India -Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey - 2000

Publication date: 2000

MULTIPLE INDICAMR · (MICS.2.0) INDIA · Summary ~--.- United Nations Children's Fund India Country Office December 2001 • unlcef MULTIPLE INDICATOR SURVEY (MICS-2000) INDIA Summary Report Department of Women and Child Development Government of India & United Nations Children's Fund India Country Office December 2001 • ~ unicef Government of India Ministry of Human Resource Development Department of Women and Child Development Shastri Bhawan, New Delhi-110001 FOREWORD The World Summit for Children (WSC), held at UN Headquarters in September 1990, adopted the Declaration on Survival, Protection and Development of Children and a Plan of Action for implementing it. The Declaration identified major goals in vital areas like reduction in child mortality rates and malnutrition, universal access to safe drinking water and basic education and protection of children in difficult circumstances. India formulated a National Plan of Action (NPA) in 1992 as an expression of its commitment to the cause of children as enshrined in our Constitution and the National Policy on Children 1974, and as a follow-up to the WSC, 1990. In our NPA we had set quantitative targets covering child health and nutrition, education, maternal health and availability of safe drinking water. In the year 2000, the Department ofWomen and Child Development brought out the India Report on the World Summit for Children 2000, which brings out the progress made towards reaching the goals the country set for itself in the decade of 1990s. The India Report reflected remarkable progress in areas like eradication of polio and guinea worm, increased intake of iodised salt, and reduction in infant mortality rate. It also helped in identifying the areas that require further action such as malnutrition, universal literacy, and resource mobilisation. The Report drew heavily on different data sources such as Census 2001 and National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2 as well as the findings of Multiple Indicator Survey (MICS-2000), specially designed by UNICEF to secure from developing countries reliable, comparable data necessary to measure the progress towards World Summit Goals. Collected from about 120,000 families through a nationwide sample survey, the data included in MICS carried out in India provides vital information, among others, on child development, maternal health, and knowledge of HIV /AIDS. Data on birth registration, pre-school attendance, and living arrangements of children have been collected through a household survey for the first time in India. The Department ofWomen and Child Development and UNICEF have great pleasure in bringing out this summary report of MICS. This document should be of considerable use to policy makers and planners looking for specialised data on women and children in India. Over a century ago, Lord Kelvin posited that "when you can measure what you are speaking about and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it and when you cannot explain in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind". The dictum is of perennial relevance. One therefore hopes that this survey will be repeated at periodic intervals to generate time series data, which can be easily accessed for guiding action towards improvement of the health and development of our children. December, 200 1 R. V. VAIDYANATHA AYYAR SECRETARY PREFACE United Nationa Children's Fund India Country Office New Delhi 110003 UNICEF is happy to release the summary report of MICS-2000, representing as it does a report card on children and a reflection of the Government of India's commitment to assess progress towards the realisation of the World Summit Goals for Children as defined in the National Plan of Action. It is the product of a collaborative effort between the Department of Women and Child Development in the Ministry of Human Resource Development, various Government agencies involved in data collection, and UNICEF. MICS-2000 is a household survey tool designed to provide valuable information on indicators related to health, nutrition, education, and water and sanitation. It was developed in the early 1990s in collaboration with WHO, the UN Statistical Division, the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, USA. The format of the survey was customised to the Indian context at a workshop in New Delhi involving several Government departments and various agencies with first-hand experience in data collection. A total of 53 surveys at the state level were conducted involving all the States and Union Territories. In all, nearly 120,000 households were canvassed in 3,260 clusters in rural and urban areas. MICS-2000 complements existing data from other sources including the Census of India 2001 and National Family Health Survey-2. We trust it will provide helpful insights for policy makers and programme managers into trends affecting the situation of women and children. It reminds us that concern for children must be backed by action. We commend it to those committed to improving the status of India's children. December, 2001 MARIA CALIVIS REPRESENTATIVE Contents Fact Sheet Introduction Demographic background Population and Household Characteristics Age-sex distribution Household composition Housing condition Literacy Source of drinking water Sanitation Salt iodisation Child Health Birth weight Breastfeeding Immunisation Vitamin A supplementation Night blindness Morbidity Knowledge/advice about childcare Pre-school Basic education Birth Registration and Living Arrangements of Children Birth registration Living arrangements of children v 1 4 10 20 --- Maternal Health ~~~------------~--------~~~~-- Marriage Pregnancy Pregnancy wastage Total fertility rate Antenatal care Post natal care Contraception Knowledge about HIV/AIDS Survey Methodology Sample design Sample size and sample selection Rural sampling Urban sampling Household listing Sample weight LiatofMapa 22 26 28 Map 1 : Map of India . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3 Map 2 : Adult ( 15 + years ) literacy rate. 6 Map 3 : Low birth weight babies . . . . . . . . . 10 Map 4 : Children aged 0-3 months exclusively breastfed . 11 Map 5 : Children aged 12-23 months fully immunised . . . . . . 13 Map 6 : Children below 5 years who suffered from fever, cough or diarrhoea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15 Map 7 : Children aged 36-59 months attending a pre-school facility 17 Map 8 : Children aged 6-1 0 years currently attending school. 19 Map 9 : Total fertility rate . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23 ii Map 1 0 : Women aged 15-49 years who have heard of HIV /AIDS . . . 26 Map 11 : Women aged 15-49 years who know all three modes of vertical transmission of HIV/AIDS . 27 List of Figures Figure 1 : Source of drinking water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7 Figure 2 : Sanitation facility in selected States and Union Territories . 8 Figure 3 : Type of toilet and usage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Figure 4 : Households using iodised salt for cooking . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9 Figure 5 : Schooling pattern among children aged 5-14 years . 18 Figure 6 : Births reported as having been registered among children below 5 years. 20 Figure 7 : Reasons for non-registration of births . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21 List of Tables Table 1 : Sample coverage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31 Table 2 : Literacy rate, 7 + and 15 +years. 32 Table 3 Source of drinking water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33 Table 4 Sanitation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34 Table 5 Use of iodised salt. 35 Table 6 Birth weight . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 36 Table 7 Exclusive breastfeeding and complementary feeding. 37 Table 8 : Continued breastfeeding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38 Table 9 : Children fully immunised . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 39 Table 1 0 : Immunisation coverage by vaccine . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 iii Table 11 : Vitamin A prophylaxis . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 41 Table 12 : Difficulty in seeing during day or night time . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 42 Table 13 : Illness among children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 43 Table 14 : Children attending pre-school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 44 Table 1 5 : Schooling among children aged 6- 1 0 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45 Table 16 : Gross attendance ratio and net attendance rate in primary classes (grades 1-5) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46 Table 1 7 : Gross attendance ratio and net attendance rate in elementary classes (grades 1-8). . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4 7 Table 18 : Birth registration. 48 Table 19 : Living arrangements of children . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 49 Table 20 : Marriage, fertility and pregnancy wastage . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50 Table 21 : Antenatal care . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51 Table 22 : Delivery characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52 Table 23 : Contraception . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 53 Table 24: Awareness about HIV/AIDS . . . 54 Table 25 : Knowledge about vertical transmission of HIV/AIDS, attitude towards HIV /AIDS infected, and response to asking men to use condoms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55 iv FACT SHEET Multiple Indicator Survev-2DOO(MICS·2000) Sample size Households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Children below five years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Children aged 5-14 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Women aged 15-49 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Population and household characteristics Sex ratio (number of females per I ,000 males) . . . . . . . . Percent of population below five years . . . . . . . . . Percent of population aged 5-14 years . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of population aged 15-59 years . . . . . Percent of population above 60 years . . . . . . . . . . . Percent ever-married 1among women aged 15-49 years . . . . . . . . . . Percent literate among 7 + years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent literate among 15 + years . , . . . . . . . . . . . . Mean household size . . . . . . . . . Percent of Hindu households . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of Muslim households . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of Christian households . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of Scheduled Caste households . . . . . . Percent of Scheduled Tribe households . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of pucca2 houses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Percent of kachchc? houses . . . . . . . . . . Percent of households using iodised salt . . . . . . . . . Percent of households with access to improved drinking water source . ~ . . . . . Percent of households having a tap exclusive to household as main source of drinking 119,305 65 ,741 136,339 142,840 938 11.8 23 .8 56.6 7.8 81.7 62.4 58.1 5.2 82.0 12.0 2.9 19.4 8.1 33.9 31.3 50.3 83.1 water . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 18.6 Percent of households using public tap as main source of drinking water . . . . . . . . . . . . . I 7.8 Percent of households having source of drinking water within the premises . . 42.1 Percent of households using toilet. . . . . . . . . . . . 36.7 Percent of households having a toilet within the premises among toilet-users. 69.3 2£ver·married refers to women who are currently married, widowed, divorced or separated. 2Cemented permanent structures. 3Temporary uncemented structures. 4Tap exclusive to household, public tap, tube well with motor, hand pump, sanitary well or rain water harvesting. v FACT SHEET Multiple Indicator Survey-2000(MICS-2000) - ~ --- Education of children Percent of children aged 36-59 months attending any pre-school learning centre. . 37.7 Percent of children aged 6-1 0 years ever attended school . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 86.3 Percent of children aged 6-1 0 years currently attending school. . . . . . 