Papua New Guinea - Demographic and Health Survey - 2019

Publication date: 2019

Papua New Guinea Demographic and Health Survey 2016-18 D em ographic and H ealth S urvey P apua N ew G uinea 2016-18 Papua New Guinea Demographic and Health Survey 2016-18 National Statistical Office Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea The DHS Program ICF Rockville, Maryland, USA November 2019 The 2016-18 Papua New Guinea Demographic and Health Survey (2016-18 PNG DHS) was implemented by the National Statistical Office from October 2016 to December 2018. Funding for the 2016-18 PNG DHS was provided by the Government of Papua New Guinea (GOPNG), the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). ICF provided technical assistance through The DHS Program, a project funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) that provides support and technical assistance in the implementation of population and health surveys in countries worldwide. Additional information about the 2016-18 PNG DHS may be obtained from the Population and Social Statistics Division, National Statistical Office, Kumul Avenue, P.O. Box 337, Waigani 133, NCD, PNG (telephone: +675-301-1200/+675-325-0612; fax: +675-325-1869/323-7040; email: info@nso.gov.pg; website: www.nso.gov.pg). Information about The DHS Program may be obtained from ICF, 530 Gaither Road, Suite 500, Rockville, MD 20850, USA; telephone: +1-301-407-6500; fax: +1-301-407-6501; email: info@DHSprogram.com; internet: www.DHSprogram.com. Cover photograph: © 2019 Nik Borrow. Recommended citation: National Statistical Office (NSO) [Papua New Guinea] and ICF. 2019. Papua New Guinea Demographic and Health Survey 2016-18. Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: NSO and ICF. Contents • iii CONTENTS TABLES AND FIGURES . vii FOREWORD . xv 2016-18 PNG DHS COMMITTEES . xvii CONTRIBUTORS TO THE REPORT . xix ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS . xxi READING AND UNDERSTANDING TABLES FROM THE 2016-18 PNG DHS . xxiii SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS INDICATORS . xxxi MAP OF PAPUA NEW GUINEA . xxxii 1 INTRODUCTION AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY . 1 1.1 Survey Objectives . 1 1.2 Sample Design . 1 1.3 Questionnaires . 2 1.4 Pretest . 3 1.5 Training of Field Staff . 3 1.6 Fieldwork . 4 1.7 Data Processing . 4 1.8 Response Rates . 5 2 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSEHOLD POPULATION . 7 2.1 Drinking Water Sources and Treatment . 7 2.2 Sanitation . 8 2.3 Exposure to Smoke inside the Home . 9 2.4 Household Wealth . 10 2.5 Hand Washing . 11 2.6 Household Population and Composition . 11 2.7 Children’s Living Arrangements and Parental Survival . 12 2.8 Birth Registration . 12 2.9 Education . 13 2.9.1 Educational Attainment . 13 2.9.2 School Attendance . 13 2.10 Household Food Insecurity . 15 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS . 35 3.1 Background Characteristics of Survey Respondents . 35 3.2 Education and Literacy . 36 3.3 Mass Media Exposure and Internet Usage . 37 3.4 Employment . 38 3.5 Occupation . 38 3.6 Health Insurance Coverage . 39 3.7 Tobacco and Betel Nut Use . 39 4 MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY . 65 4.1 Marital Status . 65 4.2 Polygyny . 66 4.3 Age at First Marriage . 66 4.4 Age at First Sexual Intercourse . 67 4.5 Recent Sexual Activity . 68 iv • Contents 5 FERTILITY . 79 5.1 Current Fertility . 79 5.2 Children Ever Born and Living . 81 5.3 Birth Intervals . 81 5.4 Insusceptibility to Pregnancy . 81 5.5 Age at First Birth . 82 5.6 Teenage Childbearing . 83 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . 93 6.1 Desire for Another Child . 93 6.2 Ideal Family Size . 94 6.3 Fertility Planning Status . 95 6.4 Wanted Fertility Rates . 96 7 FAMILY PLANNING . 103 7.1 Contraceptive Knowledge and Use . 104 7.2 Knowledge of Women’s Fertile Period . 105 7.3 Timing of Female Sterilisation . 105 7.4 Source of Modern Contraceptive Methods . 106 7.5 Informed Choice . 106 7.6 Discontinuation of Contraceptives . 106 7.7 Demand for Family Planning . 107 7.8 Decision Making about Family Planning . 108 7.9 Future Use of Contraception . 109 7.10 Exposure to Family Planning Messages in the Media . 109 7.11 Contact of Nonusers with Family Planning Providers . 109 7.12 Knowledge of Family Planning Policy . 110 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY . 127 8.1 Infant and Child Mortality . 128 8.2 Biodemographic Risk Factors . 129 8.3 Perinatal Mortality . 129 8.4 High-risk Fertility Behaviour . 130 9 MATERNAL HEALTH CARE . 135 9.1 Antenatal Care Coverage and Content . 136 9.1.1 Skilled Providers . 136 9.1.2 Timing and Number of ANC Visits . 136 9.2 Components of ANC . 137 9.3 Protection against Neonatal Tetanus . 137 9.4 Delivery Services . 138 9.4.1 Institutional Deliveries . 138 9.4.2 Skilled Assistance during Delivery . 138 9.4.3 Delivery by Caesarean Section . 139 9.4.4 Delivery Complications . 140 9.5 Postnatal Care . 140 9.5.1 Postnatal Health Check for Mothers . 140 9.5.2 Postnatal Health Care for Newborns . 141 9.6 Problems in Accessing Health Care . 142 9.7 Visits to Health Facilities by Women and Men . 143 Contents • v 10 CHILD HEALTH . 165 10.1 Birth Weight . 165 10.2 Vaccination of Children. 166 10.3 Symptoms of Acute Respiratory Infection . 168 10.4 Fever . 169 10.5 Diarrhoeal Disease . 169 10.5.1 Prevalence of Diarrhoea and Treatment-seeking Behaviour . 169 10.5.2 Feeding Practices . 170 10.5.3 Oral Rehydration Therapy and Other Treatments for Diarrhoea . 170 10.5.4 Knowledge of ORS Packets . 171 10.6 Treatment of Childhood Illness . 172 10.7 Disposal of Children’s Stools . 172 11 NUTRITION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN . 189 11.1 Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices . 189 11.1.1 Early Initiation of Breastfeeding . 190 11.1.2 Exclusive Breastfeeding . 190 11.1.3 Bottle Feeding . 191 11.1.4 Introduction of Complementary Foods . 191 11.1.5 Minimum Dietary Diversity, Minimum Meal Frequency, and Minimum Acceptable Diet . 192 11.2 Presence of Iodised Salt in Households . 194 11.3 Micronutrient Intake and Supplementation among Children. 194 11.4 Micronutrient Supplementation and Deworming during Pregnancy . 195 12 MALARIA . 207 12.1 Ownership of Insecticide-treated Nets . 207 12.2 Household Access to and Use of ITNs . 209 12.3 Use of ITNs by Children and Pregnant Women . 210 12.4 Malaria in Pregnancy . 210 12.5 Case Management of Malaria in Children . 211 13 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOUR . 225 13.1 HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Transmission, and Prevention Methods . 226 13.2 Knowledge about Mother-to-Child Transmission . 227 13.3 Discriminatory Attitudes towards People Living with HIV . 227 13.4 Multiple Sexual Partners . 228 13.5 Paid Sex . 229 13.6 Coverage of HIV Testing Services . 229 13.6.1 Awareness of HIV Testing Services and Experience with HIV Testing . 229 13.6.2 HIV Testing of Pregnant Women . 230 13.7 Male Circumcision . 230 13.8 Self-reporting of Sexually Transmitted Infections . 231 13.9 HIV/AIDS-related Knowledge and Behaviour among Young People . 231 13.9.1 Knowledge . 231 13.9.2 First Sex . 231 13.9.3 Premarital Sex . 232 13.9.4 Multiple Sexual Partners . 232 13.9.5 Coverage of HIV Testing Services . 232 14 ADULT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY . 251 14.1 Data . 251 14.2 Direct Estimates of Adult Mortality . 252 vi • Contents 14.3 Direct Estimates of Maternal Mortality . 253 14.4 Pregnancy-related Mortality . 254 15 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT . 259 15.1 Married Women’s and Men’s Employment . 260 15.2 Control over Women’s Earnings . 260 15.3 Control over Men’s Earnings . 261 15.4 Women’s Control over Their Own Earnings and over Those of Their Husbands . 261 15.5 Women’s and Men’s Ownership of Assets . 262 15.6 Ownership of Title or Deed for House and Land . 262 15.7 Ownership and Use of Bank Accounts and Mobile Phones . 262 15.8 Women’s Participation in Decision Making . 263 15.9 Attitudes toward Wife Beating . 264 15.10 Negotiating Sexual Relations . 264 15.11 Women’s Empowerment and Demographic and Health Outcomes . 265 16 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE . 289 16.1 Measurement of Violence . 290 16.2 Women’s Experience of Physical Violence. 290 16.2.1 Perpetrators of Physical Violence . 291 16.3 Experience of Sexual Violence . 291 16.3.1 Prevalence of Sexual Violence . 291 16.3.2 Perpetrators of Sexual Violence . 292 16.4 Experience of Different Forms of Violence . 292 16.5 Marital Control by Husband . 292 16.6 Forms of Spousal Violence . 293 16.6.1 Prevalence of Spousal Violence . 293 16.6.2 Onset of Spousal Violence . 295 16.7 Injuries to Women due to Spousal Violence . 296 16.8 Violence Initiated by Women against Husbands . 296 16.9 Help Seeking among Women Who Have Experienced Violence . 297 APPENDIX A SAMPLE DESIGN . 317 A.1 Introduction . 317 A.2 Sample Frame . 317 A.3 Sample Design and Implementation . 318 A.4 Sample Probabilities and Sampling Weights . 322 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . 325 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES . 337 APPENDIX D PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 2016-18 PAPUA NEW GUINEA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY . 345 APPENDIX E QUESTIONNAIRES . 351 Reference Years during Fieldwork . 353 Household Questionnaire . 355 Woman's Questionnaire . 383 Man's Questionnaire . 459 Tables and Figures • vii TABLES AND FIGURES 1 INTRODUCTION AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY . 1 Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews . 6 2 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSEHOLD POPULATION . 7 Table 2.1.1 Household drinking water . 16 Table 2.1.2 Drinking water according to region, province, and wealth . 17 Table 2.1.3 Treatment of household drinking water . 17 Table 2.2 Availability of water . 18 Table 2.3.1 Household sanitation facilities . 18 Table 2.3.2 Sanitation facility type according to region, province, and wealth . 19 Table 2.4 Household characteristics . 20 Table 2.5 Household possessions . 21 Table 2.6 Household possession of livestock, food and cash crops, and fish farming . 21 Table 2.7 Household consumption of rice, flour, and salt . 22 Table 2.8 Wealth quintiles . 22 Table 2.9 Handwashing . 23 Table 2.10 Household population by age, sex, and residence . 24 Table 2.11 Household composition . 25 Table 2.12 Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood . 26 Table 2.13 Birth registration of children under age 5 . 27 Table 2.14.1 Educational attainment of the female household population . 28 Table 2.14.2 Educational attainment of the male household population . 29 Table 2.15.1 Current school attendance: Female . 30 Table 2.15.2 Current school attendance: Male. 31 Table 2.16 School attendance ratios . 32 Table 2.17 Household food insecurity . 34 Figure 2.1 Household drinking water by residence . 8 Figure 2.2 Household toilet facilities by residence . 9 Figure 2.3 Household wealth by residence. 11 Figure 2.4 Population pyramid . 12 Figure 2.5 Birth registration by household wealth . 13 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS . 35 Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents . 41 Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment: Women . 43 Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: Men . 44 Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women . 45 Table 3.3.2 Literacy: Men . 46 Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women . 47 Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: Men . 48 Table 3.5.1 Internet usage: Women . 49 Table 3.5.2 Internet usage: Men. 50 Table 3.6.1 Employment status: Women . 51 Table 3.6.2 Employment status: Men . 52 Table 3.7.1 Occupation: Women . 53 Table 3.7.2 Occupation: Men . 54 Table 3.8 Type of employment: Women . 55 Table 3.9.1 Agricultural and non-agricultural employment: Women . 56 Table 3.9.2 Agricultural and non-agricultural employment: Men . 57 Table 3.10.1 Health insurance coverage: Women . 58 viii • Tables and Figures Table 3.10.2 Health insurance coverage: Men . 59 Table 3.11.1 Tobacco smoking: Women . 60 Table 3.11.2 Tobacco smoking: Men . 61 Table 3.12 Average number of cigarettes smoked daily: Men . 62 Table 3.13 Betel nut chewing . 63 Figure 3.1 Education of survey respondents . 36 Figure 3.2 Secondary education by household wealth . 36 Figure 3.3 Exposure to mass media . 37 Figure 3.4 Employment status by education . 38 Figure 3.5 Occupation . 39 4 MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY . 65 Table 4.1 Current marital status . 69 Table 4.2.1 Number of women’s co-wives . 70 Table 4.2.2 Number of men’s wives . 71 Table 4.3 Age at first marriage . 72 Table 4.4 Median age at first marriage by background characteristics . 73 Table 4.5 Age at first sexual intercourse . 74 Table 4.6 Median age at first sexual intercourse by background characteristics . 75 Table 4.7.1 Recent sexual activity: Women. 76 Table 4.7.2 Recent sexual activity: Men . 77 Figure 4.1 Marital status . 65 Figure 4.2 Women’s median age at marriage by education . 67 Figure 4.3 Median age at first sex and first marriage . 67 5 FERTILITY . 79 Table 5.1 Current fertility . 85 Table 5.2 Fertility by background characteristics . 85 Table 5.3.1 Trends in age-specific fertility rates: 2016-18 survey . 86 Table 5.3.2 Trends in fertility rates: 2006 and 2016-18 surveys . 86 Table 5.4 Children ever born and living . 87 Table 5.5 Birth intervals . 88 Table 5.6 Postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence, and insusceptibility . 89 Table 5.7 Median duration of amenorrhoea, postpartum abstinence, and postpartum insusceptibility . 89 Table 5.8 Menopause . 90 Table 5.9 Age at first birth . 90 Table 5.10 Median age at first birth . 91 Table 5.11 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood . 92 Table 5.12 Sexual and reproductive health behaviours before age 15 . 92 Figure 5.1 Age-specific fertility rates by residence . 80 Figure 5.2 Fertility by mother’s education . 80 Figure 5.3 Birth intervals . 81 Figure 5.4 Teenage pregnancy by education . 83 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . 93 Table 6.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children . 97 Table 6.2.1 Desire to limit childbearing: Women . 97 Table 6.2.2 Desire to limit childbearing: Men . 98 Table 6.3 Ideal number of children by number of living children . 99 Table 6.4 Mean ideal number of children according to background characteristics . 100 Table 6.5 Fertility planning status . 101 Table 6.6 Wanted fertility rates . 102 Tables and Figures • ix Figure 6.1 Desire to limit childbearing by number of living children . 94 Figure 6.2 Ideal family size . 94 Figure 6.3 Ideal family size by number of living children . 95 Figure 6.4 Fertility planning status . 95 Figure 6.5 Wanted and actual fertility by residence . 96 7 FAMILY PLANNING . 103 Table 7.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods . 111 Table 7.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods according to background characteristics . 112 Table 7.3 Current use of contraception by age . 113 Table 7.4 Current use of contraception according to background characteristics . 114 Table 7.5 Knowledge of fertile period . 116 Table 7.6 Knowledge of fertile period by age . 116 Table 7.7 Timing of sterilisation . 116 Table 7.8 Source of modern contraception methods . 117 Table 7.9 Informed choice . 117 Table 7.10 Twelve-month contraceptive discontinuation rates . 118 Table 7.11 Reasons for discontinuation . 118 Table 7.12.1 Need and demand for family planning among currently married women . 119 Table 7.12.2 Need and demand for family planning among all women and sexually active unmarried women . 120 Table 7.13 Decision making about family planning . 121 Table 7.14 Future use of contraception . 122 Table 7.15 Exposure to family planning messages . 123 Table 7.16 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers . 124 Table 7.17 Knowledge of family planning policy . 125 Figure 7.1 Contraceptive use . 104 Figure 7.2 Use of modern methods by residence . 105 Figure 7.3 Source of modern contraceptive methods . 106 Figure 7.4 Contraceptive discontinuation rates . 107 Figure 7.5 Demand for family planning . 108 Figure 7.6 Unmet need by household wealth . 108 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY . 127 Table 8.1 Early childhood mortality rates . 131 Table 8.2 Five-year early childhood mortality rates according to background characteristics . 131 Table 8.3 Ten-year early childhood mortality rates according to additional characteristics . 132 Table 8.4 Perinatal mortality . 133 Table 8.5 High-risk fertility behaviour . 134 Figure 8.1 Under-5 mortality by mother’s education . 128 Figure 8.2 Childhood mortality by previous birth interval . 129 Figure 8.3 Perinatal mortality by mother’s age at birth . 130 9 MATERNAL HEALTH CARE . 135 Table 9.1 Antenatal care . 144 Table 9.2 Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit . 145 Table 9.3 Components of antenatal care . 146 Table 9.4 Tetanus toxoid injections . 147 Table 9.5 Place of delivery . 148 Table 9.6 Assistance during delivery . 149 Table 9.7 Caesarean section . 150 Table 9.8 Duration of stay in health facility after birth . 151 x • Tables and Figures Table 9.9 Delivery complications . 151 Table 9.10 Timing of first postnatal check for the mother . 152 Table 9.11 Type of provider of first postnatal check for the mother . 153 Table 9.12 Timing of first postnatal check for the newborn . 154 Table 9.13 Type of provider of first postnatal check for the newborn . 155 Table 9.14 Content of postnatal care for newborns . 156 Table 9.15 Cord cutting . 157 Table 9.16 Cord care . 158 Table 9.17 Use of chlorhexidine . 159 Table 9.18 Problems in accessing health care . 160 Table 9.19.1 Visits to health facilities: Women . 161 Table 9.19.2 Visits to health facilities: Men . 162 Table 9.20 Source for advice or treatment . 163 Figure 9.1 Components of antenatal care . 137 Figure 9.2 Health facility births by mother’s education . 138 Figure 9.3 Assistance during delivery . 139 Figure 9.4 Skilled assistance at delivery by mother’s education . 139 Figure 9.5 Postnatal care by place of delivery . 141 10 CHILD HEALTH . 165 Table 10.1 Child’s size and weight at birth. 174 Table 10.2 Vaccinations by source of information . 175 Table 10.3 Vaccinations by background characteristics . 176 Table 10.4 Possession and observation of vaccination cards according to background characteristics . 178 Table 10.5 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI . 179 Table 10.6 Source of advice or treatment for children with symptoms of ARI . 180 Table 10.7 Prevalence and treatment of fever . 181 Table 10.8 Prevalence and treatment of diarrhoea . 182 Table 10.9 Feeding practices during diarrhoea . 183 Table 10.10 Oral rehydration therapy, zinc, and other treatments for diarrhoea . 184 Table 10.11 Source of advice or treatment for children with diarrhoea. 185 Table 10.12 Knowledge of ORS packets . 186 Table 10.13 Disposal of children’s stools . 187 Figure 10.1 Childhood vaccinations . 168 Figure 10.2 Vaccination coverage by household wealth . 168 Figure 10.3 Diarrhoea prevalence by age . 170 Figure 10.4 Feeding practices during diarrhoea . 170 Figure 10.5 Treatment of diarrhoea . 171 Figure 10.6 Prevalence and treatment of childhood illness . 172 11 NUTRITION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN . 189 Table 11.1 Initial breastfeeding . 197 Table 11.2 Breastfeeding status by age . 198 Table 11.3 Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) indicators on breastfeeding status . 198 Table 11.4 Median duration of breastfeeding . 199 Table 11.5 Foods and liquids consumed by children in the day or night preceding the interview . 200 Table 11.6 Minimum acceptable diet . 201 Table 11.7 Presence of iodised salt in household . 202 Table 11.8 Micronutrient intake among children . 203 Table 11.9 Micronutrient intake among mothers . 205 Figure 11.1 Breastfeeding practices by age . 191 Figure 11.2 IYCF indicators on minimum acceptable diet . 193 Tables and Figures • xi 12 MALARIA . 207 Table 12.1 Household possession of mosquito nets . 213 Table 12.2 Source of mosquito nets . 214 Table 12.3 Access to an insecticide-treated net (ITN) . 215 Table 12.4 Access to an ITN by background characteristics . 215 Table 12.5 Use of mosquito nets by persons in the household . 216 Table 12.6 Use of existing ITNs . 217 Table 12.7 Use of mosquito nets by children . 218 Table 12.8 Use of mosquito nets by pregnant women . 219 Table 12.9 Use of intermittent preventive treatment (IPTp) by women during pregnancy . 220 Table 12.10 Prevalence, diagnosis, and prompt treatment of children with fever . 221 Table 12.11 Source of advice or treatment for children with fever . 222 Table 12.12 Type of antimalarial drugs used . 223 Figure 12.1 Household ownership of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) . 208 Figure 12.2 Insecticide-treated net (ITN) ownership by household wealth . 208 Figure 12.3 Source of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) . 208 Figure 12.4 Access to and use of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) by residence . 209 Figure 12.5 Insecticide-treated net (ITN) use. 210 13 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOUR . 225 Table 13.1 Knowledge of HIV or AIDS . 234 Table 13.2 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods . 235 Table 13.3 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV . 236 Table 13.4 Knowledge of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV . 236 Table 13.5 Discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV . 237 Table 13.6.1 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: Women . 238 Table 13.6.2 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: Men . 239 Table 13.7 Payment for sexual intercourse and condom use at last paid sexual intercourse . 240 Table 13.8.1 Coverage of prior HIV testing: Women . 241 Table 13.8.2 Coverage of prior HIV testing: Men . 242 Table 13.9 Pregnant women counselled and tested for HIV . 243 Table 13.10 Male circumcision . 244 Table 13.11 Self-reported prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and STI symptoms . 245 Table 13.12 Women and men seeking treatment for STIs . 246 Table 13.13 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV among young people . 246 Table 13.14 Age at first sexual intercourse among young people . 247 Table 13.15 Premarital sexual intercourse among young people . 247 Table 13.16.1 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months among young people: Women . 248 Table 13.16.2 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months among young people: Men . 249 Table 13.17 Recent HIV tests among young people . 249 Figure 13.1 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of HIV . 227 Figure 13.2 Discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV by education . 228 Figure 13.3 HIV testing . 229 14 ADULT AND MATERNAL MORTALITY . 251 Table 14.1 Completeness of information on siblings . 256 Table 14.2 Adult mortality rates . 256 xii • Tables and Figures Table 14.3 Adult mortality probabilities . 257 Table 14.4 Maternal mortality . 257 Figure 14.1 Adult mortality rates by age . 253 15 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT . 259 Table 15.1 Employment and cash earnings of currently married women and men . 267 Table 15.2.1 Control over women’s cash earnings and relative magnitude of women’s cash earnings . 268 Table 15.2.2 Control over men’s cash earnings . 269 Table 15.3 Women’s control over their own earnings and over those of their husbands. 270 Table 15.4.1 Ownership of assets: Women . 271 Table 15.4.2 Ownership of assets: Men . 272 Table 15.5.1 Ownership of title or deed for house: Women . 273 Table 15.5.2 Ownership of title or deed for house: Men . 274 Table 15.6.1 Ownership of title or deed for land: Women . 275 Table 15.6.2 Ownership of title or deed for land: Men . 276 Table 15.7.1 Ownership and use of bank accounts and mobile phones: Women . 277 Table 15.7.2 Ownership and use of bank accounts and mobile phones: Men. 278 Table 15.8 Participation in decision making . 279 Table 15.9.1 Women’s participation in decision making by background characteristics . 280 Table 15.9.2 Men’s participation in decision making by background characteristics . 281 Table 15.10.1 Attitude toward wife beating: Women . 282 Table 15.10.2 Attitude toward wife beating: Men . 283 Table 15.11 Attitudes toward negotiating safer sexual relations with husband . 284 Table 15.12 Ability to negotiate sexual relations with husband . 285 Table 15.13 Indicators of women’s empowerment . 286 Table 15.14 Current use of contraception by women’s empowerment . 286 Table 15.15 Ideal number of children and unmet need for family planning by women’s empowerment . 287 Table 15.16 Reproductive health care by women’s empowerment . 287 Table 15.17 Early childhood mortality rates by indicators of women’s empowerment . 288 Figure 15.1 Employment by age . 260 Figure 15.2 Control over women’s earnings . 