Networking for Policy Change: An Advocacy Training Manual

Publication date: 1999

Networking for Policy Change An Advocacy Training Manual The POLICY Project THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL First Printing October 1999 POLICY is a five-year project funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development under Contract No. CCP-C-00-95-00023-04, beginning September 1, 1995. It is implemented by The Futures Group International in collaboration with Research Triangle Institute (RTI) and The Centre for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA). For more information, please contact: Director, The POLICY Project The Futures Group International 1050 17th Street NW, Suite 1000 Washington, DC 20036 Telephone: (202) 775-9680 Fax: (202) 775-9694 E-mail: policyinfo@tfgi.com Internet: http://www.tfgi.com THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL Acknowledgments In writing this manual, The Policy Project benefited from the work and experiences of other professionals in the fields of advocacy, management, and policy analysis. The manual elaborates on the work of others and incorporates new and creative approaches to promote participatory policy processes for family planning and reproductive health. The POLICY Project gratefully acknowledges the contributions of the following individuals: Technical Writers: Barbara Boyd, Susan Homer, Frances Houck, Sue Richiedei, and Taly Valenzuela. Technical Reviewers: Adrienne Allison, Barbara Crane, Kristina Engstrom, Inday Feranil, Norine Jewell, Jeff Jordan, Nancy McGirr, Elizabeth Schoenecker, Dianne Sherman, and Janet Smith. The views expressed in this manual do not necessarily reflect those of USAID. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL TABLE OF CONTENTS Networking for Policy Change: An Advocacy Training Manual Table of Contents Introduction i Section I The Power of Numbers: Networking for Impact 1 Unit 1 What Are Advocacy Networks? 3 Unit 2 Effective Communication: Understanding One Another 14 Unit 3 Cooperation Not Competition: Building a Team 27 Unit 4 Decision Making: Reaching Group Consensus 41 Unit 5 Mission Statements: Creating a Common Purpose 49 Unit 6 Putting It All Together: Managing the Network 57 Section II Actors, Issues, and Opportunities: Assessing the Policy Environment 1 Unit 1 The Policy Process: Government in Action 3 Unit 2 Decision Making for Reproductive Health: 11 Unit 3 Prioritizing Policy Issues: Making the Best Matches 19 Section III The Advocacy Strategy: Mobilizing for Action 1 Unit 1 What Is Advocacy? 2 Unit 2 Issues, Goals, and Objectives: Building the Foundation 23 Unit 3 Target Audiences: Identifying Support and Opposition 35 Unit 4 Messages: Informing, Persuading, and Moving to Action 46 Unit 5 Data Collection: Bridging the Gap between 60 Unit 6 Fundraising: Mobilizing Resources 87 Unit 7 Implementation: Developing an Action Plan 94 Unit 8 Monitoring and Evaluation 103 Additional Resources Analyzing the Policy Climate Communities and Policymakers THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL INTRODUCTION i Introduction The follow up [to the ICPD] is in the hands of the people. We have to be careful we don't let governments off the hook. Sandra Kabir, Founder/President Bangladesh Women’s Health Coalition Purpose of the Manual It is through advocacy—a set of targeted actions in support of a specific cause— that a supportive and self-sustaining environment for family planning and reproductive health goals can be created. This training manual was prepared to help representatives of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) and other formal groups of civil society form and maintain advocacy networks and develop effective family planning/reproductive health (FP/RH) advocacy skills. The manual’s tools and approaches can be used to affect FP/RH policy decisions at the international, national, regional, and local levels. The power of participatory processes to advance family planning and reproductive health goals is reflected in the success of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development (ICPD). At the ICPD, 179 countries reached agreement on a program of action. This striking outcome was the result of a lengthy preparatory process that benefited from NGO collaboration and the participation of diverse groups representing the interests of women, the environment, family health providers, and religious organizations. Numerous official country delegations to the ICPD included NGO representatives who participated in drafting successive versions of the program of action and the ICPD final report. To assist countries in furthering FP/RH goals and recommendations, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) established the POLICY Project. POLICY’s mandate supports the creation of a supportive environment for family planning and reproductive health programs through the promotion of participatory policy processes and population policies that respond to client needs. To help ensure that governments follow through on the commitments they made in Cairo, the POLICY Project provides technical assistance and training to NGOs and networks to help their representatives act as forceful advocates during the policy formulation and implementation process. By serving as effective agents for change, these representatives can ensure that victories are sustained. They can hold decision makers accountable over time. In this way, they help make certain that appropriate policies, laws, programs, and resource allocations are in place to enable men and women to make substantive choices about the size and well-being of their families. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL INTRODUCTION ii How the Manual Is Organized The manual is based on the principle that advocacy strategies and methods can be learned. It is organized around a well-developed model—tested over time and within diverse cultures—for accomplishing advocacy objectives. The components of the model are the same regardless of the advocacy goals—whether for a campaign to secure a national law protecting women’s rights, to increase the range of contraceptive methods available, or to secure local funding for a new primary school. The building blocks of advocacy are the formation of networks, the identification of political opportunities, and the organization of campaigns. The manual includes a section on each of these building blocks, with specific subjects presented in individual units. Each section begins with a general introduction to the topic. Units within each section contain background notes, learning objectives, and handouts. The approximate time required to complete each unit is indicated as are the needed materials and preparation. Within each unit, activities such as role- plays, discussions, and brainstorming are presented to help participants internalize their learning. Each unit concludes with a brief summary and a preview of the next unit. While the manual can be used in its entirety, it is designed to be used in sections depending on the particular needs of the network. For example, if a group of NGOs has already formed a network and has decided it needs a better understanding of both the policy process and how to become skilled advocates, a workshop could be organized on Sections II and III. To take another example, if NGOs are interested in forming an advocacy network or making their existing network function more effectively, it would be appropriate to organize a workshop on Section I. By focusing only on the introduction to each section and the background notes for each unit, networks can also use the manual as a general reference on advocacy without undertaking any specific training activities. Training Methodology This manual is based on the following adult learning principles: • The learning is self-directed. • It fills an immediate need and is highly participatory. • Learning is experiential (i.e., participants and the trainer learn from one another). • Time is allowed for reflection and corrective feedback. • A mutually respectful environment is created between trainer and participants. • A safe atmosphere and comfortable environment are provided. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL INTRODUCTION iii Training techniques used in this manual include the following: Presentations - activities conducted by the facilitator or a resource specialist to convey information, theories, or principles; Case Study Scenarios - written descriptions of real-life situations used for analysis and discussion; Role-Plays - two or more individuals enacting parts in scenarios as related to a training topic; Simulations - enactments of real-life situations; and Small Group Discussions - participants sharing experiences and ideas or solving a problem together. Role of the Facilitator It is the responsibility of the facilitator to present each unit’s background material and activities as clearly as possible. Skills used to enhance communication include the following: Nonverbal Communication • Maintain eye contact with everyone in the group when speaking. Try not to favor certain participants. • Move around the room without distracting the group. Avoid pacing or addressing the group from a place where you cannot be easily seen. • React to what people say by nodding, smiling, or engaging in other actions that show you are listening. • Stand in front of the group, particularly at the beginning of the session. It is important to appear relaxed and at the same time be direct and confident. Verbal Communication • Ask open-ended questions that encourage responses. If a participant responds with a simple yes or no, ask “Why do you say that?” • Ask other participants if they agree with a statement someone makes. • Be aware of your tone of voice. Speak slowly and clearly. • Avoid using slang or other “special” language. • Be sure that participants talk more than you do. • Let participants answer each others’ questions. Say “Does anyone have an answer to that question?” • Encourage participants to speak and provide them with positive reinforcement. • Paraphrase statements in your own words. You can check your understanding of what participants are saying and reinforce statements. • Keep the discussion moving forward and in the direction you want. Watch for disagreements and draw conclusions. • Reinforce statements by sharing a relevant personal experience. You might say “That reminds me of something that happened last year.” • Summarize the discussion. Be sure that everyone understands the main points. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL INTRODUCTION iv Effective facilitation includes the following: Setting the Learning Climate • Read each unit and review all materials and activities before each training session so that you are fully comfortable with the content and process. • Start on time and clearly establish yourself as the facilitator by calling the group together. • Organize all the materials you need for the session and place them close at hand, stay within the suggested time frames. • Gain participants’ attention and interest by creating comfort between yourself and them. • Anticipate questions. • Prepare responses and examples to help move the discussion forward. Presenting the Objectives • Provide a link between previous units and the current one. • Use the background notes that begin each unit to introduce the topic under consideration. • Inform participants of what they will do during the session to achieve the unit’s objectives. Initiating the Learning Experience • Introduce, as appropriate, an activity in which participants experience a situation relevant to the objectives of the unit. • Let participants use the experience as a basis for discussion during the next step. • If you begin a unit with a presentation, follow it with a more participatory activity. Reflecting on the Experience • Guide discussion of the experience. • Encourage participants to share their reactions to the experience. • Engage participants in problem-solving discussions. • See that participants receive feedback on their work from each other and from you. Discussing Lessons Learned • Ask participants to identify key points that emerged from the experience and the discussion. • Help participants draw general conclusions from the experience. Allow time for reflection. Applying Lessons Learned to Real-life Situations • Encourage participants to discuss how the information learned in the activity will be helpful in their own work. • Discuss problems participants might experience in applying or adapting what they have learned to their own or different situations. • Discuss what participants might do to help overcome difficulties they encounter when applying their new learning. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL INTRODUCTION v Providing Closure • Briefly summarize the activities at the end of each unit. • Refer to the objective(s) and discuss whether and how they were achieved. • Discuss what else is needed for better retention or further learning in the subject area. • Provide linkages between the unit and the rest of the workshop. • Help participants leave with positive feelings about what they have learned. Covering All the Details • Prepare all training materials (resources for research, reference materials, handouts, visual aids, and supplies) and deal with logistics (venue, tea breaks, and audio-visual equipment) in advance. • Clarify everyone’s roles and areas of responsibility if other facilitators are helping to conduct the training. Meet with the co-facilitators daily to monitor the progress of the workshop and to provide each other with feedback. • Ask participants to evaluate the training both daily and at the end of the workshop. • Plan follow-up activities and determine additional training needs. THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POWER OF NUMBERS: NETWORKING FOR IMPACT Introduction Why do you hear so much about networking today? Probably because it is working! Just look at the success of the 1994 International Conference on Population and Development and the role of NGOs in securing agreement from 179 countries on a program of action, and consider the 1997 Nobel Peace Prize that was awarded to the coordinator of the International Campaign to Ban Land Mines, a coalition of more than 1,000 NGOs in 60 countries. Clearly, networks are thriving. Networking is simply a process for initiating and maintaining contact with individuals and organizations that share or support common goals and agree to work together to achieve those goals. Through advocacy, networks can engage in high-level dialogue with policymakers and other influential leaders on broad policy issues and national policies. For family planning and reproductive health (FP/RH), networks might identify issues for advocacy campaigns that focus on such goals as the elimination of tariffs on imported contraceptives or the enactment of a national population policy. Policy issues at the operational level are another potential focus for a campaign. Such issues might deal with the formulation of specific resource allocation and service delivery guidelines. Advocacy includes both single-issue, time-limited campaigns and ongoing work undertaken by a network around a range of issues—conducted at the national, regional, or local level. By generating public support for reproductive health issues and linking them to other important social and economic topics under consideration by policymakers— such as poverty alleviation and job creation—a network can help change the knowledge, attitudes, and practices of major decision makers. At the same time, a network can help ensure that more appropriate and representative policies and resource allocations are in place for FP/RH activities. Never doubt that a small group of thoughtful, committed citizens can change the world; indeed, it is the only thing that ever has. Margaret Mead Advocacy Networks at Work KIDOG is a Turkish NGO network dedicated to improving the health, education, and legal status of women through advocacy. When KIDOG learned that the Ministry of Health had not allocated sufficient funds to maintain the current level of contraceptive commodities available through the public health system, the network went to work—fast. Within two months, KIDOG members organized a national press conference to bring the commodity issue to the attention of the media and developed a plan to target key decision makers. Their hard work paid off when they were granted a meeting with the president of Turkey to present their position on the issue. Based on a specific request made by KIDOG, President Demirel wrote to the Prime Minister to ask that funds be allocated to purchase the necessary commodities. Advocacy is a set of targeted actions directed at decision makers in support of a specific policy issue. Advocacy Networks are groups of organizations and individuals working together to achieve changes in policy, law, or programs for a particular issue. I-1 UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS? The purpose of Section I of this manual is to help participants—whether they are forming a new network or solidifying an existing network—understand that effective networking for advocacy doesn’t happen by itself. Before a network can even begin its advocacy efforts, members must create a network identity, strengthen and practice communication skills, define decision-making processes, and inventory the skills and resources represented among its members. I-2 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I What Are Advocacy Networks? Background Notes Networks are universal. Whether acknowledged as such or not, most people belong to formal or informal groups—or networks—organized around family life, jobs, religious activities, or recreational interests. People routinely use their personal and professional networks for a variety of reasons—looking for a job, raising funds for a school or community center, campaigning for a politician, or pressing leaders to expand the services available at the local clinic. Networks are invaluable in policy advocacy because they create structures for organizations and individuals to share ownership of common goals. In the area of reproductive health, a network’s membership usually will include representatives of NGOs, women’s groups, community organizations, and professional associations made up of nurses, midwives, physicians, or lawyers. Local religious and traditional leaders are potential members whose perspective and influence could be invaluable in achieving the network’s objectives. A network’s advocacy issues will depend upon local political realities and the opportunities for change that exist as well as the specific interests of network members. The possibilities with respect to reproductive health are numerous, ranging from increasing national funding for contraceptive commodities to providing family life education for in-school youth to efforts such as banning girl trafficking or lifting import regulations on contraceptives. To be successful advocates, networks need to be well organized and operate efficiently. Their founding members have to bring together the resources, time, energy, and talents of many different people and organizations and then skillfully take advantage of opportunities to influence the policy process on behalf of their goals and objectives. When they succeed, networks help create a supportive and self-sustaining environment for reproductive health. What’s in a Name? In order to avoid confusion, Networks or Advocacy Networks will be used throughout the manual. POLICY partners in different countries use different names for their advocacy groups—some are called networks and others are called coalitions. The structures and procedures ascribed to these groups also vary. For example, in Bolivia, networks are highly structured and ongoing while in Romania coalitions are structured and ongoing and networks are informal and loose. The name chosen by an advocacy group is unimportant. What matters is that the entire membership understands and agrees on the name, the structure, and the operating procedures. I-3 UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS? OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 ACTIVITY 2 By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Define and list the benefits of networking; • Identify a network of individuals and organizations within their own personal and professional lives; and • Develop a list of elements needed to form and maintain successful networks. 4 hours and 20 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • The front page of a local newspaper with the main headline cut out for Activity 6 • Copies of handouts I.1.1 Background Notes I.1.2 Elements for Forming and Maintaining Networks Read Introduction to Section I and Background Notes for Unit 1. Opening Remarks Time: 30 minutes • Welcome the participants to the workshop and introduce yourself. • Review the purpose of the workshop and Section I. • Facilitate participant introductions. • Review participant expectations. • Review the daily agenda and discuss the order and flow of the various units in Section I. Introduction to Networks Time: 15 minutes Introduce Unit 1 by reviewing the objectives and making a brief presentation on networks and the power of networks for advocacy. Key points to include in your overview of networks follow: • Networks are universal and almost everyone belongs to one or more networks. • Networks may be personal or professional; formal or informal; temporary or ongoing. They may include family members, school friends, colleagues, members of the same religious institution, etc. • Members of a network have at least one thing in common with other members of that network. I-4 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I • Sometimes networks become the nucleus of a group concerned with taking on or supporting a specific cause or action. Creating or strengthening this type of network—an advocacy network—is the focus of this workshop. • Advocacy networks are useful and powerful tools for achieving shared goals. • Advocacy networks are effective because they provide a structure that permits organizations and individuals to cooperate, collaborate, and share expertise and resources to influence policy. • To be effective advocates, network members must develop skills that enable them to engage in dialogue with decision makers at all levels. • Effective networks are well organized, develop a team identity, function according to agreed upon norms and procedures, establish systems and structures for decision making and communication, and use each member’s skills and resources to maximum advantage. Transition Explain to the participants that advocacy groups around the world call themselves by different names—some are networks, others coalitions, still others alliances. As long as the members of the group agree on its name and structure, the name is unimportant. However, in the training manual, the term “network” or “advocacy network” is used consistently. In the next activity, the participants define “network” for themselves. Defining Network Time: 30 minutes 1. Write the word “Network” on two sheets of newsprint. 2. Divide the participants into two groups and ask each group to line up single file in front of one of the sheets. 3. Ask each person to write on the newsprint a word or short phrase that she/he associates with the word “network”. Continue until each person has contributed to the list. 4. Ask each group to work with the words listed on its sheet of newsprint and to develop a definition of “network” that everyone in the group agrees with. 5. Share the two groups’ definitions and help the participants reach consensus on one definition. They may choose to accept one of the posted definitions or combine parts of each for a new definition. 