Indonesia - Demographic and Health Survey - 2018

Publication date: 2018

Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2017 National Population and Family Planning Board Jakarta, Indonesia Statistics Indonesia Jakarta, Indonesia Ministry of Health Jakarta, Indonesia The DHS Program ICF Rockville, Maryland, USA September 2018 The 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) was carried out by the National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN), Statistics Indonesia (BPS), and the Ministry of Health (Kemenkes). The government of Indonesia provided funding for the local costs of the survey. ICF provided technical assistance under The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program, which is funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Additional information about the survey may be obtained from the Population Research Center, BKKBN, Jalan Permata 1, Halim Perdanakusumah, Jakarta 13650, Indonesia (telephone/fax 800-8557; email: pusdu@bkkbn.go.id), or Directorate for Population and Labor Force Statistics, BPS, Jalan Dr. Sutomo No. 6-8, Jakarta 10710, Indonesia (telephone/fax 345-6285; email: demografi@bps.go.id), or the Institute for Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jalan Percetakan Negara 29, Jakarta 10560, Indonesia (telephone 426- 1088; fax 424-3935; email: sesban@litbang.depkes.go.id). Information about the DHS program may be obtained from ICF, 530 Gaither Road, Suite 500, Rockville, MD 20850, USA; telephone: +1-301-407-6500; fax: +1-301-407-6501; email: info@DHSprogram.com; internet: www.DHSprogram.com. Recommended citation: National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN), Statistics Indonesia (BPS), Ministry of Health (Kemenkes), and ICF. 2018. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 2017. Jakarta, Indonesia: BKKBN, BPS, Kemenkes, and ICF. Table of Contents • iii TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLES AND FIGURES . vii PREFACE (National Population and Family Planning Board-BKKBN) . xvii PREFACE (Statistics Indonesia-BPS) . xix PREFACE (Ministry of Health-Kemenkes) . xxi ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS . xxiii READING AND UNDERSTANDING TABLES FROM THE 2017 IDHS . xxv MAP OF INDONESIA . xxxii 1 INTRODUCTION AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY . 1 1.1 Survey Objectives . 1 1.2 Sample Design . 1 1.3 Questionnaires . 2 1.4 Pretest . 3 1.5 Training of Field Staff . 3 1.6 Fieldwork . 4 1.7 Data Processing . 4 1.8 Response Rates . 4 2 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSEHOLD POPULATION . 7 2.1 Drinking Water Sources and Treatment . 7 2.2 Sanitation . 8 2.3 Housing Characteristics . 9 2.4 Household Wealth . 9 2.5 Hand Washing . 10 2.6 Household Population and Composition . 11 2.7 Birth Registration . 12 2.8 Education . 12 2.8.1 Educational attainment . 12 2.8.2 School attendance . 13 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS . 25 3.1 Basic Characteristics of Survey Respondents . 25 3.2 Education and Literacy . 26 3.3 Mass Media Exposure . 28 3.4 Employment . 29 3.5 Occupation . 30 3.6 Type of Women’s Employment . 31 3.7 Health Insurance Coverage . 32 3.8 Tobacco Use . 33 4 MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY . 51 4.1 Marital Status . 51 4.2 Polygyny . 52 4.3 Age at First Marriage . 52 iv • Table of Contents 4.4. Age at First Sexual Intercourse . 53 4.5 Recent Sexual Activity . 54 5 FERTILITY . 63 5.1 Current Fertility . 63 5.2 Children Ever Born and Living . 65 5.3 Birth Intervals . 65 5.4 Insusceptibility to Pregnancy . 66 5.5 Age at First Birth . 67 5.6 Teenage Childbearing . 69 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . 79 6.1 Desire for Another Child . 79 6.2 Ideal Family Size . 81 6.3 Fertility Planning Status . 81 6.4 Wanted fertility rates . 82 7 FAMILY PLANNING . 89 7.1 Contraceptive Knowledge and Use . 89 7.1.1 Knowledge of fertile period . 90 7.1.2 Timing of sterilization . 92 7.2 Source of Modern Contraceptive Methods . 92 7.3 Informed Choice . 93 7.3.1 Pill use compliance . 93 7.3.2 Quality of use of injectables . 94 7.3.3 Problems with current method of contraception . 94 7.3.4 Payment for contraceptive methods and services . 94 7.4 Discontinuation of Contraceptives . 94 7.5 Demand for Family Planning . 95 7.6 Contact of Nonusers with Family Planning Providers . 99 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY . 119 8.1 Infant and Child Mortality . 120 8.2 Biodemographic Risk Factors . 121 8.3 Perinatal Mortality . 122 8.4 High-risk Fertility Behavior . 122 9 MATERNAL HEALTH CARE . 129 9.1 Antenatal Care Coverage and Content . 130 9.2 Components of ANC Visits . 131 9.3 Complications during Pregnancy . 133 9.4 Delivery Services . 134 9.5 Postnatal Care . 138 9.6 Problems in Accessing Health Care . 140 10 CHILD HEALTH . 159 10.1 Birth Weight . 159 10.2 Vaccination of Children. 160 10.3 Symptoms of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) . 162 10.4 Fever . 163 Table of Contents • v 10.5 Diarrhea . 163 10.6 Treatment of Childhood Illness . 165 10.7 Disposal of Children’s Stools . 166 11 INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES . 181 11.1 Early Initiation of Breastfeeding . 182 11.2 Exclusive Breastfeeding . 183 11.3 Median Duration of Breastfeeding . 184 11.4 Complementary Feeding. 185 11.5 Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices (IYCF) . 186 11.6 Micronutrient Intake among Children . 188 11.7 Micronutrient Consumption among Mothers . 189 12 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, . 199 12.1 HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Transmission, and Prevention Methods . 200 12.2 Knowledge about Mother-to-Child Transmission . 201 12.3 Discriminatory Attitudes towards People Living with HIV . 202 12.4 Payment for Sexual Intercourse and Condom Use at Last Paid Sexual Intercourse . 202 12.5 Prevalence of Medical Injections. 203 12.6 Prevalence of Sexually Transmitted Infections (STIs) and STI Symptoms . 203 12.7 Source of Information on HIV/AIDS . 204 12.8 Women and Married Men Seeking Treatment for STIs . 204 13 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT . 217 13.1 Employment and Earnings . 218 13.2 Control over Women’s Earnings . 218 13.3 Control over Men’s Earnings . 219 13.4 Women’s and Men’s Ownership of Assets . 220 13.5 Ownership of Bank Accounts and Mobile Phones . 221 13.6 Participation in Decision Making . 221 13.7 Attitudes toward Wife Beating . 223 13.8 Women’s Empowerment Indicators . 224 13.9 Women’s Empowerment and Health Indicators . 224 14 FATHERS’ PARTICIPATION IN FAMILY HEALTH CARE . 245 14.1 Mothers’ Antenatal Checkups . 245 14.2 Fathers’ Knowledge About Children’s Fluid Intake during Diarrhea . 246 REFERENCES. 251 APPENDIX A PROVINCIAL TABLES. 255 APPENDIX B SURVEY DESIGN . 349 B.1 Introduction . 349 B.2 Sampling Method . 349 B.2.1 Sample frame . 349 B.2.2 Sampling design . 349 B.2.3 Sample size . 350 B.2.4 Stratification . 351 B.3 Implementation . 352 vi • Table of Contents APPENDIX C SAMPLING ERRORS . 361 APPENDIX D DATA QUALITY TABLES . 401 APPENDIX E PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 2017 INDONESIA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY . 407 APPENDIX F QUESTIONNAIRES . 435 Household . 437 Woman . 449 Married Man. 537 Never-Married Man . 563 Tables and Figures • vii TABLES AND FIGURES 1 INTRODUCTION AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY .1 Table 1 Results of the household and individual interviews . 5 2 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSEHOLD POPULATION .7 Table 2.1 Household drinking water . 15 Table 2.2 Availability of water . 16 Table 2.3 Household sanitation facilities . 16 Table 2.4 Household characteristics . 17 Table 2.5 Household possessions . 18 Table 2.6 Wealth quintiles . 19 Table 2.7 Hand washing . 20 Table 2.8 Household population by age, sex, and residence . 20 Table 2.9 Household composition . 21 Table 2.10 Birth registration of children under age 5 . 21 Table 2.11.1 Educational attainment of the female household population . 22 Table 2.11.2 Educational attainment of the male household population . 23 Table 2.12 School attendance ratios . 24 Figure 2.1 Household drinking water by residence . 8 Figure 2.2 Household toilet facilities by residence . 9 Figure 2.3 Household wealth by residence . 10 Figure 2.4 Population pyramid . 11 Figure 2.5 Birth registration by household wealth . 12 Figure 2.6 Secondary school attendance by household wealth . 13 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS . 25 Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents . 35 Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment: Women . 36 Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: Currently married men . 36 Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women . 37 Table 3.3.2 Literacy: Currently married men . 37 Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women . 38 Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: Currently married men . 39 Table 3.5.1 Internet usage: Women . 40 Table 3.5.2 Internet usage: Currently married men . 41 Table 3.6.1 Employment status: Women. 42 Table 3.6.2 Employment status: Currently married men . 43 Table 3.7.1 Occupation: Women . 44 Table 3.7.2 Occupation: Currently married men . 45 Table 3.8 Type of employment: Women . 46 Table 3.9.1 Health insurance coverage: Women . 47 Table 3.9.2 Health insurance coverage: Currently married men . 48 Table 3.10.1 Tobacco smoking: Women . 49 Table 3.10.2 Tobacco smoking: Currently married men . 50 viii • Tables and Figures Figure 3.1 Educational attainment . 26 Figure 3.2 Education by residence . 27 Figure 3.3 Education by wealth quintile . 27 Figure 3.4 Literacy by age . 27 Figure 3.5 Literacy by residence . 27 Figure 3.6 Media exposure . 28 Figure 3.7 Internet usage . 28 Figure 3.8 Employment by residence . 29 Figure 3.9 Employment by education . 30 Figure 3.10 Employment by wealth . 30 Figure 3.11 Occupation . 31 Figure 3.12 Type of earnings . 31 Figure 3.13 Health insurance coverage . 32 Figure 3.14 Tobacco smoking . 33 4 MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY . 51 Table 4.1 Current marital status . 55 Table 4.2 Number of men's wives . 55 Table 4.3 Age at first marriage . 56 Table 4.4 Median age at first marriage by background characteristics . 57 Table 4.5 Age at first sexual intercourse . 58 Table 4.6 Median age at first sexual intercourse by background characteristics . 59 Table 4.7.1 Recent sexual activity: Women . 60 Table 4.7.2 Recent sexual activity: Currently married men . 61 Figure 4.1 Marital status . 52 Figure 4.2 Women's median age at marriage by residence . 53 Figure 4.3 Median age at first sexual intercourse and age at first marriage . 53 5 FERTILITY . 63 Table 5.1 Current fertility . 71 Table 5.2 Fertility by background characteristics . 71 Table 5.3.1 Trends in age-specific fertility rates . 72 Table 5.3.2 Trends in current fertility rates . 72 Table 5.4 Children ever born and living . 73 Table 5.5 Birth intervals . 74 Table 5.6 Postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility . 75 Table 5.7 Median duration of amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence, and postpartum insusceptibility . 75 Table 5.8 Menopause . 76 Table 5.9 Age at first birth . 76 Table 5.10 Median age at first birth . 77 Table 5.11 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood . 77 Figure 5.1 Fertility by residence . 64 Figure 5.2 Trends in fertility by residence . 64 Figure 5.3 Age-specific fertility . 64 Figure 5.4 Fertility by education . 65 Figure 5.5 Fertility by household wealth . 65 Tables and Figures • ix Figure 5.6 Birth intervals . 65 Figure 5.7 Median age at first birth by residence . 68 Figure 5.8 Median age at first birth by education . 68 Figure 5.9 Median age at first birth by household wealth . 68 Figure 5.10 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood by residence . 69 Figure 5.11 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood by education . 69 Figure 5.12 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood by household wealth . 70 6 FERTILITY PREFERENCES . 79 Table 6.1 Fertility preferences by number of living children . 84 Table 6.2.1 Desire to limit childbearing: Women . 84 Table 6.2.2 Desire to limit childbearing: Currently married men . 85 Table 6.3 Ideal number of children by number of living children . 86 Table 6.4 Mean ideal number of children. 87 Figure 6.1 Trends in desire to limit childbearing . 80 Figure 6.2 Desire to limit childbearing by number of living children . 80 Figure 6.3 Ideal family size . 81 Figure 6.4 Ideal family size by number of living children. 81 Figure 6.5 Fertility planning status . 82 Figure 6.6 Trends in wanted and actual fertility . 82 7 FAMILY PLANNING . 89 Table 7.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods . 101 Table 7.2 Knowledge of contraceptive methods according to background characteristics . 102 Table 7.3 Knowledge of fertile period. 102 Table 7.4 Knowledge of fertile period by age . 103 Table 7.5 Current use of contraception by age . 104 Table 7.6 Current use of contraception by age: Currently married men . 104 Table 7.7 Current use of contraception according to background characteristics . 105 Table 7.8 Current use of contraception according to background characteristics . 106 Table 7.9 Timing of sterilization . 107 Table 7.10 Source of modern contraception methods . 107 Table 7.11 Informed choice . 108 Table 7.12 Pill use compliance . 109 Table 7.13 Use of injectables . 110 Table 7.14 Problems with current method of contraception . 110 Table 7.15 Payment for contraceptive methods and services . 111 Table 7.16 Mean cost of contraceptive methods and services . 111 Table 7.17 Twelve-month contraceptive discontinuation rates . 111 Table 7.18 Reasons for discontinuation . 112 Table 7.19 Need and demand for family planning among currently married women . 112 Table 7.20 Need and demand for family planning for all women . 113 Table 7.21 Decision making about family planning . 114 Table 7.22 Future use of contraception . 114 Table 7.23 Reason for not intending to use contraception in the future . 115 Table 7.24 Exposure to family planning messages through mass media: Currently married women . 115 x • Tables and Figures Table 7.25 Exposure to family planning messages through mass media: Currently married men . 116 Table 7.26 Exposure to family planning messages through personal contact: Currently married women . 117 Table 7.27 Exposure to family planning messages through personal contact: All women . 117 Table 7.28 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers . 118 Figure 7.1 Contraceptive use . 90 Figure 7.2 Trends in contraceptive use . 91 Figure 7.3 Modern contraceptive use by residence. 91 Figure 7.4 Use of modern methods by education . 91 Figure 7.5 Use of modern methods by household wealth . 92 Figure 7.6 Source of modern contraceptive methods . 93 Figure 7.7 Contraceptive discontinuation rates . 95 Figure 7.8 Demand for family planning . 96 Figure 7.9 Trends in demand for family planning . 96 Figure 7.10 Unmet need by residence . 96 8 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY . 119 Table 8.1 Early childhood mortality rates . 124 Table 8.2 Five-year early childhood mortality rates according to background characteristics . 124 Table 8.3 Ten-year early childhood mortality rates according to additional characteristics . 125 Table 8.4 Perinatal mortality . 126 Table 8.5 High-risk fertility behavior . 127 Figure 8.1 Trends in neonatal mortality, infant mortality, and under-5 mortality rates . 121 Figure 8.2 Under-5 mortality by mother's education . 121 Figure 8.3 Under-5 mortality by wealth quintile . 121 Figure 8.4 Perinatal mortality by mother's education . 122 9 MATERNAL HEALTH CARE . 129 Table 9.1 Antenatal care . 142 Table 9.2 Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit . 143 Table 9.3 Components of antenatal care . 144 Table 9.4 Tetanus toxoid injections . 145 Table 9.5 Complications during pregnancy . 146 Table 9.6 Place of delivery . 147 Table 9.7 Duration of stay in health facility after birth . 148 Table 9.8.1 Assistance during delivery: most qualified person . 148 Table 9.8.2 Assistance during delivery: least qualified person . 149 Table 9.9 Cesarean section . 150 Table 9.10 Complications during delivery . 151 Table 9.11 Preparation for delivery . 151 Table 9.12 Timing of first postnatal check for the mother . 152 Table 9.13 Type of provider of first postnatal check for the mother . 153 Table 9.14 Timing of first postnatal check for the newborn . 154 Table 9.15 Type of provider of first postnatal check for the newborn . 155 Tables and Figures • xi Table 9.16 Content of postnatal care for newborns . 156 Table 9.17 Problems in accessing health care . 157 Figure 9.1 Trends in antenatal care coverage . 130 Figure 9.2 Components of antenatal care . 131 Figure 9.3 Complications during pregnancy . 133 Figure 9.4 Trends in place of delivery . 134 Figure 9.5 Health facility delivery by birth order . 134 Figure 9.6 Health facility delivery by residence . 135 Figure 9.7 Health facility delivery by wealth quintile . 135 Figure 9.8 Assistance during delivery . 135 Figure 9.9 Delivery assistance by residence . 136 Figure 9.10 Delivery assistance by wealth quintile . 136 Figure 9.11 Postnatal care for mothers by place of delivery . 138 Figure 9.12 Postnatal care for newborns by place of delivery . 139 10 CHILD HEALTH . 159 Table 10.1 Child’s size and weight at birth . 167 Table 10.2 Vaccinations by source of information . 168 Table 10.3 Vaccinations by background characteristics . 169 Table 10.4 Possession and observation of vaccination cards, according to background characteristics . 170 Table 10.5 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI . 171 Table 10.6 Source of advice or treatment for children with symptoms of ARI. 172 Table 10.7 Prevalence and treatment of fever . 173 Table 10.8 Prevalence and treatment of diarrhea . 174 Table 10.9 Oral rehydration therapy, zinc, and other treatments for diarrhea . 175 Table 10.10 Feeding practices during diarrhea . 176 Table 10.11 Source of advice or treatment for children with diarrhea . 177 Table 10.12 Knowledge of ORS packets or pre-packaged liquids . 178 Table 10.13 Disposal of children’s stools . 179 Figure 10.1 Childhood vaccinations . 161 Figure 10.2 Trends in childhood vaccinations . 161 Figure 10.3 Vaccination coverage by wealth quintile. 162 Figure 10.4 Diarrhea prevalence by age . 163 Figure 10.5 Treatment of diarrhea . 164 Figure 10.6 Feeding practices during diarrhea . 165 Figure 10.7 Prevalence and treatment of childhood illness . 165 11 INFANT AND YOUNG CHILD FEEDING PRACTICES . 181 Table 11.1 Initial breastfeeding . 191 Table 11.2 Breastfeeding status by age . 192 Table 11.3 Median duration of breastfeeding . 193 Table 11.4 Foods and liquids consumed by children in the day or night preceding the interview . 194 Table 11.5 Minimum acceptable diet . 195 Table 11.6 Micronutrient intake among children . 196 Table 11.7 Micronutrient intake among mothers . 197 xii • Tables and Figures Figure 11.1 Trends in the percentages of children breastfed within 1 hour of birth and receiving a prelacteal feed . 182 Figure 11.2 Breastfeeding practices by age . 183 Figure 11.3 IYCF indicators on breastfeeding status . 184 Figure 11.4 Complementary food consumption . 186 Figure 11.5 IYCF practices indicators . 187 12 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, . 199 Table 12.1 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS . 206 Table 12.2 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods . 207 Table 12.3.1 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV: Women . 208 Table 12.3.2 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV: Currently married men . 209 Table 12.4 Knowledge of prevention of mother-to-child transmission of HIV . 210 Table 12.5 Discriminatory attitudes toward people living with HIV/AIDS . 211 Table 12.6 Payment for sexual intercourse . 212 Table 12.7 Prevalence of medical injections . 213 Table 12.8 Prevalence of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and STI symptoms . 214 Table 12.9.1 Source of information on HIV/AIDS: Women . 215 Table 12.9.2 Source of information on HIV/AIDS: Currently married men . 216 Figure 12.1 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS by educational level . 200 Figure 12.2 Women and men seeking treatment for STIs . 204 13 WOMEN’S EMPOWERMENT. 217 Table 13.1 Employment and cash earnings of currently married women and men . 226 Table 13.2.1 Control over women’s cash earnings and relative magnitude of women’s cash earnings . 227 Table 13.2.2 Control over married men’s cash earnings . 228 Table 13.3 Women’s control over their own earnings and over those of their husbands . 229 Table 13.4.1 Ownership of assets: Women . 229 Table 13.4.2 Ownership of assets: Currently married men . 230 Table 13.5.1 Ownership of title or deed for house: Women . 231 Table 13.5.2 Ownership of title or deed for house: Currently married men . 232 Table 13.6.1 Ownership of title or deed for land: Women . 233 Table 13.6.2 Ownership of title or deed for land: Currently married men . 234 Table 13.7.1 Ownership and use of bank accounts and mobile phones: Women . 235 Table 13.7.2 Ownership and use of bank accounts and mobile phones: Currently married men . 236 Table 13.8 Participation in decision making . 236 Table 13.9.1 Women’s participation in decision making by background characteristics . 237 Table 13.9.2 Currently married men’s participation in decision making by background characteristics . 238 Table 13.10.1 Attitude toward wife beating: Women . 239 Table 13.10.2 Attitude toward wife beating: Currently married men . 240 Table 13.11 Indicators of women’s empowerment . 241 Table 13.12 Current use of contraception by women’s empowerment . 241 Table 13.13 Ideal number of children and unmet need for family planning by women’s empowerment . 242 Tables and Figures • xiii Table 13.14 Reproductive health care by women’s empowerment . 242 Table 13.15 Early childhood mortality rates by women’s empowerment . 243 Figure 13.1 Women’s and men’s earnings . 218 Figure 13.2 Control over women’s earnings. 219 Figure 13.3.1 Control over men’s earnings . 219 Figure 13.3.2 Control over husband’s earnings . 219 Figure 13.4 Ownership of assets . 220 Figure 13.5 Ownership of assets . 221 Figure 13.6.1 Women’s decision making . 222 Figure 13.6.2 Men’s decision making . 222 Figure 13.7 Attitudes towards wife beating . 223 14 FATHERS’ PARTICIPATION IN FAMILY HEALTH CARE . 245 Table 14.1 Care received by mother during pregnancy . 248 Table 14.2 Father’s knowledge about amount to drink for children with diarrhea . 249 Figure 14.1 Trends in antenatal care and delivery . 246 Figure 14.2 Trends in fathers’ knowledge about amount of fluids to be given to children with diarrhea . 246 APPENDIX A PROVINCIAL TABLES . 255 Table A.2.1 Hand washing . 255 Table A.2.2.1 Educational attainment of the female household population . 256 Table A.2.2.2 Educational attainment of the male household population . 257 Table A.3.1 Background characteristics of respondents . 258 Table A.3.2.1 Educational attainment: Women . 259 Table A.3.2.2 Educational attainment: Currently married men . 260 Table A.3.3.1 Literacy: Women . 261 Table A.3.3.2 Literacy: Currently married men . 262 Table A.3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women . 263 Table A.3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: Currently married men . 264 Table A.3.5.1 Internet usage: Women . 265 Table A.3.5.2 Internet usage: Currently married men . 266 Table A.3.6.1 Employment status: Women. 267 Table A.3.6.2 Employment status: Currently married men . 268 Table A.3.7.1 Occupation: Women . 269 Table A.3.7.2 Occupation: Currently married men . 270 Table A.3.8.1 Health insurance coverage: Women . 271 Table A.3.8.2 Health insurance coverage: Currently married men . 272 Table A.3.9.1 Use of Tobacco: Women . 273 Table A.3.9.2 Use of Tobacco: Currently married men . 274 Table A.4.1 Number of men's wives . 275 Table A.4.2 Median age at first marriage according to province . 276 Table A.4.3 Median age at first sexual intercourse according to province . 277 Table A.4.4 Recent sexual activity: Women . 278 Table A.5.1 Fertility by province . 279 Table A.5.2 Birth intervals by province . 280 xiv • Tables and Figures Table A.5.3 Median duration of amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence, and postpartum insusceptibility by province . 281 Table A.5.4 Median age at first birth by province . 282 Table A.5.5 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood by province . 283 Table A.6.1.1 Desire to limit childbearing: Women . 284 Table A.6.1.2 Desire to limit childbearing: Currently married men . 285 Table A.6.2 Mean ideal number of children. 286 Table A.6.3 Wanted fertility rates . 287 Table A.7.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods according to province . 288 Table A.7.2.1 Current use of contraception by province . 289 Table A.7.2.2 Current use of contraception by province . 