261 Figure 15.3 Ownership of assets . 262 Figure 15.4 Women’s participation in decision making. 263 Figure 15.5 Attitudes towards wife beating . 264 16 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE . 289 Table 16.1 Experience of physical violence . 299 Table 16.2 Experience of violence during pregnancy . 300 Table 16.3 Persons committing physical violence . 301 Table 16.4 Experience of sexual violence. 302 Table 16.5 Age at first experience of sexual violence . 303 Table 16.6 Persons committing sexual violence . 303 Table 16.7 Experience of different forms of violence . 303 Table 16.8 Marital control exercised by husbands . 304 Table 16.9 Forms of spousal violence . 305 Table 16.10 Spousal violence by background characteristics . 306 Table 16.11 Spousal violence by husband’s characteristics and empowerment indicators . 307 Table 16.12 Violence by any husband/partner in the last 12 months. 308 Table 16.13 Experience of spousal violence by duration of marriage . 309 Table 16.14 Injuries to women due to spousal violence . 309 Tables and Figures • xiii Table 16.15 Violence by women against their husband by women’s background characteristics . 310 Table 16.16 Violence by women against their husband by husband’s characteristics and empowerment indicators . 312 Table 16.17 Help seeking to stop violence . 313 Table 16.18 Sources for help to stop the violence . 314 Figure 16.1 Women’s experience of violence by marital status . 291 Figure 16.2 Forms of spousal violence . 294 Figure 16.3 Spousal violence by husband’s alcohol consumption . 295 Figure 16.4 Help seeking by type of violence experienced . 297 APPENDIX A SAMPLE DESIGN . 317 Table A.1 Household distribution . 318 Table A.2 Census units . 318 Table A.3 Sample allocation of clusters and households by province . 319 Table A.4 Sample allocation of expected completed interviews with women and men 15-49 by province . 320 Table A.5 Sample implementation: Women . 321 Table A.6 Sample implementation: Men . 322 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . 325 Table B.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 . 327 Table B.2 Sampling errors: National sample, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 . 328 Table B.3 Sampling errors: Urban sample, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 . 329 Table B.4 Sampling errors: Rural sample, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 . 330 Table B.5 Sampling errors: Southern region sample, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 . 331 Table B.6 Sampling errors: Highlands region sample, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 . 332 Table B.7 Sampling errors: Momase region sample, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 . 333 Table B.8 Sampling errors: Islands region sample, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016- 18 . 334 Table B.9 Adult mortality rates and maternal mortality rates for last 0-6 years, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 . 335 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES . 337 Table C.1 Household age distribution . 337 Table C.2.1 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . 337 Table C.2.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men . 338 Table C.3 Completeness of reporting . 338 Table C.4 Births by calendar years . 339 Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in days . 339 Table C.6 Reporting of age at death in months . 340 Table C.7 Height and weight data completeness and quality for children . 341 Table C.8 Sibship size and sex ratio of siblings . 343 Table C.9 Pregnancy-related mortality . 343 Foreword • xv FOREWORD he Papua New Guinea Demographic and Health Survey (PNG DHS) is a nationally representative survey conducted as a periodic update of the demographic and health situation in Papua New Guinea (PNG). The 2016-18 PNG DHS is the first DHS conducted in PNG in collaboration with the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys Program, which is a global programme coordinated by ICF, based in Rockville, Maryland, USA. The survey was implemented by the PNG National Statistical Office (PNG NSO). The 2016-18 PNG DHS final report provides information on basic indicators of fertility, fertility preferences, family planning practices, childhood mortality, maternal and child health, knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS, domestic violence, and other related health issues. These important indicators are crucial in policy development, programme planning, and monitoring and evaluation of population and health programmes in the country. In addition to national estimates, the report provides estimates of key indicators for both urban and rural areas, the 4 regions, and the 22 provinces of PNG. The successful completion of the 2016-18 PNG DHS was made possible through contributions from a number of organisations and individuals. The PNG NSO deeply appreciates the financial support from the Government of PNG (GOPNG), the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). Appreciation is also extended to ICF for expert advice in the implementation of the 2016-18 PNG DHS. The PNG NSO is grateful to the core DHS project team for their tireless efforts in managing the technical, administrative, and logistical aspects of the survey. Furthermore, the efforts of the master trainers during training and monitoring of fieldwork, the field data collection teams, the data processing team, the provincial administrations, and the various stakeholders and development partners represented on the Technical and Steering Committees are greatly acknowledged. The PNG NSO is equally grateful to the survey respondents for their time and patience and for the information they shared during the interviews. John Igitoi Acting National Statistician PNG National Statistical Office T 2016-18 PNG DHS Committees • xvii 2016-18 PNG DHS COMMITTEES NATIONAL STEERING COMMITTEE Department of Treasury Department of Finance Department of National Planning and Monitoring National Department of Health National Research Institute University of Papua New Guinea Department of Education National AIDS Council Secretariat Department of Prime Minister and National Executive Council Department of Personnel Management United Nations Children’s Fund United Nations Population Fund World Health Organization Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade - Australian High Commission U.S. Embassy - United States Agency for International Development National Statistical Office United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS Oil Search Foundation USER ADVISORY COMMITTEE Department of National Planning and Monitoring National Department of Health National Research Institute University of Papua New Guinea Department of Education National AIDS Council Secretariat United Nations Children’s Fund United Nations Population Fund World Health Organization Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade - Australian High Commission U.S. Embassy - Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Statistical Office Department for Community Development Department of Agriculture & Livestock Department of Labour & Industrial Relations United Nations Programme on HIV and AIDS Food & Agriculture Organization Contributors to the Report • xix CONTRIBUTORS TO THE REPORT Mr. Desmond Sow, Branch Head, GIS, Population and Social Statistics Division, National Statistical Office Dr. Edward Waramin, Manager, Population and Family Health Services, National Department of Health Ms. Eileen Dogimab, Technical Advisor, Nutrition and Diabetics, National Department of Health Ms. Emma Powan, National Program Specialist, United Nations Population Fund Mr. Gadafi Raisis, Research Officer, Population and Social Statistics Division, National Statistical Office Ms. Hajily Kele, Head, Population and Social Statistics Division, National Statistical Office Mr. Ila Rouka, Statistician, National Health Information System, National Department of Health Mr. Josiah Joseph, Acting Branch Head, Field Operations, National Statistical Office Mr. Leo Sora Makita, Program Manager, Malaria and Vector Borne Disease, National Department of Health Ms. Lina Bade, Local Technical Support Staff, Population and Social Statistics Division, National Statistical Office Ms. Martha Pogo, Technical Officer, Youth and Adolescents Health Lifestyle, National Department of Health Dr. Mathias Bauri, Programme Manager, Expanded Programme on Immunisation, National Department of Health Mr. Michael Kaivepa, Acting Branch Head, Research and Development, National Statistical Office Mr. Philip Vagi, Acting Technical Advisor, Women’s Health, National Department of Health Mr. Pokoi Oldima, Research Officer, Population and Social Statistics Division, National Statistical Office Ms. Rita Pala, Local Technical Support, Population and Social Statistics Division, National Statistical Office Ms. Serah Khell Vito, Statistician, Population and Social Statistics Division, National Statistical Office Mr. Simeon Emboge, Research Officer, Population and Social Statistics Division, National Statistical Office Acronyms and Abbreviations • xxi ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS ACT artemisinin-based combination therapy AIDS acquired immunodeficiency syndrome ANC antenatal care ARI acute respiratory infection ART antiretroviral therapy ASFR age-specific fertility rate BCG bacille Calmette-Guerin vaccine against tuberculosis BMI body mass index BMS basic medical sciences CAFE computer-assisted field editing CBR crude birth rate CEB children ever born CI confidence interval CPR contraceptive prevalence rate CSPro Census and Survey Processing System CU census unit DFAT Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade DHS Demographic and Health Survey DPT diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus vaccine FAO Food and Agriculture Organisation GAR gross attendance ratio GBV gender-based violence GFR general fertility rate GOPNG Government of Papua New Guinea GPI gender parity index HepB hepatitis B Hib Haemophilus influenzae type B HIV human immunodeficiency virus IFSS internet file streaming system IPV inactivated polio vaccine IPTp intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy ITN insecticide-treated net IUD intrauterine contraceptive device IYCF infant and young child feeding LAM lactational amenorrhea method LLIN long-lasting insecticide-treated net LPG liquid petroleum gas xxii • Acronyms and Abbreviations MAD minimum acceptable diet MR measles and rubella MRL Micronutrient Research Laboratory MTCT mother-to-child transmission MUAC mid-upper-arm circumference NDOH National Department of Health NAR net attendance ratio NN neonatal mortality NPHC National Population and Housing Census NSO National Statistical Office OPV oral polio vaccine ORS oral rehydration salts ORT oral rehydration therapy PCV pneumococcal conjugate vaccine PMTCT prevention of mother-to-child transmission PNC postnatal care PNG Papua New Guinea PNN postneonatal mortality PPS probability proportional to size PRMR pregnancy-related mortality ratio PSU primary sampling unit RHF recommended homemade fluids SD standard deviation SDGs Sustainable Development Goals SMHS School of Medicine and Health Sciences SP sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine STI sexually-transmitted infection TFR total fertility rate UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund USAID United States Agency for International Development USI universal salt iodisation VAD vitamin A deficiency VIP ventilated improved pit VMMC voluntary medical male circumcision WHO World Health Organization Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2016-18 PNG DHS • xxiii READING AND UNDERSTANDING TABLES FROM THE 2016-18 PNG DHS The 2016-18 Papua New Guinea DHS final report is based on approximately 200 tables of data. For quick reference, they are located at the end of each chapter and can be accessed through links in the pertinent text (electronic version). Additionally, this report features about 65 figures that clearly highlight subnational patterns and background characteristics. The text highlights key points in bullets and clearly identifies indicator definitions in boxes. While the text and figures featured in each chapter highlight some of the most important findings from the tables, not every finding can be discussed or displayed graphically. For this reason, PNG DHS data users should be comfortable reading and interpreting tables. The following pages provide an introduction to the organization of PNG DHS tables, the presentation of background characteristics, and a brief summary of sampling and understanding denominators. In addition, this section provides some exercises for users as they practice their new skills in interpreting PNG DHS tables. xxiv • Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2016-18 PNG DHS Example 1- Exposure to Mass Media: Women Questions Asked of All Survey Respondents Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women Percentage of women age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, according to background characteristics, PNG DHS 2016-18 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Accesses all three media at least once a week Accesses none of the three media at least once a week Number of women Age 15-19 20.9 17.5 21.9 8.5 67.2 2,945 20-24 21.8 19.4 23.2 8.3 64.4 2,759 25-29 18.0 13.8 19.1 5.8 71.3 2,543 30-34 15.9 13.6 17.1 4.6 72.8 2,180 35-39 13.4 12.6 14.4 4.1 75.9 2,059 40-44 14.1 13.7 14.4 4.2 73.8 1,484 45-49 13.9 12.3 13.4 4.0 75.3 1,228 Residence Urban 41.1 46.1 41.5 20.1 34.6 2,018 Rural 14.0 10.5 15.0 3.9 76.2 13,180 Region Southern 22.9 21.9 24.3 9.7 62.3 2,899 Highlands 14.0 15.5 16.8 5.6 74.1 6,213 Momase 18.3 12.9 18.0 5.0 70.2 3,919 Islands 19.5 9.7 16.6 4.5 72.7 2,167 Province Western 9.0 5.6 12.6 1.4 80.9 352 Gulf 13.3 17.2 18.2 5.2 70.9 277 Central 28.8 25.3 31.0 12.8 54.2 557 National Capital District 54.8 65.3 54.0 30.5 17.6 526 Milne Bay 10.6 5.8 10.9 1.6 81.0 767 Northern 15.8 9.5 16.3 4.2 73.8 421 Southern Highlands 7.6 4.2 5.6 1.4 87.4 1,089 Enga 13.8 19.6 18.5 6.0 72.8 563 Western Highlands 18.4 20.4 25.5 10.3 66.8 746 Chimbu 18.3 18.0 17.3 8.2 70.5 1,038 Eastern Highlands 15.2 28.3 28.5 7.5 61.6 1,310 Morobe 28.2 20.5 20.0 7.7 60.7 1,514 Madang 16.7 9.5 19.7 4.2 71.5 987 East Sepik 11.6 9.7 21.0 4.1 72.6 872 West Sepik 4.5 3.3 4.9 0.6 90.6 545 Manus 37.4 13.3 35.7 7.5 49.4 135 New Ireland 25.0 5.2 15.1 3.3 71.0 385 East New Britain 14.6 13.1 14.8 4.9 76.3 572 West New Britain 16.9 8.1 15.9 4.8 77.2 532 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 18.6 10.1 15.6 4.1 71.4 544 Hela 11.7 4.1 7.3 2.4 85.5 874 Jiwaka 13.7 10.1 12.1 2.7 77.0 594 Education No education 0.3 3.3 5.7 0.2 93.2 3,488 Elementary 0.9 10.9 15.5 0.3 81.3 676 Primary 12.9 11.3 16.8 3.8 74.5 6,969 Secondary 41.4 28.9 30.8 13.9 45.8 3,460 Higher 53.9 55.5 45.0 27.2 27.3 605 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.2 1.8 3.8 0.6 93.7 2,783 Second 6.1 2.9 8.5 1.0 88.0 2,831 Middle 11.3 6.4 14.8 1.7 77.8 2,897 Fourth 17.5 10.7 18.9 3.8 70.2 3,118 Highest 43.2 46.6 40.7 19.9 33.5 3,569 Total 17.6 15.2 18.5 6.1 70.6 15,198 Step 1: Read the title and subtitle, highlighted in orange in the table above. They tell you the topic and the specific population group being described. In this case, the table is about women age 15-49 and their exposure to different types of media. All eligible female respondents age 15-49 were asked these questions. Step 2: Scan the column headings—highlighted in green in Example 1. They describe how the information is categorized. In this table, the first three columns of data show different types of media that women 1 2 3 4 5 Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2016-18 PNG DHS • xxv access at least once a week. The fourth column shows women who access all three types of media, while the fifth column shows women who do not access any of the three types of media on a weekly basis. The last column lists the number of women age 15-49 interviewed in the survey. Step 3: Scan the row headings—the first vertical column highlighted in blue in Example 1. These show the different ways the data are divided into categories based on population characteristics. In this case, the table presents women’s exposure to media by age, urban-rural residence, region, province, level of education, and wealth quintile. Most of the tables in the 2016-18 PNG DHS report will be divided into these same categories. Step 4: Look at the row at the bottom of the table highlighted in pink. These percentages represent the totals of all women age 15-49 and their weekly access to different types of media. In this case, 17.6%* of women age 15-49 read a newspaper at least once a week, 15.2% watch television at least weekly, and 18.5% listen to the radio on a weekly basis. Step 5: To find out what percentage of women with higher education access all three media at least once a week, draw two imaginary lines, as shown on the table. This shows that 27.2% of women age 15-49 with higher education access all three media at least once a week. By looking at patterns by background characteristics, we can see how exposure to mass media varies across Papua New Guinea. Mass media are often used to communicate health messages. Knowing how mass media exposure varies among different groups can help program planners and policy makers determine how to most effectively reach their target populations. *For the purpose of this document data are presented exactly as they appear in the table including decimal places. However, the text in the remainder of this report rounds data to the nearest whole percentage point. Practice: Use the table in Example 1 to answer the following questions: a) What percentage of women age 15-49 in Papua New Guinea do not access any of the three media at least once a week? b) Which age group of women are most likely to listen to the radio at least once a week? c) Compare women in urban areas to women in rural areas – which group is most likely to watch television weekly? d) What are the lowest and highest percentages (range) women who read a newspaper at least once a week by region? e) Is there a clear relationship in exposure to the radio on a weekly basis by education level? f) Is there a clear relationship in exposure to television on a weekly basis by wealth quintile? Answers: a) 70.6% b) Women age 20-24: 23.2% of women in this age group listen to the radio at least once a week. c) Women in urban areas, 46.1% of women in urban areas watch television weekly, compared to 10.5% of women in rural areas. d) Women’s weekly exposure to newspapers ranges from a low of 18.3% in Momase region to a high of 22.9% in Southern Region. e) Exposure to radio on a weekly basis increases as a woman’s level of education increases; 5.7% of women with no education listen to the radio on a weekly basis, compared to 45.0% of women with higher education. f) Exposure to television on a weekly basis increases as household wealth increases; 1.8% of women from the lowest wealth quintile watch television on a weekly basis, compared to 46.6% of women in the highest wealth quintile. xxvi • Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2016-18 PNG DHS Example 2: Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI A Question Asked of a Subgroup of Survey Respondents Table 10.5 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI Among children under age 5, percentage who had symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in the 2 weeks preceding the survey; and among children with symptoms of ARI in the 2 weeks preceding the survey, percentage for whom advice or treatment was sought, according to background characteristics, PNG DHS 2016-18 Among children under age 5: Among children under age 5 with symptoms of ARI: Background characteristic Percentage with symptoms of ARI1 Number of children Percentage for whom advice or treatment was sought2 Percentage for whom treatment was sought same or next day Number of children Age in months <6 3.0 919 (67.9) (36.3) 27 6-11 5.0 996 (71.2) (24.8) 49 12-23 3.9 1,763 54.7 22.3 69 24-35 2.3 1,843 63.1 42.4 43 36-47 2.3 1,984 59.5 38.6 46 48-59 1.3 1,865 (70.4) (28.7) 25 Sex Male 2.5 4,916 67.8 39.2 122 Female 3.1 4,455 58.8 23.9 138 Mother’s smoking status Smokes cigarettes/tobacco 3.1 2,609 52.3 26.9 82 Does not smoke 2.7 6,663 67.9 33.1 178 Residence Urban 2.8 984 85.7 43.1 27 Rural 2.8 8,387 60.3 29.7 232 Region Southern 2.9 1,850 63.0 39.7 54 Highlands 2.7 3,564 60.4 23.0 96 Momase 2.9 2,578 (69.0) (34.2) 75 Islands 2.5 1,378 57.0 33.5 34 Mother’s education No education 2.8 2,405 39.8 15.8 68 Elementary 4.2 476 * * 20 Primary 2.8 4,206 70.1 34.6 119 Secondary 2.2 1,918 83.6 49.4 41 Higher 3.0 366 * * 11 Wealth quintile Lowest 2.4 1,977 (47.7) (13.1) 48 Second 2.8 1,918 (70.3) (36.3) 53 Middle 3.3 1,931 49.0 26.0 65 Fourth 2.4 1,861 76.7 49.1 45 Highest 2.9 1,683 76.0 33.4 48 Total 2.8 9,371 63.0 31.1 260 Note: Total includes 99 cases with missing information on mother smoking status. Figures in parentheses are based on 25- 49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 1 Symptoms of ARI include short, rapid breathing which was chest-related and/or difficult breathing which was chest-related. 2 Includes advice or treatment from the following sources: public sector, private medical sector, shop, and market. Excludes advice or treatment from a traditional practitioner. Step 1: Read the title and subtitle. In this case, the table is about two separate groups of children: all children under age 5 (a) and children under age 5 with symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey (b). Step 2: Identify the two panels. First, identify the columns that refer to all children under age 5 (a), and then isolate the columns that refer only to children under age 5 with symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey (b). Step 3: Look at the first panel. What percentage of children under age 5 had symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey? It’s 2.8%. Now look at the second panel. How many children under age 5 had symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey? It’s 260 children or 2.8% of the 9,371 children under age 5 (with rounding). The second panel is a subset of the first panel. 1 2 3 4 a b 4 Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2016-18 PNG DHS • xxvii Step 4: Only 2.8% of children under age 5 had symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey. Once these children are further divided into the background characteristic categories, there may be too few cases for the percentages to be reliable. ▪ Among children age 48-59 months with symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey, what percentage had advice or treatment sought? 