PAHO SUMA Facilitator Module
Publication date: 2000
Humanitarian Logistical Supply Management System INSTRUCTOR MANUAL VERSION 5.1 FOR WINDOWS ™ FACILITATOR MODULE Organización Panamericana para la Salud Preparative Program for Emergency Situations and Coordination of Aid for Disaster Events San José, Costa Rica C.A. July, 2000 Edition 1 Table of Contents MODULE FOR INSTRUCTORS Unit 1: INTRODUCTION Unit 2: PRIMARY FOCUS OF THE COURSES • Factors that influence the Success of your Training Unit 3: THE NATURE AND CHARACTERISTICS OF LEARNING • Some Important Considerations • Learning Activities Unit 4: THE OBJECTIVES OF THE TRAINING PROCESS • Mastering the three Training Objectives Unit 5: THE SUMA INSTRUCTOR • Non-verbal Communication and Behavior • Verbal Communication and Conduct • The Importance of Feedback Unit 6: PLANNING AND ORGANIZING A TRAINING SESSION • Establishing the Role of the Student and the Role of the Instructor • Establishing the Theme and Objectives of the Training • The Goal of each Training Event • Closure • Feedback • Using Notes • The Lesson Plan Unit 7: REFERENCE GUIDE ON USING SPACE FOR TRAININGS • Location • Check List for Location • Some ways to arrange a Classroom • Basic Distances for arranging Workspaces and Chairs Unit 8: AUDIO/VISUAL AIDS AND EQUIPMENT • Accessories • Slide Projectors and Transparency Projectors • Computer Projection Screens (Data Show) • Video Projectors • Screens • The Equipment Verification List • Using the PAHO Web Page Manual for Instructors - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 – Instructor Manual 2 1. INTRODUCTION Traditionally, instructors have designed their lessons according to their personal likes and preferences. The student’s job was to learn the material to the best of his or her ability. Instructors that promote interactive learning will more likely have predictable and reliable results. The purpose of this study unit is to teach you some of the essential characteristics of teaching in an interactive way, which when applied correctly, will ensure that students will learn the material. This chapter is designed to help instructors who have experience both with SUMA and with teaching. Additionally, this module offers information for SUMA instructors that will help them to improve their didactic skills and provide them with the tools needed to develop successful training sessions. 2. Primary Focus of the Courses The success of your teaching depends on a number of influential factors, including: • Your available resources • The qualities and characteristics of your trainees • The learning environment • You (The instructor and facilitator) These and other elements are all part of the training process. You must consider each one of the factors above every time you design a lesson plan. 3. The Nature and Characteristics of Learning Everyone has the ability to learn throughout his or her lives. After completing an effective SUMA training, participants will have acquired new skills and knowledge that they will be able to use in a disaster situation in order to assist those affected. Trainings aid in the learning process, but it is important to note that learning also occurs outside of the classroom. Participants should be encouraged to consider how personal experiences can enhance their knowledge. Sharing stories about personal experiences can help people to learn, and both the instructor and the participants ought to discuss any prior experiences that are pertinent to the material. Considering the following principles, instructors can relate lesson plans to real-life situations: • Learning should be a continuous and fluid process. It is important to assess the knowledge level of your students and to limit your training to relevant information. • The purpose of your lesson ought to be clear and logical for your participants. You should regularly conduct feedback sessions throughout your training to be sure that students understand the material. You must also encourage students to maintain their motivation to acquire the theoretical concepts and skills necessary to succeed in the SUMA course. • Your training session will elicit a variety of sentiments and reactions from the students. If the training is stimulating, students will more likely remember the information. Conservative figures indicate that people forget 75% of what they hear after two days. Researchers have also suggested that students remember: ¾ 10% of what they read ¾ 20% of what they hear ¾ 30% of what they see Manual for Instructors - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 – Instructor Manual 3 ¾ 50% of what they hear and see ¾ 80% of what they hear, see and do • Your training must be stimulating. You should encourage and help participants to attain higher levels of efficiency and ability. However, you must also try to adapt your training session to