pain 3.3 4.0 3.6 Irregular blood pressure/ sugar imbalance 1.1 1.2 1.1 Vomiting 11.4 13.9 12.7 Asthma/ breathing difficulty 0.6 0.7 0.6 Cold/ cough/ flu/ fever 1.2 1.4 1.3 Urinary tract infection 1.6 1.6 1.6 Other 7.3 5.9 6.6 None 32.2 33.0 32.6 Around time of delivery Long labor (more than 12 hours) 24.2 22.1 23.1 Excessive bleeding 7.3 8.7 8.0 High fever with bad-smelling vaginal discharge 1.2 1.9 1.6 Loss of consciousness 2.3 3.7 3.0 Percentage of women who set aside money for emergency according to wealth quintile Lowest 76.2 74.7 75.5 Second 86.3 78.7 82.3 Middle 86.5 84.8 85.7 Fourth 88.7 83.0 85.7 Highest 94.1 90.3 92.1 Total 85.4 81.4 83.3 Number of women 2,489 2,699 5,188 Note: Women can report more than one problem so percentages may sum to more than 100.   106 • Maternal Health The 2013 NDHS results showed that nationally, less than 3 percent of live births in the five years preceding the survey were born after eight months or less of pregnancy. Differences in the level of pre-term births by background characteristics are very small. 9.2 DELIVERY CARE “Every delivery is facility-based and managed by skilled health professionals” is one of the guiding principles of the Integrated MNCHN Service Package of DOH. Their target is to increase health facility-based delivery to 85 percent in the first four years of implementation of the MNCHN Strategic Plans. 9.2.1 Place of Delivery An important component of the effort to reduce health risks of both the mother and child during delivery is to increase the proportion of babies delivered in a safe and clean environment under the supervision of health professionals. Table 9.7 shows the percent distribution of live births in the five years preceding the survey by place of delivery. There has been a remarkable increase in the percentage of live births delivered in a health facility, from 44 percent as recorded in the 2008 NDHS, to 61 percent as reported in the 2013 NDHS. The proportion of births delivered in a public facility (43 percent) is more than two times higher than those delivered in a private facility (19 percent). The decline in home deliveries from 56 percent in 2008 to 38 percent in 2013 was brought about by the increase in facility-based births. Women are more likely to deliver in a health facility if they are having their first child (76 percent), if they have had at least four ANC visits (71 percent), if they had attended college (84 percent), and if they belong to the highest wealth quintile (91 percent). The proportion of births delivered in a health facility in urban areas (72 percent) is 21 percentage points higher than that of the births in rural areas (51 percent). Table 9.6 Pre-term births Percent distribution of live births in the five years preceding the survey by whether pre- term or not, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic ≤ 8 months 9+ months Total Number of births Mother’s age at birth <20 3.4 96.6 100.0 871 20-34 2.4 97.5 100.0 4,919 35-49 2.7 97.3 100.0 1,192 Birth order 1 3.6 96.4 100.0 2,161 2-3 2.2 97.7 100.0 2,861 4-5 2.0 98.0 100.0 1,140 6+ 2.2 97.8 100.0 820 Number of ANC visits1 None 3.9 96.1 100.0 201 1 2.7 97.3 100.0 92 2-3 4.0 96.0 100.0 518 4+ 2.2 97.8 100.0 4,375 Residence Urban 2.7 97.3 100.0 3,261 Rural 2.5 97.5 100.0 3,721 Region National Capital Region 2.7 97.3 100.0 1,026 Cordillera Admin Region 2.5 97.5 100.0 105 I - Ilocos Region 4.4 95.6 100.0 314 II - Cagayan Valley 3.4 96.6 100.0 258 III - Central Luzon 4.5 95.3 100.0 656 IVA - CALABARZON 1.8 98.2 100.0 887 IVB - MIMAROPA 2.0 98.0 100.0 191 V - Bicol 2.5 97.5 100.0 437 VI - Western Visayas 2.6 97.4 100.0 486 VII - Central Visayas 1.6 98.4 100.0 461 VIII - Eastern Visayas 0.7 99.3 100.0 269 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 1.1 98.9 100.0 339 X - Northern Mindanao 2.2 97.8 100.0 324 XI - Davao 3.3 96.7 100.0 397 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 3.0 97.0 100.0 330 XIII - Caraga 2.3 97.7 100.0 231 ARMM 2.9 97.1 100.0 271 Education No education 2.3 97.7 100.0 112 Elementary 1.5 98.4 100.0 1,496 High school 2.6 97.4 100.0 3,523 College 3.5 96.5 100.0 1,851 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.8 98.2 100.0 1,916 Second 2.3 97.7 100.0 1,525 Middle 3.0 97.0 100.0 1,395 Fourth 3.6 96.4 100.0 1,214 Highest 2.9 97.1 100.0 932 Total 2.6 97.4 100.0 6,982 Note: Total includes 3 births missing information as to number of ANC visits 1 Includes only the most recent birth in the five years preceding the survey   Maternal Health • 107  Table 9.7 Place of delivery Percent distribution of live births in the five years preceding the survey by place of delivery and percentage delivered in a health facility, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Health facility Home Other Missing Total Percentage delivered in a health facility Number of births Background characteristic Public sector Private sector Mother’s age at birth <20 46.1 17.3 35.5 0.3 0.7 100.0 63.4 871 20-34 43.1 19.4 36.8 0.4 0.4 100.0 62.5 4,919 35-49 37.7 16.3 44.9 0.5 0.6 100.0 54.0 1,192 Birth order 1 50.3 25.3 23.5 0.2 0.8 100.0 75.6 2,161 2-3 42.6 20.5 36.1 0.5 0.4 100.0 63.1 2,861 4-5 36.8 11.0 51.5 0.6 0.1 100.0 47.8 1,140 6+ 29.8 5.1 64.0 0.4 0.7 100.0 34.9 820 Antenatal care visits1 None 10.2 4.5 80.3 0.2 4.7 100.0 14.8 201 1-3 36.6 7.0 55.7 0.7 0.0 100.0 43.6 610 4+ 48.3 22.9 28.4 0.4 0.0 100.0 71.2 4,375 Residence Urban 43.4 28.9 27.0 0.3 0.4 100.0 72.4 3,261 Rural 41.8 9.5 47.6 0.5 0.6 100.0 51.3 3,721 Region National Capital Region 47.8 34.3 17.2 0.3 0.4 100.0 82.1 1,026 Cordillera Admin Region 64.7 10.3 23.5 1.4 0.0 100.0 75.0 105 I - Ilocos Region 59.3 7.9 32.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 67.2 314 II - Cagayan Valley 43.2 7.4 47.9 0.9 0.6 100.0 50.6 258 III - Central Luzon 46.4 21.9 30.1 0.2 1.5 100.0 68.3 656 IVA - CALABARZON 35.0 30.7 33.7 0.3 0.3 100.0 65.7 887 IVB - MIMAROPA 30.7 5.8 63.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 36.5 191 V - Bicol 41.6 9.2 47.8 1.4 0.0 100.0 50.8 437 VI - Western Visayas 51.5 9.7 38.1 0.0 0.7 100.0 61.2 486 VII - Central Visayas 51.5 20.3 27.5 0.5 0.2 100.0 71.8 461 VIII - Eastern Visayas 51.9 9.7 38.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 61.6 269 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 35.8 7.6 55.0 0.5 1.1 100.0 43.4 339 X - Northern Mindanao 42.9 9.6 45.3 0.6 1.5 100.0 52.5 324 XI - Davao 33.1 29.8 36.3 0.5 0.3 100.0 62.9 397 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 33.2 15.3 50.9 0.6 0.0 100.0 48.5 330 XIII - Caraga 45.9 9.6 44.0 0.2 0.2 100.0 55.5 231 ARMM 9.0 3.4 86.9 0.2 0.5 100.0 12.3 271 Mother’s education No education 9.6 1.3 87.7 0.7 0.7 100.0 10.9 112 Elementary 29.5 7.1 62.5 0.6 0.4 100.0 36.5 1,496 High school 45.9 15.1 38.2 0.4 0.4 100.0 61.0 3,523 College 48.7 35.7 14.8 0.2 0.6 100.0 84.3 1,851 Wealth quintile Lowest 28.4 4.3 66.1 0.5 0.7 100.0 32.8 1,916 Second 46.3 8.7 44.2 0.4 0.4 100.0 55.0 1,525 Middle 53.2 15.9 30.0 0.5 0.5 100.0 69.0 1,395 Fourth 51.9 29.6 17.9 0.4 0.3 100.0 81.5 1,214 Highest 37.2 53.9 8.2 0.1 0.6 100.0 91.2 932 Total 42.5 18.6 38.0 0.4 0.5 100.0 61.1 6,982 Note: Total includes 3 women (weighted) missing as to number of antenatal care visits. 1 Includes only the most recent birth in the five years preceding the survey   Delivery at home is more common for sixth or higher order births (64 percent), births to women aged 35-49 (45 percent), births to women with no education (88 percent), births to women in the lowest wealth quintile (66 percent) and births to women with no ANC visits (80 percent). Births in rural areas are more likely to be delivered at home than births in urban areas (48 percent and 27 percent, respectively). Regionally, delivery in a health facility is most common in NCR (82 percent) than the other regions wherein birth deliveries in a health facility ranges from 12 percent in ARMM to 75 percent in CAR. Consequently, delivery at home is highest in ARMM (87 percent). Other regions with more than half of births taking place at home include MIMAROPA (64 percent), Zamboanga Peninsula (55 percent) and SOCCSKSARGEN (51 percent).   108 • Maternal Health Table 9.8 shows reasons cited by women aged 15-49 whose last birth in the five years preceding the survey was not delivered in a health facility. The most common reason was “cost too much”, cited by 37 percent of women who did not deliver in a health facility, followed by “not necessary“ (32 percent) and “no transportation or facility is too far”(25 percent). 9.2.2 Delivery Assistance Like the place of delivery, assistance at delivery is also a very important component of child birth management. To ensure the health and wellness of the mother and the child during delivery, only skilled health professionals can identify early signs or symptoms of any complications and can readily address the problem through emergency procedures. Comprehensive Emergency Obstetrics and Newborn Care (CEmONC) is the advanced stage of Basic Emergency Obstetrics and Newborn Care (BEmONC) because health professionals can give (1) operative delivery (C-Section), (2) blood transfusion services, and (3) advanced life support management for low birth weight, premature and sick newborns with conditions like sepsis, asphyxia, etc. Table 9.9 shows the percent distribution of live births in the five-year period preceding the survey by attendant at birth, as well as the percentage delivered by C-section and the percentage who had skin contact with the mother within the first hour of life. If the delivery was assisted by more than one person only the most qualified person is considered and shown in the table. In the last five years there was an increase in the proportion of births attended by health professionals from 62 percent in 2008 to 73 percent in 2013. In 2013, 40 percent of births are delivered by a doctor, 30 percent by a midwife and 3 percent by a nurse. It is noteworthy that even though 95 percent of women consult a health professional for ANC, only 73 percent of births are assisted by a health professional. Hence, despite the large increase (11 percentage points) in deliveries by health professionals, DOH needs to intensify its effort to reach their target of 85 percent. There was a substantial decrease in deliveries assisted by TBAs or hilots, from 36 percent in 2008 to 26 percent in 2013. Delivery assistance by a skilled health provider varies according to background characteristics of mothers. The percentage of births assisted by a skilled provider is highest among mothers having 4 or more ANC visits (82 percent), mother’s with at least some college education (90 percent) and mothers belonging to the highest wealth quintile (96 percent). Mothers residing in urban areas had a higher proportion of births assisted by health professionals (83 percent) than their counter parts residing in rural areas (64 percent). Table 9.8 Reasons for not delivering in a health facility Among women age 15-49 whose last live birth in the five years preceding the survey was not delivered in a health facility, the percentage who cite specific reasons for not delivering in a facility, according to residence, Philippines 2013 Residence Total Reason Urban Rural Cost too much 40.5 35.4 37.1 Facility not open 1.7 2.1 2.0 Too far/ No transportation 16.0 29.2 24.8 Don’t trust facility/ Poor quality service 4.1 3.4 3.6 No female provider at facility 0.3 0.8 0.6 Husband or family did not allow 3.4 1.2 2.0 Not necessary 21.8 37.4 32.1 Not customary 6.0 7.5 7.0 Birth unexpectedly early 12.3 6.4 8.4 Prefer home 10.6 5.4 7.1 Other 4.2 3.5 3.8 Number of women 598 1,180 1,778 Note: Women can report more than one reason so percentages may sum to more than 100.   M at er na l H ea lth • 1 09   Ta bl e 9. 9 A ss is ta nc e du rin g de liv er y P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of li ve b irt hs in t he f iv e ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey b y pe rs on p ro vi di ng a ss is ta nc e du rin g de liv er y, p er ce nt ag e of b irt h as si st ed b y a sk ill ed p ro vi de r an d pe rc en ta ge d el iv er ed b y ca es ar ea n- se ct io n, a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, P hi lip pi ne s 20 13 P er so n pr ov id in g as si st an ce d ur in g de liv er y P er ce nt -a ge de liv er ed b y a sk ille d pr ov id er 1 P er ce nt - ag e de liv er ed by C -s ec tio n P er ce nt ag e w ho h ad s ki n co nt ac t w ith m ot he r i n fir st ho ur N um be r o f bi rth s B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic D oc to r N ur se M id w ife H ilo t B ar an ga y he al th w or ke r R el at iv e/ st ud en t/ ot he r N o on e D on ’t kn ow / m is si ng To ta l M ot he r’s a ge a t b irt h <2 0 38 .6 3. 4 32 .7 23 .2 0. 0 1. 2 0. 1 0. 7 10 0. 0 74 .8 5. 5 60 .8 87 1 20 -3 4 40 .5 3. 0 30 .5 24 .6 0. 1 0. 8 0. 1 0. 5 10 0. 0 74 .0 9. 0 64 .9 4, 91 9 35 -4 9 38 .5 2. 3 25 .5 30 .8 0. 3 2. 0 0. 1 0. 6 10 0. 0 66 .2 13 .5 60 .7 1, 19 2 B irt h or de r 1 53 .2 3. 3 27 .8 14 .5 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 0. 8 10 0. 0 84 .3 11 .9 67 .0 2, 16 1 2- 3 40 .9 3. 2 31 .1 23 .3 0. 1 0. 9 0. 1 0. 4 10 0. 0 75 .1 10 .9 64 .8 2, 86 1 4- 5 27 .4 2. 4 33 .8 34 .9 0. 2 1. 2 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 63 .6 5. 0 59 .9 1, 14 0 6+ 18 .7 2. 0 26 .0 48 .8 0. 2 3. 2 0. 5 0. 7 10 0. 0 46 .6 3. 2 56 .3 82 0 A nt en at al c ar e vi si ts 2 N on e 10 .8 1. 4 9. 5 67 .0 0. 0 5. 6 1. 0 4. 7 10 0. 0 21 .7 1. 2 27 .5 20 1 1- 3 26 .8 2. 0 28 .8 40 .4 0. 2 1. 5 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 57 .6 5. 3 53 .3 61 0 4+ 47 .4 3. 6 31 .0 17 .2 0. 1 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 82 .0 12 .3 68 .9 4, 37 5 Pl ac e of d el iv er y H ea lth fa ci lit y 65 .0 4. 5 30 .2 0. 2 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 99 .6 15 .3 76 .3 4, 26 8 E ls ew he re 0. 5 0. 5 29 .9 66 .0 0. 3 2. 5 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 30 .8 0. 0 44 .5 2, 67 9 R es id en ce U rb an 50 .0 2. 7 30 .5 15 .9 0. 1 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 83 .2 11 .4 70 .7 3, 26 1 R ur al 31 .0 3. 1 29 .5 33 .8 0. 2 1. 6 0. 2 0. 6 10 0. 0 63 .6 7. 6 57 .5 3, 72 1 R eg io n N at io na l C ap ita l R eg io n 62 .4 2. 0 26 .5 8. 1 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 90 .9 10 .4 84 .5 1, 02 6 C or di lle ra A dm in R eg io n 67 .5 5. 0 12 .8 8. 6 1. 8 4. 3 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 85 .4 15 .6 67 .2 10 5 I - Il oc os R eg io n 49 .1 4. 0 37 .0 9. 1 0. 0 0. 9 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 90 .0 11 .5 71 .1 31 4 II - C ag ay an V al le y 41 .3 2. 5 20 .5 31 .7 0. 3 3. 0 0. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 64 .4 10 .2 42 .6 25 8 III - C en tra l L uz on 49 .8 1. 0 37 .0 9. 6 0. 0 0. 7 0. 4 1. 5 10 0. 0 87 .8 20 .1 44 .7 65 6 IV A - C A LA B A R ZO N 42 .1 2. 6 39 .9 14 .3 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 3 10 0. 0 84 .6 14 .6 65 .6 88 7 IV B - M IM A R O P A 19 .7 5. 4 16 .2 55 .0 0. 3 3. 3 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 41 .3 3. 4 44 .7 19 1 V - B ic ol 24 .6 3. 2 37 .1 34 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 65 .0 4. 6 67 .9 43 7 V I - W es te rn V is ay as 41 .2 2. 6 24 .0 30 .0 0. 2 1. 3 0. 0 0. 7 10 0. 0 67 .8 6. 6 87 .0 48 6 V II - C en tra l V is ay as 36 .6 4. 0 40 .3 17 .9 0. 5 0. 5 0. 0 0. 2 10 0. 0 80 .9 6. 5 70 .2 46 1 V III - Ea st er n V is ay as 34 .7 3. 6 29 .0 31 .5 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 67 .4 5. 0 64 .1 26 9 IX - Za m bo an ga P en in su la 20 .8 4. 1 27 .1 45 .7 0. 0 0. 9 0. 5 0. 9 10 0. 0 52 .0 4. 3 48 .6 33 9 X - N or th er n M in da na o 34 .6 3. 4 25 .3 32 .7 0. 0 2. 4 0. 0 1. 5 10 0. 0 63 .3 5. 9 64 .1 32 4 X I - D av ao 36 .3 3. 3 28 .1 30 .1 0. 3 1. 5 0. 3 0. 3 10 0. 0 67 .7 8. 8 67 .9 39 7 X II - S O C C S K S A R G E N 25 .4 3. 3 26 .9 42 .5 0. 3 1. 2 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 55 .7 5. 7 51 .8 33 0 X III - C ar ag a 30 .0 7. 0 26 .2 36 .3 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 2 10 0. 0 63 .2 4. 0 48 .9 23 1 A R M M 9. 0 0. 5 10 .8 78 .7 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 0. 5 10 0. 0 20 .4 2. 3 26 .8 27 1 C on tin ue d…       Maternal Health • 109   11 0 • M at er na l H ea lth Ta bl e 9. 9— C on tin ue d P er so n pr ov id in g as si st an ce d ur in g de liv er y P er ce nt -a ge de liv er ed b y a sk ille d pr ov id er 1 P er ce nt - ag e de liv er ed by C -s ec tio n P er ce nt ag e w ho h ad s ki n co nt ac t w ith m ot he r i n fir st ho ur N um be r o f bi rth s B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic D oc to r N ur se M id w ife H ilo t B ar an ga y he al th w or ke r R el at iv e/ st ud en t/ ot he r N o on e D on ’t kn ow / m is si ng To ta l M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N o ed uc at io n 7. 7 0. 0 9. 3 67 .6 1. 2 12 .8 0. 7 0. 7 10 0. 0 16 .9 1. 9 29 .3 11 2 E le m en ta ry 20 .1 1. 8 26 .6 48 .6 0. 1 1. 9 0. 4 0. 4 10 0. 0 48 .5 3. 2 50 .7 1, 49 6 H ig h sc ho ol 35 .7 3. 4 36 .5 23 .1 0. 1 0. 7 0. 0 0. 5 10 0. 0 75 .6 6. 9 66 .3 3, 52 3 C ol le ge 65 .7 3. 3 21 .3 8. 7 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 90 .3 19 .3 71 .1 1, 85 1 W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 14 .7 2. 7 24 .8 54 .2 0. 2 2. 4 0. 3 0. 7 10 0. 0 42 .2 1. 4 51 .5 1, 91 6 S ec on d 30 .7 3. 1 37 .2 27 .7 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 71 .0 5. 2 62 .9 1, 52 5 M id dl e 44 .6 3. 2 36 .0 15 .2 0. 2 0. 3 0. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 83 .8 8. 5 69 .4 1, 39 5 Fo ur th 57 .4 3. 3 31 .7 6. 4 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 92 .4 13 .1 73 .9 1, 21 4 H ig he st 76 .6 2. 5 17 .1 3. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 96 .2 28 .8 68 .1 93 2 To ta l 39 .9 2. 9 29 .9 25 .5 0. 1 1. 0 0. 1 0. 5 10 0. 0 72 .8 9. 3 63 .7 6, 98 2 N ot e: If th e re sp on de nt m en tio ne d m or e th an o ne p er so n at te nd in g du rin g de liv er y, o nl y th e m os t q ua lif ie d pe rs on is c on si de re d in th is ta bu la tio n. T ot al in cl ud es 3 w om en (w ei gh te d) m is si ng a s to n um be r of a nt en at al c ar e vi si ts a nd 3 4 w om en m is si ng p la ce o f d el iv er y. 1 S ki lle d pr ov id er in cl ud es d oc to r, nu rs e an d m id w ife . 2 I nc lu de s on ly th e m os t r ec en t b irt h in th e fiv e ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey 110 • Maternal Health   Maternal Health • 111  Nine out of ten births in NCR (91 percent) and Ilocos Region (90 percent) were assisted by health professionals, whereas in ARMM, only one in five births (20 percent) benefitted from the services of health professionals. In other regions, deliveries by health professionals range from 41 percent in MIMAROPA to 88 percent in Central Luzon. Delivery by Caesarian operation (C-section) is necessary for women with medical problems or pregnancy complications. Only 9 percent of births were delivered by C-section in the five years preceding the survey, almost identical to the result from the 2008 NDHS (10 percent). Delivery by C-section is most common among births to older women (14 percent), first order births (12 percent), births to women in urban areas (11 percent), births to highly educated women (19 percent), and births to women in the highest wealth quintile (29 percent). Regionally, the proportion of deliveries by C-section is highest in Central Luzon (20 percent) and lowest in ARMM (2 percent). Administrative Order 0025 series of 2009 by the Department of Health promulgated policies and protocol on essential newborn care. Newborns should benefit from their mother’s natural protection in the first hour of life. Health professionals are required to practice the skin-to-skin contact of mothers with their newborns immediately after delivery. Placing the newborn on the mother’s bare chest or abdomen within 90 minutes after the baby is born is an important component for successful bonding and breastfeeding initiation. Overall, 64 percent of births had skin-to-skin contact with their mothers. Two regions in Luzon and two from the Visayas had more than 70 percent of newborns with skin-to-skin contact with their mothers within the first hour after delivery, namely: NCR (85 percent), Ilocos Region (71 percent), Western Visayas (87 percent), and Central Visayas (70 percent). In the other 13 regions, the proportion of births with skin-to-skin contact was lower than 70 percent. Table 9.10 presents information about the cost of delivery obtained from the 2013 NDHS. This information is needed to determine the out-of-pocket health expenditures of mothers whether they delivered in public or private operated health facilities. This is a component of the health services package which the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation (Philhealth) is banking at in pursuit of the Aquino Health Agenda, that is, Universal health care for all Filipinos. To date, the Maternity Care and Newborn packages amounting to Php8,000 is given to Philhealth members. Survey results show that deliveries in public sector facilities had a higher median cost (2,982 pesos) than those in private facilities or at home (1,945 pesos). This may be due to the non-reporting of those having medical card (health card from private pre-need insurance) whose report only covers their out-of-pocket expenses, if the Interviewer did not exert effort in asking the amount covered by insurance. Table 9.10 Cost of delivery Among women age 15-49 with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey, the percentage who did not pay for the delivery of their last live birth, the percentage who paid in kind, the percentage who do not know the cost, and the median cost for those who paid, according to type of place of delivery and residence, Philippines 2013 Residence Source of method/cost Urban Rural Total Public sector Percentage free 3.8 3.9 3.9 Paid in kind 0.2 0.0 0.1 Know cost 96.0 96.1 96.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median cost (pesos)1 3,146.2 2,958.4 2,982.1 Number of women 1,131 1,225 2,355 Private medical sector/ home/other/missing Percentage free 2.6 7.8 5.3 Paid in kind 0.2 0.1 0.2 Do not know cost 0.4 0.4 0.4 Know cost 96.8 91.7 94.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median cost (pesos)1 3,448.0 987.3 1,944.9 Number of women 1,359 1,475 2,833 Total Percentage free 3.2 6.0 4.7 Paid in kind 0.2 0.1 0.1 Do not know cost 0.3 0.2 0.2 Know cost 96.4 93.7 95.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median cost (pesos)1 3,425.6 1,723.5 2,478.1 Number of women 2,489 2,699 5,188 1 Median cost is based only on those women who reported a cost; cost includes donations   112 • Maternal Health 9.3 POST NATAL CARE “Every mother and newborn pair secures proper post-partum care” is another guiding principle of the Integrated MNCHN Service Package of DOH. It is important for a mother to have a postnatal check-up to protect her from any complication that may arise after birth. In postnatal health examinations, mothers should also receive information on how to care for herself and her child as well as counseling on nutrition, micronutrient supplementation, exclusive breastfeeding, etc. Postnatal care is recommended within two days after delivery to prevent maternal and neonatal deaths which mostly occur during this period. In the 2013 NDHS, respondents with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey were asked whether they received a postnatal check-up after delivery. Table 9.11 presents the results on the coverage and timing of postnatal care for the mother. Seven out of ten (72 percent) mothers had a postnatal checkup in the first two days after giving birth, with 46 percent having a postnatal checkup within 4 hours after delivery and 14 percent within 4-23 hours. Mothers who delivered in a health facility (93 percent) are 4 times more likely to receive postnatal care within 2 days of delivery than those who delivered elsewhere (24percent). Mothers who attended college (86 percent) and those belonging to the highest wealth quintile (92 percent) are more likely to receive postnatal care within 2 days after delivery than other groups of women. The percentage meeting the recommended timing for the first postnatal checkup varies across region, from 20 percent in ARMM to 88 percent in NCR. Also shown in Table 9.11 are mothers with no postnatal checkup or those who had their postnatal care (PNC) by TBAs or hilots (23 percent). Information on the timing of PNC from hilots was not obtained in the survey, so the proportion of women receiving PNC within two days of delivery could be even higher than 72 percent if PNC from hilots were to be included.   M at er na l H ea lth • 1 13   Ta bl e 9. 11 T im in g of fi rs t p os tn at al c he ck up A m on g w om en a ge 1 5- 49 g iv in g bi rth in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey , t he p er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of th e m ot he r’s fi rs t p os tn at al c he ck -u p fo r t he la st li ve b irt h by ti m e af te r d el iv er y, a nd th e pe rc en ta ge of w om en w ith a li ve b irt h in th e tw o ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey w ho re ce iv ed a p os tn at al c he ck up in th e fir st tw o da ys a fte r g iv in g bi rth , a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, P hi lip pi ne s 20 13 Ti m e af te r d el iv er y of m ot he r’s fi rs t p os tn at al c he ck up N o po st na ta l ch ec ku p1 To ta l P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a po st na ta l c he ck up in th e fir st tw o da ys a fte r b irt h N um be r o f w om en B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic Le ss th an 4 ho ur s 4- 23 h ou rs 1- 2 da ys 3- 6 da ys 7- 41 d ay s D on ’t kn ow / m is si ng M ot he r’s a ge a t b irt h <2 0 42 .7 16 .5 13 .5 0. 9 4. 4 0. 4 21 .7 10 0. 0 72 .7 34 1 20 -3 4 47 .3 14 .5 11 .7 1. 8 2. 8 0. 3 21 .5 10 0. 0 73 .5 1, 90 3 35 -4 9 41 .9 12 .7 10 .3 1. 9 4. 3 0. 0 29 .0 10 0. 0 64 .9 45 4 B irt h or de r 1 49 .1 18 .6 12 .8 1. 8 3. 0 0. 4 14 .2 10 0. 0 80 .6 84 2 2- 3 47 .7 14 .4 12 .8 1. 2 3. 8 0. 3 19 .7 10 0. 0 74 .9 1, 15 0 4- 5 43 .2 11 .3 10 .7 2. 2 2. 2 0. 2 30 .2 10 0. 0 65 .2 42 8 6+ 31 .6 6. 8 5. 6 2. 7 3. 1 0. 0 50 .1 10 0. 0 44 .0 27 9 Pl ac e of d el iv er y H ea lth fa ci lit y 60 .0 19 .3 13 .5 1. 3 2. 9 0. 3 2. 6 10 0. 0 92 .8 1, 88 8 E ls ew he re 12 .8 3. 1 7. 6 2. 6 4. 1 0. 1 69 .7 10 0. 0 23 .5 80 8 R es id en ce U rb an 48 .3 16 .4 14 .2 1. 4 3. 7 0. 3 15 .7 10 0. 0 79 .0 1, 29 0 R ur al 43 .5 12 .6 9. 4 1. 9 2. 8 0. 3 29 .4 10 0. 0 65 .5 1, 40 8 R eg io n N at io na l C ap ita l R eg io n 59 .5 16 .3 12 .4 1. 3 3. 6 0. 0 6. 9 10 0. 0 88 .2 39 8 C or di lle ra A dm in R e g io n 53 .8 22 .6 7. 0 0. 9 3. 5 0. 0 12 .2 10 0. 0 83 .4 43 I - Il oc os R eg io n 50 .1 18 .0 9. 7 0. 9 8. 9 1. 8 10 .7 10 0. 0 77 .8 10 9 II - C a g ay an V al le y 39 .8 12 .2 14 .8 4. 0 4. 2 0. 0 25 .0 10 0. 0 66 .8 97 III - C en tra l L uz on 36 .7 17 .4 22 .1 2. 2 6. 3 0. 9 14 .3 10 0. 0 76 .2 27 8 IV A - C A LA B A R ZO N 43 .9 17 .7 15 .5 2. 4 3. 6 0. 0 16 .8 10 0. 0 77 .1 35 1 IV B - M IM A R O P A 34 .5 10 .3 5. 6 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 48 .6 10 0. 0 50 .4 69 V - B ic ol 52 .1 16 .0 5. 8 0. 6 0. 7 0. 7 24 .1 10 0. 0 73 .9 15 7 V I - W es te rn V is ay as 47 .6 11 .7 13 .9 0. 5 1. 1 0. 0 25 .1 10 0. 0 73 .2 20 0 V II - C en tra l V is ay as 59 .3 17 .9 6. 2 1. 2 1. 2 0. 6 13 .6 10 0. 0 83 .3 17 4 VI II - E as te rn V is a y as 57 .2 11 .7 7. 8 1. 9 2. 0 1. 0 18 .4 10 0. 0 76 .7 99 IX - Za m bo an ga P en in su la 42 .8 8. 2 4. 4 1. 3 2. 5 0. 0 40 .8 10 0. 0 55 .4 12 3 X - N or th er n M in da na o 38 .2 13 .8 6. 1 4. 6 2. 3 0. 0 35 .0 10 0. 0 58 .1 13 1 X I - D av ao 46 .7 13 .8 12 .5 0. 7 3. 9 0. 0 22 .4 10 0. 0 73 .0 15 1 X II - S O C C S K S A R G E N 33 .6 10 .2 10 .2 2. 2 3. 6 0. 0 40 .2 10 0. 0 54 .0 13 5 X III - C ar ag a 39 .1 10 .2 13 .9 1. 2 3. 0 0. 0 32 .5 10 0. 0 63 .2 90 A R M M 11 .9 2. 7 5. 9 1. 1 1. 1 0. 0 77 .5 10 0. 0 20 .4 91 Ed uc at io n N o ed uc at io n (7 .3 ) (4 .4 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (8 8. 4) 10 0. 0 (1 1. 6) 34 E le m en ta ry 34 .6 7. 5 9. 5 1. 0 2. 6 0. 4 44 .4 10 0. 0 51 .6 51 7 H i g h sc ho ol 47 .7 14 .6 11 .4 2. 0 3. 3 0. 3 20 .8 10 0. 0 73 .7 1, 39 4 C ol le ge 51 .7 19 .5 14 .3 1. 6 3. 8 0. 3 8. 8 10 0. 0 85 .5 75 3 W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 33 .1 6. 8 6. 5 1. 5 1. 6 0. 2 50 .3 10 0. 0 46 .4 68 6 S ec on d 48 .3 11 .9 9. 0 2. 1 3. 9 0. 3 24 .3 10 0. 0 69 .3 58 5 M id dl e 47 .3 18 .3 14 .5 1. 8 3. 2 0. 4 14 .5 10 0. 0 80 .1 58 7 Fo ur th 52 .3 16 .8 17 .7 1. 9 4. 4 0. 4 6. 6 10 0. 0 86 .8 48 0 H i g he st 54 .7 23 .6 13 .7 0. 9 4. 0 0. 0 3. 1 10 0. 0 92 .0 35 9 To ta l 45 .8 14 .4 11 .7 1. 7 3. 3 0. 3 22 .8 10 0. 0 72 .0 2, 69 8 To ta l i nc lu de s 3 w om en (w ei gh te d) m is si ng a s to p la ce o f d el iv er y. 1 I nc lu de s w om en w ho re ce iv ed a c he ck up a fte r 4 1 da ys ; a ls o in cl ud es w om en w ho s aw a h ilo t, si nc e in fo rm at io n on ti m in g of v is it w as n ot a sk ed . Maternal Health • 113   114 • Maternal Health Table 9.12 presents information on the type of provider of the mother’s first postnatal checkup by background characteristics such as mother’s age at birth, birth order, place of delivery, residence, region, education and economic status. More than three-quarters of mothers received postnatal care from a health professional (doctor, nurse or midwife), while 12 percent got PNC from a hilot. Only 11 percent of mothers did not get any postnatal checkup. Table 9.12 Type of provider of first postnatal checkup for the mother Among women age 15-49 giving birth in the two years preceding the survey, the percent distribution by type of provider of the mother’s first postnatal health check after the last live birth, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Type of health provider of mother’s first postnatal checkup No postnatal checkup after birth Total Number of women Background characteristic Doctor/nurse/ midwife Hilot Relative/ friend/other Mother’s age at birth <20 78.3 12.3 0.8 8.7 100.0 341 20-34 78.5 10.9 0.4 10.2 100.0 1,903 35-49 71.3 14.2 0.6 13.9 100.0 454 Birth order 1 85.8 7.9 0.2 6.1 100.0 842 2-3 80.3 9.6 0.6 9.5 100.0 1,150 4-5 69.8 15.9 0.3 13.9 100.0 428 6+ 50.3 24.7 1.0 24.0 100.0 279 Place of delivery Health facility 97.4 0.1 0.2 2.3 100.0 1,888 Elsewhere 30.4 38.6 1.1 29.8 100.0 808 Residence Urban 84.3 7.7 0.5 7.5 100.0 1,290 Rural 70.7 15.2 0.5 13.5 100.0 1,408 Region National Capital Region 93.1 4.2 0.0 2.6 100.0 398 Cordillera Admin Region 87.8 0.9 0.9 10.5 100.0 43 I - Ilocos Region 89.3 2.7 0.9 7.0 100.0 109 II - Cagayan Valley 75.0 8.9 0.0 16.1 100.0 97 III - Central Luzon 86.1 3.1 1.4 9.4 100.0 278 IVA - CALABARZON 83.2 7.4 0.0 9.4 100.0 351 IVB - MIMAROPA 51.4 42.1 0.9 5.6 100.0 69 V - Bicol 75.9 18.4 0.0 5.7 100.0 157 VI - Western Visayas 74.9 15.0 0.5 9.6 100.0 200 VII - Central Visayas 86.4 3.7 0.6 9.2 100.0 174 VIII - Eastern Visayas 81.6 10.6 0.0 7.8 100.0 99 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 59.2 20.7 0.0 20.1 100.0 123 X - Northern Mindanao 65.0 16.7 2.3 16.1 100.0 131 XI - Davao 77.6 9.9 0.7 11.8 100.0 151 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 59.8 19.7 0.7 19.7 100.0 135 XIII - Caraga 67.5 20.5 0.0 12.0 100.0 90 ARMM 22.5 41.5 0.5 35.4 100.0 91 Education No education (11.6) (21.7) (4.8) (61.8) 100.0 34 Elementary 55.8 24.9 1.3 18.0 100.0 517 High school 79.2 10.5 0.2 10.0 100.0 1,394 College 91.2 4.2 0.2 4.4 100.0 753 Wealth quintile Lowest 49.8 27.1 1.3 21.7 100.0 686 Second 75.7 12.3 0.2 11.8 100.0 585 Middle 85.5 6.9 0.0 7.6 100.0 587 Fourth 93.4 2.3 0.7 3.6 100.0 480 Highest 96.9 1.3 0.0 1.8 100.0 359 Total 77.2 11.6 0.5 10.6 100.0 2,698 Note: Table is based on women who had a checkup without regard to how soon after birth the checkup took place. Total includes 3 women (weighted) who are missing information on place of delivery. Almost eight out of ten mothers (78 percent) below 35 years old had their first post natal checkup by a professional health provider like a doctor, nurse or midwife. Likewise, mothers delivering their first birth (86 percent) are most likely to see a health professional for their first postnatal checkup, while those delivering   Maternal Health • 115  their sixth or higher birth are by far the least likely to see a health professional (50 percent); among the latter group, one-quarter saw a hilot for their first postnatal checkup and one-quarter did not have any postnatal checkup. As expected, almost all women who delivered in a health facility obtained postnatal care from a health professional (97 percent), compared with only 30 percent of those who delivered at home. Mothers staying in urban areas are more likely to have a postnatal checkup by a doctor, nurse or midwife than mothers in rural areas (84 percent and71 percent, respectively). Across regions, a large majority of the mothers (93 percent) in NCR availed the services of a doctor, nurse or midwife for their postnatal checkup. On the contrary, only half of the mothers in MIMAROPA and less than one-quarter of those in ARMM receive postnatal care from a health professional. Instead, mothers in MIMAROPA and ARMM (42 percent each) rely heavily on hilots for their postnatal checkup. ARMM had the highest number of mothers who did not have any postnatal checkup (35 percent) followed by Zamboanga Peninsula with 20 percent. Also included among the regions where mothers are less likely to avail the services of a doctor, nurse or midwife for their first postnatal checkup are Zamboanga Peninsula (59percent) and SOCCSKSARGEN (60 percent). The proportion of women who receive postnatal care from a health professional increases steadily as education of the woman increases and as wealth quintile increases. 9.4 NEWBORN CARE Newborn care is essential to reduce neonatal illness and death and to prevent complications soon after delivery. To identify, manage, and prevent complications, it is recommended that the mother and the newborn have at least three checkups within seven days after delivery (WHO and UNICEF, 2009), which is considered a critical period for neonates and mothers. Table 9.13 shows the percent distribution of last births in the two years preceding the survey by timing of the first postnatal checkup after birth, along with the percentage of newborns with a postnatal checkup in the first two days after birth, according to background characteristics of mothers. Overall, 53 percent of newborns received a postnatal checkup within two days after birth. One in ten (10 percent) newborns had a postnatal checkup less than one hour after birth, and 24 percent had a checkup between one and three hours after birth. In all, 42 percent of newborns had a postnatal checkup within 24 hours after birth. On the other hand, forty-two percent of newborns did not receive a postnatal checkup. Newborns delivered outside of a health facility were less likely to receive a postnatal checkup within the first two days after birth (36 percent) than newborns delivered in a health facility (60 percent). The highest percentage of newborns having a checkup within two days after birth was found in Bicol with87 percent, followed by MIMAROPA and Eastern Visayas with 85 percent and 83 percent, respectively. The highest proportions of newborns without postnatal checkups are in Central Luzon with 69 percent, followed by ARMM with 66 percent. These two regions had the lowest percentage of newborns having a postnatal checkup within two days afterbirth with 26 percent and 20 percent, respectively.       116 • Maternal Health Table 9.13 Timing of first postnatal checkup for the newborn Percent distribution of last births in the two years preceding the survey by time after birth of first postnatal checkup, and the percentage of births with a postnatal checkup in the first two days after birth, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Time after birth of newborn’s first postnatal checkup No postnatal checkup1 Total Percentage of births with a postnatal checkup in the first two days after birth Number of births Background characteristic Less than 1 hour 1-3 hours 4-23 hours 1-2 days 3-6 days Don’t know/ missing Mother’s age at birth <20 9.2 24.3 7.5 11.3 5.7 0.8 41.2 100.0 52.2 341 20-34 10.6 24.2 8.9 9.7 4.6 0.5 41.5 100.0 53.3 1,903 35-49 9.4 23.2 6.0 11.0 4.6 0.0 45.8 100.0 49.6 454 Birth order 1 10.4 25.1 9.3 9.4 5.5 0.8 39.5 100.0 54.2 842 2-3 10.3 23.4 8.3 11.2 4.5 0.4 41.8 100.0 53.3 1,150 4-5 11.3 25.4 8.2 9.1 4.1 0.2 41.7 100.0 54.0 428 6+ 7.4 21.0 4.5 9.7 4.7 0.0 52.7 100.0 42.5 279 Place of delivery Health facility 12.1 28.9 9.6 9.2 4.0 0.6 35.7 100.0 59.7 1,888 Elsewhere 5.9 12.8 4.9 12.5 6.6 0.0 57.2 100.0 36.1 808 Residence Urban 7.8 25.0 9.8 10.6 5.0 0.5 41.2 100.0 53.2 1,290 Rural 12.4 23.2 6.7 9.7 4.6 0.4 43.1 100.0 52.0 1,408 Region National Capital Region 3.3 32.4 9.2 10.8 6.9 0.3 37.3 100.0 55.6 398 Cordillera Admin Region 30.4 13.8 6.1 7.9 1.8 0.9 39.2 100.0 58.2 43 I - Ilocos Region 4.4 12.5 5.6 11.4 2.6 0.0 63.4 100.0 34.0 109 II - Cagayan Valley 11.4 11.4 3.2 14.7 5.6 0.0 53.7 100.0 40.6 97 III - Central Luzon 4.1 13.9 2.3 5.8 4.1 0.4 69.4 100.0 26.1 278 IVA - CALABARZON 3.7 18.5 11.2 10.1 4.9 0.4 51.3 100.0 43.4 351 IVB - MIMAROPA 15.8 38.2 14.0 16.9 4.8 0.0 10.3 100.0 84.9 69 V - Bicol 22.8 36.9 12.8 14.1 2.5 2.0 9.0 100.0 86.5 157 VI - Western Visayas 7.5 30.5 12.8 15.5 3.8 0.0 30.0 100.0 66.3 200 VII - Central Visayas 20.4 32.1 13.6 10.5 3.7 0.0 19.7 100.0 76.5 174 VIII - Eastern Visayas 19.4 38.8 12.6 11.7 3.9 0.0 13.6 100.0 82.5 99 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 8.2 21.4 6.3 8.8 6.3 0.0 49.0 100.0 44.7 123 X - Northern Mindanao 22.9 23.7 4.6 7.7 6.1 0.0 35.0 100.0 58.9 131 XI - Davao 15.8 19.1 5.9 8.6 2.6 2.0 46.1 100.0 49.3 151 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 8.0 25.5 5.1 5.8 2.9 0.0 52.6 100.0 44.5 135 XIII - Caraga 18.7 13.3 6.0 9.7 3.0 1.8 47.5 100.0 47.7 90 ARMM 0.5 14.0 1.1 4.4 13.7 0.0 66.3 100.0 20.1 91 Mother’s education No education (9.5) (8.8) (2.3) (2.3) (1.4) (0.0) (75.6) 100.0 (22.9) 34 Elementary 8.9 22.7 4.8 11.5 5.3 0.5 46.2 100.0 48.0 517 High school 9.5 23.8 8.4 10.1 4.6 0.5 43.2 100.0 51.8 1,394 College 12.4 26.0 10.4 9.6 5.0 0.3 36.2 100.0 58.6 753 Wealth quintile Lowest 11.2 21.1 5.6 9.6 4.8 0.3 47.4 100.0 47.6 686 Second 11.3 24.9 9.1 11.6 5.2 0.4 37.4 100.0 56.9 585 Middle 9.8 23.0 8.5 10.8 3.7 0.6 43.6 100.0 52.1 587 Fourth 7.2 27.1 8.4 9.3 4.4 0.6 43.0 100.0 52.0 480 Highest 11.0 25.8 10.9 9.0 6.4 0.3 36.7 100.0 56.6 359 Total 10.2 24.0 8.2 10.2 4.8 0.4 42.2 100.0 52.6 2,698 Total includes 3 women (weighted) missing as to place of delivery. Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Includes newborns who received a checkup after the first week Table 9.14 presents the percent distribution of the most recent births occurring in the two years preceding the survey by type of provider of newborn care during the first two days after delivery, according to background characteristics of mothers. Results from the 2013 NDHS show that 48 percent of newborns received postnatal care during the two days following birth from a doctor, nurse, or midwife. The distribution of newborns who received care from a skilled birth attendant by background characteristics is more or less similar to the pattern described for providers of mothers’ postnatal checkups. Postnatal checkups by health professionals are notably more   Maternal Health • 117  common for newborns whose mothers who gave birth in a health facility (60 percent), whose mothers attended college (57 percent), and whose mothers belong to the highest wealth quintile (56 percent). Newborns in Central Visayas and Eastern Visayas are the most likely to receive postnatal care from a health professional (75 percent each), while those in ARMM are least likely (13 percent). Table 9.14 Type of provider of first postnatal checkup for the newborn Percent distribution of last births in the two years preceding the survey by type of provider of the newborn’s first postnatal health check during the two days after the last live birth, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Type of health provider of newborn’s first postnatal checkup No postnatal checkup in the first two days after birth Total Number of births Background characteristic Doctor/nurse/ midwife Hilot Mother’s age at birth <20 46.6 5.7 47.8 100.0 341 20-34 48.9 4.4 46.7 100.0 1,903 35-49 42.9 6.7 50.4 100.0 454 Birth order 1 50.9 3.3 45.8 100.0 842 2-3 49.4 3.9 46.7 100.0 1,150 4-5 46.7 7.3 46.0 100.0 428 6+ 31.4 11.1 57.5 100.0 279 Place of delivery Health facility 59.6 0.1 40.3 100.0 1,888 Elsewhere 19.7 16.4 63.9 100.0 808 Residence Urban 49.5 3.7 46.8 100.0 1,290 Rural 45.8 6.2 48.0 100.0 1,408 Region National Capital Region 53.6 2.0 44.4 100.0 398 Cordillera Admin Region 57.3 0.9 41.8 100.0 43 I - Ilocos Region 34.0 0.0 66.0 100.0 109 II - Cagayan Valley 36.6 4.0 59.4 100.0 97 III - Central Luzon 25.7 0.5 73.9 100.0 278 IVA - CALABARZON 40.1 3.3 56.6 100.0 351 IVB - MIMAROPA 49.5 35.5 15.1 100.0 69 V - Bicol 71.3 15.2 13.5 100.0 157 VI - Western Visayas 63.6 2.7 33.7 100.0 200 VII - Central Visayas 74.7 1.8 23.5 100.0 174 VIII - Eastern Visayas 74.8 7.7 17.5 100.0 99 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 41.0 3.8 55.3 100.0 123 X - Northern Mindanao 49.0 9.9 41.1 100.0 131 XI - Davao 48.0 1.3 50.7 100.0 151 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 37.9 6.6 55.5 100.0 135 XIII - Caraga 36.8 10.9 52.3 100.0 90 ARMM 12.8 7.3 79.9 100.0 91 Mother’s education No education (10.7) (12.2) (77.1) 100.0 34 Elementary 37.9 10.0 52.0 100.0 517 High school 47.2 4.6 48.2 100.0 1,394 College 56.6 1.9 41.4 100.0 753 Wealth quintile Lowest 35.8 11.7 52.4 100.0 686 Second 51.5 5.4 43.1 100.0 585 Middle 49.2 2.9 47.9 100.0 587 Fourth 51.4 0.6 48.0 100.0 480 Highest 55.8 0.8 43.4 100.0 359 Total 47.6 5.0 47.4 100.0 2,698 Note: Total includes 3 births (weighted) missing as to place of delivery     118 • Maternal Health 9.5 PROBLEMS IN ACCESSING HEALTH CARE Many factors can prevent women from getting medical advice or treatment for themselves when they are sick. Information on such factors is particularly important in understanding and addressing the barriers women may face in seeking care during pregnancy and at the time of delivery. In the 2013NDHS, women were asked what hinders them in obtaining medical advice or treatment when they are sick. Possible answers were: getting permission to go for treatment, getting money for treatment, distance to health facility, and not wanting to go alone. Results in Table 9.15 indicate that three out of five women (58 percent) reported that at least one of these problems would pose a barrier in seeking health care for themselves when they are sick. Half (48 percent) of women stated that getting money for treatment is a big problem. Twenty-seven percent mentioned distance from a health facility as a big problem, while 21 percent cited not wanting to go alone. Only 9 percent of women mentioned getting permission to go for treatment as a concern. The proportion of women who report at least one problem in accessing health care decreases dramatically with increasing education and wealth. Women who are employed but not for cash and women who are not employed are more likely to have problems in accessing health care (61 percent each) than women who are employed for cash (55 percent).Urban women (52 percent) are less likely than rural women (65 percent) to mention problems in accessing health care. Across regions, the percentage of women who had at least one problem in accessing health care ranges from 48 percent in Davao to 94 percent in ARMM. Younger women (65 percent), women with 5 or more children (70 percent), women who live in rural areas (65 percent), women with no education (84 percent), and women from the lowest wealth quintile (76 percent) were more likely than other subgroups of women to say they would face at least one serious problem in accessing health care.       Maternal Health • 119  Table 9.15 Problems in accessing health care Percentage of women age 15-49 who reported that they have serious problems in accessing health care for themselves when they are sick, by type of problem, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Problems in accessing health care Number of women Background characteristic Getting permission to go for treatment Getting money for treatment Distance to health facility Not wanting to go alone At least one problem accessing health care Age 15-19 10.8 52.0 30.7 31.6 65.3 3,237 20-34 8.1 44.6 25.5 18.6 54.5 7,196 35-49 9.7 49.3 27.8 18.3 57.8 5,723 Number of living children 0 8.6 45.5 25.8 25.0 57.3 6,144 1-2 7.5 43.5 24.6 16.6 52.7 5,123 3-4 9.8 51.3 28.2 18.7 60.3 3,135 5+ 15.1 61.6 39.2 24.9 70.4 1,753 Marital status Never married 8.6 46.5 26.0 25.3 58.0 5,615 Married or living together 9.7 48.2 28.5 19.2 57.9 9,729 Divorced/separated/widowed 8.0 50.5 22.9 15.1 56.9 811 Employed last 12 months Not employed 10.1 51.2 28.9 24.5 61.3 6,877 Employed for cash 8.2 45.1 25.0 17.7 54.6 8,299 Employed not for cash 11.7 46.5 36.7 26.1 60.9 974 Residence Urban 6.2 43.4 17.9 15.9 51.5 8,585 Rural 12.6 52.7 38.1 27.0 65.1 7,570 Region National Capital Region 4.5 49.9 15.4 13.4 53.8 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 6.4 50.9 27.7 18.6 60.4 252 I - Ilocos Region 18.6 63.8 37.5 30.5 74.6 691 II - Cagayan Valley 12.5 49.2 33.9 23.8 60.1 550 III - Central Luzon 6.8 48.4 24.1 18.1 56.6 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 4.1 41.3 18.9 13.2 49.3 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 10.7 57.4 42.2 34.4 70.6 372 V - Bicol 10.8 56.1 34.7 27.4 69.7 798 VI - Western Visayas 14.5 50.9 30.0 23.9 61.7 996 VII - Central Visayas 10.4 35.2 25.5 20.7 48.7 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 8.6 42.8 24.5 15.2 52.2 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 10.5 58.2 38.5 31.1 69.6 725 X - Northern Mindanao 7.8 32.3 33.3 25.9 55.2 697 XI - Davao 8.7 31.4 28.2 15.1 47.6 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 14.6 47.5 35.3 24.0 60.0 744 XIII - Caraga 11.0 36.4 34.2 26.3 54.3 435 ARMM 30.3 90.7 63.9 63.9 94.3 465 Education No education 29.1 72.3 68.9 54.3 84.1 188 Elementary 16.8 61.6 41.7 28.5 71.4 2,593 High school 9.6 52.5 28.5 22.1 62.6 7,916 College 4.4 33.5 17.5 15.0 43.5 5,458 Wealth quintile Lowest 19.4 63.9 51.7 35.6 75.8 2,620 Second 12.3 57.7 34.9 24.5 68.3 2,886 Middle 8.5 53.4 26.6 21.0 62.9 3,199 Fourth 5.4 43.4 19.4 15.7 52.8 3,572 Highest 4.0 28.8 13.2 13.8 38.3 3,878 Total 9.2 47.7 27.4 21.1 57.8 16,155 Note: Total includes 5 women (weighted) missing information as to employment status.   120 • Maternal Health Child Health • 121 CHILD HEALTH 10     his chapter presents findings on several indicators related to children’s health, such as birth weight, vaccination coverage, and prevalence and treatment practices for three major childhood diseases: acute respiratory infection, fever, and diarrhea. Information on a child’s weight at birth, immunization, and treatment received for ARI, fever, and diarrhea is important for the design and implementation of child health programs anchored at achieving the MDG goal on reducing under-five mortality. In addition, as poor sanitation may also lead to diarrheal disease and death among young children, this chapter also provides information on disposal of children’s stools. In the 2013 NDHS, birth weight in kilograms or pounds was recorded for all live births in the five years preceding the survey based on a health card or the mother’s report. Information on vaccinations and illnesses was collected only for surviving children, while practices on disposal of children’s feces were obtained for children who were living with their mother. 10.1 CHILD’S WEIGHT AT BIRTH Studies have found that birth weight is a significant indicator of a newborn’s nutritional status, growth, health, and chances for survival. Furthermore, low birth weight, which is a result of preterm birth or restricted fetal growth, is closely associated with fetal and neonatal mortality and morbidity (UNICEF and WHO, 2004). A reduction in the proportion of births with low birth weight may result in a decrease in child mortality, which is one of the Millennium Development Goals. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines low birth weight as weight at birth of less than 2.5 kilograms (5.5 pounds). Table 10.1 shows the percentage of births for which mothers reported a birth weight by background characteristics. T Key Findings • Vaccination coverage among children age 12-23 months has increased slightly in the past 20 years, from 72 percent in 1993 to 77 percent in 2013. • Six percent of children under age 5 had symptoms of ARI at some time during the two weeks preceding the survey; 64 percent of these children were taken to a health facility or health provider for advice or treatment. • Twenty-eight percent of children under age 5 had a fever in the two weeks before the survey. Among those with a fever, half were taken to a health facility or health provider for advice or treatment. • Eight percent of children under age 5 had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. Forty-two percent of children with diarrhea were taken to a facility or provider for treatment, and 67 percent received some form of oral rehydration therapy (either ORS or RHF) or increased fluids. • Almost half of children under age 5 had their stools disposed of safely; 28 percent used a toilet or latrine, 11 percent had their stools thrown into a toilet or latrine, and 7 percent had their stools buried. 122 • Child Health Given the large proportion (73 percent) of births delivered by health professionals, four out of five (81 percent) births had a reported birth weight. Babies are more likely to be weighed at birth if they are born to younger women, they are first births, the mother lives in an urban area, the mother is better educated, and the mother is in the highest wealth quintile. For example, while 94 percent of births to women with college or higher education were weighed at birth, the corresponding percentage of births to women with no education is only 28 percent. Similarly, only 28 percent of births in ARMM were weighed as compared to 96 percent in the National Capital Region. Table 10.1 also presents information on child’s weight at birth by background characteristics. Among babies for whom a birth weight was reported, 21 percent had low birth weight (less than 2.5 kg). There is not much variation in the percentage of babies with low birth weight among subgroups. 10.2 VACCINATION COVERAGE Universal immunization of children under age 1 against vaccine-preventable diseases is a cost-effective means of reducing infant and child morbidity and mortality. Following the success of the smallpox eradication program, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) in 1974. Six vaccine-preventable diseases were initially included in the EPI: tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and measles. With the development of new vaccines and heightened efforts to eradicate childhood illnesses, countries have also increased their immunization agenda over the years (WHO, 2014). The government of the Philippines adopted the EPI in 1976 to ensure that infants and children age 0 to 5 years have access to routinely recommended vaccines. The Philippines EPI primarily aims to reduce the morbidity and mortality among children against seven vaccine-preventable diseases—tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, and hepatitis B. The EPI has the following specific objectives: “(1) to immunize all children age 0-11 months against the seven diseases, (2) to maintain the polio-free status of the country, (3) to eliminate measles Table 10.1 Child’s weight at birth Percentage of live births in the five years preceding the survey that have a reported birth weight, and among live births in the five years preceding the survey with a reported birth weight, percentage less than 2.5 kg, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage of all births that have a reported birth weight1 Number of births Births with a reported birth weight1 Background characteristic Percentage less than 2.5 kg Number of births Mother’s age at birth <20 80.9 871 25.1 705 20-34 81.7 4,919 20.2 4,021 35-49 76.1 1,192 24.2 907 Birth order 1 88.5 2,161 22.5 1,912 2-3 83.1 2,861 20.4 2,378 4-5 74.3 1,140 20.0 847 6+ 60.5 820 24.9 496 Mother’s smoking status Smokes cigarettes/tobacco 78.9 427 22.6 337 Does not smoke 80.8 6,555 21.3 5,296 Residence Urban 90.1 3,261 21.1 2,936 Rural 72.5 3,721 21.8 2,697 Region National Capital Region 96.1 1,026 21.4 986 Cordillera Admin Region 92.1 105 18.6 97 I - Ilocos Region 84.1 314 17.3 264 II - Cagayan Valley 63.0 258 21.7 163 III - Central Luzon 83.7 656 23.1 549 IVA - CALABARZON 86.6 887 21.9 769 IVB - MIMAROPA 53.6 191 25.3 102 V - Bicol 70.0 437 19.6 306 VI - Western Visayas 89.6 486 19.2 436 VII - Central Visayas 92.3 461 25.5 426 VIII - Eastern Visayas 83.1 269 18.2 223 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 67.0 339 24.9 227 X - Northern Mindanao 82.3 324 20.6 266 XI - Davao 82.5 397 16.1 327 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 68.5 330 24.5 226 XIII - Caraga 82.2 231 25.1 190 ARMM 28.0 271 21.8 76 Mother’s education No education 27.6 112 (35.3) 31 Elementary 61.8 1,496 25.2 925 High school 83.4 3,523 22.1 2,938 College 94.0 1,851 18.1 1,740 Wealth quintile Lowest 59.5 1,916 22.0 1,139 Second 79.1 1,525 23.1 1,206 Middle 89.3 1,395 20.9 1,246 Fourth 94.8 1,214 23.6 1,151 Highest 95.6 932 16.3 891 Total 80.7 6,982 21.4 5,633 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Based on either a written record or the mother’s recall Child Health • 123 infection and neonatal tetanus, (4) to control diphtheria, pertussis, and hepatitis B infections, and (5) to prevent extrapulmonary tuberculosis among children” (Cabotaje, 2003). In 2011, Republic Act No. 10152, also known as Mandatory Infants and Children Health Immunization Act of 2011, which provides a comprehensive, mandatory and sustainable immunization program for vaccine‐preventable diseases for all infants and children was signed into law. The mandatory basic immunizations for all infants and children cover the following vaccine‐preventable diseases: (a) tuberculosis; (b) diphtheria, tetanus and pertussis; (c) poliomyelitis; (d) measles; (e) mumps; (f) rubella or German measles; (g) hepatitis‐B; and (h) H. influenza type B (HIB). According to this law, the mandatory basic immunizations shall be provided free at government hospitals or health centers to infants and children up to five years of age. Republic Act No. 10152 provides for all infants to be given the birth dose of the hepatitis-B vaccine within 24 hours of birth. The hepatitis B birth dose was integrated in the Essential Intrapartum and Newborn Care Package (EINC). The first dose of the hepatitis-B vaccine may be counted as part of the three-dose primary series. Subsequent doses are given at least 4 weeks apart, with the third dose preferably given not earlier than 24 weeks of age. A fourth dose is needed for the following cases: 1) if the third dose is given at age < 24 weeks; 2) for patients using the EPI schedule of birth, 6, and 14 weeks, and, 3) for preterms less than 2 kilograms whose first dose was given at birth. The pentavalent vaccine (DPT-Hepa-B-HiB) was initially introduced in Central Visayas, Eastern Visayas and Caraga in 2010 to prevent the sequelae of HiB meningitis and other invasive HiB diseases. In this report, a child age 12-23 months is considered fully immunized if he or she had BCG, measles, and three doses each of DPT, polio and Hepa‐B vaccines before the first birthday. In the 2013 NDHS, data on vaccination coverage were collected for all living children born in the five years preceding the survey. Information on vaccination coverage was obtained in two ways – from health cards and from mothers’ verbal report. All mothers were asked to show the interviewer the vaccination cards on which the child(ren)’s immunization status was recorded. If the card was available, the interviewer copied the dates on which each vaccination was received. If a vaccination was not recorded on the health card, the mother was asked to recall whether that particular vaccination had been given. If the mother was not able to present a health card for her child, she was asked to recall whether the child had received BCG, polio, DPT, measles and vaccines. If she indicated that the child had received the polio, DPT, or Hepa-B vaccines, she was asked about the number of doses of each that the child had received. As the Philippines is going through the transitional phase in the implementation of pentavalent vaccination scheme, care was taken to capture both schemes. Hepatitis B vaccinations in the 2013 NDHS were recorded differently from those in the 2008 NDHS. The 2013 NDHS recorded information on hepatitis B vaccines 0 through 3, while the 2008 NDHS recorded information on hepatitis B vaccines 1 through 3. 10.2.1 Full Immunization Coverage for Children Age 12-23 Months Table 10.2 shows the percentage of children age 12-23 months who have received various vaccinations by source of information (i.e., health card, mother’s report, or both health card and mother’s report). Health cards were available for 58 percent of the children in this age group. The results are presented for children in the 12-23 months age group because they are the youngest cohort of children who have reached the age by which they should be fully immunized. 124 • Child Health Table 10.2 Vaccinations by source of information Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received specific vaccines at any time before the survey, by source of information (vaccination card or mother’s report), and percentage vaccinated by 12 months of age, Philippines 2013 Source of information BCG DPT 1 DPT 2 DPT 3 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Hepa- B 1 Hepa- B 2 Hepa- B 3 Meas- les All basic vac- cina- tions1 No vac- cina- tions Number of children Vaccinated at any time before survey Vaccination card 57.1 57.0 55.7 53.9 56.2 54.7 53.3 55.3 50.7 46.6 50.1 41.5 0.0 805 Hepa-B3Mother’s report 38.3 37.2 36.2 32.2 37.0 34.5 31.3 37.2 34.6 31.0 33.8 27.0 3.8 592 Either source 95.4 94.2 91.9 86.1 93.2 89.3 84.6 92.5 85.3 77.6 83.9 68.5 3.8 1,397 Vaccinated by 12 months of age2 94.8 93.5 91.4 84.7 92.5 88.7 83.1 91.5 83.2 74.4 78.2 61.8 4.0 1,397 1 BCG, measles and three doses each of DPT and polio and Hepa-B vaccine (either Hepa-B0,B1 and B2 or Hepa-B1, B2 and B3), excludes HiB vaccines 2 For children whose information is based on the mother’s report, the proportion of vaccinations given during the first year of life is assumed to be the same as for children with a written record of vaccination. Overall, 62 percent of children age 12-23 months are fully immunized, that is, they received the seven basic vaccinations (BCG, measles, and three doses each of DPT, polio and Hepa‐B) before reaching age one. With regard to specific vaccines, coverage is generally high for each type of vaccine; 95 percent of children have received the BCG vaccine, 94 percent have received the first dose of DPT, 93 percent have received the first dose of polio vaccine, and 92 percent have received the first dose of hepatitis B vaccine (Figure 10.1). Lower percentages went on to receive the third dose of DPT (85 percent), polio (83 percent), and hepatitis B (74 percent). Thus, the dropout rate1, measured by the difference in coverage between the first and third doses, is 9 percent for DPT, 10 percent for polio, and 19 percent for hepatitis B. Figure 10.1 Vaccination by 12 months of age (Information based on health cards and mother’s report) 1 Dropout rate = {(First dose – Third dose)/First Dose } x 100 4 62 78 74 83 92 83 89 93 85 91 94 95 No vaccinations All basic … Measles Hepa‐B3 Hepa‐B2 Hepa‐B1 Polio 3 Polio 2 Polio 1 DPT 3 DPT 2 DPT 1 BCG Percent Child Health • 125 10.2.2 Vaccination Coverage by Background Characteristics Table 10.3 presents the percentage of children age 12-23 months who received specific vaccines at any time before the survey by background characteristics. Based on the information from health cards and mothers’ reports, 69 percent of children 12-23 months have received the seven basic vaccinations at the time of the survey. While there is almost no difference in vaccination coverage by the child’s sex, there are differences in coverage by other background characteristics. For example, full vaccination coverage declines as birth order increases, from 74 percent among first births to 53 percent among sixth and higher births. In contrast, full vaccination coverage increases with wealth status, from 59 percent of children in households in the poorest wealth quintile to 81 percent of children in households in the highest wealth quintile. Table 10.3 Vaccinations by background characteristics Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received specific vaccines at any time before the survey (according to a vaccination card or the mother’s report), and percentage with a vaccination card seen, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic BCG DPT 1 DPT 2 DPT 3 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Hepa- B 1 Hepa- B 2 Hepa- B 3 Meas- les All basic vac- cina- tions1 No vac- cina- tions Percent- age with a vac- cina- tion card Num- ber of child- ren Sex Male 95.2 94.0 92.2 87.0 92.8 89.7 85.1 93.2 87.2 79.1 82.8 69.6 3.9 57.5 703 Female 95.6 94.4 91.5 85.3 93.6 88.8 84.0 91.8 83.3 76.1 84.9 67.5 3.7 57.8 694 Birth order 1 97.9 96.5 94.7 89.8 95.3 91.5 88.2 94.7 88.0 80.8 87.8 73.6 1.8 58.2 426 2-3 96.5 95.7 94.1 88.8 94.3 91.6 87.0 94.0 87.3 80.7 86.5 71.3 2.8 60.0 614 4-5 91.9 89.9 86.9 80.1 91.0 84.8 78.0 88.7 79.3 69.2 77.3 60.8 7.2 55.8 218 6+ 88.6 87.3 81.2 73.0 85.5 79.4 72.8 85.4 77.2 67.3 70.5 52.8 9.0 48.4 140 Residence Urban 96.6 96.1 93.6 87.9 94.9 90.9 85.8 94.5 88.9 81.5 85.6 72.7 2.7 56.8 671 Rural 94.3 92.5 90.3 84.5 91.7 87.7 83.5 90.7 81.9 74.1 82.2 64.7 4.8 58.4 727 Region National Capital Region 97.5 98.1 95.7 91.3 96.9 94.4 90.1 98.1 94.4 87.6 86.3 79.5 1.9 52.8 209 Cordillera Admin Region 96.4 96.4 96.4 96.4 94.6 94.6 92.7 94.5 92.7 91.0 92.7 83.6 3.6 61.7 21 I - Ilocos Region 98.0 92.5 86.8 79.5 92.3 83.2 75.9 98.2 86.8 74.0 81.1 61.1 0.0 53.8 53 II - Cagayan Valley 94.0 94.0 91.0 78.8 89.5 81.8 78.8 86.5 82.0 68.2 78.8 54.7 4.5 45.5 52 III - Central Luzon 98.1 96.4 94.6 86.4 93.5 88.1 83.6 87.1 82.6 78.0 87.3 68.9 0.9 56.9 136 IVA - CALABARZON 99.2 97.7 95.3 89.7 97.7 95.3 90.5 96.9 90.7 83.6 89.9 76.6 0.8 56.4 184 IVB - MIMAROPA 90.4 90.3 90.3 76.8 90.3 88.3 76.7 88.4 84.5 73.0 78.8 65.2 5.8 63.5 34 V - Bicol 97.3 93.4 89.5 80.3 94.7 85.5 79.0 94.7 86.8 73.7 82.9 61.9 2.7 65.7 76 VI - Western Visayas 99.0 96.9 92.9 89.8 96.9 91.8 88.8 95.9 72.4 66.3 89.8 62.2 1.0 66.4 105 VII - Central Visayas 96.8 93.5 93.5 86.0 93.5 93.5 86.0 94.6 85.0 75.3 87.1 66.7 3.2 68.8 100 VIII - Eastern Visayas 100.0 100.0 100.0 98.3 100.0 98.3 94.8 94.8 87.8 82.5 80.8 65.0 0.0 73.7 55 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 87.9 91.2 91.2 84.6 89.0 89.0 83.5 89.0 85.7 79.1 76.9 69.2 8.8 55.0 70 X - Northern Mindanao 94.7 90.7 89.4 85.4 88.1 82.7 81.4 90.8 85.4 77.4 81.4 65.3 5.3 48.0 75 XI - Davao 97.4 96.1 94.7 92.1 94.7 94.7 92.1 96.1 89.5 80.3 88.2 71.1 1.3 59.2 76 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 89.6 89.6 86.6 86.6 89.5 80.6 80.6 89.6 82.1 76.1 77.6 68.7 9.0 59.7 66 XIII - Caraga 95.1 97.5 96.3 92.6 95.1 93.8 88.9 92.6 90.1 87.7 85.1 75.3 2.5 67.9 44 ARMM 59.9 57.7 47.0 36.3 57.7 45.8 34.0 53.1 42.4 34.0 43.5 29.4 40.1 24.4 42 Mother’s education No education (60.9) (58.1) (44.3) (33.8) (54.5) (38.5) (33.8) (50.2) (36.4) (30.3) (36.1) (30.3) (34.6) (28.3) 22 Elementary 89.9 88.7 86.8 80.0 88.0 83.5 78.3 86.7 81.7 75.9 77.5 63.5 8.7 55.5 278 High school 97.6 96.2 92.9 86.4 95.3 90.9 85.5 94.2 86.0 76.6 83.8 68.2 1.9 59.0 706 College 97.4 96.6 96.2 92.9 95.3 93.2 90.2 96.0 89.3 83.2 91.1 74.8 2.0 58.5 391 Wealth quintile Lowest 89.1 86.7 84.0 78.5 86.8 81.3 76.5 85.2 76.7 69.6 72.9 59.2 9.7 55.2 358 Second 96.7 95.0 91.0 83.7 94.4 89.4 82.2 92.2 83.3 74.7 85.9 64.8 3.0 58.6 292 Middle 97.5 97.9 95.0 88.8 96.6 92.2 87.3 94.8 86.4 76.8 87.4 68.4 1.1 65.1 320 Fourth 97.5 96.5 96.5 91.6 95.4 93.2 90.4 96.0 91.4 85.4 88.8 77.8 2.0 52.6 245 Highest 99.4 98.0 96.7 93.0 95.0 94.2 91.7 98.7 95.0 89.1 89.2 80.8 0.6 54.5 182 Total 95.4 94.2 91.9 86.1 93.2 89.3 84.6 92.5 85.3 77.6 83.9 68.5 3.8 57.6 1,397 1 BCG, measles and three doses each of DPT, polio and Hepa-B vaccine (either Hepa-B0, B1, and B2 or Hepa-B1, B2 and B3); excludes HiB vaccine. Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 126 • Child Health Vaccination coverage also varies slightly by residence (73 percent in urban areas and 65 percent in rural areas). There are large variations by region. ARMM has the lowest vaccination coverage (29 percent), while CAR has the highest (84 percent). The percentage of children age 12-23 months who have received the seven immunizations ranges from 55 percent to 80 percent for the rest of the regions. 10.2.3 Trends in Vaccination Coverage Figure 10.2 shows the trend in vaccination coverage excluding hepatitis B—that is, vaccinations received any time prior to the survey—from 1993 to 2013. Data on vaccination coverage for the six vaccine- preventable diseases, namely, tuberculosis, poliomyelitis, diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis and measles were recorded in previous rounds of NDHS. In the past 20 years, vaccination coverage excluding hepatitis B for children age 12-23 month has slightly increased from 72 percent in 1993 to 77 percent in 2013. Figure 10.2 Trends in vaccination coverage2 10.3 ACUTE RESPIRATORY INFECTION (ARI) Acute respiratory tract infections, which include pneumonia, influenza, and respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), are the leading cause of illness and death among children under five, particularly in developing countries. ARI is caused by bacteria and viruses and may result from malnutrition, air pollution, tobacco use, and overcrowding (World Lung Foundation, 2010). Pneumonia is the most serious acute respiratory tract infection. About 1.4 million children under age five die of pneumonia annually; this represents 18% of yearly under-five deaths worldwide (UNICEF, 2013). Pneumonia is characterized by cough with difficult or rapid breathing and chest in-drawing and can be treated with antibiotics. Early diagnosis and treatment with antibiotics can prevent deaths caused by ARI, particularly pneumonia. In the 2013 NDHS, the prevalence of ARI was estimated by asking mothers whether their children under age five had been ill with a cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing and difficulty breathing as a result of a problem in the chest, in the two weeks preceding the survey. These symptoms are compatible with ARI. It should be noted that the morbidity data collected are subjective because they are based on the mother’s perception of illness, without validation by medical personnel. 91 80 78 81 72 91 79 80 80 70 95 86 85 84 77 BCG DPT3 Polio3 Measles All 1993 NDS 2003 NDHS 2013 NDHS Percent 2Percentage of children age 12‐23 months who received the vaccine any time before the survey.  All excludes hepatitis B. Child Health • 127 Table 10.4 shows that 6 percent of children under age five had symptoms of ARI at some time during the two weeks preceding the survey. Children age 12-23 months and children whose mothers are in the poorest and middle wealth quintiles are more likely to show symptoms of ARI. Children whose households use charcoal and wood/straw/agriculture crops as a cooking fuel also are more likely to have had ARI symptoms. Symptoms of ARI are most often reported for children in Western Visayas (10 percent). Among children with symptoms of ARI, 64 percent were taken to a health facility or health provider, an increase of 14 percentage points compared with the rate reported in the 2008 NDHS (Figure 10.3). Children in urban areas are more likely than children in rural areas to receive care from a health facility or health provider when showing symptoms of ARI (data not shown). Half (50 percent) of the children who had symptoms of ARI received antibiotics. Table 10.4 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI Among children under age five, the percentage who had symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in the two weeks preceding the survey, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Among children under age five: Background characteristic Percentage with symptoms of ARI1 Number of children Age in months <6 3.3 645 6-11 6.4 718 12-23 7.6 1,397 24-35 5.9 1,279 36-47 5.0 1,410 48-59 4.7 1,346 Sex Male 6.4 3,525 Female 4.8 3,271 Mother’s smoking status Smokes cigarettes/tobacco 5.8 419 Does not smoke 5.6 6,377 Cooking fuel Electricity or gas 4.0 2,000 Kerosene 4.7 86 Charcoal 6.2 1,157 Wood/straw/ agriculture crops3 6.4 3,538 Residence Urban 5.0 3,185 Rural 6.2 3,611 Region National Capital Region 4.8 1,006 Cordillera Admin Region 8.4 103 I - Ilocos Region 7.7 306 II - Cagayan Valley 3.8 251 III - Central Luzon 3.5 639 IVA - CALABARZON 4.4 872 IVB - MIMAROPA 7.0 182 V - Bicol 5.3 421 VI - Western Visayas 9.5 473 VII - Central Visayas 7.8 457 VIII - Eastern Visayas 8.4 264 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 6.3 329 X - Northern Mindanao 4.8 313 XI - Davao 3.6 383 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 8.2 315 XIII - Caraga 6.3 224 ARMM 2.1 258 Mother’s education No education 6.2 106 Elementary 6.5 1,428 High school 5.3 3,438 College 5.6 1,824 Wealth quintile Lowest 6.4 1,829 Second 5.4 1,483 Middle 6.5 1,373 Fourth 4.9 1,189 Highest 4.0 922 Total 5.6 6,796 Note: Total includes 3 children in households using coal/lignite as fuel, 7 in households in which food is not cooked, and 5 in households for which type of fuel is missing. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk denotes a figure based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. 1 Symptoms of ARI (cough accompanied by short, rapid breathing which was chest- related and/or by difficult breathing which was chest-related) is considered a proxy for pneumonia. 2 Excludes pharmacy, shop, market, puericulture center, traditional practitioner and other 3 Includes grass, shrubs, crop residues. 