Myanmar - Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey - 2000

Publication date: 2000

J •• • • UNION OF MYANMAR MONITORING NATIONAL PROGRAMME OF ACTION GOALS THROUGH Department of Health Planning Ministry of Health with the collaboration of UNICEF -·- . -- --- - · - · · ~- _ / • • • Foreword and Acknowledgements Myanmar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (Myanmar MICS) is a rapid survey conducted by the Department of Health Planning with the collaboration of UNICEF. The survey has been carried out for three times since 1995 with cooperation of government sectors and non-government organizations at Central, State/Division and Township levels . Two central level committees, MICS Steering and Technical Working Committee and sixteen State/ Division Survey Supervisory Committees played key role in implementation of survey activities . It is a great pleasure and an honour to achieve timely publication and dissemination of Myanmar MICS (2000) . The report provides up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women as well. as furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children. It also gives us an opportunity to take stock of what has been achieved in the 1990s and the challenges remain as we move forward. It is hoped that the data contain in this report will provide a wealth of information for social sector planners and implementers and stimulate the development of Township, State and Division Programmes of Action for children and women. As many people and organizations contributed toward the realization of the Myanmar MICS (2000), we are indebted to the National Health Committee, and Health Committees at all levels, and representatives of Departments from Ministries of National Planning and Economic Development, Health, Education, Immigration and Population, Progress of Border Areas, National Races and Development Affairs, Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement, Agriculture and Irrigation, Labour, Sports and National NGOs for their kind cooperation. We also like to express our sincere thanks to UNICEF for its full support for the survey. Last but not the least, thanks are due to all field staff, hundreds of interviewers and all those who involved in survey activities for their time and hard work. - --- - · -----------------------9r-A~yi-See--------­ Director General Department of Health Planning Ministry of Health • • • Contents Contents . , . ii List of Tables . . . . . iii List of Figures . ~ . v Executive Summary . vi Summary Indicators . ix I. Introduction. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Background of the Survey . " . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Country Background . . . 4 Survey Objectives . 5 II. Survey Methodology . 6 Sample Design . 6 Questionnaires . · . -. 6 Fieldwork and Processing . 7 Ill. Sample Characteristics and Data Quality . 8 Response Rates . 8 Age Distribution and Missing Data . 8 . Characteristics of the Household Population . 9 IV. Results . . . 9 A. Education . 9 Early childhood education . 10 Basic education . 10 Literacy . 11 B. Water and Sanitation . 11 Use of drinking water . 11 Use of sanitation . 12 C. Child Malnutrition . 12 Nutritional status . 12 Breastfeeding . 14 Salt iodization . 15 Vitamin A supplementation . 16 D. Child Health . 17 Immunization coverage . 17 Diarrhea . . . . . 18 Acute respiratory infection . 19 IMMCI initiative . 19 E. Reproductive Health . . . . . . . . . . 20 Prenatal care . 20 F. Child Rights . 21 Birth registration . 21 Orphanhood and living arrangements of children . 21 G. Recommendations . 22 H. Tables . 23 Appendix A: Survey Design and Sample Size Calculations =---- - ·-···- -- -- ·--- AppendfjfB: List of Personnel Involve_d . in-theMyanmar MICS Appendix C: Questionnaires 11 • List of Tables Table 1 : Number of households and women, and ·response rates . 23 Table 2: Single year age distribution of household population by sex . 24 Table 3: Percentage of cases missing information for selected questions . 26 Table 4: Percent distribution of households by background characteristics . 27 Table 5: Percent distribution of women 15-49 by background characteristics . 28 Table 6: Percent distribution of children under 5 by background characteristics . 29 Table 7: Percentage of children aged 36-59 months who are attending some form of organized early childhood education programme . : . 30 Table 8: Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school . . . 31 Table 9: Percentage of children entering Kindergarten of primary school who eventually • reach grade 4 . 32 Table 10: Percentage of the population aged 15 years and older who is literate . 33 Table 11: Percentage of the population using safe drinking water sources . 35 Table 12: Percentage of the population using sanitary means of excreta disposal . 37 Table 13: Percentage of under-five children who are severely or moderately undernourished 38 Table 14: Percent of living children by breastfeeding status . 39 Table 15: Percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt . .41 Table 16: Percent distribution of children aged 6-59 months by whether they have received a high dose of Vitamin A supplement in the last 6 months . .42 Table 17: Percentage of children age 12-23 months immunized against childhood disease at any time before the survey and before the first birthday . 43 Table 18: Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against • childhood diseases . 44 lll Table 19: Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks and treatment with ORS or ORT . 46 • Table 20: Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks who took increased fluids and continued to feed during the episode . 48 Table 21: Percentage of under-five children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in the last two weeks and treatment by health providers . 50 Table 22: Percentage of children 0-59 months of age reported ill during the last two weeks who received increased fluids and continued feeding . 52 Table 23: Percentage of caretakers of children 0-59 months who took their children to the health facility immediately due to presence of one symptom of severe illness . 54 Table 24: Percentage of mothers with a birth in the last 12 months protected against neonatal tetanus . 56 Table 25: Percent distribution of children aged 0-59 months by whether birth is registered and reason for non-registration . 57 Table 26: Percentage of children 0-14 years of age in households not living with a biological parent . 59 • • IV • List of Figures Figure 1: Regions (States/Divisions) of Myanmar . . 4 Figure 2: Single year age distribution of the household population by sex, . . . 8 Myanmar, 2000 Figure 3: Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school, . . . 10 Myanmar, 2000 Figure 4: Age pattern of malnourished children . . 14 Figure 5: Percent distribution of living children by breastfeeding status, . 15 Myanmar, 2000 Figure 6: Percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received . 18 immunizations by age 12 months, Myanmar, 2000 • ---·-~---~ . - - ----- ---------- --·-··-- ---- - --- ---- ----- ----- ---- ------------- . ---- ---- -------- -- ··· ---. - ------------··-- • v • • ~--~~-~-- ---·~~-------·-- • • • • Executive Summary The 2000 Myanmar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is a nationally representative survey of households, women, and children. The main objectives of the survey are to provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Myanmar at the end of the decade and to furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the World Summit for Children and as a basis for future action. Education Four fifths (80.0 percent) of children of primary school age in Myanmar are attending primary school. At the national level, there is virtually no difference between male and female primary school attendance. Approximately three fourths (75.0 percent) of children who enter the first grade of primary school eventually reach grade four. The vast majority (89. 7 percent) of the population over age 15 years is literate. The percentage literate is highest (94.4 percent) among those aged 15-24. Water and Sanitation 71.5 percent of the population has access to safe drinking water, 89.2 percent in urban areas and 65.8 percent in rural areas. Percentage of population received safe water supply ranges from 41.9 percent to 90.6 percent. _ 63.1 percent of the population of Myanmar is living in households with sanitary means of excreta disposal. Percentage of population who use sanitary latrine is 21.6 percent (the lowest) and 79.8 percent (the highest). Child Malnutrition 7.9 percent of children under age five in Myanmar are underweight or too thin for their age. Twelve point four percent of children are stunted or too short for their age and 1.2 percent are wasted or too thin for their height. Children whose mothers have secondary or higher education are the least likely to be underweight and stunted compared to children of mothers with less education. Breastfeeding 15.8 percent of children aged under four months are exclusively breastfed, a level considerably lower than recommended. At age 6-9 months, 67.3 percent of children are receiving breast milk and complementary food. By age 20-23 months, 67.4 percent are continuing to breastfeed. Salt lodization ---------~TpercenTOfllouse1iOIQsiriMMyaiuriar used IOclizeaslill and 48.4 percent of them have adequately (15+ PPM) iodized salt according to test results . However, the percentage of households having salt that tested positive may vary according to seasonal and observer variation. vi Vitamin A Supplementation • . . Within the six months prior to the MICS, 68.7 percent of children aged 6-59 months _ received a high dose Vitamin A supplement. Approximately one percent did not receive a supplement in the last 6 months but did receive one prior to that time. During year-2000, Vitamin A was actually supplemented to children aged 12 to 59 months although MICS (2000) estimates Vitamin A supplementation on children aged 6-59 months. The mother's level of education is related to the likelihood of Vitamin A supplementation. The percentage receiving a supplement in the last six months increases from 56.0 percent among children whose mothers have below primary education to 71.6 percent among children of mothers with secondary or higher education. Immunization Coverage About 93.4 percent of children aged 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months and the first dose of DPT was given to 92.4 percent. The percentage declines for subsequent doses of DPT to 89.2 percent for the second dose, and 82.9 percent for the third dose. Similarly, 96.4 percent of children received Polio 1 by age 12 months and this declines to 89.7 percent by the third dose. The coverage for measles vaccine is lower than for the other vaccines at 87.2 percent. Approximately 79.9 percent of children had all six recommended vaccinations in the first 12 months of life. Male and female children are vaccinated at roughly the same rate. Vaccination coverage is highest among children whose mothers have secondary or higher education. The education differences are greatest for the third doses of DPT ,and Polio, suggesting that drop out rates are higher among children with less 1 educated mothers. Diarrhea Approximately all children with diarrhea received one or more of the recommended home treatments (i.e., were treated with ORS or RHF). Only 11 .0 percent of children with diarrhea received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended. However 70.6 percent of children with diarrhea received increased or same amount of fluid and continued eating. Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) Less than 4 percent of under five children had an acute respiratory infection in the two weeks prior to the survey. Approximately 48.1 percent of these children were taken to an appropriate health provider. IMMCI Initiative • Among under five children who were reported to have had diarrhea or some other illness in the two weeks preceding the MICS, 9.1 percent received increased fluids • and continued eating as recommended under the IMMCI programme. About 70.1 · percent of children with illness received increased or same amount of fluids and continued eating. Vll • • • About 81.0 percent of mothers took their children to the health facility immediately due to presence of at least one symptom of severe illness. Prenatal Care Eight out of ten women with recent births in Myanmar are protected against neonatal tetanus. The vast majority of these women received two or more does of tetanus toxoid within last three years. - Birth Registration The births of 60.6 percent of children under five years in Myanmar have been registered. There are no significant variations in birth registration across sex or age; but the proportion increases as the level of mother education rises. Orphanhood and Living Arrangements of Children Overall, 93.2 percent of children aged 0-14 are living with both parents. Children who are not living with a biological parent comprise 1.6 percent and children who have one or both parents dead amount to 4.3 percent of all children aged 0-14 . ---------- - - ------------ -- Vlll Wasting prevalence Use of safe drinking water Use of sanitary means of excreta Children reaching grade four Net primary school attendance rate Literacy rate Iodized salt consumption Children receiving Vitamin A rate Continued breastfeeding rate DPT immunization ORT use Summary Indicators Proportion of population who use a safe drinking water source Proportion of population who use a sanitary means of excreta · sal Proportion of children entering first grade of primary school who eventuall reach four Proportion of children of primary school age attending · · school Proportion of population aged 15 + years who are able to read a letter or """'"",.,.,.,,"r Proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt Proportion of children aged 6-59 months who have received a Vitamin A supplement in the last 6 months Proportion of infants aged less than 4 months who are · breastfed Proportion of infants aged 6-9 months who are recei breast milk and food Proportion of children aged 12-15 months and 20-23 months who are breastfeeding Proportion of children immunized against diptheria, · s and tetanus one Proportion of children immunized against measles by one • 1.2 percent 71.5 percent 63 .1 percent 7 5. 0 percent 80.0 percent 89.7 percent 48.4 percent 15.8 percent 67.3 percent 89.0 percent (12-15) 67.4 percent (20-23) 82.9 percent 87.2 percent 89.7 percent 93 .4 percent 77.8 percent Proportion of under-five children who had diarrhea in 98.7 . ,.,.,.,,.t the last 2 weeks who were treated with oral rehydration salts or an · household solution IX • • • Home management of diarrhea Care seeking for acute respiratory infections Preschool development Birth registration Children's living Orphans in household Home management of illness Proportion of under-five children who had diarrhea in the last 2 weeks and received increased fluids and continued feeding during the episode Proportion of under-five children who had ARI in the last 2 weeks and were taken to an appropriate health provider Proportion of children aged 36-59 months who are attending some form of organized early childhood education program Proportion of under-five children whose births are orted istered Proportion of children aged 0-14 years in households not li · with a bio ical •", •. ,.". Proportion of children aged 0-14 years who are orphans living in households Proportion of under-five children reported ill during the last 2 weeks who received increased fluids and continued X 11 . 0 percent 48. 