Jordan - Demographic and Health Survey - 2019

Publication date: 2019

Jordan Population and Family Health Survey 2017-18 Jordan 2017-18 Population and Fam ily H ealth Survey THE HASHEMITE KINGDOM OF JORDAN Jordan Population and Family Health Survey 2017-18 Department of Statistics Amman, Jordan The DHS Program ICF Rockville, Maryland, USA March 2019 The 2017-18 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) was implemented by the Department of Statistics (DOS) from early October 2017 to January 2018. The funding for the JPFHS was provided by the government of Jordan, the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). ICF provided technical assistance through The DHS Program, a USAID-funded project providing support and technical assistance in the implementation of population and health surveys in countries worldwide. Additional information about the 2017-18 JPFHS may be obtained from the Department of Statistics, P.O. Box 2015, Amman 11181, Jordan; telephone: (962) 6-5-300-700; fax: (962) 6-5-300-710; email: stat@dos.gov.jo. Information about The DHS Program may be obtained from ICF, 530 Gaither Road, Suite 500, Rockville, MD 20850, USA; telephone: +1-301-407-6500; fax: +1-301-407-6501; email: info@DHSprogram.com; internet: www.DHSprogram.com. Suggested citation: Department of Statistics (DOS) and ICF. 2019. Jordan Population and Family and Health Survey 2017-18. Amman, Jordan, and Rockville, Maryland, USA: DOS and ICF. Contents  iii CONTENTS TABLES AND FIGURES . vii PREFACE . xv CONTRIUBTORS . xvii ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS . xix READING AND UNDERSTANDING TABLES FROM THE 2017-18 JPFHS . xxi SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL INDICATORS . xxix MAP OF JORDAN . xxx 1 INTRODUCTION AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY . 1 1.1 Survey Objectives . 1 1.2 Sample Design . 2 1.3 Questionnaires . 4 1.4 Anthropometry and Anaemia Testing . 5 1.5 Pretest . 5 1.6 Training of Field Staff . 5 1.7 Fieldwork . 6 1.8 Data Processing . 6 1.9 Response Rates . 6 2 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSEHOLD POPULATION . 7 2.1 Drinking Water Sources and Treatment . 7 2.2 Sanitation . 8 2.3 Other Household Characteristics . 9 2.3.1 Housing Characteristics . 9 2.3.2 Exposure to Smoke in the Home . 9 2.3.3 Diabetes . 9 2.4 Household Wealth . 9 2.4.1 Household Durable Goods . 9 2.4.2 Wealth Index . 10 2.5 Household Population and Composition . 10 2.6 Children’s Living Arrangements and Parental Survival . 11 2.7 Birth Registration . 12 2.8 Education . 12 2.8.1 Educational Attainment . 12 2.8.2 School Attendance . 13 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS . 33 3.1 Basic Characteristics of Survey Respondents . 33 3.2 Education and Literacy . 34 3.3 Mass Media Exposure and Internet Usage . 35 3.4 Employment . 37 3.5 Occupation . 38 3.6 Health Insurance Coverage . 39 3.7 Tobacco Use . 39 4 MARRIAGE AND EXPOSURE TO THE RISK OF PREGNANCY . 61 4.1 Marital Status . 61 4.2 Polygyny . 62 iv • Contents 4.3 Consanguinity . 63 4.4 Age at First Marriage . 63 4.5 Recent Sexual Activity . 64 5 FERTILITY . 75 5.1 Current Fertility . 75 5.2 Children Ever Born and Living . 77 5.3 Birth Intervals . 77 5.4 Insusceptibility to Pregnancy . 78 5.5 Age at First Birth . 79 5.6 Teenage Childbearing . 79 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . 91 6.1 Desire for Another Child . 91 6.2 Ideal Family Size . 93 6.3 Fertility Planning Status . 94 6.4 Wanted Fertility Rates . 94 7 FAMILY PLANNING . 103 7.1 Contraceptive Knowledge and Use . 103 7.1.1 Timing of Sterilisation . 106 7.2 Source of Modern Contraceptive Methods . 106 7.3 Informed Choice . 107 7.4 Discontinuation of Contraceptives . 107 7.5 Demand for Family Planning . 108 7.5.1 Decision Making about Family Planning . 110 7.5.2 Future Use of Contraception . 110 7.5.3 Exposure to Family Planning Messages in the Media . 110 7.6 Contact of Nonusers with Family Planning Providers . 110 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY . 133 8.1 Infant and Child Mortality . 134 8.2 Perinatal Mortality . 137 8.3 High-risk Fertility Behaviour . 137 9 MATERNAL HEALTH CARE . 143 9.1 Antenatal Care Coverage and Content . 144 9.1.1 Skilled Providers . 144 9.1.2 Number and Timing of ANC Visits . 144 9.2 Components of ANC Visits . 145 9.3 Protection against Neonatal Tetanus . 145 9.4 Delivery Services . 146 9.4.1 Institutional Deliveries . 146 9.4.2 Skilled Assistance during Delivery . 147 9.4.3 Delivery by Caesarean . 148 9.5 Postnatal Care . 149 9.5.1 Postnatal Health Check for Mothers . 149 9.5.2 Postnatal Health Check for Newborns . 150 9.6 Problems in Accessing Health Care . 150 9.7 Premarital Medical Exams, Breast Exams, and Pap Tests . 151 9.7.1 Premarital Medical Exam . 151 9.7.2 Breast Exam . 151 9.7.3 Pap Test. 151 Contents  v 10 CHILD HEALTH . 173 10.1 Birth Weight . 173 10.2 Vaccination of Children . 174 10.3 Symptoms of Acute Respiratory Infection . 176 10.4 Fever . 177 10.5 Diarrhoeal Disease . 178 10.5.1 Prevalence of Diarrhoea . 178 10.5.2 Feeding Practices . 178 10.5.3 Treatment of Diarrhoea . 179 10.5.4 Knowledge of ORS Packets . 179 10.6 Treatment of Childhood Illness . 180 11 NUTRITION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN . 197 11.1 Infant and Young Child Feeding . 197 11.1.1 Breastfeeding . 198 11.1.2 Exclusive Breastfeeding . 198 11.1.3 Median Duration of Breastfeeding . 200 11.1.4 Breastfeeding Status and Complementary Feeding by Age . 200 11.1.5 Minimum Acceptable Diet . 201 11.2 Anaemia Prevalence in Children . 203 11.3 Micronutrient Intake and Supplementation among Children . 204 11.4 Women’s Nutritional Status . 205 11.5 Anaemia Prevalence in Women. 206 11.6 Micronutrient Intake among Mothers . 207 12 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES . 219 12.1 HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Transmission, and Prevention Methods . 219 12.2 Knowledge about Mother-to-Child Transmission . 221 12.3 Discriminatory Attitudes towards People Living with HIV . 221 12.4 Awareness of HIV Testing Services . 222 12.5 Knowledge and Self-reporting of Sexually Transmitted Infections . 222 12.6 HIV/AIDS-related Knowledge among Young People . 223 13 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT . 233 13.1 Married Women’s and Men’s Employment . 233 13.2 Control over Women’s Earnings . 234 13.3 Control over Men’s Earnings . 235 13.4 Women’s and Men’s Ownership of Assets . 235 13.5 Bank Accounts and Mobile Phones . 236 13.6 Women’s Participation in Decision Making . 237 13.7 Attitudes toward Wife Beating . 238 13.8 Negotiating Sexual Relations . 239 14 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE . 257 14.1 Measurement of Violence . 257 14.2 Women’s Experience of Physical Violence . 258 14.2.1 Perpetrators of Physical Violence . 259 14.3 Experience of Spousal Sexual Violence . 259 14.4 Experience of Different Forms of Violence . 260 14.5 Marital Control by Husband . 260 14.6 Forms of Spousal Violence . 261 14.6.1 Prevalence of Spousal Violence . 261 14.6.2 Onset of Spousal Violence . 263 vi • Contents 14.7 Injuries to Women due to Spousal Violence . 263 14.8 Violence Initiated by Women against Husbands . 263 14.9 Help Seeking among Women Who Have Experienced Violence . 264 14.9.1 Sources for Help . 264 15 EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND CHILD DISCIPLINE . 281 15.1 Early Childhood Education . 281 15.2 Childhood Learning . 282 15.2.1 Support for Learning . 283 15.2.2 Children’s Books and Playthings . 283 15.3 Adequate Care for Young Children . 284 15.4 Developmentally on Track . 285 15.5 Child Discipline . 286 16 HEALTH CARE UTILISATION AND FINANCING . 297 16.1 Inpatient Care . 298 16.2 Outpatient Care . 298 16.3 Health Insurance . 299 REFERENCES . 305 APPENDIX A SAMPLE DESIGN . 307 A.1 Introduction . 307 A.2 Sampling Frame . 307 A.3 Sample Design and Sampling Procedure . 309 A.4 Selection Probabilities and Sampling Weights . 311 A.5 Survey Implementation Results . 312 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . 315 APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES . 339 APPENDIX D QUESTIONNAIRES . 343 Tables and Figures  vii TABLES AND FIGURES 1 INTRODUCTION AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY . 1 Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews . 6 Figure 1.1 2017-18 Jordan PFHS sample design . 3 2 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSEHOLD POPULATION . 7 Table 2.1 Household drinking water . 15 Table 2.2 Availability of water . 15 Table 2.3 Household sanitation facilities . 16 Table 2.4 Household characteristics . 17 Table 2.5 Diabetes . 19 Table 2.6 Household possessions . 20 Table 2.7 Wealth quintiles . 20 Table 2.8 Household population by age, sex, and residence . 21 Table 2.9 Household composition . 22 Table 2.10 Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood . 23 Table 2.11 Birth registration of children under age 5 . 25 Table 2.12.1 Educational attainment of the female household population . 26 Table 2.12.2 Educational attainment of the male household population . 28 Table 2.13 School attendance ratios . 30 Figure 2.1 Household drinking water by residence . 8 Figure 2.2 Household toilet facilities by residence . 8 Figure 2.3 Household wealth by residence. 10 Figure 2.4 Population pyramid . 11 Figure 2.5 Birth registration by nationality . 12 Figure 2.6 Secondary school attendance by nationality . 14 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS . 33 Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents . 41 Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment: Women . 42 Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: Men . 44 Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women . 45 Table 3.3.2 Literacy: Men . 46 Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women . 47 Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: Men . 48 Table 3.5.1 Internet usage: Women . 49 Table 3.5.2 Internet usage: Men . 50 Table 3.6.1 Employment status: Women . 51 Table 3.6.2 Employment status: Men . 52 Table 3.7.1 Occupation: Women . 53 Table 3.7.2 Occupation: Men . 54 Table 3.8.1 Health insurance coverage: Women . 55 Table 3.8.2 Health insurance coverage: Men . 56 Table 3.9.1 Tobacco smoking: Women . 57 Table 3.9.2 Tobacco smoking: Men . 58 Table 3.10 Average number of cigarettes smoked daily: Men . 59 viii • Tables and Figures Figure 3.1 Education of survey respondents . 34 Figure 3.2 Secondary or higher education by governorate . 35 Figure 3.3 Secondary or higher education by household wealth . 35 Figure 3.4 Exposure to mass media . 36 Figure 3.5 Employment status by education . 37 Figure 3.6 Occupation . 38 Figure 3.7 Current employment . 38 Figure 3.8 Use of tobacco among women and men . 39 4 MARRIAGE AND EXPOSURE TO THE RISK OF PREGNANCY . 61 Table 4.1 Current marital status . 66 Table 4.2 Trends in the proportion of ever-married women by age group . 66 Table 4.3.1 Number of women’s co-wives . 67 Table 4.3.2 Number of men’s wives . 68 Table 4.4 Consanguinity . 69 Table 4.5.1 Age at first marriage . 70 Table 4.5.2 Age at first marriage by nationality . 71 Table 4.6 Median age at first marriage by background characteristics . 72 Table 4.7.1 Recent sexual activity: Women . 73 Table 4.7.2 Recent sexual activity: Men . 74 Figure 4.1 Marital status . 61 Figure 4.2 Polygyny by governorate . 62 Figure 4.3 Trends in consanguinity . 63 Figure 4.4 Trends in early marriage . 64 Figure 4.5 Women’s median age at marriage by education . 64 5 FERTILITY . 75 Table 5.1 Current fertility . 81 Table 5.2 Fertility by background characteristics . 82 Table 5.3 Trends in age-specific fertility rates . 83 Table 5.4 Trends in age-specific and total fertility rates . 83 Table 5.5 Children ever born and living . 83 Table 5.6 Birth intervals . 84 Table 5.7 Postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence, and insusceptibility . 85 Table 5.8 Median duration of amenorrhoea, postpartum abstinence, and postpartum insusceptibility . 86 Table 5.9 Menopause . 87 Table 5.10 Age at first birth . 87 Table 5.11 Median age at first birth . 88 Table 5.12 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood . 89 Table 5.13 Sexual and reproductive health behaviours before age 15 . 89 Figure 5.1 Trends in fertility by residence . 76 Figure 5.2 Fertility by governorate . 76 Figure 5.3 Fertility by household wealth . 77 Figure 5.4 Birth intervals . 77 Figure 5.5 Median age at first birth by education . 79 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . 91 Table 6.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children . 96 Table 6.2.1 Desire to limit childbearing: Women . 97 Table 6.2.2 Desire to limit childbearing: Men . 98 Tables and Figures  ix Table 6.3 Ideal number of children according to number of living children . 99 Table 6.4 Mean ideal number of children according to background characteristics . 100 Table 6.5 Fertility planning status . 101 Table 6.6 Wanted fertility rates . 102 Figure 6.1 Desire to limit childbearing by number of living children . 92 Figure 6.2 Trends in desire to limit childbearing by number of living children . 92 Figure 6.3 Ideal family size by number of living children . 93 Figure 6.4 Fertility planning status . 94 Figure 6.5 Trends in wanted and actual fertility . 95 7 FAMILY PLANNING . 103 Table 7.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods . 112 Table 7.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods according to background characteristics . 113 Table 7.3 Current use of contraception by age . 114 Table 7.4.1 Trends in current use of contraception . 115 Table 7.4.2 Current use of contraception according to background characteristics . 116 Table 7.5 Timing of sterilisation . 118 Table 7.6 Knowledge of fertile period . 118 Table 7.7 Knowledge of fertile period by age . 118 Table 7.8 Source of modern contraception methods . 119 Table 7.9 Use of social marketing brand pills . 120 Table 7.10 Informed choice . 121 Table 7.11 Twelve-month contraceptive discontinuation rates . 122 Table 7.12 Reasons for discontinuation . 123 Table 7.13 Need and demand for family planning among currently married women . 124 Table 7.14 Decision making about family planning . 126 Table 7.15 Future use of contraception . 128 Table 7.16 Exposure to family planning messages . 129 Table 7.17 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers . 131 Figure 7.1 Contraceptive use . 104 Figure 7.2 Trends in contraceptive use . 105 Figure 7.3 Modern contraceptive use by governorate . 105 Figure 7.4 Contraceptive use by education . 106 Figure 7.5 Source of modern contraceptive methods . 107 Figure 7.6 Demand for family planning . 108 Figure 7.7 Trends in demand for family planning . 109 Figure 7.8 Unmet need by governorate . 109 Figure 7.9 Unmet need by education . 110 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY . 133 Table 8.1 Early childhood mortality rates . 139 Table 8.2 Five-year early childhood mortality rates according to background characteristics . 139 Table 8.3 Ten-year early childhood mortality rates according to additional characteristics . 140 Table 8.4 Perinatal mortality . 141 Table 8.5 High-risk fertility behaviour . 142 Figure 8.1 Trends in early childhood mortality rates . 135 Figure 8.2 Childhood mortality by previous birth interval . 136 x • Tables and Figures Figure 8.3 Under-5 mortality by governorate . 136 Figure 8.4 Under-5 mortality by mother’s education . 136 Figure 8.5 Perinatal mortality by mother’s education . 137 9 MATERNAL HEALTH CARE . 143 Table 9.1 Antenatal care . 153 Table 9.2 Number of antenatal care visits . 154 Table 9.3 Timing of first antenatal care visit . 155 Table 9.4 Components of antenatal care . 156 Table 9.5 Tetanus toxoid injections . 157 Table 9.6 Place of delivery . 158 Table 9.7 Assistance during delivery . 159 Table 9.8 Cost of delivery . 160 Table 9.9 Caesarean section . 161 Table 9.10 Duration of stay in health facility after birth . 162 Table 9.11 Timing of first postnatal check for the mother . 162 Table 9.12 Type of provider of first postnatal check for the mother . 163 Table 9.13 Timing of first postnatal check for the newborn . 164 Table 9.14 Type of provider of first postnatal check for the newborn . 165 Table 9.15 Content of postnatal care for newborns . 166 Table 9.16 Problems in accessing health care . 167 Table 9.17 Premarital medical exams . 168 Table 9.18 Breast cancer exam . 169 Table 9.19 Reasons for never having a mammogram . 170 Table 9.20 Pap test . 171 Figure 9.1 Trends in antenatal care coverage . 144 Figure 9.2 Trends in place of birth . 146 Figure 9.3 Health facility births by mother’s educational level . 146 Figure 9.4 Health facility births by governorate . 147 Figure 9.5 Assistance during delivery . 147 Figure 9.6 Skilled assistance at delivery by education . 148 Figure 9.7 Postnatal care by education . 149 10 CHILD HEALTH . 173 Table 10.1 Child’s size and weight at birth. 181 Table 10.2 Possession and observation of vaccination cards according to background characteristics . 182 Table 10.3 Vaccinations by source of information . 183 Table 10.4 Vaccinations by background characteristics . 184 Table 10.5 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI . 186 Table 10.6 Source of advice or treatment for children with symptoms of ARI . 187 Table 10.7 Prevalence and treatment of fever . 188 Table 10.8 Prevalence and treatment of diarrhoea . 189 Table 10.9 Feeding practices during diarrhoea . 190 Table 10.10 Oral rehydration therapy and other treatments for diarrhoea . 192 Table 10.11 Source of advice or treatment for children with diarrhoea . 194 Table 10.12 Knowledge of ORS packets . 195 Figure 10.1 Childhood vaccinations . 175 Figure 10.2 Trends in childhood vaccinations . 175 Figure 10.3 Vaccination coverage by governorate . 176 Figure 10.4 Vaccination coverage by nationality . 176 Tables and Figures  xi Figure 10.5 Diarrhoea prevalence by age . 178 Figure 10.6 Feeding practices during diarrhoea . 178 Figure 10.7 Treatment of diarrhoea . 179 Figure 10.8 Prevalence and treatment of childhood illness . 180 11 NUTRITION OF CHILDREN AND WOMEN . 197 Table 11.1 Initial breastfeeding . 208 Table 11.2 Breastfeeding status by age . 209 Table 11.3 Median duration of breastfeeding . 210 Table 11.4 Foods and liquids consumed by children in the day or night preceding the interview . 211 Table 11.5 Minimum acceptable diet . 212 Table 11.6 Prevalence of anaemia in children . 214 Table 11.7 Micronutrient intake among children . 215 Table 11.8 Nutritional status of women . 216 Table 11.9 Prevalence of anaemia in women . 217 Table 11.10 Micronutrient intake among mothers . 218 Figure 11.1 Breastfeeding practices by age . 199 Figure 11.2 IYCF indicators on breastfeeding status . 199 Figure 11.3 IYCF indicators on minimum acceptable diet . 202 Figure 11.4 Trends in childhood anaemia . 203 Figure 11.5 Anaemia in children by governorate . 204 Figure 11.6 Nutritional status of women . 205 Figure 11.7 Trends in women’s nutritional status . 206 Figure 11.8 Trends in anaemia status among women . 206 12 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE AND ATTITUDES . 219 Table 12.1 Knowledge of HIV or AIDS . 224 Table 12.2 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods . 225 Table 12.3 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV . 226 Table 12.4 Knowledge of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV . 226 Table 12.5 Discriminatory attitudes towards people living with HIV . 227 Table 12.6 Knowledge of where to get an HIV test . 228 Table 12.7 Knowledge of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) . 229 Table 12.8 Knowledge and self-reported prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) among men. 230 Table 12.9 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV among young people . 231 Figure 12.1a Knowledge of HIV prevention methods among men . 220 Figure 12.1b Knowledge of HIV prevention methods among women . 220 Figure 12.2 Knowledge of mother-to-child transmission . 221 13 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT . 233 Table 13.1 Employment of currently married women and men . 241 Table 13.2.1 Control over women’s cash earnings and relative magnitude of women’s cash earnings . 242 Table 13.2.2 Control over men’s cash earnings . 243 Table 13.3 Women’s control over their own earnings and over those of their husbands . 244 Table 13.4.1 Ownership of assets: Women . 245 Table 13.4.2 Ownership of assets: Men . 246 Table 13.5.1 Ownership and use of bank accounts and mobile phones: Women . 247 Table 13.5.2 Ownership and use of bank accounts and mobile phones: Men . 248 xii • Tables and Figures Table 13.6 Participation in decision making . 248 Table 13.7.1 Women’s participation in decision making by background characteristics . 249 Table 13.7.2 Men’s participation in decision making by background characteristics . 250 Table 13.8.1 Attitude toward wife beating: Women . 251 Table 13.8.2 Attitude toward wife beating: Men . 252 Table 13.9 Attitudes toward negotiating safer sexual relations with husband . 253 Table 13.10 Ability to negotiate sexual relations with husband . 254 Table 13.11 Indicators of women’s empowerment . 255 Table 13.12 Current use of contraception by women’s empowerment . 255 Table 13.13 Ideal number of children and unmet need for family planning by women’s empowerment . 256 Table 13.14 Reproductive health care by women’s empowerment . 256 Table 13.15 Early childhood mortality rates by indicators of women’s empowerment . 256 Figure 13.1 Employment by age . 234 Figure 13.2 Control over women’s earnings . 234 Figure 13.3 Ownership of assets . 235 Figure 13.4 Women’s participation in decision making. 237 Figure 13.5 Attitudes towards wife beating . 238 14 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE . 257 Table 14.1 Experience of physical violence . 266 Table 14.2 Experience of violence during pregnancy . 267 Table 14.3 Persons committing physical violence . 268 Table 14.4 Experience of spousal sexual violence . 269 Table 14.5 Experience of different forms of violence . 270 Table 14.6 Marital control exercised by husbands . 271 Table 14.7 Forms of spousal violence . 272 Table 14.8 Spousal violence by background characteristics . 273 Table 14.9 Spousal violence by husband’s characteristics and empowerment indicators . 274 Table 14.10 Violence by any husband in the last 12 months . 275 Table 14.11 Experience of spousal violence by duration of marriage . 276 Table 14.12 Injuries to women due to spousal violence . 276 Table 14.13 Violence by women against their husband by women’s background characteristics . 277 Table 14.14 Violence by women against their husband by husband’s characteristics and empowerment indicators . 278 Table 14.15 Help seeking to stop violence . 279 Table 14.16 Sources for help to stop the violence . 280 Figure 14.1 Women’s experience of violence by marital status . 259 Figure 14.2 Forms of spousal violence . 261 Figure 14.3 Spousal violence by governorate . 262 Figure 14.4 Help seeking by type of violence experienced . 264 15 EARLY CHILD DEVELOPMENT AND CHILD DISCIPLINE . 281 Table 15.1 Early childhood education . 288 Table 15.2 Support for learning . 289 Table 15.3 Learning materials . 291 Table 15.4 Inadequate care . 292 Table 15.5 Early child development index . 293 Table 15.6 Child discipline . 294 Table 15.7 Opinion regarding corporal punishment . 295 Tables and Figures  xiii Figure 15.1 Early childhood education by mother’s education . 282 Figure 15.2 Access to children’s books by governorate . 284 Figure 15.3 Inadequate care by nationality . 285 Figure 15.4 Developmentally on track by household wealth . 286 Figure 15.5 Child discipline by household wealth . 287 16 HEALTH CARE UTILISATION AND FINANCING . 297 Table 16.1 Inpatient hospital care . 300 Table 16.2 Aspects of inpatient care . 301 Table 16.3 Outpatient care . 302 Table 16.4 Main reason for seeking outpatient care . 303 Table 16.5 Costs for outpatient care . 303 Table 16.6 Health insurance coverage . 304 Figure 16.1 Cost of care . 299 APPENDIX A SAMPLE DESIGN. 307 Table A.1 Distribution of residential households by governorate, according to residence . 308 Table A.2 Distribution of clusters and average size of clusters by governorate, according to residence . 308 Table A.3 Population distribution by nationality, according to governorate . 309 Table A.4 Sample allocation of clusters and households by governorate and by residence type . 310 Table A.5 Sample allocation of expected number of interviews of ever-married women age 15-49 and all men age 15-59 by governorate and by residence type . 310 Table A.6 Sample implementation: Women . 312 Table A.7 Sample implementation: Men . 313 APPENDIX B ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS . 315 Table B.1 List of selected variables for sampling errors, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 317 Table B.2 Sampling errors: Total sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 318 Table B.3 Sampling errors: Urban sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 319 Table B.4 Sampling errors: Rural sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 320 Table B.5 Sampling errors: Central sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 321 Table B.6 Sampling errors: North sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 322 Table B.7 Sampling errors: South sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 323 Table B.8 Sampling errors: Amman sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 324 Table B.9 Sampling errors: Balqa sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 325 Table B.10 Sampling errors: Zarqa sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 326 Table B.11 Sampling errors: Madaba sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 327 Table B.12 Sampling errors: Irbid sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 328 Table B.13 Sampling errors: Mafraq sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 329 Table B.14 Sampling errors: Jarash sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 330 Table B.15 Sampling errors: Ajloun sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 331 Table B.16 Sampling errors: Karak sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 332 Table B.17 Sampling errors: Tafiela sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 333 Table B.18 Sampling errors: Ma’an sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 334 Table B.19 Sampling errors: Aqaba sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 335 Table B.20 Sampling errors: Jordanian sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 336 Table B.21 Sampling errors: Syrian sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 337 Table B.22 Sampling errors: Other nationalities sample, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 . 338 xiv • Tables and Figures APPENDIX C DATA QUALITY TABLES . 339 Table C.1 Household age distribution . 339 Table C.2.1 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . 339 Table C.2.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men . 340 Table C.3 Completeness of reporting . 340 Table C.4 Births by calendar years . 341 Table C.5 Reporting of age at death in days . 341 Table C.6 Reporting of age at death in months . 342 Preface  xv PREFACE he Department of Statistics (DoS) carried out the 2017-18 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (PFHS), the seventh Demographic and Health Survey conducted in Jordan, in view of its firm belief in the importance of having an efficient national statistical system that balances data demand and production mechanisms and is capable of responding to the needs of data users in terms of quantity, quality, and reliability, thus ensuring that strategic policies and plans are in line with national goals, vision, and Sustainable Development Goals. As with the previous surveys carried out in 1990, 1997, 2002, 2007, 2009, and 2012, the key objective of this survey is to provide comprehensive data on fertility, mortality, family planning, and maternal and child health and nutrition as a tool for assessing existing population and health programmes and policies. This survey is distinguished by its high household response rate (98%) at the national level relative to previous surveys and, in particular, the 99% response rate among eligible women age 15-49. It is noteworthy that tablets were used for the first time to collect data during interviews (recording of responses and data transfer from the field to the main database), which had a positive effect on data quality. It should also be noted that data were collected for the first time from men age 15-59 (among whom the response rate was also high, at 97%). The survey sample was designed to obtain estimates of the main survey variables at the national level, for urban and rural areas, for the country’s three regions (Central, North, and South) and 12 governorates, and for three national groups (Jordanians, Syrians, and individuals of other nationalities). More than 19,000 households, 14,870 ever-married women age 15-49, and 6,640 men age 15-59 were interviewed between October 2017 and January 2018. The survey was funded by the Government of Jordan, the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA), and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF). ICF International provided technical assistance through The DHS Program. The DoS wishes to express its thanks and appreciation to all of the individuals and institutions that contributed to the success of this survey. The outstanding work carried out by the survey team had a great impact on collection of high-quality data. The DoS would also like to thank all of the households interviewed during the survey for their time, interest, and willingness to provide the required data. Special thanks also to the Ministry of Health for technical and logistic support, to the USAID Mission (Amman) and UNICEF-Amman for their financial support, and to the PFHS team for technical support. Dr. Qasem Said Alzoubi Director General T Contributors  xvii CONTRIBUTORS Department of Statistics Mrs. Manal George Sweidan Ms. Ghaida Abdullah Khasawneh Mrs. Eman Saleh Bny Mfarej Ms. Wessam Tawfiq Alshraideh Mrs. Amani Daoud Joudeh Mrs. Fasil Abedalhameed Alrasheed Mrs. Maha Khader Dawas Mrs. Abeer Mahmoud khalifah Alraheal Ministry of Health Dr. Amal Mousa Abd eljawad Abushawish Mr. Abdullah Ahmad Abdullah Sarrar Dr. Nabil Sabri Qasem Mr. Eng. Hanan Massa’d UNFPA Mrs. Layali Abu Sir Dr. Faeza Abu Jalo UNICEF Mr. Eresso Aga Mr. Muhammad Hamza Abbas Jordanian National Commission for Women Mrs. Kristina Yarosh ICF Yodit Bekele Keith Purvis Ruilin Ren Bernard Barrere Erica Nybro Luis Sevilla Tom Fish Trinadh Dontamsetti Joan Wardell Sarah Yang Greg Edmondson Natalie Shattuck Chris Gramer Shireen Assaf Ann Way Rachel Orlowski Joy Fishel Jeremy Taglieri Bridgette Wellington Abbreviations and Acronyms  xix ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome ANC antenatal care ARI acute respiratory infection ART antiretroviral therapy ASFR age-specific fertility rate BCG Bacille Calmette-Guérin BSE breast self-examination CAPI computer-assisted personal interviewing CBR crude birth rate CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CSPro Censuses and Surveys Processing DEFT design effect DHS Demographic and Health Survey DOS Department of Statistics DPT diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus DV domestic violence EA enumeration area GAR gross attendance ratio GFR general fertility rate GPI gender parity index GPS global positioning system HepB hepatitis B Hib Haemophilus influenzae type b HIV human immunodeficiency virus IFH Institute for Family Health IFSS Internet file streaming system IPV inactivated polio vaccine IRC International Rescue Committee IUD intrauterine contraceptive device IYCF infant and young child feeding JAFPP Jordan Association of Family Planning and Protection JPFHS Jordan Population and Family Health Survey JPHC Jordan Population and Housing Census LAM lactational amenorrhoea method MCH maternal and child health centres MOH Ministry of Health MMR measles-mumps-rubella MTCT mother-to-child transmission xx • Abbreviations and Acronyms NAR net attendance ratio NGO nongovernmental organisation NPC National Population Commission OPV oral polio vaccine ORS oral rehydration salts ORT oral rehydration therapy PSU primary sampling unit RHF recommended homemade fluids SDGs Sustainable Development Goals SE standard error SSU secondary sampling unit STI sexually transmitted infection TFR total fertility rate UNFPA United Nations Population Fund UNHCR United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund UNRWA United Nations Refugee Welfare Association USAID United States Agency for International Development VAD vitamin A deficiency WHO World Health Organization Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017-18 JPFHS • xxi READING AND UNDERSTANDING TABLES FROM THE 2017-18 JPFHS he new format of the 2017-18 Jordan PFHS final report is based on approximately 200 tables of data. They are located for quick reference through links in the text (electronic version) and at the end of each chapter. Additionally, this more reader-friendly version features about 90 figures that clearly highlight trends, subnational patterns, and background characteristics. Large colourful maps display breakdowns for governorates in Jordan. The text has been simplified to highlight key points in bullets and to clearly identify indicator definitions in boxes. While the text and figures featured in each chapter highlight some of the most important findings from the tables, not every finding can be discussed or displayed graphically. For this reason, JPFHS data users should be comfortable reading and interpreting tables. The following pages provide an introduction to the organisation of JPFHS tables, the presentation of background characteristics, and a brief summary of sampling and understanding denominators. In addition, this section provides some exercises for users as they practice their new skills in interpreting JPFHS tables. T xxii • Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017-18 JPFHS Example 1: Exposure to Mass Media: Women A question asked of all respondents Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women Percentage of women age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Accesses all three media at least once a week Accesses none of the three media at least once a week Number of women Age 15-19 12.1 75.9 11.3 5.3 20.1 370 20-24 17.2 77.5 21.9 11.9 19.9 1,536 25-29 20.0 75.4 23.8 13.3 21.2 2,479 30-34 21.5 73.3 26.9 14.7 22.2 2,730 35-39 22.8 74.7 27.3 14.8 20.9 2,638 40-44 20.4 74.6 24.6 13.1 21.6 2,516 45-49 20.5 71.7 23.0 13.8 24.6 2,420 Residence Urban 21.1 74.5 25.3 14.1 21.7 13,200 Rural 14.5 73.6 17.8 8.5 23.3 1,489 Region Central 23.1 74.2 29.2 17.3 22.2 9,171 North 17.4 77.0 15.6 6.9 18.4 4,119 South 12.2 67.8 19.7 8.2 29.5 1,398 Governorate Amman 25.4 75.5 33.4 20.4 21.1 5,997 Balqa 27.7 66.2 31.8 19.6 28.4 752 Zarqa 16.7 75.1 18.1 9.4 21.8 2,094 Madaba 11.2 62.6 18.2 5.6 31.3 329 Irbid 19.6 76.3 18.0 8.0 18.0 2,549 Mafraq 11.9 73.5 10.2 3.8 23.7 849 Jarash 18.6 82.8 13.6 6.8 13.2 410 Ajloun 13.4 83.8 12.9 5.8 13.7 312 Karak 12.5 80.3 20.6 8.7 17.3 544 Tafiela 4.1 45.9 12.7 2.7 52.1 221 Ma’an 17.7 63.6 20.8 13.5 33.5 250 Aqaba 12.8 65.4 21.8 7.2 31.1 383 Nationality Jordanian 21.3 75.2 25.8 14.2 20.9 12,764 Syrian 13.5 72.0 12.6 6.7 25.0 1,257 Other nationalities 18.0 63.6 21.6 12.4 33.3 668 Education None 4.2 43.8 12.4 3.3 54.7 327 Elementary 9.6 64.1 11.2 4.7 33.5 1,029 Preparatory 13.7 73.5 14.2 6.9 23.9 1,892 Secondary 19.7 76.8 23.8 12.7 19.4 6,176 Higher 27.0 75.7 32.3 19.2 19.6 5,265 Wealth quintile Lowest 11.6 69.3 13.0 5.4 27.7 2,936 Second 14.0 76.4 16.7 7.5 20.2 3,039 Middle 21.9 77.1 25.2 14.7 19.2 3,083 Fourth 25.8 77.6 30.8 17.8 18.0 3,009 Highest 30.1 70.8 38.4 23.2 24.7 2,623 Total 20.5 74.4 24.5 13.5 21.8 14,689 Step 1: Read the title and subtitle. They tell you the topic and the specific population group being described. In this case, the table is about women’s weekly exposure to mass media. All eligible female respondents age 15-49 were asked these questions. Step 2: Scan the column headings—highlighted in green in Example 1. They describe how the information is categorised. In this table, the first three columns of data show the percentage of women who read a newspaper weekly, watch television weekly, and listen to the radio weekly. The fourth column shows the percent of women who access all three types of media at least once a week. The fifth column shows the percentage of women who access none of those three media weekly. The last column lists the number of women interviewed in the survey. 1 2 3 4 5 Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017-18 JPFHS • xxiii Step 3: Scan the row headings—the first vertical column highlighted in blue in Example 1. These show the different ways the data are divided into categories based on population characteristics. In this case, the table presents exposure to mass media by age, urban-rural residence, region, governorate, nationality, educational level, and wealth quintile. Most of the tables in the JPFHS report will be divided into these same categories. Step 4: Look at the row at the bottom of the table highlighted in pink. These percentages represent the totals of all women who access each type of media. In this case, 20.5% of women read the newspaper at least once a week, and 21.8% of women access none of these three media at least once a week. Step 5: To find out what percentage of women in urban areas access all three media at least once a week, draw two imaginary lines, as shown on the table. This shows that 14.1% of women in urban areas access all three types of media weekly. Step 6: By looking at patterns by background characteristics, we can see how exposure to mass media varies across Jordan. Mass media are often used to communicate health messages. Knowing how mass media exposure varies among different groups can help programme planners and policy makers determine how to most effectively reach their target populations. *For the purpose of this document data are presented exactly as they appear in the table including decimal places. However, the text in the remainder of this report rounds data to the nearest whole percentage point. Practice: Use the table in Example 1 to answer the following questions: a) What percentage of women in Jordan access all three media at least once a week? b) Which age group of women are most likely to listen to the radio at least once a week? c) Compare women in urban and rural areas- which group is more likely to read a newspaper at least once a week? d) What are the lowest and highest percentages (range) of women who do not access any of the three media types at least once a week by governorate? e) Is there a clear pattern in weekly exposure to television by education level? f) Is there a clear pattern in exposure to newspapers at least once a week by wealth quintile? Answers: a) 13.5% b) 35-39 year olds; 27.3% c) Women in urban areas are more likely to read a newspaper once a week than women in rural areas (21.1% versus 14.5%) d) 13.2% in Jarash to 52.1% in Tafiela e) Exposure to television increases with women’s education. f) Exposure to newspapers increases with household wealth. xxiv • Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017-18 JPFHS Example 2: Prevalence and Treatment of Symptoms of ARI A Question Asked of a Subgroup of Survey Respondents Table 10.5 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI Among children under age 5, percentage who had symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in the 2 weeks preceding the survey; and among children with symptoms of ARI in the 2 weeks preceding the survey, percentage for whom advice or treatment was sought, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Among children under age 5: Among children under age 5 with symptoms of ARI: Background characteristic Percentage with symptoms of ARI1 Number of children Percentage for whom advice or treatment was sought2 Percentage for whom treatment was sought same or next day Number of children Age in months <6 3.6 1,078 (60.5) (43.6) 39 6-11 9.0 927 74.3 65.9 84 12-23 6.8 1,689 77.2 67.4 115 24-35 5.7 1,891 74.0 66.1 108 36-47 7.1 1,761 65.9 56.1 125 48-59 4.7 2,108 72.8 62.8 98 Sex Male 6.3 4,870 70.6 61.7 306 Female 5.7 4,585 73.2 62.4 263 Mother’s smoking status Smokes cigarettes/tobacco 7.4 917 (50.9) (39.1) 68 Does not smoke 5.9 8,538 74.6 65.2 501 Residence Urban 6.0 8,371 71.2 61.9 501 Rural 6.3 1,083 76.0 63.2 68 Region Central 7.0 5,422 68.8 62.7 381 North 4.9 3,153 78.0 61.5 153 South 3.9 880 77.3 57.5 34 Governorate Amman 7.3 3,448 69.7 63.4 252 Balqa 2.6 481 * * 13 Zarqa 8.6 1,238 70.0 65.1 106 Madaba 4.2 254 (79.5) (58.5) 11 Irbid 5.0 1,831 (79.1) (60.8) 92 Mafraq 4.7 752 78.7 62.7 35 Jarash 5.7 331 75.3 64.5 19 Ajloun 3.2 239 (68.7) (57.3) 8 Karak 3.4 322 * * 11 Tafiela 5.7 152 (87.1) (79.7) 9 Ma’an 5.1 166 (60.7) (52.5) 9 Aqaba 2.5 239 * * 6 Mother’s nationality Jordanian 5.8 7,935 74.1 66.2 457 Syrian 6.4 1,154 64.5 42.0 74 Other nationalities 10.1 365 (58.0) (50.6) 37 Mother’s education None 2.2 153 * * 3 Elementary 5.8 665 60.0 37.6 39 Preparatory 5.1 1,131 70.2 54.2 57 Secondary 6.8 3,827 69.4 61.5 258 Higher 5.7 3,679 77.2 69.9 211 Wealth quintile Lowest 6.1 2,521 68.4 56.7 154 Second 7.1 2,270 69.6 61.2 160 Middle 5.3 2,027 77.0 63.2 107 Fourth 5.9 1,667 62.7 58.3 98 Highest 5.1 970 * * 49 Total 6.0 9,454 71.8 62.0 569 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 1 Symptoms of ARI include short, rapid breathing which was chest-related and/or difficult breathing which was chest-related 2 Includes advice or treatment from the following sources: Public sector and private medical sector. 1 3 4 a b 2 Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017-18 JPFHS • xxv Step 1: Read the title and subtitle. In this case, the table is about two separate groups of children: all children under age 5 (a) and children under age 5 with symptoms of acute respiratory infection (b). Step 2: Identify the two panels. First, identify the columns that refer to all children under age 5 (a), and then isolate the columns that refer only to children under age 5 who had symptoms of ARI in the 2 weeks before the survey (b). Step 3: Look at the first panel. What percentage of children under age 5 had symptoms of ARI? It’s 6%. Now look at the second panel. How many children under 5 had symptoms of ARI in the 2 weeks before the survey? It’s 569 children or 6% of the 9,454 children under age 5 in the survey (with rounding). The second panel is a subset of the first panel. Step 4: Only 6% of children had ARI symptoms. Once these 569 are further divided into the background characteristic categories, there may be too few cases for the percentages to be reliable.  What percentage of children under 6 months with ARI symptoms had advice or treatment sought? 60.5%. This percentage is in parentheses because there are between 25 and 49 children (unweighted) in this category. Readers should use this number with caution—it may not be reliable. (For more information on weighted and unweighted numbers, see Example 3.)  What percentage of children in Balqa with ARI symptoms had advice or treatment sought? There is no number in this cell—only an asterisk. This is because there are fewer than 25 children (unweighted) in this group. Results for this group are not reported. The subgroup is too small, and therefore the data are not reliable. Note: When parentheses or asterisks are used in a table, the explanation will be noted under the table. If there are no parentheses or asterisks in a table, you can proceed with confidence that enough cases were included in all categories that the data are reliable. xxvi • Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017-18 JPFHS Example 3: Understanding Sampling Weights in JPFHS Tables A sample is a group of people who have been selected for a survey. In the JPFHS, the sample is designed to represent the national population age 15-49. In addition to national data, most countries want to collect and report data on smaller geographical or administrative areas. However, doing so requires a minimum sample size per area. For the 2017-18 JPFHS, the survey sample is representative at the national, regional, and governorate levels, and for urban and rural areas. To generate statistics that are representative of the country as a whole and the governorate, the number of women surveyed in each governorate should contribute to the size of the total (national) sample in proportion to size of the governorate. However, if some governorates have small populations, then a sample allocated in proportion to each governorate’s population may not include sufficient women from each governorate for analysis. To solve this problem, governorates with small populations are oversampled. For example, let’s say that you have enough money to interview 14,689 women and want to produce results that are representative of Jordan as a whole and its governorates (as in Table 3.1). However, the total population of Jordan is not evenly distributed among the governorates: some governorates, such as Amman, are heavily populated while others, such as Tafiela are not. Thus, Tafiela must be oversampled. A sampling statistician determines how many women should be interviewed in each governorate in order to get reliable statistics. The blue column (1) in the table at the right shows the actual number of women interviewed in each governorate. Within the governorates, the number of women interviewed ranges from 962 in Ma’an to 1,768 in Amman. The number of interviews is sufficient to get reliable results in each governorate. With this distribution of interviews, some governorates are overrepresented and some governorates are underrepresented. For example, the population in Amman is about 41% of the population in Jordan, while Tafiela’s population contributes only 1.5% of the population in Jordan. But as the blue column shows, the number of women interviewed in Amman accounts for only about 12% of the total sample of women interviewed (1,768/14,689) and the number of women interviewed in Tafiela accounts for almost 8% the total sample of women interviewed (1,207/14,689). This unweighted distribution of women does not accurately represent the population. In order to get statistics that are representative of Jordan, the distribution of the women in the sample needs to be weighted (or mathematically adjusted) such that it resembles the true distribution in the country. Women from a small governorate, like Tafiela, should only contribute a small amount to the national total. Women from a large governorate, like Amman, should contribute much more. Therefore, DHS statisticians mathematically calculate a “weight” which is used to adjust the number of women from each governorate so that each governorate’s contribution to the total is proportional to the actual population of the governorate. The numbers in the purple column (2) represent the “weighted” values. The weighted values can be smaller or larger than the unweighted values at governorate level. The total national sample size of 14,689 women has not changed after weighting, but the distribution of the women in the governorates has been changed to represent their contribution to the total population size. Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by governorate, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Background characteristic Weighted percent Weighted number Unweighted number Governorate Amman 40.8 5,997 1,768 Balqa 5.1 752 985 Zarqa 14.3 2,094 1,474 Madaba 2.2 329 1,017 Irbid 17.4 2,549 1,309 Mafraq 5.8 849 1,505 Jarash 2.8 410 1,147 Ajloun 2.1 312 1,167 Karak 3.7 544 1,055 Tafiela 1.5 221 1,207 Ma’an 1.7 250 962 Aqaba 2.6 383 1,093 Total 15-49 100.0 14,689 14,689 1 2 3 Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017-18 JPFHS • xxvii How do statisticians weight each category? They take into account the probability that a woman was selected in the sample. If you were to compare the green column (3) to the actual population distribution of Jordan, you would see that women in each governorate are contributing to the total sample with the same weight that they contribute to the population of the country. The weighted number of women in the survey now accurately represents the proportion of women who live in Amman and the proportion of women who live in Tafiela. With sampling and weighting, it is possible to interview enough women to provide reliable statistics at national and governorate levels. In general, only the weighted numbers are shown in each of the JPFHS tables, so don’t be surprised if these numbers seem low: they may actually represent a larger number of women interviewed. Sustainable Development Goal Indicators • xxix SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOAL INDICATORS Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Sex Total Table number Indicator Male Female 3. Good health and well-being 3.1.2 Proportion of births attended by skilled health personnel na na 99.7 9.7 3.2.1 Under-five mortality rate1 21 17 19 8.1 and 8.2 3.2.2 Neonatal mortality rate1 13 8 11 8.1 and 8.2 3.7.1 Proportion of women of reproductive age (aged 15-49 years) who have their need for family planning satisfied with modern methods2 na 56.7 na 7.13 3.7.2 Adolescent birth rates per 1,000 women a) Women aged 15-19 years3 na 27 na 5.1 3.a.1 Age-standardized prevalence of current tobacco use among persons aged 15 years and older4 44.6 12.0 28.3a 3.9.1 and 3.9.2 3.b.1 Proportion of the target population covered by all vaccines included in their national programme a) Coverage of DPT containing vaccine (3rd dose)5 88.4 92.0 90.0 10.4 b) Coverage of measles containing vaccine (2nd dose)6 88.6 89.6 89.1 na 4. Quality education 4.2.1 Proportion of children under 5 years of age who are developmentally on track in health, learning and psychosocial well-being, by sex7 66.1 75.9 70.7 15.5 5. Gender equality 5.2.1 Proportion of ever-partnered women and girls aged 15 years and older subjected to physical, sexual or psychological violence by a current or former intimate partner in the previous 12 months8,9 na 20.4 na 14.10 a) Physical violence na 12.7 na 14.10 b) Sexual violence na 3.3 na 14.10 c) Psychological violence na 16.1 na 14.10 5.3.1 Proportion of women aged 20-24 years who were married or in a union before age 15 and before age 1810 a) before age 15 na 1.5 na 4.5 b) before age 18 na 9.7 na 4.5 5.6.1 Proportion of women aged 15-49 years who make their own informed decisions regarding sexual relations, contraceptive use and reproductive health care11 na 58.2 na na 5.b.1 Proportion of individuals who own a mobile telephone12 88.6 91.8 90.2a 13.5.1 and 13.5.2 Residence Indicator Urban Rural Total Table number 7. Affordable clean energy 7.1.2 Proportion of population with primary reliance on clean fuels and technology13 99.9 99.6 99.9 2.4 Sex Indicator Male Female Total Table number 8. Decent work and economic growth 8.10.2 Proportion of adults (15 years and older) with an account at a bank or other financial institution or with a mobile-money-service provider14 38.1 19.6 28.8a 13.5.1 and 13.5.2 16. Peace, justice, and strong institutions 16.2.1 Percentage of children aged 1-17 years who experienced any physical punishment and/or psychological aggression by caregivers in the past month15 82.7 79.6 81.3 15.6 16.9.1 Proportion of children under 5 years of age whose births have been registered with a civil authority 98.3 97.7 98.0 2.11 17. Partnerships for the goals 17.8.1 Proportion of individuals using the Internet16 86.7 76.5 81.6a 3.5.1 and 3.5.2 na = Not applicable 1 Expressed in terms of deaths per 1,000 live births for the 5-year period preceding the survey 2 Data are available for currently married women only 3 Equivalent to the age-specific fertility rate for women age 15-19 for the 3-year period preceding the survey, expressed in terms of births per 1,000 women age 15-19 4 Data are not age-standardized and are available for ever-married women and all men age 15-49 only 5 The percentage of children age 12-23 months who received three doses of DPT/IPV/Hib 6 The percentage of children age 24-35 months who received at least two doses of any measles containing vaccine 7 Measured for children age 36-59 months 8 Data are available for women age 15-49 who have ever been married only 9 In the DHS, psychological violence is termed emotional violence 10 Data are available for women who were married only 11 Data are available for currently married women who are not pregnant only 12 Data are available for ever-married women and all men age 15-49 only 13 Measured as the percentage of the population using clean fuel for cooking 14 Data are available for ever-married women and all men age 15-49 who have and use an account at bank or other financial institution; information on use of a mobile-money-service provider is not available 15 Data are available for children age 1-14 only 16 Data are available for ever-married women and all men age 15-49 who have used the internet in the past 12 months a The total is calculated as the simple arithmetic mean of the percentages in the columns for males and females xxx • Map of Jordan Introduction and Survey Methodology • 1 INTRODUCTION AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY 1 he 2017-18 Jordan Population and Family Health Survey (JPFHS) was implemented by the Department of Statistics (DOS). Data collection took place from early October 2017 to January 2018. ICF provided technical assistance through The DHS Program, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID) and offers financial support and technical assistance for population and health surveys in countries worldwide. Other agencies and organisations that facilitated the successful implementation of the survey through technical or financial support were the government of Jordan, the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF), and the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA). 1.1 SURVEY OBJECTIVES The primary objective of the 2017-18 JPFHS is to provide up-to-date estimates of basic demographic and health indicators. Specifically, the 2017-18 JPFHS:  Collected data at the national level that allowed calculation of key demographic indicators  Explored the direct and indirect factors that determine levels of and trends in fertility and childhood mortality  Measured levels of contraceptive knowledge and practice  Collected data on key aspects of family health, including immunisation coverage among children, the prevalence and treatment of diarrhoea and other diseases among children under age 5, and maternity care indicators such as antenatal visits and assistance at delivery among ever-married women  Obtained data on child feeding practices, including breastfeeding, and conducted anthropometric measurements to assess the nutritional status of children under age 5 and ever-married women age 15-49  Conducted haemoglobin testing on children age 6-59 months and ever-married women age 15-49 to provide information on the prevalence of anaemia among these groups  Collected data on knowledge and attitudes of ever-married women and men about sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and HIV/AIDS  Obtained data on ever-married women’s experience of emotional, physical, and sexual violence  Obtained data on household health expenditures The 2017-18 JPFHS is the seventh to be conducted in Jordan and follows the 1990, 1997, 2002, 2007, 2009, and 2012 JPFHS surveys. The survey will provide valuable information on trends in key demographic and health indicators over time. The collected information is intended to assist policymakers and programme managers in evaluating and designing programmes and strategies for improving the health of the country’s population. Additionally, for the first time in Jordan, the 2017-18 JPFHS included a male survey. The survey collected information on men’s basic demographic and social characteristics, on their knowledge and use of family T 2 • Introduction and Survey Methodology planning methods, and on their knowledge and attitudes towards HIV and other sexually transmitted infections. 1.2 SAMPLE DESIGN The sampling frame used for the 2017-18 JPFHS is based on Jordan’s Population and Housing Census (JPHC) frame for 2015. The current survey is designed to produce results representative of the country as a whole, of urban and rural areas separately, of three regions, of 12 administrative governorates, and of three national groups: Jordanians, Syrians, and a group combined from various other nationalities. The 12 governorates are grouped into three regions—the North region (Irbid, Jarash, Ajloun, and Mafraq), the Central region (Amman, Zarqa, Balqa, and Madaba), and the South region (Karak, Tafiela, Ma’an, and Aqaba). Each of the governorates of Jordan is divided into progressively smaller districts, sub-districts, localities, areas, and sub-areas. In addition to these administrative units, in the recent population census each sub-area was divided into convenient area units called census blocks. An electronic file contains a complete list of all census blocks, with information on households, populations, and geographical locations of each block. The census blocks are regrouped to form a general statistical unit of moderate size, called a cluster, which is widely used in various surveys as the primary sampling unit (PSU). The sample for the 2017-18 JPFHS is a stratified sample selected in two stages from the 2015 census frame. Stratification was achieved by separating each governorate into urban and rural areas. Each of the Syrian camps in the governorates of Zarqa and Mafraq formed its own sampling stratum. In total, 26 sampling strata were constructed. Samples were selected independently in each sampling stratum, through a two-stage selection process, according to the sample allocation. Before the sample selection, the sampling frame was sorted by district and sub-district within each sampling stratum. By using a probability-proportional-to-size selection for the first stage of selection, an implicit stratification and proportional allocation were achieved at each of the lower administrative levels. In the first stage, 970 clusters were selected with probability proportional to cluster size, with the cluster size being the number of residential households enumerated in the 2015 JPHC. The sample allocation took into account the precision consideration at the governorate level and at the level of each of the three special domains. After selection of PSUs and clusters, a household listing operation was carried out in all selected clusters. The resulting household lists served as the sampling frame for selecting households in the second stage. A fixed number of 20 households per cluster were selected with an equal probability systematic selection from the newly created household listing. All ever-married women age 15-49 who were either residents of the selected households or visitors who stayed in the households the night before the survey were eligible for an interview (Figure 1.1). In all households, all children under age 5 were weighed and measured for anthropometric indicators; all children age 6-59 months were tested for anaemia. In a subsample consisting of half of the households, all women age 15-49 were similarly tested. Also in this subsample, a child discipline module was applied during the household interview for one randomly selected child age 1-14, and similarly an early childhood development module was applied during the woman interview for one randomly selected child per woman. In the remaining half of the households, a health expenditure module was applied to all household members reported as receiving inpatient care and to one randomly selected member receiving outpatient care. In addition, a domestic violence module was applied to one ever-married woman age 15-49 selected randomly from each household. Also, in one in every two of the households in this subsample (i.e., 25% of all households), all men age 15-59 who were usual residents of the selected households or who stayed in the households the night before the survey were eligible for an interview. Introduction and Survey Methodology • 3 Fi gu re 1 .1 2 01 7- 18 J or da n P FH S s am pl e de si gn 10 0% o f h o u se h o ld s 1- C h ar ac te ri st ic s o f h o u se h o ld m e m b e rs 2- B ir th r e gi st ra ti o n 3- H o u si n g ch ar ac te ri st ic s 4- H o u se h o ld 's p o ss e ss io n s B IO M A R K ER S H ei g h t/ w ei g h t (c h il d re n < 5) A n a em ia ( ch il d re n 6 -5 9 m o n th s) 50 % o f h o u se h o ld s 25 % o f h o u se h o ld s B IO M A R K ER S H ei g h t/ w ei g h t (A LL w o m en 1 5- 49 ) A n a em ia ( A LL w o m en 1 5- 49 ) 6- C h il d d is ci p li n e ( 1- 14 y e ar s, 1 p e r h o u se h o ld ) 5- H e al th e xp e n d it u re 5- H e al th e xp e n d it u re 1- B ac kg ro u n d c h ar ac te ri st ic s 1- B ac kg ro u n d c h ar ac te ri st ic s 1- B ac kg ro u n d c h ar ac te ri st ic s 2- B ir th h is to ry in cl u d in g ch il d m o rt al it y 2- B ir th h is to ry in cl u d in g ch il d m o rt al it y 2- B ir th h is to ry in cl u d in g ch il d m o rt al it y 3- F am il y p la n n in g 3- F am il y p la n n in g 3- F am il y p la n n in g 4- P re gn an cy , p re n at al a n d p o st n at al c ar e 4- P re gn an cy , p re n at al a n d p o st n at al c ar e 4- P re gn an cy , p re n at al a n d p o st n at al c ar e 5- C h il d im m u n is at io n 5- C h il d im m u n is at io n 5- C h il d im m u n is at io n 6- C h il d h e al th a n d n u tr it io n 6- C h il d h e al th a n d n u tr it io n 6- C h il d h e al th a n d n u tr it io n 7- M ar ri ag e a n d s e xu al a ct iv it y 7- M ar ri ag e a n d s e xu al a ct iv it y 7- M ar ri ag e a n d s e xu al a ct iv it y 8- F e rt il it y p re fe re n ce s 8- F e rt il it y p re fe re n ce s 8- F e rt il it y p re fe re n ce s 9- H u sb an d 's c h ar ac te ri st ic s, e m p lo ym e n t an d g e n d e r ro le s 9- H u sb an d 's c h ar ac te ri st ic s, e m p lo ym e n t an d g e n d e r ro le s 9- H u sb an d 's c h ar ac te ri st ic s, e m p lo ym e n t an d g e n d e r ro le s 10 - H IV /A ID S kn o w le d ge a n d a tt it u d e s 10 - H IV /A ID S kn o w le d ge a n d a tt it u d e s 10 - H IV /A ID S kn o w le d ge a n d a tt it u d e s 11 - O th e r h e al th p ro b le m s (i n cl u d in g sm o ki n g) 11 - O th e r h e al th p ro b le m s (i n cl u d in g sm o ki n g) 11 - O th e r h e al th p ro b le m s (i n cl u d in g sm o ki n g) 12 - Ea rl y ch il d h o o d d e ve lo p m e n t (1 c h il d p e r w o m an ) 13 - D o m e st ic v io le n ce ( 1 w o m an p e r h o u se h o ld ) 13 - D o m e st ic v io le n ce ( 1 w o m an p e r h o u se h o ld ) 1- B ac kg ro u n d c h ar ac te ri st ic s 2 - R e p ro d u ct io n 3- F am il y p la n n in g 4- M ar ri ag e a n d s e xu al a ct iv it y 5- F e rt il it y p re fe re n ce s 6- E m p lo ym e n t an d g e n d e r ro le s 7- H IV /A ID S kn o w le d ge a n d a tt it u d e s 8- O th e r h e al th p ro b le m s (i n cl u d in g sm o ki n g) H O U SE H O LD S EV ER -M A R R IE D W O M EN ( 15 -4 9) EV ER -M A R R IE D W O M EN (1 5- 49 ) EV ER -M A R R IE D W O M EN (1 5- 49 ) A LL M EN ( 15 -5 9) 25 % o f h o u se h o ld s 4 • Introduction and Survey Methodology 1.3 QUESTIONNAIRES Four questionnaires were used for the 2017-18 JPFHS: the Household Questionnaire, the Woman’s Questionnaire, the Man’s Questionnaire, and the Biomarker Questionnaire. These questionnaires, based on The DHS Program’s standard Demographic and Health Survey questionnaires, were adapted to reflect population and health issues relevant to Jordan. After all questionnaires were finalised in English, they were translated into Arabic. The Household Questionnaire listed all members of and visitors to selected households. Basic demographic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, including age, sex, marital status, education, and relationship to the head of the household. For children under age 18, their parents’ survival status was determined. The data on age and sex of household members were used to identify women and men eligible for individual interviews. The Household Questionnaire also collected information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit, such as source of water, type of toilets, flooring materials, presence of various durable goods, household health expenditures, and diagnosis of diabetes among household members. The Woman’s Questionnaire gathered information from ever-married women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics:  Background characteristics (including age, education, and media exposure)  Birth history and childhood mortality  Family planning including knowledge, use, and sources of contraceptive methods  Fertility preferences  Antenatal, delivery, and postnatal care  Breastfeeding and infant feeding practices  Vaccinations and childhood illnesses  Early childhood development  Women’s work and husbands’ background characteristics  Knowledge and awareness of HIV/AIDS  Knowledge, attitudes, and behaviours related to other health issues (e.g., smoking)  Domestic violence The Man’s Questionnaire was administered to men age 15-59. It collected much of the same information elicited for the Woman’s Questionnaire but was shorter because it did not contain a detailed reproductive history, questions on maternal and child health, or questions on domestic violence. The Biomarker Questionnaire was used to record biomarker data collected from respondents by biomarker measurers. The 2017-18 JPFHS interviewers used tablet computers to record responses during the interviews and to record biomarker data. The tablets were equipped with Bluetooth® technology to enable remote electronic transfer of files, such as assignments from team supervisors to interviewers, individual questionnaires among survey team members, and completed questionnaires from interviewers to team supervisors. The computer-assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) data collection system employed in the 2017-18 JPFHS was developed by The DHS Program using the mobile version of CSPro. The CSPro software was developed jointly by the U.S. Census Bureau, The DHS Program, and Serpro S.A. The survey protocol, including biomarker collection, was reviewed and approved by the ICF Institutional Review Board. Introduction and Survey Methodology • 5 1.4 ANTHROPOMETRY AND ANAEMIA TESTING The 2017-18 JPFHS incorporated anthropometry and anaemia testing. Biomarker data were collected in all households. Anthropometry. Height and weight measurements were recorded for children age 0-59 months and for women age 15-49. Anaemia testing. Blood specimens for anaemia testing were collected from women age 15-49 who voluntarily consented to be tested and from children age 6-59 months upon consent from their parents or other adults responsible for them. Blood samples were drawn from a drop of blood taken from a finger prick (or a heel prick in the case of children age 6-11 months) and collected in a microcuvette. Haemoglobin analysis was carried out on-site using a battery-operated portable HemoCue analyser. Results were provided verbally and in writing. Parents or responsible adults of children whose haemoglobin level fell below 7 g/dl were instructed to take the child to a health facility for follow-up care. Likewise, non-pregnant women and pregnant women were referred for follow-up care if their haemoglobin levels were below 7 g/dl and 9 g/dl, respectively. All households in which anaemia testing was conducted were given a brochure explaining the causes of anaemia and its prevention. 1.5 PRETEST The pretest training for the 2017-18 JPFHS was conducted from July 2-26, 2017, in Amman, Jordan, with 56 trainees. It consisted of training on paper questionnaires and CAPI and biomarker training on how to measure height and weight and collect blood to test for anaemia. Pretest fieldwork was also conducted in rural and urban clusters throughout Amman from July 27-30. These clusters were not included in the 2017-18 JPFHS. In general, interviewers and supervisors displayed proficiency in all four questionnaires as well as in the use of tablets for data collection. Following field practice, a debriefing session was held with the pretest field staff, and questionnaires were modified based on lessons drawn from the exercise. 1.6 TRAINING OF FIELD STAFF The DOS recruited and trained 153 people to serve as team supervisors, interviewers, and biomarker measurers for the main fieldwork. The training was conducted in three phases from August 13, 2017, to September 26, 2017, in Amman. The first phase of the training involved instruction on how to collect biomarker data by taking height and weight measurements and by taking blood samples to measure haemoglobin levels. Forty individuals were recruited for the role of biomarker measurers, none of whom had prior medical backgrounds. They participated in biomarker training from August 13 to 20, 2017; this training consisted of lectures, demonstrations of biomarker measurement or testing procedures, and field practice with children. The second phase of the main training, conducted from August 20, 2017, to September 26, 2017, included 153 potential staff recruited by the DOS. Interviewer training focused on interviewing techniques and field procedures, questionnaire content, how to administer paper questionnaires, and conducting mock interviews between participants in the classroom. The interviewer training also included presentations given by various specialists from the Ministry of Health, who covered Jordan-specific policies and programmes on family planning and immunisation. The third phase of the training emphasised CAPI training and mainly focused on CAPI menus and how to conduct interviews using tablets. During this phase of the training, some of the interviewing techniques and questionnaire content were again reviewed. Finally, a field practice, conducted from September 27 to 29, 2017, was organised for 26 non-JPFHS clusters throughout Amman to practice biomarker testing, interviews, and supervisory procedures in the field. The aim of this additional hands-on experience was to provide trainees with more practice before they began conducting actual fieldwork. 6 • Introduction and Survey Methodology 1.7 FIELDWORK Data collection took place over a 4-month period, from early October 2017 to January 2018. Fieldwork was carried out by 27 field teams, each consisting of one team supervisor, three female interviewers, one male interviewer, one biomarker measurer, and one driver. Electronic data files were transferred to the DOS central office in Amman every few days via the secured Internet file streaming system (IFSS). Staff from the DOS and specialists from The DHS Program coordinated and supervised fieldwork activities. 1.8 DATA PROCESSING All electronic data files for the 2017-18 JPFHS were transferred via IFSS to the DOS central office in Amman, where they were stored on a password-protected computer. The data processing operation included secondary editing, which required resolution of computer-identified inconsistencies and coding of open-ended questions. Data editing was accomplished using CSPro software. During the duration of fieldwork, tables were generated to check various data quality parameters, and specific feedback was given to the teams to improve performance. Secondary editing and data processing were initiated in October 2017 and completed in February 2018. 1.9 RESPONSE RATES Table 1.1 shows response rates for the 2017-18 JPFHS. A total of 19,384 households were selected for the sample, of which 19,136 were found to be occupied at the time of the fieldwork. Of the occupied households, 18,802 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 98%. In the interviewed households, 14,870 women were identified as eligible for an individual interview; interviews were completed with 14,689 women, yielding a response rate of 99%. A total of 6,640 eligible men were identified in the sampled households and 6,429 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 97%. Response rates for both women and men were similar across urban and rural areas. Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews, and response rates, according to residence (unweighted), Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Residence Total Result Urban Rural Household interviews Households selected 15,380 4,004 19,384 Households occupied 15,199 3,937 19,136 Households interviewed 14,944 3,858 18,802 Household response rate1 98.3 98.0 98.3 Interviews with women age 15-49 Number of eligible women 11,885 2,985 14,870 Number of eligible women interviewed 11,745 2,944 14,689 Eligible women response rate2 98.8 98.6 98.8 Overall women response rate (EWRR)3 97.1 98.6 97.1 Interviews with men age 15-59 Number of eligible men 5,218 1,422 6,640 Number of eligible men interviewed 5,056 1,373 6,429 Eligible men response rate2 96.9 96.6 96.8 Overall men response rate (EMRR)3 95.3 94.7 95.2 1 Households interviewed/households occupied 2 Respondents interviewed/eligible respondents 3 Household response rate * eligible respondent response rate/100 Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 7 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSEHOLD POPULATION 2 Key Findings  Drinking water and sanitation: 98% of households in Jordan have access to an improved source of drinking water, and 98% use improved toilet facilities.  Tobacco smoking inside the home: In 60% of households, someone smokes inside the house on a daily basis, and in 4% of households someone smokes inside on a weekly basis.  Household composition: On average, households in Jordan have 4.7 members, and 12% of households are female-headed.  Birth registration: 98% of children under age 5 had their births registered with the civil authorities; this includes 89% with a birth certificate and 9% whose birth was registered but who do not have a birth certificate.  School attendance: 96% of girls age 6-15 attend basic school, as compared with 95% of boys. The net attendance ratio (NAR) drops in secondary school: 75% of girls and 67% of boys age 16-17 attend secondary school. nformation on the socioeconomic characteristics of the household population in the 2017-18 JPFHS provides a context to interpret demographic and health indicators and can furnish an approximate indication of the representativeness of the survey. In addition, this information sheds light on the living conditions of the population. This chapter presents information on sources of drinking water, sanitation, exposure to smoke inside the home, wealth, household population and composition, family living arrangements, birth registration, educational attainment, and school attendance. 