128 • Child Health Figure 10.3 Prevalence and treatment of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in children under age five 10.4 FEVER Fever is a manifestation of measles, dengue, typhoid, respiratory infections, and other infectious diseases. Table 10.5 shows the percentage of children under five with fever during the two weeks preceding the survey and the percentage receiving various treatments, by selected background characteristics. Twenty-eight percent of children under five were reported to have had fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. The prevalence of fever varies by age of child. Children age 6-11 months and 12-23 months are more likely to have fever (37 and 33 percent, respectively) than other children. Fever is more prevalent among children in rural areas (30 percent) than among those in urban areas (25 percent). More than one-third (34-42 percent) of children in Western Visayas, Ilocos Region, and MIMAROPA were reported to have had fever in the two weeks preceding the survey. The prevalence of fever is higher among children in the three lowest wealth quintiles (29-32 percent) than among children in the two higher wealth quintiles. Among children under five who had fever in the two weeks preceding the survey, half (50 percent) were taken to a health facility or health provider and 31 percent received antibiotics as treatment. 6 64 50 Percentage of  children with  symptoms of ARI Among children  with ARI,  percentage taken  to health facility  or health provider Among children  with ARI,  percentage who  received antibiotics Child Health • 129 Table 10.5 Prevalence and treatment of fever Among children under age five, the percentage who had a fever in the two weeks preceding the survey; and among children with fever, the percentage for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider, the percentage who took antimalarial drugs, and the percentage who received antibiotics as treatment, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Among children under age five: Among children under age five with fever Background characteristic Percent- age with fever Number of child- ren Percentage for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider1 Percent- age who took anti- malarial drugs Percent- age who took antibiotic drugs Number of children Age in months <6 21.4 645 53.8 0.0 26.8 138 6-11 36.5 718 55.6 0.0 31.7 262 12-23 33.0 1,397 53.1 0.0 35.1 461 24-35 27.5 1,279 49.2 0.3 30.5 351 36-47 26.5 1,410 47.7 0.0 29.5 374 48-59 21.1 1,346 42.8 0.0 31.3 283 Sex Male 27.5 3,525 50.2 0.1 32.4 970 Female 27.5 3,271 50.1 0.0 30.4 899 Residence Urban 25.1 3,185 51.9 0.0 28.9 798 Rural 29.7 3,611 48.8 0.1 33.4 1,071 Region National Capital Region 18.5 1,006 60.8 0.0 29.4 186 Cordillera Admin Region 24.0 103 56.0 0.0 42.5 25 I - Ilocos Region 36.3 306 51.9 0.0 39.4 111 II - Cagayan Valley 31.9 251 55.6 0.0 36.4 80 III - Central Luzon 26.5 639 55.2 0.7 37.4 169 IVA - CALABARZON 22.3 872 58.4 0.0 16.3 194 IVB - MIMAROPA 34.3 182 44.3 0.0 26.6 63 V - Bicol 28.6 421 48.3 0.0 20.8 120 VI - Western Visayas 42.3 473 50.8 0.0 35.8 200 VII - Central Visayas 29.2 457 50.8 0.0 37.1 133 VIII - Eastern Visayas 32.5 264 52.7 0.0 38.2 86 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 24.4 329 44.2 0.0 30.7 80 X - Northern Mindanao 28.1 313 31.7 0.0 39.6 88 XI - Davao 25.5 383 38.8 0.0 29.6 97 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 31.0 315 48.5 0.0 23.2 98 XIII - Caraga 27.9 224 47.0 0.0 41.8 62 ARMM 29.7 258 30.1 0.0 28.8 77 Mother’s education No education 20.8 106 (51.8) (0.0) (26.1) 22 Elementary 31.7 1,428 50.1 0.0 32.8 453 High school 28.1 3,438 49.4 0.1 28.8 968 College 23.4 1,824 51.7 0.0 36.3 426 Wealth quintile Lowest 31.7 1,829 47.8 0.0 29.4 579 Second 29.9 1,483 50.4 0.0 32.0 443 Middle 29.3 1,373 52.1 0.3 33.4 403 Fourth 23.6 1,189 47.9 0.0 30.4 281 Highest 17.7 922 56.8 0.0 33.8 163 Total 27.5 6,796 50.1 0.1 31.4 1,869 10.5 DIARRHEA According to WHO, diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under five years old. While diarrhea is both preventable and treatable, around 760,000 children under five die of diarrhea every year and about 90 percent of deaths due to diarrhea have been attributed to unsafe water, inadequate sanitation, and poor hygiene (WHO, 2013). In the Philippines, diarrhea ranks as the third leading cause of child illness and as the 4th leading cause of deaths among children under five. Diarrhea, which causes dehydration, kills almost 130 • Child Health 10,000 Filipino children every year (UNICEF Philippines, 2014). Diarrhea is defined as the passage of three or more loose or liquid stools per day and is a symptom of intestinal tract infection caused by a variety of bacterial, viral and parasitic organisms. Dehydration occurs when water and electrolytes (sodium, chloride, potassium and bicarbonate) are lost through liquid stools, vomit, sweat, urine and breathing (UNICEF, 2012). Appropriate fluid replacement is a main intervention to prevent death. Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and supplemental zinc, combined with continued feeding, are the recommended interventions for treating diarrhea. The 2013 NDHS collected information on diarrhea by asking mothers whether their child had experienced any episode of diarrhea in the two weeks before the survey. If the child had had diarrhea, the mother was asked about feeding practices during diarrhea, types of treatment, and her knowledge and use of ORS. 10.5.1 Prevalence of Diarrhea The percentage of children under age five with diarrhea and diarrhea with blood in the stools in the two weeks preceding the survey, according to selected background characteristics is presented in Table 10.6. Diarrhea with blood in the stools is indicative of cholera or other specific disease and needs to be treated somewhat differently than diarrhea without blood. Overall, 8 percent of children under age five had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. Only a small fraction of children (less than 1 percent) had diarrhea with blood. Diarrhea is more prevalent among children age 6-11 months and age 12-23 months, children whose mothers have no education, and children in the poorer wealth quintiles. Prevalence of diarrhea varies across regions from 5 percent in ARMM to 14 percent in SOCCSKSARGEN. 10.5.2 Diarrhea Treatment Table 10.7 shows treatment practices for children who had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. Forty-two percent of children with diarrhea were taken to a facility or provider for treatment. This figure is slightly higher than that reported in the 2008 NDHS (34 percent) (NSO and ICF Macro, 2009). Table 10.6 Prevalence of diarrhea Percentage of children under age five who had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey Background characteristic All diarrhea Diarrhea with blood Number of children Age in months <6 2.6 0.2 645 6-11 14.6 0.7 718 12-23 14.4 1.0 1,397 24-35 7.9 0.3 1,279 36-47 5.6 0.6 1,410 48-59 2.9 0.1 1,346 Sex Male 8.6 0.5 3,525 Female 7.3 0.4 3,271 Source of drinking water1 Improved 8.0 0.5 6,402 Not improved 7.9 1.1 394 Toilet facility2 Improved, not shared 7.7 0.5 4,210 Improved, but shared 8.4 0.4 1,620 Non-improved, public 8.5 0.8 937 Residence Urban 7.7 0.3 3,185 Rural 8.2 0.6 3,611 Region National Capital Region 6.3 0.1 1,006 Cordillera Admin Region 6.9 0.4 103 I - Ilocos Region 10.6 0.0 306 II - Cagayan Valley 6.6 0.6 251 III - Central Luzon 9.6 0.2 639 IVA - CALABARZON 7.5 0.8 872 IVB - MIMAROPA 9.9 1.1 182 V - Bicol 6.4 0.2 421 VI - Western Visayas 10.6 0.7 473 VII - Central Visayas 7.5 0.7 457 VIII - Eastern Visayas 7.3 0.0 264 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 8.2 0.9 329 X - Northern Mindanao 5.7 0.3 313 XI - Davao 8.1 0.8 383 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 14.4 0.6 315 XIII - Caraga 5.8 0.7 224 ARMM 5.1 0.9 258 Mother’s education No education 12.2 0.5 106 Elementary 9.2 1.5 1,428 High school 8.3 0.3 3,438 College 6.2 0.2 1,824 Wealth quintile Lowest 8.7 0.8 1,829 Second 8.9 0.7 1,483 Middle 9.0 0.6 1,373 Fourth 6.1 0.1 1,189 Highest 6.0 0.0 922 Total 8.0 0.5 6,796 Note: Total includes 28 children for whom type of toilet is missing. 1 See Table 2.1 for definition of categories 2 See Table 2.2 for definition of categories Child Health • 131 Table 10.7 Diarrhea treatment Among children under age five who had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey, the percentage for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider, the percentage given oral rehydration therapy (ORT), the percentage given increased fluids, the percentage given ORT or increased fluids, and the percentage who were given other treatments, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage of children with diarrhea for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider1 Oral rehydration therapy (ORT) In- creased fluids ORT or in- creased fluids Other treatments Miss- ing No treat- ment Num- ber of children with dia- rrhea Background characteristic Fluid from ORS packets or pre- packaged liquid Recom- mended home fluids (RHF) Either ORS or RHF Anti- biotic drugs Anti- motility drugs Zinc supple- ments Intra- venous solu- tion Home remedy/ other Age in months <6 * * * * * * * * * * * * * 17 6-11 38.6 36.9 13.9 46.3 22.4 54.7 25.8 10.2 8.2 0.4 16.3 0.0 26.2 105 12-23 43.7 52.4 14.7 58.3 36.6 71.2 27.6 6.9 5.1 0.0 16.4 0.5 14.9 201 24-35 40.5 47.2 13.4 54.3 33.5 66.1 23.4 16.8 7.0 0.0 20.2 0.0 14.2 101 36-47 38.8 52.9 11.5 57.4 33.8 68.0 23.7 16.5 3.6 0.0 27.0 0.0 9.8 79 48-59 (51.7) (59.6) (20.3) (64.8) (37.9) (78.8) (24.2) (14.9) (0.0) (0.0) (19.9) (0.0) (9.7) 39 Sex Male 39.6 48.9 12.3 55.9 33.3 67.9 25.0 9.4 6.0 0.3 18.8 0.3 16.6 304 Female 45.4 49.4 15.7 55.0 30.5 65.0 26.2 13.3 4.7 0.0 18.4 0.0 16.4 238 Type of diarrhea Non-bloody 42.0 48.7 13.1 55.0 32.4 66.3 24.9 11.0 5.1 0.2 17.6 0.2 16.9 499 Bloody (47.7) (61.0) (22.9) (65.8) (29.1) (76.9) (38.7) (13.9) (11.2) (0.0) (28.2) (0.0) (8.9) 34 Residence Urban 43.6 54.2 13.5 60.6 34.4 72.6 28.1 11.1 6.6 0.0 12.6 0.0 16.3 245 Rural 40.9 45.0 14.0 51.3 30.2 61.8 23.5 11.2 4.5 0.3 23.6 0.3 16.7 297 Mother’s education No education * * * * * * * * * * * * * 13 Elementary 46.6 47.9 20.0 54.6 29.5 68.2 24.8 11.7 3.0 0.0 24.1 0.8 14.0 131 High school 39.3 49.6 11.3 55.4 35.6 67.6 25.3 10.6 5.2 0.1 17.4 0.0 15.9 285 College 42.5 49.3 11.7 55.7 26.2 62.6 28.9 11.2 8.5 0.5 12.8 0.0 21.9 114 Wealth quintile Lowest 40.5 44.2 19.4 53.4 27.6 63.1 21.5 18.3 6.8 0.0 25.3 0.0 14.0 159 Second 45.0 46.5 10.2 51.4 32.1 62.5 28.9 9.2 5.8 0.3 22.2 0.8 19.1 131 Middle 40.0 58.4 11.5 63.0 39.7 76.4 21.3 7.6 2.7 0.0 16.2 0.0 11.3 123 Fourth 43.4 48.5 16.9 54.6 35.4 69.8 31.9 5.8 6.3 0.7 9.9 0.0 16.5 73 Highest (43.0) (49.8) (7.3) (55.8) (23.6) (61.0) (30.2) (10.2) (5.5) (0.0) (7.8) (0.0) (28.9) 55 Total 42.1 49.1 13.8 55.5 32.1 66.7 25.5 11.2 5.4 0.2 18.6 0.2 16.5 542 Note: ORT includes fluid prepared from oral rehydration salt (ORS) packets, pre-packaged ORS fluid, and recommended home fluids (RHF). Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk denotes a figure based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. Total includes 9 children missing as to the type of diarrhea. 1 Excludes pharmacy, shop, puericulture center, traditional practitioner and other.   Overall,  67  percent of children with diarrhea were given some form of oral rehydration therapy (either oral rehydration salts or recommended home fluids) or increased fluids. In particular, 49 percent of children with diarrhea were given ORS packets, 14 percent were given recommended home fluids, and 32 percent were given increased liquids. Other treatments children received for diarrhea include antibiotic drugs (26 percent), home remedies (19 percent), anti-motility drugs (11 percent), and zinc supplements (5 percent). Seventeen percent of children with diarrhea did not receive any treatment. 10.5.3 Feeding Practices during Diarrhea Mothers and caretakers are encouraged to continue feeding children with diarrhea and to increase the amount of fluids given to prevent dehydration. Continued feeding of children with diarrhea supports absorption of fluids to reduce dehydration and helps maintain the children’s nutritional status to fight infection (UNICEF, 2013). Table 10.8 presents information on feeding practices among children with diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. C hi ld H ea lth • 1 29 Ta bl e 10 .8 F ee di ng p ra ct ic es d ur in g di ar rh ea P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of c hi ld re n un de r a ge fi ve w ho h ad d ia rr he a in th e tw o w ee ks p re ce di ng th e su rv ey b y am ou nt o f l iq ui ds a nd fo od o ffe re d co m pa re d w ith n or m al p ra ct ic e, th e pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n gi ve n in cr ea se d flu id s an d co nt in ue d fe ed in g du rin g th e di ar rh ea e pi so de , an d th e pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n w ho c on tin ue d fe ed in g an d w er e gi ve n O R T an d/ or in cr ea se d flu id s du rin g th e ep is od e of d ia rr he a, b y ba ck gr ou nd c ha ra ct er is tic s, P hi lip pi ne s 20 13 A m ou nt o f l iq ui ds g iv en A m ou nt o f f oo d gi ve n P er ce nt - ag e gi ve n in cr ea se d flu id s an d co nt in ue d fe ed in g1 P er ce nt - a ge w ho c on tin ue d fe ed in g an d w er e gi ve n O R T an d/ or in cr ea se d flu id s1 N um - be r o f ch ild - re n w ith di ar - rh ea B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic M or e S am e as u su al S om e- w ha t le ss M uc h le ss N on e D on ’t kn ow / m is si ng To ta l M or e S am e as u su al S om e- w ha t le ss M uc h le ss N on e D on ’t kn ow / m is si ng To ta l A ge in m on th s <6 * * * * * * 10 0. 0 * * * * * * 10 0. 0 * * 17 6- 11 22 .4 53 .6 12 .2 11 .2 0. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 13 .5 47 .9 16 .2 16 .1 6. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 16 .4 38 .7 10 5 12 -2 3 36 .6 41 .8 10 .9 10 .1 0. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 12 .5 47 .2 21 .4 16 .9 2. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 29 .4 56 .8 20 1 24 -3 5 33 .5 48 .6 9. 2 7. 3 0. 5 1. 0 10 0. 0 10 .7 53 .1 17 .6 18 .0 0. 7 0. 0 10 0. 0 24 .4 54 .1 10 1 36 -4 7 33 .8 38 .2 12 .2 15 .8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 13 .6 51 .3 23 .3 11 .8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 29 .9 57 .4 79 48 -5 9 (3 7. 9) (4 8. 5) (0 .0 ) (1 1. 2) (0 .0 ) (2 .4 ) 10 0. 0 (1 1. 4) (5 1. 3) (1 4. 6) (2 0. 3) (0 .0 ) (2 .4 ) 10 0. 0 (3 0. 7) (6 0. 8) 39 Se x M al e 33 .3 45 .3 9. 1 11 .7 0. 3 0. 3 10 0. 0 11 .2 52 .4 16 .5 16 .2 3. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 26 .6 53 .4 30 4 Fe m al e 30 .5 47 .0 11 .8 9. 8 0. 5 0. 4 10 0. 0 13 .1 46 .0 22 .0 15 .8 2. 6 0. 4 10 0. 0 24 .0 51 .5 23 8 Ty pe o f d ia rr he a N on -b lo od y 32 .4 46 .0 9. 3 11 .6 0. 4 0. 4 10 0. 0 12 .3 49 .7 18 .4 16 .3 3. 0 0. 2 10 0. 0 26 .0 52 .2 49 9 B lo od y (2 9. 1) (4 6. 6) (1 9. 7) (3 .2 ) (1 .4 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 (9 .6 ) (4 5. 2) (2 2. 8) (1 6. 1) (6 .3 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 (1 7. 7) (5 9. 2) 34 R es id en ce U rb an 34 .4 44 .9 9. 8 10 .4 0. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 11 .8 48 .1 17 .9 18 .7 3. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 25 .3 53 .9 24 5 R ur al 30 .2 46 .9 10 .7 11 .3 0. 3 0. 6 10 0. 0 12 .2 50 .9 19 .8 13 .8 2. 9 0. 3 10 0. 0 25 .6 51 .4 29 7 M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N o ed uc at io n * * * * * * 10 0. 0 * * * * * * 10 0. 0 * * 13 E le m en ta ry 29 .5 49 .2 11 .1 8. 5 1. 0 0. 7 10 0. 0 16 .1 43 .8 22 .8 15 .7 1. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 26 .4 57 .7 13 1 H ig h sc ho ol 35 .6 43 .6 9. 8 10 .3 0. 4 0. 3 10 0. 0 10 .9 52 .1 17 .5 16 .5 2. 6 0. 3 10 0. 0 26 .3 52 .0 28 5 C ol le ge 26 .2 48 .9 11 .0 13 .9 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 .1 50 .4 18 .3 15 .0 6. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 22 .9 49 .0 11 4 W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 27 .6 49 .1 12 .6 10 .4 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 13 .0 49 .4 21 .3 13 .1 3. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 21 .6 51 .5 15 9 S ec on d 32 .1 50 .9 9. 3 7. 1 0. 0 0. 7 10 0. 0 11 .3 56 .2 18 .7 11 .2 2. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 31 .1 55 .1 13 1 M id dl e 39 .7 37 .8 6. 3 13 .9 1. 5 0. 8 10 0. 0 14 .0 46 .3 13 .8 22 .2 3. 1 0. 8 10 0. 0 27 .1 55 .5 12 3 Fo ur th 35 .4 41 .8 14 .2 8. 6 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 12 .6 41 .7 23 .0 19 .0 3. 7 0. 0 10 0. 0 26 .4 50 .2 73 H ig he st (2 3. 6) (4 9. 4) (9 .7 ) (1 7. 2) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 (6 .0 ) (5 2. 6) (1 8. 9) (1 8. 4) (4 .1 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 (1 8. 3) (4 5. 9) 55 To ta l 32 .1 46 .0 10 .3 10 .9 0. 4 0. 4 10 0. 0 12 .0 49 .6 19 .0 16 .0 3. 2 0. 2 10 0. 0 25 .5 52 .5 54 2 N ot e: It is re co m m en de d th at c hi ld re n sh ou ld b e gi ve n m or e liq ui ds to d rin k du rin g di ar rh ea a nd fo od s ho ul d no t b e re du ce d. F ig ur es in p ar en th es es a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s; a n as te ris k de no te s a fig ur e ba se d on fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s th at h as b ee n su pp re ss ed . T ot al in cl ud es 9 c hi ld re n (w ei gh te d) fo r w ho m in fo rm at io n on th e ty pe o f d ia rrh ea is m is si ng . 1 C on tin ue d fe ed in g pr ac tic es in cl ud es c hi ld re n w ho w er e gi ve n m or e, s am e as u su al , o r s om ew ha t l es s fo od d ur in g th e di ar rh ea e pi so de 132 • Child Health Child Health • 133 The results show that 32 percent of children with diarrhea received more fluids than usual, while 46 percent received the same amount of fluids. Twenty-one percent of children with diarrhea received less fluid. Eighty-one percent of children with diarrhea were continually fed as recommended; 12 percent received more food than usual during their diarrhea, 50 percent received the same amount of food as usual, and 19 percent were given somewhat less and 19 percent were given much less or no food at all. Children age 6-11 months (39 percent) are less likely than those in other age groups to be continually fed and given ORT and/or increased fluids during diarrhea. Children of mothers with college education are also less likely to be fed normally and given ORT and/or increased fluids during diarrhea than children of mothers with less education. Figure 10.4 shows that the proportion of children with diarrhea who were given more liquids has increased in the past 10 years, from 2 percent in 2003 to 32 percent in 2013. . The recommended practice of continued feeding (that is, giving increased amount of food, giving same amount of food as usual, and giving somewhat less food) during diarrhea has also increased from 58 percent in 2003 to 81 percent in 2013 (NSO and ORC Macro, 2003 and NSO and ICF Macro, 2009). Figure 10.4 Trends in feeding practices during diarrhea: 2003, 2008, and 2013 NDHS 10.5.4 Knowledge of ORS Packets A simple and effective response to dehydration caused by diarrhea is a prompt increase in the child’s fluid intake through some form of oral rehydration therapy (ORT), which includes administering a solution prepared from packets of oral rehydration salts (ORS) or prepackaged ORS liquid. To determine the level of knowledge of ORS in the Philippines, women who had a birth in the five years before the survey were asked questions on their knowledge of ORS, such as Oresol, Hydrite, and Pedialyte. Knowledge of ORS is based on whether the mother has seen or heard of ORS, or used ORS to treat one of her children with diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the survey. 2 13 55 29 6 35 17 42 36 46 10 7 11 49 22 18 32 46 10 11 12 50 19 19 Increased Same as  usual Somewhat  less Much  less/none Increased Same as  usual Somewhat  less Much  less/none 2003 NDHS 2008 NDHS 2013 NDHS Amount of Food Amount of Liquids  134 • Child Health Table 10.9 shows a high level of knowledge of ORS packets among Filipino mothers (90 percent). Knowledge of ORS increases with age, education, and economic status. Teenage mothers (65 percent) and those with no education (55 percent) are the least likely to know about ORS. Across regions, knowledge about ORS ranges from 80 percent in SOCCSKSARGEN to 97 percent in NCR. 10.5.5 Disposal of Stools Most cases of diarrhea worldwide are caused by unsafe water, inadequate sanitation, or poor hygiene. Safe disposal of children’s stools is crucial in preventing the spread of diarrheal disease. If stools are left uncontained, disease may spread by direct contact or through animal contact. A child’s using a toilet directly or rinsing a child’s stools into a toilet or latrine is considered safe disposal (UNICEF, 2012). The 2013 NDHS gathered information from mothers on the most recent practices used to dispose of the stools of the youngest child living with them. This information is useful in the evaluation of diarrhea prevention in the country. Table 10.10 shows that about half (47 percent) of children under age 5 had their stools disposed of safely (that is, the child used a toilet or latrine, the stools were rinsed into the toilet or latrine or the stools were buried). Twenty-eight percent of children used a toilet or latrine, 11 percent had their stools thrown into a toilet or latrine, and 7 percent had their stools buried in the yard. For 51 percent of children under age 5, stools were disposed of unsafely—40 percent were thrown into the garbage, 7 percent were put or rinsed into drains or ditch, and 4 percent were left in the open. The use of proper practices for the disposal of children’s stools increases with the child’s age and the mother’s level of education. Stools of children age 48-59 months are much more likely to be disposed of safely (88 percent) than younger children. Mothers with college or higher education are more likely to dispose of their children’s stools safely (49 percent) than mothers with no education (35 percent). Access to a private toilet facility increases the likelihood that a child’s stools are disposed of safely; 50 percent of children in households with an improved, private toilet facility have their stools disposed of safely, compared with 32 percent of children in households with non-improved, public toilet facility. Across regions, MIMAROPA has the highest percentage of young children whose stools are disposed of safely (62 percent), while ARMM has the lowest percentage (22 percent). Table 10.9 Knowledge of ORS packets or pre-packaged liquids Percentage of women age 15-49 with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey who know about ORS packets or ORS pre- packaged liquids for treatment of diarrhea by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Percentage of women who know about ORS packets or ORS pre-packaged liquids Number of women Age 15-19 65.2 248 20-24 81.9 1,135 25-34 92.4 2,392 35-49 95.7 1,413 Residence Urban 92.1 2,489 Rural 87.5 2,699 Region National Capital Region 97.1 815 Cordillera Admin Region 96.2 79 I - Ilocos Region 87.8 232 II - Cagayan Valley 82.7 199 III - Central Luzon 90.5 495 IVA - CALABARZON 90.9 696 IVB - MIMAROPA 86.6 135 V - Bicol 89.3 301 VI - Western Visayas 92.1 352 VII - Central Visayas 90.3 333 VIII - Eastern Visayas 95.1 196 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 85.2 245 X - Northern Mindanao 82.7 242 XI - Davao 89.6 295 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 80.3 236 XIII - Caraga 83.7 163 ARMM 80.5 173 Education No education 54.5 73 Elementary 85.2 1,017 High school 89.7 2,616 College 94.4 1,482 Wealth quintile Lowest 85.5 1,277 Second 88.1 1,098 Middle 90.5 1,062 Fourth 91.7 962 Highest 95.0 789 Total 89.7 5,188 ORS = Oral rehydration salts Child Health • 135 Table 10.10 Disposal of children’s stools Percent distribution of youngest children under age five living with the mother by the manner of disposal of the child’s last fecal matter, and percentage of children whose stools are disposed of safely, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Manner of disposal of children’s stools Total Percentage of children whose stools are disposed of safely1 Number of children Background characteristic Child used toilet or latrine Put/rinsed into toilet or latrine Buried Put/rinsed into drain or ditch Thrown into garbage Left in the open Other Missing Age in months <6 0.5 4.5 4.1 13.8 70.1 2.2 4.2 0.7 100.0 9.1 635 6-11 1.5 7.8 6.8 10.8 65.7 2.8 3.7 0.8 100.0 16.2 701 12-23 7.4 13.3 9.1 8.0 54.3 4.4 2.9 0.7 100.0 29.8 1,273 24-35 35.2 15.6 9.4 3.9 27.0 4.7 3.2 1.0 100.0 60.2 923 36-47 61.2 13.5 6.1 1.6 11.2 3.8 2.2 0.5 100.0 80.8 821 48-59 74.9 9.3 4.2 1.4 4.9 2.8 2.0 0.6 100.0 88.4 637 Toilet facility2 Improved, not shared 32.6 11.9 5.5 4.7 41.6 1.9 1.1 0.7 100.0 49.9 3,177 Improved, but shared 25.3 13.2 7.4 8.2 40.6 2.8 2.1 0.5 100.0 45.9 1,158 Non-improved, public 12.3 5.2 14.1 12.5 26.9 13.9 14.2 0.9 100.0 31.5 631 Residence Urban 30.5 10.7 3.6 4.6 47.2 1.2 1.5 0.6 100.0 44.9 2,352 Rural 26.3 11.9 10.2 8.2 32.5 5.8 4.3 0.8 100.0 48.4 2,638 Region National Capital Region 32.9 11.1 0.2 0.5 54.0 0.3 0.2 0.9 100.0 44.1 752 Cordillera Admin Region 29.7 14.6 0.0 9.3 39.2 5.3 1.0 1.0 100.0 44.2 77 I - Ilocos Region 25.7 14.3 10.6 0.0 45.9 2.2 0.8 0.5 100.0 50.7 228 II - Cagayan Valley 25.1 15.7 7.8 6.6 28.9 14.3 0.0 1.6 100.0 48.5 192 III - Central Luzon 29.1 8.0 5.3 3.1 47.2 3.5 2.8 1.0 100.0 42.4 485 IVA - CALABARZON 36.4 9.4 1.1 0.2 49.4 1.5 1.5 0.6 100.0 46.9 669 IVB - MIMAROPA 28.3 12.5 21.4 4.9 17.4 10.0 5.0 0.5 100.0 62.2 130 V - Bicol 24.9 10.2 11.5 11.2 32.4 5.4 4.1 0.3 100.0 46.6 294 VI - Western Visayas 21.2 10.5 15.2 8.2 37.3 4.7 2.5 0.3 100.0 46.8 338 VII - Central Visayas 24.3 5.3 7.6 6.2 44.1 9.9 2.3 0.3 100.0 37.2 327 VIII - Eastern Visayas 28.3 10.0 8.5 6.0 37.8 1.5 6.4 1.5 100.0 46.8 194 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 30.6 15.1 8.2 9.9 24.7 4.3 7.2 0.0 100.0 53.9 235 X - Northern Mindanao 27.9 20.7 11.0 8.1 27.6 3.0 1.7 0.0 100.0 59.7 235 XI - Davao 32.7 13.9 8.2 18.5 22.8 0.4 3.2 0.4 100.0 54.8 279 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 17.8 15.7 17.4 25.2 17.8 0.4 5.2 0.4 100.0 50.9 227 XIII - Caraga 26.2 13.8 8.6 3.8 44.5 0.7 1.7 0.7 100.0 48.6 157 ARMM 13.9 5.3 2.6 16.1 32.2 9.2 18.2 2.6 100.0 21.7 170 Mother’s education No education 10.8 8.6 15.5 23.7 5.8 17.7 17.2 0.7 100.0 34.9 68 Elementary 22.5 12.1 11.1 11.3 28.6 7.9 6.0 0.4 100.0 45.7 983 High school 27.7 11.2 7.3 6.2 41.3 3.1 2.5 0.7 100.0 46.2 2,512 College 34.1 11.2 3.6 2.9 45.3 0.9 1.0 0.9 100.0 49.0 1,428 Wealth quintile Lowest 18.4 10.5 15.3 13.6 24.2 9.8 7.5 0.8 100.0 44.1 1,246 Second 25.7 14.1 8.1 8.0 36.6 3.6 3.5 0.4 100.0 47.9 1,070 Middle 30.1 12.0 4.9 3.8 45.3 1.6 1.5 0.9 100.0 46.9 1,034 Fourth 33.6 11.6 2.3 1.8 49.6 0.5 0.2 0.4 100.0 47.4 919 Highest 40.1 7.6 0.7 1.8 48.5 0.1 0.2 1.0 100.0 48.4 721 Total 28.3 11.4 7.1 6.5 39.5 3.6 3.0 0.7 100.0 46.7 4,990 Note: Total includes 23 children (weighted) for whom type of toilet facility is missing. 1 Children’s stools are considered to be disposed of safely if the child used a toilet or latrine, if the fecal matter was put/rinsed into a toilet or latrine or if it was buried. 2 See Table 2.2 for definition of categories 136 • Child Health Breastfeeding and Micronutrient Supplementation • 137 BREASTFEEDING AND MICRONUTRIENT SUPPLEMENTATION 11 his chapter presents information on breastfeeding and supplementation among children and pregnant women. It discusses various aspects of breastfeeding, including the prevalence and initiation of breastfeeding, prelacteal feeding, and duration of breastfeeding. The micronutrient intake of children and of the mothers in the first two months after delivery is also discussed in this chapter. 11.1 BREASTFEEDING Appropriate infant and young child feeding is vital to a child’s survival, growth, development, and long-term health. The optimal nutrition given by breastfeeding to newborns and growing infants is well documented. Breast milk is the right food for newborns and infants as it is safe and has all the nutrients and antibodies needed for a newborn’s or infant’s healthy development and protection from childhood illnesses (WHO, 2014). Breastfeeding has also been proven to reduce childhood morbidity and mortality due to infectious diseases. According to studies, “early initiation of breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, appropriate complementary feeding and sustained breastfeeding for up to two years can prevent over 75% of deaths in early infancy and 37% of deaths in the second year” (UNICEF, 2009). Studies also show that inappropriate feeding practices, including formula feeding, cause 19% of deaths of children under age five (UNICEF, 2009). Breastfeeding is also beneficial to mothers. Proven benefits of breastfeeding to mothers include decreased post-partum blood loss, more rapid involution of the uterus, increased child spacing due to lactational amenorrhea, and reduced risk of chronic diseases such as hypertension, breast cancer, and ovarian cancer (American Pediatrics Society, 2012). The World Health Organization (WHO) recommends breastfeeding initiation within one hour of birth, exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months of life, complementary feeding at six months, continued breastfeeding up to two years or beyond, and avoidance of bottle feeding (WHO, 2014). These recommendations were adopted by the Philippines Department of Health through Administrative Order (AO) T Key Findings • Breastfeeding is nearly universal in the Philippines; 94 percent of children are ever breastfed. • About half of children (49 percent) are breastfed within one hour of birth. • More than one-third of breastfed children (36 percent) are given a prelacteal feed during the first three days of life. • More than a quarter (27 percent) of infants under age two months are fed using a bottle with a nipple. • Among children age 6-59 months, 85 percent received vitamin A supplements in the 6 months preceding the survey and 38 percent received iron supplements in the 7 days prior to the survey. • Over 90 percent of women who gave birth during the five years preceding the survey received iron tablets or capsules during the pregnancy for their last child, however, only 47 percent took them for the recommended 90 days or more. 138 • Breastfeeding and Micronutrient Supplementation 2005-0014 also known as National Policies on Infant and Young Child Feeding (IYCF). The policies provide guidelines to concerned health workers on the promotion of breastfeeding and adequate complementary feeding (DOH, 2011). The Philippines IYCF Program, which mainly aims “to ensure and accelerate the promotion, protection and support of good IYCF practices”, was also created through the National Policies on IYCF (DOH, 2011). In 2009, AO 2009-0025: Adopting New Policies and Protocol on Essential Newborn Care was issued. It outlines important steps for health workers and medical practitioners to save newborn lives, namely, 1) immediate and thorough drying of the newborn; 2) early skin-to-skin contact between mother and newborn; 3) properly timed cord clamping and cutting; and 4) non-separation of newborn and mother for early breastfeeding (DOH, 2011). 11.1.1 Initial Breastfeeding Breastfeeding immediately after birth stimulates production of breast milk. Colostrum, the thick yellowish milk containing a high concentration of antibodies, which is produced in the first few days after delivery, is the perfect food for the newborn (WHO, 2014). According to WHO, early initiation of breastfeeding also promotes bonding between the mother and the child (WHO, 2014). The IYCF Program set its target for breastfeeding initiation within one hour among newborns at 90 percent by the year 2016 (DOH, 2011). In the 2013 NDHS, for children born in the five years before the survey, mothers were asked if they had ever breastfed their last-born child. If the child was breastfed, mothers were asked about how long after birth the child was first put to the breast and if the child was given anything to drink other than breast milk during the first three days after delivery. This information was used to determine breastfeeding initiation practices. Table 11.1 shows that 94 percent of the last-born children under age two had been breastfed at some time (ever breastfed). Only 6 percent were not breastfed at all. About half of children (49 percent) were breastfed within one hour of birth, and four-fifths (82 percent) were breastfed within one day of birth. Wide disparities on breastfeeding initiation across regions are notable. The percentage of infants put to the breast soon after birth ranges from 26 percent in Central Luzon to 72 percent in Western Visayas and Central Visayas. Last-born children in poorer households are breastfed somewhat sooner after birth than those in wealthier households. The proportion of children who are ever breastfed shows a steady decline with increasing wealth quintile. The percentages of children who were breastfed within one hour and within one day of birth are also higher among children born to mothers with elementary or high school education than among children whose mothers attended college. Differences by the child’s sex, type of residence, assistance at delivery and place of delivery generally are not large. Prelacteal feeding refers to giving a newborn other liquids before the mother’s milk begins to flow regularly. This practice is discouraged because they are less nutritious than breast milk, more susceptible to contamination, and may reduce milk flow. Breastfeeding and Micronutrient Supplementation • 139 Table 11.1 Initial breastfeeding Among last-born children who were born in the two years preceding the survey, the percentage who were ever breastfed and the percentages who started breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth; and among last-born children born in the two years preceding the survey who were ever breastfed, the percentage who received a prelacteal feed, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Among last-born children born in the past two years: Among last-born children born in the past two years who were ever breastfed Background characteristic Percentage ever breastfed Percentage who started breastfeeding within 1 hour of birth Percentage who started breastfeeding within 1 day of birth1 Number of last-born children Percentage who received a prelacteal feed2 Number of last- born children ever breastfed Sex Male 93.8 49.3 81.7 1,384 37.5 1,298 Female 93.7 50.2 82.1 1,314 35.0 1,232 Assistance at delivery Health professional3 93.0 48.8 81.0 2,122 35.3 1,975 Other 96.7 53.2 85.5 571 40.0 552 Place of delivery Health facility 92.7 49.0 80.6 1,888 34.4 1,749 At home 96.5 51.6 85.1 795 40.6 767 Residence Urban 93.0 47.2 79.8 1,290 35.9 1,200 Rural 94.4 52.1 83.9 1,408 36.7 1,329 Region National Capital Region 94.1 50.3 84.3 398 29.5 374 Cordillera Admin Region 96.5 53.1 88.7 43 11.7 42 I - Ilocos Region 93.8 55.5 78.5 109 48.5 102 II - Cagayan Valley 96.0 64.5 83.0 97 38.9 93 III - Central Luzon 86.0 25.8 63.2 278 50.4 239 IVA - CALABARZON 92.6 37.8 79.0 351 43.0 325 IVB - MIMAROPA 93.4 39.2 83.0 69 38.1 65 V - Bicol 97.5 32.5 85.3 157 41.3 153 VI - Western Visayas 95.7 71.7 90.4 200 27.4 192 VII - Central Visayas 96.9 71.6 90.7 174 42.7 169 VIII - Eastern Visayas 97.1 51.6 94.2 99 22.1 96 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 93.1 59.1 84.3 123 24.3 114 X - Northern Mindanao 93.9 48.1 78.6 131 31.8 123 XI - Davao 96.1 57.9 86.8 151 19.9 145 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 94.2 58.4 81.0 135 34.1 127 XIII - Caraga 90.4 54.2 80.1 90 38.7 81 ARMM 95.6 46.6 81.0 91 60.3 87 Mother’s education No education (100.0) (71.6) (100.0) 34 (22.4) 34 Elementary 95.9 55.5 87.2 517 29.1 496 High school 93.4 48.5 82.2 1,394 37.4 1,302 College 92.6 47.0 77.1 753 40.1 698 Wealth quintile Lowest 96.9 57.1 87.6 686 31.4 665 Second 95.5 53.1 85.3 585 35.4 559 Middle 94.1 47.6 83.5 587 36.0 552 Fourth 90.8 44.2 75.2 480 43.0 436 Highest 88.4 41.0 72.1 359 39.6 318 Total 93.7 49.7 81.9 2,698 36.3 2,529 Note: Table is based on last-born children born in the two years preceding the survey regardless of whether the children are living or dead at the time of interview. Totals include 3 children whose births were assisted by no one, 3 for whom assistance at birth is missing, 14 whose place of birth is ‘other’, and 3 for whom place of birth is missing. Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Includes children who started breastfeeding within one hour of birth 2 Children given something other than breast milk during the first three days of life 3 Doctor, nurse or midwife In the 2013 NDHS, mothers who breastfed their last-born child under age five were also asked if the child was given anything to drink other than breast milk in the first three days after delivery. Those who answered “yes” were asked what type of liquid was given. The percentage of children who received a prelacteal feed is shown in Table 11.1. More than a third of children (36 percent) born in the two years 140 • Breastfeeding and Micronutrient Supplementation preceding the survey who were ever breastfed received a prelacteal feed during the first three days of life. Prelacteal feeding does not vary by the child’s sex and type of residence. Among the regions, ARMM has the highest percentage of children given prelacteal feeds (60 percent), and Cordillera Administrative Region (CAR) has the lowest proportion (12 percent). Prelacteal liquid feeding is slightly less common among children born in a health facility and children delivered with the assistance of a health professional, but it is more common among children whose mothers had at least secondary education, and children in the fourth and highest wealth quintiles. 11.1.2 Breastfeeding Status by Age Table 11.2 shows the percentage of youngest children under two years and living with the mother by current breast-feeding status and the percentage using a bottle with a nipple, according to the age of the children in months. The results show that a low proportion of children in the Philippines continue breastfeeding beyond the first year of life; two out of five (41 percent) children age 20-23 months were still being breastfed at the time of the survey. Nevertheless, this is higher than the 2008 NDHS figure of 34 percent (NSO and ICF Macro, 2009). The World Health Organization discourages use of bottles with nipples for feeding during early infancy. Bottle-feeding is usually associated with malnutrition and increased risk of infection, especially diarrheal disease, through unhygienic procedures in the preparation of the liquid or the feeding bottle and use of unsafe water. Bottle-feeding also tends to discourage breast suckling among infants. The survey results show that bottle-feeding is relatively still common in the Philippines; 27 percent of infants under age two months are being fed using a bottle with a nipple (Table 11.2). The percentage of children who used bottle with a nipple increases with age, peaking at age 9-11 months. 11.1.3 Duration of Breastfeeding The duration of breastfeeding affects the health and nutritional status of both the mother and child. It influences the length of postpartum amenorrhea and consequently, affects birth intervals and fertility levels. A longer birth interval allows a mother to recover fully before her next pregnancy and averts maternal depletion resulting from births occurring too close together. In addition, continued breastfeeding up to age two is one of the evidence-based interventions that significantly contributes to a child’s optimal nutrition and prevents deaths among children (UNICEF, 2013). Estimates of mean and median durations of breastfeeding are based on current status information; that is, the proportion of children who were being breastfed at the time of the survey. Table 11.2 Breastfeeding status by age The percentage of youngest children under two years living with their mother who are currently breastfeeding and the percentage of all children under two years using a bottle with a nipple, according to age in months, Philippines 2013 Age in months Percentage currently breast- feeding Number of youngest child under two years living with their mother Percentage using a bottle with a nipple Number of all children under two years 0-1 90.4 177 27.4 180 2-3 82.8 248 36.1 249 4-5 83.9 211 38.2 216 6-8 69.4 340 48.6 349 9-11 64.1 361 53.8 369 12-17 57.6 649 51.6 689 18-23 44.0 624 53.3 708 0-3 86.0 424 32.5 428 0-5 85.3 635 34.4 645 6-9 68.4 459 50.1 471 12-15 58.3 452 50.1 474 12-23 50.9 1,273 52.5 1,397 20-23 40.9 430 53.3 503 Note: Bottle feeding information refers to the 24-hour period before the survey (yesterday and last night). Breastfeeding and Micronutrient Supplementation • 141 The overall median duration of any breastfeeding in the Philippines is 16.7 months (Table 11.3). This means that half of children are not being breastfed after 17 months. Children in rural areas are breastfed longer than children in urban areas (18 months compared with 11 months). The median duration of breastfeeding is negatively associated with mother’s wealth status and education; children of poorer parents and those whose mothers have less education tend to be breastfed longer than other children. The median duration of breastfeeding appears to have increased slightly, from 14.3 months as measured in 2008 to 16.7 in 2013 (NSO and ICF Macro, 2009). 11.2 MICRONUTRIENT INTAKE AMONG CHILDREN Young children who have a great need for vitamins and minerals for their rapid growth and development are most vulnerable to micronutrient deficiencies and their associated harmful effects. Micronutrient deficiencies, which may be caused by inadequate dietary intake or disease, can also lead to child mortality. Vitamin A deficiency (VAD) affects at least 100 million children worldwide. Severe vitamin A deficiency can cause blindness and greatly increases the risk of mortality from diseases such as measles, diarrhea and acute respiratory infections (WHO, 2011). Iron deficiency has been a persistent nutritional problem worldwide. About 50 percent of children under age five in developing countries are iron deficient. Iron deficiency anemia (IDA), which is the severe form of iron deficiency, has negative effects on the cognitive and physical development of children. Anemia can be caused by infectious diseases such as malaria, helminth infections, and other infections (WHO, 2004). Aside from food-based approaches, provision of iron supplements to young children has been recommended to combat anemia. Studies have also shown that periodic vitamin A supplementation is an effective means to reduce mortality in countries with high vitamin A deficiency. The 2013 NDHS collected information on vitamin A supplementation in the six months preceding the survey and iron supplementation in the 7 days preceding the survey among children under age five. Table 11.4 shows the percentage of all children age 6-59 months who received vitamin A capsules in the six months preceding the survey and iron supplements in the past seven days, by background characteristics. The results show that 85 percent received a vitamin A supplement in the six months preceding the survey. The percentages do not vary much by the child’s sex, by breastfeeding status or by urban-rural residence. Children age 6-8 months, children of the least educated mothers, and children born to younger women are less likely to receive Vitamin A supplements than other children. Except for ARMM, the coverage of vitamin A supplementation is high in all regions, ranging from 82 percent in NCR to 91 percent in Northern Mindanao and Central Visayas. Only 61 percent of children in ARMM received vitamin A supplements. Table 11.3 Median duration of breastfeeding Median duration of any breastfeeding among children born in the three years preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Median duration (months) of breastfeeding among children born in the past three years1 Any breastfeeding Sex Male 14.2 Female 16.8 Residence Urban 11.0 Rural 18.4 Mother’s education No education * Elementary 19.8 High school 16.7 College 8.9 Wealth quintile Lowest 19.5 Second 18.3 Middle 16.2 Fourth 6.9 Highest (6.5) Total 16.7 Mean for all children 16.6 Note: Median and mean durations are based on the distributions at the time of the survey of the proportion of births by months since birth. Includes children living and deceased at the time of the survey. Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted children; an asterisk denotes a figure based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. 1 It is assumed that non-last-born children and last-born children not currently living with the mother are not currently breastfeeding 142 • Breastfeeding and Micronutrient Supplementation A much lower percentage (38 percent) of children received iron supplementation in the 7 days prior to the survey. Children whose mothers have no education, those in the lowest wealth quintile, and children in ARMM and Eastern Visayas are the least likely to receive iron supplements. Soil-transmitted helminth (STH) or intestinal worm infections, which are prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries especially in poorer communities, are detrimental to children’s health. Worm infections are associated with significant loss of micronutrients and cause malabsorption of vitamin A, anemia, poor physical growth, and poor intellectual development (WHO, 2004). Preschool children, who are at the stage of rapid growth physically and mentally, are particularly vulnerable to vitamin and micronutrient deficiencies induced by worm infections. Periodic deworming is recommended by the WHO to control morbidity from STH and to improve children’s nutritional status, growth, health, and school performance. According to WHO, deworming is a simple and cost-effective intervention that can also help meet the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) (WHO, 2005). In the 2013 NDHS, information was collected about deworming of children under age five in the six months prior to the survey. Table 11.4 shows that 40 percent of children age 6-59 months received deworming medication in the six months preceding the survey. As expected, the percentage increases with age. Among children age 36-59 months, more than half received deworming medication in the six months preceding the survey. Nonbreastfeeding children are more likely than breastfeeding children to receive deworming medication (48 percent compared to 17 percent), which is no doubt largely due to the fact that nonbreastfeeding children are older. The children least likely to receive deworming medication are children whose mothers were age 15-19 at the time of their birth, children whose mothers have college education, and children in Table 11.4 Micronutrient intake among children Among all children 6-59 months, the percentages who were given vitamin A supplements in the six months preceding the survey, who were given iron supplements in the past seven days, and who were given deworming medication in the six months preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Percentage given vitamin A supple- ments in last 6 months Percentage given iron supple- ments in last 7 days Percentage given deworming medication in last 6 months1 Number of children Age in months 6-8 66.6 36.5 1.2 349 9-11 81.4 41.7 4.4 369 12-17 89.7 38.0 6.6 689 18-23 87.6 38.4 16.9 708 24-35 86.9 39.4 47.1 1,279 36-47 85.1 37.4 59.3 1,410 48-59 86.1 35.6 63.9 1,346 Sex Male 84.1 37.3 40.0 3,200 Female 86.4 38.4 40.9 2,951 Breastfeeding status Breastfeeding 84.3 36.7 16.9 1,443 Not breastfeeding 85.6 38.2 47.7 4,679 Mother’s age at birth 15-19 83.2 31.7 18.2 194 20-29 83.9 38.6 38.5 2,885 30-39 86.3 38.2 41.8 2,398 40-49 87.5 34.7 49.8 675 Residence Urban 84.2 38.4 31.9 2,898 Rural 86.2 37.3 47.9 3,254 Region National Capital Region 82.2 43.5 24.0 921 Cordillera Admin Region 84.9 36.2 54.6 94 I - Ilocos Region 87.2 53.3 45.7 287 II - Cagayan Valley 86.7 42.2 46.2 224 III - Central Luzon 89.6 31.5 28.5 576 IVA - CALABARZON 83.8 34.6 30.4 786 IVB - MIMAROPA 84.5 27.3 50.8 166 V - Bicol 88.3 27.8 45.3 378 VI - Western Visayas 83.9 28.8 46.2 420 VII - Central Visayas 90.7 48.5 58.5 415 VIII - Eastern Visayas 87.0 24.1 51.7 244 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 86.6 53.9 48.2 301 X - Northern Mindanao 91.4 45.1 47.8 289 XI - Davao 83.7 35.8 50.1 347 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 86.8 39.5 46.6 277 XIII - Caraga 88.4 41.6 50.3 201 ARMM 61.4 21.7 30.5 226 Mother’s education No education 71.0 12.8 44.3 102 Elementary 82.8 32.1 48.8 1,298 High school 87.0 36.1 40.1 3,091 College 84.7 47.0 34.2 1,661 Wealth quintile Lowest 82.1 29.9 51.0 1,656 Second 87.8 37.9 45.5 1,340 Middle 86.6 39.6 36.5 1,241 Fourth 87.9 39.9 30.8 1,071 Highest 81.9 48.0 29.3 844 Total 85.2 37.8 40.4 6,151 Note: Information is based only on mother’s recall. Total includes 30 children missing as to breastfeeding status. 1 Deworming for intestinal parasites is commonly done for helminthes and for schistosomiasis. Breastfeeding and Micronutrient Supplementation • 143 the wealthiest households (highest quintile). There are important variations in deworming coverage across regions. Coverage is 50 percent or higher in six regions, namely, Central Visayas (59 percent), CAR (55 percent), Eastern Visayas (52 percent), MIMAROPA (51 percent), Caraga (50 percent), and Davao (50 percent); coverage is less than 30 percent in NCR (24 percent), and Central Luzon (29 percent). As noted in the 2008 NDHS, these findings suggest that deworming coverage is not associated with economic progress given the higher coverage in less developed regions such as MIMAROPA and Eastern Visayas than in the more developed regions like NCR and Central Luzon. 11.3 MICRONUTRIENT INTAKE AMONG MOTHERS Micronutrient supplementation can improve the nutritional and immune status of pregnant women and consequently, prevent maternal and neonatal deaths. Micronutrient deficiencies during pregnancy may be caused by inadequate intake of meat, fruits and vegetables or by infections (WHO, 2011). Anemia during pregnancy poses increased risk of premature delivery, low birth weight, infectious diseases, and maternal and child mortality (WHO, 2012). A pregnant woman is anemic if her hemoglobin concentration is lower than 11 g/dl. Anemia can worsen the effects of blood loss and infections during delivery and is related to higher maternal and perinatal mortality and morbidity rates (WHO, n.d.). Iron deficiency usually causes anemia. Prevention of iron deficiency anemia among pregnant women includes iron supplementation and control of parasitic infections. With the global efforts to achieve the MDGs, particularly reduction of child mortality (MDG 4) and improvement of maternal health (MDG 5), WHO strongly recommends daily oral iron supplementation as part of antenatal care (WHO, 2012). Pregnant women need iron for their developing baby and their own body, especially during childbirth. Mothers with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey were asked if they received iron supplements during the pregnancy for their youngest child and the number of days they took the iron supplements. The results in Table 11.5 show that 91 percent of women who gave birth during the five years preceding the survey took iron supplements during the pregnancy for their last child. However, less than half (47 percent) of women took iron tablets or capsules for 90 days or more, which is the recommended duration for iron supplementation among pregnant women. Ten percent took iron supplements for 60 to 89 days, and 34 percent took supplements for fewer than 60 days. Iron supplementation varies considerably by region. While the proportion of women taking iron supplements for the recommended duration is 50 percent or higher in Western Visayas, CAR, NCR, Zamboanga Peninsula, Eastern Visayas, Central Luzon, and Northern Mindanao, it is only 12 percent in ARMM. Urban women were slightly more likely than rural women to have taken iron tablets or syrup for at least 90 days. Women in the highest wealth quintile (61 percent) are more likely to take iron tablets for 90 or more days than those in the lowest wealth quintile (36 percent). Women with college education are about five times more likely to take iron tablets for 90 or more days (60 percent) as women with no education (12 percent). Parasitic infections may cause iron-deficiency anemia. Deworming during pregnancy is an effective preventive measure against this type of anemia and can improve both the health of the woman and her unborn child. In the 2013 NDHS, women age 15-49 with a birth in the five years preceding the survey were asked if they took any drug for intestinal worms during the pregnancy for their last birth. Table 11.5 shows that, overall, 5 percent of these women took deworming medication during the pregnancy for their last birth. In 144 • Breastfeeding and Micronutrient Supplementation Davao, 13 percent of women reported taking a deworming drug. Interestingly, women with no education and women in the lowest wealth quintile are more likely to take deworming medication during pregnancy than other women. Table 11.5 Micronutrient intake among mothers Among women age 15-49 with a child born in the past five years, the percent distribution by number of days they took iron tablets or capsule during the pregnancy of the last child, and the percentage who took deworming medication during the pregnancy of the last child, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Number of days women took iron tablets or capsule during pregnancy of last birth Percentage who took deworming medication during pregnancy of last birth Number of women Background characteristic None <60 60-89 90+ Don’t know/ missing Total Age 15-19 6.4 36.4 11.1 44.3 1.8 100.0 4.3 248 20-29 7.7 33.1 11.0 47.4 0.9 100.0 4.3 2,347 30-39 6.6 34.4 10.1 47.8 1.1 100.0 4.8 1,987 40-49 11.1 35.1 8.7 43.6 1.5 100.0 5.9 606 Residence Urban 6.0 31.1 11.5 50.3 1.1 100.0 4.2 2,489 Rural 9.1 36.6 9.4 43.8 1.1 100.0 5.2 2,699 Region National Capital Region 3.8 22.3 16.1 57.6 0.2 100.0 5.6 815 Cordillera Admin Region 4.3 23.7 12.3 59.3 0.5 100.0 5.7 79 I - Ilocos Region 10.2 43.0 7.9 37.7 1.2 100.0 3.3 232 II - Cagayan Valley 11.9 36.9 10.0 39.7 1.6 100.0 4.3 199 III - Central Luzon 6.5 29.4 10.8 51.8 1.5 100.0 2.5 495 IVA - CALABARZON 5.2 34.9 12.8 45.6 1.5 100.0 1.3 696 IVB - MIMAROPA 7.2 48.8 8.2 35.9 0.0 100.0 2.4 135 V - Bicol 5.6 55.9 10.3 27.2 1.0 100.0 8.3 301 VI - Western Visayas 3.7 25.5 7.6 62.6 0.6 100.0 2.4 352 VII - Central Visayas 5.8 40.9 8.4 44.9 0.0 100.0 2.6 333 VIII - Eastern Visayas 8.9 31.2 7.4 52.1 0.5 100.0 3.4 196 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 10.1 26.2 7.6 54.9 1.3 100.0 8.8 245 X - Northern Mindanao 4.6 36.2 6.6 51.4 1.2 100.0 6.1 242 XI - Davao 7.4 37.7 8.1 41.4 5.4 100.0 13.1 295 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 9.2 37.2 8.0 45.6 0.0 100.0 4.6 236 XIII - Caraga 7.6 39.2 10.6 41.5 1.0 100.0 4.3 163 ARMM 43.6 37.4 6.6 11.5 0.8 100.0 6.7 173 Education No education 40.7 40.1 5.4 11.8 2.0 100.0 9.8 73 Elementary 13.7 39.6 8.6 37.1 1.1 100.0 6.4 1,017 High school 6.6 37.0 10.9 44.6 1.0 100.0 4.9 2,616 College 3.6 24.6 11.0 59.6 1.3 100.0 3.1 1,482 Wealth quintile Lowest 14.8 39.7 8.5 36.0 1.0 100.0 7.2 1,277 Second 7.1 41.7 10.9 39.4 0.9 100.0 4.0 1,098 Middle 5.8 34.9 10.2 48.3 0.8 100.0 3.2 1,062 Fourth 3.6 26.4 11.5 56.9 1.6 100.0 4.7 962 Highest 3.9 22.1 11.7 61.1 1.2 100.0 3.9 789 Total 7.6 34.0 10.4 46.9 1.1 100.0 4.7 5,188 HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior • 145 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOR 12 cquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) is one of the most serious public health and development challenges facing the world today. AIDS is caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). HIV weakens the immune system, making the body susceptible to secondary infections and opportunistic diseases. Without treatment, HIV infection leads to AIDS, which is highly fatal. The predominant mode of HIV transmission is sexual contact. Other modes of transmission are unsafe injections, use of tainted blood supplies during blood transfusions, and mother-to-child transmission (in which the mother passes HIV to her child during pregnancy, delivery, or breastfeeding). HIV/AIDS is a pandemic with cases reported from every country. The Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS (UNAIDS) estimates that approximately 34 million people worldwide were living with HIV in 2011. Nevertheless, the joint global effort in the fight against AIDS resulted in a 24 percent decline in the number of AIDS-related deaths in 2011 compared to 2005, and a 20 percent decline in newly infected cases in the decade between 2001 and 2011 (UNAIDS, 2012). The first AIDS case was recorded in the Philippines in 1984 following the death of a foreign national from AIDS-related pneumonia. In 1986, HIV/AIDS was classified as a notifiable disease. In 1987, the HIV/AIDS Registry was established in the Department of Health. This is a passive surveillance system that continuously logs Western Blot-confirmed HIV cases reported by hospitals, laboratories, blood banks, and clinics; analyzes the case profiles; and monitors the progression of the disease. In December 1992, the Philippine National AIDS Council (PNAC), the country’s highest HIV/AIDS policymaking body, was created by virtue of Executive Order No. 39. It is a multisectoral body composed of 13 governmental agencies— including local governments and the two houses of the legislature—and 7 non-governmental organizations (NGOs). The passing of the Philippine AIDS Prevention and Control Act in 1998 was seen as the needed strength in the country’s fight against HIV/AIDS. However, advocacy for a stronger and sustainable response to AIDS still receives the least priority from government leadership in a low-HIV-prevalence country like the Philippines. The PNAC developed the Philippines’ AIDS Medium Term Plan: 2005–2010 (AMTP IV). The AMTP IV serves as a national road map toward universal access to prevention, treatment, care, and support, outlining country-specific targets, opportunities, and obstacles along the way, as well as culturally appropriate A Key Findings • Ninety-two percent of currently married women age 15-49 have heard of AIDS. • Fifty-five percent of women know of a place where they can go to get an HIV test. • Only two percent of women have ever been tested for HIV and received the results. • Sixty-seven percent of young women age 15-24 know where to obtain male condoms. • Among never-married women age 15-24 who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, only 8 percent used a condom at last sexual intercourse. 146 • HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior strategies to address them. In 2006, the country established a national monitoring and evaluation system, which was tested in nine sites and is being expanded (USAID, 2008). The Government of the Philippines participates in international responses to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Most recently, in January 2007, the Philippines hosted the 12th Association of Southeast Asian Nations Summit, which had a special session on HIV/AIDS. Also, the Philippines is a recipient of three grants from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria (2004 third round, 2006 fifth round, and 2007 sixth round) to scale up the national response to HIV/AIDS through the delivery of services and information to at- risk populations and people living with HIV/AIDS. These programs are executed by the AIDS Society of the Philippines, Inc. for HIV prevention and control and Positive Action Foundation, Inc. for treatment, care and support. Officially, the Philippines is a low-HIV-prevalence country, with less than 0.1 percent of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive. As of September 2013, the Department of Health (DOH) AIDS Registry in the Philippines reported 15,283 people living with HIV/AIDS; only 1,783 are women (DOH, 2013). Despite the slow and limited progression of the HIV epidemic in the country, it is a major public health concern. With an increasing prevalence of risky behaviors and a fertile socio-cultural milieu, a single case can grow into hundreds and thousands over time. To help meet this challenge, this chapter presents findings about current levels of knowledge on AIDS-related issues, misconceptions about AIDS, and knowledge of other issues related to sexually-transmitted infections. The chapter also discusses the social aspects of HIV/AIDS and knowledge of and access to male condoms. Information is presented on survey findings regarding risky sexual behavior and HIV knowledge and sexual behavior among youths. The chapter concludes with information on data on HIV testing coverage. All information is also analyzed by background characteristics. 12.1 KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/AIDS To evaluate the level of knowledge about HIV/AIDS, women who had heard of the infection were asked a series of questions on knowledge of HIV prevention methods. Table 12.1 shows the percentage of women age 15-49 who have heard of AIDS by background characteristics. Almost all Filipino women (92 percent) report that they have heard of AIDS. As such, differentials by background characteristics are minimal. Awareness of HIV/AIDS among women varies more by marital status and rural and urban residence. The percentage of women who have heard of AIDS is highest among never-married women who ever had sex (95 percent). Ninety-five percent of women in urban areas have heard of HIV/AIDS, compared with 89 percent of women in rural areas. Only four out of 17 regions recorded above 90 percent of awareness of HIV/AIDS; in ARMM only 52 percent of women have heard of AIDS, which is a decline from the level in 2003 of 75 percent and 57 percent in 2008. The most striking differences in AIDS-related knowledge are by level of education: while practically all women with college or higher education (98 percent) have heard of AIDS, the corresponding proportion for those with no education is only 44 percent. HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior • 147 Respondents in the lowest (poorest) wealth quintile are much less likely than those in the higher quintiles to have heard of AIDS. For example, 79 percent of women in the lowest wealth quintile reported having heard of AIDS, compared with 90 percent or higher of women in the second and higher wealth quintiles1. 12.2 SPECIFIC KNOWLEDGE ABOUT AIDS As part of the effort to assess HIV and AIDS knowledge, the 2013 NDHS collected information on common misconceptions about HIV transmission. Respondents were asked whether they think it is possible for a healthy-looking person to have HIV, and also whether they believe HIV can be transmitted through mosquito bites, by hugging or shaking the hands with someone who has HIV, or by sharing food with a person who has HIV. Also tabulated is the proportion who know that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus, and who reject the two misconceptions about HIV transmission most often reported by NDHS respondents, i.e., that HIV can be transmitted by hugging or shaking the hands with someone who has HIV and that HIV can be transmitted by mosquito bites. The data presented in Table 12.2 indicate that many women in the Philippines lack accurate knowledge about the ways in which the AIDS virus can and cannot be transmitted. 1 The survey included a question as to whether respondents believed that it is possible to avoid the AIDS virus by limiting sexual intercourse to one uninfected partner who has no other partners, but, due to issues about the translation of the question, results are not presented as they could be misleading. Table 12.1 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods Percentage of women age 15-49 who have heard of AIDS and who in response to prompted questions, say that people can reduce the risk of getting the AIDS virus by using condoms every time they have sexual intercourse, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Has heard of AIDS Percentage who say HIV can be prevented by using condoms1 Number of women Age 15-24 89.4 50.8 6,026 15-19 86.8 45.0 3,237 20-24 92.5 57.5 2,789 25-29 93.7 61.2 2,156 30-39 94.0 61.1 4,226 40-49 92.6 60.5 3,747 Marital status Never married 90.6 51.3 5,615 Ever had sex 95.3 64.9 805 Never had sex 89.8 49.0 4,810 Married/Living together 92.7 60.4 9,729 Divorced/Separated/Widowed 92.7 58.9 811 Residence Urban 94.6 57.5 8,585 Rural 88.9 56.7 7,570 Region National Capital Region 95.6 53.1 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 96.7 65.3 252 I - Ilocos Region 91.4 54.5 691 II - Cagayan Valley 80.7 47.5 550 III - Central Luzon 95.5 55.4 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 92.7 61.0 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 91.2 49.6 372 V - Bicol 94.5 57.9 798 VI - Western Visayas 98.0 64.4 996 VII - Central Visayas 92.6 62.0 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 95.6 75.2 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 87.6 60.4 725 X - Northern Mindanao 92.8 61.3 697 XI - Davao 94.3 60.7 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 85.8 51.7 744 XIII - Caraga 90.9 62.5 435 ARMM 52.2 22.2 465 Education No education 44.0 21.2 188 Elementary 80.3 46.6 2,593 High school 92.6 55.6 7,916 College 98.1 65.6 5,458 Wealth quintile Lowest 78.6 46.1 2,620 Second 89.8 54.9 2,886 Middle 94.4 59.8 3,199 Fourth 95.7 60.7 3,572 Highest 97.0 60.7 3,878 Total 15-49 91.9 57.1 16,155 1 Using condoms every time they have sexual intercourse 2 Partner who has no other partners 148 • HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Table 12.2 Specific knowledge about AIDS Percentage of women age 15-49 who say that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus and who, in response to prompted questions, correctly reject local misconceptions about transmission or prevention of the AIDS virus, and the percentage who say a healthy- looking person can have the AIDS virus and who reject the two most common misconceptions by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage of respondents who say that: Percentage who say that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus and who reject the two most common local misconceptions1 Number of women Background characteristic A healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus The AIDS virus cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites The AIDS virus cannot be transmitted by hugging or shaking hands with a person who is infected A person cannot become infected by sharing food with a person who has the AIDS virus Age 15-24 68.8 65.0 71.4 53.5 34.8 6,026 15-19 64.1 61.8 67.2 49.3 31.0 3,237 20-24 74.4 68.7 76.4 58.4 39.2 2,789 25-29 76.0 68.9 78.0 63.2 43.4 2,156 30-39 74.5 67.2 78.9 65.6 42.7 4,226 40-49 74.2 65.0 74.0 62.2 41.3 3,747 Marital status Never married 70.2 66.9 74.5 58.1 38.8 5,615 Ever had sex 77.4 70.7 81.8 64.5 44.1 805 Never had sex 69.0 66.3 73.2 57.0 37.9 4,810 Married/Living together 73.6 65.6 74.8 60.6 39.6 9,729 Divorced/Separated/Widowed 74.9 66.5 78.7 66.1 44.1 811 Residence Urban 76.3 70.8 80.6 65.7 45.0 8,585 Rural 68.3 60.8 68.3 53.4 33.3 7,570 Region National Capital Region 79.4 77.9 88.1 77.5 57.5 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 82.8 73.2 84.5 72.6 51.3 252 I - Ilocos Region 53.0 69.9 65.3 44.2 22.0 691 II - Cagayan Valley 47.5 61.5 59.5 45.2 22.7 550 III - Central Luzon 76.7 68.1 78.7 65.0 41.5 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 69.7 62.5 73.4 58.1 36.4 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 68.0 52.4 67.6 48.5 26.0 372 V - Bicol 70.2 53.0 67.3 44.8 22.8 798 VI - Western Visayas 72.1 68.3 77.5 55.9 33.7 996 VII - Central Visayas 81.2 63.4 71.4 56.0 38.5 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 85.1 53.2 77.2 55.7 33.4 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 74.7 72.0 72.6 60.6 46.4 725 X - Northern Mindanao 79.9 70.3 76.8 60.0 42.1 697 XI - Davao 74.8 64.4 76.9 61.2 38.5 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 65.2 60.2 67.5 54.2 33.8 744 XIII - Caraga 77.5 67.5 71.1 62.8 44.2 435 ARMM 42.4 44.3 41.4 35.8 27.7 465 Education No education 29.5 27.4 29.1 26.2 12.8 188 Elementary 59.2 51.5 56.8 44.9 25.7 2,593 High school 70.3 65.6 73.7 57.2 36.1 7,916 College 83.6 75.0 86.7 72.4 52.0 5,458 Wealth quintile Lowest 57.3 50.1 55.5 43.3 24.3 2,620 Second 69.3 61.5 69.7 53.2 33.6 2,886 Middle 73.9 67.2 76.5 60.0 38.8 3,199 Fourth 77.8 71.4 80.9 64.8 44.2 3,572 Highest 79.2 74.5 84.9 71.8 50.5 3,878 Total 15-49 72.5 66.1 74.9 60.0 39.5 16,155 1 Two most common local misconceptions: The AIDS virus can be transmitted by mosquito bites and sharing food with a person who is infected More than seven in ten women know that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus (Figure 12.1); three in four women (75 percent) know that AIDS cannot be transmitted by hugging and shaking hands, and six in ten women knew also that AIDS cannot be transmitted through mosquito bites (66 percent) and by sharing food with someone who has AIDS (60 percent). However, only 40 percent of women correctly rejected the two most common misconceptions about AIDS (i.e., that AIDS is transmitted by mosquito bites and by HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior • 149 sharing food with a person who has AIDS) and know that a healthy-looking person can have the virus. These figures indicate that misconceptions about AIDS transmission remain high in the Philippines. Women in urban areas are less likely to have misconceptions about HIV/AIDS transmission than women in rural areas. Regional variations are notable, with correct responses for “knowing that a healthy looking person can have AIDS virus and rejecting the two most common local misconceptions about HIV/AIDS” ranging from 22 percent among women in Ilocos Region to 58 percent of those in NCR. Better educated women and those in the higher wealth quintiles are most likely to have correct knowledge about HIV/AIDS than other women. The proportion of women age 15-49 who know that a healthy-looking person can have the AIDS virus increased from 66 percent in 2008 to 73 percent in 2013, the proportion who know that the AIDS virus cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites increased from 63 percent in 2008 to 66 percent in 2013. Similarly, the proportion of women who know that a person cannot become infected by sharing food with someone who has AIDS increased from 58 percent in 2008 to 60 percent in 2013 (NSO and ICF Macro, 2009). 