India Multiple Indicator Cluster Survey 1995-1996

Publication date: 1996

Multi Indicator Cluster Surveys India 1995-96 Draft Summary Report 16 August 1996 Multi Indicator Cluster Surveys- India 1995-96 Draft Summary Report Introduction During 1995-96 a number of Multi Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) were carried out. Roughly 150,000 households were visited and an impressive 8 lakh people were covered. A summary of the results in the more than 100 surveys in 12 states that represent approximately 88% of the total population in India are presented in this report. For easy reference the results of the National Family Health Survey of 1992-93 have been included where available. This will enable measuring of progress in the three years that went between the NFHS and the MICS. 1 The accompanying note explains in more detail the technical aspects of the different surveys and the limitation of the interpretation of the results. Furthermore, a set of maps have been attached for easy reference. Water and Sanitation The MICS show that on an average 77.0% of the households had access to safe water in the form of tap water, tube well or protected dugwell - either within the dwelling or in the community. The proportion of households with access to safe water varies from 56.5% in Orissa to more than 97% in both Madhya Pradesh and West Bengal. The use of sanitary latrines defined as using a water seal toilet or a covered pit latrine is very low at around 24%. This is in line with other surveys including the NFHS and the Habitation Survey. Most other household members use open fields for defecation. The interstate variation is high with only 12.2% using sanitary latrines in Orissa to almost 50% in Assam. Immunization Access to safe water Use of samtary latnnes (proport1on of households) MICS NFHS MICS NFHS Andhra Pradesh 81.2% 634% 154% 24.4% Assam 76.0% 432% 409% 49.6% B1har 87.3% 636% 3.4% 16.5% Gujarat 82.9% 75.1% 35.0% 35.8% Kamataka 87.2% 75.6% 11.0% 40.8% Madhya Pradesh 97.8% 55.8% 24.9% 21.3% Maharashtra 35.0% 78.5% n.a. 40.8% Orissa 56.5% 509% 7.2% 122% Rajasthan 73.8% 57.3% 25.8% 198% Tamil Nadu 81 8% 74.6% 29.6% 29.4% Uttar Pradesh 716% 74.3% 33.2% 229% West Bengal 97.1% 849% 40.9% 40.4% Total 77.0% 69.1% 24.4% 26.6% Note· The NFHS study was camed out 1n 1992-93, whereas the MICS were conducted 1n 1995-96 The studies reveal that a little more than half (52.4%) of the children are fully immunized with BCG, 3 doses each of OPT and OPV, and Measles by the age of one. The coverage increases to almost 66% by the age of two. This indicates a significant improvement in comparison with the results of the NFHS. However, one third of infants are still not protected against preventable diseases at the age of two. Across states major differences in coverage is revealed . Less than a quarter of the children in Bihar have been fully immunized at the age of one, whereas the coverage in Karnataka is reported to be 73.1 %. Coverage by the age of two shows similar differences. 1Some caution IS raised in companng state averages as the NFHS and the MICS d1ffer in both sampling methods and definitions of certain indicators -Page 1- I Multi Indicator Cluster Surveys- India 1995-96 Draft Summary Report The first dose of Vitamin A supplement which is to be given with the measles vaccine was given to almost 60% of infants. Although large interstate differences persist, the overall result suggests that a strengthened effort is needed in this area. Completely immunized - by first year - by second Rece1ved VItamin A with measles vaccine Nutrition Contrary to the popular belief on breast- feeding practices in India, the survey results suggest major areas of concern. Although breast-feeding is recommended to be commenced within the first hour after birth, only a little more than one quarter of the mothers of newborns start breast-feeding within the first four hours after giving birth. Large interstate Andhra Pradesh Assam Bihar Gujarat Karnataka Madhya Pradesh Maharashtra Orissa Rajasthan Tam11 Nadu Uttar Pradesh West Bengal Total year MICS NFHS MICS 60 3% 45.0% 71 9% 36 8% 19.4% 40 3% 23.7% 10.7% n a 59.0% 49.8% 64.0% 731% 607% 72 0% 576% 381% 55 0% 503% 46.7% 52.4% 522% 292% 641% 361% 211% 649% 19.8% 34.2% 35.6% 76.3% n a. 84.3% 60.6% 54.3% n a. 57 9% 507% 63.7% Note The NFHS study was earned out 1n 1992-93, whereas the MICS were conducted 1n 1995-96 MICS 48.1% 40.5% 25.6% 48.0% 63.0% 66.9% 93.9% 49.5% 90.5% n.a. 56.5% 42.5% 57.0% differences emphasize this: Whereas around two thirds (63.7%) of the mothers in Assam start breast- feeding rather quickly after giving