2.1 DRINKING WATER SOURCES AND TREATMENT Improved sources of drinking water Include piped water, protected springs, and rainwater. Households that use bottled water for drinking are classified as using an improved source only if the water they use for cooking and hand washing comes from an improved source. Sample: Households Access to improved sources of water protects against outside contamination so that water is more likely to be safe to drink. In Jordan, 98% of households use an improved source of drinking water (99% of urban households and 97% of rural households) (Table 2.1). I 8 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population The most common source of drinking water among both urban and rural households is water piped into their housing unit/yard/plot, followed by bottled water (Figure 2.1). Among urban households, 59% have water piped into their housing unit/yard/plot, 37% use bottled water, and 2% use rainwater. Forty-nine percent of rural households have water piped into their housing unit/yard/plot, 42% use bottled water, and 7% use rainwater. Two percent of urban households and 3% of rural households use an unimproved source of drinking water. In Jordan, almost all households have water on the premises (99%), with no variation among urban and rural households. Two in three households (62%) report that they do not treat their water prior to drinking. Filtering is the most common water treatment method, used by 31% of all households. Overall, 34% of households use an appropriate method to treat their drinking water. Table 2.2 presents information on the availability of water in the last 2 weeks among households using piped water. One in five (22%) households reported having a water interruption of at least a single day in the last 2 weeks. Trends: There has been little change in access to an improved source of drinking water since the 1997 JPFHS, with rates ranging from 96% to 99%. 2.2 SANITATION Improved toilet facilities Include any non-shared toilet of the following types: flush/pour flush toilets to piped sewer systems and pit latrines, ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrines, and pit latrines with slabs. Sample: Households As shown in Figure 2.2, almost all (98%) households in Jordan use improved toilet facilities, which are non-shared facilities that prevent people from coming into contact with human waste and can reduce the transmission of cholera, typhoid, and other diseases. Shared toilet facilities of an otherwise acceptable type are used by only 2% of households. Less than 1% of households use unimproved facilities (Table 2.3). Figure 2.1 Household drinking water by residence Figure 2.2 Household toilet facilities by residence 58 59 49 3 2 7 37 37 42 2 2 3 Total Urban Rural Percent distribution of households by source of drinking water Unimproved source Bottled water, improved source for cooking/hand washing Rainwater Piped water into housing unit/yard/plot 98 98 97 2 2 3 <1 <1 Total Urban Rural Percent distribution of households by type of toilet facilities Unimproved facility Shared facility Improved facility <1 Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 9 2.3 OTHER HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS 2.3.1 Housing Characteristics The survey collected data on housing characteristics such as type of housing, flooring/wall/roof materials, and number of rooms used for sleeping. Table 2.4 indicates that 71% of housing units in urban areas are apartments, as compared with 24% in rural areas. Dars, which are homes that are built with an enclosed central courtyard, account for 74% of housing in rural areas, compared with 26% in urban areas. The most common flooring materials are tiles (60% of households) and ceramic tiles (37%). Three in five households (60%) in Jordan have four or more rooms in the house, and 43% of households use two rooms for sleeping. 2.3.2 Exposure to Smoke in the Home Exposure to smoke inside the home, from either cooking with solid fuels or smoking tobacco, has potentially harmful health effects. Nearly all households in Jordan use natural gas for cooking regardless of place of residence (Table 2.4). Exposure to smoke from cooking is greater when cooking takes place inside the house rather than in a separate building or outdoors. In Jordan, 99% of households cook inside. However, the data indicate that almost all households have a separate room used as a kitchen (97%). Exposure to tobacco smoke is common in Jordan. In 60% of households, someone smokes inside the house on a daily basis, with small differences by place of residence. 2.3.3 Diabetes For the first time, the 2017-18 JPFHS collected information on diabetes among all household members. The respondent to the Household Questionnaire was asked whether any member of the household had been diagnosed by a doctor or other health worker with diabetes and, among those diagnosed with diabetes, the timing of the diagnosis. As shown in Table 2.5, 5% of de facto household residents, regardless of sex, had been diagnosed with diabetes. Household members age 50-59 and 60+ were much more likely to have been diagnosed with diabetes (19% and 32%, respectively) than those age 40-49 (7%) and those younger than age 40 (1% or less). The percentage of respondents diagnosed with diabetes did not vary markedly according to other background characteristics. 2.4 HOUSEHOLD WEALTH 2.4.1 Household Durable Goods The survey collected information about household effects and means of transportation. As shown in Table 2.6, 99% of households have a television; 98% each have a mobile phone, a refrigerator, and a satellite dish; and 97% have a washing machine. More than half (58%) of households have a car or truck, with almost no difference by place of residence. However, households in urban areas are more likely to have a computer (44%), freezer (27%), air conditioner (41%), and credit card (16%) than households in rural areas (30%, 19%, 23%, and 9%, respectively). 10 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population 2.4.2 Wealth Index Wealth index Households are given scores based on the number and kinds of consumer goods they own, ranging from a television to a bicycle or car, and housing characteristics such as source of drinking water, toilet facilities, and flooring materials. These scores are derived using principal component analysis. National wealth quintiles are compiled by assigning the household score to each usual (de jure) household member, ranking each person in the household population by her or his score, and then dividing the distribution into five equal categories, each comprising 20% of the population. Sample: Households Table 2.7 shows the distribution of the de jure household population by wealth quintile according to residence, region, governorate, and nationality of head of household. Urban households are more likely than rural households to fall into the higher wealth quintiles. Forty-four percent of the urban population falls in the two highest wealth quintiles, as compared with only 9% of the rural population (Figure 2.3). Wealth also varies by region, with the North region having a higher percentage of residents in the lowest quintile (29%) than the Central (15%) and South (23%) regions. There is wide variation by governorate in the distribution of the population according to wealth. Whereas more than half of household members in Amman (59%) fall into either the fourth or highest quintile, more than half of those in Madaba (61%), Mafraq (75%), Jarash (59%), Ajloun (55%), Tafiela (57%), and Ma’an (60%) fall in the lowest two quintiles. Also, 66% of households headed by individuals of Syrian nationality fall in the lowest wealth quintile. Table 2.7 includes the Gini coefficient, a measure of the level of concentration of wealth, with 0 being an equal wealth distribution and 1 a totally unequal distribution. The overall Gini coefficient is 0.05, which suggests that wealth is somewhat evenly distributed across the population. 2.5 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND COMPOSITION Household A person or group of related or unrelated persons who live together in the same dwelling unit(s), who acknowledge one adult male or female as the head of the household, who share the same housekeeping arrangements, and who are considered a single unit. De facto population All persons who stayed in the selected households the night before the interview (whether usual residents or visitors). Figure 2.3 Household wealth by residence 20 25 18 4119 26 22 7 22 2 Urban Rural Percent distribution of de jure population by wealth quintiles Highest Fourth Middle Second Lowest Note: Values may not add to 100 due to rounding. Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 11 De jure population All persons who are usual residents of the selected households, whether or not they stayed in the household the night before the interview. How data are calculated All tables are based on the de facto population unless otherwise specified. A total of 88,933 individuals stayed overnight in the 18,802 households interviewed in the 2017-18 JPFHS. Among these individuals, 44,299 were male and 44,634 were female (Table 2.8), yielding a sex ratio of 99 males per 100 females. The population pyramid in Figure 2.4 illustrates the distribution of the population by 5-year age groups and sex. Children under age 15 account for 33% of the population, while individuals age 65 and older make up only 5%. The majority of households in Jordan are male-headed (88%), with small differences by place of residence. The average household consists of 4.7 usual members. Rural households are on average slightly larger than urban households (5.1 and 4.7 persons per household, respectively) (Table 2.9). Trends: Mean household size declined from 6.9 members in 1990 to 4.7 members in 2017-18, a decrease of 2.2 persons. 2.6 CHILDREN’S LIVING ARRANGEMENTS AND PARENTAL SURVIVAL Orphan A child with one or both parents who are dead. Sample: Children under age 18 Ninety-two percent of children under age 18 live with both biological parents (Table 2.10). Less than 1% of children below age 18 do not live with a biological parent. Among most of these foster children, both of their biological parents are alive. In Syrian-headed households, only 81% of children under age 18 live with both biological parents, as compared with 93% of Jordanian children and 94% of children of other nationalities. In the case of Syrian children who live with their mother but not with their father, the father is alive among 11% of children and dead among 4% of children. Fostering and orphanhood are also highest among Syrian-headed households. 2.7 BIRTH REGISTRATION Registered birth Child has a birth certificate or child does not have a birth certificate, but his/her birth is registered with the civil authorities. Sample: De jure children under age 5 Figure 2.4 Population pyramid 10 6 2 2 6 10 <5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80+ Age Percent distribution of the household population Male Female 2610 12 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.11 presents information on the percentage of children under age 5 who have a birth certificate and the percentage who do not have a birth certificate but whose birth has been registered with the civil authorities. Overall, 98% of de jure children under age 5 had their births registered with the civil authorities; this includes 89% with a birth certificate and 9% whose birth was registered but who do not have a birth certificate. With the exception of children in Syrian-headed households (93%), the proportion of children whose births are registered is 96% or higher in all background characteristic categories (Figure 2.5). 2.8 EDUCATION 2.8.1 Educational Attainment Median educational attainment Half of the population has completed less than the median number of years of schooling, and half of the population has completed more than the median number of years of schooling. Sample: De facto household population age 6 and older Tables 2.12.1 and 2.12.2 present information on educational attainment among the household population age 6 and over. Overall, 6% of women and girls age 6 and over have never been to school. Nineteen percent have attended some elementary school, 5% have completed elementary school, 2% have attended some preparatory school, 13% have completed preparatory school, 19% have attended some secondary school, 10% have completed secondary school, and 26% have attained some education after secondary school. Women and girls age 6 and over have completed a median of 9.8 years of schooling. Educational attainment among men and boys is similar to that among women and girls. Three percent of men and boys age 6 and over have never attended school. Nineteen percent have attended some elementary school, 6% have completed elementary school, 2% have attended some preparatory school, 14% have completed preparatory school, 23% have attended some secondary school, 9% have completed secondary school, and 24% have attained some education after secondary school. Men and boys age 6 and over have completed a median of 9.7 years of schooling. Patterns by background characteristics  Among both females and males, the median number of years of schooling is highest in Amman (10.3 years for both) and lowest in Mafraq (7.3 years and 7.6 years, respectively). Five percent of females and 2% of males in Amman have no education; by contrast, 11% of females and 6% of males in Mafraq have no education.  The difference in educational attainment is quite large between Jordanian households and Syrian households. Females age 6 and over in Jordanian-headed households have completed a median of 10.1 years of schooling, as compared with a median of 5.5 years in Syrian-headed households. Similarly, among males age 6 and over, the median number of years of schooling is 10.0 in Jordanian-headed households and 5.7 in Syrian-headed households.  Educational attainment increases with increasing household wealth. Females in the lowest wealth quintile have completed a median of 6.5 years of schooling, as compared with a median of 11.5 years Figure 2.5 Birth registration by nationality 99 93 98 Jordanian Syrian Other nationality Percentage of de jure children under age 5 whose births are registered with the civil authorities Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 13 among females in the highest wealth quintile. Among males, the median number of years of schooling increases from 6.7 in the lowest wealth quintile to 11.7 in the highest quintile. Trends: Between 1990 and 2017-18, median years of schooling increased from 5.3 to 9.8 among females and from 6.2 to 9.7 among males. 2.8.2 School Attendance Net attendance ratio (NAR) Percentage of the school-age population that attends basic or secondary school. Sample: Children age 6-15 for basic school NAR and children age 16-17 for secondary school NAR Gross attendance ratio (GAR) The total number of children attending basic school divided by the official basic school-age population and the total number of children attending secondary school divided by the official secondary school-age population. Sample: Children age 6-15 for basic school GAR and children age 16-17 for secondary school GAR School attendance ratios are shown in Table 2.13. Ninety-six percent of girls age 6-15 attend basic school, as compared with 95% of boys. The net attendance ratio (NAR) drops in secondary school: 75% of girls and 67% of boys age 16-17 attend secondary school. The gross attendance ratio (GAR) for basic school is 102 for both girls and boys; the GAR for secondary school is 100 for girls and 99 for boys. These figures indicate that a small number of children outside the official school-age population for that level are attending basic school but not secondary school. Gender parity index (GPI) The ratio of female to male students attending basic school and the ratio of female to male students attending secondary school. The index reflects the magnitude of the gender gap. Sample: Basic school students and secondary school students The gender parity index (GPI) for the GAR at the basic school is 1.00, indicating that there are equal numbers of female and male students attending basic school. At the secondary school level, female students very slightly outnumber male students with a GPI of 1.01. 14 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Patterns by background characteristics  At the basic school level, the NAR is 97% among Jordanian-headed households, higher than the NAR among households headed by Syrians (87%) or individuals of other nationalities (92%). At the secondary level, the differences by nationality widen. For girls, the NAR is 78% in Jordanian-headed households, 31% in Syrian households, and 60% in households headed by individuals of other nationalities. A similar pattern is observed for boys (Figure 2.6).  At the secondary school level, NARs increase with increasing wealth, from 45% in the lowest wealth quintile to 88% in the highest quintile. In all quintiles, NARs are higher for girls than for boys, although the difference between boys and girls generally decreases with increasing wealth. LIST OF TABLES For more information on household population and housing characteristics, see the following tables:  Table 2.1 Household drinking water  Table 2.2 Availability of water  Table 2.3 Household sanitation facilities  Table 2.4 Household characteristics  Table 2.5 Diabetes  Table 2.6 Household possessions  Table 2.7 Wealth quintiles  Table 2.8 Household population by age, sex, and residence  Table 2.9 Household composition  Table 2.10 Children’s living arrangements and orphanhood  Table 2.11 Birth registration of children under age 5  Table 2.12.1 Educational attainment of the female household population  Table 2.12.2 Educational attainment of the male household population  Table 2.13 School attendance ratios Figure 2.6 Secondary school attendance by nationality 78 31 60 71 29 56 Jordanian Syrian Other nationality Net attendance ratio for secondary school among children age 16-17 Girls Boys Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 15 Table 2.1 Household drinking water Percent distribution of households and de jure population by source of drinking water and by time to obtain drinking water, percentage of households and de jure population using various methods to treat drinking water, and percentage using an appropriate treatment method, according to residence, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Households Population Characteristic Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Source of drinking water Improved source 98.5 96.8 98.3 98.2 96.5 98.0 Piped into housing unit/yard/plot 59.3 48.5 58.3 58.9 50.0 57.9 Rainwater 2.4 6.6 2.8 2.6 6.6 3.0 Bottled water, improved source for cooking/hand washing1 36.7 41.6 37.2 36.8 39.8 37.1 Unimproved source 1.5 3.2 1.7 1.8 3.5 2.0 Unprotected spring 0.2 0.5 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.2 Tanker truck/cart with small tank 0.8 2.0 1.0 1.0 2.3 1.2 Bottled water, unimproved source for cooking/hand washing1 0.5 0.8 0.5 0.6 0.8 0.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Time to obtain drinking water (round trip) Water on premises 99.3 98.8 99.2 99.2 98.8 99.1 Less than 30 minutes 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 0.3 0.5 30 minutes or longer 0.2 0.7 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.3 Don’t know/missing 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Water treatment prior to drinking2 Boiled 4.3 6.1 4.5 4.3 6.7 4.6 Bleach/chlorine added 1.3 0.8 1.2 1.2 0.8 1.2 Water filter (ceramic, sand, or other filter) 32.6 15.3 30.8 32.3 16.1 30.5 No treatment 60.5 76.0 62.1 60.9 75.2 62.4 Percentage using an appropriate treatment method3 35.8 20.9 34.3 35.4 22.0 34.0 Number 16,908 1,894 18,802 79,148 9,574 88,722 1 Households using bottled water for drinking are classified as using an improved or unimproved source according to their water source for cooking and hand washing. 2 Respondents may report multiple treatment methods, so the sum of treatment may exceed 100%. 3 Appropriate water treatment methods include boiling, bleaching, filtering, and solar disinfecting. Table 2.2 Availability of water Among households and de jure population using piped water, percentage lacking available water in the last 2 weeks, according to residence, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Households Population Availability of water in last 2 weeks Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Not available for at least 1 day 22.5 18.7 22.1 23.5 19.2 23.1 Available with no interruption of at least 1 day 77.1 81.2 77.4 76.1 80.7 76.5 Don’t know/missing 0.5 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.1 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number using piped water1 15,810 1,659 17,469 73,622 8,373 81,996 1 Includes households reporting piped water as their main source of drinking water and households reporting bottled water as their main source of drinking water if their main source of water for cooking and hand washing is piped water 16 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.3 Household sanitation facilities Percent distribution of households and de jure population by type of toilet/latrine facilities and percent distribution of households and de jure population with a toilet/latrine facility by location of the facility, according to residence, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Households Population Type and location of toilet/latrine facility Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Improved sanitation 98.3 96.9 98.2 98.2 96.7 98.0 Flush/pour flush to piped sewer system 74.4 28.2 69.7 72.5 27.5 67.6 Flush/pour flush to pit latrine 20.5 60.5 24.6 21.9 61.4 26.2 Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine 0.7 2.3 0.9 0.7 2.2 0.9 Pit latrine with slab 2.7 5.9 3.0 3.0 5.7 3.3 Unimproved sanitation 1.7 3.1 1.8 1.8 3.3 2.0 Shared facility1 1.6 2.9 1.8 1.8 3.0 1.9 Flush/pour flush to piped sewer system 0.6 0.3 0.6 0.7 0.3 0.6 Flush/pour flush to pit latrine 0.7 2.5 0.9 0.7 2.7 0.9 Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 Pit latrine with slab 0.3 0.1 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.3 Unimproved facility 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Flush/pour flush not to sewer/pit latrine 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.2 0.1 No facility 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households/population 16,908 1,894 18,802 79,148 9,574 88,722 Location of toilet facility In own dwelling 96.8 94.0 96.5 96.6 94.2 96.3 In own yard/plot 3.1 5.9 3.4 3.3 5.7 3.5 Elsewhere 0.2 0.0 0.2 0.2 0.0 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households/population with a toilet/latrine facility 16,908 1,893 18,801 79,146 9,573 88,719 1 Facilities that would be considered improved if they were not shared by two or more households Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 17 Table 2.4 Household characteristics Percent distribution of households and de jure population by housing characteristics, percentage using solid fuel for cooking, percentage using clean fuel for cooking, and percent distribution by frequency of smoking in the home, according to residence, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Households Population Housing characteristic Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Type of housing unit Apartment 71.0 24.4 66.3 68.8 21.0 63.7 Dar 26.1 73.8 30.9 28.1 77.2 33.4 Villa 1.4 1.4 1.4 1.5 1.5 1.5 Hut/barrack 0.5 0.2 0.5 0.6 0.2 0.5 Mobile structure, tent 0.9 0.1 0.8 1.0 0.1 0.9 Other 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Flooring material Earth 0.1 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.3 0.1 Parquet or polished wood 0.6 0.1 0.6 0.7 0.1 0.6 Tile 57.4 77.9 59.5 58.7 77.2 60.7 Marble/ceramic tile 39.1 16.6 36.8 37.8 17.2 35.6 Cement 2.7 5.0 2.9 2.8 5.2 3.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Main wall material Cement bricks 20.9 28.3 21.6 21.6 28.4 22.3 Cut stones 23.6 6.3 21.9 22.5 6.6 20.8 Cut stone and concrete 18.0 9.8 17.2 17.6 10.0 16.7 Concrete 35.5 53.6 37.3 36.1 53.2 37.9 Zinc/metal 1.2 0.2 1.1 1.4 0.2 1.3 Other 0.9 1.8 1.0 0.9 1.7 0.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Main roof material Concrete 97.8 98.7 97.9 97.5 98.7 97.7 Zinc/metal 1.4 0.2 1.3 1.6 0.2 1.5 Other 0.8 1.1 0.8 0.9 1.1 0.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Rooms in the house 1 1.9 1.4 1.9 1.3 0.6 1.2 2 8.6 8.9 8.6 7.4 7.4 7.4 3 28.9 32.8 29.3 27.9 31.2 28.2 4 32.8 33.4 32.9 33.7 34.3 33.8 5 22.5 16.8 21.9 23.9 18.3 23.3 6+ 5.2 6.7 5.4 5.9 8.1 6.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Rooms used for sleeping One 23.3 29.9 23.9 16.4 20.0 16.8 Two 42.6 44.3 42.8 43.8 46.6 44.1 Three or more 34.1 25.8 33.3 39.9 33.4 39.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Has separate bathroom Yes 94.2 89.9 93.7 94.0 90.3 93.6 No 5.8 10.1 6.3 6.0 9.7 6.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Household has separate room used as kitchen Yes 97.3 96.6 97.2 97.7 97.8 97.7 No 2.7 3.4 2.8 2.3 2.2 2.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Place for cooking In the house 99.4 99.1 99.4 99.5 99.4 99.5 In a separate building 0.4 0.8 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.4 Outdoors 0.0 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.1 0.0 No food cooked in household 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 Other 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 (Continued…) 18 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.4—Continued Households Population Housing characteristic Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Cooking fuel Electricity 0.6 0.4 0.6 0.6 0.4 0.5 Natural gas 99.2 99.2 99.2 99.3 99.2 99.3 Other 0.2 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.4 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percentage using solid fuel for cooking1 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.3 0.0 Percentage using clean fuel for cooking2 99.8 99.6 99.8 99.9 99.6 99.9 Frequency of smoking in the home Daily 60.0 56.8 59.7 63.5 59.6 63.1 Weekly 4.3 5.0 4.4 4.2 5.2 4.3 Monthly 0.4 0.5 0.4 0.4 0.6 0.4 Less than once a month 0.6 0.2 0.6 0.6 0.2 0.6 Never 34.6 37.4 34.9 31.3 34.4 31.