82.3 Gross attendance ratio in primary classes (Grades 1-5) . . . . . . . . . 96. 1 Gross attendance ratio in upper primary classes (Grades 6-8). . . . . 58.9 Gross attendance ratio in elementary classes (Grades 1-8). . . . . . . 83.4 Net attendance rate in primary classes (Grades 1-5). . . . . . . 73.1 Net attendance rate in upper primary classes (Grades 6-8). . . . . . 43 .2 Net attendance rate in elementary classes (Grades 1-8). . . . . . . . . . 62 .9 Child immunisation Percent of children aged 12-23 months who received BCG . . . . . . 67.7 Percent of children aged 12-23 months who received BCG before first birthday . 66.6 Percent of children aged 12-23 months who received DPT3 . . . . . . 46.6 Percent of children aged 12-23 months who received DPT3 before first birthday . 45 .5 Percent of children aged 12-23 months who received OPV3 . . . 58.9 Percent of children aged 12-23 months who received OPV3 before first birthday . 57.6 Percent of children aged 12-23 months who received Measles vaccine . . . . 50.4 Percent of children aged 12-23 months who received Measles vaccine before first birthday. . . . . . . . . . 44.9 Percent of children aged 12-23 months fully immunised . . . . . . . . 3 7. 9 Percent of children aged 12-23 months fully immunised before first birthday. . . 33.9 Percent of children aged 12-23 months who did not receive any vaccination. . . 25.4 Percent of children aged 12-23 months who received Vitamin A prophylaxis between 9-12 months of age . . . . . . . . . 31.5 Breastfeeding and nutrition Percent of children below age 2 years ever breastfed ~ -··· · ··········· · ········ · · · ······ · · · · ·· · · ·· · · 98.5 Percent of children below age 2 years who are currently breastfed . . . 87.9 Percent of children aged 0-3 months exclusively breastfed . . . . . . 36.8 Percent of children aged 6-9 months receiving breastmilk and complementary food 43 .9 Percent of children aged 12-15 months currently receiving breastmilk . . . . . 88.2 5Breastfed at least once. vi FACT SHEET .,,_ ___ ,. __ _ . ---· .-<>, " •• , . 11-·""'~ _._"""' __ _ ~ Multipl~_ln~ic~tor Su~ev-2DOO(,_,ICS-?DOO) Percent of children aged 20-23 months currently receiving breastmilk . . 65 .8 Percent of children below age 2 years who received breastmilk within a day of birth. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54.0 Percent of children below age 5 years who were weighed at birth . . . . . . . . 26.6 ~ercent of children below age 5 years who weighed less than 2,500 grams at birth. 21 .8 Mor idity (during two weeks prior to survey) and treatment pattern ercent of children below age 5 years who had fever. . . . . 29.8 ercent of children below age 5 years who had cough . . . . . . 29.1 ercent of children below age 5 years who had diarrhoea . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23. 1 ercent of children below age 5 years who had any illness6 •••••••• • •• •• •• •••••• • •••••••••••• • • • •• 48.3 ercent of children below age 5 years suffering from diarrhoea who received Oral Rehydration Therapy (ORTY. . . . . . . . . . . . 18.0 ercent of children below age 5 years suffering from diarrhoea who received home management treatment . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.0 ercent of children below age 5 years who received anti-malarial drugs from among those who had fever. . . . . . . . . . 12.0 Percent of children below age 5 years who received treatment from a hospital from among those who had cough. . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15.3 Percent of children below age 5 years who received home managed treatment from among those who had any illness 6••• • ••••••••••• • •••• • •••••• • ••••••••••••••••••• • ••• • • • •••••• • • 6.1 Marriage, fertility and contraception Median age at marriage among women aged 15-49 years . . . . . . . . . . . . 16.4 Median age at first pregnancy among women aged 15-49 years . . . . 18.7 Median age at first delivery among women aged 1 5-49 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19. 1 Pregnancy wastage among women aged 15-49 years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 7.3 Crude birth rate (per 1 ,000 population) . . . . . . . 24.8 Total fertility rate. . . . . . . . . . . 3.25 Percent of currently married women aged 15-49 years using any method of contraception . . . . . . . 46.9 Percent of currently married women aged 15-49 years who have undergone sterilisation8 ••••• •••• •••• ••••• •••• ••••••••••••• ••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• •••• ••• ••••••••••••••• 34.2 6 Fever or cough or diarrhoea. 7 Percent who received more fluids than usual during diarrhoea. 8 Either the woman or her husband. vii FACT SHEET Multiple Indicator Survev-2DOO(MICS-2000) Antenatal, natal and postnatal care Percent of mothers who delivered during the year preceding the survey and received at least one antenatal check-up . . . . . . . . . . . . . 61 .8 Percent of mothers who delivered during the year preceding the survey and received two or more doses of tetanus toxoid injections. 60.3 Percent of mothers who delivered during the year preceding the survey and received iron and folic acid tablets . . . . . 53.8 Percent of mothers whose blood pressure was checked . . . . . . . . 43.9 Percent of institutional deliveries . 34.5 Percent of deliveries attended by a health professional . . . . . . 42.5 Percent of caesarian deliveries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6.4 Percent of mothers who received at least one postnatal check-up . . . . 24.3 Knowledge about HIV I AIDS Percent of all women aged 15-49 years who have heard of HIV/AIDS . . . . 43.1 Percent of ever-married women aged 15-49 years who have heard of HIV/AIDS. 39.3 Percent of never-married women aged 15-49 years who have heard of HIV/AIDS. 60.9 Percent of all women aged 1 5-49 years who correctly state the main ways 9 of avoiding HIV/AIDS . 18.5 Percent of all women aged 1 5-49 years who correctly identify two misconception~ 0 about HIV/AIDS . 9 .7 Percent of all women aged 1 5-49 years who correctly identify three modes of vertical transmissiod 1 of HIV/ AIDS . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24.0 Percent of all women aged 1 5-49 years who know that AIDS virus can be transmitted from mother to child . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31.5 Percent of all women aged 1 5-49 years who agree that a healthy HIV/ AIDS infected person can continue to work . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21.2 Percent of all women aged 1 5-49 years who had heard of HIV /AIDS and believe that a woman can ask the male to use condom . . . . . . . . . . 48.2 Birth registration and living arrangements of children Percent of births registered among children below five years . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34.7 Proportion (per 1 ,000) of children below 1 5 years living with both parents . . 849 Proportion (per 1 ,000) of children below 1 5 years living with either parent . . . 117 Proportion (per 1 ,000) of orphaned children below 1 5 years . . . . . . . 2 9 "Having sex with only one partner" and ''Using condom correctly every time." 10 "HN/AIDS can be spread through mosquito bite" and ':A healthy looking person can not have HN/AIDS." II During pregnancy, at delivery, and through breastmilk. viii INTRODUCTION n September 1990, 71 heads of state and 88 ministerial representatives assembled at United Nations (UN) Headquarters in New York for the World Summit for Children (WSC) .They adopted a declaration on the Survival, Protection, and Development of Children, and a Plan of Action for its implementation. The Plan of Action identified seven major and twenty supporting goals relating to the survival, health, nutrition, education, and protection of children to be reached by the year 2000. The UN system was given the task of assisting countries in achieving these goals and measuring progress. United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) was designated the lead agency in this process. After the WSC, a set of mid and end-decade goals was agreed upon. The World Summit Plan of Action called for a mid-decade and an end-decade review of progress. The need to measure progress toward these goals increased the demand for high quality and timely data. In many developing countries, routine reporting systems were often found to be inadequate, and did not uniformly collect information on many of the goals. UNICEF led the process to develop an affordable, fast and reliable household survey system that would fill the existing gaps in knowledge and update available data. It worked with a number of agencies, including the UN Statistical Division, WHO, UNESCO, UNFPA, UNDP, the World Bank, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, USA to develop a model questionnaire to measure standard indicators for the goals. The model questionnaire was incorporated into a manual that had detailed instructions for planning and implementing the survey. The questionnaire and manual were distributed to UNICEF country offices with instructions that where no reliable data exist to assess progress towards achieving the WSC goals, a Multiple Indicator Survey (MICS) should be carried out. Designed to provide information on the key indicators related to women and children, MICS was conducted in India during the year 2000 to measure progress towards the WSC end-decade goals. It was carried out in all the States and Union Territories (UTs) to capture the current status of vital health, nutrition, education, and water and sanitation indicators. This report presents a summary of All India and State/UT level data on the above indicators. The data included here and in subsequent MICS reports provide a reliable basis for policy makers to design and implement appropriate programmes for children. Demographic background his section presents a brief demographic overview: of India based on information derived from secondary sources. In subsequent sections the results from MICS-2000 are discussed. According to Census of India 200 I, India had a population of 1 ,027 million. It is estimated to cross 1 ,600 million by 2050. During 1991-2001, India's population recorded a decadal growth rate of 21.3 per cent, slightly lower than the 23.9 per cent recorded during 1981-91. The sex ratio (in 2001) is 933 females per 1 ,000 males. Among 0-6 years old, it is even lower (92 7). The density of population is 324 persons per square kilometre. About 30 per cent Indians live in urban areas. More than 1 5 per cent are 0-6 years of age. The crude birth rate is 26. 1, and the crude death rate 8.7 per 1 ,000 population. The infant mortality rate is estimated at 70 per 1 ,000 live births (Sample Registration System, /999). The under-five mortality rate is 95 per 1 ,000 live births and maternal mortality ratio 540 per 1 00,000 live births (National Family Health Survey-2, 1998-99). 2 Lak:shadweep Mop l :Mop of Indio Andamanft Nicobar '( . ' ·a Note: ( 1) The map shows the states of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh before their bifurcation. (2) Maps shown in this report are not to scale. 3 POPULATION AND HOUSEHOLD CHARACTERISTICS [The data that follow are drawn from MICS-2000, and in case of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation.] Age-sex distribution ldren below 18 years of age constitute 42 per cent, and those below age five ars around 12 per cent of the sample population. Those 60 years or older, ccount for eight per cent. Thirty eight per cent of rural and 31 per cent of urban population are below age 15. In high fertility States such as Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh about 40 per cent population are children below age 15. In contrast, in Goa, Kerala, and Tamil Nadu, where fertility is at replacement level, children below age 15 constitute less than 30 per cent. In the first group of States, rural-urban differentials are high, and in the second, low. The sex ratio of the population in MICS-2000 survey is 938 females per 1 ,000 males. Household characteristics ighty four per cent rural and 78 per cent urban households are Hindu. Muslim households account for 11 per cent and 15 per cent in rural and urban areas respectively. Both in rural and urban areas, Christian households constitute nearly three per cent. Muslim households constitute more than 20 per cent in Assam, Kerala, Jammu and Kashmir, and Uttar Pradesh. Christian households account for more than 20 per cent in Goa, Kerala, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, and N~galand. Nationally, 20 per cent of the households belong to Scheduled Castes and eight per cent to Scheduled Tribes. In Punjab, 40 per cent households belong to Scheduled Castes, the highest in India. In Bihar, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, and West Bengal more than one-fifth of the households are Scheduled Caste. The mean number of persons living in a household is 5.1 in urban, and 5.3 in rural areas. 