290 Table A.7.3 Pill use compliance . 291 Table A.7.4 Use of injectables . 292 Table A.7.5 Need and demand for family planning among currently married women by province . 293 Table A.7.6.1 Exposure to family planning messages . 294 Table A.7.6.2 Exposure to family planning messages . 295 Table A.7.7.1 Exposure to family planning messages through personal contact: All women . 296 Table A.7.7.2 Exposure to family planning messages through personal contact: Currently married women . 297 Table A.7.8 Contact of nonusers with family planning providers . 298 Table A.8.1 Early childhood mortality rates by province . 299 Table A.8.2 Perinatal mortality . 300 Table A.9.1 Antenatal care . 301 Table A.9.2 Components of antenatal care . 302 Table A.9.3 Tetanus toxoid injections . 303 Table A.9.4 Complications during pregnancy . 304 Table A.9.5 Place of delivery . 305 Table A.9.6.1 Assistance during delivery: the most qualified person . 306 Table A.9.6.2 Assistance during delivery: the least qualified person . 307 Table A.9.7 Delivery characteristics . 308 Table A.9.8 Timing of first postnatal check for the mother . 309 Table A.9.9 Type of provider of first postnatal check for the mother . 310 Table A.9.10 Timing of first postnatal check for the newborn . 311 Table A.9.11 Type of provider of first postnatal check for the newborn . 312 Table A.9.12 Problems in accessing health care . 313 Table A.10.1 Child's size and weight at birth . 314 Table A.10.2 Vaccinations by province . 315 Table A.10.3 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI . 317 Table A.10.4 Prevalence and treatment of fever . 318 Table A.10.5 Prevalence of diarrhea . 319 Table A.10.6 Diarrhea treatment . 320 Table A.10.7 Feeding practices during diarrhea . 321 Table A.10.8 Knowledge of ORS packets or pre-packaged liquids . 322 Table A.10.9 Disposal of children's stools . 323 Table A.11.1 Initial breastfeeding . 324 Table A.11.2 Breastfeeding status by province . 325 Table A.11.3 Infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices according to province . 326 Tables and Figures • xv Table A.11.4 Micronutrient intake among children . 327 Table A.11.5 Minimum acceptable diet . 328 Table A.12.1 Knowledge of HIV or AIDS. 330 Table A.12.2 Knowledge of HIV prevention methods . 331 Table A.12.3.1 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV: Women . 332 Table A.12.3.2 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV: Currently married men . 333 Table A.12.4 Payment for sexual intercourse and condom use at last paid sexual intercourse . 334 Table A.12.5 Self-reported prevalence of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs) and STI symptoms . 335 Table A.12.6 Prevalence of medical injections . 336 Table A.12.7.1 Source of information on HIV/AIDS: Women . 337 Table A.12.7.2 Source of information on HIV/AIDS: Currently married men . 338 Table A.13.1.1 Control over women's cash earnings and relative magnitude of women's cash earnings . 339 Table A.13.1.2 Control over men's cash earnings . 340 Table A.13.2.1 Ownership of assets: Women . 341 Table A.13.2.2 Ownership of assets: Currently married men . 342 Table A.13.3.1 Women's participation in decision making by province . 343 Table A.13.3.2 Men's participation in decision making by province . 344 Table A.13.4.1 Attitude toward wife beating: Women . 345 Table A.13.4.2 Attitude toward wife beating: Currently married men . 346 Table A.14.1 Care received by mother during pregnancy . 347 Table A.14.2 Fathers’ knowledge about amount to drink for children with diarrhea . 348 APPENDIX B SURVEY DESIGN . 349 Table B.1.1 Sample allocation by province . 351 Table B.1.2 Expected number of respondents by province . 353 Table B.2.1 Sample implementation: Women . 354 Table B.2.2 Household interview results for women . 355 Table B.2.3 Sample Implementation: Individual interview results for women . 356 Table B.3.1 Sample implementation: Currently married men . 357 Table B.3.2 Sample Implementation: Household interview results for men . 358 Table B.3.3 Sample Implementation: Individual interview results for men . 359 APPENDIX C SAMPLING ERRORS . 361 Table C.1 List of indicators for sampling errors, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 363 Table C.2 Sampling error: Total sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 364 Table C.3 Sampling error: Urban sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 365 Table C.4 Sampling error: Rural sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 366 Table C.5 Sampling error: Aceh sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 367 Table C.6 Sampling error: North Sumatera sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 368 Table C.7 Sampling error: West Sumatera, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 369 Table C.8 Sampling error: Riau sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 370 Table C.9 Sampling error: Jambi sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 371 Table C.10 Sampling error: South Sumatera sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 372 Table C.11 Sampling error: Bengkulu sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 373 Table C.12 Sampling error: Lampung sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 374 Table C.13 Sampling error: Bangka Belitung sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 375 xvi • Tables and Figures Table C.14 Sampling error: Riau island sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 376 Table C.15 Sampling error: Jakarta sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 377 Table C.16 Sampling error: West Java sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 378 Table C.17 Sampling error: Central Java, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 379 Table C.18 Sampling error: Yogyakarta sample, Indonesia DHS 2017. 380 Table C.19 Sampling error: East Java, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 381 Table C.20 Sampling error: Banten sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 382 Table C.21 Sampling error: Bali, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 383 Table C.22 Sampling error: West Nusa Tenggara sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 384 Table C.23 Sampling error: East Nusa Tenggara sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 385 Table C.24 Sampling error: West Kalimantan sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 386 Table C.25 Sampling error: Central Kalimantan sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 387 Table C.26 Sampling error: South Kalimantan sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 388 Table C.27 Sampling error: East Kalimantan sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 389 Table C.28 Sampling error: North Kalimantan sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 390 Table C.29 Sampling error: North Sulawesi sample, Indonesia DHS 2017. 391 Table C.30 Sampling error: Central Sulawesi sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 392 Table C.31 Sampling error: South Sulawesi sample, Indonesia DHS 2017. 393 Table C.32 Sampling error: Southest Sulawesi, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 394 Table C.33 Sampling error: Gorontalo sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 395 Table C.34 Sampling error: West Sulawesi, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 396 Table C.35 Sampling error: Maluku sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 397 Table C.36 Sampling error: North Maluku sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 398 Table C.37 Sampling error: West Papua sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 399 Table C.38 Sampling error: Papua sample, Indonesia DHS 2017 . 400 APPENDIX D DATA QUALITY TABLES . 401 Table D.1 Household age distribution . 401 Table D.2.1 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . 402 Table D.2.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men . 403 Table D.3 Completeness of reporting . 403 Table D.4 Births by calendar year . 404 Table D.5 Reporting of age at death in days . 405 Table D.6 Reporting of age at death in months . 406 Preface • xvii PREFACE NATIONAL POPULATION AND FAMILY PLANNING BOARD As the world’s fourth most populous country, with 237 million people (2010 Population Census), Indonesia gives priority to population issues. Population is central to sustainable development of quality human resources, according to Law 52/2009 on Population and Family Development. The National Population and Family Planning Board (NPFPB) manages population in Indonesia. In line with that task, the board has adjusted its vision and mission statements. The vision is “to be a reliable and trusted institution for realizing balanced population growth and quality families.” Mission statements address mainstreaming population-centered development; providing family planning and reproductive health services; facilitating family development; developing partnerships in population, family planning, and family development programs; and practicing consistent organizational culture. Strategies focus on enhancing partnerships with agencies in different sectors and regional governments. Targeted strategies have been designed to meet the needs of provinces, focusing on those with a large population and health vulnerabilities, with an aim to accelerate the attainment of SDGs in 2030. The publication of the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is well-timed because 2019 is the final year of the 2015-2019 Medium-Term National Development Plan. The results of the 2017 IDHS will be useful when evaluating achievements of the current population, family planning, and reproductive health programs and serve as a basis for developing the plan for the 2020-2024 period. The plan will determine Indonesia’s course of development and the welfare of the Indonesian people over the next 5 years. I would like to express my deepest gratitude to Statistics Indonesia, the Ministry of Health, and ICF for their close cooperation in the preparation of the final survey report. I would also like to extend my gratitude to the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) for providing technical assistance through ICF. Jakarta, September 2018 Sigit Priohutomo MD, MPH Acting Chairperson of the National Population and Family Planning Board Preface • xix PREFACE STATISTICS INDONESIA To achieve the goal of “Satu Data (One Data) Indonesia,” announced recently by the president of the Republic of Indonesia, close cooperation among government agencies is needed to develop systems for open sharing of government data. Such cooperation was achieved in the implementation of the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS), during which activities were jointly carried out by Statistics Indonesia (BPS), the National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN), and the Ministry of Health (Kemenkes). The 2017 IDHS is the eighth demographic survey in Indonesia conducted under the auspices of The Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program. Previous surveys were conducted in 1987, 1991, 994, 1997, 2002-2003, 2007, and 2012. The implementation of the 2017 IDHS was fully financed by the government of Indonesia. The survey received technical assistance from ICF, of Rockville, Maryland, USA, through the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program. This program, funded by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID), provides funds and technical assistance to conduct demographic and health surveys in developing countries. The 2017 IDHS provides a comprehensive picture of population, family planning, reproductive health, and maternal and child health conditions in Indonesia. The primary objective is to provide current estimates of basic indicators in demography and health. The target population is women age 15-49, currently married men age 15-54, and never-married women and men age 15-24. The survey covered all 34 provinces in Indonesia. Information collected in the survey includes social and economic background characteristics of the respondents, fertility, contraceptive use, antenatal and postnatal care, childhood immunization, child health and nutrition, marriage and sexual activity, fertility preferences, knowledge of HIV/AIDS, and other health issues. With the publication of the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey report, I would like to extend my appreciation and gratitude to the report writing team from BPS, BKKBN, and Kemenkes, as well as staff of ICF who assisted in its preparation. I hope this report provides a meaningful guide for monitoring and evaluating policies in population, family planning and health, and other relevant areas in Indonesia. I also hope that the survey results can meet the needs of researchers in data exploration and secondary data analysis. Jakarta, September 2018 Dr. Suhariyanto Chief Statistician Preface • xxi MINISTER OF HEALTH REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA The Ministry of Health issued the Strategic Plan for 2015-2019 as a reference for health development. The plan, known as Renstra, is being implemented at the national and regional levels to achieve development goals in health in accord with Law Number 25 of 2004 on the implementation of the Medium-term National Development Plan (RPJMN) 2015-2019. Health development in 2015-2019 is part of the Healthy Indonesia Program, which aims to improve the health and nutritional status of the community through health care and community empowerment. One of the RPJMN goals is to improve health and nutritional status of mothers and children. The 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is the eighth IDHS and is one population-based data source with an important role in evaluation and health development planning, especially in maternal and child health. The 2017 IDHS collected information on family planning and health from women age 15 to 49. The 2017 IDHS findings portray maternal health and child health and nutrition in Indonesia. Survey results address (1) childhood mortality, specifically neonatal, infant, and under-5 mortality statistics; (2) coverage of maternal and child services, including basic immunizations, antenatal care, first postnatal care contact for mother (KF1) and baby (KN1) within 2 days of birth; and (3) exclusive breastfeeding. The 2017 IDHS collected information on breastfeeding, infant and under-5 feeding, knowledge and attitudes toward HIV/AIDS and other sexually transmitted infections, women’s empowerment, and paternal participation in family health care. The 2017 IDHS report on family planning, child mortality, and coverage of health service provision for mother and children is very useful for health managers in central and regional offices. The information can be utilized by policy makers and program managers to evaluate and develop programs and strategies to improve health services for mothers and children and to improve family planning services in Indonesia. The same survey has been conducted in many countries, which provides an opportunity for international comparisons. The 2017 IDHS report is the result of collaboration among BPS, BKKBN, and the Ministry of Health; USAID; and ICF. Thanks are due to the IDHS team from BPS, BKKBN, and the Ministry of Health, and to the data collection teams. My appreciation goes to the analysts and authors who contributed to the completion of this report. Minister of Health Prof. Dr. dr. Nila Farid Moeloek, Sp.M (K) Acronyms and Abbreviations • xxiii ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS AIDS acquired immune deficiency syndrome ANC antenatal care ARI acute respiratory infection ART antiretroviral therapy ARV antiretroviral ASFR age-specific fertility rate BCG Bacille Calmette-Guerin BKKBN Badan Kependudukan dan Keluarga Berencana Nasional (National Population and Family Planning Board) BPS Badan Pusat Statistik (Statistics Indonesia) C-Section cesarean section CBR crude birth rate CMR child mortality rate CSPro Census and Survey Processing System DHS Demographic and Health Survey DPT diphtheria-pertussis-tetanus GAR gross attendance ratio GFR general fertility rate GPI gender parity index HB hepatitis B Hib Haemophilus influenzae type B HIV human immunodeficiency virus IDHS Indonesia Demographic and Heath Survey IMCI integrated management of child illness IMR infant mortality rate IUDs intrauterine devices IYCF infant and young children feeding LAM lactational amenorrhea method LBW low birth weight LPG liquefied petroleum gas MoH Ministry of Health MTCT mother-to-child transmission xxiv • Acronyms and Abbreviations NAC National AIDS Committee NAR net attendance ratio NMR neonatal mortality rate ORS oral rehydration salts ORT oral rehydration therapy PLWHA people living with HIV/AIDS PNNM postnenonatal mortality RHF recommended homemade fluids SDGs Sustainable Development Goals STIs sexually–transmitted infections TFR total fertility rate TT tetanus toxoid U5MR under–5 mortality rate UNAIDS Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund USAID United States Agency for International Development WHO World Health Organization Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017 IDHS • xxv READING AND UNDERSTANDING TABLES FROM THE 2017 IDHS The new format of the 2017 Indonesia DHS final report is based on approximately 200 tables of data. They are located at the end of each chapter for quick reference for readers. Additionally, this more reader- friendly version features about 90 figures that clearly highlight trends, subnational patterns, and background characteristics. The text has been simplified to highlight key points in bullets and to clearly identify indicator definitions in boxes. While the text and figures featured in each chapter highlight some of the most important findings from the tables, not every finding can be discussed or displayed graphically. For this reason, IDHS data users should be comfortable reading and interpreting tables. The following pages provide an introduction to the organization of IDHS tables, the presentation of background characteristics, and a brief summary of sampling and understanding denominators. In addition, this section provides some exercises for users as they practice their new skills in interpreting IDHS tables. xxvi • Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017 IDHS Example 1: Exposure to Mass Media: Women A Question Asked of All Survey Respondents Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women Percentage of women age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 2017 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Accesses all three media at least once a week Accesses none of the three media at least once a week Number of women Age 15-19 11.7 82.1 14.4 3.0 14.2 7,501 20-24 12.9 82.5 15.4 3.2 13.8 6,716 25-29 11.3 84.7 13.6 3.1 12.9 6,643 30-34 9.6 84.8 12.7 2.6 12.7 7,154 35-39 8.8 85.3 12.4 2.7 13.1 7,865 40-44 8.7 84.9 13.4 2.5 12.9 7,093 45-49 7.1 82.0 13.3 2.1 16.0 6,655 Residence Urban 13.8 85.2 15.8 3.8 11.3 25,543 Rural 6.0 82.2 11.3 1.6 16.1 24,084 Education No education 0.3 51.9 6.9 0.0 46.6 823 Some primary 1.4 77.2 8.2 0.3 21.8 3,968 Completed primary 2.2 83.8 10.5 0.7 14.9 9,595 Some secondary 6.2 85.7 13.0 1.5 12.2 14,925 Completed secondary 11.4 87.1 15.1 3.2 10.5 12,575 More than secondary 30.3 81.5 19.6 8.5 12.2 7,741 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.0 67.6 8.8 0.7 30.0 8,464 Second 4.9 87.0 12.0 1.4 11.4 9,507 Middle 7.4 89.0 12.6 1.9 9.3 10,089 Fourth 10.6 88.7 14.3 2.6 9.0 10,583 Highest 21.6 83.9 19.0 6.5 11.4 10,984 Total 10.0 83.8 13.6 2.8 13.6 49,627 Step 1: Read the title and subtitle, highlighted in orange in Example 1. They tell you the topic and the specific population group being described. In this case, the table is about women age 15-49 and their weekly exposure to different types of media. All eligible female respondents age 15-49 were asked these questions. Step 2: Scan the column headings—highlighted in green in Example 1. They describe how the information is categorized. In this table, the first three columns of data show different types of media that women access at least once a week. The fourth column shows women who access all three types of media at least once a week. The fifth column shows women who do not access any of the types of media weekly. The last column shows the number of women age 15-49 interviewed in the survey. Step 3: Scan the row headings highlighted in blue in Example 1. These show the different ways the data are divided into categories based on population characteristics. In this case, the table presents women exposure to media by age, urban-rural residence, level of education, and wealth quintile. Most of the tables in the IDHS report will be divided into these same categories. Note that data provincial-level data are presented in tables in Appendix A. Step 4: Look at the row at the bottom of the table highlighted in red. These percentages represent the total of all women age 15-49 and their weekly access to different types of media In this case, 10.0%* of women age 15-49 read a newspaper at least once a week, 83.8% watch television at least once a week, 13.6% listen to the radio on a weekly basis, and 13.6% access none of these three media at least once a week. 2 3 4 5 1 Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017 IDHS • xxvii Step 5: To find out what percentage of women age 15-49 in urban areas access all three media at least once a week, draw two imaginary lines, as shown on the table. This shows that 3.8% women age 15-49 in urban areas access all three types of media weekly. Step 6: By looking at patterns by background characteristics, we can see how exposure to mass media varies across Indonesia. Mass media are often used to communicate health information. Knowing how mass media exposure varies among different groups can help program planners and policy makers determine how to most effectively reach a target populations *For the purpose of this document data are presented exactly as they appear in the table including decimal places. However, the text in the remainder of this report rounds data to the nearest whole percentage point. Practice: Use the table in Example 1 to answer the following questions: a) What percentage of women in Indonesia access all three media at least once a week? b) Which age group of women are most likely to listen to the radio at least once a week? c) Compare women in urban areas to women in rural areas – which group is more likely to read a newspaper at least once a week? d) Is there a clear pattern in weekly exposure to a newspaper by education level? e) Is there a clear pattern in weekly exposure to a radio by wealth quintile? Answers: a)2.8% b)Women age 20-24: 15.4% in this age group listen to the radio at least once a week c)Women in urban areas are more likely to read a newspaper once a week than women in rural areas (13.8% versus 6.0%). d)Yes. Exposure to a newspaper on a weekly basis increases as woman’s education level increases; 0.3% of women with no education read a newspaper at least once a week, compared to 30.3% of women with more than secondary education. e)Yes. Exposure to radio on a weekly basis increases as a household’s wealth increases; 8.8% of women in the lowest wealth quintile list to the radio on a weekly basis, compared to 19.0% of women in the highest wealth quintile. xxviii • Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017 IDHS Example 2: Prevalence and Treatment of Symptoms of ARI A Question Asked of a Subgroup of Survey Respondents Table 10.5 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI Among children under age 5, percentage who had symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in the 2 weeks preceding the survey; and among children with symptoms of ARI in the 2 weeks preceding the survey, percentage for whom advice or treatment was sought, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 2017 Among children under age 5: Among children under age 5 with symptoms of ARI: Background characteristic Percentage with symptoms of ARI1 Number of children Percentage for whom advice or treatment was sought2 Percentage for whom treatment with antibiotics Number of children Age in months <6 2.6 1,572 (89.0) (16.1) 41 6-11 3.5 1,639 90.1 32.1 57 12-23 4.7 3,399 94.1 38.3 159 24-35 5.1 3,265 92.7 35.3 166 36-47 4.0 3,316 90.3 38.0 132 48-59 4.1 3,364 92.8 31.4 136 Sex Male 4.4 8,422 93.1 32.0 372 Female 3.9 8,133 91.1 36.9 321 Mother's smoking status Smokes cigarettes/tobacco 4.4 260 * * 11 Does not smoke 4.2 16,295 92.0 34.1 681 Cooking fuel Electricity or gas 3.9 12,673 93.4 34.4 500 Kerosene 3.4 574 (84.4) (39.7) 20 Coal/lignite * 1 * * 0 Charcoal (4.4) 23 * * 1 Wood/straw3 5.3 3,255 89.9 33.5 172 No food cooked in household * 21 * * 0 Missing * 9 * * 0 Residence Urban 3.8 8,037 93.6 37.7 307 Rural 4.5 8,519 91.0 31.6 386 Mother's education No education 5.5 181 * * 10 Some primary 5.7 1,112 88.5 37.3 63 Completed primary 5.0 3,142 92.4 38.4 157 Some secondary 4.2 4,695 92.8 26.6 199 Completed secondary 3.5 4,865 96.3 39.0 168 Higher than secondary 3.7 2,559 87.4 34.1 95 Wealth quintile Lowest 6.0 3,384 89.1 32.2 204 Second 4.9 3,337 96.0 36.9 164 Middle 3.4 3,349 89.6 34.7 113 Fourth 3.5 3,334 94.4 29.8 116 Highest 3.0 3,151 92.2 39.3 96 Total 4.2 16,555 92.1 34.3 693 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk (*) indicates that an estimate is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 1 Symptoms of ARI include short, rapid breathing which was chest-related and/or difficult breathing which was chest-related. 