12.3 COVERAGE OF HIV TESTING Knowledge of HIV status helps HIV-negative individuals make specific decisions to reduce risk and increase safer sex practices so they can remain disease-free. For those who have HIV, knowledge of their status allows them to take action to protect their sexual partners, to access treatment, and to plan for the future. To assess the awareness and coverage of HIV testing services, all respondents interviewed in the 2013 NDHS were asked whether they know of a place where people can go to get tested for HIV and whether they themselves had ever been tested for HIV. If they said that they had been tested, respondents were asked whether they had received the results of their last test. Table 12.3 shows that 55 percent of women know where to go to be tested for HIV. There is considerable variation in knowledge about sources for HIV testing among women by background characteristics. For instance, women age 25-29 (62 percent) are most likely to know of a place where they can 66 63 76 58 34 73 66 75 60 40 A health‐ looking person can have the AIDS virus AIDS cannot be transmitted by mosquito  bites AIDS cannot be transmitted by hugging or shaking hands A person cannot become infected by sharing food with a person who has AIDS A healthy‐ looking person can have the AIDS virus and rejects the two most common local misconceptions Figure 12.1 Rejection of misconceptions about AIDS transmission among women age 15-49 2008 2013 150 • HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior get tested for HIV. Similarly, knowledge about HIV testing facilities is higher among women in urban areas that their rural counterparts. Education and wealth status have a positive relationship with knowledge of HIV testing facilities. For example, 70 percent of women who attended college know of an HIV testing facility, compared with only 19 percent of women with no education; likewise, women in households in the higher wealth quintiles are more likely to know places to go to be tested for HIV than those in households in the lower wealth quintiles. Among regions, MIMAROPA and CAR (68 percent each) have the highest levels of knowledge of a place to get tested for HIV, while ARMM has the lowest level (34 percent). Table 12.3 Coverage of prior HIV testing Percentage of women age 15-49 who know where to get an HIV test, percent distribution of women age 15-49 by testing status and by whether they received the results of the last test, the percentage of women ever tested, and the percentage of women age 15-49 who were tested in the past 12 months and received the results of the last test, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage who know where to get an HIV test Percent distribution of women by testing status and by whether they received the results of the last test Total Percenta ge ever tested Percentage who have been tested for HIV in the past 12 months and received the results of the last test Number of women Background characteristic Ever tested and received results Ever tested, did not receive results Never tested1 Age 15-24 48.6 0.8 0.3 98.8 100.0 1.2 0.3 6,026 15-19 40.9 0.2 0.2 99.6 100.0 0.4 0.0 3,237 20-24 57.5 1.6 0.5 97.9 100.0 2.1 0.7 2,789 25-29 61.5 3.0 0.2 96.8 100.0 3.2 1.3 2,156 30-39 59.0 3.0 0.4 96.6 100.0 3.4 0.9 4,226 40-49 58.5 2.2 0.4 97.4 100.0 2.6 0.5 3,747 Marital status Never married 51.0 1.3 0.3 98.4 100.0 1.6 0.6 5,615 Ever had sex 61.8 5.0 0.6 94.5 100.0 5.5 3.0 805 Never had sex 49.2 0.7 0.2 99.1 100.0 0.9 0.2 4,810 Married/Living together 57.5 2.2 0.4 97.4 100.0 2.6 0.6 9,729 Divorced/Separated/Widowed 59.3 4.3 0.4 95.3 100.0 4.7 1.1 811 Residence Urban 59.0 2.2 0.4 97.4 100.0 2.6 0.8 8,585 Rural 51.2 1.8 0.2 97.9 100.0 2.1 0.5 7,570 Region National Capital Region 66.1 2.6 0.4 97.1 100.0 2.9 0.9 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 68.1 5.1 1.0 93.9 100.0 6.1 1.2 252 I - Ilocos Region 53.3 3.3 0.3 96.4 100.0 3.6 0.7 691 II - Cagayan Valley 38.5 1.9 0.5 97.6 100.0 2.4 0.9 550 III - Central Luzon 62.7 3.2 0.6 96.2 100.0 3.8 1.2 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 50.3 2.4 0.4 97.3 100.0 2.7 0.9 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 68.4 1.4 0.7 97.9 100.0 2.1 0.7 372 V - Bicol 54.2 1.8 0.3 98.0 100.0 2.0 0.3 798 VI - Western Visayas 63.0 1.3 0.2 98.5 100.0 1.5 0.5 996 VII - Central Visayas 41.3 1.7 0.2 98.1 100.0 1.9 0.6 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 54.9 1.9 0.2 98.0 100.0 2.0 0.5 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 66.2 1.5 0.1 98.4 100.0 1.6 0.2 725 X - Northern Mindanao 53.3 0.7 0.4 98.9 100.0 1.1 0.3 697 XI - Davao 48.7 1.4 0.0 98.6 100.0 1.4 0.2 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 41.8 0.5 0.4 99.1 100.0 0.9 0.0 744 XIII - Caraga 49.5 1.0 0.1 98.9 100.0 1.1 0.1 435 ARMM 34.3 0.2 0.2 99.5 100.0 0.5 0.0 465 Education No education 19.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 188 Elementary 40.7 0.9 0.2 98.9 100.0 1.1 0.3 2,593 High school 50.7 1.2 0.3 98.5 100.0 1.5 0.2 7,916 College 70.3 3.9 0.5 95.6 100.0 4.4 1.5 5,458 Wealth quintile Lowest 41.7 0.4 0.2 99.4 100.0 0.6 0.1 2,620 Second 48.2 1.0 0.1 98.9 100.0 1.1 0.2 2,886 Middle 56.8 1.8 0.4 97.8 100.0 2.2 0.6 3,199 Fourth 59.0 2.4 0.4 97.2 100.0 2.8 0.7 3,572 Highest 65.3 3.8 0.5 95.7 100.0 4.3 1.3 3,878 Total 15-49 55.3 2.0 0.3 97.6 100.0 2.4 0.7 16,155 1 Includes ‘don’t know/missing’ HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior • 151 Only 2 percent of women age 15-49 have ever been tested for HIV, with most reporting that they received their results. Differentials by background characteristics in the percentage of women tested for HIV are small. The results presented in Table 12.3 indicate that women with college education and those in the wealthiest households are more likely to have been tested than women in other categories. Across regions, the percentage of women who have been tested varies from almost nil in ARMM to more than 5 percent in Cordillera Administrative Region. 12.4 HIV/AIDS KNOWLEDGE AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOR AMONG YOUTH This section addresses HIV/AIDS-related knowledge and sexual behavior among youth age 15-24. Knowledge of HIV/AIDS issues and related sexual behavior among youth age 15-24 is of particular interest because the period between sexual initiation and marriage is for many young people a time of experimentation that may involve risky behaviors. In addition to knowledge of HIV transmission, data are presented on age at first sexual intercourse, age differences between sexual partners, and voluntary counseling and testing for HIV. 12.4.1 Knowledge of Condom Sources among Young Adults Condom use among young adults plays an important role in combating the transmission of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (as well as preventing unwanted pregnancies). Knowledge of a source of condoms is prerequisite to young adults obtaining and using them. Young women were asked whether they knew where they could go to get condoms. Only formal sources of condoms were counted; friends, family members, home, and other similar informal sources were not included. As shown in Table 12.4, two in three women (67 percent) know a source where they can get a condom. Knowledge of a condom source among young women varies by background characteristics and tends to increase with age. Ever-married young women are more likely to know about a source for condoms than those who have never married; however, never-married women who have ever had sex are the most likely to know of a place to get condoms. Young women in urban areas are more likely than those in rural areas to know of a condom source. Knowledge of a condom source among young women is lowest in ARMM (57 percent) and highest in Cordillera Administrative Region (82 percent). As expected, the proportion of young women who know where to get condoms increases with level of education and wealth quintile. Table 12.4 Knowledge about a source of condoms among young women Percentage of young women age 15-24 with knowledge of a source of condoms, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Percentage who know a condom source1 Number of women Age 15-19 55.4 3,237 15-17 48.6 2,069 18-19 67.6 1,167 20-24 79.5 2,789 20-22 77.4 1,708 23-24 83.0 1,081 Marital status Never married 63.2 4,401 Ever had sex 81.9 467 Never had sex 61.0 3,934 Ever married 75.7 1,625 Residence Urban 70.6 3,264 Rural 61.8 2,762 Region National Capital Region 76.4 1,086 Cordillera Admin Region 82.3 96 I - Ilocos Region 64.4 237 II - Cagayan Valley 61.7 216 III - Central Luzon 66.4 619 IVA - CALABARZON 62.0 844 IVB - MIMAROPA 60.5 134 V - Bicol 58.9 290 VI - Western Visayas 67.3 370 VII - Central Visayas 60.1 367 VIII - Eastern Visayas 65.2 194 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 74.3 301 X - Northern Mindanao 73.7 266 XI - Davao 63.2 346 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 63.3 301 XIII - Caraga 57.6 170 ARMM 57.3 190 Education No education (30.5) 32 Elementary 45.6 584 High school 60.4 3,510 College 85.0 1,900 Wealth quintile Lowest 50.0 902 Second 61.6 1,134 Middle 69.3 1,236 Fourth 72.5 1,338 Highest 73.2 1,415 Total 66.6 6,026 1 For this table, the following responses are not considered a source for condoms: friends, family members, and home 152 • HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior 12.4.2 Age at First Sexual Intercourse among Young People Age at first sex among young adults age 15-24 is one of the UNGASS indicators that are reported every other year. Information from the 2013 NDHS can be used to examine age at first sexual intercourse. Table 12.5 shows the proportion of women age 15-24 who had sexual intercourse before age 15 and before age 18. Two percent of women 15-24 had sexual intercourse before age 15, while 19 percent of women 18-24 had sexual intercourse before age 18. Looking at age at first sexual intercourse by background characteristics, the proportions of young women who had sexual intercourse before age 15 and before age 18 are markedly lower among women who have never married than among those who have ever married. Young women in urban areas are less likely to have had sexual intercourse than young women in rural areas, whether by age 15 or 18. Education and wealth status have a negative association with early initiation of sexual activity; as education and wealth increase, the proportion of women reporting first sexual intercourse before age 18 decreases. 12.4.3 Premarital Sexual Activity The period between first sexual intercourse and marriage is often a time of sexual experimentation. Unfortunately, in the era of HIV/AIDS, it can also be a risky time. Table 12.6 presents information on sexual activity among never-married young women age 15-24 and condom use: the percentage of never-married young women who had never had sexual intercourse, the percentage who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, and the percentage who used a condom at last sexual intercourse. Table 12.5 Age at first sexual intercourse among young women Percentage of young women age 15-24 who had sexual intercourse before age 15 and percentage of young women age 18-24 who had sexual intercourse before age 18, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Percentage who had sexual intercourse before age 15 Number of women (15-24) Percentage who had sexual intercourse before age 18 Number of women (18-24) Age 15-19 2.2 3,237 na na 15-17 2.5 2,069 na na 18-19 1.8 1,167 18.3 1,167 20-24 2.2 2,789 19.3 2,789 20-22 2.4 1,708 19.9 1,708 23-24 1.8 1,081 18.3 1,081 Marital status Never married 0.5 4,401 4.3 2,435 Ever married 6.7 1,625 42.5 1,522 Knows condom source1 Yes 2.0 4,012 18.7 3,007 No 2.5 2,014 20.0 949 Residence Urban 2.0 3,264 16.5 2,222 Rural 2.5 2,762 22.1 1,734 Region National Capital Region 1.7 1,086 14.4 793 Cordillera Admin Region 1.6 96 10.8 62 I - Ilocos Region 0.4 237 16.4 148 II - Cagayan Valley 2.9 216 25.3 154 III - Central Luzon 2.4 619 18.5 382 IVA - CALABARZON 1.7 844 17.2 551 IVB - MIMAROPA 1.9 134 17.7 80 V - Bicol 1.0 290 16.6 187 VI - Western Visayas 2.0 370 21.3 231 VII - Central Visayas 2.9 367 22.2 242 VIII - Eastern Visayas 4.0 194 21.0 111 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 1.3 301 20.0 189 X - Northern Mindanao 1.5 266 18.1 177 XI - Davao 5.2 346 27.1 224 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 2.3 301 22.9 189 XIII - Caraga 3.5 170 24.3 118 ARMM 3.1 190 23.5 117 Education No education (11.7) 32 (47.4) 24 Elementary 9.5 584 42.5 362 High school 1.9 3,510 25.1 1,851 College 0.4 1,900 7.1 1,720 Wealth quintile Lowest 4.5 902 36.1 548 Second 2.6 1,134 25.1 695 Middle 1.7 1,236 19.2 850 Fourth 2.3 1,338 13.9 882 Highest 0.7 1,415 9.5 981 Total 2.2 6,026 19.0 3,956 Note: Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. na = Not available 1 For this table, the following responses are not considered a source for condoms: friends, family members and home HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior • 153 Table 12.6 Premarital sexual intercourse and condom use during premarital sexual intercourse among young women Among never-married women age 15-24, the percentage who have never had sexual intercourse, the percentage who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, and, among those who had premarital sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage who used a condom at the last sexual intercourse, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage who have never had sexual intercourse Percentage who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months Number of never- married women Women who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: Background characteristic Percentage who used a condom at last sexual intercourse Number of women Age 15-19 95.4 3.3 2,899 3.6 96 15-17 97.6 1.7 1,967 (3.1) 33 18-19 90.6 6.7 932 3.9 63 20-24 77.9 12.9 1,502 10.1 193 20-22 79.7 12.4 1,035 10.7 129 23-24 73.7 13.8 468 9.0 65 Knows condom source1 Yes 86.2 8.6 2,783 9.2 239 No 94.8 3.1 1,618 2.0 50 Residence Urban 87.5 8.0 2,479 9.6 199 Rural 91.8 4.7 1,923 4.4 91 Education No education * * 18 * 1 Elementary 92.9 3.5 315 * 11 High school 91.0 5.6 2,535 5.3 141 College 86.1 8.9 1,534 11.4 136 Total 89.4 6.6 4,401 8.0 289 Note: Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk denotes a case based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. 1 For this table, the following responses are not considered a source for condoms: friends, family members and home Almost nine in ten (89 percent) never-married young women have never had sexual intercourse. As a result, the proportion reporting sexual activity in the 12 months preceding the survey is relatively low (7 percent). Given the comparatively small proportion of never-married young women reporting premarital intercourse, differentials in this indicator are minimal. Among never-married young women who reported having sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey, 8 percent said they used a condom the last time they had sexual intercourse. The numbers are too small to show meaningful differences by subgroups. 154 • HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior 12.4.4 Cross-generational Sexual Partners To examine age differences between sexual partners, women who had sexual intercourse in the 12 months preceding the survey were asked the age of their partners. The issue of cross-generational sex mainly affects younger women who engage with older men, because such relationships can create situations in which women are at a disadvantage. Table 12.7 shows that among women age 15-19, 11 percent reported having a sexual partner who was 10 or more years older. There are some differences in the extent of cross- generational sex among younger women by background characteristics. Ever-married women and women with only elementary education are more likely than other young women to have had sexual intercourse with a man 10 or more years older than themselves. 12.4.5 Voluntary HIV Counseling and Testing among Young Women A person’s knowledge of their own HIV-positive sero-status can motivate them to practice safer sexual behavior to avoid transmitting the virus to others. Voluntary counseling and testing provides this information, but young women may face barriers to accessing and using health facilities, particularly for sensitive concerns about sexually transmitted infections like HIV/AIDS. Table 12.8 presents information on recent HIV testing among young women age 15-24. Only 1 percent of sexually active young women were tested for HIV in the 12 months preceding the survey and received the results of the last test. The differentials by background characteristics are minimal. Table 12.7 Age-mixing in sexual relationships among women age 15-19 Among women age 15-19 who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, percentage who had sexual intercourse with a partner who was 10 or more years older than themselves, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Women age 15-19 who had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months Background characteristic Percentage who had sexual intercourse with a man 10+ years older Number of women Age 15-17 12.9 128 18-19 9.7 287 Marital status Never married 6.4 96 Ever married 11.9 319 Knows condom source1 Yes 9.8 266 No 12.2 149 Residence Urban 10.4 201 Rural 10.9 215 Education No education * 5 Elementary 18.3 86 High school 9.7 273 College 1.9 52 Wealth quintile Lowest 11.3 100 Second 14.5 97 Middle 7.0 99 Fourth 7.3 73 Highest (14.2) 47 Total 10.7 415 Note: Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk denotes a case based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. 1 For this table, the following responses are not considered a source for condoms: friends, family members and home HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior • 155 Table 12.8 Recent HIV tests among youth Among young women age 15-24 who have had sexual intercourse in the past 12 months, the percentage who were tested for HIV in the past 12 months and received the results of the last test, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Percentage who have been tested for HIV in the past 12 months and received the results of the last test Number of women Age 15-19 0.0 415 15-17 0.0 128 18-19 0.0 287 20-24 0.9 1,407 20-22 1.0 769 23-24 0.8 638 Marital status Never married 2.7 289 Ever married 0.3 1,533 Knows condom source1 Yes 0.9 1,399 No 0.0 423 Residence Urban 0.6 922 Rural 0.8 900 Education No education * 15 Elementary 0.0 264 High school 0.0 1,064 College 2.7 480 Total 0.7 1,822 Note: An asterisk denotes a case based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. 1 For this table, the following responses are not considered a source for condoms: friends, family members and home 156 • HIV/AIDS-Related Knowledge, Attitudes, and Behavior Health Care Utilization and Financing • 157 HEALTH CARE UTILIZATION AND FINANCING 13 mong the essential information needed by health planners in the formulation of plans and programs to improve public health service delivery is knowledge on the prevalence of illness and injuries and those who availed the services of health facility, health care expenditures, travel time to health facilities, and cost of transportation. The 2013 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) included a module of questions concerning health care utilization and costs. Information about health insurance coverage was obtained for each person listed on the NDHS household questionnaire. Respondents for the household questionnaire were asked whether any member of the household had visited a health facility for advice or treatment anywhere in the 30 days preceding the survey. Information was collected on where the person sought treatment, why he/she sought treatment, how long it took to get to the place, how much the transportation cost, how much the treatment cost, and how the cost of treatment was covered. Information was also collected about any household members who were confined in a hospital or health center in the 12 months preceding the survey, including the type of facility, the reason for the confinement, length of confinement, cost of treatment, and how costs were covered. 13.1 HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE Information in Table 13.1 shows that only 63 percent of Filipinos are covered by health insurance. Insurance coverage is highest in Northern Mindanao (74 percent) and lowest in ARMM (44 percent). Health insurance coverage in other regions ranges from 56 percent in Central Visayas to 71 percent in Bicol. Coverage is slightly higher in rural areas (64 percent) than in urban areas (62 percent). Persons under the age of 30 are less likely to have health insurance compared to those who are 30 and above. Coverage is higher among those in the highest wealth quintile (76 percent) than those in the other quintiles (55 to 63 percent). A Key Findings • Health insurance coverage has increased largely in the past five years, from 42 percent in 2008 to 63 percent in 2013. • One in every 9 Filipinos visited a health facility or sought advice/treatment in the 30 days prior to the survey. • Among those who visited a health facility or sought advice/treatment, the proportion using public medical facilities and providers (7 percent) is about twice as those using private medical providers (4 percent). • Proportion of persons who were reported to have been confined in a public hospital or clinic (55 percent) is higher than those confined in a private facility (44 percent). • Average travel cost for persons who visited a health facility or private provider is 69 pesos, while the average cost of treatment is 1,044 pesos. 158 • Health Care Utilization and Financing Table 13.1 Health insurance coverage Percentage of de jure household population with specific health insurance coverage, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic No insurance Any insurance Phil Health GSIS SSS Private insurance/ HMO Other Don’t know/ missing Number Sex Male 37.5 62.3 59.6 1.3 14.2 1.6 0.3 0.2 35,170 Female 36.4 63.4 61.1 1.7 11.0 1.6 0.4 0.2 34,930 Age 0-4 41.5 58.2 57.9 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.2 7,391 5-29 40.5 59.3 57.8 0.4 7.4 1.0 0.3 0.2 34,154 30-59 30.2 69.6 65.3 3.1 24.0 3.0 0.5 0.2 23,050 60+ 36.9 62.9 58.2 3.7 13.0 1.6 0.3 0.2 5,500 Residence Urban 37.9 61.8 58.6 1.6 19.3 2.3 0.2 0.2 33,607 Rural 36.1 63.7 61.9 1.4 6.4 0.9 0.5 0.2 36,493 Region National Capital Region 41.3 58.5 54.3 1.3 25.0 2.8 0.2 0.3 10,440 Cordillera Admin Region 34.9 64.7 61.6 3.8 10.0 1.1 0.0 0.4 1,232 I - Ilocos Region 38.0 61.9 60.0 1.6 8.3 0.5 0.0 0.1 3,526 II - Cagayan Valley 34.8 65.0 60.5 1.7 4.3 1.2 4.7 0.1 2,512 III - Central Luzon 37.5 62.1 58.2 1.6 17.0 2.2 0.1 0.3 7,611 IVA - CALABARZON 38.7 61.3 59.2 1.1 15.0 2.3 0.4 0.0 9,387 IVB - MIMAROPA 41.2 58.3 56.6 1.8 4.3 1.0 0.1 0.5 1,825 V - Bicol 28.9 70.9 68.3 1.7 10.0 0.7 0.4 0.2 3,900 VI - Western Visayas 30.3 69.5 66.6 1.6 10.3 1.8 0.3 0.3 5,004 VII - Central Visayas 44.0 55.6 53.8 1.3 11.4 1.5 0.1 0.3 4,785 VIII - Eastern Visayas 29.9 70.1 69.0 3.1 5.3 0.4 0.2 0.0 2,812 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 35.3 64.7 63.9 1.4 4.2 0.7 0.0 0.1 2,918 X - Northern Mindanao 26.5 73.5 71.9 1.9 8.7 1.7 0.0 0.0 3,200 XI - Davao 32.3 67.7 65.6 1.5 14.5 1.0 0.2 0.0 3,615 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 39.9 59.7 58.4 0.9 8.1 1.2 0.0 0.4 3,327 XIII - Caraga 30.8 69.1 68.1 1.4 5.8 0.8 0.0 0.1 1,917 ARMM 55.8 43.7 43.5 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.6 2,087 Wealth quintile Lowest 37.6 62.1 61.6 0.0 1.4 0.1 0.2 0.2 14,025 Second 42.6 57.3 55.6 0.2 4.9 0.4 0.3 0.1 14,027 Middle 44.8 55.1 52.2 0.8 10.4 0.7 0.4 0.1 13,998 Fourth 36.5 63.4 59.4 2.0 19.3 1.6 0.5 0.2 14,023 Highest 23.3 76.3 72.7 4.5 26.9 5.2 0.3 0.4 14,027 Total 37.0 62.8 60.3 1.5 12.6 1.6 0.3 0.2 70,100 Note: Total includes 5 people with age missing. Numbers may not sum to the total with any Insurance because more than one type of insurance could be reported for each individual. GSIS = Government Service Insurance System SSS = Social Security System HMO= Health maintenance organization Of the different health insurance providers, PhilHealth accounts for by far the largest coverage, insuring 60 percent of the population. Because of the preponderance of PhilHealth, differentials in coverage by background characteristics mirror those discussed above for any insurance. With regard to other providers, more people are covered by the Social Security System (SSS) at 13 percent compared to the Government Service Insurance System (GSIS) at 2 percent (see Figure 13.1). SSS coverage is higher among persons age 30 and above relative to those under age 30. SSS coverage is also higher among urban residents (19 percent) compared to rural residents (6 percent). Likewise, those in the highest wealth quintile (27 percent) are more likely to be covered by SSS, compared with those in the lowest wealth quintile (1 percent). Two percent of Filipinos are covered by private insurance or membership in health maintenance organizations (HMOs). As expected, private insurance coverage or membership in an HMO is most common among those in the highest wealth quintile (5 percent). Despite the rather low coverage for health insurance, there has been a large increase in the past five years. The proportion of the population covered by health insurance has increased from 42 percent in 2008 to 63 percent in 2013. Health Care Utilization and Financing • 159 Figure 13.1 Percentage of household population with specific health insurance coverage For those who were covered by PhilHealth, questions were also asked as to whether the person was a paying member, a dependent of a paying member, an indigent member, or a dependent of an indigent member. Table 13.2 shows the distribution of those covered by PhilHealth according to these categories. The results show that paying members and their dependents account for almost 60 percent of PhilHealth coverage. However, the dependent-to-member ratio among paying members is lower than among indigent members, as there are about 3 dependents for every 2 paying members (or 1.4 dependents for every member), while there are 3 dependents for every indigent member (or 2.8 dependents for every member) (see Figure 13.2). 63  37 60 2 13 2 A ny  in su ra nc e N o  in su ra nc e Ph ilH ea lth G SI S SS S Pr iv at e  In su ra nc e/ H M O , e tc 160 • Health Care Utilization and Financing Table 13.2 Type of PhilHealth Insurance Among the de jure household population covered by PhilHealth Insurance, percentage who are in various membership types, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Paying Indigent Number covered by PhilHealth Background characteristic Total Member Dependent Total Member Dependent Sex Male 57.3 27.4 29.8 43.0 14.8 28.1 20,952 Female 59.1 21.3 37.8 41.1 7.4 33.7 21,332 Age 0-4 54.4 0.1 54.2 46.1 0.3 45.8 4,283 5-29 54.9 14.4 40.5 45.3 2.9 42.4 19,758 30-59 61.8 43.1 18.8 38.3 22.9 15.4 15,041 60+ 66.3 29.4 36.8 34.0 20.6 13.4 3,203 Residence Urban 80.8 35.3 45.5 19.3 5.4 13.9 19,686 Rural 38.5 14.7 23.7 61.8 16.0 45.8 22,598 Region National Capital Region 94.1 45.1 49.0 6.0 2.5 3.5 5,666 Cordillera Admin Region 62.1 23.0 39.1 38.0 10.0 28.0 759 I - Ilocos Region 50.5 19.4 31.1 50.1 13.1 37.0 2,116 II - Cagayan Valley 48.0 17.8 30.2 52.0 12.9 39.1 1,519 III - Central Luzon 73.7 29.7 44.0 26.4 7.2 19.2 4,429 IVA - CALABARZON 81.4 33.8 47.7 18.8 5.3 13.5 5,559 IVB - MIMAROPA 27.7 10.4 17.2 72.7 17.5 55.2 1,033 V - Bicol 28.8 12.0 16.7 71.6 19.0 52.6 2,664 VI - Western Visayas 42.5 17.5 25.0 58.2 15.2 43.0 3,335 VII - Central Visayas 63.4 26.0 37.4 36.6 8.9 27.7 2,572 VIII - Eastern Visayas 29.3 12.5 16.8 71.3 21.4 49.9 1,940 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 29.8 11.1 18.7 70.3 17.3 52.9 1,864 X - Northern Mindanao 32.1 13.2 18.9 68.0 19.4 48.6 2,299 XI - Davao 63.6 25.0 38.7 36.4 8.7 27.7 2,372 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 51.5 20.1 31.4 48.5 12.2 36.3 1,944 XIII - Caraga 44.4 16.7 27.7 55.6 14.2 41.5 1,306 ARMM 17.7 4.7 13.0 82.3 15.7 66.6 907 Wealth quintile Lowest 10.5 3.2 7.3 89.7 20.2 69.5 8,642 Second 30.2 10.2 20.0 70.2 18.9 51.3 7,800 Middle 61.7 22.4 39.3 38.7 11.6 27.1 7,311 Fourth 85.4 35.6 49.9 14.7 4.9 9.8 8,335 Highest 95.3 45.2 50.1 4.8 2.0 2.8 10,196 Total 58.2 24.3 33.9 42.0 11.1 31.0 42,284 Health Care Utilization and Financing • 161 Figure 13.2 Among those with PhilHealth Insurance, percentage who are paying or indigent members/dependents Among persons covered by PhilHealth, coverage through the paying programs is highest in NCR at 94 percent while coverage through the PhilHealth indigent program is highest in ARMM at 82 percent. Moreover, coverage under the paying programs increases dramatically with economic status. Thus, among those covered by PhilHealth, 95 percent of those who belong to the highest wealth quintile are covered under the paying programs, while 90 percent of those who belong to the lowest wealth quintile are covered under the indigent program. 13.2 HEALTH CARE TREATMENT Table 13.3 shows that one in every 9 Filipinos either visited a health facility or sought advice/treatment in the 30 days before the survey (Figure 13.3). Among those who visited a health facility or sought advice/treatment, the proportion using public medical facilities and providers (7 percent) is about twice as large as those using private medical providers (4 percent). The use of alternative medical and non-medical providers combined is less than 1 percent. 58 42 24 11 34 31 Paying Indigent Total Member Dependent 162 • Health Care Utilization and Financing Table 13.3 Treatment seeking behavior Percentage of de jure household population who visited a health facility or sought advice or treatment in the 30 days before the survey by type of place first visited, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Any place Type of place Number Background characteristic Public medical Private medical Alternative medical Non-medical Other/missing Sex Male 9.3 5.9 3.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 35,170 Female 12.1 7.8 4.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 34,930 Age 0-4 32.2 23.2 8.2 0.5 0.2 0.1 7,391 5-29 7.4 5.0 2.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 34,154 30-59 7.5 4.3 3.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 23,050 60+ 15.7 7.3 8.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 5,500 Residence Urban 9.2 5.1 4.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 33,607 Rural 12.0 8.5 3.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 36,493 Region National Capital Region 8.1 4.8 3.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 10,440 Cordillera Admin Region 13.3 7.7 5.3 0.0 0.2 0.0 1,232 I - Ilocos Region 12.9 9.3 3.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 3,526 II - Cagayan Valley 12.7 9.0 3.5 0.0 0.1 0.1 2,512 III - Central Luzon 11.0 6.0 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 7,611 IVA - CALABARZON 10.2 5.9 4.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 9,387 IVB - MIMAROPA 14.1 10.6 3.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 1,825 V - Bicol 16.0 11.0 3.5 0.8 0.6 0.1 3,900 VI - Western Visayas 12.6 7.9 4.5 0.0 0.1 0.1 5,004 VII - Central Visayas 9.6 6.8 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 4,785 VIII - Eastern Visayas 13.4 8.5 3.9 0.7 0.1 0.2 2,812 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 10.0 7.6 2.3 0.0 0.1 0.1 2,918 X - Northern Mindanao 10.4 7.2 3.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 3,200 XI - Davao 7.2 4.4 2.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 3,615 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 11.3 7.7 3.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 3,327 XIII - Caraga 8.6 5.9 2.5 0.2 0.0 0.0 1,917 ARMM 6.4 4.8 1.4 0.1 0.0 0.1 2,087 Wealth quintile Lowest 11.9 10.4 1.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 14,025 Second 11.8 9.4 2.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 14,027 Middle 10.9 7.5 3.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 13,998 Fourth 9.8 4.8 4.8 0.1 0.1 0.0 14,023 Highest 9.1 2.3 6.6 0.0 0.1 0.1 14,027 Total 10.7 6.9 3.5 0.1 0.1 0.1 70,100 Note: Total includes 5 people with age missing. Table excludes 7 deceased persons listed as seeking advice or treatment. Health Care Utilization and Financing • 163 Figure 13.3 Percentage of household population who visited a health facility/provider in the 30 days preceding the survey Children below five and adults aged 60 and above are much more likely to seek health care compared to those who belong to the 5-59 age group. Almost one in three children under five years of age visited a health facility or sought advice or treatment in the 30 days preceding the survey. Use of health facilities is highest in Bicol (16 percent) and lowest in ARMM (6 percent). Females tend to visit a health facility or seek advice or treatment more often than their male counterparts. Likewise, the proportion of the population seeking advice or treatment is higher in rural areas (12 percent) than in urban areas (9 percent). The use of private health facilities increases with economic status, from 1 percent among persons in the lowest wealth quintile to seven percent among those in the highest wealth quintile. Table 13.4 provides information on specific types of facilities and providers (public and private) first visited by persons who sought advice or treatment in the 30 days preceding the survey. Of those who sought care, three in 10 persons visited a barangay health station. Two in 10 persons sought care at a private hospital/clinic, almost two in 10 went to a rural health unit (RHU) or an urban health center and one in 10 went to a private clinic for health care. Among regions, the proportion of those who sought care who visited regional hospitals and medical centers is highest in NCR (11 percent), Northern Mindanao (11 percent) and Davao (10 percent) as compared with other regions. The proportion who visited a provincial hospital is highest in CAR (12 percent), while the proportion who visited a barangay health station is highest in Zamboanga Peninsula (55 percent) and SOCCSKSARGEN (52 percent). Utilization of private hospitals and clinics is highest in Central Luzon (29 percent) and lowest in Bicol (7 percent). Did not visit  facility/provider 89 % Public medical 7 % Private medical 4 % Visited  facility/provider 11 % 16 4 • H ea lth C ar e U til iz at io n an d Fi na nc in g Ta bl e 13 .4 S pe ci fic ty pe s of h ea lth fa ci lit ie s ut iliz ed A m on g th os e de ju re m em be rs w ho v is ite d a he al th fa ci lit y or s ou gh t a dv ic e or tr ea tm en t i n th e 30 d ay s be fo re th e su rv ey , p er ce nt d is tri bu tio n by s pe ci fic ty pe o f p la ce fi rs t v is ite d, a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, P hi lip pi ne s 20 13 R eg io na l ho sp ita l/ m ed ic al ce nt er P ub lic P riv at e O th er To ta l N um be r B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic P ro vi nc ia l ho sp ita l D is tri ct ho sp ita l M un ic ip al ho sp ita l R H U / U rb an he al th ce nt er B ar an - ga y he al th st at io n M ob ile cl in ic / ot he r pu bl ic P riv at e ho sp ita l/ cl in ic P riv at e cl in ic O th er pr iv at e A lte r- na tiv e m ed ic al N on - m ed ic al O th er / m is si ng Se x M al e 5. 2 4. 9 3. 0 3. 7 18 .7 27 .6 0. 9 19 .8 11 .8 1. 6 1. 5 0. 8 0. 4 10 0. 0 3, 26 0 Fe m al e 4. 6 4. 0 3. 3 2. 7 17 .4 32 .0 0. 9 19 .2 11 .5 2. 1 1. 0 0. 8 0. 5 10 0. 0 4, 22 1 A ge 0- 4 3. 8 3. 0 2. 0 2. 8 21 .8 38 .2 0. 4 14 .4 9. 8 1. 4 1. 4 0. 5 0. 4 10 0. 0 2, 38 0 5- 29 4. 7 4. 5 3. 6 3. 7 19 .3 31 .2 1. 2 15 .6 11 .3 2. 0 1. 2 1. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 2, 51 1 30 -5 9 6. 6 5. 4 3. 3 3. 0 14 .0 24 .6 0. 9 24 .8 13 .0 2. 0 1. 2 0. 8 0. 3 10 0. 0 1, 72 6 60 + 5. 1 5. 7 4. 6 2. 6 11 .7 15 .3 1. 2 34 .3 14 .9 2. 5 0. 7 0. 7 0. 7 10 0. 0 86 4 R es id en ce U rb an 6. 3 4. 4 2. 6 2. 6 14 .6 24 .0 0. 8 26 .8 13 .7 2. 4 0. 6 0. 7 0. 5 10 0. 0 3, 10 8 R ur al 3. 9 4. 3 3. 6 3. 5 20 .4 34 .4 1. 0 14 .3 10 .2 1. 5 1. 6 0. 8 0. 5 10 0. 0 4, 37 4 R eg io n N at io na l C ap ita l R eg io n 11 .1 2. 0 2. 6 2. 5 26 .3 14 .3 0. 8 24 .3 12 .0 2. 5 0. 5 0. 3 0. 9 10 0. 0 84 8 C or di lle ra A dm in R eg io n 7. 4 12 .3 4. 0 4. 2 14 .4 15 .8 0. 0 22 .3 15 .8 2. 1 0. 0 1. 6 0. 2 10 0. 0 16 3 I - Il oc os R eg io n 3. 4 5. 1 3. 8 1. 9 28 .5 28 .7 0. 4 13 .7 11 .4 1. 5 1. 1 0. 2 0. 2 10 0. 0 45 7 II - C ag ay an V al le y 4. 4 7. 5 6. 9 6. 4 24 .4 21 .4 0. 2 13 .4 13 .4 0. 7 0. 2 0. 5 0. 5 10 0. 0 31 8 III - C en tra l L uz on 3. 8 7. 2 3. 9 1. 5 15 .3 22 .4 0. 9 29 .4 14 .5 0. 9 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 83 6 IV A - C A LA B A R ZO N 5. 5 4. 1 2. 7 4. 7 5. 9 34 .8 0. 3 24 .3 13 .5 2. 1 0. 5 1. 3 0. 3 10 0. 0 95 3 IV B - M IM A R O P A 1. 8 5. 9 3. 6 4. 9 23 .9 31 .7 3. 8 13 .3 7. 7 1. 3 2. 0 0. 0 0. 3 10 0. 0 25 7 V - B ic ol 2. 7 3. 2 1. 1 6. 0 22 .6 32 .4 0. 6 7. 3 11 .9 2. 9 4. 8 3. 9 0. 5 10 0. 0 62 5 V I - W es te rn V is ay as 2. 7 4. 1 4. 8 1. 9 20 .3 27 .7 1. 0 16 .6 15 .9 3. 6 0. 3 0. 5 0. 5 10 0. 0 62 8 V II - C en tra l V is ay as 3. 8 3. 7 3. 7 0. 9 20 .8 36 .5 0. 7 23 .0 4. 0 1. 4 0. 5 0. 0 0. 9 10 0. 0 46 0 V III - Ea st er n V is ay as 1. 0 3. 1 3. 3 3. 1 26 .2 22 .9 3. 6 13 .7 13 .9 1. 8 5. 2 0. 8 1. 5 10 0. 0 37 7 IX - Za m bo an ga P en in su la 3. 0 3. 8 1. 1 2. 4 10 .7 54 .9 0. 5 17 .0 5. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 5 10 0. 0 29 2 X - N or th er n M in da na o 10 .9 4. 6 0. 9 0. 3 12 .7 39 .6 0. 6 22 .1 4. 6 3. 1 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 33 1 X I - D av ao 10 .1 1. 9 4. 7 2. 7 10 .1 30 .3 1. 2 25 .3 12 .1 0. 8 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 26 0 X II - S O C C S K S A R G E N 1. 1 2. 1 2. 1 4. 2 5. 3 51 .6 1. 3 15 .9 11 .4 1. 3 2. 1 0. 8 0. 8 10 0. 0 37 7 X III - C ar ag a 2. 7 3. 7 2. 3 2. 0 23 .3 35 .3 0. 0 17 .7 8. 7 2. 3 2. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 16 4 A R M M 5. 0 5. 1 2. 8 7. 1 18 .9 36 .4 0. 0 11 .1 10 .9 0. 0 1. 1 0. 4 1. 3 10 0. 0 13 4 W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 3. 7 3. 4 2. 4 3. 0 22 .2 51 .4 1. 0 4. 4 3. 8 1. 6 1. 2 1. 0 1. 0 10 0. 0 1, 66 7 S ec on d 3. 9 4. 4 3. 6 4. 3 24 .0 38 .2 1. 7 8. 6 6. 2 1. 8 2. 1 0. 8 0. 3 10 0. 0 1, 64 8 M id dl e 5. 9 5. 3 3. 8 3. 3 21 .6 29 .1 0. 4 15 .3 11 .6 1. 7 0. 9 0. 8 0. 4 10 0. 0 1, 52 1 Fo ur th 6. 3 4. 7 3. 6 3. 4 13 .0 17 .1 1. 0 30 .7 16 .0 2. 3 1. 2 0. 6 0. 2 10 0. 0 1, 36 9 H ig he st 5. 0 4. 0 2. 4 1. 3 5. 8 6. 8 0. 3 46 .2 24 .4 2. 0 0. 5 0. 7 0. 6 10 0. 0 1, 27 6 To ta l 4. 9 4. 4 3. 2 3. 1 18 .0 30 .1 0. 9 19 .5 11 .7 1. 9 1. 2 0. 8 0. 5 10 0. 0 7, 48 2 N ot e: T ab le e xc lu de s 7 de ce as ed p er so ns li st ed a s se ek in g ad vi ce o r t re at m en t. 164 • Health Care Utilization and Financing Health Care Utilization and Financing • 165 The use of public health facilities tends to be higher in rural areas, while private facilities are more commonly used among those who visited a facility in urban areas. The use of RHUs/urban health centers and barangay health stations decreases as household wealth status increases. In contrast, the use of private hospitals/clinics and private clinics increases as wealth quintile increases. Table 13.5 and Figure 13.4 show that the more common reasons for visits to health facilities are illness or injury (61 percent) and medical checkups (23 percent). About 6 percent seek health care to satisfy NHTS/CCT/4Ps requirements and another 5 percent go for prenatal/postnatal checkup. Figure 13.4 Reasons for seeking health care   Sick/ injured, 61 Prenatal/ postnatal  checkup, 5 Gave birth, 1 Dental, 1 Medical  checkup, 23Medical  requirement, 1 NHTS/CCT/ 4Ps  requirement, 6 Immunization/ vaccination, 3 Table 13.5 Reason for seeking health care Among those who visited a health facility or sought advice or treatment in the 30 days before the survey, percent distribution by reason for seeking care, Philippines 2013 Reason Percent Sick/injured 60.5 Prenatal/postnatal checkup 4.8 Gave birth 0.5 Dental 1.0 Medical checkup 23.4 Medical requirement 0.9 NHTS/CCT/4Ps requirement 5.6 Immunization/vaccination 2.9 Family planning 0.2 Other 0.2 Total 100.0 Number 7,482 Note: If the respondent made two or more visits, only the reason for the first visit is tabulated. Table excludes 7 deceased persons listed as seeking advice or treatment. NHTS = National Household Targeting System CCT = Conditional Cash Transfer 4Ps = Pantawid Pamilyang Pilipino Program 166 • Health Care Utilization and Financing Persons who visited a health facility in the 30 days preceding the survey were asked how long it took to travel to the facility. Table 13.6 shows the average travel time to health facility visited. Overall, the average travel time is 34 minutes. Among regions, travel time is longest in ARMM (61 minutes) followed by CAR (50 minutes), Davao (48 minutes) and Cagayan Valley (47 minutes). On the other hand, the National Capital Region has the shortest travel time at 25 minutes. As expected, average travel time is longer for persons in rural areas (38 minutes) compared to those in urban areas (28 minutes). Looking at economic status, the average travel time was longest for persons in the lowest and highest wealth quintiles at 38 minutes. The survey results indicate that older people seeking care tend to have longer average travel times compared to younger people. 13.3 HOSPITAL CARE In the 2013 NDHS, respondents to the Household Questionnaire were asked if any member of their household had been confined (was an in-patient) in a hospital or clinic in the 12 months preceding the survey. Table 13.7 shows that only 5 percent of respondents were reported as having been confined in the past 12 months. As expected, children under the age of five and persons age 60 and older are more likely to report having been confined compared to persons age 5-59. The proportion of persons who were reported to have been confined in a public hospital or clinic (55 percent) is higher than those confined in a private facility (44 percent). Private hospitals account for the largest proportion (39 percent) of those reporting confinement, followed to a much lower degree by provincial hospitals (18 percent), regional hospitals (16 percent), and district hospitals (13 percent). Table 13.7 shows a number of differences in those reporting the use of public and private facilities. Persons age 60 and over are more likely to report having been confined in private hospitals compared to younger persons. Similarly, persons in urban areas (53 percent) are more likely to report using a private facility compared to those in rural areas (37 percent). The proportion who report having been confined in public hospitals ranges from 38 percent in SOCCSKSARGEN to 71 percent in CAR. Among those who report having been confined, the use of public facilities decreases as economic status increases, from 73 percent among persons in the lowest wealth quintile to 27 percent among those in the highest quintile. The proportion confined in public hospitals is higher for persons without insurance coverage (60 percent) than for those with PhilHealth (50 percent) coverage while the converse is reported for those confined in private facilities. Table 13.6 Average travel time to health facility visited Among those who visited a health facility or sought advice or treatment in the 30 days before the survey, average travel time to place first visited, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Average travel time in minutes Number Sex Male 33.5 3,238 Female 33.6 4,181 Age 0-4 25.9 2,358 5-29 31.0 2,489 30-59 39.6 1,714 60+ 49.8 859 Residence Urban 27.5 3,081 Rural 37.9 4,339 Region National Capital Region 24.5 842 Cordillera Admin Region 49.6 162 I - Ilocos Region 20.7 443 II - Cagayan Valley 47.3 318 III - Central Luzon 31.8 828 IVA - CALABARZON 29.9 938 IVB - MIMAROPA 43.7 255 V - Bicol 26.5 625 VI - Western Visayas 35.4 628 VII - Central Visayas 45.1 459 VIII - Eastern Visayas 32.2 376 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 33.4 292 X - Northern Mindanao 29.1 320 XI - Davao 48.2 260 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 36.7 377 XIII - Caraga 33.3 164 ARMM 60.9 132 Wealth quintile Lowest 37.6 1,658 Second 31.5 1,634 Middle 30.1 1,515 Fourth 31.0 1,354 Highest 37.8 1,258 Total 33.6 7,419 Note: Table includes only those who provided travel time. H ea lth C ar e U til iz at io n an d Fi na nc in g • 1 67 Ta bl e 13 .7 I n- pa tie nt h os pi ta l c ar e P er ce nt ag e of d e ju re h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n w ho w er e co nf in ed to a h os pi ta l o r c lin ic in th e 12 m on th s be fo re th e su rv ey , a nd a m on g th os e co nf in ed , p er ce nt d is tri bu tio n by ty pe o f f ac ili ty o f m os t re ce nt c on fin em en t, ac co rd in g to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, P hi lip pi ne s 20 13 P er ce nt - ag e co nf in ed N um be r A m on g th os e co nf in ed , t yp e of fa ci lit y To ta l N um be r co nf in ed B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic A ny pu bl ic R eg io na l ho sp ita l/ pu bl ic m ed ic al ce nt er P ro vi n- ci al ho sp ita l D is tri ct ho sp ita l M un i- ci pa l ho sp ita l P ub lic ly in g- in cl in ic / bi rth in g ho m e A ny pr iv at e P riv at e ho sp ita l P riv at e ly in g- in cl in ic / bi rth in g ho m e P riv at e cl in ic O th er / D on ’t kn ow / m is si ng Se x M al e 3. 7 35 ,1 70 55 .0 15 .2 20 .7 12 .1 6. 9 0. 1 44 .8 43 .8 0. 1 0. 9 0. 2 10 0. 0 1, 29 1 Fe m al e 5. 8 34 ,9 30 54 .4 16 .5 16 .3 13 .7 7. 5 0. 4 43 .5 36 .6 5. 0 1. 9 2. 2 10 0. 0 2, 01 4 A ge 0- 4 7. 6 7, 39 1 55 .9 12 .5 19 .9 15 .3 8. 1 0. 2 44 .1 42 .3 0. 5 1. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 56 4 5- 29 3. 6 34 ,1 54 60 .1 18 .5 19 .3 12 .6 9. 4 0. 3 37 .6 30 .7 5. 2 1. 6 2. 3 10 0. 0 1, 22 7 30 -5 9 4. 6 23 ,0 50 52 .5 16 .0 18 .1 12 .3 5. 7 0. 3 46 .2 41 .0 3. 2 2. 0 1. 4 10 0. 0 1, 05 1 60 + 8. 4 5, 50 0 43 .5 13 .5 12 .3 13 .5 4. 1 0. 0 55 .8 55 .4 0. 2 0. 3 0. 7 10 0. 0 46 2 R es id en ce U rb an 4. 6 33 ,6 07 46 .3 17 .7 14 .7 8. 1 5. 7 0. 1 52 .6 46 .2 4. 7 1. 6 1. 2 10 0. 0 1, 53 5 R ur al 4. 8 36 ,4 93 61 .9 14 .6 20 .9 17 .5 8. 6 0. 4 36 .5 33 .6 1. 6 1. 4 1. 6 10 0. 0 1, 77 0 R eg io n N at io na l C ap ita l R eg io n 3. 3 10 ,4 40 53 .2 30 .2 7. 5 10 .2 4. 9 0. 4 46 .0 35 .8 7. 9 2. 3 0. 8 10 0. 0 34 6 C or di lle ra A dm in R eg io n 6. 9 1, 23 2 71 .4 25 .9 25 .5 12 .5 7. 6 0. 0 28 .1 26 .8 0. 9 0. 4 0. 4 10 0. 0 85 I - Il oc os R eg io n 5. 3 3, 52 6 60 .6 8. 4 23 .6 21 .8 5. 8 1. 0 38 .9 38 .3 0. 5 0. 0 0. 5 10 0. 0 18 8 II - C ag ay an V al le y 6. 7 2, 51 2 70 .3 15 .4 19 .7 21 .7 13 .4 0. 0 28 .8 26 .9 0. 5 1. 4 0. 9 10 0. 0 16 9 III - C en tra l L uz on 4. 6 7, 61 1 51 .8 7. 5 21 .6 14 .0 8. 6 0. 0 47 .5 43 .2 2. 2 2. 1 0. 7 10 0. 0 34 8 IV A - C A LA B A R ZO N 4. 0 9, 38 7 44 .8 14 .9 15 .0 8. 0 7. 0 0. 0 52 .5 45 .1 6. 3 1. 2 2. 7 10 0. 0 37 4 IV B - M IM A R O P A 4. 3 1, 82 5 68 .3 5. 8 32 .5 10 .8 19 .2 0. 0 30 .9 30 .1 0. 8 0. 0 0. 8 10 0. 0 79 V - B ic ol 4. 7 3, 90 0 56 .9 18 .2 22 .7 8. 3 6. 6 1. 1 37 .6 30 .9 4. 4 2. 2 5. 5 10 0. 0 18 2 V I - W es te rn V is ay as 5. 0 5, 00 4 69 .2 13 .2 27 .8 22 .7 5. 1 0. 4 27 .8 24 .8 2. 1 0. 9 3. 0 10 0. 0 25 1 V II - C en tra l V is ay as 4. 8 4, 78 5 56 .7 14 .9 15 .4 22 .8 3. 7 0. 0 42 .8 38 .6 2. 8 1. 4 0. 5 10 0. 0 23 2 V III - Ea st er n V is ay as 4. 7 2, 81 2 56 .2 10 .4 19 .9 17 .8 7. 4 0. 7 40 .1 37 .1 2. 3 0. 7 3. 7 10 0. 0 13 1 IX - Za m bo an ga P en in su la 4. 7 2, 91 8 57 .3 23 .3 19 .3 6. 8 7. 4 0. 6 41 .0 40 .4 0. 0 0. 6 1. 7 10 0. 0 13 8 X - N or th er n M in da na o 4. 9 3, 20 0 47 .5 12 .9 27 .5 3. 2 3. 9 0. 0 52 .5 49 .9 1. 3 1. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 15 6 X I - D av ao 6. 5 3, 61 5 39 .8 22 .1 6. 1 9. 1 2. 6 0. 0 60 .2 55 .9 2. 6 1. 7 0. 0 10 0. 0 23 3 X II - S O C C S K S A R G E N 7. 1 3, 32 7 37 .7 7. 2 11 .4 5. 1 14 .0 0. 0 61 .9 57 .6 2. 1 2. 1 0. 4 10 0. 0 23 6 X III - C ar ag a 5. 0 1, 91 7 68 .9 23 .0 15 .5 25 .2 4. 6 0. 6 30 .6 26 .5 3. 4 0. 6 0. 6 10 0. 0 95 A R M M 3. 0 2, 08 7 69 .8 27 .2 24 .4 4. 5 13 .7 0. 0 30 .2 22 .8 0. 8 6. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 62 W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 4. 1 14 ,0 25 73 .1 17 .0 25 .3 16 .5 13 .5 0. 7 25 .1 19 .2 3. 7 2. 1 1. 8 10 0. 0 57 0 S ec on d 4. 5 14 ,0 27 68 .6 19 .4 21 .1 17 .8 9. 9 0. 4 29 .1 25 .4 1. 4 2. 3 2. 3 10 0. 0 63 0 M id dl e 4. 9 13 ,9 98 64 .3 17 .3 22 .9 15 .9 8. 1 0. 2 34 .5 29 .7 4. 1 0. 8 1. 1 10 0. 0 68 8 Fo ur th 4. 9 14 ,0 23 45 .7 14 .3 15 .6 10 .8 4. 8 0. 1 52 .8 47 .2 4. 5 1. 1 1. 6 10 0. 0 68 9 H ig he st 5. 2 14 ,0 27 27 .4 12 .7 7. 3 5. 9 1. 5 0. 0 72 .3 69 .2 1. 7 1. 4 0. 3 10 0. 0 72 8 In su ra nc e st at us N ot in su re d 5. 5 25 ,9 13 60 .4 18 .7 18 .0 15 .2 8. 2 0. 3 37 .7 32 .3 3. 3 2. 2 1. 8 10 0. 0 1, 41 4 In su re d w ith P hi lH ea lth 4. 3 42 ,2 84 50 .4 14 .2 18 .1 11 .5 6. 5 0. 2 48 .5 44 .7 2. 7 1. 0 1. 1 10 0. 0 1, 82 9 In su re d pr iv at e 2. 9 1, 76 2 48 .3 12 .0 17 .6 12 .1 5. 2 1. 6 51 .7 44 .0 7. 7 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 51 To ta l 4. 7 70 ,1 00 54 .6 16 .0 18 .0 13 .1 7. 2 0. 3 44 .0 39 .4 3. 1 1. 5 1. 4 10 0. 0 3, 30 5 N ot e: T ot al in cl ud es 1 2 pe op le w ith in su ra nc e st at us m is si ng Health Care Utilization and Financing • 167 168 • Health Care Utilization and Financing Table 13.8 presents information on several aspects of in- patient care including the reason for the confinement, the length of the stay, and the cost of the confinement. More than three-fourths (76 percent) of those confined in a health facility in the 12 months preceding the survey were confined because of sickness or injury, while 23 percent report childbirth as the reason for confinement. Around one-fourth of those who were confined in the past 12 months report being confined for 6 days or more, while about half report being confined for 3 days or less. About 2 in 10 of those who report having been confined said they paid 20,000 pesos or more, while three in 10 said they paid 5,000 pesos or less for their treatment. 13.4 COST OF TREATMENT As shown in Table 13.9, the average travel cost for persons who visited a health facility or provider in the 30 days preceding the survey is 69 pesos, while the average cost of treatment is 1,044 pesos. For persons who are confined in the facility, the average cost of treatment is 16,052 pesos. As expected, the cost of health care received in private facilities is substantially higher than the cost of care received in public facilities. The average cost of treatment for a visit to a private health facility (2,268 pesos) is almost five times the cost of a visit to a public health facility (455 pesos). Similarly, the average cost of in-patient care at private facilities (25,471 pesos) is almost three times that of confinement at a public facility (8,640 pesos). Less than half of the average hospital bill is paid by PhilHealth, perhaps in part because not everyone has PhilHealth coverage. Table 13.9 Average costs of care Average costs (in pesos) for various aspects of medical care, Philippines 2013 Any facility Public facility Private facility Type of care Mean cost Number Mean cost Number Mean cost Number For those who visited a health facility in the last 30 days Average cost of transport 69 7,434 44 4,800 122 2,450 Average cost of treatment 1,044 7,390 455 4,781 2,268 2,431 For those confined to a hospital or clinic in the last 12 months Average cost of medicines/services from outside pharmacy/lab 4,663 2,317 3,924 1,508 6,184 783 Average paid from salary/loan/sale of property 4,377 2,300 3,622 1,494 5,908 780 Average paid by PhilHealth 253 2,298 192 1,492 380 779 Average total hospital bill 16,052 3,214 8,640 1,746 25,471 1,423 Average paid from salary/loan/sale of property 11,233 3,067 5,597 1,633 18,100 1,390 Average paid by PhilHealth 5,049 3,040 3,221 1,620 7,278 1,376 Table 13.8 Aspects of in-patient care Among those de jure household members confined in a hospital or clinic in the 12 months before the survey, percent distribution by reason for confinement, length of confinement and cost of confinement, Philippines 2013 Characteristic of confinement Percentage Reason Sick/injured 75.5 Birth/miscarriage 23.0 Executive checkup 0.5 Missing 1.0 Total 100.0 Length of stay Less than 1 day 0.2 1 day 11.2 2 days 15.5 3 days 24.4 4 days 12.4 5 days 9.9 6 or more days 25.4 Still confined 0.9 Don’t know/missing 0.1 Total 100.0 Cost in pesos (including donations) Free 4.0 < 5,000 32.1 5,000-9,999 20.7 10,000-14,999 12.6 15,000-19,999 8.3 20,000 or more 19.6 Still in hospital/in kind 1.1 Don’t know/missing 1.6 Total 100.0 Type of payment for in-patient care Cost or stated no cost 96.1 Donation 1.2 Still confined/in kind/DK/missing 2.7 Total 100.0 Number 3,305 Women’s Empowerment • 169 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT 14 his chapter examines and evaluates indicators of women’s empowerment including women’s employment status, employed women’s control over their earnings, women’s ownership of assets, women’s participation in decision making and women’s attitudes towards wife beating and examines their relationship with selected demographic and health outcomes, including contraceptive use, ideal family size, unmet need for family planning, and child mortality. The Philippines has made improvements in elevating awareness of gender equality and promoting empowerment of women. In 2009, the government ratified landmark legislation for gender equality known as the Magna Carta of Women (MCW) which established further its thrust to protect and promote Filipino women’s human rights as it continues to institutionalize gender concerns in the mainstream development process. Philippines is the only country in Asia to fully close the gender gap in education and health and one of only eight countries in the world to do so. The 2010 Global Gender Gap Report of the World Economic Forum affirms these facts, as well as the fact that it has closed 77 percent of its gender gap, ranking 9th in the world. In the 2013 Global Gender Gap Report, the Philippines ranks 5th out of 136 countries, making it the only Asian country to enter the top ten since 2006. The Global Gender Gap Report’s Index assess countries on how well they divide resources and opportunities between male and female populations, regardless of the overall levels of these resources. The report measures the size of the gender inequality gap in four areas, namely: economic participation and opportunity, educational attainment, political empowerment, and health and survival (World T Key Findings • Over 6 in 10 currently married women (61 percent) age 15-49 reported being employed in the 12 months before the survey. Forty-six percent of married women with cash earnings decide themselves how their earnings are used, while more than half (51 percent) say that they decide jointly with their husband. • One-third of all women age 15-49 own a house either alone or jointly with someone else, while 18 percent of women own land. • A high percentage of married women say they mainly make decisions themselves about their own health care (52 percent) and purchases for daily household needs (61 percent); however women say they are more likely to make decisions jointly with their husbands about making major household purchases (66 percent) and visits to her family or relatives (69 percent). • Support for wife beating is not high in the Philippines; only 13 percent of women age 15-49 agree that a husband is justified in beating his wife for at least one of the specified reasons, a slight decline from 14 percent in 2008. • Unmet need for family planning generally decreases with increasing participation in household decision-making. The findings show that women who participate in three to four decisions have the lowest unmet need for family planning with 17 percent. 170 • Women’s Empowerment Economic Forum, 2013). The 2013 NDHS Women’s Questionnaire collected information on general background characteristics including age, education, and household wealth status, for women age 15-49. For the first time, data on ownership of assets was collected. Data on other measures of women’s autonomy and status, particularly women’s roles in making household decisions were collected first in 2008 and again in 2013. Information collected in the survey is used to estimate two indicators of women’s empowerment: women’s participation in household decision making and women’s acceptance of wife beating. The extent to which women’s empowerment is related to health outcomes (such as reproductive health care practices, contraceptive use, unmet need, and child mortality) is also observed. 14.1 EMPLOYMENT AND FORM OF EARNINGS In the 2013 NDHS, women were asked whether they were employed at the time of survey and, if not, whether they were employed at any time during the 12 months preceding the survey. Table 14.1 shows the percentage of currently married women 15-49 who were employed at any time in the past 12 months, and the percent distribution of currently married women employed in the past 12 months by type of earnings they received (cash, in-kind, both, or not paid). Table 14.1 Employment and cash earnings of currently married women Percentage of currently married women 15-49 who were employed at any time in the past 12 months and the percent distribution of currently married women employed in the past 12 months by type of earnings, according to age, Philippines 2013 Among currently married respondents: Percent distribution of currently married respondents employed in the past 12 months, by type of earnings Total Number of women Age Percentage employed in past 12 months Number of respondents Cash only Cash and in-kind In-kind only Not paid Missing/ don't know 15-19 37.1 313 83.6 10.1 0.4 5.9 0.0 100.0 116 20-24 44.9 1,196 83.2 4.5 1.0 11.3 0.0 100.0 537 25-29 50.1 1,484 81.9 5.9 0.8 11.2 0.2 100.0 744 30-34 60.8 1,862 82.9 5.8 0.9 10.4 0.1 100.0 1,132 35-39 66.0 1,725 84.4 3.9 0.9 10.8 0.1 100.0 1,139 40-44 70.2 1,638 82.1 4.7 0.9 12.4 0.0 100.0 1,149 45-49 73.6 1,511 79.7 5.7 1.0 13.6 0.0 100.0 1,113 Total 15-49 61.0 9,729 82.3 5.2 0.9 11.6 0.1 100.0 5,930 A great majority (61 percent) of currently married women 15-49 reported being employed in the 12 months before the survey (Figure 14.1), only one percentage point higher than in 2008 (60 percent). The proportion of employed women increases directly with age, from 37 percent among married women age 15-19 (school age population) to 74 percent among women age 45-49. Most employed women earn cash, either cash only (82 percent) or cash and in-kind (5 percent). Although employment is assumed to generate income, not all women receive earnings for the work they do. Overall, 12 percent of married women who are employed received no pay for their work in the past 12 months. Women’s Empowerment • 171 14.2 CONTROLS OVER EARNINGS 14.2.1 Control over and Relative Magnitude of Women’s Earnings In addition to being employed, control over earnings is another dimension of empowerment. In the 2013 NDHS, currently married women who were employed with cash earnings in the 12 months before the survey were asked who usually decides on how the money she earns will be used: mainly the woman herself, mainly her husband, the woman and her husband jointly, or someone else. Also as a measure of the extent of women’s empowerment within the household, married women were asked about the relative magnitude of their earnings compared with their husband’s earnings. Table 14.2 shows information about control over women’s cash earnings and relative magnitude of women’s cash earnings according to background characteristics. Overall, 46 percent of married women who have their own cash earnings mainly decide by themselves how their earnings should be spent, while 51 percent of the married women surveyed said that they make decisions jointly with their husband. Only three percent of women said that their husband mainly decides how their earnings are used. Since the 2008 NDHS, there has been an increase in the proportion of married women who say that they mainly decide for themselves how their earnings should be spent (from 41 percent in 2008 to 46 percent in 2013) and a small decrease in the proportion of married women who say that they make decisions jointly with their husband (from 54 percent in 2008 to 51 percent in 2013). Married women are more likely to make independent decisions about spending their earnings if they are under age 20 (55 percent), have no education (52 percent), and reside in urban areas (49 percent). 61 82 5 1 12 Employed in past 12  months Cash only Cash and in‐kind In‐kind only Not paid Figure 14.1 Type of Earnings of Employed  Currently Married Women   Type of earnings  NDHS 2013 Percent of Women  172 • Women’s Empowerment Table 14.2 Control over women's cash earnings and relative magnitude of women's cash earnings Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 who received cash earnings for employment in the 12 months preceding the survey by person who decides how wife's cash earnings are used and by whether she earned more or less than her husband, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Person who decides how the wife's cash earnings are used: Total Wife's cash earnings compared with husband's cash earnings: Total Number of women Background characteristic Mainly wife Wife and husband jointly Mainly husband Other Missing More Less About the same Husband has no earnings Don't know/ Missing Age 15-19 54.7 38.8 6.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 20.2 61.1 15.9 2.8 0.0 100.0 109 20-24 52.1 44.4 3.0 0.3 0.2 100.0 22.8 58.4 16.4 1.7 0.8 100.0 472 25-29 46.5 50.2 2.8 0.0 0.5 100.0 19.7 55.4 21.4 2.7 0.9 100.0 653 30-34 39.9 56.6 3.3 0.0 0.2 100.0 21.3 57.8 18.5 1.8 0.6 100.0 1,003 35-39 44.5 51.1 3.9 0.0 0.5 100.0 18.9 57.6 19.6 2.7 1.2 100.0 1,005 40-44 43.9 53.3 2.5 0.0 0.3 100.0 21.5 56.1 20.2 1.5 0.6 100.0 997 45-49 49.3 47.7 2.5 0.0 0.4 100.0 23.7 49.9 21.8 3.8 0.8 100.0 951 Number of living children 0 47.4 47.1 5.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 19.8 56.5 19.9 2.9 0.8 100.0 449 1-2 44.1 52.5 2.9 0.1 0.4 100.0 22.9 53.8 19.6 2.9 0.9 100.0 2,229 3-4 45.8 51.0 2.8 0.0 0.4 100.0 21.0 56.1 20.1 2.2 0.6 100.0 1,635 5+ 47.7 48.9 3.1 0.0 0.3 100.0 18.2 60.2 19.4 1.3 1.0 100.0 875 Residence Urban 48.9 47.7 2.9 0.1 0.5 100.0 23.6 52.1 20.3 3.0 1.0 100.0 2,633 Rural 42.1 54.4 3.3 0.0 0.2 100.0 18.7 59.6 19.2 1.8 0.6 100.0 2,556 Region National Capital Region 49.3 46.2 4.1 0.0 0.3 100.0 24.3 46.2 24.2 4.2 1.0 100.0 796 Cordillera Admin Region 39.0 57.6 3.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 16.7 62.9 18.5 1.1 0.8 100.0 99 I - Ilocos Region 39.6 57.1 2.9 0.0 0.4 100.0 20.1 63.2 13.8 2.5 0.4 100.0 234 II - Cagayan Valley 36.9 58.9 4.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 7.8 61.6 29.6 0.3 0.6 100.0 244 III - Central Luzon 54.9 41.5 2.2 0.0 1.5 100.0 23.5 55.5 16.7 2.4 1.9 100.0 516 IVA - CALABARZON 40.7 55.6 3.3 0.2 0.2 100.0 19.6 55.3 20.3 2.9 1.8 100.0 700 IVB - MIMAROPA 27.7 71.5 0.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 17.6 60.5 20.6 1.3 0.0 100.0 154 V - Bicol 35.6 59.9 4.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 21.0 59.0 19.0 0.7 0.4 100.0 291 VI - Western Visayas 50.3 45.9 3.5 0.0 0.3 100.0 14.8 67.3 14.2 3.5 0.3 100.0 340 VII - Central Visayas 45.9 50.5 2.7 0.0 0.8 100.0 24.5 51.9 21.4 1.4 0.8 100.0 392 VIII - Eastern Visayas 48.6 49.3 2.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 16.2 67.2 14.1 2.5 0.0 100.0 226 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 52.2 45.1 2.2 0.0 0.4 100.0 26.3 42.4 27.7 3.1 0.4 100.0 173 X - Northern Mindanao 56.5 42.0 1.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 27.3 57.0 14.4 1.4 0.0 100.0 208 XI - Davao 46.6 51.1 2.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 25.6 51.1 21.1 1.9 0.3 100.0 311 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 43.7 52.3 4.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 23.5 55.6 19.2 1.7 0.0 100.0 298 XIII - Caraga 43.2 52.7 3.6 0.0 0.5 100.0 19.8 63.9 14.0 1.8 0.5 100.0 120 ARMM 44.1 51.9 3.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 23.3 58.5 15.4 2.8 0.0 100.0 86 Education No education 51.5 46.2 2.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 10.4 66.5 22.4 0.8 0.0 100.0 63 Elementary 47.0 49.8 2.9 0.0 0.4 100.0 15.8 61.1 20.9 1.5 0.7 100.0 978 High school 46.2 50.0 3.4 0.0 0.4 100.0 16.8 60.5 19.7 2.1 0.8 100.0 2,260 College 43.7 52.9 2.9 0.1 0.3 100.0 29.7 47.0 19.2 3.3 0.8 100.0 1,888 Wealth quintile Lowest 44.8 52.4 2.6 0.0 0.1 100.0 14.0 67.4 17.4 1.0 0.2 100.0 872 Second 48.8 48.1 2.9 0.0 0.3 100.0 18.4 58.1 20.4 2.4 0.7 100.0 959 Middle 48.6 48.4 2.7 0.0 0.3 100.0 24.0 56.3 16.7 2.2 0.7 100.0 1,036 Fourth 41.6 54.1 4.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 22.0 50.6 23.7 2.8 0.9 100.0 1,143 Highest 44.6 51.4 3.2 0.1 0.7 100.0 25.7 49.9 19.9 3.3 1.3 100.0 1,179 Total 45.5 51.0 3.1 0.0 0.4 100.0 21.2 55.8 19.8 2.4 0.8 100.0 5,189 Across administrative regions, four regions have a majority of married women who mainly make their own decisions on how their earnings should be spent--Northern Mindanao (57 percent), Central Luzon (55 percent), Zamboanga Peninsula (52 percent), and Western Visayas (50 percent). MIMAROPA has the highest proportion of married women who mainly make joint decisions with their husband (72 percent), while Central Luzon and Northern Mindanao have the lowest (42 percent each). Married women’s decision making power regarding their earnings shows no clear pattern by household wealth status. This has been true since 2008. Women’s Empowerment • 173 Findings on women’s cash earnings relative to those of their husband is also presented in Table 14.2. Almost three in five married women earn less than their husbands, while about one in five reported that their income was about the same as their husband’s and another one in five reported that they earn more than their husband. Across all background characteristics, married women are the most likely to report that they earned less than their husband. Married urban women, women in Northern Mindanao, those with more education, and those in the higher wealth quintiles are more likely to earn more than their husbands. 14.2.2 Women’s Control over Their Own Earnings and over Those of Their Husbands Table 14.3 presents information on currently married women who earned cash in the past 12 months by the person who decides how their cash earnings are used, according to whether she earns more or less than her husband. The table also shows information for all currently married women whose husbands earned cash in the past 12 months about who decides how their husband’s cash earnings are used, according to the relation between wife’s and husband’s cash earnings. Results show that women who earn more than their husbands are more likely to be the one who mainly decides how their own earnings will be used (52 percent). Women whose cash earnings are the same as their husband’s are the least likely to make their own decisions about their earnings (34 percent) and are much more likely to make decisions jointly with their husbands (63 percent). These patterns are similar to those observed in the 2008 NDHS. Regardless of the women’s earnings relative to husband’s earnings, the woman and her husband are more likely to make joint decisions concerning the use of the husband’s earnings. Overall, 61 percent of women say they make joint decisions versus 31 percent who say they alone mainly decide how to use their husbands’ earnings. Similar patterns can be seen for each category of women’s earnings relative to husband’s earnings. Table 14.3 Women's control over their own earnings and over those of their husbands Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 with cash earnings in the last 12 months by person who decides how the wife's cash earnings are used and percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 whose husbands have cash earnings by person who decides how the husband's cash earnings are used, according to the relation between wife's and husband's cash earnings, Philippines 2013 Person who decides how the wife's cash earnings are used: Total Number Person who decides how husband's cash earnings are used: Total Number of women Women's earnings relative to husband's earnings Mainly wife Wife and husband jointly Mainly husband Other/ Miss- ing Mainly wife Wife and husband jointly Mainly husband Other/ Miss- ing More than husband 51.9 45.5 2.6 0.0 100.0 1,102 38.1 53.2 8.6 0.1 100.0 1,102 Less than husband 47.2 49.4 3.3 0.1 100.0 2,895 30.9 61.3 7.7 0.1 100.0 2,895 Same as husband 33.7 63.0 3.4 0.0 100.0 1,025 25.2 68.2 6.6 0.0 100.0 1,025 Husband has no cash earnings or did not work 51.4 47.6 1.0 0.0 100.0 125 na na na na na na Woman worked but has no cash earnings na na na na na na 26.2 66.8 7.0 0.0 100.0 740 Woman did not work na na na na na na 31.2 59.7 8.6 0.4 100.0 3,760 Total 45.5 51.0 3.1 0.4 100.0 5,189 30.9 60.9 8.0 0.3 100.0 9,564 na = Not Applicable 1 Includes cases (42) where a woman does not know whether she earned more or less than her husband 174 • Women’s Empowerment 14.3 OWNERSHIP OF ASSETS There is increasing evidence that ownership of property by women has positive consequences for women’s empowerment, nutritional and health outcomes, and children’s schooling. Ownership implies that the house or land is legally registered in the woman’s name or since official property records do not always exist or are not maintained, the house or land is recognized as hers and cannot be sold without her signature or equivalent. Data collected in the 2013 NDHS concern whether the respondent owns a house or land either by herself or jointly with someone else. For this indicator, ‘house’ means all dwelling types including apartments, duplexes, and houses that are semi-detached or detached, etc., as well as other types of dwellings like town houses and condo units, while ‘land’ refers to ownership of land of any type, amount or purpose of the land. Table 14.4 shows that 34 percent of women age 15-49 own a house either alone or jointly with someone else. Ten percent of women own a house alone, while 19 percent own a house jointly with someone else, and 4 percent own a house alone and jointly with someone else. The percentage of women who own land is even lower at 18 percent. Seven percent of women say they own land alone, 9 percent of women own land jointly with someone else, and 2 percent own land alone and jointly with someone else. Ownership of a house and land increases with age of women. Women in rural areas are more likely to own a house (40 percent) and land (20 percent) than women in urban areas (27 percent and 16 percent, respectively). Less educated women are more likely to own both a house and land than better educated women. House ownership is highest among women in the poorest wealth quintile, while land ownership does not vary much with wealth status. Across the 17 regions, the proportion of women who own a house is highest in MIMAROPA (49 percent) and lowest in NCR (18 percent), while the proportion who own land is highest in Cagayan Valley (37 percent) and lowest in NCR (11 percent), Western Visayas (11 percent) and Eastern Visayas (12 percent). 