MSF Untangling the web of price reductions: a pricing guide for the purchase of ARVs for developing countries- 8th Edition
Publication date: 2005
ANNEX 4 Untangling the web of price reductions: a pricing guide for the purchase of ARVs for developing countries 53ANNEX 3. FURTHER READING, REFERENCE AND CONTACTS June 2005 a pricing guide for the purchase of ARVs for developing countries price Untangling the web of price reductions: 8th Edition cou ntri es reductions pr ic e el ig ib ili ty pr ice countries reductions com pan y 3 Table of contents 4 General background and objectives 5 Methodology 6 Analysis of current offers limitations: are products getting to patients in need? 8 Graph 1: Comparison between prices published in this report and prices reported by Global Fund 9 Graph 2: Prices of medicines recommended as 1st and 2nd line by WHO, January 2005 10 Graph 3: The Effects of Generic Competition 12 Table 1: 1st and 2nd category of prices offered by manufacturers for the different countries (yearly and unit price) 15 Table 2: Summary table for conditions 17 Annexes 17 Annex 1: Least Developed Countries (LDCs) 17 Annex 2: Human Development Index (HDI) 17 Annex 3: Sub-Saharan countries 18 Annex 4: World Bank low-income and low-middle-income countries 18 Annex 5: Company contacts 20 Glossary Table of contents Mdecins Sans Frontires ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ June 2005 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ 3 1. General background and objectives This is the eighth edition of Untangling the web of price reductions: a pricing guide for the purchase of ARVs for developing countries. The report was first published by Mdecins Sans Frontires (MSF) in October 2001 in response to the lack of transparent and reliable information about prices of pharmaceutical products on the international market — a factor which significantly hampers access to essential medicines in developing countries. The situation is particularly complex in the case of antiretrovirals (ARVs). The purpose of this document is to provide information on prices and suppliers that will help purchasers make informed decisions when buying ARVs. Since the first edition of ÒUntanglingÓ, prices of some first-line ARVs have fallen significantly due to competition between multiple producers. However, not all countries are able to benefit from these lower prices because of patent barriers to accessing generic versions. Price and availability of newer ARVs are still significant obstacles to access to treatment. This report shows that the compulsory licensing to override patents or intellectual property barriers. These mechanisms are in- built flexibilities of the World Trade OrganizationÕs TRIPS Agreement and have been affirmed in the Doha Declaration on TRIPS and Public Health in 2001. Following the adoption of the Doha Declaration, Least Developed Countries (LDCs) are no longer obliged under the WTO rules to grant or enforce pharmaceutical product patents until at least 2016. The use of these flexibilities and safeguards is particularly important since India, the biggest producer of generic drugs, is now obligated to grant patents on new pharmaceutical products. The new Indian Patents Act will not affect medicines that were invented before 1995. However, patent applications filed between 1995 and 2005 will be reviewed by Indian patent authorities and patents may subsequently be granted. If a patent is granted, it will not stop a generic manufacturer from continuing to produce and market the drug in India if they have made a prices of second-line drugs are six to twelve times1 higher than those of older first-line treatments, in Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and sub- Saharan Africa. In the case of some of the second-line ARVs, it is lack of competition that has led to high prices (see graph 2). In some developing countries outside sub- Saharan Africa, the prices of both first- and second-line drugs mirror those charged in wealthy countries. MSF has found that problems fall into three categories: 1) some single- source drugs are very expensive, 2) differential prices are not really available as advertised in developing countries because some companies do not register their products in poor countries, and 3) some companies do not offer discounted prices in middle- income countries. Brazil is a good illustration of problems encountered in middle- income countries. Brazil currently spends 63% percent of its total ARV drug budget on three products (AbbottÕs lopinavir/ritonavir, GileadÕs tenofovir and MerckÕs efavirenz). In theory, a government such as BrazilÕs can overcome this problem by using Òsignificant investmentÓ, as the new Indian law stipulates an automatic licensing system which will allow for the continued production of the generic version if a Òreasonable royaltyÓ is paid. But when patents are granted for applications submitted after January 2005, only patent holders will have the right to produce these drugs unless India and other countries issue compulsory licenses to give others the right to produce, market and export the product[3,4]. Treatment of HIV/AIDS in children deserves special attention: most companies produce syrups and oral solutions, which are ill-adapted for use in developing countries because caregivers have problems reconstituting syrups, as well as measuring and preserving them. Pharmaceutical companies are not investing enough resources in the development of paediatric formulations, since it is a small and risky market that is also of diminishing importance in Western countries. In addition to this, the price of liquid and solid drugs in paediatric formulations is higher than that of their adult equivalents. For instance, treating a child weighing 10 4 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ June 2005 ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ Mdecins Sans Frontires 1 Comparison between the triple fixed-dose combination (3TC/d4T/NVP) and best available prices for WHO recommended 2nd line regimens. Only WHO prequalified products or products registered in highly regulated countries were compared. Mdecins Sans Frontires ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ June 2005 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ 5 2. Methodology To obtain accurate information, MSF has contacted both originator and generic companies and asked them to provide the following information about the ARVs offered to developing countries: dosage