Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women: Findings from the Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2007 (Preliminary Report)

Publication date: 2007

Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women Findings from the Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2007 PRELIMINARY REPORT September 2007 National Bureau of Statistics Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women Findings from the Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 2007 PRELIMINARY REPORT September 2007 National Bureau of Statistics Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report i Summary Table of Findings MICS 3 and MDG Indicators, Nigeria, 2007 TOPIC MICS3 INDICATOR NUMBER MDG INDICATOR NUMBER INDICATOR VALUE UNIT 1 13 Under-five mortality rate 138 Per 1,000 live births Child Mortality 2 14 Infant mortality rate 86 6 4 Underweight prevalence 25.3 Percent 7 Stunting prevalence 34.3 Percent Nutrition 8 Wasting prevalence 10.8 Percent 15 Exclusive breastfeeding rate (0-5 months) 11.7 Percent 16 Continued breastfeeding rate At 12-15 months; At 20-23 months 77.8 30.5 Percent Percent 17 Timely complementary feeding rate (6-9 months) 40.9 Percent 25 Tuberculosis immunization coverage 50.5 Percent 26 Polio immunization coverage 27.5 Percent 27 DPT immunization coverage 28.1 Percent 28 15 Measles immunization coverage 38.3 Percent 31 Fully immunized children 10.9 Percent 22 Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia 46.4 Percent 24 29 Solid fuels 75.0 Percent 37 22 Under-fives sleeping under insecticide-treated nets 3.5 Percent 38 Under-fives sleeping under mosquito nets 4.1 Percent Child Health 39 22 Antimalaria treatment (under-fives) 35.9 Percent 11 30 Use of improved drinking water sources 49.1 Percent Environment 12 31 Use of improved sanitation facilities 42.9 Percent 21 19c Contraceptive prevalence 14.7 Percent 4 17 Skilled attendant at delivery 44.3 Percent Reproductive Health 5 Institution deliveries 40.5 Percent 55 6 Net primary school attendance ratio Girls Boys 62.4 66.2 Percent Percent Education 61 9 Gender parity index Primary school Secondary school 0.94 0.98 Ratio Ratio 62 Birth registration 23.3 Percent 67 Marriage Before age 15 Before age 18 15.3 39.5 Percent Child Protection 68 Young women aged 15-19 currently married/in union 24.5 Percent 82 19b Comprehensive knowledge about HIV prevention among young people 19.4 Percent 83 19a Condom use with non-regular partners 39.2 Percent 85 Higher risk sex in the last year 39.4 Percent HIV/AIDS, Sexual Behaviour, and Orphaned and Vulnerable children 77 20 School attendance of orphans versus non-orphans 0.93 Percent Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report ii Table of Contents (i) Summary Table of Findings.i (ii) Contents . ii (iii) List of Tables . iii (iv) List of Figures . iv (v) Acknowledgement .v 1 Background and Objectives 1.1 Introduction . 1 1.2 Survey Objectives. 2 2 Sample and Survey Methodology 2.1 Sample Design . 3 2.2 The Questionnaires . 3 2.3 Fieldwork and Processing. 4 2.4 Sample Coverage. 4 3 Results 3.1 Child Mortality . 6 3.2 Nutritional Status . 7 3.3 Breastfeeding. 8 3.4 Salt Iodization . 9 3.5 Immunization . 9 3.6 Antibiotic Treatment of Children with Suspected Pneumonia. 11 3.7 Solid Fuel Use . 11 3.8 Malaria . 11 3.9 Water and Sanitation . 12 3.10 Contraception . 14 3.11 Assistance at Delivery . 14 3.12 Primary School Attendance . 15 3.13 Birth Registration . 16 3.14 Early Marriage . 16 3.15 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS Transmission and Condom Use . 17 3.16 Orphans and Vulnerable Children School Attendance . 18 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report iii LIST OF TABLES 1 Table HH.1: Results of household and individual interviews. 5 2 Table CM.1: Child mortality . 6 3 Table CH.1: Vaccinations in first year of life. 19 4 Table CH.7: Antibiotic treatment of pneumonia. 20 5 Table CH.8: Solid fuel use. 21 6 Table CH.11: Children sleeping under bed net . 22 7 Table CH.12: Treatment of children with anti-malarial drugs . 23 8 Table RH.5: Assistance during delivery . 24 9 Table ED.7: Education gender parity . 25 10 Table CP.5: Early marriage. 26 11 Table HA.3: Comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission . 27 12 Table HA.9. Condom use at last high-risk sex . 28 13 Table HA.12: School attendance of orphaned and vulnerable children . 29 14 Table NU.1: Child malnourishment . 30 15 Table NU.3: Breastfeeding . 32 16 Table NU.5: Iodized salt consumption. 33 17 Table CH.2 Vaccinations by Background Characteristics . 35 18 Table CH.10: Availability of mosquito and insecticide treated nets . 37 19 Table EN.1: Use of improved water sources. 39 20 Table EN.5: Use of sanitary means of excreta disposal. 41 21 Table EN.7: Use of improved water sources and improved sanitation. 43 22 Table RH.1: Use of contraception . 45 23 Table ED.2 Primary school entry . 47 24 Table ED.3: Primary school net attendance ratio. 49 25 Table ED.6 Primary school completion and transition to Secondary education. 51 26 Table ED.8 Female Youth literacy . 52 27 Table CP.1: Birth registration . 54 28 Table HA.1: Knowledge of preventing HIV transmission. 56 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report iv LIST OF FIGURES 1 Figure 1: Percentages of undernourished children in Nigeria, 2007 . 8 2 Figure 2: Percentage of children 12-23 months who received immunizations by age 12 months, Nigeria 2007 . 10 3 Figure 3: Percent distribution of the population by source of drinking water, Nigeria 2007 .13 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report v ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) was conceptualized to monitor the progress of Child Survival, Development, Protection and Participation (CSDPP) Programme as well as to serve as a data generating mechanism for measuring the achievement and gaps in the targets of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG), particularly as they may affect children and women. At the World Summit for Social Development in 1995, the need was also stressed for better social statistics if social development is to move to centre stage for the cause of the world’s children. The first in the series of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS1) was conducted in 1995 by the Federal Office of Statistics (FOS), now National Bureau of Statistics (NBS), with technical and funding assistance from UNICEF. Since then, MICS has been institutionalized within the National Integrated Survey of Households (NISH) in the National Bureau of Statistics, as a process of collecting regular, reliable and timely social statistics. The second round of MICS was conducted in 1999 with a better strategy for the execution of the survey from planning to report writing. Expectedly, the current edition of the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS3) was better planned, executed and has achieved the aim of providing reliable data for monitoring progress of the Nigerian children and women towards the Millennium Development Goals. This report would have been impossible without the commitment of UNICEF, which provided technical and financial assistance for the project. Worthy of mention also is the significant contribution of the officials from UNICEF, Nigeria, namely: the Representative Mr. Ayalew Abai, Dr. Ahmed El-Bashir Ibrahim (Chief, Planning and Communication) and Mr. Johnson Awotunde, M&E Specialist. The National Bureau of Statistics acknowledges the support and cooperation from all other stakeholders who took part in the project in various forms. I wish to recognize the efforts by the personnel from NBS who actively participated in the planning and implementation of the project. Foremost among them are Dr. G.O. Adewoye (Director Censuses and Surveys), Mr. F.B. Ladejobi (Head of Field Services and Methodology) and Mrs. A.N. Adewinmbi (Head of Computer Management and Information Services). Other key personnel involved in the project were Messrs Owolabi, R.O. Salawu, R.F. Busari, B.A. Kareem and Mrs. Funke Joseph. Special thanks go to the consultant, Prof. T.A. Bamiduro who demonstrated high level of interest and commitment to the success of the survey, Mr. Isiaka Olarewaju (Head of Household Surveys Division), and the trio of Mrs. F.B. Ajayi, Mrs. H. I. Ogunkoya and Mrs. Olabisi Adeyinka who gave the Secretariat support. Finally, on behalf of the National Bureau of Statistics, I wish to acknowledge with gratitude the cooperation of all the heads and members of sample households who were respondents during the survey. Their participation was very valuable to the conduct of the survey. Dr. Vincent O. Akinyosoye Director-General Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 1 1. BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES 1.1 INTRODUCTION This preliminary report is based on the Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey, conducted in 2007 by the National Bureau of Statistics (NBS) with financial and technical support from UNICEF, Nigeria. The survey was based, in large part, on the need to monitor progress towards goals and targets emanating from recent international agreements namely the Millennium Declaration, adopted by all 191 United Nations Member States in September 2000, and the Plan of Action of A World Fit For Children, adopted by 189 Member States at the United Nations Special Session on Children in May 2002. Both of these commitments build upon promises made by the international community at the 1990 World Summit for Children. In signing these international agreements, governments committed themselves to improving conditions for their children and to monitoring progress towards that end. UNICEF was assigned a supporting role in this task (see Box 1). Box 1 A Commitment to Action: National and International Reporting Responsibilities The governments that signed the Millennium Declaration and the World Fit for Children Declaration and Plan of Action also committed themselves to monitoring progress towards the goals and objectives they contained: “We will monitor regularly at the national level and, where appropriate, at the regional level and assess progress towards the goals and targets of the present Plan of Action at the national, regional and global levels. Accordingly, we will strengthen our national statistical capacity to collect, analyse and disaggregate data, including by sex, age and other relevant factors that may lead to disparities, and support a wide range of child-focused research. We will enhance international cooperation to support statistical capacity-building efforts and build community capacity for monitoring, assessment and planning.” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 60) “…We will conduct periodic reviews at the national and sub-national levels of progress in order to address obstacles more effectively and accelerate actions.…” (A World Fit for Children, paragraph 61) The Plan of Action (paragraph 61) also calls for the specific involvement of UNICEF in the preparation of periodic progress reports: “… As the world’s lead agency for children, the United Nations Children’s Fund is requested to continue to prepare and disseminate, in close collaboration with Governments, relevant funds, programmes and the specialized agencies of the United Nations system, and all other relevant actors, as appropriate, information on the progress made in the implementation of the Declaration and the Plan of Action.” Similarly, the Millennium Declaration (paragraph 31) calls for periodic reporting on progress: “…We request the General Assembly to review on a regular basis the progress made in implementing the provisions of this Declaration, and ask the Secretary-General to issue periodic reports for consideration by the General Assembly and as a basis for further action The Federal Government of Nigeria has in recent times launched a number of development initiatives to improve the economic and social life of its people. The National Programme for the Eradication of Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 2 Poverty (NAPEP) is concerned with strategies for poverty reduction; the National Action Committee on HIV/AIDS (NACA) has the mandate for planning, implementing and monitoring programmes for control of HIV/AIDS; the National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS) focuses on wealth creation, employment generation, corruption elimination and general value orientation; the state and local government extensions of NEEDS are State Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (SEEDS) and Local Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (LEEDS) respectively. These and other programmes are commitments towards targets as those contained in the Millennium Development Goals. The Federal Government of Nigeria has expressed strong commitment to, and declared as a matter of high priority, efforts to monitor and evaluate progress towards the attainment of the benchmarks established in these national and other global goals. The NBS, with financial and technical support from international development partners and donors like UNICEF, has been involved in this effort through provision of relevant data to monitor, evaluate and advise necessary adjustments in development policies and programmes. The NBS, in recent times had conducted a number of national sample surveys mostly within global generic contexts. The Nigeria Living Standard Survey (NLSS), the General Household Survey (GHS), the Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaire Survey (CWIQ) and the Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS) are examples. The 2007 MICS3 has been designed to measure progress towards achievements of the Millennium Development Goals (MDG) and other international targets like the Abuja Declaration on malaria which are mainstreamed into the above- stated national commitments. Nigeria’s MICS3 is, therefore, bound to improve the country’s database and provide a valuable tool for evidence-based planning to surmount its development challenges. More specifically, MICS3 should assist monitoring and evaluation of UNICEF country programmes including those on immunization, vitamin A supplementation, child development, child and women rights and protection among others. This preliminary report presents results on some selected principal topics covered in MICS3 2007 and a subset of outcome and impact indicators1 that are important for designing, monitoring and evaluating progress of national programmes and provide a means for comparing the situation in Nigeria with that in other countries. The results in this report are preliminary and are subject to change, although major changes are not expected. A comprehensive full report is scheduled for publication within three months of the release of this preliminary report. 1.2 SURVEY OBJECTIVES The 2007 Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey has the following primary objectives ! To provide up-to-date information on the situation of children and women in Nigeria ! To strengthen national statistical capacity by focusing on data gathering, quality of survey information, statistical tracking and analysis. ! To contribute to the improvement of data and monitoring systems in Nigeria and to strengthen technical expertise in the design, implementation, and analysis of such systems. ! To furnish data needed for monitoring progress toward the Millennium Development Goals, and targets of A World Fit for Children (WFFC) among others. ! To measure progress towards achievements of the goals of NEEDS and its state and local government extensions. ! To provide statistics to complement and assess the quality of data from recent national surveys like Nigeria Living Standard Survey (NLSS), Nigeria Core Welfare Indicator Questionnaires (CWIQ) and the National Demographic and Health Survey (NDHS). 1 For more information on the definitions, numerators, denominators and algorithms of Multiple Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) and Millennium Development Goals (MDG) indicators covered in the survey: see Chapter 1, Appendix 1 and Appendix 7 of the MICS Manual – Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey Manual 2005: Monitoring the Situation of Children and Women, also available at www.childinfo.org. Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 3 2 SAMPLE AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY 2.1. SAMPLE DESIGN The sample for the Nigeria Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey (MICS3) was designed to provide estimates on a large number of indicators on the situation of children and women at the country level, for urban and rural areas; and for each of the 36 States of the Federation and the Federal Capital Territory of Abuja. The States were the main reporting domains. The sample design was two-stage in each state, where a systematic sample of 30 census enumeration areas (EAs) was selected with equal probability to form the first stage or primary sampling units (PSUs). The updated 1991 Population Census Enumeration Area demarcation was used because the latest (2006) demarcation was still being developed at the time MICS3 sample was designed. Also, information about the household composition of enumeration areas was not available to permit selection of EAs with probability proportional to number of households in the enumeration area. Household listing was conducted in each of the selected EAs to provide an adequate, up-to-date frame of housing units (HU) as the secondary sampling units (SSUs). A systematic sample of 25 housing units was subsequently drawn with equal probability within each of the selected EAs and all the households in each of the selected HUs were canvassed. Thus, at state level, 750 HUs were drawn from 30 EAs which meant 27,750 HUs from 1,110 EAs at the national level. The sample was stratified by states and was hardly self weighting at either state or national level. Hence, sample weights were used for reporting state or national results. 2.2 THE QUESTIONNAIRES Three questionnaires were used in the survey, namely a household questionnaire to collect information on general characteristics of the household including membership and the dwelling; a questionnaire for individual women and one for children under-five. The latter questionnaires were administered in each household to women aged 15-49; and to mothers or caretakers of under-five children, respectively in households where these persons were identified. The questionnaires and the constituent modules are as under-listed ! Household Questionnaire: o Household listing o Education o Water and Sanitation o Household characteristics o Insecticide Treated Nets o Children orphaned and made vulnerable by HIV/AIDS o Child Labour o Maternal Mortality o Salt Iodization ! Questionnaire for Individual Women: o Child Mortality o Tetanus Toxoid o Maternal and Newborn Health o Marriage/Union o Contraception and Unmet Need o Female Genital Mutilation o HIV/AIDS o Sexual Behaviour ! Questionnaire for Children Under Five: o Birth Registration and Early Learning Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 4 o Child Development o Vitamin A o Breastfeeding o Care of Illness o Malaria for Under-5 o Immunization o Anthropometry The questionnaires, which were based on the generic MICS3 model English version, were not translated into local Nigerian languages in view of the multiplicity of such languages and in spite of the predominance of a few of them. However, the field staff were competent in English and by virtue of being local knew the local languages, cultural practices and sensibilities of the canvassed communities. The questionnaires were pre-tested during 26–30 December 2006 in four purposively selected typical states namely Enugu, Osun, Benue and Kano. As a result of the pre-test and reviews by a shareholders’ forum and MICS3 Central Technical Committee (CTC), some amendments were made to the questionnaires by including additional or optional modules and modifying in part the wording and flow of the questionnaires. 