birth, only about one out of ever 10 women in Gujarat and Rajasthan have the same practice (11.2% and 7.6% respectively). Complementary feeding on a regular basis begins generally too late confirming that we have a long way to go for operationalising the nutrition strategy. Less than one fifth start complementary feeding at the recommended age of between 4 and 6 months. At the age of 6-9 months an additional 34.8% are given complementary feeding, however, the studies suggest that most children start receiving mushy/semi-solid food at a rather late stage thereby increasing the risk of growth faltering and malnuntrition. Almost three fifths little more than half of the mothers gave their children vitamin A-rich foods in the three days prior to the survey. Seasonal variations in Age of mtroducmg solid foods Breast feeding 4-<6 6-<9 init1at1on Within months months 4 hours MICS MICS MICS Andhra Pradesh 23.2% 21.6% 30.9% Assam 656% 270% 35.7% Bihar na n.a. n.a. Gujarat 112% n.a. n a. Karnataka 400% 144% 20.5% Madhya Pradesh n.a. n a. n a. Maharashtra 28.3% 12.2% 281% Onssa 255% 182% 35.4% Rajasthan 7.6% na n.a. Tamil Nadu na n.a. n.a. Uttar Pradesh n.a. 24.6% n.a. West Bengal 21.0% 15.9% 55.4% Total 25.3% 19.3% 34.8% the availability of Vitamin A-rich foods may have an influence here. Children Households receiving USing 10d1sed v1tamin A rich salt foods MICS MICS 49.2% 14.5% 863% 82 8% n.a. 81.5% 283% 58.4% 48.3% 13.2% n.a. 885% 76.7% 35.1% 0.0% 514% 71.0% 41.0% 67.3% 10.8% 631% 29.0% 67.7% 96.4% 58.8% 48.6% Salt iodisation is showing progress. From a situation five years ago where virtually none of the salt was iodised, the survey shows that around half of salt consumed in India has been iodised. Although states like West Bengal, Assam, Bihar and Madhya Pradesh are showing high use of iodised salt (above 80% of the consumed salt iodised) at the household level, other states yet a some way to go. States such as Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu with only around 10% of the salt iodised need an extra effort -Page 2- I Multi Indicator Cluster Surveys - India 1995-96 Draft Summary Report to avoid the consequences of iodine deficiency disorders such as goitre and retardation. Management of Diarrhoea and knowlegde of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) Oral Rehydration Solution (ORS) is advised in around half the cases where a child is taken to a health provider, and even so only around one third of the children with diarrhoea actually receive ORS. This figure confirms ORS use rates of the NFHS, and underlines the fact that strengthened effort in this area is needed. Further analysis in some states (Assam, West Bengal and Tamil Nadu) suggests that this effort is particularly needed vis a vis the private doctors. Whereas government do recommend ORS, private doctors are rather unlikely to prescribe ORS. It seems that more expensive but less effective medication is being prescribed. Selected studies elsewhere (New Delhi) support this finding. Regarding use of Oral Rehydration Therapy there seems to be a general lack of awareness of the correct practices, namely the need to offer more fluid to drink and to continue feeding the sick child. Only around one third of the parents offer more fluids to their child, and only a little more than half make sure Oral Rehydration Solut1on Oral Reh~dration Thera~~ More More or More, same, Continued Knowledge Advised Received flUid same fluid somewhat less feeding ofARI- offered consumed food consumed rate danger s1gns MICS MICS NFHS MICS MICS MICS MICS MICS Andhra Pradesh 441% 494% 32.5% 241% 70.7% 52.3% 760% 25.5% Assam 52.2% 26.2% 352% 274% 65.5% 61 9% 619% 183% B1har n.a. n a. 230% n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. n.a. Gujarat 382% 34.5% 207% 54.6% 98.6% 564% 56.4% 55.7% Kamataka 586% 37 8% 340% 30.8% 691% 586% 26.1% 21.3% Madhya Pradesh 713% 44 9% 330% 14.7% n.a. 516% n.a. 40.8% Maharashtra na 32.1% 417% n.a. n.a. na n a. n.a. Orissa 97% 8.9% 411% 25.5% 64.6% 634% 634% 24.2% Rajasthan 446% n.a 227% 13.4% 64.3% 520% 52.0% n.a. Tam1l Nadu 32 8% 328% 271% 24 3% 51.7% 487% 48.7% 29.1% Uttar Pradesh 566% 29.1% 227% 53 3% 53.3% 380% 515% 40.8% West Bengal 69 0% 37.8% 74.7% 57.0% 89.7% 793% 793% 353% Total 51.2% 34.5% 35.6% 36.0% 67.4% 53.3% 57.4% 34.6% Note The NFHS study was earned out 1n 1992-93, whereas the MICS were conducted 1n 1995-96 that the child is continuously fed during the diarrhoea episode. Considerable progres has been made on mortality reduction and the survey points to additional gains that can be made by (i) improving the prescription practice of private