4 Housing condition irty four per cent (22% rural and 64% urban) households live in pucca permanent structure) houses. Thirty one per cent (40% rural and 10% rban) households live in kachcha (temporary structures) homes, and the remaining in semi-pucca houses. Literacy (=> ixty two per cent (73% male and 51% female) population aged seven years c) and above is literate. States vary sharply in literacy achievement. Male literacy rates vary from below 65 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh to over 93 per cent in Kerala and Mizoram. The lowest female literacy rate is in Bihar (36%). Gender differentials are high in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, and Dadra and Nagar Haveli. Adult illiteracy continues to be high. Only 58 per cent adults ( 15 + years) are literate (50% rural and 77% urban). The gender differential Adult female literacy is 45 per cent (35 o/o in rural and 68 o/o in urban areas) compared with male literacy at 71 per cent (65% in rural and 86% in urban areas) is disturbing. Seventy one per cent adult males are literate as against 45 per cent adult females. Literacy among adults belonging to Scheduled Castes (45%) and Scheduled Tribes (40%) is lower compared to Other Castes (63%). Adult female literacy is 26, 30, and 50 per cent among Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes, and Other Castes respectively. 5 6 Mop 2: lldult (15+ pears) literacy mte Per cent l " Less than 40 40-49 50-59 60-69 70 & above Source : MICS, 2000 Source of drinking water arly 83 per cent (94% urban and 79% rural) households have access to improved source of drinking water. The improved sources include tap, nitary well, tube well with motor, hand pump, and rainwater harvesting. A large proportion of households, particularly in rural areas, draws their drinking water from an unprotected well, river, canal or stream. More than 40 per cent households draw water from a hand pump. In rural areas, nearly half the households draw water from a hand pump, and one-fourth from a tap. In urban areas, more than two thirds of households use tap water. Hand pump is used by one-fifth of households. Figure I :Source of drinking water ZO% Tubewell with motor 3% Source : MICS, 2000 Sanitary well 2% 49% Unprotected well 17% Other with motor 3% Tap 23% The source of drinking water is located within the household premises for only 42 per cent of households. The remaining fetch their drinking water from sources located outside the home. For more than 70 per cent households, the source is located within 1 00 metres, and for 97 per cent, within 500 metres. Among the households that fetch water from outside the premises, 49 per cent spend more than 15 minutes per trip. 7 Sanitation verall, toilets are used in 3 7 per cent households ( 19% rural and 80% urban), nd 3 5 per cent ( 18% rural and 7 5% urban) households have an improved anitation facility (flush toilet connected to sewage, pour flush toilet, pit toilet, improved pit toilet, or simple pit toilet) . Among toilet users, 69 per cent have the toilet within the household premises, four-fifths have it for exclusive use of the household, and · one-fifth share it with other households. Three per cent still ~se pails for excreta disposal. There is wide variation m the use of toilets across States. Only six .per cent rural households in Madhya Pradesh use a toilet compared to over 80 per cent in Delhi, Kerala, Manipur, and Mizoram. Forty one per cent urban households in Orissa do not use a toilet compared to less than five per cent in Delhi, Manipur, and Mizoram. The household's caste or tribal background also affects its use of toilets. Compared to other castes (43%), only 21 per cent Scheduled Caste and 15 per cent Scheduled Tribe households use a toilet. Like-wise, substantial differentials in the use of toilet are observed among households living in pucca, semi-pucca, and kachcha homes. 8 Figure 2: Sanitation fadlity in selected States and Onion Territories Orissa . 3 • Using improved sanitation facility • Other fac ility 16.7 0.7 Bihar 20.3 1.3 Madhya Pradesh 19.7 6.4 Uttar Pradesh 34.7 2.0 INDIA 89.4 0.6 Lakshadweep 89.9 0.6 Manipur 82.3 12.6 Delhi 94.7 0.4 Mizoram Percent of households Source : MICS, 2000 Only 10 per cent households with all members illiterate use a toilet compared to 73 per cent households in which all are literate Figure 3 : Type of toilet and usage Simple pit 5% Improved pit 3% Not using a toilet 81% Pour flush 3% *Includes no response Source: MICS, 2000 sewage 7% Simple pit 5% Improved pit 13% Not using a toilet 20% Pour flush 17% (: RURAL ] Other* 5% sewage 40% Figure 4: Households using iodised salt for cooking TYPE OF HOUSE Pucca Semi-pucca Kachcha HOUSEHOLD LITERACY All literate Some literate None literate PLACE OF RESIDENCE Urban Rural TOTAL Source: MICS, 2000 Percent Salt lodlsatlon verall, 50 per cent ouseholds ( 44% rural nd 67% urban) use iodised salt (seven parts per million or more of iodine) for cooking. Scheduled Caste households, households living in kachcha houses, and households where all members are illiterate report ·low use of iodised salt. 9 CHILD HEALTH Birth weight der the Government of India's Reproductive and Child Health (RCH) rogramme, all children are to be weighed at birth, and their weight ntered in the birth registration card given to the parent. Overall, only 27 per cent children below age five years have been weighed at birth. In the States of Goa, Kerala, Mizoram, and Tamil Nadu, and the Union Territory of Pondicherry, more than 70 per cent children are reported as having been weighed at birth, probably due to a high proportion of institutional births. In contrast, only six to 14 per cent are weighed in Assam, Bihar, Jammu and Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Nagaland, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh. Of the under-five children whose birth weight was reported, 22 per cent were low birth weight (LBW) babies (i.e., they weighed less than 2,500 grams at birth). The proportion of LBW babies is lower in the North Eastern States except Assam and Tripura. More than 30 per cent babies were reported to be LBW in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. 10 Mop 3: Low birth weight babies i . Below20 i 20-24 j 25-29 I 30&above \____ _· ___ ., Source: MICS, 2000 BreasHeeding nly 3 7 per cent children aged 0-3 months are exclusively breastfed. Exclusive breastfeeding of this age group is less in urban than rural areas, nd among educated compared to illiterate women. Considerable differentials are noticed among the States. More than 60 per cent children aged 0-3 months are exclusively breastfed in Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Jammu & Kashmir, Kerala, and Manipur; and less than 25 per cent in Delhi, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, and Uttar Pradesh. Map 4 : Children aged 0-3 months exclusively breostfed 53. I . _ Pe!_~ent _) < 25 25-39 40-59 . \ 60 & above Source: MICS, 2000 Eighty eight per cent (90% rural and 79% urban) children below age two years are currently breastfed. This proportion varies across States ranging from over 90 per cent in Assam, Bihar, Jammu & Kashmir, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Tripura, West Bengal, and Dadra Nagar Haveli to about 66 per cent in Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry. Similar variations are found in respect of continued breastfeeding rate (proportion of children aged 12-1 S months and 20-23 months who are currently receiving breastmilk). In Goa, Tamil Nadu, and Pondicherry the proportion of children aged 12-1 S months who are currently breastfed is below 70 per cent as against 88 per cent at the national level. Among children aged 20-23 months, the proportion of those continually breastfed is even lower. 11 Forty four per cent (41% rural and 56% urban) children aged 6-9 months receive complementary food (breastmilk and semi-solid or solid food). Complementary feeding of children is less common among Scheduled Castes/ Tribes and rural households. Forty per cent children aged 0-3 months in rural areas are exclusively breastfed compared to 27 per cent in urban areas Immunisation overnment of India guidelines, highlighted in the National Population Policy 2000 require every child to receive one dose of BCG vaccination to protect against tuberculosis, three doses of OPT to protect against diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus, three doses of polio vaccine, and one dose of measles vaccination by the age of 12 months. Vaccination coverage by age one year is generally assessed by examining children aged 12-23 months. Among children aged 12-23 months, only 38 per cent (34% rural and 52% urban) are fully immunised, far below the target of universal immunisation. Among Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, the level of full immunisation is lower (34% and 31% respectively). Inter-State variations are substantial. The States of Goa and Tamil Nadu, and the Union Territories of Lakshadweep and Pondicherry have more than 80 per cent children aged 12-23 months fully immunised. The proportion is less than 20 per cent in Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. One out of four children aged 12-23 Sixty two per cent children aged ·12-23 months are not fully immunised and 25 per cent have not received any vaccination months in India (three out of ten in rural and one out of seven in urban areas) has not received any vaccination. In Bihar, one out of two has not received any vaccination. 12 Mop 5: Children aged 12-23 months ful/y immunised Less than 30 30-39 40-49 50-59 60 & aboo::.ve,;_:;;___, Source: MICS, 2000 A low proportion of fully immunised children despite high coverage rates of first doses of DPT and Polio indicates considerable dropout between doses. Overall, one-fourth of children who were given DPTI were not given DPT3, and one-sixth who received More than 25 per cent children who received ! BCG vaccination have not been vaccinated l__ ~- ~ .~~~inst~ me_a!les OPVI did not get OPV3. The incidence of dropout is higher in rural areas. No gender differential is visible in the pattern of drop out. 13 Vitamin A supplementation ased on UNICEF/WHO guidelines, the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India recommends that children aged 9-12 months be given Vitamin A prophylaxis along with measles vaccination. Among children aged 12-23 months, 31 per cent (29% rural and 39% urban) are reported to have received Vitamin A prophylaxis when they were between 9-12 months of age. Of these, 7 5 per cent were given Vitamin A along with measles vaccine. About 3 7 per cent children aged 12-23 months (more urban than rural) consumed Vitamin A rich food during the three days preceding the survey. Night blindness ght blindness or poor adaptation to darkness is an early manifestation of Vitamin A deficiency (VAD). Over all, nearly six per I ,000 children (aged 24-59 months) suffer from night blindness. In some of the Eastern and North Eastern States, the proportion is higher (more than I 0 per I ,000). Among children below 5 years of age, seven per I ,000 have difficulty seeing during the day or at night. Morbidity irty per cent children under age five years had fever, 29 per cent cough, and 23 per cent diarrhoea during the two weeks preceding the survey. Children in the age group 6-23 months suffered more from the above diseases compared to younger or older children.The prevalence of diseases is lowest among children living in pucca houses and highest in kachcha houses. Children of mothers who had completed matriculation have a lower incidence of illness compared to children of illiterate mothers. Rural-urban or male-female differentials are not noticeable. Forty eight per cent children below five years suffered from fever, cough or diarrhoea during the two weeks preceding the survey For 70 per cent children under age five years who had fever during the two weeks preceding the survey, treatment was sought outside the home. Among those who had fever 12 per cent (II% rural and 14% urban) were given anti-malarial drug, and blood smear was taken for six per cent (6% rural and 7% urban). 