Indonesia - Demographic and Health Survey - 1995

Publication date: 1995

Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 1994 Central Bureau of Statistics State Ministry of Population/ National Family Planning Coordinating Board Ministry of Health ®DHS Demographic and Health Surveys Macro International Inc. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 1994 Central Bureau of Statistics Jakarta, Indonesia State Ministry of Population/ National Family Planning Coordinating Board Jakarta, Indonesia Ministry of Health Jakarta, Indonesia Macro International Inc. Calverton, Maryland USA October 1995 This report highlights the findings of the 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) undertaken by the Central Bureau of Statistics in collaboration with the State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) and the Ministry of Health (MOH). The DHS Project of Macro International inc. pro- vided technical assistance and some funding. Most of the local costs for the survey were provided by the World Bank through a loan to the NFPCB. USAID/Jakarta and the Government of Indonesia provided additional funding. The 1994 IDHS is part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) program, which is designed to collect, analyze, and disseminate demographic data on fertility, family planning, maternal and child health. Additional information on the 1994 IDHS may be obtained from the Central Bureau of Statistics, Jl. Dr. Sutomo 8, Jakarta 10710, Indonesia (Telephone 345-6285; Fax 384-1545), or the State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordi- nating Board, J1. Permata 1, Halim Perdanakusumah, Jakarta 13650, Indonesia (Telephone 800-9029; Fax 800-9125), or the Institute for Health Research and Development, Ministry of Health, Jl. Percetakan Negara 29, Jakarta 1056(I, Indonesia (Telephone 424-4146; Fax 424-3933). Additional information about the DHS program may be obtained by writing to: Macro International Inc., 11785 Beltsville Drive, Calverton, Maryland 20705-3119, USA (Telephone 301- 572-0200; Fax 301-572-0999). Recommended citation: Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS) [Indonesia] and State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) and Ministry of Health (MOH) and Macro International Inc. (MI). 1995. Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey 1994. Calverton, Maryland: CBS and MI. CONTENTS Page Tables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . vii Figures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xvii Preface: Central Bureau of Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xix Preface: National Family Planning Coordinating Board . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxi Preface: Ministry of Health . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxiii Summary of Findings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxv Map of Indonesia . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xxviii CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Geography, History and Economy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2 Population and Family Planning Policies and Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 Health Priorities and Programs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5 Objectives of the Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 Organization of the Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 CHAPTER2 BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.1 Population by Age and Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 2.2 Population by Age from Selected Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 2.3 Household Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 2.4 Fosterhood and Orphanhood . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 2.5 Educational Level of Household Population . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 2.6 School Enrollment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 2.7 Housing Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20 2.8 Presence of Durable Goods in the Household . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 2.9 Background Characteristics of Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 2.10 Educational Level of Respondents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 2.11 Educational Attainment and Reasons for Leaving School . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 2.12 Husband's Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 2.13 Exposure to Mass Media . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 2.14 Employment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 2.15 Occupation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 2.16 Child Care While Working . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 CHAPTER3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 FERT IL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Fertility Levels and Trends . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Fertility Differentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Children Ever Born and Living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Birth Intervals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 47 Age at First Birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Teenage Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 iii CHAPTER 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 Page KNOWLEDGE AND EVER USE OF FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Knowledge of Family Planning Methods and Sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Knowledge of Blue Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Knowledge of Golden Circle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62 Dissemination of Family Planning Information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Ever Use of Family Planning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 70 CHAPTER 5 CURRENT USE OF FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 5.1 Current Use of Family Planning . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 5.2 Trends in Contraceptive Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 5.3 Contraceptive Use among Women over Thirty and among Those with Three or More Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 5.4 Reasons for Choice of Contraceptive Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 5.5 Quality of Use of the Pill, Injection and Condoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 81 5.6 Problems with Current Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 5.7 Cost of Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 5.8 Source of Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 5.9 Reason for Using Source of Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 5.10 Timing of Sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 5.11 Knowledge of the Fertile Period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 CHAPTER 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 FERT IL ITY PREFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Desire for Additional Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 97 Ideal Number of Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Uumet Need . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Unplanned and Unwanted Fertility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 CHAPTER 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 NONUSE AND INTENTION TO USE FAMILY PLANNING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Discontinuation Rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Reasons for Discontinuation of Contraceptive Use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 112 Intention to Use Contraception in the Future . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Reasons for Nonuse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Preferred Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 CHAPTER 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERT IL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Current Marital Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Marital Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Age at First Marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Age at First Sexual Intercourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Recent Sexual Activity . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 iv 8.6 8.7 Page Postpartum Amenorrhea, Abstinence and Insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Termination of Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 CHAPTER 9 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 INFANT AND CHILD MORTAL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Background . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Assessment of Data Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 135 Levels and Trends in Infant and Child Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Mortality Differentials . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 High-risk Fertility Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 CHAPTER 10 MATERNAL AND CHILD HEALTH . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 10.1 Antenatal Care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 10.2 Number of Antenatal Care Visits and Stage of Pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 10.3 Tetanus Toxoid Vaccination . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 10.4 Iron Pills . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 10.5 Place of Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 155 10.6 Assistance during Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 10.7 Delivery Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 10.8 Complications of Delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 CHAPTER 11 IMMUNIZAT ION OF CHILDREN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 11.1 Health Cards . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 165 11.2 Immunization Coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 11.3 Immunizations by Background Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 11.4 Immunizations by First Year of Life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172 CHAPTER 12 12.1 12.2 12.3 CHILDHOOD DISEASES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Acute Respiratory Infection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 175 Prevalence and Treatment of Fever . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 180 Diarrheal Disease . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 CHAPTER 13 13.1 13.2 INFANT FEEDING . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Prevalence of Breastfeeding and Supplementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 197 Duration of Breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 V CHAPTER 14 Page MATERNAL MORTAL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 14.1 Data Quality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 207 14.2 Direct Estimates of Maternal Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 209 14.3 Indirect Estimates of Maternal Mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 14.4 Conclusion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 CHAPTER 15 KNOWLEDGE OF AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 15.1 Source of Information about AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 213 15.2 Knowledge of Ways to Prevent AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 15.3 Women's Perceptions of the Risk of Getting AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 15.4 AIDS Prevention Behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 15.5 Knowledge and Use of Condoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 CHAPTER 16 16.1 16.2 16.3 16.4 AVAILABIL ITY OF FAMILY PLANNING AND HEALTH SERVICES . . . . . 225 Availability of Selected Family Planning Providers in the Area . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Distance and Time to Selected FP/MCH Outlets Providing Family Planning Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Availability of FP/MCH Outlets Offering Maternal and Child Health Services . . . . . 232 Distance and Time to Nearest FP/MCH Outlet Offering Maternal and Child Health Services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 REFERENCES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 239 APPENDIX A A.1 A.2 A.3 A.4 A.5 SURVEY DES IGN . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 241 Sample Design and Implementation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 243 Pretest . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 244 Field-Staff Training . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Fieldwork . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 Data Processing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 247 APPENDIX B EST IMATES OF SAMPL ING ERRORS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 249 APPENDIX C DATA QUAL ITY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 287 APPENDIX D PERSONS INVOLVED IN THE 1994 INDONESIA DEMOGRAPHIC AND HEALTH SURVEY . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 297 APPENDIX E QUEST IONNAIRES . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 309 vi TaMe 1.1 Table 1.2 Table 2.1 Table 2.2 Table 23 Table 2.4.1 TaMe 2.4.2 Table 2.5.1 TaMe 2.5.2 Table 253 TaMe 2.5.4 Table 2.6 Table Z7 TaMe 2.8 Table 2.9.1 Table 2.9.2 Table 2.10.1 Table 2.10.2 Table 2.11 Table 2.12.1 Table 2.12.2 Table 2.13 TABLES Page Basic demographic indicators . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Results of the household and individual interviews . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 Household population by age, residence and sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10 Population by age from selected sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Household composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 12 Fosterhood and orphanhood: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13 Fosterhood and orphanhood: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14 Educational level of the household population by background characteristics: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Educational level of the household population by background characteristics: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 16 Educational level of the household population by region and province: men . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17 Educational level of the household population by region and province: women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18 School enrollment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19 Housing characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 Household durable goods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Distribution of respondents: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 Distribution of respondents: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24 Level of education: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25 Level of education: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26 School attendance and reasons for leaving school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27 Husband's level of education: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 28 Husband's level of education: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 29 Husband's level of education according to respondent's level of education . . . . . . . 30 vii Table 2.14.1 Table 2.14.2 Table 2.15.1 Table 2.15.2 T~ ble 2.16.1 Table 2.16.2 Table 2.17.1 Table 2.17.2 Table 3.1 Table 3.2 Table 3.3 Table 3.4 Table 3.5.1 Table 3.5.2 Table 3.6 Table 3.7.1 Table 3.7.2 Table 3.8 Table 3.9.1 Table 3.9.2 Table 3.10.1 Table 3.10.2 Table 3.11 Table 4.1 Table 4.2.1 Page Access to mass media: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 Access to mass media: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Employment: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 Employment: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Occupation: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Occupation: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35 Child care while working: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Child care while working: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 Fertility rates from various sources . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Age-specif ic fertility rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Fertility by marital duration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Total fertility rates for provinces in Java-Bali . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Fertility: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Fertility: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Children ever born and living . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Birth intervals: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 48 Birth intervals: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Age at first birth . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Median age at first birth: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Median age at first birth: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Children born to teenagers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54 Knowledge of contraceptive methods and source for methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 Knowledge of contraceptive methods and source for methods: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 57 viii Table 4.2.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4.1 Table 4.4.2 Table 4.5.1 Table 4.5.2 Table 4.6.1 Table 4.6.2 Table 4.7.1 Table 4.7.2 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 Table 5.1 Table 5.2.1 Table 5.2.2 Table 5.3 Table 5.4 Table 5.5 Table 5.6 Table 5.7 Table 5.8.1 Table 5.8.2 Table 5.9 Page Knowledge of contraceptive methods and source for methods: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58 Source of supply for contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 59 Knowledge of Blue Circle: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60 Knowledge of Blue Circle: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 Knowledge of Golden Circle: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63 Knowledge of Golden Circle: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 Visits by family planning fieldworkers: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . 66 Visits by family planning fieldworkers: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 67 Appropriate sources for family planning information: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68 Appropriate sources for family planning information: region and province . . . . . . . 69 Ever use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 Number of children at first use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72 Current use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73 Current use of contraception: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74 Current use of contraception: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76 Trends in contraceptive use by province: Java-Bali 1976-1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Trends in use of specific contraceptive methods: Java-Bali, 1976-1994 . . . . . . . . . . 78 Trends in use of specific contraceptive methods: Indonesia, 1991 and 1994 . . . . . . 79 Contraceptive use status and type of method used . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80 Reasons for using current method of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 8 I Pill use compliance: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 82 Pill use compliance: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 83 Use of pill and condom brands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 84 ix Table 5.10 Table 5.11 Table 5.12 Table 5.13 Table 5.14 Table 5.15.1 Table 5.15.2 Table 5.16 Table 5.17 Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 6.3. I Table 6.3.2 Table 6.4 Table 6.5.1 Table 6.5.2 Table 6.6.1 Table 6.6.2 Table 6.7 Table 6.8.1 Table 6.8.2 Table 7.1 Table 7.2 Page Use of injection . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 85 Problems with current method of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86 Payment for contraceptive methods and services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 87 Source of contraceptive methods and mean cost of methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 88 Source of supply for modem contraceptive methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89 Reason for selecting current sources of supply for contraceptive methods: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 91 Reason for selecting current sources of supply for contraceptive methods: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 93 Timing of sterilization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 94 Knowledge of fertile period . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 95 Fertility preferences by number of living children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Fertility preferences by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 99 Desire to limit childbearing: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100 Desire to limit childbearing: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 101 Ideal and actual number of children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 102 Mean ideal number of children: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 103 Mean ideal number of children: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 104 Need for family planning services: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105 Need for family planning services: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107 Fertility planning status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 108 Wanted fertility rates: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Wanted fertility rates: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 109 Contraceptive discontinuation rates . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 111 Reasons for discontinuation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 × Table 7.3 TaMe 7A TaMe 7.5 TaMe 8.1 Table 8.2.1 Table 8.2.2 Table 8.3 TaMe 8.4.1 TaMe 8.4.2 TaMe 8.5 Table 8.6.1 TaMe 8.6.2 TaMe 8.7.1 TaMe 8.7.2 Table 8.8 TaMe 8.9.1 Table 8.9.2 Table 8.10 Table 9.1 TaMe 9.2 TaMe 9.3 Table 9.4 TaMe 9.5 Page Future use of contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 114 Reasons for not using contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 115 Preferred method of contraception for future use . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 116 Current marital status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 117 Marital exposure: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 118 Marital exposure: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 119 Age at first marriage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 120 Median age at filst marriage: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 121 Median age at first marriage: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122 Age at first sexual intercourse . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 124 Median age at first intercourse: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 125 Median age at first intercourse: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 126 Recent sexual activity: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 127 Recent sexual activity: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 128 Postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence and insusceptibility . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 Median duration of postpartum amenorrhea, abstinence, and insusceptibility: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 131 Mecian duration of postpartum amenorrhea, ~bstine~ce, and insusceptibility: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 132 Termination of exposure to the risk of pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 133 Infant and child mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Trends in infant and child mortality by region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Infant mortality for five-year periods by region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Infant and child mortality by background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 140 Infant and child mortality by biodemographic characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 141 xi Table 9.6 Table 9.7 Table 10.1.1 Table 10.1.2 Table 10.2.1 Table 10.2.2 Table 10.3 Table 10.4.1 Table 10.4.2 Table 10.5 Table 10.6.1 Table 10.6.2 Table 10.7.1 Table 10.7.2 Table 10.8.1 Table 10.8.2 Table 10.9 Table 11.1.1 Table 11.1.2 Table 11.2 Table 11.3.1 Table 11.3.2 Table 11.4 Table 12.1.1 Page Infant and child mortality by region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 143 High-risk fertility behavior . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 144 Antenatal care: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 146 Antenatal care: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 147 Place of antenatal care: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 148 Place of antenatal care: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 149 Number of antenatal care visits and stage of pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 151 Tetanus toxoid vaccinations: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 152 Tetanus toxoid vaccinations: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 153 Iron tablets taken during pregnancy . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 154 Place of delivery: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 156 Place of delivery: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 157 Assistance during delivery: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 158 Assistance during delivery: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 160 Delivery characteristics: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 161 Delivery characteristics: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 163 Complications of delivery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 164 Health cards: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166 Health cards: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 167 Vaccinations by source of information . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 168 Vaccinations: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 169 Vaccinations: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 171 Vaccinations in first year of life . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 173 Prevalence and incidence cf acute respiratory infection: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 176 xii Table 12.1.2 Table 12.2.1 Table 12.2.2 Table 12.3.1 Table 12.3.2 Table 12.4.1 Table 12.4.2 Table 12.5.1 Table 12.5.2 Table 12.6.1 Table 12.6.2 Table 12.7.1 Table 12.7.2 Table 12.8.1 Table 12.8.2 Table 12.9 Table 13.1.1 Table 13.1.2 Table 13.2 Table 13.3 Table 13.4.1 Table 13.4.2 Table 14.1 Page Prevalence and incidence of acute respiratory infection: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 177 Prevalence and treatment of acute respiratory infection: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 178 Prevalence and treatment of acute respiratory infection: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 179 Prevalence and treatment of fever: background characteristics: . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 181 Prevalence and treatment of fever: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 182 Prevalence of diarrhea: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 184 Prevalence of diarrhea: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 185 Duration and incidence of diarrhea: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 186 Duration and incidence of diarrhea: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 187 Knowledge of diarrhea care: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 188 Knowledge of diarrhea care: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 189 Source of diarrhea treatment: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 191 Source of diarrhea treatment: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 192 Treatment of diarrhea: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 193 Treatment of diarrhea: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 194 Feeding practices during diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 195 Initial breastfeeding: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 198 Initial breastfeeding: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 199 Breastfeeding status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 200 Types of food received . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 202 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding: background characteristics . . . . 203 Median duration and frequency of breastfeeding: region and province . . . . . . . . 205 Data on siblings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 xiii Table 14.2 Table 14.3 Table 14.4 Table 14.5 Table 15.1.1 Table 15.1.2 Table 15.2.1 Table 15.2.2 Table 15.3.1 Table 15.3.2 Table 15.4.1 Table 15.4.2 Table 15.5.1 Table 15.5.2 Table 16.1.1 Table 16.1.2 Table 16.2.1 Table 16.2.2 Table 16.3 Table 16.4 Table 16.5 Page Adult female mortality rates by age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 208 Adult female mortality rates: direct estimates and model life table rates . . . . . . . . 209 Direct estimates of maternal mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 210 Indirect estimates of maternal mortality . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 211 Knowledge of AIDS and sources of AIDS information: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 214 Knowledge of AIDS and sources of AIDS information: region and province . . . . 215 Knowledge of ways to avoid AIDS: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217 Knowledge of ways to avoid AIDS: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218 Perception of the risk of getting AIDS: hackground characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . 219 Perception of the risk of getting AIDS: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 220 AIDS prevention behavior: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 221 AIDS prevention behavior: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 222 Knowledge of condoms: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 223 Knowledge of condoms: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224 Availability of family planning providers in the area: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 226 Availability of family planning providers in the area: region and province . . . . . . 227 Distance to nearest principal FP/MCH outlet offering modem contraceptive methods: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228 Distance to nearest principal FP/MCH outlet offering modem contraceptive methods: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 229 Distance to nearest principal FP/MCH outlet offering contraceptive methods by type of outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 230 Time to nearest principal FP/MCH outlet offering contraceptive methods by type of outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 231 Availability of specific MCH services at nearest principal FP/MCH outlets offering MCH services . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 233 xiv Table 16.6.1 Table 16.6.2 Table 16.7 Table 16.8 Table A. 1 Table A.2 Table B. 1 Table B.2.1 Table B.2.2 Table B.2.3 Table B.2.4 Table B.2.5 Table B.2.6 Table B.2.7 Table B.2.8 Table B.2.9 Table B.2.10 Table B.2.11 Table B.2.12 Table B.2.13 Table B.2.14 Table B.2.15 Page Distance to nearest principal FP/MCH outlet offering MCH services: background characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 234 Distance to nearest principal FP/MCH outlet offering MCH services: region and province . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 235 Distance to nearest principal FP/MCH outlet offering MCH services by type of outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236 Time to nearest principal FP/MCH outlet offering MCH services by type of outlet . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 237 Sample implementation: results of the household interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 245 Sample implementation: results of the individual interview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 246 List of selected variables for sampling errors, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 253 Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling Sampling errors - National sample, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 254 errors - Urban sample, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 255 errors - Rural sample, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 256 errors - Java-Bali, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 257 errors - Outer Java-Bali I, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 258 errors - Outer Java-Bali II, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 259 errors - DKI Jakarta, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 260 errors - West Java, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 261 errors - Central Java, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 262 errors - DI Yogyakarta, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 263 errors - East Java, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 264 errors - Bali, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 265 errors - Dista Aceh, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 266 errors - North Sumatra, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267 errors - West Sumatra, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 268 XV Table B.2.16 Table B.2.17 Table B.2.18 Table B.2.19 Table B.2_20 Table B.2.21 Table B_2.22 Table B2 .23 Table B.2.24 Table B.2.25 Table B.2.26 Table B.2.27 Table B.2.28 Table B.2.29 Table B .230 Table B.2.31 Table B.2.32 Table B.2.33 Table C. 1 Table C.2 Table C.3 Table C.4 Table C.5 Table C.6 Page Sampling errols - South Sumatra, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 269 Sampling errors - Lampung, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270 Sampling errors - West Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 271 Sampling errors - West Kalimantan, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272 Sampling errors - South Kalimantan, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 273 Sampling errors - North Sulawesi, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 274 Sampling errors - South Sulawesi, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 275 Sampling errors- Riau, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 276 Sampling errors - Jambi, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 277 Sampling errors - Bengkulu, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 278 Sampling errors - East Nusa Tenggara, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 279 Sampling errors - East Timor, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 280 Sampling errors - Central Kalimantan, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 281 Sampling errors - East Kalimantan, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 282 Sampling errors - Central Sulawesi, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 283 Sampling errors - Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 284 Sampling errors - Maluku, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 285 Sampling errors - lrian Jaya, Indonesia 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 286 Household age distribution . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 289 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 290 Completeness of reporting . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 291 Births by calendar years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 292 Reporting of age at death in days . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 294 Reporting of age at death in months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 295 xvi Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.5 Figure 5.6 Figure 6.1 Figure 7.1 Figure 8.1 Figure 8.2 FIGURES Page Number of Persons Reported at Each Age by Sex . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Distribution of the Household Population by Age . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11 Percentage of the Population Age 5-15 Enrolled in School by Age Group and Sex . . . 19 Housing Characteristics by Residence . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22 Age-Specific Fertility Rates, Indonesia 1967-1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Total Fertility Rates by Province, Java-Bali 1967-1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Percentage of Currently Married Women Who Know Specific Modem Contraceptive Methods, Indonesia, 1987, 1991, and 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56 Percentage of Ever-Married Women Who Have Heard of the Blue Circle (BC) Program and Who Know It Is a Private Family Planning (FP) Program, by Region . 62 Percentage of Ever-Married Women Who Know of Golden Circle (GC) and Who Know It is a Private Family Planning (FP) Program, by Region . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Percentage of Currently Married Women Age 15-49 Who Are Using a Contraceptive Method . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 Percentage of Currently Married Women Age 15-49 Using Contraception by Province, Java-Bali 1976-1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 77 Percentage of Currently Married Women Age 15-49 Using Specific Modem Contraceptive Methods, Java-Bali, 1976-1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 78 Percentage of Currently Married Women Age 15-49 Using Specific Contraceptive Methods, Indonesia 1991 and 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79 Distribution of Current Users of Modem Contraceptive Methods by Source of Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 90 Distribution of Current Users of Modem Contraceptive Methods by Reason for Using Most Recent Source of Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 92 Fertility Preferences of Currently Married Women 15-49 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 98 Reasons for Discontinuation of Contraceptive Methods . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 113 Median Age at Marriage by Province, Java-Bali 1987, 1991 and 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . 123 Median Age at Marriage by Region, Indonesia 1987, 1991 and 1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . 123 xvii Figure 8.3 Figure 9.1 Figure 9.2 Figure 9.3 Figure 10.1 Figure 10.2 Figure 11.1 Figure 11.2 Figure 12.1 Figure 13.1 Figure 13.2 Figure 15.1 Figure C. 1 Page Percentage of Births in the last Three Years for Which Mothers Are Amenorrheic or Abstaining . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 130 Number of Reported Deaths among Children Under Two Years by Age at Death in Months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 136 Infant Mortality Rates, Selected Sources, Indonesia 1971-1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 138 Infant Mortality Rates by Province, Java-Bali 1979-1994 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 139 Number of Antenatal Care Visits and Stage of Pregnancy at First Visit for Births in the Five Years Preceding the Survey . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 150 Delivery Characteristics of Births in the Five Years Preceding the Survey . . . . . . . . 162 Health Card Coverage for Births in the Five Years Preceding the Survey, by Mother's Education . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Vaccination Coverage Among Children Age 12-23 Months . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 170 Feeding Practices Among Children Under Five with Diarrhea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196 Distribution of Children by Breastfeeding (BF) Status, According to Age . . . . . . . . . 201 Median Duration of Any Breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 204 Knowledge of AIDS Among Ever-Married Women . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 216 Calendar Birth Ratios for Living, Dead, and All Children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 293 xviii PREFACE The 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is the third survey on demography and health in Indonesia and was conducted as part of the worldwide Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) project. The first survey was the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS) and the second was the 1991 IDHS. The 1994 IDHS was designed as a collaborative effort of four institutions, i.e., the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS), the State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board, the Ministry of Health, and Macro International Inc. In addition to funds provided by the Government of Indonesia, the survey received financial support from the World Bank and the United States Agency for International Development (USAID)/Jakarta. Technical assistance as well as funding for the survey were provided by Macro International through its DHS program, a USAID-funded project carried out in many developing countries. The Central Bureau of Statistics was responsible for conducting the survey, including survey design, fieldwork, and data processing. The 1994 IDHS fieldwork was carried out from July to November 1994 in selected enumeration areas in all of the 27 provinces in Indonesia. The sample is a subsample of the National Socio-Economic Survey and was designed to produce reliable estimates of major variables for each province and for urban and rural areas of the three family planning program development areas (Java-Bali, Outer Java- Bali I, and Outer Java-Bali II). The main objective of the 1994 IDHS is to provide policymakers and program managers in population and health with detailed information on fertility and family planning; infant, child and maternal mortality; and maternal and child health. The content of the 1994 IDHS has been significantly expanded from prior surveys to include two new modules in the individual questionnaire: maternal mortality and knowledge of AIDS. The survey also investigated the availability of family planning and health services, which provides possible linkage with women' s fertility, family planning and child health care behavior. The 1994 IDHS also included a household expenditure modules, thereby identifying the household's economic status as an important determinant in family planning and health. This report supplements the preliminary report released earlier. The success of this very important undertaking would not have been realized without the relentless effort and dedication of all parties concerned. To those who actively contributed to this project, I would like to extend my gratitude and appreciation, especially to the World Bank, USAID, and the DHS program of Macro International Inc. Central Bureau of Statistics Jakarta, Indonesia September 1995 Sugito, M.A. Director General xix PREFACE The 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is a nationally representative survey of 28,000 ever-married women ages 15 to 49. This survey provides detailed information on levels and trends in fertility, mortality, and family planning; maternal and child health services; availability of family planning and health service facilities; maternal mortality; and knowledge of AIDS. This information should be highly useful to Indonesia's Ministry of Health, Ministry of Population/NFPCB, and other related government institutions in assessing the coverage and quality of current interventions and in developing population policy and new program initiatives designed to further enhance family welfare. Results from the 1994 IDHS confirm that Indonesia has continued to make considerable progress in providing more couples with effective, high quality family planning services. As of 1994, 55 percent of all currently married women were using a method of contraception. The contraceptive prevalence rate has contributed to the decline in fertility in Indonesia. The fertility level in Indonesia has undergone a notable decline in the past 25 years, from 5.6 births per woman in the 1960s to 2.9 births in the early 1990s. A particularly encouraging development reported by the 1994 IDHS is the rapid expansion of self- reliant family planning (KB Mandiri) over the past seven years. The percentage of clients acquiring family planning services through private sector outlets has increased from 11 percent in 1987 to 51 percent in 1994. As expected, the role of private midwives has grown rapidly. For example, 38 percent of injection users obtain their method from private midwives. Facilitating the practice of family planning at younger ages and promoting greater use of effective contraception to older women, which have been done before, will continue to be program priorities in the coming years. In addition, improving reproductive health status, further promoting family planning, and ensuring safer contraceptive practices through improvement of quality of care in family planning will be essential ingredients in the future expansion of Indonesia's family planning movement. However, beyond the need to recruit more family planning acceptors and promote greater use effectiveness, there is need to develop program strategies that enhance the welfare of mothers and children in the family and to promote greater economic opportunities for families. In conclusion, I would like to thank the Central Bureau of Statistics, Macro International Inc. in Maryland (USA), the IDHS Steering Committee and IDHS Technical Committee, and Office of Program Development at the NFPCB for their efforts in conducting the 1994 IDHS. In addition, USAID and the World Bank made substantial financial and technical contributions that helped ensure the ultimate success of this important undertaking. The high quality of the IDHS final country report is indicative of the professional manner in which this project was designed and implemented. State Ministry of Population/ National Family Planning Coordinating Board Prof. Dr. Haryono Suyono State Minister/Chairman xxi PREFACE The Broad Guidelines of the State Policy 1993 stated that in the Second