1 percent 9.4 percent 60.6 percent 1.6 percent 0.5 percent (both parents) 3.5 percent 9.1 percent • • • I. Introduction Background of the Survey At the World Summit for Children held in New York in 1990, the government of Myanmar pledged itself to a Declaration and Plan of Action for Children. Subsequently, a National Programme of Action for Children was developed and implemented since 1993. The Myanmar NPA was based on the studies and discussions conducted by governmental programmes in health, nutrition, education, water supply and sanitation and social welfare, joint programmes with agencies of the United Nations, national and international N GOs. It relates specific national goals to the global goals set out in the Declaration. The NPA was also developed for achieving the goals which have been prioritized and taken into account the characteristics, number and locations of beneficiaries, as well as their situations. The Myanmar NPA (1990-2000) set a number of goals to be achieved in the 1990s and these goals are: Health Goal No.6 Goal No.7 Goal No.8 Nutrition Achieving a 90% Expanded Programme on Immunization coverage rate against the six childhood preventable diseases and tetanus among women 15-49 year old Reducing deaths due to diarrhoea by 50% and diarrhoea incidence by 25% among children of under-five Reducing deaths due to Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) by 33% from 1990 levels Goal No.14a Reducing the rate of severe malnutrition from 11% to 5% among children under three Goal No.l4b Goal No.17 Goal No.l8 Goal No.19 Reducing the rate of severe and moderate malnutrition from 37% to 19% among children under three Eliminating iodine deficiency disorders Eliminat~ng Vitamin A deficiency and its consequences, including blindness· Enabling all women to breast-feed exclusively for 4 to 6 months and to continue breast feeding,well into the second year. Safe water supply and Excreta Disposal Goal No.22 Increasing access tosafe drinking water from 32% to 100% Goal No.23 Increasing access to safe means of human excreta disposal from 36% to 100% Basic Education and Child Development Goal No.24a Ensuring universal access to basic education by increasing the net primary school enrolment ratio from 62% to 100% Goal No.24b Increasing the completion rate for basic education from the present 25% • to 80% Goal No .26 Increasing access to Early Childhood Development (community based) services from 2% to 25% among 3-5 year old children. Children in Especially Difficult Circumstances Goal No . 28 Improving the situation of children in especially difficult circumstances by increasing the proportion of such children provided with adequate protective services. The Plan of Action also called for the establishment of mechanisms for monitoring progress toward the goals and objectives set for the year 2000. Toward this end, UNICEF has developed a core set of 75 indicators of specific aspects of the situation of children in coordination with other international organizations. A MICS survey was conducted in 1995 to measure progress at mid-decade. The 2000 Myanmar MICS survey has been implemented to provide end-decade information ori 27 indicators for children. Information on other indicators will be derived form the vital registration system and various disease monitoring systems. The Myanmar MICS was conducted by the Department of Health Planning, Ministry of Health in collaboration with Ministry of Education, Ministry of Immigration and Population, Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement, Ministry of Progress of Border Areas, National Races and Development Affairs, Ministry of Agriculture and Irrigation, Ministry of Labour, Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development. Two Central level committees (The steering committee and working committee) and 16 Regional (State/Division) Survey Supervisory Committees were formed for implementation of the survey. The Steering Committee consisted of Director Generals or Deputy Director Generals from departments under the ministries. The Steering Committee coordinated all survey activities from central to lower levels. The Technical Working committee consists of personnel from different ministries that are responsible for technical aspect of the survey. The Technical Working Committee took all the responsibilities of the survey design, questionnaire development, enumerator training, data entry, processing and analysis . All the State/Division Supervisory Committees coordinate and supervise the survey activities at the lower levels. Responsibilities of State/Division Survey Supervisory Committees are: (1) To recruit enumerators (2) To assist trainers in providing training to the enumerators (3) To supervise the enumerators in the field, (4) To check the questionnaires and send them to the Department of Health • ·- - Planning·in-¥angon~ · · ·· ·· ··- · ·- · ._ . , --- --- - - ·--·-- - - -- ----------- • 2 • • • The 2000 Myanmar MICS survey has been implemented to provide end-decade information on 27 indicators in the following areas : Health • Immunization coverage • Diarrhoea treatment practices • ARI treatment seeking pattern • Child Disability Nutrition • Malnutrition • Vitamin A supplementation • Use of iodated salt • Breast feeding Education • Access to and completion of basic education (primary level) • Access to pre-schooling • Literacy Vital Statistics • Birth registration Environment • Safe water supply • Sanitation This report presents results on the principal topics covered in the survey and on the World Summit indicators . 3 Country Background Union of Myanmar is located in South East Asia Region adjacent to China and Laos in the East, Thailand in the South East and Bangladesh and India in the West. Myanmar is covering a total land area of 676,578 sq. km and divided into seven States and seven Divisions for administrative purposes . Divisions are for the most part located in the central areas of the country and are predominantly populated by Bamar national races. States are located along the borders of the country and resided by Bamar and a variety of ethnic national races (See Figure I) . Figure 1: Regions (States/Divisions) of Myanmar INDIA CHINA GULF · OF ;. ,SL\M · • • - -·-------- ---· - -- ------------------- • 4 • • • As of mid 2000, population was estimated at 50.125 million, with a growth rate of approximately 2.02 percent per annum. Thirty-nine percent of the population are children and adolescents under the age of 18. In 1997, life expectancy at birth was estimated at 60.6 years for males and 64.6 years for females in the urban areas and 60.1 years for males and 62.3 years for females in the rural areas. Approximately 71% of the population live ·in rural areas and primarily depend on agriculture for their livelihoods. Ninety percent of the population observes the Buddhist Religion that continues to play an important role in Myanmar society. Myanmar is a developing country whose main exports are rice, beans and pulses, teak, fish and prawns, minerals and gems. Agriculture sector remains the mainstay of the economy, employing 62.2 percent of the total workforce and accounting 34.4 percent of Gross Domestic Product in Fiscal Year 1999/2000. Hence, priority is still given to agriculture sector in accordance with the first of the four economic objectives laid down by the State i.e. "Development of agriculture as the base and all round development of other sectors of the economy as well". Since 1988, Myanmar's economy has changed from a centrally planned economy to a market oriented one, encouraging private entrepreneurs' participation in almost every field of economic activity, particularly in the area of trade and investment. Myanmar is improving its social infrastructure to attain the national social objectives. Access to social services is being increased by expanding the outreach of the delivery system. Strategies have been streamlined in National Development Plans and National Health Plans for carrying out all social programmes that are doable and affordable. Communities with low access to social services were given priority, particularly with respect to such programmes as Vitamin A supplementation, improvement of water supply and sanitation systems, goiter control and assess to education, etc. NGOs, both national and international, are active in the health and other social sectors. Efforts are also made to deliver social services simultaneously to a common target population. Systems are further strengthened by enhancing the capacity of human resources in the social sectors, encouraging greater community participation and creating opportunities for the application of low-cost, high impact technologies appropriate to local conditions. With the tremendous effort made by different sectors, Myanmar tries to achieve remarkable progress in the areas of survival, development, protection and participation of children. Survey Objectives The 2000 Myanmar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey has as its primary objectives: - . - . - - - -----~- --· - - - ----- - -· .•. --- ---· - --- ------~ - - - - ----------- - ----- - --- ---- To provide up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Myanmar at the end of the decade and for looking forward to the next decade; 5 To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established at the • World Summit for Children and a basis for future action; To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Myanmar and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems. II. Survey Methodology Sample Design The sample for the Myanmar Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was designed to provide estimates of health indicators at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for 16 regions: Kachin, Kayah, Kayin, Chin, Mon, Rakhine, Shan (North), Shan (East), Shan (South), Ayeyarwady, Bago, Magwe, Mandalay, Sagaing, Tanintharyi, and Yangon. The sample was selected in two stages. At the first stage, 627 villages from rural areas, and 173 wards from urban areas were selected with probability proportional to size. After segmentation was carried out within the selected clusters, a random sample of 25600 households was drawn. Because the sample was stratified by region, it is not self-weighting. For reporting national level results, sample weights are used. Full technical details of the sample are included in Appendix A . Questionnaires The questionnaires for the Myanmar MICS were based on the MICS Model Questionnaire with some modifications and additions. A household questionnaire was administered in each household, which collected various information on household members including sex, age, literacy, marital status, and orphanhood status. The household questionnaire also includes education, water and sanitation, and salt iodization modules. In addition to a household questionnaire, questionnaires were administered in each household for women age 15-49 and children under age five. For children, the questionnaire was administered to the mother or caretaker of the child. The set of questionnaire includes: I. Questionnaire for Household (1) (2) (3) ---{4f (5) Household Information Panel Household Listing Form Education Module -- watetand Sanitation-Module- Salt lodization Module 6 • • • • • II. Questionnaire for Individual Woman (women of reproductive age, 15-49years) (1) Tetanus Toxoid Module III. Questionnaire for children aged 2-9 years (1) Disability Module IV. Questionnaire for Children under 5 years (1) Birth Registrations and Early Learning Module (2) Vitamin A Module (3) Breastfeeding Module (4) Care of Illness Module (5) Immunization Module (6) Anthropometry Module From the MICS model English version, the questionnaire was translated into Myanmar language and pretested during March 2000. Based on the results of the pretest, modifications were made to the questionnaire. For the full qut?stionnaire, see Appendix C . Fieldwork and Processing The field staff was trained for seven days in April and May 2000. Sixteen teams collected the data; each was comprised of twenty interviewers and five supervisors. The MICS Coordinator provided overall supervision. The fieldwork began in June 2000 and -concluded in August 2000. Data were entered on six microcomputers using the Epiinfo software . Four officials from the Research and Development Division under the Department of Health Planning involved in conducting MICS 2000 were sent abroad to get training in data management and in using SPSS software. In order to ensure quality control, all entries in the questionnaires were first checked for errors by supervisors in the field, later for missing items by members of State/Division Supervisory Committees, and finally for internal consistency by computer programmers from Research and Development Division, DHP. Procedures and standard programmes developed under MICS and adapted to the Myanmar questionnaire were used throughout. Data processing began in July 2000 and finished in September 2000. ---,-----·------- I 7 Ill. Sample Characteristics and Data Quality Response Rates Of the 25600 households selected for the Myanmar MICS sample, 25596 were found to be occupied (Table 1). Of these, 25546 were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 99.8 percent. In the interviewed households, 37149 eligible women aged 15-49 were identified. Of these, 37149 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 100 percent. In addition, 14441 children under age five were listed in the household questionnaire. Of these, questionnaires were completed for 14441 children for a response rate of 100 percent. Age Distribution and Missing Data As shown in Table 2 and Figure 2, the single year age distribution of household members by sex exhibits some distortions centered around age 20 for females and on age six for males . There appears to be significant heaping of women on ages 18-21 and perhaps a slight excess of women ages 20-21. For both sexes, some digit preference is evident for ages ending in 0 and 5, a pattern typical of populations in which ages are reckoned by the nearest birthday; a preference for ages ending in 2 is also observed . . = Figure 2: Single year age distribution of household population by sex, Myanmar, 2000 ~ 1.5 -t-------"""-. ~tt--------------1 ~ 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 Age 1-Male - Female I As a basic check on the quality of the survey data, the percentage of cases • • --- - -- - · · -missing information on selected questions -is she-wn--in-l'able--3-.-- A -100--percentresponse---- - rate was realized from household members regarding information on age, education, tetanus toxoid injection, and diarrhea. The high levels of response suggest that there. were practically no problem with the questions or the fieldwork . 8 • • • The data on weight and height are obtained from 30 percent of all children under 5: anthropometric measurements could be taken from those children. Characteristics of the Household Population Information on the characteristics of the household population and the survey respondents is provided to assist in the interpretation of the survey findings and to serve as a basic check on the sample implementation. Table 4 presents the percent distribution of households in the sample by background characteristics. About 21.5 percent of households (5501 households) are urban and 78.5 percent (20046 households) are rural. Each region contains slightly over 6.0 percent of households. Among urban areas, Yangon Division comprises the largest of the sixteen regions with 20.0 percent of households, Kayin State the smallest with 2.4 percent. Most of the households (37.6 percent) have 4-5 members. 43.6 percent of households contain at least one child under age five and 91.4 percent of households contain at least one women age 15-49. Table 5 shows the characteristics of female respondents aged 15-49. Women aged 20-24 comprises the greatest percentage of the sample at 18.3 percent. This percentage declines steadily across age groups until age 45-49 where it is 9.0 percent. This pattern is typical of countries in the East Asia and Pacific Region. Approximately 53.8 percent of women in the sample are currently married. The majority of women (43.8 percent) have had at least primary education while 18.5 percent have had below primary education. Table 6 shows the characteristics of children under age five. Forty nine point five percent of the children are male and 50.5 percent are female. There are slightly less children aged under 6 months than aged 6-11 months; a pattern which is unexpected. IV. Results A. Education Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world's children is one of the most important goals of the World Summit for Children. Educatio,n is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting childryh from hazardous and exploitative labor aruLsexuaLexploitatig.n_,-- --- ----------- protecting the enfuonment, and influencing population growth . 