14.4 PARTICIPATION IN DECISION MAKING Women’s participation in decision making is a key indication of women’s empowerment. The 2013 NDHS obtained information on women’s ability to make decisions in the household pertaining to their own health care, major purchases, purchases for daily household needs, and visits to their family or relatives. Table 14.5 shows that over half of currently married women (52 percent) mainly decided themselves about their own health care, while 61 percent of women mainly decided alone on purchases for daily household needs, 20 percent of women made decisions themselves regarding major household purchases, and 24 percent of women mainly decided on their own about visits to their family or relatives. The percentage of women who said that they jointly made decisions with their husbands is highest in the case of visits to family or relatives (69 percent) and lowest in the case of purchases for daily household needs (32 percent). Women’s Empowerment • 175 Table 14.4 Ownership of assets Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by ownership of housing and land, according to background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage who own a house: Percent- age who do not own a house Total Percentage who own land: Percent- age who do not own land Total Number Background characteristic Alone Jointly Alone and jointly Alone Jointly Alone and jointly Age 15-19 1.9 2.0 0.5 95.6 100.0 0.8 1.1 0.3 97.8 100.0 3,237 20-24 3.3 7.1 1.3 88.3 100.0 2.5 3.5 0.7 93.3 100.0 2,789 25-29 7.3 15.2 4.1 73.4 100.0 5.0 6.0 2.1 86.9 100.0 2,156 30-34 10.8 23.3 5.2 60.7 100.0 8.3 10.4 2.9 78.4 100.0 2,250 35-39 13.5 30.3 8.0 48.1 100.0 8.9 14.5 4.1 72.5 100.0 1,976 40-44 17.4 35.1 7.9 39.6 100.0 11.5 16.9 3.7 67.8 100.0 1,924 45-49 20.8 37.4 7.9 33.9 100.0 14.0 20.5 4.3 61.2 100.0 1,823 Residence Urban 9.6 13.9 3.3 73.1 100.0 5.7 8.1 2.0 84.3 100.0 8,585 Rural 9.4 24.7 5.6 60.2 100.0 7.3 10.4 2.7 79.6 100.0 7,570 Region National Capital Region 9.5 5.6 2.8 82.1 100.0 5.5 4.2 1.5 88.8 100.0 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 5.2 21.9 3.3 69.6 100.0 7.7 15.8 2.4 74.0 100.0 252 I - Ilocos Region 5.6 19.3 4.8 70.3 100.0 6.1 11.2 3.1 79.6 100.0 691 II - Cagayan Valley 17.2 20.6 5.4 56.6 100.0 19.9 13.0 3.6 63.5 100.0 550 III - Central Luzon 14.8 16.9 1.8 66.5 100.0 8.3 9.9 1.4 80.4 100.0 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 13.5 17.7 1.6 67.1 100.0 5.5 9.9 0.8 83.8 100.0 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 21.6 25.8 2.1 50.6 100.0 12.3 9.3 0.9 77.5 100.0 372 V - Bicol 4.8 27.7 4.1 63.4 100.0 4.4 10.5 0.9 84.2 100.0 798 VI - Western Visayas 4.6 27.2 6.8 61.4 100.0 4.0 6.6 0.6 88.8 100.0 996 VII - Central Visayas 5.5 26.4 10.3 57.7 100.0 5.7 13.1 6.7 74.5 100.0 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 5.9 24.8 3.9 65.4 100.0 4.4 5.7 1.4 88.5 100.0 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 8.8 21.2 6.6 63.4 100.0 6.7 8.7 3.5 81.0 100.0 725 X - Northern Mindanao 5.7 20.7 9.1 64.4 100.0 5.3 10.1 3.3 81.3 100.0 697 XI - Davao 5.2 23.9 6.1 64.6 100.0 5.3 14.5 5.0 75.2 100.0 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 6.2 28.4 4.2 61.1 100.0 5.7 12.1 3.1 79.2 100.0 744 XIII - Caraga 10.6 25.5 8.4 55.5 100.0 6.8 9.9 3.6 79.6 100.0 435 ARMM 10.5 15.3 4.4 69.6 100.0 7.5 4.8 2.9 84.6 100.0 465 Education No education 10.4 33.8 9.5 46.3 100.0 6.8 16.5 4.7 72.0 100.0 188 Elementary 12.7 30.4 7.4 49.4 100.0 7.6 11.2 3.1 78.2 100.0 2,593 High school 8.1 17.7 3.7 70.4 100.0 5.0 7.7 1.8 85.5 100.0 7,916 College 9.9 14.9 3.9 71.3 100.0 8.0 10.0 2.6 79.3 100.0 5,458 Wealth quintile Lowest 8.9 31.7 8.0 51.4 100.0 5.1 8.8 2.7 83.4 100.0 2,620 Second 8.8 20.4 4.8 66.0 100.0 5.3 7.1 2.0 85.6 100.0 2,886 Middle 8.4 16.6 3.7 71.3 100.0 5.3 8.0 2.2 84.5 100.0 3,199 Fourth 9.9 14.6 3.4 72.1 100.0 6.5 9.1 2.2 82.1 100.0 3,572 Highest 11.0 15.4 3.2 70.4 100.0 9.2 12.0 2.4 76.5 100.0 3,878 Total 9.5 19.0 4.4 67.1 100.0 6.5 9.2 2.3 82.1 100.0 16,155 Table 14.5 Participation in decision making Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 by person who usually makes decisions about various issues, Philippines 2013 Decision Mainly wife Wife and husband jointly Mainly husband Someone else Other/ Missing Total Number of women Woman’s own health care 51.7 44.7 3.3 0.2 0.1 100.0 9,729 Major household purchases 19.6 65.7 11.9 1.2 1.6 100.0 9,729 Purchases for daily household needs 60.6 31.8 5.5 1.5 0.6 100.0 9,729 Visits to her family or relatives 24.1 69.1 5.6 0.4 0.8 100.0 9,729 To evaluate women’s participation in decision making, the proportions of women who make decisions alone and jointly with their husband can be combined. The total number of decisions in which a woman participates is a measure of her empowerment. Figure 14.2 presents the percent distribution of married women by the number of decisions in which the women participate alone or jointly with their husband. Only 1 percent of women are not involved in making any of the four types of decisions, while almost 8 in 10 women say they participate in all four types of decisions. 176 • Women’s Empowerment As observed, currently married women participate in many household decisions. Table 14.6 shows the percentage of currently married women age 15-49 who usually make specific decisions either by themselves or jointly with their husband, according to background characteristics. The percentage of women who usually participate in all of the four specific decisions increases with age, from 57 percent among women age 15-19 to 83 percent among women age 45-49. It also tends to increase with the number of living children. Urban-rural residence does not seem to make a difference in women’s participation in household decision making. Filipino women who attended college, those employed with cash earnings and those who belong to the wealthiest families are more likely to participate in making all of the four decisions than women in other categories, although the differences are not large. Across regions, women’s participation in all four decisions ranges as low as 63 percent in Bicol region and as high as 87 percent in Cagayan Valley. 1 2 5 16 77 0 1 2 3 4 Figure 14.2 Number of Decisions in Which Currently Married Women Participate Number of decisions  NDHS 2013 Percent of Women  Women’s Empowerment • 177 Table 14.6 Women's participation in decision making by background characteristics Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 who usually make specific decisions either by themselves or jointly with their husband, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Specific decisions All four decisions None of the four decisions Number of women Background characteristic Woman's own health care Major household purchases Purchases for daily household needs Visits to her family or relatives Age 15-19 87.8 66.4 74.8 89.7 56.9 2.6 313 20-24 95.0 80.5 87.1 91.5 70.0 0.9 1,196 25-29 96.5 85.3 91.2 93.5 77.0 0.7 1,484 30-34 96.5 85.6 93.4 92.3 77.4 0.7 1,862 35-39 96.9 86.6 94.1 93.5 79.5 0.7 1,725 40-44 97.2 86.7 95.3 94.2 80.0 0.4 1,638 45-49 97.6 89.4 95.4 94.7 82.8 0.7 1,511 Employment (last 12 months) Not employed 95.5 82.2 91.2 92.5 74.3 1.0 3,796 Employed for cash 97.2 87.4 93.3 93.8 79.5 0.5 5,189 Employed not for cash 96.0 86.3 92.9 93.0 78.6 0.9 738 Number of living children 0 94.4 79.7 86.4 92.5 70.8 0.5 744 1-2 96.2 85.2 91.9 93.0 77.3 1.0 4,433 3-4 97.0 85.4 94.0 93.6 78.1 0.5 2,926 5+ 96.8 87.6 93.8 93.4 79.6 0.5 1,625 Residence Urban 96.6 84.5 92.2 93.2 77.1 0.8 4,734 Rural 96.3 86.0 92.7 93.1 77.7 0.7 4,995 Region National Capital Region 97.3 86.2 92.8 92.2 78.7 0.9 1,475 Cordillera Admin Region 96.8 90.3 92.0 86.8 75.6 0.2 151 I - Ilocos Region 98.7 88.9 92.6 91.1 78.7 0.0 460 II - Cagayan Valley 97.1 92.4 93.7 94.5 86.5 1.2 376 III - Central Luzon 97.0 84.6 94.7 93.9 78.7 0.7 1,052 IVA - CALABARZON 97.6 85.7 93.8 95.0 80.2 0.6 1,349 IVB - MIMAROPA 96.7 84.4 95.6 91.3 75.1 0.8 252 V - Bicol 95.1 74.0 82.3 85.7 62.9 2.0 511 VI - Western Visayas 96.0 80.3 92.3 92.9 71.6 0.2 636 VII - Central Visayas 96.6 86.1 90.9 95.9 77.7 0.2 636 VIII - Eastern Visayas 94.8 84.4 90.3 93.5 76.3 0.3 370 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 93.6 88.0 92.9 91.5 78.0 1.3 425 X - Northern Mindanao 97.4 81.9 91.0 96.0 74.1 0.2 424 XI - Davao 95.9 85.9 94.6 94.3 78.0 0.2 557 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 93.3 84.2 90.7 92.6 75.2 1.7 469 XIII - Caraga 96.7 91.3 97.0 96.3 85.4 0.4 293 ARMM 93.0 88.8 91.7 94.7 79.6 1.3 295 Education No education 93.7 85.1 91.9 90.8 75.4 1.5 147 Elementary 96.0 84.6 92.9 92.3 76.1 0.9 2,015 High school 96.6 84.4 92.1 93.2 76.7 0.6 4,641 College 96.6 87.1 92.7 93.8 79.6 0.8 2,925 Wealth quintile Lowest 95.5 83.9 92.6 92.0 74.9 0.9 1,945 Second 96.5 85.9 92.1 93.1 77.8 0.5 1,919 Middle 96.2 84.0 92.4 92.1 75.4 0.7 1,996 Fourth 96.8 85.9 93.9 93.9 79.7 0.6 2,012 Highest 97.1 86.6 91.0 94.9 79.3 0.8 1,857 Total 96.4 85.3 92.4 93.2 77.4 0.7 9,729 Note: Total includes 5 women with missing employment information who are not shown separately. 14.5 ATTITUDE TOWARD WIFE BEATING In the 2013 NDHS, women were asked whether they think a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife under a series of circumstances: if she burns the food, if she argues with him, if she goes out without telling him, if she neglects the children, and if she refuses to have sexual intercourse with him. Table 14.7 gives the percentage of all women age 15-49 who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife for each of these specific reasons by background characteristics. 178 • Women’s Empowerment Only 13 percent of women agree that a husband is justified in beating his wife for any of the reasons (Figure 14.3). Neglecting the children is the most commonly justified reason for wife beating among women (11 percent), while refusal to have sexual intercourse with him or burning the food (2 percent each) is the least common reason. Four percent of women agree that a husband is justified in beating his wife if she goes out without telling him and three percent believe that wife beating is justified if a wife argues with him. The pattern of results is similar to that in the previous NDHS. Table 14.7 also indicates that women who are employed but not paid in cash, those who are currently married, those who have five or more children, and those who reside in rural areas are the most likely to agree with at least one specified reason for justifying wife beating. Justification of wife beating for at least one reason decreases with educational attainment and wealth status. Thus, the higher the educational attainment and wealth status, the lower the proportion of women who agree with at least one specified reason for justifying wife beating. In addition, women living in ARMM are most likely to agree that wife beating is justified for at least one specified reason, while women in NCR are the least likely to agree with at least one specified reason for justifying wife beating. 13 11 4 3 2 2 Percentage who  agree with at least  one specified  reason Neglects the  children Goes out without  telling him Argues with him Burns the food Refuses to have  sexual intercourse  with him Figure 14.3 Specific Reasons for Which Wife Beating is Justified  Specific  reasons  NDHS 2013 Percent of Women  Women’s Empowerment • 179 Table 14.7 Attitude toward wife beating Percentage of all women age 15-49 who agree that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife for specific reasons, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she: Percentage who agree with at least one specified reason Number Background characteristic Burns the food Argues with him Goes out without telling him Neglects the children Refuses to have sexual intercourse with him Age 15-19 1.8 3.2 4.4 11.1 1.3 13.8 3,237 20-24 1.6 2.8 3.9 10.2 1.4 12.6 2,789 25-29 1.6 3.0 3.7 9.8 1.6 11.7 2,156 30-34 1.8 2.9 4.0 9.5 1.5 11.8 2,250 35-39 2.1 3.3 4.9 10.8 1.5 13.2 1,976 40-44 2.1 3.2 5.2 11.5 2.0 13.9 1,924 45-49 1.6 2.9 4.4 11.5 2.0 13.6 1,823 Employment (last 12 months) Not employed 2.0 3.1 4.2 10.2 1.6 12.5 6,875 Employed for cash 1.5 2.9 4.1 10.5 1.5 12.8 8,299 Employed not for cash 2.8 3.9 6.5 13.9 1.8 17.6 974 Number of living children 0 1.5 2.6 3.8 9.4 1.1 11.5 6,144 1-2 2.0 2.8 3.6 9.7 1.5 12.2 5,123 3-4 2.0 3.7 5.2 12.3 2.0 14.7 3,135 5+ 1.7 4.1 6.6 14.2 2.7 17.3 1,753 Marital status Never married 1.5 2.6 3.6 9.2 1.0 11.3 5,615 Married or living together 1.9 3.3 4.7 11.4 1.8 13.9 9,729 Divorced/separated/widowed 1.3 2.8 4.3 10.5 2.1 12.7 811 Residence Urban 1.0 2.2 2.6 7.8 1.1 9.5 8,585 Rural 2.6 4.0 6.2 13.8 2.1 16.8 7,570 Region National Capital Region 0.4 0.8 0.7 4.5 0.6 5.4 2,924 Cordillera Admin Region 3.6 5.2 3.1 16.4 1.9 18.9 252 I - Ilocos Region 8.0 8.6 11.5 22.4 4.1 27.3 691 II - Cagayan Valley 2.7 4.9 5.1 16.6 2.3 20.8 550 III - Central Luzon 0.7 2.8 3.7 11.4 0.9 13.0 1,720 IVA - CALABARZON 1.4 2.4 2.2 9.6 1.3 11.6 2,293 IVB - MIMAROPA 2.8 3.5 3.9 14.5 1.0 18.1 372 V - Bicol 2.3 3.8 4.0 11.7 1.0 14.8 798 VI - Western Visayas 0.9 1.7 1.3 6.1 0.8 7.6 996 VII - Central Visayas 2.4 4.2 8.3 12.5 2.5 16.5 1,030 VIII - Eastern Visayas 0.5 1.5 2.5 6.2 1.5 7.8 571 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 0.4 2.6 4.7 10.4 1.0 12.6 725 X - Northern Mindanao 0.1 1.7 4.4 9.3 0.4 10.9 697 XI - Davao 1.7 4.1 7.1 11.9 2.3 15.9 893 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 3.2 4.9 8.0 11.2 3.2 14.2 744 XIII - Caraga 1.0 4.7 6.1 10.0 1.9 13.3 435 ARMM 9.0 6.0 15.4 28.3 5.9 31.5 465 Education No education 8.8 9.3 15.0 22.2 4.7 26.7 188 Elementary 2.8 4.6 7.2 16.1 3.0 19.5 2,593 High school 1.8 3.3 4.5 11.1 1.4 13.6 7,916 College 1.0 1.7 2.2 6.9 1.0 8.4 5,458 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.7 4.5 8.1 16.4 2.6 19.8 2,620 Second 1.9 4.2 5.4 13.0 2.1 16.2 2,886 Middle 1.9 2.9 4.7 10.9 1.6 13.2 3,199 Fourth 0.9 2.4 2.8 7.9 1.0 9.8 3,572 Highest 1.1 1.9 1.9 7.2 0.9 8.5 3,878 Total 1.8 3.0 4.3 10.6 1.6 12.9 16,155 Note: Total includes 6 women with missing employment information who are not shown separately. 180 • Women’s Empowerment 14.6 INDICATORS OF WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT The 2013 NDHS collected information from women on other measures of women’s empowerment, including women’s use of family planning and maternal health care services. To assess how selected demographic and health outcomes vary by indicators of women’s empowerment, information on women’s participation in decision making and their attitudes towards wife beating are summarized in two separate indices. These indices are based only on women’s responses to the survey. The first index is the number of decisions in which women participate alone or jointly with their husbands (see Table 14.6 for the list of decisions). This index ranges in value from 0 to 4and is positively related to women’s empowerment (i.e., the more decisions in which a woman participates the greater her empowerment). This index reflects the degree of control that women are able to exercise through making decisions in areas that affect their own lives and environments. The second index, which ranges in value from 0 to 5, is the number of reasons that a woman believes justifies a husband beating his wife (see Table 14.7). A lower score on this indicator is interpreted as reflecting a greater sense of entitlement, higher self-esteem, and a higher status of women. In general, it is expected that women who participate in making decisions are also more likely to disagree with reasons for justifying wife beating. Note that the decision making index is defined for currently married women, whereas the index on attitudes toward wife beating is defined for all women. Table 14.8 provides an overview on how these two basic empowerment indicators—the number of decisions in which women participate and the number of reasons for which wife beating is justified—relate to one another. The relationship is not clear, partly because the vast majority of women fall in the higher group since they participate in making 3-4 decisions. Eighty-six percent of women who participate in three to four household decisions disagree with all reasons justifying wife beating. This percentage is higher than for women who participate in two or fewer decisions (82 percent). These patterns are similar to those observed in the 2008 NDHS. Similarly, the proportion of women who participate in all four decisions does not fall uniformly as the number of reasons for which they feel wife beating is justified increases, but instead fluctuates (Figure 14.4). Women’s Empowerment • 181 Table 14.8 Indicators of women's empowerment Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 who participate in all decision making and the percentage who disagree with all of the reasons justifying wife-beating, by value on each of the indicators of women's empowerment, Philippines 2013 Empowerment indicator Percentage who participate in all decision making Percentage who disagree with all the reasons justifying wife-beating Number of women Number of decisions in which women participate1 0 na 82.3 70 1-2 na 81.8 616 3-4 na 86.4 9,043 Number of reasons for which wife- beating is justified2 0 78.2 na 8,372 1-2 71.9 na 1,135 3-4 75.5 na 185 5 (73.6) na 37 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. na = Not applicable. 1 See Table 14.6 for the list of decisions. 2 See Table 14.7 for the list of reasons. 14.7 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT AND HEALTH INDICATORS The ability of women to control their own fertility and their choice of contraceptive method are absolutely fundamental to women’s empowerment and equality. When women can plan their families, they can plan the rest of their lives. When they are healthy, they can be more productive. And when their reproductive rights—including the right to decide the number, timing and spacing of children, and to make decisions regarding reproduction free of discrimination, coercion and violence—are promoted and protected, they have freedom to participate more fully and equally in society. 78 72 76 0 1‐2 3‐4 Figure 14.4 Number of Reasons for Which Wife Beating  is Justified Number of reasons NDHS 2013 Percent of Women  182 • Women’s Empowerment Table 14.9 shows the distribution of currently married women age 15-49 by current contraceptive method, according tithe two indicators of women’s status. The results show that the there is a positive relationship between use of contraception and participation in household decision making. For example, current use of any contraceptive method increases from 46 percent among women who do not participate in any decision to 56 percent among women who participate in 3-4 household decisions. This pattern is generally similar for most of the different types of contraceptive methods. Table 14.9 Current use of contraception by women's empowerment Percent distribution of currently married women age 15-49 by current contraceptive method, according to selected indicators of women's status, Philippines 2013 Any method Any modern method Modern methods Any traditional method Not currently using Total Number of women Empowerment indicator Female sterili- zation Male sterili- zation Temporary modern female methods1 Male condom Number of decisions in which women participate2 0 45.5 29.2 1.4 0.0 23.7 4.1 16.3 54.5 100.0 70 1-2 47.0 33.3 7.1 0.4 24.5 1.3 13.7 53.0 100.0 616 3-4 55.7 38.0 8.7 0.1 27.3 1.9 17.7 44.3 100.0 9,043 Number of reasons for which wife-beating is justified3 0 55.2 37.5 8.2 0.1 27.1 2.0 17.7 44.8 100.0 8,372 1-2 54.3 37.9 9.7 0.1 27.2 0.9 16.4 45.7 100.0 1,135 3-4 52.9 38.6 12.5 0.0 24.9 1.2 14.3 47.1 100.0 185 5 (66.1) (47.2) (13.9) (0.0) (33.3) (0.0) (18.9) (33.9) 100.0 37 Total 55.1 37.6 8.5 0.1 27.1 1.9 17.5 44.9 100.0 9,729 Note: If more than one method is used, only the most effective method is considered in this tabulation. Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Pill, IUD, injectables, implants, patch, male condom, female condom, mucus/Billings/ovulation, basal body temperature, symptothermal, standard days method, lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), emergency contraception, and other modern methods. 2 See Table 14.6 for the list of decisions. 3 See Table 14.7 for the list of reasons. Contraceptive use is inversely related to reasons for which wife beating is justified. In particular, use of any method is slightly higher among married women who reject wife beating (55 percent) than among women who cite 3-4 reasons justifying wife beating (53 percent). The ability of women to make decisions also has important implications for their fertility preferences and unmet need for family planning. It is expected that more empowered women will want smaller families and be better able to negotiate decisions regarding fertility and family planning. Thus, unmet need for family planning which reflects women’s unsatisfied need for contraception should be lower among more empowered women. It should be noted that the mean ideal family size does not show much association with the number of decisions in which women participate (Table 14.10). However, there is a relationship between ideal family size and attitudes towards wife beating. Table 14.10 shows that women who believe that wife beating is justified for at least one reason have higher ideal family sizes (3.0 to 3.3 children) than women who do not believe wife beating is justified for any reason (2.7 children). There is no clear relationship between participation in decision making and unmet need for family planning, although unmet need is lowest for women who participate in 3-4 decisions. Unmet need is related to the indicator for wife beating: women who do not accept any justification for wife beating have lower unmet need compared to those who accept at least one justification. Women’s Empowerment • 183 Table 14.10 Ideal number of children and unmet need for family planning by women's empowerment Mean ideal number of children for women 15-49 and the percentage of currently married women age 15-49 with an unmet need for family planning, by indicators of women's empowerment, Philippines 2013 Mean ideal number of children1 Number of women Percentage of currently married women with an unmet need for family planning2 Number of currently married womenEmpowerment indicator For spacing For limiting Total Number of decisions in which women participate3 0 3.0 68 17.0 5.8 22.9 70 1-2 2.8 615 13.0 11.1 24.1 616 3-4 3.1 9,020 6.2 10.8 17.0 9,043 Number of reasons for which wife- beating is justified4 0 2.7 13,997 6.6 10.7 17.4 8,372 1-2 3.0 1,757 6.9 11.4 18.3 1,135 3-4 3.3 267 7.4 11.8 19.2 185 5 3.1 61 (10.9) (4.2) (15.1) 37 Total 2.8 16,080 6.7 10.8 17.5 9,729 Note: Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Mean excludes respondents who gave non-numeric responses. 2 See Table 7.12 for the definition of unmet need for family planning 3 Restricted to currently married women. See Table 14.6 for the list of decisions. 4 See Table 14.7 for the list of reasons In societies where health care is widespread, women’s empowerment may not affect their access to reproductive health services, however, increased empowerment of women is likely to increase their ability to seek out and use health services from qualified health providers to better meet their own reproductive health goals, including the goal of safe motherhood. Table 14.11 evaluates whether the access to health services such as antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care services from health professionals is related to empowerment of women. The table is based on women who had a birth in the five years preceding the survey. Table 14.11 Reproductive health care by women's empowerment Percentage of women age 15-49 with a live birth in the five years preceding the survey who received antenatal care, delivery assistance and postnatal care from health personnel for the most recent birth, by indicators of women's empowerment, Philippines 2013 Empowerment indicator Percentage receiving antenatal care from a skilled provider1 Percentage receiving delivery care from a skilled provider1 Received postnatal care from health personnel within the first two days after delivery2 Number of women with a child born in the last five years Number of decisions in which women participate3 0 (90.0) (67.8) (66.6) 42 1-2 94.4 79.8 72.4 352 3-4 95.7 75.7 69.3 4,332 Number of reasons for which wife beating is justified4 0 96.0 78.0 71.8 4,450 1-2 93.1 68.2 59.8 611 3-4 85.9 75.4 64.5 108 5 * * * 19 Total 95.4 76.8 70.1 5,188 Note: Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases; an asterisk denotes a figure based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases that has been suppressed. 1 'Skilled provider' includes doctor, nurse or midwife 2 Includes women who received a postnatal checkup from a doctor, nurse or midwife in the first two days after the birth. Includes women who gave birth in a health facility and not in a health facility. 3 Restricted to currently married women. See Table 14.6 for the list of decisions. 4 See Table 14.7 for the list of reasons. 184 • Women’s Empowerment Women’s participation in household decision making is somewhat related to whether they receive appropriate antenatal care, with the proportion of women receiving antenatal care from a skilled provider being slightly higher for women who participate in 3-4 decisions than among those who participate in only 1-2 decisions. However, utilization of delivery assistance or postnatal care appears to have a slightly negative association with women’s decision making power; the percentage of women who receive skilled delivery assistance and postnatal care are higher among those who participate in 1-2 decisions in the household than among women who participate in 3-4 decisions. Reproductive health services are generally related to women’s perceptions toward wife beating. For all three services—antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care—the proportion of women receiving the service is highest among those who do not believe that wife beating is justified for any reason and generally declines among those who justify wife beating for more reasons; however, the relationship is not always uniform. Finally, Table 14.12 presents information on the impact on infant and child mortality of women’s empowerment as measured by the two empowerment indicators—participation in household decisions and reasons justifying wife beating. The ability of women to obtain information, make decisions, and act effectively in their own interests or in the interests of those who depend on them are essential aspects of empowerment. It follows that if women, who are the primary caretakers of children, are empowered, the health and survival of their children would be enhanced. In fact, mother’s empowerment fits into the Mosley-Chen framework on child survival as an intervening individual-level variable that affects child survival through proximate determinants (Mosley and Chen, 1984). Table 14.12 shows that infant, child and under-five mortality rates for the 10-year period preceding the survey are very similar among women who participate in 3-4 household decisions and those who participate in 1-2 decisions. Also, infant and under-five mortality rates are slightly lower among women who do not accept any reason for wife beating compared with women who accept 1-2 reasons for wife beating. In particular, among women who do not accept any reason for wife beating, under-five mortality is 31 deaths per 1,000 live births, compared to 34 deaths per 1,000 live births for women who accept 1-2 reasons for wife beating. Table 14.12 Early childhood mortality rates by women's status Infant, child, and under-five mortality rates for the 10-year period preceding the survey, by indicators of women's empowerment, Philippines 2013 Empowerment indicator Infant mortality (1q0) Child mortality (4q1) Under-five mortality (5q0) Number of decisions in which women participate1 * * * 1-2 23 8 31 3-4 24 9 33 Number of reasons for which wife- beating is justified2 0 23 9 31 1-2 25 8 34 3-4 (36) (18) (53) 5 * * * Note: Rates in parentheses are based on 250-499 unweighted exposed children; an asterisk denotes a rate based on fewer than 250 unweighted exposed children that has been suppressed. 1 Restricted to currently married women. See Table 14.6 for the list of decisions. 2 See Table 14.7 for the list of reasons Violence Against Women • 185 VIOLENCE AGAINST WOMEN 15 iolence against women is a pervasive and worldwide problem in almost all societies. It permeates all social, cultural, economic, race and religious sectors. Violence can take many forms, including physical, sexual, emotional, economic, and psychological abuse. It can have devastating consequences on the short- and long-term health and well-being of the women affected as well as their over-all quality of life (Hutchins and Sinha, 2013). The United Nations defines violence against women as “any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or in private life”. It its Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women, the General Assembly “recognizes that violence against women is a manifestation of historically unequal power relations between men and women, which has led to domination over and discrimination against women by men and to the prevention of the full advancement of women, and that violence against women is one of the crucial social mechanisms by which women are forced into a subordinate position compared with men.” (UN, 1993). Statistics on crimes committed against women are daunting. Findings of a study based on existing data from over 80 countries prepared by the World Health Organization with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine and the South African Medical Research Council, revealed that 35 percent of women have experienced physical and/or sexual violence. Moreover, one in three women who have been in a relationship have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by their intimate partner (WHO, 2013). In the Philippines, one in five women age 15-49 has experienced physical violence since age 15, and 9 percent have ever experienced sexual violence (NSO, 2008). The Republic Act No. 9262 or the “Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004” is one of the Philippine government’s initiatives in addressing the issue on V Key Findings • One in five women age 15-49 has experienced physical violence since age 15, and six percent experienced physical violence within the 12 months prior to the survey. • Six percent of women age 15-49 reported having ever experienced sexual violence. • One-fourth of ever-married women age 15-49 reported ever having experienced emotional, physical, and/or sexual violence from their husbands, and seven percent reported having experienced physical or sexual violence in the past 12 months. • Among ever-married women who experienced physical and/or sexual spousal violence in the 12 months before the survey, 65 percent reported experiencing some type of injury. • Only 30 percent of women who have experienced any type of physical or sexual violence sought assistance in response to the physical or sexual violence they experienced. • Four percent of women age 15-49 reported experiencing violence during pregnancy. 186 • Violence Against Women violence against women. Under this Act, violence against women and children is classified as a public crime and penalizes all forms of abuse violence within the family and intimate relationships (Philippine Commission on Women). As was the case in the 2008 NDHS, the 2013 NDHS included a Women’s Safety Module to collect information on the extent of violence against women in the country. The questionnaire comprises queries on the women’s experience of physical, sexual and emotional violence from their husbands/partners as well as by other family members or unrelated individuals. 15.1 MEASUREMENT OF VIOLENCE Partner-related violence or violence committed by the current husband/partner for currently married women and by the last husband/partner for formerly married women was measured by asking all ever-married women the following set of questions: Did your (last) (husband/partner) ever do any of the following things to you: a) Push you, shake you, or throw something at you? b) Slap you? c) Twist your arm or pull your hair? d) Punch or hit you with something that could hurt you? e) Kick you, drag you, or beat you up? f) Try to choke you or burn you on purpose? g) Threaten or attack you with a knife, gun, or other weapon? h) Physically force you to have sexual intercourse with him when you did not want to? i) Physically force you to perform any other sexual acts you did not want to? j) Force you with threats or in any other way to have sexual intercourse or perform sexual acts you did not want to? k) Try or attempt to force, persuade or threaten you to have sexual intercourse with him or perform any other sexual acts against your will? For every question that the woman answered “yes,” she was asked about the frequency of the act in the 12 months preceding the survey. A “yes” answer to one or more of items (a) to (g) indicates evidence of physical violence, while an affirmative answer to items (h) to (k) denotes evidence of sexual violence. In the same way, emotional and economic violence were measured by the following questions: Did your (last) (husband/partner) ever: a) Say or do something to humiliate you in front of others? b) Threaten to hurt or harm you or himself or someone you care about? Violence Against Women • 187 c) Insult you or make you feel bad about yourself? d) Not allow you to engage in any legitimate work nor practice your profession? e) Control your own money or properties or force you to work? f) Destroy your personal properties, pets or belongings, or threaten or actually harm your pets? g) Have other intimate relationships? The approach of asking separately about specific acts to measure different forms of violence has the advantage of not being affected by different understandings of what constitutes violence. This approach provides the respondent multiple opportunities to disclose any experience of violence. Moreover, it permits assessment of the severity of violence if the different acts of violence included are chosen carefully. Apart from these detailed questions, women were also asked whether they had experienced violence perpetrated by anyone other than their current or last husband. If the woman gave an affirmative response, she was asked who had committed the violent act and the frequency of such violence during the 12 months preceding the survey. All women were also asked the question, “At any time in your life, as a child or as an adult, has anyone ever forced you in any way to have sexual intercourse or perform any other sexual acts when you did not want to?” Respondents who said responded in the affirmative were then asked questions about the age at which this first happened and the perpetrators who committed the act. In addition to questions about their experience of violence, women were asked whether they had ever hit, slapped, kicked, or done anything else to physically hurt their husband or partner at any time when he was not already beating or physically hurting them. They were further asked whether their husband/partner drinks alcohol and how often does he get drunk, as well as whether they are afraid of him most of the time, sometimes, or never. While the questionnaire was designed to optimize the reporting of violence experienced, there is still a likelihood of underreporting, particularly sexual violence in a survey. Caution should be used in interpreting not only the overall prevalence of violence, but also differentials in prevalence between subgroups of the population. Collection of data on violence against women should be carried out in such a way that confidentiality and human rights as well as safety are not compromised. Surveys should be undertaken in accordance with the World Health Organization’s ethical and safety recommendations for research on domestic violence (WHO, 2001): a) Only one eligible woman in each household was administered the Women’s Safety Module. In households with more than one eligible woman, the respondent was randomly selected using the “Kish Grid”, a specially designed simple selection procedure which was incorporated into the Household Questionnaire. This approach provides assurance to the selected respondent that other members of the household will not know the types of questions that were asked. b) Informed consent was obtained from the woman selected to be interviewed for the survey at the start of the interview. In addition, the respondent was read an additional statement at the start of the interview using the Women’s Safety Module, informing her that the questions could be personal and reassuring her of the confidentiality of her responses. c) The Women’s Safety Module could only be administered if privacy could be obtained. If privacy could not be obtained, the interviewer was instructed to skip the module, provide information as to why the interview had to be terminated, thank the respondent, and end the interview. 188 • Violence Against Women 15.2 EXPERIENCE OF PHYSICAL VIOLENCE Table 15.1 shows the percentage of women age 15-49 who have ever experienced physical violence since age 15 as well as the percentage experiencing such violence in the 12 months before the survey, by background characteristics. The data show that one in five women age 15-49 (20 percent) experienced physical violence since the age of 15, while 6 percent experienced physical violence in the 12 months preceding the survey. Similar proportions were reported in the 2008 NDHS. Results of the 2013 NDHS show that by age group, women in age group 15-19are slightly less likely than older women to have ever experienced physical violence since age 15 (17 percent, versus 20-21 percent for older women). On the other hand, women in age group 15-19 have the highest proportion of women (8 percent) who have experienced violence in the 12 months preceding the survey Experience of violence varies among women of different background characteristics. Two-fifths (42 percent) of divorced, separated or widowed women report having experienced physical violence since age 15, compared with 22 percent of women who are married or in live-in arrangements and 13 percent of women who have never been married. The more children a woman has, the greater the likelihood that she has experienced physical violence. Women who have been to college are less likely to have ever experienced physical violence than those who have less or no education. The survey results suggest that there is a negative relationship between the prevalence of physical violence and the wealth quintile, that is, women in the lowest three wealth quintiles have a higher prevalence of physical violence than women in the upper two quintiles. Among the regions, women in Cagayan Valley are the most likely to have experienced violence since age 15 (28 percent), followed by women in Bicol and Caraga (25 percent each). Women in ARMM are the least likely to have experienced violence (15 percent). Violence Against Women • 189 Table 15.1 Experience of physical violence Percentage of women age 15-49 who have ever experienced physical violence since age 15 and percentage who have experienced violence during the 12 months preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage who have ever experienced physical violence since age 151 Percentage who have experienced physical violence in the past 12 months Number of women Background characteristic Often Sometimes Often or sometimes2 Age 15-19 16.6 0.8 7.3 8.2 2,214 20-24 19.8 0.8 5.3 6.1 1,888 25-29 20.4 0.7 4.0 4.8 1,473 30-39 20.9 0.9 4.4 5.4 2,864 40-49 20.1 0.7 3.2 3.9 2,524 Residence Urban 20.0 0.9 4.3 5.2 5,826 Rural 19.2 0.7 5.4 6.1 5,137 Region National Capital Region 18.3 1.0 3.2 4.2 1,984 Cordillera Admin Region 22.1 0.8 3.4 4.3 171 I - Ilocos Region 18.0 1.4 4.4 5.8 469 II - Cagayan Valley 28.0 2.2 7.7 10.0 374 III - Central Luzon 16.1 0.7 3.6 4.3 1,168 IVA - CALABARZON 16.1 0.4 3.4 3.9 1,556 IVB - MIMAROPA 23.3 1.2 5.6 6.8 252 V - Bicol 24.8 0.5 7.2 7.7 541 VI - Western Visayas 19.9 0.1 5.5 5.7 676 VII - Central Visayas 18.1 0.7 6.5 7.4 699 VIII - Eastern Visayas 23.0 0.0 9.6 9.6 388 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 18.3 0.3 5.5 5.8 492 X - Northern Mindanao 24.3 1.6 5.3 6.9 473 XI - Davao 24.0 1.1 4.2 5.3 606 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 21.3 0.9 7.2 8.1 505 XIII - Caraga 24.7 0.5 6.8 7.4 295 ARMM 15.1 0.2 2.4 2.7 315 Marital status Never married 12.7 0.4 4.3 4.6 3,781 Married or living together 21.6 0.9 4.9 5.9 6,602 Divorced/separated/widowed 41.5 2.0 7.2 9.2 581 Number of living children 0 13.9 0.5 4.5 5.0 4,182 1-2 21.1 1.0 4.6 5.7 3,475 3-4 23.9 0.8 5.6 6.5 2,098 5+ 27.5 1.2 5.1 6.3 1,208 Employment Employed for cash 21.8 1.0 4.9 6.0 5,636 Employed not for cash 19.3 0.3 5.1 5.4 644 Not employed 17.0 0.6 4.6 5.3 4,682 Education No education 18.5 2.5 4.6 7.9 124 Elementary 22.6 1.0 5.5 6.6 1,779 High school 21.9 0.8 5.8 6.7 5,323 College 14.9 0.6 3.1 3.7 3,736 Wealth quintile Lowest 22.7 0.6 6.1 6.7 1,791 Second 23.6 0.9 6.7 7.7 1,972 Middle 22.1 0.9 6.1 7.0 2,176 Fourth 17.9 1.1 4.2 5.2 2,409 Highest 14.0 0.6 2.1 2.6 2,616 Total 15-49 19.6 0.8 4.8 5.6 10,963 Note: Total includes 2 women with no religion and 12 women for whom information on religion is missing. 1 Includes violence in the past 12 months. For women who were married before age 15 and who reported physical violence by a spouse, the violence could have occurred before age 15. 2 Includes women for whom frequency in the past 12 months is not known. 190 • Violence Against Women Table 15.2 shows information about the types of perpetrators or persons who committed physical violence against women. Ever-married women identified their current husbands/partners (44 percent) or former husbands/partners (22 percent) as the main perpetrators of physical violence. Mothers or stepmothers and fathers or stepfathers with 19 percent each are also reported as perpetrators. In the 2008 NDHS, these are also the main perpetrators of violence for women who have ever been married. However, among ever-married women who experienced physical violence, there is an increase in the proportion who report a former husband/partner committing violence, from 12 percent in the 2008 NDHS to 22 percent in the 2013 NDHS. Among the never-married women who have experienced physical violence, the main perpetrators are mothers or stepmothers (42 percent), fathers or stepfathers (33 percent), sisters or brothers (19 percent), and friends or acquaintances (17 percent). Table 15.2 Persons committing physical violence Among women age 15-49 who have experienced physical violence since age 15, percentage who report specific persons who committed the violence, according to the respondent’s current marital status, Philippines 2013 Marital status Total Person Ever- married Never married Current husband/partner 44.4 na 34.5 Former husband/partner 22.1 na 17.1 Current boyfriend 0.1 0.0 0.1 Former boyfriend 1.1 2.4 1.4 Father/ step-father 19.2 33.0 22.3 Mother/ step-mother 18.5 41.6 23.7 Sister/brother 9.2 18.5 11.3 Step-sister/brother 1.4 1.9 1.5 Other relative 6.4 na 8.3 Mother-in-law 0.6 na 0.4 Father-in-law 0.3 na 0.2 Other in-law 1.0 0.0 0.8 Teacher 0.0 0.7 0.1 Employer/ someone at work 1.4 2.1 1.5 Friend/acquaintance 3.9 17.1 6.8 Police/ soldier 0.0 0.1 0.0 Stranger 1.5 2.4 1.7 Other 4.1 6.3 4.6 Number women 1,668 481 2,149 Note: Women can report more than one person who committed the violence. na = Not applicable 15.3 EXPERIENCE OF SEXUAL VIOLENCE Table 15.3 shows that 6 percent of women age 15-49 have ever experienced sexual violence. This is lower than the 9 percent of women reported in the 2008 NDHS. Three percent of women age 15-49 experienced sexual violence in the 12 months preceding the survey. Older women are more likely to have ever experienced sexual violence than younger women. Divorced, separated or widowed women are far more likely to have experienced sexual violence (15 percent) than women who are currently married (7 percent) or never married (3 percent). Similarly, a higher proportion of women who have 5 or more children have experienced sexual violence than women with fewer children. College-educated women and women in the highest wealth quintile have the lowest proportions who have ever experienced sexual violence. Violence Against Women • 191 Table 15.3 Experience of sexual violence Percentage of women age 15-49 who have ever experienced sexual violence and percentage who have experienced sexual violence in the 12 months preceding the survey, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage who have experienced sexual violence: Number of women Background characteristic Ever1 In the past 12 months Age 15-19 4.4 2.5 2,214 20-24 6.1 2.6 1,888 25-29 6.9 3.0 1,473 30-39 7.0 3.2 2,864 40-49 7.2 2.4 2,524 Residence Urban 6.1 2.6 5,826 Rural 6.6 2.9 5,137 Region National Capital Region 5.4 2.6 1,984 Cordillera Admin Region 7.3 1.1 171 I - Ilocos Region 4.8 2.6 469 II - Cagayan Valley 9.1 5.5 374 III - Central Luzon 5.1 2.6 1,168 IVA - CALABARZON 3.8 1.4 1,556 IVB - MIMAROPA 8.5 4.1 252 V - Bicol 11.4 3.6 541 VI - Western Visayas 4.4 2.0 676 VII - Central Visayas 6.7 3.0 699 VIII - Eastern Visayas 6.0 2.1 388 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 3.9 1.9 492 X - Northern Mindanao 9.6 3.2 473 XI - Davao 9.8 4.1 606 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 11.4 4.2 505 XIII - Caraga 9.3 4.7 295 ARMM 2.7 1.0 315 Marital status Never married 3.2 1.5 3,781 Married or living together 7.4 3.3 6,602 Divorced/separated/widowed 14.8 3.6 581 Employment Employed for cash 7.6 3.2 5,636 Employed not for cash 6.8 2.4 644 Not employed 4.8 2.2 4,682 Number of living children 0 3.7 1.8 4,182 1-2 6.6 2.4 3,475 3-4 8.4 4.1 2,098 5+ 11.2 4.2 1,208 Education No education 9.4 3.4 124 Elementary 9.2 4.0 1,779 High school 6.8 3.2 5,323 College 4.3 1.4 3,736 Wealth quintile Lowest 7.9 3.5 1,791 Second 7.8 3.6 1,972 Middle 7.5 3.3 2,176 Fourth 5.2 2.2 2,409 Highest 4.2 1.5 2,616 Total 15-49 6.3 2.7 10,963 Note: Total includes 2 women with no religion and 12 women for whom information on religion is missing. 1 Includes violence in the past 12 months 192 • Violence Against Women By region, the proportion of women who have ever experienced sexual violence is highest in Bicol and SOCCSKSARGEN (11 percent each) and lowest in ARMM (3 percent). Table 15.4 presents information as to the types of perpetrators of sexual violence against women age 15-49, by marital status of women. Among the ever-married women who have experienced sexual violence, 55 percent report their current husbands/partners as perpetrators, while 30 percent report former husbands/partners as the perpetrators. In the 2008 NDHS, a higher proportion of ever-married women (61 percent) experiencing sexual violence reported the current husband or partner as a perpetrator. In contrast, the proportion reporting former husbands/partners as perpetrators in 2008 is lower at 15 percent (compared with 30 percent in 2013). For the never-married women, the most commonly reported perpetrators of sexual violence are current or former boyfriend (42 percent), other relative (14 percent), own friend or acquaintance (11 percent), and employer or someone at work (11 percent). Table 15.4 Persons committing sexual violence Among women age 15-49 who have experienced sexual violence, percentage who report specific persons who committed the violence according to the respondent’s current marital status, Philippines 2013 Marital status Total Person Ever- married Never married Current husband/partner 55.2 na 45.5 Former husband/partner 29.9 na 24.6 Current/former boyfriend 5.0 42.1 11.5 Father/step father 0.9 0.0 0.7 Brother/step brother 0.2 0.0 0.1 Other relative 6.1 14.0 7.5 In-law 1.0 na 0.8 Own friend/acquaintance 3.6 10.7 4.8 Family friend 2.0 4.3 2.4 Employer/someone at work 2.2 10.7 3.6 Priest/religious leader 1.2 7.1 2.3 Stranger 0.7 3.4 1.2 Other 3.3 7.6 4.0 Missing 0.2 0.0 0.1 Number women who have experienced sexual violence 574 122 696 1 Women can report more than one person who committed the violence. na = Not applicable Table 15.5 presents the percentage of women age 15-49 who experienced sexual violence by the exact age of first experience, according to current age and marital status. Overall, 1 percent of women experienced sexual violence before age 15, while 3 percent experienced this kind of violence by age 18 and 4 percent of women experienced sexual violence by age 22. Differences in age at first experience of sexual violence by current age and marital status are not large. Violence Against Women • 193 Table 15.5 Age at first experience of sexual violence Percentage of women age 15-49 who experienced sexual violence by specific exact ages, according to current age and current marital status, Philippines 2013 Percentage who first experienced sexual violence by exact age: Percentage who have not experienced sexual violence Number of women Background characteristic 10 12 15 18 22 Age 15-19 0.2 0.3 1.1 na na 94.7 2,214 20-24 0.6 0.7 1.6 3.9 na 92.5 1,888 25-29 0.4 0.7 1.2 2.2 4.3 92.1 1,473 30-39 0.2 0.5 0.8 1.6 3.2 92.3 2,864 40-49 0.2 0.2 0.7 2.0 3.3 91.8 2,524 Marital status Never married 0.4 0.4 1.0 2.9 4.0 95.7 3,781 Ever married 0.3 0.5 1.1 2.6 4.5 91.0 7,182 Total 0.3 0.5 1.0 2.7 4.4 92.7 10,963 na = Not applicable 15.4 EXPERIENCE OF DIFFERENT FORMS OF VIOLENCE Table 15.6 shows the percentages of women who have experienced different forms of violence, by age of women. Results show that 15 percent of women have experienced physical violence only, 2 percent have experienced sexual violence only, and 4 percent have experienced both physical and sexual violence. Overall, one in five women (22 percent) age 15-49 experienced either physical or sexual violence. This is slightly lower than the 24 percent reported in the 2008 NDHS. Table 15.6 Experience of different forms of violence Percentage of women age 15-49 who have ever experienced different forms of violence by current age, Philippines 2013 Age Physical violence only Sexual violence only Physical and sexual violence Physical or sexual violence Number of women 15-19 14.0 1.8 2.6 18.4 2,214 15-17 13.5 1.2 2.0 16.7 1,437 18-19 14.9 2.9 3.8 21.6 777 20-24 16.0 2.3 3.8 22.1 1,888 25-29 15.8 2.3 4.6 22.7 1,473 30-39 16.0 2.1 4.9 22.9 2,864 40-49 15.3 2.3 4.8 22.5 2,524 Total 15.4 2.1 4.2 21.7 10,963 15.5 VIOLENCE DURING PREGNANCY In addition to being at risk of injury themselves, women who experience violence during pregnancy may also have their unborn child at risk. The findings in Table 15.7 indicate that 4 percent of women age 15- 49 who have ever been pregnant experienced physical violence while pregnant. The proportion of women who have experienced violence during pregnancy declines with age, from 14 percent of women age 15-19 to 4 percent of women in their mid-20s and over. Six percent of never-married women and 4 percent of married women who have ever been pregnant were physically abused during pregnancy, compared with 10 percent of women who are divorced, separated or widowed. It also appears that women with higher education and women classified in the higher wealth quintiles are slightly less likely to have been physically abused during pregnancy than women with less education and less wealth. 194 • Violence Against Women By region, among women who have ever been pregnant, the proportion who were physically abused during pregnancy ranges from 1 percent in ARMM to 7 percent in Cagayan Valley and Caraga regions. In the 2008 NDHS, Eastern Visayas (7 percent) had the highest proportion of women who experienced physical violence during pregnancy. Table 15.7 Experience of violence during pregnancy Among women age 15-49 who have ever been pregnant, percentage who have ever experienced physical violence during pregnancy, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Percentage who experienced violence during pregnancy Number of women who have ever been pregnant Age 15-19 13.6 225 20-24 6.2 898 25-29 3.7 1,093 30-39 3.4 2,519 40-49 3.5 2,318 Residence Urban 4.3 3,549 Rural 4.1 3,504 Region National Capital Region 3.8 1,147 Cordillera Admin Region 4.1 115 I - Ilocos Region 2.9 324 II - Cagayan Valley 7.0 265 III - Central Luzon 3.8 764 IVA - CALABARZON 3.1 992 IVB - MIMAROPA 4.6 173 V - Bicol 6.0 357 VI - Western Visayas 3.5 441 VII - Central Visayas 3.7 461 VIII - Eastern Visayas 5.8 265 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 4.6 302 X - Northern Mindanao 6.4 316 XI - Davao 3.4 401 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 4.8 328 XIII - Caraga 7.3 194 ARMM 1.4 209 Marital status Never married 5.6 205 Married or living together 3.6 6,301 Divorced/separated/widowed 10.3 547 Number of living children 0 5.8 272 1-2 3.6 3,475 3-4 4.0 2,098 5+ 5.8 1,208 Education No education 5.3 112 Elementary 5.8 1,471 High school 4.4 3,292 College 2.7 2,178 Wealth quintile Lowest 5.1 1,372 Second 4.7 1,383 Middle 5.7 1,439 Fourth 2.7 1,461 Highest 2.7 1,399 Total 15-49 4.2 7,053 Note: Total includes 2 women with no religion and 4 women for whom information on religion is missing. Violence Against Women • 195 15.6 MARITAL CONTROL BY HUSBAND Table 15.8 shows the percentage of women whose husbands display various types of controlling behaviors, by background characteristics of women. The most commonly reported controlling behaviors women experience from their husbands are jealousy or anger if they talk to other men (reported by 26 percent of ever-married women) and insistence or knowing where they are at all times (18 percent). One in every 10 women (11 percent) say their husbands frequently accuse them of being unfaithful. Less common behaviors include not permitting her to meet her female friends (7 percent) and trying to limit her contact with her family (4 percent). Ten percent of ever-married women say their husbands display at least three of the five types of controlling behavior, while 66 percent say their husbands do not display any of the behaviors. The former proportion decreases steadily with age, from 18 percent among women age 15-19 to 8 percent among women age 30-39. The proportion of divorced, separated or widowed women who report that their former husband displayed any of the controlling behaviors is higher for each specific behavior than among women who are currently married. The proportion of women who report that their husbands show controlling behavior declines with increasing wealth of the woman for most of the behaviors specified in the survey. However, the pattern by education of the woman is not clearcut. As expected, marital control is highly correlated with the extent to which women say they fear their husbands. More than half of ever-married women (57 percent) who report being afraid of their husband most of the time say their husbands display three or more types of controlling behaviors, compared with only 6 percent of women who say they are never afraid of their husbands. The proportion of ever-married women who report their husbands display three or more controlling behaviors varies by region, from 6 percent in Central Luzon to 13 percent in Caraga and Northern Mindanao. 196 • Violence Against Women Table 15.8 Marital control exercised by husbands Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 whose husbands/partners have ever demonstrated specific types of controlling behaviors, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage of women whose husband/partner: Background characteristic Is jealous or angry if she talks to other men Frequently accuses her of being unfaithful Does not permit her to meet her female friends Tries to limit her contact with her family Insists on knowing where she is at all times Displays 3 or more of the specific behaviors Displays none of the specific behaviors Number of ever- married women Age 15-19 42.2 16.0 14.4 7.3 29.0 17.9 49.4 220 20-24 32.7 13.3 9.8 3.4 22.2 11.1 58.9 878 25-29 28.3 12.6 6.8 3.2 19.3 10.2 63.5 1,110 30-39 23.5 9.5 5.6 3.5 16.8 7.7 67.9 2,607 40-49 23.8 11.8 5.5 4.8 16.7 9.7 68.8 2,368 Residence Urban 26.0 11.4 6.1 3.9 17.5 9.5 66.8 3,587 Rural 26.0 11.4 7.0 4.1 18.8 9.4 65.0 3,595 Region National Capital Region 24.3 10.7 4.2 2.3 14.8 8.0 69.9 1,144 Cordillera Admin Region 21.5 16.7 8.0 3.9 18.6 10.3 66.6 115 I - Ilocos Region 29.6 12.2 10.3 4.2 21.9 12.4 62.0 337 II - Cagayan Valley 25.9 12.9 9.3 5.7 18.4 11.2 68.0 266 III - Central Luzon 17.9 6.7 3.8 3.7 11.3 6.0 77.4 782 IVA - CALABARZON 20.7 8.8 3.8 2.3 15.9 7.7 73.2 1,018 IVB - MIMAROPA 24.3 13.9 5.1 3.9 20.6 9.8 65.1 172 V - Bicol 28.1 14.3 7.3 6.2 14.9 11.4 65.1 359 VI - Western Visayas 28.7 9.4 6.9 5.9 21.2 9.9 61.7 451 VII - Central Visayas 30.4 13.5 10.7 4.0 16.1 11.6 61.5 469 VIII - Eastern Visayas 25.5 12.9 8.7 4.1 24.1 10.9 61.6 273 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 32.1 12.2 6.8 4.7 22.8 8.0 55.7 304 X - Northern Mindanao 34.4 14.7 11.1 5.2 23.7 13.2 53.8 321 XI - Davao 35.4 16.9 8.3 6.1 21.7 12.4 55.8 414 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 27.5 14.3 7.5 5.3 23.6 10.1 59.2 339 XIII - Caraga 26.9 14.4 9.4 5.5 21.5 13.2 62.0 202 ARMM 28.3 4.9 5.0 1.9 25.5 6.6 62.5 215 Marital status Married or living together 24.3 10.3 5.9 3.4 17.0 8.3 67.7 6,602 Divorced/separated/widowed 45.8 24.0 13.5 10.6 31.9 22.7 45.3 581 Number of living children 0 29.1 10.5 8.5 2.8 22.9 9.5 61.0 557 1-2 24.6 9.5 6.0 3.1 17.0 8.1 67.8 3,322 3-4 25.4 11.7 6.1 4.3 16.6 9.2 66.8 2,095 5+ 29.6 16.5 7.9 6.6 22.0 13.8 61.2 1,208 Employment Employed for cash 26.6 12.7 6.9 4.7 19.2 10.5 64.6 3,961 Employed not for cash 30.0 10.3 6.9 4.0 18.4 9.3 60.7 513 Not employed 24.4 9.7 6.0 3.0 16.7 8.1 68.7 2,708 Education No education 24.5 7.1 5.7 5.3 20.0 6.2 64.0 113 Elementary 29.5 14.5 7.5 6.0 19.4 12.1 62.3 1,484 High school 26.7 11.7 6.9 3.7 19.2 9.8 64.7 3,367 College 22.7 9.0 5.4 3.0 15.7 7.4 70.0 2,218 Wealth quintile Lowest 29.2 12.9 7.5 5.2 20.2 10.4 61.1 1,385 Second 28.2 12.9 8.5 4.7 19.2 10.6 62.6 1,392 Middle 27.1 12.7 6.9 4.3 19.0 11.1 65.2 1,451 Fourth 24.3 10.6 4.8 2.9 16.9 7.8 67.9 1,520 Highest 21.5 8.1 5.3 3.0 15.6 7.7 72.1 1,435 Woman afraid of husband Most of the time afraid 74.0 59.5 35.1 39.8 64.7 56.5 17.4 99 Sometimes afraid 41.3 22.2 11.8 7.8 31.7 19.2 46.8 1,390 Never afraid 21.6 8.0 4.8 2.5 14.1 6.3 71.2 5,618 Total 26.0 11.4 6.5 4.0 18.2 9.5 65.9 7,182 Note: Husband/partner refers to the current husband/partner for currently married women and the most recent husband/partner for divorced, separated or widowed women. Total includes 2 women with no religion, 4 women for whom information on religion is missing, and 75 women for whom information on fear of husband is missing. Violence Against Women • 197 15.7 SPOUSAL VIOLENCE Table 15.9 presents the various forms of violence ever-married women ever experienced from their husbands. Overall, 26 percent of ever-married women have experienced some form of emotional, physical and/or sexual violence at the hands of their current or most recent husband and 15 percent have experienced physical and/or sexual violence by their current or most recent husband. Table 15.9 Forms of spousal violence Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have experienced various forms of violence ever or in the 12 months preceding the survey, committed by their husband/partner, Philippines 2013 Ever In the past 12 months Type of violence Often Sometimes Often or sometimes Violence committed by current or most recent husband/partner Physical violence Any physical violence 12.7 0.9 4.5 5.3 Pushed her, shook her, or threw something at her 7.8 0.6 3.0 3.5 Slapped her 7.2 0.4 2.3 2.7 Twisted her arm or pulled her hair 3.6 0.4 1.4 1.8 Punched her or hit her with something that could hurt her 4.3 0.3 1.5 1.8 Kicked her, dragged her, or beat her up 3.3 0.3 1.3 1.6 Tried to choke her or burn her on purpose 2.1 0.1 0.8 0.9 Threatened or attacked her with a knife, gun, or other weapon 2.3 0.2 0.8 0.9 Sexual violence Any sexual violence 5.3 0.7 2.5 3.2 Physically forced her to have sexual intercourse with him when she did not want to 5.0 0.7 2.4 3.1 Physically forced her to perform any other sexual acts she did not want to 1.8 0.2 0.8 1.0 Forced her with threats or in any other way to perform sexual acts she did not want to 1.1 0.1 0.5 0.7 Emotional violence Any emotional violence 21.5 4.5 8.9 13.4 Said or did something to humiliate her in front of others 7.7 1.0 3.6 4.5 Threatened to hurt or harm her or himself or someone she cared about 6.1 0.6 2.6 3.3 Insulted her or made her feel bad about herself 9.7 1.1 5.2 6.3 Did not allow her to engage in any legitimate work or practice her profession 9.4 2.1 3.6 5.7 Controlled her own money or properties or forced her to work 3.0 0.8 1.3 2.1 Destroyed her personal property, pets, or belongings, or threatened or harmed her pets 2.8 0.5 1.2 1.6 Had other intimate relationships 5.5 0.9 1.1 2.1 Any form of physical and/or sexual violence 14.6 1.3 5.7 7.0 Any form of emotional and/or physical and/or sexual violence 25.9 4.9 10.7 15.6 Spousal violence committed by any husband/partner Physical violence 14.8 na na 5.4 Sexual violence 6.5 na na 3.2 Physical and/or sexual violence 16.9 na na 7.1 Number of ever- married women 7,182 7,182 7,182 7,182 na = Not applicable Ever-married women most commonly report that their current or most recent husband insulted them or made them feel bad about themselves (10 percent), while 9 percent report that their current husband did not allow them to engage in any legitimate work or practice their profession. The next most common form of spousal violence experienced by ever-married women is being pushed, shaken or had something thrown at them at 8 percent, while another 8 percent report that their husband said or did something to humiliate them in front of others, and 7 percent report being slapped (Figure 15.1). 198 • Violence Against Women Figure 15.1 Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have experienced various forms of violence ever or in the 12 months preceding the survey, committed by their husband/partner Table 15.10 shows the prevalence of different forms of violence experienced by ever-married women 15-49 according to background characteristics of women. As observed, the percentage of women who have experienced violence in physical, sexual, and/or emotional form, from their husband declines slightly with women’s age but increases with the number of children. Spousal violence also shows some tendency to decrease with increases in women’s education and wealth. The table also shows that the proportion of women who have experienced any form of spousal violence is highest among those employed for cash (28 percent), followed by those employed not for cash (26 percent) and those who are not employed (23 percent). Women who are divorced, separated, or widowed have much higher proportions who experienced spousal abuse than women who are married or are living with a partner. For example, half of formerly married women have experienced physical, sexual or emotional abuse from their husband, compared with only 24 percent of currently married women. In general, spousal physical and sexual violence is highest among women in Cagayan Valley, while spousal emotional abuse appears to be highest among women in Northern Mindanao. 5 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 3 3 1 1 13 8 7 4 4 3 2 2 5 5 2 1 ANY PHYSICAL VIOLENCE Pushed , shook, or threw something at her Slapped her Twisted arm or pulled her hair Punched or hit with something that could hurt her Kicked, dragged, or beat her up Tried to choke her or burn her on purpose Threatened or attacked with knife, gun, or other weapon ANY SEXUAL VIOLENCE Forced into sexual intercourse against her will Forced to perform any other sexual acts against her will Forced with threats or in any other way to perform sexual acts against her will Last 12 months Ever NDHS 2013 Violence Against Women • 199 Table 15.10 Spousal violence by background characteristics Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have ever experienced emotional, physical or sexual violence committed by their husband/partner, by background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Emotional violence Physical violence Sexual violence Physical and sexual Physical and sexual and emotional Physical or sexual Physical or sexual or emotional Number of ever-married women Age 15-19 22.8 13.4 7.6 4.4 3.5 16.5 27.5 220 20-24 25.0 14.9 6.0 3.8 3.6 17.0 29.7 878 25-29 21.3 12.6 5.6 3.1 2.4 15.0 26.0 1,110 30-39 20.8 12.4 5.2 3.4 3.2 14.1 25.1 2,607 40-49 21.1 12.3 4.8 3.1 2.9 14.0 25.1 2,368 Residence Urban 20.9 13.4 4.9 3.4 3.1 14.9 25.7 3,587 Rural 22.2 12.0 5.6 3.3 3.0 14.3 26.1 3,595 Region National Capital Region 15.4 13.7 4.6 3.3 2.9 14.9 21.2 1,144 Cordillera Admin Region 22.0 13.7 4.3 3.0 3.0 15.1 26.1 115 I - Ilocos Region 24.6 13.4 5.3 3.3 3.1 15.4 28.7 337 II - Cagayan Valley 26.3 20.2 10.4 7.0 6.2 23.6 33.7 266 III - Central Luzon 17.4 10.7 4.6 3.0 2.7 12.3 21.4 782 IVA - CALABARZON 15.1 9.8 3.1 2.3 2.1 10.6 18.8 1,018 IVB - MIMAROPA 25.7 17.8 7.5 4.9 4.9 20.4 30.7 172 V - Bicol 26.2 15.0 8.9 6.4 5.8 17.5 30.8 359 VI - Western Visayas 20.4 12.0 2.6 1.8 1.5 12.8 25.2 451 VII - Central Visayas 27.3 9.2 5.6 2.4 1.9 12.4 30.0 469 VIII - Eastern Visayas 25.5 15.0 6.6 5.6 5.6 16.0 28.9 273 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 23.2 12.7 4.2 2.4 2.3 14.5 26.5 304 X - Northern Mindanao 35.4 14.7 6.5 3.7 3.0 17.5 39.5 321 XI - Davao 29.3 13.9 7.6 3.3 3.3 18.2 34.9 414 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 25.4 15.2 6.7 4.4 3.4 17.4 29.7 339 XIII - Caraga 29.5 16.6 7.6 4.5 4.1 19.7 33.0 202 ARMM 10.3 3.8 2.6 0.5 0.3 5.9 11.7 215 Marital status Married or living together 19.5 11.1 4.7 2.8 2.5 13.0 23.8 6,602 Divorced/separated/widowed 44.2 30.9 11.9 9.7 8.9 33.1 50.0 581 Number of living children 0 19.0 8.2 4.1 1.7 1.7 10.6 21.7 557 1-2 20.1 11.0 4.4 2.8 2.4 12.6 24.0 3,322 3-4 21.8 14.0 5.7 3.8 3.3 15.8 26.8 2,095 5+ 26.0 17.6 7.5 5.0 4.8 20.0 31.5 1,208 Employment Employed for cash 23.2 14.2 5.8 3.8 3.5 16.2 27.7 3,961 Employed not for cash 22.0 10.2 4.8 2.0 1.5 13.0 26.4 513 Not employed 19.0 11.0 4.7 2.9 2.6 12.7 23.1 2,708 Education No education 20.9 11.3 6.3 3.8 3.8 13.9 23.2 113 Elementary 25.5 13.9 7.0 4.2 3.9 16.7 29.2 1,484 High school 21.9 14.1 5.7 3.8 3.2 16.0 27.2 3,367 College 18.4 10.0 3.4 2.2 2.0 11.3 21.7 2,218 Wealth quintile Lowest 24.2 13.4 6.0 3.3 2.8 16.1 28.9 1,385 Second 24.5 15.1 6.4 4.8 3.9 16.7 29.2 1,392 Middle 24.1 14.1 6.2 4.0 3.8 16.3 28.5 1,451 Fourth 17.9 11.9 4.4 2.7 2.4 13.6 23.0 1,520 Highest 17.3 9.3 3.5 2.2 2.2 10.5 20.2 1,435 Total 15-49 21.5 12.7 5.3 3.4 3.0 14.6 25.9 7,182 Note: Husband/partner refers to the current husband/partner for currently married women and the most recent husband/partner for divorced, separated or widowed women. Total includes 2 women with no religion and 4 women for whom information on religion is missing. Table 15.11 presents a cross tabulation of spousal violence by husband’s characteristics and empowerment indicators for ever-married women age 15-49. Results show that ever-married women age 15-49 are more likely to have ever experienced emotional, physical and/or sexual violence by their husband if their husband has attended only primary school, compared with those whose husbands have higher education or no education at all. Spousal abuse is most commonly 200 • Violence Against Women reported among women whose husbands are better educated than they are, followed closely by women who are better educated than their husbands. It is least common among women who say that neither they nor their husbands are educated. Experience of spousal violence varies dramatically with husband’s alcohol consumption. All forms of spousal violence are most commonly reported by women who say their husbands get drunk very often and least common among those whose husbands drink alcohol but never get drunk or do not drink at all. For example, two in every three ever-married women (66 percent) whose husband gets drunk very often have suffered from physical or sexual or emotional violence. Specifically, 56 percent of these women suffered from emotional violence, 47 percent endured physical violence, and 23 percent experienced sexual violence. In contrast, only 16 percent of women whose husbands do not drink alcohol experienced physical or sexual or emotional violence. Spousal violence increases with the number of controlling behaviors displayed by the husband. Nearly nine in ten women (88 percent) whose husbands display five types of controlling behaviors have suffered any form of violence, compared with only 13 percent of women whose husbands display none of the controlling behaviors. The results also show that spousal violence is lower among women who participate in 3-4 household decisions (23 percent), compared with those women who have no participation in decision making (49 percent). Spousal violence is related to women’s family history of violence. Among women who say their fathers beat their mothers, 37 percent have experienced physical or sexual or emotional violence committed by their husband, compared with 23 percent of women whose fathers did not beat their mothers. As expected, fear of the husband is highly correlated with actual spousal violence. Among women who say they are afraid of their husbands most of the time, more than four in five say they have experienced physical, sexual, or emotional violence from him. The proportion drops to only 46 percent of those who say they are afraid of their husband some of the time and to only 20 percent of those who say they are never afraid of their husband. Violence Against Women • 201 Table 15.11 Spousal violence by husband’s characteristics and empowerment indicators Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have ever experienced emotional, physical or sexual violence committed by their husband/partner, by husband’s characteristics and empowerment indicators, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Emotional violence Physical violence Sexual violence Physical and sexual Physical and sexual and emotional Physical or sexual Physical or sexual or emotional Number of ever-married women Husband’s education No education 16.4 12.9 5.4 5.4 4.2 12.9 19.2 115 Primary 25.9 14.9 6.9 4.4 3.9 17.5 30.2 1,880 Secondary 20.8 13.3 5.5 3.5 3.1 15.3 25.9 3,047 More than secondary 19.0 10.0 3.4 2.1 2.0 11.2 22.3 2,127 Husband’s alcohol consumption Does not drink 13.3 6.0 2.8 1.2 1.2 7.6 16.4 1,678 Drinks/never gets drunk 17.9 5.3 1.0 0.8 0.7 5.5 19.2 381 Gets drunk sometimes 20.9 11.9 4.5 2.6 2.2 13.8 25.3 4,572 Gets drunk very often 56.0 46.9 22.9 18.9 17.9 50.9 65.9 528 Spousal education difference Husband better educated 23.5 12.6 5.9 3.3 3.1 15.2 27.8 2,114 Wife better educated 22.2 13.5 5.2 3.5 3.1 15.2 26.3 2,736 Both equally educated 19.1 12.0 4.7 3.2 2.7 13.5 23.8 2,274 Neither educated 12.0 8.0 4.8 4.8 4.8 8.0 13.5 45 Spousal age difference1 Wife older 19.1 11.2 4.6 2.6 2.4 13.2 23.6 1,297 Wife is same age 19.1 9.1 4.7 3.0 2.3 10.8 23.0 662 Wife’s 1-4 years younger 18.4 10.8 4.6 2.9 2.5 12.4 22.5 2,497 Wife’s 5-9 years younger 20.8 11.9 5.0 2.8 2.5 14.2 25.9 1,462 Wife’s 10+ years younger 22.5 12.8 4.8 3.0 2.7 14.6 25.4 667 Number of marital control behaviors displayed by husband2 0 9.7 5.1 1.6 0.7 0.5 6.1 12.8 4,731 1-2 34.0 19.6 6.7 3.8 3.1 22.5 41.0 1,771 3-4 68.3 44.0 23.2 16.1 15.7 51.1 75.7 581 5 86.8 69.1 48.6 46.9 46.9 70.7 88.2 100 Number of decisions in which women participate3 0 43.0 30.1 12.0 9.8 9.1 32.2 48.7 628 1-2 28.3 17.6 7.4 4.1 4.1 20.9 33.7 419 3-4 18.9 10.6 4.5 2.7 2.3 12.4 23.0 6,135 Number of reasons for which wife- beating is justified4 0 20.2 11.7 4.9 3.1 2.8 13.4 24.4 6,195 1-2 29.0 18.5 7.7 4.9 4.3 21.3 34.1 820 3-4 30.2 24.1 6.2 3.7 3.2 26.6 36.4 138 5 (42.3) (19.2) (21.8) (8.8) (8.8) (32.1) (60.9) 29 Woman’s father beat her mother Yes 31.5 20.1 8.2 5.6 5.1 22.7 37.4 1,308 No 19.2 10.9 4.4 2.8 2.5 12.5 23.1 5,728 Woman afraid of husband Most of the time afraid 72.7 70.3 46.2 39.7 38.1 76.8 82.4 99 Sometimes afraid 38.9 26.5 12.3 8.8 8.2 30.1 45.6 1,390 Never afraid 16.5 8.4 2.8 1.4 1.1 9.8 20.2 5,618 Total 15-49 21.5 12.7 5.3 3.4 3.0 14.6 25.9 7,182 Note: Husband/partner refers to the current husband/partner for currently married women and the most recent husband/partner for divorced, separated or widowed women. Total includes 13 women missing information about husband’s education, 23 missing information about husband’s alcohol consumption, 13 missing information about spousal education difference, 17 missing spousal age difference, 147 missing information as to whether her father beat her mother, and 75 missing information about fear of husband. Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Includes only women who have been married only once. 2 According to the wife’s report. See Table 15.8 for list of behaviors. 3 According to the wife’s report. See Table 15.5 for list of decisions. 4 According to the wife’s report. See Table 15.7 for list of reasons 202 • Violence Against Women 15.8 RECENT EXPERIENCE OF SPOUSAL VIOLENCE Experience of spousal violence during the 12 months before the survey provides an indication of whether domestic violence is a current problem. Table 15.12 shows that overall, 7 percent of ever-married women experienced physical or sexual violence perpetrated by their husband in the 12 months preceding the survey. Women’s experience of spousal physical or sexual violence in the 12 months before the survey is higher among younger women than older women. Recent experience of spousal violence varies with education and wealth. The proportion of ever-married women who experienced spousal physical or sexual violence in the 12 months before the survey generally declines as education and wealth increase. Among the regions, ever-married women in Cagayan Valley have the highest proportion who have experienced violence in the past 12 months (13 percent), followed by ever-married women in SOCCSKSARGEN (12 percent) and Caraga (11 percent). Ever- married women in ARMM are the least likely to have experienced violence in the past 12 months (3 percent). The largest differences are seen by fear of the husband. Women who report being afraid of their husband most of the time are by far the most likely to also report having experienced spousal physical or sexual violence in the 12 months before the survey (38 percent), compared with only 15 percent among women who are only sometimes afraid of their husband and 5 percent among women who are never afraid. Table 15.12 Recent physical or sexual violence by any husband/partner Percentage of ever-married women who have experienced physical or sexual violence by any husband/partner in the past 12 months, by background characteristics, Philippines, 2013 Background characteristic Percentage who have experienced physical or sexual violence in the past 12 months from any husband/partner Number of ever-married women Age 15-19 11.5 220 20-24 10.7 878 25-29 7.9 1,110 30-39 7.0 2,607 40-49 5.0 2,368 Residence Urban 6.8 3,587 Rural 7.3 3,595 Region National Capital Region 5.8 1,144 Cordillera Admin Region 5.0 115 I - Ilocos Region 6.3 337 II - Cagayan Valley 13.1 266 III - Central Luzon 5.9 782 IVA - CALABARZON 4.6 1,018 IVB - MIMAROPA 8.8 172 V - Bicol 8.5 359 VI - Western Visayas 6.4 451 VII - Central Visayas 8.1 469 VIII - Eastern Visayas 9.5 273 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 7.7 304 X - Northern Mindanao 8.2 321 XI - Davao 7.6 414 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 11.5 339 XIII - Caraga 10.9 202 ARMM 3.0 215 Marital status Married or living together 6.9 6,602 Divorced/separated/widowed 8.6 581 Number of living children 0 7.5 557 1-2 6.1 3,322 3-4 8.0 2,095 5+ 8.1 1,208 Employment Employed for cash 7.7 3,961 Employed not for cash 6.0 513 Not employed 6.4 2,708 Education No education 8.8 113 Elementary 8.3 1,484 High school 7.9 3,367 College 5.0 2,218 Wealth quintile Lowest 8.3 1,385 Second 9.2 1,392 Middle 7.8 1,451 Fourth 6.3 1,520 Highest 3.9 1,435 Woman afraid of husband Most of the time afraid 37.6 99 Sometimes afraid 15.2 1,390 Never afraid 4.6 5,618 Total 15-49 7.1 7,182 Note: Any husband/partner includes all current, most recent and former husbands/partners. Total includes 2 women with no religion, 4 missing information about religion and 75 women missing information about fear of husband. Violence Against Women • 203 15.9 ONSET OF SPOUSAL VIOLENCE Table 15.13 shows the proportion of currently married women age 15-49 who have experienced spousal physical or sexual violence by the number of years after marriage. Results indicate that only one percent of married women experienced spousal violence before marriage, while 8 percent experienced it within the first two years of marriage and 14 percent experienced violence within 5 years of marriage. Table 15.13 Experience of spousal violence by duration of marriage Among currently married women age 15-49 who have been married only once, the percentage who first experienced physical or sexual violence committed by their current husband/partner by specific exact years since marriage according to marital duration, Philippines 2013 Percentage who first experienced spousal physical or sexual violence by exact marital duration: Percentage who have not experienced spousal sexual or physical violence Number of currently married women who have been married only once Years since marriage Before marriage 2 years 5 years 10 years <2 2.8 na na na 90.0 468 2-4 1.7 14.1 na na 88.3 744 5-9 1.1 7.5 15.7 na 87.8 1,347 10+ 1.1 5.8 10.7 15.8 86.9 3,433 Total 1.3 8.3 14.1 18.1 87.5 5,993 na = Not applicable 15.10 CONSEQUENCES OF SPOUSAL VIOLENCE In the 2013 NDHS, ever-married women were asked whether they had sustained any form of injury as a result of physical or sexual violence inflicted by their husband. Table 15.14 shows the percentage of ever- married women age 15-49 who have ever experienced spousal violence or had experienced spousal violence in the past 12 months and who sustained various types of injuries, according to specific type of violence. Among women who have ever experienced physical violence, 46 percent experienced depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, irritability, confusion or feelings of isolation, and 41 percent sustained cuts, bruises or aches, while 13 percent attempted to commit suicide; 8 percent had eye injuries, sprains, dislocation or burns; 6 percent lost their job or source of income; and 4 percent had deep wounds, broken bones, broken teeth or other serious injuries. Overall, 62 percent of women suffered one or more of these injuries. A similar pattern is seen for injuries sustained due to spousal violence in the past 12 months. In general, 64 percent of women who ever experienced sexual violence suffered some form of injury. Specifically, 57 percent of women who ever experienced sexual violence went through depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, irritability, confusion or feelings of isolation. Moreover, 36 percent of these women had cuts, bruises or aches; 16 percent attempted suicide; 11 percent had eye injuries, sprains, dislocations or burns; 8 percent lost their job or source of income; and 5 percent suffered deep wounds, broken bones, broken teeth or another serious injury. A similar pattern is seen for women who experienced sexual violence in the 12 months before the survey. 204 • Violence Against Women Table 15.14 Injuries to women due to spousal violence Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have experienced specific types of spousal violence by types of injuries resulting from the violence, according to the type of violence and whether they experienced the violence ever and in the 12 months preceding the survey, Philippines 2013 Type of violence Cuts, bruises, or aches Eye injuries, sprains, dislocations, or burns Deep wounds, broken bones, broken teeth, or any other serious injury Lost job/ source of income Had depression, anxiety, sleeplessness, irritability, confusion, feelings of isolation Attempted to commit suicide Any of these injuries Number of ever- married women who have ever experienced any physical or sexual violence Physical violence1 Ever2 40.6 8.4 4.2 5.9 45.9 13.3 62.0 915 In the past 12 months 48.4 13.2 6.2 8.1 56.2 17.4 72.3 384 Sexual violence Ever2 35.7 10.8 4.5 8.2 57.0 16.3 63.7 379 In the past 12 months 35.2 12.7 5.1 9.0 52.3 17.5 60.4 229 Physical or sexual violence1 Ever2 35.4 7.3 3.6 5.2 44.5 12.1 58.6 1,052 In the past 12 months 39.0 10.2 4.9 6.6 50.9 14.7 64.5 505 Note: Husband/partner refers to the current husband/partner for currently married women and the most recent husband/partner for divorced, separated or widowed women. 1 Excludes women who reported violence only in response to a direct question on violence during pregnancy 2 Includes in the past 12 months 15.11 VIOLENCE INITIATED BY WOMEN AGAINST THEIR SPOUSE Husbands are usually perceived as the perpetrators of domestic violence, but women can also initiate domestic violence. In the 2013 NDHS, ever-married women were asked about instances when they were the instigator of physical violence against their husbands. Table 15.15 presents the percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who report having committed physical violence against their current or most recent husband when he was not already beating or physically hurting her, ever and in the 12 months before the survey, by background characteristics of women. Overall, 16 percent of ever-married women said they have initiated physical violence against their husband, and 8 percent have done so in the past 12 months. Women’s initiation of violence against their husband is more common among women who have also experienced spousal physical violence (46 percent and 50 percent for ever experienced and experienced in the past 12 months, respectively) than among women who have never experienced physical violence (11 percent). The percentages of women reporting they instigated physical violence are highest among divorced, separated or widowed women (20 percent and women in Northern Mindanao (23 percent). Violence Against Women • 205 Table 15.15 Women’s violence against their spouse Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have committed physical violence against their current or most recent husband/partner when he was not already beating or physically hurting her, ever and in the past 12 months, according to women’s own experience of spousal violence and background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage who have committed physical violence against their husband/partner Number of ever- married women Background characteristic Ever1 In the past 12 months Woman’s experience of spousal physical violence Ever1 45.5 24.0 915 In the past 12 months 50.1 41.7 384 Never 11.4 5.8 6,268 Age 15-19 17.4 14.2 220 20-24 18.1 12.3 878 25-29 17.5 10.6 1,110 30-39 15.3 7.6 2,607 40-49 14.4 5.5 2,368 Residence Urban 17.2 8.8 3,587 Rural 14.3 7.5 3,595 Region National Capital Region 18.5 10.3 1,144 Cordillera Admin Region 16.3 9.0 115 I - Ilocos Region 20.1 9.1 337 II - Cagayan Valley 13.6 7.5 266 III - Central Luzon 9.1 3.5 782 IVA - CALABARZON 10.8 4.7 1,018 IVB - MIMAROPA 15.3 9.1 172 V - Bicol 16.8 7.3 359 VI - Western Visayas 16.8 8.6 451 VII - Central Visayas 14.9 8.1 469 VIII - Eastern Visayas 21.2 13.1 273 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 16.2 8.7 304 X - Northern Mindanao 22.8 15.0 321 XI - Davao 21.5 9.6 414 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 19.6 10.9 339 XIII - Caraga 18.1 10.7 202 ARMM 5.3 1.8 215 Marital status Married or living together 15.4 8.4 6,602 Divorced/separated/widowed 20.2 5.5 581 Employment Employed for cash 16.7 8.0 3,961 Employed not for cash 17.5 8.5 513 Not employed 14.0 8.2 2,708 Number of living children 0 14.1 9.5 557 1-2 15.0 8.1 3,322 3-4 17.0 8.0 2,095 5+ 16.5 7.8 1,208 Wealth quintile Lowest 14.8 8.8 1,385 Second 19.5 10.7 1,392 Middle 15.2 8.2 1,451 Fourth 16.4 8.0 1,520 Highest 12.9 5.0 1,435 Total 15.8 8.1 7,182 Note: Husband/partner refers to the current husband/partner for currently married women and the most recent husband/partner for divorced, separated or widowed women. Total includes 2 women with no religion and 4 missing information about religion. 1 Includes in the past 12 months 206 • Violence Against Women Table 15.16 shows the percentage of ever-married women who instigated violence against their spouse, ever and in the past 12 months, by characteristics of their husband and empowerment indicators. Results of the 2013 NDHS show that violence prompted by women is highest among those whose husbands get drunk very often (33 percent). It can be observed that women’s violence against their spouse is more common among women whose husband displayed three or more marital controlling behaviors (36 percent to 41 percent), compared with those whose husbands display only 0-2 marital control behaviors (10-22 percent). Among ever- married women who report that their father beat their mother, 25 percent say they committed physical violence against their husband when he was not already beating her as compared with 14 percent of women whose fathers did not beat their mothers. Table 15.16 Women’s violence against their spouse by husband’s characteristics Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have committed physical violence against their current or most recent husband/partner when he was not already beating or physically hurting her, ever and in the past 12 months, according their husband’s characteristics, Philippines 2013 Percentage who have committed physical violence against their husband/partner Number of ever- married women Background characteristic Ever1 In the past 12 months Husband’s education No education 13.8 8.3 115 Primary 16.7 8.8 1,880 Secondary 15.6 8.4 3,047 More than secondary 15.3 7.2 2,127 Husband’s alcohol consumption Does not drink 10.5 4.8 1,678 Drinks/never gets drunk 13.6 5.4 381 Gets drunk sometimes 15.9 8.6 4,572 Gets drunk very often 33.1 16.7 528 Spousal education difference Husband better educated 15.5 8.1 2,114 Wife better educated 16.9 9.5 2,736 Both equally educated 15.0 6.8 2,274 Neither educated 0.7 0.0 45 Spousal age difference2 Wife older 16.7 8.9 1,297 Wife is same age 16.2 8.7 662 Wife’s 1-4 years younger 14.9 8.1 2,497 Wife’s 5-9 years younger 14.9 8.0 1,462 Wife’s 10+ years younger 14.9 9.3 667 Number of marital control behaviors displayed by husband3 0 10.3 5.2 4,731 1-2 22.2 11.2 1,771 3-4 36.1 19.5 581 5 40.7 29.7 100 Number of decisions in which women participate4 0 19.9 6.0 628 1-2 19.1 11.8 419 3-4 15.1 8.1 6,135 Number of reasons for which wife-beating is justified5 0 14.9 7.4 6,195 1-2 21.5 13.1 820 3-4 20.9 10.3 138 5 (14.8) (11.6) 29 Woman’s father beat her mother Yes 25.0 14.0 1,308 No 13.6 6.9 5,728 Woman afraid of husband Most of the time afraid 18.3 11.4 99 Sometimes afraid 23.2 13.0 1,390 Never afraid 14.0 6.9 5,618 Total 15.8 8.1 7,182 Note: Husband/partner refers to the current husband/partner for currently married women and the most recent husband/partner for divorced, separated or widowed women. Total includes 13 women missing information about husband’s education, 23 missing information about husband’s alcohol consumption, 13 missing information about spousal education difference, 17 missing spousal age difference, 147 missing information as to whether her father beat her mother, and 75 missing information about fear of husband. Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Includes in the past 12 months 2 Includes only women who have been married only once. 3 According to the wife’s report. See Table 15.8 for list of behaviors. 4 According to the wife’s report. See Table 15.5 for list of decisions. 5 According to the wife’s report. See Table 15.7 for list of reasons. Violence Against Women • 207 15.12 HELP-SEEKING BEHAVIOR BY WOMEN WHO EXPERIENCED VIOLENCE Table 15.17 reveals that among all women who have ever experienced physical and/or sexual violence, 30 percent sought help to stop the violence, 27 percent never sought help but told someone, and 38 percent never sought help and never told anyone. In contrast, one in every four women (25 percent) who have experienced physical abuse only and three in every ten women (29 percent) who have been sexually abused only sought help for the abuse; however the proportion seeking help increases to almost half of women who have experienced both physical and sexual abuse (48 percent). Table 15.17 Help seeking to stop violence Percent distribution of women age 15-49 who have ever experienced physical or sexual violence by their help-seeking behavior by type of violence and background characteristics, Philippines 2013 Background characteristic Sought help to stop violence Never sought help but told someone Never sought help, never told anyone Missing/ don’t know Total Number of women who have ever experienced any physical or sexual violence Type of violence experienced Physical only 25.3 28.2 40.4 6.1 100.0 1,687 Sexual only 29.0 19.0 51.3 0.7 100.0 235 Physical and sexual 47.5 28.0 24.1 0.3 100.0 461 Age 15-19 25.5 30.5 39.3 4.7 100.0 408 20-24 26.9 27.1 41.1 4.9 100.0 417 25-29 32.1 28.8 34.7 4.3 100.0 335 30-39 30.9 23.8 40.3 4.9 100.0 657 40-49 33.0 28.1 35.5 3.4 100.0 567 Residence Urban 28.4 28.0 38.9 4.7 100.0 1,278 Rural 31.8 26.4 37.7 4.2 100.0 1,105 Region National Capital Region 32.6 21.5 39.6 6.3 100.0 393 Cordillera Admin Region 40.3 20.6 28.5 10.6 100.0 43 I - Ilocos Region 27.3 23.2 48.0 1.5 100.0 92 II - Cagayan Valley 31.7 22.5 42.0 3.9 100.0 112 III - Central Luzon 29.3 33.9 31.4 5.4 100.0 208 IVA - CALABARZON 25.0 31.2 37.0 6.7 100.0 269 IVB - MIMAROPA 28.0 33.8 35.6 2.6 100.0 66 V - Bicol 30.9 27.1 41.6 0.5 100.0 152 VI - Western Visayas 32.0 39.6 27.9 0.5 100.0 146 VII - Central Visayas 27.5 26.0 41.5 5.0 100.0 149 VIII - Eastern Visayas 34.5 29.6 32.5 3.5 100.0 94 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 30.5 22.6 45.2 1.7 100.0 94 X - Northern Mindanao 36.7 18.6 42.0 2.7 100.0 131 XI - Davao 20.8 25.6 50.0 3.6 100.0 171 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 38.2 32.2 25.8 3.8 100.0 127 XIII – Caraga 23.3 31.5 42.5 2.8 100.0 82 ARMM 26.3 20.8 35.6 17.3 100.0 53 Marital status Never married 23.2 30.9 41.0 4.9 100.0 542 Married or living together 30.7 26.7 38.3 4.3 100.0 1,584 Divorced/separated/widowed 39.9 22.9 32.9 4.3 100.0 257 Number of living children 0 23.7 29.8 40.7 5.7 100.0 656 1-2 31.0 26.5 37.7 4.8 100.0 805 3-4 31.9 27.3 37.7 3.1 100.0 552 5+ 35.8 24.3 36.4 3.5 100.0 370 Employment Employed for cash 31.3 27.0 37.8 3.9 100.0 1,369 Employed not for cash 27.0 28.2 39.3 5.4 100.0 140 Not employed 28.3 27.5 39.1 5.1 100.0 874 Education No education (43.6) (11.6) (38.2) (6.7) 100.0 26 Elementary 31.6 26.3 38.6 3.4 100.0 456 High school 30.4 27.1 38.0 4.5 100.0 1,273 College 27.3 28.9 38.8 5.0 100.0 628 Wealth quintile Lowest 33.6 26.5 35.4 4.5 100.0 456 Second 30.0 26.5 38.9 4.6 100.0 510 Middle 28.7 28.0 38.9 4.4 100.0 533 Fourth 29.8 27.5 38.3 4.3 100.0 478 Highest 27.7 27.8 40.1 4.4 100.0 407 Total 30.0 27.3 38.3 4.4 100.0 2,383 Note: Total includes 1 woman with no religion. Numbers in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 208 • Violence Against Women By marital status, help-seeking behavior is more common among divorced, separated or widowed women (40 percent) than the never-married women (23 percent) or women who are currently married (31 percent). In Cordillera Administrative Region, Eastern Visayas, Northern Mindanao, and SOCCSKSARGEN, a higher proportion of women who have ever experienced physical or sexual violence have sought help to stop the violence than in other regions. Table 15.18 presents information on the types of sources from which women seek help to stop violence, according to the type of violence experienced. Overall, the most common sources of help for women who experienced either physical, sexual or both types of violence are their own families (59 percent), friends (17 percent), neighbors (9 percent), and the husband or partner’s family (8 percent). Police have also been sought for help (6 percent) by women who experienced physical and/or sexual violence. These are also the most common sources of help for abused women reported in 2008 NDHS but with a lower proportion seeking help from their own families. Table 15.18 Sources for help to stop the violence Percentage of women age 15-49 who have experienced physical or sexual violence and sought help by sources from which they sought help, according to the type of violence that women reported, Philippines 2013 Type of violence experienced Total Sources of help Physical only Sexual only Physical and sexual Own family 60.6 63.2 53.5 58.7 Husband/partner’s family 7.7 4.5 8.6 7.6 Husband/partner 0.2 0.0 1.1 0.4 Boyfriend 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.5 Friend 13.9 28.5 19.2 16.9 Neighbor 8.5 7.4 10.8 9.1 Religious leader 0.1 0.0 1.3 0.5 Doctor/medical personnel 0.5 0.0 0.7 0.5 Police 5.0 3.8 7.6 5.7 Lawyer 0.2 2.8 3.0 1.3 Social work organization 2.7 0.0 4.7 3.0 Other 17.4 14.9 24.6 19.4 Number of women who sought help 427 68 219 714 Note: Women can report more than one source from which they sought help. References • 209 REFERENCES American Academy of Pediatrics. 2012. Policy Statement: Breastfeeding and the Use of Human Milk. 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New York: World Lung Foundation. http://www.worldlungfoundation.org/ht/display/ReleaseDetails/i/12503/pid/6858. 212 • References Appendix A • 213 SAMPLE DESIGN AND IMPLEMENTATION Appendix A A.1 INTRODUCTION The 2013 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) is the tenth in a series of demographic surveys conducted in the Philippines every five years since 1968. The survey mainly aims to provide reliable data on population and health for the national and regional levels, as well as for the urban and rural areas. The 2013 NDHS has the following specific objectives: • to collect data which will allow the estimation of demographic rates, particularly fertility rates and under-five mortality rates by urban-rural residence and region; • to analyze the direct and indirect factors which determine the level and patterns of fertility; • to measure the level of contraceptive knowledge and practice by method, urban-rural residence and region; • to collect data on health, immunizations, prenatal and postnatal check-ups, assistance at delivery, breastfeeding, and prevalence and treatment of diarrhea, fever and acute respiratory infections among children below five years old; • to collect data on environmental health, utilization of health facilities, prevalence of common non- communicable and infectious diseases, and membership in PhilHealth; • to collect data on awareness of cancer, heart disease, diabetes, dengue fever, and tuberculosis; • to determine the knowledge of women about AIDS, the extent of misconceptions about HIV transmission, and access to HIV testing; and • to determine the extent of violence against women A.2 SAMPLE DESIGN The Philippines consists of 17 administrative regions. A region is composed of provinces, which are subdivided into cities, municipalities and barangays. A barangay, which is the smallest local government unit, is classified as urban or rural. Unlike the 2003 NDHS and 2008 NDHS, which used the 2003 Master Sample created by the National Statistics Office based on the 2000 Census of Population and Housing (CPH), the 2013 NDHS utilized a special sampling frame based on the 2010 CPH frame. In the 2010 CPH, barangays were classified as either urban or rural based on the 2003 definition of urban areas, approved through National Statistical Coordination Board (NSCB) Resolution No. 9, series of 2003. A barangay is classified as urban if it meets any of the following criteria: 214 • Appendix A 1. It has a population size of 5,000 or more; 2. It has at least one establishment with a minimum of 100 employees; 3. It has five or more establishments with 10 to 99 employees, and five or more facilities within the two-kilometer radius from the barangay hall. The following facilities were considered in the classification of a barangay into either urban or rural under criteria 3: i. town/city hall or province capitol ii. church, chapel or mosque with religious service at least once a month iii. public plaza, park or cemetery iv. market place or building where trading activities are carried out at least once a week v. public building like school (elementary, high school, and college), hospital, puericulture or health center, or library vi. landline telephone system or calling station or cellular phone signal vii. postal service or public fire-protection service viii. community waterworks system or public-street sweeper ix. seaport in operation A barangay which does not satisfy any of the criteria above is classified as rural. In the 2000 CPH, which was used in the 2003 Master Sample, barangays were classified into either urban or rural based on the criteria adopted in 1970 as follows: 1. In their entirety, all cities and municipalities which have a population density of at least 1000 persons per square kilometer. 2. Poblaciones or central districts of municipalities and cities which have a population density of at least 500 persons per square kilometer. 3. Poblaciones or central districts, not included in 1 and 2 above, regardless of population size which have the following characteristics: a) Street pattern, that is, network of streets in either parallel or right angle orientation; b) At least six establishments, either commercial, manufacturing, recreational and/or personal services; and, c) At least three of the following: i. a town hall, church or chapel with a religious service at least once a year; ii. a public place, park or cemetery; Appendix A • 215 iii. a market place or building where trading activities are carried on at least once a week; and, iv. a public building like a school, hospital, puericulture or health center or library. 4. Barrios, having at least 1000 inhabitants, which meet the conditions set forth in No. 3 and in which the occupation of the inhabitants is predominantly non-farming/fishing. Table A.1 presents the distribution of total number of households in 2010 Census of Population and Housing (CPH) sampling frame by region, and urban rural strata. Table A.1 Households in sampling frame Distribution of total number of households in 2010 CPH sampling frame by region, urban and rural strata Urban Rural Total households Region Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent National Capital Region 2,755,512 100.0 0 0.0 2,755,512 13.7 Cordillera Admin Region 98,977 28.1 253,426 71.9 352,403 1.7 I - Ilocos Region 133,707 12.7 916,898 87.3 1,050,605 5.2 II - Cagayan Valley 85,002 11.7 642,325 88.3 727,327 3.6 III - Central Luzon 1,157,736 51.7 1,081,275 48.3 2,239,011 11.1 IVA - CALABARZON 1,716,961 60.6 1,116,634 39.4 2,833,595 14.1 IVB - MIMAROPA 135,697 22.5 466,434 77.5 602,131 3.0 V - Bicol 171,494 15.4 940,259 84.6 1,111,753 5.5 VI - Western Visayas 536,981 35.2 989,606 64.8 1,526,587 7.6 VII - Central Visayas 662,048 44.5 825,662 55.5 1,487,710 7.4 VIII - Eastern Visayas 75,364 8.7 790,293 91.3 865,657 4.3 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 247,877 34.1 478,395 65.9 726,272 3.6 X - Northern Mindanao 385,118 42.0 532,722 58.0 917,840 4.6 XI - Davao 601,993 59.5 409,950 40.5 1,011,943 5.0 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 427,069 46.6 488,969 53.4 916,038 4.5 ARMM 63,558 12.5 445,120 87.5 508,678 2.5 XIII - Caraga 139,850 27.7 364,407 72.3 504,257 2.5 PHILIPPINES 9,394,944 46.7 10,742,375 53.3 20,137,319 100.0 Since the definition of urban used in the 2013 NDHS is more stringent than the one used in the 2008 NDHS, the net effect is that a smaller population is considered urban in 2013. A stratified two-stage sample design was used for the 2013 NDHS. The sampling frame was based on the enumeration areas (EAs) defined for the 2010 CPH, which were selected as primary sampling units (PSUs) at the first sampling stage. An enumeration area (EA) is a barangay or part of a barangay, which consists of about 350 to 500 households. Generally, a barangay constitutes one EA. However, barangays with a large population or physical area may be divided into two or more EAs. The census database of housing units (both occupied and vacant) for each sample EA was the frame for selecting a sample of households at the second stage. The information on the address and name of head of household for each selected housing unit was keyed from images from the scanned 2010 CPH forms 2 and 3. As the list of housing units in the 2010 CPH was three years old at the time of the 2013 NDHS data collection, it would have been ideal to conduct a new listing of housing units in the sample EAs for selecting the sample households to ensure that the second stage sampling frame is representative of the current population. However, the budget for the NDHS did not include a new listing operation. Since the unoccupied housing units identified in the 2010 CPH enumeration will be included in the frame for selecting the sample households, the sample will be representative of households who moved into housing units that existed at the time of the census. However, any new housing units that were constructed in the previous three years were excluded from the frame, which may result in a slight bias. 216 • Appendix A A.3 SAMPLE IMPLEMENTATION As the 2013 NDHS aims to provide estimates of key indicators on population and health for the Philippines as a whole, for urban and rural areas, and for the 17 regions, a total of 800 enumeration areas (EAs)—334 in urban areas and 466 in rural areas—were selected from the list of EAs in the Philippines 2010 CPH. The sampling frame of EAs was stratified by region, urban and rural areas. A minimum of 36 sample EAs were allocated to the smaller regions in order to provide a sufficient level of precision for the regional- level estimates. The sample allocation for the other regions was based on the size of each region, with a maximum of 82 sample EAs for the largest regions. Within each region the sample EAs were allocated proportionally to the urban and rural strata, based on the number of households in the CPH 2010 frame (see Table A.2). The sample selection methodology for the 2013 NDHS was based on a stratified two-stage sample design. At the first sampling stage, the sample EAs for the 2013 NDHS were selected within each stratum (region, urban/rural) systematically with probability proportional to size (PPS) from the ordered list of EAs in the sampling frame. The sample EAs were selected separately for each region by urban/rural stratum. The measure of size for each EA was based on the number of housing units in the Philippines 2010 CPH sampling frame of EAs. Within each stratum, the EAs were ordered geographically by province, municipality, barangay and EA codes, which provided implicit geographic stratification of the sampling frame, and automatically resulted in a proportional allocation of the sample EAs by province within each region, urban/rural stratum. Table A.2 Sample allocation of enumeration areas Sample allocation of enumeration areas by region, urban and rural strata, Philippines 2013 Residence Total Region Urban Rural National Capital Region 82 0 82 Cordillera Admin Region 11 27 38 I - Ilocos Region 5 37 42 II - Cagayan Valley 4 32 36 III - Central Luzon 37 35 72 IVA - CALABARZON 50 32 82 IVB - MIMAROPA 8 28 36 V - Bicol 7 37 44 VI - Western Visayas 20 36 56 VII - Central Visayas 25 31 56 VIII - Eastern Visayas 3 33 36 IX - Zamboanga Peninsula 12 24 36 X - Northern Mindanao 15 21 36 XI - Davao 24 16 40 XII - SOCCSKSARGEN 17 19 36 ARMM 4 32 36 XIII - Caraga 10 26 36 PHILIPPINES 334 466 800 At the second stage, 20 sample housing units were selected from the 2010 CPH data for each sample EA. In the case of sample housing units with more than one household, all the households were included in the sample. Tables A.3 and A.4 present the sample implementation results by number of households selected and interviewed and number of eligible women found and interviewed, by urban-rural residence and region.     Appendix A • 217 Table A.3 Sample implementation Percent distribution of households and eligible women by results of the household and individual interviews, and household, eligible women and overall women response rates, according to urban-rural residence (unweighted), Philippines 2013 Residence Total Result Urban Rural Selected households Completed (C) 88.1 88.8 88.5 Household present but no competent respondent at home (HP) 0.1 0.2 0.1 Postponed (P) 0.0 0.0 0.0 Refused (R) 0.3 0.0 0.1 Dwelling not found (DNF) 0.3 0.2 0.3 Household absent (HA) 0.9 0.9 0.9 Dwelling vacant/address not a dwelling (DV) 6.7 6.2 6.4 Dwelling destroyed (DD) 3.5 3.5 3.5 Other (O) 0.2 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of sampled households 7,098 9,634 16,732 Household response rate (HRR)1 99.2 99.5 99.4 Eligible women Completed (EWC) 98.3 98.3 98.3 Not at home (EWNH) 0.5 0.4 0.4 Refused (EWR) 0.1 0.0 0.1 Incapacitated (EWI) 0.7 0.9 0.8 Other (EWO) 0.5 0.4 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women 7,742 8,695 16,437 Eligible women response rate (EWRR)2 98.3 98.3 98.3 Overall women response rate (ORR)3 97.5 97.8 97.7 1 Using the number of households falling into specific response categories, the household response rate (HRR) is calculated as: 100 * C _______________________________ C + HP + P + R + DNF 2 The eligible women response rate (EWRR) is equivalent to the percentage of interviews completed (EWC) 3 The overall women response rate (OWRR) is calculated as: OWRR = HRR * EWRR/100 21 8 • A pp en di x A Ta bl e A. 4 S am pl e im pl em en ta tio n P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld s an d el ig ib le w om en b y re su lts o f t he h ou se ho ld a nd in di vi du al in te rv ie w s, a nd h ou se ho ld , e lig ib le w om en a nd o ve ra ll w om en re sp on se ra te s, a cc or di ng to re gi on (u nw ei gh te d) , P hi lip pi ne s 20 13 R eg io n R es ul t N C R C AR I - Il oc os R eg io n II – C ag a- ya n V al le y III - C en tra l Lu zo n IV A – C A LA - B A R - ZO N IV B – M IM A- R O P A V - B ic ol V I - W es te rn V is ay as V II - C en tra l V is ay as VI II - E as te rn V is ay as IX – Za m bo - an ga P en in - su la X – N or th - er n M in - da na o X I - D av ao X II – SO C C - S K S A R - G EN XI II - C ar ag a A R M M To ta l Se le ct ed h ou se ho ld s C om pl et ed (C ) 90 .7 91 .0 87 .7 91 .3 85 .9 86 .4 86 .4 87 .9 87 .2 85 .0 85 .4 92 .9 86 .3 92 .4 90 .5 93 .8 87 .6 88 .5 H ou se ho ld p re se nt b ut n o co m pe te nt re sp on de nt a t ho m e (H P ) 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 3 0. 1 0. 1 0. 3 0. 1 0. 3 0. 4 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 P os tp on ed (P ) 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 R ef us ed (R ) 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 D w el lin g no t f ou nd (D N F) 0. 1 0. 3 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 8 0. 1 0. 2 0. 3 0. 1 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 6 0. 1 0. 0 0. 9 0. 3 H ou se ho ld a bs en t ( H A ) 0. 3 0. 5 0. 4 0. 3 1. 2 1. 2 0. 6 1. 3 0. 5 0. 5 0. 7 1. 7 0. 4 0. 4 0. 9 1. 0 3. 9 0. 9 D w el lin g va ca nt /a dd re ss no t a d w el lin g (D V ) 4. 6 7. 8 8. 2 5. 9 10 .1 8. 5 6. 1 5. 1 6. 0 7. 5 8. 7 4. 3 5. 6 3. 1 4. 6 3. 7 5. 6 6. 4 D w el lin g de st ro ye d (D D ) 3. 5 0. 5 2. 5 2. 2 2. 5 2. 7 6. 6 5. 0 5. 6 5. 8 4. 8 0. 7 6. 9 2. 9 3. 4 1. 6 2. 0 3. 5 O th er (O ) 0. 1 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 0. 3 0. 1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 0. 5 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 To ta l 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 N um be r o f s am pl ed ho us eh ol ds 1, 85 6 77 4 89 2 76 1 1, 48 7 1, 69 0 72 6 89 8 1, 14 4 1, 13 1 73 2 76 0 75 0 84 0 75 7 73 6 79 8 16 ,7 32 H ou se ho ld re sp on se ra te (H R R )1 99 .1 99 .7 99 .5 99 .7 99 .8 99 .1 99 .5 99 .6 99 .3 98 .8 99 .5 99 .6 99 .8 99 .1 99 .6 10 0. 0 99 .0 99 .4 El ig ib le w om en C om pl et ed (E W C ) 98 .0 98 .7 98 .6 97 .1 98 .6 97 .1 99 .1 98 .2 97 .9 97 .9 98 .3 99 .0 98 .7 99 .2 98 .8 98 .9 98 .5 98 .3 N ot a t h om e (E W N H ) 0. 7 0. 1 0. 3 1. 1 0. 1 1. 3 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 0. 7 0. 3 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 2 0. 4 R ef us ed (E W R ) 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 In ca pa ci ta te d (E W I) 0. 7 0. 6 1. 0 0. 7 0. 8 0. 7 0. 3 1. 2 2. 0 1. 0 1. 3 0. 2 0. 7 0. 4 0. 3 0. 9 0. 6 0. 8 O th er (E W O ) 0. 4 0. 6 0. 1 1. 1 0. 6 0. 7 0. 5 0. 4 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 3 0. 6 0. 3 0. 8 0. 1 0. 5 0. 4 To ta l 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 N um be r o f w om en 2, 29 6 68 1 71 8 71 5 1, 40 0 1, 63 7 58 1 81 1 95 0 97 8 60 2 94 5 70 8 90 5 76 3 81 2 93 5 16 ,4 37 E lig ib le w om en re sp on se ra te (E W R R )2 98 .0 98 .7 98 .6 97 .1 98 .6 97 .1 99 .1 98 .2 97 .9 97 .9 98 .3 99 .0 98 .7 99 .2 98 .8 98 .9 98 .5 98 .3 O ve ra ll w om en re sp on se ra te (O R R )3 97 .1 98 .4 98 .1 96 .8 98 .3 96 .2 98 .7 97 .8 97 .2 96 .6 97 .9 98 .6 98 .6 98 .3 98 .4 98 .9 97 .5 97 .7 1 U si ng th e nu m be r o f h ou se ho ld s fa llin g in to s pe ci fic re sp on se c at eg or ie s, th e ho us eh ol d re sp on se ra te (H R R ) i s ca lc ul at ed a s: 10 0 * C __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ __ _ C + H P + P + R + D N F 2 T he e lig ib le w om en re sp on se ra te (E W R R ) i s eq ui va le nt to th e pe rc en ta ge o f i nt er vi ew s co m pl et ed (E W C ) 3 T he o ve ra ll w om en re sp on se ra te (O W R R ) i s ca lc ul at ed a s: O W R R = H R R * E W R R /1 00 218 • Appendix A      Appendix A 219  A.4 SAMPLING WEIGHT In order for the sample estimates from the 2013 NDHS to be representative of the population, it will be necessary to multiply the data by a sampling weight. The basic weight for each sample household is equal to the inverse of its probability of selection (calculated by multiplying the probabilities at each sampling stage). Based on the stratified two-stage sample design, the overall probability of selection for sample households in the 2013 NDHS can be expressed as follows: , M n M m M Mn = p h h hi hi h hih hi 20×=×× where: phi = probability of selection for the sample households in the i-th sample EA in stratum (region, urban/rural) h nh = number of sample EAs selected in stratum h for the 2013 NDHS Mh = total number of housing units in the 2010 CPH sampling frame of EAs (cumulated measure of size) for stratum h Mhi = total number of housing units in the 2010 CPH frame for the i-th sample EA in stratum h mhi = number of sample housing units selected in the i-th sample EA in stratum h (that is, 20) The two components of this probability of selection correspond to the individual sampling stages. The basic sampling weight is calculated as the inverse of this probability of selection. Based on the previous expression for the probability, the weight can be simplified as follows: , n M = W h h hi 20× where: Whi = basic weight for the sample households in the i-th sample EA in stratum h 220 • Appendix A Since mhi is constant for each stratum (20), the sample will be self-weighting within each stratum. It is also important to adjust the weights to take into account the non-interviewed households in each sample EA. The weights were adjusted for nonresponse at the stratum level; the adjustment factor for each stratum was calculated as the inverse of the weighted household response rate for the stratum. The final weight (W'hi) for the sample households in the i-th sample EA in stratum h can be expressed as follows: , RR W = W h hihi 1 ' × where: RRh = weighted response rate for the households in stratum h: , mW mW = RR hi hihi hi hihi h ∑ ∑ × × ε ε ' " m"hi = number of sample households with completed interviews in the i-th sample EA in stratum h m'hi = total number of in-scope sample households (in occupied housing units) selected in the i-th sample EA in stratum h Following the adjustment of the household weights for nonresponse, these weights were normalized (standardized) in the 2013 NDHS database so that relative weights can be used for the analysis of the data. In this way the sum of the relative weights will be equal to the number of sample households. The household weights were normalized by dividing each weight by the average weight at the national level (that is, the sum of the weights for all sample households divided by the number of sample households). Therefore, the relative weights have a mean value of 1. Given that sometimes it is not possible to complete a woman questionnaire for each eligible woman identified in a sample household, it is also necessary to have a separate woman weight with an additional nonresponse adjustment factor applied to the household weight. The woman weight can be expressed as follows: , RRW W = W h hiwhi 1 ' × where: Wwhi = adjusted weight for data in woman questionnaires for the i-th sample EA in stratum h RRWh = weighted response rate for the sample women in stratum h: , wW wW = RRW hi hihi hi hihi h ∑ ∑ × × ε ε '      Appendix A 221  w'hi = number of women with completed interviews for all sample households in the i-th sample EA in stratum h whi = total number of women age 15 to 49 years identified in the questionnaire roster for all sample households in the i-th sample EA in stratum h The woman weights were normalized in the same way as the household weights. Each woman weight was divided by the national average of the woman weights. Finally, because only one eligible woman per household was randomly selected to be interviewed with the Women’s Safety module, separate weights were calculated for these women. The weight for the Women's Safety module is equal to the adjusted household weight times the number of eligible women in the household. This weight was also adjusted for nonresponse and then normalized.    222 • Appendix A Appendix B • 223 ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS Appendix B he estimates from a sample survey are affected by two types of errors: (1) nonsampling errors and (2) sampling errors. Nonsampling errors are the results of mistakes made in implementing data collection and data processing, such as failure to locate and interview the correct household, misunderstanding of the questions on the part of either the interviewer or the respondent, and data entry errors. Although numerous efforts were made during the implementation of the 2013 National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) to minimize this type of error, nonsampling errors are impossible to avoid and difficult to evaluate statistically. Sampling errors, on the other hand, can be evaluated statistically. The sample of respondents selected in the 2013 NDHS is only one of many samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and identical size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling error is a measure of the variability between the results of all possible samples. Although the degree of variability is not known exactly, it can be estimated from the survey data. A sampling error is usually measured in terms of the standard error for a particular statistic (mean, percentage, etc.), which is the square root of the variance. The standard error can be used to calculate confidence intervals within which the true value for the population can reasonably be assumed to fall. For example, for any given statistic calculated from a sample survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error of that statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design. If the sample of respondents had been selected as a simple random sample, it would have been possible to use straightforward formulas for calculating sampling errors. However, the 2013 NDHS sample is the result of a multistage stratified design, and, consequently, it was necessary to use more complex formulae. The computer software used to calculate sampling errors for the 2013 NDHS is a SAS program. This program used the Taylor linearization method for variance estimation for survey estimates that are means or proportions. The Jackknife repeated replications method is used for variance estimation of more complex statistics such as fertility and mortality rates. The Taylor linearization method treats any percentage or average as a ratio estimate, r = y/x, where y represents the total sample value for variable y, and x represents the total number of weighted cases in the group or subgroup under consideration. The variance of r is computed using the formula given below, with the standard error being the square root of the variance: ∑ ∑ = = ⎥⎥⎦ ⎤ ⎢⎢⎣ ⎡ ⎟⎟⎠ ⎞ ⎜⎜⎝ ⎛ −− −= H h m i h h hi h hh h m zz m fm x r = r SE 1 1 2 2 2 2 1 )1(1)var()( in which zhi = yhi − rxhi , and zh = yh − rxh where h represents the stratum which varies from 1 to H, mh is the total number of clusters selected in the hth stratum, yhi is the sum of the weighted values of variable y in the ith cluster in the hth stratum, T 224 • Appendix B xhi is the sum of the weighted number of cases in the ith cluster in the hth stratum, and fh is the sampling fraction of PSUs in the hth stratum, which is small and ignored. The Jackknife repeated replications method derives estimates of complex rates from each of several replications of the parent sample and calculates standard errors for these estimates using simple formulae. Each replication considers all but one cluster in the calculation of the estimates. Pseudo-independent replications are thus created. In the 2013 NDHS, there were 800 non-empty clusters. Hence, 800 replications were created. The variance of a rate r is calculated as follows: ∑ = −−= k i i rrkk r = r SE 1 22 )( )1( 1)var()( in which ri = kr - (k -1)r(i) where r is the estimate computed from the full sample of 800 clusters, r(i) the estimate computed from the reduced sample of 799 clusters (ith cluster excluded), and k is the total number of clusters. In addition to the standard error, the program computes the design effect (DEFT) for each estimate, which is defined as the ratio between the standard error using the given sample design and the standard error that would result if a simple random sample had been used. A DEFT value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a value greater than 1.0 indicates the increase in the sampling error due to the use of a more complex and less statistically efficient design, such as multistage and cluster sampling. The program also computes the relative standard error and the confidence limits for the estimates. Sampling errors for the 2013 NDHS are calculated for selected variables considered to be of primary interest. The results are presented in this appendix for the country as a whole, for urban and rural areas, and for each of the 17 geographical regions. For each variable, the type of statistic (mean, proportion, or rate) and the base population are given in Table B.1. Tables B.2 to B.21 present the value of the statistic (R), its standard error (SE), the number of unweighted (N) and weighted (WN) cases, the design effect (DEFT), the relative standard error (SE/R), and the 95 percent confidence limits (R±2SE), for each indicator. The DEFT is considered undefined when the standard error based on a simple random sample is zero (when the estimate is close to 0 or 1). In the case of the total fertility rate, the number of unweighted cases is not relevant, as there is no known unweighted value for woman-years of exposure to childbearing. The confidence interval (e.g., as calculated for the proportion of married women currently using any contraceptive method) can be interpreted as follows: the overall proportion from the national sample is 0.551 and its standard error is 0.006. Therefore, to obtain the 95 percent confidence limits, one adds and subtracts twice the standard error to the sample estimate, i.e., 0.551±2×0.006. There is a high probability (95 percent) that the true proportion of married women using any method is between 0.539 and 0.563. For the total sample, the value of the DEFT, averaged over all variables, is 1.186. This means that, because of multi-stage clustering of the sample, the average standard error is increased by a factor of 1.186 over that from a simple random sample of the same size. Appendix B • 225 Table B.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors, Philippines, 2013 Variable Estimate Base population Urban residence Proportion All women 15-49 Secondary education or higher Proportion All women 15-49 Never married/in union Proportion All women 15-49 Currently married/in union Proportion All women 15-49 Married before age 20 Proportion All women 20-49 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 Proportion All women 20-49 Currently pregnant Proportion All women 15-49 Children ever born Mean All women 15-49 Children surviving Mean All women 15-49 Currently using any method Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using a modern method Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using a traditional method Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using pill Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using IUD Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using male condoms Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using injectables Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using female sterilization Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Currently using rhythm Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Used public sector source Proportion Current users of modern method Want no more children Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Unmet need for family planning Proportion Currently married women 15-49 Ideal number of children Mean All women 15-49 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth Proportion Women with a live birth in last five years Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth Proportion Women with a live birth in last five years Births with skilled attendant at delivery Proportion Births occurring in last five years Delivery in a health facility Proportion Births occurring in last five years Postnatal care for mothers within two days after birth Proportion Women with a live birth in last two years Had diarrhea in the past 2 weeks Proportion Children under 5 Treated with ORS Proportion Children under 5 with diarrhea in past 2 weeks Sought medical treatment for diarrhea Proportion Children under 5 with diarrhea in past 2 weeks Vaccination card seen Proportion Children 12-23 months Received BCG vaccination Proportion Children 12-23 months Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) Proportion Children 12-23 months Received polio vaccination (3 doses) Proportion Children 12-23 months Received measles vaccination Proportion Children 12-23 months Received all vaccinations Proportion Children 12-23 months Abstinence among never married youth (never had sex) Proportion Never-married women 15-24 Sexually active in past 12 months among never married youth Proportion Never-married women 15-24 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months Proportion All women 15-49 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband/partner Proportion Ever-married women 15-49 interviewed on Women Safety Total fertility rate (3 years) Rate Women-years of exposure to childbearing Neonatal mortality rate¹ Rate Children exposed to the risk of mortality Post-neonatal mortality rate¹ Rate Children exposed to the risk of mortality Infant mortality rate¹ Rate Children exposed to the risk of mortality Child mortality rate¹ Rate Children exposed to the risk of mortality Under-five mortality rate¹ Rate Children exposed to the risk of mortality 1 The mortality rates are calculated for last 0-4 years before the survey for the national sample, and last 0-9 years before the survey for regional samples       226 • Appendix B Table B.2 Sampling errors: Total sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.531 0.005 16155 16155 1.239 0.009 0.522 0.541 Secondary or higher education 0.828 0.005 16155 16155 1.714 0.006 0.818 0.838 Never married (never in union) 0.348 0.004 16155 16155 1.201 0.013 0.339 0.357 Currently married (in union) 0.602 0.005 16155 16155 1.233 0.008 0.593 0.612 Married before age 20 0.312 0.006 12894 12918 1.369 0.018 0.301 0.323 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.180 0.004 12894 12918 1.294 0.024 0.171 0.188 Currently pregnant 0.042 0.002 16155 16155 1.078 0.040 0.039 0.046 Children ever born 1.896 0.022 16155 16155 1.295 0.012 1.852 1.941 Children surviving 1.817 0.020 16155 16155 1.254 0.011 1.776 1.858 Currently using any method 0.551 0.006 9866 9729 1.226 0.011 0.539 0.563 Currently using a modern method 0.376 0.006 9866 9729 1.167 0.015 0.365 0.388 Currently using a traditional method 0.175 0.004 9866 9729 1.164 0.025 0.166 0.184 Currently using pill 0.191 0.005 9866 9729 1.160 0.024 0.182 0.201 Currently using IUD 0.035 0.003 9866 9729 1.380 0.073 0.030 0.040 Currently using male condoms 0.019 0.002 9866 9729 1.114 0.081 0.016 0.022 Currently using injectables 0.037 0.002 9866 9729 1.146 0.059 0.032 0.041 Currently using female sterilization 0.085 0.003 9866 9729 1.128 0.037 0.079 0.092 Currently using rythm 0.051 0.002 9866 9729 1.080 0.047 0.046 0.056 Used public sector source 0.472 0.010 3753 3755 1.232 0.021 0.452 0.492 Want no more children 0.623 0.005 9866 9729 1.056 0.008 0.613 0.633 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.187 0.004 9866 9729 1.062 0.022 0.179 0.196 Unmet need for family planning 0.175 0.004 9866 9729 1.095 0.024 0.167 0.183 Ideal number of children 2.781 0.017 16081 16080 1.558 0.006 2.748 2.815 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.954 0.003 5301 5188 1.147 0.003 0.947 0.961 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.819 0.007 5301 5188 1.277 0.008 0.805 0.832 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.728 0.010 7216 6982 1.563 0.014 0.707 0.748 Delivery in a health facility 0.611 0.011 7216 6982 1.563 0.017 0.590 0.633 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.720 0.011 2766 2698 1.295 0.016 0.697 0.742 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.080 0.004 7012 6796 1.100 0.047 0.072 0.087 Treated w ith ORS 0.491 0.023 551 542 1.021 0.046 0.446 0.537 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.421 0.023 551 542 1.033 0.054 0.375 0.467 Vaccination card seen 0.576 0.015 1423 1397 1.147 0.026 0.546 0.607 Received BCG vaccination 0.954 0.005 1423 1397 0.973 0.006 0.943 0.965 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.861 0.010 1423 1397 1.079 0.012 0.842 0.881 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.846 0.010 1423 1397 1.061 0.012 0.825 0.866 Received measles vaccination 0.839 0.011 1423 1397 1.091 0.013 0.817 0.860 Received all vaccinations 0.765 0.012 1423 1397 1.084 0.016 0.740 0.789 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.894 0.005 4394 4401 1.163 0.006 0.883 0.905 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.066 0.004 4394 4401 1.187 0.068 0.057 0.075 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.007 0.001 16155 16155 1.148 0.111 0.005 0.008 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband/partner 0.169 0.005 8160 7182 1.248 0.031 0.159 0.180 Total fertility rate (3 years) 3.040 0.058 45081 45149 1.223 0.019 2.924 3.157 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-4 years) 12.581 1.386 7289 7045 1.010 0.110 9.809 15.353 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-4 years) 10.126 1.229 7305 7067 1.009 0.121 7.668 12.584 Infant mortality rate (last 0-4 years) 22.707 1.865 7294 7050 1.007 0.082 18.977 26.437 Child mortality rate (last 0-4 years) 8.595 1.145 7360 7124 1.043 0.133 6.306 10.884 Under-five mortality rate (last 0-4 years) 31.107 2.232 7316 7071 1.040 0.072 26.643 35.571 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits Appendix B • 227 Table B.3 Sampling errors: Urban sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 1.000 0.000 7609 8585 na 0.000 1.000 1.000 Secondary or higher education 0.885 0.005 7609 8585 1.428 0.006 0.875 0.896 Never married (never in union) 0.386 0.007 7609 8585 1.206 0.017 0.372 0.399 Currently married (in union) 0.551 0.007 7609 8585 1.236 0.013 0.537 0.566 Married before age 20 0.262 0.008 6081 6879 1.357 0.029 0.247 0.277 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.156 0.006 6081 6879 1.252 0.037 0.144 0.168 Currently pregnant 0.038 0.002 7609 8585 1.013 0.059 0.033 0.042 Children ever born 1.642 0.029 7609 8585 1.277 0.018 1.584 1.700 Children surviving 1.584 0.027 7609 8585 1.232 0.017 1.531 1.637 Currently using any method 0.565 0.009 4216 4734 1.175 0.016 0.548 0.583 Currently using a modern method 0.378 0.008 4216 4734 1.100 0.022 0.362 0.394 Currently using a traditional method 0.187 0.007 4216 4734 1.099 0.035 0.174 0.201 Currently using pill 0.179 0.007 4216 4734 1.126 0.037 0.166 0.193 Currently using IUD 0.035 0.004 4216 4734 1.266 0.103 0.027 0.042 Currently using male condoms 0.022 0.002 4216 4734 1.088 0.112 0.017 0.027 Currently using injectables 0.034 0.003 4216 4734 1.118 0.092 0.028 0.040 Currently using female sterilization 0.096 0.005 4216 4734 1.072 0.051 0.087 0.106 Currently using rythm 0.049 0.003 4216 4734 1.047 0.071 0.042 0.056 Used public sector source 0.439 0.015 1670 1878 1.213 0.034 0.410 0.469 Want no more children 0.624 0.007 4216 4734 0.993 0.012 0.609 0.639 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.181 0.006 4216 4734 1.024 0.034 0.169 0.193 Unmet need for family planning 0.167 0.006 4216 4734 1.098 0.038 0.155 0.180 Ideal number of children 2.588 0.019 7578 8549 1.405 0.007 2.550 2.625 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.967 0.004 2225 2489 1.192 0.005 0.959 0.976 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.806 0.011 2225 2489 1.266 0.013 0.785 0.828 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.832 0.012 2936 3261 1.450 0.015 0.807 0.856 Delivery in a health facility 0.724 0.015 2936 3261 1.481 0.020 0.695 0.753 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.790 0.015 1151 1290 1.207 0.018 0.761 0.819 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.077 0.005 2865 3185 1.040 0.070 0.066 0.088 Treated w ith ORS 0.542 0.036 216 245 1.028 0.066 0.470 0.614 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.436 0.035 216 245 1.003 0.081 0.365 0.506 Vaccination card seen 0.568 0.023 600 671 1.100 0.040 0.523 0.613 Received BCG vaccination 0.966 0.008 600 671 1.058 0.008 0.951 0.982 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.879 0.014 600 671 1.019 0.015 0.852 0.906 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.858 0.014 600 671 0.969 0.016 0.830 0.886 Received measles vaccination 0.856 0.015 600 671 1.015 0.017 0.827 0.886 Received all vaccinations 0.788 0.017 600 671 0.988 0.021 0.754 0.821 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.875 0.008 2211 2479 1.174 0.009 0.858 0.891 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.080 0.007 2211 2479 1.196 0.086 0.066 0.094 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.008 0.001 7609 8585 1.155 0.152 0.005 0.010 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.175 0.008 3443 3587 1.268 0.047 0.158 0.191 Total fertility rate (3 years) 2.627 0.074 21366 24143 1.229 0.028 2.479 2.775 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 8.847 1.220 5847 6521 0.957 0.138 6.408 11.286 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 9.780 1.352 5852 6523 0.993 0.138 7.076 12.483 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 18.627 1.847 5851 6525 0.970 0.099 14.932 22.322 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 6.961 1.199 5801 6471 1.070 0.172 4.563 9.359 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 25.458 2.384 5862 6537 1.062 0.094 20.691 30.225 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits   228 • Appendix B     Table B.4 Sampling errors: Rural sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.000 0.000 8546 7570 na na 0.000 0.000 Secondary or higher education 0.763 0.009 8546 7570 1.966 0.012 0.745 0.781 Never married (never in union) 0.304 0.006 8546 7570 1.154 0.019 0.293 0.316 Currently married (in union) 0.660 0.006 8546 7570 1.183 0.009 0.648 0.672 Married before age 20 0.369 0.008 6813 6040 1.376 0.022 0.353 0.385 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.207 0.007 6813 6040 1.337 0.032 0.194 0.220 Currently pregnant 0.048 0.003 8546 7570 1.144 0.055 0.043 0.053 Children ever born 2.185 0.034 8546 7570 1.332 0.016 2.116 2.253 Children surviving 2.081 0.031 8546 7570 1.290 0.015 2.018 2.143 Currently using any method 0.538 0.008 5650 4995 1.262 0.016 0.521 0.554 Currently using a modern method 0.375 0.008 5650 4995 1.226 0.021 0.359 0.390 Currently using a traditional method 0.163 0.006 5650 4995 1.216 0.037 0.151 0.175 Currently using pill 0.203 0.006 5650 4995 1.189 0.031 0.190 0.215 Currently using IUD 0.036 0.004 5650 4995 1.484 0.102 0.029 0.043 Currently using male condoms 0.016 0.002 5650 4995 1.107 0.116 0.012 0.019 Currently using injectables 0.039 0.003 5650 4995 1.167 0.077 0.033 0.045 Currently using female sterilization 0.075 0.004 5650 4995 1.173 0.055 0.066 0.083 Currently using rythm 0.053 0.003 5650 4995 1.104 0.062 0.046 0.060 Used public sector source 0.505 0.014 2083 1877 1.235 0.027 0.478 0.532 Want no more children 0.622 0.007 5650 4995 1.111 0.012 0.608 0.636 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.193 0.006 5650 4995 1.091 0.030 0.181 0.204 Unmet need for family planning 0.182 0.006 5650 4995 1.081 0.030 0.171 0.193 Ideal number of children 3.001 0.028 8503 7531 1.684 0.009 2.946 3.056 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.942 0.005 3076 2699 1.142 0.005 0.932 0.951 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.830 0.009 3076 2699 1.272 0.010 0.813 0.847 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.636 0.015 4280 3721 1.671 0.023 0.606 0.666 Delivery in a health facility 0.513 0.015 4280 3721 1.661 0.029 0.483 0.543 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.655 0.016 1615 1408 1.370 0.025 0.623 0.688 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.082 0.005 4147 3611 1.157 0.063 0.072 0.093 Treated w ith ORS 0.450 0.028 335 297 0.989 0.062 0.393 0.506 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.409 0.030 335 297 1.058 0.073 0.350 0.469 Vaccination card seen 0.584 0.021 823 727 1.188 0.035 0.543 0.625 Received BCG vaccination 0.943 0.008 823 727 0.931 0.008 0.927 0.958 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.845 0.014 823 727 1.135 0.017 0.816 0.874 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.835 0.015 823 727 1.146 0.018 0.805 0.864 Received measles vaccination 0.822 0.015 823 727 1.155 0.019 0.791 0.853 Received all vaccinations 0.744 0.018 823 727 1.170 0.024 0.708 0.779 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.918 0.006 2183 1923 1.073 0.007 0.906 0.931 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.047 0.005 2183 1923 1.069 0.103 0.037 0.057 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.005 0.001 8546 7570 1.075 0.158 0.004 0.007 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.164 0.006 4717 3595 1.173 0.039 0.151 0.177 Total fertility rate (3 years) 3.525 0.083 23715 21006 1.215 0.024 3.359 3.691 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 17.675 1.742 8750 7561 1.093 0.099 14.192 21.158 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 9.997 1.098 8742 7558 0.968 0.110 7.802 12.193 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 27.672 2.087 8755 7565 1.072 0.075 23.499 31.846 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 10.861 1.469 8702 7527 1.170 0.135 7.922 13.799 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 38.232 2.637 8783 7588 1.143 0.069 32.958 43.507 na  = Not appl icable Confidence limits Number of Cases Appendix B • 229     Table B.5 Sampling errors: National Capital Region sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 1.000 0.000 2249 2924 na 0.000 1.000 1.000 Secondary or higher education 0.929 0.007 2249 2924 1.263 0.007 0.916 0.943 Never married (never in union) 0.421 0.013 2249 2924 1.217 0.030 0.395 0.446 Currently married (in union) 0.504 0.013 2249 2924 1.248 0.026 0.478 0.531 Married before age 20 0.232 0.013 1850 2405 1.367 0.058 0.206 0.259 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.136 0.011 1850 2405 1.369 0.080 0.114 0.158 Currently pregnant 0.030 0.003 2249 2924 0.897 0.107 0.024 0.037 Children ever born 1.464 0.053 2249 2924 1.386 0.036 1.358 1.570 Children surviving 1.420 0.048 2249 2924 1.322 0.034 1.323 1.517 Currently using any method 0.611 0.017 1134 1475 1.187 0.028 0.577 0.646 Currently using a modern method 0.401 0.016 1134 1475 1.112 0.040 0.369 0.434 Currently using a traditional method 0.210 0.013 1134 1475 1.106 0.064 0.183 0.237 Currently using pill 0.195 0.013 1134 1475 1.123 0.068 0.168 0.221 Currently using IUD 0.033 0.007 1134 1475 1.255 0.203 0.019 0.046 Currently using male condoms 0.022 0.005 1134 1475 1.083 0.214 0.013 0.031 Currently using injectables 0.041 0.006 1134 1475 1.080 0.156 0.028 0.053 Currently using female sterilization 0.089 0.009 1134 1475 1.040 0.099 0.071 0.107 Currently using rythm 0.041 0.006 1134 1475 1.069 0.153 0.029 0.054 Used public sector source 0.448 0.029 480 624 1.296 0.066 0.389 0.507 Want no more children 0.623 0.012 1134 1475 0.806 0.019 0.599 0.646 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.187 0.011 1134 1475 0.979 0.061 0.164 0.210 Unmet need for family planning 0.140 0.012 1134 1475 1.203 0.088 0.115 0.165 Ideal number of children 2.445 0.026 2239 2911 1.236 0.011 2.392 2.497 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.987 0.007 627 815 1.525 0.007 0.974 1.001 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.796 0.022 627 815 1.347 0.027 0.752 0.839 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.909 0.018 789 1026 1.489 0.020 0.872 0.946 Delivery in a health facility 0.821 0.028 789 1026 1.701 0.034 0.766 0.877 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.882 0.022 306 398 1.214 0.025 0.838 0.927 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.063 0.010 774 1006 1.110 0.159 0.043 0.083 Treated w ith ORS 0.653 0.073 49 64 1.054 0.112 0.507 0.800 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.551 0.064 49 64 0.871 0.117 0.422 0.680 Vaccination card seen 0.528 0.044 161 209 1.123 0.084 0.440 0.616 Received BCG vaccination 0.975 0.012 161 209 0.974 0.012 0.951 0.999 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.913 0.019 161 209 0.871 0.021 0.874 0.952 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.901 0.020 161 209 0.853 0.022 0.860 0.941 Received measles vaccination 0.863 0.025 161 209 0.909 0.029 0.814 0.913 Received all vaccinations 0.820 0.026 161 209 0.852 0.031 0.768 0.872 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.882 0.015 650 845 1.199 0.017 0.851 0.912 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.078 0.012 650 845 1.109 0.149 0.055 0.102 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.009 0.002 2249 2924 1.175 0.255 0.005 0.014 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.177 0.016 942 1144 1.283 0.090 0.145 0.209 Total fertility rate (3 years) 2.334 0.120 6388 8306 1.170 0.052 2.093 2.575 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 6.890 2.075 1596 2075 1.006 0.301 2.740 11.040 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 9.411 2.459 1597 2077 0.960 0.261 4.493 14.329 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 16.301 3.235 1596 2075 0.989 0.198 9.831 22.771 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 5.964 2.346 1596 2075 1.231 0.393 1.272 10.656 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 22.168 4.503 1599 2079 1.155 0.203 13.163 31.174 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits 230 • Appendix B     Table B.6 Sampling errors: Cordillera Admin Region sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.344 0.021 672 252 1.168 0.062 0.301 0.387 Secondary or higher education 0.900 0.015 672 252 1.301 0.017 0.870 0.930 Never married (never in union) 0.342 0.025 672 252 1.345 0.072 0.292 0.391 Currently married (in union) 0.599 0.027 672 252 1.418 0.045 0.545 0.653 Married before age 20 0.280 0.026 545 204 1.327 0.091 0.229 0.331 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.120 0.016 545 204 1.183 0.138 0.087 0.153 Currently pregnant 0.048 0.008 672 252 0.956 0.165 0.032 0.064 Children ever born 1.877 0.104 672 252 1.246 0.055 1.670 2.085 Children surviving 1.816 0.098 672 252 1.221 0.054 1.621 2.012 Currently using any method 0.612 0.026 402 151 1.063 0.042 0.560 0.664 Currently using a modern method 0.440 0.028 402 151 1.131 0.064 0.384 0.496 Currently using a traditional method 0.172 0.017 402 151 0.890 0.098 0.138 0.205 Currently using pill 0.140 0.019 402 151 1.110 0.138 0.101 0.178 Currently using IUD 0.023 0.009 402 151 1.166 0.384 0.005 0.040 Currently using male condoms 0.030 0.009 402 151 1.030 0.294 0.012 0.047 Currently using injectables 0.067 0.012 402 151 0.934 0.174 0.044 0.090 Currently using female sterilization 0.176 0.024 402 151 1.254 0.135 0.129 0.224 Currently using rythm 0.037 0.010 402 151 1.039 0.263 0.018 0.057 Used public sector source 0.650 0.040 180 67 1.133 0.062 0.569 0.731 Want no more children 0.578 