Long-term Development Plan covering the 15-year period between 1994 and 2019, health development is focused in enhancing the quality of human resources, and improving community awareness on the importance of healthy living. The goal is to provide improved quality and distribution health services to build strong, healthy, intelligent and productive human beings. To monitor and evaluate the achievement of health development, reliable data are needed. These data can be obtained from service administration (service-based data) and collected directly from the community (community-based data). The two types of data complement each other in supporting the health information. Efforts to obtain data from the community which reflect the health situation in a certain period of time have been carried out through various surveys including the Household Health Surveys, the National Socio- Economic Surveys, and the Demographic and Health Survey. The result of the 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) showed that the family planning programs have been successful in reducing fertility. The survey also found that maternal and child health (MCH) programs have been improved; antenatal care coverage including tetanus toxoid immunization among pregnant mothers has increased. Infant and child mortality continues to decline, although maternal mortality remains high. The survey also showed that 38 percent of the respondents have ever heard about AIDS, but most of them did not know the means of prevention, transmission and whether this disease is curable. The findings of the 1994 IDHS together with other national surveys are very important in measuring the achievement of family planning and health programs. Information obtained from the 1994 IDHS can be used to review the progress of the Fifth Five-Year Development Plan (1989/90-1993/94), and to improve future health policies and programs, Based on the above-mentioned considerations, the results of the 1994 IDHS should be disseminated to decision makers at different levels of health management; in the central offices as well as local governments, and to the community at large. We would like to take this opportunity to thank the Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) Program of Macro International, USAID, the World Bank, the Central Bureau of Statistics, the National Family Planning Coordinating Board, and all other parties who assisted in the implementation the 1994 DHS. We hope that the survey results are useful in developing health programs. Minister of Health Republic of Indonesia Prof. Dr. Sujudi xxiii SUMMARY OF FINDINGS The 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is a nationally representative survey conducted between July and November 1994. This survey is the third survey in Indonesia carried out under the Demographic and Health Surveys project; the first two were conducted in 1987 and 1991. As in previous surveys, the main purpose of the survey was to provide policymakers and program managers in population and health with detailed information on fertility, infant and child mortality, family planning, and maternal and child health. For the first time, the IDHS also collected information on maternal mortality, knowledge of AIDS, and the availability of family planning and health services. The 1994 IDHS was carried out as a collaboration between the Central Bureau of Statistics, the State Ministry for Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board, and the Ministry of Health. The DHS project of Macro International provided technical and financial assistance under a contract with the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID). Most of the local costs for the survey were received from the World Bank, the Government of Indonesia, and USAID/Jakarta. A total of 33,738 households and 28,168 ever-married women age 15-49 were interviewed. Findings from the survey are presented at the national, regional, and provincial level, and by urban and rural residence. The results indicate that the majority of Indonesian women have had some formal education (84 percent), and 52 percent completed primary or higher education. More than half of respondents worked in the 12 months prior the survey. Fertility has been declining in Indonesia for more than two decades--from 5.6 births per woman in the period 1967-70 to 2.9 births per woman in 1991-94. The decline in fertility accelerated in the late 1970s and early 1980s, and then slowed. The total fertility rate (TFR) in Java-Bali is 2.6 births per woman, while in the Outer Java-Bali regions it is 3.3. In some provinces, fertility has reached, or is approaching, replace- ment level; these include: DKI Jakarta, DI Yogyakarta, East Java, Bali, South Kalimantan, and Central Kalimantan. Overall, women are beginning childbearing at older ages. More Indonesian women are staying single, and among those who marry, age at first marriage is increasing. The median age at first marriage for women 45-49 is 17.2, compared with 19.2 for women 25-29. Women in Java-Bali marry two years earlier than women in the Outer Java-Bali regions, while women with some secondary education marry more than five years later than women who have no education. Knowledge of family planning methods and sources for methods is virtually universal (96 percent), and almost all women know at least one modem method. There have been substantial increases in knowledge of Norplant, male sterilization, and female sterilization. Fifty-five percent of currently married women use a method of family planning and 95 percent of them use modem methods. The pill, injection, and the IUD are the most commonly used methods. Contraceptive use increases with level of education; 40 percent of married women with no education use a method, compared with 63 percent of women with secondary or higher education. Government facilities are the most important source for family planning methods, supplying 49 percent of modern contraceptive users. Other family planning sources include medical private sources (28 percent), and other private sources (23 percent). Among the medical private sources, midwives are the most popular, and among other private sources, health posts (posyandu) are the primary source for family planning services. Two-thirds of contraceptive users who obtained a family planning method from a government source paid for the method. The proportion of users who pay for their method is highest among users of injection, pill, and condoms. XXV Twenty-seven percent of family planning users discontinue using a method within 12 months of starting. The highest discontinuation rates are among users of condoms (51 percent), withdrawal (36 percent), the pill (34 percent) and periodic abstinence (32 percent). More than half of married women in Indonesia say that they want no more children or have been sterilized. Younger women are more likely to want to have another child soon or to space their children, while older women tend to want to stop childbearing. The ideal number of children expressed by Indonesian women declined from 3.1 children in 1991 to 2.9 children in 1994, indicating a desire for smaller families. If all unwanted births could be avoided, the total fertility rate in Indonesia would be around 2.4 births per woman instead of 2.9. In the fifteen years preceding the survey, infant mortality declined from 75 to 57 deaths per 1,000 live births. For children under five years, the mortality rate was 81 deaths per 1,000 live births. Infant mortality is lowest for children of mothers who received both antenatal care and assistance at delivery from medical professionals, and highest for children whose mothers had neither antenatal care nor medical assistance at delivery (39 and 107 deaths per 1,000 live births, respectively). Four of five births in the five years preceding the survey were to mothers who received antenatal care from a doctor or midwife. The proportion of children whose mothers received no antenatal care is high among high-order births, rural births, and births to mothers who have no education. Neonatal tetanus is a major cause of death among infants in Indonesia. The Ministry of Health recommends that women receive two tetanus toxoid injections before marriage, and a booster during each succeeding pregnancy. Overall, 49 percent of children born in the five years preceding the survey were to mothers who received two or more tetanus toxoid injections during pregnancy. The proportion of live births not protected against tetanus is lower in urban than rural areas, and in the Java-Bali region than outside Java- Bali. Tetanus coverage is higher among low-order births, and births to mothers with secondary education. Although lower than in 1991, the proportion of infants delivered at home remains high (77 percent). Mothers with no education are twice as likely to deliver at home as those who have some secondary educa- tion, and rural births are twice as likely to be delivered at home as births in urban areas. In Indonesia, breastfeeding is not only universal, but of relatively long duration. The median duration of breastfeeding is 23.8 months; however, supplementary feeding begins early. Four in ten infants under two months receive supplements in addition to breast milk. Based on information from health cards and mothers' reports, half of children 12-23 months have received immunizations against the six major childhood diseases: diphtheria, pertussis, tetanus, polio, measles, and tuberculosis. Vaccination coverage is higher' among low birth-order children, urban children, and children whose mothers have more education. During the two weeks preceding the survey, 10 percent of children under five had symptoms of acute lower respiratory infection, shown by cough accompanied with rapid breathing. Sixty-three percent of these children were taken to a health facility for treatment. Over the same period, 12 percent of children under five suffered from diarrhea, 53 percent of whom were taken to a health facility. Among children who had diarrhea, 45 percent were given oral rehydration therapy by means of solution prepared from ORS packets. Knowledge of ORS packets is almost universal among mothers with children under five. xxvi During the two weeks preceding the survey, 28 percent of children under five had fever, and 7 percent had fever (only) unaccompanied by cough, rapid breathing, or diarrhea. Among children who had fever only, 45 percent were taken to a health facility. Thirty-eight percent of ever-married women report that they have heard of AIDS. Among these, 21 percent say that there is no way to avoid getting the disease, 62 percent believe there is no cure for AIDS, and 71 percent say that they are not at risk of getting AIDS. A large majority of women who know of AIDS also know about condoms. In the 1994 IDHS, information necessary for estimating the level of maternal mortality was collected. Based on information about respondents' siblings, the maternal mortality ratio is estimated to be 390 deaths per 100,000 live births for the period 1989-94. The 1994 IDHS also collected information about health and family planning services available to women and children in the sampled clusters. The information was collected in two stages. In the first stage, an interview was held with knowledgeable residents. In the second stage, IDHS interviewers visited selected types of facilities, namely general hospitals, health centers, private doctors, private midwives, and pharma- cies. Combined, these types of facilities are the main suppliers of modern contraceptives and the major out- lets for maternal and child health services. Hereafter, these facilities are referred to as principal family plan- ning/maternal and child health (FP/MCH) outlets. Interviewers visited the nearest of each type of principal FP/MCH outlet if it was located within 10 kilometers of the cluster in urban areas and 30 kilometers in rural areas. Three in four currently married women live within 5 kilometers of a principal FP/MCH outlet offering contraceptive methods, and about 5 percent of married women have to travel 15 kilometers or more to a prin- cipal FP/MCH outlet. Overall, women are about 15 minutes from the nearest principal FP/MCH outlet pro- viding contraceptive methods. Almost no women live in an area where none of the MCH components included in the survey--antenatal care, tetanus toxoid ('IT) injection for pregnant women, delivery assistance, postnatal care, child growth monitoring, and child immunization--are available. xxvii X %, WEST MALAYSIA 7 PROVINCES 1. Dista Aceh 2. North Sumatra 3. West Sumatra 4. Riau 5. Jambi 6. South Sumatra 7. Bengkulu 8. Lampung 9. DKI Jakarta INDONESIA SINGAPORE ,j° 9 MALAYSIA I ~ \ • ~ ° I,~. ° . ,9 /'~ 10. West Java 11. Central Java 12. DI Yogyakarta 13. East Java 14. Bali 15. West Nusa Tenggara 16. East Nusa Tenggara 17. West Kalimantan 18. Central Kalimantan 19. South Kalimantan 20. East Kalimantan 21. North Sulawesi 22. Central Sulawesi 23. South Sulawesi 24. Southeast Sulawesi 25. Maluku 26. Irian Jaya 27. East Timor 16 ~,~27 CHAPTER1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 Geography, History and Economy The Republic of Indonesia, which consists of approximately 17,000 islands, is located between 6 degrees north and 11 degrees south latitude, and from 95 to 141 degrees east longitude. The Indonesian archipelago lies between Asia and Australia. It is bounded by the South China Sea in the north, the Pacific Ocean in the north and east, and the Indian Ocean in the south and west. There are five major islands: Sumatra in the west; Java in the south; Kalimantan straddling the equator; Sulawesi, which resembles the letter "K"; and Irian Jaya bordering Papua New Guinea on the west. Two remaining groups of islands are Maluku and Nusa Tenggara, running from Sulawesi to Irian Jaya in the north, and from Bali to Timor in the south. Other islands are small and mostly uninhabited. More than 80 percent of Indonesia's territory is covered with water; the land area is about 1.9 million square kilometers. The large number of islands and their dispersion over a wide area result in a diverse culture and hundreds of ethnic groups, each with its own language. This is the basis of the national motto "Unity in Diversity." Indonesia's climate is tropical with two seasons. The dry season extends from May to October, and the rainy season from November to April. Indonesia is divided administratively into 27 provinces. Each province consists of regencies and municipalities. Altogether, there are 243 regencies and 60 municipalities. The next lower administrative unit is the subdistrict, then the village. Classification of urban and mral areas is made at the village level. In 1993, there were 3,879 subdistricts, 7,585 urban villages, and 58,097 rural villages. Since proclaiming its independence in 1945, Indonesia has experienced several political shifts. In 1948, a rebellion by the Communist Party took place in Madiun. Up until the end of 1949, when the Dutch gave up control over Indonesia, there were disputes against the ruling democratic republic. Some factions, supported by the Dutch, formed the Federation of Indonesian Republics, which lasted less than one year. From 1950 to 1959, Indonesia faced several political problems, including the adoption of a multi-party system, which resulted in political and economic instability, and rebellions caused by ideological, ethnic and racial differences. The history of the Republic of Indonesia had a turning point after an aborted coup by the Communist Party in September 1965. In 1966, President Suharto began a new era with the establishment of the New Order Government, which is oriented toward overall development. After almost 30 years under the New Order Government, Indonesia has made substantial progress, particularly in stabilizing political and economic conditions. A period of great economic growth was experi- enced from 1968 to 1986, when per capita income increased sharply from about US $50 to US $385. This was primarily the result of the international oil boom in the early 1980s, from which more than 60 percent of the country's foreign exchange came. The drop in the price of crude oil and natural gas in 1985 forced the government to look for alternative sources of income, such as manufacturing, international trade, and service industries. This effort has been successful. In recent years, per capita income has increased to around US $842 in 1993. During the same period, the contribution of commodity exports other than crude oil to the total foreign exchange increased from 61 percent in 1988 to 89 percent in 1993. An important achievement of the Indonesian government is the improvement of the general welfare of the population by ensuring the availability of adequate food, clothing and housing, as well as providing adequate education and health services. Data from the 1971 and 1990 Population Censuses and the 1993 National Socio-Economic Survey (Susenas) show that in the last 23 years Indonesia has undergone a major improvement in the area of education. The percentage of persons age 10 years and over who are literate increased from 61 percent in 1971 to 84 percent in 1990 and to 86 percent in 1993. The improvement in education is most visible among females. Whereas school attendance among children 7 to 12 years in 1971 was 62 percent for males and 58 percent for females, the corresponding rate for both in 1993 was 93 percent. During the same period, the percentage of persons who never attended school decreased as the percentage of graduates at all levels increased. The percentage of primary school graduates increased from 20 percent in 1971 to 30 percent in 1990 to 31 percent in 1993, while persons who attended junior high school or higher education increased from 7 percent in 1971 to 22 percent in 1990 and to 24 percent in 1993. At all levels, the increase in education among females has been greater than the increase among males. One possible effect of more girls staying in school longer is the rise in the average age at first marriage. The singulate mean age at first marriage increased from 19.6 years in 1971 to 21.4 years in 1991); the increase was greater in urban areas than in rural areas. The increasing level of education has also provided women with greater opportunity for participation in the labor force. Labor force participation among women age 10 and over increased from 33 percent in 1971 to 45 percent in 1993. Most women work in agriculture, trade, or the service industries. It is expected tht the trend toward greater work force participation by women will continue. 1.2 Population According to the 1990 Population Census, the population of Indonesia was 179.4 million in 1990, and was projected to increase to 189.1 million in 1993. This would make Indonesia the fourth most populous country in the world after the People's Republic of China, India, and the United States. An estimated 55.4 million persons (31 percent of the population) were living in urban areas in 1990, compared with 64.4 million (34 percent of the population) in 1993. In addition to an already large population, Indonesia has a high rate of population growth. However, this rate has declined in the last two decades. Between 1971 and 1980, the average annual rate of population growth was 2.3 percent, compared with 2.0 percent between 1980 and 1990. The population growth rate was projected to decline further, to 1.8 percent, between 1990 and 1993. The decline in the growth rate occurred in all the islands except Kalimantan, where it increased from 3.0 in the period 1971-80 to 3.1 percent in the period 1980-90. The rate of growth among the islands and provinces varies significantly. For exarnple, in the period 1980-90, the growth rate in Java was 1.7 percent, while in Sumatra and Sulawesi the corresponding rates were 2.7 percent and 1.9 percent, respectively. In the same period, among the provinces of Java, DKI Jakarta and West Java showed the fastest growth (greater than 2 percent) and DI Yogyakarta the slowest (0.4 percent per annum). In the recent past, DKI Jakarta showed the greatest decline in growth rate, partly because a large number of people moved from DKI Jakarta to West Java to occupy new housing built in the areas of West Java surrounding Jakarta. Another characteristic of Indonesia is the uneven distribution of the population among the islands and provinces. The 1990 Population Census indicates that the population density varies across regions, not only among islands, but also among provinces of the same island. Java, which covers only 7 percent of the total area of Indonesia, is inhabited by 60 percent of the country' s population, making the population density of Java (814 persons per square kilometer) higher than that of other islands. By comparison, Kalimantan has a density of 17 persons per square kilometer. Comparison of provinces in Java shows that population density ranges from 12,500 persons per square kilometer in DKI Jakarta to 678 persons per square kilometer in East Java. Population density at the national level was 93 persons per square kilometer in 1990; in 1993 it was projected to be 99 persons per square kilometer. 2 Table 1.1 presents the basic demographic indicators derived from several sources, i.e., the 1971, 1980, and 1990 Population Censuses, the 1985 Intercensal Population Survey, and the population projection for 1993. The first three indicators that pertain to population distribution have been discussed. The census and survey data show that Indonesia's fertility has declined significantly since the 1970s. The crude birth rate (CBR), which was estimated at 41 births per 1,000 population in the late 1960s, declined to 36 per 1,000 in the period 1976-79, resulting in an annual percentage decline of 1.3 percent. In the period 1986-89, the CBR declined further to 28 births per 1,000 population, with an average annual rate of decline of 2.1 percent between the periods 1976-79 and 1986-89. These figures suggest a more rapid decline in fertility in recent years. The 1993 CBR was projected to be 25 births per 1,000 population. Table 1.1 also shows that the total fertility rate (TFR) declined from 5.6 children per woman in the period 1967-70, to 4.7 children in 1976-79, and to 3.3 children in 1986-89. The average annual decline between the periods 1967-70 and 1976-79 was 1.8 percent; between the periods 1976-79 and 1986-89 it was 2.9 percent. The TFR was projected to be 2.9 children per woman in 1993. Table 1.1 Basic demographic indicators Demographic indicators from selected sources, Indonesia 1971 - 1993 1985 1971 1980 lntercensal 1990 1993 Index Census Census survey Census pr~ection ~ Population (millions) 119.2 147.5 164.6 179.4 189.1 Growth rate (GR) z (percent) 2.10 2.32 2.22 1.98 1.76 Density (pop/kin 2) 62.4 77.0 85.0 93.0 98.5 Percent urban 17.3 22.3 26.2 30.9 34.0 Reference period 1967-70 1976-79 1981-84 1986-89 1993 Crude birth rate (CBR) 3 40.6 35.5 32.0 27.9 24.5 Crude death rate (CDR) 4 19.1 13.1 11.4 8.9 7.9 Total fertility rate (TFR) 5 5.6 4.7 4.1 3.3 2.9 Infant mortality rate 6 (per 1,000 births) 142 112 71 70 58 Life expectancy 6 Male 45.0 50.9 57.9 57.9 60.8 Female 48.0 54.0 61.5 61.5 64.5 I Projected based on 1990 Population Census 2 Calculated using compound interest formula 3 Births per 1,000 population; estimated using the 4 Deaths per 1,000 population; CDR = CBR - GR 5 Estimated based on own children method 6 Estimated using indirect estimation techniques formula CBR = 9.48968 + 5.55 TFR Source: Central Bureau of Statistics, 1987a; 1987b; 1992; 1993a; Central Bureau of Statistics et al., 1989 The same data sources also demonstrate that there has been a significant decline in the level of mortality. An important achievement of the first long-term development plan (LTDP) (1969-70to 1993-94) was the reduction of infant and child mortality through integrated health and family planning services. The infant mortality rate (IMR) declined from 142 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1971, to 112 per 1,000 in 1980, to 70 per 1,000 in 1990, showing an average annual rate of decline of 2.7 percent. The 1MR was projected to reach 58 deaths per 1,000 live births in 1993. During the same period, the crude death rate (CDR) decreased from 19 deaths per 1,000 population in 1971 to 9 per 1,000 in 1990, resulting in an average annual rate of decline of 2.8 percent. The CDR was projected to be 8 deaths per 1,000 population in 1993. 