Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2011-2012, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Roma Survey, Final report

Publication date: 2013

Bosnia and Herzegovina: Roma Survey Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011–2012 Bosnia and Herzegovina: Roma Survey Monitoring the situation of children and women Bosnia and H erzegovina: Rom a Survey 2011–2012 M ultiple Indicator Cluster Survey Bosnia and Herzegovina Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees United Nations Children’s Fund Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herezegovina Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011–2012 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: ROMA SURVEY MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011–2012 Final Report February, 2013 BOSNIA AND HERZEGOVINA: ROMA SURVEY MULTIPLE INDICATOR CLUSTER SURVEY 2011–2012 Publisher UNICEF Office for Bosnia and Herzegovina Authors Dajana Mitrovic Enida Imamovic Mirza Puzic Translation Almir Comor Proofreading Chris Hughes Design Sandra Ozimica Cover photo Dzenan Krijestorac Printed by Amos graf Print run 300 Published in February, 2013 The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is an international household survey programme developed by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). MICS provides up-to-date information on the situation of children and women and measures key indicators that allow countries to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments. The MICS focusing on Roma in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH) was conducted in 2011–2012 by the Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina (MHRR BiH) in collaboration with the Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina (BHAS). Financial and technical support was provided by UNICEF. Additional financial support was provided by the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). MICS was conducted as part of the fourth global round of the MICS programme (MICS4). Additional information on the global MICS programme can be obtained from www.childinfo.org. Suggested citation The Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina and the Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina. (2013). Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) 2011–2012, Bosnia and Herzegovina: Roma Survey, Final Report. Sarajevo: UNICEF. MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN iii Summary Table of Findings1 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Indicators for Bosnia and Herzegovina: Roma Survey 2011–2012 Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value CHILD MORTALITY Child mortality 1.1 4.1 Under-five mortality rate2 27 per 1,000 1.2 4.2 Infant mortality rate3 24 per 1,000 NUTRITION Nutritional status Underweight prevalence 2.1a 1.8 Moderate and Severe (- 2 SD) 8.8 per cent 2.1b 1.8 Severe (- 3 SD) 2.4 per cent Stunting prevalence 2.2a Moderate and Severe (- 2 SD) 21.1 per cent 2.2b Severe (- 3 SD) 8.0 per cent wasting prevalence 2.3a Moderate and Severe (- 2 SD) 8.3 per cent 2.3b Severe (- 3 SD) 3.5 per cent Breastfeeding and infant feeding 2.4 Children ever breastfed 95.0 per cent 2.5 Early initiation of breastfeeding 50.3 per cent 2.6 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 22.3 per cent 2.7 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 50.1 per cent 2.8 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years 68.8 per cent 2.9 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 64.0 per cent 2.10 Duration of breastfeeding 20.9 months 2.11 Bottle feeding 56.3 per cent 2.12 Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods (67.2) per cent 2.13 Minimum meal frequency 60.1 per cent 2.14 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 39.8 per cent 2.15 Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children 78.4 per cent low birth weight 2.18 low birth weight infants 13.7 per cent 2.19 Infants weighed at birth 96.2 per cent CHILD HEALTH Vaccinations 3.1 Tuberculosis immunisation coverage 85.6 per cent 3.2 Polio immunisation coverage 14.2 per cent 3.3 Immunisation coverage for diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) 12.5 per cent 3.4 4.3 Measles, mumps and rubella immunisation coverage 21.8 per cent 3.5 Hepatitis B immunisation coverage 14.5 per cent Care of illness 3.8 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 52.1 per cent 3.9 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia 79.8 per cent 3.10 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 74.9 per cent Solid fuel use 3.11 Solid fuels (used as the primary source of energy for cooking) 92.2 per cent WATER AND SANITATION water and sanitation 4.1 7.8 Use of improved drinking water sources 97.4 per cent 4.2 water treatment 2.7 per cent 4.3 7.9 Use of improved sanitation 73.1 per cent 4.4 Safe disposal of child’s faeces 12.3 per cent 4.5 Place for hand washing 91.6 per cent 4.6 Availability of soap 96.5 per cent 1 See Appendix E for details on indicator definitions. 2 Rate refers to 2005. 3 Rate refers to 2005. iv MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN v Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value HIV/AIDS, SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR AND ORPHANED AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes 9.1 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention women aged 15-49 years 8.6 per cent men aged 15-49 years 17.8 per cent 9.2 6.3 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention amongst women and men aged 15-24 women aged 15-24 years 8.9 per cent men aged 15-24 years 20.9 per cent 9.3 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV women aged 15-49 years 41.5 per cent men aged 15-49 years 40.8 per cent 9.4 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV women aged 15-49 years 6.5 per cent men aged 15-49 years 13.8 per cent 9.5 women who know where to be tested for HIV 22.6 per cent Men who know where to be tested for HIV 48.6 per cent 9.6 women who have been tested for HIV and know the results 1.7 per cent Men who have been tested for HIV and know the results 1.4 per cent 9.7 Sexually active women aged 15-24 who have been tested for HIV and know the results 1.6 per cent Sexually active men aged 15-24 who have been tested for HIV and know the results 2.3 per cent 9.8 HIV counselling during antenatal care 2.7 per cent 9.9 HIV testing during antenatal care 0.4 per cent Sexual behaviour 9.10 women aged 15-24 who have never had sex 87.4 per cent Men aged 15-24 who have never had sex 45.8 per cent 9.11 Sex before age 15 amongst women and men age 15-24 women aged 15-24 years 12.0 per cent men aged 15-24 years 14.2 per cent 9.12 Age mixing amongst sexual partners women aged 15-24 years 4.3 per cent men aged 15-24 years 0.8 per cent 9.13 Sex with multiple partners women aged 15-49 years 1.2 per cent men aged 15-49 years 5.4 per cent 9.14 Condom use during sex with multiple partners women aged 15-49 years (*) per cent men aged 15-49 years 27.7 per cent 9.15 Sex with non-regular partners women aged 15-24 years 12.9 per cent men aged 15-24 years 55.6 per cent 9.16 6.2 Condom use with non-regular partners women aged 15-24 years (32.4) per cent men aged 15-24 years 49.0 per cent Orphaned children 9.17 Children’s living arrangements 3.5 per cent 9.18 Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead 4.3 per cent Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Contraception and unmet need 5.1 5.4 Adolescent birth rate 145 per 1,000 5.2 Early childbearing 31.0 per cent 5.3 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate 24.8 per cent 5.4 5.6 Unmet need 28.4 per cent Maternal and newborn health Antenatal care coverage 5.5a 5.5 At least once by skilled personnel 79.1 per cent 5.5b 5.5 At least four times by any provider 62.0 per cent 5.6 Content of antenatal care 70.2 per cent 5.7 5.2 Skilled attendant at delivery 98.7 per cent 5.8 Institutional deliveries 99.0 per cent 5.9 Caesarean section 13.2 per cent CHILD DEVELOPMENT Child development 6.1 Support for learning 66.1 per cent 6.2 Father’s support for learning 59.8 per cent 6.3 learning materials: children’s books 10.8 per cent 6.4 learning materials: playthings 47.7 per cent 6.5 Inadequate care 6.6 per cent 6.6 Early Childhood Development Index 84.9 per cent 6.7 Attendance at early childhood education 1.5 per cent EDUCATION literacy and education 7.1 2.3 literacy rate amongst women and men aged 15-24 women aged 15-24 years 68.9 per cent men aged 15-24 years 90.4 per cent 7.2 School readiness 4.1 per cent 7.3 Net intake rate for primary education 46.9 per cent 7.4 2.1 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 69.3 per cent 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 22.6 per cent 7.6 2.2 Children reaching last grade of primary school 74.8 per cent 7.7 Primary completion rate 73.3 per cent Net primary completion rate 40.1 per cent 7.8 Transition rate to secondary school 71.1 per cent 7.9 Gender Parity Index (primary school) 0.96 ratio 7.10 Gender Parity Index (secondary school) 0.67 ratio CHILD PROTECTION Birth registration 8.1 Birth registration 95.8 per cent Child discipline 8.5 Violent discipline 57.6 per cent Early marriage and polygyny 8.6 Marriage before age 15 women aged 15-49 years 14.6 per cent men aged 15-49 years 3.9 per cent 8.7 Marriage before age 18 women aged 20-49 years 48.3 per cent men aged 20-49 years 20.5 per cent 8.8 women aged 15-19 years currently married or in union 38.3 per cent Men aged 15-19 years currently married or in union 13.4 per cent 8.9 Polygyny women aged 15-49 years 1.0 per cent men aged 15-49 years 0.4 per cent Spousal age difference 8.10a women aged 15-19 years 2.5 per cent 8.10b women aged 20-24 years 4.8 per cent Domestic violence 8.14 Attitudes towards domestic violence women aged 15-49 years 43.5 per cent men aged 15-49 years 21.1 per cent vi Multiple indicator cluster survey 2011–2012 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen vii Topic MICS4 Indicator Number MDG Indicator Number Indicator Value ACCESS TO MASS MEDIA AND USE OF INFORMATION/COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY access to mass media Mt.1 exposure to mass media women aged 15-49 years 15.5 per cent men aged 15-49 years 38.6 per cent use of information/ communication technology Mt.2 use of computers women aged 15-24 years 36.1 per cent men aged 15-24 years 59.7 per cent Mt.3 use of the internet women aged 15-24 years 33.1 per cent men aged 15-24 years 60.6 per cent SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING subjective well-being sw.1 life satisfaction women age d15-24 years 38.6 per cent men aged 15-24 years 47.6 per cent sw.2 happiness women aged 15-24 years 70.8 per cent men aged 15-24 years 77.3 per cent sw.3 perception of a better life women aged 15-24 years 25.3 per cent men aged 15-24 years 19.4 per cent TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL USE tobacco use ta.1 tobacco use women aged 15-49 years 54.7 per cent men aged 15-49 years 56.2 per cent ta.2 smoking before age 15 women aged 15-49 years 21.8 per cent men aged 15-49 years 19.3 per cent alcohol use ta.3 alcohol use women aged 15-49 years 14.3 per cent men aged 15-49 years 48.1 per cent ta.4 use of alcohol before age 15 women aged 15-49 years 5.3 per cent men aged 15-49 years 18.9 per cent ( ) figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) figures that are based on less than 25 unweighted cases SuMMary Table of fINDINGS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . iii Table of CoNTeNTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii lIST of TableS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .viii lIST of fIGureS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi lIST of abbreVIaTIoNS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xii aCkNowleDGMeNTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii exeCuTIVe SuMMary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiv I INTroDuCTIoN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 survey objectives . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 II SaMple aND SurVey MeThoDoloGy . . 3 sample design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Questionnaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 training and fieldwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 data processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 report structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 how to read the tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 III SaMple CoVeraGe aND The CharaCTerISTICS of houSeholDS aND reSpoNDeNTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 sample coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 characteristics of households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 characteristics of female and Male respondents 15-49 years of age and children under-5 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 children’s living arrangements . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 IV ChIlD MorTalITy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 V NuTrITIoN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 nutritional status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Breastfeeding and infant and young child feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 low Birth weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 VI ChIlD healTh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 immunisation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 oral rehydration treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 care-seeking and antibiotic treatment of pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 solid fuel use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 VII waTer aND SaNITaTIoN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 use of improved drinking water sources . . . 41 use of improved sanitation facilities . . . . . . . 48 hand washing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 VIII reproDuCTIVe healTh . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Knowledge of contraceptive Methods . . . . . 58 use of contraceptives. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 unmet need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 antenatal care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 assistance at delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 place of delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Ix ChIlD DeVelopMeNT . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 early childhood education and learning . . . 69 early childhood development . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 x lITeraCy aND eDuCaTIoN . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 literacy amongst women and Men aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 school readiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 primary and secondary school participation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 xI ChIlD proTeCTIoN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Birth registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 child discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 early Marriage and polygyny . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 attitudes towards domestic violence . . . . . . . 94 xII hIV/aIDS aND Sexual behaVIour ThaT INCreaSeS The rISk of hIV TraNSMISSIoN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Knowledge about hiv transmission and Misconceptions about hiv/aids . . . . . . . 97 accepting attitudes towards people living with hiv/aids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 106 Knowledge of a place for hiv testing, counselling and testing during antenatal care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 sexual Behaviour related to hiv transmission . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 xIII aCCeSS To MaSS MeDIa aND uSe of INforMaTIoN/CoMMuNICaTIoN TeChNoloGy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 access to Mass Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 use of information/communication technology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 xIV TobaCCo aND alCohol uSe . . . . . . . . . . 128 tobacco use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 alcohol use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 xV SubjeCTIVe well-beING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 appeNDIx a: Sample Design . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 appeNDIx b: list of personnel Involved in the Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 appeNDIx C: estimates of Sampling errors . . . . . . 153 appeNDIx D: Data Quality Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 appeNDIx e: MICS4 bih roma Survey Indicators – Numerators and Denominators . . . . . . . . . 175 appeNDIx f: MICS4 bih roma Survey Questionnaires . . . . . . . . . . . 183 appeNDIx G: education Tables by ISCeD . . . . . . . . 240 Table of Contents viii MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN ix List of Tables Table HH.1: Results of household, women’s, men’s and under-5 interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Table HH.2: Household age distribution by sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Table HH.3: Household composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Table HH.4: women’s background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Table HH.4M: Men’s background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Table HH.5: Under-5’s background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Table HH.6: Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Table CM.1: Children ever born, children surviving and proportion dead . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table CM.2: Child mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Table NU.1: Nutritional status of children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Table NU.2: Initial breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Table NU.3: Breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Table NU.4: Duration of breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Table NU.5: Age-appropriate breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Table NU.6: Minimum meal frequency . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 Table NU.7: Bottle feeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Table NU.8: low birth weight infants . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Table CH.1: Vaccinations in first year of life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Table CH.2: Vaccinations by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Table CH.3: Oral rehydration solutions and recommended homemade fluids . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Table CH.4: Feeding practices during diarrhoea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table CH.5: Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding and other treatments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Table CH.6: Prevalence of suspected pneumonia by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Table CH.7: Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Table CH.8: Solid fuel use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Table CH.9: Solid fuel use by place of cooking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Table wS.1: Use of improved water sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Table wS.2: Household water treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Table wS.3: Time to source of drinking water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Table wS.4: Person collecting water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Table wS.5: Types of sanitation facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Table wS.6: Use and sharing of sanitation facilities . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Table wS.7: Disposal of child’s faeces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Table wS.8: Drinking water and sanitation ladders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Table wS.9: water and soap at place for hand washing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Table wS.10: Availability of soap . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Table RH.1: Early childbearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 Table RH.2: Trends in early childbearing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Table RH.3: Knowledge of specific contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Table RH.4: Knowledge of contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Table RH.5: Use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Table RH.6: Unmet need for contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Table RH.7: Antenatal care coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Table RH.8: Number of antenatal care visits . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Table RH.9: Content of antenatal care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Table RH.10: Assistance during delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Table RH.11: Place of delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Table CD.1: Early childhood education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69 Table CD.2: Support for learning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 Table CD.3: learning materials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Table CD.4: Inadequate care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Table CD.5: Early Childhood Development Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Table ED.1: literacy amongst women aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Table ED.1M: literacy amongst men aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Table ED.2: School readiness . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Table ED.3: Primary school entry . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Table ED.4: Primary school attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Table ED.5: Secondary school attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 Table ED.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 Table ED.8: Education gender parity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Table CP.1: Birth registration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Table CP.2: Child discipline . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Table CP.3: Early marriage and polygyny: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Table CP.3M: Early marriage and polygyny: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Table CP.4: Trends in early marriage: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Table CP.4M: Trends in early marriage: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Table CP.5: Spousal age difference . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Table CP.6: Attitudes towards domestic violence: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Table CP.6M: Attitudes towards domestic violence: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 96 Table HA.1: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission: women aged 15-49 . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Table HA.1M: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission: men aged 15-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .100 Table HA.2: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission: women aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . .102 Table HA.2M: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission: men aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .103 Table HA.3: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .104 Table HA.3M: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .105 Table HA.4: Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .107 Table HA.4M: Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .108 Table HA.5: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .110 Table HA.5M: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .111 Table HA.6: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing amongst sexually active women aged 15-24 . . . . . . .112 Table HA.6M: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing amongst sexually active men aged 15-24 . . . . . . . .113 Table HA.7: HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .114 Table HA.8: Sexual behaviour that increases the risk of HIV infection: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .115 Table HA.8M: Sexual behaviour that increases the risk of HIV infection: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .116 Table HA.9: Sex with multiple partners: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .117 Table HA.9M: Sex with multiple partners: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .118 Table HA.10: Sex with multiple partners: women aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .119 Table HA.10M: Sex with multiple partners: men aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .120 Table HA.11: Sex with non-regular partners: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .121 Table HA.11M: Sex with non-regular partners: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .122 x MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN xi List of Figures Table MT.1: Exposure to mass media: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .124 Table MT.1M: Exposure to mass media: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .125 Table MT.2: Use of computers and the Internet: women aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .126 Table MT.2M: Use of computers and the Internet: men aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .127 Table TA.1: Current and ever use of tobacco: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .129 Table TA.1M: Current and ever use of tobacco: men. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .130 Table TA.2: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .131 Table TA.2M: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .132 Table TA.3: Use of alcohol: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .134 Table TA.3M: Use of alcohol: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .135 Table Sw.1: Domains of life satisfaction: women aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .137 Table Sw.1M: Domains of life satisfaction: men aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .138 Table Sw.2: life satisfaction and happiness: women aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .140 Table Sw.2M: life satisfaction and happiness: men aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .141 Table Sw.3: Perception of a better life: women aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .142 Table Sw.3M: Perception of a better life: men aged 15-24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .143 Table SD.1: Allocation of sample households (primary sampling units) by municipality (stratum) . . . . . .145 Table SD.2: Adjusted (normalised) weights by sample strata . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .148 Table SE.1: Indicators selected for sampling error calculations, BiH Roma Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .154 Table SE.2: Sampling errors: Total sample, Roma Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .156 Table SE.3: Sampling errors: FBiH, Roma Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .158 Table SE.4: Sampling errors: RS, Roma Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .160 Table SE.5: Sampling errors: BD, Roma Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .162 Table DQ.1: Age distribution of household population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .164 Table DQ.2: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Table DQ.2M: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Table DQ.3: Age distribution of under-5’s in household and under-5 questionnaires . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .165 Table DQ.4: women’s completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households . . . . . . . . . .166 Table DQ.4M: Men’s completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households . . . . . . . . . . . . .166 Table DQ.5: Completion rates for under-5 questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .167 Table DQ.6: Completeness of reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .168 Table DQ.7: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .169 Table DQ.8: Heaping in anthropometric measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 Table DQ.9: Observation of places for hand washing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 Table DQ.10: Observation of under-5’s birth certificates. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .170 Table DQ.11: Observation of vaccination cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171 Table DQ.12: Presence of mother in the household and the person interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .171 Table DQ.13: Selection of children aged 2-14 years for the child discipline module . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172 Table DQ.14: School attendance by single age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .172 Table DQ.15: Sex ratio at birth amongst children ever born and living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .173 Table ED.1 ISCED: Primary school attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .241 Table ED.2 (a) ISCED: lower secondary school attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .242 Table ED.2 (b) ISCED: Upper secondary school attendance . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .243 Table ED.3 ISCED: Education gender parity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .244 Figure HH.1 Distribution of municipalities by administrative unit and distribution of sampled households by fieldwork teams, BiH Roma Survey 2011-2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Figure HH.2: Age and sex distribution of household population, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 . . . . . . . . 9 Figure NU.1: Percentage of children under age 5 who are underweight, stunted, wasted or overwight, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .18 Figure NU.2: Percentage of mothers who started breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .22 Figure NU.3: Percentage of infants weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .28 Figure CH.1: Percentage of children aged 18-29 months who received the recommended vaccinations by 12 months (18 months for MMR), BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 . . . . . . . .30 Figure CH.2: Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey by age group, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .32 Figure wS.1: Per cent distribution of household members by source of drinking water, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .42 Figure HA.1: Percentage of women who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 Figure HA.1M: Percentage of men who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .98 Figure DQ.1: Number of household population by single age, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 . . . . . . . 174 xii MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN xiii Acknowledgments The report before you is the result of a joint effort by a number of individuals, institutions and organisations that have contributed, through their enthusiasm and commitment, to the successful implementation of the first MICS survey on Roma in Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH). The application of a unified MICS methodology enabled the production of a significant number of MICS and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators, which represent a valuable foundation for evidence-based policy making. We therefore primarily wish to thank the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), whose financial support for the implementation of the survey made it possible. As in previous MICS rounds, the survey concept, including improvements and innovations, was created and led by the UNICEF global MICS team. With this in mind, we would especially like to thank Siraj Mahmudlu, the MICS coordinator for the CEE/CIS region, whose professional contribution and patience was of vital importance for all phases of the survey; the regional MICS consultants, Aleksandar Zoric, Emma Holmberg, Pierre Martel and Sinan Turkyilmaz and global MICS consultants, Bo Pedersen, David Megill and Shane M. Khan who provided unselfish support in the fields of methodology, sampling, data processing and analysis and we also owe our gratitude to the representatives of the global MICS team of Ivana Bjelic, Turgay Unalan and Yadigar Coşkun and led by Attila Hancioglu, who were willing at all times to share their vast experience and knowledge. Survey implementation was supported by the relevant ministries as well as institutions and organisations whose representatives were members of the project’s Steering Board. Implementation would not have been possible without the support of representatives of the Roma non-governmental sector and regional coordinators for Roma issues whose assistance was of critical importance during many phases of the survey, in particular during implementation of the fieldwork. The training of fieldwork personnel in conducting anthropometric measurements was conducted with the participation of staff and beneficiaries of the Drop-in Centre for Children Involved in Street Work of the Sarajevo Canton, to whom we owe special thanks. Of crucial importance for survey implementation were the supervisors, editors and interviewers as well as those people who worked on data entry. Through their enthusiasm and commitment they enabled the production of valuable indicators on Roma in BiH. The knowledge and experience gained will be of great value for future similar actions in the country. Finally, our deepest gratitude goes to all of the households and individuals for their patience and the time they set aside as well as the hospitality with which they welcomed us into their homes. Without them the implementation of this survey would not have been possible. Their willingness to participate reflects their need to present a true and comprehensive picture of the conditions in which Roma families live as well as their hope that they will thus contribute to the improvement of the living conditions of Roma children and women in BiH. List of Abbreviations AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome BCG Bacillis-Cereus-Geuerin (Tuberculosis) BD Brcko District of Bosnia and Herzegovina BHAS Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herzegovina BiH Bosnia and Herzegovina CDC Centres for Disease Control and Prevention CEDAw Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against women CEE Central and Eastern Europe CIS Commonwealth of Independent States CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child CSPro Census and Survey Processing System DPT Diphtheria Pertussis Tetanus ECDI Early Childhood Development Index EPI Expanded Programme on Immunisation FBiH Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina FMH Federal Ministry of Health FOS Federal Office of Statistics GAP Gender Action Plan of Bosnia and Herzegovina GPI Gender Parity Index Hep B Hepatitis B Hib Haemophilus influenzae type B HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus IUD Intrauterine Device IPH FBiH Institute for Public Health of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina IPV Inactive polio vaccine JMP Joint Monitoring Programme lAM lactational Amenorrhea Method MDG Millennium Development Goals MHSw RS Ministry of Health and Social welfare of the Republic of Srpska MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MICS4 Fourth global round of Multiple Indicator Clusters Surveys programme MMR Measles Mumps Rubella NAR Net Attendance Ratio OPV Oral polio vaccine ORS Oral rehydration solution ORT Oral rehydration treatment ppm Parts per million pps Probability proportional to size PSU Primary Sampling Unit RS Republic of Srpska RSIS Republic of Srpska Institute of Statistics SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences STI Sexually transmitted infection TFR Total Fertility Rate UNAIDS United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNDP United Nations Development Programme UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund U5MR Under-five mortality rate wFFC A world Fit For Children wHO world Health Organization xiv MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN xv Child Health Immunisation According to UNICEF and WHO guidelines children should receive the BCG vaccination, to protect against tuberculosis, three doses of DPT, to protect against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, and three doses of the polio vaccine, and the measles vaccination by 12 months of age. A World Fit for Children goal is to ensure full immunisation coverage for children under one year of age at 90 per cent nationally, with at least 80 per cent coverage in every administrative unit. z The immunisation coverage of Roma children aged 18-29 months was low at only 4 per cent (this percentage includes children of this age that had received a BCG vaccine, three doses of the DPT vaccination and three doses of the polio vaccination by the age of 12 months as well as an MMR vaccine by the age of 18 months). z By the age of 12 months, 86 per cent of children had received a BCG vaccination. z For all vaccines the coverage was highest for the first dose and declined for the second and third doses. The first dose of DPT vaccine had been given to 30 per cent of Roma children, the second dose to 21 per cent and the third dose to 13 per cent of children. Thirty-two per cent of children had received the first dose of the polio vaccine by the age of 12 months, 24 per cent of children had received the second dose yet only 14 per cent of children had received the third dose of the polio vaccine. z Thirteen per cent of Roma children had not received any of the listed vaccinations (this percentage includes children that had not received a BCG vaccine, three doses of the DPT vaccination and three doses of the polio vaccination during infancy as well as an MMR vaccine by 18 months). z Immunisation coverage against MMR by the age of 18 months was 22 per cent. Oral Rehydration Treatment In the treatment of diarrhoea of particular importance are increased fluid intake, continued feeding of the child and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS). z In the two weeks preceding the survey as many as 15 per cent of Roma children under 5 years of age had diarrhoea. More than one half of these children received ORS (58 per cent), while 16 per cent drank more than usual, 73 per cent drank the same or somewhat less and 11 per cent drank much less than usual. More than four-fifths of children ate the same, somewhat less or more than usual (85 per cent), while 15 per cent of children ate much less than usual or stopped food altogether. z Nineteen per cent of children received antimotility medication, 7 per cent received an antibiotic in the form of tablets or syrup, 4 per cent of children received an injectable antibiotic and 1 per cent of children received an intravenous infusion for the treatment of diarrhoea. No diarrhoea treatment or medication was received by 25 per cent of children. Care-Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia A World Fit for Children goal is to reduce by one-third deaths due to acute respiratory infection. z One in ten children aged 0-59 months had symptoms of suspected pneumonia in the two weeks preceding the survey and 80 per cent of which were taken to an appropriate service provider, most often to a government health centre (68 per cent) or government hospital (12 per cent). Three quarters of children under five with suspected pneumonia in the two weeks prior to the survey were treated with antibiotics (75 per cent). z A low percentage of mothers (6 per cent) knew of the two danger signs of pneumonia: fast and difficult breathing. Most mothers identified fever as a symptom for immediately taking a child to a health facility (81 per cent), while a lower proportion of mothers would take their child to see a doctor if experiencing difficulty breathing (28 per cent) or fast breathing (13 per cent). Executive Summary The 2011–2012 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) on Roma in BiH was conducted by the Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees of BiH (MHRR BiH) in cooperation with the Agency for Statistics of BiH (BHAS). Financial and technical support was provided by UNICEF, with additional financial support being provided by UNFPA and the UNHCR. The survey was undertaken as part of the fourth global round of MICS (MICS4). The survey is based on a representative sample of 1,791 households, with a response rate of 86 per cent. In these households, 1,380 women and 1,456 men aged 15-49 were interviewed and questionnaires completed for 748 children under age five. Child Mortality The infant mortality rate is the probability of dying before the first birthday; the under-five mortality rate is the probability of dying before the fifth birthday. z The infant mortality rate for Roma children was estimated at 24 per one thousand live births, while the under-five mortality rate was 27 per one thousand live births. The estimates refer to 2005. Nutrition Nutritional Status When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness and are well cared for they can reach their growth potential and are considered as well nourished. z Survey findings show that 9 per cent of Roma children under age five were underweight and 2 per cent of children were severely underweight. Twenty-one per cent of children were stunted (too short for their age), while 8 per cent were severely stunted. In addition, 8 per cent of children were wasted, of which, half were severely wasted; 8 per cent of Roma children were overweight. Breastfeeding and Child Feeding Exclusive breastfeeding is considered appropriate feeding for infants aged 0-5 months, while infants aged 6-23 months are considered to be appropriately fed if they are receiving breast milk and solid, semi-solid or soft food. z One half of babies born in the 2 years preceding the survey were breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth. z Twenty-two per cent of children aged less than six months were exclusively breastfed, indicating a low rate of exclusive breastfeeding. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding amongst these children was 1.8 months. One half of children aged 12–15 months are still being breastfed, with a mean duration of predominant breastfeeding of 8.3 months. Amongst children in households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani the median duration of any breastfeeding (27.5 months) and predominant breastfeeding (6.4 months) was longer compared to children in households where the mother tongue of the household head was other (17.2 months for any breastfeeding and 1.9 months for predominant breastfeeding). z Less than one half of children aged 6-23 months were breastfed and receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods (46 per cent), while two-fifths of children aged 0-23 months were breastfed appropriately according to their age. Low Birth weight Low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams) carries a range of serious health risks for children, while undernourishment in the womb leads to increased risk of disease and infant death. z Almost all Roma children born in the two years preceding the survey were weighed at birth (96 per cent), with 14 per cent of them weighing below 2,500 grams. xvi MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN xvii z The most widely known modern method was the male condom (88 per cent), followed by the IUD (82 per cent) and the pill (76 per cent). Of the traditional methods, the most widely known method was withdrawal (64 per cent) as well as periodic abstinence/the rhythm method (43 per cent). z One quarter of Roma women aged 15-49 who were married or in union were using some form of contraception during the survey period. The most popular contraceptive methods were withdrawal (16 per cent) and the male condom (4 per cent). Amongst other methods of contraception, women used the pill (2 per cent), IUD (1 per cent) and female sterilisation (1 per cent). The higher a women’s level of education the higher the prevalence of the use of modern contraceptive methods as opposed to traditional methods. Modern methods were used by only 5 per cent of women with no formal education and 18 per cent of women with secondary or higher education. Unmet Need for Contraception Unmet need for contraception refers to fecund women who are not using any method of contraception but who wish to postpone their next birth or who wish to stop childbearing altogether. z Unmet need for contraception was present amongst three in ten Roma women aged 15-49 who were currently married or in union. This need was highest amongst women aged 25-34 (38 per cent). z Nineteen per cent of women had an unmet need for stopping childbearing altogether, while 9 per cent of women had an unmet need for postponing their next birth. Antenatal Care UNICEF and the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend a minimum of four antenatal care visits during pregnancy. z About two-thirds of Roma women had received antenatal care four or more times (62 per cent), while a lower proportion of mothers had received one (5 per cent), two (7 per cent) or three (5 per cent) antenatal care visits. Antenatal care was largely provided by medical doctors (76 per cent) and nurses/midwives (3 per cent). z About one-fifth of Roma women (21 per cent) did not receive antenatal care. Assistance at Delivery and Place of Delivery A World Fit for Children goal is to ensure that women have readily available and affordable access to skilled attendance at delivery. z Almost all births by Roma women that occurred in the two years preceding the survey were delivered by skilled personnel in public sector health facilities (99 per cent). Doctors assisted with the delivery of 79 per cent of births and nurses assisted with 20 per cent of births. Child Development Early Childhood Education and Learning Activities that support early childhood learning include the involvement of adult household members in reading books or looking at picture books, telling stories, singing songs, counting or drawing, taking children outside the home, compound or yard and playing or spending time with children. z An adult had engaged in four or more activities that promote learning and school readiness during the three days that preceded the survey with two-thirds of children under-five. The average number of activities was 4. Father’s involvement in one or more activity with children was reported in 60 per cent of cases, more frequently with male (66 per cent) than with female children (53 per cent). z Nearly one half of children had 2 or more types of playthings at home (48 per cent) and 11 per cent of Roma children aged 0-59 months live in households where 3 or more children’s books are present. z During the week prior to the interview 7 per cent of children aged 0-59 months were left with inadequate care. Five per cent of children where left alone at home, while 4 per cent were left in the care of other children under 10 years of age. Inadequate care was more prevalent amongst children whose mothers had no formal education (7 per cent), while children whose mothers had secondary or higher education had not been left with inadequate care at all. Children in the poorest 60 per cent of the population (9 per cent) were more often left with inadequate care than children in the richest 40 per cent of the population (2 per cent). Solid Fuel Use Cooking and heating with solid fuel leads to high levels of health damaging indoor smoke. z Almost all Roma households used soil fuel for cooking (92 per cent). The use of solid fuel was most common amongst households where the household head had no formal education (96 per cent) and least common amongst those with secondary or higher education (88 per cent). z A special room designated for cooking was used by only two-fifths of Roma households that use solid fuel for cooking (41 per cent), the lowest percentage being amongst the poorest households (22 per cent). water and Sanitation Use of Improved Drinking water Sources and Improved Sanitation An important A World Fit for Children goal is to reduce the proportion of households without access to hygienic sanitation facilities and affordable and safe drinking water by at least one-third. z Almost all Roma household members used improved sources of drinking water (97 per cent), the most common being piped water (91 per cent) and the second most important being protected springs (5 per cent). z In a substantial majority of households that needed to collect water, the water was collected by adult men (61 per cent) or adult women (25 per cent). Water was less frequently collected by female or male children under age 15 (4 per cent in both cases). z Four-fifths of the Roma population used improved sanitation for excreta disposal, the most commonly used facilities being flush toilets with connection to a sewerage system (61 per cent) or septic tanks (15 per cent). z Improved sources of drinking water and improved sanitation were least commonly used by household members when the household head had no formal education (59 per cent) and those in the poorest wealth quintile (32 per cent). Hand washing Hand washing with water and soap is the most cost-effective health intervention to reduce incidence of both diarrhoea and pneumonia in children under five. z Almost all Roma households had soap somewhere in the dwelling (97 per cent). There was no soap available (anywhere) in 14 per cent of households in the poorest wealth quintile and in 7 per cent of households where the household head had no formal education. Reproductive Health Fertility and Early Childbearing The total fertility rate (TFR) denotes the average number of children to whom a woman will have given birth by the end of her reproductive years if current fertility rates prevail. z The adolescent birth rate was 145 births per 1,000 women aged 15-19 for the one year period preceding the survey. z More than one quarter of women aged 15-19 had had a live birth (27 per cent), while 3 per cent of women in this age group had a live birth before age 15. z Nearly one-third of women aged 20-24 (31 per cent) had a live birth before age 18. knowledge and Use of Contraceptives Appropriate family planning is important for the health of women and children and it is therefore critical to ensure access for all couples to information and services to prevent pregnancies that are too early, too closely spaced, too late or too many. z Almost all women aged 15-49 knew at least one contraceptive method (95 per cent). Modern methods were more widely known than traditional methods; 95 per cent of all women had heard of at least one modern method while 68 per cent of women knew at least one traditional method. xviii MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN xix Child Protection Birth Registration An important goal of the International Convention on the Rights of the Child and A World Fit for Children is to ensure the registration of each child at or shortly after birth. z Birth registration was assessed by examining the birth certificate or based on the mother/caretaker’s report on birth registration. Almost all Roma children under five, according to the mother/caretaker’s declaration, had been registered at birth (96 per cent); however, interviewers were not shown a birth certificate in 20 per cent of cases. The lowest percentage of registered children (91 per cent) was found amongst those of the earliest age, 0-11 months, which indicates that a notable proportion of parents continue to not register their children at or shortly after birth. Child Discipline A World Fit for Children states that children must be protected against any acts of violence. The Millennium Declaration also calls for the protection of children against abuse exploitation and violence. z More than one half of Roma children aged 2-14 years had been subjected to psychological aggression as punishment or physical punishment by their parents or other adult household members during the past month (58 per cent). Forty-nine per cent of children had been subjected to psychological aggression, 45 per cent of children had been physically punished, while 7 per cent suffered severe physical punishment. z A lower percentage of adult household members stated that they believed in the need for the physical punishment of children (8 per cent) compared to the actual percentage of children who had been subjected to such punishment (45 per cent). Early Marriage and Polygyny Child marriage is a violation of human rights and compromises the development of girls and often results in early pregnancy and social isolation. z More Roma women than men aged 15-19 were currently married or in union (38 per cent of women and 13 per cent of men). The percentage of these women and men who were married was higher amongst those with no formal education (53 per cent for women and 20 per cent for men) compared to those with secondary or higher education. z Fifteen per cent of women aged 15-49 were married before age 15 and the highest percentage of these women who married while being underage had no formal education and belonged to the poorest wealth quintile. Three per cent of Roma women aged 15-19 as well as 5 per cent of women aged 20-24 were currently married to a man who was older by ten years or more. A very small percentage of Roma women and men aged 15-49 lived in a union in which the husband had more than one wife/partner. Attitudes towards Domestic Violence It is believed that those women who feel that a man has the right to hit or beat his wife are frequently abused by their husbands/partners and that those men who hold the same opinion frequently abuse their wives or partners. z A higher percentage of women than men felt that a husband/partner has the right to hit or beat his wife/partner. Women most often justified a husband’s violence through instances where the woman neglected the children (32 per cent) or went out without telling her husband (27 per cent) or if she argued with him (22 per cent) or refused to have sex with him (20 per cent). The highest proportion of men believed that a man has the right to hit or beat his wife/partner if she neglects the children (14 per cent), went out without telling her husband or refused to have sex with him (10 per cent in both cases). z Men and women who lived in families in the poorest wealth quintile more often supported at least one of the reasons for justifying violence against women (25 per cent of men and 48 per cent of women), compared to men and women who were in the richest wealth quintile (15 per cent of men and 38 per cent women). z Only 2 per cent of Roma children aged 36-59 months were attending an organised early childhood programme, with a similar percentage amongst boys and girls. Early Childhood Development Index The Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI) is calculated as the percentage of children who are developmentally on track in at least three of four domains: literacy and numeracy skills, physical growth, socio-emotional development and learning. z Eighty-five per cent of Roma children aged 36-59 months were developmentally on track, with no large variations by sex. While it is usual that children develop more skills with increasing age, the data indicates that the ECDI of Roma children aged 48-59 months (85 per cent) was the same as that of children age 36-47 months (85 per cent). z Nearly all children aged 36-59 months were on track in the learning domain (99 per cent) and were also on track in the physical domain (98 per cent), but less children were on track in the socio-emotional domain (86 per cent) and the lowest percentage were on track in the literacy-numeracy domain (8 per cent). Children in households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani were less likely to be on track in the literacy-numeracy domain (5 per cent) as opposed to those in households where the household head spoke another mother tongue (13 per cent). Education School Readiness Readiness of children for primary school can be improved through attendance at early childhood education programmes or through preschool attendance. z Four per cent of Roma children who were currently attending the first grade of primary school had attended preschool during the previous year. Primary and Secondary School Participation Education is an essential prerequisite for combating poverty, promoting human rights and democracy and empowering women and children. z One half of Roma children who were of primary school entry age were attending the first grade (47 per cent). Children of primary school entry age in households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani were less likely to be attending the first grade of primary school (39 per cent) compared to children in households where the household head spoke another mother tongue (59 per cent). z More than two-thirds of Roma children of primary school age were attending school (69 per cent). This percentage rose with the mother’s level of education and was higher amongst the richer families. The net primary school completion rate was 40 per cent. z The Gender Parity Index (GPI) for primary school was 0.96, indicating that girls were slightly less likely to attend primary school than boys; however, girls were much more disadvantaged compared to boys at the secondary school level (GPI: 0.67). Literacy amongst women and Men aged 15-24 Youth literacy is an important MDG indicator. z There were more literate men (90 per cent) than women (69 per cent) in the 15-24 age group. Literacy was lower amongst women in households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani compared to those where the household head spoke another mother tongue (59 per cent versus 83 per cent). Amongst men there were no large differentials in terms of literacy in relation to their mother tongue. In addition, amongst respondents aged 15-24 who had no formal education a much higher percentage of men were able to successfully read the statement shown to them (64 per cent) compared to women (16 per cent). xx MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN xxi Access to Mass Media MICS4 collected information on exposure of women and men aged 15-49 to newspapers/magazines, radio and television, as well as the use of computers and the Internet amongst persons aged 15-24. z Thirty-nine per cent of Roma men and 16 per cent of Roma women had been exposed to all of the three types of media at least once a week, more of them coming from amongst those with secondary or higher education and those from the richest wealth quintile. Men (34 per cent) and women (8 per cent) in households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani were less exposed to the three media types compared to men (45 per cent) and women (25 per cent) in households where the household head spoke another mother tongue. z Forty-three per cent of women and 69 per cent of men aged 15-24 had ever used a computer, while a lower proportion of both men and women had used a computer at least once a week during the last one month (29 per cent of women and 57 per cent of men). z Internet use over the last 12 months was higher amongst men (88 per cent) and women (75 per cent) aged 15-24 with secondary or higher education, compared to those with no formal education (26 per cent of men and 8 per cent of women), as well as amongst men (86 per cent) and women (61 per cent) in the richest wealth quintile compared to those in the poorest wealth quintile (30 per cent of men and 9 per cent of women). Tobacco and Alcohol Use Tobacco Use Numerous studies have shown that smoking is a risk factor for many diseases and that it can lead to serious diseases in non-smokers, especially children. z About two-thirds of men and women aged 15-49 reported having ever used a tobacco product. About one-fifth of women (22 per cent) and men (19 per cent) had smoked a cigarette for the first time before age 15; the percentage was highest, for both sexes, amongst those with no formal education (25 per cent each) and those from the poorest households (29 per cent each). z More than one half of men (56 per cent) and women (55 per cent) had used a tobacco product on one or more days during the last one month, with no difference between men and women in the use of tobacco products by type or combination of the product used. z Most of the men and women that currently smoked cigarettes had smoked more than 20 cigarettes in the last 24 hours, men (87 per cent) more than women (63 per cent). Alcohol Use Excessive alcohol use increases the risk of many harmful health conditions and can also lead to social problems. Alcohol abuse is also associated with injuries and violence, including domestic violence. z Forty-five per cent of Roma women and 69 per cent of Roma men aged 15-49 had consumed alcohol in their lifetime. A higher percentage of men aged 15-49 (19 per cent) had had at least one drink of alcohol before age 15, compared to women (5 per cent). z At least one drink of alcohol had been consumed on one or more days during the last one month by a higher proportion of men aged 15-49 (48 per cent) than women (14 per cent). Subjective well-Being Understanding young women and young men’s satisfaction in different areas of their lives can help to gain a comprehensive picture of young people’s life situations. z A higher percentage of men (48 per cent) than women (39 per cent) age 15-24 are satisfied with their life. For both sexes, people in the 15-19 age group as well as men and women aged 15-24 with secondary or higher education and those from the richest households were most satisfied with their life compared to the other respondents. z For both sexes, the happiest were men and women in the 15-19 age group and those aged 15-24 who had secondary or higher education and those in the richest wealth quintile. z The survey findings show that a higher percentage of Roma women aged 15-24 thought that their lives had improved over the last year (29 per cent compared to men 21 per cent) and that a higher percentage of women (77 per cent compared to men 61 per cent) expected their lives to improve in one year. HIV/AIDS and Sexual Behaviour that Increases the Risk of HIV Transmission knowledge about HIV Transmission and Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS and Attitudes towards People Living with HIV/AIDS An essential prerequisite to protect oneself against HIV infection is accurate knowledge of how the virus is transmitted. z Seventy-three per cent of Roma men and 67 per cent of Roma women aged 15-49 have heard of HIV/AIDS. However, a lower percentage of men (58 per cent) and women (42 per cent) knew of the two main ways of preventing HIV transmission (having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time). z Two-thirds of Roma men (67 per cent) and one half of Roma women aged 15-49 knew that having only one faithful uninfected partner can reduce the risk of transmission of HIV. z About one-third of men (35 per cent) and women (30 per cent) knew that HIV cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites, while more than a quarter of women (27 per cent) and more than one-third of men (37 per cent) knew that HIV cannot be transmitted by sharing food with an infected person. z Eleven per cent of women and 20 per cent of men aged 15-49 rejected the two most common misconceptions concerning HIV (that HIV can be transmitted by mosquito bites and by sharing food with an infected person) and at the same time knew that a healthy looking person can be infected). z Comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention was found amongst one-fifth of men aged 15-24 and 15-49 (21 and 18 per cent respectively) and a lower percentage of women in both age groups (9 per cent in both cases). z Accepting attitudes towards persons living with HIV for all four indicators were found amongst 14 per cent of men and 7 per cent of women. More educated women and men and those from the richest households expressed a higher level of accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS than those with lower education and from the poorest households. HIV Testing In order to protect themselves and to prevent infecting others it is important for individuals to know their HIV status. Knowledge of where to be tested for HIV and use of such services is a critical factor in the decision to seek treatment. z More Roma men aged 15-49 (49 per cent) than women (23 per cent) knew of a facility where they could be tested for HIV. Nonetheless, few of them had ever tested for HIV (about 5 per cent): more women and men with secondary or higher education, compared to those with no formal education, and those from the richest wealth quintile had been tested for HIV. Amongst persons aged 15-24 one half of men (52 per cent) and one-fifth of women (19 per cent) knew where to be tested for HIV, with 5 per cent of men and 3 per cent of women having been tested for HIV. z HIV counselling during antenatal care had been received by only 3 per cent of women who had given birth in the two years prior to the survey. During the antenatal period, a small percentage of women were offered an HIV test, were tested and were told the result (less than 1 per cent). Sexual Behaviour Related to HIV Transmission Promoting safer sexual behaviour is critical for reducing HIV prevalence. The use of condoms during sex, especially with non-regular partners, is especially important for reducing the spread of HIV. z Amongst people aged 15-24 years 70 per cent of men and 65 per cent of women had had sex, with 14 per cent of men and 12 per cent of women having had sex before 15 years of age. In the last 12 months 8 per cent of men and 2 per cent of women aged 15-24 had sex with more than one partner. z Fifty-six per cent of men and 13 per cent of women aged 15-24 had sex with a non-marital/non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 months and male respondents had used a condom the last time they had sex with these partners in 49 per cent of cases. z Within the last 12 months 4 per cent of women aged 15-24 had had sex with a man who was older by ten years or more. MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 1 I Introduction Background This report provides valuable and comprehensive information on the situation of Roma children, women and men in BiH, obtained for the first time through a MICS survey on Roma in BiH. The survey was conducted in 2011 and 2012 by MHRR BiH in cooperation with BHAS; technical and financial support was provided by UNICEF with additional financial support from UNFPA and UNHCR. The survey is based, in large part, on the need to monitor progress towards the goals and targets emanating from recent international agreements: the Millennium Declaration, adopted by all 191 United Nations Member States in September 2000, and the Plan of Action of A World Fit For Children, adopted by 189 Member States at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002. These commitments build upon promises made by the international community at the 1990 World Summit for Children. In signing these international agreements governments committed themselves to improve the conditions for their children and to monitor progress towards that end. UNICEF was assigned a supporting role in this task. A Commitment to Action: National and International Reporting Responsibilities The governments that signed the Millennium Declaration and the A World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitor progress towards the goals and objectives they contained: “We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child-focused research. We will enhance international cooperation to support statistical capacity-building efforts and build community capacity for monitoring, assessment and planning.” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60) “…We will conduct periodic reviews at the national and subnational levels of progress in order to address obstacles more effectively and accelerate actions…” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 61) The Plan of Action (paragraph 61) also calls for the specific involvement of UNICEF in the preparation of periodic progress reports: “… As the world’s lead agency for children, the United Nations Children’s Fund is requested to continue to prepare and disseminate, in close collaboration with governments, relevant funds, programmes and the specialised agencies of the United Nations system, and all other relevant actors, as appropriate, information on the progress made in the implementation of the Declaration and the Plan of Action.” Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) calls for periodic reporting on progress: “… We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action.” One of the main challenges in monitoring and reporting on the progress made towards the goals and targets of the Millennium Declaration and the Plan of Action of A World Fit for Children in BiH is the scarcity of relevant statistical data and administrative resources, which makes the results of the MICS survey on Roma particularly important for assessing the situation and level of progress towards the 2015 goals and targets. The MICS survey on Roma in BiH is also important as a source of information for monitoring the implementation of the Convention on the Rights of the Child and the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination 2 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 3 II Sample and Survey Methodology Sample Design The sample for the MICS survey on Roma in BiH was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the situation of Roma children, women and men at the level of BiH as well as the FBiH and RS. Sampling frames for the Roma population were non-existent up until 20094 when MHRR BiH implemented the project entitled ‘Registration of the Roma Population and Roma Households’. Within this project MHRR BiH conducted an enumeration of Roma in BiH as part of activities contained in the Decade of Roma Inclusion 2005-2015. During the enumeration process data was collected on 4,307 Roma households living in 67 municipalities, out of a total of 142 municipalities in BiH. No data was collected for the remaining 75 municipalities due to lack of information on the presence of Roma in these municipalities. A stratified one-stage sample design was applied. In each of the three administrative units of BiH, namely the FBiH, RS and Brcko District of BiH (BD), municipalities were identified as the main sampling strata, the primary sampling unit being the household. Five municipalities were excluded from the sample since only one Roma household was present. Results presented in the report are representative of the 62 remaining municipalities (with more than one Roma household), for which there was a sampling frame. All households where the head of household declared himself or herself to be of Roma ethnicity were considered as Roma households. A specific number of households was allocated to each stratum (municipality) proportional to the size of the stratum identified during the enumeration carried out by MHRR BiH in 2009. Within each stratum the designated number of sample Roma households was selected randomly with equal probability.5 During the MICS fieldwork Roma households within each sampled municipality were enumerated and this updated information about the size of each stratum was reflected in the weights. Overall, fewer households were listed during MICS fieldwork (3,784), compared to the number of households from the 2009 enumeration (4,302). The fieldwork teams were informed that many households had left BiH during the period between the 2009 enumeration and MICS fieldwork. As a component of the enumeration activities conducted within MICS4, households within each stratum were selected for an interview based on the date of birth of the household head. In order to ensure a random selection of households a ‘starting point’ was randomly selected and an ‘end point’ calculated based on the sample size, using available information from the sampling frame. Only those households in which the date of birth of the household head fell between the starting point and end point were interviewed. This resulted in the selection of a total of 1,791 Roma households: 542 households with children under five and 1,249 households without children under five. In order to have a random sample design – for each stratum (municipality) a list of Roma settlements was produced then this list was ordered randomly (using a random number generator). Interviewers were instructed to interview settlements in a predefined (random) order. In this way each household had the same probability of selection within each stratum. The sample was not self-weighting; the sample weights were used for reporting the results. A more detailed description of the sample design can be found in Appendix A. 4 The last census in BiH was conducted in 1991. 5 There was large variability in the number of households per stratum (ranging from 1 to 132 households). against Women as well as the Gender Action Plan of BiH. It will aid reporting under the Guidelines for Identifying Socially Excluded Groups of Children in BiH and other commitments arising from the European integration processes and human rights principles contained in the Constitution of BiH, the Constitution of the Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina (FBiH) and the Constitution of the Republic of Srpska (RS). Policy documents and strategic plans concerning children in BiH stress the provision of equal access to services for all children through multi-sector action. MICS indicators will provide an insight into the level of progress made. These indicators are presented according to the topics covered by the survey. Towards the end of 2011 and the beginning of 2012 the Federal Ministry of Health, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of the RS, the Institute of Public Health of the FBiH, in cooperation with the Agency for Statistics of BiH, conducted a MICS4 survey on a sample of the total population in BiH using the same methodology and similar survey tools. The results of the MICS4 for BiH will be available in a separate survey report. Survey Objectives The 2011–2012 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey on Roma in BiH has as its primary objectives: z provide essential information for assessing the situation of Roma children, women and men in BiH; z furnish data needed for monitoring progress towards the goals established through the Millennium Declaration and other internationally agreed upon goals as a basis for future action; z contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in BiH and strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation and analysis of such systems; z generate data on the situation of Roma children, women and men, including the identification of vulnerable groups and disparities, to provide information for policies and interventions within health and social care services and the reduction of poverty. 4 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 5 The Questionnaire for Individual Men was administered for all men aged 15-49 years living in the households and included the below modules. z Men’s Background z Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology z Child Mortality z Attitudes towards Domestic Violence z Marriage/Union z Sexual Behaviour z HIV/AIDS z Tobacco and Alcohol Use z Life Satisfaction z Health Care10 The Questionnaire for Children Under Five was administered for mothers or caretakers of children under five years of age11 living in the households. Normally, the questionnaire was administered for mothers of children under-5; however, in cases where the mother was not listed on the household roster, a primary caretaker for the child was identified and interviewed. The questionnaire included the below modules. z Age z Birth Registration z Early Childhood Development z Breastfeeding z Care of Illness z Immunisation z Anthropometry The questionnaires were based on the MICS4 model questionnaire.12 From the MICS4 model English version the questionnaires were translated into the local languages used in BiH. The questionnaires were pre-tested in the FBiH in three municipalities in Sarajevo Canton (Centar, Ilijas and Novo Sarajevo) during September 2011. The plan provided for 18 households to be interviewed (9 each in urban and rural areas). These households were selected using a random selection method based on the date of birth of the household head. On the basis of the pre-test results, modifications were then made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires for the survey. A copy of the questionnaires used in the MICS survey on Roma in BiH is provided in Appendix F to this report. A separate MICS4 survey for a sample the total population in BiH was conducted by the Federal Ministry of Health, Ministry of Health and Social Welfare of the Republic of Srpska, the Institute of Public Health of the FBiH, in cooperation with the Agency for Statistics of BiH, in parallel to MICS4 for a sample of the Roma population. Both surveys used the same methodology and similar survey tools. The questionnaires provided in Appendix F of this report reflect the survey tools of both surveys (apart from the Questionnaire for Defining Residency Status, which was an additional, country specific form used only within the survey of the sample of the total population). The results of the MICS4 for BiH will be available in a separate survey report 10 Country specific module that was only used within the MICS4 Roma Survey. The findings for these questionnaires are not presented in this report and will be analysed separately. 11 The terms ‘children under 5’, ‘children aged 0-4 years’ and ‘children aged 0-59 months’ are used interchangeably throughout this report. 12 The model MICS4 questionnaires can be found at <www.childininfo.org/mics4_questionnaire.html> Questionnaires Four sets of MICS4 questionnaires were used in the survey: 1) a household questionnaire that was used to collect information on all de jure household members,6 the household and the dwelling; 2) a women’s questionnaire administered in each household for all women aged 15-49 years, 3) a men’s questionnaire administered in each household for all men aged 15-49 years and 4) an under-5’s questionnaire administered for mothers or caretakers of all children under five living in the household. The survey also included two country specific questionnaires that are not part of the standard MICS survey instruments: 1) Questionnaire Form for Drug Use Assessment (self-administered questionnaire for women and men age 15-49) and 2) Questionnaire Form about the Possession of Documents (asked to household questionnaire respondent or another knowledgeable adult). The findings for these questionnaires are not presented in this report and will be analysed separately. The Household Questionnaire included the below modules. z Household Listing Form z Education z Water and Sanitation z Household Characteristics z Child Discipline z Hand washing The Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered for all women aged 15-49 years living in the households and included the below modules. z Women’s Background z Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology z Child Mortality7 z Desire for Last Birth z Maternal and Newborn Health z Illness Symptoms z Contraception8 z Unmet Need z Attitudes towards Domestic Violence z Marriage/Union z Sexual Behaviour z HIV/AIDS z Tobacco and Alcohol Use z Life Satisfaction z Health Care9 6 This applies to only those persons who were usual residents in the household. 7 Country specific questions on wasted pregnancies were added to this module. 8 A country specific question on knowledge of contraceptives methods was added to this module. 9 Country specific module that was only used within the MICS4 Roma Survey. The findings for these questionnaires are not presented in this report and will be analysed separately. 6 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 7 III Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents Sample Coverage Of the 1,791 households selected for the sample 1,788 were found to be occupied. Of these, 1,544 households were successfully interviewed for a household response rate of 86 per cent. In the interviewed households 1,457 women aged 15-49 were identified of which 1,380 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 95 per cent. In addition, 1,559 men aged 15-49 were listed in the household questionnaire. Questionnaires were completed for 1,456 eligible men, which corresponds to a response rate of 93 per cent. There were 760 children under age five listed in the household questionnaire and questionnaires were completed for 748 children, which corresponds to a response rate of 98 per cent. The overall response rates for the women’s, men’s and children’s questionnaires were 82 per cent, 81 per cent and 85 per cent respectively (see Table HH.1). Table HH.1: Results of household, women’s, men’s and under-5 interviews Number of households, women, men, and children under 5 by results of the household; women’s, men’s and under-5’s interviews and household, women’s, men’s and under-5’s response rates, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Administrative unit Total FBiH RS BD Households   Sampled 1,365 354 72 1,791 Occupied 1,362 354 72 1,788 Interviewed 1,147 327 70 1,544 Household response rate 84.2 92.4 97.2 86.4 women   Eligible 1,091 294 72 1,457 Interviewed 1,041 268 71 1,380 women’s response rate 95.4 91.2 98.6 94.7 women’s overall response rate 80.4 84.2 95.9 81.8 Men   Eligible 1181 312 66 1559 Interviewed 1126 266 64 1456 Men’s response rate 95.3 85.3 97.0 93.4 Men’s overall response rate 80.3 78.8 94.3 80.6 Children under 5   Eligible 547 159 54 760 Mothers/caretakers interviewed 540 154 54 748 Under-5’s response rate 98.7 96.9 100.0 98.4 Under-5’s overall response rate 83.1 89.5 97.2 85.0 The response rates for men were lower than the response rates for women and children in RS, whereas the response rates for men in the FBiH and BD were similar to women’s and children’s response rates. Figure HH.2 shows the distribution of 62 municipalities in which the survey was conducted by administrative unit, as well as the sample distribution by fieldwork teams.14 14 The sample frame comprised of 67 municipalities, out of the 142 municipalities in BiH. The remaining 75 municipalities were excluded from the sample due to lack of information on the presence of Roma in these municipalities. Five municipalities were excluded from the sample since only one Roma household was present. Training and Fieldwork Training for the fieldwork was conducted over 12 days13 during October 2011. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the content of the questionnaires as well as practical work that offered practice in asking the questions. Towards the end of the training period the trainees spent two days conducting practice interviews in urban and rural areas in the municipalities of Novi Grad (Sarajevo) and Visoko. Fieldwork was conducted by three teams. Each team was comprised of 4 interviewers (2 female and 2 male interviewers), one editor, one measurer and a supervisor. Fieldwork began on 9 November 2011 and was concluded on 30 March 2012. Data Processing The data was entered and processed by the MHRR BiH. The data was entered using CSPro software into four microcomputers by 4 trained data entry operators; the process was supervised by data entry supervisors and a data entry coordinator. Data entry began ten days after the start of data collection (20 November 2011) and was completed on 26 April 2012. The SPSS (Statistical Package for Social Sciences) software programme (Version 18) was used to analyse the data and model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were also used for this purpose. In order to ensure quality control all questionnaires were double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS4 programme and adapted to the questionnaires for the survey on Roma in BiH were used throughout. Report Structure The Constitution of BiH, which is an integral part of the Dayton Peace Agreement (Annex 4), defines the administrative structure of BiH as a state comprised of two entities, the FBiH and RS, as well as a third administrative unit BD. The FBiH, RS and BD have their own governments and all jurisdictions and responsibilities that are not otherwise assigned through the Constitution of BiH to state institutions. This includes legislative and executive jurisdiction over healthcare and social protection, which in the FBiH are also delegated to the 10 federal units (Cantons). Due to the administrative structure and respective responsibilities of the BiH, FBiH and the RS for strategies that address child well-being and development, the data and analyses contained in this report are presented in such a way that they reflect data at the BiH, FBiH and RS level. The relatively small sample size in BD provides too few cases to produce statistically sound estimates for all indicators for the report. The data for BD is shown in the tables contained in this report wherever possible. How to Read the Tables The following data collected within this survey is not presented in tables in this report: z ‘Missing/Don’t know’ cases for the background characteristic ‘Language of household head’ (except in Tables HH.3–HH.5 and DQ.4–DQ.5); z data disaggregated by area type, since urban/rural categorisations could not be applied at the municipal level; z data that is not part of the global MICS report template, except data on knowledge of contraceptive methods, (data not presented in the report, coming from country specific survey instruments, includes data on: drug use, possession of documents, wasted pregnancies and health care). Please note: z (M) — the letter ‘M’ after a table/figure code indicates that it refers to the male population; z (*) — an asterisk in tables indicates that a percentage or proportion has been suppressed because it was based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases; z (number) — values in parenthesis indicate that the percentage or proportion is based on only 25 to 49 unweighted cases and should be treated with caution; z age groups presented in this report include those persons that had reached the full age indicated by the upper limit for the group; for instance, respondents aged 15-49 included persons who had turned 49, while the age group of children aged 20-23 months includes those who had reached a full 23 months. 13 The 12 day training included a 2 day practice pilot study. 8 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 9 Table HH.2: Household age distribution by sex Per cent and frequency distribution of the household population by five-year age groups, dependency age groups and by child (aged 0-17 years) and adult populations (age 18 or above) by sex, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Males Females Total Number Per cent Number Per cent Number Per cent Age (years)   0-4 398 13.3 356 12.5 754 12.9 5-9 348 11.6 332 11.6 680 11.6 10-14 353 11.8 351 12.3 704 12.0 15-19 323 10.8 282 9.9 606 10.3 20-24 313 10.5 270 9.4 583 10.0 25-29 238 8.0 218 7.6 456 7.8 30-34 187 6.2 188 6.6 375 6.4 35-39 171 5.7 188 6.6 359 6.1 40-44 177 5.9 157 5.5 334 5.7 45-49 153 5.1 154 5.4 307 5.2 50-54 134 4.5 140 4.9 274 4.7 55-59 80 2.7 95 3.3 175 3.0 60-64 56 1.9 54 1.9 110 1.9 65-69 24 0.8 34 1.2 58 1.0 70-74 18 0.6 19 0.7 37 0.6 75-79 15 0.5 14 0.5 30 0.5 80-84 3 0.1 8 0.3 11 0.2 85+ 0 0.0 1 0.0 1 0.0 Missing/DK 1 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.0 Dependency age groups   0-14 1,099 36.7 1,039 36.3 2,137 36.5 15-64 1,832 61.2 1,745 61.0 3,577 61.1 65+ 60 2.0 76 2.7 136 2.3 Missing/DK 1 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.0 Child and adult populations   Children aged 0-17 years 1,301 43.5 1,220 42.7 2,521 43.1 Adults aged 18+ years 1,690 56.5 1,640 57.3 3,329 56.9 Missing/DK 1 0.0 0 0.0 1 0.0 Total 2,992 100.0 2,860 100.0 5,852 100.0 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85+ Per cent Females Males Figure HH.2: Age and sex distribution of household population, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Figure HH.1 Distribution of municipalities by administrative unit and distribution of sampled households by fieldwork teams, BiH Roma Survey 2011-2012 Characteristics of Households The weighted age and sex distribution of the survey population is provided in Table HH.2. The distribution was also used to produce the population pyramid in Figure HH.1. In the 1,544 households successfully interviewed during the survey 5,852 household members were listed. Of these, there were an approximately equal number of males (2,992) and females (2,860). The age and sex distribution of the Roma population through MICS4 differs from this distribution in the overall population obtained through other household surveys15 and the MICS3 survey for the overall population in BiH, with a higher proportion of children under 15 and the population aged 15-64, and a lower proportion of the population aged 65 and above. The proportion of children aged 0-14 within the Roma population was higher (37 per cent) than the proportion of persons age 65 and above in the population (2 per cent). The sex distribution shows some differences: in the population aged 0-29 there was a slightly higher proportion of males than females (especially in the age groups 0-4 and 15-24), yet this proportion was reversed in favour of females in the older age groups. Figure HH.2 shows a population pyramid with a wide base, which indicates a higher proportion of the population aged 0-4. 15 2007 BiH Household Budget Survey: Final Results, BHAS, FOS and RSIS, Banja luka/Sarajevo, 2008. 10 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 11 Data on the sex of the household heads differs somewhat from the findings of surveys on the overall population conducted as part of the activities of the statistical system in BiH.16 In 33 per cent of cases in this survey the household heads were women. Households with 4 members are the most frequent (21 per cent), which does not differ from the overall population, while the proportion of households with 2 to 3 members was around 18 per cent (the estimated average household size was 3.8 members). The majority of households had at least one female and one male aged 15-49 (about 75 per cent), around two quarters had a child aged 0-17, while a lower proportion of households had a child aged 0-4 (35 per cent). Characteristics of Female and Male Respondents 15-49 Years of Age and Children Under-5 Tables HH.4, HH.4M and HH.5 provide information on the background characteristics of female and male respondents 15-49 years of age and of children under age 5. In all three tables the numbers of weighted and unweighted observations are presented. In addition, these tables also show the number of observations for each background category. These categories were used in the subsequent tabulations of this report. Table HH.4: women’s background characteristics Per cent and frequency distribution of women aged 15-49 years by selected background characteristics, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     weighted per cent Number of women weighted Unweighted Administrative unit   FBiH 78.6 1,085 1,041 RS 16.2 224 268 BD 5.2 71 71 Age (years)   15-19 18.3 253 258 20-24 18.7 258 256 25-29 15.0 207 205 30-34 13.3 183 185 35-39 13.3 184 181 40-44 10.7 147 148 45-49 10.7 148 147 Marital/Union status   Currently married/in union 71.1 981 982 widowed 2.7 38 37 Divorced 1.7 24 24 Separated 5.6 78 78 Never married/in union 18.8 259 259 Motherhood status   Ever gave birth 72.7 1,003 1,000 Never gave birth 27.3 377 380 Births in last two years   Had a birth in last two years 19.0 263 267 Had no birth in last two years 81.0 1,117 1,113 Education   No formal education 27.8 383 394 Primary 57.6 796 791 Secondary 13.9 191 186 Higher 0.7 10 9 wealth index quintile   Poorest 17.4 240 246 Second 18.4 254 263 Middle 20.5 283 275 Fourth 19.8 273 264 Richest 23.9 329 332 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 56.3 777 784 Richest 40 per cent 43.7 603 596 Language of household head   Romani 56.3 777 810 Other 43.5 601 567 Missing/DK 0.2 3 3 Total 100.0 1,380 1,380 16 Nearly 80 per cent of household heads in the overall population of BiH were men. The 2007 BiH Household Budget Survey: Final Results, BHAS, FOS and RSISS, Banja luka/Sarajevo, 2008, indicates that 80 per cent of household heads in BiH were men (page 21). The overall dependency rate, namely the ratio of the inactive population (aged 0-14 and 65+) to the active population (aged 15-64), expressed as a percentage was 52 per cent, meaning that there were 52 inactive persons for each 100 active ones. Tables HH.3 to HH.5 provide basic information on the households, the female and male respondents aged 15-49 and children under-5, by presenting both the unweighted and weighted figures. Information on the basic characteristics of the households, women, men and children under-5 interviewed during the survey is essential for an interpretation of the findings presented later in the report. This information can also provide an indication of the representativeness of the survey. The remaining tables in this report are presented with only weighted numbers (see Appendix A for more details about the weighting). Table HH.3 provides basic background information on the households. The sex of the household head, administrative unit, number of household members and the education and mother tongue of the household head are shown in the table. These background characteristics are used in subsequent tables in this report; the figures in the table are also intended to show the number of observations by major categories of analysis contained in the report. Table HH.3: Household composition Per cent and frequency distribution of households by selected characteristics, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     weighted per cent Number of households weighted Unweighted Sex of household head   Male 66.9 1,032 1,029 Female 33.1 512 515 Administrative unit   FBiH 77.7 1,200 1,147 RS 17.6 271 327 BD 4.7 73 70 Number of household members   1 11.4 175 177 2 18.3 282 281 3 18.5 286 289 4 20.2 312 301 5 13.9 214 216 6 8.4 130 132 7 4.7 73 75 8 2.1 33 34 9 1.2 19 20 10+ 1.2 19 19 Education of household head   No formal education 26.5 409 420 Primary 59.4 917 906 Secondary 13.8 213 213 Higher 0.3 5 5 Language of household head   Romani 57.7 891 917 Other 42.2 652 626 Missing/DK 0.1 1 1 Total 100.0 1,544 1,544     Households with at least   One child aged 0-4 years 35.0 1,544 1,544 One child aged 0-17 years 68.2 1,544 1,544 One woman aged 15-49 years 74.9 1,544 1,544 One man aged 15-49 years 75.8 1,544 1,544     Mean household size 3.8 1,544 1,544 The weighted and unweighted numbers of households were equal, since the sample weights were normalised (see Appendix A). The table also shows the proportions of households with at least one child under 18, at least one child under 5, at least one woman aged 15-49 and at least one man aged 15-49. The table also shows the weighted average household size as estimated by the survey. 12 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 13 Table HH.4M: Men’s background characteristics Per cent and frequency distribution of men aged 15-49 years by selected background characteristics, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     weighted per cent Number of men weighted Unweighted Administrative unit       FBiH 79.0 1,151 1,126 RS 16.5 241 266 BD 4.4 64 64 Age (years)   15-19 20.5 299 301 20-24 19.7 286 283 25-29 15.1 220 222 30-34 11.7 170 171 35-39 11.3 164 168 40-44 11.8 172 171 45-49 9.9 145 140 Marital/Union status   Currently married/in union 61.9 901 906 widowed 0.4 5 6 Divorced 1.5 21 21 Separated 3.9 57 58 Never married/in union 32.3 471 464 Missing 0.1 1 1 Education   No formal education 15.4 225 236 Primary 62.6 911 914 Secondary 21.9 318 304 Higher 0.1 2 2 wealth index quintile   Poorest 17.0 248 254 Second 18.1 264 266 Middle 21.9 319 316 Fourth 21.6 314 307 Richest 21.4 312 313 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 57.0 830 836 Richest 40 per cent 43.0 626 620 Language of household head   Romani 57.4 836 866 Other 42.4 618 588 Missing/DK 0.1 2 2 Total 100.0 1,456 1,456 Some background characteristics of children under 5 are presented in Table HH.5. These include the distribution of children by several background characteristics: administrative unit, sex, age, mother’s or caretaker’s education, wealth (wealth index quintiles), wealth by the poorest 60 per cent and richest 40 per cent of the population and the mother tongue of the household head. Most mothers of children under-5 had primary education (57 per cent), 10 per cent of mothers had secondary or higher education, while 33 per cent of mothers had no formal education. Slightly more than two-thirds of children (69 per cent) were in the three poorest quintiles of the population. Table HH.4 provides the background characteristics for female respondents aged 15-49 years. The table includes information on the distribution of women according to administrative unit, age, marital status, motherhood status, births in last two years, education,17 wealth (wealth index quintiles),18 wealth index (by the poorest 60 per cent and richest 40 per cent of the household population) and the mother tongue of the household head. The age distribution of female respondents shows general trend of decline with age; with percentages declining from 18 per cent for women aged 15-19 to 11 per cent for women aged 45-49. The highest proportion of women had primary education (58 per cent), while 28 per cent had no formal education. Nearly 81 per cent of women were currently married or living in union or had been married or lived in union. Similarly, Table HH.4M provides background characteristics for male respondents aged 15-49 years. The table provides information on the distribution of men according to administrative unit, age, marital status, education, wealth (wealth index quintiles), wealth by the poorest 60 per cent and richest 40 per cent of the population, and the mother tongue of the household head. As with women, the age distribution of male respondents also shows a general trend of decline with age; with a relatively even distribution amongst men aged 30-44 . A higher proportion of men compared to women had primary education (63 per cent men and 58 per cent women) and secondary or higher education (22 per cent men and 15 per cent women), while a lower proportion of men (15 per cent) compared to women (28 per cent) had no formal education. Around two-thirds of male respondents were married or lived in union or had been married or lived in union (68 per cent). 17 Unless otherwise stated, throughout this report ‘education’ refers to the education level attended by the respondent when it is used as a background variable. 18 Principal components analysis was performed using information on the ownership of consumer goods (assets), dwelling characteristics, water and sanitation, and other characteristics related to the household’s wealth in order to assign weights (factor scores) to each of the household assets. Each household was then assigned a wealth score based on these weights and the assets owned by that household. The survey household population was then ranked according to the wealth score of the household they were living in and was finally divided into 5 equal parts (quintiles) from lowest (poorest) to highest (richest). The assets used in these calculations are listed below. · Source of drinking water · Type of sanitation facility · Number of rooms used for sleeping · Materials of the dwelling floor, roof and exterior walls · Type of fuel used for cooking · Presence in the household of electricity, radio, television, mobile and or non-mobile phone, refrigerator, bed, stove, personal computer/ laptop, Internet connection, air-conditioner, digital camera, washing machine, tumble dryer, dishwasher, vacuum cleaner, DVD player, Jacuzzi and video surveillance system · Presence in the household of a watch, bicycle, motorcycle/scooter, animal-drawn cart, car/truck, tractor · Possession of a bank account The wealth index is assumed to capture the underlying long-term wealth through information on household assets and is intended to produce a ranking of households by wealth from the poorest to the richest. The wealth index does not provide information on absolute poverty, current income or expenditure levels. The wealth scores calculated are applicable only to the particular data set on which they are based. Further information on the construction of the wealth index can be found in Filmer, D. and Pritchett, L., 2001. ‘Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data – or tears: An application to educational enrolments in states of India’. Demography 38(1): 115-132. Gwatkin, D.R., Rutstein, S., Johnson, K., Pande, R. and Wagstaff. A., 2000. Socio-Economic Differences in Health, Nutrition and Population. HNP/Poverty Thematic Group, Washington, DC: World Bank. Rutstein, S.O. and Johnson, K., 2004. The DHS Wealth Index. DHS Comparative Reports No. 6. Calverton, Maryland: ORC Macro. 14 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 15 Table HH.5: Under-5’s background characteristics Per cent and frequency distribution of children under five years of age by selected characteristics, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     weighted per cent Number of under-5 children weighted Unweighted Sex       Male 52.4 392 396 Female 47.6 356 352 Administrative unit   FBiH 76.1 570 540 RS 16.4 123 154 BD 7.5 56 54 Age (months)   0-5 9.9 74 74 6-11 9.4 70 71 11-23 19.7 147 148 24-35 20.2 151 150 36-47 22.7 170 172 48-59 18.2 136 133 Mother’s education*   No formal education 33.0 247 257 Primary 57.1 427 421 Secondary 9.9 74 70 wealth index quintile   Poorest 28.9 216 222 Second 24.2 181 185 Middle 16.3 122 117 Fourth 17.0 127 122 Richest 13.6 102 102 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 69.4 519 524 Richest 40 per cent 30.6 229 224 Language of household head   Romani 60.6 454 469 Other 39.2 293 278 Missing/DK 0.1 1 1 Total 100.0 748 748 * Mother’s education refers to the educational attainment of mothers and caretakers of children under 5. Children’s Living Arrangements Children without parental care are a vulnerable group and monitoring their living conditions enables a community to better address their needs. Table HH.6 presents information on the living arrangements of children under age 18. According to the data, over three quarters of Roma children aged 0-17 lived with both parents (78 per cent). There were 13 per cent of children living with only one parent, while 4 per cent of Roma children lived with neither of their parents. The percentage of children living with neither parent was higher in the 15-17 age group (14 per cent) compared to the 0-4 age group (1 per cent). In addition, a slightly higher percentage of children who had lost one or both parents was found amongst older children than amongst younger (8 per cent of older and 2 per cent of younger children). Table HH.6 also shows that the percentage of children living with both parents was highest in the richest wealth quintile (86 per cent). Eight per cent of children in the poorest households compared to 3 per cent in the richest wealth quintile lived with only their mother while their father was alive. Ta bl e H H .6 : C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts a nd o rp ha nh oo d Pe r c en t d is tr ib ut io n of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -1 7 ye ar s a cc or di ng to li vi ng a rr an ge m en ts , p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag ed 0 -1 7 ye ar s i n ho us eh ol ds n ot li vi ng w ith a b io lo gi ca l p ar en t a nd p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n w ho h av e on e or b ot h pa re nt s de ad , B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12 li vi ng w ith b ot h pa re nt s Li vi ng w it h ne it he r p ar en t Li vi ng w it h m ot he r o nl y Li vi ng w it h fa th er o nl y Im po ss ib le to de te rm in e To ta l N ot li vi ng w ith a bi ol og ic al pa re nt 1 O ne or b ot h pa re nt s de ad 2 N um be r of c hi ld re n ag ed 0- 17 y ea rs O nl y fa th er al iv e O nl y m ot he r al iv e Bo th al iv e Bo th de ad Fa th er al iv e Fa th er de ad M ot he r al iv e M ot he r de ad Se x   M al e 79 .7 0. 2 0. 6 1. 9 0. 1 5. 8 3. 0 2. 9 0. 7 5. 2 10 0. 0 2. 8 4. 6 1, 30 1 Fe m al e 75 .6 0. 0 0. 4 3. 9 0. 0 7. 4 3. 2 2. 8 0. 4 6. 4 10 0. 0 4. 3 3. 9 1, 22 0 A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 77 .4 0. 1 0. 5 3. 1 0. 1 7. 0 2. 5 2. 9 0. 3 6. 1 10 0. 0 3. 8 3. 5 1, 93 7 RS 77 .8 0. 0 0. 7 2. 0 0. 0 4. 7 5. 0 3. 5 1. 6 4. 8 10 0. 0 2. 7 7. 3 44 7 BD 81 .7 0. 0 0. 0 3. 1 0. 0 5. 3 5. 3 0. 8 0. 0 3. 8 10 0. 0 3. 1 5. 3 13 7 A ge (y ea rs )   0- 4 84 .9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 0. 0 8. 9 1. 3 1. 5 0. 1 2. 5 10 0. 0 0. 7 1. 5 75 4 5- 9 80 .5 0. 0 0. 0 1. 4 0. 0 6. 8 3. 2 4. 2 0. 4 3. 4 10 0. 0 1. 4 3. 7 68 0 10 -1 4 79 .3 0. 2 0. 7 1. 8 0. 1 5. 3 3. 9 3. 9 0. 9 3. 8 10 0. 0 2. 9 5. 9 70 4 15 -1 7 55 .8 0. 3 1. 9 11 .7 0. 2 3. 8 4. 7 1. 0 0. 8 19 .8 10 0. 0 14 .1 7. 9 38 4 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t 73 .0 0. 0 0. 7 2. 9 0. 2 7. 8 4. 6 4. 2 0. 7 6. 1 10 0. 0 3. 7 6. 1 61 3 Se co nd 79 .2 0. 4 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 9. 8 1. 3 1. 1 0. 3 5. 1 10 0. 0 3. 2 2. 0 53 0 M id dl e 79 .1 0. 0 0. 8 3. 5 0. 0 4. 9 4. 9 2. 1 0. 0 4. 8 10 0. 0 4. 2 5. 6 49 5 Fo ur th 73 .3 0. 0 0. 6 2. 0 0. 2 6. 1 2. 2 4. 6 1. 0 10 .0 10 0. 0 2. 8 4. 0 47 5 Ri ch es t 86 .4 0. 0 0. 4 3. 4 0. 0 2. 8 2. 1 1. 9 0. 6 2. 3 10 0. 0 3. 9 3. 2 40 9 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 76 .8 0. 1 0. 5 3. 0 0. 1 7. 6 3. 6 2. 6 0. 4 5. 4 10 0. 0 3. 7 4. 6 1, 63 8 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 79 .3 0. 0 0. 5 2. 7 0. 1 4. 6 2. 2 3. 4 0. 8 6. 4 10 0. 0 3. 3 3. 6 88 3 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d*   Ro m an i 78 .6 0. 0 0. 4 3. 4 0. 1 4. 8 3. 1 2. 9 0. 5 6. 2 10 0. 0 3. 8 4. 1 1, 48 2 O th er 76 .4 0. 2 0. 7 2. 2 0. 1 9. 0 3. 1 2. 8 0. 5 5. 1 10 0. 0 3. 1 4. 6 1, 03 3 To ta l 77 .7 0. 1 0. 5 2. 9 0. 1 6. 5 3. 1 2. 9 0. 5 5. 8 10 0. 0 3. 5 4. 3 2, 52 1 1 M IC S in di ca to r 9 .1 7 2 M IC S in di ca to r 9 .1 8 * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. 16 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 17 V Nutrition Nutritional Status Children’s nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness and are well cared for they can reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. A Millennium Development Goals target is to reduce by half between 1990 and 2015 the proportion of people who suffer from hunger; this will also assist in the goal to reduce child mortality. Malnutrition is associated with more than half of all child deaths worldwide. Three-quarters of children who die from causes related to malnutrition are only mildly or moderately malnourished and show no outward signs of their vulnerability. In addition, undernourished children are more likely to die from common childhood ailments and more frequently have faltering growth. In a well-nourished population there is a reference distribution of height and weight for children under age five. The reference population used in the 2011–2012 MICS survey on Roma in BiH is based on the WHO growth standards.21 Each of the three nutritional status indicators can be expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of the reference population. Weight-for-age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely underweight, while those whose weight-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. Height-for-age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely stunted. Children whose height- for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. Children whose weight-for-height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely wasted i.e., they are falling behind in developing their body weight relative to their height. Children whose weight-for-height is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely wasted i.e., they are severely falling behind in developing their body weight relative to their height. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. In this survey weights and heights of all children under 5 years of age were measured using anthropometric equipment recommended by UNICEF (www.childinfo.org). Findings in this section are based on the results of these measurements. It is a known fact that a large amount of missing data may result in biased findings. The extent of anthropometric data and data on a child’s age is of particular importance for the quality of survey. Thus, children whose measures are outside a plausible range and children whose full birth date (month and year) were not obtained have been excluded from Table NU.1. Children were excluded from one or more of the anthropometric indicators if their weight and height had not been measured, whichever was applicable. For example, if a child had been weighed but his or her height had not been measured then the child was included in underweight calculations but not in the calculations for stunting and wasting. Percentages of children by age and reasons for exclusion are shown in the data quality tables DQ.6 and DQ.7. For example, amongst children under five 3 per cent had not had their weight as well as weight and height measured while 6 per cent of children had not had their height measured. Due to incomplete dates of birth, implausible measurements and missing weight and or height 4 per cent of children were excluded from calculations for the weight-for-age indicator; the figures were 8 per cent for both the height-for-age indicator and weight-for-height indicator. 21 http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/second_set/technical_report_2.pdf IV Child Mortality One of the overarching goals of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is the reduction in under-five mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015; monitoring progress towards this goal is an important but difficult objective. Measuring childhood mortality is extremely important for achieving this goal but is a difficult task. Using specific measures, such as asking direct questions about deaths in the last year, to measure child mortality from birth histories gives inaccurate results. Alternatively, indirect methods developed to measure child mortality produce robust estimates that are comparable with those obtained from other sources. Indirect methods minimise the pitfalls of memory lapses, inexact or misinterpreted definitions and poor interviewing techniques. The infant mortality rate is the probability of dying before the first birthday, while the under-five mortality rate is the probability of dying before the fifth birthday. In the MICS survey infant and under-five mortality rates were calculated based on an indirect estimation technique known as the Brass Method.19 The data used in the estimation is the mean number of children ever born for the five year age groups of women, from age 15 to 49, and the proportion of these children who are dead (see Table CM.1). The technique converts the proportion of dead children for the women in each age group into probabilities of dying by taking into account the approximate length of exposure of children to the risk of dying and assuming a particular model age pattern for mortality. Due to a lack of mortality data on Roma children in BiH the East model life table was selected as being most appropriate, based on previous information on the mortality of Roma in neighbouring countries.20 Table CM.1: Children ever born, children surviving and proportion dead Mean and total numbers of children ever born, children surviving and proportion dead by age of women, BiH Roma Survey 2011-2012     Children ever born Children surviving Proportion dead Number of womenMean Total Mean Total Age   15-19 0.350 88 0.345 87 0.014 253 20-24 1.283 331 1.262 325 0.016 258 25-29 2.137 443 2.076 431 0.029 207 30-34 3.104 568 3.026 554 0.025 183 35-39 3.538 650 3.416 628 0.034 184 40-44 3.211 473 3.082 454 0.040 147 45-49 3.609 535 3.486 517 0.034 148 Total 2.238 3,088 2.171 2,995 0.030 1,380 Table CM.2 provides estimates of child mortality. These estimates have been calculated by averaging mortality estimates obtained from women age 25-29 and 30-34 years, and refer to the year 2005. The infant mortality rate is estimated at 24 per thousand live births, while the probability of dying under age 5 (U5MR) is around 27 per thousand live births. Table CM.2: Child mortality Infant and under-five mortality rates, East Model, BiH Roma Survey 2011-2012   Infant mortality rate1 Under-five mortality rate2 Sex   Male (29) (33) Female (18) (20) Total 24 27 1 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2 2 MICS indicator 1.1; MDG indicator 4.1 * Rates refer to 2005, the East Model was assumed to approximate the age pattern of mortality in BiH. ( ) Figures that are based on 250-499 unweighted exposed children 19 United Nations, 1983. Manual X: Indirect Techniques for Demographic Estimation (United Nations publication, Sales No. E.83.XIII.2). United Nations, 1990a. QFIVE, United Nations Program for Child Mortality Estimation. New York, UN Pop Division. United Nations, 1990b. Step-by-Step Guide to the Estimation of Child Mortality. New York, UN. 20 Based on MICS data for Serbia and the Former yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. 18 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 19 Table NU.1 shows the percentages for children under age 5 in relation to the three anthropometric indicators – weight- for-age, height-for-age and weight-for-height – based on anthropometric measurements taken during the fieldwork. The results show that 9 per cent of children under age five were underweight, while 2 per cent were classified as severely underweight. Around one-fifth of the children of that age (21 per cent) were too short for their age (stunted), of which 8 per cent were severely stunted. The highest percentage of stunted children (27 per cent) was found in households in the poorest wealth quintile. The survey also found that 8 per cent of children were wasted, including 4 per cent severely wasted (8 per cent of children in the FBiH and 6 per cent in RS are wasted). Furthermore, the survey data indicates that 8 per cent of children were overweight. The highest percentage of underweight (21 per cent) and wasted children (22 per cent) was found amongst children aged 6-11 months, while the highest percentage of stunted children (26 per cent) was amongst children aged 36-47 months (see Figure NU.1). Children aged 48-59 months included the highest percentage of overweight children. Table NU.1 shows that the highest percentage of stunted children (27 per cent) was found in households in the poorest wealth quintile. Figure NU.1: Percentage of children under age 5 who are underweight, stunted, wasted or overwight, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Ta bl e N U .1 : N ut ri ti on al s ta tu s of c hi ld re n Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 b y nu tr iti on al s ta tu s ac co rd in g to th re e an th ro po m et ric in di ce s: w ei gh t- fo r- ag e, h ei gh t- fo r- ag e a nd w ei gh t- fo r- he ig ht , B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12   w ei gh t f or a ge N um be r of c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 H ei gh t f or a ge N um be r of c hi ld re n un de r ag e 5 w ei gh t f or h ei gh t N um be r of c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 U nd er w ei gh t M ea n Z- Sc or e (S D ) St un te d M ea n Z- Sc or e (S D ) w as te d O ve rw ei gh t M ea n Z- Sc or e (S D ) pe r c en t b el ow pe r c en t b el ow pe r c en t b el ow pe r c en t ab ov e - 2 S D 1 - 3 S D 2 - 2 S D 3 - 3 S D 4 - 2 S D 5 - 3 S D 6 + 2 SD Se x   M al e 8. 8 2. 0 -0 .3 37 8 21 .8 8. 6 -0 .7 36 4 8. 4 4. 1 8. 8 0. 1 35 6 Fe m al e 8. 8 2. 8 -0 .4 34 1 20 .2 7. 3 -0 .6 32 5 8. 3 2. 8 6. 8 0. 0 32 6 A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 8. 8 2. 6 -0 .4 54 7 22 .9 9. 6 -0 .8 52 1 8. 1 3. 1 7. 0 0. 0 51 5 RS 6. 8 2. 6 0. 1 11 7 14 .3 2. 7 -0 .2 11 5 6. 0 3. 0 10 .6 0. 2 11 6 BD 13 .5 0. 0 -0 .2 54 17 .6 3. 9 0. 1 53 (1 6. 3) (8 .2 ) (1 0. 2) (-0 .2 ) 51 A ge (m on th s)   0- 5 7. 6 4. 3 0. 0 73 9. 0 2. 6 0. 4 69 13 .9 9. 5 8. 4 -0 .5 68 6- 11 21 .4 8. 7 -0 .7 66 18 .8 15 .1 -0 .3 59 22 .0 15 .4 7. 4 -0 .6 59 12 -2 3 12 .4 3. 4 -0 .4 13 9 24 .6 11 .2 -0 .7 13 0 12 .1 2. 1 6. 2 0. 0 13 0 24 -3 5 6. 0 1. 4 -0 .3 15 1 22 .6 9. 8 -0 .8 14 7 7. 8 3. 7 5. 5 0. 2 14 6 36 -4 7 4. 3 0. 9 -0 .3 16 2 25 .9 8. 6 -0 .9 15 6 2. 7 0. 0 8. 9 0. 4 15 7 48 -5 9 8. 0 0. 0 -0 .3 12 7 17 .3 1. 5 -0 .7 12 8 2. 4 0. 0 11 .1 0. 3 12 2 M ot he r’s e du ca ti on   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n 9. 7 3. 1 -0 .3 23 3 18 .0 7. 5 -0 .6 22 9 8. 1 2. 9 7. 4 0. 0 22 2 Pr im ar y 9. 1 2. 2 -0 .4 41 7 23 .3 9. 2 -0 .7 39 5 9. 1 3. 9 7. 8 0. 1 39 5 Se co nd ar y+ 4. 0 1. 3 0. 0 68 18 .2 2. 2 -0 .4 65 4. 6 2. 7 10 .1 0. 2 65 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t 10 .6 2. 7 -0 .5 20 5 26 .9 11 .8 -1 .0 19 6 9. 1 3. 0 6. 9 0. 1 19 8 Se co nd 11 .9 4. 7 -0 .6 17 7 24 .2 6. 0 -0 .8 17 1 11 .9 4. 5 4. 6 -0 .2 17 0 M id dl e 5. 9 0. 8 -0 .2 11 8 19 .9 8. 6 -0 .6 11 3 4. 3 0. 9 12 .3 0. 3 11 0 Fo ur th 5. 2 0. 8 -0 .1 12 4 10 .7 3. 9 -0 .2 11 9 5. 7 3. 3 5. 6 0. 2 11 6 Ri ch es t 7. 5 1. 3 0. 1 94 17 .4 8. 1 0. 0 90 8. 4 6. 1 13 .6 0. 1 88 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 9. 9 3. 0 -0 .5 50 0 24 .3 9. 0 -0 .8 48 0 9. 0 3. 0 7. 4 0. 0 47 8 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 6. 2 1. 0 0. 0 21 8 13 .6 5. 7 -0 .1 20 9 6. 8 4. 5 9. 1 0. 2 20 4 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d *  Ro m an i 10 .6 3. 7 -0 .3 43 5 20 .1 8. 2 -0 .4 41 8 12 .3 5. 0 8. 6 -0 .1 40 6 O th er 6. 1 0. 4 -0 .3 28 3 22 .3 7. 6 -0 .9 27 0 2. 5 1. 3 6. 8 0. 3 27 4 To ta l 8. 8 2. 4 -0 .3 71 8 21 .1 8. 0 -0 .6 68 9 8. 3 3. 5  7 .9 0. 1 68 2 1 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 a an d M D G in di ca to r 1 .8 2 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .1 b 3 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 a 4 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .2 b 5 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .3 a 6 M IC S in di ca to r 2 .3 b ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 –4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 6 12 18 24 30 36 42 48 54 60 Per cent Age (months) Underweight Stunted wasted Overweight 20 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 21 Table NU.2: Initial breastfeeding Percentage of last-born children in the 2 years preceding the survey who were ever breastfed, percentage who were breastfed within one hour of birth and within one day of birth, and percentage who received a prelacteal feed, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Percentage who were ever breastfed1 Percentage who were first breastfed: Percentage who received a prelacteal feed Number of last-born children in the two years preceding the survey within one hour of birth2 within one day of birth Administrative unit   FBiH 94.7 51.1 83.2 16.1 207 RS 94.6 47.3 85.3 9.3 41 BD (*) (*) (*) (*) 15 Months since last birth   0-11 months 95.8 49.6 85.8 14.3 134 12-23 months 93.9 51.1 83.4 15.1 125 Assistance at delivery   Skilled attendant 95.9 50.9 85.3 14.7 259 Missing/DK (*) (*) (*) (*) 3 Place of delivery Public sector health facility 95.9 50.8 85.3 14.6 260 Missing/DK (*) (*) (*) (*) 3 Mother’s education   No formal education 94.4 50.8 90.5 6.6 89 Primary 95.1 49.0 81.2 20.5 148 Secondary+ (96.4) (55.5) (82.0) (7.5) 26 wealth index quintile   Poorest 94.0 49.1 85.2 9.4 74 Second 95.9 52.7 87.0 18.4 69 Middle (97.6) (42.1) (86.6) (16.2) 38 Fourth (92.4) (54.6) (85.1) (17.5) 43 Richest (95.4) (51.4) (75.9) (12.3) 39 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 95.5 49.0 86.2 14.2 181 Richest 40 per cent 93.8 53.1 80.7 15.0 82 Language of household head   Romani 94.9 47.5 87.7 9.5 159 Other 95.0 54.5 79.5 22.1 104 Total 95.0 50.3 84.5 14.5 263 1 MICS indicator 2.4 2 MICS indicator 2.5 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases Breastfeeding and Infant and Young Child Feeding Breastfeeding in the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon and there are often pressures to switch to artificial feeding (infant formula). This can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. WHO/UNICEF have the feeding recommendations below. z Exclusive breastfeeding for the first six months. z Continued breastfeeding for two years or more. z Safe and age-appropriate complementary foods beginning at 6 months. z Frequency of complementary feeding: 2 times per day for infants aged 6-8 months and 3 times per day for those aged 9-11 months. z It is also recommended that breastfeeding be initiated within one hour of birth. The indicators related to recommended child feeding practices are shown below. z Early initiation of breastfeeding (within one hour of birth) z Exclusive breastfeeding rate (< 6 months) z Predominant breastfeeding (< 6 months) z Continued breastfeeding rate (at 1 year and at 2 years) z Duration of breastfeeding (exclusive, predominant and any breastfeeding) z Age-appropriate breastfeeding (0-23 months) z Introduction of solid, semi-solid and soft foods (6-8 months) z Minimum meal frequency (6-23 months) z Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfeeding children (6-23 months) z Bottle feeding (0-23 months) Table NU.2 shows the proportion of children born in the two years prior to the survey who were ever breastfed, those who were first breastfed within one hour and one day of birth and those who received a prelacteal feed. The survey findings show that 95 per cent of Roma children were ever breastfed. Although a very important step in the management of lactation and the establishment of a physical and emotional relationship between the baby and the mother, only one half of babies (50 per cent) were breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth, while 85 per cent of newborns started breastfeeding within one day of birth (see Figure NU.2). The percentage of children who received a prelacteal feed was 15 per cent. A prelacteal feed was received by 7 per cent of children whose mother has no formal education and by 21 per cent of children whose mother has primary education. 22 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 23 Figure NU.2: Percentage of mothers who started breastfeeding within one hour and within one day of birth, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 * Figures for the education category ‘Secondary+’ are based on 25-49 unweighted cases and should be treated with caution. ‘Exclusively breastfed’ refers to infants who received only breast milk (and vitamins, mineral supplements or medicine as needed). ‘Predominantly breastfed’ refers to infants who received breast milk and certain other liquids (water, water-based drinks, fruit juice, oral rehydration solutions, drops, vitamins, minerals and medications) but who did not receive anything else, in particular any other milk, food-based liquids or semi-solid and solid foods. Table NU.3 shows the exclusive breastfeeding of infants during the first six months of life and the complementary feeding of children aged 6-9 months as well as continued breastfeeding of children at 12-15 and 20-23 months. The data is based on the reports of mothers/caretakers on their children’s consumption of foods and fluids during the previous day or night prior to the interview. Slightly more than one-fifth of Roma children (22 per cent) aged less than six months were exclusively breastfed, which is a low level of exclusive breastfeeding compared to the WHO/UNICEF recommended level. By age 12-15 months one half of children were still being breastfeed (50 per cent) and by age 20-23 months a little more than two-thirds of children (69 per cent) were still being breastfed. Table NU.3: Breastfeeding Percentage of living children according to breastfeeding status in selected age groups, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Children aged 0-5 months Children aged 12-15 months Children aged 20-23 months Per cent exclusively breastfed1 Per cent predominantly breastfed2 Number of children Per cent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 1 year)3 Number of children Per cent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 2 years)4 Number of children Sex   Male (20.2) (63.2) 35 (41.5) 27 (68.1) 32 Female (24.3) (64.8) 38 (*) 21 (*) 20 Administrative unit   FBiH 21.3 57.1 55 (42.3) 35 (63.9) 40 RS (*) (*) 12 (*) 11 (*) 9 BD (*) (*) 6 (*) 2 (*) 3 Mother’s education   No formal education (20.6) (73.0) 27 (*) 13 (*) 20 Primary (21.6) (66.0) 36 (50.5) 29 (63.9) 26 Secondary+ (*) (*) 11 (*) 6 (*) 5 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 21.9 59.8 51 (49.6) 32 (74.5) 33 Richest 40 per cent (*) (*) 22 (*) 17 (*) 18 Language of household head   Romani (25.2) (79.7) 44 (63.2) 28 (74.7) 36 Other (18.2) (41.3) 30 (*) 20 (*) 16 Total 22.3 64.0 74 50.1 48 68.8 52 1 MICS indicator 2.6 2 MICS indicator 2.9 3 MICS indicator 2.7 4 MICS indicator 2.8 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases Table NU.4 shows the median duration of breastfeeding amongst children at 0-35 months. Amongst children of this age the mean duration of any breastfeeding was 20.9 months (the median duration was 20.0 months for boys and 23.7 months for girls). The mean duration of exclusive breastfeeding was 1.8 months, while the mean duration of predominant breastfeeding was 8.3 months. The median duration of any breastfeeding expressed in months was longer in RS (25.6) than in the FBiH (18.3). Amongst children in households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani the median duration of any breastfeeding (27.5) and predominant breastfeeding (6.4) in months was longer compared to children in households where the household head spoke another mother tongue (17.2 months for any breastfeeding and 1.9 months for predominant breastfeeding). 83 85 91 81 82 51 47 51 49 56 50 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 FBiH RS Primary Secondary+ BiH Per cent within one day within one hour 85 No formal education 24 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 25 Table NU.5: Age-appropriate breastfeeding Percentage of children aged 0-23 months who were appropriately breastfed during the previous day, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Children aged 0-5 months Children aged 6-23 months Children aged 0-23 months Per cent exclusively breastfed1 Number of children Per cent currently breastfeeding and receiving solid, semi- solid or soft foods Number of children Per cent appropriately breastfed2 Number of children Sex   Male (20.2) 35 47.2 125 41.2 160 Female (24.3) 38 43.9 93 38.2 131 Administrative unit   FBiH 21.3 55 47.8 172 41.4 227 RS (*) 12 (36.7) 37 35.0 49 BD (*) 6 (*) 9 (*) 16 Mother’s education   No formal education (20.6) 27 50.1 69 41.8 95 Primary (21.6) 36 45.5 128 40.3 164 Secondary+ (*) 11 (*) 21 (31.8) 32 wealth index quintile   Poorest (*) 18 45.6 66 42.2 84 Second (*) 16 49.4 57 42.2 73 Middle (*) 17 (38.4) 27 (30.9) 45 Fourth (*) 11 (41.8) 39 (37.2) 50 Richest (*) 12 (51.3) 29 (44.0) 40 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 21.9 51 45.7 151 39.7 202 Richest 40 per cent (*) 22 45.8 67 40.2 90 Language of household head   Romani (25.2) 44 44.3 136 39.7 180 Other (18.2) 30 48.1 82 40.1 112 Total 22.3 74 45.8 218 39.8 292 1 MICS indicator 2.6 2 MICS indicator 2.14 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases Appropriate complementary feeding of children from 6 months to two years of age is particularly important for growth and development and the prevention of undernutrition. Continued breastfeeding beyond six months should be accompanied by consumption of nutritionally adequate, safe and appropriate complementary foods that help meet nutritional requirements when breastmilk is no longer sufficient. This requires that for breastfed children, two or more meals of solid, semi-solid or soft foods are needed if they are six to eight months old, and three or more meals if they are 9-23 months of age. For children 6-23 months and older who are not breastfed, four or more meals of solid, semi-solid or soft foods or milk feeds are needed. Overall, 67 per cent of infants aged 6-8 received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods (MICS indicator 2.12; the figure is based on 25-49 unweighted cases and should be treated with caution).22 Table NU.6 presents the proportion of children aged 6-23 months who received solid, semi-solid or soft foods the minimum recommended number of times or more during the day or night preceding the interview. The survey findings show that under two-thirds of children aged 6-23 months (60 per cent) were receiving complementary foods the minimum recommended number of times. Amongst those children of this age currently breastfeeding less than one half of them were receiving complementary foods the minimum recommended number of times (46 per cent). 22 The table on introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods is not presented in the report since percentages for appropriate complementary feeding disaggregated by sex and area were based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases. Table NU.4: Duration of breastfeeding Median duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding and predominant breastfeeding amongst children aged 0-35 months, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Median duration (in months) of: Number of children aged 0-35 monthsAny breastfeeding1 Exclusive breastfeeding Predominant breastfeeding Sex   Male 20.0 0.6 3.6 229 Female 23.7 1.7 4.8 213 Administrative unit   FBiH 18.3 0.7 3.3 340 RS 25.6 1.3 7.9 73 BD (24.5) (1.8) (16.5) 29 Mother’s education   No formal education 25.7 0.6 6.3 145 Primary 24.3 0.7 3.8 254 Secondary+ (14.9) (1.8) (5.6) 43 wealth index quintile   Poorest 19.0 1.4 6.5 126 Second 13.8 0.7 0.7 113 Middle 17.8 0.4 3.3 67 Fourth 21.4 1.9 3.2 73 Richest 23.5 1.4 5.8 64 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 16.9 0.8 3.5 102 Richest 40 per cent 22.4 1.6 4.5 68 Language of household head   Romani 27.5 0.9 6.4 267 Other 17.2 1.0 1.9 176     Median 24.5 0.9 4.0 442     Mean for all children (0-35 months) 20.9 1.8 8.3 442 1 MICS indicator 2.10 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases Age-appropriate infant feeding for children under 24 months is shown in Table NU.5. Different criteria of feeding have been used, dependent on the age of the child. Exclusive breastfeeding for infants aged 0-5 months is considered as age- appropriate feeding, while infants aged 6-23 months are considered to be appropriately fed if they are receiving breast milk and solid, semi-solid or soft foods. In accordance with these feeding patterns slightly more than one-fifth of children aged 0-5 months who were exclusively breastfed (22 per cent) and less than one half of children aged 6-23 months (46 per cent) who were being breastfed and receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods were considered as being appropriately fed. The overall percentage of Roma children aged 0-23 months who were appropriately fed for their age was 40, being somewhat higher in the FBiH (41 per cent) than in RS (35 per cent). Amongst the currently breastfeeding children aged 6-8 months the minimum meal frequency meant receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods 2 or more times. Amongst the currently breastfeeding children aged 9-23 months receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods at least 3 times was the minimum meal frequency. For children aged 6-23 months who were currently not breastfeeding the minimum meal frequency was defined as receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods and milk at least 4 times. 26 Multiple indicator cluster survey 2011–2012 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 27 Table NU.7: Bottle feeding percentage of children aged 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Bih roma survey 2011–2012   percentage of children aged 0-23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple1 number of children aged 0-23 months Sex   Male 54.4 160 female 58.7 131 Age (months)   0-5 46.8 74 6-11 61.9 70 12-23 58.4 147 Administrative unit   fBih 64.9 227 rs 34.3 49 Bd (*) 16 Mother’s education   no formal education 43.6 95 primary 60.2 164 secondary+ (74.1) 32 Wealth index quintile   poorest 58.4 84 second 53.0 73 Middle (59.9) 45 fourth (61.4) 50 richest (47.7) 40 Wealth index   poorest 60 per cent 56.8 202 richest 40 per cent 55.3 90 Language of household head   romani 49.4 180 other 67.4 112 Total 56.3 292 1 Mics indicator 2.11 ( ) figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases Low Birth Weight Low birth weight (less than 2,500 grams) carries a range of grave health risks for children. Babies who are undernourished in the womb face a greatly increased risk of disease and dying during their early months and years. Low birth weight is most commonly associated with the mother’s poor health and inadequate feeding as well as cigarette smoking, especially during pregnancy. Teenagers who give birth while their own bodies have yet to finish growing run the risk of bearing underweight babies. Because many infants in the developing world are not weighed at birth and those that are weighed may constitute a biased sample of all births the reported birth weights usually cannot be used to estimate the prevalence of low birth weight amongst all children. Therefore, in MICS the percentage of births weighing below 2,500 grams was estimated from two items in the questionnaire: the mother’s assessment of her child’s size at birth (i.e., very small, smaller than average, average, larger than average or very large) and the mother’s recollection of the child’s weight or if the child was weighed at birth the weight as recorded on a health card.23 The findings in this survey, presented in Table NU.8, show that a total of 96 per cent of newborns were weighted at birth, of which 14 per cent weighed less than 2,500 grams (see Figure NU.3). 23 for a detailed description of the methodology see Boerma, J. T., Weinstein, K. I., Rutstein, S.O. and Sommerfelt, A. E., 1996. Data on Birth Weight in Developing Countries: Can Surveys Help? Bulletin of the World Health Organization, 74(2), 209-16. Table NU.6: Minimum meal frequency percentage of children aged 6-23 months who received solid, semi-solid or soft foods (and milk feeds for non-breastfeeding children) the minimum number of times or more during the previous day, according to breastfeeding status, Bih roma survey 2011–2012     Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All per cent receiving solid, semi- solid and soft foods the minimum number of times number of children aged 6-23 months per cent receiving at least 2 milk feeds1 per cent receiving solid, semi- solid and soft foods or milk feeds 4 times or more number of children aged 6-23 months per cent with minimum meal frequency2 number of children aged 6-23 months Sex   Male 48.4 84 (83.2) (90.2) 41 62.0 125 female 43.3 58 (72.8) (81.1) 35 57.6 93 Age (months)   6-8 (*) 22 (*) (*) 12 (71.6) 34 9-11 (42.9) 28 (*) (*) 9 (56.4) 37 12-17 (45.9) 38 (80.9) (93.2) 34 68.3 73 18-23 43.0 54 (*) (*) 21 48.9 75 Administrative unit   fBih 55.3 105 82.4 87.8 66 67.8 172 rs (27.6) 27 (*) (*) 10 (39.6) 37 Bd (*) 9 – – – (*) 9 Mother’s education   no formal education 44.5 53 (*) (*) 15 54.1 69 primary 46.2 79 (77.5) (84.4) 50 61.0 128 secondary+ (*) 10 (*) (*) 11 (*) 21 Wealth index quintile   poorest (52.0) 42 (*) (*) 24 66.3 66 second (38.5) 43 (*) (*) 14 50.3 57 Middle (*) 17 (*) (*) 10 (57.8) 27 fourth (*) 23 (*) (*) 16 (62.0) 39 richest (*) 17 (*) (*) 11 (65.2) 29 Wealth index   poorest 60 per cent 45.8 102 (79.3) (85.7) 48 58.7 151 richest 40 per cent (47.7) 40 (76.7) (86.3) 27 63.4 67 Language of household head   romani 37.2 99 (77.2) (83.8) 37 49.9 136 other (67.4) 43 (79.5) (88.0) 39 77.1 82 Total 46.4 142 78.4 85.9 76 60.1 218 1 Mics indicator 2.15 2 Mics indicator 2.13 ( ) figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases amongst those currently breastfeeding children aged 6-8 months the minimum meal frequency was defined as children who also received solid, semi- solid or soft foods 2 times or more. amongst those currently breastfeeding children aged 9-23 months receipt of solid, semi-solid or soft foods at least 3 times constituted the minimum meal frequency. for non-breastfeeding children aged 6-23 months the minimum meal frequency was defined as children receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods and milk feeds at least 4 times during the previous day. The continued practice of bottle-feeding was a concern due to a number of factors, including possible contamination due to unsafe water and lack of hygiene during preparation. Table NU.7 shows that more than one half of Roma children aged 0-23 months were fed using a bottle with a nipple (56 per cent). It was also a matter of concern that this feeding practice was used for nearly half of children aged 0-5 months (47 per cent) who should be exclusively breastfeeding at this time. The findings show that children whose mother had no formal education were less likely to be fed using a bottle with a nipple (44 per cent) than children whose mother had primary education (60 per cent). 28 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 29 VI Child Health Immunisation Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to reduce child mortality by two-thirds between 1990 and 2015. Immunisation plays a key part in this goal. Immunisation has saved the lives of millions of children in the three decades since the launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunisation (EPI) in 1974. According to UNICEF data, worldwide there are still 27 million children overlooked by routine immunisation and as a result vaccine preventable diseases cause more than 2 million deaths each year. A World Fit for Children goal is to ensure full immunisation of children under one year of age at 90 per cent nationally with at least 80 per cent coverage in every administrative unit. According to UNICEF and WHO guidelines a child should receive a BCG vaccination to protect against tuberculosis, three doses of DPT to protect against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus; three doses of the polio vaccine; three doses of the Hepatitis B (HepB) vaccine and a measles vaccination by the age of 12 months. In accordance with the UNICEF and WHO guidelines and the recommendations for immunisation against measles rubella and mumps (MMR) outlined in the regulations on immunisations and prophylactics in the FBiH and RS, as well as for purposes of international comparison, estimates on full immunisation based on this survey refer to children aged 18-29 months that have received a BCG vaccine, three doses of DPT and the polio vaccine by 12 months and the MMR vaccine by 18 months. Data on immunisation against HepB is not included in the calculation of the percentage of children aged 18-29 who have received all vaccinations.24 Information on vaccination coverage was collected for all children under five years of age. Mothers or caretakers were asked to provide vaccination cards or health booklets for all of these children. If the vaccination card for a child was available the interviewers copied the vaccination information from the card onto the questionnaire. If no vaccination card was available then the interviewer proceeded to ask the mother to recall whether or not the child had received each of the vaccinations and for polio and DPT and how many doses the child had received. The final vaccination coverage estimates were based on both the information obtained from the vaccination card and the mother’s reports on the vaccinations received by the child. The percentage of children aged 18-29 months who had received each of the specific vaccinations recommended by UNICEF and WHO is shown in Table CH.1. The denominator comprises of children aged 18-29 months so that only children who were old enough to be fully vaccinated with these vaccines were taken into consideration. In the first three columns of the table the numerator includes all children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey; in the last column only those children who were vaccinated by age 12 months, as recommended, were included (by 18 months of age for MMR). For children without vaccination cards the proportion of vaccinations given by 12 months was assumed to be the same as for children with vaccination cards. Overall, 41 per cent of Roma children had vaccination cards available at the time of the survey (see Table CH.2). According to the data shown in Table CH.1, 86 per cent of children aged 18-29 months had received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months. Thirty-two per cent of children had received the first dose of the polio vaccine; however, the percentage decreased with subsequent doses of this vaccine to 24 per cent for the second dose and only 14 per cent for the third. The first dose of the DPT vaccine was given to 30 per cent of Roma children. The percentage declined for subsequent doses of this vaccine to 21 per cent for the second dose and 13 per cent for the third (see Figure CH.1). The first dose of the HepB vaccine was received by 65 per cent of children, the second dose by 35 per cent and the third dose by 15 per cent of children. Immunisation coverage against measles rubella and mumps (MMR) by the age of 18 months was 22 per cent. The percentage of Roma children who received all of the UNICEF and WHO recommended vaccinations during infancy was low at only 4 per cent. This indicator includes the percentage of children who received a BCG vaccine and three doses of DPT, and three doses of the polio vaccine by age 12 months and an MMR vaccine by age 18 months (see Figure CH.1). Data on immunisation to protect against HepB and Hib, both of which are part of the immunisation calendars in FBiH and RS, is not included in the calculation of the percentage of children with all immunisations. Thirteen per cent of Roma children did not receive any of the vaccines mentioned by age 12 months. 24 For the purposes of comparing the percentage of children who had received the UNICEF and wHO recommended vaccines during infancy with data from the BiH MICS3 (2005-2006) data on the Hepatitis B vaccines is not included in the calculation of full immunisation. Data on immunisation against illnesses caused by Haemophilus influenzae type B (Hib), which is a part of the immunisation calendars in the FBiH and RS, are not presented in this report. Table NU.8: Low birth weight infants Percentage of last born children in the 2 years preceding the survey that are estimated to have weighed below 2,500 grams at birth and percentage of live births weighed at birth, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Per cent of live births Number of last born children in the two years preceding the surveyBelow 2,500 grams 1 weighed at birth2 Administrative unit   FBiH 13.0 96.7 207 RS 17.4 95.0 41 BD (*) (*) 15 Mother’s education   No formal education 14.0 91.5 89 Primary 14.4 98.4 148 Secondary+ (8.5) (100.0) 26 wealth index quintile   Poorest 19.4 95.5 74 Second 17.8 97.9 69 Middle (4.5) (92.5) 38 Fourth (8.1) (97.1) 43 Richest (10.6) (97.4) 39 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 15.6 95.8 181 Richest 40 per cent 9.3 97.3 82 Language of household head   Romani 13.6 96.8 159 Other 13.7 95.3 104 Total 13.7 96.2 263 1 MICS indicator 2.18 2 MICS indicator 2.19 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases Figure NU.3: Percentage of infants weighing less than 2,500 grams at birth, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 13 17 16 9 14 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 FBiH RS Poorest 60 per cent Richest 40 per cent BiH Per cent 30 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 31 Figure CH.1: Percentage of children aged 18-29 months who received the recommended vaccinations by 12 months (18 months for MMR), BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 * The percentage for all vaccines excludes vaccines to prevent Hepatitis B. Table CH.1: Vaccinations in first year of life Percentage of children aged 18-29 months immunised against childhood diseases at any time before the survey and by age 12 months (by 18 months for MMR), BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Vaccinated at any time before the survey according to: Vaccinated by 12 months of age (by 18 months for MMR)Vaccination card Mother’s report Either BCG1 37.6 48.1 85.6 85.6 Polio   1 21.7 14.0 35.7 32.4 2 17.4 9.0 26.4 24.2 32 12.9 2.3 15.2 14.2 DPT   1 22.1 11.2 33.3 29.9 2 15.4 7.6 23.0 20.9 33 9.7 4.0 13.7 12.5 MMR4 15.7 9.2 24.9 21.8     All vaccinations (BCG, Polio, DPT and MMR) 6.3 1.6 7.9 4.3 No vaccinations (BCG, Polio, DPT and MMR) 1.0 12.3 13.3 13.3 HepB 1 (at birth) 35.6 29.3 64.8 64.8 2 25.8 9.5 35.3 35.3 35 13.7 2.4 16.1 14.5 Number of children aged 18-29 months 146 146 146 146 1 MICS indicator 3.1 2 MICS indicator 3.2 3 MICS indicator 3.3 4 MICS indicator 3.4; MDG indicator 4.3 5 MICS indicator 3.5 Table CH.2 presents immunisation coverage amongst children aged 18-29 months by background characteristics. The figures indicate children receiving the vaccinations at any time up to the date of the survey and are based on information from both the vaccination cards and mothers’/caretakers’ reports. The overall percentage of children who had received all of the recommended vaccinations, apart from the HepB vaccine, at any time before the survey was 8 per cent. Eighty-six per cent of children had received a BCG vaccine at any time before the survey. The third dose of the polio vaccine was received by 15 per cent of children, the third dose of DPT was received by 14 per cent of children, while the third dose of the HepB vaccine was received by 16 per cent of children. The MMR vaccine had been received by 25 per cent of children at any time before the survey. Ta bl e CH .2 : V ac ci na ti on s by b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ri st ic s Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s cu rr en tly v ac ci na te d ag ai ns t c hi ld ho od d is ea se s, Bi H R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12     Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n w ho re ce iv ed : Pe rc en ta ge w ith va cc in at io n ca rd s ee n N um be r of c hi ld re n ag ed 1 8- 29 m on th s BC G Po lio D PT M M R N o va cc in at io ns (B CG , P ol io , D PT a nd M M R) A ll va cc in at io ns (B CG , P ol io , D PT a nd M M R) H ep B 1 2 3 1 2 3 1 2 3 Se x   M al e 87 .9 33 .3 26 .1 13 .6 29 .7 20 .2 10 .9 23 .9 12 .1 6. 8 64 .0 36 .6 14 .5 38 .0 80 Fe m al e 83 .0 38 .6 26 .6 17 .1 37 .4 26 .3 16 .9 26 .0 14 .7 9. 1 65 .8 33 .7 18 .1 44 .7 66 A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 90 .0 33 .8 25 .6 12 .8 28 .6 20 .3 11 .5 25 .7 10 .0 7. 0 63 .2 34 .1 13 .8 37 .4 10 5 RS (8 0. 0) (4 7. 7) (3 2. 3) (2 5. 7) (5 7. 1) (4 0. 8) (2 7. 6) (3 1. 5) (1 4. 2) (1 6. 2) (7 5. 4) (4 3. 3) (3 0. 0) (5 0. 2) 27 BD (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 15 M ot he r’s e du ca ti on   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n 74 .7 26 .2 19 .6 10 .1 21 .0 16 .1 9. 7 14 .3 22 .2 0. 0 56 .6 24 .5 11 .5 30 .9 50 Pr im ar y 89 .9 36 .6 24 .2 12 .1 32 .9 20 .4 9. 6 22 .9 10 .1 6. 9 65 .4 36 .2 13 .3 42 .0 83 Se co nd ar y+ (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 13 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t (8 8. 1) (3 0. 2) (2 3. 0) (1 1. 2) (2 0. 0) (1 7. 1) (5 .8 ) (1 3. 9) (1 1. 9) (5 .3 ) (6 3. 3) (3 0. 5) (1 4. 0) (2 9. 1) 34 Se co nd (8 4. 3) (3 0. 2) (2 1. 4) (1 5. 6) (3 5. 9) (2 4. 6) (1 4. 0) (2 3. 7) (1 5. 7) (6 .5 ) (5 8. 6) (3 0. 4) (1 3. 5) (4 6. 1) 41 M id dl e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 23 Fo ur th (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 23 Ri ch es t (9 3. 2) (3 4. 5) (2 9. 9) (2 6. 4) (4 2. 1) (2 5. 7) (2 2. 3) (2 8. 1) (6 .8 ) (1 8. 1) (8 9. 2) (5 6. 3) (3 3. 8) (5 9. 6) 25 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 83 .6 32 .7 21 .8 13 .3 27 .5 17 .7 9. 5 20 .7 14 .8 4. 5 58 .5 30 .0 12 .0 37 .4 98 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t (8 9. 8) (4 1. 7) (3 5. 4) (1 9. 0) (4 4. 2) (3 3. 2) (2 1. 7) (3 3. 6) (1 0. 2) (1 4. 6) (7 7. 8) (4 6. 1) (2 4. 6) (4 8. 5) 48 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d   Ro m an i 80 .4 27 .8 18 .5 10 .4 29 .1 17 .2 9. 3 17 .3 17 .8 2. 8 60 .7 27 .0 11 .3 37 .2 90 O th er 93 .9 48 .4 39 .0 22 .9 40 .3 32 .6 20 .8 35 .9 6. 1 15 .8 71 .2 48 .1 23 .7 47 .1 57 To ta l 85 .6 35 .7 26 .4 15 .2 33 .3 23 .0 13 .7 24 .9 13 .3 7. 9 64 .8 35 .3 16 .1 41 .0 14 6 ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 –4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s 32 24 14 30 21 13 22 4 35 15 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 86 65 (BCG , Poli o, DT P and MM R) HepB 3 HepB 2 HepB 1 (BCG , poli o, P i M RP) DTP3 DTP2 DTP1 Polio 3 Polio 2 Polio 1 BCG All va ccina tions Per cent MMR 32 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 33 Oral Rehydration Treatment Diarrhoea is the second leading cause of death amongst children under five worldwide. In the treatment of diarrhoea of particular importance are increased fluid intake, continued adequate feeding of the child and use of oral rehydration salts (ORS). The goal is to reduce by two-thirds the mortality rate amongst children under five by 2015.25 In addition, A World Fit for Children calls for a reduction in the incidence of diarrhoea by 25 per cent. In MICS the prevalence of diarrhoea was estimated by asking mothers or caretakers whether their child had had an episode of diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the survey (see Table CH.4). In those cases where mothers reported that a child had had diarrhoea a series of questions were asked about the treatment of the illness, including what the child had to drink and eat during the episode and whether this was more or less than the child usually drank or ate. Table CH.3 also shows the percentage of Roma children who had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey as well as the percentage of children who received various types of recommended liquids during the episode of diarrhoea. The data shows that in BiH 15 per cent of Roma children under 5 years of age had suffered diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the survey. Diarrhoea prevalence amongst these children was highest in the FBiH (18 per cent) and lower in RS and BD (7 per cent and 4 per cent respectively). According to age, the peak diarrhoea prevalence was amongst children aged 12-23 months (23 per cent), while the lowest prevalence was amongst children aged 4-5 (7 per cent). Diarrhoea prevalence was similar amongst girls (16 per cent) and boys (14 per cent). Figure CH.2 shows the percentage of children who had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey by age groups.Fifty-eight per cent of children with diarrhoea received ORS (fluid from ORS packet or pre-packaged ORS fluid). Figure CH.2: Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey by age group, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 25 Compared to 1990 (Millennium Development Goals) Table CH.3: Oral rehydration solutions and recommended homemade fluids Percentage of children aged 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks, and treatment with oral rehydration solutions and recommended homemade fluids, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Had diarrhoea in last two weeks Number of children aged 0-59 months Children with diarrhoea who received ORS (Fluid from ORS packet or pre-packaged ORS fluid) Number of children aged 0-59 months with diarrhoea in last two weeks Sex   Male 14.2 392 62.5 56 Female 15.9 356 53.3 57 Administrative unit   FBiH 17.8 570 59.4 101 RS 7.3 123 (*) 9 BD 3.7 56 (*) 2 Age (months)   0-11 18.8 144 (45.6) 27 12-23 22.5 147 (74.7) 33 24-35 12.0 151 (*) 18 36-47 14.3 170 (*) 24 48-59 7.1 136 (*) 10 Mother’s education   No formal education 13.6 247 (57.4) 34 Primary 16.3 427 55.4 69 Secondary+ 12.6 74 (*) 9 wealth index quintile   Poorest 17.6 216 (60.7) 38 Second 16.6 181 (52.4) 30 Middle 18.0 122 (*) 22 Fourth 11.3 127 (*) 14 Richest 7.9 102 (*) 8 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 17.3 519 56.9 90 Richest 40 per cent 9.8 229 (*) 22 Language of household head*   Romani 13.8 454 55.9 63 Other 17.0 293 (60.5) 50 Total 15.0 748 57.9 112 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Table CH.4 shows feeding practices for children during the episode of diarrhoea. The data shows that during the episode of diarrhoea only 16 per cent of Roma children under 5 years of were given more than usual to drink and that 84 per cent were given the same or less to drink. With respect to food intake, 11 per cent of children were given much less to eat than usual and 58 per cent were given somewhat less to eat. Five per cent of children stopped feeding, while 6 per cent were given more than usual to eat (continued feeding). 19 23 12 14 7 15 0 5 10 15 20 25 0-11 24-35 36-47 48-59 BiH Per cent Age (months) 12-23 34 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 35 Table CH .4: Feeding practices during diarrhoea Per cent distribution of children aged 0-59 m onths w ith diarrhoea in the last tw o w eeks by am ount of liquids and food given during episode of diarrhoea, BiH Rom a Survey 2011–2012 H ad diarrhoea in last tw o w eeks N um ber of children aged 0-59 m onths D rinking practices during diarrhoea Total Eating practices during diarrhoea Total N um ber of children aged 0-59 m onths w ith diarrhoea in last tw o w eeks G iven m uch less to drink G iven som ew hat less to drink G iven about the sam e to drink G iven m ore to drink G iven m uch less to eat G iven som ew hat less to eat G iven about the sam e to eat G iven m ore to eat Stopped f ood Sex   M ale 14.2 392 9.0 51.8 23.8 15.5 100.0 13.1 49.2 23.7 5.9 8.1 100.0 56 Fem ale 15.9 356 13.7 53.2 17.2 16.0 100.0 7.9 66.8 18.3 5.4 1.5 100.0 57 A dm inistrative unit FBiH 17.8 570 11.1 52.9 20.6 15.4 100.0 10.8 57.9 19.8 6.3 5.3 100.0 101 RS 7.3 123 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 9 BD 3.7 56 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 A ge (m onths) 0-11 18.8 144 (5.2) (39.5) (33.1) (22.1) 100.0 (12.2) (33.0) (33.9) (12.4) (8.5) 100.0 27 12-23 22.5 147 (20.2) (42.6) (18.8) (18.3) 100.0 (7.2) (75.8) (11.8) (2.6) (2.6) 100.0 33 24-35 12.0 151 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 18 36-47 14.3 170 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 24 48-59 7.1 136 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 10 M other’s education N o form al education 13.6 247 (9.8) (67.4) (16.1) (6.7) 100.0 (11.5) (52.9) (23.3) (9.8) (2.5) 100.0 34 Prim ary 16.3 427 10.8 48.6 22.0 18.6 100.0 6.2 60.1 22.7 4.4 6.5 100.0 69 Secondary+ 12.6 74 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 9 w ealth index quintile Poorest 17.6 216 (3.7) (61.0) (18.4) (16.8) 100.0 (5.3) (57.9) (25.6) (6.0) (5.1) 100.0 38 Second 16.6 181 (16.8) (42.7) (14.1) (26.5) 100.0 (8.0) (60.2) (22.5) (6.5) (2.8) 100.0 30 M iddle 18.0 122 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 22 Fourth 11.3 127 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 14 Richest 7.9 102 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 8 w ealth index Poorest 60 per cent 17.3 519 9.7 54.0 20.3 16.0 100.0 7.2 56.1 24.7 6.1 6.0 100.0 90 Richest 40 per cent 9.8 229 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 22 Language of household head* Rom ani 13.8 454 10.4 55.8 22.2 11.5 100.0 6.7 66.2 20.5 3.3 3.4 100.0 63 O ther 17.0 293 (12.5) (48.3) (18.3) (20.9) 100.0 (15.2) (47.9) (21.7) (8.7) (6.5) 100.0 50 Total 15.0 748 11.3 52.5 20.5 15.7 100.0 10.5 58.1 21.0 5.7 4.8 100.0 112 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unw eighted cases (*) Figures that are based on few er than 25 unw eighted cases * M issing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not show n in the table. Table CH.5 provides the proportion of children aged 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who received oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding and the percentage of children with diarrhoea who received other treatments. Overall 64 per cent of children with diarrhoea received oral rehydration salts or increased fluids. It was observed that 52 per cent of children received oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and, at the same time, feeding was continued, as is the recommendation. Nineteen per cent of children received antimotility medication in the form of tablets or syrup, 7 per cent of children received an antibiotic in the form of tablets or syrup, 4 per cent of children received an injectable antibiotic and 1 per cent of children received an intravenous infusion. Diarrhoea was treated by home remedies/herbal medicine in 5 per cent of children, while 19 per cent of children were treated in some other way. No diarrhoea treatment or medication was received by 25 per cent of children. 36 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 37 Care-Seeking and Antibiotic Treatment of Pneumonia Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children and the use of antibiotics in under-5’s with suspected pneumonia is a key intervention. A World Fit for Children goal is to reduce by one-third the deaths due to acute respiratory infection. In the MICS survey on Roma in BiH the prevalence of suspected pneumonia was estimated by asking mothers or caretakers whether children under age five had experienced an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or difficult breathing whose symptoms were due to a problem with the chest or both a problem with the chest and a blocked nose. Table CH.6 present the percentage of children with suspected pneumonia. During the two weeks that preceded the survey 10 per cent of children aged 0-59 months were reported to have had symptoms of suspected pneumonia. Of these children 80 per cent were taken to an appropriate service provider (MICS indicator 3.9 which is not shown in Table CH.6).26 The largest proportion of children were taken to a government health centre (68 per cent) or government hospital (12 per cent), while a small proportion of children were taken to a private medical practice (1 per cent) and or a private pharmacy (2 per cent). The highest percentage of children with suspected pneumonia was found in the FBiH (11 per cent), followed by RS (6 per cent) and BD (2 per cent). Three quarters of children under-5 with suspected pneumonia in the two weeks prior to the survey (75 per cent) were treated with antibiotics (MICS indicator 3.10 which is not shown in Table CH.6).27 Table CH.6: Prevalence of suspected pneumonia by background characteristics Percentage of children aged 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia in the last two weeks, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Had suspected pneumonia in the last two weeks Number of children aged 0-59 months Sex   Male 9.1 392 Female 10.2 356 Administrative unit FBiH 11.1 570 RS 6.3 123 BD 1.9 56 Age (months) 0-11 9.4 144 12-23 11.7 147 24-35 8.4 151 36-47 9.5 170 48-59 8.9 136 Mother’s education No formal education 7.7 247 Primary 9.9 427 Secondary+ 14.2 74 wealth index quintile Poorest 10.9 216 Second 12.3 181 Middle 8.6 122 Fourth 9.3 127 Richest 3.4 102 wealth index Poorest 60 per cent 10.9 519 Richest 40 per cent 6.7 229 Language of household head* Romani 6.6 454 Other 14.2 293 Total 9.6 748 MICS indicator 3.9: Percentage of children aged 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia in the last two weeks who were taken to a health provider; the indicator is not shown in Table CH.6 because of the low number of unweighted cases for the background characteristics (less than 25 unweighted cases). MICS indicator 3.10: Percentage of children aged 0-59 with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotics in the last two weeks; the indicator is not shown in Table CH.6 because of the low number of unweighted cases for the background characteristics (less than 25 unweighted cases). * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 26 MICS indicator 3.9: percentages by basic characteristics are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases, and are not shown in Table CH.6. 27 MICS indicator 3.10: percentages by basic characteristics are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases, and are not shown in Table CH.6. Table CH .5: O ral rehydration therapy w ith continued feeding and other treatm ents Percentage of children aged 0-59 m onths w ith diarrhoea in the last tw o w eeks w ho received oral rehydration therapy w ith continued feeding and percentage of children w ith diarrhoea w ho received other treatm ents, BiH Rom a Survey 2011–2012   Children w ith diarrhoea w ho received: O ther treatm ents N ot given any treatm ent or drug N um ber of children aged 0-59 m onths w ith diarrhoea in last tw o w eeks O RS or increased fluids O RT w ith continued feeding 1 Pill or syrup Injection Intra- venous H om e rem edy, herbal m edicine O ther A nti-biotic A nti- m otility Zinc O ther U nknow n A nti- biotic N on- antibiotic U nknow n Sex   M ale 70.3 54.0 9.5 13.8 0.0 0.0 1.8 6.0 0.0 2.5 1.2 6.9 15.9 24.6 56 Fem ale 58.1 50.1 5.4 23.9 0.0 1.6 0.0 2.2 0.0 0.0 1.2 3.6 21.9 25.1 57 A dm inistrative unit   FBiH 65.4 52.9 7.4 15.9 0.0 0.9 1.0 4.5 0.0 1.4 1.3 5.8 20.1 23.2 101 RS (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 9 BD (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 2 A ge   0-11 m onths (56.6) (35.8) (14.4) (13.6) (0.0) (3.3) (3.8) (8.5) (0.0) (0.0) (2.5) (4.7) (11.9) (25.5) 27 12-23 m onths (77.8) (73.5) (6.4) (27.4) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (3.8) (0.0) (4.3) (2.0) (0.0) (14.3) (16.3) 33 24-35 m onths (*) 56.5 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 18 36-47 m onths (*) 31.5 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 24 48-59 m onths (*) 67.3 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 10 M other’s education   N o form al education (59.9) (51.4) (18.5) (10.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (10.6) (0.0) (0.0) (2.0) (3.8) (10.9) (34.8) 34 Prim ary 64.3 52.8 3.1 25.7 0.0 1.3 1.5 1.5 0.0 0.0 1.0 6.6 22.0 20.5 69 Secondary+ (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 9 w ealth index quintile   Poorest (68.0) (57.6) (6.0) (23.8) (0.0) (2.4) (0.0) (6.0) (0.0) (0.0) (3.6) (8.7) (19.6) (18.2) 38 Second (66.5) (61.8) (10.0) (17.0) (0.0) (0.0) (3.4) (7.6) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (.0) (20.7) (27.2) 30 M iddle (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 22 Fourth (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 14 Richest (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 8 w ealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 64.7 53.6 7.3 20.2 0.0 1.0 1.1 5.1 0.0 0.0 1.5 6.5 18.7 23.5 90 Richest 40 per cent (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 22 Language of household head * Rom ani 57.5 50.3 9.3 21.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.3 0.0 0.0 2.2 2.0 10.2 31.0 63 O ther (72.5) (54.3) (5.1) (16.0) (0.0) (1.8) (2.1) (5.1) (0.0) (2.9) (0.0) (9.2) (29.8) (17.2) 50 Total 64.1 52.1 7.4 18.9 0.0 0.8 0.9 4.1 0.0 1.3 1.2 5.2 18.9 24.9 112 1 M ICS indicator 3.8 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unw eighted cases (*) Figures that are based on few er than 25 unw eighted cases * M issing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not show n in the table. 