Networking for Policy Change: An Advocacy Training Manual

Publication date: 1999

Networking for Policy Change An Advocacy Training Manual The POLICY Project THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL First Printing October 1999 POLICY is a five-year project funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development under Contract No. CCP-C-00-95-00023-04, beginning September 1, 1995. It is implemented by The Futures Group International in collaboration with Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA). For more information, please contact: Director, The POLICY Project The Futures Group International 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000 Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 775-9680 Fax: (202) 775-9694 E-mail: policyinfo@tfgi.com Internet: http://www.tfgi.com THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL Acknowledgments In writing this manual, The Policy Project benefited from the work and experiences of other professionals in the fields of advocacy, management, and policy analysis. The manual elaborates on the work of others and incorporates new and creative approaches to promote participatory policy processes for family planning and reproductive health. The POLICY Project gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals: Technical Writers: Barbara Boyd, Susan Homer, Frances Houck, Sue Richiedei, and Taly Valenzuela. Technical Reviewers: Adrienne Allison, Barbara Crane, Kristina Engstrom, Inday Feranil, Norine Jewell, Jeff Jordan, Nancy McGirr, Elizabeth Schoenecker, Dianne Sherman, and Janet Smith. The views expressed in this manual do not necessarily reflect those of USAID. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS Networking for Policy Change: An Advocacy Training Manual Table of Contents Introduction i Section I The Power of Numbers: Networking for Impact 1 Unit 1 What Are Advocacy Networks? 3 Unit 2 Effective Communication: Understanding One Another 14 Unit 3 Cooperation Not Competition: Building a Team 27 Unit 4 Decision Making: Reaching Group Consensus 41 Unit 5 Mission Statements: Creating a Common Purpose 49 Unit 6 Putting It All Together: Managing the Network 57 Section II Actors, Issues, and Opportunities: Assessing the Policy Environment 1 Unit 1 The Policy Process: Government in Action 3 Unit 2 Decision Making for Reproductive Health: 11 Unit 3 Prioritizing Policy Issues: Making the Best Matches 19 Section III The Advocacy Strategy: Mobilizing for Action 1 Unit 1 What Is Advocacy? 2 Unit 2 Issues, Goals, and Objectives: Building the Foundation 23 Unit 3 Target Audiences: Identifying Support and Opposition 35 Unit 4 Messages: Informing, Persuading, and Moving to Action 46 Unit 5 Data Collection: Bridging the Gap between 60 Unit 6 Fundraising: Mobilizing Resources 87 Unit 7 Implementation: Developing an Action Plan 94 Unit 8 Monitoring and Evaluation 103 Additional Resources Analyzing the Policy Climate Communities and Policymakers THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL INTRODUCTION i Introduction The follow up [to the ICPD] is in the hands of the people. We have to be careful we don't let governments off the hook. Sandra Kabir, Founder/President Bangladesh Women’s Health Coalition Purpose of the Manual It is through advocacy—a set of targeted actions in support of a specific cause— that a supportive and self-sustaining environment for family planning and reproductive health goals can be created. This training manual was prepared to help representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and other formal groups of civil society form and maintain advocacy networks and develop effective family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) advocacy skills. The manual’s tools and approaches can be used to affect FP/RH policy decisions at the international, national, regional, and local levels. The power of participatory processes to advance family planning and reproductive health goals is reflected in the success of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). At the ICPD, 179 countries reached agreement on a program of action. This striking outcome was the result of a lengthy preparatory process that benefited from NGO collaboration and the participation of diverse groups representing the interests of women, the environment, family health providers, and religious organizations. Numerous official country delegations to the ICPD included NGO representatives who participated in drafting successive versions of the program of action and the ICPD final report. To assist countries in furthering FP/RH goals and recommendations, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) established the POLICY Project. POLICY’s mandate supports the creation of a supportive environment for family planning and reproductive health programs through the promotion of participatory policy processes and population policies that respond to client needs. To help ensure that governments follow through on the commitments they made in Cairo, the POLICY Project provides technical assistance and training to NGOs and networks to help their representatives act as forceful advocates during the policy formulation and implementation process. By serving as effective agents for change, these representatives can ensure that victories are sustained. They can hold decision makers accountable over time. In this way, they help make certain that appropriate policies, laws, programs, and resource allocations are in place to enable men and women to make substantive choices about the size and well-being of their families. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL INTRODUCTION ii How the Manual Is Organized The manual is based on the principle that advocacy strategies and methods can be learned. It is organized around a well-developed model—tested over time and within diverse cultures—for accomplishing advocacy objectives. The components of the model are the same regardless of the advocacy goals—whether for a campaign to secure a national law protecting women’s rights, to increase the range of contraceptive methods available, or to secure local funding for a new primary school. The building blocks of advocacy are the formation of networks, the identification of political opportunities, and the organization of campaigns. The manual includes a section on each of these building blocks, with specific subjects presented in individual units. Each section begins with a general introduction to the topic. Units within each section contain background notes, learning objectives, and handouts. The approximate time required to complete each unit is indicated as are the needed materials and preparation. Within each unit, activities such as role- plays, discussions, and brainstorming are presented to help participants internalize their learning. Each unit concludes with a brief summary and a preview of the next unit. While the manual can be used in its entirety, it is designed to be used in sections depending on the particular needs of the network. For example, if a group of NGOs has already formed a network and has decided it needs a better understanding of both the policy process and how to become skilled advocates, a workshop could be organized on Sections II and III. To take another example, if NGOs are interested in forming an advocacy network or making their existing network function more effectively, it would be appropriate to organize a workshop on Section I. By focusing only on the introduction to each section and the background notes for each unit, networks can also use the manual as a general reference on advocacy without undertaking any specific training activities. Training Methodology This manual is based on the following adult learning principles: • The learning is self-directed. • It fills an immediate need and is highly participatory. • Learning is experiential (i.e., participants and the trainer learn from one another). • Time is allowed for reflection and corrective feedback. • A mutually respectful environment is created between trainer and participants. • A safe atmosphere and comfortable environment are provided. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL INTRODUCTION iii Training techniques used in this manual include the following: Presentations - activities conducted by the facilitator or a resource specialist to convey information, theories, or principles; Case Study Scenarios - written descriptions of real-life situations used for analysis and discussion; Role-Plays - two or more individuals enacting parts in scenarios as related to a training topic; Simulations - enactments of real-life situations; and Small Group Discussions - participants sharing experiences and ideas or solving a problem together. Role of the Facilitator It is the responsibility of the facilitator to present each unit’s background material and activities as clearly as possible. Skills used to enhance communication include the following: Nonverbal Communication • Maintain eye contact with everyone in the group when speaking. Try not to favor certain participants. • Move around the room without distracting the group. Avoid pacing or addressing the group from a place where you cannot be easily seen. • React to what people say by nodding, smiling, or engaging in other actions that show you are listening. • Stand in front of the group, particularly at the beginning of the session. It is important to appear relaxed and at the same time be direct and confident. Verbal Communication • Ask open-ended questions that encourage responses. If a participant responds with a simple yes or no, ask “Why do you say that?” • Ask other participants if they agree with a statement someone makes. • Be aware of your tone of voice. Speak slowly and clearly. • Avoid using slang or other “special” language. • Be sure that participants talk more than you do. • Let participants answer each others’ questions. Say “Does anyone have an answer to that question?” • Encourage participants to speak and provide them with positive reinforcement. • Paraphrase statements in your own words. You can check your understanding of what participants are saying and reinforce statements. • Keep the discussion moving forward and in the direction you want. Watch for disagreements and draw conclusions. • Reinforce statements by sharing a relevant personal experience. You might say “That reminds me of something that happened last year.” • Summarize the discussion. Be sure that everyone understands the main points. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL INTRODUCTION iv Effective facilitation includes the following: Setting the Learning Climate • Read each unit and review all materials and activities before each training session so that you are fully comfortable with the content and process. • Start on time and clearly establish yourself as the facilitator by calling the group together. • Organize all the materials you need for the session and place them close at hand, stay within the suggested time frames. • Gain participants’ attention and interest by creating comfort between yourself and them. • Anticipate questions. • Prepare responses and examples to help move the discussion forward. Presenting the Objectives • Provide a link between previous units and the current one. • Use the background notes that begin each unit to introduce the topic under consideration. • Inform participants of what they will do during the session to achieve the unit’s objectives. Initiating the Learning Experience • Introduce, as appropriate, an activity in which participants experience a situation relevant to the objectives of the unit. • Let participants use the experience as a basis for discussion during the next step. • If you begin a unit with a presentation, follow it with a more participatory activity. Reflecting on the Experience • Guide discussion of the experience. • Encourage participants to share their reactions to the experience. • Engage participants in problem-solving discussions. • See that participants receive feedback on their work from each other and from you. Discussing Lessons Learned • Ask participants to identify key points that emerged from the experience and the discussion. • Help participants draw general conclusions from the experience. Allow time for reflection. Applying Lessons Learned to Real-life Situations • Encourage participants to discuss how the information learned in the activity will be helpful in their own work. • Discuss problems participants might experience in applying or adapting what they have learned to their own or different situations. • Discuss what participants might do to help overcome difficulties they encounter when applying their new learning. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL INTRODUCTION v Providing Closure • Briefly summarize the activities at the end of each unit. • Refer to the objective(s) and discuss whether and how they were achieved. • Discuss what else is needed for better retention or further learning in the subject area. • Provide linkages between the unit and the rest of the workshop. • Help participants leave with positive feelings about what they have learned. Covering All the Details • Prepare all training materials (resources for research, reference materials, handouts, visual aids, and supplies) and deal with logistics (venue, tea breaks, and audio-visual equipment) in advance. • Clarify everyone’s roles and areas of responsibility if other facilitators are helping to conduct the training. Meet with the co-facilitators daily to monitor the progress of the workshop and to provide each other with feedback. • Ask participants to evaluate the training both daily and at the end of the workshop. • Plan follow-up activities and determine additional training needs. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POWER OF NUMBERS: NETWORKING FOR IMPACT Introduction Why do you hear so much about networking today? Probably because it is working! Just look at the success of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and the role of NGOs in securing agreement from 179 countries on a program of action, and consider the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize that was awarded to the coordinator of the International Campaign to Ban Land Mines, a coalition of more than 1,000 NGOs in 60 countries. Clearly, networks are thriving. Networking is simply a process for initiating and maintaining contact with individuals and organizations that share or support common goals and agree to work together to achieve those goals. Through advocacy, networks can engage in high-level dialogue with policymakers and other influential leaders on broad policy issues and national policies. For family planning and reproductive health (FP/RH), networks might identify issues for advocacy campaigns that focus on such goals as the elimination of tariffs on imported contraceptives or the enactment of a national population policy. Policy issues at the operational level are another potential focus for a campaign. Such issues might deal with the formulation of specific resource allocation and service delivery guidelines. Advocacy includes both single-issue, time-limited campaigns and ongoing work undertaken by a network around a range of issues—conducted at the national, regional, or local level. By generating public support for reproductive health issues and linking them to other important social and economic topics under consideration by policymakers— such as poverty alleviation and job creation—a network can help change the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of major decision makers. At the same time, a network can help ensure that more appropriate and representative policies and resource allocations are in place for FP/RH activities. Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. Margaret Mead Advocacy Networks at Work KIDOG is a Turkish NGO network dedicated to improving the health, education, and legal status of women through advocacy. When KIDOG learned that the Ministry of Health had not allocated sufficient funds to maintain the current level of contraceptive commodities available through the public health system, the network went to work—fast. Within two months, KIDOG members organized a national press conference to bring the commodity issue to the attention of the media and developed a plan to target key decision makers. Their hard work paid off when they were granted a meeting with the president of Turkey to present their position on the issue. Based on a specific request made by KIDOG, President Demirel wrote to the Prime Minister to ask that funds be allocated to purchase the necessary commodities. Advocacy is a set of targeted actions directed at decision makers in support of a specific policy issue. Advocacy Networks are groups of organizations and individuals working together to achieve changes in policy, law, or programs for a particular issue. I-1 UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS? The purpose of Section I of this manual is to help participants—whether they are forming a new network or solidifying an existing network—understand that effective networking for advocacy doesn’t happen by itself. Before a network can even begin its advocacy efforts, members must create a network identity, strengthen and practice communication skills, define decision-making processes, and inventory the skills and resources represented among its members. I-2 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I What Are Advocacy Networks? Background Notes Networks are universal. Whether acknowledged as such or not, most people belong to formal or informal groups—or networks—organized around family life, jobs, religious activities, or recreational interests. People routinely use their personal and professional networks for a variety of reasons—looking for a job, raising funds for a school or community center, campaigning for a politician, or pressing leaders to expand the services available at the local clinic. Networks are invaluable in policy advocacy because they create structures for organizations and individuals to share ownership of common goals. In the area of reproductive health, a network’s membership usually will include representatives of NGOs, women’s groups, community organizations, and professional associations made up of nurses, midwives, physicians, or lawyers. Local religious and traditional leaders are potential members whose perspective and influence could be invaluable in achieving the network’s objectives. A network’s advocacy issues will depend upon local political realities and the opportunities for change that exist as well as the specific interests of network members. The possibilities with respect to reproductive health are numerous, ranging from increasing national funding for contraceptive commodities to providing family life education for in-school youth to efforts such as banning girl trafficking or lifting import regulations on contraceptives. To be successful advocates, networks need to be well organized and operate efficiently. Their founding members have to bring together the resources, time, energy, and talents of many different people and organizations and then skillfully take advantage of opportunities to influence the policy process on behalf of their goals and objectives. When they succeed, networks help create a supportive and self-sustaining environment for reproductive health. What’s in a Name? In order to avoid confusion, Networks or Advocacy Networks will be used throughout the manual. POLICY partners in different countries use different names for their advocacy groups—some are called networks and others are called coalitions. The structures and procedures ascribed to these groups also vary. For example, in Bolivia, networks are highly structured and ongoing while in Romania coalitions are structured and ongoing and networks are informal and loose. The name chosen by an advocacy group is unimportant. What matters is that the entire membership understands and agrees on the name, the structure, and the operating procedures. I-3 UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS? OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 ACTIVITY 2 By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Define and list the benefits of networking; • Identify a network of individuals and organizations within their own personal and professional lives; and • Develop a list of elements needed to form and maintain successful networks. 4 hours and 20 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • The front page of a local newspaper with the main headline cut out for Activity 6 • Copies of handouts I.1.1 Background Notes I.1.2 Elements for Forming and Maintaining Networks Read Introduction to Section I and Background Notes for Unit 1. Opening Remarks Time: 30 minutes • Welcome the participants to the workshop and introduce yourself. • Review the purpose of the workshop and Section I. • Facilitate participant introductions. • Review participant expectations. • Review the daily agenda and discuss the order and flow of the various units in Section I. Introduction to Networks Time: 15 minutes Introduce Unit 1 by reviewing the objectives and making a brief presentation on networks and the power of networks for advocacy. Key points to include in your overview of networks follow: • Networks are universal and almost everyone belongs to one or more networks. • Networks may be personal or professional; formal or informal; temporary or ongoing. They may include family members, school friends, colleagues, members of the same religious institution, etc. • Members of a network have at least one thing in common with other members of that network. I-4 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I • Sometimes networks become the nucleus of a group concerned with taking on or supporting a specific cause or action. Creating or strengthening this type of network—an advocacy network—is the focus of this workshop. • Advocacy networks are useful and powerful tools for achieving shared goals. • Advocacy networks are effective because they provide a structure that permits organizations and individuals to cooperate, collaborate, and share expertise and resources to influence policy. • To be effective advocates, network members must develop skills that enable them to engage in dialogue with decision makers at all levels. • Effective networks are well organized, develop a team identity, function according to agreed upon norms and procedures, establish systems and structures for decision making and communication, and use each member’s skills and resources to maximum advantage. Transition Explain to the participants that advocacy groups around the world call themselves by different names—some are networks, others coalitions, still others alliances. As long as the members of the group agree on its name and structure, the name is unimportant. However, in the training manual, the term “network” or “advocacy network” is used consistently. In the next activity, the participants define “network” for themselves. Defining Network Time: 30 minutes 1. Write the word “Network” on two sheets of newsprint. 2. Divide the participants into two groups and ask each group to line up single file in front of one of the sheets. 3. Ask each person to write on the newsprint a word or short phrase that she/he associates with the word “network”. Continue until each person has contributed to the list. 4. Ask each group to work with the words listed on its sheet of newsprint and to develop a definition of “network” that everyone in the group agrees with. 5. Share the two groups’ definitions and help the participants reach consensus on one definition. They may choose to accept one of the posted definitions or combine parts of each for a new definition. 6. Write the agreed upon definition on clean newsprint and post in the room. 7. Share the following definition with the group. ACTIVITY 3 Advocacy Networks are groups of organizations and individuals working together to achieve changes in policy, law, or programs for a particular issue. I-5 UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS? Your Initials Mapping Individual Networks Time: 1 hour Individual Work (30 minutes) 1. Using the example shown below, draw a personal network map on the flipchart to guide the participants in their task. 2. Distribute a 1/4 sheet of newsprint and a marker to each participant. 3. Ask each person to draw a circle in the center of her/his sheet and put her/his initials in the circle. 4. Direct the participants to write the names or initials of people or organizations they know with an association to reproductive health issues in squares and link the squares to the circle. 5. Encourage participants to think broadly, anyone with whom they have contact or know with an interest in reproductive health should be included, such as: • People they have met at conferences or workshops, • A relative in a government office/clinic whose work is connected with FP/RH, • Parents or friends concerned with getting RH information to adolescents, • Editors and writers of newsletters and other publications, and • RH organizations/people they have contacted through the Internet. ACTIVITY 4 Mapping Your Personal Network: An Example J.J. UNFPA Programme Officer for Adolescents H.C. YMCA/ YWCA S.C. Attended ICPD in Cairo S.R. Local Family Planning Association P.F. Clinic Director E.K. Dept. of Population Studies; local university R.S. Women’s Rights Network A.W. Parent/ Teacher Association I-6 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I Large Group Discussion: Analysis of Maps (15 minutes) 1. When all the participants have completed their individual maps, ask them to tape them on the wall by slightly overlapping each newsprint with another. 2. With the participants, analyze the maps as follows: • Do all of the names on the maps meet the criteria for inclusion (i.e., the mapmaker has contact with the people named and the people have an interest in or linkage with FP/RH)? • What is the nature of the contact and/or frequency of the contact (i.e., close, daily contact with a colleague vs. infrequent communication by mail or at conferences)? Is the contact through personal or professional relationships? • Which organizations and individuals appear on more than one map? Highlight these names with a colored marker. • Which workshop participants appear on other participants’ maps? Highlight these names with a different colored marker. 3. Ask the group if each participant in the room is a member of the other participants’ networks. Explain that the participants are working together in a workshop setting to form or strengthen their network, consequently, each person is part of the others’ networks. Draw lines on the newsprint to link the circles to each other to demonstrate how the participants’ own networks have expanded. Large Group Discussion: Benefits of Networks (15 minutes) 1. Ask the participants to look at the large wall map and think about the benefits of belonging to this network. Introduce the discussion by naming the most basic benefit of a network—the exchange of information and the use that members make of the information. 2. Write “Benefits of Networks” on a flipchart and ask participants to identify other benefits. 3. Write their answers on the flipchart. Be certain to include the following: Benefits of Networks √ Keep you up to date on what is going on√ Provide a ready made audience for your ideas√ Provide support for your actions√ Provide access to varied and multiple resources/skills√ Pool limited resources for the common goal√ Achieve things that single organizations or individuals cannot—power of numbers√ Form the nucleus for action and attract other networks√ Expand the base of support I-7 UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS? Defining Advocacy Time: 35 minutes Brainstorming (5 minutes) 1. Write “Advocacy” on a sheet of newsprint. 2. Ask participants to share words that come to mind when they think of advocacy. 3. Write all responses on the newsprint without discussion. Small Group Work (30 minutes) 1. Divide participants into four small groups. 2. Ask each group to develop a definition of advocacy by using the words and concepts listed on the newsprint. 3. Direct each group to present its definition and hang it on the wall. 4. When all definitions are posted, ask participants the following: • What, if any, common words or themes run throughout the different definitions? (Underline same/similar language and concepts with a colored marker.) • Do any of the definitions differ markedly from the others or do they all express similar ideas? • What are the most notable differences? Why did that small group feel this way? • Does it seem as if everyone has a clear and consistent understanding of advocacy? Does anyone not understand or need clarification? 5. When you feel certain that the participants understand and agree on the meaning of advocacy, write the following definition on newsprint: 6. Briefly point out the similarities between the workshop definition and those prepared by the groups. Advocacy is a set of targeted actions directed at decision makers in support of a specific policy issue. Transition Remind participants that networks are formed for different reasons, but that they often emerge for the purpose of taking an action. One such action is advocacy. As with any concept, advocacy is understood differently by people in different countries, cultures, societies, and so forth, based upon their experiences. It is important for networks that have decided to commit themselves to RH advocacy to reach a common understanding among their membership of what advocacy means. The next activity is designed to help participants develop and agree on a definition of advocacy for their network. ACTIVITY 5 I-8 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I Thinking Ahead Time: 30 minutes 1. Tape the local newspaper (with the main headline cut out) to the wall or flipchart. 2. Divide participants into small groups. 3. Explain that this activity requires participants to look three years into the future and to imagine that their network has just achieved a major RH advocacy success. Their success is so impressive that it has made national headlines. Ask each group to discuss and agree on the successful advocacy result they would like to see publicized in three years. 4. Once the group members agree, they should write the headline and the first paragraph of the accompanying story. 5. Ask each group to select a representative to present its headline and story to the full group. Transition The headlines and success stories envisioned by the participants are entirely realistic and achievable for advocacy networks if those networks are organized, strategic, efficient, representative, and committed to participation and collaboration. But these characteristics are not automatically present when organizations decide to form a network. Network members must consciously address a wide variety of needs and concerns if the network is to function effectively and efficiently. The next activity is designed to involve participants in identifying the different elements needed to create and maintain a network. ACTIVITY 6 I-9 UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS? Practical Considerations for Successful Networks Time: 1 hour 1. Divide the participants into four groups. 2. Ask the participants to think about the various advocacy visions they have developed and identify the organizational characteristics and elements that would be necessary for their network to achieve its vision. 3. Assign two groups the task of identifying the practical considerations of forming a network, i.e., what is necessary for a network to form? 4. Assign the other two groups the task of identifying the practical considerations of maintaining a network, i.e., what is necessary for a network to continue its work? 5. Ask each group to list its characteristics/elements on newsprint. Note to Facilitator: If the groups need help getting started, ask a few of the following questions. Forming Networks • How do you define a network? • What is the purpose of a network? • What is the mission of the network? • Which organizations or individuals share this mission? • How many organizations would you invite to help form the network? • How would you invite them? • What agenda would you set for the initial meeting? • What result do you want from the first meeting? • How many agreed to join? • What type of commitment are they willing to make? • What comes next? Maintaining Networks • What is the mission of the network? • How large is the membership? • What are the skills and resources of the group? Where are the gaps? • How will you attract members with needed skills/resources? • How will decisions be made? • How will all members stay informed? • How will consensus be reached? • How will you maintain a balance of power? • How will conflicts be managed/resolved? • How will members develop a plan of action? • How will activities be coordinated? • How will tasks be assigned? • How will network activities be documented? • How will you monitor and evaluate activities? • How will you reduce or avoid burnout? ACTIVITY 7 I-10 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I 6. Ask one of the two groups working on “Forming Networks” to present its list to the entire group. Ask the second group to share any new items from its list but not to repeat items. Add the new elements to the first list. Note to Facilitator: Refer to the questions listed above to generate additions to the list. 7. Ask one of the two groups working on “Maintaining Networks” to present its list to the entire group. Ask the second group to share any new items from its list but not to repeat items. Add the new elements to the first list. Note to Facilitator: Refer to the questions listed above to generate additions to the list. 8. At a minimum, the two lists should include the elements shown below. Networks are universal. Everyone belongs to networks even if only for the exchange of information. Certain networks such as “Advocacy Networks” have an additional purpose—to work together to achieve changes in policies, laws, or programs with respect to a particular issue. Advocacy networks are powerful tools for achieving policy change. However, many elements need to come together to make networking successful. Distribute handouts for Unit 1. Now that participants are familiar with the concept of networks and their potential for achieving advocacy goals, the next unit will focus on building communication skills. Effective communication is a central component of successful networking efforts. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD Elements Needed to Maintain a Network • Clear norms • Loose organization • Communication system • Shared leadership • Trust • Wide participation by all members Elements Needed to Form a Network • Clear purpose • Committed members • Mission statement • Shared vision 9. Check to make sure that all of the participants understand the elements listed and why they are important for forming and maintaining networks. I-11 UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS? Handout I.1.1 Background Notes Networks are universal. Whether acknowledged as such or not, most people belong to formal or informal groups—or networks—organized around family life, jobs, religious activities, or recreational interests. People routinely use their personal and professional networks for a variety of reasons—looking for a job, raising funds for a school or community center, campaigning for a politician, or pressing leaders to expand the services available at the local clinic. Networks are invaluable in policy advocacy because they create structures for organizations and individuals to share ownership of common goals. In the area of reproductive health, a network's membership usually will include representatives of NGOs, women's groups, community organizations, and professional associations made up of nurses, midwives, physicians, or lawyers. Local religious and traditional leaders are potential members whose perspective and influence could be invaluable in achieving the network's objectives. A network’s advocacy issues will depend upon local political realities and the opportunities for change that exist as well as the specific interests of network members. The possibilities with respect to reproductive health are numerous, ranging from increasing national funding for contraceptive commodities to providing family life education for in-school youth to efforts such as banning girl trafficking or lifting import regulations on contraceptives. To be successful advocates, networks need to be well organized and operate efficiently. Their founding members have to bring together the resources, time, energy, and talents of many different people and organizations and then skillfully take advantage of opportunities to influence the policy process on behalf of their goals and objectives. When they succeed, networks help create a supportive and self-sustaining environment for reproductive health. What’s in a Name? In order to avoid confusion, Networks or Advocacy Networks will be used throughout the manual. POLICY partners in different countries use different names for their advocacy groups— some are called networks and others are called coalitions. The structures and procedures ascribed to these groups also vary. For example, in Bolivia, networks are highly structured and ongoing while in Romania coalitions are structured and ongoing and networks are informal and loose. The name chosen by an advocacy group is unimportant. What matters is that the entire membership understands and agrees on the name, the structure, and the operating procedures. What are Advocacy Networks? I-12 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I Handout I.1.2 Elements for Forming and Maintaining Networks A. Formation Stage ♦ Establish a clear purpose or mission. ♦ Involve individuals and organizations that share the mission. ♦ Build a commitment to participatory process and collaboration. B. Maintenance/Growth Stage Organization ♦ Define clear, specialized roles. ♦ Establish a loose or fluid organizational structure. Vertical, hierarchical structures do not build strong networks. ♦ Compile a skills inventory, including the skills/expertise of individual members and institutional resources (fax, Internet, meeting space, etc.). ♦ Prepare to fill expertise gaps by recruiting new members. ♦ Establish a communication system (i.e., telephone tree). ♦ Create a member database (name, address, organization mission, type and focus of organization, etc.). Leadership ♦ Share leadership functions (i.e., rotating coordinating committee). ♦ Set realistic goals and objectives. ♦ Divide into subgroups/task forces to take on specific tasks according to expertise. ♦ Spread responsibilities across all members to reduce workload and avoid burnout. ♦ Promote participatory planning and decision making. ♦ Foster trust and collaboration among members. ♦ Keep members motivated by acknowledging their contributions. Meetings/Documentation ♦ Meet only when necessary. ♦ Set specific agenda and circulate it ahead of time. Follow the agenda and keep meetings brief. Finish meeting on time. Rotate meeting facilitation role. ♦ Keep attendance list and record meeting minutes for dissemination after meeting. ♦ Use members’ facilitation skills to help the network reach consensus and resolve conflict. ♦ Discuss difficult issues openly during meetings. ♦ Maintain a network notebook to document network activities, decisions, etc. I-13 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Effective Communication: Understanding One Another Background Notes Listening is an underrated skill! Most people believe that they get what they want through talking. Many successful people, however, spend more time listening than talking. When they talk, they often ask questions to learn more. To increase the likelihood of success in its advocacy efforts, members of a network have a responsibility to communicate with one another as effectively as possible. To do this, they must transmit their messages in a way that ensures that l i s t e n e r s understand the intent of the message. Similarly, members need to be able to interpret other speakers' messages as intended. Ideally, members of a network express their thoughts, feelings, and ideas openly. They listen carefully to others, and everyone feels free to put forth an idea. Conflicts and disagreements are viewed as natural and differences are talked out. In asking questions, for example, members know it is helpful to plan their questions in advance and to ask with a purpose. They tailor their questions to other members and follow general questions with more specific ones. They try to keep questions short and clear. Developing good communication skills is challenging. A network is more effective if all members strive to transmit their messages clearly and listen carefully to what others say. In that way, the knowledge, experience, and special expertise of members can be shared and used on behalf of the network’s objectives. When a family life education curriculum was being introduced in Kenyan schools, religious groups were very vocal in their opposition. An advocacy team organized by the International Planned Parenthood Federation convened a seminar bringing together more than 100 leaders, including government ministers and representatives of local organizations. In the keynote address, the leader of the advocacy team presented the various religious perspectives—Muslim, Catholic, and other Christian—as well as the perspectives of organizations serving youth and legal and health institutions. After a day spent listening to one another and jointly discussing various perspectives, participants (with the exception of the Catholic Church representative) agreed the curriculum was vital for young people. Family Life Education Misunderstood I-14 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 By the end of this unit, participants will be able to identify and demonstrate effective communication skills. 2 hours • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts I.2.1 Background Notes I.2.2 A Communication Model I.2.3 Observation Sheet for Role-Plays I.2.4 Communicating Assertively and Listening Actively • Read Background Notes for Unit 2 and review Handout I.2.2 for Activity 1. • Draw the communication model from Handout I.2.2 on a sheet of newsprint for Activity 1 (or distribute the handout before the presentation). • Copy the role-play scenarios and cut each into two sections for Activity 3. • Select someone to help you act out the role-plays in Activity 2, and discuss the situation to be presented. Introduction to Communication Time: 15 minutes Introduce Unit 2 by reviewing the objective and making a brief presentation on communication. Major points to include in your presentation on communication follow: • Listening is an underrated skill! Most people believe that they get what they want through talking. Many successful people, however, spend more time listening than talking. When they talk, they often ask questions to learn more. • To increase the likelihood of their success in advocacy, members of a network have a responsibility to communicate with one another as effectively as possible. They must transmit their messages in a way that ensures that listeners understand the intent of the message. Similarly, they must be able to interpret messages in the way the speaker intends them to be interpreted. • Developing good communication skills is challenging. A network is more effective, however, if all members strive to transmit their messages clearly and listen carefully to what others say. In that way, the knowledge, experience, and special expertise of members can be shared and used on behalf of the network’s objectives. I-15 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I • Refer to the communication model you drew on the newsprint and explain the following: − Any communication involves a sender and a receiver. − The model depicts how communication between a sender and a receiver can be distorted by different factors; it presents some strategies for overcoming the distortions. − Often the message that the sender wants to communicate is NOT the message that is understood by the receiver. WHY? − Any time a person begins speaking (the sender), the message is influenced by the speaker’s beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge. These same factors influence the way in which the receiver interprets the message. − In addition, messages can be distorted by the speaker’s tone of voice, choice of words, physical condition, personal feelings toward the receiver, and the environment or time of day. These are distorting factors for the sender. − At the other end of the transmission is a set of distorting factors that affect how the message is received. These include the level of interest, personal feelings toward the sender, physical condition, and demands on time. − Communication can be improved by adopting strategies for reducing or eliminating distortion. Strategies include using both open and closed questions to help clarify meaning, relying on multiple communication channels to verify the message and its meaning, using simple language when speaking, providing limited information to reduce confusion, and paraphrasing what has been said to ensure understanding. • The purpose of Unit 2 is to highlight the fact that good communication skills can be learned and to give participants the opportunity to practice those skills. Effective Communication Time: 30 minutes Facilitator Role-Plays (10 minutes) 1. Start this activity with two brief role-plays to reinforce the information in the presentation. The first role-play should demonstrate ineffective communication skills. The second should demonstrate good communication skills. Note to Facilitator: Select another facilitator or one of the participants to help you present the role-play. Take a few minutes to decide on the situation and the roles you are playing. Use the same situation for both role-plays. The topic can be anything. For example, a colleague who takes credit for your work or a manager who gives vague instructions for an assignment. 