14 Map 6: Children below 9 years who suffered from fever. cough or diarrhoea Per ce~t- _j <40 40-49 50& above Source : MICS, 2000 Twenty nme per cent children below five years suffered from cough during the two weeks preceding the survey, 13 per cent experienced an acute respiratory infection (cough ~ith rapid breathing), and nine per cent had cough with "chest in- drawn". In rural areas, acute respiratory infection (ARI) was higher among children aged 6- 23 months. During an episode of diarrhoea, 62 per cent children continued to be breastfed. About two thirds were given water as well as breastmilk. Offering more fluid to the child during diarrhoea is important. However, only in 20 per cent cases did mothers offer more fluids to the child. In 38 per cent cases, there was no change in the children's dietary and fluid intake. Feeding practices during illness were found to be more or less similar in urban and rural areas. In 71 per cent diarrhoea cases, the mother sought advice or treatment from outside the home. Both in urban and rural areas, around 60 per cent sought advice or treatment from a private physician, and I 5 per cent from pharmacies. Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) was recommended in 20 per cent cases. 15 Knowledge/advice about childcare m thers were asked about "danger symptoms" that would prompt them to ake the child to a health care facility. Eighty per cent mothers indicate they would take a child to a health care facility if the child developed "fever", nearly 43 per cent say they would do so if the child became "very ill". Around 60 per cent mothers are able to identify at least two symptoms as dangerous and requiring immediate treatment from a health facility. All women aged 15-49 years who had a child below two years were asked whether they received any orientation on immunisation, breastfeeding, supplementary feeding (feeding a child at six months of age), and care-giving during illness from a person who is not a member of the household. Twenty nine per cent received some orientation on immunisation, 18 per cent on breastfeeding, 14 per cent on feeding a child at six months, and 16 per cent on care-giving during illness. Overall, only eight per cent received orientation on all the four aspects mentioned, and 36 per cent received none. 16 SCHOOLING Pre-school irty eight per cent (35% rural and 48% urban) children aged 36-59 months ttend an early childhood learning (pre-school) facility. Of these, 3 7 per cent are in Anganwadi, 11 per cent in Balwadi, 34 per cent in a private facility, and the remaining 19 per cent in other government facility. Though there is no significant 1 More boys attend private pre-school gender difference in pre-school attendance, more [_ facilities compared to girls - - Mop 7: Children aged 36-59 months attending a pre-school facility P~r cent __ ) 78.4 Source : MICS, 2000 boys than girls attend a private facility. Basic education erall, 85 per cent children ged 5-14 years (82% ural and 92% urban) have ever attended school. Among 5- 14 year olds, those currently attending school are 77 per cent (7 4% rural and 86% urban). More boys than girls currently attend school. Seventy one per cent Scheduled Caste, 65 per cent Scheduled Tribe, and 80 per cent Other Caste children aged 5-14 years currently attend school. A sizeable difference in school attendance is observed between children of literate (94%) and illiterate (70%) mothers. In the primary school age (6-1 0 years), 82 per cent (80% rural and 90% urban) 17 children are currently in school. Kerala has the highest current attendance (99%) for children aged 6-1 0 years and Bihar the lowest ( 65%). Seventy two per cent girls aged 5-14 years are currently in school L compared to 82 per cent boys figure 5: Schooling pottem among children aged 5-14 years 80% 60% 40% 20% 0% 5 6 7 8 9 10 Age or the child 11 12 l3 14 : Not attending Traditional (Vedic, Quranic or Bible , !School) · Grade 9+ Grades 6-8 Grades 1-5 Pre-school Source : MICS, 2000 The gross attendance ratio (GAR) in primary classes is defined as the ratio (expressed per 1 00) of children aged 5-14 years attending grades 1-5 to children aged 6-1 0 years. In case of upper primary classes, GAR pertains to children aged 5-14 years attending grades 6-8 relative to children aged 11-13 years. The GAR in primary classes is 96. 1 ( 10 1. 9 for boys and 89.9 for girls), and it is 58.9 for upper primary classes (63.7 for boys and 54.0 for girls). The net attendance rate (NAR) in primary classes is the per cent of children aged 6-1 0 years attending grades 1-5, and for the upper primary classes the per cent of children aged 11-13 years attending grades 6-8. The NAR in primary classes is 73.1 per cent (76.4% for boys and 69.7% for girls), and in upper primary classes 43.2 per cent (46.1% for boys and 40.3% for girls) . Among the States and Union Territories, only Kerala, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, and Lakshadweep have NAR of more than 90 per cent in primary classes. 18 97.8 raiQLS Per cent I. Less than 70 70.79 80 . 89 90&above Source : MICS, 2000 Mop 8: Children aged 6-10 years currently attending school · . \ 19 Birth registration ~he Registration of Births and Deaths Act, 1969 requires every birth in India {.Q to be registered. Overall, 35 per cent (54% urban and 29% rural) children below five years are reported as having been registered at birth. The level of births reported as registered ranges from below 10 per cent in Bihar, Orissa, and Uttar Pradesh to more than 90 per cent in Goa, Himachal Pradesh, Andaman & Nicobar Islands, Daman & Diu, Lakshadweep, and Pondicherry. r Thirty five per cent children below five 1 years had been registered at birth t $:ixty per cent (62% rural and 49% urban) births are not registered due to lack of knowledge regarding the requirement and procedure for birth registration. More than 80 per cent births in Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh are not registered for the same reason. Only six per cent of the failure to register births is attributed to lack of time, and 1 0 per cent attributed to insufficient importance given to birth registration. 20 ligure 6: Births reported as having been registered among children below 9 years HOUSEHOLD LITERACY All literate 62.7 Some literate All illiterate PLACE OF RESIDENCE Urban Rural TOTAL Percent of births Source : MICS, 2000 Figure 7: Rl!asons for non-registration of births Don't know birth registration is required 62% RURAL ! 17% Not considered important 9% have time 5% where to register 7% Don't know birth registration is required *Includes no response Source : MICS, 2000 Not considered important 12% Living arrangements ol children arental presence is vital to the child's development. Children without one parent or both parents are likely to be worse off than those living with parent(s). Monitoring orphaned children and living arrangements of children helps to identify those at risk of abandonment, abuse or neglect. Thirty two per 1 ,000 children below 15 years of age are not living with their biological parents, even though either parent is alive Overall, 849 out of 1 ,000 children below age 1 S years live with both biological parents, 117 with one biological parent (90 with mother and 27 with father). Two out of 1,000 children below 15 years are orphans. 21 Marriage m rriage is near universal and occurs early in India. Almost all women aged 0-49 years are married. Among women aged 15-19 years, more than a hird are married, ranging from over 50 per cent in Andhra Pradesh and Bihar to less than seven per cent in Goa and Mizoram. Although the legal age at marriage is 18 years for girls, 7 5 per cent of married women (age 15-49 years) were married before the legal age. The mean age at marriage is 16.8 years. Rural-urban and inter-state differentials in age at marriage are evident. Pregnancy $:eventy five per cent women aged 15-49 years have been pregnant at least once, and 36 per cent (40% rural and 25% urban) by age 18. Overall, four per cent women aged 15-49 years became pregnant before age 15 years. Among adolescents aged 15-19 years, about 21 per cent (25% rural and II% urban) have been pregnant at least once. The median age at first pregnancy (defined as the age at which 50 per cent women aged 15-49 years became pregnant for the first time) is 18.7 years ( 18.4 in rural and 19.6 in urban areas) . Among States, it varies from the lowest in Andhra Pradesh (17.0 years) to the highest in Kerala (20.8 years) . Pregnancy wastage regnancy wastage is the ratio of difference in the total number of pregnancies and children ever born to the total number of pregnancies, expressed per I 00 pregnancies. Overall, seven per cent pregnancies among women aged 15-49 years did not result in live births. There is no difference in pregnancy wastage by religion or caste/tribe of women. Those who have completed middle school or above experience higher 22 pregnancy wastage compared to illiterate women. Pregnancy wastage is highest in Chandigarh ( 14%) and lowest in Sikkim ( less than 2% ) . More than one in 30 ever-married women aged 40-49 years in Andhra Pradesh, t Seven per cent pregnancies to women aged 15-49 years do not result in live births Mop 9: Total fertility rate 3.3 Children per woman) ._ ~ ~ ~ ~- ~--- ~ _ _ .e / <2.5 2.5. 2.9 3.0. 3.4 ~3.5 Source : MICS, 2000 Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, and Orissa have never been pregnant compared to one in 40 for India as a whole. Total fertility rate otal fertility rate (TFR) s defined as the average number of children a woman would bear during her reproductive years if she were to experience the current age-specific fertility rates. Calculated on the basis of births during 1999- 2000 (i.e., one year preceding the survey), the TFR is 3.25 (2.35 in urban and 3.63 in rural areas). The States of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Meghalaya, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh along with the Union Territory of Dadra & Nagar Haveli have a TFR of more than four. 23 Antenatal care $ ixty two per cent (57% rural and 81% urban) mothers aged 15-49 years who delivered during the year preceding the survey had received at least one antenatal check-up (ANCU). Of these, 59 per cent received three or more ANCUs recommended under maternal and child health component of the Reproductive and Child Health programme. Illiterate and Scheduled Casteffribe women received less ANCUs compared to literate and Other Caste women. Two-thirds of younger women aged 15-24 years received at least one ANCU as against one-third of women aged 35-49 years. Two doses of tetanus toxoid (TT) injections, supply of iron and folic acid (IFA) tablets, and blood pressure check-ups are important components of antenatal care (ANC). Among mothers who received ANC, three-fourths had two doses of TT injections, 72 per cent were given IFA tablets, and 71 per cent had their blood pressure checked. In Andhra Pradesh, Goa, Kerala, Maharashtra, and Tamil Nadu as in all the Union Territories, about 90 per cent women received at least one ANCU compared to about 50 per cent in Arunachal Pradesh, Bihar, and Nagaland, and below 40 per cent in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh. Thirty five per cent (26% rural and 65% urban) babies are delivered in an institutional facility. In Assam, Bihar, Nagaland, and Uttar Pradesh, the proportion of institutional deliveries is less (below 20%). Nationally, 43 per cent of the deliveries are assisted by a health professional. Rural-urban and inter-state variations are substantial. Postnatal care In Bihar, 18 per cent of deliveries are assisted by a health professional. Only 13 per cent of deliveries occur in institutions erall, 24 per cent (20% rural and 41% urban) mothers who delivered during he year preceding the survey had received at least one postnatal check-up. Among those who delivered in an institution, the proportion who received postnatal check-ups was much higher (52%) compared with those who did not have an institutional delivery ( 1 0%). 24 Contraception the currently married women aged 15-49 years, 47 per cent (44% rural and 5% urban) use some form of contraception. Contraceptive usage is more than 60 per cent in Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Himachal Pradesh, Kerala, and West Bengal and less than 30 per cent in Bihar, Meghalaya, Uttar Pradesh, and Lakshadweep. The use of modern contraceptives is 42 per cent (about 40% rural and 50% urban) among currently married women aged 15-49 years. Among the users of modern methods of contraception, sterilisation accounts for more than 80 per cent (97% in Andhra Pradesh). 