2.3 FIELDWORK AND PROCESSING A programme of meetings and training preceded the fieldwork. Roll-out meetings were held early November 2006 in centres throughout the country to sensitise stakeholders on MICS3. A training of trainers (TOT) workshop was held in Minna, Niger State on 12-15 December, 2006 to train trainers that later trained the field staff for the pre-test and for the actual MICS3 survey. The pre-test training of field staff was held 18 – 22 December, 2006 at capitals of the pre-test states while training of staff for the main survey was at held at the six zonal NBS headquarters on 25 February – 9 March 2007. State teams of six persons (four interviewers, one editor and one supervisor) were trained to conduct the pre-test in the four pre-test states. For the main survey, two such teams were trained for each of the 36 states of the Federation and the FCT. Adequate arrangements were put in place to facilitate movement of field staff. These included provision of survey T-shirts with relevant logo of NBS, UNICEF and Federal Government of Nigeria; and survey bags and face caps. Also, transport was provided to ease and speed movement of field staff from one selected EA to the other. Fieldwork began in all the states including FCT Abuja on 14th March, 2007 and was concluded on 12th April, 2007. Collected data were entered using the CSPro software. Data entry was done simultaneously at each of the six zones, each zone handling data from the component states. At each zone, data were entered in 12 desktops by 12 data entry operators and two supervisors. In order to ensure quality control, all questionnaires were edited, double entered and internal consistency checks were performed. Procedures and standard programmes developed under the global MICS3 project and adapted to the Nigeria questionnaires were used throughout. Data processing began simultaneously with data collection in June 2007 and was completed in October 2007 after due checks for data quality and compliance with global data processing guidelines by UNICEF Nigeria and UNICEF New York. Data were analysed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS) software programme Version 15; and the model syntax and tabulation plans developed by UNICEF for the purpose. Provision for data processing in terms of computer software and hardware, office space and personnel was adequate while processes for primary and secondary data processing phases as advised in global MICS3 manual of instructions were adhered to. 2.4 SAMPLE COVERAGE All the selected enumeration areas were successfully canvassed. Table HH.1 presents a summary of results of interviews of households, individual women aged 15-49 years and children aged less than five years. A total of 28,603 households (20,825 rural and 7,778 in the urban sectors) were sampled. Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 5 The total number of occupied sampled households was 28,431 including 20,735 rural and 7,696 urban households. The total number of interviewed households was 26,735 including 19,569 rural and 7,166 urban households. These figures translated into 94.0 percent response rates for the total, 94.4 percent for the rural and 93.1 percent for the urban. The total number of eligible women was 27,093 with 19,674 and 7,419 for rural and urban sectors, respectively. The corresponding figures of interviewed women were 24,565, 17,928, and 6,637 respectively; these figures translated into 85.3, 86.0 and 83.3 percent overall response rates respectively for the total, rural and urban sectors. The number of eligible children under-five were 17,093, (12,898 rural and 4,195 urban) and interviews were achieved for 16,549, 12,494 and 4,055 respectively; again the corresponding overall response rates were 91.0, 91.4 and 90.0 percent respectively. Table HH.1: Results of household and individual interviews Number of households, women, and children under-five by results of the household, women's and under-five's interviews, and household, women's and under-five's response rates, Nigeria, 2007 Sector Geo-political zones Rural Urban North Central North East North West South East South South South West Total Number of Household Sampled 20,825 7,778 5,145 5,916 5,600 3,770 4,486 3,686 28,603 Occupied 20,735 7,696 5,130 5,877 5,581 3,743 4,438 3,662 28,431 Interviewed 19,569 7,166 4,900 5,485 5,486 3,440 4,069 3,355 26,735 Response rate 94.4 93.1 95.5 93.3 98.3 91.9 91.7 91.6 94.0 Number of women Eligible 19,674 7419 5,301 5,883 5,844 3,461 4,103 2,501 27,093 Interviewed 17,928 6637 4,569 5,583 5,810 2,845 3,611 2,147 24,565 Response rate 91.1 8 9.5 86.2 94.9 99.4 82.2 88.0 85.8 90.7 Overall response rate 86.0 83.3 82.3 88.6 97.7 75.5 80.7 78.6 85.3 Number of children under 5 Eligible 12,898 4,195 3,242 3,716 4,431 1,767 2,406 1,531 17,093 Mother/Caretaker interviewed 12,494 4,055 3,048 3,619 4,420 1,684 2,327 1,451 16,549 Response rate 96.9 96.7 94.0 97.4 99.8 95.3 96.7 94.8 96.8 Overall response rate 91.4 90.0 89.8 90.9 98.1 87.6 88.7 86.8 91.0 The above figures for under-five children and for women aged 15–49 years respectively may not be an absolute true reflection of the relative size of each of the affected subpopulations; the figures may be an under-representation. There is a genuine fear, proved by the unlikely pyramidal structure of age distribution of the sample that out-transfers of children from target group 0-4 year old and of women from the target women group 15-49 year-old happened. Some children with genuine age 4 (or even lower) have had their ages recorded as 5 or more years. Also a good number of women with true age 15 years or higher must have had their ages recorded as 14 or lower; while some women truly aged 49 years or lower have had their ages recorded as 50 or higher. Possible effects of the out-transfers could include a detraction from the quality of the data and from the general accuracy of those indicators that use differential weights that are derived from the relative frequency distribution of the ages between and within the target populations. Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 6 3 RESULTS 3.1 CHILD MORTALITY One of the overarching MDGs and the World Fit for Children targets is to reduce infant and under-five mortality. Monitoring progress towards this goal is an important but difficult task. Measuring childhood mortality may seem easy, but direct questions, such as “Has anyone in this household died in the last year?” give inaccurate results. On the other hand, using direct measures of child mortality from birth histories is time consuming and complicated. Demographers have therefore had to devise ways to measure childhood mortality indirectly. These ‘indirect methods’ minimize the pitfalls of memory lapses, inexact or misinterpreted definitions, and poor interviewing technique. The infant mortality rate is the probability of a child dying before his/her first birthday. The under-five mortality rate is the probability of a child dying before his/her fifth birthday. In MICS3, infant and under-five mortality rates are calculated based on an indirect estimation technique; the so-called Brass method. The data used in the estimation are: the mean number of children ever born for five year age-groups of women from age 15 to 49, and the proportion of these children who are dead, also for five year age-groups of women. The technique converts these data into probabilities of dying by taking account of both the mortality risks to which children are exposed and their length of exposure to the risk of dying. Table CM.1 provides estimates of child mortality by various background characteristics. In Nigeria, the infant mortality rate is estimated at 86 per thousand live births, while the under-five mortality rate is 138 per thousand live births. The Nigerian male child has greater probability of dying as an infant or as under-five than his female counterpart, 92 versus 79 per 1000 at infant and 144 versus 131 per 1000 live births at under-five, respectively. Infant mortality rate decreases from rural to urban sectors of the population (94 to 62 per 1000), from the non-educated to secondary school or higher educated mother’s (94 to 63 per 1000), and from the poorest to the richest households (101 to 54 per 1000). There is considerable geopolitical zonal variation in infant mortality rates from 68 per 1000 in the South West to 101 per 1000 in the North West; North-South disparity is also evident. Table CM.1: Child Mortality: Infant and under-five mortality rates, Nigeria, 2007 Infant mortality rate* Under-five mortality rate** Sex Male 92 144 Female 79 131 Geopolitical Zones North central 74 117 North east 84 135 North west 101 166 South east 88 142 South south 71 111 South west 68 106 Area: Sector Rural 94 153 Urban 62 96 Women’s education None 94 153 Primary 84 134 Secondary + 63 97 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 101 165 Second 99 162 Middle 92 150 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 7 Fourth 73 114 Richest 54 81 Total 86 138 * MICS indicator 2; MDG indicator 14 ** MICS indicator 1; MDG indicator 13 Note: Indirect estimation using North model. Reference year is 2002 State results are not dependable and are therefore omitted because the number of cases for determination of the rates for individual states is too low. Further analysis of these rates will be undertaken in the later stages of reporting on Nigeria MICS; the investigation will throw more light into the apparent declines of mortality as suggested by MICS3. 3.2 NUTRITIONAL STATUS Children’s nutritional status is a reflection of their overall health. When children have access to adequate food supply, are not exposed to repeated illness, and are well cared for, they reach their growth potential and are considered well developed. In a well-nourished population, there is a standard distribution of height and weight for children under age five. Under-nourishment in a population can be gauged by comparing children to a reference distribution. The reference population used here is the WHO/CDC/NCHS reference, which is recommended for use by UNICEF and the World Health Organization. Each of the three nutritional status indicators can be expressed in standard deviation units (z-scores) from the median of this reference population. Weight for age is a measure of both acute and chronic malnutrition. Children whose weight for age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered moderately or severely underweight while those whose weight for age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely underweight. Height for age is a measure of linear growth. Children whose height for age is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are considered short for their age and are classified as moderately or severely stunted. Those whose height for age is more than three standard deviations below the median are classified as severely stunted. Stunting is a reflection of chronic malnutrition as a result of failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period and recurrent or chronic illness. Finally, children whose weight for height is more than two standard deviations below the median of the reference population are classified as moderately or severely wasted, while those who fall more than three standard deviations below the median are severely wasted. Wasting is usually the result of a recent nutritional deficiency. The indicator may exhibit significant seasonal shifts associated with changes in the availability of food or disease prevalence. Table NU.1 shows percentages of children classified into each of these categories, based on the anthropometric measurements that were taken during fieldwork. Additionally, the table includes the percentage of children who are overweight, which takes into account those children whose weight for height is above 2 standard deviations from the median of the reference population. The table also shows that children who were not weighed and measured (approximately 0.5 percent of children) and those whose measurements are outside a plausible range are excluded. In addition, children whose birth dates are not known (17.4 percent) and other flagged cases (10.9 percent of children) are excluded. The total exclusions accounted for 28.9 percent of the children under-five (see Figure 1). Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 8 Figure 1. Percentages of Undernourished Children in Nigeria, 2007 Age of Child in months 54.0042.0030.0018.009.003.00 Pe rc en ta ge 50 40 30 20 10 0 Underw eight Stunted Wasted Over one in four (25.3 percent) of children under five years of age are underweight in Nigeria, 8.3 percent are classified as severely underweight (Table NU.1). More than one in three (34.3 percent) are stunted or too short for their age, almost 1 in 5 (19.4 percent) severely so; over one in ten (10.8percent) are wasting or too thin for their height, 3 percent severely so. Children in the North are more likely to be undernourished. Underweight prevalence is highest in the North West by a very wide margin where moderate underweight is 41 percent and severe underweight is 17 percent. Stunting is even more prevalent here at 57 percent and moderate stunting at 38 percent; moderate wasting is 16 percent and severe wasting 5 percent. Incidence of malnourishment diminishes southwards. The southern zones show little differentials as moderate underweight prevalence ranges between 17 percent in the South East to 20 percent in the South South and South West respectively. Moderate stunting figures are 23 percent South East, 26 percent South South and 29 percent South West; the southern zones each have 8 percent moderate wasting. Severe undernourishment is of constant prevalence in the south; severe underweight is 5 percent, severe stunting 12 percent and severe wasting 2 percent in each zone. Incidence of malnourishment in children under 5 peaks at age 18 months when it declines gradually towards age 54 months. But underweight has another peak at age 42 months. Children whose mothers have secondary or higher education are the least likely to be underweight (17 percent), stunted (23.7 percent) or wasted (9.1 percent); children of mothers with no education or with non-standard curriculum have relatively higher prevalence of malnutrition than the others. Boys appear to be slightly more likely to be underweight than girls (26.2 versus 24.3 percent), or stunted (36.0 versus 32.6 percent), or wasted (11.0 versus 10.5 percent). By virtue of all the three indices of malnutrition, malnourishment hardly surfaces until ages 6-11 months when it becomes pronounced and rises sharply to peak at ages 12-23 months and drops gently afterwards (Figure 2). This pattern is expected and is related to the age at which many children cease to be breastfed and are exposed to contamination in water, food, and environment. Malnutrition in children decreases as social economic status improves; it is at the most critical in children in the poorest and second quintiles of wealth; it abates slightly in children at the third and fourth quintiles and falls more significantly in those at the richest quintile with the figures of 16.3, 21.5 and 9.6 percent incidence of underweight, stunted and wasted. 3.3 BREASTFEEDING Breastfeeding for the first years of life protects children from infection, provides an ideal source of nutrients, and is economical and safe. However, many mothers stop breastfeeding too soon and there are often pressures to switch to infant formula, which can contribute to growth faltering and micronutrient malnutrition and is unsafe if clean water is not readily available. The World Fit for Children goal states that children should be exclusively breastfed for six months and continued breastfeeding with safe, appropriate and adequate complementary feeding up to two years of age and beyond. Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 9 In Table NU.3, breastfeeding status is based on the reports of mothers/caretakers of children’s consumption of food and fluids in the 24 hours prior to the interview. Exclusively breastfed refers to infants who received only breast milk and vitamins, mineral supplements, or medicine. The table shows exclusive breastfeeding of infants during the first six months of life (separately for 0-3 months and 0-5 months), as well as complementary feeding of children 6-9 months and continued breastfeeding of children at 12-15 and 20-23 months of age. Just 11.7 percent of children aged less than six months are exclusively breastfed. At age 6-9 months, 41 percent of children are receiving breast milk and solid or semi-solid foods; by age 12-15 months, 78 percent of children are still being breastfed and by age 20-23 months, 31 percent are still breastfed. Girls were slightly more likely to be exclusively breastfed than boys at ages below six months and still had the higher level for timely complementary feeding at ages 20-23 months; this trend is neutralized at ages 12-15 months and completely reversed at ages 6-9 months. Urban children received higher levels of exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding than their rural counterparts and levels of exclusive or complementary breastfeeding increases as level of education of the mother increases. Level of exclusive breastfeeding of children under six months of age increased at the highest wealth quintiles; but relatively fewer children in these wealth classes were still being breastfed at the higher ages. 3.4 SALT IODIZATION Iodine Deficiency Disorders (IDD) is the world’s leading cause of preventable mental retardation and impaired psychomotor development in young children. In its most extreme form, iodine deficiency causes cretinism. It also increases the risks of stillbirth and miscarriage in pregnant women. Iodine deficiency is most commonly and visibly associated with goitre. IDD takes its greatest toll in impaired mental growth and development, contributing in turn to poor school performance, reduced intellectual ability, and impaired work performance. In Nigeria, there has been a strong effort by Government through its National Agency for Food and Drug Control (NAFDAC) to counter iodine deficiency in the diet of the household in a deliberate effort to achieve the international goal of sustainable elimination of iodine deficiency within a reasonable limit of time. The indicator is the percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt (>15 parts per million – ppm). Table NU.5 shows details of salt consumption. In over 91 percent of households, salt used for cooking was tested for iodine content by using salt test kits. Over four percent of the households had no salt. Salt was found to contain 15 ppm or more of iodine in 75 percent of the households. Use of adequately iodized salt was lower in the rural areas than in the urban (73 versus 80 percent), and increased from the poorest households (62.4 percent) to the richest households with 84 percent consumption of adequately iodized salt. Such consumption was lower in the North particularly in the North East (66.4 percent) than in the South particularly in the South East with 86 percent. 