Nigeria - Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey - 2017

Publication date: 2017

Bo Sticky Note An errata was released in April 2018. This report includes a summary of changes on the following page. ERRATA This report is a revised edition of the one published in October, 2017. The current edition have been updated with the following changes: 1. WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Program (JMP) logo was added to the cover page and the technical support contribution of JMP acknowledged. 2. Correction made on the alignment of columns “Pentavent to Card seen” in Table CH.2A (Page 55). 3. Corrections made on the column “Other symptoms” in Table CH.11 (Pages 79). 4. The results for iodized salt consumption now included as Tables NU.10 (Pages 51-52) and reflected in the summary table of findings (Page v) 5. Correction made in Table CD.4 (Page 189). The total value in the column “Left with inadequate care in the past week” was corrected from 32.7percent to 31.7percent 6. Niger state, previously ommitted in Table MT.2M (Page 301), now included. 7. Data now updated for empty cells in column 5 of table HA.6M (Page 270). The fifth round Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS5) was carried out in 2016/2017 by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) in collaboration with the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA) and National Agency for the Control of Aids (NACA), as part of the global MICS programme. Technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) while World Health Organization (WHO), World Bank, Save One Million Live (SOML), Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, United Nations Population Funds (UNFPA) and UNICEF provided financial support. The global MICS programme was developed by UNICEF in the 1990s as an international household survey programme to support countries in the collection of internationally comparable data on a wide range of indicators on the situation of children and women. MICS surveys measure key indicators that allow countries to generate data for use in policies and programmes, and to monitor progress towards the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments. The Nigeria MICS5 provided opportunity for strengthening of national statistical capacity by providing technical guidance on data gathering, quality of survey information, statistical tracking and analysis. MICS5 contributed to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Nigeria and strengthened technical expertise in the design, implementation and analysis of such systems. In addition, MICS5 provided statistics to complement and assess the quality of data from recent national surveys such as Nigerian General Household Panel Survey (NGHPS) and National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS) conducted by National Population Commission (NPopC). Suggested citation: National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) and United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). 2017 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2016-17, Survey Findings Report. Abuja, Nigeria: National Bureau of Statistics and United Nations Children’s Fund. P a g e | iii Summary Table of Survey Implementation and the Survey Population, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Nigeria 2016-17 Survey implementation Sample frame - Updated 2006 Population and Housing Census November 2015 Questionnaires Household Women (age 15-49) Men (age 15-49) Children under five Water Quality Testing Interviewer training August 2016 Fieldwork Sept. 2016-January 2017 Survey sample Households - Sampled - Actual Coverage - Occupied - Interviewed - Response rate (Per cent) 37,440 35,747 34,289 33,901 98.9 Children under five - Eligible - Mothers/caretakers interviewed - Response rate (Per cent) 28,578 28,085 98.3 Women - Eligible for interviews - Interviewed - Response rate (Per cent) 36,176 34,376 95.0 Men - Eligible for interviews - Interviewed - Response rate (Per cent) 16,514 15,183 91.9 Survey population Average household size 5.4 Percentage of population living in - Urban areas - Rural areas Percentage of population by Geopolitical zone - North Central - North East - North West - South East - South-South - South West 36.6 63.4 16.0 16.5 26.9 9.2 12.6 18.7 Percentage of population: - under 5 years - under 18 years 17.2 52.8 Percentage of population by sex: - Male - Female Percentage of women age 15-49 years with at least one live birth in the last 2 years 49.5 50.5 33.6 Housing characteristics Household or personal assets Percentage of households with - Electricity - Finished floor - Finished roofing - Finished walls 54.4 68.6 82.6 64.3 Percentage of households that own - A television - A refrigerator - Agricultural land - Farm animals/livestock 47.0 21.7 63.2 49.1 Mean number of persons per room used for sleeping 2.6 Percentage of households where at least a member has or owns a - Mobile phone - Car or truck 74.4 11.1 P a g e | iv Summary Table of Findings1 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Indicators, Nigeria 2016-17 CHILD MORTALITY Early childhood mortality MICS Indicator Indicator Description Valuea 1.1 SDG 3.2.2 Neonatal mortality rate Probability of dying within the first month of life 39 1.2 MDG 4.2 Infant mortality rate Probability of dying between birth and the first birthday 70 1.3 Post-neonatal mortality rate Difference between infant and neonatal mortality rates 31 1.4 Child mortality rate Probability of dying between the first and the fifth birthdays 54 1.5 SDG 3.2.1 Under-five mortality rate Probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday 120 a Indicator values are per 1,000 live births and refer to the 5-year period preceding the survey. NUTRITION Nutritional status MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 2.1a 2.1b MDG 1.8 Underweight prevalence (a) Moderate and severe (b) Severe Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median weight for age of the WHO standard 31.5 11.5 2.2a 2.2b SDG 2.2.1 Stunting prevalence (a) Moderate and severe (b) Severe Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median height for age of the WHO standard 43.6 22.8 2.3a 2.3b SDG 2.2.2 Wasting prevalence (a) Moderate and severe (b) Severe Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median weight for height of the WHO standard 10.8 2.9 2.4 SDG 2.2.2 Overweight prevalence Percentage of children under age 5 who are above two standard deviations of the median weight for height of the WHO standard 1.5 Breastfeeding and infant feeding 2.5 Children ever breastfed Percentage of women with a live birth in the last 2 years who breastfed their last live-born child at any time 95.0 2.6 Early initiation of breastfeeding Percentage of women with a live birth in the last 2 years who put their last newborn to the breast within one hour of birth 32.8 2.7 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months Percentage of infants under 6 months of age who are exclusively breastfed 23.7 2.8 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months Percentage of infants under 6 months of age who received breast milk as the predominant source of nourishment during the previous day 54.0 2.9 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year Percentage of children age 12-15 months who received breast milk during the previous day 85.9 2.10 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years Percentage of children age 20-23 months who received breast milk during the previous day 37.1 2.11 Median duration of breastfeeding The age in months when 50 percent of children age 0-35 months did not receive breast milk during the previous day 19.9 2.12 Age-appropriate breastfeeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months appropriately fed during the previous day 58.2 2.13 Introduction of solid, semi- solid or soft foods Percentage of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi- solid or soft foods during the previous day 79.0 2.14 Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children Percentage of non-breastfed children age 6-23 months who received at least 2 milk feedings during the previous day 24.9 1 See Appendix E for a detailed description of MICS indicators P a g e | v 2.15 Minimum meal frequency Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received solid, semi-solid and soft foods (plus milk feeds for non-breastfed children) the minimum number of times or more during the previous day 42.4 2.16 Minimum dietary diversity Percentage of children age 6–23 months who received foods from 4 or more food groups during the previous day 40.2 2.17a 2.17b Minimum acceptable diet (a) Percentage of breastfed children age 6–23 months who had at least the minimum dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency during the previous day (b) Percentage of non-breastfed children age 6–23 months who received at least 2 milk feedings and had at least the minimum dietary diversity not including milk feeds and the minimum meal frequency during the previous day 16.5 11.0 2.18 Bottle feeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle during the previous day 20.2 Salt iodization 2.19 Iodized salt consumption Percentage of households with salt testing greater than zero per million iodide/iodate 91.4 Low-birthweight 2.20 Low-birthweight infants Percentage of most recent live births in the last 2 years weighing below 2,500 grams at birth 14.8 2.21 Infants weighed at birth Percentage of most recent live births in the last 2 years who were weighed at birth 25.2 CHILD HEALTH Vaccinations MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 3.1 Tuberculosis immunization coverage Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received BCG vaccine by their first birthday 53.0 3.2 Polio immunization coverage Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received the third dose of OPV vaccine (OPV3) by their first birthday 33.0 3.3 Pentavalent immunisation coverage Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received the third dose of Pentavalent (DPT3) by their first birthday 33.0 3.4 MDG 4.3 Measles immunization coverage Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received measles vaccine by their first birthday 42.0 3.7 Yellow fever immunization coverage Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received yellow fever vaccine by their first birthday 39.0 3.8 SDG 3.b.1 Full immunization coverage Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received all vaccinations recommended in the national immunization schedule by their first birthday (measles by second birthday) 23.0 Tetanus toxoid 3.9 Neonatal tetanus protection Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who were given at least two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine within the appropriate interval prior to the most recent birth 55.3 Diarrhoea - Children with diarrhoea Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks 14.3 3.10 Care-seeking for diarrhoea Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider 26.7 3.11 Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks who received ORS and zinc 18.5 3.12 Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and continued feeding Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks who received ORT (ORS packet, pre-packaged ORS fluid, recommended homemade fluid or increased fluids) and continued feeding during the episode of diarrhoea 33.4 P a g e | vi Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) symptoms - Children with ARI symptoms Percentage of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks 3.0 3.13 Care-seeking for children with ARI symptoms Percentage of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider 23.7 3.14 Antibiotic treatment for children with ARI symptoms Percentage of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks who received antibiotics 22.5 Solid fuel use 3.15 SDG 7.1.2 Use of solid fuels for cooking Percentage of household members in households that use solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy to cook 80.6 Malaria / Fever MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value - Children with fever Percentage of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks 25.4 3.16a 3.16b Household availability of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs) Percentage of households with (a) at least one ITN (b) at least one ITN for every two people 64.5 31.7 3.18 MDG 6.7 Children under age 5 who slept under an ITN Percentage of children under age 5 who slept under an ITN the previous night 49.1 3.19 Population that slept under an ITN Percentage of household members who slept under an ITN the previous night 40.9 3.20 Care-seeking for fever Percentage of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider 63.4 3.21 Malaria diagnostics usage Percentage of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks who had a finger or heel stick for malaria testing 13.8 3.22 MDG 6.8 Anti-malarial treatment of children under age 5 Percentage of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks who received any antimalarial treatment 36.8 3.23 Treatment with Artemisinin- based Combination Therapy (ACT) among children who received anti-malarial treatment Percentage of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks who received ACT (or other first-line treatment according to national policy) among children who received anti-malarial treatment 20.6 3.24 Pregnant women who slept under an ITN Percentage of pregnant women who slept under an ITN the previous night 39.6 3.25 Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy Percentage of women age 15-49 years who received three or more doses of SP/Fansidar, at least one of which was received during an ANC visit, to prevent malaria during their last pregnancy that led to a live birth in the last 2 years 14.9 WATER AND SANITATION MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 4.1 SDG 6.1.1 Use of improved drinking water sources Percentage of household members using improved sources of drinking water 64.1 4.2 Water treatment Percentage of household members in households using unimproved drinking water who use an appropriate treatment method 2.3 4.3 MDG 7.9 SDG 1.4.1 Use of improved sanitation Percentage of household members using improved sanitation facilities which are not shared 35.9 4.4 SDG 6.2.1 Safe disposal of child’s faeces Percentage of children age 0-2 years whose last stools were disposed of safely 58.1 4.5 SDG 6.1.2 Place for handwashing Percentage of households with a specific place for hand washing where water and soap or other cleansing agent are present 12.4 4.6 Availability of soap or other cleansing agent Percentage of households with soap or other cleansing agent 42.0 4.S1 Quality of drinking water at the households Percentage of household members drinking water contaminated by E. coli in the drinking water of the household 90.8 P a g e | vii WATER AND SANITATION MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 4.S2 Quality at the source of household drinking water Percentage of household members drinking water contaminated by E. Coli at the source of drinking water 77.3 4.S3 SDG 6.1.1 Use of safely managed drinking water sources Percentage of household members with an improved drinking water source located on premises, free of E. coli and available when needed 3.7 REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Contraception and unmet need MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value - Total fertility rate Total fertility rate for women age 15-49 years 5.8 5.1 SDG 3.7.2 Adolescent birth rate Age-specific fertility rate for women age 15-19 years 120 5.2 Early childbearing Percentage of women age 20-24 years who had at least one live birth before age 18 30.8 5.3 MDG 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate Percentage of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union who are using (or whose partner is using) a (modern or traditional) contraceptive method 13.4 5.4 SDG 3.7.1 Unmet need Percentage of women age 15-49 years who are currently married or in union who are fecund and want to space their births or limit the number of children they have and who are not currently using contraception 27.6 Maternal and newborn health 5.5a 5.5b MDG 5.5 MDG 5.5 Antenatal care coverage Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who were attended during their last pregnancy that led to a live birth (a) at least once by skilled health personnel (b) at least four times by any provider 65.8 49.1 5.6 Content of antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who had their blood pressure measured and gave urine and blood samples during the last pregnancy that led to a live birth 53.6 5.7 SDG 3.1.2 Skilled attendant at delivery Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who were attended by skilled health personnel during their most recent live birth 43.0 5.8 Institutional deliveries Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years whose most recent live birth was delivered in a health facility 37.5 5.9 Caesarean section Percentage of women age 15-49 years whose most recent live birth in the last 2 years was delivered by caesarean section 2.8 Post-natal health checks 5.10 Post-partum stay in health facility Percentage of women age 15-49 years who stayed in the health facility for 12 hours or more after the delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years 50.5 5.11 Post-natal health check for the newborn Percentage of last live births in the last 2 years who received a health check while in facility or at h ome following delivery, or a post-natal care visit within 2 days after delivery 37.1 5.12 Post-natal health check for the mother Percentage of women age 15-49 years who received a health check while in facility or at home following delivery, or a post- natal care visit within 2 days after delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years 37.1 P a g e | viii CHILD DEVELOPMENT MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 6.1 Attendance to early childhood education Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are attending an early childhood education programme 35.6 6.2 Support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months with whom an adult has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days 62.8 6.3 Father’s support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months whose biological father has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days 10.8 6.4 Mother’s support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months whose biological mother has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days 28.1 6.5 Availability of children’s books Percentage of children under age 5 who have three or more children’s books 5.6 6.6 Availability of playthings Percentage of children under age 5 who play with two or more types of playthings 45.7 6.7 Inadequate care Percentage of children under age 5 left alone or in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once in the last week 31.7 6.8 SDG 4.2.1 Early child development index Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in at least three of the following four domains: literacy-numeracy, physical, social-emotional, and learning 61.2 LITERACY AND EDUCATION MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 7.1 MDG 2.3 Literacy rate among young people Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who are able to read a short simple statement about everyday life or who attended secondary or higher education (a) women (b) men 59.3 70.9 7.2 School readiness Percentage of children in first grade of primary school who attended pre-school during the previous school year 39.2 7.3 Net intake rate in primary education Percentage of children of school-entry age who enter the first grade of primary school 39.4 7.4 SDG 4.1.2 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children of primary school age currently attending primary or secondary school 60.9 7.5 SDG 4.1.1 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children of secondary school age currently attending secondary school or higher 46.9 7.6 MDG 2.2 Children reaching last grade of primary Percentage of children entering the first grade of primary school who eventually reach last grade 94.1 7.7 Primary completion rate Number of children attending the last grade of primary school (excluding repeaters) divided by number of children of primary school completion age (age appropriate to final grade of primary school) 63.0 7.8 Transition rate to secondary school Number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year who are in the first grade of secondary school during the current school year divided by number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year 49.0 7.9 SDG 4.5.1 Gender parity index (primary school) Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls divided by primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys 0.95 7.10 MDG 3.1 SDG 4.5.1 Gender parity index (secondary school) Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls divided by secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys 0.97 P a g e | ix CHILD PROTECTION Birth registration MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 8.1 SDG 16.9.1 Birth registration Percentage of children under age 5 whose births are reported registered 46.8 Child labour 8.2 SDG 8.7.1 Child labour Percentage of children age 5-17 years who are involved in child labour 50.8 Child discipline 8.3 SDG 16.2.1 Violent discipline Percentage of children age 1-14 years who experienced psychological aggression or physical punishment during the last one month 84.9 Early marriage and polygyny 8.4 SDG 5.3.1 Marriage before age 15 Percentage of people age 15-49 years who were first married or in union before age 15 (a) Women (b) Men 18.5 2.2 8.5 SDG 5.3.1 Marriage before age 18 Percentage of people age 20-49 years who were first married or in union before age 18 (a) Women (b) Men 44.1 6.0 8.6 Young people age 15-19 years currently married or in union Percentage of young people age 15-19 years who are married or in union (a) Women (b) Men 22.2 0.0 8.7 Polygyny Percentage of people age 15-49 years who are in a polygynous union (a) Women (b) Men 36.9 18.7 8.8a 8.8b Spousal age difference Percentage of young women who are married or in union and whose spouse is 10 or more years older, (a) among women age 15-19 years, (b) among women age 20-24 years 47.6 45.2 Female genital mutilation/cutting 8.9 Approval for female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) Percentage of women age 15-49 years who state that FGM/C should be continued 21.6 8.10 SDG 5.3.2 Prevalence of FGM/C among women Percentage of women age 15-49 years who report to have undergone any form of FGM/C 18.4 8.11 Prevalence of FGM/C among girls Percentage of daughters age 0-14 years who have undergone any form of FGM/C, as reported by mothers age 15-49 years 25.3 Attitudes towards domestic violence 8.12 Attitudes towards domestic violence Percentage of people age 15-49 years who state that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife in at least one of the following circumstances: (1) she goes out without telling him, (2) she neglects the children, (3) she argues with him, (4) she refuses sex with him, (5) she burns the food (a) Women (b) Men 33.7 21.5 Children’s living arrangements 8.13 Children’s living arrangements Percentage of children age 0-17 years living with neither biological parent 7.5 8.14 Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead Percentage of children age 0-17 years with one or both biological parents dead 6.9 8.15 Children with at least one parent living abroad Percentage of children 0-17 years with at least one biological parent living abroad 0.1 P a g e | x HIV/AIDS AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value - Have heard of AIDS Percentage of people age 15-49 years who have heard of AIDS (a) Women (b) Men 83.4 92.8 9.1 MDG 6.3 Knowledge about HIV prevention among young people Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who correctly identify ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, and who reject major misconceptions about HIV transmission (a) Women (b) Men 29.3 27.9 9.2 Knowledge of mother-to- child transmission of HIV Percentage of people age 15-49 years who correctly identify all three means of mother-to-child transmission of HIV (a) Women (b) Men 50.7 45.0 9.3 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV Percentage of people age 15-49 years expressing accepting attitudes on all four questions toward people living with HIV (a) Women (b) Men 8.3 14.3 HIV testing 9.4 People who know where to be tested for HIV Percentage of people age 15-49 years who state knowledge of a place to be tested for HIV (a) Women (b) Men 