6. Write the agreed upon definition on clean newsprint and post in the room. 7. Share the following definition with the group. ACTIVITY 3 Advocacy Networks are groups of organizations and individuals working together to achieve changes in policy, law, or programs for a particular issue. I-5 UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS? Your Initials Mapping Individual Networks Time: 1 hour Individual Work (30 minutes) 1. Using the example shown below, draw a personal network map on the flipchart to guide the participants in their task. 2. Distribute a 1/4 sheet of newsprint and a marker to each participant. 3. Ask each person to draw a circle in the center of her/his sheet and put her/his initials in the circle. 4. Direct the participants to write the names or initials of people or organizations they know with an association to reproductive health issues in squares and link the squares to the circle. 5. Encourage participants to think broadly, anyone with whom they have contact or know with an interest in reproductive health should be included, such as: • People they have met at conferences or workshops, • A relative in a government office/clinic whose work is connected with FP/RH, • Parents or friends concerned with getting RH information to adolescents, • Editors and writers of newsletters and other publications, and • RH organizations/people they have contacted through the Internet. ACTIVITY 4 Mapping Your Personal Network: An Example J.J. UNFPA Programme Officer for Adolescents H.C. YMCA/ YWCA S.C. Attended ICPD in Cairo S.R. Local Family Planning Association P.F. Clinic Director E.K. Dept. of Population Studies; local university R.S. Women’s Rights Network A.W. Parent/ Teacher Association I-6 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I Large Group Discussion: Analysis of Maps (15 minutes) 1. When all the participants have completed their individual maps, ask them to tape them on the wall by slightly overlapping each newsprint with another. 2. With the participants, analyze the maps as follows: • Do all of the names on the maps meet the criteria for inclusion (i.e., the mapmaker has contact with the people named and the people have an interest in or linkage with FP/RH)? • What is the nature of the contact and/or frequency of the contact (i.e., close, daily contact with a colleague vs. infrequent communication by mail or at conferences)? Is the contact through personal or professional relationships? • Which organizations and individuals appear on more than one map? Highlight these names with a colored marker. • Which workshop participants appear on other participants’ maps? Highlight these names with a different colored marker. 3. Ask the group if each participant in the room is a member of the other participants’ networks. Explain that the participants are working together in a workshop setting to form or strengthen their network, consequently, each person is part of the others’ networks. Draw lines on the newsprint to link the circles to each other to demonstrate how the participants’ own networks have expanded. Large Group Discussion: Benefits of Networks (15 minutes) 1. Ask the participants to look at the large wall map and think about the benefits of belonging to this network. Introduce the discussion by naming the most basic benefit of a network—the exchange of information and the use that members make of the information. 2. Write “Benefits of Networks” on a flipchart and ask participants to identify other benefits. 3. Write their answers on the flipchart. Be certain to include the following: Benefits of Networks √ Keep you up to date on what is going on√ Provide a ready made audience for your ideas√ Provide support for your actions√ Provide access to varied and multiple resources/skills√ Pool limited resources for the common goal√ Achieve things that single organizations or individuals cannot—power of numbers√ Form the nucleus for action and attract other networks√ Expand the base of support I-7 UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS? Defining Advocacy Time: 35 minutes Brainstorming (5 minutes) 1. Write “Advocacy” on a sheet of newsprint. 2. Ask participants to share words that come to mind when they think of advocacy. 3. Write all responses on the newsprint without discussion. Small Group Work (30 minutes) 1. Divide participants into four small groups. 2. Ask each group to develop a definition of advocacy by using the words and concepts listed on the newsprint. 3. Direct each group to present its definition and hang it on the wall. 4. When all definitions are posted, ask participants the following: • What, if any, common words or themes run throughout the different definitions? (Underline same/similar language and concepts with a colored marker.) • Do any of the definitions differ markedly from the others or do they all express similar ideas? • What are the most notable differences? Why did that small group feel this way? • Does it seem as if everyone has a clear and consistent understanding of advocacy? Does anyone not understand or need clarification? 5. When you feel certain that the participants understand and agree on the meaning of advocacy, write the following definition on newsprint: 6. Briefly point out the similarities between the workshop definition and those prepared by the groups. Advocacy is a set of targeted actions directed at decision makers in support of a specific policy issue. Transition Remind participants that networks are formed for different reasons, but that they often emerge for the purpose of taking an action. One such action is advocacy. As with any concept, advocacy is understood differently by people in different countries, cultures, societies, and so forth, based upon their experiences. It is important for networks that have decided to commit themselves to RH advocacy to reach a common understanding among their membership of what advocacy means. The next activity is designed to help participants develop and agree on a definition of advocacy for their network. ACTIVITY 5 I-8 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I Thinking Ahead Time: 30 minutes 1. Tape the local newspaper (with the main headline cut out) to the wall or flipchart. 2. Divide participants into small groups. 3. Explain that this activity requires participants to look three years into the future and to imagine that their network has just achieved a major RH advocacy success. Their success is so impressive that it has made national headlines. Ask each group to discuss and agree on the successful advocacy result they would like to see publicized in three years. 4. Once the group members agree, they should write the headline and the first paragraph of the accompanying story. 5. Ask each group to select a representative to present its headline and story to the full group. Transition The headlines and success stories envisioned by the participants are entirely realistic and achievable for advocacy networks if those networks are organized, strategic, efficient, representative, and committed to participation and collaboration. But these characteristics are not automatically present when organizations decide to form a network. Network members must consciously address a wide variety of needs and concerns if the network is to function effectively and efficiently. The next activity is designed to involve participants in identifying the different elements needed to create and maintain a network. ACTIVITY 6 I-9 UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS? Practical Considerations for Successful Networks Time: 1 hour 1. Divide the participants into four groups. 2. Ask the participants to think about the various advocacy visions they have developed and identify the organizational characteristics and elements that would be necessary for their network to achieve its vision. 3. Assign two groups the task of identifying the practical considerations of forming a network, i.e., what is necessary for a network to form? 4. Assign the other two groups the task of identifying the practical considerations of maintaining a network, i.e., what is necessary for a network to continue its work? 5. Ask each group to list its characteristics/elements on newsprint. Note to Facilitator: If the groups need help getting started, ask a few of the following questions. Forming Networks • How do you define a network? • What is the purpose of a network? • What is the mission of the network? • Which organizations or individuals share this mission? • How many organizations would you invite to help form the network? • How would you invite them? • What agenda would you set for the initial meeting? • What result do you want from the first meeting? • How many agreed to join? • What type of commitment are they willing to make? • What comes next? Maintaining Networks • What is the mission of the network? • How large is the membership? • What are the skills and resources of the group? Where are the gaps? • How will you attract members with needed skills/resources? • How will decisions be made? • How will all members stay informed? • How will consensus be reached? • How will you maintain a balance of power? • How will conflicts be managed/resolved? • How will members develop a plan of action? • How will activities be coordinated? • How will tasks be assigned? • How will network activities be documented? • How will you monitor and evaluate activities? • How will you reduce or avoid burnout? ACTIVITY 7 I-10 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I 6. Ask one of the two groups working on “Forming Networks” to present its list to the entire group. Ask the second group to share any new items from its list but not to repeat items. Add the new elements to the first list. Note to Facilitator: Refer to the questions listed above to generate additions to the list. 7. Ask one of the two groups working on “Maintaining Networks” to present its list to the entire group. Ask the second group to share any new items from its list but not to repeat items. Add the new elements to the first list. Note to Facilitator: Refer to the questions listed above to generate additions to the list. 8. At a minimum, the two lists should include the elements shown below. Networks are universal. Everyone belongs to networks even if only for the exchange of information. Certain networks such as “Advocacy Networks” have an additional purpose—to work together to achieve changes in policies, laws, or programs with respect to a particular issue. Advocacy networks are powerful tools for achieving policy change. However, many elements need to come together to make networking successful. Distribute handouts for Unit 1. Now that participants are familiar with the concept of networks and their potential for achieving advocacy goals, the next unit will focus on building communication skills. Effective communication is a central component of successful networking efforts. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD Elements Needed to Maintain a Network • Clear norms • Loose organization • Communication system • Shared leadership • Trust • Wide participation by all members Elements Needed to Form a Network • Clear purpose • Committed members • Mission statement • Shared vision 9. Check to make sure that all of the participants understand the elements listed and why they are important for forming and maintaining networks. I-11 UNIT 1 SECTION I THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS? Handout I.1.1 Background Notes Networks are universal. Whether acknowledged as such or not, most people belong to formal or informal groups—or networks—organized around family life, jobs, religious activities, or recreational interests. People routinely use their personal and professional networks for a variety of reasons—looking for a job, raising funds for a school or community center, campaigning for a politician, or pressing leaders to expand the services available at the local clinic. Networks are invaluable in policy advocacy because they create structures for organizations and individuals to share ownership of common goals. In the area of reproductive health, a network's membership usually will include representatives of NGOs, women's groups, community organizations, and professional associations made up of nurses, midwives, physicians, or lawyers. Local religious and traditional leaders are potential members whose perspective and influence could be invaluable in achieving the network's objectives. A network’s advocacy issues will depend upon local political realities and the opportunities for change that exist as well as the specific interests of network members. The possibilities with respect to reproductive health are numerous, ranging from increasing national funding for contraceptive commodities to providing family life education for in-school youth to efforts such as banning girl trafficking or lifting import regulations on contraceptives. To be successful advocates, networks need to be well organized and operate efficiently. Their founding members have to bring together the resources, time, energy, and talents of many different people and organizations and then skillfully take advantage of opportunities to influence the policy process on behalf of their goals and objectives. When they succeed, networks help create a supportive and self-sustaining environment for reproductive health. What’s in a Name? In order to avoid confusion, Networks or Advocacy Networks will be used throughout the manual. POLICY partners in different countries use different names for their advocacy groups— some are called networks and others are called coalitions. The structures and procedures ascribed to these groups also vary. For example, in Bolivia, networks are highly structured and ongoing while in Romania coalitions are structured and ongoing and networks are informal and loose. The name chosen by an advocacy group is unimportant. What matters is that the entire membership understands and agrees on the name, the structure, and the operating procedures. What are Advocacy Networks? I-12 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 1. WHAT ARE ADVOCACY NETWORKS?UNIT 1 SECTION I Handout I.1.2 Elements for Forming and Maintaining Networks A. Formation Stage ♦ Establish a clear purpose or mission. ♦ Involve individuals and organizations that share the mission. ♦ Build a commitment to participatory process and collaboration. B. Maintenance/Growth Stage Organization ♦ Define clear, specialized roles. ♦ Establish a loose or fluid organizational structure. Vertical, hierarchical structures do not build strong networks. ♦ Compile a skills inventory, including the skills/expertise of individual members and institutional resources (fax, Internet, meeting space, etc.). ♦ Prepare to fill expertise gaps by recruiting new members. ♦ Establish a communication system (i.e., telephone tree). ♦ Create a member database (name, address, organization mission, type and focus of organization, etc.). Leadership ♦ Share leadership functions (i.e., rotating coordinating committee). ♦ Set realistic goals and objectives. ♦ Divide into subgroups/task forces to take on specific tasks according to expertise. ♦ Spread responsibilities across all members to reduce workload and avoid burnout. ♦ Promote participatory planning and decision making. ♦ Foster trust and collaboration among members. ♦ Keep members motivated by acknowledging their contributions. Meetings/Documentation ♦ Meet only when necessary. ♦ Set specific agenda and circulate it ahead of time. Follow the agenda and keep meetings brief. Finish meeting on time. Rotate meeting facilitation role. ♦ Keep attendance list and record meeting minutes for dissemination after meeting. ♦ Use members’ facilitation skills to help the network reach consensus and resolve conflict. ♦ Discuss difficult issues openly during meetings. ♦ Maintain a network notebook to document network activities, decisions, etc. I-13 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Effective Communication: Understanding One Another Background Notes Listening is an underrated skill! Most people believe that they get what they want through talking. Many successful people, however, spend more time listening than talking. When they talk, they often ask questions to learn more. To increase the likelihood of success in its advocacy efforts, members of a network have a responsibility to communicate with one another as effectively as possible. To do this, they must transmit their messages in a way that ensures that l i s t e n e r s understand the intent of the message. Similarly, members need to be able to interpret other speakers' messages as intended. Ideally, members of a network express their thoughts, feelings, and ideas openly. They listen carefully to others, and everyone feels free to put forth an idea. Conflicts and disagreements are viewed as natural and differences are talked out. In asking questions, for example, members know it is helpful to plan their questions in advance and to ask with a purpose. They tailor their questions to other members and follow general questions with more specific ones. They try to keep questions short and clear. Developing good communication skills is challenging. A network is more effective if all members strive to transmit their messages clearly and listen carefully to what others say. In that way, the knowledge, experience, and special expertise of members can be shared and used on behalf of the network’s objectives. When a family life education curriculum was being introduced in Kenyan schools, religious groups were very vocal in their opposition. An advocacy team organized by the International Planned Parenthood Federation convened a seminar bringing together more than 100 leaders, including government ministers and representatives of local organizations. In the keynote address, the leader of the advocacy team presented the various religious perspectives—Muslim, Catholic, and other Christian—as well as the perspectives of organizations serving youth and legal and health institutions. After a day spent listening to one another and jointly discussing various perspectives, participants (with the exception of the Catholic Church representative) agreed the curriculum was vital for young people. Family Life Education Misunderstood I-14 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 By the end of this unit, participants will be able to identify and demonstrate effective communication skills. 2 hours • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts I.2.1 Background Notes I.2.2 A Communication Model I.2.3 Observation Sheet for Role-Plays I.2.4 Communicating Assertively and Listening Actively • Read Background Notes for Unit 2 and review Handout I.2.2 for Activity 1. • Draw the communication model from Handout I.2.2 on a sheet of newsprint for Activity 1 (or distribute the handout before the presentation). • Copy the role-play scenarios and cut each into two sections for Activity 3. • Select someone to help you act out the role-plays in Activity 2, and discuss the situation to be presented. Introduction to Communication Time: 15 minutes Introduce Unit 2 by reviewing the objective and making a brief presentation on communication. Major points to include in your presentation on communication follow: • Listening is an underrated skill! Most people believe that they get what they want through talking. Many successful people, however, spend more time listening than talking. When they talk, they often ask questions to learn more. • To increase the likelihood of their success in advocacy, members of a network have a responsibility to communicate with one another as effectively as possible. They must transmit their messages in a way that ensures that listeners understand the intent of the message. Similarly, they must be able to interpret messages in the way the speaker intends them to be interpreted. • Developing good communication skills is challenging. A network is more effective, however, if all members strive to transmit their messages clearly and listen carefully to what others say. In that way, the knowledge, experience, and special expertise of members can be shared and used on behalf of the network’s objectives. I-15 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I • Refer to the communication model you drew on the newsprint and explain the following: − Any communication involves a sender and a receiver. − The model depicts how communication between a sender and a receiver can be distorted by different factors; it presents some strategies for overcoming the distortions. − Often the message that the sender wants to communicate is NOT the message that is understood by the receiver. WHY? − Any time a person begins speaking (the sender), the message is influenced by the speaker’s beliefs, attitudes, and knowledge. These same factors influence the way in which the receiver interprets the message. − In addition, messages can be distorted by the speaker’s tone of voice, choice of words, physical condition, personal feelings toward the receiver, and the environment or time of day. These are distorting factors for the sender. − At the other end of the transmission is a set of distorting factors that affect how the message is received. These include the level of interest, personal feelings toward the sender, physical condition, and demands on time. − Communication can be improved by adopting strategies for reducing or eliminating distortion. Strategies include using both open and closed questions to help clarify meaning, relying on multiple communication channels to verify the message and its meaning, using simple language when speaking, providing limited information to reduce confusion, and paraphrasing what has been said to ensure understanding. • The purpose of Unit 2 is to highlight the fact that good communication skills can be learned and to give participants the opportunity to practice those skills. Effective Communication Time: 30 minutes Facilitator Role-Plays (10 minutes) 1. Start this activity with two brief role-plays to reinforce the information in the presentation. The first role-play should demonstrate ineffective communication skills. The second should demonstrate good communication skills. Note to Facilitator: Select another facilitator or one of the participants to help you present the role-play. Take a few minutes to decide on the situation and the roles you are playing. Use the same situation for both role-plays. The topic can be anything. For example, a colleague who takes credit for your work or a manager who gives vague instructions for an assignment. 2. Take no longer than 1-2 minutes for each role-play. No introduction is necessary. ACTIVITY 2 I-16 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I 3. In the first role-play, both parties should demonstrate poor listening and speaking skills. Examples include • Angry or defensive tone of voice, • Interrupting the speaker, • Lack of eye contact/rolling the eyes, • Sarcastic manner and tone, • Poor body language (slouching, wringing hands), and • Lack of clarity in expressing a position/opinion. 4. In the second role-play, both parties should demonstrate good listening and speaking skills. Examples include • Making eye contact, • Good tone of voice, • Positive body language (sitting up straight, nodding head in agreement), • Paraphrasing the speaker, • Not interrupting, and • Asking for clarification. Brainstorming (20 minutes) 1. When the role-plays are completed, ask the participants to think about what they observed in the scenarios with respect to language, communication styles, body language, etc. What were the specific behaviors that increased or decreased the level of trust between the two parties? 