1.3 Population and Family Planning Policies and Programs The Government of Indonesia has devoted many of its development programs to population-related issues since President Suharto joined other Heads of State in signing the Declaration of the World Leaders in 1967. In this declaration, rapid population growth was considered an obstacle to economic development. In order to carry out its population policy, the government has launched several programs, of which family planning is an important part. Family planning activities were initiated in Indonesia in 1957 by a private organization working under the auspices of the International Planned Parenthood Federation. It provided family planning advice and services, as well as maternal and child care. In 1968, the government established a National Family Planning Institute, which was reorganized as the National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB) two years later. NFPCB is a non-departmental body and the Chairman reports directly to the President. The government of Indonesia has a strong commitment to filmily planning and is working with religious and community leaders to develop programs to promote family planning. Family planning programs were not initiated simultaneously throughout the country. In the first five- year development plan (Repelita), which covered the period 1969-70 to 1973-74, programs began in the six provinces of Java and Bali. In the next five-year plan, the program was expanded to the provinces of Dista Aceh, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Sumatra, Lampung, West Nusa Tenggara, West Kalimantan, South Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, and South Sulawesi. In the development of family planning programs, these provinces are classified as the Outer Java-B ali I Region. In the third Repelita, the programs were further expanded to include the remaining 11 provinces, which are grouped as the Outer Java-Bali II Region. Twenty years later, the population policy not only is contributing significantly to the reduction of the fertility rate but is also helping to improve family welfare. Furthermore, as stated in the Broad Guidelines for State Policy in 1988, the objectives of the National Family Planning Program include improving the quality of human resources by promoting a small, happy and prosperous family as the norm. As a result, the implementation strategy of the family planning program has four dimensions: the extension of program coverage, the maintenance of the family planning program, the institutionalization and cultivation of the family planning program, and the integration of the family planning program with various other national development programs. Program extension is aimed at increasing the need and desirability of family planning. The main efforts include intensive information, education and communication (IEC) activities and supplying and resupplying contraceptives throughout the country. The latter activity is focused on people who live in remote areas, slum areas, new housing developments, and transmigration areas. Program extension is carried out by persuading eligible young couples who have a small number of children to adopt family planning. 4 Program maintenance involves stabilizing the acceptance of family planning, and improving the quality of contraceptives and services. It also encourages family planning acceptors to use more effective contraceptives, for better protection against pregnancy. Program maintenance is implemented by expanding the involvement of people and institutions, sustaining their commitment and ensuring good coordination. Program institutionalization is achieved by the acceptance of the small family norm and by greater participation of other government agencies, non-government organizations, and the private sector in managing the program. To support this effort, participation by all groups of society, including professional organizations, social leaders and business organizations, is required. Through the institutionalization process, self-reliance in the use of family planning is achieved, not only from an economic point of view, but individu- ally and psychologically as well. Program integration is aimed at strengthening and extending the institutionalization and maintenance of the program. Policies and strategies have been integrated with other intersectoral development programs and implemented and integrated into existing social mechanisms. The integrated program services cover the improvement of maternal and child welfare, increasing the acceptor's family income, providing long-term security to family planning acceptors, and encouraging individual participation in community development. Program emphasis has been shifted toward the establishment of a family planning movement. Based on past progress and in anticipation of future challenges, Act Number 10 was passed by the Government of Indonesia in 1992. This Act, which is concerned with population development, broadens family planning goals from spacing births to the creation of prosperous and happy families. The Broad Guidelines Act Number 10/1992 and State Policy 1993 expand the goals of the family planning program to include increasing emphasis on delaying marriage, using birth control methods, fostering family resilience, and improving family welfare. 1.4 Health Priorities and Programs The Indonesian government has always considered health development to be an integral part of human resource development, with the goal of achieving an advanced and self-reliant nation. The aim of health development is to build healthy, bright, productive human beings. Programs should be carried out throughout the entire life cycle, starting with pregnancy or earlier, e.g., by tending to the welfare of women who will become mothers, and proceeding with youth, adolescence, people of productive age, and ultimately the elderly. A Long-term Health Development Plan was set up which covered the 25-year period between 1969 and 1994 and consisted of five 5-year plans. Specific objectives of the Fifth Five-Year Development Plan (1989-90 to 1993-94) were directed towards achieving the following: • Improved quality and distribution of health services, especially for remote areas • Improved efficiency in resource utilization (funds, manpower and facilities) Enhanced health services, with special emphasis on lowering the mortality rates for infants, children under five and mothers through reducing morbidity rates and improving nutritional status Improved environmental health to promote a healthy outlook and behavior for individuals and families • Improved nutritional status based on family and community efforts Improved distribution of affordable drugs and health equipment Reduced fertility rate by institutionalizing the norm of a small, happy and harmonious family. (This objective will be carried out through the family planning and maternal and child health services of the Integrated Health Service Posts and the Health Centres) Improved access to and management of quality medical and public health services • Improved physical well-being of the population, especially those of productive age. The Broad Guidelines of the State Policy 1993 stated that in the Second Long-term Development Plan health development should be aimed at the following: Enhancing the status of community health Improving the quality, accessibility, and affordability of health services at all levels of the community Improving nutritional status • Practicing a clean, healthy life, supported by development of decent housing and communi- ties. In the Sixth Five-Year Development Plan, the first phase of the health development is aimed at: • Further improving the quality, accessibility and affordability of health services, including improved nutrition Decreasing maternal and infant mortality • Encouraging active community participation, including the private sector, in health development • Promoting community awareness for a healthy and clean life • Fostering concern about the environment, supported by adequate and capable manpower, including the development of pharmaceutical and health equipment industries. 1,5 Object ives of the Survey The 1994 Indonesia Demographic and Health Survey (IDHS) is a follow-on project to the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS) and to the 1991 IDHS. The 1994 IDHS was significantly expanded from prior surveys to include two new modules in the women's questionnaire, namely maternal mortality and awareness of AIDS. The survey also investigated the availability of family planning and health services, which provides an opportunity for linking women's fertility, family planning ~md child health care with the availability of services. The 1994 IDHS also included a household expenditure module, which provides a means of identifying the household's economic status. All except the latter topic are discussed in this report. The 1994 IDHS was specifically designed to meet the following objectives: Provide data concerning fertility, family planning, maternal and child health, maternal mortality and awareness of AIDS that can be used by program managers, policymakers, and researchers to evaluate and improve existing programs; Provide data about availability of family planning and health services, thereby offering an opportunity for linking women's fertility, family planning and child-care behavior with the availability of services; Provide data on household expenditures, which can be used to identify the household's economic status; Provide data that can be used to analyze trends over time by examining many of the same fertility, mortality and health issues that were addressed in the earlier surveys (1987 NICPS and 1991 IDHS); Measure changes in fertility and contraceptive prevalence rates and at the same time study factors that affect the changes, such as marriage patterns, urban/rural residence, education, breastfeeding habits, and the availability of contraception; Measure the development and achievements of programs related to health policy, particularly those concerning the maternal and child health development program implemented through public health clinics in Indonesia. 1.6 Organization of the Survey The 1994 IDHS was implemented by the State Ministry of Population/National Family Planning Coordinating Board (NFPCB), the Ministry of Health (MOH) and the Central Bureau of Statistics (CBS). These organizations collaborated in the overall survey design, development of the questionnaire, and analysis and dissemination of the results. The NFPCB provided a large portion of the funds through a loan from the World Bank and grants from USAID/Jakarta, and also from the Government of Indonesia development budget. Macro International Inc. (Macro) furnished technical assistance as well as funds for the project through the Demographic and Health Surveys Program (DHS), a USAID-funded project providing support and technical assistance in the implementation of population and health surveys in developing countries. The CBS executed the survey, processed the data and was responsible for preparing the preliminary, final and summary reports. A survey Steering Committee was constituted, with senior representatives from the State Ministry of Population/NFPCB, CBS, MOH, the National Development Planning Board, and the Demographic Institute at the University of Indonesia. The Technical Team, consisting of members of the same organizations, met more frequently than the Steering Committee to discuss and decide on technical issues relating to the implementation of the survey. The directors of the regional statistical offices in the provinces were responsible for both the technical and the administrative aspects of the survey in their area. They were assisted by field coordinators, most of whom were chiefs of the population statistics sections in the regional office. The 1994 IDHS used four questionnaires--three at the household level and one at the community level. The three questionnaires administered at the household level are the household questionnaire, an indi- vidual questionnaire for women, and the household expenditure questionnaire. The household and individual questionnaires were based on the DHS Model "A" Questionnaire, which is designed for use in countries with high contraceptive prevalence. A deviation from the standard DHS practice is the exclusion of the anthro- pometric measurement of young children and their mothers. Topics covered in the 1994 IDHS that were not included in the 1991 IDHS are knowledge of AIDS and maternal mortality. Additions and modifications to the model questionnaire were made in order to provide detailed information specific to Indonesia. Except for the household expenditure module, the questionnaires were developed mainly in English and were trans- lated into Babasa Indonesia. The household expenditure schedule was adapted from the core Susenas ques- tionnaire model. Susenas is a national household survey carried out annually by BPS to collect data on vari- ous demographic and socioeconomic indicators of the potmlation. As in previous surveys, the household and individual data were collected by teams of interviewers. Altogether, 260 female interviewers, 86 male field supervisors, and 86 female field editors were recruited to form 86 interview teams. They were trained for 16 days in nine training centers in June 1994. The field supervisors and editors received additional training in supervisory tasks and editing techniques. One inter- viewer was appointed to collect data on family planning and health services in each subdistrict. In most cases, this person was the statistics officer at the subdistrict level (Mantri Statistik) and the interviewers for the household expenditure survey were temporary personnel (Mitra Statistik). The training for the inter- viewers for the service availability survey and the household expenditure survey was conducted separately by IDHS team supervisors. Training was usually conducted for a group of interviewers before the main sur- vey team arrived in a region. Data collection took place from July to November 1994. For more information about the fieldwork, see Appendix A. A list of the persons involved in the implementation of the survey is found in Appendix D. The survey questionnaires are reproduced in Appendix E. As in 1991, the 1994 IDHS was conducted in all 27 provinces in Indonesia. The sample was designed to produce estimates at the provincial level. Table 1.2 is a summary of the results of the fieldwork for the IDHS, from both the household and individual interviews by urban-rural resi- dence. In general, the response rates for both the household and individual interviews in the 1994 IDHS are relatively high. A total of 35,510 house- holds were selected for the survey, of which 34,060 were found. Of the encountered house- holds, 33,738 (99.1 percent) were successfully in- terviewed. In these households, 28,800 eligible women were identified and complete interviews were obtained from 28,168 women, or 97.8 per- cent of all eligible women. The generally high re- sponse rates for both household and individual in- terviews were due mainly to the strict enforcement of the role to revisit the originally selected house- hold if no one was at home initially. No substitu- tion for the originally selected households was al- lowed. Interviewers were instructed to make at least three visits in an effort to contact the house- hold or eligible woman. Table 1.2 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews and response rates, according to urban-rural residence, Indonesia 1994 Residence Result Urban Rural Total Household interviews Households sampled 10,401 25,109 35,510 Households found 9,895 24,165 34,060 Households interviewed 9,730 24,008 33,738 Household response rate 98.3 99.4 99.1 Individual interviews Eligible women 8,111 20,689 28,800 Interviewed women 7,947 20,221 28,168 Eligible woman response rate 98,0 97.7 97.8 8 CHAPTER2 BACKGROUND CHARACTERISTICS OF HOUSEHOLDS AND RESPONDENTS The main objective of this chapter is to describe the general characteristics of the sample population, which include age and sex composition, residence, education, housing facilities, and presence of durable goods. This information is not only useful by itself, but can also be used to evaluate the quality of the 1994 IDHS data and to investigate changes in social and economic conditions over time. Data in this chapter will be presented for households, persons within households, and women eligible for the individual interview. The other objective of this chapter is to describe the environment in which the respondents (ever-married women 15-49) and their children live. Factors believed to influence nuptiality, fertility, and contraceptive behavior, as well as maternal care and child morbidity and mortality, are discussed. 2.1 Population by Age and Sex The household questionnaire in the 1994 IDHS was used to list all household members, i.e., persons who usually live in the household. Information was obtained from an adult who was familiar with the charac- teristics of the other household members. In addition to providing a background against which various demo- graphic processes are occurring, the age structure of the population incorporates the past history of the popu- lation. The reliability of the population's age data depends on the reporting of birth dates. For persons whose year of birth was not known, age was obtained directly from the stated age. As shown in Figure 2.1, there is a preference for certain ages, particularly those ending in 0 or 5. Errors are more obvious among the Figure 2.1 Number of Persons Reported at Each Age by Sex Number of Persons 20o0 1500 1000 5O0 0 i i , i i 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 i i ~ i i i i 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 Age 1994 IDHS population age 20 and over, partly because younger people tend to have more education than older people and are more likely to know their date of birth. To obtain the most accurate age reporting for respondents, the 1994 IDHS interviewers were instructed to (1) ask for legal documents or identity cards, (2) relate the respondent's age to the age of another household member whose age was known or to a household event whose date had been ascertained, or (3) relate the respondent's age to local or national events well known in the area. A chart used to convert reported dates from the Javanese, Sundanese and Muslim calendars to the Gregorian calendar was appended to the interviewers' manual. The Javanese and Sundanese calendars are actually the same as the Muslim calendar except for the names of the months. Table 2.1 and Figure 2.2 present the age distribution of the population by five-year age groups according to sex. Age composition is affected by past levels of fertility, mortality and migration. The popu- lation pyramid has a narrow top and a wide base, reflecting a pattern typical of countries with relatively high fertility in the past. The narrowing at the base was brought about by a decline in fertility in the last decade. Table 2.1 Household population by age T residence and sex Percent distribution of the de jure household population by five-year age groups, according to urban-rural residence and sex, Indonesia 1994 Urban Rural Total Age group Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total 0-4 9.9 9.5 9.7 11.5 109 I 1,2 11.1 10.4 10.7 5-9 10.3 10.1 10.2 12.9 117 12.3 12.1 11.2 11.6 10-14 12.7 10.9 11.8 13.7 12~5 13.1 13.4 12,0 12.7 15-19 I 1.6 12.4 12.0 9.5 9 2 9.4 10.2 10.2 10.2 20-24 10.2 10.2 10.2 6.8 81 7.4 7.8 8.7 8.3 25-29 8.5 9.7 9.1 7.0 78 7.4 7.5 8.4 7.9 30-34 8.0 8.1 8.0 7.3 7.8 7.6 7.5 7.9 7.7 35-39 6.9 6.7 6.8 6.6 67 6.6 6.7 6.7 6.7 40-~ 5.6 5.0 5.3 5.8 51 5.4 5.7 5.0 5.4 45-49 3.9 4.0 3.9 4.0 4.2 4.1 3.9 4.1 4.0 50-54 3.9 4.0 4.0 4.1 44 4.3 4.0 4.3 4.2 55-59 2.7 2.7 2.7 3.0 34 3.2 2.9 3.2 3.0 60-64 2.3 2.7 2.5 3.0 32 3.1 2.8 3.0 2.9 65-69 1.4 2.0 1.7 1.9 20 1.9 1.7 2.0 1.9 70-74 1.4 I.I 1.2 1.7 16 1.6 1.6 1.4 1.5 75-79 0.4 0.5 0.5 0.5 07 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.6 80+ 0.3 0.5 0.4 0,8 07 0.7 0.6 0.7 0.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100~0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 23,230 23,441 46,671 51,963 52,216 104,179 75,193 75,657 150,850 10 Age 80+ 75 70 65 6O 55 50 45 40 35 3O 25 20 15 10 5 0 Figure 2.2 Distribution of the Household Population by Age 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Percent 1994 IDHS 2.2 Population by Age from Selected Sources The percent distribution of the 1994 IDHS sample population by age group is presented in Table 2.2, along with comparable data from the 1980 Census, the 1985 Intercensal Population Survey (SUPAS), the 1987 National Indonesia Contraceptive Prevalence Survey (NICPS), and the 1991 IDHS. The percentage of the population under 15 years has decreased over time from 41 percent in 1980 to 35 percent in 1994. During the same period, the percentage of the population age 15-64 increased from 56 percent in 1980 to 60 percent in 1994. The dependency ratio, calculated as the ratio of nonproductive persons (under 15 and 65 and over) to persons 15-64 based on these figures, has been decreasing gradually from 79 percent in 1980 Table 2.2 Population by age from selected sources Percent distribution of the population by age group, according to selected sources, Indonesia 1994 1985 1980 Intercensal 1987 1991 1994 Age group Census survey N1CPS IDHS 1DHS <15 40.9 39.4 36.9 36.2 35.0 15-64 55.9 57.2 59.3 59.9 60.4 65+ 3.2 3.4 3.8 3.9 4.6 Total 100.0 100.0 1(30.0 100.0 100,0 Median age - - 21.5 22.8 Dependency ratio 78.9 73.1 68.6 67.2 65.8 11 to 66 percent in 1994. The smaller dependency ratio indicates a lessening of the economic burden on persons in the productive age groups, who support those in the nonproductive age groups. 2.3 Household Composition Table 2.3 presents information on the percent distribution of households by various characteristics, such as sex of the head of the household, size of the household, and presence of foster children. The size and composition of the household may affect the allocation of financial resources among household members, which in turn would affect the overall well-being of the members. Household size may be associated with crowding in the dwelling, which can lead to unfavorable health conditions. Single-parent families, especially if they are headed by females, usually have limited financial resources. As in the 1991 IDHS, 13 percent of households in the 1994 IDHS are headed by women. The propor- tion is slightly higher in urban than in rural areas (14 percent, compared with 13 percent). In general, seven in ten households have between 2 to 5 members. The average household size is 4.5 persons; 4.7 persons in urban areas, and 4.4 persons in rural areas. Seven percent of households include one or more children under age 15 who are living with neither their natural father nor their natural mother. Table 2.3 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household, household size, and whether household includes foster children, according to urban-rural residence, Indonesia 1994 Characteristic Residence Urban Rural Total Household headship Male 86.5 87.5 87.2 Female 13.5 12.5 12.8 Total I00.