the participants’ interests and vocations. • Your training should produce functional understanding among your students. it will be important for students to commit to memory some of the concepts you will teach. However, it is insufficient for your students just to memorize the information. Students should be able to understand why they have memorized certain information, and your questions will help you to understand if they have understood the material. • Emotions and attitudes influence learning. Instructors must try to encourage positive attitudes. One way of encouraging positive reactions is by pointing out some of the new skills that participants have learned. Instructors must also try to minimize undesirable emotions such as frustration and fear of failure during the training. Providing positive encouragement and feedback will easily accomplish this. Focus on what has worked well. Remember also that your training process will affect people in distinct ways, and be aware of the potential for diversity. • The physical and social environment of your class will also affect the learning process. The physical environment must be conducive to efficient learning. Consider the comfort of the chairs and tables that you will use, the temperature of the classroom, and the reactions that some participants may have to working in close groups. 4. The Objectives of the Training Process The training process is comprised of three elements: the Instructor, the student and the material. The instructor’s main objective is to determine what the students should learn and how to use the information. The following training objectives are designed specifically for use with SUMA trainings. Mastering the three training objectives The three training objectives identify the kinds of things the student must know and/or be able to do in specific situations. The training objectives are divided into three categories: 1. Cognitive Objectives: These describe the kinds of information that a student must incorporate in order to demonstrate his/her knowledge of a subject (i.e. the student should be able to explain “Insert a subject”). 2. Skill Objectives: These describe the physical skills the student ought to be capable of performing. 3. Personal Objectives: These describe the students’ feelings and attitudes (i.e. the student should feel confident using the SUMA software). Instructors should be able to express the cognitive objectives of a lesson in a variety of ways. You can express them in lectures, through discussions, or by using visual aids. You should transmit the cognitive objectives by whatever means are most efficient. In the majority of courses, didactic sessions seem to be the best way to transmit information. Manual for Instructors - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 – Instructor Manual 4 5. The SUMA Instructor Instructors often underestimate their role as non-verbal communicators. You should consider the following questions: • What are the kinds of things that people express with their clothing and appearance? • Can an expression like “Good job” be said in such a way that it seems negative? • Is it possible that one’s posture and gestures can reveal his/her feelings and sentiments? • How do students feel when an instructor maintains eye contact with them during a lesson? The above questions imply that people react not only to what is said, but also to how it is said. One way that you can take advantage of this fact to improve your teaching is to control your non-verbal communication. When you teach, your non-verbal conduct is comprised of three features: • The way you present information. • The way you ask questions. • The way you provide feedback. Instructors must select their words carefully and appropriately in order to deliver their messages professionally. Your job includes verbal communication as well as non-verbal confirmation, support and encouragement. Furthermore, you must practice what you preach. You cannot confidently teach students how to run SUMA Central if you do not know the software well. It may also be risky to ask questions while you present, even if you know the material well. You must be aware of the difference between an open- ended question and a closed-ended question, and the appropriate time to ask each one. You may decide to ask a close-ended questions (one with a definite answer) when you want to review information and to see if students remembered something you said. However, you must also be aware that when you ask a series of close-ended questions you may make students may feel like they are receiving an oral exam, and some students may feel very uncomfortable. It is important to provide feedback to students with respect to the SUMA training, and instructors must remember that feedback should be: • Timely: Students should feel that the feedback is prompt and relevant