Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in the Kyrgyz Republic 2014

Publication date: 2015

2 01 5 United Nations Population Fund Monitoring the situation of children and women Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2014 FINAL REPORT Kyrgyz Republic K yr gy z R ep ub lic National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic United Nations Children’s Fund in the Kyrgyz Republic Kyrgyz Republic Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey December, 2015 M ul tip le In di ca to r C lu st er S ur ve y UNICEF Sticky Note The final report of the Kyrgyzstan 2014 MICS, published in December 2015, has undergone some changes in March 2016. To find out more about these changes send an email to mics@unicef.org. This version of the report on the website is final and integrates all the changes. Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in the Kyrgyz Republic 2014 Final Report December, 2015 Revised in March, 2016 The Kyrgyzstan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was carried out in 2014 by the National Statistics Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic, as part of the global MICS programme. Technical support was provided by the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). UNICEF and UNFPA provided financial support. The global MICS programme was developed by UNICEF in the 1990s as an international household survey programme to support countries in the collection of internationally comparable data on a wide range of indicators on the situation of children and women. MICS surveys measure key indicators that allow countries to generate data for use in policies and programmes, and to monitor progress towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) and other internationally agreed upon commitments. The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS presents up-to-date information for assessing the situation of children and women as well as to provide data for monitoring existing strategies and action plans. This MICS will also furnish data for designing future programme interventions and support evidence based planning. Suggested citation: National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic and UNICEF. Kyrgyzstan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2014, Final Report. Bishkek, Kyrgyzstan: National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic and UNICEF. This material may be reprinted, quoted or otherwise reproduced, providing that the source is properly acknowledged. National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic 374, Frunze str., Bishkek, 720033 Tel.: (+996 312) 625747, 324635 Fax.: (+996 312) 660138 Internet: www.stat.kg United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) in the Kyrgyz Republic 160, Chui prs., Bishkek, 720040 Tel.: (+996 312) 611224, 611227 Fax.: (+996 312) 611191 Internet: www.unicef.org iii Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Summary Table of Survey Implementation and the Survey Population, Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014 Survey implementation Sample frame Updated 2009 Population Census March-April, 2014 Questionnaires Household Women (age 15-49) Children under five Questionnaire for Vaccination Records at Health Facility Interviewer training April, 2014 Fieldwork April–June, 2014 Survey sample Households - Sampled - Occupied - Interviewed - Response rate (percent) 7,190 7,062 6,934 98.2 Children under five - Eligible - Mothers (or caretakers) interviewed - Response rate (percent) 4,611 4,577 99.3 Women - Eligible for interviews - Interviewed - Response rate (percent) 6,995 6,854 98.0 Survey population Average household size 4.3 Percentage of population living in - Urban areas - Rural areas - Batken - Djalal–Abad - Issyk–Kul - Naryn - Osh Oblast - Talas - Chui - Bishkek City - Osh City 31.5 68.5 8.2 19.8 7.5 4.7 19.8 5.1 17.8 12.8 4.3 Percentage of population under: - Age 5 - Age 18 14.2 39.1 Percentage of women age 15-49 years with at least one live birth in the last 2 years 24.4 Housing characteristics Household or personal assets Percentage of households with - Electricity - Finished floor - Finished roofing - Finished walls 99.8 97.4 97.8 61.8 Percentage of households that own - A television - A refrigerator - Agricultural land - Farm animals/livestock 98.9 84.8 61.8 48.5 Mean number of persons per room used for sleeping 2.16 Percentage of households where at least a member has or owns a - Mobile phone - Car 98.0 48.7 iv Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Summary Table of Findings1 Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) Indicators, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Child mortality Early childhood mortality MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value A 1.1 Neonatal mortality rate Probability of dying within the first month of life 17 1.2 MDG 4.2 Infant mortality rate Probability of dying between birth and the first birthday 24 1.3 Post-neonatal mortality rate Difference between infant and neonatal mortality rates 7 1.4 Child mortality rate Probability of dying between the first and the fifth birthdays 6 1.5 MDG 4.1 Under-five mortality rate Probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday 29 A Indicator values are per 1,000 live births and refer to the five-year period before the survey Nutrition Nutritional status MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 2.1a 2.1b MDG 1.8 Underweight prevalence (a) Moderate and severe (b) Severe Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median weight for age of the WHO standard 2.8 0.6 2.2a 2.2b Stunting prevalence (a) Moderate and severe (b) Severe Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median height for age of the WHO standard 12.9 3.4 2.3a 2.3b Wasting prevalence (a) Moderate and severe (b) Severe Percentage of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median weight for height of the WHO standard 2.8 0.8 2.4 Overweight prevalence Percentage of children under age 5 who are above two standard deviations of the median weight for height of the WHO standard 7.0 Breastfeeding and infant feeding MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 2.5 Children ever breastfed Percentage of women with a live birth in the last 2 years who breastfed their last live-born child at any time 97.6 2.6 Early initiation of breastfeeding Percentage of women with a live birth in the last 2 years who put their last newborn to the breast within one hour of birth 82.5 2.7 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months Percentage of infants under 6 months of age who are exclusively breastfed 41.1 2.8 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months Percentage of infants under 6 months of age who received breast milk as the predominant source of nourishment during the previous day 69.5 2.9 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year Percentage of children age 12-15 months who received breast milk during the previous day 60.7 1 See Appendix E for a detailed description of MICS indicators v Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Breastfeeding and infant feeding MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 2.10 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years Percentage of children age 20-23 months who received breast milk during the previous day 22.5 2.11 Median duration of breastfeeding The age in months when 50 percent of children age 0-35 months did not receive breast milk during the previous day 15.4 2.12 Age-appropriate breastfeeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months appropriately fed during the previous day 50.9 2.13 Introduction of solid, semi- solid or soft foods Percentage of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi- solid or soft foods during the previous day 85.4 2.14 Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children Percentage of non-breastfed children age 6-23 months who received at least 2 milk feedings during the previous day 62.8 2.15 Minimum meal frequency Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received solid, semi- solid and soft foods (plus milk feeds for non-breastfed children) the minimum number of times or more during the previous day 80.7 2.16 Minimum dietary diversity Percentage of children age 6–23 months who received foods from 4 or more food groups during the previous day 50.9 2.17a Minimum acceptable diet (a) Percentage of breastfed children age 6–23 months who had at least the minimum dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency during the previous day (b) Percentage of non-breastfed children age 6–23 months who received at least 2 milk feedings and had at least the minimum dietary diversity not including milk feeds and the minimum meal frequency during the previous day 36.7 33.8 2.18 Bottle feeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle during the previous day 29.8 Salt iodization MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 2.19 Iodized salt consumption Percentage of households with salt testing 15 parts per million or more of iodate 92.8 Low-birthweight MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 2.20 Low-birthweight infants Percentage of most recent live births in the last 2 years weighing below 2,500 grams at birth 5.9 2.21 Infants weighed at birth Percentage of most recent live births in the last 2 years who were weighed at birth 97.5 Child health Vaccinations MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 3.1 Tuberculosis immunization coverage Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received BCG vaccine by their first birthday 99.6 3.2 Polio immunization coverage Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received the third dose of OPV vaccine (OPV3) by their first birthday 87.5 3.3 3.5 3.6 Pentavalent DPT+HepB+Hib immunization coverage Percentage of children age 12-23 months who received the third dose of Pentavalent DPT+HepB+Hib vaccine by their first birthday 93.9 3.4 MDG 4.3 Measles immunization coverage Percentage of children age 24-35 months who received a measles vaccine by their second birthday 95.8 3.8 Full immunization coverage Percentage of children age 24-35 months who received all vaccinations recommended in the national immunization schedule by their first birthday (measles by second birthday) 80.4 vi Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Diarrhoea MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value – Children with diarrhoea Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks 5.5 3.10 Care-seeking for diarrhoea Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider 51.9 3.11 Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks who received ORS and zinc 8.6 3.12 Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and continued feeding Percentage of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks who received ORT (ORS packet, pre-packaged ORS fluid, recommended homemade fluid or increased fluids) and continued feeding during the episode of diarrhoea 67.2 Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) symptoms MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value – Children with ARI symptoms Percentage of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks 2.3 3.13 Care-seeking for children with ARI symptoms Percentage of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider 59.7 3.14 Antibiotic treatment for children with ARI symptoms Percentage of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks who received antibiotics 84.7 Solid fuel use MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 3.15 Use of solid fuels for cooking Percentage of household members in households that use solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy to cook 29.3 Fever MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value – Children with fever Percentage of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks 14.3 3.20 Care-seeking for fever Percentage of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider 55.8 Water and sanitation Water and sanitation MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 4.1 MDG 7.8 Use of improved drinking water sources Percentage of household members using improved sources of drinking water 87.0 4.2 Water treatment Percentage of household members in households using unimproved drinking water who use an appropriate treatment method 77.2 4.3 MDG 7.9 Use of improved sanitation Percentage of household members using improved sanitation facilities which are not shared 97.5 4.4 Safe disposal of child’s faeces Percentage of children age 0-2 years whose last stools were disposed of safely 75.8 4.5 Place for handwashing Percentage of households with a specific place for hand washing where water and soap or other cleansing agent are present 94.5 4.6 Availability of soap or other cleansing agent Percentage of households with soap or other cleansing agent 96.8 vii Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH Contraception and unmet need MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value – Total fertility rate Total fertility rateA for women age 15-49 years 4.0 5.1 MDG 5.4 Adolescent birth rate Age-specific fertility rateA for women age 15-19 years 65 5.2 Early childbearing Percentage of women age 20-24 years who had at least one live birth before age 18 3.5 5.3 MDG 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate Percentage of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union who are using (or whose partner is using) a (modern or traditional) contraceptive method 42.0 5.4 MDG 5.6 Unmet need Percentage of women age 15-49 years who are currently married or in union who are fecund and want to space their births or limit the number of children they have and who are not currently using contraception 19.1 Maternal and newborn health MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 5.5a 5.5b MDG 5.5 MDG 5.5 Antenatal care coverage Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who were attended during their last pregnancy that led to a live birth (a) at least once by skilled health personnel (b) at least four times by any provider 98.4 94.6 5.6 Content of antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who had their blood pressure measured and gave urine and blood samples during the last pregnancy that led to a live birth 98.2 5.7 MDG 5.2 Skilled attendant at delivery Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who were attended by skilled health personnel during their most recent live birth 98.4 5.8 Institutional deliveries Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years whose most recent live birth was delivered in a health facility 98.3 5.9 Caesarean section Percentage of women age 15-49 years whose most recent live birth in the last 2 years was delivered by caesarean section 7.4 Post-natal health checks MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 5.10 Post-partum stay in health facility Percentage of women age 15-49 years who stayed in the health facility for 12 hours or more after the delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years 99.8 5.11 Post-natal health check for the newborn Percentage of last live births in the last 2 years who received a health check while in facility or at home following delivery, or a post-natal care visit within 2 days after delivery 98.5 5.12 Post-natal health check for the mother Percentage of women age 15-49 years who received a health check while in facility or at home following delivery, or a post-natal care visit within 2 days after delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years 97.8 Child development Child development MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 6.1 Attendance to early childhood education Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are attending an early childhood education programme 22.7 6.2 Support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months with whom an adult has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days 72.1 6.3 Father’s support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months whose biological father has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days 2.8 6.4 Mother’s support for learning Percentage of children age 36-59 months whose biological mother has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days 29.7 viii Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Child development MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 6.5 Availability of children’s books Percentage of children under age 5 who have three or more children’s books 27.3 6.6 Availability of playthings Percentage of children under age 5 who play with two or more types of playthings 59.3 6.7 Inadequate care Percentage of children under age 5 left alone or in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once in the last week 4.5 6.8 Early child development index Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in at least three of the following four domains: literacy-numeracy, physical, social- emotional, and learning 78.3 2 Literacy and education Literacy and education MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 7.1 MDG 2.3 Literacy rate among young women Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who are able to read a short simple statement about everyday life or who attended secondary or higher education 99.3 7.2 School readiness Percentage of children in first grade of primary school who attended pre-school during the previous school year 43.1 7.3 Net intake rate in primary education Percentage of children of school-entry age who enter the first grade of primary school 94.9 7.4 MDG 2.1 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children of primary school age currently attending primary or secondary school 99.3 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children of secondary school age currently attending secondary school or higher 94.0 7.SS1 Lower secondary schoolA net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children of lower secondary school age currently attending lower secondary school (5-9 grades) or higher 97.9 7.SS2 Upper secondary schoolB net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children of upper secondary school age currently attending upper secondary school (10-11 grades) or higher 82.4 7.6 MDG 2.2 Children reaching last grade of primary Percentage of children entering the first grade of primary school who eventually reach last grade 99.7 7.7 Primary completion rate Number of children attending the last grade of primary school (exclud- ing repeaters) divided by number of children of primary school comple- tion age (age appropriate to final grade of primary school) 103.7 7.8 Transition rate to secondary school Number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year who are in the first grade of secondary school during the current school year divided by number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year 98.3 7.9 MDG 3.1 Gender parity index (primary school) Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls divided by primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys 1.00 7.10 MDG 3.1 Gender parity index (secondary school) Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls divided by secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys 1.03 7.SS3 Gender parity index (lower secondary school) Lower secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls divided by lower secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys 1.00 7.SS4 Gender parity index (upper secondary school) Upper secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls divided by upper secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys 1.10 A Lower secondary school consists of grades 5–9 of secondary school. B Upper secondary school consist of grades 10–11 of secondary school. 2 SS (survey–specific) denotes an indicator calculated by introduction of a non–standard module or question(s) to this survey that is not part of the global MICS5 Questionnaires or by applying a non-standard calculation method that is not included in the global MICS5 Tabulation Plan ix Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Child protection Birth registration MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 8.1 Birth registration Percentage of children under age 5 whose births are reported registered 97.7 Child labour MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 8.2 Child labour Percentage of children age 5-17 years who are involved in child labour 25.8 Child discipline MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 8.3 Violent discipline Percentage of children age 1-14 years who experienced psychological aggression or physical punishment during the last one month 57.1 Early marriage and polygyny MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 8.4 Marriage before age 15 Percentage of women age 15-49 years who were first married or in union before age 15 0.4 8.5 Marriage before age 18 Percentage of women age 20-49 years who were first married or in union before age 18 12.7 8.6 Young people age 15-19 years currently married or in union Percentage of young women age 15-19 years who are married or in union 13.9 8.7 Polygyny Percentage of women age 15-49 years who are in a polygynous union 0.9 8.8a 8.8b Spousal age difference Percentage of young women who are married or in union and whose spouse is 10 or more years older, (a) among women age 15-19 years, (b) among women age 20-24 years 6.9 5.9 Attitudes towards domestic violence MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 8.12 Attitudes towards domestic violence Percentage of women age 15-49 years who state that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife in at least one of the following circumstances: (1) she goes out without telling him, (2) she neglects the children, (3) she argues with him, (4) she refuses sex with him, (5) she burns the food 32.8 Children’s living arrangements MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 8.13 Children’s living arrangements Percentage of children age 0-17 years living with neither biological parent 9.9 8.14 Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead Percentage of children age 0-17 years with one or both biological parents dead 3.4 8.15 Children with at least one parent living abroad Percentage of children 0-17 years with at least one biological parent living abroad 11.2 x Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS knowledge and attitudes MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value - Have heard of AIDS Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have heard of AIDS 95.1 9.1 MDG 6.3 Knowledge about HIV prevention among young women Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who correctly identify ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV, and who reject major misconceptions about HIV transmission 19.8 9.2 Knowledge of mother-to- child transmission of HIV Percentage of women age 15-49 years who correctly identify all three means of mother-to-child transmission of HIV 64.2 9.3 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV Percentage of women age 15-49 years expressing accepting attitudes on all four questions toward people living with HIV 2.4 HIV testing MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 9.4 Women who know where to be tested for HIV Percentage of women age 15-49 years who state knowledge of a place to be tested for HIV 79.0 9.5 Women who have been tested for HIV and know the results Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and who know their results 19.9 9.7 HIV counselling during antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years and received antenatal care during the pregnancy of their most recent birth, reporting that they received counselling on HIV during antenatal care 73.4 9.8 HIV testing during antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years and received antenatal care during the pregnancy of their most recent birth, reporting that they were offered and accepted an HIV test during antenatal care and received their results 78.2 Access to mass media and ICT Access to mass media MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 10.1 Exposure to mass media Percentage of women age 15-49 years who, at least once a week, read a newspaper or magazine, listen to the radio, and watch television 21.3 Use of information/communication technology MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 10.2 Use of computers Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who used a computer during the last 12 months 64.1 10.3 Use of internet Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who used the internet during the last 12 months 73.0 Subjective well-being Subjective well-being MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 11.1 Life satisfaction Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat satisfied with their life, overall 96.1 11.2 Happiness Percentage of young women age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat happy 96.0 11.3 Perception of a better life Percentage of young women age 15-24 years whose life improved during the last one year, and who expect that their life will be better after one year 70.0 xi Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Tobacco and alcohol use Tobacco use MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 12.1 Tobacco use Percentage of women age 15-49 years who smoked cigarettes, or used smoked or smokeless tobacco products at any time during the last one month 2.9 12.2 Smoking before age 15 Percentage of women age 15-49 years who smoked a whole cigarette before age 15 0.5 Alcohol use MICS Indicator Indicator name Description Value 12.3 Use of alcohol Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had at least one alcoholic drink at any time during the last one month 10.0 12.4 Use of alcohol before age 15 Percentage of women age 15-49 years who had at least one alcoholic drink before age 15 0.4 xii Table of Contents Summary Table of Survey Implementation and the Survey Population ……………………… iii Summary Table of Findings ………………………………………………………………………… iv Table of Contents ……………………………………………………………………………………… xii List of Tables …………………………………………………………………………………………… xiv List of Figures …………………………………………………………………………………………… xix List of Abbreviations …………………………………………………………………………………… xx Acknowledgements …………………………………………………………………………………… xxi Executive Summary ……………………………………………………………………………………xxii I. Introduction ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 1 Background ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 2 Survey Objectives ……………………………………………………………………………………… 3 II. Sample and Survey Methodology …………………………………………………………………… 4 Sample Design ………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 Questionnaires ………………………………………………………………………………………… 5 Training and Fieldwork ………………………………………………………………………………… 6 Data Processing ………………………………………………………………………………………… 6 How to Read Tables …………………………………………………………………………………… 7 III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents……………… 8 Sample Coverage ……………………………………………………………………………………… 9 Characteristics of Households ……………………………………………………………………… 10 Characteristics of Female Respondents 15-49 Years of Age and Children Under-5 ………… 13 Housing characteristics, asset ownership, and wealth quintiles ………………………………… 16 IV. Child Mortality ……………………………………………………………………………………… 20 V. Nutrition ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 27 Low Birth Weight ……………………………………………………………………………………… 28 Nutritional Status ……………………………………………………………………………………… 30 Breastfeeding and Infant and Young Child Feeding ……………………………………………… 33 Salt Iodization ………………………………………………………………………………………… 46 VI. Child Health ………………………………………………………………………………………… 48 Vaccinations …………………………………………………………………………………………… 49 Care of Illness ………………………………………………………………………………………… 54 Diarrhoea ……………………………………………………………………………………………… 55 Acute Respiratory Infections ………………………………………………………………………… 67 Solid Fuel Use ………………………………………………………………………………………… 70 Fever …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 72 VII. Water and Sanitation ……………………………………………………………………………… 76 Use of Improved Water Sources …………………………………………………………………… 77 Use of Improved Sanitation ………………………………………………………………………… 83 Handwashing ………………………………………………………………………………………… 91 VIII. Reproductive Health ……………………………………………………………………………… 94 Fertility ………………………………………………………………………………………………… 95 Contraception ………………………………………………………………………………………… 99 Unmet Need ……………………………………………………………………………………………105 Antenatal Care …………………………………………………………………………………………107 Assistance at Delivery ……………………………………………………………………………… 111 Place of Delivery ………………………………………………………………………………………114 Post-natal Health Checks ……………………………………………………………………………115 IX. Early Childhood Development ……………………………………………………………………129 Early Childhood Care and Education ………………………………………………………………130 Quality of Care …………………………………………………………………………………………131 xiii Developmental Status of Children …………………………………………………………………139 X. Literacy and Education ……………………………………………………………………………141 Literacy among Young Women ………………………………………………………………………142 School Readiness ……………………………………………………………………………………143 Primary and Secondary School Participation ………………………………………………………144 XI. Child Protection ……………………………………………………………………………………158 Birth Registration ………………………………………………………………………………………159 Child Labour ……………………………………………………………………………………………160 Child Discipline ………………………………………………………………………………………166 Early Marriage and Polygyny ………………………………………………………………………169 Attitudes toward Domestic Violence ………………………………………………………………177 Children’s Living Arrangements ……………………………………………………………………177 XII. HIV/AIDS ……………………………………………………………………………………………181 Knowledge about HIV Transmission and Misconceptions about HIV ……………………………182 Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission …………………………………………………185 Accepting Attitudes toward People Living with HIV ………………………………………………187 Knowledge of a Place for HIV Testing, Counselling and Testing during Antenatal Care ………189 HIV Indicators for Young Women ……………………………………………………………………193 XIII. Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology …………196 Access to Mass Media ………………………………………………………………………………197 Use of Information/Communication Technology……………………………………………………198 XIV. Subjective well-being ……………………………………………………………………………200 XV. Tobacco and Alcohol Use …………………………………………………………………………207 Tobacco Use …………………………………………………………………………………………208 Alcohol Use ……………………………………………………………………………………………211 Appendix А. Sample Design …………………………………………………………………………213 Appendix B. List of Personnel Involved in the Survey …………………………………………217 Appendix C. Estimates of Sampling Errors ………………………………………………………221 Appendix D. Data Quality Tables ……………………………………………………………………248 Appendix E. 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS Indicators: Numerators and Denominators …………263 Appendix F. Questionnaires …………………………………………………………………………271 F1. Household questionnaire ………………………………………………………………………272 F2. Questionnaire for Individual Women (age 15-49) ……………………………………………289 F3. Questionnaire for Children Under Five …………………………………………………………321 F4. Questionnaire Form for Vaccination Records at Health Facility ……………………………339 Appendix G. Additional Tables ………………………………………………………………………341 xiv List of Tables Table HH.1: Results of household, women's and under-5 interviews ………………………………… 9 Table HH.2: Age distribution of household population by sex ……………………………………… 10 Table HH.3: Household composition …………………………………………………………………… 12 Table HH.4: Women's background characteristics …………………………………………………… 14 Table HH.5: Under-5s’ background characteristics …………………………………………………… 15 Table HH.6: Housing characteristics …………………………………………………………………… 17 Table HH.7: Household and personal assets ………………………………………………………… 18 Table HH.8: Wealth quintiles …………………………………………………………………………… 19 Table CM.1: Early childhood mortality rates…………………………………………………………… 21 Table CM.2: Early childhood mortality rates by socioeconomic characteristics …………………… 22 Table CM.3: Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics …………………… 24 Table NU.1: Low birth weight infants …………………………………………………………………… 29 Table NU.2: Nutritional status of children ……………………………………………………………… 31 Table NU.3: Initial breastfeeding ……………………………………………………………………… 35 Table NU.4: Breastfeeding ……………………………………………………………………………… 37 Table NU.5: Duration of breastfeeding ………………………………………………………………… 40 Table NU.6: Age-appropriate breastfeeding …………………………………………………………… 41 Table NU.7: Introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods ………………………………………… 42 Table NU.8: Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices ……………………………………… 43 Table NU.9: Bottle feeding ……………………………………………………………………………… 45 Table NU.10: Iodized salt consumption ……………………………………………………………… 46 Table CH.1: Vaccinations in the first years of life … ………………………………………………… 50 Table CH.2: Vaccinations by background characteristics …………………………………………… 52 Table CH.3: Reported disease episodes ……………………………………………………………… 54 Table CH.4: Care-seeking during diarrhoea ………………………………………………………… 57 Table CH.5: Feeding practices during diarrhoea ……………………………………………………… 59 Table CH.6: Oral rehydration solutions, recommended homemade fluids, and zinc …………… 62 Table CH.7: Oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding and other treatments …………… 64 Table CH.8: Source of ORS and zinc ………………………………………………………………… 67 Table CH.9: Care-seeking for and antibiotic treatment of symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) ……………………………………………………………………………………………………… 68 Table CH.10: Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia …………………………………… 69 Table CH.11: Solid fuel use …………………………………………………………………………… 70 xv Table CH.12: Solid fuel use by place of cooking ……………………………………………………… 72 Table CH.13: Care-seeking during fever ……………………………………………………………… 73 Table CH.14: Treatment of children with fever ……………………………………………………… 74 Table WS.1: Use of improved water sources ………………………………………………………… 78 Table WS.2: Household water treatment ……………………………………………………………… 80 Table WS.3: Time to source of drinking water ……………………………………………………… 81 Table WS.4: Person collecting water ………………………………………………………………… 82 Table WS.5: Types of sanitation facilities ……………………………………………………………… 84 Table WS.6: Use and sharing of sanitation facilities ………………………………………………… 86 Table WS.7: Drinking water and sanitation ladders ………………………………………………… 88 Table WS.8: Disposal of child's faeces ………………………………………………………………… 90 Table WS.9: Water and soap at place for handwashing …………………………………………… 91 Table WS.10: Availability of soap or other cleansing agent ………………………………………… 93 Table RH.1: Fertility rates ……………………………………………………………………………… 95 Table RH.2: Adolescent birth rate and total fertility rate ……………………………………………… 97 Table RH.3: Early childbearing ………………………………………………………………………… 98 Table RH.4: Trends in early childbearing ……………………………………………………………… 99 Table RH.4A: Knowledge of specific contraceptive methods ………………………………………100 Table RH.4B: Knowledge of contraceptive methods …………………………………………………101 Table RH.5: Use of contraception ………………………………………………………………………102 Table RH.6: Unmet need for contraception ……………………………………………………………106 Table RH.7: Antenatal care coverage …………………………………………………………………108 Table RH.8: Number of antenatal care visits …………………………………………………………109 Table RH.9: Content of antenatal care …………………………………………………………………110 Table RH.10: Assistance during delivery and caesarean section ……………………………………112 Table RH.11: Place of delivery …………………………………………………………………………114 Table RH.12: Post-partum stay in health facility ………………………………………………………116 Table RH.13: Post-natal health checks for newborns ………………………………………………118 Table RH.14: Post-natal care visits for newborns within the first week following discharge from health facility ………………………………………………………………………………………………121 Table RH.15: Post-natal health checks for mothers …………………………………………………124 Table RH.16: Post-natal care visits for mothers within the first week following discharge from health facility ………………………………………………………………………………………………………126 Table RH.17: Post-natal health checks for mothers and newborns …………………………………128 Table CD.1: Early childhood education …………………………………………………………………130 xvi Table CD.2: Support for learning ………………………………………………………………………133 Table CD.3: Learning materials …………………………………………………………………………135 Table CD.4: Inadequate care ……………………………………………………………………………137 Table CD.5: Early child development index ……………………………………………………………140 Table ED.1: Literacy Young Women ……………………………………………………………………142 Table ED.2: School readiness …………………………………………………………………………143 Table ED.3: Primary school entry ………………………………………………………………………145 Table ED.4: Primary school attendance and out of school children …………………………………146 Table ED.5: Secondary school attendance and out of school children ……………………………148 Table ED.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school …………………………………………150 Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school ………………………152 Table ED.8: Education gender parity …………………………………………………………………153 Table ED.9: Out of school gender parity ………………………………………………………………155 Table CP.1: Birth registration ……………………………………………………………………………159 Table CP.2: Children's involvement in economic activities …………………………………………162 Table CP.3: Children's involvement in household chores ……………………………………………163 Table CP.4: Child labour …………………………………………………………………………………165 Table CP.5: Child discipline ………………………………………………………………………………167 Table CP.6: Attitudes toward physical punishment …………………………………………………168 Table CP.7: Early marriage and polygyny ………………………………………………………………170 Table CP.8: Trends in early marriage …………………………………………………………………172 Table CP.9: Spousal age difference ……………………………………………………………………174 Table CP.10: Attitudes toward domestic violence ……………………………………………………176 Table CP.11: Children's living arrangements and orphanhood ……………………………………178 Table CP.12: Children with parents living abroad ….…………………………………………………179 Table HA.1: Knowledge about HIV transmission, misconceptions about HIV, and comprehensive knowledge about HIV transmission ……………………………………………………………………183 Table HA.2: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission ………………………………………186 Table HA.3: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV ……………………………………187 Table HA.4: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing ……………………………………………………190 Table HA.5: HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care ……………………………………191 Table HA.6: Key HIV and AIDS indicators (young women) …………………………………………194 Table MT.1: Exposure to mass media …………………………………………………………………197 Table MT.2: Use of computers and internet …………………………………………………………199 Table SW.1: Domains of life satisfactio n.………………………………………………………………202 xvii Table SW.2: Overall life satisfaction and happiness …………………………………………………204 Table SW.3: Perception of a better life …………………………………………………………………206 Table TA.1: Current and ever use of tobacco …………………………………………………………209 Table TA.2: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use … …………………………………210 Table TA.3: Use of alcohol ………………………………………………………………………………212 Table SD.1: Final sample allocation ……………………………………………………………………214 Table SE.1: Indicators selected for sampling error calculations ……………………………………222 Table SE.2: Sampling errors: Total sample ……………………………………………………………224 Table SE.3: Sampling errors: Urban ……………………………………………………………………226 Table SE.4: Sampling errors: Rural ……………………………………………………………………228 Table SE.5: Sampling errors: Batken …………………………………………………………………230 Table SE.6: Sampling errors: Djalal-Abad ……………………………………………………………232 Table SE.7: Sampling errors: Issyk-Kul ………………………………………………………………234 Table SE.8: Sampling errors: Naryn ……………………………………………………………………236 Table SE.9: Sampling errors: Osh Oblast………………………………………………………………238 Table SE.10: Sampling errors: Talas ……………………………………………………………………240 Table SE.11: Sampling errors: Chui ……………………………………………………………………242 Table SE.12: Sampling errors: Bishkek City …………………………………………………………244 Table SE.13: Sampling errors: Osh City ………………………………………………………………246 Table DQ.1: Age distribution of household population ………………………………………………248 Table DQ.2: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women ……………………………………249 Table DQ.3: Age distribution of children in household and under-5 questionnaires ………………250 Table DQ.4: Birth date reporting: Household population ……………………………………………250 Table DQ.5: Birth date and age reporting: Women ……………………………………………………251 Table DQ.6: Birth date and age reporting: Under-5s …………………………………………………251 Table DQ.7: Birth date reporting: Children, adolescents and young people ………………………252 Table DQ.8: Birth date reporting: First and last births ………………………………………………252 Table DQ.9: Completeness of reporting ………………………………………………………………253 Table DQ.10: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Underweight …………253 Table DQ.11: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Stunting ……………254 Table DQ.12: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Wasting ………………254 Table DQ.13: Heaping in anthropometric measurements ……………………………………………255 Table DQ:14: Observation of birth certificates …………………………………………………………256 Table DQ.15: Observation of vaccination cards ………………………………………………………256 Table DQ.16: Observation of places for hand washing ………………………………………………257 xviii Table DQ.17: Respondent to the under-5 questionnaire ……………………………………………257 Table DQ.18: Selection of children age 1-17 years for the child labour and child discipline modules … 258 Table DQ.19: School attendance by single age ………………………………………………………259 Table DQ.20: Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living ………………………………260 Table DQ.21: Births by periods preceding the survey ………………………………………………260 Table DQ.22: Reporting of age at death in days ………………………………………………………261 Table DQ.23: Reporting of age at death in months …………………………………………………262 Table ED.5A: Lower secondary school attendance and out of school children ……………………341 Table ED.5B: Upper secondary school attendance and out of school children ……………………343 xix List of Figures Figure HH.1: Age and sex distribution of household population …………………………………… 11 Figure CM.1: Early childhood mortality rates ………………………………………………………… 22 Figure CM.2: Under-5 mortality rates by area and region …………………………………………… 25 Figure CM.3: Trend in under-5 mortality rates ……………………………………………………… 26 Figure NU.1: Underweight, stunted, wasted and overweight children under age 5 (moderate and severe) …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 33 Figure NU.2: Initiation of breastfeeding ……………………………………………………………… 36 Figure NU.3: Infant feeding patterns by age ………………………………………………………… 39 Figure NU.4: Consumption of iodized salt …………………………………………………………… 47 Figure CH.1: Vaccinations by age 12 months (measles by 24 months) …………………………… 51 Figure CH.2: Children under-5 with diarrhoea who received ORS ………………………………… 61 Figure CH.3: Children under-5 with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and continued feeding …………………………………………………………………………………………………… 66 Figure WS.1: Percent distribution of household members by source of drinking water ………………… 79 Figure WS.2: Percent distribution of household members by use and sharing of sanitation facilities … 85 Figure WS.3: Use of improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation facilities by house- hold members …………………………………………………………………………………………… 89 Figure RH.1: Age-specific fertility rates by area … …………………………………………………… 96 Figure RH.2: Differentials in contraceptive use ………………………………………………………104 Figure RH.3: Person assisting at delivery ……………………………………………………………113 Figure ED.1: Education indicators by sex ……………………………………………………………157 Figure CP.1: Child disciplining methods, children age 1-14 years …………………………………166 Figure CP.2: Early marriage among women …………………………………………………………173 Figure HA.1: Women with comprehensive knowledge of HIV transmission ………………………185 Figure HA.2: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS ……………………………189 Figure TA.1: Ever and current smokers ………………………………………………………………210 Figure DQ.1: Household population by single ages …………………………………………………249 Figure DQ.2: Weight and height/length measurements by digits reported for the decimal points ……255 xx Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report List of Abbreviations AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ARI Acute Respiratory Infection ASFR Age-Specific Fertility Rate BCG Bacillus Calmette-Guérin CBR Crude Birth Rate CRC Convention on the Rights of the Child CSPro Census and Survey Processing System DEFF Design Effect defft Square root of the Design Effect DHS Demographic and Health Survey DPT Diphteria Pertussis Tetanus EA Enumeration Area EPI Expanded Programme on Immunization ECD Early Child Development ECDI Early Child Development Index GAPPD Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea GFR General Fertility Rate GPI Gender Parity Index GVAP Global Vaccine Action Plan HepB Hepatitis B HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus IMR Infant Mortality Rate IYCF Infant and Young Child Feeding JMP WHO / UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme LAM Lactational Amenorrhea Method MDG Millennium Development Goals MICS Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey MICS5 Fifth global round of Multiple Indicator Clusters Surveys programme MoH Ministry of Health MMR Measles, Mumps and Rubella NAR Net Attendance Ratio NSC National Statistics Committee OPV Oral Polio Vaccine ORS Oral Rehydration Solution ORT Oral Rehydration Treatment ppm Parts per Million PNC Post-Natal Care PSU Primary Sampling Unit SPSS Statistical Package for Social Sciences TFR Total Fertility Rate U5MR Under 5 Mortality Rate UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNGASS United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund VR Vital Registration WFFC World Fit for Children WHO World Health Organization xxi Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Acknowledgements The Kyrgyzstan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) is based on an internationally recognized methodology and provides a unique opportunity to draw a comprehensive picture of the lives of children and women in Kyrgyzstan. The survey data supplements the existing sources of official statistical information on the quality of the population living standards by drawing the attention of the government and the public to important new issues and aspects. The survey results will provide one of the most important sources of alternative information to help monitor the progress of achieving the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The implementation of the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS survey and this report are the result of a joint effort by a number of individuals, institutions and organisations that have contributed, with their professional knowledge and commitment. The United Nation Children’s Fund (UNICEF) provided financial and technical support, which made the survey implementation possible. I wish to express my special thanks to Yukie Mokuo, UNICEF Representative in the Kyrgyz Republic, and Muktar Minbaev, UNICEF Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Specialist, for the extensive technical, methodological and financial support received towards this survey. The hard work and commitment of Tolgonai Berdikeeva, UNFPA Programme Specialist, and Larisa Praslova, National MICS Consultant, greatly contributed to the successful implementation of the survey. Special thanks go to Siraj Mahmudlu, UNICEF Regional MICS Coordinator, and the members of the UNICEF Regional team, in particular to Ana Abdelbasit, Ismet Koch, Hans Pettersson and Ikhtier Kholmatov, whose continuous technical and methodological support was of vital importance. We express our sincere gratitude to the global MICS Team, especially Attila Hancioglu, Bo Pedersen, Turgay Unalan, Ivana Bjelic and Yadigar Coskun, who guided survey implementation, data processing and analysis. Let me also thank the contributors from the national government bodies, and managers and experts from the national and regional statistical authorities for their valuable inputs to the successful implementation of this project. Chairman, National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic Akylbek Osmonaliev xxii Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Executive Summary The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS is a nationally representative sample survey. For selected indicators, the survey is also representative at the regional level. Sample Coverage • In the 6,934 households successfully interviewed in the survey, 29,786 household members were listed. Of these, 14,597 were males, and 15,189 were females. • Overall, 6,854 women age 15–49 years participated in the survey. Questionnaires for children under five were completed for 4,577 children including 2,342 boys and 2,235 girls. Child Mortality • In the five year period preceding the survey, Kyrgyzstan had neonatal, infant and under 5 mortality rates of 17, 24 and 29 per 1,000 live births, respectively, with males having somewhat higher rates than females. • For infant and under–5 mortality, rural areas recorded approximately 1.5 times more deaths per 1,000 live births compared to urban areas. The difference between the poorest and richest households in terms of childhood mortality rates was two–fold . • Comparison of the MICS findings with other sources showed reduction in under 5 mortality rates over the years. Low Birth Weight • Overall, 98 percent of births were weighed at birth and 6 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2,500 grams at birth. The prevalence of low birth weight does not vary much by region, urban and rural areas or mother’s education. Nutritional status • The prevalence of child malnutrition (moderate and severe) of children under the age of five is relatively low: 3 percent of children are underweight, and 3 percent are wasted. However, 13 percent of children are stunted and more than 7 percent of children are overweight. Breastfeeding and Infant and Young Child Feeding • Although 83 percent of babies are breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth and 98 percent are ever breastfed in Kyrgyzstan, only 41 percent of children are exclusively breastfed until the sixth month of age while 70 percent of children 0–5 months old are predominantly breastfed. • The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding of children 0–35 months old in Kyrgyzstan is 1.5 months while for any breastfeeding it is 15.4 months. Salt Iodization • Salt used for cooking was tested for iodine content in 98.2 percent of all households. In bulk of households (92.8 percent) salt was found to be adequately iodised. xxiii Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Vaccinations • Eighty–eight percent of children aged 24–35 months received all the recommended vaccinations by the time of the survey. This percentage is lower in urban areas (82 percent), in Bishkek city in particular (72 percent), than in rural areas (91 percent). The percentage of children who received a measles vaccine is 97 percent with the lowest coverage in Bishkek – 92 percent. • The percentage of children aged 24–35 months who received all the recommended vaccinations by their first birthday (by the second birthday for measles) is lower at 80 percent. Diarrhoea • Overall, 5.5 percent of under five children were reported to have had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey. During the episode of diarrhoea, 20 percent of these children were given much less to eat and 11 percent of children were given nothing to eat. Water and Sanitation • Overall, 87 percent of the population in Kyrgyzstan uses an improved source of drinking water – 98 percent in urban areas and 82 percent in rural areas. Only 64 percent of the household population have the drinking water source on the premises. • 98 percent of the population of Kyrgyzstan lives in households with improved sanitation. However, only 16.8 percent of the population use flush toilets; use of flush toilets is profoundly different between urban and rural areas (47.2 and 2.7 percent, respectively). Fertility • The total fertility rate for the three years preceding the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS is 4.0 births per woman. Fertility is considerably higher in rural areas (4.2 births per woman) than in urban areas (3.6 births per woman). • The adolescent birth rate in the country is 65 per 1000 women. Only 3 percent of women age 20–24 have had a live birth before the age of 18. Contraception and Unmet Need • The data show that almost all women have heard of any contraceptive method and the mean number of methods known by women is 8 (of 14 methods). • Current use of contraception was reported by 42 percent of women currently married or in union. The most popular modern methods are IUD, which is used by 22 percent of women and male condoms – 10 percent. • Overall, 19 percent of women age 15–49 years who are married or in union have unmet need for contraception, including 12 percent for spacing, and 7 percent for limiting. Ante– and Post–natal Care and Assistance at Delivery • In Kyrgyzstan, only 1.5 percent of women do not receive antenatal care while 95 percent of mothers received antenatal care at least four times. The majority of antenatal care is provided by medical doctors (92 percent). xxiv Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report • The delivery of 98 percent of births in the last two years was attended by skilled personnel and took place in a health facility. Eighty–two percent of those women giving birth in a health facility stay 3 days or more in the facility after delivery. Seven percent of all births are delivered via a C–section. • With regards to PNC visits, these predominantly occur either after the first week following birth (56 percent) or within 3–6 days after the delivery (36 percent). Early Childhood Care and Education • In Kyrgyzstan nearly 23 percent of children age 36–59 months are attending an organised early childhood education programme. Urban–rural differentials are notable – the figure is as high as 40 percent in urban areas, compared to 16 percent in rural areas. • For close to three–quarters (72 percent) of children age 36–59 months, an adult household member engaged in four or more activities that promote learning and school readiness. Only 27 percent of children age 0–59 months live in households where at least 3 children’s books are present for the child. School Readiness • Overall, 43 percent of children who are currently attending the first grade of primary school were attending pre–school the previous year. More than half of the children in first grade in urban areas (52 percent) had attended pre–school the previous year compared to 40 percent among children living in rural areas. Primary and Secondary School Participation • The vast majority of children of primary school age (99.3 percent) are attending school. Of all children starting grade one, the majority (99.7 percent) will eventually reach grade 5. • About 94 percent of children age 11–17 years are attending secondary school grades. For the children of upper secondary school age the attendance decrease sharply reaching the minimum among children age 17 (84 percent). At the secondary school level girls account for about 36 percent of the total out–of–school population. Birth Registration • The births of 97.7 percent of children under five years have been registered. Three in four mothers (76 percent) of unregistered children appear to be aware of the registration process. Child Labour • In Kyrgyzstan, one in four children (26 percent) age 5–17 were engaged in child labour, while 15 percent were working under hazardous conditions. Male children (30 percent) are more likely to be involved in child labour than female children (22 percent), with rural areas having 2.5 times higher child labour percentage than urban areas (1 vs. 12 percent). Early Marriage • Among women age 15–49 years, just 0.4 percent were married before age 15. Among women age 20–49 years, about one in eight (13 percent) women were married before age 18. About one in seven (14 percent) young women age 15–19 years is currently married or in union. xxv Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Attitudes toward Domestic Violence • Overall, 33 percent of women in Kyrgyzstan feel that a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife (in at least one of the five situations). Children’s Living Arrangements • Overall, 77.1 percent of children age 0–17 years in Kyrgyzstan live with both their parents. One in ten children (9.9 percent) live with neither of their biological parents while, most often, both of them are alive (9 percent). • In Kyrgyzstan, one in nine children (11.2 percent) age 0–17 have one or both parents living abroad. Both the mother and father were abroad in almost half of these cases. HIV/AIDS • In Kyrgyzstan, 95 percent of the women age 15–49 years have heard of AIDS. However, the percentage of those who know two main ways of preventing HIV transmission is only 62 percent. • The percentage of women who know all three ways of mother–to–child transmission is 64.2 percent, while 4.5 percent of women did not know of any specific way. Awareness is notably higher among ever married women (68 percent) as opposed to never married women (50 percent). • In Kyrgyzstan, 83 percent of women who have heard of AIDS agree with at least one accepting statement. The most common accepting attitude is willingness to care for a family member with AIDS in own home: 59 of respondents agree with this. • In Kyrgyzstan, 79 percent of all women knew where to be tested with a little difference between urban and rural areas. More than two thirds (67 percent) of women in the country have actually been tested and 59 percent know the result of their most recent test. • Only 37 percent of young women age 15–24 years have ever been tested and know the result of the most recent test, while only 20 percent have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and know the result. Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology • In Kyrgyzstan 45 percent of women age 15–49 years read a newspaper or magazine, 37 percent listen to the radio, and 98 percent watch television at least once a week. Among 15–24 year old women, 45 percent used a computer and 64 percent used the internet, at least once a week during the last month. Subjective well–being • Young women age 15–24 years are the most satisfied with the way they look (97 percent), their health (96 percent), and their family life (93 percent). Among the domains, young women age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat satisfied with their income (78 percent), with 81 percent of young women not having an income at all. Tobacco and Alcohol Use • In Kyrgyzstan, use of tobacco products is not very common among women age 15–49 years: 12 percent of women reported to have ever used a tobacco product and only 0.5 percent of women 15–49 years old smoked a cigarette for the first time before age 15. xxvi Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report • One out of ten women age 15–49 years had at least one drink of alcohol on one or more days during the last one month. Only 0.4 percent of women of the same age group first drank alcohol before the age of 15, while 58 percent of women never had an alcoholic drink. I. Introduction 2 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Background This final report is based on the results of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) conducted in 2014 by National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic. The survey provides statistically sound and internationally comparable data essential for developing evidence–based policies and programmes, and for monitoring progress toward national goals and global commitments. Among these global commitments are those emanating from the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action, the goals of the United Nations General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS, the Education for All Declaration and the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). A Commitment to Action: National and International Reporting Responsibilities The governments that signed the Millennium Declaration and the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitoring progress towards the goals and objectives they contained: “We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child–focused research. We will enhance international cooperation to support statistical capacity–building efforts and build community capacity for monitoring, assessment and planning.” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60) “…We will conduct periodic reviews at the national and subnational levels of progress in order to address obstacles more effectively and accelerate actions.…” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 61) The Plan of Action of the World Fit for Children (paragraph 61) also calls for the specific involvement of UNICEF in the preparation of periodic progress reports: “… As the world’s lead agency for children, the United Nations Children’s Fund is requested to continue to prepare and disseminate, in close collaboration with Governments, relevant funds, programmes and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system, and all other relevant actors, as appropriate, information on the progress made in the implementation of the Declaration and the Plan of Action.” Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) calls for periodic reporting on progress: “…We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary–General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action.” As a follow–up to the World Summit on Children in 1990, the United Nations Children’s Fund developed a uniform list of indicators and a methodology for collecting statistically reliable and internationally comparable data with a view to building the capacity of the national governments to monitor the situation of children and to gauge progress in implementing the Convention on the Rights of the Child. Today, MICS has become a recognized tool for measuring progress in implementing the national targets and global commitments on improving the welfare of children. As a party to the international covenants on children and human development, the Kyrgyz Republic attributes great priority to meeting its international obligations; it is implementing concrete measures to monitor progress and build the capacity of its statistical systems, given their decisive role in informing the national strategic planning processes. 3 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS findings will be critically important for final MDG reporting in 2015, and are expected to form part of the baseline data for the post–2015 era. 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS is expected to contribute to the evidence base of several other important initiatives, including Committing to Child Survival: A Promise Renewed, a global movement to end child deaths from preventable causes, and the accountability framework proposed by the Commission on Information and Accountability for the Global Strategy for Women's and Children's Health. Survey Objectives The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS has as its primary objectives: • To provide up–to–date information for assessing the situation of children and women in Kyrgyzstan; • To generate data for the critical assessment of the progress made in various areas, and to put additional efforts in those areas that require more attention; • To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward goals established in the Millennium Declaration and other internationally agreed upon goals, as a basis for future action; • To collect disaggregated data for the identification of disparities, to allow for evidence based policy–making aimed at social inclusion of the most vulnerable; • To contribute to the generation of baselines for the indicators of Sustainable Development Goals; • To validate data from other sources and the results of focused interventions. II. Sample and Survey Methodology 5 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Sample Design The sample for the 2014 Kyrgyzstan Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey was designed to provide estimates for a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for seven oblasts: Batken, Djalal-Abad, Issyk-Kul, Naryn, Osh, Talas and Chui as well as Bishkek and Osh cities. The sampling frame was based on the data and cartographic materials from the 2009 Kyrgyzstan Population Census. The primary sampling units (PSUs) were the enumeration areas (EAs) defined for the census. The urban and rural areas within each region were identified as the main sampling strata and the sample was selected in two stages. Within each stratum, a specified number of census enumeration areas were selected systematically with probability proportional to size. After a household listing was carried out within the selected enumeration areas, a systematic sample of 18 households was drawn in each sample enumeration area. All selected enumeration areas were visited during the fieldwork period. The sample was stratified by region, urban and rural areas, and is not self-weighting. For reporting national level findings, sample weights are used. A more detailed description can be found in Appendix A on sample design. Questionnaires Three sets of questionnaires were used in the survey: 1) a household questionnaire which was used to collect basic demographic information on all de jure household members (usual residents), the household, and the dwelling; 2) a questionnaire for individual women administered in each household to all women age 15-49 years; 3) an under-5 questionnaire, administered to mothers (or caretakers) for all children under 5 living in the household, as well as a form for collecting vaccination records at Health Facilities for children under 3. The Household Questionnaire included the following modules: • List of Household Members • Education • Child Labour • Child Discipline • Household Characteristics • Water and Sanitation • Handwashing • Salt Iodization The Questionnaire for Individual Women was administered to all women age 15-49 years living in the households, and included the following modules: • Woman’s Background • Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/Communication Technology • Fertility/Birth History • Desire for Last Birth • Maternal and Newborn Health • Post-natal Health Checks • Illness Symptoms • Contraception • Unmet Need • Attitudes Toward Domestic Violence 6 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report • Marriage/Union • HIV/AIDS • Tobacco and Alcohol Use • Life Satisfaction The Questionnaire for Children Under Five was administered to mothers (or caretakers) of children under 5 years of age3 living in the households. Normally, the questionnaire was administered to mothers of under-5 children; in cases when the mother was not listed in the household roster, a primary caretaker for the child was identified and interviewed. The questionnaire included the following modules: • Age • Birth Registration • Early Childhood Development • Breastfeeding and Dietary Intake • Immunization • Care of Illness • Anthropometry For all children age 0-2 years with a completed Questionnaire for Children Under Five an additional form, the Questionnaire Form For Vaccination Records At Health Facility, was used to record vaccinations from the registers at health facilities. The questionnaires are based on the MICS5 model questionnaire4. From the MICS5 model English version, the questionnaires were customised and translated into Kyrgyz and Russian and were pre- tested in Bishkek city and the Chui oblast during February-March of 2014. Based on the findings of the pre-test, modifications were made to the wording and translation of the questionnaires. A copy of the questionnaires is provided in Appendix F. In addition to the administration of questionnaires, fieldwork teams tested the salt used for cooking in the households for iodine content, observed the place for handwashing, and measured the weights and heights of children age under 5 years. Details and findings of these observations and measurements are provided in the respective sections of the report. Training and Fieldwork Training for the fieldwork was conducted for 13 days on 7-19 April 2014. Training included lectures on interviewing techniques and the contents of the questionnaires, role games and mock interviews between trainees to gain practice in asking questions and regular oral and written quizzes. Towards the end of the training period, trainees spent three days in practice interviewing in the Issyk-Kul oblast. The data were collected by 9 teams; each was comprised of 4 interviewers, one driver, one editor, one measurer and a supervisor. Fieldwork began on 24 April 2014 and concluded in late June of 2014. Data Processing Data were entered using the CSPro software, version 5.0, under supervision of the data entry supervisor. The data were entered on 14 desktop computers and carried out by 14 data entry operators and 2 data entry editors. For quality assurance purposes, all questionnaires were double- entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programs 3 The terms “children under 5”, “children age 0-4 years”, and “children age 0-59 months” are used interchangeably in this report. 4 The model MICS5 questionnaires can be found at http://mics.unicef.org/tools 7 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report developed under the global MICS programme and adapted to the Kyrgyzstan questionnaires were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection on 6 May and concluded early in July 2014. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software, Version 20. Model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF were customized and used for this purpose. How to Read Tables The tables of this report present data collected through this survey in standard way, intuitively easy to understand. However, the reader should be aware of the following remarks. Values in parenthesis indicate that the percentage or proportion is based on only 25–49 unweighted cases and should be treated with caution. An asterisk in tables indicates that the percentage or proportion has been suppressed because it is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases while dash denotes 0 unweighted cases. Age groups presented in this report also include those persons that had reached the full age indicated by the upper limit for an age group; for instance, respondents age 15–49 include persons who had fully reached 49 years of age. Similarly, the age group of children age 20–23 months includes those who had fully reached 23 months. The education categories “None” and “Primary” are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and therefore too small to be reported separately; these categories are combined into “None/Primary”. The categories “Professional primary” and “Professional middle” are combined “Professional primary/middle”. The categories “None” and “Primary” and “Professional primary” and “Professional middle” are shown as individual categories in tables that describe the background characteristics of households and respondents (Section III). Also, in the tables and throughout the report, mother's education refers to educational attainment of mothers as well as caretakers of children under 5, who are the respondents to the under-5 questionnaire if the mother is deceased or is living elsewhere. III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respon- dents 9 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Sample Coverage Of the 7,190 households selected for the sample, 7,035 were found to be occupied, of which 27 actually comprised two households, leading to a total of 7,062 occupied households. Of these, 6,934 were successfully interviewed yielding a household response rate of 98.2 percent. In the interviewed households, 6,995 women (age 15-49 years) were identified. Of these, 6,854 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 98.0 percent within the interviewed households. There were 4,611 children under age five listed in the household questionnaires. Questionnaires were completed for 4,577 of these children, which corresponds to a response rate of 99.3 percent within interviewed households. Overall response rates of 96.2 and 97.5 percent were achieved for the individual interviews of women and under-5s, respectively. Household response rates across urban and rural areas were quite similar. In terms of regions, household response rates were over 92 percent in all regions (Table HH.1). Table HH.1: Results of household, women's and under-5 interviews Number of households, women and children under 5 by interview results and response rates, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 To ta l Area Region U rb an R ur al B at ke n D ja la l-A ba d Is sy k- K ul N ar yn O sh O bl as t Ta la s C hu i B is hk ek C ity O sh C ity Households Sampled 7190 2974 4216 813 900 810 809 810 774 813 813 648 Occupied 7062 2879 4183 791 900 788 809 787 774 809 769 635 Interviewed 6934 2812 4122 730 900 780 809 787 774 792 738 624 Household response rate 98.2 97.7 98.5 92.3 100.0 99.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 97.9 96.0 98.3 Women Eligible 6995 2659 4336 791 965 595 702 991 954 699 655 643 Interviewed 6854 2626 4228 731 958 591 693 961 949 683 653 635 Women's response rate 98.0 98.8 97.5 92.4 99.3 99.3 98.7 97.0 99.5 97.7 99.7 98.8 Women's overall response rate 96.2 96.5 96.1 85.3 99.3 98.3 98.7 97.0 99.5 95.7 95.7 97.0 Children under 5 Eligible 4611 1512 3099 539 632 306 447 741 933 382 276 355 Mothers (or caretakers) interviewed 4577 1503 3074 533 631 306 447 726 932 374 276 352 Under-5s' response rate 99.3 99.4 99.2 98.9 99.8 100.0 100.0 98.0 99.9 97.9 100.0 99.2 Under-5s' overall response rate 97.5 97.1 97.7 91.3 99.8 99.0 100.0 98.0 99.9 95.8 96.0 97.4 10 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Characteristics of Households The weighted age and sex distribution of the survey population is provided in Table HH.2. The distribution is also used to produce the population pyramid in Figure HH.1. In the 6934 households successfully interviewed in the survey, 29,786 household members were listed. Of these, 14,597 were males, and 15,189 were females. Table HH.2: Age distribution of household population by sex Percent and frequency distribution of the household population by five-year age groups, dependency age groups, and by child (age 0-17 years) and adult populations (age 18 or more), by sex, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Total Males Females Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Total 29786 100.0 14597 100.0 15189 100.0 Age 0-4 4233 14.2 2167 14.8 2066 13.6 5-9 3288 11.0 1703 11.7 1585 10.4 10-14 2648 8.9 1335 9.1 1313 8.6 15-19 2407 8.1 1231 8.4 1176 7.7 20-24 2315 7.8 1090 7.5 1225 8.1 25-29 2319 7.8 1174 8.0 1145 7.5 30-34 1872 6.3 934 6.4 937 6.2 35-39 1729 5.8 875 6.0 854 5.6 40-44 1598 5.4 790 5.4 809 5.3 45-49 1452 4.9 709 4.9 742 4.9 50-54 1775 6.0 791 5.4 984 6.5 55-59 1419 4.8 648 4.4 772 5.1 60-64 998 3.4 425 2.9 574 3.8 65-69 580 1.9 242 1.7 338 2.2 70-74 412 1.4 178 1.2 234 1.5 75-79 392 1.3 169 1.2 224 1.5 80-84 203 0.7 83 0.6 120 0.8 85+ 142 0.5 53 0.4 89 0.6 Missing/DK 3 0.0 0 0.0 3 0.0 Dependency age groups 0-14 10169 34.1 5205 35.7 4964 32.7 15-64 17885 60.0 8667 59.4 9218 60.7 65+ 1729 5.8 725 5.0 1004 6.6 Missing/DK 3 0.0 0 0.0 3 0.0 Children and adult populations Children age 0-17 years 11659 39.1 5998 41.1 5660 37.3 Adults age 18+ years 18124 60.8 8598 58.9 9526 62.7 Missing/DK 3 0.0 0 0.0 3 0.0 According to the survey data, the proportion of males in the total population was 49.0 percent, the proportion of women was 51.0 percent. According to the National Statistics Committee( NSC) data, 11 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report as of 1 January 2014, the shares of men and women in the total resident population was respectively 49.5 percent and 50.5 percent. According to the survey data the proportion of children age 0-14 years in the overall population is 34.1 percent; the proportion of the population age 65+ is 5.8 percent. Children up to 18 years of age constitute 39.1 percent of the population. The largest two 5-year groups are the 0-4 and 5-9 year age-groups (14.2 and 11.0 percent respectively). The male-female ratio shows some variations and after 60 years of life the number of women exceeds that of men (Table HH.2 and Figure HH.1). Figure HH.1: Age and sex distribution of household population, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 8 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 8 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80-84 85+ Percent Age Males Females Note: 3 household members with missing age and/or sex are excluded Tables HH.3, HH.4 and HH.5 provide basic information on the households, female respondents age 15-49, and children under-5. Both unweighted and weighted numbers are presented. Such information is essential for the interpretation of findings presented later in the report and provide background information on the representativeness of the survey sample. The remaining tables in this report are presented only with weighted numbers5. Table HH.3 provides basic background information on the households, including the sex of the household head, region, area, number of household members, education of household head, and native language6 of the household head are shown in the table. These background characteristics are used in subsequent tables in this report; the figures in the table are also intended to show the numbers of observations by major categories of analysis in the report. 5 See Appendix A on sample design for more details on sample weights 6 This was determined by asking question HC1 on the mother tongue of the household head 12 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table HH.3: Household composition Percent and frequency distribution of households by selected characteristics, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Weighted percent Number of households Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 6934 6934 Sex of household head Male 72.1 5002 5086 Female 27.9 1932 1848 Region Batken 7.3 508 730 Djalal-Abad 17.8 1235 900 Issyk-Kul 9.1 628 780 Naryn 4.7 323 809 Osh Oblast 14.8 1028 787 Talas 3.9 270 774 Chui 20.1 1393 792 Bishkek City 17.8 1237 738 Osh City 4.5 312 624 Area Urban 39.5 2739 2812 Rural 60.5 4195 4122 Number of household members 1 8.5 586 497 2 15.4 1067 938 3 14.4 1002 983 4 17.3 1200 1220 5 16.9 1174 1231 6 13.0 901 990 7 7.7 536 590 8 3.5 242 261 9 1.3 91 94 10+ 1.9 134 130 Education of household head None 1.2 82 76 Primary 2.9 200 187 Basic secondary 10.6 737 701 Complete secondary 39.7 2751 2919 Professional primary 7.1 493 545 Professional middle 15.5 1078 995 Higher 22.9 1591 1509 Missing/DK 0.0 2 2 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 69.1 4792 5141 Russian 14.5 1006 678 Uzbek 12.2 844 901 Other language 4.2 290 211 Missing/DK 0.0 2 3 Mean household size 4.30 6934 6934 13 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The weighted and unweighted total number of households are equal, since sample weights were normalized. The table also shows the weighted mean household size estimated by the survey. In terms of the gender structure for heads of households in Kyrgyzstan, 27.9 percent of heads of household are female. Men headed almost three out of four households (72.1 percent). Of the total number of households, nearly 39.5 percent lived in urban settlements and 60.5 percent in rural areas. At the time of survey, the average household size was 4.3 people. However, about a quarter of households (23.9 percent) consisted of one or two persons, 61.7 percent of households had 3-6 persons and households consisting of 7 or more persons amounted to 14.5 percent. The majority of households (69.1 percent) are headed by persons who indicated Kyrgyz as their mother tongue, Uzbek was indicated in 12.2 percent of cases, Russian 14.5 percent, languages of other nationalities - 4.2 percent. Characteristics of Female Respondents 15-49 Years of Age and Children Under-5 Tables HH.4 and HH.5 provide information on the background characteristics of female respondents 15-49 years of age and of children under age 5. In these tables, the total numbers of weighted and unweighted observations are equal, since sample weights have been normalized (standardized). In addition to providing useful information on the background characteristics of women and children under age five, the tables are also intended to show the numbers of observations in each background category. These categories are used in the subsequent tabulations of this report. Table HH.4 provides background characteristics of female respondents, age 15-49 years. The table includes information on the distribution of women according to region, area, age, marital/union status, motherhood status, births in last two years, education7, wealth index quintiles8,9, and mother tongue of the household head. The proportion of older women is lower, with 11 percent in the 45-49 years age group. Of the total number of women age 15-49 years, 64.6 percent lived in urban areas and 35.4 percent in rural areas. At the time of survey, 69.3 percent of women in this age group were married or in union, 8.9 percent were widowed, divorced or separated, and 21.9 percent were never married or in union. Accordingly, a decrease in the share of women never married or in union is observed; from 32.5 percent in 2009 according to the 2009 Census to 27.0 percent (2012 DHS) and 21.9 percent in the 2014 MICS. 7 Throughout this report, unless otherwise stated, “education” refers to highest educational level ever attended by the respondent when it is used as a background variable. 8 The wealth index is a composite indicator of wealth. To construct the wealth index, principal components analysis is performed by using information on the ownership of consumer goods, dwelling characteristics, water and sanitation, and other characteristics that are related to the household’s wealth, to generate weights (factor scores) for each of the items used. First, initial factor scores are calculated for the total sample. Then, separate factor scores are calculated for households in urban and rural areas. Finally, the urban and rural factor scores are regressed on the initial factor scores to obtain the combined, final factor scores for the total sample. This is carried out to minimize the urban bias in the wealth index values. Each household in the total sample is then assigned a wealth score based on the assets owned by that household and on the final factor scores obtained as described above. The survey household population is then ranked according to the wealth score of the household they are living in, and is finally divided into 5 equal parts (quintiles) from lowest (poorest) to highest (richest). In Kyrgyzstan MICS, the following assets were used in these calculations: television, non-mobile phone, refrigerator, laptop/planchet, table, armchair, sofa, bed, cupboard, fan, water heater, washing machine, air conditioner, camera, microwave, watch, car, tractor or other machine for household. The wealth index is assumed to capture the underlying long-term wealth through information on the household assets, and is intended to produce a ranking of households by wealth, from poorest to richest. The wealth index does not provide information on absolute poverty, current income or expenditure levels. The wealth scores calculated are applicable for only the particular data set they are based on. Further information on the construction of the wealth index can be found in Filmer, D and Pritchett, L. 2001. Estimating wealth effects without expenditure data – or tears: An application to educational enrolments in states of India. Demography 38(1): 115-132; Rutstein, SO and Johnson, K. 2004. The DHS Wealth Index. DHS Comparative Reports No. 6; and Rutstein, SO. 2008. The DHS Wealth Index: Approaches for Rural and Urban Areas. DHS Working Papers No. 60. 9 When describing survey results by wealth quintiles, appropriate terminology is used when referring to individual household members, such as for instance “women in the richest population quintile”, which is used interchangeably with “women in the wealthiest survey population”, “women living in households in the richest population wealth quintile”, and similar. 14 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table HH.4: Women's background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of women age 15-49 years by selected background characteristics, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Weighted percent Number of women Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 6854 6854 Region Batken 7.9 543 731 Djalal-Abad 19.5 1336 958 Issyk-Kul 6.8 469 591 Naryn 4.1 282 693 Osh 18.6 1277 961 Talas 4.9 333 949 Chui 17.7 1216 683 Bishkek City 15.6 1072 653 Osh City 4.8 326 635 Area Urban 35.4 2424 2626 Rural 64.6 4430 4228 Age 15-19 17.1 1169 1162 20-24 17.7 1214 1155 25-29 16.7 1145 1175 30-34 13.6 935 979 35-39 12.5 854 853 40-44 11.7 804 785 45-49 10.7 733 745 Marital/Union status Currently married/in union 69.3 4750 4889 Widowed 2.1 143 156 Divorced 6.3 428 387 Separated 0.5 35 23 Never married/in union 21.9 1498 1399 Motherhood and recent births Never gave birth 28.3 1936 1806 Ever gave birth 71.7 4918 5048 Gave birth in last two years 24.4 1675 1766 No birth in last two years 47.3 3242 3282 Education None/Primary 0.8 58 40 Basic secondary 13.7 941 901 Complete secondary 41.0 2813 2917 Professional primary/middle 18.4 1258 1289 Higher 26.0 1784 1707 Wealth index quintile Poorest 18.2 1245 1494 Second 18.8 1292 1309 Middle 19.3 1320 1335 Fourth 20.8 1424 1391 Richest 23.0 1574 1325 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 71.4 4891 5159 Russian 8.5 582 374 Uzbek 15.7 1074 1096 Other language 4.4 305 222 Missing 0.0 2 3 15 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table HH.5: Under-5s’ background characteristics Percent and frequency distribution of children under five years of age by selected characteristics, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Weighted percent Number of under-5 children Weighted Unweighted Total 100.0 4577 4577 Sex Male 51.2 2342 2348 Female 48.8 2235 2229 Region Batken 8.9 408 533 Djalal-Abad 20.9 956 631 Issyk-Kul 5.8 264 306 Naryn 4.3 195 447 Osh 22.2 1015 726 Talas 7.7 352 932 Chui 15.6 715 374 Bishkek City 10.4 474 276 Osh City 4.3 198 352 Area Urban 29.7 1360 1503 Rural 70.3 3217 3074 Age 0-5 months 9.9 455 432 6-11 months 11.7 534 522 12-23 months 19.2 880 880 24-35 months 20.5 939 927 36-47 months 20.2 925 944 48-59 months 18.5 845 872 Respondent to the under-5 questionnaire Mother 90.8 4154 4172 Other primary caretaker 9.2 423 405 Mother’s educationa None/Primary 1.3 58 34 Basic secondary 11.6 529 459 Complete secondary 45.9 2102 2129 Professional primary/middle 16.0 732 783 Higher 25.2 1155 1172 Wealth index quintile Poorest 21.5 986 1115 Second 22.7 1039 1011 Middle 20.8 951 970 Fourth 18.0 823 832 Richest 17.0 778 649 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 77.2 3534 3656 Russian 3.9 180 122 Uzbek 14.3 656 656 Other language 4.5 205 140 Missing 0.0 2 3 a In this table and throughout the report, mother's education refers to educational attainment of mothers as well as caretakers of children under 5, who are the respondents to the under-5 questionnaire if the mother is deceased or is living elsewhere. 16 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report By motherhood status, 71.7 percent of women had ever given birth, and 24.4 percent of women gave birth in the two years preceding the survey. By educational attainment, nearly 99 percent of women have at least basic secondary education with the following distribution: nearly 13.7 percent have basic secondary education, 41.0 percent have completed secondary education, 18.4 percent have professional primary/middle education and 26.0 percent completed higher education. The educational level of women has increased significantly. The proportion of women with higher education has increased from 17.6 percent, according to the 2009 Census data, to 26 percent in 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS. Similarly, there was an increase in the proportion of women with professional education (12.0 and 18.4 percent, respectively) and the proportion of women with basic secondary education (from 10.9 percent to 13.7 percent). As far as wealth index quintiles are concerned, fewer women live in households within the poorest quintile —18.2 percent — while 23.0 percent of women live in the households within the richest wealth quintile. Background characteristics of children under 5 are presented in Table HH.5. These include the distribution of children by several attributes: sex, region and area, age in months, respondent type, mother’s (or caretaker’s) education, wealth, and mother tongue. 4,577 children under 5 were surveyed of which 51.2 percent boys, and 48.8 percent girls. Nearly 29.6 percent of children live in urban and 70.3 percent live in rural areas. The percentage distribution of children under 5 by age group is as follows: under 12 months – 21.6 percent, 12-23 months – 19.2 percent, 24-35 months – 20.5 percent, 36-47 months – 20.2 percent and 48-59 months – 18.5 percent. The distribution corresponds closely to the vital registration statistics (as of January 2014) which gives the following figures: under 12 months – 21.1 percent, 12-23 months – 20.9 percent, 24-35 months – 20.2 percent, 36-47 months – 19.7 percent and 48-59 months – 18.1 percent. Among respondents to the questionnaire for children under 5 91 percent were mothers and the remaining 9 percent were the primary caretakers. About 41.2 percent of mothers (or caretakers had professional or higher education, 45.9 percent had completed secondary education and nearly 11.6 percent have basic secondary education. The smallest percentage of children (17.0 percent) live in the richest quintile and the largest (21.5 and 22.7 percent, respectively) in the two bottom wealth quintiles. More than 90 percent of children live in households where the mother tongue of the household head is Kyrgyz (77.2 percent) or Uzbek (14.3 percent). Housing characteristics, asset ownership, and wealth quintiles Tables HH.6, HH.7 and HH.8 provide further details on household level characteristics. HH.6 presents characteristics of housing, disaggregated by area and region, distributed by whether the dwelling has electricity, the main materials of the flooring, roof, and exterior walls, as well as the number of rooms used for sleeping. The vast majority (99.8 percent) of the population live in households with electricity; there are minor differences in access to electricity between urban (99.9 percent) and rural (99.7 percent) areas. The figure is somewhat lower in the Naryn oblast where 97.0 percent of the population have electricity at home. An increase in nationwide coverage by 1.4 percent is observed since 2009, if compared with 2009 Census data. The vast majority of households have a finished floor (97.4 percent), finished roofing (97.8 percent). Nearly 61.8 percent have finished exterior walls with notable variation between urban and rural areas (78.8 and 50.6 percent respectively) and across oblasts. The mean number of persons per room used for sleeping is 2.16 with a minor difference between urban and rural areas, and regions. 17 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table HH.6: Housing characteristics Percent distribution of households by selected housing characteristics, according to area of residence and regions, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Total Area Region U rb an R ur al B at ke n D ja la l- A ba d Is sy k- K ul N ar yn O sh Ta la s C hu i B is hk ek C ity O sh C ity Electricity Yes 99.8 99.9 99.7 99.7 100.0 100.0 97.0 99.8 100.0 99.9 100.0 99.9 No 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 Missing/DK 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 Flooring Natural floor 1.5 0.3 2.3 5.5 4.8 0.0 0.9 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.1 1.7 Rudimentary floor 0.6 0.6 0.5 0.3 1.1 0.5 0.2 0.0 2.7 0.3 0.2 1.7 Finished floor 97.4 98.9 96.4 91.0 93.6 99.5 98.8 99.3 96.8 98.7 99.6 96.2 Other 0.6 0.2 0.8 3.2 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.0 0.0 0.4 Missing/DK 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 Roof Natural roofing 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 Rudimentary roofing 1.5 1.8 1.1 7.4 4.6 0.7 6.8 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Finished roofing 97.8 97.7 98.0 92.6 95.4 98.5 93.2 100.0 97.9 96.6 100.0 99.2 Other 0.5 0.4 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.7 0.0 0.8 Missing/DK 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 Exterior walls Natural walls 8.2 3.2 11.4 64.7 0.4 0.3 58.5 0.2 15.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 Rudimentary walls 29.2 17.5 36.9 6.9 44.6 66.9 9.3 37.4 50.2 15.2 17.8 12.6 Finished walls 61.8 78.8 50.6 28.4 53.3 32.7 32.1 62.3 34.7 82.6 82.2 86.9 Other 0.8 0.4 1.0 0.0 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.3 0.0 0.0 Missing/DK 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 Rooms used for sleeping 1 27.1 43.1 16.7 18.7 20.3 26.9 31.3 4.4 16.7 34.1 50.7 22.5 2 43.1 38.3 46.3 55.8 49.8 51.1 52.4 37.8 51.3 37.3 33.3 45.8 3 or more 28.5 17.2 35.8 25.1 28.9 16.8 16.0 56.7 30.6 27.9 14.7 30.8 Missing/DK 1.3 1.4 1.2 0.4 0.9 5.2 0.3 1.1 1.4 0.7 1.3 0.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households 6934 2739 4195 508 1235 628 323 1028 270 1393 1237 312 Mean number of persons per room used for sleeping 2.16 2.07 2.22 2.40 2.34 1.95 2.57 2.14 2.80 1.96 2.00 2.01 In Table HH.7 households are distributed according to ownership of assets by households and by individual household members. This also includes ownership of dwelling. 18 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table HH.7: Household and personal assets Percentage of households by ownership of selected household and personal assets, and percent distribution by ownership of dwelling, according to area of residence and regions, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Total Area Region U rb an R ur al B at ke n D ja la l-A ba d Is sy k- K ul N ar yn O sh Ta la s C hu i B is hk ek C ity O sh C ity Percentage of households that own a Radio 30.0 28.9 30.8 28.1 22.4 31.4 37.8 35.7 28.4 29.0 35.4 18.6 Television 98.9 99.1 98.9 99.0 99.5 99.7 96.1 98.6 100.0 98.5 99.5 97.9 Non-mobile telephone 27.0 51.1 11.2 6.2 8.3 34.2 13.9 2.9 12.2 33.5 63.4 51.8 Refrigerator 84.8 91.5 80.4 72.1 74.4 85.4 69.0 88.2 74.2 91.7 94.0 91.8 Computer/Laptop/Tablet 28.7 44.2 18.6 20.7 14.2 16.2 11.5 15.8 18.8 38.8 55.9 41.1 Table 91.8 95.4 89.5 69.5 79.6 98.3 92.8 97.7 98.1 96.4 98.2 91.7 Armchair 60.1 65.4 56.7 37.6 55.3 66.8 39.6 57.7 66.2 70.9 65.6 56.0 Sofa 67.0 71.5 64.1 50.0 63.3 72.8 62.6 68.8 70.2 68.1 75.2 55.4 Bed 80.6 79.0 81.7 63.4 72.8 76.4 79.2 90.2 78.8 87.5 85.1 70.5 Cupboard 94.7 95.2 94.4 85.3 93.0 98.5 93.8 98.2 91.6 94.6 96.8 93.7 Fan 30.5 35.8 27.1 28.1 31.3 1.6 3.7 30.4 19.6 41.5 39.7 42.2 Water Heater 19.2 31.7 11.1 8.0 14.3 20.6 9.3 1.6 13.9 34.0 23.1 45.7 Three phase electricty 8.8 8.4 9.1 1.7 0.8 6.2 13.7 0.2 21.8 23.0 9.3 4.2 Washing machine 28.9 49.9 15.1 5.3 15.6 28.4 8.1 0.8 12.1 45.2 63.9 36.8 Air conditioning 4.7 7.0 3.1 1.3 2.5 0.4 0.4 4.1 1.5 7.8 8.9 5.4 Camera 18.2 23.9 14.5 15.6 13.8 9.8 6.8 15.6 12.3 24.9 25.4 24.4 Microwave 21.9 31.9 15.5 10.4 10.8 19.9 4.5 14.5 16.1 33.6 38.2 20.0 Bath in the house 26.0 56.6 6.0 11.6 18.8 11.0 8.6 0.6 7.3 31.3 65.8 44.6 Toilet in the house 24.8 54.9 5.0 11.4 18.4 12.2 8.7 0.3 5.3 28.2 62.4 45.8 Percentage of households that own Agricultural land 61.8 30.2 82.4 82.5 67.8 82.5 74.4 83.5 79.8 58.4 27.5 12.9 Farm animals/Livestock 48.5 14.2 70.9 66.5 61.9 56.1 72.0 74.1 64.5 44.9 5.0 17.7 Percentage of households where at least one member owns or has a Watch 38.3 45.2 33.8 27.4 26.7 29.0 33.7 50.1 30.3 33.2 61.6 24.0 Mobile telephone 98.0 97.6 98.2 98.7 97.7 99.1 97.7 99.3 99.3 97.1 96.8 98.7 Bicycle 24.1 13.8 30.8 31.7 24.5 17.4 13.3 44.8 33.9 26.9 7.5 11.9 Motorcycle or scooter 1.2 0.6 1.6 3.6 0.2 1.0 0.4 1.7 1.1 2.0 0.3 0.7 Animal-drawn cart 7.8 0.4 12.7 5.7 4.4 11.0 16.9 23.8 12.4 3.8 0.2 0.3 Car 48.7 44.3 51.6 53.6 47.2 46.8 40.9 62.4 52.1 45.3 42.6 50.7 Boat with a motor 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Tractor or other machine for household 3.9 1.0 5.8 4.4 2.6 4.1 9.6 5.8 10.2 4.6 0.3 1.4 Bank account 1.9 2.6 1.5 1.4 0.8 1.0 3.3 0.7 0.8 3.0 3.0 3.4 Ownership of dwelling Owned by a household member 91.3 83.8 96.2 94.6 95.4 93.4 93.7 99.8 93.3 89.0 81.2 83.2 Not owned 8.7 16.2 3.8 5.4 4.6 6.4 6.3 0.2 6.7 11.0 18.8 16.8 Rented 8.5 15.8 3.8 5.4 4.5 6.4 6.2 0.2 6.7 11.0 18.3 15.4 Other 0.2 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 1.4 Missing/DK 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households 6934 2739 4195 508 1235 628 323 1028 270 1393 1237 312 19 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The majority of households, both in urban and in rural areas, have a TV (98.9 percent), refrigerator (84.8 percent), table (91.8 percent), bed (80.6 percent), cupboard (94.7 percent), sofa (67.0 percent) and armchairs (60.1 percent). Less than one third of households have a landline phone (27.0 percent), computer or laptop (28.7 percent), washing machine (28.9 percent), microwave (21.9 percent) - the ownership of these household assets is notably different between urban and rural areas. A much larger percentage of households own agricultural land (82.4 percent) and farm animals/ livestock (70.9 percent) in rural areas than in urban areas (30.2 percent and 14.2 percent respectively). Around half (48.7 percent) of households own a car with a minor difference between urban and rural areas. Cell phones are the most common item to be owned by at least one member of a household at 98.0 percent while just less than 2 percent of households have a bank account. Regarding ownership of dwelling, 91.3 percent of the dwellings were owned by one of the household members. Table HH.8 shows how the household populations in areas and regions are distributed according to household wealth quintiles. There are notable differences in the distribution of population by wealth index across regions and by urban and rural areas. Nearly 27.1 percent of the rural population belong to the poorest quintile compared to 4.5 percent from urban areas. The proportion of the population living in the poorest wealth quintile is highest in Batken (51.5 percent) oblast and lowest in Bishkek city (less than one percent). These findings appear to be in line with NSC data on poverty in the country. Table HH.8: Wealth quintiles Percent distribution of the household population by wealth index quintile, according to area of residence and regions, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Wealth index quintile Total Number of household membersPoorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Total 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 29786 Area Urban 4.5 3.8 10.5 27.6 53.5 100.0 9393 Rural 27.1 27.5 24.4 16.5 4.5 100.0 20393 Region Batken 51.5 20.5 14.0 6.3 7.7 100.0 2432 Djalal-Abad 26.9 27.4 23.3 9.3 13.0 100.0 5883 Issyk-Kul 19.6 23.9 22.1 23.4 11.0 100.0 2245 Naryn 49.8 22.5 11.2 9.9 6.7 100.0 1411 Osh Oblast 23.7 34.8 25.6 15.6 0.3 100.0 5900 Talas 18.5 25.0 29.6 22.1 4.8 100.0 1519 Chui 3.3 8.1 23.1 38.5 27.0 100.0 5312 Bishkek City 0.2 1.5 5.1 23.8 69.5 100.0 3812 Osh City 9.0 5.3 17.0 30.5 38.2 100.0 1273 IV. Child Mortality 21 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report One of the overarching goals of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) is to reduce infant and under-five mortality. Specifically, the MDGs call for the reduction of under-five mortality by two- thirds between 1990 and 2015. Monitoring progress towards this goal is an important but difficult objective. Mortality rates presented in this chapter are calculated from information collected in the birth histories of the Women’s Questionnaires. All interviewed women were asked whether they had ever given birth, and if yes, they were asked to report the number of sons and daughters who live with them, the number who live elsewhere, and the number who have died. In addition, they were asked to provide a detailed birth history of live births of children in chronological order starting with the firstborn. Women were asked whether births were single or multiple, the sex of the children, the date of birth (month and year), and survival status. Further, for children still alive, they were asked the current age of the child and, if not alive, the age at death. Childhood mortality rates are expressed by conventional age categories and are defined as follows: • Neonatal mortality (NN): probability of dying within the first month of life • Post-neonatal mortality (PNN): difference between infant and neonatal mortality rates • Infant mortality (1q0): probability of dying between birth and the first birthday • Child mortality (4q1): probability of dying between the first and the fifth birthdays • Under-five mortality (5q0): the probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday Rates are expressed as deaths per 1,000 live births, except in the case of child mortality, which is expressed as deaths per 1,000 children surviving to age one, and post-neonatal mortality, which is the difference between infant and neonatal mortality rates. Table CM.1: Early childhood mortality rates Neonatal, post-neonatal, Infant, child and under-five mortality rates for five year periods preceding the survey, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Neonatal mortality rate1 Post-neonatal mortality rate2, a Infant mortality rate3 Child mortality rate4 Under-five mortality rate5 Years preceding the survey 0-4 17 7 24 6 29 5-9 16 9 25 6 31 10-14 18 17 35 6 40 1 MICS indicator 1.1 - Neonatal mortality rate 2 MICS indicator 1.3 - Post-neonatal mortality rate 3 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2 - Infant mortality rate 4 MICS indicator 1.4 - Child mortality rate 5 MICS indicator 1.5; MDG indicator 4.1 - Under-five mortality rate a Post-neonatal mortality rates are computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates Table CM.1 and Figure CM.1 present neonatal, post-neonatal, infant, child, and under-five mortality rates for the three most recent five-year periods before the survey. Neonatal mortality in the most recent 5-year period is estimated at 17 per 1,000 live births, while the post-neonatal mortality rate is estimated at 7 per 1,000 live births. 