and pharmaceutical form, price per unit (or daily dose), restrictions that apply to the offers (eligibility), and any additional specificity of the offers. Products listed here have been approved for marketing at least in their countries of origin. The list of generic producers included in this report is by no means exhaustive. These companies were mostly chosen because they have publicly announced price offers to developing countries. All prices are quoted in US dollars and conversions have been made on the day the price information was received using the currency converter site: www.oanda.com. We acknowledge the difficulties and inaccuracies when establishing price comparisons across different countries and purchasers, and therefore recommend that these prices be considered in relative and not absolute terms. Table 1: First and Second Category of Prices offered by manufacturers for the different countries (yearly and unit prices) Generic companies do not apply any geographical restriction. Most originator companies offer their discounted prices only to a certain group of countries, normally only to LDCs and sub-Saharan African countries. These prices are referred to as FIRST CATEGORY PRICES. See table 2 for details. There are exceptions such as Gilead and Bristol-Myers Squibb that have recently, for example, extended their first category of price to some middle-income countries, or Merck, which applies first category prices also to medium human development index countries when the countryÕs HIV prevalence is greater than 1%, or GlaxoSmithKline, which has offered their products for all Global Fund recipient countries. Finally, companies like Merck and Roche offer a SECOND CATEGORY OF PRICES for middle-income countries (almost twice as much as the first category price). When these second kg for one year with stavudine, nevirapine and lamivudine can cost up to US$816, while treating an adult with the same drugs costs US$182. This document complements the information in the pricing guide Sources and Prices of selected medicines and diagnostics for People living with HIV/AIDS published by UNICEF/UNAIDS/WHO/MSF. Products included in the last edition of the WHO prequalification list (23rd edition, April 4th 2005) appear in bold in the tables. Please consult the WHO website (http://mednet3.who.int/ prequal/) for the latest information. Prices listed are selling prices as quoted from the manufacturers and constitute an indication for procurement departments of eligible organisations. In any case, the prices listed here are not necessarily the same as the final prices paid by either patients or their health care providers. For example, in some countries there are local add-ons such as import taxes and distribution mark-ups that are not included in the comparisons. In addition, the information on prices in this report only relates to the price of medicines: it does not include other costs linked to antiretroviral treatment, such as diagnostics and monitoring. This report is a pricing guide and does not include information about the quality of the products listed. But price should not be the only factor determining procurement decisions. Readers and purchasers wishing to obtain more information about drug quality are encouraged to consult ÒPilot Procurement, Quality and Sourcing Project: Access to HIV/AIDS Drugs and Diagnostics of Acceptable QualityÓ (known as WHO prequalification list), a project initiated by the World Health Organization (WHO) and developed in collaboration with other United Nations Organizations. This project evaluates pharmaceutical manufacturers and products according to WHO recommended standards of quality and compliance with Good Manufacturing Practices. It is part of an ongoing process that will expand as the participation of suppliers increases. Not all the products listed in this report have been prequalified by WHO, and only some of them are used by MSF in its own projects. 6 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ June 2005 ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ Mdecins Sans Frontires category prices exist, they have been included in the table. Prices are rounded up to the third decimal for unit price and to the nearest whole number for yearly price per patient. Prices quoted by the different companies are not always directly comparable since companies use different trade terms (incoterms). Prices quoted by Roche, all generic companies, Abbott and Gilead are so- called ÒFCAÓ or ÒFOBÓ prices which means that transport, international freight and insurance costs are not included; the other companies mentioned in this report do include freight and insurance in their prices. Despite this fact, in this edition the prices have not been adjusted, following the methodology used in the US General Accountability Office (GAO) report. For all paediatric treatments, prices are calculated for a 10 kg child using WHO treatment guidelines. This is an estimate since the weight of a child increases during any given year. The annual cost of treatment has been calculated according to WHO dosing schedules multiplying the unit price (price of e.g. one tablet or capsule) by the number of units required for the daily dose and by 365 days in a year. Price is then presented in USD/year, and in brackets, the price per smallest unit is quoted. The price of products prequalified by WHO are based on the 23rd edition of the WHO prequalification list (April 4th 2005) and appear in bold. Please consult the latest WHO prequalification list for more details regarding manufacturing sites. Table 2: Conditions of offer by company Conditions applying to each companyÕs offer were quoted directly by companies. There is no uniformity concerning geographical restrictions to the offers but rather each originator company establishes different limits to their offer for different categories of countries (annex 1-4). Some companies use UNCTAD (Least Developed Countries) criteria, others the UNDP Human Development index, and yet others the World Bank classification. There are significant differences between categories used by companies. For instance, 15 countries are considered Least Developed Countries (LDCs) by UNCTAD, but are placed in the medium level by UNDP. These include Bangladesh, Cambodia, Laos and Sudan. Six other LDCs do not appear in the UNDP classification at all, including Democratic Republic of Congo, Liberia and Somalia. Furthermore, many developing countries are left out of the differential pricing scheme altogether. These include Bolivia, Nicaragua, Thailand, Ukraine and Vietnam for the UNDP classification, China, Honduras and Sri Lanka for the World Bank classification, and all Latin American countries except Haiti for the UNCTAD classification. 