2. Write the following on newsprint: 3. Ask participants to think about the first person in the role-play who demonstrated good communication skills and to describe the behaviors that helped that person deliver a clear message. Write the responses on the newsprint under “Sender.” Note to Facilitator: If necessary, prompt the participants’ responses with the following questions: • Did the sender look directly at the receiver? Make eye contact? • Did the sender use a tone of voice free of anger or defensiveness? • Did the sender chose her/his words carefully, use short sentences, and speak clearly? • Did the sender avoid sarcastic comments and inappropriate nonverbal behaviors? • Did the sender use appropriate body language? Effective Communication Techniques ReceiverSender I-17 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I 4. Now ask the participants to describe what the receiver did to make certain she/he received the message accurately, without distortion. Write the responses on the newsprint under “Receiver.” Note to Facilitator: If necessary, prompt the participants’ responses with the following questions: • Did the receiver look directly at the speaker? • Did the receiver interrupt the speaker? • Did the receiver use appropriate body language? Nodded head in agreement? • Did the receiver ask for clarification? • Did the receiver paraphrase the sender’s words to be certain he/she understood the message? Transition Now that the participants have identified some effective communication skills, they are going to practice using and observing these skills in role-plays. In any communication, the sender and receiver are involved in an exchange of information. As shown in the communication model presented earlier, the way that we send and receive information is influenced by each person’s perceptions and experiences—or distortions. People’s perceptions often vary and lead to misunderstanding or conflict. The following role-plays separate the roles of the sender (the person who seeks to initiate communication about a given situation) and the receiver (or listener). Practicing Communication Skills Time: 1 hour and 15 minutes Participant Role-Plays (1 hour) 1. Divide the participants into groups of three and provide each group with copies of the three scenarios and three observation sheets (Handout I.2.3). 2. Explain the following instructions: • There are three roles for each scenario—speaker, listener and observer. The roles rotate from one scenario to the next so that each member of the triad can practice all three roles. • Before starting each role-play, the observer should read BOTH role descriptions while the sender and receiver should read ONLY their respective roles. • At the start of each role-play, allow 1-2 minutes for preparation. • The observer watches the role play carefully and uses the observation sheet (Handout I.2.3) to note effective and ineffective communication skills exhibited by the sender and receiver. • Each role play should take approximately 10 minutes. • After each role-play, the observer shares his/her observations with the sender and the receiver (approximately 5 minutes). ACTIVITY 3 I-18 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Scenario 1 Role-Play to Build Communication Skills Scenario 1 — Sender You and several colleagues regularly work together to develop project proposals. Normally you divide tasks according to your expertise and work on your respective components until you reach an agreed-upon deadline. At that time, you come together and share your work to bring the whole proposal together. One colleague in particular, the monitoring and evaluation specialist, is rarely prepared with her material. On several occasions, you and other team members have completed your components only to discover that the monitoring and evaluation section is missing. Now you have an important proposal under development with the due date only two weeks away. Offer some feedback to the monitoring and evaluation specialist (the receiver) to ensure that she understands the importance of the due date to the rest of the group. Scenario 1 — Receiver You are the monitoring and evaluation specialist on a staff team that regularly works together to develop proposals. Several times a year, the team meets to draft proposals. You are always responsible for the monitoring and evaluation section, but you cannot prepare your material until the rest of the project is designed. You rely on the information generated by your colleagues to develop your section. As a result, you usually fall behind the agreed-upon deadline. Your colleagues will offer you some feedback about not meeting the deadline. I-19 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Scenario 2 Role-Play to Build Communication Skills Scenario 2 — Sender You are a member of an advocacy network of NGO leaders in the population and development field. You and four other colleagues make up the network’s coordinating committee which is responsible for mobilizing resources to support the network. Because the network is not legally registered in your county, various members channel funding through their own NGOs to finance the network’s activities. As a result of a recent strategic planning process, the network submitted proposals to three private foundations. While making follow-up calls to the foundations, you learn that the Women’s Health Association, a member of your network, submitted a proposal in competition with the network’s request. The donor tells you that she has granted $25,000 to the association and now will not be able to fund the network. The Women’s Health Association executive director is one of your colleagues on the network coordinating committee. Approach him/ her and express your concern about putting the Women’s Health Association’s needs ahead of the network’s interests. Scenario 2 — Receiver You are a member of an advocacy network of NGO leaders in the population and development field. You and four other colleagues make up the network’s coordinating committee, which is responsible for mobilizing resources to support the network. As a result of a recent strategic planning process, the network submitted proposals to three private foundations. By chance, you met the program officer of one of the foundations at a cocktail reception. As you discussed the network’s activities, the program officer let you know that she was not supporting the network’s funding request because she was not convinced that the network was a cohesive group. She let you know, however, that she would entertain the idea of funding your own NGO (Women's Health Association). You prepare a proposal and receive a positive response that the foundation will provide you with a $25,000 grant. One week later, a colleague from the network’s coordinating committee approaches you to discuss the network’s funding needs. I-20 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Scenario 3 Role-Play to Build Communication Skills Scenario 3 — Sender You are a member of an informal network of women leaders in the population and development field. As population issues gain greater visibility on the national agenda, your network has had several opportunities to speak to prominent policy makers. On these occasions, one of your network colleagues tends to do all the talking. Even when members of your group establish an agenda before a meeting, the colleague often ignores the agreement on who is to speak and instead discusses all the agenda items. Because the colleague’s behavior seems to follow a pattern, you decide to approach your colleague (the receiver) and tell her you think she is dominating the network’s strategic communication activities. Scenario 3 — Receiver You are a member of an informal network of women leaders in the population and development field. As population issues gain greater visibility on the national agenda, your network has had several opportunities to speak to prominent policy makers. Among your colleagues, you have the most extensive experience in communication. You have appeared many times on television and radio to talk about population issues. While you respect your colleagues a great deal, you recognize that some of them are not very skilled in communication. In some recent meetings with policymakers, you have taken the lead role in representing the views of your network. A colleague approaches you about changing the communication strategy. I-21 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Follow Up to Role-Plays (15 minutes) When the role-plays are completed, lead a general discussion on what participants observed. Use the following questions to guide the discussion: • Which scenario was the most difficult to play and why? • What were the most common behaviors observed? • How, if at all, did gender or culture influence the exchange? • What did you learn about your own style of communication? • What are the implications of the lessons learned for communication within the network, especially with respect to norms? By practicing good speaking and listening skills, network members will be able to communicate accurately and skillfully with one another as well as with supporters, policymakers, the media, and the general public. Good communication techniques will help advance the objectives of the network’s advocacy efforts. Distribute handouts for Unit 2. Teamwork, like good communication, is an essential component of successful networks. It is the topic of the next unit. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD I-22 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Background Notes Listening is an underrated skill! Most people believe that they get what they want through talking. Many successful people, however, spend more time listening than talking. When they talk, they often ask questions to learn more. To increase the likelihood of success in its advocacy efforts, members of a network have a responsibility to communicate with one another as effectively as possible. To do this, they must transmit their messages in a way that ensures that listeners understand the intent of the message. Similarly, members need to be able to interpret other speakers' messages as intended. Ideally, members of a network express their thoughts, feelings, and ideas openly. They listen carefully to others, and everyone feels free to put forth an idea. Conflicts and disagreements are viewed as natural and differences are talked out. In asking questions, for example, members know it is helpful to plan their questions in advance and to ask with a purpose. They tailor their questions to other members and follow general questions with more specific ones. They try to keep questions short and clear. Developing good communication skills is challenging. A network is more effective if all members strive to transmit their messages clearly and listen carefully to what others say. In that way, the knowledge, experience, and special expertise of members can be shared and used on behalf of the network’s objectives. Handout I.2.1 Family Life Education Misunderstood When a family life education curriculum was being introduced in Kenyan schools, religious groups were very vocal in their opposition. An advocacy team organized by the International Planned Parenthood Federation convened a seminar bringing together more than 100 leaders, including government ministers and representatives of local organizations. In the keynote address, the leader of the advocacy team presented the various religious perspectives—Muslim, Catholic, and other Christian—as well as the perspectives of organizations serving youth and legal and health institutions. After a day spent listening to one another and jointly discussing various perspectives, participants (with the exception of the Catholic Church representative) agreed the curriculum was vital for young people. Effective Communication: Understanding One Another I-23 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I St ra te gi es to Im pr ov e Co m m un ica tio n M es sa ge s en t M es sa ge re ce ive d Se nd er Re ce ive r M ES SA G E Be lie fs , Kn ow le dg e, A tt it ud es Be lie fs , Kn ow le dg e, A tt it ud es H an do ut I. 2. 2 Di st or ti ng F ac to rs Re ce ive r • Le ve l o f i nt er es t • In te rp re ta ti on • Pe rs on al f ee lin gs t ow ar d se nd er , m es sa ge • Ph ys ic al s ta te • De m an ds o n re ce ive r’s ti m e St ra te gi es t o Ov er co m e Di st or ti ng F ac to rs • Fe ed ba ck t ec hn iq ue s su ch as o pe n qu es ti on s • M ul ti pl e ch an ne ls • Re pe ti ti on • Fa ce -t o- fa ce in te ra ct io n • Si m pl e la ng ua ge • Li m it ed in fo rm at io n • Pa ra ph ra se Di st or ti ng F ac to rs Se nd er • W or d ch oi ce • To ne o f v oi ce • Pe rs on al fe el in gs t ow ar d re ce ive r, m es sa ge • Ph ys ic al s ta te • Ch oi ce o f e nv iro nm en t, t im e I-24 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Handout I.2.3 Observation Sheet for Role-Plays Use this sheet to record your observations about the communication techniques used during the role-plays. Note specific examples of effective and ineffective communication skills. Pay attention to the skills listed earlier on the flipchart (e.g., good/bad body language, appropriate/inappropriate tone of voice, supportive/nonsupportive tone of voice). Effective Communication Skills Ineffective Communication Skills I-25 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 2. EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATIONUNIT 2 SECTION I Handout I.2.4 Communicating Assertively and Listening Actively* Characteristics of assertive communication include ♦ Speaking in short, direct sentences; ♦ Using phrases such as “I think,” “I believe,” and “in my opinion” to show that you assume responsibility for your thoughts; ♦ Asking others to clarify what they are saying when you are not certain you understand them; ♦ Describing events objectively rather than exaggerating, embellishing, or distorting; and ♦ Maintaining direct and extended eye contact. Characteristics of active listening include ♦ Reacting to what people say by nodding, smiling, or using other actions that show you are listening; ♦ Paraphrasing what the speaker said to check that you understand; ♦ Asking for clarification when you are not completely clear about the meaning of something said; ♦ Not jumping to conclusions before the speaker is finished; and ♦ Phrasing questions in a way that the other person can respond in a manner of his/her choosing. * Adapted from CEDPA. Supervision Training Manual. 1996. Washington, DC: CEDPA. I-26 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I Cooperation Not Competition: Building a Team Background Notes Characteristics of successful networks—and other teams as well—include a climate of trust and openness, a sense of belonging to something important, and honest communication wherein diversity of experience is encouraged and flexibility and sensitivity to others is practiced. When mistakes are made, members see the mistakes as part of the learning process. Open discussions help members find the causes of problems without assigning blame. Members of effective networks recognize their interdependence and the need for each other’s special knowledge, skills, and resources. They know that together they can achieve results that as individuals they could not. Although effective networks often engage in a form of participatory leadership, they recognize that the role of the leader is that of a facilitator who • Listens carefully, • Creates a climate of trust, • Eliminates fear, • Acts as a role model, • Delegates tasks, • Shares information readily, • Motivates and empowers members, • Deals promptly with conflict, • Keeps network on track, and • Runs meetings effectively and efficiently. Members of effective networks practice cooperation, not competition. They take responsibility for their individual roles in advancing network objectives, but they value their team identity. In addition to pooling their skills and understanding, they recognize that the team approach provides mutual support. Advocacy requires hard work and a long-term commitment. It is easy for one person’s commitment and enthusiasm to wane. The synergy that comes from people working together productively on an important issue can sustain efforts, even through difficult times. I-27 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Describe behaviors that lead to team success, and • Describe the stages of team growth. 1 hour and 40 minutes • Newsprint, markers and tape • Overhead projector • Copies of handouts I.3.1 Background Notes I.3.2 Behaviors that Facilitate Team Success I.3.3 Stages of Team Growth • For Activity 2, cut five squares as shown in the Broken Squares Template at the end of Unit 3. • Use cardboard or heavy paper and make one set of the five broken square puzzles for each small group. • Write the rules for the Broken Squares exercise on newsprint. • For Activity 4, make overhead transparencies of “Stages of Team Growth”(4 pages). Introduction to Team–Building Time: 15 minutes Introduce Unit 3 by reviewing the objectives and making a brief presentation on team building. Major points to include in your introduction follow: • Members of effective networks function as a team. They know that they are interdependent and need each other’s special skills and abilities. They know that together they can achieve results that as individuals they could not. • Within the network “team,” the role of the leader resembles that of a facilitator—someone who listens carefully, creates trust and eliminates fear, delegates tasks, shares information, empowers other members, handles conflict, and keeps the network moving toward its goals. • Each member of the network is responsible for his/her individual contribution to develop a “team identity” among the members. • Advocacy requires hard work and a long-term commitment. It is easy for one person’s enthusiasm to wane. The synergy that comes from people working together on an important issue can sustain efforts, even through difficult times. • The purpose of Unit 3 is to help the participants recognize the importance of team-building within the network. Characteristics of effective networks include a climate of trust and openness, a sense of belonging to something important, and honest communication. I-28 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I Broken Squares Exercise Time: 45 minutes Note to Facilitator: The purpose of this exercise is to demonstrate the power of team problem solving. Do not share this purpose with the participants until the exercise is completed. 1. Divide participants into teams of five, and assign at least one observer to each team until all participants have been assigned. 2. Introduce the activity by explaining that the game the participants are about to play is a learning experience that will be discussed later. 3. Mix each set of 15 pieces and distribute three pieces at random to each of the five players on each team. 4. Instruct the teams, “Each member of your team has three pieces of paper. When I say ‘begin,’ the task for each of the five team members is to form five perfect squares of equal size. Your task will not be complete until each of you has a perfect square in front of you. The rules of the game are as shown:” ACTIVITY 2 Rules of Broken Squares √ No team member may speak √ Team members may not signal others to give them a piece of the puzzle √ Members may give pieces of their puzzle to other members of the team √ Observers will watch to ensure that members follow the rules √ You have 15 minutes to complete the task 5. Tell the teams to begin. 6. Call an end to the game after 15 minutes. 7. Show the players who were unable to complete the squares how to do so. 8. Analyze what happened during the game and discuss the lessons learned. Use the following questions to guide the discussion: • Who was willing to give away pieces of her/his puzzle? • Was anyone willing to give away all of his/her pieces? • Did anyone finish his/her puzzle and then separate from the rest of the group? • Did anyone break the rules? • Was there anyone who continually struggled with the pieces but was unwilling to give away any or all of the pieces? • Was there a critical point when members of the group began to cooperate? I-29 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I 9. Explain that the purpose of the game was to demonstrate the importance of cooperation in solving problems. People need to share what they know in order to find solutions. • What happens to the team when one person finishes and stops working on the team problem? • What happens if you ignore another person’s task? 10. Ask participants to think about their own organizations. • What have you noticed in your own organization that was demonstrated by this exercise? • What lessons did you learn about being a more effective team member? Behaviors that Contribute to Team Success Time: 20 minutes 1. Write the following heading on newsprint: “People on Successful Teams.” 2. Ask the full group to think about the behaviors and actions they observed during the game or in the course of other experiences that encouraged teamwork and led to successful outcomes. Ask participants to complete the phrase “People on successful teams.” 3. Write the responses on the flipchart. Be sure to include the following if not mentioned by participants: People on Succesful Teams. √ Clarify roles, relationships, assignments, and responsibilities√ Share leadership functions within the group and use all member resources√ Tolerate ambiguity, uncertainty, and a seeming lack of structure√ Take interest in each member’s achievements as well as those of the group√ Remain open to change, innovation, and creative problem solving√ Are commited to keep group communication on target and schedule, while permitting disagreements√ Promote constructive criticism and helpful feedback√ Foster trust, confidence, and commitment within the group√ Foster a norm that calls for members to support and respect one another and remain realistic in their expectations of one another ACTIVITY 3 Transition The Broken Squares exercise demonstrated quickly and clearly some behaviors that promote team work as well as some behaviors that inhibit team work. The discussion expanded on the characteristics of people who contribute to effective teams. It is easy to identify and even model these behaviors in a workshop setting; however, the real world of working in teams is very different. In real life, the tensions and expectations created when a group of diverse individuals come together to work on a shared task exert a strong influence on how and when the group becomes a “team.” It will happen—a team will emerge! The timing may vary, but all teams pass through similar stages of development on their way to becoming effective. The next activity explains these stages and reassures team members that the changes experienced by their team are normal. I-30 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I 1. Forming • Exploring boundaries • Moving from individual toward team status 2. Storming • Resisting collaboration • Experiencing anxiety 3. Norming • Determining team rules • Moving toward cooperation 4. Performing • Functioning as a team • Achieving objectives Stages of Team Growth STAGE 2: STORMING • Members realize task is different and more difficult • Decision-making process is not yet defined • Members are argumentative and short-tempered • Members resist collaboration— doubt success • Pressures prevent work from progressing • Members begin to understand each other STAGE 3: NORMING • Group norms established • Members accept roles and responsibilities • Conflict is reduced • Cooperation replaces competition • Feel relief that things will work out • Express criticism constructively • Differences resolved; time and energy spent on work 2. Using the notes from Handout I.3.3, present the transparencies on the characteristics of each stage of team growth. Stages of Team Growth Time: 20 minutes 1. Refer to the newsprint with the “Stages of Team Growth” model and introduce the four stages to the participants. STAGE 1: FORMING • Transition from individual to member status • Members explore acceptable group behavior • Feelings of excitement, anticipation and optimism • Suspicion, fear, and anxiety • Attempt to define tasks, responsibilities • Many distractions—little work accomplished ACTIVITY 4 STAGE 4: PERFORMING • Diagnosis and problem solving begins • Changes implemented • Members accept strengths and weaknesses • Satisfaction with team’s progress • Members develop attachment to one another • Team is cohesive and effective Stages of Team Growth I-31 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I 3. After the presentation of the four stages of team growth, lead a general discussion of the concept by asking questions such as • What stage is this network in now? How do you know? Note to Facilitator: Help the participants think about the characteristics and behaviors they are currently exhibiting and link those to one of the stages. New networks will be “forming” while older networks may be in the later stages. Ask the participants how they could reduce the length or severity of the difficult stages. • Why is it important and/or helpful to understand the stages of team growth? Note to Facilitator: Understanding the stages of team growth can help network members recognize and understand what is happening within their group at any given time. It can also help relieve negative feelings or frustration if the group knows it is experiencing the normal characteristics of growth. Members can discuss what is happening at any stage and help move through the hard times. Well-functioning teams get things done! After experiencing various difficulties in learning to work together and trust one another, teams develop clarity on their goals and specific roles. Members value clear communication and beneficial team behaviors. They have put in place procedures for group decision making and managing team logistics. Distribute handouts for Unit 3. A critical task of networks is making group decisions. When many and often diverse opinions are represented, group decision-making skills can facilitate the process. In the next unit, participants will practice group decision making and identify the steps in the process. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD I-32 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I Handout I.3.1 Cooperation Not Competition: Building a Team Background Notes Characteristics of successful networks—and other teams as well—include a climate of trust and openness, a sense of belonging to something important, and honest communication wherein diversity of experience is encouraged and flexibility and sensitivity to others is practiced. When mistakes are made, members see the mistakes as part of the learning process. Open discussions help members find the causes of problems without assigning blame. Members of effective networks recognize their interdependence and the need for each other’s special knowledge, skills, and resources. They know that together they can achieve results that as individuals they could not. Although effective networks often engage in a form of participatory leadership, they recognize that the role of the leader is that of a facilitator who ♦ Listens carefully, ♦ Creates a climate of trust, ♦ Eliminates fear, ♦ Acts as a role model, ♦ Delegates tasks, ♦ Shares information readily, ♦ Motivates and empowers members, ♦ Deals promptly with conflict, ♦ Keeps network on track, and ♦ Runs meetings effectively and efficiently. Members of effective networks practice cooperation, not competition. They take responsibility for their individual roles in advancing network objectives, but they value their team identity. In addition to pooling their skills and understanding, they recognize that the team approach provides mutual support. Advocacy requires hard work and a long-term commitment. It is easy for one person’s commitment and enthusiasm to wane. The synergy that comes from people working together productively on an important issue can sustain efforts, even through difficult times. I-33 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I Handout I.3.2 Behaviors that Facilitate Team Success* People on successful teams ♦ Clarify roles, relationships, assignments, and responsibilities. ♦ Share leadership functions within the group and use all member resources. ♦ Tolerate ambiguity, uncertainty, and a seeming lack of structure. ♦ Take interest in each member's achievements as well as those of the group. ♦ Remain open to change, innovation, and creative problem solving. ♦ Are committed to keep group communication on target and schedule while permitting disagreements. ♦ Promote constructive criticism and helpful feedback. ♦ Foster trust, confidence and commitment within the group. ♦ Foster a norm that calls for members to support and respect one another and remain realistic in their expectations of one another. * Adapted from Robert Moran and Philip Harris. 1982. Managing Cultural Synergy. Houston, TX: Gulf Pub. Co. I-34 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I Handout I.3.3 Stages of Team Growth: Forming, Storming, Norming, and Performing* As a team or network matures, members gradually learn to cope with emotional and group pressures. Generally, this happens in four stages. Stage 1 – Forming When a team or network is forming, members cautiously explore the boundaries of acceptable group behavior as they make the transition from individual to member status. Feelings in this stage include excitement, anticipation, and optimism as well as suspicion, fear, and anxiety about the work ahead. Members attempt to define the task at hand and decide how it will be accomplished. They also try to determine acceptable group behavior and how to deal with group problems. Because much is going on to distract members' attention, the group accomplishes little work. This is perfectly normal. Stage 2 – Storming This is probably the most difficult stage because members begin to realize that the task is different or more difficult than they imagined. They become testy, blameful, or overzealous. Still too inexperienced to know much about decision making, members argue about just what actions they should take, even when they agree on the issue facing them. They try to rely solely on their personal and professional experiences and tend to resist collaboration. Feelings include sharp fluctuations in attitude about the chances of success. These pressures mean that members have little energy to spend in meeting common goals, but they are beginning to understand one another. Stage 3 – Norming During this stage, members reconcile competing loyalties and responsibilities. They accept the team or network’s ground rules (or norms), their roles, and the individuality of each member. Emotional conflict is reduced as previously competitive relationships become more cooperative. Feelings include a new ability to express criticism constructively and relief that everything seems likely to work out. There is more friendliness as members confide in one another and discuss the team’s dynamics. As members begin to work out their differences, they have more time and energy to spend on their objectives and start making significant progress. Stage 4 – Performing Members begin diagnosing and solving problems and implementing changes. They have accepted each other’s strengths and weakness and learned their roles. They are satisfied with the team’s progress and feel a close attachment to one another. The team or network is now an effective, cohesive unit. *As cited in Peter R. Scholtes. 1998. The Team Handbook: How to Use Teams to Improve Quality. Madison. WI: Joiner Associates; and inspired by Bruce W. Tuckman. 1965. “Development Sequence in Small Groups.” Psychological Bulletin. I-35 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I Broken Squares Template I-36 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I • Tr an sit io n fro m in di vi du al to m em be r s tat us • M em be rs ex pl or e a cc ep tab le gr ou p be ha vi or • Fe eli ng s o f e xc ite m en t, an tic ip ati on , a nd o pt im ism • Su sp ici on , f ea r, an d an xi ety • A tte m pt to d ef in e t as ks , r es po ns ib ili tie s • M an y di str ac tio ns — lit tle w or k ac co m pl ish ed ST AG ES O F T EA M G RO W TH ST A G E 1: F O RM IN G I-37 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I ST A G E 2: S TO RM IN G • M em be rs re ali ze ta sk is d iff er en t a nd m or e d iff icu lt • D ec isi on -m ak in g pr oc es s i s n ot y et de fin ed • M em be rs ar e a rg um en tat iv e a nd sh or t-t em pe re d • M em be rs re sis t c ol lab or ati on — d ou bt su cc es s • Pr es su re s p re ve nt w or k fro m p ro gr es sin g • M em be rs be gi n to u nd er sta nd ea ch o th er I-38 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I • G ro up n or m s e sta bl ish ed • M em be rs ac ce pt ro les an d re sp on sib ili tie s • Co nf lic t i s r ed uc ed • Co op er ati on re pl ac es co m pe tit io n • Fe el re lie f t ha t t hi ng s w ill w or k ou t • Ex pr es s c rit ici sm co ns tru cti ve ly • D iff er en ce s r es ol ve d; ti m e a nd en er gy sp en t o n w or kST A G E 3: N O RM IN G I-39 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 3. COOPERATION NOT COMPETITIONUNIT 3 SECTION I • D iag no sis an d pr ob lem so lv in g be gi n • Ch an ge s i m pl em en ted • M em be rs ac ce pt st re ng th s a nd w ea kn es se s • Sa tis fa cti on w ith te am ’s pr og re ss • M em be rs de ve lo p att ac hm en t t o on e a no th er • Te am is co he siv e a nd ef fe cti ve ST A G E 4: P ER FO RM IN G I-40 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION Decision Making: Reaching Group Consensus Background Notes Members of networks are often called on to make hard decisions. Members may find themselves deciding whether to take on a difficult advocacy issue—one that has little popular support or is controversial or they may face the need to choose among pressing issues in response to limited resources. How well they work through the decision-making process is important to the overall success of their efforts. Preparation is an important element in decision making. To make informed choices, network members need information. They also need to know how to set limits on and goals for their discussion. Good listening and presentation skills contribute to the clarity of the discussion as does the ability to keep an emotional distance from the subject under discussion. The following are some guidelines for reaching agreement: • Make sure that everyone who wants to speak is heard from and feels that his/her position has been considered. • Talk through the issue under discussion until reaching an agreement that everyone can support. • Understand that agreement may not mean that all members of the network agree 100 percent; however, everyone should support the decision in principle. • Encourage members not to give in to reach agreement but rather to express differences of opinion. • Ask questions and make sure everyone’s opinion is considered before reaching a decision. By the end of this unit, participants will be able to demonstrate the steps in the decision-making process. 1 hour • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts I.4.1 Background Notes I.4.2 Six Steps for Decision Making • Copies of the three scenarios on group decision making for Activity 2 Write the task for Activity 2 on newsprint. I-41 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I ACTIVITY 1 ACTIVITY 2 Introduction to Decision Making Time: 5 minutes Introduce Unit 4 by reviewing the objective and making a brief presentation on decision making. Major points follow: • Network members will be called on repeatedly to make decisions. Some of these will be difficult decisions, such as choosing an advocacy issue. Members of a network may have strong feelings about reproductive health issues, and it may be necessary to choose among several important issues. Similarly, members may have different opinions on how to undertake advocacy activities or who should assume responsibility for tasks. • How efficient and how successful the network is depends in large part on how well the members work through the decision-making process. • The purpose of Unit 4 is to practice group decision making and to learn the steps for effective decision making. Exercise on Group Decision Making Time: 55 minutes 1. Divide participants into three groups. 2. Give each group copies of ONE scenario. 3. Refer to the newsprint and explain the task. 4. Stress that the group should focus on the process it used to reach the decision and NOT on the decision itself. 5. Ask each group to report back. 6. Distribute and review Handout I.4.2, “Six Steps for Decision Making”. 7. Ask the groups to review the steps in their decision-making process against the handout, comparing and contrasting similarities and differences. Task a. Read the scenario assigned to your group b. Explain how you reached your decision c. List on newsprint the steps you followed to reach the group decision d. Report back I-42 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD Exploring ideas and using participatory decision-making processes are central elements in building successful networks. It is in this way that individual members feel ownership of network activities. There are several key components to decision making, such as • Preparation, • Access to information, • Setting limits and goals in discussions, • Good listening and presentation skills, and • Keeping emotionally distant from the subject being discussed. The following are some simple guidelines for reaching agreement: • Make sure that everyone who wants to speak is heard from and feels that his/her position has been considered. • Talk through the issue under discussion until reaching an agreement that everyone can support. • Understand that agreement may not mean that all members of the network agree 100 percent; however, everyone should support the decision in principle. • Encourage members not to give in to reach agreement, but rather to express differences of opinion. • Ask questions and make sure everyone’s opinion is considered before reaching a decision. Distribute handouts for Unit 4. In the next unit, participants will put their decision-making skills to work as the network begins to develop a mission statement. I-43 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I Scenario 1 Group Decision Making You are the members of the executive management committee of a health clinic. The district’s health budget has been cut by 17 percent and your annual budget is to be reduced by the same amount. After considering various alternatives, committee members agree that they will have to eliminate one of two health education positions. One health educator—a 47-year-old grandmother who is highly regarded in the community—has 15 years of experience on the staff of the clinic. Prior to that, she was a community health volunteer. The second educator— a 23-year-old secondary school graduate—has new ideas on reaching youth. During the six months she has been a clinic employee, she has recruited dozens of new clients. Many of the new recruits are recent immigrants to the area. Task: Discuss the situation and reach a decision on which employee to dismiss. I-44 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I Scenario 2 Group Decision Making You are the members of the executive management committee of a health clinic. The district’s health budget has been cut by 17 percent and your annual budget is to be reduced by the same amount. An international donor has received a proposal from you and has tentatively approved your request for funding. The grant would cover 20 percent of your operating expenses as well as make additional funds available to produce outreach materials. The grant, however, is contingent on the clinic’s participation in a pilot program to introduce a contraceptive method which has not been used previously in your community. Task: Discuss the situation and reach a decision on whether to agree to accept the grant and participate in the pilot program. I-45 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I Scenario 3 Group Decision Making You are the members of the executive management committee of a health clinic. The district’s health budget has been cut by 17 percent and your annual budget is to be reduced by the same amount. Data in your district indicate a rise in the rate of teen pregnancy. The members of the committee agree that they want to provide services to youth and thus have established a Teen Advisory Board. The board’s representatives demand confidentiality in the provision of services. Parent and church groups, however, are opposed to the provision of services and demand that the clinic obtain permission from parents before distributing information and contraceptives to minors. Task: Discuss the situation and reach a decision on whether to require parental permission before providing teens with contraceptive education and services. I-46 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I Handout I.4.1 Decision Making: Reaching Group Consensus Background Notes Members of networks are often called on to make hard decisions. Members may find themselves deciding whether to take on a difficult advocacy issue—one that has little popular support or is controversial—or they may face the need to choose among pressing issues in response to limited resources. How well they work through the decision-making process is important to the overall success of their efforts. Preparation is an important element in decision making. To make informed choices, network members need information. They also need to know how to set limits on and goals for their discussion. Good listening and presentation skills contribute to the clarity of the discussion as does the ability to keep an emotional distance from the subject under discussion. The following are some guidelines for reaching agreement: ♦ Make sure that everyone who wants to speak is heard from and feels that his/her position has been considered. ♦ Talk through the issue under discussion until reaching an agreement that everyone can support. ♦ Understand that agreement may not mean that all members of the network agree 100 percent; however, everyone should support the decision in principle. ♦ Encourage members not to give in to reach agreement but rather to express differences of opinion. ♦ Ask questions and make sure everyone’s opinion is considered before reaching a decision. I-47 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 4. DECISION MAKINGUNIT 4 SECTION I Handout I.4.2 Six Steps for Decision Making Define decision-making process Define issue/problem Generate alternative solutions Assess alternative solutions Select the best alternative Implement and monitor decision I-48 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 Mission Statements: Creating a Common Purpose Background Notes One of the first tasks facing a network is to agree on a mission statement. This short statement is needed to focus the efforts of the network. Its purpose is to define the network’s philosophy, recruit and motivate members, and guide specific activities. Decisions on activities and more specific goals are reserved for later—after the network has been formed and members have assessed the political climate and built alliances with other individuals and organizations. A mission statement, however, is needed at the outset of organizing efforts. It clarifies—in the broadest of terms— what the network hopes to achieve. The statement should appear in newsletters, press releases, brochures, proposals, publications, and other documents. By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Describe the interests that make the group a network or potential network; • Define “mission statement” and describe its components; and • Draft a network mission statement. 2 hours and 15 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts I.5.1 Background Notes I.5.2 Mission Statements I.5.3 Guidelines for Writing a Mission Statement I.5.4 Examples of Mission Statements I.5.5 Sample Logos Select five different mission statements from Handout I.5.4. Write each statement on a separate sheet of newsprint, leaving space at the bottom of the sheet for comments. Hang the newsprint sheets around the room. What Is a Mission Statement? Time: 15 minutes Note to Facilitator: The participants have come together because they share an interest—whether vague or well defined—in advocating for improvements in reproductive health. In this unit, we will try to define that interest in precise terms. 1. Ask participants to define “mission statement.” 2. Write their responses on newsprint. I-49 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I 3. Revise and refine the definition until everyone agrees with it. The final definition should include the elements in the following statement: 4. Discuss why mission statements are needed. • To guide the efforts of the network and its members. • To clarify what the network hopes to achieve. Characteristics of Good Mission Statements Time: 45 minutes 1. Refer participants to the examples of mission statements that are displayed around the room. 2. Ask the participants to circulate around the room, read each statement, and write comments on the newsprint about the positive and/or negative aspects of the statements. 3. When participants finish, review the comments on the newsprint and summarize with the group the characteristics of good mission statements. 4. Write the characteristics on a flipchart and be certain that the list includes the following: 5. Ask participants to share their own organizational mission statements. 6. If time allows, write a few of the statements on newsprint and post them. Writing a Mission Statement for the Network Time: 45 minutes Note to Facilitator: The purpose of the exercise is to develop a preliminary draft of a mission statement. Several hours and often days may be needed to discuss fully the content of the statement and to arrive at consensus. Furthermore, key members of the network may not be present at the workshop. They must have an opportunity later on to contribute to the statement. Triads (30 minutes) 1. Distribute and review Handout I.5.3, Guidelines for Writing a Mission Statement. 2. Divide the participants into triads and ask each group to draft a mission statement for the network that is represented at the workshop. 3. After each group has finished its draft mission statement, ask the groups to post their statements around the room. ACTIVITY 2 ACTIVITY 3 Mission Statement: A declaration of organizational purpose. Mission Statements are. √ Clear and concise √ Short—a few lines or a short paragraph √ Representative of the organization’s identity √ Motivational or inspirational I-50 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I Group Discussion and Consensus (15 minutes) 1. Guide a discussion of each proposed mission statement in turn. Indicate in colored markers the elements of each statement that the participants like or do not like. 2. Help the group reach consensus on a draft mission statement. 3. Write the new mission statement on the newsprint and post. Note to Facilitator: Help reach agreement on one mission statement by starting with the most well-liked statement and adapting it to the suggestions of the group or by writing with all the participants, a new mission statement that includes various components of the statements liked best by the group. Transition Developing a network mission statement is an important step in creating network identity. There are other network characteristics that can contribute to a sense of identity for members, particularly the network’s name and logo. The name and logo send a clear and concise message about the network’s areas of interest and even its general character. Deciding on a name and logo that accurately represent current members and will help attract prospective members is a task demanding the input and agreement of all members. Creating a Network Identity: Name and Logo Time: 30 minutes 1. Divide participants into four groups. 