22 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Figure CM.1: Early childhood mortality rates, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 18 17 35 6 40 16 9 25 6 31 17 7 24 6 29 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 Neonatal mortality rate Post-neonatal mortality rate Infant mortality rate Child mortality rate Under-five mortality rate Years preceding the survey Note: Indicator values are per 1,000 live births: 10-14 5-9 0-4 The infant mortality rate in the five years preceding the survey is 24 per 1,000 live births and under-five mortality is 29 deaths per 1,000 live births for the same period, indicating that majority (83 percent) of under-five deaths are infant deaths. Table CM.2: Early childhood mortality rates by socioeconomic characteristics Neonatal, post-neonatal, Infant, child and under-five mortality rates for the five year period preceding the survey, by socioeconomic characteristics, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Neonatal mortality rate1 Post-neonatal mortality rate2, a Infant mortality rate3 Child mortality rate4 Under-five mortality rate5 Total 17 7 24 6 29 Region Batken (21) (9) (30) (2) (32) Djalal-Abad 16 3 20 5 24 Issyk-Kul (26) (14) (40) (4) (43) Naryn (10) (17) (27) (7) (34) Osh Oblast 25 9 34 (16) (49) Talas 14 3 17 1 18 Chui (8) (8) (16) (2) (18) Bishkek City (14) (0) (14) (*) (*) Osh City (9) (9) (17) (*) (*) 23 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Neonatal mortality rate1 Post-neonatal mortality rate2, a Infant mortality rate3 Child mortality rate4 Under-five mortality rate5 Area Urban 13 3 17 4 20 Rural 18 9 27 7 33 Mother's education Primary/None (11) (6) (17) (5) (21) Complete secondary 19 9 28 8 36 Professional primary/ middle 21 6 27 3 30 Higher 12 3 15 4 19 Wealth index quintile Poorest 27 8 35 2 37 Second 15 8 23 13 36 Middle 13 9 22 6 28 Fourth 20 2 22 4 26 Richest 8 7 15 3 18 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 16 7 22 6 28 Russian (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Uzbek 19 9 28 (3) (31) Other language (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 1 MICS indicator 1.1 - Neonatal mortality rate 2 MICS indicator 1.3 - Post-neonatal mortality rate 3 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2 - Infant mortality rate 4 MICS indicator 1.4 - Child mortality rate 5 MICS indicator 1.5; MDG indicator 4.1 - Under-five mortality rate a Post-neonatal mortality rates are computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 250 unweighted person-years of exposure ( ) – Figures that are based on 250 – 499 unweighted person-years of exposure 24 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CM.3: Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics Neonatal, post-neonatal, Infant, child and under-five mortality rates for the five year period preceding the survey, by demographic characteristics, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Neonatal mortality rate1 Post-neonatal mortality rate2, a Infant mortality rate3 Child mortality rate4 Under-five mortality rate5 Total 17 7 24 6 29 Sex of child Male 17 8 25 5 30 Female 16 6 22 7 28 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 (14) (20) (33) (4) (37) 20-34 17 6 23 6 28 35-49 (16) (5) (21) (8) (29) Birth order 1 28 6 34 4 38 2-3 10 7 17 6 23 4-6 13 7 21 10 30 7+ (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Previous birth intervalb < 2 years 23 8 31 3 34 2 years 10 9 19 (9) (28) 3 years (13) (2) (15) (5) (20) 4+ years 10 4 14 10 24 1 MICS indicator 1.1 - Neonatal mortality rate 2 MICS indicator 1.3 - Post-neonatal mortality rate 3 MICS indicator 1.2; MDG indicator 4.2 - Infant mortality rate 4 MICS indicator 1.4 - Child mortality rate 5 MICS indicator 1.5; MDG indicator 4.1 - Under-five mortality rate a Post-neonatal mortality rates are computed as the difference between the infant and neonatal mortality rates b Excludes first order births (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 250 unweighted person-years of exposure ( ) – Figures that are based on 250 – 499 unweighted person-years of exposure Tables CM.2 and CM.3 provide estimates of child mortality by socioeconomic and demographic characteristics. There is some difference between the probabilities of dying among males and females; infant mortality in boys is higher than in girls standing at 25 and 22 per 1,000 live births, while the under-five mortality rate is 30 and 28, respectively. Difference between urban and rural areas is more evident: infant and under-5 mortality rates are much lower in urban areas (17 and 20, respectively) while the rates for rural children are about 1.6 times higher (27 and 33, respectively). Figure CM.2 provides a graphical presentation of these differences. There are also differences in mortality in terms of educational levels, wealth, and mother tongue of household head. 25 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Figure CM.2: Under-5 mortality rates by area and region, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 29 (21) 36 30 19 37 18 36 28 26 20 33 0 10 20 30 40 Kyrgyzstan Primary Secondary Professional primary/middle Higher Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Urban Rural Under 5 years Mortality Rates per 1,000 Births ( ) – Figures that are based on 250-499 unweighted person-years of exposure Figure CM.3 compares the findings of 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS on under-5 mortality rates with those from other data sources; three surveys, 2012 DHS, 2006 MICS and 2014 MICS as well as the vital registration (VR) system statistics. 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS findings are obtained from Table CM.1. A decline in mortality estimates in the last 15 years is observed. The most recent U5MR estimate (29 per thousand live births for 0-4 years preceeding the survey) from the 2014 MICS is very close to the average derived from the vital registration system for the same period, while the trend indicated by the survey results are in broad agreement with vital registration data and those in the previous 2006 MICS survey. The mortality data and trend depicted by the 2012 DHS is also a declining one coinciding very well with those indicated by 2014 MICS. Further qualification of these apparent declines and differences as well as its determinants should be taken up in a more detailed and separate analysis. 26 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Figure CM.3: Trend in under-5 mortality rates, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 2012 2014 DHS 2012 MICS 2006 VR MICS 2014 pe r 1 ,0 00 li ve b irt hs V. Nutrition 28 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Low Birth Weight Weight at birth is a good indicator not only of a mother's health and nutritional status but also the newborn's chances for survival, growth, long-term health and psychosocial development. Low birth weight (defined as less than 2,500 grams) carries a range of grave health risks for children. Babies who were undernourished in the womb face a greatly increased risk of dying during their early days, months and years. Those who survive may have impaired immune function and increased risk of disease; they are likely to remain undernourished, with reduced muscle strength, throughout their lives, and suffer a higher incidence of diabetes and heart disease in later life. Children born with low birth weight also risk a lower IQ and cognitive disabilities, affecting their performance in school and their job opportunities as adults. In the developing world, low birth weight stems primarily from the mother's poor health and nutrition. Three factors have most impact: the mother's poor nutritional status before conception, short stature (due mostly to under nutrition and infections during her childhood), and poor nutrition during pregnancy. Inadequate weight gain during pregnancy is particularly important since it accounts for a large proportion of foetal growth retardation. Moreover, diseases such as diarrhoea and malaria, which are common in many developing countries, can significantly impair foetal growth if the mother becomes infected while pregnant. In the industrialized world, cigarette smoking during pregnancy is the leading cause of low birth weight. In developed and developing countries alike, teenagers who give birth when their own bodies have yet to finish growing run a higher risk of bearing low birth weight babies. One of the major challenges in measuring the incidence of low birth weight is that more than half of infants in the developing world are not weighed at birth. In the past, most estimates of low birth weight for developing countries were based on data compiled from health facilities. However, these estimates are biased for most developing countries because the majority of newborns are not delivered in facilities, and those who are represent only a selected sample of all births. Because many infants are not weighed at birth and those who are weighed may be a biased sample of all births, the reported birth weights usually cannot be used to estimate the prevalence of low birth weight among all children. Therefore, the percentage of births weighing below 2500 grams is estimated from two items in the questionnaire: the mother’s assessment of the child’s size at birth (i.e., very small, smaller than average, average, larger than average, very large) and the mother’s recall of the child’s weight or the weight as recorded on a health card if the child was weighed at birth10. 10 For a detailed description of the methodology, see Boerma, JT et al. 1996. Data on Birth Weight in Developing Countries: Can Surveys Help? Bulletin of the World Health Organization 74(2): 209-16 29 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table NU.1: Low birth weight infants Percentage of last live-born children in the last two years that are estimated to have weighed below 2,500 grams at birth and percentage of live births weighed at birth, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percent distribution of births by mother's assessment of size at birth Total Percentage of live births: Number of last live-born children in the last two years Very small Smaller than average Average Larger than average or very large DK Below 2,500 grams1 Weighed at birth2 Total 1.7 10.2 71.8 14.8 1.5 100.0 5.9 97.5 1675 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 years 2.3 16.0 72.1 8.6 1.1 100.0 7.8 97.5 138 20-34 years 1.9 9.6 72.0 15.2 1.4 100.0 5.8 97.7 1340 35-49 years 0.7 10.1 70.1 16.6 2.6 100.0 5.5 96.3 197 Birth order 1 1.7 14.8 73.0 9.4 1.2 100.0 6.6 97.8 473 2-3 1.7 8.5 72.8 15.5 1.5 100.0 5.5 97.6 867 4-5 1.9 7.4 67.7 21.8 1.3 100.0 5.3 97.7 281 6+ 3.0 10.2 64.5 15.4 6.9 100.0 9.5 92.1 54 Region Batken 3.0 9.1 56.3 30.0 1.6 100.0 6.4 98.0 148 Djalal-Abad 0.8 8.6 75.3 14.1 1.1 100.0 4.5 98.1 351 Issyk-Kul 0.6 12.1 78.7 5.1 3.5 100.0 6.4 95.7 97 Naryn 2.6 11.9 72.9 10.2 2.4 100.0 7.3 93.7 56 Osh Oblast 1.3 15.0 70.5 12.3 0.9 100.0 6.6 97.3 366 Talas 0.0 9.1 74.5 14.5 1.9 100.0 4.4 97.7 124 Chui 4.4 6.6 76.8 9.3 2.9 100.0 8.2 97.3 260 Bishkek City 1.6 7.8 68.2 22.3 0.0 100.0 4.6 97.8 197 Osh City 0.7 11.9 69.0 16.3 2.1 100.0 5.4 99.5 76 Area Urban 1.6 7.8 70.8 18.8 1.0 100.0 4.9 97.9 539 Rural 1.8 11.3 72.2 12.9 1.8 100.0 6.4 97.3 1137 Mother’s education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) 15 Basic secondary 2.3 10.4 73.7 11.5 2.1 100.0 6.8 97.7 200 Complete secondary 1.8 9.8 69.7 17.3 1.5 100.0 5.8 97.6 757 Professional primary/ middle 2.4 13.8 70.2 12.1 1.5 100.0 7.5 99.6 234 Higher 1.1 7.2 76.4 14.0 1.3 100.0 4.6 97.6 469 Cannot be determined - - - - - 100.0 - - 0 Missing/DK - - - - - 100.0 - - 0 Wealth index quintile Poorest 2.1 11.5 69.3 15.1 1.9 100.0 6.6 95.7 336 Second 0.9 11.1 70.9 15.8 1.4 100.0 5.2 97.9 372 Middle 2.3 10.0 76.6 10.3 0.7 100.0 6.2 98.0 349 Fourth 2.0 10.8 69.1 15.7 2.3 100.0 6.8 97.9 312 Richest 1.5 7.0 72.6 17.5 1.5 100.0 5.0 98.2 306 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 1.8 9.7 71.4 15.7 1.4 100.0 5.9 97.7 1283 Russian (3.3) (3.4) (81.2) (12.2) (0.0) 100.0 (5.1) (100.0) 63 Uzbek 0.3 11.6 72.4 13.9 1.8 100.0 4.9 97.6 256 Other language 4.3 18.8 68.2 5.1 3.5 100.0 11.3 91.4 73 1 MICS indicator 2.20 - Low-birthweight infants 2 MICS indicator 2.21 - Infants weighed at birth "-" denotes 0 unweighted case in that cell or in the denominator (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 30 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Overall, 97.5 percent of births were weighed at birth and 5.9 percent of infants are estimated to weigh less than 2,500 grams at birth (Table NU.1). There is no notable variation by region. The prevalence of low birth weight also does not vary much by urban and rural areas or by mother’s education. Nutritional Status Children’s nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to an adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they reach their growth potential and are considered well nourished. Undernutrition is associated with more than half of all child deaths worldwide. Undernourished children are more likely to die from common childhood ailments, and for those who survive, have recurring sicknesses and faltering growth. Three-quarters of children who die from causes related to malnutrition were only mildly or moderately malnourished – showing no outward sign of their vulnerability. The Millennium Development Goal target is to reduce by half the proportion of people who suffer from hunger between 1990 and 2015. A reduction in the prevalence of malnutrition will also assist in the goal to reduce child mortality. In a well-nourished population, there is a reference distribution of height and weight for children under age five. Under-nourishment in a population can be gauged by comparing children to a reference population. The reference population used in this report is based on the WHO growth standards11. Each of the three nutritional status indicators – weight-for-age, height-for-age, and weight-for-height - can be expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of the reference population. Weight-for-age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight- for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely underweight while those whose weight-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. Height-for-age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height-for-age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Those whose height-for-age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. Weight-for-height can be used to assess wasting and overweight status. Children whose weight- for-height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely wasted, while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator of wasting may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. Children whose weight-for-height is more than two standard deviations above the median reference population are classified as moderately or severely overweight. In MICS, weights and heights of all children under 5 years of age were measured using the anthropometric equipment recommended12. by UNICEF. Findings in this section are based on the results of these measurements. 11 http://www.who.int/childgrowth/standards/technical_report 12 See MICS Supply Procurement Instructions: http://mics.unicef.org/tools 31 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table NU.2: Nutritional status of children Percentage of children under age 5 by nutritional status according to three anthropometric indices: weight for age, height for age, and weight for height, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Weight for age N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 Height for age N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 Weight for height N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 Under- weight M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) Stunted M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) Wasted Over- weight M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) Percent below Percent below Percent below P er ce nt ab ov e – 2 S D 1 – 3 S D 2 – 2 S D 3 – 3 S D 4 – 2 S D 5 – 3 S D 6 + 2 S D 7 Total 2.8 0.6 -0.1 4441 12.9 3.4 -0.7 4412 2.8 0.8 7.0 0.4 4414 Sex Male 2.9 0.6 -0.1 2269 13.8 3.4 -0.7 2248 2.8 0.8 7.8 0.5 2255 Female 2.6 0.6 -0.1 2172 12.0 3.4 -0.7 2164 2.9 0.9 6.1 0.4 2160 Region Batken 2.3 0.4 -0.2 402 13.6 1.3 -0.8 402 2.2 0.8 3.4 0.3 401 Djalal-Abad 6.9 1.4 -0.4 945 21.3 7.7 -0.9 931 7.9 2.5 8.7 0.2 934 Issyk-Kul 1.7 1.1 -0.1 262 14.1 2.8 -0.9 258 1.7 0.3 7.8 0.6 261 Naryn 2.9 0.7 -0.1 189 16.4 5.3 -0.9 188 0.5 0.2 6.2 0.5 189 Osh Oblast 1.0 0.2 0.0 1001 10.6 1.8 -0.8 1000 1.1 0.3 4.7 0.5 1001 Talas 2.0 0.3 0.0 352 11.0 2.2 -0.8 352 1.0 0.4 7.3 0.6 352 Chui 1.6 0.0 0.1 637 7.6 1.9 -0.4 631 1.5 0.3 9.0 0.5 628 Bishkek City 1.1 0.5 0.2 467 7.6 2.5 -0.3 467 2.1 0.6 9.5 0.6 467 Osh City 3.9 0.5 -0.2 187 12.1 3.3 -0.7 183 2.4 0.0 4.3 0.3 182 Area Urban 1.9 0.5 0.0 1310 11.8 3.1 -0.6 1303 2.6 0.6 8.2 0.5 1300 Rural 3.1 0.6 -0.1 3131 13.4 3.5 -0.8 3110 2.9 0.9 6.5 0.4 3114 Age 0-5 months 2.5 0.2 0.2 441 5.3 2.5 0.1 438 6.5 2.7 9.0 0.2 429 6-11 months 2.2 0.7 0.4 528 7.2 2.0 0.0 525 3.1 0.3 11.5 0.6 527 12-17 months 1.4 0.0 0.2 408 11.2 2.4 -0.6 407 2.3 0.4 11.1 0.7 407 18-23 months 2.9 1.1 0.0 456 18.2 6.3 -0.9 453 2.2 0.9 6.8 0.6 453 24-35 months 3.5 1.0 -0.2 907 18.6 5.6 -1.0 897 1.6 0.3 6.8 0.5 900 36-47 months 3.2 0.4 -0.3 878 14.6 3.0 -1.0 874 2.9 0.6 5.0 0.4 877 48-59 months 2.8 0.4 -0.4 823 10.5 1.7 -0.9 818 2.7 1.2 3.3 0.2 821 Mother’s education None/primary (0.0) (0.0) (-0.2) 56 (26.5) (8.3) (-1.4) 56 (1.3) (0.0) (8.3) (0.8) 56 Basic secondary 4.6 0.9 -0.3 519 17.1 4.4 -0.8 514 3.2 0.4 4.9 0.3 512 Complete secondary 2.6 0.6 -0.1 2062 13.5 2.7 -0.8 2052 3.2 0.9 6.7 0.4 2058 Professional primary/middle 3.6 0.8 -0.1 700 11.8 3.6 -0.7 694 2.1 0.7 7.2 0.5 689 Higher 1.8 0.4 0.1 1104 9.8 3.8 -0.5 1096 2.5 1.1 8.3 0.5 1099 32 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Weight for age N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 Height for age N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 Weight for height N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 Under- weight M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) Stunted M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) Wasted Over- weight M ea n Z- S co re (S D ) Percent below Percent below Percent below P er ce nt ab ov e – 2 S D 1 – 3 S D 2 – 2 S D 3 – 3 S D 4 – 2 S D 5 – 3 S D 6 + 2 S D 7 Wealth index quintile Poorest 3.5 0.8 -0.2 971 17.7 4.4 -0.9 970 3.1 1.0 6.2 0.4 970 Second 4.0 0.8 -0.2 1020 14.2 3.8 -0.8 1010 3.6 1.6 4.4 0.4 1015 Middle 2.1 0.5 -0.1 919 10.1 2.6 -0.7 911 2.4 0.3 7.0 0.5 910 Fourth 2.4 0.3 0.1 795 10.7 2.7 -0.6 789 1.6 0.2 9.2 0.6 788 Richest 1.6 0.4 0.1 736 10.7 3.2 -0.4 732 3.3 1.0 9.2 0.5 731 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 2.4 0.6 0.0 3421 12.0 2.9 -0.7 3405 2.4 0.9 7.0 0.5 3404 Russian 3.4 0.0 0.1 172 11.7 2.4 -0.5 167 2.8 0.0 13.4 0.6 171 Uzbek 4.7 0.6 -0.3 648 17.1 5.9 -0.8 645 5.3 1.2 6.5 0.3 645 Other language 3.1 0.0 -0.3 197 15.8 5.5 -0.8 193 2.4 0.0 2.8 0.3 192 1 MICS indicator 2.1a and MDG indicator 1.8 - Underweight prevalence (moderate and severe) 2 MICS indicator 2.1b - Underweight prevalence (severe) 3 MICS indicator 2.2a - Stunting prevalence (moderate and severe) 4 MICS indicator 2.2b - Stunting prevalence (severe) 5 MICS indicator 2.3a - Wasting prevalence (moderate and severe) 6 MICS indicator 2.3b - Wasting prevalence (severe) 7 MICS indicator 2.4 - Overweight prevalence ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table NU.2 shows percentages of children classified into each of the above described categories, based on the anthropometric measurements that were taken during fieldwork. Additionally, the table includes mean z-scores for all three anthropometric indicators. Children whose full birth date (month and year) were not obtained and children whose measurements are outside a plausible range are excluded from Table NU.2. Additionally, children are excluded from one or more of the anthropometric indicators when their weights and heights have not been measured, whichever applicable. For example, if a child has been weighed but his/ her height has not been measured, the child is included in underweight calculations, but not in the calculations for stunting and wasting. Percentages of children by age and reasons for exclusion are shown in the data quality Tables DQ.10, DQ.11, and DQ.12 in Appendix D. The tables show that due to incomplete dates of birth, implausible measurements, and/or missing weight and/or height, 3.0 percent of children have been excluded from calculations of the weight-for-age indicator, 3.6 percent from the height-for-age indicator, and 3.6 percent for the weight-for-height indicator. In Kyrgyzstan, 2.8 percent of children under age five are moderately or severely underweight and 0.6 percent are classified as severely underweight (Table NU.2). At the same time, 12.9 percent of children are moderately or severely underweight stunted or too short for their age and 2.8 percent are moderately or severely underweight wasted or too thin for their height. More than 7 percent of children are overweight, or too heavy for their height. 33 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Children in Djalal-Abad oblast are more likely to be underweight and stunted than other children. The percentage of overweight children ranges from 3.4 percent in the Batken oblast to 9.5 percent in Bishkek City. Those children whose mothers have complete secondary or higher education are the least likely to be underweight and stunted compared to children of mothers with no or lower education. Boys appear to be slightly more likely to be underweight and stunted than girls are. The age pattern (Figure NU.1) shows an increase in stunting and underweight rates approximately at age 18 months at which many children cease to be breastfed and are exposed to risk on unbalanced complimantary feeding, contamination in water, food, and environment. Figure NU.1: Underweight, stunted, wasted and overweight children under age 5 (moderate and severe), Kyrgyzstan, 2014 UnderweightStunted WastedOverweight 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 0 12 24 36 48 60 Pe rc en t Age in months Breastfeeding and Infant and Young Child Feeding Proper feeding of infants and young children can increase their chances of survival; it can also promote optimal growth and development, especially in the critical window from birth to 2 years of age. Breastfeeding for the first few years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers do not start to breastfeed early enough, do not breastfeed exclusively for the recommended 6 months or stop breastfeeding too soon. There are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and can be unsafe if hygienic conditions, including safe drinking water are not readily available. Studies have shown that, in addition to continued breastfeeding, consumption of appropriate, adequate and safe solid, semi-solid and soft foods from the age of 6 months onwards leads to better health and growth outcomes, with potential to reduce stunting during the first two years of life13. 13 Bhuta Z. et al. 2013. Evidence-based interventions for improvement of maternal and child nutrition: what can be done and at what cost? The Lancet June 6, 2013. 34 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report UNICEF and WHO recommend that infants be breastfed within one hour of birth, breastfed exclusively for the first six months of life and continue to be breastfed up to 2 years of age and beyond14. Information on breastfeeding of children under 6 months is provided in Table NU.3. Starting at 6 months, breastfeeding should be combined with safe, age-appropriate feeding of solid, semi-solid and soft foods15. A summary of key guiding principles16,17 for feeding 6-23 month olds is provided in the table below (see Box NU.1) along with proximate measures for these guidelines collected in this survey. The guiding principles for which proximate measures and indicators exist are: (i) continued breastfeeding; (ii) appropriate frequency of meals (but not energy density); and (iii) appropriate nutrient content of food. 1 8 Box NU.1 Guiding Principle (age 6-23 months) Proximate measures Table Continue frequent, on-demand breastfeeding for two years and beyond Breastfed in the last 24 hours NU.4 Appropriate frequency and energy density of meals Breastfed children Depending on age, two or three meals/snacks provided in the last 24 hours Non-breastfed children Four meals/snacks and/or milk feeds provided in the last 24 hours NU.6 Appropriate nutrient content of food Four food groups18 eaten in the last 24 hours NU.6 Appropriate amount of food No standard indicator exists na Appropriate consistency of food No standard indicator exists na Use of vitamin-mineral supplements or fortified products for infant and mother No standard indicator exists na Practice good hygiene and proper food handling While it was not possible to develop indicators to fully capture programme guidance, one standard indicator does cover part of the principle: Not feeding with a bottle with a nipple NU.9 Practice responsive feeding, applying the principles of psycho-social care No standard indicator exists na Feeding frequency is used as proxy for energy intake, requiring children to receive a minimum number of meals/snacks (and milk feeds for non-breastfed children) for their age. Dietary diversity is used to ascertain the adequacy of the nutrient content of the food (not including iron) consumed. For dietary diversity, seven food groups were created for which a child consuming at least four of these is considered to have a better quality diet. In most populations, consumption of at least four food groups means that the child has a high likelihood of consuming at least one animal-source food and at least one fruit or vegetable, in addition to a staple food (grain, root or tuber)19. These three dimensions of child feeding are combined into an assessment of the children who received appropriate feeding, using the indicator of “minimum acceptable diet”. To have a minimum acceptable diet in the previous day, a child must have received: (i) the appropriate number of meals/snacks/milk feeds; (ii) food items form at least 4 food groups; and (iii) breastmilk or at least 2 milk feeds (for non-breastfed children). 14 WHO. 2003. Implementing the Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. Meeting Report Geneva, 3-5 February 2003. 15 WHO. 2003. Global Strategy for Infant and Young Child Feeding. 16 PAHO. 2003. Guiding principles for complementary feeding of the breastfed child. 17 WHO. 2005. Guiding principles for feeding non-breastfed children 6-24 months of age. 18 Food groups used for assessment of this indicator are 1) Grains, roots and tubers, 2) legumes and nuts, 3) dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese), 4) flesh foods (meat, fish, poultry and liver/organ meats), 5) eggs, 6) vitamin-A rich fruits and vegetables, and 7) other fruits and vegetables. 19 WHO. 2008. Indicators for assessing infant and young child feeding practices. Part 1: Definitions. 35 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table NU.3: Initial breastfeeding Percentage of last live-born children in the last two years who were ever breastfed, breastfed within one hour of birth, and within one day of birth, and percentage who received a prelacteal feed, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage who were ever breastfed1 Percentage who were first breastfed: Percentage who received a prelacteal feed Number of last live- born children in the last two years Within one hour of birth2 Within one day of birth Region Batken 98.4 83.3 93.1 9.3 148 Djalal-Abad 98.9 80.4 92.1 10.3 351 Issyk-Kul 95.6 82.8 90.2 4.6 97 Naryn 98.4 84.4 95.1 6.2 56 Osh Oblast 97.6 92.3 95.6 5.0 366 Talas 97.7 92.0 93.4 7.6 124 Chui 96.1 67.3 87.9 7.8 260 Bishkek City 96.6 78.8 90.9 20.0 197 Osh City 98.8 87.2 96.7 7.5 76 Area Urban 97.9 82.4 93.6 13.0 539 Rural 97.4 82.5 91.9 7.1 1137 Months since last birth 0-11 months 98.7 83.8 93.1 9.8 915 12-23 months 96.2 80.9 91.6 8.0 760 Assistance at delivery Skilled attendant 98.6 83.4 93.4 9.2 1648 Other (*) (*) (*) (*) 8 No one/Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) 19 Place of delivery Public sector health facility 98.5 83.5 93.5 9.0 1627 Private sector health facility (*) (*) (*) (*) 21 Home (*) (*) (*) (*) 11 Other/Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) 17 Mother’s education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) 15 Basic secondary 97.2 85.1 93.8 8.5 200 Complete secondary 97.0 81.9 91.2 8.5 757 Professional primary/middle 99.0 82.4 94.1 6.0 234 Higher 98.0 82.2 93.1 11.8 469 Wealth index quintile Poorest 96.5 83.4 92.3 6.0 336 Second 98.2 86.2 94.1 8.6 372 Middle 98.8 83.7 91.1 10.1 349 Fourth 95.0 79.8 92.9 5.3 312 Richest 99.2 78.3 91.7 15.6 306 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 97.5 82.4 92.3 10.0 1283 Russian (95.2) (70.9) (85.7) (9.6) 63 Uzbek 98.9 87.4 94.9 5.5 256 Other language 96.8 76.2 92.9 3.5 73 1 MICS indicator 2.5 - Children ever breastfed 2 MICS indicator 2.6 - Early initiation of breastfeeding (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 36 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table NU.3 is based on mothers’ reports of what their last-born child, born in the last two years, was fed in the first few days of life. It indicates the proportion who were ever breastfed, those who were first breastfed within one hour and one day of birth, and those who received a prelacteal feed20. Although a very important step in management of lactation and establishment of a physical and emotional relationship between the baby and the mother, only 82.5 percent of babies are breastfed for the first time within one hour of birth; while 92.5 percent of newborns in Kyrgyzstan start breastfeeding within one day of birth. The findings are presented in Figure NU.2 by region and area. The difference between urban and rural children who were first breastfed within one hour of birth was very low. Similar percentages are also observed across the wealth index quintiles: 82.2 percent in the richest quintile vs 83.4 percent in the poorest one. The difference between oblasts was much higher: the highest prevalence was in Osh and Talas oblasts (about 92 percent) while in Chui it was the lowest (67.3 percent). The percentage of mothers who started breastfeeding within one day of birth is 92.5 percent. There is no difference in the percentage of children breastfed within one day by area. The highest percentage of mothers who started breastfeeding within one day of birth was in Osh city (96.7 percent) and the lowest percentage is found in the Chui oblast (87.9 percent). Figure NU.2: Initiation of breastfeeding, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 93 92 90 95 96 93 88 91 97 94 92 93 83 80 83 84 92 92 67 79 87 82 83 83 0 20 40 60 80 100 Within one day Within one hour Ba tke n Dj ala l-A ba d Iss yk -K ul Na ry n Os h O bla st Ta las Ch ui Bis hk ek Ci ty Os h C ity Ur ba n Ru ral Ky rg yz sta n Pe rc en t 20 Prelacteal feed refers to the provision any liquid or food, other than breastmilk, to a newborn during the period when breastmilk flow is generally being established (estimated here as the first 3 days of life). 37 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The set of Infant and Young Child Feeding indicators reported in tables NU.4 through NU.8 are based on the mother’s report of consumption of food and fluids during the day or night prior to being interviewed. Data are subject to a number of limitations, some related to the respondent’s ability to provide a full report on the child’s liquid and food intake due to recall errors as well as lack of knowledge in cases where the child was fed by other individuals. In Table NU.4, breastfeeding status is presented for both Exclusively breastfed and Predominantly breastfed; referring to infants age less than 6 months who are breastfed, distinguished by the former only allowing vitamins, mineral supplements, and medicine and the latter allowing also plain water and non-milk liquids. The table also shows continued breastfeeding of children at 12-15 and 20-23 months of age. Table NU.4: Breastfeeding Percentage of living children according to breastfeeding status at selected age groups, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Children age 0-5 months Children age 12-15 months Children age 20-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed1 Percent predominantly breastfed2 Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 1 year)3 Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 2 years)4 Number of children Total 41.1 69.5 455 60.7 284 22.5 311 Sex Male 40.5 67.2 245 58.7 163 25.3 150 Female 41.8 72.2 210 63.4 121 19.9 161 Region Batken 48.0 75.1 40 (93.6) 23 (28.0) 22 Djalal-Abad 17.7 58.6 84 (59.1) 59 30.8 77 Issyk-Kul (34.6) (81.2) 24 (*) 15 (*) 14 Naryn (*) (*) 9 (*) 10 (20.8) 14 Osh Oblast 47.6 68.9 94 48.5 75 19.9 82 Talas 56.5 69.5 34 55.2 25 4.7 20 Chui (47.5) (77.4) 80 (*) 32 (*) 45 Bishkek City (39.2) (60.3) 66 (*) 31 (*) 24 Osh City (45.6) (85.0) 23 (*) 13 (*) 13 Area Urban 39.5 66.7 152 68.3 89 24.4 79 Rural 41.9 70.9 303 57.2 195 21.8 232 Mother’s education None/primary (*) (*) 5 (*) 4 (*) 4 Basic secondary 31.1 64.9 55 (45.3) 36 (18.8) 38 Complete secondary 40.7 67.9 201 67.3 128 25.7 159 Professional primary/ middle 41.5 79.6 62 (56.7) 39 (23.2) 46 Higher 46.7 71.2 132 62.1 76 17.6 64 38 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Children age 0-5 months Children age 12-15 months Children age 20-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed1 Percent predominantly breastfed2 Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 1 year)3 Number of children Percent breastfed (Continued breastfeeding at 2 years)4 Number of children Wealth index quintile Poorest 39.5 66.4 79 63.2 58 17.0 72 Second 39.5 65.5 107 62.0 65 29.0 72 Middle 46.4 69.8 93 53.9 59 24.3 61 Fourth 44.7 72.3 79 60.0 55 22.4 68 Richest 36.0 73.9 97 (65.0) 46 (18.0) 39 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 43.4 70.0 362 65.1 219 20.4 234 Russian (*) (*) 15 (*) 8 (*) 8 Uzbek 31.5 65.3 59 (50.6) 49 (31.1) 52 Other language (*) (*) 17 (*) 8 (*) 18 1 MICS indicator 2.7 - Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 2 MICS indicator 2.8 - Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months 3 MICS indicator 2.9 - Continued breastfeeding at 1 year 4 MICS indicator 2.10 - Continued breastfeeding at 2 years (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Approximately 41.1 percent of children age less than six months are exclusively breastfed. With 69.5 percent predominantly breastfed, it is evident that water-based liquids are displacing feeding of breastmilk to the greatest degree. By age 12-15 months, 60.7 percent of children are breastfed and by age 20-23 months, 22.5 percent are breastfed. There are no significant urban-rural differences for exclusive breastfeeding (39.5 percent and 41.9 percent, respectively), while by age 12-15 months a higher percentage of urban children are breastfed (68.3 vs 57.2). Figure NU.3 shows the detailed pattern of breastfeeding by the child’s age in months. Even at the earliest ages, many of children are receiving liquids or foods other than breast milk, with plain water being of highest prevalence, even at the early age of 0-1 months. At age 4-5 months old, the percentage of children exclusively breastfed is 25.4 percent. At age 12-13 months old, only 0.8 percent of children are exclusively breastfed. 12.9 percent of children are receiving breast milk at age 2 years. 39 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Figure NU.3: Infant feeding patterns by age, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Exclusively breastfed Breastfed and complementary foods Weaned (not breastfed) 0% 10% 20% 30% 40% 50% 60% 70% 80% 90% 100% 0-1 2-3 4-5 6-7 8-9 10-11 12-13 14-15 16-17 18-19 20-21 22-23 Age in months Weaned (not breastfed) Breastfed and complementary foods Breastfed and other milk / formula Breastfed and non-milk liquids Breastfed and plain water only Exclusively breastfed Table NU.5 shows the median duration of breastfeeding by selected background characteristics. Among children under age 3, the median duration is 15.4 months for any breastfeeding, 1.5 months for exclusive breastfeeding, and 4.5 months for predominant breastfeeding. Rural children are exclusively breastfed nearly 2 times longer than urban children are (1.8 vs 0.7 months). The longest median duration of exclusive breastfeeding was observed in the Naryn oblast (3.5 months), the shortest in the Batken oblast (0.4 month) and Chui oblast (0.7 month). The age-appropriateness of breastfeeding of children under age 24 months is provided in Table NU.6. Different criteria of feeding are used depending on the age of the child. For infants age 0-5 months, exclusive breastfeeding is considered as age-appropriate feeding, while children age 6-23 months are considered to be appropriately fed if they are receiving breastmilk and solid, semi-solid or soft food. As a result of feeding patterns, only 54.1 percent of children age 6-23 months are being appropriately breastfed and age-appropriate breastfeeding among all children age 0-23 months drops to 50.9 percent. There is no clear association between feeding patterns and the household wealth or mother’s education level. However, among children age 0-5 months, there looks to be a positive association between exclusive breastfeeding and mother’s education level. 40 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table NU.5: Duration of breastfeeding Median duration of any breastfeeding, exclusive breastfeeding, and predominant breastfeeding among children age 0-35 months, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Median duration (in months) of: Number of children age 0-35 monthsAny breastfeeding1 Exclusive breastfeeding Predominant breastfeeding Median 15.4 1.5 4.5 2807 Sex Male 15.5 1.4 4.7 1441 Female 15.3 1.7 4.3 1365 Region Batken 9.1 0.4 3.0 238 Djalal-Abad 16.4 1.3 3.5 594 Issyk-Kul 13.7 1.6 4.1 152 Naryn 16.4 3.5 4.1 103 Osh Oblast 14.4 1.9 4.5 616 Talas 14.3 3.1 4.6 208 Chui 14.4 0.7 5.3 441 Bishkek City 15.7 1.1 3.6 325 Osh City 16.1 1.8 5.7 130 Area Urban 15.6 0.7 4.1 878 Rural 15.2 1.8 4.7 1929 Mother’s education None/primary (*) (*) (*) 29 Basic secondary 14.8 1.7 3.7 328 Complete secondary 15.6 1.6 4.5 1301 Professional primary/middle 14.6 0.5 5.3 419 Higher 15.5 2.2 4.5 729 Wealth index quintile Poorest 15.7 1.8 4.0 567 Second 15.6 1.7 4.6 634 Middle 15.7 2.0 4.6 584 Fourth 15.3 2.2 4.7 512 Richest 14.8 0.6 4.6 509 Mother tongue of household head 2150 Kyrgyz 15.7 1.8 4.6 2150 Russian 13.2 0.6 3.7 112 Uzbek 14.8 1.9 4.0 426 Other language 13.0 2.6 5.3 119 Missing (*) (*) (*) 1 Mean 16.3 2.6 4.4 2807 1 MICS indicator 2.11 - Duration of breastfeeding (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 41 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table NU.6: Age-appropriate breastfeeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were appropriately breastfed during the previous day, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Children age 0-5 months Children age 6-23 months Children age 0-23 months Percent exclusively breastfed1 N um be r o f ch ild re n Percent currently breastfeeding and receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods N um be r o f ch ild re n Percent appropriately breastfed2 N um be r o f ch ild re n Total 41.1 455 54.1 1414 50.9 1868 Sex Male 40.5 245 54.5 745 51.1 990 Female 41.8 210 53.6 668 50.8 878 Region Batken 48.0 40 66.6 109 61.6 150 Djalal-Abad 17.7 84 60.3 313 51.3 397 Issyk-Kul (34.6) 24 46.2 80 43.6 104 Naryn (*) 9 52.0 56 53.9 65 Osh Oblast 47.6 94 50.9 334 50.2 428 Talas 56.5 34 44.0 108 47.0 142 Chui (47.5) 80 51.9 203 50.6 283 Bishkek City (39.2) 66 55.6 150 50.6 216 Osh City (45.6) 23 50.4 61 49.1 84 Area Urban 39.5 152 56.7 431 52.2 583 Rural 41.9 303 52.9 983 50.3 1285 Mother’s education None/primary (*) 5 (*) 15 (*) 20 Basic secondary 31.1 55 54.1 162 48.3 217 Complete secondary 40.7 201 56.5 659 52.8 860 Professional primary/middle 41.5 62 48.5 205 46.9 268 Higher 46.7 132 53.7 371 51.9 503 Wealth index quintile Poorest 39.5 79 51.1 295 48.7 374 Second 39.5 107 54.8 321 51.0 428 Middle 46.4 93 56.0 293 53.7 386 Fourth 44.7 79 53.5 276 51.6 355 Richest 36.0 97 55.1 229 49.4 326 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 43.4 362 53.4 1075 50.9 1437 Russian (*) 15 (52.3) 54 (43.3) 69 Uzbek 31.5 59 59.8 220 53.8 279 Other language (*) 17 (46.6) 64 47.6 82 1 MICS indicator 2.7 - Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months 2 MICS indicator 2.12 - Age-appropriate breastfeeding (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Overall, 85.4 percent of infants age 6-8 months received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods at least once during the previous day (Table NU.7). Among currently breastfeeding infants, this percentage is 83.6. There are no clear differences by sex or area. 42 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table NU.7: Introduction of solid, semi-solid, or soft foods Percentage of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods during the previous day, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods Number of children age 6-8 months Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods Number of children age 6-8 months Percent receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods1 Number of children age 6-8 months Total 83.6 216 (*) 29 85.4 245 Sex Male 81.5 103 (*) 15 83.9 119 Female 85.5 112 (*) 14 86.7 126 Area Urban 84.8 72 (*) 9 86.4 81 Rural 83.0 144 (*) 21 84.8 164 1 MICS indicator 2.13 - Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases Overall, 80.7 percent of the children age 6-23 months were receiving solid, semi-solid and soft foods the minimum number as shown in Table NU.8. The proportions of males and females achieving the minimum meal frequency is similar (79.6 percent vs. 81.9 percent). The proportion of children receiving the minimum dietary diversity (50.9 percent), or foods from at least 4 food groups (35.5 percent), was much lower than that for minimum meal frequency (80.7 percent), indicating the need to focus on improving dietary quality and nutrient intake among this vulnerable group. A slightly higher proportion of children age 18-23 months (65.8 percent) were achieving the minimum dietary diversity compared to children age 12-17 months (58.6 percent) and to those who are 6-8 months old (22.9 percent). The overall assessment using the indicator of minimum acceptable diet revealed that only 35.5 percent of children age 6-23 months were benefitting from a diet sufficient in both diversity and frequency (Table NU.8). 43 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table NU.8: Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices Percentage of children age 6-23 months who received appropriate liquids and solid, semi-solid, or soft foods the minimum number of times or more during the previous day, by breastfeeding status, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent of children who received: N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s Percent of children who received: N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s Percent of children who received: N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s M in im um d ie ta ry di ve rs ity a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy b M in im um a cc ep ta bl e di et 1, c M in im um d ie ta ry di ve rs ity a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy b M in im um a cc ep ta bl e di et 2, c A t l ea st 2 m ilk fe ed s3 M in im um d ie ta ry di ve rs ity 4, a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy 5, b M in im um a cc ep ta bl e di et c Total 39.9 74.8 36.7 812 66.6 89.0 33.8 62.8 573 50.9 80.7 35.5 1414 Sex Male 41.5 72.1 37.3 429 66.5 90.2 35.6 64.1 303 51.7 79.6 36.6 745 Female 38.0 77.8 36.1 383 66.6 87.7 31.9 61.5 271 50.1 81.9 34.3 668 Age 6-8 months 21.8 68.8 21.0 216 (*) (*) (*) (*) 28 22.9 71.0 19.9 245 9-11 months 34.9 72.2 30.0 249 (69.9) (95.4) (43.0) (94.6) 38 39.8 75.3 31.7 289 12-17 months 52.0 77.5 47.3 233 68.3 88.9 38.8 68.3 171 58.6 82.3 43.7 413 18-23 months 59.9 86.3 59.9 114 68.0 88.4 32.1 55.8 336 65.8 87.9 39.1 467 Region Batken 39.7 74.6 35.7 76 (79.3) (95.6) (23.0) (41.5) 33 51.6 80.9 31.9 109 Djalal-Abad 40.6 49.3 31.8 193 60.7 61.7 31.3 54.4 113 48.1 53.9 31.6 313 Issyk-Kul (25.0) (75.9) (25.0) 40 (49.6) (91.6) (28.1) (83.5) 38 38.1 83.5 26.5 80 Naryn 46.6 79.8 46.6 32 81.7 100.0 51.5 96.6 24 61.0 88.3 48.7 56 Osh Oblast 32.0 87.3 32.0 181 58.6 94.7 22.0 45.8 149 44.1 90.6 27.5 334 Talas 46.7 89.4 46.7 52 62.1 98.8 40.8 82.2 55 54.5 94.2 43.7 108 Chui 56.7 86.2 53.7 114 (75.5) (95.0) (45.8) (69.8) 81 63.7 89.9 50.4 203 Bishkek City 37.3 86.3 37.3 87 (78.1) (98.5) (49.3) (85.8) 59 53.6 91.2 42.1 150 Osh City 29.7 58.7 24.3 36 (90.6) (93.3) (31.7) (47.9) 23 54.3 72.2 27.2 61 Area Urban 40.7 74.2 35.7 259 74.9 92.2 44.7 74.1 165 54.1 81.2 39.2 431 Rural 39.5 75.1 37.2 553 63.2 87.8 29.4 58.3 409 49.6 80.5 33.9 983 Mother’s education None/primary (*) (*) (*) 5 (*) (*) (*) (*) 8 (*) (*) (*) 15 Basic secondary 25.5 73.2 22.9 91 66.7 86.8 36.9 64.6 71 43.8 79.2 29.1 162 Complete secondary 38.5 74.6 35.0 393 64.8 85.9 29.6 59.6 248 48.8 79.0 32.9 659 Professional primary/ middle 48.8 74.9 45.5 108 70.1 92.5 30.3 54.8 95 58.3 83.1 38.4 205 Higher 43.7 75.2 41.1 214 69.4 92.4 42.0 74.5 150 54.2 82.3 41.5 371 44 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Currently breastfeeding Currently not breastfeeding All Percent of children who received: N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s Percent of children who received: N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s Percent of children who received: N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 6- 23 m on th s M in im um d ie ta ry di ve rs ity a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy b M in im um ac ce pt ab le d ie t1, c M in im um d ie ta ry di ve rs ity a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy b M in im um ac ce pt ab le d ie t2, c A t l ea st 2 m ilk fe ed s3 M in im um d ie ta ry di ve rs ity 4, a M in im um m ea l fre qu en cy 5, b M in im um ac ce pt ab le d ie tc Wealth index quintile Poorest 31.4 72.2 30.3 158 54.5 74.7 23.3 47.8 129 42.6 73.3 27.1 295 Second 36.3 77.4 34.1 190 68.3 95.0 28.7 58.7 128 49.0 84.5 31.9 321 Middle 37.9 68.8 32.6 175 59.8 90.1 25.4 60.4 113 45.7 77.1 29.8 293 Fourth 50.9 83.7 48.9 157 74.4 95.8 49.6 78.8 106 60.7 88.6 49.2 276 Richest 44.5 71.5 39.2 131 79.5 91.6 47.2 73.5 98 59.4 80.1 42.6 229 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 39.8 75.8 37.3 613 68.9 91.0 34.1 65.9 443 51.9 82.2 35.9 1075 Russian (*) (*) (*) 30 (*) (*) (*) (*) 21 (67.2) (86.9) (52.7) 54 Uzbek 34.1 64.8 27.8 138 57.0 78.1 30.8 48.2 82 42.8 69.8 28.9 220 Other language (*) (*) (*) 31 (*) (*) (*) (*) 27 (49.6) (89.1) (38.2) 64 1 MICS indicator 2.17a - Minimum acceptable diet (breastfed) 2 MICS indicator 2.17b - Minimum acceptable diet (non-breastfed) 3 MICS indicator 2.14 - Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children 4 MICS indicator 2.16 - Minimum dietary diversity 5 MICS indicator 2.15 - Minimum meal frequency a Minimum dietary diversity is defined as receiving foods from at least 4 of 7 food groups: 1) Grains, roots and tubers, 2) legumes and nuts, 3) dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese), 4) flesh foods (meat, fish, poultry and liver/organ meats), 5) eggs, 6) vitamin-A rich fruits and vegetables, and 7) other fruits and vegetables. b Minimum meal frequency among currently breastfeeding children is defined as children who also received solid, semi-solid, or soft foods 2 times or more daily for children age 6-8 months and 3 times or more daily for children age 9-23 months. For non- breastfeeding children age 6-23 months it is defined as receiving solid, semi-solid or soft foods, or milk feeds, at least 4 times. c The minimum acceptable diet for breastfed children age 6-23 months is defined as receiving the minimum dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency, while for non-breastfed children it further requires at least 2 milk feedings and that the minimum dietary diversity is achieved without counting milk feeds. (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases The continued practice of bottle-feeding is a concern because of the possible contamination due to unsafe water and lack of hygiene in preparation. Table NU.9 shows that bottle-feeding is prevalent in Kyrgyzstan. 29.8 percent of children age 0-23 months are fed using a bottle with a nipple, even for the younger children (under 6 months) the percentage is 18.3. The prevalence of bottle feeding among children age 0-23 months ranges from 20.7 percent in Djalal-Abad region, to 43.5 percent in Bishkek city. 45 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table NU.9: Bottle feeding Percentage of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle with a nipple during the previous day, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children age 0-23 months fed with a bottle with a nipple1 Number of children age 0-23 months Total 29.8 1868 Sex Male 29.1 990 Female 30.6 878 Age 0-5 months 18.3 455 6-11 months 39.5 534 12-23 months 29.8 880 Region Batken 22.5 150 Djalal-Abad 20.7 397 Issyk-Kul 23.2 104 Naryn 31.8 65 Osh Oblast 26.7 428 Talas 39.2 142 Chui 35.6 283 Bishkek City 43.5 216 Osh City 37.1 84 Area Urban 36.4 583 Rural 26.8 1285 Mother’s education None/primary (*) 20 Basic secondary 30.2 217 Complete secondary 22.8 860 Professional primary/middle 36.7 268 Higher 38.4 503 Wealth index quintile Poorest 19.6 374 Second 23.7 428 Middle 32.0 386 Fourth 39.4 355 Richest 36.3 326 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 30.4 1437 Russian (41.2) 69 Uzbek 25.3 279 Other language 23.9 82 1 MICS indicator 2.18 - Bottle feeding (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 46 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Salt Iodization Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is the world’s leading cause of preventable mental retardation and impaired psychomotor development in young children. In its most extreme form, iodine deficiency causes cretinism. It also increases the risks of stillbirth and miscarriage in pregnant women. Iodine deficiency is most commonly and visibly associated with goitre. IDD takes its greatest toll in impaired mental growth and development, contributing in turn to poor school performance, reduced intellectual ability, and impaired work performance. The indicator is the percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt (≥15 parts per million). The Government of the Kyrgyz Republic took measures aimed at the prevention of iodine deficiency disorders through the adoption of the Law of the Kyrgyz Republic "On prevention of iodine deficiency disorders” (Governmental Decree N 40, February 18, 2000) and secondary legislation for its implementation. Production of iodized salt has begun in Kyrgyzstan after these legislations. The state Program on reduction of iodine deficiency diseases in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2010-2014 had been developed and implemented to secure progress achieved. Table NU.10: Iodized salt consumption Percent distribution of households by consumption of iodized salt, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of households in which salt was tested Number of households No salt Percent of households with: Total Number of households in which salt was tested or with no salt Salt test result Not iodized 0 PPM >0 и <15 PPM 15+ PPM1 Total 98.2 6934 0.4 0.4 6.3 92.8 100.0 6835 Region Batken 99.6 508 0.1 0.7 6.7 92.6 100.0 506 Djalal-Abad 100.0 1235 0.0 0.1 3.1 96.8 100.0 1235 Issyk-Kul 99.7 628 0.3 0.3 4.7 94.8 100.0 628 Naryn 99.1 323 0.5 1.3 16.9 81.3 100.0 322 Osh Oblast 99.7 1028 0.0 0.5 12.2 87.2 100.0 1024 Talas 99.8 270 0.0 1.3 2.5 96.3 100.0 270 Chui 94.3 1393 1.2 0.8 10.0 88.1 100.0 1329 Bishkek City 97.9 1237 0.1 0.0 0.7 99.2 100.0 1212 Osh City 97.4 312 1.5 0.1 1.4 96.9 100.0 309 Area Urban 97.9 2739 0.2 0.1 3.9 95.7 100.0 2688 Rural 98.4 4195 0.4 0.6 7.9 91.0 100.0 4147 Wealth index quintile Poorest 99.7 1198 0.2 0.5 8.8 90.4 100.0 1197 Second 99.1 1193 0.6 0.5 7.0 91.9 100.0 1190 Middle 99.3 1239 0.2 0.5 8.4 90.9 100.0 1232 Fourth 96.9 1401 0.4 0.8 5.2 93.6 100.0 1363 Richest 97.0 1904 0.4 0.1 3.7 95.8 100.0 1853 1 MICS indicator 2.19 - Iodized salt consumption In 98.2 percent of households, salt used for cooking was tested for iodine content by using salt test kits and testing for the presence of potassium iodate. Table NU.10 shows that in 0.4 percent of households, there was no salt available. These households are included in the denominator of the indicator. In 92.8 percent of households, salt was found to contain 15 parts per million (ppm) or more 47 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report of iodine. Use of iodized salt was lowest in the Naryn oblast (81.3 percent) and highest in Bishkek city (99.2 percent). 95.7 percent of urban households were found to be using adequately iodized salt as compared to 91 percent in rural areas. Interestingly, the difference between the richest (95.8 percent) and poorest households (90.4 percent) in terms of iodized salt consumption is much less than expected. The consumption of adequately iodized salt is graphically presented in Figure NU.4 together with the percentage of salt containing less than 15 ppm. Figure NU.4: Consumption of iodized salt, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 99 100 99 98 99 99 98 100 98 100 99 99 99 99 99 100 99 93 97 95 81 87 96 88 99 97 96 91 90 92 91 94 96 93 0 20 40 60 80 100 Pe rc en t Any iodine 15+ PPM of iodine VI. Child Health 49 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Vaccinations The Millennium Development Goal (MDG) 4 is to reduce child mortality by two thirds between 1990 and 2015. Immunization plays a key part in this goal. In addition, the Global Vaccine Action Plan (GVAP) was endorsed by the 194 Member States of the World Health Assembly in May 2012 to achieve the Decade of Vaccines vision by delivering universal access to immunization. Immunization has saved the lives of millions of children in the four decades since the launch of the Expanded Programme on Immunization (EPI) in 1974. Worldwide there are still millions of children not reached by routine immunization and as a result, vaccine-preventable diseases cause more than 2 million deaths every year. The WHO Recommended Routine Immunizations for Children21 recommends all children to be vaccinated against tuberculosis, diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, hepatitis B, haemophilus influenzae type b, rotavirus, and rubella. All doses in the primary series are recommended to be completed before the child’s first birthday, although depending on the epidemiology of disease in a country, the first doses of measles and rubella containing vaccines may be recommended at 12 months or later. The recommended number and timing of most other doses also vary slightly with local epidemiology and may include booster doses later in childhood. The Ministry of Health of the Kyrgyz Republic accepted the above recommendations. Since 2001, the vaccination schedule followed by the National Immunization Programme provides all the above mentioned vaccinationsSince 2009, pentavalent vaccine (Penta) had been introduced to replace DPT and Hepatitis B vaccines (but first dose at birth). Besides DPT and Hepatitis B vaccines, Penta vaccine also contains three doses of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) vaccine. Since 2002, measles vaccination protecting from measles, parotitis and rubella is carried out at 12 months. Taking into consideration this vaccination schedule, the estimates for full immunization from the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS are based on children age 24-35 months. Information on vaccination coverage was collected for all children under three years of age. All mothers (or caretakers) were asked to provide vaccination cards. However, the vaccination form (MoH Form #063) and child’s medical card (MoH Form#112) are normally kept in health clinics and very seldom at home. So vaccination information was copied from the cards onto the MICS questionnaire at health facilities and, less often, mothers recalled whether or not the child had received each of the vaccinations. The final vaccination coverage estimates are based on information obtained from both the vaccination card and the mother’s report of vaccinations received by the child. The percentage of children age 12-23 months and 24-35 months who have received each of the specific vaccinations by source of information (vaccination records at health facilities and mother’s recall) is shown in Table CH.1 and Figure CH.1. The denominators for the table are comprised of children age 12-23 months and 24-35 months so that only children who are old enough to be fully vaccinated are counted. In the first three columns in each panel of the table, the numerator includes all children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey according to the vaccination records at health facilities or the mother’s report. In the last column in each panel, only those children who were vaccinated before their first birthday, as recommended, are included. For children without vaccination records, the proportion of vaccinations given before the first birthday is assumed to be the same as for children with vaccination records. 21 http://www.who.int/immunization/diseases/en. Table 2 includes recommendations for all children and additional antigens recommended only for children residing in certain regions of the world or living in certain high-risk population groups. 50 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CH.1: Vaccinations in the first years of life Percentage of children age 12-23 months and 24-35 months vaccinated against vaccine preventable childhood diseases at any time before the survey and by their first birthday, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Children age 12-23 months: Children age 24-35 months: Vaccinated at any time before the survey according to: Vaccinated by 12 months of agea Vaccinated at any time before the survey according to: Vaccinated by 12 months of age (measles by 24 months)a Health facility records or vaccination card Mother's report Either Health facility records or vaccination card Mother's report Either Antigen BCG1 89.7 9.9 99.6 99.6 87.1 11.6 98.7 98.7 Polio At birth 86.8 11.6 98.4 98.4 86.4 11.7 98.1 98.1 1 89.2 8.5 97.8 97.7 88.4 9.6 98.0 97.1 2 89.4 7.3 96.7 96.2 87.6 8.9 96.5 94.8 32 85.1 4.7 89.8 87.5 84.5 5.6 90.1 85.4 HepB At birth 87.0 11.9 98.9 98.9 78.7 19.4 98.1 98.1 Pentavalent (DPT+HebB+Hib) 1 89.9 8.1 98.0 97.9 88.9 8.7 97.6 96.8 2 89.8 7.5 97.4 97.2 88.2 9.1 97.3 95.6 33 88.2 7.2 95.5 93.9 87.0 8.3 95.3 91.0 Measles (MMR)4c 81.6 10.4 92.0 na 87.1 9.6 96.7 95.8 Fully vaccinated5, b na na na na 84.9 3.1 88.0 80.4 No vaccinations 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.4 0.0 1.2 1.2 1.2 Number of children 880 880 880 880 939 939 939 939 1 MICS indicator 3.1 - Tuberculosis immunization coverage 2 MICS indicator 3.2 - Polio immunization coverage 3 MICS indicators 3.3, 3.5,3.6 - Pentavalent DPT+HepB+Hib vaccine coverage 4 MICS indicator 3.4; MDG indicator 4.3 - Measles immunization coverage 5 MICS indicator 3.8 - Full immunization coverage na: not applicable a MICS indicators 3.1, 3.2, 3.3, 3.5, 3.6 refer to results of this column in the left panel; MICS indicators 3.4 and 3.8 refer to this column in the right panel b Includes: HepB at birth, BCG, Polio3 and Pentavalent3 (DPT+HepB+Hib-3) by 12 months of age and Measles (MMR) by 24 months of age as per the vaccination schedule in Kyrgyzstan c Measles is administered through the combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine in Kyrgyzstan Approximately 99.6 percent of children age 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months, and the first dose of Polio, Pentavalent DPT-HepB-Hib vaccine and HepB at birth vaccines was given to 98.4, 97.9 and 98.9 percent respectively. The percentages decline slightly to 96.2 and 97.2 percent respectively for the second dose of Polio and Pentavalent DPT-HepB-Hib vaccines, and to 87.5 and 93.9 percent respectively for the third dose. The individual coverage figures for children age 24-35 months are generally similar to those age 12-23 months suggesting that immunization coverage has been on average stable in the country in the last few years. It also shows that immunization is provided ‘timely’ which means in accordance with the timeline of the vaccination schedule without delays. Similarly to the younger age cohort, the percentage of children age 24-35 months receiving vaccines declines slightly by the third dose. The coverage for the measles vaccine by by their second birthday among children age 24-35 months is 51 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report 95.8 percent. As a result, the percentage of children who had all the recommended vaccinations by their second birthday is 80.4 percent. Figure CH.1: Vaccinations by age 12 months (measles by 24 months), Kyrgyzstan, 2014 100 98 98 96 88 99 98 97 94 0 0 20 40 60 80 100 BCG Polio at birth Polio1 Polio2 Polio3 HepB at birth Pentavalent DPT1+HepB1+Hib1 Pentavalent DPT2+HepB2+Hib2 Pentavalent DPT3+HepB3+Hib3 No vaccinations BCG Polio at birth Polio1 Polio2 Polio3 HepB at birth Pentavalent DPT1+HepB1+Hib1 Pentavalent DPT2+HepB2+Hib2 Pentavalent DPT3+HepB3+Hib3 Measles Fully vaccinated No vaccinations Percent Percent Children Age 12-23 months 99 98 97 95 85 98 97 96 91 96 80 1 0 50 100 Children Age 24-35 months Table CH.2 presents vaccination coverage estimates among children age 12-23 and 24-35 months by background characteristics. The figures indicate children receiving the vaccinations at any time up to the date of the survey, and are based on information from both the health facility records and mothers’(or caretakers’) reports. In Kyrgyzstan, by the date of interview, approximately 88 percent of children age 24-35 months received all the recommended vaccinations. This percentage is lower in urban areas (81.6 percent), in Bishkek city in particular (71.5 percent), than in rural areas (90.9 percent). 52 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e C H .2 : V ac ci na tio ns b y ba ck gr ou nd c ha ra ct er is tic s P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 an d 24 -3 5 m on th s cu rr en tly v ac ci na te d ag ai ns t v ac ci ne p re ve nt ab le c hi ld ho od d is ea se s, K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed : P er ce nt ag e w ith h ea lth fa ci lit y re co rd s or va cc in at io n ca rd s ee n N um be r of ch ild re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 24 -3 5 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed : P er ce nt ag e w ith h ea lth fa ci lit y re co rd s or va cc in at io n ca rd s ee n N um be r of c hi ld re n ag e 24 -3 5 m on th s B C G Po lio H ep B Pe nt av al en t (D PT +H eb B +H ib ) N on e A t b irt h 1 2 3 A t b irt h 1 2 3 M ea sl es (M M R ) Fu lla N on e To ta l 99 .6 98 .4 97 .8 96 .7 89 .8 98 .9 98 .0 97 .4 95 .5 0. 4 91 .4 88 0 96 .7 88 .0 1. 2 90 .1 93 9 Se x M al e 99 .9 98 .6 97 .7 97 .0 87 .9 99 .1 98 .0 97 .4 96 .1 0. 1 90 .7 48 1 97 .6 91 .1 0. 8 91 .0 45 1 Fe m al e 99 .2 98 .2 97 .8 96 .3 92 .0 98 .6 97 .9 97 .4 94 .7 0. 8 92 .1 39 9 95 .9 85 .0 1. 5 89 .2 48 7 R eg io n B at ke n 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .0 99 .0 90 .2 98 .9 10 0. 0 99 .0 97 .7 0. 0 96 .4 66 98 .3 85 .0 0. 0 92 .4 88 D ja la l-A ba d 99 .4 99 .4 98 .0 97 .1 92 .0 99 .4 98 .5 98 .5 96 .1 0. 6 96 .2 19 4 97 .4 88 .0 0. 9 93 .6 19 7 Is sy k- K ul 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 94 .5 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 0 98 .5 49 97 .8 93 .7 2. 2 93 .7 47 N ar yn 10 0. 0 99 .0 98 .6 94 .7 84 .6 10 0. 0 98 .6 96 .9 95 .9 0. 0 91 .3 34 97 .6 89 .9 0. 0 93 .1 38 O sh O bl as t 99 .1 98 .7 98 .2 97 .1 88 .5 98 .3 98 .8 98 .2 96 .8 0. 9 85 .0 21 9 98 .9 95 .5 0. 2 85 .5 18 8 Ta la s 99 .5 99 .0 97 .9 97 .9 96 .8 99 .0 97 .9 97 .9 97 .5 0. 5 98 .6 71 94 .4 92 .2 5. 0 90 .4 66 C hu i 10 0. 0 94 .7 97 .2 95 .4 92 .3 98 .3 97 .2 95 .6 91 .3 0. 0 91 .5 12 1 95 .6 88 .2 3. 0 91 .0 15 8 B is hk ek C ity 10 0. 0 97 .4 93 .4 92 .4 78 .9 98 .3 92 .4 91 .4 90 .1 0. 0 82 .4 90 91 .7 71 .5 0. 0 83 .5 10 9 O sh C ity 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .5 88 .0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .5 96 .3 0. 0 93 .0 37 99 .0 87 .8 0. 0 95 .3 46 A re a U rb an 99 .9 97 .0 94 .5 93 .8 85 .0 98 .4 95 .3 94 .8 92 .2 0. 1 89 .3 25 4 95 .6 81 .6 0. 9 88 .9 29 5 R ur al 99 .5 99 .0 99 .1 97 .9 91 .7 99 .0 99 .1 98 .4 96 .8 0. 5 92 .2 62 6 97 .2 90 .9 1. 3 90 .6 64 3 M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 13 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 9 B as ic s ec on da ry 10 0. 0 97 .5 97 .5 94 .1 89 .1 97 .8 97 .5 97 .0 95 .2 0. 0 87 .6 98 97 .2 92 .4 0. 0 91 .0 11 1 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 99 .9 99 .3 98 .9 97 .6 89 .5 99 .5 98 .8 98 .2 95 .9 0. 1 91 .5 41 8 97 .8 88 .0 1. 2 90 .4 44 1 P ro fe ss io na l pr im ar y/ m id dl e 10 0. 0 97 .7 98 .8 98 .5 90 .1 98 .8 97 .6 97 .5 94 .6 0. 0 91 .9 13 0 97 .3 88 .5 0. 7 90 .7 15 1 H ig he r 99 .5 98 .4 95 .9 95 .9 90 .8 99 .0 97 .6 96 .8 95 .9 0. 5 92 .8 22 0 93 .8 85 .0 2. 1 88 .0 22 6 53 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed : P er ce nt ag e w ith h ea lth fa ci lit y re co rd s or va cc in at io n ca rd s ee n N um be r of ch ild re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th s Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n ag e 24 -3 5 m on th s w ho re ce iv ed : P er ce nt ag e w ith h ea lth fa ci lit y re co rd s or va cc in at io n ca rd s ee n N um be r of c hi ld re n ag e 24 -3 5 m on th s B C G Po lio H ep B Pe nt av al en t (D PT +H eb B +H ib ) N on e A t b irt h 1 2 3 A t b irt h 1 2 3 M ea sl es (M M R ) Fu lla N on e W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 98 .5 98 .3 97 .9 96 .7 88 .8 97 .3 98 .2 97 .6 96 .5 1. 5 87 .8 21 0 94 .5 81 .0 0. 1 87 .4 19 3 S ec on d 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .6 98 .3 92 .6 10 0. 0 99 .1 97 .7 95 .8 0. 0 95 .1 19 5 96 .6 85 .4 2. 1 91 .4 20 6 M id dl e 10 0. 0 97 .0 97 .7 95 .7 89 .6 99 .8 98 .4 97 .7 94 .6 0. 0 91 .3 18 1 95 .4 87 .1 3. 3 89 .7 19 8 Fo ur th 10 0. 0 99 .5 99 .5 99 .2 93 .7 10 0. 0 99 .5 99 .5 98 .4 0. 0 93 .2 16 1 97 .7 94 .8 0. 3 95 .9 15 8 R ic he st 99 .7 96 .9 92 .7 92 .7 82 .6 97 .0 93 .6 93 .5 90 .9 0. 3 89 .4 13 4 99 .4 92 .2 0. 0 86 .0 18 4 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 99 .8 98 .7 98 .2 97 .5 90 .2 99 .1 98 .6 97 .8 96 .3 0. 2 91 .5 68 1 97 .1 87 .2 1. 3 89 .5 71 2 R us si an (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 94 .9 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 30 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 43 U zb ek 10 0. 0 99 .3 97 .5 95 .8 89 .8 10 0. 0 98 .2 98 .1 94 .7 0. 0 92 .9 13 3 96 .1 88 .6 1. 4 92 .7 14 6 O th er la ng ua ge (9 3. 5) (9 2. 5) (9 2. 5) (8 5. 7) (8 0. 6) (9 3. 5) (9 2. 5) (9 2. 5) (8 5. 7) (6 .5 ) (8 0. 6) 37 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 37 a I nc lu de s: B C G , P ol io 3, P en ta va le nt 3 (D P T+ H ep B +H ib -3 ) a nd M ea sl es (M M R ) a s pe r t he v ac ci na tio n sc he du le in K yr gy zs ta n (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 54 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Care of Illness A key strategy for accelerating progress toward MDG 4 is to tackle the diseases that are the leading killers of children under 5. Diarrhoea and pneumonia are two such diseases. The Global Action Plan for the Prevention and Control of Pneumonia and Diarrhoea (GAPPD) aims to end preventable pneumonia and diarrhoea death by reducing mortality from pneumonia to 3 deaths per 1000 live births and mortality from diarrhoea to 1 death per 1000 live births by 2025. Table CH.3 presents the percentage of children under 5 years of age who were reported to have had an episode of diarrhoea, symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), or fever during the 2 weeks preceding the survey. These findings are not measures of true prevalence, and should not be used as such, but rather the period-prevalence of those illnesses over a two-week time window. The definition of a case of diarrhoea or fever, in this survey, was the mother’s (or caretaker’s) report that the child had such symptoms over the specified period; no other evidence were sought beside the opinion of the mother. A child was considered to have had an episode of ARI if the mother (or caretaker) reported that the child had, over the specified period, an illness with a cough with rapid or difficult breathing, and whose symptoms were perceived to be due to a problem in the chest or both a problem in the chest and a blocked nose. While this approach is reasonable in the context of a MICS survey, these basically simple case definitions must be kept in mind when interpreting the findings, as well as the potential for reporting and recall biases. Further, diarrhoea, fever and ARI are not only seasonal but are also characterized by the often rapid spread of localized outbreaks from one area to another at different points in time. The timing of the survey and the location of the teams might thus considerably affect the findings, which must consequently be interpreted with caution. For these reasons, although the period-prevalence over a two-week time window is reported, these data should not be used to assess the epidemiological characteristics of these diseases but rather to obtain denominators for the indicators related to use of health services and treatment. Table CH.3: Reported disease episodes Percentage of children age 0-59 months for whom the mother (or caretaker) reported an episode of diarrhoea, symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), and/or fever in the last two weeks, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children who in the last two weeks had: Number of children age 0-59 months An episode of diarrhoea Symptoms of ARI An episode of fever Total 5.5 2.3 14.3 4577 Sex Male 6.0 2.1 13.6 2342 Female 5.1 2.5 15.0 2235 Region Batken 6.0 1.1 12.6 408 Djalal-Abad 2.5 1.2 12.9 956 Issyk-Kul 2.6 0.0 11.5 264 Naryn 2.4 0.9 11.7 195 Osh Oblast 10.1 6.2 17.5 1015 Talas 4.0 3.1 12.9 352 Chui 6.8 0.7 16.6 715 Bishkek City 3.5 0.9 11.3 474 Osh City 5.4 1.1 16.4 198 55 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of children who in the last two weeks had: Number of children age 0-59 months An episode of diarrhoea Symptoms of ARI An episode of fever Area Urban 5.3 1.2 13.8 1360 Rural 5.6 2.7 14.5 3217 Age 0-11 months 7.7 2.3 14.5 988 12-23 months 7.8 2.3 19.1 880 24-35 months 5.1 2.1 14.8 939 36-47 months 2.6 3.4 13.5 925 48-59 months 4.3 1.1 9.5 845 Mother’s education None/primary (3.6) (0.0) (4.0) 58 Basic secondary 5.8 3.4 15.3 529 Complete secondary 5.2 1.8 13.3 2102 Professional primary/middle 5.2 1.8 17.2 732 Higher 6.2 2.9 14.5 1155 Wealth index quintile Poorest 4.7 1.0 11.7 986 Second 7.5 4.4 15.4 1039 Middle 5.0 3.5 17.7 951 Fourth 4.8 1.0 13.6 823 Richest 5.3 0.8 12.9 778 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 5.7 2.5 14.7 3534 Russian 6.8 0.0 12.1 180 Uzbek 5.4 1.7 14.0 656 Other language 1.8 1.8 10.4 205 Missing (*) (*) (*) 2 ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases Overall, 5.5 percent of under five children were reported to have had diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey, and 2.3 percent symptoms of ARI, 14.3 percent had fever symptoms (Table CH.3). Period-prevalence for diarrhoea ranges from 3-4 percent for children age 36-59 months to almost 8 percent for children age 0-11 and 12-23 months. This can be linked to the weaning period. There are minor differences between urban and rural areas, particularly in the case of diarrhoea, but the period-prevalence of diarrhoea, fever and ARI appear to be highest in the Osh oblast (10.1, 17.5 and 6.2 percent respectively). Diarrhoea Diarrhoea is among the leading causes of death among children under five worldwide. Most diarrhoea-related deaths in children are due to dehydration from loss of large quantities of water and electrolytes from the body in liquid stools. Management of diarrhoea – either through oral rehydration salts (ORS) or a recommended home fluid – can prevent many of these deaths. In addition, provision of zinc supplements has been shown to reduce the duration and severity of the illness as well as the risk of future episodes within the next two or three months. Preventing dehydration and malnutrition 56 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report by increasing fluid intake and continuing to feed the child are also important strategies for managing diarrhoea. In the MICS, mothers (or caretakers) were asked whether their child under age five years had an episode of diarrhoea in the two weeks prior to the survey. In cases where mothers reported that the child had diarrhoea, a series of questions were asked about the treatment of the illness, including what the child had been given to drink and eat during the episode and whether this was more or less than what was usually given to the child. Table CH.4 shows the percentage of children with diarrhoea in the two weeks preceding the survey for whom advice or treatment was sought and where. Overall, a health facility or provider was seen in 51.9 percent of cases, predominantly in the public sector (50.9 percent). The percentage of advice or treatment sought from a health facility or provider was higher among children living in rural areas (56.3 percent) compared to those in urban areas (41.0 percent). Table CH.5 provides statistics on drinking and feeding practices during diarrhoea. Less than one third (31.4 percent) of under five children with diarrhoea were given to drink more than usual while practically the same percentage (31.8 percent) were given about the same. About 22.4 percent were given somewhat less, while 14.5 percent were given much less to drink. 68.6 percent were given to eat somewhat less, same or more (continued feeding), but one in five (20.0 percent) were given much less and 11.4 percent of children were given nothing to eat during the episode of diarrhoea. 57 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e C H .4 : C ar e- se ek in g du rin g di ar rh oe a P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks fo r w ho m a dv ic e or tr ea tm en t w as s ou gh t, by s ou rc e of a dv ic e or tr ea tm en t, K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n w ith d ia rr ho ea fo r w ho m : N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith di ar rh oe a in th e la st tw o w ee ks A dv ic e or tr ea tm en t w as s ou gh t f ro m : N o ad vi ce o r tre at m en t s ou gh t H ea lth fa ci lit ie s or p ro vi de rs O th er s ou rc e A he al th fa ci lit y or pr ov id er 1, b P ub lic P riv at e C om m un ity h ea lth pr ov id er a To ta l 50 .9 4. 0 0. 0 1. 2 51 .9 45 .6 25 3 Se x M al e 50 .8 3. 9 0. 0 2. 2 51 .1 45 .6 14 0 Fe m al e 50 .9 4. 1 0. 0 0. 0 52 .9 45 .6 11 4 R eg io n B at ke n (3 2. 7) (3 .2 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (3 5. 8) (6 4. 2) 24 D ja la l-A ba d (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 24 Is sy k- K ul (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 7 N ar yn (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 5 O sh O bl as t 47 .8 2. 2 0. 0 1. 3 49 .3 49 .3 10 3 Ta la s (4 2. 8) (2 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (4 5. 6) (5 4. 4) 14 C hu i (6 9. 1) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (6 9. 1) (3 0. 9) 49 B is hk ek C ity (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 16 O sh C ity (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 11 A re a U rb an 39 .4 9. 3 0. 0 2. 3 41 .0 52 .3 72 R ur al 55 .4 1. 8 0. 0 0. 8 56 .3 43 .0 18 1 A ge 0- 11 m on th s 63 .1 5. 4 0. 0 2. 1 64 .1 33 .8 76 12 -2 3 m on th s 45 .3 4. 7 0. 0 2. 0 45 .3 48 .0 68 24 -3 5 m on th s (3 6. 4) (4 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (3 9. 7) (6 0. 3) 48 36 -4 7 m on th s (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 24 48 -5 9 m on th s (5 5. 4) (1 .1 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (5 6. 5) (4 3. 5) 37 58 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n w ith d ia rr ho ea fo r w ho m : N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith di ar rh oe a in th e la st tw o w ee ks A dv ic e or tr ea tm en t w as s ou gh t f ro m : N o ad vi ce o r tre at m en t s ou gh t H ea lth fa ci lit ie s or p ro vi de rs O th er s ou rc e A he al th fa ci lit y or pr ov id er 1, b P ub lic P riv at e C om m un ity h ea lth pr ov id er a M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 2 B as ic s ec on da ry (5 3. 9) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (5 3. 9) (4 6. 1) 31 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 49 .6 1. 6 0. 0 2. 7 49 .6 49 .2 11 0 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e (5 9. 1) (6 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (6 3. 1) (3 6. 9) 38 H ig he r 48 .6 8. 4 0. 0 0. 0 50 .3 43 .0 72 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st (4 3. 4) (3 .3 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (4 6. 8) (5 3. 2) 47 S ec on d 57 .1 0. 0 0. 0 1. 8 57 .1 41 .2 78 M id dl e (5 6. 9) (6 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (5 8. 5) (4 1. 5) 48 Fo ur th (4 7. 1) (1 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (4 8. 1) (5 1. 9) 40 R ic he st (4 4. 1) (1 1. 8) (0 .0 ) (4 .0 ) (4 4. 1) (4 4. 1) 41 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 51 .3 3. 8 0. 0 1. 5 52 .6 44 .3 20 1 R us si an (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 12 U zb ek (4 9. 1) (6 .9 ) 0. 0 (0 .0 ) (4 9. 1) (5 0. 9) 36 O th er la ng ua ge (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 3 .1 0 - C ar e- se ek in g fo r d ia rr ho ea a C om m un ity h ea lth p ro vi de r i nc lu de s bo th p ub lic (M ob ile /O ut re ac h cl in ic ) a nd p riv at e (M ob ile c lin ic ) h ea lth fa ci lit ie s b I nc lu de s al l p ub lic a nd p riv at e he al th fa ci lit ie s an d pr ov id er s, b ut e xc lu de s pr iv at e ph ar m ac y (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 59 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e C H .5 : F ee di ng p ra ct ic es d ur in g di ar rh oe a P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks b y am ou nt o f l iq ui ds a nd fo od g iv en d ur in g ep is od e of d ia rr ho ea , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 D rin ki ng p ra ct ic es d ur in g di ar rh oe a Ea tin g pr ac tic es d ur in g di ar rh oe a N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks C hi ld w as g iv en to d rin k: To ta l C hi ld w as g iv en to e at : To ta l M uc h le ss S om ew ha t le ss A bo ut th e sa m e M or e M uc h le ss S om ew ha t le ss A bo ut th e sa m e M or e N ot hi ng To ta l 14 .5 22 .4 31 .8 31 .4 10 0. 0 20 .0 28 .1 32 .0 8. 5 11 .4 10 0. 0 25 3 Se x M al e 17 .6 22 .3 33 .3 26 .8 10 0. 0 24 .4 24 .2 31 .5 9. 7 10 .1 10 0. 0 14 0 Fe m al e 10 .6 22 .4 29 .9 37 .0 10 0. 0 14 .7 32 .9 32 .6 6. 9 12 .9 10 0. 0 11 4 R eg io n B at ke n (6 .2 ) (9 .8 ) (4 8. 7) (3 5. 3) 10 0. 0 (1 7. 8) (3 5. 5) (4 6. 7) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 24 D ja la l-A ba d (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 24 Is sy k- K ul (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 7 N ar yn (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 5 O sh O bl as t 23 .0 36 .8 32 .3 7. 9 10 0. 0 30 .5 24 .8 29 .6 6. 7 8. 3 10 0. 0 10 3 Ta la s (2 3. 9) (1 8. 7) (9 .6 ) (4 7. 8) 10 0. 0 (2 5. 1) (3 7. 9) (1 1. 9) (2 5. 1) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 14 C hu i (7 .7 ) (2 1. 8) (2 6. 7) (4 3. 8) 10 0. 0 (3 .7 ) (2 9. 1) (2 7. 7) (7 .3 ) (3 2. 2) 10 0. 0 49 B is hk ek C ity (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 16 O sh C ity (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 11 A re a U rb an 12 .7 13 .7 24 .7 48 .9 10 0. 0 11 .0 29 .3 38 .6 11 .6 9. 5 10 0. 0 72 R ur al 15 .2 25 .8 34 .6 24 .4 10 0. 0 23 .7 27 .6 29 .3 7. 2 12 .1 10 0. 0 18 1 A ge 0- 11 m on th s 16 .8 25 .7 37 .1 20 .4 10 0. 0 17 .0 21 .0 27 .4 10 .7 23 .9 10 0. 0 76 12 -2 3 m on th s 10 .1 18 .8 29 .6 41 .5 10 0. 0 19 .2 34 .6 36 .8 1. 1 8. 3 10 0. 0 68 24 -3 5 m on th s (1 7. 0) (2 1. 4) (3 0. 2) (3 1. 5) 10 0. 0 (2 0. 0) (2 3. 5) (3 9. 6) (9 .8 ) (7 .1 ) 10 0. 0 48 36 -4 7 m on th s (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 24 48 -5 9 m on th s (1 0. 7) (1 8. 2) (3 0. 3) (4 0. 7) 10 0. 0 (2 1. 1) (3 9. 2) (2 6. 4) (9 .4 ) (3 .9 ) 10 0. 0 37 60 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report D rin ki ng p ra ct ic es d ur in g di ar rh oe a Ea tin g pr ac tic es d ur in g di ar rh oe a N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks C hi ld w as g iv en to d rin k: To ta l C hi ld w as g iv en to e at : To ta l M uc h le ss S om ew ha t le ss A bo ut th e sa m e M or e M uc h le ss S om ew ha t le ss A bo ut th e sa m e M or e N ot hi ng M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 2 B as ic s ec on da ry (1 8. 7) (3 7. 7) (2 3. 7) (2 0. 0) 10 0. 0 (3 7. 0) (1 1. 4) (1 8. 6) (1 1. 8) (2 1. 2) 10 0. 0 31 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 16 .1 20 .3 37 .9 25 .7 10 0. 0 21 .9 25 .7 38 .0 4. 3 10 .0 10 0. 0 11 0 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e (1 5. 8) (2 5. 1) (2 0. 9) (3 8. 1) 10 0. 0 (2 1. 4) (4 5. 8) (1 2. 2) (1 4. 9) (5 .8 ) 10 0. 0 38 H ig he r 7. 0 18 .1 32 .6 42 .3 10 0. 0 6. 8 30 .4 39 .9 10 .2 12 .6 10 0. 0 72 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st (8 .4 ) (2 5. 0) (4 0. 4) (2 6. 3) 10 0. 0 (1 9. 9) (3 6. 2) (3 8. 3) (4 .9 ) (0 .7 ) 10 0. 0 47 S ec on d 18 .0 37 .4 21 .8 22 .9 10 0. 0 31 .4 22 .7 23 .8 5. 7 16 .5 10 0. 0 78 M id dl e (2 2. 0) (1 8. 4) (3 8. 4) (2 1. 2) 10 0. 0 (2 8. 0) (2 4. 4) (3 2. 8) (6 .0 ) (8 .8 ) 10 0. 0 48 Fo ur th (1 3. 7) (7 .0 ) (3 9. 2) (4 0. 1) 10 0. 0 (8 .0 ) (2 4. 5) (3 0. 3) (2 2. 3) (1 5. 0) 10 0. 0 40 R ic he st (6 .9 ) (1 0. 4) (2 6. 0) (5 6. 7) 10 0. 0 (1 .1 ) (3 7. 1) (4 1. 0) (7 .4 ) (1 3. 4) 10 0. 0 41 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 13 .4 24 .2 32 .5 29 .9 10 0. 0 16 .9 31 .0 33 .6 7. 2 11 .3 10 0. 0 20 1 R us si an (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 12 U zb ek (2 7. 0) (2 0. 6) (2 9. 8) (2 2. 6) 10 0. 0 (4 1. 4) (1 6. 9) (1 6. 8) (1 3. 8) (1 1. 1) 10 0. 0 36 O th er la ng ua ge (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 4 (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 61 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CH.6 shows the percentage of children receiving ORS, various types of recommended homemade fluids and zinc during the episode of diarrhoea. Since children may have been given more than one type of liquid, the percentages do not necessarily add to 100. 93.9 percent received one of the recommended homemade fluids (cultured milk foods such as airan or kefir and boiled rice water): this percentage is 89.6 in urban areas and 95.6 percent in rural areas. About a third (33.4 percent) received fluids from ORS packets or pre-packaged ORS fluids. Zinc was more often received in urban areas (19.7 percent) than in rural areas (13.6 percent). Diarrhoea was treated with ORS and zinc in 8.6 percent of cases. Figure CH.2 complements the data in Table CH.6. Figure CH.2: Children under-5 with diarrhoea who received ORS , Kyrgyzstan, 2014 34 33 33 33 34 Pe rc en t Ur ba n Ru ral Ma le Fe ma le Ky rgy zst an 62 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e C H .6 : O ra l r eh yd ra tio n so lu tio ns , r ec om m en de d ho m em ad e lu id s, a nd z in c P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks , a nd tr ea tm en t w ith o ra l r eh yd ra tio n sa lts (O R S ), re co m m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s, a nd z in c, K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n w ith d ia rr ho ea w ho re ce iv ed : Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks O ra l r eh yd ra tio n sa lts (O R S) R ec om m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s ORS or any recommended homemade fluid Zi nc O R S a nd zi nc 1 Fl ui d fro m p ac ke t A ny O R S B oi le d w at er R ic e w at er C ul tu re d m ilk fo od s (a ira n, ke fir ) A ny re co m m en de d ho m em ad e flu id Ta bl et S yr up A ny z in c To ta l 33 .4 33 .4 88 .9 51 .9 40 .6 93 .9 95 .9 8. 1 10 .9 15 .3 8. 6 25 3 Se x M al e 32 .7 32 .7 90 .9 52 .3 39 .1 94 .7 97 .2 9. 3 13 .1 17 .1 10 .1 14 0 Fe m al e 34 .2 34 .2 86 .6 51 .4 42 .5 92 .9 94 .3 6. 5 8. 2 13 .1 6. 8 11 4 R eg io n B at ke n (2 2. 1) (2 2. 1) (9 1. 2) (2 5. 3) (5 1. 0) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 5. 7) (6 .2 ) (1 8. 8) (3 .1 ) 24 D ja la l-A ba d (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 24 Is sy k- K ul (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 7 N ar yn (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 5 O sh O bl as t 31 .9 31 .9 88 .4 81 .6 39 .9 94 .7 97 .0 1. 8 3. 1 3. 8 1. 8 10 3 Ta la s (4 6. 9) (4 6. 9) (7 5. 4) (3 1. 5) (6 5. 6) (8 4. 2) (8 4. 2) (3 2. 7) (2 9. 7) (3 5. 4) (2 7. 6) 14 C hu i (3 2. 0) (3 2. 0) (9 0. 8) (1 9. 3) (3 7. 5) (9 0. 8) (9 6. 5) (1 0. 1) (1 8. 6) (2 6. 2) (1 0. 9) 49 B is hk ek C ity (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 16 O sh C ity (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 11 A re a U rb an 34 .1 34 .1 85 .0 32 .1 39 .4 89 .6 90 .6 9. 6 14 .0 19 .7 14 .1 72 R ur al 33 .1 33 .1 90 .5 59 .8 41 .1 95 .6 98 .1 7. 4 9. 7 13 .6 6. 4 18 1 A ge 0- 11 m on th s 25 .4 25 .4 76 .7 29 .4 20 .4 81 .9 88 .7 1. 9 8. 0 8. 9 5. 8 76 12 -2 3 m on th s 40 .3 40 .3 93 .3 58 .9 49 .9 99 .5 99 .5 11 .6 7. 7 15 .1 8. 7 68 24 -3 5 m on th s (2 3. 9) (2 3. 9) (9 0. 0) (5 5. 6) (4 8. 6) (9 8. 0) (9 8. 0) (1 1. 0) (2 4. 3) (2 8. 5) (1 5. 2) 48 36 -4 7 m on th s (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 24 48 -5 9 m on th s (4 7. 2) (4 7. 2) (9 8. 8) (7 1. 7) (5 7. 7) (1 00 .0 ) (1 00 .0 ) (1 3. 4) (1 1. 4) (1 9. 4) (9 .0 ) 37 63 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n w ith d ia rr ho ea w ho re ce iv ed : Number of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks O ra l r eh yd ra tio n sa lts (O R S) R ec om m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s ORS or any recommended homemade fluid Zi nc O R S a nd zi nc 1 Fl ui d fro m p ac ke t A ny O R S B oi le d w at er R ic e w at er C ul tu re d m ilk fo od s (a ira n, ke fir ) A ny re co m m en de d ho m em ad e flu id Ta bl et S yr up A ny z in c M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 2 B as ic s ec on da ry (2 7. 1) (2 7. 1) (8 4. 0) (5 7. 8) (3 3. 7) (8 6. 4) (9 5. 5) (1 2. 1) (1 1. 5) (1 8. 6) (7 .3 ) 31 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 32 .7 32 .7 92 .9 57 .2 48 .6 97 .0 97 .6 6. 6 12 .2 15 .8 8. 9 11 0 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e (2 8. 3) (2 8. 3) (9 0. 4) (3 7. 2) (3 9. 3) (9 3. 7) (9 3. 7) (1 1. 2) (8 .3 ) (1 7. 3) (6 .0 ) 38 H ig he r 40 .8 40 .8 83 .9 47 .7 33 .3 92 .3 94 .6 7. 3 10 .4 12 .5 10 .4 72 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st (3 2. 9) (3 2. 9) (8 6. 4) (6 3. 1) (4 2. 9) (9 6. 4) (9 6. 4) (4 .2 ) (6 .1 ) (7 .7 ) (5 .2 ) 47 S ec on d 39 .1 39 .1 87 .6 62 .0 34 .1 91 .7 97 .4 2. 4 9. 9 11 .8 2. 4 78 M id dl e (2 6. 8) (2 6. 8) (9 2. 0) (6 0. 4) (4 8. 6) (9 5. 4) (9 5. 4) (1 6. 6) (1 4. 0) (2 0. 3) (1 1. 5) 48 Fo ur th (2 6. 3) (2 6. 3) (8 8. 7) (2 9. 1) (4 0. 3) (9 1. 5) (9 3. 3) (1 9. 7) (1 3. 4) (2 8. 1) (1 8. 4) 40 R ic he st (3 7. 6) (3 7. 6) (9 1. 0) (3 2. 3) (4 1. 4) (9 5. 8) (9 5. 8) (2 .1 ) (1 2. 4) (1 2. 4) (1 1. 6) 41 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 30 .5 30 .5 88 .6 50 .1 40 .8 93 .3 95 .6 6. 2 8. 9 11 .8 5. 9 20 1 R us si an (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 12 U zb ek (3 8. 8) (3 8. 8) (8 5. 7) (6 8. 4) (3 5. 3) (9 4. 1) (9 6. 2) (1 4. 7) (1 8. 0) (2 8. 4) (1 8. 8) 36 O th er la ng ua ge (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 3 .1 1 - D ia rr ho ea tr ea tm en t w ith o ra l r eh yd ra tio n sa lts (O R S) a nd z in c (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 64 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e C H .7 : O ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g an d ot he r t re at m en ts P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho w er e gi ve n or al re hy dr at io n th er ap y w ith c on tin ue d fe ed in g an d pe rc en ta ge w ho w er e gi ve n ot he r t re at m en ts , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 C hi ld re n w ith d ia rr ho ea w ho w er e gi ve n: N ot g iv en an y tre at m en t o r dr ug N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks Zinc O R S o r in cr ea se d flu id s O R T (O R S o r re co m m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s or in cr ea se d flu id s) O R T w ith co nt in ue d fe ed in g1 O th er tr ea tm en ts Pi ll or s yr up In je ct io n Intra-venous Home remedy, herbal medicine Other Anti- biotic Anti- motility Other Un- known Anti- biotic Non- antibiotic Un- known To ta l 15 .3 49 .7 96 .8 67 .2 25 .0 0. 0 30 .8 0. 9 4. 8 0. 0 0. 0 1. 2 4. 8 16 .4 1. 7 25 3 Se x M al e 17 .1 46 .1 97 .2 64 .5 24 .7 0. 0 35 .3 1. 1 5. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 2. 8 18 .6 1. 3 14 0 Fe m al e 13 .1 54 .2 96 .3 70 .6 25 .4 0. 0 25 .4 0. 6 4. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 7 7. 2 13 .7 2. 2 11 4 R eg io n B at ke n (1 8. 8) (5 1. 3) (1 00 .0 ) (8 2. 2) (1 9. 2) (0 .0 ) (1 1. 7) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 6. 3) (0 .0 ) 24 D ja la l-A ba d (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 24 Is sy k- K ul (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 7 N ar yn (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 5 O sh O bl as t 3. 8 35 .4 97 .0 59 .5 37 .0 0. 0 33 .7 0. 7 9. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 11 .7 7. 1 1. 6 10 3 Ta la s (3 5. 4) (6 9. 8) (8 4. 2) (6 5. 8) (1 3. 4) (0 .0 ) (1 1. 3) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (3 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (8 .3 ) (1 5. 8) 14 C hu i (2 6. 2) (5 2. 6) (9 6. 5) (6 4. 1) (1 5. 9) (0 .0 ) (3 9. 1) (3 .2 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (2 4. 3) (0 .0 ) 49 B is hk ek C ity (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 16 O sh C ity (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 11 A re a U rb an 19 .7 60 .3 93 .7 77 .9 18 .4 0. 0 40 .3 1. 0 4. 6 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 20 .2 1. 5 72 R ur al 13 .6 45 .5 98 .1 63 .0 27 .7 0. 0 27 .1 0. 9 4. 8 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 6. 6 14 .9 1. 7 18 1 A ge 0- 11 m on th s 8. 9 42 .1 91 .6 55 .3 16 .7 0. 0 23 .5 2. 1 4. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 27 .2 3. 9 76 12 -2 3 m on th s 15 .1 56 .5 99 .5 72 .5 24 .8 0. 0 34 .1 0. 0 4. 5 0. 0 0. 0 3. 9 3. 9 15 .5 0. 5 68 24 -3 5 m on th s (2 8. 5) (4 2. 2) (9 8. 0) (7 1. 8) (3 3. 6) (0 .0 ) (3 4. 6) (0 .0 ) (4 .1 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (6 .7 ) (3 .9 ) (2 .0 ) 48 36 -4 7 m on th s (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 24 48 -5 9 m on th s (1 9. 4) (6 2. 0) (1 00 .0 ) (7 5. 0) (2 8. 5) (0 .0 ) (2 9. 5) (1 .9 ) (3 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 .2 ) (1 6. 8) (1 0. 4) (0 .0 ) 37 65 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report C hi ld re n w ith d ia rr ho ea w ho w er e gi ve n: N ot g iv en an y tre at m en t o r dr ug N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks Zinc O R S o r in cr ea se d flu id s O R T (O R S o r re co m m en de d ho m em ad e flu id s or in cr ea se d flu id s) O R T w ith co nt in ue d fe ed in g1 O th er tr ea tm en ts Pi ll or s yr up In je ct io n Intra-venous Home remedy, herbal medicine Other Anti- biotic Anti- motility Other Unknown Anti- biotic Non- antibiotic Unknown M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 2 B as ic s ec on da ry (1 8. 6) (3 7. 1) (9 5. 5) (4 1. 7) (4 7. 7) (0 .0 ) (3 4. 1) (2 .2 ) (4 .5 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (3 0. 1) (0 .0 ) 31 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 15 .8 45 .7 97 .6 67 .2 18 .7 0. 0 30 .2 0. 0 7. 9 0. 0 0. 0 1. 8 7. 3 12 .6 2. 0 11 0 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e (1 7. 3) (5 2. 8) (9 3. 7) (7 1. 0) (2 4. 9) (0 .0 ) (2 7. 8) (4 .1 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 0. 6) (1 3. 3) (0 .9 ) 38 H ig he r 12 .5 61 .3 97 .6 78 .2 22 .9 0. 0 32 .9 0. 0 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 0. 0 18 .6 2. 4 72 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st (7 .7 ) (4 9. 9) (9 6. 4) (7 7. 4) (2 2. 1) (0 .0 ) (3 3. 0) (0 .0 ) (9 .1 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (4 .3 ) (8 .3 ) (8 .7 ) (2 .8 ) 47 S ec on d 11 .8 45 .0 97 .4 49 .9 41 .0 0. 0 26 .9 0. 0 5. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 4 19 .3 2. 2 78 M id dl e (2 0. 3) (4 2. 1) (9 5. 4) (6 2. 5) (1 5. 9) (0 .0 ) (3 1. 3) (1 .4 ) (2 .9 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .9 ) (8 .3 ) (1 1. 0) (1 .7 ) 48 Fo ur th (2 8. 1) (5 3. 6) (9 8. 9) (7 5. 9) (6 .6 ) (0 .0 ) (2 8. 5) (3 .9 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 6. 6) (1 .1 ) 40 R ic he st (1 2. 4) (6 3. 6) (9 5. 8) (8 5. 5) (2 6. 4) (0 .0 ) (3 7. 5) (0 .0 ) (4 .8 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 .6 ) (0 .0 ) (2 5. 9) (0 .0 ) 41 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 11 .8 47 .3 96 .7 70 .1 27 .2 0. 0 32 .4 0. 8 4. 5 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 6. 0 17 .7 2. 1 20 1 R us si an (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 12 U zb ek (2 8. 4) (5 0. 5) (9 6. 2) (4 7. 5) (1 9. 5) (0 .0 ) (2 4. 9) (1 .9 ) (8 .7 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 2. 0) (0 .0 ) 36 O th er la ng ua ge (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 4 1 M IC S in di ca to r 3 .1 2 - D ia rr ho ea tr ea tm en t w ith o ra l r eh yd ra tio n th er ap y (O R T) a nd c on tin ue d fe ed in g (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 66 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CH.7 provides the proportion of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who received oral rehydration therapy with continued feeding, and the percentage of children with diarrhoea who received other treatments. Overall, 49.7 percent of children with diarrhoea received ORS or increased fluids, while 96.8 percent received ORT (ORS or recommended homemade fluids or increased fluids). Combining the information in Table CH.5 with that of Table CH.6 on oral rehydration therapy, it is observed that 67.2 percent of children received ORT and, at the same time, feeding was continued, as is the recommendation. Figure CH.3 complements the data in Table CH.7. Figure CH.3: Children under-5 with diarrhoea receiving oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and continued feeding, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 78 63 64 71 67 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent Kyrgyzstan Female Male Rural Urban 67 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CH.8c: Source of ORS and zinc Percentage of children age 0-59 months with diarrhoea in the last two weeks who were given ORS, and percentage given zinc, by the source of ORS and zinc, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children who were given as treatment for diarrhoea: N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ith d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks Percentage of children for whom the source of ORS was N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ho w er e gi ve n O R S as tr ea tm en t f or d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks Percentage of children for whom the source of zinc was: N um be r o f c hi ld re n ag e 0- 59 m on th s w ho w er e gi ve n zi nc as tr ea tm en t f or d ia rr ho ea in th e la st tw o w ee ks Health facilities or providers D K /M is si ng A he al th fa ci lit y or pr ov id er b Health facilities or providers A health facility or providerb O R S Zi nc P ub lic P riv at e Other sourcea P ub lic P riv at e Total 33.4 15.3 253 27.5 68.0 4.0 0.5 95.5 84 (8.4) (91.6) (100.0) 39 Sex Male 32.7 17.1 140 (29.0) (68.7) (1.4) (0.9) (97.7) 46 (13.6) (86.4) (100.0) 24 Female 34.2 13.1 114 (25.8) (67.2) (7.0) (0.0) (93.0) 39 (*) (*) (*) 15 Area Urban 34.1 19.7 72 (28.1) (70.3) (0.0) (1.6) (98.4) 25 (*) (*) (*) 14 Rural 33.1 13.6 181 (27.2) (67.1) (5.6) (0.0) (94.4) 60 (*) (*) (*) 25 a Community health provider includes both public (Mobile/Outreach clinic) and private (Mobile clinic) health facilities b Includes all public and private health facilities and providers c Figures by other background characteristics are not shown due to low number of cases per disaggregation category (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table CH.8 provides information on the source of ORS and zinc for children who benefitted from these treatments. One third of children (33.4 percent) were given ORS as treatment for diarrhoea and nearly 15.3 percent were given zinc. The main source of ORS is the private sector (68 percent). Acute Respiratory Infections Symptoms of ARI are collected during the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS to capture pneumonia disease, the leading cause of death in children under five. Once diagnosed, pneumonia is treated effectively with antibiotics. Studies have shown a limitation in the survey approach of measuring pneumonia because many of the suspected cases identified through surveys are in fact, not true pneumonia22. While this limitation does not affect the level and patterns of care-seeking for suspected pneumonia, it limits the validity of the level of treatment of pneumonia with antibiotics, as reported through household surveys. The treatment indicator described in this report must therefore be taken with caution, keeping in mind that the accurate level is likely higher. 22 Campbell, H. et al. 2013. Measuring Coverage in MNCH: Challenges in Monitoring the Proportion of Young Children with Pneumonia Who Receive Antibiotic Treatment. PLoS Med 10(5): e1001421. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001421 68 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CH.9d Care-seeking for and antibiotic treatment of symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) Percentage of children age 0-59 months with symptoms of ARI in the last two weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought, by source of advice or treatment, and percentage of children with symptoms who were given antibiotics, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children with symptoms of ARI for whom: P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n w ith sy m pt om s of A R I i n th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho w er e gi ve n an tib io tic s2 Number of children with symptoms of ARI in the last two weeks who were given antibiotics Percentage of children with symptoms of ARI for whom the source of antibiotics was: N um be r o f c hi ld re n w ith s ym pt om s of A R I i n th e la st tw o w ee ks w ho w er e gi ve n an tib io tic sAdvice or treatment was sought from: N o ad vi ce o r t re at m en t so ug ht Health facilities or providers O th er s ou rc e A he al th fa ci lit y or pr ov id er 1, b Health facilities or providers O th er s ou rc e A he al th fa ci lit y or pr ov id er c P ub lic P riv at e C om m un ity he al th pr ov id er a Public P riv at e C om m un ity he al th pr ov id er a Total 57.1 2.6 0.0 1.3 59.7 39.0 84.7 103 15.9 77.7 0.0 6.0 93.5 87 Sex Male (55.8) (0.5) (0.0) (2.9) (56.3) (40.9) (75.6) 48 (15.9) (72.6) (0.0) (10.4) (88.6) 36 Female 58.2 4.4 0.0 0.0 62.7 37.3 92.7 55 (15.9) (81.2) (0.0) (2.9) (97.1) 51 Area Urban (46.5) (16.1) (0.0) (0.0) (62.6) (37.4) (88.4) 17 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 15 Rural 59.1 0.0 0.0 1.6 59.1 39.3 84.0 86 16.2 76.4 0.0 6.8 92.7 73 1 MICS indicator 3.13 - Care-seeking for children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms 2 MICS indicator 3.14 - Antibiotic treatment for children with ARI symptoms a Community health provider includes both public (Mobile/Outreach clinic) and private (Mobile clinic) health facilities b Includes all public and private health facilities and providers, but excludes private pharmacy c Includes all public and private health facilities and providers d Figures by other background characteristics are not shown due to low number of cases per disaggregation category (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table CH.9 presents the percentage of children under 5 years with symptoms of ARI in the two weeks preceding the survey for whom care was sought, by source of care and the percentage who received antibiotics. It also presents the use of antibiotics by sex, age, region, area, age, and socioeconomic factors. In the country, within the two weeks prior to the survey, 59.7 percent of children age 0-59 months with symptoms of ARI were taken to a qualified provider and 84.7 percent of under-5 children with symptoms of ARI received antibiotics. Medical treatment was primarily provided in public health institutions (57.1 percent), while mostly private providers (77.7 percent) supplied antibiotics. 