38 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 39 It is obvious that a mothers’ knowledge of the danger signs is an important determinant of care-seeking behaviour; issues related to knowledge of the danger signs of pneumonia are presented in Table CH.7. Overall 6 per cent of mothers were aware of the two danger signs of pneumonia: fast and difficult breathing. Twenty-eight per cent of mothers identified difficult breathing and 13 per cent of mothers identified fast breathing as symptoms for immediately taking a child to a health facility. A higher percentage of mothers in RS (40 per cent) believed that a child should be taken immediately to a health facility if the child experienced difficulty breathing than in the FBiH (27 per cent). The highest percentage of mothers believed that a child should immediately be taken to a health facility in the case of fever (81 per cent). Table CH .7: know ledge of the tw o danger signs of pneum onia Percentage of m others and caretakers of children aged 0-59 m onths by sym ptom s that w ould cause them to take the child im m ediately to a health facility and percentage of m others w ho recognised fast and or diffi cult breathing as signs to seek im m ediate care, BiH Rom a Survey 2011–2012     Percentage of m others/caretakers of children aged 0-59 m onths w ho think that a child should be taken im m ediately to a health facility if the child: M others/ caretakers w ho recognise the tw o danger signs of pneum onia N um ber of m others/ caretakers of children aged 0-59 m onths Is not able to drink or breastfeed Becom es w orse D evelops a fever H as fast breathing H as diffi culty breathing H as blood in stool Is drinking poorly H as other sym ptom s A dm inistrative unit   FBiH 5.1 7.1 80.0 14.2 27.2 3.3 4.3 55.2 5.6 404 RS 11.6 4.8 87.4 13.3 39.8 8.1 5.9 74.5 10.1 78 BD (5.9) (0.0) (82.4) (2.9) (5.9) (0.0) (5.9) (70.6) (0.0) 34 M other’s education   N o form al education 8.9 5.5 81.9 11.9 28.9 4.3 5.7 59.3 5.1 163 Prim ary 4.7 6.6 79.5 14.0 27.3 3.1 4.0 60.4 6.7 299 Secondary+ 5.5 7.4 88.7 14.5 26.2 6.5 5.3 51.3 4.1 55 w ealth index quintile   Poorest 2.4 6.3 78.5 7.3 25.9 3.1 3.2 67.8 4.8 135 Second 6.3 6.2 82.9 17.5 25.8 7.5 5.1 55.9 6.3 124 M iddle 9.7 10.0 75.4 13.9 33.5 1.4 4.2 58.2 6.4 86 Fourth 5.6 3.7 83.2 19.2 26.5 2.5 2.9 58.9 6.2 95 Richest 9.1 5.6 87.5 9.4 28.9 3.6 9.3 50.4 6.4 76 w ealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 5.6 7.2 79.3 12.6 27.8 4.3 4.1 61.1 5.8 345 Richest 40 per cent 7.2 4.6 85.1 14.8 27.6 3.0 5.8 55.1 6.3 171 Language of household head*   Rom ani 7.0 6.7 78.5 10.0 25.2 3.2 6.8 60.8 4.7 296 O ther 4.9 5.9 85.3 18.0 31.2 4.7 1.8 56.6 7.7 219 Total 6.1 6.3 81.2 13.4 27.7 3.8 4.7 59.1 5.9 517 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unw eighted cases * M issing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not show n in the table. Solid Fuel Use More than 3 billion people around the world rely on solid fuel for their basic energy needs, including cooking and heating. Solid fuels include biomass such as wood, charcoal, crop or other agricultural residues, dung, shrubs and straw, and coal. Cooking and heating with solid fuel leads to high levels of indoor smoke, a complex mix of health damaging pollutants. The main problem with the use of solid fuel is incomplete combustion, which produces toxic elements such as, amongst others, carbon monoxide and sulphur oxide (SO2). Use of solid fuel increases the risks of acute respiratory illness, pneumonia, chronic obstructive lung disease and cancer. The primary indicator of solid fuel use is the proportion of the population using solid fuel as their primary source of domestic energy for cooking. Table CH.8 shows that, overall, 92 per cent of Roma households used solid fuel for cooking; solid fuel use was somewhat higher in RS (97 per cent) and BD (95 per cent) than in the FBiH (91 per cent). The highest percentage of households used wood for cooking (84 per cent). Charcoal was used for cooking by 7 per cent of households and coal/lignite by 1 per cent of households. The findings show that the use of solid fuel for cooking was most common amongst households where household heads had no formal education (96 per cent) and least common amongst those with secondary or higher education (88 per cent). A higher percentage of households in the poorest 60 per cent of the population use solid fuels for cooking (84 per cent), compared to those in the richest 40 per cent of the population (98 per cent). Households in the poorest 60 per cent of the population are more likely to use wood for cooking (92 per cent) than households in the richest 40 per cent of the population (73 per cent), whereas the richest households use electricity for cooking more frequently (16 per cent) than poorest households (2 per cent). Table CH.8: Solid fuel use Per cent distribution of household members according to type of cooking fuel used by the household and percentage of household members living in households using solid fuel for cooking, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012       Percentage of household members in households using: Number of household membersElectricity liquefied petroleum gas (lPG) Solid fuel No food cooked in the household Missing Total Solid fuel for cooking1 Coal, lignite Char- coal wood Straw, shrubs, grass Administrative unit FBiH 8.7 0.0 0.6 6.2 84.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 100.0 90.9 4,543 RS 1.8 1.0 1.4 7.2 88.1 0.4 0.1 0.0 100.0 97.1 1,027 BD 2.2 0.0 0.0 20.0 74.8 0.0 0.0 3.0 100.0 94.8 282 Education of household head No formal education 3.2 0.2 1.1 7.7 86.9 0.0 0.0 0.9 100.0 95.8 1,478 Primary 7.7 0.2 0.5 6.7 84.4 0.0 0.1 0.3 100.0 91.6 3,560 Secondary+ 11.7 0.0 0.8 7.4 79.2 0.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 88.3 814 wealth index quintile Poorest 0.4 0.0 0.6 3.4 94.9 0.0 0.2 0.4 100.0 98.9 1,171 Second 1.2 0.0 0.9 4.8 91.8 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0 97.5 1,168 Middle 2.8 0.0 0.6 5.7 90.0 0.6 0.0 0.3 100.0 96.8 1,173 Fourth 9.8 0.0 0.5 6.1 83.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 90.2 1,173 Richest 21.6 0.9 0.9 15.3 61.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 77.5 1,167 wealth index Poorest 60 per cent 1.5 0.0 0.7 4.6 92.2 0.2 0.1 0.7 100.0 97.7 3,512 Richest 40 per cent 15.7 0.5 0.7 10.7 72.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 83.9 2,340 Language of household head* Romani 4.3 0.1 0.6 9.7 84.8 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 95.2 3,373 Other 11.1 0.3 0.8 3.5 83.6 0.3 0.1 0.3 100.0 88.1 2,469 Total 7.2 0.2 0.7 7.0 84.3 0.1 0.0 0.4 100.0 92.2 5,852 1 MICS indicator 3.11 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. The use of solid fuel is in itself a weak indicator of indoor air pollution, since the concentration of pollutants varies when the same type of fuel is burned in different types of stoves or fireplaces. The use of sealed stoves with chimney flukes minimises indoor air pollution, whereas the use of open stoves or fireplaces without a chimney or smoke extractor provides no protection against the harmful effects of solid fuel combustion. 40 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 41 Solid fuel use by place of cooking is depicted in Table CH.9. Indoor air pollution depends on cooking practices, the place of cooking and the type of fuel used. The findings of this survey show that, overall, the place of cooking in 41 per cent of Roma households was a room designated to serve solely as a kitchen, while 52 per cent of households cooked somewhere else in the house (no designated room). Two-thirds of households in RS (67 per cent) had a designated room for cooking compared to more than one half in BD (54 per cent) and only one-third of households in the FBiH (34 per cent). The data shows that the percentage of households with a room designated solely for cooking increased with the education level of the household head and household wealth: the highest percentage was amongst those with secondary or higher education (51 per cent) and amongst households in the richest 40 per cent of the population (56 per cent). Table CH.9: Solid fuel use by place of cooking Per cent distribution of household members in households using solid fuel by place of cooking, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Place of cooking Number of household members in households using solid fuel for cooking In a separate room used as kitchen Elsewhere in the house In a separate building Outdoors At another place Missing Total Administrative unit   FBiH 34.0 57.9 1.0 1.6 4.8 0.7 100.0 4,131 RS 67.2 29.8 1.4 0.7 0.0 0.9 100.0 997 BD 53.9 46.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 267 Education of household head   No formal education 33.7 56.0 2.1 2.8 4.8 0.6 100.0 1,416 Primary 42.1 52.4 0.7 1.1 3.1 0.6 100.0 3,262 Secondary+ 51.1 43.1 0.5 0.0 3.9 1.4 100.0 718 wealth index quintile   Poorest 22.3 57.8 2.0 6.4 10.4 1.1 100.0 1,159 Second 36.4 59.6 1.6 0.0 2.2 0.3 100.0 1,138 Middle 38.6 57.0 1.2 0.0 2.9 0.3 100.0 1,136 Fourth 50.3 47.4 0.0 0.0 1.8 0.5 100.0 1,059 Richest 63.4 35.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 100.0 905 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 32.4 58.1 1.6 2.2 5.2 0.6 100.0 3,433 Richest 40 per cent 56.4 41.7 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 100.0 1,963 Language of household head*  Romani 38.5 54.6 1.5 2.1 2.4 1.0 100.0 3,210 Other 45.1 48.3 0.4 0.3 5.6 0.3 100.0 2,176 Total 41.1 52.1 1.0 1.4 3.7 0.7 100.0 5,396 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. VII water and Sanitation Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health; unsafe drinking water can be a significant carrier of numerous diseases.28 Drinking water can also be tainted with chemical, physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to its association with disease access to drinking water may be particularly important for women and children, especially in rural areas where they bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, often over long distances. One of the Millennium Development Goals (7, C) is to reduce by half, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. A World Fit for Children goal calls for a reduction in the proportion of households without access to hygienic sanitation facilities and affordable and safe drinking water by at least one-third.29 The list of indicators used in MICS is shown below. water z Use of improved drinking water sources z Use of an adequate water treatment method z Time to source of drinking water z Person collecting drinking water Sanitation z Use of improved sanitation z Sanitary disposal of child’s faeces MICS also collects additional information on the availability of facilities and conditions for hand washing. The indicators below were collected. z Place for hand washing observed z Availability of soap Use of Improved Drinking water Sources Improved sources of drinking water include piped water (into dwelling, compound, yard or plot or to a neighbour or public tap/standpipe), tube wells/boreholes, protected wells, protected springs and rainwater collection. Bottled water is considered as an improved water source only if the household is also using an improved water source for hand washing and cooking. The distribution of the population by main source of drinking water is shown in Table WS.1 and Figure WS.1. Overall 97 per cent of Roma households were using an improved source of drinking water: all households in BD, 99 per cent of households in RS and 97 per cent in the FBiH. The highest percentage of Roma household members used drinking water that was piped into their dwelling or into their yard or plot (91 per cent). Piped water was used by the highest percentage of household members in BD (98 per cent) and RS (96 per cent), with the lowest percentage of household members in the FBiH (90 per cent). The second most important source of drinking water amongst the Roma population were protected springs (5 per cent), while only a very low percentage of households used protected wells or tube wells. Unimproved water sources used by the Roma population were unprotected springs (2 per cent) and a negligible percentage of unprotected wells. While only 24 per cent of household members in the poorest wealth quintile had water in the dwelling, a high percentage of these household members used improved sources of drinking water (93 per cent). 28 Such as dysentery, cholera and hepatitis A 29 For more details on water and sanitation and to access reference documents please visit the UNICEF ‘childinfo’ website <http://www.childinfo. org/wes.html> 42 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 43 Figure wS.1: Per cent distribution of household members by source of drinking water, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Table wS.1: Use of improved water sources Per cent distribution of household population according to main source of drinking water and percentage of household population using improved drinking water sources, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Main source of drinking water Total Percentage using improved sources of drinking water1 Number of household members Improved sources Unimproved sources Piped water Tube-well/ borehole Pro-tected well Pro-tected spring Bottled water** Unpro- tected well Unpro- tected spring Surface water Bottled water** OtherInto dwelling Into yard/plot To neighbour Public tap/ standpipe Administrative unit   FBiH 73.0 8.0 6.3 2.7 0.0 0.7 5.4 0.6 0.4 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 96.8 4,543 RS 75.0 7.8 11.9 1.1 0.8 0.3 2.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.0 100.0 99.4 1,027 BD 90.7 4.1 0.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 282 Education of household head   No formal education 62.3 10.0 12.5 5.7 0.3 0.5 3.8 0.6 0.7 3.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 100.0 95.9 1,478 Primary 76.4 8.0 5.2 1.4 0.1 0.7 5.2 0.6 0.2 2.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 100.0 97.6 3,560 Secondary+ 86.3 2.7 4.5 0.9 0.0 0.4 4.1 0.6 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.5 814 wealth index quintile   Poorest 24.1 23.9 25.6 10.0 0.0 1.2 7.6 0.4 0.9 5.6 0.0 0.3 0.5 100.0 92.7 1,171 Second 67.9 11.8 7.3 1.9 0.2 0.5 7.7 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 97.2 1,168 Middle 87.1 3.0 1.9 0.3 0.5 0.3 4.4 0.3 0.7 1.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 97.8 1,173 Fourth 94.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 2.1 1.3 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.3 1,173 Richest 97.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 1,167 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 59.7 12.9 11.6 4.0 0.2 0.7 6.5 0.2 0.5 3.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 100.0 95.9 3,512 Richest 40 per cent 96.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.9 1.1 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.7 2,340 Language of household head*   Romani 70.4 9.8 9.3 3.3 0.1 0.5 3.1 0.7 0.5 2.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 97.0 3,373 Other 79.8 5.1 3.4 1.2 0.3 0.9 6.8 0.4 0.0 1.8 0.1 0.0 0.3 100.0 97.9 2,469 Total 74.2 7.8 7.0 2.4 0.1 0.6 4.7 0.6 0.3 2.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 100.0 97.4 5,852 1 MICS indicator 4.1; MDG indicator 7.8 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. ** Households using bottled water as the main source of drinking water were classifi ed into improved or unimproved drinking water users according to the water source used for other purposes such as cooking and hand washing. Tubewell/borehole 0% Public tap/standpipe 3% Other unimproved source 0% Unprotected well or spring 2% Bottled water 1% Piped into dwelling (yard or plot or to neighbour) 89% Protected well or spring 5% 44 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 45 The use of household water treatment is presented in Table WS.2. Households were asked about ways they may be treating water at home to make it safer to drink. Boiling water, adding bleach or chlorine, using a water filter or using solar disinfection were considered as proper treatments for drinking water. The table shows water treatment by all households and the percentage of household members living in households using unimproved water sources but using appropriate water treatment methods. Most household members used no water treatment method in the household (96 per cent). Other household members used boiling water (4 per cent) and, to a negligible extent, adding chlorine, as water treatment methods. The percentage of household members living in households that used unimproved water sources but did use an appropriate water treatment method was 3 per cent. Table wS.2: Household water treatment Percentage of household population by drinking water treatment method used in the household, and for household members living in households where an unimproved drinking water source is used, the percentage who are using an appropriate treatment method, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 water treatment method used in the household Number of household members Percentage of household members in households using unimproved drinking water sources and using an appropriate water treatment method1 Number of household members in households using unimproved drinking water sources None Boil Add bleach/ chlorine Strain through a cloth Use water filter Solar dis- infection let it stand and settle Other Missing/DK Administrative unit                       FBiH 95.4 4.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 4,543 2.8 146 RS 95.6 4.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1,027 (*) 6 BD 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 282 – 0 Main source of drinking water   Improved 95.6 4.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 5,700 N/A N/A Unimproved 97.3 2.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 152 2.7 152 Education of household head   No formal education 98.3 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1,478 0.0 61 Primary 95.3 4.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 3,560 0.0 87 Secondary+ 92.2 7.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 814 (*) 4 wealth index quintile   Poorest 97.5 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 1,171 4.8 86 Second 94.3 5.4 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1,168 (0.0) 33 Middle 96.4 3.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1,173 (0.0) 25 Fourth 92.1 6.9 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 1,173 (*) 8 Richest 98.0 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1,167 – 0 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 96.1 3.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 3,512 2.8 144 Richest 40 per cent 95.1 4.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 2,340 (*) 8 Language of household head*   Romani 97.3 2.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 3,373 4.1 100 Other 93.5 5.8 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 2,469 0.0 52 Total 95.7 4.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 5,852 2.7 152 1 MICS indicator 4.2 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. N/A: “Not applicable” 46 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 47 Ta bl e w S. 4: P er so n co lle ct in g w at er Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s w ith ou t d rin ki ng w at er o n pr em is es a nd p er c en t d is tr ib ut io n of h ou se ho ld s w ith ou t d rin ki ng w at er o n pr em is es a cc or di ng to th e pe rs on w ho u su al ly c ol le ct s th e dr in ki ng w at er u se d in th e ho us eh ol d, B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12 Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s w ith ou t d rin ki ng w at er on p re m is es N um be r of h ou se ho ld s Pe rs on u su al ly c ol le ct in g dr in ki ng w at er N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s w ith ou t d rin ki ng w at er on p re m is es Ad ul t w om an Ad ul t m an Fe m al e ch ild un de r a ge 1 5 M al e ch ild un de r a ge 1 5 M is si ng /D K To ta l A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 10 .5 1, 20 0 23 .5 60 .6 4. 6 4. 0 7. 4 10 0. 0 12 6 RS 4. 2 27 1 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 11 BD 2. 9 73 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 2 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n 13 .0 40 9 21 .2 59 .5 4. 6 6. 4 8. 3 10 0. 0 53 Pr im ar y 8. 2 91 7 28 .8 60 .2 4. 4 0. 0 6. 5 10 0. 0 75 Se co nd ar y+ 5. 5 21 8 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 12 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t 20 .4 29 3 25 .5 53 .1 9. 6 4. 1 7. 6 10 0. 0 60 Se co nd 13 .5 31 1 (2 8. 6) (6 2. 5) (0 .0 ) (2 .2 ) (6 .7 ) 10 0. 0 42 M id dl e 7. 3 32 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 23 Fo ur th 3. 2 31 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 10 Ri ch es t 1. 6 31 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 5 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 13 .5 92 4 26 .4 58 .2 4. 6 3. 4 7. 4 10 0. 0 12 5 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 2. 4 62 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 15 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d*   Ro m an i 8. 7 89 1 22 .6 63 .2 3. 1 5. 3 5. 8 10 0. 0 78 O th er 9. 5 65 2 28 .0 57 .4 5. 3 1. 5 7. 8 10 0. 0 62 To ta l 9. 1 1, 54 4 25 .0 60 .6 4. 1 3. 6 6. 7 10 0. 0 14 0 ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 –4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. The amount of time it takes to obtain water is presented in Table WS.3 and the person who usually collects the water in Table WS.4. Note that these results refer to one roundtrip from home to the source of drinking water. Information on the number of trips made in one day was not collected. The findings in this survey show that most of the Roma household population had a drinking water source on the premises (91 per cent). For 4 per cent of the household population using improved sources of drinking water it took 30 minutes or more to get to the water source and bring the water, while 3 per cent of the household population spent less than 30 minutes for this purpose. Household members using improved water sources in the FBiH spent more time collecting drinking water compared to those in RS and BD. A negligible percentage of the household population that used unimproved sources of drinking water had water on the premises. Table wS.3: Time to source of drinking water Per cent distribution of household population according to time to go to source of drinking water and get water and return, for users of improved and unimproved drinking water sources, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Time to source of drinking water Total Number of household members Users of improved drinking water sources Users of unimproved drinking water sources water on premises less than 30 minutes 30 minutes or more Missing/ DK water on premises less than 30 minutes 30 minutes or more Administrative unit FBiH 88.7 3.1 5.0 0.0 0.2 0.7 2.3 100.0 4,543 RS 96.4 1.2 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.3 100.0 1,027 BD 97.8 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 282 Education of household head No formal education 86.3 5.1 4.5 0.0 0.4 0.5 3.2 100.0 1,478 Primary 91.3 2.0 4.3 0.0 0.1 0.7 1.6 100.0 3,560 Secondary+ 94.5 1.8 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 814 wealth index quintile Poorest 77.3 7.1 8.2 0.0 0.8 2.3 4.2 100.0 1,171 Second 87.9 2.0 7.2 0.1 0.0 0.5 2.3 100.0 1,168 Middle 92.7 3.1 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.0 100.0 1,173 Fourth 96.1 0.6 2.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 1,173 Richest 98.3 0.9 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,167 wealth index Poorest 60 per cent 86.0 4.1 5.8 0.0 0.3 1.0 2.8 100.0 3,512 Richest 40 per cent 97.2 0.7 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 2,340 Language of household head* Romani 91.1 3.0 2.9 0.0 0.2 0.4 2.3 100.0 3,373 Other 89.5 2.4 5.9 0.0 0.2 0.8 1.2 100.0 2,469 Total 90.5 2.7 4.2 0.0 0.2 0.6 1.8 100.0 5,852 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Table WS.4 shows that 9 per cent of Roma households had no water sources on the premises; the highest percentage of them were in the FBiH (11 per cent) with the lowest percentages being in RS (4 per cent) and BD (3 per cent). The percentage of households with no sources of drinking water on the premises was higher amongst those households where the household head had no formal education (13 per cent), compared to those with primary education (8 per cent) and secondary or higher education (6 per cent). The percentage of households with no sources of drinking water on the premises declined with improved household wealth. When the source of drinking water was not on the premises an adult male collected the water in a substantial majority of households (61 per cent). Adult females collected water in one quarter of cases (25 per cent), while water was less frequently collected by female or male children under age 15 (4 per cent in both cases). 48 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 49 Use of Improved Sanitation Facilities Inadequate disposal of human excreta and personal hygiene is associated with a range of diseases including diarrhoeal diseases and polio. Improved sanitation can reduce diarrheal disease by more than a third and can significantly lessen the adverse health impact of other disorders. An improved sanitation facility is defined as one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. Improved sanitation facilities for excreta disposal include flush or pour flush toilets to a piped sewer system, septic tank or pit latrine, ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with slab and use of a composting toilet. However, sharing of sanitation facilities, even if those are improved, is assumed to compromise their safety. Therefore, ‘improved sanitation’ is used both in the context of this report and as an MDG indicator to refer to improved sanitation facilities, which are not shared. Data on improved sanitation are presented in Tables WS.6 and WS.8. Data on the use of improved sanitation facilities is presented in Table WS.5. Improved sanitation facilities for excreta disposal in households were used by 84 per cent of the Roma population: 99 per cent in BD, 84 per cent in the FBiH and 79 per cent in RS. The most common sanitation facilities were flush toilets with connection to a sewerage system (61 per cent) or septic tank (15 per cent). There was a correlation between the use of improved sanitation facilities and the education level of the household head as well as household wealth, as such those with secondary or higher education and those from the richest households were more likely to use improved sanitation facilities. Unimproved sanitation facilities for excreta disposal were used by 14 per cent of the Roma population: 20 per cent in RS, 14 per cent in the FBiH and 1 per cent in BD. The most common unimproved facilities were a pit latrine without slab/ open pit (8 per cent) and flush/pour flush toilet to somewhere else (5 per cent). There was a correlation between the use of unimproved sanitation facilities and the education level of the household head as well as household wealth: unimproved sanitation facilities were more likely to be used by those with no formal education and the poorest population, with 11 per cent of the household population in the poorest wealth quintile using open defecation. The Millennium Development Goals and the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation classify households as using an unimproved sanitation facility if they are using otherwise acceptable sanitation facilities but sharing a facility between two or more households or using a public toilet facility. Table WS.6 shows that although 84 per cent of the household population uses improved sanitation facilities, 10 per cent of this population shares a facility with other households or uses a public toilet facility. There was a correlation between sharing improved sanitation facilities and the education level of the household head as well as household wealth: those with no formal education and the poorest households were more likely to share. Sharing a sanitation facility and not having a sanitation facility was most common amongst the poorest household population. Table wS.5: Types of sanitation facilities Per cent distribution of household population according to type of toilet facility used by the household, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Type of toilet facility used by household Open defecation (no facility/ bush, field) Total Number of household members Improved sanitation facility Unimproved sanitation facility Flush/pour flush to: Ventilated improved pit latrine Pit latrine with slab Flush/pour flush toilet to somewhere else Pit latrine without slab/ open pit Bucket Other MissingPiped sewer system Septic tank Pit latrine Unknown place/ not sure where/DK Administrative unit FBiH 66.2 9.3 0.9 0.5 0.6 6.2 4.2 8.6 0.2 0.3 0.2 2.8 100.0 4,543 RS 31.3 39.1 0.7 0.1 0.0 8.2 9.5 9.6 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.2 100.0 1,027 BD 75.6 14.8 1.9 0.0 0.0 6.7 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 282 Education of household head   No formal education 51.5 11.9 2.0 0.5 0.3 7.3 6.8 13.1 0.0 0.4 0.4 5.9 100.0 1,478 Primary 61.9 15.8 0.4 0.3 0.6 7.0 4.3 7.6 0.2 0.3 0.3 1.4 100.0 3,560 Secondary+ 71.4 15.9 0.6 0.5 0.0 3.4 4.8 3.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 814 wealth index quintile Poorest 21.8 6.9 2.2 0.1 0.6 18.0 10.2 27.6 0.6 0.8 0.4 10.8 100.0 1,171 Second 53.7 14.9 1.2 0.7 0.4 9.9 7.3 10.4 0.0 0.5 0.2 0.8 100.0 1,168 Middle 69.7 17.5 0.2 1.2 0.3 3.3 4.1 3.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.1 100.0 1,173 Fourth 76.1 17.8 0.1 0.0 0.9 1.7 2.7 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 1,173 Richest 81.5 16.9 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,167 wealth index Poorest 60 per cent 48.4 13.1 1.2 0.7 0.5 10.4 7.2 13.7 0.2 0.4 0.4 3.9 100.0 3,512 Richest 40 per cent 78.8 17.4 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.7 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 2,340 Language of household head* Romani 55.3 15.9 0.5 0.4 0.4 7.7 5.6 10.2 0.1 0.2 0.3 3.4 100.0 3,373 Other 68.0 13.3 0.9 0.4 0.5 5.1 4.2 5.9 0.2 0.3 0.2 0.9 100.0 2,469 Total 60.6 14.8 0.9 0.4 0.5 6.6 5.0 8.4 0.1 0.3 0.3 2.3 100.0 5,852 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 50 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 51 Table w S.6: U se and sharing of sanitation facilities Per cent distribution of household population by use of private and public sanitation facilities and use of shared facilities by users of im proved and unim proved sanitation facilities, BiH Rom a Survey 2011–2012   U sers of im proved sanitation facilities U sers of unim proved sanitation facilities O pen defecation (no facility/ bush, field) Total N um ber of household m em bers N ot shared (U se of im proved sanitation) 1 Public facility Shared by: M issing/ D K N ot shared Public facility Shared by: 5 households or less M ore than 5 households 5 households or less M ore than 5 households A dm inistrative unit FBiH 71.3 0.5 10.3 0.7 0.8 11.8 0.1 1.6 0.1 2.8 100.0 4,543 RS 73.8 0.0 4.5 0.0 1.0 16.3 0.1 3.1 0.0 1.2 100.0 1,027 BD 98.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 282 Education of household head N o form al education 61.1 0.4 10.8 0.4 0.7 17.1 0.3 3.1 0.1 5.9 100.0 1,478 Prim ary 76.2 0.4 7.8 0.7 0.9 11.1 0.0 1.3 0.1 1.4 100.0 3,560 Secondary+ 81.2 0.6 9.6 0.0 0.5 7.1 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 814 w ealth index quintile Poorest 34.7 0.0 13.5 0.5 0.9 32.6 0.4 6.2 0.4 10.8 100.0 1,171 Second 65.5 1.4 11.4 1.1 1.3 15.9 0.0 2.6 0.0 0.8 100.0 1,168 M iddle 80.9 0.2 9.2 0.5 1.5 7.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 1,173 Fourth 89.8 0.5 5.5 0.7 0.0 3.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,173 Richest 94.6 0.0 4.3 0.0 0.3 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,167 w ealth index Poorest 60 per cent 60.4 0.5 11.4 0.7 1.2 18.7 0.1 2.9 0.1 3.9 100.0 3,512 Richest 40 per cent 92.2 0.3 4.9 0.3 0.2 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2,340 Language of household head Rom ani 70.9 0.0 8.1 0.7 0.5 14.6 0.1 1.6 0.2 3.4 100.0 3,373 O ther 76.1 0.9 9.8 0.4 1.2 8.7 0.0 2.0 0.0 0.9 100.0 2,469 Total 73.1 0.4 8.8 0.6 0.8 12.1 0.1 1.8 0.1 2.3 100.0 5,852 1 M ICS indicator 4.3; M D G indicator 7.9 * M issing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not show n in the table. Safe disposal of a child’s faeces is disposing of a child’s stools using a toilet or by rinsing the stools into a toilet or latrine. Data on the disposal of faeces of children aged 0-2 years is presented in Table WS.7. The survey findings show that the percentage of children aged 0-2 years whose faeces were disposed of safely was 12 per cent; amongst households that had an improved sanitation facility in the dwelling, the last stool was disposed of safely for 14 per cent of children aged 0-2 years. Table wS.7: Disposal of child’s faeces Per cent distribution of children aged 0-2 years according to place of disposal of child’s faeces and the percentage of children aged 0-2 years whose stools were disposed of safely the last time the child passed stools, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Place of disposal of child’s faeces Percentage of children whose last stools were disposed of safely1 Number of children aged 0-2 years Child used toilet/latrine Put/rinsed into toilet or latrine Put/rinsed into drain or ditch Thrown into rubbish left in the open Other Missing/ DK Total Type of sanitation facility in dwelling Improved 3.2 10.6 0.3 84.6 0.2 0.0 1.1 100.0 13.7 365 Unimproved 1.3 4.7 3.1 86.6 0.0 3.0 1.4 100.0 5.9 69 Open defecation (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 8 Administrative unit FBiH 3.6 10.2 1.6 82.5 0.0 0.6 1.5 100.0 13.8 340 RS 0.0 9.8 0.0 89.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 9.8 73 BD (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (100.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (.0) 29 Mother’s education   No formal education 1.3 9.2 0.8 87.3 0.0 0.0 1.4 100.0 10.5 145 Primary 3.8 8.9 1.7 84.1 0.0 0.8 0.8 100.0 12.7 254 Secondary+ (2.0) (13.7) (0.0) (80.2) (2.0) (0.0) (2.1) 100.0 (15.8) 43 wealth index quintile Poorest 2.3 10.1 3.5 82.4 0.0 1.7 0.0 100.0 12.4 126 Second 2.5 10.1 0.0 85.8 0.8 0.0 0.9 100.0 12.6 113 Middle 0.0 9.8 1.4 87.4 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0 9.8 67 Fourth 7.9 9.6 0.0 81.3 0.0 0.0 1.2 100.0 17.5 73 Richest 1.4 6.6 0.0 88.6 0.0 0.0 3.5 100.0 7.9 64 wealth index Poorest 60 per cent 1.9 10.0 1.8 84.8 0.3 0.7 0.6 100.0 11.9 306 Richest 40 per cent 4.8 8.2 0.0 84.7 0.0 0.0 2.3 100.0 13.0 137 Language of household head Romani 1.5 5.0 1.2 90.4 0.0 0.8 1.1 100.0 6.5 267 Other 4.7 16.3 1.2 76.2 0.5 0.0 1.2 100.0 21.0 176 Total 2.8 9.4 1.2 84.7 0.2 0.5 1.1 100.0 12.3 442 1 MICS indicator 4.4 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases The WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation developed a new method of presenting the access figures30 by disaggregating and refining the data on drinking water and sanitation and reflecting them in a ‘ladder’ format. This ladder allows for a disaggregated analysis of trends on a three rung ladder for drinking water and a four rung ladder for sanitation. In terms of sanitation this gives an understanding of the proportion of the population with no sanitation facilities at all, those reliant on technologies defined by the JMP as ‘unimproved’, those sharing sanitation facilities of otherwise acceptable technology and those using ‘improved’ sanitation facilities. Table WS.8 presents percentages of the household population based on drinking water and sanitation ladders. The table also shows the percentage of household members using improved sources of drinking water and sanitary means of excreta disposal. 30 WHO/UNICEF JMP (2008), MDG Assessment Report: Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation: Special Focus on Sanitation <http://www.wssinfo.org/ fileadmin/user_upload/resources/1251794333-JMP_08_en.pdf> 52 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 53 An analysis of the data obtained through this survey using a three rung ladder for drinking water shows that amongst the Roma household population using improved sources of drinking water, 82 per cent used water piped into their dwelling or plot/yard, while 15 per cent of them had some other source of improved water. 31 Unimproved sources of drinking water were used by 3 per cent of the household population. An analysis of survey data using a four rung ladder for sanitation shows that improved sanitation were used by 73 per cent of Roma household members. The remaining 27 per cent of household members used unimproved sanitation, which included shared use of improved sanitation facilities (11 per cent), use of unimproved facilities (14 per cent) and members of households who used open defecation (2 per cent). Improved sources of drinking water and improved sanitation were used by 72 per cent of household members in the Roma households, with a higher figure in BD (99 per cent) compared to RS (73 per cent) and the FBiH (70 per cent). There was a correlation between the use of improved sources of drinking water and sanitation facilities by the educational level of the household head and by household wealth. Thus, improved sources of drinking water and improved sanitation facilities were least likely to be used by household members when the household head had no formal education (59 per cent) and those in the poorest wealth quintile (32 per cent); conversely, they were most likely to be used by household members when the household head had secondary or higher education (81 per cent) and those in the richest wealth quintile (95 per cent). 31 Household members using bottled water as the main source of drinking water are classified into improved or unimproved drinking water users according to the water source used for other purposes such as cooking and hand washing. Table wS.8: Drinking water and sanitation ladders Percentage of household population by drinking water and sanitation ladders, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of household population using: Number of household members Improved drinking water1 Unimproved drinking water Total Improved sanitation2 Unimproved sanitation Total Improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation Piped into dwelling, plot or yard Other improved Shared improved facilities Unimproved facilities Open defecation Administrative unit   FBiH 81.4 15.4 3.2 100.0 71.3 12.3 13.6 2.8 100.0 70.1 4,543 RS 83.3 16.2 0.6 100.0 73.8 5.5 19.5 1.2 100.0 73.3 1,027 BD 94.8 5.2 0.0 100.0 98.9 0.0 1.1 0.0 100.0 98.9 282 Education of household head   No formal education 72.8 23.0 4.1 100.0 61.1 12.4 20.6 5.9 100.0 59.1 1,478 Primary 84.7 12.9 2.4 100.0 76.2 9.8 12.6 1.4 100.0 75.4 3,560 Secondary+ 89.6 9.9 0.5 100.0 81.2 10.6 8.2 0.0 100.0 81.2 814 wealth index quintile   Poorest 48.0 44.7 7.3 100.0 34.7 14.9 39.7 10.8 100.0 31.6 1,171 Second 79.7 17.5 2.8 100.0 65.5 15.2 18.5 0.8 100.0 64.4 1,168 Middle 90.4 7.4 2.2 100.0 80.9 11.3 7.6 0.1 100.0 80.7 1,173 Fourth 95.4 3.9 0.7 100.0 89.8 6.8 3.5 0.0 100.0 89.1 1,173 Richest 98.3 1.7 0.0 100.0 94.6 4.6 0.8 0.0 100.0 94.6 1,167 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 72.7 23.2 4.1 100.0 60.4 13.8 21.9 3.9 100.0 58.9 3,512 Richest 40 per cent 96.8 2.8 0.3 100.0 92.2 5.7 2.1 0.0 100.0 91.8 2,340 Language of household head*   Romani 80.5 16.6 3.0 100.0 70.9 9.3 16.4 3.4 100.0 69.6 3,373 Other 85.2 12.7 2.1 100.0 76.1 12.2 10.8 0.9 100.0 75.3 2,469 Total 82.4 15.1 2.6 100.0 73.1 10.5 14.0 2.3 100.0 72.1 5,852 1 MICS indicator 4.1; MDG indicator 7.8 2 MICS indicator 4.3; MDG indicator 7.9 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 54 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 55 Hand washing Hand washing with water and soap is the most cost effective health intervention to reduce the incidence of both diarrhoea and pneumonia in children under five. It is most effective when done using water and soap after using a toilet or cleaning a child, before eating or handling food and before feeding a child. Monitoring correct hand washing behaviour at these critical times is challenging. This survey assessed the likelihood that correct hand washing behaviour took place by observing if a household had a specific place where people most often washed their hands and by observing if water and soap (or other local cleansing materials) were present at a specific place for hand washing. Table WS.9 shows that the place used for hand washing was observed in 94 per cent of Roma households and that in the remaining 6 per cent of households the place for hand washing was not in the dwelling/plot/yard (4 per cent) or other reasons were reported (2 per cent). Observation of the place for hand washing showed that the vast majority of these places had both water and soap present (92 per cent). In the remaining cases the specific place for hand washing either had soap but no water (4 per cent) or had water but no soap (3 per cent), with a small percentage of observed places for hand washing having neither water nor soap available (1 per cent). While 92 per cent of households had both water and soap available, there was a positive correlation between their availability in the observed place for hand washing and the wealth status of the household. Thus, poorest households were least likely to have either water or soap, or both, compared to richest households. Water was not available and soap was available in 12 per cent of households amongst the poorest wealth quintile, while there were no such cases amongst households in the richest wealth quintile. Nine per cent of households amongst the poorest wealth quintile had water available but no soap, with this being the case in less than 1 per cent of households in the richest wealth quintile. Ta bl e w S. 9: w at er a nd s oa p at p la ce fo r h an d w as hi ng Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s w he re p la ce fo r h an d w as hi ng w as o bs er ve d an d pe r c en t d is tr ib ut io n of h ou se ho ld s b y av ai la bi lit y of w at er a nd so ap a t p la ce fo r h an d w as hi ng , B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12 Pe rc en ta ge of h ou se ho ld s w he re p la ce fo r h an d w as hi ng w as ob se rv ed Pe rc en ta ge o f h ou se ho ld s w he re p la ce fo r h an d w as hi ng w as n ot o bs er ve d To ta l N um be r of ho us eh ol ds Pe r c en t d is tr ib ut io n of h ou se ho ld s w he re p la ce fo r ha nd w as hi ng w as o bs er ve d To ta l N um be r of ho us eh ol ds w he re p la ce fo r h an d w as hi ng w as ob se rv ed N ot in d w el lin g/ pl ot /y ar d O th er re as on s M is si ng w at er a nd so ap a re av ai la bl e1 w at er is a va ila bl e, so ap is n ot av ai la bl e w at er is n ot av ai la bl e, so ap is av ai la bl e w at er an d so ap ar e no t av ai la bl e A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 93 .8 4. 4 1. 7 0. 1 10 0. 0 1, 20 0 91 .1 3. 0 5. 0 1. 0 10 0. 0 1, 12 5 RS 95 .9 3. 3 0. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 27 1 93 .0 4. 1 1. 8 1. 0 10 0. 0 26 0 BD 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 73 94 .3 0. 0 1. 4 4. 3 10 0. 0 73 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n 91 .3 6. 0 2. 4 0. 3 10 0. 0 40 9 87 .3 4. 2 6. 3 2. 2 10 0. 0 37 3 Pr im ar y 94 .8 4. 0 1. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 91 7 92 .2 3. 0 4. 0 0. 8 10 0. 0 87 0 Se co nd ar y+ 98 .7 0. 5 0. 8 0. 0 10 0. 0 21 8 96 .6 0. 8 1. 7 0. 9 10 0. 0 21 5 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t 77 .9 16 .0 6. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 29 3 74 .1 9. 4 12 .1 4. 3 10 0. 0 22 8 Se co nd 95 .7 2. 8 1. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 31 1 86 .8 5. 6 6. 5 1. 1 10 0. 0 29 8 M id dl e 97 .8 1. 6 0. 3 0. 3 10 0. 0 32 0 94 .1 1. 1 3. 7 1. 1 10 0. 0 31 3 Fo ur th 99 .6 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 31 0 98 .7 0. 3 1. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 30 9 Ri ch es t 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 31 0 99 .6 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 31 0 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 90 .8 6. 6 2. 5 0. 1 10 0. 0 92 4 86 .1 5. 0 7. 0 2. 0 10 0. 0 83 9 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 99 .8 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 62 0 99 .1 0. 4 0. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 61 9 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d*   Ro m an i 94 .8 3. 5 1. 5 0. 1 10 0. 0 89 1 90 .2 4. 1 4. 2 1. 5 10 0. 0 84 5 O th er 94 .0 4. 7 1. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 65 2 93 .6 1. 5 4. 3 0. 6 10 0. 0 61 3 To ta l 94 .4 4. 0 1. 5 0. 1 10 0. 0 1, 54 4 91 .6 3. 0 4. 2 1. 1 10 0. 0 1, 45 8 1 M IC S in di ca to r 4 .5 * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. 56 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 57 Table WS.10 shows that, in those cases where the place for hand washing was observed, soap was present at the place for hand washing in 91 per cent of households, with an additional 2 per cent of households where soap was subsequently shown to the interviewer. The percentage of households with soap anywhere in the dwelling was 97 per cent. There was a correlation between the presence of soap at the designated place for hand washing or anywhere in the household and the education level of the household head and household wealth. Thus, the highest percentage of households where there was no soap available (anywhere) was amongst those households where the household head had no formal education (7 per cent) and amongst those in the poorest wealth quintile (14 per cent). VIII Reproductive Health Fertility In MICS4, the adolescent birth rate for women aged 15-19 and the total fertility rate (TFR) were calculated by using information on the date of the last birth of each woman and were based on the one year period (1-12 months) preceding the survey. Rates were underestimated by a very small margin due to an absence of information on multiple births (twins, triplets etc.) and on women who may have had multiple deliveries during the one year period prior to the survey. The TFR was calculated by summing the age specific fertility rates calculated for each of the 5-year age groups of women, from age 15 through to age 49. The TFR denotes the average number of children to whom a woman would have given birth by the end of her reproductive years if current fertility rates prevail. Survey data indicates that the adolescent birth rate was 145 births per 1,000 women for the one year period preceding the survey,32 while the TFR was 3.2 births per woman (the figure for TFR should be treated with caution as it is based on 125-249 cases of person exposure). Sexual activity and childbearing early in life carry significant risks for young people. Table RH.1 presents some early childbearing indicators for women aged 15-19 and 20-24. The results indicate that over one quarter of Roma women aged 15-19 had already had a live birth (27 per cent), while 4 per cent were pregnant with their first child at the time of the survey. Three per cent of women of this age had had a live birth before age fifteen. Nearly one-third of women aged 20-24 (31 per cent) had had a live birth before age 18. There was a correlation between the percentage of women aged 15-19 who had had a live birth and their education and wealth. Thus, live births at this age were most common amongst women with no formal education (48 per cent) and those in the poorest wealth quintile (39 per cent). A similar correlation was also present amongst women aged 15-19 who had had a live birth before age 15, such cases also being most common amongst women with no formal education (8 per cent). Table RH.1: Early childbearing Percentage of women aged 15-19 years who have had a live birth, are pregnant with the first child, have begun childbearing, those who have had a live birth before age 15 and percentage of women aged 20-24 who have had a live birth before age 18, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of women aged 15-19 who: Number of women aged 15-19 Percentage of women aged 20-24 who have had a live birth before age 181 Number of women aged 20-24 Have had a live birth Are pregnant with first child Have begun childbearing Have had a live birth before age 15 Administrative unit FBiH 27.3 4.5 31.8 2.1 198 30.3 211 RS 19.9 4.0 23.9 4.0 45 (22.2) 32 BD (*) (*) (*) (*) 10 (*) 15 Education   No formal education 48.1 0.0 48.1 8.4 45 44.1 82 Primary 28.0 4.7 32.7 2.1 155 30.6 128 Secondary+ 5.6 6.5 12.2 0.0 53 (9.7) 48 wealth index quintile   Poorest 38.8 0.0 38.8 2.2 51 40.9 65 Second (24.6) (9.7) (34.4) (7.2) 39 38.5 59 Middle 30.0 5.8 35.9 1.8 51 (25.4) 46 Fourth 24.3 3.8 28.2 0.0 53 (24.5) 29 Richest 17.7 3.3 21.0 3.6 59 20.3 59 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 31.7 4.8 36.5 3.4 141 35.9 170 Richest 40 per cent 20.9 3.5 24.4 1.9 112 21.7 88 Language of household head*   Romani 28.0 3.5 31.5 4.3 146 35.5 150 Other 25.6 5.2 30.9 0.7 105 25.1 107 Total 26.9 4.2 31.1 2.8 253 31.0 258 1 MICS indicator 5.2 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 32 MICS indicator 5.1; MDG indicator 5.4; age specific fertility rate expressed per 1,000 women aged 15-19. Table wS.10: Availability of soap Per cent distribution of households by availability of soap in the dwelling, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Place for hand washing observed Place for hand washing not observed Total Percentage of households with soap anywhere in the dwelling1 Number of house- holds Soap observed Soap not observed at place for hand washing Soap shown No soap in household Not able/ Does not want to show soap Soap shown No soap in household Not able/ Does not want to show soap Administrative unit   FBiH 90.1 2.0 1.5 0.2 4.0 2.2 0.1 100.0 96.1 1,200 RS 91.0 3.3 1.0 0.7 3.3 0.6 0.3 100.0 97.5 271 BD 95.7 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 73 Education of household head No formal education 85.4 3.0 2.4 0.5 4.1 4.3 0.3 100.0 92.6 409 Primary 91.2 2.4 1.0 0.2 4.1 1.1 0.0 100.0 97.6 917 Secondary+ 97.1 1.2 0.4 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.4 100.0 99.3 218 wealth index quintile   Poorest 67.2 6.1 4.2 0.4 12.3 9.1 0.7 100.0 85.6 293 Second 89.3 4.6 1.6 0.3 4.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 98.2 311 Middle 95.6 0.9 0.9 0.3 1.9 0.3 0.0 100.0 98.4 320 Fourth 99.3 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.7 310 Richest 99.6 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 310 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 84.5 3.8 2.2 0.3 6.0 3.0 0.2 100.0 94.3 924 Richest 40 per cent 99.5 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.9 620 Language of household head Romani 89.4 3.1 1.9 0.4 2.7 2.4 0.1 100.0 95.2 891 Other 92.1 1.4 0.5 0.0 4.9 1.0 0.1 100.0 98.4 652 Total 90.5 2.4 1.3 0.2 3.7 1.8 0.1 100.0 96.5 1,544 1 MICS indicator 4.6 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 58 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 59 Table RH.2 presents the trends for early childbearing for women aged 15-49. Four per cent of Roma women have had a live birth by the age of 15, while 29 per cent of women have had a live birth before the age of 18. Overall, there is little change in the trends of early childbearing between women in the five year age groups who have given birth before age 15 and between women in these age groups who have given birth before age 18. Three per cent of women aged 15-19 have had a live birth before age 15. This percentage increases to 6 per cent amongst women aged 30-34, and then decreases slightly to 4 per cent amongst women aged 35-39. Twenty-seven per cent of women aged 25-29 and the same percentage of women aged 30-34 have had a live birth before age 18. This is followed by an increase to 32 per cent for the 35-39 age group and a subsequent decrease by 7 percentage points for the 40-44 age group. Table RH.2: Trends in early childbearing Percentage of women who have had a live birth by age 15 and 18, by age group, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of women with a live birth before age 15 Number of women aged 15-49 years Percentage of women with a live birth before age 18 Number of women aged 20-49 years Age (years)   15-19 2.8 253 N/A N/A 20-24 4.2 258 31.0 258 25-29 3.0 207 26.6 207 30-34 6.0 183 26.9 183 35-39 3.8 184 31.8 184 40-44 4.7 147 24.5 147 45-49 1.3 148 29.1 148 Total 3.7 1,380 28.6 1,127 N/A: “Not applicable” knowledge of Contraceptive Methods Being aware of available contraceptive methods is an important step towards accessing and using a suitable method of contraception, which in turn allows choices about family planning to be made. In the 2011–2012 MICS survey on Roma in BiH a set of questions were added to the questionnaire for individual women on their knowledge of contraceptive methods. Information was collected from all women aged 15-49 years on whether they have heard of the following family planning methods: female and male sterilisation, IUD (intrauterine device), injectables, implants, the pill, male condom, female condom, diaphragm, foam/jelly, lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), periodic abstinence/rhythm method, withdrawal and emergency/postcoital contraception. Data on LAM is not presented in tables RH.3, RH.4 and RH.5 because there is no LAM programme in the FBiH and RS. Of these methods, periodic abstinence/rhythm method and withdrawal were considered traditional methods whereas the rest were considered modern methods of contraception. The respondents were also asked if they had heard of any other ways or methods to avoid pregnancy, apart from those mentioned above. As shown in Table RH.3, 95 per cent of all women aged 15-49 knew at least one contraceptive method. Modern methods were more widely known than traditional methods: 95 per cent of all women had heard of at least one modern method while 68 per cent of women knew of at least one traditional method. The most widely known modern method was the male condom (88 per cent), followed by the IUD (82 per cent) and the pill (76 per cent). The most widely known of the traditional methods was withdrawal (64 per cent) and periodic abstinence/the rhythm method (43 per cent). The survey data indicates that the knowledge of sexually active women aged 15-49 who were not married or in union was somewhat better compared to ever-married or in union women, in particular related to modern contraceptive methods. A greater proportion of women who were not married knew of the female condom (with a 14 percentage point difference between never married sexually active women and ever-married or in union women), implants and female sterilisation (13 percentage point difference), injectables and foam/jelly (12 percentage point difference) and emergency contraception (11 percentage point difference). On average, women knew 5.5 different contraceptive methods; more methods were known by women who were not married (6.7) compared to women who were married (5.6). Table RH.3: knowledge of specific contraceptive methods Percentage of all women aged 15-49, percentage of women aged 15-49 currently married or in union and percentage of sexually active women aged 15-49 not married or in union who have heard of any contraceptive method, by specific method, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 All Currently married or in union Sexually active women that are not married or in union1 Any method 95.0 96.8 96.9     Any modern method 94.5 96.2 96.9 Female sterilisation 37.0 36.9 49.5 Male sterilisation 23.4 22.7 27.0 Pill 76.1 78.2 85.6 IUD 81.5 84.3 85.3 Injectables 38.4 38.4 50.3 Implants 16.8 16.1 29.0 Male condom 87.6 88.9 96.9 Female condom 38.2 37.4 51.5 Diaphragm 15.3 14.5 17.1 Foam/jelly 21.8 21.3 32.9 Emergency contraception 17.5 16.4 27.8     Any traditional method 67.8 73.3 75.4 Rhythm 42.8 44.3 51.8 withdrawal 64.3 69.9 74.1 Other 3.5 3.8 4.3     Mean number of methods known by women 5.5 5.6 6.7 Number of women 1,380 981 67 1 Had last sexual intercourse within 30 days preceding the survey Table RH.4 presents women’s knowledge of contraception by background characteristics. More than 90 per cent of Roma women had knowledge of contraceptive methods, including knowledge of modern and traditional methods. Viewed by age, the lowest level of knowledge of any modern contraceptive method was found amongst women aged 15-19 (92 per cent), whereas women aged 35-39 had the highest knowledge (99 per cent). Women with secondary or higher education had a greater knowledge of modern contraceptive methods (99 per cent) compared to those with no formal education (92 per cent). 60 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 61 Table RH.4: knowledge of contraceptive methods Percentage of women aged 15-49 currently married or in union who have heard of at least one contraceptive method and who have heard of at least one modern method, by background characteristics, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Any method Any modern method1 Number of women currently married or in union Administrative unit FBiH 96.5 95.9 766 RS 97.8 96.8 159 BD 98.2 98.2 56 Age (years)   15-19 93.7 91.7 97 20-24 94.7 94.7 171 25-29 98.6 98.6 156 30-34 96.5 96.5 157 35-39 100.0 98.7 166 40-44 95.8 95.0 115 45-49 96.8 96.0 120 Education   No formal education 92.8 92.2 297 Primary 98.4 97.7 571 Secondary+ 99.2 99.2 113 wealth index quintile   Poorest 92.5 92.5 173 Second 96.5 95.1 188 Middle 96.6 96.1 196 Fourth 98.9 98.2 195 Richest 98.7 98.2 230 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 95.3 94.6 557 Richest 40 per cent 98.8 98.2 424 Language of household head*   Romani 95.7 95.0 559 Other 98.2 97.7 422 Total 96.8 96.2 981 1 Female sterilisation, male sterilisation, the pill, IUD, injectables, implants, male condom, female condom, emergency contraception and other modern methods. * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Use of Contraceptives Appropriate family planning is important for the health of women and children through: 1) preventing pregnancies that are too early or too late, 2) extending the period between births and 3) limiting the number of children. Access by all couples to information and services to prevent pregnancies that are too early, too closely spaced, too late or too many is critical. Table RH.5 shows that any method of contraception was being currently used by 25 per cent of Roma women who were married or in union. The most popular method was withdrawal, which accounted for 16 per cent of cases. The next most popular method was the male condom (4 per cent). Amongst other methods of contraception a small percentage of women used the pill (2 per cent), the IUD (1 per cent) and female sterilisation (1 per cent). One-fifth of women aged 15-19 used a method of contraception (21 per cent); this percentage increased slightly in the age group 25-29 (29 per cent) before declining with age where it fell to 12 per cent amongst women aged 45-49. The women’s education level was associated with the prevalence of the use of contraceptives: the higher a women’s level of education the higher the prevalence of modern contraceptive methods compared to traditional methods. Modern methods were used by only 5 per cent of women with no formal education and 18 per cent of women with secondary or higher education. Seventy-five per cent of Roma women did not use any contraceptive method, less in the FBiH (81 per cent) than in RS (57 per cent) and BD (48 per cent). Ta bl e RH .5 : U se o f c on tr ac ep ti on Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ) a c on tr ac ep tiv e m et ho d, B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12 N ot u si ng an y m et ho d Pe r c en t o f w om en (c ur re nt ly m ar ri ed o r i n un io n) w ho a re u si ng : N um be r of w om en cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on Fe m al e st er ili - sa tio n M al e st er ili - sa tio n IU D In je ct ab le s Im pl an ts Pi ll M al e co nd om Fe m al e co nd om D ia ph ra gm / Fo am /J el ly Pe rio di c ab st in en ce w ith dr aw al O th er A ny m od er n m et ho d A ny tr ad i- tio na l m et ho d A ny m et ho d1 A dm in is tr at iv e un it FB iH 80 .8 0. 8 0. 0 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 1 4. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 .1 0. 1 8. 8 10 .4 19 .2 76 6 RS 57 .4 1. 0 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 3. 0 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 35 .1 0. 5 6. 4 36 .2 42 .6 15 9 BD 48 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 8 1. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 48 .2 0. 0 3. 6 48 .2 51 .8 56 A ge (y ea rs )   15 -1 9 79 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 7 5. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 14 .0 0. 0 6. 8 14 .0 20 .8 97 20 -2 4 71 .0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 4 0. 0 0. 0 3. 1 5. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 17 .9 0. 0 10 .4 18 .5 29 .0 17 1 25 -2 9 70 .9 0. 0 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 2. 2 6. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 18 .5 0. 5 10 .1 19 .0 29 .1 15 6 30 -3 4 71 .4 0. 6 0. 0 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 2. 8 2. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 20 .9 0. 6 7. 2 21 .4 28 .6 15 7 35 -3 9 73 .8 2. 7 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 1. 6 4. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 15 .4 0. 0 10 .2 15 .9 26 .2 16 6 40 -4 4 78 .0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 0. 0 3. 8 2. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 14 .5 0. 0 7. 5 14 .5 22 .0 11 5 45 -4 9 87 .7 2. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 .2 0. 0 2. 0 10 .2 12 .3 12 0 N um be r o f l iv in g ch ild re n   0 94 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 1. 3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 2. 6 0. 0 1. 9 3. 8 5. 7 99 1 74 .4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 3. 1 3. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 18 .6 0. 0 7. 0 18 .6 25 .6 16 9 2 74 .9 0. 3 0. 0 1. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 7. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 15 .2 0. 0 9. 9 15 .2 25 .1 24 0 3 66 .3 2. 1 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 3. 6 3. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 23 .7 0. 5 9. 5 24 .2 33 .7 19 1 4+ 75 .2 1. 2 0. 0 1. 3 0. 0 0. 0 2. 8 3. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 15 .7 0. 3 8. 4 16 .4 24 .8 28 2 Ed uc at io n   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n 74 .4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 3. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 20 .7 0. 0 4. 9 20 .7 25 .6 29 7 Pr im ar y 76 .6 1. 2 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 2. 7 2. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 15 .3 0. 3 7. 8 15 .6 23 .4 57 1 Se co nd ar y+ 70 .1 0. 8 0. 0 2. 1 0. 0 0. 0 4. 1 11 .3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 9 9. 8 0. 0 18 .2 11 .7 29 .9 11 3 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t 72 .7 0. 4 0. 0 1. 4 0. 0 0. 0 1. 8 2. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 20 .9 0. 5 5. 9 21 .4 27 .3 17 3 Se co nd 70 .6 1. 8 0. 0 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 4 5. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 19 .4 0. 0 9. 6 19 .9 29 .4 18 8 M id dl e 77 .5 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 5 5. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 13 .1 0. 0 8. 8 13 .7 22 .5 19 6 Fo ur th 78 .6 1. 5 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 3. 9 2. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 12 .2 0. 4 8. 8 12 .6 21 .4 19 5 Ri ch es t 75 .9 0. 4 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 1. 6 4. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 16 .6 0. 0 7. 5 16 .6 24 .1 23 0 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 73 .7 0. 7 0. 0 1. 1 0. 0 0. 0 1. 9 4. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 17 .6 0. 2 8. 1 18 .2 26 .3 55 7 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 77 .2 0. 9 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 2. 7 3. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 14 .6 0. 2 8. 1 14 .8 22 .8 42 4 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d *  Ro m an i 72 .0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 2 3. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 22 .6 0. 1 5. 1 22 .9 28 .0 55 9 O th er 79 .4 1. 5 0. 0 1. 8 0. 0 0. 0 3. 6 5. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 8. 0 0. 2 12 .2 8. 5 20 .6 42 2 To ta l 75 .2 0. 8 0. 0 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 2 4. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 16 .3 0. 2 8. 1 16 .7 24 .8 98 1 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .3 ; M D G in di ca to r 5 .3 * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. 62 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 63 Table RH.6: Unmet need for contraception Percentage of women aged 15-49 years currently married or in union with an unmet need for family planning and percentage of demand for contraception satisfied, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Met need for contraception Unmet need for contraception Number of women currently married or in union Percentage of demand for contraception satisfied Number of women currently married or in union with need for contraception For spacing For limiting Total For spacing For limiting Total 1 Administrative unit FBiH 6.3 14.3 20.5 10.3 21.8 32.2 766 38.9 404 RS 13.4 29.2 42.6 5.9 11.2 17.2 159 71.3 95 BD 12.5 39.3 51.8 1.8 7.1 8.9 56 (85.3) 34 Age (years)   15-19 15.9 5.0 20.8 21.5 7.1 28.6 97 (42.1) 48 20-24 12.8 17.7 30.5 14.5 14.1 28.6 171 51.6 101 25-29 9.3 20.4 29.7 17.3 20.9 38.2 156 43.8 106 30-34 8.4 22.3 30.6 5.4 31.9 37.3 157 45.1 107 35-39 3.4 24.0 27.4 3.0 21.0 24.0 166 53.3 85 40-44 5.2 17.6 22.8 1.4 16.5 17.9 115 (56.0) 47 45-49 0.0 13.1 13.1 1.7 18.1 19.7 120 (39.8) 39 Education   No formal education 8.7 17.8 26.5 6.2 17.4 23.6 297 52.9 149 Primary 6.7 17.9 24.6 10.5 20.8 31.3 571 44.1 319 Secondary+ 10.9 19.8 30.7 10.1 16.5 26.6 113 53.6 65 wealth index quintile   Poorest 8.8 19.8 28.6 8.8 26.2 35.0 173 45.0 110 Second 6.7 23.2 29.9 12.2 23.1 35.3 188 45.9 123 Middle 9.4 14.7 24.1 7.1 14.5 21.6 196 52.7 90 Fourth 7.4 14.5 21.8 9.8 22.5 32.3 195 40.4 105 Richest 6.8 18.6 25.4 8.2 12.2 20.4 230 55.5 105 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 8.3 19.2 27.5 9.3 21.0 30.4 557 47.5 322 Richest 40 per cent 7.1 16.7 23.8 8.9 16.9 25.8 424 47.9 211 Language of household head   Romani 8.8 20.3 29.1 7.2 16.0 23.2 559 55.7 292 Other 6.5 15.2 21.7 11.8 23.4 35.2 422 38.1 240 Total 7.8 18.1 25.9 9.1 19.3 28.4 981 47.7 533 1 MICS indicator 5.4; MDG indicator 5.6 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Antenatal Care The antenatal period presents important opportunities for reaching pregnant women through a number of interventions that can be vital to their health and well-being and that of their infants. Better understanding of foetal growth and development and its relationship to the mother’s health has resulted in increased attention to the potential of antenatal care. For example, if the antenatal period is used to inform women and families about the danger signs and symptoms and about the risks of labour and delivery it may provide a route for ensuring that pregnant women do, in practice, deliver with the assistance of a skilled healthcare provider. The antenatal period also provides an opportunity to provide information on birth spacing, which is recognised as an important factor in improving infant survival. The management of anaemia during pregnancy and the treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can significantly improve foetal outcomes and maternal health. Adverse outcomes such as low birth weight can be reduced through a combination of interventions to improve women’s nutritional status and prevent infection (e.g., STIs) during pregnancy. More recently, the potential of the antenatal period as an entry point for HIV prevention and care, in particular for the prevention of HIV transmission from mother-to-child, has led to renewed interest in access to and the use of antenatal services. Unmet Need Unmet need for contraception refers to fecund women who were not using any method of contraception but who wished to postpone the next birth (spacing) or who wished to stop childbearing altogether (limiting). Unmet need was identified in MICS by using a set of questions relating to the need for contraceptives, the current use of contraception, fecundity and family planning. Table RH.6 shows the levels of met need for contraception, unmet need and the demand for contraception satisfied. The unmet need for spacing was defined as the percentage of women who are not using a method of contraception and: z are not pregnant and not postpartum amenorrheic,33 but are fecund34 and say they want to wait two or more years for their next birth; or z are not pregnant and not postpartum amenorrheic, but are fecund and unsure whether they want another child; or z are pregnant and say that the pregnancy was mistimed and would have wanted to wait; or z are postpartum amenorrheic and say that the birth was mistimed and would have wanted to wait. Unmet need for limiting is defined as the percentage of women who are not using a method of contraception and: z are not pregnant and not postpartum amenorrheic, but are fecund and say they do not want any more children; or z are pregnant and say they do not want to have a child; or z are postpartum amenorrheic and say that they did not want the birth. The total unmet need for contraception is the sum of unmet need for spacing and unmet need for limiting. Table RH.6 shows that the total unmet need for contraception was present amongst 28 per cent of Roma women aged 15-49 who were currently married or in union. The unmet need for contraception was present amongst nearly one-third of women in the FBiH (32 per cent) and less amongst women in RS (17 per cent) and BD (9 per cent). This unmet need increased from the 15-19 age group (29 per cent) to the 25-29 age group (38 per cent) before declining and was lowest amongst women aged 40-44 (18 per cent). By education level, this unmet need was present amongst nearly one-third of women with primary education (31 per cent), around one quarter of women with secondary or higher education (27 per cent) and lowest amongst women with no formal education (24 per cent). The percentage of demand for contraception satisfied was also estimated using the MICS data on contraception and the unmet need. The percentage of demand satisfied is defined as the proportion of women currently married or in union who are currently using contraception and the total demand for contraception. Met need for limiting includes women who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method and who do not want any more children, are using male or female sterilisation or declare themselves as infecund. Met need for spacing includes women who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method and who want to have another child or are undecided whether to have another child. The total of met need for spacing and limiting adds up to the total met need for contraception. The met need for contraception was present in 26 per cent of women aged 15-49, to a greater extent in BD (52 per cent) and RS (43 per cent) than in the FBiH (21 per cent). The percentage of met need amongst the age group 15-34 ranged from 21 to 31, but declined with age to 13 per cent for women aged 45-49. The total demand for contraception includes those women who currently had an unmet need (for spacing or limiting) and those who were currently using contraception. The total percentage of demand for contraception was 48 per cent. 33 A woman is postpartum amenorrheic if she gave birth in the last two years, is not currently pregnant and her menstrual period has not returned since the birth of her last child. 34 A woman is considered infecund if she is neither pregnant nor postpartum amenorrheic and (1a) has not had menstruation for at least six months, (1b) never menstruated, (1c) her last menstruation occurred before her last birth or (1d) in menopause/has had a hysterectomy; or (2) she declares that she has had a hysterectomy, or she has never menstruated, or is menopausal or has been trying to get pregnant for 2 or more years without result (in response to questions as to why she thinks she is not physically able to get pregnant at the time of the survey); or (3) she declares she cannot get pregnant (when asked about her desire for future births) or (4) she has not had a birth in the preceding 5 years, is currently not using contraception and is currently married and was continuously married during the last 5 years preceding the survey. 64 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 65 UNICEF and WHO recommend a minimum of four antenatal care visits during pregnancy. Table RH.8 shows the number of antenatal care visits during the last pregnancy for women in the two years preceding the survey, regardless of provider (including skilled and unskilled providers), by selected characteristics. Almost two-thirds of mothers (62 per cent) received antenatal care four or more times, while a lower number of mothers had one (5 per cent), two (7 per cent) or three (5 per cent) antenatal care visits. Table RH.8: Number of antenatal care visits Per cent distribution of women who had a live birth during the two years preceding the survey by number of antenatal care visits by any provider, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Per cent distribution of women who had: Total Number of women who had a live birth in the preceding two years No antenatal care visits One visit Two visits Three visits 4 or more visits1 Administrative unit FBiH 20.6 5.4 8.5 6.0 59.5 100.0 207 RS 22.9 3.8 3.5 1.6 68.2 100.0 41 BD (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 15 Mother’s age at birth (years)   less than 20 20.2 1.0 9.7 8.1 60.9 100.0 69 20-34 21.4 6.5 5.9 3.5 62.7 100.0 174 35-49 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 19 Education   No formal education 27.1 5.7 9.7 10.0 47.5 100.0 89 Primary 19.8 5.2 6.2 2.7 66.0 100.0 148 Secondary+ (6.2) (0.0) (4.2) (0.0) (89.6) 100.0 26 wealth index quintile   Poorest 22.1 7.1 6.0 8.7 56.2 100.0 74 Second 26.3 6.5 13.3 2.6 51.3 100.0 69 Middle (26.5) (0.0) (4.6) (5.1) (63.8) 100.0 38 Fourth (11.5) (4.5) (6.1) (1.5) (76.4) 100.0 43 Richest (14.2) (2.9) (2.6) (5.7) (74.6) 100.0 39 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 24.6 5.4 8.5 5.6 55.9 100.0 181 Richest 40 per cent 12.8 3.8 4.4 3.5 75.5 100.0 82 Language of household head   Romani 25.8 3.4 7.4 5.0 58.4 100.0 159 Other 13.5 7.1 6.9 4.9 67.6 100.0 104 Total 20.9 4.9 7.2 5.0 62.0 100.0 263 1 MICS indicator 5.5b; MDG indicator 5.5 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases The WHO recommends a minimum of four antenatal visits, based on a review of the effectiveness of different models of antenatal care. WHO guidelines are specific on the content on antenatal care visits and include: z blood pressure measurement; z urine testing for bateriuria and proteinuria; z blood testing to detect syphilis and severe anaemia; z weight/height measurement (optional). The type of personnel providing antenatal care to women aged 15-49 years who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey is presented in Table RH.7.35 If a respondent mentioned more than one provider of antenatal care only the most qualified was considered. The results show that as many as one-fifth of Roma women (21 per cent) did not receive antenatal care. The majority of antenatal care was provided by health workers and to a much greater extent by doctors (76 per cent) than nurses/midwives (3 per cent). Table RH.7: Antenatal care coverage Per cent distribution of women aged 15-49 who gave birth in the two years preceding the survey by type of personnel providing antenatal care during the pregnancy for the last birth, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Person providing antenatal care No antenatal care received Total Any skilled personnel1 Number of women who gave birth in the preceding two years Medical doctor Nurse/ Midwife Administrative unit FBiH 76.9 2.4 20.6 100.0 79.4 207 RS 75.5 1.6 22.9 100.0 77.1 41 BD (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 15 Mother’s age at birth (years)   less than 20 75.9 3.9 20.2 100.0 79.8 69 20-34 75.1 3.4 21.4 100.0 78.6 174 35-49 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 19 Education   No formal education 69.9 3.0 27.1 100.0 72.9 89 Primary 77.5 2.7 19.8 100.0 80.2 148 Secondary+ (85.9) (7.8) (6.2) 100.0 (93.8) 26 wealth index quintile   Poorest 77.9 0.0 22.1 100.0 77.9 74 Second 73.7 0.0 26.3 100.0 73.7 69 Middle (70.9) (2.6) (26.5) 100.0 (73.5) 38 Fourth (79.1) (9.4) (11.5) 100.0 (88.5) 43 Richest (76.3) (9.5) (14.2) 100.0 (85.8) 39 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 74.8 0.5 24.6 100.0 75.4 181 Richest 40 per cent 77.8 9.5 12.8 100.0 87.2 82 Language of household head   Romani 70.1 4.0 25.8 100.0 74.2 159 Other 84.3 2.3 13.5 100.0 86.5 104 Total 75.7 3.3 20.9 100.0 79.1 263 1 MICS indicator 5.5a; MDG indicator 5.5 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 35 This data is only for live births in the two years preceding the survey. 66 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 67 The types of services pregnant women received during antenatal care are shown in table RH.9. Amongst women who had a live birth during the two years preceding the survey 74 per cent reported that their blood pressure had been checked during antenatal care visits, 72 per cent that their urine specimen had been tested and 71 per cent that their blood sample had been tested. Less than three quarters of these women reported that all three recommended tests were performed as part of antenatal care (70 per cent). Table RH.9: Content of antenatal care Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who had their blood pressure measured, urine sample taken and blood sample taken as part of antenatal care, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Percentage of pregnant women who had: Number of women who had a live birth in the preceding two years Blood pressure measured Urine sample taken Blood sample taken Blood pressure measured, urine and blood sample taken1 Administrative unit   FBiH 73.6 71.7 70.1 69.3 207 RS 75.1 73.1 71.1 71.1 41 BD (*) (*) (*) (*) 15 Mother’s age at birth (years)   less than 20 75.5 75.5 78.0 75.5 69 20-34 74.1 71.4 68.6 68.6 174 35-49 (*) (*) (*) (*) 19 Education   No formal education 67.3 62.9 62.6 60.7 89 Primary 75.5 74.9 72.3 72.3 148 Secondary+ (90.6) (90.6) (90.6) (90.6) 26 wealth index quintile   Poorest 71.7 69.0 64.9 64.9 74 Second 70.7 68.0 65.6 65.6 69 Middle (73.5) (71.4) (71.4) (71.4) 38 Fourth (81.9) (81.9) (83.2) (79.3) 43 Richest (77.0) (77.0) (77.0) (77.0) 39 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 71.7 69.1 66.5 66.5 181 Richest 40 per cent 79.6 79.6 80.3 78.2 82 Language of household head   Romani 69.8 67.4 67.2 66.1 159 Other 80.9 79.9 76.3 76.3 104 Total 74.2 72.4 70.8 70.2 263 1 MICS indicator 5.6 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases Assistance at Delivery Three quarters of all maternal deaths occur during delivery and the immediate post-partum period. The single most critical intervention for safe motherhood is to ensure a competent health worker with midwifery skills is present at each birth and that transport to a referral facility for obstetric care is available in case of emergency. A World Fit for Children goal is to ensure that women have readily available and affordable access to skilled attendance at delivery. The indicators are the proportion of births with a skilled attendant36 and the proportion of institutional deliveries. The skilled attendant at delivery indicator was also used to track progress towards the Millennium Development target of reducing the maternal mortality ratio by three quarters between 1990 and 2015. The MICS included a number of questions to assess the proportion of births attended by a skilled attendant. 36 A skilled attendant includes a doctor, nurse or midwife. Table RH.10 shows that about 99 per cent of births in the two years that preceded the MICS survey were delivered by skilled personnel. Doctors assisted in the delivery of 79 per cent of births, nurses/midwives assisted with 20 per cent of births while only 1 per cent of births were delivered with the assistance of other/auxiliary attendants. One in eight Roma women gave birth by Caesarean section (15 per cent in the FBiH and 8 per cent in RS). Table RH.10: Assistance during delivery Per cent distribution of women aged 15-49 who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey by person assisting at the delivery and percentage of births delivered by C-section, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Person assisting at delivery Total Delivery assisted by any skilled attendant1 Per cent delivered by C-section2 Number of women who had a live birth in preceding two years Medical doctor Nurse/ Midwife Other/ Missing Administrative unit FBiH 82.0 17.0 1.0 100.0 99.0 14.7 207 RS 66.5 30.1 3.4 100.0 96.6 7.8 41 BD (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) 15 Mother’s age at birth (years)   less than 20 77.7 22.3 0.0 100.0 100.0 13.5 69 20-34 80.6 17.9 1.5 100.0 98.5 11.8 174 35-49 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) 19 Place of delivery   Public sector health facility 79.9 19.8 0.3 100.0 99.7 13.3 260 Missing/DK (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) 3 Education   No formal education 75.6 22.3 2.1 100.0 97.9 13.4 89 Primary 79.7 19.3 1.0 100.0 99.0 13.9 148 Secondary+ (87.6) (12.4) (0.0) 100.0 (100.0) (8.0) 26 wealth index quintile   Poorest 82.5 15.6 1.8 100.0 98.2 9.1 74 Second 78.2 21.8 0.0 100.0 100.0 13.7 69 Middle (70.4) (27.5) (2.1) 100.0 (97.9) (15.2) 38 Fourth (70.5) (26.7) (2.9) 100.0 (97.1) (14.0) 43 Richest (92.1) (7.9) (0.0) 100.0 (100.0) (17.2) 39 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 78.3 20.5 1.2 100.0 98.8 12.1 181 Richest 40 per cent 80.7 17.8 1.5 100.0 98.5 15.5 82 Language of household head   Romani 73.2 24.6 2.1 100.0 97.9 13.2 159 Other 88.0 12.