9 Early childhood education One in ten (9 .4 percent) children aged 36-59 months are attending an organized early childhood education programme with organized learning activities (Table 7). Approximately equal percentages of girls (10.1 percent) and boys (8.8 percent) are attending these programmes. Children in urban areas are five times more likely to attend early learning activities as children in rural areas. Relatively few children (7 .1 percent) attend at age three (36-47 months) and a majority of children (12.3 percent) attend at age four (48-59 months). Finally, the education of the mother is strongly related to the likelyhood that a child will attend an early childhood education programmes. The percentage of children attending increases from 2.9 percent to more than 21.2 percent as the mother education increases from below primary to secondary or higher education. Basic education Overall, 80.0 percent of children of primary school age in Myanmar are attending primary school (Table 8). In urban areas, 90.3 percent of children attend school while in rural areas the attendance rate is 77.0 percent. At the national level, there is virtually no difference between male and female primary school attendance: males 79.9 percent against females 80. 1 percent. However, there are considerable regional disparities and they are shown in Figure (3). Figure 3: Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school, Myanmar, 2000 Mon Rakhine Shan(North) Shan(East) Shan(South) Ayeyarwady Bago Magway Mandalay llllllliillililliflillilliiiijijjijijijijjjijji • • 0 20 40 60 80 100 • Percent 10 • • • Three fourths (75.0 percent) of children who enter the first grade of primary school eventually reach grade 4 (Table 9). The primary cycle of education in the formal schooling system begins with KG and ends in grade 4. KG is taken as first year of primary level, and those who finish grade 4 as those completing the primary level. There is not much difference between urban and rural areas reaching grade four from KG. Literacy The vast majority (89.7 percent) of the population over age 15 years in Myanmar is literate (Table 1 0). The literate population includes those who are reported to read 'easily or with difficulty'. Overall, females are slightly less likely than males to be literate (86. 2 vs . 93.7 percent). The percentage literate is the highest (94 .4 percent) among those aged 15-24. B. Water and Sanitation Use of drinking water Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Unsafe drinking water can be a significant carrier of diseases such as trachoma, cholera, typhoid, and schistosomiasis. Drinking water can also be tainted with chemical, physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to its association with disease, access to drinking water may be particularly important for women and children, particularly in rural areas, who bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, often for long distances. Only 6. 7 percent of the population uses drinking water from that is piped into their dwelling. The percentage of population using piped water for -drinking purposes is higher in urban areas (21.2 percent) than in rural areas (2.0 percent). Dug well, tubewell, pond and river or stream are important sources of drinking water. The source of drinking water for the population varies strongly by region (Table 11). In Yangon Division 19.9 percent of the population uses drinking water that is piped into their dwelling . Mandalay Division (13 .1 percent), Tanintharyi Division (10.9 percent) and Shan (North) (10.6 percent) each used piped water over 10 percent respectively. The population using safe drinking water sources are those who use any of the following types of supply: piped water, public tap, borehole/tubewell, protected ·. ___ wel1L§.P-rin~-IITotec_ted_p.Q_ud_QLr.ainwater._Qv_erall,--11.5- -percent- o.f__.the -population -has--~--~····· access to safe drinking water; 89.2 percent in urban areas and 65.8 percent in rural areas . II Use of sanitation facilities Inadequate disposal of human excreta and personal hygiene is associated with a range of diseases including diarrheal diseases and polio. Sanitary means of excreta disposal include: flush toilets connected to sewage systems or septic tanks, other flush toilets and improved pit latrines . About 63 .1 percent of the population of Myanmar is living in households with sanitary means of excreta disposal (Table 12). This percentage is 83.6 in urban areas and 56.5 percent in rural areas . The most commonly used facilities in the country are improved pit latrines, and traditional pit latrines. C. Child Malnutrition Nutritional status Children's nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. • In a well-nourished population, there is a standard distribution of height and weight for children under age five. Undernourishment in a population can be gauged by • comparing children to this standard distribution. The standard or reference population used here is the NCHS standard, which is recommended for use by UNICEF and the World Health Organization. Each of the three nutritional status indicators are expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of this reference population. Weight for age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight for age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely underweight while those whose weight for age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. Height for age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height for age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are · considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Those whose height for age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. ---- --·····-···- ··----~--Fifialty; ch1ldren-wh-o-se -wetghr-for height-is-·more- than- two-standard--deviations-~ below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely • . . wasted while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are , severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The 12 • • • indicator may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes m the availability of food or disease prevalence. In Table 13, children whose measurements of weight and height fall outside a plausible range are excluded. In addition, a small number of children whose birth dates are not known are excluded. At the national level, the percentage of children under 5 who are moderate to severely under weight is 35.3, the percentage moderate to severely stunted is 33.9, and the percentage moderate to severely wasted is 9.4. An urban-rural differential exists in malnutrition. Among children under age five, the extent of severely underweight children in urban areas is 5.5 percent where as in rural areas it is about 8.6 percent. In urban areas 25.5 percent of children are stunted from moderate to severe, and 7.6 percent are too short for their age. Compared to urban areas, the nutrition status of rural areas is somewhat lower. In rural areas 36.3 percent of children are moderately to severely short for their age, and 13.8 percent are too short for their age. The highest percentage of moderately to severely underweight is 48.1 and the lowest is 22.1 percent. Boys appear to be slightly more likely to be stunted, and wasted than girls. The age pattern shows that a higher percentage of children aged 12-59 months are under-nourished according to all three indices in comparison with children who are younger (Figure 4). This pattern is expected and is related to the age at which many children cease to be breastfed and are exposed to contamination in water, food and environment. - -~ ~---··---- -· ··· - -- --- -----~--------~-------------------- 13 Figure 4: Age pattern of malnourished children Q. :I e ~ ~ < <6 months 6-11 months 12-23 months 24-35 months 36-47 months 48-59 months 0 10 Waz Haz Whz =Weight for age = Height for age = Weight for height Breastfeeding 20 30 40 50 Percentage 0Waz-2SD •waz-3SD •Haz-2SD •Haz-3SD ·Wh.z-2SD .Whz-JSD Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon, and there are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. The World Summit for. Children goal states that children should be exclusively breastfed for four to six months, and that breastfeeding should continue with complementary food, well into the second year of life. Many countries have adopted the recommendation of exclusive breastfeeding for about six months . · In Table 14, breastfeeding status is based on women's reports of children's consumption in the 24 hours prior to the interview. Exclusive breastfeeding refers to children who receive only breast milk and vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine. Complementary feeding refers to children who receive breast milk and solid or semi- • • ___ - ----solid.food. _The last tw_o _c.olunms_of.th~ t~Plt!jm:J!l.Q~ <:!Ii!~~n who are continuing to be breastfed at one and at two years of age. Percentages according-to--region anc:rmother'S __ ___ _ education are not shown due to small sample sizes . For the same reason, the sex and • urban-rural residence breakdowns should be interpreted with caution. , 14 • • • Figure 5: Percentage distribution of living children by breastfeeding status, Myanmar,2000 Oo/o 0°~ 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 Age in months IIExclusively breastfed • Breast milk and water only •reast milk and solid/mushy food I:JBreast milk and liquids only ClNot beastfeeding Approximately one in six children aged less than four months are exclusively breastfed; 17.5 percent in urban areas and 15.3 percent in rural areas a lev~l considerably lower than recommended. It differs very little in feeding exclusively breast milk between urban and rural areas. At age 6-9 months, 67.3 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods. By age 12-15 months, 89.0 percent of children are still being breastfed, and by age 20-23 months, the percentage drops to 67.4 percent. Figure 5 shows the detailed pattern of breastfeeding status by the child's age in months. Even at the earliest ages, the majority of children are receiving liquids or foods other than breast milk. The percentage of children exclusively breastfed diminishes rapidly to close to zero after three months. By the end of one year, more than half of children are still breastfed. Salt iodization Deficiency of iodine in the diet is the world's single greatest cause of preventable mental retardation and can lower the average intelligence quotient (IQ) of a population by as much as thirteen points. Salt iodization is an effective, low-cost way __ __ __ of preventing iodine deficienc)L disorder& (IDD). Adequately iodized-.salt-contains-15-- ------- --- - ppm (parts per million) of iodine or more. In MICS, interviewers tested household salt for iodine levels by means of a testing kit . 15 Approximately 98.9 percent of househol~s had_ salt that was tested during the. MICS 2000 (Table 15). Among the households m which salt was tested 48.4 percent · had adequately iodized salt. The percentage of households with adequately iodized salt ranges from 15.1 percent to 76.0 percent. Sixty seven percent of urban households had adequately iodized salt compared to 42 .5 percent of rural households. However, the percentage of households having salt that tested positive may vary according to seasonal and observer variation. Vitamin A supplementation Vitamin A Deficiency (VAD) impairs children's immune systems, increasing their chances of dying of common childhood diseases and undermines the health of pregnant and lactating women. It can also cause eye damage and blindness in children. Yet it can be easily prevented by vitamin A supplemen:tation or food ·fortification. UNICEF and WHO recommend that all countries with an under five mortality rate exceeding 70 per 1000 live births, or where vitamin A deficiency is a public health problem, should put in place a programme for control of vitamin A deficiency. Based on UNICEF/WHO guidelines, the Myanmar Ministry ·of Health recommends that children aged 6-12 months be given one dose Vitamin A capsule of 100,000 IU every six months, and children older than one year be given one high dose of 200,000 IU every six months. Within the six months prior to the MICS, 68.7 percent of children aged 6-59 • months received the high dose Vitamin A supplement (Table 16). One percent did not receive the supplement in the last six months but did receive one prior to that time. Fewer than seven percent of children received a Vitamin A supplement at some time in the past but their mother or caretaker was unable to specify when. During year 2000, Vitamin A was actually supplemented to children aged 12 to 59 months although MICS (2000) estimates Vitamin A supplementation on children aged 6-59 months. The age pattern of Vitamin A supplementation shows that supplementation in the last six months rises from 23.6 percent among children aged 6-11 months to 70.9 percent among children aged 12-23 months and then reaches to almost the same level around i.e. 77 percent among older children. · The mother's level of education is also related to the likelihood of Vitamin A supplementation. The percentage receiving a supplement in the last six months increases from 56.0 percent among children whose mothers have below primary education to 70.8 percent of those whose mothers have primary education and 71.6 percent among children of mothers with secondary or higher education. · 16 • • • • D. Child Health Immunization coverage According to UNICEF and WHO guidelines, a child should receive a BCG vaccination to protect against tuberculosis, three doses of -DPT to protect against diptheria, pertussis, and tetanus, three doses of polio vaccine, and a measles vaccination by the age of 12 months. In . MICS, mothers were. asked to provide vaccination cards for children under the age of five. Interviewers copied . vaccination information from the cards onto the MICS questionnaire. Overall, nearly half of children had health cards. If the child did not have a card, a short description of each vaccine was read to the mother who was asked to recall whether or not the child had received it and, for DPT and Polio, how many times. Table 17 shows the percentage of children aged 12 to 23 months who received each of the vaccinations. The denominator for the tab~e is comprised of children aged 12-23 months so that only children who are old enough to be fully vaccinated are counted. In the top panel, the numerator includes an ·children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey according to the vaccination card or the mother's report. In the bottom panel, only those who were vaccinated before their first birthday are included. For children without vaccination cards, the proportion of vaccinations given before the first birthday is assumed to be the same as for children with vaccination cards. Approximately 93.4 percent of·children aged 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months. and the first dose ·of DPT was. given to 92.4 percent. The percentage declines for subsequent doses of DPT to 89.2 percent for the second dose, and 82.9 percent for the third dose (Figure 6). Similarly, 96.4 percent of children received Polio 1 by age 12 months and this declines to 89.7 percent by the third dose. The coverage for measles vaccine by 12 months is lower than for the other vaccines at 87.2 percent. As a result, the percentage of children who had all six recommended vaccinations by their first birthday is high, 79.9 percent. · · In Table 18, the percentage of children age 12:-23 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases is shown. according to background characteristics. Unlike the previous table, the estimates in this table .refer to children who . received the vaccinations by the time · of the survey, even if they did not occur prior to the age of 12 months . 17 -= Q,l ~ &:: Figure 6: Percentage of children aged 12-23 months who received immunizations by age 12 months, Myanmar, 2000 100 80 60 40 20 0 BCG DPT Polio Measles I• Dose 1 •Dose 2 llilDose 31 Male and female children are vaccinated at roughly the same rate; males 79.9 percent against famales 79.8 percent.