70.4%. This percentage is in parentheses because there are between 25 and 49 children age 48-59 months with symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey (unweighted) in this category. Readers should use this number with caution—it may not be reliable. (For more information on weighted and unweighted numbers, see Example 3.) ▪ Among children under age 5 with symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey whose mothers have higher education, what percentage had advice or treatment sought? There is no number in this cell—only an asterisk. This is because fewer than 25 children under age 5 whose mothers have higher education had symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey. Results for this group are not reported. The subgroup is too small, and therefore the data are not reliable. Note: When parentheses or asterisks are used in a table, the explanation will be noted under the table. If there are no parentheses or asterisks in a table, you can proceed with confidence that enough cases were included in all categories that the data are reliable. xxviii • Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2016-18 PNG DHS Example 3: Understanding Sampling Weights in 2016-18 PNG DHS Tables A sample is a group of people who have been selected for a survey. In the 2016-18 PNG DHS, the sample is designed to represent the national population age 15-49. In addition to national data, most countries want to collect and report data on smaller geographical or administrative areas. However, doing so requires a large enough sample size in each area. For the 2016-18 PNG DHS, the survey sample is representative at the national and regional levels, and for urban and rural areas. To generate statistics that are representative of the country as a whole and the 4 regions, the number of women surveyed in each region should contribute to the size of the total (national) sample in proportion to size of the region. However, if some regions have small populations, then a sample allocated in proportion to each region’s population may not include enough women from each region for analysis. To solve this problem, regions with small populations are oversampled. For example, let’s say that you have enough money to interview 15,198 women and want to produce results that are representative of Papua New Guinea as a whole and its regions (as in Table 3.1). However, the total population of Papua New Guinea is not evenly distributed among the regions: some regions, such as Highlands region, are heavily populated while others, such as Islands region are not. Thus, Islands region must be oversampled. A sampling statistician determines how many women should be interviewed in each region in order to get reliable statistics. The blue column (1) in the table at the right shows the actual number of women interviewed in each region. Within the regions, the number of women interviewed ranges from 3,060 in Momase region to 4,380 in Southern region. The number of interviews is sufficient to get reliable results in each region. With this distribution of interviews, some regions are overrepresented, and some regions are underrepresented. For example, the population in Highlands region is about 41% of the population in Papua New Guinea, while Islands region’s population contributes only 14% of the population in Papua New Guinea. But as the blue column shows, the number of women interviewed in Highlands accounts for only about 27% of the total sample of women interviewed (4,123 /15,198) and the number of women interviewed in Islands accounts for almost the same percentage of the total sample of women interviewed (24%, or 3,635 /15,198). This unweighted distribution of women does not accurately represent the population. In order to get statistics that are representative of Papua New Guinea, the distribution of the women in the sample needs to be weighted (or mathematically adjusted) such that it resembles the true distribution in the country. Women from a small region, like Islands, should only contribute a small amount to the national total. Women from a large region, like Highlands, should contribute much more. Therefore, DHS statisticians mathematically calculate a “weight” which is used to adjust the number of women from each region so that each region’s contribution to the total is proportional to the actual population of the region. The numbers in the purple column (2) represent the “weighted” values. The weighted values can be smaller or larger than the unweighted values at regional level. The total national sample size of 15,198 women has not changed after weighting, but the distribution of the women in the regions has been changed to represent their contribution to the total population size. How do statisticians weight each category? They take into account the probability that a woman was selected in the sample. If you were to compare the green column (3) to the actual population distribution Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by selected background characteristics, PNG DHS 2016-18 Women Background characteristic Weighted percent Weighted number Unweighted number Region Southern 19.1 2,899 4,380 Highlands 40.9 6,213 4,123 Momase 25.8 3,919 3,060 Islands 14.3 2,167 3,635 Total 15-49 100.0 15,198 15,198 1 2 3 Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2016-18 PNG DHS • xxix of Papua New Guinea, you would see that women in each region are contributing to the total sample with the same weight that they contribute to the population of the country. The weighted number of women in the survey now accurately represents the proportion of women who live in Highlands region and the proportion of women who live in Islands region. With sampling and weighting, it is possible to interview enough women to provide reliable statistics at national and regional levels. In general, only the weighted numbers are shown in each of the PNG DHS tables, so don’t be surprised if these numbers seem low: they may actually represent a larger number of women interviewed. Sustainable Development Goals Indicators • xxxi SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS INDICATORS Sustainable Development Goals Indicators-Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Sex Total DHS table number Indicator Male Female 3. Good health and well-being 3.1.1 Maternal mortality ratio1 na na 171 14.4 3.1.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel na na 56.4 9.6 3.2.1 Under-5 mortality rate2 48.0 49.0 49.0 8.2 3.2.2 Neonatal mortality rate2 21.0 20.0 20.0 8.2 3.7.1 Proportion of women of reproductive age (aged 15-49 years) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods na 49.2 na 7.12.2 3.7.2 Adolescent birth rates per 1,000 women a) Girls aged 10-14 years3 na 1.0 na 5.1 b) Women aged 15-19 years4 na 68.0 na 5.1 3.a.1 Age-standardized prevalence of current tobacco use among persons aged 15 years and older5 60.3 26.0 43.2a 3.11.1, 3.11.2 3.b.1 Proportion of the target population covered by all vaccines included in their national programme a) Coverage of DPT containing vaccine (3rd dose)6 39.2 44.6 41.7 10.3 b) Coverage of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (last dose in schedule)7 34.3 36.7 35.4 10.3 5. Gender equality 5.2.1 Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months8,9 na 54.3 na 16.12 a) Physical violence na 44.4 na 16.12 b) Sexual violence na 24.2 na 16.12 c) Psychological violence na 43.7 na 16.12 5.3.1 Proportion of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 18 a) before age 15 na 8.0 na 4.3 b) before age 18 na 27.3 na 4.3 5.6.1 Proportion of women aged 15-49 years who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health care10 na 47.7 na na 5.b.1 Proportion of individuals who own a mobile telephone11 50.3 34.1 42.2a 15.7.1, 15.7.2 Residence Total DHS table number Urban Rural 7. Affordable clean energy 7.1.1 Proportion of population with access to electricity 57.0 11.4 16.6 2.4 7.1.2 Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology12 39.2 4.7 8.6 2.4 Sex Total DHS table number Male Female 8. Decent work and economic growth 8.10.2 Proportion of adults (15 years and older) with an account at a bank or other financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider13 27.5 18.4 22.9a 15.7.1, 15.7.2 16. Peace, justice, and strong institutions 16.9.1 Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority 13.3 13.6 13.4a 2.13 17. Partnerships for the goals 17.8.1 Proportion of individuals using the Internet14 18.1 11.2 14.6a 3.5.1, 3.5.2 na = Not applicable 1 Expressed in terms of maternal deaths per 100,000 live births in the 7-year period preceding the survey 2 Expressed in terms of deaths per 1,000 live births for the 5-year period preceding the survey 3 Equivalent to the age-specific fertility rate for girls age 10-14 for the 3-year period preceding the survey, expressed in terms of births per 1,000 girls age 10-14 4 Equivalent to the age-specific fertility rate for women age 15-19 for the 3-year period preceding the survey, expressed in terms of births per 1,000 women age 15-19 5 Data are not age-standardized and are available for women and men age 15-49 only. 6 The percentage of children age 12-23 months who received three doses of pentavalent vaccine (DPT-HepB-Hib) 7 The percentage of children age 12-23 months who received three doses of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine 8 Data are available for women age 15-49 who have ever been in union only. 9 In the DHS, psychological violence is termed emotional violence. 10 Data are available for currently married women who are not pregnant only. 11 Data are available for women and men age 15-49 only. 12 Measured as the percentage of the population using clean fuel for cooking. 13 Data are available for women and men age 15-49 who have and use an account at a bank or other financial institution; information on use of a mobile-money- service provider is not available. 14 Data are available for women and men age 15-49 who have used the internet in the past 12 months. a The total is calculated as the simple arithmetic mean of the percentages in the columns for males and females. xxxii • Map of Papua New Guinea Introduction and Survey Methodology • 1 INTRODUCTION AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY 1 he National Statistical Office (NSO) implemented the 2016-18 Papua New Guinea Demographic and Health Survey (2016-18 PNG DHS), which is the third in a series of DHS surveys conducted in the country but the first to be conducted under The DHS Program. Data collection commenced in October 2016 and concluded 2 years later in December 2018. The NSO provided all necessary technical and advisory support in the implementation. ICF provided technical assistance through The DHS Program, which offers support and technical assistance for the implementation of population and health surveys in countries worldwide. Financial support came from the Government of Papua New Guinea (GOPNG), the Australian Government Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade (DFAT), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). In addition, UNFPA served as the manager of donor funding, while UNICEF provided in-kind equipment for anthropometric measurements of children under age 5. 1.1 SURVEY OBJECTIVES The primary objective of the 2016-18 PNG DHS is to provide up-to-date estimates of basic demographic and health indicators. Specifically, the 2016-18 PNG DHS collected information on fertility, awareness, and use of family planning methods, breastfeeding practices, nutritional status of children, maternal and child health, childhood immunisation, adult and childhood mortality, women’s empowerment, domestic violence, malaria, awareness and behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs), and other health-related issues. The survey also collected information on household agricultural activities and household food security. The information collected through the survey is intended to assist policymakers and programme managers as they design and evaluate programmes and strategies to improve the health of the country’s population. The 2016-18 PNG DHS also provides health indicators relevant to meeting the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for the country. 1.2 SAMPLE DESIGN The sample for the 2016-18 PNG DHS was nationally representative and covered the entire population that lived in private dwelling units in the country. The survey used the list of census units (CUs) from the 2011 PNG National Population and Housing Census (NPHC) as the sampling frame. Administratively, the country is divided into 22 provinces, and each province is sub-divided into urban and rural areas. Each province is also divided into districts, and each district is divided into local-level governments, which are in turn divided into wards. Each ward is composed of CUs. The average CU size is 50 households, with urban CUs having 70 households on average and rural CUs having 48. The sampling frame contains information on CU location, type of residence (urban or rural), estimated number of residential households, and population by sex. The 2016-18 PNG DHS sample was stratified and selected in two stages. Each province was stratified into urban and rural areas, yielding 43 sampling strata, with the exception of National Capital District, which has no rural areas. Samples of CUs were selected independently in each stratum in two stages. Implicit stratification and proportional allocation were achieved at each of the lower administrative levels by sorting the sampling frame within each sampling stratum before sample selection, according to administrative units at different levels, and by using a probability proportional-to-size selection at the first stage of sampling. T 2 • Introduction and Survey Methodology In the first stage, 800 CUs were selected with probability proportional to CU size, which is the number of residential households found in the CU during the 2011 NPHC. A household listing operation, conducted prior to data collection, was carried out in all selected clusters, and the resulting lists of households served as the sampling frame to select households in the next stage. Some of the selected clusters were large, with more than 200 households. To minimise the task of the listing team, these selected clusters were segmented. Only one segment was selected for the survey, with probability proportional to segment size. Household listing was conducted only in the selected segment. This means that a cluster is either a CU or a segment of a CU. In the second stage of selection, a fixed number of 24 households per cluster were selected with an equal- probability systematic selection from the newly created household listing, resulting in a total sample size of approximately 19,200 households. To prevent bias, no replacements and no changes of the pre-selected households were allowed in the implementing stages. In cases in which a CU had fewer than 24 households, all households were included in the sample. All women age 15-49 who were usual members of the selected households or who spent the night before the survey in the selected households were eligible for individual interview. In half of the selected households (every second household), all men age 15-49 who were usual members of the households or who spent the night before the survey in the households were eligible for individual interview. In households selected for men’s interviews, all children under age 6 were eligible for height/length, weight, and mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) measurements. Similarly, one woman age 15-49 was selected from each household in this subsample for the domestic violence module. Due to the non-proportional allocation of the sample to the different provinces and to urban and rural areas, and due to the possible differences in response rates, sampling weights were calculated, added to the data file, and applied so that results would be representative at the national as well as the domain level. Because the 2016-18 PNG DHS sample was a two-stage stratified cluster sample selected from the sampling frame, the sampling weights were calculated separately, based on sampling probabilities, for each sampling stage and for each cluster. 1.3 QUESTIONNAIRES Three questionnaires were used for the 2016-18 PNG DHS: the Household Questionnaire, the Woman’s Questionnaire, and the Man’s Questionnaire. These questionnaires, based on The DHS Program’s standard Demographic and Health Survey (DHS-7) questionnaires, were adapted to reflect the population and health issues relevant to Papua New Guinea. Suggestions were solicited from members of the Users Advisory Committee, representing government departments and agencies, nongovernment organisations, and international donors. The Household Questionnaire was used to list all usual members and visitors who slept in the household the night before the survey. Basic demographic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including his or her age, sex, marital status, education, and relationship to the head of household; data on their parents’ survival status were also collected. The data on age and sex of household members were used to identify women and men eligible for individual interviews. The Household Questionnaire also collected information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as source of water, type of toilet facilities, materials used for the floor, wall, and roof, ownership of various durable goods, ownership and use of mosquito nets, and availability of handwashing facilities. An additional module, developed by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), to measure food insecurity and household activities in agriculture was included. To identify country-specific needs, data on fortified rice, flour, and iodised salt were also collected. The Household Questionnaire also included a section that recorded anthropometric measurements for children in the subsample of households selected for the men’s survey. Introduction and Survey Methodology • 3 The Woman’s Questionnaire was used to collect information from all eligible women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics: ▪ Background characteristics (including age, education, and media exposure) ▪ Birth history and child mortality ▪ Knowledge, use, and source of family planning methods ▪ Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care ▪ Vaccinations and childhood illnesses ▪ Breastfeeding and infant feeding practices ▪ Marriage and sexual activity ▪ Fertility preferences (including desire for more children and ideal number of children) ▪ Women’s work and husbands’ background characteristics ▪ Knowledge, awareness, and behaviour regarding HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections (STIs) ▪ Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour related to other health issues (e.g., smoking) ▪ Adult and maternal mortality ▪ Domestic violence The Man’s Questionnaire was administered to all men age 15-49 in the subsample of households selected for the men’s survey. The Man’s Questionnaire collected much of the same information as the Woman’s Questionnaire but was shorter because it did not contain a detailed reproductive history, questions on maternal and child health, or questions on maternal mortality and domestic violence. 1.4 PRETEST A pretest was conducted in National Capital District and Central Province in July 2016. Pretest preparations consisted of in-class training, demonstration of interviews in front of the class, role playing, tests, quizzes, a visit to a children’s ward in Port Moresby General Hospital to practice collecting weight and height data for children, a visit to a medical laboratory at the University of Papua New Guinea School of Medical and Health Science to practice salt and rice testing, and field practice days. The field practice was conducted over a period of 5 days in two urban and two rural clusters that were not included in the 2016-18 PNG DHS sample. A total of 24 trainees (8 men and 16 women) participated. All trainees had some experience with household surveys, either through involvement in previous PNG DHS surveys or involvement in other similar surveys. Following field practice, a debriefing session was held with the pretest field staff, and the questionnaires were modified based on lessons drawn from the exercise. 1.5 TRAINING OF FIELD STAFF Training for the field staff was conducted in two stages. In the first stage, 44 persons (28 women and 16 men) were trained as master trainers. Master trainers consisted of 22 staff from the NSO and the National Department of Health (NDOH), while 22 assistant trainers were recruited from the provinces. This training took place outside of Port Moresby (Central Province) at the Kokoda Trail Motel in August 2016. Four core project staff participated in the master trainers training as facilitators. ICF staff provided technical support during the training sessions. To provide a better understanding of the importance of the 2016-18 PNG DHS in the context of PNG’s health and population policies and programmes, the training also included presentations given by NDOH staff on specific programmes such as those addressing malaria, HIV/AIDS, child immunisations, child nutrition, childhood diseases, and gender-based violence. A 1-day field practice session for the master trainers was conducted in nearby CUs to allow the trainers to familiarize themselves with the three questionnaires to be used in the survey. In the second stage, the master trainers were sent to the 22 training centres in the provinces. Trainers were paired; one was from the NSO/NDOH and one from the respective province. In total, the NSO recruited and trained 427 persons for the main fieldwork to serve as team leaders, field editors, interviewers, and 4 • Introduction and Survey Methodology reserve interviewers. The training took place simultaneously from September 12 to 26, 2016, in all 22 provinces of the country. The training course consisted of instruction regarding interviewing techniques and field procedures, a detailed review of questionnaire content, instruction on how to administer the paper questionnaires, and mock interviews between participants in the classroom. Practice interviews with real respondents were arranged in census units that were close to the training venues but were not included in the survey sample. A two- to three-day field practice was organised, according to provincial requirements, to provide trainees with additional hands-on practice before the actual fieldwork. Because the households in these practice census units had not been listed, the teams carried out manual listing to select the 24 households for the three questionnaires to be administered. Ultimately, 106 males and 212 females (318 in total) were selected to serve as interviewers, with an additional 53 selected as supervisors. The selection of supervisors was based on their experience in leading survey teams and their performance during the training. Team leaders/field editors received additional instructions and practice to perform supervisory activities, including assigning households and receiving and reviewing completed questionnaires from interviewers. 1.6 FIELDWORK Data collection took place over 27 months from October 2016 to December 2018. Field operations were carried out by 53 teams, each consisting of one field editor/team leader, four female interviewers, and two male interviewers. A total of 371 personnel were initially involved in the data collection for the 2016-18 PNG DHS. Data collection occurred in four phases over the 27-month period. Phase 1 was from October 1 to December 9, 2016; phase 2 was from March to June 2017; phase 3 was from October 22 to December 22, 2017; and the last phase was from April 20 to December 14, 2018. The number of teams decreased from 53 in October 2016 to 11 in December 2018, with team composition maintained throughout the survey period. Fieldwork required more time than expected due to various challenges: inaccessibility because of the geography of the country and severe weather patterns, refusal by respondents to participate in the survey, need for security due to law and order situations, outstanding payments owed to service providers, absence of reliable communication services, and late disbursement of funds to support teams in the field. As a result, fieldwork could be completed only for 767 of the 800 clusters initially selected. Despite these challenges, the survey teams managed to travel throughout the country and collect data under sometimes difficult circumstances without compromising the data quality. Senior staff from the NSO coordinated and supervised fieldwork activities in the provinces. 1.7 DATA PROCESSING All completed questionnaires were delivered to the NSO central office in Port Moresby, where they were registered and stored. The data processing operation in office included editing and coding, data entry and verification, and secondary editing, which required resolution of computer-identified inconsistencies and coding of open-ended questions. Data processing commenced on January 10, 2017, and finished on January 31, 2019. During the course of the data processing operation (2017-19), a total of 63 personnel were engaged. The composition of engaged personnel changed in order to meet the urgency and needs of the project during different time periods. However, the standard composition of personnel in different sections of data processing was always as follows: registration (1 staff); editing (6 staff); data entry and verification (20 staff); secondary editing (4 staff); and final editing (3 staff). There were occasions when multiple shifts were introduced to fast track the operation (January through April 2017). In these scenarios, the number of personnel, particularly in data entry and verification, more than doubled to 40-45. Introduction and Survey Methodology • 5 The initial plan was to introduce the computer-assisted field editing (CAFE) procedure to ensure that data digitisation and quality verification were done in the field before the questionnaires (and digitised data) were returned to NSO headquarters for further processing. However, this did not happen, so centralised data processing was done at NSO headquarters when all completed questionnaires from the clusters were brought back from the field. Final cleaning of data by the ICF data processing specialist was completed on March 16, 2019. Throughout this report, numbers in the tables reflect weighted numbers. Percentages based on 25 to 49 unweighted cases are shown in parentheses, and percentages based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases are suppressed and replaced with an asterisk, to caution readers when interpreting data that a percentage based on fewer than 50 cases may not be statistically reliable. 1.8 RESPONSE RATES Table 1 shows response rates for the 2016-18 PNG DHS. A total of 17,505 households were selected for the sample, of which 16,754 were occupied. Of the occupied households, 16,021 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 96%. In the interviewed households, 18,175 women age 15-49 were identified for individual interviews; interviews were completed with 15,198 women, yielding a response rate of 84%. In the subsample of households selected for the male survey, 9,141 men age 15-49 were identified and 7,333 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 80%. 