69 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CH.10: Knowledge of the two danger signs of pneumonia Percentage of women age 15-49 years who are mothers (or caretakers) of children under age 5 by symptoms that would cause them to take a child under age 5 immediately to a health facility, and percentage of mothers who recognize fast or difficult breathing as signs for seeking care immediately, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of mothers (or caretakers) of children age 0-59 months who think that a child should be taken immediately to a health facility if the child: Mothers (or caretakers) who recognize at least one of the two danger signs of pneumonia (fast and/or difficult breathing) Number of women age 15-49 years who are mothers (or caretakers) of children under age 5Is n ot a bl e to d rin k or br ea st fe ed B ec om es si ck er D ev el op s a fe ve r H as fa st br ea th in g H as d iffi cu lt br ea th in g H as b lo od in st oo l Is d rin ki ng po or ly H as o th er sy m pt om s Total 30.1 51.5 91.2 22.7 31.9 20.7 16.7 5.9 44.7 2886 Region Batken 19.1 38.0 92.5 35.4 43.1 29.7 8.2 10.5 60.2 261 Djalal-Abad 59.0 77.3 92.2 15.0 21.6 24.0 24.1 7.4 31.7 581 Issyk-Kul 26.8 55.5 84.7 56.8 49.3 13.2 14.7 1.2 68.5 175 Naryn 33.7 38.9 89.9 40.0 26.3 3.3 8.1 4.1 52.4 122 Osh Oblast 37.3 68.1 86.9 25.7 37.9 40.3 34.0 0.5 53.0 598 Talas 1.6 34.2 94.6 20.5 20.3 1.1 1.7 0.1 29.7 219 Chui 12.2 35.7 89.6 9.0 21.9 9.4 5.4 9.4 29.5 476 Bishkek City 23.6 36.3 97.4 17.1 48.7 16.6 12.4 11.4 57.5 330 Osh City 21.7 17.6 97.8 24.1 22.6 8.5 9.5 4.6 42.8 125 Area Urban 27.4 40.8 94.1 20.9 35.9 17.8 15.1 8.4 47.7 899 Rural 31.3 56.3 89.8 23.5 30.1 22.0 17.4 4.7 43.3 1987 Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) Basic secondary 36.2 55.3 88.4 19.4 28.3 23.5 17.4 5.8 40.4 333 Complete secondary 33.7 55.1 91.1 25.1 31.7 21.7 18.7 4.1 46.8 1281 Professional primary/ middle 22.6 47.0 90.8 21.3 30.5 20.4 13.3 8.3 40.1 451 Higher 26.8 46.3 93.8 21.9 34.9 17.9 15.9 7.7 46.5 788 Wealth index quintile Poorest 34.0 58.8 89.2 28.8 31.2 21.7 17.8 4.4 47.3 598 Second 36.2 59.1 88.7 26.6 32.9 28.7 20.1 4.1 47.4 624 Middle 30.2 52.2 92.2 21.0 29.0 18.8 17.4 3.3 41.2 588 Fourth 22.8 43.3 90.7 19.3 29.6 18.0 13.3 7.3 41.2 536 Richest 26.0 41.9 95.5 16.8 36.9 15.2 14.1 10.9 45.9 541 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 29.5 51.2 91.7 23.9 33.2 20.5 16.8 5.2 46.4 2172 Russian 15.9 46.9 95.2 15.9 34.4 11.2 9.9 16.9 41.1 137 Uzbek 39.9 56.1 90.8 21.4 25.8 25.1 20.7 4.2 39.5 447 Other language 22.7 45.2 79.0 13.6 27.2 19.5 8.1 11.2 36.6 129 (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 70 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Mothers’ knowledge of danger signs is an important determinant of care-seeking behaviour. In the MICS, mothers (or caretakers) were asked to report symptoms that would cause them to take a child under-five for care immediately at a health facility. Issues related to knowledge of danger signs of pneumonia are presented in Table CH.10. Overall, only 44.7 percent of women know at least one of the two danger signs of pneumonia – fast and/or difficult breathing - as symptoms for taking children immediately to a health care provider. About 23 percent of mothers identified fast breathing and about 32 percent difficult breathing as symptoms for taking children immediately to a health care provider. The awareness range from 68.5 percent in Issyk-Kul oblast to nearly 30 percent in Chui and Talas oblasts. Solid Fuel Use More than 3 billion people around the world rely on solid fuels for their basic energy needs, including cooking and heating. Solid fuels include biomass fuels, such as wood, charcoal, crops or other agricultural waste, dung, shrubs and straw, and coal. Cooking and heating with solid fuels leads to high levels of indoor smoke which contains a complex mix of health-damaging pollutants. The main problem with the use of solid fuels is their incomplete combustion, which produces toxic elements such as carbon monoxide, polyaromatic hydrocarbons, and sulphur dioxide (SO2), among others. Use of solid fuels increases the risks of incurring acute respiratory illness, pneumonia, chronic obstructive lung disease, cancer, and possibly tuberculosis, asthma, or cataracts, and may contribute to low birth weight of babies born to pregnant women exposed to smoke. The primary indicator for monitoring use of solid fuels is the proportion of the population using solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy for cooking, shown in Table CH.11. Table CH.11: Solid fuel use Percent distribution of household members according to type of cooking fuel mainly used by the household, and percentage of household members living in households using solid fuels for cooking, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of household members in households mainly using: N um be r o f ho us eh ol d m em be rs E le ct ric ity Li qu efi ed P et ro le um G as (L P G ) N at ur al G as B io ga s C oa l/ Li gn ite Solid fuels N o fo od c oo ke d in th e ho us eh ol d Total S ol id fu el s fo r co ok in g1 C ha r- co al W oo d St ra w / S hr ub s/ G ra ss A ni m al d un g A gr ic ul tu ra l cr op re si du e M is si ng Total 52.6 4.6 13.4 0.0 0.1 0.1 27.6 0.1 1.1 0.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 29.3 29786 Region Batken 28.6 0.7 1.4 0.0 0.3 0.1 68.0 0.3 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 69.3 2432 Djalal-Abad 47.7 0.0 6.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 42.0 0.1 1.6 2.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 45.9 5883 Issyk-Kul 97.8 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.3 1.2 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1.7 2245 Naryn 85.1 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.7 0.0 11.8 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 13.7 1411 Osh Oblast 33.8 0.3 4.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 61.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 61.7 5900 Talas 92.2 1.0 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.1 4.6 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 5.0 1519 Chui 57.7 17.1 19.9 0.0 0.1 0.4 4.2 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 5.2 5312 Bishkek City 33.9 10.2 55.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.2 3812 Osh City 81.0 1.2 9.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 7.4 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 8.4 1273 Area Urban 53.4 5.8 33.5 0.1 0.0 0.1 6.9 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 7.2 9393 Rural 52.3 4.1 4.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 37.1 0.1 1.5 0.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 39.5 20393 71 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of household members in households mainly using: N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs E le ct ric ity Li qu efi ed P et ro le um G as (L P G ) N at ur al G as B io ga s C oa l/ Li gn ite Solid fuels N o fo od c oo ke d in th e ho us eh ol d Total S ol id fu el s fo r co ok in g1 C ha r- co al W oo d St ra w / S hr ub s/ G ra ss A ni m al d un g A gr ic ul tu ra l cr op re si du e M is si ng Education of household head None/primary 43.2 3.7 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 50.4 0.0 1.3 0.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 52.1 1545 Basic secondary 54.7 3.8 5.8 0.0 0.2 0.1 33.2 0.0 1.7 0.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 35.6 3391 Complete secondary 53.9 3.3 8.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 32.4 0.1 1.3 0.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 34.8 12588 Professional primary/middle 54.6 6.4 15.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 22.3 0.1 0.7 0.3 0.0 0.1 100.0 23.6 6387 Higher 49.0 6.3 30.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 13.7 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 14.2 5865 Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 9 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 44.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 50.3 0.2 3.6 1.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 55.4 5957 Second 51.0 0.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.2 46.5 0.0 1.4 0.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 48.5 5953 Middle 64.3 1.9 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 31.3 0.1 0.3 0.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 32.6 5961 Fourth 66.7 10.7 12.6 0.1 0.1 0.1 9.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 9.7 5961 Richest 36.7 10.1 52.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.3 5954 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 56.6 3.6 10.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 27.8 0.0 1.4 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 29.6 21385 Russian 36.4 13.8 49.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 0.4 2593 Uzbek 44.8 0.7 7.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 44.8 0.2 0.1 2.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 47.2 4508 Other language 46.1 17.1 16.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 17.4 0.0 1.8 0.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 20.0 1286 Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 14 1 MICS indicator 3.15 - Use of solid fuels for cooking (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases In Kyrgyzstan more than half of the household population (52.6 percent) use electricity for cooking, while 29.3 percent use solid fuels and 18.0 percent use gas for cooking. Solid fuels consist mainly of wood (27.6 percent). Use of solid fuels is very low in urban areas (7.2 percent), but very high in rural areas, where they are used by nearly two in five household members (39.5 percent). Differentials with respect to household wealth and the educational level of the household head are also important. The table indicates that use of solid fuel for cooking is strongly correlated with wealth: ranging from 0.3 percent among those in the richest population wealth quintile versus 55.4 percent in the poorest population wealth quintile. The findings show that use of solid fuels ranges from 0.2 percent in Bishkek city to 69.3 percent in Batken oblast. In Bishkek city, more than a half of the household population uses natural gas for cooking. Solid fuel use by place of cooking is depicted in Table CH.12. The presence and extent of indoor pollution are dependent on cooking practices, places used for cooking, as well as types of fuel used. According to the survey data, 23.0 percent of the population living in households using solid fuels for cooking, cook food in a separate room that is used as a kitchen. There are minor differences between urban and rural areas, and by other background characteristics such as mother’s education and wealth quintiles. 72 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CH.12: Solid fuel use by place of cooking Percent distribution of household members in households using solid fuels by place of cooking, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Place of cooking: Number of household members in households using solid fuels for cooking In the house In a separate building Outdoors TotalIn a separate room used as kitchen Elsewhere in the house Total 23.0 6.9 58.3 11.8 100.0 8730 Region Batken 7.6 4.6 70.0 17.9 100.0 1685 Djalal-Abad 14.4 10.5 53.3 21.9 100.0 2703 Issyk-Kul (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 39 Naryn 38.5 8.9 38.8 13.9 100.0 193 Osh Oblast 35.4 5.6 58.4 0.6 100.0 3642 Talas (8.1) (7.7) (63.6) (20.5) 100.0 76 Chui (32.1) (3.8) (46.2) (17.9) 100.0 278 Bishkek City (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 8 Osh City (13.9) (2.7) (62.7) (20.7) 100.0 107 Area Urban 26.8 3.5 55.3 14.5 100.0 672 Rural 22.7 7.2 58.6 11.5 100.0 8058 Education of household head None/primary 24.0 7.1 60.4 8.5 100.0 805 Basic secondary 22.8 9.9 56.2 11.1 100.0 1208 Complete secondary 19.9 5.6 61.6 12.9 100.0 4375 Professional primary/middle 32.0 7.4 49.0 11.5 100.0 1505 Higher 22.1 8.1 59.1 10.6 100.0 836 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 16.2 9.2 60.3 14.3 100.0 3301 Second 29.7 5.0 57.4 7.9 100.0 2888 Middle 25.9 4.6 55.0 14.4 100.0 1945 Fourth 19.6 10.3 63.6 6.6 100.0 581 Richest (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 15 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 21.5 7.0 59.6 11.9 100.0 6336 Russian (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 10 Uzbek 26.5 6.3 54.6 12.6 100.0 2126 Other language (31.8) (4.7) (61.0) (2.5) 100.0 258 (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Fever Table CH.13 provides information on care-seeking behaviour during an episode of fever in the past two weeks. As shown in Table CH.13, advice was sought from a health facility or a qualified health care provider for 55.8 percent of children with fever; these services were provided mainly by the public sector (53.6 percent). However, no advice or treatment was sought in 43.4 percent of the cases. Furthermore, the percentage of no advice or treatment sought is somewhat higher among female children (47.0 percent) as opposed to male children (39.7 percent). As age of the children increases, the percentage of no advice or treatment sought increases as well. 73 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CH.13: Care-seeking during fever Percentage of children age 0-59 months with fever in the last two weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought, by source of advice or treatment, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children for whom: Number of children with fever in last two weeks Advice or treatment was sought from: No advice or treatment sought Health facilities or providers Other source A health facility or provider1, bPublic Private Community health providera Total 53.6 2.8 0.1 0.9 55.8 43.4 656 Sex Male 57.2 2.2 0.2 1.5 59.2 39.7 319 Female 50.1 3.3 0.0 0.4 52.6 47.0 336 Region Batken 61.7 1.4 0.0 0.0 61.7 38.3 51 Djalal-Abad 56.3 1.4 0.0 3.9 57.7 39.8 124 Issyk-Kul (54.9) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (54.9) (45.1) 30 Naryn 33.1 2.1 0.0 0.0 35.2 64.8 23 Osh Oblast 55.1 6.9 0.0 0.8 60.5 38.8 177 Talas 42.7 1.9 0.0 0.0 44.6 55.4 45 Chui 53.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 53.5 46.5 119 Bishkek City (55.6) (4.1) (0.0) (0.0) (59.7) (40.3) 53 Osh City 47.2 0.0 1.7 0.0 47.2 51.1 32 Area Urban 51.9 3.2 0.3 0.0 54.7 45.0 188 Rural 54.2 2.7 0.0 1.3 56.3 42.8 468 Age 0-11 months 61.9 0.5 0.0 2.3 62.4 36.5 144 12-23 months 58.1 2.7 0.0 1.7 60.3 37.6 168 24-35 months 47.3 3.6 0.0 0.0 50.3 49.7 139 36-47 months 47.0 6.2 0.0 0.0 51.5 48.5 125 48-59 months 50.4 0.5 0.7 0.0 50.9 49.1 80 Mother’s education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 2 Basic secondary 58.9 3.1 0.0 0.0 62.0 37.4 81 Complete secondary 51.0 3.8 0.0 2.2 53.8 44.6 279 Professional primary/ middle 51.2 0.6 0.0 0.0 51.2 48.8 126 Higher 56.4 2.8 0.3 0.0 59.2 40.8 168 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 50.5 2.0 0.0 1.3 51.8 46.9 110 Second 50.5 0.4 0.0 1.8 50.9 47.3 136 Middle 64.2 3.9 0.0 1.0 66.5 33.5 136 Fourth 47.4 4.8 0.5 0.0 52.3 47.2 116 Richest 51.0 3.5 0.0 0.0 54.4 45.6 158 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 53.7 1.8 0.0 0.9 55.4 43.8 521 Russian (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 22 Uzbek 51.4 9.7 0.6 1.9 58.1 41.3 92 Other language (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 21 1 MICS indicator 3.20 - Care-seeking for fever a Community health provider includes both public (Mobile/Outreach clinic) and private (Mobile clinic) health facilities b Includes all public and private health facilities and providers as well as shops (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 74 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CH.14: Treatment of children with fever Percentage of children age 0-59 months who had a fever in the last two weeks, by type of medicine given for the illness, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Children with a fever in the last two weeks who were given: Number of children with fever in last two weeks Other medications Other Missing/ DKAntibiotic pill or syrup Antibiotic injection Paracetamol/ Panadol/ Acetaminophen Aspirin Ibuprofen Lytic mixturea Total 49.7 13.4 59.2 1.1 7.4 1.5 29.1 0.4 656 Sex Male 49.7 11.7 61.9 0.8 6.7 2.1 24.8 0.0 319 Female 49.6 14.9 56.6 1.5 8.1 0.9 33.2 0.8 336 Region Batken 38.0 14.5 61.8 0.0 12.0 2.8 22.2 0.0 51 Djalal-Abad 53.8 13.8 61.7 0.0 4.7 0.0 30.2 0.0 124 Issyk-Kul (54.9) (0.0) (70.8) (8.5) (3.0) (0.0) (19.8) (0.0) 30 Naryn 62.1 9.5 66.8 2.1 4.2 2.1 17.9 0.0 23 Osh Oblast 62.9 22.7 72.6 0.0 3.2 3.2 21.9 0.0 177 Talas 69.8 3.8 27.0 1.0 7.3 0.0 15.3 0.0 45 Chui 27.1 8.7 46.6 1.8 12.8 1.4 44.0 2.4 119 Bishkek City (37.2) (6.4) (60.2) (0.0) (10.9) (0.0) (46.8) (0.0) 53 Osh City 41.7 16.1 45.7 5.6 14.7 1.4 27.6 0.0 32 Area Urban 43.2 11.3 51.6 2.3 11.3 0.2 36.9 0.0 188 Rural 52.3 14.2 62.3 0.7 5.9 2.0 26.0 0.6 468 Age 0-11 months 43.8 13.4 54.6 0.7 6.6 1.0 30.5 0.0 144 12-23 months 52.9 13.1 54.9 2.3 11.8 1.6 29.1 0.0 168 24-35 months 43.0 15.0 59.3 0.0 6.5 1.1 32.1 0.0 139 36-47 months 54.9 11.6 65.5 1.7 6.4 2.8 30.4 2.3 125 48-59 months 56.9 13.7 66.4 0.6 2.9 0.6 19.5 0.0 80 Mother’s education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 2 Basic secondary 59.5 18.7 63.4 0.0 3.1 2.9 31.3 0.0 81 Complete secondary 49.1 15.9 61.3 0.8 4.5 1.8 27.2 0.0 279 Professional primary/ middle 41.7 10.3 66.2 3.3 9.0 0.4 33.4 0.0 126 Higher 52.6 9.1 47.9 0.7 13.3 1.2 28.4 1.7 168 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 47.8 12.5 76.8 0.4 4.7 1.7 18.7 0.0 110 Second 54.5 13.4 62.6 0.0 4.3 1.4 24.8 0.0 136 Middle 59.1 15.8 60.5 0.3 4.4 3.0 31.8 0.0 136 Fourth 45.5 13.7 44.2 2.5 13.0 0.0 33.2 2.5 116 Richest 33.0 9.7 47.9 3.8 14.4 0.5 38.9 0.0 158 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 50.5 13.5 60.2 0.8 7.7 1.7 28.8 0.0 521 Russian (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 22 Uzbek 56.5 12.8 65.0 0.0 6.5 0.7 25.9 0.0 92 Other language (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 21 a Analgin + iphenhydramine hydrochloride + novocaine (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 75 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Mothers were asked to report all of the medicines given to a child to treat the fever, including both medicines given at home and medicines given or prescribed at a health facility. Table CH.14 shows that 59.2 percent of children age 0-59 months who had a fever in the last two weeks received either Paracetamol, Panadol, or Acetaminophen and 63.1 percent of children received antibiotics. VII. Water and Sanitation 77 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Unsafe drinking water can be a significant determinant of diseases such as cholera, typhoid, and schistosomiasis. Drinking water can also be contaminated with chemical and physical contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to preventing disease, improved access to drinking water may be particularly important for women and children, especially in rural areas, who bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, often for long distances23. The MDG goal (7, C) is to reduce by half, between 1990 and 2015, the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe drinking water and basic sanitation. For more details on water and sanitation and to access some reference documents, please visit the UNICEF Data website24 or the website of the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation25. Use of Improved Water Sources The distribution of the population by main source of drinking water is shown in Table WS.1. The population using improved sources of drinking water are those using any of the following types of supply: piped water (into dwelling, compound, yard or plot, to neighbour, public tap/standpipe), tube well/borehole, protected well, protected spring, and rainwater collection. Bottled water is considered as an improved water source for drinking water only if the household is using an improved water source for handwashing and cooking. Overall, 87 percent of the population uses an improved source of drinking water – 98.2 percent in urban areas and 81.8 percent in rural areas. The main sources are depicted in Figure WS.1. The situation in the Batken oblast is considerably worse than in other regions; only 60 percent of the population in this region gets its drinking water from an improved source. Access to an improved source of drinking water exceeds 99 percent in the Chui oblast and Bishkek city (Table WS.1). The source of drinking water for the population varies strongly by region (Table WS.1). In Bishkek city, 88.7 percent of the population uses drinking water that is piped into their dwelling and 11.1 percent - into their yard or plot. In general, 80.8 percent of the Kyrgyzstan population uses piped water: into their dwelling (28.6 percent), into their yard or plot (28.7 percent), and public taps (21.9 percent), piped to neighbour (1.5 percent). In the Chui oblast and Osh city, 88.0 and 79.3 percent, respectively, use water piped into their dwelling or their yard or plot. Public taps are widely use across the regions. The highest percentage of the population using water from public taps is observed in Naryn oblast (51.9 percent). 13.0 percent of the population use unimproved sources of drinking water in Kyrgyzstan; one in nine household members (10.8 percent) uses surface water and 1.5 percent use an unprotected spring. In the Batken oblast more than a third (37.4 percent) of the population use surface water. 23 WHO/UNICEF. 2012. Progress on Drinking water and Sanitation: 2012 update. 24 http://data.unicef.org/overview/water-sanitation-hygiene-data.html 25 http:// www.wssinfo.org 78 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table WS.1: Use of improved water sources Percent distribution of household population according to main source of drinking water and percentage of household population using improved drinking water sources, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Main source of drinking water Total P er ce nt ag e us in g im pr ov ed s ou rc es o f dr in ki ng w at er 1 N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs Improved sources Unimproved sources Piped water Tu be -w el l/ bo re -h ol e P ro -te ct ed w el l P ro -te ct ed s pr in g R ai n- w at er c ol le ct io n B ot tle d w at er a U np ro -te ct ed w el l U np ro -te ct ed s pr in g Ta nk er tr uc k C ar t w ith ta nk / d ru m S ur fa ce w at er B ot tle d w at er a O th er In to d w el lin g In to y ar d/ pl ot To n ei gh -b ou r P ub lic ta p/ s ta nd -p ip e Total 28.6 28.7 1.5 21.9 1.3 3.4 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.3 1.5 0.1 0.1 10.8 0.0 0.1 100.0 87.0 29786 Region Batken 7.9 10.7 0.2 34.7 0.2 4.1 2.3 0.0 0.1 0.4 2.2 0.0 0.0 37.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 60.0 2432 Djalal-Abad 13.0 32.9 2.5 14.9 0.9 13.2 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.9 0.3 0.4 16.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 81.5 5883 Issyk-Kul 27.3 31.5 1.7 27.0 0.6 3.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.7 1.9 0.0 0.0 5.1 0.3 0.4 100.0 91.7 2245 Naryn 18.1 5.5 0.6 51.9 3.8 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 1.3 6.2 0.0 0.0 11.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 80.7 1411 Osh Oblast 2.2 29.3 0.8 44.2 2.1 0.3 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 16.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 80.7 5900 Talas 13.5 47.6 2.5 32.4 0.4 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.9 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 97.4 1519 Chui 46.3 41.7 2.4 5.5 2.4 0.3 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 99.1 5312 Bishkek City 88.7 11.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 99.9 3812 Osh City 40.7 38.6 2.6 6.7 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.2 1.1 1.0 6.9 0.0 1.0 100.0 89.8 1273 Area Urban 67.0 24.2 0.7 5.3 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.1 1.1 0.1 0.2 100.0 98.2 9393 Rural 10.9 30.9 1.8 29.6 1.7 4.9 2.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 2.2 0.1 0.1 15.3 0.0 0.1 100.0 81.8 20393 Education of household head None 6.9 28.9 3.9 46.4 0.0 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 11.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 88.1 478 Primary 10.2 26.6 0.2 32.0 0.9 3.2 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.2 0.0 0.0 24.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 73.6 1067 Basic secondary 12.6 38.0 3.7 23.9 1.4 3.0 3.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.1 0.0 0.2 11.4 0.1 0.1 100.0 86.1 3391 Complete secondary 18.7 29.3 1.6 26.8 1.0 4.6 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.4 1.6 0.2 0.1 13.9 0.0 0.2 100.0 83.6 12588 Professional primary 20.1 29.5 0.8 27.0 2.2 4.9 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.6 1.8 0.0 0.1 12.5 0.0 0.1 100.0 84.9 2257 Professional middle 41.5 30.1 0.6 14.6 2.3 2.5 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.4 0.1 0.4 5.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 92.6 4130 Higher 58.4 21.2 0.9 9.8 1.0 1.4 1.3 0.1 0.0 0.3 1.1 0.0 0.0 4.4 0.1 0.1 100.0 94.1 5865 Missing/DK (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 9.0 Wealth index quintile Poorest 0.0 3.7 0.7 53.5 0.7 2.7 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.8 2.8 0.3 0.2 32.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 63.7 5957 Second 0.2 23.4 1.8 39.0 2.2 7.7 4.3 0.0 0.0 0.4 4.1 0.1 0.1 16.3 0.0 0.4 100.0 78.5 5953 Middle 3.4 63.8 3.5 14.2 2.4 5.9 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.7 0.0 0.3 4.5 0.0 0.2 100.0 94.0 5961 Fourth 42.0 50.9 1.3 2.7 1.1 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 98.8 5961 Richest 97.4 2.0 0.1 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 5954 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 26.7 25.1 1.4 24.6 1.4 3.0 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.4 2.1 0.2 0.1 13.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 84.0 21385 Russian 78.7 16.6 1.7 1.7 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.2 0.0 100.0 99.7 2593 Uzbek 6.5 49.6 1.7 24.2 0.4 8.2 1.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.1 7.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 91.9 4508 Other language 36.3 41.4 1.6 9.5 2.9 1.1 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.6 0.0 0.0 100.0 93.4 1286 1 MICS indicator 4.1; MDG indicator 7.8 - Use of improved drinking water sources a Households using bottled water as the main source of drinking water are classified into improved or unimproved drinking water users according to the water source used for other purposes such as cooking and handwashing. (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 79 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Figure WS.1: Percent distribution of household members by source of drinking water, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Piped Into dwelling 29% Piped Into yard/plot 29% Piped Public tap / stand-pipe 22% Protected well 3% Protected spring 1% Surface water 11% Other improved 5% Use of household water treatment is presented in Table WS.2. Households were asked about ways they may be treating water at home to make it safer to drink. Boiling water, adding bleach or chlorine, using a water filter, and using solar disinfection are considered as effective treatment of drinking water. The table shows water treatment by all household members and the percentage of those living in households using unimproved water sources but using appropriate water treatment methods. 54.4 percent of the population boils water as the main method of water treatment (50.3 percent in urban areas and 56.3 in rural), 13.6 percent of population lets the water stand and settle. 42.2 percent of the population use no water treatment method; while 18.6 percent of those who use an unimproved water source use no method. The highest percentage of population using no treatment of drinking water is observed in Naryn oblast (87.0 percent). Overall the percentage of household members in households using unimproved drinking water sources and using an appropriate water treatment method is 77.2 percent. The highest percentage is observed in the Batken oblast (93.2 percent), and the lowest - in the Naryn oblast (12.7 percent). 80 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table WS.2: Household water treatment Percentage of household population by drinking water treatment method used in the household, and for household members living in households where an unimproved drinking water source is used, the percentage who are using an appropriate treatment method, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Water treatment method used in the household N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld m em be rs in h ou se ho ld s us in g un im pr ov ed dr in ki ng w at er s ou rc es an d us in g an a pp ro pr ia te w at er tr ea tm en t m et ho d1 Number of household members in households using unimproved drinking water sources N on e B oi l A dd b le ac h/ c hl or in e S tra in th ro ug h a cl ot h U se w at er fi lte r S ol ar d is in fe ct io n Le t i t s ta nd a nd se ttl e O th er M is si ng /D K Total 42.2 54.4 0.1 0.4 1.6 0.5 13.6 0.2 0.0 29786 77.2 3873 Region Batken 6.1 91.9 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 46.5 0.0 0.0 2432 93.2 972 Djalal-Abad 32.5 66.6 0.0 0.3 1.4 0.0 3.4 0.0 0.0 5883 77.6 1086 Issyk-Kul 64.3 28.2 0.0 1.5 0.9 0.0 22.0 0.2 0.0 2245 62.9 187 Naryn 87.0 11.3 0.0 0.5 0.4 0.0 5.6 0.0 0.0 1411 12.7 272 Osh Oblast 18.6 80.3 0.0 0.0 0.1 2.4 19.8 0.0 0.0 5900 82.1 1136 Talas 33.8 64.8 0.0 0.3 0.4 0.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 1519 (89.8) 39 Chui 74.6 20.8 0.1 0.4 2.6 0.0 4.4 0.6 0.0 5312 (*) 47 Bishkek City 56.5 37.9 0.0 0.6 4.8 0.0 9.6 0.3 0.0 3812 (*) 4 Osh City 9.3 77.7 2.9 0.0 2.6 0.0 29.9 0.0 0.0 1273 (78.0) 130 Area Urban 44.3 50.3 0.4 0.5 2.9 0.0 12.8 0.2 0.0 9393 72.6 169 Rural 41.3 56.3 0.0 0.3 1.0 0.7 14.0 0.1 0.0 20393 77.4 3704 Main source of drinking water Improved 45.8 51.0 0.2 0.3 1.8 0.1 9.8 0.2 0.0 25913 na na Unimproved 18.6 77.1 0.0 0.7 0.4 2.7 39.3 0.0 0.0 3873 77.2 3873 Education of household head None 35.8 61.1 0.0 0.0 2.4 0.0 13.1 0.0 0.0 478 (*) 57 Primary 36.2 61.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.6 21.9 0.5 0.0 1067 (83.4) 281 Basic secondary 42.9 54.5 0.2 0.7 0.3 1.6 11.2 0.0 0.0 3391 70.1 472 Complete secondary 39.0 58.8 0.1 0.4 0.7 0.4 14.6 0.1 0.0 12588 78.5 2065 Professional primary 39.4 58.2 0.0 0.1 0.4 0.0 16.2 0.0 0.0 2257 75.8 341 Professional middle 52.5 43.7 0.2 0.3 2.2 0.1 9.2 0.4 0.0 4130 70.1 307 Higher 44.2 49.2 0.3 0.3 4.4 0.1 13.8 0.1 0.0 5865 78.5 348 Missing/DK (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 9 - 0 Wealth index quintile Poorest 35.0 62.3 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.8 21.9 0.0 0.0 5957 77.0 2161 Second 35.7 62.8 0.0 0.5 0.3 1.4 15.0 0.1 0.0 5953 75.6 1281 Middle 40.7 56.7 0.0 0.2 0.3 0.3 11.0 0.0 0.0 5961 84.6 359 Fourth 47.5 48.9 0.2 0.2 1.4 0.0 10.9 0.4 0.0 5961 (*) 69 Richest 52.2 41.2 0.5 0.7 5.5 0.0 9.4 0.4 0.0 5954 (*) 2 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 42.3 54.8 0.2 0.4 1.2 0.6 14.7 0.2 0.0 21385 76.8 3413 Russian 68.2 24.1 0.2 0.7 5.4 0.0 8.9 0.2 0.0 2593 (*) 9 Uzbek 21.9 75.2 0.1 0.0 0.8 0.5 14.1 0.0 0.0 4508 79.8 365 Other language 59.8 36.3 0.0 0.0 3.7 0.0 4.6 0.5 0.0 1286 (*) 85 1 MICS indicator 4.2 - Water treatment na: not applicable "-" denotes 0 unweighted case in that cell or in the denominator (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 81 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The amount of time it takes to obtain water is presented in Table WS.3 and the person who usually collects the water in Table WS.4. Note that for Table WS.3, household members using water on premises are also shown in this table and for others, the findings refer to one roundtrip from home to drinking water source. Information on the number of trips made in one day was not collected. Table WS.3: Time to source of drinking water Percent distribution of household population according to time to go to source of drinking water, get water and return, for users of improved and unimproved drinking water sources, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Time to source of drinking water Total Number of household members Users of improved drinking water sources Users of unimproved drinking water sources Water on premises Less than 30 minutes 30 minutes or more M is si ng / D K Water on premises Less than 30 minutes 30 minutes or more M is si ng / D K Total 62.6 21.2 3.1 0.1 1.5 8.2 3.3 0.0 100.0 29786 Region Batken 23.7 33.0 3.3 0.1 5.8 29.9 4.3 0.0 100.0 2432 Djalal-Abad 59.6 17.9 4.1 0.0 2.3 11.3 4.8 0.0 100.0 5883 Issyk-Kul 63.7 27.5 0.2 0.3 0.7 7.0 0.5 0.2 100.0 2245 Naryn 27.8 47.4 5.5 0.0 0.1 12.4 6.7 0.0 100.0 1411 Osh Oblast 32.8 40.1 7.8 0.0 1.5 10.4 7.3 0.0 100.0 5900 Talas 64.8 30.0 2.4 0.2 0.2 2.0 0.4 0.0 100.0 1519 Chui 93.4 5.3 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.0 100.0 5312 Bishkek City 99.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 3812 Osh City 83.4 4.8 1.0 0.5 3.7 3.2 3.0 0.4 100.0 1273 Area Urban 92.9 4.9 0.4 0.1 0.5 0.8 0.4 0.0 100.0 9393 Rural 48.7 28.7 4.4 0.1 1.9 11.6 4.6 0.0 100.0 20393 Education of household head None 42.1 37.5 8.5 0.0 1.2 8.2 2.6 0.0 100.0 478 Primary 39.9 29.7 4.1 0.0 1.4 20.2 4.8 0.0 100.0 1067 Basic secondary 57.9 23.5 4.6 0.1 1.9 9.9 2.0 0.1 100.0 3391 Complete secondary 54.2 25.9 3.3 0.1 1.6 10.5 4.3 0.0 100.0 12588 Professional primary 55.9 25.8 3.2 0.0 1.8 9.3 3.8 0.2 100.0 2257 Professional middle 76.1 14.7 1.7 0.1 1.6 3.2 2.6 0.0 100.0 4130 Higher 82.3 9.5 2.3 0.0 0.7 3.2 2.0 0.0 100.0 5865 Missing/DK (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 9 Wealth index quintile Poorest 7.0 51.2 5.4 0.1 2.6 25.1 8.6 0.0 100.0 5957 Second 33.3 38.4 6.7 0.1 3.2 12.1 6.1 0.1 100.0 5953 Middle 77.5 13.5 3.0 0.0 1.3 3.1 1.6 0.1 100.0 5961 Fourth 95.7 2.4 0.6 0.2 0.3 0.6 0.2 0.0 100.0 5961 Richest 99.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 5954 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 56.3 24.1 3.5 0.1 1.8 9.9 4.2 0.0 100.0 21385 Russian 98.0 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 2593 Uzbek 66.5 22.0 3.3 0.1 1.0 6.2 0.9 0.0 100.0 4508 Other language 83.2 7.9 2.3 0.0 0.4 3.6 2.7 0.0 100.0 1286 (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 82 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table WS.3 shows that for 64.1 percent of the household population, the drinking water source is on the premises. The availability of water on premises is associated with greater use, better family hygiene and better health outcomes. For a water collection round trip of 30 minutes or more it has been observed that households carry progressively less water and are likely to compromise on the minimal basic drinking water needs of the household26. For 29.4 percent of the household population, it takes the household less than 30 minutes to get to the water source and bring water and it takes more than 30 minutes for 6.4 percent. In rural areas household members are more likely to spend time in collecting water compared to those living in urban areas. In rural areas, 9.0 percent of the household population spend 30 minutes or more and 40.3 percent – less than 30 minutes. One striking finding is the high percentage of household members spending 30 minutes or more to go to source of drinking water in the Osh oblast (15.1 percent). Table WS.4: Person collecting water Percentage of households without drinking water on premises, and percent distribution of households without drinking water on premises according to the person usually collecting drinking water used in the household, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of households without drinking water on premises Number of households Person usually collecting drinking water Number of households without drinking water on premises Adult woman Adult man Female child under age 15 Male child under age 15 Miss- ing/DK Total Total 30.5 6934 56.7 29.5 6.4 6.9 0.5 100.0 2112 Region Batken 67.3 508 68.1 18.3 8.2 5.2 0.2 100.0 342 Djalal-Abad 36.2 1235 60.4 21.9 8.8 8.2 0.7 100.0 446 Issyk-Kul 32.8 628 40.7 51.2 2.0 4.8 1.2 100.0 206 Naryn 68.8 323 34.7 40.3 10.2 14.4 0.4 100.0 222 Osh Oblast 66.9 1028 62.9 27.4 4.5 4.9 0.3 100.0 688 Talas 34.5 270 67.0 25.8 3.0 4.2 0.0 100.0 93 Chui 5.8 1393 (29.2) (50.1) (6.6) (14.0) (0.0) 100.0 80 Bishkek City 0.2 1237 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 Osh City 10.4 312 40.1 48.1 4.9 3.0 3.9 100.0 32 Area Urban 4.9 2739 63.2 26.3 4.6 5.0 0.9 100.0 134 Rural 47.1 4195 56.2 29.8 6.5 7.0 0.5 100.0 1978 Education of household head None 55.6 82 (68.9) (21.4) (5.5) (4.3) (0.0) 100.0 45 Primary 54.6 200 63.1 23.8 4.6 8.2 0.3 100.0 109 Basic secondary 35.5 737 64.0 24.4 3.9 7.5 0.2 100.0 262 Complete secondary 40.3 2751 56.7 29.5 6.3 6.7 0.8 100.0 1109 Professional primary 37.5 493 51.8 31.2 12.0 5.0 0.0 100.0 185 Professional middle 18.1 1078 45.1 38.4 7.5 9.0 0.0 100.0 195 Higher 13.0 1591 56.2 31.4 5.2 6.8 0.4 100.0 206 Missing/DK - - - - - - - 100.0 0 26 Cairncross, S and Cliff, JL. 1987. Water use and Health in Mueda, Mozambique. Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 81: 51-4 83 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of households without drinking water on premises Number of households Person usually collecting drinking water Number of households without drinking water on premises Adult woman Adult man Female child under age 15 Male child under age 15 Miss- ing/DK Total Wealth index quintile Poorest 90.7 1198 58.9 25.8 7.6 7.4 0.3 100.0 1087 Second 61.0 1193 54.8 33.2 4.7 6.3 1.0 100.0 728 Middle 19.7 1239 53.0 34.5 6.8 5.8 0.0 100.0 244 Fourth 3.7 1401 54.3 31.6 3.5 10.6 0.0 100.0 51 Richest 0.1 1904 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 3 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 37.0 4792 54.7 31.1 6.8 7.0 0.5 100.0 1773 Russian 2.1 1006 (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 21 Uzbek 32.9 844 68.8 19.9 4.7 6.4 0.2 100.0 277 Other language 13.6 290 (70.1) (12.9) (4.7) (8.4) (3.9) 100.0 39 "-" denotes 0 unweighted case in that cell or in the denominator (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table WS.4 shows that for more than half of the households (56.7 percent), an adult female usually collects drinking water when the source is not on the premises. Adult men collect water in only 29.5 percent of cases, while for the rest of the households, female or male children under age 15 collect water (6.4 and 6.9 percent, respectively). The highest involvement of female and male children is observed in the Naryn oblast; 10.2 percent and 14.4 percent, respectively. Use of Improved Sanitation Inadequate disposal of human excreta and personal hygiene are associated with a range of diseases including diarrhoeal diseases and polio and are important determinants of stunting. Improved sanitation can reduce diarrhoeal disease by more than a third27, and can substantially lessen the adverse health impacts of other disorders among millions of children in many countries. An improved sanitation facility is defined as one that hygienically separates human excreta from human contact. Improved sanitation facilities for excreta disposal include flush or pour flush to a piped sewer system, septic tank, or pit latrine; ventilated improved pit latrine, pit latrine with slab, and use of a composting toilet. The data on the use of improved sanitation facilities in the Kyrgyz Republic are provided in Table WS.5. According to the survey data, 99.8 percent of the population of Kyrgyzstan is living in households using improved sanitation facilities (Table WS.5). This percentage is similar in urban areas and rural areas and does not depend much on background characteristics. The pit latrine with slab is the most widespread toilet facility (81.4 percent), while 16.8 percent of the population use flush toilets connected to a sewage system, pit latrine, or septic tank. Use of flush toilets is profoundly different between urban and rural areas: 47.2 and 2.7 percent, respectively. In rural areas, the population primarily uses pit latrines without slabs (96.5 percent). In Bishkek city, the majority of the population (50.5 percent) use flush toilets connected to a sewage system. 27 Cairncross, S. 2010. Water, sanitation and hygiene for the prevention of diarrhoea. Int. J. Epidemiology 39: i193-i205. 84 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table WS.5: Types of sanitation facilities Percent distribution of household population according to type of toilet facility used by the household, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Type of toilet facility used by household Open defecation (no facility, bush, field) Total Number of household members Improved sanitation facility Unimproved sanitation facility Flush/Pour flush to: Ve nt ila te d im pr ov ed p it la tri ne P it la tri ne w ith s la b P it la tri ne w ith ou t s la b/ op en p it B uc ke t M is si ng P ip ed s ew er sy st em S ep tic ta nk P it la tri ne Total 14.6 0.9 1.3 1.7 81.4 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 29786 Region Batken 7.2 0.1 0.3 3.7 88.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 2432 Djalal-Abad 12.4 0.0 0.0 0.7 86.8 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 5883 Issyk-Kul 9.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 90.6 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 2245 Naryn 5.7 0.0 0.4 1.4 92.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1411 Osh Oblast 0.1 0.0 0.0 1.0 98.8 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 5900 Talas 1.4 0.0 0.2 0.0 97.6 0.3 0.0 0.6 0.0 100.0 1519 Chui 13.8 1.5 4.6 0.0 79.9 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 5312 Bishkek City 50.5 4.6 2.7 7.2 35.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3812 Osh City 37.5 0.7 1.1 1.3 58.1 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 100.0 1273 Area Urban 43.4 2.2 1.6 4.0 48.5 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 9393 Rural 1.3 0.3 1.1 0.6 96.5 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 20393 Education of household head None 0.1 2.4 0.0 1.0 96.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 478 Primary 1.2 0.6 0.0 0.2 96.7 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 100.0 1067 Basic secondary 5.3 0.3 0.8 1.6 91.9 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 3391 Complete secondary 9.1 0.4 0.9 0.9 88.5 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 12588 Professional primary 8.6 0.0 0.0 0.2 91.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2257 Professional middle 17.8 1.0 2.0 2.6 76.5 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 4130 Higher 35.5 2.6 2.6 3.5 55.6 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 5865 Missing/DK (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 9 Wealth index quintile Poorest 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 99.8 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 5957 Second 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 99.5 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 5953 Middle 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.1 98.7 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 5961 Fourth 1.4 0.2 0.2 3.4 94.7 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 5961 Richest 71.7 4.3 6.1 3.4 14.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.0 100.0 5954 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 14.6 0.6 0.9 1.5 82.2 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 21385 Russian 37.4 3.2 5.7 2.3 51.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 100.0 2593 Uzbek 2.9 0.4 0.1 2.5 93.7 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.0 100.0 4508 Other language 9.7 2.2 3.2 0.3 84.4 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 1286 Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 14 (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 85 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The MDGs and the WHO / UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme (JMP) for Water Supply and Sanitation classify otherwise acceptable sanitation facilities which are public or shared between two or more households as unimproved. Therefore, “use of improved sanitation” is used both in the context of this report and as an MDG indicator to refer to improved sanitation facilities, which are not public or shared. Data on the use of improved sanitation are presented in Tables WS.6 and WS.7. As shown in Table WS.6, 97.5 of the household population is using an improved sanitation facility that is not shared with other households. Only 2.3 percent of the population use an improved toilet facility that is public or shared with other households. Urban households are slightly more likely than rural households to use a shared toilet facility of an improved type (6.3 percent and 0.4 percent, respectively). Figure WS.2 presents the distribution of the survey population by use and sharing of sanitation facilities. Figure WS.2: Percent distribution of household members by use and sharing of sanitation facilities, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Improved sanitation facility ― shared 2% Unimproved sanitation facility ― not shared 0% Improved sanitation facility ― not shared 98% 86 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table WS.6: Use and sharing of sanitation facilities Percent distribution of household population by use of private and public sanitation facilities and use of shared facilities, by users of improved and unimproved sanitation facilities, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Users of improved sanitation facilities Users of unimproved sanitation facilities Open defecation (no facility, bush, field) Total Number of household members Not shared1 Public facility Shared by Missing/ DK Not shared5 ho us eh ol ds or le ss M or e th an 5 ho us eh ol ds Total 97.5 0.2 1.5 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 29786 Region Batken 98.3 0.5 1.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 2432 Djalal-Abad 99.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 5883 Issyk-Kul 99.2 0.0 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 2245 Naryn 97.0 1.6 1.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1411 Osh Oblast 99.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 5900 Talas 98.5 0.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 100.0 1519 Chui 99.0 0.2 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 5312 Bishkek City 87.2 0.1 8.8 3.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3812 Osh City 96.0 0.8 1.8 0.0 0.1 1.3 0.0 100.0 1273 Area Urban 93.4 0.4 4.2 1.7 0.0 0.3 0.0 100.0 9393 Rural 99.4 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 20393 Education of household head None 99.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 478 Primary 98.3 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.0 100.0 1067 Basic secondary 97.6 0.4 1.2 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 3391 Complete secondary 97.5 0.1 1.5 0.6 0.1 0.2 0.0 100.0 12588 Professional primary 97.7 0.4 1.1 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2257 Professional middle 97.3 0.3 1.6 0.7 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 4130 Higher 97.1 0.2 2.0 0.4 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 5865 Missing/DK (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 9.0 Wealth index quintile Poorest 98.7 0.4 0.6 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 5957 Second 99.0 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 5953 Middle 97.4 0.1 1.7 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 5961 Fourth 97.0 0.3 1.4 1.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 5961 Richest 95.6 0.2 3.1 0.8 0.0 0.4 0.0 100.0 5954 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 97.0 0.2 1.9 0.7 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 21385 Russian 97.0 0.5 1.4 0.8 0.0 0.2 0.1 100.0 2593 Uzbek 99.5 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 100.0 4508 Other language 99.6 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 1286 1 MICS indicator 4.3; MDG indicator 7.9 - Use of improved sanitation (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 87 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Having access to both an improved drinking water source and an improved sanitation facility brings the largest public health benefits to a household28. In its 2008 report29, the JMP developed a new way of presenting the access figures, by disaggregating and refining the data on drinking-water and sanitation and reflecting them in "ladder" format. This ladder allows a disaggregated analysis of trends in a three rung ladder for drinking-water and a four-rung ladder for sanitation. For sanitation, this gives an understanding of the proportion of population with no sanitation facilities at all – who revert to open defecation, of those reliant on technologies defined by JMP as "unimproved," of those sharing sanitation facilities of otherwise acceptable technology, and those using "improved" sanitation facilities. Table WS.7 presents the percentages of household population by these drinking water and sanitation ladders. The table also shows the percentage of household members using both improved sources of drinking water30 and an improved sanitary means of excreta disposal. 84.6 percent of the population have both improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation. The value varies from 91.6 percent in urban areas to 81.3 percent in rural areas. In the Batken oblast, only 58.9 percent of the population have both improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation; the percentage increases to 98.2 percent in the Chui oblast. The table indicates that access to both improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation is strongly correlated with wealth. As Figure WS.3 shows, the percentage of the population in the poorest wealth quintile using both improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation is lower (62.8 percent) compared to the population in the fourth and richest quintiles (above 95 percent). 28 Wolf, J et al. 2014. Systematic review: Assessing the impact of drinking water and sanitation on diarrhoeal disease in low- and middle- income settings: systematic review and meta-regression. Tropical Medicine and International Health 2014. DfID. 2013. Water, Sanitation and Hygiene: Evidence Paper. DfID: https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/193656/WASH-evidence-paper-april2013.pdf 29 WHO/UNICEF JMP. 2008., MDG assessment report. http://www.wssinfo.org/fileadmin/user_upload/resources/1251794333–JMP_08_en.pdf 30 Those indicating bottled water as the main source of drinking water are distributed according to the water source used for other purposes such as cooking and handwashing. 88 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table WS.7: Drinking water and sanitation ladders Percentage of household population by drinking water and sanitation ladders, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of household population using: N um be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs Improved drinking water1, a U ni m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er Total Im pr ov ed s an ita tio n2 Unimproved sanitation Total Improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation Piped into dwelling, plot or yard Other im- proved S ha re d im pr ov ed fa ci lit ie s U ni m pr ov ed fa ci lit ie s O pe n de fe ca tio n Total 57.3 29.7 13.0 100.0 97.5 2.3 0.2 0.0 100.0 84.6 29786 Region Batken 18.6 41.4 40.0 100.0 98.3 1.6 0.0 0.1 100.0 58.9 2432 Djalal-Abad 45.9 35.6 18.5 100.0 99.8 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 81.4 5883 Issyk-Kul 58.8 32.9 8.3 100.0 99.2 0.6 0.2 0.0 100.0 90.9 2245 Naryn 23.6 57.1 19.3 100.0 97.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 77.7 1411 Osh Oblast 31.5 49.3 19.3 100.0 99.7 0.2 0.1 0.0 100.0 80.6 5900 Talas 61.1 36.3 2.6 100.0 98.5 0.7 0.9 0.0 100.0 95.9 1519 Chui 88.0 11.1 0.9 100.0 99.0 0.8 0.1 0.0 100.0 98.2 5312 Bishkek City 99.8 0.1 0.1 100.0 87.2 12.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 87.1 3812 Osh City 79.3 10.5 10.2 100.0 96.0 2.7 1.3 0.0 100.0 85.9 1273 Area Urban 91.2 7.0 1.8 100.0 93.4 6.3 0.3 0.0 100.0 91.6 9393 Rural 41.8 40.1 18.2 100.0 99.4 0.4 0.1 0.0 100.0 81.3 20393 Education of household head None 35.9 52.2 11.9 100.0 99.8 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 87.8 478 Primary 36.8 36.9 26.4 100.0 98.3 0.4 1.2 0.0 100.0 72.4 1067 Basic secondary 50.6 35.5 13.9 100.0 97.6 2.2 0.2 0.0 100.0 83.7 3391 Complete secondary 48.0 35.5 16.4 100.0 97.5 2.3 0.2 0.0 100.0 81.2 12588 Professional primary 49.7 35.2 15.1 100.0 97.7 2.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 82.6 2257 Professional middle 71.6 21.0 7.4 100.0 97.3 2.6 0.1 0.0 100.0 90.0 4130 Higher 79.6 14.5 5.9 100.0 97.1 2.7 0.2 0.0 100.0 91.2 5865 Missing/DK (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 9.0 Wealth index quintile Poorest 3.7 60.0 36.3 100.0 98.7 1.2 0.1 0.0 100.0 62.8 5957 Second 23.6 54.9 21.5 100.0 99.0 0.8 0.2 0.0 100.0 77.4 5953 Middle 67.1 26.8 6.0 100.0 97.4 2.5 0.2 0.0 100.0 91.3 5961 Fourth 92.9 5.9 1.2 100.0 97.0 2.9 0.1 0.0 100.0 95.8 5961 Richest 99.4 0.6 0.0 100.0 95.6 4.1 0.4 0.0 100.0 95.5 5954 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 51.8 32.2 16.0 100.0 97.0 2.8 0.1 0.0 100.0 81.2 21385 Russian 95.4 4.3 0.3 100.0 97.0 2.6 0.2 0.1 100.0 96.7 2593 Uzbek 56.2 35.7 8.1 100.0 99.5 0.1 0.3 0.0 100.0 91.4 4508 Other language 77.8 15.6 6.6 100.0 99.6 0.2 0.2 0.0 100.0 93.0 1286 1 MICS indicator 4.1; MDG indicator 7.8 - Use of improved drinking water sources 2 MICS indicator 4.3; MDG indicator 7.9 - Use of improved sanitation a Those indicating bottled water as the main source of drinking water are distributed according to the water source used for other purposes such as cooking and handwashing. (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 89 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Figure WS.3: Use of improved drinking water sources and improved sanitation by household members, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 63 77 91 96 96 85 0 20 40 60 80 100 Poorest Second Middle Fourth Richest Kyrgyzstan Pe rc en t Safe disposal of a child’s faeces is disposing of the stool, by the child using a toilet or by rinsing the stool into a toilet or latrine. Putting disposable diapers with solid waste, a very common practice throughout the world has thus far been classified as an inadequate means of disposal of child faeces for concerns about poor disposal of solid waste itself. This classification is currently under review. Disposal of faeces of children 0-2 years of age is presented in Table WS.8 About one percent of children this age used the toilet/latrine; for 74.8 percent of children the faeces were put/rinsed into the toilet or latrine, while for 13.0 percent of children age 0-2 years, the faeces were disposed of in the garbage. Overall, safe disposal of a child’s faeces was conducted for 75.8 percent of children. Safe disposal of a child’s faeces was more likely to occur in rural areas (82.7 percent) than in urban areas (60.6 percent). 90 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table WS.8: Disposal of child's faeces Percent distribution of children age 0-2 years according to place of disposal of child's faeces, and the percentage of children age 0-2 years whose stools were disposed of safely the last time the child passed stools, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Place of disposal of child's faeces P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n w ho se la st s to ol s w er e di sp os ed o f s af el y1 Num- ber of children age 0-2 years Child used toilet/la- trine Put/rinsed into toilet or latrine Put/rinsed into drain or ditch Thrown into gar- bage Buried Left in the open Other Miss- ing/ DK Total Total 0.9 74.8 6.8 13.0 2.0 1.1 0.5 0.8 100.0 75.8 2843 Type of sanitation facility used by household members Improved 0.9 74.8 6.8 13.0 2.0 1.1 0.5 0.8 100.0 75.8 2840 Unimproved (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 3 Region Batken 1.8 57.3 3.9 8.5 17.7 8.3 0.0 2.6 100.0 59.1 241 Djalal-Abad 0.9 77.2 6.3 12.6 1.1 0.0 1.3 0.5 100.0 78.1 606 Issyk-Kul 0.0 73.4 1.7 23.4 0.5 0.0 0.6 0.5 100.0 73.4 152 Naryn 0.4 40.5 2.7 50.4 2.1 3.5 0.0 0.5 100.0 40.9 103 Osh Oblast 0.3 96.9 0.2 0.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0 97.2 625 Talas 0.6 96.8 0.7 1.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 100.0 97.4 211 Chui 0.0 73.8 3.6 19.4 0.0 1.4 1.3 0.5 100.0 73.8 445 Bishkek City 2.7 42.9 34.0 20.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 45.6 328 Osh City 3.4 68.2 7.6 18.6 0.5 0.0 0.0 1.8 100.0 71.6 131 Area Urban 2.2 58.4 19.6 19.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.4 100.0 60.6 889 Rural 0.4 82.3 1.0 10.2 2.9 1.5 0.8 1.0 100.0 82.7 1955 Mother’s education None/Primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 31 Basic secondary 0.8 78.0 4.3 11.4 2.9 1.2 0.6 0.6 100.0 78.8 1319 Complete secondary 0.9 76.1 3.9 13.8 1.4 0.9 0.9 0.7 100.0 77.5 428 Professional primary/ middle 1.3 62.7 16.0 16.4 1.5 1.3 0.4 1.6 100.0 63.7 735 Higher 1.0 87.0 0.3 8.5 1.5 1.1 0.5 0.7 100.0 87.4 641 Wealth index quintile Poorest 0.6 77.4 1.5 9.4 7.0 2.5 0.3 1.3 100.0 78.0 576 Second 0.5 87.0 0.3 8.5 1.5 1.1 0.5 0.6 100.0 87.4 641 Middle 1.0 81.6 0.4 13.2 0.9 1.2 0.5 1.2 100.0 82.6 592 Fourth 0.8 77.3 2.8 17.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.5 100.0 78.1 516 Richest 2.1 46.9 31.9 17.8 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.4 100.0 48.9 519 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 0.7 74.3 7.1 13.1 2.3 1.4 0.4 0.8 100.0 75.0 2182 Russian 1.8 49.5 22.4 23.0 0.0 0.0 3.3 0.0 100.0 51.3 112 Uzbek 2.2 83.0 2.7 9.8 1.3 0.2 0.0 0.9 100.0 85.1 430 Other language 0.0 78.9 1.4 13.6 1.7 0.0 2.6 1.8 100.0 78.9 119 1 MICS indicator 4.4 - Safe disposal of child’s faeces (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 91 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Handwashing Handwashing with water and soap is the most cost effective health intervention to reduce both the incidence of diarrhoea and pneumonia in children under five31. It is most effective when done using water and soap after visiting a toilet or cleaning a child, before eating or handling food and, before feeding a child. Monitoring correct hand washing behaviour at these critical times is challenging. A reliable alternative to observations or self-reported behaviour is assessing the likelihood that correct handwashing behaviour takes place by asking if a household has a specific place where people wash their hands and, if yes, observing whether water and soap (or other local cleansing materials) are available at this place32. In Kyrgyzstan, 94.2 percent of the households with a specific place for hand washing was observed. The percentage was high both in urban (94.8 percent) and rural (93.8 percent) areas; the only distinctive cases were the Chui and Talas oblasts where a place for hand washing was observed in 80.8 percent and 84.9 percent of households, respectively (Table WS.9). Table WS.9: Water and soap at place for handwashing Percentage of households where place for handwashing was observed, percentage with no specific place for handwashing, and percent distribution of households by availability of water and soap at specific place for handwashing, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of households : N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s Place for handwashing observed N o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, y ar d, o r p lo t To ta l P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld s w ith a sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng w he re w at er a nd s oa p or o th er cl ea ns in g ag en t a re p re se nt 1 Number of households where place for handwashing was observed or with no specific place for handwashing in the dwelling, yard, or plotW he re p la ce fo r h an dw as hi ng w as o bs er ve d W ith n o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r ha nd w as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, ya rd , o r p lo t Water is available and: Water is not available and: Soap present No soap: Soap present No soap: A sh , m ud , o r sa nd p re se nt N o ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t pr es en t N o ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t pr es en t Total 94.2 1.5 6934 94.4 0.0 2.4 1.3 0.3 1.5 100.0 94.5 6635 Region Batken 99.9 0.1 508 91.8 0.0 6.0 1.5 0.5 0.1 100.0 91.8 508 Djalal-Abad 99.5 0.0 1235 93.0 0.0 2.5 3.5 1.0 0.0 100.0 93.0 1229 Issyk-Kul 96.9 2.2 628 95.2 0.0 1.5 0.9 0.1 2.2 100.0 95.2 623 Naryn 99.5 0.0 323 97.3 0.0 0.7 1.7 0.4 0.0 100.0 97.3 321 Osh Oblast 100.0 0.0 1028 94.3 0.0 5.3 0.3 0.2 0.0 100.0 94.3 1028 Talas 84.9 7.9 270 91.0 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.0 8.5 100.0 91.0 251 Chui 80.8 3.4 1393 92.5 0.2 1.4 1.7 0.1 4.1 100.0 92.7 1174 Bishkek City 96.0 0.4 1237 99.1 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 99.1 1193 Osh City 95.0 4.3 312 92.4 0.0 2.7 0.3 0.2 4.3 100.0 92.4 310 Area Urban 94.8 1.4 2739 96.8 0.0 1.1 0.6 0.1 1.4 100.0 96.8 2635 Rural 93.8 1.5 4195 92.9 0.0 3.2 1.7 0.5 1.6 100.0 93.0 4000 31 Cairncross, S and Valdmanis, V. 2006. Water supply, sanitation and hygiene promotion Chapter 41 in Disease Control Priorities in Developing Countries. 2nd Edition, Edt. Jameson et al. The World Bank. 32 Ram, P et al. editors. 2008. Use of a novel method to detect reactivity to structured observation for measurement of handwashing behavior. American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. 92 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of households: N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s Place for handwashing observed N o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, y ar d, o r p lo t To ta l P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld s w ith a sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng w he re w at er a nd s oa p or o th er cl ea ns in g ag en t a re p re se nt 1 Number of households where place for handwashing was observed or with no specific place for handwashing in the dwelling, yard, or plot W he re p la ce fo r ha nd w as hi ng w as ob se rv ed W ith n o sp ec ifi c pl ac e fo r h an dw as hi ng in th e dw el lin g, y ar d, o r p lo t Water is available and: Water is not available and: Soap present No soap: Soap present No soap: A sh , m ud , o r sa nd p re se nt N o ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t p re se nt N o ot he r cl ea ns in g ag en t p re se nt Education of household head None 100.0 0.0 82 91.3 0.0 6.1 0.6 2.1 0.0 100.0 91.3 82 Primary 95.4 0.3 200 95.1 0.0 3.7 0.9 0.0 0.3 100.0 95.1 191 Basic secondary 94.5 1.3 737 90.6 0.0 4.3 2.7 1.0 1.4 100.0 90.6 706 Complete secondary 95.6 1.5 2751 93.5 0.1 3.0 1.5 0.3 1.6 100.0 93.6 2673 Professional primary 96.8 1.8 493 93.9 0.0 2.9 1.3 0.1 1.8 100.0 93.9 486 Professional middle 88.7 2.5 1078 95.6 0.0 0.8 0.8 0.1 2.7 100.0 95.6 982 Higher 94.1 1.0 1591 97.4 0.0 0.8 0.7 0.1 1.0 100.0 97.4 1513 Missing/DK (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 2 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 97.5 1.8 1198 88.2 0.0 6.7 2.0 1.2 1.8 100.0 88.2 1190 Second 96.8 1.9 1193 93.4 0.0 3.2 1.3 0.1 1.9 100.0 93.4 1178 Middle 94.7 1.0 1239 95.0 0.1 1.2 2.3 0.4 1.0 100.0 95.1 1185 Fourth 90.0 1.6 1401 95.8 0.0 1.4 1.0 0.0 1.8 100.0 95.8 1284 Richest 93.3 1.2 1904 97.9 0.0 0.4 0.4 0.0 1.3 100.0 97.9 1799 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 96.0 1.5 4792 94.6 0.0 2.2 1.3 0.3 1.6 100.0 94.6 4674 Russian 82.3 2.0 1006 95.7 0.0 0.4 1.3 0.2 2.4 100.0 95.7 848 Uzbek 99.1 0.4 844 93.9 0.0 4.1 1.3 0.4 0.4 100.0 93.9 839 Other language 91.7 1.8 290 89.6 0.0 6.0 1.2 1.2 2.0 100.0 89.6 271 1 MICS indicator 4.5 - Place for handwashing (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases Among households where a place for handwashing was observed or in which there was no specific place for handwashing, almost 94.4 percent had both water and soap (or another cleansing agent) present at the specific place. In 2.4 percent of the households only water was available at the specific place, while in Batken oblast this was the case for 6.0 percent of the households. Only 2.3 percent of the households were not able or refused to show any soap present in the household, whereas another 0.9 percent did not have any soap in the households, leaving the remaining 96.8 percent of households, in which either the soap was observed or shown to the interviewer (Table WS.10). 93 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table WS.10: Availability of soap or other cleansing agent Percent distribution of households by availability of soap or other cleansing agent in the dwelling, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Place for handwashing observed Place for handwashing not observed Total P er ce nt ag e of h ou se ho ld s w ith s oa p or ot he r c le an si ng a ge nt a ny w he re in th e dw el lin g1 N um be r o f h ou se ho ld s Soap or other cleansing agent observed Soap or other cleansing agent not observed at place for handwashing S oa p or o th er c le an si ng a ge nt s ho w n N o so ap o r o th er c le an si ng a ge nt in ho us eh ol d N ot a bl e/ D oe s no t w an t t o sh ow s oa p or o th er c le an si ng a ge nt M is si ng S oa p o r o th er c le an si ng ag en t s ho w n N o so ap o r o th er c le an si ng ag en t i n ho us eh ol d N ot a bl e/ D oe s no t w an t t o sh ow s oa p or o th er c le an si ng ag en t M is si ng Total 91.6 1.7 0.7 0.1 0.0 3.4 0.2 2.2 0.0 100.0 96.8 6934 Region Batken 93.3 5.7 0.6 0.3 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.2 508 Djalal-Abad 96.0 3.4 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.0 100.0 99.5 1235 Issyk-Kul 95.2 1.1 0.5 0.1 0.0 2.5 0.1 0.5 0.0 100.0 98.8 628 Naryn 98.5 0.2 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.3 0.0 100.0 98.7 323 Osh Oblast 94.6 2.9 2.4 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 97.5 1028 Talas 84.5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.3 15.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.6 270 Chui 79.6 0.0 1.0 0.3 0.0 10.8 0.6 7.5 0.2 100.0 90.4 1393 Bishkek City 95.6 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.1 2.6 0.0 100.0 97.3 1237 Osh City 92.2 2.6 0.2 0.1 0.0 3.1 0.3 1.5 0.0 100.0 97.8 312 Area Urban 93.7 0.9 0.2 0.0 0.0 2.7 0.2 2.2 0.0 100.0 97.3 2739 Rural 90.3 2.3 1.0 0.1 0.0 3.8 0.2 2.1 0.1 100.0 96.4 4195 Education of household head None 91.8 2.1 6.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 93.9 82 Primary 91.8 2.9 0.4 0.3 0.0 1.5 0.0 3.1 0.0 100.0 96.2 200 Basic secondary 89.4 3.7 1.3 0.1 0.1 3.8 0.1 1.4 0.2 100.0 96.8 737 Complete secondary 92.4 2.2 0.9 0.2 0.0 3.1 0.0 1.2 0.0 100.0 97.7 2751 Professional primary 93.9 1.8 0.9 0.0 0.2 1.9 0.7 0.7 0.0 100.0 97.5 493 Professional middle 87.8 0.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 6.4 0.5 4.3 0.2 100.0 94.8 1078 Higher 93.2 0.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 2.5 0.1 3.3 0.0 100.0 96.5 1591 Missing/DK (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 2 Wealth index quintile Poorest 89.6 4.9 2.9 0.1 0.1 2.1 0.1 0.4 0.0 100.0 96.5 1198 Second 93.5 2.8 0.4 0.0 0.0 2.3 0.1 0.9 0.0 100.0 98.6 1193 Middle 93.2 1.1 0.3 0.1 0.0 3.3 0.3 1.4 0.3 100.0 97.6 1239 Fourth 88.7 0.7 0.3 0.3 0.0 5.7 0.3 4.0 0.0 100.0 95.1 1401 Richest 92.9 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 3.3 0.2 3.2 0.0 100.0 96.5 1904 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 93.6 1.7 0.6 0.1 0.0 2.4 0.2 1.3 0.1 100.0 97.7 4792 Russian 81.9 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.0 9.6 0.5 7.5 0.0 100.0 91.8 1006 Uzbek 94.6 3.7 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.1 0.3 0.0 100.0 98.8 844 Other language 84.9 2.4 4.4 0.0 0.0 5.7 0.0 2.6 0.0 100.0 93.0 290 Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 2 1 MICS indicator 4.6 - Availability of soap or other cleansing agent (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases VIII. Reproductive Health 95 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Fertility Measures of current fertility are presented in Table RH.1 for the three-year period preceding the survey. A three-year period was chosen for calculating these rates to provide the most current information while also allowing the rates to be calculated for a sufficient number of cases so as not to compromise the statistical precision of the estimates. Age-specific fertility rates (ASFRs), expressed as the number of births per 1,000 women in a specified age group, show the age pattern of fertility. Numerators for ASFRs are calculated by identifying live births that occurred in the three-year period preceding the survey classified according to the age of the mother (in five-year age groups) at the time of the child’s birth. The denominators of the rates represent the number of woman-years lived by the survey respondents in each of the five-year age groups during the specified period. The total fertility rate (TFR) is a synthetic measure that denotes the number of live births a woman would have if she were subject to the current age-specific fertility rates throughout her reproductive years (15-49 years). The general fertility rate (GFR) is the number of live births occurring during the specified period per 1,000 women age 15-49. The crude birth rate (CBR) is the number of live births per 1,000 population during the specified period. Table RH.1: Fertility rates Adolescent birth rate, age-specific and total fertility rates, the general fertility rate, and the crude birth rate for the three-year period preceding the survey, by area, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Urban Rural Total Age 15-191 45 75 65 20-24 182 268 237 25-29 216 236 229 30-34 150 158 155 35-39 98 76 84 40-44 33 30 31 45-49 3 5 4 TFRa 3.6 4.2 4.0 GFRb 117 138 130 CBRc 29 29 29 1 MICS indicator 5.1; MDG indicator 5.4 - Adolescent birth rate a TFR: Total fertility rate expressed per woman age 15-49 years b GFR: General fertility rate expressed per 1,000 women age 15-49 years c CBR: Crude birth rate expressed per 1,000 population Table RH.1 shows current fertility in Kyrgyzstan at the national level and by urban-rural area. The TFR for the three years preceding the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS is 4.0 births per woman. Fertility is considerably higher in rural areas (4.2 births per woman) than in urban areas (3.6 births per woman). As the ASFRs show, the pattern of higher rural fertility is prevalent in all age groups, except for the age group 35-39 years and 40-44 years. These findings are shown in Figure RH.1 as well. 96 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Figure RH.1: Age-specific fertility rates by area, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Pe r 1 ,0 00 Age Urban Rural Total Rates refer to the three years period preceding the survey The urban-rural difference in fertility is most pronounced for women in the 20-24 age group: 182 births per 1,000 women in urban areas versus 268 births per 1,000 women in rural areas. The overall age pattern of fertility, as reflected in the ASFRs, indicates that childbearing begins early. Fertility is low among adolescents, increases to a peak of 237 births per 1,000 among women age 20-24, and declines thereafter (Table RH.1 and Figure RH.1). Table RH.2 shows adolescent birth rates and total fertility rates. The adolescent birth rate (age- specific fertility rate for women age 15-19) is defined as the number of births to women age 15-19 years during the three year period preceding the survey, divided by the average number of women age 15-19 (number of women-years lived between ages 15 through 19, inclusive) during the same period, expressed per 1,000 women. The adolescent birth rate in the country is 65 per 1000 women. In general, a higher adolescent birth rate is observed among women whose total fertility rate is higher. The adolescent birth rate is more than 1.5 times higher in rural areas: 45 births per 1,000 women in urban areas versus 75 births in rural areas. The birth rate is higher among less educated women and in less wealthy households. The highest adolescent birth rate is found among adolescents living in households in which the mother tongue of the household head is Uzbek, while across regions, it is highest in the Talas oblast. 97 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table RH.2: Adolescent birth rate and total fertility rate Adolescent birth rates and total fertility rates for the three-year period preceding the survey, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Adolescent birth rate1 (Age-specific fertility rate for women age 15-19 years) TFR Total 65 4.0 Region Batken 96 4.2 Djalal-Abad 91 4.4 Issyk-Kul 37 3.9 Naryn 59 4.0 Osh Oblast 78 4.4 Talas 121 5.6 Chui 47 3.6 Bishkek City 15 3.1 Osh City 52 4.1 Area Urban 45 3.6 Rural 75 4.2 Education None/primary (*) (*) Basic secondary 110 3.9 Complete secondary 65 4.5 Professional primary/middle 56 3.6 Higher 25 3.5 Wealth index quintile Poorest 82 4.4 Second 67 4.6 Middle 72 4.2 Fourth 63 3.8 Richest 43 3.3 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 57 4.3 Russian (8) (1.8) Uzbek 94 3.8 Other language (*) (*) 1 MICS indicator 5.1; MDG indicator 5.4 - Adolescent birth rate (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 125 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 125-249 unweighted cases Table RH.3 presents some early childbearing33 indicators for women age 15-19 and 20-24 while Table RH.4 presents the trends for early childbearing. 33 Childbearing is the process of giving birth to children. While early childbearing is defined as having had live births before specific young ages, for the purposes of Table RH.3, women age 15-19 years who have begun childbearing includes those who have had a live birth as well as those who have not had a live birth but are pregnant with their first child. 98 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table RH.3: Early childbearing Percentage of women age 15-19 years who have had a live birth, are pregnant with the first child, have begun childbearing, and who have had a live birth before age 15, and percentage of women age 20-24 years who have had a live birth before age 18, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women age 15-19 years who: Number of women age 15-19 years Percentage of women age 20-24 who have had a live birth before age 18 years1 Number of women age 20-24 years Have had a live birth Are pregnant with first child Have begun childbearing Have had a live birth before age 15 Total 6.6 3.8 10.4 0.1 1169 3.5 1214 Region Batken 8.1 2.4 10.5 0.0 90 0.9 89 Djalal-Abad 8.8 2.8 11.6 0.0 258 5.8 246 Issyk-Kul 5.0 1.6 6.6 0.7 84 3.4 52 Naryn 3.5 7.4 10.8 0.0 50 3.0 34 Osh Oblast 8.0 7.5 15.5 0.0 234 3.8 276 Talas 9.0 4.1 13.0 0.0 47 7.7 56 Chui 5.7 1.6 7.2 0.0 178 2.4 200 Bishkek City 3.1 1.5 4.6 0.0 166 1.0 196 Osh City 4.8 8.0 12.8 0.0 63 4.9 66 Area Urban 5.5 3.4 8.8 0.0 387 3.3 423 Rural 7.1 4.0 11.1 0.1 782 3.6 791 Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) 3 (*) 19 Basic secondary 6.7 2.6 9.3 0.0 416 10.6 153 Complete secondary 7.2 4.7 11.8 0.1 446 3.8 434 Professional primary/ middle 6.1 5.1 11.3 0.0 169 1.5 197 Higher 3.6 3.0 6.6 0.0 133 0.3 412 Wealth index quintile Poorest 6.1 2.2 8.3 0.0 200 3.3 191 Second 5.4 4.1 9.5 0.0 224 5.2 248 Middle 7.6 7.5 15.1 0.3 227 3.6 263 Fourth 8.5 3.3 11.8 0.0 291 2.8 236 Richest 4.8 1.7 6.6 0.0 226 2.7 276 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 5.3 3.1 8.4 0.1 836 2.2 862 Russian (2.6) (0.0) (2.6) (0.0) 72 4.9 88 Uzbek 11.4 6.9 18.3 0.0 212 2.0 193 Other language (14.3) (6.9) (21.2) (0.0) 49 (22.3) 68 1 MICS indicator 5.2 - Early childbearing (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases As shown in Table RH.3, 10.4 percent of women age 15-19 have begun childbearing: 6.6 percent have already had a birth (with few cases of a live birth before age 15), while 3.8 percent are pregnant with their first child. The highest percentage of women age 15-19 years of age that have begun childbearing was observed in the Osh (15.5 percent) and Talas (13.0 percent) oblasts and Osh city (12.8 percent). Among women age 20-24 3.5 percent had a live birth before age 18. Less educated women of this age group more often gave birth before age 18. 99 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table RH.4 provides trends in early childbearing. In Kyrgyzstan, percentage of women age 15-49 years that had had a live birth before age 15 is very low (0.1 percent). Percentage of women age 20-49 years with a live birth before age 18 is nearly 3.0 percent. Overall, there has been no clear change in early childbearing trends over time. Table RH.4: Trends in early childbearing Percentage of women who have had a live birth, by age 15 and 18, by area and age group, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Urban Rural All P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a li ve b irt h be fo re ag e 15 N um be r o f w om en a ge 15 -4 9 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a li ve b irt h be fo re ag e 18 N um be r o f w om en a ge 20 -4 9 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a li ve b irt h be fo re ag e 15 N um be r o f w om en a ge 15 -4 9 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a li ve b irt h be fo re ag e 18 N um be r o f w om en a ge 20 -4 9 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a li ve b irt h be fo re ag e 15 N um be r o f w om en a ge 15 -4 9 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e of w om en w ith a li ve b irt h be fo re ag e 18 N um be r o f w om en a ge 20 -4 9 ye ar s Total 0.2 2424 2.4 2037 0.0 4430 3.4 3648 0.1 6854 3.0 5685 Age 15-19 0.0 387 na na 0.1 782 na Na 0.1 1169 na na 20-24 0.5 423 3.3 423 0.1 791 3.6 791 0.2 1214 3.5 1214 25-29 0.0 419 2.1 419 0.0 727 2.4 727 0.0 1145 2.3 1145 30-34 0.3 337 1.1 337 0.0 598 4.5 598 0.1 935 3.3 935 35-39 0.0 303 3.8 303 0.0 551 4.8 551 0.0 854 4.5 854 40-44 0.2 297 2.3 297 0.1 507 3.1 507 0.1 804 2.8 804 45-49 0.0 259 1.6 259 0.0 474 1.7 474 0.0 733 1.7 733 na: not applicable Contraception Appropriate family planning is important to the health of women and children by: 1) preventing pregnancies that are too early or too late; 2) extending the period between births; and 3) limiting the total number of children. Access by all couples to information and services to prevent pregnancies that are too early, too closely spaced, too late or too many is critical. Table RH.4A shows the proportions of all women age 15-49 and women age 15-49 currently married or in union, who have heard of any contraceptive method, by specific method. The data show that almost all women have heard of any contraceptive method and the mean number of methods known by women is 8 (of 14 methods). While the majority are familiar with the most common traditional and modern methods of contraception, there are modern methods they are less familiar with (19.4 percent for diaphragm, 26.0 percent for implants, 31.1 percent for male sterilization and 32.2 percent for female condom). 100 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table RH.4A: Knowledge of specific contraceptive methods Percentage of all women age 15-49 years, percentage of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union and percentage of sexually active women age 15-49 years not married or in union who have heard of any contraceptive method, by specific method, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 All Currently married or in union Any methoda 97.9 99.6 Any modern method 97.9 99.6 Female sterilization 56.4 63.9 Male sterilization 31.1 35.8 Pill 91.4 95.9 IUD 90.3 95.3 Injectables 78.2 86.0 Implants 26.0 29.2 Male condom 96.6 98.6 Female condom 32.2 34.8 Diaphragm 19.4 21.5 Foam/Jelly 39.2 42.0 Lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) 67.4 79.8 Emergency contraception 44.9 51.4 Any traditional method 75.0 85.7 Periodic abstinence 67.2 77.6 Withdrawal 67.0 77.2 Other 3.7 4.1 Mean number of methods known by women 8.0 8.8 Number of women 6854 4750 a Female sterilization, male sterilization, pill, IUD, injectables, implants, male condom, female condom, lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), emergency contraception, and other modern methods. Table RH.4B provides information on knowledge of contraceptive methods for women age 15-49 currently married or in union, by background characteristics. The awareness level is very high with no major differences observed among different background characteristics. 101 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table RH.4B: Knowledge of contraceptive methods Percentage of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union who have heard of at least one contraceptive method and who have heard of at least one modern method, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Any method Any modern methoda Number of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union Total 99.6 99.6 4750 Region Batken 99.8 99.6 408 Djalal-Abad 100.0 100.0 959 Issyk-Kul 99.4 99.4 330 Naryn 99.8 99.8 210 Osh Oblast 99.9 99.9 949 Talas 98.7 98.7 265 Chui 99.1 99.1 827 Bishkek City 100.0 100.0 585 Osh City 98.5 98.5 217 Area Urban 99.8 99.8 1511 Rural 99.6 99.5 3239 Age 15-19 96.3 96.3 153 20-24 99.5 99.4 809 25-29 99.9 99.9 981 30-34 99.6 99.6 823 35-39 99.8 99.8 734 40-44 99.9 99.9 645 45-49 99.8 99.8 605 Education None/primary (96.8) (96.8) 47 Basic secondary 98.9 98.9 467 Complete secondary 99.6 99.6 2163 Professional primary/middle 99.7 99.6 876 Higher 100.0 100.0 1197 Wealth index quintile Poorest 99.7 99.6 938 Second 99.4 99.4 966 Middle 99.5 99.5 937 Fourth 99.5 99.5 975 Richest 100.0 100.0 933 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 99.6 99.6 3379 Russian 100.0 100.0 345 Uzbek 99.6 99.6 811 Other language 99.5 99.5 212 Missing (*) (*) 2 a Female sterilization, male sterilization, pill, IUD, injectables, implants, male condom, female condom, lactational amenorrhea method (LAM), emergency contraception, and other modern methods. (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 102 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e R H .5 : U se o f c on tr ac ep tio n P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ) a c on tra ce pt iv e m et ho d, K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 Pe rc en t o f w om en c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ): Any modern method Any tradi-tional method Any method 1 Number of women age 15- 49 years currently married or in union No method Female sterilization Male sterilization IUD Injectables Implants Pill Male condom Female condom Diaphragm/Foam/ Jelly LAM Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Missing To ta l 58 .0 1. 3 0. 0 22 .4 0. 2 0. 0 4. 1 10 .4 0. 0 0. 0 1. 5 0. 7 1. 1 0. 1 0, 1 40 .0 1. 9 42 .0 47 50 R eg io n B at ke n 55 .0 0. 9 0. 0 17 .8 0. 5 0. 0 4. 1 13 .3 0. 0 0. 0 3. 0 0. 7 4. 5 0. 2 0, 0 39 .6 5. 4 45 .0 40 8 D ja la l-A ba d 68 .6 1. 1 0. 0 22 .1 0. 1 0. 0 1. 2 3. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 0. 6 1. 6 0. 0 0, 1 29 .1 2. 3 31 .4 95 9 Is sy k- K ul 54 .0 3. 5 0. 0 33 .1 0. 0 0. 0 4. 3 4. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0, 0 45 .5 0. 5 46 .0 33 0 N ar yn 41 .1 3. 2 0. 0 44 .6 1. 1 0. 0 3. 4 6. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0, 0 58 .9 0. 0 58 .9 21 0 O sh O bl as t 61 .6 0. 8 0. 0 21 .1 0. 3 0. 0 3. 9 9. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 1 0. 5 0. 5 0. 2 0, 0 37 .2 1. 2 38 .4 94 9 Ta la s 56 .6 0. 8 0. 0 31 .0 0. 9 0. 0 3. 4 6. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 0. 1 0. 1 0. 0 0, 0 43 .3 0. 2 43 .4 26 5 C hu i 52 .2 1. 7 0. 0 18 .5 0. 0 0. 0 7. 1 14 .0 0. 0 0. 0 3. 4 1. 5 1. 0 0. 5 0, 2 44 .7 3. 1 47 .8 82 7 B is hk ek C ity 53 .0 0. 6 0. 0 18 .5 0. 0 0. 0 5. 9 21 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0, 0 46 .4 0. 6 47 .0 58 5 O sh C ity 61 .7 1. 8 0. 2 14 .0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 3 15 .2 0. 2 0. 2 2. 0 0. 2 2. 2 0. 0 0, 0 35 .8 2. 5 38 .3 21 7 A re a U rb an 56 .9 0. 8 0. 0 20 .2 0. 1 0. 0 4. 4 15 .0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 9 0. 3 1. 2 0. 0 0, 1 41 .4 1. 6 43 .1 15 11 R ur al 58 .6 1. 6 0. 0 23 .4 0. 3 0. 0 3. 9 8. 3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 9 0. 8 1. 0 0. 2 0, 0 39 .4 2. 1 41 .4 32 39 A ge 15 -1 9 82 .6 0. 0 0. 0 4. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 3 4. 1 0. 0 0. 0 5. 3 0. 0 2. 3 0. 0 0, 0 15 .1 2. 3 17 .4 15 3 20 -2 4 71 .1 0. 0 0. 0 8. 8 0. 0 0. 0 4. 4 11 .3 0. 1 0. 0 2. 6 0. 5 1. 2 0. 0 0, 0 27 .2 1. 7 28 .9 80 9 25 -2 9 60 .8 0. 4 0. 0 19 .7 0. 1 0. 0 4. 2 11 .7 0. 0 0. 1 1. 3 0. 8 0. 8 0. 0 0, 0 37 .5 1. 7 39 .2 98 1 30 -3 4 49 .6 1. 1 0. 0 26 .5 0. 5 0. 0 4. 7 14 .2 0. 0 0. 0 2. 2 0. 0 0. 7 0. 3 0, 1 49 .3 1. 1 50 .4 82 3 35 -3 9 42 .8 2. 7 0. 0 31 .1 0. 1 0. 0 5. 1 13 .3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 4 1. 0 1. 8 0. 5 0, 2 53 .7 3. 5 57 .2 73 4 40 -4 4 47 .8 2. 5 0. 0 33 .8 0. 8 0. 0 4. 2 8. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 1. 7 0. 8 0. 1 0, 0 49 .6 2. 6 52 .2 64 5 45 -4 9 70 .7 2. 2 0. 1 21 .1 0. 0 0. 0 1. 9 2. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 8 0. 0 0, 0 28 .2 1. 1 29 .3 60 5 N um be r o f l iv in g ch ild re n 0 94 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 2. 9 2. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0, 0 5. 8 0. 0 5. 8 39 5 1 75 .1 0. 5 0. 0 6. 1 0. 0 0. 0 2. 6 12 .1 0. 0 0. 1 1. 9 0. 3 1. 4 0. 0 0, 0 23 .2 1. 7 24 .9 80 7 2 54 .8 0. 9 0. 0 22 .0 0. 2 0. 0 5. 4 12 .8 0. 0 0. 0 2. 0 0. 9 0. 9 0. 2 0, 0 43 .3 1. 9 45 .2 12 25 3 46 .8 2. 4 0. 0 29 .3 0. 2 0. 0 5. 0 11 .7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 3 1. 1 1. 8 0. 2 0, 1 49 .9 3. 2 53 .2 11 05 4+ 48 .4 1. 7 0. 0 34 .4 0. 5 0. 0 3. 3 8. 4 0. 0 0. 0 1. 6 0. 6 0. 8 0. 2 0, 1 49 .9 1. 6 51 .6 12 18 103 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Pe rc en t o f w om en c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho a re u si ng (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u si ng ): Any modern method Any tradi-tional method Any method 1 Number of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union No method Female sterilization Male sterilization IUD Injectables Implants Pill Male condom Female condom Diaphragm/Foam/ Jelly LAM Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Missing Ed uc at io n N on e/ pr im ar y (7 9. 6) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (6 .2 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (5 .4 ) (4 .7 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (4 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 ,0 ) (2 0. 4) (0 .0 ) (2 0. 4) 47 B as ic s ec on da ry 63 .5 2. 0 0. 0 17 .3 0. 4 0. 0 5. 0 9. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 0. 0 1. 7 0. 0 0, 0 34 .8 1. 7 36 .5 46 7 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 57 .9 1. 4 0. 0 24 .5 0. 3 0. 0 3. 7 8. 4 0. 0 0. 0 1. 9 0. 3 1. 4 0. 2 0, 0 40 .2 1. 9 42 .1 21 63 P ro fe ss io na l pr im ar y/ m id dl e 56 .7 1. 9 0. 0 24 .7 0. 1 0. 0 3. 4 10 .0 0. 0 0. 1 1. 2 1. 1 0. 8 0. 1 0, 0 41 .3 2. 0 43 .3 87 6 H ig he r 56 .3 0. 6 0. 0 19 .4 0. 2 0. 0 4. 8 15 .2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 4 1. 4 0. 4 0. 2 0, 2 41 .5 2. 2 43 .7 11 97 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 57 .5 1. 4 0. 0 27 .7 0. 4 0. 0 2. 9 6. 0 0. 0 0. 0 2. 1 0. 0 1. 9 0. 1 0, 0 40 .5 2. 0 42 .5 93 8 S ec on d 62 .2 1. 3 0. 0 21 .5 0. 4 0. 0 2. 7 8. 5 0. 1 0. 0 1. 5 1. 0 0. 8 0. 0 0, 0 36 .0 1. 8 37 .8 96 6 M id dl e 60 .9 0. 9 0. 0 22 .3 0. 1 0. 0 4. 3 8. 2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 8 0. 5 0. 8 0. 0 0, 2 37 .6 1. 4 39 .1 93 7 Fo ur th 54 .9 1. 9 0. 0 21 .7 0. 2 0. 0 4. 3 14 .2 0. 0 0. 1 0. 8 1. 1 0. 6 0. 2 0, 1 43 .1 2. 0 45 .1 97 5 R ic he st 54 .7 1. 1 0. 0 18 .6 0. 0 0. 0 6. 2 15 .3 0. 0 0. 0 1. 7 0. 7 1. 3 0. 5 0, 0 42 .9 2. 4 45 .3 93 3 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 57 .6 1. 1 0. 0 24 .2 0. 2 0. 0 3. 3 10 .2 0. 0 0. 0 1. 9 0. 7 0. 6 0. 0 0, 1 40 .9 1. 4 42 .4 33 79 R us si an 42 .9 2. 6 0. 0 18 .4 0. 0 0. 0 11 .0 21 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 6 1. 7 0. 6 0. 6 0, 0 54 .3 2. 8 57 .1 34 5 U zb ek 64 .8 1. 4 0. 0 19 .4 0. 4 0. 0 3. 3 6. 8 0. 0 0. 1 0. 5 0. 2 2. 9 0. 2 0, 0 31 .8 3. 3 35 .2 81 1 O th er la ng ua ge 62 .9 2. 1 0. 0 11 .6 0. 0 0. 0 8. 0 10 .6 0. 0 0. 0 1. 7 0. 5 1. 6 1. 1 0, 0 33 .9 3. 2 37 .1 21 2 M is si ng (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 2 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .3 ; M D G in di ca to r 5 .3 - C on tr ac ep tiv e pr ev al en ce ra te (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 104 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Current use of contraception was reported by 42.0 percent of women currently married or in union34 (Table RH.5). The most popular modern methods are IUD, which is used by 22.4 percent of women and male condoms (10.4 percent). As shown in Table RH.5 and Figure RH.2, contraceptive prevalence ranges from 31.4 percent in the Djalal-Abad oblast to 58.9 percent in the Naryn oblast. 43.1 percent of married women in urban and 41.4 percent in rural areas use a method of contraception. Adolescents are far less likely to use contraception than older women. Only about 17.4 percent of women age 15-19 married or in union currently use a method of contraception compared to 28.9 percent of 20-24 year olds, while the use of contraception among older women (25-45 year olds) ranges from 39.2 percent to 57.2 percent. Figure RH.2: Differentials in contraceptive use, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 45 31 46 59 38 43 48 47 38 43 41 (20) 37 42 43 44 42 ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Batken Djalal-Abad Issyk-Kul Naryn Osh Oblast Talas Chui Bishkek City Osh City Urban Rural None/primary Basic secondary Complete secondary Professional primary/middle Higher Kyrgyzstan 34 All references to “married women” in this chapter include women in marital union as well. 105 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Unmet Need Unmet need for contraception refers to fecund women who are married or in union and are not using any method of contraception, but who wish to postpone the next birth (spacing) or who wish to stop childbearing altogether (limiting). Unmet need is identified in MICS by using a set of questions eliciting current behaviours and preferences pertaining to contraceptive use, fecundity, and fertility preferences. Table RH.6 shows the levels of met need for contraception, unmet need, and the demand for contraception satisfied. Unmet need for spacing is defined as the percentage of women who are married or in union and are not using a method of contraception AND • are not pregnant, and not postpartum amenorrheic35, and are fecund36, and say they want to wait two or more years for their next birth OR • are not pregnant, and not postpartum amenorrheic, and are fecund, and unsure whether they want another child OR • are pregnant, and say that pregnancy was mistimed: would have wanted to wait OR • are postpartum amenorrheic, and say that the birth was mistimed: would have wanted to wait. Unmet need for limiting is defined as percentage of women who are married or in union and are not using a method of contraception AND • are not pregnant, and not postpartum amenorrheic, and are fecund, and say they do not want any more children OR • are pregnant, and say they did not want to have a child OR • are postpartum amenorrheic, and say that they did not want the birth. Total unmet need for contraception is the sum of unmet need for spacing and unmet need for limiting. This indicator is also known as unmet need for family planning and is one of the indicators used to track progress toward the Millennium Development Goal 5 of improving maternal health. Overall, 19.1 percent of women age 15-49 years who are married or in union have unmet need for contraception, including 11.8 percent for spacing, and 7.3 percent for limiting. 35 A woman is postpartum amenorrheic if she had a birth in last two years and is not currently pregnant, and her menstrual period has not returned since the birth of the last child 36 A woman is considered infecund if she is neither pregnant nor postpartum amenorrheic, and (1a) has not had menstruation for at least six months, or (1b) never menstruated, or (1c) her last menstruation occurred before her last birth, or (1d) in menopause/has had hysterectomy OR (2) She declares that she has had hysterectomy, or that she has never menstruated, or that she is menopausal, or that she has been trying to get pregnant for 2 or more years without result in response to questions on why she thinks she is not physically able to get pregnant at the time of survey OR (3) She declares she cannot get pregnant when asked about desire for future birth OR (4) She has not had a birth in the preceding 5 years, is currently not using contraception and is currently married and was continuously married during the last 5 years preceding the survey. 106 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table RH.6: Unmet need for contraception Percentage of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union with an unmet need for family planning and percentage of demand for contraception satisfied, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Met need for contraception Unmet need for contraception Number of women currently married or in union Percentage of demand for contraception satisfied Number of women currently married or in union with need for contraception For spacing For limiting Total For spacing For limiting Total 1 Total 25.1 16.9 42.0 11.8 7.3 19.1 4750 68.7 2900 Region Batken 20.0 25.0 45.0 10.7 6.0 16.6 408 73.0 251 Djalal-Abad 16.4 15.0 31.4 17.2 9.3 26.4 959 54.3 554 Issyk-Kul 23.4 22.7 46.0 10.3 5.2 15.5 330 74.8 203 Naryn 36.1 22.8 58.9 5.7 2.7 8.4 210 87.5 141 Osh Oblast 26.8 11.6 38.4 10.2 7.4 17.6 949 68.6 532 Talas 29.4 14.0 43.4 13.8 4.0 17.8 265 70.9 162 Chui 28.6 19.2 47.8 10.2 10.5 20.7 827 69.8 567 Bishkek City 31.8 15.3 47.0 11.0 4.9 15.9 585 74.7 368 Osh City 20.6 17.7 38.3 11.6 6.2 17.7 217 68.4 122 Area Urban 28.1 15.0 43.1 11.7 5.9 17.5 1511 71.1 916 Rural 23.7 17.7 41.4 11.9 7.9 19.8 3239 67.6 1984 Age 15-19 17.4 0.0 17.4 19.3 0.0 19.3 153 47.4 56 20-24 28.2 0.7 28.9 21.3 0.7 22.0 809 56.8 412 25-29 34.6 4.6 39.2 19.5 1.7 21.1 981 65.0 592 30-34 36.2 14.2 50.4 14.0 5.5 19.5 823 72.1 575 35-39 29.4 27.8 57.2 5.1 8.4 13.5 734 80.9 519 40-44 10.5 41.7 52.2 2.1 14.6 16.6 645 75.8 444 45-49 2.5 26.7 29.3 0.5 20.3 20.8 605 58.4 303 Education None/primary (8.7) (11.6) (20.4) (11.3) (16.1) (27.4) 47 (*) 22 Basic secondary 21.0 15.5 36.5 14.8 7.5 22.4 467 62.0 275 Complete secondary 23.9 18.2 42.1 11.5 7.7 19.3 2163 68.6 1327 Professional primary/ middle 23.3 20.1 43.3 10.2 8.0 18.2 876 70.4 538 Higher 30.8 12.9 43.7 12.4 5.5 17.9 1197 71.0 738 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 22.7 19.7 42.5 11.0 6.6 17.6 938 70.7 564 Second 23.5 14.3 37.8 13.7 6.4 20.1 966 65.3 560 Middle 22.9 16.2 39.1 13.8 8.1 21.9 937 64.1 572 Fourth 25.7 19.5 45.1 9.8 9.7 19.5 975 69.8 630 Richest 30.7 14.7 45.3 10.9 5.4 16.3 933 73.6 574 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 27.1 15.3 42.4 12.0 6.8 18.8 3379 69.3 2067 Russian 31.1 26.0 57.1 6.9 5.8 12.8 345 81.7 241 Uzbek 16.5 18.6 35.2 13.4 8.8 22.2 811 61.3 465 Other language 16.2 20.9 37.1 10.3 12.1 22.5 212 62.3 126 1 MICS indicator 5.4; MDG indicator 5.6 - Unmet need (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 107 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Met need for limiting includes women married or in union who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method37, and who want no more children, are using male or female sterilization, or declare themselves as infecund. Table RH.6 shows that total met need for limiting is 16.9 percent varying from 0.7 percent among women age 20-24 to 41.7 percent among women age 40-44. Met need for spacing includes women who are using (or whose partner is using) a contraceptive method, and who want to have another child, or are undecided whether to have another child. According to the survey data, met need for spacing is 25.1 percent with the highest value in the 30- 34 year age group (36.2 percent). The total of met need for spacing and limiting adds up to the total met need for contraception. The total of met need for spacing and limiting is 42 percent in the country. The total of met need for spacing and limiting goes up 59 percent in the Naryn oblast. Using information on contraception and unmet need, the percentage of demand for contraception satisfied is also estimated from the MICS data. The percentage of demand satisfied is defined as the proportion of women currently married or in union who are currently using contraception, over the total demand for contraception. The total demand for contraception includes women who currently have an unmet need (for spacing or limiting), plus those who are currently using contraception. Table RH.6 shows that the total met need is higher than the total unmet need for family planning. Unmet need is no difference by area, since the confidence intervals for urban and rural overlap (urban: 0.151-0.200 & rural: 0.179-0.218) and women from poorest households. Unmet need is strongly associated with education as well, with the least educated women having the highest level of unmet need and the most educated women the lowest. The table also highlights that the total demand for family planning satisfied is high, though the demand satisfied in rural areas is still relatively low. Antenatal Care The antenatal period presents important opportunities for reaching pregnant women with a number of interventions that may be vital to their health and well-being and that of their infants. Better understanding of foetal growth and development and its relationship to the mother's health has resulted in increased attention to the potential of antenatal care as an intervention to improve both maternal and newborn health. For example, antenatal care can be used to inform women and families about risks and symptoms in pregnancy and about the risks of labour and delivery, and therefore it may provide the route for ensuring that pregnant women do, in practice, deliver with the assistance of a skilled health care provider. Antenatal visits also provide an opportunity to supply information on birth spacing, which is recognized as an important factor in improving infant survival. Tetanus immunization during pregnancy can be life-saving for both the mother and the infant. The prevention and treatment of malaria among pregnant women, management of anaemia during pregnancy and treatment of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) can significantly improve foetal outcomes and improve maternal health. Adverse outcomes such as low birth weight can be reduced through a combination of interventions to improve women's nutritional status and prevent infections (e.g., malaria and STIs) during pregnancy. More recently, the potential of the antenatal care as an entry point for HIV prevention and care, in particular for the prevention of HIV transmission from mother to child, has led to renewed interest in access to and use of antenatal services. WHO recommends a minimum of four antenatal visits based on a review of the effectiveness of different models of antenatal care. WHO guidelines are specific on the content on antenatal care visits, which include: • Blood pressure measurement • Urine testing for bacteriuria and proteinuria 37 In this chapter, whenever reference is made to the use of a contraceptive by a woman, this may refer to her partner using a contraceptive method (such as male condom). 108 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report • Blood testing to detect syphilis and severe anaemia • Weight/height measurement (optional). It is of crucial importance for pregnant women to start attending antenatal care visits as early in pregnancy as possible in order to prevent and detect pregnancy conditions that could affect both the woman and her baby. Antenatal care should continue throughout the entire pregnancy. Antenatal care coverage indicators (at least one visit with a skilled provider and 4 or more visits with any providers) are used to track progress toward the Millennium Development Goal 5 of improving maternal health. Table RH.7: Antenatal care coverage Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years by antenatal care provider during the pregnancy for the last birth, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Provider of antenatal carea No antenatal care Total Any skilled provider1,b Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Medical doctor Nurse/ Midwife Traditional birth attendant Other Total 92.1 6.3 0.1 0.1 1.5 100.0 98.4 1675 Region Batken 74.4 24.5 0.0 0.0 1.1 100.0 98.9 148 Djalal-Abad 95.6 3.4 0.0 0.3 0.7 100.0 99.0 351 Issyk-Kul 89.9 6.6 0.0 0.0 3.5 100.0 96.5 97 Naryn 73.0 24.4 0.0 0.0 2.6 100.0 97.4 56 Osh Oblast 92.0 5.6 0.5 0.0 1.9 100.0 97.6 366 Talas 95.6 2.4 0.0 0.0 1.9 100.0 98.1 124 Chui 95.3 2.7 0.0 0.0 2.0 100.0 98.0 260 Bishkek City 97.7 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 99.6 197 Osh City 96.6 2.8 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 99.5 76 Area Urban 96.3 2.6 0.0 0.2 0.9 100.0 98.8 539 Rural 90.1 8.0 0.2 0.0 1.7 100.0 98.1 1137 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 92.6 5.0 1.4 0.0 1.1 100.0 97.5 138 20-34 91.9 6.6 0.0 0.1 1.3 100.0 98.6 1340 35-49 92.8 4.6 0.0 0.0 2.5 100.0 97.5 195 Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 15 Basic secondary 89.9 7.2 0.0 0.0 2.9 100.0 97.1 200 Complete secondary 91.1 7.8 0.0 0.0 1.1 100.0 98.9 757 Professional primary/middle 95.4 4.2 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 99.6 234 Higher 94.2 4.5 0.0 0.3 1.1 100.0 98.7 469 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 84.5 12.3 0.6 0.0 2.6 100.0 96.8 336 Second 90.5 8.6 0.0 0.0 1.0 100.0 99.0 372 Middle 92.7 5.9 0.0 0.0 1.4 100.0 98.6 349 Fourth 96.6 1.9 0.0 0.0 1.5 100.0 98.5 312 Richest 97.1 1.7 0.0 0.4 0.8 100.0 98.8 306 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 91.8 6.9 0.0 0.0 1.3 100.0 98.7 1283 Russian (97.5) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (2.5) 100.0 (97.5) 63 Uzbek 93.7 4.9 0.0 0.5 0.9 100.0 98.7 256 Other language 86.8 4.6 2.6 0.0 6.0 100.0 91.4 73 1 MICS indicator 5.5a; MDG indicator 5.5 - Antenatal care coverage a Only the most qualified provider is considered in cases where more than one provider was reported b Skilled providers include medical doctors, nurses/midwives and auxiliary midwives, although there was no case of auxilliary midwives providing this type of care alone. (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 109 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The type of personnel providing antenatal care to women age 15-49 years who gave birth in the two years preceding is presented in Table RH.7. The findings show that a relatively small percentage of women do not receive antenatal care (1.5 percent). In Kyrgyzstan, the majority of antenatal care is provided by medical doctors (92.1 percent) while a minority of women receive care from nurses/ midwives (6.3 percent). However, approximately one in four women in the Naryn and Batken oblasts receive care from nurses/midwives. Apprxomately, one in eight women (12.3 percent) living in the poorest households receive care from nurses/midwives. Table RH.8: Number of antenatal care visits Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years by number of antenatal care visits by any provider and by the timing of first antenatal care visits, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percent distribution of women who had: Total Percent distribution of women by number of months pregnant at the time of first antenatal care visit Total N um be r o f w om en w ith a liv e bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s M ed ia n m on th s pr eg na nt at fi rs t A N C v is it N um be r o f w om en w ith a liv e bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s w ho h ad a t l ea st on e A N C v is it N o an te na ta l ca re v is its O ne v is it Tw o vi si ts Th re e v is its 4 or m or e vi si ts 1 N o an te na ta l ca re v is its Fi rs t t rim es te r 4- 5 m on th s 6- 7 m on th s 8+ m on th s D K /M is si ng Total 1.5 0.2 1.0 2.1 94.6 0.7 1.5 85.8 10.6 1.8 0.0 0.3 100.0 1675 2.0 1647 Region Batken 1.1 0.0 0.6 3.0 95.3 0.0 1.1 87.6 8.7 2.