- Similarly urban children are vaccinated at the same rate as rural children; urban 81.8 percent against rural 79.3 percent. Regional breakdowns are based on small numbers of cases and should be viewed with caution. Vaccination coverage is highest among children whose mothers have secondary or higher education. The education differences are greatest for the second and third doses of DPT, suggesting that drop out rates are higher among children with less educated . mothers . Diarrhea Dehydration caused by diarrhea is a major cause of mortality among children in Myanmar. Home management of diarrhea- either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid (RHF) • can prevent many of these deaths. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhea. • • In the MICS questionnaire, mothers (or caretakers) were asked to report wheth(!r_ the!L ~Qil~_ h~c! h~d diarrhea in the two weeks prior to the survey. If so, the mother was asked a series of questions-aboui_w_hat ilie 'clilldhadto--driiik-arureafd\iriiig _______ -· the episode and whether this was more or less than the child usually ate and drank. • Overall, 4.9 percent of under five children had diarrhea in the two weeks preceding the . 18 • • • survey (Table 19). The peak of diarrhea prevalence occurs in the weaning period, among children age 6-23 months. Table 19 also shows the percentage of children receiving various types of recommended liquids during the episode of diarrhea. Since mothers were able to name more than one type of liquid, the percentages do not necessarily add to 100. Ab(mt 63.4 percent of children received breastmilk while they had diarrhea. Children under age 12 months are especially likely to have received breastmilk: the proportion of children under 12 months who received breast milk during diarrhea episode is about 92 percent. About 46.0 percent of children received gruel and 44.9 percent received ORS. Children of mothers with secondary or higher education appear to be more likely than other children to receive ORS and gruel. Over nine in ten children (98. 7 percent) with diarrhea received one or more of the recommended home treatments (i.e., were treated with ORS or RHF). About 15.9 percent of under five children with diarrhea drank more than usual amount while 62.6 percent drank same and 20.9 percent drank less (Table 20). About 80.5 percent ate somewhat less, the same, or more than usual while 19.3 percent ate much less than usual or none. Overall 11.0 percent of children with diarrhea received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended, while 70.6 percent received increased or same amount of fluids and continued eating. Acute respiratory infection Acute lower respiratory infections, particularly pneumonia, are one of the leading causes of child deaths in Myanmar. In the MICS questionnaire, children with acute respiratory infection are defined as those who had an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or difficult breathing and whose symptoms were due to a problem in the chest, or both a problem in the chest and a blocked nose, or whose mother did not know the source of the problem. Only 3.4 percent of under-five children had severe acute respiratory infection in the two weeks prior to the survey according to these criteria (Ta}?le 21). Of these, 3.6 percent were taken to Hospitals for treatment, 7. 2 percent to Health Centers, 2. 9 percent to Maternal and Child Health Centers, 23.1 percent to Private Clinics, 14.4 percent to Health Staff and 2.9 percent to Traditional Medical Practitioners . About 7.0 percent were taken to a private drug store and 0.6 percent to relative. Overall, 48.1 percent of children with ARI were taken to an appropriate health provider (i.e., Hospital, Health Center, Maternal and Child Health Clinic, Private Clinic and Health Staff) . IMMCI initiative The Integrated Management of Maternal and Child Illnesses (IMMCI) is a programme developed by UNICEF and WHO that combines strategies for control and - treatment of five major killers of childre·n - acute lower-- resptrarory-ttact infections·~ ·- - -- ---- ·- ··· diarrheal dehydration, measles, malaria, and malnutrition. The programme focuses on the improvement of case management skills by health workers, improvement of the health system, and improvement of family and community practices in the prevention 19 and early management of childhood illnesses. Appropriate home management of illness • is one component of IMMCI. The approach teaches mothers that appropriate home management of diarrhea or any other illness requires giving more fluids and continue to feed sick children as they are normally fed. Table 22 presents information on the drinking and eating behavior of sick children. Almost 15 percent of children were reported to have had diarrhea or some other illness in the two weeks preceding the survey. Of these, 12.6 percent drank more liquids during the illness and 80.2 percent continued eating (i.e., ate somewhat less or the same, or more). Overall, about 9.1 percent of ill children received increased fluids and continued eating as recommended under the IMMCI programme. Promoting knowledge among caretakers about when it is appropriate to seek care for ill children is another important component of the IMMCI programme. In Myanmar MICS, mothers or caretakers of children were asked to name all of the symptoms that cause them to take a child to a health facility right away. The most common response, given by 36.2 percent of mothers, was that they took their child to a health facility right away because he/she developed a fever (Table 23). 30.9 percent said that the child becoming sicker and 13.7 percent mentioned difficulty in breathing. Between 3.1 and 16.5 percent of mothers cited an inability to breastfeed, fast breathing, blood in stools, and drinking poorly as reasons for taking a child to a health facility right away. E. Reproductive Health Prenatal care Tetanus toxoid InJections are given to women during pregnancy to protect infants from neonatal tetanus, a major cause of infant death that is due primarily to unsanitary conditions during childbirth. Two doses of tetanus toxoid during pregnancy offer full protection. However, if a woman was vaccinated during a previous pregnancy, she may only need a booster to give full protection. Five doses are thought to provide lifetime protection. Eight out of ten women with recent births in Myanmar are protected against neonatal tetanus (Table 24). The vast majority of these women received two or more doses of tetanus toxoid within the last three years. Regional estimates are based on small numbers of cases and should be interpreted with caution. Women with secondary or higher education are more likely to be protected against tetanus than those with either below primary or primary education. 20 • • • • • F. Child Rights Birth registration The International Convention on the Rights of the Child states that every child has the right to a name and a nationality and the right to protection from being deprived of his or her identity. Birth registration is a fundamental means of securing these rights for children. The births of 60.6 percent of children under five years in Myanmar have been registered (Table 25). There are no significant variations in birth registration across sex and age except education level. Some children are somewhat less likely to have their births registered and this appears to be due primarily to a relatively large proportion of mothers who do not know if their child's birth was registered. Among those whose births are not registered, cost, travel distance, and lack of knowledge do not appear to be the main reasons. Orphanhood and living arrangements of children Children who are orphaned or living away from their parents may be at increased risk of impoverishment, discrimination, denial of property rights and rights to inheritance, various forms of abuse, neglect, and exploitation of their labor or sexuality. Monitoring the level of orphanhood and the living arrangements of children assists in identifying those who may be at risk and in tracking changes over time . In Myanmar, 93.2 percent of children aged 0-14 are living with both parents (Table 26). Only 1.3 percent- are living with their mother only although their father is alive. About 0.8 percent are living with neither parent although both parents are alive. Children who are not living with a biological parent comprise 1.6 percent and children who have one or both parents dead amount to 4.3 percent of all children aged 0-14. Older children are more likely to live away without their biological parents than younger children. While only 0.5 percent of children under age five are not living with a biological parent, 2. 7 percent of children aged 10-14 do so . 21 G. Recommendations It is reconunended that the data generated by MICS be used in the following ways: • For wide dissemination and advocacy at all levels (from central decision makers to those implementing at the grassroots level) through meetings, seminars, workshops and publications; • For reporting progress toward achieving national and global goals for children; • For initiating a policy dialogue about social sector planning among government departments, UN agencies, donors and NGOs; • For advocacy at all levels to reduce regional disparities; • For sub-national and local planning to achieve social sector goals; • For reviewing and revising strategies used in programmes to achieve the decade goals for children and women; • For reallocating government and international resources (including • human and financial resources as well as supplies and equipment) to areas requiring special attention. • 22 • Table 1: Number of households and women, and response rates, Myanmar, 2000 Urban Rural Total Number of households: Sampled 5644 19956 25600 Occupied 5642 19954 25596 Interviewed 5634 19912 25546 Response rate 99.9 99.8 99.8 Number of women: Eligible 9075 28074 37149 Interviewed 9075 28074 37149 Response rate 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of Children < 5 2798 11643 14441 Number completed 2798 11643 14441 Percent completed 100.0 100.0 100.0 • • 23 Table 2: Single year age distribution of household population by sex, Myanmar, 2000 • Age Male Female Number Percent Number Percent 0 1483 2.4 1491 2.2 1 1271 2.0 1237 1.8 2 1244 2.0 1284 1.9 3 1375 2.2 1331 2.0 4 1206 1.9 1088 1.6 5 1184 1.9 1183 1.8 6 1584 2.5 1509 2.2 7 1460 2.3 1460 2.2 8 1388 2.2 1419 2.1 9 1256 2.0 1157 1.7 10 1494 2.4 1366 2.0 11 1202 1.9 1202 1.8 12 1505 2.4 1435 2.1 13 1351 2.2 1283 1.9 14 1276 2.0 1301 1.9 15 1356 2.2 1320 2.0 16 1417 2.3 1503 2.2 • 17 1275 2.0 1214 1.8 18 1444 2.3 1578 2.3 19 1140 1.8 1224 1.8 20 1452 2.3 1655 2.5 21 983 1.6 1178 1.8 22 1138 1.8 1247 1.9 23 1105 1.8 1202 1.8 24 964 1.5 1116 1.7 25 1290 2.1 1404 2.1 26 932 1.5 1176 1.8 27 1000 1.6 1111 1.7 28 987 1.6 1220 1.8 29 846 1.4 987 1.5 30 1389 2.2 1545 2.3 31 865 1.4 1018 1.5 32 1051 1.7 1194 1.8 33 / 848 1.4 955 1.4 34 723 1.2 790 1.2 35 1122 1.8 1230 1.8 36 802 1.3 93Cf 1.4- -- ----- 37 817 1.3 870 1.3 • 38 827 1.3 966 1.4 24 • Table 2: (Continued) Single year age distribution of household population by sex, Myanmar, 2000 Age Male Female Number Percent Number Percent 39 653 1.0 745 l.l 40 1063 1.7 1237 1.8 41 649 1.0 630 0.9 42 805 1.3 846 1.3 43 650 l.O 740 l.l 44 552 0.9 604 0.9 45 830 1.3 1023 1.5 46 610 l.O 606 0.9 47 597 1.0 602 0.9 48 572 0.9 664 1.0 49 415 0.7 443 0.7 50 725 1.2 895 1.3 51 435 0.7 501 0.7 52 548 0.9 548 0.8 53 393 0.6 474 0.7 • 54 325 0.5 329 0.5 55 466 0.7 562 0.8 56 349 0.6 426 0.6 57 266 0.4 334 0.5 58 302 0.5 358 0.5 59 241 0.4 226 0.3 60 526 0.8 685 l.O 61 268 0.4 293 0.4 62 333 0.5 410 0.6 63 267 0.4 346 0.5 64 271 0.4 282 0.4 65 443 0.7 494 0.7 66 223 0.4 271 0.4 67 275 0.4 364 0.5 68 184 0.3 255 0.4 69 135 0.2 164 0.2 70+ 1817 2.9 2417 3.6 Missing/DK 30 0.0 23 0.0 Total 62270 100.0 67178 100.0 • 25 Table 3: Percentage of cases missing information for selected questions, Myanmar, 2000 • Question Reference population Percent Number missing Level of education Household members 0.0 95108 Year of education Household members 0.0 95108 Date of last tetanus toxoid Women with a life birth 0.0 124 injection in the last year Complete birth date Children under 5 0.0 14441 Diarrhoea in last two weeks Children under 5 0.0 14441 Weight Children under 5 0.0 8010 Height Children under 5 0.0 8010 • • 26 • Table 4: Percent distributiolr households by background characteristics, ~yanrnar, 2000 . Area Urban Rural Total Region Kachin 5.7 6.4 6.2 Kayah 7.5 5.9 6.2 Kay in 2.4 7.3 6.3 Chin 4.4 6.7 6.3 Mon 8.1 5.7 6.2 Rakhine 4.1 6.8 6.2 Shan (North) 5.0 6.6 6.2 Shan (East) 4.7 .6.7 6.2 Shan (South) 5.7 6.4 6.2 Ayeyarwady 4.0 6.9 6.2 Bago 5.3 6.5 6.2 Magway 4.1 6.8 6.2 Mandalay 7.4 5.9 6.2 Sagaing 4.4 6.8 6.2 Tanintharyi 7.3 6.0 6.2 • Yangon 20.0 2.5 6.2 Number of 1 1.5 1.6 1.5 HH members 2 to 3 19.6 21.8 21.3 4 to 5 38.1 37.5 37.6 6 to 7 26-.o 25.7 25.7 8 to 9 9.7 9.9 9.9 10+ 5.2 3.6 3.9 At least one child age < 15 71.0 75.7 74;7 At least one child age < 5 39.8 44.7 43.6 At least one woman age 15-49 92.3 91.2 91.4 Percentage of total households 21.5 78.5 100.0 Weighted Number 5501 20046 25547 Unweighted Number 5634 19911 25545 • 27 Table 5: Percent distribution of women 15-49 by background characteristics, • Myanmar,2000 Area Urban Rural Total Region Kachin 6.6 7.4 7.2 Kayah 7.2 5.8 6.1 Kay in 2.7 7.6 6.4 Chin 4.2 6.1 5.7 Mon 8.2 6.3 6.8 Rakhine 4.1 6.6 6.0 Shan (North) 5.6 6.6 6.4 Shan (East) 5.0 6.3 6.0 Shan (South) 6.0 6.1 6.0 Ayeyarwady 3.5 6.3 5.7 Bago 4.8 6.1 5.8 Magway 4.0 6.6 6.0 Mandalay 7.8 6.2 6.6 Sagaing 4.3 7.5 6.7 Tanintharyi 7.4 6.2 6.5 Yangon 18.4 2.4 6.2 • Age 15- 19 15.2 17.1 16.6 20-24 17.5 18.5 18.3 25-29 15.5 15.8 15.7 30-34 17.4 15.0 15.6 35- 39 13.3 12.6 12.7 40-44 11.6 12.2 12.1 45-49 9.4 8.9 9.0 Marital status Currently married 48.9 55.4 53.8 Formerly married 5.5 5.9 5.8 Never married 45.6 38.7 40.4 Education Below primary 5.8 22.5 18.5 Level Primary 25.1 49.6 43.8 Secondary + 69.1 27.9 37.7 Total 100 100 100 Weighted number 8866 28286 37151 Unweighted number 9080 28069 37149 • 28 • • • Table 6: Percent distribution of children under 5 by background characteristiCs, Myanmar, 2000 Area Urban Rural Total Region Kachin 7.9 8.3 8.2 Kayah 9.0 7.0 7.4 Kay in 2.8 8.7 7.6 Chin 4.6 7.5 6.9 Mon 8.1 5.9 6.3 Rakhine 4.9 8.7 8.0 Shan (North) 5.4 6.7 6.4 Shan (East) 5.3 6.0 5.9 Shan (South) 4.6 6.4 6.1 Ayeyarwady 3.9 5.7 5.4 Bago 4.3 4.9 4.8 Mag way 3.0 5.0 4.7 Mandalay 6.3 4.6 5.0 Sagaing 3.7 6.1 5.7 Tanintharyi 7.6 6.5 6.7 Yangon 18.6 1.9 5.1 Sex Male 50.4 49.4 49.5 Female 49.6 50.6 50.5 Age <6 months 9.7 10.4 10.2 6-11 months 11.4 11.8 11.8 12-23 months 19.8 19.6 ' 19.7 24-35 months 18.9 19.8 19.7 36-47 months 21.7 21.0 21.1 48-59 months 18.4 17.4 17.6 Mother's education level Below primary 8.3 28.2 24.4 Primary 33.2 52.4 48.8 Secondary+ 58.5 19.4 26.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Weighted number 2734 11709 14443 Unweighted number 2798 11643 14441 29 Table 7: Percentage of children aged 36-59 months who are attending some form • of organized early childhood education programme, Myanmar, 2000 Attending Number program of children Region Kachin 11.1 465 Kayah 12.6 459 Kay in 0.4 415 Chin 11.2 362 Mon 8.1 344 Rakhine 6.0 435 Shan (North) 11.3 348 Shan (East) 5.0 325 Shan (South) 13.0 343 Ayeyarwady 4.6 278 Bago 8.2 232 Magway 5.1 274 Mandalay 10.9 303 Sagaing 10.9 322 Tanintharyi 4.2 393 Yangon 22.2 272 • Area Urban 25.0 1094 Rural 5.1 4476 Sex Male 8.8 2825 Female 10.1 2745 Age 36-47 months 7.1 3039 48-59 months 12.3 2531 Mother's education level Below primary 2.9 1382 Primary 5.9 2728 Secondary+ 21.2 1460 Total 9.4 5570 •• 30 _ / ___ -- ------ • Table 8: Percentage of children of primary school age attending prJ school, Myanmar, 2000 (primary school age = 5-9 year) Male Female Total Attending Number Attending Number Attending Number Region Kachin 88.2 528 85.0 497 86.7 1025 Kayah 78.0 574 79.9 523 78.9 1097 Kay in 65.2 575 70.4 565 67.7 1140 Chin 77.6 602 70.0 541 74.0 1142 Mon 79.6 515 83.2 499 81.4 1014 Rakhine 55.1 552 51.8 570 53.4 1122 Shan (North) 50.5 474 54.6 430 52.4 904 Shan (East) 47.5 443 46.1 421 46.8 964 Shan (South) 68.2 512 73.3 433 70.5 944 Ayeyarwady 79.7 371 81.3 360 80.5 730 Bago 87.6 411 88.5 400 88.0 811 Magway 88.2 445 84.1 447 86.2 892 Mandalay 87.0 445 86.4 426 86.7 871 Sagaing 88.7 482 87.5 489 88.1 972 Tanintharyi 88.8 531 91.1 514 89.9 1045 Yangon 87.0 382 87.2 340 87.1 722 • Area Urban 90.3 1520 90.2 1364 90.3 2883 Rural 77.0 6322 77.6 6090 77.3 12412 Age . 