6 • Introduction and Survey Methodology Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews, and response rates, according to residence (unweighted), Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Residence Total Result Urban Rural Household interviews Households selected 3,652 13,853 17,505 Households occupied 3,486 13,268 16,754 Households interviewed 3,295 12,726 16,021 Household response rate1 94.5 95.9 95.6 Interviews with women age 15-49 Number of eligible women 4,981 13,194 18,175 Number of eligible women interviewed 4,045 11,153 15,198 Eligible women response rate2 81.2 84.5 83.6 Household interviews in subsample Households selected 1,820 6,864 8,684 Households occupied 1,733 6,575 8,308 Households interviewed 1,638 6,344 7,982 Household response rate in subsample1 94.5 96.5 96.1 Interviews with men age 15-49 Number of eligible men 2,442 6,699 9,141 Number of eligible men interviewed 1,826 5,507 7,333 Eligible men response rate2 74.8 82.2 80.2 1 Households interviewed/households occupied 2 Respondents interviewed/eligible respondents Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 7 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSEHOLD POPULATION 2 Key Findings ▪ Drinking water: In Papua New Guinea, less than half of households have access to an improved source of drinking water; the most common source is an unprotected spring (29% of households). ▪ Toilet facilities: Only 29% of households use improved sanitation facilities; about one in five households has no facility and uses open defecation). ▪ Electricity: Nationally, 15% of households have electricity. ▪ Household possessions: Mobile phones are common; in 56% of households, someone owns one. One-quarter of households have radios. ▪ Hand washing: One-third of the population lives in households with a place to wash hands that has both soap and water. ▪ Household population and composition: More than 4 in 10 people in Papua New Guinea are under age 15 (42%), while only 3% are age 65 and older. ▪ Children’s living arrangements: 6% of children under age 18 have lost at least one of their biological parents. Fourteen percent of children do not live with either of their biological parents. ▪ Education: Almost one-third of women and one-quarter of men age 6 and older have never attended school. nformation on the socioeconomic characteristics of the household population in the 2016-18 PNG DHS provides a context to interpret demographic and health indicators and can furnish an approximate indication of the representativeness of the survey. In addition, this information sheds light on the living conditions of the population. This chapter presents information on sources of drinking water, sanitation, exposure to smoke inside the home, wealth, hand washing, household population and composition, educational attainment, school attendance, birth registration, children’s living arrangements, and parental survivorship. 2.1 DRINKING WATER SOURCES AND TREATMENT Improved sources of drinking water Include piped water, public taps, standpipes, tube wells, boreholes, protected dug wells and springs, rainwater, water delivered via tanker truck or a cart with a small tank, and bottled water. Sample: Households I 8 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population In Papua New Guinea, less than half of households (46%) have access to an improved source of drinking water, with strong differences between households in urban (83%) and rural (42%) areas (Table 2.1.1). The most common source of drinking water is unprotected springs (29% of all households), followed by rainwater (15%), surface water (15%), and water piped to the dwelling or to a neighbour (13%) (Figure 2.1). Patterns by background characteristics There are large differences in access to drinking water sources within the country. For example, the proportion of households with an improved source of drinking water ranges from only 19% in Southern Highlands to 99% in the National Capital District (Table 2.1.2). Households in wealthier quintiles are much more likely to have improved sources of drinking water than those in lower quintiles. Basic drinking water service Is from an improved source, provided either water is on the premises or round- trip collection time is 30 minutes or less. Sample: De jure population Limited drinking water service Is from an improved source, provided round-trip collection time is more than 30 minutes Sample: De jure population In Papua New Guinea, 43% of households have basic drinking water service, while 2% have limited drinking water service (Table 2.1.1). Overall, 10% of households in Papua New Guinea are using an appropriate method to treat their drinking water to make it safer. Appropriate treatment methods include boiling, adding bleach/chlorine, filtering, and solar disinfecting. Urban households are much more likely to use an appropriate method to treat their water than rural households (26% and 9%, respectively) (Table 2.1.3). Table 2.2 presents information on the availability of water in the 2 weeks before the survey for households using piped water or water from a tube well or borehole. It is important to note that this represents fewer than one in five households in the country. Among these households, over half reported having water with no interruption of at least 1 day in the last 2 weeks. 2.2 SANITATION Improved toilet facility Is a flush/pour flush toilet that flushes the water and waste to a piped sewer system, septic tank, pit latrine, or unknown destination; a ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine; a pit latrine with a slab; or a composting toilet Sample: Households Figure 2.1 Household drinking water by residence 13 50 9 4 5 4 1 <1 210 4 10 18 24 17 54 17 58 Total Urban Rural Percent distribution of households by source of drinking water Unimproved source Other improved (rain water/tanker/cart/bottle) Protected well or spring Tube well or borehole Public tap/standpipe Piped water into dwelling/yard/plot/ neighbor’s yard Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 9 Only 29% of households in Papua New Guinea use improved toilet facilities (60% in urban areas and 26% in rural areas). The most common type of toilet is an open pit or a pit latrine without a slab (used by 52% of households). Almost one in five households (17%) does not have any toilet facility (open defecation) (Table 2.3.1 and Figure 2.2). Trends: The proportion of households with no toilet facility has remained steady over the past decade, changing from 16% of households in 2006 to 17% of households in 2016-18. Patterns by background characteristics Households in the National Capital District are far more likely to have an improved sanitation facility (86%) than those in other provinces, especially Hela (10%) (Table 2.3.2). Wealth quintile is strongly related to whether a household has an improved facility and increases ten times, from 7% of households in the lowest quintile to 73% of those in the highest quintile. It is notable that almost three in four households (73%) in New Ireland province practice open defecation. Basic sanitation service Use of improved facilities not shared with other households Sample: De jure population Limited sanitation service Use of improved facilities shared by two or more households Sample: De jure population Twenty-two percent of households in Papua New Guinea have basic sanitation service, while 7% have limited sanitation service. 2.3 EXPOSURE TO SMOKE INSIDE THE HOME Exposure to smoke inside the home, either from cooking with solid fuels or from smoking tobacco, has potentially harmful health effects. Almost all households in Papua New Guinea (92%) use some type of solid fuel like wood for cooking (Table 2.4). Exposure to cooking smoke is greatest when cooking takes place inside the house rather than in a separate building or outdoors. In Papua New Guinea, 46% of households cook inside the house. Another important source of smoke inside the home in Papua New Guinea is smoking. In over half of households (56%), someone smokes inside the house on a daily basis. Other Housing Characteristics The 2016-18 PNG DHS also collected data on access to electricity, type of flooring material, number of rooms used for sleeping, and source of lighting. Only 15% of households in Papua New Guinea have access to electricity. The most common type of flooring material is palm or bamboo (43%). Over one-third of households (37%) have three or more rooms that are used for sleeping. Over one-third of households (36%) use battery-operated lanterns for light, while another one-third (32%) use solar lamps (Table 2.4). Figure 2.2 Household toilet facilities by residence 29 60 26 54 33 57 17 7 18 Total Urban Rural Percent distribution of households by type of toilet facilities No facility/ bush/field Unimproved facility Improved facility 10 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population 2.4 HOUSEHOLD WEALTH Household Durable Goods The 2016-18 PNG DHS collected information on household effects, means of transportation, and ownership of agricultural land and farm animals. Mobile phones are common; in 56% of households, someone reports ownership. Slightly less than one-quarter of households own a radio (24%), while 13% own a television, and 11% own a computer. One in 10 households owns a refrigerator. (Table 2.5). To get around, 1 in 10 households in Papua New Guinea owns a bicycle, while only 5% own a car or truck. Almost three-quarters of households own agricultural land (73%), and almost half have farm animals (46%). Households in urban areas are much more likely than those in rural areas to possess household effects and means of transportation. As expected, urban households are less likely than rural households to own agricultural land (30% versus 77%) or have farm animals (12% versus 50%) (Table 2.5). Trends: By far the greatest change among households owing durable goods has been in telephone coverage. In 2006, only 4% of households had a telephone, while in 2016-18, 56% of households have a mobile phone and 2% have a non-mobile phone. The proportion of households with a radio has decreased slightly, from 33% in 2006 to 24% in 2016-18. However, the proportion owning a refrigerator has increased slightly, from 7% to 10%, and the proportion owning a television has increased from 9% to 13% over the same time period. Livestock, Crops, and Consumption of Rice, Flour, and Salt In the 2016-18 PNG DHS, household respondents were asked if the household owned any livestock, herds, other farm animals, or poultry. They were also asked if they grew any food crops or cash crops, or were engaged in fish farming. Results show that just under half of households (46%) have livestock or poultry, while 87% grow food crops and 53% grow cash crops. Only 8% of households engage in fish farming (Table 2.6). As expected, all proportions are considerably lower for urban than for rural households. Households were also asked questions about consumption of specific foods, that is, whether they had consumed rice or products made from flour in the previous 7 days, and whether they had salt that was bought or given to them in the previous 7 days. Rice was consumed by 66% of households in the week before the survey, while flour or flour products were consumed by 55% of households. Over three-quarters of households (77%) reported having salt (Table 2.7). Wealth Index Wealth index Households are given scores based on the number and kinds of consumer goods they own, ranging from a television to a bicycle or car, and housing characteristics, such as source of drinking water, toilet facilities, and flooring materials. These scores are derived using principal component analysis. National wealth quintiles are compiled by assigning the household score to each usual (de jure) household member, ranking each person in the household population by their score, and then dividing the distribution into five equal categories, each with 20% of the population. Sample: Households Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 11 Table 2.8 presents data on wealth quintiles according to urban-rural residence and region. The wealthiest people are concentrated in urban areas (71%). In contrast, almost half of the rural population (45%) falls in the lowest two wealth quintiles (Figure 2.3). 2.5 HAND WASHING To obtain hand washing information, interviewers asked to see the place where members of the household most often wash their hands. Interviewers were able to see a place for hand washing for 57% of the household population. Soap and water, the essential hand washing agents, were available to 33% of people. The availability of a place to wash hands that has soap and water varies widely, being highest among the population in Manus (83%) and in National Capital District (73%), as well as among people in the highest wealth quintile (73%) (Table 2.9). 2.6 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND COMPOSITION Household A person or group of related or unrelated persons who live together in the same dwelling unit(s), who acknowledge one adult male or female as the head of the household, who share the same housekeeping arrangements, and who are considered a single unit. De facto population All persons who stayed in the selected households the night before the interview (whether usual residents or visitors). De jure population All persons who are usual residents of the selected households, whether or not they stayed in the household the night before the interview. How data are calculated All tables are based on the de facto population unless otherwise specified. Household composition and population data provide information on the socioeconomic characteristics of the households and respondents surveyed in terms of age, sex, and place of residence. Figure 2.3 Household wealth by residence 1 22 1 22 5 22 23 20 71 14 Urban Rural Percent distribution of de jure population by wealth quintiles Wealthiest Fourth Middle Second Poorest 12 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population A total of 79,353 individuals stayed overnight in the households interviewed in the 2016-18 PNG DHS. Just over half (51%) were men, and 49% were women (Table 2.10). Children under age 15 represent 42% of the population, while individuals age 15-64 represent well over half of the population (55%). Only 3% of Papua New Guineans are age 65 or older. The population pyramid in Figure 2.4 shows the population distribution by 5-year age groups, separately for males and females. The broad base of the pyramid reflects relatively high fertility, although the slightly narrower bar for children under 5 suggests a recent decline in fertility levels. The pyramid also shows a bulge for men and especially for women age 50-54, which is unlikely to be accurate. Such bulges are not uncommon in surveys and are likely due to deliberate transference by interviewers of respondents to an age that makes them ineligible for the individual interview and thus reduces the interviewers’ workload. The average household size in Papua New Guinea is 5.0 persons. Urban households are larger than rural households (6.0 persons versus 4.9 persons). Men head the vast majority of households (83%), with 18% of households headed by women (Table 2.11). Trends: The age distribution of the household population has changed little since 2006, when children under age 15 accounted for 43% of the population and individuals age 65 and older accounted for 2%. Average household size has decreased only slightly, from 5.2 persons in 2006 to 5.0 in 2016-18. The percentage of female-headed households has not changed during that period (17% in 2006 versus 18% in 2016-18). 2.7 CHILDREN’S LIVING ARRANGEMENTS AND PARENTAL SURVIVAL Orphan A child with one or both parents who are dead. Sample: Children under age 18 Six percent of children under age 18 are orphans, with one or both parents dead. The percentage of children who are orphans rises rapidly with age from 2% of children under age 5 to 11% of children age 15-17. With regard to living arrangements, 14% of children under age 18 are not living with either biological parent. Only two-thirds (66%) live with both their biological parents (Table 2.12). 2.8 BIRTH REGISTRATION Registered birth A child has a birth certificate or a child does not have a birth certificate, but his/her birth is registered with the civil authorities. Sample: De jure children under age 5 Figure 2.4 Population pyramid 10 6 2 2 6 10 <5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80+ Age Percent distribution of the household population Male Female 2610 Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 13 Table 2.13 presents information on birth registration of children under age 5. At the time of the survey, 13% of children under age 5 were registered with the civil authorities. About half of these children have birth certificates (7%) and half do not (6%). The proportion of children whose births were registered is much higher in urban than rural areas (25% and 12%, respectively). It also ranges from only 3% of children in Madang to 41% of those in National Capital District. Birth registration increases substantially with wealth quintile (Figure 2.5). 2.9 EDUCATION Education is one of the most important aspects of social and economic development. Education improves capabilities and is strongly associated with various socioeconomic variables such as lifestyle, income, and fertility for both individuals and societies. 2.9.1 Educational Attainment Median educational attainment Half of the population has completed less than the median number of years of schooling, and half of the population has completed more than the median number of years of schooling. Sample: De facto household population age 6 and older Overall, 32% of females and 24% of males age 6 and over have never attended school. However, this statistic masks enormous differences by age group. For example, the proportion of women with no education decreases from 70% of those age 65 and over to 11% among those age 15-19. Similarly, among all females age 6 and over, only 15% have attended secondary school or more; however, among women age 20-24, 38% have some secondary schooling or have gone on to higher education. Educational attainment tends to be greater among those in urban areas, especially in the National Capital District, and among those in the higher wealth quintiles (Tables 2.14.1 and 2.14.2). Trends: Educational attainment at the household level has increased since 2006. The percentage of women and men with no education has declined at almost all age groups. Overall, it fell from 35% to 24% for men and 45% to 32% for women. 2.9.2 School Attendance In addition to educational attainment, it is useful to know the proportion of young people who are currently attending various levels of school. As shown in Table 2.15.1 and Table 2.15.2, large proportions of children are not attending school. Almost half of girls and boys age 6-10 (46% each) are not attending school. Even among those age 10-15, almost one in five girls (19%) and boys (18%) are not attending school. As expected, higher proportions of older children are not attending school. Among the population age 6-24, school attendance increases with wealth quintile. Figure 2.5 Birth registration by household wealth 9 10 12 13 24 Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Percentage of de jure children under age 5 whose births are registered with the civil authorities Poorest Wealthiest 14 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Net attendance ratio (NAR) Percentage of the school-age population that attends primary or secondary school Sample: Children age 6-8 for elementary school NAR, children age 9-14 for primary school NAR, and children age 15-18 for secondary school NAR In Papua New Guinea, the elementary school net attendance ratio (NAR) for the population age 6-8 is 44%, whereas the primary school NAR is 50%. The secondary school NAR drops to 21% (Table 2.16). Patterns by background characteristics ▪ All three NARs (elementary, primary and secondary school) are higher in urban areas than in rural areas. ▪ Among provinces, the primary school NAR is highest in Manus (69%) and National Capital District (69%) and lowest in Gulf (30%). The secondary school NAR is highest in Chimbu (51%) and lowest in Gulf (5%). ▪ Both the primary and secondary school NARs increase with increasing household wealth. Gross attendance ratio (GAR) The total number of children attending primary school divided by the official primary school-age population and the total number of children attending secondary school divided by the official secondary school-age population. Sample: Children age 6-8 for elementary school GAR, children age 9-14 for primary school GAR, and children age 15-18 for secondary school GAR Gender parity index (GPI) The ratio of female to male students attending primary school and the ratio of female to male children attending secondary school. The index reflects the magnitude of the gender gap. Sample: Primary and secondary school students The gross attendance ratio (GAR) provides an indicator of the extent to which children who are under or over the official school age are attending school. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100%. However, in Papua New Guinea, the GAR is 94% at the elementary school level, 80% at the primary school level, and 37% at the secondary school level. The figures indicate that not all of those who should be attending school are doing so (Table 2.16). A gender parity index (GPI) of 1 indicates parity or equality between male and female school participation ratios. A GPI lower than 1 indicates a gender disparity in favour of males, with a higher proportion of males than females attending that level of schooling. A GPI higher than 1 indicates a gender disparity in favour of females. The GPI for the NAR is 0.99 at the elementary school level, 1.04 at the primary school level, and 1.06 at the secondary school level, which indicates that there is a slight preference in school attendance by girls (Table 2.16). Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 15 2.10 HOUSEHOLD FOOD INSECURITY The 2016-18 PNG DHS included eight questions on the level of food insecurity at the household level. Based on the responses to these questions, the severity of food insecurity experienced by the household population was calculated. The estimates were derived using the food insecurity experience scale (FIES) developed by the Food and Agriculture Organisation of the United Nations (Ballard et al. 2013). More than half of the population of Papua New Guinea (57%) experiences moderate to severe food insecurity. About a quarter of the population (25%) experiences severe food insecurity (Table 2.17). Patterns by background characteristics ▪ Rural residents are more likely to experience moderate to severe food insecurity than urban residents (58% versus 52%). ▪ The population experiencing moderate to severe food insecurity ranges from a high of 73% in Western province to a low of 35% in Madang province. ▪ The proportion of the population experiencing moderate to severe food insecurity decreases as household wealth increases. For instance, 68% of the population in the lowest wealth quintile experienced moderate to severe food insecurity compared with only 42% of the population in the highest wealth quintile. LIST OF TABLES For more information on the household population and housing characteristics, see the following tables: ▪ Table 2.1.1 Household drinking water ▪ Table 2.1.2 Drinking water according to region, province, and wealth ▪ Table 2.1.3 Treatment of household drinking water ▪ Table 2.2 Availability of water ▪ Table 2.3.1 Household sanitation facilities ▪ Table 2.3.2 Sanitation facility type according to region, province, and wealth ▪ Table 2.4 Household characteristics ▪ Table 2.5 Household possessions ▪ Table 2.6 Household possession of livestock, food and cash crops, and fish farming ▪ Table 2.7 Household consumption of rice, flour, and salt ▪ Table 2.8 Wealth quintiles ▪ Table 2.9 Handwashing ▪ Table 2.10 Household population by age, sex, and residence ▪ Table 2.11 Household composition ▪ Table 2.12 Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood ▪ Table 2.13 Birth registration of children under age 5 ▪ Table 2.14.1 Educational attainment of the female household population ▪ Table 2.14.2 Educational attainment of the male household population ▪ Table 2.15.1 Current school attendance: Female ▪ Table 2.15.2 Current school attendance: Male ▪ Table 2.16 School attendance ratios ▪ Table 2.17 Household food insecurity 16 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.1.1 Household drinking water Percent distribution of households and de jure population by source of drinking water and by time to obtain drinking water; percentage of households and de jure population with basic drinking water service and percentage with limited drinking water service, according to residence, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Households Population Characteristic Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Source of drinking water Improved source 83.2 41.5 45.5 83.5 42.1 46.9 Piped into dwelling/yard plot 46.2 6.9 10.6 48.6 7.0 11.8 Piped to neighbour 4.0 1.7 1.9 3.9 1.6 1.8 Public tap/standpipe 4.6 4.2 4.2 4.4 3.9 4.0 Tube well or borehole 0.4 1.5 1.4 0.4 1.6 1.4 Protected dug well 1.7 3.2 3.1 1.4 3.4 3.2 Protected spring 2.1 7.1 6.6 1.9 7.1 6.5 Rain water 22.4 14.5 15.3 21.3 15.1 15.8 Tanker truck/cart with small tank 1.6 2.4 2.3 1.4 2.4 2.3 Bottled water 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 Unimproved source 16.5 58.1 54.2 16.0 57.5 52.8 Unprotected dug well 2.9 10.3 9.6 2.5 10.7 9.7 Unprotected spring 9.1 31.4 29.3 9.1 30.8 28.3 Surface water 4.4 16.4 15.2 4.3 16.1 14.8 Other 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.2 Missing 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Time to obtain drinking water (round trip) Water on premises1 74.7 30.8 35.0 75.8 31.5 36.6 30 minutes or less 18.2 53.2 49.9 17.0 52.8 48.7 More than 30 minutes 5.4 14.0 13.2 6.0 13.6 12.8 Don’t know/missing 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.3 2.0 1.