practitioners and (ii) improving the knowledge of care givers on caring practices during diarrhoea. Parents' knowledge of the danger signs of Acute Respiratory Infections (ARI) suggest that around 34.6% of the parents are aware of the three danger symptoms during ARI.2 2The survey methodology allowed for multiple answers with three answers ('fast breathing', 'fever' and 'difficulty in breathing') were right answers in this respect. Also, here large interstate differences are revealed. -Page 3- Multi Indicator Cluster Surveys - India 1995-96 Education The survey revealed that nearly 90% of children in the age-group 5-1 0 years enrol in primary school. The drop-out rates vary from 1.0% in Orissa to a high of 33.9% in Bihar. MICS shows high attendance rates for the children enrolled in school in comparison to NFHS. Despite interstate differences almost all states have attendance records higher than 80%, i.e. 80% or more children in the primary school were attending school in the three days prior to the survey. Consequently, drop out rates are, barring Bihar with a drop out rate of one third, encouragingly low. Maternal Health and Birth Spacing Draft Summary Report Dropped out Currently attending MICS MICS NFHS Andhra Pradesh 13 1% 85.3% 63.3% Assam 45% 89.8% 70.1% Bihar 33.9% 54.2% 51.3% Gujarat 33% 84.0% 75.7% Karnataka 5.2% 89.9% 70.5% Madhya Pradesh 87% 91.8% 62.3% Maharashtra 12.9% 82.8% 81.5% Onssa 10% 91.5% 69.6% Rajasthan 2.3% 79.2% 58.8% Tamil Nadu 4.2% 81.7% 82.4% Uttar Pradesh 34% 66.4% 61.3% West Bengal 44% 69.2% 67.7% Total 9.4% 77.0% 66.5% Note The NFHS study was earned out 1n 1992-93, whereas the MICS were conducted 1n 1995-96 The survey reveals that too many women get pregnant at too young an age and their pregnancies are not adequately spaced. Almost three out of every ten girls get pregnant before their 18th birthday, and six out of 10 women become pregnant before the age of 20 -a result that confirms earlier findings by the NFHS. Birth spacing is inadequate. Only a little more Age of first pregnancy Birth Interval Women using than one third of the women between last two family planning practice the recommended <18 years <20 years deliveries more method than 36 months interval of three years between MICS MICS NFHS MICS NFHS MICS NFHS two births. Andhra Pradesh 38.4% 77.0% 60.1% 367% 43.7% 34.4% 465% Assam 7.5% 48.3% 70.6% 30.4% 35.2% 37.5% 19.8% This fact is further B1har na n.a. 48.2% n.a. 44.2% n.a. 216% corraborated by the low use of Gujarat 10 7% 46.1% 55.7% 249% 33.8% 26.0% 469% family planning methods. Only Karnataka 33.4% 58.8% 71.7% 32.7% 34.6% 45.1% 473% Madhya Pradesh 37.6% 81.5% 54.9% 55 0% 39.6% 26.5% 35.5% a little more than one fourth of Maharashtra n.a. n.a. 68.1% n.a. 33.2% n.a. 52.5% the couples surveyed use any Orissa 28.8% 60.4% 59.8% 205% 42.1% 21.1% 34.6% modern type of contraceptive. Rajasthan 259% 46 8% 45.4% 222% 42.5% 214% 30.9% Interestingly, couples using Tamil Nadu 15 8% 30.7% 65.0% 36.8% 398% 180% 45.2% temporary methods (pills, Uttar Pradesh n.a. n.a. 494% 30.5% 402% 270% 18.5% condoms etc.) is less than 1 0% West Bengal 312% 67.4% 634% 49.0% 401% n a. 37.3% on an average suggesting the Total 27.7% 59.9% 60.3% 35.4% 39.7% 28.0% 34.2% emphasis that is needed for Note The NFHS study was earned out 1n 1992-93, whereas the MICS were conducted 1n 1995-96 better maternal and child health. Encouragingly, two thirds of pregnant women receive the full immunization against tetanus as either two full doses of TT or one booster dose in case of a full vaccination in an earlier pregnancy - thereby relieving millions of women of the risk of getting tetanus while giving birth and also reducing the risk of neonatal tetanus in newborns. Also, iron supplements is given to about two thirds of the pregnant women thereby suggesting that if the issue of compliance is addressed it is indeed possible to reduce the number of anaemic women and hence the risks that are associated with this. The distribution of IFA -Page 4- Multi Indicator Cluster Surveys- India 1995-96 Draft Summary Report supplements shows considerable progress over the past couple of years in comparison with the results of the NFHS. The number of institutional deliveries and the proportion of births attended by a trained health professional (a doctor, a nurse or a trained dai) is low at 32.5% and 53.9% respectively. Although too low there is definite progress in this area when comparing with the results of the NFHS. With the emphasis on strengthening institutions for emergency obstetric care, such progress would indeed argue well for a reduction in maternal