3. Analysing the limitations of current offers: are products getting to patients in need? 3.1. Availability in countries? The products listed in this report are not always available in every country. There are several reasons for this: Even when price reductions have been announced, the products are not necessarily marketed in all the eligible countries ¥ MSF projects have experienced this situation in many cases, even in the poorest nations such as Mozambique or Cambodia, where some ARVs coming from originator companies must be bought in neighbouring countries with all the additional expenses and investment in human and administrative resources that this implies. Registration of products is a major problem ¥ Companies have varying policies on product registration. Some companies offer discounted prices but do not register their products in specified countries. This practice makes the discounted price unattainable for everyone except those that have the possibility of asking for special authorisation from the Ministry of Health. ¥ National Drug Regulatory AuthoritiesÕ procedures for registering the products are sometimes slow, even if companies do everything necessary to get approval. ¥ The investment needed to import drugs that are not registered is enormous. MSF has had to request special authorisation for MerckÕs efavirenz, GSKÕs abacavir, AbbottÕs lopinavir/ritonavir, CiplaÕs lamivudine/stavudine/nevirapine or GileadÕs tenofovir in several countries, such as Cambodia, Uganda, Guatemala, Honduras, Laos or Ethiopia. The channel chosen by the companies to distribute the products priced at lower price is too complex. ¥ For example, to benefit from the differential price from AbbottÕs products, the orders must be placed with Axios, an Irish NGO that works as intermediary. According to our staff, this is a burdensome procedure even for MSF procurement centers. ¥ RocheÕs products have to be ordered from Basel, and paid in Swiss francs, which is in practice difficult for procurement centres in developing countries. 3.2. At what price? Even when the product is available on the market, prices quoted by manufacturers for this report may not represent the actual price for the following reasons: ¥ Excessive mark-ups by company local representatives in some countries; ¥ Lack of interest from companies to invest in exporting their products to small markets, for instance, generic companies in Latin America. In these cases, prices are often higher than those announced internationally by the companies; ¥ Lack of monitoring by responsible entities and donors of the prices paid by the different programmes for the same product; ¥ In countries outside sub-Saharan Africa and not classified as LDCs, prices can be as high as they are in Western countries, despite the fact that large numbers of people in these countries live below the poverty line. Generic companies have no geographical limits, but they do have quantity-related conditions in certain cases. Despite the exemptions and the existence of specific second category prices for some products, prices paid in middle-income countries are still much higher than the offers published in this report (graph 1). Mdecins Sans Frontires ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ June 2005 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ 7 ¥ A good example of pricing problems is China, a non-LDC, non-African country, with an estimated one million people infected with HIV. There are very few generic products in the country, mainly due to intellectual property restrictions. Originator products are expensive and not always marketed in all dosages. For instance, stavudine from BMS is only marketed at the dosage of 20 mg. This makes it very difficult to treat children and doubles the pill burden for adults. Other important ARVs like lopinavir/ritonavir from Abbott are offered to MSF projects at US$ 5,000 per year — this is ten times more than the price for developing countries. ¥ Other middle-income countries, such as Ecuador or Georgia, pay unacceptably high prices for some products. For instance, Guatemala is paying US$ 2,500 per year for GSKÕs abacavir. The lack of competition for these new drugs lies behind high prices and lack of availability in the market. For reasons described above, the current Òdifferential pricingÓ practice cannot alone be considered the solution for increasing access to all needed ARVs worldwide. Access to life-saving medicines by the poorest populations should not depend on the goodwill of private companies. Making drugs affordable and available is a government responsibility. Where the political will exists, people pay less for their drugs and more people have access to them. International institutions and governments must work together to ensure that poor populations systematically benefit from lower prices which can be attained when sourcing from all available quality manufacturers. 8 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ June 2005 ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ Mdecins Sans Frontires Graph 1: The chart shows the differences in prices paid in different countries. Although prices paid by the poorest countries are indeed very close to the prices announced by companies, prices paid in middle- income countries are far too high compared with the offers. This is particularly true for most prices of the originator products applicable in middle-income countries. Source: Global Fund Price reporting Mechanism. The GF pricing reporting site was consulted from June 6th to June 14th 2005, taking the minimum and the maximum reported prices from 2004 onwards. Minimum prices correspond with orders made by sub-Saharan African countries or LDCs outside Africa. Maximum prices correspond to non- African, non-LDC recipient countries. 