2 Includes advice or treatment from the following sources: public sector, private medical sector, shop, market, and pharmacy. Excludes advice or treatment from a traditional practitioner 3 Includes grass, shrubs, crop residues Step 1: Read the title and subtitle. In this case, the table is about two separate groups of children: all children under 5 (a) and children under 5 with symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI) in the two weeks before the survey (b). 1 2 3 4 a b Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017 IDHS • xxix Step 2: Identify the two panels. First, identify the columns that refer to all children under 5 (a), and then isolate the columns that refer only to children under 5 with symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey (b). Step 3: Look at the first panel. What percentage of children under 5 had symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey? It’s 4.2%. Now look at the second panel. How many children under 5 are there who had symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey? It’s 693 children or 4.2% of the 16,555 children under 5 in the survey (with rounding). The second panel is a subset of the first panel. Step 4: Only 4.2% of children under 5 had symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey. Once these children are further divided into the background characteristic categories, there may be too few cases for the percentages to be reliable. • Among children under 6 months with symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey, what percentage had advice or treatment sought? It’s 89.0%. This percentage is in parentheses because there are between 25 and 49 unweighted cases in this category. Readers should use this number with caution—it may not be reliable. (For more information on weighted and unweighted numbers, see Example 3.) • Among children under 5 with symptoms of ARI in the two weeks before the survey, what percentage of children whose mothers have no education had advice or treatment sought? There is no number in this cell—only an asterisk. This is because fewer than 25 children under 5 who had recent symptoms of ARI whose mothers have no education had advice or treatment sought. The subgroup is too small, and therefore the data are not reliable. Note: When parentheses or asterisks are used in a table, the explanation will be noted under the table. If there are no parentheses or asterisks in a table, you can proceed with confidence that enough cases were included in all categories that the data are reliable. xxx • Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017 IDHS Example 3: Understanding Sampling Weights in IDHS Tables A sample is a group of people who have been selected for a survey. In the IDHS, the sample is designed to represent the national population age 15- 49. In addition to national data, most countries want to collect and report data on smaller geographical or administrative areas. However, doing so requires a large enough sample size in each area. For the 2017 IDHS, the survey sample is representative at the national level, provincial level, and for urban and rural areas. To generate statistics that are representative of the country as a whole and 34 provinces, the number of women surveyed in each province should contribute to the size of the total (national) sample in proportion to the size of the province. However, if some provinces have small populations, then a sample allocated in proportion to each province’s population may not include sufficient women from each province for analysis. To solve this problem, provinces with small populations are oversampled. For example, let’s say that you have enough money to interview 49,627 women and want to produce results that are representative of Indonesia as a whole and its 34 provinces (as in Table A.3.1). However, the total population of Indonesia is not evenly distributed among the provinces: some provinces, such as West Java, are heavily populated while others, such as North Kalimantan are not. Thus, North Kalimantan must be oversampled. A sampling statistician determines how many women should be interviewed in each province in order to get reliable statistics. The blue column (1) in the table at the right shows the actual number of women interviewed in each province. Within the provinces, the number of women interviewed ranges from 571 in West Papua to 5,090 in West Java. The number of interviews is sufficient to get reliable results in each province. With this distribution of interviews, some provinces are overrepresented and some provinces are underrepresented. For example, the population in West Java is about 20% of the population in Indonesia, while North Kalimantan’s population contributes 0.2% of the population in Indonesia. But as the blue column shows, the number of women interviewed in West Java accounts for only about 10% of the total sample of women interviewed (5,090 / 49,627) and the number of women interviewed in North Kalimantan accounts for 1.4% the total sample of women interviewed (712 / 49,627). This unweighted distribution of women does not accurately represent the population. In order to get statistics that are representative of Indonesia, the distribution of the women in the sample needs to be weighted (or mathematically adjusted) such that it resembles the true distribution in the country. Women Table A.3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by province, Indonesia DHS 2017 Women Province Weighted percent Weighted number Unweighted number Sumatera Aceh 1.9 955 2,447 North Sumatera 5.1 2,545 2,459 West Sumatera 1.9 958 1,130 Riau 2.6 1,272 1,080 Jambi 1.4 683 698 South Sumatera 3.0 1,501 1,126 Bengkulu 0.7 364 797 Lampung 3.0 1,513 1,228 Bangka Belitung 0.6 282 768 Riau Islands 0.7 364 1,073 Java Jakarta 4.0 1,996 1,815 West Java 19.9 9,867 5,090 Central Java 13.1 6,486 3,414 Yogyakarta 1.6 785 652 East Java 14.9 7,391 3,729 Banten 4.6 2,260 1,722 Bali and Nusa Tenggara Bali 1.8 903 751 West Nusa Tenggara 2.1 1,030 1,368 East Nusa Tenggara 1.8 882 2,223 Kalimantan West Kalimantan 1.9 943 1,026 Central Kalimantan 0.8 413 587 South Kalimantan 1.6 790 802 East Kalimantan 1.2 593 1,221 North Kalimantan 0.2 108 712 Sulawesi North Sulawesi 0.8 411 585 Central Sulawesi 1.1 537 1,199 South Sulawesi 3.2 1,582 1,873 Southeast Sulawesi 1.0 476 1,557 Gorontalo 0.5 231 676 West Sulawesi 0.5 242 1,682 Maluku and Papua Maluku 0.6 301 1,858 North Maluku 0.4 209 1,050 West Papua 0.3 137 571 Papua 1.2 618 658 Total 100.0 49,627 49,627 1 2 3 Reading and Understanding Tables from the 2017 IDHS • xxxi from a small province, like North Kalimantan, should only contribute a small amount to the national total. Women from a large province, like West Java, should contribute much more. Therefore, DHS statisticians mathematically calculate a “weight” which is used to adjust the number of women from each province so that each province’s contribution to the total is proportional to the actual population of the province. The numbers in the purple column (2) represent the “weighted” values. The weighted values can be smaller or larger than the unweighted values at province level. The total national sample size of 49,627 women has not changed after weighting, but the distribution of the women in the provinces has been changed to represent their contribution to the total population size. How do statisticians weight each category? They take into account the probability that a woman was selected in the sample. If you were to compare the green column (3) to the actual population distribution of Indonesia, you would see that women in each province are contributing to the total sample with the same weight that they contribute to the population of the country. The weighted number of women in the survey now accurately represents the proportion of women who live in West Java and the proportion of women who live in North Kalimantan. With sampling and weighting, it is possible to interview enough women to provide reliable statistics at national and province levels. In general, only the weighted numbers are shown in each of the IDHS tables, so don’t be surprised if these numbers seem low: they may actually represent a larger number of women interviewed. xxxii • Map of Indonesia IN D O N E S IA Introduction and Survey Methodology • 1 INTRODUCTION AND SURVEY METHODOLOGY 1 he 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Heath Survey (IDHS) was implemented by Statistics Indonesia (BPS) in collaboration with the National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN) and the Ministry of Health (MoH) of Indonesia. The government of Indonesia funded the survey, which took place from July 24 to September 30, 2017. ICF provided technical assistance through The DHS Program, which is funded by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), and offers financial support and technical assistance for population and health surveys in countries worldwide. 1.1 SURVEY OBJECTIVES The primary objective of the 2017 IDHS is to provide up-to-date estimates of basic demographic and health indicators. The IDHS provides a comprehensive overview of population issues in Indonesia. More specifically, the IDHS: ▪ Provides data on fertility, family planning, maternal and child health, and awareness of HIV/AIDS and sexually transmitted infections (STIs) to program managers, policy makers, and researchers to help them evaluate and improve existing programs ▪ Measures trends in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates, and analyzes factors that affect trends such as marital status and patterns; residence; education; breastfeeding habits; and knowledge, use, and availability of contraception ▪ Evaluates the achievement of goals previously set by national health programs, with special focus on maternal and child health ▪ Assesses married men’s knowledge of utilization of health services for their family’s health, as well as participation in the health care of their families ▪ Participates in creating an international database that allows cross-country comparisons that can be used by program managers, policy makers, and researchers in the areas of family planning, fertility, and health 1.2 SAMPLE DESIGN The 2017 IDHS sample covered 1,970 census blocks in urban and rural areas and was expected to obtain responses from 49,250 households. The sampled households were expected to identify about 59,100 women age 15-49 and 24,625 never-married men age 15-24 eligible for individual interview. Eight households were selected in each selected census block to yield 14,193 married men age 15-54 to be interviewed with the Married Man’s Questionnaire. The sample frame of the 2017 IDHS is the Master Sample of Census Blocks from the 2010 Population Census. The frame for the household sample selection is the updated list of ordinary households in the selected census blocks. This list does not include institutional households, such as orphanages, police/military barracks, and prisons, or special households (boarding houses with a minimum of 10 people). T 2 • Introduction and Survey Methodology The sampling design of the 2017 IDHS used two-stage stratified sampling: Stage 1: A number of census blocks were selected with systematic sampling proportional to size, where size is the number of households listed in the 2010 Population Census. In the implicit stratification, the census blocks were stratified by urban and rural areas and ordered by wealth index category. Stage 2: In each selected census block, 25 ordinary households were selected with systematic sampling from the updated household listing. Eight households were selected systematically to obtain a sample of married men. For detailed information about the survey design, see Appendix B. 1.3 QUESTIONNAIRES The 2017 IDHS used four questionnaires: the Household Questionnaire, Woman’s Questionnaire, Married Man’s Questionnaire, and Never Married Man’s Questionnaire. Because of the change in survey coverage from ever-married women age 15-49 in the 2007 IDHS to all women age 15-49, the Woman’s Questionnaire had questions added for never married women age 15-24. These questions were part of the 2007 Indonesia Young Adult Reproductive Survey Questionnaire. The Household Questionnaire and the Woman’s Questionnaire are largely based on standard DHS phase 7 questionnaires (2015 version). The model questionnaires were adapted for use in Indonesia. Not all questions in the DHS model were included in the IDHS. Response categories were modified to reflect the local situation. The Household Questionnaire was used to list all usual members and visitors who spent the previous night in the selected households. Individual information collected in this questionnaire includes age, sex, education, marital status, and relationship to head of household. Information on characteristics of the housing unit, such as source of drinking water, type of toilet facilities, construction materials of floor, roof, and outer walls of the house, and ownership of various durable goods were also recorded in the Household Questionnaire. Information on these items describes the socio-economic status of the household and is used to calculate the household wealth index. The main purpose of the Household Questionnaire was to identify women and men who were eligible for the individual interview. The Woman’s Questionnaire was used to collect information on all women age 15-49. These women were asked questions on the following topics: ▪ Background characteristics ▪ Birth history ▪ Contraception ▪ Pregnancy and postnatal examination ▪ Child immunization ▪ Child health and nutrition ▪ Marriage and sexual activity ▪ Fertility preferences ▪ Background of husband/spouse and respondent’s work ▪ HIV/AIDS ▪ Other health issues Introduction and Survey Methodology • 3 Questions asked to never-married women age 15-24 included the following: ▪ Additional background of respondents ▪ Knowledge and experience about the human reproductive system ▪ Marriage and children ▪ The role of family, school, society, and the media ▪ Smoking, drinking, and drugs ▪ Dating and sexual behavior The Married Man’s Questionnaire was used to collect information on all married men age 15-54 living in 8 of the 25 households in the 2017 IDHS sampled census block. The men were asked questions on the following topics: ▪ Background characteristics ▪ Contraception ▪ Marriage and sexual activity ▪ Fertility preferences ▪ Employment and gender roles ▪ HIV/AIDS ▪ Other health issues The questionnaire for never-married men age 15-24 includes the same questions asked to never-married women age 15-24. 1.4 PRETEST Prior to fieldwork, questionnaires were pretested in July-August 2016. The main objective of the pretest was to determine whether the questions were clear and could be understood by the respondents. All instruments and procedures of survey implementation were also tested. The pilot survey was conducted in Pidie and Banda Aceh districts in Aceh Province; Gunung Kidul and Sleman districts in DI Yogyakarta Province, and Maluku Tengah and Ambon districts in Maluku Province. In each district an urban or a rural cluster was selected. Two teams were recruited in each province representing each district. The pretest results were used to improve the implementation of the 2017 IDHS. 1.5 TRAINING OF FIELD STAFF Training of fieldworkers is an important activity in the 2017 IDHS. The objective of the training is to transfer to the field workers the same understanding of concepts and operational definitions of the variables collected in the survey. Training for the 2017 IDHS consists of the training of master instructors, field coordinators, and national instructors. Every training has the following goals: 1. Each trainee must read and understand the contents of questionnaire. 2. Each trainee must read and understand the concepts and definitions contained in the manual. 3. Each trainee must understand how to interview and how to record the responses in the questionnaire. 4 • Introduction and Survey Methodology A total of 1,160 persons participated in the 2017 IDHS training as interviewers, editors, and supervisors. Training took place in early July 2017 in nine training centers; North Sumatra, West Sumatera, West Java, Central Java, Bali, South Kalimantan, South Sulawesi, Papua, and West Papua. The training was conducted in discussion format to facilitate the teaching and learning processes. Training materials included concepts and definitions, knowledge, experience, flow of questions, and data consistency between questions related to households, all women, married men, never-married men, supervision, and field editing. In addition, the trainees participated in role playing activities and field try out. These activities were aimed at having all field staff able to conduct each interview properly and to fill out the questionnaires correctly. In the field try out, each interviewer must look for eligible respondents. After the interview is completed, the questionnaires are submitted to the field editor for review. 1.6 FIELDWORK The 2017 IDHS employed 145 interviewing teams to collect the data. Each team was comprised of one supervisor, one field editor, four female interviewers, and two male interviewers (one for currently married men, who doubled as the editor for the never-married interviewer, and one for never-married men). Fieldwork took place from July 24–September 30, 2017. For more information about the fieldwork, see Appendix B. A list of persons involved in the implementation of the survey is found in Appendix E. The survey questionnaires are reproduced in Appendix F. 1.7 DATA PROCESSING All completed questionnaires, along with the control forms, were returned to the BPS central office in Jakarta for data processing. The questionnaires were logged and edited, and all open-ended questions were coded. Responses were entered in the computer twice for verification, and they were corrected for computer-identified errors. Data processing activities were carried out by a team of 34 editors, 112 data entry operators, 33 compare officers, 19 secondary data editors, and 2 data entry supervisors. The questionnaires were entered twice and the entries were compared to detect and correct keying errors. A computer package program called Census and Survey Processing System (CSPro), which was specifically designed to process DHS-type survey data, was used in the processing of the 2017 IDHS. 1.8 RESPONSE RATES Results of the 2017 IDHS are presented in two separate reports. This report presents findings of interviews with all women age 15-49 and all currently married men age 15-54. Results of interviews with never-married women age 15-24 and never-married men age 15-24 are presented in a special report addressing the adolescent reproductive health component of the IDHS. Table 1 shows the result of the household and individual interviews in the 2017 IDHS. Of the 49,261 eligible households, 48,216 households were found by the interviewer teams. Among these households, 47,963 households were successfully interviewed, a response rate of almost 100%. In the interviewed households, 50,730 women were identified as eligible for individual interview and, from these, completed interviews were conducted with 49,627 women, yielding a response rate of 98%. From the selected household sample of married men, 10,440 married men were identified as eligible for interview, of which 10,009 were successfully interviewed, yielding a response rate of 96%. The lower response rate for men was due to the more frequent and longer absence of men from the household. In general, response rates in rural areas were higher than those in urban areas. Introduction and Survey Methodology • 5 Table 1 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews, and response rates, according to residence (unweighted), Indonesia DHS 2017 Result Residence Total Urban Rural Household interviews Households selected 25,306 23,955 49,261 Households occupied 24,707 23,509 48,216 Households interviewed 24,560 23,403 47,963 Household response rate1 99.4 99.5 99.5 Interviews with women age 15-49 Number of eligible women 27,039 23,691 50,730 Number of eligible women interviewed 26,425 23,202 49,627 Eligible women response rate2 97.7 97.9 97.8 Interviews with married men age 15-54 Number of eligible men 5,306 5,134 10,440 Number of eligible men interviewed 5,054 4,955 10,009 Eligible men response rate2 95.3 96.5 95.9 1 Households interviewed/households occupied 2 Respondents interviewed/eligible respondents Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 7 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS AND HOUSEHOLD POPULATION 2 Key Findings ▪ Drinking water: Three in four households (75%) in Indonesia have access to an improved source of drinking water—74% in urban areas and 77% in rural areas. ▪ Hand washing: About 93% of households have soap and water available in a place for handwashing—96% in urban areas and 90% in rural areas. ▪ Electricity: Almost all households (97%) have access to electricity—99% in urban areas and 96% in rural areas. ▪ Household population and composition: The population of Indonesia is a mix of age groups— 28% under age 15, 66% age 15-64, and 6% age 65 or older. The socioeconomic characteristics of the household population in the 2017 IDHS add context for interpreting demographic and health indicators, indicate the representativeness of the survey, and reveal much about the living conditions of the Indonesian population. This chapter presents information on sources of drinking water, sanitation, housing characteristics, wealth, hand washing, household population and composition, birth registration, education attainment, and school attendance. 2.1 DRINKING WATER SOURCES AND TREATMENT Improved sources of drinking water Includes piped water, public taps, standpipes, tube wells, boreholes, protected dug wells and springs, and rainwater. Households that use bottled water for drinking are classified as using an improved source only if their water source for cooking and hand washing comes from an improved source. Sample: Households In Indonesia, 94% of urban households have access to improved drinking water compared with 80% of rural households (Figure 2.1). Households in urban and rural areas have different sources of drinking water. Half of urban households use bottled water as the primary source for drinking, 48% use improved water sources for cooking and hand washing, and 6% use unimproved water sources for cooking and hand washing. In rural areas 22% of households use protected wells for drinking water, and 16% each use a borehole or protected spring (Table 2.1). 8 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Drinking water sources in most households in Indonesia (78%) are located on the premises, in either home or yard. Another 20% of households spend less than 30 minutes round trip fetching drinking water. Rural households are more likely to spend time off premises in pursuit of water than urban households (30% versus 10%). In general, 70% of households use an appropriate water treatment method for the water they drink. The percentage using an appropriate method is lower in urban areas (60%) than in rural areas (79%). Boiling water prior to drinking is the most common treatment method, practiced by 69%, followed by letting the water stand and settle, practiced by 21%. Most households in Indonesia (85%) reported having water available for the 2 weeks preceding the survey, including 84% in urban areas and 86% in rural areas. Similarly, 84% of the total population reported having water in the past 2 weeks, 84% in urban areas and 85% in rural areas (Table 2.2). Trends: The percentage of households that used improved drinking water sources in the 2012 IDHS is the same as in the 2017 IDHS (75%). The percentage of households using an appropriate water treatment method prior to drinking is also the same (70%). 