25 c-;~- orty three per cent (33% rural and 68% urban) women aged 15-49 years have heard of HIV/AIDS. Among never-married women the proportion is 61 per cent and among ever-married women 39 per cent. The proportion of women aged 15-49 years who have heard of HIV/AIDS ranges from below 30 per cent in Bihar, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, and Uttar Pradesh to more than 70 per cent in Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Goa, Kerala, Manipur, Mizoram, and Tamil Nadu. Scheduled Caste/Tribe women and women living in kachcha homes are less likely to have heard of HIV/AIDS compared to others. Overall, 29 per cent (21 % rural and 49% urban) women aged 15-49 years know that HIV/ AIDS can be prevented . There are substantial rural-urban and state-wise differentials in the level of knowledge about the ways in which HIV/AIDS can be prevented. Women aged 15-49 years were asked to correctly identify two misconceptions about HIV /AIDS namely, (i) HIV/AIDS can be spread by a mosquito; and (ii) a healthy looking person can not have HIV/AIDS. Overall, only 10 per cent women are able to correctly 26 Eighty seven per cent women who have completed middle school have heard of HIV/AIDS as against only 18 per cent of illiterate women Map 10: Women aged 15-49 years who have heard of HIY /IIIOS 76.·1 _P:~!:~~t ~j I I! l Source : MICS, 2000 ·.; \ Mop ll: Women aged l9-49yearswho know all three modes of vertical transmission* of HIY /IIIOS Per cent j <20 20-29 30-39 40& above Source : MICS, 2000 * During pregnancy, at delivery, and through breastmilk identify the misconceptions (ranging from less than five per cent in Bihar and Jammu & Kashmir to more than 30 per cent in Manipur and Mizoram). Awareness regarding mother to child (vertical) transmission of HIV/AIDS is low. Only 24 per cent of women aged 1 S-49 years know all three modes of vertical transmission (during pregnancy, at delivery, and through bre~stmilk). That HIV/AIDS can be transmitted during pregnancy is known to 35 per cent, at delivery to 30 per cent, and through breastmilk to 29 per cent. Considerable rural-urban and inter-state differentials exist. Nearly 21 per cent of women aged 1 S-49 years believe that an AIDS infected person can continue to work. On the attitudes toward an HIV/AIDS infected person, rural-urban and inter-state differentials are substantial. - Among those who have heard of HIV/AIDS, 48 per cent (42% rural and SS% urban) agree that "a woman can ask the male to use a condom." Surprisingly, in the States of Andhra Pradesh, Kerala and Tamil Nadu with high awareness of HIV/AIDS (over 70%), less than 40 per cent women share the above perception. 27 SURVEY METHODOLOGY Sample design stratified two-stage sample design was adopted in all States and Union Territories. The States were divided into rural and urban strata. In each stratum, sampling was done independently. At the stratum level, the design was self-weighting. At the State/national level, weights were used. The sample selection was done in two stages. In the first stage, villages/urban blocks were selected; in the second stage, households were selected from each sampled village/urban block systematically, after listing all the households and selecting the first household randomly. Sample size and sample selection C-;f or all States and Union Territories (UTs) the sample size indicating the number of households was specified. For 21 States, 3,000 rural and 1,800 urban households per State were to be interviewed except Delhi where 1 ,800 rural and 3,000 urban households were targeted to reflect its greater urban composition. For Meghalaya, Nagaland, and Tripura, an aggregate of 4,000 households (rural and urban) was specified. In Arunachal Pradesh, Sikkim, Andaman & Nicobar, Chandigarh, and Pondicherry, 3,000 households, and in Lakshadweep, Dadra & Nagar Haveli, and Daman & Diu, 1 ,800 households were targeted. The households to be interviewed were selected with equal probability from the household list in each area, using systematic sampling. The sampling interval was obtained to keep the sampling of households self-weighting within the rural and urban areas of a State. From each Primary Sampling Unit (PSU), around 40 households were targeted. A minimum sample of 20 and maximum of 60 households was fixed. 28 . Rural sampling he 1991 Census list of villages served as the sampling frame. The number of households as per the 1991 Census was inflated by a factor, which was the ratio of the projected (March 2000) to the actual ( 1991 Census) rural population. Villages with the estimated number of households less than 50 were merged with the adjoining villages as per the location code. In case of bigger villages, with more than 225 households, segmentation became necessary. The bigger villages were divided into two or more segments, and one segment was selected using Probability Proportional to Size (PPS) method. In case of merged villages, the segmentation was done in the merged unit. The PSUs were selected systematically using the PPS method. For the selected villages, the boundary maps were obtained from the local Government Offices or other functionaries. All the households in the selected village were listed and sample households were selected systematically, using a random start. For inaccessible villages, no substitution was attempted. Urban sampling he Urban Frame Survey (UFS) blocks of the National Sample Survey Organisation (NSSO) served as the sampling frame. The blocks were selected using simple random sampling without replacement (SRS-WOR) out of all the blocks in a State/UT. The SRS-WOR method was adopted because all the blocks are more or less of the same population size. The selection was done at the NSSO Office in Kolkata centrally, and a list of selected blocks was made available separately for each State/UT. The maps of selected blocks were obtained from the NSSO field offices. A uniform interval was used to cover the targeted number of households in the State/UT, and ho~seholds were selected systematically. Household listing. e household listing process involved the preparation of a notional map and a st of households. The sampling interval was selected to make the sample self- weighting. In case of segmented villages, the household listing was carried out only in the selected segment, and in merged villages in the merged unit. The household listing served as a frame for selecting households at the second stage of sampling. 29 Sample weights s separate sample designs were used for rural and urban areas, no weights were used for obtaining rural and urban estimates at the State level. However, the State and All India figures are weighted to the proportion of the projected population in rural and urban areas, and adjusted for non-response. 30 Table 1: Sample coverage I Households 1 Children aged 0-4 years Children aged 5-14 years Women aged 15-49 years .A'C::. ~ ~.=. ~ ~ ~e:&t Andhra Pra~esh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu an<t_Kashmir Kama taka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu West Bengal Union Thrritories Andaman & Nicobar Chandigarh Dadra & Nagar Haveli Daman&Diu Q!:!lhi Lakshadweep Pondicherri" 4,750 2,237 4,204 4,746 4,098 4,523 4,325 3,993 4,029 4,603 4,952 4,160 4,449 4,208 3,579 4,388 3,245 4,862 4,290 4,111 2,640 4,322 2,345 4,440 4,524 2,528 2,837 1,782 1,710 3,827 1,722 2,868 INDIA 119,305 96.3 95.7 96.8 97.3 98.9 97.1 92.9 97.2 96.4 97.8 97.8 97.6 96.4 95.0 97.9 95.7 98.3 98.4 91.5 95.4 97.2 95.4 80.9 98.1 98.9 96.3 94.1 95.5 88.4 91.1 99.4 96.7 96.3 2,133 98.2 4,820 99.1 5,411 1,282 98.8 2,680 99.5 2,404 2,432 97.2 5,247 99.2 4,982 3,293 98.2 6,885 99.3 5,448 1,462 99.1 2,932 99.1 4,902 2,563 93.2 4,788 97.9 5,510 2,488 94.8 5,546 96.6 4,884 1,768 95.6 3,917 97.6 4,500 2,468 96.0 5,837 99.1 5,914 2,472 96.6 5,151 99.3 5,764 2,215 97.0 4,223 98.4 6,624 2,757 97.2 5,616 98.9 4,784 2,261 94.6 4,676 97.2 5,031 2,525 98.3 4,789 98.7 5,166 3,115 99.5 5,776 99.2 4,892 2,156 98.4 4,890 99.1 5,592 2,230 98.7 3,823 98.7 3,636 2,588 96.9 5,511 98.8 5,575 2,029 92.4 4,411 93.5 4,955 2,997 97.6 5,713 98.0 4,730 1,490 99.6 3,443 99.8 3,599 1,700 97.4 3,371 98.7 4,674 971 96.6 2,533 98.3 2,5?5 3,741 97.7 7,430 98.9 5,487 2,026 95.3 4,943 99.0 4,979 1,186 99.2 2,508 99.1 3,390 1,101 98.0 2,318 96.0 2,911 1,146 97.0 1,872 99.3 1,882 813 96.1 1,602 98.7 1,907 1,981 98.8 4,239 99.2 4,370 1,214 98.9 2,640 99.7 2,916 1,140 98.9 2,210 99.5 3,427 65,741 97.1 136,339 98.5 142,840 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 95.5 96.3 88.6 92.6 97.9 91.1 87.2 88.9 88.6 95.2 92.3 93.3 89.9 82.9 96.9 95.5 92.9 89.5 87.9 87.6 98.6 91.3 87.2 94.0 92.9 95.5 92.8 89.5 92.5 94.7 97.1 96.1 91.8 31 Table 2: Literacy rate, 7 + and 15 + years State/tJ'DII Andhra Pr~desh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Kama taka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan §ikkim TamilNadu 1iiP.ura Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Percent literate among population aged 7years and above R.ural Urban 48.9 75.5 nc nc 62.0 83.2 46.8 76.4 79.2 85.3 55.8 79.3 66.4 82.4 74.8 88.0 55.6 69.3 59.6 78.3 88.1 91.6 46.0 75.8 65.5 86.6 70.2 nc 84.6 nc 57.9 64.5 50.0 nc 59.5 nc 48.5 62.2 nc nc nc nc 78.5 nc nc 80.5 nc 96.7 nc 80.4 79.8 80.7 nc 83.5 nc 68.8 81.5 nc nc nc nc 85.4 nc nc Male Female 1btal 67.4 46.2 57.0 63.5 48.7 56.6 72.6 56.4 64.7 66.2 36.4 51.7 88.4 75.8 82.2 76.0 53.5 65.1 81.4 58.9 71.0 85.6 66.3 76.2 70.0 47.2 58.9 76.0 55.4 65.9 93.1 85.5 89.2 67.4 40.4 54.6 83.5 64.7 74.4 83.4 64.8 71.0 65.5 94.0 90.4 79.1 68.5 73.8 49.4 75.2 63.0 74.1 40.2 81.0 66.7 77.3 59.1 82.6 68.0 66.6 38.1 75.5 59.4 86.9 77.0 90.1 82.3 69.2 40.1 88.3 69.5 89.4 78.8 91.6 79.6 87.6 71.7 73.9 68.3 92.2 74.1 61.8 69.5 58.0 74.2 68.1 75.4 53.1 67.9 82.2 86.7 55.9 79.8 84.6 85.7 79.7 Percent literate among population aged 15years and above R.ural Urban 41.0 72.5 nc nc 56.8 82.1 40.0 73.0 76.0 83.3 51.7 77.1 58.4 79.3 69.3 85.9 47.6 65.1 51.8 74.6 86.0 90.3 42.5 74.3 59.0 84.9 70.4 80.1 nc nc 84.4 96.6 nc nc 53.3 77.7 58.3 77.3 41.2 77.6 nc nc 52.6 81.1 nc nc 43.4 66.6 57.1 79.9 nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc 73.7 83.0 nc nc nc nc Male 62.9 59.7 69.4 61.9 86.7 74.5 77.4 82.6 64.9 71.9 92.0 67.4 81.6 Female 'lbtal 38.1 50.7 40.5 51.1 50.7 60.3 27.9 45.5 72.2 79.6 48.6 61.8 49.5 64.6 58.8 71.0 38.4 52.1 46.6 59.5 83.0 87.3 34.5 51.8 58.7 70.5 85.7 62.8 74.0 69.9 61.6 65.8 94.3 89.9 92.2 77.0 63.7 70.7 71.4 43.3 57.6 71.3 57.0 64.6 69.6 31.0 51.2 78.1 58.6 69.0 73.9 52.4 63.0 79.9 61.8 71.0 65.3 30.3 48.7 73.4 53.5 64.1 84.4 72.2 78.7 88.8 79.0 84.5 67.0 32.9 51.9 86.4 63.6 76.3 88.1 74.2 81.9 90.2 74.8 82.6 85.7 66.7 76.2 J.N8U; .6 .5 7 .4 51.0 62.4 50.1 77.4 71.1 44.5 58.1 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 32 Table 3: Source of drinking water Percent households 1 using improved source of drinking water Percent households taking drinldn2 water from a tap or ltandpump or bOrewell with motor Percent households having drinking water facility within the premises Rural Urban '1Utal Rural Urban '1Utal Rural Urban '1Utal Andhra Pradesh . 88.7 96.4 Arunachal Pradesh nc nc 58.5 83.3 75.3 82.4 57.1 80.9 Gujarat 80.5 92.4 Haryana 87.1 99.5 Himachal Pradesh 83.5 96.6 Jammu and Kashmir 64.1 93.0 Orissa Pun"ab Tripura Uttar Pradesh 85.5 95.6 46.8 80.9 59.6 88.9 74.4 99.3 27.0 60.5 nc nc 46.2 81.1 nc nc 59.5 79.6 99.2 99.1 78.6 99.1 nc nc 89.0 92.6 nc nc 86.2 98.0 92.8 96.3 nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc 86.3 98.6 nc nc nc nc 90.9 82.6 61.9 76.4 69.2 85.1 90.9 85.1 71.3 89.0 57.0 67.5 85.1 38.7 45.2 68.4 50.0 63.0 99.2 83.9 91.7 90.3 61.2 88.8 93.8 88.8 99.0 80.6 91.9 97.1 68.8 96.8 78.6 nc 57.9 75.1 53.8 76.6 83.0 79.7 62.7 80.0 13.7 58.4 67.7 26.3 nc 39.2 nc 58.1 98.0 74.0 nc 88.7 nc 82.9 89.3 nc nc nc nc 86.0 nc nc 93.0 nc 82.6 81.6 76.9 92.0 99.4 95.2 92.3 95.2 58.3 88.3 99.0 57.2 nc 74.1 nc 76.6 98.7 98.9 nc 91.9 nc 96.8 95.5 nc nc nc nc 98.4 nc nc 82.8 81.0 61.2 76.1 65.5 82.6 88.1 81.5 70.1 85.3 27.0 66.5 81.2 37.0 43.9 61.4 49.1 61.3 98.2 80.5 91.6 89.8 55.9 86.0 91.2 85.0 99.0 80.0 91.8 96.9 12.8 95.0 19.4 nc 46.5 45.4 63.7 28.2 32.6 39.8 43.9 17.5 63.5 14.6 28.9 13.6 nc 9.6 nc 16.0 85.1 23.8 nc 10.1 nc 47.9 30.0 nc nc nc nc 61.1 nc nc 52.1 nc 78.8 68.6 83.1 70.1 74.9 74.7 87.6 48.5 64.6 51.7 78.3 37.4 nc 49.0 nc 50.3 95.6 87.5 nc 53.1 nc 77.4 42.9 nc nc nc nc 84.3 nc nc 29.0 36.9 50.9 48.9 73.6 44.4 45.6 43.9 54.8 28.3 63.8 24.7 50.2 21.9 22.1 34.7 33.1 21.9 88.4 40.3 78.9 25.2 26.5 54.4 33.9 54.2 85.0 24.6 56.2 81.4 80.3 56.5 78.8 94.1 83.1 74.3 92.3 79.5 32.8 65.1 42.1 Notes: 1. Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. 2. Improved sources include tap exclusive to households, public tap, sanitary well, tube well with motor, handpump and rainwater harvesting. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 33 Percent hOIUSe:ho.lds having improved sanitation facllity 1 Among toilets-users, pe:rce:nt' households having the facility within the premises Urban Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Andhra Pradesh 17.3 75.4 34.3 16.1 Arunachal Pradesh nc nc 62.9 nc Assam 55.9 93.4 61.0 55.4 Bihar 8.6 68.2 17.4 8.3 Goa 54.8 77.6 66.3 54.6 Gujarat 20.0 82.1 44.1 19.9 Haryana 19.7 74.4 36.5 16.4 Himacfial Pradesh 26.1 72.7 31.6 25.7 Jammu and Kashmir 12.1 71.2 26.8 12.0 Karnataka 16.5 73.4 36.3 15.9 Kerala 84.8 94.3 87.6 84.1 Madhya Pradesh 5.9 64.1 21.6 5.8 Maharashtra 14.8 89.7 47.1 14.8 Manipur 86.5 98.1 90.5 86.0 Meghalaya nc nc 54.7 nc Mizoram 87.6 99.4 95.1 87.4 Nagaland nc nc 70.5 nc Orissa 7.8 59.3 16.6 7.6 Punjab 39.3 88.5 55.7 39.1 Rajasthan 10.6 88.0 30.6 10.5 Sikkim nc nc 74.3 nc Tamil Nadu 14.7 80.7 37.9 14.6 Tripura nc nc 82.8 nc Uttar Pradesh 12.0 76.2 26.1 8.8 West Bengal 27.7 83.6 44.4 27.3 Union Thrritories Andaman & Nicobar nc nc 62.2 nc Chandigarh nc nc 88.2 nc Dadra & Nagar Haveli nc nc 31.7 nc Daman & Diu nc nc 60.8 nc Delhi 82.8 96.7 94.9 77.2 Lakshadweep nc nc 90.0 nc Pondicherry nc nc 48.6 nc INDIA 19.2 80.3 36.7 18.2 72.0 nc 92.1 65.0 77.5 81.4 70.7 70.2 68.2 67.3 93.1 59.4 89.2 97.2 nc 98.8 nc 58.6 87.5 85.1 nc 79.2 nc 58.6 78.4 nc nc nc nc 83.0 nc nc 75.4 32.4 43.8 62.7 nc 60.4 57.2 16.7 90.1 66.2 80.7 43.8 59.3 33.1 62.3 30.9 63.8 26.0 73.7 33.8 48.8 86.8 69.3 20.3 65.3 46.8 65.6 89.9 15.0 54.3 nc 94.7 10.7 70.3 nc 16.3 54.8 55.3 93.9 29.8 67.4 74.0 nc 37.3 27.7 82.1 nc 19.7 81.0 42.5 52.1 55.0 nc 83.3 nc 31.5 nc 60.7 nc 82.3 66.4 89.4 nc 43.6 nc 34.7 61.6 64.7 nc 82.0 83.3 92.5 75.8 89.6 88.4 97.3 60.8 67.6 70.0 83.6 38.1 nc 49.0 nc 74.1 96.7 92.5 nc 60.6 nc 84.1 49.2 nc nc nc nc 86.5 nc nc 73.8 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. 1Flush toilet connected to sewage or pour flush toilet or simple pit latrine or improved pit latrine. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 34 57.2 50.1 62.4 86.2 87.7 71.2 79.5 70.5 89.3 57.2 68.8 69.0 80.4 23.7 32.5 36.2 42.7 66.5 95.3 86.1 83.5 52.3 30.5 83.0 50.5 75.5 95.2 60.7 64.0 84.4 84.3 82.8 69.3 i ~"" , "',~'-' ~""'"'"~IS , ~ *'<l"?:!"'«" . ; ,, :f~?jF;""" :;;.1 ~, 17~~ "J.-~~:"'':'r : ~ ~" , cc;"' ~:'h~;~ ~ _,' ",, >T~'"4~f',=~·p ~ ,. , , Taote 5: ~us~tol~- i-olnseu'·sail ~- -: . ;_ -;_ - - - ~ " ' ' . ~ ~ ' . . ~"" ~ : ~ ·~pit··""'"' J ,:.""'-" "~"' __ , il! :_ J-. ~. " ~. ,., ~· . " ~ ~ •• ;., ~:_,~ •• ~"' ···'"""""" ~ "' ~- ~ "" Percent households using iodised salt for cooking State/UTs Rural Urban 'IOtal Andhra Pradesh 14.3 46.0 23.5 Arunachal Pradesh nc nc 94.7 Assam 72.9 91.9 75.5 Bihar 49.9 66.0 52.3 Goa 37.7 64.1 51.1 Gujarat 52.7 60.2 55.6 Haryana 46.2 82.7 57.4 Himachal Pradesh 86.5 94.6 87.5 Jammu & Kashmir 65.7 89.9 71.8 Kama taka 18.6 57.7 32.2 Kerala 41.3 64.0 48.1 Madhya Pradesh 55.5 80.0 62.1 Maharashtra 61.5 80.0 69.5 Manipur 87.9 97.3 91.2 Meghalaya nc nc 77.7 Mizorarn 60.3 88.0 78.0 Nagaland nc nc 72.8 Orissa 40.4 67.1 45.0 Punjab 67.8 84.5 73.4 Rajasthan 24.2 73.8 37.1 Sikkim nc nc 76.3 Tamil Nadu 13.2 45.2 24.4 Tripura nc nc 81.9 Uttar Pradesh 44.1 62.1 48.0 West Bengal 62.6 78.1 67.2 Union Territories Andarnan & Nicobar nc nc 97.5 Chandigarh nc nc 91.3 Dadra & Nagar Haveli nc nc 40.0 Daman & Diu nc nc 68.0 Delhi 85.7 86.3 86.2 Lakshadweep nc nc 48.3 Pondichery nc nc 38.1 INDIA 43.5 67.3 50.3 Notes: 1. Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. 2. Using salt containing seven parts per million or more iodine. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 35 Table 6: Birth weight 1 Percent children below age five years with birth weight information not available Rural Urban Male Jlemale 'lbtal Andhra Pradesh !Arunachal Pradesh Assam Bihar Goa Gujarat H~ana Himachal Pradesh 68.0 32.5 55.0 60.5 nc nc 74.9 75.3 92.0 50.5 87.9 89.2 96.1 75.5 93.4 94.1 13.8 13.9 13.6 14.2 73.6 33.5 57.3 63.5 86.0 57.9 77.5 80.7 72.9 47.7 70.3 70.7 93.0 71.8 87.4 90.0 68.1 41.6 58.6 61.5 5.8 4.5 5.2 5.6 92.8 65.4 86.0 86.4 58.9 21.3 42.9 47.2 75.3 49.8 66.8 68.9 nc nc 78.2 77.3 42.2 11.4 22.7 24.4 nc nc 91.5 89.3 Orissa 78.4 56.4 75.1 75.8 'Punjab 81.7 66.6 74.5 81.1 Rajasthan 94.7 59.3 87.6 87.7 Sikkim nc nc 68.0 70.9 Tamil Nadu 38.5 10.6 28.3 30.1 Tripura nc nc 75.7 77.3 Uttar Pradesh 94.9 79.6 91.6 92.7 West Bengal 73.9 36.3 67.1 66.4 Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar nc nc 37.6 37.5 Chandigarh nc nc 39.8 41.0 Dadra & Nagar Haveli nc nc 73.7 75.4 Daman & Diu nc . nc 40.0 44.2 Delhi 67.9 42.1 44.3 47.7 Lakshadweep nc · nc 46.5 45.8 POndicherry nc nc 9.9 13.9 57.8 75.1 88.5 93.7 13.9 60.3 79.0 70.5 88.6 60.0 5.4 86.2 45.0 67.8 77.8 23.5 90.4 75.4 77.5 87.6 69.5 29.2 76.5 92.1 66.8 37.6 40.3 74.5 42.0 45.9 46.2 11.8 Percent children below age five years who weighed less than 2,500 grams at birth 1 Rural Urban . Male Female 'lbtal 26.1 20.1 nc. nc 22.1 20.1 20.3 21.1 26.1 19.4 22.2 15.9 33.8 24.5 19.3 26.3 36.2 14.4 17.5 25.6 25.9 12.0 nc 4.1 nc 18.5 27.0 36.8 nc 22.0 nc 33.0 23.0 nc nc nc nc 28.1 nc nc 23.0 21.2 12.5 23.1 24.0 10.3 nc 8.0 nc 23.0 25.0 27.1 nc 15.5 nc 27.5 22.8 nc nc nc nc 28.7 nc nc 22.3 24.4 23.3 14.4 13.9 14.2 24.9 16.7 21.4 17.7 24.3 20.6 20.1 25.1 22.5 17.0 20.7 18.6 27.9 30.7 29.1 21.0 20.0 20.5 22.7 38.8 29.0 16.9 18.1 17.5 13.2 18.9 16.0 26.0 22.1 24.1 22.4 27.8 24.8 10.0 12.5 11.3 12.9 13.3 13.1 7.7 5.8 6.8 6.2 8.4 7.4 16.5 23.3 19.6 26.1 26.3 26.2 27.5 33.3 30.4 13.2 12.8 13.0 19.3 19.2 19.2 22.8 23.5 23.1 29.8 31.3 30.4 20.0 25.8 22.9 14.1 22.1 18.1 21.1 24.1 22.4 16.1 18.8 17.4 14.5 20.9 17.3 26.7 31.0 28.7 19.1 25.6 22.0 22.5 23.2 23.1 INDIA 81.3 4,.1 72.8 74.1 73.4 22.7 20.8 20.5 23.4· 21.8 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. 1Based on children whose birth weigbt information is available (both from card and recall) . nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 36 Percent children aged 0-3 months Percent children aged 6-9 months receiving breastmilk exclusively breastfed and complementary feeding Rural Urban 'n»tal Rural Urban 'n»tal desh 63.7 32.6 57.1 56.6 67.9 59.8 Arunachal Pradesh nc nc 68.5 nc nc 69.9 63.7 58.6 64.3 68.8 86.1 70.2 46.0 32.8 44.5 41.3 51.7 42.2 22.0 39.3 30.3 47.0 52.9 49.7 30.3 11.8 24.0 45.5 68.6 53.9 39.7 45.7 41.6 26.5 36.2 29.0 34.8 29.5 34.3 43.3 67.6 45.1 67.8 43.9 63.3 44.1 51.7 45.7 55.7 37.2 51.6 57.6 55.3 57.1 Kerala 62.5 60.0 61.7 82.4 90.7 84.8 Madhya Pradesh 42.3 15.5 37.7 38.4 43.0 39.6 Maharashtra 45.3 32.6 42.2 30.3 63.4 39.9 77.4 84.4 81.3 82.2 57.7 75.7 nc nc 35.1 nc nc 85.3 Mizoram 55.2 47.1 50.6 71.7 76.9 75.6 Nagaland nc nc 39.7 nc nc 83.3 Orissa 50.3 41.9 49.8 48.9 67.4 51.1 Punja6 37.5 20.7 32.7 32.5 35.3 33.4 Rajasthan 20.0 30.0 22.3 16.2 45.6 22.0 Sikkim nc nc 32.6 nc nc 91.9 25.6 14.0 21.7 60.0 67.4 62.7 nc nc 30.1 nc nc 48.1 23.6 14.7 22.4 27.9 38.6 29.6 43.6 33.3 42.7 61.6 76.0 64.0 Union Thrritories Andaman & Nicobar nc nc 32.5 nc nc 53.3 Cliandi arb nc nc 41.1 nc nc 52.4 nc nc 79.8 nc nc 59.5 nc nc 19.5 nc nc 75.4 4.5 26.9 24.4 54.8 52.9 53.3 nc nc 53.1 nc nc 64.5 nc nc 18.9 nc nc 65.7 89.S 26.8 37.2 40.7 55.8 43.9 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 37 Percent currently breastfed among children aged 12-15 months 20-23 months State/UTS Rural Urban 'IOtal Rural Urban 'IOtal Andhra Pradesh 88.7 85.0 87.7 70.2 49.0 61.9 Arunachal Pradesh nc nc 93.7 nc nc 74.8 Assam 97.4 96.5 97.3 90.3 87.5 90.0 Bihar 100.0 89.2 98.4 82.9 57.1 79.7 Goa 64.1 67.6 65.8 48.0 35.7 40.8 Gujarat 84.6 65.0 79.3 60.4 39.2 52.4 Haryana 82.7 80.0 82.0 73.2 55.6 69.1 Himachal Pradesh 73.3 86.0 74.7 39.0 37.5 38.8 Jammu & Kashmir 94.0 83.3 92.0 82.2 62.2 77.7 Kama taka 86.7 72.0 81.8 49.5 43.8 47.6 Kerala 84.4 80.0 82.8 59.2 60.9 59.8 Madhya Pradesh 91.1 85.0 89.6 84.3 62.0 76.5 Maharashtra 93.0 82.4 88.3 60.8 63.0 61.7 Manipur 84.8 94.7 88.0 72.0 84.8 75.2 Meghalaya nc nc 83.6 nc nc 53.3 Mizoram 81.8 77.1 79.1 44.1 42.4 43.0 Nagaland nc nc 81.1 nc nc 52.0 Orissa 98.9 77.1 96.1 86.6 65.8 84.1 Punjab 78.7 67.6 75.6 55.3 58.3 56.3 Rajasthan 88.8 80.4 87.3 68.8 50.0 64.8 Sikkim nc nc 93.0 nc nc 76.6 Tamil Nadu 67.2 52.2 61.3 37.8 16.1 31.7 Tripura nc nc 92.8 nc nc 75.5 Uttar Pradesh 94.8 77.8 91.9 70.6 59.0 68.4 West Bengal 97.5 74.2 93.4 82.8 73.9 80.8 Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar nc nc 77.0 nc nc 58.6 Chandigarh nc nc 70.0 nc nc 46.6 Dadra & Nagar Haveli nc nc 88.9 nc nc 81.6 Daman & Diu nc nc 81.0 nc nc 55.8 Delhi 68.8 74.0 73.3 58.9 54.7 55.4 Lakshadweep nc nc 95.6 nc nc 60.0 Pondichery nc nc 67.6 nc nc 25.2 INDIA 91.8 76.7 88.2 70.0 53.9 65.8 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 38 Percent children aged 12-23 months fully immunised1 State!U'I's Rural Urban Male Female 'IOtal Andhra Pradesh 43.0 52.7 47.4 44.9 46.1 Arunachal Pradesh nc nc 34.4 22.4 28.6 Assam 19.9 46.5 24.0 20.3 22.2 Bihar 10.2 29.2 13.2 11.8 12.6 Goa 88.7 83.9 83.9 88.7 86.2 Gujarat 41.4 49.6 44.8 42.9 43.9 Haryana 27.7 51.9 35.4 31.2 33.5 Himachal Pradesh 71.3 69.9 69.3 73.3 71.1 Jammu & Kashmir 50.7 72.9 58.4 50.3 54.9 Kama taka 66.9 70.3 68.5 67.4 68.0 Kerala 75.5 80.1 74.9 78.9 76.9 Madhya Pradesh 26.8 40.0 31.1 29.2 30.1 Maharashtra 59.6 69.3 63.0 64.4 63.7 Manipur 53.5 66.5 56.6 57.6 57.1 Meghalaya nc nc 30.6 29.8 30.2 Mizoram 28.6 42.5 36.5 38.4 37.5 Nagaland nc nc 22.3 24.4 23.4 Orissa 43.3 60.3 49.1 42.2 45.7 Punjab 43.9 42.4 46.5 40.2 43.5 Rajasthan 19.7 42.7 25.0 23.3 24.2 Sikkim nc nc 58.6 62.6 60.7 TamilNadu 78.8 84.5 79.0 82.8 80.8 Tripura nc nc 29.1 37.2 32.9 Uttar J?radesh 16.1 18.8 17.8 15.4 16.6 West Bengal 55.4 65.8 58.0 56.5 57.2 Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar nc nc 72.2 79.3 75.7 Chandigarh nc nc 68.4 58.6 64.1 Dadra & Nagar Haveli nc nc 75.7 78.3 76.9 Daman &Diu nc nc 66.0 51.0 59.4 Delhi 55.7 54.4 56.4 52.4 54.6 Lakshadweep nc nc 90.9 82.6 87.0 Pondichery nc nc 81.3 83.6 83.3 INDIA 33.6 51.7 38.5 37.3 37.9 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. 1Received BCG, 3 doses of DPT and Polio, and measles vaccines. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 39 - - - - --- Table 10: Immunisation coverage by vaccine Percent children aged 12-23 months who received various vaccines by type of vaccine Gujarat Haryana Himachal ;;;;::Pra=d:;::e~sh= Jammu & Kaslimir Kama taka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra . DPI'1 89.5 84.4 75.8 62.7 57.3 49.9 50.0 45.8 38.3 37.3 34.9 28.2 97.5 95.6 92.6 79.8 74,8 63.9 79.1 71.9 55.5 94.9 94.2 89.9 89.6 83.7 78.7 90.9 88.5 85.6 95.6 90.3 85.3 69.3 59.2 48.7 93.3 89.7 82.7 77.5 77.4 73.3 69.7 60.4 56.5 78.0 73.5 65.4 49.9 46.4 40.7 83.9 79.6 69.6 83.2 77.8 69.7 51.7 47.1 41.1 90.7 90.0 85.0 97.2 97.2 95.3 61.0 61.0 53.8 46.1 45.7 33.4 80.2 78.0 70.6 Union 'lerritories Andam,an & Njcobar 97.6 Chand~arh 88.7 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 93.2 95.3 91.9 86.2 79.6 92.3 88.6 Dam@ & Diu 86.0 85.8 76.5 Delhi 90.6 82.7 74.5 Lakshadweep 99.7 98.8 97.2 Pondicnery 99.2 98.0 97.1 DPI3 QJ'V1 OPV2 60.6 93.1 91.2 40.2 63.0 58.5 48.8 30.0 50.7 44.4 33.7 21.7 37.3 32.0 25.3 88.9 98.2 97.8 94.5 52.4 84.0 80.2 69.5 42.4 88.1 87.4 82.5 82.6 94.1 94.4 89.5 68.4 93.7 91.6 82.0 82.0 90.9 87.8 84.5 80.0 95.0 94.3 91.9 38.3 64.3 57.3 48.7 71.1 96.6 94.5 84.4 64.5 78.6 74.7 66.5 47.1 74.7 70.3 60.1 44.6 80.4 76.3 62.5 30.4 53.8 50.1 41.4 57.9 83.9 79.9 71.7 54.9 85.3 82.1 73.3 31.3 69.3 68.1 62.3 69.2 92.7 90.3 82.0 90.4 97.2 95.3 90.1 43.4 64.3 58.2 47.2 23.1 47.7 42.5 35.2 64.7 82.5 78.4 71 .7 81.0 98.1 71.3 91.9 81.9 92.7 65.6 97.3 60.5 91.8 91.5 100.0 93.2 99.6 96.2 90.5 89.5 96.2 90.9 99.6 99.1 87.6 82.6 85.0 91.4 85.0 93.5 96.8 41.0 29.0 None 46.1 4.8 28.6 34.2 22.2 44.2 20.8 12.6 59.3 94.0 86.2 0.9 62.3 43.9 11.3 59.5 33.5 11.1 86.0 71.1 2.3 65.5 54.9 6.3 72.2 68.0 6.7 88.4 76.9 4.4 47.7 30.1 26.2 82.6 63.7 2.9 61.8 57.1 20.6 36.7 30.2 20.5 62.7 37.5 17.6 32.4 23.4 46.0 59.1 45.7 12.8 65.8 43.5 12.3 33.6 24.2 30.1 78.9 60.7 6.9 85.1 80.8 1.6 43.4 32.9 32.4 29.7 16.6 41.1 65.4 57.2 16.4 89.0 80.1 84.1 75.1 77.5 93.1 89.3 75.7 64.1 76.9 59.4 54.6 87.8 83.3 1.9 7.5 5.0 1.7 7.0 0.0 0.4 6'1.'/ 64.4 56.0 ~· 69.9. 