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 148 2.0 146 Djalal-Abad 0.7 0.5 0.8 1.2 95.3 1.5 0.7 91.1 7.5 0.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 351 2.0 349 Issyk-Kul 3.5 0.0 0.0 3.8 91.9 0.8 3.5 92.6 3.4 0.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 97 2.0 94 Naryn 2.6 2.7 4.1 5.0 85.6 0.0 2.6 80.3 15.7 0.0 0.9 0.5 100.0 56 3.0 55 Osh Oblast 1.9 0.0 1.4 1.9 94.4 0.4 1.9 82.3 12.5 2.8 0.0 0.5 100.0 366 3.0 358 Talas 1.9 0.0 0.9 6.9 88.7 1.5 1.9 89.0 7.4 1.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 124 2.0 122 Chui 2.0 0.0 1.2 1.3 95.5 0.0 2.0 80.4 14.6 2.3 0.0 0.8 100.0 260 2.0 253 Bishkek City 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 99.6 0.0 0.4 83.8 13.9 2.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 197 2.0 196 Osh City 1.3 0.0 0.8 0.7 94.5 2.7 0.5 89.5 8.6 1.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 76 3.0 75 Area Urban 1.0 0.0 0.8 0.6 96.4 1.2 0.9 87.0 10.6 1.4 0.0 0.1 100.0 539 2.0 533 Rural 1.7 0.3 1.0 2.8 93.7 0.5 1.7 85.3 10.7 2.0 0.0 0.3 100.0 1137 2.0 1113 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 1.1 0.0 3.0 2.4 93.5 0.0 1.1 86.6 5.9 3.6 0.0 2.8 100.0 138 2.0 133 20-34 1.4 0.2 0.7 2.1 95.0 0.6 1.3 86.5 10.4 1.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 1340 2.0 1321 35-49 2.5 0.0 1.2 1.9 92.8 1.5 2.5 80.4 15.7 1.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 195 3.0 190 Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 (*) 2 Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 15 (*) 8 Basic secondary 3.2 0.5 2.4 1.5 91.9 0.6 2.9 83.0 11.1 3.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 200 2.0 194 Complete secondary 1.1 0.2 1.0 2.5 94.7 0.6 1.1 85.6 11.6 1.4 0.0 0.3 100.0 757 2.0 747 Professional primary/middle 0.4 0.2 0.2 2.5 95.9 0.9 0.4 88.8 9.0 1.6 0.2 0.0 100.0 234 2.0 234 Higher 1.1 0.0 0.3 1.6 96.2 0.8 1.1 87.3 9.6 2.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 469 2.0 464 Wealth index quintile Poorest 2.6 0.4 2.2 2.9 90.8 1.0 2.6 82.7 11.3 2.7 0.2 0.6 100.0 336 2.0 325 Second 1.0 0.4 0.4 3.0 95.2 0.0 1.0 84.2 13.3 1.6 0.0 0.0 100.0 372 2.0 369 Middle 1.4 0.0 0.4 2.2 95.4 0.7 1.4 89.7 7.1 1.2 0.0 0.6 100.0 349 2.0 342 Fourth 1.7 0.0 1.5 1.3 94.9 0.5 1.5 84.4 11.2 2.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 312 2.0 307 Richest 0.8 0.0 0.3 0.8 96.7 1.4 0.8 88.4 10.1 0.6 0.0 0.1 100.0 306 2.0 303 110 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percent distribution of women who had: Total Percent distribution of women by number of months pregnant at the time of first antenatal care visit Total N um be r o f w om en w ith a liv e bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s M ed ia n m on th s pr eg na nt a t fi rs t A N C vi si t N um be r o f w om en w ith a liv e bi rth in th e la st tw o ye ar s w ho h ad a t le as t o ne A N C v is it N o an te na ta l ca re v is its O ne v is it Tw o vi si ts Th re e v is its 4 or m or e vi si ts 1 N o an te na ta l ca re v is its Fi rs t t rim es te r 4- 5 m on th s 6- 7 m on th s 8+ m on th s D K /M is si ng Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 1.3 0.1 0.7 2.3 94.9 0.7 1.3 85.8 11.0 1.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 1283 2.0 1267 Russian (2.5) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) (97.0) (0.5) (2.5) (85.1) (12.4) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 63 (2.0) 61 Uzbek 1.1 0.6 1.0 1.0 95.1 1.1 0.9 89.8 7.2 2.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 256 2.0 253 Other language 6.0 0.0 5.3 3.9 84.8 0.0 6.0 73.2 15.1 0.0 0.0 5.8 100.0 73 3.0 64 Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 1 (*) 1 1 MICS indicator 5.5b; MDG indicator 5.5 - Antenatal care coverage (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table RH.8 shows the number of antenatal care visits during the latest pregnancy that took place within the two years preceding the survey, regardless of provider, by selected characteristics. 94.6 percent of mothers received antenatal care at least four times, 3.1 percent received antenatal care 2-3 times; while 1.5 percent of mothers did not receive antenatal care. 90.8 percent of the women living in poorest households reported four or more antenatal care visits compared with 96.7 percent among those living in richest households. Table RH.8 also provides information about the timing of the first antenatal care visit. Overall, 85.8 percent of women with a live birth in the last two years had their first antenatal care visit during the first trimester of their last pregnancy, with a median of 2.0 months of pregnancy at the first visit among those who received antenatal care. In terms of median month for the first antenatal care visit, there are no notable differences by background characteristics. Table RH.9: Content of antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who, at least once, had their blood pressure measured, urine sample taken, and blood sample taken as part of antenatal care, during the pregnancy for the last birth, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women who, during the pregnancy of their last birth, had: Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Blood pressure measured Urine sample taken Blood sample taken Blood pressure measured, urine and blood sample taken1 Total 98.2 98.4 98.4 98.2 1675 Region Batken 98.9 98.9 98.9 98.9 148 Djalal-Abad 99.3 99.3 99.3 99.3 351 Issyk-Kul 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.5 97 Naryn 96.4 96.4 96.4 96.4 56 Osh Oblast 97.6 97.6 97.6 97.6 366 Talas 97.8 98.1 98.1 97.8 124 Chui 98.0 98.0 98.0 98.0 260 Bishkek City 98.5 99.6 99.6 98.5 197 Osh City 99.5 99.5 99.5 99.5 76 111 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of women who, during the pregnancy of their last birth, had: Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Blood pressure measured Urine sample taken Blood sample taken Blood pressure measured, urine and blood sample taken1 Area Urban 98.6 99.1 99.1 98.6 539 Rural 98.1 98.1 98.1 98.1 1137 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 97.5 97.5 97.5 97.5 138 20-34 98.4 98.6 98.6 98.4 1340 35-49 97.5 97.5 97.5 97.5 195 Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) 15 Basic secondary 96.9 96.9 96.9 96.9 200 Complete secondary 98.6 98.9 98.9 98.6 757 Professional primary/middle 99.6 99.6 99.6 99.6 234 Higher 98.9 98.9 98.9 98.9 469 Wealth index quintile Poorest 96.7 96.7 96.7 96.7 336 Second 99.0 99.0 99.0 99.0 372 Middle 98.6 98.6 98.6 98.6 349 Fourth 98.5 98.5 98.5 98.5 312 Richest 98.4 99.2 99.2 98.4 306 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 98.5 98.7 98.7 98.5 1283 Russian (97.5) (97.5) (97.5) (97.5) 63 Uzbek 99.1 99.1 99.1 99.1 256 Other language 91.0 91.4 91.4 91.0 73 1 MICS indicator 5.6 - Content of antenatal care (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases The coverage of key services that pregnant women are expected to receive during antenatal care are shown in Table RH.9. Practically all women with a live birth in the last two years have received a whole package of these key services; 98.2 percent of them reported that a blood sample was taken during antenatal care visits, their blood pressure was checked, and that urine specimen was taken. There are no any significant variations by background characteristics. Assistance at Delivery About three quarters of all maternal deaths occur due to direct obstetric causes38. The single most critical intervention for safe motherhood is to ensure that a competent health worker with midwifery skills is present at every birth, and in case of emergency that transport is available to a referral facility for obstetric care. The skilled attendant at delivery indicator is used to track progress toward the Millennium Development Goal 5 of improving maternal health. The MICS included a number of questions to assess the proportion of births attended by a skilled attendant. A skilled attendant includes a doctor, nurse, or midwife. 38 Say, L et al. 2014. Global causes of maternal death: a WHO systematic analysis. The Lancet Global Health 2(6): e323-33. DOI: 10.1016/ S2214-109X(14)70227-X 112 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table RH.10: Assistance during delivery and caesarean section Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years by person providing assistance at delivery, and percentage of births delivered by C-section, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Person assisting at delivery Total Delivery assisted by any skilled attendant1,а Percent delivered by C-section Number of women who had a live birth in the last two years Medical doctor Nurse/ Midwife Traditional birth attendant Relative/ Friend Other D ec id ed b ef or e on se t o f l ab ou r pa in s D ec id ed a fte r on se t o f l ab ou r pa in s To ta l2 Total 93.6 4.8 0.1 0.2 1.2 100.0 98.4 4.5 2.9 7.4 1675 Region Batken 77.1 21.9 0.0 0.4 0.6 100.0 99.0 1.6 2.0 3.6 148 Djalal-Abad 97.4 1.9 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 99.3 3.4 2.1 5.5 351 Issyk-Kul 92.1 4.4 0.0 0.0 3.5 100.0 96.5 6.2 1.3 7.6 97 Naryn 91.7 4.7 1.0 1.0 1.6 100.0 96.4 9.9 4.2 14.0 56 Osh Oblast 92.1 5.2 0.5 0.3 1.9 100.0 97.3 1.2 1.1 2.3 366 Talas 89.9 8.2 0.0 0.0 1.9 100.0 98.1 3.2 2.5 5.6 124 Chui 96.8 1.3 0.0 0.6 1.4 100.0 98.1 9.3 4.4 13.7 260 Bishkek City 99.4 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 6.9 6.3 13.2 197 Osh City 99.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 99.5 5.5 5.0 10.5 76 Area Urban 97.8 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 99.4 5.3 4.2 9.5 539 Rural 91.6 6.3 0.2 0.3 1.5 100.0 97.9 4.2 2.3 6.5 1137 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 94.7 2.9 1.4 0.0 1.1 100.0 97.5 3.6 2.6 6.3 138 20-34 93.8 4.8 0.0 0.3 1.1 100.0 98.6 4.1 2.7 6.8 1340 35-49 91.4 6.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 100.0 97.5 8.4 4.8 13.2 195 Place of delivery Home (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 0.0 11 Health facility 95.2 4.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 4.6 3.0 7.6 1648 Public 95.1 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 4.5 2.9 7.4 1627 Private (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 23.8 21 Other/DK/Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 0.0 17 Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 0.0 15 Basic secondary 95.4 2.3 0.0 0.3 2.1 100.0 97.7 4.7 1.5 6.2 200 Complete secondary 93.6 5.3 0.1 0.3 0.8 100.0 98.9 4.3 2.3 6.6 757 Professional primary/ middle 94.7 4.9 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 99.6 3.1 3.7 6.7 234 Higher 93.6 5.1 0.0 0.2 1.1 100.0 98.7 5.7 4.3 10.0 469 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 87.0 9.5 0.7 0.3 2.5 100.0 96.5 3.1 1.7 4.8 336 Second 93.0 6.0 0.0 0.3 0.8 100.0 98.9 3.2 2.7 5.9 372 Middle 94.0 4.8 0.0 0.4 0.7 100.0 98.9 6.6 2.5 9.2 349 Fourth 96.7 1.8 0.0 0.0 1.5 100.0 98.5 5.6 1.9 7.5 312 Richest 98.1 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.8 100.0 99.2 4.3 5.9 10.3 306 113 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Person assisting at delivery Total Delivery assisted by any skilled attendant1,а Percent delivered by C-section Number of women who had a live birth in the last two years Medical doctor Nurse/ Midwife Traditional birth attendant Relative/ Friend Other D ec id ed b ef or e on se t o f l ab ou r pa in s D ec id ed a fte r on se t o f l ab ou r pa in s To ta l2 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 93.5 5.0 0.0 0.3 1.1 100.0 98.6 4.7 3.2 7.9 1283 Russian (98.0) (2.0) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (100.0) (4.5) (4.2) 8.7 63 Uzbek 93.6 5.5 0.0 0.0 0.9 100.0 99.1 2.3 1.4 3.7 256 Other language 91.4 0.0 2.6 0.0 6.0 100.0 91.4 9.0 2.0 11.0 73 1 MICS indicator 5.7; MDG indicator 5.2 - Skilled attendant at delivery 2 MICS indicator 5.9 - Caesarean section a Skilled attendants include medical doctors, nurses/midwives and auxiliary midwives, although there was no case of auxilliary midwives providing this type of care alone (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Overall, 98.4 percent of births occurring in the two years preceding the MICS survey were delivered by skilled personnel (Table RH.10). This percentage ranges from 96.4 percent in the Naryn oblast to 100 percent in Bishkek city. It doesn’t depend on level of education. In the two years preceding the MICS survey, 93.6 percent of births were delivered with assistance by a doctor. Midwifes/nurses assisted with the delivery of 4.8 percent of births (Figure RH.3). Doctors assisted almost all deliveries in Osh and Bishkek cities (99.4-99.5 percent) while in the Batken oblast only 77.1 percent of deliveries were assisted by a doctor (Table RH.10). Figure RH.3: Person assisting at delivery, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 0 1 5 94 0 20 40 60 80 100 No attendant Other Nurse/midwife Medical doctor Percent Table RH.10 also shows information on women who delivered by caesarean section (C-section) and provides additional information on the timing of the decision to conduct a C-section (before labour pains began or after) in order to better assess if such decisions are mostly driven by medical or non–medical reasons. 114 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Overall, 7.4 percent of women who delivered in the last two years had a C-section; for 4.5 percent of women, the decision was taken before the onset of labour pains and for 2.9 percent after. In urban areas, 9.5 percent of women who had a live birth in the last two years had a C-section, while this figure is 6.5 percent among women living in rural areas. Women that are more educated and women age 35-49 delivered by C-section more often. Across the regions, the highest percentages of births by C-section were observed in the Naryn and Chui oblasts and Bishkek city (14.0, 13.7 and 13.2 percent respectively). Place of Delivery Increasing the proportion of births that are delivered in health facilities is an important factor in reducing the health risks to both the mother and the baby. Proper medical attention and hygienic conditions during delivery can reduce the risks of complications and infection that can cause morbidity and mortality to either the mother or the baby. Table RH.11 presents the percent distribution of women age 15-49 who had a live birth in the two years preceding the survey by place of delivery, and the percentage of births delivered in a health facility, according to background characteristics. Table RH.11: Place of delivery Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years by place of delivery of their last birth, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Place of delivery Missing/DK Total Delivered in health facility1 Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Health facility HomePublic sector Private sector Total 97.1 1.2 0.6 1.0 100.0 98.3 1675 Region Batken 98.0 0.5 0.9 0.6 100.0 98.5 148 Djalal-Abad 99.3 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 99.3 351 Issyk-Kul 96.5 0.0 0.0 3.5 100.0 96.5 97 Naryn 95.9 0.5 1.9 1.6 100.0 96.4 56 Osh Oblast 97.3 0.0 1.9 0.9 100.0 97.3 366 Talas 98.1 0.0 0.0 1.9 100.0 98.1 124 Chui 97.4 0.7 0.6 1.4 100.0 98.1 260 Bishkek City 92.6 7.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 197 Osh City 95.5 4.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 99.5 76 Area Urban 96.0 3.3 0.0 0.6 100.0 99.4 539 Rural 97.6 0.2 0.9 1.2 100.0 97.9 1137 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 97.5 0.0 1.4 1.1 100.0 97.5 138 20-34 97.3 1.2 0.5 0.9 100.0 98.6 1340 35-49 95.4 2.0 1.0 1.6 100.0 97.5 195 Number of antenatal care visits None (14.8) (0.0) (17.2) (68.0) 100.0 (14.8) 25 1-3 visits 92.2 0.6 7.2 0.0 100.0 92.8 54 4+ visits 98.6 1.3 0.2 0.0 100.0 99.8 1585 115 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Place of delivery Missing/DK Total Delivered in health facility1 Number of women with a live birth in the last two years Health facility HomePublic sector Private sector Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 15 Basic secondary 97.7 0.0 0.3 2.1 100.0 97.7 200 Complete secondary 98.0 0.7 0.4 0.8 100.0 98.8 757 Professional primary/middle 99.6 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 99.6 234 Higher 95.5 3.2 0.2 1.1 100.0 98.7 469 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 96.3 0.0 2.4 1.3 100.0 96.3 336 Second 98.9 0.0 0.3 0.8 100.0 98.9 372 Middle 97.8 1.1 0.4 0.7 100.0 98.9 349 Fourth 98.3 0.2 0.0 1.5 100.0 98.5 312 Richest 93.9 5.3 0.0 0.8 100.0 99.2 306 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 97.4 1.2 0.3 1.1 100.0 98.6 1283 Russian (92.7) (7.3) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (100.0) 63 Uzbek 98.6 0.2 0.3 0.9 100.0 98.8 256 Other language 91.0 0.4 7.8 0.8 100.0 91.4 73 1 MICS indicator 5.8 - Institutional deliveries (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases In Kyrgyzstan 98.3 percent of births are delivered in a health facility; 97.1 percent of deliveries occur in public sector facilities and 1.2 percent in private sector facilities. Just 0.6 percent of deliveries take place at home. Women with higher education, those living in richest households and women living in Bishkek and Osh Cityities are more likely to deliver in private health facilities. Post-natal Health Checks The time of birth and immediately after is a critical window of opportunity to deliver lifesaving interventions for both the mother and newborn. Across the world, approximately 3 million newborns annually die in the first month of life39 and the majority of these deaths occur within a day or two of birth40, which is also the time when the majority of maternal deaths occur41. Despite the importance of the first few days following birth, large-scale, nationally representative household survey programmes have not systematically included questions on the post-natal period and care for the mother and newborn. In 2008, the Countdown to 2015 initiative, which monitors progress on maternal, newborn and child health interventions, highlighted this data gap, and called not only for post-natal care (PNC) programmes to be strengthened, but also for better data availability and quality42. Following the establishment and discussions of an Inter-Agency Group on PNC and drawing on lessons learned from earlier attempts of collecting PNC data, a new questionnaire module for MICS was developed and validated. Named the Post-natal Health Checks (PNHC) module, the objective is to collect information on newborns’ and mothers’ contact with a provider, not content of care. The rationale for this is that as PNC programmes scale up, it is important to measure the coverage of that scale up and ensure that the platform for providing essential services is in place. Content is 39 UN Interagency Group for Child Mortality Estimation. 2013. Levels and Trends in Child Mortality: Report 2013 40 Lawn, JE et al. 2005. 4 million neonatal deaths: When? Where? Why? Lancet 2005; 365:891–900. 41 WHO, UNICEF, UNFPA, The World Bank. Trends in Maternal Mortality: 1990-2010. World Health Organization 2012. 42 HMN, UNICEF, WHO. 2008. Countdown to 2015: Tracking Progress in Maternal, Newborn & Child Survival, The 2008 Report. UNICEF. 116 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report considered more difficult to measure, particularly because the respondent is asked to recall services delivered up to two years preceding the interview. Table RH.12 presents the percent distribution of women age 15-49 who gave birth in a health facility in the two years preceding the survey by duration of stay in the facility following the delivery, according to background characteristics. Table RH.12: Post-partum stay in health facility Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who had their last birth delivered in a health facility by duration of stay in health facility, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Duration of stay in health facility Total 12 hours or more1 Number of women who had their last birth delivered in a health facility in the last 2 years Le ss th an 1 2 ho ur s 12 h ou rs o r m or e, bu t l es s th an 2 da ys 2 da ys 3 da ys 4 da ys 5 da ys 6 da ys 7 da ys o r m or e Total 0.2 1.4 16.6 52.5 12.0 5.8 1.9 9.6 100.0 99.8 1648 Region Batken 0.0 1.4 20.4 46.6 14.1 4.3 0.5 12.6 100.0 100.0 145 Djalal-Abad 0.0 0.4 8.9 59.6 15.8 4.1 1.5 9.6 100.0 100.0 349 Issyk-Kul 0.0 0.0 7.0 53.8 14.9 13.6 3.4 7.4 100.0 100.0 94 Naryn 0.0 0.6 10.1 48.8 16.1 5.7 5.3 13.6 100.0 100.0 54 Osh Oblast 0.8 0.3 17.7 52.2 15.1 6.1 0.9 6.9 100.0 99.2 356 Talas 0.0 0.0 33.3 48.9 5.6 3.1 0.4 8.8 100.0 100.0 122 Chui 0.0 1.6 16.7 54.0 7.4 5.7 2.5 12.1 100.0 100.0 255 Bishkek City 0.0 1.0 15.5 52.5 6.7 8.7 3.6 12.0 100.0 100.0 197 Osh City 0.0 15.5 32.6 33.9 8.0 3.3 3.2 3.4 100.0 100.0 75 Area Urban 0.0 2.8 18.6 50.5 10.6 6.0 2.0 9.5 100.0 100.0 535 Rural 0.3 0.7 15.7 53.4 12.6 5.7 1.9 9.7 100.0 99.7 1112 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 0.0 1.3 13.9 55.0 10.4 3.1 0.9 15.5 100.0 100.0 135 20-34 0.2 1.5 17.5 52.2 11.6 5.8 2.1 8.9 100.0 99.8 1320 35-49 0.0 0.5 12.4 53.2 14.4 7.7 1.3 10.5 100.0 100.0 190 Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 2 Type of health facility Public 0.2 1.3 16.6 52.6 12.1 5.7 1.8 9.7 100.0 99.8 1627 Private (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 21 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 0.2 1.4 17.9 56.0 12.4 4.6 1.4 6.1 100.0 99.8 1519 C-section 0.0 1.3 1.3 11.0 6.9 20.4 8.0 51.0 100.0 100.0 128 Education None/Primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) 8 Basic secondary 0.0 3.6 21.5 43.1 16.9 3.9 0.6 10.5 100.0 100.0 195 Complete secondary 0.4 1.2 14.7 53.6 13.4 4.3 2.5 9.9 100.0 99.6 748 Professional primary/ middle 0.0 1.3 18.1 49.8 8.4 10.8 1.8 9.8 100.0 100.0 234 Higher 0.0 0.8 17.3 55.3 9.5 6.6 1.7 8.9 100.0 100.0 463 117 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Duration of stay in health facility Total 12 hours or more1 Number of women who had their last birth delivered in a health facility in the last 2 yearsL es s th an 1 2 ho ur s 12 h ou rs o r m or e, b ut le ss th an 2 da ys 2 da ys 3 da ys 4 da ys 5 da ys 6 da ys 7 da ys o r m or e Wealth index quintiles Poorest 0.5 1.0 14.7 50.0 14.6 4.8 2.1 12.2 100.0 99.5 323 Second 0.0 1.4 14.4 54.1 15.0 6.2 1.0 8.0 100.0 100.0 368 Middle 0.4 1.3 16.6 51.7 8.5 8.2 2.8 10.5 100.0 99.6 345 Fourth 0.0 1.6 19.9 54.6 11.5 3.2 1.5 7.8 100.0 100.0 307 Richest 0.0 1.7 18.1 51.9 9.9 6.4 2.3 9.7 100.0 100.0 303 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 0.2 1.0 15.8 52.4 11.5 6.3 2.3 10.5 100.0 99.8 1265 Russian (0.0) (0.9) (19.1) (59.4) (9.5) (1.4) (0.0) (9.7) 100.0. (100.0) 63 Uzbek 0.0 3.7 18.2 52.0 15.0 5.4 0.5 5.3 100.0 100.0 253 Other language 0.0 0.5 23.4 50.4 12.3 2.1 2.3 9.0 100.0 100.0 67 Missing 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 1 1 MICS indicator 5.10 - Post-partum stay in health facility (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Overall, 81.8 percent of women who gave birth in a health facility stay 3 days or more in the facility after delivery, out of which 52.5 percent stay exactly 3 days. Across the country, the percentage of women who stay 2 days or less varies from 48.1 percent in Osh city to 7.0 percent in the Issyk-Kul oblast. There are no clear patterns with regards to background characteristics of woman’s age at delivery, her education, and the language of the head of the household. As expected, nearly all women (97.4 percent) giving birth through C section stay 3 days or more in the facility after giving birth and 51.0 percent of those women stay 7 days or more. Safe motherhood programmes have recently increased emphasis on the importance of post- natal care, recommending that all women and newborns receive a health check within two days of delivery. To assess the extent of post-natal care utilization, women were asked whether they and their newborn received a health check after the delivery, the timing of the first check, and the type of health provider for the woman’s last birth in the two years preceding the survey. Table RH.13 shows the percentage of newborns born in the last two years who received health checks and post-natal care visits from any health provider after birth and following discharge from health facility. Please note that health checks following birth while in facility or at home refer to checks provided by any health provider regardless of timing (column 1), whereas post-natal care visits refer to a separate visit to check on the health of the newborn and provide preventive care services and therefore do not include health checks following birth while in facility or at home. The indicator Post-natal health checks includes any health check after birth received while in the health facility and at home (column 1), regardless of timing, as well as PNC visits within two days of delivery (columns 2, 3, and 4). 118 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e R H .1 3: P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck s fo r n ew bo rn s P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st tw o ye ar s w ho se la st li ve b irt h re ce iv ed h ea lth c he ck s w hi le in fa ci lit y or a t h om e fo llo w in g bi rth , p er ce nt di st rib ut io n w ho se la st li ve b irt h re ce iv ed p os t-n at al c ar e (P N C ) v is its fr om a ny h ea lth p ro vi de r a fte r b irt h, a nd a fte r d is ch ar ge fr om th e he al th fa ci lit y, b y tim in g of v is it, a nd pe rc en ta ge w ho re ce iv ed p os t n at al h ea lth c he ck s, K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 H ea lth ch ec k fo llo w in g bi rth w hi le in fa ci lit y or at h om ea PN C v is it fo r n ew bo rn sb P os t-n at al he al th ch ec k fo r t he ne w bo rn 1, c N um be r of la st liv e bi rth s in th e la st tw o ye ar s PN C v is it fo r n ew bo rn s by ti m e fo llo w in g di sc ha rg e fr om h ea lth fa ci lit yd N um be r of la st li ve bi rth s in th e la st tw o ye ar s de liv er ed in h ea lth fa ci lit y Same day 1 day following birth 2 days following birth 3-6 days following birth After the first week following birth No post-natal care visit Missing/DK To ta l 1 day following discharge 2 days following discharge 3-6 days following dischargee After the first week following discharge No post-natal care visit following discharge Missing/DK To ta l To ta l 98 .3 0. 3 0. 1 0. 4 36 .4 56 .1 6. 4 0. 3 10 0. 0 98 .5 16 75 1. 0 7. 6 16 .1 44 .5 24 .5 6. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 16 65 R eg io n B at ke n 98 .5 0. 4 0. 5 0. 5 22 .4 65 .4 10 .8 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .9 14 8 0. 5 6. 0 9. 0 41 .6 32 .0 10 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 14 6 D ja la l-A ba d 98 .9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 32 .8 59 .1 7. 2 0. 4 10 0. 0 98 .9 35 1 0. 8 4. 8 16 .5 48 .7 21 .7 7. 2 0. 4 10 0. 0 35 1 Is sy k- K ul 96 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 60 .9 33 .9 5. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .5 97 2. 7 16 .3 28 .9 38 .3 8. 7 5. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 N ar yn 97 .4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 34 .9 60 .1 4. 4 0. 6 10 0. 0 97 .4 56 2. 9 4. 0 16 .3 52 .7 21 .0 2. 5 0. 6 10 0. 0 55 O sh O bl as t 97 .8 0. 8 0. 3 0. 0 43 .8 49 .8 4. 9 0. 2 10 0. 0 98 .1 36 6 1. 0 8. 7 19 .3 54 .5 12 .3 4. 0 0. 2 10 0. 0 35 9 Ta la s 97 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 53 .5 38 .9 7. 4 0. 3 10 0. 0 97 .5 12 4 0. 6 7. 9 14 .9 54 .5 14 .4 7. 4 0. 3 10 0. 0 12 4 C hu i 97 .7 0. 6 0. 0 0. 6 28 .5 63 .6 6. 3 0. 5 10 0. 0 98 .2 26 0 0. 6 10 .4 13 .1 35 .1 34 .0 6. 3 0. 5 10 0. 0 25 8 B is hk ek C ity 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 1. 0 32 .5 61 .9 4. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 19 7 1. 0 5. 5 17 .2 33 .5 38 .1 4. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 19 7 O sh C ity 98 .7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 3 23 .0 66 .5 7. 5 1. 6 10 0. 0 98 .7 76 0. 6 4. 5 5. 5 28 .4 51 .9 7. 5 1. 6 10 0. 0 76 A re a U rb an 99 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 35 .7 57 .3 5. 3 0. 9 10 0. 0 99 .1 53 9 1. 1 7. 8 14 .4 41 .5 29 .0 5. 3 0. 9 10 0. 0 53 9 R ur al 97 .9 0. 4 0. 2 0. 3 36 .7 55 .5 6. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .2 11 37 0. 9 7. 5 16 .9 45 .9 22 .3 6. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 11 26 119 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report H ea lth ch ec k fo llo w in g bi rth w hi le in fa ci lit y or at h om ea PN C v is it fo r n ew bo rn sb P os t-n at al he al th ch ec k fo r t he ne w bo rn 1, c N um be r of la st liv e bi rth s in th e la st tw o ye ar s PN C v is it fo r n ew bo rn s by ti m e fo llo w in g di sc ha rg e fr om h ea lth fa ci lit yd N um be r of la st li ve bi rth s in th e la st tw o ye ar s de liv er ed in h ea lth fa ci lit y Same day 1 day following birth 2 days following birth 3-6 days following birth After the first week following birth No post-natal care visit Missing/DK To ta l 1 day following discharge 2 days following discharge 3-6 days following dischargee After the first week following discharge No post-natal care visit following discharge Missing/DK To ta l M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 98 .5 1. 4 0. 0 0. 0 28 .8 60 .4 8. 3 1. 1 10 0. 0 98 .5 13 8 0. 0 4. 1 10 .5 49 .9 26 .0 8. 4 1. 1 10 0. 0 13 7 20 -3 4 98 .4 0. 2 0. 2 0. 5 36 .3 56 .4 6. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 98 .6 13 40 1. 1 7. 6 15 .8 44 .5 24 .8 5. 9 0. 3 10 0. 0 13 33 35 -4 9 97 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 41 .8 51 .0 7. 0 0. 2 10 0. 0 97 .5 19 5 0. 6 8. 7 22 .4 40 .5 21 .5 6. 1 0. 2 10 0. 0 19 3 M is si ng (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 2 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 2 Pl ac e of d el iv er y H om e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 11 na na na na na na na na na H ea lth fa ci lit y 99 .7 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 37 .0 57 .0 5. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 99 .7 16 48 1. 0 7. 6 16 .3 44 .9 24 .7 5. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 16 48 P ub lic 99 .7 0. 0 0. 1 0. 4 37 .1 56 .8 5. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 99 .7 16 27 1. 0 7. 6 16 .4 45 .1 24 .4 5. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 16 27 P riv at e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 21 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 21 O th er /D K / M is si ng (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 17 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 17 Ed uc at io n N on e/ P rim ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 15 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 9 B as ic s ec on da ry 97 .7 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 31 .0 61 .6 5. 7 0. 6 10 0. 0 97 .7 20 0 0. 8 5. 0 11 .7 53 .5 22 .8 5. 5 0. 6 10 0. 0 19 9 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 98 .6 0. 3 0. 3 0. 1 37 .1 55 .4 6. 5 0. 4 10 0. 0 98 .9 75 7 1. 1 6. 9 16 .6 45 .1 23 .5 6. 4 0. 4 10 0. 0 75 4 P ro fe ss io na l pr im ar y/ m id dl e 99 .4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 36 .8 57 .4 5. 5 0. 3 10 0. 0 99 .4 23 4 0. 3 7. 4 17 .8 40 .8 27 .9 5. 5 0. 3 10 0. 0 23 4 H ig he r 98 .4 0. 2 0. 0 0. 9 38 .5 54 .1 6. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 98 .6 46 9 1. 1 9. 9 16 .6 41 .4 24 .7 6. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 46 8 120 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report H ea lth ch ec k fo llo w in g bi rth w hi le in fa ci lit y or at h om ea PN C v is it fo r n ew bo rn sb P os t-n at al he al th ch ec k fo r t he ne w bo rn 1, c N um be r of la st liv e bi rth s in th e la st tw o ye ar s PN C v is it fo r n ew bo rn s by ti m e fo llo w in g di sc ha rg e fr om h ea lth fa ci lit yd N um be r of la st li ve bi rth s in th e la st tw o ye ar s de liv er ed in h ea lth fa ci lit y Same day 1 day following birth 2 days following birth 3-6 days following birth After the first week following birth No post-natal care visit Missing/DK To ta l 1 day following discharge 2 days following discharge 3-6 days following dischargee After the first week following discharge No post-natal care visit following discharge Missing/DK To ta l W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 97 .0 0. 7 0. 2 0. 2 35 .1 53 .7 9. 9 0. 1 10 0. 0 97 .2 33 6 1. 9 6. 1 16 .0 46 .1 21 .1 8. 7 0. 1 10 0. 0 32 8 S ec on d 98 .5 0. 3 0. 0 0. 6 39 .9 53 .6 5. 4 0. 2 10 0. 0 98 .8 37 2 0. 6 7. 9 20 .8 44 .5 20 .6 5. 5 0. 2 10 0. 0 37 1 M id dl e 98 .9 0. 4 0. 4 0. 1 30 .6 64 .0 4. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 99 .3 34 9 0. 6 7. 6 11 .9 46 .9 28 .4 4. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 34 8 Fo ur th 97 .8 0. 0 0. 0 1. 1 39 .9 51 .4 7. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 97 .8 31 2 1. 2 5. 7 17 .1 45 .3 23 .2 7. 0 0. 6 10 0. 0 31 2 R ic he st 99 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 36 .5 57 .5 5. 5 0. 5 10 0. 0 99 .2 30 6 0. 6 10 .5 14 .3 39 .1 29 .6 5. 5 0. 5 10 0. 0 30 6 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 98 .4 0. 2 0. 1 0. 4 36 .9 55 .8 6. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 98 .6 12 83 1. 1 7. 0 16 .6 44 .6 24 .2 6. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 12 79 R us si an (1 00 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (4 0. 3) (5 3. 7) (6 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0. (1 00 .0 ) 63 (0 .0 ) (1 4. 6) (8 .7 ) (3 8. 9) (3 1. 7) (6 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0. 63 U zb ek 98 .9 0. 0 0. 3 0. 2 33 .5 59 .8 5. 6 0. 5 10 0. 0. 98 .9 25 6 0. 0 6. 6 14 .7 45 .8 26 .7 5. 7 (0 .5 ) 10 0. 0. 25 5 O th er la ng ua ge 92 .5 2. 6 0. 0 2. 3 34 .6 48 .4 12 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0. 92 .5 73 2. 5 15 .6 18 .9 41 .8 13 .7 7. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0. 67 M is si ng (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 1 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 1 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .1 1 - P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck fo r t he n ew bo rn a H ea lth c he ck s by a ny h ea lth p ro vi de r f ol lo w in g fa ci lit y bi rth s (b ef or e di sc ha rg e fro m fa ci lit y) o r f ol lo w in g ho m e bi rth s (b ef or e de pa rtu re o f p ro vi de r f ro m h om e) . b P os t-n at al c ar e vi si ts (P N C ) r ef er to a s ep ar at e vi si t t o ch ec k on th e he al th o f t he n ew bo rn a nd p ro vi de p re ve nt iv e ca re s er vi ce s. P N C v is its d o no t i nc lu de h ea lth c he ck s fo llo w in g bi rth w hi le in fa ci lit y or a t h om e (s ee n ot e a ab ov e) . c P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck s in cl ud e an y he al th c he ck p er fo rm ed w hi le in th e he al th fa ci lit y or a t h om e fo llo w in g bi rth (s ee n ot e a ab ov e) , a s w el l a s P N C v is its (s ee n ot e b ab ov e) w ith in tw o da ys o f d el iv er y. d T he s am e le ng th o f s ta y in th e he al th fa ci lit y is u se d fo r b ot h th e m ot he r a nd th e ne w bo rn c hi ld (s in ce o nl y in fo rm at io n on th e du ra tio n of s ta y of th e m ot he r i s co lle ct ed ). na : n ot a pp lic ab le (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 121 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Overall, 98.3 percent of newborns receive a health check following birth while in a facility or at home. With regard to PNC visits of the newborns after discharge from the health facility, the majority take place on the 3-6 days following discharge (44.5 percent) and after the first week following discharge (24.5 percent). Also, 16.1 percent of PNC visits occurred on the second day following discharge. As a result, a total of 98.5 percent of all newborns receive a post-natal health check. The differences by background characteristics are minimal and are not statistically significant. Table RH.14: Post-natal care visits for newborns within the first week following discharge from health facility Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years whose last live birth received a post-natal care (PNC) visit within the first week following discharge from the health facility, by location and provider of the first PNC visit, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Location of first PNC visit for newborns within the first week following discharge from the health facility Total Provider of first PNC visit for newborns within the first week following discharge from the health facility Total Number of last live births in the last two years with a PNC visit within the first week following discharge from the health facilty H om e P ub lic S ec to r P riv at e se ct or O th er lo ca tio n M is si ng D oc to r/ nu rs e/ m id w ife A ux ili ar y m id w ife C om m un ity he al th w or ke r Total 89.6 10.0 0.3 0.1 0.1 100.0 99.7 0.1 0.1 100.0 1150 Region Batken 93.5 5.6 0.0 0.9 0.0 100.0 99.1 0.9 0.0 100.0 84 Djalal-Abad 80.8 19.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 249 Issyk-Kul 80.9 19.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 84 Naryn 90.4 8.8 0.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 42 Osh Oblast 93.9 6.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.2 0.2 0.6 100.0 300 Talas 93.0 6.4 0.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 97 Chui 92.8 7.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 153 Bishkek City 95.1 3.0 1.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 113 Osh City 82.8 15.2 2.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 30 Area Urban 91.4 7.8 0.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.7 0.2 0.2 100.0 349 Rural 88.8 11.0 0.0 0.1 0.1 100.0 99.8 0.1 0.1 100.0 801 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 87.9 11.3 0.0 0.8 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 88 20-34 89.5 10.3 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.8 0.1 0.1 100.0 920 35-49 91.4 8.0 0.4 0.0 0.2 100.0 99.2 0.0 0.8 100.0 140 Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) 0.0 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 122 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Location of first PNC visit for newborns within the first week following discharge from the health facility Total Provider of first PNC visit for newborns within the first week following discharge from the health facility Total Number of last live births in the last two years with a PNC visit within the first week following discharge from the health facilty H om e P ub lic S ec to r P riv at e se ct or O th er lo ca tio n M is si ng D oc to r/ nu rs e/ m id w ife A ux ili ar y m id w ife C om m un ity he al th w or ke r Place of delivery Health facility 89.6 10.0 0.3 0.1 0.1 100.0 99.7 0.1 0.1 100.0 1150 Public 89.7 10.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 100.0 99.7 0.1 0.2 100.0 1139 Private (*) (*) (*) (*) 0.0 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 11 Education None/Primary (*) (*) (*) (*) 6.7 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 5 Basic secondary 89.1 10.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 142 Complete secondary 89.7 10.0 0.1 0.1 0.1 100.0 99.8 0.1 0.1 100.0 525 Professional primary/ middle 90.7 9.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.2 0.0 0.8 100.0 155 Higher 89.0 10.3 0.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 323 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 88.6 10.9 0.0 0.3 0.1 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 230 Second 89.2 10.6 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 274 Middle 90.8 8.9 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.7 0.3 0.0 100.0 233 Fourth 88.7 11.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.5 0.3 0.3 100.0 216 Richest 90.7 8.1 1.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.4 0.0 0.6 100.0 197 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 90.0 9.6 0.3 0.1 0.0 100.0 99.8 0.1 0.1 100.0 887 Russian (86.5) (13.5) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (100.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 39 Uzbek 88.6 11.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 99.4 0.3 0.3 100.0 171 Other language (87.7) (11.1) (0.6) (0.0) (0.6) 100.0 (100.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 53 d The same length of stay in the health facility is used for both the mother and the newborn child (since only information on the duration of stay of the mother is collected). (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases In Table RH.14, the percentage of newborns who received the first PNC visit within the first week following discharge from the health facility is shown by location and type of provider of service. As defined above, a visit does not include a check in the facility or at home following birth. In Kyrgyzstan, almost nine in ten (89.6 percent) of the first PNC visits for newborns within the first week following discharge from the health facility occur at home and 10.0 percent in public facility. This proportion is near identical across the different background characteristics. All newborns are attended by a doctor, nurse, or midwife. Tables RH.15 and RH.16 present information collected on post-natal health checks and visits of the mother. Table RH.15 presents a pattern somewhat similar to Table RH.13, but with some important differences. Overall, 97.6 percent of mothers receive a health check following birth while they are in a facility or at home. 123 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report With regard to PNC visits of the mothers after discharge from the health facility, the majority take place on the 3-6 days following discharge (26.8 percent) and after the first week following discharge (12.6 percent). However, 45.0 percent of mothers do not receive a post-natal health check following discharge; this percentage is the highest in Bishkek city (78.2 percent) and the lowest in the Issyk-kul oblast (20.4 percent). Comparison between the table for newborns and the table for mothers shows that the percentage with health checks, both following the birth and through a visit, is very similar for mothers and newborns. However, studying only those mothers that did not receive a PNC visit, the percentage is about 7 times as high for mothers (45.1 percent) as for newborns (6.4 percent, see Table RH.13). 124 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e R H .1 5: P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck s fo r m ot he rs P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st tw o ye ar s w ho re ce iv ed h ea lth c he ck s w hi le in fa ci lit y or a t h om e fo llo w in g b irt h, p er ce nt d is tri bu tio n w ho re ce iv ed p os t-n at al c ar e (P N C ) v is its fr om a ny h ea lth p ro vi de r a fte r b irt h at th e tim e of la st b irt h, a nd fo llo w in g di sc ha rg e fro m th e he al th fa ci lit y, b y tim in g of v is it, a nd p er ce nt ag e w ho re ce iv ed p os t n at al h ea lth c he ck s, K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 Health check following birth while in facility or at home a PN C v is it fo r m ot he rs b Post-natal health check for the mother 1, c Number of women with a live birth in the last two years PN C v is it fo r m ot he rs b y tim e fo llo w in g di sc ha rg e fr om h ea lth fa ci lit yd Number of women with a live birth in the last two years delivered in health facility Same day 1 day following birth 2 days following birth 3-6 days following birth After the first week following birth No post-natal care visit Missing/DK Total Same day 1 day following discharge 2 days following discharge 3-6 days following dischargee After the first week following discharge No post-natal care visit following discharge Missing/DK Total To ta l 97 .6 0. 3 0. 1 0. 1 22 .3 31 .5 45 .1 0. 5 10 0. 0 97 .8 16 75 0. 8 4. 5 9. 8 26 .8 12 .6 45 .0 0. 5 10 0. 0 16 65 R eg io n B at ke n 98 .5 0. 9 0. 0 0. 0 17 .2 35 .6 45 .8 0. 5 10 0. 0 98 .9 14 8 0. 0 4. 5 6. 4 23 .5 18 .9 46 .2 0. 5 10 0. 0 14 6 D ja la l-A ba d 98 .9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 27 .3 45 .2 25 .6 1. 5 10 0. 0 98 .9 35 1 0. 8 4. 4 14 .0 37 .1 16 .6 25 .6 1. 5 10 0. 0 35 1 Is sy k- K ul 95 .0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 49 .0 30 .6 20 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 95 .0 97 2. 0 12 .4 21 .7 37 .2 6. 2 20 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 N ar yn 96 .9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 9 21 .8 34 .7 42 .6 0. 0 10 0. 0 96 .9 56 3. 8 3. 3 10 .8 32 .9 7. 7 41 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 55 O sh O bl as t 97 .3 0. 8 0. 3 0. 0 32 .5 37 .7 28 .5 0. 2 10 0. 0 97 .6 36 6 1. 5 6. 1 14 .9 40 .8 9. 1 27 .4 0. 2 10 0. 0 35 9 Ta la s 95 .8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 30 .3 21 .2 48 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 95 .8 12 4 0. 5 4. 7 6. 2 33 .0 7. 1 48 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 12 4 C hu i 97 .0 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 8. 7 19 .5 71 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .5 26 0 0. 0 3. 0 4. 0 10 .2 11 .2 71 .6 0. 0 10 0. 0 25 8 B is hk ek C ity 98 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 3. 2 18 .6 78 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 98 .1 19 7 0. 0 1. 0 2. 2 2. 7 16 .0 78 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 19 7 O sh C ity 99 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 9. 9 20 .4 67 .1 2. 7 10 0. 0 99 .5 76 0. 0 1. 3 2. 2 11 .1 15 .5 67 .1 2. 7 10 0. 0 76 A re a U rb an 98 .4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 16 .2 24 .4 58 .5 0. 9 10 0. 0 98 .4 53 9 0. 4 4. 0 6. 1 17 .1 13 .0 58 .5 0. 9 10 0. 0 53 9 R ur al 97 .3 0. 5 0. 1 0. 2 25 .2 34 .9 38 .8 0. 3 10 0. 0 97 .6 11 37 0. 9 4. 7 11 .6 31 .5 12 .4 38 .5 0. 3 10 0. 0 11 26 M ot he r's a ge a t b irt h Le ss th an 2 0 98 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 18 .2 36 .0 43 .6 2. 2 10 0. 0 98 .3 13 8 0. 0 1. 4 7. 8 35 .9 10 .0 42 .8 2. 2 10 0. 0 13 7 20 -3 4 97 .6 0. 4 0. 1 0. 2 22 .2 31 .8 44 .9 0. 4 10 0. 0 97 .8 13 40 0. 9 4. 6 9. 6 26 .4 13 .2 44 .9 0. 4 10 0. 0 13 33 35 -4 9 97 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 25 .3 26 .7 47 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 97 .3 19 5 0. 6 4. 5 13 .0 23 .6 10 .9 47 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 19 3 M is si ng (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 2 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 2 Pl ac e of d el iv er y H om e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 11 na na na na na na na na na H ea lth fa ci lit y 99 .1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 22 .7 32 .0 44 .4 0. 5 10 0. 0 99 .1 16 48 0. 8 4. 5 9. 9 27 .1 12 .7 44 .4 0. 5 10 0. 0 16 48 P ub lic 99 .1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 22 .9 32 .2 44 .1 0. 5 10 0. 0 99 .1 16 27 0. 8 4. 6 9. 9 27 .3 12 .8 44 .1 0. 5 10 0. 0 16 27 P riv at e (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 21 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 21 O th er /D K /M is si ng (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 17 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 17 125 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Health check following birth while in facility or at home a PN C v is it fo r m ot he rs b Post-natal health check for the mother 1, c Number of women with a live birth in the last two years PN C v is it fo r m ot he rs b y tim e fo llo w in g di sc ha rg e fr om h ea lth fa ci lit yd Number of women with a live birth in the last two years delivered in health facility Same day 1 day following birth 2 days following birth 3-6 days following birth After the first week following birth No post-natal care visit Missing/DK Total Same day 1 day following discharge 2 days following discharge 3-6 days following dischargee After the first week following discharge No post-natal care visit following discharge Missing/DK Total Ty pe o f d el iv er y Va gi na l b irt h 97 .5 0. 4 0. 1 0. 1 23 .8 30 .4 44 .6 0. 6 10 0. 0 97 .7 15 47 0. 8 4. 6 10 .4 27 .8 11 .4 44 .5 0. 6 10 0. 0 15 36 C -s ec tio n 99 .3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 4. 3 44 .7 51 .0 0. 0 10 0. 0 99 .3 12 8 1. 0 2. 4 2. 4 15 .7 27 .5 51 .0 0. 0 10 0. 0 12 8 Ed uc at io n N on e/ P rim ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 15 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 9 B as ic s ec on da ry 97 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 8 22 .2 34 .3 41 .5 1. 2 10 0. 0 97 .7 20 0 0. 8 2. 5 8. 9 35 .3 10 .0 41 .3 1. 2 10 0. 0 19 9 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 97 .8 0. 6 0. 2 0. 0 23 .3 33 .6 42 .0 0. 4 10 0. 0 98 .1 75 7 1. 2 4. 2 10 .6 29 .6 11 .9 42 .1 0. 4 10 0. 0 75 4 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e 98 .5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 24 .7 29 .7 45 .0 0. 6 10 0. 0 98 .5 23 4 0. 5 5. 2 11 .1 24 .3 13 .4 45 .0 0. 6 10 0. 0 23 4 H ig he r 97 .8 0. 2 0. 0 0. 1 20 .3 28 .9 50 .1 0. 3 10 0. 0 98 .1 46 9 0. 2 5. 4 8. 5 20 .6 14 .8 50 .2 0. 3 10 0. 0 46 8 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 96 .9 0. 9 0. 0 0. 0 25 .4 34 .6 38 .3 0. 9 10 0. 0 97 .1 33 6 1. 6 4. 4 11 .3 33 .5 11 .1 37 .2 0. 9 10 0. 0 32 8 S ec on d 98 .2 0. 3 0. 0 0. 5 29 .3 36 .4 33 .1 0. 4 10 0. 0 98 .5 37 2 1. 2 5. 8 14 .7 30 .8 13 .8 33 .2 0. 4 10 0. 0 37 1 M id dl e 97 .6 0. 4 0. 4 0. 1 18 .8 34 .1 46 .0 0. 1 10 0. 0 98 .0 34 9 0. 5 3. 5 7. 2 30 .5 12 .0 46 .2 0. 1 10 0. 0 34 8 Fo ur th 96 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 21 .5 22 .2 55 .9 0. 4 10 0. 0 96 .7 31 2 0. 2 2. 1 9. 2 22 .7 9. 5 55 .9 0. 4 10 0. 0 31 2 R ic he st 98 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 15 .3 28 .8 55 .1 0. 9 10 0. 0 98 .7 30 6 0. 3 6. 3 5. 8 15 .0 16 .6 55 .1 0. 9 10 0. 0 30 6 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 97 .7 0. 4 0. 1 0. 0 23 .1 30 .9 45 .0 0. 4 10 0. 0 98 .0 12 83 0. 8 4. 6 10 .2 27 .2 11 .7 45 .1 0. 4 10 0. 0 12 79 R us si an (9 8. 7) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (1 4. 2) (2 1. 4) (6 3. 5) (0 .9 ) 10 0. 0 (9 8. 7) 63 (0 .0 ) (7 .3 ) (3 .3 ) (1 0. 2) (1 4. 8) (6 3. 5) (0 .9 ) 10 0. 0 63 U zb ek 98 .4 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 23 .4 37 .5 38 .3 0. 5 10 0. 0 98 .4 25 6 0. 5 3. 4 10 .5 32 .0 14 .9 38 .4 0. 5 10 0. 0 25 5 O th er la ng ua ge 92 .5 0. 0 0. 0 2. 3 12 .4 29 .6 53 .6 2. 1 10 0. 0 92 .5 73 2. 5 3. 8 6. 7 16 .3 18 .8 49 .7 2. 1 10 0. 0 67 M is si ng (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 1 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 1 1 M IC S in di ca to r 5 .1 2 - P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck fo r t he m ot he r a H ea lth c he ck s by a ny h ea lth p ro vi de r f ol lo w in g fa ci lit y bi rth s (b ef or e di sc ha rg e fro m fa ci lit y) o r f ol lo w in g ho m e bi rth s (b ef or e de pa rtu re o f p ro vi de r f ro m h om e) . b P os t-n at al c ar e vi si ts (P N C ) r ef er to a s ep ar at e vi si t b y an y he al th p ro vi de r t o ch ec k on th e he al th o f t he m ot he r a nd p ro vi de p re ve nt iv e ca re s er vi ce s. P N C v is its d o no t i nc lu de h ea lth c he ck s fo llo w in g bi rth w hi le in fa ci lit y or a t h om e (s ee n ot e a ab ov e) . c P os t-n at al h ea lth c he ck s in cl ud e an y he al th c he ck p er fo rm ed w hi le in th e he al th fa ci lit y or a t h om e fo llo w in g bi rth (s ee n ot e a ab ov e) , a s w el l a s P N C v is its (s ee n ot e b ab ov e) w ith in tw o da ys o f de liv er y. d T he s am e le ng th o f s ta y in th e he al th fa ci lit y is u se d fo r b ot h th e m ot he r a nd th e ne w bo rn c hi ld (s in ce o nl y in fo rm at io n on th e du ra tio n of s ta y of th e m ot he r i s co lle ct ed ). e I nc lu di ng w om en th at re po rt tim e of th e fir st P N C c he ck in w ee ks . na : n ot a pp lic ab le (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 126 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table RH.16: Post-natal care visits for mothers within the first week following discharge from health facility Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years who received a post-natal care (PNC) visit within the first week following discharge from the health facility, by location and provider of the first PNC visit, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Location of first PNC visit for mothers within the first week following discharge from the health facility Total Provider of first PNC visit for mothers within the first week following discharge from the health facility Total Number of women with a live birth in the last two years who received a PNC visit within the first week following discharge from the health facility H om e P ub lic S ec to r P riv at e se ct or D oc to r/ nu rs e/ m id w ife A ux ili ar y m id w ife C om m un ity h ea lth w or ke r Total 86.9 12.8 0.3 100.0 99.6 0.2 0.2 100.0 697 Region Batken 94.1 5.9 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 50 Djalal-Abad 82.2 17.8 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 198 Issyk-Kul 76.4 23.6 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 71 Naryn 86.8 12.1 1.1 100.0 98.2 1.8 0.0 100.0 28 Osh Oblast 91.8 8.2 0.0 100.0 99.0 0.5 0.5 100.0 227 Talas 95.8 4.2 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 55 Chui (94.9) (5.1) (0.0) 100.0 (100.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 44 Bishkek City (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 12 Osh City (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 11 Area Urban 77.5 20.9 1.6 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 149 Rural 89.4 10.6 0.0 100.0 99.5 0.3 0.2 100.0 548 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 78.8 21.2 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 61 20-34 87.5 12.1 0.4 100.0 99.7 0.3 0.0 100.0 553 35-49 88.2 11.8 0.0 100.0 98.6 0.0 1.4 100.0 81 Missing (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 Place of delivery Health facility 86.9 12.8 0.3 100.0 99.6 0.2 0.2 100.0 697 Public 87.1 12.9 0.0 100.0 99.6 0.2 0.2 100.0 693 Private (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 5 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 87.0 12.7 0.3 100.0 99.6 0.2 0.2 100.0 670 C-section (82.6) (16.3) (1.1) 100.0 (100.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 28 Education None/Primary (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 1 Basic secondary 82.8 17.2 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 95 Complete secondary 88.3 11.7 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 344 Professional primary/ middle 91.5 8.5 0.0 100.0 98.2 0.5 1.2 100.0 96 Higher 83.4 15.1 1.4 100.0 99.3 0.7 0.0 100.0 162 127 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Location of first PNC visit for mothers within the first week following discharge from the health facility Total Provider of first PNC visit for mothers within the first week following discharge from the health facility Total Number of women with a live birth in the last two years who received a PNC visit within the first week following discharge from the health facility H om e P ub lic S ec to r P riv at e se ct or D oc to r/ nu rs e/ m id w ife A ux ili ar y m id w ife C om m un ity h ea lth w or ke r Wealth index quintiles Poorest 86.6 13.4 0.0 100.0 99.7 0.3 0.0 100.0 167 Second 91.1 8.9 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 195 Middle 89.6 10.4 0.0 100.0 99.3 0.7 0.0 100.0 145 Fourth 85.5 14.5 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 107 Richest 74.4 22.8 2.8 100.0 98.6 0.0 1.4 100.0 84 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 87.5 12.1 0.4 100.0 99.5 0.3 0.2 100.0 547 Russian (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 13 Uzbek 84.6 15.4 0.0 100.0 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 118 Other language (*) (*) (*) 100.0 (*) (*) (*) 100.0 20 (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table RH.16 matches Table RH.14, but now deals with the first PNC visits for mothers within the first week following discharge from the health facility by location and type of provider. As defined above, a visit does not include a check in the facility or at home following birth. In Kyrgyzstan, 86.9 percent of the first PNC visits for mothers occur at home, this percentage is slightly higher in rural areas (89.4 percent) than in urban areas (77.5 percent). No significant differentials by mother’s background characteristics are observed. A doctor / nurse / midwife was the most likely to be the provider of the first PNC visit for mothers within the first week following discharge from the health facility (99.6 percent). Table RH.17 presents the distribution of women with a live birth in the two years preceding the survey by receipt of health checks or PNC visits within 2 days of birth for the mother and the newborn, thus combining the indicators presented in Tables RH.13 and RH.15. The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS shows that for 97.6 percent of live births, both the mothers and their newborns receive either a health check following birth or a timely PNC visit, whereas for 1.4 percent of births neither receive health checks or timely visits. The figures between the regions range from 95.0 percent in the Issyk-Kul oblast to 98.5 percent in the Djalal-Abad oblast. There are no significant discrepancies across the background characteristics. 128 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table RH.17: Post-natal health checks for mothers and newborns Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last two years by post-natal health checks for the mother and newborn, within two days of the most recent birth, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Health checks or PNC visits within 2 days of birth for: DK/Missing Total Number of women age 15-49 years who gave birth in the 2 years preceding the survey Both mothers and newborns Mothers only Newborns only Neither mother nor newborn Total 97.6 0.1 0.7 1.4 0.2 100.0 1675 Region Batken 98.4 0.5 0.5 0.6 0.0 100.0 148 Djalal-Abad 98.5 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.4 100.0 351 Issyk-Kul 95.0 0.0 1.5 3.5 0.0 100.0 97 Naryn 96.9 0.0 0.5 2.6 0.0 100.0 56 Osh Oblast 97.4 0.0 0.5 1.9 0.2 100.0 366 Talas 95.6 0.2 1.9 2.3 0.0 100.0 124 Chui 97.5 0.0 0.7 1.8 0.0 100.0 260 Bishkek City 98.1 0.0 1.9 0.0 0.0 100.0 197 Osh City 97.8 0.8 0.0 0.5 0.9 100.0 76 Area Urban 97.6 0.2 1.0 0.6 0.5 100.0 539 Rural 97.5 0.0 0.6 1.8 0.0 100.0 1137 Mother's age at birth Less than 20 96.8 0.4 0.6 1.1 1.1 100.0 138 20-34 97.7 0.1 0.8 1.3 0.1 100.0 1340 35-49 97.3 0.0 0.1 2.5 0.0 100.0 195 Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 Place of delivery Home (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 11 Health facility 98.8 0.1 0.7 0.2 0.2 100.0 1648 Public 98.8 0.1 0.7 0.2 0.2 100.0 1627 Private (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 21 Other/DK/Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 17 Type of delivery Vaginal birth 97.4 0.1 0.7 1.6 0.2 100.0 1547 C-section 99.3 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 128 Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 15 Basic secondary 97.3 0.0 0.0 2.3 0.4 100.0 200 Complete secondary 97.8 0.1 0.9 1.0 0.2 100.0 757 Professional primary/middle 98.2 0.3 1.1 0.4 0.0 100.0 234 Higher 97.9 0.0 0.6 1.4 0.1 100.0 469 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 96.9 0.2 0.3 2.6 0.0 100.0 336 Second 98.3 0.1 0.3 1.1 0.2 100.0 372 Middle 98.0 0.0 1.3 0.7 0.0 100.0 349 Fourth 96.3 0.2 1.3 2.0 0.3 100.0 312 Richest 98.2 0.0 0.5 0.8 0.5 100.0 306 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 97.7 0.1 0.7 1.3 0.2 100.0 1283 Russian (98.7) (0.0) (1.3) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 63 Uzbek 97.9 0.2 0.7 0.9 0.3 100.0 256 Other language 92.5 0.0 0.0 7.5 0.0 100.0 73 Missing (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 1 (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases IX. Early Childhood Development 130 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Early Childhood Care and Education Readiness of children for primary school can be improved through attendance to quality preschool and early childhood education programmes. Early childhood education programmes include programmes for children that have organised learning components as opposed to baby-sitting and day-care which do not typically have organised education and learning. In Kyrgyzstan in the 1990s, some kindergartens have been closed or restructured for a different function. In the 2000s, the situation has improved considerably: the number of preschool institutions in this period has doubled, and number of covered children increased by three times. However, at present, the coverage of children by preschool education in Kyrgyzstan remains very low. In this regard, within the framework of the "Strategy of development of education in the Kyrgyz Republic for 2012-2020", an increased coverage by pre-primary education is defined as one of the top priorities. Special preschool educational programmes are organised in kindergartens and schools for children who didn’t attend kindergartens. Table CD.1: Early childhood education Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are attending an organized early childhood education programme, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children age 36-59 months attending early childhood education1 Number of children age 36-59 months Total 22.7 1770 Sex Male 22.8 900 Female 22.6 870 Region Batken 33.1 170 Djalal-Abad 11.4 362 Issyk-Kul 25.4 112 Naryn 25.6 92 Osh Oblast 12.8 399 Talas 21.6 144 Chui 24.7 273 Bishkek City 44.8 150 Osh City 51.6 67 Area Urban 40.5 482 Rural 16.0 1288 Age of child 36-47 months 19.2 925 48-59 months 26.4 845 Mother's education None/primary (*) 29 Basic secondary 10.1 200 Complete secondary 14.7 801 Professional primary/middle 30.5 313 Higher 39.3 426 131 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of children age 36-59 months attending early childhood education1 Number of children age 36-59 months Wealth index quintile Poorest 11.7 419 Second 12.7 406 Middle 17.2 367 Fourth 33.3 311 Richest 50.0 268 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 23.8 1384 Russian 30.1 68 Uzbek 18.3 231 Other language 10.8 86 1 MICS indicator 6.1 - Attendance to early childhood education (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases In Kyrgyzstan, 23 percent of children age 36-59 months are attending an organised early childhood education programme (Table CD.1). Urban-rural and regional differentials are notable – the figure is as high as 40.5 percent in urban areas, compared to 16.0 percent in rural areas. Among children age 36-59 months, attendance to early childhood education programmes is more prevalent in the cities of Bishkek and Osh (44.8 and 51.6 percent, respectively), and lowest in the Osh and Djalal-Abad oblasts (11.4 and 12.8 percent, respectively). No gender differential exists, however, there are notable differentials by socioeconomic status; 50 percent of children living in the richest percenthouseholds attend such programmes, while the figure drops to 11.7 percent among children in the poorest households. The proportion of children attending early childhood education programmes at ages 36-47 months (19.2 percent) is somewhat lower than the proportion of children at ages 48-59 months (26.4 percent). Quality of Care It is well recognized that a period of rapid brain development occurs in the first 3-4 years of life, and the quality of home care is a major determinant of the child’s development during this period43. In this context, engagement of adults in activities with children, presence of books in the home for the child, and the conditions of care are important indicators of quality of home care. As set out in A World Fit for Children, “children should be physically healthy, mentally alert, emotionally secure, socially competent and ready to learn”44. Information on a number of activities that support early learning was collected in the survey. These included the involvement of adults with children in the following activities: reading books or looking at picture books, telling stories, singing songs, taking children outside the home, compound or yard, playing with children, and spending time with children naming, counting, or drawing things. For close to three-quarters (72.1 percent) of children age 36-59 months, an adult household member engaged in four or more activities that promote learning and school readiness during the 3 days preceding the survey (Table CD.2). The mean number of activities that adults engaged with children was 4.4. The table also indicates that the father’s involvement in such activities was somewhat limited. The mean number of activities with biological father was equal to only 0.7, and percentage of children who’s farther engaged in four or more activities was only 2.8 percent. About one-fifth (21.6 percent) of children age 36-59 months live without their biological father. 43 Grantham-McGregor, S et al. 2007. Developmental Potential in the First 5 Years for Children in Developing Countries. The Lancet 369: 60–70 Belsky, J et al. 2006. Socioeconomic Risk, Parenting During the Preschool Years and Child Health Age 6 Years. European Journal of Public Health 17(5): 511–2. 44 UNICEF, 2002. A World Fit For Children adopted by the UN General Assembly at the 27th Special Session, 10 May 2002:2. 132 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report For 29.7 of children age 36-59 months, mothers engaged in four or more activities that promote learning and school readiness during the 3 days preceding the survey, which is 10 times higher than father’s involvement. The mean number of activities that mothers engaged with children was 2.8. It is worth noting that the percentage of children not living with their biological mother is also quite high – 14.1 percent. There are no gender differentials in terms of engagement of adults in activities with children. Strong differentials by region are observed: adult engagement in activities with children was greatest in the Djalal-Abad oblast (87.7 percent) and lowest in the Batken oblast (43.2 percent). The percentage of children with whom adult household members have engaged in four or more activities increases slightly with the age of the child. Exposure to books in early years not only provides the child with greater understanding of the nature of print, but may also give the child opportunities to see others reading, such as older siblings doing school work. Presence of books is important for later school performance. The mothers (or caretakers) of all children under 5 were asked about the number of children’s books or picture books they have for the child, and the types of playthings that are available at home. In Kyrgyzstan, only 27.3 percent of children age 0-59 months live in households where at least 3 children’s books are present for the child (Table CD.3). The proportion of children with 10 or more books declines to 8.4 percent. While no gender differentials are observed, a greater proportion of urban children appear to have access to children’s books than those living in rural households. The proportion of under-5 children who have 3 or more children’s books is 39.6 percent in urban areas, compared to 22.1 percent in rural areas. The presence of children’s books is positively correlated with the child’s age; in the homes of 37.5 percent of children age 24-59 months, there are 3 or more children’s books, while the figure is 12.3 percent for children age 0-23 months. Among regions, the lowest percentage of children living in households with at least 3 children’s books is observed in the Osh oblast (11.9 percent). The presence of children’s books is positively correlated with socioeconomic status and mother’s education. Children living in households whose head speaks Uzbek as the mother tongue are the least likely to have access (20 percent) to 3 or more children’s books. 133 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e C D .2 : S up po rt fo r l ea rn in g P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s w ith w ho m a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs e ng ag ed in a ct iv iti es th at p ro m ot e le ar ni ng a nd s ch oo l r ea di ne ss d ur in g th e la st th re e da ys , a nd e ng ag em en t i n su ch ac tiv iti es b y bi ol og ic al fa th er s an d m ot he rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs h av e en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es 1 M ea n nu m be r of a ct iv iti es w ith a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n liv in g w ith th ei r: N um be r of c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n w ith w ho m bi ol og ic al fa th er s ha ve en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es 2 M ea n nu m be r of a ct iv iti es w ith b io lo gi ca l fa th er s N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s liv in g w ith th ei r b io lo gi ca l fa th er s P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m b io lo gi ca l m ot he rs h av e en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es 3 M ea n nu m be r o f ac tiv iti es w ith bi ol og ic al m ot he rs N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s liv in g w ith th ei r b io lo gi ca l m ot he rs B io lo gi ca l fa th er B io lo gi ca l m ot he r To ta l 72 .1 4. 4 78 .4 85 .9 17 70 2. 8 0. 7 13 87 29 .7 2. 4 15 21 Se x M al e 74 .0 4. 4 78 .3 85 .3 90 0 3. 2 0. 8 70 5 28 .6 2. 3 76 8 Fe m al e 70 .1 4. 3 78 .4 86 .6 87 0 2. 4 0. 7 68 2 30 .9 2. 4 75 3 R eg io n B at ke n 43 .2 3. 0 73 .3 82 .6 17 0 2. 4 0. 6 12 4 27 .7 2. 0 14 0 D ja la l-A ba d 87 .7 5. 0 68 .2 79 .5 36 2 4. 2 1. 1 24 7 34 .3 2. 6 28 8 Is sy k- K ul 69 .0 4. 1 85 .5 87 .2 11 2 0. 8 0. 5 96 21 .1 2. 2 98 N ar yn 76 .5 4. 6 80 .3 84 .9 92 9. 4 1. 2 74 26 .4 2. 4 78 O sh O bl as t 76 .9 4. 5 75 .2 82 .8 39 9 1. 7 0. 5 30 0 15 .7 1. 8 33 1 Ta la s 61 .6 4. 1 89 .0 91 .9 14 4 1. 7 0. 8 12 8 23 .9 2. 0 13 2 C hu i 64 .3 4. 1 84 .8 89 .3 27 3 1. 8 0. 3 23 2 35 .5 2. 6 24 4 B is hk ek C ity 79 .6 4. 9 85 .9 97 .2 15 0 3. 8 1. 2 12 8 62 .8 4. 0 14 5 O sh C ity 68 .6 4. 2 84 .1 95 .7 67 1. 6 0. 5 57 27 .6 2. 6 64 A re a U rb an 74 .5 4. 5 79 .8 92 .3 48 2 4. 2 0. 8 38 5 43 .4 3. 0 44 5 R ur al 71 .2 4. 3 77 .8 83 .6 12 88 2. 3 0. 7 10 02 24 .6 2. 1 10 77 A ge 36 -4 7 m on th s 69 .2 4. 2 78 .9 86 .5 92 5 3. 3 0. 8 73 0 29 .4 2. 3 80 0 48 -5 9 m on th s 75 .3 4. 5 77 .8 85 .3 84 5 2. 3 0. 7 65 7 30 .0 2. 4 72 1 M ot he r's e du ca tio na N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 29 (* ) (* ) 24 (* ) (* ) 23 B as ic s ec on da ry 69 .6 4. 1 84 .0 90 .0 20 0 0. 0 0. 4 16 8 23 .8 2. 0 18 1 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 70 .7 4. 3 74 .1 82 .1 80 1 2. 1 0. 7 59 3 23 .6 2. 1 65 8 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e 74 .0 4. 4 75 .4 81 .1 31 3 3. 6 0. 7 23 6 29 .0 2. 3 25 4 H ig he r 78 .2 4. 8 85 .8 95 .3 42 6 5. 0 1. 0 36 6 45 .9 3. 2 40 6 134 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs h av e en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es 1 M ea n nu m be r of a ct iv iti es w ith a du lt ho us eh ol d m em be rs Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n liv in g w ith th ei r: N um be r of c hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n w ith w ho m bi ol og ic al fa th er s ha ve en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es 2 M ea n nu m be r of a ct iv iti es w ith b io lo gi ca l fa th er s N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s liv in g w ith th ei r b io lo gi ca l fa th er s P er ce nt ag e of ch ild re n w ith w ho m b io lo gi ca l m ot he rs h av e en ga ge d in fo ur o r m or e ac tiv iti es 3 M ea n nu m be r o f ac tiv iti es w ith bi ol og ic al m ot he rs N um be r o f ch ild re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s liv in g w ith th ei r b io lo gi ca l m ot he rs B io lo gi ca l fa th er B io lo gi ca l m ot he r Fa th er 's e du ca tio n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 12 (* ) (* ) 12 (* ) (* ) 12 B as ic s ec on da ry 62 .4 4. 1 10 0. 0 99 .0 15 8 0. 2 0. 6 15 8 20 .9 2. 2 15 7 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 70 .5 4. 3 10 0. 0 97 .2 70 6 2. 1 0. 8 70 6 27 .7 2. 4 68 7 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e 74 .9 4. 6 10 0. 0 97 .4 19 3 4. 4 0. 9 19 3 36 .3 2. 9 18 8 H ig he r 78 .5 4. 7 10 0. 0 99 .7 31 8 8. 1 1. 3 31 8 49 .6 3. 3 31 7 Fa th er n ot in th e ho us eh ol d 73 .7 4. 3 na 42 .0 38 3 na na na 17 .5 1. 4 16 1 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 62 .8 3. 9 74 .8 82 .5 41 9 2. 4 0. 7 31 3 17 .4 1. 9 34 5 S ec on d 70 .9 4. 3 79 .1 85 .4 40 6 2. 5 0. 7 32 1 23 .4 2. 1 34 6 M id dl e 77 .9 4. 5 75 .2 83 .8 36 7 2. 1 0. 7 27 6 32 .2 2. 4 30 7 Fo ur th 78 .2 4. 6 83 .9 87 .6 31 1 3. 3 0. 7 26 1 34 .3 2. 5 27 3 R ic he st 73 .4 4. 6 80 .6 93 .0 26 8 4. 5 0. 9 21 6 49 .8 3. 3 24 9 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 71 .5 4. 3 77 .6 83 .4 13 84 2. 7 0. 8 10 74 28 .7 2. 3 11 54 R us si an 86 .9 5. 1 83 .5 95 .0 68 (1 1. 8) (0 .9 ) 57 59 .5 3. 8 65 U zb ek 81 .3 4. 6 79 .9 94 .6 23 1 1. 6 0. 7 18 4 29 .0 2. 5 21 8 O th er la ng ua ge 46 .0 3. 4 82 .1 95 .5 86 0. 4 0. 4 71 25 .3 2. 0 82 1 M IC S in di ca to r 6 .2 - Su pp or t f or le ar ni ng 2 M IC S In di ca to r 6 .3 - Fa th er ’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g 3 M IC S In di ca to r 6 .4 - M ot he r’s s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g a T he b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic "M ot he r's e du ca tio n" re fe rs to th e ed uc at io n le ve l o f t he re sp on de nt to th e Q ue st io nn ai re fo r C hi ld re n U nd er F iv e, a nd c ov er s bo th m ot he rs a nd p rim ar y ca re ta ke rs , w ho a re in te rv ie w ed w he n th e m ot he r i s no t l is te d in th e sa m e ho us eh ol d. S in ce in di ca to r 6 .4 re po rts o n th e bi ol og ic al m ot he r's s up po rt fo r l ea rn in g, th is b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic re fe rs to o nl y th e ed uc at io na l l ev el s of b io lo gi ca l m ot he rs w he n ca lc ul at ed fo r t he in di ca to r i n qu es tio n. na : n ot a pp lic ab le (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 135 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e C D .3 : L ea rn in g m at er ia ls P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 b y nu m be rs o f c hi ld re n' s bo ok s pr es en t i n th e ho us eh ol d, a nd b y pl ay th in gs th at c hi ld p la ys w ith , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n liv in g in ho us eh ol ds th at h av e fo r t he c hi ld : Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n w ho p la y w ith : N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 3 or m or e ch ild re n' s bo ok s1 10 o r m or e ch ild re n' s bo ok s H om em ad e to ys To ys fr om a s ho p/ m an uf ac tu re d to ys H ou se ho ld o bj ec ts / ob je ct s fo un d ou ts id e Tw o or m or e ty pe s of pl ay th in gs 2 To ta l 27 .3 8. 4 32 .0 93 .2 48 .2 59 .3 45 77 Se x M al e 26 .9 9. 0 33 .1 93 .6 48 .2 59 .9 23 42 Fe m al e 27 .6 7. 8 30 .8 92 .8 48 .1 58 .7 22 35 R eg io n B at ke n 37 .2 5. 7 45 .2 90 .7 63 .8 75 .1 40 8 D ja la l-A ba d 21 .8 4. 5 52 .3 97 .9 42 .4 61 .8 95 6 Is sy k- K ul 22 .9 5. 3 9. 4 90 .8 36 .7 39 .5 26 4 N ar yn 30 .6 4. 4 41 .8 96 .4 53 .3 67 .2 19 5 O sh O bl as t 11 .9 1. 6 41 .2 93 .0 32 .8 53 .1 10 15 Ta la s 23 .8 4. 4 5. 0 92 .9 78 .3 79 .3 35 2 C hu i 39 .7 23 .0 22 .1 91 .6 67 .9 70 .7 71 5 B is hk ek C ity 46 .8 18 .7 10 .1 91 .7 35 .7 37 .9 47 4 O sh C ity 28 .3 5. 8 16 .2 86 .7 37 .4 40 .0 19 8 A re a U rb an 39 .6 12 .7 21 .0 91 .5 41 .4 48 .4 13 60 R ur al 22 .1 6. 6 36 .6 93 .9 51 .0 63 .9 32 17 A ge 0- 23 m on th s 12 .3 3. 4 21 .4 84 .8 30 .6 38 .8 18 68 24 -5 9 m on th s 37 .5 11 .9 39 .3 99 .0 60 .3 73 .5 27 09 M ot he r’s e du ca tio n N on e/ pr im ar y (7 .0 ) (3 .8 ) (5 2. 1) (8 9. 5) (6 3. 1) (6 6. 6) 58 B as ic s ec on da ry 17 .0 3. 3 34 .2 92 .5 45 .5 55 .7 52 9 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 19 .3 3. 7 35 .9 93 .3 46 .9 60 .0 21 02 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e 32 .8 13 .0 29 .6 93 .8 54 .1 63 .4 73 2 H ig he r 43 .9 16 .7 24 .4 93 .2 47 .2 56 .8 11 55 136 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n liv in g in ho us eh ol ds th at h av e fo r t he c hi ld : Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n w ho p la y w ith : N um be r o f c hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 3 or m or e ch ild re n' s bo ok s1 10 o r m or e ch ild re n' s bo ok s H om em ad e to ys To ys fr om a s ho p/ m an uf ac tu re d to ys H ou se ho ld o bj ec ts / ob je ct s fo un d ou ts id e Tw o or m or e ty pe s of pl ay th in gs 2 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 14 .7 1. 5 37 .2 94 .1 51 .0 62 .5 98 6 S ec on d 14 .7 2. 1 40 .8 94 .0 49 .7 64 .4 10 39 M id dl e 24 .2 4. 4 32 .2 92 .9 47 .5 59 .7 95 1 Fo ur th 36 .8 14 .8 24 .6 92 .8 45 .6 54 .1 82 3 R ic he st 53 .6 23 .7 21 .1 91 .8 46 .1 53 .5 77 8 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 26 .5 7. 2 31 .6 92 .9 48 .9 60 .1 35 34 R us si an 67 .5 48 .4 16 .4 94 .4 64 .0 66 .8 18 0 U zb ek 20 .0 2. 8 36 .6 93 .8 34 .5 50 .3 65 6 O th er la ng ua ge 28 .9 11 .6 38 .8 94 .8 65 .2 69 .1 20 5 1 M IC S in di ca to r 6 .5 - Av ai la bi lit y of c hi ld re n’ s bo ok s 2 M IC S in di ca to r 6 .6 - Av ai la bi lit y of p la yt hi ng s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 137 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CD.3 also shows that 59.3 percent of children age 0-59 months had 2 or more types of playthings to play with in their homes. The types of playthings included in the questionnaires were homemade toys (such as dolls and cars, or other toys made at home), toys that came from a store, and household objects (such as pots and bowls) or objects and materials found outside the home (such as sticks, rocks, animal shells, or leaves). It is interesting to note that 93.2 percent of children play with toys that come from a store; however, the percentages for homemade toys are 32 percent. There are no gender differentials for the percentage of girls and boys with 2 or more types of playthings. On the other hand, this percentage is lower among children living in urban areas (48.4 percent) than those living in rural areas (63.9 percent), due to the higher percentage of children that play with homemade toys and household objects/objects found outside in rural areas. There were no notable differentials in terms of mother’s education and socioeconomic status of the households. Percentage of children who play with two or more types of playthings was the lowest in the Issyk-Kul oblast (39.5 percent) and Bishkek and Osh cities (37.9 and 40.0 percent, respectively). Leaving children alone or in the presence of other young children is known to increase the risk of injuries45. In MICS, two questions were asked to find out whether children age 0-59 months were left alone during the week preceding the interview, and whether children were left in the care of other children under 10 years of age. Table CD.4 shows that 4.1 percent of children age 0-59 months were left in the care of other children, while 1.0 percent were left alone during the week preceding the interview. Combining the two care indicators, it is calculated that a total of 4.5 percent of children were left with inadequate care during the past week, either by being left alone or in the care of another child. No differences were observed by the sex of the child or between urban and rural areas Children age 24-59 months were left with inadequate care more often (6.3 percent) than those who were age 0-23 months (2.0 percent). No differences are observed in regard to socioeconomic status of the household and mother’s education. The highest percentages of children were observed in the Djalal-Abad and Naryn oblasts where 10.6 and 8.5 percent of children, respectively were left with inadequate care. Table CD.4: Inadequate care Percentage of children under age 5 left alone or left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once during the past week, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children under age 5: Number of children under age 5 Left alone in the past week Left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age in the past week Left with inadequate care in the past week1 Total 1.0 4.1 4.5 4577 Sex Male 1.0 4.3 4.7 2342 Female 1.0 3.9 4.3 2235 45 Grossman, D.C. (2000). The History of Injury Control and the Epidemiology of Child and Adolescent Injuries. The Future of Children, 10(1), 23-52. 138 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of children under age 5: Number of children under age 5 Left alone in the past week Left in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age in the past week Left with inadequate care in the past week1 Region Batken 1.5 4.1 4.8 408 Djalal-Abad 1.9 9.8 10.6 956 Issyk-Kul 0.3 1.4 1.4 264 Naryn 0.2 8.5 8.5 195 Osh Oblast 0.0 1.1 1.1 1015 Talas 0.7 1.0 1.1 352 Chui 1.8 2.5 3.4 715 Bishkek City 0.3 3.4 3.4 474 Osh City 2.0 4.4 4.7 198 Area Urban 1.1 4.6 5.1 1360 Rural 1.0 3.9 4.3 3217 Age 0-23 months 0.6 1.6 2.0 1868 24-59 months 1.3 5.8 6.3 2709 Mother’s education None/primary (3.8) (3.8) (3.8) 58 Basic secondary 0.9 2.2 3.0 529 Complete secondary 1.0 4.8 5.0 2102 Professional primary/middle 1.1 5.1 5.6 732 Higher 0.8 3.1 3.6 1155 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 1.4 5.9 6.1 986 Second 1.1 4.0 4.5 1039 Middle 0.2 2.6 2.7 951 Fourth 1.3 3.5 3.8 823 Richest 1.1 4.5 5.4 778 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 0.9 4.7 4.9 3534 Russian 2.7 1.5 3.0 180 Uzbek 0.9 2.5 2.8 656 Other language 1.5 2.2 3.7 205 1 MICS indicator 6.7 - Inadequate care ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 139 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Developmental Status of Children Early childhood development is defined as an orderly, predictable process along a continuous path, in which a child learns to handle more complicated levels of moving, thinking, speaking, feeling and relating to others. Physical growth, literacy and numeracy skills, socio-emotional development and readiness to learn are vital domains of a child’s overall development, which is a basis for overall human development46. A 10-item module was used to calculate the Early Child Development Index (ECDI). The primary purpose of the ECDI is to inform public policy regarding the developmental status of children in Kyrgyzstan. The index is based on selected milestones that children are expected to achieve by ages 3 and 4. The 10 items are used to determine if children are developmentally on track in four domains: • Literacy-numeracy: Children are identified as being developmentally on track based on whether they can identify/name at least ten letters of the alphabet, whether they can read at least four simple, popular words, and whether they know the name and recognize the symbols of all numbers from 1 to 10. If at least two of these are true, then the child is considered developmentally on track. • Physical: If the child can pick up a small object with two fingers, like a stick or a rock from the ground and/or the mother (or caretaker) does not indicate that the child is sometimes too sick to play, then the child is regarded as being developmentally on track in the physical domain. • Social-emotional: Children are considered to be developmentally on track if two of the following are true: If the child gets along well with other children, if the child does not kick, bite, or hit other children and if the child does not get distracted easily. • Learning: If the child follows simple directions on how to do something correctly and/or when given something to do, is able to do it independently, then the child is considered to be developmentally on track in this domain. ECDI is then calculated as the percentage of children who are developmentally on track in at least three of these four domains. The findings regarding early childhood development are presented in Table CD.5. In Kyrgyzstan, 78.3 percent of children age 36-59 months are developmentally on track. ECDI level among boys was 76.1 percent, while among girls - 80.6 percent. As expected, ECDI is much higher in the older age group (84.1 percent among children age 48-59 months compared to 73.0 percent among those age 36-47 months), since children mature more skills with increasing age. Children living in poorest households have lower ECDI (76.5 percent) compared to children living in richest households (84.3 percent). The analysis of four domains of child development shows that 95.5 percent of children are on track in the physical domain and 91.2 percent are on track in the learning domain, while they are somewhat less on track in the social-emotional domain (82.5 percent) and particularly so in the literacy-numeracy (14.5 percent) domain. For the literacy-numeracy domain the higher score is associated with children living in richest households, with children attending an early childhood education programme, and older children. For example, 26.8 percent of children attending to an early childhood education programme are developmentally on track in literacy-numeracy compared with only 10.9 percent among not attending children. 46 Shonkoff, J and Phillips, D (eds). 2000. From neurons to neighborhoods: the science of early childhood development. Committee on Integrating the Science of Early Childhood Development, National Research Council, 2000. 140 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CD.5: Early child development index Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in literacy-numeracy, physical, social-emotional, and learning domains, and the early child development index score, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track for indicated domains Early child development index score1 Number of children age 36-59 monthsLiteracy-numeracy Physical Social-Emotional Learning Total 14.5 95.5 82.5 91.2 78.3 1770 Sex Male 12.3 96.7 81.9 90.8 76.1 900 Female 16.8 94.3 83.2 91.6 80.6 870 Region Batken 10.3 97.0 83.4 95.0 81.2 170 Djalal-Abad 7.1 95.9 89.3 94.4 87.1 362 Issyk-Kul 8.5 93.9 86.7 95.9 81.6 112 Naryn 19.5 90.4 85.0 96.5 80.5 92 Osh Oblast 9.0 93.3 79.9 82.0 69.6 399 Talas 16.1 97.2 84.3 96.6 84.9 144 Chui 22.7 97.8 78.5 91.3 73.5 273 Bishkek City 36.1 97.3 85.8 92.3 87.4 150 Osh City 16.5 95.3 54.2 89.9 52.0 67 Area Urban 23.4 95.5 79.9 92.4 78.3 482 Rural 11.2 95.5 83.5 90.8 78.3 1288 Age 36-47 months 8.8 92.6 79.0 87.4 73.0 925 48-59 months 20.7 98.6 86.4 95.4 84.1 845 Attendance to early childhood education Attending 26.8 96.9 82.5 91.7 79.8 401 Not attending 10.9 95.1 82.5 91.0 77.9 1369 Mother’s education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 29 Basic secondary 10.2 95.7 81.3 87.6 70.1 200 Complete secondary 9.6 95.4 82.4 89.9 77.2 801 Professional primary/ middle 21.2 95.7 82.3 93.3 80.8 313 Higher 21.4 96.0 83.3 94.0 81.8 426 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 6.1 94.7 83.3 87.6 76.5 419 Second 8.3 95.0 85.5 92.7 80.3 406 Middle 13.6 95.7 77.1 91.5 73.0 367 Fourth 18.7 96.9 83.4 94.0 79.3 311 Richest 33.5 95.5 83.2 90.9 84.3 268 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 13.9 95.1 83.6 90.9 79.2 1384 Russian 38.6 100.0 81.6 93.9 79.7 68 Uzbek 11.2 95.8 76.9 91.3 72.3 231 Other language 15.0 97.6 80.2 93.2 77.9 86 1 MICS indicator 6.8 - Early child development index (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases X. Literacy and Education 142 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Literacy among Young Women Education is a key resource for human development, economy, welfare improvement and the most important factor in poverty reduction. Therefore, the level of education is often seen as a proxy measure of social progress and economic achievement. In MICS, since only a women’s questionnaire was administered, the findings are based only on females age 15-24. Literacy is assessed on the ability of the respondent to read a short simple statement or based on highest completed level of schooling. The percent literate is presented in Table ED.1. Table ED.1 indicates that 99.3 percent of young women in Kyrgyzstan are literate and literacy does not vary across regions, reaching the lowest rate in the Osh oblast (97.3 percent). Of women who live in families where the mother tongue of the household head is Other, only 88.7 percent were actually able to read the statement shown to them. Table ED.1: Literacy Young Women Percentage of women age 15-24 years who are literate, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage literate1 Percentage not known Number of women age 15-24 years Total 99.3 0.0 2383 Region Batken 100.0 0.0 179 Djalal-Abad 99.5 0.2 503 Issyk-Kul 100.0 0.0 136 Naryn 100.0 0.0 83 Osh Oblast 97.3 0.0 510 Talas 100.0 0.0 102 Chui 100.0 0.0 379 Bishkek City 100.0 0.0 362 Osh City 100.0 0.0 129 Area Urban 99.8 0.1 810 Rural 99.1 0.0 1573 Education None/primary (*) (*) 22 Basic secondary 100.0 0.0 569 Complete secondary 100.0 0.0 880 Professional primary/middle 100.0 0.0 366 Higher 100.0 0.0 545 Age 15-19 99.8 0.1 1169 20-24 98.9 0.0 1214 Wealth index quintile Poorest 97.6 0.0 392 Second 99.2 0.0 472 Middle 99.7 0.0 490 Fourth 99.9 0.0 527 Richest 99.8 0.2 503 143 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage literate1 Percentage not known Number of women age 15-24 years Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 99.9 0.1 1698 Russian 100.0 0.0 161 Uzbek 99.5 0.0 405 Other language 88.7 0.0 117 1 MICS indicator 7.1; MDG indicator 2.3 - Literacy rate among young women (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases School Readiness Attendance to pre-school education is important for the readiness of children to school. Table ED.2 shows the proportion of children in the first grade of primary school (regardless of age) who attended pre-school in the previous year47. Overall, 43.1 percent of children who are currently attending the first grade of primary school were attending pre-school the previous year. More than half of the children in first grade in urban areas (52.2 percent) had attended pre-school the previous year compared to 40.0 percent among children living in rural areas. Table ED.2: School readiness Percentage of children attending first grade of primary school who attended pre-school the previous year, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children attending first grade who attended preschool in previous year1 Number of children attending first grade of primary school Total 43.1 662 Sex Male 43.3 337 Female 43.0 325 Region Batken 69.0 68 Djalal-Abad 38.7 134 Issyk-Kul 31.5 42 Naryn 39.2 42 Osh Oblast 39.4 147 Talas 30.0 53 Chui 37.6 107 Bishkek City (68.0) 46 Osh City (50.7) 24 Area Urban 52.2 170 Rural 40.0 492 47 The computation of the indicator does not exclude repeaters, and therefore is inclusive of both children who are attending primary school for the first time, as well as those who were in the first grade of primary school the previous school year and are repeating. Children repeating may have attended pre-school prior to the school year during which they attended the first grade of primary school for the first time; these children are not captured in the numerator of the indicator. 144 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of children attending first grade who attended preschool in previous year1 Number of children attending first grade of primary school Mother's education None/primary (*) 7 Basic secondary 31.1 56 Complete secondary 40.4 351 Professional primary/middle 40.1 104 Higher 56.1 144 Wealth index quintile Poorest 42.2 157 Second 33.0 150 Middle 41.1 150 Fourth 45.7 109 Richest 60.3 98 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 43.2 503 Russian (*) 29 Uzbek 37.5 104 Other language (*) 26 1 MICS indicator 7.2 - School readiness (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Regional differentials are also very significant; first graders in the Batken oblast and Bishkek city are more likely to attended pre-school (69 and 68 percent, respectively) than their counterparts in Talas and Issyk-Kul oblasts (30 and 31.5 percent, respectively). There are some differentials across wealth quintiles - coverage with school readiness is 42.2 percent among the children in the poorest wealth quintile while it increases to 60.3 percent among those in the richest wealth quintile. Attendance to pre-school education positively correlates with education of mothers: for children whose mothers have higher education, 56.1 percent were attending the first grade, while this is only 31.1 percent among children whose mothers have basic secondary education. Primary and Secondary School Participation Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world’s children is one of the Millennium Development Goals. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative labour and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environment, and influencing population growth. In Kyrgyzstan, according to the Law on Education, the school education consists of three levels. The first level, primary education, consists of grades 1-4. The second level, lower secondary education, consists of grades 5-9. The first two levels together constitute what is referred to as basic secondary education according to the law. The third level, upper secondary education, consists of grades 10-11. The two levels, lower and upper secondary education, together constitute secondary education. The three levels together (primary, lower and upper secondary) constitute what is referred to as complete secondary education according to the law. In this report, lower and upper secondary school are used when referring to levels of education (Tables ED.5, ED.5A, ED.5B, ED.8 and ED.9) while basic and complete secondary is used as a background characteristic to refer to the educational attainment of individuals. 145 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Completion of basic secondary education is compulsory for all citizens of the Kyrgyz Republic; attendance is free of charge in public and municipal educational institutions. Children enter primary school at age 6 or 7. The school year typically runs from September of one year to June of the following year. Of children who are of age 7 in Kyrgyzstan, 94.9 percent are attending the first grade of primary school (Table ED.3). There is not much variation in timeliness of children’s participation to primary school by gender, mother’s education or socioeconomic status. Some differentials were observed across regions. The highest percentage was observed in Naryn oblast (97.3 percent) while the figures in the Batken oblast (90.7 percent) and Bishkek city (91.8 percent) are slightly lower. Table ED.3: Primary school entry Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 1 (net intake rate), Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children of primary school entry age entering grade 11 Number of children of primary school entry age Total 94.9 636 Sex Male 96.0 319 Female 93.7 318 Region Batken 90.7 58 Djalal-Abad 96.6 139 Issyk-Kul 92.8 36 Naryn 97.3 37 Osh Oblast 96.4 137 Talas 94.3 38 Chui 95.5 103 Bishkek City (91.8) 70 Osh City (92.8) 18 Area Urban 93.0 186 Rural 95.7 451 Mother's education None/primary (*) 9 Basic secondary (100.0) 51 Complete secondary 94.6 312 Professional primary/middle 90.8 127 Higher 97.1 136 Wealth index quintile Poorest 94.6 151 Second 96.9 129 Middle 90.6 134 Fourth 96.6 119 Richest 96.4 103 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 95.1 486 Russian (*) 30 Uzbek 94.7 97 Other language (*) 23 1 MICS indicator 7.3 - Net intake rate in primary education (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 146 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e ED .4 : P rim ar y sc ho ol a tte nd an ce a nd o ut o f s ch oo l c hi ld re n P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge a tte nd in g pr im ar y or s ec on da ry s ch oo l ( ad ju st ed n et a tte nd an ce ra tio ), pe rc en ta ge a tte nd in g pr es ch oo l, an d pe rc en ta ge o ut o f s ch oo l, K yr gy zs ta n, 20 14 M al e Fe m al e To ta l Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted) 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: Number of children Not attending school or preschool Attending preschool Out of school a Not attending school or preschool Attending preschool Out of school a Not attending school or preschool Attending preschool Out of school a To ta l 99 .4 0. 3 0. 4 0. 6 11 59 99 .2 0. 7 0. 1 0. 8 11 52 99 .3 0. 5 0. 2 0. 7 23 11 R eg io n B at ke n 98 .4 0. 8 0. 8 1. 6 97 99 .3 0. 7 0. 0 0. 7 94 98 .9 0. 8 0. 4 1. 1 19 1 D ja la l-A ba d 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 25 3 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 24 0 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 49 4 Is sy k- K ul 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 91 98 .9 0. 0 1. 1 1. 1 93 99 .4 0. 0 0. 6 0. 6 18 4 N ar yn 98 .6 1. 4 0. 0 1. 4 70 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 63 99 .3 0. 7 0. 0 0. 7 13 3 O sh O bl as t 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 24 6 98 .5 1. 5 0. 0 1. 5 24 0 99 .2 0. 8 0. 0 0. 8 48 6 Ta la s 99 .0 1. 0 0. 0 1. 0 64 99 .2 0. 8 0. 0 0. 8 69 99 .1 0. 9 0. 0 0. 9 13 3 C hu i 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 15 2 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 22 0 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 37 2 B is hk ek C ity 97 .4 0. 0 2. 6 2. 6 14 0 97 .8 2. 2 0. 0 2. 2 96 97 .6 0. 9 1. 5 2. 4 23 6 O sh C ity 98 .7 1. 3 0. 0 1. 3 45 98 .4 1. 6 0. 0 1. 6 37 98 .5 1. 5 0. 0 1. 5 81 A re a U rb an 98 .6 0. 4 1. 0 1. 4 34 6 98 .9 0. 9 0. 2 1. 1 31 4 98 .7 0. 6 0. 6 1. 3 66 0 R ur al 99 .7 0. 2 0. 1 0. 3 81 3 99 .4 0. 6 0. 1 0. 6 83 8 99 .5 0. 4 0. 1 0. 5 16 51 A ge a t b eg in ni ng o f s ch oo l y ea r 7 98 .4 0. 2 1. 4 1. 6 31 9 98 .8 0. 9 0. 3 1. 2 31 8 98 .6 0. 5 0. 8 1. 4 63 6 8 99 .8 0. 2 0. 0 0. 2 30 2 98 .5 1. 5 0. 0 1. 5 28 1 99 .2 0. 8 0. 0 0. 8 58 3 9 99 .5 0. 5 0. 0 0. 5 27 6 99 .8 0. 2 0. 0 0. 2 29 2 99 .6 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 56 7 10 99 .8 0. 2 0. 0 0. 2 26 3 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 26 1 99 .9 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 52 5 147 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report M al e Fe m al e To ta l Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: Number of children Net attendance ratio (adjusted) 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n: Number of children Not attending school or preschool Attending preschool Out of school a Not attending school or preschool Attending preschool Out of school a Not attending school or preschool Attending preschool Out of school a M ot he r's e du ca tio n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 14 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 13 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 27 B as ic s ec on da ry 99 .4 0. 6 0. 0 0. 6 10 5 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 12 2 99 .7 0. 3 0. 0 0. 3 22 7 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 99 .6 0. 3 0. 1 0. 4 54 4 99 .2 0. 7 0. 1 0. 8 58 2 99 .4 0. 5 0. 1 0. 6 11 26 P ro fe ss io na l pr im ar y/ m id dl e 98 .9 0. 3 0. 8 1. 1 25 2 99 .8 0. 0 0. 2 0. 2 23 2 99 .3 0. 2 0. 5 0. 7 48 4 H ig he r 99 .3 0. 0 0. 7 0. 7 24 2 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 20 2 99 .6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 44 4 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 99 .3 0. 5 0. 3 0. 7 28 2 98 .3 1. 6 0. 2 1. 7 27 9 98 .8 1. 0 0. 2 1. 2 56 1 S ec on d 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 23 8 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 22 7 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 46 5 M id dl e 98 .8 0. 3 0. 8 1. 2 23 3 98 .9 1. 1 0. 0 1. 1 24 6 98 .9 0. 7 0. 4 1. 1 47 9 Fo ur th 99 .5 0. 5 0. 0 0. 5 19 9 99 .5 0. 3 0. 3 0. 5 22 6 99 .5 0. 4 0. 1 0. 5 42 4 R ic he st 99 .2 0. 0 0. 8 0. 8 20 8 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 17 4 99 .6 0. 0 0. 4 0. 4 38 2 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 99 .6 0. 1 0. 3 0. 4 90 3 99 .5 0. 4 0. 1 0. 5 88 3 99 .5 0. 3 0. 2 0. 5 17 85 R us si an (9 6. 7) (0 .5 ) (2 .8 ) (3 .3 ) 59 (1 00 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 62 98 .4 0. 3 1. 3 1. 6 12 1 U zb ek 99 .1 0. 9 0. 0 0. 9 15 4 99 .6 0. 4 0. 0 0. 4 16 8 99 .4 0. 6 0. 0 0. 6 32 2 O th er la ng ua ge (1 00 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 44 (9 0. 6) (9 .4 ) (0 .0 ) (9 .4 ) 39 95 .6 4. 4 0. 0 4. 