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percentage with basic drinking water service2 81.8 38.6 42.7 82.2 39.3 44.2 Percentage with limited drinking water service3 0.7 2.4 2.2 0.8 2.3 2.1 Number of households/population 1,521 14,500 16,021 9,162 71,207 80,369 1 Includes water piped to a neighbour and those reporting a round trip collection time of zero minutes 2 Defined as drinking water from an improved source, provided either water is on the premises or round-trip collection time is 30 minutes or less. Includes safely managed drinking water, which is not shown separately. 3 Drinking water from an improved source, provided round-trip collection time is more than 30 minutes Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 17 Table 2.1.2 Drinking water according to region, province, and wealth Percent distribution of de jure population by drinking water source, percentage of de jure population with basic drinking water service, and percentage with limited drinking water service, according to region, province, and wealth quintile, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Background characteristic Improved source of drinking water1 Unimproved source of drinking water2 Other/ missing Total Percentage with basic drinking water service3 Percentage with limited drinking water service4 Number of persons Region Southern 55.9 43.3 0.8 100.0 53.9 1.2 15,043 Highlands 39.0 60.8 0.2 100.0 35.1 3.3 32,442 Momase 43.3 56.5 0.2 100.0 41.9 1.2 21,258 Islands 63.6 36.0 0.4 100.0 60.8 1.6 11,626 Province Western 50.5 49.2 0.3 100.0 46.7 2.9 1,914 Gulf 41.8 58.2 0.0 100.0 40.0 0.8 1,453 Central 49.1 49.7 1.2 100.0 45.4 1.4 3,083 National Capital District 98.8 0.1 1.1 100.0 97.7 0.5 2,247 Milne Bay 59.5 39.8 0.8 100.0 58.5 0.9 4,124 Northern 29.3 69.8 0.9 100.0 28.3 0.9 2,221 Southern Highlands 19.4 80.5 0.2 100.0 14.8 4.5 5,894 Enga 29.6 69.9 0.5 100.0 27.7 1.8 2,994 Western Highlands 52.4 46.9 0.7 100.0 46.7 4.0 3,808 Chimbu 39.5 60.5 0.0 100.0 37.3 1.3 5,324 Eastern Highlands 54.5 45.4 0.1 100.0 52.3 1.7 6,641 Morobe 49.9 50.0 0.0 100.0 49.2 0.7 7,851 Madang 39.8 60.0 0.2 100.0 38.7 1.0 5,577 East Sepik 35.0 64.6 0.4 100.0 32.9 2.0 4,785 West Sepik 45.7 54.3 0.0 100.0 43.5 1.7 3,044 Manus 82.3 17.7 0.0 100.0 78.7 1.5 742 New Ireland 64.7 35.1 0.2 100.0 61.7 2.3 2,268 East New Britain 62.2 36.6 1.2 100.0 61.0 0.6 2,875 West New Britain 54.5 45.3 0.2 100.0 50.5 3.0 2,802 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 68.0 31.8 0.2 100.0 65.1 0.8 2,939 Hela 30.9 69.1 0.1 100.0 28.8 2.1 4,699 Jiwaka 47.2 52.7 0.1 100.0 35.9 10.4 3,083 Wealth quintile Lowest 12.7 87.2 0.0 100.0 11.0 1.6 16,073 Second 29.6 70.3 0.1 100.0 25.6 3.5 16,070 Middle 40.5 59.2 0.3 100.0 37.1 2.7 16,078 Fourth 59.3 40.1 0.7 100.0 56.7 1.8 16,072 Highest 92.2 7.3 0.6 100.0 90.4 0.9 16,075 Total 46.9 52.8 0.3 100.0 44.2 2.1 80,369 1 See Table 2.1.1 for definition of an improved source. 2 See Table 2.1.1 for definition of an unimproved source. 3 Defined as drinking water from an improved source, provided either water is on the premises or round-trip collection time is 30 minutes or less. Includes safely managed drinking water, which is not shown separately. 4 Drinking water from an improved source, provided round-trip collection time is more than 30 minutes Table 2.1.3 Treatment of household drinking water Percentage of households and de jure population using various methods to treat drinking water, and percentage using an appropriate treatment method, according to residence, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Households Population Water treatment method Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Boil 24.4 8.0 9.6 25.3 8.3 10.2 Bleach/chlorine added 1.3 0.4 0.5 1.2 0.4 0.5 Strain through cloth 2.2 1.3 1.4 2.3 1.5 1.6 Ceramic, sand or other filter 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Solar disinfection 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.1 Let it stand and settle 2.4 2.3 2.4 2.7 2.5 2.5 Other 0.8 0.2 0.3 0.8 0.3 0.3 No treatment 70.4 88.4 86.7 69.2 87.9 85.7 Percentage using an appropriate treatment method1 25.6 8.6 10.2 26.4 8.9 10.9 Number of households/population 1,521 14,500 16,021 9,162 71,207 80,369 Note: Respondents may report multiple treatment methods, so the sum of treatment methods may exceed 100%. 1 Appropriate water treatment methods include boiling, bleaching, filtering, and solar disinfecting. 18 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.2 Availability of water Percent distribution of households and de jure population using piped water or water from a tube well or borehole, by availability of water in the last 2 weeks, according to residence, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Households Population Availability of water in last 2 weeks Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Not available for at least 1 day 45.3 41.2 42.4 46.3 39.9 42.1 Available with no interruption of at least one day 53.4 55.6 55.0 52.1 56.8 55.2 Don’t know/missing 1.4 3.2 2.7 1.5 3.3 2.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households/population using piped water or water from a tube well1 843 2,078 2,921 5,265 10,034 15,299 1 Includes households/population reporting piped water or water from a tube well or borehole as their main source of drinking water and households/population reporting bottled water as their main source of drinking water if their main source of water for cooking and handwashing is piped water or water from a tube well or borehole Table 2.3.1 Household sanitation facilities Percent distribution of households and de jure population by type of toilet/latrine facilities, percent distribution of households and de jure population with a toilet/latrine facility by location of the facility, percentage of households and de jure population with basic sanitation services, and percentage with limited sanitation services, according to residence, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Households Population Type and location of toilet/latrine facility Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Improved sanitation facility 60.0 25.7 28.9 62.3 26.0 30.1 Flush/pour flush to piped sewer system 29.6 2.2 4.8 32.6 2.4 5.9 Flush/pour flush to septic tank 13.7 3.3 4.3 13.0 3.5 4.6 Flush/pour flush to pit latrine 1.1 0.9 0.9 1.1 0.8 0.9 Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine 2.4 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.9 2.8 Pit latrine with slab 12.9 14.6 14.4 12.6 14.8 14.6 Composting toilet 0.4 1.7 1.6 0.4 1.5 1.4 Unimproved facility Unimproved sanitation facility 32.6 56.7 54.4 30.5 55.8 52.9 Flush/pour flush not to sewer/septic tank/pit latrine 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.0 0.1 Pit latrine without slab/open pit 29.3 54.8 52.3 27.3 53.8 50.8 Bucket 0.7 0.0 0.1 0.6 0.0 0.1 Hanging toilet/hanging latrine 1.9 1.6 1.7 1.7 1.7 1.7 Other 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Missing 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.2 Open defecation (no facility/bush/field) 7.4 17.6 16.7 7.2 18.2 16.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households/population 1,521 14,500 16,021 9,162 71,207 80,369 Location of toilet facility In own dwelling 46.4 10.2 14.0 49.4 11.2 16.1 In own yard/plot 45.1 74.2 71.1 42.9 73.5 69.6 Elsewhere 7.9 15.0 14.3 7.2 14.7 13.7 Missing 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.6 0.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households/population with a toilet/latrine facility 1,409 11,943 13,352 8,502 58,244 66,747 Percentage with basic sanitation service1 48.3 19.3 22.1 52.2 20.4 24.0 Percentage with limited sanitation service2 11.0 6.0 6.5 9.5 5.3 5.8 Number of households/population 1,521 14,500 16,021 9,162 71,207 80,369 1 Defined as use of improved facilities that are not shared with other households. Includes safely managed sanitation service, which is not shown separately. 2 Defined as use of improved facilities shared by two or more households Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 19 Table 2.3.2 Sanitation facility type according to region, province, and wealth Percent distribution of de jure population by type of sanitation, percentage of de jure population with basic sanitation service, and percentage with limited sanitation service, according to region, province, and wealth quintile, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Type of sanitation Total Percentage with basic sanitation service3 Percentage with limited sanitation service4 Number of persons Background characteristic Improved sanitation facility1 Unimproved sanitation facility2 Open defecation Region Southern 38.5 37.1 24.4 100.0 28.7 9.2 15,043 Highlands 28.1 66.5 5.3 100.0 23.4 4.3 32,442 Momase 27.1 58.5 14.3 100.0 22.1 4.9 21,258 Islands 30.4 25.1 44.5 100.0 23.0 6.9 11,626 Province Western 36.4 53.0 10.6 100.0 27.8 8.6 1,914 Gulf 30.9 39.7 29.4 100.0 21.1 8.6 1,453 Central 33.0 37.2 29.8 100.0 21.3 11.2 3,083 National Capital District 86.0 9.9 4.1 100.0 70.6 14.3 2,247 Milne Bay 24.2 35.7 40.0 100.0 16.2 7.8 4,124 Northern 31.1 51.7 17.2 100.0 25.7 5.0 2,221 Southern Highlands 19.9 76.4 3.7 100.0 17.1 2.7 5,894 Enga 33.5 62.6 3.9 100.0 30.5 2.9 2,994 Western Highlands 31.0 68.5 0.5 100.0 27.1 3.1 3,808 Chimbu 41.3 53.0 5.8 100.0 36.3 4.5 5,324 Eastern Highlands 35.5 57.6 7.0 100.0 25.2 9.6 6,641 Morobe 39.0 53.0 8.0 100.0 35.5 3.5 7,851 Madang 27.2 55.9 16.9 100.0 17.5 9.6 5,577 East Sepik 16.7 71.5 11.9 100.0 13.0 3.6 4,785 West Sepik 12.7 57.4 29.8 100.0 10.5 2.1 3,044 Manus 29.2 54.8 15.9 100.0 21.7 7.2 742 New Ireland 21.0 5.6 73.3 100.0 16.7 4.1 2,268 East New Britain 48.8 34.4 16.8 100.0 36.8 11.8 2,875 West New Britain 35.1 20.9 44.0 100.0 26.0 7.9 2,802 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 15.5 27.6 57.0 100.0 11.8 3.2 2,939 Hela 10.2 79.0 10.9 100.0 9.3 0.9 4,699 Jiwaka 24.0 72.8 3.2 100.0 19.8 4.0 3,083 Wealth quintile Lowest 7.0 75.6 17.4 100.0 4.6 2.3 16,073 Second 19.1 64.3 16.6 100.0 14.7 4.2 16,070 Middle 23.4 54.9 21.6 100.0 16.9 6.2 16,078 Fourth 27.8 47.8 24.4 100.0 19.5 7.9 16,072 Highest 73.3 21.9 4.8 100.0 64.4 8.3 16,075 Total 30.1 52.9 16.9 100.0 24.0 5.8 80,369 1 See Table 2.3.1 for definition of an improved facility. 2 See Table 2.3.1 for definition of an unimproved facility. 3 Defined as use of improved facilities that are not shared with other households. Included is safely managed sanitation service, which is not shown separately. 4 Defined as use of improved facilities shared by two or more households 20 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.4 Household characteristics Percent distribution of households and de jure population by housing characteristics, percentage using solid fuel for cooking, percentage using clean fuel for cooking, and percent distribution by frequency of smoking in the home, according to residence, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Households Population Housing characteristic Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Electricity Yes 54.6 10.4 14.6 57.0 11.4 16.6 No 44.8 89.2 84.9 42.5 88.1 82.9 Missing 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Flooring material Earth, sand 5.5 20.3 18.9 4.9 18.7 17.1 Wood/planks 38.1 20.2 21.9 39.4 20.7 22.8 Palm/bamboo 6.1 47.0 43.1 5.2 47.1 42.3 Polished wood 22.9 5.1 6.8 24.4 5.7 7.9 Vinyl or asphalt strips 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 Ceramic tiles 5.3 0.2 0.7 4.6 0.1 0.6 Cement 14.3 2.9 4.0 13.8 2.7 3.9 Carpet 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 Unpolished floor 6.8 2.9 3.3 6.8 3.6 3.9 Other 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 Missing 0.5 0.8 0.8 0.4 0.9 0.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Rooms used for sleeping One 17.0 22.8 22.3 11.1 19.4 18.5 Two 28.2 35.5 34.8 25.5 33.7 32.8 Three or more 53.3 35.7 37.4 62.0 41.6 43.9 Missing 1.5 5.9 5.5 1.3 5.3 4.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Lighting source Electricity 56.7 10.6 15.0 59.2 11.4 16.8 Pressure lamp 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.2 0.3 0.3 Kerosene 0.8 1.7 1.6 0.6 1.7 1.6 Solar 16.0 33.9 32.2 15.7 35.3 33.0 Candles 2.7 0.7 0.9 2.4 0.6 0.8 Open fire1 0.4 14.3 12.9 0.3 13.2 11.8 Lantern (battery operated) 22.2 37.7 36.2 20.4 36.7 34.8 Other 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 Missing 1.0 0.6 0.7 1.1 0.6 0.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Place for cooking In the house 45.8 45.7 45.7 44.9 43.9 44.0 In a separate building 31.4 41.7 40.7 33.0 42.8 41.7 Outdoors 22.1 12.1 13.1 21.3 12.7 13.7 No food cooked in household 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 Missing 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.7 0.4 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Cooking fuel Electricity 24.2 3.2 5.2 25.0 3.4 5.9 LPG 14.0 1.2 2.4 14.1 1.2 2.7 Kerosene 4.4 0.2 0.6 3.7 0.2 0.6 Charcoal 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.1 Wood 56.7 95.0 91.4 56.5 94.7 90.4 Other 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 No food cooked in household 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 Missing 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percentage using solid fuel for cooking2 57.1 95.1 91.5 56.9 94.8 90.5 Percentage using clean fuel for cooking3 38.2 4.4 7.6 39.2 4.7 8.6 Frequency of smoking in the home Daily 46.3 56.9 55.9 48.4 58.0 56.9 Weekly 4.7 3.3 3.5 5.4 3.3 3.6 Monthly 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.3 Less than once a month 2.9 1.5 1.6 3.1 1.6 1.8 Never 45.2 37.7 38.4 42.2 36.5 37.1 Missing 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households/population 1,521 14,500 16,021 9,162 71,207 80,369 LPG = Liquefied petroleum gas 1 Includes traditional means: torched bamboo, coconut fronds, etc. 2 Includes charcoal and wood 3 Includes electricity and LPG Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 21 Table 2.5 Household possessions Percentage of households possessing various household effects, means of transportation, agricultural land, and farm animals by residence, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Residence Total Possession Urban Rural Household effects Radio 49.4 21.0 23.7 Television 47.8 8.9 12.6 Mobile phone 87.8 53.0 56.3 Computer 42.7 7.3 10.6 Non-mobile telephone 8.3 1.6 2.2 Refrigerator 45.1 6.3 10.0 Means of transport Bicycle 24.7 8.8 10.3 Animal drawn cart 1.5 0.3 0.4 Motorcycle/scooter 2.3 0.4 0.6 Car/truck 22.6 3.2 5.1 Boat with a motor 5.1 1.8 2.2 Ownership of agricultural land 29.9 77.2 72.7 Ownership of farm animals1 12.0 49.5 45.9 Number 1,521 14,500 16,021 1 Cows, bulls, buffalo, goats, sheep, pigs, cassowary, chickens, ducks, or other Table 2.6 Household possession of livestock, food and cash crops, and fish farming Percentage of households that own livestock, herds, poultry, or other farm animals; engage in food crop and cash crop production; and practice fish farming, by residence and background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Background characteristic Livestock ownership Food crop production Cash crop production Fish farming Number of households Residence Urban 12.0 41.1 11.1 3.6 1,521 Rural 49.5 91.4 57.9 8.6 14,500 Region Southern 35.5 77.8 42.9 6.8 2,681 Highlands 60.1 91.5 46.5 8.3 6,916 Momase 34.7 83.6 67.5 9.7 4,075 Islands 35.5 87.8 61.5 6.6 2,349 Province Western 18.3 64.7 26.6 8.6 349 Gulf 32.0 84.3 47.5 8.0 263 Central 43.7 81.0 34.3 17.8 514 National Capital District 5.2 26.8 2.8 3.1 324 Milne Bay 56.8 92.9 65.0 0.9 833 Northern 22.4 90.4 51.8 5.3 399 Southern Highlands 63.8 94.5 24.7 7.5 1,277 Enga 65.1 95.8 22.4 13.5 567 Western Highlands 52.1 84.9 44.9 7.5 868 Chimbu 60.8 89.4 58.0 6.3 1,077 Eastern Highlands 48.3 89.7 78.7 5.0 1,584 Morobe 36.0 71.7 48.4 7.9 1,419 Madang 50.9 91.8 79.7 9.5 1,014 East Sepik 18.9 87.1 82.5 12.1 1,054 West Sepik 31.8 92.0 65.5 10.0 587 Manus 21.6 74.5 30.3 7.0 158 New Ireland 26.4 89.1 52.4 1.9 453 East New Britain 48.6 92.7 56.0 6.0 533 West New Britain 39.1 79.8 58.2 9.5 607 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 30.9 94.0 84.7 7.5 598 Hela 74.0 95.5 6.1 9.1 903 Jiwaka 67.9 92.7 71.2 16.4 641 Wealth quintile Lowest 59.9 95.9 55.5 10.3 3,421 Second 53.2 95.5 63.1 7.4 3,362 Middle 48.3 93.7 64.7 8.9 3,282 Fourth 40.8 85.4 54.0 8.0 3,129 Highest 23.3 58.1 25.6 5.5 2,826 Total 45.9 86.6 53.4 8.1 16,021 22 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.7 Household consumption of rice, flour, and salt Percentage of households that consumed rice, flour products, and salt in the 7 days preceding the survey, according to residence and background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Background characteristic Rice Flour/flour products Salt Number of households Residence Urban 94.1 86.5 92.8 1,521 Rural 63.0 51.3 75.7 14,500 Region Southern 62.8 50.8 68.8 2,681 Highlands 64.9 55.0 76.0 6,916 Momase 62.0 52.2 80.0 4,075 Islands 79.8 62.4 86.3 2,349 Province Western 39.4 35.6 56.2 349 Gulf 40.0 34.2 48.3 263 Central 71.7 59.3 70.6 514 National Capital District 97.4 92.7 92.2 324 Milne Bay 58.9 39.6 64.9 833 Northern 66.7 53.7 80.0 399 Southern Highlands 40.5 25.9 56.9 1,277 Enga 64.9 51.8 72.2 567 Western Highlands 84.0 65.7 90.3 868 Chimbu 65.9 60.8 82.6 1,077 Eastern Highlands 79.8 70.6 84.9 1,584 Morobe 73.6 70.2 85.7 1,419 Madang 71.1 54.2 84.8 1,014 East Sepik 49.9 38.6 79.3 1,054 West Sepik 39.9 29.5 58.7 587 Manus 76.7 60.2 85.6 158 New Ireland 83.0 74.6 92.2 453 East New Britain 86.2 77.8 92.1 533 West New Britain 73.7 53.9 80.5 607 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 78.5 48.5 82.8 598 Hela 53.5 42.5 70.6 903 Jiwaka 65.7 70.5 72.5 641 Wealth quintile Lowest 34.8 29.3 53.6 3,421 Second 54.1 41.5 72.9 3,362 Middle 69.3 54.1 80.3 3,282 Fourth 83.1 68.9 88.1 3,129 Highest 95.2 85.9 95.9 2,826 Total 66.0 54.7 77.3 16,021 Table 2.8 Wealth quintiles Percent distribution of the de jure population by wealth quintiles and the Gini coefficient, according to residence and region, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Wealth quintile Total Number of persons Gini coefficient Residence/region Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Residence Urban 1.1 1.3 4.6 22.6 70.5 100.0 9,162 0.26 Rural 22.4 22.4 22.0 19.7 13.5 100.0 71,207 0.47 Region Southern 13.6 17.0 19.4 20.6 29.5 100.0 15,043 0.44 Highlands 27.9 24.9 19.5 13.1 14.7 100.0 32,442 0.51 Momase 21.6 21.1 20.5 16.5 20.3 100.0 21,258 0.47 Islands 3.4 8.3 21.3 44.9 22.1 100.0 11,626 0.40 Total 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 80,369 0.45 Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 23 Table 2.9 Handwashing Percentage of the de jure population for whom the place most often used for washing hands was observed, by whether the location was fixed or mobile, and total percentage of the de jure population for whom the place for handwashing was observed; and among the de jure population for whom the place for handwashing was observed, percentage with water available, percentage with soap available, and percentage with a cleansing agent other than soap available; percentage of the de jure population with a basic handwashing facility and percentage with a limited handwashing facility, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016- 18 Percentage of de jure population for whom place for washing hands was observed and: Number of persons Place for handwashing observed and: Number of persons for whom place for hand- washing was observed Percentage of the de jure population with a basic hand- washing facility3 Percentage of the de jure population with a limited hand- washing facility4 Number of persons for whom a place for hand- washing was observed or with no place for hand- washing in the dwelling, yard, or plot Background characteristic Place for hand- washing was a fixed place Place for hand- washing was mobile Total Water available Soap available1 Cleansing agent other than soap available2 Residence Urban 75.1 12.4 87.5 9,162 88.9 72.9 2.4 8,014 64.9 27.2 8,644 Rural 36.6 16.4 52.9 71,207 79.5 49.1 4.5 37,698 28.6 34.5 59,287 Region Southern 55.8 20.4 76.2 15,043 86.4 55.1 6.1 11,457 44.0 39.4 13,722 Highlands 25.6 10.4 36.0 32,442 79.3 55.4 4.3 11,676 24.0 23.3 24,464 Momase 47.1 18.4 65.5 21,258 78.4 46.9 3.0 13,932 30.6 40.1 19,462 Islands 53.5 20.9 74.4 11,626 81.2 58.5 3.2 8,646 45.5 38.1 10,283 Province Western 35.3 27.5 62.8 1,914 60.9 34.3 6.2 1,202 24.0 49.9 1,617 Gulf 35.2 17.9 53.1 1,453 88.3 32.0 5.9 772 18.9 44.1 1,221 Central 63.0 15.0 78.0 3,083 89.8 69.6 3.6 2,405 59.8 29.1 2,706 National Capital District 81.4 9.7 91.1 2,247 92.1 77.7 1.6 2,047 72.8 24.1 2,110 Milne Bay 54.7 25.8 80.4 4,124 91.5 47.3 9.4 3,318 38.4 46.7 3,891 Northern 53.1 24.0 77.1 2,221 81.6 47.9 8.9 1,713 35.2 43.4 2,177 Southern Highlands 10.2 9.0 19.2 5,894 61.5 46.5 2.1 1,131 13.5 17.1 3,690 Enga 25.4 13.5 38.8 2,994 73.2 43.7 4.4 1,162 20.1 30.2 2,289 Western Highlands 27.7 10.2 37.9 3,808 90.0 59.2 6.1 1,445 27.2 22.8 2,854 Chimbu 34.3 5.9 40.2 5,324 87.5 73.5 1.4 2,142 34.0 13.2 4,500 Eastern Highlands 34.2 20.1 54.4 6,641 73.8 50.9 4.7 3,611 28.2 38.6 5,369 Morobe 52.2 17.7 69.8 7,851 82.8 56.3 2.9 5,483 41.7 31.6 7,290 Madang 46.8 20.7 67.5 5,577 79.1 46.9 2.1 3,763 31.3 44.4 4,974 East Sepik 43.9 16.6 60.4 4,785 70.5 37.4 4.0 2,891 18.1 45.6 4,523 West Sepik 40.0 19.0 59.0 3,044 76.4 33.2 3.5 1,795 20.6 46.4 2,675 Manus 88.6 4.1 92.7 742 96.2 86.9 0.3 687 83.4 12.8 709 New Ireland 43.4 32.4 75.8 2,268 77.4 55.8 9.0 1,720 42.4 43.9 1,984 East New Britain 51.0 29.3 80.3 2,875 74.6 46.6 0.7 2,310 37.4 49.1 2,651 West New Britain 48.8 18.3 67.2 2,802 79.8 46.4 2.6 1,882 30.8 45.1 2,469 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 59.2 10.4 69.6 2,939 88.2 75.7 2.7 2,046 60.4 22.0 2,469 Hela 18.4 3.5 21.9 4,699 88.3 51.0 3.9 1,030 16.3 15.4 3,160 Jiwaka 29.4 8.1 37.4 3,083 82.9 55.1 8.4 1,154 22.6 21.7 2,601 Wealth quintile Lowest 15.4 16.4 31.8 16,073 64.3 21.2 5.7 5,105 6.9 33.3 12,572 Second 23.5 17.5 40.9 16,070 73.8 31.1 6.4 6,579 14.2 36.2 12,995 Middle 35.3 18.0 53.4 16,078 76.5 43.0 5.8 8,582 24.0 40.3 13,281 Fourth 49.5 19.8 69.3 16,072 80.5 55.6 4.4 11,141 40.2 38.8 14,033 Highest 81.1 7.9 89.0 16,075 93.8 79.4 1.5 14,303 73.2 20.8 15,049 Total 41.0 15.9 56.9 80,369 81.2 53.3 4.2 45,711 33.2 33.6 67,930 1 Soap includes soap or detergent in bar, liquid, powder, or paste form. 2 Cleansing agents other than soap include locally available materials such as ash, mud, or sand. 3 The availability of a handwashing facility on premises with soap and water 4 The availability of a handwashing facility on premises without soap and/or water 24 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.10 Household population by age, sex, and residence Percent distribution of the de facto household population by various age groups and percentage of the de facto household population age 10-19, according to sex and residence, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Urban Rural Male Female Total Age Male Female Total Male Female Total <5 13.0 12.1 12.6 14.3 13.5 13.9 14.2 13.3 13.8 5-9 12.7 11.7 12.2 15.3 14.7 15.0 15.0 14.3 14.7 10-14 11.7 11.9 11.8 13.6 13.3 13.4 13.4 13.1 13.2 15-19 10.7 10.7 10.7 10.0 8.9 9.5 10.1 9.1 9.6 20-24 9.4 10.1 9.7 7.5 8.0 7.8 7.7 8.2 8.0 25-29 8.4 8.5 8.4 6.8 7.4 7.1 6.9 7.5 7.2 30-34 7.2 7.5 7.3 5.6 6.4 6.0 5.8 6.5 6.2 35-39 5.4 6.1 5.8 5.4 5.9 5.7 5.4 5.9 5.7 40-44 5.2 5.1 5.1 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.3 4.4 45-49 4.0 3.8 3.9 4.0 3.5 3.7 4.0 3.5 3.8 50-54 4.5 5.2 4.8 4.6 6.4 5.5 4.6 6.3 5.4 55-59 3.0 2.9 2.9 3.2 2.8 3.0 3.2 2.8 3.0 60-64 1.9 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.1 2.1 2.0 2.1 2.1 65-69 1.4 1.1 1.3 1.6 1.2 1.4 1.6 1.2 1.4 70-74 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.7 75-79 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.4 80 + 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 Don’t know/missing 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Dependency age groups 0-14 37.5 35.7 36.6 43.2 41.5 42.3 42.5 40.8 41.7 15-64 59.6 61.9 60.7 53.5 55.6 54.5 54.2 56.3 55.2 65+ 2.7 2.3 2.5 3.1 2.8 2.9 3.1 2.7 2.9 Don’t know/missing 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Child and adult populations 0-17 43.7 41.9 42.9 49.3 46.7 48.1 48.7 46.2 47.5 18+ 56.1 57.9 56.9 50.5 53.1 51.7 51.1 53.6 52.3 Don’t know/missing 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Adolescents 10-19 22.4 22.6 22.5 23.6 22.2 22.9 23.5 22.2 22.9 Number of persons 4,751 4,467 9,219 36,020 34,114 70,134 40,772 38,581 79,353 Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 25 Table 2.11 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household and by household size; mean size of household, and percentage of households with orphans and foster children under age 18, according to residence, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Residence Total Characteristic Urban Rural Household headship Male 79.4 82.9 82.5 Female 20.6 17.1 17.