3.5 IMMUNIZATION According to UNICEF and WHO guidelines, a child should receive a BCG vaccination to protect against tuberculosis, three doses of DPT to protect against diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus, three doses of polio vaccine, and a measles vaccination by the age of 12 months. Mothers were asked to provide vaccination cards for children under the age of five. Interviewers copied vaccination information from the cards onto the MICS3 questionnaire. Otherwise, mothers or caretakers were asked to recall information about immunization history of the child whether or not the child had received each of the vaccinations and the frequency of such vaccination. The percentage of children aged 12 to 23 months who received each of the vaccinations is shown in Table CH.1. The denominator for the figures is the number of all children aged 12-23 months; thus only children who are old enough to be fully vaccinated are counted. In the top panel, the numerator includes all children who were vaccinated at any time before the survey according to the vaccination Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 10 card or the mother’s report. These therefore represent gross rates. The bottom panel gives net vaccination rates where the numerator is the number of only those who were vaccinated before their first birthday. For children without vaccination cards, the proportion of vaccinations given before the first birthday is assumed to be the same as for children with vaccination cards. Most of the reported cases of vaccination were not confirmed by health cards but by the mother’s report only; 16.4 percent of children aged 12 – 23 months had all the nine (9) vaccinations with more than two in three of this number having vaccination cards to confirm having had the vaccinations. The chance of the vaccinated child having vaccination cards increased to almost half (0.5) as the child takes the last doses of Polio (Polio3) and DPT (DPT3) respectively. Approximately 51 percent of children aged 12-23 months received a BCG vaccination by the age of 12 months and the first dose of DPT was given to 46 percent. The DPT percentage declines for subsequent doses to 39 percent at the second dose, and 28 percent at the third dose (Figure 2). Similarly, fewer than 53 percent of these children received Polio 1 by age 12 months declining to fewer than 28 percent by the third dose. The coverage for measles vaccine by 12 months of age is just 38 percent. The percentage of children who had all eight recommended vaccinations by their first birthday is only 11 percent. The table shows that there were children who received each of the vaccinations after the age of 1 year. Some 38 percent of children aged 12 - 23 had no vaccination at all. Vaccination cards show that 17 percent of children aged 12-23 months at the time of the survey received BCG; 17, 16 and 14 percent received DPT1, DPT2 and DPT3 respectively; 15, 16, 14 and 13 percent received Polio0, Polio1, Polio2 and Polio 3 respectively; 14 percent had measles vaccination while 12 percent received all the 8 vaccinations (see Figure 2) These indications from the health cards are commonly 50 percent of the figures by unsubstantiated mother’s report. Apparently, most of the children who had all vaccinations have health cards. Immunization figures varied widely across states but there is a definite geopolitical zonal trend; the South has relatively good figures particularly the South East and South West while the North returns poor figures particularly the North East and the North West; the North West has very poor record of vaccination. Vaccination improves as level of mother’s education and wealth status improve. Urban figures are much higher but gender seems unimportant (Table CH.2) Figure 2: Percentage of children 12-23 months who received immunizations by age 12 months, Nigeria 2007 46.4 52.550.5 39 43.4 38.3 10.9 28.1 27.5 0 20 40 60 BCG DPT Polio Measles All Pe rc en t Dose 1 Dose 2 Dose 3 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 11 3.6 ANTIBIOTIC TREATMENT OF CHILDREN WITH SUSPECTED PNEUMONIA Pneumonia is the leading cause of death in children and the use of antibiotics in under-five children with suspected pneumonia is a key intervention. Children with suspected pneumonia are those who had an illness with a cough accompanied by rapid or difficult breathing and whose symptoms were due to a problem in the chest and a blocked nose. This question was limited to children who had suspected pneumonia within the previous two weeks and whether or not they had received an antibiotic within the previous two weeks. Table CH.7 presents the use of antibiotics for the treatment of suspected pneumonia in under-five children by sex, age, region, residence, and family wealth. Over 46 percent of Nigeria’s under-five children with suspected pneumonia during the two weeks prior to the survey had received an antibiotic. The percentage was considerably higher in the urban than in the rural sectors (over 59 versus less than 41 percent). The southern zones show higher percentage figures of antibiotic treatment of pneumonia particularly the South East with 63 percent, which declines to 38 percent in the North East. Antibiotic treatment of suspected pneumonia is very low among the poorest households (under 30 percent) and among children of illiterate mothers (35 percent). The results for the states are not dependable given low reported cases of pneumonia per state; hence, data for the states are omitted. 3.7 SOLID FUEL USE Cooking with solid fuels (biomass and coal) leads to high levels of indoor pollution and is a major cause of ill health in the world, particularly among under-5 children, in the form of acute respiratory illness. Table CH.8 shows data on use of solid fuel in the survey. Nationally, 75 percent of all households in Nigeria are using solid fuels for cooking; more than twice the number of rural households (92 percent) use such fuel compared to those in urban areas (41 percent). Differentials with respect to household wealth and the educational level of the household head are also emphatic. The percentage declines from 99 percent for the poorest families to 22 percent for the richest and from 93 and 88 percent for households whose heads had no education or had non-formal education respectively to 48 for those headed by persons with at least secondary education. The table clearly shows that the percentage is high due to high level of use wood for cooking purposes. 3.8 MALARIA Malaria is a leading cause of death of children under age five in Nigeria. It also contributes to anaemia in children and is a common cause of school absenteeism. Preventive measures, especially the use of mosquito nets treated with insecticide (ITNs), can dramatically reduce malaria mortality rates among children. In areas where malaria is common, international recommendations suggest treating any fever in children as if it were malaria and immediately giving the child a full course of recommended anti-malarial tablets. Children with severe malaria symptoms, such as fever or convulsions, should be taken to a health facility. Also, children recovering from malaria should be given extra liquids and food and should continue breastfeeding. The MICS3 questionnaire incorporates questions on the use of bed nets, both at household level and among children under five years of age, as well as intermittent preventive therapy for malaria and anti- malarial treatment. MICS3 results indicate that household availability of mosquito nets in Nigeria is 4.7 percent and of insecticide-treated nets 4 percent (CH.10). The survey did not distinguish between long lasting or other treatment as that distinction is not yet public knowledge. ITN use is very low; results indicate that 4.1 percent of children under the age of five slept under any mosquito net the night prior to the survey and 3.5 percent slept under an insecticide treated net (Table CH.11). ITN use among children under five is more prevalent in the urban than rural areas (5.5 versus Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 12 2.6 percent); it declines rather steadily as age of child increases and improves as family wealth increases. State variation in ITN use is very wide with prevalence figure ranging an invisible 0.1 percent in Bauchi state to the impressionable figure of 21 percent in Cross River state and from less than 2 percent in North West geopolitical zone to 8 percent in South South zone (Table CH 11). The large figure recorded for Cross Rivers, though too outlying, reflects a highly positive though aberrant phenomenon. Questions on the prevalence and treatment of fever were asked for all children under age five. Approximately 13 percent of under-five children were ill with fever in the two weeks prior to the MICS3 (Table CH.12). Fever prevalence peaked at 12-23 months (15 percent) and declined to about 12 percent at ages 36 to 59 months; evidence is that it was highest for children of mothers with primary education and lowest for those whose mothers had no education; it also peaked at in families in the middle class (second to fourth wealth quintiles). There was little difference in fever prevalence among the males and females (13 versus 12.3 percent) but was somewhat higher in the rural areas than in the urban (13.1 versus 11.5 percent). State variation in prevalence of fever is very wide (3.6 percent in Adamawa state in North East to 29 percent in Ebonyi in the South East) (Table CH.12); the highest prevalence rates are in the south-eastern states and the lowest rates are in the south western, north- eastern and north-central states respectively. Incidence of fever was perhaps misreported, probably under-reported due to inability of parents to identify the correct symptoms. There are significant differentials by the geopolitical zones. The South West, North East and North Central zones each recording 10 percent prevalence of fever against 12 percent in the North West, 19 percent in the South East and 20 percent in the South South; the rate apparently increases as the swampy, rain and deltaic coast is approached particularly from the North east to the south. Mothers were asked to report all of the medicines given to a child to treat the fever, including any medicine given at home or given or prescribed at a health facility. Overall, 52 percent of children with fever in the last two weeks were treated with an “appropriate” anti-malarial drug and 36 percent received anti-malarial drugs within 24 hours of onset of symptoms. “Appropriate” anti-malarial drugs include chloroquin, SP, artimisinin combination drugs, etc. In Nigeria, 36 percent of children with fever were given chloroquine, seven percent had SP, five percent were given quinine, 2.4 percent received artemisinin combination therapy, while only two percent were given amodiaquine. A relatively large percentage of children (nine percent) were given other types of medicines that are not anti-malarials, including anti-pyretics such as paracetamol, aspirine or ibuprofen. The use of appropriate anti-malarial drugs in the treatment of malaria is independent of child age. It is slightly more likely for the male child (53 percent) than females (51 percent), more prevalent in the urban (63 percent) than rural areas (48 percent); and increases with level of mother’s education and with wealth status of the family. Regional trend of use of appropriate drugs in the treatment of malaria is rather inconsistent; but the north-central states have the highest use figure of 64 percent, followed by south-western and north-western states with 58 and 55 percent respectively; the North-eastern states record the lowest figure of fewer than 42 percent. (Table CH. 12). 3.9 WATER AND SANITATION Safe drinking water is a basic necessity for good health. Unsafe drinking water can be a significant carrier of diseases such as trachoma, cholera, typhoid, and schistosomiasis. Drinking water can also be tainted with chemical, physical and radiological contaminants with harmful effects on human health. In addition to its association with disease, access to drinking water may be particularly important for women and children, particularly in rural areas, who bear the primary responsibility for carrying water, often for long distances. Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 13 Figure 3: Percent distribution of the population by source of drinking water, Nigeria 2007 Protected well 13% Unprotected well 22% River/stream 21% Other 10% Piped into dwelling 3% Piped into yard 2% Public tap 8% Borehole/Tubewell 21% An overview of the percentage of household members using improved sources of drinking water and sanitary means of excreta disposal is presented in Table EN.7 Overall, less than 28 percent of the household members use improved sources of drinking water and sanitary means of excreta disposal. Sectors, geopolitical zones, education and wealth status all respectively show strong association with these habits. An incredible one percent of the poorest quintile lives out the two health habits against 70 percent of the richest quintile; less than 14 percent of households headed by persons with no education and less than 16 percent of the rural households respectively do so. North-south differential is strong as the North-west records 18 percent that is only half of the figures by each of the 3 southern zones. State disparities are very large; the north-eastern states of Taraba (5 percent) and Yobe (6 percent) hardly make an impression south-western states of Ogun (59 percent) and Lagos (67 percent) make some relatively respectable figure. The distribution of the population by source of drinking water is shown in Table EN.1 and Figure 3. The population using improved drinking water sources are those who use any of the following types of supply: piped water, public tap, borehole or tube well, protected well, protected spring or rainwater. Overall, 49 percent of the population has access to improved drinking water sources – 76 percent in urban areas and 37 percent in rural areas. There are North-South as well as zone-zone disparities; the situation in the Northern states is considerably worse than in the South; it is a constant 42 percent in the 3 northern zones, constant 54 percent in the south-eastern and south-southern zones and 71 percent in the south-west. State disparities in availability of improved sources are enormous; availability ranged from 18 percent in Gombe state to almost 80 percent in Oyo state. Apparently, relative significance of each improved source of water supply is consistent across states. Overall, the tube well/borehole is the main improved source of drinking water for the population accounting for 22 percent of the total water supply followed by protected wells with 13 percent. Piped water accounts for less than 13 percent of the water supply source (Table EN.1). Access to improved sources of drinking water increases with wealth status of the household; the poorest families have 14 percent access while the richest have over 80 percent access to improved water sources. Education of the household head and wealth status are critical factors; the likelihood of the household using improved sources of water increases as the level of education of the household head increases or as wealth status improves. Fourteen percent of households in the poorest wealth quintile use improved source of water against 81 percent of households in the richest quintile; the figure is 66 percent Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 14 among households headed by persons with secondary education or higher as against 37 percent among those headed by persons with no education Inadequate disposal of human excreta and poor personal hygiene are associated with a range of diseases including diarrhoeal diseases and polio. Improved sanitation facilities include: flush toilets connected to sewage systems, septic tanks or pit latrines, ventilated improved pit latrines and pit latrines with slabs; and composting toilets. Forty three percent of the population of Nigeria are living in households using improved sanitation facilities (Table EN.5). This percentage is 70 in urban areas and 31 percent in rural areas. Residents of the south-east (56 percent) and south-south (54 percent) are the most likely to use improved facilities; the South- west (39 percent), North-west (34 percent) and the North-central (30 percent) rank poorly in use of sanitary means of disposal of excreta. Level of education of the household head as well as the wealth status of the family are important factors as use of improved sanitation facilities increases as the level of education and wealth status appreciate. Pit latrines are the most common sanitation facilities while the flush systems are prevalent in the more urbanized states. 3.10 CONTRACEPTION Current use of contraception was reported by 15 percent of women currently married or in union (Table RH.1); nine percent use modern methods while just 5.5 percent use traditional methods. The most popular method is the use of injectables that are used by 3.4 percent of married women in Nigeria; the pill, periodic abstinence, condom, lactational amenorrhea method (LAM) and withdrawal, respectively attracted 2.5, 2.0, 1.6, 1.4 and 1.3 percent of the women. Other methods were hardly used. Contraceptive prevalence is highest (33 percent) among women in the richest quintile of the population and lowest (three percent) among women in the poorest quintile. Age and level of education of the women, parity, and residence are important factors. Twenty-seven and ten percent of urban and rural women, respectively practise any contraception. Adolescents are far less likely to use contraceptive methods than the older women. Thus, while only about four percent of married or in union women aged 15-19 use a method of contraception; almost 20 percent of women aged 35-39 years practice contraception although the figure declines slightly to 16 percent among the older women. About two percent of women with no children used contraceptive methods; the figure rises to 18 percent among women with three or more children. In the North, contraceptive use is rare particularly in the north-western states where less than five percent of the women use them. The South is significantly more disposed to contraceptive use particularly in the south-western states where 32 percent of the women are users. Women’s education level is strongly associated with contraceptive prevalence. The percentage of women using any method of contraception rises from five percent among those with no education to 20 percent among women with primary education, and to 30 percent among women with secondary or higher education. 3.11 ASSISTANCE AT DELIVERY The provision of delivery assistance by skilled attendants can greatly improve outcomes for mothers and infants by the use of technically appropriate procedures, and accurate and speedy diagnosis and treatment of complications. Skilled assistance at delivery is defined as assistance provided by a doctor, nurse, midwife or auxiliary midwife. About 44 percent of births occurring in the year prior to the MICS survey were delivered by skilled personnel (Table RH.5). The percentage is highest in the South East zone at 85 percent and lowest in the North West at 12 percent. The more educated a woman is, the more likely she is to have delivered with the assistance of a skilled person. Fifteen percent of women with no education delivered with the assistance of skilled personnel, the figure rising to 50 percent among the primary school educated and to almost 77 percent among the secondary or higher school educated. Family wealth, residence and age of women remain relevant. The figure rises from 12 percent in the poorest families to about Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 15 85 percent among the richest quintile of the population; and from 32 percent in the rural to 73 percent in the urban areas. Some 29 percent of deliveries by women aged 15-19 years are assisted professionally compared to around 50 percent for women aged 25-34 and less than 40 percent among women in the last ten years of their reproductive age. Almost one in three (31 percent) of the births in the year prior to the MICS survey were delivered with assistance by a nurse/midwife. Doctors assisted with the delivery of 12 percent of births and auxiliary nurses assisted with two percent. Also 20 percent of birth deliveries were by traditional birth attendants (TBA) and about two percent by community health workers. There is a large disparity in assisted deliveries over states but the midwife is the most available delivery assistance in most of the states and the TBA displaces the midwife as the most popular assistance in the other states. 