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members I 7.3 4.8 5.5 2 8.3 11.2 10.3 3 15.5 19.2 18.1 4 19.4 22.1 21.3 5 18.3 17.9 18.0 6 12.9 11.2 11.7 7 8.0 6.6 7.0 8 4.8 3.6 4.0 9+ 5.4 3.4 4.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean size 4.7 4.4 4.5 Percent with foster children 5.8 7.0 6,6 Note: Table is based on de jure members, i.e., usual residents. 12 2.4 Fosterhood and Orphanhood Table 2.4. l presents the distribution of children under age 15 by survival status of parents and child's living arrangements, according to background characteristics. Nine of ten children are living with both parents, 6 percent live with the mother, 2 percent live with the father, and 5 percent live with neither parent. Except for age, there are no significant differentials in the living arrangements of children under age 15 by background characteristics. The proportion of children living with their parents declines as age of the child increases. There are no significant provincial differentials in fostering and orphanhood of children under 15; the overall pattern in Table 2.4.2 is almost identical to that shown in Table 2.4.1. Table2.4.1 Fosterhoodandorphanhood: background characteristics Percent distribution of de jure children under age 15 by survival status of parents and child's living arrangements, according to selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1994 Living Living with mother with father Not living with Missing/ but not father but not mother either parent Don't Living know if with Father Mother father/ Number Background both Father Father Mother Mother Both only only Both mother of characteristic parents alive dead alive dead alive alive alive dead alive Total children Age 0-2 929 4.5 0.7 0.3 0.2 0.9 0.1 0.1 0.0 0.3 100.0 9,662 3-5 90.1 3.4 1.9 0.6 0.5 2.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.3 100.0 9,490 6-8 87.2 3.4 2.6 0.9 0.9 3.7 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.3 100.0 10,885 9 11 83.6 2.8 4.1 0.8 1.2 5.2 1.0 0.5 0.4 0.6 100.0 11,397 12+ 81.1 2.9 5.0 0.8 1.6 5.6 0.7 0.7 0.7 1.0 100.0 11,482 Sex Male 86.7 3.4 3.2 0.7 0.8 3.5 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.5 100.0 27,440 Female 86.6 3.3 2.8 0.6 0.9 4.0 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.5 100.0 25,475 Residence Urban 88.0 3.3 2.5 0.9 0.5 3.5 0.2 0.3 0.3 0.6 100.0 14,793 Rural 86.1 3.4 3.2 0.6 1.0 3.8 0.6 0.4 0.4 0.5 100.0 38,122 Region/Residence Java Bali 85.9 3.7 3.0 0.9 0.7 4.0 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.5 100.0 30,614 Urban 87.9 3.6 2.6 1.0 0.4 3.4 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.6 100.0 10,281 Rural 84.9 3.8 3.2 0.9 0.9 4.3 0.7 0.5 0.3 0.5 100.0 20,333 Outer.lava Bali I 881 3.1 2.9 0.4 0.9 3.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5 100.0 15,455 Urban 88.4 3.0 2.3 0.6 0.6 3.4 0.1 0.4 0.4 0.6 100.0 3,096 Rural 88.0 3.1 3.0 0.3 1.0 3.1 0.5 0.3 0.3 0.4 100.0 12,359 Outer ,lava-Bali 11 86.9 2.2 3.1 0.3 1.4 3.6 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.7 100.O 6,846 Urban 88.3 1.8 2.2 0A 0.7 4.4 0.4 0.5 0.7 0.7 100.0 1,415 Rural 86.5 2.3 3.3 0.3 1.6 3.4 0.6 0.5 0.7 0.7 100.0 5,431 Total 86.7 3.4 3.0 0.7 0.9 3.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 05 100.0 52,915 13 Table 2.4.2 Fosterhood and orphanhood: region and province Percent distribution of de jure children under age 15 by survival status of parents and chi ld's l iving arrangements, according to region and province, Indonesia 1994 Region and province Living Living with mother with father Not living with Missing/ but not father but not mother either parent Don't Living know if with Father Mother father/ Number both Father Father Mother Mother Both only only Both mother of parents alive dead alive dead alive alive alive dead alive Total children Java.Bali 85.9 3.7 3.1) 0.9 0.7 4.0 0.6 0.4 0.3 0.5 100.0 30,614 DKI Jakarta 90.8 2.8 2.1 0.6 0.5 1.8 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.9 1(30.0 1,937 West Java 86.3 3.8 3.2 0.8 0.8 3.3 0.6 0.3 0.4 0.5 100.0 10,946 Central Java 88.0 2.6 2.9 1.4 0.8 3.1 0.2 0.4 0.1 0.5 100.0 8,298 DI Yogyakarta 85.2 6.5 2.1 0.5 0.3 3.7 0.5 0.3 0.1 0.6 100.0 684 East Java 81.6 5.1 3.4 0.6 0.6 6.6 I.I 0.5 0.2 0.3 100.0 8,082 Bali 907 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.6 3.2 0.1 0.5 0.1 0.5 100.0 667 Outer Java-Bali I 88,1 3.1 2.9 0.4 0.9 3.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.5 100.0 15,455 Dista Aceh 87.8 2.7 3.2 0.2 1.5 2.6 0.8 0.8 02 0.2 100.0 1,134 North Sumatra 91.5 1.9 2.7 02 0.4 2.3 0.3 0.2 0.2 0.3 100.0 13,683 West Sumatra 84.1 6.0 3.1 04 0.7 4.0 0.7 0.1 0,2 0.6 100.0 1,147 South Sumatra 91.5 1.8 2.4 0,5 0.8 2.0 0.4 0.3 0.3 0.1 100.0 1,808 Lampung 914 2.0 2.5 02 0.5 2.6 0.2 0.0 0,2 0.4 100.0 1,820 West Nusa Tenggara 76.9 9.1 2.7 1.5 2.3 5.8 05 0.3 0.3 0.5 100.0 1,160 West Kalimantan 88.1 2.5 3.1 0.3 1.0 3.2 0.5 03 0,3 0.7 100.0 1,110 South Kalimantan 85.8 3.8 4.0 0.6 2.2 2.0 t1.4 0,4 0.7 0.1 100.0 715 North Sulawesi 85.9 2.2 2.7 0.6 1.3 3.9 0.5 0.5 0.8 1.5 100.0 614 South Sulawesi 864 2.9 3.2 0.2 0.7 4.7 0.4 0.4 0.5 0.7 100.0 2,264 Outer Java-Bal i I1 86.9 2.2 3.1 0.3 1.4 3.6 0,6 0.5 0.7 0.7 100.0 6,846 Riau 88.9 1.9 2.3 0.2 1.8 3.1 0,4 0.6 0.6 0.3 100.0 1,211 Jambi 91.8 0.8 3.5 0.0 0.4 0.9 0.2 0.1 0,6 1.7 100.0 675 Bcngkulu 90.1 2.3 2.7 02 0.9 3.0 0,5 0.1 0.2 0.1 100.0 406 East Nusa Tenggara 796 3.9 4.1 0.3 2.1 6.7 0.6 1.2 0.9 0.5 100.0 1,073 East Timor 869 0.8 3.1 0,4 0.7 5.1 09 0.4 1.2 0.6 100.0 335 Central Kalimantan 90.8 0.6 3.4 0.0 2.1 0.S 0.1 1) 0 1.0 1.4 100.0 466 East Kalimantan 91.2 2.3 1.4 0.3 0.5 2.7 0.7 0.2 0.1 0.5 100.0 590 Central Sulawesi 86,4 2.3 3.7 0.3 1.5 3.4 0.7 0.5 0.8 0.4 100.0 508 Southeast Sulawesi 86.4 3.7 2.3 0.2 1.9 2.6 0,4 0.4 0.7 1.4 100.0 449 Maluku 82.6 2.9 3.4 0.8 1.4 6.0 I, I 0.8 0.5 0.5 100.0 574 Irian Jaya 85.4 1.3 4.0 0.8 1.5 3.1 1,0 0.7 1.2 1.0 100.0 558 Total 86.7 3.4 30 0.7 0,9 3,7 0.5 0,4 0.3 0.5 100.0 5:2,915 2.5 Educational Level of Household Population Educational attainment is closely associated with other socioeconomic factors and demographic behavior such as income, lifestyle, reproductive behavior, use of contraception, health status of children, and housing conditions. Education is also a factor that influences the individual's worldview, and hence opens the mind to new ideas and technology. 14 Tables 2.5.1 and 2.5.2 indicate that among both men and women there are significant differences in level of education by background characteristics. Overall, men are slightly better educated than women: nine in ten men have had some schooling compared with eight in ten women. In addition, while 31 percent of men have had some secondary education, the corresponding figure for women is 24 percent. The proportion of men and women who have some primary schooling is almost the same, 38 and 36 percent, respectively, and the proportion of men and women who completed primary education is 20 percent and 18 percent, respec- tively. The gap in educational attainment is no longer visible among the youngest age cohort. Among boys and girls age 5-14, the median duration of schooling is very similar--l.2 and 1.3 years, respectively, for age 5-9, and 5.3 and 5.5 years, respectively, for age 10-14. These figures imply that, in recent years, girls have had as much opportunity as boys to pursue education. Table 2.5.1 Educational level of the household population by background characteristics: men Percent distribution of the de jure male household population age five and over by highest level of education attended, and median number of years of schooling, according to selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1994 Don't Median Background No Some Completed Some know/ years of characteristic education primary primary secondary+ missing Total Number schooling Age 5-9 26.5 72.8 0.0 0.2 0.4 1000 9,077 1.2 10-14 1.6 64.0 9.0 25.3 0.0 1130.0 10.053 5.3 15-19 1.3 15.3 26.3 57.1 0.0 100.0 7.638 9.0 20-24 1.5 12.6 28.4 57.5 0.0 1OO.0 5,874 10.2 25 29 4.1 17.6 27.8 50.5 0.0 100.0 5,637 8.1 30-34 7.3 27.5 26.3 38.8 0.1 I[X).0 5,676 7.6 35-39 8.5 30.7 28.1 32.7 0,1 100.0 5,019 7.4 40-44 10.2 31.9 28.9 29.0 0.0 100.0 4,304 7.3 45-49 13.5 31.1 27,6 27.6 0.1 100.0 2,964 7.2 50-54 17.2 33.5 252 23,8 0.3 100.0 3,036 6.0 55-59 24.2 38.1 17.4 20.3 0.1 100.0 2,187 3.8 60-64 33.7 39.7 16.4 10.0 02 100.0 2.085 3.1 65+ 42.8 35.4 14.3 7.2 0.4 100.0 3,323 2.1 Residence Urban 5.6 27.3 14.7 52.2 01 100.0 20,919 8.1 Rural 14.5 42.4 21.8 21.2 0.1 100.0 45,964 5.1 RegionllResidence Java-Bali 12.0 37.3 21.1 29.5 0.1 100.0 41,351 7.0 Urban 6.0 27.8 15.7 50.4 0.1 100.0 14,991 7.9 Rural 15.4 42.8 24.2 17.6 0.1 100.0 26,360 4.8 Outer Java-Bali 1 11.0 38.1 17.2 33.5 0.2 100,0 17,773 7.0 Urban 4.5 25.8 12.2 57.2 0.2 100.0 4,143 9.7 Rural 13.0 41.8 18.7 26,3 0.2 100.0 13,630 5.5 Outer Java-Bali 11 12.0 38.6 16.7 32.6 0.1 100.0 7,759 6.6 Urban 5.0 27.2 I 1.6 56.1 0.1 10£1.0 1,785 9.2 Rural 14.1 42.0 18,2 25.6 0.1 100.0 5.973 5.4 Total I 11.7 37.7 19.6 30.9 0.1 1000 66,883 70 i Includes cases with missing values on age. 15 Table 2.5.2 Educational level of the household population by background characteristics: women Percent distribution of the de jure female household population age five and over by highest level of education attended, and median number of years of schooling, according to selected background characteristics. Indonesia 1994 Don't Median Background No Some Completed Some know/ years of characteristic education primary primary secondary+ missing Total Number schooling Age 5-9 25,2 74,2 0.0 0,2 05 100.0 8,485 1.3 10-14 1.5 61,1 10,7 26.6 00 100.0 9,089 5.5 15-19 2.2 14.0 31.8 52.0 0.0 1000 7,716 8.3 20-24 4.3 15,5 33.6 46.5 0.1 100.0 6,603 7,9 25-29 9.9 26.4 26.7 36.9 0.0 100.0 6,343 7.5 30-34 15.0 35,2 26.1 23.7 0,0 100,0 5,960 6.8 35-39 20.4 37.1 22.0 20.4 0.1 100.0 5,052 5.0 40-44 22.1 37.5 22.4 18.1 0.0 100.0 3,813 4.7 45-49 32.8 32,4 17.6 172 00 100.0 3,136 3,5 50-54 489 28,1 12,1 10,6 03 1000 3.254 1.0 55-59 59.1 26.3 8.2 5.9 0.5 100.0 2,394 0.0 60-64 67.7 22.0 6.2 3.6 0.6 100.0 2,305 0.0 65+ 76,4 14.9 5,9 1,9 0,8 1000 3~586 0.0 Residence Urban 12.7 28.4 15.9 43.0 0.1 1000 21,216 75 Rural 25.3 40.0 19.3 15.1 02 100.0 46.540 38 Region/Residence Java-Bali 23.2 35.4 19.4 21.8 0.1 100.0 42,004 4.8 Urban 13,9 28,6 16.9 405 0.1 100.0 15,277 7.4 Rural 28,5 39,3 20.9 11.1 0.2 100.0 26,726 3.4 Outer Java-Bali 1 17.9 380 16.1 27,7 (13 1000 18.137 5.3 Urban 94 27,0 13,9 49,6 01 100,0 4,[76 7.9 Rural 205 41.3 16.8 21,2 03 100,0 13,961 4.5 Outer Java-Bali 11 19,5 377 16.9 258 02 It)00 7,615 5.1 Urban 10.0 29.6 11,8 485 01 100.0 1.762 7.8 Rural 22,4 401 184 189 02 100.0 5,853 4.4 Total I 21.4 36.3 18.3 23.8 112 1000 67,756 48 J Includes cases with missing values on age. Tables 2.5.1 and 2.5.2 also show that educational attainment is negatively associated with age; older persons are more likely to have no education or to stay in school for shorter periods. For example, the median duration of schooling among men age 50-54 years is 6 years, whereas for men age 20-24 the median is 10.2 years. The difference for females is even more striking: 0 years for females 50 years and over and 7.9 years for those 20 to 24. Urban residents are much more likely to attend school and stay in school than residents of rural areas. Only 6 percent of men in urban areas have never gone to school, while the proportion in rural areas is more than double (15 percent). For women, the corresponding figures are 13 percent in the urban areas and 25 percent in the rural areas. The urban-rural difference is more pronounced at the level of sec- ondary or higher education. The median years of schooling for urban men is 8.1 years compared with 5.1 years for rural men. Urban women spend 3.7 years longer in school than their rural counterparts (7.5 years and 3.8 years, respectively). 16 Tables 2.5.3 and 2.5.4 present the differentials in educational attainment by region and province for male and female populations, respectively. The median duration of schooling for males is longer than for females in all provinces. In general, males in Outer Java-Bali II attend school for a slightly shorter period than in other regions (see Table 2.5.3). Table 2.5.4 shows that for females, the median duration of schooling in Java-Bali is the shortest (4.5 years), while in Outer Java-Bali I it is the longest (5.3 years). Level of education varies between provinces in Java-Bali. For males and females, DKI Jakarta has the longest duration of schooling (10.3 years and 7.8 years, respectively), while East Java has the shortest (5.5 years for males and 3.6 years for females). Table 2.5.3 Educational level of the household population by region and province: men Percent distribution of the de jure male household population age five and over by highest level of education attended, and median number of years of schooling, according to region and province, Indonesia 1994 Don't Median Region and No Some Completed Some know/ years of province education primary primary secondary+ missing Total Number schooling Java-Bali 12.0 37.3 21.1 29.5 0.1 100.0 41,351 7.0 DKI Jakarta 3.8 21.1 14.0 61.1 0.0 100.0 2,970 10.3 West Java 11.0 40.9 21.5 26.5 0.1 100.0 12,982 6.0 Central Java 12.4 38.0 24.2 25.3 0.0 100.0 10,670 6.5 DI Yogyakarta 11.4 29.2 14.7 44.6 0.1 100.0 1,108 7.6 East Java 14.4 383 20.6 26.6 0.2 100.0 12,534 5.5 Bali 15.1 29.4 18.7 36.7 0.1 100.0 1,087 7.3 Outer Java-Bali 1 11.0 38.1 17.2 33.5 02 100.0 17,773 70 Dista Aceh 10.1 36.9 19.5 33.4 0.2 100.0 1,262 7.1 North Sumatra 5.5 35.9 15.1 43.1 0,3 100.0 3,815 7.5 West Sumatra 6.5 38.5 16,1 38.8 0.1 100.0 1,403 7.3 South Sumatra 9,4 38.3 22.2 30.0 0.1 100.0 2,173 7.1 Lampung 11.8 41.5 22.7 24.1 0.0 100.0 2,094 58 West Nusa Tenggara 20.9 39.6 13.9 25.4 0.2 1130.0 1,210 4.7 West Kalimantan 16.1 433 13.5 26.9 0.2 100.0 1,304 4.8 South Kalimantan 6.6 38.3 18.7 36.3 0.2 100.0 950 7.3 North Sulawesi 5.7 40.0 15.2 385 0.6 100.0 870 7.3 South Sulawesi 18.7 34.7 14.5 31.6 0.5 100.0 2,693 56 Outer Java-Bali I I 12.0 38.6 16,7 32,6 0.1 100.0 7.759 66 Riau 10.1 42.4 18,3 29.2 0.0 I000 1,382 5.6 Jambi 9.1 37.9 194 33.3 0.3 100.0 744 7.1 Bengkulu 8,3 42.3 148 34.6 0.0 100.0 466 6.7 East Nusa Tenggara 14,6 43.4 18.2 23.7 0.1 100.0 1,168 5.0 East Timor 386 34.8 3.8 22.5 0.3 100.0 309 2.5 Central Kalimantan 9.7 35.3 21.9 33.0 0.1 100.0 562 7.2 East Kalimantan 6.5 32.5 16.0 44.9 0 1 100.0 777 7.6 Central Sulawesi 8 1 37.7 18 8 35.3 0.1 100.0 609 7.2 Southeast Sulawesi 11.2 36.2 18.9 33.7 0.0 100.0 478 7. I Maluku 8.2 38.1 15.6 38.1 0.0 100.0 631 7.2 Irian Jaya 21.5 34.9 8.4 34.8 0.4 10~.0 634 5.2 Total I 1.7 37,7 19.6 30.9 0.1 100.0 66,883 70 17 In Outer Java-Bali I, for both males and females, West Nusa Tenggara shows the lowest median duration of schooling (4.7 years for males and 2.9 years for females). The highest median duration of schooling for males is in North Sumatra (7.5 years); for females it is in North Sulawesi (7.2 years). The range in median duration of schooling among provinces in Outer Java-Bali I for males is not as large as that for females (2.8 years versus 4.3 years). The median duration of schooling is relatively low in East Timor: 2.5 years for males and 0.9 years for females. Among provinces in Outer Java-Bali II, the highest median duration of schooling for males is 7.6 years in East Kalimantan, and 7.1 years for females in Central Sulawesi. The variation in median duration of schooling between provinces is around 5 years for men and 6 years for women. Table 2.5.4 Educational level of the household population by region and province: women Percent distribution of the de jure female household population age five and over by highest level of education attended, and median number of years of schooling, according to region and province, Indonesia 1994 Don't Median Region and No Some Completed Some know/ years of province education primat2¢ primary secondary+ missing Total Number schooling Java-Bali 23.2 35.4 19.4 21.8 01 100.0 42.004 4.5 DKI Jakarta 9.0 24.2 18.8 48.1 0.0 1000 3.105 7.8 West Java 18.8 40.1 20.3 20.6 02 100.0 13,276 4.6 Central Java 24.1 37.2 21.0 17.6 02 1000 10,728 4.3 DI Yogyakarta 26,5 26.4 12,9 34.1 0.1 100.0 1.208 5.2 East Java 29.6 33.3 18,1 18.9 0.2 100.0 12.642 3.6 Bali 30.4 27.2 17,3 25,0 0.0 100.0 1,045 39 Outer Java-Ball 1 17.9 38.0 16.1 27.7 0.3 100.0 18,137 53 Dista Aceh 19,8 34.2 17.2 28.7 0. I 100.0 1,308 5.2 North Sumatra 10.6 381 16.4 34,6 0.2 100.0 3,965 7.1 West Sumatra 9.5 39.4 14.6 36.4 01 1000 1,479 71 South Sumatra 16.0 38.6 20.1 25.2 01 100./I 2,155 5.4 Lampung 19.5 42,4 18.8 193 0.0 100.0 1.969 46 West Nusa Tenggara 34.4 34,8 12.0 18,4 0.3 1000 1,301 2.9 West Kalimantan 30.3 37.9 10.8 208 0.2 1000 1,249 3.5 South Kalimmat an 153 40,2 15.5 28.8 02 100.0 979 5.5 North Sulawesi 5 5 39.8 17.5 36.7 05 100,0 847 7.2 South Sulawesi 23.4 35.4 15.1 25.2 118 100(I 2.885 4.6 Outer Java-Bali I I 19.5 37.7 16,9 258 0.2 100.0 7.615 5.1 Riau 18.9 38.8 16.8 255 0.1 100.0 1.302 47 Jambi 18.7 37.6 16,4 272 0. I 100.0 766 5,4 Bengkulu 16.6 41.2 12.7 293 01 100.0 453 5.2 East Nusa Tenggara 23.2 39.7 211.3 16.8 0 1 1000 1,232 43 East Timor 49 9 31.2 2.9 15.7 0.4 100.0 296 0.9 Central Kalimantan 13.8 40.9 19.4 25.8 0.0 11300 546 5,7 East Kalimantan 12.9 36.9 16.4 33.5 0.3 1130.0 723 7.0 Central Sulawesi I 1.2 36.1 23.6 28.9 0.2 1000 586 7 1 Southeast Sulawesi 21.2 33,1 19.3 263 0.0 100.0 508 55 Maluku 12.6 37.6 17.2 32.3 0.3 100.0 635 6.9 Irian Jaya 29.4 34.7 9.9 256 04 1000 568 3.9 Total 21.4 36.3 18.3 238 0.2 It)0.0 67,756 4.8 18 2.6 School Enrollment Table 2.6 shows the percentage of the household population age 5 to 24 years enrolled in school, by age, sex and residence. The data confirm the findings presented in Tables 2.5.1 and 2.5.2; differences between boys and girls at the younger age groups are minimal (see Figure 2.3). While only two in five children age 5-6 are in school, nine in ten children age 7-12 are enrolled in school. This reflects the result of the 6 years of compulsory education that was initiated in the first Long-Term Development Plan (LTDP, 1969-70 to 1993-94). The proportion decreases for the older age groups. Table 2.6 indicates that at all ages, the urban population has consistently higher school enrollment rates than the mral population. Table 2.6 School enrollment Percentage of the de jure household population age 5-24 years enrolled in school, by age group, sex, and urban-rural residence, Indonesia 1994 Male Female Total Age group Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total 5-6 50.2 32.2 36.7 54.6 37.0 41.7 52.5 34.6 39.2 7-12 96.1 89.3 91.2 97.3 89.5 91.7 96,6 89.4 91.4 13-15 83.9 60.8 67.9 77.2 56,1 62.6 80.7 58.5 65.4 7-15 92.0 80.6 83,9 90.3 79,0 82.2 91.2 79.8 83.1 16-18 58.9 29.1 39.6 50.2 22.2 32.9 54.3 25.7 36.2 19-24 24.4 5.8 13.3 18.1 3,2 8.6 21.2 4.4 10.8 , Figure 2.3 Percentage of the Population Age 5-15 Enrolled in School by Age Group and Sex Percent of Population 1 O0 80 60 40 20 0 5-6 7-12 13-15 Age Group 1994 IDHS 19 2.7 Housing Characteristics Table 2.7 presents the distribution of households by selected housing characteristics, such as the source of drinking water, type of sanitation facilities, type of flooring, and distance between the well and the cesspool. These are important determinants of the health status of household members, particularly children. They can also be used as indicators of household socioeconomic status. Proper hygiene and sanitation practices can help to prevent major childhood diseases, such as diarrhea. Overall, 63 percent of the households covered in the 1994 IDHS have electricity. There are significant urban-rural and regional differentials (see Figure 2.4). In urban areas, virtually all households have electricity, compared with 49 percent in rural areas. While 70 percent of households in Java-Bali have electricity, in Outer Java-Bali I the proportion is about 52 percent, and in Outer Java-Bali II it is only 41 percent. Wells are the main source of drinking water for half of the households in the 1994 IDHS sample. Water that is either piped into the residence or into the yard or obtained from the public tap is used by 15 percent of households, 37 percent in urban areas and 6 percent in rural areas. Other sources of drinking water include spring (either protected or unprotected) (16 percent) and pump (11 percent). Rural households are more likely to use spring water than urban households (22 percent compared with 2 percent, respectively). On the other hand, the pump is more common in urban areas (20 percent) than in rural areas (7 percent). The data in Table 2.7 indicate that for half of households, the source of drinking water is on the premises, for 28 percent the source is less than 10 minutes away, and for 22 percent of the households the source is 10 minutes or longer away. Urban households generally are closer to the source of water than rural households. While 78 percent of households in urban areas have water on the premises and 16 percent are within 10 minutes of the source, in rural areas the corresponding figures are 39 percent and 33 percent, respectively. Four in ten households have a private toilet, 11 percent use a shared facility, and the remaining 47 percent do not have a toilet. The majority of people who do not have a toilet facility go to a river or creek. The difference between urban and rural areas is significant. Overall, 64 percent of households in urban areas have a private toilet, compared with 32 percent in rural areas. Table 2.7 presents the distribution of households by the distance from the well to the nearest cesspool. Overall, for fifteen percent of the households, the nearest cesspool is less than 10 meters from their well, for 13 percent the nearest cesspool is between 10 and 14 meters, and for 22 percent the nearest cesspool is 15 meters or further from the well. In general, wells are closer to cesspools in urban areas: the median distance from well to cesspool for urban households is 10 meters, while in rural areas the median is 15 meters. More than half of households in the sample have a concrete, brick or tile floor, 16 percent have a wood floor, and one-fourth have a dirt floor. There are substantial urban-rural differentials by floor materials. Whereas 79 percent of urban households have a tile or concrete or brick floor, the proportion in rural areas is 42 percent. Conversely, 34 percent of rural households have a dirt floor, compared with 8 percent in urban areas. There are also substantial regional variations. In Java-Bali, most of the households (59 percent) have concrete or tile floors. In the Outer Java-Bali regions, wood is commonly used as floor material (37 percent). Seven in ten households have floors that are 10 square meters or more in area. The difference between urban and rural households is not significant (66 percent and 69 percent, respectively). However, households in Java-Bali in general have more space than households in other regions. Almost half of households in Outer Java-Bali I1 live in houses with less than 10 square meter floor area. 20 Table 2.7 Housing characteristics Percent distribution of households by housing characteristics, according to urban- rural residence and region, Indonesia 1994 Characteristic Residence Region Outer Outer Java Java- Java- Urban Rural Bali Bali 1 Bali 1I Total Electricity Yes 94.6 49.4 70.4 52.3 40.9 62.8 No 5.4 50.5 29.5 47.6 59.1 37.2 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Source of drinking water Piped into residence 23.2 2.1 6.7 11.5 10.8 8.4 Piped into yard/plot 3.7 0.7 1.2 2.0 3.1 1.6 Public tap 10.2 3.1 5.2 5.6 4.8 5.2 Pump 20.2 6.8 14.4 4.8 3.2 10.8 Protected well 32.8 35.9 40.5 27.6 18.7 35.0 Unprotected well 5.8 19.5 I 1.1 23.8 22.1 15.4 Protected spring 1.4 11.7 10.9 4. I 5.3 8.6 Unprotected spring 0.7 10.4 7.6 7.0 8.8 7.6 River/stream 0.4 6.7 1.5 9.2 14.4 4.8 Rainwater 1.1 2.5 0.3 4.0 8.1 2.1 Other 0.6 0.5 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Time to water source On premises 77.6 38.9 53.0 47.5 40.8 50.4 1-4 minutes 7.1 12.7 11.6 10.2 9.2 I 1.0 5-9 minutes 8.7 20.0 16.1 18.0 17.1 16.6 10+ minutes 6.2 28.1 19.1 23.8 31.9 21.6 Don't know/missing 0.4 0.4 0.3 0.5 0.9 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 109.0 Median time to source 0.6 4.0 0.9 2.3 4.4 1.0 Sanitation facility Private with septic 39.4 9.1 17.7 19.2 17.0 18.0 Private, no septic 24.3 23.2 21.9 26.5 26.0 23.5 Shared, public toilet 15.8 9.2 13.6 7.2 5.9 11.2 River, stream, creek 15.3 32.5 29.4 24.8 21.3 27.4 Pit 0.4 5.1 3.4 4.7 2.9 3.7 Bush/forest/yard 0.9 11.0 6.2 11.1 11.9 8.0 Other 3.7 9.5 7.4 6.0 14.4 7.8 Missing 0.3 0.4 0.3 0.4 0.6 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Distance from well to cesspool No well 41.4 37.8 34.1 44.1 56.0 38.9 Less than 10 meters 19.7 13.1 17.6 11.8 7.3 15.1 10-14 meters 15.8 12.0 14.2 12.2 8.5 13.1 15 meters and over 13.5 25.9 23.5 21.5 16.3 22.2 Don't know/missing 9.6 11.1 10.6 10.4 12.0 10.