6000 5000 4000 3000 2000 1000 0 Comparison between prices published in this report and prices reported by Global Fund U SD /y ea r GSK AZT/3TC d4T 40 EVF 200 NFV ritonavir Cipla BMS Hetero Merck Cipla Roche Cipla Abbott Strides Lowest price offered by companies Highest price reported to GF Lowest price reported to GF Mdecins Sans Frontires ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ June 2005 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥9 1400 1200 1000 800 600 400 200 0 Prices of medicines recommended as 1st and 2nd line by WHO. June 2005 U SD p er p at ie nt p er y ea r d4T 3TC NVP AZT ddl 100 3TC/ d4T/NVP ddl 400 EC AZT/3TC TDF EFV 600 EFV 200 LPV/r ABC SQV/r Graph 2: The chart shows the best prices for most drugs used in WHO recommended 1st (shaded bars) and 2nd line (solid bars) drugs. Prices indicated in the graph are the lowest amongst all surveyed manufacturers for this report. The figure over the columns shows the number of producers included in this report and having answered to Sources and Prices survey (Sources and prices of selected medicines and diagnostics for people living with HIV/AIDS, UNICEF-UNAIDS-WHO-MSF, June 2004). There are other reasons lying behind the high prices of some ARVs that are not included in this graph. 16 14 11 10 9 6 4 12 0 5 6 2 4 2 10 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ June 2005 ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ Mdecins Sans Frontires Sample of ARV tiple-combination: stavudine (d4T) + lamivudine (3TC) + nevirapine (NVP). Lowest world prices per patient per year. Generic competition has shown to be the most effective means of lowering drug prices. During the last four years, originator companies have often responded to generic competition. The Effects of Generic Competition June 00 Aug 00 Sept 00 Jan 01 Feb 01 March 01 July 01 March 02 Nov 02 April 03 Nov 03 Dec 03 June 04 Dec 04 June 05 May 2000-June 2005 12000US$ 10000US$ 8000US$ 6000US$ 4000US$ 2000US$ Lowest Originator $10439 Brasil $2767 Lowest Originator $727 Lowest Originator $562 Aurobindo $209 Hetero $201 Hetero $152 Cipla $350  To see previous editions, please consult www.accessmed-msf.org  HIV/AIDS medicines and related supplies: Contemporary context and procurement. Technical guide. Chapter 2 and Annex B. World Bank, Washington, DC, 2004 http://siteresources.worldbank.org/INT PROCUREMENT/Resources/Technical- Guide-HIV-AIDS.pdf  ÒDetermining the patent status of essential medicines in developing countriesÓ, Health Economies and Drugs, EDM Series No. 17, UNAIDS/WHO/MSF, 2004  ÒDrug patents under the spotlight. Sharing practical knowledge about pharmaceutical patentsÓ MSF, June 2004  Pediatric HIV/AIDS Factsheet, MSF, June 2005, www.accessmed-msf.org  ÒSources and prices of selected drugs and diagnostics for people living with HIV/AIDSÓ. A joint UNICEF, UNAIDS Secretariat, WHO, MSF project. May 2004 (WHO/EDM/PAR/2003.2). http://www.who.int/medicines/organiza tion/par/ipc/sources-prices.pdf  Pilot Procurement, Quality and Sourcing Project: Access to HIV/AIDS drugs and diagnostics of acceptable quality, 23rd edition 4 April 2005. http://www.who.int/medicines/organiza tion/qsm/activities/pilotproc/pilotproc. shtml  Other generic manufacturers known to be producing one or more ARVs but not included in this document are: Richmond Laboratorios, Panalab, Filaxis (Argentina); Pharmaquick (Benin); Far Manguinhos, FURP, Lapefe, Laob, Iquego, IVB (Brazil); Apotex, Novopharm (Canada); Shanghai Desano Biopharmaceutical company, Northeast General Pharmaceutical Factory (China); Biogen (Colombia); Stein (Costa Rica); Zydus Cadila Healthcare, SunPharma, EAS-SURG, Mac Leods, IPCA (India); LG Chemicals, Samchully, Korea United Pharm Inc. (Korea); Protein, Pisa (Mexico); Andromaco (Spain); Aspen (South Africa); T.O. Chemecal (Thailand); Laboratorio Dosa S.A. (US), Varichem (Zimbabwe). This list is not exhaustive.  Incoterms are standard trade definitions most commonly used in international sales contracts, as published by the International Chamber of Commerce, http://www.iccwbo.org/index_incoterm s.asp  ÒGAO Reprot to Congressional Requesters. GLOBAL HIV/AIDS EPIDEMIC. Selection of Antiretroviral Medications Provided under U.S. Emergency Plan is LimitedÓ, page 24, GAO, January 2005.ÓIn some cases a manufacturerÕs prices include costs that other manufacturers do not include — such as shipping and insurance charges. We note where these differences exist, and have determined that they do not undermine the essential comparability of the prices presented in our reportÓ  Scaling up antiretroviral therapy in resource-limited settings: Treatment guidelines for a public health approach, WHO, 2003 Revision. http://www.who.int/hiv/pub/prev_care/ en/ARVGuidelinesRevised2003.pdf  Global Fund Price Reporting Mechanism. http://www.theglobalfund.org/en/ Mdecins Sans Frontires ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ June 2005 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ 11 Cipla 584 (0.8) 292 (0.1) AAuurroobbiinnddoo 11sstt ccaatteegg 197 (0.135) 39 (2.160) AAuurroobbiinnddoo 438 (0.4) 472 (1.292) 227 (0.069) GGiilleeaadd 11sstt ccaatteegg n/a AAuurroobbiinnddoo 432 (0.296) AAuurroobbiinnddoo 66 (0.09) 61 (0.021) Cipla 766 (2.1) 839 (2.3) Unit tab ml tab cap cap g cap cap tab ml cap cap tab tab ml 3 cap 3 cap Ranbaxy 321 (0.22) 146 (0.4) 219 (0.6) Ranbaxy 405 (0.37) 358 (1.17) RRaannbbaaxxyy 336 (0.23) HHeetteerrooDDrruuggss LLttdd 53 (0.073) GSK 1st categ 887 (1.215) 382 (0.131) BBMMSS 11sstt ccaatteegg 310 (0.212) 198 (0.543) 279 (0.764) 133 (7.370) CCiippllaa 372 (0.34) 347 (0.95) GGiilleeaadd 22nndd ccaatteegg n/a CCiippllaa 321 (0.220) Cipla 73 (0.1) 85 (0.233) 58 (0.02) GSK 2nd categ n/a n/a BBMMSS 22nndd ccaatteegg n/a n/a n/a n/a HHeetteerroo DDrruuggss LLttdd 316 (0.289) 355 (0.917) HHeetteerroo DDrruuggss LLttdd 217 (0.149) GGSSKK 11sstt ccaatteegg 69 (0.095) n/a 82 (0.028) Ranbaxy 664 (0.91) HHeetteerroo DDrruuggss LLttdd 280 (0.192) MMeerrcckk 22nndd ccaatteegg 311 (0.113) 920 (0.840) 766 (2.1) 496 (0.151) MMeerrcckk 22nndd ccaatteegg 686 (0.470) GPO 171 (0.234) 76 (0.026) Hetero Drugs Ltd 773 (1.058) CCiippllaa 234 (0.16) 106 (0.29) 142 (0.39) MMeerrcckk 11sstt ccaatteegg 169 (0.116) 500 (0.457) 347 (095) 309 (0.094) MMeerrcckk 11sstt ccaatteegg 400 (0.274) GGSSKK 22nndd ccaatteegg n/a n/a n/a Strides 453 (0.31) RRaannbbaaxxyy 69 (0.095) 69 (0.19) SSttrriiddeess 73 (0.10) Table 1: 1st and 2nd category of prices offered by manufacturers for the different countries (yearly and unit prices) 12 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ June 2005 ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ Mdecins Sans Frontires abacavir 300mg, tablet 20mg/ml, oral solution didanosine 100mg, tablets 250mg, enter0coated caps 400mg, enteric-coated caps 2g powder for reconstitution with water and with antiacids eeffaavviirreennzz 50mg 200mg 600mg 30mg/ml suspension