2.2 SANITATION Improved toilet facilities Includes toilets that are used by only one household with septic tank or non- septic tank. Sample: Households Figure 2.1 Household drinking water by residence 9 13 6 16 16 16 26 15 37 3 2 4 32 48 17 13 6 20 Total Urban Rural Unim . Bottled . Other . Prot . Tube . Piped . Percent distribution of households by source of drinking water Unimproved source Bottled water/refilled water, improved source for cooking/hand washing Other improved source Protected dug well/spring Tube well/borehole Piped into dwelling/yard/ neighbor's Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 9 Most households (80%) have an improved toilet facility (88% in urban areas and 72% in rural areas) (Figure 2.2). About 8 in 10 urban households (81%) and 6 in 10 rural households (62%) have a private toilet facility with septic tank (Table 2.3). If the distance between the well and the nearest septic tank is too close, the well water can be polluted. Most households (67%) have a well that is 7 meters or more from the nearest septic tank (63% in urban areas and 70% in rural areas). One in four households (25%) has a well less than 7 meters from the nearest septic tank (30% in urban areas and 22% in rural areas). Trends: The percentage of households with a private toilet increased from 67% in the 2012 IDHS to 80% in the 2017 IDHS. The percentage of households with a well 7 meters or more from the nearest septic tank increased from 63% in the 2012 IDHS to 67% in the 2017 IDHS. 2.3 HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS Housing characteristics include electricity, flooring material, rooms used for sleeping, place for cooking, cooking fuel, and frequency of smoking in the home. Almost all households (97%) have access to electricity (99% in urban areas and 96% in rural areas) (Table 2.4). More than half of the households (52%) use ceramic flooring (67% in urban areas and 38% in rural areas). Overall, 27% of households have cement or red brick flooring (19% in urban areas and 34% in rural areas). Some households (5%) have a dirt or sand floor (2% in urban areas and 8% in rural areas). Forty percent of households in Indonesia have three or more rooms used for sleeping, 39% have two rooms, and 20% have one room. There is no significant difference between urban and rural areas in number of rooms used for sleeping. Nine in 10 households (90%) cook inside the house. Most households (72%) use liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cooking fuel. The use of LPG in urban areas is more common than in rural areas (86% compared with 59%). Fewer than one in four households (23%) uses wood as a cooking fuel (38% in rural areas and 8% in urban areas). About half of households (52%) are exposed to cigarette smoke every day (46% in urban areas and 58% in rural areas). 2.4 HOUSEHOLD WEALTH Household Durable Goods The presence of durable goods in households, such as radio, television, telephone, refrigerator, motorcycle, and private car, is a useful indicator for measuring household socioeconomic status. Nine in 10 households (89%) Figure 2.2 Household toilet facilities by residence 80 88 72 7 6 8 12 5 17 2 0 3 Total Urban Rural No facility/ bush/field Unimproved facility Shared facility Improved facility Percent distribution of households by type of toilet facilities 10 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population have a television and a cell phone, 6 in 10 (62%) have a fan, and almost 6 in 10 (57%) have a refrigerator (Table 2.5). For transport media, 8 in 10 households (79%) have a motorcycle or scooter, 39% have a bicycle, and 13% have a private car or truck. One in three households (34%) owns farmland, and 39% raise livestock. Wealth Index Wealth index Households are given scores based on the number and kinds of consumer goods they own, ranging from a television to a bicycle or car, and housing characteristics such as source of drinking water, toilet facilities, and flooring materials. These scores are derived using principal component analysis. National wealth quintiles are compiled by assigning the household score to each usual (de jure) household member, ranking each person in the household population by their score, and then dividing the distribution into five equal categories, each with 20% of the population. Sample: Households Figure 2.3 shows the distribution of de jure household population by wealth quintiles and residence. The distribution shows the degree of equity (or inequity) of wealth by urban and rural areas. Residents in urban areas are more likely to be in the highest quintile of wealth, while those in rural areas are more likely to be in the lowest. More than half (59%) of the rural population is in the bottom two quintiles, while one-third (33%) of the urban population is in the highest quintile (Table 2.6). Comparison across provinces in Indonesia shows that almost half (46%) of the population in Jakarta province resides in the highest quintile. In contrast, East Nusa Tenggara, Papua, and North Maluku provinces have the highest proportion of people in the lowest wealth quintiles (79%, 61%, and 58%, respectively). The Gini coefficient shows the degree of concentration of wealth. This ratio has a proportion of between 0 and 1. Zero shows the same distribution, and 1 denotes a perfectly unequal distribution. Distribution of wealth in rural areas is more unequal than in urban areas (13% and 9%, respectively). Papua province has the most unequal distribution of wealth (28%), while Bali province has the most equitable distribution of wealth (5%). 2.5 HAND WASHING Most households have a fixed place for hand washing (84%). In addition, water and soap are available in 93% of households (96% in urban areas and 90% in rural areas). A place for hand washing, with water and soap, is more often available in households in higher wealth quintiles (Table 2.7). Appendix Table A-2.1 shows the distribution of households by hand washing practices by province. Figure 2.3 Household wealth by residence 7 2814 26 20 20 26 1433 7 Urban Rural Percent distribution of de jure population by wealth quintiles Highest Fourth Middle Second Lowest Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 11 2.6 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND COMPOSITION Household A person or group of related or unrelated persons who live together in the same dwelling unit(s), who acknowledge one adult male or female as the head of the household, who share the same housekeeping arrangements, and who are considered a single unit. De facto population All persons who stayed in the selected households the night before the interview (whether usual residents or visitors). De jure population All persons who are usual residents of the selected households, whether or not they stayed in the household the night before the interview. How data are calculated All tables are based on the de facto population, unless specified otherwise. The age-sex structure of the Indonesian population is young; that is, the percentage of the population that is young is much higher than that which is old. In the population pyramid shown here the base of the pyramid is wide, and the peak is narrow, reflecting a relatively high birth rate and low death rate (Figure 2.4). The 2017 IDHS includes 184,090 individuals, consisting of 90,795 men and 93,295 women. In urban and rural areas, the percentage of the male population is lower than the female population (49% versus 51%). The population of Indonesia consists of various age groups, with 28% under age 15, 66% age 15-64, and 6% age 65 or older (Table 2.8). Household composition by the sex of the household head and the number of household members is presented in Table 2.9. Most households (85%) are headed by men, and a small proportion (15%) are headed by women. Two in three households in Indonesia have 3 to 5 people. One in four households (25%) have 4 people, 22% have 3 people, and 16% have 5 people. Households in urban and rural areas show the same pattern. Seven percent of the household members live alone. Figure 2.4 Population pyramid 10 6 2 2 6 10 <5 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80+ Age Percent distribution of the household population Male Female 261210 12 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population 2.7 BIRTH REGISTRATION Registered birth Child has a birth certificate or child does not have a birth certificate, but his/her birth is registered with the Department of Population and Civil Registration. Sample: De jure children under age 5 In the 2017 IDHS, information on child registration is collected for children under age 5. Overall, 78% of births of children under age 5 are registered with the Department of Population and Civil Registration, but only 67% have a birth certificate. The percentage of children under age 2 whose births were registered (70%) was lower than that for age 2-4 (83%) (Table 2.10). Births in urban areas are more likely to be registered than births in rural areas (83% compared with 73%). There is no difference in birth registration between boys and girls. The percentage of children under age 5 who have been registered increases with the wealth quintile, ranging from 59% in the lowest wealth quintile to 91% in the highest quintile (Figure 2.5). Trends: The percentage of children under age 5 who were registered in the Department of Population and Civil Registration has increased from 67% in the 2012 IDHS to 78% in the 2017 IDHS. 2.8 EDUCATION 2.8.1 Educational attainment Median educational attainment Half of the population has completed less than the median number of years of schooling, and half of the population has completed more than the median number of years of schooling. Sample: De facto household population age 6 and older The majority of the population age 6 and older have attended school. Only 5% of women and 7% of men never attended school. There are small differences in the percentage of women and men who attend primary school. However, the percentage of women who completed secondary or higher education is lower than that of men, 27% compared with 31% (Tables 2.11.1 and 2.11.2). Trends: The percentage of women age 6 and older who did not attend school declined from 10% in 2012 to 7% in 2017. For men, the percentage is 6% and 4%, respectively. The median years of education completed for women has not changed from the 2012 IDHS to the 2017 IDHS (6 years). However, in the same period the median years completed by men has increased from 6 years to 7 years. Figure 2.5 Birth registration by household wealth 59 75 80 86 91 Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Percentage of de jure children under age 5 whose births are registered with the civil authorities WealthiestPoorest Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 13 Patterns by background characteristics ▪ The education of the household population in urban areas is higher than in rural areas. The percentage of women who have completed secondary school or higher education in urban areas (37%) is higher than in rural areas (17%). For men, the corresponding percentages are 41% and 20%. ▪ On average, men and women living in urban areas stay in school 3 years longer than those in rural areas. ▪ Men and women in the highest quintile household population stay in school 6 years longer than those in the lowest quintile. 2.8.2 School attendance Net attendance ratios (NAR) Percentage of the school-age population that attends primary or secondary school. Sample: Children age [6-12] for primary school NAR and children age [13-17] for secondary school NAR Gross attendance ratios (GAR) The total number of children attending primary school divided by the official primary school age population and the total number of children attending secondary school divided by the official secondary school age population. Sample: Children age [6-12] for primary school GAR and children age [13-17] for secondary school GAR In the lowest and second quintiles, girls have a higher school attendance than boys. In contrast, in the other quintiles, the attendance rate of boys is higher than that of girls (Figure 2.6). Gender Parity Indices (GPI) The ratio of female to male students attending primary school and the ratio of female to male students attending secondary school. The index reflects the magnitude of the gender gap. Sample: Primary school students and secondary school students The GPI in GAR in primary school (0.94) indicates that there is almost no gender gap. Meanwhile, in high school the GPI (1.03) indicates that more women are in school than men. Patterns by background characteristics ▪ There are small gender differences between primary and secondary schools in rural and urban areas. For example, in urban areas 27% of boys have some secondary schooling compared with 24% in rural areas. ▪ The GPI in NAR in secondary school decreases as wealth increases; from 1.10 for the lowest quintile to Figure 2.6 Secondary school attendance by household wealth 83 88 89 89 86 76 86 90 92 90 Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Net attendance ratio for secondary school among children age 13-17 Girls Boys WealthiestPoorest 14 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population 0.95 for the highest quintile (0.98 for the middle and fourth, and lowest in the highest wealth quintile (0.95). Similarly, the GPI in GAR in secondary schools is highest in the lowest wealth quintile (1.12) and lowest in the highest wealth quintile (0.96). LIST OF TABLES For more information on household population and housing characteristics, see the following tables: ▪ Table 2.1 Household drinking water ▪ Table 2.2 Availability of water ▪ Table 2.3 Household sanitation facilities ▪ Table 2.4 Household characteristics ▪ Table 2.5 Household possessions ▪ Table 2.6 Wealth quintiles ▪ Table 2.7 Hand washing ▪ Table 2.8 Household population by age, sex, and residence ▪ Table 2.9 Household composition ▪ Table 2.10 Birth registration of children under age 5 ▪ Table 2.11.1 Educational attainment of the female household population ▪ Table 2.11.2 Educational attainment of the male household population ▪ Table 2.12 School attendance ratios Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 15 Table 2.1 Household drinking water Percent distribution of households and de jure population by source of drinking water, and by time to obtain drinking water; percentage of households and de jure population using various methods to treat drinking water, and percentage using an appropriate treatment method, according to residence, Indonesia DHS 2017 Households Population Characteristic Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Source of drinking water Improved source 93.9 79.8 86.7 93.9 79.5 86.7 Piped into dwelling/yard plot 11.9 5.0 8.4 12.2 5.1 8.6 Piped to neighbor 0.9 0.5 0.7 0.8 0.5 0.7 Public tap/standpipe 0.7 0.5 0.6 0.7 0.5 0.6 Tube well or borehole 16.4 16.3 16.3 16.6 16.4 16.5 Protected dug well 12.0 21.5 16.8 12.1 20.9 16.5 Protected spring 3.4 15.5 9.6 3.3 15.3 9.3 Rain water 0.8 3.5 2.2 0.9 3.8 2.4 Bottled and refilled water, improved and refilled source for cooking/hand washing1 48.0 17.0 32.1 47.3 17.1 32.1 Unimproved source 6.1 20.2 13.3 6.1 20.5 13.3 Unprotected dug well 1.9 7.7 4.9 1.8 7.8 4.8 Unprotected spring 0.6 4.3 2.5 0.6 4.3 2.5 Tanker truck/cart with small tank 1.1 1.5 1.3 1.1 1.6 1.3 Surface water 0.2 3.1 1.7 0.2 3.3 1.8 Bottled and refilled water, unimproved source for cooking/hand washing1 2.3 3.5 2.9 2.3 3.5 2.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Time to obtain drinking water (round trip) Water on premises2 88.6 67.4 77.8 88.8 67.5 78.1 Less than 30 minutes 10.4 29.6 20.2 10.2 29.4 19.8 30 minutes or longer 0.3 2.1 1.2 0.3 2.3 1.3 Don't know/missing 0.7 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.8 0.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Water treatment prior to drinking3 Boiled 59.1 78.6 69.1 59.9 78.5 69.2 Bleach/chlorine added 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 Strained through cloth 2.5 7.6 5.1 2.7 7.8 5.3 Ceramic, sand or other filter 1.3 1.6 1.5 1.4 1.7 1.6 Solar disinfection 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.1 Let it stand and settle 14.8 27.1 21.1 15.1 26.9 21.0 Other 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 No treatment 39.1 19.0 28.8 38.2 19.1 28.6 Percentage using an appropriate treatment method4 59.8 78.8 69.5 60.6 78.8 69.8 Number 23,458 24,505 47,963 91,877 93,234 185,111 1 Households using bottled water for drinking are classified as using an improved or unimproved source according to their water source for cooking and handwashing. 2 Includes water piped to a neighbor 3 Respondents may report multiple treatment methods, so the sum of treatment may exceed 100%. 4 Appropriate water treatment methods include boiling, bleaching, straining, filtering, and solar disinfecting. 16 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.2 Availability of water Among households and de jure population using piped water or water from a tube well or borehole, percentage with lack of availability of water in the last 2 weeks, according to residence, Indonesia DHS 2017 Households Population Availability of water in last 2 weeks Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Not available for at least 1 day 13.7 12.3 13.2 14.2 12.4 13.6 Available with no interruption of at least 1 day 84.0 85.5 84.5 83.6 85.3 84.1 Don't know/missing 2.3 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.2 2.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number using piped water or water from a tube well1 15,882 8,010 23,892 62,070 30,580 92,650 1 Includes households reporting piped water or water from a tube well or borehole as their main source of drinking water and households reporting bottled water as their main source of drinking water if their main source of water for cooking and hand washing is piped water or water from a tube well or borehole. Table 2.3 Household sanitation facilities Percent distribution of households and de jure population by type of toilet/latrine facilities and percent distribution of households and de jure population with a toilet/latrine facility, according to residence, Indonesia DHS 2017 Households Population Type and location of toilet/latrine facility Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Private facility Private with septic tank 80.8 62.5 71.5 81.4 63.3 72.3 Private with no septic tank 7.3 9.3 8.3 7.8 9.5 8.7 Shared/public 6.3 7.7 7.0 5.1 7.2 6.2 Other facility Pit latrine 0.8 6.2 3.6 0.8 6.0 3.4 River/stream/creek/pool/ponds/beach 4.4 11.1 7.9 4.4 10.6 7.5 Yard/bush/forest 0.4 3.0 1.8 0.4 3.3 1.9 Other 0.0 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.1 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households/population 23,458 24,505 47,963 91,877 93,234 185,111 Distance between the well and the nearest septic tank Less than 7 meters 30.0 21.7 24.9 30.1 21.6 25.0 7 meters or more 62.8 70.1 67.3 62.9 70.0 67.2 Don't know/missing 7.1 8.2 7.8 7.0 8.4 7.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households/population with a toilet/latrine facility1 7,085 11,150 18,234 28,025 41,987 70,012 1 Only for households that use well for source of drinking water. Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 17 Table 2.4 Household characteristics Percent distribution of households and de jure population by housing characteristics, percentage using solid fuel for cooking, percentage using clean fuel for cooking, and percent distribution by frequency of smoking in the home, according to residence, Indonesia DHS 2017 Housing characteristic Households Population Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Electricity Yes 98.8 95.5 97.1 99.0 95.6 97.3 No 1.2 4.4 2.9 1.0 4.3 2.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Flooring material Earth, sand 2.0 7.7 4.9 1.7 6.9 4.3 Wood/planks 4.6 13.8 9.3 4.9 14.0 9.5 Palm/bamboo 0.1 1.0 0.6 0.1 1.0 0.6 Parquet or polished wood 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Vinyl or asphalt strips 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Ceramic/marble 67.0 37.5 51.9 67.3 38.0 52.5 Ceramic tiles 6.5 5.2 5.9 6.5 5.0 5.7 Cement/Red bricks 19.0 34.1 26.7 18.8 34.4 26.7 Carpet 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 Missing 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Rooms used for sleeping One 21.8 18.3 20.0 16.1 14.3 15.2 Two 37.1 41.0 39.1 36.2 39.4 37.9 Three or more 40.4 40.0 40.2 47.1 45.7 46.4 Missing 0.7 0.7 0.7 0.6 0.6 0.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Place for cooking In the house 91.1 89.3 90.2 92.7 89.3 91.0 In a separate building 4.2 7.8 6.0 4.3 8.1 6.2 Outdoors 2.2 2.4 2.3 2.0 2.4 2.2 No food cooked in household 2.4 0.5 1.4 0.9 0.2 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Cooking fuel Electricity 0.6 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 LPG/natural gas/biogas 85.7 58.8 71.9 87.8 59.7 73.6 Kerosene 3.8 2.5 3.1 3.9 2.6 3.2 Coal/lignite 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 Charcoal 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.1 Wood 7.5 37.9 23.0 7.0 37.2 22.2 No food cooked in household 2.4 0.5 1.4 0.9 0.2 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percentage using solid fuel for cooking1 7.6 38.0 23.1 7.1 37.4 22.4 Percentage using clean fuel for cooking2 86.2 58.9 72.3 88.1 59.9 73.9 Frequency of smoking in the home Daily 45.5 58.0 51.9 48.8 62.3 55.6 Weekly 5.1 6.2 5.7 5.2 6.2 5.7 Monthly 1.2 1.7 1.4 1.2 1.6 1.4 Less than once a month 13.0 12.4 12.7 13.1 11.7 12.4 Never 35.1 21.7 28.2 31.8 18.1 24.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of households/population 23,458 24,505 47,963 91,877 93,234 185,111 LPG = Liquefied petroleum gas 1 Includes coal, charcoal, wood, straw/shrubs/grass, agricultural crops, and animal dung 2 Includes electricity and LPG/natural gas/biogas 18 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.5 Household possessions Percentage of households possessing various household effects, means of transportation, agricultural land, and livestock/farm animals by residence, Indonesia DHS 2017 Possession Residence Total Urban Rural Household effects Watch 60.2 36.5 48.1 Radio 27.8 18.3 22.9 Television 94.0 83.6 88.7 Mobile phone 94.0 84.2 89.0 Computer 32.3 12.2 22.0 Non-mobile telephone 6.2 0.3 3.2 Refrigerator 71.0 43.4 56.9 Fan 75.6 49.3 62.1 Washing machine 43.7 19.4 31.3 Air Conditioner 14.9 1.8 8.2 Means of transport Bicycle 44.7 34.1 39.3 Animal drawn cart 0.1 0.2 0.2 Motorcycle/scooter 83.0 74.7 78.7 Car/truck 17.7 7.7 12.6 Boat with a motor 0.4 1.3 0.8 Ownership of agricultural land 15.4 51.9 34.0 Ownership of farm animals1 22.4 54.2 38.7 Number 23,458 24,505 47,963 1 Cows, bulls, other cattle, horses, donkeys, goats, sheep, chickens or other poultry Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 19 Table 2.6 Wealth quintiles Percent distribution of the de jure population by wealth quintiles, and the Gini Coefficient, according to residence and region, Indonesia DHS 2017 Residence/province Wealth quintile Total Number of persons Gini coefficient Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Residence Urban 7.2 13.8 20.2 26.0 32.7 100.0 91,877 0.09 Rural 32.7 26.1 19.8 14.1 7.4 100.0 93,234 0.13 Sumatera Aceh 29.2 25.6 19.3 13.5 12.3 100.0 3,438 0.13 North Sumatera 27.5 19.3 20.9 19.0 13.3 100.0 9,934 0.17 West Sumatera 24.0 24.1 22.2 17.2 12.5 100.0 3,703 0.13 Riau 17.3 25.8 24.2 16.0 16.7 100.0 4,618 0.16 Jambi 21.6 23.8 24.3 16.2 14.1 100.0 2,435 0.13 South Sumatera 22.9 23.4 18.9 19.4 15.4 100.0 5,647 0.14 Bengkulu 26.3 28.4 18.7 13.6 13.0 100.0 1,365 0.12 Lampung 20.8 25.1 19.7 18.2 16.2 100.0 5,751 0.14 Bangka Belitung 8.7 19.9 22.9 25.3 23.2 100.0 1,030 0.10 Riau Islands 9.9 12.4 22.5 23.9 31.3 100.0 1,255 0.12 Java Jakarta 2.1 6.5 14.9 30.5 46.1 100.0 6,800 0.07 West Java 12.7 18.2 21.4 23.4 24.3 100.0 35,598 0.11 Central Java 15.4 22.9 22.9 22.0 16.7 100.0 24,980 0.11 Yogyakarta 12.2 18.7 19.4 19.6 30.1 100.0 2,907 0.08 East Java 13.0 20.1 21.3 21.6 24.0 100.0 28,454 0.08 Banten 13.0 12.8 18.4 26.0 29.8 100.0 7,966 0.12 Bali and Nusa Tenggara Bali 11.9 14.3 18.5 24.1 31.2 100.0 3,462 0.05 West Nusa Tenggara 30.8 27.8 17.0 12.7 11.7 100.0 3,675 0.11 East Nusa Tenggara 78.7 10.9 4.8 3.5 2.2 100.0 3,693 0.25 Kalimantan West Kalimantan 36.4 21.1 19.7 13.3 9.5 100.0 3,484 0.18 Central Kalimantan 35.6 22.9 17.1 11.8 12.6 100.0 1,606 0.16 South Kalimantan 25.9 24.1 21.7 14.6 13.7 100.0 2,871 0.12 East Kalimantan 8.3 19.9 26.2 24.8 20.7 100.0 2,228 0.10 North Kalimantan 22.6 25.4 23.2 15.5 13.2 100.0 392 0.16 Sulawesi North Sulawesi 23.6 26.7 18.6 15.3 15.6 100.0 1,659 0.12 Central Sulawesi 42.8 22.1 12.1 11.8 11.2 100.0 2,047 0.19 South Sulawesi 29.0 23.6 18.8 14.7 13.9 100.0 5,749 0.15 Southeast Sulawesi 40.5 21.6 13.9 12.5 11.5 100.0 1,735 0.19 Gorontalo 35.8 24.6 13.9 10.2 15.6 100.0 813 0.16 West Sulawesi 45.7 21.3 12.9 11.5 8.7 100.0 902 0.17 Maluku and Papua Maluku 53.7 20.1 12.5 9.2 4.5 100.0 1,224 0.21 North Maluku 57.7 17.9 11.2 9.0 4.3 100.0 806 0.20 West Papua 43.5 20.2 16.5 13.1 6.8 100.0 516 0.20 Papua 60.9 14.5 8.5 9.4 6.6 100.0 2,368 0.28 Total 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 185,111 0.12 20 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.7 Hand washing Percentage of households in which the place most often used for washing hands was observed by whether the location was fixed or mobile and total percentage of households in which the place for hand washing was observed; and among households in which the place for hand washing was observed, percent distribution by availability of water, soap, and other cleansing agents, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Percentage of households in which place for washing hands was observed: Number of house- holds Among households in which place for washing hands was observed, percentage with: Number of households in which a place for hand- washing was observed And place for hand washing was a fixed place And place for hand washing was mobile Total Soap and water1 Water and cleansing agent other than soap only2 Water only Soap but no water3 No water, no soap, no other cleansing agent2 Missing Total Residence Urban 89.3 7.0 96.3 23,458 95.6 0.1 3.2 0.6 0.4 0.1 100.0 22,594 Rural 78.8 13.7 92.5 24,505 90.3 0.1 6.3 1.1 1.9 0.1 100.0 22,667 Wealth quintile Lowest 64.8 20.6 85.4 10,674 81.9 0.3 11.5 2.2 4.0 0.1 100.0 9,117 Second 81.7 11.9 93.6 9,847 91.8 0.1 5.9 1.1 1.1 0.1 100.0 9,212 Middle 89.2 8.2 97.4 9,492 95.3 0.0 3.5 0.5 0.6 0.2 100.0 9,241 Fourth 91.9 6.3 98.2 9,186 97.4 0.0 2.0 0.3 0.2 0.1 100.0 9,024 Highest 95.8 3.1 98.9 8,764 98.8 0.0 0.9 0.1 0.1 0.0 100.0 8,667 Total 83.9 10.4 94.4 47,963 93.0 0.1 4.8 0.9 1.2 0.1 100.0 45,261 1 Soap includes soap or detergent in bar, liquid, powder, or paste form. This column includes households with soap and water only as well as those that had soap and water and another cleansing agent. 