66.0 58 9 50.4 8'1.9 25.4 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 40 nc 19.7 9.3 88.2 44.2 35.7 68.8 43.5 57.9 69.7 28.1 57.8 43.9 nc 44.0 nc 39.4 43.2 23.6 nc 42.3 nc 9.2 53.6 nc nc nc nc 52.7 nc nc nc 47.2 19.5 76.3 49.6 49.6 72.4 65.7 52.9 58.2 30.5 46.0 57.0 nc 51.3 nc 54.8 58.6 43.3 nc 42.2 nc 11.0 60.8 nc nc nc nc 44.7 nc nc 31.3 22.0 10.6 82.0 45.8 39.0 69.2 47.8 56.3 66.2 28.7 52.9 47.5 37.4 48.7 29.7 41.6 47.5 27.6 45.0 42.3 35.6 9.5 54.9 80.7 64.1 69.4 59.0 45.8 81.0 66.7 29.2 88.5 81JS Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 41 Proportion (per 1,000) having difficulty in seeing during day or night time among children aged (in years) Stat~ 0-4 5-9 10.14 0.14 Andhra Pradesh 4.8 12.8 17.5 13.8 Arunachal Pradesh 14.7 22.1 31.9 24.2 Assam 19.7 48.0 49.9 13.8 Bihar 12.5 19.7 18.5 24.2 Goa 7.5 20.3 50.8 44.2 Gujarat 2.7 10.5 10.7 17.6 Haryana 3.9 16.5 26.6 20.3 Himachal Pradesh 3.4 12.7 23.3 17.0 Jammu & Kashmir 5.0 20.8 42.2 29.9 Kama taka 4.4 9.4 17.0 12.0 Kerala 1.4 17.9 37.0 27.4 M~dhya Pradesh 3.1 14.5 13.4 12.9 Maharashtra 5.0 16.0 30.2 21.5 Manipur 9.9 27.1 45.4 32.9 Meghalaya 29.4 42.3 37.9 37.1 Mizoram 34.4 61.7 87.0 67.9 Nagaland 3.3 8.3 14.7 10.2 Orissa 10.2 30.2 37.1 30.5 Punjab 3.1 10.0 10.7 9.4 Rajasthan 4.0 10.9 13.8 11.0 Sikkim 25.9 32.4 40.7 34.2 Tamil Nadu 5.3 12.6 33 .9 21.1 Tripura 11.4 31.2 40.3 33.6 Uttar Pradesh 7.9 14.5 10.9 11.7 West Bengal 8.2 24.5 43.0 31.2 Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar 5.8 13.1 27.2 18.6 Chandigarh 1.7 12.3 15.6 13.2 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 2.6 7.1 5.5 5.6 Daman &Diu 2.7 1.6 3.8 2.7 Delhi 6.2 18.8 29.4 22.2 Lakshadweep 4.9 8.7 21.2 13.9 Pondichery 0.8 10.1 27.1 18.4 INDIA 7.0 17.1 22.3 17.7 Note: ·Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 42 Table 13: Illness among children Percent children below age five years who suffered from an illness during two weeks preceding the survey State/U'DJ Fever Cough Diarrhoea AnyUlness Andhra Pradesh 29.6 33.6 13.3 47.8 Arunachal Pradesh 21.8 20.3 16.5 40.0 Assam 22.3 25.9 21.1 41.2 Bihar 37.1 31.1 33.3 56.1 Goa 21.8 23.1 12.7 38.1 Gujarat 24.8 25.3 19.3 40.8 Haryana 24.3 27.5 20.5 44.7 Himachal eradesh 23.5 22.6 11.4 36.2 Jammu & Kashmir 36.7 30.9 27.6 51.6 Kama taka 26.1 22.5 14.5 42.3 Kerala 33.3 28.9 4.7 44.5 Madhya Pq1~desh 21.3 21.2 15.5 36.9 Maharashtra 32.5 32.1 18.9 50.9 Manipur 4.5 20.2 9.4 27.1 Meghalaya 30.0 31.6 19.9 50.1 Mizoram 16.2 17.8 13.9 32.9 Nagaland 18.7 20.4 11.4 33.2 Orissa 38.2 39.3 30.5 60.6 Punjab 18.4 19.7 10.6 30.4 Rajasthan 23.2 18.8 22.2 39.2 Sikkim 25.4 32.1 18.7 46.3 TamilNadu 23.5 28.9 11.1 40.7 Tripura 36.7 42.5 20.6 58.4 Uttar Pradesh 33.7 30.3 33.1 54.0 West Bengal 30.4 37.5 23.6 54.4 Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar 17.6 16.5 6.4 27.0 Chandigarh 23.9 32.5 15.0 45.3 Dadra & Nagar Havel! 30.7 31.3 23.8 48.8 Daman&Diu 24.2 19.9 15.4 36.6 Delhi 24.7 29.4 18.0 43.9 Lakshadweep 35.7 41.0 8.6 50.4 Pondichery 16.5 17.2 10.5 29.8 INDIA 29.8 29.1 23.1 48.3 Notes: 1. Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. 2. The survey was conducted during February-July, 2000, except in Andaman & Nicobar, Lakshadweep, and Tripura where it was held later during the year. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 43 I Table 14: Children attending pre-school Percent children aged 36-59 months attending a pre-school facility State/U'Ill Urban Male Pemale 'lbtal 60.1 62.5 55.8 65.8 60.8 nc nc 15.8 25.4 20.3 33.1 42.2 33.2 34.8 33.9 9.8 28.8 12.4 11.6 12.0 62.4 60.5 62.3 60.4 61.4 39.0 60.7 45.7 46.9 46.3 57.5 49.3 52.8 58.5 55.5 60.2 51.3 60.1 58.3 59.3 38.4 47.1 39.9 40.6 40.2 65.1 62.7 64.1 64.6 64.4 59.6 56.1 58.4 58.6 58.5 30.3 35.4 31.0 32.1 31.5 68.3 59.8 64.0 66.2 65.1 60.0 66.2 59.1 64.2 61.8 nc nc 32.6 31.5 32.1 63.6 69.5 71.1 63.0 67.2 nc nc 28.9 28.6 28.8 31.9 39.2 30.8 35.1 32.9 34.2 50.2 37.9 39.6 38.7 19.1 41.0 23.3 23.7 23.5 nc nc 64.0 60.9 62.5 60.8 69.6 67.0 60.3 63.6 ' Tripura nc nc 44.7 42.9 43.8 Uttar Pradesh 25.3 26.8 25.1 26.1 25.6 West Bengal 32.0 39.2 32.5 34.3 33.4 Union Thrritories Andarnan & Nicobar nc nc 72.1 75.4 73,8 Chandigarli nc nc 71.9 66.6 69.6 Daora &'Nagar Haveli nc nc 45.0 41.3 43.1 Daman & Diu nc nc 69.3 67.6 68.5 Delhi 45.5 57.6 53.8 58.0 55.8 nc nc 75.3 82.1 78.4 nc nc 78.8 77.5 78.2 INDIA 34.7 47.5 36.9 38.6 37.7 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey; 2000. 44 Table 15: Schooling among children aged 6-1 o years Percent children aged 6-10 years currently attending school State/U'Dl R.aral Urban Male Pemale 1\Hal 85.9 92.2 91.0 84.3 87.7 Arunachal Pradesh nc nc 73.5 69.9 71.7 Assam 81.3 88.8 86.0 77.7 82.0 Jliliar 62.2 82.8 71.6 58.3 64.9 Goa 98.1 96.6 97.4 97.3 97.3 77.4 92.0 85.7 79.1 82.6 89.7 90.9 92.2 87.4 90.0 97.5 97.8 97.8 97.3 97.6 85.8 94.1 91.3 83.4 87.4 86.0 93.5 90.2 86.3 88.3 Kerala 98.8 99.4 99.0 99.0 99.0 Madhya Pradesh 75.9 91.4 82.7 76.9 79.9 Maharashtra 93.7 94.8 94.1 93.9 94.0 Manipur 94.2 96.5 95.9 93.9 94.9 e_ghalaya nc nc 81.6 82.3 82.0 Mizoram 76.9 96.4 88.0 89.0 88.5 Nagaland nc nc 91.5 89.6 90.6 Orissa 77.3 89.3 83.9 74.0 79.1 P.!Jnj!lb 88.4 94.0 91.2 88.8 90.1 ~jasthan 79.0 94.7 89.3 73.6 82.0 nc nc 95.4 95.5 95.4 95.0 97.7 96.3 95.3 95.8 liiQura nc nc 93.2 90.5 91.9 Uttar Pradesh 79.6 82.3 84.5 75.4 80.1 WestBenw 80.6 87.0 83.8 79.8 81.9 Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar nc nc 96.0 97.9 96.9 Chandigarh nc nc 96.1 95.8 96.0 Dadra & Nagar Haveli nc nc 86.9 75.4 81.4 Daman&Diu nc nc 98.5 94.7 96.7 Delhi 91.9 90.9 91.8 90.1 91.0 Lakshadwet nc nc 97.8 97.1 97.5 Pondichery nc nc 96.0 98.9 97.4 INDIA 79.9 90.2 85.9 78.6 82.3 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample, Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 45 Table 16: Gross attendance ratio and net auendance rate in primary classes (grades 1-5) State!UTs Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Assam Gross attendance ratio Rural Urban Male Female Total 96.1 96.8 102.2 90.3 96.3 nc nc 90.7 89.2 89.9 Bihar Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Kama taka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya lJ:izoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Union Territories 103.1 103.9 75.4 88.5 102.8 99.5 92.1 99.9 108.4 102.2 114.7 104.4 96.6 101.7 92.4 98.5 104.8 103.4 93.1 104.4 107.9 104.9 102.8 109.7 nc nc 98.0 103.6 nc nc 94.4 95.0 103.0 103.5 98.6 109.9 , nc nc 103.5 98.8 nc nc 98.7 86.7 99.7 103.6 109.6 86.9 102.8 100.0 110.6 114.8 101.6 98.3 106.9 101.0 108.9 107.0 88.5 102.1 108.6 98.8 105.9 110.3 121.2 104.8 114.1 104.4 101.9 96.3 67.6 99.2 89.1 102.3 112.5 93.5 90.1 101.9 90.6 104.7 103.1 88.5 100.5 106.1 89.8 100.0 89.7 123.7 99.4 110.7 87.8 98.9 Andanan & Nicobar nc nc 116.7 116.5 Chandigarh nc Dadra & Nagar Haveli nc Daman & Diu nc Delhi 95.9 Lakshadweep nc Pondichery nc nc 101.2 97.2 nc 103.4 89.6 nc 117.0 108.5 97.7 97.0 98.1 nc 117.6 108.3 nc 101.1 107.4 103.1 77.2 101.1 94.9 106.8 113.6 97.6 94.3 104.4 95.9 106.9 105.0 88.5 101.3 107.4 94.5 103.2 100.7 122.4 102.1 112.4 96.4 100.5 116.6 99.3 96.8 113.0 97.5 113.2 104.2 Net attendance rate Rural Urban Male Female Total 76.6 79.4 81.3 73.4 77.4 nc nc 60.0 57.7 58.8 75.1 79.5 80.2 70.5 75.5 53.5 66.5 60.9 49.6. 55.3 86.8 85.5 87.4 84.7 86.1 72.2 84.3 79.9 72.7 76.5 81.2 89.3 73.3 78.2 92.4 69.1 86.7 65.0 nc 70.0 nc 71.4 78.5 72.8 nc 85.5 nc 70.6 70.2 nc nc nc nc 76.5 nc nc 78.9 87.0 80.4 84.9 89.2 80.9 87.6 77.9 nc 85.2 nc 77.1 81.1 83.9 nc 85.2 nc 65.3 77.6 nc nc nc nc 79.7 nc nc 83.0 88.5 77.4 83.1 91.9 74.9 86.9 70.7 51.3 80.0 80.7 76.6 79.6 81.2 82.7 86.5 86.8 72.8 74.2 90.0 81.8 80.5 88.9 80.5 94.2 83.4 77.8 80.6 89.6 89.0 71.8 74.7 77.4 80.3 91.1 91.5 69.0 72.1 87.1 87.0 67.5 69.1 52.3 51.8 78.0 79.0 77.6 79.2 67.6 72.3 78.9 79.3 67.8 74.9 83.2 82.9 84.3 85.4 85.3 86.1 66.1 69.6 69.2 71.7 90.5 90.2 82.3 82.1 69.6 75.3 84.2 86.7 77.8 79.2 92.5 93.4 86.5 84.9 INDIA 95.5 98.0 101.9 89.9 96.1 71.6 78.2 76.4 69.7 73.1 Notes: 1. Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. 2. Gross attendance ratio in primary classes is the ratio of children aged 5-14 years currently attending grades 1-5 to children aged 6-10 years expressed per 100. Net attendance rate is the percentage of children aged 6-10 years attending grades 1-5. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey; 2000. 46 Table 17: Gross attendance ratio and net attendance rate in elementary classes (Grades 1-8) Gross attendance ratio Net attendance rate Sta.te/UDI Rural Urban Male Female 1btal Rural Urban Male Female 1btal Andhra Pradesh 81.3 89.4 90.9 76.4 83.5 64.2 71.3 72.0 60.5 66.2 Arunachal Pradesh nc nc 74.6 72.6 73.6 nc nc 49.3 47.4 48.3 Assam Bihar Goa Gujarat Haryana Himachal Pradesh Jammu & Kashmir Kama taka Kerala Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Manipur Meghalaya Mizoram Nagaland Orissa Punjab Rajasthan Sikkim Tamil Nadu Tripura Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar Chandigarh Dadra & Nagar Haveli baman & Diu Delhi Lakshadweep Pondichery 86.3 62.4 101.9 79.7 95.5 107.3 87.5 83.3 102.6 79.5 93.8 85.2 nc 84.6 nc 80.0 94.8 81.6 nc 96.8 nc 80.9 81.4 nc nc nc nc 95.5 nc nc 92.3 78.2 98.2 92.0 94.2 104.5 93.8 89.6 102.0 93.6 98.1 94.9 nc 99.5 nc 89.3 97.0 97.5 nc 97.7 nc 77.2 89.1 nc nc nc nc 91.8 nc nc 91.3 73.8 101.2 90.7 98.3 108.5 92.8 88.1 103.4 88.6 96.0 89.1 67.3 93.7 94.2 86.5 97.0 94.9 95.7 99.0 98.0 88.0 85.2 104.7 95.1 91.5 105.8 92.2 105.1 101.6 82.3 55.7 98.8 77.1 91.4 105.5 84.6 82.3 101.4 77.3 94.5 87.7 69.5 93.2 91.6 76.1 93.6 73.4 98.1 95.2 92.1 71.7 80.9 104.5 94.8 76.0 95.8 92.3 103.3 104.5 86.9 64.7 100.0 84.2 95.1 107.0 88.8 85.3 102.4 83.1 95.3 88.4 68.4 93.4 92.9 81.4 95.5 84.9 96.9 97.1 95.0 80.1 83.1 104.6 95.0 83.8 100.9 92.3 104.3 103.0 62.0 44.2 81.6 61.9 70.6 81.7 64.6 68.9 87.8 58.2 75.7 54.5 nc 59.3 nc 60.8 70.4 59.6 nc 77.2 nc 57.2 57.3 nc nc nc nc 72.6 nc nc 69.5 57.8 79.8 76.1 72.2 84.1 72.3 75 .3 84.6 70.4 80.5 68.5 nc 77.4 nc 71.3 73.9 73.2 nc 80.0 nc 57.0 66.3 nc nc nc nc 72.7 nc nc 66.1 51.5 81.4 71.5 72.8 82.2 69.1 73.2 86.3 64.6 76.5 61.0 39.4 70.5 68.9 66.9 71.5 69.0 65.0 78.8 72.6 60.4 61.8 79.7 75.2 69.2 78.4 73.8 81.9 79.4 59.2 40.9 80.0 62.3 69.0 81.7 63.0 68.5 87.4 57.9 78.3 57.3 41.7 69.5 66.3 57.7 71.5 54.9 65 .2 77.3 69.8 53.7 56.7 81.0 78.8 57.7 72.9 71.4 85.2 81.0 62.7 46.2 80.7 67.1 71.1 82.0 66.1 70.9 86.8 61.3 77.3 59.1 40.6 70.0 67.7 62.4 71.5 62.4 65.1 78.1 71.2 57.2 59.3 80.3 76.9 63.5 75.7 72.7 83.4 80.1 INDIA 81.4 89.7 89.0 77.5 83.4 60.6 70.1 66.2 59.5 62.9 Notes 1. Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. 2. Gross attendance ratio in elementary classes is the ratio of children aged 5-14 years currently attending grades 1-8 to children aged 6-13 years expressed per 100. Net attendance rate is the percentage of children aged 6-13 years attending grades 1-8. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey; 2000. 