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median distance to cesspool 10.4 15.1 10.9 12.5 15.1 I I.l Floor material Earth 7.9 33.5 30.5 16.5 20.3 25.9 Bamboo 0.4 4.6 3.5 2.4 4.4 3.3 Wood 7.4 19.5 4.2 37.0 37.4 15.9 Concrete/brick 45.1 31.0 34.1 38.5 34.1 35.2 Tile 33.7 10.7 24.8 4.9 2.5 17.5 Ceramic/marble 5.5 0.4 2.7 0.6 0.4 1.9 Other 0.0 0.3 0.2 0.0 0.7 0.2 Missing 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Floor area <10m 2 33.2 30.6 24.0 43.4 47.9 31.4 10m2+ 66.3 69.0 75.8 56.3 49.6 68.2 Missing/Don't know 0.5 0.4 0.1 0.3 2.5 0.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Median area of floor 12,9 13.8 15.8 10.8 10.1 13.5 Number of households 9,998 23,740 21,734 8,488 3,516 33,738 21 Figure 2.4 Housing Characteristics by Residence Percent of Households 100 80 60 40 20 0 95 Electricity Piped Water Private Toilet [~Urban mRural 1Total / Note: Piped water includes public tap 79 Concrete/Tile Floor 1994 IDHS 2.8 Presence of Durable Goods in the Household The presence of durable goods in the household, e.g., radio, television, motorcycle, and private car, is an indicator of the household's socioeconomic status. Table 2.8 shows that 60 percent of households have a radio, 45 percent have a bicycle or boat, 37 percent have a televi- sion, and 15 percent have a motorcycle or motor boat. Only 4 percent of households have a private car. About 23 percent of households have none of the durable goods listed in Table 2.8. Urban-rural differentials can be seen in the own- ership of specific durable goods. In general, these goods are more available in urban households than in rural households. For example, two in three urban households have a television set, while in rural areas the proportion is one in four. A refrigerator is available in 21 percent of urban households, but it is almost nonexistent in rural areas. Urban households are seven times more likely to own a private car than rural households. Table 2.8 Household durable goods Percentage of households possessing various durable consumer goods, by urban-rural residence, Indonesia 1994 Residence Durable goods Urban Rural Total Radio 74.0 54.3 60.2 Television 67.1 24.5 37.1 Refrigerator 21.1 1.4 7.2 Bicycle/Boat 48.2 44.2 45.4 Motorcycle/Motorboat 25.6 10.9 15.3 Private car 9.4 1.3 3.7 None of the above 10.7 28.0 22.9 Number of households 9,998 23,740 33,738 22 2.9 Background Characteristics of Respondents Table 2.9.1 presents the distribution of ever-married women age 15-49 interviewed with the individual questionnaire by selected back- ground characteristics along with the actual and weighted number of eligible women interviewed. The weighting is necessary to compensate for dif- ferences in the selection probabilities and response rates, and to make the regional and urban-rural distribution of the sample correspond to that ex- pected from official sources. All results presented in this report are weighted. The distribution of ever-married women by age group is similar to that for the 1987 NICPS, the 1990 Population Census, and the 1991 IDHS. The majority of respondents are age 25-39 (57 percent), less than 5 percent are 15-19, and about I 1 percent are 45-49. Ninety-three percent of the women in the sample are currently married; the remaining 7 percent are either divorced or wid- owed. Seventy-one percent of respondents live in rural areas and 29 percent in urban areas. Sixteen percent of the survey respondents have never attended school, 32 percent have some primary education but did not finish primary school, 28 percent completed primary school, and 24 percent have some secondary or higher educa- tion. Almost none of the respondents was enrolled in school at the time of the survey. A majority of the women surveyed are Musl im (89 percent), 8 percent are Protestant or Catholic, 2 percent are Hindu, and less than one percent are Buddhist. Table 2.9.2 presents the weighted and un- weighted distribution of the respondents by region and province. The table shows that the majority of respondents (64 percent) live in Java-Bali, 25 per- cent live in Outer Java-Bali I, and 11 percent live in Outer Java-Bali II. The provinces of East Java and West Java account for 20 percent of respond- ents each; 16 percent reside in Central Java. Table2.9.1 Distribution of respondents: background characteristics Percent distribution of ever-married women by selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1994 Number of ever- married women Background Weighted Un- characteristic percent Weighted weighted Age 15-19 4.8 1,365 1,083 20-24 14.6 4,105 3,894 25-29 19.4 5,453 5,535 30-34 20.1 5,660 5,618 35-39 17.3 4,869 5,051 40-44 13.0 3,662 3,736 45-49 10.8 3,055 3,251 Marital status Married 93.0 26,186 26,220 Divorced 3.5 984 926 Widowed 3.5 999 1,022 Residence Urban 29.1 8,196 7,947 Rural 70.9 19,972 20,221 Region/Residence Java-Bali 63.7 17,953 8,672 Urban 21.3 5,991 3,880 Rural 42.5 I 1,962 4,792 Outer Java-Bali 1 25.2 7,108 10,229 Urban 5.4 1,520 2,256 Rural 19.8 5,588 7,973 Outer Java-Bali 11 11.0 3,106 9,267 Urban 2.4 685 1,811 Rural 8.6 2,422 7,456 Education No education 15.9 4,489 4,802 Some primary 31.9 8,997 8,270 Completed primary 28.1 7,904 6,962 Some secondary+ 24.1 6,778 8,134 Respondent in school Yes 0.2 48 60 No 99.7 28,097 28,084 Religion Muslim 89.3 25,148 22,049 Protestant/Christian 5. I 1,443 2,444 Catholic 2.9 830 2,049 Hindu 1.8 508 1,278 Buddhist 0.6 181 257 Other 0.2 44 71 Total ~ 100.0 28,168 28,168 t Includes 24 women with missing information on school enrollment, and 20 women for whom information on religion is missing. 23 Table 2.9.2 Distribution of respondents: region and province Percent distribution of ever-married women by region and province, Indonesia 1994 Number of ever- married women Region and Weighted Un- province percent Weighted weighted Java-Bali 63.7 17,953 8,672 DKI Jakarta 4.4 1,249 1,805 West Java 19.7 5,551 1,532 Central Java 16.3 4,578 1,472 DI Yogyakarta 1.6 457 1,118 East Java 20.2 5,685 1,503 Bali 1.5 432 1,242 Outer Java-Bali 1 25.2 7,108 10,229 Dista Aceh 1.9 522 1,079 North Sumatra 5.1 1,446 1,174 West Sumatra 1.9 531 870 South Sumatra 3.2 900 1,050 Lampung 3.0 834 975 West Nusa Tenggara 1.9 527 967 West Kalimantan 1.8 519 1,055 South Kalimantan 1.6 447 1,047 North Sulawesi 1.2 333 830 South Sulawesi 3.7 1,049 1,182 Outer Java-Bali II 1 1.0 3,106 9,267 Riau 2.0 552 1,046 Jambi 1.2 335 893 Bengkulu 0.7 190 819 East Nusa Tenggara 1.5 436 811 East Timor 0.4 124 968 Central Kalimantan 0.9 244 870 East Kalimantan I. I 321 823 Central Sulawesi 0.8 238 766 Southeast Sulawesi 0.7 191 687 Maluku 0.8 225 770 lrian Jaya 0.9 250 814 Total 100.(I 28,168 28,168 2.10 Educational Level of Respondents The distribution of respondents by education and selected background characteristics is presented in Table 2.10.1. One in six ever-married respondents never went to school, 32 percent did not finish primary school, 28 percent completed primary school, and one in four have some secondary or higher education. Comparison across cohorts shows that urban and younger women are more likely to have higher education than their rural and older counterparts. For example, while one in three women age 45-49 never went to school, the proportion among women 15 - 19 is less than 5 percent. On the other hand, half of women age 15- 19 have completed primary school, while among women in the oldest age group the proportion is only 17 percent. Only 8 percent of respondents in urban areas have not attended school; in rural areas the percentage is 19 percent. By contrast, almost half of urban women have attended secondary school, compared with 15 percent in rural areas. Data for currently married women (not shown) are similar to those for ever-married women. 24 Table2.10.1 Level of education: background characteristics Percent distribution of ever-married women by the highest level of education attended, according to selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1994 Highest level of education Number Background No Some Completed Some of characteristic education primary primary secondary+ Total women Age 15-19 3.9 23.1 50.2 22.8 100.0 1,365 20-24 5.5 20.0 42.3 32.3 100.0 4,105 25-29 10.7 28.8 29.0 31.5 100.0 5,453 30-34 14.7 36.3 26.5 22.4 100.0 5,660 35-39 20.4 37.6 22.1 19.9 100.0 4,869 40-44 21.5 38.4 21.8 18.2 100.0 3,662 45-49 33.1 32.5 17.3 17.1 100.0 3,055 Residence Urban 7.6 21.2 24.8 46.4 100.0 8,196 Rural 19.4 36.3 29.4 14.9 100.0 19,972 Region/Residence Java-Bali 16.3 32.5 30.3 20.8 100.0 17,953 Urban 8.2 22.6 26.9 42.4 100.0 5,991 Rural 20.4 37.5 32.0 10.1 100.0 11,962 Outer Java-Bali 1 14.1 32.0 23.5 30.4 100.0 7,108 Urban 5.8 17.4 19.7 57.2 100.0 1,520 Rural 16.4 35,9 24.5 23.2 100.0 5,588 Outer Java-Bali 1I 17.8 28.7 25.4 28.1 100.0 3,106 Urban 6. I 17.9 18.4 57.6 100.0 685 Rural 21.1 31.8 27.4 19.7 100.0 2,422 Total 15.9 31.9 28.1 24.1 100.0 28,168 There is no significant variation in women's educational attainment across regions; the proportion of women who did not go to school varies from 14 percent in Outer Java-Bali I to 18 percent in Outer Java- Bali II, and the proportion completing primary school or higher ranges from 51 percent in Java-Bali to 54 percent in Outer Java-Bali I and II. Comparison of women's educational attainment by province reveals more pronounced variations (see Table 2.10.2). The proportion of women who have never gone to school varies from less than 5 percent in North Sumatra, West Sumatra, and North Sulawesi, to more than 30 percent in Irian Jaya, West Kalimantan, and West Nusa Tenggara. In the province of East Timor, 63 percent of women in the sample have had no formal education. Differentials in educational attainment among currently married women are similar to those of ever- married women. Therefore, only tables based on ever-married women are presented in this section. 25 Table 2.10.2 Level of education: region and province Percent distribution of ever-married women by the highest level of education attended, according to region and province, Indonesia 1994 Highest level of education Number Region and No Some Completed Some of province education primary primary secondary+ Total women Java-Bali 16.3 32.5 30.3 20.8 100.0 17,953 DKI Jakarta 7.5 17.3 27.8 47.4 100.0 1,249 West Java 12.2 34.6 31.7 21.6 100.0 5,551 Central Java 17.1 35.2 32.6 15.1 100.0 4,578 DI Yogyakarta 16.2 21.6 24.6 37.6 100.0 457 East Java 21.2 32.9 28.6 17.3 100.0 5,685 Bali 23.6 27.4 24.7 24.3 100.0 432 Outer Java-Bali I 14.1 32.0 23.5 30.4 100.0 7,108 Dista Aceh 16.7 24.2 25.8 33.3 100.0 522 North Sumatra 3.7 30.1 26.0 40.2 100.0 1,446 West Sumatra 3.9 32.2 22.1 41.9 100.0 531 South Sumatra 12.0 32.3 28.5 27.2 100.0 900 Lampung 12.8 39.1 29.6 18.5 100.0 834 West Nusa Tenggara 37.7 28.3 14.3 19.6 100.0 527 West Kalimantan 32.2 31.9 13.2 22.7 10(I.0 519 South Kalimantan 10.7 39.1 22.3 27.9 100.0 447 North Sulawesi 2.4 31.5 20.0 46. I 100.0 333 South Sulawesi 19.5 31.3 21.8 27.4 100.0 1,049 Outer Java-Bali lI 17.8 28.7 25.4 28.1 100.0 3,106 Riau 17.2 31.9 23.5 27.4 100.0 552 Jambi 17.2 30.5 24.9 27.4 100.0 335 Bengkulu I I. 1 36.5 19.8 32.5 100.0 190 East Nusa Tenggara 22.1 28.9 32.0 17.0 100.0 436 East Timor 63.4 15.8 5.1 15.7 100.0 124 Central Kalimantan 10.6 33.5 29.3 26.6 100.0 244 East Kalimantan 8.9 30.9 23.9 36.3 100.0 32 I Central Sulawesi 7.6 25.5 34.5 32.4 100.0 238 Southeast Sul awesi 12.4 24.3 31.6 31.6 1 (30.0 191 Maluku 6.8 26. I 28.4 38.7 100.0 225 lrian Jaya 36.7 21.1 15.6 26.7 100.0 250 Total 15.9 31.9 28.1 24.1 100.0 28,168 2.11 Educational Attainment and Reasons for Leaving School Table 2.11 presents the distribution of ever-married women 15-24 who ever attended school by whether currently attending and, if not, the reason for leaving school. The table shows that, overall, most respondents left school for economic reasons (46 percent) or marriage (26 percent). Lack of funds to support higher education is reported by one in three primary school dropouts, and by six in ten women who completed primary school. One in three women who attended secondary school said that they dropped out of school because they got married. These two reasons are reported in both urban and rural areas, and at all levels of education. In urban areas, one in six respondents stopped going to primary school because they did not like school, and one in five said they stopped going to primary school because of other reasons. 26 Table 2.11 School attendance and reasons for leaving school Percent distribution of ever-married women 15-24 who ever attended school by whether currently attending school and, if not, the reason for leaving school, according to highest level of education attended and residence, Indonesia 1994 Educational attainment Reason for Incomplete Complete Incomplete Complete leaving school primary primary secondary secondary Total t URBAN Currently attending 2. I 1.2 0.5 0.7 2.2 Got pregnant 0.0 0.0 1.4 1.3 0.8 Got married 16.0 15.2 43.8 40.3 28.9 Take care of younger children 0.5 1.5 0.0 0.2 0.7 Family need help 7.7 0.4 0.3 0.0 1.2 Could not pay school 28.1 62.2 31.3 23.6 39.1 Need to earn money 5.3 1.6 5.3 7.9 4.5 Graduated/enough school 1.4 2.6 4.2 18.0 6.7 Did not pass exams 0.3 2.2 2.0 2.4 1.9 Did not like school 16.6 3.6 4.0 0.9 4.6 School not accessible 1.9 4.0 1.2 2.1 2.4 Other 19.6 4.4 5.6 1.5 6.2 Don't know/missing 0.3 1.0 0.5 1.2 0.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 148 417 347 252 1200 RURAL Currently attending 1.0 0.3 0.3 0.4 0.5 Got pregnant 0.1 0.0 0.4 1.7 0.2 Got married 24.0 21.2 32.4 40.1 25.1 Take care of younger children 3.1 1.0 0.4 0.2 1.4 Family need help 5.4 2.2 1.7 0.8 2.8 Could not pay school 36.5 58.7 43.0 32.4 48.4 Need to earn money 4.0 2.8 2.3 3.1 3.0 Graduated/enough school 1.8 5.3 5.0 10.8 4.9 Did not pass exams 1.2 0.7 1.7 1.6 1.1 Did not like school 9.0 2.2 4.6 4.6 4.5 School not accessible 3.0 1.9 2.9 0.9 2.3 Other 7.8 2.5 4.7 2.1 4.3 Don't know/missing 3.2 1.1 0.5 1.3 1.5 Total 100.0 ll)0.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 987 2,004 734 252 3,991 TOTAL Currently attending I. I 0.5 0.4 0.6 0.9 Got pregnant 0.1 0.0 0.7 1.5 0.3 Got married 23.0 20.2 36.0 40.2 26.0 Take care of younger children 2.7 1.1 0.3 0.2 1.2 Family need help 5.7 1.9 1.3 0.4 2.4 Could not pay school 35.4 59.3 39.3 28.0 46.3 Need to earn money 4.1 2.6 3.2 5.5 3.3 Graduated/enough school 1.7 4.8 4.7 14.4 5.3 Did not pass exams 1.1 1.0 1.8 2.0 1.3 Did not like school 10.0 2.4 4.4 2.7 4.5 School not accessible 2.9 2.3 2.3 1.5 2.3 Other 9.3 2.9 5.0 1.8 4.8 Don't know/missing 2.8 1.1 0.5 1.2 1.4 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 1,134 2,421 1,080 504 5,191 I Includes 37 urban women, 15 rural women, and 52 total women who have more than secondary education. 27 2.12 Husband's Education Table 2.12.1 presents the distribution of respondents by their husband's educational attainment and background characteristics. In general, husbands of women interviewed in the survey are slightly better educated than their wives. Ten percent of husbands have never gone to school, and 32 percent have some secondary education, compared with 16 percent and 24 percent of the respondents, respectively. Differentials in educational attainment of the husbands by age and residence are similar to those of the wives. Regional variation in husbands' education is similar to that of wives. While less than 5 percent of husbands in DKI Jakarta, North Sumatra, West Sumatra, South Kalimantan, North Sulawesi, East Kalimantan and Maluku have no education, the corresponding proportion in East Timor is more than 50 percent (Table 2.12.2). Variation within regions is also substantial. While 63 percent of husbands in DKI Jakarta have attended secondary school, in Central Java and East Java the proportion is less than 25 percent. Table2.12.1 Husband'slevelofeducation: background characteristics Percent distribution of ever-married women by husband's highest level of education attended, according to selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1994 Husband's highest level of education Number Background No Some Completed Some Don't of characteristic education primary primary secondary+ know Total women Age 15-19 4.6 16.5 46.1 32.1 0.8 100.0 1,365 20-24 5.1 21.2 35.9 37.5 0.2 100.0 4,105 25-29 6.9 28.2 27.1 37.7 0.2 1130.0 5,453 30-34 9.8 31.4 28.3 30.1 0.4 100.0 5,660 35-39 12.6 31.0 26.5 29.6 0.3 100.0 4,869 40-44 13.5 32.5 27.0 26.6 0.3 100.0 3,662 45-49 19.5 32.5 24.1 23.4 0.4 100.0 3,055 Residence Urban 4.2 15.7 23.2 56,6 0.2 100.0 8,196 Rural 12.8 34.1 31.5 21.1 0.4 100.0 19,972 Region/Residence Java-Bali 10.4 30.1 31.2 27.9 0.4 100.0 17,953 Urban 4.5 16.8 25.2 53.3 0.2 100.0 5,991 Rural 13.4 36.8 34.2 15.1 0.4 100.0 11,962 Outer Java-Bali I 9.6 26.6 25.7 37.8 0.3 100.0 7,108 Urban 3.3 12.3 18.2 66.1 0.2 100.0 1,520 Rural I 1.3 30.6 27.7 30.1 0.3 100.0 5,588 Outer Java-Bali 11 I 1.2 25,8 25.0 37.7 0.3 100.0 3,106 Urban 4.0 13.8 16.7 65.2 0.3 100.0 685 Rural 13.2 29.2 27.3 30.0 0.3 100.0 2,422 Total 10.3 28.8 29.1 31.5 0,3 1130.0 28,168 28 Table 2.12.2 Husband's level of education: region and province Percent distribution of ever-married women by husband' s highest level of education attended, according to region and province, Indonesia 1994 Husband's highest level of education Number Region and No Some Completed Some Don't of province education primary primary secondary+ know Total women Java-Bali 10.4 30.1 31.2 27.9 0.4 1130.0 17,953 DKI Jakarta 2.2 10.7 23.5 63.3 0.2 100.0 1,249 West Java 7.0 32.4 32.1 28.0 0.5 100.0 5,551 Central Java 11.3 30.9 37.3 20.5 0.0 100.0 4,578 DI Yogyakarta 7.7 21.3 22.7 48.2 0.1 100.0 457 East Java 15.2 32.9 27.7 23.6 0.6 100.0 5,685 Bali 9.8 22.6 31.6 36.0 0,0 100.0 432 Outer Java-Bali I 9.6 26.6 25.7 37.8 0.3 1130.0 7,108 Dista Aceh 10.0 22.2 31.2 36.6 0.0 100.0 522 North Sumatra 1.8 22.5 24.9 50.6 0.2 100.0 1,446 West Sumatra 3.1 24.2 26.7 45.5 0.5 109.0 53 I South Sumatra 7.3 26.9 30.0 35.8 0,0 100.0 900 Lampung 8.0 32.8 34.7 24.2 0.3 100.0 834 West Nusa Tenggara 24.6 28.2 18.7 28.4 0.1 100.0 527 West Kalimantan 14.5 35.7 19.2 30.4 0.3 100.0 519 South Kalimantan 4.9 30.7 28.6 35.0 0.8 100.0 447 North Sulawesi 3.3 31.0 18.5 46.8 0.4 100.0 333 South Sulawesi 20.8 22.3 20.2 36.2 0.5 100.0 1,049 Outer Java-Bali II 11.2 25.8 25.0 37.7 0.3 100.0 3,106 Riau 7.6 33.9 26.3 31.7 0.4 100.0 552 Jambi 8.3 26.7 27.9 37.0 0.1 100.0 335 Bengkulu 5.4 30.2 21.0 43.3 0.1 100.0 190 East Nusa Tenggara 13.4 29.4 28.5 28.4 0.3 100.0 436 East Timor 51.8 18.5 6.9 22.7 0.0 100.0 124 Central Kalimantan 6.2 24.0 32.1 37.5 0.1 100.0 244 East Kalimantan 4.9 23.4 22.2 49.1 0.3 100.0 321 Central Sulawesi 5. I 24.5 27.4 42.2 0.8 100.0 238 Southeast Sulawesi 8. I 20.5 29.9 41.3 0.2 100.0 19 I Maluku 4.8 18.6 25.7 50.3 0.5 100.0 225 lrian Jaya 30. I 16.9 13.8 38.8 0.4 100.0 250 Total 10.3 28.8 29.1 31.5 0.3 100.0 28,168 In Table 2.13 the respondent's education is compared with that of her husband. Overall, a majority of couples marry within their educational level (see figures on the diagonal), and some women marry men who have higher education (see figures to the right of the diagonal). For example, among women who completed primary school, 53 percent are married to men who also have completed primary school, 26 percent are married to men who have attended secondary school, and 21 percent are married to men whose education is lower than theirs. 