2. Ask two of the groups to come up with 2-3 potential names for the network; ask the other two groups to design 2-3 sample logos for the network. 3. Write the suggested names from the small groups on the newsprint. Ask the participants for general reactions to the various names. 4. Post the logos designed by the other two groups and ask for the participants’ reactions. 5. Use the following questions to facilitate a general discussion of the proposed names and logos: • Does anyone have strong opinions in favor of any of the names and logos? • Why are those names preferred? • Why do people like certain logos? What messages do the different logos convey? • Why is it so important to choose the right name and design the right logo? Members of a network must participate in answering questions of who they are, as an organization, what they do, and so on. A mission statement that grows out of the discussions about these questions will be a key element in recruiting, retaining, and motivating members and guiding the work of the network. Distribute handouts for Unit 5. In the final unit of Section I, participants will work together to make decisions about how the network does its work—its structure and management. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD ACTIVITY 4 I-51 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I Handout I.5.1 Mission Statements: Creating a Common Purpose Background Notes One of the first tasks facing a network is to agree on a mission statement. This short statement is needed to focus the efforts of the network. Its purpose is to define the network’s philosophy, recruit and motivate members, and guide specific activities. Decisions on activities and more specific goals are reserved for later—after the network has been formed and members have assessed the political climate and built alliances with other individuals and organizations. A mission statement, however, is needed at the outset of organizing efforts. It clarifies—in the broadest of terms—what the network hopes to achieve. The statement should appear in newsletters, press releases, brochures, proposals, publications, and other documents. I-52 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I Handout I.5.2 Mission Statements* Members of networks are called on to make hard decisions. They may have to decide whether to take on a controversial issue (one that has little popular support), whether to set limits on activities because of limited resources, or whether to join forces with competitors or adversaries for the sake of achieving a common goal. The best single guide for making these decisions is the network’s mission statement. Definition: A mission statement is a declaration of organizational purpose. Purpose: Its purpose is to guide the decisions of the organization, motivate or inspire its members, and inform the public of its philosophy. Development of a Mission Statement: A mission statement distills the discussions that are carried on to answer the following questions: 1. Who are we? What is the identity of the organization in the eyes of its members? What makes this organization different? 2. In general, what are the basic social or political needs that we hope to address? 3. In general, what do we do to recognize, anticipate, and respond to these needs or problems? Answering this question means that the organization must listen to the needs or problems of the outside world. 4. How should we respond to our key stakeholders? What do stakeholders value and how can the organization provide them with what they value? 5. What are our philosophy, values, and culture? Clarifying its own philosophy, values, and culture helps an organization develop consistent strategies and maintain its integrity. 6. What makes us distinctive and unique? Reaching consensus on answers to these questions takes hours and even days of discussion. Handout I.5.3 provides guidelines for writing a mission statement after discussions have taken place. ______________________ *John M. Bryson.1995. Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organizations. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Pp. 75-78. I-53 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I Handout I.5.3 Guidelines for Writing a Mission Statement* The choice of the specific words that go into a mission statement can and should generate intense discussion. These words give the statement its character and distinguish the organization from all others. Preparation. Before writing your mission statement, consider the following: 1. Deciding who will write the statement. People who participate in developing the mission statement will have a deeper understanding of its message. Therefore, participation in the process by all members of the network is desireable. If this is not practical because of the number or geographic location of network members, those who do not write the statement must review and approve the final wording. 2. Setting a deadline for completing the draft and final statements. Deadlines will keep the writers on target and limit lengthy philosophical discussions. 3. Developing a plan for reviewing draft statements and reaching consensus on the final wording, publication, and dissemination. Drafting the statement. Focus initially on answering the six questions posed in Handout I.5.2. Then, to get started on the statement itself, brainstorm a list of key words and phrases and begin to create a mission statement from the words and phrases. Reaching consensus. The following are some guidelines for reaching agreement: ♦ Make sure that everyone who wants to speak is heard from and that his/her position is considered. ♦ Encourage members to express differences of opinion. ♦ Talk through the issue under discussion until reaching agreement. ♦ Ask questions and make sure that everyone's opinion is understood before reaching a decision. ♦ Recognize that agreement may mean that everyone can support the decision, even if the decision does not reflect his or her first preference. *Adapted from Jeffrey Abrahams. 1995. The Mission Statement Book: 301 Corporate Mission Statements from America’s Top Companies. Ten Speed Press. Pp. 63–65. I-54 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I Handout I.5.4 Examples of Mission Statements Examples of mission statements from organizations working in FP/RH and development include the following: ♦ We want to gain the support of influential community groups (religious bodies; doctors; women's organizations; teachers; the press) as well as the general public, especially parents, in our efforts to influence our political leaders to make services available to young people. ♦ We are working to support the basic and internationally recognized right of all women and men to the knowledge and means to make reproductive choices. ♦ To empower women at all levels of society to be full partners in development (CEDPA). ♦ The Ghana Social Marketing Foundation uses the techniques of social marketing to empower and inspire families and individuals to achieve an improved quality of life. We do this by making available effective, affordable and accessible family planning and maternal and child health products and services and providing correct information to enable families and individuals to make informed choices. ♦ InterAction, a membership association of 152 U.S. private voluntary organizations, exists to enhance the effectiveness and professional capacities of its members engaged in international humanitarian efforts. Further, InterAction exists to foster partnership, collaboration, leadership, and the power of this community to speak as one voice as we strive to achieve a world of self-reliance, justice, and peace. ♦ To unite knowledge, resources, and skills of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) working on women’s issues to advocate for policies and programs that will improve the quality of life of women in Turkey (KIDOG, Advocacy Network for Women). ♦ To support the building of national and international women’s health movements (International Women’s Health Coalition). I-55 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 5. MISSION STATEMENTSUNIT 5 SECTION I Handout I.5.5 The AIDS Control an Prevention Project, Family Health International Arlington, VA, USA Ucan Supurge (Flying Broom) Ankara, Turkey Association of Women’s Rights Protection Istanbul, Turkey Advocacy Network for Women Istanbul, Turkey National Network for The Promotion of Women Lima, Peru Romanian Association Against AIDS Bucharest, Romania Amman, Jordan Amman, Jordan Sample Logos I-56 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I OBJECTIVES TIME Putting It All Together: Managing the Network Background Notes It is important for members forming a network to take time to determine how they will manage the logistics of their efforts. For example, will their meetings be held on an ad hoc basis or scheduled regularly on a monthly or biweekly basis? While meetings can be time consuming and frustrating, they are necessary if the network is to meet its objectives. The challenge is to make meetings as productive and brief as possible by following basic rules such as using agendas, engaging a facilitator, taking minutes, drafting the next meeting’s agenda, and evaluating the meeting at its conclusion. Based on the skills and professional expertise of members, what will be the roles of individuals within the network? Will responsibilities be shared through task forces or committees? Should a steering committee be elected to oversee activities? Would a rotating coordination mechanism be appropriate? How will an identity be established for the network? What will the network be called? Are financial resources available for such things as letterhead and postage? If not, how will members stay in touch? Details such as these should be decided in the planning stage of a network. They can be revised later if necessary. Keeping members informed and involved is another crucial consideration. Communication maintains trust and interest. It also minimizes misunderstandings and identifies points of disagreement before they become serious problems. Members should receive minutes from meetings, updates, press releases, and information on future events. Are funds and a mechanism in place for this communication? By spending time at the outset to determine how their network should function, members can avoid numerous problems and misunderstandings later. Once management questions have been worked out, network members are free to concentrate efforts on achieving their advocacy objectives. By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Identify the resources that members bring to the network as individuals and representatives of organizations; • Identify operational issues of organization and structure; • Develop a plan for solving these operational issues; and • Describe norms of network member behavior. 3 hours and 50 minutes I-57 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I MATERIALS HANDOUTS ACTIVITY 1 • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts I.6.1 Background Notes I.6.2 Organizational/Member Resources Inventory I.6.3 Member Skills Inventory I.6.4 Guidelines for Productive Meetings I.6.5 Organizational Structures for Advocacy Networks Read Background Notes in preparation for Activity 1. Introduction to Managing the Network Time: 5 minutes Introduce Unit 6 by reviewing the objectives and making a brief presentation that includes the following major points: • Up to this point, the participants have done considerable work to establish the beginnings of a network. They have − recruited network members who represent their own personal networks; − drafted a mission statement that describes the network’s reason for being; − devised a name (or suggested names) for the network that identifies its interests and identity; and − designed a logo (or suggested ideas) that creatively depicts what the network finds important. • But sustaining a network demands more than mission, name, and identity—it takes organization, structure, systems, and resources. • It is important for members to take the time and make decisions about such things as: − how to keep members informed; − when will meetings be held and who will decide the agenda; − what will be the roles and responsibilities of members; − what financial resources are required; and − are financial resources available? • By spending time at the outset to decide how the network should function, members can avoid numerous problems and misunderstandings later on. • When management issues are addressed, members are free to concentrate on achieving their advocacy objectives. • The first activity in this unit involves network members in conducting an inventory of the skills and resources that members and their respective organizations bring to the network. The information will facilitate decision making about members’ roles and responsibilities and the activities to be implemented. PREPARATION I-58 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I ACTIVITY 2 Resource InventoryTime: 1 hour and 15 minutes Individual Work (15 minutes) 1. Distribute the Organizational/Member Resources Inventory (Handout I.6.2) and the Member Skills Inventory (Handout I.6.3) to all participants to complete for themselves and their organizations. 2. Explain that the first form looks at resources available within the participant’s own organization or offered by the participant her/himself. The second form looks at the skills of the participant only. If two or more participants belong to the same organization, they should work together to complete one Organizational/Member Resources Inventory. Group Analysis of Information (1 hour) 1. Ask one participant to compile all the information from the following discussion onto one inventory form. The form will be an important resource for the network. 2. In the large group, read each item on the Organizational/Member Resources Inventory and discuss: • Whether the resources are available and where—this information should be recorded on one inventory form; • If not available, whether the resource may be needed by the network; • If needed, how it can be obtained; and • Whether other supplies, equipment, or resources should be added to the list. 3. Summarize and compile the information from the Member Skills Inventory in the same way. 4. At the end of the activity, there will be a list of missing resources and skills and some ideas on how to secure the needed items. There will also be master lists of Organizational/Member Resources and Member Skills, both of which should go into a Network Resource Notebook. 5. Collect the individual inventories and photocopy them for the Network Resource Notebook. Note to Facilitator: The network may want to make the acquisition of the needed resources and skills one of the activities that members must plan in upcoming meetings. I-59 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I Network Organization and Structure Time: 2 hours and 15 minutes Brainstorming (15 minutes) 1. Refer to your introduction where you discussed several management decisions that must be made to help organize and structure the network’s operations. 2. Ask the participants to brainstorm a list of issues that must be addressed if a network is to operate effectively and efficiently. Write their issues on the flipchart. This list should, at a minimum, include the following: Classification of Issues (15 minutes) 1. Most of the issues identified during the brainstorming exercise will fall into two major categories as follows: • Network Organizational Structure. Issues of structure include leadership roles; member responsibilities; setting meeting schedules; use of steering or management committees, task forces and/or subcommittees; membership dues/fees, etc. • Network Communication. Communication issues include systems for informing members of meetings and new developments, communicating with other groups/networks, establishing and maintaining record-keeping systems, etc. 2. Review the list on the newsprint and ask the group to classify each item as belonging to “Network Organizational Structure” or “Network Communication.” Using colored markers, write “S” (structure) or “C” (communication) next to each item depending on the group’s classification. ACTIVITY 3 Issues of Organization and Structure for the Network √ Identification of organizations and individuals who can supply needed skills and resources √ Scheduling and conducting meetings √ Recruiting new members √ Communication—providing information to members √ Structure—who is in charge of coordinating, communicating, allocating tasks, etc. √ Strategic planning process √ Record-keeping responsibilities √ Financial responsibilities—budgeting, fundraising, accounting I-60 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I Working Groups (1 hour) 1. Ask participants to self-select either “Structure” or “Communication” to work on in small groups. Depending on the number of participants interested in each topic, form working groups of no more than seven participants each. 2. Ask each group to review the issues listed for its topic to ensure uniform understanding of the issue, and to develop specific recommendations for how the network should address each issue. Ask each group to write its recommendations on newsprint. For example, the “structure” groups might suggest a specific organizational chart showing leadership and/or decision- making structures (examples from other networks are included in Handout I.6.5) or make recommendations for meeting schedules and meeting structure. The “communication” groups might recommend systems for communication within the network, types of data to collect, and record-keeping systems, etc. 3. After the small groups have worked for about 45 minutes, ask all of the “structure” groups to join together and all of the “communication” groups to join together to share and organize their recommendations, eliminate duplications, and decide how to present their recommendations to the full group. The groups do not need to reach consensus on their recommendations; they may simply present several suggestions to the full group. Group Presentations and Discussion (45 minutes) 1. Ask the groups to present their recommendations in whatever format and manner they have chosen. 2. After each group’s presentation, facilitate a discussion with the entire group to try to reach agreement on some of the recommended guidelines for managing the network. Record the decisions on newsprint. 3. Similarly, help the group highlight outstanding issues that need to be resolved at some future date. Record these issues on newsprint. For example, Network Agrees to: √ Meet formally at least 10 times a year √ Rotate meeeting sites, facilitators, and note takers √ Develop bylaws √ Establish a steering committee and vote for committee members √ Set up a communication system Network Needs to: √ Survey members for communication preferences √ Review skills inventory and design database √ Decide on subcommittee/task force structure √ Design member recruitment strategy √ Decide on fees/dues structure Note to Facilitator: Participants should recognize that some decisions regarding network operations and management may be made at this time but that not all issues can be decided during the workshop—especially if some organization members are absent or data are unavailable. For this reason, the exercise should focus on recording decisions made by the participants, identifying issues not yet resolved, and making plans for how the network will address them. Suggest to the group that some of these issues can be placed on the agenda for the next meeting of the network. I-61 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I ACTIVITY 4 SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD Follow-Up Meeting Time: 15 minutes 1. Review both lists from above and ask the participants to identify items that they would like to put on the agenda for their next network meeting. Highlight these items with colored markers. For example, a final decision on the network's name and logo, identification of specific committees, assigning priority to remaining issues, etc. 2. Ask participants to decide on a meeting date and site and solicit volunteers to draft the agenda and contact absent members. Management of a network is an ongoing, democratic process that requires input and involvement from as many members as possible. It is best to consider and agree on the main structure for the network at the outset of network formation. Members can then turn their attention to the work they want to accomplish, secure in the knowledge that they have a management plan in place to make the network operate as efficiently as possible. Distribute handouts for Unit 6. Section I of this manual focused on internal considerations: forming a network, building communication and team skills, understanding the decision-making process, drafting a mission statement, and managing the network. Section II helps the network to begin looking outward. It is designed to assist participants in understanding the policy process and determining what advocacy opportunities exist within a particular political context. I-62 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I Handout I.6.1 Putting It All Together: Managing the Network Background Notes It is important for members forming a network to take time to determine how they will manage the logistics of their efforts. For example, will their meetings be held on an ad hoc basis or scheduled regularly on a monthly or biweekly basis? While meetings can be time consuming and frustrating, they are necessary if the network is to meet its objectives. The challenge is to make meetings as productive and brief as possible by following basic rules such as using agendas, engaging a facilitator, taking minutes, drafting the next meeting’s agenda and evaluating the meeting at its conclusion. Based on the skills and professional expertise of members, what will be the roles of individuals within the network? Will responsibilities be shared through task forces or committees? Should a steering committee be elected to oversee activities? Would a rotating coordination mechanism be appropriate? How will an identity be established for the network? What will the network be called? Are financial resources available for such things as letterhead and postage? If not, how will members stay in touch? Details such as these should be decided in the planning stage of a network. They can be revised later if necessary. Keeping members informed and involved is another crucial consideration. Communication maintains trust and interest. It also minimizes misunderstandings and identifies points of disagreement before they become serious problems. Members should receive minutes from meetings, updates, press releases, and information on future events. Are funds and a mechanism in place for this communication? By spending time at the outset to determine how their network should function, members can avoid numerous problems and misunderstandings later. Once management questions have been worked out, network members are free to concentrate efforts on achieving their advocacy objectives. I-63 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I Handout I.6.2 Organizational/Member Resources Inventory Co m pu te r Pr in te r Sc an ne r In te rn et W eb P ag e E- m ai l Fa x Co pi er Of fic e Sp ac e M ee ti ng R oo m Ve hi cl e M em be rs hi p L is t Organizational/Member Resources Organization/Member 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 I-64 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I W or d Pr oc es si ng Da ta ba se M an ag em en t Tr ai ni ng Re se ar ch Fi na nc ia l M an ag em en t Le ga l/R eg ul at or y Is su es Po lic y A na ly si s Fu nd ra is in g M ed ia Pu bl ic S pe ak in g G ra ph ic s an d De si gn La ng ua ge : La ng ua ge : Member Skills Member Name 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 Handout I.6.3 Member Skills Inventory I-65 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I Handout I.6.4 Guidelines for Productive Meetings* The following general rules for conducting productive and orderly meetings have been tested time and time again in countless settings around the world. Use an Agenda Each meeting should have an agenda, preferably one drafted at the previous meeting and developed in detail by one or two members prior to the next meeting. If possible, it should be sent to members in advance. (If an agenda has not already been developed, the first 5-10 minutes of the meeting should be devoted to creating an agenda on a flipchart.) Agendas should include the topics to be discussed and why, the presenters and time limits. Included too should be the item type and whether it requires a decision or is just an announcement. Meetings should start with a review of the agenda, adding or deleting items depending on the sense of the group and modifying time estimates. Engage a Facilitator Each meeting should have a facilitator who is responsible for keeping the meeting focused and moving; intervening if the discussion fragments into multiple conversations; tactfully preventing anyone from dominating the meeting or being overlooked; and bringing discussions to a close. This role may be rotated among network members. The facilitator should also notify the group when the time allotted for an agenda item has expired or is about to expire. Members must then decide either to continue the discussion at the expense of other agenda items or to postpone further discussion until another meeting. Take Notes At each meeting, someone should record key topics and the main points raised, decisions made (including who has agreed to do what and by when), and items that the group has agreed to address later. Members can use the notes to reconstruct discussions, remind themselves of decisions or actions to be taken, or see what happened at a meeting they missed. Rotate the minute-taking responsibility among members. Draft Next Agenda At the end of the meeting, draft an agenda for the next meeting. Evaluate the Meeting Close by taking a few minutes to review and evaluate each meeting, even if agenda items go overtime. The evaluation should include decisions on what to do to improve future meetings and helpful feedback from the facilitator. *Adapted from Peter R. Scholtes. 