to the material recently covered. • Private: Students should not feel embarrassed or ridiculed. • Direct: Feedback ought to be presented directly to the person(s) for whom it is intended. • Clear: Students ought to know what the instructor is trying to say. 6. Planning and Organizing a Training Session Training sessions are opportunities for an instructor and students to interact in order to achieve a specific learning objective. The session may be brief, like when an instructor asks a question to evaluate a student’s knowledge about a certain theme, or it may last a while, like when the instructor presents information. There are various elements to each session: 1. Establishing the role of the instructor and the student: helps to clarify the expected interaction between the two. A brief but clear discussion about expectations will enable students to understand how to conduct themselves. Manual for Instructors - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 – Instructor Manual 5 2. Establishing the theme or training objectives: organizes students’ thoughts and actions around a specific theme. This will enable them to understand the importance of the material and the relation between new material and old material. It will also enhance the learning experience. 3. Forming the basis of each training event: establishes the role of the instructor in relation to the direction of the lesson and group discussions. The instructor directs the lesson for the students and is considered the one who “distributes” information. During group discussions, whether in the form of seminars, round tables, or brainstorming sessions, the instructor should solicit students’ commentary. Students should intervene more often than the instructor, and the instructor should participate as little as possible. Instructors’ success depends greatly on the clarity with which they identify their role in the training process and on the clarity with which they establish the theme or objective of the training. Deviating from these three elements may produce misunderstandings or misapplication of the materials you teach, therefore it is important that you adhere to them as carefully as possible. 4. The conclusion: is when the training interaction between an instructor and students is complete and the main objective of the training session has been obtained. 5. Providing feedback: means reinforcing aspects of the training session through reward, review or correction, in a useful and explicit manner. Provide feedback and comments directly to the students. It is important to be precise, unambiguous, direct, timely, and above all, sensitive to the students’ feelings. Feedback should be conducted throughout each training session, though it is traditionally done just before or just following the conclusion of a session. 6. Assigning tasks: will enable students to teach themselves through more autonomous training. Some students may also master the material more efficiently through task-oriented learning. Instructors who have thorough lesson plans and keep the above elements in mind will bring cohesion and structure to the training session. Using notes SUMA instructors should use notes to remind themselves of what to cover in each training, but they should not read them aloud. Notes should not be copied for students, as this may impair the learning process for some. The Lesson Plan A lesson plan is an outline or scheme for the course material you wish to present. The plan should describe how you wish to organize your training with respect to: • How the space will be organized where the training will be held. • The available time for each theme or topic. • The contents of the course. • The materials that will be used during the training sessions. Lesson plans can be general or detailed, depending on your style and the material to be covered. There are different ways to design a lesson plan; some of the more common ways are by using: • Outlines • Visual Aids • Note cards Manual for Instructors - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 – Instructor Manual 6 Lesson plans serve as lecture guides and will help you to maintain sequence; they are usually comprised of: • An Introduction • An Explanation and/or Technical Summary of the material to be covered • A Practical Application or Exercise • A Review • An Evaluation Below you will find a sample lesson plan. The plan is the one used to develop this course. SAMPLE LESSON PLAN PROGRAM: Humanitarian Supply Management System Course: Instructor Training Unit: Self-taught Lesson Number: One Suggested Duration: 590 minutes Required Materials: 1 Computer per 2 students, Blackboard, Data Show, Transparencies, Extension Cords, Projection Screen, SUMA Manual Registration Sheets, Installation Disquettes or CD ROM for SUMA Windows Version 5.1, Tape or Priority Labels. Objectives: At the end of the training session the trainee should be able to teach the SUMA Course for Windows Version 5.1. DURATION CONTENTS AIDS NOTES 30 minutes Registration and Introduction Registration sheets Should be dynamic and energetic. Hand out the manuals. 