5 years 64.1 1789 64.9 1670 64.5 3459 6 years 82.8 1596 82.6 1551 82.7 3147 7 years 86.3 1502 85.2 1530 85.8 3032 8 years 85.4 1302 87.5 1184 86.4 2486 9years 83.4 1653 82.7 1519 83.1 3172 Total 79.9 7841 80.1 7454 80.0 15295 • 31 Table 9: Percentage of children entering Kindergarten of primary school who eventually • reach grade 4, Myanmar, 2000 Percent in Percent in Percent in Percent in Percent KG reaching grade 1 grade 2 grade 3 reaching grade 1 reaching reaching reaching grade 4 of grade 2 grade 3 grade 4 those who enter KG Region Kachin 83.0 93.3 94.0 93.6 68 .1 Kayah 86.2 94.7 98.2 97.1 77.8 Kayin 82.9 95.0 95.1 95.6 71.6 Chin 78.7 91.7 95.5 95.7 65.9 Mon 83.8 95.4 92.2 94.1 69.4 Rak:hine 90.3 93.2 94.3 95.6 75.9 Shan (North) 82.3 95.7 95.5 93.9 70.6 Shan (East) 89.5 93.6 91.0 93.2 71.0 Shan (South) 87.5 97.3 90.3 96.6 74.3 Ayeyarwady 82.1 93.5 96.1 94.1 69.4 Bago 84.3 94.6 97.0 97.7 75.5 Mag way 79.5 96.0 95.5 97.2 70.8 Mandalay 90.9 97 .1 96.5 96.0 81.9 • Sagaing 86.8 98.0 98.1 95.1 79.4 Tanintharyi 97.2 98.2 99.3 97.9 92.7 Yangon 79.0 98 .2 96.0 98.5 73.3 Sex Male 83.9 95.8 95.5 97.7 74.9 Female 86.1 96.0 96.0 94.4 74.9 Area Urban 80.5 97.4 96.5 98.3 74.4 Rural 86.1 95.5 95.6 95.5 75.0 Total 84.9 95.9 95.8 96.1 . 75.0 • 32 • Table 10: Percentage of the population aged 15 years and older who is literate, Myanmar, Male Female Literate Not known Number Literate Not known Number Region Kachin 90.0 0.1 2880 82.2 0.2 3353 Kayah 83.7 1.5 2539 73.4 1.9 2756 Kayin 79.0 0.0 2583 68.7 0.0 2926 Chin 84.1 0.7 2442 65.7 1.8 2576 Mon 91.9 0.1 2894 84.5 0.1 3258 Rakhine 79.3 1.1 2450 63.1 1.4 2731 Shan (North) 74.2 1.1 2697 61.7 1.3 2920 Shan (East) 49.7 1.7 2638 30.0 2.0 2759 Shan (South) 88.3 0.2 2434 67.8 0.3 2747 Ayeyarwady 98.1 0.0 2461 95.0 0.1 2683 Bago 98.8 0.0 2588 93.8 0.0 2870 Magway 98.3 0.0 2554 87.1 0.0 2999 Mandalay 99.0 0.1 2816 92.4 0.2 3222 Sagaing 96.2 0.0 2664 89.8 0.0 3207 Tanintharyi 96.6 0.0 2674 94.0 0.0 3078 Yangon 98.2 0.0 2674 94.7 0.0 2971 • Area Urban 97.9 0.1 9715 93.3 0.1 11291 Rural 92.3 0.2 32272 83.6 0.3 35762 Age 15-24 95.6 0.1 12450 93.2 0.2 ,,,, .l3648 . . . ' 25-34 94.9 0.2 10154 90.2 0.2 11529 35-44 93.4 0.2 7981 86.9 0.2 8725 . 45-54 93.2 0.2 5319 84.1 0.3 5898 55-64 89.7 0.4 3230 73.8 0.4 3741 65+ 88.1 0.3 2853 64.6 0.4 3512 Total 93.7 0.2 41987 86.2 0.2 47053 • 33 Table 10: (Continued) Percentage of the population aged 15 years and older who is literate, • Myanmar, 2000 Total Literate Not known Number Region Kachin 85 .8 0.2 6233 Kayah 78.4 1.7 5295 Kayin 73 .5 0.0 5509 Chin 74.7 1.2 5017 Mon 88.0 0.1 6152 Rakhine 70.8 1.3 5180 Shan (North) 67 .7 1.2 5617 Shan (East) 40.6 0.9 5397 Shan (South) 77.4 0.3 5181 Ayeyarwady 96.5 0.1 5144 Bago 96 .2 0.0 5458 Magway 92.3 0.0 5552 Mandalay 95 .5 0.1 6037 Sagaing 92.7 0.0 5871 Tanintharyi 95.2 0.0 5752 Yangon 96.3 0.0 5645 • Area Urban 95.4 0.1 21006 Rural 87.7 0.3 68034 Age 15-24 94.4 0.2 26098 25-34 92.4 0.2 21683 35-44 90.0 0.2 16706 45-54 88.4 0.2 11216 55-64 81.0 0.4 6972 65+ 74 .8 0.4 6365 Total 89.7 0.2 89040 • 34 • Table 11: Percentage of the population with access to safe drinking water, Myanmar, 2000 Main source of water Piped Tube well/ Un- into Public borehole Protected Protected Protected protected dwelling tap with dug well/ pond Rain dug well/ EUffiE sEring water SEring Region Kachin 5.8 8.1 13.4 47.3 0.3 0.1 13.0 Kayah 5.7 13.4 3.4 28.7 10.9 0.5 12.7 Kay in 0.0 1.4 5.1 36.3 0.2 0.0 46.9 Chin 4.7 12.5 0.1 24.1 0.5 0.0 4.9 Mon 0.8 1.8 5.8 47.1 10.7 0.2 25.7 Rakhine 3.6 3.5 6.7 14.9 18.3 0.0 13.7 Shan (North) 10.6 7.2 1.5 53.6 2.5 0.4 15.6 Shan (East) 3.1 4.7 7.9 40.5 0.2 0.0 38.3 Shan (South) 5.7 10.9 6.5 27.0 5.3 2.8 23.1 Ayeyarwady 1.7 8.7 17.7 20.5 9.7 1.9 3.1 Bago 3.3 4.0 44.3 22.3 8.8 0.2 6.9 Magway 3.6 5.4 39.1 25.8 2.7 0.3 5.5 Mandalay 13.1 2.9 31.1 26.1 3.3 0.7 8.4 • Sagaing 2.0 13 .1 26.7 33.8 2.6 0.3 5.7 Tanintharyi 10.9 3.7 6.9 29.9 0.3 0.1 47.8 Yangon 19.9 8.9 36.7 5.5 19.5 0.1 0.0 Area Urban 21.2 9.4 36.3 19.0 3.1 0.3 3.2 Rural 2.0 5.7 19.9 28.6 8.9 0.7 13.4 Total 6.7 6.6 23.9 26.3 7.4 0.6 10.9 • 35 Table 11: (Continued) Percentage of the population with assess to safe drinking water, • Myanmar, 2000 Main source of water Un- Un- Total with Number protected protected River/ Other Missing/ Total Safe of pond rain Stream DK drinking persons water water Region Kachin 0.6 0.1 10.8 0.5 0.0 100 75.0 9414 Kayah 2.1 0.2 22.5 0.0 0.0 100 62.6 8338 Kay in 0.7 0.1 7.5 1.7 0.0 100 43.1 8759 Chin 3.7 0.1 46.4 3.0 0.0 100 41.9 8096 Mon 5.0 0.0 2.1 0.8 0.0 100 66.4 9056 Rakhine 33.2 0.0 6.0 0.0 0.0 100 47.0 8476 Shan (North) 2.8 0.0 5.6 0.2 0.0 100 75.9 8148 Shan (East) 0.6 0.1 0.8 3.9 0.0 100 56.3 7822 Shan (South) 4.7 0.0 10.4 3.5 0.0 100 58.4 7814 Ayeyarwady 15.8 1.0 17.8 2.1 0.0 100 60.2 7398 Bago 8.1 0.1 1.9 0.1 0.0 100 82.9 7749 Magway 4.4 0.0 12.6 0.7 0.0 100 76.8 795. Mandalay 6.7 0.1 7.5 0.0 0.0 100 77.2 840 Sagaing 4.2 0.1 8.8 2.7 0.0 100 78.5 8492 Tanintharyi 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 100 51.8 8768 Yangon 7.8 0.0 0.0 1.6 0.0 100 90.6 7772 Area Urban 3.1 0.1 1.8 2.6 0.0 100 89.2 29245 Rural 9.9 0.2 10.0 0.7 0.0 100 65.8 103221 Total 8.2 0.2 8.0 1.2 0.0 100 71.5 132466 • 36 • Table 12: Percentage of the population with access to sanitary means of excreta disposal, · Myanmar, 2000 Type of toilet facility Flush to Improved Traditional Surface No Total Total with No. of sewage pit latrine pit latrine latrine facilities/ sanitary person system or bush/field means of septic excreta tank disposal Region Kachin 5.1 74.7 17.3 1.8 1.1 100.0 79 .8 9414 Kayah 0.5 54.8 35.4 3.4 5.8 100.0 55 .3 8338 Kay in 3.8 42.5 19.8 1.6 32.4 100.0 46.3 8759 Chin 1.2 58.1 32.6 1.7 6.4 100.0 59.3 8096 Mon 3.8 68.2 4.9 5.2 17.9 100.0 72.0 9056 Rakhine 0.2 21.4 9.2 15.6 53.7 100.0 21.6 8476 Shan(North) 5.4 48.6 37.4 3.9 4.8 100.0 53.9 8148 Shan(East) 0.5 52.3 6.8 0.2 40.3 100.0 52.7 7822 Shan( South) 9.2 51.2 37.0 1.1 1.6 100.0 60.3 7817 Ayeyarwady 0.2 54 .8 11.6 19.7 13.8 100.0 54.9 7398 Bago 4.7 61.6 9.9 14.6 9.2 100.0 66.3 7749 Magway 3.4 56.3 26.4 2.5 11.5 100.0 59.7 7957 • Mandalay 4.9 65 .8 13.8 1.0 14.4 100.0 . 70.7 8407 Sagaing 1.9 74.4 9.4 0.0 14.2 100.0 76.3 8492 Tanintharyi 5.2 62.6 15 .3 8.1 8.7 100.0 67.8 8768 Yangon 22.7 50.6 11.5 10.9 4.2 100.0 73.4 7772 Area Urban 19.1 64.5 10.3 4.5 1.6 100.0 . 83.6 29245 Rural 1.1 55.4 16.8 8.5 18.1 100.0 56.5 103221 Total 5.5 57.6 15 .3 7.6 14.1 100.0 63 .1 132466 I • 37 Table 13: Percentage of under-five children who are severely or moderately undernourished, • . Myanmar, 2000 Weight for age Height for age Weight for height Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent Percent No. of below below below below below below children -2 SD -3 SD -2 SD -3 SD -2 SD -3 SD Region Kachin 27.3 7.7 32.9 11.6 12.3 3.8 612 Kayah 35.9 6.7 43 .1 14.0 8.1 1.1 616 Kay in 40.1 9.9 40.8 17.2 9.0 1.0 643 Chin 41.3 9.0 44.0 22.1 11.1 0.9 536 Mon 33.5 5.8 31.7 7.8 6.6 0.6 498 Rakhine 48.1 16.9 46.4 20.3 14.4 3.7 679 Shan (North) 22.1 3.7 35.0 12.0 2.4 0.2 462 Shan (East) 38.7 8.7 40.8 23.2 10.1 1.4 426 Shan (South) 35.6 9.7 39.9 14.8 9.9 1.6 495 Ayeyarwady 36.8 6.7 35.0 12.5 7.8 0.5 436 Bago 37.4 8.6 32.5 10.7 8.8 0.3 385 Magway 36.5 5.7 33.2 10.4 12.5 2.1 384 Mandalay 31.2 6.9 27.4 10.9 8.8 0.2 366 Sagaing 31.5 5.8 29.5 9.8 8.6 1.6 49. Tanintharyi 40.1 15.7 44.3 22.3 11.6 3.0 54Z Yangon 33.4 5.8 26.8 8.3 9.9 0.2 432 Area Urban 29.6 5.5 25.5 7.6 8.3 0.8 1527 Rural 37.0 8.6 36.3 13.8 9.7 1.3 6483 Sex Male 35.3 7.5 33.9 12.9 9.9 1.4 4015 Female 35.4 8.2 34.0 11.9 8.9 1.0 3995 Age <6 months 3.6 0.5 6.9 1.3 1.8 0.2 779 6-11 months 21.7 6.7 19.8 6.0 7.4 1.8 945 12-23 months 40.2 10.8 36.3 12.4 15.2 2.1 1561 24-35 months 43.2 9.0 35.9 13.0 9.7 0.5 1589 36-47 months 38.5 7.1 39.0 14.7 8.3 0.9 1692 48-59 months 43.9 8.9 47.4 19.4 9.5 1.4 1425 Mother's education level Below primary 44.2 14.1 46.6 20.1 12.3 1.9 1912 Primary 36.0 7.3 34.8 12.6 8.7 0.9 3934 Secondary + 28.8 5.3 24.7 7.6 9.1 1.4 21. Total 35.3 7.9 33.9 12.4 9.4 1.2 8010 38 • Table 14: Percent of living children by breastfeeding status, Myanmar, 2000 Percent of Number of Percent of Number of Children 0-3 Children 0-3 Children 6-9 Children 6-9 months months months months exclusively receiving breastfed complementary food Region Kachin 28.2 85 57.1 91 Kayah 10.3 68 66.6 72 Kayin 13.6 67 61.9 88 Chin 33.3 63 50.8 67 Man 9.3 54 70.4 81 Rakhine 3.2 95 70.2 84 Shan (North) 25.1 56 59.9 80 Shan (East) 24.3 37 67.5 80 Shan (South) 32.8 55 68.5 73 Ayeyarwady 15.3 65 59.0 61 Bago 5.8 52 59.1 49 Mag way 12.6 47 86.2 43 Mandalay 19.5 47 76.8 71 • Sagaing 22.4 45 74.8 71 Tanintharyi 3.7 54 69.2 78 Yangon 19.5 51 59.4 69 Area Urban 17.5 171 66.2 209 Rural 15.3 771 67.6 949 Sex Male 12.6 448 68.3 561 Female 18.9 494 66.3 597 Mother's education level Below primary 12.0 221 67.1 257 Primary 15.1 464 67.5 570 Secondary+ 19.1 258 67.0 331 Total 15.8 942 67.3 1158 • 39 Table 14: (Continued) Percent of living children by breastfeeding status, • Myanmar, 2000 Percent of Number of Percent of Number of Children 12-15 Children 12-15 Children 20-23 Children 20-23 months months months months breastfed breastfed Region Kachin 68.7 80 26.6 45 Kayah 87.7 73 30.9 68 Kay in 90.5 84 68.1 51 Chin 85.8 85 56.4 64 Mon 85.7 77 46.2 52 Rakhine 90.9 110 80.4 51 Shan (North) 74.6 75 37.8 32 Shan (East) 72.8 70 37.8 37 Shan (South) 86.4 66 56.4 32 Ayeyarwady 87 .1 62 71.6 53 Bago 96.4 55 77.8 45 Mag way 94.3 36 86.9 60 Mandalay 87.6 47 77.2 39 Sagaing 93.2 58 63.6 47 Tanintharyi 86.5 74 63.6 63 • Yangon 96.5 56 51.6 37 Area Urban 91.2 216 53.3 132 Rural 88.3 893 70.7 643 Sex Male 89.3 551 69.2 392 Female 88.6 558 65.6 383 Mother 's education level Below primary 86.4 294 63.1 174 Primary 90.1 528 71.4 396 Secondary+ 88.6 287 60.8 205 Total 89.0 1109 67.4 775 • 40 • Table 15: Percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt, Myanmar, 2000 Percent of Percent of Percent of households Number of households households with salt testing households with no salt in which interviewed salt was tested No iodine < 15 15+ PPM PPM ~ Region Kachin 0.6 98.4 17.3 28.2 54.6 1597 Kayah 0.2 99.7 15.3 32.5 52.2 1597 Kay in 0.5 99.2 25.1 47.9 27.0 1595 Chin 4.3 94.2 37.2 30.4 32.4. 1571 Mon 1.7 97.8 25.9 23.9 50.2 1600 Rakhine 0.4 99.4 52.8 32.1 15.1 1600 Shan(N orth) 0.1 99.8 20.5 28.4 51.0 1592 Shan(East) 0.3 99.4 33.2 13.3 53.5 1600 Shan( South) 0.0 99.8 9.9 23.5 66.6 1599 Ayeyarwady 1.6 97.9 35.6 29.5 34.9 1600 Bago 0.6 99.2 25.3 25.0 49.7 1596 Magway 0.5 99.3 18.9 28.8 52.3 1600 • Mandalay 0.3 99.3 22.7 20.0 57.2 1600 Sagaing 0.4 99.5 30.0 30.9 39.1 1599 Tanintharyi 0.2 99.8 56.3 16.5 27.2 1600 Yangon 0.9 98.5 6.6 17.4 76.0 1600 Area Urban 0.8 98 .9 12.4 20.5 67.2 5634 Rural 0.7 98.9 29.8 27.7 42.5 19912 Total 0.7 98 .9 25.7 25.9 48.4 25546 · • 41 Table 16: Percent distribution of children aged 6-59 months by whether they have received • · a high dose of Vitamin A supplement in the last 6 months, Myanmar, 2000 Percent of children who Not sure if Never Total Number received Vitamin A: received received of Children Within Prior to Not sure last last when 6 months 6 months Region Kachin 74.1 0.6 5.2 3.9 16.2 100 1050 Kayah 64.9 0.3 8.8 1.0 24.9 100 965 Kayin 61.2 1.2 5.9 2.5 29.2 100 989 I Chin 65.1 0.9 4.6 3.3 26.2 100 894 Mon 75.1 1.0 2.8 0.4 20.7 100 821 Rakhine 51.5 0.6 10.9 3.1 33.9 100 1007 Shan (North) 60.1 0.4 8.6 1.7 29.3 100 837 Shan (East) 32 .5 4.2 15 .2 0.3 47.9 100 772 Shan (South) 54.6 0.8 4.8 2.3 37.5 100 772 Ayeyarwady 64.6 1.2 6.1 1.5 26.6 100 678 Bago 60.5 1.3 16.8 1.1 20.2 100 613 Magway 83.0 0.3 3.2 0.7 12.8 100 601 Mandalay 73.9 1.6 3.5 0.7 20.4 100 629 • Sagaing 78.7 0.8 5.7 0.6 14.2 100 742 Tanintharyi 81.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 18.1 100 877 Yangon 77.1 0.5 1.1 1.4 20.0 100 656 Area Urban 72.3 0.9 5.0 1.2 20.6 100 2461 Rural 67.7 1.0 6.5 1.4 23.5 100 10442 Sex Male 69.0 1.0 5.8 1.3 22.9 100 6425 Female 68.3 0.9 6.5 1.4 22.9 100 6478 Age 6-11 months 23.6 0.6 2.6 1.7 71.5 100 1669 12-23 months 70.9 0.8 4.7 1.1 22.5 100 2827 24-35 months 77.8 0.7 7.2 1.1 13.1 100 2826 36-47 months 75.6 1.4 7.5 1.4 14.2 100 3029 48-59 months 77.6 1.1 7.5 1.6 12.2 100 2529 Mother's education level Below primary 56.0 0.8 7.5 2.3 33.5 100 3162 Primary 70.8 0.9 6.1 1.3 10.8 100 6290- Secondary + 71.6 1.0 5.5 1.0 20.9 100 3451 • Total 68.7 0.9 6.2 1.4 22.9 100 12903 42 • • • Table 17: Percentage of children age 12-23 months immunized against childhood disease at any time before the survey and before the first birthday, Myanmar, 2000 Percentage of children who received: No. of children BCG DPT1 DPT2 DPT3 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Measles All None Vaccinated at any time before the survey According to : Vaccination card 51.4 51.3 50.1 47.3 51.1 49.4 46.8 47.0 45.0 0.8 1300 Mother's rep~rt 42.0 41.1 39.1 35.6 45.3 45 .3 42.9 40.2 34.9 2.2 1531 Either 93.4 92.4 89.2 82.9 96.4 94.7 89.7 87.2 79.9 3.0 2831 Vaccinated by 12 98;3 98.4 97.9 95.9 98.5 98.3 96.4 92.6 89.9 0.8 1300 months of age 43 Table 18: Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against childhood. diseases, Myanmar, 2000 . BCG DPT 1 DPT2 DPT3 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Region Kachin 96.0 96.0 89.0 85.0 94.7 88.5 84.1 Kayah 89.1 90.2 79.3 62.8 95.9 88.6 77.3 Kay in 75.9 73.6 65.1 59.9 88.3 85.2 72.8 Chin 66.7 66.2 65.3 63.8 82.2 80.7 72.8 Mon 96.5 96.5 92.0 86.5 97.5 95.5 90.5 Rakhine 86.4 83.7 79.2 74.6 95.9 92.3 86;9 Shan (North) 86.3 86.2 78.6 72.6 94.0 91.8 85.2 Shan (East) 76.2 71.0 60.7 50.4 84.5 84.5 74.9 Shan (South) 87.4 87.4 78.0 74.8 88.0 86.2 77.3 Ayeyarwady 91.3 90.7 88.9 81.5 96.3 93.8 91.3 Bago 96.7 96.0 95.3 93.3 98.0 98.0 95.3 Magway 97.7 97.7 97.7 92.4 99.2 98.4 96.9 Mandalay 100.0 97.7 94.4 83.8 100.0 100.0 96.6 Sagaing 98.7 97.5 96.3 87.1 98.1 98.1 88.9 Tanintharyi 97.1 96.6 95.6 92.2 100.0 99.5 98.5 Yangon 98.5 97.8 94.9 89.0 98.5 94.9 90.5 Area Urban 96.7 95.6 92.3 85.8 97.9 95.2 91. Rural 92.5 91.5 88.2 82.1 96.0 94.5 89.2 Sex Male 93.5 92.3 89.5 82.9 96.5 95.0 89.4 Female 93.4 92.6 88.8 83.0 96.4 94.3 90.1 Mother's education level Below primary 81.6 79.8 74.2 68.6 90.9 88.2 79.9 Primary 95.2 94.2 90.7 84.2 97.3 95.2 90.6 Secondary+ 96.8 96.3 94.7 88.6 98:0 97.3 93.8 Total 93.4 92.4 89.1 82.9 96.4 94.7 89.7 • 44 .) • Table 18: (Continued) Percentage of children age 12-23 months currently vaccinated against childhood diseases, Myanmar, 2000 Measles All None % with Number health of card children Region Kachin 85.9 80.2 3.1 45.7 227 Kayah 67.5 55.6 1.6 65.4 194 Kay in 70.6 56.4 9.4 53.5 227 Chin 65.3 61.8 15.9 22.7 202 Mon 86.5 80.0 2.0 64.5 200 Rakhine 81.9 73.3 3.6 25.3 221 Shan (North) 75.9 68.8 5.5 42.6 182 Shan (East) 62.6 47.8 14.2 31.0 155 Shan (South) 78.6 71.1 12.0 28.2 159 Ayeyarwady 88.9 79.0 3.1 33.0 162 Bago 91.3 89.3 2.0 61.8 149 Magway 94.8 89.3 0.0 82.7 126 Mandalay 95.4 82.2 0.0 56.0 123 Sagaing 90.1 85.9 1.3 74.3 165 Tanintharyi 93.2 88.8 0.0 8.9 203 Yangon 89.1 84.7 1.5 64.0 137 Area Urban 86.6 81.8 2.0 65.3 542 Rural 87.3 79.3 3.3 47.6 2290 Sex Male 87.7 79.9 2.9 53.0 1406 Female 86.6 79.8 3.1 50.1 1426 Mother's education level Below primary 74.7 65.2 7.7 29.8 676 Primary 88.5 81.4 2.3 53.7 1389 Secondary+ 91.4 85.3 1.9 59.9 767 Total 87.1 79.9 3.0 51.6 2832 45 Table 19: Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks and treatme, with ORS or ORT, Myanmar, 2000 Had diarrhea Children with Diarrhoea who received: in last two weeks Breast Locally ORS Other milk Water milk Gruel acceptable packet or infant with home fluid formula feeding Region Kachin 6.6 37.9 44.2 18.9 49.3 17.7 75.9 Kayah 4.1 53.5 55.8 7.0 53.5 2.3 79.1 Kayin 6.4 60.6 51.2 17.5 46.3 12.6 87.4 Chin 6.0 63.4 58.3 11.6 29.9 18.3 58.4 Mon 5.3 45.8 54.2 25.0 52.1 14.6 64.6 Rakhine 6.7 68.0 26.9 19.3 43.6 18.0 85.9 Shan (North) 1.9 54.9 66.5 10.8 33.0 11.1 66.5 Shan (East) 2.9 64.0 88.0 12.0 20.1 12.0 72.0 Shan (South) 4.0 45.7 48.5 17.0 17.1 17.1 85.7 Ayeyarwady 4.5 71.4 34.3 25.6 45.8 8.5 68.6 Bago 6.9 66.6 31.2 18.8 45.9 12.5 79 .