mortality. Full IT Blood IFA supplements Rece1ved Institutional Birth attended by 1mmunizat1on pressure rece1ved more delivery tra1ned health received checked than 50 professional tabs MICS NFHS MICS MICS NFHS MICS MICS NFHS MICS NFHS Andhra Pradesh 85.3% 74.8% n.a. 83.2% 764% 83.2% 34.5% 32.8% 65.4% 49.3% Assam 54 3% 34.9% n a. n a. 394% n.a. 16.3% 11 .1% 29.5% 17.9% Bihar 454% 30.7% n a. 24 8% 214% n.a. 11 .1% 12.1% 34.5% 19.0% Gujarat 797% 62.7% 52.0% 817% 693% 554% 40.0% 35.6% 65.3% 425% Karnataka 79 8% 69.8% n.a. 82.1% 74.9% 821% 36 0% 37.5% 63.2% 509% Madhya Pradesh 73 9% 42.8% n a. 719% 44 3% na 24.7% 15.9% 49.9% 30.0% Maharashtra 64.9% 71 0% n a. 88.2% 70.6% na 334% 43.9% 66.1% 532% Onssa 73.1% 53 8% 410% 787% 49.9% 47.4% 18 3% 14.1% 29.6% 205% Rajasthan 43.3% 28 3% n a. 48.6% 29.2% na 246% 11 .6% 42.8% 218% Tamil Nadu 929% 901% n.a 822% 841% 44.1% 72.3% 63.4% 82.4% 712% Uttar Pradesh 545% 37.4% n.a 604% 29.5% 210% 265% 11 .2% 48.5% 17.2% West Bengal 727% 75.3% n.a 83.0% 563% 73.1% 540% 31 .5% 57.7% 33.0% Total 66.6% 54.8% 47.2% 68.8% 51.4% 55.2% 32.5% 26.0% 53.9% 34.6% Note The NFHS study was camed out 1n 1992-93. whereas the MICS were conducted 1n 1995-96 -Page 5- Multi Indicator Cluster Surveys - India 1995-96 Draft Summary Report Technical note The Multi Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) carried out in the 12 states for which data is presented in this survey comes from visits to more than 140,000 households comprising more than 800,000 household members. The surveys were carried out in accordance with the selection procedure suggested in the UNICEF Handbook "Monitoring Progress toward the goals of the World Summit for Children - A Practical Handbook for Multiple-Indicator Surveys", namely using the Cluster Survey Method. The reason for this is the following: Communities may vary considerably in population. If simple random or systematic sampling is used, both large and small communities will have the same probability of being included, which is incorrect. One way of compensating for these differences is to choose clusters from the sampling frame with probability proportional to size (PPS). One advantage of PPS is that, if properly used, each household in the sample will have an equal chance of being selected. The sample is then said to be self-weighting, which will simplify the analysis. Using a procedure developed for the purpose, 20 clusters for each universe (district, states, urban area, slum area etc.) were selected for each individual survey. For sample size determination, measles immunization was taken as the indicator least in occurrence, for which the target group is children in the age-group 12-23+ months. Therefore, in each cluster all households and their family members in the relevant age-groups were surveyed until the interviewers in the particular cluster had recorded 15 children in the age-group 12-23+ months. This method ensures a precision level of at least +/- 10% for all the indicators. lnd1cator Water and Sanitation Access to safe water (proportion of households) Use of samtary latnnes Immunisation coverages Completely 1mmumzed by 1st year Completely 1mmumzed by 2nd year Rece1ved v1tam1n A w1th measles vacc1ne Diarrhoea and ARI Management Children advised to use ORS Children who received ORS ORT - More fluid offered ORT - More or same amount of fluid consumed ORT - More, same or somewhat less food consumed Continued feed1ng rate Knowledge of ARI-danger s1gns Nutrition Breast feed1ng 1n1t1at1on wrth1n 4 hours Complementary feed1ng - 4-<6 months - 6-<9 months Children rece1v1ng v1tam1n A rich foods Households us1ng 1od1sed salt Education Dropped out Currently attend1ng Antenatal and maternal care Age at f~rst pregnancy - Younger than 18 -Younger than 20 B1rth Interval between last two dehvenes more than 36 months Women us1ng fam1ly planning method Full TT 1mmun1Zatlon rece1ved Blood pressure checked IFA supplements rece1ved ReceiVed more than 50 tablets Proportion oftotal Nat1onal Indian population Est1mate by surveyed by MICS MICS 88.1% 78.8% 88.1% 63.5% 81.5% 68.5% 72.7% 68.5% 60.7'/o 68.5% 60.7% 63.3% 47.0% 53.4% 36.9% 63.1% 88.1% 88.1% 88.1% 52.1% 52.1% 68.5% 60.5% 88.1% 8.6% 85.4% 52.9% 770% 244% 524% 637% 57.0% 512% 345% 360% 67.4% 53.3% 574% 34.6% 25.3% 193% 348% 588% 486% 94% 770% 277% 599',{, 354% 280% 666% 472% 68.8% 552% Together the 12 states for Institutional delivery 88.1% 32 5% WhiCh data iS available COVer abOUt 88% B1rth attended by tra1ned health professional 88.1% 53 9% of the total population of India. However, information on all indicators in each state are not included in this report at