4 83 1 M IC S in di ca to r 7 .4 ; M D G in di ca to r 2 .1 - Pr im ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) a T he p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge o ut o f s ch oo l a re th os e no t a tte nd in g sc ho ol a nd th os e at te nd in g pr es ch oo l (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 148 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table ED.4 provides the percentage of children of primary school age 7 to 10 years who are attending primary or secondary school48 and those who are out of school. The vast majority of children of primary school age are attending school (99.3 percent). Therefore attendance does not vary much with regard to background characteristics. However, less than 1 percent (0.7 percent) of the children are out of school, primarily due to non-attendance of children age 7 (1.4 percent). The secondary school net attendance ratio is presented in Table ED.5. About 94 percent of children age 11-17 years are attending secondary school grades. This percentage among children age 12-14 is as high as 99 percent. The percentage among children age 11 is 93.6 percent because more than 5 percent of these children are in primary school. For the children age 15-17 attendance decreases sharply reaching the minimum among children age 17 (83.6 percent). There are no notable variations by mother’s education or socioeconomic status. As lower and upper secondary school attendance may be interesting individually, the tables similar to the Table ED.5 (namely, Tables ED.5A and ED.5B) are calculated for these categories can be found in Appendix G: Additional Tables. Table ED.5: Secondary school attendance and out of school children Percentage of children of secondary school (5-11 grades) age attending secondary school or higher (adjusted net attendance ratio), percentage attending primary school, and percentage out of school, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Male Female Total Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children: N um be r o f c hi ld re n Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children: N um be r o f c hi ld re n Net attendance ratio (adjusted)1 Percentage of children: N um be r o f c hi ld re n A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f s ch oo la A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f s ch oo la O ut o f s ch oo la Total 92.7 0.8 6.5 1837 95.3 0.7 3.9 1731 94.0 0.7 5.2 3568 Region Batken 94.9 0.4 4.7 176 99.5 0.0 0.5 146 97.0 0.2 2.8 322 Djalal-Abad 92.7 1.7 5.6 414 92.5 0.7 6.8 395 92.6 1.2 6.2 808 Issyk-Kul 96.6 0.0 2.9 139 96.2 2.3 0.9 148 96.4 1.2 1.9 287 Naryn 97.0 1.2 1.8 116 98.7 0.5 0.9 98 97.8 0.9 1.4 214 Osh Oblast 89.2 0.5 10.4 387 95.6 1.1 3.3 334 92.1 0.8 7.1 720 Talas 98.3 0.7 1.0 65 94.6 2.0 3.5 81 96.2 1.4 2.4 146 Chui 89.0 0.4 10.6 293 95.6 0.0 4.4 255 92.1 0.2 7.7 548 Bishkek City 97.6 0.5 1.9 177 96.2 0.4 3.4 200 96.9 0.4 2.7 377 Osh City 89.6 0.8 9.7 71 91.3 0.0 8.1 75 90.5 0.4 8.9 146 48 Ratios presented in this table are "adjusted" since they include not only primary school attendance, but also secondary school attendance in the numerator. 149 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Male Female Total Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children: N um be r o f c hi ld re n Net attendance ratio (adjusted) Percentage of children: N um be r o f c hi ld re n Net attendance ratio (adjusted)1 Percentage of children: N um be r o f c hi ld re n A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f s ch oo la A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f s ch oo la O ut o f s ch oo la Area Urban 94.4 0.5 5.1 496 93.6 0.6 5.8 504 94.0 0.5 5.4 1000 Rural 92.1 0.9 7.0 1341 96.0 0.8 3.1 1226 93.9 0.8 5.2 2568 Age at beginning of school year 11 93.0 5.5 1.5 242 94.1 5.0 0.9 243 93.6 5.2 1.2 485 12 99.7 0.3 0.0 266 98.2 0.2 1.6 273 98.9 0.2 0.8 539 13 99.6 0.0 0.4 292 98.4 0.0 1.4 267 99.0 0.0 0.9 558 14 98.6 0.0 1.4 268 98.8 0.0 1.2 245 98.7 0.0 1.3 513 15 93.1 0.0 6.9 255 97.1 0.0 2.9 248 95.1 0.0 4.9 503 16 82.3 0.0 17.7 278 92.9 0.0 6.7 221 87.0 0.0 12.8 499 17 81.0 0.0 18.7 236 86.2 0.0 13.8 234 83.6 0.0 16.3 470 Mother's education None/primary (*) (*) (*) 27 (*) (*) (*) 9 (58.6) (0.0) (41.4) 36 Basic secondary 80.2 4.7 15.1 131 92.5 0.5 7.0 433 89.6 1.5 8.9 565 Complete secondary 94.8 0.9 4.3 794 98.4 0.9 0.6 721 96.5 0.9 2.6 1515 Professional primary/middle 96.1 0.2 3.7 361 98.3 0.6 1.0 245 97.0 0.4 2.6 606 Higher 98.9 0.0 1.1 270 97.9 1.5 0.4 157 98.5 0.6 0.8 427 Cannot be determinedb 84.8 0.0 15.0 255 84.5 0.0 15.5 163 84.7 0.0 15.2 419 Wealth index quintile Poorest 92.6 1.8 5.6 445 95.5 0.9 3.6 377 94.0 1.4 4.7 822 Second 93.3 0.9 5.7 389 94.6 1.3 3.9 348 93.9 1.1 4.8 736 Middle 89.9 0.6 9.6 356 96.1 0.0 3.9 345 92.9 0.3 6.8 701 Fourth 90.3 0.2 9.5 339 92.9 1.0 6.0 365 91.7 0.6 7.7 704 Richest 97.9 0.0 2.1 309 97.8 0.5 1.7 296 97.8 0.3 1.9 604 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 95.9 0.8 3.2 1354 96.7 0.7 2.6 1278 96.3 0.8 2.9 2632 Russian 91.5 0.0 8.5 96 99.7 0.3 0.0 102 95.7 0.2 4.1 198 Uzbek 84.3 0.3 15.5 303 90.5 0.8 8.8 273 87.2 0.5 12.3 576 Other language 71.8 2.2 26.0 84 83.2 2.3 14.5 76 77.3 2.3 20.5 160 Missing (*) (*) (*) 1 (*) (*) (*) 1 (*) (*) (*) 2 1 MICS indicator 7.5 - Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) a The percentage of children of secondary school age out of school are those who are not attending primary, secondary, or higher education b Children age 15 or higher at the time of the interview whose mothers were not living in the household (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases The percentage of children entering first grade who eventually reach the last grade of primary school is presented in Table ED.6. Of all children starting grade one, the majority (99.7 percent) will eventually reach grade 5. There are no variations by background characteristics. 150 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The MICS included only questions on school attendance in the current and previous year. Thus, the indicator is calculated synthetically by computing the cumulative probability of survival from the first to the last grade of primary school, as opposed to calculating the indicator for a real cohort which would need to be followed from the time a cohort of children entered primary school, up to the time they reached the last grade of primary school. Repeaters are excluded from the calculation of the indicator, because it is not known whether they will eventually graduate. As an example, the probability that a child will move from the first grade to the second grade is computed by dividing the number of children who moved from the first grade to the second grade (during the two consecutive school years covered by the survey) by the number of children who have moved from the first to the second grade plus the number of children who were in the first grade the previous school year, but dropped out. Both the numerator and denominator excludes children who repeated during the two school years under consideration. Table ED.6: Children reaching last grade of primary school Percentage of children entering first grade of primary school who eventually reach the last grade of primary school (Survival rate to last grade of primary school), Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percent attending grade 1 last school year who are in grade 2 this school year Percent attending grade 2 last school year who are attending grade 3 this school year Percent attending grade 3 last school year who are attending grade 4 this school year Percent who reach grade 4 of those who enter grade 11 Total 100.0 100.0 99.7 99.7 Sex Male 100.0 100.0 99.3 99.3 Female 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Region Batken (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) Djalal-Abad 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Issyk-Kul (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) Naryn (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) (100.0) Osh Oblast 100.0 100.0 98.5 98.5 Talas (100.0) (100.0) (*) (*) Chui 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Bishkek City 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Osh City (*) (*) (*) (*) Area Urban 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Rural 100.0 100.0 99.5 99.5 151 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percent attending grade 1 last school year who are in grade 2 this school year Percent attending grade 2 last school year who are attending grade 3 this school year Percent attending grade 3 last school year who are attending grade 4 this school year Percent who reach grade 4 of those who enter grade 11 Mother's education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) Basic secondary 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Complete secondary 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Professional primary/middle 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Higher 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Cannot be determined - - (*) - Wealth index quintile Poorest 100.0 100.0 98.9 98.9 Second 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Middle 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Fourth 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Richest 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Russian (100.0) (100.0) (*) (*) Uzbek 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Other language (*) (*) (*) (*) 1 MICS indicator 7.6; MDG indicator 2.2 - Children reaching last grade of primary "-" denotes 0 unweighted case in that cell or in the denominator (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases The primary school completion rate and transition rate to secondary education are presented in Table ED.7. The primary completion rate is the ratio of the total number of students, regardless of age, entering the last grade of primary school for the first time, to the number of children of the primary graduation age at the beginning of the current (or most recent) school year. Table ED.7 shows that the primary school completion rate is 103.7 percent. 98.3 percent of the children who were attending the last grade of primary school in the previous school year were found to be attending the first grade of secondary school in the school year of the survey. The table also provides “effective” transition rate which takes account of the presence of repeaters in the final grade of primary school. This indicator better reflects situations in which pupils repeat the last grade of primary education but eventually make the transition to the secondary level. The simple transition rate tends to underestimate pupils’ progression to secondary school as it assumes that the repeaters never reach secondary school. The table shows that in total, 100.0 percent of the children in the last grade of primary school are expected to move on to secondary school. As the figure is very close to 100 percent, no variations by background characteristics were found. 152 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table ED.7: Primary school completion and transition to secondary school Primary school completion rates and transition and effective transition rates to secondary school, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Primary school completion rate1 Number of children of primary school completion age Transition rate to secondary school2 Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year Effective transition rate to secondary school Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year and are not repeating that grade in the current school year Total 103.7 525 98.3 489 100.0 481 Sex Male 100.9 263 98.8 244 100.0 241 Female 106.4 261 97.8 245 100.0 240 Region Batken 120.2 40 100.0 52 100.0 52 Djalal-Abad 98.0 120 98.7 99 100.0 98 Issyk-Kul 92.9 52 94.4 45 100.0 43 Naryn 97.1 34 100.0 26 100.0 26 Osh Oblast 119.9 100 98.6 107 100.0 105 Talas 117.2 23 91.3 25 100.0 23 Chui (107.9) 81 (100.0) 57 (100.0) 57 Bishkek City (91.6) 52 (100.0) 53 (100.0) 53 Osh City (65.6) 23 97.0 25 (100.0) 24 Area Urban 95.9 150 99.5 137 100.0 137 Rural 106.8 374 97.9 352 100.0 344 Mother's education None/primary (*) 3 (*) 4 (*) 4 Basic secondary (101.1) 50 (96.7) 46 (100.0) 44 Complete secondary 116.8 246 98.7 245 100.0 241 Professional primary/middle 87.8 123 99.5 99 100.0 98 Higher 92.9 99 96.6 93 100.0 90 Cannot be determined (*) 2 (*) 2 (*) 2 Wealth index quintile Poorest 111.9 143 98.2 123 100.0 121 Second 111.3 96 96.4 98 100.0 94 Middle 98.9 105 98.0 94 100.0 92 Fourth 92.5 98 100.0 83 100.0 83 Richest 99.9 83 99.3 90 100.0 90 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 103.6 410 98.0 380 100.0 373 Russian (*) 27 (*) 17 (*) 17 Uzbek 102.9 73 100.0 77 100.0 77 Other language (*) 15 (*) 15 (*) 13 1 MICS indicator 7.7 - Primary completion rate 2 MICS indicator 7.8 - Transition rate to secondary school (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 153 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e ED .8 : E du ca tio n ge nd er p ar ity R at io o f a dj us te d ne t a tte nd an ce ra tio s of g irl s to b oy s, in p rim ar y (1 -4 g ra de s) , l ow er s ec on da ry (5 -9 g ra de s) , u pp er s ec on da ry (1 0- 11 g ra de s) a nd s ec on da ry (5 -1 1 gr ad es ) s ch oo l, K yr gy zs ta n, 20 14 Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for primary school adjusted NAR 1 Lower secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Lower secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for lower secondary school adjusted NAR 3 Upper secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Upper secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for upper secondary school adjusted NAR 4 Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for secondary school adjusted NAR 2 To ta l 99 .2 99 .4 1. 00 97 .9 98 .0 1. 00 86 .4 78 .9 1. 10 95 .3 92 .7 1. 03 R eg io n B at ke n 99 .3 98 .4 1. 01 10 0. 0 98 .8 1. 01 98 .1 87 .0 1. 13 99 .5 94 .9 1. 05 D ja la l-A ba d 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 1. 00 97 .3 97 .2 1. 00 72 .6 80 .9 0. 90 92 .5 92 .7 1. 00 Is sy k- K ul 98 .9 10 0. 0 0. 99 96 .9 10 0. 0 0. 97 (9 0. 6) (8 4. 3) (1 .0 8) 96 .2 96 .6 1. 00 N ar yn 10 0. 0 98 .6 1. 01 99 .4 98 .0 1. 01 96 .1 93 .0 1. 03 98 .7 97 .0 1. 02 O sh O bl as t 98 .5 10 0. 0 0. 98 96 .8 97 .3 1. 00 89 .6 72 .9 1. 23 95 .6 89 .2 1. 07 Ta la s 99 .2 99 .0 1. 00 96 .6 99 .1 0. 97 (8 3. 7) (9 0. 2) (0 .9 3) 94 .6 98 .3 0. 96 C hu i 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 1. 00 98 .1 97 .3 1. 01 (8 8. 2) (6 3. 1) (1 .4 0) 95 .6 89 .0 1. 07 B is hk ek C ity 97 .8 97 .4 1. 00 99 .4 99 .3 1. 00 (9 1. 9) (9 3. 4) (0 .9 8) 96 .2 97 .6 0. 99 O sh C ity 98 .4 98 .7 1. 00 98 .1 97 .9 1. 00 (8 0. 5) (7 5. 4) (1 .0 7) 91 .3 89 .6 1. 02 A re a U rb an 98 .9 98 .6 1. 00 98 .1 99 .1 0. 99 84 .6 81 .8 1. 03 93 .6 94 .4 0. 99 R ur al 99 .4 99 .7 1. 00 97 .8 97 .5 1. 00 87 .3 77 .7 1. 12 96 .0 92 .1 1. 04 M ot he r's e du ca tio n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) B as ic s ec on da ry 10 0. 0 99 .4 1. 01 98 .0 91 .7 1. 07 (0 .0 ) (* ) (* ) 92 .5 80 .2 1. 15 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 99 .2 99 .6 1. 00 98 .4 98 .8 1. 00 98 .3 76 .5 1. 28 98 .4 94 .8 1. 04 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e 99 .8 98 .9 1. 01 98 .2 99 .3 0. 99 (9 8. 7) 79 .7 1. 24 98 .3 96 .1 1. 02 H ig he r 10 0. 0 99 .3 1. 01 97 .7 98 .8 0. 99 (* ) (9 9. 1) (* ) 97 .9 98 .9 0. 99 C an no t b e de te rm in ed a na na na (* ) 10 0. 0 (* ) 84 .3 80 .8 1. 04 84 .5 84 .8 1. 00 154 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Primary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for primary school adjusted NAR 1 Lower secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Lower secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for lower secondary school adjusted NAR 3 Upper secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Upper secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for upper secondary school adjusted NAR 4 Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Secondary school adjusted net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for secondary school adjusted NAR 2 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 98 .3 99 .3 0. 99 96 .6 95 .6 1. 01 87 .8 83 .2 1. 06 95 .5 92 .6 1. 03 S ec on d 10 0. 0 10 0. 0 1. 00 96 .9 98 .6 0. 98 83 .3 78 .0 1. 07 94 .6 93 .3 1. 01 M id dl e 98 .9 98 .8 1. 00 99 .7 98 .7 1. 01 85 .5 72 .0 1. 19 96 .1 89 .9 1. 07 Fo ur th 99 .5 99 .5 1. 00 98 .0 97 .7 1. 01 81 .7 71 .7 1. 14 92 .9 90 .3 1. 03 R ic he st 10 0. 0 99 .2 1. 01 98 .4 10 0. 0 0. 98 93 .5 89 .7 1. 04 97 .8 97 .9 1. 00 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 99 .5 99 .6 1. 00 98 .2 98 .5 1. 00 89 .9 87 .6 1. 03 96 .7 95 .9 1. 01 R us si an (1 00 .0 ) (9 6. 7) (1 .0 3) (9 9. 5) (9 7. 0) (1 .0 3) (* ) (* ) (* ) 99 .7 91 .5 1. 09 U zb ek 99 .6 99 .1 1. 01 98 .7 98 .7 1. 00 69 .2 60 .5 1. 14 90 .5 84 .3 1. 07 O th er la ng ua ge (9 0. 6) (1 00 .0 ) (0 .9 1) (8 6. 9) (8 8. 1) (0 .9 9) (* ) (* ) (* ) 83 .2 71 .8 1. 16 1 M IC S in di ca to r 7 .9 ; M D G in di ca to r 3 .1 - G en de r p ar ity in de x (p rim ar y sc ho ol , 1 -4 g ra de s) 2 M IC S in di ca to r 7 .1 0; M D G in di ca to r 3 .1 - G en de r p ar ity in de x (s ec on da ry s ch oo l, 5- 11 g ra de s) 3 S ur ve y- sp ec ifi c in di ca to r 7. S S 3 - G en de r pa ri ty in de x (lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l, 5- 9 gr ad es ) 4 S ur ve y- sp ec ifi c in di ca to r 7. S S 4 - G en de r pa ri ty in de x (u pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l, 10 -1 1 gr ad es ) a C hi ld re n ag e 15 o r h ig he r a t t he ti m e of th e in te rv ie w w ho se m ot he rs w er e no t l iv in g in th e ho us eh ol d (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 155 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e ED .9 : O ut o f s ch oo l g en de r p ar ity P er ce nt ag e of g irl s in th e to ta l o ut o f s ch oo l p op ul at io n, in p rim ar y( 1- 4 gr ad es ), lo w er s ec on da ry (5 -9 g ra de s) , u pp er s ec on da ry (1 0- 11 g ra de s) a nd s ec on da ry (5 -1 1 gr ad es ) s ch oo l, K yr gy zs ta n, 20 14 Pr im ar y sc ho ol Lo w er S ec on da ry s ch oo l U pp er S ec on da ry s ch oo l Se co nd ar y sc ho ol Percentage of out of school children Number of children of primary school age Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of primary school age Number of children of primary school age out of school Percentage of out of school children Number of children of lower secondary school age Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of lower secondary school age Number of children of lower secondary school age out of school Percentage of out of school children Number of children of upper secondary school age Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of upper secondary school age Number of children of upper secondary school age out of school Percentage of out of school children Number of children of secondary school age Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of secondary school age Number of children of secondary school age out of school To ta l 0. 7 23 11 (* ) 16 1. 0 25 99 (* ) 27 14 .5 96 9 33 .5 14 1 5. 2 35 68 36 .1 18 7 R eg io n B at ke n 1. 1 19 1 (* ) 2 0. 3 23 4 (* ) 1 8. 5 87 (* ) 7 2. 8 32 2 (* ) 9 D ja la l-A ba d 0. 0 49 4 - 0 1. 1 59 6 (* ) 7 18 .9 21 2 (5 3. 6) 40 6. 2 80 8 (5 3. 6) 50 Is sy k- K ul 0. 6 18 4 (* ) 1 0. 0 21 5 - 0 7. 5 72 (* ) 5 1. 9 28 7 (* ) 5 N ar yn 0. 7 13 3 (* ) 1 0. 3 16 9 (* ) 0 5. 5 45 (* ) 3 1. 4 21 4 (* ) 3 O sh O bl as t 0. 8 48 6 (* ) 4 1. 9 51 7 (* ) 10 16 .8 20 4 (1 6. 4) 34 7. 1 72 0 (2 1. 8) 51 Ta la s 0. 9 13 3 (* ) 1 0. 5 11 5 (* ) 1 9. 0 32 (* ) 3 2. 4 14 6 (* ) 3 C hu i 0. 0 37 2 - 0 2. 0 39 7 (* ) 8 20 .7 15 1 (* ) 31 7. 7 54 8 (* ) 42 B is hk ek C ity 2. 4 23 6 (* ) 6 0. 0 25 7 - 0 6. 7 12 1 (* ) 8 2. 7 37 7 (* ) 10 O sh C ity 1. 5 81 (* ) 1 1. 0 10 1 (* ) 1 19 .6 45 (* ) 9 8. 9 14 6 (4 7. 1) 13 A re a U rb an 1. 3 66 0 (* ) 8 0. 6 70 1 (* ) 4 13 .9 29 9 46 .5 42 5. 4 10 00 53 .7 54 R ur al 0. 5 16 51 (* ) 8 1. 2 18 98 (* ) 23 14 .8 67 0 28 .1 99 5. 2 25 68 29 .0 13 3 M ot he r's e du ca tio n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) 27 (* ) 4 (3 2. 3) 30 (* ) 10 (* ) 7 (* ) 5 (4 1. 4) 36 (* ) 15 B as ic s ec on da ry 0. 3 22 7 (* ) 1 1. 8 51 4 (* ) 9 (5 9. 0) 51 (6 1. 1) 30 8. 9 56 5 (6 0. 5) 50 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 0. 6 11 26 (* ) 7 0. 2 11 45 (* ) 2 9. 0 37 0 (8 .2 ) 33 2. 6 15 15 (1 1. 4) 39 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e 0. 7 48 4 (* ) 3 0. 7 48 7 (* ) 3 10 .2 11 9 (* ) 12 2. 6 60 6 (* ) 16 H ig he r 0. 4 44 4 (* ) 2 0. 9 36 5 (* ) 3 0. 8 62 (* ) 0 0. 8 42 7 (* ) 4 C an no t b e de te rm in ed a na na na na 0. 0 57 - 0 16 .5 36 1 42 .4 60 15 .2 41 9 39 .9 64 156 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Pr im ar y sc ho ol Lo w er S ec on da ry s ch oo l U pp er S ec on da ry s ch oo l Se co nd ar y sc ho ol Percentage of out of school children Number of children of primary school age Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of primary school age Number of children of primary school age out of school Percentage of out of school children Number of children of lower secondary school age Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of lower secondary school age Number of children of lower secondary school age out of school Percentage of out of school children Number of children of upper secondary school age Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of upper secondary school age Number of children of upper secondary school age out of school Percentage of out of school children Number of children of secondary school age Percentage of girls in the total out of school population of secondary school age Number of children of secondary school age out of school W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 1. 2 56 1 (* ) 7 2. 1 62 1 (* ) 13 11 .5 20 1 (2 9. 6) 23 4. 7 82 2 (3 5. 4) 38 S ec on d 0. 0 46 5 - 0 0. 7 54 5 (* ) 4 15 .1 19 2 (3 2. 5) 29 4. 8 73 6 (3 8. 0) 36 M id dl e 1. 1 47 9 (* ) 5 0. 4 51 9 (* ) 2 20 .5 18 3 (2 7. 3) 37 6. 8 70 1 (2 8. 3) 48 Fo ur th 0. 5 42 4 (* ) 2 1. 3 50 1 (* ) 6 20 .6 20 3 (4 1. 3) 42 7. 7 70 4 (4 0. 7) 54 R ic he st 0. 4 38 2 (* ) 2 0. 4 41 3 (* ) 2 4. 9 19 1 (* ) 9 1. 9 60 4 (* ) 11 W ea lth in de x qu in til e gr ou p P oo re st /S ec on d/ M id dl e 0. 8 15 05 (* ) 12 1. 1 16 84 (* ) 19 15 .6 57 5 29 .6 89 5. 4 22 60 33 .4 12 2 Fo ur th /R ic he st 0. 5 80 6 (* ) 4 0. 9 91 5 (* ) 8 13 .0 39 4 (4 0. 5) 51 5. 0 13 08 41 .3 66 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 0. 5 17 85 (* ) 8 0. 6 19 56 (* ) 12 8. 4 67 7 38 .9 57 2. 9 26 32 43 .3 75 R us si an 1. 6 12 1 (* ) 2 1. 4 12 8 (* ) 2 (9 .1 ) 70 (* ) 6 4. 1 19 8 (* ) 8 U zb ek 0. 6 32 2 (* ) 2 0. 6 39 7 (* ) 2 33 .8 17 9 34 .2 60 12 .3 57 6 33 .9 71 O th er la ng ua ge 4. 4 83 (* ) 4 9. 3 11 7 (* ) 11 (3 8. 8) 44 (* ) 17 20 .5 16 0 (* ) 33 a C hi ld re n ag e 15 o r h ig he r a t t he ti m e of th e in te rv ie w w ho se m ot he rs w er e no t l iv in g in th e ho us eh ol d "- " d en ot es 0 u nw ei gh te d ca se in th at c el l o r i n th e de no m in at or (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 157 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The ratio of girls to boys attending primary and secondary education is provided in Table ED.8. These ratios are better known as the Gender Parity Index (GPI). Notice that the ratios included here are obtained from net attendance ratios rather than gross attendance ratios. The latter provide an erroneous description of the GPI mainly because, in most cases, the majority of over-age children attending primary education tend to be boys. The table shows that gender parity for primary school is close to 1.00, indicating no difference in the attendance of girls and boys to primary school. The GPI is 1.03 for secondary education. The percentage of girls in the total out of school population, in both primary and secondary school, are provided in Table ED.9. The table shows that at the secondary level girls account for about 36 percent of the out-of-school population. In urban areas, girls compose more than half of the out-of-school population (57.3 percent) at secondary level, while in rural areas this this proportion is about one-third (29.0 percent). Figure ED.1 brings together all of the attendance and progression related education indicators covered in this chapter, by sex. Information on attendance to early childhood education is also included, which was covered in Chapter 9, in Table CD.1. Figure ED.1: Education indicators by sex, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Scholl readi- ness 43 43 Attendance to early childhood education 23 23 Net intake rate in primary education 96 94 Primary school attendance 99 99 Children reaching last grade of primary 99 100 Boys Girls Secondary school attendance 93 95 Primary school completion rate 101 106 Transition rate to secondary school 98 98 Note: All indicator values are in percent XI. Child Protection 159 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Birth Registration A name and nationality is every child’s right, enshrined in the Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) and other international treaties. Yet the births of around one in four children under the age of five worldwide have never been recorded50. This lack of formal recognition by the State usually means that a child is unable to obtain a birth certificate. As a result, he or she may be denied health care or education. Later in life, the lack of official identification documents can mean that a child may enter into marriage or the labour market, or be conscripted into the armed forces, before the legal age. In adulthood, birth certificates may be required to obtain social assistance or a job in the formal sector, to buy or prove the right to inherit property, to vote and to obtain a passport. Registering children at birth is the first step in securing their recognition before the law, safeguarding their rights, and ensuring that any violation of these rights does not go unnoticed51. Table CP.1: Birth registration Percentage of children under age 5 by whether birth is registered and percentage of children not registered whose mothers (or caretakers) know how to register birth, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Children under age 5 whose birth is registered with civil authorities Number of children under age 5 Children under age 5 whose birth is not registered Has birth certificate No birth certificate Total registered1 Percent of children whose mother (or caretaker) knows how to register birth Number of children under age 5 without birth registrationSeen Not seen Total 67.5 28.0 2.2 97.7 4577 75.7 104 Sex Male 67.2 27.4 3.0 97.6 2342 79.8 56 Female 67.9 28.6 1.4 97.9 2235 (70.9) 48 Region Batken 72.1 25.8 1.5 99.4 408 (*) 2 Djalal-Abad 78.9 16.0 3.7 98.7 956 (*) 12 Issyk-Kul 66.7 28.1 2.2 97.1 264 (*) 8 Naryn 60.4 37.1 2.0 99.6 195 (*) 1 Osh Oblast 54.6 40.6 0.7 95.9 1015 (*) 41 Talas 67.5 28.7 0.7 97.0 352 (100.0) 11 Chui 70.2 25.1 2.2 97.4 715 (*) 18 Bishkek City 67.9 28.2 2.2 98.4 474 (*) 8 Osh City 66.7 25.3 6.7 98.8 198 (*) 2 Area Urban 67.6 28.4 2.5 98.5 1360 (*) 20 Rural 67.5 27.8 2.1 97.4 3217 77.8 84 Age 0-11 months 66.8 23.7 5.0 95.4 988 (92.7) 45 0-5 65.8 21.1 6.9 93.7 455 (92.9) 29 6-11 67.6 25.8 3.4 96.9 534 (*) 17 12-23 months 66.3 30.3 1.4 98.0 880 (*) 17 24-35 months 69.9 26.9 2.0 98.8 939 (*) 11 36-47 months 66.2 30.1 1.3 97.6 925 (*) 23 48-59 months 68.6 29.6 1.0 99.1 845 (*) 7 50 UNICEF. 2014. The State of the World’s Children 2015. UNICEF. 51 UNICEF. 2013. Every Child’s Birth Right: Inequities and trends in birth registration. UNICEF. 160 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Children under age 5 whose birth is registered with civil authorities Number of children under age 5 Children under age 5 whose birth is not registered Has birth certificate No birth certificate Total registered1 Percent of children whose mother (or caretaker) knows how to register birth Number of children under age 5 without birth registrationSeen Not seen Mother’s education None/primary (20.3) (44.5) (3.8) (68.6) 58 (*) 18 Basic secondary 66.5 28.2 1.8 96.4 529 (*) 19 Complete secondary 67.3 28.2 2.4 97.8 2102 (70.2) 45 Professional primary/ middle 67.7 28.9 2.5 99.1 732 (*) 7 Higher 70.8 26.1 1.8 98.7 1155 (*) 15 Wealth index quintile Poorest 66.9 25.8 3.0 95.8 986 (75.0) 42 Second 65.8 30.8 1.3 97.8 1039 (*) 22 Middle 68.9 26.7 2.7 98.3 951 (*) 16 Fourth 68.1 28.4 1.5 98.0 823 (*) 16 Richest 68.4 28.1 2.6 99.1 778 (*) 7 Wealth index quintile group Poorest/Second/Middle 67.1 27.9 2.3 97.3 2976 77.4 80 Fourth/Richest 68.3 28.2 2.0 98.5 1601 (*) 24 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 67.7 28.1 1.9 97.8 3534 79.0 77 Russian 76.0 22.4 1.1 99.5 180 (*) 1 Uzbek 69.8 25.0 4.2 99.0 656 (*) 7 Other language 49.2 40.0 1.4 90.7 205 (*) 19 1 MICS indicator 8.1 - Birth registration (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases The births of 97.7 percent of children under five years in Kyrgyzstan have been registered (Table CP.1). There are no notable differentials by background characteristics. The lack of adequate knowledge of how to register a child can present another major obstacle to the fulfilment of a child’s right to identity. However, data show that 75.7 percent of mothers of unregistered children appear to be aware of the registration process, which points to other barriers to birth registration. Child Labour Children around the world are routinely engaged in paid and unpaid forms of work that are not harmful to them. However, they are classified as child labourers when they are either too young to work or are involved in hazardous activities that may compromise their physical, mental, social or educational development. Article 32 (1) of the Convention on the Rights of the Child states: "States Parties recognize the right of the child to be protected from economic exploitation and from performing any work that is likely to be hazardous or to interfere with the child's education, or to be harmful to the child's health or physical, mental, spiritual, moral or social development". The Kyrgyz Republic ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child, ILO Convention N138 concerning minimum age for admission to employment and ILO Convention N182 on the worst forms of child labour. Respective legislation establishes 16-years as the minimum age of admission of the 161 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report child to work, stipulates shorter working hours for young workers and prohibits the use of child labour in harmful or dangerous conditions. The child labour module was administered for children age 5-17 and includes questions on the type of work a child does and the number of hours he or she is engaged in it. Data are collected on both economic activities (paid or unpaid work for someone who is not a member of the household, work for a family farm or business) and domestic work (household chores such as cooking, cleaning or caring for children, as well as collecting firewood or fetching water). The module also collected information on hazardous working conditions52,53. Table CP.2 presents children’s involvement in economic activities. The methodology of the MICS Indicator on Child Labour is based on three age-specific thresholds for the number of hours a child can perform economic activity without it being classified as in child labour. A child that performed economic activities during the last week for more than the age-specific number of hours is classified as in child labour: i. age 5-11: 1 hour or more ii. age 12-14: 14 hours or more iii. age 15-17: 43 hours or more Involvement in economic activities changes with age. Among children age 5-11 years 24.0 percent are involved in an economic activity for at least one hour. Among children age 12-14 years, 47.5 percent are involved in an economic activity for less than 14 hours, while 4.6 percent are involved for 14 hours or more. 64.4 percent of children age 15-17 years are involved in an economic activity for less than 43 hours while 0.1 percent of children involved in economic activity for 43 hours or more. Children age 15-17 years are more likely to be involved in economic activity in Osh (80.7 percent) and Batken (80.1 percent) oblasts, and less likely in the cities of Bishkek and Osh (29.6 and 19.7 percent, respectively). A very small proportion of these children are classified as being in child labour. Children from the richest households are less likely to be involved in economic activities than other children are. 52 UNICEF. 2012. How Sensitive Are Estimates of Child Labour to Definitions? MICS Methodological Paper No. 1. UNICEF. 53 The Child Labour module and the Child Discipline module were administered using random selection of a single child in all households with one or more children age 1-17 (See Appendix F: Questionnaires). The Child Labour module was administered if the selected child was age 5-17 and the Child Discipline module if the child was age 1-14 years old. To account for the random selection, the household sample weight is multiplied by the total number of children age 1-17 in each household. 162 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CP.2: Children's involvement in economic activities Percentage of children by involvement in economic activities during the last week, according to age groups, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children age 5-11 years involved in economic activity for at least one hour Number of children age 5-11 years Percentage of children age 12-14 years involved in: Number of children age 12-14 years Percentage of children age 15-17 years involved in: Number of children age 15-17 years Economic activity less than 14 hours Economic activity for 14 hours or more Economic activity less than 43 hours Economic activity for 43 hours or more Total 24.0 4692 47.5 4.6 1607 64.4 0.1 1555 Sex Male 26.0 2418 55.4 7.1 780 71.6 0.3 815 Female 21.8 2274 40.0 2.3 827 56.5 0.0 740 Region Batken 36.0 387 50.3 8.3 164 79.5 0.6 130 Djalal-Abad 13.5 988 38.1 0.9 348 57.6 0.0 360 Issyk-Kul 24.7 371 64.1 1.9 136 76.5 0.0 114 Naryn 22.2 250 52.0 9.0 111 66.6 0.0 97 Osh Oblast 27.9 1034 51.5 6.0 393 80.4 0.3 302 Talas 23.7 301 63.4 0.0 55 73.0 0.6 71 Chui 39.6 775 69.4 7.5 188 71.7 0.0 258 Bishkek City 6.5 430 18.8 1.8 147 29.6 0.0 151 Osh City 7.5 157 12.5 7.0 66 19.7 0.0 72 Area Urban 11.9 1277 26.4 1.8 427 36.5 0.3 457 Rural 28.5 3415 55.1 5.7 1181 76.0 0.1 1099 School attendance Yes 27.2 3786 47.8 4.5 1596 64.8 0.0 1430 No 10.4 907 (*) (*) 11 59.7 1.5 125 Mother’s education None/primary 35.4 80 (51.4) (0.0) 18 (62.6) (0.0) 14 Basic secondary 24.4 487 50.9 3.5 181 57.8 0.1 409 Complete secondary 26.3 2238 48.6 3.0 836 69.9 0.1 636 Professional primary/middle 25.5 855 47.1 10.2 324 68.5 0.0 252 Higher 16.4 1029 40.4 4.1 245 52.9 0.7 139 Cannot be determineda na na na na na 62.5 0.0 105 Wealth index quintile Poorest 27.2 1104 55.3 4.9 391 74.1 0.2 348 Second 20.6 983 51.0 5.5 393 80.7 0.3 299 Middle 29.9 948 45.9 7.3 321 71.2 0.0 323 Fourth 29.3 875 54.6 3.9 268 65.4 0.1 314 Richest 10.7 782 22.7 0.0 236 24.8 0.0 271 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 23.6 3561 49.3 4.3 1152 66.4 0.0 1156 Russian 32.9 244 55.5 0.0 73 47.7 0.5 89 Uzbek 22.2 711 41.6 5.3 325 59.1 0.8 221 Other language 27.3 173 33.7 12.7 58 67.9 0.0 89 a Children age 15 or higher at the time of the interview whose mothers were not living in the household na: not applicable (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 163 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CP.3 presents children’s involvement in household chores. As for economic activity above, the methodology also uses age-specific thresholds for the number of hours a child can perform household chores without it being classified as child labour. A child that performed household chores during the last week for more than the age-specific number of hours is classified as in child labour: i. age 5-11 and age 12-14: 28 hours or more ii. age 15-17: 43 hours or more Table CP.3: Children's involvement in household chores Percentage of children by involvement in household chores during the last week, according to age groups, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children age 5-11 years involved in: Number of children age 5-11 years Percentage of children age 12-14 years involved in: Number of children age 12-14 years Percentage of children age 15-17 years involved in: Number of children age 15-17 yearsH ou se ho ld ch or es le ss th an 2 8 ho ur s H ou se ho ld ch or es fo r 28 h ou rs o r m or e H ou se ho ld ch or es le ss th an 2 8 ho ur s H ou se ho ld ch or es fo r 28 h ou rs o r m or e H ou se ho ld ch or es le ss th an 4 3 ho ur s H ou se ho ld ch or es fo r 43 h ou rs o r m or e Total 63.3 0.7 4692 89.2 1.4 1607 93.7 0.2 1555 Sex Male 56.3 0.6 2418 81.7 1.0 780 91.1 0.2 815 Female 70.7 0.8 2274 96.2 1.8 827 96.6 0.4 740 Region Batken 60.1 6.1 387 73.0 5.4 164 77.3 0.0 130 Djalal-Abad 62.2 0.0 988 89.5 2.0 348 95.9 0.0 360 Issyk-Kul 58.1 0.0 371 90.5 0.0 136 93.6 0.0 114 Naryn 59.5 0.0 250 96.6 0.0 111 94.0 0.0 97 Osh Oblast 60.3 0.0 1034 89.9 0.1 393 94.9 1.3 302 Talas 62.8 0.2 301 89.9 0.0 55 97.3 0.0 71 Chui 76.9 0.9 775 91.6 3.1 188 98.7 0.0 258 Bishkek City 61.7 0.0 430 98.2 0.0 147 92.0 0.0 151 Osh City 53.9 1.2 157 80.9 0.0 66 89.5 0.0 72 Area Urban 62.7 0.5 1277 89.3 1.0 427 91.1 0.6 457 Rural 63.5 0.8 3415 89.2 1.5 1181 94.8 0.1 1099 School attendance Yes 71.0 0.7 3786 89.3 1.3 1596 93.8 0.3 1430 No 31.0 0.6 907 (*) (*) 11 92.2 0.0 125 Mother’s education None/primary 82.6 0.0 80 (100.0) (0.0) 18 (91.9) (0.0) 14 Basic secondary 61.5 1.1 487 87.8 3.3 181 96.6 0.0 409 Complete secondary 63.4 0.8 2238 86.9 1.8 836 93.4 0.4 636 Professional primary/ middle 67.4 0.5 855 93.7 0.0 324 93.0 0.5 252 Higher 58.8 0.6 1029 91.1 0.5 245 92.1 0.0 139 Cannot be determineda na na na na na na 88.5 0.0 105 164 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of children age 5-11 years involved in: Number of children age 5-11 years Percentage of children age 12-14 years involved in: Number of children age 12-14 years Percentage of children age 15-17 years involved in: Number of children age 15-17 yearsH ou se ho ld ch or es le ss th an 2 8 ho ur s H ou se ho ld ch or es fo r 28 h ou rs o r m or e H ou se ho ld ch or es le ss th an 2 8 ho ur s H ou se ho ld ch or es fo r 28 h ou rs o r m or e H ou se ho ld ch or es le ss th an 4 3 ho ur s H ou se ho ld ch or es fo r 43 h ou rs o r m or e Wealth index quintile Poorest 64.6 1.9 1104 86.7 3.0 391 93.3 0.8 348 Second 63.6 0.6 983 93.7 0.0 393 95.1 0.0 299 Middle 60.7 0.2 948 85.0 2.8 321 92.7 0.4 323 Fourth 61.2 0.4 875 88.2 0.5 268 95.2 0.0 314 Richest 66.3 0.0 782 92.8 0.0 236 92.2 0.0 271 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 62.8 0.8 3561 89.8 1.8 1152 93.3 0.1 1156 Russian 72.7 0.0 244 90.2 0.0 73 96.1 0.0 89 Uzbek 60.1 0.3 711 86.2 0.4 325 92.5 1.2 221 Other language 72.2 1.1 173 91.7 0.0 58 99.1 0.0 89 a Children age 15 or higher at the time of the interview whose mothers were not living in the household na: not applicable (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases The percentage of children involved in household chores for a number of hours that would define it as child labour in all age groups is very low. Among children age 5-11 years, 63.3 percent are involved in household chores for less than 28 hours. For children age 12-14 years that percentage is much higher and reaches 89.2 percent while 93.7 percent of children age 15-17 years are involved in household chores for less than 43 hours. Unlike involvement in economic activities, the involvement of girls in household chores is higher than for boys. Involvement of children age 5-11 years in household chores for less than 28 hours is more than two times higher among children attending school than among those not attending (71.0 percent compared to 31.0 percent). Table CP.4 combines the children working and performing household chores at or above and below the age-specific thresholds as detailed in the previous tables, as well as those children reported working under hazardous conditions, into the total child labour indicator. Overall, one in four children (25.8 percent) age 5-17 were engaged in child labour, while 15.2 percent were working under hazardous conditions. Male children (29.9 percent) are more likely to be involved in child labour than female children (21.5 percent), with rural areas having 2.5 times higher child labour than urban areas (30.9 vs. 12.3 percent). Across regions, the highest percentage of children involved in child labour was found in the Chui (46.2 percent) and Osh (34.7 percent) oblasts, the lowest – in Bishkek city (4.5 percent). The percentage of child labour increases with the age of the children. Children attending school are more likely to be in child labour. 165 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CP.4: Child labour Percentage of children age 5-17 years by involvement in economic activities or household chores during the last week, percentage working under hazardous conditions during the last week, and percentage engaged in child labour during the last week, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Children involved in economic activities for a total number of hours during last week: Children involved in household chores for a total number of hours during last week: Children working under hazardous conditions Total child labour1 Number of children age 5-17 years Below the age specific threshold At or above the age specific threshold Below the age specific threshold At or above the age specific threshold Total 23.3 15.3 74.6 0.8 15.2 25.8 7855 Sex Male 26.2 17.1 68.3 0.6 18.5 29.9 4013 Female 20.2 13.4 81.2 0.9 11.8 21.5 3842 Region Batken 28.4 22.6 66.5 4.7 3.8 27.7 681 Djalal-Abad 20.7 8.1 74.9 0.4 17.2 21.4 1696 Issyk-Kul 29.2 15.2 71.7 0.0 0.3 15.5 621 Naryn 27.7 14.3 75.8 0.0 9.0 20.8 458 Osh Oblast 26.3 18.1 73.1 0.3 22.0 34.7 1729 Talas 20.3 16.8 72.0 0.1 9.6 22.3 427 Chui 27.0 26.3 83.8 1.1 31.8 42.6 1220 Bishkek City 11.3 4.2 75.4 0.0 0.7 4.5 728 Osh City 7.7 5.5 68.7 0.6 6.9 12.0 295 Area Urban 13.9 7.4 74.0 0.6 5.6 12.3 2160 Rural 26.8 18.3 74.8 0.8 18.9 30.9 5695 Age 5-11 1.3 24.0 63.3 0.7 7.8 24.5 4692 12-14 47.5 4.6 89.2 1.4 22.6 25.0 1607 15-17 64.4 0.1 93.7 0.2 30.1 30.4 1555 School attendance Yes 25.7 16.2 80.1 0.8 16.3 27.5 6812 No 7.2 9.4 38.7 0.7 7.9 14.4 1043 Mother’s education None/primary 15.8 25.4 86.5 0.0 20.6 36.1 111 Basic secondary 30.5 11.7 79.2 1.0 16.4 23.7 1077 Complete secondary 23.7 16.6 73.8 0.9 15.7 27.4 3711 Professional primary/middle 23.9 17.6 77.9 0.4 18.6 28.3 1431 Higher 13.5 12.7 67.7 0.5 7.5 18.7 1413 Cannot be determineda 62.1 2.6 89.2 0.0 38.3 40.8 112 Wealth index quintile Poorest 26.0 17.4 74.7 1.9 12.3 26.2 1843 Second 27.3 13.4 76.3 0.3 19.8 28.8 1675 Middle 25.2 19.3 72.1 0.8 20.4 32.9 1592 Fourth 24.6 18.3 73.5 0.4 15.2 27.1 1457 Richest 10.3 6.5 76.6 0.0 7.1 11.0 1288 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 23.7 15.2 74.1 0.9 14.2 25.0 5869 Russian 20.7 19.8 81.0 0.0 21.7 30.8 406 Uzbek 21.7 14.1 72.5 0.5 16.0 26.8 1256 Other language 25.0 17.0 83.2 0.6 23.0 31.0 320 1 MICS indicator 8.2 - Child labour a Children age 15 or higher at the time of the interview whose mothers were not living in the household 166 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Child Discipline Teaching children self-control and acceptable behavior is an integral part of child discipline in all cultures. Positive parenting practices involve providing guidance on how to handle emotions or conflicts in manners that encourage judgment and responsibility and preserve children's self-esteem, physical and psychological integrity and dignity. Too often however, children are raised through the use of punitive methods that rely on the use of physical force or verbal intimidation to obtain desired behaviors. Studies54 have found that exposing children to violent discipline have harmful consequences, which range from immediate impacts to long-term harm that children carry forward into adult life. Violence hampers children’s development, learning abilities and school performance; it inhibits positive relationships, provokes low self-esteem, emotional distress and depression; and, at times, it leads to risk taking and self-harm. In the MICS, respondents to the household questionnaire were asked a series of questions on the methods adults in the household used to discipline a selected child during the past month. Figure CP.1: Child disciplining methods, children age 1-14 years, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 38 57 46 Other 38 Severe 3 Any violent discipline Only non-violent discipline Psycological agression Physical punishment Percent 54 Straus, MA and Paschall MJ. 2009. Corporal Punishment by Mothers and Development of Children’s Cognitive Ability: A longitudinal study of two nationally representative age cohorts. Journal of Aggression, Maltreatment & Trauma 18(5): 459-83. Erickson, MF and Egeland, B. 1987. A Developmental View of the Psychological Consequences of Maltreatment. School Psychology Review 16: 156-68. Schneider, MW et al. 2005. Do Allegations of Emotional Maltreatment Predict Developmental Outcomes Beyond that of Other Forms of Maltreatment?. Child Abuse & Neglect 29(5): 513–32. 167 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CP.5: Child discipline Percentage of children age 1-14 years by child disciplining methods experienced during the last one month, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of children age 1-14 years who experienced: Number of children age 1-14 years Only non-violent discipline Psychological aggression Physical punishment Any violent discipline method1Any Severe Total 38.1 46.1 40.8 2.8 57.1 9994 Sex Male 35.7 49.2 43.7 3.3 59.9 4979 Female 40.4 43.1 37.8 2.3 54.4 5014 Region Batken 48.5 32.4 36.6 3.3 49.4 881 Djalal-Abad 55.6 26.1 40.2 0.5 42.9 2145 Issyk-Kul 44.4 31.3 32.6 0.6 48.2 733 Naryn 31.7 37.1 50.3 5.9 58.0 525 Osh Oblast 38.3 55.7 32.2 4.0 57.8 2165 Talas 20.1 64.4 54.6 2.7 71.1 644 Chui 26.6 58.9 44.2 4.2 66.8 1549 Bishkek City 26.8 60.7 45.0 2.1 70.3 966 Osh City 16.3 57.5 55.9 2.6 71.1 385 Area Urban 34.1 48.9 42.8 2.5 60.0 2798 Rural 39.6 45.0 39.9 2.9 56.0 7196 Age 1-2 39.1 32.5 35.2 0.4 45.5 1928 1 year 41.5 27.3 31.9 0.1 39.5 979 2 years 36.6 37.9 38.7 0.7 51.8 949 3-4 30.8 53.9 51.7 3.8 67.1 1766 5-9 36.4 50.6 44.9 3.2 61.9 3580 10-14 44.2 44.8 32.1 3.2 52.7 2720 Education of household head None 24.2 67.1 39.6 0.0 71.1 182 Primary 39.2 52.8 31.1 3.1 57.9 389 Basic secondary 36.7 48.1 43.1 3.2 57.9 1221 Complete secondary 38.8 44.2 42.0 3.0 56.6 4497 Professional primary 35.4 45.4 42.3 2.2 58.0 726 Professional middle 36.0 50.1 40.1 2.7 57.7 1208 Higher 40.8 43.6 38.1 2.3 55.6 1771 Wealth index quintile Poorest 39.4 40.8 43.3 2.8 55.1 2340 Second 38.2 47.3 39.6 2.4 58.1 2167 Middle 41.4 46.0 40.8 3.3 54.7 2051 Fourth 36.9 46.9 37.5 2.1 56.5 1801 Richest 33.0 51.3 42.1 3.3 62.5 1635 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 38.2 44.9 41.7 2.6 56.8 7622 Russian 28.1 58.5 32.8 1.9 64.8 462 Uzbek 41.5 45.0 36.7 3.7 54.6 1509 Other language 33.9 60.5 47.7 4.2 64.0 397 1 MICS indicator 8.3 - Violent discipline 168 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report In Kyrgyzstan, 57.1 percent of children age 1-14 years were subjected to at least one form of psychological or physical punishment by household members during the past month (Table CP.5 and Figure CP.1). For the most part, households employ a combination of violent disciplinary practices, reflecting the motivation of adults to control children’s behaviour by any means possible. While 46.1 percent of children experienced psychological aggression, about 40.8 experienced physical punishment. The most severe forms of physical punishment (hitting the child on the head, ears or face or hitting the child hard and repeatedly) are overall less common: 2.8 percent of children were subjected to severe punishment. 59.9 percent of male children and 54.4 percent of female children were subjected to physical discipline. Differentials with respect to many of the background variables were relatively small. Use of violent disciplinary practices does not depend greatly on the age of child; only children age 1-2 years are slightly less likely to be subjected to severe physical punishment. By regions, the highest use of any violent discipline method (about 70 percent) was observed in cities of Osh and Bishkek and the Talas oblast. While violent methods are extremely common forms of discipline, Table CP.6 reveals that only 15 percent of respondents believe that physical punishment is a necessary part of child-rearing. There are significant differentials across background variables of respondents. Overall, respondents with low educational attainment and those residing in rural areas are more likely to find physical punishment an acceptable method of disciplining children. The percentage of mothers (or caretakers) who believe that children should be subjected to physical punishment is highest in the Osh oblast (41.6 percent), while the lowest figures were observed in the Talas (1.9 percent) and Djalal-Abad oblast (1 percent). There is no clear association by the respondent’s relationship to the child: 16.2 percent of mothers believe in the necessity of physical punishment compared to 14.4 of fathers and 13.3 among other adult household members. Children from the poorest households are more likely to be physically punished (18.9 precent) than those living in the richest housholds (9.2 percent). Table CP.6: Attitudes toward physical punishment Percentage of respondents to the child discipline module who believe that physical punishment is needed to bring up, raise, or educate a child properly, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Respondent believes that a child needs to be physically punished Number of respondents to the child discipline module Total 15.1 4005 Sex Male 14.6 664 Female 15.2 3341 Region Batken 4.9 341 Djalal-Abad 1.0 826 Issyk-Kul 18.0 319 Naryn 27.1 209 Osh Oblast 41.6 750 Talas 1.9 231 Chui 13.4 683 Bishkek City 5.4 476 Osh City 18.2 169 169 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Respondent believes that a child needs to be physically punished Number of respondents to the child discipline module Area Urban 10.4 1296 Rural 17.3 2709 Age <25 12.5 362 25-39 16.6 1835 40-59 14.5 1436 60+ 12.3 372 Respondent's relationship to selected child Mother 16.2 2334 Father 14.4 447 Other 13.3 1224 Respondent's education None (*) 25 Primary (26.2) 35 Secondary 17.0 2240 Professional primary/middle 12.9 814 Higher 11.0 891 Wealth index quintile Poorest 18.9 850 Second 17.6 803 Middle 16.0 778 Fourth 13.5 760 Richest 9.2 814 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 13.8 3024 Russian 17.6 245 Uzbek 17.7 577 Other language 26.1 158 (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Early Marriage and Polygyny Marriage55 before the age of 18 is a reality for many young girls. In many parts of the world parents encourage the marriage of their daughters while they are still children in hopes that the marriage will benefit them both financially and socially, while also relieving financial burdens on the family. In actual fact, child marriage is a violation of human rights, compromising the development of girls and often resulting in early pregnancy and social isolation, with little education and poor vocational training reinforcing the gendered nature of poverty56. The right to 'free and full' consent to a marriage is recognized in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights - with the recognition that consent cannot be 'free and full' when one of the parties involved is not sufficiently mature to make an informed decision about a life partner. Closely related to the issue of child marriage is the age at which girls become sexually active. Women who are married before the age of 18 tend to have more children than those who marry later in life. Young early-married women is under higher risk of family violence by her husband or other adult member of his family. In the case of divorce, without formal registration of marriage, they are at risk of not getting alimony to support children, and, as a rule, cannot contend for fair division of property. 55 All references to marriage in this chapter include marital union as well. 56 Bajracharya, A ND Amin, S. 2010. Poverty, marriage timing, and transitions to adulthood in Nepal: A longitudinal analysis using the Nepal living standards survey. Poverty, Gender, and Youth Working Paper No. 19. Population Council. Godha, D et al. 2011. The influence of child marriage on fertility, fertility-control, and maternal health care utilization. MEASURE/ Evaluation PRH Project Working paper 11-124. 170 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e C P. 7: E ar ly m ar ria ge a nd p ol yg yn y P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho fi rs t m ar rie d or e nt er ed a m ar ita l u ni on b ef or e th ei r 1 5t h bi rth da y, p er ce nt ag es o f w om en a ge 2 0- 49 y ea rs w ho fi rs t m ar rie d or e nt er ed a m ar ita l u ni on be fo re th ei r 1 5t h an d 18 th b irt hd ay s, p er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge 1 5- 19 y ea rs c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on , a nd th e pe rc en ta ge o f w om en w ho a re in a p ol yg yn ou s m ar ria ge o r u ni on , K yr gy zs ta n, 20 14 W om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs W om en a ge 2 0- 49 y ea rs W om en a ge 1 5- 19 y ea rs W om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs P er ce nt ag e m ar rie d be fo re a ge 15 1 N um be r o f w om en a ge 15 -4 9 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e m ar rie d be fo re a ge 15 P er ce nt ag e m ar rie d be fo re a ge 18 2 N um be r o f w om en a ge 20 -4 9 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in u ni on 3 N um be r o f w om en a ge 15 -1 9 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e in p ol yg yn ou s m ar ria ge / u ni on 4 N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on To ta l 0. 4 68 54 0. 5 12 .7 56 85 13 .9 11 69 0. 9 47 50 R eg io n B at ke n 0. 1 54 3 0. 2 12 .8 45 3 14 .8 90 0. 9 40 8 D ja la l-A ba d 0. 7 13 36 0. 9 13 .1 10 79 17 .6 25 8 1. 1 95 9 Is sy k- K ul 0. 7 46 9 0. 7 10 .2 38 6 8. 2 84 1. 2 33 0 N ar yn 0. 2 28 2 0. 2 19 .1 23 2 12 .4 50 0. 0 21 0 O sh O bl as t 0. 6 12 77 0. 8 14 .9 10 43 16 .7 23 4 1. 1 94 9 Ta la s 0. 4 33 3 0. 4 17 .8 28 6 16 .8 47 0. 2 26 5 C hu i 0. 3 12 16 0. 3 13 .4 10 37 13 .3 17 8 0. 2 82 7 B is hk ek C ity 0. 2 10 72 0. 2 7. 4 90 7 6. 0 16 6 1. 6 58 5 O sh C ity 0. 7 32 6 0. 8 9. 7 26 3 16 .2 63 1. 2 21 7 A re a U rb an 0. 3 24 24 0. 3 9. 2 20 37 11 .1 38 7 1. 6 15 11 R ur al 0. 6 44 30 0. 7 14 .6 36 48 15 .3 78 2 0. 5 32 39 A ge 15 -1 9 0. 1 11 69 na na na 13 .9 11 69 0. 0 15 3 20 -2 4 0. 9 12 14 0. 9 11 .6 12 14 na na 0. 3 80 9 25 -2 9 0. 8 11 45 0. 8 9. 3 11 45 na na 0. 4 98 1 30 -3 4 0. 3 93 5 0. 3 13 .8 93 5 na na 1. 6 82 3 35 -3 9 0. 4 85 4 0. 4 18 .7 85 4 na na 1. 3 73 4 40 -4 4 0. 5 80 4 0. 5 13 .4 80 4 na na 1. 0 64 5 45 -4 9 0. 1 73 3 0. 1 10 .6 73 3 na na 1. 1 60 5 171 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report W om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs W om en a ge 2 0- 49 y ea rs W om en a ge 1 5- 19 y ea rs W om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs P er ce nt ag e m ar rie d be fo re a ge 15 1 N um be r o f w om en a ge 15 -4 9 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e m ar rie d be fo re a ge 15 P er ce nt ag e m ar rie d be fo re a ge 18 2 N um be r o f w om en a ge 20 -4 9 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in u ni on 3 N um be r o f w om en a ge 15 -1 9 ye ar s P er ce nt ag e in p ol yg yn ou s m ar ria ge / u ni on 4 N um be r o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on Ed uc at io n N on e/ pr im ar y (9 .8 ) (5 8. 0) (1 0. 3) (3 3. 4) 55 (* ) 3 (8 .1 ) 47 B as ic s ec on da ry 1. 0 94 1 1. 9 21 .5 52 4 11 .4 41 6 0. 3 46 7 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 0. 4 28 13 0. 4 18 .6 23 67 16 .7 44 6 0. 5 21 63 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e 0. 2 12 58 0. 2 7. 6 10 88 15 .5 16 9 1. 4 87 6 H ig he r 0. 1 17 84 0. 1 4. 0 16 51 9. 2 13 3 1. 1 11 97 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 0. 7 12 45 0. 9 15 .9 10 45 12 .9 20 0 0. 7 93 8 S ec on d 0. 4 12 92 0. 5 15 .6 10 68 14 .4 22 4 0. 7 96 6 M id dl e 0. 6 13 20 0. 7 12 .9 10 92 17 .5 22 7 0. 6 93 7 Fo ur th 0. 3 14 24 0. 3 11 .0 11 33 16 .4 29 1 0. 7 97 5 R ic he st 0. 3 15 74 0. 3 9. 2 13 47 7. 4 22 6 1. 7 93 3 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 0. 2 48 91 0. 3 12 .6 40 55 11 .3 83 6 0. 7 33 79 R us si an 0. 6 58 2 0. 7 8. 1 51 0 (1 0. 6) 72 2. 3 34 5 U zb ek 0. 5 10 74 0. 6 11 .9 86 2 23 .4 21 2 0. 6 81 1 O th er la ng ua ge 3. 5 30 5 4. 2 25 .9 25 6 (2 1. 2) 49 2. 1 21 2 1 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .4 - M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 15 2 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .5 - M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 3 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .6 - Yo un g w om en a ge 1 5- 19 y ea rs c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on 4 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .7 – P ol yg yn y (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 172 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The percentage of women married before ages 15 and 18 years are provided in Table CP.7. Among women age 15-49 years, just 0.4 percent were married before age 15. Among women age 20-49 years, about one in eight (12.7 percent) women were married before age 18. About one in seven (13.9 percent) young women age 15-19 years is currently married or in union. This proportion is 15.3 percent in rural areas and 11.1 percent in urban. The percentage of women age 20-49 years married before age 18 is strongly related to level of education and, to a lesser extent, to the household wealth. The percentage of women in a polygynous union is also provided in Table CP.7. Among all women age 15-49 years who are in union, just one woman in a hundred (0.9 percent) is in a polygynous union. Table CP.8 present respectively the proportion of women who were first married or entered into a marital union before age 15 and 18 by area and age groups. Examining the percentages married before age 15 and 18 by different age groups allow for trends to be observed in early marriage over time. Data show that the prevalence of the proportion of women married by age 18 increased slightly in 1990-s, reached its maximum at the turn of the century, and then gradually declined as visualized by Figure CP.2. Table CP.8: Trends in early marriage Percentage of women who were first married or entered into a marital union before age 15 and 18, by area and age groups, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Urban Rural All Percent- age of women married before age 15 Number of wom- en age 15-49 years Percent- age of women married before age 18 Number of wom- en age 20-49 years Percent- age of women married before age 15 Number of wom- en age 15-49 years Percent- age of women married before age 18 Number of wom- en age 20-49 years Percent- age of women married before age 15 Number of wom- en age 15-49 years Percent- age of women married before age 18 Number of wom- en age 20-49 years Total 0.3 2424 9.2 2037 0.6 4430 14.6 3648 0.4 6854 12.7 5685 Age 15-19 0.0 387 na na 0.1 782 na na 0.1 1169 na na 20-24 0.7 423 8.3 423 1.0 791 13.3 791 0.9 1214 11.6 1214 25-29 0.0 419 6.0 419 1.2 727 11.3 727 0.8 1145 9.3 1145 30-34 0.2 337 7.9 337 0.4 598 17.0 598 0.3 935 13.8 935 35-39 0.0 303 15.1 303 0.6 551 20.7 551 0.4 854 18.7 854 40-44 0.7 297 9.5 297 0.4 507 15.7 507 0.5 804 13.4 804 45-49 0.2 259 10.5 259 0.0 474 10.7 474 0.1 733 10.6 733 na: not applicable 173 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Figure CP.2: Early marriage among women, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 0 1 1 0 0 1 0na 12 9 14 19 13 11 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age Percentage married before age 15 Percentage married before age 18 na: not applicable Another component is the spousal age difference with the indicator being the percentage of married/in union women 10 or more years younger than their current spouse. Table CP.9 presents the findings on the age difference between husbands and wives. About 5.9 percent of women age 20-24 are currently married to a man who is older by ten years or more, and about 6.9 percent of women age 15-19 are currently married to a man who is older by ten years or more. 174 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e C P. 9: S po us al a ge d iff er en ce P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of w om en c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on a ge 1 5- 19 a nd 2 0- 24 y ea rs a cc or di ng to th e ag e di ffe re nc e w ith th ei r h us ba nd o r p ar tn er , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on w om en a ge 1 5- 19 ye ar s w ho se h us ba nd o r p ar tn er is : N um be r o f w om en ag e 15 -1 9 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in u ni on Pe rc en ta ge o f c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on w om en a ge 2 0- 24 ye ar s w ho se h us ba nd o r p ar tn er is : N um be r o f w om en ag e 20 -2 4 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in u ni on Yo un ge r 0- 4 ye ar s ol de r 5- 9 ye ar s ol de r 10 + ye ar s ol de r1 H us ba nd / P ar tn er 's ag e un kn ow n To ta l Yo un ge r 0- 4 ye ar s ol de r 5- 9 ye ar s ol de r 10 + ye ar s ol de r2 H us ba nd / P ar tn er 's ag e un kn ow n To ta l To ta l 0. 2 48 .6 43 .4 6. 9 0. 9 10 0. 0 15 3 4. 4 57 .2 32 .2 5. 9 0. 3 10 0. 0 80 9 R eg io n B at ke n (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 13 2. 1 47 .2 46 .6 4. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 72 D ja la l-A ba d (0 .0 ) (3 8. 3) (5 1. 8) (6 .7 ) (3 .2 ) 10 0. 0 41 4. 6 52 .2 33 .2 9. 4 0. 6 10 0. 0 18 5 Is sy k- K ul (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 7 (6 .4 ) (5 5. 4) (2 9. 2) (9 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 34 N ar yn (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 6 4. 2 54 .9 30 .5 10 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 27 O sh O bl as t (0 .0 ) (6 7. 3) (2 9. 8) (3 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 39 3. 1 61 .1 31 .0 4. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 20 2 Ta la s (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 8 4. 8 54 .1 35 .5 5. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 48 C hu i (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 20 5. 6 62 .0 29 .6 2. 7 0. 0 10 0. 0 12 5 B is hk ek C ity (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 9 (8 .0 ) (6 1. 8) (2 4. 4) (5 .7 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 74 O sh C ity (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 10 2. 1 61 .8 30 .0 2. 2 3. 9 10 0. 0 43 A re a U rb an 0. 0 36 .5 53 .7 9. 8 0. 0 10 0. 0 39 5. 9 56 .2 28 .9 7. 8 1. 2 10 0. 0 22 7 R ur al 0. 3 52 .8 39 .8 5. 9 1. 2 10 0. 0 11 3 3. 8 57 .6 33 .5 5. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 58 1 A ge 15 -1 9 0. 2 48 .6 43 .4 6. 9 0. 9 10 0. 0 15 3 na na na na na 10 0. 0 na 20 -2 4 na na na na na 10 0. 0 na 4. 4 57 .2 32 .2 5. 9 0. 3 10 0. 0 80 9 Ed uc at io n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 2 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 16 B as ic s ec on da ry (0 .0 ) (4 6. 9) (3 8. 6) (1 1. 7) (2 .8 ) 10 0. 0 47 3. 1 56 .8 30 .5 8. 7 0. 9 10 0. 0 11 8 C om pl et e se co nd ar y (0 .5 ) (4 5. 1) (4 9. 4) (5 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 69 3. 5 54 .8 34 .3 7. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 36 5 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e (0 .0 ) (5 8. 2) (3 5. 9) (6 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 26 4. 4 63 .5 26 .2 4. 8 1. 0 10 0. 0 11 4 H ig he r (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 9 7. 3 58 .0 32 .1 2. 3 0. 3 10 0. 0 19 6 175 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Pe rc en ta ge o f c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on w om en a ge 1 5- 19 ye ar s w ho se h us ba nd o r p ar tn er is : N um be r o f w om en ag e 15 -1 9 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in u ni on Pe rc en ta ge o f c ur re nt ly m ar rie d/ in u ni on w om en a ge 2 0- 24 ye ar s w ho se h us ba nd o r p ar tn er is : N um be r o f w om en ag e 20 -2 4 ye ar s cu rr en tly m ar rie d/ in u ni on Yo un ge r 0- 4 ye ar s ol de r 5- 9 ye ar s ol de r 10 + ye ar s ol de r1 H us ba nd / P ar tn er 's ag e un kn ow n To ta l Yo un ge r 0- 4 ye ar s ol de r 5- 9 ye ar s ol de r 10 + ye ar s ol de r2 H us ba nd / P ar tn er 's ag e un kn ow n To ta l W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st (1 .4 ) (5 4. 8) (3 2. 5) (1 1. 2) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 26 1. 5 52 .8 40 .3 5. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 14 8 S ec on d (0 .0 ) (4 5. 7) (5 4. 3) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 29 2. 8 56 .8 33 .2 6. 7 0. 6 10 0. 0 19 8 M id dl e (0 .0 ) (4 8. 9) (4 1. 1) (6 .7 ) (3 .3 ) 10 0. 0 40 7. 3 51 .9 30 .9 9. 2 0. 7 10 0. 0 17 6 Fo ur th (0 .0 ) (4 3. 8) (4 8. 1) (8 .2 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 44 2. 5 63 .7 31 .2 2. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 15 0 R ic he st (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 14 8. 3 62 .4 24 .5 4. 5 0. 4 10 0. 0 13 6 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 0. 4 43 .8 46 .1 9. 7 0. 0 10 0. 0 90 4. 2 57 .3 30 .7 7. 5 0. 3 10 0. 0 56 0 R us si an (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 4 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 42 U zb ek 0. 0 55 .5 40 .9 0. 9 2. 7 10 0. 0 48 5. 4 55 .0 35 .7 3. 1 0. 7 10 0. 0 16 1 O th er la ng ua ge (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 10 0. 0 10 (4 .6 ) (7 2. 6) (2 2. 8) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 10 0. 0 44 1 1 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .8 a - S po us al a ge d iff er en ce (a m on g w om en a ge 1 5- 19 ) 2 M IC S in di ca to r 8 .8 b - S po us al a ge d iff er en ce (a m on g w om en a ge 2 0- 24 ) na : n ot a pp lic ab le (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 176 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CP.10: Attitudes toward domestic violence Percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife in various circumstances, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife: Number of women age 15-49 yearsIf sh e go es o ut w ith ou t te lli ng h im If sh e ne gl ec ts th e ch ild re n If sh e ar gu es w ith h im If sh e re fu se s se x w ith hi m If sh e bu rn s th e fo od Fo r a ny o f t he se fi ve re as on s1 If sh e ne gl ec ts th e ho us ew or k Fo r a ny o f t he se s ix re as on s Total 17.8 23.6 15.7 6.6 6.2 32.8 14.8 34.2 6854 Region Batken 31.3 27.4 25.7 9.9 8.8 50.7 22.8 55.1 543 Djalal-Abad 14.2 7.7 8.2 0.3 1.6 15.5 2.9 15.6 1336 Issyk-Kul 14.7 32.2 12.9 10.9 8.5 37.5 33.8 45.1 469 Naryn 12.2 27.3 15.7 11.0 7.0 34.8 13.2 35.1 282 Osh Oblast 28.2 38.6 25.6 8.9 6.6 48.1 20.4 48.6 1277 Talas 16.8 26.0 11.4 5.1 13.5 36.5 26.1 40.7 333 Chui 14.4 24.0 19.0 7.7 7.7 33.3 13.2 33.4 1216 Bishkek City 7.5 14.5 5.2 4.3 2.4 18.2 5.4 18.7 1072 Osh City 27.0 34.8 21.0 12.2 14.4 47.1 27.5 49.1 326 Area Urban 13.5 20.6 10.8 6.2 4.9 27.1 11.8 28.6 2424 Rural 20.2 25.2 18.3 6.8 6.9 35.9 16.4 37.2 4430 Age 15-19 10.3 14.5 10.3 2.7 3.0 21.5 8.8 22.4 1169 20-24 19.0 23.4 16.2 7.4 6.5 34.0 15.2 35.4 1214 25-29 20.0 27.3 16.7 7.7 5.9 36.7 14.7 38.2 1145 30-34 21.3 27.8 17.3 7.4 7.4 37.9 17.1 39.4 935 35-39 20.4 26.6 16.5 7.1 7.0 34.6 16.1 36.6 854 40-44 17.0 24.7 16.6 6.9 7.2 34.2 17.7 35.7 804 45-49 18.1 22.8 17.5 7.5 7.4 32.2 16.2 33.4 733 Marital/Union status Currently married/in union 21.6 28.0 18.5 8.1 7.7 38.0 17.3 39.6 4750 Formerly married/in union 14.7 17.6 11.9 6.0 5.9 26.8 13.7 28.0 606 Never married/in union 7.3 12.1 8.2 2.1 1.5 18.5 7.2 19.5 1498 Education None/primary (40.3) (54.0) (39.3) (43.9) (8.3) (62.9) (24.9) (62.9) 58 Basic secondary 23.6 27.8 18.1 6.8 6.4 34.9 16.7 35.7 941 Complete secondary 22.0 26.9 18.3 7.9 7.9 38.0 17.4 39.7 2813 Professional primary/middle 14.1 21.2 13.9 5.6 5.4 29.5 14.1 31.2 1258 Higher 10.2 16.9 10.7 3.8 3.8 24.8 9.7 25.8 1784 Wealth index quintile Poorest 24.0 27.9 20.7 8.5 8.0 40.5 20.8 42.7 1245 Second 23.1 28.8 20.5 8.6 7.7 39.2 17.5 40.4 1292 Middle 22.3 27.4 16.8 7.2 8.1 36.5 17.4 37.9 1320 Fourth 14.1 21.8 13.7 5.5 5.2 30.3 12.4 31.6 1424 Richest 8.3 14.4 8.5 3.8 2.8 20.5 7.9 21.4 1574 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 16.1 22.8 14.7 5.9 6.2 32.2 15.0 33.9 4891 Russian 1.3 7.8 4.4 2.0 1.1 11.1 4.3 11.3 582 Uzbek 33.0 32.5 24.5 9.1 8.6 44.2 18.8 45.1 1074 Other language 23.4 34.7 22.1 16.1 7.9 42.5 16.7 43.1 305 1 MICS indicator 8.12 - Attitudes towards domestic violence ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 177 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Attitudes toward Domestic Violence MICS assessed the attitudes of women age 15-49 years towards wife beating by asking the respondents whether they think that husbands are justified to hit or beat their wives in a variety of situations. The purpose of these questions are to capture the social justification of violence (in contexts where women have a lower status in society) as a disciplinary action when a woman does not comply with certain expected gender roles. The responses to these questions can be found in Table CP.10. Overall, 32.8 percent of women in Kyrgyzstan feel that a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife in at least one of the five situations. Women who justify a husband’s violence, in most cases agree and justify violence in instances when a wife neglects the children (23.6 percent), or if she demonstrates her autonomy, exemplified by going out without telling her husband (17.8 percent) or arguing with him (15.7 percent). Around 6.6 percent of women believe that wife-beating is justified if the wife refuses to have sex with the husband or if she burns the food (6.2 percent). Justification in any of the five situations is more present among those living in poorest households and currently married women. The percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife is the highest in Batken (50.7 percent) and Osh (48.1 percent) oblasts and Osh city (47.1 percent), the lowest – in Bishkek city and Djalal-abad oblast (18.2 and 15.5 percent, respectively). The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS included a survey-specific question on whether women feel that a husband/partner is justified in hitting or beating his wife if she neglects the housework. Percentage of women age 15-49 years who believe a husband is justified in beating his wife if she neglects the household and hygiene work is 14.8. However, the percentage of women who justify a husband’s violence in at least one of the six situations (34.2 percent) does not differ greatly from those who justify a husband’s violence in at least one of the five situations described above. Children’s Living Arrangements The CRC recognizes that “the child, for the full and harmonious development of his or her personality, should grow up in a family environment, in an atmosphere of happiness, love and understanding”. Millions of children around the world grow up without the care of their parents for several reasons, including due to the premature death of the parents or their migration for work. In most cases, these children are cared for by members of their extended families, while in others, children may be living in households other than their own, as live-in domestic workers for instance. Understanding the children’s living arrangements, including the composition of the households where they live and the relationships with their primary caregivers, is key to design targeted interventions aimed at promoting child’s care and wellbeing. Table CP.11 presents information on the living arrangements and orphanhood status of children under age 18. Overall, 77.1 percent of children age 0-17 years in Kyrgyzstan live with both their parents, 10.7 percent live with mothers only and 1.8 percent live with fathers only. One in ten children (9.9 percent) live with neither of their biological parents while, most often, both of them are alive (9 percent). The percentage of all children age 0-17 years who have lost one or both parents is 3.4 percent. As expected, older children are less likely than younger children to live with both parents and slightly more likely than younger children to have lost one or both parents. There are no notable differences between urban and rural areas or among the regions in terms of orphanhood. 178 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table CP.11: Children's living arrangements and orphanhood Percent distribution of children age 0-17 years according to living arrangements, percentage of children age 0-17 years not living with a biological parent and percentage of children who have one or both parents dead, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Living with both parents Living with neither biolog- ical parent Living with mother only Living with father only Missing in- formation on father/ mother Total Living with neither biological parent1 One or both parents dead2 Num- ber of children age 0-17 years Only father alive Only moth- er alive Both alive Both dead Fa- ther alive Fa- ther dead M ot he r al iv e M ot he r de ad Total 77.1 0.2 0.5 9.0 0.2 8.5 2.2 1.5 0.3 0.5 100.0 9.9 3.4 11659 Sex Male 77.0 0.2 0.5 9.0 0.2 8.2 2.4 1.7 0.3 0.5 100.0 9.9 3.6 5998 Female 77.3 0.1 0.5 9.0 0.3 8.7 2.1 1.3 0.3 0.5 100.0 9.9 3.2 5660 Region Batken 73.2 0.0 1.1 10.7 0.3 9.5 1.8 2.2 0.7 0.5 100.0 12.1 3.9 1021 Djalal-Abad 73.6 0.2 0.2 11.7 0.1 9.8 2.1 1.4 0.4 0.3 100.0 12.3 3.1 2515 Issyk-Kul 81.2 0.0 0.5 7.9 0.5 3.5 3.9 1.9 0.1 0.7 100.0 8.8 4.9 837 Naryn 80.5 0.3 1.0 10.9 0.0 3.1 2.9 0.9 0.2 0.2 100.0 12.2 4.4 607 Osh Oblast 77.0 0.2 0.5 11.3 0.2 6.8 1.1 2.3 0.2 0.3 100.0 12.3 2.3 2494 Talas 85.8 0.2 0.1 6.1 0.0 3.3 3.1 0.6 0.3 0.7 100.0 6.3 3.7 733 Chui 76.7 0.0 0.7 6.7 0.4 10.6 2.8 1.1 0.2 0.8 100.0 7.8 4.1 1827 Bishkek City 78.1 0.2 0.4 3.1 0.1 14.1 2.3 1.1 0.4 0.3 100.0 3.7 3.3 1156 Osh City 79.4 0.1 0.4 6.0 0.0 10.4 2.3 0.5 0.2 0.8 100.0 6.4 3.2 469 Area Urban 75.5 0.2 0.4 6.3 0.2 12.7 2.7 1.2 0.3 0.6 100.0 7.0 3.8 3334 Rural 77.8 0.2 0.5 10.1 0.2 6.8 2.1 1.6 0.3 0.4 100.0 11.0 3.3 8325 Age 0-4 80.8 0.1 0.2 7.5 0.0 9.5 0.5 0.8 0.1 0.4 100.0 7.8 0.9 4233 0-2 83.1 0.0 0.1 5.6 0.0 9.9 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.3 100.0 5.7 0.6 2637 3-4 77.1 0.1 0.4 10.8 0.1 8.7 0.6 1.4 0.2 0.7 100.0 11.4 1.4 1596 5-9 75.9 0.2 0.5 10.6 0.1 8.6 1.8 1.7 0.1 0.4 100.0 11.5 2.7 3288 10-14 74.8 0.2 0.9 9.8 0.4 6.8 4.1 2.0 0.6 0.4 100.0 11.3 6.2 2648 15-17 73.4 0.3 0.6 8.1 0.5 8.3 5.0 2.1 0.7 1.0 100.0 9.5 7.1 1490 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 77.7 0.1 0.6 9.1 0.4 7.2 2.3 2.0 0.3 0.2 100.0 10.3 3.8 2650 Second 78.1 0.4 0.4 9.9 0.0 6.8 1.9 1.9 0.2 0.4 100.0 10.7 2.9 2511 Middle 75.6 0.1 0.7 11.2 0.3 8.0 2.2 1.1 0.6 0.4 100.0 12.2 3.8 2401 Fourth 80.2 0.0 0.5 8.1 0.1 6.4 2.2 1.6 0.2 0.6 100.0 8.7 3.0 2143 Richest 73.5 0.2 0.2 6.0 0.2 15.4 2.8 0.7 0.2 0.8 100.0 6.5 3.6 1953 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 76.4 0.1 0.5 10.5 0.2 7.5 2.3 1.7 0.3 0.4 100.0 11.3 3.5 8867 Russian 71.1 0.0 0.0 4.5 1.4 16.4 4.1 0.9 0.0 1.6 100.0 5.9 5.6 547 Uzbek 82.9 0.3 0.4 4.3 0.0 9.0 1.6 0.9 0.2 0.4 100.0 4.9 2.4 1747 Other language 76.2 0.0 0.6 4.7 0.0 15.1 1.5 0.5 0.5 0.7 100.0 5.4 2.7 493 1 MICS indicator 8.13 - Children’s living arrangements 2 MICS indicator 8.14 - Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead 179 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS included a simple measure of one particular aspect of migration related to what is termed children left behind, i.e. for whom one or both parents have moved abroad. While the amount of literature on the subject is growing, the long-term effects of the benefits of remittances versus the potential adverse psycho-social effects are not yet conclusive, as there is somewhat conflicting evidence available as to the effects on children. Besides presenting simple prevalence rates, the findings of the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS presented in Table CP.12 will greatly help fill the data gap on the topic of migration. In Kyrgyzstan, one in nine children (11.2 percent) age 0-17 have one or both parents living abroad. Both the mother and father were abroad in almost half of these cases. As expected, the mother were less likely to be abroad than fathers; almost 5 times less, for children under five years. There are notable regional differences, whereby children in the Djalal-abad, Osh and Batken oblasts are more likely to have one parent abroad (17.7, 16.0 and 15.2 percent, respectively) compared to those living in the Naryn oblast (1.3 percent) and Bishkek City (3.3 percent). Table CP.12: Children with parents living abroad Percent distribution of children age 0-17 years by residence of parents in another country, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percent distribution of children age 0-17 years: Percentage of children age 0-17 years with at least one parent living abroad¹ Number of children age 0-17 years With at least one parent living abroad With neither parent living abroad TotalO nl y m ot he r ab ro ad O nl y fa th er ab ro ad B ot h m ot he r an d fa th er ab ro ad Total 2.0 4.2 5.0 88.8 100.0 11.2 11659 Sex Male 1.9 4.0 5.1 89.0 100.0 11.0 5998 Female 2.0 4.4 4.9 88.6 100.0 11.4 5660 Region Batken 3.3 6.1 5.8 84.8 100.0 15.2 1021 Djalal-Abad 2.5 7.0 8.2 82.3 100.0 17.7 2515 Issyk-Kul 0.9 0.2 2.8 96.0 100.0 4.0 837 Naryn 0.5 0.6 0.6 98.4 100.0 1.6 607 Osh Oblast 2.6 5.3 8.1 84.0 100.0 16.0 2494 Talas 1.2 1.3 3.2 94.4 100.0 5.6 733 Chui 2.0 3.5 2.0 92.5 100.0 7.5 1827 Bishkek City 0.7 1.4 1.2 96.7 100.0 3.3 1156 Osh City 0.5 5.9 3.5 90.1 100.0 9.9 469 Area Urban 1.1 4.7 3.2 91.0 100.0 9.0 3334 Rural 2.3 4.0 5.8 87.9 100.0 12.1 8325 180 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percent distribution of children age 0-17 years: Percentage of children age 0-17 years with at least one parent living abroad¹ Number of children age 0-17 years With at least one parent living abroad With neither parent living abroad TotalO nl y m ot he r ab ro ad O nl y fa th er ab ro ad B ot h m ot he r an d fa th er ab ro ad Age group 0-4 1.1 5.9 5.0 88.0 100.0 12.0 4233 0-2 0.5 6.3 4.0 89.2 100.0 10.8 2637 3-4 2.1 5.2 6.7 86.0 100.0 14.0 1596 5-9 2.3 4.1 5.9 87.7 100.0 12.3 3288 10-14 2.7 2.5 5.1 89.8 100.0 10.2 2648 15-17 2.3 2.8 2.9 92.0 100.0 8.0 1490 Wealth index quintile Poorest 2.3 4.6 4.8 88.4 100.0 11.6 2650 Second 2.3 3.9 6.1 87.7 100.0 12.3 2511 Middle 2.0 4.8 6.9 86.4 100.0 13.6 2401 Fourth 2.3 2.6 3.2 91.9 100.0 8.1 2143 Richest 0.8 5.3 3.5 90.4 100.0 9.6 1953 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 2.2 3.8 6.1 87.9 100.0 12.1 8867 Russian 0.9 2.6 0.8 95.6 100.0 4.4 547 Uzbek 1.7 6.4 1.7 90.2 100.0 9.8 1747 Other language 0.0 6.0 1.8 92.2 100.0 7.8 493 1 MICS indicator 8.15 - Children with at least one parent living abroad XII. HIV/AIDS 182 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Knowledge about HIV Transmission and Misconceptions about HIV One of the most important prerequisites for reducing the rate of HIV infection is accurate knowledge of how HIV is transmitted and strategies for preventing transmission. Correct information is the first step towards raising awareness and giving adolescents and young people the tools to protect themselves from infection. Misconceptions about HIV are common and can confuse adolescents and young people and hinder prevention efforts. The UN General Assembly Special Session on HIV/AIDS (UNGASS) called on governments to improve the knowledge and skills of young people to protect themselves from HIV. The indicators to measure this goal as well as the MDG of reducing HIV infections by half include improving the level of knowledge of HIV and its prevention, and changing behaviours to prevent further spread of the disease. HIV module(s) were administered to women 15-49 years of age. One indicator which is both an MDG and the Global AIDS Response Progress Reporting (GARPR; formerly UNGASS) indicator is the percentage of young people who have comprehensive and correct knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission. This is defined as 1) knowing that consistent use of a condom during sexual intercourse and having just one uninfected faithful partner can reduce the chance of getting HIV, 2) knowing that a healthy-looking person can have HIV, and 3) rejecting the two most common local misconceptions about transmission/prevention of HIV. In the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS all women who have heard of AIDS were asked questions on all three components and the findings are detailed in Table HA.1. In Kyrgyzstan, 95.1 percent of the women age 15-49 years have heard of AIDS. However, the percentage of those who know of both main ways of preventing HIV transmission – having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time – is only 61.6 percent for women. Three in four women (76.3 percent) know of having one faithful uninfected sex partner and 68.8 percent of women know of using a condom every time as main ways of preventing HIV transmission. Table HA.1 also presents the percentage of women who can correctly identify misconceptions concerning HIV. The indicator is based on the two most common and relevant misconceptions in Kyrgyzstan, that HIV can be transmitted by mosquito bites, or through saliva by kissing with someone with HIV. The tables also provide information on whether women know that HIV cannot be transmitted by supernatural means, by sharing food or shaking hands with someone with HIV. Overall, 30.9 percent of women age 15-49 reject the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy-looking person can be HIV-positive. About 52.9 percent of women this age know that HIV cannot be transmitted through saliva by kissing with someone with HIV, and 58.2 percent of women know that HIV cannot be transmitted by mosquito bites. The majority of women know that HIV cannot be transmitted by supernatural means (82.2 percent), or by shaking hands with someone with HIV (80.9 percent), while 67.0 percent of women know that a healthy-looking person can be HIV-positive. The percentage of women who reject the two most common misconceptions and knows that a healthy-looking person can be HIV-positive is lowest in Osh city (14.9 percent) and the Batken oblast (18.9), while in the Talas and Naryn oblasts the percentage is highest (45.1 and 44.7, respectively). 183 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e H A .1 : K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on , m is co nc ep tio ns a bo ut H IV , a nd c om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm is si on Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho k no w th e m ai n w ay s of p re ve nt in g H IV tr an sm iss io n, p er ce nt ag e w ho k no w th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an b e H IV -p os itiv e, p er ce nt ag e w ho re je ct c om m on m isc on ce pt io ns , a nd p er ce nt ag e w ho h av e co m pr eh en siv e kn ow le dg e ab ou t H IV tr an sm iss io n, K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 Percentage who have heard of AIDS Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w tr an sm is si on c an b e pr ev en te d by : Percentage who know that a healthy looking person can be HIV-positive Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w th at H IV c an no t b e tr an sm itt ed by : Percentage who reject the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can be HIV- positive Percentage with comprehensive knowledge 1,a Number of women age 15-49 Having only one faithful uninfected sex partner Using a condom every time Both Mosquito bites Supernatural means Sharing food with someone with HIV Saliva by kissing with someone with HIV Shaking hands with someone with HIV To ta l 95 .1 76 .3 68 .8 61 .6 67 .0 58 .2 82 .2 72 .4 52 .9 80 .9 30 .9 21 .8 68 54 R eg io n B at ke n 95 .8 77 .9 69 .1 61 .6 59 .6 45 .7 82 .2 70 .4 42 .3 75 .8 18 .9 12 .9 54 3 D ja la l-A ba d 87 .7 68 .3 50 .4 47 .0 55 .8 66 .3 77 .2 60 .3 35 .7 78 .8 22 .3 8. 5 13 36 Is sy k- K ul 10 0. 0 78 .0 85 .9 71 .7 58 .7 75 .2 97 .2 84 .2 80 .2 91 .8 40 .7 31 .8 46 9 N ar yn 99 .4 69 .3 68 .8 63 .2 64 .1 79 .8 88 .7 84 .4 70 .4 88 .5 44 .7 27 .6 28 2 O sh O bl as t 96 .4 84 .6 82 .0 77 .1 77 .4 60 .7 83 .3 72 .7 47 .6 76 .8 36 .2 32 .7 12 77 Ta la s 97 .7 82 .8 51 .6 49 .9 76 .1 58 .5 76 .3 77 .3 69 .3 77 .6 45 .1 20 .8 33 3 C hu i 95 .7 65 .9 70 .5 55 .6 67 .8 43 .7 75 .1 70 .5 53 .2 79 .8 23 .4 16 .0 12 16 B is hk ek C ity 97 .7 88 .8 75 .0 70 .8 79 .1 62 .0 91 .9 83 .9 64 .8 91 .0 42 .4 34 .0 10 72 O sh C ity 94 .9 68 .4 57 .6 50 .0 46 .8 34 .1 72 .3 61 .2 49 .1 66 .1 14 .9 11 .4 32 6 A re a U rb an 97 .3 80 .3 70 .8 64 .0 69 .0 58 .5 86 .4 77 .3 57 .7 84 .6 32 .5 24 .4 24 24 R ur al 93 .9 74 .1 67 .7 60 .4 65 .9 58 .0 80 .0 69 .8 50 .2 78 .9 30 .0 20 .4 44 30 A ge 15 -2 41 91 .9 71 .5 64 .9 58 .1 62 .0 55 .7 79 .2 67 .4 48 .9 76 .8 28 .1 19 .8 23 83 15 -1 9 87 .7 63 .5 58 .7 50 .9 58 .3 52 .2 75 .3 61 .4 43 .7 72 .3 24 .8 17 .0 11 69 20 -2 4 95 .9 79 .1 71 .0 64 .9 65 .5 59 .1 83 .0 73 .1 53 .9 81 .2 31 .3 22 .4 12 14 25 -2 9 96 .7 79 .9 69 .1 63 .1 70 .7 58 .6 83 .9 75 .9 53 .3 81 .9 31 .5 22 .0 11 45 30 -3 9 97 .0 78 .8 72 .0 64 .9 70 .0 59 .2 83 .4 75 .6 55 .9 83 .2 32 .9 24 .2 17 89 40 -4 9 96 .8 78 .3 70 .8 62 .3 68 .5 60 .7 84 .3 73 .9 55 .0 83 .8 32 .4 22 .1 15 37 184 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage who have heard of AIDS Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w tr an sm is si on c an b e pr ev en te d by : Percentage who know that a healthy looking person can be HIV-positive Pe rc en ta ge w ho k no w th at H IV c an no t b e tr an sm itt ed by : Percentage who reject the two most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can be HIV-positive Percentage with comprehensive knowledge 1,a Number of women age 15-49 Having only one faithful uninfected sex partner Using a condom every time Both Mosquito bites Supernatural means Sharing food with someone with HIV Saliva by kissing with someone with HIV Shaking hands with someone with HIV M ar ita l s ta tu s E ve r m ar rie d/ in u ni on 96 .5 78 .4 70 .4 63 .2 68 .2 58 .6 83 .2 73 .8 53 .7 81 .9 31 .3 22 .0 53 56 N ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 90 .2 68 .8 62 .9 56 .0 62 .8 56 .8 78 .6 67 .5 50 .0 77 .4 29 .3 21 .3 14 98 Ed uc at io n N on e/ pr im ar y (4 9. 2) (2 6. 7) (2 7. 1) (1 8. 4) (2 1. 0) (1 3. 0) (2 2. 3) (1 6. 2) (1 5. 5) (2 2. 2) (0 .0 ) (0 .0 ) 58 B as ic s ec on da ry 86 .5 63 .3 58 .9 51 .5 57 .0 46 .1 69 .7 53 .5 34 .3 62 .6 19 .4 13 .0 94 1 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 94 .5 76 .8 68 .6 62 .3 64 .8 56 .6 81 .1 69 .6 48 .7 78 .6 28 .2 20 .1 28 13 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e 98 .9 79 .2 72 .0 63 .8 71 .4 61 .6 86 .3 78 .6 60 .0 87 .8 34 .9 24 .1 12 58 H ig he r 99 .4 82 .0 73 .2 65 .8 74 .1 66 .2 89 .7 84 .3 65 .4 91 .2 39 .3 28 .2 17 84 W ea lth in de x qu in til es P oo re st 92 .0 75 .0 63 .6 58 .3 61 .1 55 .9 81 .5 68 .0 46 .2 76 .9 27 .0 17 .1 12 45 S ec on d 93 .2 74 .7 66 .9 60 .7 62 .5 58 .0 78 .1 67 .5 44 .9 75 .5 27 .1 18 .5 12 92 M id dl e 95 .0 75 .4 68 .7 61 .7 68 .3 56 .1 80 .0 67 .9 50 .8 78 .2 29 .4 19 .8 13 20 Fo ur th 96 .7 74 .6 72 .2 62 .4 68 .3 56 .8 82 .9 73 .9 56 .8 82 .7 33 .1 24 .3 14 24 R ic he st 97 .8 80 .9 71 .3 64 .4 73 .1 63 .3 87 .5 82 .4 62 .8 89 .2 36 .3 27 .7 15 74 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 96 .5 78 .0 69 .6 62 .6 66 .8 60 .3 84 .2 75 .0 54 .9 83 .1 31 .8 21 .9 48 91 R us si an 99 .9 81 .5 78 .9 69 .2 80 .5 66 .0 89 .8 86 .2 72 .0 92 .1 45 .6 34 .0 58 2 U zb ek 90 .4 71 .1 63 .0 57 .0 62 .1 50 .5 75 .3 58 .2 37 .3 69 .9 22 .2 16 .7 10 74 O th er la ng ua ge 80 .6 56 .8 56 .6 49 .1 61 .2 37 .1 60 .6 55 .2 36 .9 62 .5 19 .1 14 .7 30 5 1 M IC S in di ca to r 9 .1 ; M D G in di ca to r 6 .3 - K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n am on g yo un g w om en a C om pr eh en si ve k no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n is th e kn ow le dg e of a ll of th e fo llo w in g: (1 ) t ha t t he c ha nc e of g et tin g H IV c an b e re du ce d by h av in g on ly o ne fa ith fu l u ni nf ec te d pa rtn er a nd u si ng a co nd om e ve ry ti m e (tw o m ai n w ay s of H IV p re ve nt io n) , ( 2) th at a h ea lth y lo ok in g pe rs on c an b e H IV -p os iti ve , a nd (3 ) t ha t H IV c an no t b e tra ns m itt ed b y sa liv a by k is si ng w ith s om eo ne w ith H IV an d by m os qu ito b ite s (th e tw o m os t c om m on m is co nc ep tio ns a m on g w om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs in K yr gy zs ta n ac co rd in g to th is s ur ve y) . ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 185 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Figure HA.1: Women with comprehensive knowledge of HIV transmission, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 62 31 22 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Know 2 ways to prevent HIV Identify 2 most common misconceptions and know that a healthy looking person can be HIV-positive Comprehensive knowledge Percent Women who have comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention include those who know of the two main ways of HIV prevention (having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time), who know that a healthy looking person can be HIV-positive, and who reject the two most common misconceptions. Overall, only 21.8 percent of women had comprehensive knowledge of HIV. This proportion was the lowest among women age 15-19 years (17.0 percent). Comprehensive knowledge of HIV prevention and transmission was higher amongst women age 15-49 years in urban areas (24.4 percent) compared to their rural counterparts (20.4 percent). Comprehensive knowledge was least in the Djalal-Abad oblast (8.5 percent) and highest in Bishkek city (34.0 percent). Results suggest that there is a correlation between age and HIV knowledge as older women were more likely to know about HIV than younger women. Knowledge increased with woman’s education and household wealth quintile. Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV is also an important first step for women to seek HIV testing when they are pregnant to avoid infection in the baby. Women should know that HIV can be transmitted during pregnancy, during delivery, and through breastfeeding. The level of knowledge among women age 15-49 years concerning mother-to-child transmission is presented in Table HA.2. Overall, 90.6 percent of women know that HIV can be transmitted from mother to child. The percentage of women who know all three ways of mother-to-child transmission is 64.2 percent, while 4.5 percent of women did not know of any specific way. The least known way of mother-to-child HIV transmission among women is breastfeeding (69 percent), while transmission during pregnancy has been identified most often (87.4 percent). 186 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table HA.2: Knowledge of mother-to-child HIV transmission Percentage of women age 15-49 years who correctly identify means of HIV transmission from mother to child, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women age 15-49 who have heard of AIDS and: Number of women age 15-49 Know HIV can be transmitted from mother to child: Do not know any of the specific means of HIV transmission from mother to child Percentage who know HIV can be transmitted from mother to child During pregnancy During delivery By breast- feeding By at least one of the three means By all three means1 Total 87.4 83.2 69.0 90.6 64.2 4.5 90.6 6854 Region Batken 87.8 68.2 60.0 92.0 48.5 3.8 92.0 543 Djalal-Abad 82.4 84.5 73.0 86.6 69.8 1.1 86.6 1336 Issyk-Kul 88.5 89.5 74.7 92.7 71.0 7.3 92.7 469 Naryn 95.5 91.9 84.8 97.4 81.3 2.1 97.4 282 Osh Oblast 92.2 90.6 92.0 93.4 89.9 3.0 93.4 1277 Talas 89.6 84.1 72.6 91.0 69.1 6.7 91.0 333 Chui 81.6 72.4 47.0 86.6 39.6 9.2 86.6 1216 Bishkek City 92.8 88.4 54.6 94.2 51.8 3.5 94.2 1072 Osh City 80.9 79.1 80.8 87.4 70.3 7.5 87.4 326 Area Urban 89.6 85.7 64.0 92.9 59.1 4.4 92.9 2424 Rural 86.2 81.8 71.7 89.3 67.1 4.6 89.3 4430 Age group 15-24 79.3 73.8 63.9 83.2 58.2 8.7 83.2 2383 15-19 71.3 64.7 55.8 74.8 50.2 12.8 74.8 1169 20-24 87.0 82.5 71.8 91.3 65.8 4.6 91.3 1214 25-29 89.9 85.9 69.9 93.3 64.8 3.4 93.3 1145 30-39 91.8 89.2 72.1 95.3 68.1 1.7 95.3 1789 40-49 92.9 88.9 72.5 94.5 68.8 2.2 94.5 1537 Marital status Ever married/in union 90.8 87.5 72.9 93.9 68.3 2.6 93.9 5356 Never married/in union 75.2 67.9 54.8 78.7 49.5 11.5 78.7 1498 Education None/primary (24.6) (27.5) (23.9) (38.2) (14.1) (11.0) (38.2) 58 Basic secondary 74.9 68.8 61.2 77.6 56.6 8.9 77.6 941 Complete secondary 87.6 83.9 72.1 90.9 67.3 3.7 90.9 2813 Professional primary/ middle 92.2 85.7 72.1 95.3 66.9 3.5 95.3 1258 Higher 92.3 89.7 67.5 95.4 63.2 4.0 95.4 1784 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 86.2 80.2 73.6 88.5 69.0 3.5 88.5 1245 Second 85.2 83.0 77.5 88.7 72.9 4.5 88.7 1292 Middle 88.0 84.2 73.0 91.2 68.8 3.8 91.2 1320 Fourth 88.7 83.0 66.0 92.0 60.3 4.7 92.0 1424 Richest 88.4 85.1 57.6 92.1 53.1 5.7 92.1 1574 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 89.0 85.4 70.9 92.0 66.4 4.4 92.0 4891 Russian 91.8 83.0 52.3 94.8 47.4 5.1 94.8 582 Uzbek 83.0 79.4 74.3 86.4 69.7 4.0 86.4 1074 Other language 67.8 61.5 50.1 73.9 42.4 6.7 73.9 305 1 MICS indicator 9.2 - Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 187 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The most informed about the three ways of mother-to-child HIV transmission are women from the Osh oblast (89.9 percent). The lowest value was found in the Chui oblast, only 39.6 percent. Awareness level is slightly lower in urban areas than in rural areas (59.1 percent and 67.1 percent, respectively). Awareness is notably higher among ever married women (68.3percent) as opposed to never married women (49.5 percent). Higher levels of women’s education are also associated with greater awareness of the ways of mother-to-child HIV transmission; 63.2 percent of women with higher education know all three ways, while among those with basic secondary education the percentage is 56.6 percent. Accepting Attitudes toward People Living with HIV The indicators on attitudes toward people living with HIV measure stigma and discrimination in the community. Stigma and discrimination are considered low if respondents report an accepting attitude on the following four questions: 1) would care for a family member with AIDS in own home; 2) would buy fresh vegetables from a vendor who is HIV-positive; 3) thinks that a female teacher who is HIV-positive should be allowed to teach in school; and 4) would not want to keep it a secret if a family member is HIV-positive. Table HA.3: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have heard of AIDS who express an accepting attitude towards people living with HIV, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women who: Number of women age 15- 49 who have heard of AIDS A re w ill in g to c ar e fo r a fa m ily m em be r w ith A ID S in ow n ho m e W ou ld b uy fr es h ve ge ta bl es fro m a s ho pk ee pe r o r ve nd or w ho is H IV -p os iti ve B el ie ve th at a fe m al e te ac he r w ho is H IV -p os iti ve an d is n ot s ic k sh ou ld be a llo w ed to c on tin ue te ac hi ng W ou ld n ot w an t t o ke ep se cr et th at a fa m ily m em be r is H IV -p os iti ve A gr ee w ith a t l ea st o ne ac ce pt in g at tit ud e E xp re ss a cc ep tin g at tit ud es on a ll fo ur in di ca to rs 1 Total 59.3 16.8 25.0 34.7 82.8 2.4 6518 Region Batken 46.4 14.5 26.2 71.8 90.5 3.8 520 Djalal-Abad 64.6 20.1 24.5 35.8 82.4 3.1 1171 Issyk-Kul 61.0 17.3 29.7 57.5 88.4 8.1 469 Naryn 62.3 41.8 49.7 28.1 85.6 6.1 281 Osh Oblast 54.9 13.1 12.6 26.8 79.1 0.0 1231 Talas 51.1 23.3 29.3 38.3 73.5 0.9 326 Chui 66.7 9.6 21.3 25.2 86.8 0.5 1164 Bishkek City 60.3 17.1 31.3 21.4 78.1 2.3 1048 Osh City 49.9 17.5 31.8 47.2 85.3 3.2 309 Area Urban 60.7 18.6 29.9 32.5 82.4 3.4 2359 Rural 58.5 15.7 22.1 35.9 83.0 1.8 4160 188 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of women who: Number of women age 15- 49 who have heard of AIDS A re w ill in g to c ar e fo r a fa m ily m em be r w ith A ID S in ow n ho m e W ou ld b uy fr es h ve ge ta bl es fro m a s ho pk ee pe r o r ve nd or w ho is H IV -p os iti ve B el ie ve th at a fe m al e te ac he r w ho is H IV -p os iti ve an d is n ot s ic k sh ou ld be a llo w ed to c on tin ue te ac hi ng W ou ld n ot w an t t o ke ep se cr et th at a fa m ily m em be r is H IV -p os iti ve A gr ee w ith a t l ea st o ne ac ce pt in g at tit ud e E xp re ss a cc ep tin g at tit ud es on a ll fo ur in di ca to rs 1 Age 15-24 55.7 15.1 22.3 33.3 79.2 2.4 2189 15-19 51.8 13.7 18.4 32.9 75.1 2.5 1025 20-24 59.2 16.4 25.8 33.6 82.8 2.3 1165 25-29 58.6 16.2 25.7 35.6 83.9 1.8 1107 30-39 60.0 17.3 25.8 35.5 84.4 2.1 1735 40-49 64.2 18.9 27.2 35.1 85.3 3.1 1487 Marital status Ever married/in union 61.0 17.1 25.9 35.6 84.6 2.4 5168 Never married/in union 52.6 15.4 21.3 31.1 75.9 2.3 1351 Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 29 Basic secondary 54.5 11.3 16.4 31.0 76.4 1.4 814 Complete secondary 56.8 14.8 20.5 37.3 82.4 1.5 2659 Professional primary/middle 63.3 19.3 30.2 37.2 86.2 3.6 1244 Higher 62.5 20.6 32.2 30.5 83.8 3.2 1773 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 52.0 15.6 24.4 42.5 81.3 2.4 1145 Second 59.1 15.7 19.8 40.0 83.8 2.5 1204 Middle 57.7 15.5 22.5 35.4 82.8 1.2 1254 Fourth 61.3 16.1 22.1 30.3 82.5 1.6 1376 Richest 64.3 20.1 34.0 28.0 83.2 3.8 1539 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 58.6 17.5 24.5 36.2 82.7 2.6 4718 Russian 73.0 22.5 40.8 20.4 87.6 4.4 582 Uzbek 55.7 11.6 18.7 34.9 80.1 0.6 971 Other language 54.5 9.8 20.1 38.4 83.3 0.8 246 1 MICS indicator 9.3 - Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases Table HA.3 presents the attitudes of women towards people living with HIV. In Kyrgyzstan, 82.8 percent of women who have heard of AIDS agree with at least one accepting statement. The most common accepting attitude is willingness to care for a family member with AIDS in own home: 59.3 of respondents agree with this, with the lowest percentage of such respondents found in the Batken oblast (46.4 percent), and the highest percentage found in the Chui oblast (66.7 percent). 189 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Figure HA.2: Accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Are willing to care for a family member with AIDS in own home Would buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who is HIV-positive Believe that a female teacher who is HIV-positive and is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching Would not want to keep secret if a family member is HIV-positive 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 15-19 25-29 40-49 15-19 25-29 40-49 15-19 25-29 40-49 15-19 25-29 40-49 Pe rc en t Age The findings indicate that only 16.8 percent of women are willing to buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who is HIV-positive; the highest percentage of women with accepting attitudes on this matter was found in the Naryn oblast (41.8 percent) and the lowest in the Chui oblast (9.6 percent). Overall, 25.0 percent of respondents believe that a female teacher who is HIV-positive and is not sick should be allowed to continue teaching; this attitude is expressed by 29.9 percent of urban respondents and 22.1 percent of rural respondents. In general, women that are more educated and those from the richest quintile have more accepting attitudes than the ones with lower education and a poorer wealth status. The percentage of accepting attitudes toward people living with HIV/ AIDS increases with age considerably as shown in Figure HA.2. Only 2.4 percent of women express accepting attitudes on all four indicators. Knowledge of a Place for HIV Testing, Counselling and Testing during Antenatal Care Another important indicator is the knowledge of where to be tested for HIV and use of such services. In order to protect themselves and to prevent infecting others, it is important for individuals to know their HIV status. Knowledge of own status is also a critical factor in the decision to seek treatment. Questions related to knowledge of a facility for HIV testing and whether a person has ever been tested are presented in Table HA.4. 