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 13.0 104 Total 79.1 19.6 1.3 100.0 98.7 13.2 263 1 MICS indicator 5.7; MDG indicator 5.2 2 MICS indicator 5.9 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 68 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 69 Ix Child Development Early Childhood Education and Learning Readiness of children for primary school can be improved through attendance at early childhood education programmes or through preschool attendance. Early childhood education programmes include programmes for children that have organised learning components as opposed to babysitting and day-care which do not typically include organised education and learning. Table CD.1 shows that only 2 per cent of Roma children aged 36-59 months were attending an organised early childhood programme, with an approximately similar percentage of boys and girls. Table CD.1: Early childhood education Percentage of children aged 36-59 months who are attending an organised early childhood education programme, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Percentage of children aged 36-59 months currently attending early childhood education1 Number of children aged 36-59 months Sex     Male 1.4 163 Female 1.6 142 Administrative unit   FBiH 1.6 229 RS 1.9 49 BD (0.0) 27 Age of child (months)   36-47 0.7 170 48-59 2.5 136 Mother’s education   No formal education 0.0 102 Primary 0.8 173 Secondary+ (10.3) 31 wealth index quintile   Poorest 0.0 91 Second 3.3 68 Middle 4.2 55 Fourth 0.0 54 Richest (0.0) 38 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 2.1 214 Richest 40 per cent 0.0 92 Language of household head*   Romani 0.0 187 Other 3.9 118 Total 1.5 306 1 MICS indicator 6.7 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. It is well recognised that a period of rapid brain development occurs in the first 3-4 years of life and that the quality of home care is the major determinant of a child’s development during this period. In this context, engagement of adults in activities with children, the presence of books in the home for the child and the conditions of care are important indicators of the quality of home care. Children should be physically healthy, mentally alert, emotionally secure, socially competent and ready to learn. Information on a number of activities that support early learning was collected during the survey. These included the involvement of adults with children in the following activities: reading books or looking at picture books, telling stories, singing songs, taking children outside the home, compound or yard and playing with and spending time with children naming, counting or drawing objects. Place of Delivery Increasing the proportion of births that are delivered in health facilities is an important factor in reducing the health risks for both mother and baby. Proper medical attention and hygienic conditions during delivery can reduce the risk of complications and infection that can cause morbidity and mortality to either the mother or the baby. Table RH.11 presents the per cent distribution of women aged 15-49 who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey by place of delivery and the percentage of births delivered in a health facility, according to background characteristics. The survey findings show that 99 per cent of deliveries amongst Roma women occurred in public sector health facilities. Table RH.11: Place of delivery Per cent distribution of women aged 15-49 who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey by place of delivery, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Place of delivery Total Delivered in health facility1 Number of women who had a live birth in preceding two years Public sector health facility Missing/DK Administrative unit   FBiH 99.4 0.6 100.0 99.4 207 RS 96.6 3.4 100.0 96.6 41 BD (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 15 Mother’s age at birth (years)   less than 20 100.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 69 20-34 98.5 1.5 100.0 98.5 174 35-49 (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 19 Number of antenatal care visits   None 95.3 4.7 100.0 95.3 55 1-3 visits (100.0) (0.0) 100.0 (100.0) 45 4+ visits 100.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 163 Education   No formal education 97.9 2.1 100.0 97.9 89 Primary 99.5 0.5 100.0 99.5 148 Secondary+ (100.0) (0.0) 100.0 (100.0) 26 wealth index quintile   Poorest 98.2 1.8 100.0 98.2 74 Second 100.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 69 Middle (100.0) (0.0) 100.0 (100.0) 38 Fourth (97.1) (2.9) 100.0 (97.1) 43 Richest (100.0) (0.0) 100.0 (100.0) 39 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 99.2 0.8 100.0 99.2 181 Richest 40 per cent 98.5 1.5 100.0 98.5 82 Language of household head   Romani 98.4 1.6 100.0 98.4 159 Other 100.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 104 Total 99.0 1.0 100.0 99.0 263 1 MICS indicator 5.8 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 70 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 71 Exposure to books in early years not only provides a child with a greater understanding of the nature of print but may also give the child opportunities to see others reading, such as older siblings doing school work. The presence of books in a household during the early childhood is important for later school performance. The mothers/caretakers of all children under 5 were asked about the number of children’s books or picture books they had for the child, household objects or outside objects and homemade toys or toys that came from a shop that were available at home. Table CD.3 shows that 11 per cent of Roma children aged 0-59 months lived in households where at least 3 children’s books were present. A smaller proportion of children lived in households with 10 or more books (3 per cent). The presence of children’s books was positively correlated to the child’s age. Three or more children’s books were found 15 per cent of households with children aged 24-59 months, while the figure was 5 per cent for children aged 0-23 months. In addition, there was a positive correlation between the presence of books in the household and the mother’s education, as well as household wealth. Thus, 3 or more books were less likely to be present in households where a child’s mother had no formal education (4 per cent) compared to those where the mother had secondary or higher education (28 per cent), and less likely in those from the poorest 60 per cent of the population (8 per cent) compared to those in the richest 40 per cent of the population (17 per cent); this was also lower for those children living in households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani compared to those where the household head spoke another mother tongue (5 per cent compared to 19 per cent respectively). In households where mothers had no formal education there were almost no cases of ten or more books or picture books being present, while these were completely absent in households in the poorest wealth quintile. On the other hand, the largest proportion of children who lived in households with 10 or more children’s books or picture books was found amongst families where the mothers had secondary or higher education (7 per cent). The types of playthings considered in MICS include homemade toys, toys that came from a store, household objects (such as pots and bowls) and objects and materials found outside the home (such as sticks, rocks or pine cones). The data shows that nearly one half of children aged 0-59 months (48 per cent) had 2 or more types of playthings at home. It is interesting to note that the highest percentage of children played with toys that came from a store (85 per cent) and about one half of children played with household objects and objects found outside the home (48 per cent), while the lowest proportion of children played with toys made at home (17 per cent). Toys that came from a store were used by the highest percentage of children whose mothers had secondary or higher education and children from the wealthiest households (about 90 per cent in both cases). No clear differentials were observed in terms of possessing two or more playthings for children in relation to their mother’s education level and household wealth. Table CD.2 shows that for almost two-thirds (66 per cent) of under-five children an adult had engaged in more than four activities that promote learning and school readiness during the 3 days prior to the survey. On average, adults had engaged in 4 activities with children, including activities with the child by any adult household member. The percentage of children aged 36-59 months in households where adult members engaged in 4 or more activities was lower amongst those where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani compared to those where the household head spoke another mother tongue (54 per cent versus 87 per cent). The table also shows considerable involvement by fathers in these activities. Fathers’ involvement in one or more activities was registered in 60 per cent of cases. There were no clear differentials by sex in terms of engagement of adults in activities with children; however, for a larger proportion of male children (66 per cent), fathers engaged in activities compared to the proportion of female children (53 per cent). The percentage of children not living in the household with their biological father was 15 per cent. Table CD.2: Support for learning Percentage of children aged 36-59 months with whom an adult household member had engaged in activities that promote learning and school readiness during the last three days, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Percentage of children aged 36-59 months Mean number of activities Percentage of children not living with their natural father Number of children aged 36-59 months with whom adult household members engaged in four or more activities1 with whom the father engaged in one or more activities2 Any adult household member engaged with the child The father engaged with the child Sex Male 67.0 66.1 4.1 1.4 12.0 163 Female 65.2 52.5 4.2 1.2 17.4 142 Administrative unit   FBiH 76.8 55.2 4.6 1.3 16.0 229 RS 42.3 69.6 3.1 1.5 9.3 49 BD (19.2) (80.8) (2.7) (1.5) (11.5) 27 Age of child (months)   36-47 66.4 56.4 4.1 1.2 17.2 170 48-59 65.8 64.0 4.2 1.4 11.2 136 Mother’s education   No formal education 50.5 60.0 3.5 1.2 11.3 102 Primary 74.2 58.7 4.5 1.4 14.5 173 Secondary+ (72.6) (65.0) (4.6) (1.4) (25.2) 31 Father’s education   No formal education 47.7 60.1 3.5 1.2 N/A 61 Primary 66.4 69.3 4.1 1.6 N/A 164 Secondary+ (77.5) (73.0) (4.7) (1.8) N/A 36 Father not in household (81.2) (13.4) (4.6) N/A N/A 44 wealth index quintile   Poorest 62.2 57.7 3.8 1.4 14.4 91 Second 57.1 49.5 3.8 1.0 19.3 68 Middle 81.3 62.6 4.8 1.3 14.9 55 Fourth 75.3 60.0 4.5 1.5 11.4 54 Richest (57.1) (78.8) (4.0) (1.6) (10.4) 38 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 65.5 56.3 4.1 1.2 16.1 214 Richest 40 per cent 67.7 67.8 4.3 1.5 10.9 92 Language of household head*   Romani 53.5 64.1 3.6 1.3 12.7 187 Other 86.6 53.4 5.0 1.3 17.6 118 Total 66.1 59.8 4.1 1.3 14.5 306 1 MICS indicator 6.1 2 MICS Indicator 6.2 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. N/A: “Not applicable” 72 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 73 Table CD.4: Inadequate care Percentage of children under age 5 left alone or left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once during the past week, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Percentage of children under age 5 Number of children under age 5left alone in the past week left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age in the past week left with inadequate care in the past week1 Sex   Male 3.1 3.5 5.3 392 Female 6.8 3.9 8.1 356 Administrative unit   FBiH 5.1 3.3 7.1 570 RS 5.2 6.5 6.5 123 BD 1.9 1.9 1.9 56 Age (months)   0-23 4.5 2.3 6.0 292 24-59 5.1 4.6 7.1 456 Mother’s education   No formal education 5.1 5.6 7.4 247 Primary 5.5 3.2 7.3 427 Secondary+ 0.0 0.0 0.0 74 wealth index quintile   Poorest 7.3 5.8 9.5 216 Second 7.4 3.8 8.1 181 Middle 4.1 3.4 7.5 122 Fourth 0.7 1.7 1.7 127 Richest 1.1 2.1 3.2 102 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 6.6 4.5 8.5 519 Richest 40 per cent 0.9 1.8 2.4 229 Language of household head*   Romani 4.6 4.4 6.8 454 Other 5.2 2.7 6.4 293 Total 4.9 3.7 6.6 748 1 MICS indicator 6.5 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Early Childhood Development During early child development a child learns to handle more complicated levels of moving, thinking, speaking, feeling and relating to others. Physical growth, literacy and numeracy skills, socio-emotional development and readiness to learn are vital domains in a child’s overall development, which is a basis for overall human development. A 10 item module that was developed for the MICS programme was used to calculate the Early Childhood Development Index (ECDI). The indicator was based on certain benchmarks that children should be expected to have attained if they are developing as the majority of children in their age group. Each of the 10 items was used in one of the four domains to determine if children were developmentally on track in that domain. The domains in question are described below. z Literacy-numeracy – Children are identified as being developmentally on track based on whether they can identify/ name at least ten letters of the alphabet, whether they can read at least four simple popular words and whether they know the name and recognise the symbols of all numbers from 1 to 10. If at least two of these are true then the child is considered developmentally on track in the domain of literacy-numeracy. z Physical – If the child can pick up a small object, such as a stick or a rock, from the ground with two fingers and or the mother/caretaker does not indicate that the child is sometimes too ill to play then the child is regarded as being developmentally on track in the physical domain. Table CD.3: Learning materials Percentage of children under age 5 by numbers of children’s books present in the household and by playthings that children played with, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Household has for the child: Child plays with: Two or more types of playthings2 Number of children under age 5 3 or more children’s books1 10 or more children’s books Homemade toys Toys from a shop/ manufactured toys Household objects/ objects found outside Sex Male 10.8 1.7 18.1 83.6 45.7 45.8 392 Female 10.9 3.4 15.8 86.5 50.0 49.7 356 Administrative unit   FBiH 11.7 2.5 13.1 85.8 47.4 46.7 570 RS 8.3 3.9 26.9 81.2 53.7 56.1 123 BD 7.4 0.0 35.2 85.2 38.9 38.9 56 Age (months)   0-23 5.0 1.1 8.6 75.3 31.7 31.0 292 24-59 14.5 3.4 22.4 91.2 58.0 58.4 456 Mother’s education   No formal education 4.4 0.4 19.5 78.9 49.8 49.5 247 Primary 11.7 2.9 16.4 87.6 47.0 46.6 427 Secondary+ 27.5 7.2 11.9 90.1 45.6 48.1 74 wealth index quintile   Poorest 1.9 0.0 19.7 78.8 46.3 45.4 216 Second 7.0 2.3 16.0 82.4 48.7 48.2 181 Middle 20.3 5.0 15.6 87.8 49.8 51.0 122 Fourth 18.3 2.9 12.7 91.3 46.7 47.4 127 Richest 16.0 4.9 19.9 91.4 48.0 48.0 102 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 8.0 2.0 17.5 82.2 48.0 47.7 519 Richest 40 per cent 17.3 3.8 15.9 91.4 47.3 47.6 229 Language of household head*   Romani 5.4 1.1 19.8 81.1 44.6 44.0 454 Other 19.3 4.7 12.6 91.3 52.5 53.5 293 Total 10.8 2.5 17.0 85.0 47.8 47.7 748 1 MICS indicator 6.3 2 MICS indicator 6.4 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Leaving children alone or in the presence of other young children is known to increase the risk of accidents. In MICS, two questions were asked to find out whether children aged 0-59 months had been left alone during the week preceding the interview and whether children were left in the care of other children under 10 years of age. Table CD.4 shows that during the week that preceded the interview less than 5 per cent of children aged 0-59 months had been left in the care of other children under 10 years of age (4 per cent) or were left alone at home (5 per cent). By combining these two care indicators it was calculated that 7 per cent of children had been left with inadequate care during this period. Inadequate care was more prevalent amongst children whose mothers had no formal education (7 per cent), while children whose mothers had secondary or higher education had not been left with inadequate care at any time. In addition, those children in the poorest households (10 per cent) were more often left with inadequate care than children from the richest households (3 per cent). 74 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 75 Table CD.5: Early Childhood Development Index Percentage of children aged 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in the literacy-numeracy, physical, social-emotional and learning domains and the Early Childhood Development Index score, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Percentage of children aged 36-59 months who are developmentally on track for the indicated domains Early Childhood Development Index score1 Number of children aged 36-59 months literacy- numeracy Physical Social- Emotional learning Sex Male 8.1 98.9 87.0 97.8 86.1 163 Female 8.0 97.7 85.6 99.4 83.5 142 Administrative unit   FBiH 9.1 98.3 86.2 99.3 85.2 229 RS 3.3 97.5 81.4 96.2 79.5 49 BD (7.7) (100.0) (96.2) (96.2) (92.3) 27 Age of child (months)   36-47 4.2 97.7 87.4 98.4 84.9 170 48-59 13.0 99.1 85.0 98.7 85.0 136 Attending early childhood education   Attending (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 5 Not attending 8.2 98.3 86.1 98.8 85.0 301 Mother’s education   No formal education 4.9 97.9 85.1 99.0 83.8 102 Primary 9.3 98.9 88.5 99.1 87.3 173 Secondary+ (11.5) (96.1) (78.8) (94.0) (75.8) 31 wealth index quintile   Poorest 4.2 98.7 86.7 100.0 85.4 91 Second 15.5 94.1 78.4 97.6 76.6 68 Middle 8.2 100.0 94.1 96.7 92.5 55 Fourth 7.6 100.0 88.7 100.0 88.7 54 Richest (4.2) (100.0) (85.2) (97.3) (82.5) 38 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 8.9 97.6 85.9 98.4 84.4 214 Richest 40 per cent 6.2 100.0 87.3 98.9 86.1 92 Language of household head*   Romani 4.7 97.9 86.6 99.1 85.2 187 Other 13.4 99.0 85.9 97.7 84.3 118 Total 8.1 98.3 86.3 98.5 84.9 306 1 MICS indicator 6.6 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. z Social-emotional – Children are considered to be developmentally on track if two of the following are true: if the child gets along well with other children, if the child does not kick, bite or hit other children and if the child does not get distracted easily. z Learning – If the child follows simple directions on how to do something correctly and or when given something to do is able to do it independently then the child is considered to be developmentally on track in this domain. ECDI is then calculated as the percentage of children who are developmentally on track in at least three of these four domains. ECDI is presented in Table CD.5. According to the survey data, 85 per cent of Roma children aged 36-59 months were developmentally on track. While it is usual for children to develop skills with increased age the data indicates that the ECDI of Roma children aged 48-59 months (85 per cent) was the same as that of children aged 36-47 months (85 per cent). An analysis of the four domains of child development shows that 99 per cent of children were on track in the learning domain, 98 per cent were on track in the physical domain, while 86 per cent of children were on track in the socio- emotional domain; however, much less children were on track in the literacy-numeracy domain (8 per cent). As expected, more children aged 48-59 months (13 per cent) were on track in the literacy-numeracy domain compared to children aged 36-47 months (4 per cent). Children in households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani, as opposed to those in households where the household head had another mother tongue, were less likely to be on track in the literacy-numeracy domain (5 per cent versus 13 per cent). 76 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 77 Table ED.1M: Literacy amongst men aged 15-24 Percentage of men aged 15-24 years who are literate, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage literate1 Percentage not known Number of men aged 15-24 years Administrative unit   FBiH 90.7 0.3 473 RS 87.9 1.9 91 BD (*) (*) 21 Education   No formal education 64.2 0.0 80 Primary 91.9 0.9 340 Secondary+ 100.0 0.0 165 Age (years)   15-19 91.9 0.3 299 20-24 88.8 0.7 286 wealth index quintile   Poorest 84.9 0.0 96 Second 84.4 1.8 95 Middle 91.6 0.0 129 Fourth 93.2 0.0 140 Richest 94.9 1.0 125 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 87.4 0.5 320 Richest 40 per cent 94.0 0.5 266 Language of household head*   Romani 89.8 0.0 347 Other 91.3 1.2 238 Total 90.4 0.5 585 1 MICS indicator 7.1; MDG indicator 2.3 (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. School Readiness Attendance of preschool education through an organised learning or child education programme is important for the readiness of children for school. Table ED.2 shows the proportion of children in the first grade of primary school who attended preschool the previous year. The data indicates that only 4 per cent of Roma children who were currently attending the first grade of primary school attended preschool the previous year, the proportions being the same for both male and female. x Literacy and Education Literacy amongst women and Men aged 15-24 One of the A World Fit for Children goals is to ensure adult literacy. Adult literacy is also a Millennium Development Goals indicator, relating to both men and women. The MICS survey provides for the assessment of literacy rates for men and women aged 15-24. Literacy was assessed based on the ability of respondents to read a short simple statement or on school attendance. The percentage of literate women and men is presented in Table ED.1 and ED.1M. This data indicates that over 90 per cent of men and over two-thirds of women (69 per cent) were literate. Only 16 per cent of women who stated they had no formal education were able to successfully read the statement shown to them, while this percentage was higher amongst the men at 64 per cent. For women, literacy rates were higher in the 15-19 age group (76 per cent), compared to 20-24 age group (62 per cent). Literacy rates for both sexes were lowest amongst respondents from the poorest population and highest in the richest population: 60 per cent of women and 87 per cent of men in the poorest 60 per cent of the population were literate compared to 83 per cent of women and 94 per cent of men in the richest 40 per cent of the population. Table ED.1: Literacy amongst women aged 15-24 Percentage of women aged 15-24 years who are literate, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage literate1 Percentage not known Number of women aged 15-24 years Administrative unit   FBiH 69.9 0.0 408 RS 65.0 0.0 77 BD (64.0) (0.0) 25 Education   No formal education 16.2 0.0 127 Primary 81.4 0.0 283 Secondary+ 100.0 0.0 101 Age (years)   15-19 75.8 0.0 253 20-24 62.0 0.0 258 wealth index quintile   Poorest 49.9 0.0 116 Second 61.5 0.0 98 Middle 69.5 0.0 97 Fourth 79.2 0.0 83 Richest 85.9 0.0 117 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 59.7 0.0 310 Richest 40 per cent 83.1 0.0 200 Language of household head*   Romani 59.2 0.0 296 Other 82.5 0.0 212 Total 68.9 0.0 510 1 MICS indicator 7.1; MDG indicator 2.3 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. For women, literacy rates were higher in the 15-19 age group (76 per cent), compared to 20-24 age group (62 per cent). Literacy rates for both sexes were lowest amongst respondents from the poorest wealth quintile and highest in the richest wealth quintile. 78 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 79 In BiH children enter primary school at age 6 and secondary school at age 15. There are 8 or 9 grades of primary school (in the FBiH) and 9 grades in RS and BD. In secondary schools there are either 4 grades or 3 grades (the latter for vocational education). The school year runs from September of the current year to June of the following year. The 9-grade primary school system was introduced in the academic year 2003/2004 in RS and BD and in 2004/2005 in the FBiH. Table ED.3 shows that of the total number of Roma children who were of primary school entry age less than one half (47 per cent) were attending the first grade of primary school, a higher proportion of girls (55 per cent) than boys (40 per cent). Children of primary school entry age in households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani were less likely to enter primary school compared to children in households where the household head spoke another mother tongue (39 per cent versus 59 per cent). Table ED.3: Primary school entry Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 1 (net intake rate), BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 11 Number of children of primary school entry age Sex Male 39.5 81 Female 54.7 77 Administrative unit   FBiH 47.5 123 RS (57.2) 25 BD (*) 9 Mother’s education   No formal education 42.4 55 Primary 45.4 90 Secondary+ (*) 13 wealth index quintile   Poorest (37.1) 48 Second (52.5) 36 Middle (58.2) 29 Fourth (*) 25 Richest (*) 21 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 47.5 112 Richest 40 per cent (45.5) 46 Language of household head   Romani 39.1 95 Other 58.5 63 Total 46.9 158 1 MICS indicator 7.3 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases Table ED.4 shows the percentage of children aged 6 to 14 years who were attending primary or secondary school.37 More than two-thirds of Roma children of primary school age were attending school (69 per cent); however, 31 per cent of the children were out of school when they were supposed to be participating in school. The highest percentage of children of primary school age attending school were age 10 (80 per cent), while the lowest percentage was found amongst children aged 6 (47 per cent). This may be related to the fact that parents in BiH continue to enrol their children in the first grade of primary school at a later age (the legal recommendation in BiH is for children to enter the first grade at age 6 i.e., children who reach the age of 5.5 years by 31 March of the current year). The higher percentage of such children aged 7 confirms this (66 per cent). The highest proportion of Roma children of primary school age who were attending primary school was found in RS (74 per cent), followed by the FBiH (69 per cent) and the lowest proportion in BD (57 per cent). The percentage of children of primary school age who were attending primary school increased with the mother’s level of education and was also higher amongst children from the richest households. 37 Ratios presented in this table are ‘adjusted’ since they include not only primary school attendance but also secondary school attendance within the numerator. Table ED.2: School readiness Percentage of children attending first grade of primary school who attended preschool the previous year, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of children attending first grade who attended preschool in previous year1 Number of children attending first grade of primary school Sex   Male 4.4 67 Female 3.7 60 Administrative unit   FBiH 3.3 95 RS (7.5) 28 BD (*) 4 Mother’s education   No formal education (5.3) 43 Primary 4.1 72 Secondary+ (*) 11 Mother not in household (*) 1 wealth index quintile   Poorest (4.1) 33 Second (11.4) 26 Middle (2.6) 34 Fourth (*) 16 Richest (*) 18 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 5.6 93 Richest 40 per cent (0.0) 34 Language of household head   Romani 4.3 70 Other 3.9 58 Total 4.1 127 1 MICS indicator 7.2 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases Primary and Secondary School Participation Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world’s children is one of the most important goals of the Millennium Development Goals and A World Fit for Children. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative labour and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environment and influencing population growth. The indicators for primary and secondary school attendance include: z net intake rate in primary education; z primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted); z secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted); z female to male education ratio (or Gender Parity Index – GPI) in primary and secondary school. The indicators of school progression include: z children reaching last grade of primary school; z primary school completion rate; z transition rate to secondary school. 80 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 81 Ta bl e ED .5 : S ec on da ry s ch oo l a tt en da nc e Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n of se co nd ar y sc ho ol a ge a tt en di ng se co nd ar y sc ho ol o r h ig he r ( ad ju st ed n et a tt en da nc e ra tio ) a nd p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n at te nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol , B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12 M al e Fe m al e To ta l N et a tt en da nc e ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe r c en t a tt en di ng pr im ar y sc ho ol N um be r of c hi ld re n N et a tt en da nc e ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe r c en t at te nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol N um be r of c hi ld re n N et a tt en da nc e ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe r c en t a tt en di ng pr im ar y sc ho ol N um be r of c hi ld re n A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 27 .1 13 .3 21 8 17 .2 5. 4 17 9 22 .6 9. 7 39 7 RS (2 9. 5) (7 .1 ) 36 24 .9 3. 4 45 27 .0 5. 1 81 BD (* ) (* ) 7 (* ) (* ) 9 (* ) (* ) 17 A ge a t b eg in ni ng o f s ch oo l y ea r   15 23 .4 31 .1 63 19 .0 10 .5 51 21 .4 21 .9 11 4 16 36 .2 11 .5 60 17 .4 7. 2 67 26 .2 9. 2 12 7 17 23 .4 5. 2 80 23 .7 1. 4 65 23 .5 3. 5 14 5 18 24 .9 1. 9 59 10 .5 .0 50 18 .3 1. 0 10 9 M ot he r’s e du ca ti on   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n (1 8. 8) (1 2. 7) 36 (1 6. 0) (1 3. 7) 27 17 .7 13 .2 63 Pr im ar y 31 .6 19 .7 76 26 .8 8. 8 62 29 .5 14 .8 13 8 Se co nd ar y+ (* ) (* ) 15 (* ) (* ) 7 (* ) (* ) 22 M ot he r n ot in h ou se ho ld 24 .1 14 .3 55 12 .8 2. 7 76 17 .5 7. 6 13 1 Ca nn ot b e de te rm in ed 19 .5 2. 6 80 8. 5 0. 0 62 14 .7 1. 5 14 1 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t (6 .6 ) (1 3. 0) 38 (2 .1 ) (1 0. 2) 39 4. 3 11 .6 77 Se co nd (1 2. 7) (1 1. 1) 38 (1 3. 8) (5 .0 ) 42 13 .3 7. 9 80 M id dl e 17 .2 15 .0 56 24 .8 2. 4 57 21 .0 8. 6 11 3 Fo ur th 38 .8 12 .2 74 (2 2. 8) (4 .1 ) 45 32 .7 9. 1 12 0 Ri ch es t 43 .5 9. 1 55 21 .7 3. 8 50 33 .1 6. 6 10 5 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 12 .8 13 .3 13 3 15 .1 5. 3 13 8 14 .0 9. 2 27 0 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 40 .8 10 .9 12 9 22 .2 4. 0 95 32 .9 7. 9 22 5 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d*   Ro m an i 14 .2 12 .2 15 1 8. 6 4. 2 13 3 11 .6 8. 4 28 3 O th er 43 .8 12 .0 11 0 30 .8 5. 6 10 0 37 .6 9. 0 21 0 To ta l 26 .6 12 .1 26 2 18 .0 4. 8 23 3 22 .6 8. 6 49 5 1 M IC S in di ca to r 7 .5 ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 –4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. Table ED.4: Primary school attendance Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary or secondary school (adjusted net attendance ratio), BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Male Female Total Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted)1 Number of children Administrative unit   FBiH 70.8 484 66.9 459 68.9 943 RS 74.9 116 73.1 115 74.0 231 BD (*) 24 (60.7) 29 56.9 53 Age at beginning of school year   6 39.5 81 54.7 77 46.9 158 7 62.1 70 70.3 59 65.9 129 8 77.4 55 66.5 62 71.7 117 9 80.6 71 74.8 61 77.9 132 10 85.6 75 73.9 68 80.0 143 11 77.5 70 78.5 74 78.0 143 12 (75.2) 51 75.3 69 75.3 120 13 70.0 80 57.8 68 64.4 147 14 76.4 72 59.2 65 68.2 138 Mother’s education   No formal education 59.5 243 55.8 209 57.8 452 Primary 77.6 337 70.8 337 74.2 674 Secondary+ (83.7) 41 96.7 54 91.1 95 Mother not in household (*) 3 (*) 3 (*) 5 wealth index quintile   Poorest 57.8 146 48.3 142 53.1 287 Second 63.9 130 57.9 120 61.0 250 Middle 71.9 122 75.9 127 74.0 249 Fourth 81.2 124 82.8 111 82.0 234 Richest 84.7 103 79.6 105 82.2 207 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 64.1 398 60.3 388 62.2 786 Richest 40 per cent 82.8 226 81.3 215 82.1 442 Language of household head*   Romani 66.3 361 59.6 353 63.0 713 Other 77.7 262 80.1 248 78.9 510 Total 70.9 624 67.8 603 69.3 1,227 1 MICS indicator 7.4; MDG indicator 2.1 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. The secondary school net attendance ratio is presented in Table ED.5.38 This data shows that secondary school attendance was much lower than primary school attendance. Twenty-three per cent of children of secondary school age were attending secondary school, while nine per cent of children of secondary school age were attending primary school. The highest proportion of children attending secondary school was found amongst those aged 16 (26 per cent), while the lowest percentage was amongst children aged 18 (18 per cent). More boys (27 per cent) than girls (18 per cent) attended secondary school. Overall, attendance increased with household wealth; while only 4 per cent of children from the poorest wealth quintile were attending secondary school, 33 per cent from the richest wealth quintile attended secondary school. 38 Ratios presented in this table are ‘adjusted’ since they not only include secondary school attendance but also attendance at higher levels within the numerator. 82 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 83 The percentage of children entering first grade who eventually reach the last grade of primary school is presented in Table ED.6. Of all children starting grade one three quarters (75 per cent) will eventually reach the last grade.39 Notice that this number includes children that repeat grades and who eventually move up to reach the last grade. In terms of the mother’s education status, the last grade of primary school was reached by a lower percentage of children whose mothers had no formal education (56 per cent) compared to children whose mothers had primary education (89 per cent) and secondary or higher education (88 per cent). By household wealth, the last grade of primary school was reached by most children in families from the richest 40 per cent of the population (82 per cent), while a lower proportion was found amongst children from the poorest 60 per cent of the population (70 per cent). The percentage of children who reached grade 8 from those who entered grade 1 was lower amongst children from households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani compared to those where the household head spoke another mother tongue (68 per cent versus 81 per cent). 39 Since the first generation of ninth graders in RS and BD completed the final (9th) grade of primary school in the year prior to the survey a dispro- portionately low number of children were attending 9th grade at the time of the survey. For this reason the 8th grade was taken as the final grade in Table ED.6 for all three administrative units. Table ED.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school Percentage of children entering the first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary school (Survival rate to last grade of primary school), BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Per cent attending grade 1 last school year who are in grade 2 this school year Per cent attending grade 2 last school year who are attending grade 3 this school year Per cent attending grade 3 last school year who are attending grade 4 this school year Per cent attending grade 4 last school year who are attending grade 5 this school year Per cent attending grade 5 last school year who are attending grade 6 this school year Per cent attending grade 6 last school year who are attending grade 7 this school year Per cent attending grade 7 last school year who are attending grade 8 this school year Per cent who reach grade 8 of those who enter grade 11 Sex   Male 93.4 100.0 97.2 98.5 93.7 87.7 98.4 72.4 Female 93.4 (97.8) 100.0 97.7 (100.0) 92.6 (92.9) 76.8 Administrative unit   FBiH 92.1 98.7 98.9 97.7 95.6 92.3 97.6 75.7 RS (*) (*) (96.7) (*) (*) (82.1) (*) 70.9 BD – (*) (*) (*) – (*) (*) – Mother’s education   No formal education (79.1) (97.5) (95.6) (94.0) (*) (87.9) (*) 55.6 Primary 100.0 (100.0) 100.0 100.0 97.8 95.4 95.4 89.0 Secondary+ (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 87.5 wealth index quintile Poorest (86.8) (95.9) (100.0) (*) (*) (*) (*) 55.5 Second (100.0) (*) (92.8) (*) (*) (*) (*) 65.7 Middle (94.7) (*) (*) (100.0) (*) (*) (*) 90.1 Fourth (91.3) (*) (*) (100.0) (*) (*) (90.6) 78.7 Richest (*) (*) (*) (100.0) (*) (94.4) (*) 85.9 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 93.8 98.6 97.6 95.6 (98.0) 82.5 (100.0) 70.4 Richest 40 per cent (95.7) (100.0) (100.0) 100.0 (94.8) 97.2 (93.5) 82.3 Language of household head   Romani 95.6 98.4 98.8 96.4 (93.0) 82.7 (98.1) 67.6 Other 91.4 (100.0) (97.8) 100.0 (100.0) 95.8 (94.8) 81.2 Total 93.4 99.0 98.4 98.1 96.4 90.2 96.4 74.8 1 MICS indicator 7.6; MDG indicator 2.2 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 84 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 85 The ratio of girls to boys attending primary and secondary education is provided in Table ED.8. These ratios are better known as the Gender Parity Index (GPI). Notice that the ratios included were obtained from net attendance ratios rather than gross attendance ratios. The ratios obtained using gross attendance provide an erroneous description of the Gender Parity Index mainly because in most cases the majority of over-aged children attending primary education tend to be boys, as shown in Table ED.5. Table ED.8 shows that the gender parity for primary school was 0.96 indicating that more boys than girls attended primary school. The adjusted primary school net attendance ratio was lowest amongst children of both sexes from the poorest wealth quintile. The GPI for secondary school dropped to 0.67. The disadvantage of girls in terms of secondary school attendance was particularly pronounced amongst those children whose mothers did not live in the household (GPI: 0.53), children who were living in the richest 40 per cent of the population (GPI: 0.53) compared to those in the poorest 60 per cent of the population (GPI: 0.95), and children who were living in households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani (GPI: 0.57) compared to those where the household head had another mother tongue (GPI: 0.70). Table ED.8: Education gender parity Ratio of the adjusted net attendance ratios of girls to boys in primary and secondary school, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender Parity Index (GPI) for primary school adjusted NAR1 Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender Parity Index (GPI) for secondary school adjusted NAR2 Administrative unit FBiH 66.5 70.6 0.94 17.2 27.1 0.64 RS 73.1 74.9 0.98 23.4 (29.5) (0.79) BD (60.7) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Education of mother/caretaker   No formal education 55.2 59.4 0.93 (16.0) (18.8) (0.85) Primary 70.8 77.3 0.92 26.8 31.6 0.85 Secondary+ 96.7 (83.7) (1.15) (*) (*) (*) Mother not in household (*) (*) (*) 12.8 24.1 0.53 Cannot be determined N/A N/A N/A 7.4 19.5 0.38 wealth index quintile   Poorest 47.6 58.2 0.82 (2.1) (6.6) (0.32) Second 58.6 63.1 0.93 (13.8) (12.7) (1.08) Middle 75.1 72.7 1.03 24.8 17.2 1.45 Fourth 83.7 79.7 1.05 (22.8) 38.8 (0.59) Richest 78.4 84.7 0.92 20.3 43.5 0.47 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 60.4 64.7 0.93 13.6 12.2 0.95 Richest 40 per cent 81.1 82.2 0.99 21.5 41.2 0.53 Language of household head   Romani 59.8 65.9 0.91 8.0 14.2 0.56 Other 79.3 77.7 1.02 30.8 43.8 0.70 Total 67.5 70.7 0.96 17.7 26.6 0.67 1 MICS indicator 7.9; MDG indicator 3.1 2 MICS indicator 7.10; MDG indicator 3.1 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases N/A: “Not applicable” The gross primary school completion rate and transition rate to secondary school are presented in Table ED.7. The gross primary completion rate is the ratio of the total number of pupils, regardless of age, entering the last grade of primary school for the first time to the number of children of the primary graduation age at the beginning of the current (or most recent) school year. At the time of the survey the gross primary school completion rate was 73 per cent and was higher amongst boys (91 per cent) than girls (54 per cent). Seventy-one per cent of children that successfully completed the last grade of primary school were found at the time of the survey to be attending the first grade of secondary school. The net primary school completion rate is a more relevant indicator for BiH. The net completion rate is the ratio of the total number of pupils of primary graduation age entering the last grade of primary school for the first time to the number of children of the same age at the beginning of the current (or most recent) school year. Table ED.7 shows that the net primary school completion rate was 40 per cent and was higher amongst boys (46 per cent) than girls (34 per cent). Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school Primary school completion rates and the transition rate to secondary school, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Primary school completion rate1 Net primary school completion rate Number of children of primary school completion age Transition rate to secondary school2 Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year Sex   Male 90.8 45.5 72 (78.3) 34 Female 53.9 34.1 65 (61.5) 25 Administrative unit   FBiH 76.4 35.5 102 (64.9) 47 RS (63.9) (54.3) 29 (*) 12 BD (*) (*) 6 – 0 Mother’s education No formal education (53.8) (30.1) 41 (*) 10 Primary 71.7 42.9 82 (61.6) 28 Secondary+ (*) (*) 10 (*) 8 Mother not in household (*) (*) 5 (*) 8 wealth index quintile   Poorest 27.7 15.6 27 (*) 2 Second (*) (*) 22 (*) 5 Middle (85.9) (50.8) 29 (*) 14 Fourth (102.0) (62.4) 31 (*) 25 Richest (90.5) (50.1) 29 (*) 12 wealth index Poorest 60 per cent 54.4 26.0 78 (*) 22 Richest 40 per cent 96.3 56.2 60 (71.6) 37 Language of household head   Romani 58.7 28.2 77 (*) 24 Other 91.8 55.2 61 (78.5) 35 Total 73.3 40.1 138 71.1 59 1 MICS indicator 7.7 2 MICS indicator 7.8 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 86 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 87 Child Discipline As stated in A World Fit for Children, children must be protected against any acts of violence. In addition, the Millennium Declaration calls for the protection of children against abuse, exploitation and violence. In the MICS survey on Roma in BiH respondents were asked a series of questions on the ways adults in the household had tended to discipline children during the month that preceded the survey.40 The two indicators below were used for the child discipline module 1. The number of children aged 2-14 years that had experience psychological aggression as punishment or physical punishment. 2. The number of respondents who believed that in order to raise children properly, they needed to be physically punished. More than one half of Roma children (58 per cent) aged 2-14 years had been subjected to at least one form of psychological or physical punishment by their parents or other adult household members during the past month preceding the survey. Table CP.2 shows that 49 per cent of children were subjected to psychological aggression and 45 per cent of children were physically punished, whereby 7 per cent received severe physical punishment. A lower percentage of respondents (8 per cent) believed in the need for the physical punishment of children compared to the percentage of children who were actually subjected to this practice. There were no differences in the physical discipline of male and female children, whether severe or any physical punishment. With respect to age, children aged 5-9 were punished more than other age groups using physical punishment (51 per cent) and psychological punishment (54 per cent). 40 Please note that for the child discipline module, the questions refer to one child aged 2-14 per household who was selected randomly during fieldwork. xI Child Protection Birth Registration The International Convention on the Rights of the Child and A World Fit for Children state the common goal to develop systems to ensure the registration of every child at or shortly after birth and the fulfilment of his or her right to acquire a name and a nationality in accordance with the national laws and relevant international instruments. It is for this reason that MICS includes an important indicator related to birth registration: the percentage of children under 5 years of age whose birth is registered. Table CP.1 shows that the mothers/caretakers stated that 96 per cent of Roma children under five years had been registered; however, this value should be interpreted with caution as interviewers were not shown a birth certificate in 20 per cent of cases. In terms of the child’s age, the lowest percentage of children registered was found in the youngest age group 0-11 months (91 per cent), which indicates that a notable proportion of parents still did not register their children at or shortly after birth. The survey data indicates that 89 per cent of mothers/caretakers of children under 5 years whose birth is not registered know how to register a birth (data not shown in Table CP.1). Table CP.1: Birth registration Percentage of children under age 5 by whether the birth is registered, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Children under age 5 whose birth is registered with the civil authorities Number of children Has birth certificate No birth certificate Total registered1 Seen Not seen Sex Male 73.5 20.8 1.1 95.4 392 Female 75.9 18.0 2.4 96.2 356 Administrative unit FBiH 74.2 19.5 1.9 95.6 570 RS 66.9 28.2 1.3 96.4 123 BD 96.3 0.0 0.0 96.3 56 Age (months) 0-11 70.9 15.9 4.2 91.0 144 12-23 74.2 22.8 0.0 97.0 147 24-35 78.1 17.9 1.2 97.2 151 36-47 77.4 17.6 1.8 96.8 170 48-59 71.8 23.6 1.3 96.8 136 Mother’s education No formal education 80.4 12.1 1.7 94.2 247 Primary 72.5 22.0 2.0 96.4 427 Secondary+ 67.8 29.8 0.0 97.6 74 wealth index quintile Poorest 65.8 25.7 2.0 93.5 216 Second 67.6 26.1 2.8 96.5 181 Middle 87.5 7.9 0.9 96.4 122 Fourth 79.3 17.9 0.7 97.9 127 Richest 84.9 10.0 1.3 96.2 102 wealth index Poorest 60 per cent 71.5 21.7 2.0 95.2 519 Richest 40 per cent 81.8 14.4 0.9 97.1 229 Language of household head* Romani 81.7 11.1 2.0 94.9 454 Other 63.6 32.4 1.3 97.3 293 Total 74.7 19.5 1.7 95.8 748 1 MICS indicator 8.1 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 88 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 89 Table CP.2: Child discipline Percentage of children aged 2-14 years according to method of disciplining the child, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012       Percentage of children aged 2-14 years who experienced: Number of children aged 2-14 years Respondent believes that the child needs to be physically punished Respondents to the child discipline module Only non- violent discipline Psychological aggression Physical punishment Any violent discipline method1Any Severe Sex Male 25.2 51.1 45.6 6.9 58.0 957 10.2 444 Female 30.1 47.2 44.3 6.6 57.2 889 5.7 423 Administrative unit   FBiH 28.0 53.2 49.0 7.7 61.8 1406 8.9 668 RS 27.3 35.3 34.8 3.1 43.5 334 6.0 151 BD 22.5 39.2 22.5 4.9 47.1 107 (2.2) 48 Age (years)   2-4 29.2 38.3 39.7 4.4 49.2 455 6.4 238 5-9 25.7 54.2 51.1 9.9 62.6 671 11.1 284 10-14 28.3 51.4 42.5 5.2 58.4 720 6.7 345 Education of household head   No formal education 21.4 51.7 48.8 7.0 58.9 501 N/A N/A Primary 30.7 47.8 43.9 6.5 56.9 1119 N/A N/A Secondary+ 25.7 50.8 41.5 7.4 58.3 227 N/A N/A Respondent’s education   No formal education N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 7.2 210 Primary N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 8.4 548 Secondary+ N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A 8.0 110 wealth index quintile   Poorest 20.2 48.2 49.8 9.8 58.6 469 9.4 182 Second 29.8 46.1 44.9 7.0 56.3 392 8.1 176 Middle 31.1 50.3 38.6 8.0 56.2 361 5.6 172 Fourth 32.8 53.5 45.1 2.0 60.7 331 6.8 163 Richest 26.2 48.7 44.8 5.2 56.1 294 10.1 174 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 26.5 48.1 44.9 8.4 57.2 1222 7.7 531 Richest 40 per cent 29.7 51.3 44.9 3.5 58.5 625 8.5 336 Language of household head *  Romani 26.5 50.0 39.7 6.8 55.5 1091 8.3 493 Other 29.3 48.4 52.2 6.7 60.4 750 7.6 373 Total 27.6 49.2 44.9 6.7 57.6 1846 8.0 867 1 MICS indicator 8.5 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. N/A: “Not applicable” Early Marriage and Polygyny Marriage before the age of 18 is a reality for many young girls. According to UNICEF’s worldwide estimates, over 60 million women aged 20-24 were married/in union before the age of 18. Factors that influence child marriage rates (decreasing or increasing them) include: 1. state of the country’s civil registration system, which provides proof of age for children; 2. existence of an adequate legislative framework with an accompanying enforcement mechanism to address cases of child marriage; 3. existence of customary or religious laws and practices that condone the practice. In many parts of the world parents encourage their daughters to marry while they are still children in the hope that the marriage will benefit them both financially and socially, while also relieving the financial burden on the family. In actual fact, child marriage is a violation of human rights that compromises the development of girls and often results in early pregnancy and social isolation; little education and poor vocational training reinforces the gendered nature of poverty. The right to ‘free and full’ consent to a marriage is recognised in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights through the recognition that consent cannot be ‘free and full’ when one of the parties involved is not sufficiently mature to make an informed decision about a life partner. Many other international documents and treaties also emphasise this issue, such as the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women and the Convention on Consent to Marriage. Research suggests that many factors interact to place a child at risk of marriage. Poverty, protection of girls, family honour and the provision of stability during unstable social periods are considered as significant factors in determining a girl’s risk of becoming married while still a child. Women who married at younger ages are more likely to believe that it is sometimes acceptable for a husband to beat his wife and are more likely to experience domestic violence themselves. The age gap between partners is thought to contribute to these abusive power dynamics and to increase the risk of untimely widowhood. Closely related to the issue of child marriage is the age at which girls become sexually active. Women who are married before the age of 18 tend to have more children than those who marry later in life. Pregnancy related deaths are known to be a leading cause of mortality for both married and unmarried girls between the ages of 15 and 19, particularly amongst the youngest of this cohort. Therefore, two significant indicators exist to estimate the percentage of women married before 15 years of age and the percentage married before 18 years of age. Table CP.3 and CP.3M show the percentage of married women and men by marriage age, and the percentage of women and men in a polygynous union. Results indicate that over one-third of Roma women aged 15-19 were currently married (38 per cent), while this percentage was lower for men of the same age (13 per cent). The percentage of women and men of this age who were married was higher amongst those with no formal education (53 per cent for women and 20 per cent for men) compared to women and men with secondary or higher education (20 per cent for women and 10 per cent for men). The percentage of women aged 15-19 who were currently married was higher amongst women in the poorest wealth quintile (48 per cent) compared to women in the richest wealth quintile (28 per cent). Fifteen per cent of Roma women aged 20-49 married before age 15 years and 48 per cent of women of the same age married before 18 years of age. The highest percentage of women who married while underage had no formal education and belonged to the poorest wealth quintile. Nearly one-quarter of women between the ages of 15-49 and 20-49 with no formal education were first married before age 15 and over one half of women aged 20-49 with no formal education were first married before age 18. In both age groups the percentage of women married before age 15 was highest in BD, followed by the FBiH and was lowest in RS. A very small percentage of Roma women and men aged 15-49 lived in a union in which the husband had more than one wife/partner. 90 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 91 Table CP.3: Early m arriage and polygyny: w om en Percentage of w om en aged 15-49 years w ho first m arried or entered a m arital union before their 15th birthday, percentages of w om en aged 20-49 years w ho first m arried or entered a m arital union before their 15th and 18th birthdays, percentage of w om en aged 15-19 years currently m arried or in union, and the percentage of w om en currently m arried or in union w ho w ere in a polygynous m arriage or union, BiH Rom a Survey 2011–2012 Percentage m arried before age 15 1 N um ber of w om en aged 15-49 years Percentage m arried before age 15 Percentage m arried before age 18 2 N um ber of w om en aged 20-49 years Percentage of w om en 15-19 years currently m arried/in union 3 N um ber of w om en aged 15-19 years Percentage of w om en aged 15-49 years in polygynous m arriage/union 4 N um ber of w om en aged 15-49 years currently m arried/in union A dm inistrative unit   FBiH 15.0 1085 16.0 48.2 887 39.4 198 0.9 766 RS 11.2 224 10.6 43.3 179 28.5 45 0.8 159 BD 19.7 71 21.3 63.9 61 (*) 10 3.6 56 A ge (years)   15-19 11.2 253 N /A N /A N /A 38.3 253 0.9 97 20-24 16.3 258 16.3 49.2 258 N /A N /A 0.0 171 25-29 16.0 207 16.0 49.4 207 N /A N /A 1.8 156 30-34 14.7 183 14.7 46.4 183 N /A N /A 2.3 157 35-39 15.0 184 15.0 50.7 184 N /A N /A 0.6 166 40-44 13.2 147 13.2 43.8 147 N /A N /A 1.3 115 45-49 16.7 148 16.7 48.8 148 N /A N /A 0.0 120 Education   N o form al education 24.1 383 23.0 58.9 338 52.5 45 0.8 297 Prim ary 13.5 796 14.5 49.3 641 40.5 155 1.1 571 Secondary+ 1.2 201 1.7 19.4 148 19.8 53 1.0 113 w ealth index quintile   Poorest 19.7 240 20.4 61.4 190 47.9 51 1.5 173 Second 16.4 254 16.4 48.0 216 (44.0) 39 0.9 188 M iddle 14.8 283 14.9 49.2 231 45.1 51 0.5 196 Fourth 14.5 273 16.7 46.7 220 29.5 53 1.1 195 Richest 9.5 329 10.5 39.7 271 28.3 59 1.1 230 w ealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 16.8 777 17.0 52.4 637 45.8 141 0.9 557 Richest 40 per cent 11.8 603 13.3 42.8 491 28.9 112 1.1 424 Language of household head *  Rom ani 17.9 777 18.8 51.8 630 38.2 146 1.1 559 O ther 10.5 601 11.2 44.0 495 38.8 105 0.9 422 Total 14.6 1380 15.4 48.3 1,127 38.3 253 1.0 981 1 M ICS indicator 8.6 2 M ICS indicator 8.7 3 M ICS indicator 8.8 4 M ICS indicator 8.9 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unw eighted cases (*) Figures that are based on few er than 25 unw eighted cases * M issing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not show n in the table. N /A : “N ot applicable” Ta bl e CP .3 M : E ar ly m ar ri ag e an d po ly gy ny : m en Pe rc en ta ge o f m en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s w ho fi rs t m ar rie d or e nt er ed a m ar ita l u ni on b ef or e th ei r 1 5t h bi rt hd ay , p er ce nt ag es o f m en a ge d 20 -4 9 ye ar s w ho fi rs t m ar rie d or e nt er ed a m ar ita l u ni on b ef or e th ei r 15 th a nd 1 8t h bi rt hd ay s, pe rc en ta ge o f m en a ge d 15 -1 9 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d or in u ni on , a nd th e pe rc en ta ge o f m en c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho w er e in a p ol yg yn ou s m ar ria ge o r u ni on , B iH Ro m a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12 Pe rc en ta ge m ar rie d be fo re a ge 1 51 N um be r of m en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s Pe rc en ta ge m ar rie d be fo re a ge 1 5 Pe rc en ta ge m ar rie d be fo re a ge 1 82 N um be r of m en a ge d 20 -4 9 ye ar s Pe rc en ta ge o f m en 1 5- 19 y ea rs cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in u ni on 3 N um be r of m en a ge d 15 -1 9 ye ar s Pe rc en ta ge o f m en ag ed 1 5- 49 y ea rs in p ol yg yn ou s m ar ria ge / u ni on 4 N um be r o f m en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in u ni on A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 4. 0 11 51 4. 6 20 .2 90 8 13 .5 24 3 0. 5 70 7 RS 3. 7 24 1 3. 4 16 .3 19 5 11 .8 46 0. 5 14 1 BD 4. 7 64 5. 6 40 .7 54 (2 0. 0) 10 0. 0 53 A ge (y ea rs )   15 -1 9 2. 1 29 9 N /A N /A N /A 13 .4 29 9 0. 0 40 20 -2 4 5. 8 28 6 5. 8 19 .8 28 6 N /A N /A 0. 0 14 2 25 -2 9 5. 1 22 0 5. 1 19 .7 22 0 N /A N /A 1. 3 15 8 30 -3 4 2. 9 17 0 2. 9 21 .4 17 0 N /A N /A 0. 0 12 9 35 -3 9 2. 0 16 4 2. 0 21 .1 16 4 N /A N /A 0. 0 14 9 40 -4 4 4. 5 17 2 4. 5 21 .5 17 2 N /A N /A 0. 0 15 3 45 -4 9 5. 2 14 5 5. 2 20 .4 14 5 N /A N /A 1. 5 13 0 Ed uc at io n   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n 5. 2 22 5 6. 1 27 .5 19 2 19 .8 33 0. 0 14 8 Pr im ar y 4. 9 91 1 5. 3 22 .8 74 4 14 .5 16 7 0. 7 60 4 Se co nd ar y+ 0. 3 32 0 0. 0 7. 0 22 1 9. 5 99 0. 0 14 9 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t 5. 6 24 8 6. 0 24 .9 20 5 (2 1. 0) 43 0. 0 16 6 Se co nd 4. 8 26 4 5. 5 20 .5 21 6 (2 1. 5) 47 0. 7 17 4 M id dl e 3. 1 31 9 3. 1 19 .7 25 3 13 .9 66 0. 8 19 3 Fo ur th 3. 2 31 4 3. 8 16 .2 23 0 8. 7 84 0. 8 16 6 Ri ch es t 3. 5 31 2 4. 0 21 .7 25 3 7. 7 59 0. 0 20 2 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 4. 4 83 0 4. 8 21 .6 67 4 18 .2 15 6 0. 5 53 3 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 3. 4 62 6 3. 9 19 .1 48 3 8. 3 14 3 0. 3 36 8 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d*   Ro m an i 5. 3 83 6 5. 9 26 .4 66 4 14 .9 17 2 0. 3 52 3 O th er 2. 1 61 8 2. 4 12 .7 49 2 11 .5 12 6 0. 7 37 7 To ta l 3. 9 14 56 4. 4 20 .5 11 57 13 .4 29 9 0. 4 90 1 1 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .6 2 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .7 3 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .8 4 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .9 ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 –4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. N /A : “ N ot a pp lic ab le ” 92 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 93 Ta bl e CP .5 : S po us al a ge d iff er en ce Pe r c en t d is tr ib ut io n of w om en c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on a ge d 15 -1 9 an d 20 -2 4 ye ar s ac co rd in g to th e ag e di ffe re nc e to th ei r h us ba nd o r p ar tn er , B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12     Pe rc en ta ge o f c ur re nt ly m ar ri ed /in u ni on w om en a ge d 15 -1 9 ye ar s w ho se h us ba nd o r pa rt ne r i s: N um be r of w om en ag ed 1 5- 19 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in u ni on Pe rc en ta ge o f c ur re nt ly m ar ri ed /in u ni on w om en a ge d 20 -2 4 ye ar s w ho se h us ba nd o r p ar tn er is : N um be r of w om en ag ed 2 0- 24 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in u ni on yo un ge r 0- 4 ye ar s ol de r 5- 9 ye ar s ol de r 10 + ye ar s ol de r1 To ta l yo un ge r 0- 4 ye ar s ol de r 5- 9 ye ar s ol de r 10 + ye ar s ol de r2 H us ba nd / Pa rt ne r’s ag e un kn ow n To ta l A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 7. 5 62 .5 28 .5 1. 5 10 0. 0 78 20 .2 47 .8 28 .1 3. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 14 0 RS (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 13 (1 3. 4) (6 7. 7) (0 .0 ) (1 3. 8) (5 .0 ) 10 0. 0 19 BD (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 6 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 11 A ge (y ea rs )   15 -1 9 8. 6 61 .6 27 .3 2. 5 10 0. 0 97 N /A N /A N /A N /A N /A N /A N /A 20 -2 4 N /A N /A N /A N /A N /A N /A 18 .7 50 .5 25 .4 4. 8 0. 6 10 0. 0 17 1 Ed uc at io n   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n (4 .2 ) (5 5. 6) (3 2. 6) (7 .6 ) 10 0. 0 24 19 .0 51 .8 24 .1 3. 6 1. 5 10 0. 0 67 Pr im ar y 7. 9 64 .1 27 .0 1. 0 10 0. 0 63 15 .6 51 .6 26 .9 6. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 81 Se co nd ar y+ (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 10 28 .9 43 .0 24 .2 3. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 23 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 8. 4 53 .1 35 .7 2. 8 10 0. 0 64 17 .7 49 .7 26 .5 5. 2 0. 8 10 0. 0 11 9 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t (8 .9 ) (7 8. 5) (1 0. 6) (2 .0 ) 10 0. 0 32 21 .1 52 .4 22 .9 3. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 51 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d   Ro m an i 7. 9 61 .9 25 .8 4. 4 10 0. 0 56 22 .2 55 .0 20 .2 1. 8 0. 9 10 0. 0 10 5 O th er (9 .5 ) (6 1. 1) (2 9. 4) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 41 13 .2 43 .3 33 .9 9. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 65 To ta l 8. 6 61 .6 27 .3 2. 5 10 0. 0 97 18 .7 50 .5 25 .4 4. 8 0. 6 10 0. 0 17 1 1 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .1 0a 2 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .1 0b ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 –4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s N /A : “ N ot a pp lic ab le ” The data on marriage before age 15 and 18 allows us to see the trends in early marriage over time. Table CP.4 presents the proportion of women who were first married or entered into a marital union before age 15 and 18 by age group. This data shows that 15 per cent of women aged 15-49 were first married before age 15. The practice of entry into marriage did not differ by much across other age groups, meaning that, marital practices have not changed over the years. Less than one half of Roma women aged 20-49 married before age 18 (48 per cent), with no clear differentials across the age groups. Table CP.4: Trends in early marriage: women Percentage of women who were first married or entered into a marital union before age 15 and 18, by age group, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Percentage of women married before age 15 Number of women aged 15-49 Percentage of women married before age 18 Number of women aged 20-49 Age (years)   15-19 11.2 253 N/A N/A 20-24 16.3 258 49.2 258 25-29 16.0 207 49.4 207 30-34 14.7 183 46.4 183 35-39 15.0 184 50.7 184 40-44 13.2 147 43.8 147 45-49 16.7 148 48.8 148 Total 14.6 1,380 48.3 1,127 N/A: “Not applicable” Table CP.4M presents the proportion of men who were first married or entered into a marital union before age 15 and 18 by age group. The data shows that, compared to women, a lower percentage of men (4 per cent) aged 15-49 married before age 15. As was the case with women, the trend in early marriage over time does not show evident signs of decline. More than one-fifth of Roma men aged 20-49 married before age 18 (21 per cent), less than half the proportion of women. Table CP.4M: Trends in early marriage: men Percentage of men who were first married or entered into a marital union before age 15 and 18, by age group, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Percentage of men married before age 15 Number of men aged 15-49 Percentage of men married before age 18 Number of men aged 20-49 Age (years)   15-19 2.1 299 N/A N/A 20-24 5.8 286 19.8 286 25-29 5.1 220 19.7 220 30-34 2.9 170 21.4 170 35-39 2.0 164 21.1 164 40-44 4.5 172 21.5 172 45-49 5.2 145 20.4 145 Total 3.9 1,456 20.5 1,157 N/A: “Not applicable” Another significant factor of early marriage is spousal age difference with an indicator being the percentage of married/ in union women younger by a difference of 10 or more years to their current spouse. Table CP.5 presents the results of the age difference between husbands and wives. The results show that 3 per cent of Roma women aged 15-19 as well as 5 per cent of women aged 20-24 were currently married to a man who was older by ten years or more. However, a higher percentage of the women of these age groups were married to/in union with a younger husband/partner, amongst them 9 per cent of women aged 15-19 and 19 per cent of women aged 20-24. 94 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 95 Table CP.6: Attitudes towards domestic violence: women Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife/partner in various circumstances, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife/partner: Number of women aged 15-49 years If she goes out without telling him If she neglects the children If she argues with him If she refuses sex with him If she burns the food For any of these reasons1 Administrative unit   FBiH 27.4 29.6 21.0 20.1 8.7 42.5 1,085 RS 24.6 40.3 17.9 18.0 9.8 46.8 224 BD 29.6 35.2 40.8 31.0 8.5 47.9 71 Age (years)   15-19 23.6 27.9 22.1 16.5 7.9 41.2 253 20-24 24.9 28.8 21.3 21.3 6.2 40.5 258 25-29 23.5 30.7 19.5 20.2 5.2 42.8 207 30-34 30.2 29.8 20.9 21.4 9.1 44.8 183 35-39 24.4 33.6 21.3 19.7 10.8 43.2 184 40-44 34.4 40.5 23.5 24.5 14.4 51.4 147 45-49 34.2 35.1 22.7 20.5 12.3 44.6 148 Marital/Union status   Currently married/in union 28.5 32.9 22.9 21.2 9.2 44.2 981 Formerly married/in union 27.7 33.5 23.1 22.0 12.5 45.8 139 Never married/in union 21.3 25.9 15.3 16.0 5.9 39.6 259 Education   No formal education 38.0 37.4 30.8 29.6 11.6 50.8 383 Primary 26.4 32.3 20.2 19.7 9.2 44.6 796 Secondary+ 9.1 18.0 8.9 5.0 2.5 25.1 201 wealth index quintile   Poorest 33.0 34.2 27.7 25.9 10.7 48.2 240 Second 29.7 38.4 20.9 21.7 11.2 46.9 254 Middle 26.9 27.2 17.2 20.1 8.4 41.6 283 Fourth 25.2 32.4 22.7 19.2 10.0 44.7 273 Richest 22.5 27.6 20.1 16.3 5.3 38.0 329 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 29.7 33.1 21.7 22.4 10.1 45.4 777 Richest 40 per cent 23.7 29.8 21.3 17.6 7.4 41.1 603 Language of household head*   Romani 32.3 33.4 26.8 26.0 9.4 46.5 777 Other 20.0 29.0 14.7 13.0 8.3 39.4 601 Total 27.1 31.6 21.5 20.3 8.9 43.5 1,380 1 MICS indicator 8.14 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Attitudes towards Domestic Violence MICS4 in BiH assessed the attitudes of women and men aged 15-49 towards violence by husbands/partners against their wives/partners in cases where certain gender roles were not fulfilled by the wife and where she had a lower status in society. The responses to these questions can be found in Table CP.6 for women and Table CP.6M for men. The data indicates that the Roma women were more likely than men to feel that a husband/partner has a right to hit or beat his wife/partner. In most cases women who justified a husband’s violence agreed in instances where the woman neglected the children (32 per cent) or demonstrated her autonomy, for example, if she went out without telling her husband (27 per cent). Around one-fifth of women believed that a husband has a right to hit or beat his wife/partner if she argued with him (22 per cent) and if she refused to have sex with him (20 per cent), while nine per cent of women believed that a husband has a right to hit or beat his wife/partner if she burnt the food. Justification of wife beating was more present amongst the less educated women and those living in the poorest households. The highest proportion of men believed that a man has a right to hit or beat his wife/partner if she neglected the children (14 per cent), went out without telling her husband or refused to have sex with him (10 per cent each). Men and women held different attitudes towards whether a man/partner was justified in hitting or beating his wife/ partner with respect to their marital status. A lower percentage of women who had never been married/in union believed that a husband/partner has a right to hit or beat his wife/partner in all of the cited instances compared to those currently or ever-married/in union. Forty-four per cent of Roma women and 21 per cent of Roma men felt that a husband/partner has a right to hit or beat his wife/partner for at least one of the specified reasons. Men and women who lived in families in the poorest wealth quintile more often supported at least one reason justifying violence against women (25 per cent of men and 48 per cent of women) compared to men and women who were in the richest wealth quintile (15 per cent of men and 38 per cent women). 96 Multiple indicator cluster survey 2011–2012 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 97 XII HIV/AIDS and Sexual Behaviour that Increases the Risk of HIV Transmission Knowledge about HIV Transmission and Misconceptions about HIV/AIDS The first step in raising awareness and enabling the population, young people in particular, to protect themselves against infection is accurate knowledge of how HIV is transmitted. Misconceptions about HIV are common and can hinder prevention efforts and while different regions are likely to have variations in misconceptions some appear to be universal, for example, that sharing food can transmit HIV or that mosquito bites can transmit HIV. The UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) has called upon governments to improve the knowledge and skills of young people to protect themselves against HIV. Activities taken towards the Millennium Development Goals target of reducing the HIV infection rate by half include improving the level of knowledge on HIV and its prevention and changing behaviour, especially amongst young people. One indicator which is both an MDG and UNGASS indicator is the percentage of young women who have comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention and transmission. All Roma women and men aged 15-49 who had heard about AIDS were asked whether they knew of the two main ways to prevent HIV transmission, namely having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time. The results are presented in Table HA.1 and HA.1M. Tables HA.1, HA.2, HA.1M and HA.2M also present the percentage of women and men with comprehensive knowledge and the percentage of those who correctly identified the misconceptions related to HIV. The indicator is based on the two most common misconceptions amongst Roma: that HIV can be transmitted by mosquito bites and by sharing food with someone with AIDS. The tables also provide information on whether women and men knew that HIV cannot be transmitted by supernatural means. Women and men who had comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention included those persons who knew of the two main ways to prevent HIV infection (having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time), who knew that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus and who rejected the two most common misconceptions. The data presented in Table HA.1 and HA.1M show that more than two-thirds of Roma women aged 15-49 (67 per cent) and less than three quarters of men from the same age group (73 per cent) had heard of HIV/AIDS. A somewhat higher proportion of men compared to women in the FBiH and BD had heard of HIV/AIDS, while the percentage was the same for men and women in RS. Yet a lower percentage of women (42 per cent) and men (58 per cent) knew both of the main ways to prevent the transmission of HIV. In addition, one half of Roma women and two-thirds of men aged 15-49 knew that having only one faithful uninfected sex partner prevents transmission and 49 per cent of women and 62 per cent of men knew that using a condom every time is one of the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, while more than one-third of women (39 per cent) and one half of men (53 per cent) knew that a healthy looking person can be infected. About one-third of women (30 per cent) and men (35 per cent) knew that HIV cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites and more than a quarter of women (27 per cent) and one-third of men (37 per cent) knew that HIV cannot be transmitted by sharing food with an infected person, while two-fifths of women (40 per cent) and one half of men (51 per cent) knew that HIV cannot be transmitted by supernatural means. Eighteen per cent of men and only 9 per cent of Roma women aged 15-49 were found to have comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention methods. Men aged 15-24 were the exception: this group included the highest percentage who knew that HIV cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites (39 per cent). Table CP.6M: Attitudes towards domestic violence: men percentage of men aged 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife/partner in various circumstances, Bih roma survey 2011–2012   Percentage of men aged 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife/partner: number of men aged 15-49 years if she goes out without telling him if she neglects the children if she argues with him if she refuses sex with him if she burns the food for any of these reasons1 Administrative unit   fBih 10.5 12.2 7.9 8.7 4.3 19.4 1,151 rs 9.2 19.0 12.1 13.2 7.8 27.0 241 Bd 10.9 18.8 12.5 28.1 7.8 28.1 64 Age (years)   15-19 11.7 15.8 11.5 14.8 6.6 25.0 299 20-24 11.1 14.4 7.5 13.4 6.2 23.3 286 25-29 9.8 12.4 9.2 7.0 4.4 19.4 220 30-34 9.9 12.0 6.4 5.1 3.1 19.7 170 35-39 11.1 19.4 12.5 13.4 5.1 24.8 164 40-44 10.5 10.9 7.1 7.7 4.0 17.5 172 45-49 5.6 7.9 5.4 5.6 4.1 12.7 145 Marital/Union status   currently married/in union 9.4 12.6 7.7 8.1 3.9 19.0 901 formerly married/in union 15.1 22.9 15.6 21.8 11.5 35.0 84 never married/in union 11.1 13.8 9.6 12.4 6.0 22.6 471 Education   no formal education 10.1 14.0 13.0 10.7 6.0 22.3 225 primary 11.5 14.4 8.8 11.6 5.4 22.3 911 secondary+ 7.0 11.2 5.7 6.3 3.3 16.7 320 Wealth index quintile   poorest 13.5 14.6 8.5 12.0 5.5 24.6 248 second 11.0 15.8 10.9 9.7 4.2 23.9 264 Middle 11.3 12.5 8.3 9.9 4.9 21.6 319 fourth 10.6 15.5 11.2 11.5 6.9 21.8 314 richest 5.8 10.2 5.2 8.6 3.8 14.6 312 Wealth index   poorest 60 per cent 11.9 14.2 9.2 10.5 4.9 23.2 830 richest 40 per cent 8.2 12.9 8.2 10.1 5.3 18.2 626 Language of household head*  romani 11.0 14.1 10.1 12.6 5.7 22.4 836 other 9.2 12.9 6.8 7.2 4.0 19.1 618 Total 10.3 13.6 8.8 10.3 5.1 21.1 1,456 1 Mics indicator 8.14 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 98 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 99 21 46 67 42 1 11 30 11 9 23 9 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 21 Primary BiH Secondary+ Per cent Know 2 ways to prevent HIV Reject 2 most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus Comprehensive knowledge 47 58 67 58 11 18 29 20 11 17 25 18 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 Per cent BiH + ryondaSec Know 2 ways to prevent HIV Reject 2 most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus Comprehensive knowledge Primary Ta bl e H A .1 : k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on , m is co nc ep tio ns a bo ut H IV /A ID S, a nd co m pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on : w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s w ho k no w th e m ai n w ay s of p re ve nt in g H IV tr an sm is si on , p er ce nt ag e w ho k no w th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an h av e th e A ID S vi ru s, pe rc en ta ge w ho re je ct co m m on m is co nc ep tio ns , a nd p er ce nt ag e w ho h av e co m pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on , B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12 Pe rc en ta ge w ho h av e he ar d of A ID S Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w tr an sm is si on ca n be p re ve nt ed b y: Pe rc en ta ge of w om en w ho k no w bo th w ay s Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w th at a he al th y lo ok in g pe rs on c an ha ve th e A ID S vi ru s Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w th at H IV c an no t be tr an sm it te d by : Pe rc en ta ge w ho re je ct th e tw o m os t c om m on m is co nc ep tio ns an d kn ow th at a he al th y lo ok in g pe rs on ca n ha ve th e A ID S vi ru s Pe rc en ta ge w ith co m pr eh en si ve kn ow le dg e1 N um be r of w om en H av in g on ly on e fa ith fu l un in fe ct ed s ex pa rt ne r U si ng a co nd om ev er y tim e M os qu ito bi te s Su pe rn at ur al m ea ns Sh ar in g fo od w ith so m eo ne w ith A ID S A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 63 .8 48 .4 47 .2 40 .4 37 .5 27 .9 37 .1 26 .6 11 .2 8. 4 1, 08 5 RS 80 .2 59 .9 57 .6 51 .1 47 .3 36 .8 51 .2 30 .0 12 .5 10 .4 22 4 BD 73 .2 35 .2 52 .1 35 .2 31 .0 47 .9 49 .3 26 .8 8. 5 5. 6 71 A ge (y ea rs )   15 -2 4 65 .2 48 .5 49 .7 42 .0 37 .9 31 .1 40 .8 26 .8 11 .0 8. 9 51 0 25 -2 9 68 .9 49 .2 52 .1 41 .1 40 .7 30 .9 40 .2 24 .6 11 .5 8. 2 20 7 30 -3 9 72 .2 53 .5 51 .0 45 .4 43 .5 33 .6 43 .4 30 .2 13 .7 9. 9 36 7 40 -4 9 62 .1 46 .8 44 .1 37 .7 32 .8 24 .6 34 .5 25 .8 8. 7 6. 8 29 5 M ar it al s ta tu s   Ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 65 .2 48 .8 47 .5 41 .0 37 .7 28 .9 38 .2 26 .0 10 .2 7. 7 1, 12 1 N ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 74 .5 53 .2 56 .4 45 .7 43 .2 36 .5 47 .9 32 .3 15 .9 12 .3 25 9 w om en ’s ed uc at io n   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n 44 .9 28 .3 26 .0 20 .6 22 .2 13 .4 19 .5 9. 5 1. 4 0. 0 38 3 Pr im ar y 71 .2 53 .3 53 .1 45 .7 40 .2 31 .3 42 .8 28 .6 11 .2 9. 0 79 6 Se co nd ar y+ 92 .3 75 .3 77 .8 67 .2 64 .7 58 .7 68 .1 54 .9 30 .4 23 .4 20 1 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t 50 .0 32 .2 27 .9 23 .5 22 .6 15 .1 23 .6 14 .0 2. 9 1. 0 24 0 Se co nd 61 .0 46 .3 45 .9 39 .4 34 .8 28 .4 35 .6 19 .1 6. 8 5. 0 25 4 M id dl e 68 .0 52 .7 53 .3 45 .5 39 .0 30 .0 39 .1 26 .8 11 .7 9. 8 28 3 Fo ur th 69 .6 56 .1 52 .9 46 .3 42 .3 34 .4 41 .2 31 .0 14 .3 10 .2 27 3 Ri ch es t 80 .9 56 .8 60 .6 50 .3 50 .5 39 .9 55 .2 40 .0 18 .1 14 .6 32 9 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 60 .1 44 .3 43 .0 36 .7 32 .6 24 .9 33 .2 20 .4 7. 4 5. 5 77 7 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 75 .8 56 .5 57 .1 48 .5 46 .7 37 .4 48 .9 35 .9 16 .3 12 .6 60 3 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d*   Ro m an i 59 .2 40 .0 39 .9 33 .1 30 .7 23 .7 33 .6 19 .1 5. 6 3. 3 77 7 O th er 76 .9 61 .8 60 .9 52 .9 49 .3 39 .1 48 .5 37 .4 18 .7 15 .5 60 1 To ta l 67 .0 49 .6 49 .2 41 .9 38 .8 30 .4 40 .0 27 .2 11 .3 8. 6 1, 38 0 1 M IC S in di ca to r 9 .1 * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. No formal education No formal education In respect to all of the questions, knowledge was higher amongst women and men who had never been married/in union compared to those who had been or were married/in union and was also higher amongst women and men with secondary or higher education and those in the richest 40 per cent of the population (see Figure HA.1 and HA.1M). Figure HA.1: Percentage of women who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Figure HA.1M: Percentage of men who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 100 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 101 Table HA.1M: knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV/AIDS and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission: men aged 15-49 Percentage of men aged 15-49 years who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, percentage who know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus, percentage who reject common misconceptions and percentage who have comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage who have heard of AIDS Percentage who know transmission can be prevented by: Percentage of men who know both ways Percentage who know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus Percentage who know that HIV cannot be transmitted by: Percentage who reject the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can have the AIDS virus Percentage with comprehensive knowledge1 Number of menHaving only one faithful uninfected sex partner Using a condom every time Mosquito bites Supernatural means Sharing food with someone with AIDS Administrative unit   FBiH 71.2 66.7 61.6 59.4 51.8 33.5 53.0 36.1 19.6 18.6 1,151 RS 79.7 65.1 58.3 50.6 52.4 39.9 45.8 41.4 18.7 15.0 241 BD 79.7 68.8 75.0 65.6 75.0 40.6 40.6 31.3 21.9 14.1 64 Age (years)   15-24 72.2 66.5 61.4 58.4 52.9 39.1 53.8 39.4 22.9 20.9 585 25-29 72.2 67.4 61.7 58.7 53.3 34.1 50.2 35.0 17.9 17.0 220 30-39 77.3 70.4 67.6 64.1 57.9 32.9 54.0 41.3 18.8 17.1 334 40-49 70.3 61.9 55.9 51.3 47.4 29.5 44.7 28.4 15.4 13.2 317 Marital status   Ever married/in union 70.8 63.9 59.6 55.8 51.4 31.8 47.3 32.4 16.7 15.1 985 Never married/in union 77.5 72.1 66.0 63.1 56.0 41.3 59.7 45.8 25.5 23.4 471 Education   No formal education 57.7 52.3 50.1 47.2 45.5 18.8 32.8 21.0 10.8 10.6 225 Primary 71.3 65.7 60.8 57.9 49.8 34.6 48.8 33.2 18.4 17.0 911 Secondary+ 88.3 78.9 72.4 66.9 67.0 46.9 71.3 57.8 29.0 25.0 320 wealth index quintile   Poorest 62.4 55.0 52.7 48.2 47.2 31.8 38.7 25.5 14.7 13.6 248 Second 69.9 64.8 59.5 57.1 46.1 30.5 47.1 28.8 14.4 13.2 264 Middle 70.8 65.2 58.7 56.2 51.1 27.8 48.8 34.3 15.6 13.9 319 Fourth 79.7 72.2 66.8 62.6 56.9 41.6 60.7 47.6 27.1 25.0 314 Richest 79.3 72.8 68.5 64.7 61.0 41.3 58.0 44.0 24.3 21.6 312 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 68.0 62.0 57.2 54.1 48.4 29.9 45.2 29.9 15.0 13.6 830 Richest 40 per cent 79.5 72.5 67.7 63.6 58.9 41.5 59.4 45.8 25.7 23.3 626 Language of household head*  Romani 68.3 62.2 58.7 55.2 50.7 32.2 44.7 31.8 17.8 15.7 836 Other 79.2 72.2 65.6 62.0 55.8 38.5 60.4 43.6 22.0 20.7 618 Total 72.9 66.5 61.7 58.2 52.9 34.9 51.3 36.8 19.6 17.8 1,456 1 MICS indicator 9.1 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Men aged 15-24 demonstrated a higher level of knowledge compared to women. For instance, compared to women, a higher percentage of men knew that HIV cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites (39 per cent of men and 31 per cent of women) or by sharing food with an infected person (39 per cent of men and 27 per cent women). In addition, a higher proportion of men knew that HIV cannot be transmitted by supernatural means (54 per cent of men versus 41 per cent of women) and that a healthy looking person can be infected (53 per cent of men versus 38 per cent of women). Comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention was found amongst more than one-fifth of Roma men aged 15-24 (21 per cent) and a lower percentage of women (9 per cent). For all the questions, knowledge was higher amongst women and men who had never been married/in union compared to those who had been or were married/in union; knowledge increased with the education level and was highest amongst those with the highest level of education and those from the richest 40 per cent of the population. The findings for women and men aged 15-24 are presented separately in Table HA.2 and HA.2M. Results indicate that about two-thirds of Roma women aged 15-24 (65 per cent) and nearly three quarters of Roma men from the same age group (72 per cent) had heard of HIV/AIDS, but a lower percentage of both women (42 per cent) and men (58 per cent) knew of both main ways to prevent HIV transmission. The results indicate that men were more familiar with the two mains ways of preventing HIV transmission than women: about two-thirds of men (67 per cent) and about one half of women (49 per cent) knew that one of the main ways to prevent HIV transmission is to have only one faithful uninfected partner. In addition, a higher percentage of men (61 per cent) than women (50 per cent) knew that using a condom every time is one of the main ways to prevent HIV transmission. 