this juncture, and therefore the proportion of the population surveyed varies accordingly. The table here shows for each indicator the proportion of the population of India they represent. Where only district reports were available, weighted averages have been calculated using the district population figures from the 1991 Census. As there are slight variations across states regarding survey methodology, design of questionnaire and size of study, some details are given below for each state: -Page 6- . Multi Indicator Cluster Surveys - India 1995-96 Draft Summary Report Andhra Pradesh The results are derived as weighted averages of MICS in the districts of Adilabad, Chittoor, East Godavari, Guntur, Karimnagar, Khammam, Krishna, Mahbubnagar, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Prakasam, Rangareddi, Visakhapatnam, Vizianagaram, Warangal and West Godavari. The total number of households covered in the surveys was 34,009. In each district 20 clusters were selected with probability proportional to size. The districts cover a population of 47.9 million people, some 72.0% of the state's total population. For some of the listed districts the reports do no include information in some of the indicators, thereby resulting in a less represented population for some of the indicators. Assam A rural as well as an urban study was conducted at the state level selecting 20 clusters selected by cluster technique with probability proportional to size. The figures used in this summary are the rural figures only. The rural survey covers 2,057 households. Bihar The results in this study relate to rural areas in 15 districts only and are primarily collected from the earlier formats of MICS done in the state. Gujarat A rural as well as an urban study was made selecting 20 clusters selected by cluster technique with probability proportional to size. The figures used in this summary are the rural figures only. The rural survey covers 2, 196 households. Karnataka The results are derived as weighed averages of Multi Indicator Coverage Evaluation Survey in the districts of Bangalore (rural}, Belgaum, Bellary, Bidar, Bijapur, Chikmagalur, Chitradurga, Dakshin Kannada, Dharwad, Gulbarga, Hassan, Kodagu, Kolar, Mandya, Mysore, Raichur, Shimoga, Tumkur and Uttar Kannada. The total number of households surveyed was 34,814. In each district 20 clusters were selected by cluster technique with probability proportional to size. The districts cover a population of 39.1 million people, some 87.0% of the state's total population. For some of the listed districts some of the indicators have not been recorded, thereby resulting in a less represented population. Madhya Pradesh The results are derived as weighed averages of Multi Indicator Rapid Surveys in three districts (Jhabua, Indore and Bilaspur) covering a population of6.8 million people, some 10.2% of the state's total population. 2,683 households were covered in the three surveys. In each district 30 clusters were selected by cluster technique with probability proportional to size. Maharashtra A rural study was made selecting 15 villages in each district selected by cluster technique with probability proportional to size. The figures used in this summary are the rural figures only. The rural survey covers -Page 7- . . Multi Indicator Cluster Surveys- India 1995-96 Draft Summary Report some 17,209 households in 150 villages. Orissa The MICS that is representative of the whole state covers 2,485 households. Twenty clusters were selected by cluster technique with probability proportional to size. Rajasthan This survey was carried out in all the state's districts, covering 34,549 households. In each district 20 clusters were selected by cluster technique with probability proportional to size. The displayed figures are the weighed state averages. Tamil Nadu The MICS covers both rural and urban settings and covered 6,877 households in 2*20 clusters selected by cluster technique with probability proportional to size. The figures in the tables are the weighed state- averages. Uttar Pradesh The MIRA survey covered 12,516 households in 21 districts. In each district 15 clusters were selected by cluster technique with probability proportional to size. The figures in the tables are the weighed state- averages. West Bengal An MICS was performed covering both slum, non-slum and rural population with 20 clusters in each survey. The total number of households surveyed was 3,206 in 3*20 randomly selected clusters selected with probability proportional to size. The displayed totals are the weighed averages of the results from these three