3.12 P RIMARY SCHOOL ATTENDANCE Universal access to basic education and the achievement of primary education by the world’s children is one of the most important goals of the Millennium Development Goals and A World Fit for Children. Education is a vital prerequisite for combating poverty, empowering women, protecting children from hazardous and exploitative labour and sexual exploitation, promoting human rights and democracy, protecting the environment, and influencing population growth. In Nigeria, the proportion of children of primary school entry age (age 6) attending grade 1 is generally low; at 44 percent overall (Table ED.2). Gender differentials are minimal; however, significant differentials are observed across geopolitical zones and states and urban-rural areas. North-South disparity is very strong; the North east and North west zones have 23 and 30 percent of children of primary school entry age in grade 1. The southern zones recorded relatively high figures ranging between 72 and 76 percent. Children’s participation in primary school is timelier in urban areas (59 percent) than in rural areas (39 percent). A positive association with mother’s education and socioeconomic status is observed; for mothers who have at least secondary school education, 69 percent children age 6 whose were attending the first grade; this is against 30 percent of children of primary school age by mothers with no education. In rich households, the proportion is around 69 percent, while it is 20 percent among children living in the poorest households. Overall, 64 percent of children of primary school age in Nigeria are attending primary school or secondary school (Table ED.3); the figures are 58 percent and 81 percent in the rural and urban areas, respectively. The primary school net attendance ratio is high in the south being over 90 percent, high in the North central (84 percent) and low in the other northern zones. As would be expected, the ratio increases as level of education of the mother increases and as wealth status of the household improves. Forty-six percent of children of primary school age whose mothers are not educated are attending; the figure rises to about 91 percent where the mothers have primary education and to 96 percent where the mothers have secondary or more education. At national level male primary school attendance rate, 66 percent surpasses the female rate of 62 percent. The net primary school completion rate and transition rate to secondary education are presented in Table ED.6. At the time of the survey, only 36 percent of the children of primary completion age (11 years) were attending the last grade of primary education. This value should be distinguished from the gross primary completion ratio which includes children of any age attending the last grade of primary education. Some gender differential exists; the indicator is higher for male children (38 percent versus 34 percent for females). There is a trend for the indicator to increase from 18-21 percent in the North to 41 percent in North central to 62 percent in the South South geopolitical zones. Net primary school completion rate is positively associated with education of the mother and wealth of the household. It increases from 13 percent in the poorest to 64 percent in the richest households and from 23 percent of children of mothers with no education to 66 percent of those of mothers with at least secondary education. Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 16 Gender parity that expresses the primary and secondary net attendance rates of girls as percentage of corresponding rates for boys is shown in Table ED.7. Gender parity for primary school is 0.94. The figure is 0.99 for the southern states. The disadvantage of girls is particularly pronounced in the Northern states, particularly the North West; girls living in poor households did not fare well as those in other quintiles. One of the World Fit for Children goals is to assure adult literacy. Adult literacy is also an MDG indicator, relating to both men and women. In Nigeria’s MICS 2007 the indicator was part of the women’s questionnaire only and the results are based only on females age 15-49. Literacy was assessed on the ability of women to read a short simple statement or on school attendance. The percent literate is presented in Table ED.8. The table shows that in Nigeria, female youth literacy rate is 56 percent, i.e. only 11 out of every 20 women aged 15 – 24 years are literate. The rate increases from 45 percent in the rural sector to 77 percent in the urban. It also increases from the North to the South, from 21 percent in the North-west to 56 percent in the North-central and to over 80 percent in any of the southern geopolitical zones. But it is negatively associated with the age of the young woman. Women aged 15 – 19 are more literate (62 percent) than women aged 20-24 years (51 percent). It is less than one percent for women with no education, 14 percent for women with primary education and 100 percent where the women have at least secondary education. Young women in the poorest households are also only 14 percent literate as against 54 percent of them in middle wealth quintile and 89 percent of the young women in the richest households. 3.13 BIRTH REGISTRATION The International Convention on the Rights of the Child states that every child has the right to a name and a nationality and the right to protection from being deprived of his or her identity. Birth registration is a fundamental means of securing these rights for children. The births of 23 percent of children less than five years of age in Nigeria have been registered (Table CP.1). There are variations in birth registration across sex, age of child, education of mother, socio- economic status of the household, residence, and states. A female birth has a slightly lower chance of being registered than the male’s (22.5 percent versus 24 percent). The chance also increases with age of the child, level of education of the mother and wealth quintile of the household. It increases slowly from 20 percent among under-one children to 26 percent among children aged 48–59 months; markedly from 13 percent for children of uneducated mothers to 43 percent for those of secondary or higher school educated mothers; and from nine percent for the poorest quintile of the population to 51 percent among the richest quintile. Percent birth registration of under-five children is only 15 percent in the rural against 43 percent in the urban areas, the huge difference being primarily due to the more pronounced poverty and low education in the rural areas and to a relatively large presence of mothers who do not know if their child’s birth was registered. Variations between states are very large ranging from as low as 5-8 percent in some northern states to 59 percent in Lagos. Cost, travel distance, and lack of knowledge do not appear to be real reasons for differences in prevalence of birth registration as no serious correlation could be established between these factors and prevalence of birth registration. 3.14 EARLY MARRIAGE Child marriage is a violation of human rights, compromising the development of girls and often resulting in early pregnancy and social isolation, with little education and poor vocational training reinforcing the gendered poverty. Women married at younger ages are more likely to drop out of school and experience higher levels of fertility, domestic violence, and maternal mortality. Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 17 The percentage of women married at various ages is provided in Table CP.5. Over 15 percent of the women of reproductive age (15-49 years of age) in Nigeria married before age 15 and 40 percent of the women aged 20-49 married before age 18. Early marriage is related to residence, education of the mother, wealth status of family, zones and states. Marriage before age 15 among women of reproductive age is more pronounced in the rural areas (19 percent) than in the urban areas (8 percent). It is more prevalent among daughters of women with non formal education (39 percent) than those with no education (26 percent) while daughters of women with secondary education or higher is 4 percent. Early marriage is a problem of the poor where 25 percent of girls in the poorest quintile are married early compared to just 5 percent of the richest quintile. It increases northwards from 5 percent in the south-west or 6 percent in the south-east to 11 percent in north central and to 33 percent in the most northern north-west. Prevalence of marriage before 18 among women of reproductive age follows almost identical differential pattern across wealth status, zones, education and age of women; but the figures are relatively higher declining from 72 percent in the north-central to 17 percent in the North-east and south-east respectively, decreasing from 41 percent in the rural to 35 percent in the urban areas, from 58 percent among women with no education to 16 percent among women with secondary education or higher. For women with non formal education, the figure is as high as 76 percent. The figure also decreases from 57 percent among the poorest quintile to 18 percent among women in the richest quintile of the population. 3.15 KNOWLEDGE OF HIV/AIDS TRANSMISSION AND CONDOM USE One of the most important prerequisites for reducing the rate of HIV infection is accurate knowledge of how HIV is transmitted and strategies for preventing transmission. Correct information is the first step toward raising awareness and giving young people the tools to protect them from infection. Misconceptions about HIV are common and can confuse young people and hinder prevention efforts. More than three out of every 4 interviewed women (77 percent) have heard of AIDS (Table HA.1). However, the percentage of women who know of all three main ways of preventing HIV transmission is just over 1 in 4 (27 percent). Forty-six percent of women know of having one faithful uninfected sex partner, 2 in 3 women (63 percent) know of using a condom every time, and 44 percent know of abstaining from sex as main ways of preventing HIV transmission. While 70 percent of women know at least one way, 30 percent do not know any of the three ways. Wealth status, education and residence status are associated with knowledge of prevention of HIV/AIDS. The rich and the educated are respectively better informed and more knowledgeable about HIV/AIDS and methods of its prevention than the poor and the uneducated. About 19 out of every 20 women with at least secondary education or in the richest quintile have heard of HIV/AIDS or know at least one way of its prevention; the figure reduces to less than 60 percent for women with no education or in the poorest quintile. Also about 40 percent of women with secondary education or higher or of women in the richest socio-economic class know all three ways of HIV/AIDS prevention as against 15 percent of the women in the lowest echelon. This pattern of relative differentials runs through data on knowledge of each of the three methods. Age of women is not important. Table HA.3 presents the percentage of women 15-49 years who know two ways of preventing transmission of HIV. Knowledge of HIV prevention methods among women in Nigeria is low, fewer women identify misconceptions about HIV transmission and fewer have comprehensive knowledge (identify two prevention methods and three misconceptions). Such knowledge is highly associated with residence, education, age, wealth status and states or geopolitical zones. Overall, fewer than 40 percent of women report knowing two prevention methods; 30 percent claim ability to identify misconceptions while only 18 percent possess comprehensive knowledge. Just over 34 percent of the rural women and almost 50 percent of their urban counterparts know two HIV prevention methods; the knowledge increases as level of education or family wealth increases, from 24 percent for women with no education to 54 percent for women with secondary school or higher education; and from 21 percent of women in the poorest quintile to about 55 percent of women in the richest quintile. But the knowledge increases from the North to the South, for instance 29 percent in the North East to 51 percent in the South South and from the young to the old, e.g. 40-44 percent of the 15-29 year old to Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 18 34-36 percent among the 40-49 year old. Ability of women to identify misconceptions about HIV transmissions and possession of comprehensive knowledge about transmission follows the same trend across regimes of residence, wealth quintile, age, education, and geopolitical divisions. A key indicator used to measure countries’ responses to the HIV epidemic is the proportion of young people 15-24 years who know two methods of preventing HIV, who reject two misconceptions and who know that a healthy looking person can have HIV. About 19 percent of young women in Nigeria have such comprehensive correct knowledge of HIV; 42 percent claim knowledge of two prevention methods and 30 percent can identify misconceptions. Promoting safer sexual behaviour is critical for reducing HIV prevalence. The use of condoms during sex, especially with non-regular partners is especially important for reducing the spread of HIV. Over half of new HIV infections are among young people 15-24 years thus a change in behaviour among this age group will be especially important to reduce new infections. Condom use during sex with men other than husbands or live-in partners (non-marital, non-cohabiting) was assessed in women 15-24 years of age who had sex with such a partner in the previous year (Table HA.9). Of the women 15-24 years old, 39.4 percent report having high risk sex i.e. sex with a non-regular partner in the 12 months prior to the MICS and 39.2 percent of the women used a condom in their last such act. Urbanization, education and family wealth respectively promote the practice of high risk sex among young women; it increases from 34 percent in the rural areas to 55 percent in the urban, from 14 percent among the young with no education to over 68 percent among the secondary or higher school educated and from 20 percent among young women in the poorest quintile to over 61 percent among the richest quintile. Prevalence of high risk sex among the young women also varies with state/geopolitical zone. The North West reported a figure of five percent against 32, 44, 51, 73 and 73 percent respectively for the North Central, North East, South West, South East and South South respectively. The use of condom during high risk sex is also associated with residence, education and wealth status. Seven percent of women with no education used condom during their last higher risk sex, the figure rises to 47 percent among those with secondary education or higher. The figure also increases from 14 percent among the young in the poorest quintile to 59 percent among those in the richest quintile. (see Table HA 9) 3.16 ORPHANS AND VULNERABLE CHILDREN SCHOOL ATTENDANCE As the HIV epidemic progresses more and more, children are becoming orphaned and vulnerable due to HIV and AIDS. Children who are orphaned or living away from their parents may be at increased risk of neglect or exploitation if the parents are not available to assist them. Monitoring the variations in educational outcomes for children who have lost both parents (double orphans) versus children whose parents are alive (and who live with at least one of these parents) is one way to ensure that children’s rights are being met even after their parents have died or are no longer able to care for them. In Nigeria, 1 percent of children aged 10-14 have lost both parents (Table HA.12); only 61 percent of these double orphans are currently attending school. But among 84 percent of children ages 10-14 have both parents and are living with at least one such parent; 66 percent of the number are attending school. This suggests that the double orphans are disadvantaged in matters of primary school attendance. N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 19 Ta bl e C H. 1: V ac cin at io ns in fi rs t y ea r o f l ife Pe rce nta ge of ch ild re n a ge d 1 2- 23 m on ths im mu niz ed ag ain st ch ild ho od di se as es at an y t im e be for e t he su rve y a nd be for e t he fir st bir thd ay , N ige ria , 2 00 7 Pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n wh o re ce ive d: Va cc in at ed at an y t im e b ef or e th e s ur ve y BC G* DP T1 DP T2 DP T3 ** Po lio 0 Po lio 1 Po lio 2 Po lio 3 *** Me as les *** * Al l *** ** No ne Nu m be r o f ch ild re n ag ed 12 -2 3 m on th s Ac co rd in g to : Va cc ina tio n c ar d 16 .9 17 .0 15 .5 14 .1 14 .8 15 .6 14 .4 12 .9 13 .9 11 .5 0.0 3,1 87 M oth er ’s re po rt 34 .6 31 .6 25 .3 15 .6 22 .7 39 .9 31 .4 16 .5 30 .1 5.0 38 .0 3,1 87 E ith er 51 .5 48 .6 40 .8 29 .6 37 .5 55 .6 45 .9 29 .4 44 .0 16 .4 38 .0 3,1 87 Va cc ina ted by 12 mo nth s o f a ge 50 .5 46 .4 39 .0 28 .1 37 .0 52 .5 43 .4 27 .5 38 .3 10 .9 38 .0 3,1 87 * M IC S in di ca to r 2 5 ** MI CS in di ca to r 2 7 *** M IC S in di ca to r 2 6 *** * M IC S in di ca to r 2 8; M DG in di ca to r 1 5 *** ** MI CS in di ca to r 3 1 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 20 Table CH.7: Antibiotic treatment of pneumonia Percentage of children aged 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotic treatment, Nigeria, 2007 Percentage of children aged 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia who received antibiotics in the last two weeks* Number of children aged 0-59 months with suspected pneumonia in the two weeks prior to the survey Sex Male 47.3 173 Female 45.4 154 Geopolitical zones North central 40.2 62 North east 37.9 79 North west 52.4 77 South east ** (16) South south 47.6 68 South west ** (23) Area: Sector Rural 40.6 225 Urban 59.2 101 Age 0-11 months 55.7 63 12-23 months 35.1 62 24-35 months 33.6 64 36-47 months 58.5 82 48-59 months 45.2 56 Mother’s education None 35.2 134 Primary 53.0 91 Secondary + 54.8 96 Non-standard curriculum ** (5) Wealth index quintiles Poorest 29.4 60 Second 35.7 64 Middle 42.3 67 Fourth 51.7 60 Richest 67.8 77 Total 46.4 327 * MICS indicator 22 ** Observation is less than 25 N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 21 Ta bl e C H. 8: S ol id fu el us e Pe rce nt dis trib uti on of ho us eh old s a cc or din g t o t yp e o f c oo kin g f ue l, a nd pe rce nta ge of ho us eh old s u sin g s oli d f ue ls for co ok ing , N ige ria , 2 00 7 El ec tric ity Liq uif ied Pe tro leu m Ga s (L PG ) Na tur al Ga s Bi og as Ke ro se ne Co al, lig nit e Ch ar co al W oo d St ra w, sh ru bs , g ra ss An im al du ng Ag ric ult ur al cro p r es idu e Ot he r so ur ce To tal So lid fu els for co ok ing * Nu mb er of ho us eh old s Ge op ol iti ca l z on es No rth ce ntr al 0.7 0.0 0.2 0.0 11 .2 0.2 3.8 82 .5 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.7 10 0.0 87 .1 3,1 04 No rth ea st 0.1 1.1 0.6 0.7 32 .8 0.2 0.9 59 .5 0.3 1.6 0.2 2.0 10 0.0 62 .7 6,3 91 No rth w es t 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 6.0 0.0 0.6 83 .4 5.2 0.4 3.5 0.7 10 0.0 93 .1 5,7 28 So uth ea st 0.0 0.2 0.1 0.0 19 .0 0.1 0.3 79 .8 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.3 10 0.0 80 .3 2,6 11 So uth so uth 0.3 1.0 0.4 0.1 30 .0 0.1 0.5 67 .4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 10 0.0 67 .9 4,1 00 So uth w es t 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 34 .0 0.1 7.2 57 .7 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 10 0.0 65 .1 4,8 01 Ar ea : S ec to r Ru ra l 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 7.3 0.0 0.7 87 .2 1.8 0.7 1.2 0.8 10 0.0 91 .7 17 ,88 2 Ur ba n 0.7 1.2 0.7 0.5 54 .6 0.2 5.2 35 .8 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.9 10 0.0 41 .4 8,8 53 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d No ne 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 