2 Cleansing agents other than soap include locally available materials such as ash, mud, or sand. 3 Includes households with soap only as well as those with soap and another cleansing agent Table 2.8 Household population by age, sex, and residence Percent distribution of the de facto household population by age groups, according to sex and residence, Indonesia DHS 2017 Urban Rural Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total <5 9.0 8.4 8.7 9.6 8.9 9.3 9.3 8.7 9.0 5-9 9.8 8.6 9.2 10.2 9.5 9.8 10.0 9.0 9.5 10-14 9.2 8.7 9.0 10.0 9.3 9.7 9.6 9.0 9.3 15-19 8.9 8.5 8.7 8.3 7.3 7.8 8.6 7.9 8.3 20-24 7.6 7.7 7.6 6.3 6.5 6.4 6.9 7.1 7.0 25-29 7.1 7.0 7.0 6.2 7.0 6.6 6.6 7.0 6.8 30-34 7.3 7.5 7.4 6.9 7.5 7.2 7.1 7.5 7.3 35-39 7.5 8.6 8.1 7.4 7.9 7.6 7.5 8.2 7.8 40-44 7.5 7.7 7.6 7.0 7.1 7.1 7.3 7.4 7.3 45-49 7.4 7.1 7.2 6.9 6.8 6.8 7.1 7.0 7.0 50-54 5.6 6.1 5.9 6.0 6.0 6.0 5.8 6.0 5.9 55-59 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.7 5.1 4.9 4.8 5.0 4.9 60-64 3.4 3.4 3.4 3.9 3.7 3.8 3.7 3.6 3.6 65-69 2.2 2.3 2.2 2.8 2.6 2.7 2.5 2.4 2.5 70-74 1.3 1.5 1.4 1.6 2.0 1.8 1.4 1.8 1.6 75-79 0.8 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.1 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.0 80 + 0.6 1.1 0.9 1.0 1.6 1.3 0.8 1.3 1.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Dependency age groups 0-14 28.0 25.7 26.9 29.9 27.7 28.8 29.0 26.7 27.8 15-64 67.1 68.4 67.7 63.6 65.0 64.3 65.3 66.7 66.0 65+ 4.9 5.8 5.4 6.5 7.3 6.9 5.7 6.6 6.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Child and adult populations 0-17 33.8 31.3 32.5 35.5 32.4 33.9 34.6 31.9 33.2 18+ 66.2 68.7 67.5 64.5 67.6 66.0 65.3 68.1 66.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Adolescents 10-19 18.1 17.3 17.7 18.4 16.6 17.5 18.2 16.9 17.6 Number of persons 45,106 46,253 91,359 45,688 47,042 92,731 90,795 93,295 184,090 Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 21 Table 2.9 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household and by household size; mean size of household, and percentage of households with orphans and foster children under age 18, according to residence, Indonesia DHS 2017 Characteristic Residence Total Urban Rural Household headship Male 84.8 85.5 85.2 Female 15.2 14.5 14.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members 1 7.7 6.6 7.1 2 13.3 15.5 14.4 3 20.7 23.7 22.2 4 25.9 25.0 25.4 5 16.8 15.3 16.0 6 8.6 7.9 8.3 7 3.6 3.2 3.4 8 1.7 1.5 1.6 9+ 1.7 1.3 1.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean size of households 3.9 3.8 3.9 Number of households 23,458 24,505 47,963 Note: Table is based on de jure household members, i.e., usual residents. Table 2.10 Birth registration of children under age 5 Percentage of de jure children under age 5 whose births are registered with the civil authorities, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Percentage of children whose births are registered and who: Number of children Had a birth certificate Did not have birth certificate Total percentage of children whose births are registered Age <2 54.3 15.4 69.7 6,471 2-4 75.9 7.4 83.3 9,954 Sex Male 67.3 10.9 78.2 8,381 Female 67.4 10.3 77.7 8,045 Residence Urban 74.1 9.0 83.2 7,890 Rural 61.1 12.0 73.1 8,535 Wealth quintile Lowest 43.6 14.9 58.5 3,361 Second 63.1 11.5 74.6 3,326 Middle 71.1 9.3 80.4 3,331 Fourth 76.4 9.5 85.9 3,306 Highest 84.0 7.4 91.4 3,100 Total 67.4 10.6 77.9 16,425 22 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.11.1 Educational attainment of the female household population Percent distribution of the de facto female household population age 6 and over by highest level of schooling attended or completed and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic No education Some primary Completed primary1 Some secondary Completed secondary2 More than secondary Don't know/ missing Total Number Median years completed Age 6-9 5.2 94.2 0.0 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 6,749 1.1 10-14 0.5 45.0 1.6 52.8 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 8,415 5.4 15-19 0.5 2.0 4.3 67.3 16.5 9.5 0.0 100.0 7,384 9.8 20-24 0.7 2.6 8.6 22.1 36.2 29.8 0.0 100.0 6,615 11.4 25-29 1.1 5.0 14.7 27.0 30.7 21.7 0.0 100.0 6,510 11.1 30-34 1.1 7.0 20.4 27.2 27.1 17.3 0.0 100.0 7,000 8.8 35-39 1.8 9.8 26.2 24.6 25.0 12.7 0.0 100.0 7,681 8.5 40-44 2.3 11.4 31.6 21.1 23.5 10.1 0.0 100.0 6,932 8.1 45-49 5.4 17.6 30.8 15.9 20.3 10.0 0.0 100.0 6,497 5.9 50-54 12.1 25.5 29.8 11.6 12.8 8.1 0.2 100.0 5,626 5.4 55-59 15.8 30.6 29.1 10.0 8.0 6.3 0.2 100.0 4,649 5.1 60-64 21.2 28.6 28.4 10.2 6.6 4.5 0.4 100.0 3,320 5.0 65+ 39.1 28.4 20.7 5.3 4.2 1.6 0.6 100.0 6,141 1.7 Don't know/ missing * * * * * * * 100.0 13 * Residence Urban 4.4 19.4 14.4 24.9 22.2 14.6 0.1 100.0 41,527 8.4 Rural 9.4 27.3 21.1 24.7 11.2 6.1 0.1 100.0 42,006 5.6 Wealth quintile Lowest 15.9 33.6 21.1 21.4 6.2 1.7 0.1 100.0 16,699 5.1 Second 8.1 27.0 23.0 26.8 11.2 3.7 0.1 100.0 16,472 5.6 Middle 5.5 23.2 20.6 27.7 17.3 5.6 0.1 100.0 16,543 5.9 Fourth 3.7 18.7 16.5 26.7 23.5 10.8 0.1 100.0 16,659 8.3 Highest 1.7 14.6 8.0 21.6 25.0 29.0 0.1 100.0 17,159 11.2 Total 6.9 23.4 17.8 24.8 16.7 10.3 0.1 100.0 83,532 6.0 1 Completed 6th grade at the primary level 2 Completed 6th grade at the secondary level Housing Characteristics and Household Population • 23 Table 2.11.2 Educational attainment of the male household population Percent distribution of the de facto male household population age 6 and over by highest level of schooling attended or completed and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic No education Some primary Completed primary1 Some secondary Completed secondary2 More than secondary Don't know/ missing Total Number Median years completed Age 6-9 7.0 92.5 0.1 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.2 100.0 7,241 0.9 10-14 0.4 49.2 1.7 48.7 0.0 0.0 0.1 100.0 8,742 5.2 15-19 0.7 4.2 4.9 69.1 15.7 5.3 0.0 100.0 7,811 9.3 20-24 0.7 4.9 9.2 21.3 41.2 22.6 0.0 100.0 6,296 11.3 25-29 0.9 5.7 13.7 23.7 36.8 19.2 0.0 100.0 6,012 11.2 30-34 1.1 7.5 18.3 25.1 33.3 14.7 0.1 100.0 6,408 9.0 35-39 0.9 9.2 22.4 23.6 31.7 12.0 0.0 100.0 6,765 8.8 40-44 1.5 9.8 27.4 21.4 28.5 11.5 0.0 100.0 6,594 8.5 45-49 1.9 11.2 26.9 19.3 29.6 11.1 0.1 100.0 6,465 8.5 50-54 4.3 20.3 27.2 13.4 22.7 11.9 0.1 100.0 5,276 5.9 55-59 7.1 25.8 29.8 12.5 15.2 9.5 0.2 100.0 4,320 5.6 60-64 10.2 26.3 30.4 12.7 13.2 7.0 0.3 100.0 3,351 5.5 65+ 18.1 29.7 29.0 9.8 9.4 3.8 0.2 100.0 5,168 5.1 Don't know/missing * * * * * * * 100.0 7 * Residence Urban 2.4 19.8 12.5 24.3 27.1 13.9 0.1 100.0 40,132 8.7 Rural 4.7 27.6 20.8 26.6 14.9 5.3 0.1 100.0 40,325 5.8 Wealth quintile Lowest 7.7 35.2 22.9 24.0 8.5 1.7 0.1 100.0 15,965 5.3 Second 4.3 26.3 22.9 28.3 15.0 3.1 0.1 100.0 16,225 5.8 Middle 2.8 22.8 18.9 28.9 22.1 4.5 0.1 100.0 16,232 7.3 Fourth 2.0 19.0 13.3 26.5 29.4 9.8 0.1 100.0 16,101 8.6 Highest 1.1 15.2 5.2 19.4 30.1 29.0 0.1 100.0 15,934 11.3 Total 3.6 23.7 16.7 25.4 21.0 9.6 0.1 100.0 80,457 7.4 1 Completed 6th grade at the primary level 2 Completed 6th grade at the secondary level 24 • Housing Characteristics and Household Population Table 2.12 School attendance ratios Net attendance ratios (NAR) and gross attendance ratios (GAR) for the de facto household population by sex and level of schooling; and the Gender Parity Index (GPI), according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Net attendance ratio1 Gross attendance ratio2 Male Female Total Gender Parity Index3 Male Female Total Gender Parity Index3 PRIMARY SCHOOL Residence Urban 80.1 77.2 78.7 0.96 115.3 110.3 112.9 0.96 Rural 81.7 79.1 80.4 0.97 127.9 117.5 122.7 0.92 Wealth quintile Lowest 82.3 80.3 81.3 0.98 145.0 126.7 136.0 0.87 Second 81.6 76.6 79.1 0.94 132.8 115.1 123.9 0.87 Middle 81.5 78.3 80.0 0.96 115.3 115.7 115.5 1.00 Fourth 79.6 78.3 79.0 0.98 112.6 109.8 111.2 0.98 Highest 79.5 77.3 78.4 0.97 103.0 102.0 102.5 0.99 Total 80.9 78.2 79.6 0.97 121.8 114.1 118.0 0.94 SECONDARY SCHOOL Residence Urban 87.2 87.6 87.4 1.00 153.9 152.8 153.4 0.99 Rural 85.5 85.9 85.7 1.00 144.1 153.5 148.6 1.07 Wealth quintile Lowest 75.5 82.9 79.0 1.10 125.7 141.2 132.9 1.12 Second 85.9 87.8 86.8 1.02 153.1 160.1 156.5 1.05 Middle 89.6 88.6 89.1 0.99 162.5 165.6 164.0 1.02 Fourth 91.6 89.0 90.3 0.97 164.3 163.8 164.1 1.00 Highest 90.0 85.6 87.8 0.95 141.1 135.9 138.5 0.96 Total 86.4 86.8 86.6 1.00 149.0 153.2 151.0 1.03 1 The NAR for primary school is the percentage of the primary-school age (A-B years) population that is attending primary school. The NAR for secondary school is the percentage of the secondary-school age (C-D years) population that is attending secondary school. By definition the NAR cannot exceed 100%. 2 The GAR for primary school is the total number of primary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official primary- school-age population. The GAR for secondary school is the total number of secondary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official secondary-school-age population. If there are significant numbers of over age and under age students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100%. 3 The Gender Parity Index for primary school is the ratio of the primary school NAR (GAR) for females to the NAR (GAR) for males. The Gender Parity Index for secondary school is the ratio of the secondary school NAR (GAR) for females to the NAR (GAR) for males. Characteristics of Respondents • 25 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS 3 Key Findings ▪ Education: 41% of women age 15-49 and 43% of currently married men age 15-54 have completed secondary school or higher. ▪ Literacy: Almost all women age 15-49 (96%) and currently married men are literate. ▪ Mass Media Exposure: Television is the most accessed media among women age 15-49 (84%) and currently married men age 15-54 (85%). ▪ Internet Usage: Among women age 15-49 who used the internet in the past 12 months, 77% used the internet almost every day. The percentage for currently married men age 15-54 is 75%. ▪ Employment: More than half of women age 15-49 (53%) and most of currently married men age 15-54 (98%) were employed in the 12 months preceding the survey. ▪ Health Insurance: Among women age 15-49, 58% have health insurance, 31% have subsidized health insurance (JKN/BPJS PBI), and 22% have nonsubsidized health insurance (JKN/BPJS Non-PBI). The corresponding percentages for men are 57%, 28% (JKN/BPJS PBI), and 23% (JKN/BPJS Non-PBI). ▪ Tobacco Use: 72% of currently married men age 15-54 smoke cigarettes, and 63% smoke daily. his chapter presents information on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of respondents to the 2017 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS). These characteristics include age, marital status, and education, place of residence, employment, and wealth quintile. Other information collected pertains to exposure to mass media, internet usage, health insurance coverage, and tobacco use. This information aids in understanding of factors that affect the use of reproductive health services and other health behaviors. 3.1 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS Four in ten women age 15-49 (42%) and one in seven currently married men age 15-54 (14%) in the 2017 IDHS are under age 30. Among women age 15-49, 72% are currently married or living together, 23% have never been married, and 5% are separated, divorced, or widowed. More than half (52%) of women and 49% of currently married men live in urban areas (Table 3.1). T 26 • Characteristics of Respondents The percentage of currently married men with complete primary education is higher than that of women (22% compared with 19%). Thirty percent of women age 15- 49 have some secondary education and 30% of currently married men age 15-54 have completed secondary education. The percentage of women with more than a secondary education is higher than that of men (16% compared with 13%) (Figure 3.1). More than half of women and currently married men are in the middle to highest wealth quintiles. Percent distributions of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 are presented by province in Appendix Table A-3.1. 3.2 EDUCATION AND LITERACY Education Education is categorized as ▪ No education: Respondent never attended school. ▪ Some primary: Respondent is attending or has attended primary school. ▪ Completed primary: Respondent has completed primary education. ▪ Some secondary: Respondent is attending or has attended junior high school, , and is attending or has attended senior high school. ▪ Completed secondary: Respondent has completed senior high school. ▪ More than secondary: Respondent has attended a level higher than secondary school. Literacy Respondents who have attended senior high school or higher education are assumed to be literate. All other respondents, shown a typed sentence to read aloud, are considered literate only if they can read all or part of the sentence. Sample: Women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 Educational attainment and literacy are the main factors that influence individual knowledge, attitudes, and behavior. Literate persons will obtain important information for decision-making that may result in changes in attitudes and behavior. Information on education and literacy is presented in Tables 3.2.1 through Table 3.3.2. Figure 3.1 shows that 30% of women age 15-49 have some secondary education and 41% have completed secondary or higher education. Twenty-two percent of men have some secondary education and 43% have completed secondary or higher education. Almost all women and men (96% each) are literate (Tables 3.3.1 and 3.3.2). Trends: The percentage of women with more than secondary education has increased from 12% in the 2012 IDHS to 16% in the 2017 IDHS. Figure 3.1 Educational attainment 2 28 12 19 22 30 22 25 30 16 13 Women Men Percent distribution of women age 15-49 and married men age 15-54 by highest level of schooling completed More than secondary Completed secondary Some secondary Primary complete Primary incomplete No education Characteristics of Respondents • 27 Patterns by background characteristics ▪ The percentage of women and men with no education increases with age and peaks at age 45-49 for women (5%) and age 50-54 for men (6%), (Table 3.2.1 and Table 3.2.2). ▪ The percentage of women and men with some secondary education decreases with age. For women, it declines from 68% for women age 15-19 to 16% for women age 45-49. ▪ The percentage of men with completed secondary or higher education is slightly higher than that for women (43% versus 41%) (Figure 3.2). ▪ The percentage of women and men with secondary or higher education increases with wealth (Figure 3.3). ▪ Literacy among women and men decreases with age (Figure 3.4). Men are as likely as women to be literate, but there is some difference in literacy rates between urban and rural areas (Figure 3.5). Figure 3.2 Education by residence Figure 3.3 Education by wealth quintile Figure 3.4 Literacy by age Figure 3.5 Literacy by residence 41 53 29 43 57 29 Total Urban Rural Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 with secondary education or higher education Women Men 15 25 36 50 71 14 23 35 55 81 Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 with secondary education or higher Women Men WealthiestPoorest 99 98 97 96 94 88 98 98 98 98 96 95 89 15-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 who are literate by age Women Men 98 9498 94 Urban Rural Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 who are literate by residence Women Men 28 • Characteristics of Respondents Appendix Table A-3.2.1 and Table A-3.2.2 show the educational attainment for woman and currently married men by province. Appendix Table A-3.3.1 and Table A-3.3.2 show the literacy rates for woman and currently married men by province. 3.3 MASS MEDIA EXPOSURE Exposure to mass media Respondents were asked how often they read a newspaper, listened to the radio, or watched television. Exposure to mass media also includes internet usage. Those who access mass media at least once a week are considered regularly exposed to that form of media. Sample: Women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 Information access through mass media is important to improve knowledge and awareness of the environment and to influence people’s attitude and behavior. Information on family planning and health need to be accessible to all people. Information can be accessed through traditional media or by internet. Figure 3.6 shows that television is the most popular media among women (84%) and men (85%). Three percent of women and 4% of men are exposed to all three media. Men are more likely than women to be exposed to all media. Patterns by background characteristics ▪ Urban women are two times more likely than rural women to read a newspaper at least once a week. Men show the same pattern (Table 3.4.1 and Table 3.4.2). ▪ Access to the three mass media is higher in urban areas than in rural areas. ▪ Access to mass media increases with education and wealth. ▪ Along with development of technology, internet use becomes a resource for information (Figure 3.7). Women are more likely than men to use the internet (50% versus 40%, respectively). Almost half of women (48%) and over one-third of men (39%) used the internet in the 12 months before the survey. Patterns by background characteristics ▪ The percentage of women and men who have ever used the Internet decreases with age (Table 3.5.1 and Table 3.5.2). ▪ The percentages of women and men using the internet in the 12 months before the survey increased with age. Figure 3.6 Media exposure Figure 3.7 Internet usage 10 84 14 3 1415 85 17 4 13 Reads news- paper Watches television Listens to radio All three media None of these media Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 who are exposed to media on a weekly basis Women Men 50 48 40 39 Ever used the internet Used the internet in the past 12 months Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 according to internet usage Women Men Characteristics of Respondents • 29 ▪ Urban women and men are much more likely than rural women and men to have used the internet in the past 12 months. ▪ Ninety-four percent of women and 90% of men with higher level education have ever used the internet. ▪ The percentages of women and men using the internet in the past 12 months increases steadily by wealth quintile. Only 11% of men in the lowest wealth quintile uses the internet in the past 12 months. The percentage increased to 75% for men in the highest wealth quintile. Access to mass media for women and married men by province is shown in Table A-3.4.1 and Table A-3.4.2. Appendix Table A-3.5.1 and Table A-3.5.2 show internet usage among women and married men by province. 3.4 EMPLOYMENT Currently employed Respondents who were employed in the 7 days before the survey, including respondents who weren’t employed in the 7 days before the survey but were employed in the 7 months before the survey. Sample: Women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 Employment status for women and men can be seen in Table 3.6.1 and Table 3.6.2. In the 2017 IDHS, female respondents consisted of all single and married women age 15-49. Male respondents were currently married men age 15-54. Because more women are young and single, it is possible more women currently attend school than men, and those who attend school are not categorized as currently employed. Thus, the overview of women who are currently employed will differ from that for men. Patterns by background characteristics Overall, women age 15-49 are less likely to be employed than currently married men age 15-54 (53% and 98%, respectively). The percentage of women who are currently employed increases with increasing age, from 23% among women age 15-19 to 68% among women age 45-49. Divorced, separated, or widowed women are more likely to be employed than those who are currently married and those who have never been married. The percentage is 78% compared with 56% and 51%. Among women age 15-49, the more living children they have, the higher is the percentage of women who are currently employed. There are no notable variations in the proportion of currently employed men by number of living children (more than 90% for all of the age group). Fifty-five percent of urban women and 52% of rural women are currently employed. There is no difference by place of residence among men who are currently employed; the percentage is 98% for both urban and rural male residents (Figure 3.8). Figure 3.8 Employment by residence 53 55 52 98 98 98 Total Urban Rural Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 who are currently employed Women Men 30 • Characteristics of Respondents Figure 3.9 Employment by education The highest percentages of women who are currently employed are women with no education (68%) and women with more than secondary education (66%). The highest percentages of men who are currently employed are men with a secondary or higher level of education. That percentage is 98% (Figure 3.9). There are no notable variations in the proportion of currently employed women and men by wealth quintile (Figure 3.10). 3.5 OCCUPATION Occupation Categorized as professional/technical/managerial, clerical, sales, agricultural worker, industrial worker, and services. Sample: Women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 who were currently employed or who had worked in the 12 months before the survey. Figure 3.11 shows that women were most likely to be employed in sales in the 12 months before the survey. One in three women (32%) was employed in sales. In contrast, men are most likely to be employed as industrial (27%) or agricultural workers (26%). Only 7% of men and 5% of women work in clerical jobs. Patterns by background characteristics The percentage of women who work in sales is the highest percentage among occupations in every age group. More women age 15-19 are employed in sales (41%) than in any other profession. 68 61 55 40 57 66 95 98 97 98 98 98 No education Some primary Completed primary Some secondary Completed secondary More than secondary Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 who are currently employed Women Men Figure 3.10 Employment by wealth 52 48 51 55 59 97 99 97 98 98 Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 who are currently employed Women Men WealthiestPoorest Characteristics of Respondents • 31 Most men work in industry and agriculture. The distribution of percentages for the occupation is wide. Men age 50-54 are more likely than other age groups to be employed in agriculture (36%). Meanwhile men age 20-24 are most likely to be employed in industry (32%). Among women married or living together, clerical work is least popular. Only 6% of women married or living together are engaged in clerical work. Among women, the likelihood of working in agriculture increases with the number of living children. But employment in professional, technical, managerial, clerical, industrial, and service jobs declines with an increase in the number of living children. Sixteen percent of women with no children work in professional, technical, and managerial jobs. In contrast, only 4% of women with five children work in professional, technical, and managerial positions. Among men, the likelihood of working in agriculture increases with an increase in the number of living children. But employment in clerical and industrial fields declines with an increase in the number of living children. Twenty-nine percent of men with no children work in industry. In contrast, 21% of men with five children work in industry. Urban women are most likely to be employed in sales (37%). Urban men are most likely to be employed in industry. Only 16% of urban women work in industry. More than 60% of women and men who are engaged in agricultural work have no education. More than half of women and men who work in agriculture are in the lowest wealth quintile. 