studies. -Page 8- Table 1: Basic indicators Draft, nol proof-read Life Infant Under five Population, Annual births, Annual number of expentancy at Literacy rate, mortality mortality rate thousands Estimated population, thousands infant deaths, SOP, per capita birth, years population 7+ State/UT rate (1994) (1992-93) (1991) thousands (1996) (1991) thousands (1991) (1993-94) (1990-92) (1991) male female Andhra Pradesh 63 91 2 66,508 74,119 1,7292 122 8 6,651 590 61 5 441% Arunachal Pradesh na 720 865 1,011 26 7 1 7 7,904 na na 416% Assam 77 1422 22,414 24,984 6926 54 0 5,916 548 53 8 529% B1har 66 127.5 86,374 96,005 2,651 7 190 9 3,650 604 58 3 38 5% Goa na 389 1,170 1,260 197 04 11,658 na n a. 755% Gujarat 64 104 0 41,310 45,477 1,1360 784 7,600 591 61 3 613% Haryana 67 987 16,464 18,583 544 9 38 7 10,359 622 636 558% H1machal Pradesh 67 691 5,171 5,683 147 4 103 6,519 63 8 64 2 639% Jammu and Kashmir na 591 7,719 8,764 na na 4,244 na na na Kamataka 65 87 3 44,977 49,499 1,2099 883 7,029 60 0 636 560% Kerala 16 32 0 29,099 31,112 532 5 91 6,242 68 8 744 898% Madhya Pradesh 98 130 3 66,181 74,534 2,369 3 263 0 5,485 541 53 5 442% Maharashtra 54 70.3 78,937 88,512 2,068.2 122 0 10,984 631 64.7 649% Man1pur na 61 7 1,837 2,089 36 9 09 5,362 na na 599% Meghalaya na 869 1,775 2,046 57 5 33 5,519 na na 491% M1zoram na 29 3 690 815 na na na na na 823% Nagaland na 20 7 1,210 1,511 224 02 na na na 616% Onssa 103 131 0 31,660 34,690 911 8 1094 4,726 55 9 54 8 491% Punjab 53 68 0 20,282 22,292 561 8 320 12,319 654 67.5 585% Rajasthan 84 1026 44,006 49,873 1,5402 1294 5,220 576 57 8 386% S1kk1m na na 406 461 91 04 n.a na na 569% Tam1l Nadu 59 865 55,859 60,004 1,161 9 67 4 7,352 61 0 63 2 627% Tnpura na 1046 2,757 3,195 na na na na na 604% Uttar Pradesh 88 141 3 139,112 155,832 4,966 3 486 7 4,744 56 8 546 416% West Bengal 61 993 68,078 76,031 1,8381 121 3 6,055 60 5 62 0 577% Andaman & N1cobar Is na na 281 342 56 02 na na na 730% Chand1garh na na 642 765 11 6 02 na na na 778% Dadra & Nagar Haveli na na 138 160 43 03 na n.a. na 407% Daman & D1u na na 102 115 28 02 na na na 712% Delhi na 831 9,421 11,593 232.7 102 n a. na na 753% Lakshadweep na na 52 59 1 4 00 na na n.a 818% Pond1cherry na na 808 934 15 5 04 na na na 74 7% India, Total 73 109.3 846,303 941,832 24,965 9 1,997 3 n.a. 59.0 594 522% Est1mated as 1991 population extrapolated Calculated as the Per cap1ta net state NFHS, p 221 w1th the annual IMR (three year domestiC product at Calculated from Covenng the population growth of the Estimated as the mov1ng average current pnces Qu1ck Unpublished Unpublished Census 1991 SRS five years 1981-91 decade More CBR t1mes the 90-92) t1mes the est1mate Economic est1mates from est1mates from as proport1on of estimate, preced1ng the refined calculation census number of births in Survey 1995-96, SRS, quoted 1n SRS, quoted in population 7 + Source/Comments provisional survey Census 1991 underway. population 1991 table 1 8 Dreze/Sen Dreze/Sen who is literate . Table 2: Survival Annual rate Annual rate Annual rate Estimated Post-neo of of of Estimated Estimated number of Neonatal natal Peri-natal reduction reduction reduction number of number of children dying Maternal mortality mortality mortality Infant Infant Infant iniMR iniMR lniMR Death rate, children dying children dying between the age mortality rate rate rate mortality mortality mortality (1981-83 to (1989-91 to (1981-83 to 0-4 years before the age before ,tre a~e of one and five rate State/UT (1992) (1992) (1992) (1981-83) (1989-91) (1991-93) 1989-91) 1991-93) 1991-93) (1992) of one (1991) offive 199 ) (1991) (1992-93) Andhra Pradesh 524 18 5 582 81 74 69 11% 36% 16% 20 0 122,774 154,299 31,525 436 Arunachal Pradesh na na na na 80 58 na 174% na na 1,710 na na na Assam 47 0 300 471 100 82 79 25% 19% 24% 30 5 54,023 83,404 29,381 544 Bthar 448 27 7 401 110 79 71 42% 55% 45% 26 8 190,922 356,485 165,563 470 Goa na na na n a. 23 20 na 72% na na 393 na na na Gujarat 450 22 2 386 111 75 64 50% 83% 57% 23 7 78,385 111 ,610 33,225 389 Haryana 41 .4 336 139 95 73 69 33% 29% 32% 22 8 38,691 55,930 17,239 436 Htmachal Pradesh 432 236 131 na 73 68 na 36% na 176 10,316 11 ,922 1,606 456 Jammu and Kashmir na na na na na na na na na na na na na na Karnataka 541 185 651 68 76 72 -14% 2.7% -06% 21 7 88,322 114,193 25,871 450 Kerala 10 9 58 189 34 18 15 83% 95% 85% 39 9,053 11 ,121 2,069 87 Madhya Pradesh 63 9 397 57 8 134 115 109 19% 2.7% 21% 385 262,991 361 ,812 98,822 711 Maharashtra 42 5 169 42 6 76 59 56 32% 26% 31% 159 122,021 160,653 38,632 336 Man1pur na na na na 29 22 na 148% na na 886 na na na Meghalaya na na na na 57 52 na 