190 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table HA.4: Knowledge of a place for HIV testing Percentage of women age 15-49 years who know where to get an HIV test, percentage who have ever been tested, percentage who have ever been tested and know the result of the most recent test, percentage who have been tested in the last 12 months, and percentage who have been tested in the last 12 months and know the result, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women who: Number of women age 15-49 Know a place to get tested1 Have ever been tested Have ever been tested and know the result of the most recent test Have been tested in the last 12 months Have been tested in the last 12 months and know the result2 Total 79.0 67.2 58.8 21.5 19.9 6854 Region Batken 72.4 61.5 44.4 21.7 18.6 543 Djalal-Abad 75.3 57.7 51.8 24.4 23.2 1336 Issyk-Kul 78.9 65.6 58.1 17.2 15.8 469 Naryn 86.9 74.9 66.0 31.7 30.2 282 Osh Oblast 83.2 72.4 58.5 22.1 19.0 1277 Talas 89.5 80.9 74.1 28.2 26.3 333 Chui 79.2 68.1 61.5 18.0 16.9 1216 Bishkek City 78.0 69.1 65.5 17.8 17.5 1072 Osh City 73.5 68.2 59.0 22.0 20.9 326 Area Urban 80.5 69.6 62.8 21.3 20.2 2424 Rural 78.2 66.0 56.5 21.6 19.7 4430 Age 15-24 61.8 43.1 37.4 22.5 20.2 2383 15-19 42.9 17.8 15.5 11.5 10.5 1169 20-24 80.0 67.6 58.6 33.1 29.5 1214 25-29 91.1 85.4 75.2 32.9 30.8 1145 30-39 88.0 82.7 72.7 21.4 20.0 1789 40-49 86.2 73.1 63.3 11.4 11.1 1537 Marital status Ever married/in union 88.4 81.3 70.6 25.9 23.9 5356 Never married/in union 45.4 17.1 16.3 5.7 5.6 1498 Education None/primary (34.5) (34.5) (16.3) (6.8) (3.5) 58 Basic secondary 59.7 45.5 36.8 13.6 11.6 941 Complete secondary 77.5 66.8 56.3 19.9 18.0 2813 Professional primary/middle 86.0 73.7 66.6 24.7 23.3 1258 Higher 88.1 75.9 70.0 26.4 25.2 1784 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 72.0 61.2 46.7 18.9 16.4 1245 Second 79.8 68.5 59.9 25.0 23.2 1292 Middle 78.4 66.1 57.4 22.4 20.4 1320 Fourth 79.0 67.5 60.1 19.3 17.9 1424 Richest 84.3 71.6 67.3 21.8 21.2 1574 191 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of women who: Number of women age 15-49 Know a place to get tested1 Have ever been tested Have ever been tested and know the result of the most recent test Have been tested in the last 12 months Have been tested in the last 12 months and know the result2 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 80.0 68.4 60.2 22.4 20.7 4891 Russian 87.0 71.7 67.7 17.2 17.2 582 Uzbek 75.3 63.8 53.1 21.6 19.4 1074 Other language 60.5 52.5 38.6 14.7 12.7 305 1 MICS indicator 9.4 - Women who know where to be tested for HIV 2 MICS indicator 9.5 - Women who have been tested for HIV and know the results ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Table HA.5: HIV counselling and testing during antenatal care Percentage of women age 15-49 with a live birth in the last 2 years who received antenatal care from a health professional during the last pregnancy, percentage who received HIV counselling, percentage who were offered and tested for HIV, percentage who were offered, tested and received the results of the HIV test, and percentage who received counselling and were offered, accepted and received the results of the HIV test, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women who: Number of women age 15-49 with a live birth in the last 2 years Received antenatal care from a health care professional for last pregnancy Received HIV counselling during antenatal care1 Were offered an HIV test and were tested for HIV during antenatal care Were offered an HIV test and were tested for HIV during antenatal care, and received the results2 Received HIV counselling, were offered an HIV test, accepted and received the results Total 98.4 73.4 89.0 78.2 64.4 1675 Region Batken 98.9 70.4 80.3 50.1 40.5 148 Djalal-Abad 99.0 71.2 89.6 78.8 66.8 351 Issyk-Kul 96.5 91.6 91.4 85.7 82.4 97 Naryn 97.4 81.4 83.7 78.6 69.7 56 Osh Oblast 97.6 89.8 95.3 79.4 77.1 366 Talas 98.1 76.0 86.9 82.6 70.4 124 Chui 98.0 63.3 85.5 82.1 59.3 260 Bishkek City 99.6 46.2 91.5 84.1 44.8 197 Osh City 99.5 81.8 82.6 79.2 70.4 76 Area Urban 98.8 65.8 89.7 81.3 59.6 539 Rural 98.1 77.0 88.7 76.8 66.7 1137 Age 15-24 99.3 76.6 86.1 73.8 64.3 590 15-19 97.5 67.1 78.6 60.1 52.2 75 20-24 99.5 77.9 87.2 75.8 66.1 516 25-29 99.0 73.2 91.2 80.5 64.6 520 30-39 96.9 71.0 89.2 80.4 64.7 495 40-49 95.9 65.5 94.9 83.6 62.8 70 192 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of women who: Number of women age 15-49 with a live birth in the last 2 years Received antenatal care from a health care professional for last pregnancy Received HIV counselling during antenatal care1 Were offered an HIV test and were tested for HIV during antenatal care Were offered an HIV test and were tested for HIV during antenatal care, and received the results2 Received HIV counselling, were offered an HIV test, accepted and received the results Marital status Ever married/in union 98.4 73.4 89.0 78.2 64.4 1673 Never married/in union (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 2 Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 15 Basic secondary 97.1 70.3 83.3 68.0 57.9 200 Complete secondary 98.9 74.1 88.3 74.7 62.8 757 Professional primary/middle 99.6 80.5 91.7 85.5 73.8 234 Higher 98.7 71.8 92.2 86.3 66.7 469 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 96.8 69.4 85.1 64.8 55.3 336 Second 99.0 79.3 89.9 79.8 69.0 372 Middle 98.6 77.6 87.9 78.3 68.6 349 Fourth 98.5 72.1 88.7 79.4 63.3 312 Richest 98.8 67.2 93.8 89.7 65.3 306 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 98.7 72.6 89.8 80.1 64.7 1283 Russian (97.5) (74.9) (90.7) (90.7) (71.3) 63 Uzbek 98.7 81.3 88.5 71.1 65.9 256 Other language 91.4 58.2 75.7 59.0 48.5 73 1 MICS indicator 9.7 - HIV counselling during antenatal care 2 MICS indicator 9.8 - HIV testing during antenatal care (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases In Kyrgyzstan, 79 percent of women knew where to be tested; awareness level was practicaly the same in urban and rural areas. Across oblasts, the highest level was observed in Talas and the lowest in Batken (89.5 and 75.4 percent, respectively). The most aware are women from the age group 25-29 (91.1 percent) and women married/in union (88.4 percent). With respect to the mother tongue of the household head, the lowest percentage was found in households whose head speaks a mother tongue other than Kyrgyz, Uzbek or Russian – 60.5 percent, which is almost 20 percent less than the national average. More than two thirds (67.2 percent) of women in the country have actually been tested and 58.8 percent know the result of their most recent test. One out of five women (21.5 percent) was tested in the past 12 months and almost all of these women of them know the results (19.9 percent). Ever married or in union women have been tested in the last 12 months and told the results (23.9 percent) much more often than those who have never been married (5.6 percent). Women living in the Naryn oblast (30.2 percent) were tested in the last 12 months and told the results twice as often as those living in the in Issyk-Kul oblast (15.8 percent). Table HA.4 shows that more educated women have been tested and told results more often than the ones with lower education. Among women who had given birth within the two years preceding the survey, the percentage who received counselling and HIV testing during antenatal care is presented in Table HA.5. 193 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report 98.4 percent of women who had given birth within the two years preceding the survey received antenatal care, of these, 89.0 percent were tested for HIV, while 78.2 percent were told results and 73.4 percent received HIV counselling during pregnancy. The percentage of those who received HIV counselling, were offered an HIV test, accepted and received the results was 64.4 percent. 78.2 percent of women who had given birth within the two years preceding the survey were offered an HIV test and were tested for HIV during antenatal care, and received the results. Across regions, the lowest figure was observed in the Batken oblast (50.1 precent) and the highest – in the Issyk-Kul oblast (85.7 percent). Correspondingly, the lowest proportion of women who received HIV counseling and have been tested for HIV and told the result is found in the Batken oblast (40.5 percent), the highest is found in the Batken oblast (82.4 percent). HIV Indicators for Young Women In many countries, over half of new adult HIV infections are among young women age 15-24 years thus a change in behaviour among members of this age group is especially important to reduce new infections. The next tables present specific information on this age group. Table HA.6 summarizes information on key HIV indicators for young women. Findings with respect to comprehensive knowledge, knowledge of mother to child transmission, and knowledge of a place to get tested are generally worse in this age group than the population age 15-49 years as a whole. Overall, just 19.8 percent of women age 15-24 years were found to have comprehensive knowledge and 61.8 percent of women this age knew where to be tested. Only 37.4 percent of women age 15- 24 years have ever been tested and know the result of the most recent test, while only 20.2 percent have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and know the result. Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV (with respect to the same four indicators that were previously discussed) were demonstrated in 2.4 percent of cases. The highest percentage of women age 15-24 years having comprehensive knowledge on HIV was found in Osh oblast (36.1), and the lowest in Djalal-Abad (just 8 percent). Knowledge of the means of mother-to-child transmission of HIV was most prevalent in the Osh oblast (82.7), while women in the Chui oblast are the least informed on this (28.9 percent). Knowledge of a place to get tested for HIV was highest among young women in the Talas oblast (77.8 percent). The highest proportion of women age 15-24 who have ever been tested for HIV and have been told the result of their most recent test was is found in the Talas oblast (53.1 percent), while the lowest is found in the Issyk-Kul oblast (22.0 percent). 194 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table HA.6: Key HIV and AIDS indicators (young women) Percentage of women age 15-24 years by key HIV and AIDS indicators, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women age 15-24 years who: Number of women age 15-24 years Percentage who express accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV on all four indicatorsb Number of women age 15-24 years who have heard of AIDS Have comprehensive knowledge1,a Know all three means of HIV transmission from mother to child Know a place to get tested for HIV Have ever been tested and know the result of the most recent test Have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and know the result Total 19.8 58.2 61.8 37.4 20.2 2383 2.4 2189 Region Batken 14.6 45.2 62.0 31.2 19.2 179 5.0 173 Djalal-Abad 8.0 59.1 66.3 41.8 25.4 503 3.7 417 Issyk-Kul 32.4 59.7 52.8 22.0 12.7 136 8.4 136 Naryn 30.0 78.3 69.9 40.6 22.6 83 7.2 82 Osh Oblast 36.1 82.7 66.2 37.6 19.9 510 0.0 482 Talas 22.9 63.9 77.8 53.1 30.5 102 0.3 98 Chui 10.1 28.9 58.0 33.9 18.3 379 0.4 347 Bishkek City 20.6 51.0 53.4 38.3 15.3 362 0.7 340 Osh City 11.6 62.3 53.0 38.2 20.1 129 5.6 115 Area Urban 17.9 55.2 59.3 38.3 18.5 810 3.1 759 Rural 20.7 59.7 63.1 37.0 21.1 1573 2.0 1431 Age 15-19 17.0 50.2 42.9 15.5 10.5 1169 2.5 1025 15-17 14.7 44.6 30.8 4.9 3.5 694 2.6 581 18-19 20.2 58.4 60.7 30.9 20.8 474 2.4 443 20-24 22.4 65.8 80.0 58.6 29.5 1214 2.3 1165 20-22 23.9 66.4 78.2 54.5 27.8 735 2.5 702 23-24 20.3 64.8 82.7 64.8 32.2 479 1.9 462 Marital status Ever married/in union 19.3 69.6 87.0 69.1 39.5 1018 2.2 967 Never married/in union 20.1 49.6 43.0 13.9 5.8 1365 2.5 1222 Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 22 (*) 10 Basic secondary 11.8 49.1 45.6 20.6 10.1 569 1.9 470 Complete secondary 21.1 61.2 61.8 38.0 19.6 880 1.7 815 Professional primary/ middle 23.3 64.8 72.8 47.8 29.4 366 4.2 360 Higher 24.3 60.5 72.3 48.3 26.5 545 2.7 534 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 22.0 61.1 57.6 29.7 16.7 392 3.4 353 Second 17.1 62.4 61.6 39.8 24.1 472 2.7 416 Middle 21.7 62.8 63.3 37.3 20.6 490 1.2 457 Fourth 19.9 56.6 59.6 35.8 19.3 527 1.5 492 Richest 18.4 49.0 66.0 43.1 19.8 503 3.4 471 195 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of women age 15-24 years who: Number of women age 15-24 years Percentage who express accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV on all four indicatorsb Number of women age 15-24 years who have heard of AIDS Have comprehensive knowledge1,a Know all three means of HIV transmission from mother to child Know a place to get tested for HIV Have ever been tested and know the result of the most recent test Have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and know the result Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 20.7 60.0 61.6 37.1 19.5 1698 2.9 1587 Russian 22.9 48.4 69.9 41.9 25.2 161 2.6 160 Uzbek 17.1 60.9 64.3 40.4 22.2 405 0.6 356 Other language 11.6 34.1 45.7 26.0 16.5 117 0.0 85 1 MICS indicator 9.1; MDG indicator 6.3 - Knowledge about HIV prevention among young women а Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention is the knowledge of all of the following: (1) that the chance of getting HIV can be reduced by having only one faithful uninfected partner and using a condom every time (two main ways of HIV prevention), (2) that a healthy looking person can be HIV-positive, and (3) that HIV cannot be transmitted by saliva by kissing with someone with HIV and by mosquito bites (the two most common misconceptions among women age 15-49 years in Kyrgyzstan according to this survey). b Refer to Table HA.3 for the four indicators. (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases XIII. Access to Mass Media and Use of Information/ Communication Technology 197 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS collected information on exposure to mass media and the use of computers and the internet. Information was collected on exposure to newspapers/magazines, radio and television among women age 15-49 years, while the questions on the use of computers and the use of the internet was asked to 15-24 year-olds. Access to Mass Media The proportion of women who read a newspaper or magazine, listen to the radio and watch television at least once a week is shown in Table MT.1. In Kyrgyzstan 44.9 percent of women read a newspaper or magazine, 37.3 percent listen to the radio, and 98.2 percent watch television at least once a week. Overall, 1.2 percent do not have regular exposure to any of the three media, while 98.8 percent are exposed to at least one and 21.3 to all the three types of media on a weekly basis. Women under age 20 are more likely than older women to report exposure to all three types of mass media. Strong differentials by area, education and socio-economic status are observed for exposure to all types of media, primarily due to differentials in exposure to print media and radio. Women with higher education are almost twice more likely to have been exposed to all three types of media than women with secondary education. Similarly, 26.6 percent of women in the richest households have been exposed to all the three media forms, while the corresponding proportion of women in the poorest households is only 14.9 percent. Larger proportions of women are exposed to all the media types in urban areas (26.2 percent) than in rural areas (18.6 percent). Exposure of women to all the three mass media is greatest in the Batken oblast (34.7 percent) and lowest in the Talas oblast (12.2 percent only). Table MT.1: Exposure to mass media Percentage of women age 15-49 years who are exposed to specific mass media on a weekly basis, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women age 15-49 years who: All three media at least once a week1 Any media at least once a week None of the media at least once a week Number of women age 15-49 years Read a newspaper at least once a week Listen to the radio at least once a week Watch television at least once a week Total 44.9 37.3 98.2 21.3 98.8 1.2 6854 Age 15-19 45.1 49.5 98.7 27.5 99.7 0.3 1169 15-17 48.0 50.7 99.0 29.2 100.0 0.0 694 18-19 41.0 47.9 98.3 24.9 99.1 0.9 474 20-24 41.8 39.3 97.5 22.2 98.3 1.7 1214 25-29 42.9 34.0 97.1 18.9 97.8 2.2 1145 30-34 43.7 32.4 98.0 18.8 98.6 1.4 935 35-39 48.0 34.0 98.9 19.1 99.0 1.0 854 40-44 46.7 34.8 98.9 21.5 99.3 0.7 804 45-49 48.6 32.6 98.8 19.2 99.1 0.9 733 Region Batken 58.6 46.4 98.0 34.7 99.1 0.9 543 Djalal-Abad 31.2 29.7 99.3 15.4 99.5 0.5 1336 Issyk-Kul 51.5 37.0 99.3 22.6 99.8 0.2 469 Naryn 73.3 39.5 96.7 30.8 97.6 2.4 282 Osh Oblast 31.3 29.3 98.2 13.3 98.4 1.6 1277 Talas 57.1 19.7 99.5 12.2 99.7 0.3 333 Chui 51.5 35.8 96.8 22.0 97.7 2.3 1216 Bishkek City 51.2 63.3 98.8 32.8 99.3 0.7 1072 Osh City 39.0 21.5 95.6 13.1 97.4 2.6 326 198 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of women age 15-49 years who: All three media at least once a week1 Any media at least once a week None of the media at least once a week Number of women age 15-49 years Read a newspaper at least once a week Listen to the radio at least once a week Watch television at least once a week Area Urban 50.6 44.9 98.1 26.2 99.0 1.0 2424 Rural 41.8 33.2 98.2 18.6 98.6 1.4 4430 Education None/primary (4.3) (6.9) (75.8) (0.0) (79.0) (21.0) 58 Basic secondary 27.0 29.7 96.2 13.1 97.0 3.0 941 Complete secondary 38.2 32.6 98.9 16.0 99.2 0.8 2813 Professional primary/ middle 53.0 40.3 99.3 26.0 99.7 0.3 1258 Higher 60.5 47.7 98.1 31.4 99.0 1.0 1784 Wealth index quintile Poorest 37.0 28.1 96.9 14.9 97.8 2.2 1245 Second 36.0 30.9 98.8 16.2 98.9 1.1 1292 Middle 43.1 34.6 98.4 20.4 98.6 1.4 1320 Fourth 51.7 44.2 98.9 26.5 99.4 0.6 1424 Richest 53.8 45.9 97.9 26.6 98.9 1.1 1574 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 50.5 39.3 98.3 23.8 98.9 1.1 4891 Russian 51.0 50.5 98.2 26.1 99.2 0.8 582 Uzbek 20.8 23.7 98.4 10.2 98.6 1.4 1074 Other language 28.3 28.5 94.9 10.9 96.0 4.0 305 1 MICS indicator 10.1 - Exposure to mass media ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Use of Information/Communication Technology The questions on computer and internet use were asked only to 15-24 year old women. As shown in Table MT.2, 80.9 percent of these women ever used a computer, 64.1 percent used a computer during the last year and 45.4 percent used at least once a week during the last month. Overall, 78.4 percent of women age 15-24 ever used the internet, while 73.0 percent used it during the last year. The proportion of young women age 15-24 years who used the internet more frequently, at least once a week during the last month, is smaller, at 64.0 percent. As expected, both the computer and internet use during the last 12 months is more widespread among the 15-19 year old women. Use of a computer and the internet is also strongly associated with area, education and wealth. 58.5 percent of women with basic secondary education report using internet during the last year, while almost all of the women (94.1 percent) with higher education used the internet during this period. Similarly higher utilisation of the internet is observed among young women in urban areas (83.1 percent) compared to those in rural areas (67.7 percent). The use of the internet during the last year is greatest in the Bishkek city (94.2 percent) and lowest in the Batken and Djalal-Abad oblasts (57.1 percent), while the proportion is 93.1 percent for young women in the richest households, as opposed to those living in the poorest households (51.4 percent). 199 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table MT.2: Use of computers and internet Percentage of women age 15-24 years who are exposed to specific mass media on a weekly basis, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women age 15-24 years who have: Number of women age 15-24 years Ever used a computer Used a computer during the last 12 months1 Used a computer at least once a week during the last one month Ever used the internet Used the internet during the last 12 months2 Used the internet at least once a week during the last one month Total 80.9 64.1 45.4 78.4 73.0 64.0 2383 Age 15-19 85.3 75.2 53.2 83.9 80.3 71.8 1169 15-17 86.8 78.7 53.2 85.9 82.8 73.7 694 18-19 83.0 70.2 53.1 81.0 76.7 69.0 474 20-24 76.8 53.5 37.8 73.1 65.9 56.4 1214 Region Batken 83.6 55.1 37.6 63.1 57.0 47.8 179 Djalal-Abad 59.7 43.9 23.8 64.6 57.1 49.1 503 Issyk-Kul 89.1 66.1 42.3 93.8 85.7 66.9 136 Naryn 96.6 69.5 40.6 87.2 74.7 58.2 83 Osh Oblast 80.6 63.8 38.2 75.7 70.7 59.1 510 Talas 73.8 58.0 41.9 75.5 66.5 55.0 102 Chui 89.3 76.4 60.9 86.5 84.7 76.8 379 Bishkek City 97.5 84.6 74.6 95.2 94.2 92.3 362 Osh City 77.3 62.9 49.7 72.7 62.9 54.3 129 Area Urban 89.6 75.7 61.1 86.7 83.1 77.8 810 Rural 76.5 58.2 37.3 74.1 67.7 56.8 1573 Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) (*) 22 Basic secondary 71.0 57.8 34.5 63.8 58.5 47.6 569 Complete secondary 76.8 51.1 29.9 73.2 65.6 54.5 880 Professional primary/middle 88.1 72.9 56.9 90.9 86.0 79.2 366 Higher 96.6 88.5 75.8 96.6 94.1 88.6 545 Wealth index quintile Poorest 66.7 41.0 21.0 59.6 51.4 40.8 392 Second 73.6 47.1 23.8 71.1 62.5 51.5 472 Middle 75.6 61.2 37.9 74.6 69.4 57.5 490 Fourth 90.7 78.4 60.7 87.2 82.6 74.3 527 Richest 93.9 86.0 75.7 94.3 93.1 89.2 503 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 85.2 67.2 47.2 85.1 79.9 71.3 1698 Russian 98.4 94.0 88.1 98.9 96.6 93.0 161 Uzbek 62.0 44.1 24.2 49.7 40.9 27.7 405 Other language 59.9 47.9 34.0 52.3 50.7 43.4 117 1 MICS indicator 10.2 - Use of computers 2 MICS indicator 10.3 - Use of internet (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases XIV. Subjective well-being 201 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Subjective perceptions of individuals of their incomes, health, living environments and the like, play a significant role in their lives and can impact their perception of well-being, irrespective of objective conditions such as actual income and physical health status57. In the MICS, a set of questions were asked to women age 15-24 years to understand how satisfied this group of young people is in different areas of their lives, such as their family life, friendships, school, current job, health, where they live, how they are treated by others, how they look, and their current income. Life satisfaction is a measure of an individual’s perceived level of well-being. Understanding young women and young men’s satisfaction in different areas of their lives can help to gain a comprehensive picture of young people’s life situations. A distinction can also be made between life satisfaction and happiness. Happiness is a fleeting emotion that can be affected by numerous factors, including day- to-day factors such as the weather, or a recent death in the family. It is possible for a person to be satisfied with job, income, family life, friends, and other aspects of life, but still be unhappy, or vice versa. In addition to the set of questions on life satisfaction, the survey also asked questions about happiness and the respondents’ perceptions of a better life. To assist respondents in answering the set of questions on happiness and life satisfaction they were shown a card with smiling faces (and not so smiling faces) that corresponded to the response categories (see the Questionnaires in Appendix F) ‘very satisfied’, ‘somewhat satisfied‘, ‘neither satisfied nor unsatisfied’, ‘somewhat unsatisfied’ and ‘very unsatisfied’. For the question on happiness, the same scale was used, this time ranging from ‘very happy’ to ‘very unhappy’, in the same fashion. Table SW.1 shows the proportion of young women age 15-24 years, who are very or somewhat satisfied in selected domains. Note that for three domains, satisfaction with school, job and income, the denominators are confined to those who are currently attending school, have a job, and have an income. Of the different domains, young women are the most satisfied with their health (95.5 percent), the way they look (97.4 percent), and their family life (93.1 percent). Among the domains, young women are the least satisfied with their current income (77.7 percent), with 81.4 percent of young women not having an income at all. The least satisfaction with family life was observed in Chui oblast, with living environment – in Bishkek city and Naryn oblast. Young women living in the Naryn oblast are also less likely to be satisfied with their treatment by others than those living in other oblasts. 57 OECD, 2013. OECD Guidelines on Measuring Subjective Well Being, OECD Publishing, http://dx.doi.org/10.1787/9789264191655-en 202 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SW .1 : D om ai ns o f l ife s at is fa ct io n P er ce nt ag e of w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho th in k th at th ei r l iv es im pr ov ed d ur in g th e la st o ne y ea r a nd th os e w ho e xp ec t t ha t t he ir liv es w ill g et b et te r a fte r o ne y ea r, K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho ar e ve ry o r so m ew ha t s at is fie d in s el ec te d do m ai ns : Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge 15 -2 4 ye ar s w ho : Number of women age 15-24 years Percentage of women age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat satisfied with school Number of women age 15-24 years attending school Percentage of women age 15-24 years who are very or somewh t satisfied with their job Number of women age 15-24 years who have a job Percentage of women age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat satisfied with their income Number of women age 15-24 years who have an income Family life Friendships Health Living environment Treatment by others The way they look Are attending school Have a job Have an income To ta l 93 .1 89 .8 95 .5 92 .2 93 .2 97 .4 54 .3 11 .6 18 .6 23 83 91 .2 12 94 82 .8 27 6 77 .7 44 2 A ge 15 -1 9 92 .5 92 .1 96 .9 94 .1 92 .7 97 .7 79 .1 3. 8 9. 7 11 69 92 .1 92 5 (6 0. 8) 45 81 .0 11 4 1 5- 17 92 .3 94 .5 97 .6 94 .6 93 .0 97 .1 94 .6 1. 1 5. 6 69 4 92 .9 65 7 (* ) 7 (1 00 .0 ) 39 1 8- 19 92 .8 88 .6 95 .8 93 .4 92 .3 98 .7 56 .5 7. 9 15 .8 47 4 90 .1 26 8 (6 2. 7) 37 71 .1 75 20 -2 4 93 .7 87 .5 94 .3 90 .4 93 .7 97 .0 30 .4 19 .0 27 .0 12 14 88 .8 37 0 87 .0 23 1 76 .5 32 8 R eg io n B at ke n 93 .5 90 .1 92 .7 94 .5 93 .2 94 .6 47 .7 6. 7 5. 9 17 9 90 .0 85 (* ) 12 (* ) 10 D ja la l-A ba d 97 .0 85 .7 97 .6 97 .8 92 .8 98 .4 49 .1 4. 0 6. 8 50 3 95 .0 24 7 (* ) 20 (* ) 34 Is sy k- K ul 94 .3 97 .6 96 .2 96 .7 92 .8 98 .4 65 .0 5. 4 5. 4 13 6 96 .2 88 (* ) 7 (* ) 7 N ar yn 94 .2 90 .6 95 .6 85 .3 83 .0 92 .6 62 .3 6. 5 8. 1 83 88 .4 52 (* ) 5 (* ) 7 O sh O bl as t 94 .7 89 .9 97 .7 92 .6 93 .0 98 .6 45 .4 7. 5 30 .2 51 0 92 .1 23 1 (8 5. 3) 38 92 .6 15 4 Ta la s 97 .2 96 .0 79 .9 96 .8 96 .0 91 .9 62 .7 6. 6 17 .3 10 2 90 .3 64 (* ) 7 (9 6. 7) 18 C hu i 80 .3 92 .6 92 .4 92 .9 94 .4 96 .2 57 .0 22 .8 22 .8 37 9 92 .9 21 6 (8 1. 2) 86 (8 7. 1) 86 B is hk ek C ity 95 .5 86 .4 97 .9 80 .2 94 .3 99 .1 66 .9 22 .9 24 .9 36 2 85 .0 24 2 75 .7 83 36 .1 90 O sh C ity 96 .4 92 .1 97 .4 94 .0 93 .7 96 .8 52 .7 13 .0 27 .8 12 9 88 .5 68 (9 1. 3) 17 92 .2 36 A re a U rb an 94 .5 88 .7 96 .9 88 .8 93 .6 98 .5 59 .9 16 .7 21 .8 81 0 88 .6 48 5 80 .2 13 5 62 .1 17 6 R ur al 92 .4 90 .3 94 .8 94 .0 93 .0 96 .7 51 .4 8. 9 16 .9 15 73 92 .7 80 9 85 .3 14 1 87 .9 26 6 M ar ita l S ta tu s E ve r m ar rie d/ in u ni on 95 .6 85 .7 94 .8 92 .3 93 .6 97 .6 19 .2 12 .0 21 .1 10 18 89 .9 19 5 86 .2 12 2 85 .6 21 4 N ev er m ar rie d/ in u ni on 91 .3 92 .8 96 .1 92 .2 92 .9 97 .2 80 .5 11 .2 16 .7 13 65 91 .4 10 99 80 .1 15 4 70 .2 22 8 203 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs w ho ar e ve ry o r so m ew ha t s at is fie d in s el ec te d do m ai ns : Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en a ge 15 -2 4 ye ar s w ho : Number of women age 15-24 years Percentage of women age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat satisfied with school Number of women age 15-24 years attending school Percentage of women age 15-24 years who are very or somewh t satisfied with their job Number of women age 15-24 years who have a job Percentage of women age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat satisfied with their income Number of women age 15-24 years who have an income Family life Friendships Health Living environment Treatment by others The way they look Are attending school Have a job Have an income Ed uc at io n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 22 - 0 (* ) 8 (* ) 8 B as ic s ec on da ry 92 .9 88 .5 96 .6 93 .3 93 .7 97 .5 55 .8 5. 5 12 .2 56 9 92 .4 31 8 (8 4. 7) 31 87 .4 69 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 94 .0 88 .5 95 .3 93 .3 92 .4 96 .7 37 .7 7. 0 15 .6 88 0 93 .9 33 2 83 .4 61 81 .9 13 8 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e 91 .7 92 .8 92 .8 90 .1 93 .5 98 .1 57 .4 18 .3 24 .8 36 6 91 .4 21 0 82 .1 67 70 .7 91 H ig he r 94 .6 92 .3 97 .6 92 .9 95 .5 98 .4 79 .8 19 .9 25 .1 54 5 88 .1 43 5 86 .3 10 8 77 .4 13 7 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 91 .7 89 .9 94 .7 88 .2 88 .5 95 .7 45 .9 6. 6 11 .0 39 2 89 .1 18 0 (7 8. 0) 26 (7 6. 7) 43 S ec on d 95 .2 85 .2 95 .3 94 .7 93 .2 97 .0 47 .6 5. 2 13 .6 47 2 91 .5 22 4 (* ) 25 87 .4 64 M id dl e 92 .9 91 .9 93 .7 92 .5 93 .4 96 .0 49 .1 10 .4 16 .6 49 0 94 .9 24 1 (8 6. 0) 51 81 .0 81 Fo ur th 91 .8 90 .1 96 .0 91 .4 94 .1 98 .3 60 .1 14 .5 26 .7 52 7 92 .9 31 7 75 .9 76 82 .0 14 0 R ic he st 93 .8 91 .6 97 .7 93 .7 95 .8 99 .2 66 .2 19 .6 22 .5 50 3 87 .8 33 3 83 .8 98 64 .8 11 3 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 94 .1 90 .5 95 .8 91 .2 93 .7 97 .3 61 .1 10 .2 17 .2 16 98 90 .7 10 38 83 .5 17 4 81 .4 29 2 R us si an 88 .1 91 .0 91 .6 92 .5 92 .7 97 .2 57 .6 32 .1 32 .4 16 1 85 .8 93 (8 0. 0) 52 (4 9. 6) 52 U zb ek 97 .0 88 .2 98 .0 97 .8 95 .0 97 .6 29 .8 5. 9 15 .4 40 5 98 .1 12 1 (* ) 24 92 .3 63 O th er la ng ua ge 71 .3 82 .6 87 .9 88 .0 79 .9 97 .4 36 .5 22 .8 30 .4 11 7 (9 5. 9) 43 (* ) 27 (* ) 36 (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 204 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report In Table SW.2 proportions of women age 15-24 years with overall life satisfaction are shown. “Life satisfaction” is defined as those who are very or somewhat satisfied with their life overall, and is based on a single question which was asked after the life satisfaction questions on all of the above- mentioned domains, with the exception of the question on satisfaction with income, which was asked later. Nearly 96.1 percent of 15-24 year old women are satisfied with their life overall – the figure ranges from 93.3 percent of women living in the poorest households to 96.7 percent among those living in the richest households, showing a weak relationship between wealth and life satisfaction. These proportions do not vary significantly by marital status and educational level. As a summary measure, the average life satisfaction score is also calculated and presented in Table SW.2. The score is simply calculated by averaging the responses to the question on overall life satisfaction, ranging from very satisfied (1) to very unsatisfied (5) (see questionnaires in Appendix F). Therefore, the lower the average score, the higher the life satisfaction levels. The table also shows that 96.0 percent of women age 15-24 years are very or somewhat happy. A positive relationship wealth quintiles can also be observed for this indicator; however, there are no clear associations across age or education. Table SW.2: Overall life satisfaction and happiness Percentage of women age 15-24 years who think that their lives improved during the last one year and those who expect that their lives will get better after one year, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women with overall life satisfaction1 Average life satisfaction score Percentage of women who are very or somewhat happy2 Number of women age 15-24 years Total 96.1 1.4 96.0 2383 Age 15-19 96.4 1.4 96.7 1169 15-17 96.8 1.4 96.8 694 18-19 95.9 1.4 96.6 474 20-24 95.8 1.4 95.3 1214 Region Batken 95.0 1.2 91.4 179 Djalal-Abad 96.7 1.4 96.8 503 Issyk-Kul 98.3 1.2 97.4 136 Naryn 92.5 1.4 96.4 83 Osh Oblast 95.9 1.8 95.0 510 Talas 97.9 1.2 97.3 102 Chui 96.4 1.2 96.0 379 Bishkek City 95.6 1.5 97.6 362 Osh City 95.3 1.3 95.7 129 Area Urban 95.4 1.4 97.3 810 Rural 96.4 1.4 95.3 1573 Marital Status Ever married/in union 95.7 1.4 95.4 1018 Never married/in union 96.3 1.4 96.4 1365 205 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of women with overall life satisfaction1 Average life satisfaction score Percentage of women who are very or somewhat happy2 Number of women age 15-24 years Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) 22 Basic secondary 95.8 1.5 95.8 569 Complete secondary 96.1 1.4 96.5 880 Professional primary/middle 96.8 1.3 95.0 366 Higher 97.9 1.3 98.5 545 Wealth index quintile Poorest 93.3 1.5 90.6 392 Second 96.1 1.5 95.8 472 Middle 97.2 1.4 97.0 490 Fourth 96.5 1.4 97.2 527 Richest 96.7 1.3 98.1 503 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 96.1 1.4 96.4 1698 Russian 98.6 1.3 97.5 161 Uzbek 98.5 1.5 97.9 405 Other language 84.6 1.7 81.6 117 1 MICS Indicator 11.1 - Life satisfaction 2 MICS indicator 11.2 – Happiness (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases In addition to the series of questions on life satisfaction and happiness, respondents were also asked two simple questions on 1) whether they think their life improved during the last one year, and 2) whether they think their life will be better in one year’s time. Such information may contribute to our understanding of desperation that may exist among young people, as well as hopelessness and hopes for the future. Specific combinations of the perceptions during the last one year and expectations for the next one year may be valuable information to understand the general sense of well-being among young people. In Table SW.3 women’s perceptions of a better life are shown. The proportion of women age 15-24 years who think that their lives improved during the last one year and who expect that their lives will get better after one year, is 70.0 percent. The highest figure (82.6 percent) was observed in the Naryn oblast and the lowest in Bishkek city (50.4 percent). The proportion of married/in union women age 15-24 years who think that their lives improved during the last one year and who expect that their lives will get better after one year, is somewhat higher than among never married young women. No differences in the perception of a better life were observed by wealth quintiles. 206 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table SW.3: Perception of a better life Percentage of women age 15-24 years who think that their lives improved during the last one year and those who expect that their lives will get better after one year, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women who think that their life Number of women age 15- 24 years Improved during the last one year Will get better after one year Both1 Total 70.8 95.3 70.0 2383 Age 15-19 73.3 96.4 72.8 1169 15-17 72.8 96.8 72.3 694 18-19 74.1 95.9 73.5 474 20-24 68.3 94.3 67.4 1214 Region Batken 79.8 96.5 79.4 179 Djalal-Abad 77.3 96.6 77.1 503 Issyk-Kul 67.8 94.0 67.8 136 Naryn 83.6 99.0 82.6 83 Osh Oblast 65.9 96.9 65.9 510 Talas 68.7 96.1 67.7 102 Chui 78.0 95.0 75.0 379 Bishkek City 51.3 89.2 50.4 362 Osh City 82.0 98.7 82.0 129 Area Urban 67.4 94.1 66.8 810 Rural 72.5 96.0 71.7 1573 Marital Status Ever married/in union 74.5 95.9 73.4 1018 Never married/in union 68.0 94.9 67.5 1365 Education None/primary (*) (*) (*) 22 Basic general 69.4 96.1 67.3 569 Complete secondary 70.4 94.7 69.8 880 Professional primary/middle 75.1 95.4 74.9 366 Higher 71.0 95.8 70.9 545 Wealth index quintile Poorest 65.7 95.1 65.7 392 Second 72.4 96.4 71.8 472 Middle 72.3 95.2 71.1 490 Fourth 71.7 93.7 70.3 527 Richest 70.7 96.3 70.3 503 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 71.0 94.9 70.2 1698 Russian 70.3 95.5 67.7 161 Uzbek 75.0 97.3 74.7 405 Other language 53.7 94.6 53.7 117 1 MICS indicator 11.3 - Perception of a better life (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases XV. Tobacco and Alcohol Use 208 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Tobacco products are products made entirely or partly of leaf tobacco as raw material, which are intended to be smoked, sucked, chewed, or snuffed. All contain the highly addictive psychoactive ingredient, nicotine. Tobacco use is one of the main risk factors for a number of chronic diseases, including cancer, lung diseases, and cardiovascular diseases58. The consumption of alcohol carries a risk of adverse health and social consequences related to its intoxicating, toxic and dependence-producing properties. In addition to the chronic diseases that may develop in those who drink large amounts of alcohol over a number of years, alcohol use is also associated with an increased risk of acute health conditions, such as injuries, including from traffic accidents59. Alcohol use also causes harm far beyond the physical and psychological health of the drinker. It harms the well-being and health of people around the drinker. An intoxicated person can harm others or put them at risk of traffic accidents or violent behaviour, or negatively affect co-workers, relatives, friends or strangers. Thus, the impact of the harmful use of alcohol reaches deep into society60. The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS collected information on ever and current use of tobacco and alcohol and intensity of use among women age 15-49 years. This section presents the main findings. Tobacco Use Table TA.1 presents the current and ever use of tobacco products by women age 15-49 years. In Kyrgyzstan, ever and current use of tobacco products is not very common among women age 15-49 years. 11.8 percent of women reported to have ever used a tobacco product. The highest percentage of women who ever used a tobacco product was found in the Chui oblast (29.8 percent) and Bishkek city (27.0 percent), with a higher prevalence among women living in urban (18.6 percent) areas than in rural areas (8.1 percent). Nearly 2.9 percent of women smoked cigarettes, or used smoked or smokeless tobacco products on one or more days during the last one month. Among young women age 18-19 years the proportion that use tobacco is nearly 2.6 percent, while among women age 35-39 and 40-44 years it is 4.4 and 4.5 percent, respectively. Cigarettes are the most popular tobacco product among women using tobacco: 2.5 percent of women (out of 2.9 percent of female tobacco users) smoked only cigarettes in the past month. A positive association with wealth was observed: tobacco use among women living the two richest quintiles is more common. In the households with at least one child under 5, the percentage of female tobacco users is 1.2 percent. 58 WHO. http://www.who.int/topics/tobacco/en/ 59 WHO. http://www.who.int/topics/alcohol_drinking/en/ 60 WHO. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/factsheets/fs349/en/ 209 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table TA.1: Current and ever use of tobacco Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have never had an alcoholic drink, percentage who first had an alcoholic drink before age 15, and percentage of women who have had at least one alcoholic drink at any time during the last one month, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Never smoked cigarettes or used other tobacco products Ever users Users of tobacco products at any time during the last one month Number of women age 15-49 years O nl y ci ga re tte s C ig ar et te s an d ot he r t ob ac co pr od uc ts O nl y ot he r to ba cc o pr od uc ts A ny to ba cc o pr od uc t O nl y ci ga re tte s C ig ar et te s an d ot he r t ob ac co pr od uc ts O nl y ot he r to ba cc o pr od uc ts A ny to ba cc o pr od uc t1 Total 88.0 8.0 2.5 1.3 11.8 2.5 0.1 0.3 2.9 6854 Age 15-19 94.9 3.0 0.7 1.2 5.0 0.9 0.0 0.2 1.1 1169 15-17 97.0 2.0 0.0 1.0 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 694 18-19 92.0 4.6 1.8 1.6 8.0 2.2 0.0 0.4 2.6 474 20-24 87.4 7.1 2.8 2.7 12.6 1.2 0.2 0.7 2.0 1214 25-29 85.3 10.2 3.4 0.9 14.5 2.9 0.0 0.5 3.4 1145 30-34 86.9 8.0 3.6 1.5 13.0 2.5 0.5 0.1 3.1 935 35-39 85.4 10.7 3.0 0.9 14.5 4.4 0.0 0.0 4.4 854 40-44 84.4 11.8 2.8 0.7 15.2 4.5 0.0 0.0 4.5 804 45-49 90.9 7.2 1.3 0.5 9.0 2.6 0.3 0.2 3.0 733 Region Batken 97.6 1.6 0.0 0.8 2.4 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.5 543 Djalal-Abad 98.2 1.6 0.1 0.2 1.8 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.2 1336 Issyk-Kul 89.7 8.8 0.7 0.3 9.8 2.4 0.0 0.1 2.6 469 Naryn 88.1 10.5 1.0 0.3 11.8 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.4 282 Osh Oblast 98.5 0.9 0.2 0.4 1.5 0.1 0.0 0.4 0.6 1277 Talas 96.1 3.8 0.0 0.0 3.9 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 333 Chui 70.1 20.6 6.0 3.1 29.8 8.1 0.1 0.5 8.7 1216 Bishkek City 72.7 15.8 8.1 3.1 27.0 5.2 0.7 0.2 6.2 1072 Osh City 96.2 1.9 0.8 0.8 3.5 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.5 326 Area Urban 81.2 11.8 4.8 1.9 18.6 3.5 0.4 0.3 4.2 2424 Rural 91.8 6.0 1.2 0.9 8.1 2.0 0.0 0.2 2.2 4430 Education None/primary (90.2) (3.3) (3.3) (3.3) (9.8) (3.3) (0.0) (6.5) (9.8) 58 Basic secondary 94.0 3.8 1.1 0.8 5.7 1.5 0.0 0.0 1.5 941 Complete secondary 93.1 5.6 1.0 0.1 6.7 1.5 0.1 0.0 1.6 2813 Professional primary/ middle 83.2 10.4 3.8 2.5 16.7 5.4 0.0 0.3 5.6 1258 Higher 80.2 12.6 4.6 2.5 19.8 2.7 0.4 0.6 3.7 1784 Under-5s in the same household At least one 91.5 5.9 1.5 1.0 8.3 1.0 0.0 0.2 1.2 3609 None 84.1 10.5 3.6 1.6 15.7 4.3 0.3 0.4 4.9 3245 Wealth index quintile Poorest 96.3 3.0 0.2 0.4 3.6 0.4 0.0 0.4 0.8 1245 Second 97.3 2.4 0.0 0.2 2.7 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.5 1292 Middle 94.0 4.4 1.0 0.6 5.9 1.3 0.0 0.0 1.3 1320 Fourth 83.1 11.1 3.8 1.9 16.7 4.7 0.0 0.6 5.2 1424 Richest 73.4 17.0 6.4 2.9 26.4 5.1 0.6 0.3 6.0 1574 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 91.0 6.4 1.3 1.1 8.9 0.8 0.1 0.2 1.2 4891 Russian 41.1 36.7 17.4 4.4 58.5 21.4 0.6 0.3 22.3 582 Uzbek 99.3 0.5 0.1 0.0 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 1074 Other language 90.0 5.9 1.7 2.4 10.0 3.0 0.0 1.2 4.2 305 1 MICS indicator 12.1 - Tobacco use ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 210 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Figure TA.1: Ever and current smokers, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Ever users Users during the last one month 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 Percent Age Tables TA.2 presents findings on age at first use of cigarettes, as well as frequency of use. The findings show that only 0.5 percent of women 15-49 years old smoked a cigarette for the first time before age 15. Among women who are currently smokers, 31.7 percent smoked less than 5 cigarettes, while 13.7 percent smoked 20 cigarettes or more in the last 24 hours. Table TA.2: Age at first use of cigarettes and frequency of use Percentage of women age 15-49 years who smoked a whole cigarette before age 15, and percent distribution of current smokers by the number of cigarettes smoked in the last 24 hours, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women who smoked a whole cigarette before age 151 Number of women age 15-49 years Number of cigarettes in the last 24 hours Number of women age 15-49 years who are current cigarette smokers Less than 5 5-9 10-19 20+ Total Total 0.5 6854 31.7 25.6 29.0 13.7 100.0 184 Age 15-29 0.6 3523 (44.8) (27.9) (13.4) (13.9) 100.0 60 30-39 0.3 1789 (26.5) (29.3) (35.0) (9.3) 100.0 66 40-49 0.5 1543 (24.0) (18.9) (38.4) (18.7) 100.0 57 Region Batken 0.4 543 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 Djalal-Abad 0.0 1336 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 1 Issyk-Kul 0.1 469 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 11 Naryn 0.0 282 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 1 Osh Oblast 0.0 1277 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 Talas 0.3 333 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 Chui 1.9 1216 27.5 16.2 36.4 19.9 100.0 100 Bishkek City 0.7 1072 (33.6) (40.2) (20.5) (5.7) 100.0 64 Osh City 0.0 326 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 1 211 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Percentage of women who smoked a whole cigarette before age 151 Number of women age 15-49 years Number of cigarettes in the last 24 hours Number of women age 15-49 years who are current cigarette smokers Less than 5 5-9 10-19 20+ Total Area Urban 0.6 2424 36.3 32.2 24.2 7.3 100.0 95 Rural 0.5 4430 (26.8) (18.6) (34.1) (20.5) 100.0 89 Education None/primary (0.0) 58 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 2 Basic secondary 0.7 941 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 14 Complete secondary 0.4 2813 (35.8) (16.0) (37.2) (11.1) 100.0 45 Professional primary/middle 0.9 1258 (23.8) (18.6) (39.4) (18.2) 100.0 68 Higher 0.2 1784 (43.5) (35.7) (14.4) (6.4) 100.0 55 Under-5s in the same household At least one 0.2 3609 (30.7) (31.1) (32.5) (5.6) 100.0 36 None 0.8 3245 31.9 24.3 28.1 15.7 100.0 148 Wealth index quintile Poorest 60 percent 0.2 3856 (31.8) (19.5) (36.5) (12.2) 100.0 28 Richest 40 percent 0.9 2998 31.7 26.7 27.6 14.0 100.0 156 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 0.3 4891 51.1 39.9 9.0 0.0 100.0 46 Russian 3.5 582 (24.8) (21.0) (37.2) (17.0) 100.0 128 Uzbek 0.0 1074 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 1 Other language 0.0 305 (*) (*) (*) (*) 100.0 9 Missing (*) 2 1 MICS indicator 12.2 - Smoking before age 15 (*) – Figures that are based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases Alcohol Use Table TA.3 shows the use of alcohol among women. One out of ten women age 15-49 years had at least one drink of alcohol on one or more days during the last one month. Only 0.4 percent of women of the same age group first drank alcohol before the age of 15 while 57.9 percent of women never had an alcoholic drink. Among the younger age groups, the proportion of women who had at least one drink of alcohol before age 15 is higher than among the older age groups. The highest proportion of alcohol use by women is found in Issyk-Kul (17.9) and Chui (16.5) oblasts and Bishkek city (16.8). Alcohol consumption is more common among women living in the urban areas, richest quintiles, among more educated women and has a tendency to increase with age. 212 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table TA.3: Use of alcohol Percentage of women age 15-49 years who have never had an alcoholic drink, percentage who first had an alcoholic drink before age 15, and percentage of women who have had at least one alcoholic drink at any time during the last one month, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Percentage of women who: Number of women age 15- 49 years Never had an alcoholic drink Had at least one alcoholic drink before age 151 Had at least one alcoholic drink at any time during the last one month2 Total 57.9 0.4 10.0 6854 Age 15-19 87.9 1.0 0.8 1169 15-17 93.7 1.1 0.1 694 18-19 79.4 0.8 1.7 474 20-24 68.8 0.8 4.2 1214 25-29 56.5 0.7 7.4 1145 30-34 53.5 0.0 10.4 935 35-39 42.4 0.0 16.5 854 40-44 39.6 0.0 19.6 804 45-49 37.9 0.0 20.2 733 Region Batken 86.1 0.0 2.3 543 Djalal-Abad 61.2 0.0 9.0 1336 Issyk-Kul 48.6 0.2 17.9 469 Naryn 47.1 0.0 10.9 282 Osh Oblast 82.1 0.1 1.6 1277 Talas 58.1 0.4 7.6 333 Chui 37.8 1.1 16.5 1216 Bishkek City 36.8 1.0 16.8 1072 Osh City 69.8 0.3 4.5 326 Area Urban 48.0 0.5 13.0 2424 Rural 63.3 0.4 8.4 4430 Education None/primary (82.2) (0.0) (0.0) 58 Basic secondary 87.7 0.7 2.9 941 Complete secondary 63.0 0.3 9.2 2813 Professional primary/middle 44.3 0.2 14.3 1258 Higher 43.0 0.6 12.5 1784 Wealth index quintile Poorest 66.7 0.0 7.8 1245 Second 69.7 0.1 6.3 1292 Middle 66.8 0.3 6.3 1320 Fourth 54.3 0.6 12.1 1424 Richest 37.1 1.0 16.2 1574 Mother tongue of household head Kyrgyz 53.5 0.3 9.9 4891 Russian 20.4 2.1 30.5 582 Uzbek 93.6 0.2 1.5 1074 Other language 75.2 0.6 3.5 305 1 MICS indicator 12.4 - Use of alcohol before age 15 2 MICS indicator 12.3 - Use of alcohol ( ) – Figures that are based on 25-49 unweighted cases 213 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Appendix A. Sample Design Sample Size and Sample Allocation The major features of the sample design are described in this appendix. Sample design features include target sample size, sample allocation, sampling frame and listing, choice of domains, sampling stages, stratification, and the calculation of sample weights. The primary objective of the sample design for the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS was to produce statistically reliable estimates of most indicators, at the national, urban/rural and 9 regions (7 oblasts and Bishkek and Osh cities). Urban and rural areas in each of the seven regions (Batken, Chui, Djalal-abad, Issyk-Kul, Naryn, Osh and Talas oblasts) were defined as the sampling strata. A two- stage, stratified cluster sampling approach was used for the selection of the survey sample. The sample size for the 2014 Kyrgystan MICS was calculated as 7,200 households. For the calculation of the sample size, the key indicator used was the stunting rate among children under five. The following formula was used to estimate the required sample size for this indicator: where: n is the required sample size, expressed as number of households; 4 is a factor to achieve the 95 percent level of confidence; r is the predicted or anticipated value of the indicator, expressed in the form of a proportion; RR is the anticipated response rate; deff is the design effect; RME is the relative margin of error to be tolerated at the 95 percent level of confidence; p is the proportion of the subpopulation upon which the indicator, r, is based; n‾ is the average number of persons per household. For the calculation, r (stunting rate among children under five) was assumed to be 17 percent. The value of deff (design effect) was taken as 1.5, p (proportion of children age 0 to 5 years in the total population) was taken as 14.4 percent, and the average number of persons per household was estimated as 4.5 per household from the sampling frame. The value of RME was taken as 0.24. Assuming a response rate of 98.5%,the resulting number of households from this exercise was 797 households which yields 7,170 in total for all 9 regions. The number of households selected per cluster for the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS was determined as 18 households, based on a number of considerations, including the design effect, the budget available, and the time that would be needed per team to complete one cluster. Dividing the total number of households by the number of sample households per cluster, it was calculated that 400 sample clusters would need to be selected. The sample of 400 clusters (PSUs) was initially allocated equally over the nine regions with the final sample size calculated as 7,200 households (400 clusters * 18 sample households per cluster). Within regions the sample was allocated proportionally over urban and rural areas. The initial allocation was adjusted in two cases. First: the sample was expanded by six PSUs in Jalalabad oblast and reduced with the same number in Osh city. The rationale for this is that Jalalabad is a 214 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Sampling Frame and Selection of Clusters Listing Activities The 2009 census frame was used for the selection of clusters. Census enumeration areas were defined as primary sampling units (PSUs), and were selected from each of the sampling strata by using systematic probability-proportional-to-size sampling procedures, based on the number of households in each enumeration area from the 2009 Population and Housing Census frame. The sample was selected in two stages. The first stage of sampling was thus completed by selecting the required number of enumeration areas from each of the seven regions, separately for the urban and rural strata. At the second stage, within the selected enumeration areas (clusters), a household listing was carried out and a systematic sample of 18 households was then drawn in each PSU. Since the sampling frame (the 2009 census) was not up-to-date, a new listing of households was conducted in all the sample enumeration areas prior to the selection of households. For this purpose, listing teams were formed who visited all of the selected enumeration areas and listed all households in the enumeration areas. They were provided with census enumeration area maps. A separate three day listing training including a pilot in both urban and rural areas was conducted in March 2014 according to recommended MICS procedures. A total of 18 listing teams were utilised for the listing exercise to cover the 400 EAs over March and April 2014. large region area with some heterogeneity in “way of living” over the region and Osh City is much more homogeneous. Second: in Osh Region the allocation between urban and rural was adjusted by increasing the urban sample by three PSUs (and reducing the rural sample by three). Table SA.1 reflects the final allocation of clusters by oblast and area of residence. Table SD.1: Final sample allocation Allocation of number of clusters by region, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Total Area Urban Rural Total 400 166 234 Region Batken 45 13 32 Djalal-Abad 50 16 34 Issyk-Kul 45 16 29 Naryn 45 10 35 Osh Oblast 45 8 37 Talas 43 9 34 Chui 45 12 33 Bishkek City 44 44 - Osh City 38 38 - 215 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Selection of Households Calculation of Sample Weights Lists of households were prepared by the listing teams in the field for each enumeration area. The households were then sequentially numbered from 1 to n (the total number of households in each enumeration area) at the National Statistics Committee, where the selection of 18 households in each enumeration area was carried out using random systematic selection procedures. The 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS sample was not self-weighting. Essentially different sampling fractions were used in each region since the sizes of the regions varied. For this reason, sample weights were calculated and these were used in the subsequent analyses of the survey data. The major component of the weight is the reciprocal of the sampling fraction employed in selecting the number of sample households in that particular sampling stratum (h) and PSU (i): The term fhi, the sampling fraction for the i-th sample PSU in the h-th stratum, is the product of probabilities of selection at every stage in each sampling stratum: where pshi is the probability of selection of the sampling unit at stage s for the i-th sample PSU in the h-th sampling stratum. Based on the sample design these probabilities were calculated as follows: where nh – number of sample PSUs selected in stratum h Mhi – number of households in the 2009 Census frame for the i-th sample PSU in stratum h Mh – total number of households in the 2009 Census frame for stratum h and where M’hi – number of households listed in the i-th sample PSU Since the number of households in each enumeration area (PSU) from the 2009 Census frame used for the first stage selection and the updated number of households in the enumeration area from the listing are generally different, individual overall probabilities of selection for households in each sample enumeration area (cluster) were calculated. A final component in the calculation of sample weights takes into account the level of non- response for the household and individual interviews. The adjustment for household non-response in each stratum is equal to 216 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report where RRh is the response rate for the sample households in stratum h, defined as the proportion of the number of interviewed households in stratum h out of the number of selected households found to be occupied during the fieldwork in stratum h. Similarly, adjustment for non-response at the individual level (women and under-5 children) for each stratum is equal to: where RRh is the response rate for the individual questionnaires in stratum h, defined as the proportion of eligible individuals (women and under-5 children) in the sample households in stratum h who were successfully interviewed. After the completion of fieldwork, response rates were calculated for each sampling stratum. These were used to adjust the sample weights calculated for each cluster. Response rates in the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS are shown in Table HH.1 in this report. The non-response adjustment factors for the individual women and under-5 questionnaires were applied to the adjusted household weights. Numbers of eligible women and under-5 children were obtained from the roster of household members in the Household Questionnaire for households where interviews were completed. The design weights for the households were calculated by multiplying the inverse of the probabilities of selection by the non-response adjustment factor for each enumeration area. These weights were then standardized (or normalized), one purpose of which is to make the weighted sum of the interviewed sample units equal to the total sample size at the national level. Normalization is achieved by dividing the full sample weights (adjusted for non-response) by the average of these weights across all households at the national level. This is performed by multiplying the sample weights by a constant factor equal to the unweighted number of households at the national level divided by the weighted total number of households (using the full sample weights adjusted for non-response). A similar standardization procedure was followed in obtaining standardized weights for the individual women, men, and under-5 questionnaires. Adjusted (normalized) weights varied between 0.107229 to 3.434932 in the 400 sample enumeration areas (clusters). Sample weights were appended to all data sets and analyses were performed after weighting households, women, or under-5s with these sample weights. 217 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report SURVEY MANAGEMENT AND COORDINATION National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic Akylbek Osmonaliev Chairman, National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic Galina Samohleb Survey Coordinator, Head of Houshold Statistics Division, NSC Rimma Chynybaeva Head of Demographic Statistics Division, NSC Kulyipa Koichumanova Head of Social Statistics Division, NSC Ludmila Torgasheva Main Specialist, Demographic Statistics and Censuses Division, NSC Ainura Nurbaeva Deputy Head of Houshold Statistics Division, NSC Bermet Abdraeva Main Specialist, Houshold Statistics Division, NSC Ravil Khanov IT Support Manager, NSC Rina Begalieva HR Division, NSC International organizations Yukie Mokuo UNICEF Representative in the Kyrgyz Republic Attila Hancioglu Global MICS Coordinator, UNICEF Headquarters in New York (USA) Ivana Bjelic Global MICS Team, UNICEF NY HQ Turgay Unalan Global MICS Team, UNICEF NY HQ Bo Pedersen Global MICS Team, UNICEF NY HQ Yadigar Coskun Global MICS Team, UNICEF NY HQ Siraj Mahmudlu Regional MICS Coordinator, UNICEF CEE/CIS Regional Office, Geneva Ana Abdelbasit Regional MICS Team, UNICEF RO, Geneva Ismet Koch Regional MICS Team, UNICEF RO, Geneva Hans Pettersson Regional MICS Team, UNICEF RO, Geneva Ikhtier Kholmatov Regional MICS Team, UNICEF RO, Geneva Muktar Minbaev Research, Monitoring and Evaluation Officer, UNICEF in the Kyrgyz Republic Tolgonai Berdikeeva Programme Analyst, UNFPA in the Kyrgyz Republic Larisa Praslova National MICS Consultant, UNICEF in the Kyrgyz Republic Appendix B. List of Personnel Involved in the Survey 218 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Technical Committee National Statistical Committee Galina Samohleb, Rimma Chynybayeva, Ludmila Torgasheva, Kuliipa Koichumanova, Larisa Praslova, Gulhumar Abdulaeva Ministry of Health Larisa Murzakarimova, Tursun Mamyrbaeva, Gulmairam Jumagulova, Elnura Boronbaeva, Djoldosh Kalilov Ministry of Labor, Youth and Migration Avtandil kyzy Gulmairam UN agencies Kubanychbek Monolbaev, Kyal Arabaeva, Tolgonai Berdikeeva, Muktar Minbaev DATA ENTRY AND DATA PROCESSING STAFF Larisa Ilibezova Data Entry Coordinator Jamal Umankulova Data Entry Supervisor Niyazalieva Djildys Data Entry Editor Nacyrova Mariya Data Entry Editor Data Entry Operators: Abdraev Jakshylyk Israilova Baktygul Arunova Rakhat Kulikov Оleg Acanbekova Nargiza Kushbekova Asel Bajina Tamara Pershina Vera Berjibaeva Aida Spivakova Tatyana Bektashova Elnura Snegireva Alekcandra Вelikacova Natalya Shevyakova Ludmila HOUSEHOLD LISTING AND MAPPING National Supervisors Bermet Mamadalieva Issyk-Kul oblast Aibek Kannazarov Djalal-abad oblast Jupargul Aralbaeva Naryn oblast Barahathkan Baibubaeva Batken oblast Zamira Karaeva Osh oblast Svetlana Satkanalieva Talas oblast Liudmila Usanova Chui oblast Aigul Sainidinova Bishkek c. Cholpon Adanova Osh c. 219 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Listers Mappers B. Mamadalieva K.Mamasaliev A.Kadyrova S.Mamyrov N.Bolotbekov G.Subanova Melisbek u. D. T.Artykova S.Satkanalieva. M.Karimova M.Abdybaev O.Mamadalieva G.Sadimova A.Sainidinova A.Lirova N.Alymbekova B.Baibubaeva Ch.Nasyrova S.Artykova J.Akylbekova C.Ablisalamova Z.Karaeva M.Rahmanjanova M.Seitbekov J.Aralbaeva E.Borboeva F.Zarkunov E.Turdueva S.Abylaeva L.Usanova Zamirbek u. J. B.Mursabekova A.Kannazarov A.Imanova B.Ibraimov D.Shatenova FIELD WORK TEAMS Batken Oblast Talas Oblast Ergeshov Murzakhmat coordinator Kabylbekov M coordinator Baibubaeva Barakhatkhon supervisor Abdybaev Nurlan supervisor Rakhmanjanova Makharam editor Sadimova Gulnara editor Saitova Shakhzada interviewer Tursunova Meerim interviewer Esenalieva Cholpon interviewer Joldoshbekova Anara interviewer Abdyrakhmanova Dinara interviewer Sabirbaeva Altyngul interviewer Gaparova Ainura interviewer Baibosunova Gulbara interviewer Janyshbek kyzy Sabira interviewer Arstanova Gulzat interviewer Djalal-Abad Oblast Issyk-Kul Oblast Sadyraliev Kadyrali coordinator Melicbek uulu Daniyar coordinator Kannazarov Aibek supervisor Kojomberdiev Nurlan supervisor Jancharova Jazgul editor Mamadalieva Acmat editor Bolotbaeva Meerimgul interviewer Kadyrova Fatyina interviewer Tajibaeva Tolgonai interviewer Bakasheva Taalaikul interviewer Abdashim kyzy Klara interviewer Sultankulova Nur interviewer Konurbaeva Galina interviewer Kaptagaeva Meerim interviewer Osh Oblast Naryn Oblast Rusbaev Azizbek coordinator Abylaeva Sveta coordinator Urumbaev Bektur supervisor Bakacov Ylich supervisor Karaeva Zamirakhan editor Aidarova Ainura editor Karimbaeva Aidana interviewer Almazbekova Nurperizatkhan interviewer Abdykalyk kyzy Aicana interviewer Naamatova Ainura interviewer Khujabek kyzy Nurzada interviewer Abdykerimova Aigul interviewer Turdueva Eliza interviewer Nogoibaeva Kenjegul interviewer 220 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Osh city Bishkek city Subanova Gulacal coordinator Sainidinova Aigul coordinator Sulaimanov Nurcultan supervisor Akmatova Nazgul supervisor Karimova Markhabakhan editor Kydyrma kyzy Meerim editor Suvanova Asel interviewer Kachkynbaeva Ainura interviewer Kadyrbek kyzy Klara interviewer Mametakhunova Zukhra interviewer Nurkulova Meerim interviewer Djumagulova Nadira interviewer Mamirova Etibarkhan interviewer Temirova Sabira interviewer Chui Oblast Djoldoshbekov Adilet coordinator Kutushev Tilebaldy supervisor Alieva Gulzar editor Urumbaeva Aisuluu interviewer Uchukeeva Nazgul interviewer Samyikova Janyl interviewer Shatenova Damira interviewer Baibosunova Gulbara interviewer Arstanova Gulzat interviewer REPORT WRITING TEAM Mukhtar Ashiraliev, MD, Muktar Minbaev, PhD, Larisa Ilibezova, Ludmila Torgashova, Galina Samokhleb, Larisa Praslova, Tolgonai Berdikeeva and Natalya Vlasova. 221 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Appendix C. Estimates of Sampling Errors The sample of respondents selected in the Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey is only one of the samples that could have been selected from the same population, using the same design and size. Each of these samples would yield results that differ somewhat from the results of the actual sample selected. Sampling errors are a measure of the variability between the estimates from all possible samples. The extent of variability is not known exactly, but can be estimated statistically from the survey data. The following sampling error measures are presented in this appendix for each of the selected indicators: • Standard error (se): Standard error is the square root of the variance of the estimate. For survey indicators that are means, proportions or ratios, the Taylor series linearization method is used for the estimation of standard errors. For more complex statistics, such as fertility and mortality rates, the Jackknife repeated replication method is used for standard error estimation. • Coefficient of variation (se/r) is the ratio of the standard error to the value (r) of the indicator, and is a measure of the relative sampling error. • Design effect (deff) is the ratio of the actual variance of an indicator, under the sampling method used in the survey, to the variance calculated under the assumption of simple random sampling based on the same sample size. The square root of the design effect (deft) is used to show the efficiency of the sample design in relation to the precision. A deft value of 1.0 indicates that the sample design of the survey is as efficient as a simple random sample for a particular indicator, while a deft value above 1.0 indicates an increase in the standard error due to the use of a more complex sample design. • Confidence limits are calculated to show the interval within which the true value for the population can be reasonably assumed to fall, with a specified level of confidence. For any given statistic calculated from the survey, the value of that statistic will fall within a range of plus or minus two times the standard error (r + 2.se or r – 2.se) of the statistic in 95 percent of all possible samples of identical size and design. For the calculation of sampling errors from MICS data, programs developed in CSPro Version 5.0, SPSS Version 21 Complex Samples module and CMRJack61 have been used. The findings are shown in the tables that follow. In addition to the sampling error measures described above, the tables also include weighted and unweighted counts of denominators for each indicator. Given the use of normalized weights, by comparing the weighted and unweighted counts it is possible to determine whether a particular domain has been under-sampled or over- sampled compared to the average sampling rate. If the weighted count is smaller than the unweighted count, this means that the particular domain had been over-sampled. As explained later in the footnote of Table SE.1, there is an exception in the case of indicators 4.1 and 4.3, for which the unweighted count represents the number of sample households, and the weighted counts reflect the total population. Sampling errors are calculated for indicators of primary interest, for the national level, for urban and rural areas, and for all regions. Ten of the selected indicators are based on households members, 17 are based on women, and 12 are based on children under 5. Table SE.1 shows the list of indicators for which sampling errors are calculated, including the base population (denominator) for each indicator. Tables SE.2 to SE.13 show the calculated sampling errors for selected regions. 61 CMRJack is a software developed by FAFO, an independent and multidisciplinary research foundation. CMRJack produces mortality estimates and standard errors for surveys with complete birth histories or summary birth histories. See: http://www.fafo.no/ais/child_ mortality/index.html 222 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .1 : I nd ic at or s se le ct ed fo r s am pl in g er ro r c al cu la tio ns Li st o f i nd ic at or s se le ct ed fo r s am pl in g er ro r c al cu la tio ns , a nd b as e po pu la tio ns (d en om in at or s) fo r e ac h in di ca to r, K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 M IC S 5 In di ca to r B as e P op ul at io n H ou se ho ld m em be rs A ll ho us eh ol d m em be rs a A ll ho us eh ol d m em be rs a A ll ho us eh ol d m em be rs a C hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y sc ho ol C hi ld re n of p rim ar y sc ho ol a ge (7 -1 0 ye ar s) C hi ld re n of b as ic s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge (1 1- 15 y ea rs ) C hi ld re n of c om pl et e se co nd ar y sc ho ol a ge (1 6- 17 y ea rs ) C hi ld re n of s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge (1 1- 17 y ea rs ) C hi ld re n ag e 5- 17 y ea rs b 3. 15 U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 4. 1 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 3 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 7. 2 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss 7. 4 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 8. 2 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 3 V io le nt d is ci pl in e C hi ld re n ag e 1- 14 y ea rs b W om en 1. 2 In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te C hi ld re n of in te rv ie w ed w om en e xp os ed to th e ris k of m or ta lit y du rin g th e fir st y ea r o f l ife 1. 5 U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te C hi ld re n of in te rv ie w ed w om en e xp os ed to th e ris k of m or ta lit y du rin g th e fir st fi ve y ea rs o f l ife 2. 6 E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g N um be r o f l as t l iv e- bo rn c hi ld re n in th e la st tw o ye ar s 5. 1 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te W om en y ea rs o f e xp os ur e to c hi ld bi rth d ur in g ag es 1 5- 19 y ea rs 5. 2 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g W om en a ge 2 0- 24 w ho h av e ha d a liv e bi rth b ef or e ag e 18 5. 3 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te W om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho a re c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on 5. 4 U nm et n ee d W om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ho a re c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on 5. 5a A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s ki lle d pr ov id er ) W om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st 2 y ea rs 5. 5b A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) W om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st 2 y ea rs 5. 7 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y W om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st 2 y ea rs 5. 9 C ae sa re an s ec tio n W om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs w ith a li ve b irt h in th e la st 2 y ea rs 223 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report M IC S 5 In di ca to r B as e P op ul at io n 7. 1 Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) W om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs 8. 5 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 W om en a ge 2 0- 49 y ea rs 9. 1 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) W om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs 10 .3 U se o f i nt er ne t W om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs 11 .1 Li fe s at is fa ct io n W om en a ge 1 5- 24 y ea rs 12 .2 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 W om en a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs U nd er -5 s 2. 1a U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) C hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 y ea rs 2. 1b U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) C hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 y ea rs 2. 2a S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) C hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 y ea rs 2. 4 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e C hi ld re n un de r a ge 5 y ea rs 2. 7 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s C hi ld re n ag e 0- 5 m on th s – Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey C hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th sc – P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey C hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th sc – P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey C hi ld re n ag e 12 -2 3 m on th sc – M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey C hi ld re n ag e 24 -3 5 m on th sc – C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey C hi ld re n ag e 24 -3 5 m on th sc 6. 1 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n C hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s 6. 8 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex C hi ld re n ag e 36 -5 9 m on th s a T o ca lc ul at e th e w ei gh te d re su lts o f M IC S In di ca to rs 3 .1 5, 4 .1 a nd 4 .3 , t he h ou se ho ld w ei gh t i s m ul tip lie d by th e nu m be r o f h ou se ho ld m em be rs in e ac h ho us eh ol d. T he re fo re th e un w ei gh te d ba se po pu la tio n pr es en te d in th e S E ta bl es re fle ct th e un w ei gh te d nu m be r o f h ou se ho ld s, w he re as th e w ei gh te d nu m be rs re fle ct th e ho us eh ol d po pu la tio n. b R an do m s el ec tio n of o ne c hi ld a ge 1 -1 7 ye ar s pe r h ou se ho ld is c ar rie d ou t d ur in g fie ld w or k fo r a dm in is te rin g th e ch ild la bo ur a nd /o r c hi ld d is ci pl in e m od ul es . T he c hi ld la bo ur m od ul e is ad m in is te re d fo r c hi ld re n ag e 5- 17 fr om a m on g th os e ra nd om ly s el ec te d, w hi le v io le nt d is ci pl in e m od ul e is a dm in is te re d fo r c hi ld re n ag e 1- 14 . T o ac co un t f or th e ra nd om s el ec tio n an d ca lc ul at e M IC S In di ca to rs 8 .2 a nd 8 .3 , t he h ou se ho ld s am pl e w ei gh t i s m ul tip lie d by th e to ta l n um be r o f c hi ld re n in th e ag e ra ng e in e ac h ho us eh ol d. T he re fo re th e un w ei gh te d ba se p op ul at io n pr es en te d in th e S E ta bl es re fle ct s th e un w ei gh te d nu m be r o f h ou se ho ld s w ith c hi ld re n in th e ag e ra ng e, w he re as th e w ei gh te d nu m be rs re fle ct th e nu m be r o f c hi ld re n in th e ag e ra ng e. c D ue to th e w ay m is si ng v al ue s ar e tre at ed , t he w ei gh te d co un t i n Ta bl es S E .2 -S E .1 3 fo r i m m un iz at io n is d iff er en t f ro m th e nu m be r i n Ta bl e C H .1 . 224 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .2 : S am pl in g er ro rs : T ot al s am pl e S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 M IC S In di ca to r M D G In di ca to r Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) Coefficient of variation (se/r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lo w er bo un d r - 2 se U pp er bo un d r + 2 se H ou se ho ld m em be rs U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 3. 15 0. 29 3 0. 01 0 0. 03 4 3. 22 9 1. 79 7 29 78 6 69 34 0. 27 3 0. 31 3 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 1 7. 8 0. 87 0 0. 01 5 0. 01 7 14 .0 81 3. 75 2 29 78 6 69 34 0. 84 0 0. 90 0 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 4. 3 7. 9 0. 97 5 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 8. 85 9 2. 97 6 29 78 6 69 34 0. 96 4 0. 98 6 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss (c hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y) 7. 2 0. 43 1 0. 01 5 0. 03 4 0. 68 5 0. 82 7 66 2 76 7 0. 40 2 0. 46 1 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 4 2. 1 0. 99 3 0. 00 2 0. 00 2 1. 50 9 1. 22 8 23 11 24 75 0. 98 9 0. 99 7 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 0. 97 9 0. 00 4 0. 00 5 2. 67 9 1. 63 7 25 99 27 67 0. 97 0 0. 98 8 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 0. 82 4 0. 01 6 0. 01 9 1. 63 0 1. 27 7 96 9 97 1 0. 79 3 0. 85 5 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 0. 94 0 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 2. 32 3 35 68 37 38 0. 92 8 0. 95 1 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 2 0. 25 8 0. 00 9 0. 03 5 2. 49 5 1. 57 9 78 55 33 23 0. 24 0 0. 27 6 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e 8. 3 0. 57 1 0. 01 1 0. 02 0 3. 79 8 1. 94 9 99 94 42 74 0. 54 9 0. 59 4 W om en In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 1. 2 4. 2 23 .5 86 3. 08 8 0. 13 1 na na na na 17 .4 10 29 .7 62 U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 1. 5 4. 1 29 .3 09 3. 71 3 0. 12 7 na na na na 21 .8 84 36 .7 35 E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g 2. 6 0. 82 5 0. 01 0 0. 01 2 1. 18 1 1. 08 7 16 75 17 66 0. 80 5 0. 84 5 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 5. 1 5. 4 64 .6 65 6. 11 0 0. 09 4 na na na na 52 .4 44 76 .8 86 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g 5. 2 0. 03 5 0. 00 8 0. 21 6 1. 96 6 1. 40 2 12 14 11 55 0. 02 0 0. 05 0 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te 5. 3 5. 3 0. 42 0 0. 01 0 0. 02 4 2. 12 1 1. 45 6 47 50 48 89 0. 39 9 0. 44 0 U nm et n ee d 5. 4 5. 6 0. 19 1 0. 00 8 0. 04 1 1. 89 9 1. 37 8 47 50 48 89 0. 17 5 0. 20 6 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s ki lle d pr ov id er ) 5. 5a 5. 5 0. 98 4 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 2. 22 9 1. 49 3 16 75 17 66 0. 97 5 0. 99 3 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) 5. 5b 5. 5 0. 94 6 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 1. 11 1 1. 05 4 16 75 17 66 0. 93 5 0. 95 7 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y 5. 7 5. 2 0. 98 4 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 2. 27 5 1. 50 8 16 75 17 66 0. 97 5 0. 99 3 1. 52 4 225 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report M IC S In di ca to r M D G In di ca to r Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) Coefficient of variation (se/r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lo w er bo un d r - 2 se U pp er bo un d r + 2 se C ae sa re an s ec tio n 5. 9 0. 07 4 0. 00 7 0. 09 1 1. 18 1 1. 08 7 16 75 17 66 0. 06 1 0. 08 8 Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) 7. 1 2. 3 0. 99 3 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 10 .8 26 3. 29 0 23 83 23 17 0. 98 2 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 8. 5 0. 12 7 0. 00 6 0. 04 8 1. 92 1 1. 38 6 56 85 56 92 0. 11 5 0. 13 9 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) 9. 1 6. 3 0. 19 8 0. 01 1 0. 05 7 1. 87 4 1. 36 9 23 83 23 17 0. 17 5 0. 22 0 U se o f i nt er ne t 10 .3 0. 73 0 0. 01 4 0. 01 9 2. 27 5 1. 50 8 23 83 23 17 0. 70 2 0. 75 8 Li fe s at is fa ct io n 11 .1 0. 96 1 0. 00 6 0. 00 7 2. 51 8 1. 58 7 23 83 23 17 0. 94 8 0. 97 4 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 12 .2 0. 00 5 0. 00 1 0. 21 5 1. 58 6 1. 25 9 68 54 68 54 0. 00 3 0. 00 7 U nd er -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 1a 1. 8 0. 02 8 0. 00 3 0. 09 8 1. 23 9 1. 11 3 44 41 44 70 0. 02 2 0. 03 3 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 2. 1b 1. 8 0. 00 6 0. 00 1 0. 18 9 0. 94 0 0. 97 0 44 41 44 70 0. 00 4 0. 00 8 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 2a 0. 12 9 0. 00 6 0. 04 6 1. 37 7 1. 17 4 44 12 44 45 0. 11 7 0. 14 1 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e 2. 4 0. 07 0 0. 00 5 0. 07 2 1. 73 6 1. 31 7 44 14 44 45 0. 06 0 0. 08 0 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s 2. 7 0. 41 1 0. 02 3 0. 05 5 0. 90 9 0. 95 3 45 5 43 2 0. 36 6 0. 45 6 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 99 6 0. 00 3 0. 00 3 1. 60 2 1. 26 6 88 0 88 0 0. 99 0 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 89 8 0. 01 0 0. 01 1 0. 99 2 0. 99 6 88 0 88 0 0. 87 7 0. 91 8 P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 95 5 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 31 3 1. 14 6 87 7 87 8 0. 93 9 0. 97 1 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 96 7 0. 00 5 0. 00 6 0. 86 6 0. 93 1 93 0 92 0 0. 95 6 0. 97 8 C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 88 0 0. 01 2 0. 01 3 1. 20 8 1. 09 9 92 5 91 7 0. 85 6 0. 90 3 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n 6. 1 0. 22 7 0. 01 4 0. 06 4 2. 16 8 1. 47 2 17 70 18 16 0. 19 8 0. 25 6 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex 6. 8 0. 78 3 0. 01 3 0. 01 6 1. 70 2 1. 30 5 17 70 18 16 0. 75 8 0. 80 8 na : n ot a pp lic ab le 226 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .3 : S am pl in g er ro rs : U rb an S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se H ou se ho ld m em be rs U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 3. 15 0. 07 2 0. 00 9 0. 12 1 3. 19 4 1. 78 7 93 93 28 12 0. 05 4 0. 08 9 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 1 7. 8 0. 98 2 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 5. 77 6 2. 40 3 93 93 28 12 0. 97 0 0. 99 4 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 4. 3 7. 9 0. 93 4 0. 01 7 0. 01 8 13 .4 79 3. 67 1 93 93 28 12 0. 90 0 0. 96 8 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss (c hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y) 7. 2 0. 52 2 0. 02 6 0. 05 0 0. 60 4 0. 77 7 17 0 22 5 0. 47 0 0. 57 4 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 4 2. 1 0. 98 7 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 1. 09 5 1. 04 7 66 0 76 3 0. 97 9 0. 99 6 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 0. 98 6 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 1. 14 7 1. 07 1 70 1 82 8 0. 97 7 0. 99 5 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 0. 83 2 0. 01 6 0. 02 0 0. 64 0 0. 80 0 29 9 33 3 0. 88 0 0. 86 5 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 0. 93 9 0. 00 7 0. 00 7 0. 99 0 0. 99 5 10 00 11 61 0. 92 6 0. 95 4 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 2 0. 12 3 0. 01 3 0. 10 7 3. 62 2 1. 90 3 23 89 11 64 0. 09 6 0. 14 9 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e 8. 3 0. 60 0 0. 01 5 0. 02 5 2. 72 4 1. 65 0 30 94 14 87 0. 57 0 0. 63 0 W om en In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 1. 2 4. 2 16 .5 20 4. 30 4 0. 26 1 na na na na 7. 91 3 25 .1 27 U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 1. 5 4. 1 20 .0 73 4. 59 4 0. 22 9 na na na na 10 .8 85 29 .2 60 E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g 2. 6 0. 82 4 0. 01 4 0. 01 7 0. 83 5 0. 91 4 53 9 62 1 0. 79 6 0. 85 2 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 5. 1 5. 4 44 .9 46 7. 53 2 0. 16 8 na na na na 29 .8 82 60 .0 10 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g 5. 2 0. 03 3 0. 01 0 0. 28 7 1. 27 0 1. 12 7 42 3 44 9 0. 01 4 0. 05 2 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te 5. 3 5. 3 0. 43 1 0. 02 0 0. 04 6 2. 71 3 1. 64 7 15 11 17 26 0. 39 2 0. 47 0 U nm et n ee d 5. 4 5. 6 0. 17 5 0. 01 2 0. 07 0 1. 79 7 1. 34 0 15 11 17 26 0. 15 1 0. 20 0 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s ki lle d pr ov id er ) 5. 5a 5. 5 0. 98 8 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 1. 25 2 1. 11 9 53 9 62 1 0. 97 9 0. 99 8 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) 5. 5b 5. 5 0. 96 4 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 0. 60 4 0. 77 7 53 9 62 1 0. 95 3 0. 97 6 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y 5. 7 5. 2 0. 99 4 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 1. 35 3 1. 16 3 53 9 62 1 0. 98 6 1. 00 0 227 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se C ae sa re an s ec tio n 5. 9 0. 09 5 0. 01 2 0. 13 0 1. 10 0 1. 04 9 53 9 62 1 0. 07 0 0. 11 9 Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) 7. 1 2. 3 0. 99 8 0. 00 1 0. 00 1 0. 93 8 0. 96 8 81 0 88 7 0. 99 5 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 8. 5 0. 09 2 0. 00 6 0. 06 9 1. 07 1 1. 03 5 20 37 21 88 0. 07 9 0. 10 5 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) 9. 1 6. 3 0. 17 9 0. 01 5 0. 08 6 1. 43 1 1. 19 6 81 0 88 7 0. 14 9 0. 21 0 U se o f i nt er ne t 10 .3 0. 83 1 0. 01 7 0. 02 0 1. 74 6 1. 32 1 81 0 88 7 0. 79 8 0. 86 5 Li fe s at is fa ct io n 11 .1 0. 95 4 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 29 7 1. 13 9 81 0 88 7 0. 93 8 0. 97 0 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 12 .2 0. 00 6 0. 00 2 0. 36 5 1. 94 5 1. 39 5 24 24 26 26 0. 00 1 0. 01 0 U nd er -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 1a 1. 8 0. 01 9 0. 00 4 0. 20 0 1. 15 9 1. 07 6 13 10 14 53 0. 01 2 0. 02 7 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 2. 1b 1. 8 0. 00 5 0. 00 2 0. 40 6 1. 16 6 1. 08 0 13 10 14 53 0. 00 1 0. 00 9 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 2a 0. 11 8 0. 01 0 0. 08 5 1. 39 7 1. 18 2 13 03 14 42 0. 09 8 0. 13 8 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e 2. 4 0. 08 2 0. 01 0 0. 11 8 1. 80 3 1. 34 3 13 00 14 40 0. 06 3 0. 10 2 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s 2. 7 0. 39 5 0. 02 9 0. 07 2 0. 54 4 0. 73 8 15 2 16 0 0. 33 8 0. 45 2 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 99 9 0. 00 1 0. 00 1 0. 38 9 0. 62 3 25 4 28 4 0. 99 6 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 85 0 0. 02 5 0. 02 9 1. 38 8 1. 17 8 25 4 28 4 0. 80 1 0. 90 0 P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 92 2 0. 01 8 0. 02 0 1. 34 8 1. 16 1 25 3 28 3 0. 88 5 0. 95 9 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 95 6 0. 01 1 0. 01 2 0. 96 3 0. 98 1 29 4 31 8 0. 93 3 0. 97 9 C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 81 6 0. 02 6 0. 03 2 1. 44 7 1. 20 3 29 5 32 0 0. 76 4 0. 86 8 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n 6. 1 0. 40 5 0. 03 0 0. 07 3 2. 01 2 1. 41 8 48 2 55 3 0. 34 6 0. 46 5 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex 6. 8 0. 78 3 0. 02 3 0. 03 0 1. 77 6 1. 33 3 48 2 55 3 0. 73 7 0. 83 0 na : n ot a pp lic ab le 228 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .4 : S am pl in g er ro rs : R ur al S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se H ou se ho ld m em be rs U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 3. 15 0. 39 5 0. 01 3 0. 03 4 3. 07 2 1. 75 3 20 39 3 41 22 0. 36 8 0. 42 2 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 1 7. 8 0. 81 8 0. 02 2 0. 02 7 13 .2 18 3. 63 6 20 39 3 41 22 0. 77 5 0. 86 2 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 4. 3 7. 9 0. 99 4 0. 00 1 0. 00 1 1. 22 7 1. 10 8 20 39 3 41 22 0. 99 2 0. 99 7 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss (c hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y) 7. 2 0. 40 0 0. 01 8 0. 04 5 0. 73 6 0. 85 8 49 2 54 2 0. 36 4 0. 43 6 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 4 2. 1 0. 99 5 0. 00 2 0. 00 2 1. 96 6 1. 40 2 16 51 17 12 0. 99 1 1. 00 0 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 0. 97 7 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 2. 92 0 1. 70 9 18 98 19 39 0. 96 5 0. 98 8 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 0. 82 0 0. 02 1 0. 02 6 1. 95 9 1. 40 0 67 0 63 8 0. 77 8 0. 86 3 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 0. 93 9 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 2. 75 5 1. 66 0 25 68 25 77 0. 92 4 0. 95 5 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 2 0. 30 9 0. 01 2 0. 03 7 2. 23 2 1. 49 4 54 58 21 59 0. 28 6 0. 33 3 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e 8. 3 0. 56 0 0. 01 4 0. 02 6 3. 88 6 1. 97 1 68 97 27 87 0. 53 2 0. 58 9 W om en In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 1. 2 4. 2 26 .7 47 4. 04 1 0. 15 1 na na na na 18 .6 65 34 .8 29 U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 1. 5 4. 1 33 .4 22 4. 93 7 0. 14 8 na na na na 23 .5 48 43 .2 96 E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g 2. 6 0. 82 5 0. 01 3 0. 01 6 1. 31 8 1. 14 8 11 37 11 45 0. 79 9 0. 85 1 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 5. 1 5. 4 75 .0 06 8. 33 3 0. 11 1 na na na na 58 .3 40 91 .6 72 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g 5. 2 0. 03 6 0. 01 0 0. 29 0 2. 22 7 1. 49 2 79 1 70 6 0. 01 5 0. 05 7 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te 5. 3 5. 3 0. 41 4 0. 01 2 0. 02 9 1. 86 8 1. 36 7 32 39 31 63 0. 39 0 0. 43 8 U nm et n ee d 5. 4 5. 6 0. 19 8 0. 01 0 0. 04 9 1. 90 0 1. 37 9 32 39 31 63 0. 17 9 0. 21 8 229 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se An te na ta l c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s kil le d pr ov id er ) 5. 5a 5. 5 0. 98 1 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 2. 44 4 1. 56 3 11 37 11 45 0. 96 9 0. 99 4 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) 5. 5b 5. 5 0. 93 7 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 22 8 1. 10 8 11 37 11 45 0. 92 1 0. 95 3 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y 5. 7 5. 2 0. 97 9 0. 00 6 0. 00 7 2. 34 2 1. 53 0 11 37 11 45 0. 96 6 0. 99 2 C ae sa re an s ec tio n 5. 9 0. 06 5 0. 00 8 0. 12 4 1. 22 7 1. 10 8 11 37 11 45 0. 04 9 0. 08 1 Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) 7. 1 2. 3 0. 99 1 0. 00 8 0. 00 9 11 .1 71 3. 34 2 15 73 14 30 0. 97 4 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 8. 5 0. 14 6 0. 00 9 0. 06 0 2. 16 7 1. 47 2 36 48 35 04 0. 12 9 0. 16 4 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) 9. 1 6. 3 0. 20 7 0. 01 5 0. 07 3 1. 96 9 1. 40 3 15 73 14 30 0. 17 7 0. 23 7 U se o f i nt er ne t 10 .3 0. 67 7 0. 02 0 0. 02 9 2. 49 6 1. 58 0 15 73 14 30 0. 63 8 0. 71 7 Li fe s at is fa ct io n 11 .1 0. 96 4 0. 00 9 0. 00 9 3. 15 8 1. 77 7 15 73 14 30 0. 94 7 0. 98 2 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 12 .2 0. 00 5 0. 00 1 0. 26 4 1. 38 4 1. 17 6 44 30 42 28 0. 00 2 0. 00 7 U nd er -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 1a 1. 8 0. 03 1 0. 00 4 0. 11 2 1. 22 2 1. 10 5 31 31 30 17 0. 02 4 0. 03 8 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 2. 1b 1. 8 0. 00 6 0. 00 1 0. 21 3 0. 86 6 0. 93 0 31 31 30 17 0. 00 4 0. 00 9 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 2a 0. 13 4 0. 00 7 0. 05 4 1. 34 0 1. 15 7 31 10 30 03 0. 12 0 0. 14 8 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e 2. 4 0. 06 5 0. 00 6 0. 09 0 1. 66 7 1. 29 1 31 14 30 05 0. 05 3 0. 07 6 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s 2. 7 0. 41 9 0. 03 1 0. 07 3 1. 05 0 1. 02 5 30 3 27 2 0. 35 7 0. 48 0 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 99 5 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 1. 65 6 1. 28 7 62 6 59 6 0. 98 7 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 91 7 0. 01 0 0. 01 1 0. 78 8 0. 88 8 62 6 59 6 0. 89 7 0. 93 7 P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny tim e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 96 8 0. 00 9 0. 00 9 1. 42 9 1. 19 5 62 4 59 5 0. 95 0 0. 98 5 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 97 2 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 0. 83 3 0. 91 3 63 6 60 2 0. 96 0 0. 98 4 C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 90 9 0. 01 2 0. 01 3 1. 00 5 1. 00 3 63 0 59 7 0. 88 6 0. 93 3 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n 6. 1 0. 16 0 0. 01 5 0. 09 6 2. 23 2 1. 49 4 12 88 12 63 0. 12 9 0. 19 1 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex 6. 8 0. 78 3 0. 01 5 0. 01 9 1. 66 6 1. 29 1 12 88 12 63 0. 75 3 0. 81 3 230 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .5 : S am pl in g er ro rs : B at ke n S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se H ou se ho ld m em be rs U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 3. 15 0. 69 3 0. 02 3 0. 03 3 1. 77 5 1. 33 2 24 32 73 0 0. 64 8 0. 73 9 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 1 7. 8 0. 60 0 0. 04 9 0. 08 2 7. 37 5 2. 71 6 24 32 73 0 0. 50 2 0. 69 9 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 4. 3 7. 9 0. 98 3 0. 00 7 0. 00 8 2. 43 6 1. 56 1 24 32 73 0 0. 96 8 0. 99 8 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss (c hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y) 7. 2 0. 69 0 0. 04 0 0. 05 8 0. 73 2 0. 85 5 68 10 0 0. 61 0 0. 76 9 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 4 2. 1 0. 98 9 0. 00 3 0. 00 3 0. 25 6 0. 50 6 19 1 28 1 0. 98 2 0. 99 5 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 0. 99 4 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 1. 10 9 1. 05 3 23 4 33 9 0. 98 4 1. 00 0 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 0. 91 5 0. 02 4 0. 02 6 0. 93 2 0. 96 6 87 12 6 0. 86 6 0. 96 3 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 0. 97 0 0. 00 9 0. 00 9 1. 15 4 1. 07 4 32 2 46 5 0. 95 3 0. 98 7 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 2 0. 27 7 0. 02 6 0. 09 3 2. 09 0 1. 44 6 91 2 37 5 0. 22 6 0. 32 9 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e 8. 3 0. 49 4 0. 01 9 0. 03 9 1. 21 7 1. 10 3 11 80 48 9 0. 45 6 0. 53 2 W om en In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 1. 2 4. 2 (2 9. 96 9) (8 .5 95 ) (0 .2 87 ) na na na na (1 2. 78 0) (4 7. 15 9) U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 1. 5 4. 1 (3 2. 25 9) (8 .7 69 ) (0 .2 72 ) na na na na (1 4. 72 1) (4 9. 79 7) E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g 2. 6 0. 83 3 0. 03 3 0. 03 9 1. 50 3 1. 22 6 14 8 19 5 0. 76 8 0. 89 9 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 5. 1 5. 4 96 .1 37 18 .0 59 0. 18 8 na na na na 60 .0 18 10 0. 00 0 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g 5. 2 0. 00 9 0. 00 9 1. 01 7 1. 09 5 1. 04 7 89 12 0 0. 00 0 0. 02 7 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te 5. 3 5. 3 0. 45 0 0. 02 2 0. 04 9 1. 09 2 1. 04 5 40 8 54 8 0. 40 6 0. 49 5 U nm et n ee d 5. 4 5. 6 0. 16 6 0. 01 9 0. 11 7 1. 48 5 1. 21 8 40 8 54 8 0. 12 7 0. 20 5 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s ki lle d pr ov id er ) 5. 5a 5. 5 0. 98 9 0. 00 8 0. 00 8 1. 03 4 1. 01 7 14 8 19 5 0. 97 3 1. 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) 5. 5b 5. 5 0. 95 3 0. 01 0 0. 01 1 0. 47 5 0. 68 9 14 8 19 5 0. 93 2 0. 97 4 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y 5. 7 5. 2 0. 99 0 0. 00 7 0. 00 7 0. 99 3 0. 99 7 14 8 19 5 0. 97 5 1. 00 0 C ae sa re an s ec tio n 5. 9 0. 03 6 0. 01 2 0. 34 4 0. 85 4 0. 92 4 14 8 19 5 0. 01 1 0. 06 1 231 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) 7. 1 2. 3 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 17 9 24 1 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 8. 5 0. 12 8 0. 01 6 0. 12 2 1. 32 2 1. 15 0 45 3 61 0 0. 09 7 0. 15 9 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) 9. 1 6. 3 0. 14 6 0. 02 3 0. 15 8 1. 02 3 1. 01 1 17 9 24 1 0. 10 0 0. 19 2 U se o f i nt er ne t 10 .3 0. 57 0 0. 02 8 0. 04 9 0. 77 1 0. 87 8 17 9 24 1 0. 51 4 0. 62 6 Li fe s at is fa ct io n 11 .1 0. 95 0 0. 01 6 0. 01 7 1. 36 7 1. 16 9 17 9 24 1 0. 91 7 0. 98 3 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 12 .2 0. 00 4 0. 00 3 0. 72 0 1. 50 6 1. 22 7 54 3 73 1 0. 00 0 0. 01 0 U nd er -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 1a 1. 8 0. 02 3 0. 00 8 0. 33 4 1. 38 3 1. 17 6 40 2 52 5 0. 00 8 0. 03 9 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 2. 1b 1. 8 0. 00 4 0. 00 3 0. 72 4 1. 06 6 1. 03 2 40 2 52 5 0. 00 0 0. 00 9 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 2a 0. 13 6 0. 01 7 0. 12 2 1. 23 1 1. 10 9 40 2 52 5 0. 10 3 0. 17 0 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e 2. 4 0. 03 4 0. 00 9 0. 26 3 1. 25 6 1. 12 1 40 1 52 4 0. 01 6 0. 05 1 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s 2. 7 0. 48 0 0. 05 3 0. 11 1 0. 57 5 0. 75 8 40 52 0. 37 4 0. 58 6 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 66 87 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 90 2 0. 03 2 0. 03 6 1. 00 5 1. 00 2 66 87 0. 83 8 0. 96 6 P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 97 7 0. 01 6 0. 01 7 1. 01 2 1. 00 6 66 87 0. 94 5 1. 00 0 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 98 3 0. 00 9 0. 00 9 0. 51 4 0. 71 7 88 11 4 0. 96 5 1. 00 0 C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 85 0 0. 02 4 0. 02 9 0. 52 1 0. 72 2 87 11 3 0. 80 1 0. 89 8 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n 6. 1 0. 33 1 0. 03 7 0. 11 1 1. 35 8 1. 16 5 17 0 22 2 0. 25 7 0. 40 5 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex 6. 8 0. 81 2 0. 02 4 0. 02 9 0. 82 9 0. 91 0 17 0 22 2 0. 76 4 0. 86 0 na : n ot a pp lic ab le ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 0- 49 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 232 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .6 : S am pl in g er ro rs : D ja la l-A ba d S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se H ou se ho ld m em be rs U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 3. 15 0. 45 9 0. 02 6 0. 05 6 2. 43 3 1. 56 0 58 83 90 0 0. 40 8 0. 51 1 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 1 7. 8 0. 81 5 0. 04 1 0. 05 0 9. 88 8 3. 14 4 58 83 90 0 0. 73 4 0. 89 7 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 4. 3 7. 9 0. 99 8 0. 00 1 0. 00 1 0. 79 6 0. 89 2 58 83 90 0 0. 99 6 1. 00 0 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss (c hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y) 7. 2 0. 38 7 0. 03 2 0. 08 3 0. 41 7 0. 64 6 13 4 96 0. 32 3 0. 45 2 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 4 2. 1 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 49 4 35 5 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 0. 97 2 0. 00 7 0. 00 7 0. 83 5 0. 91 4 59 6 42 3 0. 95 8 0. 98 7 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 0. 77 0 0. 03 5 0. 04 5 1. 03 1 1. 01 5 21 2 15 0 0. 70 0 0. 84 0 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 0. 92 6 0. 01 4 0. 01 5 1. 58 9 1. 26 1 80 8 57 3 0. 89 9 0. 95 4 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 2 0. 21 4 0. 02 0 0. 09 4 1. 97 6 1. 40 6 11 28 47 6 0. 17 4 0. 25 4 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e 8. 3 0. 42 9 0. 02 2 0. 05 1 2. 01 9 1. 42 1 14 27 60 1 0. 38 5 0. 47 3 W om en In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 1. 2 4. 2 19 .6 43 6. 40 7 0. 32 6 na na na na 6. 82 9 32 .4 57 U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 1. 5 4. 1 24 .1 11 6. 67 3 0. 27 7 na na na na 10 .7 66 37 .4 56 E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g 2. 6 0. 80 4 0. 02 4 0. 03 0 0. 95 0 0. 97 5 35 1 25 1 0. 75 5 0. 85 3 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 5. 1 5. 4 91 .0 80 12 .0 20 0. 13 2 na na na na 67 .0 41 10 0. 00 0 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g 5. 2 0. 05 8 0. 02 5 0. 42 3 1. 92 6 1. 38 8 24 6 17 6 0. 00 9 0. 10 7 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te 5. 3 5. 3 0. 31 4 0. 02 3 0. 07 5 1. 74 0 1. 31 9 95 9 68 6 0. 26 7 0. 36 1 U nm et n ee d 5. 4 5. 6 0. 26 4 0. 02 3 0. 08 9 1. 93 2 1. 39 0 95 9 68 6 0. 21 7 0. 31 1 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s ki lle d pr ov id er ) 5. 5a 5. 5 0. 99 0 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 0. 86 1 0. 92 8 35 1 25 1 0. 97 8 1. 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) 5. 5b 5. 5 0. 95 3 0. 01 3 0. 01 4 0. 93 7 0. 96 8 35 1 25 1 0. 92 8 0. 97 9 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y 5. 7 5. 2 0. 99 3 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 0. 87 1 0. 93 3 35 1 25 1 0. 98 4 1. 00 0 233 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se C ae sa re an s ec tio n 5. 9 0. 05 5 0. 01 7 0. 32 1 1. 48 2 1. 21 7 35 1 25 1 0. 02 0 0. 08 9 Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) 7. 1 2. 3 0. 99 5 0. 00 3 0. 00 3 0. 85 8 0. 92 6 50 3 35 8 0. 98 9 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 8. 5 0. 13 1 0. 01 7 0. 13 3 2. 06 9 1. 43 8 10 79 77 6 0. 09 6 0. 16 6 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) 9. 1 6. 3 0. 06 0 0. 01 4 0. 22 6 1. 16 8 1. 08 1 50 3 35 8 0. 03 3 0. 08 7 U se o f i nt er ne t 10 .3 0. 57 1 0. 03 2 0. 05 6 1. 48 4 1. 21 8 50 3 35 8 0. 50 7 0. 63 5 Li fe s at is fa ct io n 11 .1 0. 96 7 0. 01 0 0. 01 1 1. 15 8 1. 07 6 50 3 35 8 0. 94 6 0. 98 7 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 12 .2 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 13 36 95 8 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 U nd er -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 1a 1. 8 0. 06 9 0. 00 9 0. 12 3 0. 70 0 0. 83 7 94 5 62 2 0. 05 2 0. 08 6 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 2. 1b 1. 8 0. 01 4 0. 00 3 0. 20 6 0. 37 9 0. 61 5 94 5 62 2 0. 00 8 0. 02 0 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 2a 0. 21 3 0. 01 7 0. 07 8 1. 00 9 1. 00 5 93 1 61 3 0. 18 0 0. 24 6 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e 2. 4 0. 08 7 0. 01 1 0. 12 2 0. 86 2 0. 92 8 93 4 61 4 0. 06 6 0. 10 8 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s 2. 7 0. 17 7 0. 05 4 0. 30 4 1. 06 8 1. 03 4 84 55 0. 06 9 0. 28 4 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 99 4 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 0. 82 5 0. 90 8 19 4 12 9 0. 98 1 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 92 0 0. 02 0 0. 02 2 0. 69 8 0. 83 6 19 4 12 9 0. 88 0 0. 96 0 P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 96 1 0. 01 4 0. 01 4 0. 62 8 0. 79 2 19 4 12 9 0. 93 4 0. 98 8 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 97 4 0. 01 5 0. 01 5 1. 11 6 1. 05 6 19 2 12 9 0. 94 4 1. 00 0 C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 88 0 0. 02 8 0. 03 2 0. 93 3 0. 96 6 19 3 12 9 0. 82 4 0. 93 5 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n 6. 1 0. 11 4 0. 03 1 0. 26 8 2. 18 9 1. 47 9 36 2 23 8 0. 05 3 0. 17 5 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex 6. 8 0. 87 1 0. 02 1 0. 02 4 0. 93 8 0. 96 9 36 2 23 8 0. 82 9 0. 91 3 na : n ot a pp lic ab le 234 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .7 : S am pl in g er ro rs : I ss yk -K ul S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se H ou se ho ld m em be rs U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 3. 15 0. 01 7 0. 00 7 0. 38 1 1. 99 9 1. 41 4 22 45 78 0 0. 00 4 0. 03 1 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 1 7. 8 0. 91 7 0. 03 3 0. 03 6 11 .0 10 3. 31 8 22 45 78 0 0. 85 1 0. 98 3 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 4. 3 7. 9 0. 99 2 0. 00 4 0. 00 5 2. 04 7 1. 43 1 22 45 78 0 0. 98 3 1. 00 0 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss (c hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y) 7. 2 0. 31 5 0. 04 7 0. 14 9 0. 53 3 0. 73 0 42 53 0. 22 1 0. 40 9 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 4 2. 1 0. 99 4 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 0. 65 9 0. 81 2 18 4 23 5 0. 98 6 1. 00 0 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 0. 98 4 0. 01 0 0. 01 0 1. 53 3 1. 23 8 21 5 26 5 0. 96 5 1. 00 0 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 0. 87 6 0. 03 8 0. 04 3 1. 22 7 1. 10 8 72 94 0. 80 0 0. 95 2 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 0. 96 4 0. 01 0 0. 01 1 1. 09 8 1. 04 8 28 7 35 9 0. 94 4 0. 98 5 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 2 0. 15 5 0. 02 0 0. 13 2 2. 14 2 1. 46 3 72 1 34 8 0. 11 4 0. 19 6 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e 8. 3 0. 48 2 0. 02 4 0. 04 9 1. 70 1 1. 30 4 85 2 40 1 0. 43 4 0. 52 9 W om en In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 1. 2 4. 2 (3 9. 58 5) (1 0. 89 2) (0 .2 75 ) na na na na (1 7. 80 2) (6 1. 36 8) U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 1. 5 4. 1 (4 3. 37 1) (1 2. 59 0) (0 .2 90 ) na na na na (1 8. 19 2) (6 8. 55 1) E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g 2. 6 0. 82 8 0. 03 4 0. 04 1 0. 98 4 0. 99 2 97 12 1 0. 75 9 0. 89 6 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 5. 1 5. 4 36 .9 72 12 .8 54 0. 34 8 na na na na 11 .2 64 62 .6 79 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g 5. 2 0. 03 4 0. 02 4 0. 71 6 1. 16 2 1. 07 8 52 66 0. 00 0 0. 08 2 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te 5. 3 5. 3 0. 46 0 0. 02 5 0. 05 5 1. 05 9 1. 02 9 33 0 41 5 0. 41 0 0. 51 1 U nm et n ee d 5. 4 5. 6 0. 15 5 0. 01 7 0. 11 1 0. 94 0 0. 96 9 33 0 41 5 0. 12 0 0. 18 9 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s ki lle d pr ov id er ) 5. 5a 5. 5 0. 96 5 0. 01 8 0. 01 8 1. 10 8 1. 05 2 97 12 1 0. 93 0 1. 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) 5. 5b 5. 5 0. 91 9 0. 02 2 0. 02 4 0. 77 0 0. 87 7 97 12 1 0. 87 5 0. 96 3 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y 5. 7 5. 2 0. 96 5 0. 01 8 0. 01 8 1. 10 8 1. 05 2 97 12 1 0. 93 0 1. 00 0 C ae sa re an s ec tio n 5. 9 0. 07 6 0. 01 7 0. 23 0 0. 52 2 0. 72 2 97 12 1 0. 04 1 0. 11 1 235 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) 7. 1 2. 3 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 13 6 17 1 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 8. 5 0. 10 2 0. 01 4 0. 13 8 1. 05 5 1. 02 7 38 6 48 6 0. 07 4 0. 13 0 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) 9. 1 6. 3 0. 32 4 0. 03 1 0. 09 5 0. 73 3 0. 85 6 13 6 17 1 0. 26 3 0. 38 6 U se o f i nt er ne t 10 .3 0. 85 7 0. 02 1 0. 02 5 0. 62 6 0. 79 1 13 6 17 1 0. 81 5 0. 90 0 Li fe s at is fa ct io n 11 .1 0. 98 3 0. 00 9 0. 01 0 0. 91 2 0. 95 5 13 6 17 1 0. 96 4 1. 00 0 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 12 .2 0. 00 1 0. 00 1 1. 01 0 0. 81 2 0. 90 1 46 9 59 1 0. 00 0 0. 00 4 U nd er -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 1a 1. 8 0. 01 7 0. 01 0 0. 58 8 1. 83 9 1. 35 6 26 2 30 4 0. 00 0 0. 