29 Table 2.13 Husband's level of education according to respondent's level of education Percent distribution of women by husband's highest level of education attended, according to respondent's level of education, Indonesia 1994 Husband's highest level of education Number Respondent's No Some Completed Some Don't of education education primary primary secondary+ know Total women No education 40.3 39.4 15.8 4.0 0.6 100.0 4,489 Some primary 9.4 50.3 26.7 13.2 0.4 100.0 8,997 Completed primary 2.8 18.3 52.8 25.7 0.3 100.0 7,904 Some secondary+ 0.4 5.3 13.5 80.7 0.1 100.0 6,778 Total 10.3 28.8 29.1 31.5 0.3 100.0 28,168 2.13 Exposure to Mass Media The availability of mass media (newspaper, television and radio) is presented in Table 2.14.1. Twenty-six percent of respondents read the newspaper weekly, two in three watch television weekly, and 57 percent listen to a radio every day; 17 percent have exposure to all three mass media. Eighteen percent of all respondents are exposed to none of these mass media. Table 2.14.1 Access to mass media: background characteristics Percentage of women who usually read a newspaper once a week, watch television once a week, or listen to radio daily, by selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1994 Mass media No Read Watch Listen to All Number Background mass newspaper television radio three of characteristic media weekly weekly daily media women Age 15-19 12.7 29.6 72.2 71.8 22.4 1,365 20-24 13.3 30.2 73.2 63.8 21.8 4,105 25-29 14.9 29.7 73.3 59.2 20.8 5,453 30-34 17.2 24.6 68.7 56.0 16.2 5,660 35-39 20.2 23.8 66.5 52.2 15.4 4,869 40-44 19.8 22.0 64.7 53.5 14.3 3,662 45-49 27.7 19.2 59.5 47.0 12. I 3,055 Residence Urban 5.2 46.8 90.7 59.7 31.5 8,196 Rural 23.2 16.9 59.4 55.3 11.6 19,972 Region/Residence Java-Bali 14.1 27.2 73.0 59.9 19.0 17,953 Urban 4.9 46.9 90.9 60.5 31.9 5,991 Rural 18.7 17.3 64.1 59.6 12.5 11,962 Outer Java-Bali l 21.9 22.2 62.4 53.9 14.3 7,108 Urban 5.4 44.6 90.6 59.0 28.9 1,520 Rural 26.4 16.1 54.7 52.5 10.4 5,588 Outer Java-Bali 11 31. I 24.0 56.3 43.3 14.9 3,106 Urban 7.2 51.0 89.1 53.8 33.3 685 Rural 37.8 16.4 47.0 40.3 9.7 2,422 Education No education 40.5 0.8 43.0 38.5 0.4 4,489 Some primary 20.8 10.7 62.7 53.4 7.1 8,997 Primary completed 13.2 26.3 72.0 64.4 18.5 7,904 Some secondary+ 4.8 61.0 89.0 63.5 41.0 6,778 Total 17.9 25.6 68.5 56.5 17.4 28,168 30 Younger women, women in urban areas, women living in Java-Bali, and better educated women are more likely to be exposed to mass media than other women. For example, 91 percent of urban women watch television, while the proportion in rural areas is 59 percent; 32 percent of urban women are exposed to all three media, while in rural areas only 12 percent are. There is a positive association between level of educa- tion and exposure to mass media: as education increases, exposure to mass media increases. The same pat- tern was also found in the 1991 IDHS (CBS, 1992). Table 2.142 shows the percentage of women exposed to mass media by region and province. Women in Java-Bali are more exposed to mass media than women in Outer Java-Bali. DKI Jakarta shows the largest percentage exposed to television (97 percent), followed by East Kalimantan (88 percent), and DI Yogyakarta (84 percent). At the other extreme, women in East Nusa Tenggara, East Timor and Central Kalimantan have the least exposure to mass media. Table 2.14.2 Access to mass media: region and province Percentage of women who usually read a newspaper once a week, watch television once a week, or listen to radio daily, by region and province, Indonesia 1994 Mass media No Read Watch Listen to All Number Region and mass newspaper television radio three of province media weekly weekly daily media women Java-Bali 14.1 27.2 73.0 59.9 19.0 17,953 DKI Jakarta 1.7 52.7 96.7 62.2 37.6 1,249 West Java 9.5 33.2 77.3 61.6 20.5 5,551 Central Java 17.7 20.7 65.8 64.1 17.0 4,578 DI Yogyakarta 9.4 35.1 83.6 59.2 25.7 457 East Java 18.8 21.0 68.4 54.0 14.8 5,685 Bali 14.2 18.3 77.2 64.5 15.3 432 Outer Java-Bali I 21.9 22.2 62.4 53.9 14.3 7,108 Dista Aceh 37.6 22.7 51.2 41.8 15.4 522 North Sumatra 24.4 23.8 68.8 43.3 12.6 1,446 West Sumatra 21.3 28.0 67.0 43.4 15.2 531 South Sumatra 29.0 17.4 59.0 40.1 I 0.4 900 Lampung 18.5 13.4 46.4 69.7 9.4 834 West Nusa Tenggara 20.7 19.9 57.7 63.6 13.9 527 West Kalimantan 19.1 16.2 74.7 46.6 10.9 519 South Kalimantan 10.2 23.1 79.7 69.4 18.9 447 North Sulawesi 18.0 36.6 73.2 47.6 23.9 333 South Sulawesi 15.8 27.4 57.9 73.2 19.9 1,049 Outer Java-Bali II 31.1 24.0 56.3 43.3 14.9 3,106 Riau 15.4 27.9 76.0 49.0 17.8 552 Jambi 12.3 30.7 76.2 61.3 21.9 335 Bengkulu 13.3 24.0 77.4 56.4 18.6 190 East Nusa Tenggara 70.1 11.4 13.8 20.1 3.4 436 East Timor 72.0 12.7 15.9 21.2 7.2 124 Central Kalimantan 33.7 12.1 36.4 53.3 7.8 244 East Kalimantan 5.6 37.3 88.1 49.9 21.2 321 Central Sulawesi 21.7 29.3 64.4 53.0 21.3 238 Southeast Sulawesi 33.7 20.1 43.7 47.3 11.5 191 Maluku 25.9 31.1 66.5 40.5 20.6 225 Irian Jaya 58.0 20.2 35.6 20.4 10.5 250 Total 17.9 25.6 68.5 56.5 17.4 28,168 31 2.14 Employment In the 1994 IDHS, respondents were asked if they worked aside from doing their housework, regardless of whether they were paid or not. Table 2.15.1 shows that 56 percent of women were engaged in an economic activity in the last 12 months. Older women, women in rural areas, and women who have no education are more likely to have been employed. For example, the proportion of women 35 years or older who worked is 65 percent, while for women under 25 the proportion is 40 percent or lower. The smaller proportion of young women who work may be related to the problem of securing child care, while urban and better educated women may have difficulty getting a job that fits their education. Table 2.15.2 shows that a large proportion of women (more than 70 percent) in DI Yogyakarta, Bali, Bengkulu, and East Nusa Tenggara worked in the 12 months preceding the survey. In contrast, low proportions (less than 40 percent) are found in North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, East Timor, East Kalimantan, and Maluku. Table 2.15.1 Employment: background characteristics Percent distribution of women by employment status in the last 12 months, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 1994 Did not work Worked in last in Number Background 12 lasl 12 of characteristic months months Total women Age 15-19 66.8 33.2 100.0 1,365 20-24 59.7 40.3 100.0 4,105 25-29 49.8 50.2 100.0 5,453 30-34 40.9 59.1 100.0 5,660 35-39 34.8 65.2 100.0 4,869 40-44 34.4 65.6 100.0 3,662 45-49 35.5 64.5 100.0 3,055 Residence Urban 55.2 44.8 100.0 8,196 Rural 39.6 60.4 100.0 19,972 Region/Residence Java-Bali 44.5 55.5 100.0 17,953 Urban 53.6 46.4 100.0 5,991 Rural 40.0 60.0 100.0 11,962 Outer Java-Bali I 42.5 57.5 100.0 7,108 Urban 58.1 41.9 100.0 1,520 Rural 38.3 61.7 100.0 5,588 Outer Java-Bali 1I 45.6 54.4 100.0 3,106 Urban 62.4 37.6 100.0 685 Rural 40.9 59.1 100.0 2,422 Education No education 29.2 7(I.8 100.0 4,489 Some primary 38.7 61.3 100.0 8,997 Completed primary 50.3 49.7 100.0 7,904 Some secondary+ 54.0 46.0 100.0 6,778 Total 44,1 55.9 100.0 28,168 32 Table 2.15.2 Employment: region and province Percent distribution of women by employment status in the last 12 months, according to region and province, Indonesia 1994 Did not work Worked in last in Number Region and 12 last 12 of province months months Total women Java-Bali 44.5 55.5 100.0 17,953 DKI Jakarta 59.5 40.5 100.0 1,249 West Java 57.6 42.4 100.0 5,551 Central Java 42.3 57.7 100.0 4,578 DI Yogyakarta 21.9 78.1 100.0 457 East Java 33.8 66.2 100.0 5,685 Bali 22.0 78.0 100.0 432 Outer Java-Bali I 42.5 57.5 100.0 7,108 Dista Aceh 40.0 60.0 100.0 522 North Sumatra 34.9 65.1 100.0 1,446 West Sumatra 39.0 61.0 100.0 531 South Sumatra 36.4 63.6 100.0 900 Lampung 48.4 51.6 100.0 834 West Nusa Tenggara 30.7 69.3 100.0 527 West Kalimantan 31.6 68.4 100.0 519 South Kalimantan 38.5 61.5 100.0 447 North Sulawesi 63.6 36.4 1130.0 333 South Sulawesi 63.0 37.0 100.0 1,049 Outer Java-Bali lI 45.6 54.4 100.0 3,106 Riau 49.9 50. I 100.0 552 Jambi 42.6 57.4 100.0 335 Bengkulu 25.5 74.5 100.0 190 East Nusa Tenggara 29.1 70.9 100.0 436 East Timor 67.1 32.9 100.0 124 Central Kalimantan 41.4 58.6 100.0 244 East Kalimantan 60.1 39.9 100.0 321 Central Sulawesi 44.9 55.1 100.0 238 Southeast Sulawesi 44.6 55.4 100.0 191 Maluku 65.3 34.7 100.0 225 lrian Jaya 43.1 56.9 100.0 250 Total 44.1 55.9 100.0 28,168 2.15 Occupation Table 2.16.1 presents the percent distribution of women who worked in the 12 months prior to the survey by occupation, according to selected background characteristics. Half of the women (53 percent) worked in agriculture, and six in ten of those worked on their own land. The table also shows that for women outside the agricultural sector, sales is a popular choice of employment (22 percent), followed by manufacturing industries (12 percent), professional and technical occupations (5 percent), and services (5 percent). 33 Table2.16.1 Occupation: background characteristics Percent distribution of women employed in the last 12 months by occupation and type of agricultural land worked or type of non- agricultural employment, according to selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1994 Agricultural Non-agricultural Some- one Don't Number Background Own Rented else's Prof./ Mgmt./ Cleri- Serv- Indus- know/ of characteristic land land land tech. admin, cal Sales ices trial Other missing Tolal women Age 15-19 39.5 1.2 19.6 0.3 0.0 0.0 12.4 5.3 20.7 1.0 0.0 100.0 453 20-24 32.2 2.8 20.7 2.3 0.3 2.2 18.0 6.7 14,4 0.4 0.1 1011.0 1,652 25-29 28.6 3.3 17.5 5.9 0.2 4.1 19.2 5.3 15.4 0.3 0.1 10(I.0 2,735 30-34 28.4 3.4 16.6 7.0 0.4 3.0 23.3 4.1 13.6 0.2 0.0 1011.0 3,346 35-39 30.2 2.9 18.1 5.8 0.2 2.1) 26.0 4.5 10.2 0.1 0.0 101).11 3,176 40-44 34.4 2.7 18.2 4.8 0.3 2.0 23.3 4.9 9.1 0.1 0.3 1011.11 2,401 45-49 42.4 2.7 17.0 4.1 0.4 1.5 22.5 2.9 6.2 0.1 0.0 10(I.0 1,9711 Residence Urban 2.8 0.2 5.4 12.1 0.8 7,6 40.5 12.3 17.8 0.4 0.1 10(I .0 3,675 Rural 41.1 3.8 21.7 3.1 0.1 0.9 16.5 2.3 10.1 0.1 0.0 lffl.0 12,059 Region/Residence Java-Bali 24.2 2.1 20,7 4A 0.3 2.3 24.9 5.7 15.4 0.2 0.0 10().0 9,959 Urban 2.5 0.2 5.9 9.4 0.6 6.6 40.5 13.1 20.7 0.4 0.1 100.0 2,780 Rural 32.6 2.9 26.4 2.0 0.1 0.7 18.9 2.9 13.3 0.1 0.0 10(l.0 7,178 Outer Java-Bali I 41.3 5.8 14.8 7.5 0.3 2.6 18.9 2.9 5.7 0.2 0.1 100.0 4,086 Urban 2.8 0,3 4.0 20.3 0,9 9.8 43.4 9.5 8.4 0.6 0.0 1011.0 637 Rural 48.4 6,9 16.7 5.1 0,2 1.3 14.4 1.6 5.2 0.1 0.1 10(I.0 3,449 Outer Java-Bali 11 57.0 1.0 8.9 6.2 0.6 2.9 13.6 2.7 6.7 0.2 0.1 10(l.0 1,689 Urban 6.2 0.3 2.7 20.4 3.2 12.9 34.2 10.1 9.4 0.5 0.0 10(h0 258 Rural 66.1 1.1 10.1 3.7 0.1 1.1 9.9 1.4 6.3 0,2 0.1 10() .0 1,431 Education No education 39.4 3.3 30~7 0. l 0.0 0. I 15.9 3.0 7.2 0.2 0.0 100.0 3,179 Sorne primary 36.9 3.6 21.3 0.1 0.0 0.0 20.8 4.5 12.5 0.2 0.1 10().0 5,513 Primary completed 35.8 2.8 13.8 0.2 0.0 0.13 26.0 5.4 15.5 0.2 0.0 10(l.0 3,926 Some secondary+ I 1.8 1.6 4.1 25.8 1.4 11.9 26.1 5.7 11.1 0.3 0.1 100.0 3,115 Total 32.2 3.0 17.9 5.2 0.3 2.5 22.1 4.7 I 1.9 0.2 0.0 100.0 15,734 Women's occupations vary by age. Among women who worked in agriculture, the proportion who worked on their own land was highest for those in the youngest and oldest age groups. The proportion declines from 40 percent for women age 15-19 to 28 percent for women ages 30-34, and increases to 42 percent for women 45-49. On the other hand, among women working as professional and technical workers, the pattern is the opposite: low at younger ages, peaking at age 30-34, and then declining for older women. Manufacturing industries attract younger women, while sales is more popular among older women. Table 2.16.1 shows that women's occupations vary significantly by urban-rural residence and education. While 67 percent of working women in rural areas are engaged in the agricultural sector, the corresponding proportion in urban areas is 8 percent. In contrast, in urban areas women worked in sales (41 percent), manufacturing industries 118 percent), services (12 percent), and professional jobs 112 percent). The urban-rural differentials between Java-Bali and the Outer Java-Bali regions are similar to those at the national level. In addition, women living in the urban areas of Outer Java-Bali I and II are more likely 34 to work in professional and technical occupations than women in urban Java-Bali (20 percent compared with 9 percent, respectively). Women's education is inversely related to their propensity to work in agriculture; women with no education are much more likely to be working in agriculture than better educated women. For example, three in four women with no education worked in agriculture compared with only 18 percent of women who have attended secondary school. In contrast, women who are better educated are more likely to be employed in professional, technical, sales, clerical or industrial occupations. Table 2.16.2 shows differences among provinces in respondents' patterns of work. In DKI Jakarta, virtually all women work in the nonagricultural sector. In this province, one in three women work in sales, 24 percent in services, 18 percent in industry and 13 percent in clerical jobs. Large proportions of women work in industrial occupations in all provinces in Java-Bali, West Sumatra, North Sulawesi and East Nusa Tenggara, while professional and technical professions are popular in West Sumatra, North Sulawesi, South Sulawesi, and Maluku. More than three-quarters of working women in West Kalimantan, Bengkulu, and Irian Jaya work in agriculture. Table 2.16.2 Occupation: region and province Percent distribution of women employed in the last 12 months by occupation and type of agricultural land worked or type of non- agricultural employment, according to region and province, Indonesia 1994 Agricultural Non-agricultural Sorlle- one Don'l Number Region and Own Rented else's Prof./ Mgmt./ Cleri- Serv- Indus- know/ of province land land land tech. admin, ca/ Sales ices trial Other missing Total women Java-Bali 24.2 2.1 20.7 4.1 0.3 2.3 24.9 5.7 15.4 0.2 0.0 100.0 9,959 DKI Jakarta 0.0 0.0 0.5 7.3 1.4 13.1 35.7 24.3 17.7 0.0 0.1 100.0 505 West Java 17.8 1.1 26.2 4.9 0.5 2.9 28.5 4.0 13.7 0.4 0.1 100.0 2,352 Central Java 26.2 3.6 15.4 4.2 0.0 1.0 25.1 6.1 18.4 0.1 0.0 100.0 2,642 DI Yogyakarta 33.7 1.7 I 1.1 5.7 0.7 3.8 21.6 5.5 15.9 0.2 0.0 100.0 357 East Java 29.5 2.3 24.9 2.8 0.1 1.3 21.1 4.4 13.3 0.2 0.1 100.0 3,765 Bali 20.3 0.1 17.7 4.9 0.3 3.0 28.3 2.9 22.4 0.1 0.0 100.0 337 Outer Java-Bali I 41.3 5.8 14,8 7.5 0.3 2.6 18.9 2.9 5.7 0.2 0.1 100.0 4,086 Dista Aceh 44.1 7.8 24.0 7.5 0.1 2.6 8.6 1.4 4.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 313 North Sumatra 36.3 16.0 10.7 8.6 0.5 2.6 17.9 3.0 3.9 0.2 0.1 100.0 942 West Sumatra 34.4 3.6 18.4 11.0 0.4 2.9 15.3 2.1 11.6 0.2 0.0 1130.0 324 South Sumatra 48.2 3.1 14.1 7,4 0.1 2.6 15.8 4.1 4.1 0.5 0.0 100.0 572 Lampung 48.2 0.4 18.2 4.8 0.0 0.5 20.2 2.0 5.5 0.1 0.0 100.0 431 West Nusa Tenggara 28.6 0.5 25.1 2.6 0.0 2.5 30.6 2.5 7.6 0.2 0.0 100.0 365 West Kalimantan 61.2 5.4 11.4 4.5 0.0 2.1 10.1 2.8 2.4 0.1 t).0 100.0 355 South Kalimantan 49.4 2.8 8.3 5.0 0.3 2.3 21.0 3.4 7.3 0.1 0.1 100.0 275 North Sulawesi 21.3 0.8 10.5 17.9 0.9 7.4 24.3 6.0 10.7 0.3 0.0 1130.0 121 South Sulawesi 33.3 0.6 10.4 11,0 0.4 3.9 29.9 2.5 7.4 0.2 0.3 100.0 388 Outer Java-Bali II 57.0 1.0 8.9 6.2 0.6 2.9 13.6 2.7 6.7 0.2 0.1 100.0 1,689 Riau 51.4 1.9 13.5 7.3 0.3 2.8 12.2 4.2 6.2 0.2 0.0 100.0 277 Jambi 61.0 1.5 11.4 6.8 0.4 2.6 10.7 2.1 3.2 0.3 0.0 100.0 192 Bengkulu 61.2 2.4 14.3 4.1 0.3 2.7 12.1 1.2 1.1 0.4 0.3 100.0 142 East Nusa Tenggara 60.2 0.8 10.2 3.6 0,2 1.0 6.2 1.3 16.2 0.0 0.2 100.0 309 East Timor 67.7 0.0 2.2 4.0 0.7 4.8 8.6 2.3 8.7 0.5 0.3 100.0 41 Central Kalimantan 63.1 0.8 5.2 5.2 0,0 1.6 15.2 1.5 7.3 0.0 0.1 100.0 143 East Kalimantan 29.4 0.0 4.7 7.7 2.6 4.0 31.1 10.8 9.4 0.3 0.0 100.0 128 Central Sulawesi 56.7 0.5 8.6 6.1 0.4 4.7 17.7 1.7 3.5 0.0 0.0 100.0 131 Southeast Sulawesi 62.4 0.4 9.1 6.8 0.5 2.2 15.3 0.3 2.4 0.4 0.2 100.0 106 Maluku 37.7 0.0 1.5 16.8 2.0 5.3 28.2 3.1 5.0 0.4 0.0 100.0 78 lrian Jaya 73.6 0.0 2.6 5.4 0.6 5.5 8.8 1.7 1.2 0.6 0.0 100.0 142 Total 32.2 3.0 17.9 5.2 0.3 2.5 22.1 4.7 11.9 0.2 0.0 100.0 15,734 35 2.16 Child Care Whi le Work ing The welfare of children under five years whose mothers are employed is the focus of Table 2.17.1. Overall, four in ten women who worked in the 12 months prior to the survey have one or more children under five. This proportion varies by residence, education, and occupation. Rural women, better educated women, and women who work occasionally are more likely to have children under five. As a reflection of regional fertility differentials, women in Java-Bali are less likely to have children under five than women on the other islands. Table 2.17.1 Child care while working: background characteristics Percent distribution of employed women by whether they have a child under five years of age and percent distribution of employed mothers who have a child under five by person who cares for child while mother is at work, according to background characteristics, Indonesia 1994 Background characteristic Employed womel l One or Child's caretaker, among employed mothers who have children <5 years more Hus- Not No chi[- Re- band/ Other Child Institu- Other Other worked Number child dren spond part- rela- Neigh- Hired is in tional female male since of <5 <5 ent ner tire bor Friend help school care child child birth Other Missing Total women Residence Urban 64.2 358 40.9 48 33.1 2.6 03 97 08 0.2 47 12 1) 5 0.8 04 10(I.0 3.675 Rural 616 384 35.4 31 37,5 2.4 0.4 1.2 1.3 0.1 L33 39 06 (14 0.4 1()0 t} 12,059 Region/Residence Java Bali 65.9 34.1 342 3.7 41.1 2.8 0.5 3.7 0,5 0.0 8.9 3.4 (1.6 0.4 03 1(10.0 9,959 Urban 655 34.5 42.4 49 32.3 2,5 0.4 10.4 04 0.0 38 12 05 08 (1.4 1(10.0 2.780 Rural 66.1 33.9 31.0 32 44.5 29 0.6 1.0 05 0.0 10.9 4.2 0.6 0.3 03 100.0 7,178 Outer Java-Bali 1 549 45.1 40.9 32 29.5 1.9 0.2 2.5 23 0.2 14.7 3.0 0.6 0.6 04 100.0 4,086 Urban 593 40.7 38.7 5.1 34,3 2.9 0.0 7.5 2.3 0.5 6.6 0.7 02 (18 03 1(10.0 637 Rural 54.1 45.9 41.3 2.9 28.7 1.7 0.2 1.7 23 0.2 16.0 3.4 0.6 06 0.4 1000 3,449 OulerJava-BalilI 57.8 42.2 369 3.1 33.2 2.2 0.3 2.0 1.9 01 148 35 06 08 05 1000 1,689 Urban 62.2 37.8 32.2 2.8 37.2 2.0 0,7 8.9 1.9 08 82 27 16 04 B5 100.0 258 Rural 57.0 430 377 3.2 32.6 2.2 02 09 1.9 00 159 36 04 0.9 0.5 11100 1,431 Education No education 73 I 26.9 28.5 3.3 365 24 05 0.0 0.9 0.0 200 53 0.6 16 05 100.0 3.179 Some primary 63.8 36.2 38.1 26 32 0 2.4 05 02 1.8 0 1 160 5 0 0 8 112 (14 11}(1.() 5,513 Completed primary 58.5 41.5 411 42 39.1 2.2 0.4 0.2 09 01 84 2.3 0.5 (I.3 04 1110.0 3,926 Some secondary+ 52.9 47.1 344 4.(1 399 2.8 0.3 121 (19 0 2 34 (18 11.5 (k6 (12 1110.0 3,115 Respondent's occupation Professional/technical 53.3 46,7 8.9 8.0 44.5 4.7 1,2 25.8 0.7 07 4.1 04 05 0.5 01 ll100 818 Managerial/admin. 70.8 29,2 0.0 2.3 48.1 0,0 0.0 43.3 0.0 00 1.7 0.0 0.0 46 0.0 100.0 46 Clerical 53.4 46.6 3.1 2,9 60.5 6.4 0.0 23.3 0.3 0.3 0.3 01 1.7 0.8 0.4 100.0 389 Sales 63.5 36.5 59.8 5.7 202 2.5 0.1 2.6 1.1 0.0 5.8 1.5 0.1 0.4 0.2 100.0 3,485 Service 67.8 32.2 49,0 3.8 31.4 2.0 0,(1 0.7 0.6 0.0 6.8 1.4 2.2 0.2 19 100.0 734 Agricultural 63.1 36.9 25,2 2.1 43.4 2.2 0.6 0.0 1.7 0.0 177 53 08 0.7 (1.4 100.0 8,344 Induslrial 59.3 407 623 3.0 28.1 1.3 0.0 0.5 01 0,1 3.1 (1.9 01 01 0.4 1000 1,875 Other 526 47.4 618 3,9 28.8 0.0 00 0.0 00 00 5.5 00 00 0.0 00 1000 33 Employment year round/seasonal Allyear 61.4 38.6 40.3 3,7 349 2.5 0.4 43 1,1 0.1 8.6 2.8 0.7 0.5 0.2 1000 11,118 Seasonal 65,1 34.9 25.2 3.1 41.8 2.5 0.4 0.0 14 0,0 20.4 3.5 0.5 0.4 0.8 100.0 3,890 Occasional 587 41.3 365 2.4 363 1.5 00 0.0 19 00 10.7 8.8 0,0 1,5 0,5 1(100 718 Total 622 37,8 36.6 3.5 36.5 2.4 0,4 3.1 1.2 0.1 11.4 3.3 (1.6 05 (1.4 100.0 15,734 Note: Totals include 8 women with time frame missing and 11 women with occupation missing 36 Among working women, 37 percent take care of their children while they work. Relatives and older female siblings are the most common caretakers for children of working women (37 percent and 11 percent, respectively). The role of female siblings in child care in the absence of their mother is significant in rural areas and in families where the mother has limited education, works in agriculture, or works as a seasonal worker. Children whose mothers have attended secondary school, live in urban areas, are professionals or managers, or work in clerical occupations are more likely to be cared for by servants or hired help. Across all subgroups, husbands and male siblings have a very limited role in child minding while the mother is at work (4 percent each). The proportion of working mothers with children under five varies between regions, and is lower in Java-Bali than in the other islands. The proportion varies between a low of less than 30 percent in DKI Jakarta, DI Yogyakarta, East Java and Central Kalimantan, to 56 percent in North Sumatra (see Table 2.17.2). With some exceptions, mothers, relatives and female siblings are the most important caregivers while the mother is working. Servants or hired help are popular in DKI Jakarta, where they care for one in six children under five. Children in West Kalimantan, Riau and Southeast Sulawesi are likely to be cared for by female siblings while the mother is at work (24 to 30 percent). Table 2.17.2 Child care while working: region and province Percent distribution of employed women by whether they have a child under five years of age and percent distribution of employed mothers who have a child under five by person who cares for child while mother is at work, according to region and province, I Indonesia 1994 Region and 9rovince Employed women Child's caretaker, among employed mothers who have children <5 years One or more Hus- Not No chil- Re- band/ Other Child lnstdu- Other Other worked Number child dren spond- part- rela- Neigh Hired isin tionat female male since of <5 <5 ent net rive bor Friend help school care child child birth Other Missing Total women Java-Bali 65.9 34.1 34.2 3.7 41.1 2.8 DKI Jakarta 70.3 29.7 37.2 1.5 35,4 0.0 West Java 60.2 39.8 32,2 3.6 34.4 2.0 Central Java 59.4 40.6 35.1 4.9 42.5 2.9 DIYogyakarta 71.7 28.3 34.2 1.7 45.5 4.0 East Java 73,0 27.0 33.0 2.9 46.9 3.9 Bali 65.5 34.5 49.8 4.7 33.6 0.5 Outer Java-Bali I 549 45.1 40,9 3,2 295 1.9 DI Aceh 55,0 45.0 36,0 1.0 43.4 0.9 North Sumatra 43.6 56.4 42.4 2.8 24.6 0.8 West Sumatra 60.2 39.8 34.1 5.0 32.8 2.7 South Sumatra 60.5 39.5 50.0 5.6 245 2.6 Lampung 546 454 42.1 2.5 315 3.2 West NusaTenggara 53,0 47,0 38,3 2.3 36,6 West Kalimantan 54.4 45,6 33.5 3.3 29,1 South Kalimantan 66.3 33.7 38.1 3,2 26.1 North Sulawesi 61.4 38.6 44.2 18 36.5 SouthSulawesi 61.9 38.1 42.3 4.3 27.8 Outer Java-Bali 11 57.8 42.2 36.9 3.1 33.2 Riau 60.7 39.3 28.5 3.5 26.0 Jambi 582 41,8 43.3 2.8 28.5 Bengkulu 49,5 50.5 48.3 2.3 26.3 EastNusaTenggara 52.8 47.2 36.6 3,2 41.0 East Timor 494 50.6 32.9 4,0 43,9 Central Kalimantan 72,2 27,8 495 0,6 23,4 East Kalimantan 64.1 35.9 44.2 3.0 24.0 Central Sulawesi 58.4 41.6 28.2 4.3 375 Southeast Sulawesi 52.6 47.4 29.0 1,3 31.2 Maluku 49.5 50.5 33.6 5,0 50.1 Irian Jaya 60.6 39.4 35.1 4.5 389 Total 62.2 37.8 36.6 3.5 36.5 0.5 3.7 0,5 0.0 8,9 3.4 0.6 0.4 0.3 100.0 9,959 0.0 15.6 0.0 00 5.7 1.2 1.1 1.9 0.5 100.0 505 0.0 5.2 1.1 0.0 17.8 3.0 0.7 00 0.0 10().0 2,352 09 2.8 03 t).O 6.2 3.2 0,0 0,9 0,3 100,0 2,642 11.4 4.3 1.6 00 4.3 2.3 0.4 1,3 0,0 100.0 357 0.8 1.1 0,0 0.0 5.1 4.5 1.2 0,0 117 100.0 3,765 0.0 4.9 (1.3 00 3.3 1.9 0.0 0.3 0.7 100.0 337 02 2.5 2.3 02 14.7 3.0 0.6 0.6 0.4 100.0 4,086 00 2.0 0.4 0.4 13.9 1.3 0.0 0.0 0.7 100.0 313 0.0 35 4,1 0,4 15.8 4,0 0.9 05 0.2 100.0 942 0,0 3,tl 1,9 0,0 150 2 5 07 1.8 0.4 100.0 324 03 3,1 3,4 00 6.9 2.2 0,8 0.4 0.4 100.0 572 I1 1.0 3.2 0.0 12.0 2.9 0.0 05 0.0 100.0 431 2,3 0,0 1.8 0,6 t),0 14,9 2.2 0.3 0.6 0.0 100.0 365 1.4 00 1,9 0.6 00 23.9 4.2 t),8 1,1 0.3 I 0t).0 355 45 0.4 23 15 18 15.0 3.0 t),8 0.8 2.4 100.0 275 2.4 0.0 38 0.0 0.0 7.6 1.2 1.1 0.6 0.9 100.0 121 1.3 0.0 12 0.0 0.0 18.9 3.5 0.0 (18 0.0 100.0 388 2.2 0.3 2.0 1.9 0.1 14.8 35 06 0.8 0.5 100.0 1,689 2.3 1.1 5.0 5,4 00 236 38 00 0.0 0.8 1000 277 2.8 0.0 2.2 0.9 0.0 14.4 2.7 0.0 0.9 16 100.0 192 0.6 0.0 1.1 4.6 0.0 I 1.0 3.6 1.0 1.3 0.0 100.0 142 1.4 0.0 0,0 0.3 00 I 1.7 3.8 0.7 1.2 0.0 100.0 309 2.5 0.0 3.2 22 0.0 7.4 3.5 0.3 0.0 0.0 100.0 41 14 0.0 0.8 20 00 12.5 6.4 1.1 2.0 0.4 100.0 143 2.7 0.0 5,5 2,1 I1 10.7 3.1 2.9 07 0.0 ItFO.O 128 2.7 0.6 1.5 06 0,0 18,5 46 1,0 0.0 t),6 100,0 131 3.5 I1.