eemmttrriicciittaabbiinnee 200mg iinnddiinnaavviirr 400mg lamivudine 150mg 300mg 10mg/ml oral solution and syrup and dry syrup lamivudine + efavirenz + didanosine 150+600+250 (EC) 150+600+400 (EC) Mdecins Sans Frontires ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ June 2005 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ 13 GSK 1st categ 1241 (1.7) AAuurroobbiinnddoo 72 (0.099) 80 (0.109) AAuurroobbiinnddoo 144 (0.198) 152 (0.208) AAuurroobbiinnddoo 204 (0.28) AAuurroobbiinnddoo 257 (0.352) Abbott 1st categ 500 (0.228) 152 (0.139) Aurobindo 1533 (0.42) Aurobindo 112 (0.153) 411 (0.075) Abbott 1st categ 83 (0.114) 79 (0.93) Unit tab tab tab tab tab tab tab cap ml tab g tab ml cap ml Strides 168 (0.23) 175 (0.24) HHeetteerrooDDrruuggss LLttdd 190 (0.260) RRoocchhee 22nnddccaatteegg 2211 (0.606) 2243 (0.256) Hetero Drugs Ltd 77 (0.106) Strides 438 (0.6) GSK 2nd categ n/a CCiippllaa 79 (0.108) 85 (0.117) Cipla 175 (0.24) 182 (0.25) Cipla 182 (0.25) Cipla 255 (0.35) Abbott 2nd categ n/a n/a Cipla 1423 (0.39) Boehringer 1st categ 438 (0.6) 400 (0.073) Abbott 2nd categ n/a n/a Hetero Drugs Ltd 992 (1.358) HHeetteerroo DDrruuggss LLttdd 74 (0.101) 81 (0.111) GGPPOO 341 (0.467) 375 (0.514) GSK 1st categ 237 (0.325) HHeetteerroo DDrruuggss LLttdd 281 (0.385) Hetero Drugs Ltd 1898 (0.867) GPO 1599 (0.438) Boehringer 2nd categ n/a n/a AAuurroobbiinnddoo 336 (0.46) Strides 113 (0.155) 120 (0.165) RRaannbbaaxxyy 219 (0.3) 234 (0.32) GGPPOO 426 (0.584) Roche 1st categ 978 (0.268) 1962 (0.224) GPO 255 (0.35) 82 (0.015) Hetero Drugs Ltd 196 (0.269 Ranbaxy 1095 (1.5) Ranbaxy 124 (0.17) 131 (0.18) HHeetteerroo DDrruuggss LLttdd 147 (0.201) 161 (0.221) GSK 2nd categ n/a Ranbaxy 292 (0.4) HHeetteerroo DDrruuggss LLttdd 1217 (0.333) Cipla 73 (0.1) 137 (0.025) Cipla 339 (0.464)) RRaannbbaaxxyy 197 (0.27) Ranbaxy 84 (0.115) Strides 204 (0.280) SSttrriiddeess 80 (0.11) lamivudine/zidovudine/ abacavir 300 + 150 + 300mg lamivudine/stavudine 150 + 30mg 150 + 40mg lamivudine/stavudine/ nevirapine 150 + 30 + 200mg 150 + 40 + 200mg lamivudine/zidovudine 150 + 300mg lamivudine/zidovudine/ nevirapine 150 + 300 + 200mg lopinavir/ritonavir 133.3 + 33.3mg 80 + 20mg/ml oral solution nelfinavir 250mg (3) 50mg/g oral powder nevirapine 200mg 10mg/ml suspension ritonavir 100mg 80mg/ml oral solution Hetero Drugs Ltd 1022 (0.28) AAuurroobbiinnddoo 14 (0.019) 31 (0.043) GGiilleeaadd 11sstt ccaatteegg 301 (0.824) GGiilleeaadd 11sstt ccaatteegg 362 (0.991) AAuurroobbiinnddoo 140 (0.192) Unit cap cap cap cap cap ml ml tab tab cap cap tab ml HHeetteerrooDDrruuggss LLttdd 21 (0.029) 25 (0.035) GPO 277 (0.38) 130 (0.021) saquinavir hard caps 200mg (5) stavudine 15mg 20mg 30mg 40mg 1mg/ml powder for syrup 5mg/ml powder for syrup tenofovir disoproxil fumarate 300mg tenofovir disoproxil fumarate/emtricitabine 300 + 200mg zidovudine 100mg 250mg 300mg 10mg/ml syrup and 50mg/5ml oral solution Roche 1st categ 989 (0.271) BMS 1st categ n/a 0.094 48 (0.066) 55 (0.075) 358 (0.048) GGiilleeaadd 22nndd ccaatteegg n/a GGiilleeaadd 22nndd ccaatteegg n/a CCiippllaa 131 (0.18) 93 (0.015) Roche 2nd categ 1327 (0.606) BMS 2nd categ n/a n/a n/a n/a n/a CCoommbbiinnoo PPhhaarrmm 285 (0.39) 130 (0.021) GPO 0.058 0.07 60 (0.082) 77 (0.105) 80 (0.011) 23 (0.016) GGSSKK 22nndd ccaatteegg n/a n/a n/a n/a CCiippllaa 0.04 0.045 36 (0.05) 39 (0.054) 153 (0.021) GGSSKK 11sstt ccaatteegg 241 (0.33) 117 (0.16) 212 (0.29) 223 (0.036) RRaannbbaaxxyy 36 (0.049) 47 (0.064) HHeetteerroo DDrruuggss LLttdd 134 (0.183) Strides 35 (0.048) 46 (0.063) RRaannbbaaxxyy 161 (0.22) n/a = discounted price not available. Price of products pre-qualified by WHO (23rd edition of WHO Pre-Qualified List) appear in bold. BMS sells ddI in other doses (per mg price remains the same). The daily dose referred to is 800mg IDV twice daily with ritonavir 100mg twice daily as booster as recommended by WHO. The prescribing information given by the manufacturer is 800mg three times daily (price US$ 600/year). The daily dose referred to is 1250 mg twice daily although the dosage of 9 tablets (3 tablets three times a day) can also be used. Cipla PMTCT a 0.080 ml en envase de 25 ml. The daily dose referred to is 100mg twice daily, for use as booster medication. This dose is not indicated in the manufacturerÕs label. Saquinqvir should be used in combination with low-dose ritonavir as Saquinavir/Ritonavir 1000mg/100mg twice daily. Not possible to use stavudine 15 mg capsule for 15 kg patient. Not possible to use zidovudine 100 mg capsule for 15 kg patient. GPO, has AZT at 0.021 in 60 ml bottle. According to WHO treatment guidelines, the pediatric dosage of NVP is 120 to 200 mg/m2/dose, twice daily. For these calcilations we considered 160mg/m2. According to WHO treatment guidelines, the pediatric dosage of NfV is 55 to 65 mg/m2/dose, twice daily. For these calcilations we considered 60mg/m2. Gilead 1st category price applies to some middle-income countries. See Table 2 for conditions. 14 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ June 2005 ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ Mdecins Sans Frontires Company Abbott Aurobindo BMS Boehringer- Ingelheim Cipla Combino Pharm Gilead GlaxoSmithKline Table 2: Summary table for conditions Eligibility (countries) All African countries and LDCs outside of Africa No restriction Sub-Saharan Africa, Haiti, Mauritius, Cambodia, Vietnam (For other developing countries, prices negotiated on a case by case basis with BMS local market representative.) All World Bank low-income countries and sub-Saharan Africa. (Other countries on a case-by-case basis.) No restriction No restriction 95 nations including all of Africa and 15 other UN-designated Ôleast developedÕ countries. Least Developed Countries (LDCs) plus sub-Saharan Africa. All projects fully financed by the Global Fund to fight AIDS, TB and Malaria as well as projects funded by PEPFAR. Eligibility (body) Governments, NGOs, UN system organizations and other national and international health institutions NGOs and Governmental Organizations Both private and public sector organizations that are able to provide effective, sustainable and medically sound care and treatment of HIV/AIDS are eligible. Governments, NGOs and other partners who can guarantee that the programme is run in a responsible manner. No restriction No restriction Organizations that provide HIV treatment in the 68 countries covered by the Gilead Global Access programme will be able to receive Viread at the access