60.4 70.8 9.5 People who have been tested for HIV and know the results Percentage of people age 15-49 years who have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and who know their results (a) Women (b) Men 15.1 15.1 9.6 Sexually active young people who have been tested for HIV and know the results Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who have had sex in the last 12 months, who have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and who know their results (a) Women (b) Men 16.7 17.2 9.7 HIV counselling during antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years and received antenatal care during the pregnancy of their most recent birth, reporting that they received counselling on HIV during antenatal care 41.0 9.8 HIV testing during antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years and received antenatal care during the pregnancy of their most recent birth, reporting that they were offered and accepted an HIV test during antenatal care and received their results 34.7 Sexual behaviour 9.9 Young people who have never had sex Percentage of never married young people age 15-24 years who have never had sex (a) Women (b) Men 74.8 78.4 9.10 Sex before age 15 among young people Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who had sexual intercourse before age 15 (a) Women (b) Men 15.1 4.1 9.11 Age-mixing among sexual partners Percentage of women age 15-24 years who had sex in the last 12 months with a partner who was 10 or more years older 41.2 9.12 Multiple sexual partnerships Percentage of people age 15-49 years who had sexual intercourse with more than one partner in the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 2.0 11.2 P a g e | xi 9.13 Condom use at last sex among people with multiple sexual partnerships Percentage of people age 15-49 years who report having had more than one sexual partner in the last 12 months who also reported that a condom was used the last time they had sex (a) Women (b) Men 33.3 35.3 9.14 Sex with non-regular partners Percentage of sexually active young people age 15-24 years who had sex with a non-marital, non-cohabitating partner in the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 12.4 17.1 9.15 MDG 6.2 Condom use with non- regular partners Percentage of young people age 15-24 years reporting the use of a condom during the last sexual intercourse with a non-marital, non-cohabiting sex partner in the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 46.6 61.4 Orphans 9.16 MDG 6.4 Ratio of school attendance of orphans to school attendance of non-orphans Proportion attending school among children age 10-14 years who have lost both parents divided by proportion attending school among children age 10-14 years whose parents are alive and who are living with one or both parents 1.01 Male circumcision 9.17 Male circumcision Percentage of men age 15-49 years who report having been circumcised 98.5 ACCESS TO MASS MEDIA AND ICT Access to mass media MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 10.1 Exposure to mass media Percentage of people age 15-49 years who, at least once a week, read a newspaper or magazine, listen to the radio, and watch television (a) Women (b) Men 5.5 18.5 Use of information/communication technology 10.2 Use of computers Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who used a computer during the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 13.4 20.6 10.3 S.D.G. 17.8.1 Use of internet Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who used the internet during the last 12 months (a) Women (b) Men 17.3 32.0 SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 11.1 Life satisfaction Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat satisfied with their life, overall (a) Women (b) Men 88.5 89.6 11.2 Happiness Percentage of young people age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat happy (a) Women (b) Men 91.0 90.7 11.3 Perception of a better life Percentage of young people age 15-24 years whose life improved during the last one year, and who expect that their life will be better after one year (a) Women (b) Men 71.1 71.6 P a g e | xii TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL USE Tobacco use MICS Indicator Indicator Description Value 12.1 S.D.G. 3.a.1 Tobacco use Percentage of people age 15-49 years who smoked cigarettes, or used smoked or smokeless tobacco products at any time during the last one month (a) Women (b) Men 0.3 6.9 12.2 Smoking before age 15 Percentage of people age 15-49 years who smoked a whole cigarette before age 15 (a) Women (b) Men 0.2 1.6 Alcohol use 12.3 SDG 3.a.1 Use of alcohol Percentage of people age 15-49 years who had at least one alcoholic drink at any time during the last one month (a) Women (b) Men 6.4 19.4 12.4 Use of alcohol before age 15 Percentage of people age 15-49 years who had at least one alcoholic drink before age 15 (a) Women (b) Men 3.3 5.5 P a g e | xiii Table of Contents Summary Table of Survey Implementation and the Survey Population, Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, Nigeria 2016-17 . iii Summary Table of Findings. iv Table of Contents . xiii List of Tables . xvi List of Abbreviations . xxi Foreword . xxiii Acknowledgements . xxiv I. Introduction . 1 Background . 1 Survey Objectives . 2 II. Sample and Survey Methodology . 3 Sample Design . 3 Questionnaires . 3 Training and Fieldwork . 5 Data Processing . 5 III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents . 6 Sample Coverage . 6 Characteristics of Households . 9 Housing characteristics, asset ownership, and wealth quintiles . 19 IV. Child Mortality . 26 V. Nutrition . 30 Low Birth Weight . 30 Nutritional Status . 32 Breastfeeding and infant and Young Child Feeding . 36 Salt Iodization . 51 VI. Child Health . 53 Vaccinations . 53 Care of Illness . 69 Diarrhoea . 71 Solid Fuel Use . 83 Malaria/Fever . 88 P a g e | xiv VII. Water and Sanitation. 109 Use of Improved Water Sources . 109 Use of Improved Sanitation . 120 Handwashing. 129 Safely managed drinking water services . 134 VIII. Reproductive Health . 140 Fertility . 140 Contraception . 146 Unmet Need . 149 Assistance at Delivery . 158 Place of Delivery . 162 Post-natal Health Checks. 164 Post-natal Health Checks. 166 IX. Early Childhood Development . 182 Early Childhood Education . 182 Quality of Care. 184 Developmental Status of Children . 191 X. Literacy and Education . 193 Literacy among Young Women and Men . 193 School Readiness . 197 Primary and Secondary School Participation . 199 XI. Child Protection . 217 Birth Registration . 217 Child Labour. 219 Child Discipline . 225 Early Marriage and Polygyny . 229 Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting . 236 Attitudes toward Domestic Violence . 242 Children’s Living Arrangements . 246 XII. HIV/AIDS and Sexual Behaviour . 250 Knowledge about HIV Transmission and Misconceptions about HIV . 250 Accepting Attitudes toward People Living with HIV . 258 Knowledge of a Place for HIV Testing, Counselling and Testing during Antenatal Care . 262 Sexual Behaviour Related to HIV Transmission . 268 HIV Indicators for Young Women and Young Men . 272 Orphans . 288 Male circumcision . 289 P a g e | xv XIII. Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology . 294 Access to Mass Media . 294 Use of Information/Communication Technology . 298 XIV. Subjective well-being . 302 XV. Tobacco and Alcohol Use . 318 Appendix A. Sample Design . 329 Sample Size and Sample Allocation . 329 Sampling Frame and Selection of Clusters . 330 Listing Activities . 330 Calculation of Sample Weights . 331 Appendix B. List of Personnel Involved in the Survey. 337 Appendix C. Estimates of Sampling Errors . 347 Appendix D. Data Quality Tables . 389 Appendix E. Nigeria, 2016-17 Indicators: Numerators and Denominators . 409 Appendix F. Questionnaires . 421 P a g e | xvi List of Tables Table HH.1: Results of household, women's, men's and under-5 interviews . 7 Table HH.2: Age distribution of household population by sex . 9 Table HH.3: Household composition. 10 Table HH.4: Women's background characteristics . 12 Table HH.4M: Men's background characteristics . 15 Table HH.5: Under-5's background characteristics . 17 Table HH.6: Housing characteristics . 19 Table HH.7: Household and personal assets . 21 Table HH.8: Wealth quintiles . 24 Table CM.1: Early childhood mortality rates . 26 Table CM.2: Early childhood mortality rates by socio-economic characteristics . 27 Table CM.3: Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics . 29 Table NU.1: Low birth weight infants . 30 Table NU.2: Nutritional status of children . 33 Table NU.3: Initial breastfeeding. 37 Table NU.4: Breastfeeding . 39 Table NU.5: Duration of breastfeeding . 40 Table NU.6: Age-appropriate breastfeeding . 42 Table NU.7: Introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods . 44 Table NU.8: Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices . 45 Table NU.9: Bottle feeding . 49 Table NU.10: Iodized salt consumption . 51 Table CH.1: Vaccinations in the first years of life. 54 Table CH.2A (MICS/NICS): Percentage of children 12-23 months with any evidence of vaccination . 55 Table CH.2A (MICS/NICS): Percentage of children 12-23 months with any evidence of vaccination (continued) . 56 Table CH.2B (MICS/NICS): Percentage of children 12-23 months with evidence of valid dose vaccination . 57 Table CH.2C (MICS/NICS): Percentage of children 12-23 months who received first dose in a multi- dose sequence but failed to receive the final dose, . 59 Table CH.2D (MICS/NICS): Timeliness of vaccination for children 12-23 months, . 61 Table CH.2E MICS/NICS: Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) 12-23 months . 63 Table CH.2F MICS/NICS: Places Children Receive Vaccines . 65 Table CH.3: Neonatal tetanus protection . 67 Table CH.4: Reported disease episodes . 69 Table CH.5: Care-seeking during diarrhea . 71 Table CH.6: Feeding practices during diarrhea . 72 Table CH.7: Oral rehydration solutions, recommended homemade fluids, and zinc . 73 Table CH.8: Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding and other treatments . 74 Table CH.9: Source of ORS and zinc . 75 Table CH.10: Care-seeking for and antibiotic treatment of symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) . 77 Table CH.12: Solid fuel use . 83 Table CH.13: Solid fuel use by place of cooking . 86 Table CH.14: Household availability of insecticide treated nets and protection by a vector control method. 88 Table CH.15: Access to an insecticide treated net (ITN) - number of household members . 89 Table CH.16: Access to an insecticide treated net (ITN) - background characteristics . 89 Table CH.17: Use of ITNs . 91 Table CH.18: Children sleeping under mosquito nets . 93 P a g e | xvii Table CH.19: Use of mosquito nets by the household population . 95 Table CH.20: Care-seeking during fever . 97 Table CH.21: Treatment of children with fever . 99 Table CH.22: Diagnostics and anti-malarial treatment of children . 101 Table CH.23: Source of anti-malarial . 103 Table CH.24: Pregnant women sleeping under mosquito nets . 105 Table CH.25: Intermittent preventive treatment for malaria. 107 Table WS.1: Use of improved water sources . 109 Table WS.2: Household water treatment . 113 Table WS.3: Time to source of drinking water . 116 Table WS.4: Person collecting water . 118 Table WS.5: Types of sanitation facilities . 120 Table WS.6: Use and sharing of sanitation facilities . 123 Table WS.7: Drinking water and sanitation ladders . 125 Table WS.8: Disposal of child's faeces . 127 Table WS.9: Water and soap at place for handwashing. 129 Table WS.10: Availability of soap or other cleansing agent . 132 Table WQ.1: Quality of source of drinking water . 135 Table WQ.2: Quality of household drinking water . 137 Table WQ.3: Safely managed drinking water services . 139 Table RH.1: Fertility rates . 140 Table RH.2: Adolescent birth rate and total fertility rate . 141 Table RH.3: Early childbearing . 143 Table RH.4: Trends in early childbearing . 145 Table RH.5: Use of contraception. 146 Table RH.6: Unmet need for contraception . 149 Table RH.7: Antenatal care coverage . 151 Table RH.8: Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit . 153 Table RH.9: Content of antenatal care . 156 Table RH.10: Assistance during delivery and caesarian section . 158 Table RH.11: Place of delivery . 162 Table RH.12: Post-partum stay in health facility . 164 Table RH.13: Post-natal health checks for newborns . 166 Table RH.14: Post-natal care visits for newborns within one week of birth . 168 Table RH.14A: Thermal care for newborns . 169 Table RH.14B: Cord cutting and care . 171 Table RH.14C: Content of postnatal care for newborns . 175 Table RH.15: Post-natal health checks for mothers . 177 Table RH.16: Post-natal care visits for mothers within one week of birth . 179 Table RH.17: Post-natal health checks for mothers and newborn . 180 Table CD.1: Early childhood education . 182 Table CD.2: Support for learning . 184 Table CD.3: Learning materials . 187 Table CD.4: Inadequate care . 189 Table CD.5: Early child development index . 191 Table ED.1: Literacy (young women) . 193 Table ED.1M: Literacy (young men) . 195 Table ED.2: School readiness . 197 Table ED.3: Primary school entry. 199 Table ED.4: Primary school attendance and out of school children . 201 Table ED.5: Secondary school attendance and out of school children . 205 Table ED.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school . 209 Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school . 211 Table ED.8: Education gender parity . 213 Table ED.9: Out of school gender parity . 215 P a g e | xviii Table CP.1: Birth registration . 217 Table CP.2: Children's involvement in economic activities . 219 Table CP.3: Children's involvement in household chores . 221 Table CP.4: Child labour . 223 Table CP.5: Child discipline . 225 Table CP.6: Attitudes toward physical punishment . 227 Table CP.7: Early marriage and polygyny (women) . 229 Table CP.7M: Early marriage and polygyny (men) . 231 Table CP.8: Trends in early marriage (women) . 233 Table CP.8M: Trends in early marriage (men) . 233 Table CP.9: Spousal age difference . 234 Table CP.10: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) among women . 236 Table CP.11: Female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) among girls . 238 Table CP.12: Approval of female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) . 240 Table CP.13: Attitudes toward domestic violence (women) . 242 Table CP.13M: Attitudes toward domestic violence (men) . 244 Table CP.14: Children's living arrangements and orphanhood . 246 Table CP.15: Children with parents living abroad . 248 Table HA.1: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission (women). 250 Table HA.1M: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission (men) . 252 Table HA.2: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission (women) . 254 Table HA.3: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV (women) . 258 Table HA.4: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing (women) . 262 Table HA.4M: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing (men) . 264 Table HA.5: HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care . 266 Table HA.6: Sex with multiple partners (women) . 268 Table HA.6M: Sex with multiple partners (men) . 270 Table HA.7: Key HIV and AIDS indicators (young women) . 272 Table HA.7M: Key HIV and AIDS indicators (young men) . 276 Table HA.8: Key sexual behaviour indicators (young women) . 280 Table HA.8M: Key sexual behaviour indicators (young men) . 284 Table HA.9: School attendance of orphans and non-orphans . 288 Table HA.10: Male circumcision . 289 Table HA.11: Provider and location of circumcision . 291 Table MT.1: Exposure to mass media (women) . 294 Table MT.1M: Exposure to mass media (men) . 296 Table MT.2: Use of computers and internet (women) . 298 Table SW.1: Domains of life satisfaction (women) . 302 Table SW.1M: Domains of life satisfaction (men) . 306 Table SW.2: Overall life satisfaction and happiness (women) . 310 Table SW.2M: Overall life satisfaction and happiness (men) . 312 Table SW.3: Perception of a better life (women) . 314 Table SW.3M: Perception of a better life (men) . 316 Table TA.1: Current and ever use of tobacco (women) . 318 Table TA.1M: Current and ever use of tobacco (men) . 320 Table TA.2: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use (women) . 322 Table TA.2M: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use (men) . 323 Table TA.3: Use of alcohol (women) . 325 Table TA.3M: Use of alcohol (men) . 327 Table SE.1: Indicators selected for sampling error calculations . 348 Table SE.2: Sampling errors: Total sample . 349 Table SE.3: Sampling errors: Urban . 350 Table SE.4: Sampling errors: Rural . 351 P a g e | xix Table SE.5: Sampling errors: Abia . 352 Table SE.6: Sampling errors: Adamawa . 353 Table SE.7: Sampling errors: Akwa Ibom . 354 Table SE.8: Sampling errors: Anambra . 355 Table SE.9: Sampling errors: Bauchi . 356 Table SE.10: Sampling errors: Bayelsa . 357 Table SE.11: Sampling errors: Benue . 358 Table SE.12: Sampling errors: Borno . 359 Table SE.13: Sampling errors: Cross River . 360 Table SE.14: Sampling errors: Delta . 361 Table SE.15: Sampling errors: Ebonyi . 362 Table SE.16: Sampling errors: Edo . 363 Table SE.17: Sampling errors: Ekiti . 364 Table SE.18: Sampling errors: Enugu . 365 Table SE.19: Sampling errors: Gombe . 366 Table SE.20: Sampling errors: Imo . 367 Table SE.21: Sampling errors: Jigawa . 368 Table SE.22: Sampling errors: Kaduna . 369 Table SE.23: Sampling errors: Kano . 370 Table SE.24: Sampling errors: Katsina . 371 Table SE.25: Sampling errors: Kebbi . 372 Table SE.26: Sampling errors: Kogi . 373 Table SE.27: Sampling errors: Kwara . 374 Table SE.28: Sampling errors: Lagos . 375 Table SE.29: Sampling errors: Nasarawa . 376 Table SE.30: Sampling errors: Niger . 377 Table SE.31: Sampling errors: Ogun . 378 Table SE.32: Sampling errors: Ondo . 379 Table SE.33: Sampling errors: Osun . 380 Table SE.34: Sampling errors: Oyo . 381 Table SE.35: Sampling errors: Plateau . 382 Table SE.36: Sampling errors:Rivers . 383 Table SE.37: Sampling errors:Sokoto . 384 Table SE.38: Sampling errors:Taraba . 385 Table SE.39: Sampling errors:Yobe . 386 Table SE.40: Sampling errors: Zamfara . 387 Table SE.41: Sampling errors:FCT-Abuja . 388 Table DQ.1: Age distribution of household population . 389 Table DQ.2: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . 391 Table DQ.3: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men . 391 Table DQ.4: Age distribution of children in household and under-5 questionnaires . 391 Table DQ.5: Birth date reporting: Household population (continued) . 392 Table DQ.6: Birth date and age reporting: Women . 393 Table DQ.7: Birth date and age reporting: Men . 394 Table DQ.8: Birth date and age reporting: Under-5 . 395 Table DQ.9: Birth date reporting: Children, adolescents and young people . 396 Table DQ.10: Birth date reporting: First and last births . 397 Table DQ.11: Completeness of reporting . 398 Table DQ.12: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Underweight . 398 Table DQ.13: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Stunting . 399 Table DQ.14: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Wasting . 399 Table DQ.15: Heaping in anthropometric measurements . 399 Table DQ.16: Observation of birth certificates . 400 Table DQ.17: Observation of vaccination cards . 402 Table DQ.18: Observation of women's health cards . 403 P a g e | xx Table DQ.19: Observation of bednets and places for handwashing . 404 Table DQ.19A Water quality . 405 Table DQ.20: Respondent to the under-5 questionnaire . 405 Table DQ.22: School attendance by single age . 405 Table DQ.23: Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living . 406 Table DQ.24: Births by periods preceding the survey . 406 Table DQ.25: Reporting of age at death in days . 407 Table DQ.26: Reporting of age at death in months . 408 HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE . 421 HOUSEHOLD WATER QUALITY QUESTIONNAIRE . 438 P a g e | xxi List of Abbreviations AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ANC Antenatal Care APP Agricultural Promotion Policy BCG Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (Tuberculosis) BMGF Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation BNPC Budget and National Planning Commission CAPI Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing CBN Central Bank of Nigeria CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child CEDAW Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women CSPro Census and Survey Processing System DFID Department for International Development DPT Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus ECCD Early Childhood Care and Development ECDI Early Child Development Index EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization FGM/C Female genital mutilation/cutting GPI Gender Parity Index HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus ICT Information and Communications Technology IDD Iodine Deficiency Disorders ITN Insecticide Treated Net IUD Intrauterine Device JMP Joint Monitoring Programme LAM Lactational Amenorrhea Method LLIN Long-Lasting Insecticidal Net MCV Measles Containing Vaccines MDAs Ministries, Departments and Agencies MDG Millennium Development Goals MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MICS5 Fifth global round of Multiple Indicator Clusters Surveys programme MoH Ministry of Health MOV Missed opportunity for Vaccination NACA National Agency for the Control of AIDS NAR Net Attendance Rate NBS National Bureau of Statistics NDHS National Demographic and Health Survey NGHIPS Nigerian General Household Panel Survey NISH National Integrated Survey of Households NPHCDA National Primary Health Care Development Agency NPopC National Population Commission PNC Post-natal Care Ppm Parts Per Million ORT Oral rehydration treatment SDG Sustainable Development Goals SFR Survey Findings Report SOML Saving One Million Live SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences P a g e | xxii TFR Total Fertility Rate UNAIDS United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UNIO United Nations and International Organizations VIP Ventilated Improved Pit WB World Bank WCARO West and Central Africa Regional Office WFFC World Fit for Children WHO World Health Organization P a g e | xxiii Foreword The Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2016-17 was conducted by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) in collaboration with United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). It is part of the global MICS exercise aimed primarily to collect data on main indicators related to survival, development and protection of children, women and men. In Nigeria, the current survey is the fifth round, having previously conducted the survey in 1995, 1999, 2007 and 2011. The survey serves as a reliable information source and a sound basis for informed decision-making for planners, policy- makers and programme implementers. More specifically, Nigeria MICS 2016-17 collected data on indicators related to child mortality; child and maternal nutrition; child health, reproductive health; water and sanitation; child development; literacy and education; child protection; knowledge of HIV and AIDS; access to mass media and use of information and communication technology among others. The survey provides estimated disaggregation of Nigeria by states, geo political zones, sex, age, residence (urban and rural), mother’s education and wealth quintiles. For this round of Nigeria MICS, water quality testing was also included for the first time and has generated valuable data on the quality of drinking water consumed at the household level. This was done by subjecting water used in the household for cooking and drinking to microbiological parameters test. (related to E.coli and coliform). Nigeria MICS data will aid in monitoring progress towards post Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) as well as various international agreements such as A World Fit for Children (WFFC). The survey’s findings also provide a baseline for Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) for Nigeria. I am confident that the findings from Nigeria MICS 2016-17 will be instrumental in formulating sectoral plans and shaping policies toward the post-MDG agenda. I look forward to see the results and the dataset being used widely and effectively by the public, most especially the policy-makers, planners, researchers, development partners and Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to formulate and monitor programmes and strategies. On behalf of Government of Nigeria, I would like to thank the UNICEF, WHO, UNFPA, Save One Million Lives (SOML), Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation and other development partners for their technical and financial support throughout the planning, implementation, analysis and dissemination process of Nigeria MICS 2016-17. Dr Yemi Kale Statistician General of the Federation P a g e | xxiv Acknowledgements The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a primary source of information on women and children as it provides statistical indicators that are critical for the measurement of human development. It is an international household survey programme developed by United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). The MICS is designed to collect statistically sound and internationally comparable estimates of key indicators that are used to assess the situation of children and women in the areas of health, education, child protection and HIV/AIDS. It can also be used as a data collection tool to generate data for monitoring the progress towards national goals and global commitments which aimed at promoting the welfare of children and women such as MDGs and SDGs. The first in the series of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS1) in Nigeria was conducted in 1995 by the Federal Office of Statistics (FOS), now National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), with technical and funding assistance from UNICEF. Since then, MICS has been institutionalized within the National Integrated Survey of Households (NISH) in the National Bureau of Statistics, as a process of collecting regular, reliable and timely social statistics. The second and third rounds of MICS were conducted in 1999 and 2007 respectively. The fourth round of MICS conducted in 2011 was better planned and executed than the previous rounds. The 2016-17 round (MICS5) consolidated on the achievement of MICS4 by providing data for more indicators, introduced the use of CAPI device and further raise the quality of the data collected as acknowledged by UNICEF regional and headquarters offices. The current round of MICS has been expanded in content and scope to include questionnaires for individual men and water quality test. New modules were also introduced such as tobacco and alcohol use, life satisfaction, access to mass media and use of information and communication technology. Another innovation introduced in the MICS 2016-17 also included the pilot testing of further analysis and disaggregation of state data up to senatorial district levels (as can be seen in Lagos and Kano states) with the aim of providing data that can be used for better planning and programming at the grassroots. The climax of the new innovations was the successful combination and implementation of two National surveys (The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey and the National Immunization Coverage Survey - MICS/NICS) jointly executed together. Apart from MICS being a major source of data for indicators related to development and improvement of well-being of children, women and men in NIgeria, another key concern of MICS is to improve statistical systems and this is the reason why key players in the Nigeria Statistical Systems participated in the planning and execution of the MICS5. In presenting this Survey Finding Report (SFR) of MICS5, we wish to express our gratitude and appreciation to all those who contributed directly or indirectly in designing, conducting the survey, preparing this report and releasing its results; from the staff of the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) to the members of the National Steering and Technical Committees on MICS5 which cut across various Ministries, Departments and Agencies (MDAs), which include the National Primary Health Care Development Agency (NPHCDA), the National Agency for the Control of AIDS (NACA), the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Office, the National Population Commission, Central Bank of Nigeria, the Federal Ministries of Health, Budget and National Planning, Education, Water Resources, Agriculture, Women Affairs, and various Non-Government Organizations. We appreciated the sense of ownership put in the survey and for releasing their staff at various stages of training, monitoring, analysis and compilation of this report. P a g e | xxv We are thankful to the United Nations and international organizations in Nigeria for their contributions in various stages of this project. Special thanks go to UNICEF Nigeria for spearheading the technical and financial support for MICS5. We acknowledge the technical support on Water Quality test provided by WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP). We are also grateful to United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, the World Bank, Kano State Government, and Saving One Million Lives (SOML) for their financial contributions to the project. The immense contributions made by UNICEF West and Central Africa Regional Office (WCARO) and UNICEF Headquarters cannot be overemphasized. The NBS also expresses its appreciation for the support and efforts of the state governments through the Statistician Generals' of State Bureau of Statistics (SBS), Director of State Statistical Agencies (SSA) who in their capacities ensured the success of this survey in their respective states. We deeply appreciate your efforts and collaboration both with UNICEF and NBS. I wish to appreciate the dedication of MICS implementation team in NBS for providing the logistical arrangements for the training, data collection, monitoring of the field work and for maintaining a high level of data quality control. My special thanks go to Mr. Adeyemi Adeniran (MICS5 National Coordinator) who brought his wealth of experience in conducting MICS and other household surveys to bear on this round of MICS, Tunde Adebisi (Sampling Expert), all NBS Zonal Coordinators and the remaining core members of MICS5. Finally, I wish to acknowledge with gratitude the contributions of NBS zonal controllers, state officers, supervisors and interviewers who visited the households and of course all the respondents - their willingness to participate added value to the quality and outcome of this survey and is well recognized and appreciated. Dr. Isiaka Olarewaju Nigeria MICS Project Director National Bureau of Statistics P a g e | 1 I. Introduction Background This report is based on the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS), conducted between September 2016 and January 2017 by National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), with technical and financial support from UNICEF, WHO, UNFPA, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, Save One Million Lives and NACA. The survey provides statistically sound and internationally comparable data essential for developing evidence-based policies and programmes, and for monitoring progress toward national goals and global commitments. Among these global commitments are those emanating from the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action, the goals of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS, the Education for All Declaration and the Millennium/Sustainable Development Goals (MDGs/SDGs). A Commitment to Action: National and International Reporting Responsibilities The governments that signed the Millennium Declaration and the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitoring progress towards the goals and objectives they contained: “We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child- focused research. We will enhance international cooperation to support statistical capacity-building efforts and build community capacity for monitoring, assessment and planning.” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60) “…We will conduct periodic reviews at the national and subnational levels of progress in order to address obstacles more effectively and accelerate actions.…” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 61) The Plan of Action of the World Fit for Children (paragraph 61) also calls for the specific involvement of UNICEF in the preparation of periodic progress reports: “… As the world’s lead agency for children, the United Nations Children’s Fund is requested to continue to prepare and disseminate, in close collaboration with Governments, relevant funds, programmes and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system, and all other relevant actors, as appropriate, information on the progress made in the implementation of the Declaration and the Plan of Action.” Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) calls for periodic reporting on progress: “…We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action.” The Federal Government of Nigeria has made several efforts directed toward the achievement of the objectives and aspirations expressed in the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), the World Fit for Children Goals, the UNICEF Country Programme, the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (CEDAW), among others. The Government has in recent times launched a number of development initiatives to improve the economic and social life of its people. The Change agenda of the present Government and Vision 20: 2020 are developed to create employment, increase and stabilise electricity power supply, improve social and P a g e | 2 economic infrastructure and provide enabling environment for local and foreign investments and to become one of the twenty leading economies in the world by year 2020. The Agricultural Promotion Policy (APP) is to rejuvenate and redirect building an agribusiness ecosystem that will take Nigeria out of food importation and able to earn significant foreign exchange from agriculture. The National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) with strong financial and technical support from International Development partners and donors like UNICEF, UNFPA and DFID among others has been involved in National effort to achieve the goals through provision of relevant data to monitor, evaluate and advise necessary adjustment in development programmes. The Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2016-17 has been designed to measure achievements of MDGs and provide baseline for SDGs. More specifically, MICS 2016-17 will assist UNICEF in monitoring and evaluating its country programmes including those on child survival, development, protection and rights of children, women and men. Survey Objectives The primary objectives of Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) Nigeria 2016-17 are: • To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Nigeria; • To generate data for the critical assessment of the progress made in various programme areas, and to identify areas that require more attention; • To contribute to the generation of baseline data for the SDG; • To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established in the post Millennium Declaration and other internationally agreed goals, as a basis for future action; • To provide disaggregated data to identify disparities among various groups to enable evidence based actions aimed at social inclusion of the most vulnerable; P a g e | 3 II. Sample and Survey Methodology Sample Design The sample for the Nigeria MICS 2016-17 was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national, rural/urban, states as well as the 6 geo- political zones of Nigeria. The states within each zone were identified as the main sampling Strata while the Enumeration Areas (EAs) within each state were identified as the Primary Sampling Units (PSUs). The EAs for the survey were selected from the National Integrated Survey of Households round 2 (NISH2) master sample, based on a list of EAs prepared for the 2006 Population Census. Two stage sampling was conducted with the first stage being the selection of EAs within the strata while the second stage was the selection of households within each EAs. Within each state, 60 EAs were selected systematically from the NISH2 master sample, apart from Lagos and Kano states where 120 EAs (respectively) were sampled. The larger sample size for Lagos and Kano states was based on requests by the respective State governments to have sufficient sample to enable disaggregation of indicators at senatorial district level. After a household listing was carried out within the selected EAs, a systematic sample of sixteen (16) households was drawn in each sample EA. The sample was stratified by state and is not self-weighting. For reporting of results, sample weights were applied. Out of 2340 EAs selected for coverage, 2,239 were listed and covered during the fieldwork period. A total of 101 EAs could not be enumerated because they were inaccessible due to insecurity especially in Borno, Yobe and Adamawa states. A more detailed description of the sample design can be found in Appendix A, The Nigeria MICS 2016-17 was implemented jointly with the National Immunisation Coverage Survey (NICS) which was designed to provide estimates of vaccine coverage for the country. However, the sample size for MICS 2016-17 was not sufficient to estimate state level vaccination coverage for children aged 12 to 23 months in twenty states, namely: Abia, Akwa ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Benue, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Imo, Kogi, Kwara, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers and FCT (Abuja). Consequently, supplemental sampling was conducted to meet the requirements for vaccine coverage estimation, in these twenty states. Questionnaires Four sets of questionnaires were used in the MICS 2016-17: 1. Household questionnaire - used to collect basic demographic information on all the household members (usual residents) and household characteristics; 2. Individual women questionnaire - administered in each household to all women age 15-49 years; 3. Individual men questionnaire - administered to all men age 15-49 years in every other(one in every two) households; 4. Under-5 children questionnaire - administered to mothers or caretakers of all children under 5 years of age2 living in sampled households. The Household Questionnaire included the following modules: 2The terms “children under 5”, “children age 0-4 years”, and “children age 0-59 months” are used interchangeably in this report. P a g e | iv • Household Information Panel • List of Household Members • Education • Child Labour • Child Discipline • Household Characteristics • Insecticide Treated Nets • Water and Sanitation • Handwashing • Salt Iodization • Water Quality Test Individual Women questionnaire included the following modules: • Woman Information Panel • Woman’s Background • Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology • Fertility/Birth History • Desire for Last Birth • Maternal and Newborn Health • Post-natal Health Checks • Illness Symptoms • Use of Contraception • Unmet Need for Contraception • Female Genital Mutilation/Cutting • Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence • Marriage/Union • Sexual Behaviour • HIV/AIDS • Tobacco and Alcohol Use • Life Satisfaction Individual Men questionnaire included the following modules: • Man Information Panel • Man’s Background • Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology • Fertility • Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence • Marriage/Union • Sexual Behaviour • HIV/AIDS • Circumcision • Tobacco and Alcohol Use • Life Satisfaction Under 5 Children questionnaire included the following modules: • Under Five Information Panel • Age • Birth Registration • Early Childhood Development • Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake • Immunization • Care of Illness • Anthropometry The questionnaires are based on the MICS5 questionnaire3 model (English version), customised and pre- tested in Cross River, Enugu, Gombe, Lagos, Kaduna, Kano, Nasarawa and Oyo states in April, 2016. Based on the results of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording of the questionnaires. A copy of the Nigeria MICS questionnaires is provided in Appendix F. In addition to the administration of questionnaires, salt iodization and water quality tests were conducted. Weight and height of children age under 5 years were also measured. Details of the tests and measurements are provided in the respective sections of the report. 3The model MICS5 questionnaires can be found at http://mics.unicef.org/tools#survey-design. http://mics.unicef.org/tools#survey-design P a g e | 5 Training and Fieldwork Training for the fieldwork was conducted for thirty-one (31) days in August 2016. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and contents of the questionnaires. Mock interviews among trainees were also conducted to gain practice in asking questions. Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent 2 days in field practice in purposively selected residential areas in 2 communities in each of the 6 training locations in Keffi (Nasarawa state), Gombe (Gombe state), Kano (Kano state), Enugu (Enugu state), Ikeja (Lagos state) and Calabar (Cross River state). The data were collected by 78 teams; each team comprised four interviewers, one driver, one measurer and a supervisor. Fieldwork began in September, 2016 and concluded in January 2017. Using Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI), the data were electronically captured from the field and transmitted to a central server, using CSPro CAPI application, Version 5.0. Being the first time of using CAPI, the programme was pretested to know the effectiveness and efficiency of the device. Using CAPI to captured data helps in reducing error associated with paper questionnaire such as omission and skipping errors. Data Processing Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Scientists (SPSS) software, Version 21. Model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF MICS team were customized and used for this purpose. P a g e | 6 III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents Sample Coverage Out of 37,440 households sampled, 35,747 households were visited, 34,289 were found to be occupied and 33,901 were successfully interviewed, representing a household response rate of 98.9 percent. In the interviewed households, 36,176 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 34,376 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 95.0 percent within the interviewed households. The survey also sampled men (age 15-49), but required only a subsample. All men (age 15-49) were identified in 17,868 households selected for the men questionnaire; 16,514 men (age 15-49 years) were listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 15,183 eligible men, which corresponds to a response rate of 91.9 percent within eligible interviewed households. There were 28,578 children under age five listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 28,085 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 98.3 percent within interviewed households. Overall response rates of 93.9, 90.9 and 97.2 are calculated for the individual interviews of women, men, and under-5s, respectively (Table HH.1). P a g e | 7 Table HH.1: Results of household, women's, men's and under-5 interviews Number of households, women, men, and children under 5 by interview results, and household, women's, men's and under-5's response rates, Nigeria, 2016-17 Total Residence Geopolitical zone Urban Rural North Central North East North West South East South South South West Households Sampled 37,440 12,240 25,200 6,720 5,760 7,680 4,800 5,760 6,720 Actual Coverage 35,747 11,991 23,756 6,552 4,620 7,586 4,752 5,626 6,611 Occupied 34,289 11,311 22,978 6,318 4,447 7,424 4,593 5,387 6,120 Interviewed 33,901 11,104 22,797 6,244 4,396 7,395 4,524 5,354 5,988 Household response rate 98.9 98.2 99.2 98.8 98.9 99.6 98.5 99.4 97.8 Women Eligible 36,176 11,689 24,487 7,462 5,469 9,765 3,753 4,918 4,809 Interviewed 34,376 10,965 23,411 7,013 5,223 9,376 3,645 4,728 4,391 Women's response rate 95.0 93.8 95.6 94.0 95.5 96.0 97.1 96.1 91.3 Women's overall response rate 93.9 92.1 94.9 92.9 94.4 95.6 95.7 95.5 89.3 Men Eligible 16,514 5,450 11,064 3,468 2,559 4,356 1,568 2,253 2,310 Interviewed 15,183 4,890 10,293 3,184 2,452 3,935 1,481 2,173 1,958 Men's response rate 91.9 89.7 93.0 91.8 95.8 90.3 94.5 96.4 84.8 Men's overall response rate 90.9 88.1 92.3 90.7 94.7 90.0 93.0 95.9 82.9 Children under 5 Eligible 28,578 7,612 20,966 5,474 4,855 9,662 2,399 3,187 3,001 Mothers/caretakers interviewed 28,085 7,471 20,614 5,347 4,733 9,519 2,383 3,172 2,931 Under-5's response rate 98.3 98.1 98.3 97.7 97.5 98.5 99.3 99.5 97.7 Under-5's overall response rate 97.2 96.4 97.5 96.5 96.4 98.1 97.8 98.9 95.6 P a g e | 8 Table HH.1: Results of household, women's, men's and under-5 interviews (continued) Number of households, women, men, and children under 5 by interview results, and household, women's, men's and under-5's response rates, Nigeria, 2016-17 Households Women Men Children under 5 S a m p le d A c tu a l c o v e ra g e O c c u p ie d In te rv ie w e d H o u s e h o ld re s p o n s e ra te E li g ib le In te rv ie w e d W o m e n 's re s p o n s e ra te W o m e n 's o v e ra ll re s p o n s e ra te E li g ib le In te rv ie w e d M e n 's re s p o n s e ra te M e n 's o v e ra ll re s p o n s e ra te E li g ib le M o th e rs /c a re ta k e rs in te rv ie w e d U n d e r- 5 's re s p o n s e ra te U n d e r- 5 's o v e ra ll re s p o n s e ra te State Abia 960 960 921 899 97.6 700 663 94.7 92.5 309 271 87.7 85.6 459 453 98.7 96.3 Adamawa 960 845 832 823 98.9 1,007 972 96.5 95.5 493 480 97.4 96.3 764 741 97.0 95.9 Akwa Ibom 960 959 952 950 99.8 1,026 1,007 98.1 97.9 464 451 97.2 97.0 756 756 100.0 99.8 Anambra 960 960 920 898 97.6 812 783 96.4 94.1 332 314 94.6 92.3 509 504 99.0 96.6 Bauchi 960 959 952 952 100.0 1,193 1,183 99.2 99.2 536 529 98.7 98.7 1,172 1,168 99.7 99.7 Bayelsa 960 936 881 878 99.7 816 769 94.2 93.9 345 330 95.7 95.3 556 552 99.3 98.9 Benue 960 924 898 889 99.0 946 878 92.8 91.9 445 402 90.3 89.4 682 667 97.8 96.8 Borno 960 304 292 289 99.0 425 412 96.9 95.9 180 177 98.3 97.3 390 385 98.7 97.7 Cross River 960 928 866 861 99.4 802 750 93.5 93.0 325 304 93.5 93.0 495 492 99.4 98.8 Delta 960 928 871 859 98.6 731 695 95.1 93.8 323 296 91.6 90.4 539 534 99.1 97.7 Ebonyi 960 944 932 932 100.0 781 772 98.8 98.8 295 294 99.7 99.7 540 540 100.0 100.0 Edo 960 959 951 948 99.7 775 762 98.3 98.0 363 363 100.0 99.7 443 443 100.0 99.7 Ekiti 960 944 849 842 99.2 552 497 90.0 89.3 260 211 81.2 80.5 324 311 96.0 95.2 Enugu 960 944 899 888 98.8 744 722 97.0 95.9 285 271 95.1 93.9 417 415 99.5 98.3 Gombe 960 944 903 890 98.6 1,030 975 94.7 93.3 510 497 97.5 96.0 971 949 97.7 96.3 Imo 960 944 921 907 98.5 716 705 98.5 97.0 347 331 95.4 93.9 474 471 99.4 97.9 Jigawa 960 957 936 931 99.5 1,176 1,122 95.4 94.9 510 483 94.7 94.2 1,268 1,228 96.8 96.3 Kaduna 960 938 903 897 99.3 1,247 1,146 91.9 91.3 582 512 88.0 87.4 953 935 98.1 97.5 Kano 1,920 1,920 1,876 1,867 99.5 2,576 2,500 97.0 96.6 1,201 1,099 91.5 91.1 2,574 2,559 99.4 98.9 Katsina 960 958 949 949 100.0 1,192 1,174 98.5 98.5 517 506 97.9 97.9 1,268 1,256 99.1 99.1 Kebbi 960 944 922 920 99.8 1,176 1,136 96.6 96.4 564 522 92.6 92.4 1,133 1,120 98.9 98.6 Kogi 960 944 919 910 99.0 960 912 95.0 94.1 410 393 95.9 94.9 561 553 98.6 97.6 Kwara 960 922 888 872 98.2 747 686 91.8 90.2 384 371 96.6 94.9 545 521 95.6 93.9 Lagos 1,920 1,856 1,754 1,681 95.8 1,584 1,491 94.1 90.2 784 707 90.2 86.4 943 930 98.6 94.5 Nasarawa 960 928 888 878 98.9 1,155 1,094 94.7 93.7 550 498 90.5 89.5 924 907 98.2 97.1 Niger 960 960 912 898 98.5 1,225 1,150 93.9 92.4 560 504 90.0 88.6 1,050 1,022 97.3 95.8 Ogun 960 947 826 802 97.1 678 603 88.9 86.4 306 253 82.7 80.3 424 414 97.6 94.8 Ondo 960 960 940 937 99.7 657 650 98.9 98.6 305 293 96.1 95.8 444 440 99.1 98.8 Osun 960 944 856 839 98.0 630 541 85.9 84.2 301 216 71.8 70.3 347 331 95.4 93.5 Oyo 960 960 895 887 99.1 708 609 86.0 85.2 354 278 78.5 77.8 519 505 97.3 96.4 Plateau 960 928 892 883 99.0 1,172 1,110 94.7 93.8 558 526 94.3 93.3 941 932 99.0 98.0 Rivers 960 916 866 858 99.1 768 745 97.0 96.1 433 429 99.1 98.2 398 395 99.2 98.3 Sokoto 960 957 931 928 99.7 1,142 1,101 96.4 96.1 469 352 75.1 74.8 1,230 1,213 98.6 98.3 Taraba 960 848 766 745 97.3 881 782 88.8 86.3 398 353 88.7 86.3 641 593 92.5 90.0 Yobe 960 720 702 697 99.3 933 899 96.4 95.7 442 416 94.1 93.4 917 897 97.8 97.1 Zamfara 960 912 907 903 99.6 1,256 1,197 95.3 94.9 513 461 89.9 89.5 1,236 1,208 97.7 97.3 FCT Abuja 960 946 921 914 99.2 1,257 1,183 94.1 93.4 561 490 87.3 86.7 771 745 96.6 95.9 P a g e | 9 Characteristics of Households The weighted age and sex distribution of the survey population is provided in Table HH.2. In the households successfully interviewed in the survey, a weighted total of 182,165 household members were listed. Of these, 90,172 were males, and 91,993 were females. Both unweighted and weighted numbers are presented. Such information is essential for the interpretation of findings presented later in the report and provide background information on the representativeness of the survey sample. The remaining tables in this report are presented only with weighted numbers.4 Table HH.3 provides basic background information on the households, including the sex of the household head, state, geopolitical zone, residence, number of household members, education of household head, and ethnicity5 of the household head are shown in the table. These background characteristics are used in subsequent tables in this report; the figures in the table are also intended to show the numbers of observations by major categories of analysis in the report. 