1998. The Team Handbook: How to Use Teams to Improve Quality. Madison, WI: Joiner Associates, Pp 4-6. I-66 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL I. THE POWER OF NUMBERS 6. PUTTING IT ALL TOGETHERUNIT 6 SECTION I H an do ut I. 6. 5 Th e m em be rs o f t hi s ne tw or k d ivi de d th em se lve s in to fo ur c om m it te es or t ea m s, a cc or di ng t o in di vi du al e xp er ti se o r in te re st . T he co m m it te es a re o rg an iz ed a cc or di ng t o au di en ce o r fu nc ti on . Th e ne tw or k de ve lo pe d a vis io n, m is si on s ta te m en t, a nd a ct io n pl an a nd ea ch c om m it te e im pl em en ts t he a ct io n pl an a m on g it s st ak eh ol de r gr ou p. Th e co or di na ti ng c om m it te e co ns is ts o f fo ur m em be rs , o ne le ad er fr om e ac h su b- co m m it te e. T he m em be rs o f t he c oo rd in at in g co m m it te e ro ta te o n a ye ar ly b as is . Or ga niz at ion al St ru ctu re s f or A dv oc ac y Ne tw or ks : Tw o Ex am ple s In th is n et wo rk , m em be rs o rg an ize d th em se lve s in to th em at ic te am s ac co rd in g to th e n et wo rk ’s ke y a re as o f a dv oc ac y. E ac h “is su e t ea m ” is re sp on si bl e fo r d oi ng it s ow n da ta g at he rin g, c om m un ic at io n pl an , an d ac ti on p la n. A n el ec te d ch ai rp er so n re pr es en ts e ac h is su e te am o n th e co or di na ti ng c om m it te e. A s in gl e ne tw or k c oo rd in at or wa s el ec te d by t he n et wo rk t o co or di na te a ct ivi ti es , f ac ili ta te co m m un ic at io n flo w, a nd o rg an iz e m on th ly n et wo rk m ee ti ng s. Co or di na ti ng Co m m it te e (in cl ud in g on e m em be r fr om e ac h of t he 4 co m m it te es ) Co m m it te e on Di al og ue w it h Po lic ym ak er s (5 m em be rs ) Co m m it te e on Re se ar ch a nd D at a (6 m em be rs ) Co m m it te e on Bu ild in g Co al it io ns wi th o th er N G Os (7 m em be rs ) Co m m it te e on Li ai so n wi th M as s M ed ia (4 m em be rs ) Re pr od uc ti ve Ri gh ts C om m . Ch ai r FP S er vic es Co m m it te e Ch ai r A do le sc en t Co m m it te e Ch ai r Co or di na ti ng C om m it te e Ne tw or k Co or di na to r I-67 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESSUNIT 1 SECTION II ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES: ASSESSING THE POLICY ENVIRONMENT Everyone has the right to take part in the government of his country. Excerpted from Article 21, Universal Declaration of Human Rights U.N. General Assembly, December 10, 1948 Introduction A critical element in the success of any advocacy effort is a thorough understanding of the opportunities that exist for influencing the policy process—nationally, regionally, or locally. In Section I, participants worked through the steps necessary to put together an effective network. Now, network members will learn to determine how—given the realities of their particular political environment—the policy process works and what they can realistically expect to achieve at the policy level. This assessment is important because it focuses the network’s efforts on what is potentially attainable. Policymaking—a course of action dealing with a problem or matter of concern— occurs within a web of interacting forces. Involved are multiple sources of information, complex power relations, and changing institutional arrangements. These factors feed into three main processes: problem recognition, the formation and refinement of policy proposals, and politics. Some issues are probably settled by facts, analysis, and persuasion. Others are determined by vote, bargaining, or delegation to someone in authority. In all cases, decision makers are generally forced to make policy choices under conditions of ambiguity and uncertainty. Therefore, policy analysis demands a focus on what is actually done as opposed to what is proposed or intended. Policies create a framework by which government affects the behavior of millions of people. For FP/RH, policies are tools to promote access to services or to deny, obstruct, or condition the availability of services. By providing special clinic and education services to teens, for example, a government demonstrates sensitivity to adolescent sexuality; by restricting certain medical procedures such as nonphysician insertion of IUDs, a government erects barriers to reproductive health services. Effective policy action begins with study and research. It may not be easy to determine the processes by which a country formulates and implements reproductive health policies, particularly if the government’s decision making is complex or in transition from a top-down to a more decentralized process. It is important, however, to identify as accurately as possible the various factors that affect policy development decisions so that appropriate strategies can be adopted to influence the policymaking process. Identifying these factors will help the network use its resources in a manner that maximizes impact. II-1 UNIT 1 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESS The first step in the process is to review how the policy process works in the network’s particular setting. In Unit 1, workshop participants will combine their knowledge about how policy is formulated and implemented, delineate the steps in the policy formulation process, and develop a visual map to illustrate how policy decisions are crafted in their country. In Unit 2, participants will move from the general policy arena to the FP/RH policy environment. They will assess the current political climate and refine the policy map to reflect information about how the government’s priorities are determined for FP/RH policy. Participants will also look for linkages with other policy areas that can potentially affect the network’s priorities. Identifying relevant issues for the network’s advocacy efforts is the focus of Unit 3. Participants will rank reproductive health issues for their network’s advocacy efforts and then match the issues with perceived opportunities. The final activity will help participants reach agreement on a specific issue for their network’s advocacy campaign. II-2 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESSUNIT 1 SECTION II Fortunately, countries around the world are moving away from highly centralized frameworks. There is a growing emphasis on the notion of civil society. Civil society institutions—family, community, professional associations, NGOs, and religious institutions—are seen as an appropriate arena for organizing governance. New forms of decision making are emerging and undergoing refinement. Governments and international donor agencies are recognizing that NGOs can and do play an important role in this process by serving as bridges—or policy champions—between civil society and policymakers at all levels of government. Many governments, however, remain ambivalent about encouraging NGO and citizen participation in the policy process. They may recognize the importance of citizen participation, but they are reluctant to risk challenges to their policies and actions. Often, too, they lack appropriate mechanisms for involving citizens in the affairs of state. Regardless of a country’s political system or level of receptivity to popular participation, the network's efforts in the government arena will target branches such as the executive, legislature/parliament, judiciary, government ministries and agencies, local officials, and, in some cases, even the police or military. Members need to identify the opportunities for influencing the policy process—whether at the national level where discussions are focused on broad policy issues and official national policies or at the operational level where specific resource allocation and service delivery guidelines are formulated. To be able to identify opportunities, the network first needs to understand the formal rules and procedures its country uses to make policy decisions. The Policy Process: Government in Action Background Notes Policy formulation is a high- level overall plan or course of action embracing the general goals and acceptable procedures of government body. It is a highly political process. No two countries in the world formulate policy in exactly the same way, even in democracies. But even in highly centralized countries, the government is seen as the vehicle to bring about social and economic development and growth. In these countries, however, the ruling elite frequently does not have the political will to act in a way that serves the public good. Political and economic interests often dictate the actions of the elite. Policies Without Programs Côte d'Ivoire has had an official and fairly supportive policy on population for many years, but the government has yet to translate the law into the actual provision of family planning services. II-3 UNIT 1 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESS OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION By the end of this unit, participants will be able to explain and illustrate how the policy process works in their country. 3 hours and 15 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts II.1.1 Background Notes II.1.2 Country X: Policy Process Map • Collect information and resource materials on how policy is formulated and/or examples of national policies advanced by your country. • Identify and invite a local policy expert to make the opening presentation for Activity 2 by addressing the policy process and your country’s system of governance. The invited speaker should have a comprehensive understanding of how policy is formulated and implemented. A good speaker might be a professor of political science, a policy analyst, a professional lobbyist, a high-ranking government official, or a parliamentarian. • Provide the guest speaker with the list of questions presented in Activity 2 and the example of a policy map. Emphasize that his/her presentation should address the questions and include a visual depiction of the general policy process followed in your country. Explain that the purpose of the presentation is to strengthen the policy skills of an advocacy network. Ask the presenter to speak for a maximum of one hour and to allow time for questions and discussion within that time period. • Write the discussion questions for Activity 2 on newsprint and post. • For Activity 3, draw the Policy Process Map on newsprint. II-4 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESSUNIT 1 SECTION II ACTIVITY 1 Introduction to the Policy ProcessTime: 15 minutes Introduce Section II and Unit 1 by reviewing the objective and making a brief presentation on the importance of understanding the policy environment. Major points to include in your presentation follow: • A critical element in the success of any advocacy effort is a thorough understanding of the policy process in the network’s country. This understanding includes how RH issues are identified; how policies are formulated and implemented; which institutions and individuals are involved; what are the roles, relationships, and balance of power among institutions and individuals; and how, when, and where to act to achieve maximum impact from advocacy efforts. • An in-depth knowledge of the policy environment can help the network identify and recognize advocacy opportunities and critical points of entry both to influence the policy process and guide the network’s selection of advocacy issues. • In addition to understanding the formal rules and procedures that the government follows to make policy decisions, networks should monitor the political, economic, sociocultural, and technological environments to keep abreast of emerging issues and the positions of government, political, religious and local leaders with respect to these issues. Opportunities to influence policy and policymakers can arise at any time. • In many countries, government and political leaders remain skeptical, if not fearful, of NGOs and other representatives of civil society participating in the policy arena. • There is a common perception among policymakers that NGOs lack the experience, skills, and knowledge required for policy analysis and formulation. This perception leads to a reluctance or refusal to listen to or collaborate with networks in their advocacy efforts. • Consequently, it is vital that network members demonstrate a clear and accurate understanding of the process followed and the players involved in making policy decisions. • The purpose of Section II is to help network members gain insights and skills that will strengthen the network’s credibility and professionalism and enhance individuals’ ability to engage in dialogue with policymakers. Transition In preparation for the expert presentation, review the discussion questions that are posted and explain that the questions will guide the presentation. Remind participants to refer to the questions during the presentation, note when each question is addressed, and record the corresponding answer. II-5 UNIT 1 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESS ACTIVITY 2 How Policy Is MadeTime: 1 hour and 30 minutes Expert Presentation (1 hour) 1. Introduce the speaker. 2. After the presentation, facilitate a question-and-answer session that includes any discussion questions not already answered in the presentation. 3. Thank the presenter and conclude the activity. Brainstorming (10 minutes) 1. Write “Examples of Policies” as a heading on newsprint. 2. Ask participants to brainstorm any examples of policies currently in place (regardless of the sector) and list their responses on the newsprint. Examples of Policies √ National AIDS Policy √ Minimum of 8 years of formal education √ No smoking inside public buildings √ Limitations on distribution of contraceptives by nonmedical personnel Discussion Questions: How Policy Is Made 1. How are ideas or issues generated for new or revised policies? 2. How is a proposed issue introduced into the formal decision-making process? 3. What is the process for discussing, debating, and, perhaps, altering the proposal? Who are the players involved? 4. How is the proposal approved or rejected? 5. If approved, what are the steps to move the proposal to the next level of decision making? II-6 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESSUNIT 1 SECTION II ACTIVITY 3 Group Discussion (20 minutes) 1. Refer to the discussion questions on the newsprint and relate each question to ONE of the policies listed during the brainstorming session. For example, with respect to the National AIDS Policy, • Where or how was the idea/issue related to the National AIDS Policy generated? • How was the issue introduced into the formal policymaking process? • What was the process for discussing, debating, and/or altering the proposal for the AIDS policy? Who were the individuals or institutions involved in that process? • Who/what bodies were involved in approving the proposal? • What steps were followed to move the proposal to the next level of decision making? Mapping the Policy Process Time: 1 hour and 30 minutes Small Group Activity (45 minutes) 1. Divide participants into small groups and distribute newsprint and markers to each group. 2. Using the information from the policy expert’s presentation and from the group discussion, ask each small group to prepare a visual map, or flowchart, of the policy process in its country. The map should be kept as simple as possible while ensuring accuracy. 3. Refer to the “Country X: Policy Process Map” that you drew on the newsprint to show the participants what a policy process map looks like. Country X: Policy Process Map 3. Entire Parliament 2. Committee of Parliament 1. Agenda Setting 4. Back to Ministry for Implementation • President • Prime Minister • Ministers Not Approved Approved II-7 UNIT 1 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESS SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD Group Discussion (45 minutes) 1. Ask each group to present its policy map to the whole group and give a brief explanation of the map and what they based their decisions on. 2. Discuss the similarities and differences among the maps. Help the participants reach agreement on one map. Ask a participant to reproduce the final map on paper so it can be photocopied and distributed. 3. If there are MAJOR differences of opinion or gaps in information about how the policy process works, list the areas of discrepancy and the types of information needed for clarification. Information sharing and research can help network members clearly understand how the policy formulation process works in their particular setting. Once members have this information, they can apply it to their emerging advocacy strategy. Distribute handouts for Unit 1. In the next unit, participants will move from a general understanding of the policy process to an analysis of the specific components of the FP/RH policy environment. II-8 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESSUNIT 1 SECTION II Fortunately, countries around the world are moving away from highly centralized frameworks. There is a growing emphasis on the notion of civil society. Civil society institutions—family, community, professional associations, NGOs, and religious institutions—are seen as an appropriate arena for organizing governance. New forms of decision making are emerging and undergoing refinement. Governments and international donor agencies are recognizing that NGOs can and do play an important role in this process by serving as bridges—or policy champions—between civil society and policymakers at all levels of government. The Policy Process: Government in Action Background Notes Policy formulation is a high-level overall plan or course of action embracing the general goals and acceptable procedures of government body. It is a highly political process. No two countries in the world formulate policy in exactly the same way, even in democracies. But even in highly centralized countries, the government is seen as the vehicle to bring about social and economic development and growth. In these countries, however, the ruling elite frequently does not have the political will to act in a way that serves the public good. Political and economic interests often dictate the actions of the elite. Policies Without Programs Côte d'Ivoire has had an official and fairly supportive policy on population for many years, but the government has yet to translate the law into the actual provision of family planning services. Handout II.1.1 Many governments, however, remain ambivalent about encouraging NGO and citizen participation in the policy process. They may recognize the importance of citizen participation, but they are reluctant to risk challenges to their policies and actions. Often, too, they lack appropriate mechanisms for involving citizens in the affairs of state. Regardless of a country's political system or level of receptivity to popular participation, the network's efforts in the government arena will target branches such as the executive, legislature/parliament, judiciary, government ministries and agencies, local officials, and, in some cases, even the police or military. Members need to identify the opportunities for influencing the policy process—whether at the national level where discussions are focused on broad policy issues and official national policies or at the operational level where specific resource allocation and service delivery guidelines are formulated. To be able to identify opportunities, the network first needs to understand the formal rules and procedures its country uses to make policy decisions. II-9 UNIT 1 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 1. THE POLICY PROCESS Handout II.1.2 Country X: Policy Process Map 3. Entire Parliament 2. Committee of Parliament 1. Agenda Setting 4. Back to Ministry for Implementation • President • Prime Minister • Ministers Not Approved Approved II-10 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Decision Making for Reproductive Health: Analyzing the Policy Climate Background Notes Looking at Policy Indicators In Turkey, the government's views and policies are— View Policy Population growth too high reduce Fertility too high reduce Rural to urban minor change decelerate distribution desired Immigration satisfactory reduce Emigration too low increase How do the leaders of a country perceive population issues? Their views and actions on subjects such as public health, medical services, and the size and distribution of the population are all key indicators of the policy environment for reproductive health. In most cases, leaders’ views are a matter of public record and are probably well known to members of the network. To advance the network’s policy advocacy agenda, it is important to understand how reproductive health policy decisions are made and the political climate in which they take place. As a prerequisite to proposing sound policy alternatives, network members need to know how to analyze existing reproductive health policies and/or laws as well as their shortcomings. What commitments, for example, did the country make at the Cairo Conference? Is the country honoring those commitments? By analyzing the policy environment for FP/RH, the network can identify specific policy issues. A regulation requiring the registration of pharmaceutical products, for example, may be intended to protect the public from fraudulent or unsafe practices. On the other hand, it may be intended to satisfy the macroeconomic objective of raising revenues to help balance the federal budget. Many countries are implementing uniform tax and import policies across all sectors as a part of overall economic reform. If such is the case, it may be difficult to gain exemptions for family planning products. Understanding the background of a particular policy provides a basis for determining the level of difficulty likely to be involved in changing the policy. It can also provide guidance for anticipating which groups will oppose the reform and which groups will support it. For example, the regulation requiring the registration of pharmaceutical products may be the result of pressure exerted by special interest groups concerned with maintaining prohibitively high tariffs on imported products, and thus protecting domestic production. Knowledge of a II-11 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION particular policy’s background will help the network choose strategies for influencing the policymaking process and obtaining exemptions for contraceptives. By the end of this module, participants will be able to • Analyze the reproductive health policy environment, and • Identify current FP/RH issues and problems. 