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members 1 5.2 6.8 6.6 2 6.6 9.8 9.5 3 9.9 14.3 13.9 4 13.9 16.1 15.8 5 12.6 15.9 15.6 6 13.7 13.7 13.7 7 10.4 9.1 9.2 8 10.3 6.5 6.9 9+ 17.4 7.9 8.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean size of households 6.0 4.9 5.0 Percentage of households with orphans and foster children under age 18 Double orphans 1.1 1.0 1.1 Single orphans1 10.6 6.9 7.3 Foster children2 28.4 21.3 22.0 Orphans and/or foster children 32.9 24.5 25.3 Number of households 1,521 14,500 16,021 Note: Table is based on de jure household members, i.e., usual residents. 1 Includes children with one dead parent and an unknown survival status of the other parent 2 Foster children are those under age 18 living in households with neither their mother nor their father present, and the mother and/or the father are alive. 26 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.12 Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood Percent distribution of de jure children under age 18 by living arrangements and survival status of parents, percentage of children not living with a biological parent, and percentage of children with one or both parents dead, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Living with both parents Living with mother but not with father Living with father but not with mother Not living with either parent Total Percent- age not living with a biological parent Percent- age with one or both parents dead1 Number of children Background characteristic Father alive Father dead Mother alive Mother dead Both alive Only father alive Only mother alive Both dead Missing infor- mation on father/ mother Age 0-4 72.5 16.0 1.4 2.2 0.2 5.7 0.4 0.2 0.2 1.1 100.0 6.4 2.4 10,975 <2 74.0 18.2 1.2 1.3 0.1 3.3 0.1 0.1 0.1 1.6 100.0 3.7 1.6 3,983 2-4 71.7 14.8 1.5 2.8 0.3 7.0 0.5 0.3 0.2 0.8 100.0 8.0 2.9 6,992 5-9 66.1 12.4 2.0 3.7 1.0 11.6 0.6 1.0 0.5 1.3 100.0 13.6 5.0 11,741 10-14 61.7 10.5 3.8 4.8 1.3 13.5 1.1 1.3 0.9 1.1 100.0 16.9 8.4 10,635 15-17 56.3 10.3 4.3 3.7 2.1 17.3 1.3 2.2 1.3 1.3 100.0 22.1 11.2 4,691 Sex Male 66.0 11.9 2.4 4.1 1.0 11.1 0.7 0.9 0.7 1.1 100.0 13.4 5.7 20,034 Female 64.9 13.4 2.7 3.0 1.0 11.1 0.8 1.1 0.5 1.3 100.0 13.6 6.2 18,007 Residence Urban 58.8 14.9 3.2 4.9 1.1 12.8 1.2 1.1 0.5 1.4 100.0 15.7 7.3 3,948 Rural 66.3 12.4 2.5 3.4 1.0 10.9 0.7 1.0 0.6 1.2 100.0 13.2 5.8 34,093 Region Southern 67.1 11.2 2.6 3.7 1.3 11.0 0.8 0.8 0.7 0.9 100.0 13.3 6.2 7,130 Highlands 61.1 14.2 2.6 4.2 0.8 12.8 0.7 1.1 0.8 1.7 100.0 15.4 6.0 15,251 Momase 70.4 10.5 3.0 3.0 1.1 8.8 0.8 1.1 0.4 1.0 100.0 11.0 6.4 10,020 Islands 66.9 14.0 1.9 2.8 0.9 10.8 0.8 0.9 0.4 0.7 100.0 12.9 4.9 5,640 Province Western 71.4 11.2 2.4 2.5 1.0 9.1 0.7 0.9 0.2 0.6 100.0 10.9 5.2 942 Gulf 72.2 10.1 2.5 3.1 0.5 8.8 0.2 0.7 0.7 1.3 100.0 10.3 4.6 739 Central 67.7 11.1 3.6 3.1 1.4 9.7 0.9 0.6 1.3 0.7 100.0 12.4 7.8 1,530 National Capital District 60.8 14.5 3.7 5.9 0.8 10.1 1.3 0.8 0.7 1.4 100.0 12.9 7.3 873 Milne Bay 65.1 11.6 1.6 3.6 1.1 14.0 0.9 0.7 0.6 0.7 100.0 16.3 5.0 1,951 Northern 67.6 8.8 2.5 4.3 2.4 11.4 0.9 0.9 0.3 1.0 100.0 13.4 7.0 1,095 Southern Highlands 60.8 15.6 2.6 3.4 0.4 11.8 0.7 2.1 1.0 1.5 100.0 15.7 7.0 2,850 Enga 68.8 10.0 2.4 3.2 1.7 9.4 0.2 1.4 1.9 0.9 100.0 13.0 7.7 1,274 Western Highlands 67.7 12.0 3.9 3.8 1.0 8.4 1.0 0.3 0.7 1.3 100.0 10.3 6.9 1,757 Chimbu 58.9 15.1 2.1 4.8 0.7 14.7 0.2 0.8 0.5 2.2 100.0 16.2 4.3 2,455 Eastern Highlands 61.8 10.3 1.1 6.0 1.3 15.6 0.9 0.5 0.3 2.2 100.0 17.3 4.1 3,014 Morobe 66.3 12.5 2.6 3.9 1.2 9.2 1.0 1.4 0.4 1.3 100.0 12.1 6.7 3,382 Madang 73.3 7.4 3.8 2.7 0.7 9.0 0.7 1.0 0.3 1.1 100.0 10.9 6.4 2,817 East Sepik 68.6 12.7 2.7 2.8 1.3 9.9 0.6 0.5 0.2 0.5 100.0 11.3 5.4 2,290 West Sepik 76.6 8.4 2.5 1.8 1.3 5.6 0.8 1.1 1.1 0.7 100.0 8.6 6.9 1,531 Manus 55.5 19.9 2.0 4.6 0.3 14.6 0.7 1.1 0.1 1.2 100.0 16.5 4.3 339 New Ireland 59.7 16.7 2.7 3.0 0.6 14.8 0.7 0.9 0.4 0.4 100.0 16.8 5.4 1,145 East New Britain 66.4 16.3 1.4 1.5 1.0 11.1 1.0 0.9 0.2 0.1 100.0 13.3 4.5 1,484 West New Britain 71.5 12.2 1.8 3.2 1.1 7.9 0.2 1.3 0.2 0.5 100.0 9.7 4.7 1,303 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 71.7 9.3 1.9 3.1 1.0 9.0 1.1 0.5 0.8 1.5 100.0 11.4 5.4 1,369 Hela 49.3 22.6 4.6 3.4 0.3 14.7 0.8 1.4 1.1 1.9 100.0 18.0 8.1 2,465 Jiwaka 69.0 10.3 1.2 4.0 0.5 11.1 0.8 1.3 0.6 1.3 100.0 13.7 4.4 1,436 Wealth quintile Lowest 68.4 12.3 3.3 2.6 1.4 8.9 0.4 0.8 0.7 1.1 100.0 10.8 6.7 7,953 Second 68.4 11.8 2.3 3.5 1.2 9.5 0.6 0.8 0.7 1.3 100.0 11.6 5.6 7,786 Middle 68.1 10.5 2.4 3.9 0.6 10.6 1.0 0.8 0.8 1.3 100.0 13.2 5.6 7,801 Fourth 64.7 12.7 2.8 2.9 0.9 12.0 0.8 1.5 0.6 1.2 100.0 14.9 6.6 7,636 Highest 56.8 16.4 1.9 5.2 0.8 15.2 1.0 1.2 0.3 1.1 100.0 17.7 5.3 6,865 Total <15 66.8 13.0 2.3 3.6 0.8 10.3 0.7 0.8 0.5 1.2 100.0 12.3 5.2 33,351 Total <18 65.5 12.6 2.6 3.6 1.0 11.1 0.8 1.0 0.6 1.2 100.0 13.5 6.0 38,041 Note: Table is based on de jure members, i.e., usual residents. 1 Includes children with father dead, mother dead, both dead, and one parent dead but missing information on survival status of the other parent Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 27 Table 2.13 Birth registration of children under age 5 Percentage of de jure children under age 5 whose births are registered with the civil authorities, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Percentage of children whose births are registered and who: Number of children Background characteristic Had a birth certificate Did not have birth certificate Total percentage of children whose births are registered Age <2 6.3 6.5 12.8 3,983 2-4 7.5 6.3 13.8 6,992 Sex Male 7.1 6.2 13.3 5,769 Female 7.1 6.5 13.6 5,206 Residence Urban 17.0 7.9 24.9 1,153 Rural 5.9 6.2 12.1 9,822 Region Southern 11.4 7.8 19.2 2,193 Highlands 8.0 8.1 16.1 4,173 Momase 3.7 3.8 7.5 3,000 Islands 5.1 4.6 9.6 1,610 Province Western 4.4 7.0 11.4 285 Gulf 2.8 1.1 3.9 223 Central 10.1 11.3 21.4 481 National Capital District 26.5 14.4 40.8 273 Milne Bay 10.7 4.2 14.9 613 Northern 14.1 9.1 23.2 319 Southern Highlands 7.4 0.8 8.2 832 Enga 0.8 12.0 12.7 336 Western Highlands 4.1 0.5 4.6 432 Chimbu 7.1 5.3 12.4 694 Eastern Highlands 7.3 20.7 28.1 838 Morobe 6.3 2.2 8.4 1,047 Madang 1.9 1.2 3.1 814 East Sepik 2.9 1.6 4.5 655 West Sepik 2.2 14.9 17.1 484 Manus 4.5 3.2 7.7 100 New Ireland 4.5 1.4 5.9 313 East New Britain 6.9 0.4 7.3 441 West New Britain 2.3 6.7 9.0 370 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 6.2 10.2 16.4 385 Hela 3.5 10.4 14.0 637 Jiwaka 28.9 3.5 32.4 405 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.3 6.0 9.3 2,348 Second 3.6 6.1 9.7 2,267 Middle 6.1 6.0 12.1 2,238 Fourth 7.0 6.5 13.4 2,166 Highest 16.8 7.4 24.2 1,957 Total 7.1 6.4 13.4 10,975 28 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.14.1 Educational attainment of the female household population Percent distribution of the de facto female household population age 6 and over by highest level of schooling attended or completed and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Background characteristic No education Some elementary Completed elementary1 Some primary Completed primary2 Some secondary Completed secondary3 More than secondary Don’t know/ missing Total Number Median years completed Age 6-14 29.6 31.1 7.2 27.2 0.9 0.5 0.0 0.0 3.5 100.0 9,653 0.1 6-9 45.6 41.3 4.5 3.9 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 100.0 4,596 0.0 10-14 15.0 21.8 9.7 48.4 1.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 100.0 5,057 1.8 15-24 13.5 1.8 2.2 37.0 13.7 21.7 4.7 3.4 1.9 100.0 6,697 6.4 15-19 11.1 2.0 2.6 48.6 11.3 19.5 2.4 0.1 2.3 100.0 3,521 5.8 20-24 16.2 1.6 1.7 24.3 16.3 24.2 7.1 7.1 1.5 100.0 3,175 7.3 25-29 26.1 1.6 2.7 25.4 13.2 18.0 6.2 4.5 2.4 100.0 2,908 5.6 30-34 29.5 1.4 2.9 28.3 10.1 16.0 4.3 4.9 2.5 100.0 2,514 5.1 35-39 32.5 2.3 2.8 34.4 6.3 13.4 1.5 5.0 1.9 100.0 2,282 4.6 40-44 31.3 1.7 2.5 38.0 5.0 12.7 2.6 5.0 1.3 100.0 1,663 5.1 45-49 38.9 1.9 2.5 36.6 3.8 11.2 1.0 2.9 1.3 100.0 1,349 3.9 50-54 55.9 0.9 1.5 28.6 3.0 4.4 1.3 2.1 2.3 100.0 2,427 0.0 55-59 57.3 1.3 1.7 24.8 2.5 5.3 1.2 3.4 2.7 100.0 1,073 0.0 60-64 62.9 1.5 1.0 22.5 1.2 5.7 0.5 1.7 3.0 100.0 811 0.0 65+ 69.9 1.8 5.4 15.3 1.2 1.2 0.0 1.0 4.1 100.0 1,042 0.0 Don’t know/ missing 57.7 1.5 1.0 15.1 2.5 1.6 0.0 0.0 20.6 100.0 79 0.0 Residence Urban 13.6 9.2 2.9 29.3 8.0 20.6 5.4 8.1 3.0 100.0 3,833 5.8 Rural 34.1 10.6 4.0 30.2 6.0 8.8 1.9 1.8 2.6 100.0 28,664 1.8 Region Southern 22.5 10.9 4.0 33.6 8.1 12.5 2.4 3.5 2.4 100.0 6,040 3.9 Highlands 43.0 8.5 4.1 23.6 4.1 8.5 2.0 3.0 3.3 100.0 13,266 0.3 Momase 29.4 12.3 3.7 32.5 6.7 8.7 2.8 1.5 2.3 100.0 8,446 2.3 Islands 16.2 11.7 3.1 39.6 9.1 14.7 2.1 2.1 1.4 100.0 4,744 4.9 Province Western 23.0 9.8 4.2 37.2 9.8 10.3 1.2 1.7 2.8 100.0 767 4.1 Gulf 40.1 9.4 4.1 28.4 5.9 6.7 0.9 0.6 3.9 100.0 585 0.7 Central 27.0 11.3 3.0 32.9 6.8 13.5 1.5 1.1 2.9 100.0 1,197 2.7 National Capital District 7.7 8.0 3.1 26.2 7.7 21.3 8.2 14.4 3.3 100.0 946 7.4 Milne Bay 19.3 12.2 4.8 36.8 9.6 12.1 1.9 2.3 1.0 100.0 1,631 4.1 Northern 25.5 13.2 4.8 36.8 7.8 8.6 0.5 0.6 2.3 100.0 914 2.8 Southern Highlands 51.9 8.2 3.9 21.0 3.1 6.5 1.1 1.5 2.8 100.0 2,446 0.0 Enga 53.4 8.7 4.2 20.6 3.6 6.5 1.0 0.9 1.1 100.0 1,182 0.0 Western Highlands 32.4 9.1 4.2 25.8 4.9 8.6 2.1 4.9 7.9 100.0 1,606 1.9 Chimbu 30.3 7.1 4.8 21.5 6.9 15.7 4.5 5.5 3.8 100.0 2,171 3.5 Eastern Highlands 37.5 10.9 3.5 29.1 3.6 8.2 2.0 3.6 1.7 100.0 2,692 1.2 Morobe 26.5 11.1 4.0 29.7 6.3 11.5 5.8 2.9 2.2 100.0 3,072 3.1 Madang 27.4 14.0 4.0 35.3 9.0 6.2 0.7 0.9 2.5 100.0 2,206 2.0 East Sepik 30.8 11.9 3.6 35.6 5.4 8.1 1.5 0.6 2.4 100.0 1,992 2.2 West Sepik 38.3 12.8 2.9 29.5 5.7 6.8 0.9 0.6 2.4 100.0 1,176 0.6 Manus 10.1 10.7 4.8 38.1 9.1 18.2 3.4 3.4 2.1 100.0 300 5.4 New Ireland 11.9 13.5 4.4 37.3 8.1 17.4 1.8 2.6 3.0 100.0 910 5.1 East New Britain 15.3 11.3 2.8 40.6 9.1 15.7 1.8 2.7 0.7 100.0 1,178 5.1 West New Britain 20.5 13.0 2.6 38.8 9.4 11.7 2.2 1.1 0.7 100.0 1,129 3.9 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 17.7 9.8 2.5 41.3 9.7 13.7 2.1 1.6 1.6 100.0 1,226 5.0 Hela 58.0 6.2 5.0 19.5 1.6 4.4 0.4 1.1 3.8 100.0 1,925 0.0 Jiwaka 39.7 8.8 3.0 26.6 5.4 9.3 2.4 2.6 2.1 100.0 1,245 1.1 Wealth quintile Lowest 54.4 10.2 3.9 23.2 3.0 2.6 0.2 0.2 2.3 100.0 6,421 0.0 Second 41.3 10.0 4.3 29.9 5.6 5.1 0.5 0.2 3.0 100.0 6,360 0.3 Middle 30.3 12.4 4.5 33.9 6.6 7.8 1.0 0.4 3.1 100.0 6,385 2.0 Fourth 21.0 12.1 3.5 36.3 8.4 12.4 1.6 2.1 2.5 100.0 6,638 3.9 Highest 12.7 7.3 3.0 27.2 7.6 22.6 7.8 9.6 2.2 100.0 6,694 6.6 Total 31.7 10.4 3.8 30.1 6.3 10.2 2.3 2.6 2.6 100.0 32,497 2.3 1 Completed grade 2 at elementary level 2 Completed grade 8 at primary level 3 Completed grade 12 at secondary level Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 29 Table 2.14.2 Educational attainment of the male household population Percent distribution of the de facto male household population age 6 and over by highest level of schooling attended or completed and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Background characteristic No education Some elementary Completed elementary1 Some primary Completed primary2 Some secondary Completed secondary3 More than secondary Don’t know/ missing Total Number Median years completed Age 6-14 29.3 32.2 8.0 26.3 0.5 0.4 0.0 0.0 3.3 100.0 10,516 0.0 6-9 45.2 41.8 4.9 4.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.0 100.0 5,062 0.0 10-14 14.4 23.3 10.9 47.1 0.9 0.7 0.0 0.0 2.6 100.0 5,454 1.7 15-24 9.3 2.0 1.8 42.0 13.0 21.9 5.5 2.4 2.1 100.0 7,279 6.4 15-19 7.8 2.4 2.1 53.5 12.9 16.9 1.3 1.0 2.1 100.0 4,120 5.7 20-24 11.3 1.4 1.3 27.0 13.1 28.4 11.1 4.1 2.2 100.0 3,159 7.6 25-29 16.6 1.7 1.8 20.9 13.3 24.2 11.2 7.3 3.0 100.0 2,832 7.5 30-34 20.0 1.8 1.9 28.7 9.4 21.1 6.8 8.0 2.3 100.0 2,367 6.0 35-39 20.1 2.1 2.1 33.9 10.2 18.2 4.8 6.2 2.3 100.0 2,218 5.7 40-44 19.0 2.7 2.4 36.8 6.1 18.7 3.8 8.3 2.2 100.0 1,791 5.6 45-49 23.4 2.2 2.7 39.8 8.4 13.4 1.4 6.7 2.0 100.0 1,630 5.4 50-54 32.8 1.1 1.6 35.6 6.6 10.5 2.0 7.4 2.6 100.0 1,873 5.2 55-59 35.9 1.7 1.5 34.9 4.5 11.0 1.1 6.4 2.9 100.0 1,289 5.0 60-64 45.0 1.8 1.2 26.7 3.6 10.6 1.1 7.0 2.9 100.0 818 2.1 65+ 53.4 2.3 2.6 26.0 2.0 5.9 1.0 3.1 3.8 100.0 1,257 0.0 Don’t know/ missing 35.5 6.7 0.0 14.9 2.5 7.5 0.0 2.9 29.9 100.0 79 0.0 Residence Urban 9.7 9.7 2.8 28.3 6.8 20.2 7.3 12.2 2.9 100.0 3,998 6.5 Rural 25.4 11.6 3.9 32.4 6.8 11.6 2.9 2.6 2.8 100.0 29,950 3.2 Region Southern 18.3 11.7 3.9 33.1 7.6 13.7 3.5 5.7 2.5 100.0 6,347 4.8 Highlands 32.3 11.1 3.9 26.2 5.0 11.2 3.2 3.5 3.7 100.0 13,630 2.0 Momase 19.4 11.2 3.8 35.9 8.3 12.4 4.0 3.0 2.1 100.0 9,049 4.4 Islands 14.2 11.9 3.6 38.7 8.1 15.6 2.7 3.3 1.9 100.0 4,923 5.1 Province Western 17.5 10.2 3.3 36.9 9.6 14.2 3.2 2.3 2.9 100.0 785 5.1 Gulf 29.9 10.9 3.7 29.8 6.7 11.7 1.9 1.4 4.1 100.0 614 2.6 Central 19.8 11.4 3.8 32.1 6.7 17.4 2.8 2.7 3.3 100.0 1,274 4.4 National Capital District 6.1 7.9 2.5 22.6 6.6 17.7 10.4 22.7 3.5 100.0 1,011 9.0 Milne Bay 18.7 14.2 4.2 38.6 8.1 10.7 1.5 3.1 0.9 100.0 1,719 3.8 Northern 21.5 13.2 5.5 34.8 8.0 11.0 1.9 2.1 2.1 100.0 943 3.1 Southern Highlands 35.8 11.7 3.9 26.4 3.1 10.2 2.6 3.2 3.1 100.0 2,387 1.2 Enga 42.9 10.2 3.3 22.7 3.6 11.5 2.0 2.7 1.1 100.0 1,308 0.3 Western Highlands 21.5 9.4 4.2 32.0 4.6 13.1 3.6 3.9 7.7 100.0 1,662 4.0 Chimbu 25.2 13.3 3.6 22.2 5.0 13.5 6.6 6.5 4.2 100.0 2,166 3.0 Eastern Highlands 28.5 13.4 4.1 28.3 6.3 11.9 2.6 2.8 2.1 100.0 2,849 2.4 Morobe 15.5 8.6 4.1 34.9 8.3 14.3 8.2 4.2 1.9 100.0 3,390 5.3 Madang 21.4 12.5 3.7 34.8 8.7 12.3 1.7 2.8 2.2 100.0 2,359 3.7 East Sepik 20.1 14.5 3.0 37.9 7.5 11.5 1.3 2.0 2.2 100.0 2,021 3.7 West Sepik 24.7 10.8 4.4 37.0 8.6 8.6 1.5 2.1 2.2 100.0 1,278 3.4 Manus 9.1 10.6 4.5 36.0 9.0 18.8 3.3 6.6 2.0 100.0 320 5.6 New Ireland 12.1 14.6 4.2 36.1 6.5 15.8 2.7 4.3 3.7 100.0 977 4.9 East New Britain 14.0 11.6 2.1 43.6 6.4 15.7 2.7 3.1 0.9 100.0 1,150 5.1 West New Britain 16.6 13.0 4.9 34.0 9.8 15.8 2.7 2.2 1.0 100.0 1,239 4.8 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 15.0 9.3 2.9 41.8 9.1 14.1 2.6 2.8 2.3 100.0 1,237 5.1 Hela 48.7 7.3 3.1 21.2 5.7 5.4 1.1 1.5 5.9 100.0 1,926 0.0 Jiwaka 24.7 9.5 5.4 31.7 6.1 13.4 3.4 4.1 1.8 100.0 1,331 3.6 Wealth quintile Lowest 42.4 11.3 4.2 28.3 4.7 5.2 0.6 0.4 3.1 100.0 6,658 0.1 Second 31.2 12.9 4.3 32.4 6.4 8.1 1.2 0.5 2.9 100.0 6,808 1.8 Middle 21.6 12.6 4.1 35.0 7.4 12.8 2.3 1.3 3.0 100.0 6,811 3.6 Fourth 15.1 11.0 3.7 36.4 7.8 16.1 3.0 4.0 2.9 100.0 6,741 5.1 Highest 8.3 8.9 2.8 27.5 7.7 20.6 9.6 12.5 2.0 100.0 6,931 7.2 Total 23.6 11.3 3.8 31.9 6.8 12.6 3.4 3.8 2.8 100.0 33,948 3.6 1 Completed grade 2 at elementary level 2 Completed grade 8 at primary level 3 Completed grade 12 at secondary level 30 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.15.1 Current school attendance: Female Percent distribution of the de facto female household population age 6-24 currently attending school by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and currently not attending school, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Level of schooling1 Currently not attending Missing Total Number of females Background characteristic Preparatory2 Elementary3 Primary4 Secondary5 More than secondary6 Age 6-10 10.9 28.9 9.3 0.1 0.0 45.5 5.3 100.0 5,669 10-15 1.4 14.2 60.3 2.1 0.1 18.6 3.3 100.0 4,564 16-20 0.0 0.4 28.7 20.6 1.1 45.9 3.2 100.0 3,727 21-24 0.0 0.0 1.7 4.8 3.5 81.6 8.4 100.0 2,390 Residence Urban 3.9 12.2 28.5 12.2 1.3 36.4 5.6 100.0 1,889 Rural 4.2 14.3 26.6 5.2 0.7 44.3 4.6 100.0 14,460 Region Southern 4.6 14.7 26.4 4.6 0.5 44.5 4.8 100.0 3,103 Highlands 2.8 12.7 26.5 8.1 1.2 44.1 4.7 100.0 6,513 Momase 4.8 15.6 25.1 4.5 0.6 43.7 5.7 100.0 4,312 Islands 6.3 14.3 31.7 5.2 0.4 39.3 2.8 100.0 2,421 Living arrangements7 Living with both parents 6.4 21.4 33.3 2.1 0.1 32.4 4.3 100.0 7,161 Living with mother but not father 5.1 15.7 34.6 7.0 0.0 33.4 4.2 100.0 1,773 Living with father but not mother 5.1 20.5 39.6 2.9 0.0 26.4 5.5 100.0 585 Not living with either parent 4.9 17.0 35.7 3.7 0.0 35.0 3.7 100.0 2,085 Wealth quintile Lowest 4.1 14.0 20.0 2.0 0.0 56.5 3.3 100.0 3,179 Second 3.8 14.3 24.5 2.7 0.0 49.3 5.3 100.0 3,084 Middle 4.7 15.4 29.6 3.9 0.0 41.6 4.8 100.0 3,282 Fourth 5.1 16.5 30.9 5.0 0.8 37.5 4.3 100.0 3,373 Highest 3.2 10.4 28.8 15.8 2.9 33.3 5.7 100.0 3,430 Total 4.2 14.1 26.9 6.0 0.8 43.4 4.7 100.0 16,349 1 Currently attending school 2 Preparatory refers to grade 0. 3 Elementary refers to grades 1-2. 4 Primary refers to grades 3-8. 5 Secondary refers to grades 9-12. 6 More than secondary or higher refers to more than grade 12 (tertiary). 7 Includes only de jure children under age 18 Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 31 Table 2.15.2 Current school attendance: Male Percent distribution of the de facto male household population 6-24 years of age currently attending school by highest level schooling attended or completed, and currently not attending school, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Level of schooling1 Currently not attending Missing Total Number of males Background characteristic Preparatory2 Elementary3 Primary4 Secondary5 More than secondary6 Age 6-10 11.0 29.0 9.9 0.1 0.0 45.5 4.5 100.0 6,308 10-15 1.5 16.1 58.6 1.8 0.0 18.1 3.9 100.0 5,012 16-20 0.0 1.3 36.6 22.0 0.6 35.5 3.9 100.0 4,198 21-24 0.0 0.1 8.9 12.8 3.7 70.0 4.5 100.0 2,277 Residence Urban 3.8 12.8 30.2 11.8 2.5 34.0 5.0 100.0 1,982 Rural 4.4 15.4 29.8 6.8 0.4 39.1 4.1 100.0 15,813 Region Southern 4.3 16.1 26.9 5.6 0.9 41.9 4.2 100.0 3,226 Highlands 3.2 15.6 29.1 10.1 0.8 36.6 4.7 100.0 7,255 Momase 5.1 13.5 30.9 5.5 0.4 40.9 3.7 100.0 4,754 Islands 6.0 15.6 33.6 5.3 0.4 35.6 3.6 100.0 2,560 Living arrangements7 Living with both parents 6.6 21.3 32.8 2.5 0.0 32.6 4.1 100.0 8,090 Living with mother but not father 6.2 19.9 33.0 3.2 0.0 34.6 3.1 100.0 1,780 Living with father but not mother 4.3 26.0 34.0 2.6 0.0 27.4 5.6 100.0 792 Not living with either parent 3.8 16.9 41.4 4.4 0.0 29.5 4.0 100.0 2,212 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.9 14.6 23.9 4.0 0.1 49.5 3.9 100.0 3,592 Second 4.9 16.3 27.5 5.3 0.0 41.4 4.6 100.0 3,625 Middle 5.4 15.6 30.5 6.4 0.2 37.4 4.5 100.0 3,571 Fourth 4.3 15.2 33.8 7.6 0.4 33.9 4.7 100.0 3,494 Highest 3.0 14.0 33.5 13.7 2.4 30.2 3.2 100.0 3,513 Total 4.3 15.1 29.8 7.4 0.6 38.6 4.2 100.0 17,795 1 Currently attending school 2 Preparatory refers to grade 0. 3 Elementary refers to grades 1-2. 4 Primary refers to grades 3-8. 5 Secondary refers to grades 9-12. 6 More than secondary or higher refers to more than grade 12 (tertiary). 7 Includes only de jure children under age 18 32 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.16 School attendance ratios Net attendance ratios (NAR) and gross attendance ratios (GAR) for the de facto household population by sex and level of schooling; and the Gender Parity Index (GPI), according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Background characteristic Male Female Total Gender parity index3 Male Female Total Gender parity index3 ELEMENTARY SCHOOL Residence Urban 57.6 60.0 58.7 1.04 102.8 106.5 104.5 1.04 Rural 42.4 41.8 42.1 0.99 95.3 90.2 92.8 0.95 Region Southern 49.3 45.5 47.5 0.92 99.2 97.8 98.5 0.99 Highlands 45.1 43.4 44.4 0.96 85.8 79.7 83.1 0.93 Momase 36.4 41.4 39.0 1.14 105.9 102.0 103.9 0.96 Islands 43.9 44.1 44.0 1.01 108.1 97.1 102.6 0.90 Province Western 51.8 41.2 46.2 0.80 96.7 79.6 87.7 0.82 Gulf 27.5 22.1 24.9 0.81 82.4 75.4 79.0 0.91 Central 45.6 40.3 42.9 0.88 87.5 77.4 82.3 0.88 National Capital District 66.0 66.5 66.2 1.01 109.1 114.1 111.5 1.05 Milne Bay 59.9 64.5 61.7 1.08 104.9 135.9 117.3 1.30 Northern 34.9 34.7 34.8 0.99 109.8 96.1 102.6 0.88 Southern Highlands 59.5 42.8 50.5 0.72 121.8 70.2 93.9 0.58 Enga 42.3 41.8 42.1 0.99 95.5 72.4 84.5 0.76 Western Highlands 44.4 43.9 44.2 0.99 73.8 82.5 78.1 1.12 Chimbu 55.5 54.6 55.2 0.98 91.5 100.0 94.6 1.09 Eastern Highlands 47.5 52.5 49.4 1.11 86.6 97.1 90.6 1.12 Morobe 49.4 53.1 51.5 1.07 120.7 96.9 107.4 0.80 Madang 30.0 37.5 33.9 1.25 101.3 108.0 104.7 1.07 East Sepik 40.1 39.7 39.9 0.99 106.5 107.9 107.1 1.01 West Sepik 20.1 26.9 23.5 1.34 88.5 93.9 91.2 1.06 Manus 53.6 59.1 56.1 1.10 103.3 112.0 107.4 1.08 New Ireland 48.7 49.9 49.3 1.03 119.8 111.7 116.0 0.93 East New Britain 45.0 48.2 46.6 1.07 94.9 99.1 97.0 1.04 West New Britain 37.8 39.7 38.8 1.05 137.7 101.8 118.7 0.74 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 41.1 37.1 39.0 0.90 85.1 76.8 80.8 0.90 Hela 18.9 20.4 19.6 1.08 51.0 55.7 53.0 1.09 Jiwaka 44.9 50.1 47.2 1.12 81.2 83.3 82.2 1.03 Wealth quintile Lowest 33.8 31.7 32.8 0.94 83.8 82.5 83.2 0.99 Second 36.3 36.8 36.5 1.02 93.6 86.1 90.3 0.92 Middle 45.1 41.4 43.3 0.92 99.9 92.8 96.4 0.93 Fourth 49.8 52.6 51.3 1.06 107.7 105.2 106.4 0.98 Highest 58.4 57.6 58.0 0.99 97.6 90.7 94.5 0.93 Total 43.7 43.4 43.6 0.99 95.9 91.6 93.9 0.95 PRIMARY SCHOOL Residence Urban 62.8 65.6 64.2 1.05 92.7 85.7 89.3 0.93 Rural 47.8 49.5 48.6 1.03 82.1 75.2 78.8 0.92 Region Southern 49.3 51.7 50.5 1.05 79.3 75.1 77.2 0.95 Highlands 52.2 54.1 53.0 1.04 82.5 78.4 80.6 0.95 Momase 43.5 44.8 44.1 1.03 83.3 68.6 76.4 0.82 Islands 52.7 55.3 53.9 1.05 88.7 86.8 87.8 0.98 Province Western 53.5 54.6 54.1 1.02 87.3 77.0 82.3 0.88 Gulf 30.0 29.6 29.8 0.99 75.3 58.4 66.7 0.78 Central 55.2 51.3 53.4 0.93 81.3 77.9 79.7 0.96 National Capital District 69.2 68.4 68.8 0.99 91.5 91.2 91.3 1.00 Milne Bay 51.1 61.0 56.5 1.19 76.0 74.5 75.2 0.98 Northern 30.9 33.3 32.1 1.08 67.1 70.3 68.6 1.05 Southern Highlands 54.5 53.3 54.0 0.98 84.3 77.9 81.4 0.92 Enga 48.2 46.3 47.4 0.96 76.6 71.1 74.2 0.93 Western Highlands 65.4 65.2 65.3 1.00 101.0 99.8 100.5 0.99 Chimbu 56.6 67.2 62.0 1.19 84.9 91.3 88.1 1.08 Eastern Highlands 49.7 53.3 51.3 1.07 72.8 78.4 75.3 1.08 Morobe 55.4 54.9 55.2 0.99 88.6 76.0 83.3 0.86 Madang 37.7 40.6 39.1 1.08 74.0 61.3 67.7 0.83 East Sepik 38.1 43.6 40.9 1.14 91.1 70.7 80.6 0.78 West Sepik 31.8 34.8 33.3 1.09 76.5 64.8 70.9 0.85 Manus 66.1 72.7 69.1 1.10 99.6 100.4 99.9 1.01 New Ireland 49.2 54.9 51.9 1.11 80.2 78.7 79.5 0.98 East New Britain 64.6 59.2 62.0 0.92 106.8 90.9 99.0 0.85 West New Britain 37.6 46.6 41.8 1.24 74.4 74.2 74.3 1.00 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 55.7 56.0 55.8 1.00 89.9 99.5 94.5 1.11 Hela 33.0 35.9 34.4 1.09 68.4 57.3 62.9 0.84 Jiwaka 65.0 63.5 64.4 0.98 101.8 79.6 91.9 0.78 Continued. Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 33 Table 2.16—Continued Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Background characteristic Male Female Total Gender parity index3 Male Female Total Gender parity index3 PRIMARY SCHOOL (continued) Wealth quintile Lowest 34.1 35.0 34.5 1.02 64.6 54.9 60.1 0.85 Second 40.7 40.9 40.8 1.01 73.5 68.4 71.2 0.93 Middle 47.8 52.8 50.3 1.10 87.4 79.7 83.6 0.91 Fourth 56.3 57.1 56.7 1.01 93.6 85.7 89.7 0.92 Highest 70.5 71.5 71.0 1.01 99.4 93.7 96.7 0.94 Total 49.4 51.3 50.3 1.04 83.1 76.4 79.9 0.92 SECONDARY SCHOOL Residence Urban 30.5 41.6 35.8 1.37 54.7 58.4 56.5 1.07 Rural 18.6 18.1 18.4 0.97 36.7 30.2 33.7 0.82 Region Southern 16.0 17.0 16.5 1.06 29.7 25.9 27.9 0.87 Highlands 28.3 28.9 28.6 1.02 54.7 41.3 48.2 0.76 Momase 14.4 12.5 13.6 0.87 28.8 29.2 29.0 1.01 Islands 13.5 17.7 15.4 1.31 27.1 30.4 28.6 1.12 Province Western 18.1 15.8 17.1 0.87 35.4 26.8 31.6 0.76 Gulf 5.8 3.6 4.7 0.62 13.3 6.0 9.7 0.46 Central 16.5 13.0 14.9 0.79 26.5 17.2 22.3 0.65 National Capital District 41.9 48.0 45.1 1.15 67.3 66.2 66.7 0.98 Milne Bay 9.4 12.8 10.8 1.36 17.5 18.2 17.8 1.04 Northern 7.9 5.1 6.4 0.64 26.6 16.4 21.2 0.62 Southern Highlands 25.4 15.9 20.9 0.63 51.1 26.6 39.6 0.52 Enga 15.8 21.8 18.3 1.38 47.8 41.0 44.9 0.86 Western Highlands 37.1 24.0 31.1 0.65 63.1 35.2 50.3 0.56 Chimbu 46.4 55.1 51.4 1.19 67.5 69.2 68.5 1.03 Eastern Highlands 26.7 29.3 28.0 1.10 61.8 38.4 49.7 0.62 Morobe 23.0 13.7 19.3 0.60 35.8 42.3 38.4 1.18 Madang 7.2 10.8 8.9 1.49 28.9 21.8 25.7 0.75 East Sepik 11.6 17.1 13.9 1.47 24.0 30.9 26.9 1.29 West Sepik 8.8 4.3 6.9 0.49 20.3 9.2 15.7 0.45 Manus 15.5 18.1 16.6 1.17 28.8 24.4 26.9 0.84 New Ireland 13.8 15.3 14.4 1.11 24.5 30.5 26.9 1.25 East New Britain 16.8 18.4 17.5 1.10 27.3 30.7 28.9 1.13 West New Britain 13.2 20.9 16.5 1.58 28.3 36.3 31.7 1.28 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 8.7 15.8 12.4 1.81 27.4 26.8 27.1 0.98 Hela 13.7 14.4 14.0 1.05 36.1 25.3 31.0 0.70 Jiwaka 30.3 21.4 26.7 0.71 52.0 39.5 46.9 0.76 Wealth quintile Lowest 8.7 5.9 7.4 0.68 23.9 11.8 18.2 0.49 Second 13.2 9.1 11.2 0.69 32.1 15.9 24.5 0.50 Middle 14.4 14.3 14.3 1.00 31.2 23.2 27.8 0.74 Fourth 18.8 16.4 17.7 0.87 36.9 28.4 33.0 0.77 Highest 43.1 52.5 47.7 1.22 68.2 79.0 73.5 1.16 Total 20.1 21.3 20.6 1.06 39.0 34.1 36.7 0.87 1 The NAR for elementary school is the percentage of the elementary school-age (6-8 years) population that is attending elementary school. The NAR for primary school is the percentage of the primary-school age (9-14 years) population that is attending primary school. The NAR for secondary school is the percentage of the secondary-school age (15-18 years) population that is attending secondary school. By definition the NAR cannot exceed 100.0. 