2. Take no longer than 1-2 minutes for each role-play. No introduction is necessary. ACTIVITY 2 I-16 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I 3. In the first role-play, both parties should demonstrate poor listening and speaking skills. Examples include • Angry or defensive tone of voice, • Interrupting the speaker, • Lack of eye contact/rolling the eyes, • Sarcastic manner and tone, • Poor body language (slouching, wringing hands), and • Lack of clarity in expressing a position/opinion. 4. In the second role-play, both parties should demonstrate good listening and speaking skills. Examples include • Making eye contact, • Good tone of voice, • Positive body language (sitting up straight, nodding head in agreement), • Paraphrasing the speaker, • Not interrupting, and • Asking for clarification. Brainstorming (20 minutes) 1. When the role-plays are completed, ask the participants to think about what they observed in the scenarios with respect to language, communication styles, body language, etc. What were the specific behaviors that increased or decreased the level of trust between the two parties? 2. Write the following on newsprint: 3. Ask participants to think about the first person in the role-play who demonstrated good communication skills and to describe the behaviors that helped that person deliver a clear message. Write the responses on the newsprint under “Sender.” Note to Facilitator: If necessary, prompt the participants’ responses with the following questions: • Did the sender look directly at the receiver? Make eye contact? • Did the sender use a tone of voice free of anger or defensiveness? • Did the sender chose her/his words carefully, use short sentences, and speak clearly? • Did the sender avoid sarcastic comments and inappropriate nonverbal behaviors? • Did the sender use appropriate body language? Effective Communication Techniques ReceiverSender I-17 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I 4. Now ask the participants to describe what the receiver did to make certain she/he received the message accurately, without distortion. Write the responses on the newsprint under “Receiver.” Note to Facilitator: If necessary, prompt the participants’ responses with the following questions: • Did the receiver look directly at the speaker? • Did the receiver interrupt the speaker? • Did the receiver use appropriate body language? Nodded head in agreement? • Did the receiver ask for clarification? • Did the receiver paraphrase the sender’s words to be certain he/she understood the message? Transition Now that the participants have identified some effective communication skills, they are going to practice using and observing these skills in role-plays. In any communication, the sender and receiver are involved in an exchange of information. As shown in the communication model presented earlier, the way that we send and receive information is influenced by each person’s perceptions and experiences—or distortions. People’s perceptions often vary and lead to misunderstanding or conflict. The following role-plays separate the roles of the sender (the person who seeks to initiate communication about a given situation) and the receiver (or listener). Practicing Communication Skills Time: 1 hour and 15 minutes Participant Role-Plays (1 hour) 1. Divide the participants into groups of three and provide each group with copies of the three scenarios and three observation sheets (Handout I.2.3). 2. Explain the following instructions: • There are three roles for each scenario—speaker, listener and observer. The roles rotate from one scenario to the next so that each member of the triad can practice all three roles. • Before starting each role-play, the observer should read BOTH role descriptions while the sender and receiver should read ONLY their respective roles. • At the start of each role-play, allow 1-2 minutes for preparation. • The observer watches the role play carefully and uses the observation sheet (Handout I.2.3) to note effective and ineffective communication skills exhibited by the sender and receiver. • Each role play should take approximately 10 minutes. • After each role-play, the observer shares his/her observations with the sender and the receiver (approximately 5 minutes). ACTIVITY 3 I-18 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Scenario 1 Role-Play to Build Communication Skills Scenario 1 — Sender You and several colleagues regularly work together to develop project proposals. Normally you divide tasks according to your expertise and work on your respective components until you reach an agreed-upon deadline. At that time, you come together and share your work to bring the whole proposal together. One colleague in particular, the monitoring and evaluation specialist, is rarely prepared with her material. On several occasions, you and other team members have completed your components only to discover that the monitoring and evaluation section is missing. Now you have an important proposal under development with the due date only two weeks away. Offer some feedback to the monitoring and evaluation specialist (the receiver) to ensure that she understands the importance of the due date to the rest of the group. Scenario 1 — Receiver You are the monitoring and evaluation specialist on a staff team that regularly works together to develop proposals. Several times a year, the team meets to draft proposals. You are always responsible for the monitoring and evaluation section, but you cannot prepare your material until the rest of the project is designed. You rely on the information generated by your colleagues to develop your section. As a result, you usually fall behind the agreed-upon deadline. Your colleagues will offer you some feedback about not meeting the deadline. I-19 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Scenario 2 Role-Play to Build Communication Skills Scenario 2 — Sender You are a member of an advocacy network of NGO leaders in the population and development field. You and four other colleagues make up the network’s coordinating committee which is responsible for mobilizing resources to support the network. Because the network is not legally registered in your county, various members channel funding through their own NGOs to finance the network’s activities. As a result of a recent strategic planning process, the network submitted proposals to three private foundations. While making follow-up calls to the foundations, you learn that the Women’s Health Association, a member of your network, submitted a proposal in competition with the network’s request. The donor tells you that she has granted $25,000 to the association and now will not be able to fund the network. The Women’s Health Association executive director is one of your colleagues on the network coordinating committee. Approach him/ her and express your concern about putting the Women’s Health Association’s needs ahead of the network’s interests. Scenario 2 — Receiver You are a member of an advocacy network of NGO leaders in the population and development field. You and four other colleagues make up the network’s coordinating committee, which is responsible for mobilizing resources to support the network. As a result of a recent strategic planning process, the network submitted proposals to three private foundations. By chance, you met the program officer of one of the foundations at a cocktail reception. As you discussed the network’s activities, the program officer let you know that she was not supporting the network’s funding request because she was not convinced that the network was a cohesive group. She let you know, however, that she would entertain the idea of funding your own NGO (Women's Health Association). You prepare a proposal and receive a positive response that the foundation will provide you with a $25,000 grant. One week later, a colleague from the network’s coordinating committee approaches you to discuss the network’s funding needs. I-20 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Scenario 3 Role-Play to Build Communication Skills Scenario 3 — Sender You are a member of an informal network of women leaders in the population and development field. As population issues gain greater visibility on the national agenda, your network has had several opportunities to speak to prominent policy makers. On these occasions, one of your network colleagues tends to do all the talking. Even when members of your group establish an agenda before a meeting, the colleague often ignores the agreement on who is to speak and instead discusses all the agenda items. Because the colleague’s behavior seems to follow a pattern, you decide to approach your colleague (the receiver) and tell her you think she is dominating the network’s strategic communication activities. Scenario 3 — Receiver You are a member of an informal network of women leaders in the population and development field. As population issues gain greater visibility on the national agenda, your network has had several opportunities to speak to prominent policy makers. Among your colleagues, you have the most extensive experience in communication. You have appeared many times on television and radio to talk about population issues. While you respect your colleagues a great deal, you recognize that some of them are not very skilled in communication. In some recent meetings with policymakers, you have taken the lead role in representing the views of your network. A colleague approaches you about changing the communication strategy. I-21 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Follow Up to Role-Plays (15 minutes) When the role-plays are completed, lead a general discussion on what participants observed. Use the following questions to guide the discussion: • Which scenario was the most difficult to play and why? • What were the most common behaviors observed? • How, if at all, did gender or culture influence the exchange? • What did you learn about your own style of communication? • What are the implications of the lessons learned for communication within the network, especially with respect to norms? By practicing good speaking and listening skills, network members will be able to communicate accurately and skillfully with one another as well as with supporters, policymakers, the media, and the general public. Good communication techniques will help advance the objectives of the network’s advocacy efforts. Distribute handouts for Unit 2. Teamwork, like good communication, is an essential component of successful networks. It is the topic of the next unit. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD I-22 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Background Notes Listening is an underrated skill! Most people believe that they get what they want through talking. Many successful people, however, spend more time listening than talking. When they talk, they often ask questions to learn more. To increase the likelihood of success in its advocacy efforts, members of a network have a responsibility to communicate with one another as effectively as possible. To do this, they must transmit their messages in a way that ensures that listeners understand the intent of the message. Similarly, members need to be able to interpret other speakers' messages as intended. Ideally, members of a network express their thoughts, feelings, and ideas openly. They listen carefully to others, and everyone feels free to put forth an idea. Conflicts and disagreements are viewed as natural and differences are talked out. In asking questions, for example, members know it is helpful to plan their questions in advance and to ask with a purpose. They tailor their questions to other members and follow general questions with more specific ones. They try to keep questions short and clear. Developing good communication skills is challenging. A network is more effective if all members strive to transmit their messages clearly and listen carefully to what others say. In that way, the knowledge, experience, and special expertise of members can be shared and used on behalf of the network’s objectives. Handout I.2.1 Family Life Education Misunderstood When a family life education curriculum was being introduced in Kenyan schools, religious groups were very vocal in their opposition. An advocacy team organized by the International Planned Parenthood Federation convened a seminar bringing together more than 100 leaders, including government ministers and representatives of local organizations. In the keynote address, the leader of the advocacy team presented the various religious perspectives—Muslim, Catholic, and other Christian—as well as the perspectives of organizations serving youth and legal and health institutions. After a day spent listening to one another and jointly discussing various perspectives, participants (with the exception of the Catholic Church representative) agreed the curriculum was vital for young people. Effective Communication: Understanding One Another I-23 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I St ra te gi es to Im pr ov e Co m m un ica tio n M es sa ge s en t M es sa ge re ce ive d Se nd er Re ce ive r M ES SA G E Be lie fs , Kn ow le dg e, A tt it ud es Be lie fs , Kn ow le dg e, A tt it ud es H an do ut I. 2. 2 Di st or ti ng F ac to rs Re ce ive r • Le ve l o f i nt er es t • In te rp re ta ti on • Pe rs on al f ee lin gs t ow ar d se nd er , m es sa ge • Ph ys ic al s ta te • De m an ds o n re ce ive r’s ti m e St ra te gi es t o Ov er co m e Di st or ti ng F ac to rs • Fe ed ba ck t ec hn iq ue s su ch as o pe n qu es ti on s • M ul ti pl e ch an ne ls • Re pe ti ti on • Fa ce -t o- fa ce in te ra ct io n • Si m pl e la ng ua ge • Li m it ed in fo rm at io n • Pa ra ph ra se Di st or ti ng F ac to rs Se nd er • W or d ch oi ce • To ne o f v oi ce • Pe rs on al fe el in gs t ow ar d re ce ive r, m es sa ge • Ph ys ic al s ta te • Ch oi ce o f e nv iro nm en t, t im e I-24 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Handout I.2.3 Observation Sheet for Role-Plays Use this sheet to record your observations about the communication techniques used during the role-plays. Note specific examples of effective and ineffective communication skills. Pay attention to the skills listed earlier on the flipchart (e.g., good/bad body language, appropriate/inappropriate tone of voice, supportive/nonsupportive tone of voice). Effective Communication Skills Ineffective Communication Skills I-25 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Handout I.2.4 Communicating Assertively and Listening Actively* Characteristics of assertive communication include ♦ Speaking in short, direct sentences; ♦ Using phrases such as “I think,” “I believe,” and “in my opinion” to show that you assume responsibility for your thoughts; ♦ Asking others to clarify what they are saying when you are not certain you understand them; ♦ Describing events objectively rather than exaggerating, embellishing, or distorting; and ♦ Maintaining direct and extended eye contact. Characteristics of active listening include ♦ Reacting to what people say by nodding, smiling, or using other actions that show you are listening; ♦ Paraphrasing what the speaker said to check that you understand; ♦ Asking for clarification when you are not completely clear about the meaning of something said; ♦ Not jumping to conclusions before the speaker is finished; and ♦ Phrasing questions in a way that the other person can respond in a manner of his/her choosing. * Adapted from CEDPA. Supervision Training Manual. 1996. Washington, DC: CEDPA. I-26 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I Cooperation Not Competition: Building a Team Background Notes Characteristics of successful networks—and other teams as well—include a climate of trust and openness, a sense of belonging to something important, and honest communication wherein diversity of experience is encouraged and flexibility and sensitivity to others is practiced. When mistakes are made, members see the mistakes as part of the learning process. Open discussions help members find the causes of problems without assigning blame. Members of effective networks recognize their interdependence and the need for each other’s special knowledge, skills, and resources. They know that together they can achieve results that as individuals they could not. Although effective networks often engage in a form of participatory leadership, they recognize that the role of the leader is that of a facilitator who • Listens carefully, • Creates a climate of trust, • Eliminates fear, • Acts as a role model, • Delegates tasks, • Shares information readily, • Motivates and empowers members, • Deals promptly with conflict, • Keeps network on track, and • Runs meetings effectively and efficiently. Members of effective networks practice cooperation, not competition. They take responsibility for their individual roles in advancing network objectives, but they value their team identity. In addition to pooling their skills and understanding, they recognize that the team approach provides mutual support. Advocacy requires hard work and a long-term commitment. It is easy for one person’s commitment and enthusiasm to wane. The synergy that comes from people working together productively on an important issue can sustain efforts, even through difficult times. I-27 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Describe behaviors that lead to team success, and • Describe the stages of team growth. 1 hour and 40 minutes • Newsprint, markers and tape • Overhead projector • Copies of handouts I.3.1 Background Notes I.3.2 Behaviors that Facilitate Team Success I.3.3 Stages of Team Growth • For Activity 2, cut five squares as shown in the Broken Squares Template at the end of Unit 3. • Use cardboard or heavy paper and make one set of the five broken square puzzles for each small group. • Write the rules for the Broken Squares exercise on newsprint. • For Activity 4, make overhead transparencies of “Stages of Team Growth”(4 pages). Introduction to Team–Building Time: 15 minutes Introduce Unit 3 by reviewing the objectives and making a brief presentation on team building. Major points to include in your introduction follow: • Members of effective networks function as a team. They know that they are interdependent and need each other’s special skills and abilities. They know that together they can achieve results that as individuals they could not. • Within the network “team,” the role of the leader resembles that of a facilitator—someone who listens carefully, creates trust and eliminates fear, delegates tasks, shares information, empowers other members, handles conflict, and keeps the network moving toward its goals. • Each member of the network is responsible for his/her individual contribution to develop a “team identity” among the members. • Advocacy requires hard work and a long-term commitment. It is easy for one person’s enthusiasm to wane. The synergy that comes from people working together on an important issue can sustain efforts, even through difficult times. • The purpose of Unit 3 is to help the participants recognize the importance of team-building within the network. Characteristics of effective networks include a climate of trust and openness, a sense of belonging to something important, and honest communication. I-28 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I Broken Squares Exercise Time: 45 minutes Note to Facilitator: The purpose of this exercise is to demonstrate the power of team problem solving. Do not share this purpose with the participants until the exercise is completed. 1. Divide participants into teams of five, and assign at least one observer to each team until all participants have been assigned. 2. Introduce the activity by explaining that the game the participants are about to play is a learning experience that will be discussed later. 3. Mix each set of 15 pieces and distribute three pieces at random to each of the five players on each team. 4. Instruct the teams, “Each member of your team has three pieces of paper. When I say ‘begin,’ the task for each of the five team members is to form five perfect squares of equal size. Your task will not be complete until each of you has a perfect square in front of you. The rules of the game are as shown:” ACTIVITY 2 Rules of Broken Squares √ No team member may speak √ Team members may not signal others to give them a piece of the puzzle √ Members may give pieces of their puzzle to other members of the team √ Observers will watch to ensure that members follow the rules √ You have 15 minutes to complete the task 5. Tell the teams to begin. 6. Call an end to the game after 15 minutes. 7. Show the players who were unable to complete the squares how to do so. 8. Analyze what happened during the game and discuss the lessons learned. Use the following questions to guide the discussion: • Who was willing to give away pieces of her/his puzzle? • Was anyone willing to give away all of his/her pieces? • Did anyone finish his/her puzzle and then separate from the rest of the group? • Did anyone break the rules? • Was there anyone who continually struggled with the pieces but was unwilling to give away any or all of the pieces? • Was there a critical point when members of the group began to cooperate? I-29 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I 9. Explain that the purpose of the game was to demonstrate the importance of cooperation in solving problems. People need to share what they know in order to find solutions. • What happens to the team when one person finishes and stops working on the team problem? • What happens if you ignore another person’s task? 10. Ask participants to think about their own organizations. • What have you noticed in your own organization that was demonstrated by this exercise? • What lessons did you learn about being a more effective team member? Behaviors that Contribute to Team Success Time: 20 minutes 1. Write the following heading on newsprint: “People on Successful Teams.” 2. Ask the full group to think about the behaviors and actions they observed during the game or in the course of other experiences that encouraged teamwork and led to successful outcomes. Ask participants to complete the phrase “People on successful teams.” 3. Write the responses on the flipchart. Be sure to include the following if not mentioned by participants: People on Succesful Teams. √ Clarify roles, relationships, assignments, and responsibilities√ Share leadership functions within the group and use all member resources√ Tolerate ambiguity, uncertainty, and a seeming lack of structure√ Take interest in each member’s achievements as well as those of the group√ Remain open to change, innovation, and creative problem solving√ Are commited to keep group communication on target and schedule, while permitting disagreements√ Promote constructive criticism and helpful feedback√ Foster trust, confidence, and commitment within the group√ Foster a norm that calls for members to support and respect one another and remain realistic in their expectations of one another ACTIVITY 3 Transition The Broken Squares exercise demonstrated quickly and clearly some behaviors that promote team work as well as some behaviors that inhibit team work. The discussion expanded on the characteristics of people who contribute to effective teams. It is easy to identify and even model these behaviors in a workshop setting; however, the real world of working in teams is very different. In real life, the tensions and expectations created when a group of diverse individuals come together to work on a shared task exert a strong influence on how and when the group becomes a “team.” It will happen—a team will emerge! The timing may vary, but all teams pass through similar stages of development on their way to becoming effective. The next activity explains these stages and reassures team members that the changes experienced by their team are normal. I-30 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I 1. Forming • Exploring boundaries • Moving from individual toward team status 2. Storming • Resisting collaboration • Experiencing anxiety 3. Norming • Determining team rules • Moving toward cooperation 4. Performing • Functioning as a team • Achieving objectives Stages of Team Growth STAGE 2: STORMING • Members realize task is different and more difficult • Decision-making process is not yet defined • Members are argumentative and short-tempered • Members resist collaboration— doubt success • Pressures prevent work from progressing • Members begin to understand each other STAGE 3: NORMING • Group norms established • Members accept roles and responsibilities • Conflict is reduced • Cooperation replaces competition • Feel relief that things will work out • Express criticism constructively • Differences resolved; time and energy spent on work 2. Using the notes from Handout I.3.3, present the transparencies on the characteristics of each stage of team growth. Stages of Team Growth Time: 20 minutes 1. Refer to the newsprint with the “Stages of Team Growth” model and introduce the four stages to the participants. STAGE 1: FORMING • Transition from individual to member status • Members explore acceptable group behavior • Feelings of excitement, anticipation and optimism • Suspicion, fear, and anxiety • Attempt to define tasks, responsibilities • Many distractions—little work accomplished ACTIVITY 4 STAGE 4: PERFORMING • Diagnosis and problem solving begins • Changes implemented • Members accept strengths and weaknesses • Satisfaction with team’s progress • Members develop attachment to one another • Team is cohesive and effective Stages of Team Growth I-31 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I 3. After the presentation of the four stages of team growth, lead a general discussion of the concept by asking questions such as • What stage is this network in now? How do you know? Note to Facilitator: Help the participants think about the characteristics and behaviors they are currently exhibiting and link those to one of the stages. New networks will be “forming” while older networks may be in the later stages. Ask the participants how they could reduce the length or severity of the difficult stages. • Why is it important and/or helpful to understand the stages of team growth? Note to Facilitator: Understanding the stages of team growth can help network members recognize and understand what is happening within their group at any given time. It can also help relieve negative feelings or frustration if the group knows it is experiencing the normal characteristics of growth. Members can discuss what is happening at any stage and help move through the hard times. Well-functioning teams get things done! After experiencing various difficulties in learning to work together and trust one another, teams develop clarity on their goals and specific roles. Members value clear communication and beneficial team behaviors. They have put in place procedures for group decision making and managing team logistics. Distribute handouts for Unit 3. A critical task of networks is making group decisions. When many and often diverse opinions are represented, group decision-making skills can facilitate the process. In the next unit, participants will practice group decision making and identify the steps in the process. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD I-32 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I Handout I.3.1 Cooperation Not Competition: Building a Team Background Notes Characteristics of successful networks—and other teams as well—include a climate of trust and openness, a sense of belonging to something important, and honest communication wherein diversity of experience is encouraged and flexibility and sensitivity to others is practiced. When mistakes are made, members see the mistakes as part of the learning process. Open discussions help members find the causes of problems without assigning blame. Members of effective networks recognize their interdependence and the need for each other’s special knowledge, skills, and resources. They know that together they can achieve results that as individuals they could not. Although effective networks often engage in a form of participatory leadership, they recognize that the role of the leader is that of a facilitator who ♦ Listens carefully, ♦ Creates a climate of trust, ♦ Eliminates fear, ♦ Acts as a role model, ♦ Delegates tasks, ♦ Shares information readily, ♦ Motivates and empowers members, ♦ Deals promptly with conflict, ♦ Keeps network on track, and ♦ Runs meetings effectively and efficiently. Members of effective networks practice cooperation, not competition. They take responsibility for their individual roles in advancing network objectives, but they value their team identity. In addition to pooling their skills and understanding, they recognize that the team approach provides mutual support. Advocacy requires hard work and a long-term commitment. It is easy for one person’s commitment and enthusiasm to wane. The synergy that comes from people working together productively on an important issue can sustain efforts, even through difficult times. I-33 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I Handout I.3.2 Behaviors that Facilitate Team Success* People on successful teams ♦ Clarify roles, relationships, assignments, and responsibilities. ♦ Share leadership functions within the group and use all member resources. ♦ Tolerate ambiguity, uncertainty, and a seeming lack of structure. ♦ Take interest in each member's achievements as well as those of the group. ♦ Remain open to change, innovation, and creative problem solving. ♦ Are committed to keep group communication on target and schedule while permitting disagreements. ♦ Promote constructive criticism and helpful feedback. ♦ Foster trust, confidence and commitment within the group. ♦ Foster a norm that calls for members to support and respect one another and remain realistic in their expectations of one another. * Adapted from Robert Moran and Philip Harris. 1982. Managing Cultural Synergy. Houston, TX: Gulf Pub. Co. I-34 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I Handout I.3.3 Stages of Team Growth: Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing* As a team or network matures, members gradually learn to cope with emotional and group pressures. Generally, this happens in four stages. Stage 1 – Forming When a team or network is forming, members cautiously explore the boundaries of acceptable group behavior as they make the transition from individual to member status. Feelings in this stage include excitement, anticipation, and optimism as well as suspicion, fear, and anxiety about the work ahead. Members attempt to define the task at hand and decide how it will be accomplished. They also try to determine acceptable group behavior and how to deal with group problems. Because much is going on to distract members' attention, the group accomplishes little work. This is perfectly normal. Stage 2 – Storming This is probably the most difficult stage because members begin to realize that the task is different or more difficult than they imagined. They become testy, blameful, or overzealous. Still too inexperienced to know much about decision making, members argue about just what actions they should take, even when they agree on the issue facing them. They try to rely solely on their personal and professional experiences and tend to resist collaboration. Feelings include sharp fluctuations in attitude about the chances of success. These pressures mean that members have little energy to spend in meeting common goals, but they are beginning to understand one another. Stage 3 – Norming During this stage, members reconcile competing loyalties and responsibilities. They accept the team or network’s ground rules (or norms), their roles, and the individuality of each member. Emotional conflict is reduced as previously competitive relationships become more cooperative. Feelings include a new ability to express criticism constructively and relief that everything seems likely to work out. There is more friendliness as members confide in one another and discuss the team’s dynamics. As members begin to work out their differences, they have more time and energy to spend on their objectives and start making significant progress. Stage 4 – Performing Members begin diagnosing and solving problems and implementing changes. They have accepted each other’s strengths and weakness and learned their roles. They are satisfied with the team’s progress and feel a close attachment to one another. The team or network is now an effective, cohesive unit. *As cited in Peter R. Scholtes. 1998. The Team Handbook: How to Use Teams to Improve Quality. Madison. WI: Joiner Associates; and inspired by Bruce W. Tuckman. 1965. “Development Sequence in Small Groups.” Psychological Bulletin. I-35 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I Broken Squares Template I-36 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I • Tr an sit io n fro m in di vi du al to m em be r s tat us • M em be rs ex pl or e a cc ep tab le gr ou p be ha vi or • Fe eli ng s o f e xc ite m en t, an tic ip ati on , a nd o pt im ism • Su sp ici on , f ea r, an d an xi ety • A tte m pt to d ef in e t as ks , r es po ns ib ili tie s • M an y di str ac tio ns — lit tle w or k ac co m pl ish ed ST AG ES O F T EA M G RO W TH ST A G E 1: F O RM IN G I-37 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I ST A G E 2: S TO RM IN G • M em be rs re ali ze ta sk is d iff er en t a nd m or e d iff icu lt • D ec isi on -m ak in g pr oc es s i s n ot y et de fin ed • M em be rs ar e a rg um en tat iv e a nd sh or t-t em pe re d • M em be rs re sis t c ol lab or ati on — d ou bt su cc es s • Pr es su re s p re ve nt w or k fro m p ro gr es sin g • M em be rs be gi n to u nd er sta nd ea ch o th er I-38 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I • G ro up n or m s e sta bl ish ed • M em be rs ac ce pt ro les an d re sp on sib ili tie s • Co nf lic t i s r ed uc ed • Co op er ati on re pl ac es co m pe tit io n • Fe el re lie f t ha t t hi ng s w ill w or k ou t • Ex pr es s c rit ici sm co ns tru cti ve ly • D iff er en ce s r es ol ve d; ti m e a nd en er gy sp en t o n w or kST A G E 3: N O RM IN G I-39 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I • D iag no sis an d pr ob lem so lv in g be gi n • Ch an ge s i m pl em en ted • M em be rs ac ce pt st re ng th s a nd w ea kn es se s • Sa tis fa cti on w ith te am ’s pr og re ss • M em be rs de ve lo p att ac hm en t t o on e a no th er • Te am is co he siv e a nd ef fe cti ve ST A G E 4: P ER FO RM IN G I-40 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION Decision Making: Reaching Group Consensus Background Notes Members of networks are often called on to make hard decisions. Members may find themselves deciding whether to take on a difficult advocacy issue—one that has little popular support or is controversial or they may face the need to choose among pressing issues in response to limited resources. How well they work through the decision-making process is important to the overall success of their efforts. Preparation is an important element in decision making. To make informed choices, network members need information. They also need to know how to set limits on and goals for their discussion. Good listening and presentation skills contribute to the clarity of the discussion as does the ability to keep an emotional distance from the subject under discussion. The following are some guidelines for reaching agreement: • Make sure that everyone who wants to speak is heard from and feels that his/her position has been considered. • Talk through the issue under discussion until reaching an agreement that everyone can support. • Understand that agreement may not mean that all members of the network agree 100 percent; however, everyone should support the decision in principle. • Encourage members not to give in to reach agreement but rather to express differences of opinion. • Ask questions and make sure everyone’s opinion is considered before reaching a decision. By the end of this unit, participants will be able to demonstrate the steps in the decision-making process. 1 hour • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts I.4.1 Background Notes I.4.2 Six Steps for Decision Making • Copies of the three scenarios on group decision making for Activity 2 Write the task for Activity 2 on newsprint. I-41 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I ACTIVITY 1 ACTIVITY 2 Introduction to Decision Making Time: 5 minutes Introduce Unit 4 by reviewing the objective and making a brief presentation on decision making. Major points follow: • Network members will be called on repeatedly to make decisions. Some of these will be difficult decisions, such as choosing an advocacy issue. Members of a network may have strong feelings about reproductive health issues, and it may be necessary to choose among several important issues. Similarly, members may have different opinions on how to undertake advocacy activities or who should assume responsibility for tasks. • How efficient and how successful the network is depends in large part on how well the members work through the decision-making process. • The purpose of Unit 4 is to practice group decision making and to learn the steps for effective decision making. Exercise on Group Decision Making Time: 55 minutes 1. Divide participants into three groups. 2. Give each group copies of ONE scenario. 3. Refer to the newsprint and explain the task. 4. Stress that the group should focus on the process it used to reach the decision and NOT on the decision itself. 5. Ask each group to report back. 6. Distribute and review Handout I.4.2, “Six Steps for Decision Making”. 7. Ask the groups to review the steps in their decision-making process against the handout, comparing and contrasting similarities and differences. Task a. Read the scenario assigned to your group b. Explain how you reached your decision c. List on newsprint the steps you followed to reach the group decision d. Report back I-42 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD Exploring ideas and using participatory decision-making processes are central elements in building successful networks. It is in this way that individual members feel ownership of network activities. There are several key components to decision making, such as • Preparation, • Access to information, • Setting limits and goals in discussions, • Good listening and presentation skills, and • Keeping emotionally distant from the subject being discussed. The following are some simple guidelines for reaching agreement: • Make sure that everyone who wants to speak is heard from and feels that his/her position has been considered. • Talk through the issue under discussion until reaching an agreement that everyone can support. • Understand that agreement may not mean that all members of the network agree 100 percent; however, everyone should support the decision in principle. • Encourage members not to give in to reach agreement, but rather to express differences of opinion. • Ask questions and make sure everyone’s opinion is considered before reaching a decision. Distribute handouts for Unit 4. In the next unit, participants will put their decision-making skills to work as the network begins to develop a mission statement. I-43 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I Scenario 1 Group Decision Making You are the members of the executive management committee of a health clinic. The district’s health budget has been cut by 17 percent and your annual budget is to be reduced by the same amount. After considering various alternatives, committee members agree that they will have to eliminate one of two health education positions. One health educator—a 47-year-old grandmother who is highly regarded in the community—has 15 years of experience on the staff of the clinic. Prior to that, she was a community health volunteer. The second educator— a 23-year-old secondary school graduate—has new ideas on reaching youth. During the six months she has been a clinic employee, she has recruited dozens of new clients. Many of the new recruits are recent immigrants to the area. Task: Discuss the situation and reach a decision on which employee to dismiss. I-44 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I Scenario 2 Group Decision Making You are the members of the executive management committee of a health clinic. The district’s health budget has been cut by 17 percent and your annual budget is to be reduced by the same amount. An international donor has received a proposal from you and has tentatively approved your request for funding. The grant would cover 20 percent of your operating expenses as well as make additional funds available to produce outreach materials. The grant, however, is contingent on the clinic’s participation in a pilot program to introduce a contraceptive method which has not been used previously in your community. Task: Discuss the situation and reach a decision on whether to agree to accept the grant and participate in the pilot program. I-45 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I Scenario 3 Group Decision Making You are the members of the executive management committee of a health clinic. The district’s health budget has been cut by 17 percent and your annual budget is to be reduced by the same amount. Data in your district indicate a rise in the rate of teen pregnancy. The members of the committee agree that they want to provide services to youth and thus have established a Teen Advisory Board. The board’s representatives demand confidentiality in the provision of services. Parent and church groups, however, are opposed to the provision of services and demand that the clinic obtain permission from parents before distributing information and contraceptives to minors. Task: Discuss the situation and reach a decision on whether to require parental permission before providing teens with contraceptive education and services. I-46 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I Handout I.4.1 Decision Making: Reaching Group Consensus Background Notes Members of networks are often called on to make hard decisions. Members may find themselves deciding whether to take on a difficult advocacy issue—one that has little popular support or is controversial—or they may face the need to choose among pressing issues in response to limited resources. How well they work through the decision-making process is important to the overall success of their efforts. Preparation is an important element in decision making. To make informed choices, network members need information. They also need to know how to set limits on and goals for their discussion. Good listening and presentation skills contribute to the clarity of the discussion as does the ability to keep an emotional distance from the subject under discussion. The following are some guidelines for reaching agreement: ♦ Make sure that everyone who wants to speak is heard from and feels that his/her position has been considered. ♦ Talk through the issue under discussion until reaching an agreement that everyone can support. ♦ Understand that agreement may not mean that all members of the network agree 100 percent; however, everyone should support the decision in principle. ♦ Encourage members not to give in to reach agreement but rather to express differences of opinion. ♦ Ask questions and make sure everyone’s opinion is considered before reaching a decision. I-47 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I Handout I.4.2 Six Steps for Decision Making Define decision-making process Define issue/problem Generate alternative solutions Assess alternative solutions Select the best alternative Implement and monitor decision I-48 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 Mission Statements: Creating a Common Purpose Background Notes One of the first tasks facing a network is to agree on a mission statement. This short statement is needed to focus the efforts of the network. Its purpose is to define the network’s philosophy, recruit and motivate members, and guide specific activities. Decisions on activities and more specific goals are reserved for later—after the network has been formed and members have assessed the political climate and built alliances with other individuals and organizations. A mission statement, however, is needed at the outset of organizing efforts. It clarifies—in the broadest of terms— what the network hopes to achieve. The statement should appear in newsletters, press releases, brochures, proposals, publications, and other documents. By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Describe the interests that make the group a network or potential network; • Define “mission statement” and describe its components; and • Draft a network mission statement. 2 hours and 15 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts I.5.1 Background Notes I.5.2 Mission Statements I.5.3 Guidelines for Writing a Mission Statement I.5.4 Examples of Mission Statements I.5.5 Sample Logos Select five different mission statements from Handout I.5.4. Write each statement on a separate sheet of newsprint, leaving space at the bottom of the sheet for comments. Hang the newsprint sheets around the room. What Is a Mission Statement? Time: 15 minutes Note to Facilitator: The participants have come together because they share an interest—whether vague or well defined—in advocating for improvements in reproductive health. In this unit, we will try to define that interest in precise terms. 1. Ask participants to define “mission statement.” 