102 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 103 Table H A .2: know ledge about H IV transm ission, m isconceptions about H IV /A ID S and com prehensive know ledge about H IV transm ission: w om en aged 15-24 Percentage of w om en aged 15-24 years w ho know the m ain w ays of preventing H IV transm ission, percentage w ho know that a healthy looking person can have the A ID S virus, percentage w ho reject com m on m isconceptions and percentage w ho have com prehensive know ledge about H IV transm ission, BiH Rom a Survey 2011–2012 Percentage w ho have heard of A ID S Percentage w ho know transm ission can be prevented by: Percentage of w om en w ho know both w ays Percentage w ho know that a healthy looking person can have the A ID S virus Percentage w ho know that H IV cannot be transm itted by: Percentage w ho reject the tw o m ost com m on m isconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can have the A ID S virus Percentage w ith com prehensive know ledge 1 N um ber of w om en aged 15-24 H aving only one faithful uninfected sex partner U sing a condom every tim e M osquito bites Supernatural m eans Sharing food w ith som eone w ith A ID S A dm inistrative unit   FBiH 62.0 47.5 47.8 40.3 37.5 27.0 37.3 26.4 10.6 8.4 408 RS 78.9 58.3 58.5 52.8 42.4 44.7 56.7 28.7 14.3 13.1 77 BD (76.0) (36.0) (52.0) (36.0) (32.0) (56.0) (48.0) (28.0) (8.0) (4.0) 25 A ge (years)   15-19 67.2 49.5 50.6 42.6 37.8 33.9 40.8 30.6 12.1 10.0 253 20-24 63.4 47.6 48.7 41.4 38.1 28.3 40.7 23.1 10.0 7.7 258 M arital status   Ever m arried/in union 59.3 44.0 45.0 38.3 32.8 25.9 35.0 21.5 6.9 6.1 305 N ever m arried/in union 74.2 55.2 56.6 47.6 45.6 38.8 49.4 34.7 17.1 12.9 205 w om en’s education   N o form al education 40.4 25.8 26.0 21.2 17.2 12.5 17.5 7.2 0.0 0.0 127 Prim ary 66.2 47.0 48.2 40.1 36.5 28.8 40.9 25.1 8.4 6.8 283 Secondary+ 93.9 81.5 83.6 73.6 68.2 61.0 69.7 56.3 32.1 25.7 101 w ealth index quintile   Poorest 46.0 26.8 27.3 19.8 18.9 15.1 23.1 14.3 2.2 2.2 116 Second 63.8 52.1 49.6 45.3 39.3 30.0 39.3 21.8 8.3 6.8 98 M iddle 69.5 51.5 55.9 45.9 39.3 35.8 41.3 25.1 10.4 8.1 97 Fourth 73.0 57.9 60.0 51.1 43.6 37.3 46.6 36.2 18.3 14.9 83 Richest 76.5 58.0 59.3 51.6 50.4 39.5 54.9 37.9 17.3 13.6 117 w ealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 58.9 42.5 43.2 36.0 31.7 26.2 33.9 20.0 6.7 5.5 310 Richest 40 per cent 75.1 57.9 59.6 51.4 47.6 38.6 51.5 37.2 17.7 14.1 200 Language of household head *  Rom ani 56.6 39.3 40.0 33.7 29.3 26.0 35.6 19.5 5.1 3.5 296 O ther 77.0 61.0 62.6 53.1 50.3 38.4 48.4 36.8 19.3 16.4 212 Total 65.2 48.5 49.7 42.0 37.9 31.1 40.8 26.8 11.0 8.9 510 1 M ICS indicator 9.2; M D G indicator 6.3 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unw eighted cases * M issing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not show n in the table. Ta bl e H A .2 M : k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on , m is co nc ep ti on s ab ou t H IV /A ID S an d co m pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on : m en a ge d 15 -2 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f m en a ge d 15 -2 4 ye ar s w ho k no w th e m ai n w ay s of p re ve nt in g H IV tr an sm is si on , p er ce nt ag e w ho k no w th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an h av e th e A ID S vi ru s, pe rc en ta ge w ho re je ct c om m on m is co nc ep tio ns a nd p er ce nt ag e w ho h av e co m pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on , B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12 Pe rc en ta ge w ho h av e he ar d of A ID S Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w tr an sm is si on ca n be p re ve nt ed b y: Pe rc en ta ge of m en w ho k no w bo th w ay s Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w th at a he al th y lo ok in g pe rs on c an ha ve th e A ID S vi ru s Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w th at H IV ca nn ot b e tr an sm it te d by : Pe rc en ta ge w ho re je ct th e tw o m os t c om m on m is co nc ep tio ns an d kn ow th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an h av e th e A ID S vi ru s Pe rc en ta ge w ith co m pr eh en si ve kn ow le dg e1 N um be r of m en ag ed 15 -2 4 H av in g on ly on e fa ith fu l un in fe ct ed s ex pa rt ne r U si ng a co nd om ev er y tim e M os qu ito bi te s Su pe rn at ur al m ea ns Sh ar in g fo od w ith so m eo ne w ith A ID S A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 70 .8 66 .4 62 .5 60 .0 53 .8 38 .8 56 .2 40 .3 24 .1 22 .8 47 3 RS 79 .3 67 .8 53 .6 49 .0 46 .0 40 .8 47 .0 37 .9 18 .7 12 .3 91 BD (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 21 A ge (y ea rs )   15 -1 9 71 .7 65 .8 61 .6 58 .7 54 .4 40 .6 54 .8 40 .2 26 .1 24 .2 29 9 20 -2 4 72 .6 67 .1 61 .2 58 .0 51 .3 37 .6 52 .6 38 .5 19 .6 17 .4 28 6 M ar it al s ta tu s   Ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 63 .0 58 .1 56 .5 53 .7 47 .3 31 .3 43 .4 27 .7 15 .5 14 .7 20 0 N ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 76 .9 70 .8 63 .9 60 .8 55 .8 43 .2 59 .1 45 .4 26 .7 24 .1 38 5 Ed uc at io n   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n 51 .4 47 .2 44 .4 42 .3 41 .2 27 .0 33 .6 22 .1 13 .3 13 .3 80 Pr im ar y 69 .3 64 .6 60 .5 57 .9 49 .1 36 .2 49 .6 33 .2 19 .3 18 .1 34 0 Se co nd ar y+ 88 .1 79 .5 71 .6 67 .2 66 .4 50 .9 72 .1 60 .4 34 .9 30 .2 16 5 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t 52 .7 49 .7 45 .7 43 .5 34 .7 31 .4 33 .6 23 .6 14 .6 12 .4 96 Se co nd 73 .0 67 .5 60 .7 58 .8 42 .9 37 .0 50 .2 32 .3 15 .2 15 .2 95 M id dl e 70 .0 63 .5 59 .3 55 .5 54 .5 31 .9 51 .9 35 .8 20 .0 16 .8 12 9 Fo ur th 82 .9 75 .1 69 .5 65 .8 63 .8 48 .6 65 .0 53 .1 33 .7 31 .2 14 0 Ri ch es t 76 .7 72 .0 67 .2 64 .3 60 .5 43 .4 61 .2 45 .1 26 .2 24 .3 12 5 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 65 .7 60 .5 55 .6 52 .8 45 .1 33 .3 45 .9 31 .1 16 .9 15 .0 32 0 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 80 .0 73 .6 68 .4 65 .1 62 .2 46 .2 63 .2 49 .4 30 .1 28 .0 26 6 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d*   Ro m an i 64 .7 60 .2 58 .4 55 .6 48 .0 36 .3 45 .8 32 .1 21 .5 20 .0 34 7 O th er 82 .9 75 .4 65 .6 62 .4 59 .8 43 .3 65 .5 50 .1 25 .1 22 .3 23 8 To ta l 72 .2 66 .5 61 .4 58 .4 52 .9 39 .1 53 .8 39 .4 22 .9 20 .9 58 5 1 M IC S in di ca to r 9 .2 ; M D G in di ca to r 6 .3 (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. 104 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 105 Women and men should know that HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy, during delivery and through breastfeeding. Knowledge of the mother-to-child transmission of HIV is also an important first step for women to seek HIV testing when they are pregnant in order to avoid infection in the baby. The level of knowledge amongst women and men aged 15-49 years concerning mother-to-child transmission is presented in Tables HA.3 and HA.3M. The survey findings show that more than one half of women (55 per cent) and men (53 per cent) aged 15-49 knew that HIV can be transmitted from mother-to-child. A somewhat lower percentage of women and men (about 40 per cent) knew about all three means of mother-to-child transmission of HIV, while one-fifth of men (20 per cent) and a lower percentage of women (12 per cent) did not know of any specific means. The highest percentage of women who knew of the possible ways in which the mother-to-child transmission of the virus could occur was found in RS, while the highest percentage of men with similar knowledge was found in the FBiH. The percentage of women and men who possessed this knowledge increased with age, the highest knowledge being found amongst those aged 30-39 and declined in the oldest age group (40-49 years). The proportion of women and men who knew the possible ways to transmit HIV from mother-to-child was highest amongst those with secondary or higher education and amongst those in the richest 40 per cent of the population. Table HA.3: knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission: women Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who could correctly identify the means of HIV transmission from mother-to-child, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage who know HIV can be transmitted from mother-to-child Per cent who know HIV can be transmitted by: Does not know any of the specific means Number of womenDuring pregnancy During delivery By breastfeeding All three means1 Administrative unit FBiH 52.8 49.1 45.9 43.5 38.3 11.0 1,085 RS 64.2 61.4 59.3 60.0 55.3 16.0 224 BD 62.0 50.7 53.5 57.7 47.9 11.3 71 Age (years)   15-24 51.2 45.6 41.4 43.4 35.2 14.0 510 15-19 50.1 43.2 38.6 43.0 33.4 17.0 253 20-24 52.3 48.0 44.1 43.7 37.0 11.1 258 25-29 58.0 52.8 54.0 52.3 46.3 10.9 207 30-39 61.0 59.0 55.0 52.9 49.0 11.2 367 40-49 52.5 50.1 48.6 41.9 39.9 9.6 295 Marital status   Ever married/in union 55.0 51.6 48.9 46.7 41.9 10.2 1,121 Never married/in union 55.7 49.7 46.4 48.1 39.9 18.8 259 Education   No formal education 36.9 34.1 31.7 31.9 27.5 8.0 383 Primary 58.5 54.2 51.6 49.4 43.9 12.7 796 Secondary+ 76.6 72.0 67.9 66.0 58.9 15.6 201 wealth index quintile   Poorest 38.3 37.3 33.7 33.3 29.6 11.7 240 Second 52.4 45.6 44.8 45.5 38.6 8.7 254 Middle 56.6 51.3 49.7 48.7 41.7 11.4 283 Fourth 57.6 53.8 49.9 47.9 43.1 12.0 273 Richest 66.2 63.5 59.7 55.7 51.2 14.7 329 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 49.5 45.1 43.1 42.9 36.9 10.6 777 Richest 40 per cent 62.3 59.1 55.3 52.1 47.5 13.5 603 Language of household head*   Romani 48.9 44.6 42.7 42.4 36.7 10.3 777 Other 63.1 59.7 56.1 52.8 48.0 13.7 601 Total 55.1 51.2 48.4 46.9 41.5 11.8 1,380 1 MICS indicator 9.3 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Table HA.3M: knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission: men Percentage of men aged 15-49 years who could correctly identify the means of HIV transmission from mother-to-child, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage who know HIV can be transmitted from mother-to-child Per cent who know HIV can be transmitted by: Does not know any of the specific means Number of menDuring pregnancy During delivery By breastfeeding All three means1 Administrative unit   FBiH 54.1 49.3 47.4 47.1 42.2 17.1 1,151 RS 50.5 45.4 43.8 42.2 35.7 29.2 241 BD 37.5 34.4 37.5 35.9 34.4 42.2 64 Age (years)   15-24 52.4 46.0 45.8 44.8 38.9 19.7 585 15-19 52.0 45.5 46.1 45.3 39.5 19.7 299 20-24 52.8 46.4 45.4 44.3 38.3 19.8 286 25-29 50.9 48.0 43.4 44.8 40.5 21.3 220 30-39 58.7 55.0 52.4 52.5 47.8 18.6 334 40-49 48.5 44.1 43.2 41.4 36.9 21.8 317 Marital status   Ever married/in union 51.1 47.3 45.3 44.4 40.5 19.7 985 Never married/in union 56.3 49.3 48.7 48.8 41.2 21.1 471 Education   No formal education 35.4 32.4 31.6 31.1 28.3 22.3 225 Primary 50.9 46.1 44.6 45.1 39.9 20.4 911 Secondary+ 70.3 64.0 61.8 58.4 52.0 18.0 320 wealth index quintile   Poorest 45.4 42.9 40.6 38.1 34.8 17.0 248 Second 49.4 44.2 40.1 42.2 35.4 20.4 264 Middle 49.9 44.0 44.1 44.6 39.1 20.9 319 Fourth 59.8 54.7 54.8 55.1 49.0 19.9 314 Richest 57.3 52.4 50.2 47.0 43.4 22.0 312 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 48.4 43.7 41.7 41.9 36.6 19.6 830 Richest 40 per cent 58.5 53.6 52.5 51.1 46.2 20.9 626 Language of household head*   Romani 45.1 41.1 40.2 39.8 35.8 23.2 836 Other 63.0 57.1 54.6 53.9 47.4 16.2 618 Total 52.8 48.0 46.4 45.8 40.8 20.2 1,456 1 MICS indicator 9.3 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 106 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 107 Accepting Attitudes towards People Living with HIV/AIDS The indicators on attitudes towards people living with HIV measure stigmatisation and discrimination in a community. Stigma and discrimination are low if respondents report an accepting attitude for the four questions below. 1. Would you care for family member ill with AIDS? 2. Would you buy fresh vegetables from a vendor who is HIV positive? 3. Do you think that a female teacher who is HIV positive should be allowed to teach in school? 4. Would you not want to keep the HIV status of a family member a secret? Tables HA.4 and HA.4M present the attitudes of Roma women and men towards people living with HIV/AIDS. Over four-fifths of Roma women and men who had heard of HIV/AIDS agreed with at least one accepting attitude towards people living with HIV (88 per cent). The most frequent accepting attitudes expressed were: a willingness to care for a family member with the AIDS virus in one’s own home and not keeping the HIV status of a family member secret. In an equally high percentage, both women and men showed a willingness to care for a family member living with HIV in their own household (70 per cent of women and 69 per cent of men). More than one half of men (60 per cent) and women (54 per cent) would not want to keep the HIV status of a family member a secret. On the other hand, only 18 per cent of women and 29 per cent of men thought that a female teacher who was HIV positive but is not ill should be allowed to continue teaching in school. In addition, 21 per cent of women and 32 per cent of men would buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who was HIV positive. Overall, 7 per cent of women reported accepting attitudes for all of the four indicators, whereby 9 per cent of women with secondary or higher education and 3 per cent of women with no formal education reported accepting attitudes for all of the four indicators. Accepting attitudes for all of the four indicators were reported by 14 per cent of men (19 per cent for men who had secondary or higher education and only 3 per cent for men with no formal education). Accepting attitudes for all of the four indicators were reported by 14 per cent of men, of which 19 per cent had secondary or higher education and only 3 per cent no formal education. Accepting attitudes for all four indicators were found amongst 10 per cent of women and 18 per cent of men belonging to the richest wealth quintile compared to only 3 per cent of men and less than 1 per cent of women from the poorest wealth quintile. Women and men with no formal education were more likely to believe that a female teacher who was HIV positive, but is not ill, should be allowed to continue teaching (8 per cent of women and 21 per cent of men) than those with secondary or higher education (30 per cent of women and 39 per cent of men). This attitude was far more common amongst women and men in the poorest wealth quintile (11 per cent of women and 20 per cent of men) compared to those from the richest wealth quintile (25 per cent of women and 37 per cent of men). Ta bl e H A .4 : A cc ep ti ng a tt it ud es to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w it h H IV /A ID S: w om en Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s w ho h av e he ar d of A ID S w ho e xp re ss a n ac ce pt in g at tit ud e to w ar ds p eo pl e liv in g w ith H IV /A ID S, B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12 Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en w ho : N um be r of w om en w ho ha ve h ea rd of A ID S A re w ill in g to ca re fo r a fa m ily m em be r w ith th e A ID S vi ru s in o w n ho m e w ou ld b uy fr es h ve ge ta bl es fr om a sh op ke ep er or v en do r w ho h as th e A ID S vi ru s Be lie ve th at a fe m al e te ac he r w ith th e A ID S vi ru s an d is n ot il l sh ou ld b e al lo w ed to c on tin ue te ac hi ng w ou ld n ot w an t t o ke ep se cr et th at a fa m ily m em be r g ot in fe ct ed w ith th e A ID S vi ru s Ag re e w ith at le as t o ne ac ce pt in g at tit ud e Ex pr es s ac ce pt in g at tit ud es o n al l f ou r in di ca to rs 1 A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 71 .2 21 .9 18 .7 53 .7 89 .2 7. 5 69 2 RS 73 .3 16 .1 17 .3 58 .1 87 .2 3. 1 18 0 BD 44 .2 17 .3 17 .3 50 .0 69 .2 3. 8 52 A ge (y ea rs )   15 -2 4 70 .1 19 .0 20 .9 48 .1 86 .4 6. 1 33 3 15 -1 9 70 .1 16 .9 17 .4 41 .2 85 .9 4. 6 17 0 20 -2 4 70 .1 21 .2 24 .5 55 .3 86 .9 7. 7 16 3 25 -2 9 73 .6 27 .6 18 .3 50 .9 89 .9 6. 2 14 3 30 -3 9 66 .5 19 .2 16 .9 60 .3 86 .5 7. 4 26 5 40 -4 9 72 .4 19 .6 15 .9 59 .9 90 .2 6. 1 18 4 M ar it al s ta tu s   Ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 69 .4 19 .6 16 .4 58 .3 88 .9 6. 2 73 1 N ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 72 .5 24 .0 25 .7 39 .3 83 .1 7. 3 19 3 Ed uc at io n   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n 62 .8 12 .1 8. 2 56 .5 85 .0 2. 7 17 2 Pr im ar y 68 .9 19 .6 17 .5 55 .1 87 .8 6. 7 56 6 Se co nd ar y+ 80 .3 31 .1 30 .4 50 .1 89 .9 9. 4 18 6 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t 62 .3 15 .3 10 .5 57 .6 87 .6 0. 8 12 0 Se co nd 63 .5 15 .5 13 .3 61 .4 86 .6 3. 2 15 5 M id dl e 76 .4 19 .2 15 .5 57 .2 90 .7 7. 8 19 2 Fo ur th 74 .1 19 .3 20 .8 54 .9 92 .2 7. 0 19 0 Ri ch es t 69 .9 27 .5 25 .2 46 .4 83 .0 9. 6 26 6 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 68 .5 17 .0 13 .5 58 .7 88 .5 4. 5 46 8 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 71 .7 24 .1 23 .3 49 .9 86 .9 8. 5 45 7 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d *  Ro m an i 63 .8 16 .7 15 .9 50 .9 81 .8 5. 3 46 0 O th er 76 .4 24 .4 20 .9 58 .0 93 .7 7. 7 46 2 To ta l 70 .1 20 .5 18 .4 54 .4 87 .7 6. 5 92 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 9 .4 * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. 108 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 109 Table HA.4M: Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS: men Percentage of men aged 15-49 years who have heard of AIDS who express accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV/AIDS, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of men who: Number of men who have heard of AIDS Are willing to care for a family member with the AIDS virus in own home would buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who has the AIDS virus Believe that a female teacher with the AIDS virus and is not ill should be allowed to continue teaching would not want to keep secret that a family member got infected with the AIDS virus Agree with at least one accepting attitude Express accepting attitudes on all four indicators1 Administrative unit   FBiH 69.6 32.2 29.5 61.9 85.0 17.2 819 RS 71.8 28.0 26.2 52.8 97.4 3.2 192 BD 41.2 35.3 33.3 60.8 96.1 0.0 51 Age (years)   15-24 77.3 40.8 35.6 62.6 93.2 19.7 422 15-19 81.7 44.4 41.7 62.9 94.6 23.9 214 20-24 72.8 37.1 29.3 62.3 91.7 15.2 208 25-29 67.5 27.1 28.7 63.0 89.2 10.2 159 30-39 63.9 27.0 24.4 58.5 83.9 10.5 258 40-49 58.6 22.6 22.4 55.6 81.0 9.0 223 Marital status   Ever married/in union 62.5 26.6 23.9 59.7 85.7 9.4 697 Never married/in union 80.4 41.2 38.9 61.2 91.8 22.2 365 Education   No formal education 42.1 20.6 21.3 47.7 76.2 3.2 130 Primary 66.3 28.3 26.3 62.0 86.8 13.5 649 Secondary+ 86.1 44.3 39.1 61.7 95.4 19.4 283 wealth index quintile   Poorest 52.6 22.4 19.7 51.9 79.2 3.3 155 Second 67.7 24.3 22.0 62.8 88.6 10.4 184 Middle 69.4 27.7 29.3 56.5 87.5 14.2 226 Fourth 73.4 36.0 31.9 62.2 88.5 18.1 250 Richest 73.8 41.9 37.0 64.7 92.1 18.2 247 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 64.3 25.1 24.3 57.3 85.6 10.0 565 Richest 40 per cent 73.6 38.9 34.5 63.5 90.3 18.2 497 Language of household head*   Romani 59.9 29.2 29.1 60.1 86.8 10.5 571 Other 78.8 34.5 29.1 60.5 88.9 17.7 489 Total 68.6 31.6 29.1 60.2 87.8 13.8 1,062 1 MICS indicator 9.4 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. A higher percentage of women in RS (30 per cent) and BD (28 per cent) knew where to be tested for HIV compared to the FBiH (21 per cent). In contrast to women, a higher percentage of men in BD (66 per cent) knew where to be tested for HIV than in RS (53 per cent) and the FBiH (47 per cent). Knowledge of a facility for HIV testing was higher amongst women and men (30 and 54 per cent respectively) who had never been married/in union compared to those who were currently married/in union or were ever married/in union (21 per cent of women and 46 per cent of men), amongst women (55 per cent) and men (69 per cent) with secondary or higher education compared to those with no formal education (10 per cent of women and 34 per cent of men) and amongst women (33 per cent) and men (61 per cent) who belonged to the richest wealth quintile compared to those in the poorest wealth quintile (8 per cent of women and 36 per cent of men). More women and men with secondary or higher education had been tested for HIV (12 and 8 per cent respectively) compared to those with no formal education (2 per cent of women and 4 per cent of men). In addition, more women (6 per cent) and men (7 per cent) from the richest wealth quintile had been tested compared to those in the poorest wealth quintile (1 per cent of women and 2 per cent of men). knowledge of a Place for HIV Testing, Counselling and Testing during Antenatal Care Another important indicator is the knowledge of where to be tested for HIV and the use of such services. In order to protect themselves and to prevent infecting others it is important for individuals to know their HIV status, which is also a critical factor in the decision to seek treatment. Tables HA.5 and HA.5M present data on the knowledge of a facility for HIV testing and whether women and men aged 15-49 had ever been tested for HIV. More Roma men (49 per cent) than women (23 per cent) knew of a facility where they could be tested for HIV; however, an equally low percentage of men and women had ever been tested for HIV (4 per cent of women and 5 per cent of men). Within the 12 months preceding the survey the same percentage of men and women had been tested for HIV (2 per cent) and almost all of them had been told the result. 110 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 111 Table HA.5: knowledge of a place for HIV testing: women Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who know where to get an HIV test, percentage of women who have ever been tested, percentage of women who have been tested in the last 12 months and percentage of women who have been tested in the last 12 months and have been told the result, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of women who: Number of women Know a place to get tested1 Have ever been tested Have been tested in the last 12 months Have been tested in the last twelve months and have been told the result2 Administrative unit   FBiH 20.6 4.4 2.0 2.0 1,085 RS 30.2 2.6 1.4 0.9 224 BD 28.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 71 Age (years)   15-24 23.3 3.2 1.9 1.7 510 15-19 23.2 2.2 0.8 0.8 253 20-24 23.5 4.2 2.9 2.5 258 25-29 21.5 4.3 1.6 1.6 207 30-39 22.1 5.2 2.1 2.1 367 40-49 22.6 3.0 1.5 1.5 295 Marital status   Ever married/in union 20.9 3.9 1.7 1.6 1,121 Never married/in union 30.0 3.8 2.2 2.2 259 Education   No formal education 9.9 1.8 0.7 0.7 383 Primary 20.5 2.7 1.2 1.2 796 Secondary+ 55.0 12.2 6.2 5.6 201 wealth index quintile   Poorest 7.5 0.7 0.3 0.3 240 Second 21.2 4.8 3.5 3.0 254 Middle 22.3 3.3 1.5 1.5 283 Fourth 25.1 3.7 1.4 1.4 273 Richest 32.8 6.1 2.3 2.3 329 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 17.3 3.0 1.8 1.6 777 Richest 40 per cent 29.3 5.0 1.9 1.9 603 Language of household head*  Romani 15.6 1.4 0.6 0.6 777 Other 31.7 7.1 3.4 3.3 601 Total 22.6 3.9 1.8 1.7 1,380 1 MICS indicator 9.5 2 MICS indicator 9.6 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Table HA.5M: knowledge of a place for HIV testing: men Percentage of men aged 15-49 years who know where to get an HIV test, percentage of men who have ever been tested, percentage of men who have been tested in the last 12 months and percentage of men who have been tested in the last 12 months and have been told the result, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of men who: Number of men Know a place to get tested1 Have ever been tested Have been tested in the last 12 months Have been tested in the last twelve months and have been told result2 Administrative unit   FBiH 46.8 4.6 1.7 1.6 1,151 RS 52.9 8.0 1.5 1.1 241 BD 65.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 64 Age (years)   15-24 50.6 4.4 1.6 1.6 585 15-19 51.1 3.5 1.9 1.9 299 20-24 50.2 5.3 1.2 1.2 286 25-29 48.5 5.8 1.8 1.4 220 30-39 49.2 5.9 1.9 1.9 334 40-49 44.3 4.3 1.0 0.7 317 Marital status   Ever married/in union 45.9 4.6 1.5 1.3 985 Never married/in union 54.4 5.7 1.8 1.8 471 Education   No formal education 34.2 3.7 2.5 2.0 225 Primary 44.9 4.2 0.9 0.8 911 Secondary+ 69.4 7.9 2.8 2.8 320 wealth index quintile   Poorest 35.8 2.1 0.4 0.0 248 Second 42.8 6.4 1.2 0.8 264 Middle 46.8 4.3 1.9 1.9 319 Fourth 52.9 5.1 2.1 2.1 314 Richest 61.3 6.5 1.9 1.9 312 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 42.2 4.3 1.2 1.0 830 Richest 40 per cent 57.1 5.8 2.0 2.0 626 Language of household head*  Romani 46.8 3.8 1.6 1.5 836 Other 51.2 6.6 1.5 1.4 618 Total 48.6 5.0 1.6 1.4 1,456 1 MICS indicator 9.5 2 MICS indicator 9.6 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. The proportion of women and men aged 15-24 who had been tested and told the result within the last 12 months provides a measure of the effectiveness of interventions that promote HIV counselling and testing amongst young people. This is important to know because young people may feel that there are barriers to accessing services related to sensitive issues such as sexual health. Tables HA.6 and HA.6M present the results for sexually active women and men aged 15-24. The findings show that more than one half of Roma men aged 15-24 (52 per cent) and a lower percentage of women (19 per cent) knew where to be tested for HIV. In addition, the data indicates that only 3 per cent of women and 5 per cent of men aged 15-24 had ever been tested for HIV. Within the 12 months preceding the survey 2 per cent of women and men aged 15-24 had been tested for HIV and almost all of them told the result. Knowledge of where to be tested for HIV was higher amongst women with primary education (20 per cent) compared to those with no formal education (5 per cent) and amongst women from the richest wealth quintile (25 per cent) compared to those in the poorest wealth quintile (6 per cent). 112 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 113 Table HA.6: knowledge of a place for HIV testing amongst sexually active women aged 15-24 Percentage of women aged 15-24 years who have had sex in the last 12 months, and amongst women who have had sex in the last 12 months, the percentage who know where to get a HIV test, percentage of women who have ever been tested, percentage of women who have been tested in the last 12 months, and percentage of women who have been tested in the last 12 months and have been told the result, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage who have had sex in the last 12 months Number of women aged 15-24 years Percentage of women who: Number of women aged 15-24 years who have had sex in the last 12 months Know a place to get tested Have ever been tested Have been tested in the last 12 months Have been tested in the last 12 months and have been told the result1 Administrative unit   FBiH 62.1 408 17.3 3.1 2.0 2.0 254 RS 50.3 77 26.2 2.8 2.8 0.0 39 BD (84.0) 25 (*) (*) (*) (*) 21 Age (years)   15-19 42.6 253 15.9 1.9 1.2 1.2 108 20-24 79.8 258 20.9 3.3 2.4 1.8 206 Marital status   Ever married/in union 95.2 305 16.9 2.2 1.2 0.9 291 Never married/in union 11.0 205 (*) (*) (*) (*) 23 Education   No formal education 80.1 127 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 102 Primary 59.9 283 20.0 1.9 0.7 0.7 169 Secondary+ 42.1 101 (50.3) (13.3) (11.4) (8.9) 42 wealth index quintile   Poorest 75.4 116 5.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 87 Second 71.9 98 26.1 4.5 3.3 1.8 70 Middle 59.2 97 21.4 5.6 2.2 2.2 57 Fourth 50.3 83 (24.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 42 Richest 48.6 117 25.3 4.4 4.4 4.4 57 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 69.2 310 16.7 2.9 1.7 1.2 215 Richest 40 per cent 49.3 200 24.7 2.5 2.5 2.5 99 Language of household head*   Romani 61.6 296 13.1 0.4 0.0 0.0 182 Other 61.3 212 27.8 6.2 4.7 3.9 130 Total 61.4 510 19.2 2.8 1.9 1.6 313 1 MICS indicator 9.7 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Fifty-eight per cent of men in RS and 51 per cent in the FBiH knew where to be tested for HIV. Knowledge of a facility for HIV testing was higher amongst men who had never been married/in union (63 per cent) compared to those who were currently married/in union or were ever married/in union (42 per cent) and amongst men with secondary or higher education (69 per cent) compared to those with no formal education (41 per cent) and amongst men who belonged to the richest wealth quintile (66 per cent) compared to those from the poorest wealth quintile (26 per cent). Five per cent of Roma men aged 15-24 and 3 per cent of women had ever been tested for HIV. A higher percentage of men had ever been tested for HIV in RS (11 per cent) than in the FBiH (4 per cent). More men had been tested for HIV amongst those who had never been married/in union (8 per cent) compared to those who were ever married/in union (3 per cent). Table HA.6M: knowledge of a place for HIV testing amongst sexually active men aged 15-24 Percentage of men aged 15-24 years who have had sex in the last 12 months, and amongst men who have had sex in the last 12 months, the percentage who know where to get a HIV test, percentage of men who have ever been tested, percentage of men who have been tested in the last 12 months, and percentage of men who have been tested in the last 12 months and have been told the result, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage who have had sex in the last 12 months Number of men aged 15-24 years Percentage of men who: Number of men aged 15-24 years who have had sex in the last 12 months Know a place to get tested Have ever been tested Have been tested in the last 12 months Have been tested in the last 12 months and have been told the result1 Administrative unit FBiH 65.7 473 51.2 4.3 2.0 2.0 311 RS 60.4 91 57.6 11.4 4.6 4.6 55 BD (*) 21 (*) (*) (*) (*) 18 Age (years)   15-19 41.9 299 52.0 6.0 4.1 4.1 125 20-24 90.4 286 52.1 4.7 1.4 1.4 259 Marital status   Ever married/in union 98.5 200 41.9 2.5 1.7 1.7 197 Never married/in union 48.6 385 62.8 7.8 2.9 2.9 187 Education   No formal education 72.6 80 40.8 5.7 4.1 4.1 58 Primary 66.5 340 47.4 2.8 0.5 0.5 226 Secondary+ 60.5 165 69.1 9.8 5.1 5.1 100 wealth index quintile   Poorest 74.1 96 25.7 1.1 0.0 0.0 71 Second 65.2 95 51.6 4.8 1.4 1.4 62 Middle 67.1 129 49.7 2.8 2.8 2.8 86 Fourth 55.3 140 64.1 8.7 2.6 2.6 77 Richest 69.5 125 65.5 7.6 3.9 3.9 87 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 68.6 320 42.5 2.8 1.5 1.5 220 Richest 40 per cent 62.0 266 64.8 8.1 3.3 3.3 165 Language of household head*   Romani 69.8 347 46.0 3.6 2.5 2.5 242 Other 59.8 238 62.4 7.6 1.8 1.8 142 Total 65.6 585 52.0 5.1 2.3 2.3 384 1 MICS indicator 9.7 (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. The percentage of women who received counselling and HIV testing during antenatal care is presented in Table HA.7. About four-fifths of Roma women aged 15-49 who had given birth within the two years preceding the survey received antenatal care by a health worker (79 per cent): these included a smaller proportion of women who lived in households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani (74 per cent) compared to those living in households where the household head spoke another mother tongue (87 per cent). HIV counselling during antenatal care was received by only 3 per cent of these women. During the antenatal period a small percentage of women had been offered an HIV test were tested and told the result (less than 1 per cent). 114 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 115 Sexual Behaviour Related to HIV Transmission Promoting safer sexual behaviour is critical for reducing HIV prevalence. The use of condoms during sex, especially with non-regular partners, is particularly important for reducing the spread of HIV. In most countries over half of new HIV infections occur amongst people aged 15-24 years, thus a change in behaviour amongst this age group is especially important for reducing the rate of new infections. Risk factors for HIV include sex at an early age, sex with older men and sex with a non-marital/non-cohabitating partner and failure to use a condom. In the MICS survey on Roma in BiH a set of questions was administered to all women and men aged 15-24 about their sexual behaviour in order to assess their risk of HIV infection; the findings are presented in Table HA.8 and HA.8M. The findings show that 87 per cent of never-married women and 46 per cent of never-married men aged 15-24 years had never had sex, while 12 per cent of women and 14 per cent of men in this age group had had sex before age 15. Within the last 12 months, 4 per cent of women aged 15-24 had sex with a man who was older by ten years or more, while during the same period, 1 per cent of men in this age group had sex with a woman who was older by ten years or more. The percentage of women aged 15-24 who had had sex before age 15 was higher amongst those who were currently married/in union or were ever married/in union (19 per cent) compared to women who had never been married/in union (1 per cent). This percentage was also higher amongst women with no formal education (27 per cent) compared to women with secondary or higher education, amongst which no such cases were reported, as well as amongst women in the poorest wealth quintile (18 per cent) compared to women in the richest wealth quintile (6 per cent). Table HA.8: Sexual behaviour that increases the risk of HIV infection: women Percentage of never-married women aged 15-24 years who have never had sex, percentage of women aged 15-24 years who have had sex before age 15, and percentage of women aged 15-24 years who had sex with a man 10 or more years older during the last 12 months, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of never married women aged 15-24 years who have never had sex1 Number of never married women aged 15-24 years Percentage of women aged 15-24 years who had sex before age 152 Number of women aged 15-24 years Percentage of women aged 15-24 years who had sex in the last 12 months with a man 10 or more years older3 Number of women aged 15-24 years who had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey Administrative unit   FBiH 88.3 159 11.9 408 3.3 254 RS (89.4) 39 11.3 77 10.3 39 BD (*) 7 (16.0) 25 (*) 21 Age (years)   15-19 94.8 147 9.2 253 3.4 108 20-24 68.8 58 14.8 258 4.8 206 Marital status   Ever married/in union N/A N/A 19.3 305 4.6 291 Never married/in union 87.4 205 1.2 205 (*) 23 Education   No formal education (85.5) 25 27.3 127 4.1 102 Primary 87.7 118 9.4 283 5.0 169 Secondary+ 87.5 62 0.0 101 (2.1) 42 wealth index quintile   Poorest (85.3) 28 18.4 116 8.4 87 Second (81.7) 30 16.9 98 2.7 70 Middle (91.8) 40 13.3 97 3.1 57 Fourth (97.5) 40 4.6 83 (3.4) 42 Richest 82.1 67 5.9 117 1.9 57 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 86.8 98 16.3 310 5.1 215 Richest 40 per cent 87.9 107 5.3 200 2.5 99 Language of household head*   Romani 91.0 114 16.3 296 3.3 182 Other 82.7 89 6.1 212 5.8 130 Total 87.4 205 12.0 510 4.3 313 1 MICS indicator 9.10 2 MICS indicator 9.11 3 MICS indicator 9.12 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. N/A: “Not applicable” Table H A .7: H IV counselling and testing during antenatal care A m ongst w om en aged 15-49 w ho gave birth in the last 2 years, percentage of w om en w ho received antenatal care from a health professional during their last pregnancy, percentage w ho received H IV counselling, percentage w ho w ere offered and accepted a H IV test and received the results, BiH Rom a Survey 2011–2012     Percentage of w om en w ho: N um ber of w om en w ho gave birth in the 2 years preceding the survey Received antenatal care from a healthcare professional for last pregnancy Received H IV counselling during antenatal care 1 w ere offered a H IV test and w ere tested for H IV during antenatal care w ere offered a H IV test and w ere tested for H IV during antenatal care and received the results 2 Received H IV counselling, w ere offered a H IV test, accepted and received the results A dm inistrative unit   FBiH 79.4 2.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 207 RS 77.1 6.2 2.6 2.6 2.6 41 BD (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 15 A ge (years)   15-24 80.2 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 135 15-19 80.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 51 20-24 80.3 2.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 84 25-29 74.8 5.6 1.8 1.8 1.8 58 30-39 78.8 2.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 65 40-49 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 5 M arital status   Ever m arried/in union 79.1 2.7 0.4 0.4 0.4 263 Education   N o form al education 72.9 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 89 Prim ary 80.2 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 148 Secondary+ (93.8) (12.6) (4.2) (4.2) (4.2) 26 w ealth index quintile   Poorest 77.9 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 74 Second 73.7 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 69 M iddle (73.5) (6.1) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 38 Fourth (88.5) (5.6) (2.5) (2.5) (2.5) 43 Richest (85.8) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 39 w ealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 75.4 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 181 Richest 40 per cent 87.2 3.0 1.3 1.3 1.3 82 Language of household head   Rom ani 74.2 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 159 O ther 86.5 3.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 104 Total 79.1 2.7 0.4 0.4 0.4 263 1 M ICS indicator 9.8 2 M ICS indicator 9.9 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unw eighted cases (*) Figures that are based on few er than 25 unw eighted cases 116 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 117 The percentage of men aged 15-49 who had sex with more than one partner was higher amongst those aged 15-24 (8 per cent) compared to those aged 40-49 (2 per cent),those men who were never married/in union (9 per cent) compared to married/in union and ever-married/in union men (4 per cent), men with secondary or higher education (11 per cent) compared to those with no formal education (4 per cent) and men in the richest wealth quintile (8 per cent) compared to those in the poorest wealth quintile (3 per cent). Table HA.9: Sex with multiple partners: women Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who ever had sex, percentage who had sex in the last 12 months and percentage who had sex with more than one partner in the last 12 months, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of women who: Ever had sex Had sex in the last 12 months Had sex with more than one partner in last 12 months1 Number of women aged 15-49 years Administrative unit   FBiH 84.3 77.5 1.2 1,085 RS 84.1 75.5 0.8 224 BD 91.5 88.7 2.8 71 Age (years) 15-24 64.9 61.4 2.1 510 15-19 44.9 42.6 0.9 253 20-24 84.5 79.8 3.2 258 25-29 94.5 89.8 0.5 207 30-39 96.7 92.3 0.9 367 40-49 96.8 79.5 0.8 295 Marital status Ever married/in union 100.0 92.3 1.3 1,121 Never married/in union 18.2 15.0 1.0 259 Education No formal education 90.9 81.4 1.4 383 Primary 85.2 78.8 1.2 796 Secondary+ 70.5 66.6 1.2 201 wealth index quintile Poorest 88.2 81.8 2.4 240 Second 89.0 83.0 1.7 254 Middle 82.6 74.5 0.0 283 Fourth 83.0 74.7 0.6 273 Richest 81.7 76.1 1.7 329 wealth index Poorest 60 per cent 86.4 79.5 1.3 777 Richest 40 per cent 82.3 75.5 1.2 603 Language of household head* Romani 83.5 77.0 1.0 777 Other 86.2 78.8 1.4 601 Total 84.6 77.8 1.2 1,380 1 MICS indicator 9.13 MICS indicator 9.14: Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who had more than one sexual partner in the last 12 months, who also reported that a condom was used the last time they had sex is not presented in Table HA.9M. * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Table HA.8M: Sexual behaviour that increases the risk of HIV infection: men Percentage of never married men aged 15-24 years who have never had sex, percentage of men aged 15-24 years who have had sex before age 15, and percentage of men aged 15-24 years who had sex with a woman 10 or more years older during the last 12 months, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of never married men aged 15-24 years who have never had sex1 Number of never married men aged 15-24 years Percentage of men aged 15-24 years who had sex before age 152 Number of men aged 15- 24 years Percentage of men aged 15- 24 years who had sex in the last 12 months with a woman 10 or more years older3 Number of men aged 15-24 years who had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey Administrative unit   FBiH 46.6 307 12.5 473 1.0 311 RS 43.9 70 23.9 91 0.0 55 BD (*) 9 (*) 21 (*) 18 Age (years)   15-19 64.1 251 13.1 299 0.0 125 20-24 11.7 134 15.3 286 1.2 259 Marital status   Ever married/in union N/A N/A 17.2 200 1.6 197 Never married/in union 45.8 385 12.6 385 0.0 187 Education   No formal education (*) 41 11.6 80 0.0 58 Primary 49.5 206 13.2 340 1.4 226 Secondary+ 39.2 138 17.5 165 0.0 100 wealth index quintile   Poorest (51.2) 45 13.7 96 0.0 71 Second 54.1 54 11.6 95 1.5 62 Middle 44.3 86 11.4 129 1.1 86 Fourth 49.0 111 18.5 140 1.6 77 Richest 35.7 89 14.5 125 0.0 87 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 48.8 185 12.2 320 0.8 220 Richest 40 per cent 43.1 200 16.6 266 0.8 165 Language of household head*   Romani 45.9 213 13.5 347 0.0 242 Other 45.4 172 15.3 238 2.2 142 Total 45.8 385 14.2 585 0.8 384 1 MICS indicator 9.10 2 MICS indicator 9.11 3 MICS indicator 9.12 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. N/A: “Not applicable” The frequency of sexual behaviour that increases the risk of HIV infection amongst women and men is presented in Tables HA.9 and HA.9M. In particular this concerns sexual behaviour and condom use during sex amongst women and men aged 15-49 and amongst women and men aged 15-24, especially those who had had sex with more than one partner over the last year. The survey data shows that 85 per cent of women and 87 per cent of men aged 15-49 ever had sex, of which 78 per cent of women and 84 per cent of men had sex in the last 12 months. Having sex with more than one partner in the last 12 months was reported by 1 per cent of women and 5 per cent of men, whereby men indicated condom use when they had sex the last time in 28 per cent of cases (MICS indicator 9.14: percentages by background characteristics are based on less than 25 unweighted cases and are not shown in Table HA.9M). 118 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 119 Table HA.10: Sex with multiple partners: women aged 15-24 Percentage of women aged 15-24 years who ever had sex, percentage who had sex in the last 12 months and percentage who had sex with more than one partner in the last 12 months, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of women aged 15-24 years who: Number of women aged 15-24 yearsEver had sex Had sex in the last 12 months Had sex with more than one partner in last 12 months Administrative unit   FBiH 65.6 62.1 2.0 408 RS 55.2 50.3 0.8 77 BD 84.0 84.0 8.0 25 Age (years) 15-19 44.9 42.6 0.9 253 20-24 84.5 79.8 3.2 258 Marital status Ever married/in union 100.0 95.2 3.0 305 Never married/in union 12.6 11.0 0.8 205 Education No formal education 83.5 80.1 3.1 127 Primary 63.4 59.9 1.9 283 Secondary+ 45.7 42.1 1.2 101 wealth index quintile Poorest 79.0 75.4 3.4 116 Second 75.2 71.9 3.1 98 Middle 62.3 59.2 0.0 97 Fourth 52.3 50.3 1.8 83 Richest 53.5 48.6 1.9 117 wealth index Poorest 60 per cent 72.6 69.2 2.2 310 Richest 40 per cent 53.0 49.3 1.9 200 Language of household head* Romani 64.8 61.6 1.6 296 Other 65.2 61.3 2.4 212 Total 64.9 61.4 2.1 510 The percentage of women aged 15-24 years who had more than one sexual partner in the last 12 months, who also reported that a condom was used the last time they had sex is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and is not presented in Table HA.10. * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Table HA.9M: Sex with multiple partners: men Percentage of men aged 15-49 years who ever had sex, percentage who had sex in the last 12 months and percentage who had sex with more than one partner in the last 12 months, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of men who: Ever had sex Had sex in the last 12 months Had sex with more than one partner in last 12 months1 Number of men aged 15-49 years Administrative unit FBiH 87.2 84.0 4.9 1,151 RS 86.5 79.9 8.6 241 BD 95.3 95.3 1.6 64 Age (years) 15-24 69.8 65.6 8.2 585 15-19 46.2 41.9 5.2 299 20-24 94.5 90.4 11.3 286 25-29 97.8 95.0 4.3 220 30-39 99.4 97.6 4.0 334 40-49 100.0 95.1 2.3 317 Marital status Ever married/in union 99.9 97.4 3.7 985 Never married/in union 61.2 55.3 8.8 471 Education No formal education 90.0 88.5 4.2 225 Primary 88.5 85.1 3.7 911 Secondary+ 82.4 76.8 10.9 320 wealth index quintile Poorest 90.7 86.1 2.7 248 Second 87.1 84.5 4.0 264 Middle 87.5 83.8 3.8 319 Fourth 82.7 78.4 7.7 314 Richest 89.8 86.8 7.9 312 wealth index Poorest 60 per cent 88.3 84.7 3.5 830 Richest 40 per cent 86.2 82.6 7.8 626 Language of household head* Romani 88.1 85.3 3.7 836 Other 86.6 81.9 7.7 618 Total 87.4 83.8 5.4 1,456 1 MICS indicator 9.13 MICS indicator 9.14: Percentage of men aged 15-49 years who had more than one sexual partner in the last 12 months, who also reported that a condom was used the last time they had sex is not presented in Table HA.9M. * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Tables HA.10 and HA.10M show that about two-thirds of Roma women (65 per cent) and men (70 per cent) aged 15-24 years ever had sex. Sixty-one per cent of women and 66 per cent of men had had sex in the last 12 months, while 2 per cent of women and 8 per cent of men in this age group had sex with more than one partner in the last 12 months. The percentage of men aged 20-24 who had sex with more than one partner (11 per cent) was higher than that of women (3 per cent). The highest proportion of men with more than one sexual partner in the last 12 months was amongst those with secondary or higher education (17 per cent). Men who had sex with multiple partners in the last 12 months indicated condom use when they had sex the last time in 35 per cent of cases (data not shown in Table HA.10M; the figure is based on 25–49 unweighted cases and should be interpreted with caution). 120 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 121 Table HA.11: Sex with non-regular partners: women Percentage of women aged 15-24 years who ever had sex, percentage who had sex in the last 12 months and percentage who had sex with a non-marital/non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 months, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of women aged 15-24 who: Number of women aged 15-24 years Percentage who had sex with a non-marital/ non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 months1 Number of women aged 15-24 years who had sex in the last 12 months Ever had sex Had sex in the last 12 months Administrative unit FBiH 65.6 62.1 408 12.4 254 RS 55.2 50.3 77 13.4 39 BD (84.0) (84.0) 25 (*) 21 Age (years) 15-19 44.9 42.6 253 9.7 108 20-24 84.5 79.8 258 14.6 206 Marital status Ever married/in union 100.0 95.2 305 6.2 291 Never married/in union 12.6 11.0 205 (*) 23 Education No formal education 83.5 80.1 127 7.5 102 Primary 63.4 59.9 283 13.4 169 Secondary+ 45.7 42.1 101 (24.0) 42 wealth index quintile Poorest 79.0 75.4 116 12.8 87 Second 75.2 71.9 98 13.8 70 Middle 62.3 59.2 97 9.1 57 Fourth 52.3 50.3 83 (9.0) 42 Richest 53.5 48.6 117 18.8 57 wealth index Poorest 60 per cent 72.6 69.2 310 12.2 215 Richest 40 per cent 53.0 49.3 200 14.7 99 Language of household head* Romani 64.8 61.6 296 9.0 182 Other 65.2 61.3 212 17.9 130 Total 64.9 61.4 510 12.9 313 1 MICS indicator 9.15 MICS indicator 9.16: Percentage of women aged 15-24 years who had sex with a non-marital, non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 months, who also reported that a condom was used the last time they had sex with such a partner is based on 25–49 unweighted cases and is not presented in the table. ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Table HA.10M: Sex with multiple partners: men aged 15-24 Percentage of men aged 15-24 years who ever had sex, percentage who had sex in the last 12 months and percentage who had sex with more than one partner in the last 12 months, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of men aged 15-24 years who: Number of men aged 15-24 yearsEver had sex Had sex in the last 12 months Had sex with more than one partner in last 12 months Administrative unit FBiH 69.8 65.7 7.4 473 RS 66.3 60.4 14.1 91 BD (*) (*) (*) 21 Age (years) 15-19 46.2 41.9 5.2 299 20-24 94.5 90.4 11.3 286 Marital status Ever married/in union 100.0 98.5 4.9 200 Never married/in union 54.2 48.6 9.9 385 Education No formal education 74.6 72.6 6.9 80 Primary 70.0 66.5 4.2 340 Secondary+ 67.2 60.5 17.0 165 wealth index quintile Poorest 76.0 74.1 5.0 96 Second 69.4 65.2 3.8 95 Middle 70.5 67.1 4.7 129 Fourth 61.1 55.3 11.9 140 Richest 74.5 69.5 13.4 125 wealth index Poorest 60 per cent 71.8 68.6 4.6 320 Richest 40 per cent 67.5 62.0 12.6 266 Language of household head* Romani 71.8 69.8 5.0 347 Other 67.2 59.8 12.9 238 Total 69.8 65.6 8.2 585 The percentage of men aged 15-24 years who had more than one sexual partner in the last 12 months, who also reported that a condom was used the last time they had sex is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and is not presented in Table HA.10. (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Table HA.11 presents the percentage of women aged 15-24 years who ever had sex, the percentage who had sex in the last 12 months, the percentage who had sex with a non-marital/non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 months and amongst those who had sex with a non-marital/non-cohabiting partner, and the percentage who used a condom the last time they had sex with such a partner. Sex with a non-marital/non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 months was reported by 13 per cent of Roma women aged 15-24. On the other hand, more than one half of Roma men aged 15-24 had had sex with a non-marital/non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 months (56 per cent); a condom was used the last time they had sex with such a partner in 49 per cent of cases. Table HA.11M shows that the percentage of men who had sex with a non-marital/non-cohabiting partner was higher in the 15-19 age group (69 per cent) when compared to those in the older age group 20-24 (49 per cent). The percentage of men who had sex with a non-marital/non-cohabiting partner was higher amongst men with secondary or higher education (79 per cent) compared to those with no formal education (43 per cent) and amongst men from the richest wealth quintile (63 per cent) compared to those in the poorest wealth quintile (41 per cent). Among women aged 15-24 who had sex with a non-marital/non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 months, 32 per cent41 indicated condom use when they had sex the last time with such a partner (data not shown in Table HA11; the figure is based on 25–49 unweighted cases and should be interpreted with caution). 41 MICS indicator 9.16; MDG indicator 6.2 122 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 123 xIII Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology The 2011–2012 MICS survey on Roma in BiH collected information on the exposure to mass media and the use of computers and the Internet. Information collected concerned: z exposure of women and men aged 15-49 to newspapers/magazines, radio and television; z use of computers amongst persons aged 15-24; z use of the Internet amongst persons aged 15-24. Access to Mass Media The proportion of Roma women and men aged 15-49 who read a newspaper, listened to the radio and watched television at least once a week is shown in Table MT.1 and MT.1M. MICS findings for the Roma population show that men read more newspapers and listened to more radio than women. Forty-four per cent of men and half as many women (20 per cent) read a newspaper at least once a week, while four- fifths of men (80 per cent) and over one half of Roma women (57 per cent) listened to the radio at least once a week. Nearly all men (97 per cent) and women (96 per cent) watched television at least once a week. A negligible proportion of women and men (1 per cent for both) were not regularly exposed to any of the three types of media (newspaper, radio or television), while 39 per cent of men and 16 per cent of women were exposed to all three types of media at least on a weekly basis. Table H A .11M : Sex w ith non-regular partners: m en Percentage of m en aged 15-24 years w ho ever had sex, percentage w ho had sex in the last 12 m onths, percentage w ho had sex w ith a non-m arital/non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 m onths and am ongst those w ho had sex w ith a non-m arital/non-cohabiting partner, the percentage w ho used a condom the last tim e they had sex w ith such a partner, BiH Rom a Survey 2011–2012     Percentage of m en aged 15-24 w ho: N um ber of m en aged 15-24 years Percentage w ho had sex w ith a non-m arital/ non-cohabiting partner in the last 12 m onths 1 N um ber of m en aged 15-24 years w ho had sex in the last 12 m onths Percentage of m en aged 15-24 years w ho had sex w ith a non-m arital/non- cohabiting partner in the last 12 m onths, w ho also reported that a condom w as used the last tim e they had sex w ith such a partner 2 N um ber of m en aged 15-24 years w ho had sex in last 12 m onths w ith a non-m arital/ non-cohabiting partner Ever had sex H ad sex in the last 12 m onths A dm inistrative unit  FBiH 69.8 65.7 473 53.9 311 47.6 168 RS 66.3 60.4 91 72.4 55 (54.6) 40 BD (*) (*) 21 (*) 18 (*) 6 A ge (years)   15-19 46.2 41.9 299 69.2 125 56.3 87 20-24 94.5 90.4 286 49.0 259 44.0 127 M arital status   Ever m arried/in union 100.0 98.5 200 13.4 197 (37.7) 26 N ever m arried/in union 54.2 48.6 385 100.0 187 50.6 187 Education   N o form al education 74.6 72.6 80 42.9 58 (31.4) 25 Prim ary 70.0 66.5 340 48.5 226 36.9 109 Secondary+ 67.2 60.5 165 79.1 100 71.2 79 w ealth index quintile   Poorest 76.0 74.1 96 41.3 71 (27.8) 29 Second 69.4 65.2 95 40.4 62 (44.6) 25 M iddle 70.5 67.1 129 59.7 86 47.1 52 Fourth 61.1 55.3 140 68.1 77 53.7 53 Richest 74.5 69.5 125 62.8 87 59.5 55 w ealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 71.8 68.6 320 48.3 220 41.2 106 Richest 40 per cent 67.5 62.0 266 65.3 165 56.7 108 Language of household head*   Rom ani 71.8 69.8 347 53.1 242 41.7 129 O ther 67.2 59.8 238 59.9 142 60.0 85 Total 69.8 65.6 585 55.6 384 49.0 214 1 M ICS indicator 9.15 2 M ICS indicator 9.16; M D G indicator 6.2 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unw eighted cases (*) Figures that are based on few er than 25 unw eighted cases * M issing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not show n in the table. 124 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 125 Table MT.1M: Exposure to mass media: men Percentage of men aged 15-49 years who are exposed to specific mass media on a weekly basis, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of men aged 15-49 who: All three media at least once a week1 No media at least once a week Number of men aged 15-49 years Read a newspaper at least once a week listen to the radio at least once a week watch television at least once a week Age (years) 15-19 45.0 83.4 98.2 41.0 0.6 299 20-24 39.8 81.1 95.6 35.0 2.3 286 25-29 39.5 76.7 98.6 32.4 0.0 220 30-34 45.5 76.2 98.7 36.8 0.7 170 35-39 47.0 78.9 97.1 41.7 0.0 164 40-44 49.5 79.1 95.5 44.0 1.8 172 45-49 49.4 79.3 97.8 42.2 0.0 145 Administrative unit   FBiH 47.9 78.9 97.1 41.9 1.1 1,151 RS 33.7 81.7 97.8 27.0 0.0 241 BD 21.9 85.9 100.0 21.9 0.0 64 Education   No formal education 19.6 71.9 94.1 17.6 2.5 225 Primary 41.3 81.7 97.6 36.4 0.5 911 Secondary+ 70.5 79.3 98.8 59.5 0.6 320 wealth index quintile   Poorest 30.5 68.7 89.8 25.7 3.8 248 Second 36.7 78.6 97.9 32.6 0.7 264 Middle 43.6 81.0 98.4 38.3 0.4 319 Fourth 47.7 81.5 100.0 41.8 0.0 314 Richest 59.5 86.2 99.0 51.0 0.0 312 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 37.5 76.5 95.7 32.7 1.5 830 Richest 40 per cent 53.6 83.8 99.5 46.4 0.0 626 Language of household head*   Romani 39.3 81.5 96.5 34.3 1.4 836 Other 51.4 77.2 98.4 44.5 0.2 618 Total 44.4 79.7 97.3 38.6 0.9 1,456 1 MICS indicator MT.1 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Table MT.1: Exposure to mass media: women Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who are exposed to specific mass media on a weekly basis, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of women aged 15-49 who: All three media at least once a week1 No media at least once a week Number of women aged 15-49 years Read a newspaper at least once a week listen to the radio at least once a week watch television at least once a week Age (years)   15-19 25.3 70.3 97.5 21.9 0.9 253 20-24 19.1 60.1 93.5 16.7 1.2 258 25-29 16.9 58.5 98.0 12.4 1.4 207 30-34 19.4 54.2 96.2 15.0 1.6 183 35-39 19.5 51.7 95.7 15.3 1.0 184 40-44 18.2 56.8 94.9 12.1 0.8 147 45-49 16.1 37.7 92.6 10.9 2.9 148 Administrative unit   FBiH 21.2 61.6 95.3 17.0 1.6 1,085 RS 16.6 42.1 97.0 12.1 0.0 224 BD 4.2 35.2 95.8 2.8 1.4 71 Education   No formal education 1.6 39.2 92.1 1.1 0.3 383 Primary 20.3 62.1 96.8 16.4 2.2 796 Secondary+ 51.0 71.2 97.9 39.2 0.0 201 wealth index quintile   Poorest 5.7 38.6 86.6 4.1 5.1 240 Second 12.7 57.5 95.8 9.2 1.1 254 Middle 18.8 63.1 98.1 15.1 0.0 283 Fourth 26.2 60.0 97.5 20.2 1.4 273 Richest 30.3 62.6 98.3 25.0 0.0 329 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 12.8 53.7 93.8 9.8 1.9 777 Richest 40 per cent 28.4 61.4 97.9 22.8 0.6 603 Language of household head*   Romani 10.3 49.6 94.1 8.4 1.6 777 Other 31.7 66.8 97.6 24.7 1.0 601 Total 19.6 57.1 95.6 15.5 1.4 1,380 1 MICS indicator MT.1 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Furthermore, the data shows that the exposure of men and women to all three types of media at least once a week was highest in the FBiH (42 per cent of men and 17 per cent of women), followed by RS (27 per cent of men and 12 per cent of women) and then BD (22 per cent of men and 3 per cent of women). Exposure to all the types of media at least once a week for women was highest amongst those aged 15-19 (22 per cent) and lowest for women aged 45-49 (11 per cent). While for women, exposure was negatively associated with age, the same pattern does not hold for men. The highest exposure to all three types of media at least once a week was amongst men aged 40-44 (44 per cent) and lowest amongst those aged 25-29 (32 per cent), while men aged 15-19 had similar levels of exposure (41 per cent) as those in the older age groups. For both women and men exposure to all of the types of media at least once a weekwas positively associated with education and household wealth. Thus, 60 per cent of men and 39 per cent of women with secondary or higher education were exposed to all three types of media at least once a week compared to 18 per cent of men and 1 per cent of women with no formal education. In addition, 51 per cent of men and 25 per cent of women in the richest wealth quintile were exposed to all three media forms, while the corresponding proportion in the poorest wealth quintile was 26 per cent for men and 4 per cent for women. Men (34 per cent) and women (8 per cent) in households where the mother tongue of the household head was Romani had less exposure to all three media types compared to men (45 per cent) and women (25 per cent) in households where the household head spoke another mother tongue. 126 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 127 Table MT.2M: Use of computers and the Internet: men aged 15-24 Percentage of young men aged 15-24 who have ever used a computer, percentage who have used a computer during the last 12 months, and frequency of use during the last one month, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of men aged 15-24 who have: Percentage of men age 15-24 who have: Number of men aged 15-24 years Ever used a computer Used a computer during the last 12 months1 Used a computer at least once a week during the last one month Ever used the Internet Used the Internet during the last 12 months2 Used the Internet at least once a week during the last one month Age (years)   15-19 78.5 66.2 63.2 72.1 68.1 65.9 299 20-24 59.4 53.0 50.8 55.0 52.8 51.5 286 Administrative unit   FBiH 69.7 61.9 59.7 65.2 62.7 60.7 473 RS 64.7 44.4 40.6 52.9 46.4 45.4 91 BD (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 21 Education   No formal education 31.9 28.9 27.6 27.7 26.1 26.1 80 Primary 65.3 56.9 53.7 58.6 55.3 52.3 340 Secondary+ 95.2 80.5 78.5 91.6 88.3 88.3 165 wealth index quintile   Poorest 38.1 33.4 31.4 32.5 29.8 26.8 96 Second 56.5 46.1 40.8 48.0 44.2 42.1 95 Middle 69.2 55.7 53.4 61.8 57.1 55.6 129 Fourth 81.3 73.4 71.0 76.1 74.1 73.4 140 Richest 89.0 79.1 77.5 87.6 85.5 83.2 125 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 56.1 46.2 43.1 48.9 45.0 42.9 320 Richest 40 per cent 84.9 76.1 74.1 81.5 79.5 78.0 266 Language of household head*   Romani 64.7 57.1 52.9 59.1 56.2 53.7 347 Other 76.0 63.8 63.5 70.8 67.3 66.6 238 Total 69.2 59.7 57.1 63.7 60.6 58.9 585 1 MICS indicator MT.2 2 MICS indicator MT.3 (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Use of Information/Communication Technology The questions on computer and Internet usage were only put to 15-24 year old women and men, as displayed in Table MT.2 and MT.2M. The data shows that a higher proportion of men used computers and the Internet compared to women. Thus, 69 per cent of men and 43 per cent of women had ever used a computer. In the year preceding the survey 60 per cent of men and 36 per cent of women had used a computer, while 57 per cent of men and 29 per cent of women had used a computer at least once a week during the last month. The Internet was ever used by 64 per cent of men and 37 per cent of women aged 15-24, while a similar proportion of men (61 per cent) and women (33 per cent) had used the Internet during the last 12 months. The data also shows that 59 per cent of men and 26 per cent of women aged 15-24 used the Internet at least once a week during the last month. As expected, both computer and Internet use during the last 12 months was more widespread amongst men and women aged 15-19 compared to those aged 20-24. Use of a computer and the Internet during the last twelve months was positively associated with education and wealth. Thus, during the last 12 months, 81 per cent of men and 80 per cent of women with secondary or higher education had used a computer compared to 29 per cent of men and 8 per cent of women with no formal education. During the last 12 months the Internet had been used 88 per cent of men and 75 per cent of women with secondary or higher education and 26 per cent of men and 8 per cent of women with no formal education. Similarly, Internet use during the last 12 months was registered amongst 86 per cent of men and 61 per cent of women aged 15-24 in the richest wealth quintile and 30 per cent of men and 9 per cent of women living in the poorest wealth quintile. These differences amongst women and men are even more pronounced when considering computer and internet use during the last month. Table MT.2: Use of computers and the Internet: women aged 15-24 Percentage of young women aged 15-24 who have ever used a computer, percentage who have used a computer during the last 12 months, and frequency of use during the last one month, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of women aged 15-24 who have: Percentage of women age 15-24 who have: Number of women aged 15-24 years Ever used a computer Used a computer during the last 12 months1 Used a computer at least once a week during the last one month Ever used the Internet Used the Internet during the last 12 months2 Used the Internet at least once a week during the last one month Age (years)   15-19 49.8 43.8 34.4 42.7 39.3 30.7 253 20-24 36.1 28.6 23.9 30.5 27.0 21.0 258 Administrative unit   FBiH 42.6 36.1 28.0 35.9 33.1 24.5 408 RS 46.3 38.9 36.4 41.2 34.8 33.5 77 BD (36.0) (28.0) (24.0) (32.0) (28.0) (24.0) 25 Education   No formal education 11.4 8.3 5.6 8.3 7.5 4.7 127 Primary 42.1 32.9 25.1 34.2 29.6 21.0 283 Secondary+ 84.8 80.1 69.9 78.7 75.2 65.9 101 wealth index quintile   Poorest 19.4 11.5 7.1 12.3 9.1 6.2 116 Second 31.0 20.4 13.8 25.8 20.6 13.4 98 Middle 42.7 33.8 26.5 34.9 29.3 22.0 97 Fourth 53.2 51.5 40.2 48.2 46.4 32.1 83 Richest 68.7 64.4 57.7 62.5 61.0 54.1 117 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 30.3 21.2 15.3 23.6 19.0 13.4 310 Richest 40 per cent 62.3 59.1 50.5 56.6 55.0 45.0 200 Language of household head*  Romani 37.0 29.5 22.9 29.5 26.1 19.3 296 Other 51.4 45.6 37.9 46.6 43.2 35.1 212 Total 42.9 36.1 29.1 36.5 33.1 25.8 510 1 MICS indicator MT.2 2 MICS indicator MT.3 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 128 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 129 Ta bl e TA .1 : C ur re nt a nd e ve r u se o f t ob ac co : w om en Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s by p at te rn o f u se o f t ob ac co , B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12 N ev er s m ok ed ci ga re tt es or u se d ot he r to ba cc o pr od uc ts Ev er u se rs U se d to ba cc o pr od uc ts o n on e or m or e da ys du ri ng th e la st o ne m on th N um be r of w om en ag ed 15 -4 9 ye ar s O nl y ci ga re tt es Ci ga re tt es an d ot he r to ba cc o pr od uc ts O nl y ot he r to ba cc o pr od uc ts A ny to ba cc o pr od uc t O nl y ci ga re tt es Ci ga re tt es an d ot he r to ba cc o pr od uc ts O nl y ot he r to ba cc o pr od uc ts A ny to ba cc o pr od uc t1 A ge (y ea rs )   15 -1 9 62 .3 33 .6 3. 6 0. 5 37 .7 25 .4 0. 6 0. 0 26 .0 25 3 20 -2 4 36 .4 58 .9 4. 2 0. 5 63 .6 48 .1 0. 0 0. 0 48 .1 25 8 25 -2 9 27 .0 66 .8 4. 9 0. 7 72 .4 62 .2 0. 4 0. 0 62 .7 20 7 30 -3 4 26 .8 68 .4 4. 2 0. 5 73 .2 61 .3 0. 0 0. 0 61 .3 18 3 35 -3 9 30 .4 67 .8 1. 3 0. 0 69 .1 57 .3 0. 0 0. 0 57 .3 18 4 40 -4 4 22 .5 76 .4 1. 0 0. 0 77 .5 72 .0 0. 0 0. 0 72 .0 14 7 45 -4 9 19 .5 78 .2 2. 3 0. 0 80 .5 74 .6 0. 4 0. 0 75 .0 14 8 A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 31 .8 64 .2 3. 6 0. 4 68 .2 56 .2 0. 2 0. 0 56 .4 1, 08 5 RS 40 .7 55 .4 2. 6 0. 4 58 .4 48 .8 0. 6 0. 0 49 .4 22 4 BD 53 .5 46 .5 0. 0 0. 0 46 .5 45 .1 0. 0 0. 0 45 .1 71 Ed uc at io n   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n 36 .9 61 .9 1. 0 0. 0 62 .9 56 .0 0. 2 0. 0 56 .1 38 3 Pr im ar y 32 .4 63 .6 3. 6 0. 4 67 .6 56 .1 0. 3 0. 0 56 .4 79 6 Se co nd ar y+ 37 .3 54 .9 6. 5 0. 8 62 .2 44 .9 0. 0 0. 0 44 .9 20 1 M at er ni ty s ta tu s   Pr eg na nt 34 .1 60 .2 4. 3 1. 4 65 .9 49 .0 0. 0 0. 0 49 .0 84 Br ea st fe ed in g (n ot p re gn an t) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 4 N ei th er 34 .4 62 .0 3. 2 0. 3 65 .5 54 .8 0. 2 0. 0 55 .0 1, 29 2 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t 34 .9 63 .0 1. 6 0. 5 65 .1 57 .9 0. 0 0. 0 57 .9 24 0 Se co nd 34 .7 61 .6 2. 8 0. 5 64 .9 50 .9 0. 6 0. 0 51 .5 25 4 M id dl e 30 .4 66 .6 2. 9 0. 0 69 .6 62 .1 0. 3 0. 0 62 .4 28 3 Fo ur th 32 .5 62 .2 4. 6 0. 4 67 .1 51 .4 0. 0 0. 0 51 .4 27 3 Ri ch es t 38 .7 56 .8 4. 1 0. 5 61 .3 50 .6 0. 2 0. 0 50 .8 32 9 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 33 .2 63 .9 2. 5 0. 3 66 .7 57 .1 0. 3 0. 0 57 .5 77 7 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 35 .8 59 .3 4. 3 0. 4 64 .0 51 .0 0. 1 0. 0 51 .1 60 3 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d*   Ro m an i 39 .7 57 .9 1. 7 0. 4 60 .1 51 .5 0. 3 0. 0 51 .8 77 7 O th er 27 .3 67 .0 5. 3 0. 3 72 .6 58 .4 0. 2 0. 0 58 .6 60 1 To ta l 34 .4 61 .9 3. 3 0. 4 65 .5 54 .4 0. 2 0. 0 54 .7 1, 38 0 1 M IC S in di ca to r T A .1 (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. xIV Tobacco and Alcohol Use Numerous studies have shown that smoking cigarettes, pipes or cigars is a risk factor for many deadly diseases, including cardiovascular disease, respiratory illness, lung cancer and other forms of cancer. In addition, exposure to tobacco smoke is known to have harmful effects that can potentially lead to serious diseases in non-smokers, especially children. Excessive alcohol use also increases the risk of many harmful health conditions and can lead to cardiovascular problems, neurological impairment and liver disease as well as social problems. Alcohol abuse is also associated with injuries and violence, including domestic violence.42 Information was collected on tobacco and alcohol use amongst women and men aged 15-49 years regarding: z ever and current use and early start of cigarette smoking (before age 15); z ever and current use of smoke and smokeless tobacco products; z the intensity of use of cigarettes and smoke and smokeless tobacco products; z ever and current use of alcohol and the intensity of use. Table TA.1 presents the current and ever use of tobacco products by women aged 15-49 and Table TA.1M presents the corresponding information for men of the same age group. Tobacco Use The 2011–2012 MICS survey on Roma in BiH shows that the prevalence of tobacco product use was similar for men and women. Thus, 65 per cent of men and 66 per cent of women reported having ever used a tobacco product (Tables TA.1 and TA.1M). There were no clear differentials amongst Roma men and women who were currently using tobacco products in terms of the use of tobacco products by type or combination of products used. More than one half of men (56 per cent) and women (55 per cent) had used a tobacco product on one or more days during the last month. The use of any tobacco products amongst women during this period was most pronounced in the FBiH (56 per cent), followed by RS (49 per cent) and BD (45 per cent). 42 US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention <http://www.cdc.gov/> 130 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 131 Ta bl e TA .2 : A ge a t fi rs t u se o f c ig ar et te s an d fr eq ue nc y of u se : w om en Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s w ho s m ok ed a w ho le c ig ar et te b ef or e ag e 15 , a nd p er c en t d is tr ib ut io n of c ur re nt s m ok er s by th e nu m be r o f c ig ar et te s sm ok ed in th e la st 2 4 ho ur s, Bi H : R om a Su rv ey , 2 01 1– 20 12 Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en w ho s m ok ed a w ho le ci ga re tt e be fo re a ge 1 5 1 N um be r of w om en a ge d 15 -4 9 ye ar s N um be r o f c ig ar et te s in th e la st 2 4 ho ur s N um be r o f w om en ag ed 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho a re c ur re nt ci ga re tt e sm ok er s le ss th an 5 5- 9 10 -1 9 20 + To ta l A ge (y ea rs )   15 -1 9 16 .9 25 3 13 .1 14 .9 24 .1 48 .0 10 0. 0 67 20 -2 4 22 .3 25 8 6. 5 4. 4 37 .3 51 .8 10 0. 0 12 4 25 -2 9 20 .6 20 7 4. 6 7. 1 31 .7 56 .5 10 0. 0 13 0 30 -3 4 22 .9 18 3 6. 8 3. 9 21 .8 67 .5 10 0. 0 11 3 35 -3 9 22 .4 18 4 7. 2 2. 4 26 .4 64 .0 10 0. 0 10 5 40 -4 4 26 .8 14 7 0. 9 6. 8 14 .7 77 .6 10 0. 0 10 6 45 -4 9 23 .9 14 8 4. 3 6. 6 16 .9 72 .2 10 0. 0 11 1 A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 22 .6 1, 08 5 5. 8 6. 8 25 .2 62 .2 10 0. 0 61 3 RS 21 .3 22 4 7. 3 4. 2 23 .9 64 .6 10 0. 0 11 1 BD 11 .3 71 0. 0 0. 0 28 .1 71 .9 10 0. 0 32 Ed uc at io n   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n 25 .3 38 3 4. 8 4. 7 25 .8 64 .6 10 0. 0 21 6 Pr im ar y 22 .8 79 6 5. 4 6. 6 24 .7 63 .3 10 0. 0 45 0 Se co nd ar y+ 11 .2 20 1 10 .1 7. 0 26 .0 56 .9 10 0. 0 90 M at er ni ty s ta tu s   Pr eg na nt 28 .2 84 (6 .7 ) (1 2. 6) (2 7. 5) (5 3. 2) 10 0. 0 41 Br ea st fe ed in g (n ot p re gn an t) (* ) 4 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 2 N ei th er 21 .4 1, 29 2 5. 6 5. 7 25 .0 63 .7 10 0. 0 71 3 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t 28 .8 24 0 5. 5 3. 8 23 .8 66 .9 10 0. 0 13 9 Se co nd 22 .9 25 4 8. 8 9. 0 26 .6 55 .7 10 0. 0 13 2 M id dl e 23 .5 28 3 6. 3 5. 0 29 .1 59 .5 10 0. 0 17 6 Fo ur th 20 .6 27 3 5. 0 7. 7 28 .0 59 .3 10 0. 0 14 1 Ri ch es t 15 .4 32 9 3. 8 5. 5 18 .6 72 .0 10 0. 0 16 7 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 24 .9 77 7 6. 8 5. 8 26 .7 60 .7 10 0. 0 44 8 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 17 .8 60 3 4. 3 6. 5 22 .9 66 .2 10 0. 0 30 9 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d *  Ro m an i 22 .2 77 7 4. 8 6. 2 23 .4 65 .5 10 0. 0 40 4 O th er 21 .4 60 1 6. 9 6. 0 27 .2 60 .0 10 0. 0 35 3 To ta l 21 .8 1, 38 0 5. 8 6. 1 25 .2 62 .9 10 0. 0 75 6 1 M IC S in di ca to r T A .2 ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 –4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. Table TA .1M : Current and ever use of tobacco: m en Percentage of m en aged 15-49 years by pattern of use of tobacco, BiH Rom a Survey 2011–2012 N ever sm oked cigarettes or used other tobacco products Ever users U sed tobacco products on one or m ore days during the last one m onth N um ber of m en aged 15-49 years O nly cigarettes Cigarettes and other tobacco products O nly other tobacco products A ny tobacco product O nly cigarettes Cigarettes and other tobacco products O nly other tobacco products A ny tobacco product 1 A ge (years)   15-19 68.3 27.2 3.3 0.0 30.5 24.9 1.0 0.4 26.3 299 20-24 33.5 62.3 4.2 0.0 66.5 53.4 1.4 0.0 54.8 286 25-29 34.9 59.6 5.6 0.0 65.1 52.3 2.9 0.0 55.2 220 30-34 17.2 79.5 2.5 0.0 82.0 70.8 0.5 0.0 71.3 170 35-39 20.0 74.8 5.2 0.0 80.0 70.6 2.3 0.0 73.0 164 40-44 23.0 76.3 0.7 0.0 77.0 69.4 0.0 0.0 69.4 172 45-49 19.6 75.8 4.6 0.0 80.4 68.2 1.6 0.0 69.8 145 A dm inistrative unit   FBiH 34.8 61.7 3.1 0.0 64.8 54.7 1.4 0.1 56.2 1,151 RS 35.5 57.4 7.1 0.0 64.5 52.3 1.8 0.0 54.1 241 BD 32.8 64.1 3.1 0.0 67.2 64.1 0.0 0.0 64.1 64 Education   N o form al education 31.5 67.9 0.7 0.0 68.5 60.5 0.4 0.0 60.9 225 Prim ary 32.3 63.6 3.7 0.0 67.2 57.1 1.2 0.0 58.2 911 Secondary+ 44.2 49.2 6.3 0.0 55.5 44.0 2.8 0.4 47.1 320 w ealth index quintile   Poorest 24.0 71.7 4.0 0.0 75.7 65.1 2.1 0.0 67.2 248 Second 35.3 60.6 4.1 0.0 64.7 53.4 1.8 0.0 55.2 264 M iddle 35.9 60.3 3.3 0.0 63.6 54.2 0.5 0.0 54.7 319 Fourth 38.3 56.1 4.8 0.0 60.9 52.6 1.8 0.0 54.5 314 Richest 38.4 58.8 2.8 0.0 61.6 50.2 0.9 0.4 51.5 312 w ealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 32.1 63.8 3.8 0.0 67.5 57.2 1.4 0.0 58.6 830 Richest 40 per cent 38.4 57.5 3.8 0.0 61.3 51.4 1.4 0.2 53.0 626 Language of household head*   Rom ani 34.6 62.2 3.2 0.0 65.3 56.2 1.2 0.0 57.5 836 O ther 35.2 59.5 4.6 0.0 64.1 52.7 1.6 0.2 54.5 618 Total 34.8 61.1 3.8 0.0 64.9 54.7 1.4 0.1 56.2 1,456 1 M ICS indicator TA .1 * M issing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not show n in the table. The 2011–2012 MICS survey on Roma in BiH shows that the prevalence of tobacco product use was similar for men and women. Thus, 65 per cent of men and 66 per cent of women reported having ever used a tobacco product (Tables TA.1 and TA.1M). There were no clear differentials amongst Roma men and women who were currently using tobacco products in terms of the use of tobacco products by type or combination of products used. More than one half of men (56 per cent) and women (55 per cent) had used a tobacco product on one or more days during the last month. The use of any tobacco products amongst women during this period was most pronounced in the FBiH (56 per cent), followed by RS (49 per cent) and BD (45 per cent). As displayed in Tables TA.2 and TA.2M, most of the men and women that currently smoked cigarettes had smoked more than 20 cigarettes in the last 24 hours: men (87 per cent) more than women (63 per cent). 132 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 133 Alcohol Use Tables TA.3 and TA.3M show alcohol use amongst women and men aged 15-49. A higher proportion of Roma men (48 per cent) than women (14 per cent) had consumed at least one drink of alcohol on one or more days during the last month. Viewed by age, alcohol use during the last month was highest amongst men in the oldest age group 45-49 years (59 per cent), while the highest use amongst women (20 per cent) was reported in the 15-19 age group. Amongst men who had at least one drink of alcohol during the last month the highest percentage was in RS (92 per cent), while amongst women the highest percentage was in the FBiH (16 per cent). Twice as many women with secondary or higher education (22 per cent) had consumed alcohol during the last month compared to those with no formal education (10 per cent), while the pattern was reversed amongst men: a higher proportion of men with no formal education had consumed alcohol during the last month (56 per cent) compared to those with secondary or higher education (37 per cent). A higher percentage of men aged 15-49 (19 per cent) had had at least one drink of alcohol before age 15 compared to women (5 per cent). Viewed by age, the use of alcohol before the age of 15 was highest amongst men aged 20-29 (21 per cent), while the highest percentage of women who drank alcohol before age 15 was in the age group 15-19 years (11 per cent). There were no clear differentials by educational status of women who drank alcohol before age 15. In contrast, a higher percentage of men with no formal education (25 per cent) had consumed alcohol before age 15 compared to men with primary (18 per cent) and secondary or higher education (17 per cent). Alcohol use before age 15 was most common amongst men in the poorest wealth quintile and much more common amongst men (29 per cent) than amongst women (7 per cent) in this group. More than one half of Roma women (55 per cent) and about one-third of men (31 per cent) had never had one drink of alcohol. The highest proportion of women who never used alcohol was amongst women aged 45-49 (64 per cent), while amongst men this percentage was highest in the 15-19 age group (57 per cent). Table TA .2M : A ge at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use: m en Percentage of m en aged 15-49 years w ho sm oked a w hole cigarette before age 15, and per cent distribution of current sm okers by the num ber of cigarettes sm oked in the last 24 hours, BiH Rom a Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of m en w ho sm oked a w hole cigarette before age 15 1 N um ber of m en aged 15-49 years N um ber of cigarettes in the last 24 hours N um ber of m en aged 15-49 years w ho are current cigarette sm okers less than 5 5-9 10-19 20+ M issing/D K Total A ge (years)   15-19 12.4 299 3.5 2.2 18.2 76.1 0.0 100.0 77 20-24 19.4 286 0.0 3.4 11.2 85.4 0.0 100.0 159 25-29 19.8 220 0.0 2.4 7.2 90.4 0.0 100.0 122 30-34 24.8 170 0.9 0.0 12.7 86.4 0.0 100.0 121 35-39 18.7 164 0.0 0.8 8.7 90.6 0.0 100.0 120 40-44 25.5 172 0.7 1.0 8.2 88.3 1.9 100.0 121 45-49 19.3 145 0.0 2.0 11.5 86.5 0.0 100.0 102 A dm inistrative unit   FBiH 19.7 1,151 0.6 1.5 10.2 87.4 0.3 100.0 651 RS 20.7 241 0.6 3.5 15.9 79.9 0.0 100.0 130 BD 6.3 64 (0.0) (0.0) (2.4) (97.6) (0.0) 100.0 41 Education   N o form al education 25.3 225 0.5 0.7 6.0 92.1 0.7 100.0 137 Prim ary 19.5 911 0.5 1.9 9.6 87.7 0.2 100.0 536 Secondary+ 14.3 320 0.8 2.0 18.8 78.3 0.0 100.0 150 w ealth index quintile   Poorest 28.6 248 0.5 0.0 8.5 91.0 0.0 100.0 169 Second 20.0 264 0.0 2.8 10.9 85.6 0.7 100.0 146 M iddle 19.7 319 0.0 1.7 10.6 87.7 0.0 100.0 175 Fourth 13.8 314 1.1 1.7 16.4 80.1 0.7 100.0 173 Richest 16.3 312 1.2 2.7 6.8 89.4 0.0 100.0 159 w ealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 22.5 830 0.2 1.4 10.0 88.2 0.2 100.0 490 Richest 40 per cent 15.1 626 1.2 2.2 11.8 84.5 0.4 100.0 333 Language of household head   Rom ani 19.4 836 0.4 1.7 6.4 91.5 0.0 100.0 484 O ther 18.9 618 0.8 1.8 17.0 79.8 0.7 100.0 338 Total 19.3 1,456 0.6 1.7 10.7 86.7 0.3 100.0 823 1 M ICS indicator TA .2 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unw eighted cases * M issing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not show n in the table. 