60 minutes The training and learning process Energetic presentation. The primary focus of the courses Transparencies Energetic presentation. The characteristics of learning The training objectives Manual for Instructors - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 – Instructor Manual 7 20 minutes The SUMA Instructor Transparencies Energetic presentation. Hand out sample lesson plans. NA 40 minutes Teaching strategies Transparencies Arrange the audio/visual aids in their stations. Planning and Organizing a Training Organize participants into groups. Using notes A Sample Lesson Plan The Lesson Plan 20 minutes Recess NA 60 minutes Audio/visual aid equipment Data Show Students should work in groups with the reference sheet practice session from the Instructor Manual. Checklist for audio/visual aid equipment Projector Transparencies Screen Students will have to arrange a classroom. 60 minutes The use of space in the classroom. Reference Boxes from the Instructor Manual. Classroom with ample space. Furniture. Practice sheet. NA Locations. Demonstrate the software installation for SUMA Windows 5.1. Analyzing your Training Space. Manual for Instructors - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 – Instructor Manual 8 60 minutes Group Presentation Transparencies. Assign two people for each computer. Furniture. Hand out the installation disks or CD ROM for Suma Central. Classroom. Audiovisual equipment. Hand out the lessons for SUMA Windows 5.1 60 minutes Lunch NA 90 minutes Software Installation Installation Disquettes or CD ROM for SUMA Windows Version 5.1. NA Allow the students to try the lessons on their own. Using the SUMA System: Regroup and field any questions that pertain to today’s training session. Suma Central Installation Disquettes or CD ROM for SUMA Windows Version 5.1. SUMA Field Unit Computers. Lessons for SUMA Windows 5.1. 20 minutes Recess NA 55 minutes Using the SUMA System: Lessons for SUMA Windows 5.1. Warehouses 15 minutes Evaluation of the Training Session Blackboard End of Day 1 Marker/Chalk Manual for Instructors - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 – Instructor Manual 9 SAMPLE LESSON PLAN PROGRAM: Humanitarian Supply Management System Course: Instructor Training Unit: Self-taught Lesson Number: Two Suggested Duration: 590 minutes Required Materials: 1 Computer per 2 students, Blackboard, Data Show, Transparencies, Extension Cords, Projection Screen, SUMA Manual Registration sheets, Installation Disquettes or CD ROM for SUMA Windows Version 5.1, Tape or Priority Labels. Objectives: At the end of the training session the trainee should be able to teach the SUMA Course for Windows Version 5.1. DURATION CONTENTS AIDS NOTES 180 minutes Explanation of the training material Computers. Screen. Projector Transparencies. Marker/Chalk. Printer. Separate the participants into three presentation groups. Assign one SUMA module to each group, either SUMA Central, SUMA Field Unit or SUMA Warehouse. Allow the participants to create their own materials for their presentations. 60 minutes Preparing the classroom Classroom. Audio/visual resources. Participants should prepare the classroom for their presentations. Manual for Instructors - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 – Instructor Manual 10 60 minutes Lunch NA NA 225 minutes Presentations of SUMA Central, SUMA Field Unit and SUMA Warehouse Management. Sample Lesson Plan Checklist. Transparencies. Installation Disks or CD ROM for Suma Windows Version 5.1. Participants should present their lesson plans. Each presentation should include the participation of every one in the group. Allow for a 20- minute recess in the middle of the session. 15 minutes Evaluation of the Training Session End of Day 2 Blackboard Marker Regroup and field any questions that pertain to today’s training session. 7. REFERENCE GUIDE ON USING SPACE FOR TRAININGS LOCATION Basically, there are four kinds of locations that we often must resort to using: those in institutions, hotels, conference centers / rental spaces, or schools and universities. Locations come in all shapes and sizes. They vary in their modernity and quality, and they also vary in their spatial arrangement, flexibility, and level of service and support. Usually you can find a place that will satisfy your needs. Institutions Government laws prohibit the use of non-government locations when there exist available government locations that satisfy the needs of the program. One location is usually appropriate for small groups and brief meetings. When the location that you are assigned is in the same office in which