3.6 TYPE OF WOMEN’S EMPLOYMENT Figure 3.12 shows that 76% of women are paid in cash only, 19% are unpaid, 4% are paid in cash and in-kind., and only 1% are paid in-kind only. Furthermore, more than half of women engaged in agricultural work are unpaid workers, most likely employed by family members at the peak of the agricultural season. Fifty-six percent of women engaged in agriculture are employed by family members. One in three women (30%) engaged in agriculture is a seasonal employee (Table 3.8). Figure 3.11 Occupation Figure 3.12 Type of earnings 11 7 32 20 14 16 9 5 15 26 27 18 Professional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales Agriculture worker Industrial worker Services Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 employed in the 12 months before the survey by occupation Women Men Cash only 76% Cash and in-kind 4% In-kind only 1% Not paid 19% Percentage of women age 15-49 by type of earnings 32 • Characteristics of Respondents 3.7 HEALTH INSURANCE COVERAGE Health insurance Health insurance has government and private sources. The program of health insurance from the government is described as follows: ▪ JKN/BPJS PBI is subsidized health insurance. ▪ JKN/BPJS Non PBI is non-subsidized health insurance. ▪ Regional health insurance in Indonesia is known as Jamkesda. Sample: Women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 Access to health services will be better when more people have health insurance. This is in line with the government targets in health insurance that are cited in the national medium-term development plan (RPJMN) 2015-2019. One government goal is to increase the percentage of people who participate in health insurance through the National Social Security System in Health, until at least 95% are covered in 2019 (The First Book of RPJMN, page 6-75). The 2017 IDHS collects information on health insurance; Table 3.9.1 and Table 3.9.2 show health insurance coverage by background characteristics. Figure 3.13 shows that 31% of women and 28% of men have health security insurance. Twenty-two percent of women and 23% of men have health security insurance non contribution. Compare with government target in the beginning of 2019, this percentage is still far enough. Almost half of men and women don’t have health insurance. Figure 3.13 Health insurance coverage Trends: Health insurance coverage had changed by 2017. Sixty-three percent of women didn’t have health insurance in the 2012 SDKI, which had declined to 42% in the 2017 SDKI. As with women, the percentage of men who lacked health insurance decreased from 69% to 43% in the last 5 years. Patterns by background characteristics The percentages of rural women (36%) and men (31%) who have subsidized health insurance are higher than in urban areas (27% and 25%). However, urban women and men are much more likely than women and men in 31 22 1 4 3 <1 42 28 23 1 4 4 <1 43 Subsidized insurance (JKN/BPJS PBI) Non subsidized insurance (JKN/BPJS Non PBI) Employer- based insurance Regional health insurance Private health insurance Other None Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 with specific types of health insurance Women Men Characteristics of Respondents • 33 rural areas to have nonsubsidized health insurance. One in three women and men in urban areas have nonsubsidized health insurance. Rural women and men are much more likely than women and men in urban areas to have no health insurance. Forty-seven percent of women and 50% of men in rural areas don’t have health insurance. Women and men in the lowest wealth quintile are most likely to have subsidized health insurance (50% and 45%, respectively). 3.8 TOBACCO USE Tobacco use Respondents were asked about smoking cigarettes or other types of tobacco. Smoking in this survey includes daily and occasional use. Sample: Women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 Smoking has a negative effect on health, even for the passive smoker. To estimate tobacco consumption, 2017 IDHS respondents provided information about tobacco consumption. Figure 3.14 shows that cigarette smoking and use of any type of tobacco are rare among women (less than 3%). Three in four men use tobacco, and almost all smoke cigarettes. Trends: There has been no change in women and men who are cigarette smokers in the last 5 years. In both the 2012 IDHS and the 2017 IDHS, 2% of women and 72% of men are cigarette smokers. Patterns by background characteristics Using of tobacco decreases as education grows among women. Eight percent of women with no education are smoking cigarettes, but only 1% of women with higher level education are smoking them. For men, there is no variation in percentage of smokers by education (Table 3.10.1 and Table 3.10.2). Rural men are much more likely to smoke than urban men. Seventy-six percent of rural men and 68% of urban men smoke cigarettes. The proportion of women and men who smoke cigarettes decreases with increasing wealth. Eighty-two percent of men in the lowest wealth quintile smoke cigarettes compared with 58% of men in the highest quintile. Figure 3.14 Tobacco smoking 2 3 72 1 72 Cigarettes Other type of tobacco Any type of tobacco Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 who use tobacco products Women Men 0 34 • Characteristics of Respondents LIST OF TABLES For more information on the characteristics of survey respondents, see the following tables: ▪ Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents ▪ Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment: Women ▪ Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: Currently married men ▪ Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women ▪ Table 3.3.2 Literacy: Currently married men ▪ Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women ▪ Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: Currently married men ▪ Table 3.5.1 Internet usage: Women ▪ Table 3.5.2 Internet usage: Currently married men ▪ Table 3.6.1 Employment status: Women ▪ Table 3.6.2 Employment status: Currently married men ▪ Table 3.7.1 Occupation: Women ▪ Table 3.7.2 Occupation: Currently married men ▪ Table 3.8 Type of employment: Women ▪ Table 3.9.1 Health insurance coverage: Women ▪ Table 3.9.2 Health insurance coverage: Currently married men ▪ Table 3.10.1 Tobacco smoking: Women ▪ Table 3.10.2 Tobacco smoking: Currently married men Characteristics of Respondents • 35 Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 by selected background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Women Currently married men1 Weighted percent Weighted number Unweighted number Weighted percent Weighted number Unweighted number Age 15-19 15.1 7,501 7,936 0.3 29 31 20-24 13.5 6,716 6,830 3.3 329 337 25-29 13.4 6,643 6,785 10.2 1,016 1,042 30-34 14.4 7,154 7,190 15.9 1,593 1,644 35-39 15.8 7,865 7,611 18.3 1,837 1,879 40-44 14.3 7,093 7,010 18.6 1,860 1,828 45-49 13.4 6,655 6,265 18.2 1,824 1,766 50-54 na na na 15.2 1,521 1,482 Marital status Never married 23.3 11,582 12,701 0.0 0 0 Married 71.5 35,479 34,086 99.6 9,973 9,941 Living together 0.4 201 381 0.4 36 68 Divorced/separated 3.0 1,488 1,532 0.0 0 0 Widowed 1.8 877 927 0.0 0 0 Residence Urban 51.5 25,543 26,425 49.0 4,901 5,054 Rural 48.5 24,084 23,202 51.0 5,108 4,955 Education No education 1.7 823 904 1.9 186 204 Some primary 8.0 3,968 4,036 12.0 1,205 1,208 Completed primary 19.3 9,595 8,223 22.0 2,206 1,883 Some secondary 30.1 14,925 14,423 21.5 2,154 2,202 Completed secondary 25.3 12,575 12,917 29.8 2,978 3,074 More than secondary 15.6 7,741 9,124 12.8 1,279 1,438 Wealth quintile Lowest 17.1 8,464 11,025 17.6 1,757 2,264 Second 19.2 9,507 9,484 20.0 2,002 1,977 Middle 20.3 10,089 9,453 20.9 2,094 1,964 Fourth 21.3 10,583 9,686 20.6 2,058 1,898 Highest 22.1 10,984 9,979 21.0 2,097 1,906 Total 100.0 49,627 49,627 100.0 10,009 10,009 Note: Education categories refer to the highest level of education attended, whether or not that level was completed. 1 Includes men who are married or are living together with a partner. na = Not applicable 36 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.2.1 Educational attainment: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Highest level of schooling Total Median years completed Number of women No education Some primary Completed primary1 Some secondary Completed secondary2 More than secondary Age 15-24 0.4 2.0 6.3 46.6 25.9 18.8 100.0 10.6 14,217 15-19 0.3 1.6 4.2 68.1 16.4 9.4 100.0 9.8 7,501 20-24 0.6 2.4 8.7 22.6 36.5 29.3 100.0 11.4 6,716 25-29 0.8 5.0 14.6 27.3 30.4 22.0 100.0 11.1 6,643 30-34 0.9 7.1 20.1 27.6 27.1 17.2 100.0 8.8 7,154 35-39 1.6 9.9 26.2 24.8 24.8 12.7 100.0 8.5 7,865 40-44 2.2 12.0 31.4 21.2 23.1 10.0 100.0 8.1 7,093 45-49 5.4 18.3 30.0 15.9 20.4 9.9 100.0 5.9 6,655 Residence Urban 0.7 5.1 13.6 28.0 31.7 20.8 100.0 11.1 25,543 Rural 2.6 11.1 25.4 32.3 18.6 10.1 100.0 8.3 24,084 Wealth quintile Lowest 5.8 18.3 29.9 31.0 11.7 3.3 100.0 5.8 8,464 Second 1.7 10.8 27.2 35.2 18.6 6.5 100.0 8.3 9,507 Middle 1.0 7.5 21.7 34.1 27.0 8.7 100.0 8.7 10,089 Fourth 0.4 4.4 15.1 30.1 34.2 15.9 100.0 11.0 10,583 Highest 0.2 1.6 6.4 21.2 31.6 39.0 100.0 11.6 10,984 Total 1.7 8.0 19.3 30.1 25.3 15.6 100.0 8.9 49,627 1 Completed 6th grade at the primary level 2 Completed 6th grade at the secondary level Table 3.2.2 Educational attainment: Currently married men Percent distribution of currently married men age 15-54 by highest level of schooling attended or completed, and median years completed, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Highest level of schooling Total Median years completed Number of men No education Some primary Completed primary1 Some secondary Completed secondary2 More than secondary Age 15-24 1.4 7.8 16.9 29.0 39.1 5.7 100.0 8.9 358 15-19 (9.1) (4.9) (28.3) (41.6) (15.7) (0.4) 100.0 (8.2) 29 20-24 0.8 8.1 15.9 27.8 41.2 6.2 100.0 9.4 329 25-29 0.5 5.7 15.5 24.3 39.4 14.7 100.0 11.1 1,016 30-34 0.4 7.7 17.9 26.5 32.6 14.8 100.0 9.1 1,593 35-39 0.8 10.4 22.5 23.5 30.3 12.5 100.0 8.7 1,837 40-44 1.3 11.2 27.0 20.6 27.6 12.4 100.0 8.5 1,860 45-49 2.4 12.3 24.5 20.1 29.3 11.4 100.0 8.5 1,824 50-54 5.7 24.4 22.4 13.2 20.7 13.6 100.0 5.9 1,521 Residence Urban 0.9 7.3 15.5 19.7 38.1 18.4 100.0 11.2 4,901 Rural 2.8 16.5 28.3 23.3 21.7 7.4 100.0 6.9 5,108 Wealth quintile Lowest 6.1 26.2 32.9 21.0 11.3 2.6 100.0 5.5 1,757 Second 1.7 16.3 32.3 27.1 19.4 3.1 100.0 6.0 2,002 Middle 1.2 11.6 25.2 26.7 30.6 4.7 100.0 8.4 2,094 Fourth 0.8 6.4 15.0 22.9 42.6 12.3 100.0 11.1 2,058 Highest 0.2 2.0 6.9 10.2 41.6 39.2 100.0 11.7 2,097 Total 1.9 12.0 22.0 21.5 29.8 12.8 100.0 8.7 10,009 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Completed 6th grade at the primary level 2 Completed 6th grade at the secondary level Characteristics of Respondents • 37 Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by level of schooling attended and level of literacy, and percentage literate, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Secondary schooling or higher No schooling or primary school Total Percent- age literate1 Number of women Can read a whole sentence Can read part of a sentence Cannot read at all Blind/ visually impaired Missing Age 15-24 91.3 7.3 0.6 0.8 0.0 0.1 100.0 99.2 14,217 15-19 93.8 5.0 0.6 0.5 0.0 0.1 100.0 99.4 7,501 20-24 88.4 9.9 0.6 1.1 0.0 0.1 100.0 98.9 6,716 25-29 79.6 17.1 1.2 1.8 0.0 0.2 100.0 98.0 6,643 30-34 71.9 23.4 1.8 2.5 0.1 0.3 100.0 97.2 7,154 35-39 62.3 30.6 2.8 3.9 0.1 0.4 100.0 95.6 7,865 40-44 54.4 36.0 3.8 5.2 0.3 0.3 100.0 94.2 7,093 45-49 46.3 36.6 5.1 10.6 0.9 0.5 100.0 88.0 6,655 Residence Urban 80.5 16.1 1.3 1.8 0.1 0.2 100.0 97.9 25,543 Rural 60.9 29.6 3.3 5.5 0.3 0.3 100.0 93.8 24,084 Wealth quintile Lowest 46.0 35.8 5.7 11.6 0.4 0.4 100.0 87.5 8,464 Second 60.3 32.1 2.7 4.2 0.3 0.4 100.0 95.2 9,507 Middle 69.8 25.4 1.9 2.4 0.2 0.2 100.0 97.2 10,089 Fourth 80.2 17.0 1.3 1.1 0.2 0.2 100.0 98.5 10,583 Highest 91.8 7.2 0.4 0.4 0.0 0.1 100.0 99.5 10,984 Total 71.0 22.7 2.3 3.6 0.2 0.3 100.0 95.9 49,627 1 Refers to women who attended schooling higher than the secondary level and women who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence Table 3.3.2 Literacy: Currently married men Percent distribution of currently married men age 15-54 by level of schooling attended and level of literacy, and percentage literate, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Secondary schooling or higher No schooling or primary school Total Percent- age literate1 Number of men Can read a whole sentence Can read part of a sentence Cannot read at all Blind/ visually impaired Missing Age 15-24 73.8 22.9 1.1 2.2 0.0 0.0 100.0 97.8 358 15-19 (57.7) (32.7) (4.9) (4.7) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (95.3) 29 20-24 75.2 22.1 0.7 2.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 98.0 329 25-29 78.4 18.3 1.3 1.6 0.0 0.4 100.0 98.0 1,016 30-34 74.0 22.4 2.0 1.6 0.0 0.1 100.0 98.3 1,593 35-39 66.2 28.2 3.2 2.0 0.0 0.4 100.0 97.6 1,837 40-44 60.5 33.2 2.8 2.9 0.3 0.4 100.0 96.5 1,860 45-49 60.8 29.3 4.5 4.8 0.4 0.2 100.0 94.6 1,824 50-54 47.5 32.5 9.3 9.3 1.2 0.2 100.0 89.3 1,521 Residence Urban 76.2 19.4 2.1 2.0 0.2 0.1 100.0 97.7 4,901 Rural 52.4 36.0 5.4 5.3 0.4 0.4 100.0 93.9 5,108 Wealth quintile Lowest 34.9 43.8 8.3 11.8 0.7 0.5 100.0 87.0 1,757 Second 49.6 40.5 5.1 3.9 0.6 0.3 100.0 95.3 2,002 Middle 61.9 31.0 4.2 2.5 0.3 0.1 100.0 97.1 2,094 Fourth 77.8 19.6 1.4 0.9 0.1 0.3 100.0 98.7 2,058 Highest 91.0 7.4 0.8 0.5 0.1 0.2 100.0 99.2 2,097 Total 64.1 27.9 3.8 3.7 0.3 0.3 100.0 95.7 10,009 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Refers to men who attended schooling higher than the secondary level and men who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence 38 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.4.1 Exposure to mass media: Women Percentage of women age 15-49 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Accesses all three media at least once a week Accesses none of the three media at least once a week Number of women Age 15-19 11.7 82.1 14.4 3.0 14.2 7,501 20-24 12.9 82.5 15.4 3.2 13.8 6,716 25-29 11.3 84.7 13.6 3.1 12.9 6,643 30-34 9.6 84.8 12.7 2.6 12.7 7,154 35-39 8.8 85.3 12.4 2.7 13.1 7,865 40-44 8.7 84.9 13.4 2.5 12.9 7,093 45-49 7.1 82.0 13.3 2.1 16.0 6,655 Residence Urban 13.8 85.2 15.8 3.8 11.3 25,543 Rural 6.0 82.2 11.3 1.6 16.1 24,084 Education No education 0.3 51.9 6.9 0.0 46.6 823 Some primary 1.4 77.2 8.2 0.3 21.8 3,968 Completed primary 2.2 83.8 10.5 0.7 14.9 9,595 Some secondary 6.2 85.7 13.0 1.5 12.2 14,925 Completed secondary 11.4 87.1 15.1 3.2 10.5 12,575 More than secondary 30.3 81.5 19.6 8.5 12.2 7,741 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.0 67.6 8.8 0.7 30.0 8,464 Second 4.9 87.0 12.0 1.4 11.4 9,507 Middle 7.4 89.0 12.6 1.9 9.3 10,089 Fourth 10.6 88.7 14.3 2.6 9.0 10,583 Highest 21.6 83.9 19.0 6.5 11.4 10,984 Total 10.0 83.8 13.6 2.8 13.6 49,627 Characteristics of Respondents • 39 Table 3.4.2 Exposure to mass media: Currently married men Percentage of currently married men age 15-54 who are exposed to specific media on a weekly basis, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Reads a newspaper at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Accesses all three media at least once a week Accesses none of the three media at least once a week Number of men Age 15-19 (0.0) (76.0) (4.6) (0.0) (24.0) 29 20-24 10.7 85.4 15.8 3.4 12.9 329 25-29 13.3 85.6 16.1 3.0 12.3 1,016 30-34 15.8 84.0 16.7 4.2 13.2 1,593 35-39 16.1 84.1 17.4 5.2 13.6 1,837 40-44 15.1 86.0 18.4 5.2 11.9 1,860 45-49 14.9 85.6 15.4 3.4 11.8 1,824 50-54 14.8 82.9 17.3 4.2 14.1 1,521 Residence Urban 19.9 85.9 19.7 5.7 10.8 4,901 Rural 10.1 83.6 14.2 2.9 14.8 5,108 Education No education 0.4 54.8 9.0 0.2 42.0 186 Some primary 3.0 79.5 13.0 1.2 18.1 1,205 Completed primary 4.8 85.2 14.7 1.8 13.4 2,206 Some secondary 9.4 86.7 16.6 2.5 11.7 2,154 Completed secondary 19.8 86.8 17.7 5.2 10.8 2,978 More than secondary 43.6 84.8 24.0 12.7 9.4 1,279 Wealth quintile Lowest 4.8 69.8 12.0 1.7 27.2 1,757 Second 8.4 86.7 14.7 2.6 11.9 2,002 Middle 10.9 89.5 16.2 3.0 9.3 2,094 Fourth 15.4 88.5 18.4 4.2 8.9 2,058 Highest 33.1 86.7 22.3 9.4 9.3 2,097 Total 14.9 84.7 16.9 4.3 12.9 10,009 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 40 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.5.1 Internet usage: Women Percentage of women age 15-49 who have ever used the internet, and percentage who have used the internet in the past 12 months; and among women who have used the internet in the past 12 months, percent distribution by frequency of internet use in the past month, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Ever used the internet Used the internet in the past 12 months Number Among respondents who have used the internet in the past 12 months, percentage who, in the past month, used internet: Almost every day At least once a week Less than once a week Not at all Missing Total Number Age 15-19 84.8 83.3 7,501 74.9 18.6 5.6 0.8 0.1 100.0 6,246 20-24 78.4 76.6 6,716 79.1 14.8 5.0 1.0 0.1 100.0 5,146 25-29 60.8 58.9 6,643 76.1 16.6 5.9 1.3 0.1 100.0 3,913 30-34 45.9 44.4 7,154 75.2 17.8 5.3 1.6 0.1 100.0 3,174 35-39 33.5 32.3 7,865 78.8 15.9 4.2 1.1 0.1 100.0 2,543 40-44 25.2 24.2 7,093 79.0 14.9 4.6 1.3 0.2 100.0 1,717 45-49 18.7 17.6 6,655 79.9 15.1 4.4 0.5 0.1 100.0 1,169 Residence Urban 62.8 61.5 25,543 83.4 12.9 3.0 0.6 0.1 100.0 15,701 Rural 35.6 34.1 24,084 64.7 23.8 9.5 2.0 0.1 100.0 8,207 Education No education 1.2 1.1 823 * * * * * * 9 Some primary 6.2 5.8 3,968 60.4 25.5 11.5 2.6 0.0 100.0 232 Completed primary 12.8 11.7 9,595 60.8 26.3 10.1 2.5 0.3 100.0 1,121 Some secondary 50.8 48.8 14,925 68.8 22.8 6.8 1.5 0.1 100.0 7,278 Completed secondary 66.1 64.4 12,575 77.2 16.5 5.1 1.0 0.1 100.0 8,100 More than secondary 93.5 92.6 7,741 88.0 8.8 2.7 0.5 0.1 100.0 7,168 Wealth quintile Lowest 19.9 18.5 8,464 44.3 33.7 19.0 3.1 0.0 100.0 1,566 Second 34.7 32.9 9,507 60.2 27.1 10.2 2.4 0.2 100.0 3,125 Middle 45.7 44.0 10,089 70.7 21.1 6.8 1.3 0.1 100.0 4,441 Fourth 58.6 57.3 10,583 79.6 15.8 3.6 0.8 0.1 100.0 6,061 Highest 80.3 79.3 10,984 90.2 8.1 1.2 0.3 0.2 100.0 8,715 Total 49.6 48.2 49,627 77.0 16.6 5.2 1.1 0.1 100.0 23,908 Note: An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Characteristics of Respondents • 41 Table 3.5.2 Internet usage: Currently married men Percentage of currently married men age 15-54 who have ever used the internet ever, and percentage who have used the internet in the past 12 months; and among currently married men who have used the internet in the past 12 months, percent distribution by frequency of internet use in the past month, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Ever used the internet Used the internet in the past 12 months Number Among respondents who have used the internet in the past 12 months, percentage who, in the past month, used internet: Almost every day At least once a week Less than once a week Not at all Missing Total Number Age 15-19 (30.7) (23.3) 29 * * * * * * 7 20-24 63.6 62.0 329 68.5 22.0 8.0 1.5 0.0 100.0 204 25-29 67.4 64.6 1,016 72.4 21.3 4.8 1.5 0.0 100.0 656 30-34 56.4 53.7 1,593 73.8 17.2 6.9 1.9 0.2 100.0 856 35-39 46.1 44.4 1,837 75.4 19.3 4.4 0.9 0.0 100.0 815 40-44 34.6 33.4 1,860 77.3 18.3 3.1 1.3 0.0 100.0 621 45-49 25.3 24.7 1,824 80.3 16.0 3.0 0.7 0.0 100.0 450 50-54 18.4 18.2 1,521 77.7 18.6 3.1 0.0 0.5 100.0 276 Residence Urban 54.3 53.0 4,901 81.6 14.4 3.2 0.7 0.1 100.0 2,597 Rural 26.9 25.2 5,108 62.3 27.6 7.9 2.2 0.0 100.0 1,289 Education No education 2.1 2.1 186 * * * * * * 4 Some primary 5.9 5.3 1,205 54.3 34.8 7.5 3.4 0.0 100.0 64 Completed primary 13.8 13.0 2,206 58.9 30.1 8.1 2.9 0.0 100.0 288 Some secondary 33.0 30.6 2,154 59.5 29.7 8.2 2.7 0.0 100.0 660 Completed secondary 60.1 58.1 2,978 76.5 18.1 4.3 1.0 0.1 100.0 1,730 More than secondary 89.9 89.0 1,279 87.5 9.5 2.6 0.2 0.1 100.0 1,139 Wealth quintile Lowest 12.3 10.8 1,757 34.5 41.1 19.8 4.5 0.0 100.0 189 Second 23.0 21.1 2,002 54.3 33.7 9.6 2.4 0.0 100.0 423 Middle 33.7 32.4 2,094 68.3 22.9 6.7 1.9 0.2 100.0 679 Fourth 51.1 49.3 2,058 75.2 19.3 4.2 1.3 0.0 100.0 1,014 Highest 76.2 75.4 2,097 88.5 10.0 1.2 0.2 0.1 100.0 1,581 Total 40.3 38.8 10,009 75.2 18.8 4.8 1.2 0.1 100.0 3,886 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. An asterisk indicates that a figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. 42 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.6.1 Employment status: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by employment status, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Missing/ don't know Total Number of women Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 23.1 5.5 71.3 0.0 100.0 7,501 20-24 48.4 9.5 42.1 0.0 100.0 6,716 25-29 53.2 7.5 39.2 0.0 100.0 6,643 30-34 55.6 5.5 38.9 0.0 100.0 7,154 35-39 60.5 4.8 34.7 0.0 100.0 7,865 40-44 65.9 4.5 29.6 0.0 100.0 7,093 45-49 67.9 4.4 27.8 0.0 100.0 6,655 Marital status Never married 40.7 6.0 53.3 0.0 100.0 11,582 Married or living together 55.7 5.9 38.4 0.0 100.0 35,681 Divorced/separated/widowed 78.0 5.6 16.4 0.0 100.0 2,365 Number of living children 0 44.0 7.2 48.8 0.0 100.0 14,503 1-2 55.8 5.8 38.4 0.0 100.0 23,825 3-4 59.4 4.5 36.0 0.0 100.0 9,646 5+ 62.0 4.8 33.2 0.0 100.0 1,654 Residence Urban 54.7 5.2 40.1 0.0 100.0 25,543 Rural 51.8 6.7 41.5 0.0 100.0 24,084 Education No education 67.8 7.1 25.1 0.0 100.0 823 Some primary 61.1 6.3 32.6 0.0 100.0 3,968 Completed primary 55.1 6.1 38.8 0.0 100.0 9,595 Some secondary 39.8 5.5 54.7 0.0 100.0 14,925 Completed secondary 56.5 6.8 36.6 0.0 100.0 12,575 More than secondary 66.3 4.7 29.0 0.0 100.0 7,741 Wealth quintile Lowest 52.2 7.3 40.5 0.0 100.0 8,464 Second 47.9 7.3 44.8 0.0 100.0 9,507 Middle 51.4 6.2 42.4 0.0 100.0 10,089 Fourth 54.8 5.4 39.8 0.0 100.0 10,583 Highest 59.2 3.8 37.0 0.0 100.0 10,984 Total 53.3 5.9 40.8 0.0 100.0 49,627 1 Currently employed is defined as having done work in the past 7 days. Includes persons who did not work in the past 7 days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reason. Characteristics of Respondents • 43 Table 3.6.2 Employment status: Currently married men Percent distribution of currently married men age 15-54 by employment status, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Missing/ don't know Total Number of men Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 (85.9) (0.0) (14.1) (0.0) 100.0 29 20-24 98.1 1.6 0.3 0.0 100.0 329 25-29 97.3 2.6 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,016 30-34 99.1 0.8 0.1 0.0 100.0 1,593 35-39 98.5 1.4 0.0 0.0 100.0 1,837 40-44 98.2 1.4 0.4 0.0 100.0 1,860 45-49 98.5 1.3 0.2 0.0 100.0 1,824 50-54 95.1 2.3 2.6 0.0 100.0 1,521 Number of living children 0 97.1 2.1 0.8 0.0 100.0 796 1-2 98.1 1.5 0.4 0.0 100.0 6,099 3-4 97.7 1.5 0.8 0.0 100.0 2,614 5+ 96.5 1.9 1.6 0.0 100.0 500 Residence Urban 97.5 1.9 0.7 0.0 100.0 4,901 Rural 98.2 1.2 0.5 0.0 100.0 5,108 Education No education 95.2 0.7 4.1 0.0 100.0 186 Some primary 98.2 1.4 0.4 0.0 100.0 1,205 Completed primary 97.3 1.9 0.8 0.0 100.0 2,206 Some secondary 97.9 1.6 0.6 0.0 100.0 2,154 Completed secondary 98.0 1.5 0.4 0.0 100.0 2,978 More than secondary 98.4 1.2 0.3 0.0 100.0 1,279 Wealth quintile Lowest 97.0 2.0 0.9 0.0 100.0 1,757 Second 98.6 1.1 0.2 0.0 100.0 2,002 Middle 97.3 2.2 0.5 0.0 100.0 2,094 Fourth 98.0 1.4 0.6 0.0 100.0 2,058 Highest 98.3 1.1 0.7 0.0 100.0 2,097 Total 97.9 1.6 0.6 0.0 100.0 10,009 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Currently employed is defined as having done work in the past 7 days. Includes persons who did not work in the past 7 days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reason. 