4 See Appendix A: Sample Design, for more details on sample weights. 5 These questions are used for the construction of this background variable; typical questions asked in MICS surveys are mother tongue, ethnic background and/or religion. Table HH.2: Age distribution of household population by sex Percent and frequency distribution of the household population by five-year age groups, dependency age groups, and by child (age 0-17 years) and adult populations (age 18 or more), by sex, Nigeria, 2016-17 Total Males Females Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Total 182,165 100.0 90,172 100.0 91,993 100.0 Age (Years) 0-4 31,299 17.2 15,822 17.5 15,476 16.8 5-9 29,627 16.3 15,051 16.7 14,575 15.8 10-14 24,773 13.6 12,292 13.6 12,481 13.6 15-19 16,075 8.8 8,398 9.3 7,677 8.3 20-24 12,294 6.7 5,752 6.4 6,542 7.1 25-29 11,438 6.3 4,942 5.5 6,496 7.1 30-34 10,734 5.9 4,824 5.3 5,911 6.4 35-39 9,038 5.0 4,308 4.8 4,730 5.1 40-44 7,935 4.4 3,986 4.4 3,949 4.3 45-49 5,970 3.3 3,174 3.5 2,796 3.0 50-54 7,224 4.0 3,016 3.3 4,207 4.6 55-59 4,289 2.4 2,177 2.4 2,111 2.3 60-64 3,883 2.1 2,110 2.3 1,773 1.9 65-69 2,296 1.3 1,316 1.5 980 1.1 70-74 2,193 1.2 1,292 1.4 901 1.0 75-79 1,066 0.6 613 0.7 453 0.5 80-84 961 0.5 538 0.6 423 0.5 85+ 680 0.4 352 0.4 327 0.4 Missing 392 0.2 208 0.2 184 0.2 Dependency age groups 0-14 85,698 47.0 43,166 47.9 42,533 46.2 15-64 88,880 48.8 42,687 47.3 46,193 50.2 65+ 7,194 3.9 4,111 4.6 3,083 3.4 Missing 392 0.2 208 0.2 184 0.2 Child and adult populations Children age 0-17 years 96,192 52.8 48,746 54.1 47,446 51.6 Adults age 18+ years 85,581 47.0 41,218 45.7 44,363 48.2 Missing 392 0.2 208 0.2 184 0.2 P a g e | 10 Table HH.3: Household composition Percent and frequency distribution of households by selected characteristics, Nigeria, 2016-17 Weighted percent Number of households Weighted Unweighted Total 100 33,901 33,901 Geopolitical zone North Central 16.0 5,435 6,244 North East 16.5 5,581 4,396 North West 26.9 9,128 7,395 South East 9.2 3,132 4,524 South South 12.6 4,281 5,354 South West 18.7 6,344 5,988 Sex of household head Male 85.0 28,829 27,982 Female 15.0 5,072 5,919 Residence Urban 36.6 12,421 11,104 Rural 63.4 21,480 22,797 Number of household members 1 10.7 3,634 4,180 2 9.5 3,220 3,583 3 12.5 4,244 4,433 4 13.6 4,620 4,536 5 12.8 4,328 4,326 6 11.3 3,816 3,828 7 8.6 2,932 2,764 8 5.9 2,004 1,876 9 4.2 1,435 1,282 10+ 10.8 3,666 3,093 Education of household head None 22.0 7,443 7,658 Non-formal 15.5 5,269 4,175 Primary 19.3 6,558 7,252 Secondary / Secondary-technical 26.7 9,047 9,257 Higher 16.3 5,526 5,496 Missing 0.2 58 63 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 39.6 13,433 10,948 Igbo 13.1 4,436 5,764 Yoruba 17.3 5,873 5,886 Other ethnic group 30.0 10,159 11,303 Mean household size 5.4 33,901 33,901 P a g e | 11 Table HH.3: Household composition (continued) Percent and frequency distribution of households by selected characteristics, Nigeria, 2016-17 Weighted percent Number of households Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 33,901 33,901 State Abia 1.4 472 899 Adamawa 2.2 735 823 Akwa Ibom 2.5 844 950 Anambra 2.1 719 898 Bauchi 4.1 1,384 952 Bayelsa 0.9 308 878 Benue 2.9 987 889 Borno 4.4 1,493 289 Cross River 2.3 778 861 Delta 2.2 740 859 Ebonyi 1.6 535 932 Edo 1.9 654 948 Ekiti 1.0 351 842 Enugu 1.8 610 888 Gombe 1.6 529 890 Imo 2.3 796 907 Jigawa 3.4 1,147 931 Kaduna 4.9 1,646 897 Kano 5.6 1,894 1,867 Katsina 5.0 1,705 949 Kebbi 2.5 838 920 Kogi 1.9 649 910 Kwara 1.9 639 872 Lagos 5.8 1,974 1,681 Nasarawa 1.9 630 878 Niger 3.6 1,211 898 Ogun 1.8 608 802 Ondo 3.0 1,025 937 Osun 2.7 916 839 Oyo 4.3 1,470 887 Plateau 3.1 1,051 883 Rivers 2.8 957 858 Sokoto 2.4 820 928 Taraba 1.6 527 745 Yobe 2.7 914 697 Zamfara 3.2 1,078 903 FCT Abuja 0.8 270 914 P a g e | 12 Table HH.4: Women's background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of women age 15-49 years by selected background characteristics, Nigeria, 2016-17 Weighted percent Number of women Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 34,376 34,376 Geopolitical zone North Central 17.5 6,006 7,013 North East 19.2 6,584 5,223 North West 31.8 10,932 9,376 South East 7.1 2,445 3,645 South South 10.7 3,668 4,728 South West 13.8 4,741 4,391 Residence Urban 36.0 12,373 10,965 Rural 64.0 22,003 23,411 Age (Years) 15-19 19.8 6,822 6,805 20-24 16.9 5,816 5,721 25-29 17.2 5,915 5,933 30-34 15.7 5,390 5,296 35-39 12.6 4,339 4,391 40-44 10.4 3,571 3,605 45-49 7.3 2,524 2,625 Marital/Union status Currently married/in union 71.0 24,373 23,891 Widowed 1.9 638 648 Divorced 1.0 356 295 Separated 1.1 375 476 Never married/in union 24.8 8,520 8,938 Motherhood and recent births Never gave birth 28.3 9,717 10,025 Ever gave birth 71.7 Gave birth in last two years 33.6 11,547 11,204 No birth in last two years 38.1 13,084 13,121 Education None 22.7 7,799 7,255 Non-formal 16.4 5,646 4,800 Primary 14.4 4,963 5,213 Secondary 36.3 12,466 13,452 Higher 10.2 3,502 3,656 Wealth index quintile Poorest 17.8 6,120 5,855 Second 18.8 6,478 6,646 Middle 19.5 6,708 6,812 Fourth 20.5 7,053 7,178 Richest 23.3 8,017 7,885 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 46.3 15,920 13,525 Igbo 10.3 3,558 4,781 Yoruba 12.7 4,380 4,303 Other ethnic group 30.6 10,518 11,767 P a g e | 13 Table HH.4: Women's background characteristics (continued) Percent and frequency distribution of women age 15-49 years by selected background characteristics, Nigeria, 2016-17 Weighted percent Number of women Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 34,376 34,376 State Abia 1.0 336 663 Adamawa 2.4 830 972 Akwa Ibom 2.4 834 1,007 Anambra 1.8 608 783 Bauchi 4.5 1,559 1,183 Bayelsa 0.8 260 769 Benue 2.8 956 878 Borno 5.8 1,984 412 Cross River 2.0 693 750 Delta 1.7 584 695 Ebonyi 1.2 400 772 Edo 1.4 494 762 Ekiti 0.6 216 497 Enugu 1.4 495 722 Gombe 1.6 562 975 Imo 1.8 606 705 Jigawa 3.8 1,313 1,122 Kaduna 6.0 2,076 1,146 Kano 6.9 2,389 2,500 Katsina 5.7 1,950 1,174 Kebbi 2.8 956 1,136 Kogi 1.8 632 912 Kwara 1.4 487 686 Lagos 5.0 1,725 1,491 Nasarawa 2.1 738 1,094 Niger 4.5 1,536 1,150 Ogun 1.4 474 603 Ondo 1.9 646 650 Osun 1.9 638 541 Oyo 3.0 1,042 609 Plateau 3.8 1,317 1,110 Rivers 2.3 803 745 Sokoto 2.7 912 1,101 Taraba 1.6 558 782 Yobe 3.2 1,091 899 Zamfara 3.9 1,337 1,197 FCT Abuja 1.0 340 1,183 The table includes information on the distribution of women/men, children under 5 according to state, geopolitical zone, residence, age, marital/union status, motherhood status, births in last two years, education6, wealth index quintiles7, , and ethnicity of the household head. 6 Throughout this report, unless otherwise stated, “education” refers to highest educational level ever attended by the respondent when it is used as a background variable. 7 The wealth index is a composite indicator of wealth. To construct the wealth index, principal components analysis is P a g e | 14 performed by using information on the ownership of consumer goods, dwelling characteristics, water and sanitation, and other characteristics that are related to the household’s wealth. To generate weights (factor scores) for each of the items used, initial factor scores are calculated for the total sample. Then, separate factor scores are calculated for households in urban and rural areas. Finally, the urban and rural factor scores are regressed on the initial factor scores to obtain the combined final factor scores for the total sample. This is carried out to minimize the urban bias in the wealth index values. Each household in the total sample is then assigned a wealth score based on the assets owned by that household and on the final factor scores obtained as described above. The survey household population is then ranked according to the wealth score of the household they are living in, and is finally divided into 5 equal parts (quintiles) from lowest (poorest) to highest (richest). In Nigeria MICS 2016-17, the following assets were used in these calculations: Type of floor, roof, wall, fuel used by household for cooking, household assets, source and location of drinking water and sanitation facility. The wealth index is assumed to capture the underlying long-term wealth through information on the household assets, and is intended to produce a ranking of households by wealth, from poorest to richest. The wealth index does not provide information on absolute poverty, current income or expenditure levels. P a g e | 15 Table HH.4M: Men's background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of men age 15-49 years by selected background characteristics, Nigeria, 2016-17 Weighted percent Number of men Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 15,183 15,183 Geopolitical zone North Central 18.0 2,730 3,184 North East 19.4 2,943 2,452 North West 30.8 4,674 3,935 South East 6.5 984 1,481 South South 11.0 1,664 2,173 South West 14.4 2,189 1,958 Residence Urban 37.1 5,627 4,890 Rural 62.9 9,556 10,293 Age (Years) 15-19 23.1 3,508 3,590 20-24 15.7 2,378 2,378 25-29 14.4 2,191 2,149 30-34 13.7 2,078 2,076 35-39 12.8 1,936 1,938 40-44 11.4 1,724 1,729 45-49 9.0 1,368 1,323 Marital/Union status Currently married/in union 47.5 7,213 7,164 Widowed 0.2 35 34 Divorced 0.3 44 39 Separated 0.8 114 141 Never married/in union 51.1 7,749 7,781 Fatherhood status Has at least one living child 46.0 6,977 6,942 Has no living children 53.7 8,154 8,201 Education None 10.3 1,563 1,526 Non-formal 14.1 2,140 1,681 Primary 13.2 1,997 2,090 Secondary 45.2 6,861 7,319 Higher 17.3 2,622 2,567 Wealth index quintile Poorest 17.2 2,614 2,481 Second 19.1 2,901 2,963 Middle 19.3 2,927 3,000 Fourth 21.1 3,202 3,276 Richest 23.3 3,539 3,463 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 45.8 6,958 5,910 Igbo 9.8 1,488 1,966 Yoruba 13.0 1,980 1,915 Other ethnic group 31.3 4,757 5,392 P a g e | 16 Table HH.4M: Men's background characteristics (continued) Percent and frequency distribution of men age 15-49 years by selected background characteristics, Nigeria, 2016-17 Weighted percent Number of men weighted unweighted Total 100.0 15,183 15,183 State Abia 0.9 142 271 Adamawa 2.6 389 480 Akwa Ibom 2.4 365 451 Anambra 1.6 241 314 Bauchi 4.5 681 529 Bayelsa 0.8 121 330 Benue 3.2 481 402 Borno 5.4 813 177 Cross River 1.8 275 304 Delta 1.7 258 296 Ebonyi 1.0 152 294 Edo 1.4 209 363 Ekiti 0.6 96 211 Enugu 1.3 190 271 Gombe 1.8 268 497 Imo 1.7 260 331 Jigawa 3.5 534 483 Kaduna 5.9 898 512 Kano 6.8 1,028 1,099 Katsina 5.4 816 506 Kebbi 2.8 426 522 Kogi 1.8 275 393 Kwara 1.5 232 371 Lagos 5.3 808 707 Nasarawa 2.3 352 498 Niger 4.2 645 504 Ogun 1.4 206 253 Ondo 1.9 293 293 Osun 2.0 296 216 Oyo 3.2 490 278 Plateau 4.0 606 526 Rivers 2.9 436 429 Sokoto 2.4 358 352 Taraba 1.7 256 353 Yobe 3.5 537 416 Zamfara 4.0 613 461 FCT Abuja 0.9 139 490 P a g e | 17 Table HH.5: Under-5's background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of children under five years of age by selected characteristics, Nigeria, 2016-17 Weighted percent Number of under-5 children Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 28,085 28,085 Geopolitical zone North Central 16.4 4,616 5,347 North East 21.5 6,041 4,733 North West 37.9 10,635 9,519 South East 5.5 1,550 2,383 South South 8.1 2,273 3,172 South West 10.6 2,968 2,931 Sex Male 50.6 14,213 14,222 Female 49.4 13,872 13,863 Residence Urban 30.5 8,553 7,471 Rural 69.5 19,532 20,614 Age (Months) 0-5 9.7 2,723 2,748 6-11 9.4 2,640 2,697 12-23 19.7 5,535 5,522 24-35 19.6 5,514 5,470 36-47 20.7 5,818 5,925 48-59 20.9 5,856 5,723 Respondent to the under-5 questionnaire Mother 95.5 26,829 26,759 Other primary caretaker 4.5 1,256 1,326 Mother’s educationa None 29.0 8,134 7,672 Non-formal 22.1 6,196 5,507 Primary 15.4 4,330 4,661 Secondary 25.8 7,245 8,005 Higher 7.8 2,178 2,237 Wealth index quintile Poorest 22.7 6,369 6,277 Second 21.4 6,018 6,222 Middle 19.8 5,549 5,412 Fourth 18.4 5,156 5,221 Richest 17.8 4,993 4,953 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 55.5 15,592 13,549 Igbo 8.2 2,310 3,189 Yoruba 9.4 2,640 2,769 Other ethnic group 26.9 7,543 8,578 a In this table and throughout the report, mother's education refers to educational attainment of mothers as well as caretakers of children under 5, who are the respondents to the under-5 questionnaire if the mother is deceased or is living elsewhere. P a g e | 18 Table HH.5: Under-5's background characteristics (continued) Percent and frequency distribution of children under five years of age by selected characteristics, Nigeria, 2016-17 Weighted percent Number of under-5 children Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 28,085 28,085 State Abia 0.8 224 453 Adamawa 2.2 624 741 Akwa Ibom 2.1 600 756 Anambra 1.4 383 504 Bauchi 5.4 1,524 1,168 Bayelsa 0.6 177 552 Benue 2.5 697 667 Borno 6.6 1,851 385 Cross River 1.4 393 492 Delta 1.5 409 534 Ebonyi 1.0 271 540 Edo 1.0 281 443 Ekiti 0.4 125 311 Enugu 1.0 268 415 Gombe 1.9 534 949 Imo 1.4 405 471 Jigawa 5.0 1,399 1,228 Kaduna 5.7 1,607 935 Kano 8.3 2,325 2,559 Katsina 7.4 2,066 1,256 Kebbi 3.3 935 1,120 Kogi 1.3 372 553 Kwara 1.3 358 521 Lagos 3.8 1,054 930 Nasarawa 2.2 607 907 Niger 4.5 1,270 1,022 Ogun 1.1 295 414 Ondo 1.5 408 440 Osun 1.2 342 331 Oyo 2.7 745 505 Plateau 3.9 1,103 932 Rivers 1.5 412 395 Sokoto 3.5 975 1,213 Taraba 1.5 422 593 Yobe 3.9 1,085 897 Zamfara 4.7 1,328 1,208 FCT Abuja 0.7 209 745 a In this table and throughout the report, mother's education refers to educational attainment of mothers as well as caretakers of children under 5, who are the respondents to the under-5 questionnaire if the mother is deceased or is living elsewhere. P a g e | 19 Housing characteristics, asset ownership, and wealth quintiles Table HH.6: Housing characteristics Percent distribution of households by selected housing characteristics, according to area of residence and regions, Nigeria, 2016-17 Total Residence Geopolitical zone Urban Rural North Central North East North West South East South South South West Electricity Yes 54.4 86.8 35.7 48.1 38.7 40.6 66.3 68.6 78.1 No 45.6 13.2 64.3 51.8 61.3 59.3 33.7 31.4 21.9 Flooring Natural floor 30.0 8.5 42.5 26.0 47.5 51.5 12.1 11.9 8.4 Rudimentary floor 0.8 0.4 1.0 0.2 0.3 1.0 0.1 2.0 0.9 Finished floor 68.6 90.7 55.8 72.6 51.1 47.2 87.7 86.0 90.3 Other 0.6 0.4 0.6 1.2 1.0 0.4 0.1 0.2 0.4 Roof Natural roofing 13.2 1.5 20.0 16.0 27.5 19.6 2.1 2.8 1.7 Rudimentary roofing 3.6 1.7 4.7 3.1 1.8 7.9 1.8 1.7 1.5 Finished roofing 82.6 96.5 74.6 80.7 70.6 71.1 96.2 95.4 96.3 Other 0.5 0.3 0.6 0.3 0.2 1.3 0.0 0.1 0.5 Exterior walls Natural walls 15.4 3.7 22.2 12.4 35.4 24.2 3.1 4.9 1.0 Rudimentary walls 19.9 5.0 28.5 23.8 20.5 33.0 9.0 9.6 9.5 Finished walls 64.3 91.1 48.8 63.0 43.3 42.7 87.8 84.8 89.4 Other 0.4 0.2 0.5 0.7 0.7 0.1 0.1 0.7 0.0 Rooms used for sleeping 1 33.1 42.6 27.6 24.0 22.3 23.4 30.5 42.9 59.2 2 31.8 29.3 33.2 31.5 35.5 34.2 32.7 31.4 25.1 3 or more 35.0 28.0 39.1 44.4 42.2 42.4 36.8 25.5 15.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households 33,901 12,421 21,480 5,435 5,581 9,128 3,132 4,281 6,344 Mean number of persons per room used for sleeping 2.6 2.6 2.5 2.4 2.8 2.9 2.1 2.3 2.5 P a g e | 20 Table HH.6: Housing characteristics (continued) Percent distribution of households by selected housing characteristics, according to area of residence and regions, Nigeria, 2016-17 State Electricity Flooring Roof Exterior walls Rooms used for sleeping Y e s N o M is s in g /D K N a tu ra l fl o o r R u d im e n ta ry fl o o r F in is h e d f lo o r O th e r M is s in g /D K N a tu ra l ro o fi n g R u d im e n ta ry ro o fi n g F in is h e d ro o fi n g O th e r M is s in g /D K N a tu ra l w a ll s R u d im e n ta ry w a ll s F in is h e d w a ll s O th e r M is s in g /D K 1 2 3 o r m o re M is s in g /D K T o ta l N u m b e r o f h o u s e h o ld s M e a n n u m b e r o f p e rs o n s p e r ro o m u s e d f o r s le e p in g Abia 80.4 19.5 0.1 8.6 0.0 91.3 0.0 0.1 1.5 0.1 98.4 0.0 0.0 3.8 3.6 92.4 0.0 0.1 29.8 33.1 36.8 0.3 100.0 472 1.95 Adamawa 32.7 67.2 0.1 35.2 0.0 64.8 0.0 0.0 28.5 2.0 69.5 0.1 0.0 34.8 25.0 40.1 0.1 0.0 21.7 33.6 44.7 0.0 100.0 735 2.38 Akwa Ibom 75.0 25.0 0.0 19.1 1.1 79.7 0.0 0.0 6.1 1.7 92.2 0.0 0.0 8.6 10.1 81.3 0.0 0.0 34.8 29.6 35.4 0.2 100.0 844 2.39 Anambra 71.5 28.5 0.0 5.6 0.1 93.9 0.4 0.0 1.8 2.6 95.6 0.0 0.0 3.3 5.4 91.3 0.0 0.0 35.2 28.8 36.0 0.0 100.0 719 2.27 Bauchi 29.0 71.0 0.0 50.9 0.0 49.1 0.0 0.0 31.0 1.6 67.4 0.0 0.0 34.5 31.9 33.6 0.0 0.0 18.7 39.0 42.3 0.0 100.0 1,384 2.69 Bayelsa 46.6 53.4 0.0 13.4 4.5 81.9 0.2 0.0 3.1 2.2 94.5 0.3 0.0 6.9 10.4 78.3 4.4 0.0 51.8 28.6 19.6 0.0 100.0 308 2.46 Benue 34.5 65.5 0.0 39.3 0.2 54.8 5.7 0.1 46.2 0.1 52.2 1.4 0.1 20.8 23.6 51.9 3.6 0.1 24.1 33.5 42.4 0.0 100.0 987 2.26 Borno 63.4 36.6 0.0 26.7 0.0 73.3 0.0 0.0 5.7 0.8 93.5 0.0 0.0 19.4 6.6 72.8 1.2 0.0 25.9 36.5 37.6 0.0 100.0 1,493 3.30 Cross River 38.1 61.9 0.0 18.8 1.5 79.2 0.5 0.0 4.0 3.6 92.3 0.1 0.0 10.4 15.9 73.7 0.0 0.0 43.2 32.0 24.7 0.0 100.0 778 2.30 Delta 71.6 28.4 0.0 8.3 6.5 84.8 0.3 0.0 1.7 0.8 97.4 0.0 0.0 2.1 8.0 89.4 0.5 0.0 45.8 33.9 20.1 0.2 100.0 740 2.41 Ebonyi 31.1 68.7 0.2 42.9 0.6 56.5 0.0 0.0 7.5 2.6 89.9 0.0 0.0 6.0 32.9 61.1 0.0 0.0 26.7 36.9 36.4 0.0 100.0 535 2.09 Edo 85.5 14.5 0.0 7.4 0.0 92.6 0.0 0.0 0.9 1.0 98.2 0.0 0.0 0.3 8.9 90.9 0.0 0.0 43.2 31.8 24.9 0.1 100.0 654 2.05 Ekiti 70.1 29.9 0.0 6.5 0.4 92.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.6 99.4 0.0 0.0 0.2 8.9 90.9 0.1 0.0 57.3 27.3 15.3 0.0 100.0 351 2.15 Enugu 70.1 29.9 0.0 8.9 0.1 91.0 0.1 0.0 0.7 0.5 98.9 0.0 0.0 3.0 6.6 89.9 0.6 0.0 28.8 34.7 36.5 0.0 100.0 610 1.99 Gombe 41.2 58.8 0.0 69.3 0.0 29.8 0.9 0.0 33.9 0.4 65.7 0.0 0.0 33.7 38.8 26.9 0.5 0.1 24.0 30.5 45.5 0.0 100.0 529 2.67 Imo 73.8 26.2 0.0 1.7 0.0 98.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 2.4 97.4 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.2 98.3 0.1 0.0 30.4 31.6 37.9 0.0 100.0 796 2.03 Jigawa 25.7 74.3 0.0 75.8 2.7 21.5 0.0 0.0 32.4 13.9 53.6 0.1 0.0 47.6 33.4 19.0 0.0 0.0 17.4 36.6 45.9 0.0 100.0 1,147 2.85 Kaduna 64.7 35.3 0.0 18.9 0.1 80.7 0.3 0.0 8.0 3.2 88.7 0.1 0.0 7.4 35.4 57.2 0.0 0.0 23.2 27.0 49.9 0.0 100.0 1,646 2.56 Kano 46.8 53.2 0.0 47.3 0.4 52.3 0.1 0.0 11.4 6.8 80.8 0.9 0.0 17.7 21.0 61.3 0.0 0.0 19.4 36.4 44.2 0.0 100.0 1,894 2.96 Katsina 30.0 70.0 0.0 56.8 0.3 42.9 0.0 0.0 33.8 10.6 55.6 0.0 0.0 17.7 47.3 35.0 0.0 0.0 21.4 34.3 44.3 0.0 100.0 1,705 2.74 Kebbi 41.4 58.5 0.2 62.5 4.7 32.4 0.3 0.0 29.4 8.2 61.8 0.6 0.0 38.8 32.1 28.8 0.1 0.2 36.5 36.6 26.9 0.0 100.0 838 3.46 Kogi 50.2 49.8 0.0 30.4 0.1 69.2 0.3 0.0 0.8 8.6 90.6 0.1 0.0 8.5 7.5 84.0 0.1 0.0 30.0 29.8 39.0 1.2 100.0 649 2.15 Kwara 71.8 28.1 0.1 13.7 0.5 85.8 0.0 0.0 9.3 2.6 88.1 0.0 0.0 1.1 18.8 79.9 0.1 0.0 39.2 37.3 23.5 0.0 100.0 639 2.31 Lagos 99.1 0.9 0.0 0.4 0.0 98.6 0.9 0.0 0.0 1.3 98.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 99.8 0.0 0.0 66.2 24.6 9.3 0.0 100.0 1,974 2.89 Nasarawa 31.5 68.5 0.0 36.5 0.0 63.3 0.2 0.0 5.0 1.6 93.5 0.0 0.0 3.5 31.4 65.1 0.0 0.0 24.0 28.3 47.5 0.1 100.0 630 2.48 Niger 55.0 44.9 0.1 22.9 0.2 76.6 0.3 0.0 11.5 1.0 87.6 0.0 0.0 26.1 17.9 55.9 0.1 0.0 17.2 31.6 51.2 0.0 100.0 1,211 2.57 Ogun 75.8 24.2 0.0 7.4 0.4 92.1 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.1 94.3 3.6 0.0 2.7 8.6 88.7 0.0 0.0 54.4 27.0 18.6 0.0 100.0 608 2.48 Ondo 58.3 41.7 0.0 14.6 4.9 80.2 0.3 0.1 1.3 1.8 96.8 0.0 0.0 1.9 18.7 79.3 0.1 0.0 53.6 28.5 18.0 0.0 100.0 1,025 2.07 Osun 74.0 26.0 0.0 8.6 0.4 91.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.3 98.9 0.1 0.0 1.4 11.3 87.2 0.1 0.0 56.7 21.4 21.9 0.0 100.0 916 2.12 Oyo 68.9 31.1 0.0 15.5 0.0 84.3 0.2 0.0 5.6 2.7 91.2 0.5 0.0 1.2 15.0 83.9 0.0 0.0 57.8 24.2 18.0 0.0 100.0 1,470 2.43 Plateau 39.8 60.2 0.0 21.6 0.1 78.3 0.0 0.0 16.7 6.9 76.4 0.0 0.0 6.6 40.7 52.7 0.0 0.0 17.5 28.5 54.0 0.0 100.0 1,051 2.36 Rivers 80.9 19.1 0.0 5.1 0.1 94.8 0.0 0.0 1.2 1.3 97.3 0.1 0.0 1.9 5.3 91.5 1.3 0.0 44.6 31.2 24.1 0.1 100.0 957 2.24 Sokoto 37.5 62.5 0.0 70.6 0.1 29.2 0.1 0.0 18.3 8.2 71.5 1.9 0.0 29.1 37.6 33.3 0.0 0.0 33.5 39.6 26.9 0.0 100.0 820 3.30 Taraba 17.7 82.3 0.0 53.1 0.6 46.2 0.0 0.1 44.5 1.6 53.9 0.0 0.0 38.8 17.8 42.4 0.5 0.5 26.7 30.9 42.4 0.0 100.0 527 2.47 Yobe 28.5 71.5 0.0 70.6 1.4 21.9 5.9 0.1 43.2 4.6 51.4 0.9 0.0 62.5 13.3 22.6 1.6 0.0 18.9 35.8 45.3 0.0 100.0 914 2.95 Zamfara 27.7 72.3 0.0 51.3 0.5 46.0 2.2 0.0 9.1 5.8 77.4 7.5 0.2 31.3 24.4 43.4 1.0 0.0 22.3 33.0 44.8 0.0 100.0 1,078 2.95 FCT Abuja 77.9 22.1 0.0 3.3 0.0 96.3 0.3 0.0 0.5 0.7 98.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 18.8 80.5 0.7 0.0 29.7 32.0 38.2 0.0 100.0 270 2.49 P a g e | 21 Table HH.7: Household and personal assets Percentage of households by ownership of selected household and personal assets, and percent distribution by ownership of dwelling, according to area of residence and regions, Nigeria, 2016-17 Total Residence Geopolitical zone Urban Rural North Central North East North West South East South South South West Percentage of households that own a Radio 59.8 66.9 55.7 59.1 54.4 59.0 65.0 57.5 65.3 Television 47.0 74.2 31.2 47.8 29.3 26.4 63.8 66.7 69.9 Non-mobile telephone 2.5 3.2 2.1 2.6 2.2 3.9 1.2 2.1 1.7 Refrigerator 21.7 40.5 10.9 19.5 10.1 13.1 30.1 35.0 33.2 Percentage of households that own Agricultural land 63.2 33.5 80.4 69.9 70.1 78.3 66.0 55.0 34.0 Farm animals/Livestock 49.1 25.7 62.6 60.4 61.0 67.0 36.7 19.5 29.2 Percentage of households where at least one member owns or has a Watch 56.6 72.3 47.6 50.6 47.3 44.4 68.3 73.0 70.8 Mobile telephone 74.4 89.8 65.5 79.9 69.1 57.8 81.9 84.4 87.9 Bicycle 19.7 13.1 23.6 15.1 27.7 27.7 22.5 17.8 5.1 Motorcycle or scooter 31.6 21.6 37.3 45.5 23.8 39.1 30.4 26.9 19.4 Animal-drawn cart 6.3 1.6 9.0 1.3 12.2 14.2 1.2 0.7 0.3 Car or truck 11.1 18.5 6.8 12.7 6.2 8.5 13.5 11.6 16.3 Boat with a motor 1.8 1.0 2.2 2.3 1.0 1.3 1.2 4.6 1.1 Bank account 42.5 66.9 28.4 41.6 27.3 22.8 59.9 58.8 65.5 Ownership of dwelling Owned by a household member 68.4 44.2 82.3 73.5 78.8 86.8 71.5 54.6 36.0 Not owned 31.6 55.7 17.6 26.4 21.2 13.2 28.4 45.4 64.0 Rented 24.5 48.2 10.8 18.2 15.8 8.5 25.5 34.4 53.4 Other 7.1 7.6 6.8 8.2 5.5 4.6 3.0 10.9 10.