2 The GAR for elementary school is the total number of elementary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official elementary school-age population. The GAR for primary school is the total number of primary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official primary-school-age population. The GAR for secondary school is the total number of secondary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official secondary-school-age population. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100.0. 3 The gender parity index for elementary school is the ratio of the elementary school NAR (GAR) for females to the NAR (GAR) for males. The gender parity index for primary school is the ratio of the primary school NAR (GAR) for females to the NAR (GAR) for males. The gender parity index for secondary school is the ratio of the secondary school NAR (GAR) for females to the NAR (GAR) for males. 34 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.17 Household food insecurity Percentage of household population by level of food insecurity according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Moderate to severe food insecurity Confidence limits Severe food insecurity Confidence limits Household population Background characteristic Lower (R-2SE) Lower (R+2SE) Lower (R-2SE) Lower (R+2SE) Residence Urban 52.1 47.5 56.7 22.0 18.6 25.4 8,503 Rural 57.9 55.4 60.3 25.9 24.1 27.6 66,109 Province Western 73.2 64.8 81.6 47.3 38.0 56.5 1,799 Gulf 71.6 64.0 79.1 36.7 28.0 45.4 1,341 Central 63.9 56.8 70.9 30.3 25.2 35.3 2,930 National Capital District 48.2 38.2 58.2 20.1 13.0 27.2 2,041 Milne Bay 62.4 56.6 68.2 23.4 18.3 28.5 3,867 Northern 59.9 52.8 67.0 29.3 24.0 34.5 1,885 Southern Highlands 68.1 59.9 76.3 34.8 27.1 42.5 5,630 Enga 56.5 48.8 64.2 23.7 17.7 29.7 2,738 Western Highlands 41.6 36.5 46.6 15.4 12.3 18.4 3,275 Chimbu 61.9 46.8 77.0 29.1 19.7 38.4 4,757 Eastern Highlands 60.2 52.3 68.2 25.5 19.7 31.3 6,261 Morobe 58.9 45.7 72.0 24.4 17.8 30.9 7,519 Madang 34.7 27.5 41.8 11.1 8.0 14.1 5,014 East Sepik 55.5 46.8 64.2 26.9 20.2 33.7 4,217 West Sepik 62.7 55.1 70.4 33.2 26.8 39.5 2,977 Manus 62.1 56.0 68.3 28.2 23.8 32.5 712 New Ireland 57.0 48.7 65.4 22.0 16.6 27.4 2,178 East New Britain 62.0 54.3 69.7 25.9 19.9 31.9 2,836 West New Britain 60.0 54.0 66.0 28.6 23.2 34.0 2,637 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 45.2 38.4 52.1 13.2 8.9 17.5 2,758 Hela 66.0 57.3 74.8 30.0 21.9 38.1 4,338 Jiwaka 36.6 30.9 42.3 15.0 11.5 18.6 2,900 Wealth quintile Lowest 67.8 64.1 71.6 34.2 30.8 37.6 14,731 Second 60.5 57.1 63.9 28.7 26.1 31.3 14,817 Middle 58.8 56.0 61.6 25.3 22.8 27.7 15,139 Fourth 57.5 54.9 60.1 23.5 21.5 25.6 15,042 Highest 41.6 37.8 45.4 15.5 13.5 17.5 14,883 Total 57.2 55.0 59.5 25.4 23.8 27.0 74,612 Characteristics of Respondents • 35 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS 3 Key Findings ▪ Education: Almost one in four women (23%) and 13% of men age 15-49 have no formal education. ▪ Literacy: Two-thirds of women and 80% of men age 15- 49 are literate. ▪ Exposure to mass media: Media coverage is not widespread in Papua New Guinea; only 6% of women and 12% of men age 15-49 read a newspaper, watch television, and listen to the radio at least once a week. ▪ Internet usage: Only 11% of women and 18% of men age 15-49 used the internet in the 12 months before the survey. ▪ Employment: Three in ten women (29%) and 45% of men were employed in the 7 days preceding the survey; agriculture is the most common occupation for both sexes. ▪ Health insurance: Health insurance coverage is extremely rare; only 3% of women and 6% of men are covered. ▪ Tobacco use: Smoking is common; 26% of women and 60% of men smoke tobacco. his chapter presents information on demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the survey respondents, including their sex, age, education, religion, and wealth status. The survey also collected data on use of mass media and the internet, health insurance coverage, and tobacco smoking. This information is useful in understanding the factors that affect use of reproductive health services, contraceptive use, and other health behaviours. 3.1 BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS Table 3.1 shows the percent distribution of all women and men age 15-49 by background characteristics. Just over half of women and men are under age 30. About one-quarter of women and men are Roman Catholics, with Seventh Day Adventist, Evangelical Lutheran, and United Church each accounting for at least 10% of respondents. The proportion of women who are currently married or living together with a partner is higher than among men (66% versus 54%). Women are less likely than men to have never been married (26% versus 43%) and more likely to be widowed, divorced, or separated (8% versus 4%). A person’s place of residence, whether rural or urban, determines her or his access to services and information about health and other aspects of life. Only 13% of respondents live in urban areas, the remaining 87% live in rural areas. T 36 • Characteristics of Respondents Regionally, about 40% of respondents live in the Highlands; the smallest proportion of respondents (14%) lives in the Islands. About 10% of respondents live in Morobe, followed by Eastern Highlands; Manus is the least populous province in the country. 3.2 EDUCATION AND LITERACY Literacy Respondents who have attended secondary or higher education are assumed to be literate. All other respondents, shown a typed sentence to read aloud, are considered literate if they can read all or part of the sentence. Sample: Women and men age 15-49 Education is an important factor influencing an individual’s attitudes and opportunities. Tables 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 show that almost one in four women (23%) and 13% of men age 15-49 have no formal education. A large proportion of respondents (35% of women and men) have attended but not completed some primary school. Men have generally attained higher levels of education than women; only 8% of women age 15-49 have completed secondary school or attained a higher level of education compared with 11% of men (Figure 3.1). Patterns by background characteristics ▪ The percentage of women and men with no education generally increases by age group, suggesting an improvement in educational access over time. ▪ Residents of urban areas generally have more education than rural residents. The urban-rural difference is more pronounced at the secondary or higher levels of education. For example, 19% of women in urban areas have completed secondary or a higher level of education compared with only 6% of rural women. Similarly, 26% of urban men completed secondary or higher level of education, compared with 10% of rural men. ▪ Educational attainment also varies by wealth quintile. Less than 1% of women in the lowest wealth quintile have completed secondary or a higher level of education, compared with 25% of women in the highest quintile. Similarly, only 1% of men in the lowest wealth quintile have completed secondary or higher level of education, compared with 33% of those in the highest quintile (Figure 3.2). ▪ Two-thirds of women and 80% of men age 15-49 are literate, meaning that they can at least read a simple sentence. Literacy levels are higher among younger respondents as well as urban respondents. They also increase with wealth quintiles (Tables 3.3.1 and 3.3.2). Figure 3.1 Education of survey respondents Figure 3.2 Secondary education by household wealth 23 13 2 2 3 2 35 35 11 14 19 23 4 6 4 5 Women Men Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 by highest level of schooling attended or completed More than secondary Completed secondary Some secondary Completed primary Some primary Completed elementary Some elementary No education 0 1 3 6 25 1 2 7 12 33 Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Percentage of women and men age 15-49 with secondary education complete or higher Women Men WealthiestPoorest Characteristics of Respondents • 37 3.3 MASS MEDIA EXPOSURE AND INTERNET USAGE Exposure to mass media Respondents were asked how often they read a newspaper, listened to the radio, or watched television. Those who responded at least once a week are considered regularly exposed to that form of media. Sample: Women and men age 15-49 Tables 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 show the percentage of women and men who are exposed to different types of media, by background characteristics. Media coverage is not widespread in Papua New Guinea. Among women, radio is the most frequently accessed type of media, with 19% of women listening at least once a week, followed closely by newspapers (18%). Newspapers (33%) and radio (32%) are also the most common media accessed by men weekly. Television is the least commonly accessed of the three media: only 15% of women and 22% of men report watching television at least once a week. Very few respondents access all three media at least once a week (6% of women and 12% of men) (Figure 3.3). The internet is also a critical tool through which information is accessed. In Papua New Guinea, only 13% of women and 20% of men age 15-49 have ever used the internet, and 11% and 18% have used it in the past 12 months. Of those who said they used the internet in the 12 months before the survey, about one- third say they use it almost every day (Tables 3.5.1 and 3.5.2). Trends: Compared with the 2006 DHS, the proportions of both women and men who accessed newspapers, television, and radio at least once a week have declined. Patterns by background characteristics ▪ Women and men in urban areas are much more likely to read newspapers, watch television, and listen to the radio at least once a week than women and men in rural areas. They are also much more likely to have used the internet. ▪ Exposure to all forms of mass media increases with increasing education. For example, only 3% of women with no education watch television at least once a week, compared with 56% of those with more than a secondary education. Internet usage increases sharply as level of education increases. For example, less than 1% of women with no education have ever used the internet compared with 76% of those with more than a secondary education. ▪ Similarly, exposure to mass media also increases dramatically with wealth. For example, only 2% of women in the lowest wealth quintile watch television at least once a week compared with 47% of women in the highest quintile. The proportion of men who have ever used the internet increases from 2% in the lowest wealth quintile to 54% in the highest quintile. Figure 3.3 Exposure to mass media 18 15 19 6 71 33 22 32 12 54 Reads news- paper Watches television Listens to radio All three media None of these media Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who are exposed to media on a weekly basis Women Men 38 • Characteristics of Respondents 3.4 EMPLOYMENT Currently employed Respondents who were employed in the 7 days before the survey Sample: Women and men age 15-49 In the 2016-18 PNG DHS, respondents were asked whether they were employed at the time of the survey (that is, had worked in the past 7 days) and, if not, whether they had worked at any time during the 12 months preceding the survey. Tables 3.6.1 and 3.6.2 show that 29% of women and 46% of men are currently employed. An additional 4% of women and 6% of men reported that they had worked in the past 12 months but were not currently employed. Patterns by background characteristics ▪ Urban women and men are more likely than rural respondents to be employed. ▪ The percentage of women and men who are currently employed generally increases with increasing education. For example, only 22% of women with no education are currently employed, compared with 70% of those with higher than secondary education (Figure 3.4). ▪ The percentage of women and men who are employed also increases with increasing wealth. 3.5 OCCUPATION Occupation Categorised as professional/technical/managerial, clerical, sales and services, skilled manual, unskilled manual, domestic service, agriculture, and other Sample: Women and men age 15-49 who were currently employed or had worked in the 12 months before the survey Respondents who were currently employed or had worked in the 12 months before the survey were asked to state their occupation. Tables 3.7.1 and 3.7.2, respectively, show that 43% of employed women and 48% of men age 15-49 are engaged in agricultural occupations. Almost one-third of working women (32%) are engaged in sales or services, while 14% are engaged in professional, technical, or managerial jobs. Among working men, 16% are employed in skilled manual jobs, 15% in professional, technical, or managerial jobs, and 12% in sales and services (Figure 3.5). Figure 3.4 Employment status by education 22 31 27 32 70 42 47 40 50 84 No education Elementary Primary Secondary Higher Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who are currently employed Women Men Characteristics of Respondents • 39 Patterns by background characteristics ▪ As expected, the proportion of respondents working in agriculture is much lower in urban areas than in rural areas, whereas the proportion working in sales and services and in professional, technical, or managerial jobs is higher in urban than rural areas (Tables 3.7.1 and 3.7.2). ▪ Among both women and men, employment in professional/technical/managerial occupations increases dramatically with increasing education and wealth, while employment in agriculture decreases with increasing education and wealth. For example, only 1% of working women with no education are employed in a professional or managerial position compared with 81% of those with higher than a secondary education. ▪ Among working women, the proportion employed in the agricultural sector is highest in East Sepik and West Sepik, while among men, it is highest in Southern Highlands and Milne Bay. For both women and men, the proportion employed in agriculture is lowest in National Capital District. Table 3.8 shows the percent distribution of women who were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by type of earnings, type of employer, and continuity of employment. Almost half of women who work are not paid (47%), while 40% are paid in cash only and 9% are paid in cash and in kind. Over half of working women (57%) are self-employed, while 22% work for a family member and 20% work for a non-family employer. Just over half of working women are employed year-round (55%). Women who work in agriculture are more likely to be unpaid workers and to be self-employed than women who work in non-agricultural jobs. In the survey, women and men who were not working in the 7 days before the survey were asked what they had done most of the time in the previous week. As shown in Tables 3.9.1 and 3.9.2, 78% of women and 55% of men said they mostly did housework, and 16% of women and 28% of men said they were students. 3.6 HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE Respondents in the 2016-18 PNG DHS were asked if they had any health insurance. Tables 3.10.1 and 3.10.2 show that, overall, only 3% of women and 6% of men age 15-49 were covered by any type of health insurance. 3.7 TOBACCO AND BETEL NUT USE Tables 3.11.1 and 3.11.2 show that tobacco smoking is quite common in Papua New Guinea. Over one- quarter (26%) of women smoke cigarettes and other types of tobacco, with cigarettes used only slightly more than other types of tobacco like pipes, brus, and spear rolls. Men are even more likely than women to smoke any type of tobacco; 60% smoke and over half (54%) smoke daily. Men are more likely to smoke other types of tobacco than cigarettes. Among men who smoke cigarettes daily, half (49%) smoke fewer than five cigarettes each day; 26% of daily cigarette smokers smoke 5-9 cigarettes, while another 26% smoke 10 or more cigarettes each day (Table 3.12). Figure 3.5 Occupation 14 5 32 1 1 43 15 2 12 16 2 48 Professional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Unskilled manual Agriculture Percentage of women and men age 15-49 employed in the 12 months before the survey by occupation Women Men 40 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.13 shows that betel nut chewing is very common in Papua New Guinea. Sixty-two percent of women and 71% of men say they chew on a daily basis. Patterns by background characteristics ▪ Use of tobacco is somewhat less among women and men age 15-19 than older respondents. It is also less among those with higher than secondary education. ▪ For both women and men, the prevalence of tobacco smoking differs little by urban-rural residence or by wealth quintile. ▪ As with tobacco use, betel nut chewing is less common among teens age 15-19 and older women age 45-49 than other respondents. Among women, it increases with education and wealth quintile, while among men, differences are less pronounced. Among both sexes, chewing betel nut is least common in Hela province. LIST OF TABLES For more information on the characteristics of respondents, see the following tables: ▪ Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents ▪ Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment: Women ▪ Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: Men ▪ Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women ▪ Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Men ▪ Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women ▪ Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: Men ▪ Table 3.5.1 Internet usage: Women ▪ Table 3.5.2 Internet usage: Men ▪ Table 3.6.1 Employment status: Women ▪ Table 3.6.2 Employment status: Men ▪ Table 3.7.1 Occupation: Women ▪ Table 3.7.2 Occupation: Men ▪ Table 3.8 Type of employment: Women ▪ Table 3.9.1 Agricultural and non-agricultural employment: Women ▪ Table 3.9.2 Agricultural and non-agricultural employment: Men ▪ Table 3.10.1 Health insurance coverage: Women ▪ Table 3.10.2 Health insurance coverage: Men ▪ Table 3.11.1 Tobacco smoking: Women ▪ Table 3.11.2 Tobacco smoking: Men ▪ Table 3.12 Average number of cigarettes smoked daily: Men ▪ Table 3.13 Betel nut chewing Characteristics of Respondents • 41 Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 by selected background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Women Men Background characteristic Weighted percent Weighted number Unweighted number Weighted percent Weighted number Unweighted number Age 15-19 19.4 2,945 2,980 20.0 1,469 1,502 20-24 18.2 2,759 2,699 17.0 1,246 1,266 25-29 16.7 2,543 2,487 16.0 1,171 1,100 30-34 14.3 2,180 2,214 14.4 1,058 1,079 35-39 13.5 2,059 2,039 13.2 966 953 40-44 9.8 1,484 1,550 10.7 782 771 45-49 8.1 1,228 1,229 8.7 641 662 Religion Anglican 2.7 410 598 3.1 230 344 Evangelical Alliance 3.8 573 432 3.1 230 191 Pentecostal 9.0 1,368 1,313 8.2 604 564 Evangelical Lutheran 12.5 1,907 1,478 14.4 1,060 840 Roman Catholic 24.9 3,785 4,079 23.5 1,725 1,927 Salvation Army 0.3 43 47 0.0 0 0 Seventh Day Adventist 13.7 2,077 2,093 15.3 1,122 1,024 United Church 10.4 1,582 1,958 11.3 825 960 Other Christian church 21.3 3,232 3,025 19.1 1,397 1,334 Other Christian 0.6 90 88 0.6 43 45 Other non-Christian 0.6 88 68 0.9 66 75 Other 0.0 0 0 0.2 17 14 Missing 0.3 43 19 0.2 15 15 Marital status Never married 26.1 3,968 4,155 42.5 3,114 3,144 Married 54.6 8,299 8,260 46.4 3,403 3,327 Living together 11.5 1,752 1,683 7.4 544 604 Divorced/separated 6.2 943 869 3.0 220 207 Widowed 1.6 236 231 0.7 52 51 Residence Urban 13.3 2,018 4,045 13.3 976 1,826 Rural 86.7 13,180 11,153 86.7 6,357 5,507 Region Southern 19.1 2,899 4,380 20.3 1,490 2,173 Highlands 40.9 6,213 4,123 39.2 2,871 2,056 Momase 25.8 3,919 3,060 27.3 1,999 1,498 Islands 14.3 2,167 3,635 13.3 973 1,606 Province Western 2.3 352 591 2.5 182 305 Gulf 1.8 277 675 1.9 137 353 Central 3.7 557 668 3.7 272 299 National Capital District 3.5 526 877 3.4 251 384 Milne Bay 5.0 767 775 5.8 423 412 Northern 2.8 421 794 3.0 223 420 Southern Highlands 7.2 1,089 648 6.2 457 281 Enga 3.7 563 422 4.2 306 279 Western Highlands 4.9 746 756 5.2 378 412 Chimbu 6.8 1,038 567 5.4 397 242 Eastern Highlands 8.6 1,310 609 8.0 587 291 Morobe 10.0 1,514 793 10.8 796 400 Madang 6.5 987 716 6.7 493 351 East Sepik 5.7 872 785 5.9 435 389 West Sepik 3.6 545 766 3.8 276 358 Manus 0.9 135 641 0.9 64 294 New Ireland 2.5 385 661 2.3 171 299 East New Britain 3.8 572 879 3.4 247 370 West New Britain 3.5 532 813 3.5 260 383 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 3.6 544 641 3.2 231 260 Hela 5.7 874 442 6.0 438 196 Jiwaka 3.9 594 679 4.2 309 355 Education No education 23.0 3,488 2,841 12.8 941 789 Elementary1 4.4 676 556 3.5 253 253 Primary2 45.9 6,969 7,344 49.0 3,593 3,633 Secondary3 22.8 3,460 3,875 29.4 2,156 2,259 Higher4 4.0 605 582 5.3 389 399 Wealth quintile Lowest 18.3 2,783 2,132 18.6 1,366 1,053 Second 18.6 2,831 2,304 18.9 1,384 1,193 Middle 19.1 2,897 2,666 20.8 1,528 1,432 Fourth 20.5 3,118 3,709 19.1 1,399 1,619 Highest 23.5 3,569 4,387 22.6 1,656 2,036 Total 15-49 100.0 15,198 15,198 100.0 7,333 7,333 42 • Characteristics of Respondents Note: Education categories refer to the highest level of education attended, whether or not that level was completed. 1 Elementary refers to grades 1-2. 2 Primary refers to grades 3-8. 3 Secondary refers to grades 9-12. 