47 Percent children below 5 years Percent children below 5 years whose birth is reported to have whose birth registration been registered information was not reported 'Rural Ur1tan Rural Urbaa n.tal 27.7 44.1 32.4 8.1 6.8 7.7 nc nc 33.0 nc nc 1.3 27.1 59.7 29.8 0.8 0.9 0.8 0.9 7.5 1.6 4.5 4.8 4.6 95.7 95.0 95.3 0.5 0.9 0.7 84.5 93.5 87.5 0.8 0.2 0.6 77.3 66.7 74.7 5.7 5.2 5.6 94.0 89.9 93.6 1.8 2.2 1.8 46.7 52.5 47.9 8.5 6.5 8.1 45.2 64.3 51.0 15.6 8.9 13.6 88.3 90.4 89.0 4.6 3.0 4.2 30.1 29.5 29.9 19.4 13.7 18.0 77.6 85.1 80.4 6.0 1.7 4.4 28.5 25.0 27.5 1.7 3.1 2.1 nc nc 32.6 nc nc 1.5 78.1 88.1 84.2 3.6 1.6 2.4 nc nc 48.8 nc nc 0.2 7.5 24.4 9.7 5.7 6.0 5.7 90.3 85.2 88.9 2.1 5.4 3.0 5.5 40.0 12.4 6.4 8.3 6.8 nc nc 68.7 nc nc 1.2 62.7 82.0 69.1 4.7 2.2 3.9 nc nc 47.9 nc nc 1.6 3.0 22.2 6.5 8.1 7.5 8.0 48.6 62.1 51.2 0.8 1.5 0.9 nc nc 92.5 nc nc 0.7 nc nc 71.4 nc nc 2.4 nc nc 84.6 nc nc 0.9 nc nc 94.2 nc nc 0.0 63.3 72.0 70.8 1.6 1.4 1.5 nc nc 92.4 nc nc 2.4 nc nc 93.7 nc nc 0.6 INDIA 28.9 53.7 34.7 6.6 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 48 ==· 834 34 78 45 2 873 22 61 56 4 883 22 60 64 4 828 22 121 45 1 824 16 115 36 1 902 14 54 32 2 893 18 66 38 1 819 20 119 38 1 886 20 66 38 1 830 22 100 42 3 762 14 191 24 0 859 42 61 32 3 849 16 85 45 1 908 19 46 45 2 864 9 89 60 4 849 29 94 59 2 892 22 42 47 7 860 22 72 49 5 898 14 61 32 1 860 26 85 30 2 849 29 51 54 4 869 13 84 45 2 1iipura 907 16 47 48 3 Uttar Pradesh 820 39 115 42 1 West Bengal 897 26 49 37 3 892 12 53 35 3 895 18 48 34 1 918 12 48 35 4 884 7 76 52 4 906 23 42 28 2 670 14 288 34 1 835 12 103 51 0 849 27 90 41 2 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 49 - - - Table 20 : Marriage , fertility and pregnancy wastage I Mean age at marriage I State/U'DJ Andhra Pradesh Arunachal Pradesh Rural Urban Total 14.7 nc Assam 17.6 Bihar 14.4 Goa 21.6 Gujarat 16.6 Haryana 16.4 Himachal Pradesh 18.4 Jammu & Kashmir 18.1 Karnataka 16.4 Kerala 20.2 Madhya Pradesh 16.1 Maharashtra 16.1 ManipJrr 20.6 Meghalaya nc Mizoram 20.5 Nagaland nc Orissa 17.0 Punjab 18.9 Rajasthan 15.1 Sikkim nc Tamil Nadu 18.1 llipura nc Uttar Pradesh 16.1 West Bengal 16.2 Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar nc Chandigarh nc Dadra & Nagar Haveli nc Daman & Diu nc Delhi 17.2 Lakshadweep nc Pondichery nc INDIA 16.2 16.7 nc 19.1 16.1 21.9 18.5 18.4 19.9 19.5 17.9 20.5 17.5 19.3 21.7 nc 21.0 nc 18.4 19.8 17.7 nc 19.9 nc 17.5 18.1 nc nc nc nc 18.9 nc nc 18.3 15.3 18.2 17.8 14.6 21.7 17.3 17.0 18.6 18.4 16.9 20.3 16.5 17.4 21.0 19.4 20.8 19.2 17.2 19.2 15.8 19.0 18.7 18.4 16.4 16.7 18.5 19.4 16.3 18.2 18.7 18.6 19.2 16.8 Total fertiity rate 1 Pregnancy wastage I (o/~ Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total 2.42 1.86 2.25 5.9 8.3 6.6 nc nc 2.77 nc nc 3.1 3.38 4.35 1.97 3.41 3.22 2.83 3.61 2.72 2.36 4.61 3.23 3.73 nc 1.83 nc 3.33 2.74 4.67 nc 2.40 nc 5.14 2.58 nc nc nc nc 2.64 nc nc 3.63 1.79 2.76 1.86 2.74 2.76 2.24 2.33 2.19 2.04 3.14 1.91 2.56 nc 1.61 nc 1.93 2.28 2.85 nc 2.04 nc 3.40 1.54 nc nc nc nc 2.16 nc nc 2.35 3.17 4.11 1.91 3.15 3.09 2.77 3.25 2.56 2.26 4.17 2.64 3.30 4.50 1.69 3.51 3.09 2.58 4.16 2.52 2.27 1.99 4.75 2.29 2.06 2.13 4.14 2.15 2.21 3.30 1.94 3.25 6.5 11.9 7.1 5.0 6.4 5.2 10.0 11.3 10.6 5.4 9.3 6.8 7.9 12.0 9.1 7.1 7.4 7.1 6.7 8.2 7.0 5.2 6.6 5.6 9.6 10.7 9.9 5.3 8.6 6.1 3.8 7.9 5.3 8.6 12.2 9.8 nc nc 2.7 5.2 3.2 4.0 nc nc 4.3 6.8 9.7 7.3 8.9 14.9 10.9 4.6 8.5 5.5 nc nc 1.4 11.4 14.6 12.4 nc nc 7.1 8.1 9.8 8.4 6.2 7.4 6.5 nc nc 2.2 nc nc 14.4 nc nc 6.9 nc nc 7.7 11.8 12.9 12.7 nc nc 4.5 nc nc 10.4 6.6 9.4 7.3 Note: 1. Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. 2. Mean age at marriage is based on all ever-married women aged 15-49 years. 'Based on births during the year preceding the survey. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 50 Table 21: Antenatal care Percent mothers qed 1549 years who delivered during the year prececUng the ~ Received Received 2 or more 1 Had their blood antenatal checkup doses of TI hgections pressure checked State/UTS Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total Rural Urban Total Andhra Pradesh 88.1 94.1 89.7 68.8 82.4 72.2 80.3 88.9 82.5 Arunachal Pradesh nc nc 50.2 nc ·nc 35.8 nc nc 43.0 · Assam 52.2 88.7 55.0 36.2 69.6 .38.8 28.7 70.4 31.8 Bihar 45.4 74.6 48.3 46.5 70.3 48.8 18.9 47.0 21.7 Goa 98.0 96.4 97.2 85.7 81.8 83.9 94.6 93.6 94.1 Gujarat 82.7 92.6 86.0 64.7 84.6 71.3 48.7 72.3 56.5 Haryana 35.6 67.5 44.1 53.2 65.7 56.5 24.7 56.0 33.0 Himachal Pradesh 80.3 89.4 81.1 53.9 59.8 54.4 54.6 78.8 56.7 Jammu & Kashmir 77.2 90.9 79.9 57.6 76.1 61.3 65.5 86.3 69.7 Kamataka 82.3 89.0 84.2 67.0 74.7 69.2 66.7 83.1 71.4 Kerala 96.3 97.7 96.7 76.4 73.0 75.4 93.8 94.3 93.9 Madhya Pradesh 46.2 63.6 50.1 54.1 69.9 57.7 24.9 48.7 30.3 Maharashtra 86.8 95.2 89.4 65.2 73.6 67.8 54.8 91.2 66.1 Manipur 71.4 92.0 77.3 52.7 68.4 57.2 59.9 85.6 67.3 Meghalaya nc nc 55.4 nc nc 29.6 nc nc 45.6 Mizoram 62.9 88.2 78.9 37.1 48.0 44.0 50.2 76.5 66.8 Nagaland nc nc 48.5 nc nc 35.2 nc nc 38.6 Orissa 64.8 86.4 67.1 62.3 77.3 63.9 40.7 66.7 43.5 Plli?-Jab 63.4 77.7 67.7 44.1 61.5 49.3 45.9 67.7 52.5 Rajastlian 27.9 78.6 37.2 38.6 79.8 46.2 14.9 64.9 24.2 Silddrnn nc nc 69.0 nc nc ' 4.8 nc nc 53.7 Tamil Nadu 94.3 96.2 94.9 87.4 87.0 ' 7.3 82.5 89.3 84.8 Tripura nc nc 66.1 nc nc Sc· 1 nc nc 61.2 Uttar Pradesh 33.0 57.5 36.8 49.0 66.7 Sl.L 13.8 40.2 17.9 West Bengal 71.4 90.7 74.9 74.9 86.0 76.9 5~.5 76.7 61.8 Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar nc nc 92.8 nc nc 81.6 nc nc 89.3 Chandigarh nc nc 88.4 nc nc 64.1 nc nc 82.3 Dadra & Nagar Haveli nc nc 90.4 nc nc 66.8 nc nc 52.8 Daman & Diu nc nc 99.5 nc nc 93.6 nc nc 92.2 Delhi 76.4 80.8 80.1 72.7 72.4 72.5 68.5 75.4 74.3 LakShadweep nc nc 99.0 nc nc 77.8 nc nc 95.4 Pondicllery nc nc 97.6 nc nc 88.5 nc nc 92.3 INDIA 56.5 81.3 61.8 56.3 75.0 60.3 37.2 69.2 43.9 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 51 Table 22: Delivery characteristics Percent institutional Percent deliveries assisted Percent mothers who deliveries by a health professional t received postnatal care Rural Urban 'IOta1 Rural Urban 'IOta1 Rural Urban 'J.Otal 47.2 81.7 56.0 60.9 88.2 67.9 32.5 31.4 32.2 Arunachal Pradesh nc nc 26.7 nc nc 31.3 nc nc 7.7 Assam 10.7 51.3 13.8 17.4 58.3 20.5 11 .8 29.6 13.2 Bihar 10.4 40.0 13.3 14.1 48.6 17.5 7.4 18.9 8.6 Goa 94.6 91.8 93.3 95.1 91.8 93.5 75.9 76.4 76.1 39.3 75.0 51.1 49.4 78.7 59.1 42.7 63.8 49.7 21.9 46.4 28.5 38.6 60.8 44.6 15.9 18.7 16.6 29.8 61.4 32.5 41.4 70.5 43.9 14.6 29.5 15.9 34.2 73.1 42.0 39.1 77.2 46.7 17.9 30.5 20.4 44.1 75.3 52.9 54.7 80.5 62.0 29.6 37.0 31.7 Kerala 96.3 96.6 96.4 96.3 97.1 96.5 77.0 81.6 78.4 Madhya Pradesh 12.8 47.0 20.5 24.0 59.7 32.1 6.8 17.8 9.3 Maharashtra 38.4 85.6 53.0 47.4 90.4 60.8 54.5 89.6 65.4 Manipur 31.4 58.0 39.0 45.1 81.0 55.4 14.3 17.8 15.3 Meghalaya nc nc 26.8 nc nc 29.0 nc nc 10.7 Mizoram 31.0 82.4 63.5 38.0 82.4 66.0 12.2 20.6 17.5 Nagaland nc nc 12.0 nc nc 26.4 nc nc 8.8 Orissa 22.0 57.6 25.9 33.2 67.4 36.9 13.4 27.3 14.9 Punjab 30.5 54.6 37.7 55.6 74.6 61.3 20.2 33.1 24.1 Rajasthan 18.8 59.5 26.3 29.7 73.2 37.7 12.1 42.3 17.7 Sikkirn nc nc 32.7 nc nc 39.7 nc nc 28.8 Tamil Nadu 66.7 94.7 76.0 72.4 95.4 80.0 35.4 48.1 39.6 Tripura nc nc 36.0 nc nc 33.8 nc nc 35.5 Uttar Pradesh 14.8 35.2 17.9 20.5 54.8 25.8 10.7 24.7 12.8 33.1 72.1 40.2 35.4 73.3 42.3 18.6 39.5 22.4 Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar nc nc 69.5 nc nc 68.1 nc nc 30.8 Chandigarl:i nc nc 64.0 nc nc 74.2 nc nc 29.2 Dadra & Na ar Haveli nc nc 27.9 nc nc 31.7 nc nc 41.8 D<!!!lan & Diu nc nc 70.3 nc nc 72.3 nc nc 60.6 Delhi 44.2 62.1 59.4 60.6 67.0 66.0 21.2 34.0 32.1 Lakshadweep nc nc 72.1 nc nc 85.4 nc nc 48.5 Pondichery nc nc 90.2 nc nc 94.2 nc nc 77.3 INDIA 26.4 64.6 34.5 34.2 73.5 42.5 19.9 41.0 24.3 Notes:l. Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. 2. This table is based on mothers who delivered during the year preceding the survey. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 52 Percent currently married women aged 15-49 years Us1-- any contraceptive Using any modern aaaa contraceptive Rural Urban 'lbtal RaJ'al Urban 'lbtal Andhra Prad!)sh Arunachal Pradesh GQa 59.2 nc 47.3 24.6 50.7 57.0 50.4 70.1 . 33.0 58.4 62.6 41.9 62.2 nc 58.4 45.9 57.2 59.8 55.2 65.5 60.1 58.0. 60.6 53.5 61.2 52.4 Manigur 36.7 40.6 Meghalaya nc nc Mizoram 41.9 53.3 Nagaland nc nc Orissa 39.1 52.5 Pun.@b 48.1 50.4 Rajasthan 36.5 56.8 Sikkim nc nc Tamil Nadu 49.9 47.5 Tripura nc nc UJ!ar Pradesh 21.0 43.3 West Bengal 69.9 73.5 Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar nc nc Chandigarh nc nc Dadra & Nagar Haveli nc nc Daman & Diu nc nc Delhi 59.3 61.3 Lakshadweep nc nc Pondichery nc nc INDIA 43.8 55.3 60.0 38.4 48.7 27.5 54.0 58.1 51.9 69.6 39.8 58.3 62.0 45.1 57.5 38.0 13.7 49.0 38.8 41.2 48.9 41.7 46.7 49.0 52.2 25.4 70.8 56.6 52.6 43.1 56.6 61.1 17.0 57.2 46.9 58.6 nc 24.1 21.6 35.6 51.6 48.9 64.3 30.3 55.3 57.5 39.3 61.6 nc 39.0 42.3 36.7 53.3 51.9 62.2 57.6 54.8 54.1 49.7 59.7 50.6 18.5 26.3 nc nc 41.7 52.8 nc nc 37.1 48.9 44.7 47.8 32.1 52.3 nc nc 48.6 46.8 nc nc 19.0 39.1 52.8 48.8 nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc 50.8 53.5 nc nc nc nc 39.5 49.9 59.4 30.3 26.0 24.4 36.2 52.3 49.8 64.1 37.2 55.1 56.4 42.2 57.9 nc 12.2 19.4 27.5 46.4 40.4 53.9 21.6 53.0 51.4 35.2 55.9 55.8 21.2 8.1 12.7 nc 48.6 34.8 26.8 nc 39.0 31.8 45.7 28.8 37.2 28.1 42.5 nc 47.9 45.6 37.9 nc 23.0 13.0 51.7 37.2 54.6 nc 51.8 nc 39.3 nc 52.9 nc 53.2 28.2 10.8 nc 56.7 nc 42.3 33.9 57.9 nc 15.0 32.5 23.4 37.1 29.6 38.3 42.0 46.2 46.4 34.0 57.9 16.1 12.6 21.2 25.4 42.9 37.2 52.3 26.8 50.8 49.8 34.9 33.6 46.6 11.8 9.4 nc 5.3 40.6 38.4 nc 11.1 35.6 32.4 20.0 25.9 35.5 30.0 nc 26.9 37.3 42.6 nc 16.2 20.2 14.4 30.2 35.3 nc 45.7 nc 21.4 nc 34.3 nc 43.0 23.0 23.7 nc 8.8 nc 53.2 35.1 34.2 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 53 Percent women aged 15-49 years who have heard of HIV I AIDS Ever married women Never married women All women Rural Urban 'lbtal Rural Urban 'lbta1 ~ Urban 'lb~ Andhra Pradesh 63.6 nc 20.8 6.1 76.7 11.5 26.5 56.7 17.8 56.0 85.6 11.2 43.3 83.7 nc 63.7 39.4 85.5 36.3 59.5 82.3 45.9 76.4 89.9 49.9 74.5 88.8 98.4 nc nc Mizoram 72.4 93.9 Nagaland nc nc Orissa 31.9 66.7 Punjab 43.2 64.5 Rajasthan 11.2 59.3 Sikkim nc nc Tamil Nadu 66.7 84.9 Tripura nc nc Uttar Piadesh 10.3 49.2 West Benga.I 19.5 62.3 Union Territories Andaman & Nicobar nc nc Chandigarh nc nc Dadra & Nagar Haveli nc nc Daman & Diu nc nc Delhi 56.6 73.8 Lakshadweep nc nc PondiChery nc nc INDIA. 29.4 65.4 69.4 35.9 26.2 10.6 81.2 20.9 36.4 59.4 24.9 62.7 86.9 21.8 56.2 92.1 38.4 85.9 50.0 37.5 50.1 23.5 53.4 73.1 51.9 18.0 31.0 51.5 71.2 22.4 47.1 71.7 73.7 86.7 39.3 73.8 nc 39.3 14.8 90.2 24.0 57.0 75.4 36.5 74.0 86.3 32.8 62.9 85.1 nc 78.4 61.2 93.0 50.3 79.6 92.9 67.4 84.4 89.6 74.3 84.7 91.2 97.7 nc nc 81.8 96.8 nc nc 57.9 82.6 61.7 71.7 31.8 80.3 nc nc 76.4 83.1 nc nc 28.0 62.8 39.6 83.7 nc nc nc nc nc nc nc nc 83.6 81.3 nc nc nc nc 50.2 76.6 79.3 57.0 45.1 28.3 91.5 37.4 65.2 77.6 45.0 77.9 87.4 52.0 74.7 64.5 nc 25.5 7.0 81.5 13.4 31.3 61.2 24.3 59.5 85.8 13.6 46.3 84.0 nc 68.0 44.3 88.0 39.5 63.6 85.3 53.9 78.2 89.8 55.4 76.9 70.6 41.1 31.1 12.7 84.7 23.9 41.3 63.9 32.0 65.8 87.0 26.2 59.7 93.9 89.7 98.1 92.8 53.5 nc nc 43.4 91.9 75.8 95.1 88.3 63.9 nc nc 54.8 63.2 37.1 70.9 43.0 65.6 47.7 66.7 54.3 53.2 13.3 63.6 27.3 70.1 nc nc 59.2 79.2 68.7 84.5 74.5 62.8 nc nc 54.7 41.1 12.5 52.7 21.6 59.9 21.8 67.2 35.4 68.8 nc nc 56.3 83.3 nc nc 74.0 34.5 nc nc 23.8 52.9 nc nc 48.7 81.5 61.7 75.6 74.0 82.4 nc nc 76.1 90.2 nc nc 87.7 60.9 32.5 68.1 43.1 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 54 ) I \ Table 25: Knowledge about venical transmission of HIVJAIDS, anitude towards HIV/AIDS infected , and response to asking the men to use condom Percent of all women aged 15-49 years Know all three wa)'S of vertical' Acree that an IDV/AIDS bd'eded traJUimlssloa of HlV 1 AIDS periiOil am coatlaue to work Acree that •-am .uk lbe mea to - eoadom' State/1J'JB Rural Urban 'lbtal Raral Urban 'lbtal Rural Urban Andhra Pradesh 44.2 52.5 46.8 26.8 44.9 32.5 35.4 44.2 38.7 Arunachal Pradesh nc nc 17.2 nc nc 15.9 nc nc 52.3 Assam 12.4 32.3 15.0 7.1 32.1 10.4 42.0 56:6 46.2 Bihar 3.6 24.7 6.8 3.0 20.4 5.7 45.3 55.7 50.9 Goa 40.7 41.0 40.8 42.9 54.8 48.8 56.9 63.8 60.5 Gujarat 7.2 17.8 11.5 5.8 22.8 12.6 55.0 64.5 61.4 Haryana 17.0 30.4 21.1 15.5 38.0 22.5 54.5 65.3 59.6 Himachal Pradesh 30.2 38.2 31.1 29.5 53.0 32.1 65 .3 75.3 66.8 Jammu and Kashmir 15.3 29.6 19.0 9.4 32.6 15.5 44.1 59.0 50.7 Karnatal<a 38.1 45.3 40.6 22.6 40.6 28.7 52.8 64.5 57.5 Kerala 37.7 34.4 36.6 33.3 42.0 36.0 31.4 34.6 32.4 Madhya Pradesh 6.9 26.9 13.0 6.0 30.1 13.2 43.5 55.6 51.2 Miiliarashtra 26.4 37.7 31.4 16.8 48.7 30.7 50.2 64.0 58.0 Manipur 48.3 53.4 50.2 53.3 75.0 61.3 43.4 52.1 46.8 Meghalaya nc nc 21.0 nc nc 13.0 nc nc 60.7 Mizoram 49.4 62.9 58.1 25.3 40.0 34.8 66.8 77.1 74.0 Nagaland nc nc 26.2 nc nc 20.8 nc nc 52.6 Orissa 21.3 33.3 23.4 18.1 41.3 22.1 34.7 45.9 37.9 Punjab 35.4 47.8 39.6 25.8 42.5 31.5 59.1 68.9 63.2 Rajasthan 6.6 29.0 12.8 5.5 36.1 14.0 36.3 53.9 47.7 Sikkim nc nc 21.1 nc nc 25.5 nc nc 54.5 Tamil Nadu 41.1 44.2 42.2 27.3 47.9 34.9 29.7 43.2 35.3 Tripura nc nc 29.9 nc nc 17.6 nc nc 29.7 Uttar Pradesh 7.9 31.7 13.3 6.7 31.8 12.3 60.6 66.3 63.7 W':st Bengal 12.0 31.0 17.7 9.5 41.4 19.0 41.4 41.1 41.2 Union Thrritories Andaman & Nicobar nc nc 36.9 nc nc 40.0 nc nc 58.9 Chandigarh nc nc 36.1 nc nc 50.8 nc nc 77.5 Dadra & Nagar Haveli nc nc 14.0 nc nc 8.2 nc nc 38.0 Daman & Diu nc nc 30.8 nc nc 20.6 nc nc 30.5 Delhi 35.3 38.1 37.8 38.5 51.9 50.4 76.0 79.2 78.9 Lakshadweep nc nc 34.4 nc nc 28.5 nc nc 25.5 Pondichery nc nc 46.9 nc nc 45.5 nc nc 39.4 INDIA 19.1 35.7 24.0 13.6 39.0 21.2 42.2 55.1 48.2 Note: Data for Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, and Uttar Pradesh refer to their status before bifurcation. During pregnancy, at delivery; and through breastmilk. 2Based on those who have heard of HIV I AIDS. nc: Not calculated because of limited sample. Source: Multiple Indicator Survey, 2000. 55 • ~ unicef UNICEF India Country Office 73, Lodhi Estate New Delhi 110 013 Tel: 011-469 0401 Fax: 011-4601410 hup: I /www.childinfo.org

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