price. Applications will go through a review process. Governments, aid organizations, charities, UN agencies, other not-for-profit organizations and international procurement agencies. Delivery of goods FOB Payment by letter of credit. FOB Hyderabad (India) DDU to French Speaking Africa and CIF incoterm for English Speaking Africa (Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Ghana, Eritrea) CIF FOB Mumbai (India) or CIF — Freight charges separately on actual. FOB Barcelona (Spain) FOB CIP Additional comments Prices available for at least 1,000,000 units for each product per single shipment. No quantity related conditions. Prices are as per table 1 however for larger quantities the prices are negotiable. Delivery terms 120 days. No minimum order required unless any special labeling is required (standard labeling is in Spanish): order of a complete batch. Pack of 60 or 300 capsules available for ZDV. Gilead works with several distributors in Africa to facilitate low cost local distribution channels. In sub-Saharan Africa employers there who offer HIV/AIDS care and treatment directly to their staff through workplace clinics or similar arrangements are also eligible. In sub-Saharan Africa employers there who offer HIV/AIDS care and treatment directly to their staff Mdecins Sans Frontires ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ June 2005 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ 15 Company GPO Hetero Drugs Ltd Merck & Co. Inc Ranbaxy Roche Strides Arcolab Ltd Eligibility (countries) (For middle income developing countries public sector prices negotiated on a case-by-case basis bilaterally through the AAI). No restriction No restriction First category of countries: Low Human Development Index (HDI) countries plus medium HDI countries with adult HIV prevalence of 1% or greater10. Second category of countries: Medium HDI countries with adult HIV prevalence less than 1%10. No restriction FFiirrsstt ccaatteeggoorryy ooff ccoouunnttrriieess:: All countries in sub-Saharan Africa and all UN defined Least Developed Countries SSeeccoonndd ccaatteeggoorryy ooff ccoouunnttrriieess:: Low income countries and lower middle income countries — as classified by the World Bank. No restriction Eligibility (body) Not-for-profit organizations and governments Private sector, public sector and NGOs Governments, international organizations, NGOs, private sector organizations (e.g. employers, hospitals and insurers). NGOs and Governments or Programs supported by them Governments, Non Profit Institutional Providers of HIV care, NGOs. Governments, non profit institutional providers of HIV treatment, NGOs Delivery of goods FOB Bangkok (Thailand) FOB Mumbai (India) CIP FOB Delhi/Mumbai (India) FCA Basel (CH), FOB Bangalore (India) Additional comments through workplace clinics or similar arrangements are also eligible. All organizations must supply the preferentially priced products on a not for profit basis. Supply Agreement required (For NGOs requiring less than 10 patient packs per month, this requirement may be waived). The manufacturer recommends that Ôprescribers must ensure that patients are fully informed regarding hypersensitivity reaction to abacavir. Patients developing signs or symptoms must contact their doctor immediately for advice.Õ Payment by signed letter of credit. Prices could be negotiated on individual basis according commercial terms. Merck & Co. Inc does not rule out supplying ARVs to patients through retail pharmacies. Although Romania does not fall under these categories it also benefits from these prices due to a government commitment to a programme of universal access. Confirmed letter of credit or advance payment preferred for new customers CAD (Cash Against Documents) 30 days at sight. Minimum order and delivery amount per shipment is CHF 10,000 (US$ 8,179) Payment by signed letter of credit 16 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ June 2005 ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ Mdecins Sans Frontires Mdecins Sans Frontires ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ June 2005 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ 17 AAnnnneexxeess Annex 1: Least Developed Countries (LDCs) Source: UNCTAD http://www.unctad.org/Templates/We bFlyer.asp?intItemID=2161&lang=1 Fifty countries are currently designated least developed countries (LDCs). The list is reviewed every three years. Afghanistan; Angola; Bangladesh; Benin; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; Comoros; Democratic Republic of Congo; Djibouti; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gambia; Guinea; Guinea Bissau; Haiti; Kiribati; Lao PeopleÕs Democratic Republic; Lesotho; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Maldives; Mali; Mauritania; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nepal; Niger; Rwanda; Samoa; Sao Tome and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sudan; Timor-Leste; Togo; Tuvalu; Uganda; United Republic of Tanzania; Vanuatu; Yemen; Zambia. Annex 2: Human Development Index (HDI) Source: Human Development Report 2004, Cultural Liberty in TodayÕs Diverse World, UNDP, 2004. For full list of Human Development Index ranking see: http://hdr.undp.org/docs/statistics/ind ices/index_tables.pdf Low human development Angola; Benin; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Central African Republic; Chad; Congo; Congo (Dem. Rep. of the); Cte dÕIvoire; Djibouti; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gambia; Guinea; Guinea- Bissau; Haiti; Kenya; Lesotho; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mozambique; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Rwanda; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Tanzania (U. Rep. of ); Timor-Leste; Togo; Uganda; Yemen; Zambia; Zimbabwe. Medium human development Albania; Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Bangladesh; Belarus; Belize; Bhutan; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Botswana; Brazil; Bulgaria; Cambodia; Cameroon; Cape Verde; China; Colombia; Comoros; Dominica; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt; El Salvador; Equatorial Guinea; Fiji; Gabon; Georgia; Ghana; Grenada; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; India; Indonesia; Iran (Islamic Rep. of ); Jamaica; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kyrgyzstan; Lao PeopleÕs Dem.Rep; Lebanon; Libyan Arab Jamahiriya; Macedonia (TFYR); Malaysia; Maldives; Mauritius; Moldova (Rep. of ); Mongolia; Morocco; Myanmar; Namibia; Nepal; Nicaragua; Occupied Palestinian Territories; Oman; Panama; Papua New Guinea; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Romania; Russian Federation; Saint Lucia; Saint.Vincent and the Grenadines; Samoa (Western); So Tom & Principe; Saudi Arabia; Solomon Islands; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Sudan; Suriname; Swaziland; Syrian Arab Republic; Tajikistan; Thailand; Tonga; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Uzbekistan; Vanuatu; Venezuela; Viet Nam. Annex 3: Sub-Saharan countries Source: World Bank (May 2005) http://www.worldbank.org/data/count ryclass/classgroups.htm#Sub_Sahara n_Africa Angola; Benin; Botswana; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cameroon; Cape Verde; Central African Republic; Chad; Comoros; Congo (Dem. Rep); Congo (Rep.); Cte dÕIvoire; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gabon; Gambia; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Kenya; Lesotho; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mozambique; Namibia; Niger; Nigeria; Rwanda; So Tom and Principe; Senegal; Seychelles; Sierra Leone; Somalia; South Africa; Sudan; Swaziland; Tanzania; Togo; Uganda; Zambia; Zimbabwe. Annex 4: World Bank low-income economies Source: World Bank (May 2005) http://www.worldbank.org/data/count ryclass/classgroups.htm Low-income economies Afghanistan; Angola; Bangladesh; Benin; Bhutan; Burkina Faso; Burundi; Cambodia; Cameroon; Central African Republic; Chad; Comoros; Congo (Dem. Rep.), Congo (Rep.); Cte dÕIvoire; Equatorial Guinea; Eritrea; Ethiopia; Gambia, The; Ghana; Guinea; Guinea-Bissau; Haiti; India; Kenya; Korea, Dem. Rep.; Kyrgyz Republic; Lao PDR; Lesotho; Liberia; Madagascar; Malawi; Mali; Mauritania; Moldova; Mongolia; Mozambique; Myanmar; Nepal; Nicaragua; Niger; Nigeria; Pakistan; Papua New Guinea; Rwanda; So Tom and Principe; Senegal; Sierra Leone; Solomon Islands; Somalia; Sudan; Tajikistan; Tanzania; Timor-Leste; Togo; Uganda; Uzbekistan; Vietnam; Yemen (Rep.), Zambia; Zimbabwe. Lower-middle-income economies Albania; Algeria; Armenia; Azerbaijan; Belarus; Bolivia; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Brazil; Bulgaria; Cape Verde; China; Colombia; Cuba; Djibouti; Dominican Republic; Ecuador; Egypt, Arab Rep.; El Salvador; Fiji; Georgia; Guatemala; Guyana; Honduras; Indonesia; Iran, Islamic Rep.; Iraq; Jamaica; Jordan; Kazakhstan; Kiribati; Macedonia, FYR; Maldives; Marshall Islands; Micronesia, Fed. Sts.; Morocco; Namibia; Paraguay; Peru; Philippines; Romania; Russian Federation; Samoa; Serbia and Montenegro ; South Africa; Sri Lanka; Suriname; Swaziland; Syrian Arab Republic; Thailand; Tonga; Tunisia; Turkey; Turkmenistan; Ukraine; Vanuatu; West Bank and Gaza. Upper-middle-income economies American Samoa; Antigua and Barbuda; Argentina; Barbados; Belize; Botswana; Chile; Costa Rica; Croatia; Czech Republic; Dominica; Estonia; Gabon; Grenada; Hungary; Latvia; Lebanon; Libya; Lithuania; Malaysia; Mauritius; Mayotte; Mexico; Northern Mariana Islands; Oman; Palau; Panama; Poland; Saudi Arabia; Seychelles; Slovak Republic; St. Kitts and Nevis; St. Lucia; St. Vincent and the Grenadines; Trinidad and Tobago; Uruguay; Venezuela, RB. Annex 5: Company contacts AAbbbbootttt:: Rob Dintruff Email: email@example.com AXIOS International manages the request process: The Programme Manager Access to HIV Care Programme AXIOS International P.O. Box 6924 Kampala, Uganda. Tel: +256 75 693 756 Fax:+256 41 543 021 Email: AccesstoHIVCare@axiosint.com Website : www.accesstohivcare.org AAuurroobbiinnddoo PPhhaarrmmaa LLttdd:: Mr. A.Vijaykumar Head —Anti Retrovirals Project Tel: +91 40 2304 4070 Or +91 98481 10877 (Mobile) Fax: +91 40 23044058 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org BBrriissttooll--MMyyeerrss SSqquuiibbbb CCoo:: All countries with the exception of Southern Africa: information can be obtained from Mrs Marie-Astrid Mercier, BMS Access Coordinator in BMS Paris office (marie- email@example.com) Southern Africa: information can be obtained from Mrs Tamany Geldenhuys in BMS offices in Johannesburg (firstname.lastname@example.org). BBooeehhrriinnggeerr IInnggeellhheeiimm:: Helmut Leuchten CD Marketing Prescription Medicines Head of Corporate Department HIV Virology Phone: + 49 6132 77-8486 Fax: +49 6132 77-3829 Email: email@example.com- ingelheim.com Michael Rabbow (for the Viramune MTCT donation program) Marketing Prescription Medicines CG HIV-Specialists/Virologists Tel: + 49 6132 77- 92701 Fax: + 49 6132 77-38 29 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org- ingelheim.com 18 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ June 2005 ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ Mdecins Sans Frontires CCiippllaa LLttdd:: Mr. Sanjeev Gupte, General Manager- Exports Mr. Shailesh Pednekar Executive-Exports, Cipla Limited Tel: +91 22 23021397 (Direct) 23095521 23092891 Fax: +91 22 23070013/23070393/23070385 Email: email@example.com and firstname.lastname@example.org CCoommbbiinnoopphhaarrmm:: Ms. Silvia Gil Managing Director Combinopharm Tel: + 34 93 48 08 833 Fax: + 34 93 48 08 832 Email : email@example.com GGiilleeaadd PPrrooggrraammmmee AAcccceessss Deborah Ovadia Gilead Global Access Program Manager Gilead Sciences, Inc 333 Lakeside Drive Foster City, California 94404 USA Tel: 1-800-G I L E A D-5, Option 1 Fax: +1-650-522-5870 Email: ARVaccess@gilead.com www.gileadaccess.org CCoommppaannyy ccoonnttaacctt:: Sheryl Meredith Associate Director International Operations Gilead Sciences 333 Lakeside Drive Foster City, California 94404 USA 1-650-522-5505 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.gileadaccess.org GGllaaxxooSSmmiitthhKKlliinnee:: Isabelle Girault Director, Government Affairs HIV & AIDS Tel: + 44 (0) 20 8047 5488 Fax: + 44 (0) 20 8047 6957 Email: email@example.com GGPPOO:: Mr. Sukhum Virattipong International Business Director Tel: +662 3545587, 2038850 Fax: +662 3548858, 3548777 HHeetteerroo DDrruuggss LLiimmiitteedd:: Hetero House, H.No.:8-3-166/7/1, Erragadda, Hyderabad-500 018 India. Tel: 0091-40-23704923 / 24 Tel (Direct):0091-40-23818029 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org MMeerrcckk && CCoo. IInncc:: Samir A. Khalil Executive Director HIV Policy & External Affairs Human Health Europe, Middle East & Africa Merck & Co., Inc/WS2A-55 One Merck Drive, Whitehouse Station NJ 08889-0100 USA Tel: +1 908 423 6440 Fax: +1 908 735 1839 Email: email@example.com RRaannbbaaxxyy:: Mr. Sandeep