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households 33,901 12,421 21,480 5,435 5,581 9,128 3,132 4,281 6,344 P a g e | 22 Table HH.7: Household and personal assets (continued) Percentage of households by ownership of selected household and personal assets, and percent distribution by ownership of dwelling, according to area of residence and regions, Nigeria, 2016-17 Percentage of households that own a Percentage of households that own Percentage of households where at least one member owns or has a Ownership of dwelling R a d io T e le v is io n N o n -m o b il e te le p h o n e R e fr ig e ra to r A g ri c u lt u ra l la n d F a rm a n im a ls /L iv e s t o c k W a tc h M o b il e te le p h o n e B ic y c le M o to rc y c le o r s c o o te r A n im a l- d ra w n c a rt C a r o r tr u c k B o a t w it h a m o to r B a n k a c c o u n t O w n e d b y a h o u s e h o ld m e m b e r N o t o w n e d R e n te d O th e r T o ta l N u m b e r o f h o u s e h o ld s Total 59.8 47.0 2.5 21.7 63.2 49.1 56.6 74.4 19.7 31.6 6.3 11.1 1.8 42.5 68.4 31.6 24.5 7.1 100.0 33,901 State Abia 66.7 67.2 1.1 30.7 57.2 31.4 63.6 83.5 31.0 24.0 0.6 13.1 1.1 60.7 65.7 34.2 29.1 5.1 100.0 472 Adamawa 64.4 32.7 8.4 12.5 69.4 59.4 49.2 68.0 34.6 23.1 2.4 8.3 0.9 37.3 82.9 17.1 14.0 3.1 100.0 735 Akwa Ibom 60.8 67.9 0.8 32.3 67.3 32.8 74.2 86.3 26.8 39.6 1.0 11.7 6.0 44.6 70.2 29.8 25.1 4.7 100.0 844 Anambra 71.1 73.8 1.6 42.4 51.2 30.9 80.7 86.9 7.5 29.0 2.5 16.7 2.1 75.0 58.8 41.2 38.0 3.2 100.0 719 Bauchi 62.8 17.2 0.3 8.7 88.9 77.9 34.0 54.6 25.9 41.8 21.4 4.6 2.1 16.4 87.8 12.2 6.6 5.6 100.0 1,384 Bayelsa 44.8 61.3 9.0 30.1 48.9 3.2 60.5 80.3 2.2 9.0 0.5 5.7 6.0 55.1 45.7 54.3 26.1 28.2 100.0 308 Benue 52.2 38.5 1.6 12.2 82.2 62.5 48.7 86.2 12.6 50.3 1.5 7.6 1.4 41.6 80.0 20.0 12.2 7.7 100.0 987 Borno 47.7 49.5 2.0 11.3 40.3 39.4 57.4 91.9 30.7 6.2 2.3 8.7 0.0 37.2 57.0 43.0 34.6 8.4 100.0 1,493 Cross River 53.4 49.1 1.0 20.6 69.9 36.9 60.7 72.9 5.7 29.8 0.4 7.4 1.8 46.5 53.0 47.0 26.2 20.8 100.0 778 Delta 51.8 69.9 1.5 33.8 47.4 12.6 72.9 81.4 21.8 27.7 0.5 10.1 7.6 56.6 44.7 55.3 47.8 7.5 100.0 740 Ebonyi 55.5 34.7 1.1 9.4 77.0 48.3 45.6 54.6 34.9 34.7 1.2 5.5 1.3 38.7 87.6 12.4 10.4 2.0 100.0 535 Edo 60.7 77.7 0.9 47.4 41.0 9.4 81.5 86.4 6.6 15.9 0.7 19.5 2.5 76.3 43.7 56.3 50.4 5.9 100.0 654 Ekiti 63.9 63.4 1.3 24.6 51.3 46.0 64.0 89.2 7.2 26.2 0.1 13.0 0.1 57.2 44.5 55.5 46.0 9.5 100.0 351 Enugu 61.7 63.3 1.3 25.9 68.2 38.1 74.5 87.7 13.7 25.8 0.7 12.1 1.3 55.7 68.5 31.5 29.1 2.4 100.0 610 Gombe 47.2 21.5 1.7 10.6 84.2 76.8 46.8 63.3 21.7 38.5 12.1 5.7 1.2 25.1 90.5 9.5 8.1 1.4 100.0 529 Imo 67.3 72.5 1.1 35.9 75.5 36.1 70.5 90.5 29.6 35.9 0.7 17.3 0.3 63.2 78.1 21.9 19.4 2.5 100.0 796 Jigawa 45.1 12.1 2.1 6.4 87.4 77.5 33.5 52.9 25.1 31.8 30.4 7.5 1.7 14.8 90.6 9.4 3.4 6.0 100.0 1,147 P a g e | 23 Table HH.7: Household and personal assets (continued) Percentage of households by ownership of selected household and personal assets, and percent distribution by ownership of dwelling, according to area of residence and regions, Nigeria, 2016-17 Percentage of households that own a Percentage of households that own Percentage of households where at least one member owns or has a Ownership of dwelling State R a d io T e le v is io n N o n -m o b il e te le p h o n e R e fr ig e ra to r A g ri c u lt u ra l la n d F a rm a n im a ls /L iv e s t o c k W a tc h M o b il e te le p h o n e B ic y c le M o to rc y c le o r s c o o te r A n im a l- d ra w n c a rt C a r o r tr u c k B o a t w it h a m o to r B a n k a c c o u n t O w n e d b y a h o u s e h o ld m e m b e r N o t o w n e d R e n te d O th e r T o ta l N u m b e r o f h o u s e h o ld s Kaduna 76.2 53.6 1.4 27.0 71.1 46.2 58.1 75.6 19.6 47.9 11.1 12.9 0.2 41.6 72.6 27.4 21.6 5.8 100.0 1,646 Kano 64.7 25.6 4.4 12.0 65.3 57.1 47.0 55.6 35.9 39.4 6.9 8.2 1.5 22.9 88.1 11.9 10.6 1.2 100.0 1,894 Katsina 56.0 20.4 2.8 10.5 83.0 75.2 47.6 55.8 34.5 41.0 17.3 7.7 2.3 16.3 89.7 10.1 4.8 5.3 100.0 1,705 Kebbi 44.8 21.5 6.2 12.8 86.4 76.9 41.2 50.9 26.9 37.4 19.0 9.1 1.7 17.7 94.6 5.3 3.3 2.1 100.0 838 Kogi 58.2 54.0 9.0 19.9 58.5 46.3 39.2 83.0 12.7 42.7 1.4 12.2 1.4 46.8 60.4 39.4 25.2 14.1 100.0 649 Kwara 74.4 56.3 0.7 21.4 42.5 41.2 68.7 67.6 3.1 32.6 1.0 11.5 1.3 40.0 66.5 33.5 30.9 2.7 100.0 639 Lagos 64.6 88.2 1.0 53.9 9.1 2.8 84.8 95.4 6.4 3.2 0.2 18.6 0.6 86.1 15.3 84.7 77.5 7.2 100.0 1,974 Nasarawa 56.6 40.7 3.8 13.8 79.7 65.7 39.2 78.2 10.5 60.5 0.1 9.6 2.1 37.4 78.1 21.8 9.7 12.1 100.0 630 Niger 58.3 48.6 2.0 22.7 80.3 77.9 51.3 80.6 23.3 54.8 3.0 11.8 6.5 32.7 81.5 18.4 8.8 9.6 100.0 1,211 Ogun 63.5 68.5 0.9 30.6 31.9 29.0 73.9 87.4 7.3 19.8 0.0 17.2 1.5 51.5 47.4 52.6 40.3 12.3 100.0 608 Ondo 67.4 56.1 1.3 21.4 52.7 36.3 59.2 77.0 4.3 25.3 0.4 13.0 3.0 52.4 44.9 55.1 45.7 9.4 100.0 1,025 Osun 68.5 60.4 0.6 25.5 52.2 51.8 67.8 87.2 3.1 33.8 0.0 13.7 0.9 55.5 44.5 55.5 40.7 14.7 100.0 916 Oyo 63.7 63.1 3.8 21.6 39.9 41.8 62.5 85.6 4.0 26.4 0.8 17.4 0.7 60.9 45.6 54.3 41.2 13.0 100.0 1,470 Plateau 57.0 45.4 0.9 19.2 70.6 63.5 50.7 79.0 22.2 35.4 0.4 18.3 0.2 46.1 73.6 26.4 21.8 4.6 100.0 1,051 Rivers 64.1 71.6 3.2 43.2 49.7 11.2 80.1 94.3 29.2 26.0 0.7 12.5 4.2 72.4 60.2 39.8 30.7 9.0 100.0 957 Sokoto 55.8 20.5 10.2 8.3 77.8 71.4 24.1 44.9 12.3 26.7 6.9 6.6 1.0 17.2 91.9 8.1 3.2 4.9 100.0 820 Taraba 47.8 26.7 1.6 7.6 80.1 60.1 38.3 64.0 5.8 38.3 2.4 7.8 2.0 29.1 88.0 12.0 8.7 3.3 100.0 527 Yobe 52.4 17.7 1.0 9.2 76.7 63.2 55.1 61.1 36.3 8.9 27.8 2.5 0.3 19.7 85.3 14.7 8.8 5.9 100.0 914 Zamfara 55.9 19.0 4.2 9.2 88.9 80.9 43.1 57.8 29.8 40.3 11.5 6.2 0.3 20.6 87.6 12.4 4.6 7.8 100.0 1,078 FCT Abuja 67.9 69.3 1.4 41.7 45.7 29.0 65.4 82.1 5.3 27.7 0.7 23.8 0.7 66.1 50.8 49.1 41.2 7.9 100.0 270 P a g e | 24 Table HH.8: Wealth quintiles Percent distribution of the household population by wealth index quintile, according to area of residence and regions, Nigeria, 2016-17 Wealth index quintile Total Number of household members Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Total 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 182,165 Geopolitical zone North Central 15.6 22.6 25.5 20.0 16.3 100.0 30,688 North East 27.9 23.8 23.5 18.7 6.2 100.0 36,964 North West 33.6 27.1 16.8 11.6 10.9 100.0 61,155 South East 2.0 9.5 22.1 35.3 31.1 100.0 12,708 South South 0.7 7.9 22.7 32.9 35.8 100.0 17,393 South West 1.6 6.8 12.3 26.2 53.0 100.0 23,257 Residence Urban 3.0 5.0 16.1 29.2 46.8 100.0 61,430 Rural 28.7 27.6 22.0 15.3 6.4 100.0 120,735 P a g e | 25 Table HH.8: Wealth quintiles (continued) Percent distribution of the household population by wealth index quintile, according to area of residence and regions, Nigeria, 2016-17 Wealth index quintile Total Number of household members Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Total 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 182,165 State Abia 0.0 4.6 21.0 41.1 33.3 100.0 1,826 Adamawa 22.2 23.9 26.9 18.0 9.0 100.0 4,379 Akwa Ibom 1.4 7.4 28.5 38.2 24.4 100.0 3,893 Anambra 1.7 5.0 12.3 33.0 48.0 100.0 2,965 Bauchi 43.1 30.7 14.2 7.0 5.0 100.0 8,746 Bayelsa 0.7 9.5 23.0 37.1 29.8 100.0 1,279 Benue 19.3 29.7 23.6 17.7 9.8 100.0 5,012 Borno 6.2 14.5 35.0 37.7 6.6 100.0 11,063 Cross River 1.4 18.2 35.9 27.1 17.4 100.0 3,233 Delta 0.1 5.2 19.7 36.3 38.8 100.0 2,921 Ebonyi 7.8 33.1 33.4 19.5 6.1 100.0 2,248 Edo 0.0 3.8 9.5 29.5 57.2 100.0 2,339 Ekiti 0.3 6.0 26.4 37.1 30.3 100.0 1,128 Enugu 0.5 6.8 27.0 36.9 28.8 100.0 2,399 Gombe 42.4 27.0 14.0 10.3 6.4 100.0 3,291 Imo 0.4 2.1 20.2 43.7 33.6 100.0 3,270 Jigawa 50.3 29.8 8.7 6.6 4.6 100.0 8,019 Kaduna 11.9 19.4 27.5 20.6 20.6 100.0 10,418 Kano 20.4 30.3 21.7 15.2 12.4 100.0 13,560 Katsina 43.0 27.6 11.7 8.3 9.5 100.0 10,941 Kebbi 43.7 24.1 16.0 8.3 7.8 100.0 5,391 Kogi 2.4 17.6 36.2 31.7 12.0 100.0 3,152 Kwara 7.5 13.6 19.9 29.4 29.6 100.0 2,709 Lagos 0.0 0.1 1.2 13.4 85.4 100.0 7,576 Nasarawa 8.4 31.3 32.5 17.5 10.3 100.0 3,792 Niger 20.1 21.0 26.5 18.4 13.9 100.0 7,954 Ogun 0.8 6.3 14.3 26.8 51.8 100.0 2,317 Ondo 2.0 13.7 21.4 28.3 34.5 100.0 3,471 Osun 0.4 8.0 20.1 39.8 31.8 100.0 3,257 Oyo 4.9 11.4 13.8 32.1 37.9 100.0 5,508 Plateau 24.5 22.4 19.6 14.9 18.6 100.0 6,581 Rivers 0.2 3.7 15.7 30.4 50.0 100.0 3,729 Sokoto 46.0 28.5 11.2 8.4 5.9 100.0 5,164 Taraba 27.3 31.4 21.9 14.1 5.2 100.0 2,974 Yobe 41.3 24.9 19.4 8.8 5.6 100.0 6,511 Zamfara 40.2 29.3 14.0 7.5 8.9 100.0 7,663 FCT Abuja 1.1 13.1 22.0 23.6 40.3 100.0 1,489 P a g e | 26 IV. Child Mortality Mortality rates presented in this chapter are calculated from information collected in the birth histories of the Women’s Questionnaires. All interviewed women were asked whether they had ever given birth, and if yes, they were asked to report the number of sons and daughters who live with them, the number who live elsewhere, and the number who have died. In addition, they were asked to provide a detailed birth history of live births of children in chronological order starting with the firstborn. Women were asked whether births were single or multiple, the sex of the children, the date of birth (month and year), and survival status. Further, for children still alive, they were asked the current age of the child and, if not alive, the age at death. Childhood mortality rates are expressed by conventional age categories and are defined as follows: • Neonatal mortality (NN): probability of dying within the first month of life • Post-neonatal mortality (PNN): difference between infant and neonatal mortality rates • Infant mortality (1q0): probability of dying between birth and the first birthday • Child mortality (4q1): probability of dying between the first and the fifth birthdays • Under-five mortality (5q0): the probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday Rates are expressed as deaths per 1,000 live births, except in the case of child mortality, which is expressed as deaths per 1,000 children surviving to age one, and post-neonatal mortality, which is the difference between infant and neonatal mortality rates. Table CM.1: Early childhood mortality rates Neonatal, post-neonatal, Infant, child and under-five mortality rates for five year periods preceding the survey, Nigeria, 2016-17 Neonatal mortality rate1 Post- neonatal mortality rate2, a Infant mortality rate3 Child mortality rate4 Under-five mortality rate5 Years preceding the survey 0-4 39 31 70 54 120 5-9 37 34 71 52 119 10-14 38 38 76 68 139 1 MICS indicator 1.1 - Neonatal mortality rate 2 MICS indicator 1.3 - Post-neonatal mortality rate 3 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2 - Infant mortality rate 4 MICS indicator 1.4 - Child mortality rate 5 MICS indicator 1.5; MDG indicator 4.1 - Under-five mortality rate a Post-neonatal mortality rates are computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates P a g e | 27 Table CM.2: Early childhood mortality rates by socio-economic characteristics Neonatal, post-neonatal, Infant, child and under-five mortality rates for the five year period preceding the survey, by socio- economic characteristics, Nigeria, 2016-17 Neonatal mortality rate1 Post-neonatal mortality rate2, a Infant mortality rate3 Child mortality rate4 Under-five mortality rate5 Total 39 31 70 54 120 Geopolitical zone North Central 43 29 72 33 103 North East 33 29 62 56 115 North West 45 41 87 83 162 South East 26 20 46 22 67 South South 22 17 39 21 59 South West 36 16 52 16 67 Residence Urban 35 18 53 27 78 Rural 40 37 77 66 138 Mother's education None 43 38 82 69 145 Non Formal 41 43 85 86 164 Primary 39 28 67 46 110 Secondary 33 19 52 22 73 Higher 34 12 46 9 55 Wealth index quintile Poorest 39 41 80 85 158 Second 42 42 84 78 156 Middle 44 31 75 54 125 Fourth 36 21 57 24 80 Richest 30 15 45 11 56 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 42 38 80 75 149 Igbo 28 17 45 19 63 Yoruba 37 17 54 15 68 Other ethnic group 36 26 62 33 92 1 MICS indicator 1.1 - Neonatal mortality rate 2 MICS indicator 1.3 - Post-neonatal mortality rate 3 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2 - Infant mortality rate 4 MICS indicator 1.4 - Child mortality rate 5 MICS indicator 1.5; MDG indicator 4.1 - Under-five mortality rate a Post-neonatal mortality rates are computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates P a g e | 28 Table CM.2: Early childhood mortality rates by socioeconomic characteristics (Continued) Neonatal, post-neonatal, Infant, child and under-five mortality rates for the five year period preceding the survey, by socioeconomic characteristics, Nigeria, 2016-17 Neonatal mortality rate1 Post-neonatal mortality rate2, a Infant mortality rate3 Child mortality rate4 Under-five mortality rate5 Total 39 31 70 54 120 State Abia (32) 23 55 30 83 Adamawa 21 28 49 37 84 Akwa Ibom 21 21 42 32 73 Anambra (23) 16 39 15 53 Bauchi 41 40 81 87 161 Bayelsa 29 27 57 41 95 Benue 41 28 70 14 82 Borno (26) 15 42 42 82 Cross River 20 18 38 15 52 Delta 28 19 48 16 63 Ebonyi 30 18 47 15 62 Edo (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) Ekiti (46) 24 69 18 86 Enugu (†) (†) (†) (†) (†) Gombe 35 56 90 78 162 Imo (35) 30 66 33 96 Jigawa 37 46 83 120 192 Kaduna 28 38 66 18 82 Kano 69 44 112 103 203 Katsina 35 32 68 72 135 Kebbi 55 56 111 70 174 Kogi 29 20 49 28 75 Kwara 27 12 40 6 45 Lagos 29 16 45 6 50 Nasarawa 47 34 81 43 121 Niger 59 41 100 54 149 Ogun (28) 20 49 19 66 Ondo (30) 6 37 32 67 Osun (56) 21 78 25 101 Oyo (42) 17 59 15 73 Plateau 34 20 55 27 80 Rivers (27) 14 41 18 58 Sokoto 28 23 51 72 119 Taraba 22 41 64 45 105 Yobe 44 20 64 41 102 Zamfara 53 51 104 118 210 FCT-Abuja 27 17 44 28 71 1 MICS indicator 1.1 - Neonatal mortality rate 2 MICS indicator 1.3 - Post-neonatal mortality rate 3 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2 - Infant mortality rate 4 MICS indicator 1.4 - Child mortality rate 5 MICS indicator 1.5; MDG indicator 4.1 - Under-five mortality rate a Post-neonatal mortality rates are computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates ( ) Total number of live births (exposure) are based on 250-499 unweighted cases (†) The result did not pass reliability test P a g e | 29 Table CM.3: Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics Neonatal, post-neonatal, infant, child and under-five mortality rates for the five year period preceding the survey, by demographic characteristics, Nigeria, 2016-17 Neonatal mortality rate1 Post-neonatal mortality rate2, a Infant mortality rate3 Child mortality rate4 Under-five mortality rate5 Total 39 31 70 54 120 Sex of child Male 44 33 77 53 126 Female 33 30 63 55 114 Mother's age at birth (years) Less than 20 57 39 96 68 158 20-34 34 29 63 49 109 35-49 43 34 77 63 135 Birth order 1 48 32 80 45 122 2-3 29 25 54 43 94 4-6 32 29 61 58 115 7+ 62 45 108 82 181 Previous birth intervalb < 2 years 63 46 110 78 179 2 years 29 29 58 53 108 3 years 26 22 48 44 90 4+ years 23 21 44 35 78 1 MICS indicator 1.1 - Neonatal mortality rate 2 MICS indicator 1.3 - Post-neonatal mortality rate 3 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2 - Infant mortality rate 4 MICS indicator 1.4 - Child mortality rate 5 MICS indicator 1.5; MDG indicator 4.1 - Under-five mortality rate a Post-neonatal mortality rates are computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates b Excludes first order births P a g e | 30 V. Nutrition Low Birth Weight Table NU.1: Low birth weight infants Percentage of last live-born children in the last two years that are estimated to have weighed below 2,500 grams at birth and percentage of live births weighed at birth, Nigeria, 2016-17 Percent distribution of births by mother's assessment of size at birth Total Percentage of live births: Number of last live-born children in the last two years Very small Smaller than average Average Larger than average or very large Don’t know Below 2,500 grams1 Weighed at birth2 Total 3.1 9.1 53.6 32.9 1.2 100.0 14.8 25.2 11,547 Geopolitical zone North Central 3.2 8.4 58.9 25.1 4.3 100.0 16.6 26.0 1,770 North East 2.1 12.4 58.5 26.5 0.5 100.0 15.7 13.0 2,394 North West 4.1 9.1 50.0 36.3 0.5 100.0 14.6 11.4 4,603 South East 2.2 7.3 63.4 25.1 2.1 100.0 14.7 61.4 620 South South 1.8 5.4 57.9 34.4 0.5 100.0 12.6 47.7 900 South West 2.5 7.6 42.5 46.4 1.1 100.0 13.1 64.2 1,261 Mother's age at birth (years) 100.0 Less than 20 3.6 9.7 54.4 31.3 1.0 100.0 15.3 12.9 1,516 20-34 2.9 9.0 53.9 33.0 1.2 100.0 14.7 27.2 7,969 35-49 3.5 9.2 51.9 33.9 1.6 100.0 15.0 26.8 2,062 Birth order 1 3.2 8.5 55.0 32.0 1.3 100.0 14.7 33.5 1,884 2-3 2.8 8.2 52.9 34.9 1.2 100.0 14.2 30.4 3,771 4-5 2.5 10.5 54.5 31.3 1.3 100.0 15.3 25.2 2,920 6+ 4.0 9.5 52.8 32.5 1.2 100.0 15.2 13.5 2,972 Residence Urban 2.5 8.6 49.3 38.7 0.9 100.0 13.8 48.7 3,426 Rural 3.3 9.4 55.5 30.4 1.4 100.0 15.3 15.3 8,121 Mother’s education None 3.7 9.2 57.2 28.3 1.6 100.0 15.6 9.4 3,208 Non formal 3.3 11.9 51.6 32.4 0.7 100.0 14.7 20.9 1,716 Primary 2.9 8.8 54.3 32.7 1.4 100.0 14.2 44.9 3,182 Secondary 2.6 8.2 52.4 35.4 1.4 100.0 12.0 81.5 882 Higher 2.2 5.1 49.3 42.8 0.6 100.0 15.8 4.2 2,560 Wealth index quintile Poorest 4.0 8.2 56.3 30.0 1.6 100.0 15.2 4.0 2,587 Second 3.1 10.3 56.4 28.7 1.6 100.0 15.7 8.9 2,548 Middle 3.5 10.3 53.2 31.8 1.1 100.0 15.5 19.5 2,270 Fourth 2.3 9.7 53.5 33.7 0.9 100.0 14.5 35.9 2,113 Richest 2.4 7.0 47.4 42.3 0.9 100.0 13.0 68.3 2,028 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 3.5 10.5 53.7 31.7 0.6 100.0 15.3 11.1 6,543 Igbo 2.0 6.3 58.7 31.3 1.6 100.0 13.6 64.4 923 Yoruba 2.9 7.6 42.7 45.8 1.0 100.0 13.2 63.1 1,096 Other ethnic group 2.6 7.7 55.9 31.3 2.5 100.0 14.8 30.2 2,985 1 MICS indicator 2.20 - Low-birthweight infants 2 MICS indicator 2.21 - Infants weighed at birth P a g e | 31 Table NU.1: Low birth weight infants (continued) Percentage of last live-born children in the last two years that are estimated to have weighed below 2,500 grams at birth and percentage of live births weighed at birth, Nigeria, 2016-17 Percent distribution of births by mother's assessment of size at birth Total Percentage of live births: Number of last live-born children in the last two years Very small Smaller than average Average Larger than average or very large Don’t know Below 2,500 grams1 Weigh ed at birth2 Total 3.1 9.1 53.6 32.9 1.2 100.0 14.8 25.2 11,547 State Abia 3.4 5.4 58.5 30.1 2.6 100.0 14.1 46.7 99 Adamawa 3.8 5.3 57.7 32.0 1.2 100.0 13.7 29.3 264 Akwa Ibom 0.2 3.3 66.4 30.0 0.0 100.0 11.4 30.5 228 Anambra 2.1 12.0 68.0 15.2 2.7 100.0 17.3 90.0 140 Bauchi 0.7 5.6 72.3 21.0 0.3 100.0 13.2 8.1 618 Bayelsa 3.7 7.6 59.9 28.8 0.0 100.0 14.3 23.5 73 Benue 0.4 6.2 56.0 34.7 2.7 100.0 13.6 29.8 271 Borno 1.8 28.3 50.4 19.5 0.0 100.0 21.8 13.9 692 Cross River 1.9 5.8 62.8 29.5 0.0 100.0 12.7 46.7 162 Delta 0.5 5.8 50.0 42.1 1.6 100.0 12.3 52.7 173 Ebonyi 2.1 6.5 69.9 18.2 3.2 100.0 15.4 39.7 111 Edo 5.3 7.7 59.0 27.4 0.6 100.0 15.3 72.6 101 Ekiti 0.6 3.1 50.2 40.9 5.2 100.0 12.1 58.8 54 Enugu 0.0 5.7 63.7 27.8 2.7 100.0 13.5 61.1 105 Gombe 2.0 4.4 55.4 35.5 2.7 100.0 12.4 18.9 236 Imo 3.0 6.1 57.7 33.3 0.0 100.0 13.0 60.8 164 Jigawa 2.6 6.5 61.3 29.1 0.4 100.0 13.8 9.9 595 Kaduna 4.0 9.2 52.9 33.8 0.0 100.0 14.6 33.0 663 Kano 3.5 12.9 42.0 41.2 0.4 100.0 15.4 7.8 1,038 Katsina 2.0 10.1 36.9 49.8 1.1 100.0 13.6 10.1 916 Kebbi 16.2 2.8 55.0 25.7 0.4 100.0 17.0 6.0 398 Kogi 3.8 7.4 59.3 26.0 3.5 100.0 15.2 50.0 133 Kwara 5.1 4.9 56.6 33.3 0.0 100.0 13.4 43.1 115 Lagos 1.7 4.8 45.9 46.3 1.2 100.0 11.9 82.6 429 Nasarawa 2.6 7.9 48.1 39.4 2.0 100.0 14.1 29.2 244 Niger 4.9 5.1 74.9 14.3 0.9 100.0 14.9 14.5 527 Ogun 1.3 7.9 39.4 50.1 1.4 100.0 12.5 54.5 132 Ondo 4.3 16.7 35.3 43.7 0.0 100.0 16.9 57.5 163 Osun 6.2 9.5 45.0 39.3 0.0 100.0 15.1 48.6 161 Oyo 1.5 6.2 40.2 50.8 1.3 100.0 12.0 55.6 322 Plateau 2.8 16.5 49.0 18.0 13.8 100.0 24.5 18.9 392 Rivers 2.5 5.2 47.7 44.1 0.4 100.0 12.2 62.7 163 Sokoto 4.1 10.5 55.9 28.7 0.8 100.0 15.8 5.3 409 Taraba 2.3 3.0 57.3 36.6 0.8 100.0 11.8 11.5 173 Yobe 3.4 9.0 54.2 33.4 0.0 100.0 14.2 5.4 410 Zamfara 1.5 6.9 62.0 29.2 0.3 100.0 13.4 5.1 583 FCT Abuja 2.4 7.3 49.0 40.6 0.8 100.0 13.2 47.1 89 1 MICS indicator 2.20 - Low-birthweight infants 2 MICS indicator 2.21 - Infants weighed at birth P a g e | 32 Nutritional Status The reference population used in this report is based on the WHO growth standards8. Each of the three nutritional status indicators – weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height - can be expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of the reference population. Weight-for-age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely underweight while those whose weight-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. Height-for-age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Those whose height-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. Weight-for-height can be used to assess wasting and overweight status. Children whose weight-for-height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely wasted, while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator of wasting may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. Children whose weight-for-height is more than two standard deviations above the median reference population are classified as moderately or severely overweight. 8 http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/technical_report http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/technical_report P a g e | 33 Table NU.2: Nutritional status of children Percentage of children under age 5 by nutritional status according to three anthropometric indices: weight for age, height for age, and weight for height, Nigeria, 2016-17 Weight for age Number of children under age 5 Height for age Number of children under age 5 Weight for height Number of children under age 5 Underweight Mean Z-Score (SD) Stunted Mean Z-Score (SD) Wasted Overweight Mean Z-Score (SD) Percent below Percent below Percent below Percent above - 2 SD1 - 3 SD2 - 2 SD3 - 3 SD4 - 2 SD5 - 3 SD6 + 2 SD7 Total 31.5 11.5 -1.4 27,400 43.6 22.8 -1.7 27,292 10.8 2.9 1.5 -0.6 27,637 Geopolitical zone North Central 19.6 5.5 -1.1 4,539 34.9 14.3 -1.5 4,526 7.1 1.5 2.1 -0.4 4,541 North East 40.0 14.5 -1.7 5,731 52.4 29.0 -2.1 5,695 13.0 3.5 1.3 -0.7 5,926 North West 42.6 17.6 -1.8 10,445 58.5 33.8 -2.3 10,399 12.9 3.7 1.5 -0.6 10,487 South East 13.7 3.7 -0.7 1,523 16.9 5.1 -0.7 1,520 8.2 2.0 2.1 -0.4 1,525 South South 13.8 3.3 -0.8 2,249 19.0 7.0 -0.8 2,243 6.8 2.0 1.3 -0.5 2,243 South West 16.6 3.8 -0.9 2,913 19.4 5.9 -0.9 2,909 8.9 2.2 0.8 -0.6 2,915 Sex Male 33.1 12.4 -1.5 13,843 45.7 24.6 -1.8 13,779 11.9 3.3 1.7 -0.6 13,969 Female 29.9 10.7 -1.4 13,557 41.4 21.0 -1.7 13,513 9.6 2.5 1.3 -0.6 13,667 Residence Urban 23.0 7.2 -1.1 8,392 30.6 13.6 -1.3 8,364 10.5 2.6 1.1 -0.6 8,372 Rural 35.3 13.5 -1.5 19,008 49.3 26.9 -1.9 18,928 10.9 3.1 1.7 -0.6 19,265 Age (months) 0-5 22.6 8.8 -1.0 2,676 21.8 9.3 -0.8 2,674 14.8 5.5 3.7 -0.5 2,662 6-11 32.6 11.7 -1.4 2,610 28.3 11.6 -1.2 2,600 19.0 5.0 1.3 -1.0 2,619 12-17 37.1 14.2 -1.6 3,101 40.5 19.3 -1.6 3,090 19.2 4.7 0.6 -1.0 3,129 18-23 39.5 18.4 -1.7 2,338 54.0 29.8 -2.2 2,323 16.2 4.4 0.9 -0.9 2,359 24-35 36.7 15.2 -1.6 5,367 55.2 32.8 -2.2 5,342 9.7 2.5 1.3 -0.5 5,425 36-47 28.4 9.6 -1.4 5,691 49.4 26.5 -2.0 5,666 4.8 1.3 1.8 -0.3 5,732 48-59 26.9 6.9 -1.4 5,616 41.4 20.1 -1.7 5,597 5.4 1.1 1.3 -0.4 5,710 Mother’s education* None 39.7 15.4 -1.7 7,889 55.1 31.2 -2.2 7,853 11.0 3.0 1.4 -0.6 8,046 Non-formal 44.7 17.7 -1.9 6,011 60.9 34.3 -2.3 5,973 14.0 4.1 1.3 -0.7 6,098 Primary 27.0 8.9 -1.3 4,228 38.8 18.7 -1.6 4,215 9.4 2.3 1.5 -0.5 4,256 Secondary 19.7 6.2 -1.0 7,129 27.6 11.4 -1.2 7,114 9.2 2.6 1.7 -0.5 7,102 Higher 12.3 3.2 -0.7 2,141 15.5 5.6 -0.6 2,135 8.8 1.6 1.8 -0.5 2,133 Wealth index quintile Poorest 46.6 18.8 -1.9 6,140 62.8 36.0 -2.4 6,103 13.2 4.2 1.5 -0.7 6,288 Second 38.1 15.5 -1.7 5,854 54.5 31.1 -2.2 5,818 11.1 3.1 1.9 -0.5 5,957 Middle 28.5 10.3 -1.4 5,434 43.5 21.9 -1.7 5,414 9.6 2.1 1.4 -0.5 5,461 Fourth 24.0 6.6 -1.2 5,062 32.2 13.7 -1.4 5,058 10.3 2.3 1.3 -0.6 5,046 Richest 15.8 4.3 -0.8 4,910 18.3 6.9 -0.8 4,900 9.2 2.5 1.4 -0.6 4,886 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 41.8 16.4 -1.8 15,165 56.6 31.8 -2.2 15,094 13.0 3.6 1.4 -0.7 15,363 Igbo 12.9 3.4 -0.6 2,275 15.5 5.6 -0.6 2,268 8.4 2.2 2.3 -0.4 2,256 Yoruba 18.0 4.3 -1.0 2,597 21.1 6.9 -1.0 2,593 9.0 2.2 0.9 -0.6 2,598 Other ethnic group 20.8 6.5 -1.1 7,363 33.5 15.1 -1.4 7,337 7.5 1.9 1.7 -0.4 7,420 P a g e | 34 Table NU.2: Nutritional status of children (continued) Percentage of children under age 5 by nutritional status according to three anthropometric indices: weight for age, height for age, and weight for height, Nigeria, 2016-17 Weight for age Number of children under age 5 Height for age Number of children under age 5 Weight for height Number of children under age 5 Underweight Mean Z- Score (SD) Stunted Mean Z- Score (SD) Wasted Overweight Mean Z- Score (SD) Percent below Percent below Percent below Percent above - 2 SD1 - 3 SD2 - 2 SD3 - 3 SD4 - 2 SD5 - 3 SD6 + 2 SD7 Total 31.5 11.5 -1.4 27,400 43.6 22.8 -1.7 27,292 10.8 2.9 1.5 -0.6 27,637 State Abia 20.2 5.4 -1.0 218 20.5 4.9 -0.9 219 11.0 3.0 1.1 -0.7 220 Adamawa 23.7 6.9 -1.3 614 37.9 19.8 -1.6 612 9.5 3.4 1.8 -0.5 617 Akwa Ibom 22.7 6.5 -1.1 592 29.4 12.3 -1.1 593 11.5 3.9 0.7 -0.7 593 Anambra 12.3 3.0 -0.4 377 14.3 4.6 -0.4 375 8.0 1.8 3.7 -0.3 379 Bauchi 48.5 15.3 -1.9 1,502 64.9 35.7 -2.4 1,499 7.6 1.0 1.0 -0.6 1,519 Bayelsa 10.0 2.3 -0.7 174 15.3 5.5 -0.8 173 3.2 1.0 1.6 -0.3 174 Benue 15.1 4.9 -0.9 678 28.8 10.0 -1.2 675 6.7 1.6 3.2 -0.2 682 Borno 36.4 12.2 -1.6 1,817 45.0 23.4 -1.8 1,818 17.0 4.4 0.5 -0.8 1,800 Cross River 13.9 2.8 -0.8 386 20.1 7.0 -0.9 386 5.5 1.3 1.4 -0.4 386 Delta 11.2 2.2 -0.7 406 16.3 4.6 -0.7 405 4.8 0.9 0.6 -0.4 403 Ebonyi 17.6 6.7 -1.0 267 25.3 9.9 -1.0 267 10.6 3.7 3.3 -0.5 265 Edo 10.2 2.1 -0.6 280 13.6 5.4 -0.6 278 6.6 2.1 1.4 -0.4 279 Ekiti 11.6 3.1 -0.9 122 21.9 7.3 -1.1 123 6.8 2.2 0.5 -0.3 123 Enugu 5.7 0.5 -0.4 262 8.5 0.9 -0.4 262 3.6 0.4 1.3 -0.2 262 Gombe 41.2 17.6 -1.7 528 54.4 32.5 -2.2 527 13.4 3.9 1.5 -0.7 529 Imo 14.3 3.7 -0.7 398 17.2 5.1 -0.8 398 8.1 1.5 1.1 -0.4 399 Jigawa 50.4 22.2 -2.0 1,366 66.0 40.7 -2.6 1,359 13.8 3.8 1.2 -0.7 1,379 Kaduna 34.0 12.8 -1.4 1,585 47.0 27.9 -1.8 1,588 11.7 4.1 2.4 -0.5 1,572 Kano 40.3 16.1 -1.8 2,280 58.0 32.8 -2.3 2,259 10.8 2.8 1.7 -0.6 2,279 Katsina 46.4 18.5 -1.9 2,051 60.9 35.8 -2.4 2,035 14.9 4.1 1.4 -0.7 2,056 Kebbi 44.9 18.4 -1.8 916 60.3 33.0 -2.3 914 13.7 3.7 0.9 -0.7 918 Kogi 15.4 4.8 -0.9 367 28.6 9.6 -1.1 367 8.5 2.9 1.8 -0.3 367 P a g e | 35 Table NU.2: Nutritional status of children (continued) Percentage of children under age 5 by nutritional status according to three anthropometric indices: weight for age, height for age, and weight for height, Nigeria, 2016-17 Weight for age Number of children under age 5 Height for age Number of children under age 5 Weight for height Number of children under age 5 Underweight Mean Z- Score (SD) Stunted Mean Z- Score (SD) Wasted Overweight Mean Z- Score (SD) Percent below Percent below Percent below Percent above - 2 SD1 - 3 SD2 - 2 SD3 - 3 SD4 - 2 SD5 - 3 SD6 + 2 SD7 