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households/population 16,908 1,894 18,802 79,148 9,574 88,722 1 Includes coal and wood 2 Includes electricity and natural gas Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 19 Table 2.5 Diabetes Percentage of de facto household residents who were told by a doctor or other health worker that they have diabetes, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Women Men Total Background characteristic Percentage diagnosed with diabetes Number of persons Percentage diagnosed with diabetes Number of persons Percentage diagnosed with diabetes Number of persons Age 0-4 0.0 4,475 0.0 4,648 0.0 9,123 5-17 0.2 12,763 0.1 13,319 0.1 26,082 18-29 0.4 9,570 0.3 10,029 0.4 19,599 30-39 1.2 6,116 1.8 5,198 1.4 11,314 40-49 6.1 5,318 7.2 4,634 6.6 9,952 50-59 19.7 3,373 19.1 3,416 19.4 6,789 60+ 34.6 3,020 29.3 3,055 31.9 6,075 Residence Urban 5.0 39,823 4.6 39,570 4.8 79,394 Rural 3.8 4,811 4.1 4,729 4.0 9,540 Region Central 5.1 27,547 4.8 27,534 5.0 55,081 North 4.8 12,979 4.5 12,810 4.6 25,789 South 3.2 4,109 3.3 3,956 3.2 8,064 Governorate Amman 5.0 17,849 5.1 17,548 5.1 35,397 Balqa 5.2 2,491 4.0 2,576 4.6 5,068 Zarqa 5.4 6,164 4.5 6,360 5.0 12,524 Madaba 4.5 1,043 3.4 1,048 4.0 2,092 Irbid 5.4 8,133 5.1 7,918 5.2 16,051 Mafraq 3.5 2,605 3.3 2,647 3.4 5,251 Jarash 4.1 1,284 3.4 1,301 3.8 2,586 Ajloun 4.2 957 3.4 944 3.8 1,901 Karak 2.8 1,714 3.1 1,601 2.9 3,315 Tafiela 3.4 642 3.4 590 3.4 1,231 Ma’an 3.5 731 2.9 732 3.2 1,463 Aqaba 3.4 1,022 3.9 1,032 3.7 2,055 Nationality Jordanian 5.0 39,476 4.8 38,994 4.9 78,470 Syrian 3.4 3,162 2.2 3,004 2.8 6,167 Other nationality 3.2 1,991 4.2 2,301 3.7 4,292 Missing * 5 * 0 * 5 Education None 7.7 7,419 2.6 6,442 5.3 13,861 Elementary 4.4 9,862 3.1 10,032 3.8 19,895 Preparatory 6.5 5,933 5.8 6,372 6.2 12,305 Secondary 3.9 11,105 4.4 12,121 4.2 23,226 Higher 3.2 10,307 6.8 9,313 4.9 19,620 Missing * 8 * 19 * 27 Wealth quintile Lowest 4.7 9,012 3.4 8,720 4.1 17,732 Second 4.9 8,887 3.9 8,829 4.4 17,716 Middle 4.8 8,871 4.5 8,907 4.7 17,777 Fourth 4.5 8,816 4.9 9,018 4.7 17,834 Highest 5.3 9,048 6.0 8,825 5.6 17,873 Total 4.8 44,634 4.6 44,299 4.7 88,933 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 20 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.6 Household possessions Percentage of households possessing various household effects and means of transportation, by residence, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Residence Total Possession Urban Rural Household effects Radio 10.5 5.7 10.0 Television 98.8 98.8 98.8 Mobile telephone 97.7 96.4 97.6 Computer 44.3 29.7 42.9 Non-mobile telephone 11.4 3.9 10.7 Refrigerator 98.2 98.2 98.2 Satellite dish 98.0 97.8 98.0 Freezer 26.6 18.9 25.8 Washing machine 97.2 96.2 97.1 Dishwasher 8.3 4.0 7.9 Solar heater 16.5 10.9 15.9 Air conditioner 41.1 23.2 39.3 Fan 94.7 90.9 94.3 Water cooler 66.5 49.4 64.8 Microwave 61.1 42.4 59.2 Digital camera 6.3 3.0 6.0 Internet access at home 37.1 32.7 36.6 Credit card 16.0 9.0 15.3 Bank account 56.2 69.1 57.5 Means of transport Car/truck 57.6 59.3 57.8 Number 16,908 1,894 18,802 Table 2.7 Wealth quintiles Percent distribution of the de jure population by wealth quintiles, and the Gini coefficient, according to residence and region, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Wealth quintile Total Number of persons Gini coefficient Residence/region Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Residence Urban 19.5 17.5 19.3 21.6 22.2 100.0 79,148 0.06 Rural 24.5 40.5 25.6 7.1 2.2 100.0 9,574 0.00 Region Central 15.2 17.0 18.7 22.7 26.4 100.0 54,685 0.05 North 29.1 25.1 21.6 14.7 9.5 100.0 26,009 0.04 South 22.9 24.2 23.7 18.9 10.3 100.0 8,029 0.03 Governorate Amman 11.2 13.5 16.4 24.5 34.4 100.0 34,973 0.08 Balqa 21.4 21.8 20.3 19.0 17.5 100.0 5,068 0.05 Zarqa 21.4 22.6 24.4 20.7 11.0 100.0 12,557 0.04 Madaba 31.4 29.4 19.0 12.7 7.5 100.0 2,087 0.04 Irbid 23.3 23.1 22.7 17.9 12.9 100.0 16,228 0.10 Mafraq 49.0 26.2 15.4 6.1 3.3 100.0 5,312 0.09 Jarash 29.8 29.4 24.0 12.4 4.5 100.0 2,581 0.02 Ajloun 22.2 32.8 26.4 14.4 4.2 100.0 1,888 0.12 Karak 18.2 24.6 28.1 20.5 8.7 100.0 3,301 0.08 Tafiela 25.4 31.5 22.5 14.5 6.1 100.0 1,220 0.08 Ma’an 36.1 23.9 19.1 10.7 10.1 100.0 1,450 0.07 Aqaba 19.5 19.5 20.7 24.8 15.5 100.0 2,058 0.06 Nationality of head of household Jordanian 16.0 20.0 21.5 21.3 21.3 100.0 78,387 0.10 Syrian 66.0 19.4 6.5 5.4 2.7 100.0 6,072 0.18 Other nationality 28.3 20.9 12.6 17.6 20.6 100.0 4,262 0.09 Total 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 88,722 0.05 Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 21 Table 2.8 Household population by age, sex, and residence Percent distribution of the de facto household population by various age groups, and percentage of the de facto household population age 10-19, according to sex and residence, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Urban Rural Total Total Age Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female <5 10.4 10.0 10.2 11.1 10.4 10.8 10.5 10.0 10.3 5-9 12.3 11.4 11.8 12.5 11.6 12.0 12.3 11.4 11.8 10-14 11.1 10.7 10.9 11.9 12.1 12.0 11.2 10.9 11.0 15-19 10.7 10.1 10.4 11.0 10.8 10.9 10.8 10.2 10.5 20-24 10.7 9.5 10.1 10.7 9.9 10.3 10.7 9.5 10.1 25-29 7.7 8.1 7.9 8.2 7.7 7.9 7.8 8.0 7.9 30-34 6.0 7.2 6.6 6.4 7.3 6.8 6.1 7.2 6.6 35-39 5.7 6.6 6.2 5.3 6.1 5.7 5.7 6.5 6.1 40-44 5.5 6.0 5.7 5.1 6.6 5.9 5.4 6.1 5.8 45-49 5.1 5.9 5.5 4.6 5.2 4.9 5.0 5.8 5.4 50-54 4.5 4.3 4.4 4.1 3.2 3.6 4.5 4.2 4.3 55-59 3.4 3.4 3.4 2.1 2.9 2.5 3.2 3.4 3.3 60-64 2.3 2.3 2.3 2.2 2.1 2.1 2.3 2.3 2.3 65-69 1.7 1.6 1.7 2.0 1.5 1.7 1.7 1.6 1.7 70-74 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 75-79 0.9 0.9 0.9 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.9 0.9 0.9 80+ 0.6 0.7 0.7 0.8 0.6 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Dependency age groups 0-14 33.8 32.1 32.9 35.5 34.2 34.9 33.9 32.3 33.1 15-64 61.6 63.4 62.5 59.7 61.7 60.7 61.4 63.2 62.3 65+ 4.6 4.6 4.6 4.8 4.1 4.4 4.6 4.5 4.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Child and adult populations 0-17 40.3 38.3 39.3 42.3 40.9 41.6 40.6 38.6 39.6 18+ 59.7 61.7 60.7 57.7 59.1 58.4 59.4 61.4 60.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Adolescents 10-19 21.8 20.8 21.3 23.0 23.0 23.0 21.9 21.1 21.5 Number of persons 39,570 39,823 79,394 4,729 4,811 9,540 44,299 44,634 88,933 22 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.9 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household and by household size, mean size of households, and percentage of households with orphans and foster children under age 18, according to residence, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Residence Total Characteristic Urban Rural Household headship Male 87.6 89.5 87.8 Female 12.4 10.5 12.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members 1 4.4 3.9 4.4 2 12.6 11.9 12.5 3 13.4 11.6 13.3 4 17.0 15.1 16.8 5 18.4 15.5 18.1 6 15.7 16.8 15.8 7 9.9 11.2 10.0 8 5.1 6.7 5.2 9+ 3.5 7.3 3.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean size of households 4.7 5.1 4.7 Percentage of households with orphans and foster children under age 18 Double orphans 0.1 0.0 0.1 Single orphans1 2.6 2.8 2.6 Foster children2 1.3 1.2 1.3 Foster and/or orphan children 3.6 3.6 3.6 Number of households 16,908 1,894 18,802 Note: Table is based on de jure household members, i.e., usual residents. 1 Includes children with one dead parent and an unknown survival status of the other parent 2 Foster children are those under age 18 living in households with neither their mother nor their father present, and the mother and/or the father are alive. Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 23 Ta bl e 2. 10 C hi ld re n’ s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts a nd o rp ha nh oo d P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of d e ju re c hi ld re n un de r a ge 1 8 by li vi ng a rr an ge m en ts a nd s ur vi va l s ta tu s of p ar en ts , p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n no t l iv in g w ith a b io lo gi ca l p ar en t, an d pe rc en ta ge o f c hi ld re n w ith o ne o r bo th p ar en ts d ea d, a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, J or da n P FH S 2 01 7- 18 Li vi ng w ith b ot h pa re nt s Li vi ng w ith m ot he r bu t n ot w ith fa th er Li vi ng w ith fa th er bu t n ot w ith m ot he r N ot li vi ng w ith e ith er p ar en t To ta l P er ce nt - ag e no t liv in g w ith a bi ol og ic al pa re nt P er ce nt - ag e w ith on e or b ot h pa re nt s de ad 1 N um be r of c hi ld re n B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic Fa th er al iv e Fa th er de ad M ot he r al iv e M ot he r de ad B ot h al iv e O nl y fa th er a liv e O nl y m ot he r al iv e B ot h de ad M is si ng in fo rm at io n on fa th er / m ot he r A ge 0- 4 95 .5 2. 6 0. 7 0. 5 0. 2 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 0. 4 1. 0 8, 85 5 <2 97 .0 2. 1 0. 2 0. 4 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 2 0. 3 3, 38 9 2- 4 94 .6 2. 9 1. 0 0. 6 0. 2 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 0. 6 1. 4 5, 46 6 5- 9 93 .2 3. 2 1. 6 1. 3 0. 2 0. 2 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 0. 4 2. 0 10 ,4 83 10 -1 4 91 .0 3. 5 3. 1 1. 3 0. 7 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 4 3. 8 9, 79 4 15 -1 7 86 .6 3. 6 4. 7 1. 5 0. 7 2. 3 0. 2 0. 3 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 2. 9 5. 9 5, 73 3 S ex M al e 92 .3 3. 3 2. 2 1. 3 0. 4 0. 3 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 0. 5 2. 7 17 ,8 20 Fe m al e 91 .9 3. 1 2. 4 1. 0 0. 4 1. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 1. 2 3. 0 17 ,0 44 R es id en ce U rb an 91 .9 3. 4 2. 3 1. 2 0. 4 0. 6 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 0. 8 2. 8 30 ,9 28 R ur al 93 .9 2. 0 2. 5 0. 4 0. 5 0. 5 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 7 3. 1 3, 93 6 G ov er no ra te A m m an 91 .9 2. 9 2. 5 1. 6 0. 3 0. 5 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 0. 7 3. 1 12 ,8 72 B al qa 94 .3 2. 1 1. 8 1. 4 0. 1 0. 2 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 3 2. 0 1, 88 3 Za rq a 92 .1 3. 3 2. 0 1. 0 0. 7 0. 7 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 9 2. 9 5, 19 6 M ad ab a 92 .2 2. 4 1. 8 1. 8 0. 4 0. 9 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 1. 3 2. 6 85 3 Irb id 90 .7 4. 8 2. 0 0. 9 0. 4 0. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 1. 1 2. 6 6, 42 8 M af ra q 90 .0 4. 1 3. 1 0. 8 0. 2 1. 2 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 3 10 0. 0 1. 5 3. 5 2, 49 8 Ja ra sh 94 .9 2. 2 1. 9 0. 4 0. 2 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 4 2. 1 1, 12 1 A jlo un 94 .1 3. 8 1. 0 0. 4 0. 4 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 4 1. 4 80 8 K ar ak 94 .3 1. 4 3. 3 0. 3 0. 3 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 4 3. 6 1, 27 5 Ta fie la 94 .7 1. 7 2. 6 0. 3 0. 5 0. 1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 2 3. 1 52 0 M a’ an 92 .9 1. 5 3. 9 0. 5 0. 8 0. 4 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 5 4. 8 57 1 A qa ba 95 .3 1. 8 1. 6 0. 7 0. 2 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 0. 3 1. 9 83 9 N at io na lit y of h ea d of h ou se ho ld Jo rd an ia n 93 .1 2. 4 2. 1 1. 2 0. 4 0. 5 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 6 2. 7 30 ,0 53 S yr ia n 81 .2 11 .1 4. 4 0. 5 0. 0 1. 8 0. 1 0. 3 0. 1 0. 5 10 0. 0 2. 3 4. 9 3, 24 8 O th er n at io na lit y 94 .4 2. 0 0. 6 1. 3 0. 5 1. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1. 2 1. 3 1, 56 2 (C on tin ue d… ) 24 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Ta bl e 2. 10 — C on tin ue d Li vi ng w ith b ot h pa re nt s Li vi ng w ith m ot he r bu t n ot w ith fa th er Li vi ng w ith fa th er bu t n ot w ith m ot he r N ot li vi ng w ith e ith er p ar en t To ta l P er ce nt - ag e no t liv in g w ith a bi ol og ic al pa re nt P er ce nt - ag e w ith on e or b ot h pa re nt s de ad 1 N um be r of c hi ld re n B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic Fa th er al iv e Fa th er de ad M ot he r al iv e M ot he r de ad B ot h al iv e O nl y fa th er a liv e O nl y m ot he r al iv e B ot h de ad M is si ng in fo rm at io n on fa th er / m ot he r W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 88 .0 5. 6 3. 2 1. 1 0. 5 1. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 2 10 0. 0 1. 4 4. 0 8, 25 5 S ec on d 93 .1 2. 6 2. 1 1. 1 0. 1 0. 8 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 9 2. 3 7, 33 9 M id dl e 93 .3 2. 3 2. 4 1. 1 0. 6 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 4 3. 0 7, 01 2 Fo ur th 93 .4 2. 2 1. 9 1. 6 0. 4 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 0. 5 2. 5 6, 74 1 H ig he st 93 .8 2. 8 1. 5 0. 7 0. 4 0. 5 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 0. 8 2. 2 5, 51 7 To ta l < 15 93 .2 3. 1 1. 8 1. 1 0. 3 0. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 0. 4 2. 3 29 ,1 31 To ta l < 18 92 .1 3. 2 2. 3 1. 1 0. 4 0. 6 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 0. 8 2. 9 34 ,8 64 N ot e: T ab le is b as ed o n de ju re m em be rs , i .e ., us ua l r es id en ts . 1 In cl ud es c hi ld re n w ith fa th er d ea d, m ot he r d ea d, b ot h de ad , a nd o ne p ar en t d ea d bu t m is si ng in fo rm at io n on s ur vi va l s ta tu s of th e ot he r p ar en t Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 25 Table 2.11 Birth registration of children under age 5 Percentage of de jure children under age 5 whose births are registered with the civil authorities, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Percentage of children whose births are registered and who: Total percentage of children whose births are registered Number of children Background characteristic Had a birth certificate Did not have a birth certificate Age <2 89.6 8.6 98.2 3,389 2-4 88.3 9.6 97.9 5,466 Sex Male 89.3 9.0 98.3 4,528 Female 88.2 9.5 97.7 4,327 Residence Urban 88.5 9.4 97.9 7,858 Rural 91.1 7.6 98.7 997 Governorate Amman 86.8 10.7 97.5 3,203 Balqa 90.5 9.0 99.5 470 Zarqa 93.2 5.2 98.4 1,162 Madaba 91.1 8.2 99.3 237 Irbid 85.5 12.5 98.0 1,715 Mafraq 88.9 7.5 96.4 719 Jarash 92.9 5.9 98.7 305 Ajloun 90.1 8.9 99.0 218 Karak 91.2 7.4 98.7 302 Tafiela 97.9 1.5 99.4 138 Ma’an 90.2 7.9 98.1 155 Aqaba 96.3 3.5 99.7 231 Nationality of head of household Jordanian 89.6 9.1 98.7 7,433 Syrian 84.5 8.2 92.7 1,025 Other nationality 85.0 13.2 98.2 397 Wealth quintile Lowest 87.0 9.1 96.2 2,353 Second 89.5 8.8 98.3 2,124 Middle 91.4 8.0 99.4 1,899 Fourth 89.8 9.2 99.0 1,576 Highest 84.4 13.0 97.4 903 Total 88.8 9.2 98.0 8,855 26 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Ta bl e 2. 12 .1 E du ca tio na l a tt ai nm en t o f t he fe m al e ho us eh ol d po pu la tio n P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of th e de fa ct o fe m al e ho us eh ol d po pu la tio n ag e 6 an d ov er b y hi gh es t l ev el o f s ch oo lin g at te nd ed o r c om pl et ed a nd m ed ia n ye ar s co m pl et ed , a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, J or da n P FH S 2 01 7- 18 B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic N o ed uc at io n S om e el em en ta ry C om pl et ed el em en ta ry 1 S om e pr ep ar at or y C om pl et ed pr ep ar at or y2 S om e se co nd ar y C om pl et ed se co nd ar y3 M or e th an se co nd ar y To ta l N um be r M ed ia n ye ar s co m pl et ed A ge 6- 9 2. 3 97 .3 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 4, 13 1 1. 1 10 -1 4 0. 7 43 .1 19 .1 0. 0 36 .6 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 4, 85 0 5. 3 15 -1 9 1. 4 1. 6 1. 5 0. 0 26 .4 49 .3 6. 5 13 .2 10 0. 0 4, 54 9 10 .0 20 -2 4 2. 3 1. 9 1. 2 0. 0 6. 0 22 .9 10 .8 54 .8 10 0. 0 4, 25 9 12 .8 25 -2 9 2. 7 2. 8 2. 1 0. 0 7. 8 19 .0 12 .0 53 .5 10 0. 0 3, 58 3 13 .2 30 -3 4 2. 9 2. 5 2. 6 0. 0 7. 3 22 .1 16 .9 45 .7 10 0. 0 3, 19 9 11 .7 35 -3 9 3. 2 3. 2 2. 9 0. 0 10 .0 22 .6 18 .7 39 .3 10 0. 0 2, 91 7 11 .4 40 -4 4 2. 4 3. 8 4. 8 2. 3 11 .2 26 .0 18 .7 30 .7 10 0. 0 2, 71 5 11 .0 45 -4 9 4. 7 5. 8 4. 3 7. 8 10 .1 24 .2 14 .0 29 .2 10 0. 0 2, 60 3 10 .6 50 -5 4 8. 4 6. 9 4. 7 10 .4 7. 4 18 .9 14 .8 28 .3 10 0. 0 1, 87 4 10 .5 55 -5 9 15 .7 9. 2 5. 8 13 .5 9. 2 13 .9 9. 3 23 .5 10 0. 0 1, 49 9 8. 6 60 -6 4 25 .7 17 .1 9. 5 10 .0 6. 4 7. 2 9. 5 14 .8 10 0. 0 1, 01 2 5. 8 65 + 51 .3 12 .9 5. 2 6. 1 4. 8 4. 6 4. 8 10 .3 10 0. 0 2, 00 8 0. 0 R es id en ce U rb an 5. 8 19 .0 4. 9 2. 3 12 .8 18 .5 9. 9 26 .9 10 0. 0 35 ,0 00 9. 9 R ur al 10 .2 20 .1 5. 1 1. 7 13 .6 20 .7 7. 0 21 .5 10 0. 0 4, 20 0 8. 9 R eg io n C en tra l 5. 5 18 .6 4. 8 2. 3 12 .7 17 .5 11 .0 27 .6 10 0. 0 24 ,4 25 10 .1 N or th 7. 0 20 .4 5. 4 2. 3 13 .8 20 .8 7. 0 23 .3 10 0. 0 11 ,1 88 9. 2 S ou th 8. 6 18 .6 4. 1 2. 0 11 .3 20 .7 8. 1 26 .6 10 0. 0 3, 58 6 9. 9 G ov er no ra te A m m an 4. 8 18 .0 4. 5 2. 3 12 .0 16 .0 11 .9 30 .5 10 0. 0 15 ,8 44 10 .3 B al qa 9. 0 19 .1 4. 3 2. 2 11 .1 15 .4 11 .8 27 .2 10 0. 0 2, 21 1 9. 9 Za rq a 5. 6 19 .9 5. 7 2. 4 15 .4 22 .4 8. 4 20 .1 10 0. 0 5, 45 8 9. 1 M ad ab a 9. 1 19 .5 5. 6 1. 7 11 .4 19 .9 8. 7 24 .1 10 0. 0 91 2 9. 5 Irb id 6. 1 19 .2 4. 9 2. 5 13 .1 20 .9 7. 5 25 .7 10 0. 0 7, 08 2 9. 6 M af ra q 11 .0 24 .3 7. 7 1. 6 17 .0 17 .6 5. 6 15 .1 10 0. 0 2, 19 5 7. 3 Ja ra sh 6. 0 21 .0 4. 7 2. 3 13 .0 23 .9 6. 9 22 .1 10 0. 0 1, 09 2 9. 4 A jlo un 6. 0 19 .7 4. 0 1. 8 12 .1 23 .9 6. 5 26 .0 10 0. 0 82 0 10 .0 K ar ak 8. 3 17 .3 4. 2 1. 9 10 .4 22 .2 6. 6 29 .1 10 0. 0 1, 51 7 10 .1 Ta fie la 7. 1 19 .5 3. 9 2. 8 12 .0 22 .8 5. 5 26 .4 10 0. 0 55 1 9. 8 M a’ an 12 .7 20 .3 4. 4 1. 7 12 .5 15 .6 9. 1 23 .6 10 0. 0 63 4 8. 7 A qa ba 7. 0 19 .0 4. 1 2. 0 11 .3 20 .6 11 .4 24 .5 10 0. 0 88 4 10 .0 N at io na lit y of h ea d of h ou se ho ld Jo rd an ia n 5. 9 18 .1 4. 3 2. 3 12 .2 19 .6 9. 9 27 .7 10 0. 0 35 ,0 51 10 .1 S yr ia n 11 .0 32 .0 12 .9 2. 2 21 .8 9. 2 5. 1 5. 8 10 0. 0 2, 46 9 5. 5 O th er n at io na lit y 7. 4 21 .1 5. 0 2. 1 13 .4 15 .8 9. 1 26 .1 10 0. 0 1, 68 0 9. 2 (C on tin ue d… ) Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 27 Ta bl e 2. 12 .1 — C on tin ue d B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic N o ed uc at io n S om e el em en ta ry C om pl et ed el em en ta ry 1 S om e pr ep ar at or y C om pl et ed pr ep ar at or y2 S om e se co nd ar y C om pl et ed se co nd ar y3 M or e th an se co nd ar y To ta l N um be r M ed ia n ye ar s co m pl et ed W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 13 .2 25 .9 7. 9 1. 9 17 .5 18 .8 6. 5 8. 4 10 0. 0 7, 60 9 6. 5 S ec on d 7. 3 21 .2 5. 5 2. 9 13 .5 23 .8 8. 9 16 .9 10 0. 0 7, 54 9 8. 9 M id dl e 4. 3 19 .4 4. 9 3. 0 12 .2 20 .8 10 .4 25 .0 10 0. 0 7, 73 2 10 .0 Fo ur th 3. 1 16 .8 3. 5 2. 2 11 .9 18 .2 11 .8 32 .4 10 0. 0 7, 90 8 10 .6 H ig he st 3. 7 12 .9 3. 0 1. 4 9. 6 12 .9 10 .2 46 .4 10 0. 0 8, 40 1 11 .5 To ta l 6. 2 19 .1 4. 9 2. 3 12 .9 18 .8 9. 6 26 .3 10 0. 0 39 ,2 00 9. 8 1 C om pl et ed g ra de 6 a t e le m en ta ry o r b as ic le ve l 2 C om pl et ed g ra de 3 a t p re pa ra to ry o r g ra de 9 a t b as ic le ve l 3 C om pl et ed g ra de 3 a t s ec on da ry le ve l ( ol d sy st em ) o r g ra de 2 a t s ec on da ry le ve l ( ne w s ys te m ) 28 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Ta bl e 2. 12 .2 E du ca tio na l a tt ai nm en t o f t he m al e ho us eh ol d po pu la tio n P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of th e de fa ct o m al e ho us eh ol d po pu la tio n ag e 6 an d ov er b y hi gh es t l ev el o f s ch oo lin g at te nd ed o r c om pl et ed a nd m ed ia n ye ar s co m pl et ed , a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, J or da n P FH S 2 01 7- 18 B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic N o ed uc at io n S om e el em en ta ry C om pl et ed el em en ta ry 1 S om e pr ep ar at or y C om pl et ed pr ep ar at or y2 S om e se co nd ar y C om pl et ed se co nd ar y3 M or e th an se co nd ar y D on ’t kn ow / m is si ng To ta l N um be r M ed ia n ye ar s co m pl et ed A ge 6- 9 3. 2 96 .6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 4, 35 1 1. 0 10 -1 4 1. 0 41 .5 20 .5 0. 0 36 .8 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 4, 94 7 5. 4 15 -1 9 0. 9 2. 5 2. 4 0. 0 27 .2 53 .1 6. 4 7. 4 0. 1 10 0. 0 4, 77 2 9. 8 20 -2 4 1. 1 1. 7 1. 8 0. 0 6. 8 35 .2 11 .6 41 .8 0. 0 10 0. 0 4, 74 3 11 .3 25 -2 9 1. 5 1. 6 2. 4 0. 0 8. 6 28 .1 11 .9 45 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 3, 44 4 11 .6 30 -3 4 2. 8 2. 7 3. 2 0. 1 9. 0 30 .1 14 .8 37 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 2, 68 1 11 .1 35 -3 9 2. 4 3. 9 4. 4 0. 0 11 .8 28 .2 17 .8 31 .4 0. 1 10 0. 0 2, 51 7 11 .0 40 -4 4 3. 0 4. 4 5. 3 2. 5 14 .1 26 .0 15 .5 29 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 2, 40 0 10 .7 45 -4 9 2. 8 4. 3 5. 3 10 .0 13 .0 23 .1 11 .9 29 .8 0. 0 10 0. 0 2, 23 4 10 .4 50 -5 4 2. 9 4. 7 4. 6 10 .0 8. 3 21 .3 12 .3 35 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 1, 98 6 10 .9 55 -5 9 4. 8 5. 2 4. 6 9. 5 9. 5 13 .8 10 .8 41 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 1, 43 0 11 .2 60 -6 4 6. 1 7. 5 8. 2 11 .6 10 .5 10 .8 10 .4 34 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 1, 00 8 10 .4 65 + 20 .0 13 .0 8. 3 8. 4 7. 0 8. 2 6. 7 28 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 2, 04 7 8. 0 R es id en ce U rb an 2. 9 19 .1 5. 6 2. 4 14 .2 22 .1 8. 8 25 .0 0. 0 10 0. 0 34 ,4 80 9. 8 R ur al 5. 4 20 .3 5. 0 2. 4 13 .7 27 .0 9. 1 17 .1 0. 0 10 0. 0 4, 07 8 9. 4 R eg io n C en tra l 2. 9 18 .0 5. 5 2. 3 13 .7 21 .3 9. 3 26 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 24 ,1 56 9. 9 N or th 3. 3 21 .4 5. 9 2. 5 15 .6 24 .4 7. 3 19 .7 0. 0 10 0. 0 10 ,9 66 9. 2 S ou th 4. 5 20 .4 4. 7 2. 6 12 .7 26 .3 9. 6 19 .3 0. 0 10 0. 0 3, 43 6 9. 6 G ov er no ra te A m m an 2. 3 17 .1 5. 6 2. 1 12 .9 19 .0 10 .0 31 .0 0. 0 10 0. 0 15 ,4 18 10 .3 B al qa 5. 8 17 .2 3. 8 2. 5 13 .0 20 .6 13 .1 24 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 2, 26 3 9. 9 Za rq a 2. 9 20 .4 6. 0 3. 0 16 .3 27 .7 5. 9 17 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 5, 57 4 9. 1 M ad ab a 5. 1 20 .5 5. 7 1. 9 14 .1 24 .0 9. 2 19 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 90 1 9. 3 Irb id 2. 6 20 .0 5. 4 2. 5 15 .4 23 .1 7. 7 23 .3 0. 0 10 0. 0 6, 87 0 9. 6 M af ra q 5. 8 26 .8 8. 2 2. 2 16 .8 23 .0 6. 2 11 .0 0. 0 10 0. 0 2, 18 2 7. 6 Ja ra sh 2. 6 21 .0 5. 4 2. 9 14 .7 29 .7 7. 0 16 .7 0. 0 10 0. 0 1, 11 0 9. 4 A jlo un 2. 8 19 .4 4. 9 2. 4 14 .6 31 .9 8. 1 15 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 80 5 9. 7 K ar ak 3. 6 19 .8 4. 5 2. 5 11 .9 29 .0 7. 1 21 .7 0. 0 10 0. 0 1, 40 4 9. 9 Ta fie la 3. 5 20 .2 4. 8 3. 7 13 .9 29 .1 7. 0 17 .7 0. 0 10 0. 0 50 8 9. 4 M a’ an 7. 6 21 .2 4. 5 2. 5 13 .6 22 .7 13 .3 14 .6 0. 0 10 0. 0 63 9 9. 1 A qa ba 4. 2 20 .8 5. 1 2. 1 12 .5 23 .1 12 .4 19 .7 0. 0 10 0. 0 88 5 9. 6 N at io na lit y of h ea d of ho us eh ol d Jo rd an ia n 2. 7 18 .2 4. 9 2. 4 13 .6 24 .2 9. 2 24 .9 0. 0 10 0. 0 34 ,0 84 10 .0 S yr ia n 5. 7 34 .7 14 .5 2. 5 24 .0 7. 5 3. 9 7. 2 0. 0 10 0. 0 2, 39 7 5. 7 O th er n at io na lit y 7. 4 16 .7 6. 5 1. 5 12 .5 14 .6 8. 5 32 .1 0. 2 10 0. 0 2, 07 7 9. 8 (C on tin ue d… ) Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 29 Ta bl e 2. 12 .2 — C on tin ue d B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic N o ed uc at io n S om e el em en ta ry C om pl et ed el em en ta ry 1 S om e pr ep ar at or y C om pl et ed pr ep ar at or y2 S om e se co nd ar y C om pl et ed se co nd ar y3 M or e th an se co nd ar y D on ’t kn ow / m is si ng To ta l N um be r M ed ia n ye ar s co m pl et ed W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 8. 0 28 .1 9. 0 2. 5 19 .2 20 .0 6. 0 7. 3 0. 0 10 0. 0 7, 21 2 6. 7 S ec on d 3. 4 21 .8 6. 8 3. 4 16 .6 27 .5 9. 1 11 .5 0. 0 10 0. 0 7, 47 3 8. 8 M id dl e 2. 1 18 .8 5. 2 2. 8 14 .1 26 .8 10 .6 19 .7 0. 0 10 0. 0 7, 71 9 9. 8 Fo ur th 1. 6 16 .0 4. 0 2. 1 12 .4 23 .6 9. 5 30 .7 0. 0 10 0. 0 7, 98 2 10 .4 H ig he st 1. 0 12 .4 3. 3 1. 1 9. 2 15 .7 8. 7 48 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 8, 17 3 11 .7 To ta l 3. 1 19 .2 5. 6 2. 4 14 .2 22 .6 8. 8 24 .2 0. 0 10 0. 0 38 ,5 59 9. 7 1 C om pl et ed g ra de 6 a t e le m en ta ry o r b as ic le ve l 2 C om pl et ed g ra de 3 a t p re pa ra to ry o r g ra de 9 a t b as ic le ve l 3 C om pl et ed g ra de 3 a t s ec on da ry le ve l ( ol d sy st em ) o r g ra de 2 a t s ec on da ry le ve l ( ne w s ys te m ) 30 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Ta bl e 2. 13 S ch oo l a tt en da nc e ra tio s N et a tte nd an ce r at io s (N A R ) an d gr os s at te nd an ce r at io s (G A R ) fo r th e de f ac to h ou se ho ld p op ul at io n by s ex a nd l ev el o f sc ho ol in g, a nd t he g en de r pa rit y in de x (G P I), a cc or di ng t o ba ck gr ou nd c ha ra ct er is tic s, J or da n P FH S 2 01 7- 20 18 N et a tte nd an ce ra tio 1 G ro ss a tte nd an ce ra tio 2 B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic M al e Fe m al e To ta l G en de r p ar ity in de x3 M al e Fe m al e To ta l G en de r p ar ity in de x3 B A S IC S C H O O L R es id en ce U rb an 95 .1 96 .0 95 .5 1. 