• Magway 3.0 75.5 39.6 30.2 34.5 5.0 so: Mandalay 4.1 69.2 58.0 30.8 40.2 24.1 86.2 Sagaing 4.4 75.3 61.1 8.5 44.8 8.5 80.8 Tanintharyi 6.7 57.0 41.4 35.5 33.8 24.5 95.4 Yangon 5.2 55.2 60.4 28 .7 65.6 10.6 76.2 Area Urban 4.0 59.7 58.8 35.6 70.0 19.4 79.4 Rural 5.1 64.1 43.3 19.2 39.6 12.5 78.6 Sex Male 4.8 65.9 49.0 20.5 50.3 15.0 79.3 Female 5.0 60.9 43.2 23.6 39.8 12.4 78.2 Age < 6 months 2.1 92.3 24.8 11.8 38 .3 16.5 55 .6 6-11 months 6.6 92.1 31.5 14.1 36.9 11.4 75.8 12-23 months 8.5 76.3 42.9 20.9 52.1 12.7 84.8 24-35 months 6.1 50.2 53.2 26.6 51.6 16.4 73.7 36-4 7 months 3.0 37.0 59.1 28.4 20.9 13.1 87.0 48-59 months 2.2 15.1 57.9 23.7 52.6 13.6 73.8 . Mother's education level Below primary 6.0 59.8 41.8 12.4 38.4 12.2 83. Primary 5.4 65.8 45.0 22.9 43.9 13.0 78-. Secondary+ 3.2 58.9 54.1 29.7 55.4 17.7 76.6 Total 4.9 63.4 46.0 22.1 44.9 13.7 78.7 46 I. Table 19: (Continued) Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks and treatment with ORS or ORT, Myanmar, 2000 Number of children with diarrhea Any No recommended treatment treatment Region Kachin 96.2 3.8 79 Kayah 90.7 9.3 43 Kay in 98 .6 1.4 71 Chin 100.0 0.0 60 Mon 95.8 4.2 48 Rakhine 98.7 1.3 78 Shan (North) 100.0 0.0 18 Shan (East) 100.0 0.0 25 Shan (South) 100.0 0.0 35 Ayeyarwady 100.0 0.0 35 Bago 100.0 0.0 48 Magway 100.0 0.0 20 • Mandalay 96.4 3.6 29 Sagaing 97 .3 2.7 36 Tanintharyi 100.0 0.0 64 Yangon 100.0 0.0 38 Area Urban 99.7 0.3 102 Rural 98.5 1.5 626 Sex Male 98.9 1.1 364 Female 98 .6 1.4 364 Age < 6 months 92.6 7.4 34 6-11 months 98.3 1.7 124 12-23 months 99.6 0.4 244 24-35 months 98.7 1.3 161 36-47 months 98.4 1.6 95 48-59 months 99.8 0.2 69 Mother's education level ·-· · ···-· ·- --- --- -··· Below p-rimary 99.4 0.6 193 • Primary 98.8 1.2 387 Secondary+ 97.9 2.1 148 Total 98.7 1.3 728 47 T,able 20: Percentage of under-five childre~ with diarrhea in the last two. weeks who took increased fluids and continued to feed during the episode, Myanmar, 2000 . , Had Children with diarrhea who: diarrhea Drank Drank Drank Ate somewhat Ate much in last more same less Total less, same less or Total two weeks or more none Region Kachin 6.6 25.3 57.0 17.7 100 83.5 15.3 100 Kayah 4.1 25.6 53.5 21.0 100 88.4 11.6 100 Kayin 6.4 22.4 62.1 15.5 100 85 .6 14.4 100 Chin 6.0 6.5 58.5 33.3 100 79.9 20.1 100 Mon 5.3 4.2 87.5 6.3 100 91.7 6.3 100 Rakhine 6.7 12.8 66.6 18.0 100 91.0 9.0 100 Shan (North) 1.9 27 .6 44.3 16.8 100 88 .9 11.1 100 Shan (East) 2.9 8.0 83.9 8.0 100 92.0 8.0 100 Shan (South) 4.0 22.9 71.4 5.7 100 91.5 8.5 100 Ayeyarwady 4.5 17.1 45.8 37.2 100 63.0 37.0 100 Bago 6.9 10.4 56.2 33.4 100 72.9 27.1 100 Mag way 3.0 10.1 84.9 5.0 100 84.9 15.1 100 Mandalay 4.1 20.5 44.6 34.8 100 75.9 24.1 100 Sagaing 4.4 19.5 75.1 5.5 100 77.8 22.2 100 Tanintharyi 6.7 7.7 53.8 38.5 100 80.0 20.0 ~· Yangon 5.2 18.3 73.8 7.9 100 89.3 10.7 Area Urban 4.0 23.8 58.1 18.1 100 87.0 13.0 100 Rural 5.1 14.2 63 .6 21.5 100 . 79 .1 20.7 100 Sex Male 4.8 16.6 62.6 20.2 100 77.4 22.5 100 Female 5.0 15.2 62.6 21.6 100 83.5 16.3 100 Age < 6 months 2.1 7.5 79.4 13.1 100 69.4 30.6 100 6-11 months 6.6 15.8 52.0 32.2 100 65.8 34.2 100 12-23 months 8.5 13.4 64.6 20.9 100 76.6 22.9 100 24-35 months 6.1 16.3 66.1 16.6 100 87.4 12.6 100 36-4 7 months 3.0 16.4 62.1 21.5 100 91.3 8.7 100 48-59 months 2.2 29.8 55 .1 15.1 100 94.3 5.7 100 Mother's education level Below primary 6.0 12.8 63.7 21.6 100 81.2 18.8 100 Primary 5.4 13.9 63.2 22.5 100 79.4 20.3 100 Secondary+ 3.2 25.9 59.3 14.7 100 83.4 16.6 100 Total 4.9 15.9 62.6 20.9 100 80.5 19.3 • 48 • Table 20: (Continued) Percentage of under-five children with diarrhea in the last two weeks who took increased fluids and continued to feed during the episode, Myanmar, 2000 Received Received Number of increased fluids increased or same children and continued amount of fluids with diarrhea eating and continued eating Region Kachin 18.9 74.7 79 Kayah 23.3 76.7 43 Kayin 13.8 84.5 71 Chin 6.5 58.3 60 Mon 4.2 87.5 48 Rakhine 11.6 75.6 78 Shan (North) 16.5 71.9 18 Shan (East) 4.0 92.0 25 Shan (South) 20.1 88.6 35 Ayeyarwady 11.3 54.4 35 Bago 6.3 52.1 48 Magway 10.1 79.9 20 • Mandalay 13.8 54.9 29 Sagaing 8.2 83.5 36 Tanintharyi 7.7 56.9 64 Yangon 13.0 86.7 38 Area Urban 18.0 77.3 102 Rural 9.5 69.2 626 Sex Male 10.3 70.5 364 Female 11.7 70.6 364 Age < 6 months 5.9 66.8 34 6-11 months 6.4 56.9 124 12-23 months 9.9 65.4 244 24-35 months 8.9 79.7 161 36-47 months 15.1 76.4 95 / / 48-59 months 28.4 84.9 69 Mother's education level Below primary 9.8 71.7 193 Primary 9.2 67.5 387 • Secondary+ 18.7 79.6 148 Total 11.0 70.6 728 49 , Table 21: Percentage of under-five children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) in • the last two weeks, and treatment given by health providers, Myanmar, 200ff Had Hospital Health MCH Private Health TMP severe center clinic Staff ARI Region Kachin 3.6 7.0 21.0 2.3 27.9 11.7 0.0 Kayah 4.1 15.9 4.5 0.0 0.0 22.7 0.0 Kay in 4.5 14.5 3.7 0.0 17.4 12.4 0.0 Chin 6.3 7.9 6.4 11.0 6.4 17.5 0.0 Mon 3.9 2.9 5.7 0.0 17.1 14.3 0.0 Rakhine 7.7 2.3 10.1 1.1 20.3 15.7 2.2 Shan (North) 0.9 12.6 12.6 0.0 12.1 12.6 12.6 Shan (East) 1.6 0.0 7.1 7.2 7.1 35.7 0.0 Shan (South) 1.6 0.0 7.2 0.0 14.1 28.6 0.0 Ayeyarwady 3.5 3.7 3.7 0.0 14.6 14.9 7.3 Bago 4.2 0.0 10.3 6.9 34.5 6.9 3.4 Magway 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 38.5 7.7 7.7 Mandalay 2.6 0.0 5.6 0.0 21.7 22.4 5.6 Sagaing 1.7 0.0 7.1 0.0 21.9 21.3 0.0 Tanintharyi 7.7 2.6 8.1 2.6 12.1 17.5 0.0 Yangon 2.9 9.4 4.7 14.6 47.4 5.0 0.0 • Area Urban 2.7 6.3 6.3 3.0 49.6 4.7 3.1 Rural 3.6 3.0 7.3 2.8 17.6 16.4 2.8 Sex Male 3.5 3.3 7.8 2.7 25.4 13.8 2.9 Female 3.3 3.9 6.5 3.0 20.6 15.0 2.8 Age < 6 months 1.9 2.7 1.3 0.6 18.6 6.0 0.0 6-11 months 5.3 1.0 5.2 3.1 29.6 22.6 2.9 12-23 months 5.0 3.1 6.9 3.1 26.9 11.6 3.2 24-35 months 3.5 3.1 6.9 2.4 23.9 16.7 5.2 36-4 7 months 2.8 7.5 8.1 4.9 12.8 13.1 0.9 48-59 months 1.6 5.2 15.9 0.0 20.0 8.0 2.4 Mother's education level Below primary 4.2 3.3 11.4 0.9 10.7 10.7 1.7 Primary 3.7 3.3 3.8 2.6 19.5 16.0 2.7 Secondary+ 2.3 4.7 13.6 5.9 47.7 13.1 4.7 ···- -·--·- . ._ - Total 3.4 3.6 7.2 2.9 23.1 14.4 2.9 MCH = Maternal and Child Health Center • TMP = Traditional Medical Practitioner 50 Table 21: (Continued) Percentage of under-five children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) • in the last two weeks, and treatment given by health providers, Myanmar, 2000 Private Relative Other Any No. of drug appropriate children store provider with ARI Region Kachin 2.3 2.3 0.0 58 .2 43 Kayah 0.0 11.4 0.0 40.9 44 Kay in 8.3 6.2 0.0 48 .2 49 Chin 3.1 4.8 0.0 41.3 63 Mon 8.6 0.0 0.0 40.0 35 Rakhine 10.1 0.0 0.0 47.2 89 Shan (North) 12.6 0.0 0.0 50.0 8 Shan (East) 7.1 0.0 0.0 57.2 14 Shan (South) 0.0 0.0 0.0 49 .9 14 Ayeyarwady 7.3 0.0 0.0 36 .9 27 Bago 0.0 0.0 0.0 58.6 29 Magway 0.0 0.0 0.0 46.2 13 Mandalay 22.4 0.0 0.0 44.0 18 Sagaing 0.0 0.0 0.0 43 .2 14 Tanintharyi 1.3 0 .0 0 .0 40.3 74 • Yangon 9.4 0.0 0.0 71.5 21 Area Urban 11.7 0.0 0.0 65.0 73 Rural 6.0 0.7 0.0 44.7 484 Sex Male 5.2 0.3 0.0 51.3 269 Female 8.9 0.9 0.0 44 .8 288 Age < 6 months 4.9 0.9 0.0 29.3 40 6-11 months 12.5 1.0 0.0 61.5 89 12-23 months 5.0 0.1 0.0 45 .9 150 24-35 months 8.9 1.2 0.0 50.6 108 36-4 7 months 3.6 0.0 0.0 44.8 104 48-59 months 6.8 1.3 0.0 42 .8 62 Mother 's education level Below primary 8.3 1.8 0.0 36.7 138 Primary 6.9 0.3 0.0 41.6 311 Secondary+ 6.0 0 .3 0.0 81.5 108 - - .- ·- - . - Total 7.0 0.6 0.0 48 .1 557 • 51 Table 22: Percentage of children 0-59 months of age reported ill during the last two weeks • who received increased fluids and continued feeding, Myanmar, 2000 Reported Children with an illness illness in who: last two weeks Drank Drank Drank Total Ate some- Ate much More Same Less what less, less same or more or none Total Region Kachin 17.1 23.6 63.6 12.3 100 80.8 18.2 100 Kayah 10.5 27.0 51.3 21.6 100 79.3 20.7 100 Kay in 17.1 20.2 65.9 13.9 100 87.0 13.0 100 Chin 12.8 7.8 61.0 28.9 100 77.3 20.4 100 Mon 17.4 6.3 84.2 8.9 100 92.4 7.0 100 Rakhine 22.1 10.6 68.2 20.4 100 83.9 16.1 100 Shan (North) 5.5 13.6 64.7 13.7 100 78.2 19.8 100 Shan (East) 10.5 6.8 88.7 4.5 100 93.2 5.6 100 Shan (South) 12.9 18.5 73.5 8.0 100 88.5 9.7 100 Ayeyarwady 14.9 11.3 61.8 26.9 100 69.6 30.4 100 Bago 16.6 9.6 65.2 24.4 100 74.8 25.2 100 Magway 14.5 9.2 82.6 8.3 100 89.5 10.5 100. Mandalay 11.6 17.7 51.7 30.6 100 73.4 26.6 10 Sagaing 12.7 12.5 77.1 10.4 100 74.1 25.0 100 Tanintharyi 24.1 7.2 58.1 34.3 100 78.6 21.4 100 Yangon 16.0 14.4 61.0 24.5 100 86.3 13.7 100 Area Urban 14.2 15.9 61.3 22.8 100 86.0 14.0 100 Rural 15.2 11.7 68.5 19.3 100 78.6 21.0 100 Sex Male 15.2 13.4 66.2 19.9 100 79.9 20.0 100 Female 14.8 11.8 67.8 20.1 100 80.5 19.1 100 Age < 6 months 9.2 9.6 70.1 20.0 100 57.3 41.1~ 100 6-11 months 18.5 11.6 64.2 24.1 100 74.6 25.2 100 12-23 months 20.2 11.6 67.3 20.6 100 81.8 18.0 100 24-35 months 16.3 14.8 67.8 16.8 100 83.7 16.1 100 36-47 months 13.4 12.9 66.2 20.7 100 84.2 15.5 100 48-59 months 10.4 12.5 68.7 18.1 100 83.2 16.8 100 Mother's education level Below primary 16.8 11.2 69.7 18.1 100 80.0 19.8 100 Primary 15.6 11.4 67.8 20.4 100 79.0 20.5 ~-Secondary+ 12.6 16.7 62.8 20.4 100 83.2 16.8 Total 15.0 12.6 67.0 20.0 100 80.2 19.5 100 52 • Table 22: (Continued) Percentage of children 0-59 months of age reported ill during the last two weeks who received increased fluids and continued feeding, M!anmar, 2000 Number of children Received Received increased increased or same amount fluids and of fluids and continued continued eating eating Region Kachin 20.2 75.9 203 Kayah 20.7 72.1 111 Kayin 15.9 82.9 188 Chin 6.2 60.1 128 Mon 5.7 87.3 158 Rakhine 8.6 70.2 255 Shan (North) 7.8 66.4 51 Shan (East) 5.6 92.1 89 Shan (South) 16.8 82.3 113 Ayeyarwady 5.2 60.9 115 Bago 5.2 61.7 115 • Magway 9.2 85.4 97 Mandalay 13.0 58.5 83 Sagaing 5.7 72.3 104 Tanintharyi 6.4 57.2 232 Yangon 11.9 71.1 118 Area Urban 11.6 73.0 346 Rural 8.4 69.4 1815 Sex Male 9.2 70.6 1080 Female 9.0 69.7 1081 Age < 6 months 7.2 54.2 143 6-11 months 5.9 65.6 320 12-23 months 8.9 70.1 560 24-35 months 10.4 75.8 445 36-47 months 10.0 71.8 404 48-59 months 10.2 72.3 280 Mother's education level Below primary 9.1 71.8 520 • Primary 7.9 68.3 1138 Secondary+ 12.2 73.5 503 Total 9.1 70.1 2161 53 Table 23: Percentage of caretakers of children 0-59 months who took their children to the hea. facility immediately due to presence of one· symptom of severe illness, Myanmar, 20 Not able Becomes Develops Has fast Has Has blood Is drinking to drink/ sicker a fever breathing difficult in stool poorly breastfeed breathing Region Kachin 0.0 17.4 43 .3 8.7 17.4 9.9 7.5 Kayah 9.5 30.2 35.8 13.2 24.6 0.0 20.8 Kay in 6.0 52.8 31.2 6.0 22.5 4.8 17.7 Chin 4.5 31.0 44.4 31.2 19.9 8.9 17.6 Mon 3.9 45.5 23.4 6.5 9.1 1.3 9.1 Rakhine 12.1 42.2 50.0 23.3 16.4 3.5 19.8 Shan (North) 4.3 25.9 47.6 0.0 8.9 4.5 4.3 Shan (East) 10.4 31.0 58.6 13.8 20.7 0.0 31.0 Shan (South) 4.4 15.6 44.5 4.5 8.9 2.2 8.9 Ayeyarwady 17.1 26.8 46.3 9.8 4.8 4.9 12.3 Bago 9.1 27 .3 36.4 6.8 20.4 2.3 18.2 Magway 5.7 33.5 21.1 0.0 15.4 6.2 15.4 Mandalay 8.4 18 .6 35 .8 2.8 8.4 2.5 21.4 Sagaing 16.9 31.0 27.3 20.3 13.8 3.4 17.2 Tanintharyi 5.0 39.9 47.4 8.8 16.4· 2.5 13 .• Yangon 6.2 25 .7 24.3 10.5 15.2 0.0 21. Area Urban 5.5 27.6 30.6 8.3 11.8 2.5 13.8 Rural 10.3 32.2 38.4 10.7 14.4 3.4 17.5 Mother's education level Below primary 13.6 40.6 39.0 14.2 16.7 2.3 19.7 Primary 10.3 26 .6 37.8 9.7 13.2 4.6 18.2 Secondary+ 4.4 34.5 32.1 8.9 13.3 0.9 11.9 Total 8.9 30.9 36.2 10.0 13.7 3.1 16.5 • 54 • Table 23: (Continued) Percentage of caretakers of children 0-59 months who took their children to the health facility immediately due to presence of one symptom of severe illness, Myanmar, 2000 Presence Number of of one symptom Caretakers of severe illness Region Kachin 78 .0 81 Kayah 90.6 53 Kay in 84.2 84 Chin 100.0 45 Mon 81.8 77 Rakhine 97.4 116 Shan (North) 86.8 23 Shan (East) 86.2 29 Shan (South) 64.5 45 Ayeyarwady 80.4 41 Bago 84.1 44 Magway 75 .8 33 Mandalay 81.4 37 Sagaing 68.5 29 • Tanintharyi 97.5 79 Yangon 69.8 66 Area Urban 74.0 196 Rural 83 .7 686 Mother's education level Below primary 89.1 172 Primary 79.3 447 Secondary+ 80.5 263 Total 81.0 882 • 55 Table 24: Percentage of mothers with a birth in the last 12 months protected against neonatal tetanus, Myanmar, 2000 • Region · Kachin Kayah Kay in Chin Mon Rakhine Shan (North) Shan (East) Shan (South) Ayeyarwady Bago Mag way Mandalay Sagaing Tanintharyi Yangon Area Urban Rural Woman's education level Below primary Primary Secondary+ Total Percent of mothers with a birth Number of in the last 12 months who: mothers Received at least 2 doses, within last 3 years 81.4 64.0 57.4 51.1 87.6 64.5 61.1 50.1 62.4 72.3 76.4 88 .3 83.8 87.9 93.5 90.2 90.0 74.2 51.4 77.4 90.7 77.8 56 Protected against tetanus 81.4 64.0 57.4 51.1 87.6 64.5 61.1 50.1 62.4 72.3 76.4 88.3 83.8 87.9 93.5 90.2 90.0 74.2 51.4 77.4 90.7 77.8 275 239 232 273 194 304 204 212 209 189 169 148 197 • 189 198 205 662 2776 775 1669 994 3438 • • Table 25: Percent distribution of children aged .0-59 months by whether birth is registered and reason for Non-registration, Myanmar, 2000 Birth is Birth is not registered because: registered Did not Did not Must know it know Too Cost Others travel too should be where to busy too far registered register much Region Kachin 79.0 0.6 6.6 2.0 6.6 0.3 2.3 Kayah 58.8 0.6 14.0 7.2 5.5 0.9 0.9 Kayin 31.0 4.4 34.4 8.7 6.3 0.2 1.1 Chin 49.2 3.3 31.8 3.8 4.9 0.8 0.3 Mon 76.8 1.1 9.5 1.0 4.5 0.2 2.1 Rakhine 63.4 2.2 13.9 2.9 6.3 2.3 0.3 Shan (North) 61.0 5.3 15.7 4.0 4.3 0.7 1.0 Shan (East) 39.8 1.9 43.9 2.8 4.1 3.4 0.0 Shan (South) 32.3 0.6 44.6 6.0 4.8 1.4 5.0 Ayeyarwady 44.7 6.9 17.9 8.6 11.9 0.4 0.5 Bago 49.5 0.9 15 .9 7.9 9.5 0.4 3.9 Magway 77.4 0.3 14.9 0.3 2.6 0.2 1.0 Mandalay 56.9 2.3 23.6 2.3 7.8 2.3 0.7 • Sagaing 67.7 5.1 6.2 5.7 2.3 0.8 3.7 Tanintharyi 58 .6 8.5 10.8 4.1 15.5 1.1 0.4 Yangon 89.1 1.0 2.1 2.1 2.6 1.9 1.0 Area Urban 87.2 0.1 1.7 2.0 4.9 2.4 0.8 Rural 53.3 3.9 20.2 5.2 6.8 0.7 1.9 Sex Male 60.9 3.0 15.9 4.5 6.5 1.1 1.6 Female 60.4 3.1 16.4 4.5 6.4 1.0 1.7 Age <6 months 55.7 1.6 15.8 3.8 12.5 1.0 2.7 6-11 months 56.7 3.0 17.0 5.0 9.4 1.3 1.8 12-23 months 62.1 2.6 16.2 3.9 5.1 1.3 1.2 24-35 months 62.2 4.3 14.8 4.7 5.0 0.8 1.2 36-4 7 months 60.1 2.9 17.3 4.2 6.2 1.1 1.8 48-59 months 63.7 3.1 15.8 5.4 4.1 0.9 1.8 Mother's education level Below primary 44.7 2.6 29.5 5.0 5,3 2.0 1.2 Primary 57.0 3.5 16.8 5.4 7.0 1.0 2.1 • Secondary + 77.4 2.3 7.2 2.4 6.0 0.7 1.1 Total 60.6 3.0 16.2 4.5 6.4 1.1 1.6 57 Table 25: (Continued) Percent distribution of children aged 0-59 months by whether • birth is registered and reason for Non-registration, Myanmar, 2000 Reason Total Number DKor of Missing children Region Kachin 1.4 100 1190 Kayah 8.7 100 1063 Kay in 1.6 100 1101 Chin 4.0 100 1000 Mon 1.9 100 907 Rakhine 7.2 100 1156 Shan (North) 2.6 100 929 Shan (East) 0.5 10d 851 Shan (South) 3.1 100 875 Ayeyarwady 7.3 100 776 Bago 7.8 100 692 Magway 0.8 100 672 Mandalay 1.6 100 715 Sagaing 2.7 100 819 • Tanintharyi 0.8 100 964 Yangon 0.3 100 733 Area Urban 0.4 100 2734 Rural 4.3 100 11709 Sex Male 3.5 100 7156 Female 3.5 100 7287 Age <6 months 4.1 100 1474 6-11 months 3.2 100 1695 12-23 months 3.9 100 2832 24-35 months 3.8 100 2830 36-47 months 3.4 100 3039 48-59 months 2.5 100 2531 Mother's education level Below primary 4.9 100 3530 Primary 4.1 100 7043 Secondary+ 1.5 . 100 3870 Total 3.5 100 14443 • 58 • • • Table 26: Percentage of children 0-14 years of age in households not living with a biological parent,~yanrnnar,2000 Living Living with with Living with neither parent mother only both parents Father Mother only only Both are Both are Father Father alive alive alive dead alive dead Region Kachin 89.0 0.1 0.3 1.2 0.7 1.4 6.0 Kayah 94.9 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 3.2 Kay in 92.4 0.2 0.3 1.0 0.6 1.3 3.1 Chin 94.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.4 1.0 2.9 Mon 87.3 0.4 0.4 2.8 0.7 3.2 3.8 Rakhine 93.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3 2.1 2.9 Shan (North) 95.0 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.5 0.6 2.5 Shan (East) 95.3 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.4 0.6 2.1 Shan (South) 90.8 0.1 0.3 1.2 0.4 2.0 3.3 Ayeyarwady 94.0 0.2 0.1 0.9 0.5 0.6 2.5 Bago 93.3 0.3 0.1 0.8 0.4 0.9 2.3 Magway 91.8 0.4 0.6 0.7 . 