47% na na 3,335 na na na M1zoram na na na. na na na na na na na na na na na Nagaland na na na. na 18 7 na 604% na na 224 na na na Onssa 73 0 41 7 688 131 122 116 09% 26% 12% 334 109,416 135,352 25,936 738 Punjab 31 3 249 401 79 59 55 37% 36% 37% 17 4 32,023 41 ,290 9,267 369 Rajasthan 55 7 344 482 105 86 83 25% 18% 24% 336 129,378 209,961 80,564 550 S1kk1m n a. na na na 56 45 na 116% na na 421 na na na Tam1i Nadu 430 154 45 7 87 62 57 43% 43% 43% 153 67,388 88,028 20,640 376 Tnpura na na na na 52 49 na 30% na na na na na na Uttar Pradesh 57 4 40.6 476 151 105 96 46% 46% 46% 37 8 486,698 778,250 291,552 624 West Bengal 384 263 42 3 87 70 65 28% 38% 30% 184 121 ,315 159,085 37,770 389 Andaman & Ntcobar Is na na na na 36 35 na 14% na na 191 na na na Chand1garh na na na na 27 16 na 299% na na 185 na na na Dadra & Nagar Haveli na na na na na 75 na na na na 293 na. na na Daman& D1u na na na na 56 52 na 38% na na 162 na na na Delhi na na na na 48 38 na 124% na na 10,238 n a. na na Lakshadweep na na na na 38 30 na 125% na na 43 n a. na na Pond1cherry na na na na 30 24 na 11 .8% n.a na 450 n.a. n a. n.a India, Total . §1!,0 . ~,4 47,_~ 107 84 78 31% 38% 32% 26.5 1,997,274 2,937,940 940,665 453 dunnglhe dunng the live +still divided by diVided by divided by Progress year per year per birthS number of number of number of oflndiBn thousand thousand dunng the live births live births liVe births states. SRS, SRS, ~ear SRS, dunng the dunng the dunng the Calculated as Death rate(~) Other Fertility Fert1l~y erlility year, per year, per year, per SRS, the IMR (three from 1992 methods and and and thousand thousand thousand. Fert11ity and year mov1ng multiplied by of Mortality Mortality Mortality Source Source· Source: Mortality average 90-92) census est1mat10 Indicators, Indicators, Indicators, SRS SRS SRS 1nd1cators t1mes the population (91) Simple subtraction n are 1992, 1992, 1992, Bulletin, Bullelin, Bulletin, 1992, table number of births 1n same of two columns to be1ng Source/Comments table 9 table9 table9 Jan 1995 Jan 1995 Jan 1995 Calculated 8, p 209ff 1n 1991 agegroup the left. explored Table 3: Health Children Percentage who ARI Treatment. treated with More than received Percentage antibiotic pill Blood Any 5kmto ORSor taken to a and/or syrup or TT-immu Pressure health any RHS, health facility given Injection (if nized check-up, facility in health Number of hospital Fully immunized children, 12-23 percent or provider treated), women percent Births attended by trained health Institutional deliveries, village facility beds per million State/UT months, percent (1994) (1992193) (1992-93) (1992-93) (1994) (1994) personnel, percent (1992193) percent (1992193) (1992-93) (1992-93) persons (1991) male female total rural urban total rural urban total rural urban Andhra Pradesh 687% 704% 696% 325% 687% 904% 782% 671% 397% 783% 493% 207% 69.6% 328% 385% 171% 76 1,827 Arunachal Pradesh na na na 333% 500% 346% na na 164% 530% 213% 156% 482% 199% na na na na Assam na na na 352% 407% 150% na na 141% 568% 178% 74% 501% 111% 316% 144% 175 4,414 B1har 331% 42.1% 37 5% 230% 729% 811% 480% 151% 140% 520% 189% 77% 414% 121% 41 .9% 226% 31 2,276 Goa na na na 414% 823% 484% na na 868% 901% 884% 851% 887% 868% 613% 116% na na Gujarat 729% 762% 74.6% 207% 733% 523% 71.1% 462% 320% 657% 426% 237% 621% 356% 325% 272% 185 2,904 Haryana 794% 676% 73 9% 195% 832% 374% 754% 189% 241% 525% 303% 110% 368% 167% 461% 97% 44 1,593 H1machal Pradesh 625% 510% 57 2% 449% 777% 357% 745% 388% 222% 674% 256% 126% 572% 160% 288% 155% 102 1,871 Jammu and Kashmir na na na 44.4% 776% 229% na na 254% 672% 312% 178% 470% 219% 481% 103% 77 4,215 Kamataka 74 7% 712% 730% 340% 740% 699% 776% 568% 403% 772% 509% 258% 666% 375% 350% 264% 81 2,297 Kerala 809% 762% 786% 378% 813% 474% 950% 944% 876% 957% 897% 854% 94.7% 878% 982% 00% 1,768 4,230 Madhya Pradesh 552% 510% 532% 330% 618% 873% 366% 146% 221% 611% 300% 7.4% 497% 159% 172% 268% 39 1,313 Maharashtra na na na 417% 726% 615% 824% 389% 376% 77 8% 531% 253% 733% 439% 348% 303% 250 3,251 Mampur na na na 631% 395% 263% na na 310% 631% 405% 166% 382% 230% na na na na Meghalaya na na na 407% 868% 500% na na 27.4% 763% 370% 190% 734% 296% na na na na M1zoram na na na 245% na na na na 405% 806% 615% 297% 663% 489% na na na na Nagaland na na na 246% 316% 237% na na 181% 456% 222% 52% 109% 60% na na na na Onssa 555% 494% 527% 411% 564% 254% 582% 217% 156% 487% 205% 97% 398% 141% 932% 23% 107 2,610 Punjab 620% 621% 620% 327% 915% 191% 772% 442% 447% 601% 484% 213% 362% 248% 405% 52% 196 2,040 Rajasthan 244% 183% 213% 227% 543% 535% 327% 179% 17 4% 452% 218% 72% 350% 116% 