your participants work, you can expect more interruptions, such as messages from other offices, late arrivals, visitors and other disturbances. Generally, you will find few alternatives to the physical arrangement or size of your training room. You will likely have to make any changes yourself. In this kind of environment there are also few opportunities for participant discussions once the workday has ended. If it is necessary for your participants to forget issues they face at work and to concentrate on the training, or if it is necessary to find a “neutral environment”, then you ought to consider a non-governmental location outside of the work environment. Manual for Instructors - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 – Instructor Manual 11 Hotels You will generally find hotels in the center of the city, near stores, main attractions, and nightlife. Although there may be a great variety of eating establishments within or nearby the training location, you may have to assign more time in your program so that your participants can eat. Parking may also be a problem, unless the establishment can provide spaces. If this is the case, they will generally charge your participants for the parking service. Large hotels usually offer more ample space, more services and greater support for your training. But, you will also find more competition at large hotels for space and service, due to other conferences. At small hotels, it is possible that you will be the only client, but you may have fewer space options and fewer personnel at your service. Conference Centers or Rental Spaces Some older hotels have been transformed into conference centers. These conference rooms are often surprisingly modern, flexibly designed, and come with many options. They also have fewer distractions and parking is rarely a problem. The basic disadvantages of conference centers are their remote locations and lack of available public transportation. Schools and Universities You may be able to find available space in local public schools, especially during summer and in the afternoons or evenings. Usually you will find fixed desk-chair combinations and you may not be able to find the kind of tables that you need. Local community colleges, vocational schools, and other major universities may have appropriate spaces for trainings. If the space is new, you may be able to find all the flexibility you are looking for in a space. Scheduling, parking and available services may present some problems. Instructor Manual - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 - Self-Teaching Unit 12 Classroom Arrangement Schemes Coding Group Visibility and Interaction Group Size Ambiance Best for: E= Excellent G= Good S = Small 4-15 M= Medium 15-40 I= Informal F= Formal INF= Informational Sessions F= Fair P= Poor L= Large 40+ TS= Training Sessions PS= Problem Solving Sessions Arrangement Visibility Group Interaction Group Size Ambiance Best for: Conference Semi circle (U-shaped) G G M I or F INF Square G G M I PS U-shaped with rows E G M I or F TS E-shaped F F L I or F INF T-shaped R G M F INF Board of Directors P P-F M F INF Oval-shaped G G M I PS Small Group Diamond G G-E M I TS-PS Round Table E E M I TS-PS Circle (no tables) E E M I TS-PS Triangle G G M I PS Rectangle F-G F-G S I or F TS-PS Oval G G S I or F TS-PS Trapezoid G G-E S I TS-PS Angled in the form of a V or L G G-E S-M I TS-PS Auditorium Square F P L F INF Semicircle G P L F INF V-shaped F-G P L F INF Classroom Box-shaped like a T P-F P L F INF-TS Perpendicular P P L F INF-TS Regular V G F-G M I TS Inverted V F-G F-G M I TS Instructor Manual - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 - Self-Teaching Unit 13 BASIC ARRANGEMENTS OF SPACE AND SEATS Space Minimum Distance ( in meters ) 1. In-between the front wall and the first row of desks 3 2. Width of aisles from the side walls 0.60 3. Width of the main aisle 1.20 4. Between tables 1.20 5. Space allowance between seats and tables 0.90 6. Between tables where people sit back to back 1.50 7. At the back of the room: the distance from the edge of the table to the wall, including the space for a chair 2.40 8. Space allotted on the table for each person 0.75 a 0.90 ************************************************ Seats Number of Seats Rectangular Table ( each side ) 1.50m……………………………….