44 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.7.1 Occupation: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Profes- sional/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales Agricultural worker Industrial worker Services Missing Total Number of women Age 15-19 5.9 4.7 40.9 13.3 14.7 20.2 0.2 100.0 2,152 20-24 14.1 11.5 30.2 8.5 18.2 17.0 0.4 100.0 3,887 25-29 17.0 10.1 27.6 14.2 15.5 15.0 0.5 100.0 4,034 30-34 14.1 8.0 30.5 18.5 14.0 14.7 0.2 100.0 4,369 35-39 9.7 5.2 33.2 21.7 15.0 14.8 0.4 100.0 5,135 40-44 7.6 4.2 32.2 27.1 12.9 15.8 0.1 100.0 4,992 45-49 7.8 4.0 31.7 30.8 10.8 14.7 0.2 100.0 4,808 Marital status Never married 15.7 12.2 30.8 7.4 14.6 18.8 0.5 100.0 5,411 Married or living together 10.2 5.5 32.1 23.7 14.3 14.0 0.2 100.0 21,990 Divorced/separated/widowed 6.9 5.7 30.5 17.7 13.3 25.5 0.5 100.0 1,976 Number of living children 0 15.7 11.9 29.6 9.5 15.0 18.0 0.4 100.0 7,425 1-2 10.7 6.1 31.1 21.0 15.7 15.2 0.2 100.0 14,680 3-4 7.4 3.1 36.3 27.2 11.1 14.5 0.4 100.0 6,167 5+ 3.8 1.7 30.1 43.8 7.8 12.4 0.4 100.0 1,105 Residence Urban 12.8 9.8 36.8 4.5 16.0 19.9 0.2 100.0 15,288 Rural 9.1 3.4 26.3 37.4 12.5 11.0 0.4 100.0 14,089 Education No education 0.2 0.2 14.1 63.3 11.9 10.2 0.1 100.0 616 Some primary 0.3 0.4 24.9 46.9 11.3 15.7 0.4 100.0 2,673 Completed primary 0.6 0.2 30.0 35.5 15.4 18.0 0.2 100.0 5,870 Some secondary 2.0 0.9 38.4 21.3 19.1 18.1 0.2 100.0 6,756 Completed secondary 7.0 9.3 41.1 8.7 17.4 16.2 0.3 100.0 7,966 More than secondary 45.2 21.0 17.3 1.7 4.4 9.9 0.4 100.0 5,496 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.0 1.4 15.3 56.7 10.9 12.3 0.3 100.0 5,035 Second 5.4 2.6 28.8 29.4 16.7 16.7 0.3 100.0 5,244 Middle 7.7 4.5 37.6 15.9 17.6 16.5 0.2 100.0 5,804 Fourth 13.2 7.0 40.2 7.3 17.0 15.0 0.3 100.0 6,375 Highest 21.7 15.4 33.4 2.3 9.6 17.2 0.3 100.0 6,918 Total 11.0 6.7 31.8 20.3 14.3 15.7 0.3 100.0 29,377 Characteristics of Respondents • 45 Table 3.7.2 Occupation: Currently married men Percent distribution of currently married men age 15-54 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Profess- tonal/ technical/ managerial Clerical Sales Agricultural worker Industrial worker Services Missing Total Number of men Age 15-19 (0.0) (0.0) (19.0) (59.9) (14.6) (6.5) (0.0) 100.0 25 20-24 3.6 4.6 13.2 26.5 32.1 19.5 0.5 100.0 328 25-29 8.6 6.5 16.9 19.3 31.1 17.2 0.4 100.0 1,016 30-34 9.8 5.7 14.6 21.7 27.9 19.3 1.1 100.0 1,592 35-39 9.4 5.1 13.1 23.1 29.2 19.3 0.8 100.0 1,836 40-44 7.8 3.9 16.4 25.2 27.8 18.2 0.6 100.0 1,853 45-49 7.7 4.8 14.5 30.8 25.2 16.2 0.8 100.0 1,819 50-54 10.4 4.4 14.0 35.6 20.7 14.8 0.2 100.0 1,482 Number of living children 0 9.7 7.0 16.0 20.2 29.2 17.6 0.2 100.0 789 1-2 8.6 4.8 14.3 24.8 28.7 18.1 0.8 100.0 6,076 3-4 9.2 4.7 16.1 28.6 23.5 17.3 0.7 100.0 2,593 5+ 6.3 4.1 11.3 44.4 20.6 13.2 0.1 100.0 492 Residence Urban 11.6 6.8 19.0 8.4 30.4 22.9 0.9 100.0 4,869 Rural 6.0 3.1 10.6 43.6 23.7 12.6 0.5 100.0 5,081 Education No education 0.0 0.7 9.0 67.9 17.5 4.4 0.5 100.0 179 Some primary 0.9 0.2 11.5 48.2 27.5 11.6 0.2 100.0 1,200 Completed primary 1.7 0.3 12.0 38.1 32.0 15.8 0.1 100.0 2,189 Some secondary 3.0 1.4 15.9 28.9 30.2 20.4 0.2 100.0 2,142 Completed secondary 9.0 6.5 18.5 13.8 28.2 22.4 1.7 100.0 2,965 More than secondary 38.2 20.2 12.7 4.8 10.9 12.5 0.7 100.0 1,275 Wealth quintile Lowest 2.0 1.3 5.9 56.6 20.5 13.6 0.1 100.0 1,741 Second 4.1 1.6 10.6 38.0 29.3 16.1 0.3 100.0 1,998 Middle 4.4 2.7 16.4 23.7 33.3 19.0 0.5 100.0 2,083 Fourth 10.5 5.4 18.9 13.5 30.7 20.5 0.6 100.0 2,046 Highest 21.3 12.9 20.3 5.3 20.2 18.3 1.7 100.0 2,082 Total 8.7 4.9 14.7 26.4 27.0 17.6 0.7 100.0 9,950 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 46 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.8 Type of employment: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by type of earnings, type of employer, and continuity of employment, according to type of employment (agricultural or nonagricultural), Indonesia DHS 2017 Employment characteristic Agricultural work Non- agricultural work Missing Total Type of earnings Cash only 40.7 85.1 65.0 76.1 Cash and in-kind 4.9 3.6 5.2 3.8 In-kind only 3.1 0.1 0.0 0.7 Not paid 51.2 11.1 22.3 19.3 Missing 0.2 0.1 7.5 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Type of employer Employed by family member 55.5 12.3 18.3 21.1 Employed by nonfamily member 28.4 55.8 58.5 50.3 Self-employed 15.8 31.8 14.6 28.5 Missing 0.2 0.1 8.5 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Continuity of employment All year 62.2 92.2 81.2 86.1 Seasonal 30.4 3.2 3.6 8.7 Occasional 7.1 4.5 5.5 5.0 Missing 0.3 0.1 9.6 0.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of women employed during the last 12 months 5,949 23,342 87 29,377 Note: Total includes women with missing information on type of employment who are not shown separately. Characteristics of Respondents • 47 Table 3.9.1 Health insurance coverage: Women Percentage of women age 15-49 with specific types of health insurance coverage, and percentage with any health insurance, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Subsidized health insurance (JKN/BPJS PBI)1 Nonsubsidi zed health insurance, (JKN/ Non PBI)2 Employer- based insurance Regional health insurance (Jamkesda)3 Private health insurance Other None Any health insurance Number of women Age 15-19 35.2 17.3 0.3 3.2 1.7 0.1 43.6 56.4 7,501 20-24 29.2 24.0 0.6 3.4 2.2 0.0 42.9 57.1 6,716 25-29 24.8 24.8 0.8 3.4 3.5 0.1 45.1 54.9 6,643 30-34 28.3 24.2 1.1 3.9 3.3 0.0 41.9 58.1 7,154 35-39 31.4 22.7 0.8 3.4 3.6 0.1 40.8 59.2 7,865 40-44 33.8 21.9 0.6 3.8 3.6 0.1 38.8 61.2 7,093 45-49 33.7 22.5 0.5 3.8 2.3 0.1 40.0 60.0 6,655 Residence Urban 26.5 31.1 1.1 2.9 4.8 0.1 37.2 62.8 25,543 Rural 35.8 13.2 0.3 4.2 0.8 0.1 46.7 53.3 24,084 Education No education 45.3 3.4 0.5 7.9 0.0 0.1 44.4 55.6 823 Some primary 44.5 5.8 0.2 5.2 0.1 0.1 45.1 54.9 3,968 Completed primary 40.7 8.0 0.2 3.5 0.5 0.1 47.8 52.2 9,595 Some secondary 34.3 15.6 0.4 3.4 1.3 0.1 46.2 53.8 14,925 Completed secondary 24.5 30.6 0.9 3.5 3.5 0.1 39.6 60.4 12,575 More than secondary 14.7 50.7 1.6 2.7 9.5 0.2 27.7 72.3 7,741 Wealth quintile Lowest 50.4 3.4 0.2 5.4 0.1 0.0 41.5 58.5 8,464 Second 41.7 9.3 0.2 3.9 0.4 0.1 45.5 54.5 9,507 Middle 32.8 16.6 0.6 3.2 1.0 0.1 46.8 53.2 10,089 Fourth 23.3 28.5 0.8 3.1 1.9 0.1 44.3 55.7 10,583 Highest 12.5 47.9 1.5 2.7 9.9 0.1 32.0 68.0 10,984 Total 31.0 22.4 0.7 3.6 2.9 0.1 41.8 58.2 49,627 1 Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional/Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial Penerima Bantuan Iuran Jaminan Kesehatan 2 Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional/Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial Bukan Penerima Bantuan Iuran Jaminan Kesehatan 3 Jaminan Kesehatan Daerah 48 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.9.2 Health insurance coverage: Currently married men Percentage of currently married men age 15-54 with specific types of health insurance coverage, and percentage with any health insurance, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Subsidized health insurance (JKN/BPJS PBI)1 Nonsubsidi zed health insurance, (JKN/ Non PBI)2 Employer based- insurance Regional health insurance (Jamkesda)3 Privately health insurance Other None Any health insurance Number of men Age 15-19 (6.0) (2.2) (0.0) (8.8) (0.0) (0.0) (83.0) (17.0) 29 20-24 26.6 15.3 0.5 3.2 2.8 0.0 53.9 46.1 329 25-29 21.5 25.3 1.5 4.8 2.4 0.3 48.1 51.9 1,016 30-34 24.1 25.9 1.0 4.0 3.7 0.1 45.0 55.0 1,593 35-39 28.4 23.5 0.7 3.4 4.7 0.4 41.7 58.3 1,837 40-44 29.8 22.1 1.1 3.3 4.2 0.1 42.5 57.5 1,860 45-49 32.6 22.2 0.6 4.3 3.3 0.0 39.9 60.1 1,824 50-54 28.8 24.2 0.2 4.1 2.2 0.1 42.6 57.4 1,521 Residence Urban 24.9 32.1 1.1 2.5 6.0 0.1 36.9 63.1 4,901 Rural 30.9 14.9 0.5 5.2 1.1 0.2 49.6 50.4 5,108 Education No education 38.9 7.9 0.0 3.9 0.1 0.0 49.3 50.7 186 Some primary 41.2 6.5 0.1 5.2 0.5 0.1 48.3 51.7 1,205 Completed primary 35.6 8.4 0.1 4.2 0.4 0.0 52.3 47.7 2,206 Some secondary 30.4 14.7 0.6 4.5 1.6 0.4 50.0 50.0 2,154 Completed secondary 20.8 34.3 1.3 3.7 4.6 0.1 39.2 60.8 2,978 More than secondary 13.6 56.1 2.0 1.7 12.8 0.1 21.1 78.9 1,279 Wealth quintile Lowest 45.2 4.9 0.2 6.2 0.4 0.1 45.0 55.0 1,757 Second 35.4 10.2 0.2 5.6 0.6 0.2 49.8 50.2 2,002 Middle 28.6 17.7 0.8 2.4 0.8 0.1 50.4 49.6 2,094 Fourth 20.1 30.4 0.9 3.9 2.7 0.2 44.4 55.6 2,058 Highest 13.7 49.9 1.8 2.0 12.3 0.1 27.8 72.2 2,097 Total 28.0 23.3 0.8 3.9 3.5 0.1 43.4 56.6 10,009 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional/Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial Penerima Bantuan Iuran Jaminan Kesehatan 2 Jaminan Kesehatan Nasional/Badan Penyelenggara Jaminan Sosial Bukan Penerima Bantuan Iuran Jaminan Kesehatan 3 Jaminan Kesehatan Daerah Characteristics of Respondents • 49 Table 3.10.1 Tobacco smoking: Women Percentage of women age 15-49 who smoke various tobacco products, according to background characteristics and maternity status, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Percentage who smoke1 Number of women Cigarettes2 Other type of tobacco3 Any type of tobacco Age 15-19 0.9 0.3 1.1 7,501 20-24 1.4 0.2 1.5 6,716 25-29 1.6 0.3 1.9 6,643 30-34 2.3 0.3 2.6 7,154 35-39 2.8 0.4 3.2 7,865 40-44 2.8 0.7 3.4 7,093 45-49 3.3 0.9 4.1 6,655 Residence Urban 2.4 0.2 2.5 25,543 Rural 1.9 0.7 2.6 24,084 Education No education 8.1 2.5 10.6 823 Some primary 3.8 1.0 4.7 3,968 Completed primary 2.3 0.4 2.7 9,595 Some secondary 2.0 0.4 2.3 14,925 Completed secondary 1.9 0.3 2.2 12,575 More than secondary 1.3 0.3 1.5 7,741 Wealth quintile Lowest 3.0 1.5 4.4 8,464 Second 2.2 0.4 2.5 9,507 Middle 2.0 0.2 2.2 10,089 Fourth 2.0 0.1 2.1 10,583 Highest 1.8 0.2 1.9 10,984 Total 2.2 0.4 2.6 49,627 1 Includes daily and occasional (less than daily) use 2 Cigarettes include kretek. 3 Includes pipes full of tobacco, cigars, shisha/ water pipes, chewing tobacco, betel leaf with tobacco 50 • Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.10.2 Tobacco smoking: Currently married men Percentage of currently married men age 15-54 who smoke various tobacco products, and percent distribution of currently married men by smoking frequency, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Percentage who smoke1 Smoking frequency Total Number of men Cigarettes2 Other type of tobacco3 Any type of tobacco Daily smoker Occasional smoker4 Non- smoker Missing Age 15-19 (70.8) (2.1) (70.8) (55.3) (15.5) (29.2) (0.0) (100.0) 29 20-24 81.2 1.5 81.2 74.0 7.2 18.8 0.0 100.0 329 25-29 75.5 1.3 75.7 65.4 10.1 24.5 0.0 100.0 1,016 30-34 76.6 0.9 76.9 67.9 8.7 23.3 0.1 100.0 1,593 35-39 75.3 0.7 75.5 67.0 8.3 24.7 0.0 100.0 1,837 40-44 70.0 0.9 70.2 61.5 8.5 30.0 0.0 100.0 1,860 45-49 66.9 0.6 67.3 57.4 9.5 33.1 0.0 100.0 1,824 50-54 66.3 1.6 67.0 58.1 8.2 33.7 0.0 100.0 1,521 Residence Urban 68.0 0.7 68.1 59.6 8.4 32.0 0.0 100.0 4,901 Rural 75.5 1.3 76.0 66.3 9.2 24.5 0.0 100.0 5,108 Education No education 67.8 5.5 70.9 57.1 10.7 32.2 0.0 100.0 186 Some primary 79.7 1.1 80.0 70.9 8.8 20.2 0.0 100.0 1,205 Completed primary 78.2 0.8 78.5 68.9 9.3 21.8 0.0 100.0 2,206 Some secondary 76.9 0.7 77.2 68.2 8.7 23.1 0.0 100.0 2,154 Completed secondary 69.2 0.9 69.4 60.8 8.4 30.8 0.0 100.0 2,978 More than secondary 51.5 1.2 51.8 42.9 8.6 48.3 0.1 100.0 1,279 Wealth quintile Lowest 82.0 2.7 83.3 71.7 10.3 18.0 0.0 100.0 1,757 Second 77.1 0.3 77.2 69.1 8.0 22.9 0.0 100.0 2,002 Middle 73.3 0.8 73.4 64.5 8.7 26.7 0.0 100.0 2,094 Fourth 70.2 0.5 70.3 61.8 8.4 29.8 0.0 100.0 2,058 Highest 58.4 0.8 58.6 49.8 8.6 41.5 0.1 100.0 2,097 Total 71.8 1.0 72.1 63.1 8.8 28.1 0.0 100.0 10,009 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Includes daily and occasional (less than daily) use 2 Includes manufactured cigarettes, hand-rolled cigarettes, and kretek 3 Includes pipes full of tobacco, cigars, shisha/water pipes, chewing tobacco, betel leaf with tobacco. 4 Occasional refers to less often than daily use Marriage and Sexual Activity • 51 MARRIAGE AND SEXUAL ACTIVITY 4 Key Findings ▪ Marital status: 72% of women age 15-49 are married or living with a partner, while 9% are separated, divorced, or widowed. ▪ Age at first marriage: Median age at first marriage is 20.8 among all women age 25-49 and 24.6 among married men age 25-49. Median age at first marriage goes up as education and household wealth increase among both groups. ▪ Sexual initiation: Median age at first sexual intercourse is 20.9 among women and 24.3 among married men 25-49. Median age at first sexual intercourse increases as education and household wealth increase among both women and married men. ▪ Polygyny: Less than 1% of married men age 15-54 have more than one wife. arriage and sexual activities are primary indicators of women’s exposure to the risk of pregnancy. Women who marry at a young age tend to have children early and have high fertility. The timing and circumstances of marriage and sexual activity also profoundly affect other aspects of women’s and men’s lives. 4.1 MARITAL STATUS Currently married Respondents who report being currently married or living together with a partner as though married at the time of the survey. Sample: Women age 15-49 and men age 15-54 In Indonesia, 72% of women are currently married, less than 1% live with a partner as though married, 23% have never married, 3% are divorced or separated, and 2% are widowed (Figure 4.1). Nine percent of women age 15-19 are in a union. The highest percentage of women who are married or living together with a partner is among those age 30-39 (92%). The proportion of women who are divorced, separated, or widowed increases from 1% among women age 15-19 to 10% among those age 45-49 (Table 4.1). M 52 • Marriage and Sexual Activity Trends: The proportion of women age 15-49 who are married or living together in the 2017 IDHS (72%) is similar to that in the 2012 IDHS (73%). The percentage of women age 15-19 who are in a union declined from 13% in the 2012 IDHS to 9% in the 2017 IDHS. 4.2 POLYGYNY Polygyny Men who report that they have more than one wife or partner are considered to be in a polygynous marriage. Sample: Currently married men age 15-54 Overall, less than 1% of married men reported that they are in a polygynous union, i.e., they have more than one wife or partner (Table 4.2). The percentage in polygynous unions is 1% or higher only among men age 50-54 and men who have less than a primary education. Trends: The percentage of married men who report being in a polygynous union in the 2017 IDHS is the same as in the 2012 IDHS (less than 1%). Appendix Table A-4.1 shows the percentage distribution of currently married men age 15-54 by number of wives in each province. 4.3 AGE AT FIRST MARRIAGE Median age at first marriage Age by which half of respondents began living with their first spouse/partner Sample: Women age 20-49 and 25-49, ever-married women age 20-49 and 25-49, and currently married men age 25-49 and 25-54 The 2017 IDHS collected information on the age at which respondents began living together with their first spouse or partner. This information was used to explore marriage patterns among three separate groups: all women, ever-married women, and currently married men. Because of differences in marital status, the results for women and men are not strictly comparable. Nevertheless, they provide some useful insights into gender differences by age at marriage. The median age at first marriage among women age 25-49 is 20.8 years. As expected, because women who have never married are excluded, the median age at marriage is higher among ever-married women age 25-49 (21.8 years). Among married men age 25-49, the median age is 24.6 years (Table 4.3 and 4.4). Trends: The median age at first marriage among ever-married women age 25-49 has increased steadily from 17.7 years in the 1991 IDHS to 21.8 years in the 2017 IDHS. Figure 4.1 Marital status Never married 23% Married or living together 72% Divorced/ separated 3% Widowed 2% Percent distribution of women age 15-49 Marriage and Sexual Activity • 53 Patterns by background characteristics ▪ Women age 25-49 living in urban areas marry 2.2 years later than those living in rural areas (21.9 versus 19.7 years) (Figure 4.2). ▪ The median age at first marriage among women age 25-49 increases with increasing education, from 17.6 years among women with no education to 22.6 years among women with more than secondary education. Ever-married women and married men show similar patterns. ▪ The median age at first marriage increases with wealth. For example, the median age at first marriage among women age 25-49 ranges from 19.5 years in the lowest wealth quintile to 23.1 years in the highest quintile (Table 4.4). Appendix Table A-4.2 shows the median age at first marriage among women age 15-49 by province. 4.4. AGE AT FIRST SEXUAL INTERCOURSE Median age at first sexual intercourse Age by which half of respondents have had sexual intercourse Sample: Women age 20-49 and 25-49, ever-married women age 20-49 and 25-49, and currently married men age 25-49 and 25-54 Both women and currently married men were asked about the age at which they first had sexual intercourse. Caution should be exercised in assessing the results of the questions since, in a conservative society like Indonesia, respondents who had engaged in premarital sex may not have been willing to accurately report the age at which sex was initiated. ▪ Although not strictly comparable because of the differences in marital status, the results in Table 4.5 suggest that, on average, women in Indonesia have their first sexual intercourse at younger ages (20.9 years) than married men age 25-49 (24.3 years). ▪ A comparison of the median age at first intercourse with the median age at first marriage can be used as a measure of the extent to which respondents engaged in sex before marriage.The median age at first sexual intercourse among married women age 25-49 is the same as median age at first marriage (21.8 years). This indicates that in general women have their first sexual intercourse after marriage (Figure 4.3). ▪ Among married men age 25-49 the median age at first sexual intercourse (24.2 years) is slightly below the median age at first marriage (24.6 years). This indicates that some men reported engaging in sex before marriage (Figure 4.3). Figure 4.2 Women's median age at marriage by residence Figure 4.3 Median age at first sexual intercourse and age at first marriage 20.8 21.9 19.7 Total Urban Rural Median age at first marriage among women age 25-49 21.8 21.8 24.3 24.6 Median age at first intercourse Median age at first marriage Median age in years Married women age 25-49 Married men age 25-49 54 • Marriage and Sexual Activity Trends: The median ages at first intercourse among women and men in the 2017 IDHS are slightly higher than the median ages in the 2012 IDHS (20.6 years among women age 25-49 and 23.9 years among married men age 25-49). Patterns by background characteristics ▪ On average, rural women age 25-49 start having sex more than 2 years earlier than urban women (age 19.8 compared with age 22.1) (Table 4.6). ▪ The median age at first sexual intercourse among women and men increases with increasing education and wealth. For example, the median age at first sexual intercourse increases from 17.7 years among women age 25-49 with no education to 22.8 years among women with more than a secondary education. Appendix Table A-4.3 shows the median age at first sexual intercourse among women age 15-49 by province. 4.5 RECENT SEXUAL ACTIVITY Fifty-nine percent of women age 15-49 reported having sexual intercourse during the 4 weeks before the survey, and 12% reported having sexual intercourse within the year before the survey but not in the past month. About one in five women (23%) age 15-49 have never had sexual intercourse (Table 4.7.1). Eighty-two percent of married men age 15-54 reported having sexual intercourse during the 4 weeks before the survey, and 16% reported having sexual intercourse within one year before the survey but not in the past month (Table 4.7.2). Appendix Table A-4.4 shows the recent sexual activity of women age 15-49 by province. LIST OF TABLES For more information on marriage and sexual activity, see the following tables: ▪ Table 4.1 Current marital status ▪ Table 4.2 Number of men's wives ▪ Table 4.3 Age at first marriage ▪ Table 4.4 Median age at first marriage by background characteristics ▪ Table 4.5 Age at first sexual intercourse ▪ Table 4.6 Median age at first sexual intercourse by background characteristics ▪ Table 4.7.1 Recent sexual activity: Women ▪ Table 4.7.2 Recent sexual activity: Currently married men Marriage and Sexual Activity • 55 Table 4.1 Current marital status Percent distribution of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 by current marital status, according to age, Indonesia DHS 2017 Age Marital status Total Percentage of respondents currently in union Number of respondents Never married Married Living together Divorced Separated Widowed WOMEN 15-19 90.0 9.1 0.3 0.6 0.1 0.0 100.0 9.3 7,501 20-24 48.0 48.5 0.8 2.1 0.4 0.1 100.0 49.4 6,716 25-29 13.0 82.5 0.7 3.0 0.3 0.4 100.0 83.3 6,643 30-34 3.6 91.7 0.4 3.1 0.2 0.9 100.0 92.1 7,154 35-39 2.2 92.0 0.3 3.6 0.2 1.7 100.0 92.3 7,865 40-44 2.4 90.5 0.2 3.5 0.2 3.3 100.0 90.6 7,093 45-49 2.2 87.8 0.2 3.4 0.2 6.1 100.0 88.0 6,655 Total 23.3 71.5 0.4 2.8 0.2 1.8 100.0 71.9 49,627 CURRENTLY MARRIED MEN 15-19 (0.0) (85.7) (14.3) (0.0) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 (100.0) 29 20-24 0.0 98.5 1.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 329 25-29 0.0 99.7 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 1,016 30-34 0.0 99.5 0.5 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 1,593 35-39 0.0 99.7 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 1,837 40-44 0.0 99.7 0.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 1,860 45-49 0.0 99.8 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 1,824 50-54 0.0 99.9 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 1,521 Total 0.0 99.6 0.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 100.0 10,009 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. Table 4.2 Number of men's wives Percent distribution of currently married men age 15-54 by number of wives, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Number of wives Total Number of men 1 2+ Age 15-19 (100.0) (0.0) 100.0 29 20-24 100.0 0.0 100.0 329 25-29 99.9 0.1 100.0 1,016 30-34 99.9 0.1 100.0 1,593 35-39 99.8 0.2 100.0 1,837 40-44 99.8 0.2 100.0 1,860 45-49 99.3 0.7 100.0 1,824 50-54 98.7 1.3 100.0 1,521 Residence Urban 99.6 0.4 100.0 4,901 Rural 99.6 0.4 100.0 5,108 Education No education 99.0 1.0 100.0 186 Some primary 98.9 1.1 100.0 1,205 Completed primary 99.6 0.4 100.0 2,206 Some secondary 99.7 0.3 100.0 2,154 Completed secondary 99.6 0.4 100.0 2,978 More than secondary 99.8 0.2 100.0 1,279 Wealth quintile Lowest 99.3 0.7 100.0 1,757 Second 99.5 0.5 100.0 2,002 Middle 99.7 0.3 100.0 2,094 Fourth 99.7 0.3 100.0 2,058 Highest 99.6 0.4 100.0 2,097 Total 99.6 0.4 100.0 10,009 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 56 • Marriage and Sexual Activity Table 4.3 Age at first marriage Percentage of currently married women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 who were first married by specific exact ages and median age at first marriage, according to current age, Indonesia DHS 2017 Current age Percentage first married by exact age: Number of respondent s Median age at first marriage 15 18 20 22 25 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN 15-19 10.5 na na na na 700 a 20-24 3.7 30.8 63.7 na na 3,317 19.2 25-29 2.7 20.2 41.3 63.7 87.2 5,531 20.7 30-34 4.7 23.4 40.7 58.5 79.7 6,588 21.0 35-39 5.8 25.9 44.3 61.8 79.2 7,259 20.6 40-44 8.5 29.4 46.8 62.3 80.1 6,428 20.4 45-49 12.3 33.6 51.2 66.2 81.0 5,858 19.9 20-49 6.5 26.9 46.6 na na 34,981 a 25-49 6.8 26.5 44.8 62.4 81.2 31,664 20.6 CURRENTLY MARRIED MEN 15-19 0.0 na na na na 29 a 20-24 0.0 6.0 30.4 na na 329 a 25-29 0.0 3.1 12.7 32.2 68.4 1,016 23.6 30-34 0.0 3.1 9.6 23.5 52.9 1,593 24.7 35-39 0.0 3.8 11.4 26.4 50.6 1,837 24.9 40-44 0.0 4.6 11.6 24.7 52.4 1,860 24.7 45-49 0.0 5.9 13.4 27.8 50.2 1,824 25.0 50-54 0.0 8.1 18.7 33.7 57.3 1,521 24.2 20-49 0.0 4.3 12.4 na na 8,459 a 25-49 0.0 4.2 11.7 26.5 53.6 8,130 24.6 20-54 0.0 4.9 13.4 na na 9,980 a 25-54 0.0 4.8 12.8 27.6 54.2 9,651 24.6 Note: The age at first marriage is defined as the age at which the respondent began living with their first spouse or partner. na = Not applicable due to censoring a = Omitted because less than 50% of the women or men began living with their spouse or partner for the first time before reaching the beginning of the age group Marriage and Sexual Activity • 57 Table 4.4 Median age at first marriage by background characteristics Median age at first marriage among women age 20-49 and age 25-49, median age at first marriage among ever-married women age 20-49 and age 25-49, and median age at first marriage among currently married men age 25-54, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Women age Ever-married women age Married men age 20-49 25-49 20-49 25-49 25-54 Residence Urban a 21.9 a 22.8 a Rural 19.8 19.7 19.6 20.9 23.7 Education No education 17.7 17.6 17.5 18.2 21.4 Some primary 17.8 17.8 17.9 19.3 21.9 Completed primary 18.6 18.6 18.7 19.8 23.3 Some secondary 19.6 19.8 19.6 20.8 24.0 Completed secondary a 22.6 a 23.5 a Wealth quintile Lowest 19.5 19.5 19.3 20.6 23.5 Second 19.8 19.7 19.6 20.9 23.7 Middle a 20.3 a 21.4 24.2 Fourth a 21.1 a 22.1 24.9 Highest a 23.1 a 23.8 a Total a 20.8 a 21.8 24.6 Note: The age at first marriage is defined as the age at which the respondent began living with her/his first spouse/partner. a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of the respondents began living with their spouse/partners for the first time before reaching the beginning of the age group 58 • Marriage and Sexual Activity Table 4.5 Age at first sexual intercourse Percentage of women age 15-49 and currently married men age 15-54 who had first sexual intercourse by specific exact ages, percentage who never had sexual intercourse, and median age at first sexual intercourse, according to current age, Indonesia DHS 2017 Current age Percentage who had first sexual intercourse by exact age: Percentage who never had intercourse Number Median age at first intercourse 15 18 20 22 25 WOMEN 15-19 10.4 na na na na 0.5 700 a 20-24 