2. Write their responses on newsprint. I-49 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I 3. Revise and refine the definition until everyone agrees with it. The final definition should include the elements in the following statement: 4. Discuss why mission statements are needed. • To guide the efforts of the network and its members. • To clarify what the network hopes to achieve. Characteristics of Good Mission Statements Time: 45 minutes 1. Refer participants to the examples of mission statements that are displayed around the room. 2. Ask the participants to circulate around the room, read each statement, and write comments on the newsprint about the positive and/or negative aspects of the statements. 3. When participants finish, review the comments on the newsprint and summarize with the group the characteristics of good mission statements. 4. Write the characteristics on a flipchart and be certain that the list includes the following: 5. Ask participants to share their own organizational mission statements. 6. If time allows, write a few of the statements on newsprint and post them. Writing a Mission Statement for the Network Time: 45 minutes Note to Facilitator: The purpose of the exercise is to develop a preliminary draft of a mission statement. Several hours and often days may be needed to discuss fully the content of the statement and to arrive at consensus. Furthermore, key members of the network may not be present at the workshop. They must have an opportunity later on to contribute to the statement. Triads (30 minutes) 1. Distribute and review Handout I.5.3, Guidelines for Writing a Mission Statement. 2. Divide the participants into triads and ask each group to draft a mission statement for the network that is represented at the workshop. 3. After each group has finished its draft mission statement, ask the groups to post their statements around the room. ACTIVITY 2 ACTIVITY 3 Mission Statement: A declaration of organizational purpose. Mission Statements are. √ Clear and concise √ Short—a few lines or a short paragraph √ Representative of the organization’s identity √ Motivational or inspirational I-50 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I Group Discussion and Consensus (15 minutes) 1. Guide a discussion of each proposed mission statement in turn. Indicate in colored markers the elements of each statement that the participants like or do not like. 2. Help the group reach consensus on a draft mission statement. 3. Write the new mission statement on the newsprint and post. Note to Facilitator: Help reach agreement on one mission statement by starting with the most well-liked statement and adapting it to the suggestions of the group or by writing with all the participants, a new mission statement that includes various components of the statements liked best by the group. Transition Developing a network mission statement is an important step in creating network identity. There are other network characteristics that can contribute to a sense of identity for members, particularly the network’s name and logo. The name and logo send a clear and concise message about the network’s areas of interest and even its general character. Deciding on a name and logo that accurately represent current members and will help attract prospective members is a task demanding the input and agreement of all members. Creating a Network Identity: Name and Logo Time: 30 minutes 1. Divide participants into four groups. 2. Ask two of the groups to come up with 2-3 potential names for the network; ask the other two groups to design 2-3 sample logos for the network. 3. Write the suggested names from the small groups on the newsprint. Ask the participants for general reactions to the various names. 4. Post the logos designed by the other two groups and ask for the participants’ reactions. 5. Use the following questions to facilitate a general discussion of the proposed names and logos: • Does anyone have strong opinions in favor of any of the names and logos? • Why are those names preferred? • Why do people like certain logos? What messages do the different logos convey? • Why is it so important to choose the right name and design the right logo? Members of a network must participate in answering questions of who they are, as an organization, what they do, and so on. A mission statement that grows out of the discussions about these questions will be a key element in recruiting, retaining, and motivating members and guiding the work of the network. Distribute handouts for Unit 5. In the final unit of Section I, participants will work together to make decisions about how the network does its work—its structure and management. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD ACTIVITY 4 I-51 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I Handout I.5.1 Mission Statements: Creating a Common Purpose Background Notes One of the first tasks facing a network is to agree on a mission statement. This short statement is needed to focus the efforts of the network. Its purpose is to define the network’s philosophy, recruit and motivate members, and guide specific activities. Decisions on activities and more specific goals are reserved for later—after the network has been formed and members have assessed the political climate and built alliances with other individuals and organizations. A mission statement, however, is needed at the outset of organizing efforts. It clarifies—in the broadest of terms—what the network hopes to achieve. The statement should appear in newsletters, press releases, brochures, proposals, publications, and other documents. I-52 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I Handout I.5.2 Mission Statements* Members of networks are called on to make hard decisions. They may have to decide whether to take on a controversial issue (one that has little popular support), whether to set limits on activities because of limited resources, or whether to join forces with competitors or adversaries for the sake of achieving a common goal. The best single guide for making these decisions is the network’s mission statement. Definition: A mission statement is a declaration of organizational purpose. Purpose: Its purpose is to guide the decisions of the organization, motivate or inspire its members, and inform the public of its philosophy. Development of a Mission Statement: A mission statement distills the discussions that are carried on to answer the following questions: 1. Who are we? What is the identity of the organization in the eyes of its members? What makes this organization different? 2. In general, what are the basic social or political needs that we hope to address? 3. In general, what do we do to recognize, anticipate, and respond to these needs or problems? Answering this question means that the organization must listen to the needs or problems of the outside world. 4. How should we respond to our key stakeholders? What do stakeholders value and how can the organization provide them with what they value? 5. What are our philosophy, values, and culture? Clarifying its own philosophy, values, and culture helps an organization develop consistent strategies and maintain its integrity. 6. What makes us distinctive and unique? Reaching consensus on answers to these questions takes hours and even days of discussion. Handout I.5.3 provides guidelines for writing a mission statement after discussions have taken place. ______________________ *John M. Bryson.1995. Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Pp. 75-78. I-53 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I Handout I.5.3 Guidelines for Writing a Mission Statement* The choice of the specific words that go into a mission statement can and should generate intense discussion. These words give the statement its character and distinguish the organization from all others. Preparation. Before writing your mission statement, consider the following: 1. Deciding who will write the statement. People who participate in developing the mission statement will have a deeper understanding of its message. Therefore, participation in the process by all members of the network is desireable. If this is not practical because of the number or geographic location of network members, those who do not write the statement must review and approve the final wording. 2. Setting a deadline for completing the draft and final statements. Deadlines will keep the writers on target and limit lengthy philosophical discussions. 3. Developing a plan for reviewing draft statements and reaching consensus on the final wording, publication, and dissemination. Drafting the statement. Focus initially on answering the six questions posed in Handout I.5.2. Then, to get started on the statement itself, brainstorm a list of key words and phrases and begin to create a mission statement from the words and phrases. Reaching consensus. The following are some guidelines for reaching agreement: ♦ Make sure that everyone who wants to speak is heard from and that his/her position is considered. ♦ Encourage members to express differences of opinion. ♦ Talk through the issue under discussion until reaching agreement. ♦ Ask questions and make sure that everyone's opinion is understood before reaching a decision. ♦ Recognize that agreement may mean that everyone can support the decision, even if the decision does not reflect his or her first preference. *Adapted from Jeffrey Abrahams. 1995. The Mission Statement Book: 301 Corporate Mission Statements from America’s Top Companies. Ten Speed Press. Pp. 63–65. I-54 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I Handout I.5.4 Examples of Mission Statements Examples of mission statements from organizations working in FP/RH and development include the following: ♦ We want to gain the support of influential community groups (religious bodies; doctors; women's organizations; teachers; the press) as well as the general public, especially parents, in our efforts to influence our political leaders to make services available to young people. ♦ We are working to support the basic and internationally recognized right of all women and men to the knowledge and means to make reproductive choices. ♦ To empower women at all levels of society to be full partners in development (CEDPA). ♦ The Ghana Social Marketing Foundation uses the techniques of social marketing to empower and inspire families and individuals to achieve an improved quality of life. We do this by making available effective, affordable and accessible family planning and maternal and child health products and services and providing correct information to enable families and individuals to make informed choices. ♦ InterAction, a membership association of 152 U.S. private voluntary organizations, exists to enhance the effectiveness and professional capacities of its members engaged in international humanitarian efforts. Further, InterAction exists to foster partnership, collaboration, leadership, and the power of this community to speak as one voice as we strive to achieve a world of self-reliance, justice, and peace. ♦ To unite knowledge, resources, and skills of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working on women’s issues to advocate for policies and programs that will improve the quality of life of women in Turkey (KIDOG, Advocacy Network for Women). ♦ To support the building of national and international women’s health movements (International Women’s Health Coalition). I-55 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I Handout I.5.5 The AIDS Control an Prevention Project, Family Health International Arlington, VA, USA Ucan Supurge (Flying Broom) Ankara, Turkey Association of Women’s Rights Protection Istanbul, Turkey Advocacy Network for Women Istanbul, Turkey National Network for The Promotion of Women Lima, Peru Romanian Association Against AIDS Bucharest, Romania Amman, Jordan Amman, Jordan Sample Logos I-56 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I OBJECTIVES TIME Putting It All Together: Managing the Network Background Notes It is important for members forming a network to take time to determine how they will manage the logistics of their efforts. For example, will their meetings be held on an ad hoc basis or scheduled regularly on a monthly or biweekly basis? While meetings can be time consuming and frustrating, they are necessary if the network is to meet its objectives. The challenge is to make meetings as productive and brief as possible by following basic rules such as using agendas, engaging a facilitator, taking minutes, drafting the next meeting’s agenda, and evaluating the meeting at its conclusion. Based on the skills and professional expertise of members, what will be the roles of individuals within the network? Will responsibilities be shared through task forces or committees? Should a steering committee be elected to oversee activities? Would a rotating coordination mechanism be appropriate? How will an identity be established for the network? What will the network be called? Are financial resources available for such things as letterhead and postage? If not, how will members stay in touch? Details such as these should be decided in the planning stage of a network. They can be revised later if necessary. Keeping members informed and involved is another crucial consideration. Communication maintains trust and interest. It also minimizes misunderstandings and identifies points of disagreement before they become serious problems. Members should receive minutes from meetings, updates, press releases, and information on future events. Are funds and a mechanism in place for this communication? By spending time at the outset to determine how their network should function, members can avoid numerous problems and misunderstandings later. Once management questions have been worked out, network members are free to concentrate efforts on achieving their advocacy objectives. By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Identify the resources that members bring to the network as individuals and representatives of organizations; • Identify operational issues of organization and structure; • Develop a plan for solving these operational issues; and • Describe norms of network member behavior. 3 hours and 50 minutes I-57 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I MATERIALS HANDOUTS ACTIVITY 1 • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts I.6.1 Background Notes I.6.2 Organizational/Member Resources Inventory I.6.3 Member Skills Inventory I.6.4 Guidelines for Productive Meetings I.6.5 Organizational Structures for Advocacy Networks Read Background Notes in preparation for Activity 1. Introduction to Managing the Network Time: 5 minutes Introduce Unit 6 by reviewing the objectives and making a brief presentation that includes the following major points: • Up to this point, the participants have done considerable work to establish the beginnings of a network. They have − recruited network members who represent their own personal networks; − drafted a mission statement that describes the network’s reason for being; − devised a name (or suggested names) for the network that identifies its interests and identity; and − designed a logo (or suggested ideas) that creatively depicts what the network finds important. • But sustaining a network demands more than mission, name, and identity—it takes organization, structure, systems, and resources. • It is important for members to take the time and make decisions about such things as: − how to keep members informed; − when will meetings be held and who will decide the agenda; − what will be the roles and responsibilities of members; − what financial resources are required; and − are financial resources available? • By spending time at the outset to decide how the network should function, members can avoid numerous problems and misunderstandings later on. • When management issues are addressed, members are free to concentrate on achieving their advocacy objectives. • The first activity in this unit involves network members in conducting an inventory of the skills and resources that members and their respective organizations bring to the network. The information will facilitate decision making about members’ roles and responsibilities and the activities to be implemented. PREPARATION I-58 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I ACTIVITY 2 Resource InventoryTime: 1 hour and 15 minutes Individual Work (15 minutes) 1. Distribute the Organizational/Member Resources Inventory (Handout I.6.2) and the Member Skills Inventory (Handout I.6.3) to all participants to complete for themselves and their organizations. 2. Explain that the first form looks at resources available within the participant’s own organization or offered by the participant her/himself. The second form looks at the skills of the participant only. If two or more participants belong to the same organization, they should work together to complete one Organizational/Member Resources Inventory. Group Analysis of Information (1 hour) 1. Ask one participant to compile all the information from the following discussion onto one inventory form. The form will be an important resource for the network. 2. In the large group, read each item on the Organizational/Member Resources Inventory and discuss: • Whether the resources are available and where—this information should be recorded on one inventory form; • If not available, whether the resource may be needed by the network; • If needed, how it can be obtained; and • Whether other supplies, equipment, or resources should be added to the list. 3. Summarize and compile the information from the Member Skills Inventory in the same way. 4. At the end of the activity, there will be a list of missing resources and skills and some ideas on how to secure the needed items. There will also be master lists of Organizational/Member Resources and Member Skills, both of which should go into a Network Resource Notebook. 5. Collect the individual inventories and photocopy them for the Network Resource Notebook. Note to Facilitator: The network may want to make the acquisition of the needed resources and skills one of the activities that members must plan in upcoming meetings. I-59 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I Network Organization and Structure Time: 2 hours and 15 minutes Brainstorming (15 minutes) 1. Refer to your introduction where you discussed several management decisions that must be made to help organize and structure the network’s operations. 2. Ask the participants to brainstorm a list of issues that must be addressed if a network is to operate effectively and efficiently. Write their issues on the flipchart. This list should, at a minimum, include the following: Classification of Issues (15 minutes) 1. Most of the issues identified during the brainstorming exercise will fall into two major categories as follows: • Network Organizational Structure. Issues of structure include leadership roles; member responsibilities; setting meeting schedules; use of steering or management committees, task forces and/or subcommittees; membership dues/fees, etc. • Network Communication. Communication issues include systems for informing members of meetings and new developments, communicating with other groups/networks, establishing and maintaining record-keeping systems, etc. 2. Review the list on the newsprint and ask the group to classify each item as belonging to “Network Organizational Structure” or “Network Communication.” Using colored markers, write “S” (structure) or “C” (communication) next to each item depending on the group’s classification. ACTIVITY 3 Issues of Organization and Structure for the Network √ Identification of organizations and individuals who can supply needed skills and resources √ Scheduling and conducting meetings √ Recruiting new members √ Communication—providing information to members √ Structure—who is in charge of coordinating, communicating, allocating tasks, etc. √ Strategic planning process √ Record-keeping responsibilities √ Financial responsibilities—budgeting, fundraising, accounting I-60 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I Working Groups (1 hour) 1. Ask participants to self-select either “Structure” or “Communication” to work on in small groups. Depending on the number of participants interested in each topic, form working groups of no more than seven participants each. 2. Ask each group to review the issues listed for its topic to ensure uniform understanding of the issue, and to develop specific recommendations for how the network should address each issue. Ask each group to write its recommendations on newsprint. For example, the “structure” groups might suggest a specific organizational chart showing leadership and/or decision- making structures (examples from other networks are included in Handout I.6.5) or make recommendations for meeting schedules and meeting structure. The “communication” groups might recommend systems for communication within the network, types of data to collect, and record-keeping systems, etc. 3. After the small groups have worked for about 45 minutes, ask all of the “structure” groups to join together and all of the “communication” groups to join together to share and organize their recommendations, eliminate duplications, and decide how to present their recommendations to the full group. The groups do not need to reach consensus on their recommendations; they may simply present several suggestions to the full group. Group Presentations and Discussion (45 minutes) 1. Ask the groups to present their recommendations in whatever format and manner they have chosen. 2. After each group’s presentation, facilitate a discussion with the entire group to try to reach agreement on some of the recommended guidelines for managing the network. Record the decisions on newsprint. 3. Similarly, help the group highlight outstanding issues that need to be resolved at some future date. Record these issues on newsprint. For example, Network Agrees to: √ Meet formally at least 10 times a year √ Rotate meeeting sites, facilitators, and note takers √ Develop bylaws √ Establish a steering committee and vote for committee members √ Set up a communication system Network Needs to: √ Survey members for communication preferences √ Review skills inventory and design database √ Decide on subcommittee/task force structure √ Design member recruitment strategy √ Decide on fees/dues structure Note to Facilitator: Participants should recognize that some decisions regarding network operations and management may be made at this time but that not all issues can be decided during the workshop—especially if some organization members are absent or data are unavailable. For this reason, the exercise should focus on recording decisions made by the participants, identifying issues not yet resolved, and making plans for how the network will address them. Suggest to the group that some of these issues can be placed on the agenda for the next meeting of the network. I-61 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I ACTIVITY 4 SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD Follow-Up Meeting Time: 15 minutes 1. Review both lists from above and ask the participants to identify items that they would like to put on the agenda for their next network meeting. Highlight these items with colored markers. For example, a final decision on the network's name and logo, identification of specific committees, assigning priority to remaining issues, etc. 2. Ask participants to decide on a meeting date and site and solicit volunteers to draft the agenda and contact absent members. Management of a network is an ongoing, democratic process that requires input and involvement from as many members as possible. It is best to consider and agree on the main structure for the network at the outset of network formation. Members can then turn their attention to the work they want to accomplish, secure in the knowledge that they have a management plan in place to make the network operate as efficiently as possible. Distribute handouts for Unit 6. Section I of this manual focused on internal considerations: forming a network, building communication and team skills, understanding the decision-making process, drafting a mission statement, and managing the network. Section II helps the network to begin looking outward. It is designed to assist participants in understanding the policy process and determining what advocacy opportunities exist within a particular political context. I-62 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I Handout I.6.1 Putting It All Together: Managing the Network Background Notes It is important for members forming a network to take time to determine how they will manage the logistics of their efforts. For example, will their meetings be held on an ad hoc basis or scheduled regularly on a monthly or biweekly basis? While meetings can be time consuming and frustrating, they are necessary if the network is to meet its objectives. The challenge is to make meetings as productive and brief as possible by following basic rules such as using agendas, engaging a facilitator, taking minutes, drafting the next meeting’s agenda and evaluating the meeting at its conclusion. Based on the skills and professional expertise of members, what will be the roles of individuals within the network? Will responsibilities be shared through task forces or committees? Should a steering committee be elected to oversee activities? Would a rotating coordination mechanism be appropriate? How will an identity be established for the network? What will the network be called? Are financial resources available for such things as letterhead and postage? If not, how will members stay in touch? Details such as these should be decided in the planning stage of a network. They can be revised later if necessary. Keeping members informed and involved is another crucial consideration. Communication maintains trust and interest. It also minimizes misunderstandings and identifies points of disagreement before they become serious problems. Members should receive minutes from meetings, updates, press releases, and information on future events. Are funds and a mechanism in place for this communication? By spending time at the outset to determine how their network should function, members can avoid numerous problems and misunderstandings later. Once management questions have been worked out, network members are free to concentrate efforts on achieving their advocacy objectives. I-63 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I Handout I.6.2 Organizational/Member Resources Inventory Co m pu te r Pr in te r Sc an ne r In te rn et W eb P ag e E- m ai l Fa x Co pi er Of fic e Sp ac e M ee ti ng R oo m Ve hi cl e M em be rs hi p L is t Organizational/Member Resources Organization/Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 I-64 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I W or d Pr oc es si ng Da ta ba se M an ag em en t Tr ai ni ng Re se ar ch Fi na nc ia l M an ag em en t Le ga l/R eg ul at or y Is su es Po lic y A na ly si s Fu nd ra is in g M ed ia Pu bl ic S pe ak in g G ra ph ic s an d De si gn La ng ua ge : La ng ua ge : Member Skills Member Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Handout I.6.3 Member Skills Inventory I-65 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I Handout I.6.4 Guidelines for Productive Meetings* The following general rules for conducting productive and orderly meetings have been tested time and time again in countless settings around the world. Use an Agenda Each meeting should have an agenda, preferably one drafted at the previous meeting and developed in detail by one or two members prior to the next meeting. If possible, it should be sent to members in advance. (If an agenda has not already been developed, the first 5-10 minutes of the meeting should be devoted to creating an agenda on a flipchart.) Agendas should include the topics to be discussed and why, the presenters and time limits. Included too should be the item type and whether it requires a decision or is just an announcement. Meetings should start with a review of the agenda, adding or deleting items depending on the sense of the group and modifying time estimates. Engage a Facilitator Each meeting should have a facilitator who is responsible for keeping the meeting focused and moving; intervening if the discussion fragments into multiple conversations; tactfully preventing anyone from dominating the meeting or being overlooked; and bringing discussions to a close. This role may be rotated among network members. The facilitator should also notify the group when the time allotted for an agenda item has expired or is about to expire. Members must then decide either to continue the discussion at the expense of other agenda items or to postpone further discussion until another meeting. Take Notes At each meeting, someone should record key topics and the main points raised, decisions made (including who has agreed to do what and by when), and items that the group has agreed to address later. Members can use the notes to reconstruct discussions, remind themselves of decisions or actions to be taken, or see what happened at a meeting they missed. Rotate the minute-taking responsibility among members. Draft Next Agenda At the end of the meeting, draft an agenda for the next meeting. Evaluate the Meeting Close by taking a few minutes to review and evaluate each meeting, even if agenda items go overtime. The evaluation should include decisions on what to do to improve future meetings and helpful feedback from the facilitator. *Adapted from Peter R. Scholtes. 1998. The Team Handbook: How to Use Teams to Improve Quality. Madison, WI: Joiner Associates, Pp 4-6. I-66 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I H an do ut I. 6. 5 Th e m em be rs o f t hi s ne tw or k d ivi de d th em se lve s in to fo ur c om m it te es or t ea m s, a cc or di ng t o in di vi du al e xp er ti se o r in te re st . T he co m m it te es a re o rg an iz ed a cc or di ng t o au di en ce o r fu nc ti on . Th e ne tw or k de ve lo pe d a vis io n, m is si on s ta te m en t, a nd a ct io n pl an a nd ea ch c om m it te e im pl em en ts t he a ct io n pl an a m on g it s st ak eh ol de r gr ou p. Th e co or di na ti ng c om m it te e co ns is ts o f fo ur m em be rs , o ne le ad er fr om e ac h su b- co m m it te e. T he m em be rs o f t he c oo rd in at in g co m m it te e ro ta te o n a ye ar ly b as is . Or ga niz at ion al St ru ctu re s f or A dv oc ac y Ne tw or ks : Tw o Ex am ple s In th is n et wo rk , m em be rs o rg an ize d th em se lve s in to th em at ic te am s ac co rd in g to th e n et wo rk ’s ke y a re as o f a dv oc ac y. E ac h “is su e t ea m ” is re sp on si bl e fo r d oi ng it s ow n da ta g at he rin g, c om m un ic at io n pl an , an d ac ti on p la n. A n el ec te d ch ai rp er so n re pr es en ts e ac h is su e te am o n th e co or di na ti ng c om m it te e. A s in gl e ne tw or k c oo rd in at or wa s el ec te d by t he n et wo rk t o co or di na te a ct ivi ti es , f ac ili ta te co m m un ic at io n flo w, a nd o rg an iz e m on th ly n et wo rk m ee ti ng s. Co or di na ti ng Co m m it te e (in cl ud in g on e m em be r fr om e ac h of t he 4 co m m it te es ) Co m m it te e on Di al og ue w it h Po lic ym ak er s (5 m em be rs ) Co m m it te e on Re se ar ch a nd D at a (6 m em be rs ) Co m m it te e on Bu ild in g Co al it io ns wi th o th er N G Os (7 m em be rs ) Co m m it te e on Li ai so n wi th M as s M ed ia (4 m em be rs ) Re pr od uc ti ve Ri gh ts C om m . Ch ai r FP S er vic es Co m m it te e Ch ai r A do le sc en t Co m m it te e Ch ai r Co or di na ti ng C om m it te e Ne tw or k Co or di na to r I-67 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESSUNIT 1 SECTION II ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES: ASSESSING THE POLICY ENVIRONMENT Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country. Excerpted from Article 21, Universal Declaration of Human Rights U.N. General Assembly, December 10, 1948 Introduction A critical element in the success of any advocacy effort is a thorough understanding of the opportunities that exist for influencing the policy process—nationally, regionally, or locally. In Section I, participants worked through the steps necessary to put together an effective network. Now, network members will learn to determine how—given the realities of their particular political environment—the policy process works and what they can realistically expect to achieve at the policy level. This assessment is important because it focuses the network’s efforts on what is potentially attainable. Policymaking—a course of action dealing with a problem or matter of concern— occurs within a web of interacting forces. Involved are multiple sources of information, complex power relations, and changing institutional arrangements. These factors feed into three main processes: problem recognition, the formation and refinement of policy proposals, and politics. Some issues are probably settled by facts, analysis, and persuasion. Others are determined by vote, bargaining, or delegation to someone in authority. In all cases, decision makers are generally forced to make policy choices under conditions of ambiguity and uncertainty. Therefore, policy analysis demands a focus on what is actually done as opposed to what is proposed or intended. Policies create a framework by which government affects the behavior of millions of people. For FP/RH, policies are tools to promote access to services or to deny, obstruct, or condition the availability of services. By providing special clinic and education services to teens, for example, a government demonstrates sensitivity to adolescent sexuality; by restricting certain medical procedures such as nonphysician insertion of IUDs, a government erects barriers to reproductive health services. Effective policy action begins with study and research. It may not be easy to determine the processes by which a country formulates and implements reproductive health policies, particularly if the government’s decision making is complex or in transition from a top-down to a more decentralized process. It is important, however, to identify as accurately as possible the various factors that affect policy development decisions so that appropriate strategies can be adopted to influence the policymaking process. Identifying these factors will help the network use its resources in a manner that maximizes impact. II-1 UNIT 1 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESS The first step in the process is to review how the policy process works in the network’s particular setting. In Unit 1, workshop participants will combine their knowledge about how policy is formulated and implemented, delineate the steps in the policy formulation process, and develop a visual map to illustrate how policy decisions are crafted in their country. In Unit 2, participants will move from the general policy arena to the FP/RH policy environment. They will assess the current political climate and refine the policy map to reflect information about how the government’s priorities are determined for FP/RH policy. Participants will also look for linkages with other policy areas that can potentially affect the network’s priorities. Identifying relevant issues for the network’s advocacy efforts is the focus of Unit 3. Participants will rank reproductive health issues for their network’s advocacy efforts and then match the issues with perceived opportunities. The final activity will help participants reach agreement on a specific issue for their network’s advocacy campaign. II-2 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESSUNIT 1 SECTION II Fortunately, countries around the world are moving away from highly centralized frameworks. There is a growing emphasis on the notion of civil society. Civil society institutions—family, community, professional associations, NGOs, and religious institutions—are seen as an appropriate arena for organizing governance. New forms of decision making are emerging and undergoing refinement. Governments and international donor agencies are recognizing that NGOs can and do play an important role in this process by serving as bridges—or policy champions—between civil society and policymakers at all levels of government. Many governments, however, remain ambivalent about encouraging NGO and citizen participation in the policy process. They may recognize the importance of citizen participation, but they are reluctant to risk challenges to their policies and actions. Often, too, they lack appropriate mechanisms for involving citizens in the affairs of state. Regardless of a country’s political system or level of receptivity to popular participation, the network's efforts in the government arena will target branches such as the executive, legislature/parliament, judiciary, government ministries and agencies, local officials, and, in some cases, even the police or military. Members need to identify the opportunities for influencing the policy process—whether at the national level where discussions are focused on broad policy issues and official national policies or at the operational level where specific resource allocation and service delivery guidelines are formulated. To be able to identify opportunities, the network first needs to understand the formal rules and procedures its country uses to make policy decisions. The Policy Process: Government in Action Background Notes Policy formulation is a high- level overall plan or course of action embracing the general goals and acceptable procedures of government body. It is a highly political process. No two countries in the world formulate policy in exactly the same way, even in democracies. But even in highly centralized countries, the government is seen as the vehicle to bring about social and economic development and growth. In these countries, however, the ruling elite frequently does not have the political will to act in a way that serves the public good. Political and economic interests often dictate the actions of the elite. Policies Without Programs Côte d'Ivoire has had an official and fairly supportive policy on population for many years, but the government has yet to translate the law into the actual provision of family planning services. II-3 UNIT 1 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESS OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION By the end of this unit, participants will be able to explain and illustrate how the policy process works in their country. 3 hours and 15 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts II.1.1 Background Notes II.1.2 Country X: Policy Process Map • Collect information and resource materials on how policy is formulated and/or examples of national policies advanced by your country. • Identify and invite a local policy expert to make the opening presentation for Activity 2 by addressing the policy process and your country’s system of governance. The invited speaker should have a comprehensive understanding of how policy is formulated and implemented. A good speaker might be a professor of political science, a policy analyst, a professional lobbyist, a high-ranking government official, or a parliamentarian. • Provide the guest speaker with the list of questions presented in Activity 2 and the example of a policy map. Emphasize that his/her presentation should address the questions and include a visual depiction of the general policy process followed in your country. Explain that the purpose of the presentation is to strengthen the policy skills of an advocacy network. Ask the presenter to speak for a maximum of one hour and to allow time for questions and discussion within that time period. • Write the discussion questions for Activity 2 on newsprint and post. • For Activity 3, draw the Policy Process Map on newsprint. II-4 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESSUNIT 1 SECTION II ACTIVITY 1 Introduction to the Policy ProcessTime: 15 minutes Introduce Section II and Unit 1 by reviewing the objective and making a brief presentation on the importance of understanding the policy environment. Major points to include in your presentation follow: • A critical element in the success of any advocacy effort is a thorough understanding of the policy process in the network’s country. This understanding includes how RH issues are identified; how policies are formulated and implemented; which institutions and individuals are involved; what are the roles, relationships, and balance of power among institutions and individuals; and how, when, and where to act to achieve maximum impact from advocacy efforts. • An in-depth knowledge of the policy environment can help the network identify and recognize advocacy opportunities and critical points of entry both to influence the policy process and guide the network’s selection of advocacy issues. • In addition to understanding the formal rules and procedures that the government follows to make policy decisions, networks should monitor the political, economic, sociocultural, and technological environments to keep abreast of emerging issues and the positions of government, political, religious and local leaders with respect to these issues. Opportunities to influence policy and policymakers can arise at any time. • In many countries, government and political leaders remain skeptical, if not fearful, of NGOs and other representatives of civil society participating in the policy arena. • There is a common perception among policymakers that NGOs lack the experience, skills, and knowledge required for policy analysis and formulation. This perception leads to a reluctance or refusal to listen to or collaborate with networks in their advocacy efforts. • Consequently, it is vital that network members demonstrate a clear and accurate understanding of the process followed and the players involved in making policy decisions. • The purpose of Section II is to help network members gain insights and skills that will strengthen the network’s credibility and professionalism and enhance individuals’ ability to engage in dialogue with policymakers. Transition In preparation for the expert presentation, review the discussion questions that are posted and explain that the questions will guide the presentation. Remind participants to refer to the questions during the presentation, note when each question is addressed, and record the corresponding answer. II-5 UNIT 1 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESS ACTIVITY 2 How Policy Is MadeTime: 1 hour and 30 minutes Expert Presentation (1 hour) 1. Introduce the speaker. 2. After the presentation, facilitate a question-and-answer session that includes any discussion questions not already answered in the presentation. 3. Thank the presenter and conclude the activity. Brainstorming (10 minutes) 1. Write “Examples of Policies” as a heading on newsprint. 2. Ask participants to brainstorm any examples of policies currently in place (regardless of the sector) and list their responses on the newsprint. Examples of Policies √ National AIDS Policy √ Minimum of 8 years of formal education √ No smoking inside public buildings √ Limitations on distribution of contraceptives by nonmedical personnel Discussion Questions: How Policy Is Made 1. How are ideas or issues generated for new or revised policies? 2. How is a proposed issue introduced into the formal decision-making process? 3. What is the process for discussing, debating, and, perhaps, altering the proposal? Who are the players involved? 4. How is the proposal approved or rejected? 5. If approved, what are the steps to move the proposal to the next level of decision making? II-6 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESSUNIT 1 SECTION II ACTIVITY 3 Group Discussion (20 minutes) 1. Refer to the discussion questions on the newsprint and relate each question to ONE of the policies listed during the brainstorming session. For example, with respect to the National AIDS Policy, • Where or how was the idea/issue related to the National AIDS Policy generated? • How was the issue introduced into the formal policymaking process? • What was the process for discussing, debating, and/or altering the proposal for the AIDS policy? Who were the individuals or institutions involved in that process? • Who/what bodies were involved in approving the proposal? • What steps were followed to move the proposal to the next level of decision making? Mapping the Policy Process Time: 1 hour and 30 minutes Small Group Activity (45 minutes) 1. Divide participants into small groups and distribute newsprint and markers to each group. 2. Using the information from the policy expert’s presentation and from the group discussion, ask each small group to prepare a visual map, or flowchart, of the policy process in its country. The map should be kept as simple as possible while ensuring accuracy. 3. Refer to the “Country X: Policy Process Map” that you drew on the newsprint to show the participants what a policy process map looks like. Country X: Policy Process Map 3. Entire Parliament 2. Committee of Parliament 1. Agenda Setting 4. Back to Ministry for Implementation • President • Prime Minister • Ministers Not Approved Approved II-7 UNIT 1 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESS SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD Group Discussion (45 minutes) 1. Ask each group to present its policy map to the whole group and give a brief explanation of the map and what they based their decisions on. 2. Discuss the similarities and differences among the maps. Help the participants reach agreement on one map. Ask a participant to reproduce the final map on paper so it can be photocopied and distributed. 