01 10 1. 5 10 1. 3 10 1. 4 1. 00 R ur al 95 .2 96 .6 95 .9 1. 01 10 1. 5 10 3. 5 10 2. 5 1. 02 R eg io n C en tra l 94 .9 95 .9 95 .4 1. 01 10 0. 6 10 0. 6 10 0. 6 1. 00 N or th 95 .3 96 .4 95 .8 1. 01 10 2. 0 10 2. 1 10 2. 0 1. 00 S ou th 95 .4 96 .0 95 .7 1. 01 10 6. 2 10 5. 7 10 6. 0 1. 00 G ov er no ra te A m m an 94 .8 95 .9 95 .4 1. 01 10 0. 7 10 1. 0 10 0. 9 1. 00 B al qa 93 .3 95 .8 94 .6 1. 03 10 0. 3 99 .9 10 0. 1 1. 00 Za rq a 95 .7 96 .2 96 .0 1. 01 10 0. 3 10 0. 0 10 0. 1 1. 00 M ad ab a 95 .2 94 .4 94 .9 0. 99 10 1. 5 99 .8 10 0. 7 0. 98 Irb id 95 .4 97 .1 96 .2 1. 02 10 2. 1 10 2. 4 10 2. 3 1. 00 M af ra q 93 .7 93 .5 93 .6 1. 00 10 0. 3 99 .5 99 .9 0. 99 Ja ra sh 96 .6 97 .4 97 .0 1. 01 10 3. 4 10 3. 1 10 3. 2 1. 00 A jlo un 97 .6 98 .0 97 .8 1. 00 10 4. 3 10 5. 6 10 4. 9 1. 01 K ar ak 97 .0 96 .1 96 .5 0. 99 11 1. 1 10 8. 4 10 9. 7 0. 98 Ta fie la 97 .4 98 .4 97 .9 1. 01 10 4. 4 10 4. 0 10 4. 2 1. 00 M a’ an 90 .9 92 .5 91 .7 1. 02 96 .5 10 0. 2 98 .3 1. 04 A qa ba 94 .8 96 .5 95 .6 1. 02 10 6. 7 10 6. 3 10 6. 5 1. 00 N at io na lit y of h ea d of h ou se ho ld Jo rd an ia n 96 .2 97 .1 96 .6 1. 01 10 2. 9 10 2. 7 10 2. 8 1. 00 S yr ia n 85 .7 87 .6 86 .6 1. 02 91 .0 92 .0 91 .5 1. 01 O th er n at io na lit y 92 .4 92 .4 92 .4 1. 00 96 .8 95 .8 96 .3 0. 99 W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 91 .5 92 .2 91 .8 1. 01 97 .0 98 .3 97 .6 1. 01 S ec on d 95 .6 96 .2 95 .9 1. 01 10 3. 0 10 1. 9 10 2. 5 0. 99 M id dl e 96 .2 97 .8 97 .0 1. 02 10 4. 7 10 3. 3 10 4. 0 0. 99 Fo ur th 97 .0 97 .1 97 .0 1. 00 10 3. 8 10 2. 9 10 3. 4 0. 99 H ig he st 95 .9 97 .9 96 .8 1. 02 99 .6 10 1. 8 10 0. 7 1. 02 To ta l 95 .1 96 .1 95 .6 1. 01 10 1. 5 10 1. 5 10 1. 5 1. 00 (C on tin ue d… ) Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 31 Ta bl e 2. 13 — C on tin ue d N et a tte nd an ce ra tio 1 G ro ss a tte nd an ce ra tio 2 B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic M al e Fe m al e To ta l G en de r p ar ity in de x3 M al e Fe m al e To ta l G en de r p ar ity in de x3 S E C O N D A R Y S C H O O L R es id en ce U rb an 67 .0 75 .2 71 .0 1. 12 99 .9 10 0. 5 10 0. 2 1. 01 R ur al 67 .0 69 .4 68 .2 1. 04 90 .3 95 .9 93 .0 1. 06 R eg io n C en tra l 69 .4 76 .7 73 .0 1. 11 10 1. 2 10 0. 0 10 0. 6 0. 99 N or th 63 .4 70 .6 67 .0 1. 11 94 .9 97 .5 96 .2 1. 03 S ou th 62 .2 72 .8 67 .6 1. 17 95 .7 10 8. 6 10 2. 2 1. 13 G ov er no ra te A m m an 74 .5 79 .4 77 .0 1. 07 11 1. 8 10 1. 8 10 6. 6 0. 91 B al qa 64 .0 78 .8 70 .4 1. 23 89 .2 11 3. 4 99 .6 1. 27 Za rq a 61 .7 69 .3 65 .2 1. 12 85 .4 90 .3 87 .7 1. 06 M ad ab a 57 .2 71 .8 64 .2 1. 25 78 .3 10 2. 4 89 .8 1. 31 Irb id 65 .1 74 .2 69 .7 1. 14 10 3. 9 10 2. 0 10 2. 9 0. 98 M af ra q 50 .8 53 .5 52 .2 1. 05 69 .9 75 .9 72 .9 1. 09 Ja ra sh 68 .4 77 .3 72 .6 1. 13 90 .3 10 5. 5 97 .5 1. 17 A jlo un 79 .4 81 .4 80 .4 1. 02 10 3. 0 11 2. 0 10 7. 6 1. 09 K ar ak 68 .8 76 .6 72 .7 1. 11 11 1. 7 11 9. 8 11 5. 7 1. 07 Ta fie la 67 .9 79 .7 74 .2 1. 17 83 .2 99 .5 91 .9 1. 20 M a’ an 49 .9 64 .9 57 .6 1. 30 77 .7 88 .4 83 .2 1. 14 A qa ba 54 .5 66 .4 60 .3 1. 22 85 .8 10 8. 2 96 .8 1. 26 N at io na lit y of h ea d of h ou se ho ld Jo rd an ia n 70 .5 78 .3 74 .4 1. 11 10 3. 5 10 3. 9 10 3. 7 1. 00 S yr ia n 28 .7 31 .2 30 .0 1. 09 49 .0 48 .1 48 .5 0. 98 O th er n at io na lit y 56 .0 59 .6 57 .4 1. 06 82 .2 10 5. 2 91 .0 1. 28 W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 38 .6 51 .3 45 .4 1. 33 55 .5 68 .9 62 .7 1. 24 S ec on d 55 .2 71 .0 63 .4 1. 29 76 .8 97 .4 87 .5 1. 27 M id dl e 65 .0 80 .4 72 .5 1. 24 98 .1 11 6. 8 10 7. 2 1. 19 Fo ur th 78 .3 81 .6 79 .9 1. 04 11 3. 5 10 9. 4 11 1. 5 0. 96 H ig he st 87 .6 88 .1 87 .8 1. 01 13 4. 2 10 8. 6 12 2. 3 0. 81 To ta l 67 .0 74 .5 70 .7 1. 11 98 .8 10 0. 0 99 .4 1. 01 1 T he N A R fo r b as ic s ch oo l i s th e pe rc en ta ge o f t he b as ic s ch oo l-a ge (6 -1 5 ye ar s) p op ul at io n th at is a tte nd in g ba si c sc ho ol . T he N A R fo r s ec on da ry s ch oo l i s th e pe rc en ta ge o f t he s ec on da ry sc ho ol -a ge (1 6- 17 y ea rs ) p op ul at io n th at is a tte nd in g se co nd ar y sc ho ol . B y de fin iti on , t he N A R c an no t e xc ee d 10 0% . 2 Th e G A R fo r ba si c sc ho ol is th e to ta l n um be r of b as ic s ch oo l s tu de nt s, e xp re ss ed a s a pe rc en ta ge o f t he o ffi ci al b as ic s ch oo l-a ge p op ul at io n. T he G A R fo r se co nd ar y sc ho ol is th e to ta l nu m be r of s ec on da ry s ch oo l s tu de nt s, e xp re ss ed a s a pe rc en ta ge o f t he o ffi ci al s ec on da ry s ch oo l-a ge p op ul at io n. If th er e ar e si gn ifi ca nt n um be rs o f o ve ra ge a nd u nd er ag e st ud en ts a t a gi ve n le ve l o f s ch oo lin g, th e G A R c an e xc ee d 10 0% . 3 Th e ge nd er p ar ity in de x fo r b as ic s ch oo l i s th e ra tio o f t he b as ic s ch oo l N A R (G A R ) f or fe m al es to th e N A R (G A R ) f or m al es . T he g en de r p ar ity in de x fo r s ec on da ry s ch oo l i s th e ra tio o f t he se co nd ar y sc ho ol N A R (G A R ) f or fe m al es to th e N A R (G A R ) f or m al es . Characteristics of Respondents • 33 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS 3 Key Findings  Marital status: 30% of ever-married women are age 15-29, while 70% are age 30-49.  Education: Access to education continues to increase; 53% of ever-married women and 45% of men have completed secondary schooling or higher.  Exposure to mass media: Television is still the most popular form of mass media in Jordan, with 74% of ever- married women and 68% of men watching TV at least once a week.  Internet usage: 77% of ever-married women and 87% of men have accessed the Internet at least once in the past 12 months.  Employment: The majority of ever-married women (86%) and 44% of men have never been employed. Fourteen percent of ever-married women and 55% of men are currently employed.  Health insurance: 58% of ever-married women and 50% of men have some type of health insurance coverage.  Tobacco use: Overall, 12% of ever-married women and 45% of men smoke a tobacco product. his chapter presents information on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the survey respondents such as age, education, nationality, place of residence, marital status, employment, and wealth status. The survey also collected data on use of mass media and the Internet, health insurance coverage, and tobacco smoking. This information is useful for understanding the factors that affect use of reproductive health services, contraceptive use, and other health behaviours. 3.1 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS Table 3.1 shows background characteristics of ever-married women and all men age 15-49 interviewed in the survey. Total numbers of men age 50-59 and 15-59 are also shown; however, in this and subsequent tables, the focus is on respondents age 15-49. Because the 2017-18 JPFHS includes only ever-married women, young women represent a relatively small proportion of interviewed women. Only 30% of ever-married women are age 15-29, while 70% are age 30-49. As a consequence of increasing age at first marriage, the proportion of ever-married women who are age 30-49 has increased since the 2002 JPFHS (from 66% to 70%). All men age 15-59, regardless of their marital status, were eligible for interviews in the 2017-18 JPFHS. As a result, the male population is much younger than the female population. Fifty-seven percent of men are age 15-29, and 43% are age 30-49. T 34 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.1 also shows that 90% of ever-married women and 89% of all men live in urban areas. More than 60% of both women and men live in the Central region, 28% live in the North region, and only 9% to 10% live in the South region. About 40% of ever-married women and all men live in Amman, 17% live in Irbid, and 14% live in Zarqa. The distribution of ever-married women by governorate is comparable to the distribution of the total population in the 2012 JPFHS. For the first time in a Jordan PFHS survey, a request was made of all respondents to self-declare their nationalities. Among women, 87% identified themselves as Jordanians, 9% as Syrians, and 5% as other nationalities (the latter category includes Egyptians, Iraqis, and women of other Arab and non-Arab nationalities). Among men, 89% are Jordanians, 6% are Syrians, and another 6% are of other nationalities. 3.2 EDUCATION AND LITERACY Literacy Respondents who had attended higher than secondary school were assumed to be literate. All other respondents, shown a typed sentence to read aloud, were considered literate if they could read all or part of the sentence. Sample: Ever-married women and all men age 15-49 Tables 3.2.1 and 3.2.2 present the distribution of survey respondents by level of education attained. The data indicate that 53% of ever-married women and 45% of all men have completed secondary schooling or higher. Thirty-eight percent of women and 47% of men have attended or completed preparatory school or attained some secondary education. Approximately 2% of women and men have no education (Figure 3.1). The median number of years of schooling is 11.2 among ever-married women and 10.8 among all men. Trends: Access to education among women continues to improve. The median number of years of schooling among ever-married women age 15-49 has increased steadily since 1990, from 6.7 to 11.2. Patterns by background characteristics  As expected, the percentage of women and men who have completed secondary school or higher is greater in urban areas than rural areas (54% versus 45% among women and 46% versus 38% among men) (Tables 3.2.1 and 3.2.2). Figure 3.1 Education of survey respondents 2 2 4 3 3 3 2 111 12 25 34 17 13 36 33 Women Men Percent distribution of ever-married women and all men age 15-49 by highest level of schooling attended or completed More than secondary Completed secondary Some secondary Completed preparatory Some preparatory Completed elementary Some elementary No education Note: Values may not add to 100% due to rounding. Characteristics of Respondents • 35  By governorate, the percentage of women who have completed secondary school or more is highest in Amman (61%), Balqa (58%), and Aqaba (55%). Women in Mafraq are least likely to have completed secondary school or higher (Figure 3.2). A similar pattern is observed among men.  By nationality, the percentage of women and men who have completed secondary school or more is highest among Jordanians (57% and 47%, respectively) and lowest among Syrians (19% and 18%, respectively).  The percentage of women who have completed secondary school or higher increases with increasing household wealth, from 26% in the lowest wealth quintile to 78% in the highest quintile. A similar pattern is observed among men (Figure 3.3).  The median number of years of schooling increases with increasing household wealth among both women and men, from just over 9 years in the lowest wealth quintile to more than 13 years in the highest quintile.  The literacy rate in Jordan is generally quite high; 96% of women and 98% of men age 15-49 are literate (Tables 3.3.1 and 3.3.2). However, some exceptions are observed by nationality and governorate. A higher proportion of Jordanian women are literate (98%) than Syrian women (92%) and women of other nationalities (79%). The literacy rate among women is more than 90% in all governorates except Ma’an (88%). 3.3 MASS MEDIA EXPOSURE AND INTERNET USAGE Exposure to mass media Respondents were asked how often they read a newspaper, listened to the radio, or watched television. Those who responded at least once a week are considered regularly exposed to that form of media. Exposure to the Internet The Internet is a global communication network that allows almost all computers worldwide to connect and exchange information. Respondents were asked to report the frequency of their use of the Internet. Sample: Ever-married women and all men age 15-49 Data on women’s and men’s exposure to mass media are essential in the development of educational programmes and the dissemination of all types of information, particularly information about family planning and other important health topics. Figure 3.2 Secondary or higher education by governorate Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 with secondary education complete or higher Figure 3.3 Secondary or higher education by household wealth 26 40 56 67 78 21 31 42 55 68 Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Percentage of ever-married women and all men age 15-49 with secondary education complete or higher Women Men WealthiestPoorest 36 • Characteristics of Respondents Tables 3.4.1 and 3.4.2 show the percentage of ever- married women and all men age 15-49 who are exposed to different types of media, by background characteristics. The 2017-18 JPFHS results indicate that television is still the most popular form of mass media among women and men (74% and 68%, respectively), followed by radio (25% and 35%, respectively) and newspapers (21% and 18%, respectively). While 14% of women and 12% of men were exposed to all three forms of media at least once a week, 22% of women and 27% of men were not exposed to any type of media (Figure 3.4). The Internet is also a critical tool through which information is shared. Internet use includes accessing web pages, email, and social media. More than 8 in 10 women and men age 15-49 have ever used the Internet, and 77% of women and 87% of men have used the Internet in the past 12 months (Tables 3.5.1 and 3.5.2). Among those using the Internet in the past 12 months, 87% of women and 85% of men accessed it almost every day, and 10% of women and 11% of men used it at least once a week. Trends: Women’s exposure to all three types of media (newspaper, television, and radio) on a weekly basis declined slightly from 17% in 2002 to 14% in 2017-18. Over this period, the percentage of women who watch television at least once a week increased from 81% in 2002 to 97% in 2012 before decreasing to 74% in 2017-18. Declines in access to radio and newspapers were similar. Patterns by background characteristics  Younger women and men age 15-24 are less likely to be exposed to all forms of mass media than older women and men (Tables 3.4.1 and 3.4.2).  The percentage of women who access all three types of media is higher in urban than rural areas (14% versus 9%).  By governorate, women in Tafiela (52%) and men in Ma’an (54%) are most likely to report no regular exposure to any of the three types of media.  Syrian women are less likely to be exposed to all three media than Jordanian women and women of other nationalities.  Internet use in the past 12 months among women varies by age, rising from 72% among those age 15- 19 to 83% among those age 25-29 before decreasing to 67% among those age 45-49. The pattern is similar among men, with an increase from 83% among those age 15-19 to 92% among those 25-29 followed by a decline to 75% among those age 45-49 (Tables 3.5.1 and 3.5.2).  Women and men from urban areas (78% and 87%, respectively) are more likely than those from rural areas (68% and 82%, respectively) to have accessed the Internet in the past 12 months.  Internet usage increases with increasing education. Only 17% of women with no education accessed the Internet in the past 12 months, as compared with 90% of women with a higher education. Similarly, 30% of men with no education accessed the Internet in the past 12 months, compared with 95% of men with a higher education. Figure 3.4 Exposure to mass media 21 74 25 14 2218 68 35 12 27 Reads news- paper Watches television Listens to radio All three media None of these media Percentage of ever-married women and all men age 15-49 who are exposed to media on a weekly basis Women Men Characteristics of Respondents • 37  Internet usage also increases with increasing wealth. Fifty-two percent of women in the lowest wealth quintile accessed the Internet in the past 12 months, as compared with 91% in the highest quintile. Among men, 71% in the lowest wealth quintile accessed the Internet in the past 12 months, compared with 95% in the highest quintile. 3.4 EMPLOYMENT Currently employed Respondents who were employed in the 7 days before the survey (including persons who did not work in the past 7 days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reason). Sample: Ever-married women and all men age 15-49 Tables 3.6.1 and 3.6.2 show that the majority of ever-married women (86%) and 44% of all men have never been employed. Only 14% of women and 55% of men are currently employed. Employment among women increases rapidly with age, peaking at 19% in the 30-34 age group. Employment is much higher among men than among women in all age groups, with the highest rate observed in the 35-39 age group (85%). Trends: The percentage of women who were employed at the time of the survey has fluctuated since 2002, ranging between 10% and 16%. Patterns by background characteristics  Thirteen percent of currently married women are employed, as compared with 27% of divorced, separated, and widowed women.  The percentage of working women decreases as the number of living children increases. Eighteen percent of women with no children are currently employed, as compared with 7% of women with five or more children.  By governorate, the percentage of women currently employed ranges from 9% in Irbid and Zarqa to 19% in Karak. Among men, the percentage ranges from 45% in Tafiela to 66% in Madaba.  Syrian women (2%) were less likely than women of other nationalities (26%) and Jordanian women (14%) to be employed at the time of the survey. Syrian men (57%) were slightly more likely to be currently employed than Jordanian men or men of other nationalities (55% each).  Twelve percent of women with no education are currently employed, as compared with 28% of women with a higher education. Among men, the percentage currently employed is lowest among those with no education (45%) and highest among those with an elementary education (65%) (Figure 3.5).  The percentage of women currently employed increases steadily with increasing household wealth. Only 5% of women in the lowest wealth quintile are currently employed, as compared with 26% in the highest quintile. Among men, the opposite Figure 3.5 Employment status by education 12 8 4 6 28 45 65 48 54 58 No education Elementary Preparatory Secondary Higher Percentage of ever-married women and all men age 15-49 who are currently employed Women Men 38 • Characteristics of Respondents pattern is seen; 58% of men in the lowest quintile are currently employed, compared with 44% in the highest quintile. 3.5 OCCUPATION Occupation Categorised as professional/technical/managerial, clerical, sales and services, skilled manual, unskilled manual, domestic service, agriculture, and other. Sample: Ever-married women and all men age 15-49 who were currently employed or had worked in the 7 days before the survey Among women who were employed in the 7 days before the survey, 64% worked in professional, technical, or managerial positions, and 11% worked in domestic service. One in 10 women were employed in sales and services. Smaller percentages were engaged in clerical (6%), skilled manual (4%), unskilled manual (1%), and agricultural (1%) occupations (Table 3.7.1 and Figure 3.6). Among men who were employed in the 7 days before the survey, 33% worked in sales and services, 29% in skilled manual occupations, and 26% in professional, technical, or managerial positions (Table 3.7.2 and Figure 3.6). The majority of women who were employed in the past 7 days were paid employees (93%), and 4% were employers (Figure 3.7). Patterns by background characteristics  The distribution of women by occupation is similar in urban and rural areas except in the sales and services and agricultural sectors; as expected, a higher percentage of urban than rural women work in sales and services (11% versus 7%) and a higher percentage of rural than urban women work in the agricultural sector (4% versus <1%).  Jordanian women are most often employed in professional/technical/managerial occupations (69%), followed by sales and services jobs (11%). Syrian women are most likely to work in the professional/technical/managerial sector (29%), domestic service (26%), and sales and services (18%).  The proportion of women working in professional, technical, and managerial occupations increases with increasing education, from less than 1% among those with no education to 87% among those with more than a secondary education. Figure 3.6 Occupation Figure 3.7 Current employment 64 10 4 11 6 1 1 26 33 29 1 3 4 3 Professional/ technical/ managerial Sales and services Skilled manual Domestic service Clerical Unskilled manual Agriculture Percentage of ever-married women and all men age 15-49 employed in the 12 months before the survey by occupation Women Men <1 1 2 4 93 Unpaid worker Unpaid family worker Self-employed Employer Employee Current employment status among ever- married women age 15-49 Characteristics of Respondents • 39 3.6 HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE Health care becomes more accessible when individuals are covered by health insurance. In Jordan, health insurance providers include the Ministry of Health (MoH), the Royal Military, the University Hospital, the United Nations Refugee Welfare Association (UNRWA), the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR), nongovernmental insurance, and private insurance. A single individual may have more than one form of coverage. In total, 58% of women and 50% of men age 15-49 have some type of health insurance coverage, with most being covered by the MoH or the Royal Military (Tables 3.8.1 and 3.8.2). Forty-two percent of women and 50% of men do not have any health insurance. Patterns by background characteristics  Insurance coverage varies by place of residence among both women (56% in urban areas and 79% in rural areas) and men (48% in urban areas and 72% in rural areas).  The percentage of women with any form of health insurance coverage is higher in the North and South regions (76% and 79%, respectively) than in the Central region (47%). The same pattern is seen among men.  Insurance coverage varies widely by governorate. For example, 90% of women in Ajloun have some form of health insurance coverage, as compared with 44% of women in Amman.  By nationality, Jordanian women have the highest rate of insurance coverage (62%), followed by Syrian women (40%) and women of other nationalities (28%). The pattern is similar among men.  Insurance coverage increases with increasing educational level. Forty-three percent of women with no education have some form of health insurance coverage, as compared with 67% of those with more than a secondary education. Among men, 28% of those with no education have health insurance coverage, compared with 59% of those with more than a secondary education. 3.7 TOBACCO USE Smoking is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease, lung cancer, and other forms of cancer, and it contributes to the severity of pneumonia, emphysema, and chronic bronchitis symptoms. Use of tobacco in the household adversely affects the health status of all household members. Overall, 12% of ever-married women age 15-49 smoke a tobacco product; 8% smoke cigarettes and 7% smoke a water pipe (or Nargila) (Table 3.9.1 and Figure 3.8). Almost half of men (45%) smoke a tobacco product; 40% smoke cigarettes, 11% smoke a water pipe, and 12% smoke other forms of tobacco such as pipes and cigars (Table 3.9.2 and Figure 3.8). Among men who smoke cigarettes daily, 49% smoke 15-24 cigarettes a day, and 37% smoke 25 or more cigarettes a day (Table 3.10). Trends: Since 2002, the percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who smoke tobacco has ranged from 12% to 18%. Figure 3.8 Use of tobacco among women and men 8 7 12 40 11 45 Cigarettes Water pipe (Nargila) Any type of tobacco Percentage of ever-married women and all men age 15-49 who use tobacco products Women Men 40 • Characteristics of Respondents Patterns by background characteristics  Use of any type of tobacco increases with age among women, reaching a peak at age 40-44 (14%). Among men, those in the 25-29 age group are most likely to smoke tobacco (58%) (Tables 3.9.1 and 3.9.2).  Urban women (13%) are more likely to smoke tobacco than rural women (6%). Among men, the percentages who smoke tobacco are almost the same in urban and rural areas (45% and 44%, respectively).  Tobacco smoking ranges from 2% in Karak and Tafiela to 19% in Balqa among women and from 34% in Tafiela to 55% in Madaba among men.  Jordanian women are slightly more likely to smoke tobacco (12%) than Syrian women or women of other nationalities (both 9%). The same pattern is observed among men.  