0.025 402 151 1.018 0.043 0.527 0.628 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.224 0.018 402 151 0.861 0.080 0.188 0.260 Unmet need for family planning 0.124 0.013 402 151 0.803 0.106 0.098 0.151 Ideal number of children 3.057 0.066 664 249 1.213 0.022 2.925 3.190 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.981 0.009 211 79 0.992 0.010 0.962 1.000 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.872 0.022 211 79 0.976 0.026 0.827 0.917 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.854 0.032 281 105 1.265 0.037 0.790 0.917 Delivery in a health facility 0.750 0.043 281 105 1.436 0.057 0.665 0.835 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.834 0.042 115 43 1.199 0.050 0.751 0.918 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.069 0.014 275 103 0.917 0.201 0.041 0.097 Treated w ith ORS 0.421 0.123 19 7 1.082 0.291 0.176 0.666 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.265 0.119 19 7 1.180 0.451 0.026 0.503 Vaccination card seen 0.617 0.063 55 21 0.961 0.102 0.491 0.743 Received BCG vaccination 0.964 0.024 55 21 0.957 0.025 0.915 1.012 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.964 0.024 55 21 0.957 0.025 0.915 1.012 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.927 0.033 55 21 0.940 0.036 0.861 0.993 Received measles vaccination 0.927 0.033 55 21 0.930 0.035 0.862 0.992 Received all vaccinations 0.891 0.039 55 21 0.920 0.044 0.813 0.968 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.878 0.028 188 70 1.161 0.032 0.822 0.933 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.053 0.014 188 70 0.858 0.265 0.025 0.081 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.012 0.004 672 252 1.000 0.352 0.004 0.020 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.165 0.021 349 115 1.079 0.130 0.122 0.208 Total fertility rate (3 years) 2.886 0.241 1879 704 1.087 0.083 2.404 3.367 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 7.032 3.401 571 214 0.956 0.484 0.230 13.833 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 8.850 7.231 576 216 1.564 0.817 0.000 23.311 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 15.882 8.158 571 214 1.401 0.514 0.000 32.197 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 9.163 3.809 560 210 0.946 0.416 1.546 16.781 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 24.900 8.465 571 214 1.211 0.340 7.970 41.830 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits Appendix B • 231     Table B.7 Sampling errors: I - Ilocos Region sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.158 0.009 708 691 0.685 0.059 0.139 0.177 Secondary or higher education 0.903 0.013 708 691 1.155 0.014 0.877 0.929 Never married (never in union) 0.303 0.020 708 691 1.172 0.067 0.263 0.344 Currently married (in union) 0.666 0.021 708 691 1.163 0.031 0.625 0.707 Married before age 20 0.279 0.020 579 564 1.098 0.073 0.238 0.320 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.116 0.012 579 564 0.900 0.104 0.092 0.140 Currently pregnant 0.045 0.008 708 691 0.969 0.168 0.030 0.060 Children ever born 1.851 0.079 708 691 1.094 0.043 1.693 2.009 Children surviving 1.801 0.075 708 691 1.075 0.042 1.651 1.951 Currently using any method 0.544 0.028 472 460 1.210 0.051 0.489 0.600 Currently using a modern method 0.375 0.029 472 460 1.302 0.078 0.316 0.433 Currently using a traditional method 0.170 0.023 472 460 1.330 0.136 0.124 0.216 Currently using pill 0.206 0.021 472 460 1.134 0.103 0.164 0.248 Currently using IUD 0.006 0.003 472 460 0.958 0.556 0.000 0.013 Currently using male condoms 0.020 0.007 472 460 1.091 0.354 0.006 0.034 Currently using injectables 0.049 0.013 472 460 1.261 0.257 0.024 0.074 Currently using female sterilization 0.092 0.014 472 460 1.080 0.157 0.063 0.120 Currently using rythm 0.027 0.007 472 460 0.977 0.268 0.013 0.042 Used public sector source 0.492 0.035 178 173 0.927 0.071 0.422 0.562 Want no more children 0.644 0.022 472 460 1.017 0.035 0.599 0.689 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.178 0.021 472 460 1.182 0.117 0.136 0.219 Unmet need for family planning 0.193 0.022 472 460 1.215 0.115 0.149 0.237 Ideal number of children 2.653 0.051 705 689 1.318 0.019 2.552 2.754 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.974 0.011 238 232 1.107 0.012 0.951 0.997 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.797 0.024 238 232 0.928 0.030 0.749 0.846 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.900 0.022 322 314 1.177 0.024 0.857 0.943 Delivery in a health facility 0.672 0.033 322 314 1.177 0.050 0.605 0.739 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.778 0.041 112 109 1.051 0.053 0.695 0.861 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.106 0.019 314 306 0.977 0.175 0.069 0.143 Treated w ith ORS 0.545 0.090 33 32 0.927 0.165 0.365 0.724 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.511 0.083 33 32 0.856 0.163 0.345 0.678 Vaccination card seen 0.538 0.058 54 53 0.848 0.107 0.422 0.653 Received BCG vaccination 0.980 0.019 54 53 1.002 0.020 0.941 1.018 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.795 0.055 54 53 0.996 0.069 0.686 0.905 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.759 0.051 54 53 0.882 0.068 0.656 0.861 Received measles vaccination 0.811 0.052 54 53 0.970 0.064 0.708 0.915 Received all vaccinations 0.665 0.053 54 53 0.828 0.080 0.559 0.772 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.946 0.016 168 165 0.932 0.017 0.914 0.979 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.012 0.009 168 165 1.060 0.734 0.000 0.030 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.007 0.003 708 691 0.996 0.443 0.001 0.013 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.160 0.022 399 337 1.170 0.134 0.117 0.203 Total fertility rate (3 years) 2.805 0.185 1975 1927 0.966 0.066 2.435 3.175 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 15.122 5.257 659 643 1.139 0.348 4.607 25.637 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 7.508 3.185 659 643 0.942 0.424 1.138 13.878 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 22.630 6.427 659 643 1.077 0.284 9.775 35.484 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 3.894 2.264 650 634 1.023 0.581 0.000 8.422 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 26.435 6.831 660 644 1.087 0.258 12.773 40.098 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits 232 • Appendix B     Table B.8 Sampling errors: II - Cagayan Valley sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.134 0.008 694 550 0.610 0.059 0.118 0.150 Secondary or higher education 0.794 0.030 694 550 1.921 0.037 0.735 0.853 Never married (never in union) 0.284 0.022 694 550 1.262 0.076 0.241 0.328 Currently married (in union) 0.684 0.022 694 550 1.252 0.032 0.640 0.728 Married before age 20 0.399 0.027 569 452 1.330 0.069 0.344 0.454 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.241 0.022 569 452 1.218 0.091 0.197 0.285 Currently pregnant 0.061 0.009 694 550 1.025 0.153 0.042 0.080 Children ever born 1.924 0.108 694 550 1.445 0.056 1.708 2.141 Children surviving 1.867 0.100 694 550 1.391 0.053 1.667 2.066 Currently using any method 0.589 0.026 475 376 1.142 0.044 0.537 0.640 Currently using a modern method 0.515 0.025 475 376 1.068 0.048 0.465 0.564 Currently using a traditional method 0.074 0.016 475 376 1.355 0.220 0.041 0.107 Currently using pill 0.274 0.024 475 376 1.189 0.089 0.225 0.323 Currently using IUD 0.038 0.014 475 376 1.640 0.380 0.009 0.067 Currently using male condoms 0.011 0.004 475 376 0.927 0.406 0.002 0.020 Currently using injectables 0.065 0.012 475 376 1.022 0.178 0.042 0.088 Currently using female sterilization 0.112 0.015 475 376 1.043 0.135 0.082 0.142 Currently using rythm 0.013 0.006 475 376 1.108 0.449 0.001 0.024 Used public sector source 0.413 0.039 240 190 1.238 0.096 0.334 0.492 Want no more children 0.682 0.025 475 376 1.165 0.037 0.633 0.732 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.178 0.018 475 376 1.000 0.099 0.143 0.213 Unmet need for family planning 0.156 0.018 475 376 1.097 0.117 0.120 0.193 Ideal number of children 2.717 0.047 693 550 1.088 0.017 2.622 2.812 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.972 0.010 252 199 0.928 0.010 0.953 0.991 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.849 0.019 252 199 0.827 0.022 0.812 0.886 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.644 0.045 326 258 1.503 0.070 0.554 0.733 Delivery in a health facility 0.506 0.044 326 258 1.439 0.087 0.418 0.594 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.668 0.056 123 97 1.324 0.085 0.555 0.781 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.066 0.013 318 251 0.914 0.193 0.040 0.091 Treated w ith ORS 0.716 0.094 21 17 0.950 0.131 0.528 0.904 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.384 0.109 21 17 1.021 0.283 0.166 0.602 Vaccination card seen 0.455 0.067 66 52 1.093 0.148 0.321 0.589 Received BCG vaccination 0.940 0.027 66 52 0.923 0.029 0.886 0.994 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.788 0.052 66 52 1.024 0.065 0.685 0.892 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.788 0.057 66 52 1.127 0.072 0.675 0.902 Received measles vaccination 0.788 0.042 66 52 0.827 0.053 0.705 0.872 Received all vaccinations 0.653 0.062 66 52 1.058 0.095 0.529 0.778 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.871 0.028 173 137 1.076 0.032 0.816 0.926 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.094 0.022 173 137 0.992 0.234 0.050 0.139 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.009 0.003 694 550 0.932 0.378 0.002 0.015 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.253 0.023 387 266 1.029 0.090 0.207 0.298 Total fertility rate (3 years) 3.162 0.220 1945 1544 1.015 0.070 2.721 3.603 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 16.363 5.403 626 495 1.061 0.330 5.558 27.168 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 3.204 2.233 625 494 0.978 0.697 0.000 7.670 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 19.567 5.510 626 495 1.009 0.282 8.547 30.587 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 1.860 1.863 610 482 1.051 1.002 0.000 5.586 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 21.391 6.676 626 495 1.070 0.312 8.039 34.743 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits Appendix B • 233     Table B.9 Sampling errors: III - Central Luzon sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.545 0.013 1380 1720 0.989 0.024 0.519 0.572 Secondary or higher education 0.845 0.015 1380 1720 1.490 0.017 0.816 0.874 Never married (never in union) 0.345 0.013 1380 1720 1.036 0.038 0.319 0.372 Currently married (in union) 0.611 0.015 1380 1720 1.174 0.025 0.580 0.642 Married before age 20 0.303 0.017 1094 1364 1.190 0.055 0.270 0.336 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.150 0.013 1094 1364 1.173 0.085 0.124 0.175 Currently pregnant 0.041 0.005 1380 1720 0.955 0.124 0.031 0.051 Children ever born 1.754 0.063 1380 1720 1.181 0.036 1.627 1.881 Children surviving 1.693 0.057 1380 1720 1.113 0.034 1.580 1.807 Currently using any method 0.612 0.021 844 1052 1.270 0.035 0.570 0.655 Currently using a modern method 0.449 0.020 844 1052 1.171 0.045 0.409 0.489 Currently using a traditional method 0.164 0.012 844 1052 0.955 0.074 0.139 0.188 Currently using pill 0.199 0.017 844 1052 1.230 0.085 0.166 0.233 Currently using IUD 0.011 0.004 844 1052 1.061 0.350 0.003 0.018 Currently using male condoms 0.026 0.006 844 1052 1.147 0.240 0.014 0.039 Currently using injectables 0.040 0.008 844 1052 1.194 0.201 0.024 0.056 Currently using female sterilization 0.160 0.013 844 1052 1.048 0.083 0.134 0.187 Currently using rythm 0.043 0.007 844 1052 1.003 0.164 0.029 0.057 Used public sector source 0.468 0.027 385 480 1.064 0.058 0.414 0.522 Want no more children 0.622 0.014 844 1052 0.865 0.023 0.593 0.651 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.192 0.013 844 1052 0.943 0.067 0.166 0.217 Unmet need for family planning 0.131 0.013 844 1052 1.106 0.098 0.105 0.156 Ideal number of children 2.708 0.037 1369 1707 1.272 0.014 2.634 2.781 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.977 0.007 397 495 0.907 0.007 0.964 0.991 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.808 0.022 397 495 1.100 0.027 0.764 0.851 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.878 0.032 527 656 1.707 0.036 0.814 0.941 Delivery in a health facility 0.683 0.037 527 656 1.525 0.054 0.609 0.756 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.762 0.033 223 278 1.162 0.044 0.696 0.828 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.096 0.013 513 639 0.934 0.131 0.071 0.121 Treated w ith ORS 0.551 0.075 49 61 1.030 0.136 0.402 0.701 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.428 0.075 49 61 1.003 0.175 0.278 0.578 Vaccination card seen 0.569 0.058 109 136 1.186 0.102 0.453 0.685 Received BCG vaccination 0.981 0.013 109 136 1.021 0.013 0.955 1.008 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.864 0.037 109 136 1.121 0.043 0.790 0.938 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.836 0.042 109 136 1.172 0.050 0.752 0.919 Received measles vaccination 0.873 0.035 109 136 1.106 0.041 0.802 0.943 Received all vaccinations 0.763 0.046 109 136 1.112 0.060 0.671 0.854 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.918 0.017 357 445 1.165 0.018 0.884 0.952 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.062 0.017 357 445 1.336 0.275 0.028 0.097 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.012 0.003 1380 1720 1.037 0.258 0.006 0.018 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.146 0.015 696 782 1.093 0.100 0.117 0.175 Total fertility rate (3 years) 2.773 0.187 3854 4806 1.241 0.067 2.399 3.147 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 13.824 4.014 1062 1323 0.933 0.290 5.796 21.852 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 9.401 2.860 1062 1323 0.874 0.304 3.681 15.121 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 23.225 5.453 1062 1323 1.009 0.235 12.319 34.131 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 8.364 2.844 1038 1294 0.954 0.340 2.676 14.052 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 31.395 6.535 1065 1327 1.074 0.208 18.325 44.465 na  = Not appl icable Confidence limits Number of Cases 234 • Appendix B     Table B.10 Sampling errors: IVA - CALABARZON sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.642 0.014 1590 2293 1.132 0.021 0.615 0.669 Secondary or higher education 0.879 0.012 1590 2293 1.410 0.013 0.856 0.902 Never married (never in union) 0.359 0.013 1590 2293 1.070 0.036 0.333 0.384 Currently married (in union) 0.588 0.013 1590 2293 1.081 0.023 0.562 0.615 Married before age 20 0.247 0.014 1265 1824 1.150 0.057 0.219 0.275 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.142 0.011 1265 1824 1.105 0.076 0.120 0.164 Currently pregnant 0.031 0.005 1590 2293 1.118 0.157 0.021 0.040 Children ever born 1.724 0.056 1590 2293 1.147 0.033 1.611 1.837 Children surviving 1.666 0.054 1590 2293 1.139 0.032 1.559 1.773 Currently using any method 0.557 0.017 936 1349 1.045 0.030 0.523 0.591 Currently using a modern method 0.361 0.015 936 1349 0.950 0.041 0.331 0.391 Currently using a traditional method 0.196 0.014 936 1349 1.077 0.071 0.168 0.224 Currently using pill 0.160 0.012 936 1349 1.039 0.078 0.135 0.185 Currently using IUD 0.040 0.009 936 1349 1.394 0.223 0.022 0.058 Currently using male condoms 0.018 0.004 936 1349 0.969 0.234 0.010 0.026 Currently using injectables 0.034 0.006 936 1349 1.096 0.191 0.021 0.047 Currently using female sterilization 0.106 0.010 936 1349 1.026 0.098 0.085 0.126 Currently using rythm 0.032 0.005 936 1349 0.931 0.167 0.022 0.043 Used public sector source 0.427 0.030 348 500 1.113 0.069 0.368 0.486 Want no more children 0.660 0.015 936 1349 0.953 0.022 0.631 0.690 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.139 0.010 936 1349 0.921 0.075 0.118 0.159 Unmet need for family planning 0.178 0.013 936 1349 1.011 0.071 0.152 0.203 Ideal number of children 2.556 0.034 1580 2278 1.211 0.013 2.487 2.625 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.971 0.008 483 696 1.040 0.008 0.955 0.987 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.794 0.020 483 696 1.087 0.025 0.754 0.834 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.846 0.024 616 887 1.452 0.029 0.798 0.895 Delivery in a health facility 0.657 0.029 616 887 1.294 0.044 0.599 0.714 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.771 0.032 244 351 1.193 0.042 0.707 0.835 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.075 0.011 605 872 0.990 0.144 0.053 0.096 Treated w ith ORS 0.554 0.078 45 65 1.020 0.140 0.399 0.709 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.553 0.076 45 65 0.994 0.137 0.402 0.704 Vaccination card seen 0.564 0.044 128 184 0.989 0.078 0.476 0.652 Received BCG vaccination 0.992 0.008 128 184 0.980 0.008 0.977 1.007 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.897 0.029 128 184 1.089 0.033 0.838 0.956 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.905 0.029 128 184 1.106 0.032 0.848 0.963 Received measles vaccination 0.899 0.027 128 184 1.029 0.031 0.845 0.954 Received all vaccinations 0.828 0.036 128 184 1.069 0.043 0.757 0.900 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.905 0.014 444 640 0.969 0.015 0.878 0.932 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.041 0.010 444 640 1.021 0.236 0.021 0.060 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.009 0.002 1590 2293 1.003 0.268 0.004 0.013 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.132 0.015 776 1018 1.240 0.114 0.101 0.162 Total fertility rate (3 years) 2.687 0.160 4460 6432 1.254 0.059 2.368 3.006 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 11.209 3.743 1231 1775 1.096 0.334 3.722 18.695 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 7.852 2.800 1229 1772 1.022 0.357 2.252 13.453 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 19.061 4.656 1233 1778 1.057 0.244 9.748 28.374 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 3.876 1.709 1223 1762 0.981 0.441 0.459 7.294 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 22.863 4.841 1233 1778 1.043 0.212 13.181 32.545 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits Appendix B • 235     Table B.11 Sampling errors: IVB - MIMAROPA sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.227 0.014 576 372 0.779 0.060 0.200 0.254 Secondary or higher education 0.695 0.033 576 372 1.705 0.047 0.629 0.760 Never married (never in union) 0.299 0.023 576 372 1.185 0.076 0.253 0.344 Currently married (in union) 0.677 0.023 576 372 1.167 0.034 0.632 0.723 Married before age 20 0.439 0.029 453 293 1.228 0.065 0.381 0.496 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.243 0.018 453 293 0.892 0.074 0.207 0.278 Currently pregnant 0.058 0.010 576 372 1.035 0.175 0.037 0.078 Children ever born 2.341 0.106 576 372 1.035 0.045 2.129 2.554 Children surviving 2.211 0.102 576 372 1.057 0.046 2.007 2.416 Currently using any method 0.512 0.025 390 252 0.986 0.049 0.462 0.562 Currently using a modern method 0.397 0.026 390 252 1.047 0.065 0.345 0.449 Currently using a traditional method 0.115 0.017 390 252 1.069 0.150 0.081 0.150 Currently using pill 0.238 0.023 390 252 1.064 0.096 0.192 0.284 Currently using IUD 0.021 0.011 390 252 1.545 0.542 0.000 0.043 Currently using male condoms 0.013 0.005 390 252 0.939 0.420 0.002 0.023 Currently using injectables 0.057 0.011 390 252 0.908 0.188 0.035 0.078 Currently using female sterilization 0.059 0.015 390 252 1.232 0.250 0.029 0.088 Currently using rythm 0.036 0.010 390 252 1.115 0.294 0.015 0.057 Used public sector source 0.500 0.046 156 101 1.135 0.091 0.408 0.591 Want no more children 0.625 0.029 390 252 1.170 0.046 0.567 0.682 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.216 0.022 390 252 1.043 0.101 0.173 0.260 Unmet need for family planning 0.208 0.024 390 252 1.144 0.113 0.161 0.255 Ideal number of children 3.056 0.093 576 372 1.539 0.030 2.871 3.242 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.913 0.026 209 135 1.344 0.029 0.860 0.965 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.857 0.031 209 135 1.281 0.036 0.794 0.919 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.413 0.055 295 191 1.586 0.133 0.303 0.523 Delivery in a health facility 0.365 0.050 295 191 1.530 0.137 0.265 0.466 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.504 0.064 107 69 1.314 0.126 0.377 0.631 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.099 0.015 282 182 0.854 0.152 0.069 0.129 Treated w ith ORS 0.178 0.083 28 18 1.143 0.468 0.011 0.345 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.177 0.063 28 18 0.862 0.355 0.051 0.302 Vaccination card seen 0.635 0.075 52 34 1.087 0.118 0.485 0.786 Received BCG vaccination 0.904 0.042 52 34 1.018 0.046 0.820 0.987 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.768 0.062 52 34 1.049 0.081 0.644 0.891 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.767 0.065 52 34 1.100 0.085 0.637 0.897 Received measles vaccination 0.788 0.062 52 34 1.088 0.079 0.663 0.912 Received all vaccinations 0.710 0.072 52 34 1.131 0.101 0.566 0.853 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.920 0.022 151 97 1.001 0.024 0.875 0.964 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.060 0.022 151 97 1.136 0.366 0.016 0.105 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.007 0.004 576 372 1.181 0.593 0.000 0.015 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.230 0.029 316 172 1.218 0.125 0.173 0.288 Total fertility rate (3 years) 3.687 0.269 1581 1021 1.084 0.073 3.150 4.224 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 17.309 5.418 574 371 0.997 0.313 6.473 28.145 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 19.169 6.312 573 371 1.043 0.329 6.546 31.793 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 36.479 7.250 574 371 0.923 0.199 21.978 50.979 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 6.312 3.696 566 366 0.977 0.586 0.000 13.704 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 42.561 8.738 576 372 0.999 0.205 25.085 60.037 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits 236 • Appendix B     Table B.12 Sampling errors: V - Bicol sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.205 0.013 796 798 0.922 0.064 0.178 0.231 Secondary or higher education 0.790 0.021 796 798 1.476 0.027 0.747 0.832 Never married (never in union) 0.323 0.020 796 798 1.176 0.060 0.284 0.362 Currently married (in union) 0.640 0.021 796 798 1.216 0.032 0.599 0.682 Married before age 20 0.323 0.024 634 635 1.300 0.075 0.275 0.371 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.169 0.016 634 635 1.075 0.095 0.137 0.201 Currently pregnant 0.040 0.008 796 798 1.115 0.193 0.025 0.056 Children ever born 2.359 0.120 796 798 1.289 0.051 2.119 2.598 Children surviving 2.253 0.116 796 798 1.306 0.052 2.021 2.486 Currently using any method 0.449 0.025 510 511 1.146 0.056 0.399 0.500 Currently using a modern method 0.212 0.021 510 511 1.163 0.099 0.170 0.254 Currently using a traditional method 0.237 0.024 510 511 1.255 0.100 0.190 0.285 Currently using pill 0.118 0.019 510 511 1.297 0.157 0.081 0.155 Currently using IUD 0.014 0.005 510 511 0.900 0.337 0.005 0.023 Currently using male condoms 0.012 0.005 510 511 0.961 0.389 0.003 0.021 Currently using injectables 0.027 0.006 510 511 0.877 0.232 0.015 0.040 Currently using female sterilization 0.039 0.008 510 511 0.917 0.201 0.023 0.055 Currently using rythm 0.082 0.015 510 511 1.190 0.176 0.053 0.112 Used public sector source 0.501 0.049 112 112 1.032 0.098 0.403 0.599 Want no more children 0.661 0.025 510 511 1.191 0.038 0.611 0.711 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.188 0.019 510 511 1.111 0.102 0.150 0.227 Unmet need for family planning 0.274 0.022 510 511 1.102 0.079 0.231 0.318 Ideal number of children 2.773 0.067 793 795 1.503 0.024 2.639 2.908 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.970 0.010 301 301 1.054 0.011 0.949 0.991 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.847 0.024 301 301 1.173 0.029 0.798 0.896 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.650 0.041 436 437 1.517 0.064 0.567 0.733 Delivery in a health facility 0.508 0.042 436 437 1.525 0.083 0.424 0.592 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.739 0.042 157 157 1.206 0.057 0.655 0.824 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.064 0.016 420 421 1.264 0.243 0.033 0.096 Treated w ith ORS 0.518 0.096 27 27 0.965 0.185 0.326 0.711 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.408 0.088 27 27 0.887 0.217 0.231 0.585 Vaccination card seen 0.657 0.066 76 76 1.205 0.100 0.526 0.789 Received BCG vaccination 0.973 0.018 76 76 0.996 0.019 0.937 1.010 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.803 0.043 76 76 0.941 0.053 0.717 0.889 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.790 0.046 76 76 0.985 0.058 0.698 0.882 Received measles vaccination 0.829 0.045 76 76 1.033 0.054 0.740 0.918 Received all vaccinations 0.698 0.061 76 76 1.150 0.087 0.577 0.819 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.899 0.020 209 210 0.967 0.022 0.859 0.940 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.048 0.015 209 210 1.021 0.315 0.018 0.078 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.003 0.002 796 798 1.000 0.703 0.000 0.006 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.208 0.022 420 359 1.133 0.108 0.163 0.253 Total fertility rate (3 years) 4.087 0.295 2209 2214 1.283 0.072 3.498 4.676 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 16.863 4.405 890 891 1.032 0.261 8.053 25.672 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 3.978 1.996 888 889 0.994 0.502 0.000 7.970 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 20.841 4.561 891 892 0.969 0.219 11.719 29.962 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 12.290 3.598 882 883 1.004 0.293 5.094 19.486 Under-five mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 32.875 6.043 894 895 1.042 0.184 20.788 44.961 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits Appendix B • 237 Table B.13 Sampling errors: VI - Western Visayas sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.373 0.020 930 996 1.262 0.054 0.333 0.413 Secondary or higher education 0.848 0.021 930 996 1.814 0.025 0.806 0.891 Never married (never in union) 0.328 0.017 930 996 1.093 0.051 0.294 0.361 Currently married (in union) 0.639 0.017 930 996 1.062 0.026 0.605 0.672 Married before age 20 0.299 0.019 733 785 1.130 0.064 0.261 0.337 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.176 0.016 733 785 1.145 0.092 0.144 0.208 Currently pregnant 0.042 0.007 930 996 1.045 0.164 0.028 0.056 Children ever born 2.164 0.094 930 996 1.195 0.044 1.975 2.352 Children surviving 2.085 0.088 930 996 1.181 0.042 1.909 2.262 Currently using any method 0.554 0.024 594 636 1.169 0.043 0.506 0.601 Currently using a modern method 0.343 0.021 594 636 1.061 0.060 0.302 0.385 Currently using a traditional method 0.210 0.020 594 636 1.189 0.095 0.171 0.250 Currently using pill 0.204 0.019 594 636 1.165 0.095 0.165 0.242 Currently using IUD 0.022 0.007 594 636 1.234 0.339 0.007 0.037 Currently using male condoms 0.020 0.006 594 636 1.013 0.290 0.008 0.032 Currently using injectables 0.045 0.010 594 636 1.188 0.224 0.025 0.066 Currently using female sterilization 0.040 0.007 594 636 0.927 0.186 0.025 0.055 Currently using rythm 0.074 0.010 594 636 0.909 0.132 0.054 0.094 Used public sector source 0.411 0.042 207 222 1.229 0.103 0.327 0.495 Want no more children 0.690 0.022 594 636 1.160 0.032 0.646 0.734 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.136 0.015 594 636 1.040 0.107 0.107 0.166 Unmet need for family planning 0.200 0.016 594 636 0.966 0.079 0.169 0.232 Ideal number of children 2.698 0.045 929 994 1.234 0.017 2.609 2.787 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.979 0.007 329 352 0.924 0.008 0.964 0.993 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.891 0.017 329 352 0.998 0.019 0.856 0.925 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.678 0.044 454 486 1.627 0.065 0.590 0.766 Delivery in a health facility 0.612 0.044 454 486 1.604 0.071 0.525 0.700 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.732 0.037 187 200 1.132 0.050 0.659 0.806 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.106 0.015 442 473 0.994 0.142 0.076 0.136 Treated w ith ORS 0.510 0.072 47 50 0.948 0.141 0.366 0.654 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.405 0.088 47 50 1.181 0.219 0.228 0.582 Vaccination card seen 0.664 0.053 98 105 1.107 0.080 0.557 0.770 Received BCG vaccination 0.990 0.010 98 105 0.985 0.010 0.970 1.010 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.898 0.031 98 105 1.007 0.034 0.836 0.960 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.888 0.032 98 105 0.994 0.036 0.824 0.951 Received measles vaccination 0.898 0.032 98 105 1.050 0.036 0.834 0.962 Received all vaccinations 0.847 0.036 98 105 0.974 0.042 0.776 0.918 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.865 0.026 252 270 1.208 0.030 0.813 0.917 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.099 0.021 252 270 1.135 0.216 0.056 0.142 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.005 0.002 930 996 0.956 0.427 0.001 0.010 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.150 0.020 497 451 1.264 0.135 0.109 0.190 Total fertility rate (3 years) 3.834 0.291 2588 2770 1.365 0.076 3.252 4.416 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 14.530 3.945 893 956 1.002 0.272 6.640 22.420 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 10.073 3.039 897 960 0.929 0.302 3.994 16.152 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 24.603 4.650 893 956 0.925 0.189 15.304 33.902 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 5.789 2.461 903 967 0.968 0.425 0.867 10.711 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 30.249 5.154 894 957 0.936 0.170 19.941 40.557 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits 238 • Appendix B   Table B.14 Sampling errors: VII - Central Visayas sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.482 0.019 957 1030 1.201 0.040 0.444 0.521 Secondary or higher education 0.780 0.022 957 1030 1.667 0.029 0.735 0.824 Never married (never in union) 0.334 0.019 957 1030 1.256 0.057 0.295 0.372 Currently married (in union) 0.617 0.018 957 1030 1.145 0.029 0.581 0.653 Married before age 20 0.302 0.022 783 843 1.322 0.072 0.259 0.346 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.199 0.016 783 843 1.114 0.080 0.167 0.231 Currently pregnant 0.039 0.006 957 1030 0.991 0.160 0.026 0.051 Children ever born 1.961 0.089 957 1030 1.240 0.046 1.783 2.140 Children surviving 1.877 0.082 957 1030 1.212 0.044 1.713 2.040 Currently using any method 0.548 0.020 591 636 0.967 0.036 0.509 0.588 Currently using a modern method 0.340 0.021 591 636 1.058 0.061 0.299 0.381 Currently using a traditional method 0.208 0.015 591 636 0.926 0.074 0.177 0.239 Currently using pill 0.162 0.014 591 636 0.933 0.087 0.134 0.191 Currently using IUD 0.058 0.014 591 636 1.436 0.240 0.030 0.085 Currently using male condoms 0.027 0.006 591 636 0.904 0.223 0.015 0.039 Currently using injectables 0.025 0.006 591 636 0.989 0.252 0.013 0.038 Currently using female sterilization 0.064 0.012 591 636 1.142 0.179 0.041 0.087 Currently using rythm 0.096 0.012 591 636 1.024 0.129 0.072 0.121 Used public sector source 0.565 0.039 207 223 1.134 0.069 0.487 0.644 Want no more children 0.662 0.022 591 636 1.107 0.033 0.618 0.705 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.162 0.016 591 636 1.023 0.096 0.131 0.193 Unmet need for family planning 0.191 0.014 591 636 0.875 0.074 0.163 0.220 Ideal number of children 2.802 0.045 955 1028 1.004 0.016 2.712 2.891 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.984 0.007 310 333 0.964 0.007 0.970 0.998 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.868 0.022 310 333 1.135 0.025 0.824 0.912 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.809 0.043 429 461 1.825 0.053 0.724 0.894 Delivery in a health facility 0.718 0.047 429 461 1.757 0.065 0.625 0.812 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.833 0.040 162 174 1.371 0.048 0.753 0.914 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.075 0.015 425 457 1.154 0.206 0.044 0.106 Treated w ith ORS 0.501 0.092 32 34 0.980 0.184 0.317 0.685 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.469 0.084 32 34 0.895 0.180 0.300 0.638 Vaccination card seen 0.688 0.046 93 100 0.952 0.067 0.596 0.780 Received BCG vaccination 0.968 0.018 93 100 1.001 0.019 0.931 1.004 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.860 0.036 93 100 1.005 0.042 0.788 0.932 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.860 0.037 93 100 1.030 0.043 0.786 0.934 Received measles vaccination 0.871 0.036 93 100 1.039 0.042 0.798 0.943 Received all vaccinations 0.785 0.045 93 100 1.049 0.057 0.695 0.874 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.864 0.019 258 278 0.902 0.022 0.826 0.903 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.074 0.017 258 278 1.069 0.236 0.039 0.109 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.006 0.003 957 1030 1.092 0.444 0.001 0.012 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.135 0.018 495 469 1.152 0.131 0.100 0.171 Total fertility rate (3 years) 3.199 0.219 2681 2885 1.105 0.068 2.761 3.636 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 18.269 6.022 872 938 1.036 0.330 6.224 30.314 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 7.974 2.788 877 943 0.927 0.350 2.397 13.550 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 26.242 7.243 873 939 1.076 0.276 11.757 40.728 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 7.825 2.733 861 926 0.922 0.349 2.359 13.291 Under-five mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 33.862 7.652 876 942 1.026 0.226 18.558 49.167 na  = Not appl icable Confidence limits Number of Cases Appendix B • 239     Table B.15 Sampling errors: VIII - Eastern Visayas sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.118 0.012 592 571 0.914 0.103 0.094 0.142 Secondary or higher education 0.796 0.027 592 571 1.648 0.034 0.741 0.851 Never married (never in union) 0.318 0.025 592 571 1.319 0.079 0.268 0.369 Currently married (in union) 0.648 0.026 592 571 1.310 0.040 0.596 0.699 Married before age 20 0.357 0.034 470 453 1.514 0.094 0.290 0.424 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.196 0.022 470 453 1.200 0.112 0.152 0.240 Currently pregnant 0.059 0.012 592 571 1.200 0.197 0.036 0.082 Children ever born 2.140 0.133 592 571 1.394 0.062 1.874 2.406 Children surviving 2.050 0.126 592 571 1.385 0.062 1.798 2.303 Currently using any method 0.617 0.028 384 370 1.128 0.045 0.561 0.673 Currently using a modern method 0.370 0.024 384 370 0.957 0.064 0.322 0.417 Currently using a traditional method 0.248 0.027 384 370 1.219 0.109 0.194 0.302 Currently using pill 0.211 0.027 384 370 1.280 0.127 0.157 0.264 Currently using IUD 0.029 0.012 384 370 1.359 0.405 0.005 0.052 Currently using male condoms 0.021 0.008 384 370 1.140 0.400 0.004 0.037 Currently using injectables 0.023 0.008 384 370 1.001 0.331 0.008 0.039 Currently using female sterilization 0.078 0.016 384 370 1.197 0.210 0.045 0.111 Currently using rythm 0.104 0.016 384 370 1.048 0.157 0.071 0.137 Used public sector source 0.507 0.048 144 139 1.152 0.095 0.410 0.603 Want no more children 0.611 0.027 384 370 1.097 0.045 0.557 0.666 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.195 0.022 384 370 1.088 0.113 0.151 0.240 Unmet need for family planning 0.119 0.014 384 370 0.828 0.115 0.092 0.147 Ideal number of children 2.985 0.074 592 571 1.258 0.025 2.838 3.132 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.956 0.018 203 196 1.214 0.018 0.920 0.991 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.926 0.021 203 196 1.149 0.023 0.884 0.968 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.674 0.063 279 269 1.874 0.094 0.547 0.801 Delivery in a health facility 0.616 0.060 279 269 1.738 0.097 0.497 0.736 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.767 0.060 103 99 1.444 0.079 0.646 0.888 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.073 0.019 274 264 1.180 0.265 0.034 0.112 Treated w ith ORS 0.398 0.109 20 19 0.929 0.274 0.180 0.616 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.450 0.113 20 19 0.959 0.251 0.224 0.676 Vaccination card seen 0.737 0.066 57 55 1.126 0.090 0.604 0.869 Received BCG vaccination 1.000 0.000 57 55 na 0.000 1.000 1.000 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.983 0.018 57 55 1.008 0.018 0.947 1.018 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.948 0.025 57 55 0.857 0.027 0.897 0.998 Received measles vaccination 0.808 0.051 57 55 0.965 0.063 0.706 0.909 Received all vaccinations 0.755 0.064 57 55 1.107 0.084 0.628 0.882 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.867 0.045 151 146 1.617 0.052 0.776 0.957 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.100 0.037 151 146 1.486 0.365 0.027 0.173 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.005 0.003 592 571 0.995 0.570 0.000 0.011 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.177 0.029 324 273 1.378 0.165 0.119 0.236 Total fertility rate (3 years) 3.513 0.287 1625 1568 1.153 0.082 2.939 4.087 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 10.461 4.753 570 549 0.966 0.454 0.955 19.968 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 8.842 4.991 573 552 1.089 0.564 0.000 18.824 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 19.304 6.267 571 550 0.959 0.325 6.771 31.837 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 12.558 4.799 579 558 1.018 0.382 2.960 22.156 Under-five mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 31.620 7.782 573 552 0.950 0.246 16.055 47.184 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits 240 • Appendix B Table B.16 Sampling errors: IX - Zamboanga Peninsula sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.395 0.021 936 725 1.302 0.053 0.353 0.436 Secondary or higher education 0.746 0.025 936 725 1.743 0.033 0.696 0.796 Never married (never in union) 0.364 0.014 936 725 0.909 0.039 0.335 0.392 Currently married (in union) 0.586 0.016 936 725 0.962 0.026 0.555 0.617 Married before age 20 0.410 0.025 719 557 1.336 0.060 0.361 0.459 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.231 0.023 719 557 1.435 0.098 0.186 0.276 Currently pregnant 0.064 0.009 936 725 1.135 0.142 0.046 0.082 Children ever born 2.026 0.097 936 725 1.180 0.048 1.832 2.219 Children surviving 1.918 0.089 936 725 1.165 0.047 1.739 2.096 Currently using any method 0.473 0.026 549 425 1.211 0.055 0.422 0.525 Currently using a modern method 0.362 0.029 549 425 1.425 0.081 0.304 0.421 Currently using a traditional method 0.111 0.016 549 425 1.165 0.141 0.080 0.142 Currently using pill 0.227 0.023 549 425 1.283 0.101 0.181 0.273 Currently using IUD 0.065 0.014 549 425 1.319 0.213 0.038 0.093 Currently using male condoms 0.005 0.003 549 425 0.952 0.550 0.000 0.011 Currently using injectables 0.029 0.009 549 425 1.226 0.302 0.012 0.047 Currently using female sterilization 0.033 0.007 549 425 0.923 0.213 0.019 0.047 Currently using rythm 0.055 0.013 549 425 1.341 0.239 0.029 0.081 Used public sector source 0.542 0.042 201 155 1.204 0.078 0.457 0.627 Want no more children 0.488 0.026 549 425 1.234 0.054 0.435 0.541 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.264 0.022 549 425 1.177 0.084 0.220 0.308 Unmet need for family planning 0.210 0.017 549 425 0.971 0.080 0.176 0.243 Ideal number of children 2.978 0.114 924 715 2.451 0.038 2.750 3.206 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.940 0.016 317 245 1.190 0.017 0.908 0.972 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.836 0.034 317 245 1.611 0.040 0.769 0.903 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.520 0.047 439 339 1.712 0.091 0.426 0.615 Delivery in a health facility 0.434 0.047 439 339 1.761 0.108 0.340 0.528 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.554 0.056 159 123 1.426 0.102 0.442 0.667 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.082 0.014 426 329 0.977 0.167 0.055 0.109 Treated w ith ORS 0.315 0.070 35 27 0.829 0.222 0.175 0.455 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.314 0.106 35 27 1.211 0.339 0.101 0.526 Vaccination card seen 0.550 0.054 91 70 1.028 0.098 0.442 0.657 Received BCG vaccination 0.879 0.033 91 70 0.958 0.037 0.814 0.945 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.846 0.039 91 70 1.034 0.046 0.768 0.924 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.835 0.039 91 70 1.005 0.047 0.757 0.913 Received measles vaccination 0.769 0.045 91 70 1.022 0.059 0.679 0.860 Received all vaccinations 0.714 0.049 91 70 1.028 0.068 0.616 0.812 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.923 0.015 285 221 0.927 0.016 0.894 0.952 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.038 0.011 285 221 0.999 0.297 0.016 0.061 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.002 0.001 936 725 0.983 0.694 0.000 0.005 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.157 0.021 418 304 1.194 0.136 0.114 0.199 Total fertility rate (3 years) 3.481 0.244 2561 1982 1.027 0.070 2.993 3.970 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 11.121 3.292 896 693 0.950 0.296 4.537 17.706 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 15.669 4.225 901 696 1.030 0.270 7.218 24.119 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 26.790 5.447 897 693 1.001 0.203 15.896 37.684 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 8.342 3.650 887 686 1.176 0.438 1.042 15.643 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 34.909 5.662 897 693 0.937 0.162 23.585 46.233 na  = Not appl i cable Number of Cases Confidence limits Appendix B • 241   Table B.17 Sampling errors: X - Northern Mindanao sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.446 0.024 699 697 1.255 0.053 0.399 0.494 Secondary or higher education 0.748 0.042 699 697 2.559 0.056 0.664 0.832 Never married (never in union) 0.322 0.022 699 697 1.223 0.067 0.279 0.366 Currently married (in union) 0.609 0.024 699 697 1.300 0.039 0.561 0.657 Married before age 20 0.354 0.035 564 562 1.720 0.098 0.284 0.423 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.200 0.024 564 562 1.448 0.122 0.151 0.249 Currently pregnant 0.057 0.012 699 697 1.340 0.206 0.034 0.081 Children ever born 2.130 0.163 699 697 1.725 0.077 1.804 2.456 Children surviving 2.002 0.135 699 697 1.558 0.067 1.733 2.271 Currently using any method 0.507 0.036 426 424 1.474 0.071 0.436 0.579 Currently using a modern method 0.376 0.030 426 424 1.287 0.080 0.315 0.436 Currently using a traditional method 0.131 0.016 426 424 0.948 0.118 0.100 0.162 Currently using pill 0.202 0.023 426 424 1.172 0.113 0.156 0.247 Currently using IUD 0.085 0.017 426 424 1.252 0.200 0.051 0.118 Currently using male condoms 0.012 0.005 426 424 0.909 0.402 0.002 0.021 Currently using injectables 0.019 0.007 426 424 1.063 0.372 0.005 0.033 Currently using female sterilization 0.052 0.013 426 424 1.172 0.243 0.027 0.077 Currently using rythm 0.051 0.011 426 424 1.046 0.218 0.029 0.074 Used public sector source 0.544 0.051 167 166 1.327 0.095 0.441 0.646 Want no more children 0.622 0.022 426 424 0.936 0.035 0.578 0.666 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.221 0.017 426 424 0.834 0.076 0.187 0.254 Unmet need for family planning 0.202 0.017 426 424 0.866 0.083 0.168 0.236 Ideal number of children 3.034 0.177 698 696 2.786 0.058 2.681 3.387 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.946 0.014 243 242 0.964 0.015 0.918 0.974 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.822 0.036 243 242 1.476 0.044 0.750 0.895 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.633 0.057 325 324 1.811 0.089 0.520 0.746 Delivery in a health facility 0.525 0.054 325 324 1.724 0.103 0.417 0.633 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.581 0.070 131 131 1.609 0.120 0.442 0.720 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.057 0.014 314 313 1.055 0.253 0.028 0.086 Treated w ith ORS 0.276 0.079 18 18 0.731 0.286 0.118 0.434 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.166 0.084 18 18 0.950 0.510 0.000 0.335 Vaccination card seen 0.480 0.082 75 75 1.416 0.170 0.316 0.643 Received BCG vaccination 0.947 0.029 75 75 1.139 0.031 0.888 1.006 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.854 0.063 75 75 1.539 0.074 0.729 0.980 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.814 0.060 75 75 1.332 0.074 0.694 0.934 Received measles vaccination 0.814 0.076 75 75 1.692 0.094 0.662 0.966 Received all vaccinations 0.747 0.070 75 75 1.401 0.094 0.606 0.888 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.864 0.025 184 184 0.976 0.029 0.814 0.913 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.087 0.021 184 184 1.011 0.242 0.045 0.130 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.003 0.002 699 697 0.972 0.691 0.000 0.007 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.210 0.024 351 321 1.088 0.113 0.163 0.257 Total fertility rate (3 years) 3.453 0.309 1947 1941 1.265 0.090 2.834 4.071 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 15.627 5.180 640 637 0.969 0.331 5.268 25.987 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 9.300 3.742 637 634 0.980 0.402 1.816 16.784 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 24.927 7.566 640 637 1.046 0.304 9.794 40.059 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 24.404 10.086 647 644 1.336 0.413 4.231 44.577 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 48.723 14.553 645 642 1.392 0.299 19.616 77.829 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits 242 • Appendix B   Table B.18 Sampling errors: XI - Davao sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.652 0.014 898 893 0.901 0.022 0.624 0.681 Secondary or higher education 0.777 0.028 898 893 1.987 0.036 0.722 0.833 Never married (never in union) 0.321 0.018 898 893 1.126 0.055 0.286 0.356 Currently married (in union) 0.624 0.020 898 893 1.223 0.032 0.584 0.663 Married before age 20 0.364 0.027 704 700 1.480 0.074 0.310 0.417 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.260 0.023 704 700 1.409 0.090 0.213 0.307 Currently pregnant 0.050 0.008 898 893 1.086 0.158 0.034 0.066 Children ever born 1.911 0.096 898 893 1.317 0.050 1.719 2.103 Children surviving 1.811 0.086 898 893 1.260 0.047 1.639 1.982 Currently using any method 0.538 0.022 560 557 1.048 0.041 0.493 0.582 Currently using a modern method 0.393 0.023 560 557 1.124 0.059 0.346 0.439 Currently using a traditional method 0.145 0.016 560 557 1.080 0.111 0.113 0.177 Currently using pill 0.221 0.018 560 557 1.005 0.080 0.186 0.257 Currently using IUD 0.041 0.010 560 557 1.201 0.245 0.021 0.061 Currently using male condoms 0.014 0.005 560 557 1.076 0.378 0.003 0.025 Currently using injectables 0.023 0.007 560 557 1.110 0.305 0.009 0.037 Currently using female sterilization 0.086 0.013 560 557 1.056 0.146 0.061 0.111 Currently using rythm 0.050 0.009 560 557 1.025 0.189 0.031 0.069 Used public sector source 0.431 0.038 232 231 1.159 0.088 0.355 0.507 Want no more children 0.618 0.020 560 557 0.983 0.033 0.577 0.658 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.182 0.018 560 557 1.127 0.101 0.145 0.219 Unmet need for family planning 0.175 0.013 560 557 0.787 0.072 0.150 0.200 Ideal number of children 2.697 0.064 890 885 1.341 0.024 2.568 2.825 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.976 0.012 297 295 1.305 0.012 0.953 0.999 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.805 0.033 297 295 1.422 0.041 0.739 0.870 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.677 0.053 399 397 1.908 0.078 0.571 0.782 Delivery in a health facility 0.629 0.051 399 397 1.813 0.082 0.526 0.732 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.730 0.056 152 151 1.555 0.077 0.618 0.842 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.081 0.018 385 383 1.208 0.221 0.045 0.116 Treated w ith ORS 0.419 0.089 31 31 0.923 0.212 0.242 0.597 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.355 0.093 31 31 1.008 0.262 0.169 0.541 Vaccination card seen 0.592 0.054 76 76 0.950 0.091 0.485 0.699 Received BCG vaccination 0.974 0.018 76 76 0.970 0.018 0.938 1.009 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.921 0.027 76 76 0.887 0.030 0.866 0.976 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.921 0.027 76 76 0.887 0.030 0.866 0.976 Received measles vaccination 0.882 0.036 76 76 0.965 0.041 0.810 0.953 Received all vaccinations 0.842 0.036 76 76 0.855 0.042 0.771 0.914 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.881 0.023 236 235 1.111 0.027 0.834 0.928 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.085 0.021 236 235 1.182 0.254 0.042 0.128 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.002 0.002 898 893 0.973 0.688 0.000 0.005 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.210 0.023 473 414 1.206 0.108 0.165 0.256 Total fertility rate (3 years) 2.931 0.199 2502 2488 0.953 0.068 2.533 3.328 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 11.503 4.609 785 781 0.958 0.401 2.284 20.721 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 14.014 4.260 780 776 0.950 0.304 5.494 22.535 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 25.517 5.925 785 781 0.893 0.232 13.667 37.367 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 11.967 5.044 791 787 1.165 0.421 1.879 22.055 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 37.179 9.049 788 784 1.059 0.243 19.082 55.276 na  = Not appl i cable Number of Cases Confidence limits Appendix B • 243       Table B.19 Sampling errors: XII - SOCCSKSARGEN sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.538 0.014 754 744 0.766 0.026 0.511 0.566 Secondary or higher education 0.758 0.036 754 744 2.295 0.047 0.687 0.830 Never married (never in union) 0.323 0.017 754 744 0.979 0.052 0.290 0.357 Currently married (in union) 0.630 0.018 754 744 1.028 0.029 0.594 0.666 Married before age 20 0.414 0.033 577 569 1.619 0.080 0.348 0.481 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.258 0.032 577 569 1.737 0.123 0.195 0.322 Currently pregnant 0.038 0.007 754 744 1.054 0.192 0.024 0.053 Children ever born 2.123 0.103 754 744 1.177 0.048 1.918 2.328 Children surviving 1.977 0.088 754 744 1.104 0.045 1.801 2.153 Currently using any method 0.575 0.025 475 469 1.119 0.044 0.524 0.626 Currently using a modern method 0.442 0.026 475 469 1.150 0.059 0.390 0.495 Currently using a traditional method 0.133 0.015 475 469 0.977 0.115 0.102 0.163 Currently using pill 0.234 0.016 475 469 0.810 0.067 0.202 0.265 Currently using IUD 0.063 0.018 475 469 1.593 0.282 0.028 0.099 Currently using male condoms 0.017 0.007 475 469 1.208 0.425 0.003 0.031 Currently using injectables 0.042 0.010 475 469 1.063 0.233 0.022 0.062 Currently using female sterilization 0.080 0.015 475 469 1.242 0.193 0.049 0.111 Currently using rythm 0.061 0.011 475 469 0.980 0.177 0.039 0.083 Used public sector source 0.447 0.048 215 212 1.396 0.106 0.352 0.542 Want no more children 0.625 0.028 475 469 1.245 0.044 0.570 0.681 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.206 0.024 475 469 1.298 0.117 0.158 0.254 Unmet need for family planning 0.156 0.017 475 469 1.038 0.111 0.121 0.190 Ideal number of children 2.958 0.085 753 743 1.503 0.029 2.788 3.128 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.916 0.024 239 236 1.348 0.026 0.868 0.965 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.858 0.028 239 236 1.224 0.032 0.802 0.913 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.557 0.050 334 330 1.538 0.089 0.457 0.656 Delivery in a health facility 0.485 0.046 334 330 1.436 0.095 0.393 0.577 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.540 0.056 137 135 1.324 0.105 0.427 0.653 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.144 0.024 319 315 1.210 0.167 0.096 0.192 Treated w ith ORS 0.391 0.057 46 45 0.793 0.145 0.278 0.505 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.391 0.063 46 45 0.881 0.161 0.265 0.517 Vaccination card seen 0.597 0.066 67 66 1.087 0.110 0.465 0.729 Received BCG vaccination 0.896 0.048 67 66 1.271 0.053 0.800 0.991 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.866 0.047 67 66 1.131 0.055 0.771 0.960 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.806 0.052 67 66 1.066 0.064 0.703 0.910 Received measles vaccination 0.776 0.057 67 66 1.118 0.074 0.662 0.891 Received all vaccinations 0.746 0.061 67 66 1.134 0.081 0.625 0.868 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.885 0.022 218 215 1.020 0.025 0.841 0.929 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.078 0.019 218 215 1.057 0.247 0.040 0.117 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.000 0.000 754 744 na na 0.000 0.000 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.208 0.024 396 339 1.186 0.116 0.160 0.257 Total fertility rate (3 years) 3.173 0.238 2085 2057 1.049 0.075 2.697 3.649 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 28.693 6.069 697 688 0.809 0.212 16.556 40.831 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 7.890 2.933 697 688 0.919 0.372 2.023 13.757 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 36.583 6.574 697 688 0.784 0.180 23.436 49.730 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 15.974 6.198 688 679 1.108 0.388 3.577 28.371 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 51.973 8.793 699 690 0.907 0.169 34.387 69.558 na  = Not appl icable Confidence limits Number of Cases   244 • Appendix B Table B.20 Sampling errors: XIII - Caraga sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.345 0.024 803 435 1.425 0.069 0.297 0.393 Secondary or higher education 0.775 0.017 803 435 1.177 0.022 0.740 0.809 Never married (never in union) 0.290 0.024 803 435 1.467 0.081 0.243 0.337 Currently married (in union) 0.673 0.024 803 435 1.462 0.036 0.625 0.722 Married before age 20 0.404 0.033 651 352 1.687 0.080 0.339 0.469 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.238 0.021 651 352 1.258 0.088 0.196 0.280 Currently pregnant 0.066 0.011 803 435 1.252 0.166 0.044 0.088 Children ever born 2.197 0.108 803 435 1.253 0.049 1.982 2.412 Children surviving 2.097 0.098 803 435 1.218 0.047 1.900 2.294 Currently using any method 0.542 0.025 541 293 1.147 0.045 0.492 0.591 Currently using a modern method 0.390 0.025 541 293 1.174 0.063 0.341 0.439 Currently using a traditional method 0.152 0.015 541 293 0.958 0.097 0.122 0.181 Currently using pill 0.211 0.019 541 293 1.076 0.090 0.173 0.248 Currently using IUD 0.063 0.012 541 293 1.147 0.191 0.039 0.087 Currently using male condoms 0.028 0.008 541 293 1.163 0.296 0.011 0.044 Currently using injectables 0.030 0.007 541 293 0.938 0.231 0.016 0.043 Currently using female sterilization 0.052 0.010 541 293 1.098 0.202 0.031 0.073 Currently using rythm 0.070 0.014 541 293 1.265 0.198 0.042 0.098 Used public sector source 0.523 0.037 214 116 1.068 0.070 0.450 0.596 Want no more children 0.600 0.024 541 293 1.149 0.040 0.552 0.649 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.200 0.017 541 293 1.015 0.087 0.165 0.235 Unmet need for family planning 0.137 0.015 541 293 0.986 0.107 0.108 0.166 Ideal number of children 2.962 0.072 802 434 1.440 0.024 2.818 3.105 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.970 0.010 301 163 1.036 0.010 0.950 0.990 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.840 0.023 301 163 1.097 0.028 0.794 0.887 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.632 0.044 427 231 1.577 0.070 0.543 0.721 Delivery in a health facility 0.555 0.042 427 231 1.492 0.075 0.471 0.639 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.632 0.046 166 90 1.224 0.073 0.540 0.724 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.058 0.011 413 224 0.906 0.184 0.037 0.080 Treated w ith ORS 0.334 0.103 24 13 1.043 0.307 0.128 0.539 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.333 0.114 24 13 1.159 0.342 0.105 0.561 Vaccination card seen 0.679 0.048 81 44 0.913 0.070 0.584 0.774 Received BCG vaccination 0.951 0.022 81 44 0.927 0.023 0.906 0.995 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.926 0.027 81 44 0.918 0.029 0.872 0.979 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.889 0.030 81 44 0.842 0.033 0.830 0.948 Received measles vaccination 0.851 0.041 81 44 1.039 0.048 0.769 0.934 Received all vaccinations 0.802 0.040 81 44 0.903 0.050 0.722 0.882 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 0.836 0.028 195 106 1.045 0.033 0.780 0.891 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.108 0.023 195 106 1.031 0.213 0.062 0.154 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.001 0.001 803 435 0.984 0.987 0.000 0.004 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.225 0.021 425 202 1.030 0.093 0.183 0.266 Total fertility rate (3 years) 3.647 0.226 2257 1222 0.945 0.062 3.196 4.099 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 18.647 4.847 832 450 0.990 0.260 8.953 28.340 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 14.610 3.934 832 450 0.952 0.269 6.742 22.477 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 33.256 6.746 833 451 1.088 0.203 19.765 46.747 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 5.862 2.478 811 439 0.942 0.423 0.905 10.819 Under-f ive mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 38.923 7.570 834 451 1.159 0.194 23.783 54.063 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits   Appendix B • 245 Table B.21 Sampling errors: ARMM sample, Philippines 2013 Standard Un- Weight- Design Relative Value error w eighted ed effect error VARIABLE (R) (SE) (N) (WN) (DEFT) (SE/R) R-2SE R+2SE Urban residence 0.144 0.010 921 465 0.865 0.069 0.124 0.164 Secondary or higher education 0.543 0.039 921 465 2.356 0.071 0.466 0.621 Never married (never in union) 0.334 0.018 921 465 1.145 0.053 0.298 0.370 Currently married (in union) 0.634 0.020 921 465 1.256 0.031 0.594 0.674 Married before age 20 0.470 0.026 704 355 1.382 0.055 0.418 0.522 Had sexual intercourse before age 18 0.297 0.021 704 355 1.234 0.072 0.255 0.340 Currently pregnant 0.047 0.007 921 465 1.024 0.151 0.033 0.062 Children ever born 2.650 0.092 921 465 1.002 0.035 2.465 2.834 Children surviving 2.473 0.084 921 465 0.984 0.034 2.306 2.641 Currently using any method 0.239 0.036 583 295 2.025 0.150 0.167 0.311 Currently using a modern method 0.153 0.024 583 295 1.601 0.156 0.105 0.201 Currently using a traditional method 0.086 0.020 583 295 1.704 0.231 0.046 0.126 Currently using pill 0.076 0.014 583 295 1.295 0.187 0.048 0.105 Currently using IUD 0.005 0.004 583 295 1.262 0.743 0.000 0.012 Currently using male condoms 0.007 0.003 583 295 0.959 0.488 0.000 0.013 Currently using injectables 0.029 0.010 583 295 1.366 0.327 0.010 0.048 Currently using female sterilization 0.031 0.009 583 295 1.263 0.294 0.013 0.049 Currently using rythm 0.018 0.009 583 295 1.619 0.493 0.000 0.036 Used public sector source 0.561 0.074 87 44 1.372 0.131 0.414 0.709 Want no more children 0.314 0.033 583 295 1.705 0.105 0.248 0.379 Want to delay next birth at least 2 years 0.338 0.027 583 295 1.372 0.080 0.284 0.391 Unmet need for family planning 0.276 0.027 583 295 1.469 0.099 0.221 0.330 Ideal number of children 5.089 0.195 919 464 2.440 0.038 4.699 5.478 Mothers received prenatal care for last birth 0.528 0.050 344 173 1.855 0.095 0.428 0.628 Mothers protected against tetanus for last birth 0.509 0.049 344 173 1.798 0.096 0.412 0.607 Births w ith skilled attendant at delivery 0.204 0.037 538 271 1.712 0.183 0.130 0.279 Delivery in a health facility 0.123 0.024 538 271 1.353 0.193 0.076 0.171 Postnatal care for mothers w ithin tw o days after birth 0.204 0.038 182 91 1.264 0.186 0.128 0.280 Had diarrhea in the last 2 w eeks 0.051 0.011 513 258 1.111 0.215 0.029 0.073 Treated w ith ORS 0.481 0.114 27 13 1.121 0.237 0.253 0.710 Sought medical treatment for diarrhea 0.185 0.092 27 13 1.201 0.499 0.000 0.370 Vaccination card seen 0.244 0.052 84 42 1.102 0.212 0.140 0.348 Received BCG vaccination 0.599 0.058 84 42 1.066 0.097 0.484 0.715 Received DPT vaccination (3 doses) 0.363 0.075 84 42 1.415 0.206 0.213 0.512 Received polio vaccination (3 doses) 0.340 0.074 84 42 1.415 0.216 0.193 0.487 Received measles vaccination 0.435 0.069 84 42 1.268 0.159 0.297 0.574 Received all vaccinations 0.317 0.077 84 42 1.499 0.241 0.164 0.470 Abstinence among never-married youth (never had sex) 1.000 0.000 275 138 na 0.000 1.000 1.000 Sexually active in past 12 months among never-married youth 0.000 0.000 275 138 na na 0.000 0.000 Had an HIV test and received results in past 12 months 0.000 0.000 921 465 na na 0.000 0.000 Ever experienced any physical or sexual violence by husband 0.064 0.017 496 215 1.523 0.262 0.031 0.098 Total fertility rate (3 years) 4.191 0.319 2545 1283 1.578 0.076 3.553 4.829 Neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 10.806 3.387 1203 603 1.154 0.313 4.033 17.579 Post-neonatal mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 21.052 5.131 1191 597 1.068 0.244 10.789 31.315 Infant mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 31.858 6.317 1205 604 1.140 0.198 19.225 44.491 Child mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 23.539 6.166 1211 607 1.256 0.262 11.207 35.870 Under-five mortality rate (last 0-9 years) 54.647 9.684 1215 609 1.302 0.177 35.279 74.014 na  = Not appl icable Number of Cases Confidence limits 246 • Appendix B   Appendix C • 247 DATA QUALITY TABLES Appendix C Table C.1 Household age distribution Single-year age distribution of the de facto household population by sex (weighted), Philippines 2013 Women Men Women Men Age Number Percent Number Percent Age Number Percent Number Percent 0 696 2.1 762 2.3 36 461 1.4 400 1.2 1 725 2.1 739 2.2 37 388 1.1 370 1.1 2 685 2.0 718 2.1 38 410 1.2 430 1.3 3 726 2.1 845 2.5 39 376 1.1 376 1.1 4 716 2.1 796 2.4 40 415 1.2 439 1.3 5 821 2.4 851 2.5 41 402 1.2 361 1.1 6 763 2.3 789 2.4 42 374 1.1 413 1.2 7 750 2.2 786 2.3 43 406 1.2 366 1.1 8 784 2.3 819 2.4 44 384 1.1 372 1.1 9 749 2.2 793 2.4 45 452 1.3 361 1.1 10 792 2.3 820 2.4 46 354 1.0 338 1.0 11 730 2.2 768 2.3 47 366 1.1 306 0.9 12 768 2.3 826 2.5 48 374 1.1 348 1.0 13 877 2.6 847 2.5 49 308 0.9 301 0.9 14 728 2.1 709 2.1 50 347 1.0 346 1.0 15 820 2.4 751 2.2 51 332 1.0 299 0.9 16 659 1.9 719 2.1 52 334 1.0 324 1.0 17 645 1.9 741 2.2 53 345 1.0 345 1.0 18 643 1.9 695 2.1 54 301 0.9 310 0.9 19 561 1.7 667 2.0 55 263 0.8 253 0.8 20 623 1.8 618 1.8 56 266 0.8 243 0.7 21 552 1.6 647 1.9 57 274 0.8 209 0.6 22 562 1.7 595 1.8 58 265 0.8 221 0.7 23 594 1.8 600 1.8 59 254 0.7 223 0.7 24 484 1.4 511 1.5 60 259 0.8 232 0.7 25 494 1.5 504 1.5 61 200 0.6 189 0.6 26 464 1.4 434 1.3 62 200 0.6 173 0.5 27 427 1.3 458 1.4 63 226 0.7 194 0.6 28 411 1.2 429 1.3 64 192 0.6 140 0.4 29 442 1.3 445 1.3 65 164 0.5 154 0.5 30 447 1.3 471 1.4 66 141 0.4 103 0.3 31 447 1.3 415 1.2 67 144 0.4 111 0.3 32 483 1.4 471 1.4 68 128 0.4 88 0.3 33 485 1.4 450 1.3 69 116 0.3 93 0.3 34 451 1.3 391 1.2 70+ 1,277 3.8 825 2.5 35 385 1.1 401 1.2 Missing 2 0.0 3 0.0 36 461 1.4 400 1.2 Total 33,890 100.0 33,540 100.0 De facto = all who stayed in the household the night before interview. 248 • Appendix C Table C.