3. If there are MAJOR differences of opinion or gaps in information about how the policy process works, list the areas of discrepancy and the types of information needed for clarification. Information sharing and research can help network members clearly understand how the policy formulation process works in their particular setting. Once members have this information, they can apply it to their emerging advocacy strategy. Distribute handouts for Unit 1. In the next unit, participants will move from a general understanding of the policy process to an analysis of the specific components of the FP/RH policy environment. II-8 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESSUNIT 1 SECTION II Fortunately, countries around the world are moving away from highly centralized frameworks. There is a growing emphasis on the notion of civil society. Civil society institutions—family, community, professional associations, NGOs, and religious institutions—are seen as an appropriate arena for organizing governance. New forms of decision making are emerging and undergoing refinement. Governments and international donor agencies are recognizing that NGOs can and do play an important role in this process by serving as bridges—or policy champions—between civil society and policymakers at all levels of government. The Policy Process: Government in Action Background Notes Policy formulation is a high-level overall plan or course of action embracing the general goals and acceptable procedures of government body. It is a highly political process. No two countries in the world formulate policy in exactly the same way, even in democracies. But even in highly centralized countries, the government is seen as the vehicle to bring about social and economic development and growth. In these countries, however, the ruling elite frequently does not have the political will to act in a way that serves the public good. Political and economic interests often dictate the actions of the elite. Policies Without Programs Côte d'Ivoire has had an official and fairly supportive policy on population for many years, but the government has yet to translate the law into the actual provision of family planning services. Handout II.1.1 Many governments, however, remain ambivalent about encouraging NGO and citizen participation in the policy process. They may recognize the importance of citizen participation, but they are reluctant to risk challenges to their policies and actions. Often, too, they lack appropriate mechanisms for involving citizens in the affairs of state. Regardless of a country's political system or level of receptivity to popular participation, the network's efforts in the government arena will target branches such as the executive, legislature/parliament, judiciary, government ministries and agencies, local officials, and, in some cases, even the police or military. Members need to identify the opportunities for influencing the policy process—whether at the national level where discussions are focused on broad policy issues and official national policies or at the operational level where specific resource allocation and service delivery guidelines are formulated. To be able to identify opportunities, the network first needs to understand the formal rules and procedures its country uses to make policy decisions. II-9 UNIT 1 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESS Handout II.1.2 Country X: Policy Process Map 3. Entire Parliament 2. Committee of Parliament 1. Agenda Setting 4. Back to Ministry for Implementation • President • Prime Minister • Ministers Not Approved Approved II-10 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Decision Making for Reproductive Health: Analyzing the Policy Climate Background Notes Looking at Policy Indicators In Turkey, the government's views and policies are— View Policy Population growth too high reduce Fertility too high reduce Rural to urban minor change decelerate distribution desired Immigration satisfactory reduce Emigration too low increase How do the leaders of a country perceive population issues? Their views and actions on subjects such as public health, medical services, and the size and distribution of the population are all key indicators of the policy environment for reproductive health. In most cases, leaders’ views are a matter of public record and are probably well known to members of the network. To advance the network’s policy advocacy agenda, it is important to understand how reproductive health policy decisions are made and the political climate in which they take place. As a prerequisite to proposing sound policy alternatives, network members need to know how to analyze existing reproductive health policies and/or laws as well as their shortcomings. What commitments, for example, did the country make at the Cairo Conference? Is the country honoring those commitments? By analyzing the policy environment for FP/RH, the network can identify specific policy issues. A regulation requiring the registration of pharmaceutical products, for example, may be intended to protect the public from fraudulent or unsafe practices. On the other hand, it may be intended to satisfy the macroeconomic objective of raising revenues to help balance the federal budget. Many countries are implementing uniform tax and import policies across all sectors as a part of overall economic reform. If such is the case, it may be difficult to gain exemptions for family planning products. Understanding the background of a particular policy provides a basis for determining the level of difficulty likely to be involved in changing the policy. It can also provide guidance for anticipating which groups will oppose the reform and which groups will support it. For example, the regulation requiring the registration of pharmaceutical products may be the result of pressure exerted by special interest groups concerned with maintaining prohibitively high tariffs on imported products, and thus protecting domestic production. Knowledge of a II-11 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION particular policy’s background will help the network choose strategies for influencing the policymaking process and obtaining exemptions for contraceptives. By the end of this module, participants will be able to • Analyze the reproductive health policy environment, and • Identify current FP/RH issues and problems. 3 hours and 45 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts II.2.1 Background Notes II.2.2 Country X: Reproductive Health Policy Map • Copies of the policy map developed and agreed upon in Unit 1 • Name tags or table placards • Collect information about the country’s commitment to the ICPD Programme of Action. • Write each of the questions shown in Activity 1 on a separate sheet of newsprint and post around the room. • For Activity 2, write the list of reproductive health policy issues on newsprint. • For Activity 2, draw the sample reproductive health policy map on newsprint. • For Activity 3, write the following titles on the name tags or table placards for the role-play—Interviewer, Government Official, Religious Leader, and International Donor. II-12 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ACTIVITY 1 The Reproductive Health Policy ProcessTime: 45 minutes Introduction (15 minutes) Introduce Unit 2 by reviewing the objectives and making a brief presentation. Key points to include in your presentation follow: • Now that participants have a good understanding of the generic policymaking process, they need to move their thinking to how the process works when policies are formulated specifically for FP/RH. • To advance the network’s advocacy agenda, network members must understand how reproductive health policy decisions are made as well as the political climate in which they take place. Before proposing sound alternatives, network members need to know how to analyze existing reproductive health policies and/or laws as well as their shortcomings. • By analyzing the policy environment for FP/RH, the network can identify specific policy issues that might influence its selection of advocacy issue(s). • Understanding the background of a particular policy or regulation provides a basis for determining the degree of difficulty involved in changing that policy. It can also provide guidance for anticipating which groups will oppose the reform and which groups will support it. • Gaining a clear understanding of the FP/RH policy arena includes learning about the decision-making process, the key institutions and individuals involved, and the critical issues of the day. Small Groups (30 minutes) 1. Write each of the following questions on a separate sheet of newsprint and post around the room. 2. Review the questions to ensure understanding. 3. Divide participants into small groups. 4. Ask the groups to discuss each question and to reach consensus on their response. 5. Direct each group to write its responses directly on the appropriate newsprint. 6. Read the responses for each question and lead a general discussion of the responses. How Reproductive Health Policy Is Made √ Where are issues/ideas generated for reproductive health policies? √ What institutions—political, government, or nongovernmental— influence policies and laws on reproductive health? √ What other sector’s policies (e.g., environment) may be linked to reproductive health? II-13 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ACTIVITY 2 Mapping the Reproductive Health Policy ProcessTime: 1 hour 1. Explain that participants will work in the same small groups as in the previous exercise. 2. Distribute newsprint and markers to each group. 3. Select one of the following policy issues, or chose one of your own, and assign it to all of the small groups. Ask each group to develop a reproductive health policy map that tracks the issue from identification of the need to implementation of the policy. 4. Direct the groups to use the following references for the mapping exercise: • Answers they recorded and discussed in Activity 1. • Generic policy map they created in Unit 1. • Country X: Reproductive Health Policy Map that you drew on newsprint. • Other resource material or references that you have available on reproductive health policy in the country in question. Note to Facilitator: The information included on the reproductive health map should be much more specific than that included on the policy process map created in Unit 1. The reproductive health map should include the names of specific institutions and departments involved in the process. In some countries, for example, there are committees for women, health and/or family life. These committees are usually responsible for discussing FP/RH issues, conducting public hearings, and proposing actions to the appropriate governing body. Such committees should be shown on the map. 5. Ask each group to draw its reproductive health map/flow chart on the newsprint. 6. As each group presents its map, discuss similarities or differences among the maps. Facilitate a discussion to help the participants reach agreement on the most accurate details of each map. Either prepare a new map that reflects these details or revise one of the group maps to include the details. The session should conclude with ONE map that represents all groups’ consensus on the reproductive health policymaking process. Possible RH Policy Issues √ National AIDS Policy √ A policy permitting distribution of contraceptives by community-based distribution workers √ A commitment from the Ministry of Health for line-item purchase of contraceptives II-14 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ACTIVITY 3 Note to Facilitator: Use your judgment to gauge the accuracy of the Reproductive Health policy map. If you think there are significant gaps in the overall group’s understanding of the Reproductive Health policy process, ask participants to try to identify the gaps. Help them identify possible resources or references that provide the missing information. Transition The network has started to identify and understand the processes and players involved in formulating and implementing Reproductive Health policy. As noted in the introduction, however, the network must also look outside the policy environment and start to monitor any relevant trends, issues, and developments that draw the attention of the media, opinion leaders, decision makers, and/or international donors. Tracking what’s “new and in the news” can suggest issues for advocacy and provide useful information for the network’s advocacy campaign. “Reproductive Health Issues in the News” Time: 1 hour and 30 minutes Panel of Experts: A Role-Play (1 hour) Note to Facilitator: This activity is designed to show network members another way to explore advocacy opportunities—by monitoring what experts in the field of FP/RH are saying. Participants will role-play a panel presentation in which a journalist interviews three experts on current reproductive health issues. The activity is intended to help suggest key reproductive health issues for the network’s advocacy campaign. Emphasize that the purpose of the presentations is to convey to the audience current reproductive health information and trends as well as the priorities of the panelists’ respective institutions. The presentations are NOT intended to promote debate. 1. Ask for four volunteers to play the roles of a • government official • journalist • religious leader • representative from an international donor agency 2. Explain that the journalist will introduce the panelists, ask them questions, and moderate the discussion. Give the journalist the following questions to guide the panel discussion and ask the journalist to probe the panelists’ responses with follow-up questions: • From your perspective, what are the current developments and “burning issues” in the field of FP/RH? • Our government sent a delegation to the ICPD in Cairo in 1994. What commitments were made at the Cairo Conference and have they been implemented by the government? II-15 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD • What policy developments are underway and what are their chances of being implemented? • What potentially useful, existing policies are not being implemented? • Given the current situation in our country, what policy changes or innovations would you like to see in the reproductive health sector in the near future? 3. Give the volunteer panelists a few minutes to organize their thoughts while you arrange tables and chairs for the panel and distribute name tags/table placards to the panelists. 4. During the role-play, take notes on the panelists’ responses. 5. Conclude the role-play by thanking the journalist and panelists. Follow-Up Discussion (30 minutes) 1. Use the following questions to help the audience summarize the panel presentation and identify priority FP/RH issues for the network: • Based on the information provided by the panelists, what are the priority reproductive health issues? • Are there other critical issues that were not mentioned? What are they? • What about the ICPD? Is there still interest and action around the Programme of Action? • What, if anything, has happened with respect to ICPD+5? • How can the information presented by the panelists be used to generate policy advocacy opportunities for the network? 2. List on newsprint for future reference the priority reproductive health policy issues identified by participants. Understanding how policy decisions are made for reproductive health and identifying current reproductive health issues will help members of the network determine where they should focus their energies. Distribute handouts for Unit 2. The next unit focuses on identifying potential policy issues for action and setting policy goals for the network. II-16 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH How do the leaders of a country perceive population issues? Their views and actions on subjects such as public health, medical services, and the size and distribution of the population are all key indicators of the policy environment for reproductive health. In most cases, leaders’ views are a matter of public record and are probably well known to members of the network. To advance the network’s policy advocacy agenda, it is important to understand how reproductive health policy decisions are made and the political climate in which they take place. As a prerequisite to proposing sound policy alternatives, network members need to know how to analyze existing reproductive health policies and/or laws as well as their shortcomings. What commitments, for example, did the country make at the Cairo Conference? Is the country honoring those commitments? By analyzing the policy environment for FP/RH the network can identify specific policy issues. A regulation requiring the registration of pharmaceutical products, for example, may be intended to protect the public from fraudulent or unsafe practices. On the other hand, it may be intended to satisfy the macroeconomic objective of raising revenues to help balance the federal budget. Many countries are implementing uniform tax and import policies across all sectors as a part of overall economic reform. If such is the case, it may be difficult to gain exemptions for family planning products. Understanding the background of a particular policy provides a basis for determining the level of difficulty likely to be involved in changing the policy. It can also provide guidance for anticipating which groups will oppose the reform and which groups will support it. For example, the regulation requiring the registration of pharmaceutical products may be the result of pressure exerted by special interest groups concerned with maintaining prohibitively high tariffs on imported products, and thus protecting domestic production. Knowledge of a particular policy’s background will help the network choose strategies for influencing the policymaking process and obtaining exemptions for contraceptives. Handout II.2.1 Decision Making for Reproductive Health: Analyzing the Policy Climate Background Notes Looking at Indicators of the Policy Environment In Turkey, the government's views and policies are— View Policy Population growth too high reduce Fertility too high reduce Rural to urban minor change decelerate distribution desired Immigration satisfactory reduce Emigration too low increase II-17 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Handout II. 2. 2 Country X: Reproductive Health Policy Map Regulatory Stage of the Process of Health Care Reform in Romania Discussion and debate within and among task forces established by relevant ministry Final task force recomendations MOH Board Approval MOH and Ministry of Finance determine budgetary implications Appropriate policy drafted by either: MOH if only health sector is involved Appropriate ministries for inter-ministerial decisions Minister of Health’s signature required Ministry of Health Ministry of National Education Ministry of Youth Ministry of Labor and Social Protection Other ministries Prime Minister’s signature required II-18 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES Prioritizing Policy Issues: Making the Best Matches Background Notes Now that participants have reviewed how policies are formulated, identified current policies and programs, and mapped the decision-making process for reproductive health, they must set realistic goals for the network’s advocacy agenda. The first step in the process is to identify an issue that requires advocacy. Clearly, given the current climate, the network will realize that certain actions are not feasible at the moment. Network members need to know their limitations and focus on areas where they have the potential for making the greatest impact. If they find, for example, that essential drugs are exempted from tariffs and that family planning products are not on the essential drug list, they may want to concentrate their efforts on changing the essential drug list to include contraceptives. Policy research will suggest ways in which the network can define problems, link them to solutions, and translate them into simplified images that will influence both the general public and decision makers. Finally, policy solutions must be developed for the issues selected. The solutions will be refined in Section III. Framing an Issue When a 14-year old girl who is a good student drops out of school because she is pregnant, it may be a personal misfortune for the girl and her family. When an alliance of women's organizations and educators demonstrates that teen pregnancy threatens the growth of a skilled work force and national economic development goals, teen pregnancy becomes a problem for government and invites a policy response. II-19 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 By the end of this module, participants will be able to • Identify and prioritize issues based on established criteria, and • Determine an issue for advocacy. 3 hours and 25 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Index cards • Copies of handouts II.3.1 Background Notes II.3.2 Checklist for Choosing an Issue • Copies of the reproductive health policy map completed in Unit 2 • List of priority reproductive health issues listed on newsprint in Unit 2 For Activity 3, write the questions on newsprint and copy the chart on newsprint. Introduction Time: 10 minutes Introduce Unit 3 by reviewing the objectives and making a brief presentation that includes the following key points: • Based on the previous assessment of the decision-making process for reproductive health policy formulation and implementation and the identification of current FP/RH issues, not to mention personal and organizational interests, participants are likely to have a wide variety of ideas for their advocacy agenda. • Some of these ideas, however, will not be feasible at the moment given the realities of the political climate or the availability of resources. It is important to acknowledge these realities and keep the network focused in areas where it can potentially make an impact. • This unit takes network members through a process of prioritizing FP/ RH advocacy issues in accordance with established criteria. The activity is intended to help participants look at several key issues both objectively and analytically so that they can work to reach consensus on their advocacy issue. II-20 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES ACTIVITY 2 Prioritizing Reproductive Health IssuesTime: 2 hours Small Groups (1 hour and 30 minutes) 1. Divide participants into three small groups and distribute one index card to each participant. 2. Ask each participant to choose one FP/RH policy issue that she/he thinks the network should consider for advocacy and then write that issue on the index card. Participants should consider the following: • List of key FP/RH issues developed in Unit 2 • Network mission statement prepared in Section I, Unit 4 • Their personal and professional interests • Concerns and priorities of their communities and beneficiaries. 3. Ask the participants to share their cards within their small groups and to reach agreement on THREE priority issues. 4. Distribute copies of the “Checklist for Choosing an Issue” (Handout II.3.2). Ask each group to complete one master “checklist” for the group. 5. Review and clarify with participants the criteria listed on the “Checklist.” Ask for suggestions for additional criteria and add any to the list. 6. Explain the instructions for completing the “Checklist.” Each small group should do the following: • Write the three priority issues across the top of the chart in the boxes labeled “issue.” • Begin with Issue 1 and rank it against each of the 12 criteria listed by writing one of the following terms: HIGH (always or almost always meets the criterion); MEDIUM (often meets the criterion); or LOW (rarely or never meets the criterion). • Respond to all of the criteria for Issue 1 before moving to Issue 2. Continue in the same way until all three issues are ranked against the criteria. • Discuss the rankings within the small group and choose ONE of the issues as the group’s priority FP/RH policy advocacy issue. • Select a spokesperson to present the issue and a brief description of the process. Large Group Discussion (30 minutes) 1. When the small groups have finished, ask each spokesperson to present his/her group’s results as well as the highlights of the process the group followed for its assessment and selection. Encourage the spokespersons to focus on how the process helped the group analyze and select the priority issue. Spokespersons should NOT present the individual rankings for the each of three issues. 2. List each group’s priority issue, a total of THREE, on newsprint. II-21 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES ACTIVITY 3 Note to Facilitator: Ideally, at the end of this activity, you will have three distinct issues for the network to consider for advocacy action. If, however, the issues turn out to be the same or similar, you should ask participants to combine similar issues and select another priority issue(s) to ensure some variety in the three final choices. Matching Issues and Opportunities Time: 1 hour and 15 minutes Small Groups (30 minutes) 1. Refer to the three priority issues and ask participants to self-select the issue they would like to address. Organize a working group for each issue. 2. Write the following questions on newsprint and ask the groups to answer the questions: • What data are available to support the issue? • What is the desired policy outcome for the issue over the short and long term? 3. Ask the groups to write their responses on the newsprint chart you have prepared and select a presenter. Group 1: Issue Group 2: Issue Group 3: Issue Available Data Policy Outcome 4. Ask each presenter to report his/her group’s responses. 5. Ask the other participants for comments or additions to each of the presentations. II-22 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES Large Group Discussion (45 minutes) Note to Facilitator: The discussion should provide an opportunity for participants, first, to pull together all the information they have discerned and developed and, second. decide on ONE concrete reproductive health policy issue for the network’s first advocacy campaign. During the discussion, encourage participants to use good communication and decision making skills, (e.g., make sure that everyone who wants to speak is heard from and encourage participants not to give in to reach agreement but rather to express differences of opinion.) 1. Facilitate a general discussion of the issues and information on the chart by using the following questions: • How do the availability of support data and other trends influence the group’s thinking about the issues? • How achievable are the desired policy outcomes? How do the prospects for success affect participants’ thinking about priority issues? • What overlap exists between the group’s issues and the “current issues” identified in Unit 2? • If there is little or no “current” interest in any of the issues, what are the implications for the network in taking on that issue for policy advocacy? • Which policies/regulations/laws directly or indirectly affect the issue? Can they be changed? • Given all of the analysis and discussion carried out by the network, what one issue should the group select? 2. Conclude the discussion by agreeing on ONE reproductive health policy issue (e.g., high incidence of teenage pregnancy) for the network advocacy campaign. Selecting a realistic policy issue for advocacy requires an understanding of the policymaking process in general and, specifically, the decision-making process for reproductive health. It also requires an assessment of where the opportunities are for influencing the process and a sound analysis of priority issues by network members. Distribute handouts for Unit 3. Participants conclude this section with a reproductive health policy advocacy issue that was chosen based on sound analysis of the policy environment, agreement with the network’s mission, and a process for setting priorities. Now the network is ready to begin to design and implement its advocacy campaign. Section III of the manual leads the network through each step of an advocacy strategy. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD II-23 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES Handout II.3.1 Background Notes Now that participants have reviewed how policies are formulated, identified current policies and programs, and mapped the decision-making process for reproductive health, they must set realistic goals for the network’s advocacy agenda. The first step in this process is to identify an issue that requires advocacy. Clearly, given the current climate, the network will realize that certain actions are not feasible at the moment. Network members need to know their limitations and focus on areas where they have the potential for making the greatest impact. If they find, for example, that essential drugs are exempted from tariffs and that family planning products are not on the essential drug list, they may want to concentrate their efforts on changing the essential drug list to include contraceptives. Policy research will suggest ways in which the network can define problems, link them to solutions, and translate them into simplified images that will influence both the general public and decision makers alike. Finally, policy solutions must be developed for the issues selected. The solutions will be refined in Section III. Framing an Issue When a 14-year-old girl who is a good student drops out of school because she is pregnant, it may be a personal misfortune for the girl and her family. When an alliance of women’s organizations and educators demonstrate that teen pregnancy threatens the growth of a skilled workforce and national economic development goals, teen pregnancy becomes a problem for government and invites a policy response. Prioritizing Policy Issues: Making the Best Matches II-24 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES Handout II.3.2 Checklist for Choosing an Issue* A good policy advocacy issue is one that matches most of these criteria. Rank your three priority issues against the criteria (HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW). *Adapted from the Midwest Academy. 1996. Organizing for Social Change: A Manual for Activists in the 1990s. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press. 1. Be widely felt (by many people)? 2. Have broad support? 3. Be supported by sound data? 4. Be easily understood? 5. Result in real improvement in people’s lives? 6. Be achievable? 7. Help build alliances with other groups? 8. Have a clear timeframe? 9. Build grassroots leadership? 10. Strengthen NGO linkages? 11. Be consistent with the network’s values and mission? 12. Respond to the community’s expressed needs? Issue 1: Issue 2: Issue 3: CRITERIAWill the issue. High– Always or almost always meets the criterion. Medium– Often meets the criterion. Low– Rarely or never meets the criterion. II-25 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY: MOBILIZING FOR ACTION␣ When you see something that’s wrong, no matter how big the problem is, think “Who else would like to change this? How can we work together?” UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan Introduction Advocacy is both a science and an art. From a scientific perspective, there is no universal formula for effective advocacy. Nevertheless, experience shows that an advocacy campaign is most effective when it is planned systematically. Advocacy networks frame their issue, set an advocacy goal and measurable objectives, identify sources of support and opposition, research the policy audience, develop compelling messages, and mobilize necessary funds, and, at each step of the way, collect data and monitor their plan of action. Each of these steps requires distinct knowledge and skills to ensure effective and efficient implementation. Advocacy is also an art. Successful advocates are able to articulate issues in ways that inspire others and motivate them to take action. They have a keen sense of timing and are able to recognize and act as opportunities present themselves. Successful advocates are skilled negotiators and consensus builders who look for opportunities to win modest but strategic policy gains while creating still other opportunities for larger victories. Artful advocates incorporate creativity, style, and even humor in their advocacy events in order to draw public and media attention to their cause. The art of advocacy cannot be taught through a training workshop; rather, it emerges from the network members themselves. Advocacy training provides the tools, but participants must add the spark. Section III of the manual could alternatively be titled “Pulling it All Together: How to Manage An Advocacy Campaign.” In Section I, the network learned about the characteristics of and practiced the skills that form the groundwork for a collaborative and trusting working relationship. In Section II, participants explored and gained a deeper understanding of the policy environment as the context within which their advocacy efforts will take place. Section III, the final section of the manual, is dedicated to the nuts and bolts of an advocacy campaign. The units in Section III correspond to the different steps of the advocacy process and help participants acquire and build the technical skills needed to implement each step successfully. III-1 UNIT 1 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY? What Is Advocacy?␣ Background Notes There are as many definitions of advocacy as there are groups and networks advocating. However, each definition shares common language and concepts. Advocacy is first and foremost a process, occurring over unspecified amounts of time, sometimes brief and often lengthy. Advocacy is also strategic and targets well-designed activities to key stakeholders and decision makers. And lastly, advocacy is always directed at influencing policy, laws, regulations, programs, or funding—decisions made at the upper-most levels of public or private sector institutions. Advocacy includes both single-issue, time- limited campaigns as well as ongoing work undertaken around a range of issues. Advocacy activities may be conducted at the national, regional, or local level. Within the FP/RH policy arena, advocacy efforts might address such things as enactment of a national population policy or inclusion of reproductive health services in a national health insurance plan. Operational FP/RH policies—where specific resource allocation and service delivery guidelines are formulated—are also potential objects for advocacy campaigns. In Unit 1, the network members define advocacy for themselves and gain a thorough understanding of the concept and the strategy by exploring the various steps involved in an advocacy campaign. In addition, the participants identify the characteristics of advocacy that distinguish it from the related concepts of information, education and communication (IEC); public relations; and community mobilization. Advocacy is a set of targeted actions directed at decision makers in support of a specific policy issue. III-2 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Define advocacy; • Identify the steps in the advocacy process; and • Distinguish advocacy from related concepts. 2 hours and 30 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts III.1.1 Background Notes III.1.2 Sample Definitions of Advocacy III.1.3 Steps in the Advocacy Process III.1.4 Advocacy and Related Concepts • Card template, “Steps in the Advocacy Process” • Identify and invite a local RH specialist or advocacy expert to make the opening presentation for Activity 1. Ask the speaker to discuss the current and potential role of NGOs and other groups of civil society in the policymaking process; their role as representatives of traditionally underserved populations; the expanding role of NGOs in international arenas, such as Cairo, ICPD+5, and Beijing; and a personal account or local success story illustrating how advocacy has led to policy change. Ask the presenter to speak for no more than 30 minutes; explain that there will be time for questions and discussion. • For Activity 3, copy and cut three sets of “Steps in the Advocacy Process” cards using the template at the end of the unit. Each set of cards should be on a different color paper or card. • For Activity 4, draw the chart “Advocacy and Related Concepts” on newsprint. What Is Advocacy? Time: 1 hour and 5 minutes Introduction (5 minutes) Introduce the unit by reviewing the objectives and following major points: • Advocacy is both a science and an art. From a scientific perspective,while there is no universal formula for effective advocacy, experience has shown that advocacy is most effective when it is planned systematically. • Networks must follow and include specific steps when designing and implementing an advocacy campaign; each step requires distinct knowledge and skills. • Advocacy is also an art. Successful advocates are able to articulate issues in ways that inspire and motivate others to take action. Successful advocates are skilled negotiators and consensus builders who look for opportunities to win modest but strategic policy gains while creating still other opportunities for larger victories. OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 III-3 UNIT 1 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY? • Artful advocates incorporate creativity, style, and even humor into their advocacy events in order to draw public and media attention to their cause. • The art of advocacy cannot be taught through a training workshop; rather, it emerges from within network members themselves. Advocacy training provides the tools, but participants must add the spark. • Section III of the manual is designed to teach both the science and the art of designing and implementing an advocacy campaign. The units in Section III correspond to the different steps of the advocacy process. Participants will learn how to use advocacy strategies and tools to influence decision makers and bring about more favorable FP/RH policies and programs. Expert Speaker (1 hour) 1. Introduce the speaker. 2. After the presentation, moderate a question-and-answer session for approximately 20 minutes. 3. Thank the presenter and conclude the activity. Note to Facilitator: The POLICY Project has conducted advocacy workshops in many non-English speaking countries, in languages that range from Arabic to Spanish, Russian, French, Turkish, Romanian, and Portuguese. In many instances, the concept of advocacy did not translate readily into the local language such that workshop participants spent considerable time finding the most accurate word or phrase. While it may be helpful to consult with local advocacy groups/experts to determine the most appropriate translation for “advocacy,” it is the participants themselves who must select and agree on the word or phrase that most accurately conveys the local culture’s concept of advocacy. Defining Advocacy Time: 1 hour Brainstorming (15 minutes) 1. Write advocacy on the flipchart and ask participants to brainstorm words that come to mind when they think of advocacy. 2. Record everyone’s responses and include all contributions. If words or phrases are repeated, simply add a tick mark (3 ) next to the repeated phrases 3. The brainstorming activity should elicit responses such as those below. ACTIVITY 2 III-4 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III Small Groups (45 minutes) 1. Divide participants into small groups of four to five persons. 2. Instruct each group to draft a definition of advocacy. Encourage the groups to use the words on the flipchart to prepare their definitions. Allow 15 minutes. 3. Ask the groups to write their definitions on newsprint and post them on the wall. 4. Read each definition aloud and discuss the definitions by asking the group to identify the following: • Similarities among the definitions (i.e., words or phrases that appear in more than one definition). Circle the commonalties with a colored marker. • Elements that are unique to a definition (i.e., not repeated in any of the other definitions). Circle the unique words or phrases with a different colored marker. 5. Ask participants to decide whether one of the posted definitions should be the network’s agreed-upon definition of advocacy or whether they want to craft a new definition by using the common elements and ideas represented in their definitions. 6. Using clean newsprint, help the group write a definition that reflects the full group’s input; post the definition in a location where it can remain throughout the workshop. 7. Distribute Handout III.1.2 and review the definitions listed. The definitions come from a variety of sources, including international advocacy organizations and a POLICY partner network in Ghana. 8. Ask participants to review the definitions and identify points that are consistent with their own definition. Transition Now that participants have reached consensus on a working definition of advocacy, they will look at the different steps that comprise the advocacy process. Experience shows that advocacy is rarely an orderly, linear process. Some of the most successful advocacy efforts have resulted from rapid responses to needs and/or opportunities and have materialized amid chaotic environments. The ability to seize opportunities, however, does not replace the importance of a sound process and careful planning. The next activity demonstrates that looking at advocacy in a systematic way helps networks plan and implement effective advocacy campaigns. Advocacy√ Defending√ Sensitizing√ Change√ Persuasion√ Exposure√ Communication√ Providing a solution √ Influence√ Intervening√ Decision making√ Selling an idea√ Lobbying√ Attracting attention III-5 UNIT 1 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY? Steps in the Advocacy Process Time: 1 hour and 15 minutes Sequencing the Steps (45 minutes)␣ 1. Divide participants into three teams. 2. Distribute one set of set of advocacy cards to each team. Be certain that the cards are NOT in the correct order when you give the sets to the teams. 3. Explain that each card in the set has one step of the advocacy process written on one side and a brief definition/explanation of the step on the other side. 4. Ask each team to read the cards and reach consensus on the order that would be followed to plan and implement an advocacy campaign. Allow 20 minutes. Note to Facilitator: Generally, the teams order their cards to look something like the following. 5. Ask the teams to post their cards on the wall or display them on the floor so they are visible to the full group. If possible, have all three sets of cards displayed near one another so that participants can make comparisons. 6. When each team has posted its cards, ask participants to gather around the three arrangements and to identify similarities and differences. 7. Refer to the first set of cards and ask Team 1 members the following: • Did everyone agree on the final order? • Where did group members disagree on the sequence of cards and what were the areas of debate? • Which, if any, steps did participants have difficulty understanding? 8. Ask the other participants if they have questions for the team. 9. Repeat the process for Teams 2 and 3. ACTIVITY 3 III-6 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III 10. When all three teams have presented their work, lead a general discussion structured around the following questions: • Did the teams all start with the same step? Did they have the same or different ending step? • Were there any steps that were ordered concurrently in the process? • Were any important steps left out of the process? Presentation on the Advocacy Process (30 minutes)␣ 1. Explain to participants that the purpose of the sequencing activity was to introduce advocacy as a systematic process with distinct steps and activities. While the steps may not always occur in the same order during an actual advocacy campaign, it is important to consider each step as a critical and integral piece of the advocacy effort. 2. Distribute Handout III.1.3: Steps in the Advocacy Process or present it on an overhead transparency or flipchart. 