0.5 2.1 2.6 Mandalay 93.4 0.3 0.1 0.6 0.3 1.6 2.2 Sagaing 95.4 0.1 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.7 1.8 Tanintharyi 93 .1 0 .1 0.2 0.7 0.7 0.8 3.2 Yangon 94.8 0.0 0.1 0.5 0.8 1.0 1.6 Area Urban 92.8 0.1 0.2 1.2 0.4 1.8 2.5 Rural 93.3 0.2 0.2 0.6 0.5 1.2 2.6 Sex Male 92.9 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.5 1.3 2.7 Female 93.5 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.4 1.3 2.4 Age 0-4 years 96.6 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 1.3 1.1 5-9 years 93.4 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.4 1.3 2.5 10-14 years 89.7 0.3 0.3 1.2 0.9 1.3 4.1 Total 93.2 0.2 0.2 0.8 0.5 1.3 2.6 59 Table 26: (Continued) Percentage of children 0-14 years of age_in households not living with. a biological parent, Myanmar, 2000 . Living with Not living One or Number father only with a both of biological parents children parent dead Mother Mother Total alive dead Region Kachin 0.2 0.8 100 2.3 7.9 3177 Kayah 0.1 0.9 100 0.5 4.3 3038 Kayin 0.2 0.7 100 2.1 4.9 3242 Chi_n 0.1 1.0 100 0.8 4.5 3077 Mon 0.5 0.6 100 4.3 5.9 2902 Rakhine 0.2 0.5 100 0.5 3.8 3287 Shan (North) 0.1 1.0 100 0.7 4.0 2530 Shan (East) 0.2 0.9 100 0.8 3.7 2425 Shan (South) 0.6 0.9 100 2.1 5.1 2629 Ayeyarwady 0.1 0.8 100 1.8 4.2 2250 Bago 0.2 1.6 100 1.7 4.8 2285 Magway 0.1 1.1 100 2.2 5.2 2398 • Mandalay 0.3 1.2 100 1.3 4.1 2369 Sagaing 0.3 0.9 100 0.9 3.2 2620 Taninthiuyi 0.1 0.9 100 1.7 5.2 3013 Yangon 0.3 0.5 100 1.4 2.9 2127 Area Urban 0.3 0.6 100 1.8 3.7 8229 Rural 0.2 1.0 100 1.6 4.5 35140 Sex Male 0.2 0.9 100 1.8 4.6 21929 Female 0.2 1.0 100 1.5 4.1 21440 Age 0-4 years 0.1 0.2 100 0.5 1.5 14450 5-9 years 0.2 0.8 100 1.6 4.1 14716 10-14 years 0.3 1.8 100 2.7 7.4 14203 Total 0.2 0.9 100 1.6 4.3 43369 • 60 • • • No. of Strata Survey Design and Sample Size Calculation MICS (2000) Design - 16 Appendix A ( 16 States/Divisions or Regions) No. of Cluster/Stratum - 50 No. of Households/Cluster - 32 Total No. of Clusters - 50 X 16 - 800 Total No. of HHs/Stratum - 50 X 32 - 1600 Total No. of HHs - 32 X 800 = 25600 61 Sample Size Calculations for Measuring End-Decade Goals at 5 percent Margin of error Basic Assumptions Low High Design effect 2 10 Persons per household 5.3 Pet of population < 5 years 0.12 . , Prevalence of diarrhoea 15 days 0.14 Formula for required target sample n =4*p*(1-p)*deff/e"'2 Indicator Target Estimated Margin Required Number Non-response pop: prevalence of error target of household Rate sample to be visited to find one individual DPT3 coverage 12-23 mos 0.8 0.05 512 7.8 0.1 Measles coverage 12-23 mos 0.8 0.05 512 7.8 0.1 OPV3 coverage 12-23 mos 0.8 0.05 512 7.8 0.1 BCG coverage 12-23 mos 0.9 0.05 288 7.8 0.1 TT2 coverage 0-11 mos 0.8 0.05 512 7.4 0.1 (pregnancy) Vitamin A coverage 0-23 mos 0.6 0.05 768 3.8 0.1 Iodized salt Household 0.6 0.05 768 0.1 consumption Use of ORT(l) <5 yrs. 0.9 0.05 288 11 0.1 in diarrhoea Use of ORT(2) <5 yrs 0.8 0.05 512 11 0.1 in diarrhoea Disability 2-9 yrs 0.5 0.05 800 0.8 0.1 Percent low <5yrs 0.4 0.05 768 1.5 0.1 wt. for age School enrolment 5-9 yrs 0.8 0 .05 512 1.7 0.1 Safe water Population 0.7 0.05 3360 0.1 Sanitation Population 0.5 0.05 4000 0.1 Required number of households 62 • Required number of households 4393 4393 4393. 2471 4168 3210 845 3558 6325 722 1267 957 697 830 6325 • • • • Sample Size Calculations for Measuring End-Derade Goals at 10 percent Margin of error Basic Assumptions Low High Design effect 2 10 Persons per household 5.3 Pet of population < 5 years 0.12 Prevalence of diarrhoea 15 days 0.14 Formula for required target sample n =4*p*(l-p)*deff/e"2 Indicator Target Estimated Margin Required Number Non-response Required pop: prevalence of error target or household Rate number or sample to be visited households to find one individual DPT3 coverage 12-23 mos. 0.8 0.1 128 7.8 0.1 1098 Measles coverage 12-23 mos 0.8 0.1 128 7.8 0.1 1098 OPV3 coverage 12-23 mos 0.8 0.1 128 7.8 0.1 1098 BCG coverage 12-23 mos 0.9 0.1 72 7.8 0.1 618 TT2 coverage 0-11 mos 0.8 0.1 128 7.4 0.1 1042 (pregnancy) Vitamin A coverage 0-23 mos 0.6 0.1 192 3.8 0.1 803 Iodized salt Household 0.6 0.1 192 0.1 211 consumption Use of ORT(1) <5 yrs 0.9 0.1 72 11 0.1 889 in diarrhoea ·- Use of ORT(2) <5 yrs 0.8 0.1 128 11 0.1 1581 in diarrhoea Disability 2-9 yrs 0.5 0.1 200 0.8 0.1 180 Percent low <5yrs 0.4 0.1 192 1.5 0.1 317 weight/age School enrolment 5-9 yrs 0.8 0.1 168 1.7 0.1 314 Safe water Population 0.7 0.1 840 0.1 174 Sanitation Popul_~tion 0.5 0.1 1000 0.1 208 Required number of households 158f 63 • • • • Appendix B List of Personnel Involved in Myanmar MICS, 2000 Membership of Steering and Working Committee (A) Steering Committee 1. Director General Chairman Department of Health Planning Ministry of Health 2. Deputy Director General (Disease Control & Public Health) Member Department of Health Ministry of Health 3. Deputy Director General Member Central Statistic Organization • Ministry of National Planning and Economic Development 4. Deputy Director General Member Department of Medical Research (Lower Myanmar) Ministry of Health 5. Deputy Director General : Member Department of Educational Planning and Training Ministry of Education 6. Deputy Director General Member Population Department Ministry of Immigration and Population I 7. Deputy Director General Member Department of Progress of Border Areas, National Races Ministry of Progress of Border Areas, National Races and Development Affairs 8. Deputy Director General Member Department of Development Affairs • Ministry of Progress of Border Areas, National Races and Development Affairs 65 9. Deputy Director General Member • Department of Labour Ministry of Labour 10. Director Member Department of Social Welfare Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement 11. Director (Coordination) Member Department of Health Planning Ministry of Health 12. Representative Member Myanmar Maternal and Child Welfare Association 13. Representative Member Myanmar Red Cross Association 14. Representative Member National Solidarity and Development Association 15. Director (Research & Development) Secretary • Department of Health Planning Ministry of Health 16. Deputy Director (Research & Development) Joint Secretary Department of Health Planning Ministry of Health • 66 11. Director (Health Information) Member • Department of Health Planning Ministry of Health 12. Director Member Department of Development Affairs Ministry of Progress of Border Areas, National Races and Development Affairs 13. Director Member Department of Progress of Border Areas, National Races Ministry of Progress of Border Areas, National Races and Development Affairs 14. Deputy Director Member Department of Labour Ministry of Labour 15. Representative Member Department of Social Welfare Ministry of Social Welfare, Relief and Resettlement 16. Director (Health Education) Member Department of Health Planning • Ministry of Health 17. Deputy Director (Upper Myanmar) Member Department of Health Planning Ministry of Health 18. Deputy Director (Research and Development) Secretary Department of Health Planning Ministry of Health 19. Assistant Director (Research) Joint Secretary Department of Health Planning Ministry of Health State/Division Survey Supervisory Committee 1. State/Divisional Health Director Chairman 2. State/Divisional Education Director Member 3. Team Leader, Nutrition Member 4. Representative from Dept. of Health Planning (Central) · - Secretary 5. State/Divisional Planning Officer Joint Secretary • 68 • Appendix C MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY . (2000) END-DECADE ASSESSMENT QUESTIONNAIRE • DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH PLANNING MINISTRY OF HEALTH • 69 QUESTIONNAIRE MODULES Household questionnaire • Household information panel ·Household listing form (all residents) and orphanhood questions (birth to 14) • Education module: educational attainment (age 5 or over), school attendance (age 5to 17 years) -Water and sanitation module (all households) - Salt iodization module (all households) Questionnaire for individual women (women of reproductive age, 15-49) -Tetanus toxoid module (all mothers with last birth within last year) Questionnaire for children 2-9 years - Disability module Questionnaire for children under five -Birth registration and early learning module - Vitamin A module - Breastfeeding module - Care of illness module - Immunization module - Anthropome~ry module 70 • • • • • • (A) HOUSEHOLD INFORMATION PANEL We are from Ministry of Health/ Non-government organizations working in the area of family health and education. We would like to ask you about the situation of health, education and other social issues of your household. It will take about ( 30 ) minutes. All information obtained from this interview will remain strictly confidential and your answers will never be identified. During the interview I would like to discuss with all mothers or others who take care of under five children in this household. May I start now? (If permission is given, begin the interview.) I. Cluster number: 2. Household number: -- -- 3. Day I Month/ Year of interview: 4. Stratum number: I I -- -- ---- -- 5. Name of head of household: 6. Area: 7. (a) State/ Division Urban . . . . . I (b) Township Rural . . . . . . . . . . . 2 8. What is your house made of? (Record materials mainly used) (a) Flooring Wood I Bamboo 2 Concrete 3 Clay 4 Others (Specify) 5 (b) Roofing Tile 1 Corrugated metal 2 Wood/thatch 3 Others (Specify) 4 (C) Walling Wood I Bamboo/thatch 2 Brick 3 Clay 4 Others (Specify) 5 9. (a) What type of separate room do you have in your dwelling? Living room I Bed room 2 Kitchen 3 No room 4 9. (b) Which of the following are your household members accessible? Yes No DK Yes I No ·· (} . . . ~ Radio/ Cassette I 0 9 Newspaper/ Journal/ Magazine 1 0 9 Television! Video 1 0 9 71 10. Result of HH interview: Completed . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I Refused . 2 Not at home . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 HH not found/ destroyed . . . . . . . . 4 Other (specify) . . . . . . . 5 12. No. of women interviews completed: 14. No. of children under age 5 interviews completed: 16. Interviewer's name ------- Date II. No. of women eligible for interview: 13. No. of children under age 5 eligible for interview: 15. Data entry clerk: . 17. Supervisor's name Date Interviewer/supervisor notes: Use this space to record notes about the interview with this household. such as call-back times, incomplete individual interview forms, number of attempts to re-visit, any special information about inten,iew etc. 72 • • • • • • Cluster no. Household no. l(b) Household Listing Form FIRST, PLEASE TELL ME THE NAME OF EACH PERSON WHO USUALLY LIVES HERE, STARTING WJTH THE HEAD OF THE HH. (Use survey definition of HH member). List the first name in line 01. List adult HH members first, then list children. Then ask· ARE THERE ANY OTHERS WHO LIVE HERE, EVEN IF THEY ARE NOT AT HOME NOW? (THESE MAY INCLUDE CHILDREN IN SCHOOL OR AT WORK}. If yes, complete listing. Then, ask and record answers to questions as described in Instructions for Interviewers. Add a continuation sheet if there is not enou Tick here if con~ti;:;.:n;.,:u:,;a:.;t,:.:io;jn:.:.::s::h.::e::.et:.::u.::.se::.d::.·=--------,.--------------------. For persons age For children 15 or over under age I 5 years ask column no . 8 and 9 ask column no. 10- I 3 Line Name Is How OLD WHAT IS THE If alive: If alive: no. (name) IS (name)? MARITAL IS DoES IS DOES MALE STATUS (name's) (name's) (name's) (name's) OR HOW OLD NEWSPAPER OF (name)?* NATURAL NATURAL NATURAL NATURAL FEMALE? WAS (name) MOTHER MOTHER FATHER FATHER ON HI S/HER I URRENTLY ALIVE? LIVE IN ALIVE? LIVE IN LAST MARRIED/ THIS THIS BIRTHDAY? IN UNION HOUSE- HOUSE- 2 WIDOWED I YES HOLD? I YES HOLD? MALE I Record in 3 DIVORCED 2 NO 2 NO FEMALE 2 completed 4 SEPARATED 9 DK )YES 9 DK )YES 5 NEVER 2 NO 2 NO 2 3 9 I 2 3 4 5 2 9 2 I 2 9 2 NOT HAVE PARENTS LIVING IN THIS HOUSEHOLD? GO TO NEXT PAGE<=> 73 For persons age For children 15 or over under age 15 years ask column no . 8 and 9 ask column no. I 0-13 Line Name Is How OLD WIIAT IS THE !/alive. /fa live.· no. (name) IS(name)') MARITAL IS DOES IS DOES MALE STATUS (name's) (name's) (name's) (name's) OR H OW OLD OF (name)?* NATURAL NATURAL NATURAL NATURAL FEMALE? WAS(name) MOTHER MOTHER FATHER FATHER ON HIS/HER l URRENTLY ALIVE? LIVE IN ALIVE? LIVE IN LAST MARRIED/ THIS TH IS BIRTHDAY? IN UNION !lOUSE- HOUSE- 2 WIDOWED I YES HOLD? I YES HOLD? I MALE Record in 3 DIVORCED 2 NO 2 NO 2 FEM. completed 4 SEPARATED 9 OK I YES 9 OK I YES 5 NEVER 2 NO 2 NO 2 3 9 I 2 3 4 5 2 9 2 I 2 9 2 GO TO NEXT MODULE ¢ • • • 74 • • Cluster no. Household no. For persons age 5 or over ask Qs. 15 and 16 For children age 5 through 17 years, continue on, asking Qs. 18-22· Line HAS (name) no. EVER ATTENDED SCHOOL? I YES¢ Q.l6 0 NO';', NEX I LINE I 0¢NEXT LINE WHAT IS T4E HIGHEST LEVEL OF SCHOOL (name) ATTENDED? WHAT IS THE HIGHEST GRADE (name) COMPLETED AT THIS LEVEL? LEVEL: I NON-STANDARD CURRICULUM 2 PRIMARY 3 MIDDLE 4 HIGH SCHOOL 5 COLLEGF}UNIVERSITY 9 DK GRADE: 99 DK SINCE LAST DURING THAT SCHOOL YEAR WHAT YEAR DID (NAME) LEVEL AND GRADE ATTEND SCHOOL? DID (name) ATTEND? THAT ENDED IN MARCil 2000. LEVEL: I YES I NON-STANDARD CURRICULUM 0NO¢Q.21 2 PRE-PRIMARY 3 PRIMARY 4 MIDDLE 5 HIGH SCHOOL 9 DK GRADE: 99 DK Now for each woman age 15-49 years, write her name and line number at the top of each page in the Women's Questionnaire. DURING THE DURING THAT SCHOOL YEAR PREVIOUS WHAT LEVEL AND GRADE SCHOOL DID (name) ATTEND? YEAR THAT ENDED IN LEVEL: MARCH I NON-STANDARD 1999 CURRICULUM DID(name) 2 PRE-PRIMARY ATTEND 3 PRIMARY SCHOOL AT 4 MIDDLE ANYTIME? 5 HIGH SCHOOL 6 TERTIARY I YES 9 DK 0 NO';', GRADE: NEXT LINE 99 DK For each child under age 5, write his/her name and line number AND the line number of his/her mother or caretaker at the lop of each page in the Children's Questionnaire. You should have a each woman and child in the household. GO TO NEXT PAGE¢ 75 • For persons age 5 or over ask Qs. I 5 and 16 Line HAS (name) no. EVER A TrENDED SCHOOL? I YESqQ.l6 0NO~ NEXT LINE WHAT IS THE HI(JHEST LEVEL OF SCHOOL (naine) A TrENDED? WHAT IS THE HIGHEST GRADE (name) COMPLETED AT HflS LEVEL? LEVEL: I NON-STANDARD CUR RICULUM 2 PRIMARY 3 MIDDLE 4 HIGH SCHOOL 5 TERTIARY 9 OK GRADE: 99 OK Cluster no. Household no. For children age 5 through 17 years, continue on, asking Qs. 18-2 2 SINCE LAST DURING THAT SCHOOL YEAR WHAT DURING DURING THAT SCHOOL YEAR YEAR DID (NAME) LEVEL AND GRADE THE WHAT LEVEL AND GRADE ATIEND SCHOOL? DID (name) ATIEND? PREVIOUS DID (name) ATIEND? THAT ENDED IN SCHOOL MARCH 2000. YEAR LEVEL: LEVEL: THAT I NON-STANDARD I YES I NON-STANDARD ENDED IN CURRICULUM CURRICULUM MARCH 2 PRE-PRIMARY 0 NOq Q.21 2 PRE-PRIMARY 1999 3 PRIMARY 3 PRIMARY DID 4 MIDDLE 4 MIDDLE (name) 5 HIGH SCHOOL 5 Ill Gil SCHOOL ATIEND 6 TERTIARY 9 OK SCHOOL AT 9 OK ANYTIME? GRADE: GRADE: 99 OK I YES 99 OK If non-standard curriculim1 and IF NON-;.,TANDAIW C/ IR/U( ·uu rM AND IF NON-;.,/ANDARD CURRICULUM ANn primary, enter 00. PIUMAIIY, ENTER 00. ONO~ PRIMARY, ENTER 00. NEXTLINE 2 3 4 0 2 3 4 5 9 Now for each woman age I 5-49 years, write her name and line number at the top of each page in 1he Women's Questionnaire. For each child una'e~ age 5, write his/her name and line number AND the line number of his/her mother or caretaker at the top of each page in the Children's Questionnaire. You should now · · each woman and child in the household. · GO TO NEXT MODULE cy. • • • • Cluster no. Household no. (3) WATER AND SANITATION MODULE This module is to be administered once for each household visited. Record only one response for each question. If more than one response is given, record the most usual source or facility. 1. WHAT IS THE MAIN SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER FOR MEMBERS OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD? 2. HOW FAR DOES IT TAKE TOGO THERE, GET WATER, AND COME BACK? 3. WHAT KIND OF TOILET FACILITY DOES YOUR HOUSEHOLD USE? 4. Please don't fill in this space. 5. WHAT HAPPENS WITH THE STOOLS OF YOUNG CHll.DREN (0-3 YEARS)? 6. WHAT IS THE PRACTICE ON HAND WASHING AFTER TOILET? 7. WHAT IS THE PRACTICE ON HAND WASHING BEFORE HANDLING FOOD? Piped into dwelling . . . ] Public tap . . . . . 2 Tube-well . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 1 2 3 Protected Dug-well/ spring . . . . . 4 4 Protected pond . . . 5 5 Protected rain water . . 6 6 Unprotected Dug-well/ spring . . . . . . 7 7 Unprotected Pond . . . . . . . . . 8 8 Unprotected rain water . . . . . . . 9 9 River, stream . . . . .' . 1 0 I 0 Other (Specify) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . II 11 No answer or DK . . . . . . . . . 99 99 In yards Water on premises. . . . . . . 888 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . 9.99 Flush to septic tank/ sewage system . . . . . . . 1 Covered pit latrine . . . . . . . 2 Uncovered pit Jatrine . . . . 3 Open (No pit) or surface latrine . . .4 2 3 4 No facilities . . . 9 9 Children always use toilet or latrine . . . . . 1 Thrown into toilet or latrine . . . . . . 