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women De facto household population of women age 10-54, interviewed women age 15-49; and percent distribution and percentage of eligible women who were interviewed (weighted), by five-year age groups, Philippines 2013 Household population of women age 10-54 Interviewed women age 15-49 Percentage of eligible women interviewed Age group Number Percentage 10-14 3,894 na na na 15-19 3,329 3,284 20.2 98.7 20-24 2,815 2,780 17.1 98.8 25-29 2,237 2,185 13.4 97.7 30-34 2,314 2,262 13.9 97.8 35-39 2,019 1,981 12.2 98.1 40-44 1,981 1,938 11.9 97.9 45-49 1,854 1,817 11.2 98.0 50-54 1,659 na na na 15-49 16,549 16,249 100.0 98.2 Note: The de facto population includes all residents and nonresidents who stayed in the household the night before the interview. Weights for both household population of women and interviewed women are household weights. Age is based on the household questionnaire. na = Not applicable Table C.3 Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations missing information for selected demographic and health questions (weighted), Philippines 2013 Subject Percentage with information missing Number of cases Month only (births in the 15 years preceding the survey) 0.15 20,397 Month and year (births in the 15 years preceding the survey) 0.00 20,397 Age at death (deceased children born in the 15 years preceding the survey) 0.00 681 Age/date at first union1 (ever-married women age 15-49) 0.01 10,540 Respondent's education (all women age 15-49) 0.00 16,155 Diarrhea in last 2 weeks (living children 0-59 months) 1.09 6,796 1 Both year and age missing Table C.4 Births by calendar years Number of births, percentage with complete birth date, sex ratio at birth, and calendar year ratio by calendar year, according to living (L), dead (D), and total (T) children (weighted), Philippines 2013 Calendar year Number of births Percentage with complete birth date1 Sex ratio at birth2 Calendar year ratio3 L D T L D T L D T L D T 2013 919 16 935 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.4 220.6 101.7 na na na 2012 1,388 22 1,410 100.0 100.0 100.0 109.2 81.0 108.7 na na na 2011 1,312 40 1,352 99.9 100.0 99.9 102.6 168.7 104.0 94.8 134.0 95.6 2010 1,379 38 1,417 100.0 100.0 100.0 114.4 140.3 115.0 104.0 81.5 103.2 2009 1,341 53 1,394 99.9 98.1 99.8 111.7 76.3 110.0 94.9 123.5 95.8 2008 1,446 48 1,494 99.9 100.0 99.9 108.0 128.8 108.6 105.0 104.7 105.0 2007 1,411 39 1,450 99.9 94.2 99.7 94.0 136.8 94.9 100.3 79.1 99.6 2006 1,369 50 1,419 99.9 100.0 99.9 113.6 131.4 114.2 98.6 117.4 99.1 2005 1,366 46 1,413 99.8 100.0 99.8 103.5 104.0 103.5 103.1 96.3 102.8 2004 1,283 46 1,329 99.8 95.6 99.7 105.8 89.3 105.2 96.3 95.0 96.2 2009-2013 6,338 169 6,507 100.0 99.4 100.0 108.1 117.0 108.3 na na na 2004-2008 6,875 230 7,105 99.9 98.1 99.8 104.7 116.2 105.1 na na na 1999-2003 6,148 267 6,415 99.9 97.8 99.8 103.0 147.6 104.5 na na na 1994-1998 5,009 238 5,247 99.8 98.6 99.8 106.2 134.4 107.3 na na na < 1994 4,979 383 5,362 99.9 98.1 99.8 107.2 109.1 107.4 na na na All 29,348 1,287 30,635 99.9 98.3 99.8 105.7 123.1 106.4 na na na na = Not applicable 1 Both year and month of birth given 2 (Bm/Bf)x100, where Bm and Bf are the numbers of male and female births, respectively 3 [2Bx/(Bx-1+Bx+1)]x100, where Bx is the number of births in calendar year x Appendix C • 249 Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in days Distribution of reported deaths under one month of age by age at death in days and the percentage of neonatal deaths reported to occur at ages 0-6 days, for five- year periods of birth preceding the survey (weighted), Philippines 2013 Number of years preceding the survey Total Age at death (days) 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-19 <1 35 36 26 14 110 1 22 17 26 19 84 2 4 8 13 3 29 3 3 8 9 4 25 4 3 2 2 3 10 5 3 2 2 3 10 6 1 2 1 2 6 7 6 8 13 10 38 8 0 2 0 0 2 9 2 1 1 1 5 10 1 0 1 1 3 11 0 1 0 1 2 12 0 0 0 0 0 13 0 0 1 1 2 14 1 3 0 1 4 15 1 1 2 0 3 16 1 2 0 0 3 17 0 0 1 1 2 18 0 0 0 1 1 19 0 1 1 0 2 20 0 0 1 1 3 21 1 0 2 2 6 22 0 0 1 0 1 23 2 0 0 0 2 24 0 1 0 1 2 26 0 1 0 0 1 28 0 0 1 1 2 29 0 0 1 0 1 30 0 0 0 1 1 Total 0-30 89 98 103 73 363 Percentage early neonatal1 80.2 76.9 76.5 66.1 75.4 1 0-6 days / 0-30 days 250 • Appendix C Table C.6 Reporting of age at death in months Distribution of reported deaths under two years of age by age at death in months and the percentage of infant deaths reported to occur at age under one month, for five-year periods of birth preceding the survey, Philippines 2013 Number of years preceding the survey Total Age at death (months) 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 0-19 <1 a 89 98 103 73 363 1 12 14 7 6 39 2 9 6 10 8 33 3 9 3 6 3 21 4 5 9 6 6 27 5 3 2 3 4 12 6 10 6 8 5 29 7 6 9 3 9 27 8 2 8 3 0 14 9 3 6 9 2 20 10 1 1 2 2 7 11 1 2 5 2 10 12 8 11 17 21 57 13 0 0 1 2 3 14 0 1 2 2 5 15 1 0 2 0 3 16 2 0 0 3 5 17 0 3 5 1 8 18 1 0 0 1 3 19 1 2 0 2 5 20 1 1 1 0 3 21 1 0 0 0 1 22 0 0 0 1 1 23 1 2 0 0 3 1 Year 1 0 1 0 3 Total 0-11 151 164 166 121 602 Percentage neonatal1 58.8 59.3 62.4 60.5 60.3 a Includes deaths under one month reported in days 1 Under one month / under one year   Appendix D • 251 PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 2013 NATIONAL DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY Appendix D PRE-TEST 1 ICF International Dr. Elizabeth Go (Consultant) National Statistics Office Benedicta Yabut Maritess Tan Erma Aquino Ana Cadaro Marjorie Villaver Norma Ayuban Wilma Sulit Mercedes Hoquis Percival Salting Charito Capacete Nenita Marquez Inocencia Macabiog Joan Martinez PRE-TEST 2 ICF International Dr. Elizabeth Go (Consultant) National Statistics Office Benedicta Yabut Maritess Tan Erma Aquino Ana Cadaro Marjorie Villaver Filipinas Lim Wilma Sulit Mercedes Hoquis Priscilla Bacus Charito Capacete Nenita Marquez Norma Ayuban Joan Martinez Gloria Morales PRE-TEST 3 ICF International Dr. Elizabeth Go (Consultant) National Statistics Office REGION I – Ilocos Region Erma Aquino REGION V – Bicol Region Priscilla Bacus Marieta Piaoan Emelinda Gualvez Melinda Ang Anna Bajamundi Danites Teñido Lea Toledo Susan Cora Hufana Bernie Camata Elisie Nardo Maricor Pasibe Gloria Pascua Cross Doreh Lee   252 • Appendix D Region VI – Western Visayas Region VII – Central Visayas Region VIII – Eastern Visayas Dr. Elizabeth Go Benedicta Yabut Dr. Socorro Abejo Consuelo Virgula Edwina Carriaga Sheryl Ann Jamisola Resureccion Villavicencio Leslie Zuasula Evelyn Dacoycoy Salvacion Lemos Myrna Cataluña Matilde Dacullo Analyn Solinap Jinkee Minguito Tessa Delvo Grace Clavines Rowena Bornia Jessaly Aya-ay Gladys Trescepes Estela Rosales Miriam Prestillo Juanilla Premne TRAINING TASK FORCE Trainers National Statistics Office ICF International University of the Philippines Dr. Socorro Abejo Dr. Elizabeth Go Population Institute Benedicta Yabut Dr. Ma. Midea Kabamalan Priscilla Bacus Dr. Josefina Natividad Elpidio Maramot Ma. Paz Marquez Resource Persons Department of Health Dr. Florence Apale Dr. Anthony Calibo Ms. Onofria de Guzman Participants Central Office Regional Office Minerva Eloisa Esquivias Marieta Piaoan Ma. Flerida Tan Jeremias Luis Teresita Salatan Leonila Quiño Erma Aquino Ma Emielee Eugene Pataueg Ma. Liza Bigornia Marjorie Villaver Daisy Villar Rowena Linaban Priscilla Bacus Maria Virginia Olveña Adeline Gales Edna Rapanot Jackie Lou Sto. Domingo Edelyn Kudemus Elpidio Maramot Charity Bautista Carla Mary Lou Fusilero Wilma Sulit Annelyn Condino Evelyn Quijano Ma. Theresa Rapanan Natalie Torreliza Marilyn Vergara Percival Salting Fely Miñano Florfina Perez Joan Martinez Anna Bajamundi Adelpa Yepes Nenita Marquez Emelinda Gualvez Betina Joy Villanueva Maritess Tan April Dream Pugon Ara Leonarda Bongaoil Guillermo Lipio Jr. Antonet Catubuan Noronisa Macadadaya Estelita Marquez Edwina Carriaga Judema Angot Monina Glumalid Rowena Bornia Odelia Acero Nazaria Guerra Sheryl Ann Jamisola Lolita Espinosa Angelina Piañar   Appendix D • 253 FIELDWORK INTERVIEW TEAMS REGION I – Ilocos Marietta Piaoan (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 1 TEAM 2 Melinda Ang (Team Supervisor) Gloria Pascua (Team Supervisor) Lailani Gamboa (Field Editor) Emilisa Hernandez (Field Editor) Gretcheleen Alibayan Ma. Teresa Engeg Evangeline Capulong Liza Bel Paulo Kimberly Dea Gamboa Ethel Ramos TEAM 3 TEAM 4 Teresita Salatan (Team Supervisor) Verna Palsimon (Team Supervisor) Dona Villanos (Field Editor) Lani Maramba (Field Editor) Czarina Beltran Nadine Ijssel Bauzon Joana Rome De Vera Mirasol Manongdo Margie Quetives Hilda NIpal Princess Rabara Mary Jo Velasquez REGION II – Cagayan Valley Emielee Eugenie Pataueg (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 5 TEAM 6 Angelita Buenaventura (Team Supervisor) Cristilu Geronimo (Team Supervisor) Roselyn Benemirito (Field Editor) Vivian Mariano (Field Editor) Lovely Bilas Gypsy Babaran Maria Rina Llameg Joannah Cubangbang Lorna Limon Lileth Cuntapay Jonalyn Ulep Kristel Ann Nolasco Joan Quilang TEAM 7 Daisy Villar (Team Supervisor) Maria Cristina Degala (Field Editor) Divine Grace Domingo Betty Galwan April Simon   254 • Appendix D REGION III – Central Luzon Maria Virginia Olveña (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 8 TEAM 9 Jackie Lou Sto. Domingo (Team Supervisor) Julieta Gapate (Team Supervisor) Cristine Marcelino (Field Editor) Agnes Borcena (Field Editor) Maria Fe Dinglasa Ma. Adoracion Angeles Katherine Llido Darline Cruz Mira Mariñas Jonalyn Quiatchon Regina Sanchez TEAM 10 Annalyn Alinea (Team Supervisor) Josephine Pelayo (Field Editor) TEAM 11 Chiqui Basa TEAM 12 Jessica Galang (Team Supervisor) Ethel Carreon Arlene Alvarez (Team Supervisor) Elizabeth Lopez (Field Editor) Maria May Esguerra Janet Marquez (Field Editor) Kenneth Amatorio Jane Janga Irene Buenafe Erlinda Andres Rowena Tolentino Jenny Calda Maria Baun Jean Castillo Elvira Dueñas Elenita Rimada Lirio Ramos TEAM 13 Melinda Borja (Team Supervisor) Ma. Rosario Dela Rosa (Field Editor) Rowena Mendez Ellen Joy Mendoza Airene Piscal REGION IVA – CALABARZON Charity Bautista (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 14 TEAM 15 Agnes Castor (Team Supervisor) Josephine Roderno (Team Supervisor) Rachel Rosales (Field Editor) Elaine Reyes (Field Editor) Danica Luz Ceradoy Reneezah Borlongan Gemma Mercado Anna Kiara Melo Christine Joy Bagay Paula Vianca Katon Editha Vergara Ma. Arly Paril Belinda Siscar TEAM 16 TEAM 17 Annelyn Condino (Team Supervisor) Catherine Brosas (Team Supervisor) Marites Callejo (Field Editor) Marilou Aguila (Field Editor) Norlyn Cabrera Maricris Tanyang Engracia Ursolino Rossine Laderas Joanne Grace Bareza Priscilla Carandang   Appendix D • 255 TEAM 18 Dalisay Ambion (Team Supervisor) Anamor Asilar (Field Editor) Jacqueline Camino Dorie Dein Ramos Sheila Venus Annalyn Cristo TEAM 19 TEAM 20 Liwayway Rebualos (Team Supervisor) Angelina Bautista (Team Supervisor) Fe Fabilane (Field Editor) Bonave Bias (Field Editor) Kristine Amador Pewe Piamonte Cleofe Legson Juanita Agana Miriam Atentar Nova Fulgencio Cynthia Escalderon Marivic Fernando Christie Grace Pillas REGION IVB – MIMAROPA Natalie Torreliza (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 21 TEAM 22 Veneranda Mendoza (Team Supervisor) Eva Dalonos (Team Supervisor) Jovelyn Chavez (Field Editor) Annie Basaya (Field Editor) Elsie dela Cruz Marianne Ong Chona Ilao Maricel Palaad Fritzie Escarez Isabelita Vergara Emeliana Lalisan Rhea de Asis Badango Marilyn Mingo TEAM 23 Fely Miñano (Team Supervisor) Enelyn Ramos (Field Editor) Shaira Aina Garcia Joanne Alcantara Julie Ann Pineda   256 • Appendix D REGION V – Bicol Anna Bajamundi (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 24 TEAM 25 Emelinda Gualvez (Team Supervisor) Marivel Alarcon (Team Supervisor) Salve Bangate (Field Editor) Catherine Malayo (Field Editor) Desiree Aragon Catherine Ebuenga Elreen Ann Balmadrid Cristina Despi Elma Lopez Aira Magbalon Rhoda Rejuso Cristy Cioco TEAM 26 TEAM 27 Maria Rizaly Agustin (Team Supervisor) Rebecca Abiog (Team Supervisor) Mylene Nebres (Field Editor) Lani Sto. Tomas (Field Editor) Maria Christina Disuanco Melinda Castillo Marianne Enguero Kristine Bermejo Grace Casallos Odessa Llovit Emily Aspe Estressa Galicia REGION VI – Western Visayas April Dream Pugon (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 28 TEAM 29 Antonet Catubuan (Team Supervisor) Shirlyn Hortillosa (Team Supervisor) Ma. Jacqueline Belvis (Field Editor) Cecil Gamarch (Field Editor) Ma. Cristina Beluso Rina Joy Espino Rachelle Pionelo Jennifer Lara Elsa Salvacion Leny Rose Mandaricio Maphe Ismael Katherine Temelo TEAM 30 Antonietta Gador Ruby Aimee Licañel Mary Joy Sardon Ashleigh Mae Dormis Hannah Palomo Gerlie Narajos TEAM 31 TEAM 32 Salvacion Lemos (Team Supervisor) Irna Asuero (Team Supervisor) Juby Espinosa (Field Editor) Luzminda Monteveros (Field Editor) Varbee Ardiente Lussette Arcojada Christine Cantara Michelle Cañizares Rossana Tacder Christine Constantino Joy Villavicencio Glenda Diadio   Appendix D • 257 REGION VII – Central Visayas Edwina Carriaga (Regional Supervisor) Myrna Trinidad Cataluña (Asst. Regional Supervisor) TEAM 33 TEAM 34 Epifania Antopina (Team Supervisor) Chona Commission (Team Supervisor) Nimfa Aray (Field Editor) Dhorlie Arnejo (Field Editor) Sisinia Mirontos Lucilyn Parawan Rufina Daleon Debbie Quimpo Rosanna Sarigumba Anna Mae Rubion Marisol Etcuban Mary Ann Valderama TEAM 35 Rowena Bornia (Team Supervisor) Riza Vailoces (Field Editor) Maria Windy Valiente Melanie Cule Leah Umbac Junafe Baldado TEAM 36 TEAM 37 Juanilla Premne (Team Supervisor) Leslie Marie Zuasula (Team Supervisor) Jenneth Conje (Field Editor) Mary Ann Ogaya (Field Editor) Geneveve Cabarse Mercy Sanchez Hazel Almocera Chou Enh Arapoc Renee Rose Basilan Kaziel Margarett Tan Carla Esmero Marjorie Bation REGION VIII – Eastern Visayas Sheryl Ann Jamisola (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 38 TEAM 39 Edna D. Felicita (Team Supervisor) Angelina Piañar (Team Supervisor) Sergette Tanauan (Field Editor) Maria Ariene Abanador (Field Editor) Maria Riza Cerna Miriam Prestilo Josephine Rufin Janet Velarde Ana Lorriane Diola Shiela Mae Espinosa Mercedita Guiwan Vanessa Edaniol TEAM 40 Mae Moreno (Team Supervisor) Jessaly Aya-ay (Field Editor) Cecilia Daguman Jennifer Quiñanola Alicia Gajana Niña Sapetin   258 • Appendix D REGION IX – Zamboanga Peninsula Ma. Flerida Tan (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 41 TEAM 42 Gemma Vidal (Team Supervisor) Leonila Quiño (Team Supervisor) Rona Jane Turtogo (Field Editor) Aisah Unacan (Field Editor) Ma Socorro Nurulla Ann Bren Quillo Amancia Abitona Fritz Chi Lee Oyag Nickie Bolasco Angelie Basmayor Riza Rellon Verna Rojas TEAM 43 Ma. Theresa Sumicad (Team Supervisor) Daryll Tagalog (Field Editor) Jhasmin Candido Liwayway Quirante Hazel Povadora Myra Dianna Mammang REGION X – Northern Mindanao Maria Liza Bigornia (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 44 TEAM 45 Rowena Linaban (Team Supervisor) Diony Lou Jao (Team Supervisor) Connie Fel Franco (Field Editor) Melchora Aseo (Field Editor) Marife Buncales Phoebe Marie Manreal Romelyn Badbad Stephanie Dingson Mary Angelie Tadlas Babylyn Paderanga Jennylyn Badoles Richel Avalle TEAM 46 Loida Gonzales (Team Supervisor) Engel Buton (Field Editor) Estrella Panogalon Rowena Bradero Dharlin Porquiado Jeralden Cepeda   Appendix D • 259 REGION XI – Davao Peninsula Adeline Gales (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 47 TEAM 48 Fe Antipuesto (Team Supervisor) Celeste Mae Barrete (Team Supervisor) Mae Repaso (Field Editor) Rhodora Grenien (Field Editor) Melodia Bahinting Gemmalyn Balingit LiezelEgay Gaudiosa Lobiano Virginia Mangaron Mayeth Orga Emielyn Nayre Marilou Tanduyan TEAM 49 TEAM 50 MunriaLauban (Team Supervisor) Marivic Mensis (Team Supervisor) Cecilia Atil (Field Editor) Jane Maghanoy (Field Editor) Loreta Allas Rizza Jane Genabia Lovelle Apique Reynilda Gulay Maria Fe Burlaza Lovella Maunte Marilou Parajele Janice Osorio REGION XII – SOCCSkSARGEN Carla Mary Lou Fusilero (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 51 TEAM 52 Evelyn Quijano (Team Supervisor) Sally Fe Dato-on (Team Supervisor) Magdalina Garcia (Field Editor) Delia Damolo (Field Editor) Marjorie Galzote Gazel Manojo Mariam Buisan Relpha Insing Icelee Baldelovar Lilibeth Arca Elizabeth Sabanal Emma Escobillo TEAM 53 TEAM 54 Joan Brioso (Team Supervisor) Mitchilyn Lilio (Team Supervisor) Arsolyn Magramo (Field Editor) Raquisa Catajay (Field Editor) Jeanette Baliad Resyl Rose Palmes Mary Jean Apondar Karen Yadao Rose Del Carmen Joan Caro Jumarie Dizon Sandra Aminulla   260 • Appendix D REGION XIII – Caraga Odelia Acero (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 55 TEAM 56 Lolita Espinosa (Team Supervisor) Susan Pantilo (Team Supervisor) Dina Ringor (Field Editor) Kissey Flores (Field Editor) Sheena Angelie Niones Reinabeth Abiera Diamond Panarigan Arian Palima Ailyn Poligrates Elland Mae Silos Lirevil Rivera Ellen Valles TEAM 57 Marilyn Octobre (Team Supervisor) Lony Uriarte (Field Editor) Naneth Baldovino LeiraI Petrina Betan Flordelyn Maxino Mary Magdaline Magpale National Capital Region Marilyn Vergara (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 58 TEAM 59 Maricel Caragan (Team Supervisor) Estrella Vargas (Team Supervisor) Rowena Danao (Field Editor) Maria Antonette Adelaida (Field Editor) Rowena Baesa Ellen Ebrada Michelle Galera Carla Olario Jingle Kon Merlyn Panganiban Rowena Sanoy Alona June Porras Dara Jane Sabangan TEAM 60 Maria Ofelia Sapio Amelia Basilio (Team Supervisor) Ann Khrislyn Supil (Field Editor) TEAM 61 Alicia Cruz Adelfa Yepes (Team Supervisor) Pacita Liboon Mary Rose Asuncion (Field Editor) Trinidad Montisor Maritess Claveria Ma. Azelina Odiver Milagros De Guzman Zenaida Dela Cruz TEAM 62 Arsenia Gabriel Jasmine Dizon (Team Supervisor) Lovie Luisa Garcia Victoria Talosig (Field Editor) Michelle Garcia Rowena Celi Catherine Real Alma Loreño Ma. Rowena Manero TEAM 63 Carmelita Andres (Team Supervisor) Emily Nazaire (Field Editor) Nilda Del Monte Jomar Sanggalang Maria Juvy Tan Ana Maria Tresvalles   Appendix D • 261 Cordillera Administrative Region Betina Joy Villanueva (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 64 TEAM 65 Ara Leonarda Bongaoil (Team Supervisor) Windelen Caballar (Team Supervisor) Airah Zaire Fanged (Field Editor) Maria Teresa Belen (Field Editor) Alfa Lingbanan Vida Viña Murla Saura Donglasan Perlita Emperador Meriam Quitle Marivic Pasking Janylina Saytoc Joanna Bugnay TEAM 66 TEAM 67 Maria Edna Ballera (Team Supervisor) Joanna Lynne Castro (Team Supervisor) Precy Bazar (Field Editor) Arfelle Dumlanos (Field Editor) Maria Theresa Bernal Karen Bangeng Mary Jane Blando Mariliza Binwag Aida Cati-an Lizel Joy Bay-an Myrna Emmingga April Pearl Sadao Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao Noronisa Macadadaya (Regional Supervisor) TEAM 68 TEAM 69 Kasma Kuhutan (Team Supervisor) Hasmin Racman (Team Supervisor) Emily Akanul (Field Editor) Sahira Dimaronsing (Field Editor) Soraida Arasid Sittie Fatma Tawano Fatma Allama Meharnizah Yahya Havivia Asjudi Amanah Sidic Aisa Abdan Nidzma Hamoy TEAM 70 Ma. Judema Angot (Team Supervisor) Ella Ibrahim (Field Editor) Bai Harej Manalindo Generosa Nomen Sittie Aisa Ocsio Jem Diane Areola   262 • Appendix D DATA PROCESSING ICF International Alexander Izmukhambetov Jeanne Cushing National Statistics Office Supervisors Manuel Rivera Ana Cadaro Elpidio Maramot Filipinas Lim Percival Salting Gerome Maguddayao Wilma Sulit Lorenzo Bautista Priscilla Bacus Inocencia Macabiog Nenita Marquez Data Processors Albina Tan Lilia Lejano Baby Lyn Castro Marele Camacam Catherine Zapanta Norma Gajardo Eduardo Abarquez Renito Alejandro Martin Evangeline Ibayan Rosalie Sagmit Flordeliza Galicia Ruditha Valiente Irene Gonzales Teresita Avila Khristy Deza Victoria Ilustre QUESTIONNAIRE DESIGN National Academy of Science and Technology Dr. Mercedes Concepcion (Chairperson) National Statistics Office Adm. Carmelita Ericta (Co-chairperson) Members ICF International Department of Health National Statistics Office Commission on Population United Nations Population Fund Philippine Commission on Women National Statistical Coordination Board Philippine Health Insurance Corporation National Economic Development Authority National Academy of Science and Technology Philippine Institute of Development Studies University of the Philippines School of Economics University of the Philippines United States Agency for International Population Institute Development Food and Nutrition Research World Health Organization Institute Department of Social Welfare Philippine Legislators Committee on and Development Population Development   Appendix D • 263 PREPARATION OF FINAL REPORT ICF International Anne Cross Dr. Gulnara Semenov David Megill Natalie La Roche Philippine Statistics Authority – National Statistics Office Paula Monina Collado Joan Martinez Dr. Socorro Abejo Edna Rapanot Benedicta Yabut Percival Salting Minerva Eloisa Esquivias Wilma Sulit Erma Aquino Romelyn Anden Jeremias Luis Nenita Marquez Elpidio Maramot Lorenzo Bautista Marjorie Villaver Ana Cadaro Guillermo Lipio Jr. Filipinas Lm Priscilla Bacus Marites Tan University of the Philippines Population Institute Dr. Ma. Midea Kabamalan Ma. Paz Marquez University of the Philippines School of Economics Dr. Carlos Antonio Tan Jr.   264 • Appendix D QUESTIONNAIRES Appendix E • 265Appendix E 266 • Appendix E AUTHORITY: Commonwealth Act No. 591 . NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE NDHS FORM 1 authorizes the National Statistics Office to conduct this survey in order to collect 2013 NATIONAL Serial Number: information on fertility, family planning DEMOGRAPHIC AND and health. HEALTH SURVEY CONFIDENTIALITY : Sec. 4 of CA No. 591 NSCB Approval No. NSO~1229'()1 provides that all information obtained from HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE Expires: 30 June 2014 Respondent is held STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL (ENGLISH) Booklet of Booklets -- -- IDENTIFICATION PROVINCE CITY/MUNICIPALITY BARANGAY EA . . "." . " . SAMPLE HOUSING UNIT SERIAL NUMBER . " . , . " . , HOUSEHOLD CONTROL NUMBER . . , . . . , . , . , . NDHS HOUSEHOLD NUMBER . . "." . , . . . ,., . NO. OF HOUSEHOLDS IN THE HOUSING UNIT . - NAME OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD ADDRESS INTERVIEW RECORD 1 2 3 FINAL VISIT DATE DAY . MONTH . INTERVIEWER'S NAME YEAR . I 2 0 1 3 INT. CODE . RESULT' RESULT' . NEXT VISIT: DATE TOTAL NUMBER D TIME OF VISITS . . 'RESULT CODES: 1 COMPLETED TIME OF INTERVIEW 2 NO HOUSEHOLD MEMBER AT HOME OR NO COMPETENT RESPONDENT AT HOME HOUR ••.•••. EB AT TIME OF VISIT TIME STARTED 3 ENTIRE HOUSEHOLD ABSENT MINUTE .•••.• FOR EXTENDED PERIOD OF TIME 4 POSTPONED 5 REFUSED TOTAL HH MEMBERS IT] 6 DWELLING VACANT OR ADDRESS NOT A DWELLING AND VISITORS .••••.••.•••• 7 DWELLING DESTROYED 8 DWELLING NOT FOUND TOTAL ELIGIBLE IT] 9 OTHER WOMEN •.•••.••.•••••.••.•••. (SPECIFy) ~~~HN~U~;T R~~~~.~~~~.~ •.•••. IT] SUPERVISOR IT] FIELD EDITOR IT] Name and Signature Date Name and Signature Date OFFICE EDITOR IT] ENCODER IT] • 267Appendix E Hello. My name is ___ and [ am working with the National Statistics Office. We are conducting a national survey about health all over the Philippines. The information we collect will help the government plan health services As part of the survey we would first like to ask some questions about your household SECTION 1. HOUSEHOLD MEMBERSHIP ALL PERSONS LINE RELATION~ NO. USUAL RESIDENTS SHIP TO SEX RESIDENCE AGE ELIGIBILITY AND VISITORS HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD Please give me the What is the [s Does Did How old is CIRCLE names of the persons relation- (NAME) (NAME) (NAME) (NAME) LINE who usually sleep and eat in ship of male or usually sleep as of his! NO.OF your household and those who (NAME) to female? live here her last ALL slept here last night, the head here? last birthday? WOMEN starting with the head of the night? AGE ofthe household. house- 15-49 hold? (101) (102) (103) (104) (105) (106) (107) (108) M F Y N Y N IN YEARS 01 ~ IT] 01 1 2 1 2 1 2 02 IT] 1 2 1 2 1 2 IT] 02 03 IT] 1 2 1 2 1 2 IT] 03 04 IT] 1 2 1 2 1 2 IT] 04 05 IT] 1 2 1 2 1 2 IT] 05 06 IT] 1 2 1 2 1 2 IT] 06 07 IT] 1 2 1 2 1 2 IT] 07 08 IT] 1 2 1 2 1 2 IT] 08 09 IT] 1 2 1 2 1 2 IT] 09 10 IT] 1 2 1 2 1 2 IT] 10 PUT AN X MARK IF CONTINUATION SHEET IS USED D IF YES, ENTER IN THE ABOVE TABLE. 102A) Are there any other household members such as OFW, small children YES D NO 0 or infants that we have not listed? 1028) In addition, are there any other people who may not be members of your family, such as domestic servants, lodgers or friends who usually live here? YES D NO 0 102C) Are there any guests or temporary visitors staying here, or anyone else who YES D NO 0 slept here last night, who have not been listed? CODES FOR 9.103 (RELATIONSHIP TO HEAD OF HOUSEHOLD) 01 '" HEAD 07 = PARENT-IN-LAW 02 = WIFE OR HUSBAND 08 = BROTHER OR SISTER 03 = SON OR DAUGHTER 09 '" OTHER RELATIVE 04 = SON-IN-LAW OR DAUGHTER-IN-LAW 10 = ADOPTED/FOSTER/STEPCHILD OS = GRANDCHILD 11 '" NOT RELATED 06 = PARENT 98 '" DON'T KNOW HH-2 268 • Appendix E All of the answers you give will be confidential. We hope you will participate in the survey since your views are important. Now, I would like to ask you some information about the people who usually live in your household or who are staying with you ALL PERSONS 6 YEARS OLD AND OVER (114) SELECTION OF RESPONDENT FOR WOMEN'S SAFETY (WS) MODULE IF MORE THAN 1 ELIGIBLE WOMEN LINE HEALTH INSURANCE EVER ATTENDED USE THE TABLE BELOW TO SELECT NO. SCHOOL RANDOM WOMAN RESPONDENT COUNT THE TOTAL NO. OF ELIGIBLE WOMEN IN COL. 108, Is (NAME) covered Which health Has (NAME) What is the CIRCLE THE NO. IN THE TABLE. by PhilHealth or insurance ever attended highest IF ONLY ONE ELIGIBLE WOMAN, GO TO 115 Medicare, GSIS, does (NAME) school? grade! SSS, or any belong to? year CHECK COVER PAGE FOR THE LAST DIGIT OF THE NDHS health insurance, Any other IF NO, GO TO (NAME) SERIAL NO. CIRCLE THE LAST DIGIT IN THE TABLE. either as member health NEXT HH completed? or dependent? insurance? MEMBER, OR IF LAST MEMBER CIRCLE THE NUMBER WHEREIN THE LAST DIGIT AND THE ENTER CODE SKIP TO 114 ENTER CODE TOTAL NUMBER OF ELIGIBLE WOMEN MEET. THIS IS THE RANK OF THE RESPONDENT FOR THE WS MODULE. (109 (11 D) (111) (112) (113) t-- y N OK Y N IF THE TOTAL NUMBER OF ELIGIBLE 01 1 2T8 I I I I 1 2 IT] LAST WOMEN IN THE HOUSEHOLD IS t DIGIT GO TO 112 GO TO NEXT MEMBER OF SERIAL 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 1 2 T 8 I I I I 1 2 IT] NO. IS 02 t GO TO 112 GO TO NEXT MEMBER RANK IS 1 2 T 8 I I I I 1 2 IT] 0 2 2 4 3 6 5 4 03 t GO TO 112 GO TO NEXT MEMBER 1 1 3 1 4 1 6 5 1 2 T 8 I I I I 1 2 OJ 2 2 1 2 5 2 7 6 04 t GO TO 112 GO TO NEXT MEMBER 3 1 2 3 1 3 1 7 1 2 T 8 I I I I 1 2 CD 4 2 3 4 2 4 2 8 05 t GO TO 112 GO TO NEXT ,,\EMBER 5 1 1 1 3 5 3 1 1 2 T 8 I I I I 1 2 IT] 6 2 2 2 4 6 4 2 06 t GO TO 112 GO TO NEXT MEMBER 7 1 3 3 5 1 5 3 1 2l'8 I I I I 1 2 OJ 8 2 1 4 1 2 6 4 07 GO 0112 GO TO NEXT MEJaER 9 1 2 1 2 3 7 5 1 2 T 8 I I I I 1 2 OJ 08 t (115) RECORD THE NAME AND LINE NUMBER OF GO TO 112 GO TO NEXT MEMBER THE RESPONDENT FOR THE WOMEN'S SAFETY MODULE 09 1 2l'8 I I I I 1 2 OJ GO 0112 GO TO NEXT MEJaER 1 2 T 8 I I I I 1 2 OJ LINE rn 10 t NAME NUMBER GO TO 112 GO TO NEXT MEMBER CODES FOR 0.111 (HEALTH INSURANCE) A " PHILHEALTH PAYING MEMBER F " SSS B " PHILHEALTH DEPENDENT OF PAYING MEMBER G '" PRIVATE INSURANCE COMPANY/HEAL TH C " PHILHEALTH INDIGENT MEMBER MAINTENANCE ORGANIZATIONI D " PHILHEALTH DEPENDENT OF INDIGENT MEMBER PRE-NEED INSURANCE PLAN COMPANY E " GSIS X '" OTHER, SPECIFY CODES FOR 0.113 (HIGHEST GRADEfYEAR COMPLETED) 00 " NO GRADE COMPLETED 21 " HIGH SCHOOL YEAR 1 41 " COLLEGE YEAR 1 01 " PRE-SCHOOL 22 " HIGH SCHOOL YEAR 2 42 " COLLEGE YEAR 2 11 " ELEMENTARY GRADE 1 23 " HIGH SCHOOL YEAR 3 43 " COLLEGE YEAR 3 12 " ELEMENTARY GRADE 2 24 " HIGH SCHOOL YEAR 4 44 " COLLEGE YEAR 4 13 " ELEMENTARY GRADE 3 26 " HIGH SCHOOL 4' " COLLEGE YEAR 5 14 " ELEMENTARY GRADE 4 GRADUATE 46 " COLLEGE YEAR 6 OR MORE 15 " ELEMENTARY GRADE 5 47 " COLLEGE GRADUATE, 16 " ELEMENTARY GRADE 6 31 " POST SECONDARY SPECIFY DEGREE 18 " ELEMENTARY GRADUATE YEAR 1 51 " POSTBACCALAUREATE 32 " POST SECONDARY 98 " DON'T KNOW YEAR 2 OR MORE HH-3 • 269Appendix E SECTION 2. HEALTH CARE UTILIZATION NO QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES 201 In the last 30 days from (LAST MONTH) (SAME DATE) to present, YES . 1 has any member of your household been sick or injured? By injured, NO . 2 I mean cuts, burns, and injury that require medical attention. (GO TO 206) -.-J 202 How many is/are sick (injured) or got sick linjured at any time in the last 30 days? Now I would like to ask you some questions about each person who is sick/injured [1] anytime in the last 30 days. Could you tell me the name of each household member who is sick/injured or got sick/injured in the last 30 days? ENTER IN 203 THE LINE NUMBER AND NAME OF EACH PERSON WHO IS SICK OR INJURED. NO. OF SICK/ ENTER THE LINE NUMBERS IN ASCENDING ORDER. ASK ALL QUESTIONS ABOUT ALL INJURED PERSONS OF THESE PERSONS. IF THE PERSON IS DECEASED, ENTER '00' FOR LINE NUMBER. IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 3 PERSONS, USE ADDITIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE. . SICK/INJURED PERSONS IN THE LAST 30 DAYS SICK PERSON 1 SICK PERSON 2 SICK PERSON 3 203 LINE NUMBER LINE . [1] LINE . [1] LINE . [1] AND NAME FROM NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER COL. (101) AND (102). NAME NAME NAME 204 What was COMMON NON- COMMON NON- COMMON NON- (NAME IN 203)'s COMMUNICABLE DISEASES COMMUNICABLE DISEASES COMMUNICABLE DISEASES illness or injury? DIABETES .••••••••• A DIABETES •••••••••. A DIABETES .••••••.•. A CANCER . B CANCER . B CANCER . . B IF COMMON NON- HYPERTENSION .•• C HYPERTENSION •• , •• C HYPERTENSION •. C COMMUNICABLE OR INFECTIOUS COMMON INFECTIOUS COMMON INFECTIOUS COMMON INFECTIOUS DISEASES, DISEASES DISEASES DISEASES PROBE: Was TUBERCULOSIS TUBERCULOSIS TUBERCULOSIS (NAME)'s illness (fB) .••••••.•••. D (fB) •••••••••••••• D (TB) .•••••••••••. D diagnosed by a ACUTE RESPIRATORY ACUTE RESPIRATORY ACUTE RESPIRATORY doctor? INFECTION . E INFECTION . . E INFECTION . . E ACUTE GASTRO- ACUTE GASTRO- ACUTE GASTRO- IF NOT DIAGNOSED ENTERiTIS . . F ENTERITIS . F ENTERITIS . . F SPECIFY IN 'OTHER'. COMMON COLDS AND COMMON COLDS AND COMMON COLDS AND COUGHI FLU/FEVER . G COUGHI FLU/FEVER . G COUGHI FLU/FEVER . G IF YES, CIRCLE INJURY INJURY INJURY APPROPRIATE CUTIWOUND .•.• H CUT/WOUND . H CUTIWOUND . H CODE. BURN •••••••.•.••. I BURN •••.••••••••• I BURN ••••••.••.••• I FRACTUREI FRACTURE! FRACTUREf BROKEN BONE . J BROKEN BONE . J BROKEN BONE . . J DISLOCATIONI DISLOCATIONI DISLOCATIONI SLIPPED DISK .•••. K SLIPPED DISK ••••• K SLIPPED DISK . K SURGERy . L SURGERy .•••••.••••• L SURGERY . L OTHER X OTHER X OTHER X (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFy) 205 GO BACK TO 204 IN GO BACK TO 204 IN GO BACK TO 204 IN NEW NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF QUESTIONNAIRE; OR, IF NO MORE SICK PERSON NO MORE SICK PERSON NO MORE SICK PERSON IN 203, GO TO 206 IN 203, GO TO 206 IN 203, GO TO 206 206 In the Jast 30 days, has any member of your household YES . 1 visited a health facility for consultation/advice or treatment NO •••••••••••••••••••••••••••.•.• 2 anywhere? (GO TO 220) ----.J 207 How many of your household members visited a health facility for consultation/advice or treatment anywhere in the last 30 days? Could you tell me the name of each household [1] member who visited a health facility or sought advice or treatment in the last 30 days? ENTER IN 208, AND 214 THE LINE NUMBER AND NAME OF EACH PERSON WHO VISITED A HEALTH FACILITY. NO. OF PERSONS ENTER THE LINE NUMBERS IN ASCENDING ORDER. ASK ALL QUESTIONS ABOUT WHO VISITED HEALTH ALL OF THESE PERSONS. FACILITY IF MORE THAN ONE VISIT, ASK ONLY ABOUT THE FIRST VISIT IN THE LAST 30 DAYS. IF THE PERSON IS DECEASED, ENTER '00' FOR LINE NUMBER. IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 3 PERSONS, USE ADDITIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE. HH-4 270 • Appendix E PERSONS WHO VISITED A HEALTH FACILITY IN THE LAST 30 DAYS OUT·PATIENT 1 OUT·PATIENT 2 OUT·PATIENT 3 208 LINE NUMBER LINE . II] LINE II] LINE II] AND NAME FROM NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER COL (101) AND (102). NAME NAME NAME 209 Why did (NAME SICK/INJURED . 11 SICK/INJURED .•• 11 SICK/INJURED .••.• 11 IN 208) visit a health PRENATAUPOST NATAL PRENATAUPOST NATAL PRENATAUPOST NATAL facility for CHECK-UP . 12 CHECK-UP . 12 CHECK·UP . . 12 consultation! GAVE BIRTH •.•••. 13 GAVE BIRTH •••••••••• 13 GAVE BIRTH . 13 advice or treatment? DENTAL •••••••••••••• 14 DENTAL •••••.•••.•.•• 14 DENTAL . ' . 14 MEDICAL CHECK-UP ••. 15 MEDICAL CHECK-UP .•• 15 MEDICAL CHECK-UP ••• 15 MEDICAL MEDICAL MEDICAL REQUIREMENT . 16 REQUIREMENT . 16 REQUIREMENT . 16 N HTS/CCT 14Ps NHTS/CCT /4Ps NHTS/CCT /4Ps REQUIREMENT .• 17 REQUIREMENT . 17 REQUIREMENT ••••• 17 OTHER 96 OTHER 96 OTHER 96 (SPECIFy) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFy) 210 Where was PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR consultation/advice REGIONAL HOSP.I REGIONAL HOSP.! REGIONAL HOSP./ or treatment first PUBLIC MED. CTR .11 PUBLIC MED. CTR .11 PUBLIC MED. CTR • 11 sought for PROVINCIAL HOSP .••• 12 PROVINCIAL HOSP .••• 12 PROVINCIAL HOSP .• 12 (NAME IN 208)'s DISTRICT HOSPITAL . 13 DISTRICT HOSPITAL . 13 DISTRICT HOSPITAL . 13 iIlness/injuryl MUNICIPAL HOSP .••• 14 MUNICIPAL HOSP .••• 14 MUNICIPAL HOSP .••• 14 check-upl RHU/URBAN HLTH RHUIURBAN HL TH RHU/URBAN HLTH laboratory? CTR.lLYING-IN •••. 15 CTR./LYING-IN ••••• 15 CTR.lLYING-IN ••••• 15 BARANGAY HLTH ST .• 16 BARAN GAY HLTH ST . 16 BARAN GAY HLTH ST . 16 MOBILE CLINIC ••••• 17 MOBILE CLINIC •••. 17 MOBILE CLINIC . 17 OTHER PUBLIC . 18 OTHER PUBLIC . 18 OTHER PUBLIC . 18 PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR IF "HOSPITAL", PRIVATE HOSP.! PRIVATE HOSP.! PRIVATE HOSP.! PROBE: CLINIC . 21 CLINIC . 21 CLINIC . 21 Regional Hospital, LYING-IN CLiNICI LYING-IN CLINIC/ LYING-IN CLiNIC/ Provincial Hospital, BIRTHING HOME ••• 22 BIRTHING HOME ••• 22 BIRTHING HOME ••• 22 District Hospital, PRIVATE CLINiC ••••• 23 PRIVATE CLINiC ••••• 23 PRIVATE CLINiC ••••• 23 Health Center, or PRIVATE PHARMACY. 24 PRIVATE PHARMACY . 24 PRIVATE PHARMACY. 24 Private Hospital? MOBILE CLINIC ••••• 25 MOBILE CLINIC ••••• 25 MOBILE CLINIC . 25 OTHER PRiVATE •••.• 26 OTHER PRiVATE ••. 26 OTHER PRIVATE ••••• 26 IF "HEALTH ALTERNATIVE MEDICAL ALTERNATIVE MEDICAL ALTERNATIVE MEDICAL WORKER/NURSE", HILOT/HERBALISTS • 31 HILOT/HERBALISTS 31 HI LOT/HERBALISTS 31 PROBE: THERAPEUTIC THERAPEUTIC THERAPEUTIC Did the health MASSAGE CENTER 32 MASSAGE CENTER 32 MASSAGE CENTER 32 worker/nurse OTHER ALTERNATIVE OTHER ALTERNATIVE OTHER ALTERNATIVE visit (NAM E) HEALING . 36 HEALING . 36 HEALING . . 36 or did (NAME) NOT MEDICAL SECTOR NOT MEDICAL SECTOR NOT MEDICAL SECTOR go to his/her SHOP SELLING SHOP SELLING SHOP SELLING clinicJhome? DRUGS/MARKET ••• 41 DRUGS/MARKET ••• 41 DRUGS/MARKET ••• 41 FAITH HEALER . 42 FAITH HEALER ••••• 42 FAITH HEALER •.••• 42 OTHER 96 OTHER 96 OTHER 96 (SPECIFy) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) 211 Was (NAME IN 208) YES •••••••••••••••••• 1 YES •.••••••••.••• 1 YES •.•.••••••••••••• 1 advised for hospitalization/ NO •.••.•••••••••••• 2 NO .•••••.•.•.••.•• 2 NO ••••••••••••••.••• 2 confinement? 212 Was (NAME IN 208) yES ••••.••••.•.••.• 1 YES .••••••••••••••• 1 yES •••••••••••••••••• 1 confined in the (GO TO 214) --------' (GO TO 214) --------' (GO TO 214) --------' hospital/clinic then? NO .•••.••••.••.••••• 2 NO •••••••••••••••••• 2 NO •••.••••.•. 2 213 What were the FACILITY IS FAR . A FACILITY IS FAR ••••••• A FACILITY IS FAR . A reasons why NO MONEY . B NO MONEY . B NO MONEY . . B (NAME IN 208) was WORRIED ABOUT WORRIED ABOUT WORRIED ABOUT not confined in a TREATMENT COST. •• C TREATMENT COST. •• C TREATMENT COST. •• C hospital/clinic? HOME REMEDY IS HOME REMEDY IS HOME REMEDY IS AVAILABLE . D AVAILABLE . D AVAILABLE . D What else? HEALTH FACILITY IS NOT HEALTH FACILITY IS NOT HEALTH FACILITY IS NOT PHILHEALTH PHILHEALTH PHILHEALTH ACCREDITED . E ACCREDITED ••••••• E ACCREDITED . E NO NEED/REGULAR NO NEED/REGULAR NO NEED/REGULAR CHECK UP ONLy ••••• F CHECK UP ONLY ••.•• F CHECK UP ONLY ••••. F OTHER X OTHER X OTHER X (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFy) HH-5 • 271Appendix E PERSONS WHO VISITED A HEALTH FACILITY IN THE LAST 30 DAYS OUT~PATIENT 1 OUT~PATIENT 2 OUT~PATIENT 3 COPY LINE LINE . [IJ LINE . [IJ LINE . [IJ 214 NUMBER AND NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NAME FROM 208 NAME NAME NAME 215 How long did HOURS . [IJ HOURS . [IJ HOURS . . [IJ it take to travel from your home to (NAME OF MINUTES . [IJ MINUTES . [IJ MINUTES . [IJ SOURCE IN 210)? 216 How much in total PhP 1 1 1 1 1 1 PhP 1 1 1 1 1 1 PhP 1 1 1 1 1 1 was the cost of transportation in FREEINO COST . 00000 FREE/NO COST .•• 00000 FREEINO COST ••• 00000 going to (NAME OF IN KIND •••••••.•• 99996 IN KIND •••••••••• 99996 IN KIND . 99996 SOURCE IN 210) DON'T KNOW . 9999B DON'T KNOW . 99998 DON'T KNOW . . 99998 and back? 217 How much in total COST IN PESOS COST IN PESOS COST IN PESOS was spent for 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 (NAME IN 214)'s consultation/advice or treatment at the DONATION IN PESOS DONATION IN PESOS DONATION IN PESOS (NAME OF SOURCE 21 0 1 o 1 1 1 1 1 21 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 21 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 IN 210)? IF AMOUNT FREEINO COST 0000000 - FREE/NO COST 0000000 FREE/NO COST 0000000 - PAID IS STILL IN STILL IN STILL IN P999,994 OR HOSPiTAL .•••• 9999995 - HOSPiTAL ••••. 9999995 - HOSPiTAL .• 9999995 - MORE, RECORD IN KIND .•.•• 9999996 IN KIND .•••• 9999996 _ IN KIND •••••••• 9999996 999994, DON'T DON'T DON'T KNOW ••••••. 9999998- KNOW .•.• 9999998_ KNOW ••••••• 9999998- (GO TO 219) ~ (GO TO 219) - (GO TD 219) - 218 Now, I would like to know where you got the money to pay for consultation/advice or treatment at the (NAME OF SOURCE YES NO YES NO YES NO IN 210). Did you use: A Salarylncome? A . 1 2 A .••••.••.••• 1 2 A . 1 2 B Loan/Mortgage? B . 1 2 B . 1 2 B . 1 2 C Savings? C . 1 2 C . 1 2 C . 1 2 o Donation/Charity/ D .••.••.•.•• 1 2 D •••••••••••• 1 2 D •••••••••••• 1 2 Assistance? E PhilHealth? E .•••••.•• 1 2 E . 1 2 E . 1 2 F SSS/GSIS/ECC F . 1 2 F . 1 2 F . 1 2 G HMO/Private/Pre- G . 1 2 G •••••••••••• 1 2 G •••••••••••• 1 2 Need Insurance? X Of her X 1 2 X 1 2 X 1 2 (SPECIFy) (SPECIFy) (SPECIFy) (SPECIFy) 219 GO BACK TO 215 IN NEXT GO BACK TO 2151N NEXT GO BACK TO 2151N NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE QUESTIONNAIRE; IF NO PERSON IN 214, GO TO 220 PERSON IN 214, GO TO 220 MORE PERSON IN 214, GO TO 220. PERSONS CONFINED IN A HOSPITAL IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS 220 In the last 12 months from (CURRENT MONTH) 2012 to present, YES . 1 has any member of your household been confined in a hospital! NO . 2 clinic? (GO TO 301) .--.J 221 How many were/have been confined in a hospital/clinic? Now I would like to ask you some questions about each person who was confined in a hospitallclinic in the last 12 [IJ months. Could you teJl me the name of each household member who waslhas been confined during the last 12 months? ENTER THE LINE NUMBER IN 222 AND 229 AND NAME OF EACH PERSON WHO WAS NO. OF CONFINED IN A HOSPITAL. ENTER THE LINE NUMBERS IN ASCENDING ORDER. IF PERSONS CONFINED THE PERSON IS DECEASED, ENTER '00' FOR LINE NUMBER. IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 3 PERSONS, USE ADDITIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE. HH-6 272 • Appendix E IN-PATIENT 1 IN-PATIENT 2 IN-PATIENT 3 222 LINE NUMBER LINE . 0 LINE . 0 LINE . 0 AND NAME FROM NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER COL. (101) AND (102). NAME NAME NAME 223 Where was PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR (NAME IN 222) (last) REGIONAL HOSP.! REGIONAL HOSP.! REGIONAL HOSP.! confined? PUBLIC MED. CTR 11 PUBLIC MED. CTR 11 PUBLIC MED. CTR 11 PROVINCIAL HOSP. 12 PROVINCIAL HOSP. 12 PROVINCIAL HOSP. 12 IF CONFINED DISTRICT HOSPITAL 13 DISTRICT HOSPITAL 13 DISTRICT HOSPITAL 13 MORE THAN MUNICIPAL MUNICIPAL MUNICIPAL ONCE, REPORT HOSPITAL . 14 HOSPITAL ••••.•• 14 HOSPITAL . 14 THE LAST ONE. PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE HOSP. ••••• 21 PRIVATE HOSP . ••••• 21 PRIVATE HOSP . ••••• 21 LYING-IN CLiNICI LYING-IN CLINICI LYING-IN CLINIC/ BIRTHING HOME ••• 22 BIRTHING HOME ••• 22 BIRTHING HOME ••• 22 PRIVATE CLINiC •••.• 23 PRIVATE CLINiC ••.• 23 PRIVATE CLINiC ••.•• 23 OTHER 96 OTHER 96 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) (SPECIFy) (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . 98 DON'T KNOW . 98 DON'T KNOW . 98 224 Why was (NAME SICK/INJURED . 1 SICK/INJURED . 1 SICK/INJURED . . 1 IN 222) (last) GAVE BIRTH •••••••••• 2 GAVE BIRTH •••••••••• 2 GAVE BIRTH •••••••••. 2 confined inthe EXECUTIVE EXECUTIVE EXECUTIVE hospital/clinic? CHECK UP . 3 CHECK UP . 3 CHECK UP . . 3 OTHER 6 OTHER 6 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) 225 How long was (NAME IN 222) DAYS ••••••• 1 1 1 1 DAyS ••••••• 1 1 1 1 DAYS ••••••• 1 1 1 1 confined? IF CONFINED STILL CONFINED . 995 STILL CONFINED . 995 STILL CONFINED . 995 MORE THAN ONCE, REPORT THE LAST ONE. 226 Were you satisfied yES ••.••••••••••.•. 1 yES .•.•••••••••••.•• 1 yES •••••••••••••••••• 1 with the services in (GO TO 228) --------' (GO TO 228) --------' (GO TO 228) --------' the (NAME OF NO •••••••••••••••.•• 2 NO .••.••••••.•••.• 2 NO .•.••••.••• 2 SOURCE IN 223)? 227 Why were you not INSUFFICIENT STAFF A INSUFFICIENT STAFF A INSUFFICIENT STAFF A satisfied? INEXPERIENCED STAFF B INEXPERIENCED STAFF B INEXPERIENCED STAFF B UNCARING OR RUDE _ UNCARING OR RUDE UNCARING OR RUDE Any other reasons? STAFF . C STAFF . C STAFF . . C UNFAIR TREATMENT ••. D UNFAIR TREATMENT .•. D UNFAIR TREATMENT ••• D INSUFFICIENT INSUFFICIENT INSUFFICIENT MEDICINES . E MEDICINES . E MEDICINES . . E INSUFFICIENT INSUFFICIENT INSUFFICIENT SUPPLIES . F SUPPLIES •••.••.••• F SUPPLIES •••••••••• F INSUFFICIENT/MALe INSUFFICIENT/MAL- INSUFFICIENT/MAL- FUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING FUNCTIONING EQUIPMENT .•••. G EQUIPMENT ••••••• G EQUIPMENT . G POOR OR DIRTY POOR OR DlRTY POOR OR DIRTY ENVIRONMENTS •.••• H ENVIRONMENTS ••.•• H ENVIRONMENTS .•.•• H TOO EXPENSIVE ••••••• I TOO EXPENSIVE ••••••• I TOO EXPENSIVE .••••.• I UNDER THE TABLE UNDER THE TABLE UNDER THE TABLE PAyMENT •••.•. J PAyMENT •.•••••••• J PAyMENT •••••••••• J OTHER X OTHER X OTHER X (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) 228 Were medicines YES •••••••••.•••.• 1 yES ••••.•.•. 1 yES ••••••••.•••••. 1 bought from any pharmacy or were NO . 2 NO " ••••••••••••••••• 2 NO . 2 services paid for in (GO TO 231) --------' (GO TO 231) --------' . (GO TO 231)--------' any laboratory, apart from the medicinesl services paid for in the hospital where (NAME IN 222) was confined? HH-7 • 273Appendix E PERSONS CONFINED IN A HOSPITAL IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS IN-PATIENT 1 IN-PATIENT 2 IN-PATIENT 3 COPY LINE LINE .IIJ LINE . IIJ LINE II] 229 NUMBER AND NUMBER NUMBER NUMBER NAME FROM 222 NAME NAME NAME 230 How much was COST IN PESOS COST IN PESOS COST IN PESOS paid for the medicines/services? 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 230a How much was paid COST I N PESOS COST IN PESOS COST IN PESOS for out of/by: Salary/Loan/Sale SALARY/LOAN/ SALARY/LOAN/ SALARY/LOAN/ of Properties? SALE OF PROPERTIES SALE OF PROPERTIES SALE OF PROPERTIES 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PhilHealth? PHILHEALTH PHILHEALTH PHILHEALTH 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 231 How much was COST IN PESOS COST IN PESOS COST IN PESOS the total hospital 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 bill for the (last) confinement in DONATION IN PESOS DONATION IN PESOS DONATION IN PESOS (NAME OF 21 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 2 1 0 1 0 1 1 I 1 1 21 0 1 0 1 1 1 1 1 SOURCE IN 223)? FREEINO COST . 0000000 FREEINO COST 0000000 FREE/NO COST • 0000000 IF AMOUNT PAID IS STILL CONFINED 9999995 STILL CONFINED 9999995 STILL CONFINED 9999995 - P999,994 OR IN KIND ••••• ' •.• 9999996 - IN KIND . 9999996 IN KIND •••••••• 9999996 MORE, RECORD DON'T DON'T DON'T 999994. KNOW • •.•• 9999998 KNOW ••••••• 9999998 - KNOW . 9999998 - (GO TO 234) - (GO TO 234) - (GO TO 234) _ 232 How much was paid COST IN PESOS COST IN PESOS COST IN PESOS for out of/by: Salary/Loan/Sale SALARY/LOAN/ SALARY/LOAN/ SALARY/LOAN/ of Properties? SALE OF PROPERTIES SALE OF PROPERTIES SALE OF PROPERTIES 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 PhilHealth? PHILHEALTH PHILHEALTH PHILHEALTH I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I I (GO TO 234) +----' (GO TO 234) +----' (GO TO 234) +----' 233 IF PHILHEALTH WAS NOT A PHILHEAL TH NOT A PHILHEAL TH NOT A PHILHEAL TH NOT AVAILED MEMBER .•••.•••. A MEMBER •••••••••• A MEMBER . A IN 232, ASK: PHILHEALTH MEMBER PHILHEALTH MEMBER PHILHEALTH MEMBER Why did ( NAME) not BUT NOT ELIGIBLE 'BUT NOT ELIGIBLE BUT NOT ELIGIBLE avail of PhilHealth FOR BENEFITS . B FOR BENEFITS ••••• B FOR BENEFITS .•• B benefits? PROBABLY USED PHIL- PROBABLY USED PHIL- PROBABLY USED PHIL- HEALTH BUT CANNOT HEALTH BUT CANNOT HEALTH BUT CANNOT REMEMBER AMOUNT REMEMBER AMOUNT REMEMBER AMOUNT Any other reasons? BECAUSE BENEFIT BECAUSE BENEFIT BECAUSE BENEFIT WAS DEDUCTED WAS DEDUCTED WAS DEDUCTED UPON DISCHARGE UPON DISCHARGE UPON DISCHARGE FROM HOSPITAL ••. C FROM HOSPITAL . C FROM HOSPITAL . C TOO MANY REQUIRE- TOO MANY REQUIRE- TOO MANY REQUIRE- MENTS TO COMPLY MENTS TO COMPLY MENTS TO COMPLY WITH BEFORE CAN WITH BEFORE CAN WITH BEFORE CAN AVAIL •••••••••••••• 0 AVAIL . 0 AVAIL •••••••••••••• 0 LIMITED HOSPITAL- LIMITED HOSPITAL- LIMITED HOSPITAL- IZATION BENEFITS • E lZATION BENEFITS E IZATION BENEFITS • E CLAIMS PROCESSING CLAIMS PROCESSING CLAIMS PROCESSING TOO LONG . F TOO LONG . F TOO LONG . F OTHER X OTHER X OTHER X (SPECIFY) (SPECIFy) (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . Z DON'T KNOW . Z DON'T KNOW . Z 234 How many times was (NAME IN 229) NUMBER OF NUMBER OF NUMBER OF confined in a TIMES . [IJ TIMES . [IJ TIMES . [IJ hospJtaJ/clinic in CONFINED CONFINED CONFINED the last 12 months? 235 GO BACK TO 223 IN NEXT GO BACK TO 223 IN NEXT GO BACK TO 223 OF NEW COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE QUESTIONNAIRE; IF NO PERSON IN 222, GO TO 301. PERSON IN 222, GO TO 301. MORE PERSON IN 222, GO TO 301 HH-8 274 • Appendix E SECTION 3. NONCOMMUNICABLE DISEASES I NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP I 301 Now, I would like to ask about your knowledge AVOID TOO MUCH FAT/FATIY FOOD . A and opinion regarding some diseases and AVOID EXCESS INTAKE OF SALT health practices. AND SALTY FOOD . B AVOID EXCESSIVE INTAKE OF/ What do you do to keep yourself healthy? DRINK MODERATELY ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES . C PROBE: Anything else? AVOID SMOKING . D BE PHYSICALLY ACTIVE . E CHECK UP BY DOCTORS . F CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED. CONSUME MILK /MILK PRODUCTS . G DO NOT READ OUT RESPONSES. EAT ADEQUATE/BALANCED DIET/ ON TIME . H EAT FISH. LEAN MEAT. POULTRY AND SOYA BEANS . I EAT PLENTY OF FRUITS. VEGETABLES AND ROOTCROPS . J HAVE ENOUGH SLEEP . '"."." . K MAINTAIN GOOD HYGIENE . L MAINTAIN HAPPY PERSONALITY . M MONITOR BLOOD PRESSURE . N TAKE VITAMINS/FOOD SUPPLEMENT . 0 DRINK PLENTY OF WATER . P OTHER .••.•.••.•.•.•. 0. X NONE . Z 302 Have you ever heard of a disease YES '" . 1 called cancer? NO . , . ,., . , . 2 . 307 303 What kind of symptoms would make BLEEDING . A you suspect that a person may have cancer? CHANGE OF BOWEL MOVEMENT . B HOARSENESS OF VOICE . C IRREGULAR URINATION . D LUMP OR MASS IN ANY PART PROBE: Anything else? OFTHE BODY . E PERSISTENT PAIN . F CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED. SORE (WOUND) THAT DOES DO NOT READ OUT RESPONSES. NOT HEAL . G SUDDEN WEIGHT LOSS . H WEAK/PALE . I FEVER . J HAIR LOSS . ".,. K OTHER . X NONE . Y DON'T KNOW . Z 304 Have you ever been screened/examined for YES , "."., . 1 cancer? NO . 2 -+307 305 What part of your body was screened? BLOOD . A BONE . B BREAST .•.•.•.•.•.•.•.•.•.• C PROBE: Anything else? CERVIX . D ESOPHAGUS . E CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED. LARyNX . F DO NOT READ OUT RESPONSES. LIVER . G LUNG . H MOUTH/ORAL CAVITY . I OVARY . J PROSTATE . K STOMACH . L UTERUS . M OTHER . X DON'T KNOW . Z HH-9 • 275Appendix E I NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP I 306 Where were you screened/examined? PUBLIC/PRIVATE HOSPITAL . A HEALTH CENTER . B PROBE: Anywhere else? PRIVATE CLINIC .•.•.•.••••.• C COMPANY CLINIC . 0 CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED. SCHOOL CLINIC . E DO NOT READ OUT RESPONSES. HOME/SELF/HOME VISIT . F SEMINAR ON RH •.•.•.•.•.••.•. G MOBILE CLINIC . H OTHER . , . X DON'T KNOW . Z 307 Have you been told on more than one occasion YES . 1 that your blood pressure is high? NO . 2 BLOOD PRESSURE WAS NEVER TAKEN .•.•••.••••.• 3 308 Have you ever heard of heart disease? YES . 1 NO . 2 _310 309 Who are likely to have heart disease? THOSE WHO SMOKE HEAVILY . A THOSE WHO ARE FAT (OBESE) . B PROBE: Anything else? THOSE WHO DRINK HEAVILY . C THOSE WHO EAT HIGH FAT, HIGH CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED. SALT DIET . 0 DO NOT READ OUT RESPONSES. THOSE WHO ARE UNDER STRESS . E THOSE WHO DO NOT EXERCISE . . . . . . . F THOSE WHO HAVE ELEVATED BLOOD PRESSURE . G THOSE WITH FAMILY HISTORY OF HEART DISEASE . H THOSE WHO LACK SLEEP . I OTHER . X DON'T KNOW . Z 310 Have you ever heard of diabetes? YES . 1 NO . 2-f-.401 311 Who are likely to have diabetes? FAT/OBESE PEOPLE . A HEAVY DRINKERS OF ALCOHOL . B PROBE: Anything else? HEAVY SMOKERS . C OLDER PEOPLE/MENOPAUSAL CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED. WOMEN . 0 DO NOT READ OUT RESPONSES. PEOPLE WHO EAT PLENTY OF SWEETS AND FATTY FOODS . E THOSE WHO DO NOT EXERCISE REGULARLY . F THOSE WITH HISTORY OF DIABETES . G OTHER . X DON'T KNOW . Z HH-10 276 • Appendix E SECTION 4. INFECTIOUS DISEASES I NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP I 401 Have you ever heard of dengue fever? YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . 2 ->405 402 How does dengue spread from one person to BLOOD BORNE/BLOOD another? TRANSFUSION . A CONTACT WITH DENGUE PATIENT . B PROBE: Anything else? DRINKING CONTAMINATED WATER . C DROPLETS/AIRBORNE . 0 CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED. MOSQUITO BITE •••.•.•.•.•. E DO NOT READ OUT RESPONSES. POLLUTED AIR . F OTHER . X DONTKNOW •.•.••••••.•.•.•.•.• Z 403 Can dengue fever be prevented? YES . 1 NO .•.•.••••••.•.•.••. 2 1+405 404 How can it be prevented? CLEANING THE SURROUNDINGS •.•. A REMOVE BREEDING PLACES PROBE: Anything else? (STAGNANT WATER) OF MOSQUITOES INSIDE AND CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED. OUTSIDE THE HOUSE . B DO NOT READ OUT RESPONSES. SPRAYING/FOGGING/FUMIGATION .•. C STAY AWAY FROM PEOPLE WITH DENGUE . , . , . D TAKE VITAMINS SO AS NOT TO GET SICK ••.•.•.••.•.••.• E USE OF MOSQUITO COILS . F USE OF MOSQUITO NETS . G USE OF MOSQUITO REPELLANTS . H WASH HANDS BEFORE EATING .• I OTHER . X DO NT KNOW . Z 405 Have you ever had the following symptoms: YES NO A cough for 2 weeks or longer? COUGH FOR 2+ WEEKS " . 1 2 A fever for 2 weeks or longer? FEVER FOR 2+ WEEKS •.•••.•. 1 2 Chest pain or back pain? CHEST/BACK PAIN •.•.••••. 1 2 Coughing up blood? BLOOD IN SPUTUM . 1 2 Sweating at night? NIGHT SWEATS . 1 2 406 CHECK 405: AT LEAST ONE p NOTA SINGLE n ·'YES'· ··YES·· (ALL ·'NO") 09 407 Did you seek consultation or treatment for the YES . 1-.409 symptoms? NO .•.••.•.•. 2 408 Why didn't you seek treatment for the SYMPTOMS HARMLESS . A symptoms? COST .•. B DISTANCE . C EMBARASSED .•.•.•.•.•.•.•. 0 SELF MEDiCATION .•.•. E OTHER X HH·11 • 277Appendix E I NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP I 409 Have you ever heard of an illness called YES . 1 tuberculosis or TB? NO . 2- 501 410 What signs and symptoms would make you COUGHING . ,' . A think that someone might have tuberculosis? COUGHING WITH SPUTUM . B COUGHING FOR SEVERAL WEEKS . C PROBE: Anything else? FEVER . ,""., .,' 0 BLOOD IN SPUTUM . E RECORD ALL MENTIONED. LOSS OF APPETITE . . F NIGHT SWEATING . G PAIN IN CHEST OR BACK . H TIREDNESS / FATIGUE . I WEIGHTLOSS •.••.•.•.••. J OTHER X (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . Z 411 What do you think is the cause of TB? MICROBES/GERMS/BACTERIA . A INHERITED . B PROBE: Anything else? LIFESTYLE . C SMOKING . 0 RECORD ALL MENTIONED. ALCOHOL DRINKING . E FATIGUE . F MALNUTRITION . G UNHYGIENIC PRACTICES . H POLLUTION . I OTHER X (SPECIFy) DON'T KNOW . Z 412 How does TB spread from one person to THROUGH THE AIR WHEN another? COUGHING OR SNEEZING . A THROUGH SHARING UTENSILS . B PROBE: Anything else? THROUGH TOUCHING A PERSON WITHTB . C RECORD ALL MENTIONED. THROUGH SHARING FOOD . 0 THROUGH SEXUAL CONTACT . E THROUGH MOSQUITO BITES . F THROUGH SALIVA . G OTHER X (SPECIFy)(SPECIFy) DONTKNOW .•.••.••.•.•.•.• Z 413 Can tuberculosis be cured? YES . 1 NO . 2 DON'T KNOW . 8 414 Would you be willing to work with someone YES . 1 who has been previously treated NO . 2 for tuberculosis? DONT KNOW/NOT SURE/ DEPENDS . 8 415 If a member of your family got tuberculosis, YES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 would you want it to remain a secret? NO . 2 DONT KNOW/NOT SURE/ DEPENDS . 8 HH-12 278 • Appendix E SECTION 5. HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 501 What is the main source of drinking water for members PIPED WATER of your household? PIPED INTO DWELLING . 11 ~504 PIPED TO YARD/PLOT . 12 PUBLIC TAP/STANDPIPE . 13 TUBE WELL OR BOREHOLE . 21 DUG WELL PROTECTED WELL . 31 SEMI PROTECTED WELL . 32 UNPROTECTED WELL . . . . 33 WATER FROM SPRING PROTECTED SPRING . 41 UNPROTECTED SPRING . 42 RAINWATER . 51 -+504 TANKER TRUCK . 61 CART WITH SMALL TANK . 71 SURFACE WATER (RIVER/DAM/ LAKE/POND/STREAM/CANAU IRRIGATION CHANNEL) .•.•.•. 81 BOTILED WATER/ REFILLING STATION . 91 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 502 Where is that water source located? IN OWN DWELLING . 1 IF CODE "61. 71 OR 91" IN 501. ENCIRCLE CODE IN OWN YARD/PLOT . 2 4504 '3' ELSEWHERE . 3 503 How long does it take to go there, get water, and come . . . . . . . . . . . . . I I I I back? MINUTES DON'T KNOW . 998 504 Do you do anything to the water to make it safer to YES . 1 drink? NO . 2 DON'T KNOW . "' . 8 P.506 505 What do you usually do to make the water safer to BOIL . ," A drink? ADD BLEACH/CHLORINE . B STRAIN THROUGH A CLOTH/SPONGE . C Anything else? USE WATER FILTER (CERAMIC/ SAND/COMPOSITE/ETC ••••.•. 0 RECORD ALL MENTIONED. SOLAR DISINFECTION . E LET IT STAND AND SETILE . F OTHER X (SPECIFy) DON'T KNOW . " . Z 506 What kind of toilet facility do members of your FLUSH OR POUR FLUSH TOILET household usually use? FLUSH TO PIPED SEWER SySTEM . 11 FLUSH TO SEPTIC TANK . 12 FLUSH TO PITLATRINE . 13 FLUSH TO SOMEWHERE ELSE •.• 14 FLUSH, DON'T KNOW WHERE . 15 PITLATRINE VENTILATED IMPROVED PIT LATRINE . 21 PIT LATRINE WITH SLAB . 22 PIT LATRINE WITHOUT SLAB/ OPEN PIT . 23 COMPOSTING TOILET . 31 BUCKET TOILET . 41 DROP TYPE/OVERHANG TYPE . 51 NO FACILITY/BUSH/FIELD . 61 . 508 PUBLIC TOILET . 71 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) HH-13 • 279Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 507 Do you share this toilet facility with other households? yES .•.••••.•.••••••.•.•. 1 NO . 2 508 What type of fuel does your household mainly use for ELECTRICITY .•••.••.•. 01 cooking? LPG .•.••.•.•.•.•.•.•••.• 02 NATURAL GAS .•.•.•. 03 BIOGAS •••.••.•.•.•. 04 KEROSENE .•.•.•.•••.• 05 COAL, LIGNITE . 06 CHARCOAL . 07 WOOD . 08 STRAW/SHRUBS/GRASS . 09 AGRICULTURAL CROP . 10 ANIMAL DUNG . 11 NO FOOD COOKED IN HOUSEHOLD . 95 ~511 OTHER 96 (SPECIFy) 509 Is the cooking usually done in the house, in a separate IN THE HOUSE . 1 building, or outdoors? IN A SEPARATE BUILDING . 2 OUTDOORS . 3 511 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) 510 Do you have a separate room which is used as a yES . 1 kitchen? NO . 2 511 MAIN MATERIAL OF THE FLOOR. NATURAL FLOOR EARTH/SAND . 11 RUDIMENTARY FLOOR RECORD OBSERVATION. WOOD PLANKS . 21 PALM/BAMBOO . 22 FINISHED FLOOR PARQUET OR POLISHED WOOD 31 VINYL, LINOLEUM . "' . 32 CERAMIC TILES . 33 CEMENT . 34 CARPET . 35 MARBLE . 36 OTHER 96 (SPECIFy) 512 MAIN MATERIAL OF THE ROOF. NATURAL ROOFING NO ROOF . 11 RECORD OBSERVATION. THATCH/PALM LEAF (NIPA) . 12 SOD/GRASS (COGON) . 13 RUDIMENTARY ROOFING RUSTIC MAT .•.•. 21 PALM/BAMBOO . 22 WOOD PLANKS . 23 MAKESHIFT/CARDBOARD . 24 FINISHED ROOFING GALVANIZED IRON/ALUMINUM . 31 WOOD . 32 CALAMINE/CEMENT FIBER . 33 CERAMIC TILES . 34 CEMENT . 35 ROOFING SHINGLES . 36 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) HH-14 280 • Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 513 MAIN MATERIAL OF THE EXTERIOR WALLS. NATURAL WALLS CANE/PALMITRUNKS . 11 RECORD OBSERVATION. DIRT . . " . 12 RUDIMENTARY WALLS BAMBOO . . . . . . . . . . " . " " . . . . . " . " 21 STONE WITH MUD . 22 UNCOVERED ADOBE . 23 PLYWOOD . 24 MAKESHIFT/CARDBOARD/ REUSED MATERIAL . 25 FINISHED WALLS CEMENT . 31 STONE WITH LIME/CEMENT .•.••.• 32 BRICKS . 33 CEMENT/HOLLOW BLOCKS . 34 COVERED ADOBE . 35 WOOD PLANKS/SHINGLES . 36 GALVANIZED IRON/ALUMINUM . 37 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 514 What is the tenure status of your lot? OWNED/BEING AMORTIZED/ OWNER-LIKE POSSESSION . 1 RENTED . 2 RENT-FREE W/ OWNER CONSENT 3 RENT-FREE W/O OWNER CONSENT 4 515 How many rooms in this household are used for ROOMS . ITJ sleeping? 516 Does yow household have: YES NO Electricity? ELECTRICITY . 1 2 Radiolradio cassette? RADIO . 1 2 Television? TELEVISION . 1 2 Landline/wireless landline telephone? LANDLlNEIWIRELESS •••.•.•. 1 2 Cellular phone? CELLULAR PHONE . 1 2 Personal computer or laptop? PC OR LAPTOP . 1 2 Washing machine? WASHING MACHINE . 1 2 Refrigerator/freezer? REF/FREEZER . 1 2 CD or VCD or DVD player? CDNCDIDVD PLAYER . 1 2 Component or karaoke? COMPONENT/KARAOKE . 1 2 517 Does your household or any member of YES NO your household own: Bicycle or trisikad/pedicab? BICYCLE / TRISlKAD . 1 2 Motorcycle or tricycle? MOTORCYCLE / TRICYCLE . 1 2 Animal-drawn cart/sledge? ANIMAL-DRAWN CART/ SLEDGE . 1 2 Car or jeep or van? CAR / JEEP IVAN . 1 2 Tractor? TRACTOR . 1 2 Non-motorized boat or banca? NON-MOTORIZED BOAT ORBANCA . 1 2 Motorized boat or banca? MOTORIZED BOAT OR BANCA 1 2 518 Is your household or any member of your household a YES . , . 1 beneficiary of the Pantawid PamUyang PUipino Program NO . 2 (4Ps) or a recipient of Conditional Cash Transfer (CeT) DON'T KNOW . 8 program of the government? 519 RECORD THE TIME HOUR IT] MINUTES IT] HH-15 • 281Appendix E INTERVIEWER'S OBSERVATION TO BE FILLED IN AFTER COMPLETING INTERVIEW COMMENTS ON SPECIFIC QUESTIONS: Age AGE·BIRTH DATE CONSISTENCY CHART Has not had birthday in 2013 Has already had birthday in 2013 Don't Know HH-16 Age Has not had birthday in 2013 Has already had birthday in 2013 Don't Know 75 1937 1938 ------76------------1936---------1937------- --_._---_. ------------------ 77 1935 1936 ____ " __ • ___ •• , ___ • _________ •• _M ___________ •• 78 1934 1935 --------79---- -----193'3------ -----1934 ---- ------ . --- ---'-'---'---",- . -- 282 • Appendix E . AUTHORITY: Commonwealth Act No. 591 NATIONAL STATISTICS OFFICE NDHSFORM2 authorizes the National Statistics Office to conduct this survey in order to collect information on fertility, family planning 2013 NATIONAL and health. DEMOGRAPHIC AND NSCB Approval No. HEALTH SURVEY NSO-1229-02 CONFIDENTIALITY: Sec. 4 of CA No. 591 Expires: 30 June 2014 provides that all information obtained from the Respondent is held STRICTLY INDIVIDUAL WOMAN'S QUES1, CONFIDENTIAL. lEW" 10"' Booklet of __ Booklets 'uc~ "rlv~ "u" PROVINCE CITY/MUNICIPALITY BARAN GAY EA . , . SAMPLE HOUSING UNIT SERIAL NUMBER . HOUSEHOLD CONTROL NUMBER . NDHS HOUSEHOLD NUMBER . NAME OF HOUSEHOLD HEAD NAME AND LINE NUMBER OF ELIGIBLE WOMAN IT] ADDRESS 'N' "K""" K"VUKU 1 2 3 FINAL VISIT DATE DAY . . . . . . . . . . . MONTH"""" , INTERVIEWER'S YEAR . 2 0 1 3 NAME INT CODE . RESUl T* RESUL T* " . "., . - NEXT VISIT: - DATE: TOTAL NUMBER D OF VISITS: TIME: *RESUL T CODES: 1 COMPLETED 5 PARTLY COMPLETED 2 NOT AT HOME 6 RESPONDENT INCAPACITATED 3 POSTPONED 7 OCW/OFW 4 REFUSED 8 OTHER (SPECIFY) LANGUAGE OF QUESTIONNAIRE" [j LANGUAGE OF INTERVIEW* D LOCAL LANGUAGE OF **LANGUAGE CODES RESPONDENT" 1 TAGALOG 5 HILlGAYNON TRANSLATOR USED YES. 1 2 CEBUANO 6 WARAY NO . 2 3 ILOCANO 7 ENGLISH 4 BICOl 8 OTHER (SPECIFY) SUPERVISOR OJ FIELD EDITOR OJ OFFICE EDITOR ENCODER IT] IT] Name and Signature Date Name and Signature Date • 283Appendix E SECTION 1 RESPONDENT'S BACKGROUND INTRODUCTION Hello. My name is ___ and I am work.ing with the National Statistics Office. We are conducting a national survey about health of women and children aU over the Philippines. This information will help the government to plan health services. Vllhatever information you provide will be k.ept strictly confidential and will not be shown to other persons. We hope that you will participate in this survey since your views are important. At this time, do you want to asK me anything about the survey? May I begin the interview now? NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 101 RECORD THE TIME STARTED. HOUR . ····· . · . · . ·····EE MINUTES . 102 At the time of your birth, did your mother usually live in a CITY ,., . 1 city, in a town proper/poblacion, in the barrio or rural area, TOWN PROPERIPOBLACION . 2 or abroad? BARRIO/RURAL AREA . 3 ABROAD . 4 DON'T KNOW . 5 103 In (MONTH OF INTERVIEW) 2008, did you live in a city, CITY . 1 in a town proper/poblacion, in the barrio or rural area, or TOWN PROPERIPOBLACION . 2 abroad? BARRIO/RURAL AREA . 3 ABROAD . 4 DON'T KNOW . 5 104 In what month and year were you born? MONTH . [IJ DON'T KNOW MONTH . 98 YEAR . I I I I I DON'T KNOW YEAR . 9998 105 How old were you on your last birthday? CD COMPARE AND CORRECT 104 AND/OR 105 AGE IN COMPLETED YEARS IF INCONSISTENT. 106 Have you ever attended school? YES . 1 NO . 2 -+108 107 What is the highest grade or year you completed? [I] (SPECIFY) 108 Do you read a newspaper or magazine at least once a AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . 1 week, Jess than once a week or not at all? LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK . 2 NOT AT ALL . 3 109 Do you !!sten to the radio at least once a week, less than AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . 1 once a week or not at all? LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK . 2 NOT AT ALL . 3 110 Do you watch television at [east once a week, less than AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . 1 once a week or not at all? LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK . 2 NOT AT ALL .•.•. 3 111 Do you check e-mail or surf the internet at least once a AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK . 1 week, less than once a week or not at all? LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK . 2 NOT AT ALL . 3 112 What is your religion? ROMAN CATHOLIC· . 1 PROTESTANT . 2 IGLESIA NI KRISTO . 3 AGLIPAY . 4 ISLAM . 5 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) NONE . 7 113 How do you classify yourself? Are you a Tagalog, TAGALOG . 1 Cebuano, Ilocano, Uonggo, Bicolano, Waray, CEBUANO . 2 Kapampangan, or something else? I LOCANO . 3 ILONGGO . 4 BICOLANO . 5 WARAY . 6 KAPAMPANGAN . 7 OTHER 8 (SPECIFY) IW-2 284 • Appendix E SECTION 2. REPRODUCTION · Now I would like to ask about all the pregnancies you have had during your life. By this [ mean all the children born to you, whether they were born alive or dead, whether they are still living or not, whether they live with you or somewhere else, and pregnancies which you have had that did not result in a live birth. ! understand that it is not easy to talk about aU the children who have died or pregnancies that ended before full term, but it is important that you tell us about all of them, so that we can develop programs to improve children's health. NO. 201 202 203 204 QUESTIONS AND FILTERS Have you ever given birth? Do you have any sons or daughters whom you have given birth to who are now living with you? How many sons live with you? And how many daughters live with you? IF NONE. RECORD '00'. Do you have any sons or daughters whom you have given birth to who are alive but do not live with you? 205 How many sons are alive but do not live with you? And how many daughters are alive but do not live with you? IF NONE. RECORD '00'. 206 Have you ever given birth to a boy or girl who was born alive but later died? 207 208 209 210 IF NO, PROBE: Any baby who cried or showed signs of life but did not survive? How many boys have died? And how many girls have died? IF NONE. RECORD '00'. Women sometimes have pregnancies that do not result in a live born child. That is, a pregnancy can end early, in a miscarriage or the child can be born dead. Have you ever had a pregnancy that did not end in a live birh? In aI!, how many pregnancies have you had that did not end in a live born child? SUM ANSWERS TO 203, 205. 207 AND 209. AND ENTER TOTAL IF NONE. RECORD '00', 211 CHECK 210: Just to make sure that I have this right you have had __ children who are stili living (CHECK 203 AND 205) ___ children who have died (CHECK 207) ___ pregnancies that did not result in a live birth (CHECK 209), You have had in TOTAL __ pregnancies/births during your life. Is that correct? YES F 212 CHECK210: NO~ PROBE AND CORRECT 201-210 AS NECESSARY. CODING CATEGORIES SKIP YES . 1 NO .•.•.•.•.•.•.• 2 --+206 YES . 1 NO . 2 1-+ 204 SONS A. THOME . E8 DAUGHTERS AT HOME . . YES NO 1 . 2 SONS ELSEWHERE . E8 DAUGHTERS ELSEWHERE YES NO 1 . 2 :~~:::: . :::::::::::: E8 YES NO 1 . 2 PREGNANCY LOSSES •.•. IT] TOTAL .•.•.•. IT] ~206 ~20B ~210 ONE OR MORE PREGNANCIES F NO n PREGNANCIES LL-----------t+ 233 IW-3 • 285Appendix E 213 Now I would like to record all your pregnancies, whether born alive, born dead, or lost before full term. Start with the first pregnancy you had. IF BORN ALIVE RECORD ALL THE PREGNANCIES. RECORD lWlNS AND TRIPLETS ON SEPARATE LINES, IF LIVE BIRTHS. (IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 8 BIRTHS, USE ADDITIONAL QUESTIONNAIRE). 214 215 216 217 218 218A 218B 219 220 221 L Think back Was the baby Did that How CHECK 216: CHECK 217: What Is In what month I to the time born alive, born baby cry, many name (NAME) and year was N of your dead, or lost move, or months IF CODE '1', IF CODE '1', was a boy (NAME) born? E (firsUnext) before full term? breathe did the GO TO 219. GO TO 219. given to ora pregnancy. when it preg- that child? girl? PROBE: N was nancy IF CODE '2', IF CODE '2', When is his/her U Were any born? last? GO TO 218B GO TO 227. birthday? M of these B pregnan- RECORD E cies IN COM· IF CODE '3', R twins? PLETED GO TO 227. MONTHS 01 BORN ALIVE . 1 MONTHS MONTH CD SINGLE 1 (GO TO 218)'" YES. .1 1 --+219 1 --+219 BOY. 1 MULTI . 2 BORN DEAD. . 2 NO . 2 CD 2 --2188 2 --227 (NAME) GIRL. 2 YEAR LOST BEFORE 3 ---+227 I I I I I FULL TERM . 3 (GO TO 218)'" 02 BORN ALIVE . 1 MONTHS MONTHrn SINGLE 1 (GO TO 218)'" YES. 1 1 ---+219 1 --+219 BOY. 1 MULTI . 2 BORN DEAD. . 2 NO . 2 CD 2 ---+2188 2 -227 (NAME) GIRL . 2 YEAR LOST BEFORE 3 .227 I I I I I FULL TERM . 3 (GO TO 218)'" 03 BORN AliVE . 1 MONTHS MONTHrn SINGLE 1 (GO TO 218)'" YES . 1 1 __ 219 1 --219 BOY. 1 MULTI . 2 BORN DEAD. . 2 NO . . 2 CD 2 ---+2188 2 --+227 (NAME) GIRL .2 YEAR LOST BEFORE 3 ---+227 I I I I I FULL TERM . 3 (GO TO 218)'" 04 BORN ALIVE . 1 MONTHS MONTHrn SINGLE 1 (GO TO 218)'" YES . 1 1 --219 1 --+219 BOY. 1 MULTI . 2 BORN DEAD . .2 NO. .2 CD 2 ---+218B 2 --227 (NAME) GIRL.2 YEAR LOST BEFORE 3 ---+227 I I I I I FULL TERM. . .3 (GO TO 218)'" 05 BORN ALIVE . 1 MONTHS MONTHrn SINGLE 1 (GO TO 218)'" YES . 1 1 --+219 1 --+219 BOY. 1 MULTI . 2 BORN DEAD. . 2 NO . . 2 CD 2 ---+2188 2 __ 227 (NAME) GIRL .2 YEAR LOST BEFORE 3 .227 I I I I I FULL TERM . 3 (GO TO 218)'" 08 BORN AliVE . 1 MONTHS MONTHrn SINGLE 1 (GO TO 218)'" YES . 1 1 __ 219 1 __ 219 BOY. 1 MULTI . 2 BORN DEAD. . 2 NO. .2 CD 2 __ 218B 2 --+227 (NAME) GIRL. 2 YEAR LOST BEFORE 3 ---+227 I I I I I FULL TERM . 3 (GO TO 218)'" 07 BORN ALIVE . 1 MONTHS MONTHrn SINGLE 1 (GO TO 218)'" YES. 1 1 --+219 1 --+219 BOY. 1 MULTI . 2 BORN DEAD. . 2 NO. . 2 CD 2 ---+2188 2 --227 (NAME) GIRL. 2 YEAR LOST BEFORE 3 ---+227 I I I I I FULL TERM . 3 (GO TO 218)'" 08 BORN AliVE . 1 MONTHS MONTHrn SINGLE 1 (GO TO 218)'" YES. 1 1 --+219 1 --+219 BOY. 1 MULTI . 2 BORN DEAD. . 2 NO. . 2 CD 2 ---+218B 2 --+227 (NAME) GIRL.2 YEAR LOST BEFORE 3 ---+227 I I I I I FULL TERM . 3 (GO TO 218)'" IW-4 286 • Appendix E [F [F BORN ALIVE [FBORN DEAD BORN [F BORN ALIVE AND ST[LL LlV[NG BUT NOW DEAD OR LOST BEFORE B[RTH ALIVE ill 223 224 225 226 227 22B 229 [s (NAME) Howo[d was [s RECORD How old was (NAME) In what month Did you or Were there ~ still alive? (NAME) at (NAME) HOUSEHOLD when he/she died? and year did someone any other his/her last living LINE NUMBER [F '1 YR', PROBE: this pregnancy else do pregnancies birthday? With-you, (NDHS FORM 1) How many months end? anything between the E OF CH[LD old was (NAME)? to end previous this pregnancy ~ RECORD RECORD '00' RECORD DAYS [F pregnancy? and this ~~~,~~ CTcn [FCH[LD NOT ti~{~l~;O; ~i:~~!~~~nJ LISTED [N MOS. [F ~ YEARS. HOUSEHOLD. THAN 2 ,OR [ died after R birth? HOUSEHOLD 1 MONTH I I f01 YES. 1 AGE[N YES. 1 LINE NUMBER DAYS. YES . 1 YEARS MOS . 2 Y"AR NO . 2 IT] NO. · 2 (lJoNlxT NO. . 2 22t YEAl'-§ 3 I I I I £~'? TO N~::;, PREGNANCy) 1<,;') HOUSEHOLD 1 MONTH I I YES. 1 -02 YES. 1 AGE[N YES. 1 LINE NUMBER DAYS . YES. 1 + YEARS MOS . 2 Y"AR ADD B[RTH NO . 2 IT] NO. · 2 cp NO. .2 22t YEARS. 3 I I I I NO' r ~[R+H (GO TO 229\ (GO TO 229\ NEXT [ HOUSEHOLD 1 MONTH I I YES. 1 03 YES. 1 AGE[N YES. 1 LINE NUMBER DAYS. YES . 1 + YEARS . 2 I YEAR ADD B[RTH NO . 2 IT] NO. · 2 cp MOS. NO . . 2 22t YEARS. 3 I I I I :~;TB[Rt (GO TO 229\ (GO TO 229\ HOUSEHOLD 1 MONTH I I YES . 1 104 YES. 1 AGE[N YES. 1 LINE NUMBER DAYS. YES. 1 + YEARS . 2 I YEAR . ADD B[RTH NO . 2 IT] NO . 2 cp MOS. NO. . 2 22t YEARS. 3 I I I I NOr ~[R+H (GO TO 229\ 'T l229I NEXT [ HOUSEHOLD 1 MONTH I I YES. 1 105 YES. 1 AGE[N YES. 1 LINE NUMBER DAYS. YES. . 1 + YEARS . 2 I YEAR ADD B[RTH NO . . 2 IT] NO . 2 cp MOS. NO . 2 22t YEARS. 3 I I I I NO . 1 (GO TO 229\ (GO TO 229\ I NeAl e[KI' HOUSEHOLD 1 MONTH I I YES . 1 106 YES. 1 AGE [N YES. 1 LINE NUMBER DAYS. YES. 1 + YEARS 2 I YFAR ADD B[RTH NO . 2 IT] NO. . 2 cp MOS . NO . .2 22t 3 I I I NOr~[Rt YEARS. (GO TO 229\ (GOT) 229\ NEXT [ HOUSEHOLD 1 MONTH I I YES. 1 107 YES. 1 AGE[N YES. 1 LINE NUMBER DAYS. YES. 1 + YEARS 2 I YFAR ADD B[RTH NO . 2 IT] NO . 2 cp MOS. NO . . 2 :~;;~[Rl 22t YEARS. 3 II I I I (GO TO 229\ (GOTl22 HOUSEHOLD , MONTH I I YES . 1 I DB YES. 1 AGE[N YES. 1 LINE NUMBER DAYS . YES. 1 + YEARS MOS . ; ADD B[RTH NO . 2 IT] NO. .2 cp YEAR NO. .2 22t YEARS. ' I I I I I NO .• ~[Rl (GO TO 229\ (GOT 12ll\ NEXT IW-5 • 287Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 230 Have you had any pregnancy since the last YES . 1 --+ 215 pregnancy mentioned? NO . 2 EXCLUDE CURRENT PREGNANCY 231 COMPARE 210 WITH NUMBER OF PREGNANCIES IN HISTORY AND PUT X MARK: NUMBERS p NUMBERS ARE 0 ARE SAME DIFFERENT , (PROBE AND RECONCILE) r- CHECK: FOR EACH PREGNANCY: YEAR IS RECORDED IN 221 OR 227. r- FOR EACH LIVING CHILD: CURRENT AGE IS RECORDED IN 223. r- FOR EACH DEAD CHILD: AGE AT DEATH IS RECORDED IN 226. r- FOR AGE AT DEATH 12 MONTHS OR 1 YR; PROBE FOR EXACT NO. OF MONTHS. 232 CHECK 221 AND ENTER THE NUMBER OF LIVE BIRTHS SINCE JANUARY 2008. D IF NONE. RECORD '0' 233 Are you pregnant now? YES . '" 1 NO . 2 1 237 UNSURE . 8 234 How many months pregnant are you? . 00 RECORD NUMBER OF COMPLETED MONTHS MONTHS 235 When you got pregnant did you want to get pregnant YES . 1 --+237 at that time? NO . 2 236 Did you want to have a baby later on or did you not LATER . 1 want any (more) children? NO MORE . 2 237 When did your last menstrual period start? DAYS AGO . 1 WEEKS AGO . 2 MONTHS AGO . 3 (DATE, IF GIVEN) YEARS AGO . 4 IN MENOPAUSE/ HAS HAD HYSTERECTOMY . 994 IF SAME DAY. RECORD "00" BEFORE LAST BIRTH . 995 NEVER MENSTRUATED . 996 --+239 238 Howald were you when you had your first menstrual . 00 period? AGE 239 From one menstrua! period to the next, are there YES . 1 certain days when a woman is more likely to become NO . 2 l301 pregnant? DON'T KNOW . "' . 8 IF NO, PROBE: Do you know if there is a time when it is not safe for a woman to have sex because she can get pregnant? 240 Is this time JUST BEFORE HER PERIOD just before her period begins, BEGINS . 1 during her period, DURING HER PERIOD . 2 right after her period has ended, RIGHT AFTER HER or half way between two periods? PERIOD HAS ENDED . "' . 3 HALFWAY BETWEEN TWO PERIODS . 4 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . 8 IW-6 288 • Appendix E SECTION 3. CONTRACEPTION I 301 Now I would like to talk about family planning - the various ways or methods that a couple can use to delay or I avoid a pregnancy. Have you ever heard of (METHOD)? 01 Female SterilizationfLigation. PROBE: Women can have YES . 1 an operation to avoid having any more children. NO . 2 02 Male SterilizationNasectomy. PROBE: Men can have an YES . 1 operation to avoid having any more children. NO . 2 03 IUD. PROBE: Women can hav'e a loop or coil placed inside YES . 1 them by a doctor or a nurse. NO . 2 04 Injectables. PROBE: Women can have an injection by a YES . 1 health provider that stops them from becoming pregnant for NO . 2 one or more months. 05 Implants. PROBE: Women can have one or more small YES . 1 rods placed in their upper arm by a doctor or nurse which NO . 2 can prevent pregnancy for one or more years. 06 Patch. PROBE: Women can put a hormonal patch on their YES . 1 upper outer arm, buttocks, abdomen or thigh to avoid getting NO . 2 pregnant. 07 Pill. PROBE: Women can take a pill every day to avoid YES . 1 becoming pregnant. NO . 2 08 Condom. PROBE: Men can put a rubber sheath on their YES . 1 penis before sexual intercourse. NO . 2 09 Female Condom. PROBE: Women can place a sheath in YES . 1 their vagina before sexual intercourse. NO . 2 10 Mucus/Billings/Ovulation. PROBE: Women can monitor YES . 1 the cervical mucus to detennine the days of the month they NO . 2 are most likely to get pregnant. 11 Basal Body Temperature. PROBE: Women can monitor YES . 1 the body temperature to determine the days of the month NO . 2 they are most likely to get pregnant. 12 Symptothermal. PROBE: It is a combination of Basal Body YES . 1 Temperature and Mucus, Bilings, Ovulation Method. NO . 2 13 Standard Days Method. PROBE: A woman uses a string of YES . . 1 colored beads to know the days she can get pregnant. On NO . 2 the days she can get pregnant, she or her husband/partner uses a condom or does not have sexual intercourse. 14 Lactational Amenorrhea Method (LAM). YES . . 1 NO . 2 15 Calendar or Rhythm or Periodic Abstinence. PROBE: To YES . 1 avoid pregnancy, women do not have sexual intercourse on NO . 2 the days of the month they think they can get pregnant. 16 Withdrawal. PROBE: Men can be careful and pull out YES . 1 before climax. NO . 2 17 Emergency Contraception. PROBE: As an emergency YES . 1 measure, within three days after they have unprotected NO . 2 sexual intercourse, women can take special pills to prevent pregnancy. 18 Have you heard of any other ways or methods that women YES . 1 or men can use to avoid pregnancy? (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) NO . 2 IW-7 • 289Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 302 Have you or your husband/partner ever used anything YES . 1 or tried in any way to delay or avoid getting pregnant? NO . 2 r--- 336 IF NO, PROBE: At anytime in your life, have you or your sexual partner ever used or tried in any way to delay or avoid getting pregnant? 303 CHECK 233: NOT PREGNANT F PREGNANT n 326 OR UNSURE 304 Are you or your husband/partner currently doing YES . 1 something or using any method to delay or avoid NO . 2 r--- 326 getting pregnant? 305 Which method are you using? FEMALE STERILIZATION . A p-. 311 MALE STERILIZATION . B CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED. IUD . C INJECTABLES . 0 ~ ~10 IF MORE THAN ONE METHOD MENTIONED. FOLLOW IMPLANTS .•.•.•. E SKIP INSTRUCTION FOR HIGHEST METHOD PATCH . F CIRCLED IN THE LIST. PILL . G _306 CONDOM . H r308 FEMALE CONDOM . I DIAPHRAGM . J }+ 310 FOAM/JELLY/CREAM .•. K MUCUS/BILLINGS/OVULATION L BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE . M SYMPTOTHERMAL . N STANDARD DAYS . 0 LAM .•.•.•.•. P f+ 313 CALENDAR/RHYTHM/ PERIODIC ABSTINENCE . Q WITHDRAWAL . R OTHER TRADITIONAL METHOD X OTHER MODERN METHOD Y _310 (SPECIFY) 306 What is the brand name of the pills you are using? TRUST PILL . 01 LOGENTROL . 02 IF DON'T KNOW THE BRAND. DEPROPOVERA (DMP) . 03 ASK TO SEE THE PACKAGE. OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . 98 307 How many pill cycles did you get the last time? NUc~i~~F :IL~ . ITJ ~ 310 DON'T KNOW . 98 308 What is the brand name of the condoms you (your TRUST CONDOM . 01 husband/partner) are using? FRENZY . 02 PREMIERE . 03 IF DON'T KNOW THE BRAND. ASK TO SEE THE PACKAGE. OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . 98 309 How many condoms did you (your husband/partner) NUMBER OF ITJ get the last time? CONDOMS . DON'T KNOW . 98 310 The last time you obtained (HIGHEST METHOD IN COSTIN I I I I LIST IN 305), how much did you pay in total, including PESOS . the cost of the method and any consultation _313 you may have had? FREE . 000 DON'T KNOW . ,., . , . 998 IW-8 290 • Appendix E I NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 311 In what facility did the sterilization take place? PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT. HOSPITAl. . 11 RURAL/URBAN HEALTH CENTER . 12 PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE OTHER PUBLIC 16 AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. (SPECIFy) IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE IF HOSPITAL. HEALTH CENTER OR CLINIC IS PUBLIC OR PRIVATE PRIVATE SECTOR WRITE THE NAME OF THE FACILITY/PLACE. PRIVATE HOSPITAL OR CLINIC . . . . . . . . . . . . . , 21 PRIVATE DOCTOR . 22 (NAME OF FACILITY/PLACE) OTHER PRIVATE 26 (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 (SPECIFy) 311A CHECK305: CODE 'A' F CODE'B' F CIRCLED CIRCLED Before your sterilization Before the sterilization YES . . • . . • . . . . . . . . . . • . . . . . . 