3. Briefly explain each of the steps in the process by using the notes below as a guide. Write key words and phrases on newsprint as you go through each step. Explain that the remaining units in the workshop will address each of these steps in greater detail, but not in the same sequence as in the model. Some steps are combined in a unit (e.g., message development and channels of communication). Steps in the Advocacy Process␣ I. Define the Issue. Advocacy begins with an issue or problem that the network agrees to support in order to promote a policy change. The issue should meet the network’s agreed-upon criteria and support the network’s overall mission (e.g., issue is focused, clear, and widely felt by network constituents). Ask participants to identify ways in which the network could identify issues. Include the following: • analysis of the external environment, including political, economic, social, and other factors; • organizing issue identification meetings; and • collecting and analyzing data about the FP/RH situation (DHS, baseline surveys, focus groups, census, etc.). II. Set Goal and Objectives. A goal is a general statement of what the network hopes to achieve in the long term (three to five years). The advocacy objective describes short-term, specific, measurable achievements that contribute to the advocacy goal. III-7 UNIT 1 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY? III. Identify Target Audience. The primary target audience includes the decision makers who have the authority to bring about the desired policy change. The secondary target audience includes persons who have access to and are able to influence the primary audience—other policymakers, friends or relatives, the media, religious leaders, etc. The network must identify individuals in the target audience, their positions, and relative power base and then determine whether the various individuals support, oppose, or are neutral to the advocacy issue. IV. Build Support. Building a constituency to support the network’s advocacy issue is critical for success. The larger the support base, the greater are the chances of success. Network members must reach out to create alliances with other NGOs, networks, donors, coalitions, civic groups, professional associations, women’s groups, activists, and individuals who support the issue and will work with you to achieve your advocacy goals. How do you identify potential collaborators? Members can attend conferences and seminars, enlist the support of the media, hold public meetings, review publications, and use the Internet. V. Develop the Message. Advocacy messages are developed and tailored to specific target audiences in order to frame the issue and persuade the receiver to support the network’s position. There are three important questions to answer when preparing advocacy messages: Who are you trying to reach with the message? What do you want to achieve with the message? What do you want the recipient of the message to do as a result of the message (the action you want taken)? VI. Select Channels of Communication. Selection of the most appropriate medium for advocacy messages depends on the target audience. The choice of medium varies for reaching the general public, influencing decision makers, educating the media, generating support for the issue among like-minded organizations/ networks, etc. Some of the more common channels of communication for advocacy initiatives include press kits and press releases, press conferences, fact sheets, a public debate, a conference for policymakers, etc. VII. Raise Funds. Advocacy campaigns can always benefit from outside funds and other resources. Resources can help support the development and dissemination of materials, cover network members’ travel to meet with decision makers and generate support, underwrite meetings or seminars, absorb communication expenses, etc. Advocacy networks should develop a fundraising strategy at the outset of the campain to identify potential contributors of financial and other resources. III-8 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III VIII. Develop Implementation Plan. The network should develop an implementation plan to guide its advocacy campaign. The plan should identify activities and tasks, responsible persons/committees, the desired time frame, and needed resources. On-going Activities Collect Data. Data collection supports many of the stages of the advocacy process shown in the model. Advocacy networks should collect and analyze data to identify and select their issue as well as develop advocacy objectives, craft messages, expand their base of support, and influence policymakers. Data collection is an ongoing activity for the duration of the advocacy campaign. Monitor and Evaluate. As with data collection, monitoring and evaluation occur throughout the advocacy process. Before undertaking the advocacy campaign, the network must determine how it will monitor its implementation plan. In addition, the group should decide how it will evaluate or measure progress and results. Can the network realistically expect to bring about a change in policy, programs, or funding as a result of its efforts? In specific terms, what will be different following the completion of the advocacy campaign? How will the group know that the situation has changed? 4. In closing, remind participants that advocacy activities are often carried out in turbulent environments. Frequently, networks do not have the opportunity to follow each step in the advocacy process according to the model presented here. Nevertheless, a systematic understanding of the advocacy process will help advocates plan wisely, use resources efficiently, and stay focused on the advocacy objective. Advocacy and Related Concepts Time: 45 minutes Note to Facilitator: After reviewing the various definitions of advocacy and the steps in the advocacy process, participants should have a clear sense of the meaning of advocacy. Nevertheless, advocacy is often confused with other concepts that share common elements—IEC (information, education, and communication), public relations, community mobilization, and social marketing. It is helpful to describe these other concepts to reduce any remaining confusion. 1. Explain that Activity 4 is designed to compare and contrast advocacy with related concepts. 2. Show participants the chart you have prepared on newsprint. ACTIVITY 4 III-9 UNIT 1 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY? Advocacy and Related Concepts␣ Concept/ Target Audience Objective How Do You Approach Measure Success? 3. Help participants fill in the chart, beginning with IEC. Ask the group the following questions: • Who has managed or implemented an IEC campaign? • Who is the target audience of an IEC campaign? (Possible responses include women, men, youth, residents of a predetermined geographic area, etc. While audiences vary from one IEC campaign to the next, they typically constitutes a particular population defined by sex, age, geography, etc. Write participants’ response in the appropriate box on the chart.) • What is the objective of an IEC campaign? (Responses should include “raise awareness or change behavior.” Write behavior change in the appropriate box.) • How do you measure the success of an IEC campaign? In other words, what objective indicators of change will tell IEC campaign organizers that their campaign has succeeded? (Responses will vary according to the campaign’s objective, but write several examples in the box, such as the percentage of youth using condoms, number of women who request family planning services, number of condoms sold.) 4. Continue to complete the chart for Public Relations (PR), adapting the questions listed above. Ask the group to think about a local business and to consider how the company uses public relations and advertising to promote its services or products. Using the local example, complete the PR row of the chart. An example from a workshop in Mexico follows: Business Aeroméxico, a large Mexican airline Target Audience Mexican consumer Objective To promote company image and boost sales Measure of Success Increased ticket sales; percent increase of new passengers IEC Public Relations Advocacy Community Mobilization III-10 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III 5. Now, help the group think about an advocacy campaign. Repeat the same questions and fill in the answers on the chart. Common answers for the advocacy questions follow: Target Audience Policymakers (the decision makers with the authority to affect the advocacy objective) Objective To change policies, programs, or the allocation of public resources Measure of Success Adoption of a new or more favorable policy/ program; percent shift in resource allocation; new line item in a public sector budget, etc. 6. Finally, ask the group to think about the concept and practice of community mobilization and then complete the chart. Use the following example to help guide the discussion: Target Audience Community members and leaders Objective Build a community’s capacity to rank its needs and take action Measure of Success A community problem is solved or a need is met. Increased participation in and ownership of the problem-solving process. 7. Summarize the activity by moderating a discussion organized around the following questions: • What characteristics do all four of these approaches share? Among the range of answers, participants might note that all four approaches include strategies for promoting change and are most effective when planned systematically. • How does advocacy stand apart from the other approaches? Advocacy always seeks to change a policy, resource allocation, or operational policy. Advocacy efforts usually include an IEC component to raise the awareness of key audiences, but advocacy does not stop with awareness raising. The advocacy process is complete when a policymaker implements the prescribed policy action. While the general public may be one of the audiences for an advocacy campaign, the public is targeted to engender support and pressure policymakers. If the network focuses on the objective of its approach, it will be able to distinguish advocacy from related concepts. III-11 UNIT 1 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY? Advocacy must be defined within each national or regional context, particularly when the term is translated into another language. With its focus on policy change, however, advocacy is universal and easily distinguishable from related concepts such as IEC, public relations, community mobilization, etc. Furthermore, networks must approach an advocacy campaign as they would any strategic exercise, by systematically addressing key steps and activities. Distribute handouts for Unit 1. The first step in the advocacy strategy is selecting the issue. In the next unit, participants will carry out a brief analysis to identify and rank their own FP/RH issues for advocacy as a prerequisite to developing goals and objectives. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD III-12 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III Handout III.1.1 What Is Advocacy? Background Notes There are as many definitions of advocacy as there are groups and networks advocating. ␣ However, each definition shares common language and concepts. ␣ Advocacy is first and foremost a process, occurring over unspecified amounts of time, sometimes brief and often lengthy. ␣ Advocacy is also strategic and targets well-designed activities to key stakeholders and decision makers. And lastly, advocacy is always directed at influencing policy, laws, regulations, programs, or funding—decisions made at the upper-most levels of public or private sector institutions. ␣ Advocacy includes both single-issue, time-limited campaigns as well as ongoing work undertaken around a range of issues. Advocacy activities may be conducted at the national, regional, or local level. ␣ Within the FP/RH policy arena, advocacy efforts might address such things as enactment of a national population policy or inclusion of reproductive health services in a national health insurance plan. Operational FP/RH policies—where specific resource allocation and service delivery guidelines are formulated—area also potential objects for advocacy campaigns. ␣ In Unit 1, the network members define advocacy for themselves and gain a thorough understanding of the concept and the strategy by exploring the various steps involved in an advocacy campaign. In addition, the participants identify the characteristics of advocacy that distinguish it from the related concepts of information, education and communication (IEC); public relations; and community mobilization. Advocacy is a set of targeted actions directed at decision makers in support of a specific policy issue. III-13 UNIT 1 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY? Handout III.1.2 Sample Definitions of Advocacy␣ The definitions below reflect how various organizations understand and operationalize advocacy.␣ “Advocacy is the act or process of supporting a cause or issue.␣ An advocacy campaign is a set of targeted actions in support of a cause or issue.␣ We advocate a cause or issue because we want to • build support for that cause or issue; • influence others to support it; or • try to influence or change legislation that affects it. — International Planned Parenthood Federation, IPPF Advocacy Guide “Advocacy is a process that involves a series of political actions conducted by organized citizens in order to transform power relationships. The purpose of advocacy is to achieve specific policy changes that benefit the population involved in this process.␣ These changes can take place in the public or private sector.␣ Effective advocacy is conducted according to a strategic plan and within a reasonable time frame.” — The Arias Foundation (Costa Rica)␣ “Advocacy is speaking up, drawing a community’s attention to an important issue, and directing decision-makers toward a solution. Advocacy is working with other people and organizations to make a difference.” — CEDPA, Cairo, Beijing and Beyond: A Handbook on Advocacy for Women Leaders␣ “Advocacy is defined as the promotion of a cause or the influencing of policy, funding streams or other politically determined activity.” — Advocates for Youth, Advocacy 101 ␣ “Colleagues in India describe advocacy as an organized, systematic, intentional process of influencing matters of public interest and changing power relations to improve the lives of the disenfranchised.␣ Other colleagues in Latin America define it as a process of social transformation aimed at shaping the direction of public participation, policies, and programs to benefit the marginalized, uphold human rights, and safeguard the environment.␣ African colleagues describe their advocacy as being pro-poor, reflecting core values such as equity, justice, and mutual respect, and focusing on empowering the poor and being accountable to them. —Institute for Development Research, Advocacy Sourcebook␣ III-14 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III “Advocacy consists of different strategies aimed at influencing decision-making at the local, provincial, national and international levels, specifically: ␣ ␣ Who decides – elections, appointments and selection of policy-makers, judges, ministers, boards of advisors, managing directors, administrators, etc. What is decided – policies, laws, national priorities, services, programmes, institutions, budgets. How it is decided – accessibility of citizens to information and the process extent of consultation, accountability and responsiveness of decision- makers to citizens and other stakeholders. Policies and decisions are solutions to concrete problems.␣ Effective advocacy requires sharp understanding and analysis of a concrete problem, and a coherent proposal for a solution.” — InterAction, Women’s Advocacy Workshop materials␣ Advocacy is the art of influencing individuals or collective decision- or policy-making to effect a positive change in an issue or situation. — POLICY Project workshop participants, March 1997, Accra, Ghana III-15 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACYUNIT 1 SECTION III • Is su e • G oa l a nd O bje ct ive s • Ta rg et A ud ien ce • Bu ild ing S up po rt • M es sa ge D ev elo pm en t • Ch an ne ls o f C om m un ica tio n • Fu nd ra is ing • Im ple m en ta tio n Ad vo ca cy P ro ce ss ␣ D A T A C O L L E C T I O N M O N I T O R I N G & E V A L U A T I O N H an do ut II I.1 .3 III-16 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACYUNIT 1 SECTION III Ad vo ca cy a nd R el at ed C on ce pt s ␣T he fo llo wi ng c ha rt il lu st ra te s th e di ffe re nc e be tw ee n ad vo ca cy a nd s ev er al re la te d co nc ep ts .␣A dv oc ac y ca n us ua lly b e di st in gu is he d fr om o th er a pp ro ac he s in t ha t th e ob je ct ive o f a dv oc ac y is p ol ic y ch an ge . H an do ut II I.1 .4 A pp ro ac h A ct or s/ Ta rg et A ud ie nc e O bj ec ti ve St ra te gi es M ea su rin g Su cc es s O rg an iz er s In fo rm at io n, Ed uc at io n, Co m m un ic at io n (IE C) S er vic e pr ov id er s In di vid ua ls S eg m en ts o f a co m m un it y (w om en , m en , yo ut h) Ra is e aw ar en es s an d ch an ge be ha vio r S or ti ng b y au di en ce M as s m ed ia c am pa ig ns Co m m un it y ou tr ea ch Tr ad it io na l m ed ia Ch an ge in k no wl ed ge or s kil ls (b eh av io r ch an ge ) Pr oc es s in di ca to rs Fo cu s gr ou ps S er vic e st at is ti cs Pu bl ic R el at io ns Co m m er ci al in st it ut io ns Co ns um er s Im pr ov e th e co m pa ny ’s im ag e an d in cr ea se s al es La rg e- sc al e ad ve rt is in g (r ad io , T V, pr in t m ed ia ) Pu bl ic e ve nt s S po ns or in g a “c ha rit y” Im pr ov ed p ub lic pe rc ep ti on In cr ea se d sa le s In cr ea se d m ar ke t sh ar e Co m m un it y M ob iliz at io n Co m m un it y m em be rs a nd le ad er s Bu ild a co m m un it y’s ca pa ci ty t o ra nk ne ed s an d ta ke ac ti on Do or -t o- do or v is it s Vi lla ge m ee ti ng s Pa rt ic ip at or y Ru ra l A pp ra is al (P RA ) Co m m un it y m em be rs a nd or ga ni za ti on s Is su e- sp ec ifi c pr oc es s an d ou tc om e in di ca to rs Qu al it y of pa rt ic ip at io n A dv oc ac y NG Os /n et wo rk s S pe ci al in te re st gr ou ps Pr of es si on al as so ci at io ns Pu bl ic in st it ut io ns an d po lic ym ak er s Ch an ge p ol ic ie s, pr og ra m s, a nd re so ur ce a llo ca ti on Fo cu s on p ol ic ym ak er s wi th t he p ow er t o af fe ct ad vo ca cy o bj ec ti ve H ig h- le ve l m ee ti ng s Pu bl ic e ve nt s (d eb at es , pr ot es ts , e tc .) Pr oc es s in di ca to rs M ed ia s ca ns Ke y in fo rm an t in te rv ie ws Fo cu s gr ou ps Op in io n su rv ey s III-17 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACYUNIT 1 SECTION III Is su e Th e pr ob lem t ha t re qu ire s a po lic y ac tio n. G oa l Ob jec tiv e G oa l: A st at em en t of t he ge ne ra l r es ul t yo u wa nt t o ac hi ev e. Ob je ct iv e : I nc re m en ta l s te ps to wa rd a ch ie vin g yo ur g oa l th at a re • s pe ci fic • m ea su ra bl e • r ea lis ti c • t im e- bo un d Steps in the Advocacy Process—Card Template III-18 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACYUNIT 1 SECTION III Ta rg et Au di en ce ␣ ␣ Th e po lic ym ak er s yo u ar e tr yin g to in flu en ce t o su pp or t yo ur is su e, e. g. , p ar lia m en ta ria ns , lo ca l o ff ic ia ls , m in is tr y of fic ia ls . Bu ild in g Su pp or t Bu ild in g al lia nc es w ith ot he r g ro up s, or ga ni za tio ns , o r in di vid ua ls w ho a re co m m itt ed t o su pp or t yo ur is su e. ␣␣ Steps in the Advocacy Process—Card Template III-19 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACYUNIT 1 SECTION III M es sa ge De ve lop m en t␣ ␣ Th e m ea ns b y wh ic h a m es sa ge is d el ive re d to th e va rio us t ar ge t au di en ce s, e .g ., ra di o, te le vis io n, fl ye rs , p re ss co nf er en ce s, m ee tin gs .␣ Ch an ne ls o f Co m m un ica tio n␣ ␣ St at em en ts t ai lo re d to di ffe re nt a ud ie nc es t ha t de fin e th e is su e, s ta te so lu tio ns , a nd d es cr ib e th e ac tio ns t ha t ne ed to b e ta ke n. ␣ ␣␣ Steps in the Advocacy Process—Card Template III-20 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACYUNIT 1 SECTION III Im pl em en ta tio n␣ Id en tif y an d at tr ac t re so ur ce s (m on ey , eq ui pm en t, vo lu nt ee rs , su pp lie s, s pa ce ) t o im pl em en t yo ur a dv oc ac y ca m pa ig n. ␣ Fu nd - ra is in g␣ ␣ Ca rr y ou t a se t of pl an ne d ac tiv iti es t o ac hi ev e yo ur a dv oc ac y ob je ct ive s (a ct io n pl an .) ␣␣ Steps in the Advocacy Process—Card Template III-21 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACYUNIT 1 SECTION III M on ito rin g an d Ev al ua tio n␣ G at he rin g, a na lyz in g, a nd us in g ap pr op ria te qu an tit at ive a nd q ua lit at ive in fo rm at io n to s up po rt e ac h st ep o f y ou r c am pa ig n. Da ta Co lle ct io n ␣ ␣ M on it or in g: A p ro ce ss o f ga th er in g in fo rm at io n to m ea su re p ro gr es s to wa rd y ou r ad vo ca cy o bj ec ti ve s. Ev al ua ti on : A p ro ce ss o f ga th er in g an d an al yz in g in fo rm at io n to d et er m in e if th e ad vo ca cy o bj ec ti ve s ha ve b ee n ac hi ev ed . Steps in the Advocacy Process—Card Template III-22 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 2. ISSUES, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVESUNIT 2 SECTION III Issues, Goals, and Objectives: Building the Foundation␣ Background Notes␣ The first two steps in any advocacy campaign are selecting the advocacy issue and developing the goal and objective. These pieces of the advocacy process make up some of the most challenging, analytic work facing an advocacy network. Completing these steps requires an ability to analyze complex environments and interrelated problems, discern a policy solution for a selected problem, envision a long-term result, and articulate a short-term objective. The quality of the network’s efforts in these areas will have an important bearing on the success of the steps that follow. These elements provide the foundation for an effective advocacy campaign. Without a clear, articulated issue and well-defined goal and objective, the remaining steps of the campaign will lose focus. An advocacy issue is the problem or situation that an advocacy group seeks to rectify. Some of the networks with which the POLICY Project works have focused their efforts around issues such as limited access to high-quality family planning services, contraceptive self-reliance, and the need for adolescent reproductive health services and education. Some global advocacy issues that have attracted international attention are the use of antipersonnel landmines; universal, safe working conditions; and widespread sexual exploitation of women and girls. In this unit, participants will select an issue that is widely felt by their constituency and begin to build an advocacy campaign around that issue. In various settings, the terms goal and objective are used interchangeably. In some instances, an objective is broad and a goal is narrow; in others, the meanings are reversed. For the purpose of the advocacy workshop, an advocacy goal is the long-term result (three to five years) that the network is seeking. Participants should envision how the policy environment will be changed as a result of their advocacy efforts. Will all people of reproductive age have access to effective family planning services? Will the government draft, approve, and implement a national HIV/AIDS policy using a transparent, participatory approach? These examples represent a long-term vision for policy change. An NGO network may not be capable of achieving its goal single-handedly, but the goal statement can orient an advocacy network over the long term. An advocacy objective is a short-term target (one to two years) that contributes toward achievement of the long-term goal. A sound objective is specific, measurable, realistic, and time-bound. Often, networks work on two or more objectives simultaneously in their efforts to achieve a single goal. It is important that an advocacy objective identify the specific policy body with the authority to fulfill the objective as well as the policy decision or action that is desired. Two examples of sound advocacy objectives follow: to persuade the Ministry of Health to overturn the ban on community-based distribution of FP services, and to secure funding for a pilot family life education (FLE) program in secondary schools from the Inter-Ministerial Commission on Youth. III-23 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 2. ISSUES, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVESUNIT 2 SECTION III By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Select an issue as the focus of their advocacy campaign; • Develop a long-term advocacy goal for the issue; • Set a short-term advocacy objective to contribute to the broader goal. 2 hours and 45 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts III.2.1 Background Notes III.2.2 Definition of Reproductive Health III.2.3 Checklist for Selecting an Advocacy Objective • Write the definition of reproductive health on an overhead transparency or flipchart for Activity 1. • Write the definitions of advocacy goal and objective on the flipchart for Activity 2. Key FP/RH Issues Time: 1 hour Identifying Issues (30 minutes) Note to Facilitator: If participants have completed Section I of this advocacy manual, they have likely agreed on a reproductive health issue for their advocacy action. Assuming that the network has clear agreement on the issue, you can skip Activity 1 and move directly to Activity 2. 1. Review the objectives for Unit 1 and explain that participants will identify priority issues in reproductive health; select an advocacy issue; set a clear, relevant advocacy goal; and develop objectives. 2. Present the definition of reproductive health that you have written on the flipchart or overhead transparency. Read the definition aloud or ask a participant to do so. Explain that the definition of reproductive health emerged from the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD) held in Cairo and that 179 governments reached consensus on the definition. OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 III-24 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 2. ISSUES, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVESUNIT 2 SECTION III Reproductive Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well- being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity, in all matters related to the reproductive system and to its functions and processes.␣ People are able to have a satisfying and safe sex life and they have the capability to reproduce and the freedom to decide if, when and how often to do so.␣ Men and women have the right to be informed and have access to safe, effective, affordable and acceptable methods of their choice for the regulation of fertility, as well as access to health care for safe pregnancy and childbirth. — Based on paragraph 7.2 in the ICPD Programme of Action, as summarized in Action for the 21st Century/Reproductive Health and Rights for All␣ ␣ 3. Confirm that participants understand the definition and that it is applicable within their environment. Are any participants unfamiliar with the definition? Are any participants surprised by the components of the definition? 4. Lead participants in a brainstorming exercise to identify the reproductive health issues in their country. Ask participants to reflect on the definition of reproductive health and think about the issues they face in their daily work and the principal concerns and problems of the clients and communities they serve. Some examples are shown below. 5. Record all responses on the flipchart until everyone has had an opportunity to contribute. Reproductive Health Issues in ________␣ √␣ Rising incidence of STDs/AIDS√␣ Lack of access to high-quality FP services√␣ No youth-friendly clinics√␣ Increase in domestic violence√ Rise in teen pregnancies␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ Ranking Issues (30 minutes) 1. Review the list of reproductive health issues with participants to clarify ambiguity and eliminate duplications. Be certain that everyone has the same understanding of each of the issues listed. 2. Explain that participants are going to rank the issues. 3. Ask each participant to come up to the list on the flipchart and tick (3 ) the three issues that he/she feels are most urgent and/or most relevant to his/her work. 4. Allow sufficient time for each participant to approach the board and tick off his/her issues. III-25 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 2. ISSUES, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVESUNIT 2 SECTION III Note to Facilitator: Before participants make their choices, ask them to take a minute to think about the issues listed on the flipchart and to try to define a policy solution for each issue. Use domestic violence as an example. One strategy to reduce the incidence of domestic violence may be to launch an IEC campaign directed at victims and/or abusers. Another solution may be to persuade the Ministry of Justice to press for enforcement of existing domestic violence laws. A third approach may be to convince the Chief of Police to initiate and fund a domestic violence training program for police officers. The first strategy is NOT an advocacy strategy because it does not involve a policy solution; rather, it seeks to increase knowledge and change the behaviors of individuals. The second two examples ARE advocacy strategies because they each involve a policy response. If any of the participants is confused or has difficulty thinking in terms of a policy response for the issues listed, refer to Handout III.1.4: Advocacy and Related Concepts. 5. At the end of the voting process, tally the ticks (3 ) for each issue and write the total next to the issue. Some issues will emerge as especially important to the group. 6. Circle the three issues that received the largest number of votes. 7 Explain that the next step is for participants to choose ONE of the three issues as their highest priority for an advocacy strategy. 8. Discuss each of the three issues in detail by using the following questions as a guide and writing some of the responses on the newsprint: • Why is this issue important to the network at this time? • What are some examples of policy solutions for this issue? • What exactly does the issue encompass? • How easy or difficult will it be to build support around the issue? • What else is happening with respect to this issue in the external environment? • How does it coincide with the group’s analysis of “burning issues” in the policy arena (Section II, Unit 2)? 9. Explain that the process is not intended to determine scientifically which is the most important reproductive health issue. Instead, the purpose is to determine which issue is most crucial to the work and lives of the network andits constitutes. Advocates are most successful when they feel a deep concern or passion for their advocacy issue. 10. After each issue has been discussed, help the group reach consensus on a single issue as the focus of its advocacy campaign. Remind the group that it will have the opportunity to take on other issues in the future. Transition␣ Now that the network has selected an advocacy issue for its first campaign, participants will work together to develop the advocacy goal and set the advocacy objectives. III-26 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 2. ISSUES, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVESUNIT 2 SECTION III Developing an Advocacy Goal Time: 45 minutes 1. Introduce the topic of advocacy goals and objectives by sharing the definitions on newsprint or on an overhead transparency. Read the definitions aloud and make the following points: • It is important, at this stage, to differentiate between an advocacy goal and an objective because the definitions often vary from one country to another and from one network to another. • For the purpose of this workshop, the following definitions are used: An advocacy goal is the long-term result (three to five years) of your advocacy effort; it is your vision for change.␣ An advocacy objective is the short-term target (one to two years) that contributes toward your goal.␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ 2. Share the following example from one of the POLICY partner networks to clarify the differences and relationship among an advocacy issue, goal, and objective. Write it on newsprint. Advocacy issue – Contraceptive self-reliance Advocacy goal – Guaranteed access to high-quality family planning services for all couples in Country X Advocacy objective – Secure a commitment from the Ministry of Health that it will allocate sufficient funding to purchase contraceptive commodities␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ 3. Ask participants to highlight the difference between the goal and the objective. Include the following points: • The advocacy goal is a long-term result. It is unlikely that the network can achieve the goal on its own; therefore, the goal can be considered external to the network. In other words, the network will not hold itself accountable for achieving the goal, even though the goal is the ultimate, desired result. • The advocacy objective, on the other hand, is achievable by the network on its own. It is a short-term target that is achievable—according to the network’s assessment—within the next one to two years. Success can be measured easily—either the MOH allocates the funds or not. In a sense, the objective is the network’s internal target. The network plans to effect the change with its own resources, energy, and action. The advocacy objective clearly contributes to the broader goal. ACTIVITY 2 III-27 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 2. ISSUES, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVESUNIT 2 SECTION III 4. Divide participants into three working groups. 5. Ask each group to draft an advocacy goal for the advocacy issue selected by the full group. The goal statement should describe a long-term, desired change related to the issue. Allow 20 minutes and ask the groups to write their goals on newsprint. 6. Ask each group to share its goal statement. 7. Review each goal statement by using the following questions to guide the discussion: • Is the goal achievable through a series of policy decisions or changes? If policy change cannot contribute to achieving a particular goal, it is probably not an advocacy goal. Often, a goal calls for policy action as well as for public awareness raising. In that case, an advocacy strategy can be used to bring about the necessary policy changes while an IEC/public awareness campaign can focus on changing public behavior or norms. • How are the three goal statements similar or different? Help participants combine the goals into one statement or select the one goal they like the best. If none of the statements is an acceptable advocacy goal, return to the definition and the example you shared earlier and work with participants to develop an acceptable advocacy goal. Note to Facilitator: Before moving on to the next activity, participants must agree on a single advocacy goal as the focus of their campaign. Setting Advocacy Objectives Time: 1 hour 1. Ask participants if anyone has experience in establishing programmatic objectives. Explain that such experience is helpful in setting advocacy objectives. Sound objectives are essential to any planning process—whether planning a reproductive health program or an advocacy campaign. Clear and concisely written objectives can bring clarity and direction to the rest of the planning process. 2. Ask participants to list the criteria or characteristics they generally use to develop programmatic objectives and write their responses on the flipchart. Many groups mention the SMART criteria for objectives as shown below, but others may be listed as well. Criteria for Setting Objectives␣ S – specific M – measurable A – achievable R – realistic T – time-bound␣ ACTIVITY 3 III-28 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 2. ISSUES, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVESUNIT 2 SECTION III 3. Now ask participants the following questions: • Do the SMART characteristics also apply to advocacy objectives? • What, if any, other criteria or elements should be included in an advocacy objective? 4. Explain that an advocacy objective should be SMART but that it should also include several other elements. Write the following on the flipchart and give a brief description of each element: Elements of an Advocacy Objective␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ • Policy actor or decision maker is the individual with the power to convert the advocacy objective into action (i.e., Minister of Health, Parliamentary Finance Committee, etc.). • Policy action or decision is the action required to achieve the objective (i.e., adopt a certain policy, allocate funds to support a specific program or initiative, etc.). • Timeline describes when the objective will be achieved. Advocacy objectives should be achievable within one to two years. Some advocacy objectives also indicate the degree of change—or a quantitative measure of change—desired in the policy action. For example, degree of change could be expressed as redirecting 25 percent of the regional family planning budget to target adolescent services. 5. Divide participants into three working groups and ask each group to draft an advocacy objective that • responds to the advocacy issue; • contributes toward achieving the advocacy goal; and • meets the criteria and elements listed on the flipchart (SMART, etc.). 6. When the groups have completed the exercise, distribute and review Handout III.2.3: Checklist for Selecting an Advocacy Objective. Ask the groups to assess their draft objectives according to the nine criteria listed on the handout. 7. Invite each group to read its objective and present the results of its analysis. Ask the full group for comments or suggestions and be sure that the policy actor and policy action are clearly identified in each objective. 8. After the presentations and discussion of each objective, encourage the three groups to refine their objectives if they would like. Explain that the three objectives will be the basis of the upcoming work on audience analysis and message development. Policy “actor” or decision maker Policy “action” or decision Timeline and degree of change + + III-29 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 2. ISSUES, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVESUNIT 2 SECTION III An advocacy campaign coalesces around an issue or problem that responds to the interests of the network and is of concern to members’ constituents. The network, in turn, develops a long-term goal that addresses the issue and sets advocacy objectives that define the policy actions sought to support achievement of the goal. The issue, goal, and objective form the foundation of the network’s advocacy campaign and provide the framework within which to design advocacy activities. Distribute handouts for Unit 2. The advocacy process is off to a sound start. Participants begin to design and tailor strategies for advocacy actions in the next unit as they identify and analyze their target audiences through power mapping. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD III-30 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 2. ISSUES, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVESUNIT 2 SECTION III Handout III.2.1␣ Issues, Goals, and Objectives: Building the Foundation␣ Background Notes␣ The first two steps in any advocacy campaign are selecting the advocacy issue and developing the goal and objective.␣ These pieces of the advocacy process make up some of the most challenging, analytic work facing an advocacy network.␣ Completing these steps demands the ability to analyze complex environments and interrelated problems, discern a policy solution for a selected problem, envision a long-term result, and articulate a short-term objective.␣ The quality of the network’s efforts in these areas will have an important bearing on the success of the steps that follow.␣ These elements provide the foundation for an effective advocacy campaign.␣ Without a clear, articulated issue and well-defined goal and objective, the remaining steps of the campaign will lose focus. ␣ An advocacy issue is the problem or situation that an advocacy group seeks to rectify.␣ Some of the networks with which the POLICY Project works have focused their efforts around issues such as limited access to high quality family planning services, contraceptive self-reliance, and the need for adolescent reproductive health services and education.␣ Some global advocacy issues that have attracted international attention are the use of antipersonnel landmines; universal, safe working conditions; and widespread sexual exploitation of women and girls.␣ In this unit, participants will select an issue that is widely felt by their constituency and begin to build an advocacy campaign around that issue.␣ In various settings, the terms goal and objective are used interchangeably.␣ In some instances, an objective is broad and a goal is narrow; in others, the meanings are reversed.␣ For the purpose of the advocacy workshop, an advocacy goal is the long-term result (three to five years) that the network is seeking.␣ Participants should envision how the policy environment will be changed as a result of their advocacy efforts.␣ Will all people of reproductive age have access to effective family planning services?␣ Will the government draft, approve, and implement a national HIV/AIDS policy using a transparent, participatory approach?␣ These examples represent a long-term vision for policy change.␣ An NGO network may not be capable of achieving its goal single-handedly, but the goal statement can orient an advocacy network over the long term. III-31 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 2. ISSUES, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVESUNIT 2 SECTION III An advocacy objective is a short-term target (one to two years) that contributes to achieving the long-term goal.␣ A sound objective is specific, measurable, realistic and time-bound.␣ Often, networks work on two or more objectives simultaneously in their efforts to achieve a single goal.␣ It is important that an advocacy objective identify the specific policy body with the authority to fulfill the objective as well as the desired policy decision or action.␣ Two examples of sound advocacy objectives are to persuade the Ministry of Health to overturn the ban on community-based distribution of FP services, and to secure funding for a pilot family life education (FLE) program in secondary schools from the Inter-Ministerial Commission on Youth.␣ ␣ III-32 UNIT 2 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 2. ISSUES, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVES Re pr od uc tiv e H ea lth is a s ta te o f c om pl et e ph ys ica l, m en ta l a nd s oc ia l we ll- be in g a nd no t m er ely th e a bs en ce of d is ea se or in fir m ity , in a ll m at te rs re la te d to t he r ep ro du ct iv e sy st em a nd t o it s fu nc ti on s an d pr oc es se s. ␣Pe op le ar e a bl e t o ha ve a s at is fy in g an d sa fe s ex lif e a nd th ey ha ve t he c ap ab ilit y to re pr od uc e an d th e fre ed om t o de cid e if, wh en a nd ho w of te n to d o so .␣M en a nd w om en h av e th e rig ht t o be in fo rm ed a nd ha ve a cc es s to s af e, ef fe ct ive , a ffo rd ab le an d ac ce pt ab le m et ho ds o f th eir c ho ice fo r th e re gu la tio n of fe rt ilit y, as w ell a s ac ce ss t o he al th ca re fo r s af e pr eg na nc y an d ch ild bi rt h. — B as ed on pa ra gr ap h 7 .2 in th e I CP D Pr og ra m m e o f A ct ion , a s s um m ar ize d in Ac tio n fo r t he 2 1s t C en tu ry /R ep ro du ct ive H ea lth a nd R igh ts fo r A ll Fa m ily C ar e In te rn at io na l ( FC I), 19 94 De fin iti on o f R ep ro du ct ive H ea lth ␣ H an do ut II I.2 .2 III-33 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 2. ISSUES, GOALS, AND OBJECTIVESUNIT 2 SECTION III Checklist for Selecting an Advocacy Objective Handout III.2.3␣ This checklist is taken from SARA/AED Advocacy Training Guide and adapted from the Midwest Academy’s Organizing for Social Change. It is designed to help advocacy groups develop and choose sound objectives for policy change. 1. Do qualitative or quantitative data exist to show that the objective will improve the situation? 2. Is the objective achievable? Even with opposition? 3. Will the objective gain the support of many people? Do people care about the objective deeply enough to take action? 4. Will you be able to raise money or other resources to support your work on the objective? 5. Can you clearly identify the target decision makers? What are their names or positions? 6. Is the objective easy to understand? 7. Does the advocacy objective have a clear time frame that is realistic? 8. Do you have the necessary alliances with key individuals or organizations to reach your advocacy objective? How will the objective help build alliances with other NGOs, leaders, or stakeholders? 9. Will working on the advocacy objective provide people with opportunities to learn about and become involved with the decision-making process? Criteria Objective 1 Objective 2 III-34 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 3. TARGET AUDIENCESUNIT 3 SECTION III Target Audiences: Identifying Support and Opposition␣ Background Notes␣ To increase the chances of success, advocacy networks must identify and study all of the individuals and groups that may support the network’s issue and goal as well as those that may oppose the issue and goal. The advocacy campaign’s target audiences are determined for each advocacy objective and include the primary target audience—persons and/or institutional bodies that themselves have decision- making authority—as well as the secondary target audience—persons and institutional bodies that can influence the decision makers. Documenting information on these audiences helps the network target its advocacy activities, develop effective messages, and select appropriate channels of communication. While the categories of people in the target audience are not identical in every setting, the FP/RH policy target audience is likely to include political leaders, national and local government officials, private and public sector service providers, the media, religious and traditional leaders, NGOs, women’s organizations, professional associations, and business and civic groups. In some places and for some issues, the range of audiences is even wider and may encompass groups that are unlikely ever to meet each other, such as foreign donors or traditional healers. Once the target audiences are identified, the network must determine the level of support or opposition to be expected from those representing the primary and secondary target audiences. For many reasons—religious, cultural, and historical—family planning/reproductive health issues are often controversial. People on both sides of the issue feel strongly that their position is the right one; therefore, they are willing to devote considerable resources to supporting that position. Whether opposition is mild or strong, advocacy networks should be prepared to address it in ways that are most beneficial to their own efforts. The best advice is to be as informed as possible about the opposition’s specific issues and base of support and to preempt oppositional efforts with messages that anticipate and refute the opposition’s arguments. On the other side of the coin, advocacy networks often dedicate themselves to broadening their base of support. The larger the number of persons or groups working to achieve the advocacy objective, the greater are the chances of success. Networks can create coalitions with other networks or formal groups, expand their own membership, create alliances with commercial or private sector entities, and/or generate public and community support to enlarge their support base. III-35 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 3. TARGET AUDIENCESUNIT 3 SECTION III Finally, advocacy networks cannot afford to forget the “undecideds” or neutral parties. In some cases, the best investment of time and energy is to appeal to the neutral public. Public opinion can exert powerful pressure on decision makers. In other cases, the network may find policy makers and public officials who appear neutral but in fact hesitate to voice an opinion due to the controversial nature of the FP/RH issue; they may support the advocacy efforts in private but prefer to appear neutral. The network may direct its efforts to convincing these influential “neutrals” to join and publicly support the campaign. Several decisions are based on a thorough and sound analysis of the advocacy campaign’s target audience. This unit provides an opportunity for participants to identify both primary and secondary audiences for their specific advocacy objectives and to begin assessing the audiences’ level of knowledge and support before turning to the task of message development. By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Use a power map to identify support and opposition around a particular advocacy issue; and • Identify primary and secondary target audiences and analyze their interest in an advocacy issue. 