3 hours and 45 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts II.2.1 Background Notes II.2.2 Country X: Reproductive Health Policy Map • Copies of the policy map developed and agreed upon in Unit 1 • Name tags or table placards • Collect information about the country’s commitment to the ICPD Programme of Action. • Write each of the questions shown in Activity 1 on a separate sheet of newsprint and post around the room. • For Activity 2, write the list of reproductive health policy issues on newsprint. • For Activity 2, draw the sample reproductive health policy map on newsprint. • For Activity 3, write the following titles on the name tags or table placards for the role-play—Interviewer, Government Official, Religious Leader, and International Donor. II-12 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ACTIVITY 1 The Reproductive Health Policy ProcessTime: 45 minutes Introduction (15 minutes) Introduce Unit 2 by reviewing the objectives and making a brief presentation. Key points to include in your presentation follow: • Now that participants have a good understanding of the generic policymaking process, they need to move their thinking to how the process works when policies are formulated specifically for FP/RH. • To advance the network’s advocacy agenda, network members must understand how reproductive health policy decisions are made as well as the political climate in which they take place. Before proposing sound alternatives, network members need to know how to analyze existing reproductive health policies and/or laws as well as their shortcomings. • By analyzing the policy environment for FP/RH, the network can identify specific policy issues that might influence its selection of advocacy issue(s). • Understanding the background of a particular policy or regulation provides a basis for determining the degree of difficulty involved in changing that policy. It can also provide guidance for anticipating which groups will oppose the reform and which groups will support it. • Gaining a clear understanding of the FP/RH policy arena includes learning about the decision-making process, the key institutions and individuals involved, and the critical issues of the day. Small Groups (30 minutes) 1. Write each of the following questions on a separate sheet of newsprint and post around the room. 2. Review the questions to ensure understanding. 3. Divide participants into small groups. 4. Ask the groups to discuss each question and to reach consensus on their response. 5. Direct each group to write its responses directly on the appropriate newsprint. 6. Read the responses for each question and lead a general discussion of the responses. How Reproductive Health Policy Is Made √ Where are issues/ideas generated for reproductive health policies? √ What institutions—political, government, or nongovernmental— influence policies and laws on reproductive health? √ What other sector’s policies (e.g., environment) may be linked to reproductive health? II-13 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ACTIVITY 2 Mapping the Reproductive Health Policy ProcessTime: 1 hour 1. Explain that participants will work in the same small groups as in the previous exercise. 2. Distribute newsprint and markers to each group. 3. Select one of the following policy issues, or chose one of your own, and assign it to all of the small groups. Ask each group to develop a reproductive health policy map that tracks the issue from identification of the need to implementation of the policy. 4. Direct the groups to use the following references for the mapping exercise: • Answers they recorded and discussed in Activity 1. • Generic policy map they created in Unit 1. • Country X: Reproductive Health Policy Map that you drew on newsprint. • Other resource material or references that you have available on reproductive health policy in the country in question. Note to Facilitator: The information included on the reproductive health map should be much more specific than that included on the policy process map created in Unit 1. The reproductive health map should include the names of specific institutions and departments involved in the process. In some countries, for example, there are committees for women, health and/or family life. These committees are usually responsible for discussing FP/RH issues, conducting public hearings, and proposing actions to the appropriate governing body. Such committees should be shown on the map. 5. Ask each group to draw its reproductive health map/flow chart on the newsprint. 6. As each group presents its map, discuss similarities or differences among the maps. Facilitate a discussion to help the participants reach agreement on the most accurate details of each map. Either prepare a new map that reflects these details or revise one of the group maps to include the details. The session should conclude with ONE map that represents all groups’ consensus on the reproductive health policymaking process. Possible RH Policy Issues √ National AIDS Policy √ A policy permitting distribution of contraceptives by community-based distribution workers √ A commitment from the Ministry of Health for line-item purchase of contraceptives II-14 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH ACTIVITY 3 Note to Facilitator: Use your judgment to gauge the accuracy of the Reproductive Health policy map. If you think there are significant gaps in the overall group’s understanding of the Reproductive Health policy process, ask participants to try to identify the gaps. Help them identify possible resources or references that provide the missing information. Transition The network has started to identify and understand the processes and players involved in formulating and implementing Reproductive Health policy. As noted in the introduction, however, the network must also look outside the policy environment and start to monitor any relevant trends, issues, and developments that draw the attention of the media, opinion leaders, decision makers, and/or international donors. Tracking what’s “new and in the news” can suggest issues for advocacy and provide useful information for the network’s advocacy campaign. “Reproductive Health Issues in the News” Time: 1 hour and 30 minutes Panel of Experts: A Role-Play (1 hour) Note to Facilitator: This activity is designed to show network members another way to explore advocacy opportunities—by monitoring what experts in the field of FP/RH are saying. Participants will role-play a panel presentation in which a journalist interviews three experts on current reproductive health issues. The activity is intended to help suggest key reproductive health issues for the network’s advocacy campaign. Emphasize that the purpose of the presentations is to convey to the audience current reproductive health information and trends as well as the priorities of the panelists’ respective institutions. The presentations are NOT intended to promote debate. 1. Ask for four volunteers to play the roles of a • government official • journalist • religious leader • representative from an international donor agency 2. Explain that the journalist will introduce the panelists, ask them questions, and moderate the discussion. Give the journalist the following questions to guide the panel discussion and ask the journalist to probe the panelists’ responses with follow-up questions: • From your perspective, what are the current developments and “burning issues” in the field of FP/RH? • Our government sent a delegation to the ICPD in Cairo in 1994. What commitments were made at the Cairo Conference and have they been implemented by the government? II-15 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD • What policy developments are underway and what are their chances of being implemented? • What potentially useful, existing policies are not being implemented? • Given the current situation in our country, what policy changes or innovations would you like to see in the reproductive health sector in the near future? 3. Give the volunteer panelists a few minutes to organize their thoughts while you arrange tables and chairs for the panel and distribute name tags/table placards to the panelists. 4. During the role-play, take notes on the panelists’ responses. 5. Conclude the role-play by thanking the journalist and panelists. Follow-Up Discussion (30 minutes) 1. Use the following questions to help the audience summarize the panel presentation and identify priority FP/RH issues for the network: • Based on the information provided by the panelists, what are the priority reproductive health issues? • Are there other critical issues that were not mentioned? What are they? • What about the ICPD? Is there still interest and action around the Programme of Action? • What, if anything, has happened with respect to ICPD+5? • How can the information presented by the panelists be used to generate policy advocacy opportunities for the network? 2. List on newsprint for future reference the priority reproductive health policy issues identified by participants. Understanding how policy decisions are made for reproductive health and identifying current reproductive health issues will help members of the network determine where they should focus their energies. Distribute handouts for Unit 2. The next unit focuses on identifying potential policy issues for action and setting policy goals for the network. II-16 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH How do the leaders of a country perceive population issues? Their views and actions on subjects such as public health, medical services, and the size and distribution of the population are all key indicators of the policy environment for reproductive health. In most cases, leaders’ views are a matter of public record and are probably well known to members of the network. To advance the network’s policy advocacy agenda, it is important to understand how reproductive health policy decisions are made and the political climate in which they take place. As a prerequisite to proposing sound policy alternatives, network members need to know how to analyze existing reproductive health policies and/or laws as well as their shortcomings. What commitments, for example, did the country make at the Cairo Conference? Is the country honoring those commitments? By analyzing the policy environment for FP/RH the network can identify specific policy issues. A regulation requiring the registration of pharmaceutical products, for example, may be intended to protect the public from fraudulent or unsafe practices. On the other hand, it may be intended to satisfy the macroeconomic objective of raising revenues to help balance the federal budget. Many countries are implementing uniform tax and import policies across all sectors as a part of overall economic reform. If such is the case, it may be difficult to gain exemptions for family planning products. Understanding the background of a particular policy provides a basis for determining the level of difficulty likely to be involved in changing the policy. It can also provide guidance for anticipating which groups will oppose the reform and which groups will support it. For example, the regulation requiring the registration of pharmaceutical products may be the result of pressure exerted by special interest groups concerned with maintaining prohibitively high tariffs on imported products, and thus protecting domestic production. Knowledge of a particular policy’s background will help the network choose strategies for influencing the policymaking process and obtaining exemptions for contraceptives. Handout II.2.1 Decision Making for Reproductive Health: Analyzing the Policy Climate Background Notes Looking at Indicators of the Policy Environment In Turkey, the government's views and policies are— View Policy Population growth too high reduce Fertility too high reduce Rural to urban minor change decelerate distribution desired Immigration satisfactory reduce Emigration too low increase II-17 UNIT 2 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 2. DECISION MAKING FOR REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Handout II. 2. 2 Country X: Reproductive Health Policy Map Regulatory Stage of the Process of Health Care Reform in Romania Discussion and debate within and among task forces established by relevant ministry Final task force recomendations MOH Board Approval MOH and Ministry of Finance determine budgetary implications Appropriate policy drafted by either: MOH if only health sector is involved Appropriate ministries for inter-ministerial decisions Minister of Health’s signature required Ministry of Health Ministry of National Education Ministry of Youth Ministry of Labor and Social Protection Other ministries Prime Minister’s signature required II-18 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES Prioritizing Policy Issues: Making the Best Matches Background Notes Now that participants have reviewed how policies are formulated, identified current policies and programs, and mapped the decision-making process for reproductive health, they must set realistic goals for the network’s advocacy agenda. The first step in the process is to identify an issue that requires advocacy. Clearly, given the current climate, the network will realize that certain actions are not feasible at the moment. Network members need to know their limitations and focus on areas where they have the potential for making the greatest impact. If they find, for example, that essential drugs are exempted from tariffs and that family planning products are not on the essential drug list, they may want to concentrate their efforts on changing the essential drug list to include contraceptives. Policy research will suggest ways in which the network can define problems, link them to solutions, and translate them into simplified images that will influence both the general public and decision makers. Finally, policy solutions must be developed for the issues selected. The solutions will be refined in Section III. Framing an Issue When a 14-year old girl who is a good student drops out of school because she is pregnant, it may be a personal misfortune for the girl and her family. When an alliance of women's organizations and educators demonstrates that teen pregnancy threatens the growth of a skilled work force and national economic development goals, teen pregnancy becomes a problem for government and invites a policy response. II-19 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 By the end of this module, participants will be able to • Identify and prioritize issues based on established criteria, and • Determine an issue for advocacy. 3 hours and 25 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Index cards • Copies of handouts II.3.1 Background Notes II.3.2 Checklist for Choosing an Issue • Copies of the reproductive health policy map completed in Unit 2 • List of priority reproductive health issues listed on newsprint in Unit 2 For Activity 3, write the questions on newsprint and copy the chart on newsprint. Introduction Time: 10 minutes Introduce Unit 3 by reviewing the objectives and making a brief presentation that includes the following key points: • Based on the previous assessment of the decision-making process for reproductive health policy formulation and implementation and the identification of current FP/RH issues, not to mention personal and organizational interests, participants are likely to have a wide variety of ideas for their advocacy agenda. • Some of these ideas, however, will not be feasible at the moment given the realities of the political climate or the availability of resources. It is important to acknowledge these realities and keep the network focused in areas where it can potentially make an impact. • This unit takes network members through a process of prioritizing FP/ RH advocacy issues in accordance with established criteria. The activity is intended to help participants look at several key issues both objectively and analytically so that they can work to reach consensus on their advocacy issue. II-20 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES ACTIVITY 2 Prioritizing Reproductive Health IssuesTime: 2 hours Small Groups (1 hour and 30 minutes) 1. Divide participants into three small groups and distribute one index card to each participant. 2. Ask each participant to choose one FP/RH policy issue that she/he thinks the network should consider for advocacy and then write that issue on the index card. Participants should consider the following: • List of key FP/RH issues developed in Unit 2 • Network mission statement prepared in Section I, Unit 4 • Their personal and professional interests • Concerns and priorities of their communities and beneficiaries. 3. Ask the participants to share their cards within their small groups and to reach agreement on THREE priority issues. 4. Distribute copies of the “Checklist for Choosing an Issue” (Handout II.3.2). Ask each group to complete one master “checklist” for the group. 5. Review and clarify with participants the criteria listed on the “Checklist.” Ask for suggestions for additional criteria and add any to the list. 6. Explain the instructions for completing the “Checklist.” Each small group should do the following: • Write the three priority issues across the top of the chart in the boxes labeled “issue.” • Begin with Issue 1 and rank it against each of the 12 criteria listed by writing one of the following terms: HIGH (always or almost always meets the criterion); MEDIUM (often meets the criterion); or LOW (rarely or never meets the criterion). • Respond to all of the criteria for Issue 1 before moving to Issue 2. Continue in the same way until all three issues are ranked against the criteria. • Discuss the rankings within the small group and choose ONE of the issues as the group’s priority FP/RH policy advocacy issue. • Select a spokesperson to present the issue and a brief description of the process. Large Group Discussion (30 minutes) 1. When the small groups have finished, ask each spokesperson to present his/her group’s results as well as the highlights of the process the group followed for its assessment and selection. Encourage the spokespersons to focus on how the process helped the group analyze and select the priority issue. Spokespersons should NOT present the individual rankings for the each of three issues. 2. List each group’s priority issue, a total of THREE, on newsprint. II-21 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES ACTIVITY 3 Note to Facilitator: Ideally, at the end of this activity, you will have three distinct issues for the network to consider for advocacy action. If, however, the issues turn out to be the same or similar, you should ask participants to combine similar issues and select another priority issue(s) to ensure some variety in the three final choices. Matching Issues and Opportunities Time: 1 hour and 15 minutes Small Groups (30 minutes) 1. Refer to the three priority issues and ask participants to self-select the issue they would like to address. Organize a working group for each issue. 2. Write the following questions on newsprint and ask the groups to answer the questions: • What data are available to support the issue? • What is the desired policy outcome for the issue over the short and long term? 3. Ask the groups to write their responses on the newsprint chart you have prepared and select a presenter. Group 1: Issue Group 2: Issue Group 3: Issue Available Data Policy Outcome 4. Ask each presenter to report his/her group’s responses. 5. Ask the other participants for comments or additions to each of the presentations. II-22 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES Large Group Discussion (45 minutes) Note to Facilitator: The discussion should provide an opportunity for participants, first, to pull together all the information they have discerned and developed and, second. decide on ONE concrete reproductive health policy issue for the network’s first advocacy campaign. During the discussion, encourage participants to use good communication and decision making skills, (e.g., make sure that everyone who wants to speak is heard from and encourage participants not to give in to reach agreement but rather to express differences of opinion.) 1. Facilitate a general discussion of the issues and information on the chart by using the following questions: • How do the availability of support data and other trends influence the group’s thinking about the issues? • How achievable are the desired policy outcomes? How do the prospects for success affect participants’ thinking about priority issues? • What overlap exists between the group’s issues and the “current issues” identified in Unit 2? • If there is little or no “current” interest in any of the issues, what are the implications for the network in taking on that issue for policy advocacy? • Which policies/regulations/laws directly or indirectly affect the issue? Can they be changed? • Given all of the analysis and discussion carried out by the network, what one issue should the group select? 