6.3 0.0 1.2 86 .8 2.1 0.9 1.4 1.0 10 0.0 92 .6 11 ,93 9 Pr im ar y 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 21 .7 0.1 2.6 74 .2 0.4 0.1 0.3 0.4 10 0.0 77 .6 5,4 07 Se co nd ar y + 0.7 1.2 0.7 0.5 47 .9 0.2 3.3 44 .5 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.7 10 0.0 48 .4 8,6 82 No n- sta nd ar d cu rri cu lum 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.2 5.8 0.0 1.3 75 .7 6.9 3.1 2.4 3.8 10 0.0 89 .4 66 9 W ea lth in de x q ui nt ile s Po or es t 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 91 .2 3.3 1.9 2.5 0.9 10 0.0 99 .1 5,2 30 Se co nd 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.0 0.6 92 .0 2.6 0.5 1.5 1.2 10 0.0 97 .3 5,0 15 Mi dd le 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 0.0 1.7 91 .5 0.5 0.0 0.1 1.1 10 0.0 93 .9 5,2 68 Fo ur th 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 32 .2 0.2 4.7 62 .0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 10 0.0 67 .1 5,7 04 Ri ch es t 1.0 2.2 1.2 1.0 71 .9 0.2 3.5 18 .5 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.5 10 0.0 22 .2 5,5 18 To ta l 0.3 0.5 0.3 0.2 23 .0 0.1 2.2 70 .2 1.3 0.5 0.8 0.8 10 0.0 75 .0 26 ,73 5 * M IC S in di ca to r 2 4; M DG In di ca to r 2 9 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 22 Table CH.11: Children sleeping under bed Percentage of children aged 0-59 months that slept under an insecticide treated net during the previous night, Nigeria, 2007 Percentage of children who: Slept under a bednet* Slept under an insecticide treated net** Slept under an untreated net Slept under a net but don’t know if treated Don't know if slept under a net Did not sleep under a bednet Number of children aged 0-59 months Sex Male 3.8 3.3 0.4 0.1 0.8 95.4 8,396 Female 4.5 3.7 0.5 0.3 0.8 94.7 8,153 Geopolitical zones North central 3.8 2.6 1.0 0.2 0.9 95.2 2,041 North east 3.4 3.0 0.3 0.1 1.0 95.6 4,070 North west 2.5 1.8 0.6 0.1 0.3 97.3 4,668 South east 6.8 5.4 0.7 0.7 1.2 92.0 1,292 South south 8.5 7.9 0.3 0.3 0.5 91.0 2,263 South west 3.3 3.1 0.0 0.2 1.7 95.0 2,215 Area: Sector Rural 3.3 2.6 0.4 0.2 0.8 95.9 11,550 Urban 6.2 5.5 0.5 0.2 0.8 93.0 4,999 Age 0-11 months 5.7 5.2 0.4 0.2 0.8 93.5 3,374 12-23 months 4.7 3.7 0.8 0.2 0.8 94.6 3,187 24-35 months 3.4 2.8 0.4 0.3 0.7 95.9 3,427 36-47 months 3.9 3.2 0.5 0.2 0.8 95.3 3,727 48-59 months 3.0 2.6 0.3 0.2 1.1 95.9 2,833 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 1.1 0.7 0.3 0.0 1.0 97.9 3,214 Second 2.2 1.5 0.6 0.1 0.6 97.2 3,389 Middle 3.6 2.8 0.4 0.3 1.0 95.4 3,293 Fourth 5.3 4.8 0.3 0.2 0.8 93.8 3,339 Richest 8.5 7.6 0.6 0.3 0.7 90.8 3,315 Total 4.1 3.5 0.5 0.2 0.8 95.0 16,549 * MICS indicator 38 ** MICS indicator 37; MDG indicator 22 N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 23 Ta bl e C H. 12 : T re at m en t o f c hi ld re n wi th an ti- m ala ria l d ru gs Pe rce nta ge of ch ild re n a ge d 0 -5 9 m on ths w ho w er e i ll w ith fe ve r in th e l as t tw o w ee ks w ho re ce ive d a nti -m ala ria l d ru gs , N ige ria , 2 00 7 Ch ild re n wi th a fe ve r i n th e l as t t wo w ee ks w ho w er e t re at ed w ith : An ti- m ala ria s: Ot he r m ed ica tio ns : Had a fever in last two weeks Number of children SP/ Fansidar Chloroqui ne Amodia- quine Quinine Artemisini n based combin- ations Other anti- malarial Any appropria te anti- malarial drug Paraceta mol/ Panadol/ Acetamin -ophen Aspirin Ibuprofen Ot he r Don't know Any appropria te anti- malarial drug within 24 hours of onset of Number of children with fever in last two Se x Ma le 13 .0 8,3 96 6.5 36 .8 1.9 4.9 2.6 9.6 53 .1 54 .5 2.5 0.3 16 .6 5.8 37 .2 1,0 89 Fe ma le 12 .3 8,1 53 6.9 35 .7 2.0 4.8 2.1 7.5 50 .7 58 .0 2.6 0.1 16 .9 4.7 34 .5 1,0 01 Ge op ol iti ca l z on es No rth ce ntr al 10 .3 2,0 41 10 .8 45 .2 6.7 7.6 3.2 6.2 63 .7 48 .7 2.5 0.3 13 .0 7.2 44 .6 20 9 No rth ea st 9.7 4,0 70 1.4 30 .1 0.0 4.1 0.5 9.4 41 .5 46 .9 1.0 0.5 20 .9 4.4 29 .4 39 6 No rth w es t 12 .2 4,6 68 12 .6 42 .5 2.5 2.1 2.0 5.9 55 .3 53 .6 4.1 0.2 10 .1 3.1 39 .5 57 1 So uth ea st 18 .5 1,2 92 4.0 27 .5 2.0 5.5 1.7 12 .9 48 .6 58 .3 1.8 0.0 14 .2 8.9 30 .6 24 0 So uth so uth 20 .3 2,2 63 5.3 33 .9 1.2 6.2 3.6 7.2 50 .4 65 .9 3.0 0.1 18 .5 6.9 33 .0 46 0 So uth w es t 9.7 2,2 15 2.7 37 .0 1.0 7.3 4.2 14 .5 58 .0 64 .4 1.2 0.2 29 .2 3.4 42 .5 21 5 Ar ea : S ec to r Ru ra l 13 .1 11 ,55 0 5.6 34 .6 1.8 4.0 2.0 6.7 47 .8 53 .1 2.3 0.3 16 .3 5.8 30 .5 1,5 17 Ur ba n 11 .5 4,9 99 9.5 40 .7 2.2 7.2 3.4 13 .5 62 .9 64 .4 3.3 0.1 17 .9 4.0 50 .4 57 3 Ag e 0- 11 m on ths 10 .9 3,3 74 8.5 35 .8 2.1 2.6 4.2 8.3 52 .3 55 .3 2.5 0.1 17 .2 4.6 36 .1 36 9 12 -2 3 m on ths 15 .0 3,1 87 8.3 37 .9 1.6 6.0 3.0 6.6 53 .1 55 .5 3.7 0.1 20 .5 6.4 34 .6 47 6 24 -3 5 m on ths 13 .1 3,4 27 6.8 36 .5 1.0 6.4 1.0 9.3 52 .6 57 .4 2.4 0.2 16 .3 4.8 38 .5 44 8 36 -4 7 m on ths 12 .0 3,7 27 5.2 35 .2 2.1 4.6 2.0 10 .3 51 .5 56 .6 2.0 0.3 15 .1 6.3 37 .0 44 8 48 -5 9 m on ths 12 .3 2,8 33 4.3 35 .7 3.3 4.0 1.8 8.3 49 .8 56 .2 1.8 0.5 13 .8 3.8 33 .0 34 8 Mo th er ’s ed uc at io n No ne 10 .9 7,7 26 7.0 35 .9 1.7 2.8 1.2 4.5 45 .6 46 .6 2.5 0.4 14 .9 4.6 26 .9 84 6 Pr im ar y 15 .0 3,8 34 4.5 36 .6 1.8 5.5 2.4 8.1 51 .5 62 .3 2.9 0.0 16 .6 6.2 36 .4 57 7 Se co nd ar y + 13 .5 4,6 96 7.5 36 .1 2.6 7.4 4.0 14 .6 61 .0 63 .3 2.5 0.1 19 .8 5.4 47 .6 63 2 No n- sta nd ar d cu rri cu lum 12 .3 29 1 18 .5 43 .2 0.0 0.0 0.0 5.0 51 .0 61 .4 0.0 0.0 4.5 6.0 36 .8 36 M is si ng /D K ** 3 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 1 W ea lth in de x q ui nt ile s Po or es t 10 .7 3,2 14 4.7 25 .4 1.4 3.8 0.6 3.9 34 .6 33 .7 1.4 0.6 14 .2 7.0 17 .9 34 3 Se co nd 13 .1 3,3 89 5.6 34 .1 1.9 2.0 1.7 4.8 46 .0 53 .1 3.5 0.3 15 .9 4.4 28 .2 44 5 Mi dd le 13 .4 3,2 93 4.7 39 .5 1.9 1.9 2.0 7.3 50 .8 61 .1 1.8 0.1 17 .1 5.8 35 .6 44 1 Fo ur th 14 .2 3,3 39 8.4 38 .9 2.2 7.8 2.7 9.3 57 .1 63 .0 2.9 0.0 15 .2 6.0 40 .0 47 6 Ri ch es t 11 .6 3,3 15 9.8 41 .5 2.2 8.7 4.8 17 .6 69 .3 66 .0 2.9 0.1 21 .5 3.4 56 .3 38 6 To ta l 12 .6 16 ,54 9 6.7 36 .3 1.9 4.8 2.4 8.6 52 .0 56 .2 2.5 0.2 16 .7 5.3 35 .9 2,0 91 * M IC S in di ca to r 3 9; M DG in di ca to r 2 2 ** U nw eig ht ed O bs er va tio n les s t ha n 25 ca se s N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 24 Ta bl e R H. 5: A ss ist an ce d ur in g de liv er y Pe rc en t d ist rib ut io n of w om en ag ed 15 -4 9 w ith a bi rth in tw o ye ar s p re ce di ng th e s ur ve y b y t yp e o f p er so nn el as sis tin g at d eli ve ry , N ig er ia, 20 07 Pe rso n a ss ist ing at de liv er y Me dic al do cto r Nu rse / mi dw ife Au xil iar y mi dw ife Tr ad itio na l bir th att en da nt Co mm un ity he alt h wo rke rs Re lat ive / frie nd s Ot he r No att en da nt To tal An y s kil led pe rso nn el * De liv er ed in he alt h fac ilit y * * Nu mb er of w om en wh o g av e b irth in pr ec ed ing tw o y ea rs Ge op ol iti ca l z on es No rth ce ntr al 11 .8 32 .9 1.1 9.1 1.7 35 .4 2.0 5.9 10 0.0 45 .9 41 .9 83 4 No rth ea st 23 .9 22 .8 1.0 17 .4 1. 26 .2 1.4 6.0 10 0.0 47 .7 44 .5 1,1 94 No rth w es t 0.9 10 .4 0.4 30 .6 1.6 32 .2 1.4 22 .6 10 0.0 11 .7 9.1 1,9 50 So uth ea st 17 .3 61 .9 6.1 6.8 0.3 3.9 0.9 2.4 10 0.0 85 .2 74 .9 55 7 So uth so uth 9.8 38 .8 2.3 34 .5 1.7 6.9 2.1 3.7 10 0.0 51 .0 51 .3 95 2 So uth w es t 17 .9 54 .2 3.4 4.8 1.7 1.7 7.5 6.1 4.2 10 0.0 75 .6 68 .2 94 0 Se ct or Ru ra l 5.7 23 .9 1.9 25 .5 1.9 26 .9 1.7 12 .4 10 0.0 31 .5 29 .1 4,4 45 Ur ba n 25 .6 45 .9 1.7 8.0 0.6 9.9 3.5 5.0 10 0.0 73 .2 66 .2 1,9 82 Ag e 15 -1 9 8.1 19 .5 1.5 32 .1 0.6 29 .9 1.2 7.2 10 0.0 29 .1 27 .9 46 3 20 -2 4 6.2 30 .5 2.1 23 .8 2.1 25 .2 1.6 8.5 10 0.0 38 .7 34 .2 1,2 47 25 -2 9 14 .2 33 .6 1.5 18 .9 1.5 19 .4 2.4 8.4 10 0.0 49 .3 45 .9 1,9 40 30 -3 4 15 .2 32 .9 2.4 16 .2 1.1 18 .5 2.2 11 .4 10 0.0 50 .5 46 .0 1,4 68 35 -3 9 11 .9 30 .7 1.8 19 .2 2.0 20 .7 2.7 10 .9 10 0.0 44 .4 40 .2 81 7 40 -4 4 10 .4 22 .2 0.9 18 .1 1.7 25 .5 2.7 18 .4 10 0.0 33 .5 29 .8 36 0 45 -4 9 8.6 28 .1 1.6 14 .9 0.0 24 .9 4.5 17 .4 10 0.0 38 .3 35 .6 13 2 Ed uc at io n No ne 2.8 12 .1 0.5 27 .0 1.7 35 .5 1.6 18 .8 10 0.0 15 .4 13 .4 2,6 04 Pr im ar y 10 .5 36 .4 3.2 21 .2 1.9 18 .5 3.0 5.3 10 0.0 50 .2 47 .0 1,5 88 Se co nd ar y + 24 .3 50 .4 2.3 10 .2 1.1 6.9 2.4 2.7 10 0.0 76 .9 70 .5 2,1 30 No n- sta nd ar d cu rri cu lum 2.3 7.7 4.3 35 .4 0.0 29 .8 3.0 17 .4 10 0.0 14 .3 6.3 10 4 Mi ss ing /D K *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** *** 1 W ea lth in de x q ui nt ile s Po or es t 1.9 8.7 1.0 31 .0 1.3 36 .8 1.5 17 .7 10 0.0 11 .7 9.9 1,0 99 Se co nd 3.5 16 .5 1.4 27 .6 2.0 33 .8 1.2 14 .0 10 0.0 21 .4 19 .5 1,3 01 Mi dd le 5.5 26 .1 2.3 22 .6 3.1 25 .1 2.7 12 .6 10 0.0 33 .8 31 .2 1,2 87 Fo ur th 11 .8 46 .4 3.0 15 .0 0.6 13 .1 3.6 6.5 10 0.0 61 .2 55 .4 1,3 53 Ri ch es t 33 .2 50 .4 1.3 7.2 0.6 3.7 2.0 1.5 10 0.0 85 .0 78 .6 1,3 87 To ta l 11 .8 30 .7 1.8 20 .1 1.5 2.1 .7 2.2 10 .1 10 0.0 44 .3 40 .5 6,4 27 * M IC S in di ca to r 4 ; M DG in di ca to r 1 7 ** MI CS in di ca to r 5 * ** Un we ig ht ed O bs er va tio n les s t ha n 25 ca se s Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 25 Table ED.7: Education gender parity Ratio of girls to boys attending primary education and ratio of girls to boys attending secondary education, Nigeria, 2007 Primary school net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Primary school net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for primary school NAR* Secondary school net attendance ratio (NAR), girls Secondary school net attendance ratio (NAR), boys Gender parity index (GPI) for secondary school NAR* Area: Sector Rural 53.7 58.6 0.92 41.7 44.6 0.94 Urban 77.5 79.7 0.97 67.2 66.5 1.01 Geopolitical zones North central 80.4 81.8 0.98 55.5 61.4 0.90 North east 30.4 31.6 0.96 30.7 28.6 1.08 North west 41.8 51.5 0.81 23.8 35.2 0.68 South east 91.1 91.7 0.99 70.2 68.8 1.02 South south 92.2 92.8 0.99 73.3 71.2 1.03 South west 92.2 93.4 0.99 74.0 75.6 0.98 Mother's education None 41.0 47.0 0.87 35.4 33.2 1.07 Primary 86.1 87.5 0.98 64.0 64.3 1.00 Secondary + 92.4 92.5 1.00 78.9 77.7 1.02 Non-standard curriculum 42.3 39.5 1.07 23.3 34.7 0.67 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 27.4 34.7 0.79 14.1 19.8 0.71 Second 46.4 51.4 0.90 28.2 35.1 0.80 Middle 65.5 71.1 0.92 50.8 51.7 0.98 Fourth 84.0 86.0 0.98 67.2 69.7 0.96 Richest 89.2 90.1 0.99 78.4 79.6 0.99 Total 60.0 64.1 0.94 50.0 51.2 0.98 * MICS indicator 61; MDG indicator 9 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 26 Table CP.5: Early marriage Percentage of women aged 15-49 years in marriage or union before their 15th, percentage of women aged 20-49 years in marriage or in union before their 18th birthday and percentage of women aged 15-19 years currently married or in union, Nigeria, 2007 Percentage married before age 15* Number of women aged 15- 49 years Percentage married before age 18* Number of women aged 20- 49 years Percentage of women 15-19 married/in union** Number of women aged 15- 19 years Number of women aged 15-49 years currently married/in union Geopolitical Zone North central 11.2 3,069 72.1 2,575 18.6 494 2,229 North east 14.3 6,341 16.8 5,365 34.2 976 4,534 North west 33.3 5,571 30.0 4,731 57.8 840 5,031 South east 5.8 2,411 17.4 1,884 3.9 526 1,145 South south 8.6 3,777 47.7 2,996 8.4 781 2,092 South west 5.4 3,396 23.0 2,799 6.1 598 2,216 Sector of Residence Rural 18.9 16,320 41.0 13,477 31.8 2,844 12,126 Urban 8.1 8,245 35.2 6,873 9.4 1,372 5,121 Age of Women 15-19 7.3 4,215 . n.a 24.5 4,215 1,034 20-24 14.8 4,303 34.3 4,303 n.a n.a 2,397 25-29 17.0 4,972 39.0 4,972 n.a n.a 4,008 30-34 17.9 3,988 42.2 3,988 n.a n.a 3,557 35-39 17.5 3,150 41.6 3,150 n.a n.a 2,850 40-44 18.4 2,270 43.9 2,270 n.a n.a 1,998 45-49 16.7 1,666 38.7 1,666 n.a n.a 1,404 Education of the Women None 26.4 9,843 58.3 8,762 68.4 1,081 8,643 Primary 13.5 4,603 39.0 3,979 21.1 624 3,563 Secondary + 4.0 9,761 15.7 7,291 5.6 2,470 4,712 Non-standard curriculum 39.3 352 75.6 314 64.5 38 326 Missing/DK *** (6) *** (4) *** (3) (2) Wealth Index Quintiles Poorest 25.1 4,443 56.6 3,826 55.6 618 3,694 Second 22.3 4,569 54.7 3,838 39.6 730 3,656 Middle 17.2 4,617 45.5 3,710 24.6 906 3,123 Fourth 10.1 5,113 29.8 4,136 11.8 977 3,217 Richest 5.3 5,824 17.8 4,839 6.4 984 3,558 Total 15.3 24,565 39.5 20,350 24.5 4,215 17,247 * MICS indicator 67 ** MICS indicator 68 na: not applicable *** Unweighted Observation less than 25 cases Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 27 Table HA.3: Comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who have comprehensive knowledge of HIV/AIDS transmission, Nigeria, 2007 Know 2 ways to prevent HIV transmission Correctly identify 3 misconceptions about HIV transmission Have comprehensive knowledge (identify 2 prevention methods and 3 misconceptions)* Number of women Geopolitical Zones North central 37.8 24.4 14.3 3,069 North east 29.3 26.0 14.4 6,341 North west 37.8 33.1 20.8 5,571 South east 43.9 39.6 22.8 2,411 South south 51.4 29.6 20.2 3,777 South west 46.4 29.9 19.6 3,396 Sector of residence Rural 34.4 24.7 15.3 16,320 Urban 49.5 40.1 24.3 8,245 Age 15-19 40.1 30.1 18.3 4,215 20-24 43.7 30.6 20.6 4,303 15-24 41.9 30.4 19.4 8,518 25-29 40.1 31.6 18.7 4,972 30-34 38.2 31.5 19.1 3,988 35-39 39.8 29.5 17.6 3,150 40-44 33.6 24.1 14.1 2,270 45-49 35.9 26.6 16.3 1,666 Education None 23.7 19.7 12.0 9,843 Primary 43.4 27.4 15.9 4,603 Secondary + 53.9 41.4 26.0 9,761 Non-standard curriculum 29.2 23.8 11.7 352 Missing/DK ** ** ** 6 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 21.4 16.7 10.6 4,443 Second 29.3 19.9 12.2 4,569 Middle 40.2 26.2 16.3 4,617 Fourth 46.7 34.0 20.8 5,113 Richest 54.5 47.0 28.4 5,824 Total 39.5 29.9 18.3 24,565 * MICS indicator 82; MDG indicator 19b ** Unweighted Observation less than 25 cases N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 28 Ta bl e H A. 9: C on do m u se at la st h ig h- ris k s ex Pe rc en ta ge o f y ou ng w om en ag ed 15 -2 4 y ea rs w ho h ad h ig h ris k s ex in th e p re vio us ye ar an d wh o us ed a co nd om at la st h ig h ris k s ex , N ig er ia, 20 07 Ev er ha d se x Ha d s ex in the la st 12 mo nth s Ha d s ex w ith mo re th an on e pa rtn er in la st 12 m on ths Nu mb er of wo me n ag ed 15 -2 4 ye ar s Pe rce nt wh o h ad se x wi th no n- ma rita l, n on - co ha bit ing pa rtn er * Nu mb er of w om en ag ed 15 -2 4 y ea rs wh o ha d s ex in la st 12 mo nth s Pe rce nt wh o u se d a co nd om at la st se x w ith a no n- ma rita l, n on - co ha bit ing pa rtn er ** Nu mb er of w om en ag ed 15 -2 4 ye ar s w ho ha d s ex in la st 12 mo nth s w ith a no n- ma rita l, n on - co ha bit ing pa rtn er Ge op ol iti ca l z on es No rth ce ntr al 62 .0 54 .3 2.1 1,0 35 32 .3 56 3 41 .0 18 2 No rth ea st 60 .5 57 .3 1.8 2,0 77 44 .0 1,1 90 34 .2 52 4 No rth w es t 78 .9 77 .2 1.2 1,8 07 4.7 1,3 96 43 .7 66 So uth ea st 37 .9 31 .8 2.0 97 0 73 .1 30 8 48 .2 22 6 So uth so uth 69 .0 63 .6 6.4 1,4 72 72 .7 93 6 36 .0 68 0 So uth w es t 49 .8 41 .8 1.3 1,1 57 50 .7 48 4 47 .5 24 5 Se ct or o f r es id en ce Ru ra l 67 .2 62 .9 2.2 5,6 13 33 .5 3,5 30 30 .8 1,1 84 Ur ba n 52 .1 46 .4 3.0 2,9 05 54 .9 1,3 47 52 .5 73 9 Ag e 15 -1 9 44 .2 40 .6 1.7 4,2 15 48 .6 1,7 13 37 .3 83 2 20 -2 4 79 .5 73 .5 3.2 4,3 03 34 .5 3,1 64 40 .5 1,0 91 Ed uc at io n No ne 78 .8 77 .6 1.0 2,5 85 14 .0 2,0 07 6.9 28 0 Pr im ar y 65 .9 60 .3 2.7 1,2 31 32 .5 74 1 34 .1 24 1 Se co nd ar y + 51 .2 44 .5 3.3 4,5 96 68 .4 2,0 48 46 .5 1,4 00 No n- sta nd ar d cu rri cu lum 79 .9 77 .2 0.0 10 0 0.0 77 - - M is si ng /D K *** *** *** 6 *** 4 *** 2 W ea lth in de x q ui nt ile s Po or es t 73 .9 71 .5 1.6 1,3 17 19 .9 94 2 13 .5 18 7 Se co nd 71 .2 67 .3 1.7 1,5 08 29 .5 1,0 15 19 .7 30 0 Mi dd le 63 .3 58 .2 2.5 1,7 40 36 .7 1,0 13 35 .2 37 2 Fo ur th 57 .7 52 .0 2.5 1,8 80 50 .5 97 7 40 .8 49 4 Ri ch es t 50 .7 44 .8 3.5 2,0 74 61 .4 92 9 59 .0 57 1 To ta l 62 .0 57 .3 2.5 8,5 18 39 .4 4,8 77 39 .2 1,9 23 * M IC S in di ca to r 8 5 ** MI CS in di ca to r 8 3; M DG in di ca to r 1 9a * ** Un we ig ht ed O bs er va tio n les s t ha n 25 ca se s N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 29 Ta bl e H A. 12 : S ch oo l a tte nd an ce o f o rp ha ne d an d vu ln er ab le ch ild re n Sc ho ol att en da nc e o f c hil dr en ag ed 10 -1 4 y ea rs by or ph an ho od an d v uln er ab ilit y d ue to A ID S, N ige ria , 2 00 7 Pe rce nt of ch ild re n wh os e mo the r an d f ath er ha ve di ed Sc ho ol att en da nc e ra te of ch ild re n wh os e mo the r an d f ath er ha ve di ed Pe rce nt of ch ild re n o f wh om bo th pa re nts ar e ali ve an d ch ild is liv ing w ith at lea st on e pa re nt Sc ho ol att en da nc e r ate of ch ild re n o f wh om bo th pa re nts ar e a liv e an d c hil d i s l ivi ng wi th at lea st on e pa re nt Do ub le or ph an s t o no n- or ph an s sc ho ol att en da nc e ra tio * Pe rce nt of ch ild re n wh o a re or ph an ed or vu lne ra ble Sc ho ol att en da nc e of ch ild re n wh o a re or ph an ed or vu lne ra ble Pe rce nt of ch ild re n wh o a re no t or ph an ed or vu lne ra ble Sc ho ol att en da nc e of ch ild re n wh o a re no t or ph an ed or vu lne ra ble OV C vs no n- OV C sc ho ol att en da nc e ra tio To tal nu mb er of ch ild re n ag ed 10 -1 4 ye ar s Se x Ma le 1.0 66 .9 84 .7 68 .6 0.9 7 13 .3 80 .5 86 .7 69 .8 1.1 5 7,9 76 Fe ma le 1.2 56 .4 83 .1 62 .7 0.9 0 13 .1 75 .3 86 .9 64 .3 1.1 7 8,3 15 Ge op ol iti ca l z on es No rth ce ntr al 1.2 76 .3 84 .2 86 .4 0.8 8 14 .0 87 .7 86 .0 86 .3 1.0 2 2,1 89 No rth ea st 0.8 24 .3 89 .6 31 .1 0.7 8 9.2 42 .9 90 .8 33 .0 1.3 0 4,0 02 No rth w es t 0.8 18 .1 94 .1 54 .2 0.3 3 8.3 59 .7 91 .7 53 .2 1.1 2 4,2 63 So uth ea st 2.0 83 .7 67 .7 96 .8 0.8 6 27 .9 91 .3 72 .1 96 .9 0.9 4 1,4 59 So uth so uth 1.4 90 .0 74 .8 96 .0 0.9 4 20 .8 91 .0 79 .2 96 .1 0.9 5 2,1 41 So uth w es t 1.1 90 .9 73 .4 97 .2 0.9 3 12 .1 96 .2 87 .9 97 .5 0.9 9 2,2 38 Ar ea : S ec to r Ru ra l 1.2 62 .7 86 .0 60 .1 1.0 4 12 .8 75 .8 87 .2 60 .9 1.2 4 11 ,64 0 Ur ba n 0.9 56 .2 78 .7 80 .8 0.7 0 14 .2 82 .5 85 .8 82 .4 1.0 0 4,6 51 W ea lth in de x q ui nt ile s Po or es t 1.3 32 .1 90 .5 35 .1 0.9 1 10 .9 49 .2 89 .1 35 .3 1.3 9 3,3 78 Se co nd 0.7 39 .8 88 .3 52 .7 0.7 6 11 .1 68 .8 88 .9 53 .4 1.2 9 3,4 59 Mi dd le 1.5 74 .9 82 .3 70 .8 1.0 6 14 .3 83 .0 85 .7 72 .0 1.1 5 3,3 66 Fo ur th 1.4 77 .9 79 .0 88 .6 0.8 8 16 .3 87 .4 83 .7 89 .3 0.9 8 3,2 45 Ri ch es t 0.5 85 .7 78 .2 92 .4 0.9 3 13 .7 94 .3 86 .3 92 .3 1.0 2 2,8 42 To ta l 1.1 61 .1 83 .9 65 .6 0.9 3 13 .2 77 .9 86 .8 67 .0 1.1 6 16 ,29 1 * M IC S in di ca to r 7 7; M DG in di ca to r 2 0 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 30 Table NU.1: Child malnourishment Percentage of under-five children who are severely or moderately undernourished, Nigeria, 2007 Weight for age: % below -2 SD* Weight for age: % below -3 SD Height for age: % below -2 SD** Height for age: % below -3 SD Weight for height: % below -2 SD*** Weight for height: % below -3 SD Weight for height: % above +2 SD Number of children Sex Male 26.2 8.4 36.0 20.7 11.0 3.1 7.3 5,990 Female 24.3 8.3 32.6 18.2 10.5 3.3 8.6 5,807 State Abia 20.1 3.0 23.7 9.5 9.5 2.6 3.3 205 Adamawa 21.7 8.5 34.6 23.2 10.3 4.0 33.5 179 Akwa-Ibom 27.8 7.3 31.4 16.3 9.2 1.4 1.9 438 Anambra 14.8 4.8 16.0 9.2 6.4 2.4 3.2 208 Bauchi 33.1 14.7 46.8 27.8 11.5 4.1 25.0 498 Bayelsa 14.0 3.3 19.5 6.7 5.9 1.4 3.8 98 Benue 16.6 3.3 25.7 12.4 6.8 1.9 3.7 514 Borno 32.1 12.0 37.2 21.0 14.4 5.1 16.5 407 Cross-River 17.5 2.6 21.8 8.8 10.1 1.6 1.9 336 Delta 19.6 3.3 25.6 11.0 7.3 2.0 3.7 495 Ebonyi 19.0 4.5 28.6 14.5 6.6 1.5 6.9 200 Edo 12.4 1.5 27.5 9.8 5.9 0.9 3.0 310 Ekiti 17.2 4.1 33.6 13.1 7.8 1.6 6.1 125 Enugu 13.4 3.8 17.8 7.5 6.2 1.4 4.1 251 Gombe 26.9 13.1 29.7 16.6 20.7 9.0 22.1 108 Imo 17.0 5.8 30.1 18.4 7.8 2.9 9.7 201 Jigawa 51.5 21.6 59.6 42.4 18.1 6.8 5.1 438 Kaduna 30.3 8.9 49.7 29.0 10.2 3.3 12.2 804 Kano 48.8 25.6 60.9 43.7 19.5 7.0 8.4 549 Katsina 40.7 13.9 56.8 34.7 18.3 6.0 7.6 256 Kebbi 45.1 24.8 55.6 41.3 20.3 7.7 7.7 143 Kogi 20.1 5.5 31.1 17.9 8.8 1.5 3.7 184 Kwara 27.6 10.5 37.8 18.5 12.7 2.5 5.5 201 Lagos 15.6 3.3 20.3 13.8 9.4 1.8 4.7 1,084 Nasarawa 