2 hours and 45 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Three to four pairs of scissors, glue, colored paper, and old magazines that can be cut up for making the power map • Copies of handouts III.3.1 Background Notes III.3.2 Power Map for Audience Analysis III.3.3 Primary and Secondary Audience Analysis Form • For Activity 1, copy Handout III.3.2 on overhead transparency or draw it on newsprint. • For Activity 1, write the task on newsprint. • Place the scissors, tape, colored paper, or magazines on a centrally located table. Identifying Support and Opposition Time: 1 hour and 30 minutes Introduction (15 minutes)␣ 1. Give a brief introduction to Unit 3 by reviewing the objectives and covering the following major points: • To increase the chances of success, advocacy networks must identify and study all the individuals and groups that may support the network’s issue and goal as well as those that may oppose it. These people constitute the target audience. OBJECTIVES MATERIALS HANDOUTS TIME PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 III-36 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 3. TARGET AUDIENCESUNIT 3 SECTION III • A target audience is determined for each advocacy objective. The audience includes the primary target audience—persons and/or institutional bodies that themselves have decision-making authority—as well as the secondary target audience—persons and/or institutional bodies that can influence the decision makers. • The network should document information on these audiences as a means of targeting advocacy activities, developing effective messages, and selecting appropriate channels of communication. • The categories of people in the target audience are not identical in every setting. In the FP/RH policy context, however, the target audience is likely to include political leaders, national and local government officials, private and public sector service providers, the media, religious and traditional leaders, NGOs, women’s organizations, professional associations, and business and civic groups. • Once these persons/bodies are identified, the network assesses the level of support or opposition to be expected from those in the primary and secondary target audiences. • For many reasons—religious, cultural, and historical—FP/RH issues are often controversial. People on both sides of the issue feel strongly that their position is the right one; therefore, they are willing to devote considerable resources to supporting that position. Identifying potential opposition is as important as identifying potential allies. • The network can address the opposition by becoming as informed as possible about the opposition’s specific issues and base of support. It can preempt opponents’ efforts with messages that anticipate and address their arguments. • On the other hand, advocacy networks often dedicate themselves to broadening their base of support. The larger the number of persons or groups working to achieve the advocacy objective, the greater are the chances of success. • Creating broad-based support can be achieved through coalitions with other networks or formal groups, membership expansion, alliances with the commercial or private sector, or public awareness. • Advocates cannot afford to forget the “undecideds” or neutral parties. In some cases, the best investment of time and energy is to appeal to the neutral public. Public opinion can exert powerful pressure on a decision maker. • In other cases, the network may find policymakers and public officials who appear neutral but in fact hesitate to voice an opinion due to the controversial nature of the FP/RH issue; they may support the advocacy efforts in private but prefer to appear neutral. The network may direct its efforts to convincing these influential “neutrals” to join and publicly support the campaign. • There are many decisions that are based on a thorough analysis of the target audience. In this unit, participants identify primary and secondary audiences for their specific advocacy objectives and begin to assess the audiences’ level of knowledge and support for the issue and objective. III-37 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 3. TARGET AUDIENCESUNIT 3 SECTION III Transition In this unit, participants continue to develop the advocacy strategy around their issue, goal, and objectives. The participants create power maps to identify members of the target audience as sources of support or opposition for each advocacy objective. Power Maps (1 hour and 15 minutes)␣ 1. Present the blank power map that you drew on the flipchart or overhead transparency. 2. Explain that participants will work in the same groups as for the advocacy goals and objectives. 3. The task for each group is to create a “power map” that visually depicts the target audience—support, opposition, and neutral actors—for its own advocacy objective. 4. Distribute newsprint and markers to the groups and show them the scissors, colored paper, magazines, glue, etc., that they can use to create their power maps. 5. Review the task that you have written on newsprint by using the blank map as a model. Task for Power Maps a. Prepare the newsprint.␣ Write your group’s advocacy objective on the top and divide the newsprint into two sides, one labeled support and the other opposition.␣ The middle line depicts neutrality. b. Brainstorm a list of all institutions and individuals with interest in your issue/objective—supporters, opposition, undecided, or unknown. c. For each institution or individual, cut a symbol or picture out of paper/magazine and label it.␣ d. Tape the symbols on the map in the appropriate place—support, opposition, neutral. 6. As you review the task, elaborate on several steps as follows: • Step b. Participants should think of traditional as well as nontraditional “actors” in the policy process, including community leaders, celebrities, business leaders, relatives of the target audience, etc. • Step c. Groups should be as creative as possible in selecting a symbol or magazine image to depict the different actors. If the actor has broad power or influence over the issue, groups should create a large symbol. If the actor is interested in the issue but has little influence over the target audience or general public, groups should use a small symbol. • Step d. If the actor is highly supportive of the issue/objective, the symbol should be placed on the left side of the map. If the actor represents strong opposition, the symbol should be placed III-38 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 3. TARGET AUDIENCESUNIT 3 SECTION III on the right side. The line of neutrality is in the center of the map, and those actors who are undecided or whose opinion is unknown should be placed closer to the center line. If any actor is closely linked to another actor, their symbols can overlap or touch to reflect the interrelationship. 7. Use the following example to review the steps in the mapping process: • Advocacy objective. Within the next year, persuade the chief of police to institute a domestic violence training program for all current and incoming officers. • Target audience. Allies might include a women’s group, human rights NGO, lawyers’ association, etc. These would be placed on the left of the map in proper relation to one another. Opposition might include a police union official, some officers worried about losing human resources while police are in training, individuals worried about funding for the new project. These would be placed on the right side of the map. 8. Allow the groups 45 minutes to complete their power maps. Note to Facilitator: If you have a camera or photographer at the workshop, this exercise offers a good photo opportunity. Following the presentations, you can take photos of each group with its power map. 9. Ask each group to present its map. Moderate a discussion of each map with the full group. Use the following questions: • Are there any additional allies that belong on the map? Who are they? • Are there any additional opponents? Who are they? • Does the map capture the interrelationships or connections between and among different “actors”? • Where on the map do most of the power and influence reside? Analyzing the Target Audience Time: 1 hour and 15 minutes 1. Ask participants to continue working in the same groups as for the power map activity. 2. Distribute and review Handout III.3.3: Target Audience Analysis. 3. Explain that the form is a planning tool that will help the advocacy campaign assess the positions of various actors in the target audience in order to design effective advocacy activities and messages. 4. Ask each group to refer to the actors they identified on their power map. Identify which of those actors are the Primary Audience, the person(s) and/or bodies with the power to achieve the advocacy objective directly; and the Secondary Audience, the person(s) and/or bodies that can influence the Primary Audience. The groups should transfer these names to the appropriate box on the form and complete the remaining columns as follows: ACTIVITY 2 III-39 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 3. TARGET AUDIENCESUNIT 3 SECTION III • Level of Knowledge about the Advocacy Issue. Is the audience well informed or does it lack accurate information? How much does the audience know about the issue? • Level of Demonstrated Support for the Issue. Has the audience actively and/or publicly supported the issue? Rank and describe evidence of support. • Level of Demonstrated Opposition toward the Issue. Has the audience actively and/or publicly opposed the issue? Rank and describe evidence of opposition. • Undecided or Unknown. Has the audience failed to declare its position on the issue, or are you uncertain of its position at this time? • Potential Benefits to the Audience. How might the audience benefit from supporting the network’s issue and objective? Might the audience realize political, personal, or professional benefits? Describe any benefits. 5. Remind participants to think broadly when identifying the secondary audience. Influential persons often extend beyond professional circles and include personal relationships. For example, a relative, spouse, or friend of a high-level decision maker can be a great intermediary. 6. Allow 45 minutes for the groups to complete their Target Audience Analysis forms. 7. When the groups have completed the forms, invite each group to summarize its work. Moderate a discussion with the full group. Sample questions follow: • What are the general observations about the audience analysis, e.g., need more information on actors, the opposition is more vocal/public than supporters, etc.? • Overall, do the target audiences evidence more support or opposition? • Based on the analysis, how might you focus your advocacy effort? Would you build on the support, neutralize the opposition, or try to convert the “undecideds”? • Why is it important to identify potential benefits? How might these be used to the network’s advantage? • What, if any, additional information is needed for an accurate assessment of the target audience? Where will you get the information? 8. Conclude the activity by reminding participants that the network should continue to collect information on its target audiences and add it to the form. Information on the various audiences will help define the overall strategy and tailor messages. III-40 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 3. TARGET AUDIENCESUNIT 3 SECTION III Knowing the target audience or actors for each of the advocacy objectives is a critical component of a successful advocacy strategy. The completed power maps and audience analysis forms are road maps for future actions and should be updated as more information about particular individuals is acquired. Distribute handouts for Unit 3. The next step in designing the advocacy strategy is message development. Each advocacy message is crafted with its audience and purpose clearly articulated. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD III-41 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 3. TARGET AUDIENCESUNIT 3 SECTION III Handout III.3.1 Target Audiences: Identifying Support and Opposition␣ Background Notes␣ To increase the chances of success, advocacy networks must identify and study all the individuals and groups that may support the network’s issue and goal as well as those that may oppose it.␣ The advocacy campaign’s target audiences must be determined for each advocacy objective to be achieved and include the primary target audience—persons and/or institutional bodies that themselves have decision-making authority—as well as the secondary target audience—persons and/or institutional bodies that can influence the decision makers.␣ Documenting information on these audiences helps the network target its advocacy activities, develop effective messages, and select appropriate channels of communication.␣ While the categories of people in the target audience are not identical in every setting, the FP/RH policy target audience is likely to include political leaders, national and local government officials, private and public sector service providers, the media, religious and traditional leaders, NGOs, women’s organizations, professional associations, and business and civic groups.␣ In some places and for some issues, the range of audiences is even wider and may encompass groups that are unlikely ever to meet each other, such as foreign donors or traditional healers.␣ Once the audiences are identified, the network␣ must determine the level of support or opposition to be expected from those in the primary and secondary target audiences. For many reasons—religious, cultural, and historical—family planning/ reproductive health issues are often controversial.␣ People on both sides of the issue feel strongly that their position is the right one; therefore, they are willing to devote considerable resources to supporting that position.␣ ␣ Whether opposition is mild or strong, advocacy networks should be prepared to address it in ways that are most beneficial to their own efforts.␣ The best advice is to be as informed as possible about the opposition’s specific issues and base of support and to preempt oppositional efforts with messages that anticipate and refute the opponents’ arguments.␣ On the other side of the coin, advocacy networks often dedicate themselves to broadening their base of support.␣ The larger the number of persons or groups working to achieve the advocacy objective, the greater are the chances of success.␣ Networks can create coalitions with other networks or formal groups, expand their own membership, create alliances with commercial or private sector entities, and/or generate public and community support to enlarge their support base.␣ ␣ III-42 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 3. TARGET AUDIENCESUNIT 3 SECTION III Finally, advocacy networks cannot afford to forget the “undecideds” or neutral parties.␣ In some cases, the best investment of time and energy is to appeal to the neutral public.␣ Public opinion can exert powerful pressure on decision makers.␣ In other cases, the network may find policymakers and public officials who appear neutral but in fact hesitate to voice an opinion due to the controversial nature of the FP/RH issue; they may support the advocacy efforts in private but prefer to appear neutral.␣ The network may decide to direct its efforts to convincing these influential “neutrals” to join and publicly support the campaign.␣ Several decisions are based on a thorough and sound analysis of the advocacy␣ campaign’s target audience.␣ This unit provides an opportunity for participants to identify both primary and secondary audiences for their specific advocacy objectives and to begin assessing the audiences’ level of knowledge and support before turning to the task of message development.␣ III-43 UNIT 3 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 3. TARGET AUDIENCES H an do ut II I.3 .2 Po we r M ap fo r A ud ien ce A na lys is ␣ A dv oc ac y Ob je ct ive : Su pp or t Op po si tio n Neutrality III-44 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 3. TARGET AUDIENCESUNIT 3 SECTION III H an do ut II I.3 .3 Pr im ar y an d Se co nd ar y Au di en ce A na lys is F or m ␣ A dv oc ac y Ob je ct ive : PR IM A RY A UD IE N CE .␣T he in di vid ua ls a nd /o r b od y wi th de ci si on -m ak in g au th or it y (r e: ␣a dv oc ac y ob je ct ive ) Le ve l o f K no wl ed ge ab ou t th e Is su e (R an k 1- 5) 1 - lo w; 5 - hi gh Le ve l o f P re vio us Su pp or t De m on st ra te d 1 - lo w; 5 - h ig h Le ve l o f P re vio us O pp os it io n De m on st ra te d 1 - lo w; 5 - h ig h Un de ci de d or Po si ti on Un kn ow n Po te nt ia l B en ef it s t o A ud ie nc e Re la te d to t he Is su e SE CO N DA RY A UD IE N CE .␣ Th e in di vid ua ls a nd /o r b od ie s th at c an in flu en ce t he pr im ar y au di en ce . III-45 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III Messages: Informing, Persuading, and Moving to Action␣ Background Notes*␣ In today’s society, we are bombarded by messages every day. The intent of the message may be to sell us a product, inform or educate us in some way, or change our opinion about an issue. An advocacy communication strategy follows many of the same principles as an advertising or social marketing campaign. It is essential to know your audience thoroughly and to deliver a concise, consistent message that is tailored to your audience’s interests. Most people shape their messages to the needs and interests of a particular audience as a matter of common sense. In other words, the message communicated to a parents’ group about providing family planning services to adolescents would differ from the message transmitted to officials in the Ministry of Health. Audience research—particularly qualitative research such as focus group discussions and in-depth interviews—helps identify appropriate messages for various policy audiences. Whoever the target audience may be, it is important to remember three other points about advocacy message development. First, there should ideally be only one main point communicated or, if that is not possible, two or three at the most. It is better to leave people with a clear idea of one message than to confuse or overwhelm them with too many. Second, messages should always be pretested with representatives of the target audience to ensure that the message sent is the one received. When a network develops an advocacy message directed toward the Minister of Health, for example, it is always useful to practice delivering the message to a supportive Ministry official as a test run. The Ministry official may offer valuable feedback about how the message is interpreted. Third, the message should not only persuade through valid data and sound logic, but it should also describe the action the audience is being encouraged to take. The audience needs to know clearly what it is you want it to do, e.g., include reproductive health in the national health insurance package, support an advocacy campaign by attending a rally on the steps of Parliament. This unit addresses the essential components of a message—content, language, messenger/source, format, and time/place of delivery. Participants are asked to apply what they know about advocacy message development through role-play scenarios with decision makers. * Background notes adapted from Elaine Murphy. 1994. Communicating Population and Family Planning Information to Policymakers. Washington, DC: The Futures Group Int’l. III-46 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Identify the elements of an effective advocacy message; • Tailor a message to the interests of a particular target audience; and • Develop and deliver an advocacy message in a variety of scenarios. 6 hours and 45 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Four to five advertising messages cut out of local magazines or newspapers • Copies of handouts III.4.1 Background Notes III.4.2 Message Development Worksheet • Video camera (if possible) to tape the role-plays and play for group feedback • Sample role-play scenarios (for adaptation) • For Activity 1, write each of the following on a sheet of newsprint: Strongly Agree, Strongly Disagree, Undecided. • For Activity 1, write down two controversial statements related to FP/ RH. See Activity 1 for examples. • For Activity 2, write the definition of advocacy communication on newsprint. • For Activity 3, cut out four or five examples of advertising messages from magazines or newspapers. Each message should have a simple, promotional phrase such as “Tropical Airways gets you there on time!” as well as pictures/graphics and supplemental text. (Commercial messages work better than social marketing advertisements. If participants are too familiar with the subject matter, they might lose their objectivity.) Paste each message to a sheet of newsprint and post each newsprint page on a different wall in the training room so that all are visible. • For Activity 5, read the role-play scenarios and adapt them to fit the advocacy objectives developed in Unit 2. Ideally, each scenario should depict a different medium for message delivery (e.g., face-to-face meeting, press conference, public debate). Copy the scenarios to distribute to each working group. Techniques of Persuasion Time: 45 minutes 1. Post one newsprint page (Strongly Agree) at one end of the longest wall in the training room, post the second newsprint page (Strongly Disagree) at the other end of the same wall, and post the third newsprint page (Undecided) in the middle of the wall. 2. On a slip of paper, write two controversial statements that will elicit both OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS ACTIVITY 1 PREPARATION III-47 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III strongly positive and strongly negative responses from participants. You should develop these statements according to the local environment. Past workshops have used the following successfully: • Sexuality education should be incorporated into the formal curriculum of primary school (grades one through six). • You are the director of emergency (or trauma) services for a local hospital. You learn that one of your nurses is HIV-positive and therefore you dismiss her from her post. 3. Explain that this activity is designed as a warm-up to the topic of message development. Participants will engage in an exercise on public opinion and persuasive techniques. 4. Point out the three sheets of newsprint on the wall and explain that they represent a continuum of public opinion, ranging from “strongly agree” to “strongly disagree.” Participants should imagine that they are participating in a quick public opinion survey. Tell participants that you will read a statement aloud and that they will express their opinion by standing at the point on the continuum that best reflects their viewpoint. They need not stand precisely under any of the signs but rather may choose to position themselves at any point along the continuum as appropriate. The participants must react to the statement exactly as you read it—they may not alter or question it. 5. Be certain that everyone understands the instructions before you read the first statement. 6. Read the first statement slowly and clearly so that everyone hears the same words. Read the statement slowly a second time. Ask all participants to stand up and position themselves along the continuum according to their opinion. 7. Once each participant has taken a position, explain that the purpose of the activity is to practice the skill of persuasion. Participants standing under “strongly agree” or “strongly disagree” will try to convince the “undecideds” to move over and support their position. If any participant changes his/her opinion during the exercise, he/she should move to the appropriate point on the continuum. 8. Turn first to those standing under “strongly agree.” Invite one or two participants to explain their position in an effort to persuade the “undecideds.” Check to see if any “undecideds” feel persuaded to move. 9. Next, invite one or two participants who “strongly disagree” to articulate their position in an effort to persuade the “undecideds.” 10. Finally, ask the remaining “undecideds” why they did not move and whether they feel inclined to change their minds. Note to Facilitator: Try to manage the group in such a way that a heated argument does not develop. If the discussion gets too heated, simply remind participants that the objective of the activity is not to debate the issue but rather to convince an undecided audience. 11. After five to ten minutes have elapsed for the first statement, stop the discussion and read the second statement. Follow the instructions as for the first statement. III-48 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III 12. After five to ten minutes have elapsed for the second statement, stop the discussion and ask participants to return to their seats. 13. Moderate a discussion about what the participants learned from the exercise. Discussion questions and possible responses follow: • As you stood along the continuum, which persuasive techniques influenced you to change your position? (Try to pinpoint the specific argument or communication technique that led them to change their opinion.) – Use of facts and figures – Use of real-life, human examples – Appealing to individuals on a personal level – Listening to the speaker’s viewpoint • Did the speakers use any techniques that alienated you? – Loud/aggressive voice – Exaggeration of the facts • When the objective is to build support for your cause or issue, which is more effective—to debate with your adversaries or to persuade neutral parties? – The response may vary from one advocacy campaign to another; however, in many cases, an attack on the opposition simply heats up the debate. At times, an attack approach alienates a neutral public. • If any of the “undecideds” failed to change their opinion, why were the arguments unappealing and unpersuasive? Transition␣ As demonstrated in the activity, advocacy communication often involves the ability to persuade a policymaker, an influential person, or the public to support the network’s position and to take action. This type of communication demands messages that are tailored to the specific audience the network is trying to reach. The communication could seek to inform an audience about an issue in order to generate support, persuade an audience to join and support the advocacy effort, or move the audience to take action and implement the desired policy change. Advocacy Communication Time: 1 hour and 30 minutes 1. Review the definition of advocacy communication on newsprint. Advocacy Communication is any planned communication activity that seeks to achieve one of the following communication goals: inform, persuade, or move to action.␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ACTIVITY 2 III-49 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III 2. Draw the Advocacy Communication Model* on newsprint and use the following notes to guide a discussion of communication: • One necessity for effective communication is a clear understanding of the audience and the ability to see the issue from the audience’s perspective. This is a tremendous challenge—the ability to put yourself in your audience’s shoes and see how the audience members will benefit from supporting your cause. • During the audience analysis, each working group identified the potential benefits to the target audience from supporting the advocacy objective/issue. In other words, how will each individual in the target audience benefit professionally, politically, or personally from supporting the issue (or conversely, what does each risk)? The answers to these questions should be considered and incorporated into the advocacy messages directed to each member of the target audience. • Look at the model and note that advocacy communication (as well as IEC campaigns) often focuses on the first level—to inform a target audience. To move the audience along to higher stages, audience members need information to develop a thorough understanding of the issue, the situation, and the desired policy change. • Once the audience is informed, the communication strategy moves to achieve the next higher-level objective to produce greater impact. That level seeks to persuade the audience to feel as strongly as the network does about the issue and to adopt the desired position. • Once audience understanding and support are achieved, communication moves to the highest level, the point at which advocacy messages move the audience to act in support of the issue. • Every advocacy communication effort should seek to reach the highest possible level—that is, to move the audience to action. As participants prepare to develop advocacy messages, they will determine the desired action for each audience and how to move the audiences to action through the advocacy messages. Transition The next few activities focus on developing persuasive advocacy messages by looking at the characteristics and elements of messages and practicing message development. * Adapted from a model developed by CEDPA consultant Thomas Leonhardt Advocacy Communication Model Move to Action Persuade Inform î î III-50 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III Elements and Characteristics of a Message Time: 1 hour and 15 minutes Warm Up (30 minutes)␣ 1. Point out the four or five advertising messages that are posted around the room. 2. Read each message aloud and ask participants to stand next to the message that most appeals to them. Give the participants a minute or two to review each of the messages before they make their selection. 3. After everyone has selected a message, ask participants to talk with the others standing in their group to identify the characteristics of the message that make it appealing. Ask each group to write those appealing characteristics (or why the group likes the message) on the newsprint surrounding the message. 4. Invite each group to share its list of appealing characteristics. While the groups are reading their lists, capture the key characteristics on the flipchart. Be certain to include the characteristics shown below: Characteristics of Effective Messages √␣ Simple√␣ Concise√␣ Appropriate language√␣ ␣ Content consistent with format√␣ Credible messenger (spokesperson)√␣ ␣ Tone and language consistent with the message (i.e., serious, humorous)␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ 5. Conclude by reminding participants to keep these characteristics in mind when they begin developing FP/RH advocacy messages. It is important to remember that not everyone understands FP/RH issues or considers them priorities and that messages must be kept simple and precise in order to inform, persuade, and move audiences to act. Elements of a Message (45 minutes)␣ 1. Write the following elements of a message on newsprint: Five Elements of Messages √␣ ␣ Content/ideas √␣ ␣ Language √␣ ␣ Messenger/source √␣ ␣ Format/medium √␣ ␣ Time/place␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ACTIVITY 3 III-51 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III 2. Review each element of a message using the following notes: • Content/ideas. The content refers to the central idea of the message.What is the main point you want to communicate to your audience? What single idea do you hope the audience will take away after receiving your message? • Language. Language consists of the words you choose for communicating your message. Is the language appropriate for your target audience? Is the word choice clear, or could it be interpreted differently by various audiences? Is it necessary to use a local dialect or vernacular to communicate the message? • Messenger/source. Source refers to the person or people delivering the message. Is the messenger credible to your target audience? Is it possible to include beneficiaries as spokespersons or messengers? For example, you might invite a community or religious leader to join you for a high-level meeting with a policymaker, you might ask a pregnant teen who has dropped out of school to speak to youth groups, etc. Advocacy networks can send a powerful and more meaningful message to policymakers by letting the message come from a member of the affected population. • Format/medium. The format or medium is the communication channel you choose for delivering the message. What is the most compelling format to reach your target audience? Different channels are more effective for certain audiences. Brainstorming: Ask the group to brainstorm a list of communication media for advocacy messages. Record the responses on the flipchart and be certain to include the following: ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ After the participants have brainstormed an exhaustive list of ways to deliver messages, ask them to think about the criteria they would use when choosing an appropriate medium. Possible responses may include the following: — Audience. Some formats are more effective and more appropriate for specific audiences. For example, high-level policymakers have little time and many constituents. The message needs to give them the facts and move them to action Message Medium␣ √ Face-to-face meetings √ Poster, flyers in public places √ Executive briefing packets √ Petition√ Public rallies √ Public debate√ Fact sheets √ Press release√ Policy forums √ Press conference√ Contests to design posters, slogans III-52 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III quickly; also, always leave information for them to read later. Effective media for policymakers include briefing packets, fact sheets, face-to-face meetings, and policy forums. — Cost. Using mass media such as radio or television can be extremely costly. The advocacy network should seek out any free or reduced-cost opportunities if the mass media is the medium of choice. — Risk. When a network goes public with an advocacy issue— especially a controversial one—risk is always involved. Certain advocacy tactics entail more risk than others. Public debates and live forums highlighting both sides of an issue can turn into “heated” events. Nevertheless, risk can be minimized through careful planning, selection of speakers, rehearsals, etc. — Visibility. The advocacy network may choose one medium over another if it can make use of a contact or connection to raise the visibility of an event. Perhaps a celebrity or high-ranking public official is willing to pay a site visit to a project or make the opening speech at a meeting. Such an event may provide an excellent opportunity to recruit other decision makers and promote a particular advocacy objective. • Time/place. When and where will the message be delivered? Are there other political events that you can link up with to draw more attention to the issue? Some advocacy groups connect their advocacy activities with events such as International Women’s Day or World AIDS Day. Is there an electoral campaign underway that might make policymakers more receptive than normal to your message? Transition By now, participants should have a basic understanding of the characteristics and elements of effective advocacy messages. The next activity provides an opportunity for the participants to practice developing and delivering advocacy messages to members of their target audiences. Developing Advocacy Messages Time: 1 hour 1. Ask participants to return to their audience analysis teams. 2. Distribute and review Handout III.4.2: Message Development Worksheet. 3. Instruct each team to select one of the individuals or institutions from its target audience analysis form and complete the Message Development Worksheet for that audience. 4. Allow 30 minutes to complete the task. 5. Invite each group to present a summary of its worksheet. 6. After each presentation, ask the other participants for their comments, questions, or suggestions. Use the following questions as a guide for the discussion: ACTIVITY 4 III-53 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III • What was the central idea of each message? Was it clear? • Was the content appropriate for the message’s audience? Why or why not? • What additional information should be included? Omitted? • Were data used effectively? • Was the desired action clearly articulated? Was it appropriate? • Do participants agree with the choice of format, spokespersons, time, and place? Delivering Advocacy Messages Time: 1 hour and 45 minutes The One-Minute Message (15 minutes) Note to Facilitator: The final activity involves participants in delivering advocacy messages to decision makers. This learning exercise is most effective if the facilitator has had a chance to adapt the role-play scenarios to each of the advocacy objectives developed by the network. If possible, provide each team with a distinct scenario that reflects the team’s objective and target audience. Sample role-play scenarios are provided for adaptation. 1. Introduce the activity by reminding participants of the importance of presenting messages that are clear and concise. 2. Draw the “one-minute message” on newsprint. Use the following notes to provide an overview: • A critical component of advocacy campaigns is media attention. Advocacy networks may invite journalists to attend selected events to increase the visibility of the issue and to ensure that their message reaches a wider audience. Media presence usually means that someone from the network will be interviewed about the event and the issue. In any interaction with mass media, it is vital that the spokesperson communicate both the main idea and the desired action of the advocacy message in 30 to 60 seconds. • Mass media coverage of events and interviews is normally distilled into a 30- to 60-second tape for use on the television or radio news. To ensure that the central points of the message are communicated during this brief transmission, spokespersons must be skilled at delivering “the one-minute message.” This simple model will help focus the speaker on constructing or tailoring a message for a television or radio interview. • The “one-minute message” includes four components as follows: — Statement. The statement is the central idea of the message (as defined on the Message Development Worksheet). The spokesperson should be able to present the “essence” of his/ her message in several strong sentences. ACTIVITY 5 III-54 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III — Evidence. The evidence supports the statement or central idea with facts and/or figures. The message should include limited data that the audience can easily understand—such as “only two out of five adults of reproductive age have access to FP services” rather than “4,253,800 adults of reproductive age have access to FP services”. — Example. After providing the facts, the spokesperson should add a human face to the story. An anecdote based on a personal experience can personalize the facts and figures. — Action Desired. The desired action is what you want the audience to do as a result of hearing the message. The advocacy objective should be stated clearly to the target audience as an invitation for action! The One-Minute Message 3. Read the following example provided by an advocacy network working on domestic violence: Statement. Domestic violence against women must be stopped. Violence against women has long been tolerated and women have suffered in silence. The seriousness and scope of the problem has been ignored. Evidence. In the United States, one woman is physically abused every eight seconds and one is raped every six minutes. According to a 1992 U.S. Senate Judiciary Committee report, spousal abuse is more common in the U.S. than automobile accidents, muggings, and cancer deaths combined. Example. Our network has been supporting a woman named Maria. One year ago, Maria was successfully balancing motherhood and a career. However, she became involved with an abusive partner and her life has never been the same. Maria recently lost her job because of tardiness, and her children have been disciplined at school for aggression and misbehavior. Maria is one of the millions of women suffering from domestic violence. 4. Ask participants what is missing from the message—the action desired from the audience. Does the network want a particular policymaking body to enact stricter punishments for abusers? To provide funding for women’s shelters? The message must clearly articulate what is desired. Statement Evidence Example Action Desired: : : III-55 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III Role-Plays (1 hour and 30 minutes) 1. Distribute the related role-play scenario to each group. Give participants time both to read the scenario and ask questions for clarification. 2. Explain that each group is going to develop a 10-minute role-play demonstrating how it chose to develop and deliver its message described in the scenario. 3. Encourage participants to refer to the “one-minute message” if they are going to be interviewed by the mass media during their role-play 4. Allow 45 minutes to develop the message and design the role-play and assign parts. 5. Encourage participants to use any materials or props they may need. 6. When the groups are ready to present their role-plays, arrange the chairs theatre-style. Invite each group to introduce its role-play by summarizing the scenario. 7. Following each role-play, ask the full group for feedback. Use the following questions to guide the discussion: • Was the central advocacy message clear? What was it? • Put yourselves in the place of the target audience. Were you informed, persuaded, and moved to act? • Which communication techniques pushed the audience up the advocacy communication scale? • What was the most effective part of the message? • What, if anything, would you add or do differently? Developing and delivering effective advocacy messages require a basic understanding of communication, knowledge of what makes an effective message, skill in crafting messages that include the essential elements, and the ability to select the most appropriate medium based on a variety of criteria. Distribute handouts for Unit 4. The next unit looks at different techniques of data collection and analysis. Whether the network involves itself in data collection activities or relies on secondary analyses, the qualitative and quantitative data collected will enhance and support each step in the advocacy process. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD III-56 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III Sample Role-Play Scenarios Scenario 1 You represent an NGO network comprised of organizations that seek to protect the human rights of girls and young women. Through ongoing monitoring of the parliamentary record, your organization learns that the Child Welfare Committee is considering a piece of draft legislation. After previewing the legislation, you determine that the content is consistent with your vision and advocacy goal. You were able to secure a meeting with the Chair and Vice Chair of the Child Welfare Committee. Prepare a 10-minute role-play depicting your meeting with the committee members where you try to persuade them to support the legislation. Scenario 2 Your network works to promote gender equity in rural communities. It has come to your attention that an international agency has planned a water and sanitation project for one of the communities where your organization works. Through conversations with the agency, you learn that there are no plans to incorporate a gender focus into the project design. The network sees the project’s potential value but feels that the project will be more sustainable if an analysis of gender relations is integrated into the design, monitoring, and evaluation phases. The Village Council in the target community is holding a special hearing to address this issue. The network has been invited to present its view. Prepare a 10-minute role-play depicting the special hearing and your efforts to convince the council and the community of the value of gender analysis. (You can ask the other participants to play the role of the community; however, you may want to plant several supporters and critics in the group to make the role-play more interesting.) Scenario 3 Your FP/RH advocacy network works to provide reproductive health care and education to adolescents. In the past year, the Ministry of Education (MOE) initiated a small- scale, pilot project that introduced a sexuality/reproductive health module into the secondary school curriculum. Your initial inquiries suggest that the MOE does not intend to mainstream the education program due to perceived opposition from religious groups. To build public support and persuade MOE officials to expand the program, your network is hosting a public debate about the advantages and disadvantages of providing reproductive health services and education to youth. Prepare a 10-minute role-play dramatizing the debate, including how you manage the participation of TV journalists. Scenario 4 Your network promotes the sustainable use of natural resources. For the past several years, the network has been working with rural communities that border on a large, forested area that was recently purchased by a multinational paper company. One day, several representatives of the network are at the airport preparing to leave for a conference. In the departure area, they recognize the general manager of the paper company, who is preparing to depart on a different flight. You decide to approach the paper company executive and urge him or her to pay a site visit to some of the rural communities in question and learn more about thier interests in the forest. Prepare a 10-minute role-play where you try to convince the general manager to pay a first- hand visit to the people whor are affected by the company’s development plan. III-57 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 4. MESSAGESUNIT 4 SECTION III Handout III.4.1 Messages: Informing, Persuading, and Moving to Action Background Notes*␣ In today’s society, we are bombarded daily by messages.