The proportion of men who smoke tobacco decreases with increasing wealth; 49% of men in the lowest wealth quintile smoke tobacco, as compared with 38% of men in the highest quintile. The inverse is observed among women; 9% of women in the lowest wealth quintile smoke tobacco, compared with 17% of women in the highest quintile. LIST OF TABLES For more information on the characteristics of survey respondents, see the following tables:  Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents  Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment: Women  Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: Men  Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women  Table 3.3.2 Literacy: Men  Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women  Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: Men  Table 3.5.1 Internet usage: Women  Table 3.5.2 Internet usage: Men  Table 3.6.1 Employment status: Women  Table 3.6.2 Employment status: Men  Table 3.7.1 Occupation: Women  Table 3.7.2 Occupation: Men  Table 3.8.1 Health insurance coverage: Women  Table 3.8.2 Health insurance coverage: Men  Table 3.9.1 Tobacco smoking: Women  Table 3.9.2 Tobacco smoking: Men  Table 3.10 Average number of cigarettes smoked daily: Men Characteristics of Respondents • 41 Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of ever-married women and all men age 15-49 by selected background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Women Men Background characteristic Weighted percent Weighted number Unweighted number Weighted percent Weighted number Unweighted number Age 15-19 2.5 370 427 19.7 1,110 1,187 20-24 10.5 1,536 1,640 22.2 1,247 1,187 25-29 16.9 2,479 2,612 15.1 847 872 30-34 18.6 2,730 2,748 12.2 688 706 35-39 18.0 2,638 2,545 12.1 678 657 40-44 17.1 2,516 2,386 9.9 556 546 45-49 16.5 2,420 2,331 8.8 496 529 Marital status Never married na na na 59.1 3,324 3,250 Married 92.7 13,616 13,734 40.3 2,269 2,405 Divorced/separated 4.5 666 552 0.4 25 27 Widowed 2.8 407 403 0.1 6 2 Residence Urban 89.9 13,200 11,745 89.1 5,011 4,452 Rural 10.1 1,489 2,944 10.9 612 1,232 Region Central 62.4 9,171 5,244 63.3 3,560 2,107 North 28.0 4,119 5,128 27.6 1,550 1,988 South 9.5 1,398 4,317 9.1 513 1,589 Governorate Amman 40.8 5,997 1,768 41.2 2,316 691 Balqa 5.1 752 985 6.1 345 453 Zarqa 14.3 2,094 1,474 13.7 768 532 Madaba 2.2 329 1,017 2.3 132 431 Irbid 17.4 2,549 1,309 17.3 970 520 Mafraq 5.8 849 1,505 5.5 312 564 Jarash 2.8 410 1,147 2.8 159 479 Ajloun 2.1 312 1,167 1.9 109 425 Karak 3.7 544 1,055 3.7 207 393 Tafiela 1.5 221 1,207 1.3 73 421 Ma’an 1.7 250 962 1.8 103 392 Aqaba 2.6 383 1,093 2.3 129 383 Nationality Jordanian 86.9 12,764 12,390 88.7 4,989 4,949 Syrian 8.6 1,257 1,703 5.8 327 429 Other nationality 4.5 668 596 5.5 307 306 Education None 2.2 327 556 1.5 84 128 Elementary 7.0 1,029 1,176 6.2 347 398 Preparatory 12.9 1,892 2,042 13.3 746 842 Secondary 42.0 6,176 6,055 46.5 2,612 2,798 Higher 35.8 5,265 4,860 32.6 1,834 1,518 Wealth quintile Lowest 20.0 2,936 4,312 16.8 946 1,422 Second 20.7 3,039 3,668 18.9 1,063 1,347 Middle 21.0 3,083 3,089 20.0 1,122 1,198 Fourth 20.5 3,009 2,261 21.2 1,190 1,001 Highest 17.9 2,623 1,359 23.2 1,303 716 Total 15-49 100.0 14,689 14,689 100.0 5,623 5,684 50-59 na na na na 806 745 Total 15-59 na na na na 6,429 6,429 Note: Education categories refer to the highest level of education attended, whether or not that level was completed. na = Not applicable 42 • Characteristics of Respondents Ta bl e 3. 2. 1 E du ca tio na l a tt ai nm en t: W om en P er ce nt d is tri bu tio n of e ve r- m ar rie d w om en a ge 1 5- 49 b y hi gh es t l ev el o f s ch oo lin g at te nd ed o r co m pl et ed , a nd m ed ia n ye ar s co m pl et ed , a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, Jo rd an P FH S 2 01 7- 18 H ig he st le ve l o f s ch oo lin g To ta l M ed ia n ye ar s co m pl et ed N um be r o f w om en B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic N o ed uc at io n S om e el em en ta ry C om pl et ed el em en ta ry 1 S om e pr ep ar at or y C om pl et ed pr ep ar at or y2 S om e se co nd ar y C om pl et ed se co nd ar y3 M or e th an se co nd ar y A ge 15 -2 4 1. 7 4. 4 3. 3 0. 0 17 .6 33 .7 14 .5 24 .8 10 0. 0 10 .5 1, 90 6 15 -1 9 3. 2 7. 2 8. 4 0. 0 36 .8 38 .7 4. 1 1. 7 10 0. 0 8. 7 37 0 20 -2 4 1. 3 3. 7 2. 1 0. 0 13 .0 32 .5 17 .0 30 .4 10 0. 0 10 .9 1, 53 6 25 -2 9 1. 4 3. 1 2. 3 0. 0 10 .0 22 .3 14 .8 46 .1 10 0. 0 11 .7 2, 47 9 30 -3 4 1. 6 2. 6 2. 7 0. 0 8. 1 22 .8 18 .3 43 .9 10 0. 0 11 .7 2, 73 0 35 -3 9 2. 4 3. 0 2. 8 0. 1 10 .9 22 .9 19 .3 38 .6 10 0. 0 11 .4 2, 63 8 40 -4 4 2. 1 3. 4 4. 9 2. 2 11 .7 25 .7 19 .8 30 .3 10 0. 0 11 .0 2, 51 6 45 -4 9 4. 3 5. 8 4. 3 8. 4 10 .1 24 .9 14 .6 27 .6 10 0. 0 10 .5 2, 42 0 R es id en ce U rb an 2. 0 3. 5 3. 4 1. 8 11 .1 24 .5 17 .5 36 .3 10 0. 0 11 .2 13 ,2 00 R ur al 4. 2 4. 7 3. 4 2. 0 11 .0 29 .4 13 .3 32 .0 10 0. 0 10 .8 1, 48 9 R eg io n C en tra l 1. 7 3. 6 2. 8 1. 5 10 .7 23 .0 19 .2 37 .4 10 0. 0 11 .3 9, 17 1 N or th 2. 3 3. 7 5. 1 2. 2 13 .2 28 .8 13 .5 31 .3 10 0. 0 10 .7 4, 11 9 S ou th 5. 5 3. 2 2. 2 1. 9 7. 4 26 .9 13 .5 39 .4 10 0. 0 11 .2 1, 39 8 G ov er no ra te A m m an 1. 4 3. 7 2. 4 1. 5 9. 9 20 .3 20 .0 40 .8 10 0. 0 11 .5 5, 99 7 B al qa 4. 1 3. 6 2. 3 1. 6 9. 5 20 .8 21 .4 36 .7 10 0. 0 11 .4 75 2 Za rq a 1. 4 3. 6 3. 8 1. 7 14 .1 31 .0 16 .2 28 .2 10 0. 0 10 .7 2, 09 4 M ad ab a 3. 9 3. 4 4. 1 2. 2 8. 0 27 .4 17 .2 33 .9 10 0. 0 11 .1 32 9 Irb id 1. 3 3. 2 4. 4 2. 2 11 .6 29 .1 14 .8 33 .5 10 0. 0 10 .9 2, 54 9 M af ra q 5. 8 7. 0 9. 3 2. 2 21 .5 23 .0 10 .4 20 .8 10 0. 0 9. 6 84 9 Ja ra sh 0. 9 1. 8 3. 1 3. 2 10 .7 35 .9 12 .9 31 .4 10 0. 0 10 .8 41 0 A jlo un 1. 6 1. 7 2. 4 1. 8 7. 0 32 .5 11 .8 41 .2 10 0. 0 11 .3 31 2 K ar ak 4. 6 2. 7 1. 8 1. 6 6. 6 29 .2 11 .3 42 .1 10 0. 0 11 .3 54 4 Ta fie la 4. 1 2. 1 2. 1 3. 8 7. 0 30 .1 10 .4 40 .3 10 0. 0 11 .1 22 1 M a’ an 10 .3 6. 2 3. 5 1. 0 8. 7 19 .8 13 .7 36 .8 10 0. 0 11 .0 25 0 A qa ba 4. 4 2. 6 2. 0 1. 8 7. 9 26 .2 18 .3 36 .8 10 0. 0 11 .3 38 3 N at io na lit y Jo rd an ia n 1. 5 2. 4 2. 0 1. 8 9. 0 26 .8 17 .8 38 .9 10 0. 0 11 .4 12 ,7 64 S yr ia n 5. 5 11 .6 17 .7 2. 5 32 .1 11 .6 10 .2 9. 0 10 0. 0 7. 7 1, 25 7 O th er n at io na lit y 9. 8 12 .5 3. 5 0. 6 12 .5 16 .9 16 .1 28 .0 10 0. 0 10 .4 66 8 (C on tin ue d… ) Characteristics of Respondents • 43 Ta bl e 3. 2. 1— C on tin ue d H ig he st le ve l o f s ch oo lin g To ta l M ed ia n ye ar s co m pl et ed N um be r of w om en B ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic N o ed uc at io n S om e el em en ta ry C om pl et ed el em en ta ry 1 S om e pr ep ar at or y C om pl et ed pr ep ar at or y2 S om e se co nd ar y C om pl et ed se co nd ar y3 M or e th an se co nd ar y W ea lth q ui nt ile Lo w es t 6. 5 7. 6 9. 0 2. 2 21 .3 27 .7 12 .6 13 .1 10 0. 0 9. 3 2, 93 6 S ec on d 1. 6 4. 6 3. 8 2. 2 13 .5 34 .3 14 .9 25 .2 10 0. 0 10 .6 3, 03 9 M id dl e 0. 7 2. 7 2. 4 2. 0 8. 3 27 .8 18 .3 37 .8 10 0. 0 11 .3 3, 08 3 Fo ur th 0. 6 1. 2 1. 1 1. 8 7. 3 21 .2 21 .5 45 .3 10 0. 0 11 .8 3, 00 9 H ig he st 1. 7 2. 0 0. 4 0. 5 4. 6 12 .4 17 .8 60 .6 10 0. 0 13 .6 2, 62 3 To ta l 2. 2 3. 6 3. 4 1. 8 11 .1 25 .0 17 .0 35 .8 10 0. 0 11 .2 14 ,6 89 1 C om pl et ed g ra de 6 a t e le m en ta ry o r b as ic le ve l 2 C om pl et ed g ra de 3 a t p re pa ra to ry o r g ra de 9 a t b as ic le ve l 3 C om pl et ed g ra de 3 a t s ec on da ry le ve l ( ol d sy st em ) o r g ra de 2 a t s ec on da ry le ve l ( ne w s ys te m ) 44 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: Men Percent distribution of all men age 15-49 by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Highest level of schooling Total Median years completed Number of men Background characteristic No education Some elementary Completed elementary1 Some preparatory Completed preparatory2 Some secondary Completed secondary3 More than secondary Age 15-24 0.8 2.5 2.1 0.0 14.4 42.6 9.9 27.7 100.0 10.6 2,358 15-19 0.7 3.0 2.2 0.0 24.2 55.1 8.4 6.4 100.0 9.9 1,110 20-24 0.9 2.0 2.1 0.1 5.6 31.5 11.2 46.7 100.0 11.6 1,247 25-29 0.9 1.4 2.1 0.0 9.2 28.4 10.3 47.8 100.0 11.8 847 30-34 2.1 3.0 2.9 0.0 8.0 31.6 20.2 32.2 100.0 11.1 688 35-39 0.8 3.4 4.6 0.1 10.5 27.2 15.8 37.7 100.0 11.2 678 40-44 3.3 5.1 7.3 1.3 12.5 27.8 12.4 30.2 100.0 10.6 556 45-49 3.9 2.7 6.4 14.1 11.1 21.1 14.5 26.3 100.0 10.5 496 Residence Urban 1.4 2.8 3.6 1.3 11.8 33.0 12.3 33.9 100.0 10.8 5,011 Rural 2.4 2.7 1.7 2.3 12.1 41.4 15.3 22.2 100.0 10.6 612 Region Central 1.4 2.6 3.3 1.6 10.8 32.3 13.3 34.8 100.0 10.9 3,560 North 1.4 3.5 3.9 1.1 14.7 36.2 10.1 29.0 100.0 10.6 1,550 South 2.8 1.8 2.3 1.0 10.6 38.1 15.1 28.4 100.0 10.8 513 Governorate Amman 1.0 2.6 2.9 1.2 9.4 29.1 13.9 39.9 100.0 11.3 2,316 Balqa 4.6 3.9 2.7 2.1 8.3 27.2 23.5 27.7 100.0 11.1 345 Zarqa 1.0 1.7 4.9 2.5 16.1 42.8 6.7 24.4 100.0 10.3 768 Madaba 1.6 4.4 3.9 1.4 11.7 39.3 14.3 23.4 100.0 10.6 132 Irbid 0.9 3.4 3.6 1.0 13.8 33.5 10.1 33.8 100.0 10.7 970 Mafraq 3.0 5.3 6.9 1.5 18.4 37.6 9.9 17.3 100.0 10.2 312 Jarash 1.7 1.5 1.0 1.2 13.3 44.7 11.8 24.9 100.0 10.5 159 Ajloun 0.9 1.5 2.3 1.3 14.3 44.0 9.3 26.5 100.0 10.6 109 Karak 1.6 0.2 2.0 1.1 10.7 43.3 10.4 30.6 100.0 10.7 207 Tafiela 1.5 1.6 3.1 2.2 12.3 44.7 9.5 25.0 100.0 10.5 73 Ma’an 6.9 3.0 2.8 0.5 8.6 32.3 23.8 22.1 100.0 10.8 103 Aqaba 2.3 3.3 1.8 0.4 11.0 30.7 18.8 31.7 100.0 11.0 129 Nationality Jordanian 1.3 1.9 2.4 1.2 11.1 35.7 13.0 33.5 100.0 10.9 4,989 Syrian 1.6 14.4 17.0 4.9 27.0 16.8 5.0 13.3 100.0 8.0 327 Other nationality 5.0 5.1 4.6 1.7 8.0 23.1 13.6 38.9 100.0 11.2 307 Wealth quintile Lowest 4.7 8.6 10.7 2.3 21.9 30.4 11.4 10.0 100.0 9.2 946 Second 0.8 3.4 2.8 0.8 16.3 44.6 14.5 16.8 100.0 10.4 1,063 Middle 1.0 1.9 2.6 1.9 10.2 40.2 15.4 26.9 100.0 10.7 1,122 Fourth 0.4 0.4 1.5 2.1 7.7 33.1 12.1 42.6 100.0 11.4 1,190 Highest 1.2 0.9 1.0 0.1 6.2 22.9 9.9 57.7 100.0 13.3 1,303 Total 15-49 1.5 2.8 3.4 1.4 11.9 33.9 12.6 32.6 100.0 10.8 5,623 50-59 4.5 5.2 6.6 8.6 7.4 14.9 14.5 38.1 100.0 11.2 806 Total 15-59 1.9 3.1 3.8 2.3 11.3 31.5 12.8 33.3 100.0 10.8 6,429 1 Completed grade 6 at elementary or basic level 2 Completed grade 3 at preparatory or grade 9 at basic level 3 Completed grade 3 at secondary level (old system) or grade 2 at secondary level (new system) Characteristics of Respondents • 45 Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women Percent distribution of ever-married women age 15-49 by level of schooling attended and level of literacy, and percentage literate, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Higher than secondary schooling No schooling, elementary, preparatory, or secondary school Total Percentage literate1 Number of women Background characteristic Can read a whole sentence Can read part of a sentence Cannot read at all No card with required language Blind/visually impaired Age 15-24 24.8 65.4 5.1 4.1 0.5 0.1 100.0 95.3 1,906 15-19 1.7 79.3 11.7 7.2 0.0 0.1 100.0 92.8 370 20-24 30.4 62.0 3.5 3.3 0.6 0.1 100.0 95.9 1,536 25-29 46.1 46.2 4.7 2.8 0.0 0.0 100.0 97.1 2,479 30-34 43.9 49.0 3.9 3.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 96.9 2,730 35-39 38.6 52.4 5.0 3.9 0.1 0.0 100.0 96.0 2,638 40-44 30.3 61.1 4.9 3.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 96.3 2,516 45-49 27.6 62.9 4.5 5.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 95.0 2,420 Residence Urban 36.3 55.7 4.5 3.5 0.1 0.0 100.0 96.4 13,200 Rural 32.0 55.6 6.2 6.0 0.2 0.1 100.0 93.8 1,489 Region Central 37.4 55.4 3.9 3.2 0.2 0.0 100.0 96.6 9,171 North 31.3 59.0 5.7 4.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 96.0 4,119 South 39.4 47.6 6.8 6.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 93.9 1,398 Governorate Amman 40.8 52.7 3.0 3.2 0.2 0.0 100.0 96.6 5,997 Balqa 36.7 52.6 5.5 5.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 94.7 752 Zarqa 28.2 63.7 5.5 2.5 0.1 0.1 100.0 97.4 2,094 Madaba 33.9 56.5 5.2 4.2 0.1 0.1 100.0 95.6 329 Irbid 33.5 58.3 4.9 3.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 96.7 2,549 Mafraq 20.8 62.7 9.0 7.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 92.5 849 Jarash 31.4 60.6 5.3 2.6 0.1 0.0 100.0 97.3 410 Ajloun 41.2 52.7 3.8 2.3 0.0 0.1 100.0 97.6 312 Karak 42.1 45.1 7.3 5.6 0.0 0.0 100.0 94.4 544 Tafiela 40.3 50.2 5.4 3.9 0.0 0.1 100.0 96.0 221 Ma’an 36.8 43.2 8.0 11.8 0.0 0.2 100.0 88.0 250 Aqaba 36.8 52.7 6.2 4.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 95.7 383 Nationality Jordanian 38.9 55.1 3.5 2.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 97.5 12,764 Syrian 9.0 67.7 15.2 8.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 91.9 1,257 Other nationality 28.0 43.6 7.0 18.9 2.5 0.0 100.0 78.5 668 Wealth quintile Lowest 13.1 65.7 11.8 9.3 0.0 0.1 100.0 90.6 2,936 Second 25.2 65.2 5.9 3.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 96.2 3,039 Middle 37.8 58.2 2.3 1.7 0.0 0.0 100.0 98.2 3,083 Fourth 45.3 51.9 1.7 1.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 98.9 3,009 Highest 60.6 34.6 1.4 2.9 0.6 0.0 100.0 96.6 2,623 Total 35.8 55.6 4.7 3.7 0.1 0.0 100.0 96.1 14,689 1 Refers to women who attended schooling higher than the secondary level and women who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence 46 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.3.2 Literacy: Men Percent distribution of all men age 15-49 by level of schooling attended and level of literacy, and percentage literate, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Higher than secondary schooling No schooling, elementary, preparatory, or secondary school Total Percentage literate1 Number of men Background characteristic Can read a whole sentence Can read part of a sentence Cannot read at all Blind/visually impaired Age 15-24 27.7 63.8 5.9 2.6 0.0 100.0 97.4 2,358 15-19 6.4 82.2 8.2 3.1 0.1 100.0 96.8 1,110 20-24 46.7 47.4 3.8 2.1 0.0 100.0 97.9 1,247 25-29 47.8 46.5 4.6 1.0 0.0 100.0 98.9 847 30-34 32.2 59.5 6.1 2.2 0.0 100.0 97.8 688 35-39 37.7 53.9 6.6 1.8 0.0 100.0 98.2 678 40-44 30.2 54.9 10.9 4.0 0.0 100.0 96.0 556 45-49 26.3 63.9 7.8 2.0 0.0 100.0 98.0 496 Residence Urban 33.9 57.4 6.4 2.3 0.0 100.0 97.7 5,011 Rural 22.2 68.2 6.9 2.7 0.1 100.0 97.2 612 Region Central 34.8 57.0 6.1 2.1 0.0 100.0 97.9 3,560 North 29.0 61.3 7.0 2.6 0.0 100.0 97.3 1,550 South 28.4 61.3 7.5 2.8 0.0 100.0 97.2 513 Governorate Amman 39.9 52.2 5.8 2.1 0.0 100.0 97.9 2,316 Balqa 27.7 58.6 10.1 3.4 0.3 100.0 96.4 345 Zarqa 24.4 69.4 4.8 1.3 0.0 100.0 98.7 768 Madaba 23.4 65.5 7.0 4.2 0.0 100.0 95.8 132 Irbid 33.8 58.7 5.5 2.1 0.0 100.0 97.9 970 Mafraq 17.3 67.4 10.7 4.6 0.0 100.0 95.4 312 Jarash 24.9 60.7 10.7 3.7 0.0 100.0 96.3 159 Ajloun 26.5 67.7 4.9 0.4 0.4 100.0 99.2 109 Karak 30.6 59.7 8.1 1.6 0.0 100.0 98.4 207 Tafiela 25.0 68.2 5.1 1.7 0.0 100.0 98.3 73 Ma’an 22.1 63.4 8.6 5.9 0.0 100.0 94.1 103 Aqaba 31.7 58.4 7.3 2.7 0.0 100.0 97.3 129 Nationality Jordanian 33.5 59.2 5.4 1.9 0.0 100.0 98.1 4,989 Syrian 13.3 60.4 20.4 5.9 0.0 100.0 94.1 327 Other nationality 38.9 46.5 8.9 5.8 0.0 100.0 94.2 307 Wealth quintile Lowest 10.0 65.8 16.5 7.6 0.1 100.0 92.3 946 Second 16.8 73.5 7.0 2.7 0.0 100.0 97.3 1,063 Middle 26.9 67.6 4.0 1.4 0.0 100.0 98.5 1,122 Fourth 42.6 52.5 4.4 0.5 0.0 100.0 99.5 1,190 Highest 57.7 39.0 2.7 0.5 0.0 100.0 99.5 1,303 Total 15-49 32.6 58.6 6.5 2.3 0.0 100.0 97.7 5,623 50-59 38.1 52.1 5.3 4.4 0.0 100.0 95.6 806 Total 15-59 33.3 57.8 6.3 2.6 0.0 100.0 97.4 6,429 1 Refers to men who attended schooling higher than the secondary level and men who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence Characteristics of Respondents • 47 Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Accesses all three media at least once a week Accesses none of the three media at least once a week Number of women Age 15-19 12.1 75.9 11.3 5.3 20.1 370 20-24 17.2 77.5 21.9 11.9 19.9 1,536 25-29 20.0 75.4 23.8 13.3 21.2 2,479 30-34 21.5 73.3 26.9 14.7 22.2 2,730 35-39 22.8 74.7 27.3 14.8 20.9 2,638 40-44 20.4 74.6 24.6 13.1 21.6 2,516 45-49 20.5 71.7 23.0 13.8 24.6 2,420 Residence Urban 21.1 74.5 25.3 14.1 21.7 13,200 Rural 14.5 73.6 17.8 8.5 23.3 1,489 Region Central 23.1 74.2 29.2 17.3 22.2 9,171 North 17.4 77.0 15.6 6.9 18.4 4,119 South 12.2 67.8 19.7 8.2 29.5 1,398 Governorate Amman 25.4 75.5 33.4 20.4 21.1 5,997 Balqa 27.7 66.2 31.8 19.6 28.4 752 Zarqa 16.7 75.1 18.1 9.4 21.8 2,094 Madaba 11.2 62.6 18.2 5.6 31.3 329 Irbid 19.6 76.3 18.0 8.0 18.0 2,549 Mafraq 11.9 73.5 10.2 3.8 23.7 849 Jarash 18.6 82.8 13.6 6.8 13.2 410 Ajloun 13.4 83.8 12.9 5.8 13.7 312 Karak 12.5 80.3 20.6 8.7 17.3 544 Tafiela 4.1 45.9 12.7 2.7 52.1 221 Ma’an 17.7 63.6 20.8 13.5 33.5 250 Aqaba 12.8 65.4 21.8 7.2 31.1 383 Nationality Jordanian 21.3 75.2 25.8 14.2 20.9 12,764 Syrian 13.5 72.0 12.6 6.7 25.0 1,257 Other nationality 18.0 63.6 21.6 12.4 33.3 668 Education None 4.2 43.8 12.4 3.3 54.7 327 Elementary 9.6 64.1 11.2 4.7 33.5 1,029 Preparatory 13.7 73.5 14.2 6.9 23.9 1,892 Secondary 19.7 76.8 23.8 12.7 19.4 6,176 Higher 27.0 75.7 32.3 19.2 19.6 5,265 Wealth quintile Lowest 11.6 69.3 13.0 5.4 27.7 2,936 Second 14.0 76.4 16.7 7.5 20.2 3,039 Middle 21.9 77.1 25.2 14.7 19.2 3,083 Fourth 25.8 77.6 30.8 17.8 18.0 3,009 Highest 30.1 70.8 38.4 23.2 24.7 2,623 Total 20.5 74.4 24.5 13.5 21.8 14,689 48 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: Men Percentage of all men age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Accesses all three media at least once a week Accesses none of the three media at least once a week Number of men Age 15-19 12.1 70.9 23.2 7.7 26.8 1,110 20-24 15.3 67.3 31.8 9.5 27.8 1,247 25-29 19.9 64.4 35.0 13.5 30.5 847 30-34 21.3 70.1 40.7 13.6 24.5 688 35-39 20.6 70.9 46.4 15.6 24.8 678 40-44 20.6 69.4 45.7 14.7 23.5 556 45-49 19.6 64.1 38.6 14.0 30.8 496 Residence Urban 17.8 68.8 36.7 12.0 26.6 5,011 Rural 16.3 63.9 25.1 11.1 30.9 612 Region Central 17.7 64.4 38.8 11.9 31.1 3,560 North 18.2 79.3 31.2 11.7 15.5 1,550 South 15.2 62.3 24.9 12.7 34.4 513 Governorate Amman 17.4 68.7 46.3 11.5 26.8 2,316 Balqa 19.1 44.0 22.3 10.7 48.1 345 Zarqa 17.2 56.0 25.2 12.9 40.4 768 Madaba 23.0 89.3 29.3 15.1 7.3 132 Irbid 19.6 80.8 33.2 13.0 14.1 970 Mafraq 14.4 74.4 23.2 8.7 22.1 312 Jarash 20.0 73.3 34.8 11.0 16.4 159 Ajloun 14.1 88.7 30.8 9.4 8.0 109 Karak 12.9 66.7 21.1 11.0 30.0 207 Tafiela 11.1 65.0 18.9 10.0 33.4 73 Ma’an 19.8 41.9 24.4 15.4 54.0 103 Aqaba 17.7 70.0 34.6 14.9 26.4 129 Nationality Jordanian 18.0 68.2 36.1 12.4 27.2 4,989 Syrian 16.3 76.6 33.2 10.4 20.7 327 Other nationality 13.2 60.7 27.1 6.2 32.5 307 Education None 14.1 40.3 35.9 5.9 50.3 84 Elementary 10.1 71.2 30.5 6.7 25.5 347 Preparatory 12.0 72.5 30.0 8.6 24.4 746 Secondary 15.2 67.1 30.4 9.6 29.1 2,612 Higher 25.0 69.0 45.6 17.7 24.6 1,834 Wealth quintile Lowest 14.0 65.7 24.5 8.5 31.1 946 Second 20.4 71.6 34.0 14.2 23.7 1,063 Middle 16.1 67.1 33.8 11.3 28.3 1,122 Fourth 18.3 69.6 36.4 12.8 26.9 1,190 Highest 18.7 67.2 45.0 12.1 26.1 1,303 Total 15-49 17.6 68.3 35.4 11.9 27.1 5,623 50-59 23.6 69.7 44.5 18.0 25.3 806 Total 15-59 18.4 68.5 36.6 12.7 26.9 6,429 Characteristics of Respondents • 49 Table 3.5.1 Internet usage: Women Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who have ever used the Internet, and percentage who have used the Internet in the past 12 months; and among women who have used the Internet in the past 12 months, percent distribution by frequency of Internet use in the past month, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Ever used the Internet Used the Internet in the past 12 months Number Among respondents who have used the Internet in the past 12 months, percentage who, in the past month, used the Internet: Background characteristic Almost every day At least once a week Less than once a week Not at all Total Number Age 15-19 77.0 72.1 370 73.3 18.7 7.7 0.3 100.0 267 20-24 85.2 78.9 1,536 87.0 9.0 3.2 0.8 100.0 1,212 25-29 87.7 83.0 2,479 87.1 10.5 2.0 0.4 100.0 2,058 30-34 86.4 80.0 2,730 88.5 8.9 2.5 0.1 100.0 2,183 35-39 83.6 77.8 2,638 87.6 9.8 2.5 0.1 100.0 2,052 40-44 77.6 72.9 2,516 86.7 9.4 3.4 0.5 100.0 1,835 45-49 71.1 67.1 2,420 84.0 11.2 4.7 0.0 100.0 1,624 Residence Urban 82.7 77.5 13,200 86.8 10.0 2.9 0.3 100.0 10,224 Rural 73.0 67.6 1,489 84.6 10.2 4.5 0.6 100.0 1,007 Region Central 84.7 78.8 9,171 87.0 10.1 2.7 0.2 100.0 7,228 North 76.4 73.6 4,119 86.4 9.7 3.5 0.4 100.0 3,030 South 78.0 69.6 1,398 84.6 10.6 4.6 0.2 100.0 972 Governorate Amman 87.2 79.8 5,997 89.7 7.7 2.3 0.2 100.0 4,784 Balqa 72.7 70.7 752 93.0 5.4 1.6 0.0 100.0 531 Zarqa 84.0 81.2 2,094 77.4 18.2 4.1 0.3 100.0 1,701 Madaba 70.7 64.5 329 86.9 9.8 3.3 0.0 100.0 212 Irbid 79.2 77.1 2,549 88.1 8.9 2.7 0.3 100.0 1,965 Mafraq 63.7 59.1 849 79.2 13.2 6.9 0.8 100.0 501 Jarash 78.2 75.7 410 84.6 10.9 4.1 0.4 100.0 310 Ajloun 84.9 81.2 312 90.3 7.2 2.0 0.5 100.0 253 Karak 77.2 61.7 544 81.7 11.2 6.9 0.2 100.0 336 Tafiela 79.4 76.5 221 83.4 13.6 2.8 0.2 100.0 169 Ma’an 72.1 67.5 250 85.7 10.4 3.5 0.4 100.0 169 Aqaba 82.3 78.0 383 87.9 8.4 3.6 0.2 100.0 299 Nationality Jordanian 83.9 78.5 12,764 87.5 9.5 2.8 0.3 100.0 10,021 Syrian 63.5 59.8 1,257 78.4 16.7 4.3 0.5 100.0 752 Other nationality 73.7 68.6 668 81.0 11.2 7.2 0.6 100.0 458 Education None 19.4 17.3 327 54.3 24.4 19.6 1.8 100.0 57 Elementary 50.5 46.5 1,029 65.3 27.2 7.5 0.0 100.0 479 Preparatory 67.7 62.4 1,892 78.5 15.3 5.9 0.3 100.0 1,181 Secondary 83.3 77.4 6,176 85.2 11.0 3.5 0.4 100.0 4,781 Higher 94.9 89.9 5,265 92.7 5.8 1.3 0.2 100.0 4,733 Wealth quintile Lowest 56.6 51.5 2,936 74.0 18.9 6.7 0.4 100.0 1,511 Second 79.9 74.8 3,039 82.4 13.3 3.9 0.4 100.0 2,272 Middle 86.7 79.9 3,083 86.2 10.6 2.9 0.3 100.0 2,462 Fourth 92.3 86.3 3,009 91.1 7.2 1.7 0.0 100.0 2,596 Highest 93.9 91.1 2,623 94.1 3.6 1.8 0.5 100.0 2,389 Total 81.7 76.5 14,689 86.6 10.0 3.1 0.3 100.0 11,231 50 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.5.2 Internet usage: Men Percentage of all men age 15-49 who have ever used the Internet, and percentage who have used the Internet in the past 12 months; and among men who have used the Internet in the past 12 months, percent distribution by frequency of Internet use in the past month, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Ever used the Internet Used the Internet in the past 12 months Number Among respondents who have used the Internet in the past 12 months, percentage who, in the past month, used the Internet: Background characteristic Almost every day At least once a week Less than once a week Not at all Total Number Age 15-19 84.4 83.0 1,110 79.7 13.8 6.5 0.0 100.0 922 20-24 92.5 91.0 1,247 91.8 6.3 1.7 0.3 100.0 1,135 25-29 93.7 92.0 847 89.0 8.2 2.7 0.1 100.0 779 30-34 90.7 88.4 688 84.1 10.7 4.9 0.3 100.0 609 35-39 90.6 89.1 678 86.4 11.1 2.4 0.1 100.0 604 40-44 83.3 81.4 556 79.9 13.0 7.1 0.0 100.0 453 45-49 76.5 75.1 496 75.3 19.5 5.2 0.0 100.0 373 Residence Urban 88.8 87.3 5,011 85.2 10.8 3.9 0.1 100.0 4,374 Rural 84.4 81.7 612 84.0 10.9 5.0 0.2 100.0 500 Region Central 90.0 88.7 3,560 85.3 10.8 3.9 0.1 100.0 3,159 North 85.3 83.7 1,550 85.2 10.3 4.3 0.2 100.0 1,298 South 85.2 81.3 513 82.9 12.8 4.2 0.2 100.0 417 Governorate Amman 94.0 92.6 2,316 91.0 7.6 1.4 0.0 100.0 2,145 Balqa 81.9 79.9 345 90.8 6.1 3.2 0.0 100.0 275 Zarqa 81.5 80.9 768 63.3 23.4 13.0 0.3 100.0 621 Madaba 90.7 89.1 132 84.3 13.3 2.4 0.0 100.0 117 Irbid 88.0 87.1 970 86.6 9.2 3.9 0.3 100.0 845 Mafraq 77.4 74.6 312 85.5 10.8 3.4 0.2 100.0 232 Jarash 81.4 78.0 159 78.4 16.1 5.4 0.0 100.0 124 Ajloun 89.8 87.7 109 80.2 11.0 8.5 0.3 100.0 95 Karak 83.6 76.1 207 82.6 8.5 8.6 0.3 100.0 158 Tafiela 83.5 82.1 73 84.0 15.2 0.8 0.0 100.0 60 Ma’an 81.8 80.0 103 78.8 19.7 1.5 0.0 100.0 83 Aqaba 91.4 90.3 129 85.6 12.5 1.8 0.2 100.0 117 Nationality Jordanian 89.1 87.4 4,989 85.8 10.2 3.9 0.1 100.0 4,362 Syrian 78.9 78.2 327 71.2 21.6 7.2 0.0 100.0 256 Other nationality 85.1 83.5 307 86.8 10.1 3.1 0.0 100.0 256 Education None 36.8 30.3 84 (89.8) (7.3) (3.0) (0.0) 100.0 26 Elementary 65.1 63.6 347 72.6 19.5 7.9 0.0 100.0 220 Preparatory 82.4 80.7 746 73.2 19.2 7.5 0.0 100.0 602 Secondary 88.9 87.1 2,612 81.4 13.3 5.0 0.3 100.0 2,276 Higher 96.6 95.4 1,834 95.3 3.6 1.1 0.0 100.0 1,750 Wealth quintile Lowest 73.8 71.4 946 74.2 19.1 6.7 0.0 100.0 675 Second 85.3 83.7 1,063 82.1 13.5 4.4 0.1 100.0 889 Middle 88.5 86.6 1,122 80.8 13.2 5.7 0.3 100.0 972 Fourth 93.8 92.5 1,190 90.6 6.4 2.8 0.2 100.0 1,101 Highest 96.1 94.9 1,303 91.5 6.4 2.1 0.0 100.0 1,237 Total 15-49 88.3 86.7 5,623 85.0 10.8 4.0 0.1 100.0 4,874 50-59 70.0 68.8 806 65.3 21.5 13.2 0.0 100.0 554 Total 15-59 86.0 84.4 6,429 83.0 11.9 5.0 0.1 100.0 5,428 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. Characteristics of Respondents • 51 Table 3.6.1 Employment status: Women Percent distribution of ever-married women age 15-49 by employment status, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Employed in the 7 days preceding the survey Never employed Total Number of women Background characteristic Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 1.0 0.0 99.0 100.0 370 20-24 6.8 0.6 92.6 100.0 1,536 25-29 13.3 0.5 86.2 100.0 2,479 30-34 19.4 0.4 80.1 100.0 2,730 35-39 16.7 1.7 81.6 100.0 2,638 40-44 14.9 0.5 84.5 100.0 2,516 45-49 10.0 0.3 89.7 100.0 2,420 Marital status Married 12.8 0.5 86.7 100.0 13,616 Divorced/separated/widowed 26.5 2.3 71.2 100.0 1,073 Number of living children 0 17.8 0.8 81.4 100.0 1,820 1-2 17.7 0.6 81.7 100.0 4,387 3-4 13.2 0.9 85.9 100.0 5,192 5+ 7.2 0.4 92.4 100.0 3,290 Residence Urban 13.9 0.7 85.4 100.0 13,200 Rural 12.7 0.1 87.2 100.0 1,489 Region Central 14.9 0.8 84.3 100.0 9,171 North 10.1 0.5 89.4 100.0 4,119 South 17.2 0.6 82.3 100.0 1,398 Governorate Amman 16.8 0.9 82.3 100.0 5,997 Balqa 16.6 0.4 83.0 100.0 752 Zarqa 9.1 0.6 90.3 100.0 2,094 Madaba 14.2 0.4 85.4 100.0 329 Irbid 9.3 0.7 90.0 100.0 2,549 Mafraq 12.8 0.1 87.1 100.0 849 Jarash 10.0 0.0 90.0 100.0 410 Ajloun 9.8 0.1 90.2 100.0 312 Karak 18.8 1.1 80.1 100.0 544 Tafiela 17.6 0.5 81.8 100.0 221 Ma’an 18.3 0.2 81.6 100.0 250 Aqaba 13.9 0.1 86.0 100.0 383 Nationality Jordanian 14.3 0.7 85.0 100.0 12,764 Syrian 2.1 0.3 97.5 100.0 1,257 Other nationality 26.3 1.4 72.3 100.0 668 Education None 12.3 0.6 87.1 100.0 327 Elementary 8.2 0.0 91.8 100.0 1,029 Preparatory 4.2 0.2 95.7 100.0 1,892 Secondary 5.9 0.5 93.6 100.0 6,176 Higher 27.6 1.2 71.2 100.0 5,265 Wealth quintile Lowest 5.2 0.4 94.4 100.0 2,936 Second 8.0 0.4 91.7 100.0 3,039 Middle 14.4 0.8 84.8 100.0 3,083 Fourth 16.8 0.8 82.4 100.0 3,009 Highest 25.9 1.2 72.9 100.0 2,623 Total 13.8 0.7 85.5 100.0 14,689 1 “Currently employed” is defined as having done work in the past 7 days. Includes persons who did not work in the past 7 days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reason. 