134 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 135 Table TA.3M: Use of alcohol: men Percentage of men aged 15-49 who have never had one drink of alcohol, percentage who first had one drink of alcohol before age 15, and percentage of men who had at least one drink of alcohol on one or more days during the last one month, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Percentage of men who: Number of men aged 15-49 years Never had one drink of alcohol Had at least one drink of alcohol before age 152 Had at least one drink of alcohol on one or more days during the last one month1 Age (years) 15-19 57.0 17.9 24.9 299 20-24 32.0 21.2 50.7 286 25-29 28.7 20.7 50.9 220 30-34 20.5 18.3 55.5 170 35-39 20.7 15.9 55.3 164 40-44 18.0 17.5 57.0 172 45-49 16.1 19.2 59.2 145 Administrative unit   FBiH 33.5 17.9 43.4 1,151 RS 23.8 24.0 58.8 241 BD 7.8 17.2 92.2 64 Education   No formal education 28.3 25.1 56.2 225 Primary 28.6 18.1 50.2 911 Secondary+ 38.8 16.9 36.5 320 wealth index quintile   Poorest 28.7 29.3 53.9 248 Second 30.4 14.5 45.9 264 Middle 33.7 17.8 45.8 319 Fourth 31.6 15.4 45.2 314 Richest 28.9 18.9 50.6 312 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 31.1 20.2 48.2 830 Richest 40 per cent 30.3 17.2 47.9 626 Language of household head*   Romani 28.6 19.7 54.3 836 Other 33.7 17.6 39.6 618 Total 30.8 18.9 48.1 1,456 1 MICS indicator TA.3 2 MICS indicator TA.4 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Table TA.3: Use of alcohol: women Percentage of women aged 15-49 who have never had one drink of alcohol, percentage who first had one drink of alcohol before age 15, and percentage of women who had at least one drink of alcohol on one or more days during the last one month, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of women who: Number of women aged 15-49 years Never had one drink of alcohol Had at least one drink of alcohol before age 152 Had at least one drink of alcohol on one or more days during the last one month1 Age (years)   15-19 55.6 10.7 19.8 253 20-24 52.4 7.6 15.1 258 25-29 52.2 2.3 11.9 207 30-34 52.8 5.7 16.4 183 35-39 56.8 3.5 11.8 184 40-44 56.6 1.6 12.7 147 45-49 63.6 2.3 8.9 148 Administrative unit   FBiH 52.2 5.6 15.8 1,085 RS 58.4 5.7 10.8 224 BD 91.5 0.0 1.4 71 Education   No formal education 69.3 6.6 10.1 383 Primary 53.4 4.9 14.4 796 Secondary+ 35.9 4.8 21.7 201 wealth index quintile   Poorest 67.0 7.1 9.7 240 Second 57.8 6.4 13.6 254 Middle 53.4 3.0 17.3 283 Fourth 45.9 5.7 16.9 273 Richest 54.0 5.0 13.4 329 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 59.1 5.4 13.7 777 Richest 40 per cent 50.3 5.3 15.0 603 Language of household head*  Romani 64.9 5.4 13.6 777 Other 42.8 5.2 15.2 601 Total 55.2 5.3 14.3 1,380 1 MICS indicator TA.3 2 MICS indicator TA.4 * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 136 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 137 Ta bl e Sw .1 : D om ai ns o f l ife s at is fa ct io n: w om en a ge d 15 -2 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge d 15 -2 4 ye ar s w ho a re v er y sa tis fie d or s at is fie d in s el ec te d do m ai ns , B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12 Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge d 15 -2 4 w ho a re v er y sa ti sfi ed o r s at is fie d w it h se le ct ed d om ai ns : Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en ag ed 1 5- 24 w ho : N um be r of w om en ag ed 15 -2 4 ye ar s Fa m ily lif e Fr ie nd sh ip s Sc ho ol Cu rr en t jo b H ea lth li vi ng en vi ro nm en t Tr ea tm en t by o th er s Th e w ay th ey lo ok Cu rr en t in co m e A re n ot cu rr en tly at te nd in g sc ho ol D o no t ha ve a jo b D o no t ha ve a ny in co m e A ge (y ea rs ) 15 -1 9 87 .8 76 .1 85 .6 (7 5. 5) 86 .9 69 .9 73 .3 91 .8 53 .9 78 .6 89 .4 69 .9 25 3 20 -2 4 79 .4 65 .6 (* ) (5 7. 2) 79 .5 60 .7 69 .7 85 .6 40 .6 94 .6 85 .1 62 .6 25 8 A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 85 .5 71 .5 88 .0 66 .5 83 .3 65 .2 72 .5 88 .4 43 .9 86 .1 87 .1 64 .8 40 8 RS 78 .4 71 .9 (* ) (* ) 82 .1 66 .2 68 .6 90 .1 (6 0. 1) 85 .1 83 .9 65 .5 77 BD (6 8. 0) (5 6. 0) – – (8 4. 0) (6 4. 0) (6 4. 0) (8 8. 0) (* ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (9 2. 0) 25 M ar it al S ta tu s   Ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 81 .5 67 .1 (* ) (5 8. 0) 79 .1 61 .8 69 .2 84 .9 42 .9 95 .7 86 .3 62 .6 30 5 N ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 86 .6 76 .3 93 .7 (* ) 89 .2 70 .5 74 .8 94 .2 53 .5 73 .1 88 .7 71 .6 20 5 Ed uc at io n   N o fo rm al e du ca tio n 75 .8 60 .4 – (* ) 74 .4 60 .7 66 .2 82 .9 (4 3. 3) 10 0. 0 86 .6 69 .7 12 7 Pr im ar y 85 .6 71 .8 (* ) (6 4. 7) 83 .8 65 .5 70 .9 90 .0 42 .6 92 .9 87 .7 63 .4 28 3 Se co nd ar y+ 87 .8 81 .0 (9 3. 7) (* ) 92 .5 70 .4 79 .9 92 .4 (6 3. 8) 52 .2 86 .7 69 .9 10 1 w ea lt h in de x qu in ti le   Po or es t 73 .9 57 .4 (* ) (* ) 74 .7 51 .0 50 .9 82 .4 (2 5. 1) 93 .8 83 .1 60 .8 11 6 Se co nd 86 .2 75 .4 (* ) (* ) 81 .1 59 .7 73 .4 87 .1 (4 2. 2) 93 .1 90 .2 67 .1 98 M id dl e 85 .5 74 .9 (* ) (* ) 85 .7 68 .6 75 .1 92 .8 (* ) 83 .3 90 .2 73 .1 97 Fo ur th 90 .6 71 .4 (* ) (* ) 85 .1 65 .1 74 .7 87 .3 (* ) 78 .7 89 .8 70 .2 83 Ri ch es t 84 .4 76 .3 (* ) (* ) 89 .8 81 .3 84 .9 93 .7 (7 0. 8) 82 .6 84 .6 62 .4 11 7 w ea lt h in de x   Po or es t 6 0 pe r c en t 81 .4 68 .5 (7 7. 5) (5 1. 4) 80 .1 59 .2 65 .5 87 .1 37 .1 90 .3 87 .6 66 .6 31 0 Ri ch es t 4 0 pe r c en t 87 .0 74 .3 (9 5. 9) (8 3. 9) 87 .9 74 .6 80 .7 91 .0 60 .6 81 .0 86 .7 65 .6 20 0 La ng ua ge o f h ou se ho ld h ea d*   Ro m an i 81 .3 70 .0 (8 1. 4) (7 1. 1) 81 .5 64 .1 71 .3 86 .5 45 .7 91 .0 90 .2 71 .8 29 6 O th er 87 .1 71 .6 (9 2. 3) (6 1. 1) 85 .3 67 .4 71 .4 91 .6 47 .7 80 .4 83 .5 58 .6 21 2 To ta l 83 .6 70 .8 88 .2 64 .7 83 .2 65 .3 71 .5 88 .7 46 .5 86 .7 87 .3 66 .2 51 0 ( ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 –4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s * M is si ng c as es fo r t he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic “l an gu ag e of h ou se ho ld h ea d” a re n ot s ho w n in th e ta bl e. xV Subjective well-Being It is well known that the subjective perceptions of individuals concerning their income, health, living environment, happiness and the like play a significant role in their lives and can have an impact on their perception of well-being, irrespective of objective conditions such as actual income and physical health status. Life satisfaction is a measure of an individual’s perceived level of well-being. Understanding young women and young men’s satisfaction in different areas of their lives can help us to gain a comprehensive picture of young people’s life situations. A distinction can also be made between life satisfaction and happiness. Happiness is a fleeting emotion that can be affected by numerous factors, including day-to-day factors such as the weather or a recent death in the family. It is possible for a person to be satisfied with his or her job, income, family life, friends and other aspects of his or her life but still be unhappy. Indicators related to subjective well-being z Life satisfaction: the proportion of women and men aged 15-24 years who were very satisfied or satisfied with their family life, friendships, school, current job, health, where they lived, how they were treated by others and how they looked. z Happiness: the proportion of women and men aged 15-24 years who were very happy or happy. z Perception of a better life: the proportion of women and men aged 15-24 years who thought that their lives had improved during the last one year and who expected that their lives would be better after one year. In the 2011–2012 MICS survey on Roma in BiH a set of questions were asked of women and men between 15-24 years of age in order to understand how satisfied this group of young people was with different areas of their lives. In addition to the set of questions on life satisfaction the survey also asked questions about happiness and the respondents’ perceptions of a better life.43 Tables SW.1 and SW.1M show the proportion of women and men aged 15-24 years who were very satisfied or satisfied with each of the following aspects of their life: family life, friendships, school, current job, health, where they lived, how they were treated by others, how they looked and their current income. The findings show that the highest percentage of women and men aged 15-24 were very satisfied or satisfied with how they looked (89 per cent of women and 88 per cent of men), their school (88 per cent of women and 83 per cent of men)44 and their family life (84 per cent of women and 80 per cent of men). 43 To assist respondents in answering the set of questions on happiness and life satisfaction they were shown a card with smiling faces that corre- sponded to the response categories (see the Questionnaires in Appendix F). 44 These findings are for women who currently attended school (13 per cent) and men who currently attended school (20 per cent). 138 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 139 Table Sw.1M: Domains of life satisfaction: men aged 15-24 Percentage of men aged 15-24 years who are very satisfied or satisfied in selected domains, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012       Percentage of men aged 15-24 who are very satisfied or satisfied with selected domains: Percentage of men aged 15-24 who: Number of men aged 15-24 yearsFamily life Friendships School Current job Health living environment Treatment by others The way they look Current income Are not currently attending school Do not have a job Do not have any income Age (years) 15-19 82.6 83.4 83.3 83.7 89.1 70.1 77.7 87.6 79.0 64.7 74.1 68.3 299 20-24 76.8 74.7 (*) 74.8 87.0 61.1 71.1 88.4 70.7 95.7 70.1 61.9 286 Administrative unit   FBiH 81.9 80.1 84.4 78.7 88.8 67.2 74.9 88.6 75.3 78.2 74.8 67.1 473 RS 73.8 76.9 (*) (74.0) 85.7 52.3 69.5 85.5 (67.3) 86.0 62.7 58.2 91 BD (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 21 Marital Status   Ever married/in union 77.9 74.9 (*) 76.1 87.7 62.7 74.7 88.4 71.3 95.8 68.8 65.4 200 Never married/in union 80.7 81.3 83.1 80.9 88.2 67.3 74.3 87.8 76.2 71.6 73.9 65.1 385 Education   No formal education 64.7 66.9 – (*) 81.6 54.6 63.7 79.8 (74.4) 100.0 73.2 66.0 80 Primary 79.1 78.2 (71.3) 78.7 87.8 63.3 73.2 87.9 75.3 88.1 71.8 65.2 340 Secondary+ 88.5 87.0 88.8 (77.9) 91.7 76.1 82.1 92.3 73.1 53.1 72.3 64.7 165 wealth index quintile   Poorest 66.6 70.6 (*) (77.3) 84.6 45.0 66.3 87.4 (76.9) 90.7 71.7 67.5 96 Second 65.9 70.8 (*) (83.5) 82.8 51.9 62.2 84.0 (71.0) 89.5 74.3 65.1 95 Middle 86.5 82.2 (73.6) (73.8) 89.2 66.7 76.2 85.3 71.2 79.5 71.0 60.4 129 Fourth 84.7 83.7 (78.0) (75.3) 89.7 74.7 84.9 93.5 72.6 70.3 71.5 63.9 140 Richest 87.8 83.6 (94.3) (87.5) 91.6 80.9 76.4 88.1 (82.9) 75.2 72.7 69.8 125 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 74.4 75.4 (79.7) 77.5 85.9 55.8 69.1 85.5 72.7 85.9 72.2 63.9 320 Richest 40 per cent 86.2 83.7 85.0 80.9 90.6 77.6 80.9 91.0 77.0 72.6 72.0 66.7 266 Language of household head*  Romani 77.1 78.3 80.1 81.3 86.6 66.6 73.7 86.6 80.2 85.7 70.2 63.3 347 Other 83.6 80.2 85.2 75.2 90.1 64.6 75.8 90.4 65.1 71.3 74.9 67.8 238 Total 79.8 79.1 83.0 79.0 88.0 65.7 74.4 88.0 74.6 79.9 72.1 65.2 585 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. The proportion of women aged 15-24 years with life satisfaction is shown in Table SW.2 and the same indicator for men is presented in Table SW.2M. In MICS ‘life satisfaction’ as a summary indicator is defined as being very satisfied or satisfied with all of the following aspects of their lives: one’s family life, friendships, school, current job, health, where the respondent lives, how they are treated by others and how they look. According to the survey findings, a higher percentage of men aged 15-24 (48 per cent) than women (39 per cent) were satisfied with their life. Young people of both sexes were more satisfied with life in the age group 15-19 years (45 per cent of women and 54 per cent of men) than those aged 20-24 (32 per cent of women and 41 per cent of men). Life satisfaction was higher amongst men aged 15-24 with secondary or higher education (56 per cent) compared to those with no formal education (38 per cent) and amongst men and women this age living in the richest 40 per cent of the population (48 per cent of women and 58 per cent of men) compared to those in the poorest 60 per cent of the population (33 per cent of women and 39 per cent of men). This survey indicates an almost identical average life satisfaction score for Roma women (2.1) and men (2.0).45 Data was also obtained on the proportion of women and men aged 15-24 years who were very happy or happy: a slightly higher proportion of men (77 per cent) than women (71 per cent). For both sexes, people aged 15-19 (76 per cent of women and 80 per cent of men) were happier than those aged 20-24 (66 per cent of women and 75 per cent of men); women and men aged 15-24 who had secondary or higher education (81 per cent of women and 85 per cent of men) were happier than those with no formal education (60 per cent of women and 66 per cent of men), while women and men in this age group in the richest wealth quintile (76 per cent of women and 87 per cent of men) were happier than those in the poorest wealth quintile (57 per cent of women and 67 per cent of men). 45 The average life satisfaction score is the arithmetic mean of responses to questions included in the calculation of life satisfaction (on a scale of 1 to 5): lower scores indicate higher satisfaction levels. 140 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 141 Table Sw.2M: Life satisfaction and happiness: men aged 15-24 Percentage of men aged 15-24 years who are very satisfied or satisfied with their family life, friendships, school, current job, health, living environment, treatment by others and the way they look; the average life satisfaction score, percentage of men with life satisfaction who are also very satisfied or satisfied with their income and percentage of men aged 15-24 years who are very happy or happy, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of men with life satisfaction1 Average life satisfaction score Missing/ Cannot be calculated Men with life satisfaction who are very satisfied or satisfied with their income No income/ Cannot be calculated Percentage who are very happy or happy2 Number of men aged 15-24 years Age (years)   15-19 53.7 1.9 0.0 60.6 68.3 80.1 299 20-24 41.1 2.1 0.4 50.7 62.2 74.5 286 Administrative unit   FBiH 51.4 2.0 0.2 56.0 67.3 79.3 473 RS 26.7 2.1 0.0 (46.0) 58.2 68.4 91 BD (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 21 Marital Status   Ever married/in union 43.9 2.1 0.5 56.3 65.9 79.4 200 Never married/in union 49.4 1.9 0.0 54.8 65.1 76.2 385 Education   No formal education 37.5 2.2 0.0 (53.3) 66.0 65.6 80 Primary 46.0 2.0 0.3 56.4 65.5 76.3 340 Secondary+ 55.7 1.9 0.0 54.0 64.7 85.1 165 wealth index quintile   Poorest 31.3 2.2 1.1 (46.9) 68.6 66.8 96 Second 35.3 2.2 0.0 (47.9) 65.1 68.7 95 Middle 47.3 2.0 0.0 53.6 60.4 80.2 129 Fourth 58.8 1.9 0.0 57.2 63.9 78.7 140 Richest 56.9 1.8 0.0 (68.2) 69.8 87.4 125 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 38.9 2.1 0.3 50.2 64.2 72.8 320 Richest 40 per cent 57.9 1.9 0.0 61.9 66.7 82.8 266 Language of household head*   Romani 48.2 2.0 0.0 61.7 63.3 75.1 347 Other 46.8 2.0 0.4 44.5 68.2 80.8 238 Total 47.6 2.0 0.2 55.3 65.4 77.3 585 1 MICS Indicator Sw.1 2 MICS indicator Sw.2 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Women’s perceptions of a better life are shown in Table SW.3 while the corresponding indicator for men is shown in Table SW.3M. The findings show that a higher percentage of Roma women aged 15-24 years thought that their lives had improved during the last year (29 per cent) compared to men (21 per cent) and a higher percentage of them expected that their lives would get better after one year (77 per cent) compared to men (61 per cent). A higher percentage of women (25 per cent) compared to men (19 per cent) had positive perceptions with respect to both of the previous statements, believing that their lives had improved during the last year and expecting that their lives would get better after one year. Such perceptions were more common amongst men aged 15-24 with secondary or higher education (23 per cent) compared to those with no formal education (12 per cent). Table Sw.2: Life satisfaction and happiness: women aged 15-24 Percentage of women aged 15-24 years who are very satisfied or satisfied with their family life, friendships, school, current job, health, living environment, treatment by others and the way they look; the average life satisfaction score, percentage of women with life satisfaction who are also very satisfied or satisfied with their income and percentage of women aged 15-24 years who are very happy or happy, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of women with life satisfaction1 Average life satisfaction score Missing/ Cannot be calculated women with life satisfaction who are very satisfied or satisfied with their income No income/ Cannot be calculated Percentage who are very happy or happy2 Number of women aged 15-24 years Age (years)   15-19 44.9 2.0 0.4 32.4 70.3 76.1 253 20-24 32.4 2.2 0.4 15.3 63.0 65.6 258 Administrative unit   FBiH 37.7 2.1 0.5 19.3 65.3 71.5 408 RS 43.9 2.2 0.0 (39.6) 65.5 71.9 77 BD (36.0) (2.2) (0.0) (*) (92.0) (56.0) 25 Marital Status   Ever married/in union 35.4 2.2 0.6 20.3 63.2 67.1 305 Never married/in union 43.4 2.0 0.0 27.7 71.6 76.3 205 Education   No formal education 35.5 2.3 0.0 (32.6) 69.7 60.4 127 Primary 39.1 2.1 0.7 16.8 64.1 71.8 283 Secondary+ 41.0 1.9 0.0 (30.6) 69.9 81.0 101 wealth index quintile   Poorest 23.3 2.4 1.7 (8.6) 62.5 57.4 116 Second 38.3 2.1 0.0 (22.1) 67.1 75.4 98 Middle 37.3 2.0 0.0 (*) 73.1 74.9 97 Fourth 46.2 2.0 0.0 (*) 70.2 71.4 83 Richest 49.4 2.0 0.0 (40.0) 62.4 76.3 117 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 32.5 2.2 0.6 16.2 67.3 68.5 310 Richest 40 per cent 48.1 2.0 0.0 32.5 65.6 74.3 200 Language of household head*   Romani 40.4 2.2 0.3 26.0 72.1 70.0 296 Other 36.4 2.0 0.5 20.1 59.1 71.6 212 Total 38.6 2.1 0.4 22.8 66.6 70.8 510 1 MICS Indicator Sw.1 2 MICS indicator Sw.2 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 142 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 143 Table Sw.3M: Perception of a better life: men aged 15-24 Percentage of men aged 15-24 years who think that their lives improved during the last one year and those who expect that their lives will get better after one year, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of men who think that their life: Number of men aged 15-24 years Improved during the last one year will get better after one year Both 1 Age (years)   15-19 22.2 65.2 21.2 299 20-24 18.8 55.7 17.4 286 Administrative unit   FBiH 20.8 62.4 20.0 473 RS 17.0 58.4 13.9 91 BD (*) (*) (*) 21 Marital Status   Ever married/in union 17.4 53.6 17.4 200 Never married/in union 22.1 64.2 20.4 385 Education   No formal education 14.0 35.7 11.6 80 Primary 20.4 58.9 19.5 340 Secondary+ 24.0 76.0 22.8 165 wealth index quintile   Poorest 22.4 50.9 21.4 96 Second 16.4 60.7 14.6 95 Middle 20.8 56.7 19.9 129 Fourth 22.1 63.8 20.0 140 Richest 20.1 68.2 20.1 125 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 20.0 56.1 18.8 320 Richest 40 per cent 21.2 65.9 20.1 266 Language of household head*   Romani 22.2 55.8 21.9 347 Other 18.1 67.3 15.7 238 Total 20.5 60.5 19.4 585 1 MICS indicator Sw.3 (*) Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Table Sw.3: Perception of a better life: women aged 15-24 Percentage of women aged 15-24 years who think that their lives improved during the last one year and those who expect that their lives will get better after one year, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Percentage of women who think that their life: Number of women aged 15-24 years Improved during the last one year will get better after one year Both 1 Age (years)   15-19 33.6 80.0 29.5 253 20-24 25.1 73.2 21.1 258 Administrative unit   FBiH 28.0 76.5 24.7 408 RS 37.9 73.1 30.2 77 BD (24.0) (88.0) (20.0) 25 Marital Status   Ever married/in union 30.6 72.7 26.2 305 Never married/in union 27.4 82.2 23.8 205 Education   No formal education 27.0 70.0 24.1 127 Primary 29.4 78.5 25.2 283 Secondary+ 32.1 79.3 26.8 101 wealth index quintile   Poorest 23.8 63.9 18.8 116 Second 17.9 79.8 16.7 98 Middle 36.1 78.5 31.4 97 Fourth 31.4 77.7 23.9 83 Richest 37.1 83.8 34.7 117 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 25.8 73.5 22.1 310 Richest 40 per cent 34.8 81.3 30.2 200 Language of household head*   Romani 28.5 76.2 25.2 296 Other 30.7 77.3 25.6 212 Total 29.3 76.5 25.3 510 1 MICS indicator Sw.3 ( ) Figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 144 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 145 Table SD.1: Allocation of sample households (primary sampling units) by municipality (stratum) Municipality (stratum) code Municipality (stratum) Population of households (2009 estimates) Number of Households selected in the sample Population of households (2012 MICS fieldwork) Total Total Total 501 Bihac 72 30 50 502 BosanskaKrupa 46 19 42 503 Cazin 4 2 3 504 Kljuc 39 16 31 505 Sanski Most 11 5 5 506 Odzak 11 5 2 507 Banovici 87 36 77 508 Celic 19 8 20 509 Gracanica 57 24 57 510 Gradacac 35 15 31 511 Kalesija 55 23 55 512 Kladanj 12 5 14 513 lukavac 136 57 137 514 Srebrenik 25 10 25 515 Tuzla 316 132 232 516 Teocak 6 3 7 517 Zivinice 200 84 203 518 Sapna 13 5 14 519 Breza 25 10 25 520 Kakanj 299 125 223 521 Maglaj 12 5 14 522 Visoko 244 102 245 523 Zavidovici 105 44 83 524 Zenica 239 100 208 525 DonjiVakuf 58 24 58 526 Fojnica 11 5 12 527 Jajce 56 23 49 528 Kiseljak 100 42 100 529 Novi Travnik 9 4 9 530 Travnik 114 48 114 531 Vitez 138 58 88 532 Capljina 13 5 13 533 Jablanica 22 9 22 534 Konjic 28 12 28 535 Stolac 6 3 6 536 Sarajevo-Centar 104 43 104 537 Sarajevo-Hadzici 27 11 21 538 Sarajevo-Ilidza 85 36 85 539 Sarajevo-Ilijas 37 15 37 540 Sarajevo-Novi Grad 143 60 143 541 Sarajevo-Novo Sarajevo 141 59 141 542 Sarajevo-Stari Grad 9 4 9 543 Sarajevo-Vogosca 34 14 34 544 Grad (city of ) Banja luka 40 17 28 545 KozarskaDubica 18 8 18 546 Gradiska 130 54 113 547 laktasi 14 6 0 548 Prijedor 70 29 61 549 Prnjavor 27 11 28 550 Bijeljina 269 112 184 551 Derventa 35 15 30 552 Doboj 65 27 55 553 Modrica 79 33 59 Appendix A: Sample Design The major features of the sample design are described in this appendix. Sample design features include the target sample size, sample allocation, sampling frame and listing, choice of domains, sampling stages, stratification and the calculation of sample weights. The primary objective of the sample design for the MICS survey on Roma in BiH was to produce statistically reliable estimates for most indicators at the BiH, FBiH and RS level. A one-stage stratified sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample. Sample Size and Sample Allocation The target sample size for the Roma communities MICS was calculated as 1,800 households in 62 municipalities. Data from MICS3 on Roma in Serbia in 2005 was used to calculate specific indicators. At the time of the sample design the Serbian MICS3 was the only unique source of data on the Roma population in the sub-region (BiH, Montenegro, Croatia, the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Serbia). The key indicator used for the calculation of the sample size was the immunisation coverage rate for the tuberculosis vaccine amongst children aged 18-29 months. Out of the 30 indicators 17 required a smaller sample size than 1,800 households and the remaining 13 required a larger sample size of households. Of the 13 indicators that required a larger sample size than that of 1,800 households the average size of the confidence interval for a sample of 1,800 households was calculated at 7.4 per cent. The below formula was used to estimate the required sample size for these indicators. Wherein: z n is the required sample size, expressed as number of households for the KEY indicator; z 4 is a factor to achieve the 95 per cent level of confidence; z r is the predicted or anticipated value of the indicator, expressed in the form of a proportion; z 1.1 is the factor necessary to raise the sample size by 10 per cent for the expected non-response; z f is the shortened symbol for deff (design effect); z 0.12 r is the margin of error to be tolerated at the 95 per cent level of confidence, defined as 12 per cent of ‘r’ (relative margin of error of r); z p is the proportion of the total population upon which the indicator ‘r’ is based; z ñ is the average household size (number of persons per household). In the calculation ‘r’ (immunisation coverage for the tuberculosis vaccine) was assumed to be 75.8 per cent. The value of deff (design effect) was taken as 1.3 based on estimates from the Serbian MICS3 on Roma, ‘p’ (percentage of children aged 0-4 years in the total population of households with children under-5) was taken as 2.6 per cent, ñ (average household size of households with children under-5) was taken as 3.9 households, and the response rate was assumed to be 90 per cent. The households were selected with equal probability within each stratum (municipality) at the first sampling stage, based on the Roma listing conducted by MHRR BiH in 2009. The sampling rate used was 1,800/4,307. Of the 67 municipalities in the master sample frame, 62 were selected. Table SD.1 shows the allocation of sample households to municipalities (strata) and the distribution of the household population by stratum for households listed during the MICS4 fieldwork. 146 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 147 Municipality (stratum) code Municipality (stratum) Population of households (2009 estimates) Number of Households selected in the sample Population of households (2012 MICS fieldwork) Total Total Total 554 Vukosavlje 59 25 37 555 Teslic 28 12 20 556 Ugljevik 6 3 6 557 Bratunac 8 3 9 558 Srebrenica 3 1 7 559 Gacko 2 1 0 560 Trebinje 7 3 7 561 Brcko District of BiH 172 72 179 562 Grad (town) Mostar 67 28 67 Total 4,302 1,800 3,784 Sampling Frame Sampling frames for the Roma population were non-existent in BiH until 200946 when MHRR BiH conducted an enumeration of Roma in BiH as part of activities within the Decade of Roma Inclusion 2005-2015. The master sample frame was prepared using information from the 2009 enumeration. During the 2009 enumeration procedure data was collected on 4,307 Roma households living in Roma communities in 67 municipalities. The total number of municipalities in BiH is 142. Data from the remaining 75 municipalities was not collected due to a lack of information on the presence of Roma in these municipalities. Five municipalities with 1 Roma household were excluded from the master sample frame. Municipalities in the FBiH, RS and BD were identified as the sample strata and a one-stage stratified sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample, with households defined as the primary sampling units (PSUs). Households were selected from each of the sampling strata (municipalities) by using systematic pps sampling procedures, based on the estimated sizes of the strata from the 2009 enumeration of Roma in BiH. Listing Activities Since the sampling frame (the 2009 enumeration of Roma in BiH) was not up-to-date a new listing of households was conducted in all of the sample municipalities during MICS fieldwork.47 For this purpose, the fieldwork teams, who visited each municipality, listed the occupied households. The measurer in the team was responsible for maintaining the list of households. Roma households were listed based on self-identification of the household head as Roma. During MICS fieldwork, fewer households were listed compared to the number of households from the 2009 enumeration. MICS teams were informed that many households had left BiH in the period between 2009 and MICS fieldwork (4,302 households were enumerated during the Roma registration conducted in 2009, while the number of households enumerated during MICS fieldwork was 3,784). Selection of Households All households where the head of household declared himself or herself to be of Roma ethnicity were considered as Roma households. Households were selected within each stratum based on the date of birth of the household head. If the date of birth of the household head was not available then the date of birth of the next oldest person in the household with an available date of birth was used. If none of the household members had an available date of birth then the date of birth of the interviewer was used as the reference. 46 The last census in BiH was conducted in 1991. 47 The list was used to correct the weights of Roma households within the strata. For each stratum within the sample a random ‘starting point’ (day and month) was randomly selected and an ‘end point’ date calculated based on the sample size, using available information from the sampling frame. All households where the date of birth of the household head fell between the starting point date and the end point date were interviewed. This method ensured the definition of a randomised time segment. Due to the potential for demographic changes within Roma communities it was possible for there to be more or less Roma households within the randomised time segment than initially expected. Therefore, in order to maintain the total number of households to be contacted for interviews in each stratum the interviewers applied the strategies listed below. 1. If the number of Roma households was higher in the randomised time segment than that of the expected number of households to be interviewed within the stratum the interviewers stopped interviews once they had reached the expected number of interviews. The team continued listing the households until all Roma households in the stratum were enumerated. 2. If the number of Roma households was lower in the randomised time segment than that of the expected number of households to be interviewed within the stratum the interviewers increased the end date of the randomised time segment by one month and conducted additional interviews starting from the beginning of the list of Roma households and interviewing those households that met the new criteria. When interviewers had contacted the expected number of households to be interviewed they stopped the interviews. If the number of interviewed Roma households was still lower than expected the interviewers added an additional month to the end of the randomised time segment and repeated the procedure. The use of additional months was completed either once the expected number of households to be selected within the stratum had been reached or when all households within the stratum had been interviewed and the number remained lower than the expected number to be selected in the stratum. In order to have a random sample design – for each stratum (municipality) a list of Roma settlements was produced then this list was ordered randomly (using a random number generator). Interviewers were instructed to interview settlements in a predefined (random) order. In this way each household had the same probability of selection within each stratum. Calculation of Sample weights The Roma Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in BiH sample was not self-weighting. In order to obtain representative results for the Roma settlements, sample weights were calculated. These sample weights were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data. In the calculation of the weights the initial number of households by municipality (from the 2009 enumeration of Roma) was replaced by updated data collected during the fieldwork listing. Thus, for each stratum different weights were produced using the below formula. Wherein: z Whi is the weight z N’h is the total number of Roma households in municipality (stratum) h based on the updated MICS 2011–2012 listing z n’h is the number of households found in the stratum (number of in-scope Roma households selected in stratum h) z n”h is the total number of completed Roma household interviews in municipality h Since the original sample allocation was based on the 2009 sampling frame, there were cases where the number of households selected in the municipality was greater than N’h, in which case a value of 1 was used for the first stage probability of selection instead of the formula. A second component in the calculation of sample weights accounted for the level of non-response for the households and individuals interviews. The adjustment for household non-response is equal to the inverse value of: RRh = Number of interviewed households in stratum h Number of occupied households listed in stratum h 148 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 149 Municipality (stratum) code48 Municipality (stratum) weights for: Households women Men Children under-5 527 Jajce 0.909733 0.905286 1.009552 0.902580 528 Kiseljak 1.317585 1.248710 1.228210 1.307226 529 Novi Travnik 1.225354 1.741950 1.142236 N/A 530 Travnik 0.970072 0.985031 0.904270 0.962445 531 Vitez 0.816903 0.774200 0.803795 0.810480 532 Capljina 1.769956 1.677433 2.474844 1.756040 533 Jablanica 1.123241 1.064525 1.177930 1.114410 534 Konjic 1.143664 1.354850 1.066087 1.134672 535 Stolac 0.816903 0.774200 0.761490 N/A 536 Sarajevo-Centar 1.287241 1.253839 1.257064 1.277120 537 Sarajevo-Hadzici 0.857748 0.812910 0.799565 0.851004 538 Sarajevo-Ilidza 1.239942 1.228540 1.155834 1.230193 539 Sarajevo-Ilijas 1.162516 1.101746 1.173964 1.153376 540 Sarajevo-Novi Grad 1.168171 1.126194 1.106495 1.158987 541 Sarajevo-Novo Sarajevo 1.175340 1.140421 1.121093 1.166099 542 Sarajevo-Stari Grad 0.919016 0.870975 0.856677 0.911790 543 Sarajevo-Vogosca 1.157279 1.096783 1.078778 1.148180 544 Grad (city of ) Banja luka 0.762443 0.889337 1.184541 0.756448 545 KozarskaDubica 1.050304 0.995400 1.468589 1.042046 546 Gradiska 0.923100 1.087646 1.164184 0.915843 548 Prijedor 0.859156 0.983879 1.105974 0.852402 549 Prnjavor 1.143664 1.083880 1.421449 1.134672 550 Bijeljina 0.683228 0.653679 0.643449 0.677856 551 Derventa 0.942580 0.893308 0.878643 0.935169 552 Doboj 1.012907 1.066620 1.124046 1.228264 553 Modrica 0.777375 0.818599 0.841522 0.832964 554 Vukosavlje 0.719652 0.714511 0.754691 0.793327 555 Teslic 0.907670 1.204311 1.184541 N/A 556 Ugljevik 0.816903 0.774200 0.761490 0.810480 557 Bratunac 1.225354 1.161300 1.142236 1.215720 558 Srebrenica 2.859160 N/A N/A N/A 560 Trebinje 1.429580 N/A 1.332608 N/A 561 Brcko District of BiH 1.044469 1.003812 1.004045 1.036257 562 Grad (town) Mostar 1.189837 1.193971 1.109127 1.180482 N/A: “Not applicable” Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed by weighting each household, woman, men or child under-5 with these sample weights. After completion of the fieldwork the response rates were calculated for each sampling stratum. These were used to adjust the sample weights calculated for each cluster. Response rates in the Roma Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey are shown in Table HH.1 of this report. Similarly, the adjustment for non-response at the individual level (women, men and children under-5) for each stratum is equal to the inverse value of: RRh = Completed women’s (or under-5’s or men’s) questionnaires in stratum h Eligible women (or under-5’s or men) in stratum h The non-response adjustment factors for women’s, men’s and under-5’s questionnaires were applied to the adjusted household weights. Numbers of eligible women and children under-5 were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed. The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the above factors for each enumeration area. These weights were then standardised (or normalised), one purpose of which was to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal to the total sample size at the national level. Normalisation was achieved by dividing the full sample weights (adjusted for non-response) by the average of these weights across all households at the BiH level. This was performed by multiplying the sample weights by a constant factor equal to the unweighted number of households at the national level and divided by the weighted total number of households (using the full sample weights adjusted for non-response). A similar standardisation procedure was followed for obtaining standardised weights for the women’s, men’s and children under-5 questionnaires. Adjusted (normalised) weights varied between 0.483875 and 2.859160 in the 62 sample municipalities (see Table SD.2). Table SD.2: Adjusted (normalised) weights by sample strata Municipality (stratum) code48 Municipality (stratum) weights for: Households women Men Children under-5 501 Bihac 0.680752 0.682033 0.700221 0.675400 502 BosanskaKrupa 1.160862 1.344663 1.202353 1.151735 503 Cazin 0.612677 1.161300 0.571118 N/A 504 Kljuc 0.847901 0.843757 0.836880 0.841235 505 Sanski Most 0.510564 0.483875 0.634575 0.506550 506 Odzak 0.816903 0.774200 0.761490 0.810480 507 Banovici 1.048359 0.993557 0.977246 1.040116 508 Celic 1.021129 0.967750 1.903726 1.013100 509 Gracanica 0.970072 0.919362 0.904270 0.962445 510 Gradacac 0.844133 0.800007 0.786873 0.837496 511 Kalesija 1.021129 0.967750 0.951863 1.013100 512 Kladanj 1.429580 1.693562 1.332608 1.418340 513 lukavac 0.981717 0.930398 0.930376 0.973998 514 Srebrenik 1.021129 0.967750 0.951863 1.013100 515 Tuzla 0.817764 0.798741 0.864386 0.869287 516 Teocak 0.953053 0.903233 0.888405 0.945560 517 Zivinice 1.036445 0.997378 1.039333 1.028297 518 Sapna 1.143664 1.393560 1.184541 1.134672 519 Breza 1.134587 1.075278 1.057626 1.125667 520 Kakanj 1.247735 1.253109 1.179714 1.263715 521 Maglaj 1.429580 1.354850 1.332608 1.418340 522 Visoko 1.352305 1.511158 1.276946 1.420595 523 Zavidovici 0.892144 0.922372 0.896853 0.885130 524 Zenica 0.933603 0.924124 0.931706 0.926263 525 DonjiVakuf 1.030008 0.976165 0.960140 1.021910 526 Fojnica 1.633806 1.548400 1.522981 1.620960 48 None of the households in the Municipality of laktasi (547) declared themselves as Roma, while in the Municipality of Gacko (559) the survey team was informed that the Roma households had relocated during the period between the 2009 enumeration process conducted by MHRR BiH and the MICS4 fieldwork. 150 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 151 Measurers Denis Music Pasana Halilovic Snjezana Mirkovic Data entry Supervisor Zoran Husanovic, Data Processing Coordinator, MHRR BiH Control and editing Damir Karahasanovic, MHRR BiH Dragi Popovic, MHRR BiH Data entry operators Danijela Skakavac Emir Tucakovic Suzana Obrenovic Vedran Jovancic Support to fieldwork organisation Alena Tahirovic, Kljuc Edin Sejdic, Kakanj Husein Softic, Zenica Melisa Demirovic, Bihac Mirzet Husic, Travnik Muhamed Beganovic, Bijeljina Mujo Fafulic, president of the ‘Eur Romalen Kakanj’, Centre for Support, Information and Action Pero Martinovic, Teslic Raif Alimanovic, president of the Association ‘Romi i prijatelji’ Ilijas Rajka Zdjelar, Municipality of Prijedor Redzo Seferovic, Zavidovici Sabahudin Tahirovic, Jajce Sead Dzemaili, Bihac Stanko Markovic, Municipality of Prijedor Zeljko Kantar, Centre for Social Work Prijedor Support during survey implementation Alen Gavranovic, Regional Coordinator for Roma Issues Sarajevo, MHRR BiH Hedina Sijercic, Regional Coordinator for Roma Issues in BiH, MHRR BiH Drop-in Centre for Children Involved in Street Work of the Sarajevo Canton Trainers Lead trainers Elmedin Muratbegovic, Survey Methodologist, MHRR BiH Consultant (University of Sarajevo/Criminal Policy Research Center) Fahrudin Memic, Sampling Specialist, MHRR BiH Consultant Assisting trainers Aida Filipovic-Hadziomeragic, Nutrition Specialist, IPH FBiH Ana Abdelbasit, Survey Coordinator, UNICEF BiH Consultant Dajana Mitrovic, Household Survey Specialist, BHAS Mirza Puzic, Survey Coordinator, MHRR BiH Appendix B: List of Personnel Involved in the Survey49 Steering Committee Danijela Alijagic, UNFPA BiH Ferid Huseinbegovic, FMH Gordana Stojnic, UNHCR BiH Hedina Sijercic, MHRR BiH Saliha Djuderija, MHRR BiH Selma Kazic, UNICEF BiH Tatjana Gajic, MHSW RS Zdenko Milinovic, BHAS Survey Coordinators Dajana Mitrovic, Household Survey Specialist, BHAS Mirza Puzic, Survey Coordinator, MHRR BIH Zoran Husanovic, Data Processing Coordinator, MHRR BiH Sample design Fahrudin Memic, Sampling Specialist, MHRR BiH Consultant Fieldwork Supervisors Ivana Grgic Jasmina Hakic Srdjan Cegar Fieldwork Editors Adnan Subert Haris Mirojevic Kenan Hadziomerovic Interviewers Adem Fehratovic Admir Osmanovic Alen Mirkovic Aldijana Dedic Arif Beganovic Dragisa Radic Ismeta Beganovic Jasmina Softic Merima Mulaosmanovic Mujo Music Nena Halilovic Snjezana Mirkovic 49 Names are listed in alphabetical order. 152 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 153 Appendix C: Estimates of Sampling Errors The sample of respondents selected in the MICS survey on Roma in BiH was only one of the samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and size. Each of these samples would have yielded results that differed somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly but can be estimated statistically from the survey data. The simple one-stage stratified sample design for the MICS survey on Roma in BiH is reflected in the calculations of the sampling errors, whereby the strata are municipalities and the primary sampling units (PSUs) are households (clusters of persons). Given the overall high sampling rate (1,800/3,784), sampling without replacement was used in order to apply a finite population correction factor. As part of the estimation procedure, the first stage sampling rate for each stratum (municipality) was specified. For strata with a sampling rate of 1, the finite population correction factor was zero (resulting in a zero variance component for the corresponding stratum). The sampling error measures below are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators. z Standard error (se): Sampling errors are usually measured in terms of standard errors for particular indicators (means, proportions etc). Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. The Taylor Linearization method was used for the estimation of standard errors. z Coefficient of variation (se/r): is the ratio of the standard error to the value of the indicator and is a measure of the relative sampling error. z Design effect (deff): is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design is as efficient as a simple random sample, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates an increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design. z Confidence limits: are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 per cent of all possible samples of identical size and design. The SPSS Version 18 Complex Samples Module was used for the calculation of sampling errors within the MICS data. The results are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error, the measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator. Sampling errors were calculated for indicators of primary interest for the BiH, FBiH, RS and BD levels. Five of the selected indicators were based on household members, 19 were based on women, 10 were based on men and 17 were based on children under 5. All indicators presented here are in the form of proportions. Table SE.1 shows the list of indicators for which sampling errors were calculated, including the base population (denominator) for each indicator. Tables SE.2 to SE.5 show the calculated sampling errors for the selected domains. Financial processing, MHRR BiH Aida Dzihanic Danka Cvijetic Elma Duran Salih Karcic Sead Muminovc Suada Hadzimehmedagic Tamara Ilic UNICEF Geneva and New York Attila Hancioglu, Senior Adviser, MICS Global Coordinator, UNICEF New York Ivana Bjelic, Statistics Specialist, UNICEF New York Siraj Mahmudlu, Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist/Regional MICS Coordinator, UNICEF Regional Office for CEE/CIS Turgay Unalan, Statistics Specialist (Household Surveys), UNICEF New York Yadigar Coşkun, Statistics and Monitoring Specialist, UNICEF New York Consultants Aleksandar Zoric, Data Processing Specialist, Regional MICS Consultant, UNICEF Ana Abdelbasit, Survey Coordinator, UNICEF BiH Consultant Bo Pedersen, Household Survey Specialist, Global MICS Consultant, UNICEF David Megill, Sampling Specialist, Global MICS Consultant, UNICEF Dzejlana Sutkovic, Interpreter Emma Holmberg, Household Survey Specialist, Regional MICS Consultant, UNICEF Fahrudin Memic, Sampling Specialist, MHRR BiH Consultant Pierre Martel, Household Survey Specialist, Regional MICS Consultant, UNICEF Shane M. Khan, Household Survey Specialist, Global MICS Consultant, UNICEF Sinan Turkyilmaz, Sampling Specialist, Regional MICS Consultant, UNICEF 154 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 155 MICS4 Indicator Base Population UNDER-5’s 2.1a Underweight prevalence Children under age 5 2.2a Stunting prevalence Children under age 5 2.3a wasting prevalence Children under age 5 2.6 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months Total number of infants under 6 months of age 2.14 Age-appropriate breastfeeding Children aged 0-23 months – Received tuberculosis immunisation Children aged 18-29 months  – Received polio immunisation Children aged 18-29 months  – Received DPT immunisation Children aged18-29 months  – Received measles immunisation Children aged 18-29 months  – Received hepatitis B immunisation Children aged 18-29 months  – Diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks Children under age 5 – Illness with a cough in the previous 2 weeks Children under age 5 3.8 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding Children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks 3.10 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia Children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks 6.1 Support for learning Children aged 36-59 months 6.7 Attendance at early childhood education Children aged 36-59 months 8.1 Birth registration Children under age 5 Table SE.1: Indicators selected for sampling error calculations, BiH Roma Survey list of indicators selected for sampling error calculations and base populations (denominators) for each indicator, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012  MICS4 Indicator Base Population HOUSEHOlD MEMBERS 4.1 Use of improved drinking water sources All household members 4.3 Use of improved sanitation All household members 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Children of secondary school age 9.18 Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead Children aged 0-17 years 8.5 Violent discipline Children aged 2-14 years wOMEN – Pregnant women women aged 15-49 years 5.2 Early childbearing women aged 20-24 years 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate women aged 15-49 years who are currently married or in union 5.4 Unmet need women aged 15-49 years who are currently married or in union 5.5a Antenatal care coverage – at least once by skilled personnel women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 5.5b Antenatal care coverage – at least four times by any provider women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 5.7 Skilled attendant at delivery women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 5.8 Institutional deliveries women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 5.9 Caesarean section women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 7.1 literacy rate amongst women aged 15-24 women aged 15-24 years 8.7 Marriage before age 18 women aged 20-49 years 8.9 Polygyny women aged 15-49 years who are currently married or in union 9.2 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention amongst women aged 15-24 women aged 15-24 years 9.3 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV women aged 15-49 years 9.4 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV women aged 15-49 years who have heard of HIV 9.6 women who have been tested for HIV and know the result women aged 15-49 years 9.7 Sexually active women aged 15-24 who have been tested for HIV and know the result women aged 15-24 years who have had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey 9.11 Sex before age 15 amongst women aged 15-24 women aged 15-24 years 9.16 Condom use with non-regular partners women aged 15-24 years who had a non-marital/non-cohabiting partner in the 12 months preceding the survey MEN 7.1 literacy rate amongst men aged 15-24 Men aged 15-24 years 8.7 Marriage before age 18 Men aged 20-49 years 8.9 Polygyny Men aged 15-49 years who are currently married or in union 9.2 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention amongst men aged 15-24 Men aged 15-24 years 9.3 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Men aged 15-49 years 9.4 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV Men aged 15-49 years who have heard of HIV 9.6 Men who have been tested for HIV and know the result Men aged 15-49 years 9.7 Sexually active men aged 15-24 who have been tested for HIV and know the result Men aged 15-24 years who have had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey 9.11 Sex before age 15 amongst men aged 15-24 Men aged 15-24 years 9.16 Condom use with non-regular partners Men aged 15-24 years who had a non-marital/non-cohabiting partner in the 12 months preceding the survey 156 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 157   MICS Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) weighted count Unweighted count Confidence l imits r - 2se r - 2se MEN literacy rate among men aged 15-24 7.1 0.9041 0.00909 0.010 0.556 0.746 585 584 0.886 0.922 Marriage before age 18 8.7 0.2053 0.00866 0.042 0.530 0.728 1,157 1,155 0.188 0.222 Polygyny 8.9 0.0045 0.00168 0.376 0.574 0.757 901 906 0.001 0.008 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention amongst men aged 15-24 9.2 0.2087 0.01274 0.061 0.573 0.757 585 584 0.184 0.234 Knowledge of mother- to-child transmission of HIV 9.3 0.4076 0.00992 0.024 0.593 0.770 1,456 1,456 0.388 0.427 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 9.4 0.1380 0.00830 0.060 0.620 0.787 1,062 1,070 0.122 0.154 Men who have been tested for HIV and know the result 9.6 0.0142 0.00228 0.161 0.542 0.736 1,456 1,456 0.010 0.019 Sexually active men aged 15-24 who have been tested for HIV and know the result 9.7 0.0226 0.00596 0.264 0.614 0.784 384 383 0.011 0.034 Sex before age 15 amongst men aged 15-24 9.11 0.1419 0.01007 0.071 0.485 0.697 585 584 0.122 0.162 Condom use with non-regular partners 9.16 0.4896 0.02282 0.047 0.442 0.665 214 213 0.445 0.535 UNDER-5’s Underweight prevalence 2.1a 0.0880 0.00862 0.098 0.665 0.816 718 719 0.071 0.105 Stunting prevalence 2.2a 0.2106 0.01222 0.058 0.621 0.788 689 692 0.187 0.235 wasting prevalence 2.3a 0.0833 0.00771 0.093 0.533 0.730 682 686 0.068 0.098 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 2.6 0.2234 0.02989 0.134 0.376 0.613 74 74 0.163 0.284 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 2.14 0.3985 0.02112 0.053 0.544 0.737 292 293 0.357 0.440 Received tuberculosis immunisation – 0.8565 0.02142 0.025 0.538 0.733 145 145 0.814 0.899 Received polio immunisation – 0.1518 0.01931 0.127 0.405 0.637 141 141 0.114 0.190 Received DPT immunisation – 0.1368 0.01813 0.133 0.376 0.613 138 136 0.101 0.173 Received measles immunisation – 0.2489 0.02574 0.103 0.475 0.689 137 135 0.198 0.300 Received hepatitis B immunisation – 0.1614 0.01986 0.123 0.411 0.641 142 142 0.122 0.201 Diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks – 0.1501 0.00992 0.066 0.576 0.759 748 748 0.131 0.170 Illness with a cough in the previous 2 weeks – 0.0958 0.00851 0.089 0.624 0.790 748 748 0.079 0.113 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 3.8 0.5207 0.03285 0.063 0.445 0.667 112 104 0.455 0.586 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 3.10 0.7486 0.03870 0.052 0.525 0.725 72 67 0.670 0.827 Support for learning 6.1 0.6615 0.01689 0.026 0.387 0.622 306 305 0.628 0.695 Attendance at early childhood education 6.7 0.0149 0.00698 0.469 1.009 1.005 306 305 0.001 0.029 Birth registration 8.1 0.9581 0.00613 0.006 0.699 0.836 748 748 0.946 0.970 (*) The number of unweighted cases is fewer than 50. Table SE.2: Sampling errors: Total sample, Roma Survey Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators   MICS Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) weighted count Unweighted count Confidence l imits r - 2se r - 2se HOUSEHOlD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 4.1 0.9741 0.00291 0.003 0.517 0.719 5,852 1,544 0.968 0.980 Use of improved sanitation 4.3 0.7311 0.00886 0.012 0.616 0.785 5,852 1,544 0.714 0.748 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 7.5 0.2258 0.01350 0.060 0.518 0.720 495 498 0.199 0.252 Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead 9.18 0.0427 0.00468 0.110 1.358 1.165 2,521 2,538 0.033 0.052 Violent discipline 8.5 0.5764 0.01337 0.023 0.632 0.795 1,846 864 0.550 0.603 wOMEN Pregnant women – 0.0611 0.00497 0.081 0.595 0.771 1,380 1,380 0.051 0.071 Early childbearing 5.2 0.3102 0.02136 0.069 0.544 0.737 258 256 0.268 0.352 Contraceptive prevalence rate 5.3 0.2481 0.00924 0.037 0.449 0.670 981 982 0.230 0.266 Unmet need 5.4 0.2841 0.01064 0.037 0.546 0.739 981 982 0.263 0.305 Antenatal care coverage – at least once by skilled personnel 5.5a 0.7906 0.01712 0.022 0.471 0.686 263 267 0.757 0.824 Antenatal care coverage – at least four times by any provider 5.5b 0.6202 0.02118 0.034 0.507 0.712 263 267 0.578 0.662 Skilled attendant at delivery 5.7 0.9871 0.00463 0.005 0.447 0.668 263 267 0.978 0.996 Institutional deliveries 5.8 0.9901 0.00418 0.004 0.474 0.689 263 267 0.982 0.998 Caesarean section 5.9 0.1316 0.01509 0.115 0.530 0.728 263 267 0.102 0.161 literacy rate among women aged 15-24 7.1 0.6886 0.01500 0.022 0.538 0.734 510 514 0.659 0.718 Marriage before age 18 8.7 0.4826 0.01102 0.023 0.545 0.739 1,127 1,122 0.461 0.504 Polygyny 8.9 0.0100 0.00247 0.246 0.601 0.776 981 982 0.005 0.015 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among women aged 15-24 9.2 0.0886 0.00877 0.099 0.489 0.699 510 514 0.071 0.106 Knowledge of mother- to-child transmission of HIV 9.3 0.4154 0.00994 0.024 0.561 0.749 1,380 1,380 0.396 0.435 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 9.4 0.0647 0.00654 0.101 0.657 0.810 924 930 0.052 0.078 women who have been tested for HIV and know the results 9.6 0.0173 0.00304 0.176 0.750 0.866 1,380 1,380 0.011 0.023 Sexually active young women who have been tested for HIV and know the results 9.7 0.0195 0.00530 0.273 0.463 0.680 313 315 0.009 0.030 Sex before age 15 among women aged 15-24 9.11 0.1201 0.01024 0.085 0.509 0.713 510 514 0.100 0.140 Condom use with non-regular partners 9.16 * * * * * 41 39 * * 158 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 159   MICS Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r - 2se MEN literacy rate amongst men aged 15-24 7.1 0.9067 0.01021 0.011 0.572 0.756 473 465 0.887 0.927 Marriage before age 18 8.7 0.2023 0.01003 0.050 0.552 0.743 908 886 0.183 0.222 Polygyny 8.9 0.0048 0.00206 0.432 0.614 0.784 707 688 0.001 0.009 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention amongst men aged 15-24 9.2 0.2280 0.01515 0.066 0.605 0.778 473 465 0.198 0.258 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 9.3 0.4217 0.01138 0.027 0.597 0.773 1,151 1,126 0.399 0.444 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 9.4 0.1716 0.01032 0.060 0.601 0.775 819 803 0.151 0.192 Men who have been tested for HIV and know the result 9.6 0.0157 0.00264 0.168 0.508 0.712 1,151 1,126 0.011 0.021 Sexually active men aged 15-24 who have been tested for HIV and know the result 9.7 0.0197 0.00591 0.299 0.547 0.740 311 304 0.008 0.031 Sex before age 15 amongst men aged 15-24 9.11 0.1255 0.01103 0.088 0.514 0.717 473 465 0.104 0.147 Condom use with non-regular partners 9.16 0.4759 0.02563 0.054 0.434 0.659 168 166 0.425 0.527 UNDER-5’s Underweight prevalence 2.1a 0.0876 0.00997 0.114 0.645 0.803 547 520 0.068 0.107 Stunting prevalence 2.2a 0.2290 0.01424 0.062 0.570 0.755 521 497 0.201 0.257 wasting prevalence 2.3a 0.0807 0.00915 0.113 0.554 0.744 515 492 0.063 0.099 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 2.6 0.2127 0.03219 0.151 0.316 0.562 55 52 0.147 0.279 Age-appropriate breastfeeding 2.14 0.4135 0.02452 0.059 0.533 0.730 227 216 0.365 0.462 Received tuberculosis immunisation – 0.9003 0.02407 0.027 0.626 0.791 105 98 0.852 0.948 Received polio immunisation – 0.1275 0.02015 0.158 0.347 0.589 102 96 0.087 0.168 Received DPT immunisation – 0.1151 0.01916 0.166 0.335 0.579 101 94 0.077 0.153 Received measles immunisation – 0.2569 0.03133 0.122 0.478 0.691 101 94 0.194 0.320 Received hepatitis B immunisation – 0.1382 0.02238 0.162 0.395 0.629 101 95 0.093 0.183 Diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks – 0.1779 0.01239 0.070 0.566 0.752 570 540 0.154 0.202 Illness with a cough in the previous 2 weeks – 0.1106 0.01043 0.094 0.596 0.772 570 540 0.090 0.131 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 3.8 0.5289 0.03574 0.068 0.466 0.683 101 92 0.457 0.600 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 3.10 0.7681 0.04248 0.055 0.567 0.753 63 57 0.682 0.854 Support for learning 6.1 0.7679 0.01896 0.025 0.436 0.660 229 217 0.730 0.805 Attendance at early childhood education 6.7 0.0158 0.00883 0.561 1.087 1.043 229 217 -0.002 0.033 Birth registration 8.1 0.9563 0.00718 0.008 0.666 0.816 570 540 0.942 0.970 (*) The number of unweighted cases is fewer than 50. Table SE.3: Sampling errors: FBiH, Roma Survey Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators   MICS Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r - 2se HOUSEHOlD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 4.1 0.9678 0.00369 0.004 0.502 0.709 4,543 1,147 0.961 0.975 Use of improved sanitation 4.3 0.7135 0.01059 0.015 0.629 0.793 4,543 1,147 0.693 0.734 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 7.5 0.2263 0.01570 0.069 0.536 0.732 397 382 0.195 0.257 Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead 9.18 0.0349 0.00442 0.127 1.069 1.034 1,937 1,846 0.026 0.044 Violent discipline 8.5 0.6180 0.01521 0.025 0.621 0.788 1,406 634 0.588 0.648 wOMEN Pregnant women – 0.0662 0.00593 0.090 0.592 0.770 1,085 1,041 0.055 0.078 Early childbearing 5.2 0.3029 0.02432 0.080 0.563 0.750 211 202 0.255 0.351 Contraceptive prevalence rate 5.3 0.1915 0.01009 0.053 0.482 0.694 766 734 0.172 0.211 Unmet need 5.4 0.3217 0.01294 0.040 0.562 0.750 766 734 0.296 0.347 Antenatal care coverage – at least once by skilled personnel 5.5a 0.7937 0.01993 0.025 0.480 0.693 207 199 0.754 0.833 Antenatal care coverage – at least four times by any provider 5.5b 0.5948 0.02526 0.042 0.524 0.724 207 199 0.545 0.645 Skilled attendant at delivery 5.7 0.9902 0.00518 0.005 0.546 0.739 207 199 0.980 1.000 Institutional deliveries 5.8 0.9941 0.00451 0.005 0.682 0.826 207 199 0.985 1.003 Caesarean section 5.9 0.1469 0.01823 0.124 0.525 0.725 207 199 0.111 0.183 literacy rate among women aged 15-24 7.1 0.6988 0.01702 0.024 0.540 0.735 408 393 0.665 0.732 Marriage before age 18 8.7 0.4819 0.01286 0.027 0.562 0.750 887 850 0.457 0.507 Polygyny 8.9 0.0085 0.00272 0.320 0.643 0.802 766 734 0.003 0.014 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among women aged 15-24 9.2 0.0835 0.01011 0.121 0.523 0.723 408 393 0.064 0.103 Knowledge of mother- to-child transmission of HIV 9.3 0.3828 0.01142 0.030 0.574 0.758 1,085 1,041 0.360 0.405 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 9.4 0.0754 0.00832 0.110 0.659 0.812 692 665 0.059 0.092 women who have been tested for HIV and know the results 9.6 0.0201 0.00375 0.186 0.740 0.860 1,085 1,041 0.013 0.027 Sexually active young women who have been tested for HIV and know the results 9.7 0.0198 0.00655 0.331 0.539 0.734 254 244 0.007 0.033 Sex before age 15 among women aged 15-24 9.11 0.1190 0.01166 0.098 0.508 0.713 408 393 0.096 0.142 Condom use with non-regular partners 9.16 * * * * * 31 29 * * 160 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 161   MICS Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r - 2se MEN literacy rate amongst men aged 15-24 7.1 0.8794 0.02264 0.026 0.469 0.685 91 98 0.834 0.925 Marriage before age 18 8.7 0.1629 0.01596 0.098 0.400 0.632 195 215 0.131 0.194 Polygyny 8.9 0.0046 0.00286 0.626 0.294 0.543 141 165 -0.001 0.010 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention amongst men aged 15-24 9.2 0.1232 0.01604 0.130 0.231 0.481 91 98 0.091 0.155 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 9.3 0.3574 0.02079 0.058 0.499 0.706 241 266 0.316 0.398 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 9.4 0.0316 0.01013 0.321 0.722 0.849 192 216 0.012 0.052 Men who have been tested for HIV and know the result 9.6 0.0106 0.00558 0.528 0.789 0.888 241 266 0.000 0.022 Sexually active men aged 15-24 who have been tested for HIV and know the result 9.7 0.0465 0.02481 0.534 0.833 0.913 55 61 -0.004 0.097 Sex before age 15 amongst men aged 15-24 9.11 0.2387 0.02764 0.116 0.408 0.639 91 98 0.183 0.294 Condom use with non-regular partners 9.16 * * * * * 40 41 * * UNDER-5’s Underweight prevalence 2.1a 0.0684 0.01706 0.249 0.667 0.817 117 147 0.034 0.102 Stunting prevalence 2.2a 0.1429 0.02505 0.175 0.733 0.856 115 144 0.093 0.193 wasting prevalence 2.3a 0.0598 0.01108 0.185 0.315 0.561 116 145 0.038 0.082 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 2.6 * * * * * 12 16 * * Age-appropriate breastfeeding 2.14 0.3499 0.04453 0.127 0.532 0.729 49 62 0.260 0.439 Received tuberculosis immunisation – * * * * * 26 33 * * Received polio immunisation – * * * * * 25 31 * * Received DPT immunisation – * * * * * 23 28 * * Received measles immunisation – * * * * * 23 28 * * Received hepatitis B immunisation – * * * * * 26 33 * * Diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks – 0.0727 0.01554 0.214 0.548 0.740 123 154 0.042 0.104 Illness with a cough in the previous 2 weeks – 0.0626 0.01732 0.277 0.782 0.884 123 154 0.028 0.097 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 3.8 * * * * * 9 10 * * Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 3.10 * * * * * 8 9 * * Support for learning 6.1 0.4231 0.03472 0.082 0.301 0.549 49 62 0.353 0.493 Attendance at early childhood education 6.7 0.0189 0.01339 0.707 0.589 0.768 49 62 -0.008 0.046 Birth registration 8.1 0.9641 0.01072 0.011 0.509 0.713 123 154 0.943 0.985 (*) The number of unweighted cases is fewer than 50. Table SE.4: Sampling errors: RS, Roma Survey Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators   MICS Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r - 2se HOUSEHOlD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 4.1 0.9945 0.00272 0.003 0.437 0.661 1,027 327 0.989 1.000 Use of improved sanitation 4.3 0.7382 0.01835 0.025 0.568 0.754 1,027 327 0.702 0.774 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 7.5 0.2697 0.02937 0.109 0.434 0.659 81 100 0.211 0.328 Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead 9.18 0.0731 0.01325 0.181 1.451 1.205 447 561 0.047 0.099 Violent discipline 8.5 0.4348 0.02963 0.068 0.654 0.809 334 184 0.376 0.493 wOMEN Pregnant women – 0.0470 0.00950 0.202 0.538 0.734 224 268 0.028 0.066 Early childbearing 5.2 * * * * * 32 39 * * Contraceptive prevalence rate 5.3 0.4256 0.02331 0.055 0.424 0.652 159 192 0.380 0.472 Unmet need 5.4 0.1716 0.01817 0.106 0.444 0.666 159 192 0.136 0.207 Antenatal care coverage – at least once by skilled personnel 5.5a 0.7712 0.03162 0.041 0.295 0.543 41 53 0.708 0.835 Antenatal care coverage – at least four times by any provider 5.5b 0.6824 0.03561 0.052 0.304 0.552 41 53 0.611 0.754 Skilled attendant at delivery 5.7 0.9664 0.01418 0.015 0.322 0.567 41 53 0.938 0.995 Institutional deliveries 5.8 0.9664 0.01418 0.015 0.322 0.567 41 53 0.938 0.995 Caesarean section 5.9 0.0779 0.02298 0.295 0.382 0.618 41 53 0.032 0.124 literacy rate among women aged 15-24 7.1 0.6501 0.03356 0.052 0.470 0.686 77 96 0.583 0.717 Marriage before age 18 8.7 0.4325 0.02311 0.053 0.457 0.676 179 211 0.387 0.478 Polygyny 8.9 0.0082 0.00362 0.439 0.306 0.553 159 192 0.001 0.015 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among women aged 15-24 9.2 0.1313 0.02023 0.154 0.341 0.584 77 96 0.091 0.172 Knowledge of mother- to-child transmission of HIV 9.3 0.5527 0.02099 0.038 0.476 0.690 224 268 0.511 0.594 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 9.4 0.0311 0.00858 0.276 0.517 0.719 180 213 0.014 0.048 women who have been tested for HIV and know the results 9.6 0.0091 0.00466 0.510 0.641 0.800 224 268 0.000 0.018 Sexually active young women who have been tested for HIV and know the results 9.7 0.0280 0.00029 0.010 0.000 0.012 39 50 0.027 0.029 Sex before age 15 among women aged 15-24 9.11 0.1130 0.02053 0.182 0.400 0.632 77 96 0.072 0.154 Condom use with non-regular partners 9.16 * * * * * 5 6 * * 162 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 163 Table SE.5: Sampling errors: BD, Roma Survey Standard errors, coefficients of variation, design effects (deff), square root of design effects (deft) and confidence intervals for selected indicators   MICS Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r - 2se HOUSEHOlD MEMBERS Use of improved drinking water sources 4.1 1.0000 0.00000 0.000 N/A N/A 282 70 1.000 1.000 Use of improved sanitation 4.3 0.9889 0.00863 0.009 0.468 0.684 282 70 0.972 1.006 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) 7.5 * * * * * 17 16 * * Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead 9.18 0.0534 0.03997 0.748 4.107 2.026 137 131 -0.027 0.134 Violent discipline 8.5 * * * * * 107 46 * * wOMEN Pregnant women – 0.0282 0.01538 0.546 0.605 0.778 71 71 -0.003 0.059 Early childbearing 5.2 * * * * * 15 15 * * Contraceptive prevalence rate 5.3 0.5179 0.05209 0.101 0.598 0.773 56 56 0.413 0.622 Unmet need 5.4 0.0893 0.02973 0.333 0.598 0.773 56 56 0.030 0.149 Antenatal care coverage – at least once by skilled personnel 5.5a * * * * * 15 15 * * Antenatal care coverage – at least four times by any provider 5.5b * * * * * 15 15 * * Skilled attendant at delivery 5.7 * * * * * 15 15 * * Institutional deliveries 5.8 * * * * * 15 15 * * Caesarean section 5.9 * * * * * 15 15 * * literacy rate among women aged 15-24 7.1 * * * * * 25 25 * * Marriage before age 18 8.7 0.6393 0.04452 0.070 0.516 0.718 61 61 0.550 0.729 Polygyny 8.9 0.0357 0.01935 0.542 0.598 0.773 56 56 -0.003 0.074 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among women aged 15-24 9.2 * * * * * 25 25 * * Knowledge of mother- to-child transmission of HIV 9.3 0.4789 0.04634 0.097 0.602 0.776 71 71 0.386 0.572 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 9.4 0.0385 0.02016 0.524 0.560 0.748 52 52 -0.002 0.079 women who have been tested for HIV and know the results 9.6 0.0000 0.00000 0.000 N/A N/A 71 71 0.000 0.000 Sexually active young women who have been tested for HIV and know the results 9.7 * * * * * 21 21 * * Sex before age 15 among women aged 15-24 9.11 * * * * * 25 25 * * Condom use with non-regular partners 9.16 * * * * * 4 4 * *   MICS Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) weighted count Unweighted count Confidence limits r - 2se r - 2se MEN literacy rate amongst men aged 15-24 7.1 * * * * * 21 21 * * Marriage before age 18 8.7 0.4074 0.05023 0.123 0.554 0.744 54 54 0.307 0.508 Polygyny 8.9 0.0000 0.00000 0.000 N/A N/A 53 53 0.000 0.000 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention amongst men aged 15-24 9.2 * * * * * 21 21 * * Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 9.3 0.3438 0.05146 0.150 0.740 0.860 64 64 0.241 0.447 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV 9.4 0.0000 0.00000 0.000 N/A N/A 51 51 0.000 0.000 Men who have been tested for HIV and know the result 9.6 0.0000 0.00000 0.000 N/A N/A 64 64 0.000 0.000 Sexually active men aged 15-24 who have been tested for HIV and know the result 9.7 * * * * * 18 18 * * Sex before age 15 amongst men aged 15-24 9.11 * * * * * 21 21 * * Condom use with non-regular partners 9.16 * * * * * 6 6 * * UNDER-5’s Underweight prevalence 2.1a 0.1346 0.03995 0.297 0.699 0.836 54 52 0.053 0.216 Stunting prevalence 2.2a 0.1765 0.05133 0.291 0.907 0.952 53 51 0.072 0.281 wasting prevalence 2.3a * * * * * 51 49 * * Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 2.6 * * * * * 6 6 * * Age-appropriate breastfeeding 2.14 * * * * * 16 15 * * Received tuberculosis immunisation – * * * * * 15 14 * * Received polio immunisation – * * * * * 15 14 * * Received DPT immunisation – * * * * * 15 14 * * Received measles immunisation – * * * * * 13 13 * * Received hepatitis B immunisation – * * * * * 15 14 * * Diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks – 0.0370 0.01974 0.533 0.579 0.761 56 54 -0.003 0.077 Illness with a cough in the previous 2 weeks – 0.0185 0.01452 0.784 0.615 0.784 56 54 -0.011 0.048 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding 3.8 * * * * * 2 2 * * Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 3.10 * * * * * 1 1 * * Support for learning 6.1 * * * * * 27 26 * * Attendance at early childhood education 6.7 * * * * * 27 26 * * Birth registration 8.1 0.9630 0.02849 0.030 1.206 1.098 56 54 0.905 1.021 (*) The number of unweighted cases is fewer than 50. N/A: “Not applicable” 164 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 165 Appendix D: Data Quality Tables Table DQ.1: Age distribution of household population Single year age distribution of household population by sex, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Males Females Males Females Number Per cent Number Per cent Number Per cent Number Per cent 0 81 2.7 61 2.1 45 36 1.2 37 1.3 1 81 2.7 68 2.4 46 34 1.1 40 1.4 2 70 2.3 83 2.9 47 25 0.9 29 1.0 3 97 3.2 75 2.6 48 24 0.8 27 0.9 4 69 2.3 68 2.4 49 33 1.1 21 0.7 5 82 2.7 75 2.6 50 38 1.3 38 1.3 6 72 2.4 74 2.6 51 29 1.0 28 1.0 7 74 2.5 59 2.1 52 22 0.7 36 1.3 8 63 2.1 68 2.4 53 23 0.8 16 0.6 9 56 1.9 54 1.9 54 23 0.8 23 0.8 10 78 2.6 65 2.3 55 21 0.7 25 0.9 11 76 2.5 76 2.7 56 15 0.5 13 0.5 12 56 1.9 73 2.6 57 18 0.6 25 0.9 13 67 2.2 67 2.3 58 13 0.4 16 0.6 14 76 2.6 71 2.5 59 13 0.4 16 0.6 15 67 2.2 43 1.5 60 14 0.5 11 0.4 16 62 2.1 65 2.3 61 13 0.4 14 0.5 17 74 2.5 73 2.5 62 10 0.3 12 0.4 18 59 2.0 42 1.5 63 11 0.4 9 0.3 19 61 2.0 59 2.1 64 7 0.2 8 0.3 20 75 2.5 63 2.2 65 9 0.3 7 0.2 21 74 2.5 61 2.1 66 3 0.1 2 0.1 22 55 1.8 58 2.0 67 5 0.2 8 0.3 23 57 1.9 45 1.6 68 5 0.2 10 0.4 24 52 1.7 42 1.5 69 2 0.1 7 0.2 25 57 1.9 55 1.9 70 4 0.1 6 0.2 26 55 1.8 45 1.6 71 5 0.2 4 0.1 27 40 1.3 32 1.1 72 7 0.2 6 0.2 28 42 1.4 42 1.5 73 2 0.1 2 0.1 29 43 1.4 44 1.5 74 0 0.0 1 0.0 30 53 1.8 36 1.3 75 4 0.1 2 0.1 31 36 1.2 41 1.4 76 4 0.1 1 0.1 32 39 1.3 34 1.2 77 2 0.1 6 0.2 33 27 0.9 38 1.3 78 1 0.0 2 0.1 34 32 1.1 39 1.4 79 4 0.1 3 0.1 35 39 1.3 35 1.2 80 1 0.0 2 0.1 36 40 1.3 32 1.1 81 1 0.0 3 0.1 37 40 1.3 30 1.1 82 0 0.0 2 0.1 38 23 0.8 51 1.8 83 0 0.0 1 0.0 39 29 1.0 39 1.4 84 1 0.0 0 0.0 40 30 1.0 36 1.3 85+ 0 0.0 1 0.0 41 36 1.2 33 1.1   42 45 1.5 28 1.0 DK/Missing 1 0.0 0 0.0 43 26 0.9 28 1.0   44 40 1.4 32 1.1 Total 2,992 100.0 2,860 100.0 Table DQ.2: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women Household population of women aged 10-54, interviewed women aged 15-49 and percentage of eligible women who were interviewed, by five-year age groups, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Household population of women aged 10-54 years Interviewed women aged 15-49 years Percentage of eligible women interviewed (Completion rate)Number Number Per cent Age (years)   10-14 351 N/A N/A N/A 15-19 282 253 18.3 89.5 20-24 270 259 18.8 96.0 25-29 218 206 15.0 94.7 30-34 188 185 13.4 98.4 35-39 188 181 13.2 96.7 40-44 157 146 10.6 92.9 45-49 154 147 10.7 95.8 50-54 140 N/A N/A N/A Total (15-49) 1,456 1,377 100.0 94.6     Ratio of 50-54 to 45-49     0.91 Table DQ.2M: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men Household population of men aged 10-54, interviewed men aged 15-49 and percentage of eligible men who were interviewed, by five-year age groups, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Household population of men aged 10-54 years Interviewed men aged 15-49 years Percentage of eligible men interviewed (Completion rate)Number Number Per cent Age (years)   10-14 353 N/A N/A N/A 15-19 323 302 20.6 93.4 20-24 313 288 19.7 92.2 25-29 238 224 15.3 94.0 30-34 187 174 11.9 93.1 35-39 171 165 11.2 96.2 40-44 177 173 11.8 97.5 45-49 153 142 9.6 92.5 50-54 134 N/A N/A N/A Total (15-49) 1,562 1,467 100.0 93.9     Ratio of 50-54 to 45-49     0.88 Table DQ.3: Age distribution of under-5’s in household and under-5 questionnaires Household population of children aged 0-7, children aged 0-4 whose mothers/caretakers were interviewed, and percentage of children under-5 whose mothers/caretakers were interviewed, by single ages, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Household population of children aged 0-7 years Interviewed under-5 children Percentage of eligible under-5’s interviewed (Completion rate)Number Number Per cent Age (years)   0 142 141 19.0 98.9 1 149 147 19.8 98.5 2 153 151 20.3 98.6 3 172 169 22.8 98.2 4 137 135 18.2 98.1 5 157 N/A N/A N/A 6 147 N/A N/A N/A 7 134 N/A N/A N/A Total (0-4) 754 742 100.0 98.5     Ratio of 5 to 4       1.14 166 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 167 Table DQ.4: women’s completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households Household population of women aged 15-49, interviewed women aged 15-49, and percentage of eligible women who were interviewed, by selected social and economic characteristics of the household, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Household population of women aged 15-49 years Interviewed women aged 15-49 years Per cent of eligible women interviewed (Completion rates)Number Per cent Number Per cent Administrative unit  FBiH 1,144 78.6 1,089 79.1 95.2 RS 237 16.2 214 15.5 90.5 BD 75 5.2 74 5.4 98.6 Household size  1-3 407 28.0 388 28.2 95.3 4-6 800 55.0 758 55.0 94.7 7+ 249 17.1 231 16.8 93.1 Education of household head  No formal education 337 23.2 320 23.2 94.8 Primary 902 62.0 857 62.2 95.0 Secondary + 217 14.9 201 14.6 92.5 wealth index quintile  Poorest 254 17.4 242 17.6 95.3 Second 275 18.9 254 18.4 92.2 Middle 301 20.7 280 20.3 93.2 Fourth 283 19.4 270 19.6 95.7 Richest 344 23.6 331 24.0 96.2 wealth index  Poorest 60 per cent 830 57.0 776 56.3 93.6 Richest 40 per cent 626 43.0 601 43.7 96.0 Language of household head  Romani 824 56.6 786 57.1 95.4 Other 629 43.2 588 42.7 93.5 Missing/DK 3 0.2 3 0.2 100.0 Total 1,456 100.0 1,377 100.0 94.6 Table DQ.4M: Men’s completion rates by socio-economic characteristics of households Household population of men aged 15-49, interviewed men aged 15-49, and percentage of eligible men who were interviewed, by selected social and economic characteristics of the household, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Household population of men aged 15-49 years Interviewed men aged 15-49 years Per cent of eligible men interviewed (Completion rates)Number Per cent Number Per cent Administrative unit FBiH 1,235 79.0 1,182 80.6 95.8 RS 258 16.5 218 14.8 84.3 BD 69 4.4 67 4.6 97.0 Household size  1-3 451 28.9 431 29.4 95.6 4-6 828 53.0 769 52.5 93.0 7+ 284 18.2 266 18.2 94.0 Education of household head  No formal education 340 21.7 320 21.8 94.4 Primary 985 63.0 930 63.4 94.5 Secondary + 238 15.2 216 14.8 91.0 wealth index quintile  Poorest 264 16.9 252 17.2 95.6 Second 285 18.3 262 17.9 92.0 Middle 338 21.6 320 21.8 94.9 Fourth 336 21.5 316 21.6 94.2 Richest 339 21.7 315 21.5 92.9 wealth index  Poorest 60 per cent 887 56.8 835 56.9 94.2 Richest 40 per cent 675 43.2 632 43.1 93.6 Language of household head  Romani 889 56.9 850 57.9 95.6 Other 671 43.0 615 42.0 91.7 Missing/DK 2 0.1 2 0.1 100.0 Total 1,562 100.0 1,467 100.0 93.9 Table DQ.5: Completion rates for under-5 questionnaires by socio-economic characteristics of households Household population of children under-5, under-5 questionnaires completed, and percentage of children under-5 for whom interviews were completed, by selected socio-economic characteristics of the household, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Household population of children under-5 Interviewed children under-5 Per cent of eligible under-5’s with completed under-5 questionnaires (Completion rates)Number Per cent Number Per cent Administrative unit  FBiH 574 76.1 567 76.3 98.7 RS 123 16.4 119 16.1 96.5 BD 56 7.5 56 7.6 100.0 Household size  1-3 136 18.1 136 18.4 100.0 4-6 444 58.8 436 58.7 98.2 7+ 174 23.1 170 23.0 98.0 Education of household head  No formal education 209 27.8 209 28.2 100.0 Primary 442 58.6 432 58.2 97.7 Secondary + 103 13.6 101 13.6 98.5 wealth index quintile  Poorest 222 29.5 215 28.9 96.6 Second 180 23.9 179 24.2 99.6 Middle 124 16.5 121 16.3 97.4 Fourth 125 16.6 125 16.9 100.0 Richest 102 13.5 102 13.7 100.0 wealth index  Poorest 60 per cent 527 69.8 515 69.4 97.9 Richest 40 per cent 227 30.2 227 30.6 100.0 Language of household head  Romani 457 60.7 452 60.9 98.8 Other 296 39.2 290 39.0 98.0 Missing/DK 1 0.1 1 0.1 100.0 Total 754 100.0 742 100.0 98.5 168 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 169 Table DQ.6: Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations that are missing information for selected questions and indicators, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Questionnaire and type of missing information Reference group Per cent with missing/ incomplete information* Number of cases Household Age All household members 0.0 5,864 Starting time of interview All households interviewed 0.0 1,544 Ending time of interview All households interviewed 0.0 1,544     women woman’s date of birth All women aged 15-49   Only month 0.6 1,380 Both month and year 0.3 1,380 Date of first birth All women aged 15-49 with at least one live birth   Only month 2.5 1,003 Both month and year 1.0 1,003 Completed years since first birth All women aged 15-49 with at least one live birth with year of first birth unknown 12.2 10 Date of last birth All women aged 15-49 with a live birth in last 2 years   Only month 0.5 1,003 Both month and year 0.3 1,003 Date of first marriage/union All ever married women aged 15-49   Only month 15.8 1,121 Both month and year 8.0 1,121 Age at first marriage/union All ever married women aged 15-49 with year of first marriage not known 0.5 1,121 Age at first intercourse All women aged 15-24 who have ever had sex 0.3 331 Time since last intercourse All women aged 15-24 who have ever had sex 0.3 331 Starting time of interview All women interviewed 0.1 1,380 Ending time of interview All women interviewed 0.2 1,380     Men   Man’s date of birth All men aged 15-49   Only month 0.1 1,456 Both month and year 0.0 1,456 Date of first marriage/union All ever married men aged 15-49   Only month 11.5 985 Both month and year 1.9 985 Age at first marriage/union All ever married men aged 15-49 with year of first marriage not known 1.3 985 Age at first intercourse All men aged 15-24 who have ever had sex 0.2 409 Time since last intercourse All men aged 15-24 who have ever had sex 0.5 409 Starting time of interview All men interviewed 0.1 1,456 Ending time of interview All men interviewed 0.1 1,456     Under-5 Date of birth All children under-5   Only month 0.4 748 Both month and year 0.0 748 Anthropometric measurements All children under-5   weight 3.4 748 Height 5.9 748 Both weight and height 3.4 748 Starting time of interview All children under-5 0.1 748 Ending time of interview All children under-5 0.1 748 * Includes “Don’t know” responses Ta bl e D Q .7 : C om pl et en es s of in fo rm at io n fo r a nt hr op om et ri c in di ca to rs D is tr ib ut io n of c hi ld re n un de r 5 b y co m pl et en es s of in fo rm at io n fo r a nt hr op om et ric in di ca to rs , B iH R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12     Va lid w ei gh t an d da te o f b irt h Re as on fo r e xc lu si on fr om a na ly si s To ta l Pe r c en t of c hi ld re n ex cl ud ed fr om a na ly si s N um be r of c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ei gh t n ot m ea su re d In co m pl et e da te o f b irt h w ei gh t n ot m ea su re d, in co m pl et e da te o f b irt h Fl ag ge d ca se s (o ut lie rs ) w ei gh t b y ag e <6 m on th s 98 .6 1. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1. 4 74 6- 11 m on th s 94 .4 5. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 5. 6 71 12 -2 3 m on th s 94 .6 4. 7 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 5. 4 14 8 24 -3 5 m on th s 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 0 15 0 36 -4 7 m on th s 95 .3 3. 5 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 4. 7 17 2 48 -5 9 m on th s 94 .0 4. 5 0. 8 0. 0 0. 8 10 0. 0 6. 0 13 3 To ta l 96 .1 3. 2 0. 5 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 3. 9 74 8     Va lid h ei gh t an d da te o f b irt h Re as on fo r e xc lu si on fr om a na ly si s To ta l Pe r c en t of c hi ld re n ex cl ud ed fr om a na ly si s N um be r of c hi ld re n un de r 5 H ei gh t n ot m ea su re d In co m pl et e da te o f b irt h H ei gh t n ot m ea su re d, in co m pl et e da te o f b irt h Fl ag ge d ca se s (o ut lie rs ) H ei gh t b y ag e <6 m on th s 93 .2 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 4. 1 10 0. 0 6. 8 74 6- 11 m on th s 85 .9 9. 9 0. 0 0. 0 4. 2 10 0. 0 14 .1 71 12 -2 3 m on th s 89 .2 9. 5 0. 7 0. 0 0. 7 10 0. 0 10 .8 14 8 24 -3 5 m on th s 97 .3 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 10 0. 0 2. 7 15 0 36 -4 7 m on th s 91 .9 5. 8 1. 2 0. 0 1. 2 10 0. 0 8. 1 17 2 48 -5 9 m on th s 94 .7 4. 5 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 5. 3 13 3 To ta l 92 .5 5. 3 0. 5 0. 0 1. 6 10 0. 0 7. 5 74 8     Va lid w ei gh t an d he ig ht Re as on fo r e xc lu si on fr om a na ly si s To ta l Pe r c en t of c hi ld re n ex cl ud ed fr om a na ly si s N um be r of c hi ld re n un de r 5 w ei gh t n ot m ea su re d H ei gh t n ot m ea su re d H ei gh t a nd w ei gh t no t m ea su re d Fl ag ge d ca se s (o ut lie rs ) w ei gh t b y he ig ht <6 m on th s 93 .2 0. 0 1. 4 1. 4 4. 1 10 0. 0 6. 8 74 6- 11 m on th s 85 .9 0. 0 4. 2 5. 6 4. 2 10 0. 0 14 .1 71 12 -2 3 m on th s 88 .5 0. 0 4. 7 4. 7 1. 4 10 0. 0 10 .8 14 8 24 -3 5 m on th s 96 .7 0. 0 0. 7 0. 0 2. 7 10 0. 0 3. 3 15 0 36 -4 7 m on th s 91 .3 0. 0 2. 3 3. 5 1. 7 10 0. 0 7. 6 17 2 48 -5 9 m on th s 89 .5 0. 0 0. 0 4. 5 5. 3 10 0. 0 9. 8 13 3 To ta l 91 .2 0. 0 2. 1 3. 2 2. 9 10 0. 0 8. 