␣ The intent of the message may be to sell us a product, educate us in some way, or change our opinion about an issue.␣ An advocacy communication strategy follows many of the same principles as an advertising or social marketing campaign.␣ It is essential to know your audience well and to deliver a concise, consistent message that is tailored to your audience’s interests. Most people shape their messages to the needs and interests of a particular audience as a matter of common sense.␣ In other words, the message communicated to an educator stressing the inclusion of family planning in a family life education program would differ from the family planning message transmitted to officials in the Ministry of Health.␣ Audience research—particularly qualitative research such as focus group discussions and in-depth interviews—helps identify appropriate messages for various policy audiences.␣ Whoever the target audience may be, it is important to remember three other points about messages.␣ First, there should ideally be only one main point communicated or, if that is not possible, two or three at the most.␣ It is better to leave people with a clear idea of one message than to confuse or overwhelm them with too many messages.␣ Second, messages should always be pretested with representatives of the audience to ensure that the message sent is the one received.␣ When a network develops an advocacy message directed toward the Minister of Health, for example, it is always useful to practice delivering the message to a supportive Ministry official as a test run.␣ The Ministry official, who is professionally close to the Minister, may offer valuable feedback about how the message is interpreted.␣ Third, the message should not only persuade through valid data and sound logic, but it should also describe the action the audience is being encouraged to take.␣ The audience needs to know clearly what it is you want it to do, e.g., include reproductive health in the national health insurance package, support an advocacy campaign by attending a rally on the steps of Parliament. ␣ This unit addresses the essential components of a message—content, language, messenger/source, format, and time/place of delivery.␣ Participants are asked to apply what they know about advocacy message development through role-play scenarios with decision makers. * Background notes adapted from Elaine Murphy. 1994. Communicating Population and Family Planning Information to Policymakers. Washington, DC: The Futures Group Int’l. III-58 UNIT 3 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 3. TARGET AUDIENCES M es sa ge D ev el op m en t W or ks he et * H an do ut II I.4 .2 Ta rg et a ud ien ce Ac tio n yo u wa nt t he au di en ce t o ta ke M es sa ge c on te nt Fo rm at (s ) M es se ng er s 4. MESSAGES4 *T hi s wo rk sh ee t is b or ro we d fr om R itu R . S ha rm a. 19 97 . Ad vo ca cy T ra in in g G ui de . W as hi ng to n, D C: A ca de m y fo r E du ca tio na l De ve lo pm en t. Ti m e an d Pl ac e fo r De liv er y III-59 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III Data Collection: Bridging the Gap between Communities and Policymakers␣ Background Notes␣ To be effective advocates for FP/RH issues, networks must understand and accurately represent the needs, priorities, and interests of their constituencies. Knowing the community means finding out what people think about FP/RH issues and how they are personally affected by the policies governing the provision of FP/RH services. It doesn’t make sense, for example, to organize an advocacy campaign in support of adolescent reproductive health services if the community considers HIV/AIDS as its primary concern. By collecting and disseminating data on community needs, a network demonstrates the importance it places on both listening to the people and gathering the information needed to substantiate its advocacy actions. The more information and data a network possesses, the more realistic and representative its policy demands will be. Furthermore, data-based advocacy messages enhance the professionalism and credibility of the network in the eyes of decision makers and other influential persons. When initiating a data collection activity, the network should consider its own information needs and those of the relevant policymakers. It is also important to estimate the time and costs involved in the data collection effort as well as the human resources required to design the methodology and collect, analyze, and present the data. Selection of the actual data collection technique or techniques depends on the answers to these questions. Data collection can involve qualitative or quantitative techniques or a combination of both. Qualitative data are descriptive or narrative and convey impressions or opinions. They provide information on what people think, feel, and do and are helpful in identifying issues of importance to a particular target group or community. Quantitative data can be counted or quantified to give numeric estimates and generate conclusive findings. They can tell us how many people of different demographic characteristics live in the target area, verify the number of times Listening to What People Are Saying To learn from the people they represent, two district-level NGO advocacy networks in Ghana surveyed their constituents to identify priority FP/RH issues in their communities. While the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) provided national and even regional-level data, it did not present any district-level data to help guide the networks’ advocacy objectives. With small grants from the POLICY Project, network members designed and conducted surveys, and analyzed data that clearly showed that the communities’ priority reproductive health concern was teenage pregnancy and its devastating effects on girls’ education, economic status, and health. The network subsequently used the data to make presentations to policymakers and to develop advocacy materials. III-60 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III something happens, or document differences between things that can be measured in numbers, for example, 33 percent of women of reproductive age use modern contraceptives. This unit focuses on selected qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques and their applications in developing a better understanding of community needs and priorities and communicating these needs and priorities to policymakers. Participants will explore baseline surveys, conversational interviews, focus group discussions, and secondary data analysis and determine how to use the results to advance the work of the advocacy network. By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Distinguish between qualitative and quantitative data and different data collection techniques; • Understand the components of a baseline assessment; • Prepare topic guides for conversational interviews and focus group discussions; and • Use information from secondary data sources. 4 hours and 40 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts Handout III.5.1 Background Notes Handout III.5.2 Interview Topic Guide Handout III.5.3 Types of Research Handout III.5.4 Comparison of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods Handout III.5.5 Description of Selected Methods • Research scenarios • Card template “Baseline Assessment Process” • Data sets for Activity 7 • For Activity 2, copy the research scenarios. • For Activity 4, copy and cut three sets of the Baseline Assessment Process cards by using the template at the end of the unit. Use different color paper for each set of cards. • For Activity 7, copy the data sets at the end of the unit. Introduction Time: 10 minutes Introduce Unit 5 by reviewing the objectives and making a brief presentation on data collection. Key points to include your overview follow: • Networks must understand and accurately represent the needs, priorities, and interests of their constituencies if they are to be effective advocates for FP/RH issues. This means discovering what people think about various FP/RH issues, how they are personally affected by the policies that govern the provision of these services, and what they view as TIME OBJECTIVE MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 III-61 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III priorities. It doesn’t make sense, for example, to organize an advocacy campaign for adolescent reproductive health services if the community considers HIV/AIDS as its primary concern. • By collecting, analyzing, and disseminating data on community needs, the network demonstrates the importance it places on both listening to the people and gathering the information needed to substantiate its advocacy actions. • The more information and data a network possesses, the more realistic and representative its policy demands will be. Furthermore, data-based advocacy messages will enhance the network’s credibility in the eyes of decision makers and other influential persons. • When planning a data collection activity, the network should consider the following: — What are the network’s information needs? — What are the information needs of the relevant policymakers? — What are the time and costs involved in data collection? — What human resources and skills are needed to design the methodology and collect, analyze, and present the data? • Selection of the actual data collection technique or techniques depends on the answers to the above questions. • Data collection can involve qualitative or quantitative techniques or a combination of both. There are advantages and disadvantages to the various data collection methods, and each method produces different results. • This unit helps participants understand and appreciate the need for data to define and support their advocacy issue. It explores selected data collection techniques, including baseline assessments, conversational interviews, focus group discussions, and secondary data analysis. Research Scenarios Time: 20 minutes 1. Divide participants into four groups. Distribute copies of one scenario to each group. 2. Ask the small groups to read the scenario and discuss the question that follows it. 3. Instruct each group to select a presenter to read the scenario and report on the group’s discussion. 4. Invite the other participants to share their opinions. 5. Conclude the activity by asking participants to share some of their own experiences with effective and ineffective uses of data. ACTIVITY 2 III-62 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III DATA COLLECTION SCENARIO #1␣ A network decided to focus its advocacy efforts on combating teenage pregnancy. Network members believed that the high incidence of teenage pregnancy was the result of girls having sexual relations with teenage boys. The network was going to address this issue in its advocacy messages and strategy. However, a community survey revealed that 75 percent of pregnant teenage girls reported that their partners were men over age 25. Question: What are the implications of this finding for the network’s advocacy strategy? DATA COLLECTION SCENARIO #2␣ While attending a presentation on the results of the country’s recent Demographic Health Survey (DHS), network members were startled to learn that the southeast region reported twice the level of maternal mortality as the country as a whole as well as the lowest contraceptive prevalence rate. Question: What additional qualitative and quantitative data are needed to help the network identify a policy issue? DATA COLLECTION SCENARIO #3␣ In a preliminary outreach meeting about securing district funding for family planning, a well-respected elder questioned members of the network about the advantages of modern contraceptives and couples’ feelings about these methods. Question: What type of data does the network need to answer the elder’s question? How could it obtain the data? DATA COLLECTION SCENARIO #4 A press release from an advocacy network reads, “The Women’s Health Coalition Warns of Growing AIDS Epidemic! A recent survey revealed a high percentage of girls between the ages of 14 and 18 have presented at clinics with STD infections, which makes them 25 percent more at risk for AIDS. Eighty-three percent of respondents report never using condoms. Within the target population, 2,000 cases of HIV have been reported with 16 active AIDS cases.” Question: As a policymaker, what message is the network sending in the press release? How can it be improved for clarity? III-63 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III Data Collection Techniques Time: 15 minutes 1. Write Qualitative and Quantitative as column headings on a sheet of newsprint. 2. Ask one or two participants to explain briefly the differences between the twotypes of data. 3. Ask the full group to identify data collection tools for each category of data. Write the various responses under the appropriate heading. 4. Conclude by asking participants which techniques they have had experience with, which techniques they think the network could undertake most easily, and what they should take into consideration before selecting a technique(s). For example, what are the group’s data needs? Do data already exist? What is the best technique for the network’s needs? How much time is involved? How costly is it? Does the network have the skills to design and carry out the data collection activity? QUALITATIVE QUANTITATIVE √ Surveys √ Surveys √ Questionnaires √ Questionnaires √ Focus Groups √ Census √ Interviews √ DHS √ Observation √ KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, Practice) √ Baseline Studies Baseline Assessment Time: 45 minutes 1. Ask participants to describe a baseline assessment and to write their definition on the flipchart. Ask the group to discuss the following: What types of information could a baseline assessment yield in an advocacy campaign? Why is this information important? A baseline assessment is…␣ The collection of data before an activity begins.␣ The data are used to measure change after an activity has been implemented.␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ 2. Divide participants into three small groups. ACTIVITY 3 ACTIVITY 4 III-64 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III 3. Distribute one set of Baseline Assessment Process cards to each group. Be certain that the cards are NOT in the correct order when they are distributed. 4. Instruct each group to discuss and reach agreement on the correct sequence of steps. The groups should place their cards on the floor or the wall in the order they agree on. 5. Review the three arrangements and briefly discuss each of the steps to ensure the participants’ full understanding. The steps involved in performing a baseline assessment follow: 1. Determine purpose and objective of the assessment 2. Identify and organize research team 3. Select data collection method(s) 4. Identify data topics and questions 5. Design data collection tool(s) 6. Pretest and finalize tool 7. Determine sample size and select sample 8. Organize logistics and workplan 9. Conduct data collection activity 10. Analyze data 11. Prepare final report 12. Evaluate the process Interviews Time: 1 hour Introduction (10 minutes) 1. Use the following notes to give a brief overview of interviews: • Interviews are the most commonly used method of data collection in development work. Interviews elicit information on what people think, feel, and perceive. They expand and give depth to quantitative data and are a useful first step in designing a more complicated data collection activity. • Interviewing individuals in the community is an excellent source of qualitative information and can guide the selection of the advocacy issue. • Normally, when conducting interviews, the interviewer uses a topic guide to help structure the discussion of the issue(s) under investigation. The guide ensures that information is collected in the same way during all of the interviews. • Generally, the interview topic guide is divided into four sections: introduction; rapport building; in-depth discussion; and closure. ACTIVITY 5 III-65 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III 2. Ask participants to describe some of the advantages of interviews over other data collection methods. Write their responses on the flipchart and include the following: Interviews •␣ Are inexpensive •␣ Can be conducted by anyone trained in interview techniques •␣ Are a good source of qualitative data • Elicit a lot of information in a short time • Can be informal or formal Role-Plays (50 minutes) 1. Explain that participants have an opportunity to practice interviewing. 2. Divide participants into groups of three. Ask each participant to choose one of the following roles to play: Interviewer, Community Member, or Observer. 3. Distribute the Interview Topic Guide (Handout III.5.2) to the individuals playingthe role of Interviewer. 4. Allow five minutes for the Interviewers to review the topic guide. 5. Explain that the Interviewer should follow the topic guide and conduct a 15-minute interview with the Community Member. 6. During the interview, the Observer should take notes on the communication techniques used, the flow of questions, the approppriateness of questions, etc. 7. After the role-plays, ask each Observer to report his/her observations to the full group. 8. Ask the Interviewer to share his/her feelings on how to conduct a successful interview, and ask the Community Members to describe their perspective on the interview. Use the following questions to moderate a discussion of the role-plays: • What did you like or dislike about the interview? Possible responses include the following: interviewer used good body language, interviewer was creative in asking follow-up questions, interviewer asked leading or insensitive questions, interviewer forgot to introduce the purpose of the interview, or interviewer failed to set a comfortable tone. • How could the interview have been improved? Possible responses include the following: topic guide questions could have been more pointed. III-66 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III 9. Conclude by asking the group to brainstorm some of the skills needed by a good interviewer. Write the responses on the flipchart and include the following: Good Interviewers √ ␣ Are knowledgeable about the topic √ ␣ Know local terms for any technical words √ ␣ Are able to talk with people √ ␣ Know how to probe for information Focus Group Discussion (FGD) Time: 1 hour Introduction (10 minutes) 1. Use the following notes to make a brief presentation on focus groups: • Focus groups are an excellent tool to help researchers understand community needs. They are useful for gathering information on opinions, potential problems with a planned activity, community sentiment, or suggestions. • What is a focus group? A focus group is a loosely structured, informal discussion with a small, homogeneous group of six to eight persons that is designed to gather information on a particular topic. Focus groups are led by facilitators. • The FGD facilitator uses a topic guide (similar to the one used in interviews) to organize a discussion among participants. The facilitator’s role is to help the discussion get started and stay on track, draw out people who are not participating, and encourage participants to share their thoughts and feelings. • A note taker records participants’ comments. • Focus groups normally last two or more hours. • Generally, FGDs are repeated with several different groups of similar individuals until the discussions no longer reveal any new insights into the topic. Participants should be notified of the topic in advance of the FGD and be told how the information will be used. 2. Ask participants to share any experiences they may have had with focus groups, either as facilitators or discussants. Ask them for their observations on the technique and when they think focus groups are most appropriate. ACTIVITY 6 III-67 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III Developing Topic Guides (50 minutes)␣ 1. Write the following outline on the flipchart and explain that participants will use the outline to develop sample topic guides for simulated focus group discussions: Topic Guide Outline␣ Issue:␣ Network wants MOH to allocate additional funds for HIV/AIDS education and prevention programs␣ I. Introduction␣ II. Rapport Building␣ III. Discussion questions␣ IV. Closure␣ 2. Share the following scenario with participants: Your RH advocacy network is working to influence the MOH to allocate funds for HIV/AIDS education and prevention programs. To build your case, the network is conducting focus group discussions with key target audiences affected by the issue. Two of the groups selected by the network for focus groups are commercial sex workers and adolescent, out-of-school males. 3. Divide participants into two groups. Distribute Handout III.5.2. 4. Ask one group to develop the Topic Guide for conducting an FGD with the commercial sex workers. Ask the other group to develop the Topic Guide for conducting an FGD with adolescent, out-of-school males. The groups should follow the FGD outline and use Handout III.5.2 as a guide. 5. Instruct each group to write its Topic Guide on newsprint and present it to the full group for comments and feedback. Secondary Data Analysis Time: 1 hour and 10 minutes Introduction␣ (10 minutes)␣ 1. Use the following notes to make a brief presentation on secondary data: • Secondary data are an excellent source of quantitative and qualitative information on a target community. The network should consider secondary data as its foremost resource. ACTIVITY 7 III-68 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III • Surveys such as Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS), national censuses, or Adolescent Reproductive Health Surveys (Centers for Disease Control) include comprehensive data on the population’s characteristics, HIV/AIDS knowledge and rates of infection, contraceptive use, reproductive health intentions, unmet need, access to services, types of available contraceptives, reproductive health decision making in the household, etc. • Many of the larger surveys disaggregate data down to the regional or provincial level. 2. Write Secondary Data on the newsprint and ask participants to list some of the advantages of using secondary data to support their advocacy efforts. Secondary Data␣ √ ␣ Inexpensive to obtain √ ␣ Readily available √ ␣ Valid and reliable √ ␣ Current √ ␣ Comprehensive␣ ␣ ␣ Transition␣ During the next activity, participants will examine actual tables from DHS analyses in different countries and answer questions about the data. The purpose of the activity is to help the network understand the value of secondary data, recognize various uses and applications of the data, and identify additional data that are needed to support the advocacy effort. Three sets of data are presented at the end of this unit; each set consists of two tables and will be used by one working group. Analyzing Secondary Data (1 hour) 1. Divide participants into three groups. • Group 1: Current Use and Fertility • Group 2: Adolescent Reproductive Health • Group 3: HIV/AIDS 2. Distribute the appropriate data set to each group and write the following task on newsprint. Allow 30 minutes. TASK a.␣ Review the tables carefully. b.␣ Cite two to three interesting findings that have implications for identifying a FP/RH policy advocacy issue. c.␣ Describe the types and sources of additional data that would be needed to support the issue. d. Write the group’s responses on newsprint and select someone to present the responses. III-69 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD 3. Invite each presenter to summarize the information presented in his/her group’s tables and to present the responses to the full group. Allow time for questions and discussion. 4. Conclude the activity by inviting a full group discussion of secondary data. Use the following questions to generate discussion: • What secondary data sources will assist the network in supporting its advocacy goal and objectives? List the sources on newsprint. • Which groups or members of the network have previously worked with secondary data analyses? These people represent resources for potential data collection and analysis activities. • What plans should the network make for involving secondary data analyses in its advocacy strategy? Note that these plans will be integrated into the implementation plan developed in Unit 7. Successful advocacy addresses real community issues and priorities. It is incumbent on the network to conduct or collect data that accurately represent those priorities, that support political action, and that are credible to policymakers. The data collection techniques should match the information needs of both the network and the target audience as well as the network’s available resources. Distribute handouts to Unit 5. The next unit looks at one of the practical concerns of mounting an advocacy campaign—obtaining sufficient resources (financial and in-kind)—to support the network’s strategy. III-70 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III Handout III.5.1␣ Data Collection: Bridging the Gap between Communities and Policymakers␣ Background Notes␣ To be effective advocates for FP/RH issues, networks need to understand and accurately represent the needs, priorities, and interests of their constituencies. ␣ Knowing the community means finding out what people think about FP/RH issues and how they are personally affected by the policies that govern the provision of FP/RH services. It doesn’t make sense, for example, to organize an advocacy campaign for adolescent reproductive health services if the community considers HIV/AIDS as its primary concern. ␣ By collecting and disseminating data on community needs, a network demonstrates the importance it places on both listening to the people and gathering the information needed to substantiate its advocacy actions.␣ The more information and data a network possesses, the more realistic and representative its policy demands will be.␣ Furthermore, data-based advocacy messages enhance the professionalism and credibility of the network in the eyes of decision makers and other influential persons.␣ When initiating a data collection activity, the network should consider its own information needs as well as those of the relevant policymakers.␣ It is also important to estimate the time and costs involved in the data collection effort as well as the human resources required to design the methodology and collect, analyze, and present the data.␣ Selection of the actual data collection technique or techniques depends on the answers to these questions. ␣ Data collection can involve qualitative or quantitative techniques or a combination of both.␣ Qualitative data are descriptive or narrative and convey impressions or opinions. They provide information on what people think, feel, and do and are helpful in identifying issues of importance for a particular target group or community. Quantitative data can be counted or quantified to give numeric estimates and Listening to What People Are Saying␣ To learn from the people they represent, two district-level NGO advocacy networks in Ghana surveyed their constituents to identify priority FP/RH issues in their communities.␣ While the Demographic and Health Survey (DHS) provided national and even regional-level data, it did not present any district-level data to help guide the networks’ advocacy objectives. With small grants from the POLICY Project, network members designed and conducted surveys, and analyzed data that clearly showed that the communities’ priority reproductive health concern was teenage pregnancy and its devastating effects on girls’ education, economic status, and health. The data were subsequently used to make presentations to policymakers and to develop advocacy materials. III-71 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III generate conclusive findings.␣ They can tell us how many people of different demographic characteristics live in the target area, verify the number of times something happens, or document differences between things that can be measured in numbers, for example, 33 percent of women of reproductive age use modern contraceptives.␣ This unit focuses on selected qualitative and quantitative data collection techniques and their applications for developing a better understanding of community needs and priorities and communicating these needs and priorities to policymakers.␣ Participants will explore baseline surveys, conversational interviews, focus group discussions, and secondary data analysis and determine how to use the results to advance the advocacy network’s agenda. III-72 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III Handout III.5.2 Interview Topic Guide␣ Purpose of research: To learn what community members think about including a family life education curriculum in secondary school␣ I. Introduction ␣ ␣ A. Explain who you are and the purpose of the research. ␣ ␣ B. Explain the procedure (e.g., I would like to ask you some questions; I’d like about 15 minutes of your time). ␣ ␣ C. Emphasize that there are no right or wrong answers to the questions you will ask. ␣ ␣ D. Ask the respondent’s name and how many children he/she has and their ages. II. Rapport Building␣ (Opening conversation to set a comfortable tone) Ask the respondent something general and appropriate about her/his family, children, work, or community (e.g., what grade(s) is/are your child/children in?). III. In-Depth Discussion (Sequence the questions by moving from questions that seek factual information to questions that require the respondent’s opinion.) •␣ Is there any type of family life education currently offered in your child’s/children’s school? If yes, in which grade is it first introduced?␣ If no, would you like to see a family life education curriculum in the schools? In what grades do you ␣ think it should be offered?␣ Do you think that the school authorities should require parental consent for a child’s/children’s participation in family life education? •␣ Be prepared to follow up with probing questions to clarify or explore further. ␣ IV. Closure •␣ Briefly summarize what you have heard and ask for the respondent’s final reaction (e.g., is there anything that we did not discuss that you would like to add?). •␣ Thank the respondent for his/her time. ␣ ␣ V. Review and Organize Interview Notes␣ ␣ III-73 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III Handout III.5.3 Types of Research* Research can be quantitative or qualitative.␣ Quantitative research provides the scale and scope of what is happening, for example, how many people are doing what and how often (40 percent of rural mothers initiate breastfeeding).␣ Qualitative research gives the information feeling, texture, and nuance (e.g., mothers who breastfeed feel that they are part of an important ethnic tradition).␣ A combination of methods provides an in-depth look at audience points of view as well as a baseline for measuring change.␣ Stated another way, quantitative research provides an overall picture while qualitative research fills in the details and brings the picture to life.␣ The two research methods can be undertaken independently but generally are used together to complement one another.␣ The choice of methods depends on the particular research objectives, the available resources, the scope of the project, and the timeframe for conducting the research.␣ It is necessary to determine whether the research is intended to produce relatively precise, statistical, generalizable, and quantifiable findings; descriptive and qualifying information; or a mix of the two.␣ ␣ ␣ • Quantitative data reveal issues that need to be probed further in qualitative research. ␣ ␣ • The issues raised in qualitative research point to the quantitative data to be collected to establish the extent and magnitude of those issues. ␣ ␣ • A comparison of the findings from quantitative and qualitative research should demonstrate consistency in the information. *The information in this handout is loosely based on Academy for Educational Development (AED). 1995. A Tool Box for Building Health Communication Capacity. Washington, D.C.: AED. III-74 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III Qualitative␣ • Seeks to answer the reasons why␣ •␣ Uses small, purposive samples␣ •␣ Encourages in-depth probing␣ •␣ Enables the researcher to study selected issues, cases, or events in depth and to gather information through direct quotation, interaction, and observation␣ •␣ Records participants’ emotions, language, feelings, perceptions, attitudes, and what motivates them␣ • Focuses on process␣ Handout III.5.4␣ Comparison of Qualitative and Quantitative Methods␣ Quantitative • Seeks to establish how many and the relationship between variables␣ •␣ Uses large, random samples␣ •␣ Allows for broad generalizations of findings to larger populations␣ •␣ Documents how norms, skills beliefs, and attitudes are linked to particular behaviors␣ •␣ Facilitates the use of statistics for aggregating, summarizing, describing, and comparing data␣ • Focuses on process␣ III-75 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III Handout III.5.5 Description of Selected Methods␣ Common qualitative methods include the following:␣ ␣ ␣ • Ethnographies.␣ Used to develop in-depth studies of the culture into which a given health practice fits.␣ Ethnographies are useful for identifying cultural taboos and determining how aspects within the culture can be used to support new behaviors.␣ Techniques include participatory rapid assessments, focused ethnographic studies, and rapid assessment procedures. • Focus group discussions.␣ Used to develop hypotheses, explore broad topics, and produce a large number of ideas.␣ The group setting encourages people to talk more freely about feelings, beliefs, and attitudes.␣ Through such discussions, planners and communicators become more sensitive to the values, concerns, and needs of target audiences. • Observational studies.␣ Used to describe actual behavior patterns or to identify obstacles to adoption of new behaviors.␣ Observational studies permit researchers to determine the extent of a particuar behavior or the degree of use of a specific product and whether the materials needed to support such behavior/use are in place. • Conversational interviews.␣ Used to provide a greater understanding of particular values or viewpoints.␣ Researchers typically use conversational interviews with a relatively small number of influential or knowledgeable persons (informants).␣ Conversational interviews target secondary audiences to determine how they interact with the primary audience and how they influence that audience. • Intercept interview.␣ Used when a hybrid of traditional quantitative and qualitative approaches is appropriate.␣ An intercept interview is qualitative in that it does not use probability samples and quantitative in that it typically calls for large samples and tabulated data analysis. Interviewers are stationed at points frequented by individuals from the target audience.␣ Locations can be places such as pharmacies, clinics, marketplaces, health centers, bus stops, and cafés. Intercept interviews collect information in a reasonably short time and thus provide a cost- effective means of gathering quantitative data.␣ Results, however, cannot be generalized to larger populations.␣ Common quantitative methods include the following:␣ ␣ ␣ • Sample surveys.␣ Used to validate a hypothesis (e.g., men who use condoms are more likely to talk to their partners about sex) and to determine the relative prevalence of a given practice or belief.␣ Sample surveys can examine the relationship among beliefs, behaviors, background characteristics, and exposure to communication channels within a particular population.␣ They involve interviews with a large sample chosen to represent the target population and typically use highly focused questions that can be coded for computer-based analysis. III-76 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III Sample surveys are most valuable when researchers have a specific notion of what they need to know and have generated well-developed questions. • Knowledge, Attitude, and Practice (KAP) Surveys.␣ Used to look intensively at a target audience’s level of knowledge regarding a specific health problem, attitudes toward the problem, and the ideal and actual behaviors associated with the health problem. Correlations are made among these factors. • Baseline studies.␣ Used to examine current behaviors in terms of the potential for people to change.␣ The survey is repeated upon completion of an intervention to measure the results of that intervention. • Demographic Health Surveys.␣ Used to reveal epidemiological data and patterns of how health issues have evolved.␣ The surveys also serve as a source of comparative baseline data and impact indicators. • Census.␣ Used for a government’s periodic count of a population. III-77 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III De te rm in e pu rp os e an d ob jec tiv e␣ Se lec t re se ar ch m et ho ds Id en tif y a nd or ga ni ze re se ar ch te am Id en tif y re se ar ch to pi cs a nd qu es tio ns Baseline Assessment Process—Card Template III-78 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III De si gn re se ar ch in st ru m en t( s) Or ga ni ze lo gi st ics a nd wo rk pl an Pr et es t an d fin al ize in st ru m en t( s) De te rm in e sa m pl e si ze an d se lec t sa m pl e Baseline Assessment Process—Card Template III-79 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III Co nd uc t re se ar ch Pr ep ar e fin al re po rt An al yz e da ta Ev al ua te th e pr oc es s Baseline Assessment Process—Card Template III-80 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III G ro up 1: C ur re nt U se a nd F er til ity - Ta bl e A Cu rr en t Us e of C on tr ac ep tio n by B ac kg ro un d Ch ar ac te ris tic s: W om en Ba ck gr ou nd A ny An y Pi ll IU D In je ct ab le Co nd om Fe m al e An y F ol k N ot To ta l No . o f Ch ar ac te ris tic M et ho d M od er n St er iliz . Tr ad iti on al M et ho d Cu rr en tly wo m en m et ho d M et ho d Us in g Re si de nc e U rb an 34 .5 28 .1 10 .5 2. 2 6 .9 3. 6 4. 3 4. 5 1.9 6 5. 5 10 0. 0 6 12 R ur al 12 .2 5 .1 1 .6 0. 1 1.9 0. 4 1.0 4. 3 2. 8 87 .8 10 0. 0 4, 52 2 Ed uc at io n N o ed uc at io n 8 .3 2 .6 0 .9 0. 0 1.0 0. 2 0. 5 3. 1 2. 5 91 .7 10 0. 0 1,7 92 P rim ar y 14 .8 7 .8 2 .4 0. 3 2. 9 0. 7 1.5 4. 2 2. 8 85 .2 10 0. 0 2, 82 3 S ec on da ry + 37 .6 25 .5 10 .1 1.9 5. 6 3. 7 3. 9 9. 0 3. 0 6 2. 4 10 0. 0 52 0 N o. o f l ivi ng ch ild re n 0 5 .0 1 .9 0. 7 0. 0 0. 2 1.0 0. 0 3. 1 0. 0 95 .0 10 0. 0 6 27 1 9 .7 4 .6 2. 6 0. 0 0. 8 0. 7 0. 3 4. 3 0. 9 90 .3 10 0. 0 90 1 2 15 .6 7 .2 3. 2 0. 4 2. 2 1.0 0. 3 5. 0 3. 4 84 .4 10 0. 0 83 4 3 13 .7 7 .0 3. 0 0. 6 1.6 0. 9 0. 8 4. 4 2. 3 86 .3 10 0. 0 6 90 4 + 20 .1 11. 5 2. 9 0. 5 4. 3 0. 7 3. 0 4. 4 4. 3 79 .9 10 0. 0 2, 08 1 To ta l 14 .8 7. 8 2. 6 0. 4 2. 5 0. 8 1.4 4. 3 2. 7 85 .2 10 0. 0 5, 13 4 III-81 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III G ro up 1: C ur re nt U se a nd F er ti lit y - T ab le B W an te d Fe rt ili ty R at es (T ot al w an te d fe rt ilit y ra te s an d to ta l f er ti lit y ra te s fo r t he th re e ye ar s pr ec ed in g th e su rv ey , b y se le ct ed b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris ti cs .) Ba ck gr ou nd To ta l W an te d Fe rt ili ty To ta l F er ti lit y Ra te Ch ar ac te ris ti cs R at e Re si de nc e Ur ba n 3. 8 5. O Ru ra l 5. 9 7. 2 Ed uc at io n No E du ca ti on 6 .1 7. O Pr im ar y 5. 7 7. 1 S ec on da ry + 4. O 5. 2 To ta l 5. 6 6 .9 III-82 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III Be st Co nt ra ce pt ive M et ho d Co nd om 3 0 .1 3 7. 2 37 .1 2 2. 6 5 9. 7 6 4. 0 6 2. 3 55 .9 Pi lls 15 .4 13 .7 15 .7 16 .3 10 .0 8 .7 9 .4 1. 1 IU D 14 .8 7 .2 9 .5 2 1.7 2 .9 1 .5 3 .7 3 .5 Ot he r M od er n 8 .6 5 .8 6 .6 11 .2 5 .6 2 .3 5 .3 7 .7 W it hd ra wa l 5 .5 2 .1 4 .9 7 .8 7 .6 2 .8 8 .1 10 .4 Ca le nd ar 3 .4 1 .7 3 .0 4 .7 1 .7 0 .5 1 .3 2 .7 Do uc hi ng 1 .1 0 .5 2 .1 1 .0 0 .3 0 .1 0 .2 0 .5 No ne 0 .7 0 .8 0 .8 0 .6 0 .6 0 .9 0 .4 0 .5 Do n’ t Kn ow 2 0 .4 3 0 .8 2 0 .1 14 .0 11 .6 19 .1 9 .2 7 .7 TO TA L 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 To ta l 15 - 17 18 - 19 20 - 24 To ta l 15 - 17 18 - 19 20 -2 4 W om en M en G ro up 2 : A do le sc en t Re pr od uc ti ve H ea lt h - T ab le A (Y ou ng a du lt b el ie fs a bo ut t he b es t m et ho d to p re ve nt p re gn an cy by m et ho d, a ge g ro up , a nd g en de r) III-83 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III 13 .6 12 .3 14 .4 14 .0 34 .5 33 .0 37 .4 43 .1 10 .2 12 .3 10 .4 7. 0 15 .2 15 .3 20 .6 13 .2 1.7 0 .0 1 .1 4. 9 15 .9 14 .8 17 .5 24 .3 0 .7 0 .0 1 .1 1. 0 2 .2 1 .9 2 .8 4 .2 1.0 0 .0 1 .7 1. 0 1 .0 0 .8 1.5 1.3 * * * * 0 .2 0 .2 0 .3 0 .0 8 6 .4 8 7. 7 8 5. 6 8 6 .0 6 5. 5 6 7. 0 6 2. 6 56 .9 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 G ro up 2 : A do le sc en t Re pr od uc ti ve H ea lt h - T ab le B C on tr ac ep ti ve S ta tu s at T im e of F irs t Se xu al In te rc ou rs e By M et ho d an d A ge a t Fi rs t In te rc ou rs e (W om en 15 -2 4 ye ar s of a ge w ho se fi rs t se xu al in te rc ou rs e wa s m ar it al ) (M en 15 -2 4 ye ar s of a ge w ho se fi rs t se xu al in te rc ou rs e wa s pr em ar it al ) (P er ce nt D is tr ib ut io n) W om en 15 -2 4 M en 15 -2 4 <1 8 18 -1 9 20 -2 4 <1 8 18 -1 9 20 -2 4 To ta l A ge a t Fi rs t In te rc ou rs e To ta l A ge a t Fi rs t In te rc ou rs e Co nt ra ce pt ive M et ho d A ny M et ho d W it hd ra wa l Co nd om Ca le nd ar Pi lls Ot he r M et ho d N o M et ho d To ta l III-84 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III G ro up 3 : H IV /A ID S - T ab le A N um be r o f S ex ua l P ar tn er s: W om en Cu rr en tl y M ar rie d W om en Un m ar rie d W om en N o. o f P ar tn er s (in cl ud in g sp ou se ) N o. o f P ar tn er s Ba ck gr ou nd Ch ar ac te ris ti c 0 1 2- 3 4+ To ta l M ea n A ge 15 - 19 4. 1 90 .1 5 .0 0 .1 0 .6 10 0 .0 1.0 40 1 76 .8 19 .4 2. 7 0 .5 0 .5 10 0 .0 0 .3 1,3 31 20 - 24 3. 6 91 .2 4. 3 0 .6 0 .4 10 0 .0 1.0 1,1 31 52 .8 39 .0 5. 0 1.9 1.3 10 0 .0 0 .6 54 5 25 - 29 5. 2 8 9. 0 5. 0 0 .6 0 .4 10 0 .0 1.0 1,1 8 4 44 .2 47 .7 5. 3 0 .3 2. 4 10 0 .0 0 .6 25 6 30 - 39 6 .6 8 7. 4 5. 1 0 .4 0 .5 10 0 .0 1.0 1,6 8 7 50 .3 42 .6 4. 6 1.2 1.3 10 0 .0 0 .6 31 9 40 - 49 7. 7 8 8 .5 3. 0 0 .1 0 .6 10 0 .0 1.0 1,0 0 8 6 8 .0 26 .1 3. 6 1.0 1.4 10 0 .0 0 .4 25 7 Ed uc at io n No ne 7. 1 8 8 .5 3. 7 0 .4 0 .4 10 0 .0 1.0 1,8 29 6 2. 2 32 .1 3. 5 1.4 0 .7 10 0 .0 0 .5 48 8 5. 7 8 8 .0 5. 3 0 .6 0 .4 10 0 .0 1.0 92 1 73 .4 21 .3 3. 4 1.0 0 .8 10 0 .0 0 .3 71 0 Pr im ar y Co m pl et e 5. 0 8 9. 2 5. 0 0 .3 0 .5 10 0 .0 1.0 2, 46 1 6 1.2 32 .4 4. 3 0 .7 1.5 10 0 .0 0 .5 1,2 70 S ec on da ry + 2. 4 94 .3 2. 4 0 .0 0 .8 10 0 .0 1.0 20 0 6 4. 8 31 .9 2. 3 0 .7 0 .3 10 0 .0 0 .4 24 1 TO TA L 5. 7 8 8 .9 4. 5 0. 4 0. 5 10 0. 0 1.0 5, 41 1 6 4. 9 29 .4 3. 7 0. 9 1.0 10 0. 0 0. 4 2, 70 9 N o. o f W om en N o. o f W om en 0 1 2- 3 4+ To ta l M ea n Pr im ar y In co m pl et e M iss ing / D on ’t kn ow M iss ing / D on ’t kn ow III-85 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 5. DATA COLLECTIONUNIT 5 SECTION III A ge 15 - 19 13 .0 34 .9 14 .8 29 .8 16 .4 13 .9 8 .7 1.0 1.1 3. 5 0 .8 1.1 1,6 59 20 - 24 12 .6 19 .0 13 .7 48 .1 24 .5 20 .5 13 .8 1.5 1.1 4. 4 0 .4 2. 3 1,6 41 25 - 29 12 .3 18 .8 13 .8 46 .5 26 .9 20 .3 12 .5 1.9 1.5 4. 6 0 .5 2. 2 1,4 0 0 30 - 39 10 .8 19 .8 15 .1 41 .9 28 .7 23 .9 16 .5 2. 4 2. 2 5. 5 0 .2 1.7 1,9 41 40 - 49 10 .3 26 .1 18 .2 27 .9 26 .9 22 .3 15 .6 1.8 1.3 4. 5 0 .1 2. 2 1,2 35 M ar it al S ta tu s Cu rr en tly in U nio n 11. 8 21 .8 13 .2 40 .0 26 .7 22 .3 14 .8 2. 0 1.4 4. 2 0 .4 1.9 5, 24 9 Fo rm er ly in Un ion 12 .6 19 .8 18 .6 44 .2 25 .0 20 .5 12 .4 2. 3 2. 3 6 .0 0 .3 2. 3 8 1 Ne ve r M ar rie d 11. 7 30 .6 18 .7 35 .1 18 .7 13 .9 10 .0 1.1 1.5 4. 8 0 .6 1.5 1,8 26 Ed uc at io na l No E du ca ti on 13 .3 34 .7 12 .3 21 .4 22 .8 17 .7 12 .1 1.4 0 .5 1.4 0 .5 1.3 2, 13 5 Pr im ar y I nc om ple te 11. 5 28 .6 14 .6 34 .9 20 .6 17 .7 12 .5 1.7 1.2 4. 8 0 .2 2. 2 1,5 95 Pr im ar y Co m pl et e 11. 6 17 .3 15 .1 48 .7 26 .1 22 .1 14 .3 1.9 1.9 5. 3 0 .4 1.8 3, 70 6 S ec on da ry + 8 .0 5. 5 29 .1 6 2. 5 36 .4 25 .3 16 .1 2. 1 4. 3 11. 8 0 .4 4. 0 43 9 TO TA L 11 .8 23 .6 15 .0 39 .3 24 .6 20 .2 13 .4 1.7 1.5 4. 5 0. 