State Kwara 22.3 7.1 -1.1 351 31.5 15.4 -1.4 351 9.4 2.6 2.6 -0.5 351 Lagos 14.5 3.2 -0.8 1,039 11.4 2.4 -0.6 1,039 11.4 2.7 0.7 -0.7 1,038 Nasarawa 20.7 5.6 -1.1 592 37.2 14.1 -1.5 595 6.8 1.2 1.7 -0.4 592 Niger 24.3 6.9 -1.3 1,246 37.3 16.1 -1.6 1,237 8.8 1.7 0.8 -0.5 1,248 Ogun 22.4 5.5 -1.2 290 26.1 10.1 -1.2 290 9.0 1.4 0.0 -0.7 291 Ondo 16.0 2.8 -0.9 403 22.4 8.8 -1.1 403 5.9 1.8 0.8 -0.4 405 Osun 18.7 6.6 -1.2 335 23.5 6.8 -1.3 335 8.0 2.2 0.7 -0.6 338 Oyo 17.4 3.4 -1.0 724 24.4 7.0 -1.1 719 7.6 1.9 1.4 -0.5 721 Plateau 18.5 4.5 -1.2 1,100 40.0 17.8 -1.7 1,097 4.7 0.8 3.1 -0.2 1,098 Rivers 7.6 1.3 -0.5 411 10.9 3.3 -0.4 408 5.0 1.3 2.6 -0.3 408 Sokoto 48.6 22.9 -2.0 958 60.9 33.8 -2.3 953 17.2 5.6 1.1 -0.9 968 Taraba 24.2 9.3 -1.2 403 41.4 22.9 -1.8 399 8.4 3.4 5.5 -0.2 416 Yobe 51.0 24.1 -2.1 866 61.0 36.9 -2.5 839 17.5 5.3 1.0 -0.9 1,044 Zamfara 36.6 15.3 -1.7 1,290 58.5 32.6 -2.3 1,290 10.4 2.8 1.3 -0.5 1,315 FCT Abuja 12.6 2.6 -0.8 205 22.8 6.3 -1.0 204 5.1 1.3 1.3 -0.4 204 1 MICS indicator 2.1a and MDG indicator 1.8 - Underweight prevalence (moderate and severe) 2 MICS indicator 2.1b - Underweight prevalence (severe) 3 MICS indicator 2.2a - Stunting prevalence (moderate and severe) 4 MICS indicator 2.2b - Stunting prevalence (severe) 5 MICS indicator 2.3a - Wasting prevalence (moderate and severe) 6 MICS indicator 2.3b - Wasting prevalence (severe) 7 MICS indicator 2.4 - Overweight prevalence P a g e | 36 Breastfeeding and infant and Young Child Feeding UNICEF and WHO recommend that infants be breastfed within one hour of birth, breastfed exclusively for the first six months of life and continue to be breastfed up to 2 years of age and beyond.9 Starting at 6 months, breastfeeding should be combined with safe, age-appropriate feeding of solid, semi-solid and soft foods.10 A summary of key guiding principles11, 12 for feeding 6-23 month olds is provided in the table below along with proximate measures for these guidelines collected in this survey. The guiding principles for which proximate measures and indicators exist are: (i) continued breastfeeding; (ii) appropriate frequency of meals (but not energy density); and (iii) appropriate nutrient content of food. Feeding frequency is used as proxy for energy intake, requiring children to receive a minimum number of meals/snacks (and milk feeds for non-breastfed children) for their age. Dietary diversity is used to ascertain the adequacy of the nutrient content of the food (not including iron) consumed. For dietary diversity, seven food groups were created for which a child consuming at least four of these is considered to have a better quality diet. In most populations, consumption of at least four food groups means that the child has a high likelihood of consuming at least one animal-source food and at least one fruit or vegetable, in addition to a staple food (grain, root or tuber).13 These three dimensions of child feeding are combined into an assessment of the children who received appropriate feeding, using the indicator of “minimum acceptable diet”. To have a minimum acceptable diet in the previous day, a child must have received: (i) the appropriate number of meals/snacks/milk feeds; (ii) food items form at least 4 food groups; and (iii) breast milk or at least 2 milk feeds (for non-breastfed children). Guiding Principle (age 6-23 months) Proximate measures Table Continue frequent, on-demand breastfeeding for two years and beyond Breastfed in the last 24 hours NU.4 Appropriate frequency and energy density of meals Breastfed children Depending on age, two or three meals/snacks provided in the last 24 hours Non-breastfed children Four meals/snacks and/or milk feeds provided in the last 24 hours NU.6 Appropriate nutrient content of food Four food groups14 eaten in the last 24 hours NU.6 Appropriate amount of food No standard indicator exists na Appropriate consistency of food No standard indicator exists na Use of vitamin-mineral supplements or fortified products for infant and mother No standard indicator exists na Practice good hygiene and proper food handling While it was not possible to develop indicators to fully capture programme guidance, one standard indicator does cover part of the principle: Not feeding with a bottle with a nipple NU.9 Practice responsive feeding, applying the principles of psycho-social care No standard indicator exists na 9 WHO. 2003. Implementing the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. Meeting Report Geneva, 3-5 February, 2003. 10 WHO. 2003. Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. 11 PAHO. 2003. Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child. 12 WHO. 2005. Guiding principles for feeding non-breastfed children 6-24 months of age. 13 WHO. 2008. Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Part 1: Definitions. 14 Food groups used for assessment of this indicator are 1) Grains, roots and tubers, 2) legumes and nuts, 3) dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese), 4) flesh foods (meat, fish, poultry and liver/organ meats), 5) eggs, 6) vitamin-A rich fruits and vegetables, and 7) other fruits and vegetables. P a g e | 37 Table NU.3: Initial breastfeeding Percentage of last live-born children in the last two years who were ever breastfed, breastfed within one hour of birth, and within one day of birth, and percentage who received a prelacteal feed, Nigeria, 2016-17 Percentage who were ever breastfed1 Percentage who were first breastfed: Percentage who received a prelacteal feed Number of last live-born children in the last two years Within one hour of birth2 Within one day of birth Total 95.0 32.8 78.7 52.1 11,547 Geopolitical zone North Central 96.9 37.0 82.5 44.5 1,770 North East 94.9 32.1 75.5 64.8 2,394 North West 93.0 31.8 78.1 59.1 4,603 South East 96.4 34.5 81.3 43.5 620 South South 97.9 41.8 84.9 36.5 900 South West 96.9 24.9 75.6 28.4 1,261 Residence Urban 96.4 33.9 82.2 45.9 3,426 Rural 94.4 32.4 77.2 54.7 8,121 Months since last birth 0-11 96.4 33.9 82.2 45.9 3,426 12-23 94.4 32.4 77.2 54.7 8,121 Assistance at delivery Skilled attendant 96.3 35.1 82.1 43.7 4,970 Traditional birth attendant 95.7 39.8 78.6 58.8 1,803 Other 92.8 26.9 75.0 57.3 3,397 No one/Missing 94.6 30.1 75.2 60.6 1,377 Place of delivery Home 93.9 31.6 76.6 59.5 6,952 Health facility 96.8 35.2 82.5 41.4 4,333 Public 96.9 38.0 84.9 42.6 2,823 Private 96.6 29.8 78.1 39.2 1,511 Other/DK/Missing 93.1 27.0 70.9 32.4 262 Mother’s education None 93.9 31.0 73.3 61.2 3,208 Non-formal 93.1 32.2 77.3 60.0 2,560 Primary 95.4 36.3 82.4 50.7 1,716 Secondary 97.0 32.9 82.6 41.6 3,182 Higher 96.4 34.3 80.7 36.8 882 Wealth index quintile Poorest 92.7 28.1 70.9 60.2 2,587 Second 93.8 31.3 75.5 57.7 2,548 Middle 95.5 36.0 81.9 52.8 2,270 Fourth 96.9 36.1 85.8 46.0 2,113 Richest 96.8 33.8 81.4 40.2 2,028 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 93.6 31.7 77.0 60.3 6,543 Igbo 97.1 33.9 81.6 40.9 923 Yoruba 96.7 28.5 76.9 27.9 1,096 Other ethnic group 96.8 36.7 82.0 46.4 2,985 1 MICS indicator 2.5 - Children ever breastfed 2 MICS indicator 2.6 - Early initiation of breastfeeding P a g e | 38 Table NU.3: Initial breastfeeding (continued) Percentage of last live-born children in the last two years who were ever breastfed, breastfed within one hour of birth, and within one day of birth, and percentage who received a prelacteal feed, Nigeria, 2016-17 Percentage who were ever breastfed1 Percentage who were first breastfed: Percentage who received a prelacteal feed Number of last live-born children in the last two years Within one hour of birth2 Within one day of birth Total 95.0 32.8 78.7 52.1 11,547 State Abia 96.1 31.1 77.5 31.0 99 Adamawa 94.3 29.8 78.5 47.9 264 Akwa Ibom 98.2 35.6 83.5 25.1 228 Anambra 96.5 35.6 84.5 48.6 140 Bauchi 93.8 30.0 67.4 72.4 618 Bayelsa 96.8 34.5 82.3 71.3 73 Benue 97.7 54.3 92.6 33.4 271 Borno 97.5 36.8 86.2 72.7 692 Cross River 98.3 44.1 87.9 26.5 162 Delta 96.2 49.8 83.9 51.2 173 Ebonyi 94.0 52.9 88.9 22.6 111 Edo 98.2 44.6 87.0 36.4 101 Ekiti 94.1 27.6 80.2 19.2 54 Enugu 98.5 39.7 83.6 49.4 105 Gombe 90.2 26.8 72.6 38.4 236 Imo 96.6 20.0 74.3 56.8 164 Jigawa 94.2 12.8 75.9 71.7 595 Kaduna 98.5 28.9 93.5 51.2 663 Kano 90.2 30.8 75.4 51.3 1,038 Katsina 93.5 38.3 75.1 67.8 916 Kebbi 92.2 50.4 75.8 71.7 398 Kogi 90.9 31.7 76.3 25.4 133 Kwara 99.5 66.6 93.2 15.2 115 Lagos 97.3 25.0 72.8 27.4 429 Nasarawa 95.2 20.6 80.7 49.1 244 Niger 97.7 38.6 76.2 64.1 527 Ogun 96.9 15.1 68.5 57.0 132 Ondo 99.1 36.3 81.3 29.8 163 Osun 94.3 23.3 79.7 16.5 161 Oyo 97.2 23.3 76.7 24.8 322 Plateau 97.2 28.0 83.5 40.0 392 Rivers 99.1 41.3 84.8 31.5 163 Sokoto 90.1 45.9 80.2 54.4 409 Taraba 91.0 15.9 78.2 47.6 173 Yobe 97.2 38.7 68.4 73.2 410 Zamfara 92.2 23.4 72.1 50.2 583 FCT Abuja 97.4 29.1 85.8 36.1 89 1 MICS indicator 2.5 - Children ever breastfed 2 MICS indicator 2.6 - Early initiation of breastfeeding P a g e | 39 Table NU.4: Breastfeeding Percentage of living children according to breastfeeding status at selected age groups, Nigeria, 2016-17 Children age 0-5 months Children age 12-15 months Children age 20-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed1 Percent predominantly breastfed2 Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 1 year)3 Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 2 years)4 Number of children Total 23.7 54.0 2,723 85.9 2,100 37.1 1,434 Geopolitical zone North Central 24.9 45.8 441 82.9 270 33.6 231 North East 21.3 50.4 619 90.0 429 52.3 333 North West 18.5 56.6 1,028 92.7 925 49.0 474 South East 25.3 47.8 157 56.3 108 10.9 91 South South 27.2 52.5 207 67.7 158 9.8 134 South West 43.9 70.5 271 80.8 209 14.5 170 Sex Male 23.5 53.0 1,355 86.5 1,004 39.7 736 Female 24.0 55.0 1,369 85.4 1,096 34.3 698 Residence Urban 31.7 59.5 754 81.8 653 23.7 450 Rural 20.7 51.9 1,969 87.8 1,447 43.2 984 Mother’s education None 19.6 47.2 761 89.4 586 54.0 397 Non-formal 16.9 58.6 608 92.6 509 59.1 250 Primary 20.8 50.5 402 85.1 311 38.6 215 Secondary 30.6 56.2 761 80.1 538 15.7 457 Higher 41.0 65.2 190 73.5 155 13.0 115 Wealth index quintile Poorest 16.4 49.7 588 90.6 485 56.7 283 Second 20.0 51.8 639 90.7 467 53.7 307 Middle 23.7 54.9 551 86.2 405 39.4 260 Fourth 27.1 54.4 537 81.0 385 18.5 312 Richest 35.8 61.8 408 78.5 357 17.0 273 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 18.7 52.6 1,573 92.0 1,254 49.7 765 Igbo 31.9 51.1 247 57.8 146 14.5 142 Yoruba 42.8 70.4 205 81.0 199 12.6 146 Other ethnic group 26.6 53.4 698 80.9 502 29.5 381 1 MICS indicator 2.7 - Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 2 MICS indicator 2.8 - Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 3 MICS indicator 2.9 - Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 4 MICS indicator 2.10 - Continued breastfeeding at 2 years Note: Data by state are not shown because samples are too small to give meaningful results P a g e | 40 Table NU.5: Duration of breastfeeding Median duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and predominant breastfeeding among children age 0-35 months, Nigeria, 2016-17 Median duration (in months) of: Number of children age 0-35 months Any breastfeeding1 Exclusive breastfeeding Predominant breastfeeding Median 19.9 0.6 3.1 16,411 Geopolitical zone North Central 19.0 0.5 1.9 2,631 North East 21.4 0.5 2.6 3,482 North West 21.3 0.5 3.4 6,275 South East 14.1 0.6 2.4 919 South South 15.5 0.6 2.8 1,336 South West 16.8 2.0 4.8 1,768 Sex Male 19.9 0.5 3.0 8,306 Female 19.9 0.6 3.1 8,105 Residence Urban 18.0 0.7 3.7 4,981 Rural 20.7 0.5 2.8 11,430 Mother’s education None 21.5 0.5 2.1 4,697 Non-formal 21.6 0.5 3.8 3,581 Primary 19.9 0.5 2.6 2,454 Secondary 17.4 0.7 3.3 4,398 Higher 15.7 0.7 4.4 1,281 Wealth index quintile Poorest 21.8 0.5 2.4 3,665 Second 21.3 0.5 2.8 3,533 Middle 20.4 0.5 3.0 3,198 Fourth 17.5 0.6 3.1 3,093 Richest 16.6 0.7 4.1 2,924 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 21.2 0.5 2.9 9,126 Igbo 14.1 1.0 2.6 1,381 Yoruba 17.1 1.7 4.8 1,542 Other ethnic group 18.8 0.6 2.9 4,363 Mean 19.4 1.6 4.0 16,411 1 MICS indicator 2.11 - Duration of breastfeeding P a g e | 41 Table NU.5: Duration of breastfeeding (continued) Median duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and predominant breastfeeding among children age 0-35 months, Nigeria, 2016-17 Median duration (in months) of: Number of children age 0- 35 months Any breastfeeding1 Exclusive breastfeeding Predominant breastfeeding Median 19.9 0.6 3.1 16,411 State Abia 15.4 0.7 2.0 138 Adamawa 20.8 1.5 2.4 371 Akwa Ibom 15.1 0.7 3.0 356 Anambra 13.3 0.4 0.4 216 Bauchi 23.3 0.5 0.6 900 Bayelsa 15.4 0.5 2.9 98 Benue 19.6 0.6 0.7 378 Borno 18.9 0.6 4.0 1,034 Cross River 18.1 2.3 230 Delta 15.0 1.1 2.9 243 Ebonyi 15.6 2.1 3.7 166 Edo 15.9 1.0 1.7 165 Ekiti 15.7 2.4 4.1 72 Enugu 15.5 1.1 1.9 160 Gombe 21.5 0.6 3.9 321 Imo 13.1 0.5 3.2 240 Jigawa 20.9 0.5 4.3 840 Kaduna 21.5 0.5 0.7 920 Kano 21.1 0.5 4.4 1,396 Katsina 20.8 0.4 0.7 1,247 Kebbi 21.2 0.4 3.1 536 Kogi 17.0 0.5 3.9 199 Kwara 19.8 1.1 2.5 192 Lagos 15.8 2.7 5.9 642 Nasarawa 18.9 0.5 0.7 347 Niger 20.3 0.4 0.6 772 Ogun 16.6 0.6 5.4 171 Ondo 16.1 0.8 1.9 244 Osun 19.3 2.9 4.4 214 Oyo 17.6 2.5 5.2 425 Plateau 18.3 0.6 4.1 613 Rivers 13.1 0.5 4.3 244 Sokoto 21.8 0.7 4.9 547 Taraba 20.6 0.7 2.9 249 Yobe 22.7 0.4 1.2 608 Zamfara 21.8 0.7 6.5 789 FCT Abuja 16.4 2.9 4.7 129 Mean 19.4 1.6 4.0 16,411 1 MICS indicator 2.11 - Duration of breastfeeding P a g e | 42 Table NU.6: Age-appropriate breastfeeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were appropriately breastfed during the previous day, Nigeria, 2016-17 Children age 0-5 months Children age 6-23 months Children age 0-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed1 Number of children Percent currently breastfeeding and receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods Number of children Percent appropriately breastfed2 Number of children Total 23.7 2,723 69.7 8,174 58.2 10,898 Geopolitical zone North Central 24.9 441 66.9 1,217 55.7 1,658 North East 21.3 619 75.6 1,677 60.9 2,297 North West 18.5 1,028 77.6 3,268 63.4 4,296 South East 25.3 157 48.5 458 42.6 615 South South 27.2 207 53.8 658 47.4 865 South West 43.9 271 56.2 896 53.4 1,167 Sex Male 23.5 1,355 69.4 4,086 58.0 5,440 Female 24.0 1,369 70.0 4,089 58.5 5,457 Residence Urban 31.7 754 63.3 2,487 56.0 3,241 Rural 20.7 1,969 72.5 5,687 59.2 7,656 Mother’s education None 19.6 761 76.4 2,322 62.4 3,084 Non-formal 16.9 608 78.4 1,789 62.8 2,397 Primary 20.8 402 70.8 1,192 58.2 1,595 Secondary 30.6 761 59.7 2,234 52.3 2,994 Higher 41.0 190 53.7 637 50.8 827 Wealth index quintile Poorest 16.4 588 78.3 1,851 63.4 2,439 Second 20.0 639 74.3 1,753 59.8 2,392 Middle 23.7 551 73.4 1,565 60.4 2,115 Fourth 27.1 537 61.0 1,492 52.0 2,030 Richest 35.8 408 58.6 1,514 53.8 1,922 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 18.7 1,573 76.7 4,600 61.9 6,172 Igbo 31.9 247 48.4 674 43.9 921 Yoruba 42.8 205 59.0 793 55.7 998 Other ethnic group 26.6 698 65.3 2,108 55.7 2,807 1 MICS indicator 2.7 - Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 2 MICS indicator 2.12 - Age-appropriate breastfeeding P a g e | 43 Table NU.6: Age-appropriate breastfeeding (continued) Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were appropriately breastfed during the previous day, Nigeria, 2016-17 Children age 0-5 months Children age 6-23 months Children age 0-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed1 Number of children Percent currently breastfeeding and receiving solid, semi- solid or soft foods Number of children Percent appropriately breastfed2 Number of children Total 23.7 2,723 69.7 8,174 58.2 10,898 State Abia (18.6) 24 53.9 68 44.6 92 Adamawa 34.2 69 78.9 187 66.9 255 Akwa Ibom 28.3 63 53.1 165 46.2 228 Anambra (24.6) 31 51.0 106 45.1 136 Bauchi 13.6 176 88.0 419 66.0 595 Bayelsa (29.4) 13 51.8 52 47.2 65 Benue 40.9 60 65.9 185 59.8 245 Borno (29.5) 175 64.8 485 55.4 660 Cross River (7.8) 34 64.6 107 50.9 141 Delta (25.2) 40 46.7 129 41.6 170 Ebonyi 43.9 35 46.8 74 45.9 109 Edo (27.1) 27 63.6 79 54.4 106 Ekiti (*) 9 49.3 38 48.7 47 Enugu (19.0) 24 49.9 81 42.8 105 Gombe 24.5 62 73.8 168 60.5 230 Imo 17.7 43 43.8 129 37.3 172 Jigawa 15.5 139 72.9 439 59.1 578 Kaduna 19.7 124 84.5 484 71.3 608 Kano 18.6 246 78.1 709 62.8 956 Katsina 6.7 203 79.2 673 62.3 876 Kebbi 9.5 92 79.2 273 61.6 365 Kogi (32.0) 31 50.3 103 46.1 135 Kwara (35.7) 28 68.1 82 59.9 110 Lagos 51.8 87 50.4 320 50.7 407 Nasarawa 21.3 59 68.4 166 56.0 225 Niger 6.2 125 74.0 365 56.7 490 Ogun (20.9) 28 50.5 92 43.5 120 Ondo 23.5 41 54.6 115 46.5 155 Osun 55.3 31 67.4 117 64.8 148 Oyo 49.5 75 63.5 214 59.8 289 Plateau 29.4 116 65.9 252 54.4 368 Rivers (49.1) 29 47.4 126 47.7 156 Sokoto 45.0 91 75.1 291 67.9 381 Taraba 32.0 41 68.3 122 59.2 162 Yobe 4.9 98 77.5 296 59.5 394 Zamfara 26.2 132 71.4 400 60.2 532 FCT Abuja 52.0 21 54.3 64 53.7 85 1 MICS indicator 2.7 - Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 2 MICS indicator 2.12 - Age-appropriate breastfeeding ( ) Sample data are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Sample data are fewer than 25 unweighted cases P a g e | 44 Table NU.7: Introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods Percentage of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods during the previous day, Nigeria, 2016-2017 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods Number of children age 6-8 months Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods Number of children age 6-8 months Percent receiving solid, semi- solid or soft foods1 Number of children age 6-8 months Total 79.1 1426 (77.2) 34 79.0 1460 Geoplitical Zones North Central 83.7 230 (*) 7 83.4 237 North East 78.4 269 (*) 6 78.2 275 North West 79.5 570 (*) 17 79.3 587 South East 86.4 73 (*) 3 86.9 76 South South 82.8 114 (*) 1 83.0 115 South West 67.2 171 0 67.2 171 Sex Male 78.2 720 (*) 19 78.1 739 Female 80.0 706 (*) 15 80.0 721 Residence Urban 79.5 411 (*) 5 79.7 416 Rural 78.9 1015 (73.4) 29 78.8 1044 1 MICS indicator 2.13 - Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods ( ) Sample data are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Sample data are fewer than 25 unweighted cases P a g e | 45 Table NU.8: Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received appropriate liquids and solid, semi-solid, or soft foods the minimum number of times or more during the previous day, by breastfeeding status, Nigeria, 2016-17 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent of children who received: N u m b e r o f c h il d re n a g e 6 -2 3 m o n th s Percent of children who received: N u m b e r o f c h il d re n a g e 6 -2 3 m o n th s Percent of children who received: N u m b e r o f c h il d re n a g e 6 -2 3 m o n th s M in im u m d ie ta ry d iv e rs it y a M in im u m m e a l fr e q u e n c y b M in im u m a c c e p ta b le d ie t1 , c M in im u m d ie ta ry d iv e rs it y a M in im u m m e a l fr e q u e n c y b M in im u m a c c e p ta b le d ie t2 , c A t le a s t 2 m il k fe e d s 3 M in im u m d ie ta ry d iv e rs it y 4 , a M in im u m m e a l fr e q u e n c y 5 , b M in im u m a c c e p ta b le d ie tc Total 35.6 42.9 16.5 6,217 56.1 40.4 11.0 24.9 1,716 40.2 42.4 15.3 8,174 Geopolitical zone North Central 35.5 46.9 18.2 880 58.9 45.4 12.0 21.0 298 41.5 46.5 16.6 1,217 North East 28.3 47.9 16.1 1,379 49.1 41.9 14.2 20.0 248 31.7 47.0 15.8 1,677 North West 36.4 40.7 15.5 2,760 44.0 35.7 6.8 24.9 411 37.5 40.1 14.4 3,268 South East 39.3 52.6 19.8 238 67.4 42.7 13.4 30.1 201 52.3 48.1 16.9 458 South South 48.1 46.2 24.3 383 65.2 38.6 11.0 20.1 260 55.2 43.1 18.9 658 South West 39.5 29.7 13.4 577 59.9 40.4 11.6 33.7 298 46.8 33.4 12.8 896 Sex Male 35.3 42.2 15.2 3,109 56.4 40.8 11.1 26.1 868 39.9 41.9 14.3 4,086 Female 35.9 43.6 17.8 3,108 55.7 40.0 10.9 23.8 848 40.5 42.9 16.3 4,089 Residence Urban 40.9 36.3 15.5 1,715 62.9 43.8 14.9 34.0 689 47.5 38.5 15.3 2,487 Rural 33.6 45.5 16.9 4,502 51.5 38.0 8.3 18.8 1,027 37.0 44.1 15.3 5,687 Mother’s education None 32.3 44.4 15.7 1,929 46.9 34.5 9.5 18.7 319 34.5 43.0 14.8 2,322 Non-formal 29.0 39.5 12.6 1,543 41.7 27.6 4.6 17.0 194 30.2 38.2 11.7 1,789 Primary 36.5 46.7 18.3 913 55.4 36.8 7.9 19.7 242 40.5 44.6 16.2 1,192 Secondary 42.9 43.9 20.7 1,454 58.8 40.9 10.3 22.5 715 48.6 42.9 17.2 2,234 Higher 49.4 36.6 16.6 377 71.9 60.0 23.2 51.4 247 58.9 45.8 19.2 637 P a g e | 46 Table NU.8: Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received appropriate liquids and solid, semi-solid, or soft foods the minimum number of times or more during the previous day, by breastfeeding status, Nigeria, 2016-17 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent of children who received: N u m b e r o f c h il d re n a g e 6 -2 3 m o n th s Percent of children who received: N u m b e r o f c h il d re n a g e 6 -2 3 m o n th s Percent of children who received: N u m b e r o f c h il d re n a g e 6 -2 3 m o n th s M in im u m d ie ta ry d iv e rs it y a M in im u m m e a l fr e q u e n c y b M in im u m a c c e p ta b le d ie t1 , c M in im u m d ie ta ry d iv e rs it y a M in im u m m e a l fr e q u e n c y b M in im u m a c c e p ta b le d ie t2 , c A t le a s t 2 m il k fe e d s 3 M in im u m d ie ta ry d iv e rs it y 4 , a M in im u m m e a l fr e q u e n c y 5 , b M in im u m a c c e p ta b le d ie tc Wealth index quintile Poorest 27.8 43.0 14.0 1,582 40.2 34.8 6.2 17.1 207 29.2 42.1 13.1 1,851 Second 29.8 47.0 16.5 1,449 46.1 41.7 7.6 13.8 260 32.6 46.2 15.2 1,753 Middle 36.4 46.3 16.9 1,231 49.6 29.6 7.3 16.5 274 39.1 43.3 15.2 1,565 Fourth 40.7 37.6 16.7 986 63.0 38.2 10.5 24.3 463 47.8 37.8 14.7 1,492 Richest 50.8 37.9 19.9 969 64.7 49.6 17.1 38.8 513 56.0 41.9 18.9 1,514 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 33.6 42.5 15.3 3,822 47.8 36.1 9.7 24.8 629 35.8 41.6 14.5 4,600 Igbo 41.4 44.5 18.1 358 66.2 43.2 13.7 34.1 296 52.6 44.0 16.1 674 Yoruba 46.4 29.0 16.0 524 65.6 38.9 12.2 30.7 248 52.9 32.1 14.8 793 Other ethnic group 35.5 48.5 19.5 1,513 55.7 44.4 10.5 17.5 544 41.1 47.4 17.1 2,108 1 MICS indicator 2.17a - Minimum acceptable diet (breastfed) 2 MICS indicator 2.17b - Minimum acceptable diet (non-breastfed) 3 MICS indicator 2.14 - Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children 4 MICS indicator 2.16 - Minimum dietary diversity 5 MICS indicator 2.15 - Minimum meal frequency a Minimum dietary diversity is defined as receiving foods from at least 4 of 7 food groups: 1) Grains, roots and tubers, 2) legumes and nuts, 3) dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese), 4) flesh foods (meat, fish, poultry and liver/organ meats), 5) eggs, 6) vitamin-A rich fruits and vegetables, and 7) other fruits and vegetables. b Minimum meal frequency among currently breastfeeding children is defined as children who also received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods 2 times or more daily for children age 6-8 months and 3 times or more daily for children age 9-23 months. For non-breastfeeding children age 6-23 months it is defined as receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods, or milk feeds, at least 4 times. c The minimum acceptable diet for breastfed children age 6-23 months is defined as receiving the minimum dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency, while it for non-breastfed children further requires at least 2 milk feedings and that the minimum dietary diversity is achieved without counting milk feeds. P a g e | 47 Table NU.8: Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices (continued) Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received appropriate liquids and solid, semi-solid, or soft foods the minimum number of times or more during the previous day, by breastfeeding status, Nigeria, 2016- 17 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent of children who received: Number of children age 6-23 months Percent of children who received: Number of children age 6-23 months Percent of children who received: Number of children age 6-23 months Minimum dietary diversitya Minimum meal frequencyb Minimum acceptable diet1, c Minimum dietary diversitya Minimum meal frequencyb Minimum acceptable diet2, c At least 2 milk feeds3 Minimum dietary diversity4, a Minimum meal frequency5, b Minimum acceptable dietc Total 35.6 42.9 16.5 6,217 56.1 40.4 11.0 24.9 1,716 40.2 42.4 15.3 8,174 State Abia 46.0 40.9 16.0 38 81.6 40.8 15.9 35.3 28 60.9 40.9 16.0 68 Adamawa 39.1 56.4 22.7 154 (65.0) (56.8) (25.0) (37.0) 28 43.8 56.4 23.0 187 Akwa Ibom 46.9 43.5 18.2 94 66.9 26.1 12.1 25.6 66 55.0 36.4 15.7 165 Anambra 29.0 77.3 22.3 56 56.6 51.2 13.2 31.4 42 41.0 66.2 18.4 106 Bauchi 22.4 53.6 15.7 387 (35.2) (50.6) (.0) (6.9) 31 23.5 53.4 14.5 419 Bayelsa 37.5 53.5 20.7 28 59.1 41.4 1.9 7.9 22 48.1 48.2 12.4 52 Benue 25.0 61.2 17.0 139 (57.0) (33.2) (4.4) (8.9) 41 32.5 54.9 14.2 185 Borno 28.3 49.8 15.3 335 (*) (*) (*) (*) 120 34.7 45.3 15.7 485 Cross River 51.0 65.3 40.6 71 (60.3) (47.3) (5.6) (10.3) 35 53.4 59.4 29.1 107 