20.5 10.0 26.6 11.5 12.3 5.6 10.5 218 Niger 28.0 9.2 35.6 20.0 17.2 4.1 6.7 276 Ogun 20.6 4.2 30.2 13.0 11.1 3.4 6.5 323 Ondo 17.0 4.1 28.2 12.6 5.1 2.4 8.5 311 Osun 17.4 3.4 21.7 5.3 7.2 1.0 3.9 514 Oyo 24.3 4.1 31.8 15.5 7.1 1.0 5.1 708 Plataeu 19.1 5.9 29.0 16.8 14.6 5.1 6.9 269 Rivers 21.8 7.7 27.0 12.1 8.9 3.2 6.5 316 Sokoto 38.9 13.9 66.7 50.2 11.9 3.3 9.2 234 Taraba 22.9 11.2 27.1 15.3 14.1 7.1 18.8 127 Yobe 37.0 18.8 43.3 30.0 16.4 7.0 16.7 177 Zamfara 45.4 29.4 47.9 33.6 21.0 10.9 6.7 41 Abuja FCT 17.9 6.3 22.8 8.2 11.0 1.9 6.3 52 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 31 Table NU.1: Child malnourishment (Cont’d) Percentage of under-five children who are severely or moderately undernourished, Nigeria, 2007 Weight for age: % below -2 SD Weight for age: % below -3 SD* Height for age: % below -2 SD Height for age: % below -3 SD** Weight for height: % below -2 SD Weight for height: % below -3 SD*** Weight for height: % above +2 SD Number of children Area: Sector Rural 28.5 10.0 38.5 22.0 11.3 3.6 8.6 7,790 Urban 19.0 5.1 26.2 14.4 9.8 2.4 6.5 4,007 Geopolitical zones North central 21.0 6.7 29.8 15.4 11.4 3.2 5.8 1,713 North east 24.3 9.1 31.4 19.6 11.9 3.8 14.7 2,581 North west 41.2 17.1 56.6 38.0 15.5 5.4 9.0 2,466 South east 16.7 4.3 22.9 11.6 7.2 2.1 5.4 1,065 South south 20.0 4.5 26.4 11.5 8.2 1.8 3.3 1,992 South west 20.3 3.9 28.5 11.9 7.5 1.6 5.6 1,981 Age < 6 months 5.0 1.1 10.8 3.9 6.8 1.3 11.6 1,119 6-11 months 23.3 8.4 21.8 10.7 14.5 4.5 10.2 1,240 12-23 months 33.2 11.9 41.5 21.8 15.5 4.0 9.3 2,344 24-35 months 28.3 11.5 35.8 22.0 11.0 3.4 7.2 2,476 36-47 months 25.9 7.8 39.8 23.4 9.2 3.4 7.2 2,660 48-59 months 23.9 5.0 37.9 22.4 7.0 2.1 4.8 1,958 Mother's education None 33.5 13.3 45.0 27.6 13.3 4.7 11.7 4,461 Primary 23.7 5.9 32.5 17.7 9.1 2.4 5.8 3,159 Secondary + 16.9 4.4 23.7 11.5 9.1 2.1 5.4 4,028 Non-standard curriculum 40.7 18.2 44.1 26.9 16.8 5.6 8.8 149 Missing/DK **** **** **** **** **** **** **** (1) Wealth index quintiles Poorest 32.1 13.8 43.6 27.5 13.4 4.3 13.0 1,855 Second 32.8 11.7 43.2 26.3 12.2 4.5 9.3 2,142 Middle 28.9 9.6 39.4 20.7 11.7 3.6 8.0 2,347 Fourth 20.7 4.9 29.7 15.4 8.3 2.2 6.4 2,698 Richest 16.3 4.4 21.5 11.7 9.6 2.1 4.9 2,756 Total 25.3 8.3 34.3 19.4 10.8 3.2 7.9 11,797 * MICS indicator 6; MDG indicator 4 ** MICS indicator 7 *** MICS indicator 8 ****Unweighted Observation less than 25 cases Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 32 Table NU.3: Breastfeeding Percent of living children according to breastfeeding status at each age group, Nigeria, 2007 Children 0-3 months Children 0-5 months Children 6-9 months Children 12-15 months Children 20-23 months Pe rc en t e xc lu siv ely br ea st fe d Nu m be r o f c hi ld re n Pe rc en t e xc lu siv ely br ea st fe d * Nu m be r o f c hi ld re n Pe rc en t r ec eiv in g br ea st m ilk an d so lid /m us hy fo od ** Nu m be r o f c hi ld re n Pe rc en t b re as tfe d* ** Nu m be r o f c hi ld re n Pe rc en t b re as tfe d *** Nu m be r o f c hi ld re n Male 13.7 566 11.0 841 43.2 559 77.9 877 28.4 359 Sex Female 14.3 588 12.2 892 38.7 584 77.7 817 32.8 319 Rural 12.5 836 10.5 1,259 36.9 778 79.4 1,269 35.9 427 Area: Sector Urban 18.1 318 14.8 474 49.4 365 73.0 425 21.3 251 North central 34.3 131 30.9 215 49.9 158 82.0 155 41.2 82 North east 10.3 286 8.1 392 41.0 254 62.9 445 30.9 162 North west 9.5 390 6.7 571 24.2 317 90.4 674 57.4 116 South east 9.0 85 6.5 133 62.7 83 57.8 90 8.0 82 South south 12.1 148 11.6 226 53.2 161 67.3 172 15.7 129 Ge op ol iti ca l zo ne s South west 21.6 114 15.7 195 41.2 170 84.2 158 27.5 107 None 10.3 570 7.9 808 27.8 471 79.6 1,001 49.6 219 Primary 13.8 235 12.2 380 48.3 271 81.3 303 30.9 197 Secondary + 21.4 327 17.7 512 52.4 387 69.1 350 12.9 258 Mo th er 's ed uc at io n Non-standard curriculum (3.3) 23 3.2 34 (19.3) 14 82.0 40 **** 4 Poorest 10.3 242 9.0 347 30.0 207 76.3 438 42.6 86 Second 10.6 266 11.3 371 37.2 239 81.8 402 45.7 105 Middle 14.2 248 10.2 386 35.5 213 78.9 321 44.9 117 Fourth 13.5 207 10.9 324 40.4 245 81.3 273 20.0 177 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Richest 23.8 190 17.7 305 59.3 240 69.0 261 17.6 192 Total 14.0 1,154 11.7 1,733 40.9 1,143 77.8 1,694 30.5 678 * MICS indicator 15 ** MICS indicator 17 *** MICS indicator 16 ( ) Unweighted Observation less than 50 cases **** Unweighted Observation less than 25 cases Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 33 Table NU.5: Iodized salt consumption Percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt, Nigeria, 2007 Percent of households with salt test result Percent of households in which salt was tested Number of households interviewed Percent of households with no salt < 15 PPM 15+ PPM* Total Number of households in which salt was tested or with no salt Abia 89.4 485 1.7 8.3 90.0 100.0 441 Adamawa 97.0 561 3.0 39.0 58.1 100.0 561 Akwa-Ibom 97.3 699 2.0 26.2 71.7 100.0 694 Anambra 84.9 452 1.4 11.0 87.6 100.0 389 Bauchi 98.6 1,002 1.4 32.3 66.3 100.0 1,002 Bayelsa 96.0 152 2.3 34.8 62.9 100.0 149 Benue 96.9 799 2.3 24.5 73.3 100.0 793 Borno 92.1 1,006 7.3 43.0 49.8 100.0 999 Cross-River 96.7 716 2.4 5.6 92.0 100.0 709 Delta 90.5 1,120 2.8 12.1 85.1 100.0 1,043 Ebonyi 97.4 408 1.0 44.8 54.2 100.0 402 Edo 96.1 654 2.9 10.6 86.5 100.0 648 Ekiti 92.2 348 5.8 8.5 85.7 100.0 341 Enugu 97.6 567 1.8 3.4 94.8 100.0 564 Gombe 87.5 462 11.4 4.6 84.0 100.0 456 Imo 94.4 698 2.2 4.1 93.7 100.0 675 Jigawa 95.3 586 3.2 37.5 59.3 100.0 577 Kaduna 96.6 1,328 3.4 9.5 87.1 100.0 1,328 Kano 97.4 1,899 2.3 45.5 52.2 100.0 1,894 Katsina 98.7 613 1.2 18.1 80.7 100.0 612 Kebbi 32.3 398 21.7 31.2 47.1 100.0 164 Kogi 96.1 452 3.5 29.6 67.0 100.0 450 Kwara 93.9 511 4.7 20.4 74.9 100.0 503 Lagos 87.9 2,386 10.0 11.4 78.6 100.0 2,328 Nasarawa 96.0 323 3.5 14.7 81.8 100.0 321 Niger 94.9 444 4.5 13.2 82.3 100.0 441 Ogun 80.2 779 2.6 13.2 84.2 100.0 641 Ondo 94.8 724 4.8 6.6 88.7 100.0 721 Osun 78.3 1,330 12.4 21.1 66.5 100.0 1,189 Oyo 79.0 1,620 2.4 4.0 93.6 100.0 1,313 Plateau 89.9 477 6.8 15.8 77.4 100.0 460 Rivers 90.1 760 4.9 16.4 78.8 100.0 720 Sokoto 99.7 585 0.3 35.0 64.7 100.0 585 Taraba 94.6 512 3.9 36.1 60.0 100.0 504 Yobe 95.1 462 3.6 56.7 39.7 100.0 456 Zamfara 98.8 320 0.8 11.7 87.6 100.0 319 State Abuja FCT 92.5 98 6.1 12.7 81.2 100.0 97 Total 91.2 26,735 4.4 20.7 74.9 100.0 25,485 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 34 Table NU.5: Iodized salt consumption (Cont’d) Percentage of households consuming adequately iodized salt, Nigeria, 2007 Percent of households with salt test result Percent of households in which salt was tested Number of households interviewed Percent of households with no salt < 15 PPM 15+ PPM* Total Number of household s in which salt was tested or with no salt Rural 93.5 17,882 3.4 24.1 72.5 100.0 17,312 Area: Sector Urban 86.3 8,853 6.5 13.6 79.9 100.0 8,173 North central 94.7 3,104 4.1 20.2 75.7 100.0 3,064 North east 92.1 6,391 6.7 26.9 66.4 100.0 6,306 North west 92.9 5,728 2.8 29.3 67.8 100.0 5,478 South east 93.0 2,611 1.7 12.4 85.9 100.0 2,470 South south 93.8 4,100 3.0 14.8 82.2 100.0 3,963 Ge op ol iti ca l zo ne s South west 82.4 4,801 5.9 11.1 83.0 100.0 4,205 Poorest 94.1 5,230 3.4 34.1 62.4 100.0 5,095 Second 93.3 5,015 3.3 26.1 70.6 100.0 4,841 Middle 92.4 5,268 4.1 18.9 76.9 100.0 5,078 Fourth 88.5 5,704 5.4 14.0 80.6 100.0 5,336 Wealth index quintiles Richest 88.1 5,518 5.4 11.1 83.5 100.0 5,136 Total 91.2 26,735 4.4 20.7 74.9 100.0 25,485 *MICS indicator 41 N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 35 Ta bl e C H. 2: V ac cin at io ns b y b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s Pe rce nta ge of ch ild re n a ge d 1 2- 23 m on ths cu rre ntl y v ac cin ate d a ga ins t c hil dh oo d d ise as es , N ige ria , 2 00 7. BCG DPT1 DPT2 DPT3 Polio 0 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Measles All None Percent with health card No . o f c hil dr en ag ed 12 -2 3 mo nth s Ma le 52 .6 48 .8 40 .3 28 .7 37 .8 54 .9 45 .3 29 .7 43 .9 16 .0 38 .0 17 .9 1,6 56 Se x Fe ma le 50 .2 48 .4 41 .3 30 .6 37 .2 56 .3 46 .5 29 .0 44 .2 16 .9 38 .0 18 .5 1,5 30 Ab ia 89 .3 81 .3 77 .3 62 .7 74 .7 86 .7 69 .3 45 .3 64 .9 25 .3 9.3 41 .3 51 Ad am aw a 11 .0 9.8 8.5 3.7 8.5 18 .3 12 .2 4.9 9.6 1.2 79 .5 2.4 55 Ak wa -Ib om 77 .1 69 .1 57 .4 39 .4 43 .0 79 .0 67 .0 44 .0 53 .1 23 .0 12 .9 37 .3 10 5 An am br a 80 .4 72 .5 60 .8 47 .1 56 .9 74 .5 43 .1 21 .6 60 .8 15 .7 17 .6 25 .5 42 Ba uc hi 4.7 5.4 3.1 1.6 2.3 17 .1 12 .4 7.8 2.3 0.8 82 .2 0.0 13 7 Ba ye lsa 61 .7 61 .1 53 .7 34 .7 32 .0 76 .3 69 .1 42 .3 52 .7 16 .0 19 .6 26 .5 23 Be nu e 62 .8 56 .0 50 .7 29 .3 37 .2 76 .9 71 .8 38 .5 61 .5 21 .5 20 .5 15 .2 95 Bo rn o 13 .2 10 .0 6.7 4.4 10 .9 19 .6 16 .3 5.4 12 .1 1.1 79 .3 0.0 11 3 Cr os s-R ive r 89 .5 86 .8 73 .7 46 .1 53 .9 85 .5 80 .3 53 .9 75 .0 30 .3 6.6 46 .1 83 De lta 60 .0 66 .1 56 .5 35 .5 43 .5 61 .3 54 .8 25 .8 56 .7 16 .1 25 .8 35 .5 10 2 Eb on yi 90 .9 80 .2 68 .6 46 .5 47 .7 71 .6 59 .1 26 .1 58 .6 14 .0 6.7 40 .4 54 Ed o 85 .5 77 .3 66 .7 53 .3 60 .5 78 .9 68 .4 46 .1 69 .3 32 .9 9.2 40 .8 70 Ek iti 98 .2 96 .4 92 .7 74 .5 78 .2 98 .2 90 .9 67 .3 94 .5 63 .6 1.8 49 .1 28 En ug u 87 .0 84 .1 81 .2 49 .3 65 .2 88 .4 72 .5 37 .7 75 .4 24 .6 7.2 24 .6 59 Go mb e 12 .7 21 .4 14 .3 7.1 8.3 48 .6 41 .7 27 .8 15 .7 2.8 50 .0 1.4 54 Im o 91 .2 84 .2 75 .4 52 .6 75 .4 84 .2 70 .2 42 .1 71 .9 21 .1 8.8 29 .8 56 Jig aw a 14 .9 11 .5 5.2 1.1 6.9 19 .5 16 .7 11 .5 7.6 0.0 75 .9 2.3 12 9 Ka du na 38 .6 38 .0 25 .4 15 .5 22 .5 56 .3 44 .4 30 .3 34 .0 7.0 38 .0 16 .2 25 4 Ka no 12 .4 12 .4 7.4 5.8 9.0 16 .4 13 .9 9.0 9.0 1.6 76 .9 3.3 31 2 Ka tsi na 28 .7 25 .9 20 .4 11 .1 13 .4 36 .6 28 .6 17 .0 22 .6 7.1 60 .4 1.8 91 Ke bb i 12 .4 12 .7 5.6 2.4 3.8 25 .6 20 .3 13 .5 9.5 0.8 67 .9 3.0 67 Ko gi 86 .3 83 .3 75 .0 70 .8 57 .1 91 .8 79 .6 55 .1 87 .8 46 .8 5.9 39 .2 34 Kw ar a (7 7.6 ) (7 2.3 ) (6 3.8 ) (4 2.6 ) (6 1.2 ) (7 5.5 ) (6 3.3 ) (4 4.9 ) (7 1.7 ) (3 8.3 ) (2 2.4 ) (3 4.7 ) (3 6) La go s 94 .0 93 .9 77 .3 65 .2 91 .0 74 .6 52 .2 41 .8 92 .4 37 .3 4.5 22 .4 26 3 Na sa ra wa 62 .3 56 .4 51 .3 34 .6 37 .0 69 .1 63 .0 51 .9 38 .0 27 .2 28 .4 20 .7 46 Ni ge r 64 .6 64 .2 48 .1 30 .9 42 .7 75 .6 65 .9 45 .1 55 .6 18 .3 18 .3 23 .2 52 Og un 77 .6 77 .6 72 .4 55 .2 76 .3 84 .7 72 .9 39 .0 72 .9 27 .6 13 .6 22 .0 73 On do 84 .6 86 .0 86 .0 58 .0 62 .3 94 .3 83 .0 62 .3 90 .2 47 .2 3.8 43 .4 56 Os un (9 1.9 ) (8 7.2 ) (7 4.4 ) (7 1.8 ) (8 7.2 ) (8 9.7 ) (8 4.6 ) (4 8.7 ) (8 4.6 ) (4 3.6 ) (7 .7) (4 1.0 ) (9 7) Oy o 80 .0 70 .0 61 .7 51 .7 59 .1 81 .8 63 .6 37 .9 67 .2 25 .0 13 .6 18 .2 15 8 Pl ate au 69 .2 59 .2 56 .6 40 .8 43 .6 76 .9 73 .1 52 .6 54 .7 35 .1 19 .2 29 .5 56 Ri ve rs 65 .5 59 .3 50 .0 27 .8 35 .7 73 .2 57 .1 28 .6 43 .9 3.5 15 .8 28 .1 73 So ko to 17 .3 4.9 3.7 1.2 1.2 28 .4 21 .0 18 .5 17 .3 0.0 69 .1 2.5 62 Ta ra ba 9.3 9.3 5.3 0.0 6.8 9.5 4.1 2.7 8.1 0.0 87 .8 0.0 56 Yo be 10 .1 7.4 4.7 1.3 2.0 17 .9 13 .2 9.9 4.7 0.7 81 .5 0.7 81 Za mf ar a 7.5 8.1 8.1 6.3 0.6 31 .5 24 .7 19 .8 5.0 1.2 67 .9 0.0 55 St at e Ab uja F CT 82 .5 83 .7 72 .5 50 .0 63 .4 87 .8 81 .7 56 .1 80 .3 38 .3 9.6 36 .1 12 N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 36 Ta bl e C H. 2: V ac cin at io ns b y b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s ( Co nt ’d ) Pe rce nta ge of ch ild re n a ge d 1 2- 23 m on ths cu rre ntl y v ac cin ate d a ga ins t c hil dh oo d d ise as es , N ige ria , 2 00 7 BCG DPT1 DPT2 DPT3 Polio 0 Polio 1 Polio 2 Polio 3 Measles All None Percent with health card No . o f c hil dr en ag ed 12 -2 3 mo nth s Ru ra l 41 .3 38 .2 31 .0 20 .6 26 .5 48 .0 39 .6 24 .8 33 .4 10 .5 46 .1 14 .1 2,2 37 Ar ea : Se ct or Ur ba n 75 .2 72 .8 63 .5 50 .8 63 .2 73 .4 60 .6 40 .1 68 .8 30 .3 18 .9 27 .8 95 0 No rth ce ntr al 68 .9 63 .5 56 .1 38 .7 44 .7 77 .4 70 .1 46 .8 60 .1 28 .9 19 .3 25 .0 33 0 No rth ea st 39 .0 38 .7 30 .8 24 .4 35 .6 39 .3 28 .4 20 .3 37 .1 13 .7 52 .6 8.1 75 8 No rth w es t 21 .1 19 .6 12 .7 7.7 11 .3 31 .4 25 .1 17 .2 17 .0 3.2 63 .3 6.1 97 0 So uth ea st 88 .1 80 .9 73 .4 51 .7 64 .3 81 .5 63 .9 35 .1 66 .8 20 .4 9.6 32 .4 26 2 So uth so uth 74 .3 71 .1 60 .4 39 .9 46 .1 75 .1 65 .5 39 .5 58 .9 20 .8 14 .9 37 .0 45 5 Geopolitical zones So uth w es t 84 .2 79 .7 72 .2 59 .8 70 .5 87 .0 74 .7 46 .0 77 .3 35 .6 10 .1 29 .8 41 2 No ne 24 .3 20 .7 15 .6 9.5 14 .1 33 .3 26 .9 16 .9 19 .0 5.1 63 .3 5.5 1,4 91 Pr im ar y 69 .6 65 .1 55 .5 40 .6 50 .0 72 .7 59 .8 36 .6 57 .7 21 .1 19 .6 23 .6 75 2 Se co nd ar y 84 .3 82 .9 72 .3 55 .9 68 .5 79 .5 66 .9 45 .0 75 .8 32 .5 9.6 36 .0 88 3 No n- sta nd ar d cu rri cu lum 20 .5 25 .9 14 .6 5.1 6.6 40 .4 34 .5 18 .6 25 .3 3.4 59 .6 4.2 59 Mother's education M is si ng /D K * * * * * * * * * * * * (2 ) Po or es t 21 .2 18 .9 15 .8 9.6 11 .6 30 .3 24 .8 14 .9 17 .7 5.4 67 .1 6.0 61 2 Se co nd 31 .5 30 .7 24 .9 14 .9 17 .4 41 .8 35 .0 22 .2 25 .5 8.6 54 .2 10 .2 65 8 Mi dd le 45 .0 39 .8 29 .7 18 .8 25 .7 53 .3 42 .8 26 .9 33 .6 8.4 38 .9 14 .6 62 8 Fo ur th 72 .7 68 .2 59 .3 47 .0 59 .1 73 .1 60 .3 38 .4 61 .9 25 .4 20 .2 28 .9 63 8 W ea lth in de x qu in til es Ri ch es t 85 .4 83 .7 72 .4 56 .6 72 .4 78 .2 65 .5 43 .7 79 .6 33 .4 10 .8 30 .6 65 0 To ta l 51 .5 48 .6 40 .8 29 .6 37 .5 55 .6 45 .9 29 .4 44 .0 16 .4 38 .0 18 .2 3,1 87 * O bs er va tio ns le ss th an 2 5 ca se s ( ) O bs er va tio ns le ss th an 5 0 ca se s Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 37 Table CH.10: Availability of insecticide treated nets Percent of households with at least one insecticide treated net (ITN), Nigeria, 2007 Percentage of households with at least one mosquito net Percentage of households with at least one insecticide treated net (ITN)* Number of households State Abia 3.4 2.5 485 Adamawa 0.2 0.1 561 Akwa-Ibom 11.8 11.4 699 Anambra 4.5 3.7 452 Bauchi 0.2 0.2 1,002 Bayelsa 6.5 5.6 152 Benue 1.3 1.0 799 Borno 0.9 0.9 1,006 Cross-River 15.9 14.6 716 Delta 4.2 4.1 1,120 Ebonyi 7.0 6.6 408 Edo 4.0 3.9 654 Ekiti 8.4 7.8 348 Enugu 7.4 4.8 567 Gombe 2.0 1.2 462 Imo 4.2 3.7 698 Jigawa 5.5 4.6 586 Kaduna 5.8 4.7 1,328 Kano 1.8 1.8 1,899 Katsina 0.8 0.7 613 Kebbi 6.6 2.5 398 Kogi 3.2 2.7 452 Kwara 6.3 4.6 511 Lagos 9.9 9.2 2,386 Nasarawa 20.3 14.6 323 Niger 2.5 2.1 444 Ogun 3.6 2.7 779 Ondo 1.8 1.5 724 Osun 2.1 1.9 1,330 Oyo 2.0 1.8 1,620 Plataeu 4.0 3.4 477 Rivers 4.8 4.2 760 Sokoto 8.3 5.7 585 Taraba 1.0 0.7 512 Yobe 1.4 0.7 462 Zamfara 1.8 1.2 320 Abuja FCT 11.5 10.1 98 Area: Sector Rural 4.0 3.3 17,882 Urban 6.0 5.3 8,853 Geopolitical zones North central 5.3 4.1 3,104 North east 4.2 3.8 6,391 North west 4.0 3.0 5,728 South east 5.2 4.1 2,611 South south 7.7 7.2 4,100 South west 2.7 2.4 4,801 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 38 Education of household head None 1.8 1.4 11,939 Primary 4.8 4.0 5,407 Secondary + 8.5 7.5 8,682 Non-standard curriculum 3.3 2.6 669 Missing/DK ** ** 36 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 1.3 1.0 5,230 Second 2.7 2.0 5,015 Middle 3.8 3.1 5,268 Fourth 4.9 4.3 5,704 Richest 10.1 9.1 5,518 4.7 4.0 26,735 * MICS indicator 36 ** Unweighted Observation less than 25 cases N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 39 Ta bl e E N. 1: U se o f i m pr ov ed w at er so ur ce s Pe rce nt dis trib uti on of ho us eh old po pu lat ion ac co rd ing to m ain so ur ce of dr ink ing w ate r a nd pe rce nta ge of ho us eh old m em be rs us ing im pr ov ed dr ink ing w ate r s ou rce s, Ni ge ria , 2 00 7 Im pr ov ed so ur ce s Un im pr ov ed so ur ce s Piped into dwelling Piped into yard or plot Public tap/ standpipe Tubewell/ borehole Protected well Protected spring Rainwater collection Bottled water Unprotected well Unprotected spring Tanker-truck Cart with small tank/drum Surface water(river, stream, dam etc) Bottled water Other Total Improved Source (%) Number of Households St at e Ab ia 0.0 0.3 2.4 59 .8 0.1 0.6 0.1 0.3 0.3 9.0 0.0 0.1 26 .8 0.0 0.2 63 .6 1,8 87 Ad am aw a 1.9 0.3 0.6 12 .9 3.1 0.2 0.1 0.0 31 .0 10 .9 2.5 4.5 32 .1 0.0 0.0 19 .0 3,0 44 Ak wa -Ib om 0.3 0.2 1.4 50 .5 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 46 .0 0.0 0.7 53 .3 3,4 33 An am br a 0.2 0.0 0.6 39 .6 11 .0 5.3 0.4 0.3 2.2 5.2 3.2 0.8 29 .5 10 0.0 1.5 57 .4 2,3 16 Ba uc hi 0.5 0.5 1.6 15 .9 16 .0 0.7 0.0 0.0 48 .4 2.2 0.0 0.0 13 .7 0.1 0.3 35 .2 5,8 40 Ba ye lsa 1.3 6.8 15 .6 12 .3 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.3 2.9 0.0 0.0 0.7 57 .0 0.5 2.3 36 .6 68 2 Be nu e 0.6 0.3 3.7 7.6 10 .9 1.2 0.0 0.0 5.7 10 .3 1.6 0.7 55 .9 0.2 1.5 24 .1 4,4 47 Bo rn o 2.1 0.4 3.7 21 .3 2.1 0.3 0.0 0.0 41 .1 5.0 12 .2 7.4 4.3 0.0 0.0 30 .0 4,8 56 Cr os s-R ive r 1.7 1.3 3.5 16 .6 2.6 5.0 0.0 0.2 5.5 3.8 0.0 0.0 59 .6 0.0 0.2 30 .9 3,1 38 De lta 1.7 1.2 14 .6 37 .1 10 .8 0.1 0.0 0.1 12 .1 1.5 2.5 0.5 15 .9 0.2 1.7 65 .6 3,9 61 Eb on yi 0.5 3.9 5.3 30 .3 5.2 5.9 0.1 0.0 6.9 7.4 0.1 1.3 33 .0 0.0 0.2 51 .2 2,0 86 Ed o 0.3 0.9 6.6 30 .1 21 .1 0.3 0.9 0.5 2.5 0.2 4.6 0.2 28 .0 1.1 2.8 60 .7 2,9 36 Ek iti 2.2 1.3 15 .5 21 .7 26 .5 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 29 .7 0.0 2.2 67 .4 1,1 71 En ug u 0.1 0.1 10 .4 19 .9 5.7 1.5 0.1 0.0 1.2 7.2 18 .1 0.8 33 .5 0.0 1.4 37 .8 2,5 51 Go mb e 1.9 0.0 0.2 11 .6 4.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 46 .3 0.9 5.3 0.5 28 .8 0.0 0.0 18 .2 2,4 68 Im o 6.0 2.5 2.6 50 .6 0.2 0.1 0.6 0.0 0.2 1.6 1.3 0.8 33 .3 0.0 0.2 62 .6 2,5 97 Jig aw a 3.6 0.1 7.3 38 .9 6.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 40 .6 1.1 0.2 0.0 1.7 0.0 0.3 56 .0 3,3 73 Ka du na 4.5 3.4 3.3 4.1 32 .4 1.1 0.0 0.0 34 .6 3.4 0.0 3.2 8.2 0.0 1.7 48 .9 7,7 70 Ka no 2.8 1.5 8.5 22 .8 4.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 40 .7 5.1 0.4 0.0 11 .6 0.0 2.3 39 .8 9,7 22 Ka tsi na 3.4 0.4 12 .4 4.5 21 .5 0.7 0.0 0.0 43 .7 3.4 0.2 0.6 8.1 0.0 1.2 42 .8 3,3 98 Ke bb i 2.9 2.3 1.5 4.1 8.4 0.4 0.5 0.0 61 .7 2.9 1.9 0.1 13 .1 0.0 0.3 19 .9 2,1 52 Ko gi 3.7 1.0 8.1 13 .7 9.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 8.9 4.2 2.7 0.2 46 .6 0.0 1.3 36 .2 2,0 16 Kw ar a 6.2 8.7 9.9 27 .6 17 .4 0.6 0.0 0.5 6.1 1.7 0.0 0.2 20 .4 0.0 0.5 70 .9 1,9 99 La go s 3.7 7.8 22 .4 32 .8 7.0 0.0 0.0 1.9 3.5 0.6 6.3 0.4 0.2 0.6 12 .9 75 .6 9,5 52 Na sa ra wa 4.1 0.5 2.8 12 .2 18 .9 6.0 0.0 0.3 17 .4 3.7 0.0 0.0 34 .0 0.0 0.2 44 .7 1,9 78 Ni ge r 13 .6 6.1 4.2 23 .7 12 .4 0.9 0.0 0.3 18 .1 6.4 0.5 0.3 13 .4 0.0 0.1 61 .1 2,4 27 Og un 2.1 2.5 17 .6 39 .1 12 .5 0.0 0.0 0.1 1.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 24 .4 0.0 0.3 73 .9 2,4 76 On do 0.0 0.8 10 .6 21 .7 23 .0 0.4 0.3 0.3 1.7 0.0 0.9 0.4 38 .2 0.0 1.6 57 .2 2,9 48 Os un 2.6 0.3 19 .7 9.8 35 .0 1.3 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.1 2.7 0.0 24 .3 0.0 2.7 68 .6 4,9 38 Oy o 1.5 3.0 14 .2 27 .1 32 .8 0.2 0.0 0.7 10 .0 0.5 0.0 0.0 9.1 0.0 0.8 79 .5 6,0 99 Pl ate au 1.6 2.3 3.2 3.0 20 .5 0.7 0.0 0.0 17 .0 4.9 0.2 0.2 46 .0 0.0 0.4 31 .3 2,5 13 Ri ve rs 0.2 0.4 12 .4 36 .2 11 .0 0.0 0.5 0.4 25 .1 0.7 1.6 0.4 10 .2 0.1 0.9 61 .0 3,2 63 So ko to 11 .9 0.2 5.6 7.6 3.8 0.0 0.1 0.0 67 .2 1.5 0.0 0.0 1.9 0.0 0.1 29 .3 2,9 66 Ta ra ba 0.0 0.7 0.0 9.8 9.6 0.1 0.0 0.0 20 .0 6.4 1.7 0.1 51 .0 0.0 0.5 20 .2 2,9 28 Yo be 2.4 0.2 1.3 12 .9 13 .7 0.0 0.0 0.4 55 .8 1.8 3.2 1.0 1.3 0.7 5.2 30 .9 2,6 70 Za mf ar a 2.1 0.0 3.2 25 .0 22 .5 0.1 0.1 0.1 19 .7 2.8 0.0 1.4 22 .9 0.0 0.1 53 .1 1,7 67 Ab uja F CT 13 .5 6.1 8.3 33 .2 5.8 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.6 0.1 5.5 5.2 20 .2 0.1 0.9 67 .3 47 3 N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 40 Ta bl e E N. 1: U se o f i m pr ov ed w at er so ur ce s ( Co nt ’d ) Pe rce nt dis trib uti on of ho us eh old po pu lat ion ac co rd ing to m ain so ur ce of dr ink ing w ate r a nd pe rce nta ge of ho us eh old m em be rs us ing im pr ov ed dr ink ing w ate r s ou rce s, Ni ge ria , 2 00 7 Im pr ov ed so ur ce s Nu m be r o f H ou se ho ld s Piped into dwelling Piped into yard or plot Public tap/ standpipe Tube well/ borehole Protected well Protected spring Rainwater collection Bottled water** Unprotected well Unprotected spring Tanker-truck Cart with small tank/drum Surface water(river, stream, dam etc) Bottled water** Other Total Improved Source (%) Number of Households Ar ea : S ec to r Ru ra l 0.7 0.4 4.3 19 .1 11 .8 1.0 0.1 0.0 27 .8 4.3 0.9 0.3 28 .6 0.1 0.7 37 .4 86 ,72 0 Ur ba n 7.2 5.4 16 .4 29 .4 16 .0 0.3 0.1 0.8 7.2 0.6 5.4 2.1 3.6 0.2 5.1 75 .7 38 ,12 0 Ge op ol iti ca l z on es No rth ce ntr al 4. 