….2 1.80m………………………………….2 2.40m………………………………….3 Round Table 1.20m………………………………….6 1.50m………………………………….8 1.80m………………………………….10 Instructor Manual - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 - Self-Teaching Unit 14 Types of Arrangements for Small Groups The boxes above show two ways of arranging space. These are the recommended ways to conduct group activities. Once the participants have achieved positive group interaction, you can try the L, V and U forms, which are best used for small or medium-sized groups. V or L Formation U Formation Semi-circle Full Circle Instructor Manual - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 - Self-Teaching Unit 15 Dimensions in meters CLASSROOM MANAGEMENT The following scheme is an example of an ideal space distribution for conducting a SUMA course with audio/visual aids, for a group of 25 participants and 1 commentator with a transparency projector. Distance between the wall and the work table 0.60 Distance between work tables 1.20 Distance between tables and tables with chairs 1.20 Distance between the work table and chair, and between chairs 0.90 0.90 Instructor Manual - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 - Self-Teaching Unit 16 10 METERS EMERGENCY EXIT W IN D O W W IT H L IG H T C U R TA IN S EXIT ENTRANCE 15 M ET ER S Instructor Manual - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 - Self-Teaching Unit 17 8. AUDIOVISUAL RESOURCES There is a great variety of useful visual aid equipment that you can use to clarify and simplify the information you wish to present in your trainings. Below we present a few of the aids that a SUMA instructor ought to know how to use. Transparency Projector or Retro-Projector: These are used to provide visual aids during the training process. They must be used with care as they are very delicate optical instruments. Once you become familiar with the transparency projector, you will find it easy to use and it will permit you to present creatively and to provide colorful and dynamic presentations (using transparencies). Data Show (Computer Projection Screen) Display: This functions in conjunction with a transparency projector and a computer. It permits you to transmit information that you see on your computer screen to the transparency projector. You can then project information or images onto a screen or white wall, making the presentation more attractive and engaging. Computer----- Data Show + Transparency Projector ------ Screen Instructor Manual - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 - Self-Teaching Unit 18 Screens: Screens are used to project images or information clearly during a presentation. They are used for transparency projectors, video projectors and slide projectors. There are a few different kinds of screens, including: Pearl Screens, Granulated Screens and Matte Screens. Some of their advantages: • They can be placed at many angles. • They make good use of space. • They reduce distortion. • They are easy to transport. Multimedia Projectors (Video) The video projector is a recent technological advance and is used in most of today’s presentations. It allows instructors make more creative and engaging presentations by enabling them to project videos using a VHS system. It functions together with a computer. Instructor Manual - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 - Self-Teaching Unit 19 MATERIAL AND EQUIPMENT CHECKLIST Item Quantity Source Materials (Supplies) Stack of SUMA Manual Registration Sheets Transparencies or Slides Lesson Sheets for SUMA Windows Version 5.1 Shipment Definition Sheet Installation Disks for SUMA Windows Version 5.1 Installation CD for SUMA Windows Version 5.1 Priority 1 Labels Priority 2 Labels Priority 3 Labels SUMA Stickers Box of formatted disks Extension cords Portable Computers Data Show Display Screen Toolbox SUMA Hats SUMA Tee Shirts Other things Using the Panamerican Health Organisation Web Site The Panamerican Health Organization has made its web site available to anyone, so that you can reference and get more information about SUMA activities, manuals and the software used to train staff. To create a training session, you may access the site at the following address (http//w.w.w.disaster.info.desastres.net/SUMA/ ). In order to gain fast and efficient access, you must use a computer that has a configured modem, a telephone line and your Internet access account. Instructor Manual - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 - Self-Teaching Unit 20 You will see the following images when you access the web page: It is important to emphasize that we are presenting only a small part of the information that you will find available on the PAHO web page. You can obtain your own copies of the information, software and manuals at this site by double clicking on the subject of your choice and by downloading it onto your hard disk drive. You will see this image when you access the PAHO site. Here you can download the Manuals and Software either using MS-DOS 5.1 or Windows 5.1. You will also be able to learn more about SUMA and some of the frequently asked questions (FAQs) about the system. Instructor Manual - SUMA WINDOWS Version 5.1 - Self-Teaching Unit 21 LESSON PLAN Program: Objectives: Course: Suggested Duration: Unit or Module: Required Materials: Lesson: DURATION CONTENTS AIDS NOTES
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