4 1.9 7, 8 76 Ba ck gr ou nd Ch ar ac te ris tic Th er e is no w ay to av oi d Do es n ot kn ow if an y w ay to av oi d Ab st ai n fro m Se x Us e Co nd om s Ha ve o nl y O ne Se x P ar tn er No t M an y S ex Pa rt ne rs Av oi d Se x wi th Pr os tit ut es Av oi d Se x wi th Ho m os ex ua ls Av oi d Tr an sf us io ns Av oi d In jec tio ns Do n’t Kn ow Sp ec ifi c W ay Pe rc en t wi th M is in fo rm at io n Nu m be r o f W om en G ro up 3 : H IV /A ID S - T ab le B Kn ow le dg e of W ay s to A vo id A ID S: W om en III-86 G ro up 3 : H IV /A ID S - T ab le B Kn ow le dg e of W ay s to A vo id A ID S: W om en THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 6. FUNDRAISINGUNIT 6 SECTION III Fundraising: Mobilizing Resources␣ Background Notes␣ The ability to mobilize resources is a valuable skill for advocacy networks. Access to financial resources expands the options available to the advocacy network and gives members the freedom to try new, creative, or even higher-risk activities than would be possible with limited funds. But no matter how much an advocacy campaign benefits from financial resources, it is entirely possible to launch a successful campaign with the resources and energy of network members alone. Effective fundraisers understand the importance of setting realistic goals based on their particular setting and advocacy issues. They know how to target potential contributors and develop persuasive appeals to reach them. They forge innovative strategies to raise money—from seeking small grants from bilateral development organizations to targeting private sector concerns within their own communities. They also know how to leverage contributions from one source to gain additional resources from another and thus pave the way for future advocacy activities. Unit 6 presents an overview of fundraising for advocacy. Networks that are committed to raising money to support their advocacy efforts should consider both organizing a separate workshop on fundraising and engaging the services of a professional fundraiser as a resource specialist. Given the recent and rapid growth of the NGO sector and the scarcity of resources, fundraising is an area that requires considerable technical skill. By the end of this unit, participants will be able to prepare a fundraising strategy for the advocacy campaign. 1 hour and 20 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts Handout III.6.1 Background Notes Handout III.6.2 The Fundraising Process • For Activity 3, write the Sample Fundraising Strategy on newsprint. OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION III-87 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 6. FUNDRAISINGUNIT 6 SECTION III Introduction Time: 5 minutes 1. Introduce the unit by reviewing the objective and giving a brief introduction to fundraising. Key points to include in your overview follow: • The ability to mobilize resources is a valuable skill for advocacy networks. Access to financial resources expands the options available to the advocacy network and gives members the freedom to try new, creative, or even higher-risk activities than would be possible with limited funds. • But no matter how much an advocacy campaign benefits from financial resources, it is entirely possible to launch a successful campaign with the resources and energy of network members alone. • Effective fundraisers understand the importance of setting realistic goals based on their particular setting and advocacy issues. They know how to target potential contributors and develop persuasive appeals to reach them. • Effective fundraisers are creative in forging innovative strategies to raise money—from seeking small grants from bilateral development organizations to targeting private sector concerns within their own communities. They also know how to leverage contributions from one source to gain additional resources from another and thus pave the way for future advocacy activities. • This unit presents an overview of fundraising for advocacy. If the network is committed to raising money to support its advocacy efforts, it should consider both organizing a separate workshop on fundraising and engaging the services of a professional fundraiser as a resource specialist. Given the recent and rapid growth of the NGO sector and the scarcity of resources, fundraising is an area that requires considerable technical skill. Current Status of Support Time: 15 minutes 1. Ask participants to think about the breadth of their current program activities. The members of the network may be involved in service delivery, education, training, research, community outreach, etc. 2. Moderate a brainstorming exercise to answer the following question: What are the sources of financial support that make program activities possible? Ask the group to identify all the categories of funding they currently receive. Encourage participants to think broadly to include gifts-in-kind, discounted materials, or services, etc. ACTIVITY 2 ACTIVITY 1 III-88 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 6. FUNDRAISINGUNIT 6 SECTION III 3. Record responses on the flipchart as shown below. Sources of Financial Support √␣␣ Grants from private donors, bilateral donor agencies (USAID, European governments, etc.), and multilateral donor agencies (UNFPA, UNDP, etc.)√␣␣ Government contracts√␣␣␣ Individual donations√␣␣␣ Membership fees√␣␣␣ Commercial sponsorship␣ 4. Ask participants to think about any untapped sources of revenue, such as fees-for-services. Point out that at least one advocacy network conducts advocacy workshops for other groups on a fee-for-service basis. Other networks collect dues from their members. Add these suggestions to the list. Transition In the next activity, participants shift their attention to the future of the network and how to gain access to funds in support of both upcoming advocacy efforts and network sustainability. Developing a Fundraising Strategy Time: 1 hour 1. Invite several participants to recap the network’s advocacy goal, objectives, and target audiences. Ask participants to think broadly about the types of advocacy activities that might be appropriate and discuss these activities briefly within the group. 2. Based on the future direction of the network’s advocacy efforts, which of the funding sources listed on the flipchart would be most likely to yield support? • Participants should look for a fit between the interests of the donor or funding source and the network’s advocacy goal and objectives. Some sources may be inappropriate. For example, it is unlikely that the Ministry of Health would provide funds to support the network’s FP/RH advocacy campaign if the target audience is the Ministry itself. • Ask participants to select the FOUR sources most likely to support the network’s advocacy objectives. Circle the four targeted sources on the list. 3. Divide participants into four groups. 4. Assign one of the four funding sources to each group. 5. Distribute Handout III.6.2: The Fundraising Process. 6. Instruct the groups to consider their assigned funding source and answer the following questions: • Why would this source be interested in supporting the network’s advocacy goal and objectives? ACTIVITY 3 III-89 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 6. FUNDRAISINGUNIT 6 SECTION III • What approach would be most effective in gaining the source’s support? • What are the next steps and who will be responsible for them? 7. Review the sample strategy on the flipchart to help guide the groups. Sample Fundraising Strategy Source Potential Interest Approach Next Steps 8. After the groups have completed their task, ask them to present their strategies. 9. Solicit comments or suggestions from the full group. 10. Conclude the activity with a discussion of the possible implications for the network. Questions to spark discussion include the following: • How do the four strategies fit together? • Which strategy(ies) should the network pursue first? 11. By the end of the activity, the network should have a clear sense of the next steps for mobilizing financial support for its advocacy campaign. Securing financial support for advocacy gives the network certain advantages over working with a limited budget. Network members should determine whether additional funds are needed to support their goal and objectives and, if so, they should develop a fundraising strategy to target potential sources. Distribute handouts for Unit 6. The network has selected an issue, developed a goal and objectives, examined the target audiences, designed and tailored messages, examined potential data needs, and created a fundraising strategy for its advocacy campaign. The foundation has been laid and the members are ready to design an implementation plan for the campaign. This is the topic of Unit 7. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD Send letter of introduction and concept paper. If foundation shows interest, follow up with␣proposal. Anya K. to lead effort. Michael R. to notify contact at foundation to expect letter. Mail by 01 March to meet foundation’s funding cycle deadline.␣ International Foundation Currently focused on adolescent services and grass-roots initiatives III-90 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 6. FUNDRAISINGUNIT 6 SECTION III Handout III.6.1␣ Fundraising: Mobilizing Resources␣ Background Notes The ability to mobilize resources is a valuable skill for advocacy networks.␣Access to financial resources expands the options available to the advocacy network and gives members the freedom to try new, creative, or even higher-risk activities than would be possible with limited funds.␣But no matter how much an advocacy campaign benefits from financial resources, it is entirely possible to launch a successful campaign with the resources and energy of network members alone.␣ Effective fundraisers understand the importance of setting realistic goals based on their particular setting and advocacy issues.␣They know how to target potential contributors and develop persuasive appeals to reach them.␣They are creative in forging innovative strategies to raise money—from seeking small grants from bilateral development organizations to targeting private sector concerns within their own communities.␣They also know how to leverage contributions from one source to gain additional resources from another and thus pave the way for future advocacy activities.␣ Unit 6 presents an overview of fundraising for advocacy.␣Networks that are committed to raising money to support their advocacy efforts should consider both organizing a separate workshop on fundraising and engaging the services of a professional fundraiser as a resource specialist.␣Given the recent and rapid growth of the NGO sector and the scarcity of resources, fundraising is an area that requires considerable information and technical skill. III-91 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 6. FUNDRAISINGUNIT 6 SECTION III Handout III.6.2 The Fundraising Process*␣ Fundraising Methods Successful advocates have used many different methods to obtain the resources they need for their work.␣Examples include the following: • setting membership dues for the network or alliance generally based on a sliding scale; • soliciting in-kind contributions; • holding special fundraising events such as dinners, film festivals, picnics, raffles; • cultivating large individual contributors; • seeking corporate donations; • selling merchandise such as crafts, artwork, t-shirts; • obtaining international, national, or local government grants; • promoting donations around a particular holiday; • auctioning donated goods and services; and • selling advertising space in newsletters or other publications.␣ Donations Contributions to advocacy efforts can be varied and creative.␣Individuals or organizations can donate • money; • labor; • equipment, office space, supplies, printing services; • technical expertise; • administrative support; and • space for meetings and events.␣ Legal Issues Laws that govern the giving and receiving of donations vary from country to country.␣Local research will provide answers to the following questions:␣ • What laws govern the solicitation of contributions? • Are there restrictions related to the use of donations for advocacy or political action? • Are the amounts that individuals or organizations can contribute for advocacy limited? • What are the requirements for reporting donated income?␣Are there specific rules for accounting?␣Are donations taxed?␣ *Much of the material in this handout is taken from Ritu R. Sharma. 1997. An Introduction to Advocacy: Training Guide. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development. III-92 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 6. FUNDRAISINGUNIT 6 SECTION III Potential Donors Funding may come from many different sources, including • individuals; • private sector companies (including multinational firms); • philanthropic/donor agencies and foundations; and • government-sponsored initiatives.␣ Sometimes companies wish to support initiatives in the communities in which they work.␣Often, however, donors have their own agenda or attach conditions to their gifts.␣If these conditions conflict with an advocacy goal, the network should refuse the offer of support.␣Such support will likely harm or weaken the advocacy effort. Donors as Your Audience Certain types of information, language, and presentation styles will elicit a positive response from funding sources.␣Donors generally like to see • a well-run and efficiently managed organization or effort; • financial stability and budget information; • examples of successful efforts; • a good strategy and a reasonable chance of success; • traits that distinguish the network from other organizations in the same field; • why the work is important and necessary; • the achievements associated with any previous contributions; and • information on the network’s activities and successes; if the ␣␣␣␣␣ network is new, information on its strategy and goals.␣ General Fundraising Suggestions • It is important to find out what types of organizations the donor has funded in the past, how much it typically donated, and what is the ␣␣␣␣␣ nature of its current interests.␣An annual report, if available, will provide the needed information.␣␣␣ • To avoid donor control over the advocacy agenda or strategy, it is important not to accept donations, grants, or contracts for activities ␣␣␣␣␣ that do not match specific advocacy objectives.␣␣␣ • All donors—especially foundations—have their own programmatic and ideological agendas, and it is important to match funding sources and advocacy objectives.␣␣␣ • Strive for a diverse funding base to avoid dependence on a few sources.␣␣␣ • Appoint qualified individuals to lead fundraising efforts.␣␣␣ • As in advocacy itself, relationships are central.␣Invest time and energy in getting to know potential contributors.␣ Include staff of multinational organizations in the membership of the network.␣These individuals may be helpful in obtaining support for advocacy efforts. III-93 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 7. IMPLEMENTATIONUNIT 7 Implementation: Developing an Action Plan␣ Background Notes␣ This unit represents the action planning phase of the workshop. Up to this point, the workshop has focused on building technical skills in the various stages of the advocacy process—defining issues, setting goals and objectives, assessing support and opposition and researching target audiences, developing and disseminating messages, collecting data, and raising funds. In the process of honing their skills, participants have made choices and taken action toward the development of the network’s advocacy strategy. The work done along the way has a real—not just a theoretical—application. Now it is time for participants, first, to pull together all the pieces of work they have completed thus far and, second, to compile the products into one implementation plan to guide the network through the campaign. The implementation plan is also the focus of the monitoring and evaluation plan to be developed in Unit 8. The implementation plan is presented in a simple format. Based on a selected advocacy objective, participants design specific activities for implementation in order to achieve the network’s objective. Members of the network provide details describing needed resources, responsible person(s), and an appropriate timeframe for each activity. Developing the action plan provides an excellent opportunity for network members to work as a team. The implementation plan should be developed with input from and the consensus of the entire membership in order to create a sense of shared ownership and commitment to the plan and the strategy. After all, participants are nearing the end of the planning stage and will soon be called on to act together to make the advocacy strategy a reality. III-94 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL SECTION III III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 7. IMPLEMENTATIONUNIT 7 By the end of this unit, participants will be able to develop an implementation plan for the advocacy campaign. 2 hours and 15 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • The overhead transparency or flipchart from Unit 1 that shows Steps in the Advocacy Process. • Copies of handouts Handout III.7.1 Background Notes Handout III.7.2 Advocacy Implementation Plan • For Activity 3, copy the Advocacy Implementation Plan (Handout III.7.2) on newsprint or an overhead transparency. Introduction Time: 5 minutes 1. Introduce Unit 7 by reviewing the objective and making a brief presentation on implementation plans. Key points to include in your overview follow. • This unit represents the action-planning phase of the workshop. • Up to this point, the workshop has focused on building technical skills in the various steps of the advocacy process—defining issues, setting goals and objectives, assessing support and opposition and analyzing target audiences, developing and disseminating messages, collecting data, and raising funds. • In the process of honing their skills, participants have made choices and taken action toward the development of the network’s advocacy strategy. The work completed thus far has a real—not just a theoretical—application. • Now it is time to pull together all the pieces of work completed to this point, and to compile the various products into one implementation plan to guide the network through the campaign. • The implementation plan or action plan is presented in a simple format. In accordance with a selected advocacy objective, participants design specific activities for implementation in order to achieve the desired objective. The plan requires the network to provide details describing needed resources, responsible person(s), and an appropriate timeframe for each activity. • Developing the action plan provides an excellent opportunity for participants to work as a team. The plan should be developed with input from and the consensus of the entire membership in order to create a sense of shared ownership and commitment. After all, participants are nearing the end of the planning stage and soon will be called on to act together to make the advocacy strategy a reality. PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 OBJECTIVE TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS III-95 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 7. IMPLEMENTATIONUNIT 7 Transition Before the participants begin to develop the implementation plan, they should review what has already been learned about the advocacy process, thereby reinforcing the essential points about each step in the process. Reviewing the Advocacy Process Time: 30 minutes 1. Present the Steps in the Advocacy Process on a transparency or flipchart. 2. Discuss each step in turn by using the following questions: • What are the key points and considerations for this step? • What did you learn about this phase of the advocacy process that you didn’t know before? 3. Record participants’ responses on the flipchart. Examples of possible responses are listed below: • Advocacy Issue – A problem widely felt by constituents/clients of the network – Issue must have policy solution – Forms foundation of advocacy strategy • Goal – Long-term vision for change, over three to five years • Objective – Short-term, realistic, measurable and time-bound – Describes desired policy action and audience • Target Audience – Primary audience consists of policymaker/institution with authority to affect advocacy objective – Secondary audience consists of individuals/institutions that can influence those with authority – Identify supporting and opposing views; incorporate these views into strategy – Assess audience’s knowledge, beliefs, and power base • Building Support – Increase base of support by forming or joining other networks and coalitions – Build support with stakeholders such as community members, universities, religious leaders, research institutes, etc. • Message Development – Effective messages are clear, concise, and tailored to the target audience – Deliver consistent message by using multiple channels over time • Channels of Communication – Numerous options for message delivery – Consider audience, timing, cost, and other factors to select best format ACTIVITY 2 III-96 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL SECTION III III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 7. IMPLEMENTATIONUNIT 7 • Fundraising – Resources expand options for advocacy activities – Network may want fundraising strategy to target possible donors. • Implementation Plan – Details activities, resources, timeframe, and responsible person(s) • Data Collection – Accurate and current data support all phases of the advocacy process – Include qualitative and quantitative data • Monitoring/Evaluation – Monitor activities and evaluate results 4. Ask participants if they would like to highlight any other key lessons about advocacy before proceeding to the implementation plan. Developing the Implementation Plan Time: 1 hour and 40 minutes Note to Facilitator: The implementation plan is organized around the advocacy objectives developed by participants in Unit 2. Activity 3 will have as many working groups as objectives. Give participants the choice of continuing to work in the same groups as they did for developing the objectives. If possible, participants may self-select the objective to address. 1. Remind participants that they have completed several steps in the advocacy process. They have… • identified one advocacy issue for action; • set the advocacy goal—a long-term change that they hope to contribute to; • set specific advocacy objectives that will contribute to achievement of the goal; • assessed the support and opposition and identified primary and secondary target audiences for each objective; • developed and practiced delivering advocacy messages to key members of their target audience; • reviewed data collection and analysis techniques to support their advocacy messages; and • developed a preliminary fundraising strategy. 2. To proceed with developing an implementation plan, the network must decide whether to approach its advocacy objectives consecutively or simultaneously. If the former, participants must agree on the logical order. ACTIVITY 3 III-97 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 7. IMPLEMENTATIONUNIT 7 3. Moderate a group discussion about which advocacy objective members want to address first in the campaign. Use the following questions to guide the discussion: • Is there a logical and obvious sequence? What is it and why? • Will any of the objectives make a greater contribution to the broader advocacy goal than others? • Does the network feel better prepared/qualified to undertake one objective over the others? 4. Once the group has decided on the sequence of the advocacy objectives, it is ready to develop an implementation plan. 5. Divide participants into working groups by objectives. 6. Distribute Handout III.7.2 Advocacy Implementation Plan (the blank worksheet and the partially completed worksheet) and explain the following task: • Write the relevant advocacy objective at the top of the worksheet. • Next, identify each of the activities necessary to achieve that objective. Activities should be fairly detailed. For example, include information about message development and methods. • For each activity, identify the resources needed to support the activity. Resources may be material, financial, human (i.e., technical expertise), or technological. • Indicate who is responsible for undertaking the activity. • Assign an appropriate time frame or due date for each activity. 7. Review the partially completed worksheet as an example. 8. Allow the groups 30 minutes to complete the worksheet and to transfer their plan to newsprint or overhead transparencies. 9. After the working groups have completed the assignment, ask one representative of each group to present the group’s plan. 10. Post all three plans on the wall and discuss each in turn. • Are the activities complete? Realistic? Should any be added or modified? • Look at “responsible person.” Does the group agree with the task distribution? Is the workload shared among different people? • Are the required resources accurate? Is it practical to think the network can secure the indicated resources? • How about the timeframe? Is it achievable given the schedules and responsibilities of network members? 11. Conclude by checking for final questions or comments about the implementation plans. If participants are satisfied with the plan, they are ready to move on to the next unit, Monitoring and Evaluation. III-98 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL SECTION III III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 7. IMPLEMENTATIONUNIT 7 The implementation plan makes the campaign come alive. By considering the myriad activities needed to reach each of the advocacy objectives, the network senses the amount of work and energy required to achieve a policy victory. The plan details the activities of the campaign in a logical and timely order and maps the network’s next steps. Distribute handouts for Unit 7. No major work effort is complete without guidance for monitoring the implementation of activities and establishing benchmarks for recognizing if, when, and how well the desired results are achieved. Monitoring and evaluation are crucial to the success of any major endeavor. In the next unit, the network develops a monitoring and evaluation plan for its campaign. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD III-99 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 7. IMPLEMENTATIONUNIT 7 Handout III.7.1 Implementation: Developing an Action Plan␣ Background Notes␣ This unit represents the action planning phase of the workshop.␣ Up to this point, the workshop has focused on building technical skills in the various stages of the advocacy process—defining issues, setting goals and objectives, assessing support and opposition and researching target audiences, developing and disseminating messages, collecting data, and raising funds.␣ In the process of honing their skills, participants have made choices and taken action toward the development of the network’s advocacy strategy.␣ The work done along the way has a real—not just a theoretical—application.␣ Now it is time for participants, first, to pull together all the pieces of work they have completed thus far and, second, to compile the products into one implementation plan to guide the network through the campaign. The implementation plan is also the focus of the monitoring and evaluation plan to be developed in Unit 8.␣ The implementation plan is presented in a simple format.␣ Based on a selected advocacy objective, participants design specific activities for implementation in order to achieve the network’s objective.␣ Members of the network provide details describing needed resources, responsible person(s), and an appropriate timeframe for each activity.␣ ␣ Developing the action plan provides an excellent opportunity for network members to work as a team.␣ The implementation plan should be developed with input from and the consensus of the entire membership in order to create a sense of shared ownership and commitment to the plan and the strategy.␣ After all, participants are nearing the end of the planning stage and will soon be called on to act together to make the advocacy strategy a reality.␣ III-100 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL SECTION III III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 7. THE ADVOCACY IMPLEMENTATION PLANUNIT 7 Ad vo ca cy Im pl em en ta tio n Pl an ␣ H an do ut II I.7 .2 Ad vo ca cy O bj ec ti ve : Ac tiv ity Ne ed ed R es ou rc es Re sp on si bl e Pe rs on (s ) Ti m ef ra m e III-101 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 7. THE ADVOCACY IMPLEMENTATION PLANUNIT 7 Activity A sk p er m is si on t o at te nd t he m on th ly s ch oo l b oa rd m ee ti ng t o pr es en t th e id ea Co nt ac t w ith a s ch oo l bo ar d m em be r Ad vo ca cy n et wo rk ch ai rp er so n De ve lo p fa ct s he et fo r d ec is io n m ak er s wi th d at a on • m od el p ro gr am s in n ei gh bo rin g co un tr ie s • lin k be tw ee n FL E an d re du ct io n in ea rly p re gn an cy , s ch oo l a tt rit io n, ST Ds /A ID S Da ta Fo rm at fo r f ac t s he et Pa pe r Pr in tin g ca pa ci ty Ne tw or k’s re se ar ch /d at a te am an d co m m un ic at io n te am A tt en d sc ho ol b oa rd m ee ti ng t o pr es en t th e ar gu m en t an d se cu re su pp or t fo r p ilo t pr og ra m St ro ng co m m un ic at or s Fa ct S he et Br oc hu re /c on ta ct in fo rm at io n fo r t he ne tw or k Ad vo ca cy n et wo rk ch ai rp er so n an d co or di na to r o f co m m un ic at io n te am Ad vo ca cy O bj ec ti ve : To p er su ad e th e Sc ho ol B oa rd in D is tr ic t X to im pl em en t a pi lo t Fa m ily L ife E du ca tio n (F LE ) cu rr ic ul um in s ec on da ry g ra de s 7 th ro ug h 9 be gi nn in g in t he n ex t ac ad em ic y ea r. Ac tiv ity Ne ed ed R es ou rc es Re sp on si bl e Pe rs on (s ) Ti m eF ra m e 1 W ee k (J un e 15 ) 3 W ee ks (J ul y 7) 1 M on th (J ul y 15 ) Ad vo ca cy Im pl em en ta tio n Pl an (E xa m pl e) ␣ III-102 UNIT 8 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 8. MONITORING AND EVALUATION Monitoring and Evaluation Background Notes* Information is essential to the decisions we make and the actions we take. Timely and accurate information enables us to • learn from others’ experiences; • identify and capitalize on opportunities; and • avoid hazardous or risky situations. Monitoring and evaluation involve acquiring and using information. While the importance of information in most aspects of our lives is recognized, the importance of information obtained from monitoring and evaluation in the context of projects and organizations is not. Often, in the development field, monitoring is a requirement imposed on institutions by donors. As such, funding recipients reluctantly undertake required monitoring activities. Monitoring is also viewed as an end in itself, for which some project managers complete forms and prepare reports without necessarily using the information from the reports for internal assessment and program planning. Similarly, evaluation is often conducted to satisfy external requirements or to make a judgment about whether a project should receive continued funding. Less often, evaluation is used as a tool to strengthen a project and empower project participants or clients. The ability to acquire and use relevant information is as important for an advocacy network as it is for an individual NGO. A sound monitoring and evaluation component helps the network track its successes, build credibility with donors, and motivate members to sustain momentum. If a network’s advocacy activities bring about a desired policy change, the network will want to demonstrate a clear connection between its objectives and activities and the policy outcome. Monitoring is the process of routinely gathering information on all aspects of an advocacy campaign and using the information in network management and decision making. A monitoring plan is a basic and vital management tool that provides network members and other stakeholders with information that is essential to designing, implementing, managing, and evaluating advocacy activities. To fulfill the monitoring function, the monitoring plan must include systems for collecting data and information on key activities as well as systems for summarizing, analyzing, and using the information to make decisions and take action. Monitoring information can help • demonstrate innovative and effective strategies; • generate financial and political support for advocacy activities; and • market the network. * Background notes based on World Learning/SHARED Project. 1997. Monitoring and Evaluation as Management Tools: A Handbook for NGOs in Malawi. III-103 UNIT 8 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 8. MONITORING AND EVALUATION Evaluation involves a systematic, objective analysis of the network’s performance, efficiency, and impact in relation to its objectives. Its ultimate purpose is to • draw lessons from experience in order to improve the quality of an advocacy campaign; • improve the design of future campaigns; and • demonstrate the network’s merits to supporters, policymakers, donors, members, etc. Evaluation can be thought of as an assessment at a critical period or a process of looking at impacts or achievements. By the end of this unit, participants will be able to prepare a monitoring and evaluation framework for the advocacy campaign. 1 hour and 50 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of the Advocacy Implementation Plan developed in Unit 7 • Copies of Handouts Handout III.8.1 Background Notes • Write the definitions of monitoring and evaluation on newsprint (see Background Notes). • For Activity 2, write the group tasks (one for the Monitoring Group and one for the Evaluation Group) on the flipchart. Introduction to Monitoring and Evaluation Time: 20 minutes 1. Ask participants to describe the difference between monitoring and evaluation. Elicit several responses and then write the following simple phrase on the flipchart to distinguish monitoring from evaluation: We monitor activities and we evaluate results.␣ ␣ ␣ ␣ 2. Point out that monitoring is a process that tracks the implementation of activities. An important monitoring question is, “Did we implement the activities according to the action plan?” Evaluation is a process that assesses the results of the activities. In other words, “Did we achieve our desired results?” 3. Now, introduce the unit by reviewing the objective and the following notes on monitoring and evaluation: • Information is essential to the decisions we make and the actions we take. Timely and accurate information enables us to learn from others’experiences, to identify and capitalize on opportunities, and to avoid risky situations. OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 III-104 UNIT 8 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 8. MONITORING AND EVALUATION • Monitoring and evaluation involve acquiring and using information. While the importance of information in most aspects of our lives is recognized, the importance of information obtained from monitoring and evaluation in the context of projects and organizations often is not. • In the development field, monitoring frequently appears as a requirement imposed on institutions by donors. As such, funding recipients reluctantly undertake monitoring activities. • Monitoring is also viewed as an end in itself, for which some project managers complete forms and prepare reports without necessarily using the information for internal assessment and program planning. • Similarly, evaluation is often conducted to satisfy external requirements or to make a judgment about whether a project should receive continued funding. Less often, evaluation is used as a tool to strengthen a project and empower project participants or clients. • The ability to acquire and use relevant information is as important for an advocacy network as it is for an individual organization. A sound monitoring and evaluation component helps the network track its successes and learning experiences, build credibility with donors, and motivate members to sustain momentum. • If a network’s advocacy activities bring about a desired policy change, the network will want to demonstrate a clear connection between its objectives and activities and the policy outcome. 5. Present the definitions of monitoring and evaluation on the flipchart and clarify any questions about the difference between the two. Developing a Monitoring and Evaluation Framework Time: 1 hour and 30 minutes 1. Divide the participants into two working groups of equal size. 2. One group will focus on monitoring and the other group on evaluation. 3. Explain that the two groups have different tasks. The monitoring group should refer to the Advocacy Implementation Plan developed in Unit 7. 4. Present the tasks for the working groups on the flipchart. Monitoring Group Task Refer to the Advocacy Implementation Plan and answer the following five questions:√␣ Why will the network monitor the activities in our advocacy plan?√␣ What should we monitor?√␣ Who will be responsible for collecting and analyzing monitoring information?√ When will monitoring take place?√␣ How will we gather the necessary information (e.g., data sources)? Prepare a brief presentation on newsprint␣ ACTIVITY 2 III-105 UNIT 8 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 8. MONITORING AND EVALUATION Evaluation Group Task Refer to Handout III.1.3:␣ The Advocacy Process.␣ Develop two evaluation questions for the following selected stages in the network’s advocacy strategy: •␣ Issue •␣ Goal/objective •␣ Target audience • Message development •␣ Data collection •␣ Monitoring and Evaluation For example, the questions for message development could be •␣ How did the target audience respond to your advocacy message? • ␣ What action was taken as a result of the advocacy message? Describe. Prepare a brief presentation on newsprint.␣ 5. Allow the groups 45 minutes to complete the task. Be certain to circulate while the groups are working to ensure that they understand the process. 6. After the groups complete their work, ask one representative from each group to present the group’s results. 7. Elicit feedback from each team about the other’s presentation by using the following questions: • Is the monitoring plan clear and realistic? Do participants agree about who will monitor activities, when the monitoring will take place, and how data will be collected and used? • Will the evaluation questions generate useful information? Do the questions focus on the results of the advocacy campaign? • When will the advocacy campaign be evaluated and by whom? 8. The products of this unit should be typed up and circulated to members after the workshop. III-106 UNIT 8 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 8. MONITORING AND EVALUATION Monitoring and evaluation are management tools that provide valuable information about activities and results. Distribute handouts for Unit 8. This unit concludes Section III. The workshop has laid the ground for the advocacy campaign, and the network is ready to start implementing the activities described in its action plan. Still, much remains to be done. The network must identify specific data needs and decide how best to collect the data. Decisions must be made concerning the messages and mode of delivery, linkages with other networks or groups, outreach to the target community, and required resources. Recognizing that advocacy campaigns are labor-intensive for discrete and often long periods of time, the network must have well-laid plans as well as stamina if it is to achieve the desired policy victory. The decisions and plans that the network has made during the workshop form a solid foundation on which to launch the campaign. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD III-107 UNIT 8 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 8. MONITORING AND EVALUATION Handout III.8.1 Monitoring and Evaluation Background Notes* Information is essential to the decisions we make and the actions we take.␣ Timely and accurate information enables us to • learn from others’ experiences; • identify and capitalize on opportunities; and •␣ avoid hazardous or risky situations.␣ Monitoring and evaluation involve acquiring and using information.␣ While the importance of information in most aspects of our lives is recognized, the importance of information obtained from monitoring and evaluation in the context of projects and organizations is not.␣ Often, in the development field, monitoring appears as a requirement imposed on institutions by donors.␣ As such, funding recipients reluctantly undertake monitoring activities.␣ Monitoring is also viewed as an end in itself, for which some project managers complete forms and prepare reports without necessarily using the information from the reports for internal assessment and program planning. ␣ Similarly, evaluation is often conducted to satisfy external requirements or to make a judgment about whether a project should receive continued funding.␣ Less often, evaluation is a tool to strengthen a project and empower project participants or clients.␣ ␣ The ability to acquire and use relevant information is as important for an advocacy network as it is for an individual NGO.␣ A sound monitoring and evaluation component helps the network track its successes and learning experiences, build credibility with donors, and motivate members to sustain momentum.␣ If a network’s advocacy activities bring about a desired policy change, the network will want to demonstrate a clear connection between its objectives and activities and the policy outcome. Monitoring is the process of routinely gathering information on all aspects of an advocacy campaign and using the information in network management and decision making. ␣ A monitoring plan is a basic and vital management tool that provides network members and other stakeholders with information that is essential to designing, implementing, managing, and evaluating advocacy activities.␣ To fulfill the monitoring function, the monitoring plan must include systems for collecting data and information on key activities as well as systems for summarizing, analyzing, and * Background notes based on World Learning/SHARED Project. 1997. Monitoring and Evaluation as Management Tools: A Handbook for NGOs in Malawi. III-108 UNIT 8 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 8. MONITORING AND EVALUATION using the information to make decisions and take action.␣ Monitoring information can help •␣ demonstrate innovative and effective strategies; •␣ generate financial and political support for advocacy activities; and •␣ market the network.␣ Evaluation involves a systematic, objective analysis of the network’s performance, efficiency, and impact in relation to its objectives.␣ Its ultimate purpose is to •␣ draw lessons from experience in order to improve the quality of an advocacy campaign; •␣ improve the design of future campaigns; and •␣ demonstrate the network’s merits to supporters, policymakers, donors, members, etc. Evaluation can be thought of as an assessment at a critical period or a process for looking at impacts or achievements.␣ III-109 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL RESOURCES Additional Resources for Advocacy Training Academy for Educational Development (AED). 1995. A Skill-Building Guide for Making Focus Groups Work. Washington, DC: AED. Academy for Educational Development (AED). 1995. A Tool Box for Building Health Communication Capacity. Washington, DC: AED. Advocacy Institute. 1990. The Elements of a Successful Public Interest Campaign. Washington, DC: Advocacy Institute. Bobo, K., J. Kendall and S. Max. 1991. Organizing for Social Change: A Manual for Activists in the 1990s. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press. Center of Concern. 1996. Women Connecting Beyond Beijing – Facilitator’s Guide. Washington, DC: Center of Concern. The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA). 1995. Cairo, Beijing and Beyond: A Handbook on Advocacy for Women Leaders. Washington, DC: CEDPA. Covey, J. 1992. “A Note on NGOs and Policy Influence.” IDR Reports, Vol. 9, No. 2. Boston, MA: Institute for Development Research. Covey, J. 1994. “Accountability and Effectiveness of NGO Policy Alliances.” IDR Reports, Vol.11, No. 8. Boston, MA: Institute for Development Research. Covey, J. and V. Miller. 1997. Advocacy Sourcebook: Frameworks for Planning, Action and Reflection. Boston, MA: Institute for Development Research. Family Care International. 1994. Action for the 21st Century: Reproductive Health and Rights for All. New York, NY: FCI. Family Care International. 1995. Commitments to Sexual and Reproductive Health and Rights for All: Framework for Action. New York, NY: FCI. Germain, A. and R. Kyte. 1995. The Cairo Consensus: The Right Agenda for the Right Time. New York, NY: International Women’s Health Coalition. Hope, A. and S. Timmel. 1984. Training for Transformation, Vol. I-III. Gweru, Zimbabwe: Mambo Press. International Planned Parenthood Federation (IPPF). 1995. Advocacy Guide. London, England: Terracotta Press. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL RESOURCES Kenney, G. 1993. Assessing Legal and Regulatory Reform in Family Planning. Washington, DC: The Futures Group International. Miller, V. 1994. “NGO and Grassroots Policy Influence: What is Success?” IDR Reports, Vol.11, No. 5. Boston, MA: Institute for Development Research. Murphy, E. 1994. Communicating Population and Family Planning Information to Policymakers. Washington, DC: The Futures Group International. Scholtes, P. 1988. The Team Handbook: How to Use Teams to Improve Quality. Madison, WI: Joiner Associates, Inc. Sen, G., A. Germain and L. Chen (eds.). 1994. Population Policies Reconsidered: Health, Empowerment and Rights. Boston, MA: Harvard University Press. Sharma, R. 1997. An Introduction to Advocacy: Training Guide. Washington, DC: Academy for Educational Development. Society for Participatory Research in Asia. 1991. Holding Together: Collaborations and Partnerships in the Real World. Boston, MA: Institute for Development Research. .

View the publication

You are currently offline. Some pages or content may fail to load.