7 2. 8 5. 1 14 .0 14 .2 1. 4 0. 0 0. 2 11 .2 5. 9 1. 0 0. 5 38 .4 0. 1 0. 8 42 .2 15 ,8 53 No rth ea st 2. 1 2. 7 7. 9 20 .4 8. 1 0. 2 0. 0 0. 6 29 .7 3. 2 4. 9 1. 8 13 .5 0. 3 4. 5 42 .0 31 ,3 58 No rth w es t 4. 2 1. 5 6. 4 15 .3 14 .6 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 42 .3 3. 4 0. 3 1. 0 9. 1 0. 0 1. 4 42 .5 31 ,1 47 So uth ea st 1. 5 1. 4 4. 4 39 .3 4. 5 2. 6 0. 3 0. 1 2. 1 5. 9 5. 0 0. 8 31 .4 0. 0 0. 7 54 .1 11 ,4 37 So uth S ou th 0. 9 1. 1 8. 3 33 .7 8. 5 1. 0 0. 2 0. 3 9. 0 1. 2 1. 7 0. 2 32 .3 0. 3 1. 3 54 .1 17 ,4 13 So uth w es t 1. 7 1. 7 15 .7 22 .7 28 .5 0. 5 0. 1 0. 3 4. 4 0. 2 1. 0 0. 1 21 .8 0. 0 1. 5 71 .1 17 ,6 32 Ed uc at io n No ne 1.6 1.0 5.6 15 .9 11 .7 0.8 0.1 0.1 34 .3 3.6 1.9 0.7 21 .8 0.0 0.9 36 .8 57 ,74 7 Pr im ar y 1.4 1.6 8.3 25 .4 14 .7 1.1 0.1 0.2 11 .0 3.3 2.4 0.6 28 .4 0.0 1.4 52 .9 26 ,46 3 Se co nd ar y + 5.3 3.7 11 .9 29 .4 14 .2 0.5 0.1 0.7 7.9 2.3 2.9 1.2 15 .2 0.3 4.4 65 .8 36 ,74 3 No n- sta nd ar d cu rri cu lum 2.0 0.7 5.1 25 .4 12 .6 0.5 0.1 0.0 31 .8 3.2 1.5 2.6 13 .9 0.0 0.6 46 .4 3,6 72 M is si ng /D K ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * ** * 19 9 W ea lth In de x Q ui nt ile s Po or es t 0.0 0.0 1.0 7.8 4.6 0.4 0.0 0.0 49 .9 5.8 0.2 0.3 29 .8 0.0 1.9 13 .9 24 ,96 7 Se co nd 0.7 0.1 3.0 16 .0 10 .8 0.9 0.0 0.0 31 .2 4.3 1.1 0.4 31 .0 0.0 2.3 31 .5 24 ,96 3 Mi dd le 1.3 0.5 6.6 21 .5 19 .4 1.3 0.1 0.0 17 .2 3.1 1.8 1.3 25 .3 0.1 5.3 50 .7 24 ,97 2 Fo ur th 2.9 1.9 14 .1 29 .5 19 .4 0.8 0.1 0.2 7.5 1.9 2.5 1.2 15 .3 0.1 0.7 68 .8 24 ,97 0 Ri ch es t 8.5 7.0 15 .3 36 .3 11 .4 0.5 0.2 1.2 1.7 0.6 5.7 1.2 3.7 0.4 0.1 80 .5 24 ,96 7 To ta l 2.7 1.9 8.0 22 .2 13 .1 0.8 0.1 0.3 21 .5 3.1 2.3 0.9 21 .0 0.1 2.0 49 .1 12 4,8 40 * M IC S ind ica tor 11 ; M DG in dic ato r 3 0 ** Fo r h ou se ho lds us ing bo ttle d w ate r a s t he m ain so ur ce of dr ink ing w ate r, the so ur ce us ed fo r o the r p ur po se s s uc h a s c oo kin g a nd ha nd w as hin g i s u se d t o d ete rm ine w he the r t o c las sif y t he so ur ce as im pr ov ed . ** * U nw eig hte d O bs er va tio n l es s t ha n 2 5 c as es N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 41 Ta bl e E N. 5: U se o f s an ita ry m ea ns o f e xc re ta d isp os al Pe rce nt dis trib uti on of ho us eh old po pu lat ion ac co rd ing to ty pe of to ile t u se d b y t he ho us eh old an d t he pe rce nta ge of ho us eh old m em be rs us ing sa nit ar y m ea ns of ex cre ta dis po sa l, N ige ria , 2 00 7 Im pr ov ed sa ni ta tio n fa cil ity Un im pr ov ed sa ni ta tio n fa cil ity Flush to piped sewer system Flush to septic tank Flush to pit (latrine) Ventilated Improved Pit latrine (VIP) Pit latrine with slab Composting toilet Flush to somewhere else Flush to unknown place/not sure/DK Pit latrine without slab/open pit Bucket Hanging toilet/hanging latrine No facilities or bush or field Other Total Total Improved Source (%) Number of Households St at e Ab ia 0.3 24 .1 3.4 0.5 44 .5 2.9 0.3 0.0 10 .2 0.0 8.4 5.4 0.0 10 0.0 75 .7 1,8 87 Ad am aw a 0.3 0.4 11 .3 0.3 34 .3 0.0 0.1 0.0 25 .9 0.0 0.0 27 .4 0.0 10 0. 0 46 .6 3,0 44 Ak wa -Ib om 0.0 4.2 0.2 0.0 79 .9 0.3 0.6 0.0 7.5 0.0 3.3 3.7 0.4 10 0.0 84 .5 3,4 33 An am br a 12 .6 10 .0 5.3 8.4 34 .2 0.0 0.0 0.4 16 .2 0.3 0.0 11 .6 1.0 10 0. 0 70 .6 2,3 16 Ba uc hi 0.2 0.4 4.9 0.1 35 .2 0.1 0.3 0.2 50 .6 0.0 0.4 7.5 0.1 10 0.0 40 .9 5,8 40 Ba ye lsa 0.0 12 .4 4.1 0.0 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.7 0.0 29 .4 32 .0 19 .9 10 0. 0 17 .5 68 2 Be nu e 2.8 0.9 3.8 0.0 15 .6 0.0 0.1 0.0 21 .3 0.0 0.0 55 .5 0.1 10 0.0 23 .0 4,4 47 Bo rn o 3.3 0.2 10 .9 0.9 17 .9 0.0 0.0 0.2 46 .8 0.0 0.2 19 .2 0.4 10 0. 0 33 .2 4,8 56 Cr os s-R ive r 0.9 12 .0 0.1 0.6 17 .8 0.0 0.0 0.0 48 .6 0.0 4.4 13 .0 2.6 10 0.0 31 .5 3,1 38 De lta 0.5 29 .1 8.9 3.0 17 .8 0.0 0.0 0.0 14 .1 0.0 2.5 23 .5 0.5 10 0. 0 59 .4 3,9 61 Eb on yi 4.9 6.9 4.7 0.2 5.2 0.3 0.0 0.0 21 .1 0.0 20 .2 35 .2 1.2 10 0.0 22 .2 2,0 86 Ed o 10 .0 5.0 15 .4 0.5 29 .4 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.4 0.0 0.2 29 .8 0.4 10 0. 0 60 .3 2,9 36 Ek iti 2.0 2.6 8.5 0.0 14 .3 0.0 0.1 0.0 8.0 0.0 0.0 64 .4 0.0 10 0.0 27 .5 1,1 71 En ug u 5.1 15 .2 3.7 0.0 14 .6 0.3 0.0 0.0 10 .9 0.0 0.0 48 .8 1.3 10 0. 0 38 .9 2,5 51 Go mb e 0.7 0.7 3.4 0.3 19 .6 0.0 0.0 0.0 48 .4 0.0 0.0 26 .4 0.5 10 0.0 24 .8 2,4 68 Im o 12 .9 3.6 6.3 0.1 47 .5 0.0 0.0 0.0 14 .8 0.0 0.1 11 .4 3.3 10 0. 0 70 .3 2,5 97 Jig aw a 1.3 0.0 3.2 0.7 4.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 58 .3 0.0 0.0 31 .7 0.1 10 0.0 9.9 3,3 73 Ka du na 3.6 0.1 1.3 0.4 32 .9 0.0 0.2 0.0 48 .9 0.0 0.0 12 .6 0.0 10 0. 0 38 .3 7,7 70 Ka no 1.1 0.3 4.7 1.4 46 .4 0.0 0.0 0.0 44 .0 0.0 0.0 2.1 0.0 10 0.0 53 .9 9,7 22 Ka tsi na 0.2 0.0 0.1 0.0 15 .2 0.0 0.5 0.0 64 .4 0.0 0.3 18 .7 0.7 10 0. 0 15 .5 3,3 98 Ke bb i 1.5 0.1 7.7 0.2 12 .3 0.2 0.0 0.0 48 .1 0.0 0.5 28 .1 1.3 10 0.0 22 .0 2,1 52 Ko gi 6.6 1.6 3.6 0.5 8.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.7 0.0 0.0 71 .0 1.3 10 0. 0 21 .0 2,0 16 Kw ar a 6.8 0.3 5.5 0.4 21 .2 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.8 0.0 0.0 63 .6 0.4 10 0.0 34 .2 1,9 99 La go s 17 .3 28 .9 19 .8 1.0 17 .8 0.0 1.1 0.0 4.2 0.0 0.2 9.8 0.0 10 0. 0 84 .8 9,5 52 Na sa ra wa 3.6 1.1 6.4 0.4 16 .2 0.0 0.0 0.0 21 .8 0.0 0.4 49 .3 0.9 10 0.0 27 .7 1,9 78 Ni ge r 3.5 4.8 24 .4 1.3 25 .7 0.0 0.0 0.0 6.0 0.0 0.0 33 .6 0.7 10 0. 0 59 .7 2,4 27 Og un 4. 3 4.1 10 .3 0. 4 44 .3 0.0 0.0 0. 0 1.0 0.0 0.0 35 .3 0.4 10 0.0 63 .3 2,4 76 On do 2.5 2.9 7.2 2.9 22 .0 0.0 0.2 0.0 5.3 0.2 0.0 49 .0 7.8 10 0. 0 37 .5 2,9 48 Os un 0.0 6.7 4.6 0.0 26 .0 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.1 0.0 61 .3 0.0 10 0.0 37 .3 4,9 38 Oy o 4.2 6.0 6.2 0.1 16 .5 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.5 0.0 0.0 63 .3 1.1 10 0. 0 33 .1 6,0 99 Pl ate au 1.3 2.1 2.7 0.1 5.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 15 .9 0.0 0.0 70 .5 2.0 10 0.0 11 .7 2,5 13 Ri ve rs 5.4 13 .6 3.5 0.5 17 .7 0.2 1.5 0.0 10 .7 0.0 6.4 17 .2 23 .3 10 0. 0 40 .9 3,2 63 So ko to 0.7 0.1 7.3 0.0 16 .0 0.1 0.0 0.0 48 .2 0.0 0.0 23 .5 4.2 10 0.0 24 .1 2,9 66 Ta ra ba 0.4 0.9 1.9 0.2 20 .8 0.4 0.0 0.0 39 .1 0.0 0.0 34 .6 1.6 10 0. 0 24 .6 2,9 28 Yo be 0.5 0.0 1.3 1.0 25 .3 0.0 0.4 0.0 36 .5 0.0 0.3 34 .4 0.3 10 0.0 28 .2 2,6 70 Za mf ar a 0.2 1.0 1.2 2.0 15 .7 0.0 0.0 0.0 66 .5 0.0 0.1 6.9 6.4 10 0. 0 20 .2 1,7 67 Ab uja F CT 17 .6 21 .3 6.1 0.0 11 .3 0.0 0.0 0.0 12 .4 0.0 0.1 31 .0 0.3 10 0.0 56 .2 47 3 N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 42 Ta bl e E N. 5: U se o f s an ita ry m ea ns o f e xc re ta d isp os al (C on t’d ) Pe rce nt dis trib uti on of ho us eh old po pu lat ion ac co rd ing to ty pe of to ile t u se d b y t he ho us eh old an d t he pe rce nta ge of ho us eh old m em be rs us ing sa nit ar y m ea ns of ex cre ta dis po sa l, N ige ria , 2 00 7 Im pr ov ed sa ni ta tio n fa cil ity Un im pr ov ed sa ni ta tio n fa cil ity Flush to piped sewer system Flush to septic tank Flush to pit (latrine) Ventilated Improved Pit latrine (VIP) Pit latrine with slab Composting toilet Flush to somewhere else Flush to unknown place/not sure/DK Pit latrine without slab/open pit Bucket Hanging toilet/hanging latrine No facilities or bush or field Other Total Percent of pop. Using salutary means of excreta disposal Number of household members Ar ea : S ec to r Ru ra l 1.1 1.9 3.7 0.4 23 .7 0.1 0.1 0.0 31 .7 0.0 1.4 33 .9 1.8 10 0.0 31 .0 86 ,72 0 Ur ba n 10 .3 16 .3 12 .9 1.5 29 .0 0.0 0.4 0.0 14 .2 0.0 0.6 13 .6 1.2 10 0.0 70 .0 38 ,12 0 Ge op ol iti ca l z on es No rth ce ntr al 4.2 2.3 7.4 0.4 15 .3 0.0 0.0 0.0 13 .6 0.0 0.0 56 .0 0.8 10 0.0 29 .6 15 ,85 3 No rth ea st 6.0 9.1 10 .3 0.6 23 .7 0.1 0.4 0.1 31 .0 0.0 0.2 18 .3 0.3 10 0.0 49 .8 31 ,35 8 No rth w es t 1.6 0.2 3.4 0.7 28 .2 0.0 0.1 0.0 50 .9 0.0 0.1 13 .8 0.9 10 0.0 34 .1 31 ,14 7 So uth ea st 7.6 11 .5 4.8 1.8 29 .2 0.6 0.1 0.1 14 .6 0.1 5.1 23 .1 1.5 10 0.0 55 .5 11 ,43 7 So uth so uth 3.0 13 .5 5.5 1.0 31 .3 0.1 0.4 0.0 17 .1 0.0 4.4 17 .9 5.9 10 0.0 54 .3 17 ,41 3 So uth w es t 2.6 5.2 6.7 0.6 23 .8 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.8 0.1 0.0 56 .5 1.7 10 0.0 38 .9 17 ,63 2 Ed uc at io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d No ne 0.8 1.0 4.7 0.4 24 .5 0.1 0.2 0.0 35 .2 0.0 0.9 30 .8 1.3 10 0.0 31 .6 57 ,74 7 Pr im ar y 2.9 5.4 6.7 1.1 29 .0 0.1 0.1 0.0 19 .5 0.0 1.8 31 .5 2.0 10 0.0 45 .2 26 ,46 3 Se co nd ar y + 9.8 15 .5 9.5 1.1 25 .2 0.1 0.2 0.1 14 .5 0.0 1.2 20 .9 1.8 10 0.0 61 .2 36 ,74 3 No n- sta nd ar d cu rri cu lum 0.9 1.4 4.2 0.4 13 .6 0.2 0.0 0.0 55 .0 0.0 0.1 22 .7 1.6 10 0.0 20 .7 3,6 72 Mi ss ing /D K * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * 19 9 W ea lth in de x q ui nt ile s Po or es t 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 14 .5 0.0 0.2 0.0 39 .4 0.0 0.7 42 .4 1.4 10 0.0 15 .9 24 ,96 7 Se co nd 0.1 0.1 2.3 0.3 20 .5 0.1 0.0 0.1 37 .6 0.0 1.7 35 .5 1.7 10 0.0 23 .4 24 ,96 3 Mi dd le 0.3 0.4 4.2 0.5 27 .1 0.1 0.1 0.0 32 .3 0.0 1.3 31 .6 2.2 10 0.0 32 .6 24 ,97 2 Fo ur th 2.2 4.3 10 .1 1.5 38 .0 0.1 0.2 0.0 17 .0 0.0 1.5 23 .5 1.6 10 0.0 56 .2 24 ,97 0 Ri ch es t 17 .0 26 .7 14 .6 1.6 26 .6 0.0 0.5 0.0 5.6 0.0 0.6 5.8 1.0 10 0.0 86 .4 24 ,96 7 To ta l 3.9 6.3 6.5 0.8 25 .3 0.1 0.2 0.0 26 .3 0.0 1.1 27 .7 1.6 10 0.0 42 .9 12 4,8 40 * Un we igh ted O bs er va tio n l es s t ha n 2 5 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 43 Table EN.7: Use of improved water sources and improved sanitation Percentage of household population using both improved drinking water sources and sanitary means of excreta disposal, Nigeria, 2007 Percentage of household population using improved sources of drinking water * Percentage of household population using sanitary means of excreta disposal ** Percentage of household population using improved sources of drinking water and using sanitary means of excreta disposal Number of household members State Abia 63.6 75.7 53.8 1,887 Adamawa 19.0 46.6 13.9 3,044 Akwa-Ibom 53.3 84.5 46.1 3,433 Anambra 57.4 70.6 45.1 2,316 Bauchi 35.2 40.9 14.8 5,840 Bayelsa 36.6 17.5 12.7 682 Benue 24.1 23.0 8.3 4,447 Borno 30.0 33.2 8.2 4,856 Cross-River 30.9 31.5 19.3 3,138 Delta 65.6 59.4 50.9 3,961 Ebonyi 51.2 22.2 18.6 2,086 Edo 60.7 60.3 47.0 2,936 Ekiti 67.4 27.5 22.9 1,171 Enugu 37.8 38.9 11.5 2,551 Gombe 18.2 24.8 7.3 2,468 Imo 62.6 70.3 51.0 2,597 Jigawa 56.0 9.9 7.6 3,373 Kaduna 48.9 38.3 24.6 7,770 Kano 39.8 53.9 24.7 9,722 Katsina 42.8 15.5 8.9 3,398 Kebbi 19.9 22.0 7.3 2,152 Kogi 36.2 21.0 10.0 2,016 Kwara 70.9 34.2 30.1 1,999 Lagos 75.6 84.8 66.5 9,552 Nasarawa 44.7 27.7 17.1 1,978 Niger 61.1 59.7 52.7 2,427 Ogun 73.9 63.3 59.3 2,476 Ondo 57.2 37.5 31.2 2,948 Osun 68.6 37.3 31.8 4,938 Oyo 79.5 33.1 31.8 6,099 Plataeu 31.3 11.7 9.2 2,513 Rivers 61.0 40.9 32.5 3,263 Sokoto 29.3 24.1 10.7 2,966 Taraba 20.2 24.6 5.1 2,928 Yobe 30.9 28.2 5.5 2,670 Zamfara 53.1 20.2 14.6 1,767 State Abuja FCT 67.3 56.2 46.6 473 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 44 Table EN.7: Use of improved water sources and improved sanitation (Cont’d) Percentage of household population using both improved drinking water sources and sanitary means of excreta disposal, Nigeria, 2007 Percentage of household population using improved sources of drinking water * Percentage of household population using sanitary means of excreta disposal ** Percentage of household population using improved sources of drinking water and using sanitary means of excreta disposal Number of household members Area: Sector Rural 37.4 31.0 15.6 86,720 Urban 75.7 70.0 54.6 38,120 Geopolitical zones North central 42.2 29.6 20.4 15,853 North east 42.0 49.8 27.2 31,358 North west 42.5 34.1 18.0 31,147 South east 54.1 55.5 35.5 11,437 South south 54.1 54.3 38.7 17,413 South west 71.1 38.9 35.0 17,632 Education of household head None 36.8 31.6 14.4 57,747 Primary 52.9 45.2 30.8 26,463 Secondary + 65.8 61.2 47.0 36,743 Non-standard curriculum 46.4 20.7 12.6 3,672 Missing/DK *** *** *** 199 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 13.9 15.9 1.1 24,967 Second 31.5 23.4 6.6 24,963 Middle 50.7 32.6 18.4 24,972 Fourth 68.8 56.2 41.2 24,970 Richest 80.5 86.4 70.1 24,967 Total 49.1 42.9 27.5 124,840 * MICS indicator 11; MDG indicator 30 ** MICS indicator 12; MDG indicator 31 *** Unweighted Observation less than 25 cases N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 45 Ta bl e R H. 1: U se o f c on tra ce pt io n Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en ag ed 15 -4 9 y ea rs m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho ar e u sin g (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u sin g) a co nt ra ce pt ive m et ho d, N ig er ia, 20 07 Pe rc en t o f w om en (c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on ) w ho ar e u sin g: Not using any method Female sterilization Male sterilization Pill IUD Injections Implants Condom Female condom Diaphragm/ foam/jelly LAM Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Total Any modern method Any traditional method Any method * Number of women currently married or in union St at e Ab ia 65 .7 1.4 0.0 1.4 0.7 3.2 1.1 4.3 0.0 0. 0 2.1 16 .1 2.9 1.1 10 0.0 12 .1 22 .1 34 .3 19 2 Ad am aw a 98 .8 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 10 0.0 1.0 0.2 1.2 37 2 Ak wa -Ib om 67 .7 0.0 0.0 2.6 1.5 9.4 0.0 1.5 0.0 0. 0 2.9 11 .1 3.2 0.0 10 0.0 15 .0 17 .3 32 .3 37 0 An am br a 72 .3 0.0 0.5 0.9 2.3 2.7 0.0 3.2 0.0 0.0 0.5 15 .5 1.4 0.9 10 0.0 9.5 18 .2 27 .7 26 0 Ba uc hi 99 .0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.5 10 0.0 0.5 0.5 1.0 78 4 Ba ye lsa 85 .4 0.0 0.0 5.2 0.2 1.2 0.2 0.7 0.0 0.0 3.5 2.0 0.2 1.2 10 0.0 7.7 6.9 14 .6 10 1 Be nu e 92 .4 0.7 0.0 1.5 0.0 3.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.7 10 0.0 6.5 1.1 7.6 58 9 Bo rn o 98 .1 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.6 0.0 0.0 10 0.0 0.9 1.0 1.9 82 7 Cr os s-R ive r 82 .9 0.0 0.0 2.0 0.6 4.3 0.3 3.1 0.0 0. 3 0.0 6.0 0.6 0.0 10 0.0 10 .5 6.6 17 .1 37 9 De lta 73 .6 0.3 0.0 4.3 0.3 2.8 0.6 4.3 0.0 0.0 5.0 6.2 1.2 1.2 10 0.0 12 .7 13 .7 26 .4 53 3 Eb on yi 93 .5 0.0 0.0 0.9 0.0 1.6 0.3 0.9 0.0 0. 3 0.0 1.6 0.0 0.9 10 0.0 4.0 2.5 6.5 20 2 Ed o 82 .3 0.5 0.0 3.5 0.5 7.0 0.0 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.3 3.0 0.5 0.8 10 0.0 13 .2 4.6 17 .7 33 7 Ek iti 57 .5 3.1 0.0 7.5 1.6 3.9 0.4 11 .0 0.0 0. 8 5.1 3.1 5.9 0.0 10 0.0 28 .3 14 .2 42 .5 13 1 En ug u 79 .7 0.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 2.0 0.7 4.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 6.6 2.3 2.0 10 0.0 8.0 12 .3 20 .3 26 9 Go mb e 95 .3 0.0 0.2 1.3 0.0 2.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0. 2 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.5 10 0.0 4.0 0.7 4.7 38 3 Im o 91 .2 0.4 0.0 0.4 1.3 0.0 0.0 1.8 0.0 0.0 0.0 1.3 2.2 1.3 10 0.0 3.9 4.8 8.8 22 2 Jig aw a 98 .3 0.1 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.6 10 0.0 0.7 1.0 1.7 60 2 Ka du na 84 .8 0.0 0.1 1.8 0.6 6.3 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.1 5.3 0.1 0.3 0.1 10 0.0 9.3 5.8 15 .2 1,1 64 Ka no 99 .4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 10 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.6 1,5 25 Ka tsi na 98 .9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.1 10 0.0 0.3 0.8 1.1 54 5 Ke bb i 96 .6 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 1.8 0.1 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.3 0.1 0.0 0.5 10 0.0 2.5 0.9 3.4 36 4 Ko gi 91 .3 0.0 0.0 3.3 0.0 2.4 0.3 0.0 0.3 0.3 0.0 1.8 0.3 0.0 10 0.0 6.6 2.1 8.7 22 7 Kw ar a 78 .6 0.3 0.0 3.1 1.3 5.3 0.9 1.9 0.0 0. 0 0.6 2.5 4.7 0.6 10 0.0 12 .9 8.5 21 .4 22 5 La go s 59 .4 0.0 0.0 7.2 3.1 6.7 1.4 5.6 0.0 0.6 5.8 1.9 5.8 2.5 10 0.0 24 .4 16 .1 40 .6 1,4 11 Na sa ra wa 89 .9 0.0 0.0 2.3 0.0 3.7 0.0 0.2 0.0 0. 2 0.4 0.0 0.0 3.3 10 0.0 6.4 3.7 10 .1 31 8 Ni ge r 88 .3 0.1 0.0 4.0 0.4 4.8 0.1 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.4 10 0.0 10 .2 1.5 11 .7 46 3 Og un 63 .6 0.4 0.4 4.5 1.5 8.7 0.0 4.9 0.0 0. 4 0.4 4.5 6.4 4.2 10 0.0 20 .8 15 .5 36 .4 30 9 On do 72 .1 0.0 0.0 6.6 1.6 4.3 0.3 3.6 0.0 0.7 1.3 2.3 5.2 2.0 10 0.0 17 .0 10 .8 27 .9 34 0 Os un 73 .7 0.5 0.0 6.9 5.1 7.4 0.0 1.4 0.0 0. 0 0.5 2.3 1.8 0.5 10 0.0 21 .2 5.1 26 .3 59 8 Oy o 65 .9 1.5 0.3 4.8 3.6 7.6 1.8 4.8 0.0 0.0 1.8 4.5 1.8 1.5 10 0.0 24 .5 9.7 34 .1 83 9 Pl ata eu 82 .6 0.0 0.0 5.3 0.6 8.6 0.6 0.2 0.2 0. 0 0.6 0.6 0.0 0.6 10 0.0 15 .6 1.8 17 .4 33 6 Ri ve rs 82 .6 0.0 0.0 4.2 0.8 4.5 0.0 3.8 0.0 0.4 0.8 1.5 0.4 1.1 10 0.0 13 .6 3.8 17 .4 37 1 So ko to 98 .6 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.1 1.1 0.0 0.0 10 0.0 0.1 1.3 1.4 51 5 Ta ra ba 97 .7 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.2 0.9 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.4 10 0.0 2.0 0.4 2.3 40 7 Yo be 97 .6 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.9 10 0.0 1.2 1.2 2.4 35 1 Za mf ar a 97 .8 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.4 0.0 0.1 0.5 10 0.0 1.2 1.0 2.2 31 6 Ab uja F CT 81 .2 0.0 0.0 2.9 2.7 5.4 0.0 2.1 0.0 0. 4 0.2 2.9 0.8 1.4 10 0.0 13 .4 5.4 18 .8 70 N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 46 Ta bl e R H. 1: U se o f c on tra ce pt io n (C on t’d ) Pe rc en ta ge o f w om en ag ed 15 -4 9 y ea rs m ar rie d or in u ni on w ho ar e u sin g (o r w ho se p ar tn er is u sin g) a co nt ra ce pt ive m et ho d, N ig er ia, 20 07 Pe rc en t o f w om en (c ur re nt ly m ar rie d or in u ni on ) w ho ar e u sin g: Not using any method Female sterilization Male sterilization Pill IUD Injections Implants Condom Female condom Diaphragm/ foam/jelly LAM Periodic abstinence Withdrawal Other Total Any modern method Any traditional method Any method * Number of women currently married or in Ar ea : S ec to r Ru ra l 90 .3 0.1 0.0 1.5 0.5 2.5 0.1 0.8 0.0 0.1 1.0 1.6 0.8 0.7 10 0.0 5.6 4.1 9.7 12 ,12 6 Ur ba n 73 .5 0.5 0.1 4.8 2.0 5.6 0.8 3.6 0.0 0.2 2.5 2.9 2.4 1.2 10 0.0 17 .6 9.0 26 .5 5,1 21 Ge op ol iti ca l z on es No rth ce ntr al 87 .9 0.2 0.0 3.1 0.4 4.8 0.4 0.5 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.7 0.7 0.9 10 0.0 9.5 2.6 12 .1 2,2 29 No rth ea st 86 .0 0.0 0.0 2.6 1.0 2.5 0.5 1.8 0.0 0. 2 1.9 0.8 1.8 1.0 10 0.0 8.5 5.5 14 .0 4,5 34 No rth w es t 95 .4 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.1 1.8 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 1.4 0.2 0.2 0.2 10 0.0 2.6 1.9 4.6 5,0 31 So uth ea st 80 .4 0.3 0.1 1.0 0.9 1.9 0.4 2.9 0.0 0. 1 0.8 8.3 1.8 1.3 10 0.0 7.6 12 .1 19 .6 1,1 45 So uth so uth 77 .8 0.2 0.0 3.5 0.7 5.1 0.2 2.9 0.0 0.1 2.1 5.5 1.2 0.7 10 0.0 12 .7 9.5 22 .2 2,0 92 So uth w es t 68 .1 0.9 0.2 5.8 3.3 6.9 0.8 4.1 0.0 0. 2 1.4 3.5 3.2 1.6 10 0.0 22 .2 9.7 31 .9 2,2 16 Ag e 15 -1 9 95 .8 0.0 0.0 0.6 0.0 0.2 0.0 1.2 0.0 0.0 1.5 0.3 0.1 0.3 10 0.0 2.0 2.2 4.2 1,0 34 20 -2 4 92 .0 0.0 0.0 1.2 0.1 1.0 0.0 1.3 0.0 0.1 1.3 1.5 1.0 0.5 10 0.0 3.7 4.3 8.0 2,3 97 25 -2 9 85 .7 0.1 0.1 2.8 0.4 2.9 0.2 2.1 0.0 0.0 2.0 1.4 1.3 0.9 10 0.0 8.7 5.5 14 .3 4,0 08 30 -3 4 82 .5 0.2 0.0 3.3 0.9 4.5 0.4 1.7 0.0 0.0 2.0 2.2 1.8 0.5 10 0.0 11 .0 6.5 17 .5 3,5 57 35 -3 9 80 .4 0.2 0.1 2.7 1.4 5.5 0.5 2.1 0.0 0.2 1.5 2.8 1.6 1.1 10 0.0 12 .7 7.0 19 .6 2,8 50 40 -4 4 84 .2 0.5 0.0 2.5 2.1 4.3 0.7 0.9 0.0 0.3 0.2 2.3 0.8 1.1 10 0.0 11 .4 4.5 15 .8 1,9 98 45 -4 9 84 .1 0.5 0.0 2.4 1.4 3.5 0.6 0.9 0.0 0.1 0.2 3.4 1.1 1.6 10 0.0 9.6 6.3 15 .9 1,4 04 Nu m be r of liv in g ch ild re n 0 97 .9 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.6 0.0 0. 0 0.0 0.4 0.1 0.3 10 0.0 1.3 0.9 2.1 2,2 90 1 88 .0 0.1 0.0 1.9 0.1 1.4 0.0 2.6 0.0 0.0 1.8 2.0 1.7 0.5 10 0.0 6.1 5.9 12 .0 2,3 87 2 84 .3 0.1 0.0 2.9 1.0 3.5 0.8 2.0 0.0 0. 1 1.8 1.5 1.2 0.8 10 0.0 10 .3 5.4 15 .7 2,8 97 3 81 .8 0.1 0.2 3.2 1.0 4.0 0.1 2.2 0.0 0.0 2.4 1.8 2.0 1.1 10 0.0 10 .8 7.4 18 .2 2,7 89 4+ 82 .1 0.4 0.0 2.9 1.4 5.0 0.4 1.3 0.0 0. 