4 Higher refers to above grade 12. Characteristics of Respondents • 43 Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Highest level of schooling Total Median years completed Number of women Background characteristic No education Some elementary Complete elementary1 Some primary Completed primary2 Some secondary Completed secondary3 More than secondary Age 15-24 13.0 1.3 2.2 37.1 14.9 23.2 5.0 3.3 100.0 6.6 5,704 15-19 9.9 1.3 2.9 48.3 13.6 20.3 3.5 0.1 100.0 6.0 2,945 20-24 16.3 1.3 1.5 25.0 16.3 26.3 6.6 6.8 100.0 7.3 2,759 25-29 24.8 2.1 2.2 26.9 13.8 20.3 5.1 4.9 100.0 5.7 2,543 30-34 25.9 2.1 4.7 29.9 10.7 18.6 3.5 4.6 100.0 5.2 2,180 35-39 32.5 2.3 2.3 35.7 7.2 14.2 1.8 4.0 100.0 4.6 2,059 40-44 29.0 1.6 2.2 39.9 5.8 13.5 2.7 5.2 100.0 5.2 1,484 45-49 37.0 3.1 2.0 37.7 4.9 11.7 0.9 2.7 100.0 4.4 1,228 Residence Urban 6.9 1.4 1.8 26.4 11.2 33.9 8.9 9.6 100.0 8.2 2,018 Rural 25.4 2.0 2.7 35.7 11.4 16.7 3.0 3.1 100.0 5.3 13,180 Region Southern 12.2 2.0 2.3 37.6 14.7 22.7 4.1 4.5 100.0 6.3 2,899 Highlands 36.5 2.3 3.1 27.5 6.9 15.5 3.0 5.3 100.0 3.7 6,213 Momase 18.5 1.8 3.0 39.0 13.1 17.8 4.9 1.9 100.0 5.6 3,919 Islands 6.8 0.8 0.8 42.2 16.5 25.8 3.9 3.2 100.0 6.9 2,167 Province Western 10.7 1.1 1.7 43.5 18.1 18.6 1.9 4.4 100.0 6.0 352 Gulf 28.2 2.0 3.4 40.0 11.2 13.1 1.6 0.5 100.0 4.8 277 Central 17.1 2.0 3.3 35.1 11.8 25.9 3.2 1.6 100.0 5.8 557 National Capital District 2.5 0.7 1.3 23.8 11.7 33.5 12.4 14.1 100.0 9.2 526 Milne Bay 11.0 2.1 1.1 38.7 18.0 22.8 3.0 3.3 100.0 6.5 767 Northern 10.6 3.8 3.9 49.6 15.8 14.4 0.6 1.4 100.0 5.6 421 Southern Highlands 47.4 2.7 2.1 25.3 5.3 13.2 1.9 2.1 100.0 0.8 1,089 Enga 46.4 3.7 2.7 26.2 6.2 10.7 1.6 2.6 100.0 0.8 563 Western Highlands 25.8 1.8 2.6 28.8 9.0 19.9 4.0 8.1 100.0 5.6 746 Chimbu 24.0 1.2 3.5 24.5 8.2 21.2 3.3 14.0 100.0 6.0 1,038 Eastern Highlands 29.7 3.1 5.3 32.4 6.3 13.8 4.4 4.9 100.0 4.2 1,310 Morobe 14.6 2.0 4.3 29.6 12.2 24.3 9.7 3.5 100.0 6.9 1,514 Madang 18.8 1.6 2.0 45.2 18.0 12.0 1.4 1.0 100.0 5.5 987 East Sepik 17.3 1.6 2.3 46.9 11.9 16.1 2.8 1.0 100.0 5.5 872 West Sepik 30.5 1.7 2.4 41.2 8.9 13.1 1.3 0.9 100.0 4.0 545 Manus 2.3 1.1 0.9 36.4 16.0 32.4 4.6 6.4 100.0 7.6 135 New Ireland 3.7 0.7 1.0 39.2 14.4 33.0 4.3 3.7 100.0 7.4 385 East New Britain 7.9 1.2 0.6 41.7 13.9 25.7 4.5 4.6 100.0 6.7 572 West New Britain 11.1 0.8 1.3 43.3 17.4 20.9 2.8 2.4 100.0 6.0 532 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 4.7 0.4 0.5 45.4 19.8 24.1 3.7 1.5 100.0 6.9 544 Hela 51.2 2.0 1.6 27.5 6.4 8.9 0.5 1.9 100.0 0.0 874 Jiwaka 35.4 1.4 2.1 25.3 7.9 22.5 4.6 0.8 100.0 5.1 594 Wealth quintile Lowest 49.0 2.2 2.8 33.0 7.2 5.5 0.3 0.0 100.0 0.1 2,783 Second 32.0 2.0 3.5 39.8 11.4 9.9 1.0 0.4 100.0 4.1 2,831 Middle 22.3 2.7 2.9 41.4 13.1 14.8 1.9 0.7 100.0 5.2 2,897 Fourth 12.2 1.7 2.3 39.8 14.9 23.4 2.9 2.7 100.0 6.0 3,118 Highest 5.4 0.9 1.6 21.1 10.0 36.1 11.2 13.7 100.0 9.2 3,569 Total 23.0 1.9 2.6 34.5 11.4 18.9 3.8 4.0 100.0 5.5 15,198 1 Completed grade 2 at elementary level 2 Completed grade 8 at primary level 3 Completed grade 12 at secondary level 44 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: Men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Highest level of schooling Total Median years completed Number of men Background characteristic No education Some elementary Complete elementary1 Some primary Completed primary2 Some secondary Completed secondary3 More than secondary Age 15-24 7.0 1.4 1.0 38.4 16.6 25.8 7.2 2.5 100.0 7.1 2,715 15-19 5.8 1.4 0.9 49.4 17.3 22.7 2.3 0.1 100.0 6.5 1,469 20-24 8.5 1.5 1.2 25.4 15.7 29.4 13.1 5.3 100.0 7.9 1,246 25-29 12.6 1.1 1.0 21.9 13.2 29.1 13.2 7.8 100.0 8.0 1,171 30-34 18.9 2.1 2.4 31.2 10.8 22.1 5.9 6.7 100.0 6.0 1,058 35-39 18.1 1.5 3.1 36.2 12.1 19.7 3.8 5.5 100.0 5.7 966 40-44 14.7 3.0 2.5 42.1 10.6 15.3 2.1 9.7 100.0 5.7 782 45-49 17.5 2.2 2.2 41.8 15.4 15.5 0.9 4.5 100.0 5.6 641 Residence Urban 4.1 0.7 0.8 22.3 11.7 34.1 12.7 13.7 100.0 9.2 976 Rural 14.2 1.9 1.9 37.1 14.2 21.3 5.5 4.0 100.0 6.2 6,357 Region Southern 7.3 2.0 2.2 35.5 15.8 24.7 6.9 5.5 100.0 7.2 1,490 Highlands 22.0 1.7 1.7 30.4 10.7 22.3 5.0 6.1 100.0 6.0 2,871 Momase 7.8 2.0 1.4 38.9 16.1 20.3 8.7 4.9 100.0 7.0 1,999 Islands 4.7 0.7 1.7 40.7 15.7 27.5 5.4 3.5 100.0 7.1 973 Province Western 4.4 0.8 1.1 34.7 19.7 27.3 10.2 1.7 100.0 7.5 182 Gulf 14.1 1.7 1.9 39.7 15.3 21.3 3.6 2.3 100.0 6.0 137 Central 7.9 0.9 1.7 39.5 12.3 29.9 5.0 2.6 100.0 7.0 272 National Capital District 1.9 0.6 0.6 15.0 11.3 31.6 16.0 23.0 100.0 9.7 251 Milne Bay 10.3 2.2 3.2 39.8 19.9 19.5 3.6 1.4 100.0 6.1 423 Northern 5.0 5.4 3.9 43.7 14.7 20.6 4.5 2.2 100.0 5.7 223 Southern Highlands 34.1 0.5 1.2 28.7 9.0 15.1 6.5 4.7 100.0 4.8 457 Enga 37.6 1.8 2.0 26.7 7.3 19.9 2.7 2.1 100.0 4.1 306 Western Highlands 6.6 3.3 2.5 31.9 14.4 27.9 6.6 6.7 100.0 7.4 378 Chimbu 15.1 1.7 1.6 23.0 13.8 25.5 5.7 13.5 100.0 7.6 397 Eastern Highlands 14.4 3.0 2.4 33.4 11.3 27.0 4.7 3.9 100.0 6.0 587 Morobe 6.8 0.8 1.1 27.8 18.6 21.9 15.7 7.3 100.0 7.8 796 Madang 10.8 1.8 1.1 44.8 13.0 19.4 4.5 4.7 100.0 5.8 493 East Sepik 6.4 3.5 1.6 46.4 14.7 20.3 4.1 3.0 100.0 5.9 435 West Sepik 7.2 3.4 2.8 48.3 16.3 17.3 3.2 1.4 100.0 5.9 276 Manus 2.0 0.2 0.0 32.1 18.6 34.3 7.0 5.8 100.0 7.8 64 New Ireland 2.6 0.4 1.0 40.2 12.1 34.6 6.8 2.4 100.0 7.5 171 East New Britain 5.0 0.3 1.3 49.6 12.6 21.9 5.5 3.8 100.0 6.3 247 West New Britain 5.0 1.7 1.9 37.4 19.5 26.3 6.2 2.0 100.0 7.2 260 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 6.3 0.5 2.8 37.7 16.6 27.9 3.2 5.0 100.0 7.2 231 Hela 32.3 0.2 0.0 38.9 9.4 13.3 1.6 4.2 100.0 4.2 438 Jiwaka 16.1 1.1 2.5 26.6 9.0 28.3 7.7 8.6 100.0 7.4 309 Wealth quintile Lowest 30.8 3.4 1.9 39.3 12.9 10.3 0.8 0.6 100.0 4.0 1,366 Second 19.6 2.4 2.7 41.6 14.5 16.7 1.6 0.8 100.0 5.4 1,384 Middle 9.1 1.9 2.1 42.7 14.9 22.6 5.7 1.1 100.0 6.0 1,528 Fourth 6.3 0.8 1.5 37.8 13.7 28.3 6.3 5.2 100.0 7.3 1,399 Highest 1.3 0.3 0.8 16.9 13.3 34.4 16.0 17.0 100.0 9.5 1,656 Total 12.8 1.7 1.7 35.1 13.9 23.0 6.4 5.3 100.0 6.8 7,333 1 Completed grade 2 at elementary level 2 Completed grade 8 at primary level 3 Completed grade 12 at secondary level Characteristics of Respondents • 45 Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by level of schooling attended and level of literacy, and percentage literate, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Secondary or higher schooling No schooling, elementary or primary school Total Percentage literate1 Number of women Background characteristic Can read a whole sentence Can read part of a sentence Cannot read at all No card with required language Blind/visually impaired Missing Age 15-24 3.3 58.0 16.1 21.7 0.6 0.0 0.4 100.0 77.3 5,704 15-19 0.1 62.3 17.6 19.0 0.7 0.0 0.3 100.0 79.9 2,945 20-24 6.8 53.4 14.4 24.5 0.5 0.0 0.4 100.0 74.6 2,759 25-29 4.9 42.5 16.2 35.3 0.8 0.0 0.3 100.0 63.6 2,543 30-34 4.6 40.5 17.5 35.8 0.9 0.0 0.8 100.0 62.5 2,180 35-39 4.0 34.4 17.9 41.5 1.1 0.0 1.1 100.0 56.3 2,059 40-44 5.2 35.8 20.0 36.2 1.6 0.3 0.9 100.0 61.0 1,484 45-49 2.7 30.2 18.8 46.6 0.9 0.2 0.5 100.0 51.7 1,228 Residence Urban 9.6 63.8 11.4 13.1 1.2 0.0 0.8 100.0 84.8 2,018 Rural 3.1 42.4 18.0 35.0 0.8 0.1 0.5 100.0 63.6 13,180 Region Southern 4.5 53.0 17.3 23.6 0.9 0.1 0.6 100.0 74.8 2,899 Highlands 5.3 33.4 15.6 44.0 1.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 54.3 6,213 Momase 1.9 48.3 18.7 29.8 0.8 0.0 0.4 100.0 69.0 3,919 Islands 3.2 63.3 18.6 13.7 0.5 0.1 0.6 100.0 85.1 2,167 Province Western 4.4 37.6 25.4 29.3 0.4 0.1 2.8 100.0 67.4 352 Gulf 0.5 32.7 18.7 44.3 3.1 0.0 0.6 100.0 52.0 277 Central 1.6 55.6 17.6 24.9 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 74.8 557 National Capital District 14.1 69.8 6.1 7.1 2.8 0.0 0.2 100.0 89.9 526 Milne Bay 3.3 59.9 15.9 20.5 0.1 0.2 0.1 100.0 79.0 767 Northern 1.4 42.2 25.9 29.5 0.0 0.4 0.6 100.0 69.5 421 Southern Highlands 2.1 27.2 13.5 56.5 0.5 0.0 0.1 100.0 42.9 1,089 Enga 2.6 30.8 14.6 50.9 0.0 0.0 1.0 100.0 48.1 563 Western Highlands 8.1 40.3 14.5 30.0 4.0 0.0 3.1 100.0 62.9 746 Chimbu 14.0 38.9 13.4 33.2 0.4 0.0 0.1 100.0 66.3 1,038 Eastern Highlands 4.9 37.0 18.6 39.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 60.5 1,310 Morobe 3.5 50.3 18.3 25.8 1.7 0.0 0.5 100.0 72.1 1,514 Madang 1.0 55.7 13.4 29.0 0.3 0.1 0.6 100.0 70.0 987 East Sepik 1.0 47.2 24.0 27.4 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 72.3 872 West Sepik 0.9 31.6 20.8 46.2 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 53.3 545 Manus 6.4 68.5 12.7 10.7 1.1 0.0 0.7 100.0 87.6 135 New Ireland 3.7 75.9 9.4 10.3 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 89.0 385 East New Britain 4.6 62.3 19.2 13.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 100.0 86.1 572 West New Britain 2.4 43.8 31.4 21.0 0.7 0.5 0.3 100.0 77.5 532 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 1.5 73.2 13.4 10.3 1.1 0.0 0.6 100.0 88.0 544 Hela 1.9 19.2 17.2 58.0 2.8 0.2 0.8 100.0 38.3 874 Jiwaka 0.8 42.3 16.5 40.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 59.6 594 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.0 19.4 18.0 60.5 0.9 0.2 0.9 100.0 37.5 2,783 Second 0.4 34.5 20.3 43.2 1.2 0.0 0.4 100.0 55.2 2,831 Middle 0.7 42.7 21.8 33.2 1.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 65.2 2,897 Fourth 2.7 57.7 17.9 20.5 0.6 0.1 0.5 100.0 78.3 3,118 Highest 13.7 65.1 9.6 10.4 0.7 0.1 0.4 100.0 88.4 3,569 Total 4.0 45.3 17.2 32.1 0.9 0.1 0.6 100.0 66.4 15,198 1 Refers to women who attended schooling higher than the secondary level and women who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence 46 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.3.2 Literacy: Men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 by level of schooling attended and level of literacy, and percentage literate, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Secondary or higher schooling No schooling, elementary or primary school Total Percentage literate1 Number of men Background characteristic Can read a whole sentence Can read part of a sentence Cannot read at all No card with required language Blind/visually impaired Missing Age 15-24 2.5 65.2 17.7 12.8 0.4 0.1 1.3 100.0 85.4 2,715 15-19 0.1 65.9 20.1 11.8 0.3 0.0 1.7 100.0 86.1 1,469 20-24 5.3 64.4 15.0 14.0 0.4 0.1 0.8 100.0 84.7 1,246 25-29 7.8 58.6 15.8 16.5 0.7 0.1 0.5 100.0 82.3 1,171 30-34 6.7 48.4 20.0 22.8 1.4 0.1 0.5 100.0 75.1 1,058 35-39 5.5 44.8 21.6 25.3 0.9 0.6 1.1 100.0 72.0 966 40-44 9.7 45.4 21.8 20.7 0.5 0.0 2.0 100.0 76.8 782 45-49 4.5 49.3 22.3 21.7 0.9 0.1 1.2 100.0 76.0 641 Residence Urban 13.7 69.6 8.5 7.1 0.3 0.0 0.9 100.0 91.8 976 Rural 4.0 53.4 20.7 19.8 0.8 0.2 1.1 100.0 78.1 6,357 Region Southern 5.5 61.2 17.6 14.3 0.9 0.0 0.4 100.0 84.4 1,490 Highlands 6.1 46.8 19.2 25.9 0.9 0.2 0.8 100.0 72.1 2,871 Momase 4.9 58.6 19.6 14.7 0.5 0.1 1.6 100.0 83.1 1,999 Islands 3.5 66.3 20.1 7.8 0.3 0.1 1.9 100.0 89.9 973 Province Western 1.7 68.0 17.8 6.8 5.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 87.5 182 Gulf 2.3 49.5 23.2 20.8 3.6 0.0 0.7 100.0 74.9 137 Central 2.6 62.3 17.8 16.9 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 82.8 272 National Capital District 23.0 66.7 5.6 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 95.3 251 Milne Bay 1.4 60.9 18.3 19.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 80.7 423 Northern 2.2 56.0 26.1 14.7 0.0 0.0 1.0 100.0 84.4 223 Southern Highlands 4.7 37.2 15.2 38.1 4.1 0.0 0.6 100.0 57.2 457 Enga 2.1 39.4 18.9 38.6 0.0 0.0 0.9 100.0 60.5 306 Western Highlands 6.7 59.5 20.3 12.1 0.8 0.0 0.5 100.0 86.5 378 Chimbu 13.5 49.7 15.9 18.9 0.5 0.0 1.4 100.0 79.1 397 Eastern Highlands 3.9 55.8 19.5 20.0 0.0 0.1 0.7 100.0 79.2 587 Morobe 7.3 73.9 7.6 9.7 0.7 0.0 0.9 100.0 88.7 796 Madang 4.7 53.5 19.1 17.5 0.8 0.0 4.4 100.0 77.3 493 East Sepik 3.0 45.2 32.7 18.3 0.0 0.0 0.8 100.0 80.9 435 West Sepik 1.4 45.0 34.4 18.1 0.0 1.0 0.0 100.0 80.8 276 Manus 5.8 74.0 16.2 3.7 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 95.9 64 New Ireland 2.4 80.7 12.9 3.4 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 95.9 171 East New Britain 3.8 60.5 23.1 10.8 0.0 0.0 1.9 100.0 87.4 247 West New Britain 2.0 64.2 20.4 8.1 0.7 0.4 4.1 100.0 86.7 260 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 5.0 61.9 23.1 8.8 0.4 0.0 0.9 100.0 90.0 231 Hela 4.2 33.2 27.2 32.3 0.4 1.3 1.3 100.0 64.7 438 Jiwaka 8.6 51.1 16.1 23.6 0.0 0.2 0.3 100.0 75.9 309 Wealth quintile Lowest 0.6 30.8 28.9 37.5 1.4 0.1 0.8 100.0 60.2 1,366 Second 0.8 44.0 24.4 27.3 0.9 0.5 2.0 100.0 69.2 1,384 Middle 1.1 60.6 20.9 15.3 1.0 0.1 1.1 100.0 82.6 1,528 Fourth 5.2 65.3 16.4 11.2 0.4 0.1 1.4 100.0 87.0 1,399 Highest 17.0 72.6 7.2 2.8 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 96.8 1,656 Total 5.3 55.5 19.1 18.1 0.7 0.1 1.1 100.0 79.9 7,333 1 Refers to men who attended schooling higher than the secondary level and men who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence Characteristics of Respondents • 47 Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women Percentage of women age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Accesses all three media at least once a week Accesses none of the three media at least once a week Number of women Age 15-19 20.9 17.5 21.9 8.5 67.2 2,945 20-24 21.8 19.4 23.2 8.3 64.4 2,759 25-29 18.0 13.8 19.1 5.8 71.3 2,543 30-34 15.9 13.6 17.1 4.6 72.8 2,180 35-39 13.4 12.6 14.4 4.1 75.9 2,059 40-44 14.1 13.7 14.4 4.2 73.8 1,484 45-49 13.9 12.3 13.4 4.0 75.3 1,228 Residence Urban 41.1 46.1 41.5 20.1 34.6 2,018 Rural 14.0 10.5 15.0 3.9 76.2 13,180 Region Southern 22.9 21.9 24.3 9.7 62.3 2,899 Highlands 14.0 15.5 16.8 5.6 74.1 6,213 Momase 18.3 12.9 18.0 5.0 70.2 3,919 Islands 19.5 9.7 16.6 4.5 72.7 2,167 Province Western 9.0 5.6 12.6 1.4 80.9 352 Gulf 13.3 17.2 18.2 5.2 70.9 277 Central 28.8 25.3 31.0 12.8 54.2 557 National Capital District 54.8 65.3 54.0 30.5 17.6 526 Milne Bay 10.6 5.8 10.9 1.6 81.0 767 Northern 15.8 9.5 16.3 4.2 73.8 421 Southern Highlands 7.6 4.2 5.6 1.4 87.4 1,089 Enga 13.8 19.6 18.5 6.0 72.8 563 Western Highlands 18.4 20.4 25.5 10.3 66.8 746 Chimbu 18.3 18.0 17.3 8.2 70.5 1,038 Eastern Highlands 15.2 28.3 28.5 7.5 61.6 1,310 Morobe 28.2 20.5 20.0 7.7 60.7 1,514 Madang 16.7 9.5 19.7 4.2 71.5 987 East Sepik 11.6 9.7 21.0 4.1 72.6 872 West Sepik 4.5 3.3 4.9 0.6 90.6 545 Manus 37.4 13.3 35.7 7.5 49.4 135 New Ireland 25.0 5.2 15.1 3.3 71.0 385 East New Britain 14.6 13.1 14.8 4.9 76.3 572 West New Britain 16.9 8.1 15.9 4.8 77.2 532 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 18.6 10.1 15.6 4.1 71.4 544 Hela 11.7 4.1 7.3 2.4 85.5 874 Jiwaka 13.7 10.1 12.1 2.7 77.0 594 Education No education 0.3 3.3 5.7 0.2 93.2 3,488 Elementary 0.9 10.9 15.5 0.3 81.3 676 Primary 12.9 11.3 16.8 3.8 74.5 6,969 Secondary 41.4 28.9 30.8 13.9 45.8 3,460 Higher 53.9 55.5 45.0 27.2 27.3 605 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.2 1.8 3.8 0.6 93.7 2,783 Second 6.1 2.9 8.5 1.0 88.0 2,831 Middle 11.3 6.4 14.8 1.7 77.8 2,897 Fourth 17.5 10.7 18.9 3.8 70.2 3,118 Highest 43.2 46.6 40.7 19.9 33.5 3,569 Total 17.6 15.2 18.5 6.1 70.6 15,198 48 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: Men Percentage of men age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Accesses all three media at least once a week Accesses none of the three media at least once a week Number of men Age 15-19 29.0 19.2 29.6 9.5 56.1 1,469 20-24 37.8 28.1 42.1 16.9 45.2 1,246 25-29 40.5 29.3 39.3 17.3 46.0 1,171 30-34 30.3 22.0 28.3 11.6 57.9 1,058 35-39 28.5 14.4 26.5 8.1 59.6 966 40-44 29.4 18.8 26.3 8.4 56.2 782 45-49 30.8 16.9 25.2 7.8 58.7 641 Residence Urban 65.7 57.1 63.2 35.3 15.5 976 Rural 27.6 16.4 27.1 8.2 59.4 6,357 Region Southern 34.5 25.5 36.4 15.3 50.6 1,490 Highlands 30.5 21.0 28.7 11.0 56.6 2,871 Momase 36.9 20.6 34.1 11.1 49.6 1,999 Islands 27.7 21.1 30.1 10.6 57.4 973 Province Western 14.4 5.3 17.0 1.5 75.8 182 Gulf 19.1 9.4 19.3 5.8 72.2 137 Central 33.7 33.2 37.4 13.8 45.2 272 National Capital District 79.1 70.9 71.7 48.6 7.0 251 Milne Bay 24.2 7.7 27.4 4.2 60.0 423 Northern 30.5 25.0 38.7 17.9 55.0 223 Southern Highlands 15.8 9.8 16.2 5.6 77.9 457 Enga 25.9 19.9 26.5 10.2 60.8 306 Western Highlands 37.3 27.3 37.4 15.7 46.0 378 Chimbu 35.4 25.5 25.9 10.5 50.2 397 Eastern Highlands 40.3 27.1 42.3 13.5 42.0 587 Morobe 54.1 33.4 38.1 16.4 35.2 796 Madang 29.8 14.0 33.0 9.4 55.5 493 East Sepik 28.3 13.5 40.1 8.4 51.4 435 West Sepik 13.2 6.9 15.0 3.4 77.4 276 Manus 26.3 10.1 29.9 5.1 61.9 64 New Ireland 15.8 9.4 15.5 3.6 75.6 171 East New Britain 22.6 26.3 30.7 9.8 56.0 247 West New Britain 37.5 23.9 34.1 15.7 51.9 260 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 31.5 24.2 35.8 12.1 50.5 231 Hela 20.5 12.4 17.5 6.9 72.9 438 Jiwaka 37.4 26.0 32.6 15.4 47.0 309 Education No education 1.5 5.2 11.9 0.7 86.8 941 Elementary 7.3 9.5 26.4 2.3 70.7 253 Primary 22.8 15.7 25.9 5.7 61.6 3,593 Secondary 57.0 35.1 47.7 23.6 31.0 2,156 Higher 80.8 53.7 52.2 36.9 13.7 389 Wealth quintile Lowest 11.6 4.8 12.9 2.0 81.9 1,366 Second 14.4 5.9 19.0 2.4 73.5 1,384 Middle 27.1 11.9 29.5 5.6 58.0 1,528 Fourth 34.6 21.9 36.4 10.5 46.8 1,399 Highest 68.7 58.4 56.9 34.7 15.3 1,656 Total 32.7 21.8 31.9 11.8 53.6 7,333 Characteristics of Respondents • 49 Table 3.5.1 Internet usage: Women Percentage of women age 15-49 who have ever used the internet, and percentage who have used the internet in the past 12 months; and among women who have used the internet in the past 12 months, percent distribution by frequency of internet use in the past month, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Ever used the internet Used the internet in the past 12 months Number of women Among respondents who have used the internet in the past 12 months, percentage who, in the past month, used internet: Background characteristic Almost every day At least once a week Less than once a week Not at all Missing Total Number of women Age 15-19 16.5 13.6 2,945 32.0 43.6 19.8 4.4 0.3 100.0 400 20-24 24.3 22.2 2,759 36.3 51.0 10.1 2.6 0.0 100.0 612 25-29 12.6 9.7 2,543 43.6 36.4 16.3 3.7 0.0 100.0 247 30-34 8.6 7.2 2,180 40.4 35.5 17.1 6.3 0.7 100.0 156 35-39 6.1 5.1 2,059 28.0 43.7 27.0 1.3 0.0 100.0 106 40-44 10.4 9.5 1,484 33.2 43.7 21.8 1.3 0.0 100.0 141 45-49 4.1 3.2 1,228 50.3 19.4 26.7 3.7 0.0 100.0 40 Residence Urban 37.9 33.4 2,018 47.4 34.1 14.5 3.9 0.2 100.0 675 Rural 9.3 7.8 13,180 29.0 50.4 17.5 3.0 0.1 100.0 1,027 Region Southern 18.0 15.4 2,899 44.2 37.4 13.9 4.2 0.2 100.0 448 Highlands 11.4 9.8 6,213 19.2 57.2 19.6 3.8 0.2 100.0 611 Momase 13.6 11.5 3,919 53.6 31.3 13.6 1.4 0.0 100.0 451 Islands 10.7 8.9 2,167 31.3 46.1 18.2 4.5 0.0 100.0 192 Province Western 5.4 4.3 352 (24.5) (53.2) (21.9) (0.0) (0.4) 100.0 15 Gulf 5.6 2.8 277 (38.0) (54.5) (4.9) (2.6) (0.0) 100.0 8 Central 16.7 14.5 557 30.6 47.4 19.6 1.2 1.3 100.0 81 National Capital District 54.8 49.8 526 52.4 34.0 9.7 3.9 0.0 100.0 262 Milne Bay 10.5 8.3 767 36.4 35.1 18.7 9.8 0.0 100.0 64 Northern 6.2 4.4 421 32.5 31.7 29.3 6.4 0.0 100.0 19 Southern Highlands 4.4 3.3 1,089 (19.8) (53.4) (24.0) (2.8) (0.0) 100.0 36 Enga 9.1 8.2 563 14.1 56.6 27.1 2.2 0.0 100.0 46 Western Highlands 14.6 13.4 746 27.4 57.3 12.1 3.2 0.0 100.0 100 Chimbu 24.0 20.7 1,038 12.9 57.4 26.3 3.4 0.0 100.0 215 Eastern Highlands 12.7 11.5 1,310 20.2 60.5 13.9 4.7 0.8 100.0 151 Morobe 25.4 22.4 1,514 57.4 30.3 11.7 0.7 0.0 100.0 339 Madang 3.5 2.4 987 (20.9) (44.6) (34.5) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 23 East Sepik 9.3 7.4 872 49.9 33.3 13.9 2.9 0.0 100.0 65 West Sepik 5.8 4.5 545 42.9 27.8 19.4 9.8 0.0 100.0 24 Manus 18.4 14.6 135 27.0 41.2 26.5 5.2 0.0 100.0 20 New Ireland 12.2 9.7 385 31.5 48.3 14.6 5.7 0.0 100.0 37 East New Britain 14.5 12.1 572 21.9 54.0 17.1 7.0 0.0 100.0 69 West New Britain 7.4 6.5 532 31.2 49.5 18.9 0.3 0.0 100.0 35 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 6.9 5.7 544 (54.6) (25.1) (18.8) (1.4) (0.0) 100.0 31 Hela 3.0 1.9 874 * * * * * 100.0 17 Jiwaka 9.8 7.8 594 (37.2) (57.4) (5.5) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 46 Education No education 0.2 0.1 3,488 * * * * * 100.0 4 Elementary 1.0 0.9 676 * * * * * 100.0 6 Primary 4.5 3.3 6,969 31.2 45.2 19.3 3.8 0.4 100.0 227 Secondary 34.6 29.7 3,460 39.4 41.1 16.3 3.2 0.1 100.0 1,026 Higher 76.4 72.5 605 32.4 49.8 15.0 2.8 0.0 100.0 439 Wealth quintile Lowest 1.0 0.6 2,783 * * * * * 100.0 16 Second 1.3 1.0 2,831 (14.8) (39.4) (33.2) (12.6) (0.0) 100.0 29 Middle 3.7 2.7 2,897 7.2 42.1 43.1 7.6 0.0 100.0 77 Fourth 9.7 7.3 3,118 27.0 44.0 23.2 5.4 0.4 100.0 227 Highest 42.5 37.9 3,569 40.4 43.8 13.2 2.6 0.1 100.0 1,352 Total 13.1 11.2 15,198 36.3 43.9 16.3 3.4 0.1 100.0 1,702 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 50 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.5.2 Internet usage: Men Percentage of men age 15-49 who have ever used the internet, and percentage who have used the internet in the past 12 months; and among men who have used the internet in the past 12 months, percent distribution by frequency of internet use in the past month, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Ever used the internet Used the internet in the past 12 months Number of women Among respondents who have used the internet in the past 12 months, percentage who, in the past month, used internet: Background characteristic Almost every day At least once a week Less than once a week Not at all Missing Total Number of men Age 15-19 18.0 16.6 1,469 32.0 38.4 25.6 4.0 0.0 100.0 244 20-24 33.3 30.4 1,246 24.7 51.0 23.1 1.3 0.0 100.0 379 25-29 26.2 23.2 1,171 33.0 41.4 22.0 3.6 0.0 100.0 272 30-34 18.3 16.1 1,058 34.7 30.6 31.8 1.8 1.1 100.0 171 35-39 13.4 10.7 966 28.7 45.5 23.7 2.0 0.1 100.0 104 40-44 14.5 12.8 782 50.8 29.9 18.3 1.0 0.0 100.0 100 45-49 10.2 8.9 641 37.7 28.7 24.8 8.8 0.0 100.0 57 Residence Urban 51.0 47.3 976 41.2 38.2 17.6 2.9 0.1 100.0 462 Rural 15.6 13.6 6,357 26.9 42.6 27.8 2.6 0.2 100.0 865 Region Southern 24.5 21.1 1,490 32.5 45.5 19.7 2.2 0.0 100.0 315 Highlands 15.3 13.9 2,871 30.8 38.5 28.3 2.0 0.3 100.0 400 Momase 24.2 22.5 1,999 37.2 40.1 19.3 3.2 0.1 100.0 449 Islands 20.6 16.7 973 18.3 41.5 36.3 3.9 0.0 100.0 163 Province Western 12.6 9.0 182 (8.9) (49.8) (41.3) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 16 Gulf 15.5 13.4 137 14.8 45.3 31.8 8.2 0.0 100.0 18 Central 23.1 20.2 272 25.5 58.7 15.5 0.4 0.0 100.0 55 National Capital District 67.6 64.1 251 48.4 36.2 13.0 2.4 0.0 100.0 161 Milne Bay 13.3 9.9 423 9.1 47.2 42.1 1.6 0.0 100.0 42 Northern 14.0 9.8 223 10.3 75.3 11.1 3.3 0.0 100.0 22 Southern Highlands 8.3 8.0 457 (20.2) (33.2) (46.6) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 36 Enga 14.7 14.6 306 (25.9) (24.3) (49.8) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 45 Western Highlands 23.8 21.8 378 20.5 48.3 26.4 3.1 1.7 100.0 82 Chimbu 17.2 16.4 397 (67.0) (17.3) (11.5) (4.1) (0.0) 100.0 65 Eastern Highlands 18.5 17.7 587 18.6 54.7 24.0 2.6 0.0 100.0 104 Morobe 36.6 35.0 796 44.0 38.5 15.5 1.8 0.2 100.0 278 Madang 16.3 14.8 493 22.7 36.7 34.5 6.1 0.0 100.0 73 East Sepik 17.2 16.1 435 29.7 49.1 15.7 5.4 0.2 100.0 70 West Sepik 13.4 10.0 276 25.6 43.2 27.9 3.3 0.0 100.0 28 Manus 33.6 30.1 64 24.0 44.6 26.4 5.0 0.0 100.0 19 New Ireland 19.6 15.6 171 17.6 30.4 44.4 7.5 0.0 100.0 27 East New Britain 20.5 17.9 247 17.2 43.1 32.4 7.4 0.0 100.0 44 West New Britain 21.0 13.0 260 8.7 45.2 45.7 0.5 0.0 100.0 34 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 17.2 16.8 231 25.7 42.6 31.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 39 Hela 5.3 3.3 438 * * * * * 100.0 15 Jiwaka 21.3 17.3 309 (44.7) (29.0) (26.3) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 54 Education No education 0.3 0.3 941 * * * * * 100.0 3 Elementary 2.7 2.1 253 * * * * * 100.0 5 Primary 8.9 7.5 3,593 13.1 49.2 33.2 4.6 0.0 100.0 269 Secondary 39.2 34.8 2,156 28.9 43.0 25.8 2.1 0.3 100.0 750 Higher 79.9 76.9 389 56.7 29.3 12.2 1.8 0.0 100.0 299 Wealth quintile Lowest 2.2 1.7 1,366 * * * * * 100.0 23 Second 5.4 4.6 1,384 8.1 56.2 30.2 5.4 0.0 100.0 64 Middle 12.5 9.8 1,528 8.1 38.8 46.4 5.7 0.9 100.0 150 Fourth 21.1 18.5 1,399 14.4 39.4 41.5 4.5 0.2 100.0 259 Highest 54.2 50.1 1,656 43.7 41.1 13.9 1.4 0.0 100.0 830 Total 20.3 18.1 7,333 31.8 41.1 24.2 2.7 0.2 100.0 1,327 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Characteristics of Respondents • 51 Table 3.6.1 Employment status: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by employment status, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Missing/don’t know Total Number of women Background characteristic Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 14.2 2.8 82.4 0.6 100.0 2,945 20-24 26.1 4.2 69.2 0.6 100.0 2,759 25-29 31.1 3.5 64.4 1.0 100.0 2,543 30-34 34.6 3.6 61.2 0.6 100.0 2,180 35-39 34.4 4.1 61.3 0.2 100.0 2,059 40-44 36.9 4.9 57.8 0.4 100.0 1,484 45-49 37.9 3.7 58.1 0.2 100.0 1,228 Marital status Never married 18.9 3.0 77.5 0.5 100.0 3,968 Married or living together 31.7 4.1 63.6 0.6 100.0 10,052 Divorced/separated/widowed 39.5 3.1 57.2 0.2 100.0 1,179 Number of living children 0 21.2 3.4 74.8 0.6 100.0 4,957 1-2 30.7 3.7 65.1 0.5 100.0 4,273 3-4 33.8 4.2 61.3 0.7 100.0 3,554 5+ 34.9 3.7 61.0 0.4 100.0 2,414 Residence Urban 38.0 3.0 58.7 0.3 100.0 2,018 Rural 27.6 3.9 68.0 0.6 100.0 13,180 Region Southern 35.1 6.1 58.5 0.3 100.0 2,899 Highlands 23.5 3.4 72.2 1.0 100.0 6,213 Momase 28.8 3.2 67.7 0.3 100.0 3,919 Islands 36.8 2.6 60.4 0.2 100.0 2,167 Province Western 38.2 2.3 59.1 0.3 100.0 352 Gulf 28.1 2.3 68.9 0.7 100.0 277 Central 28.8 5.3 64.9 1.0 100.0 557 National Capital District 37.0 3.9 59.0 0.2 100.0 526 Milne Bay 50.3 13.2 36.5 0.0 100.0 767 Northern 15.2 2.8 82.0 0.1 100.0 421 Southern Highlands 13.0 2.8 82.0 2.2 100.0 1,089 Enga 17.0 3.8 78.6 0.7 100.0 563 Western Highlands 18.0 3.4 77.6 1.0 100.0 746 Chimbu 31.5 3.9 64.4 0.2 100.0 1,038 Eastern Highlands 40.8 5.1 53.5 0.6 100.0 1,310 Morobe 22.7 3.9 73.1 0.3 100.0 1,514 Madang 25.0 1.6 73.0 0.4 100.0 987 East Sepik 38.6 3.9 57.1 0.3 100.0 872 West Sepik 37.2 2.7 60.0 0.2 100.0 545 Manus 27.4 2.3 70.0 0.3 100.0 135 New Ireland 36.9 3.0 59.9 0.2 100.0 385 East New Britain 55.7 1.9 42.4 0.0 100.0 572 West New Britain 30.9 2.8 66.1 0.2 100.0 532 Autonomous Region of Bougainville 25.2 2.8 71.7 0.3 100.0 544 Hela 11.0 2.1 85.2 1.7 100.0 874 Jiwaka 21.8 1.3 76.9 0.0 100.0 594 Education No education 22.0 4.1 73.1 0.7 100.0 3,488 Elementary 30.6 4.7 63.3 1.4 100.0 676 Primary 27.3 3.6 68.5 0.6 100.0 6,969 Secondary 31.9 3.7 64.1 0.3 100.0 3,460 Higher 69.5 2.2 27.9 0.4 100.0 605 Wealth quintile Lowest 20.9 4.6 73.8 0.7 100.0 2,783 Second 24.9 3.3 70.9 0.8 100.0 2,831 Middle 27.6 4.2 67.4 0.7 100.0 2,897 Fourth 32.8 2.8 64.1 0.3 100.0 3,118 Highest 36.2 3.8 59.7 0.3 100.0 3,569 Total 29.0 3.7 66.7 0.6 100.0 15,198 1 Currently employed is defined as having done work in the past 7 days. Included are persons who did not work in the past 7 days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reason. 52 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.6.2 Employment status: Men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 by employment status, according to background characteristics, Papua New Guinea DHS 2016-18 Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Missing/don’t know Total Number of men Background characteristic Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 14.2 3.8 81.6 0.3 100.0 1,469 20-24 41.2 5.2 53.6 0.0 100.0 1,246 25-29 56.5 5.7 37.1 0.7 100.0 1,171 30-34 57.1 6.0 36.3 0.6 100.0 1,058 35-39 54.4 5.8 39.5 0.4 100.0 966 40-44 59.8 5.1 34.9 0.2 100.0 782 45-49 56.1 8.9 34.8 0.2 100.0 641 Marital status Never married 28.5 4.7 66.5 0.3 100.0 3,114 Married or living together 57.9 5.9 35.9 0.4 100.0 3,947 Divorced/separated/widowed 62.3 10.1 27.6 0.0 100.0 272 Number of living children 0 31.9 4.9 62.7 0.4 100.0 3,503 1-2 59.7 5.5 34.4 0.4 100.0 1,444 3-4 56.4 7.4 35.9 0.3 100.0 1,348 5+ 57.7 5.0 37.2 0.1 100.0 1,038 Residence Urban 54.1 7.0 38.8 0.0 100.0 976 Rural 44.2 5.3 50.1 0.4 100.0 6,357 Region Southern 51.9 5.9 42.0 0.1 100.0 1,490 Highlands 42.7 5.7

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