(I 0.4 0.0 0.0 29.6 3.1 0.0 0.0 2.0 100.0 106 2,4 07 12 2.3 00 2.9 1.2 0.0 O0 0.8 100.0 78 3.7 0.0 2.5 0.0 0,5 10,5 2,1 0.0 22 0,0 100.0 142 2.4 0.4 3.1 1,2 0.1 11.4 3.3 17.6 05 0.4 100.0 15.734 37 CHAPTER '3 FERTIL ITY A major objective of the 1994 IDHS is to estimate fertility levels, trends and differentials. Like the 1991 IDHS, detailed information from all ever-married women on current, cumulative and past levels of fer- tility was collected for the 1994 IDHS. The fertility information was collected using two procedures. First, each woman was asked a series of questions about the number of live births and the number of children sur- viving. Experience has indicated that certain types of events are underreported. To minimize error, children were identified by sex, whether they lived with their mother or elsewhere, and whether they were living or dead. Identification by sex improves reporting and allows estimation of sex-specific mortality rates. Second, a full birth history was obtained from each woman, and for each live birth the following information was col- lected: name, sex, month and year of birth, whether the birth was single or multiple, and the survival status of the child. For living children, the woman was asked whether the child was living in the household or away. For dead children, the age at death was recorded. To reduce underreporting of births, if the interval between births was four years or longer, interviewers were required to check whether the respondent had had a child during the interval. Information on whether currently married women were pregnant was also solic- ited. From population censuses and surveys in Indonesia, fertility and mortality rates have been estimated using indirect methods, based on information on the number of children ever born and children surviving. The fertility measures presented here are calculated directly from the birth history. In applying a direct fertility estimation procedure, it is important to note that although the birth history offers a richer set of data for analysis, it has limitations and is susceptible to data collection errors. Because interviews were conducted only with living women, there is no information on the fertility of women who died. The fertility rates would be biased if the mortality of women of childbearing age were high and if there were significant differences in fertility between living and dead women. In Indonesia, neither of these appears to be the case. Also, the 1994 IDHS collected birth histories only from ever-married women. Since most births in Indonesia occur within marriage, the number of births to single women is negligible. The accuracy of fertility data is affected primarily by underreporting of births (especially children who died in early infancy) and misreporting of date of birth. Errors in underreporting of births affect the esti- mates of fertility levels, while misreporting of dates of births can distort estimates of fertility trends. If these errors vary by socioeconomic characteristics of the women, the differentials in fertility will also be affected. 3.1 Fertility Levels and Trends Table 3.1 and Figure 3.1 present the total fertility rates (TFR) and the age-specific fertility rates (ASFR) ~ derived from the 1994 IDHS along with results from various other sources. The TFR is calculated by summing the age-specific fertility rate and can be interpreted as the average number of births a hypo- thetical woman would have at the end of her reproductive life if she were subject to the currently prevailing age-specific rates from age 15 to 49. It is important to note that the rates are not strictly comparable because Numerators of the age-specific fertility rates are calculated by summing the number of live births that occurred in the period 1-36 months preceding the survey (determined by the date of interview and the date of birth of the child), and classifying them by the age (in five-year groups) of the mother at the time of birth (determined by the mother's date of birth). The denominators of the rates are the number of woman-years lived in each of the specified five-year groups during the 1-36 months preceding the survey. 39 Table 3.1 Fertility rates from various sources Age-specific and cumulative fertility rates from selected sources, Indonesia 1971-1994 1971 1976 1980 Age Census SUPAS Census group (1967-70) (1971-75) (1976-79) 1985 1987 1990 1991 SUPAS NICPS I Census IDHS (1980-85) (1984-87) ~ (1986-89) (1988-91) 2 1994 IDHS (1991-1994) 2 Urban Rural Total 15-19 155 127 116 95 78 71 67 34 78 61 20-24 286 265 248 220 188 178 162 108 170 147 25-29 273 256 232 206 172 172 157 141 155 150 30-34 211 199 177 154 126 128 117 105 110 109 35-39 124 118 104 89 75 73 73 57 73 68 40-44 55 57 46 37 29 31 23 16 38 31 45-49 17 18 13 10 10 9 7 1 5 4 TFR 15-49 5.61 5.20 4.68 4.06 3.39 3.31 3.02 2.31 3.15 2.85 TFR 15-44 5.52 5.11 4.62 4.01 3.34 3.27 2.99 2.30 3.12 2,83 GFR 108 81 111 101 CBR 25.1 21.0 24.2 23.3 Note: Estimates for 1971 through 1985 and for 1990 were computed using the own children method, while the 1987 NICPS, 1991 IDHS and 1994 IDHS rates were calculated directly from birth history data. TFR: Total fertility rate expressed per woman GFR: General fertility rate (births divided by number of women 15-44), expressed per I,/)00 women CBR: Crude birth rate expressed per 1,000 population I Excludes 7 provinces in Outer Java-Bali 11 2 1-36 months prior to survey Figure 3.1 Age-Specific Fertility Rates Indonesia 1967-1994 300 Births per 1,000 Women 250 200 / 150~/ 'il ! i i 15-19 20-24 25-29 Age i i i 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 40 of differences in data collection procedures, geographic coverage, and estimation techniques. Nevertheless, they serve the purpose of reflecting recent fertility trends in Indonesia. Table 3.1 shows that the TFR has declined steadily in Indonesia since the late 1960s. The overall fertility rate for the period 1991-94 (2.9 children per woman) is half of that reported for the period 1967-70 (5.6 children per woman). Results from the 1994 IDHS indicate that the pattern of fertility by age group is the same as in the past, except that the peak in fertility has shifted from age 20-24 to age 25-29. Fertility has declined in all age groups in Indonesia. For example, in the youngest age group (women 15-19), fertility declined 60 percent between the periods 1967-70 and 1991-94, from 155 births per 1,000 women to 61 births per 1,000 women. There was also a substantial decline among women 20-24 years, from 286 to 147 births per 1,000 women. The shape of the age-specific fertility curve has flattened considerably, due to the sharp decline in fertility among women age 20-34 years. Table 3.1 presents the general fertility rate (GFR) and the crude birth rate (CBR) for the three years preceding the 1994 IDHS. The GFR is the number of live births per 1,000 women age 15-44 years. The CB R is the number of births per 1,000 population; it is calculated by summing the product of the age-specific fertility rates and the proportion of women in the specific age group out of the total number of persons who usually live in the selected households. The GFR is 101 and the CBR is 23.3. The IDHS data indicate that there is a substantial gap in fertility between urban and rural residents. Urban women have, on average, almost one child less than rural women (2.3 versus 3.2). The largest urban- rural difference is for women age 15-24. Fertility trends can also be investigated using retrospective data from a single survey. Tables 3.2 and 3.3 are generated from the birth history data collected in the 1994 IDHS. The numerators of these rates are classified by four-year segments of time preceding the survey and by mother's age at the time of birth in five- year intervals. Because women 50 years and over were not interviewed in the 1994 IDHS, the data in Table 3.2 are truncated. For example, rates cannot be calculated for women age 45-49 for part of the 4-7 years and all of the 8-11 years prior to the survey, because those women would have been 50 years or older at the time of the survey. The bottom diagonal of estimates is also partially truncated. Table 3.2 Age-specific fertility rates Age-specific fertility rates for four-year periods preceding the survey, by mother's age at the time of birth, Indonesia 1994 Maternal age at birth Number of years preceding the survey 0-3 4-7 8-11 12-15 16-19 15-19 63 86 109 129 135 20-24 151 169 220 250 250 25-29 149 163 200 239 246 30-34 110 124 156 185 [221] 35-39 72 79 98 [150] 40-44 30 35 [55] 45-49 [4] [4] Note: Age-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. 41 Table 3.3 Fertility by marital duration Fertility rates by duration (years) since first marriage/'or four-year periods preceding the survey, Indonesia 1994 Marital duration at birth Number of years preceding the survey 0-3 4-7 8-11 12-15 16-19 0-4 281 286 308 328 317 5-9 162 185 223 273 273 10-14 128 132 177 218 238 15-19 81 104 134 168 [192] 20-24 52 61 [971 [122] a 25-29 23 [34] a a a Note: Duration-specific fertility rates are per 1,000 women. Estimates in brackets are truncated. a Less than 125 woman-years of exposure As in the 1991 IDHS, there are indications of an acceleration in the rate of fertility decline among women 15-24 accompanied by a slower decline among older women. Tables 3.2 and 3.3 show similar patterns, i.e., for the same age group or marriage duration, recent fertility is lower than that in the distant past, and fertility has declined more rapidly in recent years. Table 3.4 and Figure 3.2 present TFRs for the six provinces in Java-Bali from selected sources. In demographic studies of Indonesia, it is important to set this region apart from the rest of the country because of its distinct socioeconomic and political context. In addition to the availability of comparable data from the population censuses and past demographic surveys, family planning programs in this region were initiated earlier than in other regions in the country. Table 3.4 Total fertility rates for provinces in Java-Bali Total fertility rates for provinces in Java-Bali from selected sources, Indonesia 1971-1994 Province 1971 1976 1980 1985 1987 1990 1991 1994 Census SUPAS Census SUPAS NICPS I Census IDHS IDHS (1967-70t (1971-75) (1976-79) (1980-85/ (1984-87) 2 (1986-89) (1988 91)2(1991-1994) 2 DKI Jakarta 5.18 4.78 3.99 3.25 2.8 2.33 2.14 1.90 West Java 6.34 5.64 5.07 4.31 3.6 3.47 3.37 3.17 Central Java 5.33 4.92 4.37 3.82 3.2 3.05 2.85 2.77 DI Yogyakarta 4.76 4.47 3.42 2.93 2.3 2.08 2.04 1.79 East Java 4.72 4.32 3.56 3.20 2.7 2.47 2.13 2.22 Bali 5.96 5.24 3.97 3.09 2.6 2.27 2.22 2.14 Note: Estimates for 1971 through 1985 and for 1990 were computed using the own children method, while the 1987 NICPS, 1991 IDHS and 1994 IDHS rates were calculated directly from birth history data. I Excludes 7 provinces in Outer Java-Bali 11 2 1-36 months preceding the survey 42 Figure 3.2 Total Fertility Rates by Province Java-Bali 1967-1994 Number of Ch i ldren E)KI Jakarta West Central DI Yogyakarta East Bali Java Java Java According to Table 3.4, fertility in Java-Bali has declined significantly since the late 1960s. Among the provinces, West Java consistently shows the highest fertility rates, and DI Yogyakarta the lowest. Until the mid-1970s, the fertility rate in Bali was second highest after West Java. However, a rapid decline in the early 1980s brought the rate in Bali to a level lower than that of all other provinces in the region except DI Yogyakarta. The 1994 IDHS presents slightly different results. The fertility rate for Bali is slightly higher than the rate for DKI Jakarta, shifting its position to third lowest. Table 3.4 and Figure 3.2 show that fertility in Java-Bali has continued to decline, except in East Java, where fertility increased slightly from 2.1 children per woman ( 1991 IDHS) to 2.2 children per woman ( 1994 IDHS). However, these figures should not be interpreted as indicating that fertility in East Java has actually increased in the recent past, since the change (0.09 children per woman) is so small. 3.2 Fertility Differentials Tables 3.5.1 and 3.5.2 present differentials in fertility by residence, region and level of education using the TFR as the measure of current fertility. The first column of each table shows TFRs for the three years prior to the survey (mid- 1991 to mid- 1994), the second column presents the percentage of women who are currently pregnant, and the third column presents the mean number of children ever born (CEB) to the oldest women (age 40-49). The mean number of CEB is an indicator of cumulative fertility; it reflects the fertility performance of older women who are nearing the end of their reproductive period, and thus represents completed fertility. If fertility had remained stable over time, the two fertility measures, TFR and CEB, would be equal or similar. 43 Table 3.5.1 Fertility: background characteristics Total fertility rate for the three years preceding the survey, percentage currently pregnant, and mean number of children ever born (CEB) to women age 40-49, by selected background characteristics, Indonesia 1994 Mean number Total Percentage of CEB Background I~rtility currently to women characteristic rate I pregnant ~ age 40-49 Residence Urban 2.31 4.11 4.50 Rural 3.15 4.86 4.88 Region/Residence Java-B ali 2.60 4.18 4.47 Urban 2.18 3.89 4.43 Rural 2.90 4.39 4.50 Outer Java-Bali 1 3.26 5.35 5.26 Urban 2.54 4.63 4.73 Rural 3.51 5.58 5.42 Outer Java-Bali |1 3.33 5.18 5.12 Urban 2.88 4.83 4.61 Rural 3.48 5.28 5.25 Education No education 2.88 4.05 4.61 Some primary 3.28 4.46 5.20 Completed primary 2.96 5.44 4.86 Some secondary+ 2.57 4.27 4.01 Total 2.85 4.61 4.76 tWomen age 15-49 years Compared with other regions, Java-Bali consistently shows the lowest fertility in the country. However, in recent years, fertility in Outer Java-Bali, particularly in Outer Java-Bali II, declined rapidly, narrowing the difference in fertility between this region and the rest of the country (data not shown). Fertility in Java-Bali is 20 percent lower than in Outer Java-Bali 1 and 22 percent lower than in Outer Jawt-Bali II. These figures are less than those reported in the 1991 IDHS: fertility in Java-Bali was 23 percent lower than in Outer Java-Bali I, and 28 percent lower than in Outer Java-Bali II. As in the 1991 IDHS, the 1994 IDHS findings show an inverted U-shape relationship between educa- tion and fertility, where the peak is for women who have some primary education. Comparing TFRs from the 1991 and 1994 IDHSs indicates that fertility is declining faster among women who have no education ( 12 percent) than among those who have gone to school (7 percent or less). Table 3.5.1 shows that 5 percent of women are currently pregnant. This percentage varies between regions and by urban-rural residence, and education. The last column of Table 3.5 shows that the mean number of CEB among women age 40-49 is much higher than the TFR for the three years preceding the survey, suggesting a substantial reduction in fertility. The 1987 NICPS and 1991 IDHS show a similar pattern. Table 3.5.2 presents fertility differentials among the provinces. Based on the 1991 and 19!)4 IDHS results, the TFR in Indonesia has declined slightly from 3.0 children to 2.9 children per woman. The decline occurred in all regions, but most substantially in Outer Java-Bali II. In the Java-Bali region, the TFR decreased from 2.7 to 2.6 children per woman. 44 Table 3.5.2 Fertility: region and province Total l~:rtility rate for the three years preceding the survey, percentage currently pregnant, and mean number of children ever born (CEB) to women age 40-49, by region and province, Indonesia 1994 Mean number of CEB Total Percentage ever born Region and fertility currently, to women province rate I pregnant I age 40-49 Java-Bali 2.60 4.18 4.47 DKI Jakarta 1.90 3.97 4.14 West Java (3.17) 5.38 5.39 Central Java 2.77 3.53 4.55 DI Yogyakarta 1.79 3.15 3.64 East Java 2.22 3.72 3.82 Bali 2.14 3.54 3.90 Outer Java-Ball 1 3.26 5.34 5.27 DI Aceh 3.30 4.78 5.42 North Sumatra (3.88) 6.70 5.55 West Sumatra (3.19) 5.69 5.26 South Sumatra 2.87 4.12 5.20 Lampung (3.45) 4.78 5.40 West Nusa Tenggara (3.64) 5.93 6.03 West Kalimantan (3.34) 7.06 5.62 South Kalimantan 2.33 4.64 4.66 North Sulawesi (2.62) 3.05 4.24 South Sulawesi 2.92 4.87 4.95 Outer Java-Bali II 3.33 5.19 5.12 Riau 3.10 5.50 5.37 Jambi (2.97) 4.58 4.94 Bengkulu (3.45) 4.92 6.06 East Nusa Tenggara 3.87 4.69 5.17 East Timor (4.69) 8.88 4.28 Central Kalimantan (2.31) 5.06 4.75 East Kalimantan (3.21) 4.33 5.07 Central Sulawesi (3.08) 5.51 5.40 Southeast Sulawesi (3.50) 4.85 4.85 Maluku (3.70) 4.98 4.82 lrian Jaya (3.15) 6.20 4.88 Total 2.85 4.61 4.76 Note: Rates in parentheses indicate that one or more of the com- ponent age-specific rates is based on fewer than 250 woman-years of exposure. IWomen age 15-49 years Among the six prov inces in Java-Bal i , two have reached a fert i l i ty level o f less than 2 ch i ldren per woman- -D l Yogyakar ta (1.8) and DK I Jakarta (1.9). Two other p rov inces - -Ba l i (2.1) and East Java (2 .2 ) - -a re approach ing the level o f 2 chi ldren per woman. West Java cont inues to have the h ighest fert i l i ty in the region (3.2 chi ldren per woman) , which is a d i f ference o f more than one chi ld f rom the prov inces wi th the lowest fert i l i ty. 45 Data from the 1994 IDHS show that the TFR. is at least 3 for almost all the provinces in the Outer Java-Bali II region, except Central Kalimantan, which has a TFR of 2.3 children per woman. The rate for this province may be underestimated. 2 3.3 Ch i ld ren Ever Born and L iv ing In the survey questionnaire, the total number of children ever born was ascertained by a sequence of questions designed to maximize recall. Since lifetime fertility reflects the accumulation of births over the past 30 years, it has limited direct relevance to the current situation. Nevertheless, the data are important in providing background information for understanding current fertility. Table 3.6 presents the distribution of all women and of currently married women by the number of children ever born and the average number of children still living. Since the respondents in the 1994 IDHS are ever-married women, information on the reproductive history of never-married women is not available. However, since virtually all births in Indonesia occur within marriage, it is safe to assume that never-married women have had no births; differences in results between all women and currently married women are greatest at the younger ages because of the large proportion of women who are still single and presumed to have had no births. Table 3,6 Children ever born and living Percent distribution of all women and of currently married women age 15-49 by number of children ever born (CEB) and mean number ever born and living, according to five-year age groups, Indonesia 1994 Number of children ever born (CEB) Number Mean no. Mean no. Age of of of living group 0 I 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10+ Total women CEB children ALL WOMEN 15-19 911 8.0 0.9 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0,0 0.0 0.0 100.0 7.580 010 0,09 20-24 473 34.3 14.1 3.6 0,6 0.1 00 0.0 00 0,0 00 100.0 6,563 0.76 070 25-29 19.1 24.5 29.6 16.5 7.11 2.4 0.7 0,2 0.1 00 0.0 100.0 6,342 179 1.63 30-34 8.6 9.6 262 25.0 14.7 8.4 4,6 1.7 0.7 03 01 100,0 5,964 288 2.56 35-39 5.2 7.0 15.6 22.6 18.2 11.7 8,6 5.0 2.8 1.8 14 100.0 5,/119 3.78 3.34 40-44 5.7 5.1 11.8 15.9 13.7 13.7 12.9 8.4 5.1 3.5 4.2 100.0 3.754 453 389 4549 47 6.5 9.1 113 13.5 12.2 12.6 10.7 82 4.2 6.9 100.0 3,111 5.04 4,23 Total 32.2 149 155 12.7 8.4 5.6 4,2 2.6 17 1.0 1.2 CURRENTLY MARRIED WOMEN 100.0 38,334 2,24 1.97 15-19 492 45.3 52 0,1 0.2 0.1 0.0 0.0 00 0.0 0.0 1000 1,291 0,57 0.53 20-24 15,5 54.6 22.7 5.8 I,I 0.2 0.0 0.0 00 00 00 1000 3.936 1.23 1,13 25-29 53 278 34.7 19.7 84 2,9 1).8 0.2 01 0.0 0,t) 100.0 5.234 2.11 1.92 30-34 32 9,3 27.4 27.2 15.7 9.1 5.0 1.9 0.8 0,3 0.1 100.0 5.387 3.08 2 74 35-39 211 6.3 15.9 23.6 19,1 12.3 9.2 5.3 2,9 2.0 1.5 100.0 4,483 3,96 3.51 40-44 3.1 4.3 I1,1 165 14.6 144 13.3 9.2 5.3 38 4.4 100.0 3,262 4.75 4.10 45-49 2.8 5.7 84 11.1 13,5 12.6 12.9 11.6 8.9 4.6 7.8 100.0 2,594 531 447 Total 75 201 212 17.6 11.5 76 5.7 36 2.2 13 16 100.0 26.186 3.1)6 2.70 2 Based on the results of the 1990 Population Census, the TFR for Central Kalimantan for the 1986-1989 period was 4.0 births per woman. Assuming continued fertility decline, the TFR was projected to be 3.3 births per woman in 1994, one child higher than the IDHS rate. 46 It is estimated that, by the time a woman reaches the end of her childbearing period, she will have given birth to an average of 5 children (see Table 3.6). The average number of children ever born increases with age; women 15-24 have had an average of less than one live birth, while women 35-39 have had an average of 3.8 births. One in three Indonesian women does not have any children. About 15 percent each have one child, 15 percent have two children, and 13 percent have three children. The remaining 25 percent have four or more children. Five percent of women age 45-49 are childless. For all women and for currently married women, the difference between the number of children ever born and still living is notable only after age 30. 3.4 Birth Intervals A child's health status is closely related to the length of the preceding birth interval. Children born after a short birth interval are at greater risk of illness and death than those born after a long interval. Further, the occurrence of closely spaced births gives the mother insufficient time to restore her health, which may limit her ability to take care of her children. The duration of breastfeeding for the older child may be shortened, since the mother must breastfeed the younger child. Tables 3.7.1 and 3.7.2 show the percent distribution of births in the five years preceding the survey by length of the previous birth interval. Overall, women in Indonesia favor a relatively long birth interval--a median of 42 months. Forty-two percent of births occur four or more years after a previous birth, 41 percent. occur at an interval of two or three years, and 17 percent occur less than two years after a previous birth. As with the 1991 IDHS, the 1994 IDHS indicates that birth intervals vary little according to the child's birth order (up to 6), sex, urban-rural residence, mother's education and mother's work status. However, there are significant differences in birth intervals by mother's age and survival of the preceding birth. Younger women have shorter birth intervals than older women; the median for women age 15-19 is 25.9 months, while for women age 40-44 it is 51.4 months. For children whose preceding sibling is alive, the median interval between births is 15 months longer than for children whose preceding sibling died (44 months, compared with 29 months). Table 3.7.2 indicates that birth intervals vary widely by region and province. On average, women in Java-Bali have an interval one year longer than women in other parts of Indonesia (48 months, compared with 36 months in the Outer Java-Bali region). Among all the provinces, women in East Java have the longest median birth interval (56 months), and women in North Sumatra and East Timor have the shortest (31 months). 47 Table3.7.1 Birth intervals: background characteristics Percent distribution of non-first births in the five years preceding the survey by number of months since previous birth, according to demographic and socioeconomic characteristics, Indonesia 1994 Median Number of months since previous birth number of Number Background months since of characteristic 7-17 18-23 24-35 36-47 48+ Total previous birth births Age of mother 15-19 19.2 19.2 42.4 14.9 4.3 100.0 25.9 74 20-24 11.4 17.6 31.8 19.2 20.0 100.0 31.0 1,341 25-29 7.6 11.4 25.0 18.5 37.4 100.0 39.2 3,594 30-34 5.8 8.1 22.4 15.9 47.9 100.0 46.3 3,563 35-39 3.9 8.9 21.5 14.7 51.0 100.0 48.6 2,287 4044 2.8 8.1 20.9 15.4 52.8 100.0 51.4 978 45-49 1.5 5.1 28.5 20.0 44.9 100.0 43.5 189 Birth order 2-3 7.1 10.3 21.5 16.3 44.7 100.0 43.8 6,699 4-6 5.0 8.7 24.9 17.6 43.8 100.0 42.8 3,861 7 + 6.7 14.6 34.0 17.2 27.5 100.0 33.8 1,466 Sex of prior birth Male 6.8 10.4 22.9 15.4 44.4 100.0 42.9 6,212 Female 6.0 10.2 25.4 18.3 40.1 100.0 40.8 5,814 Survival of prior birth Living 4.8 9.3 24.3 17.1 44.5 100.0 43.6 10,780 Dead 19.9 18.9 23.0 14.4 23.8 100.0 28.5 1,246 Residence Urban 6.2 8.7 22.8 15.9 46.4 100.0 44.6 3,102 Rural 6.4 10.9 24.6 17.2 40.9 100.0 40.9 8,924 Region/Residence Java Bali 4,3 8.0 21.0 16.7 50.1 100.0 48.0 6,569 Urban 4.2 6.9 21.5 15.1 52.3 100.0 49.7 2,088 Rural 4.3 8.5 20.7 17.4 49.0 100.0 47.3 4,481 Outer Java-Bali 1 9.4 13.0 27.7 16.5 33.4 100.0 35.9 3,789 Urban 11.1 11.1 25.9 18.2 33.7 100.0

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