2 1.2 2.8 1.3 1.0 10 0.0 11 .6 6.3 17 .9 6,8 85 Ed uc at io n No ne 95 .5 0.1 0.0 0.8 0.2 1.3 0.1 0.2 0.0 0. 0 0.5 0.6 0.4 0.4 10 0.0 2.6 1.9 4.5 8,6 43 Pr im ar y 79 .6 0.4 0.1 3.7 0.7 4.8 0.3 1.9 0.0 0.1 2.4 3.3 1.6 1.2 10 0.0 12 .0 8.4 20 .4 3,5 63 Se co nd ar y + 70 .2 0.3 0.1 4.8 2.4 6.6 0.8 4.2 0.0 0. 3 2.5 3.8 2.8 1.3 10 0.0 19 .4 10 .4 29 .8 4,7 12 No n- sta nd ar d 96 .9 0.0 0.0 1.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.7 0.0 0.1 1.0 10 0.0 1.2 1.8 3.1 32 6 M is si ng /D K ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 2 W ea lth in de x q ui nt ile s Po or es t 96 .7 0.0 0.0 0.5 0.1 1.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0. 0 0.3 0.6 0.1 0.4 10 0.0 2.0 1.3 3.3 3,6 94 Se co nd 93 .4 0.0 0.0 1.0 0.2 1.6 0.0 0.5 0.0 0.0 1.0 1.0 0.8 0.5 10 0.0 3.3 3.3 6.6 3,6 56 Mi dd le 89 .5 0.1 0.0 1.4 0.6 2.9 0.1 0.7 0.0 0. 0 1.5 1.5 0.6 0.9 10 0.0 6.0 4.5 10 .5 3,1 23 Fo ur th 79 .1 0.5 0.1 4.2 0.8 4.9 0.4 2.6 0.0 0.3 1.4 3.2 1.7 0.8 10 0.0 13 .8 7.1 20 .9 3,2 17 Ri ch es t 67 .2 0.3 0.1 5.3 2.9 6.9 0.9 4.4 0.0 0. 3 3.1 3.9 3.2 1.5 10 0.0 21 .1 11 .7 32 .8 3,5 58 To ta l 85 .3 0.2 0.0 2.5 0.9 3.4 0.3 1.6 0.0 0.1 1.4 2.0 1.3 0.8 10 0.0 9.1 5.5 14 .7 17 ,24 7 * M IC S ind ica tor 21 ; M DG in dic ato r 1 9c ** U nw ei gh te d O bs er va tio n le ss th an 2 5 ca se s Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 47 Table ED.2: Primary school entry Percentage of children of primary school entry age attending grade 1, Nigeria, 2007 Percentage of children of primary school entry age currently attending grade 1 * Number of children of primary school entry age Sex Male 44.2 2,247 Female 44.6 2,037 States Abia 82.9 47 Adamawa 10.2 111 Akwa-Ibom 76.9 109 Anambra 78.1 55 Bauchi 8.1 266 Bayelsa 71.4 22 Benue 61.8 170 Borno 11.1 227 Cross-River 71.4 83 Delta 73.2 92 Ebonyi 60.6 55 Edo 70.4 73 Ekiti 58.8 26 Enugu 85.0 67 Gombe 15.1 110 Imo 72.6 59 Jigawa 23.9 140 Kaduna 50.6 303 Kano 25.9 427 Katsina 36.1 138 Kebbi 15.5 107 Kogi 65.3 66 Kwara 71.6 63 Lagos 70.0 270 Nasarawa 49.3 68 Niger 45.6 97 Ogun 75.0 71 Ondo 69.1 82 Osun 70.0 138 Oyo 76.5 185 Plataeu 53.8 74 Rivers 72.3 79 Sokoto 17.4 116 Taraba 5.2 98 Yobe 7.4 114 Zamfara 14.7 66 Abuja FCT 65.0 14 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 48 Table ED.2: Primary school entry (Cont’d) Percentage of children of primary school entry age attending grade 1, Nigeria, 2007 Percentage of children of primary school entry age currently attending grade 1 * Number of children of primary school entry age Area: Sector Rural 39.4 3,185 Urban 58.8 1,099 Age at beginning of school year 6 44.4 4,284 Geopolitical zones North central 58.0 552 North east 23.2 1,196 North west 30.4 1,296 South east 76.0 282 South south 73.1 457 South west 72.4 501 Mother's education None 29.6 2,527 Primary 66.0 813 Secondary + 68.7 868 Non-standard curriculum 26.6 77 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 19.9 1,057 Second 36.0 971 Middle 48.7 865 Fourth 63.8 726 Richest 68.8 664 Total 44.4 4,284 * MICS Indicator 54 Table based on estimated age as of the beginning of the school year Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 49 Table ED.3: Primary school net attendance ratio Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school or secondary school (NAR), Nigeria, 2007 Male Female Total Net attendance ratio Number of children Net attendance ratio Number of children Net attendance ratio Number of children State Abia 98.9 124 98.5 137 98.7 261 Adamawa 11.4 322 13.8 298 12.6 621 Akwa-Ibom 96.2 340 94.9 273 95.6 613 Anambra 96.6 156 97.0 148 96.8 304 Bauchi 11.6 655 7.1 573 9.5 1,228 Bayelsa 97.1 55 95.9 55 96.5 110 Benue 86.5 457 86.2 399 86.4 856 Borno 19.0 496 18.2 453 18.6 949 Cross-River 98.9 298 97.6 220 98.3 518 Delta 96.3 267 95.7 266 96.0 533 Ebonyi 93.4 168 88.4 171 90.9 338 Edo 94.1 231 94.2 203 94.2 435 Ekiti 99.4 79 98.8 83 99.1 161 Enugu 96.7 205 97.2 184 97.0 389 Gombe 32.9 260 23.6 268 28.2 528 Imo 95.8 180 98.1 151 96.8 331 Jigawa 50.5 325 44.6 339 47.5 664 Kaduna 76.2 787 72.4 739 74.4 1,526 Kano 54.4 884 40.6 930 47.3 1,814 Katsina 48.4 351 35.7 354 42.0 705 Kebbi 31.8 246 18.2 232 25.2 478 Kogi 95.7 210 93.1 180 94.5 390 Kwara 96.0 178 91.3 156 93.8 333 Lagos 98.1 602 96.8 610 97.5 1,212 Nasarawa 82.1 191 79.4 185 80.7 376 Niger 74.9 240 69.1 217 72.2 457 Ogun 98.8 195 95.8 194 97.3 389 Ondo 98.9 277 98.8 246 98.8 523 Osun 98.9 426 100.0 390 99.4 816 Oyo 95.2 479 94.1 465 94.7 944 Plataeu 73.7 250 76.8 214 75.1 464 Rivers 95.0 220 96.8 230 95.9 449 Sokoto 26.9 322 22.6 296 24.8 617 Taraba 8.6 304 6.9 294 7.7 599 Yobe 9.3 285 8.0 270 8.7 555 Zamfara 31.7 188 18.3 168 25.4 356 Abuja FCT 90.6 38 90.6 40 90.6 79 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 50 Table ED.3: Primary school net attendance ratio (Contd) Percentage of children of primary school age attending primary school or secondary school (NAR), Nigeria, 2007 Male Female Total Net attendance ratio Number of children Net attendance ratio Number of children Net attendance ratio Number of children Area: Sector Rural 60.7 8,342 55.8 7,798 58.4 16,140 Urban 81.8 2,950 80.4 2,831 81.1 5,780 Age at beginning of school year 6 58.8 2,247 57.8 2,037 58.3 4,284 7 62.7 2,151 59.0 2,113 60.9 4,264 8 69.8 1,446 68.2 1,467 69.0 2,913 9 64.8 2,445 59.8 2,195 62.4 4,641 10 74.7 1,068 72.3 944 73.6 2,012 11 73.2 1,933 64.6 1,874 69.0 3,807 Geopolitical zones North central 84.5 1,564 82.8 1,390 83.7 2,954 North east 32.0 2,925 31.1 2,766 31.5 5,691 North west 52.8 3,103 43.5 3,057 48.2 6,160 South east 96.2 833 95.7 790 95.9 1,623 South south 96.3 1,411 95.8 1,247 96.1 2,658 South west 97.7 1,456 97.1 1,377 97.4 2,833 Mother's education None 48.4 6,549 42.4 6,256 45.5 12,804 Primary 91.3 2,425 90.0 2,092 90.7 4,518 Secondary + 95.2 2,113 96.1 2,097 95.7 4,209 Non-standard curriculum 40.9 203 42.1 183 41.5 386 Missing/DK ** 1 ** 1 ** 2 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 35.6 2,612 28.5 2,367 32.2 4,979 Second 53.5 2,462 48.0 2,382 50.8 4,844 Middle 73.5 2,377 68.2 2,205 70.9 4,581 Fourth 89.6 2,095 87.7 1,914 88.7 4,009 Richest 92.2 1,746 92.6 1,761 92.4 3,507 Total 66.2 11,292 62.4 10,629 64.4 21,921 * MICS indicator 55; MDG indicator 6 Table based on estimated age as of the beginning of the school year ** Unweighted Observation less than 25 cases Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 51 Table ED.6: Primary school completion and transition to secondary education. Primary school completion rate and transition rate to secondary education, Nigeria, 2007 Net primary school completion rate * Number of children of primary school completion age Transition rate to secondary education ** Number of children who were in the last grade of primary school the previous year Sex Male 38.2 1,933 94.0 1,205 Female 33.6 1,874 91.4 982 Missing . 0 . 0 Area: Sector Rural 31.0 2,789 91.0 1,354 Urban 49.5 1,018 95.8 833 Geopolitical zones North central 41.0 525 92.1 413 North east 20.7 886 95.4 307 North west 17.6 991 84.2 261 South east 49.8 350 92.7 312 South south 62.1 529 93.8 483 South west 55.6 526 96.1 411 Mother's education None 22.5 2,242 92.1 715 Primary 47.5 791 96.1 586 Secondary + 66.2 714 97.8 603 Non-standard curriculum 27.7 59 (90.1) 18 Missing/DK 0.0 1 . 0 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 12.8 796 81.7 173 Second 21.7 840 85.2 329 Middle 37.6 800 93.5 482 Fourth 52.0 782 95.3 597 Richest 64.0 588 97.1 605 Total 36.0 3,807 92.8 2,187 * MICS Indicator 59; MDG Indicator 7b ** MICS Indicator 58 Table based on estimated age as of the beginning of the school year ( ) Unweighted Observation less than 50 cases Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 52 Table ED.8: Female Youth literacy Percentage of women aged 15-24 years that are literate, Nigeria, 2007 Percentage literate * Percentage not known Number of women aged 15-24 years State Abia 93.6 0.0 150 Adamawa 15.6 0.3 182 Akwa-Ibom 77.9 0.4 270 Anambra 88.4 0.0 203 Bauchi 5.4 0.0 320 Bayelsa 80.5 0.0 49 Benue 57.4 0.4 300 Borno 7.7 0.4 292 Cross-River 78.7 0.0 269 Delta 83.2 0.0 335 Ebonyi 74.6 0.0 176 Edo 83.7 0.0 233 Ekiti 89.2 0.0 76 Enugu 86.4 0.0 244 Gombe 14.5 2.2 159 Imo 94.6 0.0 197 Jigawa 9.9 14.5 182 Kaduna 45.2 1.0 518 Kano 12.7 2.6 554 Katsina 7.6 6.4 191 Kebbi 16.6 0.0 100 Kogi 67.2 0.0 120 Kwara 73.7 2.0 108 Lagos 91.8 0.0 764 Nasarawa 51.2 0.5 143 Niger 32.5 2.6 167 Ogun 77.8 1.0 116 Ondo 85.5 0.0 223 Osun 89.1 0.7 378 Oyo 80.6 0.7 365 Plataeu 58.3 0.4 162 Rivers 81.3 0.4 317 Sokoto 7.1 2.2 164 Taraba 7.2 0.0 204 Yobe 5.0 0.3 155 Zamfara 17.6 6.5 99 Abuja FCT 60.6 0.4 36 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 53 Table ED.8: Female Youth literacy (Cont’d) Percentage of women aged 15-24 years that are literate, Nigeria, 2007 Percentage literate * Percentage not known Number of women aged 15-24 years Area: Sector Rural 45.4 1.3 5,613 Urban 77.2 0.6 2,905 Geopolitical zones North central 55.6 0.9 1,035 North east 39.3 0.3 2,077 North west 21.2 3.8 1,807 South east 87.5 0.0 970 South south 81.0 0.2 1,472 South west 84.6 0.6 1,157 Education of household head None 0.2 1.2 2,585 Primary 14.4 3.0 1,231 Secondary + 100.0 0.0 4,596 Non-standard curriculum 14.7 24.9 100 Missing/DK ** ** 6 Age 15-19 61.6 0.7 4,215 20-24 51.0 1.5 4,303 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 14.3 1.1 1,317 Second 27.0 2.8 1,508 Middle 53.9 1.0 1,740 Fourth 75.3 0.8 1,880 Richest 88.9 0.1 2,074 Total 56.3 1.1 8,518 * MICS Indicator 60; MDG Indicator 8 ** Unweighted Observation less than 25 cases N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 54 Ta bl e C P. 1: B irt h re gi st ra tio n Pe rce nt dis trib uti on of ch ild re n a ge d 0 -5 9 m on ths by w he the r b irth is re gis ter ed an d r ea so ns fo r n on -re gis tra tio n, Ni ge ria , 2 00 7 Bi rth is no t r eg ist er ed be ca us e: Birth is registered * Don't know if birth is registered Number of children aged 0- 59 months Does not consider it important Does not know where to register Does not know benefit of registration Other Don't know Costs too much Must travel too far Didn't know child should be registered Total Number of children aged 0-59 months without birth registration Se x Ma le 24 .0 3.8 8,3 96 2.5 9.9 22 .6 23 .5 13 .9 16 .8 5.1 5.7 10 0.0 6,0 65 Fe ma le 22 .5 3.5 8,1 53 2.7 8.8 22 .6 25 .5 13 .3 16 .4 5.1 5.6 10 0.0 6,0 28 St at e Ab ia 42 .8 2.7 22 4 2.2 2.8 22 .1 26 .5 23 .8 4.4 12 .7 5.5 10 0.0 12 2 Ad am aw a 35 .0 2.4 27 1 0.8 28 .0 19 .5 22 .2 14 .0 11 .3 0.8 3.5 10 0.0 17 0 Ak wa -Ib om 14 .7 9.8 48 5 6.8 1.4 27 .9 16 .9 25 .1 12 .1 7.3 2.5 10 0.0 36 6 An am br a 43 .1 1.9 25 9 0.0 4.1 48 .0 8.2 11 .1 8.8 5.8 14 .0 10 0.0 14 2 Ba uc hi 23 .0 0.3 83 7 1.5 27 .5 20 .5 15 .6 18 .5 14 .7 1.0 0.7 10 0.0 64 3 Ba ye lsa 6.4 5.1 11 3 2.1 4.9 31 .1 14 .8 36 .0 7.4 0.7 3.0 10 0.0 10 0 Be nu e 9.2 2.9 58 4 1.4 5.8 33 .9 5.6 25 .5 10 .3 3.7 13 .8 10 0.0 51 4 Bo rn o 20 .8 4.2 55 9 1.2 18 .7 6.7 24 .8 3.8 33 .2 6.4 5.2 10 0.0 41 9 Cr os s-R ive r 27 .2 5.0 39 3 3.7 14 .8 20 .1 12 .7 12 .3 13 .9 0.4 22 .1 10 0.0 26 6 De lta 16 .1 4.6 54 1 4.2 3.4 34 .9 17 .6 9.6 18 .4 6.1 5.7 10 0.0 42 9 Eb on yi 15 .6 2.0 27 1 0.5 3.8 28 .1 4.1 59 .7 2.7 0.5 0.5 10 0.0 22 3 Ed o 30 .9 10 .2 35 0 5.3 5.8 13 .3 25 .8 17 .3 14 .7 8.0 9.8 10 0.0 20 6 Ek iti 54 .6 3.0 13 8 2.6 8.7 10 .4 36 .5 25 .2 7.0 2.6 7.0 10 0.0 59 En ug u 21 .7 6.9 28 5 3.0 2.1 45 .6 8.0 28 .3 7.6 4.6 0.8 10 0.0 20 4 Go mb e 7.2 0.7 29 9 0.0 15 .2 20 .1 45 .4 5.7 9.0 0.8 3.8 10 0.0 27 5 Im o 23 .1 7.3 25 4 3.9 3.3 31 .5 13 .3 16 .6 14 .4 1.1 16 .0 10 0.0 17 6 Jig aw a 6.2 1.0 60 6 0.0 3.3 20 .0 37 .5 5.9 32 .0 0.5 0.8 10 0.0 56 2 Ka du na 17 .2 1.2 1,2 16 3.4 1.8 37 .7 15 .5 14 .6 21 .5 2.3 3.1 10 0.0 99 2 Ka no 10 .7 2.0 1,5 23 2.5 8.8 16 .0 41 .0 3.1 21 .9 2.7 4.0 10 0.0 1,3 29 Ka tsi na 14 .8 3.7 44 1 2.5 13 .0 6.7 42 .0 7.0 15 .1 2.7 11 .0 10 0.0 36 0 Ke bb i 7.9 2.8 25 3 0.9 1.3 24 .2 27 .1 13 .1 26 .4 2.0 5.1 10 0.0 22 6 Ko gi 29 .2 1.6 21 0 2.3 3.7 65 .7 6.0 6.5 6.9 7.4 1.4 10 0.0 14 6 Kw ar a 35 .9 5.0 23 3 5.3 7.9 30 .2 29 .6 7.4 12 .7 2.6 4.2 10 0.0 13 8 La go s 59 .4 0.0 1,3 43 4.3 4.3 5.8 24 .5 12 .9 17 .3 26 .6 4.3 10 0.0 54 6 Na sa ra wa 13 .9 3.2 26 0 6.5 3.4 17 .9 14 .0 30 .6 20 .5 3.6 3.6 10 0.0 21 5 Ni ge r 15 .2 5.5 37 0 0.6 2.6 21 .6 26 .5 12 .7 21 .3 1.1 13 .6 10 0.0 29 3 Og un 29 .3 1.8 34 9 11 .3 5.1 7.2 37 .4 14 .9 11 .8 10 .8 1.5 10 0.0 24 0 On do 35 .3 4.0 34 8 1.5 5.5 13 .5 36 .0 16 .5 13 .0 5.0 9.0 10 0.0 21 2 Os un 40 .4 4.8 57 1 0.0 3.2 29 .4 19 .8 7.1 15 .1 19 .8 5.6 10 0.0 31 3 Oy o 32 .0 7.1 80 9 0.5 7.3 25 .2 35 .0 11 .7 4.9 14 .1 1.5 10 0.0 49 3 Pl ata eu 16 .3 5.6 32 1 3.1 6.6 41 .0 13 .4 10 .8 14 .2 4.6 6.3 10 0.0 25 1 Ri ve rs 24 .7 3.0 38 0 4.6 5.1 10 .6 37 .0 13 .4 14 .4 1.9 13 .0 10 0.0 27 5 So ko to 4.7 0.2 34 5 0.7 8.0 14 .4 42 .8 5.4 26 .1 0.0 2.6 10 0.0 32 8 Ta ra ba 12 .6 14 .8 37 7 3.3 34 .1 17 .4 8.7 24 .0 6.0 1.6 4.9 10 0.0 27 4 Yo be 13 .5 1.4 38 4 2.8 40 .9 15 .4 19 .9 7.2 8.2 3.4 2.1 10 0.0 32 7 Za mf ar a 7.0 14 .6 28 3 0.3 14 .0 18 .5 13 .7 12 .9 20 .8 0.6 19 .1 10 0.0 22 2 Ab uja F CT 34 .0 4.9 61 3.4 6.1 19 .5 24 .4 20 .2 12 .6 6.9 6.9 10 0.0 38 N ig er ia M IC S 20 07 P re lim in ar y Re po rt 55 Ta bl e C P. 1: B irt h re gi st ra tio n (C on t’d ) Pe rce nt dis trib uti on of ch ild re n a ge d 0 -5 9 m on ths by w he the r b irth is re gis ter ed an d r ea so ns fo r n on -re gis tra tio n, Ni ge ria , 2 00 7 Bi rth is no t r eg ist er ed be ca us e: Birth is registered * Don’t know if birth is registered Number of children aged 0-59 months Does not consider it important Does not know where to register Does not know benefit of registration Other Don’t know Costs too much Must travel too far Didn’t know child should be registered Total Number of children aged 0-59 months without birth registration Ar ea : S ec to r Ru ra l 14 .9 4.0 11 ,55 0 2.5 10 .0 23 .5 23 .5 14 .4 17 .4 3.0 5.7 10 0.0 9,3 70 Ur ba n 42 .7 2.8 4,9 99 2.9 7.1 19 .4 28 .2 11 .0 13 .7 12 .2 5.3 10 0.0 2,7 23 No rth ce ntr al 17 .9 4.0 2,0 41 2.7 5.0 32 .8 14 .4 18 .1 14 .3 3.7 9.1 10 0.0 1,5 94 No rth ea st 32 .5 2.3 4,0 70 2.2 22 .4 14 .2 22 .2 12 .6 15 .7 7.5 3.3 10 0.0 2,6 53 No rth w es t 11 .4 2.5 4,6 68 2.0 6.5 21 .5 32 .2 8.0 23 .1 1.9 4.7 10 0.0 4,0 19 So uth ea st 28 .6 4.2 1,2 92 1.9 3.2 35 .3 10 .7 30 .5 7.5 4.2 6.7 10 0.0 86 8 So uth so uth 21 .0 6.4 2,2 63 4.8 5.5 23 .9 20 .8 16 .7 14 .5 4.7 9.2 10 0.0 1,6 44 So uth w es t 35 .7 4.9 2,2 15 2.6 5.7 20 .4 32 .1 12 .6 10 .0 12 .9 3.9 10 0.0 1,3 16 Ag e 0- 11 m on ths 20 .0 2.5 3,3 74 2.9 7.4 21 .4 24 .6 14 .2 15 .5 7.5 6.4 10 0.0 2,6 13 12 -2 3 m on ths 23 .4 3.0 3,1 87 2.0 9.8 23 .2 24 .2 14 .1 15 .7 5.3 5.6 10 0.0 2,3 45 24 -3 5 m on ths 22 .7 4.1 3,4 27 3.0 9.6 22 .3 24 .2 13 .5 17 .9 4.6 4.9 10 0.0 2,5 09 36 -4 7 m on ths 24 .8 4.0 3,7 27 2.6 11 .1 21 .8 25 .1 12 .6 16 .9 3.8 6.1 10 0.0 2,6 53 48 -5 9 m on ths 25 .7 4.6 2,8 33 2.3 8.5 25 .1 24 .3 13 .9 17 .0 4.0 4.9 10 0.0 1,9 74 Mo the r’s E du ca tio n No ne 12 .6 3.7 7,7 26 1.9 13 .0 20 .5 26 .0 11 .8 20 .0 2.0 4.8 10 0.0 6,4 65 Pr im ar y 21 .7 4.4 3,8 34 3.4 5.1 26 .2 23 .1 16 .7 13 .4 5.1 6.8 10 0.0 2,8 36 Se co nd ar y 43 .2 2.4 4,6 96 3.6 4.8 23 .9 21 .7 15 .3 11 .2 13 .2 6.2 10 0.0 2,5 54 No n- sta nd ar d 7.6 11 .4 29 1 0.7 7.8 23 .9 31 .7 8.3 18 .1 1.8 7.7 10 0.0 23 5 M is si ng /D K ** ** 3 ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** ** 3 W ea lth in de x q ui nt ile s Po or es t 9.0 3.3 3,2 14 1.3 16 .3 21 .4 25 .3 10 .8 18 .7 1.2 4.8 10 0.0 2,8 20 Se co nd 9.3 4.4 3,3 89 1.9 11 .8 23 .5 22 .6 14 .7 17 .9 1.9 5.8 10 0.0 2,9 24 Mi dd le 15 .6 4.4 3,2 93 3.9 6.2 23 .6 23 .0 15 .6 17 .5 3.9 6.2 10 0.0 2,6 32 Fo ur th 31 .4 4.2 3,3 39 2.8 4.2 23 .8 26 .2 13 .9 14 .9 8.1 6.1 10 0.0 2,1 51 Ri ch es t 50 .9 1.8 3,3 15 3.4 4.5 19 .8 27 .0 12 .9 11 .1 16 .0 5.2 10 0.0 1,5 66 To ta l 23 .3 3.6 16 ,54 9 2.6 9.3 22 .6 24 .5 13 .6 16 .6 5.1 5.6 10 0.0 12 ,09 3 * M IC S ind ica tor 62 ** U nw ei gh te d O bs er va tio n le ss th an 2 5 ca se s Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 56 Table HA.1: Knowledge of preventing HIV transmission Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, Nigeria, 2007 Percentage who know transmission can be prevented by: He ar d o f A ID S Us ing a co nd om ev er y t im e Ab sta ini ng fro m se x Ha vin g on ly on e fai thf ul un inf ec ted Kn ow s a ll t hr ee wa ys Kn ow s a t le as t on e w ay Do es n’t kn ow an y wa y Nu mb er of wo me n State Abia 96.0 80.9 51.7 75.9 41.7 91.0 9.0 397 Adamawa 36.2 27.2 21.0 23.2 17.3 29.4 70.6 552 Akwa-Ibom 98.9 84.5 64.6 67.2 47.8 88.8 11.2 686 Anambra 98.4 72.9 40.3 64.7 29.3 84.3 15.7 528 Bauchi 36.2 24.9 11.3 13.3 5.1 28.3 71.7 1,072 Bayelsa 85.4 64.5 47.1 33.8 19.0 74.3 25.7 148 Benue 94.7 76.0 40.5 47.8 20.1 84.8 15.2 839 Borno 38.3 27.4 20.6 21.1 9.7 35.3 64.7 904 Cross-River 92.2 86.6 75.1 64.6 53.5 90.4 9.6 711 Delta 85.0 60.3 52.5 54.2 31.2 77.4 22.6 896 Ebonyi 85.9 69.2 33.0 49.6 24.1 76.7 23.3 428 Edo 88.0 61.4 41.8 49.8 26.7 71.8 28.2 597 Ekiti 96.0 83.6 67.8 44.4 31.8 91.6 8.4 220 Enugu 98.6 73.8 49.1 74.2 38.8 88.4 11.6 556 Gombe 59.4 37.4 29.9 32.6 23.3 42.0 58.0 438 Imo 96.3 92.0 66.3 83.1 59.7 95.1 4.9 501 Jigawa 61.6 56.9 22.6 26.7 12.2 58.1 41.9 636 Kaduna 93.1 84.6 57.8 57.5 30.5 89.8 10.2 1,452 Kano 84.3 80.0 44.2 50.7 28.5 83.4 16.6 1,632 Katsina 57.6 45.7 15.6 29.3 9.4 49.4 50.6 589 Kebbi 57.5 48.9 31.5 42.5 22.9 55.0 45.0 386 Kogi 82.4 65.0 44.8 36.1 21.6 73.0 27.0 360 Kwara 82.3 66.2 44.5 36.3 18.6 75.7 24.3 335 Lagos 95.0 75.3 60.9 56.7 38.8 83.4 16.6 2,344 Nasarawa 77.1 63.6 40.4 52.9 26.9 71.4 28.6 406 Niger 59.8 49.9 41.9 45.4 32.6 57.4 42.6 539 Ogun 92.8 80.7 73.7 46.6 39.4 87.4 12.6 436 Ondo 90.9 76.4 64.3 44.0 30.6 84.3 15.7 590 Osun 82.2 66.3 41.2 35.7 20.9 73.3 26.7 989 Oyo 76.4 57.6 45.6 40.6 23.4 68.6 31.4 1,161 Plataeu 80.7 61.1 42.0 47.9 25.7 69.8 30.2 485 Rivers 93.1 72.6 57.3 69.7 44.2 83.2 16.8 739 Sokoto 57.7 55.8 42.3 35.6 21.7 57.7 42.3 548 Taraba 32.0 20.0 15.4 19.1 8.8 27.3 72.7 585 Yobe 27.8 22.5 6.7 16.0 5.0 24.0 76.0 447 Zamfara 53.0 38.2 23.9 30.8 17.7 44.3 55.7 328 Abuja FCT 88.6 76.9 56.4 67.9 45.8 83.4 16.6 105 Nigeria MICS 2007 Preliminary Report 57 Table HA.1: Knowledge of preventing HIV transmission (Contd) Percentage of women aged 15-49 years who know the main ways of preventing HIV transmission, Nigeria, 2007 Percentage who know transmission can be prevented by: He ar d o f A ID S Us ing a co nd om ev er y t im e Ab sta ini ng fro m se x Ha vin g on ly on e fai thf ul un inf ec ted t Kn ow s a ll t hr ee wa ys Kn ow s a t le as t on e w ay Do es n’t kn ow an y wa y Nu mb er of wo me n Area: Sector Rural 71.9 58.6 37.9 42.6 24.0 64.8 35.2 16,320 Urban 87.9 72.1 55.7 53.1 34.3 80.9 19.1 8,245 Geopolitical zones North central 81.0 65.1 42.5 46.1 25.0 73.4 26.6 3,069 North east 58.8 44.3 33.1 33.4 20.9 50.3 49.7 6,341 North west 74.9 67.9 40.0 44.3 23.5 71.8 28.2 5,571 South east 95.4 77.7 48.3 69.9 38.9 87.3 12.7 2,411 South south 91.0 72.4 58.0 60.1 39.8 82.1 17.9 3,777 South west 84.0 68.1 52.6 40.8 26.5 76.6 23.4 3,396 Age 15-19 78.5 63.4 44.2 48.8 29.6 70.7 29.3 4,215 20-24 79.6 66.7 48.3 49.2 30.8 74.0 26.0 4,303 25-29 76.9 63.2 44.7 44.4 26.7 70.5 29.5 4,972 30-34 76.2 62.0 42.7 45.3 26.7 68.8 31.2 3,988 35-39 77.2 63.2 44.1 45.5 27.1 69.8 30.2 3,150 40-44 74.0 58.5 37.9 43.1 22.6 66.0 34.0 2,270 45-49 76.4 62.0 39.5 44.0 24.3 68.2 31.8 1,666 Education None 56.6 45.9 26.3 31.5 15.4 50.6 49.4 9,843 Primary 85.9 68.8 48.4 51.7 30.0 77.3 22.7 4,603 Secondary + 94.5 78.2 59.8 59.0 38.7 87.0 13.0 9,761 Non- standard curriculum 64.0 52.7 32.3 27.6 15.1 59.2 40.8 352 Missing/DK * * * * * * * 6 Wealth index quintiles Poorest 52.5 41.9 23.5 28.0 14.1 46.1 53.9 4,443 Second 63.9 51.6 32.4 37.2 20.4 57.4 42.6 4,569 Middle 79.5 66.7 44.1 48.5 27.1 73.5 26.5 4,617 Fourth 88.8 72.5 52.2 52.9 31.9 81.2 18.8 5,113 Richest 94.7 77.4 61.0 59.2 39.4 86.4 13.6 5,824 Total 77.3 63.1 43.9 46.1 27.4 70.2 29.8 24,565 * Unweighted Observation less than 25 cases

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