Delta 48.0 40.8 24.1 68 66.1 46.6 12.3 17.0 57 57.2 43.4 18.8 129 Ebonyi 24.9 45.7 21.0 44 59.4 48.6 19.7 26.6 27 37.8 46.8 20.5 74 Edo 46.8 9.6 2.3 54 (71.4) (8.8) (5.8) (9.5) 24 55.2 9.4 3.4 79 Ekiti 40.7 25.2 18.0 23 (70.4) (32.8) (9.4) (20.9) 14 52.0 28.1 14.7 38 Enugu 48.2 38.6 16.2 42 61.0 29.3 4.8 24.8 39 54.4 34.1 10.7 81 Gombe 25.9 66.2 23.3 137 (35.5) (60.5) (13.3) (23.2) 28 27.4 65.2 21.6 168 Imo 49.5 51.7 21.7 58 75.3 43.5 15.1 31.6 65 63.9 47.4 18.2 129 Jigawa 27.1 38.3 13.3 353 24.6 21.1 1.4 9.6 78 26.9 35.2 11.1 439 Kaduna 62.1 43.5 16.9 417 (54.2) (51.7) (7.4) (34.7) 58 61.3 44.5 15.8 484 Kano 30.3 40.5 14.6 604 39.2 42.3 17.1 34.2 86 32.0 40.7 15.0 709 Katsina 34.6 52.4 19.8 560 47.9 34.0 2.2 24.4 90 36.2 49.9 17.4 673 ( ) Sample data are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Sample data are fewer than 25 unweighted cases P a g e | 48 Table NU.8: Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices (continued) Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received appropriate liquids and solid, semi-solid, or soft foods the minimum number of times or more during the previous day, by breastfeeding status, Nigeria, 2016-17 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent of children who received: Number of children age 6-23 months Percent of children who received: Number of children age 6-23 months Percent of children who received: Number of children age 6-23 months Minimum dietary diversitya Minimum meal frequencyb Minimum acceptable diet1, c Minimum dietary diversitya Minimum meal frequencyb Minimum acceptable diet2, c At least 2 milk feeds3 Minimum dietary diversity4, a Minimum meal frequency5, b Minimum acceptable dietc State Kebbi 36.6 37.1 15.0 232 (59.8) (38.2) (11.2) (31.2) 34 38.8 37.2 14.5 273 Kogi 38.1 39.5 14.4 61 49.4 46.5 11.6 25.7 34 45.3 42.0 13.4 103 Kwara 38.9 24.3 14.9 59 (68.2) (11.7) (8.7) (18.4) 23 47.5 20.8 13.2 82 Lagos 43.3 38.9 18.0 191 50.8 49.8 13.5 51.9 125 46.2 43.2 16.2 320 Nasarawa 37.1 52.4 26.1 121 65.0 47.2 16.5 35.2 40 44.0 51.1 23.7 166 Niger 40.0 41.2 16.4 282 (71.2) (41.6) (14.6) (20.7) 67 44.5 41.3 16.0 365 Ogun 46.4 35.7 25.0 55 81.3 32.3 22.3 33.5 35 60.1 34.4 23.9 92 Ondo 45.9 38.3 14.5 69 (58.0) (47.1) (6.1) (9.3) 44 51.3 41.8 11.2 115 Osun 43.0 10.5 5.9 88 (70.9) (24.6) (6.2) (11.6) 28 49.5 14.0 6.0 117 Oyo 27.0 23.8 6.5 151 (60.3) (28.1) (7.6) (26.2) 51 37.3 24.9 6.8 214 Plateau 29.6 50.8 16.8 180 40.3 65.7 9.8 15.5 70 33.1 54.9 14.9 252 Rivers 52.2 61.5 34.7 68 65.1 51.0 17.1 31.4 57 57.8 56.7 26.7 126 Sokoto 37.3 28.1 11.3 253 (49.5) (37.1) (7.9) (17.8) 25 38.1 28.9 11.0 291 Taraba 31.6 54.8 24.2 97 (30.8) (39.0) (6.3) (6.3) 22 31.8 52.0 21.0 122 Yobe 30.8 20.5 7.5 269 (*) (*) (*) (*) 20 33.3 21.8 8.0 296 Zamfara 27.7 32.7 14.0 342 (52.3) (28.4) (0.0) (21.2) 41 31.1 32.3 12.5 400 FCT Abuja 53.7 46.9 29.5 38 75.9 44.5 19.7 29.5 25 63.2 45.9 25.5 64 1 MICS indicator 2.17a - Minimum acceptable diet (breastfed) 2 MICS indicator 2.17b - Minimum acceptable diet (non-breastfed) 3 MICS indicator 2.14 - Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children 4 MICS indicator 2.16 - Minimum dietary diversity 5 MICS indicator 2.15 - Minimum meal frequency a Minimum dietary diversity is defined as receiving foods from at least 4 of 7 food groups: 1) Grains, roots and tubers, 2) legumes and nuts, 3) dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese), 4) flesh foods (meat, fish, poultry and liver/organ meats), 5) eggs, 6) vitamin-A rich fruits and vegetables, and 7) other fruits and vegetables. b Minimum meal frequency among currently breastfeeding children is defined as children who also received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods 2 times or more daily for children age 6-8 months and 3 times or more daily for children age 9-23 months. For non-breastfeeding children age 6-23 months it is defined as receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods, or milk feeds, at least 4 times. c The minimum acceptable diet for breastfed children age 6-23 months is defined as receiving the minimum dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency, while it for non-breastfed children further requires at least 2 milk feedings and that the minimum dietary diversity is achieved without counting milk feeds. ( ) Sample data are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) Sample data are fewer than 25 unweighted cases P a g e | 49 Table NU.9: Bottle feeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Nigeria, 2016-17 Percentage of children age 0-23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple1 Number of children age 0-23 months Total 20.2 10,898 Geopolitical zone North Central 21.4 1,658 North East 15.2 2,297 North West 18.6 4,296 South East 33.8 615 South South 26.5 865 South West 22.0 1,167 Sex Male 21.4 5,440 Female 18.9 5,457 Age (months) 0-5 23.2 2,723 6-11 24.9 2,640 12-23 16.4 5,535 Residence Urban 24.1 3,241 Rural 18.5 7,656 Mother’s education None 15.8 3,084 Non-formal 14.0 2,397 Primary 21.2 1,595 Secondary 25.6 2,994 Higher 32.4 827 Wealth index quintile Poorest 11.8 2,439 Second 17.3 2,392 Middle 20.8 2,115 Fourth 24.0 2,030 Richest 29.7 1,922 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 17.8 6,172 Igbo 33.1 921 Yoruba 23.1 998 Other ethnic group 20.0 2,807 1 MICS indicator 2.18 - Bottle feeding P a g e | 50 Table NU.9: Bottle feeding (continued) Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Nigeria, 2016-17 Percentage of children age 0- 23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple1 Number of children age 0-23 months Total 20.2 10,898 State Abia 39.9 92 Adamawa 21.9 255 Akwa Ibom 30.0 228 Anambra 37.3 136 Bauchi 10.3 595 Bayelsa 12.7 65 Benue 24.4 245 Borno 18.6 660 Cross River 14.8 141 Delta 34.8 170 Ebonyi 24.6 109 Edo 28.9 106 Ekiti 13.0 47 Enugu 33.1 105 Gombe 14.2 230 Imo 33.9 172 Jigawa 13.7 578 Kaduna 26.3 608 Kano 31.6 956 Katsina 11.0 876 Kebbi 16.9 365 Kogi 15.7 135 Kwara 22.1 110 Lagos 23.3 407 Nasarawa 27.8 225 Niger 12.5 490 Ogun 19.8 120 Ondo 19.6 155 Osun 23.5 148 Oyo 22.8 289 Plateau 29.6 368 Rivers 26.8 156 Sokoto 9.3 381 Taraba 16.7 162 Yobe 12.6 394 Zamfara 12.2 532 FCT Abuja 19.2 85 1 MICS indicator 2.18 - Bottle feeding P a g e | 51 Salt Iodization Table NU.10: Iodized salt consumption Percent distribution of households by consumption of iodized salt, Nigeria, 2016-17 Percent of households in which salt was tested Number of households Percent of households with: Iodized >0 PPM Number of households in which salt was tested or with no salt No salt Salt test result Not iodized 0 PPM >0 and <15 PPM 15+ PPM [1] Total 93.9 33901 5.4 3.2 22.2 69.2 91.4 33644 Geopolitical zone North central 96.0 5435 3.6 1.1 15.9 79.3 95.3 5413 North east 94.5 5581 4.9 2.7 23.4 69.0 92.4 5544 North west 92.4 9128 6.7 7.4 34.5 51.4 86.0 9041 South east 94.1 3132 5.3 1.0 13.4 80.2 93.7 3113 South south 96.2 4281 2.8 1.1 12.9 83.1 96.0 4240 South west 91.8 6344 7.5 2.0 19.3 71.3 90.5 6293 Residence Urban 92.6 12421 6.6 2.5 19.0 71.9 90.9 12313 Rural 94.6 21480 4.8 3.6 24.0 67.6 91.6 21330 Wealth index quintile Poorest 94.1 6026 5.1 5.5 33.1 56.3 89.4 5978 Second 94.1 6280 5.2 4.4 26.6 63.8 90.4 6235 Middle 93.4 6883 6.2 3.2 22.8 67.8 90.6 6850 Fourth 92.8 7156 6.4 2.3 18.3 73.0 91.3 7095 Richest 94.8 7556 4.3 1.3 12.9 81.5 94.4 7487 [1] MICS indicator 2.19 - Iodized salt consumption P a g e | 52 Table NU.10: Iodized salt consumption (continued) Percent distribution of households by consumption of iodized salt, Nigeria, 2016-17 Percent of households in which salt was tested Number of households Percent of households with: Iodized >0 PPM Number of households in which salt was tested or with no salt No salt Salt test result Not iodized 0 PPM >0 and <15 PPM 15+ PPM [1] Total 93.9 33901 5.4 3.2 22.2 69.2 91.4 33644 State Abia 90.6 472 8.7 2.2 27.3 61.9 89.1 468 Adamawa 93.0 735 5.6 1.8 11.1 81.5 92.6 723 Akwa Ibom 95.8 844 3.5 2.6 18.5 75.5 93.9 837 Anambra 96.6 719 3.0 0.1 10.4 86.5 96.9 717 Bauchi 95.9 1384 3.8 1.0 18.2 77.0 95.2 1380 Bayelsa 95.6 308 4.2 0.9 14.9 80.0 94.9 307 Benue 98.5 987 1.3 0.5 17.5 80.7 98.2 985 Borno 94.1 1493 5.9 2.6 25.3 66.2 91.5 1493 Cross River 96.2 778 3.8 0.7 13.2 82.2 95.5 778 Delta 94.6 740 3.2 1.7 14.0 81.1 95.1 723 Ebonyi 91.5 535 8.4 1.4 13.8 76.5 90.2 534 Edo 98.2 654 0.8 0.5 1.7 97.0 98.7 648 Ekiti 95.0 351 4.8 0.7 46.2 48.3 94.5 351 Enugu 96.3 610 3.0 0.3 18.3 78.4 96.7 606 Gombe 91.7 529 5.3 3.0 20.9 70.7 91.7 512 Imo 93.8 796 5.2 1.3 4.0 89.5 93.4 787 Jigawa 89.1 1147 7.1 4.2 33.7 55.0 88.7 1101 Kaduna 94.3 1646 4.9 1.4 26.0 67.7 93.7 1632 Kano 91.8 1894 8.0 11.6 36.6 43.7 80.4 1890 Katsina 93.8 1705 6.0 4.3 22.7 67.0 89.7 1700 Kebbi 92.0 838 7.4 14.1 41.6 37.0 78.5 832 Kogi 94.0 649 5.2 1.9 5.1 87.8 92.8 643 Kwara 94.2 639 5.8 0.7 18.9 74.6 93.5 638 Lagos 92.7 1974 6.8 1.0 4.9 87.2 92.1 1965 Nasarawa 94.8 630 4.9 1.7 12.7 80.7 93.4 628 Niger 95.5 1211 3.9 2.0 23.4 70.7 94.2 1203 Ogun 92.1 608 7.7 3.7 13.3 75.4 88.7 607 Ondo 96.4 1025 3.3 1.1 21.1 74.4 95.5 1023 Osun 88.7 916 11.2 1.7 19.4 67.7 87.1 915 Oyo 88.3 1470 9.4 3.8 33.6 53.3 86.8 1433 Plateau 97.4 1051 2.4 0.1 16.2 81.3 97.5 1049 Rivers 96.8 957 2.1 0.4 13.9 83.6 97.5 947 Sokoto 91.2 820 8.4 5.4 46.3 39.9 86.2 816 Taraba 91.5 527 7.9 4.7 28.6 58.8 87.4 523 Yobe 97.4 914 2.5 4.8 36.6 56.2 92.7 912 Zamfara 93.6 1078 5.7 13.4 49.1 31.7 80.8 1070 FCT Abuja 94.7 270 4.3 0.8 2.1 92.8 94.9 267 [1] MICS indicator 2.19 - Iodized salt consumption P a g e | 53 VI. Child Health Vaccinations Crude full immunization coverage describes the situation whereby children have received all antigens defined by the expanded programme on immunisation (EPI) without regard to the specified age or time interval between doses as prescribed by the national schedule. A child is considered fully vaccinated if he/she has received BCG (Bacillus Calmette-Guérin) vaccine, at least three doses of Polio vaccine, three doses of Pentavalent vaccine (Diphtheria, Pertussis, Tetanus, Hemophilus Influenza Type B and Hepatitis B), one of Measles containing vaccine (MCV), Inactivated Polio vaccine (IPV) and Yellow Fever vaccine. The sample size for the Nigeria MICS 2016-17 was determined to be insufficient for estimating state level vaccination coverage for children aged 12 to 23 months in twenty states, namely: Abia, Akwa ibom, Anambra, Bayelsa, Benue, Cross River, Delta, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Imo, Kogi, Kwara, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers and FCT (Abuja). In these twenty states, supplemental sampling was conducted to meet the requirements for vaccine coverage estimation for urban and rural areas; six geopolitical zones; the 36 states of the Federation and the Federal Capital Territory. The main objectives were to provide reliable estimates for coverage in vaccination antigens for children between the ages of 12 – 23 months at state level. Note that Table CH.1 is the results of the MICS survey alone while Tables CH.2A to CH.2F are the results of the MICS and NICS surveys combined. Due to larger sample size, MICS/NICS results yield better precision than MICS only. Table CH.1 results are only presented as these carry the disaggregate opportunities of the full survey. P a g e | 54 Table CH.1: Vaccinations in the first years of life Percentage of children age 12-23 months and 24-35 months vaccinated against vaccine preventable childhood diseases at any time before the survey and by their first birthday, Nigeria, 2016-17 Children age 12-23 months: Children age 24-35 months: Vaccinated at any time before the survey according to: Vaccinated by 12 months of agea Vaccinated at any time before the survey according to: Vaccinated by 12 months of age Vaccination card Mother's report Either Vaccination card Mother's report Either Antigen BCG1 27.8 25.3 53.1 52.8 18.4 32.5 50.9 49.1 Polio At birth 23.5 23.4 46.9 46.9 16.3 29.9 46.2 44.9 1 25.5 25.0 50.4 49.8 17.2 31.1 48.3 45.2 2 23.3 20.2 43.5 43.0 16.0 26.2 42.1 38.7 32 21.4 13.3 34.7 34.0 14.5 15.7 30.2 26.5 PENTA/DPT 1 26.9 22.3 49.3 48.8 18.4 29.4 47.8 44.7 2 24.7 16.0 40.8 40.3 16.8 21.3 38.2 35.1 33,4,5 23.0 11.4 34.4 33.6 15.5 16.8 32.3 28.3 HepB at birth 20.3 9.7 30.1 30.0 16.3 14.1 PCV PCV 1 19.3 20.4 39.6 38.8 12.3 27.6 39.9 36.3 PCV 2 17.9 15.2 33.1 32.4 11.0 19.9 30.8 27.4 PCV 3 16.6 10.7 27.2 26.2 10.2 15.0 25.1 21.1 Inactivated Pollo Vaccine 18.8 23.6 42.4 40.2 8.2 30.4 38.7 29.7 Yellow fever6 19.6 19.3 39.0 36.0 14.1 27.1 41.3 33.4 Measles7 20.4 21.4 41.8 38.5 15.0 29.4 44.3 36.5 Fully vaccinated8, b 16.3 4.7 21.0 17.5 11.8 7.0 18.8 11.9 No vaccinations 0.1 4.0 4.1 4.1 0.1 3.9 4.0 5.3 Number of children 5,535 5,535 5,535 5,535 5514 5514 5514 5514 1 MICS indicator 3.1 - Tuberculosis immunization coverage 2 MICS indicator 3.2 - Polio immunization coverage 3 MICS indicator 3.3 - Diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) immunization coverage 4 MICS indicator 3.5 - Hepatitis B immunization coverage 5 MICS indicator 3.6 - Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib) immunization coverage 6 MICS indicator 3.7 - Yellow fever immunization coverage 7 MICS indicator 3.4; MDG indicator 4.3 - Measles immunization coverage 8 MICS indicator 3.8 - Full immunization coverage a All MICS indicators refer to results in this column b Includes: BCG, Polio3, PENTA3/DPT3, Measles and Yellow fever as per the vaccination schedule in Nigeria P a g e | 55 Table CH.2A (MICS/NICS): Percentage of children 12-23 months with any evidence of vaccination Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against vaccine preventable childhood diseases, Nigeria 2016-17 Percentage of children who received: Card seen Children age 12-23 months BCG HepB at Birth Polio Pentavalent Yellow fever Measles (MCV1) Fulla At birth 1 2 3 1 2 3 Total 53.5 30.2 47.4 49.7 42.5 33.2 48.7 39.9 33.3 38.8 41.7 22.9 29.0 6,268 Geopolitical Zone North Central 63.0 38.3 56.1 59.2 53.3 37.3 58.6 48.3 39.0 49.9 52.4 26.5 30.9 900 North East 52.6 19.2 41.7 46.4 36.7 29.8 46.7 37.3 28.2 32.8 36.0 19.6 24.4 1,346 North West 30.0 14.1 28.6 29.4 23.6 19.3 25.3 17.4 13.7 19.1 22.4 8.5 15.6 2,468 South East 90.1 64.9 82.5 79.6 70.9 52.4 85.3 73.9 65.9 69.9 72.6 44.4 47.1 353 South South 83.9 58.2 72.3 77.6 69.1 53.1 79.9 72.0 64.8 68.2 69.0 42.5 51.6 503 South West 85.6 60.4 78.3 80.1 72.9 59.7 81.6 73.2 66.4 68.4 71.7 50.2 57.3 698 Residence Urban 75.0 47.1 68.4 67.9 59.8 48.3 69.3 59.0 50.8 60.5 62.8 38.5 41.6 1,970 Rural 43.7 22.4 37.8 41.3 34.6 26.4 39.3 31.1 25.3 28.8 32.0 15.7 23.2 4,298 Sex Male 54.0 30.0 48.6 50.9 43.2 33.3 49.8 40.5 32.6 38.6 41.8 22.6 28.7 3,121 Female 53.0 30.4 46.3 48.5 41.8 33.2 47.7 39.3 34.1 38.9 41.6 23.1 29.3 3,147 Mother's Education None 23.9 8.4 22.2 26.8 21.4 17.3 19.2 13.5 8.9 14.3 17.0 5.2 11.0 1,355 Primary 60.7 33.3 52.0 53.8 46.8 35.2 55.0 46.1 38.5 42.4 46.4 24.1 32.0 896 Secondary 82.2 49.9 73.1 74.3 64.5 52.1 76.2 65.6 56.9 63.0 66.0 41.3 46.8 1,735 Higher 93.9 69.2 90.5 82.0 74.8 61.4 92.3 81.3 73.8 86.5 88.7 54.7 52.3 490 Missing 33.4 15.4 27.6 32.3 26.2 18.4 29.4 20.6 15.4 18.9 21.7 9.0 17.6 1,792 Mother's Age (Years) 15-19 30.2 17.5 26.1 27.7 22.3 15.3 22.8 18.2 14.7 19.2 20.5 7.4 15.0 377 20-29 52.0 29.3 47.0 48.7 40.9 33.0 46.8 38.0 32.1 37.6 39.7 22.2 28.9 2,873 30-39 60.0 34.5 53.2 55.5 48.4 37.3 55.8 46.5 38.6 43.9 48.3 26.7 33.0 2,324 40-49 49.3 24.7 39.2 46.1 40.8 31.2 47.0 36.4 30.5 36.0 38.2 21.2 24.0 587 50+ 52.8 32.7 50.4 43.5 36.4 24.3 45.3 39.0 32.9 42.9 43.6 20.6 21.1 93 Don’t know (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 14 Wealth index quintile Poorest 23.2 10.2 18.7 26.2 22 16.4 19.6 14.0 10.2 13.6 15.8 5.4 11.8 1,454 Second 39.0 17.3 33.6 38.5 31.2 23.8 34.3 25.7 20.0 23.2 27.2 11.2 19.3 1,370 Middle 54.7 30.0 48.4 48.4 40.8 32.0 49.0 39.0 32.5 38.3 41.1 22.2 30.8 1,205 Fourth 76.0 43.7 68.0 66.8 57.7 44.9 70.7 60.8 50.9 55.8 59.5 35.6 39.3 1,150 Richest 87.1 58.9 80.4 78.4 69.8 56.6 82.3 71.4 63.3 74.5 76.3 48.2 51.5 1,089 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 34.8 15.0 31.7 34.1 27.4 21.7 29.4 21.7 15.7 21.3 24.5 10.2 16.1 3,544 Igbo 89.2 64.3 83.1 79.3 70.2 52.2 85.4 73.7 66.1 72.3 74.6 45.3 48.7 523 Yoruba 86.9 62.4 79.7 81.6 74.5 60.8 84.1 74.9 67.2 71.1 75.0 51.1 55.6 612 Other ethnic group 70.6 40.5 58.4 62.5 54.8 42.2 66.0 55.8 48.9 54.3 56.4 32.9 41.1 1,590 [a] Includes: BCG, Polio3, DPT3, HepB3, Hib3, and Measles (*) Sample data are fewer than 25 unweighted cases P a g e | 56 Table CH.2A (MICS/NICS): Percentage of children 12-23 months with any evidence of vaccination (continued) Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against vaccine preventable childhood diseases, Nigeria 2016-17 Percentage of children who received: Card seen Children age 12- 23 months BCG HepB at Birth Polio Pentavalent Yellow fever Measles (MCV1) Fulla At birth 1 2 3 1 2 3 Total 53.5 30.2 47.4 49.7 42.5 33.2 48.7 39.9 33.3 38.8 41.7 22.9 29.0 6,268 State Abia 87.1 65.5 81.1 76.9 68.9 43.3 81.6 68.6 54.8 66.3 70.4 33.9 39.9 57 Adamawa 67.4 35.0 54.5 60.3 50.8 40.9 56.6 50.3 37.9 44.5 48.8 29.0 46.2 134 Akwa Ibom 82.4 59.3 70.6 75.8 70.9 58.7 80.2 73.4 68.4 64.2 63.7 44.2 46.8 120 Anambra 88.5 74.6 84.7 84.1 80.7 62.1 89.5 82.4 76.2 76.4 75.0 55.2 44.6 74 Bauchi 41.2 14.2 28.9 37.6 33.4 26.5 35.3 25.2 18.5 22.0 22.2 13.9 19.7 345 Bayelsa 65.9 33.9 48.2 63.8 55.3 35.4 61.2 50.3 42.6 45.8 51.6 28.5 37.0 41 Benue 66.4 53.9 62.9 66.4 62.7 45.1 68.3 59.5 57.4 50.6 53.6 37.0 37.9 132 Borno 80.6 24.1 66.1 69.4 50.7 41.5 72.9 63.9 47.7 50.8 58.1 31.5 31.9 421 Cross River 88.2 44.7 69.3 82.7 77.1 58.8 83.5 76.9 69.5 69.6 73.7 49.9 54.5 76 Delta 80.9 64.8 70.7 71.6 58.2 47.8 75.7 63.7 57.2 67.5 63.7 36.3 51.1 102 Ebonyi 82.5 61.5 77.6 69.6 60.6 46.9 79.7 66.2 54.4 56.4 57.6 35.0 49.7 59 Edo 96.7 69.5 89.4 86.9 78.1 52.7 88.6 86.1 74.5 83.8 86.1 45.7 55.9 81 Ekiti 86.5 56.1 84.3 76.5 71.7 57.9 87.1 80.1 72.2 70.3 80.1 48.0 65.5 30 Enugu 93.2 69.2 88.2 79.8 70.4 60.2 84.9 78.6 73.8 74.5 81.2 50.5 52.8 73 Gombe 54.4 29.9 45.0 50.1 41.2 35.9 44.7 29.1 25.0 30.5 32.4 16.7 25.8 122 Imo 95.6 55.3 80.2 83.9 71.2 47.7 88.1 71.7 65.6 72.0 74.6 43.5 47.5 91 Jigawa 25.6 11.2 26.0 15.8 10.2 6.7 19.5 9.0 7.1 9.0 10.4 1.8 11.8 337 Kaduna 51.4 26.8 40.9 39.8 36.7 34.4 43.7 32.5 29.5 42.7 43.1 24.9 23.1 376 Kano 33.7 11.4 29.4 27.3 18.9 13.7 27.9 20.9 15.9 22.3 24.1 9.5 19.6 554 Katsina 28.5 16.6 32.6 33.0 27.8 21.5 28.2 18.3 12.1 17.0 21.1 5.9 18.7 478 Kebbi 22.6 11.2 23.1 26.0 18.1 12.1 20.2 16.7 11.3 12.6 25.5 4.8 12.6 202 Kogi 73.3 46.9 62.7 60.3 46.9 36.4 63.7 47.6 38.4 55.7 65.0 29.9 41.5 89 Kwara 72.1 46.9 61.6 69.8 64.1 41.0 70.8 61.3 49.1 67.5 66.9 33.9 19.7 66 Lagos 92.9 70.8 88.5 91.0 86.2 74.7 93.6 85.6 80.2 84.9 88.0 68.1 67.5 244 Nasarawa 63.8 33.7 59.6 57.6 48.7 32.8 56.4 44.7 34.9 46.5 49.7 21.4 26.3 127 Niger 38.1 20.8 33.5 44.6 39.8 24.5 36.3 30.6 20.0 28.8 31.2 13.8 24.7 255 Ogun 80.0 57.2 75.7 69.2 57.8 48.0 71.1 58.9 52.1 56.5 58.7 35.0 45.0 72 Ondo 83.1 44.2 66.5 76.8 71.4 53.4 76.4 71.4 66.2 68.5 72.2 44.8 47.8 102 Osun 87.5 60.4 79.0 76.8 67.6 54.2 83.1 65.7 60.0 65.7 67.0 43.0 53.7 96 Oyo 77.1 56.9 69.7 72.7 63.6 49.5 69.1 64.9 54.1 49.2 53.1 37.4 53.9 155 Plateau 80.1 39.5 67.8 67.9 64.3 46.8 69.9 57.1 45.2 65.5 65.3 30.6 30.7 186 Rivers 82.0 61.7 75.0 80.7 70.4 56.0 82.0 72.8 66.0 69.4 70.7 44.8 60.0 82 Sokoto 16.3 4.6 12.6 15.1 10.1 7.1 9.4 5.2 2.9 6.4 9.8 2.2 5.2 218 Taraba 39.7 23.8 34.4 31.0 21.3 17.7 35.9 20.0 16.4 25.1 29.2 11.5 22.0 70 Yobe 16.3 2.8 12.1 15.2 12.6 9.4 17.5 11.3 8.7 14.6 14.7 6.5 7.0 253 Zamfara 19.0 11.0 23.4 42.8 37.9 35.2 14.7 9.5 8.9 12.2 16.2 4.9 8.2 303 FCT-Abuja 87.5 68.7 84.4 71.8 65.6 55.6 87.7 71.9 65.7 73.7 76.3 46.8 55.2 46 [a] Includes: BCG, Polio3, DPT3, HepB3, Hib3, and Measles P a g e | 57 Table CH.2B (MICS/NICS): Percentage of children 12-23 months with evidence of valid dose vaccination Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against vaccine preventable childhood diseases who receive vaccines at the recommended duration and frequency, Nigeria 2016-17 Percentage of children who received: Card seen Number of children age 12-23 months BCG HepB at Birth Polio Pentavalent Yellow fever Measles (MCV1) Fulla At birth 1 2 3 1 2 3 Total 25.6 10.6 12.1 24.1 20.3 12.9 25.1 22.0 14.2 14.8 15.0 8.2 29.0 6,268 Geopolitical Zone North Central 26.5 10.6 10.8 25.8 22.0 12.8 27.0 23.7 14.7 15.3 15.3 8.2 30.9 900 North East 21.5 6.5 8.6 18.3 14.9 8.3 19.8 16.2 9.5 10.0 10.1 5.1 24.4 1,346 North West 12.4 3.6 4.5 11.6 8.4 4.7 11.9 9.3 5.3 5.0 5.8 2.5 15.6 2,468 South East 43.9 22.9 23.9 43.4 39.2 24.9 44.7 41.2 28.6 28.4 28.2 16.5 47.1 353 South South 48.0 21.1 23.1 46.8 39.5 26.7 47.1 42.6 28.1 31.0 30.1 17.3 51.6 503 South West 53.2 29.9 33.2 51.0 47.7 34.5 53.9 51.8 36.7 39.3 39.4 23.8 57.3 698 Residence Urban 38.5 20.1 22.2 35.3 30.7 21.7 37.2 33.5 23.2 25.8 26.1 15.7 41.6 1,970 Rural 19.6 6.3 7.4 19.0 15.6 8.8 19.5 16.8 10.0 9.7 10.0 4.8 23.2 4,298 Sex Male 25.0 10.7 12.2 23.7 20.4 12.6 24.9 21.7 14.0 14.5 14.9 8.3 28.7 3,121 Female 26.1 10.5 11.9 24.5 20.3 13.1 25.3 22.3 14.4 15.0 15.2 8.1 29.3 3,147 Mother's Education None 8.3 0.8 1.2 6.7 4.6 3.3 7.3 5.1 3.5 1.6 1.8 0.8 11.0 1,355 Primary 27.7 9.2 11.2 27.6 22.7 13.6 28.1 24.9 15.1 14.7 14.7 7.7 32.0 896 Secondary 42.9 19.1 21.9 40.4 35.1 22.6 42.2 37.9 25.0 27.4 27.7 15.4 46.8 1,735 Higher 48.9 33.7 36.4 48.8 44.5 31.1 50.7 48.5 33.0 39.6 38.5 22.1 52.3 490 Missing 14.4 4.2 4.6 12.9 10.1 5.4 13.5 10.8 6.3 5.8 6.7 3.3 17.6 1,792 Mother's Age (Years) 15-19 12.1 2.7 3.6 11.5 8.9 4.5 11.1 9.8 5.3 4.8 6.1 1.8 15.0 377 20-29 25.7 9.6 11.1 24.3 20.2 12.2 25.0 21.6 13.6 14.3 14.3 7.7 28.9 2,873 30-39 29.3 14.2 15.7 27.2 23.5 15.6 28.9 25.7 17.0 18.0 18.2 10.0 33.0 2,324 40-49 20.5 7.2 8.5 20.1 17.0 10.9 21.4 18.8 12.2 11.8 12.4 7.2 24.0 587 50+ 15.3 7.3 7.4 14.6 13.0 11.4 15.3 14.0 11.4 9.3 10.4 9.6 21.1 93 Don’t know (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 14 Wealth index quintile Poorest 8.9 1.9 2.6 8.7 7.1 4.2 9.1 7.9 4.8 3.3 3.4 1.5 11.8 1,454 Second 15.4 3.6 4.5 15.2 11.2 5.5 15.5 12.1 6.6 6.7 7.1 2.5 19.3 1,370 Middle 27.8 9.4 11.7 25.2 20.7 10.7 26.5 22.1 13.3 13.3 13.9 6.2 30.8 1,205 Fourth 35.8 15.6 16.9 32.8 28.2 19.5 34.1 31.0 20.8 20.8 20.9 13.2 39.3 1,150 Richest 47.4 27.3 29.6 45.4 40.8 29.0 47.5 43.9 30.3 35.5 35.6 21.2 51.5 1,089 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 13.3 3.8 4.8 11.8 8.7 4.9 12.2 9.5 5.8 4.9 5.5 2.5 16.1 3,544 Igbo 44.6 24.0 25.4 41.7 37.4 25.5 44.7 41.0 27.5 31.4 31.1 16.9 48.7 523 Yoruba 51.0 28.4 32.9 49.9 46.6 32.7 52.1 50.1 35.5 37.7 38.3 23.6 55.6 612 Other ethnic group 37.0 14.6 15.9 35.7 30.6 18.7 37.1 32.8 20.4 22.5 22.2 12.2 41.1 1,590 [a] Includes: BCG, Polio3, DPT3, HepB3, Hib3, and Measles (*) Sample data are fewer than 25 unweighted cases P a g e | 58 Table CH.2B (MICS/NICS): Percentage of children 12-23 months with evidence of valid dose vaccination, (continued) Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against vaccine preventable childhood diseases who receive vaccines at the recommended duration and frequency, Nigeria 2016-17 Percentage of children who received: Card seen Children age 12- 23 months BCG HepB at Birth Polio Pentavalent Yellow fever Measles (MCV1) Fulla At birth 1 2 3 1 2 3 Total 25.6 10.6 12.1 24.1 20.3 12.9 25.1 22.0 14.2 14.8 15.0 8.2 29.0 6,268 State Abia 36.6 15.7 17.0 35.8 34.8 21.9 39.1 35.4 21.3 23.2 23.7 14.2 39.9 57 Adamawa 41.0 16.7 18.8 41.8 38.8 20.5 39.5 35.5 19.5 22.8 22.8 13.5 46.2 134 Akwa Ibom 44.1 22.2 24.3 45.7 41.5 32.9 44.4 42.4 33.4 28.4 27.5 19.9 46.8 120 Anambra 41.9 26.1 23.4 40.9 38.8 24.9 43.6 40.9 26.8 28.5 23.2 17.5 44.6 74 Bauchi 16.9 4.4 7.3 15.4 12.8 7.5 15.4 12.9 9.0 7.7 7.5 3.3 19.7 345 Bayelsa 35.5 9.3 10.4 32.9 28.7 17.7 33.9 32.4 22.1 23.0 23.0 13.7 37.0 41 Benue 30.1 11.3 11.3 35.2 25.7 16.5 35.6 28.9 20.7 18.1 19.2 12.2 37.9 132 Borno 29.9 9.3 11.7 21.8 17.1 9.0 25.9 20.8 11.0 13.7 13.7 6.5 31.9 421 Cross River 49.7 12.4 18.7 47.7 42.1 24.5 47.2 40.1 24.0 24.8 24.2 15.9 54.5 76 Delta 47.7 18.4 18.8 47.1 36.1 23.7 47.8 41.7 24.1 30.4 26.2 11.8 51.1 102 Ebonyi 46.5 15.1 18.9 46.1 40.3 23.4 45.1 42.1 30.4 22.1 25.0 10.9 49.7 59 Edo 48.8 27.1 28.7 45.2 41.8 27.2 46.9 44.5 27.3 37.0 39.0 23.5 55.9 81 Ekiti 56.8 37.1 41.1 55.8 53.5 39.6 63.5 60.2 47.6 41.3 45.6 28.1 65.5 30 Enugu 48.2 31.5 33.6 46.7 44.0 31.4 48.0 45.8 36.6 32.2 34.6 22.5 52.8 73 Gombe 23.0 4.1 8.6 18.8 13.9 9.4 20.4 15.7 11.2 8.2 8.6 6.8 25.8 122 Imo 45.2 23.0 24.2 45.8 37.9 22.6 46.2 41.1 27.1 32.7 32.0 15.9 47.5 91 Jigawa 7.9 1.5 2.0 6.5 3.7 1.0 8.1 5.8 4.0 2.6 3.6 0.0 11.8 337 Kaduna 21.9 11.4 12.1 21.3 19.1 11.4 21.3 18.5 11.2 15.8 16.1 9.5 23.1 376 Kano 16.4 1.4 4.0 13.8 9.1 5.0 14.3 11.1 5.8 5.6 5.8 2.9 19.6 554 Katsina 13.9 4.1 4.4 14.5 10.4 5.9 14.0 11.1 6.8 2.6 4.7 1.2 18.7 478 Kebbi 8.0 2.3 2.9 7.4 3.7 1.6 9.3 4.8 1.8 1.1 1.9 0.3 12.6 202 Kogi 34.3 12.8 12.1 34.4 28.2 18.7 35.8 29.4 20.3 21.7 22.5 12.6 41.5 89 Kwara 13.3 4.3 4.8 11.6 9.6 6.9 11.9 11.4 8.4 7.6 6.6 