52 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.6.2 Employment status: Men Percent distribution of all men age 15-49 by employment status, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Employed in the 7 days preceding the survey Never employed Total Number of men Background characteristic Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 10.5 0.0 89.5 100.0 1,110 20-24 34.4 0.9 64.7 100.0 1,247 25-29 70.9 0.9 28.3 100.0 847 30-34 83.4 1.5 15.1 100.0 688 35-39 85.4 0.9 13.6 100.0 678 40-44 82.3 1.1 16.6 100.0 556 45-49 69.2 0.6 30.3 100.0 496 Marital status Never married 35.4 0.5 64.1 100.0 3,324 Married 83.9 1.2 14.9 100.0 2,269 Divorced/separated/widowed (70.1) (0.7) (29.2) 100.0 31 Number of living children 0 39.0 0.6 60.5 100.0 3,594 1-2 90.3 1.6 8.0 100.0 710 3-4 83.5 1.4 15.1 100.0 831 5+ 74.8 0.0 25.2 100.0 489 Residence Urban 54.9 0.8 44.3 100.0 5,011 Rural 57.4 0.6 42.0 100.0 612 Region Central 55.7 1.0 43.2 100.0 3,560 North 55.1 0.2 44.7 100.0 1,550 South 51.3 0.5 48.3 100.0 513 Governorate Amman 55.1 0.8 44.1 100.0 2,316 Balqa 51.7 0.1 48.1 100.0 345 Zarqa 57.6 2.2 40.2 100.0 768 Madaba 66.4 0.3 33.3 100.0 132 Irbid 54.8 0.3 44.8 100.0 970 Mafraq 54.7 0.0 45.3 100.0 312 Jarash 59.5 0.0 40.5 100.0 159 Ajloun 51.8 0.3 47.9 100.0 109 Karak 50.2 1.0 48.9 100.0 207 Tafiela 45.4 0.4 54.1 100.0 73 Ma’an 50.4 0.1 49.5 100.0 103 Aqaba 57.0 0.0 43.0 100.0 129 Nationality Jordanian 55.0 0.5 44.4 100.0 4,989 Syrian 57.1 2.0 40.8 100.0 327 Other nationality 54.8 3.2 42.0 100.0 307 Education None 45.1 2.5 52.4 100.0 84 Elementary 65.3 1.6 33.1 100.0 347 Preparatory 47.5 1.0 51.4 100.0 746 Secondary 54.3 0.5 45.1 100.0 2,612 Higher 57.9 0.8 41.3 100.0 1,834 Wealth quintile Lowest 57.8 1.8 40.4 100.0 946 Second 58.2 0.4 41.4 100.0 1,063 Middle 61.1 0.7 38.1 100.0 1,122 Fourth 56.6 0.4 43.1 100.0 1,190 Highest 44.2 0.8 55.0 100.0 1,303 Total 15-49 55.1 0.8 44.1 100.0 5,623 50-59 55.6 2.1 42.2 100.0 806 Total 15-59 55.2 0.9 43.9 100.0 6,429 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 “Currently employed” is defined as having done work in the past 7 days. Includes persons who did not work in the past 7 days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reason. Characteristics of Respondents • 53 Table 3.7.1 Occupation: Women Percent distribution of ever-married women age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Background characteristic Professional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Unskilled manual Domestic service Agriculture Missing Total Number of women Age 15-19 * * * * * * * * 100.0 4 20-24 51.8 6.0 7.9 3.7 0.0 29.7 0.0 0.9 100.0 113 25-29 63.7 2.9 11.7 2.7 0.1 15.6 0.4 2.9 100.0 342 30-34 69.5 11.8 7.4 2.5 1.7 4.8 0.2 2.2 100.0 542 35-39 65.0 3.7 12.9 3.5 0.6 11.0 0.7 2.5 100.0 486 40-44 61.9 4.6 10.9 6.0 1.3 10.7 1.5 3.1 100.0 389 45-49 56.4 5.6 9.0 6.7 2.1 11.0 2.6 6.6 100.0 249 Marital status Married 68.0 5.6 8.1 3.4 0.9 10.0 0.8 3.3 100.0 1,815 Divorced/separated/ widowed 37.4 9.7 22.3 7.6 2.2 17.8 1.2 1.8 100.0 309 Number of living children 0 60.9 3.5 14.9 4.5 0.7 12.9 0.3 2.5 100.0 339 1-2 63.1 8.6 7.9 3.0 1.1 13.5 0.3 2.5 100.0 803 3-4 69.6 5.8 10.8 3.4 1.1 6.4 0.5 2.5 100.0 734 5+ 50.6 3.1 9.2 8.4 1.2 15.4 4.4 7.6 100.0 249 Residence Urban 63.3 6.0 10.5 4.1 1.1 11.3 0.5 3.1 100.0 1,934 Rural 65.8 7.3 7.0 2.5 0.7 9.1 4.4 3.1 100.0 191 Region Central 60.7 6.3 11.7 4.4 1.3 12.7 0.6 2.3 100.0 1,441 North 67.4 4.6 7.0 3.9 0.5 8.3 1.5 6.7 100.0 435 South 73.5 8.3 6.8 1.7 0.4 6.9 1.0 1.5 100.0 248 Governorate Amman 62.1 6.4 11.3 4.3 1.3 12.9 0.0 1.8 100.0 1,063 Balqa 59.4 8.2 8.5 2.2 0.7 13.0 4.5 3.5 100.0 127 Zarqa 52.2 4.9 15.9 6.1 2.5 12.8 1.7 3.9 100.0 203 Madaba 67.8 4.3 11.7 5.6 0.0 7.2 0.2 3.2 100.0 48 Irbid 68.1 4.4 5.1 2.8 0.0 8.7 1.1 9.9 100.0 254 Mafraq 62.4 4.0 9.1 7.2 2.1 8.7 3.0 3.6 100.0 110 Jarash 70.1 6.6 12.2 1.9 0.0 7.8 0.9 0.6 100.0 41 Ajloun 76.7 6.2 8.9 3.8 0.0 4.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 31 Karak 72.5 10.3 7.0 0.4 0.6 6.9 1.5 0.8 100.0 108 Tafiela 73.7 6.9 4.2 6.0 0.4 5.3 0.0 3.5 100.0 40 Ma’an 72.7 3.9 10.1 0.4 0.4 8.7 1.3 2.4 100.0 46 Aqaba 75.8 9.0 5.6 2.4 0.0 6.3 0.5 0.4 100.0 53 Nationality Jordanian 68.9 6.6 10.7 3.8 1.0 5.2 0.7 3.2 100.0 1,908 Syrian 29.0 9.4 18.1 13.7 3.1 26.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 31 Other nationality 14.2 1.3 3.6 4.5 1.6 69.6 2.4 2.8 100.0 185 Education None (0.0) (0.0) (0.6) (1.6) (0.4) (82.2) (10.7) (4.5) 100.0 42 Elementary 0.0 0.5 6.8 5.7 1.3 74.7 9.8 1.4 100.0 85 Preparatory 0.6 1.8 21.3 14.7 0.6 56.3 3.6 1.1 100.0 82 Secondary 6.7 19.2 30.2 15.0 4.5 19.0 0.3 5.1 100.0 398 Higher 87.1 3.5 4.8 0.5 0.2 1.1 0.1 2.7 100.0 1,518 Wealth quintile Lowest 34.5 3.1 16.6 12.8 4.2 21.9 4.6 2.3 100.0 163 Second 57.5 6.9 7.9 6.5 1.0 14.5 3.5 2.2 100.0 254 Middle 61.8 5.9 15.7 3.9 1.6 7.5 0.3 3.4 100.0 469 Fourth 70.7 5.4 10.5 4.3 0.5 4.6 0.1 4.0 100.0 529 Highest 68.2 7.4 5.6 0.9 0.4 14.7 0.0 2.8 100.0 710 Total 63.5 6.2 10.2 4.0 1.1 11.1 0.9 3.1 100.0 2,124 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 54 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.7.2 Occupation: Men Percent distribution of all men age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Background characteristic Professional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales and services Skilled manual Unskilled manual Domestic service Agriculture Missing Total Number of men Age 15-19 2.5 0.0 40.1 36.5 2.6 4.5 6.4 7.3 100.0 117 20-24 18.1 1.6 39.2 31.2 5.2 0.3 3.1 1.3 100.0 441 25-29 29.9 1.6 41.0 22.4 3.0 0.1 1.1 0.9 100.0 607 30-34 23.4 3.4 35.4 30.2 4.1 0.2 2.2 1.1 100.0 584 35-39 32.1 4.7 26.3 28.5 3.5 0.9 2.6 1.3 100.0 585 40-44 26.6 4.8 26.2 30.9 5.3 0.5 3.0 2.7 100.0 464 45-49 25.4 4.3 21.8 35.5 5.3 0.2 5.8 1.7 100.0 346 Marital status Never married 25.1 2.1 37.6 26.6 3.4 0.6 2.8 1.8 100.0 1,193 Married 25.6 3.9 29.8 31.0 4.7 0.5 2.9 1.6 100.0 1,930 Divorced/separated/ widowed * * * * * * * * 100.0 22 Number of living children 0 25.4 1.9 37.9 26.5 3.4 0.6 2.6 1.7 100.0 1,420 1-2 27.8 4.3 32.8 28.8 3.2 0.0 2.5 0.6 100.0 653 3-4 27.1 3.7 26.8 33.3 4.0 1.0 1.9 2.2 100.0 706 5+ 18.3 5.7 23.4 34.5 9.6 0.2 6.0 2.4 100.0 365 Residence Urban 26.3 3.2 30.3 31.5 4.3 0.5 2.3 1.6 100.0 2,789 Rural 18.8 3.2 51.2 13.4 3.5 0.3 7.2 2.4 100.0 355 Region Central 28.8 3.2 26.0 34.0 3.9 0.5 2.5 1.1 100.0 2,022 North 18.2 2.6 45.9 22.0 4.4 0.4 3.7 2.8 100.0 857 South 23.2 5.3 40.7 19.0 5.4 0.8 3.2 2.5 100.0 265 Governorate Amman 32.3 2.4 24.8 33.7 4.1 0.6 1.3 0.9 100.0 1,296 Balqa 19.0 5.4 31.3 22.9 5.8 0.8 12.9 1.8 100.0 179 Zarqa 25.3 4.6 24.7 40.2 2.4 0.0 1.5 1.2 100.0 459 Madaba 16.3 4.1 38.2 27.4 5.7 2.0 3.9 2.4 100.0 88 Irbid 19.0 2.6 43.2 25.0 4.0 0.3 2.8 3.0 100.0 535 Mafraq 16.7 2.4 44.1 17.8 6.3 0.2 8.2 4.3 100.0 170 Jarash 18.2 1.3 56.8 17.4 3.8 0.6 1.4 0.5 100.0 95 Ajloun 15.2 5.5 59.3 13.7 3.7 1.2 1.5 0.0 100.0 57 Karak 21.9 2.9 45.5 16.3 3.4 0.0 4.9 5.0 100.0 106 Tafiela 21.1 3.6 50.3 17.0 3.8 0.0 2.5 1.7 100.0 34 Ma’an 20.6 12.1 41.0 15.1 7.7 0.3 1.8 1.6 100.0 52 Aqaba 27.8 4.5 29.1 26.7 7.2 2.5 2.0 0.1 100.0 74 Nationality Jordanian 27.0 3.6 34.4 26.9 3.8 0.3 2.3 1.7 100.0 2,772 Syrian 10.5 0.8 15.4 51.7 11.6 3.4 5.3 1.4 100.0 194 Other nationality 17.4 0.2 24.2 45.1 2.7 0.1 8.6 1.8 100.0 178 Education None 0.4 0.0 18.7 54.5 1.7 0.4 14.6 9.8 100.0 40 Elementary 2.0 0.9 23.5 58.5 6.7 2.7 3.0 2.6 100.0 232 Preparatory 2.6 2.6 30.1 44.7 10.7 0.1 7.5 1.7 100.0 362 Secondary 6.6 5.0 42.4 36.0 4.9 0.7 3.1 1.4 100.0 1,434 Higher 64.2 1.8 23.1 8.4 0.6 0.0 0.4 1.6 100.0 1,076 Wealth quintile Lowest 6.2 2.3 29.7 43.6 7.8 0.8 8.4 1.2 100.0 564 Second 14.3 4.4 43.2 27.7 5.0 0.9 2.3 2.2 100.0 623 Middle 20.0 3.6 36.2 29.9 4.9 0.2 2.7 2.5 100.0 694 Fourth 31.0 2.9 31.4 28.9 2.9 0.6 1.3 1.0 100.0 677 Highest 56.0 2.8 21.5 17.6 0.5 0.2 0.1 1.4 100.0 586 Total 15-49 25.5 3.2 32.7 29.4 4.2 0.5 2.9 1.7 100.0 3,144 50-59 35.9 4.7 21.7 28.6 1.7 0.0 2.1 5.3 100.0 466 Total 15-59 26.8 3.4 31.2 29.3 3.9 0.5 2.8 2.1 100.0 3,610 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Characteristics of Respondents • 55 Table 3.8.1 Health insurance coverage: Women Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 with specific types of health insurance coverage, and percentage with any health insurance, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Background characteristic Ministry of Health insurance Royal/Military health insurance University Hospital insurance UNRWA insurance UNHCR insurance NGO insurance Privately purchased commercial health insurance None Any health insurance Number of women Age 15-19 9.8 22.7 0.0 1.2 12.3 0.3 1.1 52.7 47.3 370 20-24 16.5 21.8 1.0 1.3 5.0 0.7 7.8 47.0 53.0 1,536 25-29 20.3 22.8 2.4 0.8 3.2 0.8 10.4 41.5 58.5 2,479 30-34 25.2 18.3 1.9 0.9 3.6 0.8 10.5 41.0 59.0 2,730 35-39 25.9 17.9 3.5 0.4 2.1 0.3 9.5 42.4 57.6 2,638 40-44 29.6 20.0 1.3 0.6 2.1 0.8 9.1 39.0 61.0 2,516 45-49 28.5 22.8 1.8 0.9 1.7 0.2 6.3 39.7 60.3 2,420 Residence Urban 24.2 17.5 2.1 0.9 3.3 0.6 9.3 44.1 55.9 13,200 Rural 27.1 47.0 1.1 0.1 0.8 0.3 5.0 20.7 79.3 1,489 Region Central 21.0 12.2 2.2 0.8 1.1 0.6 11.0 52.9 47.1 9,171 North 28.9 34.7 1.9 1.1 7.9 0.5 3.0 23.8 76.2 4,119 South 34.6 33.0 1.2 0.0 1.4 0.4 11.6 20.9 79.1 1,398 Governorate Amman 19.5 9.5 2.5 0.7 0.6 0.8 12.5 55.9 44.1 5,997 Balqa 28.2 19.4 3.3 0.7 0.3 0.2 8.4 43.3 56.7 752 Zarqa 21.0 14.6 0.9 1.3 2.8 0.2 9.0 51.1 48.9 2,094 Madaba 31.6 30.2 1.7 0.3 1.6 0.4 3.8 31.9 68.1 329 Irbid 31.6 30.7 2.4 0.6 4.7 0.5 3.9 27.2 72.8 2,549 Mafraq 23.0 30.2 1.3 0.6 22.2 0.5 1.6 21.8 78.2 849 Jarash 27.2 48.6 0.4 5.6 1.7 0.5 1.5 16.8 83.2 410 Ajloun 25.3 61.6 0.9 0.1 3.5 0.2 1.6 10.3 89.7 312 Karak 34.9 42.9 1.3 0.0 1.4 0.0 9.1 13.7 86.3 544 Tafiela 32.1 45.1 0.6 0.0 0.4 0.2 13.0 10.9 89.1 221 Ma’an 39.1 24.6 2.4 0.0 2.6 0.5 5.3 29.3 70.7 250 Aqaba 32.8 17.4 0.5 0.1 1.3 1.0 18.3 31.5 68.5 383 Nationality Jordanian 27.4 23.4 2.2 0.6 0.2 0.5 9.6 38.2 61.8 12,764 Syrian 3.5 1.1 0.2 1.0 32.9 0.4 0.5 60.5 39.5 1,257 Other nationality 8.9 1.2 1.1 3.8 1.0 2.0 10.3 72.5 27.5 668 Education None 21.3 9.0 0.2 0.4 8.4 0.2 4.3 56.7 43.3 327 Elementary 22.0 11.7 0.3 2.7 12.5 0.9 2.0 48.9 51.1 1,029 Preparatory 21.2 17.8 0.7 1.4 9.3 0.3 2.4 47.6 52.4 1,892 Secondary 22.8 22.2 1.3 0.8 1.3 0.3 7.0 45.3 54.7 6,176 Higher 28.4 22.0 3.8 0.3 0.7 0.9 14.9 33.0 67.0 5,265 Wealth quintile Lowest 24.0 17.9 0.7 1.7 12.5 0.3 2.7 41.2 58.8 2,936 Second 23.6 29.6 0.8 1.0 1.5 0.3 3.8 40.6 59.4 3,039 Middle 25.1 26.5 1.2 0.5 0.6 0.6 6.8 40.3 59.7 3,083 Fourth 26.3 16.3 3.6 0.6 0.4 0.3 12.8 42.4 57.6 3,009 Highest 23.3 10.7 3.9 0.1 0.2 1.4 19.4 44.2 55.8 2,623 Total 24.5 20.5 2.0 0.8 3.0 0.6 8.8 41.7 58.3 14,689 UNRWA = United Nations Refugee Welfare Association UNHCR = United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees NGO = Nongovernmental organisation 56 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.8.2 Health insurance coverage: Men Percentage of all men age 15-49 with specific types of health insurance coverage, and percentage with any health insurance, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Background characteristic Ministry of Health insurance Royal/Military health insurance University Hospital insurance UNRWA insurance UNHCR insurance NGO Insurance Privately purchased commercial health insurance None Any health insurance Number of men Age 15-19 18.8 15.7 1.3 0.1 3.1 0.3 5.7 55.2 44.8 1,110 20-24 12.2 16.2 3.8 0.3 1.8 0.4 6.6 59.5 40.5 1,247 25-29 14.6 22.7 0.7 0.2 1.9 0.2 11.5 48.6 51.4 847 30-34 20.8 22.7 0.2 0.9 2.0 0.1 14.0 40.6 59.4 688 35-39 21.4 17.9 0.4 0.7 2.7 0.3 15.8 40.9 59.1 678 40-44 26.0 14.8 0.4 0.2 2.0 0.3 14.9 44.6 55.4 556 45-49 26.2 20.3 0.6 0.2 1.9 0.4 6.8 44.4 55.6 496 Residence Urban 18.4 15.3 1.4 0.4 2.5 0.3 10.6 52.2 47.8 5,011 Rural 20.7 43.3 1.6 0.1 0.2 0.4 5.6 28.4 71.6 612 Region Central 16.1 10.3 1.0 0.2 0.9 0.1 12.5 59.8 40.2 3,560 North 23.7 33.2 2.0 0.8 5.9 0.7 4.1 30.4 69.6 1,550 South 21.1 28.8 1.8 0.0 0.5 0.4 10.6 37.5 62.5 513 Governorate Amman 13.6 8.7 1.2 0.3 0.6 0.1 13.8 62.9 37.1 2,316 Balqa 34.8 14.9 1.6 0.0 0.0 0.0 4.4 45.6 54.4 345 Zarqa 14.0 11.0 0.3 0.2 1.7 0.1 12.8 60.0 40.0 768 Madaba 23.1 23.2 1.2 0.0 2.4 0.0 9.4 41.2 58.8 132 Irbid 25.0 28.6 2.6 0.5 3.6 1.1 5.3 34.4 65.6 970 Mafraq 22.9 32.9 0.9 0.0 16.9 0.0 1.3 25.4 74.6 312 Jarash 21.8 43.9 1.0 4.5 2.1 0.2 2.7 24.3 75.7 159 Ajloun 16.7 59.4 1.9 0.0 0.5 0.0 3.9 17.9 82.1 109 Karak 20.3 38.4 2.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 9.6 30.0 70.0 207 Tafiela 25.4 34.8 2.5 0.0 0.0 0.4 7.2 30.3 69.7 73 Ma’an 18.6 22.7 1.6 0.0 1.1 0.0 3.5 53.0 47.0 103 Aqaba 21.8 15.0 0.7 0.0 1.1 1.4 19.8 41.1 58.9 129 Nationality Jordanian 20.8 20.6 1.5 0.2 0.1 0.2 10.9 46.6 53.4 4,989 Syrian 0.5 0.2 0.6 0.6 36.1 1.2 0.1 61.3 38.7 327 Other nationality 2.4 0.5 0.6 2.5 1.2 0.1 6.1 86.6 13.4 307 Education None 9.1 11.0 0.0 0.0 4.6 0.0 3.6 71.8 28.2 84 Elementary 15.7 8.1 0.1 0.6 10.1 0.0 3.0 62.7 37.3 347 Preparatory 15.0 16.1 0.2 0.8 5.9 0.6 3.7 58.0 42.0 746 Secondary 16.2 24.1 0.7 0.4 0.9 0.4 6.5 51.2 48.8 2,612 Higher 24.5 13.3 3.2 0.1 1.0 0.0 19.2 40.6 59.4 1,834 Wealth quintile Lowest 15.3 15.0 0.4 0.8 11.0 0.5 2.2 54.9 45.1 946 Second 17.2 29.3 0.3 0.6 0.9 0.0 4.4 47.7 52.3 1,063 Middle 19.4 23.8 1.6 0.1 0.4 0.6 9.9 44.8 55.2 1,122 Fourth 20.1 16.6 1.5 0.0 0.4 0.4 11.3 50.2 49.8 1,190 Highest 20.2 8.6 2.7 0.2 0.2 0.0 19.2 51.0 49.0 1,303 Total 15-49 18.6 18.3 1.4 0.3 2.2 0.3 10.0 49.6 50.4 5,623 50-59 27.5 22.2 1.5 1.0 1.5 0.4 7.8 39.1 60.9 806 Total 15-59 19.7 18.8 1.4 0.4 2.1 0.3 9.7 48.3 51.7 6,429 UNRWA = United Nations Refugee Welfare Association UNHCR = United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees NGO = Nongovernmental organisation Characteristics of Respondents • 57 Table 3.9.1 Tobacco smoking: Women Percentage of ever-married women age 15-49 who smoke various tobacco products, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Percentage who smoke:1 Number of women Background characteristic Cigarettes Water pipe (Nargila) Any type of tobacco Age 15-19 3.1 3.8 5.4 370 20-24 5.0 6.6 9.4 1,536 25-29 7.1 7.5 11.3 2,479 30-34 8.7 8.6 13.8 2,730 35-39 8.5 7.0 12.1 2,638 40-44 9.9 6.9 13.9 2,516 45-49 8.9 5.6 11.1 2,420 Residence Urban 8.6 7.4 12.7 13,200 Rural 3.6 3.2 5.5 1,489 Region Central 10.2 9.3 15.6 9,171 North 5.0 3.2 6.6 4,119 South 3.0 2.8 4.5 1,398 Governorate Amman 9.7 9.8 15.8 5,997 Balqa 16.3 14.2 19.3 752 Zarqa 10.0 6.9 14.2 2,094 Madaba 8.3 5.2 10.9 329 Irbid 5.1 3.4 6.9 2,549 Mafraq 5.7 2.5 6.5 849 Jarash 4.8 4.3 7.0 410 Ajloun 3.2 2.5 3.7 312 Karak 1.0 1.4 1.9 544 Tafiela 1.5 1.7 2.1 221 Ma’an 4.2 3.1 5.7 250 Aqaba 6.0 5.4 8.8 383 Nationality Jordanian 8.3 7.3 12.4 12,764 Syrian 7.0 5.0 9.2 1,257 Other nationality 7.2 5.6 9.2 668 Education None 8.0 6.1 9.5 327 Elementary 9.8 4.5 11.8 1,029 Preparatory 10.1 8.0 13.9 1,892 Secondary 8.0 7.7 12.7 6,176 Higher 7.2 6.4 10.7 5,265 Wealth quintile Lowest 7.1 3.6 8.5 2,936 Second 6.6 5.2 9.9 3,039 Middle 7.2 6.5 10.8 3,083 Fourth 8.7 9.5 14.5 3,009 Highest 11.3 10.6 16.8 2,623 Total 8.1 7.0 12.0 14,689 1 Includes daily and occasional (less than daily) use 58 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.9.2 Tobacco smoking: Men Percentage of all men age 15-49 who smoke various tobacco products, and percent distribution of men by smoking frequency, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Percentage who smoke:1 Smoking frequency Total Number of men Background characteristic Cigarettes2 Water pipe (Nargila) Other type of tobacco3 Any type of tobacco Daily smoker Occasional smoker4 Non-smoker Age 15-19 15.1 6.0 6.2 17.2 17.9 2.1 80.0 100.0 1,110 20-24 39.1 10.5 12.3 44.0 44.3 3.3 52.4 100.0 1,247 25-29 52.3 13.6 14.9 57.6 58.1 2.6 39.3 100.0 847 30-34 48.0 10.6 13.0 52.3 53.3 2.1 44.6 100.0 688 35-39 46.4 12.7 13.3 52.2 52.7 3.9 43.4 100.0 678 40-44 52.1 10.5 12.0 57.3 58.8 1.8 39.4 100.0 556 45-49 43.9 12.1 12.8 49.5 50.6 1.2 48.2 100.0 496 Residence Urban 40.2 10.6 11.8 44.7 45.3 2.7 52.0 100.0 5,011 Rural 38.7 9.8 11.2 43.6 45.0 1.3 53.7 100.0 612 Region Central 41.3 9.6 10.6 45.2 45.7 2.8 51.5 100.0 3,560 North 38.8 12.9 14.0 44.8 45.9 2.2 51.9 100.0 1,550 South 35.0 9.7 12.4 39.7 40.4 2.0 57.6 100.0 513 Governorate Amman 39.5 10.4 11.6 43.8 44.2 2.7 53.0 100.0 2,316 Balqa 44.0 2.9 5.4 45.7 46.8 2.5 50.7 100.0 345 Zarqa 43.7 9.6 9.6 47.5 47.9 2.7 49.4 100.0 768 Madaba 51.6 12.7 12.9 55.0 55.7 4.8 39.4 100.0 132 Irbid 39.4 13.9 15.2 45.8 46.7 2.1 51.2 100.0 970 Mafraq 32.8 10.2 11.2 37.6 39.5 3.0 57.6 100.0 312 Jarash 46.2 12.3 12.6 51.6 53.3 1.9 44.8 100.0 159 Ajloun 39.5 12.3 12.5 46.1 46.3 1.9 51.8 100.0 109 Karak 32.5 10.8 11.7 37.4 37.7 1.6 60.7 100.0 207 Tafiela 28.9 3.6 7.7 33.8 35.8 0.6 63.6 100.0 73 Ma’an 34.2 9.3 13.5 38.1 38.4 3.2 58.3 100.0 103 Aqaba 43.3 11.9 15.5 47.9 49.0 2.3 48.7 100.0 129 Nationality Jordanian 40.5 9.9 11.0 45.0 45.7 2.5 51.7 100.0 4,989 Syrian 30.5 14.9 15.3 40.1 41.2 2.0 56.7 100.0 327 Other nationality 41.6 15.7 19.0 41.8 42.0 3.6 54.4 100.0 307 Education None 28.0 8.3 11.1 29.8 32.6 10.0 57.4 100.0 84 Elementary 55.7 9.7 12.1 59.2 60.2 1.1 38.7 100.0 347 Preparatory 42.6 11.0 11.7 45.9 46.8 0.7 52.4 100.0 746 Secondary 37.8 9.8 11.1 42.6 43.2 2.3 54.4 100.0 2,612 Higher 39.8 11.5 12.6 44.8 45.3 3.5 51.1 100.0 1,834 Wealth quintile Lowest 45.5 10.7 11.4 49.4 50.1 2.0 47.9 100.0 946 Second 42.8 11.5 12.9 47.9 49.1 2.0 48.9 100.0 1,063 Middle 43.3 9.4 11.1 47.4 47.8 1.7 50.5 100.0 1,122 Fourth 36.5 13.2 14.0 42.6 43.4 2.4 54.2 100.0 1,190 Highest 34.2 8.0 9.4 37.7 38.2 4.2 57.6 100.0 1,303 Total 15-49 40.0 10.5 11.7 44.6 45.3 2.5 52.2 100.0 5,623 50-59 43.1 7.7 10.2 45.9 47.7 3.8 48.5 100.0 806 Total 15-59 40.4 10.1 11.5 44.7 45.6 2.7 51.7 100.0 6,429 1 Includes daily and occasional (less than daily) use 2 Includes manufactured cigarettes and hand-rolled cigarettes 3 Includes pipes and cigars 4 Occasional refers to less often than daily use. Characteristics of Respondents • 59 Table 3.10 Average number of cigarettes smoked daily: Men Among all men age 15-49 who smoke cigarettes daily, percent distribution by average number of cigarettes smoked per day, according to background characteristics, Jordan PFHS 2017-18 Average number of cigarettes smoked per day1 Total Number of men who smoke cigarettes daily1 Background characteristic <5 5-9 10-14 15-24 ≥25 Age 15-19 8.4 0.8 13.8 49.5 27.6 100.0 167 20-24 8.5 1.0 5.0 55.5 30.1 100.0 482 25-29 7.5 1.0 5.9 48.0 37.5 100.0 443 30-34 8.0 1.2 3.3 51.7 35.9 100.0 330 35-39 10.8 0.6 3.7 44.4 40.6 100.0 311 40-44 11.9 0.8 2.9 39.6 44.8 100.0 288 45-49 5.9 0.3 2.5 48.8 42.5 100.0 214 Residence Urban 9.1 0.8 5.1 48.0 37.0 100.0 2,002 Rural 5.7 1.5 2.9 55.2 34.6 100.0 234 Region Central 9.2 0.5 4.1 45.2 41.0 100.0 1,456 North 8.8 0.6 6.4 53.5 30.7 100.0 601 South 4.5 4.7 6.2 61.3 23.2 100.0 179 Governorate Amman 13.6 0.6 5.1 42.6 38.0 100.0 903 Balqa 3.2 0.0 0.9 34.0 61.9 100.0 149 Zarqa 1.7 0.4 3.1 51.9 42.8 100.0 335 Madaba 0.6 0.5 1.9 72.1 24.9 100.0 68 Irbid 10.5 0.5 5.5 53.4 30.0 100.0 382 Mafraq 7.2 0.0 5.9 59.6 27.2 100.0 102 Jarash 2.9 0.6 7.3 51.2 38.0 100.0 73 Ajloun 7.5 2.2 13.7 44.0 32.6 100.0 43 Karak 3.3 0.0 3.4 71.9 21.3 100.0 67 Tafiela 4.2 0.0 3.6 49.3 42.8 100.0 21 Ma’an 2.0 8.6 6.8 66.0 16.5 100.0 35 Aqaba 7.6 9.8 10.3 50.1 22.1 100.0 56 Nationality Jordanian 8.7 1.0 4.7 48.5 37.1 100.0 2,016 Syrian 11.9 0.0 9.3 50.8 28.0 100.0 95 Other nationality 7.1 0.0 4.0 51.0 37.9 100.0 125 Education None (14.3) (2.5) (7.0) (31.3) (44.9) 100.0 24 Elementary 13.1 0.4 4.5 45.0 36.8 100.0 192 Preparatory 13.8 1.0 3.6 38.3 43.4 100.0 310 Secondary 7.4 0.6 5.7 48.8 37.5 100.0 986 Higher 7.0 1.2 4.4 54.8 32.7 100.0 724 Wealth quintile Lowest 9.4 1.4 3.9 48.2 37.1 100.0 423 Second 10.0 0.3 4.9 49.0 35.8 100.0 453 Middle 7.4 0.3 3.4 48.1 40.7 100.0 485 Fourth 9.7 1.6 6.2 45.1 37.3 100.0 434 Highest 7.3 0.8 6.1 53.3 32.5 100.0 441 Total 15-49 8.7 0.9 4.9 48.7 36.8 100.0 2,236 50-59 11.3 1.9 5.6 43.8 37.4 100.0 343 Total 15-59 9.1 1.0 5.0 48.1 36.9 100.0 2,579 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Includes manufactured cigarettes and hand-rolled cigarettes Marriage and Exposure to the Risk of Pregnancy • 61 MARRIAGE AND EXPOSURE TO THE RISK OF PREGNANCY 4 Key Findings  Age at first marriage: The median age at first marriage among women age 25-49 is 22.7 years. Nine percent of women and 4% of men age 45-49 have never been married.  Polygyny: 4% of married women report that their husbands have other wives.  Consanguinity: 28% of ever-married women age 15-49 reported that they had married a relative. arriage helps determine the extent to which women are exposed to the risk of pregnancy. Thus, it is an important determinant of fertility levels. However, the timing and circumstances of marriage also have profound consequences for women’s and men’s lives. 4.1 MARITAL STATUS Currently married Women and men who report being married at the time of the survey. Sample: Women and men age 15-49 Figure 4.1 Marital status Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 In Jordan, 56% of women and 40% of men age 15-49 are married. Three percent of women and less than 1% of men are divorced or separated, and 2% of women and less than 1% of men are widowed. Forty percent of women and 59% of men age 15-49 have never been married (Table 4.1 and Figure 4.1). Among respondents age 45-49, 9% of women and 4% of men have never been married. The proportion of the population that is currently married increases with age; 82% of women and 95% of men age 45-49 are married. Never married 40% Married 56% Divorced/ separated 3% Widowed 2% Women Never married 59% Married 40% Divorced/ separated/ widowed 1% Men M 62 • Marriage and Exposure to the Risk of Pregnancy Women are almost 20 times more likely than men to be married at age 15-19 (8% versus 0.4%). Early marriage increases the risk of teenage pregnancy, which can have a profound effect on the health and lives of young women. Trends: The percentage of women age 15-49 who had ever been married decreased slightly from 56% in 1990 to 54% in 2002 before increasing to 60% in 2017-18 (Table 4.2). 4.2 POLYGYNY Polygyny Women who report that their husband has other wives and men who report that they have more than one wife are considered to be in a polygynous marriage. Sample: Currently married women and men age 15-49 In the 2017-18 JPFHS, currently married women were asked how many wives their husband had, and currently married men were also asked about their number of wives. The results show that polygyny is relatively uncommon in Jordan. Only 4% of currently married women said their husbands have more than one wife (Table 4.3.1), and only 1% of currently married men said they have more than one wife (Table 4.3.2). Patterns by background characteristics  The prevalence of polygyny generally increases with age. Seven percent of married women age 45-49 say that they have one or more co-wives, as compared with 2% of women age 15-29 (Table 4.3.1).  By governorate, Aqaba has the lowest percentage of women in a polygynous union (2%), while Mafraq has the highest (7%) (Figure 4.2).  The largest differences in polygyny are found by education. Thirteen percent of married women with no education reported having one or more co-wives, as compared with only 2% of women with a higher education. This pattern is also observed among men; almost no married men (0.1%) with a higher education reported having more than one wife, compared with 5% of men with no education. 4.3 CONSANGUINITY Consanguinity Ever-married women who report that they are related to their current husband, their last husband (among divorced or widowed women), or their first husband (among those married more than once). Sample: Ever-married women age 15-49 Figure 4.2 Polygyny by governorate Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 in a polygynous union Marriage and Exposure to the Risk of Pregnancy • 63 Kinship marriage, also called consanguineous marriage, is relatively common in Jordan. Twenty- eight percent of ever-married women age 15-49 reported that they are related to their current husband, last husband (among divorced or widowed women), or first husband (among those married more than once) (Table 4.4). According to the data, 4% of such marriages were dual first-cousi

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