3 74 8 170 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 171 Table DQ.8: Heaping in anthropometric measurements Distribution of weight and height/length measurements by digits reported for decimals, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Digits weight Height or length Number Per cent Number Per cent 0 46 6.4 49 6.8 1 74 10.2 107 14.8 2 97 13.4 104 14.4 3 94 13.0 100 13.8 4 63 8.7 78 10.8 5 63 8.7 59 8.1 6 75 10.4 75 10.4 7 67 9.3 62 8.6 8 82 11.3 50 6.9 9 63 8.7 40 5.5 0 or 5 109 15.1 108 14.9 Total 724 100.0 724 100.0 Table DQ.9: Observation of places for hand washing Percentage of places for hand washing observed by the interviewer in all interviewed households, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Place for hand washing Total Number of households interviewed Observed Not observed Not in the dwelling, plot or yard No permission to see Other Administrative unit FBiH 94.1 4.1 0.0 1.7 100.0 1,147 RS 95.7 3.4 0.0 0.9 100.0 327 BD 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 70 wealth index quintile   Poorest 80.2 14.1 0.0 5.7 100.0 298 Second 95.3 3.1 0.0 1.6 100.0 318 Middle 97.8 1.6 0.0 0.3 100.0 315 Fourth 99.7 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 301 Richest 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 312 wealth index   Poorest 60 per cent 91.3 6.1 0.0 2.5 100.0 931 Richest 40 per cent 99.8 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 613 Total 94.7 3.8 0.0 1.5 100.0 1,544 Table DQ.10: Observation of under-5’s birth certificates Per cent distribution of children under 5 by presence of birth certificate and percentage of birth calendar seen, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012   Child does not have birth certificate Child has birth certificate Don’t know/ Missing Total Per cent of birth certificates seen by the interviewer (1)/(1+2)*100 Number of children under age 5 Seen by the interviewer (1) Not seen by the interviewer (2) Administrative unit   FBiH 6.9 74.4 18.7 0.0 100.0 79.9 540 RS 5.2 70.1 24.7 0.0 100.0 74.0 154 BD 3.7 96.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 54 Child’s age (years)   0 14.0 71.3 14.7 0.0 100.0 82.9 143 1 3.4 74.5 22.1 0.0 100.0 77.1 149 2 4.0 79.5 16.6 0.0 100.0 82.8 151 3 5.2 77.9 16.9 0.0 100.0 82.2 172 4 5.3 71.4 23.3 0.0 100.0 75.4 133 Total 6.3 75.1 18.6 0.0 100.0 80.2 748 Ta bl e D Q .1 1: O bs er va ti on o f v ac ci na ti on c ar ds Pe r c en t d is tr ib ut io n of c hi ld re n un de r 5 b y pr es en ce o f a v ac ci na tio n ca rd , a nd th e pe rc en ta ge o f v ac ci na tio n ca rd s se en b y th e in te rv ie w er s, Bi H R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12   Ch ild d oe s no t h av e va cc in at io n ca rd Ch ild h as v ac ci na ti on c ar d D on ’t kn ow / M is si ng To ta l Pe r c en t o f v ac ci na tio n ca rd s se en b y th e in te rv ie w er (1 )/ (1 +2 )* 10 0 N um be r o f ch ild re n un de r ag e 5 H ad v ac ci na tio n ca rd p re vi ou sl y N ev er h ad va cc in at io n ca rd Se en b y th e in te rv ie w er (1 ) N ot s ee n by th e in te rv ie w er (2 ) A dm in is tr at iv e un it   FB iH 5. 0 18 .0 33 .7 20 .2 0. 4 10 0. 0 62 .5 54 0 RS 4. 5 13 .0 42 .2 13 .6 0. 0 10 0. 0 75 .6 15 4 BD 0. 0 1. 9 61 .1 1. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .1 54 Ch ild ’s ag e (y ea rs )   0 2. 1 16 .1 39 .2 16 .8 0. 7 10 0. 0 70 .0 14 3 1 5. 4 16 .1 42 .3 14 .8 0. 7 10 0. 0 74 .1 14 9 2 3. 3 16 .6 36 .4 20 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 64 .0 15 1 3 5. 8 14 .5 32 .0 20 .3 0. 0 10 0. 0 61 .1 17 2 4 6. 0 15 .8 38 .3 14 .3 0. 0 10 0. 0 72 .9 13 3 To ta l 4. 5 15 .8 37 .4 17 .5 0. 3 10 0. 0 68 .1 74 8 Ta bl e D Q .1 2: P re se nc e of m ot he r i n th e ho us eh ol d an d th e pe rs on in te rv ie w ed fo r t he u nd er -5 q ue st io nn ai re D is tr ib ut io n of c hi ld re n un de r fi ve b y w he th er th e m ot he r l iv es in th e sa m e ho us eh ol d, a nd th e pe rs on in te rv ie w ed fo r t he u nd er -5 q ue st io nn ai re , Bi H R om a Su rv ey 2 01 1– 20 12   M ot he r i n th e ho us eh ol d M ot he r n ot in th e ho us eh ol d To ta l N um be r of c hi ld re n un de r 5 M ot he r i nt er vi ew ed Fa th er in te rv ie w ed O th er a du lt fe m al e in te rv ie w ed O th er a du lt m al e in te rv ie w ed A ge (y ea rs ) 0 97 .6 0. 7 0. 8 0. 8 10 0. 0 14 2 1 98 .2 0. 5 1. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 14 9 2 93 .2 0. 6 4. 6 1. 6 10 0. 0 15 3 3 93 .8 2. 8 2. 7 0. 7 10 0. 0 17 2 4 94 .5 3. 5 0. 6 1. 4 10 0. 0 13 7 To ta l 95 .4 1. 7 2. 1 0. 9 10 0. 0 75 4 172 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 173 Table DQ.13: Selection of children aged 2-14 years for the child discipline module Per cent of households with at least two children aged 2-14 years where correct selection of one child for the child discipline module was performed, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Per cent of households where correct selection was performed Number of households with 2 or more children aged 2-14 years Administrative unit   FBiH 95.8 384 RS 92.0 112 BD 93.9 33 Number of children aged 2-14 years   2 96.2 263 3 96.6 145 4 91.4 70 5+ 88.2 51 Total 94.9 529 Table DQ.15: Sex ratio at birth amongst children ever born and living Sex ratio (number of males per 100 females) amongst children ever born (at birth), children living and children deceased, by age of women, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012     Children Ever Born Children Living Children Deceased Number of women Number of sons ever born Number of daughters ever born Sex ratio at birth Number of sons living Number of daughters living Sex ratio Number of deceased sons Number of deceased daughters Sex ratio Age (years)   15-19 50 40 1.25 49 40 1.23 1 0 . 258 20-24 179 151 1.19 175 150 1.17 4 1 4.00 256 25-29 243 209 1.16 233 206 1.13 10 3 3.33 205 30-34 301 273 1.10 295 265 1.11 6 8 0.75 185 35-39 334 311 1.07 322 303 1.06 12 8 1.50 181 40-44 258 222 1.16 246 216 1.14 12 6 2.00 148 45-49 287 245 1.17 277 237 1.17 10 8 1.25 147 Total 1,652 1,451 1.16 1,597 1,417 1.14 55 34 2.14 1,380 Table DQ.14: School attendance by single age Distribution of household population aged 5-24 by educational level and grade attended in the current (or most recent) school year, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012         Not attending school Currently attending: Missing/DK Total Number of household membersPreschool Primary school grade Secondary school grade Higher than secondary 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1 2 3 4 Missing Age at beginning of school year   5 91.2 2.4 4.8 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 132 6 50.0 2.6 41.4 6.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 158 7 33.3 0.8 20.1 42.5 3.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 129 8 28.3 0.0 8.9 20.5 37.9 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 117 9 21.6 0.0 5.3 8.6 19.5 38.4 6.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 132 10 19.4 0.0 1.9 0.7 9.5 28.4 36.4 3.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 143 11 20.9 0.0 1.5 2.5 4.7 10.1 27.5 26.7 6.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 143 12 24.2 0.0 1.0 1.6 4.9 7.5 7.1 18.6 31.3 3.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 120 13 34.6 0.0 0.5 0.0 2.4 1.2 6.3 5.2 23.4 23.1 2.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 147 14 36.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.9 7.1 8.9 23.9 11.2 8.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 138 15 56.7 0.0 2.6 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 7.8 8.8 0.0 16.5 5.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 114 16 64.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 3.4 3.6 0.0 11.6 9.4 5.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 127 17 72.3 0.0 0.7 0.0 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.6 0.0 4.0 7.9 10.2 0.9 0.5 0.0 0.7 100.0 145 18 81.3 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.6 3.8 8.8 3.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 109 19 89.7 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 4.6 1.1 0.0 1.2 0.8 100.0 110 20 96.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 100.0 146 21 93.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 3.1 0.0 100.0 123 22 96.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.0 100.0 110 23 98.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 100.0 99 24 98.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0  0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 0.0 100.0 105 174 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 175 Figure DQ.1: Number of household population by single age, BiH Roma Survey 2011–2012 Appendix E: MICS4 BiH Roma Survey Indicators – Numerators and Denominators MICS4 INDICATOR [M] Module50 Numerator Denominator MDG51 1. MORTALITY 1.1 Under-five mortality rate CM Probability of dying by exact age 5 years MDG 4.1 1.2 Infant mortality rate CM Probability of dying by exact age 1 year MDG 4.2 2. NUTRITION 2.1a 2.1b Underweight prevalence AN Number of children under age 5 who (a) fall below minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) fall below minus three standard deviations (severe) from the median weight for age of the wHO standard Total number of children under age 5 MDG 1.8 2.2a 2.2b Stunting prevalence AN Number of children under age 5 who (a) fall below minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) fall below minus three standard deviations (severe) from the median height for age of the wHO standard Total number of children under age 5 2.3a 2.3b wasting prevalence AN Number of children under age 5 who (a) fall below minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) fall below minus three standard deviations (severe) from the median weight for height of the wHO standard Total number of children under age 5 2.4 Children ever breastfed MN Number of women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey who breastfed the child at any time Total number of women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 2.5 Early initiation of breastfeeding MN Number of women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey who put the newborn infant to the breast within 1 hour of birth Total number of women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 2.6 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months BF Number of infants under 6 months of age who are exclusively breastfed52 Total number of infants under 6 months of age 2.7 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year BF Number of children aged 12-15 months who are currently breastfeeding Total number of children aged 12-15 months 2.8 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years BF Number of children aged 20-23 months who are currently breastfeeding Total number of children aged 20-23 months Number Age (years) Males Females [M] Indicates that the indicator was also calculated for men, for the same age group. Calculations were carried out by using modules in the Men’s Questionnaire 50 Some indicators were constructed by using questions in several modules. In such cases, only the module(s) which contained most of the necessary information are indicated 51 MDG indicators as of February 2010 52 Infants receiving breast milk but not receiving any other fluids or foods, with the exception of oral rehydration solution, vitamins, mineral supple- ments and medicines 176 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 177 MICS4 INDICATOR Module Numerator Denominator MDG 2.9 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months BF Number of infants under 6 months of age who received breast milk as the predominant source of nourishment53 during the previous day Total number of infants under 6 months of age 2.10 Duration of breastfeeding BF The age in months when 50 per cent of children aged 0-35 months did not receive breast milk during the previous day 2.11 Bottle feeding BF Number of children aged 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle during the previous day Total number of children aged 0-23 months 2.12 Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods BF Number of infants aged 6-8 months who received solid, semi-solid or soft foods during the previous day Total number of infants aged 6-8 months 2.13 Minimum meal frequency BF Number of children aged 6-23 months receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods (plus milk feeds for non-breastfed children) the minimum times54 or more, according to breastfeeding status, during the previous day Total number of children aged 6-23 months 2.14 Age-appropriate breastfeeding BF Number of children aged 0-23 months appropriately fed55 during the previous day Total number of children aged 0-23 months 2.15 Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children BF Number of non-breastfed children aged 6-23 months who received at least 2 milk feedings during the previous day Total number of non-breastfed children aged 6-23 months 2.18 low birth weight infants MN Number of last live births in the 2 years preceding the survey weighing below 2,500 grams at birth Total number of last live births in the 2 years preceding the survey 2.19 Infants weighed at birth MN Number of last live births in the 2 years preceding the survey who were weighed at birth Total number of last live births in the 2 years preceding the survey 3. CHILD HEALTH 3.1 Tuberculosis immunisation coverage IM Number of children aged 18-29 months56 who received BCG vaccine by 12 months of age Total number of children aged 18-29 months 3.2 Polio immunisation coverage IM Number of children aged 18-29 months who received OPV3 vaccine by 12 months of age Total number of children aged 18-29 months 3.3 Immunisation coverage for diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT) IM Number of children aged 18-29 months who received DPT3 vaccine by 12 months of age Total number of children aged 18-29 months 3.4 Measles mumps and rubella (MMR) immunisation coverage57 IM Number of children aged 18-29 months who received the MMR vaccine by 18 months of age Total number of children aged 18-29 months MDG 4.3 3.5 Hepatitis B immunisation coverage IM Number of children age 18-29 months who received the third dose of the hepatitis B vaccine by 12 months of age Total number of children aged 18-29 months MICS4 INDICATOR Module Numerator Denominator MDG 3.8 Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding CA Number of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks who received ORT (ORS packet or increased fluids) and continued feeding during the episode of diarrhoea Total number of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the previous 2 weeks 3.9 Care-seeking for suspected pneumonia CA Number of children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks who were taken to an appropriate health provider Total number of children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks 3.10 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia CA Number of children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks who received antibiotics Total number of children under age 5 with suspected pneumonia in the previous 2 weeks 3.11 Solid fuels HC Number of household members in households that use solid fuel as the primary source of domestic energy to cook Total number of household members 4. wATER AND SANITATION 4.1 Use of improved drinking water sources wS Number of household members using improved sources of drinking water Total number of household members MDG 7.8 4.2 water treatment wS Number of household members using unimproved drinking water who use an appropriate treatment method Total number of household members in households using unimproved drinking water sources 4.3 Use of improved sanitation wS Number of household members using improved sanitation facilities which are not shared Total number of household members MDG 7.9 4.4 Safe disposal of child’s faeces CA Number of children aged 0-2 years whose last stools were disposed of safely Total number of children aged 0-2 years 4.5 Place for hand washing Hw Number of households with a specific place for hand washing where water and soap are present Total number of households 4.6 Availability of soap Hw Number of households with soap anywhere in the dwelling Total number of households 5. REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH 5.1 Adolescent birth rate CM Age specific fertility rate for women aged 15-19 years for the one year period preceding the survey MDG 5.4 5.2 Early childbearing CM Number of women aged 20-24 years who had at least one live birth before age 18 Total number of women aged 20-24 years 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate CP Number of women aged 15-49 years currently married or in union who are using (or whose partner is using) a (modern or traditional) contraceptive method Total number of women aged 15-49 years who are currently married or in union MDG 5.3 5.4 Unmet need58 UN Number of women aged 15-49 years who are currently married or in union who are fecund and want to space their births or limit the number of children they have and who are not currently using contraception Total number of women aged 15-49 years who are currently married or in union MDG 5.6 5.5a 5.5b Antenatal care coverage MN Number of women aged 15-49 years who were attended during pregnancy in the 2 years preceding the survey (a) at least once by skilled personnel (b) at least four times by any provider Total number of women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey MDG 5.5 53 Infants who received breast milk and certain fluids (water and water-based drinks, fruit juice, ritual fluids, oral rehydration solution, drops, vita- mins, minerals and medicines), but did not receive anything else (in particular, non-human milk and food-based fluids) 54 Breastfeeding children: solid, semi-solid or soft foods two times for infants aged 6-8 months and 3 times for children aged 9-23 months. Non- breastfeeding children: solid, semi-solid or soft foods, or milk feeds, four times for children aged 6-23 months. 55 Infants aged 0-5 who are exclusively breastfed and children aged 6-23 months who are breastfed and eat solid, semi-solid or soft foods. 56 Indicators 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.4, 3.5 and 3.6 in the BiH MICS were calculate for children aged 18-29, but may be calculated for a different age group such as 12-23 months or 15-26 months, depending on the immunisation schedule. 57 The standard MICS indicator refers to measles immunisation only. In BiH the measles vaccine is given as part of the combined MMR vaccine. 58 See MICS4 manual for a detailed description 178 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 179 MICS4 INDICATOR Module Numerator Denominator MDG 5.6 Content of antenatal care MN Number of women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey who had their blood pressure measured and gave urine and blood samples during their last pregnancy Total number of women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 5.7 Skilled attendant at delivery MN Number of women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey who were attended during childbirth by skilled health personnel Total number of women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey MDG 5.2 5.8 Institutional deliveries MN Number of women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey who delivered in a health facility Total number of women aged 15-49 years with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 5.9 Caesarean section MN Number of last live births in the 2 years preceding the survey who were delivered by caesarean section Total number of last live births in the 2 years preceding the survey 6. CHILD DEVELOPMENT 6.1 Support for learning EC Number of children aged 36-59 months with whom an adult has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the past 3 days Total number of children aged 36-59 months 6.2 Father’s support for learning EC Number of children aged 36-59 months whose father has engaged in one or more activity to promote learning and school readiness in the past 3 days Total number of children aged 36-59 months 6.3 learning materials: children’s books EC Number of children under aged 5 who have three or more children’s books Total number of children under age 5 6.4 learning materials: playthings EC Number of children under age 5 with two or more playthings Total number of children under age 5 6.5 Inadequate care EC Number of children under age 5 left alone or in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once in the past week Total number of children under age 5 6.6 Early Childhood Development Index EC Number of children aged 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in the literacy-numeracy, physical, social-emotional, and learning domains Total number of children aged 36-59 months 6.7 Attendance at early childhood education EC Number of children aged 36-59 months who are attending an early childhood education programme Total number of children aged 36-59 months 7. LITERACY AND EDUCATION 7.1 literacy rate amongst young women [M] wB Number of women aged 15-24 years who are able to read a short simple statement about everyday life or who attended secondary or higher education Total number of women aged 15-24 years MDG 2.3 7.2 School readiness ED Number of children in first grade of primary school who attended preschool during the previous school year Total number of children attending the first grade of primary school 7.3 Net intake rate in primary education ED Number of children of school entry age who enter the first grade of primary school Total number of children of school entry age 7.4 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) ED Number of children of primary school age currently attending primary or secondary school Total number of children of primary school age MDG 2.1 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) ED Number of children of secondary school age currently attending secondary school or higher Total number of children of secondary school age MICS4 INDICATOR Module Numerator Denominator MDG 7.6 Children reaching last grade of primary ED Proportion of children entering the first grade of primary school who eventually reach last grade MDG 2.2 7.7 Primary school completion rate ED Number of children attending the last grade of primary school (excluding repeaters) Total number of children of primary school completion age (age-appropriate to final grade of primary school) 7.8 Transition rate to secondary school ED Number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year who are in the first grade of secondary school during the current school year Total number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year 7.9 Gender Parity Index (primary school) ED Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys MDG 3.1 7.10 Gender Parity Index (secondary school) ED Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys MDG 3.1 8. CHILD PROTECTION 8.1 Birth registration BR Number of children under age 5 whose births are reported/ registered Total number of children under age 5 8.5 Violent discipline CD Number of children aged 2-14 years who experienced psychological aggression or physical punishment during the past month Total number of children aged 2-14 years 8.6 Marriage before age 15 [M] MA Number of women aged 15-49 years who were first married or in union by the exact age of 15 Total number of women aged 15-49 years 8.7 Marriage before age 18 [M] MA Number of women aged 20-49 years who were first married or in union by the exact age of 18 Total number of women aged 20-49 years 8.8 young women aged 15-19 years currently married or in union [M] MA Number of women aged 15-19 years who are currently married or in union Total number of women aged 15-19 years 8.9 Polygyny [M] MA Number of women aged 15-49 years who are in a polygynous union Total number of women aged 15-49 years who are currently married or in union 8.10a 8.10b Spousal age difference MA Number of women currently married or in union whose spouse is 10 or more years older (a) for women aged 15-19 years (b) for women aged 20-24 years Total number of women currently married or in union (a) aged 15-19 years (b) aged 20-24 years 8.14 Attitudes towards domestic violence [M] DV Number of women who state that a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife in at least one of the following circumstances: (1) she goes out without telling him, (2) she neglects the children, (3) she argues with him, (4) she refuses sex with him and (5) she burns the food Total number of women aged 15-49 years 9. HIV/AIDS, SExUAL BEHAVIOUR AND ORPHANS 9.1 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention [M] HA Number of women aged 15-49 years who correctly identify two ways of preventing HIV infection,59 know that a healthy looking person can have HIV and reject the two most common misconceptions about HIV transmission Total number of women aged 15-49 years 9.2 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention amongst young people [M] HA Number of women aged 15-24 years who correctly identify two ways of preventing HIV infection,59 know that a healthy looking person can have HIV and reject the two most common misconceptions about HIV transmission Total number of women aged 15-24 years MDG 6.3 59 Using condoms and limiting sex to one faithful uninfected partner 180 MUlTIPlE INDICATOR ClUSTER SURVEy 2011–2012 MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 181 MICS4 INDICATOR Module Numerator Denominator MDG 9.3 Knowledge of mother- to-child transmission of HIV [M] HA Number of women aged 15-49 years who correctly identify all three means60 of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Total number of women aged 15-49 years 9.4 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV [M] HA Number of women aged 15-49 years expressing accepting attitudes on all four questions61 towards people living with HIV Total number of women aged 15-49 years who have heard of HIV 9.5 women who know where to be tested for HIV [M] HA Number of women aged 15-49 years who state knowledge of a place to be tested for HIV Total number of women aged 15-49 years 9.6 women who have been tested for HIV and know the result [M] HA Number of women aged 15-49 years who have been tested for HIV in the 12 months preceding the survey and who knew their results Total number of women aged 15-49 years 9.7 Sexually active young women who have been tested for HIV and know the result [M] HA Number of women aged 15-24 years who have had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey, who have been tested for HIV in the 12 months preceding the survey and who know their results Total number of women aged 15-24 years who have had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey 9.8 HIV counselling during antenatal care HA Number of women aged 15-49 years who gave birth in the 2 years preceding the survey and received antenatal care reporting that they received counselling on HIV during antenatal care Total number of women aged 15-49 years who gave birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 9.9 HIV testing during antenatal care HA Number of women aged 15-49 years who gave birth in the 2 years preceding the survey and received antenatal care reporting that they were offered and accepted a HIV test during antenatal care and received their results Total number of women aged 15-49 years who gave birth in the 2 years preceding the survey 9.10 young women who have never had sex [M] SB Number of never married women aged 15-24 years who have never had sex Total number of never married women aged 15-24 years 9.11 Sex before age 15 amongst young women [M] SB Number of women aged 15-24 years who have had sexual intercourse before age 15 Total number of women aged 15-24 years 9.12 Age mixing amongst sexual partners [M] SB Number of women aged 15-24 years who had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey with a partner who was 10 or more years older Total number of women aged 15-24 years who have had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey 9.13 Sex with multiple partners [M] SB Number of women aged 15-49 years who have had sexual intercourse with more than one partner in the 12 months preceding the survey Total number of women aged 15-49 years 9.14 Condom use during sex with multiple partners [M] SB Number of women aged 15-49 years who reported having had more than one sexual partner in the 12 months preceding the survey who also reported that a condom was used the last time they had sex Total number of women aged 15-49 years who reported having had more than one sexual partner in the 12 months preceding the survey 9.15 Sex with non-regular partners [M] SB Number of sexually active women aged 15-24 years who have had sex with a non-marital/non- cohabitating partner in the 12 months preceding the survey Total number of women aged 15-24 years who had sex in the 12 months preceding the survey 60 Transmission during pregnancy, during delivery and by breastfeeding 61 women (1) who think that a female teacher with the AIDS virus should be allowed to teach in school, (2) who would buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who has the AIDS virus, (3) who would not want to keep it as a secret if a family member became infected with the AIDS virus and (4) who would be willing to care for a family member who became ill with the AIDS virus MICS4 INDICATOR Module Numerator Denominator MDG 9.16 Condom use with non-regular partners [M] SB Number of women aged 15-24 years reporting the use of a condom during sexual intercourse with their last non-marital/non-cohabiting sex partner in the 12 months preceding the survey Total number of women aged 15-24 years who had a non- marital/ non-cohabiting partner in the 12 months preceding the survey MDG 6.2 9.17 Children’s living arrangements Hl Number of children aged 0-17 years not living with a biological parent Total number of children aged 0-17 years 9.18 Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead Hl Number of children aged 0-17 years with one or both parents dead Total number of children aged 0-17 years 10. ACCESS TO MASS MEDIA AND USE OF INFORMATION/COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY MT.1 Exposure to mass media [M] MT Number of women aged 15-49 years who, at least once a week, read a newspaper or magazine, listen to the radio, and watch television Total number of women aged 15-49 years MT.2 Use of computers [M] MT Number of young women aged 15-24 years who used a computer during the last 12 months Total number of women aged 15-24 years MT.3 Use of the Internet [M] MT Number of young women aged 15-24 who used the Internet during the last 12 months Total number of women aged 15-24 years 11. SUBjECTIVE wELL-BEING Sw.1 life satisfaction [M] lS Number of women aged 15-24 years who are very or somewhat satisfied with their family life, friendships, school, current job, health, where they live, how they are treated by others, and how they look Total number of women aged 15-24 years Sw.2 Happiness [M] lS Number of women aged 15-24 years who are very or somewhat happy Total number of women aged 15-24 years Sw.3 Perception of a better life [M] lS Number of women aged 15-24 years whose life improved during the last one year and who expect that their life will be better after one year Total number of women aged 15-24 years 12. TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL USE TA.1 Tobacco use [M] TA Number of women aged 15-49 years who smoked cigarettes or used smoke or smokeless tobacco products on one or more days during the last one month Total number of women aged 15-49 years TA.2 Smoking before age 15 [M] TA Number of women aged 15-49 years who smoked a whole cigarette before age 15 Total number of women aged 15-49 years TA.3 Alcohol use [M] TA Number of women age 15-49 years who had at least one alcoholic drink on one or more days during the last one month Total number of women aged 15-49 years TA.4 Use of alcohol before age 15 [M] TA Number of women age 15-49 years who had at least one alcoholic drink before age 15 Total number of women aged 15-49 years MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHIlDREN AND wOMEN 183MONITORING THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN 183 Appendix F: MICS4 BiH Roma Survey Questionnaires An identical approach to the MICS4 methodology was applied in the FBiH, RS and BD. Questionnaires were translated into local languages and were administered during fieldwork in the FBiH, RS and BD.  HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE [BiH] HOUSEHOLD INFORMATION PANEL HH HH1. Cluster number: ___ ___ ___ HH2. Household number: ___ ___ ___ HH3. Interviewer name and code: Name ______________________ ___ ___ ___ HH4. Supervisor name and code: Name________________________ ___ ___ ___ HH5. Day / Month / Year of interview: ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ HH6. Settlement type: Urban .1 Rural .2 HH7. Region FBiH Canton: Una-Sana Canton.01 Posavina Canton .02 Tuzla Canton .03 Zenica-Doboj Canton .04 Bosnia-Podrinje Canton .05 Central Bosnia Canton .06 Herzegovina-Neretva Canton .07 West Herzegovina Canton.08 Canton Sarajevo .09 Canton 10 .10 Republic of Srpska . 11 Brcko District of BiH . 15 We are from the Ministry for HuMan rigHts and refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina. We are conducting a survey concerned With family health and education. i Would like to talk to you about these subjects. the intervieW Will take up to 20 minutes. all the information We obtain Will remain strictly confidential. may i start noW? ¨ Yes, permission given ð Go to HH18 to record the time and then begin the interview. ¨ No, permission not given ð Complete HH9. Inform your supervisor of this result. Once all questionnaires for this household have been completed, fill in the following information: HH8. Name and surname of head of household: __________________________________________ HH9. Result of the household interview: Household questionnaire completed .01 No household member or no competent respondent at home at time of visit .02 Entire household absent for extended period of time .03 Household refused the interview .04 Dwelling unit vacant / Address not a dwelling .05 Dwelling unit destroyed .06 Dwelling unit not found .07 Other (specify) . 96 HH10. Respondent to household questionnaire: Name: ____________________________________ Line Number from Module HL: ___ ___ HH11. Total number of household members: ___ ___ HH12. Number of women aged 15-49 years: ___ ___ HH13. Number of completed Questionnaires for women aged 15-49: ___ ___ HH13A. Number of men aged 15-49 years: ___ ___ HH13B. Number of completed Questionnaires for men aged 15-49: ___ ___ HH14. Number of children under age 5: ___ ___ HH15. Number of completed under-5 questionnaires: ___ ___ HH16. Control carried out by (Name and code): Name ______________________ ___ ___ ___ HH17. Data entry operator (Name and code): Name ______________________ ___ ___ ___ Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 185184 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 HH18. Record the interview start time hour __ __ Minutes __ __ HouSeHold MeMBeR lIStInG FoRM first, please tell me the name of each person Who usually lives here, starting With the head of the household. Enter data for the head of household in line 01. List all household members (HL2), their relationship to the head of household (HL3), and their gender (HL4) Then ask: are there any other persons Who live here, even if they are not at home noW? If “yes”, complete the listing for questions HL2-HL4. Then, ask questions starting with HL5 for each person, one person at a time. Use an additional questionnaire if all rows in the household member listing form have been used. For women aged 15-49 For men aged 15-49 godina For children aged 5-14 For children under age 5 for children aged 0-17 years Hl1. line no Hl2. Name Hl3. What is the relationship of (name) to the head of household? Hl4. is (name) male or female? 1 Male 2 female Hl5. What is (name)’s date of birth? Hl6. hoW old is (name)? Record in completed years. If age is 95 or above, record ‘95’ Hl7. Circle line no. if woman is aged 15-49 Hl7A. Circle line no. if man is aged 15-49 Hl8. Who is the mother or primary caretaker of this child? Record line no. of mother/ caretaker Hl9. Who is the mother or primary caretaker of this child? Record line no. of mother/ caretaker Hl11. is (name)’s biological mother alive? 1 Yes 2 no hl13 8 dK hl13 Hl12. does (name)’s biological mother live in this household? Record line no. of mother or ‘00’ for “No” Hl13. is (name)’s biological father alive? 1 Yes 2 no next line 8 dK next line Hl14. does (name)’s biological father live in this household? Record line no. of father or ‘00’ for “No” 98 dK 9998 dK line name relationship* M f Month Year age 15-49 15-49 Mother Mother Y n dK Mother Y n dK father 01 0 1 1 2 __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ ___ 01 01 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 02 ___ ___ 1 2 __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ ___ 02 02 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 03 ___ ___ 1 2 __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ ___ 03 03 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 04 ___ ___ 1 2 __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ ___ 04 04 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 05 ___ ___ 1 2 __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ ___ 05 05 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 06 ___ ___ 1 2 __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ ___ 06 06 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 07 ___ ___ 1 2 __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ ___ 07 07 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 08 ___ ___ 1 2 __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ ___ 08 08 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 09 ___ ___ 1 2 __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ ___ 09 09 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 10 ___ ___ 1 2 __ __ __ __ __ __ ___ ___ 10 10 ___ ___ ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 ___ ___ Tick here if additional questionnaire was used ¨ Ask again if there are any additional household members. Probe especially for any infants or small children not listed, and others who may not be members of the family (such as servants, friends) but who usually live in the household. Enter the names of additional members in the list of household members and complete the form according to the instructions. Now for each woman aged 15-49 years, write her name and line number and other necessary information in the information panel of a separate Questionnaire for Women Aged 15 to 49. For each man aged 15-49 years, write his name and line number and other necessary information in the information panel of a separate Questionnaire for Men Aged 15 to 49. For each child under age 5, write his/her name and line number AND the line number of his/her mother or caretaker in the information panel of a separate Under-5 Questionnaire. You should now have a separate questionnaire for each eligible woman, each eligible man, and each child under five in the household. * Codes for HL3: Relationship to the head of household: 01 head 02 wife / husband 03 son / daughter 04 son-in-law / daughter-in-law 05 grandchild 06 Parent 07 Parent-in-law 08 Brother / sister 09 Brother-in-law / sister-in-law 10 uncle / aunt 11 niece / nephew 12 other relative 13 adopted / fostered / stepchild 14 not related 98 don’t know Hl Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 187186 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 eduCAtIon ed For household members aged 5 and above For household members aged 5-24 years ed1. line number ed2. Name and age Copy from Household Member Listing Form, HL2 and HL6 ed3. has (name) ever attended school or a preschool institution? 1 Yes 2 no  next line ed4A. What is the highest education level (name) has attended? level: 0 Preschool 1 Primary 2 secondary 3 higher 8 dK If level=0, skip to ED5 ed4B. What is the highest grade/ year (name) completed at this level? Grade/Year: 98 DK If less than 1 grade/ year, enter ‘00’. ed5. during this school/ academic year (2011- 2012), did (name) attend school/ university or preschool at any time? 1 yes 2 no  ed7 ed6. during this school/academic year, Which level and grade/year is (name) attending? ed7. during the previous school/ academic year, that is (2010- 2011), did (name) attend school or preschool at any time? 1 Yes 2 no  next line 8 dK  next line ed8. during that previous school year, Which level and grade/year did (name) attend? level: 0 Preschool 1 Primary 2 secondary 3 higher 8 dK If level=0, skip to ED7 grade/Year: 98 dK level: 0 Preschool 1 Primary 2 secondary 3 higher 8 dK If level=0, go to next person grade/Year: 98 dK line name age Yes no level grade/Year Yes no level grade/Year Y n dK level grade/Year 01 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 02 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 03 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 04 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 05 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 06 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 07 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 08 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 09 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 10 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 8 ___ ___ Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 189188 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 wAteR And SAnItAtIon wS Ws1. What is the main source of drinking Water for members of your household? Piped water (main water-supply) Piped water in apartment/house .11 Piped water in estate .12 Piped water at neighbours .13 Public tap / standpipe .14 tube well, Borehole .21 dug well covered (protected) well .31 uncovered (unprotected) well .32 water from spring Protected spring .41 unprotected spring .42 rainwater collection .51 tanker-truck .61 surface water (river, stream, dam, lake, pond, canal, irrigation channel) .81 Bottled water .91 other (specify) . 96 11ðws6 12ðws6 13ðws6 14ðws3 21ðws3 31ðws3 32ðws3 41ðws3 42ðws3 51ðws3 61ðws3 81ðws3 96ðws3 Ws2. What is the main source of Water used in your household for other purposes such as cooking and Washing hands? Piped water (main water-supply) Piped water in apartment/house .11 Piped water in estate .12 Piped water at neighbours .13 Public tap / standpipe .14 tube well, Borehole .21 dug well covered (protected) well .31 uncovered (unprotected) well .32 water from spring Protected spring .41 unprotected spring .42 rainwater collection .51 tanker-truck .61 surface water (river, stream, dam, lake, pond, canal, irrigation channel) .81 Bottled water .91 other (specify) .96 11ðws6 12ðws6 13ðws6 Ws3. Where is this Water source located? in own apartment/house . 1 in own estate. 2 elsewhere . 3 1ðws6 2ðws6 Ws4. hoW long does it take to go to the Water source, collect Water, and come back? number of minutes . __ __ __ dK . 998 Ws5. Who usually goes to this source to collect Water for your household? Probe: is this person under 15 years of age? What gender? adult woman (age 15+ years) . 1 adult man (age 15+ years) . 2 female child (under 15) . 3 Male child (under 15) . 4 dK . 8 Ws6. do you do anything to the Water to make it safer for drinking? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðws8 8ðws8 Ws7. What do you usually do to make the Water safer for drinking? Probe: anything else? Record all items mentioned. Boil .a add chlorine . B strain it through a cloth . c use water filter (ceramic, sand, composite, etc.) .d solar disinfection .e let it stand and settle .f other (specify) . X dK . Z Ws8. What kind of toilet facility do members of your household usually use? If “flush” or “pour flush”, probe: Where does it flush to? If necessary, ask permission to observe the facility. flush / Pour flush flush to piped sewer system .11 flush to septic tank .12 flush to pit (latrine) .13 flush to somewhere else .14 flush to unknown place / not sure / dK where .15 Pit latrine ventilated improved latrine with pit .21 Pit latrine with slab .22 Pit latrine without slab / open pit .23 ecological toilet (with composting) .31 Bucket .41 no facility, bush, field .95 other (specify) . 96 95ðnext Module Ws9. do you share this facility With others Who are not members of your household? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðnext Module Ws10. do you share this toilet facility only With members of other households that you knoW, or is the facility for public use? other households only (not public) . 1 toilet facility for public use . 2 2ðnext Module Ws11. hoW many households in total use this toilet facility, including your oWn household? number of households (if less than 10) . 0 __ ten or more households .10 dK .98 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 191190 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 HouSeHold CHARACteRIStICS HC HC1B. What is the mother tongue of the head of household? Bosnian. 1 croatian. 2 serbian . 3 romany . 4 other language (specify) . 6 HC2. hoW many rooms in this household are used for sleeping? number of rooms . __ __ HC3. Main material of the dwelling floor. Record observation. natural floor earth / sand .11 straw .13 rudimentary floor wood planks .21 finished floor Parquet or polished wood .31 vinyl / linoleum or asphalt strips .32 ceramic tiles .33 cement .34 carpet .35 laminate .36 other (specify) . 96 HC4. Main material of the roof. Record observation. natural roofing no roof .11 thatch .12 rudimentary roofing wood planks (shingle) .23 cardboard .24 finished roofing Metal / sheet metal .31 wood .32 calamine roofing / cement fibre .33 ceramic tiles .34 cement (slab) .35 roofing shingles .36 other (specify) . 96 HC5. Main material of the exterior walls. Record observation. natural walls trunks .12 dirt .13 rudimentary walls reed and mud .21 stone with mud .22 uncovered adobe .23 Plywood .24 cardboard .25 reused wood .26 finished walls cement .31 stone with lime / cement.32 Bricks .33 cement blocks .34 covered adobe .35 wooden planks / shingles .36 facade (e.g. cement and limestone mortar) .37 other (specify) . 96 HC6. What type of fuel does your household mainly use for cooking? electricity .01 liquid propane gas (lPg, gas from a cylinder) .02 natural gas (from the gas mains) .03 coal / lignite .06 charcoal .07 wood .08 straw / shrubs / grass .09 residue from agricultural crops .11 no food is cooked in the household .95 other (specify) . 96 01ðhc8 02ðhc8 03ðhc8 95ðhc8 HC7. is the cooking usually done in the house, in a separate building, or outdoors? If “In the house”, probe: is it done in a separate room used as a kitchen? in the apartment/house in a separate room used as kitchen . 1 elsewhere in the house . 2 in a separate building . 3 outdoors . 4 other (specify) _________________________________6 HC8. does your household have: [a] electricity? [b] a radio? [c] a television? [d] a fixed telephone (non-mobile)? [e] a refrigerator? [f] bed? [g] electrical cooker? [h] computer / laptop? [i] internet connection? [j] air-conditioning? [k] digital camera? [l] Washing machine? [m] clothes dryer? [n] dishWasher? [o] vacuum cleaner [p] dvd player? [Q] jacuzzi bathtub? [r] video security system (cctv)? Yes no electricity .1 2 radio .1 2 television .1 2 fixed telephone (non-mobile) .1 2 refrigerator .1 2 Bed .1 2 electrical cooker .1 2 computer / laptop .1 2 internet connection.1 2 air-conditioning .1 2 digital camera .1 2 washing machine .1 2 clothes dryer .1 2 dishwasher .1 2 vacuum cleaner .1 2 dvd player .1 2 Jacuzzi bathtub .1 2 video security system (cctv) .1 2 HC9. does any member of your household oWn: [a] a Watch? [b] a mobile telephone? [c] a bicycle? [d] a motorcycle or scooter? [e] an animal-draWn cart? [f] a car or truck? [g] a tractor? Yes no watch .1 2 Mobile telephone .1 2 Bicycle .1 2 Motorcycle / scooter .1 2 animal drawn-cart .1 2 car / truck.1 2 tractor .1 2 HC10. do you or someone living in this household oWn this dWelling? If “No”, then ask: do you rent this dWelling from someone not living in this household? If “Rented from someone else”, circle ‘2’. For other responses, circle ‘6’. own . 1 rent . 2 other (not owned or rented) . 6 HC11. does any member of this household oWn any land that can be used for agriculture? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðhc13 HC12. hoW many dunums of agricultural land do members of this household oWn altogether? If less than 1, record ‘00’. If 95 or more, record ‘95’. If unknown, record ‘98’. dunums . ___ ___ HC13. does this household oWn any livestock, herds, other farm animals or poultry? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðhc15 HC14. hoW many of the folloWing animals does this household oWn? [a] heifers, milk coWs, calves or bulls? [b] horses, donkeys, or mules? [c] goats? [d] sheep? [e] chickens, chicks or roosters? [h] other poultry? [f] pigs [g] bee hives? If none, record ‘00’. If 95 or more, record ‘95’. If unknown, record ‘98’. heifers, milk cows, calves or bulls . ___ ___ horses, donkeys, or mules . ___ ___ goats . ___ ___ sheep . ___ ___ chickens, chicks or roosters . ___ ___ other poultry . ___ ___ Pigs .___ __ Bee hives . ___ ___ HC15. does any member of this household have a bank account? Yes . 1 no . 2 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 193192 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 CHIld dISCIplIne Cd tABle 1: CHIldRen AGed 2-14 YeARS elIGIBle FoR QueStIonS on CHIld dISCIplIne • List each of the children aged 2-14 years below in the order they appear in the Household Member Listing Form (module HL). Do not include any household members outside of the age range 2-14 years. • Record the line number, name, gender, and age for each child. • Then record the total number of children aged 2-14 in the box provided (CD6). • If there are no children aged 2-14 years in the household, skip to the next module. Cd1. Rank Cd2. Line number from HL1 Cd3. Name from HL2 Cd4. Gender from HL4 Cd5. Age from HL6 rank line no. name M f age 1 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 2 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 3 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 4 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 5 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 6 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 7 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ Cd6. total children aged 2-14 years ___ ___ • If there is only one child aged 2-14 years in the household, skip table 2 and go to CD8; enter ‘1’ and continue with CD9. tABle 2: RAndoM SeleCtIon oF CHIld FoR QueStIonS on CHIld dISCIplIne • Use Table 2 to select one child between the ages of 2 and 14 years, if there is more than one child in the household within the specified age range. • Check the last digit of the household number (HH2) from the cover page. This is the row number you should go to in the table below (CD7). • Check the total number of eligible children (2-14) at CD6 in Table 1 above. This is the column number you should go to. • Find the box where the row and the column meet and circle the number that appears in the box. This is the rank of the child (CD1) for which the questions will be asked. Cd7. total number of eligible children in the household (Cd6) last digit of household number (HH2) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ 0 1 2 2 4 3 6 5 4 1 1 1 3 1 4 1 6 5 2 1 2 1 2 5 2 7 6 3 1 1 2 3 1 3 1 7 4 1 2 3 4 2 4 2 8 5 1 1 1 1 3 5 3 1 6 1 2 2 2 4 6 4 2 7 1 1 3 3 5 1 5 3 8 1 2 1 4 1 2 6 4 9 1 1 2 1 2 3 7 5 Cd8. Record the rank of the selected child from Table 1 (CD1) . ___ Cd9. Write the name and line number of the child selected for the module from CD3 and CD2, based on the rank in CD8. name ____________________________________ line number . __ __ Cd10. adults use certain Ways to teach children proper behaviour or to address a behaviour problem. i Will read various methods that are used and i Want you to tell me if you or anyone else in your household has used this method With (name) during the past month. Cd11. took aWay privileges, forbade something (name) liked or did not alloW him/her to leave the house. Yes . 1 no . 2 Cd12. explained Why (name)’s behavior Was Wrong. Yes . 1 no . 2 Cd13. shook him/her. Yes . 1 no . 2 Cd14. shouted, yelled at or screamed at him/her. Yes . 1 no . 2 Cd15. gave him/her something else to do. Yes . 1 no . 2 Cd16. spanked, hit or slapped him/her on the bottom With bare hand. Yes . 1 no . 2 Cd17. hit him/her on the bottom or elseWhere on the body With something like a belt, hairbrush, stick or other hard object. Yes . 1 no . 2 Cd18. called him/her dumb, lazy or a similar name. Yes . 1 no . 2 Cd19. hit or slapped him/her on the face, head or ears. Yes . 1 no . 2 Cd20. hit or slapped him/her on the hand, arm or leg. Yes . 1 no . 2 Cd21. beat him/her up, that is hit him/her repeatedly as hard as one can. Yes . 1 no . 2 Cd22. do you believe that in order to bring up, raise or educate a child properly, the child needs to be physically punished? Yes . 1 no . 2 don’t know / no opinion . 8 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 195194 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 HAnd wASHInG Hw HW1. please shoW me Where members of your household most often Wash their hands. observed . 1 not observed not in apartment/house / on estate . 2 no permission to observe place . 3 other reason . 6 2 ðhw4 3 ðhw4 6 ðhw4 HW2. Observe the presence of water at the specific place for washing hands. Verify by checking the tap/pump or sink, bucket, water container, etc., for presence of water. water is available . 1 water is not available . 2 HW3. Record if soap or detergent is present at the specific place for washing hands. Circle all that apply. Skip to HH19 if any soap or detergent code has been circled (A, B, C or D). If “None” is circled (Y), continue with HW4. Bar of soap .a detergent (Powder / liquid / Paste) . B liquid soap . c ash / sand .d none . Y aðhh19 Bðhh19 cðhh19 dðhh19 HW4. do you have any soap, detergent or any other cleaning agent in your household used for Washing hands? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðhh19 HW5. can you please shoW it to me? Record the observation. Circle all that apply. Bar of soap .a detergent (Powder / liquid / Paste) . B liquid soap . c ash / sand .d not able to / does not want to show . Y HH19. Record the interview end time. hour and minutes .__ __ : __ __ HH20. Thank the respondent for his/her cooperation and check the Household Member Listing Form: ¨ A separate Questionnaire for Individual Women has been issued for each woman aged 15-49 years in the household list (HL7) ¨ A separate Questionnaire for Children Under Five has been issued for each child under the age of 5 in the household list (HL9) ¨ A separate Questionnaire for Individual Men has been issued for each man aged 15-49 years in the household list (HL7A) Return to the cover page and make sure that all information has been entered, including the number of eligible women (HH12), children under 5 years of age (HH14) and eligible men (HH13A). Organise the administration of the remaining questionnaire(s) in this household. Interviewer’s observations Controller’s observations Supervisor’s observations QueStIonnAIRe FoR woMen AGed 15 to 49 [BiH] woMAn’S InFoRMAtIon pAnel wM This questionnaire is to be administered to all women age 15 through 49 (see Household Member Listing Form, column HL7 in the Household Questionnaire). A separate questionnaire should be used for each eligible woman. wM1. cluster number: ___ ___ ___ wM2. household number: ___ ___ ___ wM3. woman’s name: wM4. woman’s line number: name _________________________________________ ___ ___ wM5. interviewer name and code: name _____________________________ ___ ___ ___ wM6. day / Month / Year of interview: ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ Repeat greeting if not already read to this woman: We are from the Ministry of HuMan rigHts and refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina. We are conducting a survey concerned With family health and education. i Would like to talk to you about these subjects. this intervieW Will take about 20 minutes. all the information We obtain Will remain strictly confidential. If greeting at the beginning of the household questionnaire has already been read to this woman, then read the following: noW i Would like to talk to you more about your health and other topics. this intervieW Will take about 20 minutes. again, all the information We obtain Will remain strictly confidential. may i start noW? ¨ Yes, permission given ð Go to WM10 to record the time and then begin the interview. ¨ No, permission not given ð Complete WM7. Inform your supervisor of this result. wM7. result of woman’s interview Questionnaire completed .01 respondent not at home .02 refused .03 Questionnaire partly completed .04 respondent incapacitated .05 other (specify) ____________________________ 96 wM8. control carried out by (name and number) name _____________________________ ___ ___ ___ wM9. data entry operator (name and number): name _____________________________ ___ ___ ___ Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 197196 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 WM10. Record the interview start time. hour and minutes .__ __ : __ __ woMAn’S BACKGRound wB WB1. in What month and year Were you born? date of birth Month . __ __ dK month .98 Year .__ __ __ __ dK year .9998 WB2. hoW old are you? Probe: hoW old Were you on your last birthday? Compare WB1 and/or WB2 and correct if inconsistent age (in completed years) . __ __ WB3. have you ever attended school or a preschool institution? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðwB7 WB4. What is the highest education level you attended? Preschool . 0 Primary . 1 secondary . 2 higher . 3 0ðwB7 WB5. What is the highest grade/year you completed at that level? If less than 1 grade, enter ‘00’ grade/year . __ __ WB6. Check WB4: ¨ Secondary or higher. ð Go to Next Module ¨ Primary ð Continue with WB7 wB7. noW i Would like you to read this sentence to me. Show the sentence on the card to the respondent. If the respondent cannot read the whole sentence, probe: can you read part of the sentence to me? cannot read at all . 1 able to read only parts of the sentence . 2 able to read the whole sentence . 3 the sentence isn’t written in a language understood by the respondent _____________________________________________4 (specify language) Blind / mute, visually / speech impaired . 5 ACCeSS to MASS MedIA And uSe oF InFoRMAtIon/CoMMunICAtIon teCHnoloGY Mt Mt1. Check WB7: ¨ Question left blank (Respondent has secondary or more education) ð Continue with MT2 ¨ Able to read or no sentence available in required language (codes 2, 3 or 4) ð Continue with MT2 ¨ Cannot read at all or blind/mute, etc. (codes 1 or 5) ð Go to MT3 Mt2. hoW often do you read a neWspaper or magazine: almost every day, at least once a Week, less than once a Week or not at all? almost every day . 1 at least once a week . 2 less than once a week . 3 not at all . 4 Mt3. do you listen to the radio almost every day, at least once a Week, less than once a Week or not at all? almost every day . 1 at least once a week . 2 less than once a week . 3 not at all . 4 Mt4. hoW often do you Watch television: Would you say that you Watch tv almost every day, at least once a Week, less than once a Week or not at all? almost every day . 1 at least once a week . 2 less than once a week . 3 not at all . 4 Mt5. Check WB2: Is the respondent aged 15-24 years? ¨ Yes, age 15-24 ð Continue with MT6 ¨ No, age 25-49 ð Go to Next Module Mt6. have you ever used a computer? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMt9 Mt7. in the last 12 months, have you used a computer from any location? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMt9 Mt8. during the last month, hoW often did you use a computer: almost every day, at least once a Week, less than once a Week or not at all? almost every day . 1 at least once a week . 2 less than once a week . 3 not at all . 4 Mt9. have you ever used the internet? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðnext Module Mt10. in the last 12 months, have you used the internet? If necessary, probe for use of Internet from any location, with any device, etc. Yes . 1 no . 2 2ð next Module Mt11. during the last month, hoW often did you use the internet: almost every day, at least once a Week, less than once a Week or not at all? almost every day . 1 at least once a week . 2 less than once a week . 3 not at all .4 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 199198 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 CHIld MoRtAlItY CM This module has to be administered to all women aged 15-49. Questions CM0-CM12 refer only to LIVE births. CM0. Check cluster number in WM1. ¨ If the cluster number is from 001-474 (Mainstream survey) ð Continue with CM0A. ¨ If the cluster number is from 501-562 (Roma survey) ð Go to CM1 CM0a. noW i Would like to ask about all the births you have had during your lifetime. hoW many live born children have you had in your entire life? Probe to determine whether respondent is referring to live born children. by live born children, i mean a child Who ever breathed or cried or shoWed other signs of life – even if he or she lived only a feW minutes or hours. If “None”, circle ‘00’. none .00 number of live-born children . __ __ ðcM12a CM0B. What is the date of your last birth (even if the baby died)? Month and year must be recorded. date of last birth day . __ __ dK day .98 Month . __ __ Year .__ __ __ __ ðcM12a CM1. noW i Would like to ask about all the births you have had during your life. have you ever given birth? Yes . 1 no .2 2ð cM8 CM2. What Was the date of your first birth? i mean the very first time you gave birth, even if the child is no longer living, or Whose father is not your current partner. Skip to CM4 only if year of first birth is given. Otherwise, continue with CM3. date of first birth day . __ __ dK day .98 Month . __ __ dK month .98 Year .__ __ __ __ dK year .9998 ðcM4 CM3. hoW many years ago did you have your first birth? completed years since first birth . __ __ CM4. do you have any sons or daughters to Whom you have given birth Who are noW living With you? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðcM6 CM5. hoW many sons live With you? hoW many daughters live With you? If none, record ‘00’. sons living at home . __ __ daughters living at home . __ __ CM6. do you have any sons or daughters to Whom you have given birth Who are alive but do not live With you? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðcM8 CM7. hoW many sons are alive but do not live With you? hoW many daughters are alive but do not live With you? If none, record ‘00’. sons living elsewhere . __ __ daughters living elsewhere . __ __ CM8. have you ever given birth to a boy or girl Who Was born alive but later died? If “No” probe by asking: i mean to a child Who ever breathed or cried or shoWed other signs of life – even if he or she lived only a feW minutes or hours? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðcM10 CM9. hoW many boys have died? hoW many girls have died? If none, record ‘00’. Boys dead . __ __ girls dead . __ __ CM10. Sum answers in CM5, CM7 and CM9. sum . __ __ CM11. just to make sure that i have noted this correctly, you have had in total (total number in CM10) live births during your life. is this correct? ¨ Yes. Check and mark below: ¨ No live births (i.e. the sum in CM10 equals 0) ð Continue with CM12A ¨ One or more live births ð Continue with CM12 ¨ No ð Check responses to CM1-CM10 and make corrections as necessary before proceeding to CM12 CM12. of these (total number in CM10) births you have had, When did you deliver the last one (even if he or she has died)? Month and year must be recorded. date of last birth day . __ __ dK day .98 Month . __ __ Year .__ __ __ __ CM12a. sometimes Women have pregnancies that might not end With a live birth. have you ever had any pregnancy that Was miscarried, ended in a stillbirth, or that Was terminated early (aborted)? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðcM13 CM12B. hoW many miscarriages have you had during your lifetime? by miscarriage, i mean an early and involuntary end of pregnancy Within the first 5th month of pregnancy. none .00 number of miscarriages . __ __ CM12C. in hoW many cases have your pregnancies ended With a stillbirth? by stillbirth, i mean a birth that took place after the 5th month of pregnancy, but the child did not shoW any signs of life. none .00 number of stillbirths . __ __ CM12d. and hoW many early terminations of pregnancy (abortions) have you had during your lifetime? by early termination of pregnancy (abortion), i mean a pregnancy that Was voluntarily terminated Within the first 5 months of pregnancy. none .00 number of early terminations of pregnancy (abortions) . __ __ 00ðcM13 CM12e. When did your (last) early termination of pregnancy (abortion) take place? Month and year must be recorded. date of (last) early termination of pregnancy (abortion) Month . __ __ Year .__ __ __ __ CM12f. Check in CM12E when the last abortion took place and if: ¨ There are no abortions during the last 2 years. ð Go to CM12J ¨ The last abortion took place during the last 2 years, that is, since (the month of interviewing) in 2009 ð Continue with CM12G CM12g. If the respondent has mentioned more than one early termination (abortion), i.e. CM12D is higher than 1, then ask her for the exact month and year of each mentioned early termination (abortion) that took place during the last 2 years, i.e. since (the month of interviewing) 2009. Write down month and year for each early termination (abortion) in CM12H, starting from the last, and for each recorded early termination (abortion) ask the respondent to tell you how many weeks/months she was pregnant when she had the early termination (abortion) and record this appropriately. last early termination (abortion) Previous to the last early termination (abortion) second last from the last early termination (abortion) third last from the last early termination (abortion) CM12H. What month and year did your (last) early termination (abortion) take place? Don’t ask, it is given in CM12E Month __ __ Year __ __ __ __ Month __ __ Year __ __ __ __ Month __ __ Year __ __ __ __ CM12i. hoW many months (Weeks) Were you pregnant When your pregnancy Was aborted? If the respondent answers in weeks, write down on the appropriate line for weeks, otherwise just record the given months weeks 1 __ __ Months 2 __ __ weeks 1 __ __ Months 2 __ __ weeks 1 __ __ Months 2 __ __ weeks 1 __ __ Months 2 __ __ CM12J. Check total number of early terminations (abortions) in CM12D and if total is: ¨ from 01 to 04 ð Go to CM13 ¨ greater than 04 ð Continue with CM12K CM12K. in What month and year did you have your first early termination of pregnancy (abortion)? date of first abortion Month . __ __ dK month .98 Year .__ __ __ __ dK year .9998 ðcM13 CM12L. hoW old Were you When you had your first early termination (abortion)? age (in completed years) . __ __ Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 201200 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 CM13. Check CM0B or CM12: Last birth occurred within the last 2 years, i.e. since (day and month of interview) in 2009 ¨ No, there were no live births in the last 2 years or no live birth at all. ð Go to ILLNESS SYMPTOM Module. ¨ Yes, one or more live births in the last 2 years. ð Ask for the name of the last-born child Name of last-born child_______________________ If the child has died, take special care when referring to this child by name in the following modules. Continue with the next module. deSIRe FoR lASt BIRtH dB This module is to be administered to all women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the date of interview. Check CM13 in the child mortality module CM and record the name of the last-born child here ________________. Use this child’s name in the following questions, where indicated. dB1. When you got pregnant With (name), did you Want to get pregnant at that time? Yes . 1 no . 2 1ðnext Module dB2. did you Want to have a baby later on, or did you not Want any (more) children? later . 1 did not want more children . 2 2ðnext Module dB3. hoW much longer did you Want to Wait? Months .1 __ __ Years .2 __ __ dK . 998 MAteRnAl And newBoRn HeAltH Mn This module is to be administered to all women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the date of interview. Check CM13 in the child mortality module CM and record the name of the last-born child here ________________. Use this child’s name in the following questions, where indicated. Mn1. did you see anyone for antenatal care during your pregnancy With (name)? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMn17 Mn2. Whom did you see? Probe: anyone else? Probe for the type of person seen and circle all answers given. health professional: doctor .a nurse / Midwife . B other person traditional birth attendant .f family member/friend .h other (specify) . X Mn3. hoW many times did you receive antenatal care during this pregnancy? number of times . __ __ dK .98 Mn4. as part of your antenatal care during this pregnancy, Was any of the folloWing done at least once: [a] Was your blood pressure measured? [b] did you give a urine sample? [c] did you give a blood sample? Yes no Blood pressure .1 2 urine sample .1 2 Blood sample .1 2 Mn17. Who assisted With the delivery of (name)? Probe: anyone else? Probe for the type of person assisting and circle all answers given. If respondent says no one assisted, probe to determine whether any adults were present at the delivery. health professional: doctor .a nurse / Midwife . B other person traditional birth attendant .f relative / friend .h other (specify) .X no one . Y mn18. Where did you give birth to (name)? Probe to identify the type of source. If unable to determine whether public or private, write the name of the place, institution, organisation, etc. _______________________________________________ (Name of institution, organisation, etc.) home Your home .11 other home .12 Public sector hospital .21 health centre .22 other public facility (specify) _____________________ 26 Private Medical sector Private hospital.31 Private clinic .32 Private maternity home .33 other private medical facility (specify) _________________36 other (specify) ________________________________96 11ðMn20 12ðMn20 96ðMn20 Mn19. Was (name) delivered by caesarean section? that is, did they cut your belly open to take the baby out? Yes . 1 no . 2 Mn20. When (name) Was born, Was he/she: very large, larger than average, average, smaller than average or very small? very large . 1 larger than average . 2 average . 3 smaller than average . 4 very small . 5 dK . 8 Mn21. Was (name) Weighed at birth? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðMn23 8ðMn23 Mn22. hoW much did (name) Weigh? Record weight from health card, if available. from card . 1 (kg) __ . __ __ __ from recall . 2 (kg) __ . __ __ __ dK .99998 Mn23. has your menstrual period returned since the birth of (name)? Yes . 1 no . 2 Mn24. did you ever breastfeed (name)? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðnext Module Mn25. hoW long after birth did you first put (name) to the breast? If less than 1 hour, record ‘00’ hours. If less than 24 hours, record hours. Otherwise, record days. immediately . 000 hours .1 __ __ days .2 __ __ dK / don’t remember . 998 Mn26. in the first three days after delivery, Was (name) given anything to drink other than breast milk? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðnext Module Mn27. What Was (name) given to drink? Probe: anything else? Milk (other than breast milk) .a Plain water . B sugar or glucose water . c homemade anti-colic (cramp) solution .d sugar and salt water solution .e fruit juice .f infant formula .g tea / herbal infusion .h honey .i other (specify) . X Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 203202 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 IllneSS SYMptoMS Il is1. Check Household Member Listing Form, column HL9 in the Household Questionnaire Is the respondent the mother or caretaker of any child under the age of 5? ¨ Yes ð Continue with IS2. ¨ Noð Go to Next Module. is2. sometimes children have severe illnesses and should be taken immediately to a health facility. What types of symptoms Would cause you to take your child to a health facility right aWay? Probe: any other symptoms? Keep asking for more signs or symptoms until the mother/ caretaker cannot recall any additional symptoms. Circle all symptoms mentioned, but do NOT prompt with any suggestions child not able to drink or breastfeed .a child becomes sicker . B child develops a fever . c child has fast breathing .d child has difficulties breathing .e child has blood in his/her stool .f child is drinking poorly .g other (specify) . X other (specify) . Y other (specify) . Z ContRACeptIon Cp CP0. i Would like to talk With you about another subject – family planning. couples use different Ways or methods in order to postpone or avoid pregnancy. have you heard of : [a] female sterilisation? Probe: an operation Women undertake in order to avoid pregnancy. [b] male sterilisation? Probe: an operation men undertake in order to avoid pregnancy. [c] iud? Probe: Women can have a coil placed inside the uterus by a doctor. [d] injectibles? Probe: Women can receive injections that have an effect on their hormones and prevent pregnancy over a period of a feW months. [e] implants? Probe: Women can have one or more small implants (rods) implanted in their upper arm by a doctor that prevent pregnancy for a number of years. [f] pill? Probe: Women can take pills on an everyday basis to avoid getting pregnant. [g] male condom? Probe: men can put a rubber cover on their penis before or during sexual intercourse. [h] female condom? probe: Women can put a cover inside their vagina before sexual intercourse. [i] diaphragm? Probe: Women can insert a soft rubber cup in their vagina to block the sperm from entering their uterus or fallopian tubes. [j] foam / jelly? Probe: Women may use spermicidal products (e.g. foam, jelly, cream) that can kill or prevent the sperm from moving and reaching the egg. [k] lactational amenorrhoea method (lam)? [l] periodic abstinence / rhythm method? Probe: the Woman can avoid pregnancy by not having sexual intercourse during fertile days in the month, i.e. days she is most likely to get pregnant. [m] WithdraWal? Probe: men can pull out directly before ejaculating. [n] emergency / postcoital contraception? Probe: as an emergency measure, Within a period of 3 days, after having unprotected sexual intercourse, Women can take special pills to prevent pregnancy. [x] have you heard of any other Ways or methods that men or Women can utilise in order to avoid pregnancy? Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 no . 2 Yes . 1 ___________________________ (specify) ___________________________ (specify) no . 2 Cp1. are you pregnant noW? Yes, currently pregnant . 1 no . 2 unsure or dK . 8 1ðnext Module Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 205204 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 Cp2. as We mentioned earlier, couples use various Ways or methods to delay or avoid a pregnancy. are you currently doing something or using any method to delay or avoid pregnancy? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðnext Module Cp3. What are you doing to delay or avoid a pregnancy? Do not prompt. If more than one method is mentioned, circle each one. female sterilisation .a Male sterilisation. B iud . c injectables .d implants .e Pill .f Male condom .g female condom .h diaphragm .i foam / Jelly . J lactational amenorrhoea method (laM) . K Periodic abstinence / rhythm .l withdrawal .M other (specify) ________________________________ X unMet need un un1. Check CP1. Is the respondent currently pregnant? ¨ Yes, currently pregnant ð Continue with UN2 ¨ No, unsure or DK ð Go to UN5 un2. noW i Would like to talk to you about your current pregnancy. When you got pregnant, did you Want to get pregnant at that time? Yes . 1 no . 2 1ðun4 un3. did you Want to have a baby later on or did you not Want any (more) children? later . 1 no more children . 2 un4. noW i Would like to ask some Questions about the future. after the child you are noW expecting, Would you like to have another child or Would you prefer not to have any more children? have another child . 1 no more . 2 undecided / don’t know. 8 1ðun7 2ðun13 8ðun13 un5. Check CP3. Is the respondent currently using “Female sterilisation”? ¨ Yes ð Go to UN13 ¨ No ð Continue with UN6 un6. noW i Would like to ask you some Questions about the future. Would you like to have (another) a child, or Would you prefer not to have any (more) children? have (another) a child . 1 no more / none . 2 says she cannot get pregnant . 3 undecided / don’t know. 8 2ðun9 3ðun11 8ðun9 un7. hoW long Would you like to Wait before the birth of (another) a child? Months .1 __ __ Years .2 __ __ soon / now . 993 says she cannot get pregnant . 994 after marriage . 995 other . 996 don’t know . 998 994ðun11 un8. Check CP1. Is the respondent currently pregnant? ¨ Yes, currently pregnant ð Go to UN13 ¨ No, unsure or DK ð Continue with UN9 un9. Check CP2. Is the respondent currently using a contraceptive method? ¨ Yes ð Go to UN13 ¨ No ð Continue with UN10 un10. do you think you are physically able to get pregnant at this time? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 1 ðun13 8 ðun13 un11. Why do you think you are not physically able to get pregnant? infrequent or no sex .a Menopausal . B never menstruated . c hysterectomy (surgical removal of uterus) .d has been trying to get pregnant for 2 years or more without result .e Postpartum amenorrhea .f still breastfeeding .g too old .h fatalistic .i other (specify) . X don’t know . Z un12. Check UN11. “Never menstruated” mentioned? ¨ Mentioned ð Go to Next Module ¨ Not mentioned ð Continue with UN13 un13. When did your last menstrual period start? days ago .1 __ __ weeks ago .2 __ __ Months ago .3 __ __ Years ago .4 __ __ in menopause / has had a hysterectomy . 994 Before last birth . 995 never menstruated . 996 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 207206 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 AttItudeS towARd doMeStIC VIolenCe dV dV1. sometimes a husband becomes annoyed or gets angry at things that his Wife does. in your opinion, is a husband justified in hitting or beating his Wife in the folloWing situations: [a] if she goes out Without telling him? [b] if she neglects the children? [c] if she argues With him? [d] if she refuses to have sex With him? [e] if she burns the food? Yes no dK goes out without telling him . 1 2 8 neglects the children . 1 2 8 argues with him. 1 2 8 refuses sex . 1 2 8 Burns the food . 1 2 8 MARRIAGe/unIon MA Ma1. are you currently married or living together With a man as if married? Yes, currently married . 1 Yes, living with a man . 2 no, not married . 3 3ðMa5 Ma2. hoW old is your husband/partner? Probe: hoW old Was your husband/partner on his last birthday? age in years . __ __ dK .98 Ma2a. Check cluster number in WM1. ¨ If the cluster number is from 001-474 (Mainstream survey) ð Go to MA7 ¨ If the cluster number is from 501-562 (Roma survey) ð Continue with MA3. Ma3. besides yourself, does your husband/partner have any other Wives or partners or does he live With other Women as if married? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMa7 Ma4. hoW many other Wives or partners does he have? number . __ __ dK .98 ðMa7 98ðMa7 Ma5. have you ever been married or lived together With a man as if married? Yes, formerly married . 1 Yes, formerly lived with a man . 2 no . 3 3 ðnext Module Ma6. What is your marital status noW: are you WidoWed, divorced or separated? widowed . 1 divorced . 2 separated . 3 Ma7. have you been married or lived With a man only once or more than once? only once . 1 More than once . 2 Ma8. in What month and year did you first marry or start living With a man as if married? date of first marriage Month . __ __ dK month .98 Year .__ __ __ __ dK year .9998 ðnext Module Ma9. hoW old Were you When you started living With your first husband/partner? age in years . __ __ SeXuAl BeHAVIouR SB Check for the presence of others. Before continuing, ensure you are alone with the respondent. sB1. noW i Would like to ask you some Questions about sexual activity in order to get a better understanding of some important life issues. the information you provide Will remain strictly confidential. hoW old Were you When you had sexual intercourse for the very first time? never had intercourse .00 age in years . __ __ had intercourse for the first time when started living with (first) husband/partner .95 00ðnext Module sB2. the first time you had sexual intercourse, Was a condom used? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK / don’t remember . 8 sB3. When Was the last time you had sexual intercourse? Record ‘years ago’ only if last intercourse was one or more years ago. If 12 months or more the answer must be recorded in years. days ago .1 __ __ weeks ago .2 __ __ Months ago .3 __ __ Years ago .4 __ __ 4ðsB15 sB4. the last time you had sexual intercourse, Was a condom used? Yes . 1 no . 2 sB5. What Was your relationship to the person you last had sexual intercourse With? Probe to ensure that the response refers to the relationship at the time of sexual intercourse. If “boyfriend”, then ask: Were you living together as if married? If response is “yes”, circle ‘2’. If response is “no”, circle‘3’. husband . 1 cohabiting partner . 2 Boyfriend . 3 casual acquaintance . 4 other (specify) . 6 3 ðsB7 4 ðsB7 6 ðsB7 sB6. Check MA1: ¨ Currently married or living with a man as if married (MA1 = 1 or 2) ð Go to SB8 ¨ Not married / Not in union (MA1 = 3) ð Continue with SB7 sB7. hoW old is this person? If response is DK, probe: about hoW old is this person? age of sexual partner . __ __ dK .98 sB8. have you had sexual intercourse With any other person in the last 12 months? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðsB15 sB9. the last time you had sexual intercourse With this other person, Was a condom used? Yes . 