3.9 30.2 62.6 na na 0.1 3,317 19.3 25-29 2.8 20.1 40.2 61.6 84.6 0.1 5,531 20.8 30-34 4.7 22.6 39.4 56.6 76.5 0.0 6,588 21.2 35-39 5.6 25.5 43.9 60.5 77.1 0.0 7,259 20.7 40-44 8.1 28.6 45.7 60.5 76.7 0.0 6,428 20.5 45-49 11.3 32.5 49.5 63.9 77.8 0.0 5,858 20.1 20-49 6.2 26.3 45.5 na na 0.0 34,981 a 25-49 6.5 25.9 43.7 60.5 78.4 0.0 31,664 20.7 15-24 5.0 na na na na 0.2 4,017 a CURRENTLY MARRIED MEN 15-19 (5.0) na na na na (0.0) 29 a 20-24 0.8 13.3 37.9 na na 0.0 329 a 25-29 0.5 6.4 18.4 38.2 69.8 0.0 1,016 23.2 30-34 0.4 6.7 15.4 29.6 55.8 0.0 1,593 24.3 35-39 0.3 6.5 15.9 31.4 53.7 0.0 1,837 24.5 40-44 0.2 6.9 16.0 30.0 54.0 0.0 1,860 24.4 45-49 0.4 7.9 16.8 31.5 51.5 0.0 1,824 24.8 50-54 0.6 10.2 22.1 37.0 59.0 0.0 1,521 23.8 20-49 0.4 7.2 17.2 na na 0.0 8,459 a 25-49 0.3 6.9 16.3 31.6 55.7 0.0 8,130 24.3 15-24 1.1 na na na na 0.0 358 a 20-54 0.4 7.7 17.9 na na 0.0 9,980 a 25-54 0.4 7.5 17.2 32.5 56.2 0.0 9,651 24.2 Note: Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. na = Not applicable due to censoring a = Omitted because less than 50 percent of the respondents had sexual intercourse for the first time before reaching the beginning of the age group Marriage and Sexual Activity • 59 Table 4.6 Median age at first sexual intercourse by background characteristics Median age at first sexual intercourse among women age 20-49 and age 25-49, median age at first sexual intercourse among ever-married women age 20-49 and age 25-49, and median age at first sexual intercourse among currently married men age 25-54, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Women age Ever-married women age Currently married men age 20-49 25-49 20-49 25-49 25-54 Residence Urban a 22.1 a 22.8 a Rural 19.9 19.8 19.7 20.8 23.3 Education No education 17.7 17.7 17.6 18.1 20.7 Some primary 18.0 17.9 18.0 19.2 21.7 Completed primary 18.7 18.7 18.8 19.8 23.0 Some secondary 19.7 19.9 19.6 20.7 23.5 Completed secondary a 22.8 a 23.4 a Wealth quintile Lowest 19.6 19.6 19.4 20.4 22.8 Second 20.0 19.9 19.7 20.8 23.4 Middle a 20.5 a 21.4 23.9 Fourth a 21.2 a 22.1 24.7 Highest a 23.3 a 23.8 a Total a 20.9 a 21.8 24.2 a = Omitted because less than 50% of the respondents had intercourse for the first time before reaching the beginning of the age group 60 • Marriage and Sexual Activity Table 4.7.1 Recent sexual activity: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by timing of last sexual intercourse, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Timing of last sexual intercourse Never had sexual intercourse Total Number of women Within the past 4 weeks Within 1 year1 One or more years Missing Age 15-19 7.6 2.3 0.8 0.2 89.1 100.0 7,501 20-24 39.9 10.1 3.2 0.1 46.7 100.0 6,716 25-29 68.5 14.1 4.6 0.1 12.6 100.0 6,643 30-34 77.4 13.6 5.3 0.2 3.5 100.0 7,154 35-39 77.7 13.5 6.5 0.2 2.1 100.0 7,865 40-44 74.7 14.2 8.7 0.1 2.3 100.0 7,093 45-49 64.3 20.2 13.2 0.3 2.1 100.0 6,655 Marital status Never married 0.3 0.6 0.9 0.2 98.0 100.0 11,582 Married or living together 81.2 16.4 2.2 0.2 0.0 100.0 35,681 Divorced/separated/ widowed 0.9 10.7 87.4 0.5 0.6 100.0 2,365 Marital duration2 0-4 years 79.7 18.4 1.6 0.1 0.2 100.0 5,535 5-9 years 83.4 14.7 1.8 0.1 0.0 100.0 6,189 10-14 years 85.3 13.1 1.4 0.2 0.0 100.0 5,573 15-19 years 85.2 12.9 1.7 0.1 0.0 100.0 5,480 20-24 years 81.2 16.1 2.5 0.2 0.0 100.0 4,693 25+ years 71.8 23.7 4.2 0.2 0.0 100.0 4,611 Married more than once 79.5 17.4 2.9 0.3 0.0 100.0 3,600 Residence Urban 56.0 11.0 6.0 0.2 26.8 100.0 25,543 Rural 61.2 13.9 5.9 0.2 18.8 100.0 24,084 Education No education 48.8 24.6 17.0 0.8 8.8 100.0 823 Some primary 63.2 19.4 11.9 0.3 5.2 100.0 3,968 Completed primary 72.4 17.0 6.9 0.1 3.6 100.0 9,595 Some secondary 51.7 9.8 4.6 0.2 33.6 100.0 14,925 Completed secondary 61.8 11.4 5.4 0.1 21.4 100.0 12,575 More than secondary 47.7 8.5 4.1 0.2 39.5 100.0 7,741 Wealth quintile Lowest 57.3 15.3 8.7 0.2 18.6 100.0 8,464 Second 59.4 13.8 6.1 0.2 20.5 100.0 9,507 Middle 59.6 13.2 5.2 0.2 21.9 100.0 10,089 Fourth 59.8 11.2 5.6 0.1 23.2 100.0 10,583 Highest 56.4 9.5 4.9 0.2 29.1 100.0 10,984 Total 58.5 12.4 6.0 0.2 22.9 100.0 49,627 1 Excludes women who had sexual intercourse within the last 4 weeks 2 Excludes women who are not currently married Marriage and Sexual Activity • 61 Table 4.7.2 Recent sexual activity: Currently married men Percent distribution of currently married men age 15-54 by timing of last sexual intercourse, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Timing of last sexual intercourse Total Number of men Within the past 4 weeks Within 1 year1 One or more years Missing Age 15-19 (88.5) (11.5) (0.0) (0.0) 100.0 29 20-24 84.6 14.2 1.0 0.2 100.0 329 25-29 84.9 14.3 0.4 0.3 100.0 1,016 30-34 85.1 13.4 1.1 0.4 100.0 1,593 35-39 86.0 12.2 1.4 0.4 100.0 1,837 40-44 84.2 13.3 2.1 0.4 100.0 1,860 45-49 79.9 18.3 1.1 0.7 100.0 1,824 50-54 70.1 22.9 6.4 0.6 100.0 1,521 Marital duration2 0-4 years * * * * 100.0 22 5-9 years 88.8 10.4 0.8 0.0 100.0 101 10-14 years 85.2 12.1 1.3 1.4 100.0 116 15-19 years 81.3 16.8 1.9 0.0 100.0 197 20-24 years 79.6 16.1 4.4 0.0 100.0 181 25+ years 71.6 24.9 2.6 0.8 100.0 321 Married more than once 82.1 15.4 2.1 0.5 100.0 9,070 Residence Urban 83.0 14.7 1.8 0.6 100.0 4,901 Rural 80.8 16.5 2.4 0.3 100.0 5,108 Education No education 60.9 27.7 11.3 0.0 100.0 186 Some primary 72.7 22.3 4.4 0.5 100.0 1,205 Completed primary 81.2 15.9 2.4 0.5 100.0 2,206 Some secondary 82.6 15.6 1.5 0.3 100.0 2,154 Completed secondary 84.9 13.6 1.1 0.3 100.0 2,978 More than secondary 86.2 11.7 1.2 0.9 100.0 1,279 Wealth quintile Lowest 76.2 19.8 3.4 0.6 100.0 1,757 Second 80.5 16.8 2.5 0.3 100.0 2,002 Middle 81.8 15.9 2.1 0.3 100.0 2,094 Fourth 83.3 14.7 1.5 0.5 100.0 2,058 Highest 86.5 11.6 1.3 0.7 100.0 2,097 Total 81.9 15.6 2.1 0.5 100.0 10,009 Note: An asterisk indicates the figure is based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases and has been suppressed. Figures in parentheses are based on 25-49 unweighted cases. 1 Excludes men who had sexual intercourse within the last 4 weeks Fertility • 63 FERTILITY 5 Key Findings ▪ Total fertility rate: The total fertility rate for the 3 years preceding the survey is 2.4 children per woman (2.3 in urban areas and 2.6 in rural areas). ▪ Fertility patterns: Fertility declines with increasing education and household wealth. ▪ Birth intervals: The median birth interval is 65 months. There is almost no difference in the median birth interval by urban-rural residence. ▪ Age at first birth: The median age at first birth among women age 25-49 is 22.4 years. ▪ Teenage pregnancy: 7% of women age 15-19 have begun childbearing: 5% are already mothers and 2% are pregnant with their first child. he number of children that a woman bears depends on many factors, including the age she begins childbearing, how long she waits between births, and her fecundity. Postponing first births and extending the interval between births have played a role in reducing fertility in many countries. These factors also have positive health consequences. In contrast, short birth intervals (of less than 24 months) are associated with harmful outcomes for both newborns and their mothers, such as preterm birth, low birth weight, and death. Childbearing at a very young age is linked to an increased risk of complications during pregnancy and childbirth and higher rates of neonatal mortality. This chapter describes the current level of fertility in Indonesia and some of its proximate determinants. It presents information on the total fertility rate, birth intervals, insusceptibility to pregnancy (due to postpartum amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence, or menopause), age at first birth, and teenage childbearing. 5.1 CURRENT FERTILITY Total fertility rate The average number of children a woman would have by the end of her childbearing years if she bore children at the current age-specific fertility rates. Age-specific fertility rates are calculated for the 3 years before the survey, based on detailed birth histories provided by women. Sample: Women age 15-49 T 64 • Fertility The total fertility rate (TFR) in Indonesia is 2.4 children per woman. The TFR among women in rural areas is slightly higher than the rate among women in urban areas (2.6 and 2.3 children, respectively) (Table 5.1 and Figure 5.1). Trends: The TFR remained stationary at 2.6 births per woman between the 2007 IDHS and the 2012 IDHS. The TFR declined to 2.4 children in the 2017 IDHS (Figure 5.2). Figure 5.2 Trends in fertility by residence The age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) from the 2012 and 2017 IDHS surveys are shown in Figure 5.3. In both surveys, fertility peaks at age 25-29, with the rate slightly lower in 2017 than in 2012 (138 births versus 143 births). The ASFRs among women under age 25 are also lower in 2017 than 2012, with a particularly marked decline at age 20-24, from 138 to 111 births per 1,000 women. On the other hand, the ASFR for age 30-34 increased from 103 births in the 2012 IDHS to 113 births per 1,000 women in the 2017 IDHS. Patterns by background characteristics The fertility rate peaks in the 25-29 age group in both rural and urban areas at 138 births per woman. The ASFR patterns at age 25 and older in urban and rural areas are similar, indicating the urban–rural difference in in the TFR is mainly due to differences in fertility among women under 25 years (Table 5.1). ▪ The TFR generally declines with increasing education and household wealth. For example, women who completed primary school are having 2.9 children, while women with more than secondary education are having 2.3 children (Table 5.2 and Figure 5.4). Women in the lowest wealth quintile are having 2.9 children, while women in the highest wealth quintile are having 2.1 children (Table 5.2 and Figure 5.5). Appendix Table A.5.1 shows the TFR by province. 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.4 2.6 2.3 2.4 2.3 2.7 2.8 2.8 2.6 2002-03 IDHS 2007 IDHS 2012 IDHS 2017 IDHS Total fertility rate for the 3 years before the survey Rural Total Urban Figure 5.1 Fertility by residence Figure 5.3 Age-specific fertility 2.4 2.3 2.6 Total Urban Rural Total fertility rate for the 3 years before the survey 48 138 143 103 62 21 436 111 138 113 63 20 4 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 Age group Births per 1,000 women 2012 IDHS 2017 IDHS Fertility • 65 Figure 5.4 Fertility by education 5.2 CHILDREN EVER BORN AND LIVING The 2017 IDHS also collected information on the number of children ever born to women age 15-49 and those still surviving by the time of the survey. On average, women age 15-49 have given birth to 1.7 children, of whom 1.6 survived to the time of the survey. The number of children ever born increases with age. The majority of women under age 20 have no children, while women are in their 30s have 2 children. Women age 45-49 have an average of just under 3 children (Table 5.4). 5.3 BIRTH INTERVALS Median birth interval Number of months since the preceding birth by which half of children are born. Sample: Non-first births in the 5 years before the survey Birth intervals are associated with morbidity and mortality risks. The risk is higher if the birth interval is less than 24 month. Longer birth intervals are beneficial to the newborns as well as to the mother. The 2017 IDHS shows that the median birth interval in Indonesia is 64.6 months. This means that half of non- first births occur more than 5 years after the preceding birth. While the average birth interval is relatively long, 12% of births occurred between 24 and 35 months after the preceding birth, and 9% occurred less than 24 months after the preceding birth (Table 5.5 and Figure 5.6). 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.5 2.5 2.3 No education Some primary Completed primary Some secondary Completed secondary More than secondary Total fertility rate for the 3 years before the survey Figure 5.5 Fertility by household wealth Figure 5.6 Birth intervals 2.9 2.6 2.3 2.3 2.1 Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Total fertility rate for the 3 years before the survey Poorest Wealthiest 7-17 4% 18-23 5% 24-35 12% 36-47 12%48-59 12% 60+ 55% Percent distribution of non-first births by number of months preceding birth 66 • Fertility Trends: The median birth interval has increased steadily in the last decade, from 54.6 months in the 2007 IDHS to 60.2 months in the 2012 IDHS, and to 64.6 months in the 2017 IDHS. Patterns by background characteristics ▪ Births intervals increase with the mother’s age, from 47.5 months among women age 20-29 to 70 months among women age 30-39. ▪ The median birth interval in urban areas is slightly longer than the interval in rural areas (66 versus 63 months). ▪ The median birth interval among women in the lowest wealth quintile is 56 months compared to 68 months or more among women in the second and higher quintiles. (Table 5.5). Appendix Table A.5.2 shows birth intervals by province. 5.4 INSUSCEPTIBILITY TO PREGNANCY Postpartum amenorrhea The period of time after the birth of a child and before the resumption of menstruation. Postpartum abstinence The period of time after the birth of a child and before the resumption of sexual intercourse. Postpartum insusceptibility The period of time during which a woman is considered not at risk of pregnancy either because she is postpartum amenorrhoeic and/or abstaining from sexual intercourse postpartum. Sample: Women age 15-49 Median duration of postpartum amenorrhea Calculated as the number of months after childbirth by which time half of women have begun menstruating. Sample: Women who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey. Median duration of postpartum insusceptibility Calculated as the number of months after childbirth by which time half of women are no longer protected against pregnancy by either postpartum amenorrhea or abstinence from sexual intercourse. Sample: Women who gave birth in the 3 years before the survey During postpartum amenorrhea period, the risk of pregnancy is reduced. The duration of postpartum amenorrhea is determined by the length and intensity of breastfeeding. Postpartum protection from conception can be prolonged by delaying the resumption of sexual intercourse (postpartum abstinence). Among births in the three years preceding the survey, the median duration of postpartum amenorrhea is 3.0 months, while the median duration of postpartum abstinence is 2.8 months. Overall, women are insusceptible to pregnancy after childbirth for a median duration of 4.2 months (Table 5.6). Fertility • 67 Trends: The median duration of postpartum amenorrhea s increased from 2.4 months in the 2012 IDHS to 3.0 months in the 2017 IDHS. The median duration of postpartum abstinence also increased from 2.4 months to 2.8 months. Overall, the median duration of insusceptibility increased from 3.8 months in the 2012 IDHS to 4.2 months in the 2017 IDHS. Patterns by background characteristics ▪ Women below age 30 have only a slightly shorter duration of postpartum insusceptibility than women age 30 and older (3.9 and 4.6 months, respectively). ▪ Women living in urban areas also have only a slightly shorter duration of postpartum insusceptibility than rural women (3.8 months and 4.6 months, respectively). ▪ The duration of postpartum insusceptibility generally decreases with increasing education and wealth. For example, postpartum insusceptibility among women in the lowest quintile is 5.6 months compared with 3.8 months among women in the highest quintile (Table 5.7). Appendix Table A.5.3 shows the median duration of amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence and postpartum insusceptibility by province. Menopause Women are considered to have reached menopause if they are neither pregnant nor postpartum amenorrhea and have not had a menstrual period in the 6 months before the survey, or if they report being menopausal, or have never menstruated. Sample: Women age 30-49 Women who reach menopause are no longer able to become pregnant. The percentage of menopausal women increases with age, from 10% among women age 30-34 to 43% among women age 48-49 (Table 5.8). 5.5 AGE AT FIRST BIRTH Median age at first birth Age by which half of women have had their first child. Sample: Women age 20-49 and 25-49 The age at which childbearing commences is an important determinant of the overall level of fertility as well as the health and well-being of the mother and child. The earlier a woman begins childbearing, the longer she is exposed to the risk of pregnancy. Also, having children at too young an age can have negative repercussions for the mother’s and child’s health. The median age at first birth among women age 25-49 is 22.4 years (Table 5.9). This figure is almost the same as that in the 2012 IDHS (22 years). 68 • Fertility Patterns by background characteristics ▪ Women age 25-49 in urban areas have their first birth, on average, 2 years later than women in rural areas (23.5 years versus 21.4 years) (Table 5.10 and Figure 5.7). Figure 5.8 Median age at first birth by education ▪ The median age at first birth increases with education and household wealth. For example, The median age at first birth increases from 21.3 years among women in the lowest quintile to 24.6 years among women in the highest quintile (Figures 5.8 and 5.9). Appendix Table A.5.4 shows the median age at first birth by province. Figure 5.9 Median age at first birth by household wealth 19.6 19.7 20.4 21.3 24.0 27.4 No education Some primary Completed primary Some secondary Completed secondary More than secondary Median age at first birth among women age 25-49 21.3 21.4 21.9 22.5 24.6 Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Median age at first birth among women age 25-49 Poorest Wealthiest Figure 5.7 Median age at first birth by residence 22.4 23.5 21.4 Total Urban Rural Median age at first birth among women age 25-49 Fertility • 69 5.6 TEENAGE CHILDBEARING Teenage childbearing Percentage of women age 15-19 who have given birth or are pregnant with their first child. Sample: Women age 15-19 Teenage pregnancy is a major health concern because of its association with higher morbidity and mortality for both the mother and the child. Childbearing during adolescence is known to have adverse social consequences, particularly regarding educational attainment, as women who become mothers in their teens are more likely to drop out of school. The 2017 IDHS finding shows that in Indonesia, 7% of women age 15-19 have begun childbearing: 5% have given birth and 2% are pregnant with their first child (Table 5.11). Trends: The percentage of women age 15-19 who have given birth or are pregnant with their first child declined from 10% in the 2012 IDHS to 7% in the 2017 IDHS. Patterns by background characteristics ▪ Teenagers in rural areas are two times more likely to have begun childbearing than their urban peers: 10% and 5%, respectively (Figure 5.10). ▪ The rates of teenage pregnancy are highest among the comparatively small number of teens who have completed the primary level or less (15%-37%) (Figure 5.11). Figure 5.11 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood by education 15 23 37 7 7 1 No education Some primary Completed primary Some secondary Completed secondary More than secondary Percentage of women age 15-19 who have begun childbearing Figure 5.10 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood by residence 7 5 10 Total Urban Rural Percentage of women age 15-19 who have begun childbearing 70 • Fertility ▪ Teenage childbearing is least common in the wealthiest households: 2% of women in the highest wealth quintile have begun childbearing, as compared with 13% of women in the lowest quintile (Figure 5.12). Appendix Table A.5.5 shows teenage pregnancy and motherhood by province. LIST OF TABLES For more information on fertility levels and some of the determinants of fertility, see the following tables: ▪ Table 5.1 Current fertility ▪ Table 5.2 Fertility by background characteristics ▪ Table 5.3.1 Trends in age-specific fertility rates ▪ Table 5.3.2 Trends in current fertility rates ▪ Table 5.4 Children ever born and living ▪ Table 5.5 Birth intervals ▪ Table 5.6 Postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence and insusceptibility ▪ Table 5.7 Median duration of amenorrhea, postpartum abstinence and postpartum insusceptibility ▪ Table 5.8 Menopause ▪ Table 5.9 Age at first birth ▪ Table 5.10 Median age at first birth ▪ Table 5.11 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood Figure 5.12 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood by household wealth 13 10 7 6 2 Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Percentage of women age 15-19 who have begun childbearing WealthiestPoorest Fertility • 71 Table 5.1 Current fertility Age-specific and total fertility rates, the general fertility rate, and the crude birth rate for the 3 years preceding the survey, by residence, Indonesia DHS 2017 Age group Residence Total Urban Rural <15 0 0 0 15-19 24 51 36 20-24 98 126 111 25-29 138 138 138 30-34 116 109 113 35-39 63 63 63 40-44 19 20 20 45-49 2 6 4 TFR (15-49) 2.3 2.6 2.4 GFR 75 85 80 CBR 17.7 18.5 18.1 Notes: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Rates for age group 45-49 may be slightly biased due to truncation. Rates are for the period 1- 36 months prior to interview. TFR: Total fertility rate expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate expressed per 1,000 women age 15-44 CBR: Crude birth rate, expressed per 1,000 population Table 5.2 Fertility by background characteristics Total fertility rate for the 3 years preceding the survey, percentage of women age 15-49 currently pregnant, and mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 years, according to background characteristics, Indonesia DHS 2017 Background characteristic Total fertility rate Percentage of women age 15- 49 currently pregnant Mean number of children ever born to women age 40-49 Residence Urban 2.3 3.7 2.6 Rural 2.6 4.1 3.0 Education No education 2.7 2.1 3.5 Some primary 2.8 2.5 3.4 Completed primary 2.9 3.2 2.9 Some secondary 2.5 3.7 2.8 Completed secondary 2.5 5.0 2.5 More than secondary 2.3 4.2 2.2 Wealth quintile Lowest 2.9 3.8 3.5 Second 2.6 4.1 3.0 Middle 2.3 3.8 2.7 Fourth 2.3 4.2 2.6 Highest 2.1 3.5 2.5 Total 2.4 3.9 2.8 Note: Total fertility rates are for the period 1-36 months prior to interview. 72 • Fertility Table 5.3.1 Trends in age-specific fertility rates Age-specific fertility rates for 5-year periods preceding the survey, according to age group, Indonesia DHS 2017 Age group Number of years preceding survey 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 <15 0 0 2 3 15-19 40 48 50 61 20-24 117 126 128 141 25-29 136 137 135 141 30-34 110 105 110 121 35-39 63 61 65 40-44 18 [23] 45-49 [5] Note: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. Rates exclude the month of interview. Table 5.3.2 Trends in current fertility rates Age-specific and total fertility rates (TFRs) among women age 15-49 for the three-year period preceding the survey, IDHS surveys, Indonesia DHS 1991-2017 Mother’s age at birth 1991 IDHS 1994 IDHS 1997 IDHS 2002- 20031 IDHS 2007 IDHS 2012 IDHS 2017 IDHS 15-19 67 61 62 51 51 48 36 20-24 162 147 143 131 135 138 111 25-29 157 150 149 143 134 143 138 30-34 117 109 108 99 108 103 113 35-39 73 68 66 66 65 62 63 40-44 23 31 24 19 19 21 20 45-49 7 4 6 4 6 4 4 TFR 15-49 3.0 2.9 2.8 2.6 2.6 2.6 2.4 Note: Total fertility rates are for the period 1-36 months preceding the interview. Age-specific rates are per 1,000 women. 1 The 2002-2003 IDHS did not include Nanggroe Aceh Darussalam, Maluku, North Maluku, and Papua provinces. The 1991 IDHS, 1994 IDHS, and 1997 IDHS included East Timor. Source: CBS et al., 1992; CBS et al., 1994; CBS et al., 1998; CBS et al., 2003; CBS et al., 2008; CBS et al., 2013 Fertility • 73 Table 5.4 Children ever born and living Percent distribution of all women and currently married women age 15-49 by number of children ever born, mean number of children ever born and mean number of living children, according to age group, Indonesia DHS 2017 Age Number of children ever born Total Number of women Mean number of children ever born Mean number of living children 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10+ ALL WOMEN 15-19 95.0 4.8 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 7,501 0.05 0.05 20-24 59.1 33.3 6.7 0.7 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 6,716 0.49 0.48 25-29 21.5 44.3 27.5 5.2 1.2 0.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 6,643 1.21 1.17 30-34 8.4 24.3 44.3 16.6 4.7 1.0 0.4 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.0 100.0 7,154 1.91 1.83 35-39 5.5 13.2 41.5 25.4 9.1 3.4 1.1 0.4 0.2 0.1 0.0 100.0 7,865 2.38 2.27 40-44 5.7 10.6 32.7 26.8 13.6 5.9 2.3 1.2 0.5 0.3 0.3 100.0 7,093 2.73 2.56 45-49 5.8 9.7 29.3 26.1 14.3 7.0 3.7 2.0 1.2 0.4 0.4 100.0 6,655 2.93 2.68 Total 28.9 19.6 26.2 14.5 6.2 2.5 1.1 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.1 100.0 49,627 1.67 1.58 CURRENTLY

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