Juneja Ranbaxy Laboratories Limited Tel: + 91 124 518 59 06 (Direct) or + 91 124 513 50 00 Fax: + 91 124 516 60 35 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.aidonaids.com www.ranbaxy.com RRoocchhee:: For information regarding quotations and deliveries to customers contact: Hanspeter Wlchli Logistics Sales International Customers Dept. PTGS-I 4303 Kaiseraugst / Switzerland Tel: +41 61 688 1060 Fax: +41 61 687 1815 Email: email@example.com SSttrriiddeess AArrccoollaabb LLttdd:: Mrs. Aloka Sengupta Asst. Vice President ATM Strides House, Bilekahalli Bannerghatta Road Bangalore 560 076, INDIA Tel: +91-80-57580748 Mobile : +91 98450 24470 Fax: 91-80-26583538 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org Asst. Vice President ATM Strides House, Bilekahalli Bannerghatta Road Bangalore 560 076, INDIA Tel: 91-80-26581343/44/46, +91-80-26584529(Direct) Fax: 91-80-26583538/26584330 Email: email@example.com Mdecins Sans Frontires ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ June 2005 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ 19 3TC lamivudine; nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase Inhibitor ABC abacavir; nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor AIDS Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome ARVs Antiretroviral drugs BMS Bristol-Myers Squibb CDC Centres for Disease Control and Prevention CIF ÔCost Insurance and FreightÕ means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the shipÕs rail in the port of shipment. The seller must pay the costs and freight necessary to bring the goods to the named port of destination BUT the risk of loss or damage to the goods, as well as any additional costs due to events occurring after the time of delivery, are transferred from the seller to the buyer. CIP ÔCarriage and Insurance paid to.Õ means that the seller delivers the goods to the carrier nominated by him but the seller must in addition pay the cost of carriage necessary to bring the goods to the named destination. This means that the buyer bears all the risks and any additional costs occurring after the goods have been so delivered. However, in CIP the seller also has to procure insurance against the buyerÕs risk of loss of or damage to the goods during the carriage. Consequently, the seller contracts for insurance and pays the insurance premium. d4T stavudine; nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor ddI didanosine; nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor DDU ÔDelivered duty unpaidÕ means that the seller delivers the goods to the buyer, not cleared for import, and not unloaded from any arriving means of transport at the named place of destination. The seller has to bear the costs and risks involved in bringing the goods thereto, other than, where applicable, any ÔdutyÕ (which term includes the responsibility for the risks of the carrying out of the customs formalities, and the payment of formalities, customs duties, taxes and other charges) for import in the country of destination. Such ÔdutyÕ has to be borne by the buyer as well as any costs and risks caused by his Glossary failure to clear the goods for theimport time. EML Essential Medicines List. First published by WHO in 1977, it is meant to identify a list of medicines, which provide safe and effective treatment for the infectious and chronic diseases, which affect the vast majority of the worldÕs population. The 12th Updated List was published in April 2002 and includes 12 antiretrovirals. EFV or EFZ efavirenz; non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor EXW ÔEx-worksÕ means that the seller delivers when he places the goods at the disposal of the buyer at the sellerÕs premises or another named place (i.e. works, factory, warehouse etc.) not cleared for export and not loaded on any collecting vehicle. FOB ÔFree on boardÕ means that the seller delivers when the goods pass the shipÕs rail at the named port of shipment. This means that the buyer has to bear all costs and risks of loss or damage to the goods from that point. The FOB term requires the seller to clear the goods for export. 20 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ June 2005 ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ Mdecins Sans Frontires WHO World Health Organization ZDV zidovudine; nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor GGeenneerriicc ddrruugg According to WHO, a pharmaceutical product usually intended to be interchangeable with the originator product, which is usually manufactured without a license from the originator company. GPO The Government Pharmaceutical Organization (Thailand) GSK GlaxoSmithKline HIV Human Immunodeficiency Virus IDV indinavir; protease inhibitor LDCs Least Developed Countries, according to United Nations classification MSD Merck Sharp & Dome (Merck & Co., Inc.) MSF Mdecins Sans Frontires NGO Non Governmental Organization NFV nelfinavir; protease inhibitor NNRTI Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor NRTI Nucleoside Analogue Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor NtRTI Nucleotide Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor NVP nevirapine; non-nucleoside analogue reverse transcriptase inhibitor PMTCT Prevention of Mother-To-Child Transmission r low dose ritonavir used as a booster; protease inhibitor SQV hgc saquinavir hard gel capsules; protease inhibitor SQV sgc saquinavir soft gel capsules; protease inhibitor TDF tenofovir; nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitor UNAIDS United Nations Joint Co- sponsored Programme on HIV/AIDS, created in 1996, to lead, strengthen and support an expanded response to the HIV/AIDS epidemic. The six original Cosponsors are UNICEF, UNDP, UNFPA, UNESCO, WHO and the World Bank. UNDCP joined in April 1999 UNDP United Nations Development Programme Mdecins Sans Frontires ¥ www.accessmed-msf.org ¥ June 2005 ¥ Untangling the Web of Price Reductions ¥ 21 Campaign for Access to Essential Medicines Mdecins Sans Frontires Rue de Lausanne 78, CP 116 CH-1211 Geneva 21, Switzerland Tel: + 41 (0) 22 849 84 05 Fax: + 41 (0) 22 849 84 04 email: firstname.lastname@example.org http://www.accessmed-msf.org Design and artwork: Twenty 3 Crows Ltd +44 (0) 1848 200401 a pricing guide for the purchase of ARVs for developing countries price Untangling the web of price reductions: 8th Edition cou ntri es reductions pr ic e el ig ib ili ty pr ice countries reductions com pan y
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