2. Conclude the discussion by agreeing on ONE reproductive health policy issue (e.g., high incidence of teenage pregnancy) for the network advocacy campaign. Selecting a realistic policy issue for advocacy requires an understanding of the policymaking process in general and, specifically, the decision-making process for reproductive health. It also requires an assessment of where the opportunities are for influencing the process and a sound analysis of priority issues by network members. Distribute handouts for Unit 3. Participants conclude this section with a reproductive health policy advocacy issue that was chosen based on sound analysis of the policy environment, agreement with the network’s mission, and a process for setting priorities. Now the network is ready to begin to design and implement its advocacy campaign. Section III of the manual leads the network through each step of an advocacy strategy. SUMMARY MOVING AHEAD II-23 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES Handout II.3.1 Background Notes Now that participants have reviewed how policies are formulated, identified current policies and programs, and mapped the decision-making process for reproductive health, they must set realistic goals for the network’s advocacy agenda. The first step in this process is to identify an issue that requires advocacy. Clearly, given the current climate, the network will realize that certain actions are not feasible at the moment. Network members need to know their limitations and focus on areas where they have the potential for making the greatest impact. If they find, for example, that essential drugs are exempted from tariffs and that family planning products are not on the essential drug list, they may want to concentrate their efforts on changing the essential drug list to include contraceptives. Policy research will suggest ways in which the network can define problems, link them to solutions, and translate them into simplified images that will influence both the general public and decision makers alike. Finally, policy solutions must be developed for the issues selected. The solutions will be refined in Section III. Framing an Issue When a 14-year-old girl who is a good student drops out of school because she is pregnant, it may be a personal misfortune for the girl and her family. When an alliance of women’s organizations and educators demonstrate that teen pregnancy threatens the growth of a skilled workforce and national economic development goals, teen pregnancy becomes a problem for government and invites a policy response. Prioritizing Policy Issues: Making the Best Matches II-24 UNIT 3 SECTION II THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL II. ACTORS, ISSUES, AND OPPORTUNITIES 3. PRIORITIZING POLICY ISSUES Handout II.3.2 Checklist for Choosing an Issue* A good policy advocacy issue is one that matches most of these criteria. Rank your three priority issues against the criteria (HIGH, MEDIUM, LOW). *Adapted from the Midwest Academy. 1996. Organizing for Social Change: A Manual for Activists in the 1990s. Santa Ana, CA: Seven Locks Press. 1. Be widely felt (by many people)? 2. Have broad support? 3. Be supported by sound data? 4. Be easily understood? 5. Result in real improvement in people’s lives? 6. Be achievable? 7. Help build alliances with other groups? 8. Have a clear timeframe? 9. Build grassroots leadership? 10. Strengthen NGO linkages? 11. Be consistent with the network’s values and mission? 12. Respond to the community’s expressed needs? Issue 1: Issue 2: Issue 3: CRITERIAWill the issue. High– Always or almost always meets the criterion. Medium– Often meets the criterion. Low– Rarely or never meets the criterion. II-25 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY: MOBILIZING FOR ACTION␣ When you see something that’s wrong, no matter how big the problem is, think “Who else would like to change this? How can we work together?” UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan Introduction Advocacy is both a science and an art. From a scientific perspective, there is no universal formula for effective advocacy. Nevertheless, experience shows that an advocacy campaign is most effective when it is planned systematically. Advocacy networks frame their issue, set an advocacy goal and measurable objectives, identify sources of support and opposition, research the policy audience, develop compelling messages, and mobilize necessary funds, and, at each step of the way, collect data and monitor their plan of action. Each of these steps requires distinct knowledge and skills to ensure effective and efficient implementation. Advocacy is also an art. Successful advocates are able to articulate issues in ways that inspire others and motivate them to take action. They have a keen sense of timing and are able to recognize and act as opportunities present themselves. Successful advocates are skilled negotiators and consensus builders who look for opportunities to win modest but strategic policy gains while creating still other opportunities for larger victories. Artful advocates incorporate creativity, style, and even humor in their advocacy events in order to draw public and media attention to their cause. The art of advocacy cannot be taught through a training workshop; rather, it emerges from the network members themselves. Advocacy training provides the tools, but participants must add the spark. Section III of the manual could alternatively be titled “Pulling it All Together: How to Manage An Advocacy Campaign.” In Section I, the network learned about the characteristics of and practiced the skills that form the groundwork for a collaborative and trusting working relationship. In Section II, participants explored and gained a deeper understanding of the policy environment as the context within which their advocacy efforts will take place. Section III, the final section of the manual, is dedicated to the nuts and bolts of an advocacy campaign. The units in Section III correspond to the different steps of the advocacy process and help participants acquire and build the technical skills needed to implement each step successfully. III-1 UNIT 1 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY? What Is Advocacy?␣ Background Notes There are as many definitions of advocacy as there are groups and networks advocating. However, each definition shares common language and concepts. Advocacy is first and foremost a process, occurring over unspecified amounts of time, sometimes brief and often lengthy. Advocacy is also strategic and targets well-designed activities to key stakeholders and decision makers. And lastly, advocacy is always directed at influencing policy, laws, regulations, programs, or funding—decisions made at the upper-most levels of public or private sector institutions. Advocacy includes both single-issue, time- limited campaigns as well as ongoing work undertaken around a range of issues. Advocacy activities may be conducted at the national, regional, or local level. Within the FP/RH policy arena, advocacy efforts might address such things as enactment of a national population policy or inclusion of reproductive health services in a national health insurance plan. Operational FP/RH policies—where specific resource allocation and service delivery guidelines are formulated—are also potential objects for advocacy campaigns. In Unit 1, the network members define advocacy for themselves and gain a thorough understanding of the concept and the strategy by exploring the various steps involved in an advocacy campaign. In addition, the participants identify the characteristics of advocacy that distinguish it from the related concepts of information, education and communication (IEC); public relations; and community mobilization. Advocacy is a set of targeted actions directed at decision makers in support of a specific policy issue. III-2 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III By the end of this unit, participants will be able to • Define advocacy; • Identify the steps in the advocacy process; and • Distinguish advocacy from related concepts. 2 hours and 30 minutes • Newsprint, markers, and tape • Copies of handouts III.1.1 Background Notes III.1.2 Sample Definitions of Advocacy III.1.3 Steps in the Advocacy Process III.1.4 Advocacy and Related Concepts • Card template, “Steps in the Advocacy Process” • Identify and invite a local RH specialist or advocacy expert to make the opening presentation for Activity 1. Ask the speaker to discuss the current and potential role of NGOs and other groups of civil society in the policymaking process; their role as representatives of traditionally underserved populations; the expanding role of NGOs in international arenas, such as Cairo, ICPD+5, and Beijing; and a personal account or local success story illustrating how advocacy has led to policy change. Ask the presenter to speak for no more than 30 minutes; explain that there will be time for questions and discussion. • For Activity 3, copy and cut three sets of “Steps in the Advocacy Process” cards using the template at the end of the unit. Each set of cards should be on a different color paper or card. • For Activity 4, draw the chart “Advocacy and Related Concepts” on newsprint. What Is Advocacy? Time: 1 hour and 5 minutes Introduction (5 minutes) Introduce the unit by reviewing the objectives and following major points: • Advocacy is both a science and an art. From a scientific perspective,while there is no universal formula for effective advocacy, experience has shown that advocacy is most effective when it is planned systematically. • Networks must follow and include specific steps when designing and implementing an advocacy campaign; each step requires distinct knowledge and skills. • Advocacy is also an art. Successful advocates are able to articulate issues in ways that inspire and motivate others to take action. Successful advocates are skilled negotiators and consensus builders who look for opportunities to win modest but strategic policy gains while creating still other opportunities for larger victories. OBJECTIVES TIME MATERIALS HANDOUTS PREPARATION ACTIVITY 1 III-3 UNIT 1 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY? • Artful advocates incorporate creativity, style, and even humor into their advocacy events in order to draw public and media attention to their cause. • The art of advocacy cannot be taught through a training workshop; rather, it emerges from within network members themselves. Advocacy training provides the tools, but participants must add the spark. • Section III of the manual is designed to teach both the science and the art of designing and implementing an advocacy campaign. The units in Section III correspond to the different steps of the advocacy process. Participants will learn how to use advocacy strategies and tools to influence decision makers and bring about more favorable FP/RH policies and programs. Expert Speaker (1 hour) 1. Introduce the speaker. 2. After the presentation, moderate a question-and-answer session for approximately 20 minutes. 3. Thank the presenter and conclude the activity. Note to Facilitator: The POLICY Project has conducted advocacy workshops in many non-English speaking countries, in languages that range from Arabic to Spanish, Russian, French, Turkish, Romanian, and Portuguese. In many instances, the concept of advocacy did not translate readily into the local language such that workshop participants spent considerable time finding the most accurate word or phrase. While it may be helpful to consult with local advocacy groups/experts to determine the most appropriate translation for “advocacy,” it is the participants themselves who must select and agree on the word or phrase that most accurately conveys the local culture’s concept of advocacy. Defining Advocacy Time: 1 hour Brainstorming (15 minutes) 1. Write advocacy on the flipchart and ask participants to brainstorm words that come to mind when they think of advocacy. 2. Record everyone’s responses and include all contributions. If words or phrases are repeated, simply add a tick mark (3 ) next to the repeated phrases 3. The brainstorming activity should elicit responses such as those below. ACTIVITY 2 III-4 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III Small Groups (45 minutes) 1. Divide participants into small groups of four to five persons. 2. Instruct each group to draft a definition of advocacy. Encourage the groups to use the words on the flipchart to prepare their definitions. Allow 15 minutes. 3. Ask the groups to write their definitions on newsprint and post them on the wall. 4. Read each definition aloud and discuss the definitions by asking the group to identify the following: • Similarities among the definitions (i.e., words or phrases that appear in more than one definition). Circle the commonalties with a colored marker. • Elements that are unique to a definition (i.e., not repeated in any of the other definitions). Circle the unique words or phrases with a different colored marker. 5. Ask participants to decide whether one of the posted definitions should be the network’s agreed-upon definition of advocacy or whether they want to craft a new definition by using the common elements and ideas represented in their definitions. 6. Using clean newsprint, help the group write a definition that reflects the full group’s input; post the definition in a location where it can remain throughout the workshop. 7. Distribute Handout III.1.2 and review the definitions listed. The definitions come from a variety of sources, including international advocacy organizations and a POLICY partner network in Ghana. 8. Ask participants to review the definitions and identify points that are consistent with their own definition. Transition Now that participants have reached consensus on a working definition of advocacy, they will look at the different steps that comprise the advocacy process. Experience shows that advocacy is rarely an orderly, linear process. Some of the most successful advocacy efforts have resulted from rapid responses to needs and/or opportunities and have materialized amid chaotic environments. The ability to seize opportunities, however, does not replace the importance of a sound process and careful planning. The next activity demonstrates that looking at advocacy in a systematic way helps networks plan and implement effective advocacy campaigns. Advocacy√ Defending√ Sensitizing√ Change√ Persuasion√ Exposure√ Communication√ Providing a solution √ Influence√ Intervening√ Decision making√ Selling an idea√ Lobbying√ Attracting attention III-5 UNIT 1 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY? Steps in the Advocacy Process Time: 1 hour and 15 minutes Sequencing the Steps (45 minutes)␣ 1. Divide participants into three teams. 2. Distribute one set of set of advocacy cards to each team. Be certain that the cards are NOT in the correct order when you give the sets to the teams. 3. Explain that each card in the set has one step of the advocacy process written on one side and a brief definition/explanation of the step on the other side. 4. Ask each team to read the cards and reach consensus on the order that would be followed to plan and implement an advocacy campaign. Allow 20 minutes. Note to Facilitator: Generally, the teams order their cards to look something like the following. 5. Ask the teams to post their cards on the wall or display them on the floor so they are visible to the full group. If possible, have all three sets of cards displayed near one another so that participants can make comparisons. 6. When each team has posted its cards, ask participants to gather around the three arrangements and to identify similarities and differences. 7. Refer to the first set of cards and ask Team 1 members the following: • Did everyone agree on the final order? • Where did group members disagree on the sequence of cards and what were the areas of debate? • Which, if any, steps did participants have difficulty understanding? 8. Ask the other participants if they have questions for the team. 9. Repeat the process for Teams 2 and 3. ACTIVITY 3 III-6 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III 10. When all three teams have presented their work, lead a general discussion structured around the following questions: • Did the teams all start with the same step? Did they have the same or different ending step? • Were there any steps that were ordered concurrently in the process? • Were any important steps left out of the process? Presentation on the Advocacy Process (30 minutes)␣ 1. Explain to participants that the purpose of the sequencing activity was to introduce advocacy as a systematic process with distinct steps and activities. While the steps may not always occur in the same order during an actual advocacy campaign, it is important to consider each step as a critical and integral piece of the advocacy effort. 2. Distribute Handout III.1.3: Steps in the Advocacy Process or present it on an overhead transparency or flipchart. 3. Briefly explain each of the steps in the process by using the notes below as a guide. Write key words and phrases on newsprint as you go through each step. Explain that the remaining units in the workshop will address each of these steps in greater detail, but not in the same sequence as in the model. Some steps are combined in a unit (e.g., message development and channels of communication). Steps in the Advocacy Process␣ I. Define the Issue. Advocacy begins with an issue or problem that the network agrees to support in order to promote a policy change. The issue should meet the network’s agreed-upon criteria and support the network’s overall mission (e.g., issue is focused, clear, and widely felt by network constituents). Ask participants to identify ways in which the network could identify issues. Include the following: • analysis of the external environment, including political, economic, social, and other factors; • organizing issue identification meetings; and • collecting and analyzing data about the FP/RH situation (DHS, baseline surveys, focus groups, census, etc.). II. Set Goal and Objectives. A goal is a general statement of what the network hopes to achieve in the long term (three to five years). The advocacy objective describes short-term, specific, measurable achievements that contribute to the advocacy goal. III-7 UNIT 1 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY? III. Identify Target Audience. The primary target audience includes the decision makers who have the authority to bring about the desired policy change. The secondary target audience includes persons who have access to and are able to influence the primary audience—other policymakers, friends or relatives, the media, religious leaders, etc. The network must identify individuals in the target audience, their positions, and relative power base and then determine whether the various individuals support, oppose, or are neutral to the advocacy issue. IV. Build Support. Building a constituency to support the network’s advocacy issue is critical for success. The larger the support base, the greater are the chances of success. Network members must reach out to create alliances with other NGOs, networks, donors, coalitions, civic groups, professional associations, women’s groups, activists, and individuals who support the issue and will work with you to achieve your advocacy goals. How do you identify potential collaborators? Members can attend conferences and seminars, enlist the support of the media, hold public meetings, review publications, and use the Internet. V. Develop the Message. Advocacy messages are developed and tailored to specific target audiences in order to frame the issue and persuade the receiver to support the network’s position. There are three important questions to answer when preparing advocacy messages: Who are you trying to reach with the message? What do you want to achieve with the message? What do you want the recipient of the message to do as a result of the message (the action you want taken)? VI. Select Channels of Communication. Selection of the most appropriate medium for advocacy messages depends on the target audience. The choice of medium varies for reaching the general public, influencing decision makers, educating the media, generating support for the issue among like-minded organizations/ networks, etc. Some of the more common channels of communication for advocacy initiatives include press kits and press releases, press conferences, fact sheets, a public debate, a conference for policymakers, etc. VII. Raise Funds. Advocacy campaigns can always benefit from outside funds and other resources. Resources can help support the development and dissemination of materials, cover network members’ travel to meet with decision makers and generate support, underwrite meetings or seminars, absorb communication expenses, etc. Advocacy networks should develop a fundraising strategy at the outset of the campain to identify potential contributors of financial and other resources. III-8 THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY?UNIT 1 SECTION III VIII. Develop Implementation Plan. The network should develop an implementation plan to guide its advocacy campaign. The plan should identify activities and tasks, responsible persons/committees, the desired time frame, and needed resources. On-going Activities Collect Data. Data collection supports many of the stages of the advocacy process shown in the model. Advocacy networks should collect and analyze data to identify and select their issue as well as develop advocacy objectives, craft messages, expand their base of support, and influence policymakers. Data collection is an ongoing activity for the duration of the advocacy campaign. Monitor and Evaluate. As with data collection, monitoring and evaluation occur throughout the advocacy process. Before undertaking the advocacy campaign, the network must determine how it will monitor its implementation plan. In addition, the group should decide how it will evaluate or measure progress and results. Can the network realistically expect to bring about a change in policy, programs, or funding as a result of its efforts? In specific terms, what will be different following the completion of the advocacy campaign? How will the group know that the situation has changed? 4. In closing, remind participants that advocacy activities are often carried out in turbulent environments. Frequently, networks do not have the opportunity to follow each step in the advocacy process according to the model presented here. Nevertheless, a systematic understanding of the advocacy process will help advocates plan wisely, use resources efficiently, and stay focused on the advocacy objective. Advocacy and Related Concepts Time: 45 minutes Note to Facilitator: After reviewing the various definitions of advocacy and the steps in the advocacy process, participants should have a clear sense of the meaning of advocacy. Nevertheless, advocacy is often confused with other concepts that share common elements—IEC (information, education, and communication), public relations, community mobilization, and social marketing. It is helpful to describe these other concepts to reduce any remaining confusion. 1. Explain that Activity 4 is designed to compare and contrast advocacy with related concepts. 2. Show participants the chart you have prepared on newsprint. ACTIVITY 4 III-9 UNIT 1 SECTION III THE POLICY PROJECT ADVOCACY TRAINING MANUAL III. THE ADVOCACY STRATEGY 1. WHAT IS ADVOCACY? Advocacy and Related Concepts␣ Concept/ Target Audience Objective How Do You Approach Measure Success? 3. Help participants fill in the chart, beginning with IEC. Ask the group the following questions: • Who has managed or implemented an IEC campaign? • Who is the target audience of an IEC campaign? (Possible responses include women, men, youth, residents of a predetermined geographic area, etc. While audiences vary from one IEC campaign to the next, they typically constitutes a particular population defined by sex, age, geography, etc. Write participants’ response in the appropriate box on the chart.) • What is the objective of an IEC campaign? (Responses should include “raise awareness or change behavior.” Write behavior change in the appropriate box.) • How do you measure the success of an IEC campaign? In other words, what objective indicators of change will tell IEC campaign organizers that their campaign has succeeded? (Responses will vary according to the campaign’s objective, but write several examples in the box, such as the percentage of youth using condoms, number of women who request family planning services, number of condoms sold.) 4. Continue to complete the chart for Public Relations (PR), adapting the questions listed above. Ask the group to think about a local business and to consider how the company uses public relations and advertising to promote its services or products. Using the local example, complete the PR row of the chart. An example from a workshop in Mexico follows: Business Aeroméxico, a large Mexican airline Target Audience Mexican consumer Objective To promote company image and boost sales Measure of Success Increased ticket sales; percent increase of new passengers IEC Public Relations Advocacy

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