1 operation, were you told operation, was your NO . 2 that you would not be husband/partner told that DON'T KNOW . 8 able to have any (more) he would not be able to children because of have any (more) children the operation? because ofthe operation? 312 How much did you (your husband/partner) COSTIN I I I I I I pay in total for the sterilization, including any PESOS consultation you (he) may have had? FREE . . 00000 IF COST OF STERILIZATION WAS INCLUDED IN COST DONE WITH CAESARIAN OF NORMAL DELIVERY, SEPARATE OR SECTION . 99996 ESTIMATE COST. DON'T KNOW . 99998 313 CHECK 305: LIGATED/ F OTHER F VASECTOMIZED METHOD MONTH . rn In what month and year Since what month and was the sterilization year have you been I I I I I (Iigationlvasectomy) using (CURRENT YEAR . performed? METHOD) without stopping? PROBE: For how long have you been using (STERILIZATION/CURRENT METHOD) now without stopping? ESTIMATE THE MONTH AND YEAR BASED ON THE LENGTH OF CONTINUOUS USE 314 CHECK313/221 AND 227: ANY BIRTH OR PREGNANCY TERMINATION AFTER MONTH AND YESF "'9 YEAR OF START OF USE OF CONTRACEPTION IN 313 GO BACK TO 313 • PROBE AND RECORD MONTH AND YEAR AT START OF CONTINUOUS USE OF CURRENT METHOD (MUST BE AFTER LAST BIRTH OR PREGNANCY TERMINATION). IW-9 • 291Appendix E NO. 315 316 317 QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CHECK 305: CIRCLE METHOD CODE: IF MORE THAN ONE METHOD CODE CIRCLED IN 305, CIRCLE CODE FOR HIGHEST METHOD IN THE LIST. CHECK 315 CODES '03·11' F CIRCLED Where did you obtain (CURRENT METHOD FROM 315) when you started using it? CODES '12·17' F CIRCLED Where did you learn how to use the (CURRENT METHOD FROM 315)? IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE IF HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTER, OR CLINIC IS PUBLIC OR PRIVATE, WRITE THE NAME OF THE FACILITY/PLACE. (NAME OF FACILITY/PLACE) CHECK 305: CIRCLE METHOD CODE: IF MORE THAN ONE METHOD CODE CIRCLED IN 305, CIRCLE CODE FOR HIGHEST METHOD IN THE LIST. IW·10 CODING CATEGORIES FEMALE STERILIZATION ••.•. 01 MALE STERILIZATION ,."., .• 02 IUD, . 03 INJECTABLES . 04 IMPLANTS . 05 PATCH . 06 PILL . 07 CONDOM . DB FEMALE CONDOM . 09 DIAPHRAGM . 10 FOAM/JELLY/CREAM .• 11 MUCUS/BILLINGS/OVULATION . 12 BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE . 13 SYMPTOTHERMAL .•. 14 STANDARD DAYS . 15 LAM . 16 CALENDAR/RHYTHM/ PERIODIC ABSTINENCE . 17 WITHDRAWAL . 1 B OTHER TRADITIONAL METHOD . 95 OTHER MODERN METHOD . 96 PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT. HOSPITAL . 11 RURAL HEALTH UNIT (RHU)/ URBAN HEALTH CENTER 12 BARANGAY HEALTH STATION. 13 BARANGAY SUPPLY/SERVICE POINT OFFICERiBHW .•. 14 OTHER PUBLIC 15 (SPECIFY) PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL OR CLINIC 21 PHARMACY . 22 PRIVATE DOCTOR . 23 PRIVATE NURSE/MIDWIFE . 24 NGO . 25 INDUSTRY·BASED CLINIC . 26 OTHER PRIVATE 27 (SPECIFY) OTHERS PUERICULTURE CENTER . 31 STORE . 32 CHURCH .•.•.•.• 33 FRIENDS/RELATiVES .• 34 OTHER 96 (SPECIFy) IUD . 03 INJECTABLES .•.•.•. 04 IMPLANTS . 05 PATCH . 06 PILL . 07 SKIP 1--+ 318 _325 f-+316 ]--325 _316 CONDOM . DB _ 324 FEMALE CONDOM . 09 DIAPHRAGM . 10 FOAM/JELLY/CREAM • . . . . . . 11 MUCUS/BILLINGS/OVULATION . 12 BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE . 13 SYMPTOTHERMAL .•.•. 14 _ 321 STANDARD DAYS . 15 LAM . 16 CALENDAR/RHYTHM/ PERIODIC ABSTINENCE . 17 OTHER MODERN METHOD .• 96 292 • Appendix E I NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 318 CHECK 305: LIGATED/ F OTHER F VASECTOMIZED METHOD When you/your husband! You obtained (CURRENT partner were sterilized METHOD FROM 315/ at (SOURCE OF 317) from (SOURCE OF METHOD FROM 311) METHOD FROM 316 in (DATE FROM 313). in (DATE FROM 313). YES . . 1 _320 were/was you/your At that time, were you NO . 2 husband/partner told told about side effects about side effects or or problems you problems you might might have with the have with the method? method? 319 Were you ever told by a health or family planning YES . ,., . 1 worker about side effects or problems you might have NO . 2 -321 with the method? 320 Were you told what to do if you experienced YES . 1 side effects or problems? NO . , . 2 321 CHECK 318: CODE '1' F CODE'1' F CIRCLED NOT CIRCLED OR NOT ASKED At that time, were When you (were sterilized! you told about other obtained/learned methods offamily (CURRENT METHOD planning that FROM 317)) from (SOURCE you could use? OF METHOD FROM 311 YES . 1 f---. 323 OR 316) were you NO . 2 told about other methods of family planning that you could use? 322 Were you ever told by a health or family YES . 1 planning worker about other methods of family NO . 2 planning that you could use? 323 CHECK 305: FEMALE STERILIZATION .•.•. 01 P-325 MALE STERILIZATION . 02 CIRCLE METHOD CODE: IUD . 03 INJECTABLES . 04 IF MORE THAN ONE METHOD CODE CIRCLED IMPLANTS . 05 IN 305. CIRCLE CODE FOR HIGHEST PATCH . 06 METHOD IN THE LIST. PILL .•.•.•.•.•.•.•. 07 CONDOM . 08 FEMALE CONDOM . 09 DIAPHRAGM •.•.•.• 10 FOAM/JELLY/CREAM . 11 MUCUS/BILLINGS/OVULATION 12 BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE .• 13 SYMPTOTHERMAL . 14 STANDARD DAYS . 15 LAM .•.•.•.•.•. 16 -+ 325 CALENDAR/RHYTHM/ PERIODIC ABSTINENCE . 17 WiTHDRAWAL •.•.•.• 18 OTHER TRADITIONAL METHOD 95 OTHER MODERN METHOD . 96 IW-11 • 293Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 324 Where did you obtain (CURRENT METHOD) PUBLIC SECTOR the last time? GOVT. HOSPiTAL . 11 RURAL HEALTH UNIT (RHU)/ URBAN HEALTH CENTER 12 BARAN GAY HEALTH STATION. 13 BARAN GAY SUPPLY/SERVICE PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE POINT OFFICERlBHW . 14 AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. OTHER PUBLIC 15 (SPECIFY) IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE IF HOSPITAL, PRIVATE SECTOR HEALTH CENTER OR CLINIC IS PUBLIC OR PRIVATE HOSPITAL PRIVATE, WRITE THE NAME OR CLINIC . "' . 21 OF THE FACILITY/PLACE. PHARMACY . 22 PRIVATE DOCTOR . 23 PRIVATE NURSE/MIDWIFE . 24 NGO . 25 INDUSTRY·BASED CLINIC . 26 (NAME OF FACILITY/PLACE) OTHER PRIVATE 27 (SPECIFY) OTHERS PUERICULTURE CENTER •. 31 STORE . 32 CHURCH . 33 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . 34 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 325 CHECK 313: (STARTED USING CURRENT METHOD CONTINUOUSLy) AFTER (AUGUST/ P BEFORE OR IN n SEPTEMBER) 2012 (AUGUST/SEPTEMBER) 338 2012 326 Now, ! would like to ask you some questions about your family planning practice one year ago. In (CURRENT MONTH) 2012, were you/was your YES . . . • . . . . . . . . . . • . • . . • . . . 1 partner doing something or using any method to NO . 2 --+330 delay Of avoid getting pregnant? IF PREGNANT IN (CURRENT MONTH) 2012, CIRCLE '2'. 327 Which method were you (husband/partner) using in IUD . 03 (CURRENT MONTH) 2012? INJECTABLES . 04 IMPLANTS . 05 PATCH . 06 IF MORE THAN ONE METHOD MENTIONED, PILL . 07 CIRCLE METHOD HIGHEST IN THE LIST. CONDOM . 08 FEMALE CONDOM . 09 DIAPHRAGM .•. 10 FOAM/JELLY/CREAM . 11 MUCUS/BILLINGS/OVULATION . 12 BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE . 13 SYMPTOTHERMAL . 14 STANDARD DAYS . 15 LAM .•.•.•.•. 16 CALENDAR/RHYTHM/ PERIODIC ABSTINENCE . 17 WITHDRAWAL . 18 OTHER TRADITIONAL METHOD . 95 OTHER MODERN METHOD 96 (SPECIFY) 328 COMPARE 305 AND 327: (IF MORE THAN ONE METHOD IN 305, CHOOSE METHOD HIGHEST IN THE LIST.) DIFFERENT P METHOD P SAME METHOD n METHODS IN 305 IN 305 NOT IN 305 & 327 334 &327 ASKED IW·12 294 • Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 329 In what month and year did you stop using . ~ (METHOD IN 327)? MONTH YEAR .•.•.•• I I I I I 329A Why did you stop using (METHOD IN 327)7 NOT HAVING SEX . 01 INFREQUENT SEx/HUSBAND AWAY/OLD . 02 BECAME PREGNANT WHILE USING . 03 f---. 338 WANTED TO BECOME PREGNANT . 04 HUSBAND/PARTNER DISAPPROVED . 05 WANTED MORE EFFECTIVE METHOD .•.•. 06 SIDE EFFECTS/HEALTH CONCERNS . 07 LACK OF ACCESS " . "' . 08 METHOD NOT AVAILABLE . 09 COSTS TOO MUCH . 10 INCONVENIENT TO USE •.•. 11 UP TO GOD/FATALISTIC •. 12 DIFFICULT TO GET PREGNANT 13 MENOPAUSE/ HYSTERECTOMY . 14 MARITAL DISSOLUTION/ SEPARATION . "' 15 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . 98 330 CHECK 233 PREGNANT P NOT PREGNANT n OR UNSURE 33. 331 Immediately prior to this pregnancy, were you YES . ," . ,. 1 (husband/partner) using any method to delay or avoid NO . ,"., . , . 2 --+ 33. getting pregnant? 332 What method did you use? IUD .•.•. 03 INJECTABLES . O • IMPLANTS •.•. 05 IF MORE THAN ONE METHOD MENTIONED. PATCH .•.•.••.• 06 CIRCLE METHOD HIGHEST IN THE LIST. PILL •.•.•.•.•. 07 CONDOM . 08 FEMALE CONDOM . 09 DIAPHRAGM . 10 FOAM/JELLY/CREAM . 11 MUCUS/BILLINGS/OVULATION 12 BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE . 13 SYMPTOTHERMAL . 14 STANDARD DAYS . 15 LAM .•.•. 16 CALENDAR/RHYTHM/ PERIODIC ABSTINENCE . 17 WITHDRAWAL .•. 18 OTHER TRADITIONAL METHOD . 95 OTHER MODERN METHOD 96 (SPECIFY) 333 Djd you become pregnant while using (METHOD IN 332) BECAME PREGNANT or did you stop to get pregnant, or did you stop for WHILE USING . 1 some other reason? WANTED TO BECOME PREGNANT . 2 STOP FOR OTHER REASON . 3 33. Did you use any (other) method(s) between (CURRENT YES . 1 MONTH) 2012 and (CURRENT MONTH) 2013? NO .•.•.•.••.•. 2 -+338 IW-13 • 295Appendix E I NO, QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP I 335 What are these methods? IUD"""""""""""""C INJECTABLES """""""""",D CIRCLE ALL MENTIONED IMPLANTS"" , , , ' , , , , "" , , "" "" "" , E PATCH . F PILL """""""""""",""""""'"""" G CONDOM . H FEMALE CONDOM . I DIAPHRAGM"""""""", , J FOAM/JELLY/CREAM """"'" K MUCUS/BILLINGS/OVULATION ""L BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE "" "" M -+338 SYMPTOTHERMAL """""" N STANDARD DAYS """""""""""",0 LAM ,',"","""""""" P CALENDAR/RHYTHM! PERIODIC ABSTINENCE . Q WITHDRAWAL""""""", , R OTHER TRADITIONAL METHOD X OTHER MODERN METHOD Y (SPECIFY) 336 Do you know of a place/person where you can obtain a YES . 1 method of family planning? NO . 2 --+ 338 337 Where is that? PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT, HOSPITAL""""""",, A Any other place? RURAL HEALTH UNIT (RHU)/ URBAN HEALTH CENTER B PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE BARANGAYHEALTH STATION, C AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE, BARAN GAY SUPPLY/SERVICE POINT OFFICERlBHW . D IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE IF HOSPITAL, OTHER PUBLIC E HEALTH CENTER OR CLINIC IS PUBLIC OR (SPECIFY) PRIVATE, WRITE THE NAME OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR FACILITY/PLACE, PRIVATE HOSPITAL OR CLINIC"""""",,"" F PHARMACY . G PRIVATE DOCTOR""""" H PRIVATE NURSE/MIDWIFE "" ' I (NAME OF FACILITY/PLACE) NGO . J INDUSTRY-BASED CLINIC "" , K OTHER PRIVATE L (SPECIFY) OTHERS PUERICUL TURE CENTER, , , " M STORE . N CHURCH . 0 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . P OTHER X (SPECIFY) 338 In the last 12 months, were you visited by a YES . 1 health worker who talked to you about family planning? NO """"""""""""""""',' 2 339 In the last 12 months, have you visited a health facility YES . 1 for care for yourself (or your children) or any purpose? NO ", . ,'" . 2 -401 340 Did any staff member at the health facility speak YES . 1 to you about family planning methods? NO . 2 IW-14 296 • Appendix E 401 SECTION 4. PREGNANCY. POSTNATAL CARE AND BREASTFEEDING CHECK 232: ONE OR MORE P BIRTHS IN 2008 OR LATER NO BIRTHS IN 2008 OR LATER L-L-------------------------++S44 402 CHECK 221: ENTER IN THE TABLE THE LINE NUMBER. NAME. AND SURVIVAL STATUS OF EACH BIRTH IN 2008 OR LATER. ASK THE QUESTIONS ABOUT ALL OF THESE BIRTHS. BEGIN WITH THE LAST BIRTH. 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 (IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 3 BIRTHS. USE LAST 2 COLUMNS OF ADDITIONAL QUESTIONNAIRES). Now I would !ike to ask you some questions about the health of all your children born in the last five years. (We will talk about each separately.) PREGNANCY HISTORY LINE NO. FROM 214 IN PREGNANCY HISTORY FROM 219 AND 222 When you got pregnant with (NAME), did you want LAST BIRTH PREG. HISTORY IT] LINE NO . NAME LIVING P DEAD P . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 (SKIP TO 409).,J to get pregnant at that NO . 2 time? Did you want to have a baby later on, or did you not want any (more) children? How much longer did you want to wait? IF IN MONTHS. RECORD IN MONTHS. IF TWO YEARS. PROBE FOR EXACT NO. OF MONTHS. IF WITH FRACTION OF YEAR. CONVERT TO MONTHS AND RECORD IN MONTHS. Immediately before you became pregnant with (NAME), were you using any method to delay Of avoid getting pregnant? During your pregnancy with (NAME), did you see anyone for prenatal care for this pregnancy? Whom did you see? Anyone else? PROBE TO IDENTIFY EACH TYPE OF PERSON AND RECORD ALL MENTIONED. LATER . . NO MORE . 2 (SKIP TO 408).,J MONTHS :[E YEARS . DON'T KNOW 998 YES . . NO . 2 YES . 1 NO . 2 (SKIP TO 419) .,J HEALTH PROFESSIONAL DOCTOR . A NURSE . B MIDWIFE . C HlLOT .• D OTHER X (SPECIFY) IW-1S NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH PREG. HISTORY CD PREG. HISTORY LINE NO . LINE NO. NAME NAME LIVING P DEAD P LIVING P DEAD P YES . 1 YES . 1 (SKIP TO 431) .,J (SKIP TO 431)+---' NO . 2 NO . 2 LATER .•.•.•. LATER . 1 NO MORE . 2 NO MORE .•.•. 2 (SKIP TO 431).,J (SKIP TO 431).,J MONTHS . :83 yEARS . MONTHS . yEARS . DON'T KNOW 998 DON'T KNOW . 998 (SKIP TO 431) .,J (SKIP TO 431) .,J • 297Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME 411 Where did you receive HOME prenatal care for this YOUR HOME .•.•.• A pregnancy? OTHER HOME . B Anywhere else? PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT. HOSPITAL . C Anyone else? RURAUURBAN HEALTH CENTER. D PROBE TO IDENTIFY BARANGAY HEALTH TYPE(S) OF SOURCE(S) STATION . E AND CIRCLE THE BARANGAY SUPPLYI APPROPRIATE CODE(S). SERVICE POINT OFFICERlBHW . F OTHER PUBLIC IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE G IF A HOSPITAL, HEALTH (SPECIFY) CENTER, OR CLINIC IS PRIVATE SECTOR PUBLIC OR PRIVATE, PVT. HOSPITAU WRITE THE NAME OF CLINIC . H THE FACILITY/PLACE. PRIVATE DOCTOR. I PRIVATE NURSEI MIDWIFE . J NGO . K INDUSTRY-BASED CLINIC ."' . L OTHER PRIVATE (NAME OF FACILITYI M PLACE) (SPECIFY) OTHER X (SPECIFY) 412 How many months OJ pregnant were you when MONTHS . you first received prenatal care for this pregnancy? DON'T KNOW . 98 413 How many times did you . OJ receive prenatal care for NO OF TIMES this pregnancy? DON'T KNOW . 98 414 CHECK413: ONCE p MORE P THAN ONCE (SKIP TO ORDK 416) 415 How many months OJ pregnant were you the MONTHS last time you received prenatal care? DON'T KNOW . 98 416 As part of your prenatal care during this pregnancy, were any of the following done at least once? YES NO Were you weighed? WEIGHT .•.•. 2 Was your height measured? HEIGHT . 2 Was your blood pressure measured? BP .•.•.•.• 2 Did you give a urine sample? URINE 2 Did you give a blood sample? BLOOD 2 IW-16 298 • Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 417 During (any of) your prenatal care visit(s), were you told about things to look out for that might suggest problems with the pregnancy? 418 Were you told where to go if you had any of these complications? 419 What symptoms or conditions did you experience during your pregnancy with (NAME), if any? Anything else? 420 During this pregnancy, did you set aside any money in case of an emergency? 421 During this pregnancy, were you given an injection in the arm to prevent the baby from getting tetanus, that is , convulsions after birth? 422 During this pregnancy, how many times did you get this tetanus injection? 423 CHECK 422: 424 At any time before this pregnancy, did you receive any tetanus injections? 425 Before this pregnancy, how many times did you receive a tetanus injection? IF 5 OR MORE TIMES, RECORD '5'. 426 How many years ago did you receive the last tetanus injection before this pregnancy? LAST BIRTH NAME YES . 1 NO .•.•.•.••.•.•. 2 (SKIP TO 419).-j DON'T KNOW . 8 YES .••.••.•. 1 NO .•.•.•.•.•. 2 DON'T KNOW . 8 VAGINAL BLEEDING . A HEADACHE •. B DIZZINESS . C BLURRED VISION .•. 0 SWOLLEN FACE . E SWOLLEN HANDS! FEET . F PALE OR ANEMIC .•. G OTHER X (SPECIFY) NONE . Y YES .•.•.•.•. 1 NO . 2 CANNOT REMEMBER . 8 YES . . NO •.•. 2 (SKIP TO 424).-j DO N'T KNOV\. . . . . . . 8 TIMES . 0 DON'T KNOV\. • . . . • . . 8 2 OR MORE TIMES P (SKIP TO 427) OTHER 9 . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 NO . 2 (SKIP TO 427).-j DON'T KNOV\. . . . • . •. 8 TIMES •. 0 DON'T KNOW .•.• 8 YEARS IT] . IW-17 NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH • 299Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME 427 During this pregnancy, YES, IRON ONLY . were you given or did you YES, IRON WITH buy any iron tableUcapsule FOLIC ACID . 2 or iron with folic acid NO . 3 tableUcapsule? (SKIP TO 429).-i DON'T KNOW . , SHOW TABLETS/ CAPSULES 42B During the whole pregnancy, for how many DAyS . 1 I I I days did you take the tableUcapsule? DON'T KNOW . 99B IF ANSWER IS NOT NUMERIC, PROBE FOR APPROXIMATE NUMBER OF DAYS. 429 During this pregnancy, YES . 1 did you take any drug for NO . 2 intestinal worms? DON'T KNOW . B 430 Around the time of the birth of (NAME), did you have any of the following problems: YES NO Long labor, that is, your LONG LABOR . 1 2 regular contractions lasted more than 12 hours? Excessive bleeding, so BLEEDING . 1 2 much that you thought you might die? A high fever with a bad~ SEPSiS . 1 2 smelling vaginal discharge (Sepsis)? Loss of conciousness? LOSS OF CONCIOUSNESS . 2 431 Was (NAME) weighed YES . , YES . 1 YES . . 1 at birth? NO . "" . " 2 NO """"""""" 2 NO " . "", 2 (SKIP TO 433).-i DON'T KNOW . (SKIP TO 433) :'i DON'T KNOW . (SKIP TO 433):'i DON'T KNOW "".". 432 How much did (NAME) KILOGRAMS (KG) KILOGRAMS (KG) KILOGRAMS (KG) weigh? FROM CARD/BOOKLET FROM CARD/BOOKLET FROM CARD/BOOKLET D,D DIIJ 1 D,D RECORD WEIGHT IN KILOGRAMS OR POUNDS POUNDS (LBS) POUNDS (LBS) POUNDS (LBS) FROM HEALTH CARD/ FROM CARD/BOOKLET FROM CARD/BOOKLET FROM CARD/BOOKLET BOOKLET, IF AVAILABLE. 2 D,D 2 DIIJ 2 D.D KILOGRAMS (KG) KILOGRAMS (KG) KILOGRAMS (KG) FROM RECALL FROM RECALL FROM RECALL 3 D,D 3 DIIJ 3 D,D POUNDS (LBS) POUNDS (LBS) POUNDS (LBS) FROM RECALL FROM RECALL FROM RECALL 4 D,D 4 D.ITJ 4 D,D DON'T KNOW " , 999B DON'T KNOW 999B DON'T KNOW . 999B IW-1B 300 • Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 433 Who assisted with the delivery of (NAME)? Anyone else? PROBE FOR THE TYPE(S) OF PERSON(S) AND RECORD ALL MENTIONED. IF RESPONDENT SAYS NO ONE ASSISTED, PROBE TO DETERMINE WHETHER ANY ADULTS WERE PRE- SENT AT THE DELIVERY. 434 How much did you pay in total for the delivery 435 436 of (NAME)? INCLUDE COST OF DOCTORS, NURSES, HOSPITAL, ETC. When (NAME) was born, was he/she placed on your abdomen or chest, or had contact with your skin within the first hour of life? Where did you give birth to (NAME)? PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. IF UNABLE TO DE-rEFtMII,EI IF HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTER, OR CLINIC IS PUBLIC OR PRIVATE WRITE THE NAME OF THE FACILITY/PLACE I I PLACE) LAST BIRTH NAME HEALTH PERSONNEL DOCTOR •.•.•. A NURSE . B MIDWIFE . C OTHER PERSON HILOT . 0 RELATIVE/FRIEND E OTHER X (SPECIFY) NOONE . Y COST IN PESOS 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 DONATION IN PESOS 21 1 1 1 1 1 FREE/NO COST 000000 999996 999998 IN KIND . DON'T KNOW .• YES . 1 NO . 2 DON'T KNOW . 8 HOME YOUR HOME . 11 (SKIP TO 440) +--j OTHER HOME . 12 PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT. HOSPITAL .•. 21 GOV'T. HEALTH CENTER . 22 (SKIP TO 438) -+---' OTHER PUBLIC 26 (SPECIFY) I (SKIP TO 438) .J PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAU CLINIC . 31 OTHER PRIVATE 36 (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) I (SKIP TO 438) .J NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH NAME HEALTH PERSONNEL DOCTOR . A NURSE . B MIDWIFE . C OTHER PERSON HILOT . 0 RELATIVE/FRIEND . E OTHER X (SPECIFY) NO ONE . Y YES . 1 NO . 2 DON'T KNOW 8 HOME YOUR HOME . 11 (SKIP TO 450) --I OTHER HOME. 12 PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT. HOSPITAL .• 21 GOV'T. HEALTH CENTER . 22 (SKIP TO 450) -+---' OTHER PUBLIC 26 (SPECIFY) I (SKIP TO 450) .J PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITALI CLINIC . 31 OTHER PRIVATE 36 (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) I (SKIP TO 450) .J BIRTH HEALTH PERSONNEL DOCTOR . A NURSE .•.•.•.•. B MIDWiFE . C OTHER PERSON HILOT •.•.•.•. 0 RELATIVE/FRIEND . E OTHER X (SPECIFY) NO ONE. . Y YES . 1 NO . 2 DON'T KNOW 8 HOME YOUR HOME . 11 (SKIP TO 450) +--j OTHER HOME . 12 PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT. HOSPITAL . 21 GOV'T. HEALTH CENTER . 22 (SKIP TO 450) -+---' OTHER PUBLIC 26 (SPECIFY) I (SKIP TO 450) .J PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITALI CLINIC . 31 OTHER PRIVATE 36 (SPECIFY) OTHER 96 (SPECIFy) I (SKIP TO 450) .J 437 Was (NAME) delivered by YES . " . . . . . 1 YES . " . . . . 1 YES . ". . . 1 caesarean, that is, did they NO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO" . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 NO" . , . . . . . . 2 cut your belly open to take the baby out? IW-19 • 301Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 438 439 440 441 442 443 I would like to talk to you about checks on your health after delivery, for example, someone asking you questions about your health or examining you. Did anyone check on your health while you were still in the facility? Did anyone check on your health after you left the facility? Why didn't you deliver in a health facility? PROBE: Any other reason? RECORD ALL MENTIONED. I would like to talk to you about checks on your health after delivery, for example, someone asking you questions about your health or examining you, Did anyone check on your health after you gave birth to (NAME)? Who checked on your health at that time? PROBE FOR MOST QUALIFIED PERSON. How long after delivery did the first check-up take place? IF LESS THAN ONE HOUR, RECORD '00' IF LESS THAN ONE DAY. RECORD HOURS. IF LESS THAN ONE WEEK. RECORD DAYS. LAST BIRTH NAME YES . 1 (SKIP TO 442) .-J NO . 2 YES . 1 (SKIP TO 442) .-J NO . 2 (SKIP TO 445) .-J COST TOO MUCH . A FACILITY NOT OPEN B TOO FAR! NO TRANS- PORTATION . C DON'T TRUST FACILITY/POOR QUALITY SERVICE D NO FEMALE PROVID- ER AT FACILITY E HUSBAND/FAMILY DID NOT ALLOW F NOT NECESSARY G NOT CUSTOMARY H OTHER X (SPECIFY) YES . NO . 2 (SKIP TO 445) .-J HEALTH PERSONNEL DOCTOR . NURSE . MIDWIFE . HOURS . DAYS . WEEKS . DON'T KNOW .•. 998 IW-20 NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH 302 • Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME 444 Did you receive the following services at that time: YES NO OK Abdominal examination? ABDOMINAL EXAM . 2 8 Breast examination? BREAST EXAM .•. 2 8 Internal examination or IE? INTERNAL EXAM .• 2 8 Family planning advice? FAMILY PLANNING ADViCE .• 1 2 8 Breastfeeding advice? BREASTFEEDING ADViCE .•.• 1 2 8 Baby care advice? BABY CARE ADViCE .•.• 2 8 Vitamin A capsule? VITAMIN A . 2 8 Iron supplement? IRON SUPPLEMENT 2 8 Complete physical check- COMPLETE up including blood PHYSICAL pressure? CHECK-UP INCL .BLOOD PRESSURE 2 8 Any other service? ANY OTHER SERVICE 2 8 (Speci1y) 445 In the two months after YES . (NAME) was born, did any NO .•.•. 2 health care provider or (SKIP TO 449) 'i traditional birth attendant DON'T KNOW . check on (NAME)'s health? 446 How many hours, days or HRSAFTER :~ weeks after the birth of BIRTH . (NAME) did the first check- DAYS AFTER up take place? BIRrl1 •. WKSAFTER IF LESS THAN ONE DAY, BIRTH .•. RECORD HOURS. IF LESS THAN ONE WEEK, DON'T KNOW . 998 RECORD DAYS. IW-21 • 303Appendix E LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME 447 Who checked on (NAME)'s HEALTH PERSONNEL health at that time? DOCTOR . . NURSE . . PROBE FOR MOST MIDWIFE . . QUALIFIED PERSON. OTHER PERSON HILOT . 21 RELATIVEIFRIEND . 22 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 448 Where did this first check- HOME up of (NAME) take place? YOUR HOME . 11 449 450 PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE. IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE IF A HOSPITAL, HEALTH CENTER, OR CLINIC IS PUBLIC OR PRIVATE. WRITE THE NAME OF THE FACILITYIPLACE. (NAME OF FACILITYI PLACE) Has your menstrual period returned since the birth of (NAME)? Did your period return bet- ween the birth of (NAME) and your next pregnancy? 451 For how many months after the birth of (NAME) did you not have a period? 452 CHECK 233: IS RESPONDENT PREGNANT? 453 Have you had sexual intercourse since the birth of (NAME)? OTHER HOME . 12 PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT. HOSPITAL . 21 RURAL HEALTH UNITI URBAN HEALTH CENTER . 22 BARANGAY HEALTH STATIO~ .•.•.• 23 BARAN GAY SUPPLYI SERVICE POINT OFFICERlBHW . 24 OTHER PUBLIC 26 (SPECiFY) PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITALI CLINIC. .•. 31 PRIVATE DOCTOR. 32 PRIVATE NURSEI MIDWIFE .•.••. 33 NGO . 34 INDUSTRY-BASED CLINIC .•. 35 OTHER PRIVATE . 36 (SPECIFY) OTHER --,,,,,,,,,,"ovc-(SPECIFY) YES . 1 (SKIP TO 451) .-J NO .•.•. 2 (SKIP TO 452) .-J DON'T KNOW NOTP PREG- NANT YES .•.•.• 1 NO . 2 (SKIP TO 455) .-J NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH YES . 1 YES .• 1 NO . 2 NO . 2 (SKIP TO 454) .-J (SKIP TO 454) .-J MONTHS . D=:J MONTHS . OJ 454 For how many months after the birth of (NAME) did you not have sexual intercourse? MONTHS .•. OJ MONTHS .•. D=:J MONTHS . OJ 455 Did you ever breastfeed (NAME)? DON'T KNOW . 98 DON'T KNOW .•.• 98 DON'T KNOW .•. 98 YES .•. 1 YES . yES . . (SKIP TO 457) .-J NO .•. 2 NO. • . . . . . • . • . . . . • . . • 2 NO. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 IW-22 304 • Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 456 CHECK 404: IS CHILD LIVING? 457 How long after birth did you first put (NAME) to the breast? PROBE: When did you start breastfeeding (NAME)? LAST BIRTH NAME LIVING p (SKIP TO 466) DEAD (GOB:lTO 405 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 501) IMMEDIATELY . 000 IF LESS THAN 1 HOUR, HOURS . RECORD '00' HOURS. IF LESS THAN 24 HOURS, DAyS . RECORD HOURS. 458 459 460 OTHERWISE, RECORD DAYS. In the first three days after delivery, was (NAME) given anything to drink other than breast milk? What was (NAME) given to drink? Anything else? RECORD ALL LIQUIDS MENTIONED. Was (NAME) ever given water or anything else to drink or eat other than breastmilk? 461 How many months old was (NAME) when you first started giving him! her any food or liquid other than breastmilk? 462 CHECK: 404 IS CHILD LIVING? 463 Are you still breastfeeding (NAME)? YES . 1 NO . 2 (SKIP TO 460) .-J MILK (OTHER THAN BREAST MILK) . A PLAIN WATER . B SUGAR OR GLU- COSE WATER . C GRIPE WATER . 0 SUGAR-SALT-WATER SOLUTION FRUIT JUICE. . . F INFANT FORMULA •.• G TEAIINFUSIONS .•. H HONEy . I OTHER --,""""""''''''_ (SPECIFY) (SKIP TO 462) YES NO . 2 (SKIP TO 462) .-J LIVING DEAD P GO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT COLUMN; ORIF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 501 YES . 1 NO . 2 (SKIP TO 466) .-J IW-23 NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH LIVING DEAD P GO BACK Tb 405 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 501 SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NAME============ LIVING DEAD P r GO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT-TO-COLUMN OF NEW QUESTIONNAIRE, OR IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 501 • 305Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS 464 How many times did you breastfeed last night between sunset and sunrise? IF ANSWER IS NOT NUMERIC, PROBE FOR APPROXIMATE NUMBER. 465 How many times did you breastfeed yesterday during the daylight hours? 466 467 IF ANSWER IS NOT NUMERIC, PROBE FOR APPROXIMATE NUMBER. Did (NAME) drink anything from a bottle with a nipple yesterday or last night? LAST BIRTH NAME NUMBER OF NIGHTTIME CD FEEDINGS .• NUMBER OF DAYLIGHT CD FEEDINGS .•. YES . 1 NO . 2 DON'T KNOW . 8 GO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 501. IW-24 NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH YES . 1 NO . 2 DON'T KNOW . 8 GO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT COLUMN; OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 501. SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH YES . 1 NO . 2 DON'T KNOW •.•••. 8 GO BACK TO 405 IN NEXT-TO-LAST COLUMN OF NEW QUESTIONNAIRE, OR IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 501. 306 • Appendix E SECTION 5. CHILD IMMUNIZATION AND HEALTH 501 ENTER IN THE TABLE THE LINE NUMBER, NAME, AND SURVIVAL STATUS OF EACH BIRTH IN 2008 OR LATER. ASK THE QUESTIONS ABOUT ALL OF THESE BIRTHS. BEGIN WITH THE LAST BIRTH. (IF THERE ARE MORE THAN 3 BIRTHS, USE LAST 2 COLUMNS OF ADDITIONAL QUESTIONNAIRES). 502 PREGNANCY HISTORY LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH LINE NO. FROM 2141N PREG. HISTORY IT] PREG. HISTORY IT] PREG. HISTORY IT] PREGNANCY HISTORY LINE NO . . LINE NO .•.•. LINE NO .•. 503 FROM 219 AND 222 NAME NAME NAME LIVING DEAD LIVING DEAD LIVING DEAD F: P F P F P (GO TO 503 (GO TO 503 (GO TO 503 IN NEXT COLUMN IN NEXT COLUMN IN NEXT COLUMN OR, IF NO MORE OR, IF NO MORE OR, IF NO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 544) BIRTHS, GO TO 544) BIRTHS, GO TO 544) 504 Do you have a card/ YES, SEEN. , . . • . • • •• 1 YES, SEEN . 1 YES,SEEN . 1 booklet where (NAME'S) (SKIP TO 506) .----J (SKIP TO 506) .----J (SKIP TO 506) .----J vaccinations are YES, NOT SEEN. , , ••• 2 YES, NOT SEEN . 2 YES, NOT SEEN 2 written down? (SKIP TO 508) ~ (SKIP TO 508) ~ (SKIP TO 508) ~ IF YES: NO CAROl NO CARDI NO CARD! May I see it please? BOOKLET .•••. 3 BOOKLET . 3 BOOKLET . 3 505 Did you ever have yES .•.•. 1 yES .••.•.•. 1 yES .•. 1 a vaccination cardl (SKIP TO 508)+-----1 (SKIP TO 508) +-----1 (SKIP TO 508) +-----1 booklet for (NAME)? NO . , . 2 NO " . 2 NO , . 2 506 (1) COPY VACCINATION DATE FOR EACH VACCINE FROM THE CARD/BOOKLET. (2) WRITE '40' IN 'MONTH' COLUMN IF CARD/BOOKLET SHOWS THAT A VACCINATION WAS GIVEN BEFORE THE CHILD'S FIRST BIRTHDAY BUT NO DATE IS RECORDED. (3) WRITE '41' IN 'MONTH' COLUMN IF CARD/BOOKLET SHOWS THAT A VACCINATION WAS GIVEN AFTER THE CHILD'S FIRST BIRTHDAY BUT NO DATE IS RECORDED. (4) IF PENTAVALENT IS RECORDED, ASK IF THE PENTAVALENT VACCINE WAS GIVEN IN A PUBLIC OR PRIVATE CLINIC/HOSPITAL. ENCIRCLE 1 - PUBLIC, 2 - PRIVATE. IF '1' IS CIRCLED, RECORD DATES ON THE LINES FOR HEPA B, DPT AND HiS. 1 PUBLIC 2 PRIVATE 1 PUBLIC 2 PRIVATE 1 PUBLIC 2 PRIVATE LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH MONTH DAY YEAR MONTH DAY YEAR MONTH DAY YEAR BGG BGG BGG HEPA BO HEPA BO HEPA BO HEPA B1 HEPA B1 HEPA B1 HEPA B2 HEPA B2 HEPA B2 HEPA B3 HEPA B3 HEPA B3 DPT 1 DPT 1 OPT 1 DPT 2 DPT2 OPT 2 DPT 3 DPT3 DPT3 HiB 1 HiB 1 HiB 1 HiB 2 HiB 2 HiB 2 HiB 3 HiB 3 HiB 3 POLIO 1 POLIO 1 POLIO 1 POLIO 2 POLIO 2 POLIO 2 POLIO 3 POLIO 3 POLIO 3 MEASLES MEASLES MEASLES MMR MMR MMR RV1 RVi RVi RV2 RV2 RV2 IW-25 • 307Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME NAME NAME SaGA CHECK 50S: BCGTO OTHER BCGTO OTHER BCGTO OTHER RV2 9 RV2 9 RV2 9 ALL RECORDED ALL RECORDED ALL RECORDED P P P (GO TO 510) (GO TO 510) (GO TO 510) 507 Has (NAME) received any YES . 1- YES . 1- YES . 1 vaccinations that are not (PROBE FOR (PROBE FOR (PROBE FOR recorded on this cardl VACCINATIONS AND VACCINATIONS AND VACCINATIONS AND booklet including WRITE 'SO' IF RECEIVED WRITE '60' IF RECEIVED WRITE '60' IF RECEIVED vaccinations given in an BEFORE AGE 1 OR 'S1'IF BEFORE AGE 1 OR 'S1' IF BEFORE AGE 1 OR 'S1' IF immunization day campaign AFTER AGE 1 IN THE AFTER AGE 1 IN THE AFTER AGE 1 IN THE like: Ligtas Tigdas, MRS lA, CORRESPONDING CORRESPONDING CORRESPONDING NGO, Medical Mission? MONTH COLUMN IN 50S) MONTH COLUMN IN 50S) MONTH COLUMN IN 50S) (SKIP TO 510) ~ (SKIP TO 510) ~ (SKIP TO 510) - RECORD 'YES' ONLY IF RESPONDENT MENTIONS NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . . 2 BCG, POLIO 1-3, DPT 1-3. (SKIP TO 510) ., (SKIP TO 510) ., (SKIP TO 510) ., HIB 1-3, HEPA BO-B3, DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 PENTA 1-3 OR "5-IN-1" MMRlMEASLES AND/OR RV VACCINES. 508 Did (NAME) ever have any vaccinations to prevent him! her from getting diseases, YES . . 1 YES . 1 YES . "" . 1 including vaccinations NO . 2 NO . . 2 NO . 2 received in an immunization (SKIP TO 510) ., (SKIP TO 510) ., (SKIP TO 510) ., campaign like: Ligtas DON'T KNOW . . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 Tigdas, MRS lA, NGO, Medical Mission? 509 Please tell me if (NAME) had any of the following vaccinations: 509A A BCG vaccination against tuberculosis, that is, an YES . 1 YES . . 1 YES . 1 injection in the am or NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 shoulder that usually (SKIP TO 509C) ., (SKIP TO 509C) ., (SKIP TO 509C) ., causes a scar? DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 5098 Did (NAME) receive the YES . 1 YES . . 1 YES . 1 BCG vaccine before NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 his/her first birthday? 509C A Pentavalent or "5-in-1" YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . 1 vaccine? NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 (SKIP TO 509F) ., (SKIP TO 509F) ., (SKIP TO 509F) ., DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 509D How many times was NUMBER D NUMBER D NUMBER D Pentavalent received? OF TIMES . OFTIMES . OFTIMES . 509E Did (NAME) receive the PUBLiC . 1 PUBLiC . 1 PUBLIC . 1 Pentavalent from a public or PRIVATE . 2 PRIVATE . 2 PRIVATE . 2 private hospital/clinic? ASK FOR COMPONENTS OF PENTAVALENT VACCINE. AND RECORD INDIVIDUAL VACCINE IN 509F, 509J. 509M, AND/OR 509Q. 509F A Hepatitis B vaccine, YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . 1 that is, an injection given NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 in the thigh or ann, to (SKIP TO 509J) ., (SKIP TO 509J) ., (SKIP TO 509J) ., prevent him/her from DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 getting liver diseases? IW-26 308 • Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME NAME NAME 509G Was the first Hepatitis B YES . 1 YES . . 1 YES . 1 vaccine received within NO . 2 NO . . 2 NO . 2 24 hours after birth? 509H How many times was a NUMBER D NUMBER D NUMBER D Hepatitis B injection OF TIMES . OF TIMES . OF TIMES . received? 5091 Did (NAME) receive the YES . 1 YES . . 1 YES . 1 fourth (last) HeQatitis B NO . . 2 NO . 2 NO . . 2 vaccine before his/her first birthday? 509J A OPT vaccination, that is, YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . 1 an injection given 6, 10 & 14 NO . . 2 NO . ""',, . 2 NO . 2 weeks in the thigh, (SKIP TO 509M) +-1 (SKIP TO 509M) +-1 (SKIP TO 509M) +-1 sometimes at the same time DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 as polio vaccine? 509K How many times was the NUMBER D NUMBER D NUMBER D OPT vaccination received? OF TIMES . OF TIMES . OF TIMES . . 509L Did (NAME) receive the YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . 1 third (last) OPT vaccine NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 before his/her first birthday? 509M Polio vaccine, that is, YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . . 1 injections or drops in the NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . . 2 mouth? (SKIP TO 509Q) +-1 (SKIP TO 509Q) +-1 (SKIP TO 509Q) +-1 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . . 8 509N Was the first polio 6 WEEKS AFTER 6 WEEKS AFTER 6 WEEKS AFTER vaccine received six weeks BIRTH . 1 BIRTH .•.•. 1 BIRTH .•. 1 after birth or later? LATER . 2 LATER . 2 LATER . . 2 5090 How many times was the NUMBER D NUMBER D NUMBER D polio vaccine received? OF TIMES •.•. OF TIMES . OF TIMES . . 509P Did (NAME) receive the YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . . 1 third (last) polio vaccine NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 before his/her first birthday? 509Q A HiB vaccination, that is, YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . 1 an injection given in the thigh NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 to prevent him/her from (SKIP TO 509T) +-1 (SKIP TO 509T) +-1 (SKIP TO 509T) +-1 getting meningitis, DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 pneumonia and epiglottitis? 509R How many times was the NUMBER D NUMBER D NUMBER D HiB vaccination received? OF TIMES .•. OF TIMES . . OF TIMES .• 509S Did (NAME) receive the YES . 1 YES . . 1 YES . 1 third (last) HiB vaccine NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . . 2 before his/her first birthday? 509T A measles injection~that is, YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . . 1 a shot in the upper arm at NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . . 2 the age of 9 months or older. (SKIP TO 509V) +-1 (SKIP TO 509V) +-1 (SKIP TO 509V) +-1 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . . 8 509U Did (NAME) receive the YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . . 1 measles vaccine before NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 his/her first birthday? 509V A measles, mumps, rubella YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . 1 or MMR vaccine~that is NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 a shot in the upper arm DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . . 8 at the age of 12 months or older. 509W A rota virus vaccine (RV) YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . 1 injection against diarrhea? NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . . 2 (SKIP TO 510) +-1 (SKIP TO 510) +-1 (SKIP TO 510) +-1 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 IW-27 • 309Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME NAME NAME 509X How many times was NUMBER D NUMBER D NUMBER D the rotavirus vaccine (RV) OF TIMES . OF TIMES . OF TIMES . received? 509Y Did (NAME) receive the YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . 1 second (last) rotavirus NO . 2 NO . . 2 NO . 2 vaccine before he/she was 8 months old? 510 Within the last six months, YES . 1 YES . . 1 YES . 1 has (NAME) ever received NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 a vitamin A dose (like thisJ DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B any of these)? SHOW SAMPLE 511 In the Jast seven days, did YES . 1 YES . 1 YES """ . 1 (NAME) take iron syrup! NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 drops (like this/any DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . . B DON'T KNOW . B of these)? SHOW PICTURE 512 Was (NAME) given any YES . 1 YES . . 1 YES . 1 drug for intestinal worms NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 in the last six months? DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B IF BELOW 2 YEARS OLD ENCIRCLE CODE '2'. 513 Has (NAME) had diarrhea YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . . 1 in the last 2 weeks? NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . . 2 (SKIP TO 527) +-j (SKIP TO 527) +-j (SKIP TO 527) +-j DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . . B 514 Was there any blood YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . 1 in the stools? NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B 515 Now I would like to know how much (NAME) was given to drink during the diarrhea (including MUCH LESS . 1 MUCH LESS . 1 MUCH LESS . 1 breastmilk). SOMEWHAT LESS . 2 SOMEWHAT LESS . 2 SOMEWHAT LESS . 2 ABOUT THE SAME . 3 ABOUT THE SAME . 3 ABOUT THE SAME . . 3 Was he/she given less MORE . 4 MORE . . 4 MORE . 4 than usual to drink, about NOTHING TO DRINK 5 NOTHING TO DRINK 5 NOTHING TO DRINK 5 the same amount, more DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . . B than usual or nothing to drink? IF LESS, PROBE: Was he/she given much less than usual to drink or somewhat less? 516 When (NAME) had diarrhea, was he/ she given less than MUCH LESS . 1 MUCH LESS . 1 MUCH LESS . 1 usual to eat, about the SOMEWHAT LESS . 2 SOMEWHAT LESS . 2 SOMEWHAT LESS . . 2 same amount, more than ABOUT THE SAME . 3 ABOUT THE SAME . 3 ABOUT THE SAME . 3 usual, or nothing to eat? MORE . 4 MORE . 4 MORE . 4 NOTHING TO EAT . 5 NOTHING TO EAT . 5 NOTHING TO EAT . . 5 IF LESS, PROBE: Was DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B he/she given much less than usual to eat or somewhat less? 517 Did you seek advice or YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . 1 treatment for the diarrhea? NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 (SKIP TO 522).-J (SKIP TO 522).-J (SKIP TO 522).-J IW-2B 310 • Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME NAME NAME 518 Where did you seek PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR advice or treatment? GOvr. HOSPITAL • A GOvr. HOSPITAL .A GOvr. HOSPITAL .A RURAL HEALTH RURAL HEALTH RURAL HEALTH Anywhere/anyone else? UNIT (RHU)I UNIT (RHU)I UNIT (RHU)I URBAN HEALTH URBAN HEALTH URBAN HEALTH PROBE TO IDENTIFY EACH CENTER (UHC) . B CENTER (UHC) B CENTER (UHC) B TYPE OF SOURCE BARANGAY HEALTH BARANGAY HEALTH BARANGAY HEALTH AND CIRCLE THE STATION (BHS) .C STATION (BHS) . C STATION (BHS) • C APPROPRIATE CODErS). BARAN GAY SUPPLYI BARANGAY SUPPLYI BARANGAY SUPPLYI SERVICE POINT SERVICE POINT SERVICE POINT IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE OFFICER/BHW D OFFICER/BHW D OFFICER/BHW D IF A HOSPITAL, HEALTH OTHER PUBLIC OTHER PUBLIC OTHER PUBLIC CENTER, OR CLINIC IS E E E PUBLIC OR PRIVATE, (SPECIFY) (SPECIFy) (SPECIFY) WRITE THE NAME OF THE FACILITY/PLACE. PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL PRIVATE HOSPITAL PRIVATE HOSPITAL OR CLINIC . F OR CLINIC . F OR CLINIC . F PHARMACy . G PHARMACy . G PHARMACy .•.• G PRIVATE DOCTOR. H PRIVATE DOCTOR. H PRIVATE DOCTOR. H PRIVATE NURSEI PRIVATE NURSEI PRIVATE NURSEI MIDWIFE . I MIDWIFE . I MIDWIFE . I NGO . J NGO . . J NGO . J NAME OF FACILITY/PLACE INDUSTRY-BASED INDUSTRY-BASED INDUSTRY-BASED CLINIC . K CLINIC . K CLINIC . K OTHER PRIVATE OTHER PRIVATE OTHER PRIVATE L L L (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFy) OTHERS OTHERS OTHERS PUERICUL TURE PUERICULTURE PUERICUL TURE CENTER . M CENTER . M CENTER . M STORE . N STORE . N STORE . N CHURCH . " . "' 0 CHURCH . "" . " 0 CHURCH . 0 FRIENDSI FRIENDSI FRIENDSI RELATIVES . P RELATIVES . P RELATiVES . P OTHER X OTHER X OTHER X (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) 519 CHECK518: TWO OR ONLY TWO OR ONLY TWO OR ONLY FMORE ONE ~ FMORE ONE J F MORE ONE J CODES CODE CODES CODE CODES CODE CIRCLED CIRCLED CIRCLED CIRCLED CIRCLED CIRCLED (SKIP TO 521) (SKIP TO 521) (SKIP TO 521) 520 Where did you first seek advice or treatment? . 0 . 0 . 0 FIRST PLACE FIRST PLACE FIRST PLACE USE LETTER CODE FROM 518. 521 How many days after the diarrhea began did DAYS . [I] DAYS . [I] DAYS .•.• [I] you first seek advice or treatment for (NAME)? IF THE SAME DAY, RECORD '00'. 522 Was he/she given any of the following to drink at any time since he/she started having the diarrhea: YES NO OK YES NO OK YES NO OK a) A fluid made from a special packet called Ore501 or from Hydrite tablet or a solution FLUID FROM FLUID FROM FLUID FROM called Pedialyte ORS PKT . 1 2 8 ORS PKT . 1 2 8 ORS PKT . 1 2 8 b) A govemment- HOMEMADE HOMEMADE HOMEMADE recommended home- FLUID . 1 2 8 FLUID . 1 2 8 FLUID . 1 2 8 made fluid? IW-29 • 311Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME NAME NAME 523 Was anything (else) YES . 1 YES . " . "' . 1 YES . "' . 1 given to treat the diarrhea? NO . 2 NO .•.••.•.•. 2 NO .•.•.• 2 (SKIP TO 527) +-1 (SKI P TO 527) +-1 (SKIP TO 527) +-1 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW •.•. 8 DON'T KNOW •.•• 8 524 What (else) was given to PILL OR SYRUP PILL OR SYRUP PILL OR SYRUP treat the diarrhea? ANTIBIOTIC . A ANTIBIOTIC .•.••. A ANTIBIOTIC .• A ANTI MOTILITY .• B ANTI MOTILITY •. B ANTI MOTILITY .•. B Anything else? ZINC . . C ZINC . C ZINC . . C UNKNOWN PILL UNKNOWN PILL UNKNOWN PILL RECORD ALL OR SYRUP . D OR SYRUP . . D OR SYRUP . "' . D TREATMENTS GIVEN. INJECTION INJECTION INJECTION ANTIBIOTIC . E ANTIBIOTIC . E ANTIBIOTIC . E NON-ANTIBIOTIC . F NON-ANTIBIOTIC . F NON-ANTIBIOTIC . F UNKNOWN . G UNKNOWN . G UNKNOWN . G INTRAVENOUS (IV) . H INTRAVENOUS (IV) . H INTRAVENOUS (IV) .•. H HOME REMEDY! HOME REMEDY! HOME REMEDY! HERBAL MEDICINE I HERBAL MEDICINE I HERBAL MEDICINE I OTHER X OTHER X OTHER X (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW •.•.•. Z DON'T KNOW . Z DON'T KNOW . Z 525 CHECK 524: CODE "c" CODE"C" CODE "C" CODE "C" CODE"C" CODE "C" CIRCLED NOT CIRCLED NOT CIRCLED NOT F CIRCLED F CIRCLED F CIRCLED GIVEN ZINC? (SKIP TO 527) :J (SKIP TO 527) :J (SKIP TO 527) :J 526 How many days was ITJ ITJ ITJ (NAME) given zinc drops! DAYS .•. DAYS •. DAyS . tablet/syrup? DON'T KNOW . " . 98 DON'T KNOW . . 98 DON'T KNOW . 98 527 Has (NAME) been ill with YES . 1 YES . . 1 YES . 1 a fever at any time in the NO .•.•.•.•• 2 NO .•.•.•. 2 NO .•. 2 last 2 weeks? DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 528 Has (NAME) had an illness YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . 1 with a cough at any time NO .•.••.•.•. 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 in the last 2 weeks? (SKIP TO 531) +-1 (SKIP TO 531) +-1 (SKIP TO 531) +-1 DON'T KNOW " . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 529 When (NAME) had an illness with a cough, did YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . . 1 he/she breathe faster NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 than usual with short, (SKIP TO 532) +-1 (SKIP TO 532) +-1 (SKIP TO 532) +-1 rapid breaths or have DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 difficulty breathing? 530 Was the fast or difficult C~", "" . ~ rn~"~'] '"C,'""" . ~ breathing due to a NOSE ONLy . 2 NOSE ONLY . 2 NOSE ONLy . 2 problem in the chest ~~~~R····· . ······ ~ ~~~~R"""""'" ~ ~~~~R"""""'" ~ or to a blocked or runny nose? (SPECIFy) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW .•. 8 DON'T KNOW .•. 8 (SKIP TO 532) (SKIP TO 532) (SKIP TO 532) 531 CHECK 527: YES NOOR DK YES NOORDK YES NOOR DK HAD FEVER? ] P 0 P ] P (GO BACK TO (GO BACK TO (GO TO 503 IN . 5031N NEXT 503 IN NEXT NEXT-TO LAST COLUMN; OR, COLUMN; OR. COLUMN OF NEW IF NO MORE IFNO MORE QUESTIONNAIRE; BIRTHS, GO BIRTHS. GO OR IF NO MORE TO 541) TO 541) BIRTHS. GO TO 541) IW-30 312 • Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME NAME NAME 532 Now I would like to know how much (NAME) was given to drink (including breastmilk) during the ill~ ness with a (fever/cough). Was he/she given less than usual to drink, MUCH LESS . 1 MUCH LESS . 1 MUCH LESS . 1 about the same amount, SOMEWHAT LESS . 2 SOMEWHAT LESS . 2 SOMEWHAT LESS .•• 2 more than usual or nothing ABOUT THE SAME . 3 ABOUT THE SAME . 3 ABOUT THE SAME •.• 3 to drink? MORE . 4 MORE . 4 MORE . 4 NOTHING TO DRINK 5 NOTHING TO DRINK 5 NOTHING TO DRINK 5 IF LESS, PROBE: Was DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B he/she given much less than usual to drink or somewhat less? 533 When (NAME) had a (feverJcough), was he/ she given less than usual MUCH LESS .•. 1 MUCH LESS . 1 MUCH LESS . 1 to eat, about the same SOMEWHAT LESS . 2 SOMEWHAT LESS . 2 SOMEWHATLESS . 2 amount, more than usual, ABOUT THE SAME . 3 ABOUT THE SAME . 3 ABOUT THE SAME . 3 or nothing to eat? MORE . 4 MORE . 4 MORE . 4 STOPPED FOOD . 5 STOPPED FOOD . 5 STOPPED FOOD . 5 IF LESS, PROBE: Was hel NEVER GAVE FOOD 6 NEVER GAVE FOOD 6 NEVER GAVE FOOD 6 she given much less than DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . B DON'T KNOW . . B usual to eat or somewhat less? 534 Did you seek advice or YES . 1 YES . 1 YES . 1 treatment for the feverl NO . 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 cough of (NAME)? (SKIP TO 539)--' (SKIP TO 539)--' (SKIP TO 539)--' 535 Where did you seek PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR PUBLIC SECTOR advice or treatment? GOVT. HOSPITAL A GOVT. HOSPITAL A GOVT. HOSPITAL A RURAL HEALTH RURAL HEALTH RURAL HEALTH Anywhere else? UNIT (RHU)! UNIT (RHU)/ UNIT (RHU)! URBAN HEALTH URBAN HEALTH URBAN HEALTH PROBE TO IDENTIFY CENTER (UHC) B CENTER (UHC) B CENTER (UHC) B EACH TYPE OF SOURCE BARANGAY HEALTH BARAN GAY HEALTH BARAN GAY HEALTH AND CIRCLE THE STATION (BHS) C STATION (BHS) C STATION (BHS) C APPROPRIATE CODE(S). BARANGAY SUPPLY! BARANGAY SUPPLY! BARAN GAY SUPPLY! SERVICE POINT SERVICE POINT SERVICE POINT IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE OFFICERlBHW D OFFICER!BHW D OFFICER!BHW D IF A HOSPITAL, HEALTH OTHER PUBLIC OTHER PUBLIC OTHER PUBLIC CENTER, OR CLINIC IS E E E PUBLIC OR PRIVATE, (SPECIFY) (SPECIFy) (SPECIFY) WRITE THE NAME OF THE FACILITY! PLACE. PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE SECTOR PRIVATE HOSPITAL PRIVATE HOSPITAL PRIVATE HOSPITAL OR CLINIC . F OR CLINIC . F OR CLINIC . F PHARMACy . G PHARMACy . G PHARMACy . G PRIVATE DOCTOR. H PRIVATE DOCTOR. H PRIVATE DOCTOR. H PRIVATE NURSE! PRIVATE NURSE! PRIVATE NURSE! MIDWIFE . . I MIDWIFE . I MIDWIFE . . I NGO . J NGO . J NGO . J (NAME OF FACILlTY!PLACE) INDUSTRY-BASED INDUSTRY-BASED INDUSTRY-BASED CLINIC . K CLINIC . K CLINIC . K OTHER PRIVATE OTHER PRIVATE OTHER PRIVATE L L L (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFy) OTHERS OTHERS OTHERS PUERICUL TURE PUERICUL TU.RE PUERICUL TURE CENTER . M CENTER . M CENTER . M STORE . N STORE . N STORE . N CHURCH . 0 CHURCH . 0 CHURCH . 0 FRIENDS! FRIENDS! FRIENDS! RELATIVES . P RELATIVES . P RELATIVES . P OTHER X OTHER X OTHER X (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFy) IW-31 • 313Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME NAME NAME 536 CHECK535: TWO OR ONLY TWO OR ONLY TWO OR ONLY RMORE ONE ~ RMORE ONE ~ RMORE ONE ~ CODES CODE CODES CODE CODES CODE CIRCLED CIRCLED CIRCLED CIRCLED CIRCLED CIRCLED (SKIP TO 539) (SKIP TO 539) (SKIP TO 539) 537 Where did you first seek advice or treatment? . 0 . 0 . 0 FIRST PLACE FIRST PLACE FIRST PLACE USE LETTER CODE FROM 535. 538 How many days after the illness began did IT] DAYS .•. IT] IT] you first seek advice or DAYS •. DAYS . treatment for (NAME)? IF THE SAME DAY, RECORD '00'. 539 At any time during the YES . 1 YES . 1 YES • •.•.•.••. o. 1 illness, did (NAME) take NO .•. 2 NO . 2 NO . 2 any medicines for the fever! (GO BACK TO 503 ~ (GO BACK TO 503 ~ m~no., 1 cough? IN NEXT COLUMN IN NEXT COLUMN IN NEXT-TO-LAST OR, IF NO MORE OR, IF NO MORE COLUMN OF NEW BIRTHS, GO TO 541) BIRTHS, GO TO 541) QUESTIONNAIRE; DON'T KNOW . 8 DON'T KNOW . 8 OR IFNO MORE BIRTHS, GO TO 541) DON'T KNOW . 8 540 What medicine did (NAME) ANTIMALARIAL ANTIMALARIAL ANTIMALARIAL take? DRUGS . A DRUGS . A DRUGS . A Any other medicines? ANTIBIOTIC DRUGS ANTIBIOTIC DRUGS ANTIBIOTIC DRUGS DROPS/SYRUP/ DROPS/SYRUP/ DROPS/SYRUP/ RECORD ALL MENTIONED. PILL . B PILL . B PILL . . B INJECTION . C INJECTION . C INJECTION . C EXAMPLES OF PARACETAMOL: TEMPRA, OTHER DRUGS OTHER DRUGS OTHER DRUGS BIOGESIC, CALPOL, ASPIRIN . 0 ASPIRIN . D ASPIRIN . . 0 PANADOL PARACETAMOL . E PARACETAMOL . E PARACETAMOL . . E IBUPROFEN . F IBUPROFEN .•. F IBUPROFEN . F EXAMPLES OF DECONGESTANT G DECONGESTANT G DECONGESTANT G IBUPROFEN: DOLAN, EXPECTORANT . H EXPECTORANT . H EXPECTORANT . H ADVIL, MEDICOL NEBULES . . • . . •• I NEBULES • . • . . . I NEBULES . I EXAMPLES OF DECON- OTHER X OTHER X OTHER X GESTANT: DIMETAPP, (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) (SPECIFY) TYLENOL PLUS FLU DON'T KNOW . Z DON'T KNOW . Z DON'T KNOW . Z EXAMPLES OF ANTIBIOTIC: AMOXYCILIN. CEFALEXIN NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 541 CHECK 219, 221 AND 224, ALL ROWS: NUMBER OF CHILDREN BORN IN 2008 OR LATER LIVING WITH THE RESPONDENT ONE OR MORE F NONE n 544 RECORD NAME OF YOUNGEST CHILD LIVING WITH HER (AND CONTINUE WITH 542) (NAME) IW-32 314 • Appendix E LAST BIRTH NEXT-TO-LAST BIRTH SECOND-FROM-LAST BIRTH NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS NAME NAME NAME 542 The last time (NAME FROM 541) passed stools, CHILD USED TOILET . 01 what was done to dispose of the stools? PUT/RINSED INTO TOILET .•.•.•. 02 PUT/RINSED INTO DRAIN OR DITCH . 03 THROWN INTO GARBAGE . 04 BURIED .•.•. 05 LEFT IN THE OPEN . 06 THROWN INTO RIVER/SEA . 07 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 543 CHECK 522(a), ALL COLUMNS: NO CHILD F ANY CHILD n RECEIVED FLUID RECEIVED FLUID 601 FROM ORS PACKET/ FROM ORS PACKET/ HYDRITE TABLETIPEDIAL YTE HYDRITE TABLET/PEDIAL YTE 544 Have you ever heard of a special product called Oresol or YES . , . 1 Hydrite or Pedialyte that you can get to treat diarrhea? NO . 2 IW-33 • 315Appendix E SECTION 6 MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP I 601 Are you currently married or living together with a YES. CURRENTLY MARRIED . 1 l604 man as if married? YES. CURRENTLY LIVING WITH A MAN . 2 NO. NOT IN UNION . 3 602 Have you ever been married or lived together with a YES. FORMERLY MARRIED . 1 man as if married? YES. FORMERLY LIVED WITti A MAN . ,,"" 2 NO . 3 -609 603 What is your marital status now: are you widowed, WIDOWED "'"'" . 1 } 606 divorced, or separated? DIVORCED/ANNULLED . 2 SEPARATED . 3 604 Is your husband/partner living with you now or is he LIVING WITH HER . 1 staying elsewhere? STAYING ELSEWHERE . 2 605 RECORD THE HUSBAND'S/PARTNER'S NAME NAME AND LINE NUMBER FROM THE HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE. IF HE IS NOT LISTED IN THE . ITJ HOUSEHOLD. RECORD '00'. LINE NO. 606 Have you been married or lived with a man only ONLY ONCE . 1 once or more than once? MORE THAN ONCE .•.•. 2 607 CHECK 606: MONTH . ITJ MARRIED/ ~ MARRIED/ ~ LIVED WITH A MAN LIVED WITH A MAN DON'T KNOW MONTH . 98 ONLY ONCE MORE THAN ONCE In what month and year Now I would like to ask YEAR . 1 I I I I _609 did you start living with about when you started your husband/partner? living with your first DON'T KNOW YEAR . 9998 husband/partner. In what month and year was that? 608 How old were you when you first started living with . ITJ him? AGE 609 CHECK FOR THE PRESENCE OF OTHERS. BEFORE CONTINUING. MAKE EVERY EFFORT TO ENSURE PRIVACY. 610 Now I need to ask you some questions about NEVER HAD SEXUAL sexual activity in order to gain a better INTERCOURSE . 00 understanding of some important life issues. AGE IN YEARS . ITJ f-+ 613 How old were you when you had sexual intercourse for the very first time? FIRST TIME WHEN STARTED LIVING WITH (FIRST) HUSBAND/PARTNER . 95 r--+ 613 611 CHECK 105: p CURRENT AGE CURRENT AGE n 15-24 25-49 621 612 Do you intend to wait until you get married to have YES . 1 }621 sexual intercourse for the first time? NO . 2 DON'T KNOW/UNSURE . 8 613 When was the last time you had sexual intercourse? DAYS AGO . 1 IF LESS THAN 12 MONTHS. ANSWER MUST BE RECORDED IN DAYS. WEEKS OR MONTHS. WEEKS AGO . 2 IF 12 MONTHS (ONE YEAR) OR MORE. ANSWER MONTHS AGO . 3 MUST BE RECORDED IN YEARS. YEARS AGO . 4 -621 614 The last time you had sexual intercourse with this YES . 1 person, was a condom used? NO . 2 _616 615 Was a condom used every time you had sexual YES . 1 intercourse with this person in the last 12 months? NO .•.•.•.•.•.•. 2 IW-34 316 • Appendix E I NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP I 616 What was your relationship to this person HUSBAND . 1 I-L 620 with whom you had sexual intercourse? LIVE-IN PARTNER . 2 IF BOYFRIEND: BOYFRIEND NOT LIVING WITH Were you living together as if married? RESPONDENT . "" . 3 CASUAL ACQUAINTANCE . 4 IF YES. CIRCLE '2'. PROSTITUTE . 5 IF NO. CIRCLE '3'. OTHER 6 {S!5ECIF9) 617 How long ago did you first have sexual intercourse with this person? DAYS AGO . 1 WEEKS AGO . 2 MONTHS AGO . 3 YEARS AGO . 4 618 How many times during the last 12 months did you CD have sexual intercourse with this person? NUMBER OF TIMES . IF NON-NUMERIC ANSWER. PROBE TO GET AN ESTIMATE. IF NO. OF TIMES IS 95 OR MORE. WRITE '95.' 619 How old is this person? CD AGE OF PARTNER . DON'T KNOW . 98 620 In total, with how many different people have you had NUMBER OF PARTNERS CD sexual intercourse in your lifetime? IN LIFETIME . IF NON-NUMERIC ANSWER. PROBE TO GET AN DON'T KNOW . 98 ESTIMATE. IF NO. OF PARTNERS IS GREATER THAN 95.WRITE '95.' 621 PRESENCE OF OTHERS DURING THIS SECTION YES NO CHILDREN < 10 . 1 2 MALE ADULTS . 1 2 FEMALE ADULTS .',.". 1 2 622 Do you know of a place where a person can get YES . , . 1 condoms? NO . 2 ----+ 701 623 Where is that? PUBLIC SECTOR GOVT. HOSPITAL . A Any other place? RHU/UHC . B BHS . C PROBE TO IDENTIFY EACH TYPE OF SOURCE BSPO/BHW . D AND CIRCLE THE APPROPRIATE CODE(S). OTHER PUBLIC E (SPECIFY) IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE IF HOSPITAL, PRIVATE SECTOR HEALTH CENTER OR CLINIC IS PUBLIC OR PRIVATE HOSPITAUCLINIC . F PRIVATE, WRITE THE NAME OFTHE FACILITY/ PHARMACY . G PLACE. PRIVATE DOCTOR •.••. H PRIVATE NURSEIMIDWIFE . I NGO . J INDUSTRY-BASED CLINIC . K OTHER PRIVATE L (SPECIFY) (NAME OF FACILITY/PLACE) OTHERS PUERICULTURE CENTER . M STORE .•.•.•. N CHURCH . 0 FRIENDS/RELATIVES . P OTHER X (SPECIFY) 624 If you wanted to, could you yourself get a condom? YES . 1 NO . 2 DON'T KNOW/UNSURE . 8 IW-35 • 317Appendix E SECTION 7. FERTILITY PREFERENCES NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 701 CHECK 305: NEITHER p HEORSH~n STERILIZED STERILIZED 715 OR NOT ASKED 702 CHECK 233: PREGNANT p NOT PREGNANT n OR UNSURE 704 703 Now I have some questions about the future. HAVE ANOTHER CHILD . 1 . 705 After the child you are expecting now, would you NO MORE .•.•. 2 }+ 711 like to have another child, or would you prefer UNDECIDED/DON'T KNOW . 8 not to have any more children? 704 Now I have some questions about the future. HAVE (AiANOTHER) CHILD . 1 Would you like to have (a/another) child, or would NO MORE/NON E . 2 .707 you prefer not to have any (more) children? SAYS SHE CAN'T GET PREGNANT . 3 . 715 UNDECIDED/DON'T KNOW . B . 710 705 CHECK233: tE p PREGNANT P MONTHS . 1 NOT PREGNANT OR UNSURE YEARS . 2 How long would you like After the birth of the SOON/NOW . 993 -+710 to wait from now before the child you are SAYS SHE CAN'T GET PREGNANT 994 -+715 birth of (afanother) child? expecting now, how AFTER MARRIAGE .•.•. 995 }710 long would you like to wait before the birth OTHER 996 of another child? (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . 998 IF IN MONTHS, RECORD IN MONTHS. IF TWO YEARS, PROBE FOR EXACT NO. OF MONTHS. IF WITH FRACTION OF YEAR, CONVERT TO MONTHS AND RECORD IN MONTHS. 706 CHECK 233: NOT PREGNANT P PREGNANTU 711 OR UNSURE 707 CHECK 304: USING A CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD? NOT P NOT P CURRENTLY n ASKED CURRENTLY USING 715 USING 708 CHECK 705: ASKED NOT p OR 02 OR MORE YEARS 24 OR MORE MONTHS P 00-23 MONTH~n OR 00-01 YEAR 711 IW-36 318 • Appendix E NO. 709 QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CHECK 704: WANTS TO HAVE P AlANOTHER CHILD LATER You have said that you do not want (a/another) child soon, can you tell me why you are not using a method to prevent pregnancy? Any other reason? WANTS NO MORE/NONE p You have said that you do not want any (more) children, can you tell me why you are not using a method to prevent pregnancy? Any other reason? RECORD ALL REASONS MENTIONED. CODING CATEGORIES NOT MARRIED . A FERTILITY-RELATED REASONS NOT HAVING SEX . B INFREQUENT SEX .•. C MENOPAUSAL/HYSTERECTOMY 0 CAN'T GET PREGNANT . . • . • . •. E NOT MENSTRUATED SINCE LAST BIRTH . F BREASTFEEDING .•.•.• G UP TO GOD/FATALISTIC . H OPPOSITION TO USE RESPONDENT OPPOSED . . . . . . I HUSBAND/PARTNER OPPOSED . J OTHERS OPPOSED .•.•. K RELIGIOUS PROHIBITION. . . . . . •. L LACK OF KNOWLEDGE KNOWS NO METHOD. . . . . M KNOWS NO SOURCE. .•.•. N METHOD-RELATED REASONS SIDE EFFECTS/HEALTH CONCERNS . 0 LACK OF ACCESSITOO FAR . . . . P COSTS TOO MUCH . . . . . Q PREFERRED METHOD NOT AVAILABLE . R NO METHOD AVAILABLE . S INCONVENI.NT TO USE . T INTERFERES WITH BODY'S NORMAL PROCESSES . U OTHER ___ To1""''''''',,--___ X (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . Z SKIP 710 CHECK 304: USING A CONTRACEPTIVE METHOD? 711 712 ASKED CURRENTLY NOTP NOT P CURRENTLY n USING '----'--------------+-+ 715 USING Do you think you will use a contraceptive method to delay or avoid pregnancy at any time in the future? Which contraceptive method would you prefer to use? IW-37 YES . 1 NO . 2 [---+713 DON'T KNOW . B [---+ 713 FEMALE STERILIZATION ••. 01 MALE STERILIZATION . 02 IUD . 03 INJECTABLES .•. 04 IMPLANTS . 05 PATCH . 06 PILL . 07 CONDOM . DB FEMALE CONDOM . 09 DIAPHRAGM . 10 r+ 715 FOAM/JELLY/CREAM . 11 MUCUS/BILLINGS/OVULATION . 12 BASAL BODY TEMPERATURE . 13 SYMPTOTHERMAL . 14 STANDARD DAYS METHOD .•. 15 LAM . 16 CALENDAR/RHYTHM/ PERIODIC ABSTINENCE. . • . . . . • .• 17 WiTHDRAWAL . 1B OTHER METHOD 96 (SPECIFY) UNSURE . 9B • 319Appendix E I NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP I 713 What is the main reason that you think you will not NOT MARRIED . 11 use a contraceptive method at any time in the future? FERTILITY-RELATED REASONS NOT HAVING SEX . 22 INFREQUENT SEX .•.•.•.•. 23 MENOPAUSAL/HYSTERECTOMY 24 DIFFICULT/CAN'T GET PREGNANT .•.•.•.•.•. 25 UP TO GOD/FATALISTIC . 26 WANTS AS MANY CHILDREN AS POSSIBLE/wANTS TO HAVE CHILDREN •.•. 27 OPPOSITION TO USE RESPONDENT OPPOSED .•.•. 31 HUSBAND/PARTNER OPPOSED 32 OTHERS OPPOSED . 33 RELIGIOUS PROHIBITION ••••. 34 - 715 LACK OF KNOWLEDGE KNOWS NO METHOD .•.• 41 KNOWS NO SOURCE . 42 METHOD-RELATED REASONS SIDE EFFECTS/ HEALTH CONCERNS .•. 51 LACK OF ACCESSfTOO FAR •.•. 52 COSTS TOO MUCH . 53 PREFERRED METHOD NOT AVAILABLE .•.•.•. 54 NO METHOD AVAILABLE . 55 INCONVENIENT TO USE . 56 INTERFERES WITH BODY'S NORMAL PROCESSES . 57 OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) DON'T KNOW . 98 714 Would you ever use a contraceptive method YES . " 1 if you were married? NO . 2 DON'T KNOW . 8 715 CHECK 222: HAS LIVING P NO LIVING P CHILDREN CHILDREN OR NOT ASKED NONE . 00 --717 If you could go back to If you could choose exactly . 0 the time you did not have the number of children to NUMBER any children and could have in your whole life, how choose exactly the many would that be? number of children to OTHER 96 --717 have in your whole life, (SPECIFY) how many would that be? PROBE FOR A NUMERIC RESPONSE. 716 How many of these children would you like to be boys, BOYS GIRLS EITHER how many would you like to be girls and for how many I I II I II I I would the sex not matter? NUMBER OTHER 96 (SPECIFY) 717 In the last few months have you: YES NO Heard about family planning on the radio? RADIO . 1 2 Seen about family planning on the television? TELEVISION . 1 2 Read about family planning in a newspaper NEWSPAPER OR MAGAZINE . 1 2 or magazine, poster, leaflet or brochure? Read about family planning online or from the internet? ONLINE OR INTERNET . 1 2 IW-38 320 • Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 718 In the last 12 months, have you discussed the YES . 1 practice offamily planning with your friends, NO . 2 _722 neighbors, or relatives? 719 With whom? HUSBAND/PARTNER . A MOTHER .•.•.•.•. B Anyone else? FATHER .•.•.•.••.• C SISTER(S) . D RECORD ALL PERSONS MENTIONED. BROTHER(S) . . E DO NOT READ OUT RESPONSES. DAUGHTER . . F SON . G MOTHER-IN-LAW . H FRIENDS/NEIGHBORS/OFFICEMATES I OTHER X (SPECIFY) 720 In the last 12 months, have you encouraged your YES . 1 friends, neighbors, relatives or other persons to use family planning? NO . 2 _722 721 Who did you encourage? HUSBAND/PARTNER . A MOTHER .•.•.•.•. B Anyone else? FATHER . C SISTER(S) '""" . D RECORD ALL PERSONS MENTIONED. BROTHER(S) . . E DO NOT READ OUT RESPONSES. DAUGHTER . . F SON . G MOTHER-IN-LAW . , . H FRIENDS/NEIGHBORS/OFFICEMATES I OTHER X (SPECIFY) 722 CHECK 601: YES.p YES. P NO. CURRENTLY LIVING NOTI~n MARRIED WITHAMAN UNION 801 723 CHECK 304: CURRENTLY p NOT CURRENTLY I'l USING OR NOT ASKED 726 CIRCLED 724 Would you say that using contraception is mainly your MAINLY RESPONDENT . 1 decision, mainly your husband's/partner's decision, or MAINLY HUSBAND/PARTNER . 2 did you both decide together? JOINT DECISION . 3 OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) 725 CHECK 305: NEITHER p HEORSHE n STERILIZED STERILIZED 801 726 Does your husband/partner want the same number of SAME NUMBER . 1 children that you want, or does he want more or fewer MORE CHILDREN . 2 than you want? FEWER CHILDREN . 3 DON'T KNOW . 8 IW-39 • 321Appendix E SECTION 8, HUSBAND'S BACKGROUND AND WOMAN'S WORK NO, QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 801 CHECK 601 AND 602: CURRENTLY F FORMERLY 03 MARRIED/ MARRIED/ U NEVER MARRIED n LIVING WITH LIVED WITH A MAN AMAN AND NEVER 806 LIVED WITH A MAN 802 How old was your husband/partner on his last birthday? [[] AGE IN COMPLETED YEARS 803 Did your (last) husband/partner ever attend school? YES .,., . ,' . 1 NO . 2 _805 804 What is the highest grade/year he completed? [[] (SPECIFY) 805 CHECK801: CURRENTLY p FORMERLY P I I I I MARRIED/ LIVING MARRIED/LIVED WITH A MAN WITH A MAN What is your husband's! What was your partner's occupation? (last) husband's! That is, what partner's occupation? kind of work does That is, what he mainly do? kind of work did he mainly do? 806 Aside from your own housework, have you done any YES . 1 -810 work in the last seven days? NO . 2 807 As you know, some women take up jobs for which they are paid in'cash or kind. Others sell things, grow vege- tables, raise animals, have a small business or work YES . 1 -810 on the family farm/business. In the last seven days, NO """""""""""""""""""'" 2 have you done any of these things or any other work? 808 Although you did not work in the last seven days, do you have any job or business from which you YES . 1 !-+ 810 were absent for leave, illness, vacation, maternity NO """"""""'""'""""""""""""""""' 2 leave or any other such reason? 809 Have you done any work in the last 12 months? YES . 1 NO . 2 !-+ 814 810 What is your occupation (that is, what kind of work did you mainly do in the last 12 months)? I I I I 811 Do you do this work in a family farm/business FAMILY FARM/BUSINESS . 1 for someone else, or are you self-employed? FOR SOMEONE ELSE . 2 SELF-EMPLOYED . 3 IF FAMILY FARM/BUSINESS, PROBE IF OWNER IS A HOUSEHOLD MEMBER. B12 Do you usually work throughout the year, or do you work THROUGHOUT THE YEAR . 1 seasonally, oronly once in a while? SEASONALLY/PART OF THE YEAR 2 ONCE IN A WHILE . 3 813 Do you earn in cash or kind for this work or are CASH ONLY""""""""""" 1 you not paid at all? CASH AND KIND","""",""""" 2 IN KIND ONLY . 3 NOT PAID """""" "" "" "" "" "" "" "" """" 4 IW-40 322 • Appendix E NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 814 CHECK 601: CURRENTLY p NOT IN UNION n MARRIED/LIVING 823 WITH A MAN . 815 CHECK 813: CODE 1 OR2 P OTHER OR n CIRCLED NOT ASKED 818 816 Who usually decides how the money you earn will be used: RESPONDENT . 1 you, your (husband/partner), or you and your HUSBAND/PARTNER . 2 (husband/partner) jointly? RESPONDENT AND HUSBAND/PARTNER JOINTLY . 3 OTHER 6 (SPECIFy) 817 Would you say that the money that you earn is MORE THAN HIM . 1 more than what your (husband/partner) earns, less than LESS THAN HIM . 2 what he earns, or about the same? ABOUT THE SAME .•.•. 3 HUSBAND/PARTNER DOESN'T BRING IN ANY MONEY . 4 ---+ 819 DON'T KNOW . 8 818 Who usually decides how your (husband's/partner's) RESPONDENT . "' 1 earnings will be used: you, your (husband/partner), oryou HUSBAND/PARTNER .•. 2 and your (husband/partner) jointly? RESPONDENT AND HUSBAND/PARTNER JOINTLY . 3 IF HUSBAND/PARTNER IS UNEMPLOYED, EVEN HUSBAND/PARTNER HAS IF HE GETS FINANCIAL SUPPORT FROM NO EARNINGS . " •. 4 PARENTS/OTHERS. CIRCLE '4' OTHER 6 (SPECIFY) 819 Who usually makes decisions about health care RESPONDENT, . , . 1 for yourself: you, your (husband/partner), you HUSBAND/PARTNER . 2 and your (husband/partner) jointly, or someone else? RESPONDENT AND HUSBAND/PARTNER JOINTLY, , • , . 3 SOMEONE ELSE . 4 820 Who usually makes decisions about making major RESPONDENT . ,.,., .• , , 1 household purchases? HUSBAND/PARTNER . 2 RESPONDENT AND HUSBAND/PARTNER JOINTLY . 3 SOMEONE ELSE . ,. . 4 NOT APPLICABLE . 6 821 Who usually makes decisions about making purchases RESPONDENT .•.•.•.•.•.•.•.•. 1 for daily household needs? HUSBAND/PARTNER . ,." . ,. 2 RESPONDENT AND HUSBAND/PARTNER JOINTLY .•. 3 SOMEONE ELSE . , . , • 4 NOT APPLICABLE . 6 822 Who usually makes decisions about visits to your family RESPONDENT . , . , , . 1 or relatives? HUSBAND/PARTNER . 2 RESPONDENT AND HUSBAND/PARTNER JOINTLY. , •. 3 SOMEONE ELSE . 4 NOT APPLICABLE . 6 823 Do you own this house or any other house? ALONE ONLY . 1 JOINTLY ONLY . , .•. 2 IF YES, ASK: Are you the sole owner or do you own it BOTH ALONE AND JOINTLY . 3 jointly with someone else? DOES NOT OWN . 4 824 Do you own any land either alone or jointly with someone ALONE ONLY . 1 else? JOINTLY ONLy . , .•.•.•. 2 BOTH ALONE AND JOINTLY . , , • , 3 DOES NOT OWN . 4 IW-41 • 323Appendix E I NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP I 825 PRESENCE OF OTHERS AT THIS POINT (PRESENT PRES.! PRES.! NOT AND LISTENING. PRESENT BUT NOT LISTENING, LISTEN. NOT PRES. OR NOT PRES END LISTEN. CHILDREN < 10 1 2 3 HUSBAND . 1 2 3 OTHER MALES 1 2 3 OTHER FEMALES 1 2 3 826 Sometimes a husband is annoyed or angered by things that his wife does. In your opinion, is a husband justified in hitting or beating his wife in the following situations: YES NO DK If she goes out without telling him? GOES OUT . 1 2 8 If she neglects the children? NEGL. CHILDREN . 1 2 8 If she argues with him? ARGUES . 1 2 8 If she refuses to have sex with him? REFUSES SEX . 1 2 8 If she burns the food? BURNS FOOD . 1 2 8 IW-42 324 • Appendix E SECTION 9. HIV/AIDS NO. QUESTIONS AND FILTERS CODING CATEGORIES SKIP 901 Now I would like to talk about something else. Have YES . 1 you ever heard of an illness called AIDS? NO . 2 r--- 1OO1 902 HIV is the virus that causes AIDS. In your opinion, YES . 1 can people reduce their chance of getting the HIV, by NO . 2 having just one uninfected sex partner who has no DON'T KNOW . 8 other sex partners? 903 Can people get the HIV from mosquito bites? YES . 1 NO . 2 DON'T KNOW . 8 904 Can people reduce their chance of getting the HIV by YES . 1 using a condom every time they have sex? NO . 2 DON'T KNOW . 8 905 Can people get the H IV by sharing food with a person YES . 1 who has AIDS? NO . 2 DON'T KNOW . 8 906 Can people get the HIV by hugging or shaking hands YES . 1 with a person who is infected? NO . 2 DON'T KNOW . 8 907 Is it possible for a healthy-looking person to have the YES . 1 HIV? NO , . 2 DON'T KNOW . 8 908 Have you ever been tested for HIV? YES . 1 NO . 2 r--- 913 909 All women are supposed to receive counseling after YES . 1 being tested. After you were tested, did you receive NO . 2 counseling? DON'T KNOW . 8 910 How many months ago was your most recent H1V test? IT] MONTHS AGO . 2 OR MORE YEARS AGO .•. 95 911 Did you get the result? YES . 1 NO . 2 912 Where was the test done? PUBLIC SECTOR GOVERNMENT HOSPITAL . 11 PROBE TO IDENTIFY THE TYPE OF SOURCE. OTHER PUBLIC SECTOR 16 IF UNABLE TO DETERMINE IF PUBLIC OR (SPECIFY) [>1001 PRIVATE SECTOR. WRITE THE NAME OF THE PRIVATE SECTOR FACILITY/PLACE. PRIVATE HOSPITAL/CLINIC . 21 PRIVATE LABORATORY •.•. 22 OTHER PRIVATE 26 (NAME OF FACILITY/PLACE) (SPECIFY) 913 Do yo