1 no . 2 SB10. What Was your relationship to this person? Probe to ensure that the response refers to the relationship at the time of sexual intercourse If “boyfriend” then ask: were you living together as if married? If “yes”, circle ‘2’. If “no”, circle ‘3’. husband . 1 cohabiting partner . 2 Boyfriend . 3 casual acquaintance . 4 other (specify) . 6 3 ðsB12 4 ðsB12 6 ðsB12 sB11. Check MA1 and MA7: ¨ Currently married or living with a man (MA1 = 1 or 2) AND Married only once or lived with a man only once (MA7 = 1) ð Go to SB13 ¨ Else ð Continue with SB12 SB12. hoW old is this person? If response is DK, probe: about how old is this person? age of sexual partner . __ __ dK .98 SB13. in the last 12 months, have you had sexual intercourse With any other person, other than these tWo persons? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðsB15 SB14. in total, With hoW many different people have you had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months? number of partners . __ __ SB15. in total, With hoW many different people have you had sexual intercourse in your lifetime? If a non-numeric answer is given, probe to get an estimate. If number of partners is 95 or more, write ‘95’. number of lifetime partners . __ __ dK .98 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 209208 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 HIV/AIdS HA Ha1. noW i Would like to talk With you about something else. have you ever heard of the hiv virus or an illness called aids (or sida)? Yes . 1 no . 2 2 ðnext Module Ha2. can people reduce their chance of getting the virus that causes aids by having just one uninfected sex partner Who has no other sex partners? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Ha3. can people get the virus that causes aids because of Witchcraft or other supernatural means? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Ha4. can people reduce their chance of getting the virus that causes aids by using a condom every time they have sex? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Ha5. can people get the virus that causes aids from mosQuito bites? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Ha6. can people get the virus that causes aids by sharing food With a person Who has aids? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Ha7. is it possible for a healthy-looking person to have the virus that causes aids? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Ha8. can the virus that causes aids be transmitted from a mother to her baby: [a] during pregnancy? [b] during delivery? [c] by breastfeeding? Yes no dK during pregnancy . 1 2 8 during delivery . 1 2 8 By breastfeeding . 1 2 8 Ha9. in your opinion, if a female teacher has the virus that causes aids but is not sick, should she be alloWed to continue teaching in school? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK / not sure / depends . 8 Ha10. Would you buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or salesperson if you kneW that this person had the virus that causes aids? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK / not sure / depends . 8 Ha11. if a member of your family got infected With the virus that causes aids, Would you Want it to remain a secret? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK / not sure / depends . 8 Ha12. if a member of your family became sick With aids, Would you be Willing to care for him or her in your oWn household? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK / not sure / depends . 8 HA13. Check CM13: Did the respondent have any live births in last 2 years? ¨ No live birth in last 2 years ð Go to HA24 ¨ One or more live births in last 2 years ð Continue with HA14 HA14. Check MN1: Did the respondent receive antenatal care? ¨ Yes, received antenatal care ð Continue with HA15 ¨ No, did not receive antenatal care ð Go to HA24 ha15. during any of the visits as part of antenatal care for your pregnancy With (name), Were you given any information about: [a] babies contracting the virus that causes aids from their mother? [b] things that you can do to prevent getting the virus that causes aids? [c] getting tested for the virus that causes aids? Were you: [d] offered a test for the virus that causes aids? Y n dK contracting virus that causes aids from the mother . 1 2 8 what things can be done . 1 2 8 tested for virus that causes aids . 1 2 8 offered a test . 1 2 8 Ha16. i don’t Want to knoW the results, but Were you tested for the virus that causes aids as part of your antenatal care (pregnancy checks)? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðha19 8ðha19 Ha17. i don’t Want to knoW the results, but did you get the results of the test? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðha22 8ðha22 HA18. regardless of the result, all Women Who are tested are supposed to receive counselling / attend consultations after getting the result. after you Were tested, did you receive counselling / attend consultations? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 1ðha22 2ðha22 8ðha22 HA19. Check MN17: Was the birth delivered by a health professional (A or B)? ¨ Yes, birth delivered by a health professional ð Continue with HA20 ¨ No, birth not delivered by a health professional ð Go to HA24 Ha20. i don’t Want to knoW the results, but Were you tested for the virus that causes aids betWeen the time you Went for delivery but before the baby Was born? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðha24 Ha21. i don’t Want to knoW the results, but did you get the results of the test? Yes . 1 no . 2 Ha22. have you been tested for the virus that causes aids since that time you Were tested during your pregnancy? Yes . 1 no . 2 1ðha25 Ha23. When Was the most recent time you Were tested for the virus that causes aids? less than 12 months ago. 1 12-23 months ago . 2 2 or more years ago . 3 1ðnext Module 2ðnext Module 3ðnext Module Ha24. i don’t Want to knoW the results, but have you ever been tested to see if you have the virus that causes aids? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðha27 Ha25. When Was the most recent time you Were tested? less than 12 months ago. 1 12-23 months ago . 2 2 or more years ago . 3 Ha26. i don’t Want to knoW the results, but did you get the results of the test? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 1ðnext Module 2ðnext Module 8ðnext Module Ha27. do you knoW of a place Where people can go to get tested for the virus that causes aids? Yes . 1 no . 2 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 211210 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 toBACCo And AlCoHol uSe ta ta1. have you ever tried smoking cigarettes, even taking one or tWo puffs? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðta6 ta2. hoW old Were you When you smoked an entire cigarette for the first time? never smoked a whole cigarette .00 age. ___ ___ 00ðta6 ta3. do you currently smoke cigarettes? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðta6 ta4. hoW many cigarettes did you smoke in the last 24 hours? number of cigarettes . ___ ___ ta5. on hoW many days did you smoke cigarettes during the last month? If less than 10 days, record the number of days. If 10 days or more but less than a month, circle ‘10’. If “everyday” or “almost every day”, circle ‘30’. number of days . 0 ___ 10 days or more but less than a month .10 every day / almost every day .30 ta6. have you ever tried any smoked tobacco products other than cigarettes, such as cigars (e.g. cuban), a pipe or Waterpipe (narghile/ hookah)? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðta10 ta7. during the last month, did you use any smoked tobacco products? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðta10 ta8. What type of smoked tobacco product did you use or smoke during the last month? Circle all mentioned responses. cigars .a water pipe . B cigarillos . c Pipe .d other (specify) ________________________________ X ta9. on hoW many days did you use smoked tobacco products during the last month? If less than 10 days, record the number of days. If 10 days or more but less than a month, circle ‘10’. If “every day” or “almost every day”, circle ‘30’. number of days . 0 ___ 10 days or more but less than a month .10 every day / almost every day .30 ta10. have you ever tried any form of smokeless tobacco products, such as cheWing tobacco, tobacco for sniffing (snuff) or dipping tobacco? Yes . 1 no . 2 2 ðta14 ta11. did you use any smokeless tobacco products during the last month? Yes . 1 no . 2 2 ðta14 ta12. What type of smokeless tobacco product did you use during the last month? Circle all mentioned. chewing tobacco .a snuff . B dip . c other (specify) ________________________________ X ta13. on hoW many days did you use smokeless tobacco products during the last month? If less than 10 days, record the number of days. If 10 days or more but less than a month, circle ‘10’. If “every day” or “almost every day”, circle ‘30’. number of days . 0 ___ 10 days or more but less than a month .10 every day / almost every day .30 ta14. noW i Would like to ask you some Questions about drinking alcohol. have you ever drunk alcohol? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðnext Module ta15. We count one drink of alcohol as one can or bottle of beer, one glass of Wine, or one shot of strong drink. hoW old Were you When you had your first drink of alcohol, other than a feW sips? never had one drink of alcohol .00 age. ___ ___ 00ðnext Module ta16. during the last month, on hoW many days did you have at least one drink of alcohol? If respondent did not drink, circle ‘00’. If less than 10 days, record the number of days. If 10 days or more but less than a month, circle ‘10’. If “every day” or “almost every day”, circle ‘30’. did not have one drink in last month .00 number of days . 0 ___ 10 days or more but less than a month .10 every day / almost every day .30 00ðnext Module ta17. in the last month, on those days that you drank alcohol, What is the number of drinks did you usually had? number of drinks. ___ ___ lIFe SAtISFACtIon lS Ls1. Check WB2: Is the respondent aged between 15 and 24? ¨ Age 25-49 ð Go to Next Module ¨ Age 15-24 ð Continue with LS2 Ls2. i Would like to ask you some simple Questions on happiness and satisfaction. first, taking all things together, Would you say you are very happy, happy, neither happy nor unhappy, unhappy or very unhappy? you can also look at these pictures to help you respond. Show side 1 of the showcard to the respondent and explain what each symbol represents. Circle the response code selected by the respondent. very happy . 1 happy . 2 neither happy nor unhappy . 3 unhappy . 4 very unhappy. 5 Ls3. noW i Will ask you Questions about your level of satisfaction in different areas of your life. in each case, We have five possible responses: please tell me, for each Question, Whether you are very satisfied, satisfied, neither satisfied nor unsatisfied, unsatisfied or very unsatisfied. again, you can look at these pictures to help you respond. Show side 2 of the showcard to the respondent and explain what each symbol represents. For questions LS3 to LS13, circle the response code shown by the respondent. hoW satisfied are you With your family life? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 Ls4. hoW satisfied are you With your friendships? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 Ls5. during the current (2011-2012) school/academic year, did you attend school/university at any time? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðls7 Ls6. hoW satisfied are you With your school/university? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 Ls7. hoW satisfied are you With your current job? If the respondent says that he/she does not have a job, circle ‘0’ and continue with the next question. Do not ask additional questions to find out how she feels about not having a job, unless she tells you herself. does not have a job . 0 very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 Ls8. hoW satisfied are you With your health? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 Ls9. hoW satisfied are you With Where you live? If necessary, explain that the question refers to the living environment, including the neighbourhood and the dwelling. very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 213212 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 Ls10. hoW satisfied are you With hoW people around you generally treat you? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 Ls11. hoW satisfied are you With the Way you look? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 Ls12. hoW satisfied are you With your life, overall? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 Ls13. hoW satisfied are you With your current income? If the respondent responds that he/she does not have any income, circle ‘0’ and continue with the next question. Do not ask additional questions to find out how she feels about not having any income, unless she tells you herself. does not have any income . 0 very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 Ls14. compared to this time last year, Would you say that your life has improved, stayed more or less the same, or Worsened, overall? improved . 1 More or less the same . 2 worsened . 3 Ls15. and in one year from noW, do you expect that your life Will be better, Will be more or less the same, or Will be Worse, overall? Better . 1 More or less the same . 2 worse . 3 HeAltH CARe He He0. Check cluster number in WM1. ¨ If the cluster number is from 001-474 (Mainstream survey) ð Go to WM11 ¨ If the cluster number is from 501-562 (Roma survey)ð Continue with HE1. He1. do you have a health booklet? Yes . 1 no . 2 He2. do you have health insurance? Yes . 1 no . 2 1ð he9 He3. do you use health care services at the health centre? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ð he5 He4. are you provided With health care services at the nearest health centre of charge? Yes . 1 no . 2 He5. do you use health care services at the hospital? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ð he7 He6. are you provided With health care services at the nearest hospital free of charge? Yes . 1 no . 2 He7. do you use emergency health care services? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ð he9 He8. are you provided With emergency health care services free of charge? Yes . 1 no . 2 He9. do you pay all necessary health care services and medication? Yes . 1 sometimes yes, sometimes no . 2 no . 3 1ð wM11 He10. do you pay only vital/urgently needed health care services and medications? Yes . 1 no . 2 1ð wM11 He11. can you afford medications Without one-off financial assistance? Yes . 1 no . 2 wM11. Record the interview end time. hour and minutes .__ __ : __ __ wM12. Check the Household Member Listing Form, column HL9 in the Household Questionnaire. Is the respondent the mother or caretaker of any child aged 0-4 living in this household? ¨ Yes ð Go to QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE for that child and start the interview with the same respondent. ¨ No ð End the interview with this respondent by thanking her for her cooperation. Check for the presence of any other eligible women, men or children under-5 in the household. Interviewer’s observations Controller’s observations Supervisor’s observations Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 215214 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 Showcards were used to help respondents answer questions for the ‘Life Satisfaction’ module (LS) and the ‘Life Satisfaction’ module (MLS) contained in the Questionnaire for Women Aged 15-49 and the Questionnaire for Men Aged 15-49, respectively. SIde 1: SHowCARd lS 1 / MlS 1 Very happy Happy neither happy, nor unhappy unhappy Very unhappy side 2: sHoWCard Ls 2 / MLs 2 Very satisfied Satisfied neither satisfied, nor unsatisfied unsatisfied Very unsatisfied QueStIonnAIRe FoR Men AGed 15 to 49 [BiH] MAn’S InFoRMAtIon pAnel MwM This questionnaire is to be administered to all men age 15 through 49 (see Household Member Listing Form, column HL7A in the Household Questionnaire). A separate questionnaire should be used for each eligible man. MwM1. cluster number: ___ ___ ___ MwM2. household number: ___ ___ ___ MwM3. Man’s name: name _________________________________________ MwM4. Man’s line number: ___ ___ MwM5. interviewer name and code: name ______________________________ ___ ___ ___ MwM6. day / Month / Year of interview: ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ Repeat greeting if not already read to this man: We are from the Ministry of HuMan rigHts and refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina. We are conducting a survey concerned With family health and education. i Would like to talk to you about these subjects. the intervieW Will take up to 20 minutes. all the information We obtain Will remain strictly confidential. If greeting at the beginning of the household questionnaire has already been read to this man, then read the following: noW i Would like to talk to you more about your health and other topics. this intervieW Will take up to 20 minutes. again, all the information We obtain Will remain strictly confidential. may i start noW? ¨ Yes, permission given ð Go to MWM10 to record the time and then begin the interview. ¨ No, permission not given ð Complete MWM7. Inform your supervisor of this result. MwM7. result of man’s interview Questionnaire completed .01 respondent not at home .02 refused .03 Questionnaire partly completed .04 respondent incapacitated .05 other (specify) . 96 MwM8. control carried out by (name and number): name ____________________________ ___ ___ ___ MwM9. data entry operator (name and number): name _____________________________ ___ ___ ___ Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 217216 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 MWM10. Record the interview start time. hour and minutes .__ __ : __ __ MAn’S BACKGRound MwB MWB1. in What month and year Were you born? date of birth Month . __ __ dK month .98 Year .__ __ __ __ dK year .9998 MWB2. hoW old are you? Probe: hoW old Were you on your last birthday? Compare MWB1 and/or MWB2 and correct if inconsistent. age (in completed years) . __ __ MWB3. have you ever attended school or a preschool institution? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMwB7 MWB4. What is the highest education level you attended? Preschool . 0 Primary . 1 secondary . 2 higher . 3 0ðMwB7 MWB5. What is the highest grade/year you completed at that level? If less than 1 grade, enter ‘00’. grade/year . __ __ MwB6. Check MWB4: ¨ Secondary or higher. ð Go to Next Module ¨ Primary ð Continue with MWB7 MwB7. noW i Would like you to read this sentence to me. Show the sentence on the card to the respondent. If the respondent cannot read the whole sentence, probe: Can you read part of the sentence to me? cannot read at all . 1 able to read only parts of the sentence . 2 able to read the whole sentence . 3 the sentence isn’t written in a language understood by the respondent _____________________________________________4 (specify language) Blind / mute, visually / speech impaired . 5 ACCeSS to MASS MedIA And uSe oF InFoRMAtIon/CoMMunICAtIon teCHnoloGY MMt MMt1. Check MWB7: ¨ Question left blank (Respondent has secondary or more education) ð Continue with MMT2 ¨ Able to read or no sentence available in required language (codes 2, 3 or 4) ð Continue with MMT2 ¨ Cannot read at all or blind/mute, etc. (codes 1 or 5) ð Go to MMT3 MMt2. hoW often do you read a neWspaper or magazine: almost every day, at least once a Week, less than once a Week or not at all? almost every day . 1 at least once a week . 2 less than once a week . 3 not at all . 4 MMt3. do you listen to the radio almost every day, at least once a Week, less than once a Week or not at all? almost every day . 1 at least once a week . 2 less than once a week . 3 not at all . 4 MMt4. hoW often do you Watch television: Would you say that you Watch tv almost every day, at least once a Week, less than once a Week or not at all? almost every day . 1 at least once a week . 2 less than once a week . 3 not at all . 4 MMt5. Check MWB2: Is the respondent aged 15-24 years? ¨ Yes, age 15-24 ð Continue with MMT6 ¨ No, age 25-49 ð Go to Next Module MMt6. have you ever used a computer? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMMt9 MMt7. in the last 12 months, have you used a computer from any location? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMMt9 MMt8. during the last month, hoW often did you use a computer: almost every day, at least once a Week, less than once a Week or not at all? almost every day . 1 at least once a week . 2 less than once a week . 3 not at all . 4 MMt9. have you ever used the internet? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðnext Module MMt10. in the last 12 months, have you used the internet? If necessary, probe for use of Internet from any location, with any device, etc. Yes . 1 no . 2 2ð next Module MMt11. during the last month, hoW often did you use the internet: almost every day, at least once a Week, less than once a Week or not at all? almost every day . 1 at least once a week . 2 less than once a week . 3 not at all . 4 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 219218 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 CHIld MoRtAlItY MCM MCM0. Check cluster number in MWM1. ¨ If the cluster number is from 001-474 (Mainstream survey) ð Go to Next Module ¨ If the cluster number is from 501-562 (Roma survey)ð Continue with MCM1. All questions refer only to LIVE births. MCM1. noW i Would like to ask about all the children you have had in your lifetime. i am interested in all of the children that are biologically yours, even if they are not legally yours or do not have your last name. have you had any biological children With any Woman? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðMcM8 8ðMcM8 MCM3. hoW old Were you When your (first) child Was born? age in years . __ __ MCM4. do you have any biological sons or daughters Who are noW living With you? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMcM6 MCM5. hoW many sons live With you? hoW many daughters live With you? If none, record ‘00’. number of sons at home . __ __ number of daughters at home. __ __ MCM6. do you have any biological sons or daughters Who are alive but do not live With you? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMcM8 MCM7. hoW many sons are alive but do not live With you? hoW many daughters are alive but do not live With you? If none, record ‘00’. sons living elsewhere . __ __ daughters living elsewhere . __ __ MCM8. have you had a biological son or daughter Who Was born alive but later died? If “No” probe by asking additional question: i mean, a child Who ever breathed or cried or shoWed other signs of life – even if he or she lived only a feW minutes or hours? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMcM10 MCM9. hoW many boys have died? hoW many girls have died? If none, record ‘00’. Boys dead . __ __ girls dead . __ __ MCM10. Sum answers to questions MCM5, MCM7 and MCM9. sum . __ __ MCM11. just to make sure that i have noted this correctly, in total you have been the biological father of (total number in MCM10) live-born children during your life. is this correct? ¨ Yes. Check and note below: ¨ No live-born children ð Go to Next Module ¨ One or more live-born children ð Continue with MCM11A ¨ No ð Check responses to MCM1-MCM10 and make corrections as necessary. MCM11A. did all the biological children you have, have the same biological mother? Yes . 1 no . 2 1ðMcM12 MCM11B. in all, hoW many Women have you had biological children With? number of women. __ __ MCM12. of these (total number in MCM10) biological children, When Was the last one born (even if he or she has died)? Month and year must be recorded. date of last birth day . __ __ dK day .98 Month . __ __ Year .__ __ __ __ AttItudeS towARd doMeStIC VIolenCe MdV MdV1. sometimes a husband becomes annoyed or gets angry at things that his Wife does. in your opinion, is a husband justified in hitting or beating his Wife in the folloWing situations: [a] if she goes out Without telling him? [b] if she neglects the children? [c] if she argues With him? [d] if she refuses to have sex With him? [e] if she burns the food? Yes no dK goes out without telling him . 1 2 8 neglects the children . 1 2 8 argues with him. 1 2 8 refuses sex . 1 2 8 Burns the food . 1 2 8 Marriage/union MMA MMa1. are you currently married or living together With a Woman as if married? Yes, currently married . 1 Yes, living with a woman . 2 no, not married . 3 3ðMMa5 MMa2. hoW old is your Wife/partner? Probe: hoW old Was your Wife/partner on her last birthday? age in years . __ __ dK .98 MMa2a. check cluster number in mWm1. ¨ if the cluster number is from 001-474 (mainstream survey)ð go to mma7. ¨ if the cluster number is from 501-562 (roma survey) ð continue With mma3. MMa3. do you have other Wives or do you live With other Women as if married? Yes (More than one) . 1 no (only one) . 2 2ðMMa7 MMa4. hoW many other Wives or live-in partners do you have? number . __ __ ðMMa7 MMa5. have you ever been married or lived together With a Woman as if married? Yes, formerly married . 1 Yes, formerly lived in with a woman . 2 no . 3 3 ðnext Module MMa6. What is your marital status noW: are you WidoWed, divorced or separated? widowed . 1 divorced . 2 separated . 3 MMa7. have you been married or lived With a Woman only once or more than once? only once . 1 More than once . 2 MMa8. in What month and year did you first marry or start living With a Woman as if married? date of first marriage Month . __ __ dK month .98 Year .__ __ __ __ dK year .9998 ðnext Module MMa9. hoW old Were you When you started living With your first Wife/partner? age in years . __ __ Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 221220 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 SeXuAl BeHAVIouR MSB Check for the presence of others. Before continuing, ensure you are alone with the respondent. MsB1. noW i Would like to ask you some Questions about sexual activity in order to get a better understanding of some important life issues. the information you provide Will remain strictly confidential. hoW old Were you When you had sexual intercourse for the very first time? never had intercourse .00 age in years . __ __ had intercourse for the first time when started living with (first) wife/partner .95 00ðnext Module MsB2. the first time you had sexual intercourse, Was a condom used? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK / don’t remember . 8 MsB3. When Was the last time you had sexual intercourse? record ‘years ago’ only if last intercourse Was one or more years ago. if 12 months or more the ansWer must be recorded in years. days ago .1 __ __ weeks ago .2 __ __ Months ago .3 __ __ Years ago .4 __ __ 4ðMsB15 MsB4. the last time you had sexual intercourse, Was a condom used? Yes . 1 no . 2 MsB5. What Was your relationship to the person you last had sexual intercourse With? Probe to ensure that the response refers to the relationship at the time of sexual intercourse. If “girlfriend”, then ask: Were you living together as if married? If response is “yes”, circle ‘2’. If response is “no”, circle‘3’. wife . 1 cohabiting partner . 2 girlfriend . 3 casual acquaintance . 4 sex worker . 5 other (specify) . 6 3ðMsB7 4ðMsB7 5ðMsB7 6ðMsB7 MSB6. Check MMA1: ¨ Currently married or living as if married with a woman (MMA1 = 1 or 2) ð Go to MSB8 ¨ Not married / Not in a union (MMA1 = 3) ð Continue with MSB7 MsB7. hoW old is this person? If response is DK, probe: about hoW old is this person? age of sexual partner . __ __ dK .98 MsB8. have you had sexual intercourse With any other person in the last 12 months? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMsB15 MsB9. the last time you had sexual intercourse With this other person, Was a condom used? Yes . 1 no . 2 MsB10. What Was your relationship to this person? Probe to ensure that the response refers to the relationship at the time of sexual intercourse If “girlfriend” then ask: Were you living together as if married? If “yes”, circle ‘2’. If “no”, circle ‘3’. wife . 1 cohabiting partner . 2 girlfriend . 3 casual acquaintance . 4 sex worker . 5 other (specify) . 6 3ðMsB12 4ðMsB12 5ðMsB12 6ðMsB12 MSB11. Check MMA1 and MMA7: ¨ Currently married or living with a woman (MMA1 = 1 or 2) AND Married only once or lived with a woman only once (MMA7 = 1) ð Go to MSB13 ¨ Else ð Continue with MSB12 MsB12. hoW old is this person? If response is DK, probe: about hoW old is this person? age of sexual partner . __ __ dK .98 MsB13. in the last 12 months, have you had sexual intercourse With any other person, other than these tWo persons? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMsB15 MsB14. in total, With hoW many different people have you had sexual intercourse in the last 12 months? number of partners . __ __ MsB15. in total, With hoW many different people have you had sexual intercourse in your lifetime? If a non-numeric answer is given, probe to get an estimate. If number of partners is 95 or more, write ‘95’. number of lifetime partners . __ __ dK .98 Hiv/aids MHA MHa1. noW i Would like to talk With you about something else. have you ever heard of the hiv virus or an illness called aids (or sida)? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ð next Module MHa2. can people reduce their chance of getting the virus that causes aids by having just one uninfected sex partner Who has no other sex partners? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 MHa3. can people get the virus that causes aids because of Witchcraft or other supernatural means? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 MHa4. can people reduce their chance of getting the virus that causes aids by using a condom every time they have sex? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 MHa5. can people get the virus that causes aids from mosQuito bites? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 MHa6. can people get the virus that causes aids by sharing food With a person Who has aids? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 MHa7. is it possible for a healthy-looking person to have the virus that causes aids? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 MHa8. can the virus that causes aids be transmitted from a mother to her baby: [a] during pregnancy? [b] during delivery? [c] by breastfeeding? Yes no dK during pregnancy . 1 2 8 during delivery . 1 2 8 By breastfeeding . 1 2 8 MHa9. in your opinion, if a female teacher has the virus that causes aids but is not sick, should she be alloWed to continue teaching in school? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK / not sure / depends . 8 MHa10. Would you buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or salesperson if you kneW that this person had the virus that causes aids? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK / not sure / depends . 8 MHa11. if a member of your family got infected With the virus that causes aids, Would you Want it to remain a secret? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK / not sure / depends . 8 MHa12. if a member of your family became sick With aids, Would you be Willing to care for him or her in your oWn household? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK / not sure / depends . 8 MHa24. i don’t Want to knoW the results, but have you ever been tested to see if you have the virus that causes aids? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMha27 MHA25. When Was the most recent time you Were tested? less than 12 months ago. 1 12-23 months ago . 2 2 or more years ago . 3 MHA26. i don’t Want to knoW the results, but did you get the results of this test? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 1ðnext Module 2ðnext Module 8ðnext Module MHA27. do you knoW of a place Where people can go to get tested for the virus that causes aids? Yes . 1 no . 2 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 223222 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 toBaCCo and aLCoHoL use Mta Mta1. have you ever tried smoking cigarettes, even taking one or tWo puffs? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMta6 Mta2. hoW old Were you When you smoked an entire cigarette for the first time? never smoked a whole cigarette .00 age. ___ ___ 00ðMta6 Mta3. do you currently smoke cigarettes? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMta6 Mta4. hoW many cigarettes did you smoke during the last month? number of cigarettes . ___ ___ Mta5. during the last month, on hoW many days did you smoke cigarettes? If less than 10 days, record the number of days. If 10 days or more but less than a month, circle ‘10’. If “everyday” or “almost every day”, circle ‘30’. number of days . 0 ___ 10 days or more but less than a month .10 everyday / almost every day .30 Mta6. have you ever tried any smoked tobacco products other than cigarettes, such as cigars (e.g. cuban), a pipe or Waterpipe (narghile/ hookah)? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMta10 Mta7. during the last month, did you use any smoked tobacco products? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMta10 Mta8. What type of smoked tobacco product did you use or smoke during the last month? Circle all mentioned responses. cigars .a water pipe . B cigarillos . c Pipe .d other (specify) ________________________________ X Mta9. on hoW many days did you use smoked tobacco products during the last month? If less than 10 days, record the number of days. If 10 days or more but less than a month, circle ‘10’. If “everyday” or “almost every day”, circle ‘30’. number of days . 0 ___ 10 days or more but less than a month .10 everyday / almost every day .30 Mta10. have you ever tried any form of smokeless tobacco products, such as cheWing tobacco, tobacco for sniffing (snuff) or dipping tobacco? Yes . 1 no . 2 2 ðMta14 Mta11. did you use any smokeless tobacco products during the last month? Yes . 1 no . 2 2 ðMta14 Mta12. What type of smokeless tobacco product did you use during the last month? Circle all mentioned. chewing tobacco .a snuff . B dip . c other (specify) ________________________________ X Mta13. on hoW many days did you use smokeless tobacco products during the last month? If less than 10 days, record the number of days. If 10 days or more but less than a month, circle ‘10’. If “everyday” or “almost every day”, circle ‘30’. number of days . 0 ___ 10 days or more but less than a month .10 everyday / almost every day .30 Mta14. noW i Would like to ask you some Questions about drinking alcohol. have you ever drunk alcohol? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðnext Module Mta15. We count one drink of alcohol as one can or bottle of beer, one glass of Wine, or one shot of strong drink. hoW old Were you When you had your first drink of alcohol, not counting a feW sips? never had one drink of alcohol .00 age. ___ ___ 00ðnext Module Mta16. during the last month, on hoW many days did you have at least one drink of alcohol? If respondent did not drink, circle ‘00’. If less than 10 days, record the number of days. If 10 days or more but less than a month, circle ‘10’. If “everyday” or “almost every day”, circle ‘30’. did not have one drink in last month .00 number of days . 0 ___ 10 days or more but less than a month .10 everyday / almost every day .30 00ðnext Module Mta17. in the last month, on those days that you drank alcohol, What is the number of drinks did you usually had? number of drinks. ___ ___ lIFe SAtISFACtIon MlS MlS1. Check MWB2: Is the respondent aged between 15 and 24? ¨ Age 25-49 ð Go to Next Module ¨ Age 15-24 ð Continue with MLS2 MLs2. i Would like to ask you some simple Questions on happiness and satisfaction. first, taking all things together, Would you say you are very happy, happy, neither happy nor unhappy, unhappy or very unhappy? you can also look at these pictures to help you respond. Show side 1 of the showcard to the respondent and explain what each symbol represents. Circle the response code selected by the respondent. very happy . 1 happy . 2 neither happy nor unhappy . 3 unhappy . 4 very unhappy. 5 MLs3. noW i Will ask you Questions about your level of satisfaction in different areas of your life. in each case, We have five possible responses: please tell me, for each Question, Whether you are very satisfied, satisfied, neither satisfied nor unsatisfied, unsatisfied or very unsatisfied. again, you can look at these pictures to help you respond. Show side 2 of the showcard to the respondent and explain what each symbol represents. For questions MLS3 to MLS13, circle the response code shown by the respondent. hoW satisfied are you With your family life? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 MLs4. hoW satisfied are you With your friendships? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 MLs5. during the current (2011-2012) school/academic year, did you attend school/ university at any time? Yes . 1 no . 2 2ðMls7 MLs6. hoW satisfied are you With your school/university? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 MLs7. hoW satisfied are you With your current job? If the respondent says that he/she does not have a job, circle ‘0’ and continue with the next question. Do not ask additional questions to find out how she feels about not having a job, unless she tells you herself. does not have a job . 0 very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 MlS8. hoW satisfied are you With your health? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 MLs9. hoW satisfied are you With Where you live? If necessary, explain that the question refers to the living environment, including the neighbourhood and the dwelling. very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 225224 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 MLs10. hoW satisfied are you With hoW people around you generally treat you? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 MLs11. hoW satisfied are you With the Way you look? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 MLs12. hoW satisfied are you With your life, overall? very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 MLs13. hoW satisfied are you With your current income? If the respondent responds that he/she does not have any income, circle ‘0’ and continue with the next question. Do not ask additional questions to find out how she feels about not having any income, unless she tells you herself. does not have any income . 0 very satisfied . 1 satisfied. 2 neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 unsatisfied . 4 very unsatisfied . 5 MLs14. compared to this time last year, Would you say that your life has improved, stayed more or less the same, or Worsened, overall? improved . 1 More or less the same . 2 worsened . 3 MLs15. and in one year from noW, do you expect that your life Will be better, Will be more or less the same, or Will be Worse, overall? Better . 1 More or less the same . 2 worse . 3 HeAltH CARe MHe MHe0. Check cluster number in MWM1. ¨ If the cluster number is from 001-474 (Mainstream survey) ð Go to MWB11 ¨ If the cluster number is from 501-562 (Roma survey)ð Continue with MHE1. MHe1. do you have a health booklet? Yes .1 no .2 MHe2. do you have health insurance? Yes .1 no .2 1ð Mhe9 MHe3. do you use health care services at the health centre? Yes .1 no .2 2ð Mhe5 MHe4. are you provided With health care services at the nearest health centre free of charge? Yes .1 no .2 MHe5. do you use health care services at the hospital? Yes .1 no .2 2ð Mhe7 MHe6. are you provided With health care services at the nearest hospital free of charge? Yes .1 no .2 MHe7. do you use emergency health care services? Yes .1 no .2 2ð Mhe9 MHe8. are you provided With emergency health care services free of charge? Yes .1 no .2 MHe9. do you pay all necessary health care services and medication? Yes .1 sometimes yes, sometimes no .2 no .3 1ð MwB11 MHe10. do you pay only vital/urgently needed health care services and medications? Yes .1 no .2 1ð MwB11 MHe11. can you afford medications Without one-off financial assistance? Yes .1 no .2 MWB11. Record the interview end time. hour and minutes .__ __ : __ __ MWB12. Check Household Member Listing Form, column HL9 in the Household Questionnaire. Is the respondent the caretaker of any child aged 0-4 living in this household? ¨ Yes ð Go to QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE for that child and start the interview with the same respondent. ¨ No ð End the interview with this respondent by thanking him for his cooperation. Check for the presence of any other eligible men in the household. Interviewer’s observations Controller’s observations Supervisor’s observations Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 227226 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 QueStIonnAIRe FoR CHIldRen undeR FIVe [Brcko District of BiH] undeR-FIVe CHIld InFoRMAtIon pAnel uF This questionnaire is to be administered to all mothers or caretakers (see Household Member Listing Form, column HL9 in the Household Questionnaire) who care for a child that lives with them and is under the age of 5 (see Household Member Listing Form, column HL6 in the Household Questionnaire). A separate questionnaire should be used for each eligible child. uF1. cluster number: ___ ___ ___ uF2. household number: ___ ___ ___ uf3. child’s name: name _________________________________________ uF4. child’s line number: ___ ___ uF5. Mother’s / caretaker’s name: name _________________________________________ uF6. Mother’s / caretaker’s line number: ___ ___ uF7. interviewer name and code: name ____________________________ ___ ___ ___ uF8. day / Month / Year of interview: ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ Repeat greeting if not already read to this respondent: We are from the dePartMent of HeaLtH and otHer serviCes of tHe governMent of tHe BrCKo distriCt of Bosnia and Herzegovina. We are Working on a project concerned With family health and education. i Would like to talk to you about (child’s name from UF3)’s health and Well-being. the intervieW Will take up to 20 minutes. all the information We obtain Will remain strictly confidential. If greeting at the beginning of the household questionnaire has already been read to this respondent, then read the following: noW i Would like to talk to you more about (child’s name from UF3)’s health and other topics. this intervieW Will take up to 20 minutes. again, all the information We obtain Will remain strictly confidential. may i start noW? ¨ Yes, permission given ð Go to UF12 to record the time and then begin the interview. ¨ No, permission not given ð Complete UF9. Inform your supervisor of this result. uF9. result of interview for children under 5 Codes refer to mother/caretaker. Questionnaire completed .01 respondent not at home .02 interview refused .03 Questionnaire partly completed .04 respondent incapacitated .05 other (specify) ________________________________96 uF10. control carried out by (name and number): name ____________________________ ___ ___ ___ uF11. data entry operator (name and number): name ____________________________ ___ ___ ___ uf12. Record the interview start time. hour and minutes .__ __ : __ __ AGe oF CHIld AG AG1. noW i Would like to ask you some Questions about the (name)’s health. in What month and year Was (name) born? Probe: What is his / her birthday? If the mother/caretaker knows the exact date of birth, also enter the day; otherwise, circle ‘98’ for day Month and year must be recorded. date of birth day . __ __ dK day .98 Month . __ __ Year .__ __ __ __ ag2. hoW old is (name)? Probe: hoW old Was (name) on his / her last birthday? Record age in completed years. Record ‘0’ if child is less than 1year old. Compare AG1 and/or AG2 and correct if inconsistent. age (in completed years) . __ BIRtH ReGIStRAtIon BR BR0. Check cluster number in UF1. ¨ If the cluster number is from 001-474 (Mainstream survey) ð Go to next module. ¨ If the cluster number is from 501-562 (Roma survey)ð Go to BR1 Br1. does (name) have a birth certificate? If “Yes”, ask: may i see it? Yes, seen . 1 Yes, not seen . 2 no . 3 dK . 8 1ðnext Module 2ðnext Module Br2. has (name)’s birth been registered With the registry office? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 1ðnext Module BR3. do you knoW hoW to register your child’s birth in the birth register? Yes . 1 no . 2 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 229228 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 eARlY CHIldHood deVelopMent eC eC1. hoW many children’s books or picture books do you have for (name)? none .00 number of children’s books .0 __ ten or more books .10 eC2. i am interested in learning about the things that (name) plays With When he/she is at home. does he/she play With: [a] homemade toys (such as dolls, cars, or other toys made at home)? [b] toys from a shop or manufactured toys? [c] household objects (such as boWls or pots) or objects found outside (such as sticks, rocks or leaves)? If the respondent says “YES” to any of the categories above, then probe to learn specifically what the child plays with to ascertain the response. Y n dK homemade toys . 1 2 8 toys from a shop . 1 2 8 household objects or outside objects . 1 2 8 eC3. sometimes adults taking care of children have to leave the house to go shopping, to the doctor or for other reasons and have to leave young children. on hoW many days in the past Week Was (name): [a] left alone for more than an hour? [b] left in the care of another child, that is, someone less than 10 years old, for more than one hour? If response is “none” enter ‘0’. If response is “don’t know” enter ‘8’. number of days child was left alone for more than an hour . __ number of days child was left with other child for more than one hour . __ eC4. Check AG2: Age of child ¨ Child aged 3 or 4 years ð Continue with EC5 ¨ Child aged 0, 1 or 2 years ð Go to Next Module eC5. does (name) attend any organised learning or early childhood education programme, such as a private or public facility, including kindergarten or a child care centre in the community? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðec7 8ðec7 eC6. Within the last 7 days, about hoW many hours did (name) attend? number of hours . __ __ eC7. in the past 3 days, Were you or any household member over 15 years of age involved in any of the folloWing activities With (name): If “Yes”, ask: Who Was involved in this activity With (name)? Circle all responses that apply. Mother father other no one [a] read books to (name) or looked at picture books With (name)? read books a B X Y [b] told stories to (name)? told stories a B X Y [c] sang songs to (name) or With (name), including lullabies? sang songs a B X Y [d] took (name) outside the home or yard? took outside a B X Y [e] played With (name)? Played with a B X Y [f] named, counted, or dreW things to or With (name)? named/counted/ drew a B X Y eC8. i Would like to ask you some Questions about the health and development of your child. children do not all develop and learn at the same rate. for example, some Walk earlier than others. these Questions are related to several aspects of your child’s development. can (name) identify or name at least ten letters of the (latin/ cyrillic) alphabet? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 eC9. can (name) read at least four simple, popular Words? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 eC10. does (name) knoW the name and recognise the symbol of all numbers from 1 to 10? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 eC11. can (name) pick up a small object With tWo fingers, like a stick or a rock from the ground? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 eC12. is (name) sometimes too sick to play? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 eC13. does (name) folloW simple directions on hoW to do something correctly? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 eC14. When (name) is given something to do, can he/she do it independently? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 eC15. does (name) get along Well With other children? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 eC16. does (name) bite or hit other children or adults? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 eC17. does (name) get distracted easily? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 231230 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 BReAStFeedInG BF Bf1. has (name) ever been breastfed? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðBf3 8ðBf3 BF2. is he/she still being breastfed? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Bf3. i Would like to ask you about liQuids that (name) may have had yesterday during the day or the night. i am interested in Whether (name) had the liQuid even if it Was combined With other foods. did (name) drink plain Water yesterday, during the day or night? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Bf4. did (name) drink infant formula yesterday, during the day or night? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðBf6 8ðBf6 Bf5. hoW many times did (name) drink infant formula yesterday, during the day or night? number of times . __ __ Bf6. did (name) drink milk, such as poWdered or fresh animal milk yesterday, during the day or night? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðBf8 8ðBf8 Bf7. hoW many times did (name) drink poWdered or fresh animal milk yesterday, during the day or night? number of times . __ __ Bf8. did (name) drink juice or fruit drinks yesterday, during the day or night? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Bf9. did (name) drink clear soup (yesterday, during the day or night? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Bf10. did (name) consume vitamin or mineral supplements or any medicines yesterday, during the day or night? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Bf11. did (name) drink an oral rehydration solution (ors) yesterday, during the day or night? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Bf12. did (name) drink any other liQuids yesterday, during the day or night? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Bf13. did (name) drink or eat sour-milk or yoghurt yesterday, during the day or night? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðBf15 8ðBf15 Bf14. hoW many times did (name) drink or eat sour-milk or yoghurt yesterday, during the day or night? number of times . __ __ Bf15. did (name) eat thin porridge or semolina porridge yesterday, during the day or night? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 Bf16. did (name) eat solid or semi-solid (soft, mushy) food yesterday, during the day or night? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðBf18 8ðBf18 Bf17. hoW many times did (name) eat solid or semi-solid (soft, mushy) food yesterday, during the day or night? number of times . __ __ Bf18. yesterday, during the day or night, did (name) drink anything from a bottle With a nipple? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 CARe FoR IllneSS CA Ca1. in the last tWo Weeks, has (name) had diarrhoea? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðca7 8ðca7 Ca2. i Would like to knoW hoW much (name) Was given to drink While he/she had diarrhoea (including breastmilk). during the time (name) had diarrhoea, Was he/she given less than usual to drink, about the same amount or more than usual? If response is “Less”, probe: Was he/she given much less than usual to drink, or someWhat less? Much less . 1 somewhat less . 2 about the same. 3 More . 4 nothing to drink . 5 dK . 8 Ca3. during the time (name) had diarrhoea, Was he/she given less than usual to eat, about the same amount, more than usual or nothing? If response is “Less”, probe: Was he/she given much less than usual to eat or someWhat less? Much less . 1 somewhat less . 2 about the same. 3 More . 4 stopped food . 5 never gave food . 6 dK . 8 Ca4. during the period of diarrhoea, Was (name) given to drink any of the folloWing: Read each item aloud and record response before continuing with the next item. [a] a fluid for oral rehydration made from a special infusion called orosal, nelit or something similar? [b] a pre-packaged ors fluid for diarrhoea? Y n dK fluid from ors packet . 1 2 8 Pre-packaged ors fluid . 1 2 8 CA5. Was anything (else) given to treat the diarrhoea? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðca7 8ðca7 CA6. What (else) Was given to treat the diarrhoea? Probe: anything else? Record all treatments given. Write the name of every medicine mentioned. _____________________________ (Name of medicine) Pill or syrup antibiotic .a Medicine for diarrhoea (antimotility) . B Zinc . c other (excluding antibiotic, medicine for diarrhoea (antimotility) or zinc) .g unknown pill or syrup .h injection antibiotic .l not an antibiotic .M unknown injection .n intravenous infusion .o home remedy / herbal medicine .Q other (specify)_________________________________X Ca7. during the last tWo Weeks, has (name) had an illness With a cough? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðca14 8ðca14 Ca8. When (name) had an illness With a cough, did he/she breathe faster than usual With short, rapid breaths or have difficulty breathing? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðca14 8ðca14 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 233232 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 Ca9. Was the fast or difficult breathing due to a problem in the chest or a blocked or runny nose? Problem in chest only . 1 Blocked or runny nose only . 2 Both . 3 other (specify) . 6 dK . 8 2ðca14 6ðca14 Ca10. did you seek any advice or treatment for the illness from any source? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðca12 8ðca12 Ca11. from Where did you seek advice or treatment? Probe: anyWhere else? Circle all service providers mentioned, but do NOT prompt with any suggestions. Probe to identify each type of source. If unable to determine if public or private sector, write the name of the institution/organisation. _____________________________ (Name of institution/organisation) Public sector hospital .a health centre . B Mobile (visiting) clinic .e other public institution (specify) ______________ h Private medical sector Private hospital / clinic .i Private physician . J Private pharmacy . K Private mobile (visiting) clinic .l other private medical institution (specify) __________________________________ o other source relative / friend . P shop .Q traditional practitioner . r other (specify)_________________________________X Ca12. Was (name) given any medicine to treat this illness? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðca14 8ðca14 Ca13. What medicine Was (name) given? Probe: any other medicine? Circle all medicines given. Write the name of every medicine mentioned. _____________________________ (Names of medicines) antibiotic Pill / syrup .a injection . B Paracetamol / Panadol . P aspirin .Q ibuprofen . r other (specify) . X dK . Z CA14. Check AG2: Is the child aged under 3? ¨ Yes ð Continue with CA15 ¨ No ð Go to Next Module Ca15. the last time (name) passed stools, hoW Were the stools disposed of? child used toilet / latrine .01 Put / rinsed into toilet or latrine .02 Put / rinsed into drain or ditch.03 thrown into garbage (solid waste) .04 Buried .05 left in the open .06 other (specify) .96 dK .98 IMMunISAtIon IM If a health booklet / immunisation card is available, copy the dates in IM3 for each type of immunisation recorded in the booklet / on the card. Questions IM6-IM16 are for registering the vaccinations that are not recorded in the booklet / on the card. IM6-IM16 will only be asked when a card is not available. iM1. do you have a health booklet / vaccination card immunisations (name) received are recorded? (If “Yes”) may i see it please? Yes, seen . 1 Yes, not seen . 2 no booklet / card . 3 1ðiM3 2ðiM6 iM2. did you ever have a health booklet / vaccination card for (name)? Yes . 1 no . 2 1ðiM6 2ðiM6 IM3. a) Copy dates for each vaccination from the booklet. b) Write ‘44’ in day column if booklet shows that vaccination was given but no date recorded. date of immunisation day Month Year [a] Bcg bcg [B] Polio 1 ipv1/opv1 [c] Polio 2 ipv2/opv2 [d] Polio 3 ipv3/opv3 [e] Polio 4 ipv4/opv4 [f] di-te-Per1 dPt1 [g] di-te-Per2 dPt2 [h] di-te-Per3 dPt3 [i] di-te-Per4 dpt4 [J] hepB1 at birth h1 [K] hepB2 h2 [l] hepB3 h3 [M] hib1 hib1 [n] hib 2 hib2 [o] hib 3 hib3 [p] hib 4 (Only for RS & BD) hib4 [Q] Mo-ru-Pa (MMr) mmr iM4. Check IM3. Have all vaccines (BCG to MMR) been recorded? ¨ Yesð Go to UF13 ¨ No ð Continue with IM5 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 235234 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 iM5. in addition to What is recorded in this book / on this card, did (name) receive any other vaccines? record ‘Yes’ only if respondent mentions vaccines listed in the table above. Yes . 1 (Probe for vaccinations and write ‘66’ in the corresponding column for the day for each vaccine mentioned. Then skip to UF13) no . 2 dK . 8 2ðuf13 8ðuf13 iM6. has (name) ever received any vaccinations to prevent him/her from contracting diseases? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðuf13 8ðuf13 iM7. has (name) ever received a bcg vaccination against tuberculosis – that is, an injection in the arm or shoulder that usually causes a scar? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 iM8. has (name) ever received any vaccination drops in the mouth or injection to protect him/her from getting child paralysis (polio)? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðiM11 8ðiM11 IM10. hoW many times Was the vaccine against child paralysis (polio) received? number of times . __ iM11. has (name) ever received a dpt vaccination – that is, an injection in the thigh or arm (shoulder) – to prevent him/her from getting tetanus, Whooping cough, or diphtheria? Probe by explaining that the DPT vaccination is sometimes given at the same time as the polio vaccination. Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðiM13 8ðiM13 IM12. hoW many times Was a dpt vaccine received? number of times . __ iM13. has (name) ever been given a hepatitis b (infectious jaundice) vaccination – that is, an injection in the thigh or arm (shoulder) – to prevent him/her from getting hepatitis b (infectious jaundice)? Probe by indicating that the Hepatitis B vaccine is sometimes given at the same time as Polio and DPT vaccines Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðiM15a 8ðiM15a IM14. Was the first hepatitis b (infectious jaundice) vaccine received Within 24 hours after birth, or later? within 24 hours . 1 later . 2 IM15. hoW many times Was a hepatitis b (infectious jaundice) vaccine received? number of times . __ iM15a. has (name) ever been given tWo vaccinations at the same time, – that is, tWo injections in the arm (shoulder) or one in the thigh and one in the arm (shoulder) – to prevent him/her from getting haemophilus influenzae type b (hib)? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 2ðiM16 8ðiM16 IM15B. hoW many times Was the haemophilus influenzae type b (hib) vaccine received? number of times . __ iM16. has (name) ever received an mmr (mo-ru-pa ) injection – that is, a shot in the arm at the age of 12 months or older - to prevent him/her from getting measles, rubella or mumps? Yes . 1 no . 2 dK . 8 uf13. Record the interview end time. hour and minutes .__ __ : __ __ uF14. Is the respondent the mother or caretaker of another child aged 0-4 living in this household? ¨ Yes ð Indicate to the respondent that you will need to measure the weight and height of the child later on. Go to the next QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE to be completed with the same respondent. ¨ No ð End the interview with this respondent by thanking them for their cooperation and telling them that you will need to measure the weight and height of the child. Check to see if there are other women’s, men’s or under-5 questionnaires to be administered in this household. Move to another women’s, men’s or under-5 questionnaire, or start making arrangements for anthropometric measurements of all children under 5 in the household. AntHRopoMetRIC dAtA An After questionnaires for all children are complete, the measurer has to weigh and measure the length/height of each child. Record the weight and length/height in the questionnaire below, ensuring that you record the measurements on the correct questionnaire for each child. Check the child’s name and line number on the Household Member Listing Form in the Household Questionnaire before recording the measurements. An1. Measurer’s name and number: name _____________________________ ___ ___ ___ An2. Result of height / length and weight measurement either or both measured . 1 child not present . 2 child or mother/caretaker refused . 3 other (specify)_________________________________6 2ðan6 3ðan6 6ðan6 An3. Child’s weight Kilograms (kg) . __ __ . __ weight not measured . 99.9 An4. Child’s length or height Check age of child in AG2: ¨ Child under 2 years old. ð Measure length (lying down) ¨ Child age 2 or more years. ð Measure height (standing up) length (cm) lying down .1 __ __ __ . __ height (cm) standing up .2 __ __ __ . __ length / height not measured .9999.9 An6. Is there another child in the household who is eligible for measurement? ¨ Yes ð Record measured values for the next child. ¨ No ð Check if there are any other individual questionnaires to be completed in the household. End the interview with this household by thanking everyone for their cooperation Collate all the questionnaires for this household and check that all the ID numbers have been recorded in the information panel on every questionnaire. On the Household Questionnaire, record the total number of completed women’s, men’s and under-5 questionnaires. Interviewer’s observations Controller’s observations Supervisor’s observations Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 237236 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 In the MICS4 on Roma in BiH two country-specifi c modules that are not part of the standard MICS set of questionnaires were used: 1) Questionnaire form about the possession of documents; 2) Questionnaire for drug use assessment. An analysis of the data collected using these questionnaires is not presented in this report. RoMA populAtIon SuRVeY QueStIonnAIRe FoRM ABout poSSeSSIon oF doCuMentS [BiH] poSSeSSIon oF doCuMentS QueStIonnAIRe FoRM pd pd1. cluster number: ___ ___ ___ pd2. household number: ___ ___ ___ pd3. name of respondent: name _________________________________________ pd4. line number of respondent: ___ ___ pd5. interviewer name and number: name ___________________________ ___ ___ ___ pd6. day / Month / Year of interview: ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ Repeat greeting if not already read to this respondent: We are from the Ministry for HuMan rigHts and refugees of Bosnia and Herzegovina. We are conducting a survey concerned With family health and education. i Would like to talk to you about government issued documents that household members possess. this Will take about 15 minutes. all the information We obtain Will remain strictly confidential. If greeting has already been read to this respondent, then read the following: noW i Would like to talk to you more about government issued documents that household members possess. this Will take about 15 minutes. again, all the information you give me Will remain strictly confidential. may i start noW? ¨ Yes, permission is given ð Go to PD10 to record the time and then begin the interview. ¨ No, permission is not given ð Complete PD7. Inform your supervisor of this result. pd7. result of interview for possession of documents completed .01 not at home .02 refused .03 Partly completed .04 incapacitated .05 other (specify) .96 pd8. control carried out by (name and code): name _____________________________ ___ ___ ___ pd9. data entry operator (name and number): name _____________________________ ___ ___ ___ Pd10. Record the interview start time. hour and minutes .__ __ : __ __ poSeSSIon oF doCuMent pd This module has to be administered to the respondent of the Household Questionnaire or another knowledgeable adult. pd11. Check the Household Listing Form in the Household Questionnaire and record the following here: [A] Total number of household members younger than 18 years: __ __ [B] Total number of household members aged 18 to 49 years: __ __ [C] Total number of household members aged 50 and above: __ __ [D] Total number of household members: __ __ Pd12. do all household members aged 18 and above have a uniQue id number recorded in the uin records in bih? Yes, everyone does .1 some do, some do not .2 none .3 1ðPd14 3ðPd14 Pd13. hoW many household members aged 18 and above have a uniQue id number recorded in the uin records in bih? number of members . __ __ pd14. Check PD11[A] for number of household members younger than 18, if: ¨ number is ‘01’ or more ð Continue with PD15 ¨ number is ‘00’ ð Go to PD17 Pd15. do all households members younger than 18 years have a uniQue id number recorded in the uin records in bih? Yes, everyone does .1 some do, some do not .2 none .3 1ðPd17 3ðPd17 Pd16. hoW many households members younger than 18 years have a uniQue id number recorded in the uin records in bih? number of children . __ __ Pd17. do all household members aged 18 and above have an id card for bih citizens (valid for 10 years)? Yes, everyone does .1 some do, some do not .2 none .3 1ðPd27 3ðPd19 Pd18. hoW many household members aged 18 and above have id card for bih citizens (valid for 10 years)? number of members . __ __ Pd19. do any household members aged 18 and above have a bih id card for aliens? Yes .1 no .2 2ðPd21 Pd20. hoW many household members aged 18 and above have a bih id card for aliens? number of members . __ __ Pd21. do any household members aged 18 and above have an id card for bih citizens - for displaced persons (valid for 2 years)? Yes .1 no .2 2ðPd23 Pd22. hoW many household members aged 18 and above have an id card for bih citizens - for displaced persons (valid for 2 years)? number of members . __ __ Pd23. do any household members aged 18 and above have an official decision on dp status? Yes .1 no .2 2ðPd27 Pd24. hoW many household members aged 18 and above have an official decision on dp status? number of members . __ __ Pd25. do any household members aged 18 and above have an identification document for displaced persons? Yes .1 no .2 2ðPd27 pd26. hoW many household members aged 18 and above have an identification document for displaced persons? number of members . __ __ pd27. do all household members aged 18 and above have a bih passport? Yes, everyone does .1 some do, some do not .2 none .3 1ðPd29 3ðPd29 Pd28. hoW many household members aged 18 and above have a bih passport? number of members . __ __ pd29. Check PD11[A] for number of household members younger than 18, if: ¨ number is ‘01’ or more ð Continue with PD30 ¨ number is ‘00’ ð Go to PD32 Pd30. do all households members younger than 18 years have a bih passport? Yes, everyone does .1 some do, some do not .2 none .3 1ðPd32 3ðPd32 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 239238 MultiPle indicator cluster surveY 2011–2012 Pd31. hoW many households members younger than 18 years have a bih passport? number of children .__ __ Pd32. do any household members aged 18 and above have a passport from another country? Yes .1 no .2 2ðPd34 Pd33. hoW many household members aged 18 and above have a passport from another country? number of members .__ __ pd34. Check PD11[A] for number of household members younger than 18, if: ¨ number is ‘01’ or more ð Continue with PD35 ¨ number is ‘00’ ð Go to PD37 Pd35. do any households members younger than 18 years have a passport from another country? Yes .1 no .2 2ðPd37 Pd36. hoW many households members younger than 18 years have a passport from another country? number of children .__ __ pd37. Check PD12, if: ¨ codes 2 or 3 “Some members do, some do not” or “None” ð Continue with PD38 ¨ code 1 “Yes, everyone does” ð Go to PD44 Pd38. do any household members aged 18 and above have a refugee card (issued in bih)? Yes .1 no .2 2ðPd40 pd39. hoW many household members aged 18 and above have a refugee card (issued in bih)? number of members .__ __ pd40. do any household members aged 18 and above have an international protection seeker card? Yes .1 no .2 2ðPd42 pd41. hoW many household members aged 18 and above have an international protection seeker card? number of members .__ __ pd42. do any household members aged 18 and above have confirmation of identity for stateless persons? Yes .1 no .2 2ðPd44 pd43. hoW many household members aged 18 and above have confirmation of identity for stateless persons? number of members .__ __ pd44. Check PD11[C] for number of household members aged 50 and above, if: ¨ number is ‘01’ or more ð Continue with PD45 ¨ number is ‘00’ ð Go to PD52 Pd45. do all household members aged 50 and above have health insurance? Yes, everyone does .1 some do, some do not .2 none .3 1ðPd47 3ðPd47 Pd46. hoW many household members aged 50 and above have health insurance? number of members .__ __ Pd47. do any household members aged 50 and above possess a health booklet? Yes .1 no .2 2ðPd50 Pd48. hoW many household members aged 50 and above possess a health booklet? number of members .__ __ pd49. Check PD11[C] and PD48: Is the number of members the same in both? ¨ No ð Continue with PD50 ¨ Yes ð Go to PD52 Pd50. are all household members aged 50 and above provided With health care services at the nearest health centre free of charge? Yes .1 no .2 Pd51. are all household members aged 50 and above provided With health care services at the nearest hospital free of charge? Yes .1 no .2 Pd52. Record the interview end time. hour and minutes .__ __ : __ __ QueStIonnAIRe FoRM FoR dRuG uSe ASSeSSMent dRuG uSe QueStIonnAIRe FoRM du This questionnaire should be used for all women/men aged 15-49. du1. cluster number: ___ ___ ___ du2. household number: ___ ___ ___ du3. interviewer name and code: du4. day / Month / Year of interview: name _____________________________ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ / ___ ___ / ___ ___ ___ ___ du5. Is respondent: ¨ Female ð DU6 ¨ Male ð DU7 du6. woman’s line number: ___ ___ du7. Man’s line number: ___ ___ du8. Check WB7 / MWB7 in the Women’s / Men’s questionnaire for this respondent: ¨ Question left blank or code 3 ð Give the form and envelope to respondent and ask them to complete the form and return it to you in the sealed envelope. ¨ Codes 1, 2, 4 or 5 ð DU9 du9. result of completion of form Completed by interviewer. respondent not at home .01 refused .02 respondent incapacitated .03 other (specify) .96 du10. result of completion of form Completed by fi eld editor. Questionnaire completed . 1 Questionnaire partially completed . 2 respondent left questionnaire blank . 3 du11. control carried out by (name and number) name _____________________________ ___ ___ ___ du12. data entry operator (name and number): name _____________________________ ___ ___ ___ dRuG uSe (SelF-AdMInISteRed) du noW We Would like to ask you for information on the use of narcotic substances. again, all the information We obtain Will remain strictly confidential. please complete the folloWing form and return it to the intervieWer in the envelope provided to you. du13. have you ever used any drugs (narcotic substances) in your life? Circle only one code and follow the instructions. Yes.1 ð if “Yes”, answer the questions below. no. 2 ð if “no”, place the form in the envelope, seal the envelope and return it to the interviewer. du14. When did you last take any of the folloWing substances / drugs? Circle one code for each row. never during the last 12 months earlier than 12 months ago don’t know or don’t remember [a] cannabis (marijuana and/or hashish) 1 2 3 8 [b] ecstasy 1 2 3 8 [c] amphetamine and/or methamphetamine, most commonly referred to as “speed” 1 2 3 8 [d] cocaine or crack 1 2 3 8 [e] heroin 1 2 3 8 [f] lsd (trip / acid) 1 2 3 8 [g] magic mushrooms 1 2 3 8 [h] substances Which are inhaled, such as glue and other industrial products Which are deliberately inhaled 1 2 3 8 tHanK you for taKing tHe tiMe to ansWer tHese Questions. PLease PLaCe tHe CoMPLeted forM in tHe enveLoPe Provided to you and return tHe seaLed enveLoPe to tHe intervieWer. 240 Multiple indicator cluster survey 2011–2012 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 241 Appendix G: Education Tables by ISCED Education in BiH according to the International Standard Classification of Education (ISCED) The methodology applied in MICS4 is designed to respond to the needs and standards of the country in which the survey is being implemented and to respond to global reporting criteria on the situation of women, men and children. For this reason, the BiH MICS4 presents data on education based on the official standards for preschool, primary and secondary education at the BiH, FBiH, RS and BD level. In addition, relevant data on education according to ISCED is presented in order to enable global comparison of BiH achievements in the area of education. ISCED establishes the following standards: 1. preschool education (ISCED0) that includes education programmes for children aged 3-6; 2. primary education (ISCED1) that includes children aged 5, 6 and 7 and generally lasts from three to four years; 3. lower secondary education (ISCED2) that starts after four to six years (most commonly six) of primary education and most often lasts for three years; 4. upper secondary school (ISCED3) that includes children of secondary school entry age, aged 15 or 16, and lasts from two to five years. In order to present data on education in BiH according to ISCED, the following criteria were used: z preschool education covers children aged 3-5, including age 5; z primary education covers children aged 6-10; z lower secondary school covers children aged 11-13; z upper secondary school covers children aged 14-18. Indicators presented by ISCED for primary school net attendance, lower and upper secondary school net attendance and gender parity in education are shown in Table ED.1 ISCED, ED.2 (a) ISCED, ED.2 (b) ISCED and ED.3 ISCED. Table ED.1 ISCED: Primary school attendance percentage of children of primary school age attending primary or secondary school (adjusted net attendance ratio), Bih roma survey 2011–2012   Male Female Total net attendance ratio (adjusted) number of children net attendance ratio (adjusted) number of children net attendance ratio (adjusted) number of children Administrative unit fBih 69.8 272 67.5 247 68.7 519 rs 69.4 68 73.9 61 71.5 129 Bd (*) 11 (*) 20 (43.3) 31 Age at beginning of school year 6 39.5 81 54.7 77 46.9 158 7 62.1 70 70.3 59 65.9 129 8 77.4 55 66.5 62 71.7 117 9 80.6 71 74.8 61 77.9 132 10 87.3 75 75.2 68 81.5 143 Mother’s education none 57.5 138 57.7 133 57.6 271 primary 74.6 195 70.7 165 72.8 360 secondary+ (*) 19 (97.0) 30 (91.8) 48 Wealth index quintile poorest 55.0 100 50.2 75 53.0 174 second 67.5 79 61.7 76 64.6 154 Middle 70.2 64 76.0 71 73.2 135 fourth 77.2 64 79.2 56 78.1 120 richest (84.1) 45 78.8 50 81.3 96 Wealth index poorest 60 per cent 63.1 243 62.4 221 62.7 464 richest 40 per cent 80.1 109 79.0 107 79.6 216 Language of household head* romani 63.8 215 58.3 197 61.2 412 other 76.5 134 82.0 130 79.2 265 Total 68.3 352 67.8 328 68.1 679 ( ) figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 242 Multiple indicator cluster survey 2011–2012 Monitoring the situation of children and woMen 243 Table ED.2 (a) ISCED: Lower secondary school attendance percentage of children of lower secondary school age attending lower secondary school or higher (adjusted net attendance ratio) and percentage of children attending primary school, Bih roma survey 2011–2012   Male Female Total net attendance ratio (adjusted) per cent attending primary school number of children net attendance ratio (adjusted) per cent attending primary school number of children net attendance ratio (adjusted) per cent attending primary school number of children Administrative unit   fBih 47.2 24.7 162 42.5 27.4 159 44.9 26.1 321 rs (56.7) (27.8) 30 55.6 17.4 44 56.1 21.7 73 Bd (*) (*) 8 (*) (*) 7 (*) (*) 16 Age at beginning of school year 11 31.9 45.6 70 33.0 45.5 74 32.5 45.6 143 12 (50.7) (24.5) 51 55.2 20.1 69 53.3 22.0 120 13 59.6 10.3 80 48.3 10.5 68 54.4 10.4 147 Mother’s education none 36.0 25.0 81 28.8 28.8 60 32.9 26.6 141 primary 53.1 30.2 102 48.9 24.7 131 50.7 27.1 232 secondary+ (*) (*) 18 (*) (*) 20 (70.3) (17.4) 37 Wealth index quintile poorest (22.8) (39.7) 33 15.2 36.6 53 18.2 37.8 86 second (44.7) (16.5) 40 (33.5) (24.4) 33 39.6 20.1 73 Middle (51.5) (22.6) 45 (52.2) (22.2) 40 51.9 22.4 85 fourth (51.1) (33.1) 41 (61.3) (27.9) 42 56.3 30.5 84 richest (63.4) (21.8) 40 (69.2) (15.2) 42 66.4 18.4 82 Wealth index poorest 60 per cent 41.2 25.4 119 31.7 28.8 126 36.3 27.2 244 richest 40 per cent 57.2 27.5 82 65.3 21.5 85 61.3 24.5 166 Language of household head* romani 39.5 30.9 103 34.7 31.3 122 36.9 31.1 224 other 56.3 21.3 97 60.8 18.8 87 58.4 20.1 184 Total 47.7 26.3 200 45.2 25.9 210 46.4 26.1 410 ( ) figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. Table ED.2 (b) ISCED: Upper secondary school attendance percentage of children of upper secondary school age attending upper secondary school or higher (adjusted net attendance ratio) and percentage of children attending primary school or lower secondary school, Bih roma survey 2011–2012   Male Female Total net attendance ratio (adjusted) per cent attending primary or lower secondary school number of children net attendance ratio (adjusted) per cent attending primary or lower secondary school number of children net attendance ratio (adjusted) per cent attending primary or lower secondary school number of children Administrative unit   fBih 35.2 21.5 269 19.7 14.4 231 28.1 18.2 500 rs 42.3 16.0 54 36.6 4.4 56 39.4 10.0 110 Bd (*) (*) 11 (*) (*) 11 (*) (*) 23 Age at beginning of school year 14 51.3 49.3 72 35.6 37.7 65 43.8 43.8 138 15 39.3 31.1 63 19.0 10.5 51 30.2 21.9 114 16 40.9 11.5 60 20.1 7.2 67 29.8 9.2 127 17 24.5 5.2 80 23.7 1.4 65 24.2 3.5 145 18 24.9 1.9 59 10.5 0.0 50 18.3 1.0 109 Mother’s education none 30.2 25.0 60 (20.3) (12.7) 43 26.0 19.9 104 primary 45.4 32.3 117 33.1 23.6 104 39.6 28.2 220 secondary+ (*) (*) 20 (*) (*) 12 (77.5) (22.0) 31 Mother not in household 29.2 16.5 58 13.4 2.6 78 20.1 8.5 136 cannot be determined 20.7 2.6 80 8.5 0.0 62 15.4 1.5 141 Wealth index quintile poorest 16.3 26.5 51 6.3 12.5 52 11.2 19.4 103 second 15.9 15.6 50 12.2 10.4 53 14.0 12.9 102 Middle 29.2 19.3 69 31.8 12.4 74 30.5 15.7 142 fourth 49.3 19.3 93 31.8 15.2 58 42.6 17.8 150 richest 53.5 20.7 72 25.0 9.4 62 40.3 15.5 134 Wealth index poorest 60 per cent 21.4 20.4 169 18.6 11.8 179 20.0 16.0 348 richest 40 per cent 51.2 19.9 165 28.3 12.2 120 41.5 16.7 284 Language of household head* romani 24.6 20.3 193 12.5 8.7 167 19.0 14.9 360 other 52.1 20.0 140 35.4 16.2 130 44.1 18.2 271 Total 36.1 20.2 334 22.5 12.0 299 29.7 16.3 633 ( ) figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases * Missing cases for the background characteristic “language of household head” are not shown in the table. 244 Multiple indicator cluster survey 2011–2012 Table ED.3 ISCED: Education gender parity ratio of adjusted net attendance ratios of girls to boys in primary and secondary school, Bih roma survey 2011–2012   primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (nar), girls primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (nar), boys gender parity index (gpi) for primary school adjusted nar secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (nar), girls secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (nar), boys gender parity index (gpi) for secondary school adjusted nar Administrative unit   fBih 67.2 69.4 0.97 8.5 15.2 0.56 rs 73.9 69.4 1.07 11.4 15.9 0.72 Bd (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Education of mother/caretaker   none 57.7 57.5 1.00 4.1 6.4 0.65 primary 70.1 73.9 0.95 8.1 12.7 0.63 secondary+ (97.0) (*) (*) (19.4) (35.3) (0.55) Mother not in household n/a n/a n/a 13.4 22.9 0.59 cannot be determined n/a n/a n/a 7.4 19.5 0.38 Wealth index quintile   poorest 49.0 55.0 0.89 0.8 3.0 0.26 second 61.7 67.5 0.91 6.7 6.4 1.05 Middle 76.0 70.2 1.08 13.8 9.6 1.44 fourth 79.2 75.3 1.05 12.0 25.1 0.48 richest 78.8 84.1 0.94 9.8 23.1 0.42 Wealth index   poorest 60 per cent 62.2 64.2 0.96 7.1 6.3 0.92 richest 40 per cent 79.0 79.7 1.00 10.9 24.1 0.45 Language of household head   romani 58.3 63.2 0.92 4.0 8.0 0.50 other 82.0 76.5 1.07 15.1 23.2 0.65 Total 67.5 68.0 0.99 8.7 14.7 0.59 ( ) figures that are based on 25–49 unweighted cases (*) figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases n/a: “not applicable” Bosnia and Herzegovina: Roma Survey Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011–2012 Bosnia and Herzegovina: Roma Survey Monitoring the situation of children and women Bosnia and H erzegovina: Rom a Survey 2011–2012 M ultiple Indicator Cluster Survey Bosnia and Herzegovina Ministry for Human Rights and Refugees United Nations Children’s Fund Agency for Statistics of Bosnia and Herezegovina Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2011–2012 Cover Page Citation Title Page Summary Table of Findings Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures List of Abbreviations Acknowledgments Executive Summary I Introduction II Sample and Survey Methodology III Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents IV Child Mortality V Nutrition VI Child Health VII Water and Sanitation VIII Reproductive Health IX Child Development X Literacy and Education XII HIV/AIDS and Sexual Behaviour that Increases the Risk of HIV Transmission XIII Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology XIV Tobacco and Alcohol Use XV Subjective Well-Being Appendix A: Sample Design Appendix B: List of Personnel Involved in the Survey Appendix C: Estimates of Sampling Errors Appendix D: Data Quality Tables Appendix E: MICS4 BiH Roma SurveyIndicators – Numerators and Denominators Appendix F: MICS4 BiH Roma Survey Questionnaires Appendix G: Education Tables by ISCED

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