03 8 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 2. 1b 1. 8 0. 01 1 0. 00 8 0. 72 4 1. 71 0 1. 30 7 26 2 30 4 0. 00 0 0. 02 6 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 2a 0. 14 1 0. 02 1 0. 14 9 1. 08 9 1. 04 3 25 8 29 9 0. 09 9 0. 18 3 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e 2. 4 0. 07 8 0. 01 9 0. 23 8 1. 44 7 1. 20 3 26 1 30 3 0. 04 1 0. 11 5 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s 2. 7 (0 .3 5) (0 .0 7) (0 .2 0) (0 .5 2) (0 .7 2) 24 25 (0 .2 1) (0 .4 9) Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 49 58 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 94 5 0. 03 0 0. 03 2 1. 01 0 1. 00 5 49 58 0. 88 4 1. 00 0 P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 49 58 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 97 8 0. 00 2 0. 00 2 0. 01 0 0. 10 0 47 56 0. 97 5 0. 98 2 C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 93 7 0. 02 8 0. 03 0 0. 75 2 0. 86 7 47 56 0. 88 1 0. 99 4 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n 6. 1 0. 25 4 0. 03 9 0. 15 3 1. 03 3 1. 01 7 11 2 13 1 0. 17 6 0. 33 2 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex 6. 8 0. 81 6 0. 04 6 0. 05 7 1. 86 5 1. 36 6 11 2 13 1 0. 72 3 0. 90 9 na : n ot a pp lic ab le ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s, fo r m or ta lit y ra te o n 25 0- 49 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 236 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .8 : S am pl in g er ro rs : N ar yn S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 M IC S In di ca to r M D G In di ca to r Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lo w er bo un d r - 2 se U pp er b ou nd r + 2 se H ou se ho ld m em be rs U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 3. 15 0. 13 7 0. 02 5 0. 18 1 4. 20 5 2. 05 1 14 11 80 9 0. 08 7 0. 18 6 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 1 7. 8 0. 80 7 0. 06 0 0. 07 5 18 .8 61 4. 34 3 14 11 80 9 0. 68 6 0. 92 8 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 4. 3 7. 9 0. 97 0 0. 01 3 0. 01 4 4. 79 1 2. 18 9 14 11 80 9 0. 94 4 0. 99 6 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss (c hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f pr im ar y) 7. 2 0. 39 2 0. 03 2 0. 08 2 0. 45 5 0. 67 4 42 10 5 0. 32 7 0. 45 6 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 4 2. 1 0. 99 3 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 1. 25 5 1. 12 0 13 3 32 7 0. 98 2 1. 00 0 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 0. 98 7 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 1. 19 1 1. 09 1 16 9 41 4 0. 97 4 0. 99 9 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 0. 94 5 0. 01 8 0. 01 9 0. 69 7 0. 83 5 45 11 0 0. 90 8 0. 98 1 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 0. 97 8 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 0. 96 6 0. 98 3 21 4 52 4 0. 96 5 0. 99 0 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 2 0. 20 8 0. 02 4 0. 11 7 2. 91 0 1. 70 6 10 46 45 4 0. 15 9 0. 25 7 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e 8. 3 0. 58 0 0. 03 2 0. 05 5 3. 78 9 1. 94 6 11 99 52 0 0. 51 6 0. 64 3 W om en In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 1. 2 4. 2 (2 7. 01 7) (9 .9 39 ) (0 .3 68 ) na na na na (7 .1 39 ) (4 6. 89 5) U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 1. 5 4. 1 (3 3. 50 1) (1 0. 04 0) (0 .3 00 ) na na na na (1 3. 42 1) (5 3. 58 2) E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g 2. 6 0. 84 4 0. 03 2 0. 03 8 1. 07 5 1. 03 7 56 13 7 0. 78 0 0. 90 9 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 5. 1 5. 4 58 .5 52 14 .8 01 0. 25 3 na na na na 28 .9 50 88 .1 54 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g 5. 2 0. 03 0 0. 02 1 0. 70 9 1. 25 5 1. 12 0 34 83 0. 00 0 0. 07 1 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te 5. 3 5. 3 0. 58 9 0. 02 0 0. 03 4 0. 85 8 0. 92 6 21 0 51 4 0. 54 9 0. 62 9 U nm et n ee d 5. 4 5. 6 0. 08 4 0. 01 4 0. 16 8 1. 32 9 1. 15 3 21 0 51 4 0. 05 6 0. 11 2 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s ki lle d pr ov id er ) 5. 5a 5. 5 0. 97 4 0. 01 5 0. 01 5 1. 12 9 1. 06 3 56 13 7 0. 94 5 1. 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) 5. 5b 5. 5 0. 85 6 0. 03 7 0. 04 4 1. 54 0 1. 24 1 56 13 7 0. 78 2 0. 93 1 237 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report M IC S In di ca to r M D G In di ca to r Va lu e (r ) S ta nd ar d er ro r ( se ) C oe ffi ci en t of va ria tio n (s e/ r) D es ig n ef fe ct (d ef f) S qu ar e ro ot o f de si gn ef fe ct (d ef t) W ei gh te d co un t Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lo w er bo un d r - 2 se U pp er b ou nd r + 2 se S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y 5. 7 5. 2 0. 96 4 0. 02 2 0. 02 2 1. 83 7 1. 35 5 56 13 7 0. 92 1 1. 00 0 C ae sa re an s ec tio n 5. 9 0. 14 0 0. 02 8 0. 19 9 0. 87 7 0. 93 7 56 13 7 0. 08 4 0. 19 6 Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) 7. 1 2. 3 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 83 20 3 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 8. 5 0. 19 1 0. 01 8 0. 09 3 1. 16 5 1. 07 9 23 2 57 3 0. 15 6 0. 22 7 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) 9. 1 6. 3 0. 30 0 0. 03 7 0. 12 3 1. 30 0 1. 14 0 83 20 3 0. 22 6 0. 37 3 U se o f i nt er ne t 10 .3 0. 74 7 0. 03 3 0. 04 4 1. 13 8 1. 06 7 83 20 3 0. 68 2 0. 81 2 Li fe s at is fa ct io n 11 .1 0. 92 5 0. 01 9 0. 02 1 1. 08 1 1. 04 0 83 20 3 0. 88 6 0. 96 3 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 12 .2 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 28 2 69 3 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 U nd er -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 1a 1. 8 0. 02 9 0. 01 1 0. 36 6 1. 70 8 1. 30 7 18 9 43 3 0. 00 8 0. 05 0 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 2. 1b 1. 8 0. 00 7 0. 00 4 0. 57 3 1. 03 6 1. 01 8 18 9 43 3 0. 00 0 0. 01 6 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 2a 0. 16 4 0. 02 3 0. 13 8 1. 60 1 1. 26 5 18 8 43 1 0. 11 8 0. 20 9 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e 2. 4 0. 06 2 0. 01 3 0. 21 2 1. 27 1 1. 12 7 18 9 43 3 0. 03 6 0. 08 8 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s 2. 7 (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) (* ) 9 21 (* ) (* ) Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 34 77 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 84 6 0. 02 3 0. 02 7 0. 30 6 0. 55 3 34 77 0. 80 1 0. 89 2 P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t an y tim e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 95 9 0. 02 3 0. 02 4 1. 05 6 1. 02 8 34 77 0. 91 3 1. 00 0 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 97 6 0. 01 0 0. 01 0 0. 37 3 0. 61 0 38 86 0. 95 5 0. 99 6 C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 89 9 0. 03 8 0. 04 2 1. 31 8 1. 14 8 38 86 0. 82 3 0. 97 4 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n 6. 1 0. 25 6 0. 03 4 0. 13 1 1. 25 4 1. 12 0 92 21 3 0. 18 9 0. 32 3 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex 6. 8 0. 80 5 0. 03 2 0. 04 0 1. 37 4 1. 17 2 92 21 3 0. 74 1 0. 86 9 na : n ot a pp lic ab le (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 0- 49 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 238 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .9 : S am pl in g er ro rs : O sh O bl as t S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se H ou se ho ld m em be rs U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 3. 15 0. 61 7 0. 03 4 0. 05 5 3. 79 3 1. 94 8 59 00 78 7 0. 55 0 0. 68 5 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 1 7. 8 0. 80 7 0. 05 7 0. 07 0 16 .1 51 4. 01 9 59 00 78 7 0. 69 4 0. 92 0 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 4. 3 7. 9 0. 99 7 0. 00 2 0. 00 2 0. 78 4 0. 88 5 59 00 78 7 0. 99 3 1. 00 0 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss (c hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y) 7. 2 0. 39 4 0. 03 9 0. 09 8 0. 69 3 0. 83 2 14 7 11 1 0. 31 6 0. 47 1 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 4 2. 1 0. 99 2 0. 00 7 0. 00 7 2. 68 2 1. 63 8 48 6 36 7 0. 97 8 1. 00 0 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 0. 97 1 0. 01 8 0. 01 8 4. 43 5 2. 10 6 51 7 39 5 0. 93 5 1. 00 0 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 0. 80 0 0. 02 6 0. 03 2 0. 63 6 0. 79 8 20 4 15 3 0. 74 8 0. 85 2 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 0. 92 1 0. 01 3 0. 01 4 1. 20 9 1. 09 9 72 0 54 8 0. 89 6 0. 94 7 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 2 0. 34 7 0. 02 7 0. 07 8 2. 25 8 1. 50 3 12 27 44 7 0. 29 3 0. 40 1 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e 8. 3 0. 57 8 0. 03 6 0. 06 3 4. 91 6 2. 21 7 15 36 57 2 0. 50 6 0. 65 1 W om en In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 1. 2 4. 2 33 .8 78 9. 83 8 0. 29 0 na na na na 14 .2 01 53 .5 54 U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 1. 5 4. 1 (4 8. 98 3) (1 3. 18 6) (0 .2 69 ) na na na na (2 2. 61 0) (7 5. 35 5) E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g 2. 6 0. 92 3 0. 01 8 0. 02 0 1. 32 7 1. 15 2 36 6 28 9 0. 88 6 0. 95 9 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 5. 1 5. 4 78 .1 32 20 .8 71 0. 26 7 na na na na 36 .3 90 10 0. 00 0 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g 5. 2 0. 03 8 0. 02 1 0. 55 8 2. 46 8 1. 57 1 27 6 20 0 0. 00 0 0. 08 1 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te 5. 3 5. 3 0. 38 4 0. 02 8 0. 07 3 2. 37 2 1. 54 0 94 9 72 4 0. 32 9 0. 44 0 U nm et n ee d 5. 4 5. 6 0. 17 6 0. 01 4 0. 08 0 0. 98 8 0. 99 4 94 9 72 4 0. 14 8 0. 20 4 An te na ta l c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s ki lle d pr ov id er ) 5. 5a 5. 5 0. 97 6 0. 01 7 0. 01 7 3. 53 8 1. 88 1 36 6 28 9 0. 94 2 1. 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) 5. 5b 5. 5 0. 94 4 0. 01 6 0. 01 7 1. 32 4 1. 15 1 36 6 28 9 0. 91 3 0. 97 5 239 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y 5. 7 5. 2 0. 97 3 0. 01 7 0. 01 8 3. 25 3 1. 80 4 36 6 28 9 0. 93 8 1. 00 0 C ae sa re an s ec tio n 5. 9 0. 02 3 0. 00 8 0. 32 9 0. 74 5 0. 86 3 36 6 28 9 0. 00 8 0. 03 9 Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) 7. 1 2. 3 0. 97 3 0. 02 6 0. 02 7 9. 84 5 3. 13 8 51 0 37 9 0. 92 1 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 8. 5 0. 14 9 0. 01 8 0. 12 1 2. 01 3 1. 41 9 10 43 78 2 0. 11 3 0. 18 5 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) 9. 1 6. 3 0. 36 1 0. 02 7 0. 07 5 1. 21 2 1. 10 1 51 0 37 9 0. 30 7 0. 41 6 U se o f i nt er ne t 10 .3 0. 70 7 0. 04 0 0. 05 7 2. 94 1 1. 71 5 51 0 37 9 0. 62 7 0. 78 8 Li fe s at is fa ct io n 11 .1 0. 95 9 0. 02 3 0. 02 4 5. 13 5 2. 26 6 51 0 37 9 0. 91 2 1. 00 0 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 12 .2 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 12 77 96 1 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 U nd er -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 1a 1. 8 0. 01 0 0. 00 4 0. 41 9 1. 25 8 1. 12 2 10 01 71 7 0. 00 2 0. 01 8 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 2. 1b 1. 8 0. 00 2 0. 00 2 0. 80 3 1. 13 9 1. 06 7 10 01 71 7 0. 00 0 0. 00 6 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 2a 0. 10 6 0. 01 2 0. 11 7 1. 16 1 1. 07 8 10 00 71 6 0. 08 1 0. 13 0 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e 2. 4 0. 04 7 0. 01 1 0. 23 4 1. 96 0 1. 40 0 10 01 71 8 0. 02 5 0. 07 0 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s 2. 7 0. 47 6 0. 05 2 0. 11 0 0. 76 6 0. 87 5 94 71 0. 37 2 0. 58 1 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 99 1 0. 00 9 0. 00 9 1. 49 1 1. 22 1 21 9 16 0 0. 97 2 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 88 5 0. 01 7 0. 01 9 0. 44 5 0. 66 7 21 9 16 0 0. 85 1 0. 91 8 P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 96 8 0. 01 3 0. 01 4 0. 90 6 0. 95 2 21 7 15 9 0. 94 2 0. 99 5 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 98 9 0. 00 7 0. 00 7 0. 58 1 0. 76 2 18 6 12 9 0. 97 5 1. 00 0 C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 95 5 0. 01 7 0. 01 8 0. 88 8 0. 94 2 18 6 12 9 0. 92 0 0. 98 9 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n 6. 1 0. 12 8 0. 03 3 0. 26 1 2. 82 5 1. 68 1 39 9 28 3 0. 06 1 0. 19 5 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex 6. 8 0. 69 6 0. 03 5 0. 05 1 1. 64 6 1. 28 3 39 9 28 3 0. 62 5 0. 76 6 na : n ot a pp lic ab le ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 0- 49 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 240 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .1 0: S am pl in g er ro rs : T al as S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se H ou se ho ld m em be rs U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 3. 15 0. 05 0 0. 00 8 0. 16 0 1. 04 4 1. 02 2 15 19 77 4 0. 03 4 0. 06 6 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 1 7. 8 0. 97 4 0. 01 0 0. 01 1 3. 23 5 1. 79 9 15 19 77 4 0. 95 4 0. 99 5 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 4. 3 7. 9 0. 98 5 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 0. 82 5 0. 90 8 15 19 77 4 0. 97 7 0. 99 3 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss (c hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y) 7. 2 0. 30 0 0. 05 3 0. 17 6 2. 07 4 1. 44 0 53 15 8 0. 19 5 0. 40 6 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 4 2. 1 0. 99 1 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 0. 60 3 0. 77 7 13 3 38 3 0. 98 3 0. 99 8 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 0. 97 7 0. 00 9 0. 00 9 1. 14 3 1. 06 9 11 5 33 2 0. 95 9 0. 99 4 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 0. 86 9 0. 03 9 0. 04 5 1. 21 3 1. 10 1 32 90 0. 79 0 0. 94 8 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 0. 96 2 0. 00 8 0. 00 9 0. 82 4 0. 90 8 14 6 42 2 0. 94 5 0. 97 9 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 2 0. 22 3 0. 02 8 0. 12 5 2. 85 1 1. 68 9 11 36 41 0 0. 16 7 0. 27 8 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e 8. 3 0. 71 1 0. 02 7 0. 03 8 3. 87 0 1. 96 7 17 13 66 3 0. 65 7 0. 76 5 W om en In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 1. 2 4. 2 16 .9 25 4. 72 3 0. 27 9 na na na na 7. 47 9 26 .3 70 U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 1. 5 4. 1 17 .6 40 4. 72 8 0. 26 8 na na na na 8. 18 4 27 .0 95 E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g 2. 6 0. 92 0 0. 01 3 0. 01 4 0. 75 5 0. 86 9 12 4 35 3 0. 89 5 0. 94 5 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 5. 1 5. 4 12 1. 15 1 18 .2 68 0. 15 1 na na na na 84 .6 15 10 0. 00 0 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g 5. 2 0. 07 7 0. 01 7 0. 22 6 0. 65 1 0. 80 7 56 15 4 0. 04 2 0. 11 2 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te 5. 3 5. 3 0. 43 4 0. 02 0 0. 04 5 1. 18 6 1. 08 9 26 5 75 6 0. 39 5 0. 47 4 U nm et n ee d 5. 4 5. 6 0. 17 8 0. 01 6 0. 08 8 1. 25 6 1. 12 1 26 5 75 6 0. 14 7 0. 20 9 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s ki lle d pr ov id er ) 5. 5a 5. 5 0. 98 1 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 0. 74 5 0. 86 3 12 4 35 3 0. 96 8 0. 99 3 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) 5. 5b 5. 5 0. 88 7 0. 01 8 0. 02 0 1. 07 8 1. 03 8 12 4 35 3 0. 85 2 0. 92 2 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y 5. 7 5. 2 0. 98 1 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 0. 74 5 0. 86 3 12 4 35 3 0. 96 8 0. 99 3 241 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se C ae sa re an s ec tio n 5. 9 0. 05 6 0. 01 4 0. 25 1 1. 31 9 1. 14 9 12 4 35 3 0. 02 8 0. 08 4 Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) 7. 1 2. 3 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 10 2 28 6 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 8. 5 0. 17 8 0. 01 2 0. 06 9 0. 83 8 0. 91 6 28 6 81 7 0. 15 4 0. 20 3 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) 9. 1 6. 3 0. 22 9 0. 01 9 0. 08 3 0. 58 0 0. 76 2 10 2 28 6 0. 19 1 0. 26 7 U se o f i nt er ne t 10 .3 0. 66 5 0. 02 8 0. 04 3 1. 03 7 1. 01 8 10 2 28 6 0. 60 8 0. 72 1 Li fe s at is fa ct io n 11 .1 0. 97 9 0. 01 2 0. 01 2 2. 02 6 1. 42 3 10 2 28 6 0. 95 5 1. 00 0 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 12 .2 0. 00 3 0. 00 2 0. 72 8 1. 33 0 1. 15 3 33 3 94 9 0. 00 0 0. 00 6 U nd er -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 1a 1. 8 0. 02 0 0. 00 4 0. 20 3 0. 76 5 0. 87 5 35 2 93 1 0. 01 2 0. 02 7 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 2. 1b 1. 8 0. 00 3 0. 00 2 0. 57 3 1. 06 2 1. 03 1 35 2 93 1 0. 00 0 0. 00 7 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 2a 0. 11 0 0. 01 0 0. 09 6 1. 05 1 1. 02 5 35 2 93 1 0. 08 9 0. 13 1 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e 2. 4 0. 07 3 0. 01 0 0. 13 9 1. 39 5 1. 18 1 35 2 93 0 0. 05 2 0. 09 3 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s 2. 7 0. 56 5 0. 05 0 0. 08 9 0. 90 2 0. 95 0 34 88 0. 46 4 0. 66 6 Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 99 5 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 0. 92 5 0. 96 2 71 18 8 0. 98 5 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 96 8 0. 01 5 0. 01 5 1. 28 3 1. 13 3 71 18 8 0. 93 9 0. 99 7 P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 97 5 0. 01 3 0. 01 3 1. 27 9 1. 13 1 71 18 8 0. 94 9 1. 00 0 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 94 4 0. 02 8 0. 02 9 2. 64 1 1. 62 5 66 18 0 0. 88 9 1. 00 0 C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 92 2 0. 04 0 0. 04 3 3. 92 1 1. 98 0 66 17 9 0. 84 2 1. 00 0 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n 6. 1 0. 21 6 0. 02 2 0. 10 4 1. 12 1 1. 05 9 14 4 37 8 0. 17 2 0. 26 1 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex 6. 8 0. 84 9 0. 01 8 0. 02 1 0. 93 5 0. 96 7 14 4 37 8 0. 81 4 0. 88 5 na : n ot a pp lic ab le 242 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .1 1: S am pl in g er ro rs : C hu i S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se H ou se ho ld m em be rs U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 3. 15 0. 05 2 0. 01 6 0. 30 1 3. 97 1 1. 99 3 53 12 79 2 0. 02 1 0. 08 4 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 1 7. 8 0. 99 1 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 3. 04 2 1. 74 4 53 12 79 2 0. 97 9 1. 00 0 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 4. 3 7. 9 0. 99 0 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 1. 19 8 1. 09 4 53 12 79 2 0. 98 3 0. 99 8 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss (c hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y) 7. 2 0. 37 6 0. 04 1 0. 10 9 0. 45 3 0. 67 3 10 7 64 0. 29 4 0. 45 8 P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 4 2. 1 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 37 2 21 9 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 0. 97 7 0. 01 0 0. 01 1 1. 14 8 1. 07 1 39 7 23 5 0. 95 6 0. 99 8 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 0. 74 3 0. 06 6 0. 08 9 1. 93 9 1. 39 2 15 1 86 0. 61 0 0. 87 5 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 0. 92 1 0. 02 5 0. 02 7 2. 76 4 1. 66 3 54 8 32 1 0. 87 1 0. 97 1 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 2 0. 42 6 0. 02 6 0. 06 1 1. 71 2 1. 30 8 66 3 32 2 0. 37 5 0. 47 8 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e 8. 3 0. 66 8 0. 02 5 0. 03 8 2. 14 1 1. 46 3 84 1 39 6 0. 61 7 0. 71 8 W om en In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 1. 2 4. 2 (1 6. 18 9) (6 .3 60 ) (0 .3 93 ) na na na na (3 .4 69 ) (2 8. 91 0) U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 1. 5 4. 1 (1 8. 48 7) (6 .4 02 ) (0 .3 46 ) na na na na (5 .6 82 ) (3 1. 29 2) E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g 2. 6 0. 67 3 0. 03 3 0. 04 9 0. 74 4 0. 86 3 26 0 15 3 0. 60 8 0. 73 9 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 5. 1 5. 4 46 .5 81 12 .1 83 0. 26 2 na na na na 22 .2 14 70 .9 48 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g 5. 2 0. 02 4 0. 00 8 0. 33 0 0. 29 5 0. 54 3 20 0 11 0 0. 00 8 0. 04 0 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te 5. 3 5. 3 0. 47 8 0. 02 0 0. 04 2 0. 75 3 0. 86 7 82 7 46 3 0. 43 8 0. 51 8 U nm et n ee d 5. 4 5. 6 0. 20 7 0. 02 1 0. 10 3 1. 28 8 1. 13 5 82 7 46 3 0. 16 4 0. 25 0 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s ki lle d pr ov id er ) 5. 5a 5. 5 0. 98 0 0. 01 2 0. 01 2 1. 06 9 1. 03 4 26 0 15 3 0. 95 7 1. 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) 5. 5b 5. 5 0. 95 5 0. 01 6 0. 01 6 0. 88 0 0. 93 8 26 0 15 3 0. 92 4 0. 98 7 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y 5. 7 5. 2 0. 98 1 0. 01 2 0. 01 2 1. 11 1 1. 05 4 26 0 15 3 0. 95 7 1. 00 0 243 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se C ae sa re an s ec tio n 5. 9 0. 13 7 0. 02 6 0. 18 8 0. 84 8 0. 92 1 26 0 15 3 0. 08 6 0. 18 8 Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) 7. 1 2. 3 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 37 9 21 1 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 8. 5 0. 13 4 0. 01 7 0. 12 6 1. 43 0 1. 19 6 10 37 58 2 0. 10 0 0. 16 8 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) 9. 1 6. 3 0. 10 1 0. 02 3 0. 22 9 1. 23 2 1. 11 0 37 9 21 1 0. 05 5 0. 14 7 U se o f i nt er ne t 10 .3 0. 84 7 0. 03 9 0. 04 6 2. 49 0 1. 57 8 37 9 21 1 0. 76 8 0. 92 5 Li fe s at is fa ct io n 11 .1 0. 96 4 0. 01 4 0. 01 4 1. 10 1 1. 04 9 37 9 21 1 0. 93 7 0. 99 1 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 12 .2 0. 01 9 0. 00 5 0. 25 8 0. 85 3 0. 92 4 12 16 68 3 0. 00 9 0. 02 8 U nd er -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 1a 1. 8 0. 01 6 0. 00 7 0. 43 3 1. 01 7 1. 00 8 63 7 33 6 0. 00 2 0. 03 0 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 2. 1b 1. 8 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 63 7 33 6 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 2a 0. 07 6 0. 01 6 0. 20 8 1. 18 7 1. 08 9 63 1 33 3 0. 04 4 0. 10 8 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e 2. 4 0. 09 0 0. 01 7 0. 19 2 1. 20 4 1. 09 7 62 8 33 0 0. 05 6 0. 12 5 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s 2. 7 (0 .4 7) (0 .0 8) (0 .1 6) (0 .9 6) (0 .9 8) 80 42 (0 .3 2) (0 .6 3) Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 12 1 66 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 92 3 0. 02 8 0. 03 1 0. 72 8 0. 85 3 12 1 66 0. 86 7 0. 98 0 P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 91 3 0. 03 7 0. 04 1 1. 13 4 1. 06 5 12 1 66 0. 83 9 0. 98 7 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 95 6 0. 01 4 0. 01 5 0. 37 1 0. 60 9 15 8 80 0. 92 8 0. 98 4 C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 88 2 0. 02 4 0. 02 8 0. 43 8 0. 66 2 15 3 77 0. 83 3 0. 93 1 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n 6. 1 0. 24 7 0. 03 8 0. 15 5 1. 11 2 1. 05 4 27 3 14 2 0. 17 0 0. 32 3 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex 6. 8 0. 73 5 0. 04 1 0. 05 6 1. 21 6 1. 10 3 27 3 14 2 0. 65 3 0. 81 7 na : n ot a pp lic ab le ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s, fo r m or ta lit y ra te o n 25 0- 49 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – п ок аз ат ел и ос но ва ны н а 25 –4 9 не вз ве ш ен ны х на бл ю де ни ях , д ля к оэ ф ф иц ие нт ов с м ер тн ос ти н а 25 0– 49 9 не вз ве ш ен ны х на бл ю де ни ях 244 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .1 2: S am pl in g er ro rs : B is hk ek C ity S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se H ou se ho ld m em be rs U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 3. 15 0. 00 2 0. 00 2 0. 98 7 1. 48 5 1. 21 8 38 12 73 8 0. 00 0 0. 00 6 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 1 7. 8 0. 99 9 0. 00 1 0. 00 1 0. 83 2 0. 91 2 38 12 73 8 0. 99 7 1. 00 0 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 4. 3 7. 9 0. 87 2 0. 04 1 0. 04 6 10 .8 64 3. 29 6 38 12 73 8 0. 79 1 0. 95 3 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss (c hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y) 7. 2 (0 .6 8) (0 .0 5) (0 .0 7) (0 .3 4) (0 .5 9) 46 32 (0 .5 8) (0 .7 8) P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 4 2. 1 0. 97 6 0. 01 1 0. 01 1 0. 70 5 0. 84 0 23 6 14 6 0. 95 4 0. 99 7 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 0. 99 3 0. 00 6 0. 00 7 1. 00 5 1. 00 3 25 7 15 6 0. 98 1 1. 00 0 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 0. 92 5 0. 01 4 0. 01 5 0. 20 1 0. 44 8 12 1 72 0. 89 7 0. 95 3 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 0. 96 9 0. 00 9 0. 01 0 0. 64 2 0. 80 1 37 7 22 8 0. 95 0 0. 98 7 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 2 0. 04 5 0. 01 6 0. 34 6 2. 70 0 1. 64 3 42 2 22 5 0. 01 4 0. 07 6 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e 8. 3 0. 70 3 0. 03 0 0. 04 3 2. 75 6 1. 66 0 56 0 29 5 0. 64 2 0. 76 4 W om en In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 1. 2 4. 2 (1 3. 56 5) (9 .6 27 ) (0 .7 10 ) na na na na (0 .0 00 ) (3 2. 81 8) U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 1. 5 4. 1 (* ) (* ) (* ) na na na na (* ) (* ) E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g 2. 6 0. 78 8 0. 02 9 0. 03 7 0. 61 3 0. 78 3 19 7 12 2 0. 73 0 0. 84 6 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 5. 1 5. 4 15 .1 72 6. 13 9 0. 40 5 na na na na 2. 89 5 27 .4 50 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g 5. 2 0. 01 0 0. 01 0 0. 98 2 1. 20 5 1. 09 8 19 6 12 0 0. 00 0 0. 03 1 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te 5. 3 5. 3 0. 47 0 0. 04 3 0. 09 1 2. 66 9 1. 63 4 58 5 36 0 0. 38 4 0. 55 6 U nm et n ee d 5. 4 5. 6 0. 15 9 0. 02 2 0. 13 9 1. 31 2 1. 14 5 58 5 36 0 0. 11 5 0. 20 3 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s ki lle d pr ov id er ) 5. 5a 5. 5 0. 99 6 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 0. 50 6 0. 71 2 19 7 12 2 0. 98 7 1. 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) 5. 5b 5. 5 0. 99 6 0. 00 4 0. 00 4 0. 50 6 0. 71 2 19 7 12 2 0. 98 7 1. 00 0 S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y 5. 7 5. 2 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 19 7 12 2 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 245 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se C ae sa re an s ec tio n 5. 9 0. 13 2 0. 02 7 0. 20 4 0. 76 5 0. 87 4 19 7 12 2 0. 07 8 0. 18 6 Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) 7. 1 2. 3 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 36 2 21 9 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 8. 5 0. 07 4 0. 01 0 0. 12 9 0. 73 9 0. 85 9 90 7 55 4 0. 05 5 0. 09 3 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) 9. 1 6. 3 0. 20 6 0. 02 8 0. 13 6 1. 04 5 1. 02 2 36 2 21 9 0. 15 0 0. 26 2 U se o f i nt er ne t 10 .3 0. 94 2 0. 01 9 0. 02 0 1. 47 0 1. 21 3 36 2 21 9 0. 90 3 0. 98 0 Li fe s at is fa ct io n 11 .1 0. 95 6 0. 01 3 0. 01 3 0. 81 4 0. 90 2 36 2 21 9 0. 93 0 0. 98 1 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 12 .2 0. 00 7 0. 00 4 0. 47 5 1. 09 7 1. 04 8 10 72 65 3 0. 00 0 0. 01 4 U nd er -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 1a 1. 8 0. 01 1 0. 00 7 0. 59 0 1. 04 2 1. 02 1 46 7 26 9 0. 00 0 0. 02 4 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 2. 1b 1. 8 0. 00 5 0. 00 5 0. 96 4 1. 24 1 1. 11 4 46 7 26 9 0. 00 0 0. 01 5 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 2a 0. 07 6 0. 01 5 0. 19 5 0. 83 0 0. 91 1 46 7 26 9 0. 04 6 0. 10 5 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e 2. 4 0. 09 5 0. 02 1 0. 22 5 1. 41 5 1. 19 0 46 7 26 9 0. 05 2 0. 13 7 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s 2. 7 (0 .3 9) (0 .0 4) (0 .1 1) (0 .2 7) (0 .5 2) 66 37 (0 .3 1) (0 .4 8) Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 90 50 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 78 9 0. 05 5 0. 07 0 0. 89 2 0. 94 4 90 50 0. 67 9 0. 89 9 P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - (0 .9 0) (0 .0 4) (0 .0 4) (0 .8 7) (0 .9 3) 89 49 (0 .8 2) (0 .9 8) M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 91 7 0. 02 7 0. 02 9 0. 59 2 0. 77 0 10 9 65 0. 86 3 0. 97 0 C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 71 5 0. 05 5 0. 07 8 0. 98 2 0. 99 1 10 9 66 0. 60 4 0. 82 6 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n 6. 1 0. 44 8 0. 06 6 0. 14 8 1. 52 5 1. 23 5 15 0 87 0. 31 6 0. 58 1 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex 6. 8 0. 87 4 0. 04 2 0. 04 9 1. 40 4 1. 18 5 15 0 87 0. 78 9 0. 95 9 na : n ot a pp lic ab le ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s, fo r m or ta lit y ra te o n 25 0- 49 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 50 u nw ei gh te d ca se s 246 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e SE .1 3: S am pl in g er ro rs : O sh C ity S ta nd ar d er ro rs , c oe ffi ci en ts o f v ar ia tio n, d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef f), s qu ar e ro ot o f d es ig n ef fe ct s (d ef t), a nd c on fid en ce in te rv al s fo r s el ec te d in di ca to rs , K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se H ou se ho ld m em be rs U se o f s ol id fu el s fo r c oo ki ng 3. 15 0. 08 4 0. 03 1 0. 36 6 7. 66 0 2. 76 8 12 73 62 4 0. 02 3 0. 14 6 U se o f i m pr ov ed d rin ki ng w at er s ou rc es 4. 1 7. 8 0. 89 8 0. 04 2 0. 04 6 11 .8 22 3. 43 8 12 73 62 4 0. 81 5 0. 98 2 U se o f i m pr ov ed s an ita tio n 4. 3 7. 9 0. 96 0 0. 01 9 0. 02 0 6. 07 2 2. 46 4 12 73 62 4 0. 92 2 0. 99 9 S ch oo l r ea di ne ss (c hi ld re n at te nd in g fir st g ra de o f p rim ar y) 7. 2 (0 .5 1) (0 .0 6) (0 .1 3) (0 .7 7) (0 .8 8) 24 48 (0 .3 8) (0 .6 4) P rim ar y sc ho ol n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 4 2. 1 0. 98 5 0. 01 0 0. 01 0 1. 02 7 1. 01 3 81 16 2 0. 96 6 1. 00 0 Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 1 0. 98 0 0. 01 0 0. 01 0 1. 09 2 1. 04 5 10 1 20 8 0. 96 0 1. 00 0 U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. S S 2 0. 78 0 0. 05 0 0. 06 5 1. 32 3 1. 15 0 45 90 0. 68 0 0. 88 1 S ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 7. 5 0. 90 5 0. 02 5 0. 02 7 2. 07 7 1. 44 1 14 6 29 8 0. 85 6 0. 95 4 C hi ld la bo ur 8. 2 0. 12 0 0. 01 8 0. 14 7 1. 53 8 1. 24 0 54 4 26 6 0. 08 5 0. 15 6 Vi ol en t d is ci pl in e 8. 3 0. 71 1 0. 03 4 0. 04 8 3. 59 3 1. 89 6 70 9 33 7 0. 64 4 0. 77 9 W om en In fa nt m or ta lit y ra te 1. 2 4. 2 (1 7. 21 0) (7 .4 17 ) (0 .4 31 ) na na na na (2 .3 87 ) (3 2. 05 3) U nd er fi ve m or ta lit y ra te 1. 5 4. 1 (* ) (* ) (* ) na na na na (* ) (* ) E ar ly in iti at io n of b re as tfe ed in g 2. 6 0. 87 2 0. 02 2 0. 02 5 0. 63 2 0. 79 5 76 14 5 0. 82 8 0. 91 6 A do le sc en t b irt h ra te 5. 1 5. 4 52 .2 99 12 .4 99 0. 23 9 na na na na 27 .3 00 77 .2 97 E ar ly c hi ld be ar in g 5. 2 0. 04 9 0. 01 8 0. 38 1 0. 92 4 0. 96 1 66 12 6 0. 01 2 0. 08 5 C on tra ce pt iv e pr ev al en ce ra te 5. 3 5. 3 0. 38 3 0. 02 2 0. 05 7 0. 84 4 0. 91 9 21 7 42 3 0. 34 0 0. 42 7 U nm et n ee d 5. 4 5. 6 0. 17 7 0. 02 2 0. 12 4 1. 40 6 1. 18 6 21 7 42 3 0. 13 3 0. 22 1 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (1 + tim es , s ki lle d pr ov id er ) 5. 5a 5. 5 0. 99 5 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 0. 84 1 0. 91 7 76 14 5 0. 98 3 1. 00 0 A nt en at al c ar e co ve ra ge (4 + tim es , a ny p ro vi de r) 5. 5b 5. 5 0. 94 5 0. 01 5 0. 01 6 0. 65 3 0. 80 8 76 14 5 0. 91 4 0. 97 5 247 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS Indicator MDG Indicator Value (r) Standard error (se) Coefficient of variation (se/r) Design effect (deff) Square root of design effect (deft) Weighted count Unweighted count C on fid en ce li m its Lower bound r - 2se Upper bound r + 2se S ki lle d at te nd an t a t d el iv er y 5. 7 5. 2 0. 99 5 0. 00 6 0. 00 6 0. 84 1 0. 91 7 76 14 5 0. 98 3 1. 00 0 C ae sa re an s ec tio n 5. 9 0. 10 5 0. 01 8 0. 17 0 0. 48 5 0. 69 7 76 14 5 0. 06 9 0. 14 0 Li te ra cy ra te (y ou ng w om en ) 7. 1 2. 3 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 12 9 24 9 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 M ar ria ge b ef or e ag e 18 8. 5 0. 09 7 0. 01 2 0. 12 3 0. 83 0 0. 91 1 26 3 51 2 0. 07 3 0. 12 1 K no w le dg e ab ou t H IV p re ve nt io n (y ou ng w om en ) 9. 1 6. 3 0. 11 6 0. 02 7 0. 23 2 1. 74 7 1. 32 2 12 9 24 9 0. 06 2 0. 17 0 U se o f i nt er ne t 10 .3 0. 62 9 0. 05 9 0. 09 3 3. 66 0 1. 91 3 12 9 24 9 0. 51 2 0. 74 7 Li fe s at is fa ct io n 11 .1 0. 95 3 0. 01 4 0. 01 5 1. 16 2 1. 07 8 12 9 24 9 0. 92 4 0. 98 2 S m ok in g be fo re a ge 1 5 12 .2 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 32 6 63 5 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 U nd er -5 s U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 1a 1. 8 0. 03 9 0. 01 5 0. 37 9 1. 92 6 1. 38 8 18 7 33 3 0. 00 9 0. 06 8 U nd er w ei gh t p re va le nc e (s ev er e) 2. 1b 1. 8 0. 00 5 0. 00 3 0. 67 7 0. 72 0 0. 84 9 18 7 33 3 0. 00 0 0. 01 1 S tu nt in g pr ev al en ce (m od er at e an d se ve re ) 2. 2a 0. 12 1 0. 01 6 0. 13 2 0. 78 0 0. 88 3 18 3 32 8 0. 08 9 0. 15 3 O ve rw ei gh t p re va le nc e 2. 4 0. 04 3 0. 01 3 0. 29 7 1. 27 2 1. 12 8 18 2 32 4 0. 01 7 0. 06 8 E xc lu si ve b re as tfe ed in g un de r 6 m on th s 2. 7 (0 .4 6) (0 .1 0) (0 .2 2) (1 .6 4) (1 .2 8) 23 41 (0 .2 5) (0 .6 6) Tu be rc ul os is im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 1. 00 0 0. 00 0 0. 00 0 na na 37 65 1. 00 0 1. 00 0 P ol io im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 88 0 0. 02 9 0. 03 3 0. 52 1 0. 72 2 37 65 0. 82 1 0. 93 8 P en ta va le nt D P T+ H ep B +H ib im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 96 3 0. 02 1 0. 02 2 0. 79 8 0. 89 3 37 65 0. 92 1 1. 00 0 M ea sl es im m un iz at io n co ve ra ge a t a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 99 0 0. 00 1 0. 00 1 0. 00 9 0. 09 6 46 81 0. 98 8 0. 99 2 C hi ld re n fu lly v ac ci na te d at a ny ti m e be fo re th e su rv ey - 0. 87 8 0. 03 5 0. 04 0 0. 92 4 0. 96 2 46 82 0. 80 8 0. 94 8 A tte nd an ce to e ar ly c hi ld ho od e du ca tio n 6. 1 0. 51 6 0. 05 1 0. 09 9 1. 26 9 1. 12 6 67 12 2 0. 41 4 0. 61 8 E ar ly c hi ld d ev el op m en t i nd ex 6. 8 0. 52 0 0. 06 1 0. 11 6 1. 78 1 1. 33 4 67 12 2 0. 39 9 0. 64 2 na : n ot a pp lic ab le ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s, fo r m or ta lit y ra te o n 25 0- 49 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 50 u nw ei gh te d ca se s 248 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Appendix D. Data Quality Tables Table DQ.1: Age distribution of household population Single-year age distribution of household population by sex, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Males Females Males Females Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent Age Age 0 490 3.4 460 3.0 45 152 1.0 151 1.0 1 452 3.1 376 2.5 46 143 1.0 165 1.1 2 407 2.8 452 3.0 47 148 1.0 159 1.0 3 443 3.0 403 2.7 48 135 0.9 150 1.0 4 375 2.6 374 2.5 49 132 0.9 117 0.8 5 406 2.8 337 2.2 50 164 1.1 245 1.6 6 390 2.7 340 2.2 51 142 1.0 174 1.1 7 301 2.1 320 2.1 52 171 1.2 199 1.3 8 318 2.2 292 1.9 53 162 1.1 202 1.3 9 289 2.0 297 2.0 54 153 1.0 164 1.1 10 278 1.9 277 1.8 55 137 0.9 208 1.4 11 239 1.6 251 1.7 56 159 1.1 150 1.0 12 288 2.0 248 1.6 57 144 1.0 133 0.9 13 262 1.8 270 1.8 58 110 0.8 148 1.0 14 267 1.8 267 1.8 59 99 0.7 131 0.9 15 276 1.9 249 1.6 60 81 0.6 154 1.0 16 256 1.8 226 1.5 61 75 0.5 106 0.7 17 261 1.8 221 1.5 62 81 0.6 116 0.8 18 237 1.6 257 1.7 63 69 0.5 99 0.7 19 201 1.4 223 1.5 64 119 0.8 99 0.6 20 225 1.5 233 1.5 65 61 0.4 88 0.6 21 191 1.3 256 1.7 66 59 0.4 102 0.7 22 237 1.6 256 1.7 67 53 0.4 77 0.5 23 227 1.6 232 1.5 68 37 0.3 47 0.3 24 211 1.4 246 1.6 69 33 0.2 25 0.2 25 216 1.5 226 1.5 70 33 0.2 29 0.2 26 221 1.5 223 1.5 71 26 0.2 25 0.2 27 262 1.8 243 1.6 72 42 0.3 64 0.4 28 237 1.6 223 1.5 73 44 0.3 63 0.4 29 237 1.6 230 1.5 74 33 0.2 53 0.3 30 165 1.1 189 1.2 75 41 0.3 49 0.3 31 203 1.4 198 1.3 76 30 0.2 53 0.3 32 212 1.5 207 1.4 77 30 0.2 46 0.3 33 164 1.1 166 1.1 78 35 0.2 51 0.3 34 190 1.3 178 1.2 79 33 0.2 25 0.2 35 184 1.3 177 1.2 80 19 0.1 29 0.2 36 166 1.1 181 1.2 81 16 0.1 20 0.1 37 202 1.4 170 1.1 82 17 0.1 18 0.1 38 143 1.0 156 1.0 83 13 0.1 25 0.2 39 179 1.2 169 1.1 84 17 0.1 28 0.2 40 159 1.1 167 1.1 85+ 53 0.4 89 0.6 41 145 1.0 146 1.0 42 155 1.1 157 1.0 DK/Missing 0 0.0 3 0.0 43 158 1.1 169 1.1 44 172 1.2 170 1.1 Total 14597 100 15189 100 249 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Figure DQ.1: Household population by single ages, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Note: The graph excludes 3 household members with unknown age and/or sex 0 100 200 300 400 500 600 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80 85+ Number Age Males Females Table DQ.2: Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women Household population of women age 10-54 years, interviewed women age 15-49 years, and percentage of eligible women who were interviewed, by five-year age groups, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Household population of women age 10-54 years Interviewed women age 15-49 years Percentage of eligible women interviewed (Completion rate)Number Number Percent Age 10-14 1313 na na na 15-19 1176 1152 17.1 97.9 20-24 1225 1196 17.7 97.7 25-29 1145 1129 16.7 98.6 30-34 937 920 13.6 98.2 35-39 854 843 12.5 98.7 40-44 809 793 11.7 98.1 45-49 742 723 10.7 97.3 50-54 984 na na na Total (15-49) 6889 6756 100.0 98.1 Ratio of 50-54 to 45-49 1.3 na na na na: not applicable 250 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table DQ.3: Age distribution of children in household and under-5 questionnaires Household population of children age 0-7 years, children age 0-4 years whose mothers (or caretakers) were interviewed, and percentage of under-5 children whose mothers (or caretakers) were interviewed, by single years of age, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Household population of children 0-7 years Under-5s with completed interviews Percentage of eligible under-5s with completed interviews (Completion rate)Number Number Percent Age 0 951 934 22.3 98.3 1 828 817 19.5 98.6 2 859 854 20.4 99.4 3 846 840 20.0 99.3 4 749 748 17.8 99.7 5 743 na na na 6 730 na na na 7 621 na na na Total (0-4) 4233 4192 100.0 99.0 Ratio of 5 to 4 0.99 na na na na: not applicable Table DQ.4: Birth date reporting: Household population Percent distribution of household population by completeness of date of birth information, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Completeness of reporting of month and year of birth Total Number of household members Year and month of birth Year of birth only Month of birth only Both missing Total 99.7 0.2 0.0 0.1 100.0 29786 Age 0-4 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 4233 5-14 99.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 5936 15-24 99.8 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 4722 25-49 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 8970 50-64 99.5 0.4 0.0 0.1 100.0 4192 65-84 97.7 1.5 0.2 0.6 100.0 1587 85+ 91.7 8.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 142 DK/Missing na na 0.0 0.0 100.0 3 Region Batken 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2432 Djalal-Abad 99.5 0.4 0.0 0.1 100.0 5883 Issyk-Kul 99.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 2245 Naryn 99.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1411 Osh Oblast 99.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 5900 Talas 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1519 Chui 99.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 100.0 5312 Bishkek City 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 3812 Osh City 99.7 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 1273 Area Urban 99.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 9393 Rural 99.6 0.3 0.0 0.1 100.0 20393 na: not applicable 251 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table DQ.5: Birth date and age reporting: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 years by completeness of date of birth/age information, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Completeness of reporting of date of birth and age Total Number of women age 15-49 years Year and month of birth Year of birth and age Year of birth only Age only Other/DK/ Missing Total 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 6854 Region Batken 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 543 Djalal-Abad 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1336 Issyk-Kul 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 469 Naryn 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 282 Osh Oblast 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1277 Talas 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 333 Chui 99.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1216 Bishkek City 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1072 Osh City 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 326 Area Urban 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2424 Rural 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 4430 Table DQ.6: Birth date and age reporting: Under-5s Percent distribution children under 5 by completeness of date of birth/age information, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Completeness of reporting of date of birth and age Total Number of under-5 children Year and month of birth Year of birth and age Year of birth only Age only Other/DK/Missing Total 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 4577 Region Batken 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 408 Djalal-Abad 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 956 Issyk-Kul 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 264 Naryn 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 195 Osh Oblast 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1015 Talas 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 352 Chui 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 715 Bishkek City 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 474 Osh City 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 198 Area Urban 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1360 Rural 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3217 252 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table DQ.7: Birth date reporting: Children, adolescents and young people Percent distribution of children, adolescents and young people age 5-24 years by completeness of date of birth information, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Completeness of reporting of month and year of birth Total Number of children, adolescents and young people age 5-24 years Year and month of birth Year of birth only Month of birth only Both missing Total 99.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 10658 Region Batken 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 879 Djalal-Abad 99.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 2247 Issyk-Kul 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 758 Naryn 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 527 Osh Oblast 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2261 Talas 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 526 Chui 99.5 0.3 0.0 0.1 100.0 1774 Bishkek City 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1221 Osh City 99.7 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 465 Area Urban 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3168 Rural 99.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 7490 Table DQ.8: Birth date reporting: First and last births Percent distribution of first and last births to women age 15-49 years by completeness of date of birth, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Completeness of reporting of date of birth Date of first birth Total Number of first births Date of last birth Total Number of last births Year and month of birth Year of birth only Completed years since first birth only Other/ DK/ Missing Year and month of birth Year of birth only Other/DK/ Missing Total 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 4918 99.9 0.1 0.1 100.0 3910 Region Batken 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 416 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 338 Djalal-Abad 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 986 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 778 Issyk-Kul 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 347 99.7 0.3 0.0 100.0 290 Naryn 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 218 99.8 0.0 0.2 100.0 194 Osh Oblast 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 923 99.8 0.0 0.2 100.0 758 Talas 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 272 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 240 Chui 99.8 0.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 875 99.7 0.3 0.0 100.0 670 Bishkek City 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 661 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 463 Osh City 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 219 100.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 179 Area Urban 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 1647 99.9 0.1 0.0 100.0 1252 Rural 99.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 3271 99.8 0.1 0.1 100.0 2659 253 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table DQ.9: Completeness of reporting Percentage of observations that are missing information for selected questions and indicators, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Questionnaire and type of missing information Reference group Percent with missing/ incomplete informationa Number of cases Household Salt test result All households interviewed that have salt 0.2 6934 Starting time of interview All households interviewed 0.0 6934 Ending time of interview All households interviewed 0.0 6934 Women Date of first marriage/union All ever married women age 15-49 Only month 0.9 5356 Both month and year 2.8 5356 Age at first marriage/union All ever married women age 15-49 with year of first marriage not known 0.1 5356 Starting time of interview All women interviewed 0.0 6854 Ending time of interview All women interviewed 0.0 6854 Under-5 Starting time of interview All under-5 children 0.0 4577 Ending time of interview All under-5 children 0.1 4577 a Includes "Don't know" responses Table DQ.10: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Underweight Percent distribution of children under 5 by completeness of information on date of birth and weight, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Valid weight and date of birth Reason for exclusion from analysis Total Percent of children excluded from analysis Number of children under 5 Weight not measured Incomplete date of birth Weight not measured and incomplete date of birth Flagged cases (outliers) Total 97.0 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3.0 4577 Age <6 months 96.9 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 3.1 455 6-11 months 99.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 1.0 534 12-23 months 98.2 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 1.8 880 24-35 months 96.6 3.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 3.4 939 36-47 months 94.9 5.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 5.1 925 48-59 months 97.4 2.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 2.6 845 254 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table DQ.11: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Stunting Percent distribution of children under 5 by completeness of information on date of birth and length or height, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Valid length/ height and date of birth Reason for exclusion from analysis Total Percent of children excluded from analysis Number of children under 5 Length/ Height not measured Incomplete date of birth Length/ Height not measured, incomplete date of birth Flagged cases (outliers) Total 96.4 3.0 0.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 3.6 4577 Age <6 months 96.3 3.1 0.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 3.7 455 6-11 months 98.4 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 1.6 534 12-23 months 97.8 1.7 0.0 0.0 0.5 100.0 2.2 880 24-35 months 95.6 3.4 0.0 0.0 1.0 100.0 4.4 939 36-47 months 94.4 5.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 5.6 925 48-59 months 96.8 2.6 0.0 0.0 0.6 100.0 3.2 845 Table DQ.12: Completeness of information for anthropometric indicators: Wasting Percent distribution of children under 5 by completeness of information on weight and length or height, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Valid weight and length/ height Reason for exclusion from analysis Total Percent of children excluded from analysis Number of children under 5 Weight not measured Length/ Height not measured Weight and length/ height not measured Flagged cases (outliers) Total 96.4 0.0 0.0 2.9 0.6 100.0 3.6 4577 Age <6 months 94.4 0.0 0.1 3.0 2.5 100.0 5.6 455 6-11 months 98.8 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.3 100.0 1.2 534 12-23 months 97.8 0.0 0.0 1.7 0.5 100.0 2.2 880 24-35 months 95.8 0.0 0.0 3.4 0.7 100.0 4.2 939 36-47 months 94.8 0.0 0.0 5.1 0.1 100.0 5.2 925 48-59 months 97.2 0.0 0.0 2.6 0.3 100.0 2.8 845 255 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table DQ.13: Heaping in anthropometric measurements Distribution of weight and height/length measurements by digits reported for the decimal points, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Weight Height or length Number Percent Number Percent Total 4443 100.0 4443 100.0 Digits 0 314 7.1 546 12.3 1 523 11.8 514 11.6 2 548 12.3 583 13.1 3 441 9.9 513 11.5 4 436 9.8 463 10.4 5 415 9.3 402 9.0 6 390 8.8 402 9.0 7 412 9.3 362 8.2 8 492 11.1 337 7.6 9 473 10.6 320 7.2 0 or 5 728 16.4 947 21.3 Figure DQ.2: Weight and height/length measurements by digits reported for the decimal points, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 7 12 12 10 10 9 9 9 11 11 12 12 13 12 10 9 9 8 8 7 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Pe rc en t Digits reported Weight Height or length 256 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table DQ.14: Observation of birth certificates Percent distribution of children under 5 by presence of birth certificates, and percentage of birth certificates seen, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Child has birth certificate Child does not have birth certificate DK/Missing Total Percentage of birth certificates seen by the interviewer (1)/(1+2)*100 Number of children under age 5 Seen by the interviewer (1) Not seen by the interviewer (2) Total 67.5 28.0 4.4 0.1 100.0 70.7 4577 Region Batken 72.1 25.8 2.1 0.0 100.0 73.7 408 Djalal-Abad 78.9 16.0 5.0 0.0 100.0 83.1 956 Issyk-Kul 66.7 28.1 5.2 0.0 100.0 70.4 264 Naryn 60.4 37.1 2.4 0.0 100.0 62.0 195 Osh Oblast 54.6 40.6 4.6 0.2 100.0 57.4 1015 Talas 67.5 28.7 3.8 0.0 100.0 70.2 352 Chui 70.2 25.1 4.7 0.0 100.0 73.7 715 Bishkek City 67.9 28.2 3.8 0.0 100.0 70.6 474 Osh City 66.7 25.3 8.0 0.0 100.0 72.5 198 Area Urban 67.6 28.4 4.0 0.0 100.0 70.4 1360 Rural 67.5 27.8 4.6 0.1 100.0 70.8 3217 Child's age 0-5 months 65.8 21.1 13.2 0.0 100.0 75.7 455 6-11 months 67.6 25.8 6.5 0.0 100.0 72.4 534 12-23 months 66.3 30.3 3.3 0.0 100.0 68.6 880 24-35 months 69.9 26.9 3.3 0.0 100.0 72.2 939 36-47 months 66.2 30.1 3.5 0.3 100.0 68.7 925 48-59 months 68.6 29.6 1.8 0.0 100.0 69.9 845 Table DQ.15: Observation of vaccination cards Percent distribution of children age 0-35 months by presence of a vaccination card, and the percentage of vaccination cards seen by the interviewers, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Child does not have vaccination card Child has vaccination card DK/ Missing Number of children age 0-35 months Percent of vaccination cards seen by the interviewer (at home or health facility) Had vaccination card previously Never had vaccination card Seen by the interviewer (1) Not seen by the interviewer (2) Total 89.5 3.0 3.8 0.3 100.0 46.5 2807 Region Batken 94.1 0.7 1.5 0.0 100.0 71.0 238 Djalal-Abad 98.6 0.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 594 Issyk-Kul 88.3 0.6 3.3 0.7 100.0 68.2 152 Naryn 95.5 1.0 1.4 0.0 100.0 60.6 103 Osh Oblast 78.9 6.3 13.4 0.3 100.0 7.2 616 Talas 95.2 1.0 1.4 1.6 100.0 34.5 208 Chui 89.0 4.7 0.3 0.4 100.0 95.4 441 Bishkek City 82.5 3.9 3.1 0.0 100.0 76.9 325 Osh City 97.1 2.1 0.8 0.0 100.0 0.0 130 Area Urban 87.2 3.4 3.2 0.4 100.0 63.6 878 Rural 90.6 2.8 4.1 0.2 100.0 35.7 1929 Child's age 0-5 months 85.0 4.9 3.6 0.0 100.0 64.1 455 6-11 months 90.3 3.1 3.3 0.0 100.0 49.5 534 12-23 months 90.8 3.0 4.3 0.0 100.0 31.7 880 24-35 months 90.1 2.0 3.8 0.9 100.0 45.2 939 257 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table DQ.16: Observation of places for hand washing Percent distribution of places for handwashing observed by the interviewers in all interviewed households, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Place for handwashing Total Number of households interviewedObserved Not observed Not in the dwelling, plot or yard No permission to see Other reason Total 94.2 1.5 4.0 0.3 100 6934 Region Batken 99.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 100 508 Djalal-Abad 99.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 100 1235 Issyk-Kul 96.9 2.2 0.8 0.1 100 628 Naryn 99.5 0.0 0.5 0.0 100 323 Osh Oblast 100.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100 1028 Talas 84.9 7.9 0.0 7.2 100 270 Chui 80.8 3.4 15.7 0.0 100 1393 Bishkek City 96.0 0.4 3.6 0.0 100 1237 Osh City 95.0 4.3 0.5 0.0 100 312 Area Urban 94.8 1.4 3.7 0.0 100 2739 Rural 93.8 1.5 4.2 0.5 100 4195 Wealth index quintiles 1193 Poorest 97.5 1.8 0.4 0.3 100 1198 Second 96.8 1.9 0.8 0.5 100 1193 Middle 94.7 1.0 3.8 0.5 100 1239 Fourth 90.0 1.6 8.1 0.3 100 1401 Richest 93.3 1.2 5.5 0.0 100 1904 Table DQ.17: Respondent to the under-5 questionnaire Distribution of children under five by whether the mother lives in the same household, and the person who was interviewed for the under-5 questionnaire, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Mother in the household Mother not in the household Total Number of children under 5 Father interviewed Other adult female interviewed Other adult male interviewed Total 90.8 0.0 9.0 0.1 100.0 4233 Age 0 98.9 0.0 1.1 0.0 100.0 951 1 92.9 0.0 7.1 0.0 100.0 828 2 88.0 0.0 11.8 0.2 100.0 859 3 87.6 0.0 12.1 0.2 100.0 846 4 85.1 0.2 14.4 0.3 100.0 749 4 85.1 0.2 14.4 0.3 100.0 749 258 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table DQ.18: Selection of children age 1-17 years for the child labour and child discipline modules Percent distribution of households by the number of children age 1-17 years, and the percentage of households with at least two children age 1-17 years where correct selection of one child for the child labour and child discipline modules was performed, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Number of children age 1-17 years Total Number of households Percentage of households where correct selection was performed Number of households with 2 or more children age 1-17 yearsNone One Two or more Total 31.6 21.6 46.8 100.0 6934 98.4 3245 Region Batken 21.0 21.9 57.1 100.0 508 97.9 290 Djalal-Abad 19.4 23.1 57.4 100.0 1235 98.9 709 Issyk-Kul 39.6 21.9 38.5 100.0 628 97.0 242 Naryn 22.6 20.9 56.5 100.0 323 99.5 183 Osh Oblast 15.0 20.2 64.8 100.0 1028 98.6 666 Talas 5.6 17.7 76.7 100.0 270 97.4 207 Chui 41.0 22.5 36.5 100.0 1393 98.8 508 Bishkek City 54.3 20.4 25.3 100.0 1237 99.3 313 Osh City 34.4 24.8 40.8 100.0 312 94.9 127 Area Urban 43.7 22.1 34.3 100.0 2739 98.2 939 Rural 23.7 21.4 55.0 100.0 4195 98.5 2306 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 17.3 19.2 63.5 100.0 1198 99.0 761 Second 21.7 20.4 57.9 100.0 1193 98.7 691 Middle 25.3 21.8 52.9 100.0 1239 97.1 655 Fourth 33.9 23.4 42.6 100.0 1401 97.9 597 Richest 49.0 22.6 28.4 100.0 1904 99.4 541 259 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e D Q .1 9: S ch oo l a tte nd an ce b y si ng le a ge D is tri bu tio n of h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n ag e 5- 24 y ea rs b y ed uc at io na l l ev el a nd g ra de a tte nd ed in th e cu rr en t ( or m os t r ec en t) sc ho ol y ea r, K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 Not attending school Preschool Pr im ar y sc ho ol G ra de Lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l G ra de U pp er se co nd ar y sc ho ol G ra de Pr of es si on al Pr im ar y Pr of es si on al M id dl e H ig he r DK/Missing To ta l Number of household members 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 1 2 3 1 2 3 4 A ge a t b eg in ni ng o f s ch oo l y ea r 5 47 .3 45 .6 7. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 74 6 6 17 .8 26 .1 50 .6 5. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 66 7 7 0. 5 0. 8 41 .9 53 .0 3. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 63 6 8 0. 8 0. 0 0. 7 41 .9 50 .6 6. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 58 3 9 0. 4 0. 0 0. 2 2. 9 47 .1 45 .2 4. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 56 7 10 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 3. 1 44 .9 46 .4 4. 9 0. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 52 5 11 1. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 4. 9 40 .8 45 .1 7. 3 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 48 5 12 0. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 3. 2 47 .7 44 .1 3. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 53 9 13 0. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 3. 5 47 .5 42 .9 4. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 55 8 14 1. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 1. 0 4. 0 47 .1 43 .7 2. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 51 3 15 4. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 4. 7 54 .6 25 .7 3. 8 2. 6 0. 3 0. 0 2. 2 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 50 3 16 13 .0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 4 35 .5 33 .0 2. 1 1. 1 0. 4 3. 6 3. 9 0. 1 0. 0 1. 9 0. 0 10 0. 0 49 9 17 26 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 3. 0 32 .9 2. 1 2. 2 1. 6 3. 6 7. 5 4. 6 0. 0 15 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 47 0 18 47 .4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 7 4. 0 0. 2 1. 8 2. 2 2. 5 2. 0 9. 4 1. 0 28 .8 0. 0 10 0. 0 45 4 19 54 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 6 1. 0 1. 7 2. 1 4. 7 2. 6 32 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 47 6 20 64 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 7 2. 1 0. 2 32 .0 0. 0 10 0. 0 41 0 21 68 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 5 0. 3 0. 1 0. 7 0. 7 28 .9 0. 1 10 0. 0 50 4 22 76 .7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 6 1. 2 1. 4 0. 3 19 .7 0. 0 10 0. 0 42 6 23 84 .1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 0 1. 0 14 .7 0. 0 10 0. 0 47 4 24 a 94 .0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 5. 5 0. 0 10 0. 0 17 1 a T ho se a ge 2 5 at th e tim e of in te rv ie w w ho w er e ag e 24 a t b eg in ni ng o f s ch oo l y ea r a re e xc lu de d as c ur re nt a tte nd an ce w as o nl y co lle ct ed fo r t ho se a ge 5 -2 4 at th e tim e of in te rv ie w 260 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table DQ.20: Sex ratio at birth among children ever born and living Sex ratio (number of males per 100 females) among children ever born (at birth), children living, and deceased children, by age of women, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Children Ever Born Children Living Children Deceased Number of womenSons Daugthers Sex at birth ratio Sons Daugthers Sex ratio Sons Daugthers Sex ratio Total 7086 6615 1.07 6756 6380 1.06 330 234 1.41 6854 Age 15-19 43 46 0.94 40 46 0.88 3 - na 1169 20-24 524 522 1.00 512 510 1.00 12 12 1.02 1214 25-29 1141 1000 1.14 1113 965 1.15 28 35 0.81 1145 30-34 1284 1241 1.03 1239 1213 1.02 45 29 1.56 935 35-39 1416 1299 1.09 1342 1251 1.07 74 48 1.55 854 40-44 1357 1274 1.06 1269 1224 1.04 88 51 1.72 804 45-49 1321 1232 1.07 1241 1172 1.06 81 60 1.34 733 na: not applicable "-" denotes 0 unweighted case in the denominator Table DQ.21: Births by periods preceding the survey Number of births, sex ratio at birth, and period ratio by periods preceding the survey, according to living, deceased, and total children (imputed), as reported in the birth histories, Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Number of births Percent with complete birth datea Sex ratio at birth b Period ratioc Living Deceased Total Living Deceased Total Living Deceased Total Living Deceased Total Total 13136 564 13700 99.9 98.5 99.9 105.9 140.7 107.1 na na na Years 0 911 12 922 100.0 100.0 100.0 107.4 108.2 107.4 na na na 1 759 24 783 100.0 98.1 99.9 125.4 190.8 126.9 89.5 184.3 90.9 2 787 14 800 99.8 100.0 99.8 93.5 40.5 92.3 104.0 58.7 102.7 3 753 24 777 99.9 100.0 99.9 108.0 97.2 107.7 103.8 134.0 104.6 4 664 21 685 100.0 89.9 99.7 96.3 96.1 96.3 94.3 114.8 94.8 5 654 14 668 100.0 100.0 100.0 113.0 286.6 115.0 100.8 66.8 99.7 6 635 19 654 100.0 100.0 100.0 103.5 61.9 101.9 104.8 101.9 104.7 7 558 25 582 99.9 96.7 99.7 98.4 168.9 100.6 94.1 104.4 94.5 8 551 28 579 100.0 100.0 100.0 118.2 104.0 117.5 105.7 138.0 106.9 9 485 15 500 100.0 100.0 100.0 102.4 108.8 102.6 14.0 7.8 13.6 10+ 6381 369 6750 99.9 98.6 99.8 105.5 159.5 107.8 na na na Five-year periods 0-4 3873 94 3967 99.9 97.2 99.9 105.7 102.7 105.7 na na na 5-9 2883 100 2983 100.0 99.2 99.9 107.0 120.8 107.5 na na na 10-14 2224 90 2314 99.9 100.0 99.9 100.8 203.0 103.4 na na na 15-19 1994 121 2114 99.9 99.2 99.9 105.6 211.6 109.7 na na na 20+ 2163 159 2321 99.8 97.2 99.6 110.3 114.8 110.6 na na na na: not applicable a Both month and year of birth given. The inverse of the percent reported is the percent with incomplete and therefore imputed date of birth b (Bm/Bf) x 100, where Bm and Bf are the numbers of male and female births, respectively c (2 x Bt/(Bt-1 + Bt+1)) x 100, where Bt is the number of births in year t preceding the survey 261 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table DQ.22: Reporting of age at death in days Distribution of reported deaths under one month of age by age at death in days and the percentage of neonatal deaths reported to occur at ages 0–6 days, by 5-year periods preceding the survey (imputed), Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Number of years preceding the survey Total (0–19)0–4 5–9 10–14 15–19 Age at death (days) 0 11 1 5 6 22 1 16 13 13 9 51 2 8 7 2 1 17 3 6 10 4 10 29 4 5 3 2 3 13 5 2 1 2 2 7 6 3 2 4 2 11 7 3 1 7 2 13 8 2 1 0 0 2 9 0 0 - 0 - 10 0 1 0 1 2 11 1 0 0 0 1 12 1 2 0 0 3 13 0 0 2 0 2 14 - 0 0 0 - 15 1 2 0 3 6 16 0 0 - 0 - 17 0 - 0 0 - 18 0 0 - 0 - 20 4 2 1 0 7 26 0 - 0 0 0 27 0 1 0 1 3 30 0 2 0 0 2 Total 0–30 days 63 50 41 39 194 Percent early neonatala 80.4 75.1 74.4 81.6 78.0 a Deaths during the first 7 days (0-6), divided by deaths during the first month (0-30 days) «-» denotes 0 unweighted case in the denominator 262 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Table DQ.23: Reporting of age at death in months Distribution of reported deaths under two years of age by age at death in months and the percentage of infant deaths reported to occur at age under one month, for the 5-year periods of birth preceding the survey (imputed), Kyrgyzstan, 2014 Number of years preceding the survey Total (0–19)0–4 5–9 10–14 15–19 Age at death (months) 0a 63 50 41 39 194 1 4 4 8 7 22 2 5 7 2 8 22 3 0 5 4 12 21 4 3 6 7 0 16 5 3 0 2 5 10 6 3 1 1 6 12 7 3 3 1 2 9 8 1 1 3 1 5 9 0 0 3 2 6 10 0 3 2 3 8 11 1 0 0 1 2 12 2 2 1 3 8 13 0 1 1 0 2 14 0 0 1 1 1 15 0 0 0 1 1 16 0 2 0 1 3 17 1 1 0 0 2 18 3 1 1 0 6 23 0 1 0 0 1 Reported as 1 year 0 0 0 0 0 Total 0–11 months 86 80 74 87 327 Percent neonatalb 73.6 62.8 54.9 45.3 59.2 a Includes deaths under one month reported in days b Deaths under one month, divided by deaths under one year 263 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report 62 63 64 65 66 MICS INDICATOR Module 62 Numerator Denominator MDG Indicator Reference63 MORTALITY64 1.1 Neonatal mortality rate BH Probability of dying within the first month of life 1.2 Infant mortality rate CM - BH Probability of dying between birth and the first birthday MDG 4.2 1.3 Post-neonatal mortality rate BH Difference between infant and neonatal mortality rates 1.4 Child mortality rate BH Probability of dying between the first and the fifth birthdays 1.5 Under-five mortality rate CM - BH Probability of dying between birth and the fifth birthday MDG 4.1 NUTRITION 2.1a 2.1b Underweight prevalence AN Number of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median weight for age of the WHO standard Total number of children under age 5 MDG 1.8 2.2a 2.2b Stunting prevalence AN Number of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) below minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median height for age of the WHO standard Total number of children under age 5 2.3a 2.3b Wasting prevalence AN Number of children under age 5 who fall below (a) minus two standard deviations (moderate and severe) (b) minus three standard deviations (severe) of the median weight for height of the WHO standard Total number of children under age 5 2.4 Overweight prevalence AN Number of children under age 5 who are above two standard deviations of the median weight for height of the WHO standard Total number of children under age 5 2.5 Children ever breastfed MN Number of women with a live birth in the last 2 years who breastfed their last live-born child at any time Total number of women with a live birth in the last 2 years 2.6 Early initiation of breastfeeding MN Number of women with a live birth in the last 2 years who put their last newborn to the breast within one hour of birth Total number of women with a live birth in the last 2 years 2.7 Exclusive breastfeeding under 6 months BD Number of infants under 6 months of age who are exclusively breastfed65 Total number of infants under 6 months of age 2.8 Predominant breastfeeding under 6 months BD Number of infants under 6 months of age who received breast milk as the predominant source of nourishment66 during the previous day Total number of infants under 6 months of age 2.9 Continued breastfeeding at 1 year BD Number of children age 12-15 months who received breast milk during the previous day Total number of children age 12-15 months 62 Some indicators are constructed using questions from several modules. In such cases, only the modules containing most of the necessary information are indicated 63 Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators, effective 15 January 2008 - http://mdgs.un.org/unsd/mdg/Host.aspx?Content=Indicators/ OfficialList.htm, accessed 10 June 2013 64 Mortality indicators are calculated for the last 5-year period 65 Infants receiving breast milk, and not receiving any other fluids or foods, with the exception of oral rehydration solution, vitamins, mineral supplements and medicines 66 Infants who receive breast milk and certain fluids (water and water-based drinks, fruit juice, ritual fluids, oral rehydration solution, drops, vitamins, minerals, and medicines), but do not receive anything else (in particular, non-human milk and food-based fluids) Appendix E. 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS Indicators: Numerators and Denominators 264 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report 67 68 69 MICS INDICATOR Module 62 Numerator Denominator MDG Indicator Reference63 2.10 Continued breastfeeding at 2 years BD Number of children age 20-23 months who received breast milk during the previous day Total number of children age 20-23 months 2.11 Duration of breastfeeding BD The age in months when 50 percent of children age 0-35 months did not receive breast milk during the previous day Общее число женщин, родивших живого ребенка в последние 2 года 2.12 Age-appropriate breastfeeding BD Number of children age 0-23 months appropriately fed during the previous day67 Total number of children age 0-23 months 2.13 Introduction of solid, semi-solid or soft foods BD Number of infants age 6-8 months who received solid, semi-solid or soft foods during the previous day Total number of infants age 6-8 months 2.14 Milk feeding frequency for non-breastfed children BD Number of non-breastfed children age 6-23 months who received at least 2 milk feedings during the previous day Total number of non- breastfed children age 6-23 months 2.15 Minimum meal frequency BD Number of children age 6-23 months who received solid, semi-solid and soft foods (plus milk feeds for non-breastfed children) the minimum number of times68 or more during the previous day Total number of children age 6-23 months 2.16 Minimum dietary diversity BD Number of children age 6–23 months who received foods from 4 or more food groups69 during the previous day Total number of children age 6–23 months 2.17a 2.17b Minimum acceptable diet BD (a) Number of breastfed children age 6–23 months who had at least the minimum dietary diversity and the minimum meal frequency during the previous day (b) Number of non-breastfed children age 6–23 months who received at least 2 milk feedings and had at least the minimum dietary diversity not including milk feeds and the minimum meal frequency during the previous day (a) Number of breastfed children age 6–23 months (b) Number of non- breastfed children age 6–23 months 2.18 Bottle feeding BD Number of children age 0-23 months who were fed with a bottle during the previous day Total number of children age 0-23 months 2.19 Iodized salt consumption SI Number of households with the results of salt analysis for 15 or more parts of iodate per million Total number of households where salt was not tested or households with no salt 2.20 Low-birthweight infants MN Number of most recent live births in the last 2 years weighing below 2,500 grams at birth Total number of most recent live births in the last 2 years 2.21 Infants weighed at birth MN Number of most recent live births in the last 2 years who were weighed at birth Total number of most recent live births in the last 2 years 67 Infants age 0-5 months who are exclusively breastfed, and children age 6-23 months who are breastfed and ate solid, semi-solid or soft foods 68 Breastfeeding children: Solid, semi-solid, or soft foods, two times for infants age 6-8 months, and three times for children 9-23 months; Non-breastfeeding children: Solid, semi-solid, or soft foods, or milk feeds, four times for children age 6-23 months 69 The indicator is based on consumption of any amount of food from at least 4 out of the 7 following food groups: 1) grains, roots and tubers, 2) legumes and nuts, 3) dairy products (milk, yogurt, cheese), 4) flesh foods (meat, fish, poultry and liver/organ meats), 5) eggs, 6) vitamin-A rich fruits and vegetables, and 7) other fruits and vegetables 265 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS INDICATOR Module 62 Numerator Denominator MDG Indicator Reference63 CHILD HEALTH 3.1 Tuberculosis immunization coverage IM Number of children age 12-23 months who received BCG vaccine by their first birthday Total number of children age 12-23 months 3.2 Polio immunization coverage IM Number of children age 12-23 months who received the third dose of OPV vaccine (OPV3) by their first birthday Total number of children age 12-23 months 3.3 3.5 3.6 Pentavalent DPT+HepB+Hib immunization coverage IM Number of children age 12- 23 months who received the third dose of Pentavalent 3 (DPT+HepB+Hib-3) by their first birthday Total number of children age 12-23 months 3.4 Measles immunization coverage IM Number of children age 24-35 months who received measles vaccine by their second birthday Total number of children age 12-23 months MDG 4.3 3.8 Full immunization coverage IM Number of children age 24- 35 months who received all vaccinations recommended in the national immunization schedule by their first birthday (measles by second birthday) Total number of children age 12-23 months 3.10 Care-seeking for diarrhoea CA Number of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider Total number of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks 3.11 Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc CA Number of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks who received ORS and zinc Total number of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks 3.12 Diarrhoea treatment with oral rehydration therapy (ORT) and continued feeding CA Number of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks who received ORT (ORS packet, pre- packaged ORS fluid, recommended homemade fluid or increased fluids) and continued feeding during the episode of diarrhoea Total number of children under age 5 with diarrhoea in the last 2 weeks 3.13 Care-seeking for children with acute respiratory infection (ARI) symptoms CA Number of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider Total number of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks 3.14 Antibiotic treatment for children with ARI symptoms CA Number of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks who received antibiotics Total number of children under age 5 with ARI symptoms in the last 2 weeks 3.15 Use of solid fuels for cooking HC Number of household members in households that use solid fuels as the primary source of domestic energy to cook Total number of household members 3.20 Care-seeking for fever CA Number of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks for whom advice or treatment was sought from a health facility or provider Total number of children under age 5 with fever in the last 2 weeks 266 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS INDICATOR Module 62 Numerator Denominator MDG Indicator Reference63 WATER AND SANITATION 4.1 Use of improved drinking water sources WS Number of household members using improved sources of drinking water Total number of household members MDG 7.8 4.2 Water treatment WS Number of household members in households using unimproved drinking water who use an appropriate treatment method Total number of household members in households using unimproved drinking water sources 4.3 Use of improved sanitation WS Number of household members using improved sanitation facilities which are not shared Total number of household members MDG 7.9 4.4 Safe disposal of child’s faeces CA Number of children age 0-2 years whose last stools were disposed of safely Total number of children age 0-2 years 4.5 Place for handwashing HW Number of households with a specific place for handwashing where water and soap or other cleansing agent are present Total number of households 4.6 Availability of soap or other cleansing agent HW Number of households with soap or other cleansing agent Total number of households REPRODUCTIVE HEALTH 5.1 Adolescent birth rate70 CM – BH Age-specific fertility rate for women age 15-19 years MDG 5.4 5.2 Early childbearing CM - BH Number of women age 20-24 years who had at least one live birth before age 18 Total number of women age 20-24 years 5.3 Contraceptive prevalence rate CP Number of women age 15-49 years currently married or in union who are using (or whose partner is using) a (modern or traditional) contraceptive method Total number of women age 15-49 years who are currently married or in union MDG 5.3 5.4 Unmet need71 UN Number of women age 15-49 years who are currently married or in union who are fecund and want to space their births or limit the number of children they have and who are not currently using contraception Total number of women age 15-49 years who are currently married or in union MDG 5.6 5.5a 5.5b Antenatal care coverage MN Number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who were attended during their last pregnancy that led to a live birth (a) at least once by skilled health personnel (b) at least four times by any provider Total number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years MDG 5.5 5.6 Content of antenatal care MN Number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who had their blood pressure measured and gave urine and blood samples during the last pregnancy that led to a live birth Total number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years 5.7 Skilled attendant at delivery MN Number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years who were attended by skilled health personnel during their most recent live birth Total number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years MDG 5.2 70 71 70 The indicator is calculated for the last 3-year period 71 See the MICS tabulation plan for a detailed description 267 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS INDICATOR Module 62 Numerator Denominator MDG Indicator Reference63 5.8 Institutional deliveries MN Number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years whose most recent live birth was delivered in a health facility Total number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years 5.9 Caesarean section MN Number of women age 15-49 years whose most recent live birth in the last 2 years was delivered by caesarean section Total number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years 5.10 Post-partum stay in health facility MN Number of women age 15-49 years who stayed in the health facility for 12 hours or more after the delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years Total number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years 5.11 Post-natal health check for the newborn PN Number of last live births in the last 2 years who received a health check while in facility or at home following delivery, or a post-natal care visit within 2 days after delivery Total number of last live births in the last 2 years 5.12 Post-natal health check for the mother PN Number of women age 15-49 years who received a health check while in facility or at home following delivery, or a post-natal care visit within 2 days after delivery of their most recent live birth in the last 2 years Total number of women age 15-49 years with a live birth in the last 2 years CHILD DEVELOPMENT 6.1 Attendance to early childhood education EC Number of children age 36- 59 months who are attending an early childhood education programme Total number of children age 36-59 months 6.2 Support for learning EC Number of children age 36-59 months with whom an adult has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days Total number of children age 36-59 months 6.3 Father’s support for learning EC Number of children age 36-59 months whose biological father has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days Total number of children age 36-59 months 6.4 Mother’s support for learning EC Number of children age 36-59 months whose biological mother has engaged in four or more activities to promote learning and school readiness in the last 3 days Total number of children age 36-59 months 6.5 Availability of children’s books EC Number of children under age 5 who have three or more children’s books Total number of children under age 5 6.6 Availability of playthings EC Number of children under age 5 who play with two or more types of playthings Total number of children under age 5 6.7 Inadequate care EC Number of children under age 5 left alone or in the care of another child younger than 10 years of age for more than one hour at least once in the last week Total number of children under age 5 268 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS INDICATOR Module 62 Numerator Denominator MDG Indicator Reference63 6.8 Early child development index EC Number of children age 36-59 months who are developmentally on track in at least three of the following four domains: literacy- numeracy, physical, social- emotional, and learning Total number of children age 36-59 months LITERACY AND EDUCATION 7.1 Literacy rate among young women [M] WB Number of women age 15-24 years who are able to read a short simple statement about everyday life or who attended secondary or higher education Total number of women age 15-24 years MDG 2.3 7.2 School readiness ED Number of children in first grade of primary school who attended pre-school during the previous school year Total number of children attending the first grade of primary school 7.3 Net intake rate in primary education ED Number of children of school- entry age who enter the first grade of primary school Total number of children of school- entry age 7.4 Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) ED Number of children of primary school age currently attending primary or secondary school Total number of children of primary school age MDG 2.1 7.5 Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) ED Number of children of secondary school age currently attending secondary school or higher Total number of children of secondary school age 7.SS172 Lower secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) ED Number of children of lower secondary school age currently attending lower secondary school or higher Total number of children of lower secondary school age 7.SS2 Upper secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) ED Number of children of upper secondary school age currently attending upper secondary school or higher Total number of children of upper secondary school age 7.6 Children reaching last grade of primary ED Percentage of children entering the first grade of primary school who eventually reach last grade MDG 2.2 7.7 Primary completion rate ED Number of children attending the last grade of primary school (excluding repeaters) Total number of children of primary school completion age (age appropriate to final grade of primary school) 7.8 Transition rate to secondary school ED Number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year who are in the first grade of secondary school during the current school year Total number of children attending the last grade of primary school during the previous school year 7.9 Gender parity index (primary school) ED Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls Primary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys MDG 3.1 7.10 Gender parity index (secondary school) ED Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls Secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys MDG 3.1 7.SS3 Gender parity index (lower secondary school) ED Lower secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls Lower secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys 7.SS4 Gender parity index (upper secondary school) ED Upper secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for girls Upper secondary school net attendance ratio (adjusted) for boys 72 72 SS (survey-specific) denotes an indicator calculated by introduction of a non-standard module or question(s) to this survey that is not part of the global MICS5 Questionnaires or by applying a non-standard calculation method that is not included in the global MICS5 Tabulation Plan 269 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS INDICATOR Module 62 Numerator Denominator MDG Indicator Reference63 CHILD PROTECTION 8.1 Birth registration BR Number of children under age 5 whose births are reported registered Total number of children under age 5 8.2 Child labour CL Number of children age 5-17 years who are involved in child labour73 Total number of children age 5-17 years 8.3 Violent discipline CD Number of children age 1-14 years who experienced psychological aggression or physical punishment during the last one month Total number of children age 1-14 years 8.4 Marriage before age 15 MA Number of women age 15-49 years who were first married or in union before age 15 Total number of women age 15-49 years 8.5 Marriage before age 18 MA Number of women age 20-49 years who were first married or in union before age 18 Total number of women age 20-49 years 8.6 Young women age 15-19 years currently married or in union MA Number of women age 15-19 years who are married or in union Total number of women age 15-19 years 8.7 Polygyny MA Number of women age 15-49 years who are in a polygynous union Total number of women age 15-49 years who are married or in union 8.8a 8.8b Spousal age difference MA Number of women who are married or in union and whose spouse is 10 or more years older, (a) among women age 15-19 years, (b) among women age 20-24 years Total number of women who are married or in union (a) age 15-19 years, (b) age 20-24 years 8.12 Attitudes towards domestic violence DV Number of women who state that a husband is justified in hitting or beating his wife in at least one of the following circumstances: (1) she goes out without telling him, (2) she neglects the children, (3) she argues with him, (4) she refuses sex with him, (5) she burns the food Total number of women age 15-49 years 8.13 Children’s living arrangements HL Number of children age 0-17 years living with neither biological parent Total number of children age 0-17 years 8.14 Prevalence of children with one or both parents dead HL Number of children age 0-17 years with one or both biological parents dead Total number of children age 0-17 years 8.15 Children with at least one parent living abroad HL Number of children 0-17 years with at least one biological parent living abroad Total number of children 0-17 years HIV/AIDS AND SEXUAL BEHAVIOUR 9.1 Knowledge about HIV prevention among young women HA Number of women age 15-4 years who correctly identify ways of preventing the sexual transmission of HIV74, and who reject major misconceptions about HIV transmission Total number of women age 15-24 years MDG 6.3 9.2 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission of HIV HA Number of women age 15-49 years who correctly identify all three means75 of mother-to-child transmission of HIV Total number of women age 15-49 years 9.3 Accepting attitudes towards people living with HIV HA Number of women age 15-49 years expressing accepting attitudes on all four questions76 toward people living with HIV Total number of women age 15-49 years who have heard of HIV 73 74 75 76 73 Children involved in child labour are defined as children involved in economic activities at or above the age-specific thresholds, children involved in household chores at or above the age-specific thresholds, and children involved in hazardous work. See the MICS tabulation plan for more detailed information on thresholds and classifications 74 Using condoms and limiting sex to one faithful, uninfected partner 75 Transmission during pregnancy, during delivery, and by breastfeeding 76 Women (1) who think that a female teacher with the AIDS virus should be allowed to teach in school, (2) who would buy fresh vegetables from a shopkeeper or vendor who has the AIDS virus, (3) who would not want to keep it as a secret if a family member became infected with the AIDS virus, and (4) who would be willing to care for a family member who became sick with the AIDS virus 270 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report MICS INDICATOR Module 62 Numerator Denominator MDG Indicator Reference63 9.4 Women who know where to be tested for HIV HA Number of women age 15-49 years who state knowledge of a place to be tested for HIV Total number of women age 15-49 years 9.5 Women who have been tested for HIV and know the results HA Number of women age 15-49 years who have been tested for HIV in the last 12 months and who know their results Total number of women age 15-49 years 9.7 HIV counselling during antenatal care HA Number of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years and received antenatal care during the pregnancy of their most recent birth, reporting that they received counselling on HIV during antenatal care Total number of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years 9.8 HIV testing during antenatal care HA Number of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years and received antenatal care during the pregnancy of their most recent birth, reporting that they were offered and accepted an HIV test during antenatal care and received their results Total number of women age 15-49 years who had a live birth in the last 2 years ACCESS TO MASS MEDIA AND USE OF INFORMATION/COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY 10.1 Exposure to mass media MT Number of women age 15-49 years who, at least once a week, read a newspaper or magazine, listen to the radio, and watch television Total number of women age 15-49 years 10.2 Use of computers MT Number of young women age 15-24 years who used a computer during the last 12 months Total number of women age 15-24 years 10.3 Use of internet MT Number of young women age 15-24 who used the internet during the last 12 months Total number of women age 15-24 years SUBJECTIVE WELL-BEING 11.1 Life satisfaction LS Number of women age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat satisfied with their life, overall Total number of women age 15-24 years 11.2 Happiness LS Number of women age 15-24 years who are very or somewhat happy Total number of women age 15-24 years 11.3 Perception of a better life LS Number of women age 15-24 years whose life improved during the last one year, and who expect that their life will be better after one year Total number of women age 15-24 years TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL USE 12.1 Tobacco use TA Number of women age 15-49 years who smoked cigarettes, or used smoked or smokeless tobacco products at any time during the last one month Total number of women age 15-49 years 12.2 Smoking before age 15 TA Number of women age 15-49 years who smoked a whole cigarette before age 15 Total number of women age 15-49 years 12.3 Use of alcohol TA Number of women age 15-49 years who had at least one alcoholic drink at any time during the last one month Total number of women age 15-49 years 12.4 Use of alcohol before age 15 TA Number of women age 15-49 years who had at least one alcoholic drink before age 15 Total number of women age 15-49 years 271 Appendix F. Questionnaires In the 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS three different questionnaires were administered, the Household questionnaire; Questionnaire for Individual Women (age 15-49); and Questionnaire for Children Under Five. In addition a Questionnaire Form for Vaccination Records at Health Facility was administered for all children age 0-2 years with a completed Questionnaire for Children Under Five. 272 F1. Household questionnaire HOUSEHOLD QUESTIONNAIRE Multiple Indicators Clusters Survey in Kyrgyzstan HOUSEHOLD INFORMATION PANEL HH HH1. Cluster number: ___ ___ ___ HH2. Household number: ___ ___ HH3. Interviewer’s name and number: HH4. Supervisor’s name and number: Name _________________________ ___ ___ Name__________________________ ___ ___ HH5. Day / Month / Year of interview: ___ ___ /___ ___ / 2 0 1 4 HH7. REGIONS: BATKEN . 1 DJALAL-ABAD . 2 ISSYK-KUL . 3 NARYN . 4 OSH . 5 TALAS. 6 CHUI . 7 BISHKEK C. . 8 OSH C. . ….9 HH6. AREA: Urban .1 Rural .2 WE ARE FROM the National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic. WE ARE CONDUCTING A SURVEY ABOUT THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN, FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS. I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT THESE SUBJECTS. THE INTERVIEW WILL TAKE ABOUT 20 MINUTES. ALL THE INFORMATION WE OBTAIN WILL REMAIN STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND ANONYMOUS. MAY I START NOW?  Yes, permission is given  Go to HH18 to record the time and then begin the interview.  No, permission is not given  Circle 04 in HH9. Discuss this result with your supervisor. HH9. Result of household interview: Completed . 01 No household member or no competent respondent at home at time of visit . 02 Entire household absent for extended period of time . 03 Refused . 04 Dwelling vacant / Address not a dwelling . 05 Dwelling destroyed . 06 Dwelling not found . 07 Other (specify) ________________________________________________________________ 96 After the household questionnaire has been completed, fill in the following information: HH10. Respondent to Household Questionnaire: Name _______________________ ___ ___ HH11. Total number of household members: ___ ___ After all questionnaires for the household have been completed, fill in the following information: HH12. Number of women age 15-49 years: ___ ___ HH13. Number of women’s questionnaires completed: ___ ___ HH14. Number of children under age 5: ___ ___ HH15. Number of under-5 questionnaires completed: ___ ___ HH16. Field editor’s name and number: Name______________________________ __ __ HH17. Main data entry clerk’s name and number: Name________________________________ __ __ 273 H H 18 . Re co rd th e tim e. H ou r . . . . . . . . _ _ __ M in ut es . . . . . . _ _ __ LI ST O F HO U SE HO LD M EM BE RS H L FI R S T, P LE A SE T E LL M E TH E N A M E O F E A C H P E R SO N W H O U S U A LL Y LI V E S H E R E, S TA R TI N G W IT H T H E H E A D O F TH E H O U S E H O LD . Li st th e he ad o f t he h ou se ho ld in li ne 0 1. L is t a ll ho us eh ol d m em be rs (H L2 ), th ei r r el at io ns hi p to th e ho us eh ol d he ad (H L3 ), an d th ei r s ex (H L4 ) Th en a sk : A R E TH ER E AN Y O TH ER S W H O L IV E H ER E , E V E N IF T H E Y A R E N O T A T H O M E N O W ? If ye s, co m pl et e lis tin g fo r q ue st io ns H L2 -H L4 . T he n, a sk q ue st io ns st ar tin g wi th H L5 fo r e ac h pe rs on a t a ti m e. U se a n ad di tio na l q ue st io nn ai re if a ll ro w s i n th e Li st o f H ou se ho ld M em be rs h av e be en u se d. Fo r w om en ag e 15 -4 9 Fo r ch ild re n ag e 0- 4 Fo r c hi ld re n ag e 0- 17 y ea rs Fo r C hi ld re n ag e 0- 14 H L1 . Li ne no . H L2 . N am e H L3 . W H AT IS TH E R EL AT IO N - S H IP O F (n am e) T O TH E H EA D O F H O U SE - H O LD ? H L4 . IS (n am e) M AL E O R FE M AL E ? 1 M al e 2 Fe m al e H L5 . W H AT IS (n am e) ’S D AT E O F BI R TH ? H L6 . H O W O LD IS (n am e) ? Re co rd in co m pl et ed ye ar s. If ag e is 95 o r ab ov e, re co rd ‘9 5’ . H L7 . C ir cl e lin e no . if w om an ag e 15 -4 9. H L7 B . C ir cl e lin e no . i f ag e 0- 4. H L1 1. IS (n am e) ’S N AT U R AL M O TH ER A LI V E ? 1 Ye s 2 N o H L1 3 8 D K  H L1 3 H L1 2. D O E S (n am e) ’S N AT U R AL M O TH ER LI V E IN TH IS H O U SE - H O LD ? If “Y es ”, re co rd lin e no . o f m ot he r an d go to H L1 3. If “N o” , re co rd 0 0. H L1 2 A . W H ER E D O E S (n am e) ’S N AT U R AL M O TH ER LI V E ? 1 In an ot he r ho us eh ol d in th is co un try 2 In st itu tio n in th is co un try 3 A br oa d 8 D K H L1 3. IS (n am e) ’ S N AT U R AL FA TH ER A LI V E ? 1 Ye s 2 N o HL 15 8 D K  H L1 5 H L1 4. D O E S (n am e) ’S N AT U R AL FA TH ER LI V E IN TH IS H O U SE - H O LD ? If “Y es ”, re co rd lin e no . o f fa th er a nd go to H L1 5. If “N o” , re co rd 0 0. H L1 4A . W H ER E D O E S (n am e) ’S N AT U R AL FA TH ER LI V E ? 1 In a no th er ho us eh ol d in th is co un try 2 In st itu tio n in th is co un try 3 A br oa d 8 D K H L1 5. Re co rd li ne n o. o f m ot he r f ro m H L1 2 if in di ca te d. If H L1 2 is b la nk or ‘0 0’ a sk : W H O IS T H E PR IM A R Y C AR ET A KE R O F (n am e) ? 98 D K 99 98 D K Li ne N am e R el at io n* M F M on th Ye ar A ge 15 -4 9 0- 4 Y N D K M ot he r Y N D K Fa th er M ot he r 01 0 1 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 01 01 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 02 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 02 02 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 03 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 03 03 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 04 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 04 04 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 05 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 05 05 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 06 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 06 06 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 07 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 07 07 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 08 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 08 08 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 09 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 09 09 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 10 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 10 10 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 274 Fo r w om en ag e 15 -4 9 Fo r ch ild re n ag e 0- 4 Fo r c hi ld re n ag e 0- 17 y ea rs Fo r C hi ld re n ag e 0- 14 H L1 . Li ne no . H L2 . N am e H L3 . W H AT IS TH E R EL AT IO N - S H IP O F (n am e) T O TH E H EA D O F H O U SE - H O LD ? H L4 . IS (n am e) M AL E O R FE M AL E ? 1 M al e 2 Fe m al e H L5 . W H AT IS (n am e) ’S D AT E O F BI R TH ? H L6 . H O W O LD IS (n am e) ? Re co rd in co m pl et ed ye ar s. If ag e is 95 o r ab ov e, re co rd ‘9 5’ . H L7 . C ir cl e lin e no . if w om an ag e 15 -4 9. H L7 B . C ir cl e lin e no . i f ag e 0- 4. H L1 1. IS (n am e) ’S N AT U R AL M O TH ER A LI V E ? 1 Ye s 2 N o H L1 3 8 D K  H L1 3 H L1 2. D O E S (n am e) ’S N AT U R AL M O TH ER LI V E IN TH IS H O U SE - H O LD ? If “Y es ”, re co rd lin e no . o f m ot he r an d go to H L1 3. If “N o” , re co rd 0 0. H L1 2 A . W H ER E D O E S (n am e) ’S N AT U R AL M O TH ER LI V E ? 1 In an ot he r ho us eh ol d in th is co un try 2 In st itu tio n in th is co un try 3 A br oa d 8 D K H L1 3. I S (n am e) ’ S N AT U R AL FA TH ER A LI V E ? 1 Ye s 2 N o HL 15 8 D K  H L1 5 H L1 4. D O E S (n am e) ’S N AT U R AL FA TH ER LI V E IN TH IS H O U SE - H O LD ? If “Y es ”, re co rd lin e no . o f fa th er a nd go to H L1 5. If “N o” , re co rd 0 0. H L1 4A . W H ER E D O E S (n am e) ’S N AT U R AL FA TH ER LI V E ? 1 In a no th er ho us eh ol d in th is co un try 2 In st itu tio n in th is co un try 3 A br oa d 8 D K H L1 5. Re co rd li ne n o. o f m ot he r f ro m H L1 2 if in di ca te d. If H L1 2 is b la nk or ‘0 0’ a sk : W H O IS T H E PR IM A R Y C AR ET AK ER O F (n am e) ? 98 D K 99 98 D K Li ne N am e R el at io n* M F M on th Ye ar A ge 15 -4 9 0- 4 Y N D K M ot he r Y N D K Fa th er M ot he r 11 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 11 11 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 12 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 12 12 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 13 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 13 13 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 14 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 14 14 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ 15 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ __ _ _ 15 15 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 1 2 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 3 8 __ _ _ __ Ti ck h er e if ad di tio na l q ue st io nn ai re u se d  Pr ob e fo r a dd iti on al h ou se ho ld m em be rs . Pr ob e es pe ci al ly fo r a ny in fa nt s o r s m al l c hi ld re n no t l is te d, a nd o th er s w ho m ay n ot b e m em be rs o f t he fa m ily (s uc h as se rv an ts, fr ie nd s) b ut w ho u su al ly li ve in th e ho us eh ol d. In se rt n am es o f a dd iti on al m em be rs in th e ho us eh ol d lis t a nd c om pl et e fo rm a cc or di ng ly . N ow fo r e ac h w om an a ge 1 5- 49 y ea rs , w ri te h er n am e an d lin e nu m be r a nd o th er id en tif yi ng in fo rm at io n in th e in fo rm at io n pa ne l o f a se pa ra te In di vi du al W om en ’s Q ue st io nn ai re . Fo r e ac h ch ild u nd er a ge 5 , w ri te h is /h er n am e an d lin e nu m be r A N D th e lin e nu m be r o f h is /h er m ot he r o r c ar et ak er in th e in fo rm at io n pa ne l o f a se pa ra te U nd er -5 Q ue st io nn ai re . Yo u sh ou ld n ow h av e a se pa ra te q ue st io nn ai re fo r e ac h el ig ib le w om an , an d ea ch c hi ld u nd er fi ve in th e ho us eh ol d. * C od es fo r H L3 : R el at io ns hi p to h ea d of h ou se ho ld : 01 H ea d 02 S po us e / P ar tn er 03 S on / D au gh te r 04 S on -In -L aw / D au gh te r- In -L aw 05 G ra nd ch ild 06 P ar en t 07 P ar en t-I n- La w 08 B ro th er / S is te r 09 B ro th er -In -L aw / S is te r- In -L aw 10 U nc le / A un t 11 N ie ce / N ep he w 12 O th er re la tiv e 13 A do pt ed / Fo st er / S te pc hi ld 14 S er va nt (L iv e- in ) 96 O th er (N ot re la te d) 98 D K 275 ED U CA TI O N ED Fo r h ou se ho ld m em be rs ag e 5 an d ab ov e Fo r h ou se ho ld m em be rs a ge 5 -2 4 ye ar s ED 1 . Li ne nu m be r ED 2. N am e an d ag e C op y fr om H L2 a nd H L6 . ED 3. H A S (n am e) E V E R AT TE N D E D SC H O O L O R P R E - SC H O O L? 1 Y es 2 N O  N ex t Li ne ED 4A . W H AT IS T H E H IG H E S T LE V E L O F S C H O O L (n am e) H AS AT TE N D ED LA S T? Le ve l: 0 Pr es ch oo l 1 Pr im ar y 2 L. S ec -r y 3 U .S ec -r y 4 P ro f P rim 5 P ro f M id dl e 6 H ig he r 8 D K If le ve l= 0, sk ip to E D 5 ED 4B . W H AT IS T H E H IG H E S T G R AD E (n am e) C O M PL ET ED A T TH IS LE V E L? G ra de : 98 D K If th e fir st gr ad e at th is le ve l i s n ot co m pl et ed , en te r “ 00 ”. ED 5. D U R IN G T H E C U R R EN T SC H O O L YE A R , T H AT IS 2 01 3- 20 14 , D ID (n am e) AT TE N D S C H O O L O R PR ES C H O O L A T A N Y TI M E ? 1 Y es 2 N o  E D 7 ED 6. D U R IN G 2 01 3- 20 14 S C H O O L YE A R , W H IC H L EV E L A N D G R A D E IS /W A S (n am e) AT TE N D IN G ? ED 7. D U R IN G T H E P R E V IO U S S C H O O L YE A R , TH A T IS 2 01 2- 20 13 , D ID (n am e) A TT EN D S C H O O L O R P R E S C H O O L A T AN Y TI M E ? 1 Y es 2 N o  Ne xt L in e 8 D K  Ne xt L in e ED 8. D U R IN G T H A T P R E V IO U S S C H O O L YE A R , W H IC H L EV E L A N D G R A D E D ID (n am e) A TT EN D ? Le ve l: 0 Pr es ch oo l 1 Pr im ar y 2 L. S ec -r y 3 U .S ec -r y 4 Pr of P rim ar yl 5 P ro f M id dl e 6 H ig he r 8 D K If le ve l= 0, sk ip to E D 7. G ra de : 98 D K Le ve l: 0 Pr es ch oo l 1 Pr im ar y 2 L. S ec -r y 3 U .S ec -r y 4 Pr of P rim ar yl 5 P ro f M id dl e 6 H ig he r 8 D K If le ve l= 0, g o to ne xt li ne . G ra de : 98 D K Li ne N am e A ge Y es N o Le ve l G ra de Y es N o Le ve l G ra de Ye s N o D K Le ve l G ra de 01 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 02 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 03 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 04 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 05 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 06 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 07 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 08 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 09 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 10 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 11 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 12 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 13 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 14 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 15 __ _ __ _ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 1 2 8 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 8 __ _ _ __ 276 SELECTION OF ONE CHILD FOR CHILD LABOUR/CHILD DISCIPLINE SL SL1. Check HL6 in the List of Household Members and write the total number of children age 1-17 years. Total number . __ SL2. Check the number of children age 1-17 years in SL1:  Zero  Go to HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS module.  