2 2 I Thrown outside the yard . . . . . . . . . . 3 3 Buried in the yard . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 4 Not disposed of or left on the ground . . . . . 5 5 1 Other (specify) . . . . . . 6 6 No young children in household . . . . 8 8 With water . . . . . . . . . . . 1 With soap & water . . . . . 2 None . . . . . . .3 With water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . I With soap & water . . . . . . . 2 2 3 I 2 None . . . . . . . . . 3 3 GO TO NEXT MODULE Q 77 Cluster no. Household no. (4) Salt Iodization Module Interviewer: We would like to check whether the salt used in your household is iodized. Can we see the sample of the salt used to cook the meal eaten by members of your household? Once you have examine the salt, complete the questions below. 1. WE WOULD LIKE TO CHECK WHETHER THE SALT Not iodized 0 PPM (no colour) . I USED IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD IS IO~IZED. Less than 15 PPM (weak colour) . 2 MAY I SEE A SAMPLE OF THE SALT USED TO COOK 15 PPM or more (strong colour) . 3 THE MAIN MEAL EATEN BY MEMBERS OF YOUR No salt in home . . 8 HOUSEHOLD LAST NIGHT? Salt not tested . 9 Once you have examined the salt, circle number that <.-ur to test outcome. 2. HAVE YOU EVER HEARD OF IODIZED SALT? Yes . 1 No . 2 (2qNEXT MODULE) 3. IF YOU HAVE HEARD OF IOIDIZED SALT, WHERE From health workers . . 1 DID YOU GET THAT INFORMATION? From friends I family members . 2 From Radio . 3 From TV . . . .4 From posters/printed materials . 5 Others (specify) . 6 4. WHEN YOU BUY SALT, DO YOU SPECIALLY ASK Yes . 1 FOR IODIZED SALT AT THE SHOP? No . 2 GO TO WOMEN'S QUESTIONNAIRE c:> 78 • 1 2 3 8 9 1 2 I 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 • t • Cluster no. Household no. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INDIVIDUAL WOMEN This module is to be administered to all women age I 5-49 year with a live birth in the year preceding date of interview. I . DO YOU HAVE A CARD OR OTHER DOCUMENT WITH YOUR OWN IMMUNIZATIONS LISTED? If a card is presented. use it to assist with answers to the following questions. Yes (card seen) I Yes ( c.ard not seen) 2 No 3 OK 9 2. WHEN YOU WERE PREGNANT WITH YOUR LAST CHILD, DID YOU RECEIVE ANY INJECTION TO PREVENT HIM OR HER FROM GETTING CONVULSIONS AFTER BIRTH (AN ANTI-TETANUS SHOT, AN fNJECTION AT THE TOP OF THE ARM OR SHOULDER OR AT THE BUTTOCK)? YES I No 2 (GOTOQ4) OK 9 TO 3. If yes.· HOW MANY DOSES OF TETANUS TOXOID (ANTI-TETANUS INJECTIONS) DID YOU RECEIVE DURfNG YOUR LAST PREGNANCY? NO. OF DOSES DK 99 Mother line no .---- Mother line no. ---- Mother's name Mother's name I 2 3 9 I 2 9 I 2 3 9 I 2 9 How many TT doses were reported during last pregnancy in Q.J? Mother line no. ---- Mother's name I 2 3 9 2 9 0 At least two TT injections during last pregnancy. c:> GO TO, Questionnaire for children 2-9 years MODULE 0 Fewer than two TT last c:> CONTINUE WITH 4 4. DID YOU RECEIVE ANY TETANUS TOXOID INJECTION (additional probes) AT ANY TIME BEFORE YOUR LAST PREGNANCY, INCLUDING DURING A PREVIOUS PREGNANCY OR BETWEEN PREGNANCIES? YES I No 2 (GO TO NEXT MODULE) OK 9 (GO TO NEXT MODULE) 5. If yes: HOW MANY DOSES DID YOU RECEIVE? NO. OF DOSES 6A. WHEN WAS THE LAST DOSE RECEIVED? IF DK, DOSE OR LAST DOSE 9919999 MONTH I YEAR I 6B. HOW MANY YEARS AGO DID YOU RECEIVE THE LAST DOSE? 2 9 79 I 2 ·9 I I 2 9 Cluster no. Household no. Care taker line no. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN 2-9 YEARS To be administered to caretakers of all children 2 through 9 years old living in the household. INTERVIEWER: I would like to ask you if any children in this household age 2 through 9 (read names listed in the household roster) Has any ol' the health conditions I am going to mention to you? If the answer is "yes", ask for the name of the child, and enter name and line no. in space provided. Circle response in corresponding box. If response is "no" cross through each space as question is asked Questions I. Compared with other children, does or did [name] Have any serious delay in sitting, standing, or walking? Not 2 2. Compared with other children, does or did [name] Have difficulty seeing, either in the daytime or at night? Yes No 2 3. Does [name] appear to have difficulty hearing? (uses hearing aid, hears with difficulty, completely deaf?) Yes No 2 4. Does [name] have difticulty in walking or moving his/her arms or does he/she have weakness and/or stiffness in the arms or legs? es No 2 5. Does [name] sometimes have fits, become rigid, or lose consciousness? Yes No 2 6. Does [name] speak at all (can he/she make him or herself understood in words; can say recongnizable words? Yes No 2 7. Compared with other children of the same age, does [name] appear in any way mentally backward, dull or slow? Yes No 2 80 Answers Child Line No. Child Line No. Children Name Children Name 2 2 2 2 I 2 2 I 2 2 2 2 I 2 2 2 2 GO TO NEXT MODULE.:::> • .> • • l • • Cluster no. Caretaker line no. Household no. Child line no. QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE -- This questionnaire is to be administered to all women who care for a child that lives with them and is under the age of 5 years (see Q.4 of the HH listing). A separate form should be used for each eligible child Questions should be administered to the mother or caretaker of the eligible child (see Q. 7 of the HH listing). Fill in the line number of each child. the line number of the child 's mother or caretaker, and the household and cluster numbers in the space at the top of each page. -rm m:~--=:-~ . c~"''"""'' ~-~ . ~,. :>\·\!" n<·- ., . .o:a,~w"""''-::~~"·'"~"'· T ,., .• -~~ . ··"~, . - . ,/~i ltt a ~~$").~ ~i~d~~·J~~~' ;:_~f;~:{t.~.-~,.~:::~·5£&~~~~~~i'N··•~~&·~.t·if/~),l~~?Jo1~' \:;t:} . ;~{.~ I. Child 's name. Name 2. Child 's age (copy from Q. 4 of HH listing). Age (in completed years) ---- . . 3. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT THE HEALTH OF EACH CHILD UNDER THE Date of birth AGE OF 5 IN YOUR CARE, WHO LIVES WITH YOU Day/MonthlY ear . . . _ _ I __ I ____ NOW. NOW I WANT TO ASK YOU ABOUT(name). IN WHAT MONTH AND YEAR WAS (name) BORN? Probe: WHAT IS HIS/HER BIRTHDAY? If the mother knows the exact birth date, also enter the day, otherwise, enter 99 for day. 4. DOES (name) HAVE A BIRTH CERTIFICATE? Yes, seen I (Go to Q 8) I MAY I SEE IT? Yes, not seen 2(GotoQ8) 2 No 3 3 If certificate is presented, verify reported birth date. DK 9 9 IJf no birth certificate is presented, try to verify date using another document (household register, etc.). Correct stated age, if necessary. 5. If no birth certificate is shown, ask: Yes 1 (Go to Q 8) 1 No 2 2 HAS (name 's) BIRTH BEEN REGISTERED? OK 9 (Go to Q 7) 9 6. WHY IS (name 's) BIRTH NOT REGISTERED? Must travel too far . . . . . . . 1 I Did not know it should be registered . . . . . 2 2 Does not know where to register . . . . . . 3 ; 3 Too busy to register . . . . . . . . . . .4 , · 4 Can not afford to register . . 5 ; 5 Other (specify) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 6 DK . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 9 7. DO YOU KNOW HOW TO REGISTER YOUR CHILD' S Yes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ! I BIRTH? No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 2 81 8. DOES (name) ATTEND ANY ORGAN !ZED LEARNING OR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROGRAMME, SUCH AS A PRIVATE OR GOVERNMENT FACILITY, INCLUDING COMMUNITY CHILD CARE? 9. WITHIN THE LAST SEVEN DAYS, ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID ATTEND? Yes No 2 (Go to next module) OK 9 (Go to next module) Number of hours I 2 9 GO TO NEXT MODULE ¢ Cluster no. Household no. Caretaker line no. Child line no. I . HAS (name) EVER RECEIVED A VITAMIN A CAPSULE (SUPPLEMENT) LIKE THIS ONE? Show capsule or dispenser 2. HOW MANY MONTHS AGO DID (name) TAKE THE LAST DOSE? 3. WHERE DID (name) GET THIS LAST DOSE? Yes No 2 (2¢NEXT MODULE) OK 9 (9¢NEXT MODULE) Months ago . . . . . . . __ DK . . . . . . . . . 99 On routine visit to health centre . ! National Immunization Day campaign . 2 Other(specif.Y) . . . 3 DK . . . . 9 1 2 3 9 GO TO NEXT MODULE Q 82 • • ~l "-"~~{'·.,~ A·,"'"~?~ . -~?:-.-. -~~ . ·~-:-~~-~·,;:~r:~-.- . :rv· . -. ~~-'ii-. ;}:eJ[ . ~ ~ ~; -:.""' ~~~Y~lf., . ~~ .f:'\· . ·x~ -~r:r-- ""'· . · - ,- / -,.,.r:;y; ft~ :u.:J.;.;.::'i:i,JLWl!.t.~~~~"'•··~Jilt'.~~::;;.~~- · " .,.,~;d!\~~'-k~~'"· . ~.r~ · ~~~--, ~~~i!l!ii'r,\t~ . · #:{,j~~$1: I . HAS (name) EVER BEEN BREASTFED'? Yes I I No 2 (2¢Q.4) 2 DK 9 (9¢Q.4) 9 2. IS HE/SHE STILL BEING BREASTFED? Yes I I No 2 (2¢Q.4) 2 DK 9 (9¢Q.4) 9 3 . SINCE THIS TIME YESTERDAY, DID HE/SHE RECEIVE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING : Read each item aloud and record response before y N DK proceeding to the next item. 3A. VITAMIN , MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS OK 3a. I 2 9 MEDICINE 3B. PLAIN WATER 3b. I 2 9 3C. ANY JUICE, TEA OR COFFEE 3c. I 2 9 3D. ORAL REHYDRATION SOLUTION (ORS) 3d. I 2 9 3E. TINNED, POWDERED OR FRESH MILK 3e. I 2 9 OR INFANT FORMULA • 3F. SOLI I;> OR SEMI-SOLID (MUSHY) FOOD 3f. I 2 9 3G. ANY OTHER LIQUIDS (SPECIFY: ) 3g. I 2 9 4. SINCE THIS TIME YESTERDAY, Yes I 1 HAS (name) BEEN GIVEN ANYTHING TO DRINK No 2 2 FROM A BOTTLE WITH A NIPPLE OR TEAT? DK 9 9 GO TO NEXT MODULE ¢ • 83 I. IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS. HAS (name) HAD ANY OTHER ILLNESS OR HEALTH PROBLEM? 2. DURING (name 's) ILLNESS, DID HE/ SHE DRINK MUCH LESS, ABOUT THE SAME, OR MORE THAN USUAL? 3. DURING (name's) ILLNESS, DID HE/SHE EAT LESS, ABOUT THE SAME, OR MORE FOOD THAN USUAL? If "less", probe: MUCH LESS OR A LITTLE LESS? 4. HAS (name) HAD DIARRHOEA IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS, THAT IS, SINCE (day of the week) OF THE WEEK BEFORE LAST? Diarrhoea is determined as perceived by mother or caretaker, or as three or more loose or watery stools per day, or blood in stool 5. DURING THIS LAST EPISODE OF DIARRHOEA, DID (name) DRINK ANY OF THE FOLLOWING: Read each item aloud and record response before proceeding to the next item. 5A. BREAST MILK? 58. CEREAL-BASED GRUEL OR GRUEL MADE FROM ROOTS OR SOUP? 5C. OTHER LOCALLY-DEFINED ACC.EPTABLE HOME FLUIDS (e.g. PLAIN TEA, FRUIT JUICE, COCONUT WATER)? 5D. ORS PACKET SOLUTION? 5E. OTHER MILK OR INFANT FORMULA? SF. WATER ALONE? · 5G. DEFINED "UNACCEPTABLE'' FLUIDS (e.g., COBONATED FLUID, TEA, COFFEE)? 5H. NOTHING Yes . . I No . . 2 (2¢Go to next module) DK . . . . 9 (9¢Go to next module) Much less or none About the same (or somewhat less) More OK None Much less 2 Somewhat less 3 About the sam 4 More 5 OK 9 I Yes No OK 2 (2¢Q.6) 9 (9¢Q.6) 84 I 2 3 9 SA 58 sc 50 5E SF 5G 5H • I 2 9 I 2 3 9 I 2 3 4 5 9 I 2 9 • y N OK 2 9 2 9 2 9 2 9 2 9 2 9 2 9 2 9 • • • • Cluster no. Household no. Caretaker line no. Child line no . 6. HAS (name) HAD AN ILLNESS WITH A COUGH AT Yes I 1 ANY TIME IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS, THAT IS, No 2 (2QQ.9) 2 SINCE (day of the week) OF THE WEEK BEFORE DK 9 (9QQ.9) 9 LAST? 7. WHEN (name) HAD AN ILLNESS WITH A COUGH, Yes 1 I DID HE/SHE BREATHE FASTER THAN USUAL WITH No 2 (2QQ.9) 2 SHORT, QUICK BREATHS OR HAVE DIFFICULTY DK 9 (9QQ.9) 9 BREATHING? 8. WERE THE SYMPTOMS DUE Td A PROBLEM IN THE Blocked nose 1 I CHEST OR A BLOCKED NOSE? Problem in chest 2 2 Both 3 3 Other (specify) 8 8 DK 9 9 Ask the following questions if (name) suffered from any illness or diarrhoea or cough or tightness of chest within last two weeks. 9. DID YOU SEEK ADVICE OR TREATMENT FOR THE ILLNESS OUTSIDE THE HOME? l 0. FROM WHERE DID YOU SEEK CARE? ANYWHERE ELSE? Circle all providers mentioned, but do NOT prompt with any suggestions. 11. WHY DID YOU TAKE YOUR CHILD TO A HEALTH FACILITY RIGHT AWAY AT THAT TIME? Keep asking for more signs or symptoms until the caretaker cannot recall any additional symptoms. Circle all symptoms mentioned. but do NOT prompt with any suggestions. Yes 1 No 2 (2Q Go to next module) DK 9 (9Q Go to next module) H ospital . . . . . . . . .••. . ! Health centre . . .•. . . . 2 MCH clinic . . . . . . . . .••. . 3 Private physician . . . . . . 4 Health worker . . . . . . . . 5 Traditional healer . . . . . . . . . . 6 Pharmacy or drug seller . . . 7 Relative or friend . . . . . . . . 8 Other(specify) . . . . . . . 9 Child not able to drink or breastfeed . . . 1 Child becomes sicker . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Child develops a fever . . . . 3 Child has fast breathing . . . . .4 Child has ditlicult breathing . . . . . . 5 Child has blood in stool . . . 6 Child is drinking/ eating poorly . . 7 Other(specify) . . . . . . . . . 8 I 2 9 I· 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 GO TO NEXT MODULE Q 85 Cluster no. Household no. __ Caretaker line no. __ Child line no. If an immuni=.ation record is available, copy the dates in Qs. 2-5for each type of immuni=.ation recorded on the card Qs. 7-15 are for recording vaccinations that are not recorded Qs. 7-15 will only be asked when a record is not available OR in cases when a record is available but the child was also vaccinations which were not recorded. I. IS THERE A VACCINATION RECORD FOR (name)? 2. BCG 0 3A. DPTl 0 38 . DPT2 0 3C. DPT 3 0 4A. OPY I 0 4B. OPV 2 0 4c. OPV 3 0 5. MEASLES 0 6. PLEASE DO NOT FILL IN THIS SPACE. 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 9 8. HAS (name) EVER BEEN GIVEN A BCG VACCINATION AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS- THAT IS, AN INJECTION IN THE LEFT SHOULDER THAT CAUSED A SCAR? 9. Check left shoulder (most common site) for BCGscar. 10. HAS (name) EVER BEEN GIVEN ANY "VACCINATION DROPS IN THE MOUTH" TO PROTECT HIM/HER FROM GETTING DISEASES - THAT IS, POLIO? Yes . . I No . 2 (2¢Q.7) DK . 9 (9¢Q.7) Yes . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ! No . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 DK . . . . . . . . . 9 Scar present . . . . . . . . . 1 Scar absent . . . . . . . . . . 2 Unable to examine/cannot tell . . . . . . 9 Yes . . . I No . 2 (2¢Q. 13) DK . . 9 (9¢Q.l3) 86 2 9 I 2 9 I 2 9 1 2 9 • • • • 12. HOW MANY TIMES HAS HEISHE BEEN GIVEN THESE DROPS? 13. HAS (name) EVER BEEN GIVEN ''VACCINATION INJECTIONS"- THAT IS, AN INJECTION IN THE THIGH OR BUTTOCKS- TO PREVENT HIM/HER FROM GETTING TETANUS, WHOOPING COUGH, DIPHTHERIA? (SOMETIMES GIVEN AT THE SAME TIME AS POLIO) 14. HOW MANY TIMES? 15. HAS (name) EVER BEEN GIVEN ''VACCINATION INJECTIONS" AT THE AGE OF 9 MONTHS OR OLDER - TO PREVENT HIM/HER FROM GETTING MEASLES? No. oftimes Yes . I No . . . . 2 (2¢Q.15) DK . 9 (9¢Q.15) No. oftimes Yes . I No . 2 DK . . 9 16. PLEASE TELL ME IF (NAME) HAS PARTICIPATED IN ANY OF THE FOLLOWING NATIONAL IMMUNIZATION DAYS: DEC. 1999 AND JAN. 2000, 5TH NID DEC. 1998 AND JAN. /999, 4TH NID DEC. 1997 AND JAN. /998, 3Rf) NJD y N I 1 2 2 9 9 I 2 9 -- 1 2 9 DK 1 2 9 Please check the completeness of questionnaire from module 7 to II after asking the questions for children under 5 years. Then, check the cluster number, household number, child line number and mother line number in each page . After checking all, record resttlt of interview in page 2 of the questionnaire. Then clip all forms of questionnaire for that household and say thank you and leave from household. GO TO NEXT MODULE ¢ 87 Cluster no. __ Household no. __ Caretaker line no. __ Child line no._-· After questionnaires/or all children are complete, tb§ measurer weighs and height jor £JX.b. child. Record weight and length/height below, taking care to record the measurements on the correct questionnaire for each child Check the child's name and line number on the HH li Questions 2. Child 's l<Jeight (in Kilograms) 3. Child's length or height. (mention up to one decimal) Check age of child: 0 Child under 2 years old 9 Measure length (lying down). 0 Child age 2 or more years. 9 Measure height (standing up). 4. Measurer 's name 5. If measurement cannot be done please mention the reason. Not present . I Refused . . 2 OTHER (SPECIFY) __ 3 child line no. Length (em) Lying down . . Height (em) Standing up . . I 2 3 88 Length (em) Lying down . . Height (em) Standing up . . . 1 2 3 Length (em) Lying down . . Height (em) Standing up . . 1 2 3 • • CLUSTER CONTROL SHEET Stratum Number Cluster Number _____ _ Interviewer Number Date Name of Number of Interviews HH Head of Eligible Completed No. HH Notes Women Children Women Children i • • Total: NOTES: {CONTINUE ON REVERSE SIDE, AS NEEDED) 89

View the publication

You are currently offline. Some pages or content may fail to load.