4.9 19.7 66 Lagos 62.7 41.6 42.8 60.4 57.4 41.6 65.1 64.1 42.7 55.1 54.9 31.0 67.5 244 Nasarawa 25.3 11.7 12.2 25.7 19.5 6.8 25.7 21.7 10.7 8.7 11.2 3.7 26.3 127 Niger 20.9 7.3 7.8 18.6 17.5 8.0 19.2 17.6 8.9 11.1 10.7 5.1 24.7 255 Ogun 44.7 23.2 28.1 41.5 40.9 30.4 41.5 40.1 30.9 29.9 25.5 18.5 45.0 72 Ondo 41.3 16.7 23.0 43.2 40.3 30.9 42.7 40.3 30.4 30.4 33.5 21.3 47.8 102 Osun 50.9 21.3 25.7 44.4 42.2 30.9 48.6 45.4 36.0 35.5 34.7 21.2 53.7 96 Oyo 50.8 26.9 30.2 48.7 42.9 28.9 50.6 47.6 32.4 26.7 27.0 17.6 53.9 155 Plateau 28.3 10.9 10.1 25.9 25.1 18.6 28.5 26.0 17.6 18.6 16.3 9.5 30.7 186 Rivers 58.1 31.0 31.8 55.8 41.4 27.5 57.1 49.6 32.9 39.1 39.2 17.0 60.0 82 Sokoto 2.2 0.9 0.3 2.7 0.9 0.7 1.9 1.2 0.7 0.7 1.6 0.7 5.2 218 Taraba 16.2 5.3 5.3 19.4 14.0 8.2 20.2 14.6 7.5 6.1 8.8 4.0 22.0 70 Yobe 4.4 0.5 0.9 3.6 2.0 1.6 4.8 3.3 2.0 2.2 2.2 0.0 7.0 253 Zamfara 6.4 2.4 2.8 6.1 4.1 2.6 5.6 4.1 2.1 2.4 2.9 0.7 8.2 303 FCT-Abuja 46.6 26.8 30.5 42.4 36.6 19.1 48.2 45.1 27.0 35.1 34.7 16.6 55.2 46 [a] Includes: BCG, Polio3, DPT3, HepB3, Hib3, and Measles P a g e | 59 Table CH.2C (MICS/NICS): Percentage of children 12-23 months who received first dose in a multi-dose sequence but failed to receive the final dose, The percentage and number of children who received the first dose of a vaccine and failed to receive subsequent dose(s), Nigeria 2016-17 OPV1 to OPV3 Penta1 to Penta3 Penta1 to MCV BCG to MCV Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Total 33.9 3,373 30.5 3,370 20.7 3,370 24.0 3,648 Geopolitical Zone North Central 35.4 735 32.6 757 17.7 757 19.7 809 North East 31.5 387 41.8 376 30.1 376 35.0 420 North West 36.2 558 47.3 480 28.1 480 34.6 563 South East 36.6 476 25.8 511 20.0 511 21.3 539 South South 34.7 622 21.5 636 16.4 636 19.0 667 South West 28.7 595 21.1 610 17.9 610 20.6 650 Residence Urban 31.3 1,266 26.6 1,313 14.9 1,313 17.7 1,403 Rural 35.5 2,107 33.1 2,057 24.4 2,057 28.0 2,245 Sex Male 34.5 1,686 32.0 1,686 21.2 1,686 24.5 1,819 Female 33.4 1,687 29.0 1,684 20.2 1,684 23.6 1,829 Mother's Education None 35.2 273 51.1 182 29.1 182 36.2 224 Primary 34.1 578 31.2 587 25.0 587 27.4 645 Secondary 32.5 1,502 27.5 1,577 18.6 1,577 20.8 1,677 Higher 27.9 466 18.4 517 7.4 517 8.8 532 Missing 42.2 554 44.2 507 32.5 507 39.1 570 Mother's Age (Years) 15-19 44.6 121 35.7 112 24.1 112 29.4 136 20-29 31.9 1,485 29.9 1,481 22.1 1,481 24.8 1,604 30-39 33.9 1,378 29.6 1,381 18.3 1,381 21.9 1,486 40-49 37.3 322 35.1 325 24.3 325 26.9 338 50+ 47.3 55 30.4 56 12.5 56 23.5 68 Don’t know (*) 12 (*) 15 (*) 15 (*) 16 Wealth index quintile Poorest 36.0 411 43.9 335 31.0 335 34.5 386 Second 38.0 579 39.2 531 29.6 531 33.5 591 Middle 34.2 679 30.8 692 22.7 692 26.6 758 Fourth 34.1 806 27.5 853 18.2 853 21.3 904 Richest 30.1 898 23.6 959 12.9 959 15.0 1,009 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 35.5 935 46.1 816 28.3 816 34.5 948 Igbo 35.4 628 24.6 682 18.3 682 19.2 712 Yoruba 28.8 573 23.3 593 14.2 593 16.2 623 Other ethnic group 34.4 1,237 27.1 1,279 20.1 1,279 22.9 1,365 (*) Sample data are fewer than 25 unweighted cases P a g e | 60 Table CH.2C (MICS/NICS): Percentage of children 12-23 months who received first dose in a multi-dose sequence but failed to receive the final dose, (continued) The percentage and number of children who received the first dose of a vaccine and failed to receive subsequent dose(s), Nigeria 2016-17 OPV1 to OPV3 Penta1 to Penta3 Penta1 to MCV BCG to MCV Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Total 33.9 3,373 30.5 3,370 20.7 3,370 24.0 3,648 State Abia 43.6 110 35.1 114 18.4 114 21.1 123 Adamawa 31.0 87 33.7 83 20.5 83 28.4 95 Akwa Ibom 24.8 125 15.8 133 20.3 133 22.1 136 Anambra 28.1 96 15.7 102 18.6 102 19.6 102 Bauchi 27.0 89 46.4 84 41.7 84 49.5 95 Bayelsa 48.4 95 30.3 89 22.5 89 26.0 96 Benue 35.4 99 17.6 102 22.5 102 22.8 101 Borno 42.0 50 34.0 50 24.0 50 29.1 55 Cross River 27.6 98 21.8 101 13.9 101 18.7 107 Delta 33.0 100 29.0 107 19.6 107 21.2 113 Ebonyi 32.0 75 30.6 85 29.4 85 28.7 87 Edo 41.3 121 15.4 123 8.1 123 11.4 132 Ekiti 24.2 66 17.6 74 13.5 74 13.7 73 Enugu 32.6 89 21.9 96 16.7 96 16.2 105 Gombe 26.3 99 43.3 90 35.6 90 42.1 107 Imo 43.4 106 25.4 114 18.4 114 22.1 122 Jigawa (53.7) 41 58.8 51 58.8 51 64.6 65 Kaduna 15.9 88 32.7 101 11.9 101 16.4 110 Kano 49.0 145 45.3 148 27.7 148 36.2 177 Katsina 34.1 85 58.3 72 31.9 72 34.7 72 Kebbi 48.4 62 (41.3) 46 (30.4) 46 24.1 54 Kogi 44.0 100 42.5 106 19.8 106 19.7 122 Kwara 40.2 82 30.5 82 7.3 82 7.1 84 Lagos 22.4 170 17.7 175 10.9 175 11.8 178 Nasarawa 42.0 100 38.1 97 18.6 97 24.3 107 Niger 41.4 87 37.3 67 22.4 67 28.6 70 Ogun 29.2 89 26.9 93 24.7 93 26.9 104 Ondo 33.6 107 14.6 103 12.6 103 17.2 116 Osun 29.4 68 30.1 73 24.7 73 27.6 76 Oyo 36.8 95 25.0 92 28.3 92 33.0 103 Plateau 30.6 144 38.0 150 18.7 150 21.5 172 Rivers 34.9 83 20.5 83 14.5 83 15.7 83 Sokoto (47.4) 38 (70.4) 27 (33.3) 27 (48.7) 39 Taraba (39.4) 33 (48.6) 35 (25.7) 35 (21.6) 37 Yobe (37.9) 29 (50.0) 34 (23.5) 34 (12.9) 31 Zamfara 18.2 99 (48.6) 35 (17.1) 35 (30.4) 46 FCT-Abuja 21.1 123 26.1 153 15.0 153 15.0 153 ( ) Sample data are based on 25-49 unweighted cases P a g e | 61 Table CH.2D (MICS/NICS): Timeliness of vaccination for children 12-23 months, Percentage and number of children with evidence of receiving vaccines at the recommended interval, Nigeria 2016-17 Timeliness of Dosesa,b Source of Timeliness Data Penta1 doses given before six weeks of agec Measles doses given before nine months of aged Penta intervals shorter than 28 dayse Card seen Number of children age 12-23 months Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Total 12.7 1,745 17.3 1,299 7.6 3,177 29.0 6,268 Geopolitical Zone North Central 12.1 340 17.8 253 9.6 657 30.9 900 North East 17.3 191 25.2 127 9.0 333 24.4 1,346 North West 13.2 219 29.3 147 9.1 331 15.6 2,468 South East 15.2 256 15.9 189 5.5 472 47.1 353 South South 11.0 355 15.5 278 8.2 649 51.6 503 South West 10.7 384 10.5 305 5.4 735 57.3 698 Sex Male 10.8 859 16.0 620 8.3 1,564 28.7 3,121 Female 14.6 886 18.6 679 6.9 1,613 29.3 3,147 Residence Urban 12.2 705 13.2 584 6.7 1,333 41.6 1,970 Rural 13.1 1,040 20.7 715 8.3 1,844 23.2 4,298 Mother's Education None 7.4 68 (48.8) 41 12.7 102 11.0 1,355 Primary 12.8 298 19.1 194 8.6 548 32.0 896 Secondary 12.2 867 15.5 673 7.0 1,603 46.8 1,735 Higher 12.4 283 13.4 254 7.0 554 52.3 490 Missing 16.6 229 21.9 137 8.4 370 17.6 1,792 Mother's Age (Years) 15-19 15.1 53 (21.2) 33 12.8 94 15.0 377 20-29 14.1 811 17.5 587 7.0 1,451 28.9 2,873 30-39 11.3 711 16.3 560 7.8 1,321 33.0 2,324 40-49 11.6 147 21.0 100 7.9 265 24.0 587 50+ (*) 19 (*) 15 (10.8) 37 21.1 93 Don’t know (*) 4 (*) 4 (*) 9 (*) 14 Wealth index quintile Poorest 12.8 149 26.4 87 8.4 263 11.8 1,454 Second 12.5 248 24.5 155 11.5 409 19.3 1,370 Middle 13.0 378 20.8 269 7.7 659 30.8 1,205 Fourth 13.3 444 14.9 335 7.3 827 39.3 1,150 Richest 12.2 526 12.8 453 6.1 1,019 51.5 1,089 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 12.9 365 29.7 239 9.0 588 16.1 3,544 Igbo 14.8 337 13.7 262 5.7 633 48.7 523 Yoruba 10.2 342 10.1 278 6.3 668 55.6 612 Other ethnic group 12.8 701 17.3 520 8.6 1,288 41.1 1,590 (*) Sample data are fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) Sample data are based on 25-49 unweighted cases P a g e | 62 Table CH.2D (MICS/NICS): Timeliness of vaccination for children 12-23 months (continued) Percentage and number of children with evidence of receiving vaccines at the recommended interval, Nigeria MICS/NICS 2016-17 Timeliness of Dosesa,b Source of Timeliness Data Penta1 doses given before six weeks of agec Measles doses given before nine months of aged Penta intervals shorter than 28 dayse Card seen Children age 12-23 months Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Total 12.7 1,745 17.3 1,299 7.6 3,177 29.0 6,268 State Abia 15.1 53 (17.1) 41 3.1 97 39.9 57 Adamawa 20.0 55 (25.0) 44 7.5 106 46.2 134 Akwa Ibom 13.4 67 13.7 51 1.5 132 46.8 120 Anambra 17.6 51 (23.5) 34 13.8 94 44.6 74 Bauchi (10.3) 39 (32.1) 28 9.9 71 19.7 345 Bayelsa (8.3) 48 (20.5) 39 3.7 82 37.0 41 Benue (4.3) 46 (17.2) 29 15.9 82 37.9 132 Borno (*) 22 (*) 12 (11.8) 34 31.9 421 Cross River 10.7 56 (30.0) 40 13.4 97 54.5 76 Delta 9.4 64 (15.6) 45 11.6 112 51.1 102 Ebonyi (20.8) 48 (24.2) 33 2.2 90 49.7 59 Edo 13.6 66 5.2 58 9.7 134 55.9 81 Ekiti 7.8 51 (5.0) 40 2.1 97 65.5 30 Enugu 12.0 50 (7.9) 38 2.2 92 52.8 73 Gombe (24.4) 45 (28.0) 25 5.3 76 25.8 122 Imo 11.1 54 (9.3) 43 6.1 99 47.5 91 Jigawa (*) 23 (*) 10 (5.6) 36 11.8 337 Kaduna (14.3) 49 (15.9) 44 11.5 87 23.1 376 Kano 13.2 76 41.2 51 8.0 112 19.6 554 Katsina (11.8) 34 (*) 17 (4.3) 47 18.7 478 Kebbi (*) 20 (*) 10 (*) 18 12.6 202 Kogi 8.8 57 (18.6) 43 8.2 98 41.5 89 Kwara (*) 15 (*) 11 (0.0) 34 19.7 66 Lagos 15.8 114 9.0 100 4.9 225 67.5 244 Nasarawa (17.8) 45 (28.6) 28 18.2 77 26.3 127 Niger (15.8) 38 (19.2) 26 6.8 73 24.7 255 Ogun 13.8 58 (15.0) 40 4.8 105 45.0 72 Ondo 5.5 55 (8.2) 49 6.9 116 47.8 102 Osun (8.9) 45 (8.8) 34 7.6 79 53.7 96 Oyo 6.6 61 (19.0) 42 7.1 113 53.9 155 Plateau 9.8 61 (18.8) 48 7.6 119 30.7 186 Rivers 9.3 54 (13.3) 45 9.8 92 60.0 82 Sokoto (*) 6 (*) 7 (*) 10 5.2 218 Taraba (*) 21 (*) 12 (13.3) 30 22.0 70 Yobe (*) 9 (*) 6 (*) 16 7.0 253 FCT-Abuja 16.7 78 11.8 68 8.0 174 55.2 46 [a] Estimates are from pooled MICS and NICS survey datasets [b] All timeliness percentages are unweighted estimates; all evidence of timely vaccination is from dates on home-based record (vaccination card) [c] Number of children with a recorded date of birth and recorded date of Penta1 vaccination [d] Number of children with a recorded date of birth and recorded date of Measles vaccination [e] Number of Penta1-to-Penta2 pairs plus the number of Penta2-to-Penta3 pairs where the dates of vaccination are recorded on the card (*) Sample data are fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) Sample data are based on 25-49 unweighted cases P a g e | 63 Table CH.2E MICS/NICS: Missed opportunities for vaccination (MOV) 12-23 months Overview of the percentage of children who had missed opportunities for vaccination, Nigeria 2016-17 Number of children age 12-23 months in survey Number of children 12-23 months who had card seen Weighted percent of children 12- 23 months who had card seen Number of children 12-23 months with card seen and 1+ age-eligible vaccination visits Number of children 12-23 months who experienced 1+ documented MOVs Percent of children with age-eligible visits who experienced 1+ MOVs Among children 1 with 1+ MOVs, percent who had ALL MOVs later corrected Among children 1 with 1+ MOVs, percent who had NO MOVs later corrected Among children 1 with 1+ MOVs, percent who had SOME BUT NOT ALL MOVs later corrected Total 6,268 2,019 29.0 1,912 1,704 89.1 22.4 27.9 49.8 Geopolitical Zone North Central 1,200 405 30.9 372 336 90.3 21.7 28.0 50.3 North East 909 230 24.4 216 199 92.1 9.5 36.7 53.8 North West 1,943 296 15.6 274 245 89.4 9.4 40.4 50.2 South East 607 277 47.1 271 228 84.1 28.1 21.5 50.4 South South 819 396 51.6 378 340 89.9 28.5 16.8 54.7 South West 790 415 57.3 401 356 88.8 29.5 28.9 41.6 Residence Urban 1,797 799 41.6 759 670 88.3 26.7 25.2 48.1 Rural 4,471 1,220 23.2 1,153 1,034 89.7 19.5 29.6 50.9 Sex Male 3,111 989 28.7 925 818 88.4 23.8 27.4 48.8 Female 3,157 1,030 29.3 987 886 89.8 21.0 28.3 50.7 Mother's Education None 1,073 104 11.0 96 88 91.7 6.8 51.1 42.0 Primary 1,014 350 32.0 326 296 90.8 16.2 28.0 55.7 Secondary 2,037 975 46.8 928 824 88.8 25.5 23.4 51.1 Higher 562 302 52.3 294 258 87.8 36.0 22.9 41.1 Missing 1,582 288 17.6 268 238 88.8 10.1 39.9 50.0 Mother's Age (Years) 15-19 351 67 15.0 61 56 91.8 19.6 21.4 58.9 20-29 2,830 934 28.9 884 780 88.2 20.8 28.7 50.5 30-39 2,337 815 33.0 779 697 89.5 24.8 27.0 48.2 40-49 608 173 24.0 162 149 92.0 19.5 30.2 50.3 50+ 122 24 21.1 21 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Don’t know 20 (*) (*) 5 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Wealth index quintile Poorest 1,368 188 11.8 168 154 91.7 9.1 37.7 53.2 Second 1,354 305 19.3 288 259 89.9 15.8 32.8 51.4 Middle 1,241 432 30.8 419 377 90.0 19.4 27.9 52.8 Fourth 1,169 507 39.3 482 433 89.8 24.2 24.2 51.5 Richest 1,136 587 51.5 555 481 86.7 30.8 25.4 43.9 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 2,791 472 16.1 438 404 92.2 12.4 38.1 49.5 Igbo 801 371 48.7 356 302 84.8 28.1 21.2 50.7 Yoruba 737 376 55.6 357 320 89.6 30.3 29.4 40.3 Other ethnic group 1,939 800 41.1 761 678 89.1 22.0 24.0 54.0 MOV = Missed opportunity for vaccination (*) Sample data are fewer than 25 unweighted cases P a g e | 64 Table CH.2E: Missed opportunity for vaccination (MOV) for children aged 12-23 months (continued) Overview of the percentage of children who had missed opportunities for vaccination, Nigeria 2016-17 Number of children age 12-23 months in survey Number of children 12-23 months who had card seen Weighted percent of children 12-23 months who had card seen Number of children 12-23 months with card seen and 1+ age- eligible vaccination visits Number of children 12-23 months who experienced 1+ documented MOVs Percent of children with age-eligible visits who experienced 1+ MOVs Among children 1 with 1+ MOVs, percent who had ALL MOVs later corrected Among children 1 with 1+ MOVs, percent who had NO MOVs later corrected Among children 1 with 1+ MOVs, percent who had SOME BUT NOT ALL MOVs later corrected Total 6,268 2,019 29.0 1,912 1,704 89.1 22.4 27.9 49.8 State Abia 145 58 39.9 57 50 87.7 16.0 18.0 66.0 Adamawa 139 66 46.2 61 57 93.4 7.0 35.1 57.9 Akwa Ibom 167 73 46.8 72 63 87.5 25.4 22.2 52.4 Anambra 115 51 44.6 51 37 72.5 40.5 21.6 37.8 Bauchi 221 48 19.7 45 (42) (93.3) (4.8) (40.5) (54.8) Bayelsa 146 52 37.0 50 47 94.0 38.3 23.4 38.3 Benue 152 52 37.9 50 50 100.0 16.0 26.0 58.0 Borno 74 25 31.9 25 (23) (92.0) (8.7) (26.1) (65.2) Cross River 122 66 54.5 61 54 88.5 22.2 18.5 59.3 Delta 146 70 51.1 67 62 92.5 24.2 11.3 64.5 Ebonyi 103 53 49.7 51 46 90.2 17.4 19.6 63.0 Edo 138 77 55.9 71 60 84.5 35.0 15.0 50.0 Ekiti 84 54 65.5 53 53 100.0 1.9 30.2 67.9 Enugu 115 55 52.8 53 41 77.4 34.1 22.0 43.9 Gombe 197 54 25.8 50 46 92.0 13.0 32.6 54.3 Imo 129 60 47.5 59 54 91.5 35.2 25.9 38.9 Jigawa 266 33 11.8 27 (24) (88.9) (8.3) (41.7) (50.0) Kaduna 194 55 23.1 54 43 79.6 25.6 20.9 53.5 Kano 530 103 19.6 98 93 94.9 6.5 44.1 49.5 Katsina 253 45 18.7 43 (39) (90.7) (5.1) (48.7) (46.2) Kebbi 214 28 12.6 26 (23) (88.5) (4.3) (43.5) (52.2) Kogi 168 68 41.5 62 59 95.2 28.8 28.8 42.4 Kwara 119 23 19.7 18 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Lagos 187 121 67.5 117 94 80.3 46.8 27.7 25.5 Nasarawa 167 47 26.3 46 (41) (89.1) (22.0) (29.3) (48.8) Niger 188 49 24.7 46 (42) (91.3) (7.1) (35.7) (57.1) Ogun 132 61 45.0 60 54 90.0 42.6 16.7 40.7 Ondo 147 64 47.8 59 54 91.5 13.0 42.6 44.4 Osun 88 47 53.7 46 (41) (89.1) (31.7) (24.4) (43.9) Oyo 152 68 53.9 66 60 90.9 28.3 31.7 40.0 Plateau 226 69 30.7 65 59 90.8 23.7 22.0 54.2 Rivers 100 58 60.0 57 54 94.7 27.8 11.1 61.1 Sokoto 245 14 5.2 12 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Taraba 98 23 22.0 23 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Yobe 180 14 7.0 12 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Zamfara 241 18 8.2 14 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) FCT-Abuja 180 97 55.2 85 69 81.2 20.3 29.0 50.7 MOV = Missed opportunity for vaccination (*) Sample data are fewer than 25 unweighted cases, ( ) Sample data are based on 25-49 unweighted cases P a g e | 65 Table CH.2F MICS/NICS: Places Children Receive Vaccines Percentage showing places where children received their vaccinations, Nigeria 2016-17 Government hospital Government health centre Mobile / Outreach clinic by government services Private facility (including NGO) Campaigns / Supplementary immunization activities Other Number of children Total 28.2 55.4 8.5 5.3 22.5 1.4 4,203 Geopolitical Zone North Central 36.5 51.6 11.6 5.2 24.9 0.3 905 North East 28.8 50.4 8.3 1.0 25.2 0.0 520 North West 39.9 23.7 8.5 1.4 33.8 4.5 843 South East 15.3 75.5 4.3 12.3 14.4 0.4 555 South South 25.5 66.7 7.7 5.9 20.5 1.1 697 South West 15.4 75.3 8.6 7.2 12.0 1.0 683 Residence Urban 35.4 54.3 8.0 8.2 15.7 1.5 1,493 Rural 24.2 55.9 8.7 3.7 26.3 1.3 2,710 Sex Male 29.5 54.2 8.9 5.2 21.3 1.3 2,105 Female 26.9 56.5 8.1 5.3 23.7 1.5 2,098 Mother's Education None 30.5 22.7 11.2 0.0 39.1 6.0 384 Primary 26.3 59.5 9.3 5.4 22.8 0.8 723 Secondary 29.2 63.9 7.1 5.9 15.9 0.6 1,771 Higher 34.9 56.9 6.5 11.8 14.6 0.7 541 Missing 21.8 47.3 11.0 1.9 34.4 1.8 784 Mother's Age (Years) 15-19 22.9 59.4 12.4 0.6 24.1 2.4 170 20-29 28.4 55.2 8.0 4.9 22.3 1.2 1,855 30-39 28.5 55.7 7.7 6.5 21.7 1.4 1,680 40-49 28.0 52.5 12.1 4.0 25.2 1.5 404 50+ 32.1 55.1 7.7 3.8 21.8 0.0 78 Don’t know (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 16 Wealth index quintile Poorest 20.3 41.8 10.8 1.4 39.8 3.2 586 Second 23.1 51.3 10.2 3.1 27.5 2.4 754 Middle 24.6 60.4 10.7 5.2 24.2 1.0 861 Fourth 31.8 60.9 5.9 6.1 15.8 0.6 957 Richest 35.9 56.7 6.6 8.4 14.1 0.6 1,045 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 34.9 33.5 9.4 1.5 33.1 2.9 1,331 Igbo 21.7 70.1 4.5 11.5 14.5 0.3 738 Yoruba 21.2 71.0 10.1 6.0 13.1 1.1 655 Other ethnic group 28.4 60.8 9.0 5.3 21.1 0.7 1,479 (*) Sample data are fewer than 25 unweighted cases P a g e | 66 Table CH.2F (MICS/NICS): Places Children Receive Vaccines (continued) Percentage showing places where children received their vaccinations, Nigeria 2016-17 Government hospital Government health centre Mobile / Outreach clinic by government services Private facility (including NGO) Campaigns / Supplementary immunization activities Other Number of children Total 28.2 55.4 8.5 5.3 22.5 1.4 4,203 State Abia 18.9 78.7 4.7 4.7 12.6 0.0 127 Adamawa 27.2 63.1 5.8 1.9 5.8 0.0 103 Akwa Ibom 27.1 74.3 7.1 3.6 35.7 1.4 140 Anambra 23.4 59.8 5.6 18.7 24.3 0.9 107 Bauchi 21.0 46.4 7.2 0.7 35.5 0.0 138 Bayelsa 14.7 71.6 5.5 1.8 32.1 0.9 109 Benue 27.3 60.0 18.2 4.5 10.9 0.9 110 Borno 46.8 32.3 24.2 0.0 22.6 0.0 62 Cross River 13.9 83.3 8.3 0.9 30.6 1.9 108 Delta 23.7 66.9 2.5 6.8 8.5 0.0 118 Ebonyi 13.6 79.5 2.3 10.2 8.0 0.0 88 Edo 47.8 35.8 7.5 14.9 4.5 1.5 134 Ekiti 5.1 89.9 0.0 1.3 13.9 1.3 79 Enugu 12.8 70.6 4.6 20.2 14.7 0.0 109 Gombe 28.0 51.5 6.1 1.5 38.6 0.0 132 Imo 8.1 87.1 4.0 8.9 12.1 0.8 124 Jigawa 20.5 29.1 15.4 0.0 49.6 0.0 117 Kaduna 58.7 32.2 2.5 5.0 31.4 0.0 121 Kano 57.5 18.3 3.7 1.4 21.5 0.5 219 Katsina 21.0 30.3 10.1 1.7 44.5 0.0 119 Kebbi 35.2 31.8 1.1 0.0 54.5 0.0 88 Kogi 56.3 32.6 8.1 13.3 7.4 0.7 135 Kwara 31.1 57.8 13.3 3.3 16.7 0.0 90 Lagos 12.2 74.4 2.8 13.9 2.8 0.0 180 Nasarawa 26.0 52.0 10.6 2.4 33.3 0.0 123 Niger 30.7 38.6 16.8 4.0 28.7 0.0 101 Ogun 20.5 71.4 24.1 8.9 9.8 3.6 112 Ondo 12.1 84.7 10.5 0.0 14.5 0.0 124 Osun 24.1 67.1 13.9 6.3 26.6 2.5 79 Oyo 20.2 65.1 2.8 7.3 14.7 0.0 109 Plateau 31.6 55.1 6.4 2.7 33.7 0.5 187 Rivers 19.3 75.0 18.2 5.7 10.2 1.1 88 Sokoto 42.4 12.1 6.1 1.5 45.5 3.0 66 Taraba (20.5) (70.5) (6.8) (0.0) (6.8) (0.0) 44 Yobe (43.9) (34.1) (2.4) (0.0) (19.5) (0.0) 41 Zamfara 27.4 13.3 23.0 0.0 9.7 31.0 113 FCT-Abuja 46.5 62.3 12.6 5.7 34.6 0.0 159 ( ) Sample data are based on 25-49 unweighted cases P a g e | 67 Neonatal Tetanus Protection The strategy for preventing maternal and neonatal tetanus is to ensure that all pregnant women receive at least two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine. If a woman has not received at least two doses of tetanus toxoid during a particular pregnancy, she (and her newborn) are also considered to be protected against tetanus if the woman: • Received at least two doses of tetanus toxoid vaccine, the last within the previous 3 years; • Received at least 3 doses, the last within the previous 5 years; • Received at least 4 doses, the last within the previous 10 years; • Received 5 or more doses anytime during her life. Table CH.3: Neonatal tetanus protection Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years protected against neonatal tetanus, Nigeria,2016-17 Percentage of women who received at least 2 doses during last pregnancy Percentage of women who did not receive two or more doses during last pregnancy but received: Protected against tetanus1 Number of women with a live birth in the last 2 years 2 doses, the last within prior 3 years 3 doses, the last within prior 5 years 4 doses, the last within prior 10 years 5 or more doses during lifetime Total 47.7 7.0 0.4 0.2 0.1 55.3 11,547 Geopolitical zone North Central 43.4 6.0 0.2 0.2 0.2 49.9 1,770 North East 47.1 8.3 0.5 0.3 0.1 56.3 2,394 North West 34.1 7.6 0.5 0.0 0.0 42.2 4,603 South East 79.8 3.6 0.2 0.2 0.0 83.9 620 South South 70.3 6.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 76.5 900 South West 72.8 6.2 0.4 0.5 0.0 79.9 1,261 Residence Urban 66.4 8.9 0.6 0.2 0.0 76.2 3,426 Rural 39.8 6.3 0.3 0.1 0.1 46.5 8,121 Mother’s Education None 29.8 7.0 0.1 0.2 0.1 37.3 3,208 Non-formal 28.1 5.5 0.4 0.0 0.0 34.0 2,560 Primary 52.0 9.4 0.3 0.2 0.0 61.9 1,716 Secondary 69.8 6.9 0.6 0.2 0.0 77.4 3,182 Higher 81.7 7.4 0.6 0.4 0.1 90.2 882 Wealth index quintile Poorest 20.6 4.8 0.2 0.0 0.0 25.6 2,587 Second 34.0 6.7 0.4 0.3 0.0 41.4 2,548 Middle 52.3 6.9 0.2 0.1 0.0 59.6 2,270 Fourth 65.2 9.5 0.5 0.0 0.2 75.4 2,113 Richest 76.0 7.9 0.7 0.4 0.0 85.0 2,028 Ethnicity of household head Hausa 35.9 7.6 0.5 0.1 0.1 44.2 6,543 Igbo 79.4 4.6 0.3 0.2 0.0 84.4 923 Yoruba 71.3 6.9 0.3 0.5 0.1 79.1 1,096 Other ethnic group 55.0 6.6 0.3 0.2 0.0 62.1 2,985 1 MICS indicator 3.9 - Neonatal tetanus protection P a g e | 68 Table CH.3: Neonatal tetanus protection (continued) Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years protected against neonatal tetanus, Nigeria, 2016-17 Percentage of women who received at least 2 doses during last pregnancy Percentage of women who did not receive two or more doses during last pregnancy but received: Protected against tetanus1 Number of women with a live birth in the last 2 years 2 doses, the last within prior 3 years 3 doses, the last within prior 5 years 4 doses, the last within prior 10 years 5 or more doses during lifetime Total 47.7 7.0 0.4 0.2 0.1 55.3 11,547 State Abia 89.4 1.8 0.0 1.2 0.0 92.4 99 Adamawa 53.4 11.1 0.0 0.5 0.0 65.0 264 Akwa Ibom 68.0 5.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 73.9 228 Anambra 78.2 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 82.3 140 Bauchi 33.9 11.2 0.6 0.9 0.0 46.6 618 Bayelsa 62.4 2.9 0.4 0.0 0.0 65.7 73 Benue 50.7 1.9 0.6 0.3 0.0 53.5 271 Borno 70.5 7.4 0.9 0.0 0.0 78.9 692 Cross River 71.5 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 72.8 162 Delta 58.5 9.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 68.4 173 Ebonyi 61.7 3.4 1.3 0.0 0.0 66.4 111 Edo 81.7 10.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 91.9 101 Ekiti 66.1 9.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 75.8 54 Enugu 79.3 6.8 0.0 0.3 0.0 86.4 105 Gombe 45.2 11.1 1.0 0.4 0.8 58.4 236 Imo 87.7 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 90.2 164 Jigawa 25.0 15.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 40.7 595 Kaduna 63.4 6.8 0.6 0.0 0.0 70.8 663 Kano 43.0 10.3 0.4 0.1 0.0 53.8 1,038 Katsina 30.9 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 35.6 916 Kebbi 16.8 7.7 0.5 0.0 0.0 25.1 398 Kogi 61.2 12.3 0.0 0.0 0.5 74.0 133 Kwara 50.4 9.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 59.5 115 Lagos 80.8 5.2 0.6 0.0 0.0 86.7 429 Nasarawa 49.7 6.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 55.6 244 Niger 26.6 6.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 32.7 527 Ogun 67.9 7.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 75.5 132 Ondo 69.1 10.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 80.0 163 Osun 78.9 3.1 1.6 0.0 0.0 83.6 161 Oyo 64.2 5.6 0.0 1.7 0.0 71.5 322 Plateau 44.3 5.1 0.4 0.5 0.9 51.2 392 Rivers 81.1 6.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 87.6 163 Sokoto 17.8 3.8 0.4 0.0 0.0 22.0 409 Taraba 30.7 9.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 39.8 173 Yobe 31.4 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 33.1 410 Zamfara 22.4 3.5 0.7 0.0 0.0 26.6 583 FCT Abuja 63.3 8.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 71.3 89 1 MICS indicator 3.9 - Neonatal tetanus protection P a g e | 69 Care of Illness Table CH.4: Reported disease episodes Percentage of children age 0-59 months for whom the mother/caretaker reported an episode of diarrhoea, symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), and/or fever in the last two weeks, Nigeria, 2016-17 Percentage of children who in the last two weeks had: Number of children age 0-59 months An episode of diarrhoea Symptoms of ARI An episode of fever Total 14.3 3.0 25.4 28,085 Geopolitical zones North Central 8.9 1.9 17.9 4,616 North East 18.4 4.8 29.9 6,041 North West 19.2 3.7 30.3 10,635 South East 5.6 1.1 21.0 1,550 South South 4.9 0.9 22.4 2,273 South West 8.3 0.9 14.9 2,968 Sex Male 14.8 3.2 26.0 14,213 Female 13.7 2.7 24.8 13

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