One  Go to SL9 and record the rank number as ‘1’, enter the line number, child’s name and age.  Two or more  Continue with SL2A. SL2A. List each of the children age 1-17 years below in the order they appear in the List of Household Members. Do not include other household members outside of the age range 1-17 years. Record the line number, name, sex, and age for each child. SL3. Rank number SL4. Line number from HL1 SL5. Name from HL2 SL6. Sex from HL4 SL7. Age from HL6 Rank Line Name M F Age 1 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 2 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 3 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 4 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 5 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 6 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 7 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ 8 __ __ 1 2 ___ ___ o SL8. Check the last digit of the household number (HH2) from the cover page. This is the number of the row you should go to in the table below. Check the total number of children age 1-17 years in SL1 above. This is the number of the column you should go to in the table below. Find the box where the row and the column meet and circle the number that appears in the box. This is the rank number (SL3) of the selected child. Total Number of Eligible Children in the Household (from SL1) Last Digit of Household Number (from HH2) 2 3 4 5 6 7 8+ 0 2 2 4 3 6 5 4 1 1 3 1 4 1 6 5 2 2 1 2 5 2 7 6 3 1 2 3 1 3 1 7 4 2 3 4 2 4 2 8 5 1 1 1 3 5 3 1 6 2 2 2 4 6 4 2 7 1 3 3 5 1 5 3 8 2 1 4 1 2 6 4 9 1 2 1 2 3 7 5 SL9. Record the rank number (SL3), line number (SL4), name (SL5) and age (SL7) of the selected child. Rank number . __ Line number . __ __ Name_______________________________ Age . __ __ 277 CHILD LABOUR CL CL1. Check selected child’s age from SL9:  1-4 years  Go to Next Module.  5-17 years  Continue with CL2. CL2. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK ABOUT ANY WORK CHILDREN IN THIS HOUSEHOLD MAY DO. SINCE LAST (day of the week), DID (name) DO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES, EVEN FOR ONLY ONE HOUR? [A] DID (name) DO ANY WORK OR HELP ON HIS/HER OWN OR THE HOUSEHOLD’S PLOT/FARM/FOOD GARDEN OR LOOKED AFTER ANIMALS? FOR EXAMPLE, GROWING FARM PRODUCE, HARVESTING, OR FEEDING, GRAZING, MILKING ANIMALS? [B] DID (name) HELP IN FAMILY BUSINESS OR RELATIVE’S BUSINESS WITH OR WITHOUT PAY, OR RUN HIS/HER OWN BUSINESS? [C] DID (name) PRODUCE OR SELL ARTICLES, HANDICRAFTS, CLOTHES, FOOD OR AGRICULTURAL PRODUCTS? [D] SINCE LAST (day of the week), DID (name) ENGAGE IN ANY OTHER ACTIVITY IN RETURN FOR INCOME IN CASH OR IN KIND, EVEN FOR ONLY ONE HOUR? If “No”, Probe: PLEASE INCLUDE ANY ACTIVITY (name) PERFORMED AS A REGULAR OR CASUAL EMPLOYEE, SELF-EMPLOYED OR EMPLOYER; OR AS AN UNPAID FAMILY WORKER HELPING OUT IN HOUSEHOLD BUSINESS OR FARM. Yes No Worked on plot / farm / food garden / looked after animals . 1 2 Helped in family / relative’s business/ran own business . 1 2 Produce / sell articles / handicrafts / clothes / food or agricultural products . 1 2 Any other activity . 1 2 CL3. Check CL2, A to D  There is at least one ‘Yes’  continue with CL4  All answers are ‘No  Go to CL8 CL4. SINCE LAST (day of the week) ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID (name) ENGAGE IN THIS ACTIVITY/THESE ACTIVITIES, IN TOTAL? If less than one hour, record “00” Number of hours . __ __ CL5. DOES THE ACTIVITY/DO THESE ACTIVITIES REQUIRE CARRYING HEAVY LOADS? Yes . 1 No . 2 1 CL8 CL6. DOES THE ACTIVITY/DO THESE ACTIVITIES REQUIRE WORKING WITH DANGEROUS TOOLS (KNIVES ETC.) OR OPERATING HEAVY MACHINERY? Yes . 1 No . 2 1 CL8 278 CL7. HOW WOULD YOU DESCRIBE THE WORK ENVIRONMENT OF (name)? [A] IS (name) EXPOSED TO DUST, FUMES OR GAS? [B] IS (name) EXPOSED TO EXTREME COLD, HEAT OR HUMIDITY? [C] IS (name) EXPOSED TO LOUD NOISE OR VIBRATION? [D] IS (name) REQUIRED TO WORK AT HEIGHTS? [E] IS (name) REQUIRED TO WORK WITH CHEMICALS (PESTICIDES, GLUES, ETC.) OR EXPLOSIVES? [F] IS (name) EXPOSED TO OTHER THINGS, PROCESSES OR CONDITIONS BAD FOR (name)’S HEALTH OR SAFETY? Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 1 CL8 1 CL8 1 CL8 1 CL8 1 CL8 CL8. SINCE LAST (day of the week), DID (name) FETCH WATER OR COLLECT FIREWOOD FOR HOUSEHOLD USE? Yes . 1 No . 2 2 CL10 CL9. IN TOTAL, HOW MANY HOURS DID (name) SPEND ON FETCHING WATER OR COLLECTING FIREWOOD FOR HOUSEHOLD USE, SINCE LAST (day of the week)? If less than one hour, record “00” Number of hours . __ __ CL10. SINCE LAST (day of the week), DID (name) DO ANY OF THE FOLLOWING FOR THIS HOUSEHOLD? [A] SHOPPING FOR HOUSEHOLD? [B] REPAIR ANY HOUSEHOLD EQUIPMENT? [C] COOKING OR CLEANING UTENSILS OR THE HOUSE? [D] WASHING CLOTHES? [E] CARING FOR CHILDREN? [F] CARING FOR THE OLD OR SICK? [G] OTHER HOUSEHOLD TASKS? Yes No Shopping for household . 1 2 Repair household equipment . 1 2 Cooking / cleaning utensils /house . 1 2 Washing clothes . 1 2 Caring for children . 1 2 Caring for old / sick . 1 2 Other household tasks . 1 2 CL11. Check CL10, A to G  There is at least one ‘Yes’  Continue with CL12  All answers are ‘No’  Go to Next Module CL12. SINCE LAST (day of the week), ABOUT HOW MANY HOURS DID (name) ENGAGE IN THIS ACTIVITY/THESE ACTIVITIES, IN TOTAL? If less than one hour, record “00” Number of hours . __ __ 279 CHILD DISCIPLINE CD CD1. Check selected child’s age from SL9:  1-14 years  Continue with CD2  15-17 years  Go to Next Module CD2. Write the line number and name of the child from SL9. Line number . __ __ Name _____________________________ CD3. ADULTS USE CERTAIN WAYS TO TEACH CHILDREN THE RIGHT BEHAVIOUR OR TO ADDRESS A BEHAVIOUR PROBLEM. I WILL READ VARIOUS METHODS THAT ARE USED. PLEASE TELL ME IF YOU OR ANYONE ELSE IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD HAS USED THIS METHOD WITH (name) IN THE PAST MONTH. [A] TOOK AWAY PRIVILEGES, FORBADE SOMETHING (name) LIKED OR DID NOT ALLOW HIM/HER TO LEAVE THE HOUSE. [B] EXPLAINED WHY (name)’S BEHAVIOUR WAS WRONG. [C] SHOOK HIM/HER. [D] SHOUTED, YELLED AT OR SCREAMED AT HIM/HER. [E] GAVE HIM/HER SOMETHING ELSE TO DO. [F] SPANKED, HIT OR SLAPPED HIM/HER ON THE BOTTOM WITH BARE HAND. [G] HIT HIM/HER ON THE BOTTOM OR ELSEWHERE ON THE BODY WITH SOMETHING LIKE A BELT, HAIRBRUSH, STICK OR OTHER HARD OBJECT. [H] CALLED HIM/HER DUMB, LAZY, OR ANOTHER NAME LIKE THAT. [I] HIT OR SLAPPED HIM/HER ON THE FACE, HEAD OR EARS. [J] HIT OR SLAPPED HIM/HER ON THE HAND, ARM, OR LEG. [K] BEAT HIM/HER UP, THAT IS HIT HIM/HER OVER AND OVER AS HARD AS ONE COULD. Yes No Took away privileges. 1 2 Explained wrong behaviour . 1 2 Shook him/her . 1 2 Shouted, yelled, screamed . 1 2 Gave something else to do . 1 2 Spanked, hit, slapped on bottom with bare hand . 1 2 Hit with belt, hairbrush, stick, or other hard object . 1 2 Called dumb, lazy, or another name . 1 2 Hit / slapped on the face, head or ears . 1 2 Hit / slapped on hand, arm or leg . 1 2 Beat up, hit over and over as hard as one could . 1 2 CD4. DO YOU BELIEVE THAT IN ORDER TO BRING UP, RAISE, OR EDUCATE A CHILD PROPERLY, THE CHILD NEEDS TO BE PHYSICALLY PUNISHED? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK / No opinion . 8 280 HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS HC HC1A. WHAT IS THE RELIGION OF THE HEAD OF THIS HOUSEHOLD? Islam . 1 Christianity . 2 Buddhism . 3 Other religion (specify) ________________ 6 Not a believer . 7 Doesn’t want to declare……………………8 HC1B. WHAT IS THE MOTHER TONGUE/NATIVE LANGUAGE OF THE HEAD OF THIS HOUSEHOLD? Kyrgyz . 1 Russian . 2 Uzbek . 3 Other language (specify) ______________ 6 HC2. HOW MANY ROOMS IN THIS HOUSEHOLD ARE USED FOR SLEEPING? Number of rooms . __ __ HC3. Main material of the dwelling floor. Record observation. Natural floor Earth / Sand / Clay. 11 Dung . 12 Rudimentary floor Wood planks (non whittled) . 21 Reed . 22 Finished floor Parquet or polished wood . 31 Vinyl or asphalt strips. 32 Ceramic tiles / stone tile . 33 Cement . 34 Carpet . 35 Asphalt……….………………………….36 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 HC4. Main material of the roof. Record observation. Natural roofing No Roof . 11 Thatch / Rush . 12 Sod . 13 Rudimentary roofing Adobe . 21 Roofing paper . 22 Wood planks . 23 Cardboard . 24 Finished roofing Metal . 31 Wood . 32 Roofing slate/Calamine / Cement fibre . 33 Ceramic tiles . 34 Cement/ concrete slab . 35 Roofing shingles/shingles . 36 Shifer………………………………………37 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 281 HC5. Main material of the exterior walls. Record observation. Natural walls No walls . 11 Cane / . 12 Clay . 13 Rudimentary walls Straw with mud . 21 Stone with mud . 22 Uncovered adobe . 23 Plywood . 24 Cardboard . 25 Reused wood (fibreboard) . 26 Finished walls Cement . 31 Stone with lime / cement . 32 Bricks . 33 Cement blocks . 34 Covered adobe . 35 Wood planks / shingles . 36 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 HC6. WHAT TYPE OF FUEL DOES YOUR HOUSEHOLD MAINLY USE FOR COOKING? Electricity . 01 Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) . 02 Natural gas . 03 Biogas . 04 Kerosene . 05 Coal / Lignite . 06 Charcoal . 07 Wood . 08 Straw / Shrubs / Grass . 09 Animal dung . 10 Agricultural crop residue/stalk . 11 No food cooked in household . 95 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 01HC8 02HC8 03HC8 04HC8 05HC8 95HC8 HC7. IS THE COOKING USUALLY DONE IN THE HOUSE, IN A SEPARATE BUILDING, OR OUTDOORS? If ‘In the house’, probe: IS IT DONE IN A SEPARATE ROOM USED AS A KITCHEN? In the house In a separate room used as kitchen . 1 Elsewhere in the house . 2 In a separate building . 3 Outdoors . 4 Other (specify) ______________________ 6 HC8. DOES YOUR HOUSEHOLD HAVE: [A] ELECTRICITY? [B] A RADIO? [C] A TELEVISION? [D] A NON-MOBILE TELEPHONE? [E] A REFRIGERATOR? [F] Yes No Electricity . 1 2 Radio . 1 2 Television . 1 2 Non-mobile telephone . 1 2 Refrigerator . 1 2 Computer/laptop . 1 2 COMPUTER/NOTEBOOK/PLANSHET 282 [G] TABLE [H] ARM CHAIR [J] SOFA [K] BED [L] CUPBOARD [M] FAN [N] WATER HEATER (FOR EXAMPLE, ARISTON) [O] THREE PHASE ELECTRICITY [P] WASHING MACHINE [R] AIR CONDITIONING [S] CAMERA [T] МICROWAVE [U] BATH IN HOUSE [W] TOILET IN HOUSE Table . 1 2 Arm Chair . 1 2 Sofa . 1 2 Bed . 1 2 Cupboard . 1 2 Fan . 1 2 Water Heater . 1 2 Three phase electricty . 1 2 Washing machine . 1 2 Air conditioning . 1 2 Camera . 1 2 Microwave . 1 2 Bath . 1 2 Toilet . 1 2 HC8A. [A] CENTRALIZED HEATING SYSTEM [B] CENTRALIZED CANALIZATION SYSTEM Yes No Centralized Heating………………….1 2 Centralized canalization… 1 2 HC9. DOES ANY MEMBER OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD OWN: [A] A WATCH? [B] A MOBILE TELEPHONE? [C] A BICYCLE? [D] A MOTORCYCLE OR SCOOTER? [E] AN ANIMAL-DRAWN CART? [F] A CAR ? [G] A BOAT WITH A MOTOR? [H] TRACTOR OR OTHER MACHINERY FOR HOUSEHOLD Yes No Watch . 1 2 Mobile telephone . 1 2 Bicycle . 1 2 Motorcycle / Scooter . 1 2 Animal-drawn cart . 1 2 Car . 1 2 Boat with motor . 1 2 Tractor or other household Machinery . 1 2 HC10. DO YOU OR SOMEONE LIVING IN THIS HOUSEHOLD OWN THIS DWELLING? If “No”, then ask: DO YOU RENT THIS DWELLING FROM SOMEONE NOT LIVING IN THIS HOUSEHOLD? If “Rented from someone else”, circle “2”. For other responses, circle “6”. Own . 1 Rent . 2 Other (specify) _______________________ 6 DOES THIS HOUSEHOLD HAVE : 283 HC11. DOES ANY MEMBER OF THIS HOUSEHOLD OWN ANY LAND THAT CAN BE USED FOR AGRICULTURE? Yes . 1 No . 2 2HC13 HC12. HOW MANY HECTARES OF AGRICULTURAL LAND DO MEMBERS OF THIS HOUSEHOLD OWN? If 1 hectare or more, circle ‘1’ and record hectares. If 95 or more hectares, circle ‘1’ and record ‘95’. If less than 1 hectare, circle ‘2’ and record in ares. If less than 1 are, circle ‘2’ and record ‘00’. If unknown, record ‘998’. 100 Ares = 1 Hectare Hectares . 1 ___ ___ Ares . 2 ___ ___ DK . 998 HC13. DOES THIS HOUSEHOLD OWN ANY LIVESTOCK, HERDS, OTHER FARM ANIMALS, OR POULTRY? Yes . 1 No . 2 2HC15 HC14. HOW MANY OF THE FOLLOWING ANIMALS DOES THIS HOUSEHOLD HAVE? [A] CATTLE, MILK COWS, OR BULLS? [B] HORSES, DONKEYS? [C] GOATS? [D] SHEEP? [E] CHICKENS? [F] PIGS? If none, record “00”. If 95 or more, record “95”. If unknown, record “98”. Cattle, milk cows, or bulls .___ ___ Horses, donkeys .___ ___ Goats .___ ___ Sheep .___ ___ Chickens .___ ___ Pigs .___ ___ HC15. DOES ANY MEMBER OF THIS HOUSEHOLD HAVE A BANK ACCOUNT? Yes . 1 No . 2 284 WATER AND SANITATION WS WS1. WHAT IS THE MAIN SOURCE OF DRINKING WATER FOR MEMBERS OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD? Piped water Piped into dwelling . 11 Piped into compound, yard or plot . 12 Piped to neighbour . 13 Public tap / standpipe . 14 Tube Well, Borehole . 21 Dug well Protected well . 31 Unprotected well . 32 Water from spring Protected spring . 41 Unprotected spring . 42 Rainwater collection . 51 Tanker-truck . 61 Cart with small tank / drum . 71 Surface water (river, stream, dam, lake, pond, canal, irrigation channel) . 81 Bottled water . 91 Other (specify) ______________________ 96 11WS6 12WS6 13WS6 14WS3 21WS3 31WS3 32WS3 41WS3 42WS3 51WS3 61WS3 71WS3 81WS3 96WS3 WS2. WHAT IS THE MAIN SOURCE OF WATER USED BY YOUR HOUSEHOLD FOR OTHER PURPOSES SUCH AS COOKING AND HANDWASHING? Piped water Piped into dwelling . 11 Piped into compound, yard or plot . 12 Piped to neighbour . 13 Public tap / standpipe . 14 Tube Well, Borehole . 21 Dug well Protected well . 31 Unprotected well . 32 Water from spring Protected spring . 41 Unprotected spring . 42 Rainwater collection . 51 Tanker-truck . 61 Cart with small tank / drum . 71 Surface water (river, stream, dam, lake, pond, canal, irrigation channel) . 81 Other (specify) ______________________ 96 11WS6 12WS6 13WS6 WS3. WHERE IS THAT WATER SOURCE LOCATED? In own dwelling . 1 In own yard / plot . 2 Elsewhere . 3 1WS6 2WS6 WS4. HOW LONG DOES IT TAKE TO GO THERE, GET WATER, AND COME BACK? Number of minutes .__ __ __ DK . 998 285 WS5. WHO USUALLY GOES TO THIS SOURCE TO COLLECT THE WATER FOR YOUR HOUSEHOLD? Probe: IS THIS PERSON UNDER AGE 15? WHAT SEX? Adult woman (age 15+ years) . 1 Adult man (age 15+ years) . 2 Female child (under 15) . 3 Male child (under 15) . 4 DK . 8 WS6. DO YOU DO ANYTHING TO THE WATER TO MAKE IT SAFER TO DRINK? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2WS8 8WS8 WS7. WHAT DO YOU USUALLY DO TO MAKE THE WATER SAFER TO DRINK? Probe: ANYTHING ELSE? Record all items mentioned. Boil . A Add bleach / chlorine . B Strain it through a cloth . C Use water filter (ceramic, sand, composite, etc.) . D Solar disinfection . E Let it stand and settle . F Other (specify) _____________________ X DK . Z WS8. WHAT KIND OF TOILET FACILITY DO MEMBERS OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD USUALLY USE? If “flush” or “pour flush”, probe: WHERE DOES IT FLUSH TO? If not possible to determine, ask permission to observe the facility. Flush / Pour flush Flush to piped sewer system . 11 Flush to septic tank . 12 Flush to pit (cesspool) . 13 Flush to somewhere else . 14 Flush to unknown place / Not sure / DK where . 15 Pit latrine (cesspool) Ventilated Improved Pit latrine (VIP) . 21 Pit latrine with slab . 22 Pit latrine without slab / Open pit . 23 Composting toilet . 31 Bucket . 41 Hanging toilet, Hanging latrine . 51 No facility, Bush, Field . 95 Other (specify) ____________________ 96 95Next Module WS9. DO YOU SHARE THIS FACILITY WITH OTHERS WHO ARE NOT MEMBERS OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD? Yes . 1 No . 2 2Next Module WS10. DO YOU SHARE THIS FACILITY ONLY WITH MEMBERS OF OTHER HOUSEHOLDS THAT YOU KNOW, OR IS THE FACILITY OPEN TO THE USE OF THE GENERAL PUBLIC? Other households only (not public) . 1 Public facility . 2 2Next Module WS11. HOW MANY HOUSEHOLDS IN TOTAL USE THIS TOILET FACILITY, INCLUDING YOUR OWN HOUSEHOLD? Number of households (if less than 10) 0 __ Ten or more households . 10 DK . 98 286 HANDWASHING HW HW1. WE WOULD LIKE TO LEARN ABOUT THE PLACES THAT HOUSEHOLDS USE TO WASH THEIR HANDS. CAN YOU PLEASE SHOW ME WHERE MEMBERS OF YOUR HOUSEHOLD MOST OFTEN WASH THEIR HANDS? Observed . 1 Not observed Not in dwelling / plot / yard . 2 No permission to see . 3 Other reason (specify) ________________________ 6 2 HW4 3 HW4 6 HW4 HW2. Observe presence of water at the place for handwashing. Verify by checking the tap/pump, or basin, bucket, water container or similar objects for presence of water. Water is available . 1 Water is not available . 2 HW3A. Is soap, detergent or ash/mud/sand present at the place for handwashing? Yes, present . 1 No, not present . 2 2HW4 HW3B. Record your observation. Circle all that apply. Bar soap . A Detergent (Powder / Liquid / Paste) . B Liquid soap . C Ash / Mud / Sand . D AHH19 BHH19 CHH19 DHH19 HW4. DO YOU HAVE ANY SOAP OR DETERGENT OR ASH/MUD/SAND IN YOUR HOUSE FOR WASHING HANDS? Yes . 1 No . 2 2HH19 HW5A. CAN YOU PLEASE SHOW IT TO ME? Yes, shown . 1 No, not shown . 2 2HH19 HW5B. Record your observation. Circle all that apply. Bar soap . A Detergent (Powder / Liquid / Paste) . B Liquid soap . C Ash / Mud / Sand . D HH19. Record the time Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ 287 SALT IODIZATION SI SI1. WE WOULD LIKE TO CHECK WHETHER THE SALT USED IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD IS IODIZED. MAY I HAVE A SAMPLE OF THE SALT USED TO COOK MEALS IN YOUR HOUSEHOLD? Once you have tested the salt, circle number that corresponds to test outcome. Not iodized - 0 PPM . 1 More than 0 PPM & less than 15 PPM . 2 15 PPM or more . 3 No salt in the house . 4 Salt not tested (specify reason) ____________________ 5 HH20. Thank the respondent for his/her cooperation and check the List of Household Members:  A separate QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INDIVIDUAL WOMEN has been issued for each woman age 15-49 years in the List of Household Members (HL7).  A separate QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE has been issued for each child under age 5 years in the List of Household Members (HL7B). Return to the cover page and make sure that the result of the household interview (HH9), the name and line number of the respondent to the household questionnaire (HH10), and the number of eligible women (HH12), men (HH13A), and under-5s (HH14) are entered. Make arrangements for the administration of the remaining questionnaire(s) in this household. 288 Interviewer’s Observations Field Editor’s Observations Supervisor’s Observations 289 F2. Questionnaire for Individual Women (age 15-49) QUESTIONNAIRE FOR INDIVIDUAL WOMEN Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey in Kyrgyzstan WOMAN’S INFORMATION PANEL WM This questionnaire is to be administered to all women age 15 through 49 (see List of Household Members, column HL7). A separate questionnaire should be used for each eligible woman. WM1. Cluster number: WM2. Household number: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ WM3. Woman’s name: WM4. Woman’s line number: Name ___ ___ WM5. Interviewer’s name and number: WM6. Day / Month / Year of interview: Name ___ ___ ___ ___ /___ ___ / 2 0 1 4 Repeat greeting if not already read to this woman: WE ARE FROM National Statistical Committee. WE ARE CONDUCTING A SURVEY ABOUT THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN, FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS. I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT THESE SUBJECTS. THE INTERVIEW WILL TAKE ABOUT 25 MINUTES. ALL THE INFORMATION WE OBTAIN WILL REMAIN STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND ANONYMOUS. If greeting at the beginning of the household questionnaire has already been read to this woman, then read the following: NOW I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU MORE ABOUT YOUR HEALTH AND OTHER TOPICS. THIS INTERVIEW WILL TAKE ABOUT 25 MINUTES. AGAIN, ALL THE INFORMATION WE OBTAIN WILL REMAIN STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND ANONYMOUS. MAY I START NOW?  Yes, permission is given  Go to WM10 to record the time and then begin the interview.  No, permission is not given  Circle “03” in WM7. Discuss this result with your supervisor. WM7. Result of woman’s interview Completed . 01 Not at home . 02 Refused . 03 Partly completed . 04 Incapacitated . 05 Other (specify) ___________________________ 96 WM8. Field editor’s name and number: Name___________________________ __ __ WM9. Main data entry clerk’s name and number: Name__________________________________ __ __ 290 WOMAN’S BACKGROUND WB WB1. IN WHAT MONTH AND YEAR WERE YOU BORN? Date of birth Month . __ __ DK month . 98 Year . __ __ __ __ DK year . 9998 WB2. HOW OLD ARE YOU? Probe: HOW OLD WERE YOU AT YOUR LAST BIRTHDAY? Compare and correct WB1 and/or WB2 if inconsistent. Age (in completed years) . __ __ WB3. HAVE YOU EVER ATTENDED SCHOOL OR PRESCHOOL? Yes . 1 No . 2 2WB7 WB4. WHAT IS THE HIGHEST LEVEL OF SCHOOL YOU ATTENDED? Preschool . 0 Primary . 1 Lower secondary…………………………….2 Upper secondary . 3 Professional Primary…………………….…4 Professional Middle . 5 Higher…………………………………………6 DK………………………………………………8 0WB7 WB5. WHAT IS THE HIGHEST GRADE YOU COMPLETED AT THAT LEVEL? If the first grade at this level is not completed, enter “00”. Grade . __ __ WB6. Check WB4:  Lower secondary, Upper secondary or higher (WB4=2,3 or 4)  Go to Next Module.  Primary (WB4=1)  Continue with WB7. WB7. NOW I WOULD LIKE YOU TO READ THIS SENTENCE TO ME. Show sentence on the card to the respondent. If respondent cannot read whole sentence, probe: CAN YOU READ PART OF THE SENTENCE TO ME? Cannot read at all . 1 Able to read only parts of sentence . 2 Able to read whole sentence . 3 No sentence in required language _________________ 4 (specify language) Blind / visually impaired . 5 WM10. Record the time. Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ 291 ACCESS TO MASS MEDIA AND USE OF INFORMATION/COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY MT MT1. Check WB7:  Question left blank (Respondent has secondary or higher education)  Continue with MT2.  Able to read or no sentence in required language (WB7 = 2, 3 or 4)  Continue with MT2.  Cannot read at all or blind/visually impaired (WB7 = 1 or 5)  Go to MT3. MT2. HOW OFTEN DO YOU READ A NEWSPAPER OR MAGAZINE: ALMOST EVERY DAY, AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK, LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK OR NOT AT ALL? Almost every day . 1 At least once a week . 2 Less than once a week. 3 Not at all . 4 MT3. DO YOU LISTEN TO THE RADIO ALMOST EVERY DAY, AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK, LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK OR NOT AT ALL? Almost every day . 1 At least once a week . 2 Less than once a week. 3 Not at all . 4 MT4. HOW OFTEN DO YOU WATCH TELEVISION: WOULD YOU SAY THAT YOU WATCH ALMOST EVERY DAY, AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK, LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK OR NOT AT ALL? Almost every day . 1 At least once a week . 2 Less than once a week. 3 Not at all . 4 MT5. Check WB2: Age of respondent?  Age 15-24  Continue with MT6.  Age 25-49  Go to Next Module. MT6. HAVE YOU EVER USED A COMPUTER? Yes . 1 No . 2 2MT9 MT7. HAVE YOU USED A COMPUTER FROM ANY LOCATION IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS? Yes . 1 No . 2 2MT9 MT8. DURING THE LAST ONE MONTH, HOW OFTEN DID YOU USE A COMPUTER: ALMOST EVERY DAY, AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK, LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK OR NOT AT ALL? Almost every day . 1 At least once a week . 2 Less than once a week. 3 Not at all . 4 MT9. HAVE YOU EVER USED THE INTERNET? Yes . 1 No . 2 2Next Module MT10. IN THE LAST 12 MONTHS, HAVE YOU USED THE INTERNET? If necessary, probe for use from any location, with any device. Yes . 1 No . 2 2 Next Module MT11. DURING THE LAST ONE MONTH, HOW OFTEN DID YOU USE THE INTERNET: ALMOST EVERY DAY, AT LEAST ONCE A WEEK, LESS THAN ONCE A WEEK OR NOT AT ALL? Almost every day . 1 At least once a week . 2 Less than once a week. 3 Not at all . 4 292 FERTILITY/BIRTH HISTORY CM CM1. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK ABOUT ALL THE BIRTHS YOU HAVE HAD DURING YOUR LIFE. HAVE YOU EVER GIVEN BIRTH? Yes . 1 No . 2 2CM8 CM4. DO YOU HAVE ANY SONS OR DAUGHTERS TO WHOM YOU HAVE GIVEN BIRTH WHO ARE NOW LIVING WITH YOU? Yes . 1 No . 2 2CM6 CM5. HOW MANY SONS LIVE WITH YOU? HOW MANY DAUGHTERS LIVE WITH YOU? If none, record “00”. Sons at home . __ __ Daughters at home . __ __ CM6. DO YOU HAVE ANY SONS OR DAUGHTERS TO WHOM YOU HAVE GIVEN BIRTH WHO ARE ALIVE BUT DO NOT LIVE WITH YOU? Yes . 1 No . 2 2CM8 CM7. HOW MANY SONS ARE ALIVE BUT DO NOT LIVE WITH YOU? HOW MANY DAUGHTERS ARE ALIVE BUT DO NOT LIVE WITH YOU? If none, record “00”. Sons elsewhere . __ __ Daughters elsewhere . __ __ CM8. HAVE YOU EVER GIVEN BIRTH TO A BOY OR GIRL WHO WAS BORN ALIVE BUT LATER DIED? If “No” probe by asking: I MEAN, TO A CHILD WHO EVER BREATHED OR CRIED OR SHOWED OTHER SIGNS OF LIFE – EVEN IF HE OR SHE LIVED ONLY A FEW MINUTES OR HOURS? Yes . 1 No . 2 2CM10 CM9. HOW MANY BOYS HAVE DIED? HOW MANY GIRLS HAVE DIED? If none, record “00”. Boys dead . __ __ Girls dead . __ __ CM10. Sum answers to CM5, CM7, and CM9. Sum . __ __ CM11. JUST TO MAKE SURE THAT I HAVE THIS RIGHT, YOU HAVE HAD IN TOTAL (total number in CM10) LIVE BIRTHS DURING YOUR LIFE. IS THIS CORRECT?  Yes. Check below:  No live births  Go to ILLNESS SYMPTOMS Module.  One or more live births  Continue with the BIRTH HISTORY module.  No.  Check responses to CM1-CM10 and make corrections as necessary before proceeding to the BIRTH HISTORY Module or ILLNESS SYMPTOMS Module. 293 BI RT H HI ST O RY BH N O W I W O U LD L IK E TO R EC O R D T H E N AM ES O F AL L O F YO U R B IR TH S, W H ET H ER S TI LL A LI VE O R N O T, S TA R TI N G W IT H T H E FI R ST O N E YO U H AD . Re co rd n am es o f a ll of th e bi rt hs in B H 1. Re co rd tw in s a nd tr ip le ts on se pa ra te li ne s. If th er e ar e m or e th an 1 4 bi rt hs , u se a n ad di tio na l q ue st io nn ai re . BH Li ne N o. B H 1. W H AT N AM E W AS G IV E N T O Y O U R (fi rs t/n ex t) B A B Y? B H 2. W ER E AN Y O F TH ES E B IR TH S TW IN S ? 1 Si ng le 2 M ul tip le B H 3. I S (n am e) A B O Y O R A G IR L? 1 Bo y 2 G irl B H 4. I N W H AT M O N TH A N D Y EA R W A S (n am e) B O R N ? Pr ob e: W H AT IS H IS /H ER BI R TH D AY ? B H 5. I S (n am e) S TI LL A LI V E ? 1 Ye s 2 N o B H 6. H O W O LD W A S (n am e) A T H IS /H ER LA S T BI R TH D AY ? Re co rd a ge in c om pl et ed ye ar s. B H 7. I S (n am e) LI V IN G W IT H YO U ? 1 Ye s 2 N o B H 8. Re co rd ho us eh ol d lin e nu m be r of c hi ld (fr om H L1 ) Re co rd “ 00 ” if ch ild is n ot lis te d. B H 9. If de ad : H O W O LD W A S (n am e) W H E N H E /S H E D IE D ? If “1 y ea r” , p ro be : H O W M AN Y M O N TH S O LD W A S (n am e) ? Re co rd d ay s i f l es s t ha n 1 m on th ; r ec or d m on th s i f le ss th an 2 y ea rs ; o r y ea rs B H 10 . W ER E TH ER E AN Y O TH ER L IV E BI R TH S B E TW E E N (n am e of pr ev io us b ir th ) A N D (n am e) , I N C LU D IN G AN Y C H IL D R EN W H O D IE D A FT ER B IR TH ? 1 Ye s 2 N o S M B G M on th Ye ar Y N A ge Y N Li ne N o U ni t N um be r Y N 01 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  N ex t L in e D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __  BH 9 02 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 03 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 04 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 05 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 06 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 07 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 294 BH Li ne N o. B H 1. W H AT N AM E W AS G IV E N T O Y O U R (fi rs t/n ex t) B A B Y? B H 2. W ER E AN Y O F TH ES E B IR TH S TW IN S ? 1 Si ng le 2 M ul tip le B H 3. I S (n am e) A B O Y O R A G IR L ? 1 Bo y 2 G irl B H 4. I N W H AT M O N TH A N D Y EA R W A S (n am e) B O R N ? Pr ob e: W H AT IS H IS /H ER BI R TH D AY ? B H 5. I S (n am e) S TI LL A LI V E ? 1 Ye s 2 N o B H 6. H O W O LD W A S (n am e) A T H IS /H ER LA S T BI R TH D AY ? Re co rd a ge in c om pl et ed ye ar s. B H 7. I S (n am e) LI V IN G W IT H YO U ? 1 Ye s 2 N o B H 8. Re co rd ho us eh ol d lin e nu m be r of c hi ld (fr om H L1 ) Re co rd “ 00 ” if ch ild is n ot lis te d. B H 9. If de ad : H O W O LD W A S (n am e) W H E N H E /S H E D IE D ? If “1 y ea r” , p ro be : H O W M AN Y M O N TH S O LD W A S (n am e) ? Re co rd d ay s i f l es s t ha n 1 m on th ; r ec or d m on th s i f le ss th an 2 y ea rs ; o r y ea rs B H 10 . W ER E TH ER E AN Y O TH ER L IV E BI R TH S B E TW E E N (n am e of pr ev io us b ir th ) A N D (n am e) , I N C LU D IN G AN Y C H IL D R EN W H O D IE D A FT ER B IR TH ? 1 Ye s 2 N o S M B G M on th Ye ar Y N A ge Y N Li ne N o U ni t N um be r Y N 08 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 09 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 10 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 11 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 12 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 13 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 14 1 2 1 2 __ _ _ __ __ _ _ __ _ __ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __ 1 2 __ _ _ __  B H 10 D ay s . . . . 1 M on th s . . . 2 Ye ar s . . . 3 __ _ _ __ 1 A dd B irt h 2 N ex t B irt h  BH 9 B H 11 . H A V E Y O U H A D A N Y LI V E B IR TH S S IN C E T H E B IR TH O F (n am e of la st b ir th in B IR TH H IS TO RY M od ul e) ? Ye s . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 N o . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 1 R ec or d bi rth (s ) i n B irt h H is to ry 295 CM12A. Compare number in CM10 with number of births in the BIRTH HISTORY Module above and check:  Numbers are same  Continue with CM13.  Numbers are different  Probe and reconcile. CM13. Check BH4 in BIRTH HISTORY Module: Last birth occurred within the last 2 years, that is, since (month of interview) in 2012 (if the month of interview and the month of birth are the same, and the year of birth is 2012, consider this as a birth within the last 2 years)  No live birth in last 2 years.  Go to ILLNESS SYMPTOMS Module.  One or more live births in last 2 years.  Record name of last born child and continue with Next Module. Name of last-born child_______________________ If child has died, take special care when referring to this child by name in the following modules. 296 DESIRE FOR LAST BIRTH DB This module is to be administered to all women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the date of interview. Record name of last-born child from CM13 here _____________________. Use this child’s name in the following questions, where indicated. DB1. WHEN YOU GOT PREGNANT WITH (name), DID YOU WANT TO GET PREGNANT AT THAT TIME? Yes . 1 No . 2 1Next Module DB2. DID YOU WANT TO HAVE A BABY LATER ON, OR DID YOU NOT WANT ANY (MORE) CHILDREN? Later . 1 No more . 2 2Next Module DB3. HOW MUCH LONGER DID YOU WANT TO WAIT? Record the answer as stated by respondent. Months . 1 __ __ Years . 2 __ __ DK . 998 297 MATERNAL AND NEWBORN HEALTH MN This module is to be administered to all women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the date of interview. Record name of last-born child from CM13 here _____________________. Use this child’s name in the following questions, where indicated. MN1. DID YOU SEE ANYONE FOR ANTENATAL CARE DURING YOUR PREGNANCY WITH (name)? Yes . 1 No . 2 2MN17 MN2. WHOM DID YOU SEE? Probe: ANYONE ELSE? Probe for the type of person seen and circle all answers given. Health professional: Doctor . A Nurse / Midwife . B Auxiliary midwife . C Other person Traditional birth attendant . F Community health worker . G Other (specify) ______________________ X MN2A. HOW MANY WEEKS OR MONTHS PREGNANT WERE YOU WHEN YOU FIRST RECEIVED ANTENATAL CARE FOR THIS PREGNANCY? Record the answer as stated by respondent. Weeks . 1 __ __ Months . 2 0 __ DK . 998 MN3. HOW MANY TIMES DID YOU RECEIVE ANTENATAL CARE DURING THIS PREGNANCY? Probe to identify the number of times antenatal care was received. If a range is given, record the minimum number of times antenatal care received. Number of times . __ __ DK . 98 MN4. AS PART OF YOUR ANTENATAL CARE DURING THIS PREGNANCY, WERE ANY OF THE FOLLOWING DONE AT LEAST ONCE: [A] WAS YOUR BLOOD PRESSURE MEASURED? [B] DID YOU GIVE A URINE SAMPLE? [C] DID YOU GIVE A BLOOD SAMPLE? Yes No Blood pressure . 1 2 Urine sample . 1 2 Blood sample . 1 2 298 MN17. WHO ASSISTED WITH THE DELIVERY OF (name)? Probe: ANYONE ELSE? Probe for the type of person assisting and circle all answers given. If respondent says no one assisted, probe to determine whether any adults were present at the delivery. Health professional: Doctor . A Nurse / Midwife . B Auxiliary midwife . C Other person Traditional birth attendant . F Community health worker . G Relative / Friend . H Other (specify) ______________________ X No one . Y MN18. WHERE DID YOU GIVE BIRTH TO (name)? Probe to identify the type of source. If unable to determine whether public or private, write the name of the place. (Name of place) Home Respondent’s home . 11 Other home . 12 Public sector Government hospital/maternity . 21 Government clinic / health centre . 22 Government health post . 23 Other public (specify) ______________ 26 Private Medical Sector Private hospital . 31 Private clinic . 32 Private maternity home . 33 Other private medical (specify) _______________ 36 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 11MN20 12MN20 96MN20 MN19. WAS (name) DELIVERED BY CAESAREAN SECTION? THAT IS, DID THEY CUT YOUR BELLY OPEN TO TAKE THE BABY OUT? Yes . 1 No . 2 2MN20 MN19A. WHEN WAS THE DECISION MADE TO HAVE THE CAESAREAN SECTION? WAS IT BEFORE OR AFTER YOUR LABOUR PAINS STARTED? Before . 1 After . 2 MN20. WHEN (name) WAS BORN, WAS HE/SHE VERY LARGE, LARGER THAN AVERAGE, AVERAGE, SMALLER THAN AVERAGE, OR VERY SMALL? Very large . 1 Larger than average . 2 Average . 3 Smaller than average . 4 Very small . 5 DK . 8 MN21. WAS (name) WEIGHED AT BIRTH? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2MN23 8MN23 299 MN22. HOW MUCH DID (name) WEIGH? If a card is available, record weight from card. From card . 1 (kg) __ . __ __ __ From recall . 2 (kg) __ . __ __ __ DK . 99998 MN23. HAS YOUR MENSTRUAL PERIOD RETURNED SINCE THE BIRTH OF (name)? Yes . 1 No . 2 MN24. DID YOU EVER BREASTFEED (name)? Yes . 1 No . 2 2Next Module MN25. HOW LONG AFTER BIRTH DID YOU FIRST PUT (name) TO THE BREAST? If less than 1 hour, record “00” hours. If less than 24 hours, record hours. Otherwise, record days. Immediately . 000 Hours . 1 __ __ Days . 2 __ __ DK / Don’t remember . 998 MN26. IN THE FIRST THREE DAYS AFTER DELIVERY, WAS (name) GIVEN ANYTHING TO DRINK OTHER THAN BREAST MILK? Yes . 1 No . 2 2Next Module MN27. WHAT WAS (name) GIVEN TO DRINK? Probe: ANYTHING ELSE? Milk (other than breast milk) . A Plain water . B Sugar or glucose water . C Gripe water . D Sugar-salt-water solution . E Fruit juice . F Infant formula . G Tea / Infusions . H Honey . I Other (specify) ______________________ X 300 POST-NATAL HEALTH CHECKS PN This module is to be administered to all women with a live birth in the 2 years preceding the date of interview. Record name of last-born child from CM13 here _____________________. Use this child’s name in the following questions, where indicated. PN1. Check MN18: Was the child delivered in a health facility?  Yes, the child was delivered in a health facility (MN18=21-26 or 31-36)  Continue with PN2.  No, the child was not delivered in a health facility (MN18=11-12 or 96)  Go to PN6. PN2. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED IN THE HOURS AND DAYS AFTER THE BIRTH OF (name). YOU HAVE SAID THAT YOU GAVE BIRTH IN (name or type of facility in MN18). HOW LONG DID YOU STAY THERE AFTER THE DELIVERY? If less than one day, record hours. If less than one week, record days. Otherwise, record weeks. Hours . 1 __ __ Days . 2 __ __ Weeks . 3 __ __ DK / Don’t remember . 998 PN3. I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT CHECKS ON (name)’S HEALTH AFTER DELIVERY – FOR EXAMPLE, SOMEONE EXAMINING (name), CHECKING THE CORD, OR SEEING IF (name) IS OK. BEFORE YOU LEFT THE (name or type of facility in MN18), DID ANYONE CHECK ON (name)’S HEALTH? Yes . 1 No . 2 PN4. AND WHAT ABOUT CHECKS ON YOUR HEALTH – I MEAN, SOMEONE ASSESSING YOUR HEALTH, FOR EXAMPLE ASKING QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR HEALTH OR EXAMINING YOU? DID ANYONE CHECK ON YOUR HEALTH BEFORE YOU LEFT (name or type or facility in MN18)? Yes . 1 No . 2 PN5. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT WHAT HAPPENED AFTER YOU LEFT (name or type of facility in MN18). DID ANYONE CHECK ON (name)’S HEALTH AFTER YOU LEFT (name or type of facility in MN18)? Yes . 1 No . 2 1PN11 2PN16 PN6. Check MN17: Did a health professional, traditional birth attendant, or community health worker assist with the delivery?  Yes, delivery assisted by a health professional, traditional birth attendant, or community health worker (MN17=A-G)  Continue with PN7.  No, delivery not assisted by a health professional, traditional birth attendant, or community health worker (A-G not circled in MN17)  Go to PN10. 301 PN7. YOU HAVE ALREADY SAID THAT (person or persons in MN17) ASSISTED WITH THE BIRTH. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT CHECKS ON (name)’S HEALTH AFTER DELIVERY, FOR EXAMPLE EXAMINING (name), CHECKING THE CORD, OR SEEING IF (name) IS OK. AFTER THE DELIVERY WAS OVER AND BEFORE (person or persons in MN17) LEFT YOU, DID (person or persons in MN17) CHECK ON (name)’S HEALTH? Yes . 1 No . 2 PN8. AND DID (person or persons in MN17) CHECK ON YOUR HEALTH BEFORE LEAVING? BY CHECK ON YOUR HEALTH, I MEAN ASSESSING YOUR HEALTH, FOR EXAMPLE ASKING QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR HEALTH OR EXAMINING YOU. Yes . 1 No . 2 PN9. AFTER THE (person or persons in MN17) LEFT YOU, DID ANYONE CHECK ON THE HEALTH OF (name)? Yes . 1 No . 2 1PN11 2PN18 PN10. I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT CHECKS ON (name)’S HEALTH AFTER DELIVERY – FOR EXAMPLE, SOMEONE EXAMINING (name), CHECKING THE CORD, OR SEEING IF THE BABY IS OK. AFTER (name) WAS DELIVERED, DID ANYONE CHECK ON HIS/HER HEALTH? Yes . 1 No . 2 2PN19 PN11. DID SUCH A CHECK HAPPEN ONLY ONCE, OR MORE THAN ONCE? Once . 1 More than once . 2 1PN12A 2PN12B PN12A. HOW LONG AFTER DELIVERY DID THAT CHECK HAPPEN? PN12B. HOW LONG AFTER DELIVERY DID THE FIRST OF THESE CHECKS HAPPEN? If less than one day, record hours. If less than one week, record days. Otherwise, record weeks. Hours . 1 __ __ Days . 2 __ __ Weeks . 3 __ __ DK / Don’t remember . 998 302 PN13. WHO CHECKED ON (name)’S HEALTH AT THAT TIME? Health professional Doctor . A Nurse / Midwife . B Auxiliary midwife . C Other person Traditional birth attendant . F Community health worker . G Relative / Friend . H Other (specify) ______________________ X PN14. WHERE DID THIS CHECK TAKE PLACE? Probe to identify the type of source. If unable to determine whether public or private, write the name of the place. (Name of place) Home Respondent’s home . 11 Other home . 12 Public sector Government hospital . 21 Government clinic / health centre . 22 Government health post . 23 Other public (specify) ______________ 26 Private medical sector Private hospital . 31 Private clinic . 32 Private maternity home . 33 Other private medical (specify) _______________ 36 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 PN15. Check MN18: Was the child delivered in a health facility?  Yes, the child was delivered in a health facility (MN18=21-26 or 31-36)  Continue with PN16.  No, the child was not delivered in a health facility (MN18=11-12 or 96)  Go to PN17. PN16. AFTER YOU LEFT (name or type of facility in MN18), DID ANYONE CHECK ON YOUR HEALTH? Yes . 1 No . 2 1PN20 2Next Module PN17. Check MN17: Did a health professional, traditional birth attendant, or community health worker assist with the delivery?  Yes, delivery assisted by a health professional, traditional birth attendant, or community health worker (MN17=A-G)  Continue with PN18  No, delivery not assisted by a health professional, traditional birth attendant, or community health worker (A-G not circled in MN17)  Go to PN19 PN18. AFTER THE DELIVERY WAS OVER AND (person or persons in MN17) LEFT, DID ANYONE CHECK ON YOUR HEALTH? Yes . 1 No . 2 1PN20 2Next Module PN19. AFTER THE BIRTH OF (name), DID ANYONE CHECK ON YOUR HEALTH? I MEAN SOMEONE ASSESSING YOUR HEALTH, FOR EXAMPLE ASKING QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR HEALTH OR EXAMINING YOU. Yes . 1 No . 2 2Next Module 303 PN20. DID SUCH A CHECK HAPPEN ONLY ONCE, OR MORE THAN ONCE? Once . 1 More than once . 2 1PN21A 2PN21B PN21A. HOW LONG AFTER DELIVERY DID THAT CHECK HAPPEN? PN21B. HOW LONG AFTER DELIVERY DID THE FIRST OF THESE CHECKS HAPPEN? If less than one day, record hours. If less than one week, record days. Otherwise, record weeks. Hours . 1 __ __ Days . 2 __ __ Weeks . 3 __ __ DK / Don’t remember . 998 PN22. WHO CHECKED ON YOUR HEALTH AT THAT TIME? Health professional Doctor . A Nurse / Midwife . B Auxiliary midwife . C Other person Traditional birth attendant . F Community health worker . G Relative / Friend . H Other (specify) ______________________ X PN23. WHERE DID THIS CHECK TAKE PLACE? Probe to identify the type of source. If unable to determine whether public or private, write the name of the place. (Name of place) Home Respondent’s home . 11 Other home . 12 Public sector Government hospital . 21 Government clinic / health centre . 22 Government health post . 23 Other public (specify) ______________ 26 Private medical sector Private hospital . 31 Private clinic . 32 Private maternity home . 33 Other private medical (specify) _______________ 36 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 304 ILLNESS SYMPTOMS IS IS1. Check List of Household Members, columns HL7B and HL15: Is the respondent the mother or caretaker of any child under age 5?  Yes  Continue with IS2.  No  Go to Next Module. IS2. SOMETIMES CHILDREN HAVE SEVERE ILLNESSES AND SHOULD BE TAKEN IMMEDIATELY TO A HEALTH FACILITY. WHAT TYPES OF SYMPTOMS WOULD CAUSE YOU TO TAKE A CHILD UNDER THE AGE OF 5 TO A HEALTH FACILITY RIGHT AWAY? Probe: ANY OTHER SYMPTOMS? Keep asking for more signs or symptoms until the mother/caretaker cannot recall any additional symptoms. Circle all symptoms mentioned, but do not prompt with any suggestions Child not able to drink or breastfeed . A Child becomes sicker . B Child develops a fever . C Child has fast breathing. D Child has difficulty breathing . E Child has blood in stool . F Child is drinking poorly . G Other (specify) ______________________ X Other (specify) ______________________ Y Other (specify) ______________________ Z 305 CONTRACEPTION CP CP0. I WOULD LIKE TO TALK WITH YOU ABOUT ANOTHER SUBJECT – FAMILY PLANNING. HAVE YOU HEARD OF : [A] FEMALE STERILIZATION? Probe: WOMEN CAN HAVE AN OPERATION TO AVOID HAVING ANY MORE CHILDREN. [B] MALE STERILIZATION? Probe: MEN CAN HAVE AN OPERATION TO AVOID HAVING ANY MORE CHILDREN. [C] IUD? Probe: WOMEN CAN HAVE A LOOP OR COIL PLACED INSIDE THEM BY A DOCTOR OR A NURSE. [D] INJECTABLES? Probe: WOMEN CAN HAVE AN INJECTIONBY A HEALTH PROVIDER THAT STOPS THEM FROM BECOMING PREGNANT FOR ONE OR MORE MONTHS. [E] IMPLANTS? Probe: WOMEN CAN HAVE ONE OR MORE SMALL RODS PLACED IN THEIR UPPER ARM BY A DOCTOR OR NURSE WHICH CAN PREVENT PREGNANCY FOR ONE OR MORE YEARS. [F] PILL? Probe: WOMEN CAN TAKE A PILL EVERY DAY TO AVOID BECOMING PREGNANT. [G] CONDOM? Probe: MEN CAN PUT A RUBBER SHEATH ON THEIR PENIS BEFORE SEXUAL INTERCOURSE. [H] FEMALE CONDOM? Probe: WOMEN CAN PLACE A SHEATH IN THEIR VAGINA BEFORE SEXUAL INTERCOURSE. [I] DIAPHRAGM? Probe: WOMEN CAN INSERT A SOFT RUBBER CUP IN THEIR VAGINA TO BLOCK THE SPERM FROM ENTERING THEIR UTERUS OR FALLOPIAN TUBES. [J] FOAM / JELLY? Probe: WOMEN MAY USE SPERMICIDAL PRODUCTS (E.G. FOAM, JELLY, CREAM) THAT CAN KILL OR PREVENT THE SPERM FROM MOVING AND REACHING THE EGG. [K] LACTATIONAL AMENORRHOEA METHOD (LAM)? Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 306 [L] PERIODIC ABSTINENCE / RHYTHM METHOD? Probe: TO AVOID PREGNANCY, WOMEN DO NOT HAVE SEXUAL INTERCOURSE ON THE DAYS OF THE MONTH THEY THINK THEY CAN GET PREGNANT. [M] WITHDRAWAL? Probe: MEN CAN BE CAREFUL AND PULL OUT BEFORE CLIMAX. [N] EMERGENCY / POSTCOITAL CONTRACEPTION? Probe: AS AN EMERGENCY MEASURE, WITHIN THREE DAYS AFTER THEY HAVE UNPROTECTED SEXUAL INTERCOURSE, WOMEN CAN TAKE SPECIAL PILLS TO PREVENT PREGNANCY. [X] HAVE YOU HEARD OF ANY OTHER WAYS OR METHODS THAT WOMEN OR MEN CAN USE TO AVOID PREGNANCY? Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 No . 2 Yes . 1 ________________________________ (specify) ________________________________ (specify) No . 2 CP1. ARE YOU PREGNANT NOW? Yes, currently pregnant . 1 No . 2 Unsure or DK . 8 1CP2A CP2. COUPLES USE VARIOUS WAYS OR METHODS TO DELAY OR AVOID A PREGNANCY. ARE YOU CURRENTLY DOING SOMETHING OR USING ANY METHOD TO DELAY OR AVOID GETTING PREGNANT? Yes . 1 No . 2 1CP3 CP2A. HAVE YOU EVER DONE SOMETHING OR USED ANY METHOD TO DELAY OR AVOID GETTING PREGNANT? Yes . 1 No . 2 1Next 2Next module CP3. WHAT ARE YOU DOING TO DELAY OR AVOID A PREGNANCY? Do not prompt. If more than one method is mentioned, circle each one. Female sterilization . A Male sterilization . B IUD . C Injectables . D Implants . E Pill . F Male condom . G Female condom . H Diaphragm . I Foam / Jelly . J Lactational amenorrhoea method (LAM) . K Periodic abstinence / Rhythm . L Withdrawal . M Other (specify) ______________________ X module 307 UNMET NEED UN UN1. Check CP1: Currently pregnant?  Yes, currently pregnant  Continue with UN2.  No, unsure or DK  Go to UN5. UN2. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT YOUR CURRENT PREGNANCY. WHEN YOU GOT PREGNANT, DID YOU WANT TO GET PREGNANT AT THAT TIME? Yes . 1 No . 2 1UN4 UN3. DID YOU WANT TO HAVE A BABY LATER ON OR DID YOU NOT WANT ANY (MORE) CHILDREN? Later . 1 No more . 2 UN4. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT THE FUTURE. AFTER THE CHILD YOU ARE NOW EXPECTING, WOULD YOU LIKE TO HAVE ANOTHER CHILD, OR WOULD YOU PREFER NOT TO HAVE ANY MORE CHILDREN? Have another child . 1 No more / None . 2 Undecided / DK . 8 1UN7 2UN13 8UN13 UN5. Check CP3: Currently using “Female sterilization”?  Yes  Go to UN13.  No  Continue with UN6. UN6. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT THE FUTURE. WOULD YOU LIKE TO HAVE (A/ANOTHER) CHILD, OR WOULD YOU PREFER NOT TO HAVE ANY (MORE) CHILDREN? Have (a/another) child . 1 No more / None . 2 Says she cannot get pregnant . 3 Undecided / DK . 8 2UN9 3UN11 8UN9 UN7. HOW LONG WOULD YOU LIKE TO WAIT BEFORE THE BIRTH OF (A/ANOTHER) CHILD? Record the answer as stated by respondent. Months . 1 __ __ Years . 2 __ __ Does not want to wait (soon/now) . 993 Says she cannot get pregnant . 994 After marriage . 995 Other . 996 DK . 998 994UN11 UN8. Check CP1: Currently pregnant?  Yes, currently pregnant  Go to UN13.  No, unsure or DK  Continue with UN9. 308 UN9. Check CP2: Currently using a method?  Yes  Go to UN13.  No  Continue with UN10. UN10. DO YOU THINK YOU ARE PHYSICALLY ABLE TO GET PREGNANT AT THIS TIME? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 1 UN13 8 UN13 UN11. WHY DO YOU THINK YOU ARE NOT PHYSICALLY ABLE TO GET PREGNANT? Infrequent sex / No sex . A Menopausal . B Never menstruated . C Hysterectomy (surgical removal of uterus) . D Has been trying to get pregnant for 2 years or more without result . E Postpartum amenorrheic . F Breastfeeding . G Too old . H Fatalistic . I Other (specify) ______________________ X DK . Z UN12. Check UN11: “Never menstruated” mentioned?  Mentioned  Go to Next Module.  Not mentioned  Continue with UN13. UN13. WHEN DID YOUR LAST MENSTRUAL PERIOD START? Record the answer using the same unit stated by the respondent. Days ago . 1 __ __ Weeks ago . 2 __ __ Months ago . 3 __ __ Years ago . 4 __ __ In menopause / Has had hysterectomy . 994 Before last birth . 995 Never menstruated . 996 309 ATTITUDES TOWARD DOMESTIC VIOLENCE DV DV1. SOMETIMES A HUSBAND IS ANNOYED OR ANGERED BY THINGS THAT HIS WIFE DOES. IN YOUR OPINION, IS A HUSBAND JUSTIFIED IN HITTING OR BEATING HIS WIFE IN THE FOLLOWING SITUATIONS: [A] IF SHE GOES OUT WITHOUT TELLING HIM? [B] IF SHE NEGLECTS THE CHILDREN? [C] IF SHE ARGUES WITH HIM? [D] IF SHE REFUSES TO HAVE SEX WITH HIM? [E] IF SHE BURNS THE FOOD? [F] IF SHE NEGLECTS HOUSEWORK (HOUSEKEEPING, LAUNDRY, CARE AFTER ANIMALS) Yes No DK Goes out without telling . 1 2 8 Neglects children . 1 2 8 Argues with him . 1 2 8 Refuses sex . 1 2 8 Burns food . 1 2 8 Neglects housework . 1 2 8 310 MARRIAGE/UNION MA MA1. ARE YOU CURRENTLY MARRIED OR LIVING TOGETHER WITH A MAN AS IF MARRIED? Yes, currently married . 1 Yes, living with a man . 2 No, not in union . 3 3MA5 MA2. HOW OLD IS YOUR HUSBAND/PARTNER? Probe: HOW OLD WAS YOUR HUSBAND/PARTNER ON HIS LAST BIRTHDAY? Age in years . __ __ DK . 98 MA3. BESIDES YOURSELF, DOES YOUR HUSBAND/PARTNER HAVE ANY OTHER WIVES OR PARTNERS OR DOES HE LIVE WITH OTHER WOMEN AS IF MARRIED? Yes . 1 No . 2 2MA7 MA4. HOW MANY OTHER WIVES OR PARTNERS DOES HE HAVE? Number . __ __ DK . 98 MA7 98MA7 MA5. HAVE YOU EVER BEEN MARRIED OR LIVED TOGETHER WITH A MAN AS IF MARRIED? Yes, formerly married . 1 Yes, formerly lived with a man . 2 No . 3 3Next Module MA6. WHAT IS YOUR MARITAL STATUS NOW: ARE YOU WIDOWED, DIVORCED OR SEPARATED? Widowed . 1 Divorced . 2 Separated . 3 MA7. HAVE YOU BEEN MARRIED OR LIVED WITH A MAN ONLY ONCE OR MORE THAN ONCE? Only once . 1 More than once . 2 1MA8A 2MA8B MA8A. IN WHAT MONTH AND YEAR DID YOU MARRY OR START LIVING WITH A MAN AS IF MARRIED? MA8B. IN WHAT MONTH AND YEAR DID YOU FIRST MARRY OR START LIVING WITH A MAN AS IF MARRIED? Date of (first) marriage Month . __ __ DK month . 98 Year . __ __ __ __ DK year . 9998 Next Module MA9. HOW OLD WERE YOU WHEN YOU FIRST STARTED LIVING WITH YOUR (FIRST) HUSBAND/PARTNER? Age in years . __ __ 311 HIV/AIDS HA HA1. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO TALK WITH YOU ABOUT SOMETHING ELSE. HAVE YOU EVER HEARD OF AN ILLNESS CALLED AIDS? Yes . 1 No . 2 2Next Module HA2. CAN PEOPLE REDUCE THEIR CHANCE OF GETTING THE AIDS VIRUS BY HAVING JUST ONE UNINFECTED SEX PARTNER WHO HAS NO OTHER SEX PARTNERS? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 HA3. CAN PEOPLE GET THE AIDS VIRUS BECAUSE OF WITCHCRAFT OR OTHER SUPERNATURAL MEANS? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 HA4. CAN PEOPLE REDUCE THEIR CHANCE OF GETTING THE AIDS VIRUS BY USING A CONDOM EVERY TIME THEY HAVE SEX? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 HA5. CAN PEOPLE GET THE AIDS VIRUS FROM MOSQUITO BITES? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 HA6. CAN PEOPLE GET THE AIDS VIRUS BY SHARING FOOD WITH A PERSON WHO HAS THE AIDS VIRUS? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 HA6A. CAN PEOPLE GET THE AIDS VIRUS THROUGH SALIVA BY KISSING SOMEONE INFECTED WITH THE AIDS VIRUS? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 HA6B. CAN PEOPLE GET THE AIDS VIRUS BY HUGGING OR SHAKING HANDS WITH A PERSON WHO IS INFECTED WITH AIDS? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 HA7. IS IT POSSIBLE FOR A HEALTHY-LOOKING PERSON TO HAVE THE AIDS VIRUS? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 HA8. CAN THE VIRUS THAT CAUSES AIDS BE TRANSMITTED FROM A MOTHER TO HER BABY: [A] DURING PREGNANCY? [B] DURING DELIVERY? [C] BY BREASTFEEDING? Yes No DK During pregnancy . 1 2 8 During delivery . 1 2 8 By breastfeeding . 1 2 8 HA9. IN YOUR OPINION, IF A FEMALE TEACHER HAS THE AIDS VIRUS BUT IS NOT SICK, SHOULD SHE BE ALLOWED TO CONTINUE TEACHING IN SCHOOL? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK / Not sure / Depends . 8 HA10. WOULD YOU BUY FRESH VEGETABLES FROM A SHOPKEEPER OR VENDOR IF YOU KNEW THAT THIS PERSON HAD THE AIDS VIRUS? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK / Not sure / Depends . 8 312 HA11. IF A MEMBER OF YOUR FAMILY GOT INFECTED WITH THE AIDS VIRUS, WOULD YOU WANT IT TO REMAIN A SECRET? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK / Not sure / Depends . 8 HA12. IF A MEMBER OF YOUR FAMILY BECAME SICK WITH AIDS, WOULD YOU BE WILLING TO CARE FOR HER OR HIM IN YOUR OWN HOUSEHOLD? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK / Not sure / Depends . 8 HA13. Check CM13: Any live birth in last 2 years?  No live birth in last 2 years (CM13=”No” or blank)  Go to HA24.  One or more live births in last 2 years  Continue with HA14. HA14. Check MN1: Received antenatal care?  Received antenatal care  Continue with HA15.  Did not receive antenatal care  Go to HA24. HA15. DURING ANY OF THE ANTENATAL VISITS FOR YOUR PREGNANCY WITH (name), WERE YOU GIVEN ANY INFORMATION ABOUT: [A] BABIES GETTING THE AIDS VIRUS FROM THEIR MOTHER? [B] THINGS THAT YOU CAN DO TO PREVENT GETTING THE AIDS VIRUS? [C] GETTING TESTED FOR THE AIDS VIRUS? WERE YOU: [D] OFFERED A TEST FOR THE AIDS VIRUS? Y N DK AIDS from mother . 1 2 8 Things to do . 1 2 8 Tested for AIDS . 1 2 8 Offered a test . 1 2 8 HA16. I DON’T WANT TO KNOW THE RESULTS, BUT WERE YOU TESTED FOR THE AIDS VIRUS AS PART OF YOUR ANTENATAL CARE? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2HA19 8HA19 HA17. I DON’T WANT TO KNOW THE RESULTS, BUT DID YOU GET THE RESULTS OF THE TEST? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2HA22 8HA22 HA18. REGARDLESS OF THE RESULT, ALL WOMEN WHO ARE TESTED ARE SUPPOSED TO RECEIVE COUNSELLING AFTER GETTING THE RESULT. AFTER YOU WERE TESTED, DID YOU RECEIVE COUNSELLING? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 1HA22 2HA22 8HA22 HA19. Check MN17: Birth delivered by health professional (A, B or C)?  Yes, birth delivered by health professional (MN17 = A, B or C)  Continue with HA20.  No, birth not delivered by health professional (MN17 = else)  Go to HA24. HA20. I DON’T WANT TO KNOW THE RESULTS, BUT WERE YOU TESTED FOR THE AIDS VIRUS Yes . 1 No . 2 2HA24 313 BETWEEN THE TIME YOU WENT FOR DELIVERY BUT BEFORE THE BABY WAS BORN? HA21. I DON’T WANT TO KNOW THE RESULTS, BUT DID YOU GET THE RESULTS OF THE TEST? Yes . 1 No . 2 HA22. HAVE YOU BEEN TESTED FOR THE AIDS VIRUS SINCE THAT TIME YOU WERE TESTED DURING YOUR PREGNANCY? Yes . 1 No . 2 1HA25 HA23. WHEN WAS THE MOST RECENT TIME YOU WERE TESTED FOR THE AIDS VIRUS? Less than 12 months ago . 1 12-23 months ago . 2 2 or more years ago . 3 1Next Module 2Next Module 3Next Module HA24. I DON’T WANT TO KNOW THE RESULTS, BUT HAVE YOU EVER BEEN TESTED TO SEE IF YOU HAVE THE AIDS VIRUS? Yes . 1 No . 2 2HA27 HA25. WHEN WAS THE MOST RECENT TIME YOU WERE TESTED? Less than 12 months ago . 1 12-23 months ago . 2 2 or more years ago . 3 HA26. I DON’T WANT TO KNOW THE RESULTS, BUT DID YOU GET THE RESULTS OF THE TEST? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 1Next Module 2Next Module 8Next Module HA27. DO YOU KNOW OF A PLACE WHERE PEOPLE CAN GO TO GET TESTED FOR THE AIDS VIRUS? Yes . 1 No . 2 314 TOBACCO AND ALCOHOL USE TA TA1. HAVE YOU EVER TRIED CIGARETTE SMOKING, EVEN ONE OR TWO PUFFS? Yes . 1 No . 2 2TA6 TA2. HOW OLD WERE YOU WHEN YOU SMOKED A WHOLE CIGARETTE FOR THE FIRST TIME? Never smoked a whole cigarette . 00 Age . ___ ___ 00TA6 TA3. DO YOU CURRENTLY SMOKE CIGARETTES? Yes . 1 No . 2 2TA6 TA4. IN THE LAST 24 HOURS, HOW MANY CIGARETTES DID YOU SMOKE? Number of cigarettes . ___ ___ TA5. DURING THE LAST ONE MONTH, ON HOW MANY DAYS DID YOU SMOKE CIGARETTES? If less than 10 days, record the number of days. If 10 days or more but less than a month, circle “10”. If “every day” or “almost every day”, circle “30”. Number of days . 0 ___ 10 days or more but less than a month . 10 Every day / Almost every day . 30 TA6. HAVE YOU EVER TRIED ANY SMOKED TOBACCO PRODUCTS OTHER THAN CIGARETTES, SUCH AS CIGARS, WATER PIPE, CIGARILLOS OR PIPE? Yes . 1 No . 2 2TA10 TA7. DURING THE LAST ONE MONTH, DID YOU USE ANY SMOKED TOBACCO PRODUCTS? Yes . 1 No . 2 2TA10 TA8. WHAT TYPE OF SMOKED TOBACCO PRODUCT DID YOU USE OR SMOKE DURING THE LAST ONE MONTH? Circle all mentioned. Cigars . A Water pipe . B Cigarillos . C Pipe . D Other (specify) ______________________ X TA9. DURING THE LAST ONE MONTH, ON HOW MANY DAYS DID YOU USE SMOKED TOBACCO PRODUCTS? If less than 10 days, record the number of days. If 10 days or more but less than a month, circle “10”. If “every day” or “almost every day”, circle “30”. Number of days . 0 ___ 10 days or more but less than a month . 10 Every day / Almost every day . 30 TA10. HAVE YOU EVER TRIED ANY FORM OF SMOKELESS TOBACCO PRODUCTS, SUCH AS CHEWING TOBACCO, SNUFF, OR DIP? Yes . 1 No . 2 2TA14 TA11. DURING THE LAST ONE MONTH, DID YOU USE ANY SMOKELESS TOBACCO PRODUCTS? Yes . 1 No . 2 2TA14 315 TA12. WHAT TYPE OF SMOKELESS TOBACCO PRODUCT DID YOU USE DURING THE LAST ONE MONTH? Circle all mentioned. Chewing tobacco . A Snuff . B Dip . C Other (specify) ______________________ X TA13. DURING THE LAST ONE MONTH, ON HOW MANY DAYS DID YOU USE SMOKELESS TOBACCO PRODUCTS? If less than 10 days, record the number of days. If 10 days or more but less than a month, circle “10”. If “every day” or “almost every day”, circle “30”. Number of days . 0 ___ 10 days or more but less than a month . 10 Every day / Almost every day . 30 TA14. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT DRINKING ALCOHOL. HAVE YOU EVER DRUNK ALCOHOL? Yes . 1 No . 2 2Next Module TA15. WE COUNT ONE DRINK OF ALCOHOL AS ONE CAN OR BOTTLE OF BEER, ONE GLASS OF WINE, OR ONE SHOT OF COGNAC, VODKA, WHISKEY OR RUM. HOW OLD WERE YOU WHEN YOU HAD YOUR FIRST DRINK OF ALCOHOL, OTHER THAN A FEW SIPS? Never had one drink of alcohol . 00 Age . ___ ___ 00Next Module TA16. DURING THE LAST ONE MONTH, ON HOW MANY DAYS DID YOU HAVE AT LEAST ONE DRINK OF ALCOHOL? If respondent did not drink, circle “00”. If less than 10 days, record the number of days. If 10 days or more but less than a month, circle “10”. If “every day” or “almost every day”, circle “30”. Did not have one drink in last one month . 00 Number of days . 0 ___ 10 days or more but less than a month . 10 Every day / Almost every day . 30 00Next Module TA17. IN THE LAST ONE MONTH, ON THE DAYS THAT YOU DRANK ALCOHOL, HOW MANY DRINKS DID YOU USUALLY HAVE PER DAY? Number of drinks . ___ ___ 316 LIFE SATISFACTION LS LS1. Check WB2: Age of respondent is between 15 and 24?  Age 25-49  Go to WM11.  Age 15-24  Continue with LS2. LS2. I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU SOME SIMPLE QUESTIONS ON HAPPINESS AND SATISFACTION. FIRST, TAKING ALL THINGS TOGETHER, WOULD YOU SAY YOU ARE VERY HAPPY, SOMEWHAT HAPPY, NEITHER HAPPY NOR UNHAPPY, SOMEWHAT UNHAPPY OR VERY UNHAPPY? YOU CAN ALSO LOOK AT THESE PICTURES TO HELP YOU WITH YOUR RESPONSE. Show side 1 of response card and explain what each symbol represents. Circle the response code selected by the respondent. Very happy . 1 Somewhat happy . 2 Neither happy nor unhappy . 3 Somewhat unhappy . 4 Very unhappy . 5 LS3. NOW I WILL ASK YOU QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR LEVEL OF SATISFACTION IN DIFFERENT AREAS. IN EACH CASE, WE HAVE FIVE POSSIBLE RESPONSES: PLEASE TELL ME, FOR EACH QUESTION, WHETHER YOU ARE VERY SATISFIED, SOMEWHAT SATISFIED, NEITHER SATISFIED NOR UNSATISFIED, SOMEWHAT UNSATISFIED OR VERY UNSATISFIED. AGAIN, YOU CAN LOOK AT THESE PICTURES TO HELP YOU WITH YOUR RESPONSE. Show side 2 of response card and explain what each symbol represents. Circle the response code selected by the respondent, for questions LS3 to LS13. HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH YOUR FAMILY LIFE? Very satisfied . 1 Somewhat satisfied . 2 Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 Somewhat unsatisfied . 4 Very unsatisfied . 5 LS4. HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH YOUR FRIENDSHIPS? Very satisfied . 1 Somewhat satisfied . 2 Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 Somewhat unsatisfied . 4 Very unsatisfied . 5 LS5. DURING THE current / 2013-2014 SCHOOL YEAR, DID YOU ATTEND SCHOOL AT ANY TIME? Yes . 1 No . 2 2LS7 LS6. HOW SATISFIED (are/were) YOU WITH YOUR SCHOOL? Very satisfied . 1 Somewhat satisfied . 2 Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 Somewhat unsatisfied . 4 Very unsatisfied . 5 317 LS7. HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH YOUR CURRENT JOB? If the respondent says that she does not have a job, circle “0” and continue with the next question. Do not probe to find out how she feels about not having a job, unless she tells you herself. Does not have a job . 0 Very satisfied . 1 Somewhat satisfied . 2 Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 Somewhat unsatisfied . 4 Very unsatisfied . 5 LS8. HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH YOUR HEALTH? Very satisfied . 1 Somewhat satisfied . 2 Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 Somewhat unsatisfied . 4 Very unsatisfied . 5 LS9. HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH WHERE YOU LIVE? If necessary, explain that the question refers to the living environment, including the neighbourhood and the dwelling. Very satisfied . 1 Somewhat satisfied . 2 Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 Somewhat unsatisfied . 4 Very unsatisfied . 5 LS10. HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH HOW PEOPLE AROUND YOU GENERALLY TREAT YOU? Very satisfied . 1 Somewhat satisfied . 2 Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 Somewhat unsatisfied . 4 Very unsatisfied . 5 LS11. HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH THE WAY YOU LOOK? Very satisfied . 1 Somewhat satisfied . 2 Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 Somewhat unsatisfied . 4 Very unsatisfied . 5 LS12. HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH YOUR LIFE, OVERALL? Very satisfied . 1 Somewhat satisfied . 2 Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 Somewhat unsatisfied . 4 Very unsatisfied . 5 LS13. HOW SATISFIED ARE YOU WITH YOUR CURRENT INCOME? If the respondent says that she does not have any income, circle “0” and continue with the next question. Do not probe to find out how she feels about not having any income, unless she tells you herself. Does not have any income . 0 Very satisfied . 1 Somewhat satisfied . 2 Neither satisfied nor unsatisfied . 3 Somewhat unsatisfied . 4 Very unsatisfied . 5 LS14. COMPARED TO THIS TIME LAST YEAR, WOULD YOU SAY THAT YOUR LIFE HAS IMPROVED, STAYED MORE OR LESS THE SAME, OR WORSENED, OVERALL? Improved . 1 More or less the same . 2 Worsened . 3 LS15. AND IN ONE YEAR FROM NOW, DO YOU EXPECT THAT YOUR LIFE WILL BE BETTER, WILL BE MORE OR LESS THE SAME, OR WILL BE WORSE, OVERALL? Better . 1 More or less the same . 2 Worse . 3 318 WM11. Record the time. Hour and minutes .__ __ : __ __ WM12. Check List of Household Members, columns HL7B and HL15: Is the respondent the mother or caretaker of any child age 0-4 living in this household?  Yes  Proceed to complete the result of woman’s interview (WM7) on the cover page and then go to QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE for that child and start the interview with this respondent.  No  End the interview with this respondent by thanking her for her cooperation and proceed to complete the result of woman’s interview (WM7) on the cover page. 319 Interviewer’s Observations Field Editor’s Observations Supervisor’s Observations 320 RESPONSE CARD: SIDE 1 Very happy Somewhat happy Neither happy, nor unhappy Somewhat unhappy Very unhappy SIDE 2 Very satisfied Somewhat satisfied Neither satisfied, nor unsatisfied Somewhat unsatisfied Very unsatisfied Examples for reading Бала китеп окуп жатат. Ушул жылы жаандар кеч башталды. Ата-эне өз балдарын жакшы көрүшү керек. Ребенок читает книгу. В этом году дожди начались поздно. Родители должны любить своих детей. Sen bilan vaqtimni yaxshi o'tkazdim. Vaqti-vaqti bilan menga yozishni unutma. Mamlakatingizga mamnuniyat bilan yana kelaman. Агар шумо ба мо ҳамроҳ мешудед, якҷоя ба Қасри санъат рафта марҳилаи хотимавии конкурса ҳаваскорони санъати халқиро тамошо мекардем (Если бы вы составили нам компанию, вместе пошли бы во Дворец искусств смотреть заключительный тур конкурса любителей народного искусства). ВƏ ЗЭ БУ НА ЖƏ ЩИН ХУАН НИДИ ЛЫН ЩЁ -我再不拿热心换你的冷笑 321 F3. Questionnaire for Children Under Five QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE Multiple Indicators Clusters Survey in Kyrgyzstan UNDER-FIVE CHILD INFORMATION PANEL UF This questionnaire is to be administered to all mothers or caretakers (see List of Household Members, column HL15) who care for a child that lives with them and is under the age of 5 years (see List of Household Members, column HL7B). A separate questionnaire should be used for each eligible child. UF1. Cluster number: UF2. Household number: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ UF3. Child’s name: UF4. Child’s line number: Name ___ ___ UF5. Mother’s / Caretaker’s name: UF6. Mother’s / Caretaker’s line number: Name ___ ___ UF7. Interviewer’s name and number: UF8. Day / Month / Year of interview: Name ___ ___ ___ ___ /___ ___ / 2 0 1 4 Repeat greeting if not already read to this respondent: WE ARE FROM National Statistical Committee . WE ARE CONDUCTING A SURVEY ABOUT THE SITUATION OF CHILDREN, FAMILIES AND HOUSEHOLDS. I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU ABOUT (child’s name from UF3)’S HEALTH AND WELL-BEING. THE INTERVIEW WILL TAKE ABOUT 20 MINUTES. ALL THE INFORMATION WE OBTAIN WILL REMAIN STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND ANONYMOUS. If greeting at the beginning of the household questionnaire has already been read to this person, then read the following: NOW I WOULD LIKE TO TALK TO YOU MORE ABOUT (child’s name from UF3)’S HEALTH AND OTHER TOPICS. THIS INTERVIEW WILL TAKE ABOUT 20 MINUTES. AGAIN, ALL THE INFORMATION WE OBTAIN WILL REMAIN STRICTLY CONFIDENTIAL AND ANONYMOUS. MAY I START NOW?  Yes, permission is given  Go to UF12 to record the time and then begin the interview.  No, permission is not given  Circle ‘03’ in UF9. Discuss this result with your supervisor. UF9. Result of interview for children under 5 Codes refer to mother/caretaker. Completed . 01 Not at home . 02 Refused . 03 Partly completed . 04 Incapacitated . 05 Other (specify) ___________________________ 96 UF10. Field editor’s name and number: Name_____________________________ __ __ UF11. Main data entry clerk’s name and number: Name_______________________________ __ __ 322 AGE AG AG1. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT THE DEVELOPMENT AND HEALTH OF (name). ON WHAT DAY, MONTH AND YEAR WAS (name) BORN? Probe: WHAT IS HIS / HER BIRTHDAY? If the mother/caretaker knows the exact birth date, also enter the day; otherwise, circle 98 for day. Month and year must be recorded. Date of birth Day . __ __ DK day . 98 Month . __ __ Year . 2 0 __ __ AG2. HOW OLD IS (name)? Probe: HOW OLD WAS (name) AT HIS / HER LAST BIRTHDAY? Record age in completed years. Record ‘0’ if less than 1 year. Compare and correct AG1 and/or AG2 if inconsistent. Age (in completed years) . __ UF12. Record the time. Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ 323 BIRTH REGISTRATION BR BR1. DOES (name) HAVE A BIRTH CERTIFICATE? If yes, ask: MAY I SEE IT? Yes, seen . 1 Yes, not seen . 2 No . 3 DK . 8 1Next Module 2Next Module BR2. HAS (name)’S BIRTH BEEN REGISTERED WITH the civil authorities (ZAGS, local authorities office) ? Yes. 1 No . 2 DK . 8 1Next Module BR3. DO YOU KNOW HOW TO REGISTER (name)’S BIRTH? Yes. 1 No . 2 324 EARLY CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT EC EC1. HOW MANY CHILDREN’S BOOKS OR PICTURE BOOKS DO YOU HAVE FOR (name)? None . 00 Number of children’s books . 0 __ Ten or more books . 10 EC2. I AM INTERESTED IN LEARNING ABOUT THE THINGS THAT (name) PLAYS WITH WHEN HE/SHE IS AT HOME. DOES HE/SHE PLAY WITH: [A] HOMEMADE TOYS (SUCH AS DOLLS, CARS, OR OTHER TOYS MADE AT HOME)? [B] TOYS FROM A SHOP OR MANUFACTURED TOYS? [C] HOUSEHOLD OBJECTS (SUCH AS BOWLS OR POTS) OR OBJECTS FOUND OUTSIDE (SUCH AS STICKS, ROCKS, ANIMAL SHELLS OR LEAVES)? If the respondent says “YES” to the categories above, then probe to learn specifically what the child plays with to ascertain the response. Y N DK Homemade toys . 1 2 8 Toys from a shop . 1 2 8 Household objects or outside objects . 1 2 8 EC3. SOMETIMES ADULTS TAKING CARE OF CHILDREN HAVE TO LEAVE THE HOUSE TO GO SHOPPING, WASH CLOTHES, OR FOR OTHER REASONS AND HAVE TO LEAVE YOUNG CHILDREN. ON HOW MANY DAYS IN THE PAST WEEK WAS (name): [A] LEFT ALONE FOR MORE THAN AN HOUR? [B] LEFT IN THE CARE OF ANOTHER CHILD, THAT IS, SOMEONE LESS THAN 10 YEARS OLD, FOR MORE THAN AN HOUR? If ‘none’ enter’ 0’. If ‘don’t know’ enter’8’. Number of days left alone for more than an hour . __ Number of days left with other child for more than an hour . __ EC5. DOES (name) ATTEND ANY ORGANIZED LEARNING OR EARLY CHILDHOOD EDUCATION PROGRAMME, SUCH AS A PRIVATE OR GOVERNMENT FACILITY, INCLUDING KINDERGARTEN OR COMMUNITY CHILD CARE? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 EC4. Check AG2: Age of child.  Child age 0, 1 or 2  Go to Next Module.  Child age 3 or 4  Continue with EC7. 325 EC7. IN THE PAST 3 DAYS, DID YOU OR ANY HOUSEHOLD MEMBER AGE 15 OR OVER ENGAGE IN ANY OF THE FOLLOWING ACTIVITIES WITH (name): If yes, ask: WHO ENGAGED IN THIS ACTIVITY WITH (name)? Circle all that apply. Mother Father Other No one [A] READ BOOKS TO OR LOOKED AT PICTURE BOOKS WITH (name)? Read books A B X Y [B] TOLD STORIES TO (name)? Told stories A B X Y [C] SANG SONGS TO (name) OR WITH (name), INCLUDING LULLABIES? Sang songs A B X Y [D] TOOK (name) OUTSIDE THE HOME, COMPOUND, YARD OR ENCLOSURE? Took outside A B X Y [E] PLAYED WITH (name)? Played with A B X Y [F] NAMED, COUNTED, OR DREW THINGS TO OR WITH (name)? Named/counted A B X Y EC8. I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU SOME QUESTIONS ABOUT THE HEALTH AND DEVELOPMENT OF (name). CHILDREN DO NOT ALL DEVELOP AND LEARN AT THE SAME RATE. FOR EXAMPLE, SOME WALK EARLIER THAN OTHERS. THESE QUESTIONS ARE RELATED TO SEVERAL ASPECTS OF (name)’S DEVELOPMENT. CAN (name) IDENTIFY OR NAME TEN OR MORE LETTERS OF THE ALPHABET? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 EC9. CAN (name) READ AT LEAST FOUR SIMPLE, POPULAR WORDS? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 EC10. DOES (name) KNOW THE NAME AND RECOGNIZE THE SYMBOL OF ALL NUMBERS FROM 1 TO 10? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 EC11. CAN (name) PICK UP A SMALL OBJECT WITH TWO FINGERS, LIKE A STICK OR A ROCK FROM THE GROUND? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 EC12. IS (name) SOMETIMES TOO SICK TO PLAY? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 EC13. DOES (name) FOLLOW SIMPLE DIRECTIONS ON HOW TO DO SOMETHING CORRECTLY? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 326 EC14. WHEN GIVEN SOMETHING TO DO, IS (name) ABLE TO DO IT INDEPENDENTLY? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 EC15. DOES (name) GET ALONG WELL WITH OTHER CHILDREN? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 EC16. DOES (name) KICK, BITE, OR HIT OTHER CHILDREN OR ADULTS? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 EC17. DOES (name) GET DISTRACTED EASILY? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 327 BREASTFEEDING AND DIETARY INTAKE BD BD1. Check AG2: Age of child  Child age 0, 1 or 2  Continue with BD2.  Child age 3 or 4  Go to CARE OF ILLNESS Module. BD2. HAS (name) EVER BEEN BREASTFED? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2BD4 8BD4 BD3. IS (name) STILL BEING BREASTFED? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 BD4. YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT, DID (name) DRINK ANYTHING FROM A BOTTLE WITH A NIPPLE? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 BD5. DID (name) DRINK ORS (ORAL REHYDRATION SOLUTION) YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 BD6. DID (name) DRINK OR EAT VITAMIN OR MINERAL SUPPLEMENTS OR ANY MEDICINES YESTERDAY, DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 BD7. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU ABOUT (OTHER) LIQUIDS THAT (name) MAY HAVE HAD YESTERDAY DURING THE DAY OR THE NIGHT. I AM INTERESTED TO KNOW WHETHER (name) HAD THE ITEM EVEN IF COMBINED WITH OTHER FOODS. PLEASE INCLUDE LIQUIDS CONSUMED OUTSIDE OF YOUR HOME. DID (name) DRINK (Name of item) YESTERDAY DURING THE DAY OR THE NIGHT: Yes No DK [A] PLAIN WATER? Plain water 1 2 8 [B] JUICE OR JUICE DRINKS? Juice or juice drinks 1 2 8 [C] SHORPO, CLEAR BROTH OR CLEAR SOUP? Soup 1 2 8 [D] MILK SUCH AS TINNED, POWDERED, OR PURE ANIMAL MILK? Milk 1 2 8 If yes: HOW MANY TIMES DID (name) DRINK MILK? If 7 or more times, record '7'. If unknown, record ‘8’. Number of times drank milk . __ [E] INFANT FORMULA? Infant formula 1 2 8 If yes: HOW MANY TIMES DID (name) DRINK INFANT FORMULA? If 7 or more times, record '7'. If unknown, record ‘8’. Number of times drank infant formula . __ [F] ANY OTHER LIQUIDS? (Specify)_____________________________ Other liquids 1 2 8 328 BD8. NOW I WOULD LIKE TO ASK YOU ABOUT (OTHER) FOODS THAT (name) MAY HAVE HAD YESTERDAY DURING THE DAY OR THE NIGHT. AGAIN, I AM INTERESTED TO KNOW WHETHER (name) HAD THE ITEM EVEN IF COMBINED WITH OTHER FOODS. PLEASE INCLUDE FOODS CONSUMED OUTSIDE OF YOUR HOME. DID (name) EAT (Name of food) YESTERDAY DURING THE DAY OR THE NIGHT: Yes No DK [A] YOGURT, KEFIR, AIRAN, BIOLAKT? Yogurt, kefir, airan, biolakt 1 2 8 If yes: HOW MANY TIMES DID (name) DRINK OR EAT YOGURT? If 7 or more times, record '7'. If unknown, record ‘8’. Number of times drank/ate yogurt . __ [B] ANY commercially fortified baby food like Nestle, NAN, malysh ? Nestle, NAN, Malysh, Malutka, etc 1 2 8 [C] BREAD, RICE, NOODLES, PORRIDGE, OR OTHER FOODS MADE FROM GRAINS? Foods made from grains 1 2 8 [D] PUMPKIN, CARROTS? Pumpkin, carrots. 1 2 8 [E] WHITE POTATOES, CULTIVATED CABBAGE, TURNIP (RADISH),OR ANY OTHER FOODS MADE FROM ROOTS? White potatoes, cultivated cabbage, turnip (radish), etc. 1 2 8 [F] ANY DARK GREEN, LEAFY VEGETABLES? Dark green, leafy vegetables 1 2 8 [G] DRIED APRICOTS, PERSIMMON? dried apricots, persimmon 1 2 8 [H] ANY OTHER FRUITS OR VEGETABLES? Other fruits or vegetables 1 2 8 [I] LIVER, KIDNEY, HEART OR OTHER ORGAN MEATS? Liver, kidney, heart or other organ meats 1 2 8 [J] ANY MEAT, SUCH AS BEEF, PORK, LAMB, GOAT, CHICKEN, OR DUCK? Meat, such as beef, pork, lamb, goat, etc. 1 2 8 [K] EGGS? Eggs 1 2 8 [L] FRESH OR DRIED FISH OR SHELLFISH? Fresh or dried fish 1 2 8 [M] ANY FOODS MADE FROM BEANS, PEAS, LENTILS, OR NUTS? Foods made from beans, peas, etc. 1 2 8 [N] CHEESE OR OTHER FOOD MADE FROM MILK? Cheese or other food made from milk 1 2 8 [O] ANY OTHER SOLID, SEMI-SOLID, OR SOFT FOOD THAT I HAVE NOT MENTIONED? (Specify)_____________________________ Other solid, semi-solid, or soft food 1 2 8 BD9. Check BD8 (Categories “A” through “O”).  At least one “Yes” or all “DK”  Go to BD11.  Else  Continue with BD10. BD10. Probe to determine whether the child ate any solid, semi-solid or soft foods yesterday during the day or night .  The child did not eat or the respondent does not know  Go to Next Module.  The child ate at least one solid, semi-solid or soft food item mentioned by the respondent  Go back to BD8 and record food eaten yesterday [A to O]. When finished, continue with BD11. BD11. HOW MANY TIMES DID (name) EAT ANY SOLID, SEMI-SOLID OR SOFT FOODS YESTERDAY DURING THE DAY OR NIGHT? If 7 or more times, record '7'. Number of times . __ DK . 8 329 IMMUNIZATION IM If an immunization (child health) card is available, copy the dates in IM3 for each type of immunization recorded on the card. IM6-IM16 will only be asked if a card is not available. IM1. DO YOU HAVE A CARD AT HOME WHERE (name)’S VACCINATIONS ARE WRITTEN DOWN? If yes: MAY I SEE IT PLEASE? Yes, seen . 1 Yes, not seen . 2 No card . 3 1IM3 2IM6 IM2. DID YOU EVER HAVE A VACCINATION (child health) CARD FOR (name)? Yes . 1 No . 2 1IM6 2IM6 IM3. (a) Copy dates for each vaccination from the card. (b) Write ‘44’ in day column if card shows that vaccination was given but no date recorded. Date of Immunization Day Month Year BCG BCG HEPB AT BIRTH HEP0 POLIO AT BIRTH OPV0 POLIO 1 OPV1 POLIO 2 OPV2 POLIO 3 OPV3 VACCINATION AGAINST WHOOPING COUGH, DIPHTHERIA AND TETANUS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B - PENTA-1 VACCINATION AGAINST WHOOPING COUGH, DIPHTHERIA AND TETANUS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B - PENTA-2 VACCINATION AGAINST WHOOPING COUGH, DIPHTHERIA AND TETANUS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE TYPE B - PENTA-3 MEASLES (OR MMR OR MR) MEASLES IM4. Check IM3. Are all vaccines (BCG to Measles) recorded?  Yes  Go to Next Module.  No  Continue with IM5. 330 IM5. IN ADDITION TO WHAT IS RECORDED ON THIS CARD, DID (name) RECEIVE ANY OTHER VACCINATIONS – INCLUDING VACCINATIONS RECEIVED IN CAMPAIGNS OR IMMUNIZATION DAYS OR CHILD HEALTH DAYS?  Yes  Go back to IM3 and probe for these vaccinations and write ‘66’ in the corresponding day column for each vaccine mentioned. When finished, skip to Next Module.  No/DK  Go to Next Module. IM6. HAS (name) EVER RECEIVED ANY VACCINATIONS TO PREVENT HIM/HER FROM GETTING DISEASES, INCLUDING VACCINATIONS RECEIVED IN A CAMPAIGN OR IMMUNIZATION DAY OR CHILD HEALTH DAY? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2NEXT MODULE 8NEXT MODULE IM7. HAS (name) EVER RECEIVED A BCG VACCINATION AGAINST TUBERCULOSIS – THAT IS, AN INJECTION IN THE LEFT ARM OR SHOULDER THAT USUALLY CAUSES A SCAR? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 IM8. HAS (name) EVER RECEIVED ANY VACCINATION DROPS IN THE MOUTH TO PROTECT HIM/HER FROM POLIO? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2IM11 8IM11 IM9. WAS THE FIRST POLIO VACCINE RECEIVED IN THE FIRST TWO WEEKS AFTER BIRTH? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 IM10. HOW MANY TIMES WAS THE POLIO VACCINE RECEIVED? Number of times . __ IM11. HAS (name) EVER RECEIVED A PENTA VACCINATION (AKDS+VGV+HIB) – THAT IS, AN INJECTION IN THE THIGH TO PREVENT HIM/HER FROM GETTING TETANUS, WHOOPING COUGH, DIPHTHERIA, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZAE? Probe by indicating that Penta vaccination (AKDS+VGV+HIB) is sometimes given at the same time as Polio. English acronyms: (AKDS+VGV+HIB) = DPT Vaccine Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2IM14 8IM14 IM12. HOW MANY TIMES WAS THE PENTA VACCINE RECEIVED? Number of times . __ IM14. WAS THE FIRST HEPATITIS B VACCINE RECEIVED WITHIN 24 HOURS AFTER BIRTH Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 IM16. HAS (name) EVER RECEIVED A MEASLES CONTAINING INJECTION (OR AN MMR OR MR) – THAT IS, A SHOT IN THE ARM AT THE AGE OF 12 MONTHS OR OLDER - TO PREVENT HIM/HER FROM GETTING MEASLES. Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 IM20. Issue a QUESTIONNAIRE FORM FOR VACCINATION RECORDS AT HEALTH FACILITY for this child. Complete the Information Panel on that Questionnaire and go to Next Module. 331 CARE OF ILLNESS CA CA1. IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS, HAS (name) HAD DIARRHOEA? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2CA6A 8CA6A CA2. I WOULD LIKE TO KNOW HOW MUCH (name) WAS GIVEN TO DRINK DURING THE DIARRHOEA (INCLUDING BREASTMILK). DURING THE TIME (name) HAD DIARRHOEA, WAS HE/SHE GIVEN LESS THAN USUAL TO DRINK, ABOUT THE SAME AMOUNT, OR MORE THAN USUAL? If ‘less’, probe: WAS HE/SHE GIVEN MUCH LESS THAN USUAL TO DRINK, OR SOMEWHAT LESS? Much less . 1 Somewhat less . 2 About the same . 3 More . 4 Nothing to drink . 5 DK . 8 CA3. DURING THE TIME (name) HAD DIARRHOEA, WAS HE/SHE GIVEN LESS THAN USUAL TO EAT, ABOUT THE SAME AMOUNT, MORE THAN USUAL, OR NOTHING TO EAT? If ‘less’, probe: WAS HE/SHE GIVEN MUCH LESS THAN USUAL TO EAT OR SOMEWHAT LESS? Much less . 1 Somewhat less . 2 About the same . 3 More . 4 Stopped food . 5 Never gave food . 6 DK . 8 CA3A. DID YOU SEEK ANY ADVICE OR TREATMENT FOR THE DIARRHOEA FROM ANY SOURCE? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2CA4 8CA4 CA3B. FROM WHERE DID YOU SEEK ADVICE OR TREATMENT? Probe: ANYWHERE ELSE? Circle all providers mentioned, but do NOT prompt with any suggestions. Probe to identify each type of source. If unable to determine if public or private sector, write the name of the place. (Name of place) Public sector Government hospital . A Family medicine centre . B Family group practitioners . C Feldsher Accoucher Point D Mobile / Outreach clinic . E Other public (specify) ______________ H Private medical sector Private hospital / clinic . I Private physician . J Private pharmacy . K Mobile clinic . L Other private medical (specify) _______ O Other source Relative / Friend . P Shop . Q Traditional practitioner . R Other (specify) ______________________ X 332 CA4. DURING THE TIME (name) HAD DIARRHOEA, WAS (name) GIVEN TO DRINK: [A] A FLUID MADE FROM A SPECIAL PACKET CALLED REGIDRON OR REGIVIT? (HERE A RUSSIAN TRANSLATION IS ALSO ADDED IN ORDER TO MAKE THE QUESTION CLEARER) Y N DK Regidron or Regivit based fluid . 1 2 8 CA4A. Check CA4: ORS.  Child was given ORS (‘Yes’ circled in ‘A’ in CA4)  Continue with CA4B.  Child was not given ORS  Go to CA4C. CA4B. WHERE DID YOU GET THE ORS? Probe to identify the type of source. If unable to determine whether public or private, write the name of the place. (Name of place) Public sector Government hospital . 11 Family medicine centre . 12 Family group practitioners . 13 Feldsher Accoucher Point…………. 14 Mobile / Outreach clinic . 15 Other public (specify) ______________ 16 Private medical sector Private hospital / clinic . 21 Private physician . 22 Private pharmacy . 23 Mobile clinic . 24 Other private medical (specify) _______ 26 Other source Relative / Friend . 31 Shop . 32 Traditional practitioner . 33 Already had at home . 40 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 CA4C. DURING THE TIME (name) HAD DIARRHOEA, WAS (name) GIVEN: [A] ZINC TABLETS? [B] ZINC SYRUP? Y N DK Zinc tablets . 1 2 8 Zinc syrup . 1 2 8 CA4D. Check CA4C: Any zinc?  Child given any zinc (‘Yes’ circled in ‘A’ or ‘B’ in CA4C)  Continue with CA4E.  Child was not given any zinc  Go to CA4F. 333 CA4E. WHERE DID YOU GET THE ZINC? Probe to identify the type of source. If unable to determine whether public or private, write the name of the place. (Name of place) Public sector Government hospital . 11 Family medicine centre . 12 Family group practitioners . 13 Feldsher Accoucher Point . 14 Mobile / Outreach clinic . 15 Other public (specify) ______________ 16 Private medical sector Private hospital / clinic . 21 Private physician . 22 Private pharmacy . 23 Mobile clinic . 24 Other private medical (specify) _______ 26 Other source Relative / Friend . 31 Shop . 32 Traditional practitioner . 33 Already had at home . 40 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 CA4F. DURING THE TIME (name) HAD DIARRHOEA, WAS (name) GIVEN TO DRINK ANY OF THE FOLLOWING: Read each item aloud and record response before proceeding to the next item. [A] Boiled water ? [B] Rice water? [C] Cultured milk foods (airan, kefir)? Y N DK А) Boiled water? . 1 2 8 B) Rice water? . 1 2 8 C) Airan, kefir? . 1 2 8 CA5. WAS ANYTHING (ELSE) GIVEN TO TREAT THE DIARRHOEA? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2CA6A 8CA6A CA6. WHAT (ELSE) WAS GIVEN TO TREAT THE DIARRHOEA? Probe: ANYTHING ELSE? Record all treatments given. Write brand name(s) of all medicines mentioned. (Name) Pill or Syrup Antibiotic . A Antimotility (antiemetic) . B Other pill or syrup (bifidumbakterin, laktovit-forte, lyneks, laktogy) . G Unknown pill or syrup . H Injection Antibiotic . L Non-antibiotic . M Unknown injection . N Intravenous . O Home remedy / Herbal medicine . Q Other (specify) ______________________ X 334 CA6A. IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS, HAS (name) BEEN ILL WITH A FEVER AT ANY TIME? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 CA7. AT ANY TIME IN THE LAST TWO WEEKS, HAS (name) HAD AN ILLNESS WITH A COUGH? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2CA9A 8CA9A CA8. WHEN (name) HAD AN ILLNESS WITH A COUGH, DID HE/SHE BREATHE FASTER THAN USUAL WITH SHORT, RAPID BREATHS OR HAVE DIFFICULTY BREATHING? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2CA10 8CA10 CA9. WAS THE FAST OR DIFFICULT BREATHING DUE TO A PROBLEM IN THE CHEST OR A BLOCKED OR RUNNY NOSE? Problem in chest only . 1 Blocked or runny nose only . 2 Both . 3 Other (specify) ______________________ 6 DK . 8 1CA10 2CA10 3CA10 6CA10 8CA10 CA9A. Check CA6A: Had fever?  Child had fever  Continue with CA10.  Child did not have fever  Go to CA14. CA10. DID YOU SEEK ANY ADVICE OR TREATMENT FOR THE ILLNESS FROM ANY SOURCE? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2CA12 8CA12 CA11. FROM WHERE DID YOU SEEK ADVICE OR TREATMENT? Probe: ANYWHERE ELSE? Circle all providers mentioned, but do NOT prompt with any suggestions. Probe to identify each type of source. If unable to determine if public or private sector, write the name of the place. (Name of place) Public sector Government hospital . A Family medicine centre . B Family group practitioners . C Feldsher Accoucher Point . D Mobile / Outreach clinic . E Other public (specify) _______________ H Private medical sector Private hospital / clinic . I Private physician . J Private pharmacy . K Mobile clinic . L Other private medical (specify) _______ O Other source Relative / Friend . P Shop . Q Traditional practitioner . R Other (specify) ______________________ X CA12.AT ANY TIME DURING THE ILLNESS, WAS (name) GIVEN ANY MEDICINE FOR THE ILLNESS? Yes . 1 No . 2 DK . 8 2CA14 8CA14 335 ANY OTHER MEDICINE? Circle all medicines given. Write brand name(s) of all medicines mentioned. (Names of medicines) Injection . J Other medications: Paracetamol/ Panadol /Acetaminophen . P Aspirin . Q Ibuprofen . R Lytic mixture . S (analgin+iphenhydramine hydrochloride+novocaine) Other (specify) ______________________ X DK . Z CA13A. Check CA13: Antibiotic mentioned (codes I or J)?  Yes  Continue with CA13B.  No  Go to CA13C. CA13B. WHERE DID YOU GET THE (name of medicine from CA13)? Probe to identify the type of source. If unable to determine whether public or private, write the name of the place. (Name of place) Public sector Government hospital . 11 Family medicine center . 12 Failty Group practitioners . 13 Feldsher Accoucher Point . 14 Mobile / Outreach clinic . 15 Other public (specify) ______________ 16 Private medical sector Private hospital / clinic . 21 Private physician . 22 Private pharmacy . 23 Mobile clinic . 24 Other private medical (specify) _______ 26 Other source Relative / Friend . 31 Shop . 32 Traditional practitioner . 33 Already had at home . 40 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 CA14. Check AG2: Age of child.  Child age 0, 1 or 2  Continue with CA15.  Child age 3 or 4  Go to UF13. CA15. THE LAST TIME (name) PASSED STOOLS, WHAT WAS DONE TO DISPOSE OF THE STOOLS? Child used toilet / latrine . 01 Put / Rinsed into toilet or latrine . 02 Put / Rinsed into drain or ditch . 03 Thrown into garbage (solid waste) . 04 Buried . 05 Left in the open . 06 Other (specify) _____________________ 96 DK . 98 CA13. WHAT MEDICINE WAS (name) GIVEN? Probe: Antibiotics: Pill / Syrup . I 336 UF14. Check List of Household Members, columns HL7B and HL15. Is the respondent the mother or caretaker of another child age 0-4 living in this household?  Yes  Indicate to the respondent that you will need to measure the weight and height of the child later. Go to the next QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE to be administered to the same respondent.  No  End the interview with this respondent by thanking her/him for her/his cooperation and tell her/him that you will need to measure the weight and height of the child before you leave the household. Check to see if there are other woman’s, man’s or under-5 questionnaires to be administered in this household. UF13. Record the time. Hour and minutes . __ __ : __ __ 337 ANTHROPOMETRY AN After questionnaires for all children are complete, the measurer weighs and measures each child. Record weight and length/height below, taking care to record the measurements on the correct questionnaire for each child. Check the child’s name and line number in the List of Household Members before recording measurements. AN1. Measurer’s name and code Name ___ ___ AN2. Result of height / length and weight measurement: Either or both measured . 1 Child not present . 2 Child or mother/caretaker refused . 3 Other (specify) ______________________ 6 2AN6 3AN6 6AN6 AN3. Child’s weight: Kilograms (kg) . __ __ . __ Weight not measured . 99.9 AN3A. Was the child undressed to the minimum?  Yes.  No, the child could not be undressed to the minimum. AN3B. Check age of child in AG2:  Child under 2 years old  Measure length (lying down).  Child age 2 or more years  Measure height (standing up). AN4. Child’s length or height: Length / Height (cm) . __ __ __ . __ Length / Height not measured . 999.9  AN6 AN4A. How was the child actually measured? Lying down or standing up? Lying down . 1 Standing up . 2 AN6. Is there another child in the household who is eligible for measurement?  Yes  Record measurements for next child.  No  Check if there are any other individual questionnaires to be completed in the household. 338 Interviewer’s Observations Field Editor’s Observations Supervisor’s Observations Measurer’s Observations 339 QUESTIONNAIRE FORM FOR VACCINATION RECORDS AT HEALTH FACILITY Kyrgyzstan 2014 UNDER-FIVE CHILD INFORMATION PANEL HF This questionnaire form is to be used at health facilities to record information on the vaccinations and Vitamin A supplementation for children age 0-2 years. A separate questionnaire form should be used for each eligible child. The QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE must be completed for the child prior to completing this form. This panel should be completed before visiting the health facility. This questionnaire form must be appended to the QUESTIONNAIRE FOR CHILDREN UNDER FIVE for each child. HF1. Cluster number: HF2. Household number: ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ HF3. Child’s name: HF4. Child’s line number: Name ___ ___ HF5. Mother’s / Caretaker’s name: HF6. Mother’s / Caretaker’s line number: Name ___ ___ HF7. Interviewer’s name and number: HF8. Day / Month / Year of facility visit: Name ___ ___ ___ ___ / ___ ___ / 2 0 1 ___ HF9. Day, month and year of birth (From AG1 in Questionnaire for Children Under-5) HF10. Name of health facility: ___ ___ / ___ ___ / 2 0 1 ___ _____________________________________________ HF11. Result of health facility visit Vaccination record seen . 01 Vaccination record not seen . 02 Other (specify) _____________________________ 96 HF11A. Field editor’s name and number: Name____________________________ __ __ HF11B. Main data entry clerk’s name and number: Name_________________________________ __ __ F4. Questionnaire Form for Vaccinati on Records at Health Facility 340 IMMUNIZATION HF HF12. Record day, month and year of birth as written on vaccination record ___ ___ / ___ ___ / 2 0 1 ___ HF13. (c) Copy dates for each vaccination from the card. (d) Write ‘44’ in day column if card shows that vaccination was given but no date recorded. Date of Immunization Day Month Year BCG BCG HEPB AT BIRTH HEP0 POLIO AT BIRTH OPV0 POLIO 1 OPV1 POLIO 2 OPV2 POLIO 3 OPV3 AGAINST PERTUSSIS, DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZA TYPE-B (AS PART OF PENTAVALENT VACCINE) PENTA-1 AGAINST PERTUSSIS, DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZA TYPE-B (AS PART OF PENTAVALENT VACCINE) PENTA-2 AGAINST PERTUSSIS, DIPHTHERIA, TETANUS, HEPATITIS B AND HAEMOPHILUS INFLUENZA TYPE-B (AS PART OF PENTAVALENT VACCINE) PENTA-3 MEASLES (MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA) MEASLES 341 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e ED .5 A : L ow er s ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce a nd o ut o f s ch oo l c hi ld re n P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l ( gr ad es 5 -9 ) a ge a tte nd in g lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l o r h ig he r ( ad ju st ed n et a tte nd an ce ra tio ), pe rc en ta ge a tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol , a nd pe rc en ta ge o ut o f s ch oo l, K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 M al e Fe m al e To ta l N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n N um be r of ch ild re n N et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n N um be r of ch ild re n N et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n N um be r of ch ild re n A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol a A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol a A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol a To ta l 98 .0 1. 1 1. 0 13 23 97 .9 1. 0 1. 1 12 76 97 .9 1. 0 1. 0 25 99 R eg io n B at ke n 98 .8 0. 6 0. 6 12 4 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 11 0 99 .4 0. 3 0. 3 23 4 D ja la l-A ba d 97 .2 2. 3 0. 5 30 1 97 .3 0. 9 1. 8 29 5 97 .2 1. 6 1. 1 59 6 Is sy k- K ul 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 4 96 .9 3. 1 0. 0 11 1 98 .4 1. 6 0. 0 21 5 N ar yn 98 .0 1. 5 0. 5 93 99 .4 0. 6 0. 0 76 98 .7 1. 1 0. 3 16 9 O sh O bl as t 97 .3 0. 7 2. 0 26 9 96 .8 1. 5 1. 7 24 7 97 .1 1. 1 1. 9 51 7 Ta la s 99 .1 0. 9 0. 0 50 96 .6 2. 5 0. 9 65 97 .7 1. 8 0. 5 11 5 C hu i 97 .3 0. 6 2. 1 20 9 98 .1 0. 0 1. 9 18 8 97 .7 0. 3 2. 0 39 7 B is hk ek C ity 99 .3 0. 7 0. 0 12 5 99 .4 0. 6 0. 0 13 1 99 .3 0. 7 0. 0 25 7 O sh C ity 97 .9 1. 1 1. 0 49 98 .1 0. 0 1. 1 52 98 .0 0. 5 1. 0 10 1 A re a U rb an 99 .1 0. 7 0. 1 35 1 98 .1 0. 8 1. 0 35 0 98 .6 0. 8 0. 6 70 1 R ur al 97 .5 1. 2 1. 3 97 2 97 .8 1. 1 1. 2 92 6 97 .7 1. 1 1. 2 18 98 A ge 11 93 .0 5. 5 1. 5 24 2 94 .1 5. 0 0. 9 24 3 93 .6 5. 2 1. 2 48 5 12 99 .7 0. 3 0. 0 26 6 98 .2 0. 2 1. 6 27 3 98 .9 0. 2 0. 8 53 9 13 99 .6 0. 0 0. 4 29 2 98 .4 0. 0 1. 4 26 7 99 .0 0. 0 0. 9 55 8 14 98 .6 0. 0 1. 4 26 8 98 .8 0. 0 1. 2 24 5 98 .7 0. 0 1. 3 51 3 15 98 .3 0. 0 1. 7 25 5 99 .6 0. 0 0. 4 24 8 98 .9 0. 0 1. 1 50 3 A pp en di x G . A dd it io na l T ab le s 342 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report M al e Fe m al e To ta l N et at te nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f ch ild re n N um be r of ch ild re n N et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n N um be r of ch ild re n N et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n N um be r of ch ild re n A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol a A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol a A tte nd in g pr im ar y sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol a M ot he r's e du ca tio n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) 21 (* ) (* ) (* ) 9 (6 7. 7) (0 .0 ) (3 2. 3) 30 B as ic s ec on da ry 91 .7 5. 4 2. 8 11 3 98 .0 0. 6 1. 5 40 1 96 .6 1. 6 1. 8 51 4 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 98 .8 1. 1 0. 1 63 4 98 .4 1. 3 0. 3 51 1 98 .6 1. 2 0. 2 11 45 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e 99 .3 0. 3 0. 4 28 1 98 .2 0. 7 1. 0 20 7 98 .8 0. 5 0. 7 48 7 H ig he r 98 .8 0. 0 1. 2 22 0 97 .7 1. 6 0. 4 14 6 98 .4 0. 7 0. 9 36 5 C an no t b e de te rm in ed b 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 56 (* ) (* ) (* ) 2 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 57 W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 95 .6 2. 5 1. 9 32 7 96 .6 1. 1 2. 3 29 4 96 .1 1. 8 2. 1 62 1 S ec on d 98 .6 1. 2 0. 2 28 3 96 .9 1. 7 1. 4 26 1 97 .8 1. 4 0. 7 54 5 M id dl e 98 .7 0. 8 0. 5 25 8 99 .7 0. 0 0. 3 26 1 99 .2 0. 4 0. 4 51 9 Fo ur th 97 .7 0. 2 2. 0 23 8 98 .0 1. 3 0. 6 26 4 97 .9 0. 8 1. 3 50 1 R ic he st 10 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 21 7 98 .4 0. 8 0. 8 19 6 99 .2 0. 4 0. 4 41 3 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 98 .5 1. 1 0. 4 10 02 98 .2 0. 9 0. 9 95 3 98 .3 1. 0 0. 6 19 56 R us si an (9 7. 0) (0 .0 ) (3 .0 ) 59 (9 9. 5) (0 .5 ) (0 .0 ) 69 98 .3 0. 3 1. 4 12 8 U zb ek 98 .7 0. 4 1. 0 19 9 98 .7 1. 1 0. 2 19 8 98 .7 0. 7 0. 6 39 7 O th er la ng ua ge (8 8. 1) (3 .0 ) (8 .9 ) 62 (8 6. 9) (3 .3 ) (9 .8 ) 55 87 .6 3. 1 9. 3 11 7 M is si ng (* ) (* ) (* ) 1 (* ) (* ) (* ) 1 (* ) (* ) (* ) 2 1 S ur ve y- sp ec i i c in di ca to r 7. S S 1 - L ow er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tt en da nc e ra tio (a dj us te d) a T he p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge o ut o f s ch oo l a re th os e w ho a re n ot a tte nd in g pr im ar y, lo w er s ec on da ry , u pp er s ec on da ry o r h ig he r e du ca tio n b C hi ld re n ag e 15 o r h ig he r a t t he ti m e of th e in te rv ie w w ho se m ot he rs w er e no t l iv in g in th e ho us eh ol d (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s 343 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report Ta bl e ED .5 B : U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l a tte nd an ce a nd o ut o f s ch oo l c hi ld re n P er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of u pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l ( gr ad es 1 0- 11 ) a ge a tte nd in g up pe r s ec on da ry s ch oo l o r h ig he r ( ad ju st ed n et a tte nd an ce ra tio ), pe rc en ta ge a tte nd in g lo w er s ec on da ry o r pr im ar y sc ho ol , a nd p er ce nt ag e ou t o f s ch oo l, K yr gy zs ta n, 2 01 4 M al e Fe m al e To ta l N et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n N um be r of ch ild re n N et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n N um be r of ch ild re n N et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n N um be r of ch ild re n A tte nd in g lo w er se co nd ar y (o r p rim ar y) sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol a A tte nd in g lo w er se co nd ar y (o r p rim ar y) sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol a A tte nd in g lo w er se co nd ar y (o r p rim ar y) sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol a To ta l 78 .9 2. 8 18 .2 51 4 86 .4 3. 0 10 .4 45 5 82 .4 2. 9 14 .5 96 9 R eg io n B at ke n 87 .0 0. 0 13 .0 52 98 .1 0. 0 1. 9 36 91 .5 0. 0 8. 5 87 D ja la l-A ba d 80 .9 2. 7 16 .4 11 3 72 .6 5. 8 21 .6 99 77 .0 4. 2 18 .9 21 2 Is sy k- K ul (8 4. 3) (2 .3 ) (1 1. 6) 35 (9 0. 6) (3 .6 ) (3 .7 ) 37 87 .6 2. 9 7. 5 72 N ar yn 93 .0 0. 0 7. 0 24 96 .1 0. 0 3. 9 22 94 .5 0. 0 5. 5 45 O sh O bl as t 72 .9 2. 7 24 .4 11 7 89 .6 3. 9 6. 5 86 80 .0 3. 2 16 .8 20 4 Ta la s (9 0. 2) (5 .5 ) (4 .3 ) 16 (8 3. 7) (2 .7 ) (1 3. 7) 16 86 .9 4. 1 9. 0 32 C hu i (6 3. 1) (7 .2 ) (2 9. 7) 84 (8 8. 2) (2 .4 ) (9 .4 ) 67 74 .3 5. 0 20 .7 15 1 B is hk ek C ity (9 3. 4) (0 .0 ) (6 .6 ) 52 (9 1. 9) (1 .4 ) (6 .8 ) 68 92 .5 0. 8 6. 7 12 1 O sh C ity (7 5. 4) (3 .0 ) (2 1. 6) 22 (8 0. 5) (1 .8 ) (1 7. 6) 23 78 .0 2. 4 19 .6 45 A re a U rb an 81 .8 2. 8 15 .3 14 5 84 .6 2. 9 12 .6 15 4 83 .2 2. 9 13 .9 29 9 R ur al 77 .7 2. 8 19 .3 36 9 87 .3 3. 1 9. 2 30 0 82 .0 3. 0 14 .8 67 0 A ge 16 77 .2 5. 1 17 .7 27 8 87 .2 5. 7 6. 7 22 1 81 .6 5. 4 12 .8 49 9 17 80 .9 0. 2 18 .7 23 6 85 .6 0. 5 13 .8 23 4 83 .3 0. 3 16 .3 47 0 M ot he r's e du ca tio n N on e/ pr im ar y (* ) (* ) (* ) 6 - - - 0 (* ) (* ) (* ) 7 B as ic s ec on da ry (* ) (* ) (* ) 18 (0 .0 ) (4 3. 2) (5 6. 8) 32 (1 3. 6) (2 7. 4) (5 9. 0) 51 C om pl et e se co nd ar y 76 .5 4. 2 19 .3 15 9 98 .3 0. 0 1. 3 21 1 88 .9 1. 8 9. 0 37 0 P ro fe ss io na l p rim ar y/ m id dl e 79 .7 5. 8 14 .5 80 (9 8. 7) (0 .0 ) (1 .3 ) 38 85 .9 3. 9 10 .2 11 9 H ig he r (9 9. 1) (0 .0 ) (0 .9 ) 50 (* ) (* ) (* ) 12 99 .2 0. 0 0. 8 62 C an no t b e de te rm in ed b 80 .8 1. 7 17 .2 20 0 84 .3 0. 0 15 .7 16 1 82 .4 0. 9 16 .5 36 1 344 Kyrgyzstan MICS, 2014. Final Report M al e Fe m al e To ta l N et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n N um be r of ch ild re n N et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n N um be r of ch ild re n N et a tte nd an ce ra tio (a dj us te d) 1 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n N um be r of ch ild re n A tte nd in g lo w er se co nd ar y (o r p rim ar y) sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol a A tte nd in g lo w er se co nd ar y (o r p rim ar y) sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol a A tte nd in g lo w er se co nd ar y (o r p rim ar y) sc ho ol O ut o f sc ho ol a W ea lth in de x qu in til e P oo re st 83 .2 3. 1 13 .7 11 9 87 .8 3. 9 8. 3 82 85 .1 3. 4 11 .5 20 1 S ec on d 78 .0 2. 9 18 .5 10 5 83 .3 4. 8 11 .0 86 80 .4 3. 8 15 .1 19 2 M id dl e 72 .0 0. 4 27 .6 98 85 .5 2. 4 12 .1 84 78 .2 1. 3 20 .5 18 3 Fo ur th 71 .7 4. 0 24 .3 10 1 81 .7 1. 4 16 .9 10 2 76 .7 2. 7 20 .6 20 3 R ic he st 89 .7 3. 8 6. 5 91 93 .5 3. 0 3. 5 10 0 91 .7 3. 4 4. 9 19 1 M ot he r t on gu e of h ou se ho ld h ea d K yr gy z 87 .6 2. 4 9. 9 35 2 89 .9 3. 1 6. 8 32 5 88 .7 2. 7 8. 4 67 7 R us si an (* ) (* ) (* ) 36 (* ) (* ) (* ) 34 (8 1. 8) (9 .2 ) (9 .1 ) 70 U zb ek 60 .5 1. 4 38 .1 10 4 69 .2 3. 0 27 .8 74 64 .1 2. 1 33 .8 17 9 O th er la ng ua ge (* ) (* ) (* ) 22 (* ) (* ) (* ) 22 (6 1. 2) (0 .0 ) (3 8. 8) 44 a T he p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n of lo w er s ec on da ry s ch oo l a ge o ut o f s ch oo l a re th os e w ho a re n ot a tte nd in g pr im ar y, lo w er s ec on da ry , u pp er s ec on da ry o r h ig he r e du ca tio n b C hi ld re n ag e 15 o r h ig he r a t t he ti m e of th e in te rv ie w w ho se m ot he rs w er e no t l iv in g in th e ho us eh ol d (* ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n fe w er th an 2 5 un w ei gh te d ca se s ( ) – F ig ur es th at a re b as ed o n 25 -4 9 un w ei gh te d ca se s " - " D en ot es 0 u nw ei gh te d ca se s in th at c el l o r i n th e de no m in at or 1 S ur ve y- sp ec ifi c in di ca to r 7. S S 2 - U pp er s ec on da ry s ch oo l n et a tt en da nc e ra tio (a dj us te d) 2 01 5 United Nations Population Fund Monitoring the situation of children and women Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, 2014 FINAL REPORT Kyrgyz Republic K yr gy z R ep ub lic National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic United Nations Children’s Fund in the Kyrgyz Republic Kyrgyz Republic Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey December, 2015 M ul tip le In di ca to r C lu st er S ur ve y Cover page Title page Citation page Summary Table of Survey Implementation and Survey Population Summary Table of Findings Table of Contents List of Tables List of Figures List of Abbreviations Acknowledgements Executive Summary I. Introduction II. Sample and Survey Methodology III. Sample Coverage and the Characteristics of Households and Respondents IV. Child Mortality V. Nutrition VI. Child Health VII. Water and Sanitation VIII. Reproductive Health IX. Early Childhood Development X. Literacy and Education XI. Child Protection XII. HIV/AIDS XIII. Access to Mass Media and Use of ICT XIV. Subjective well-being XV. Tobacco and Alcohol Use Appendix A. Sample Design Appendix B. List of Personnel Involved in the Survey Appendix C. Estimates of Sampling Errors Appendix D. Data Quality Tables Appendix E. 2014 Kyrgyzstan MICS Indicators: Numerators and Denominators Appendix F. Questionnaires Appendix G. Additional Tables

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