353% 225% 38 2,039 S1kk1m na na na na na na n a. na na na na na na na na na na na Tamil Nadu 875% 77 5% 828% 271% 674% 755% 933% 739% 597% 918% 712% 487% 89 8% 634% 571% 62% 115 2,336 Tnpura na na na na 596% 149% na na 260% 808% 334% 228% 808% 307% na n a. na na Uttar Pradesh 424% 402% 413% 226% 683% 713% 472% 112% 116% 442% 172% 65% 341% 112% 233% 182% 23 1,619 West Bengal 307% 317% 312% 74 7% 61 .7% 19.0% 562% 162% 231% 665% 330% 214% 660% 315% 404% 178% 154 2,479 Andaman & N1cobar Is na. na na na na na na na na na n a. na na na na na na na Chand1garh na. na na na na na na na na na na na na na na na na na Dadra & Nagar Haveh na na na na na na na na na na n.a na n.a na na na n a. na Daman & D1u na na na na na na na n a. na na na na n.a na na na n.a na Delhi na na na 394% 880% 422% na na na 530% 530% na 443% 443% na na n.a. na Lakshadweep n.a. na na na na na na na na na n a. na na na na n a. na na Pond !Cherry na na na na na na na na na na na na na na na na n.a. na India, Total 49.4% 47.5% 48.5% 306% 66.3% 56.5% 57.4% 27.8% 25.0% 65.3% 34.2% 16.0% 57.6% 25.5% na na 152 2,409 ~~'P~;r ~~'P~;c ~~~;( ~'d;~d~~;;nu ~~~;;~~ ·t;;;-~;;;;~r I t~bl:f:.6 NCAER C~lculated W>UHH> s table F 6 table F 6 table F 6 under four pnvate The report, by adding 'public' The study The study The study yearsw1th hosp1tal/chn1c, study table F 6 first two and only only only d1aorrhea PHC, NFHS, SR, table only The study columns 'pnvate' relates to relates to relates to dunng the 2 sutx:entre, 9 12 Respondent relates to only 'doctor' health rural rural rural weeks pnor doctor or other where g1ven the rural relates to and facility II NFHS, NFHS, habitation habitation habitation to the heaHh possibllrty of QIVInQ hab1tat10 rural 'nurse/mid nst1tut1o SR, table SR, table Source/Comments s s s survey professional. multiple answers ns habitallons w~e· do do n do do 11 3 11 3 Table 4: Nutrition . Per capita supply Children of foodgrains Children breastfed with Under-fours Under-fours Under-fours through the exclusively complementar Children still suffering from suffering from suffering from Estimated public Availability of breastfed, 0-3 y foods, 6-9 breastfed, underweight, wasting,moder stunting,moder number of distribution Population receiving subsidi7.ed iodized salt as months, months, 20-23 months, moderate and ate and severe, ate and severe, malnourished system, foodgrains from the public percent or total percent percent percent severe, percent percent percent children kilogram/year, distribution system, percent requirements State/UT (1992/93) (1992/93) (1992/93) (1992/93) (1992193) (1992/93) (1992/93) (1986-87) (1986-87) (1995) rural urban Andhra Pradesh 705% 47 8% 677% 491% na na 3,030,424 22 8 597% 514% 17 Arunachal Pradesh 73 9% 35 8% 73 0% 397% 112% 53 9% na na na na na Assam 65 0% 392% 825% 504% 108% 522% 1,102,569 30 5 246% 43 0% 98 B1har 516% 181% 793% 626% 218% 609% 6,661,475 65 17% 71% 78 Goa 108% 33 9"/o 400% 35 ll"/o IS 3% 32 5% na na na na na Gujarat 363% 22 9"/o 481% 501% 18 9"/o 482% 1,887,484 24 5 445% 320"/o 88 Haryana 37 5% 385% 583% 37 9"/o 5 9"/o 467% 743,775 62 31% 71% 95 H1machal Pradesh 364% 39 9"/o 54 7% 470"/o na na 254,697 25 0 282% 253% 90 Jammu and Kashmir 16 9"/o 448% 518% 44 5% 14 8% 408% na 34 6 23 3% 786% na Kama taka 65 6% 382% 545% 543% 174% 476% 2,285,957 19 9 619% 62 7% 18 Kerala 592% 693% 617% 28 5% 116% 274% 650,177 60 2 877% 870% na Madhya Pradesh 314% 277% 65 4% 574% na na 4,315,436 74 91% 174% 95 Maharashtra 371% 250% 622% 542% 202% 48 5% 4,381,077 224 477% 43 8% 82 Mampur 704% 500% 615% 301% 88% 33 6% na na na na 100 Meghalaya 18 0% 563% 514% 45 5% 189% 50 8% na na na na na M1zoram 45 5% 643% 37 9% 281% 22% 413% na na na na 98 Nagaland 611% 43 5% 469% 28 7% 127% 324% na na na na 96 Onssa 457% 302% 78 9"/o 53 3% 213% 482% 4,308,329 71 17% 138% na PunJab 33% 373% 404% 45 9"/o 19 9"/o 40 ll"/o 871,362 47 01% 46% na Rajasthan 659% 94% 74 8% 416% 19 5% 43 1% 2,079,617 17 4 88% 56% 31 Stldnm na na na na na na na na na na 96 Tamil Nadu 55 8% 56 S% 35 5% 482% na na 2,218,539 25 4 53 5% 554% 22 Tripura 479% 65 0% 742% 48 8% 17 5% 460% na na na na na Uttar Pradesh 603% 194% 73 8% 590"/o 161% 59 5% 9,717,828 29 21% 70% 98 West Bengal 400% 53 6% 83 6% 56 8% na na 3,928,698 261 269% 598% na Andarnan & N1cobar Is na na na na na na na na na na na Chand1garh na na na na na na na na na na na Dadra & Nagar Haveh na na na na na na na na na na na Daman& D1u na na na na na na na na na na na Delhi 200"/o 25.1% 52 8% 416% 11 9"/o 43 2% na na na na 92 Lakshadweep na na na na na na na na na n a. na Pondicherry na na na na na na na na na na na India, Total 51.0-!o 314% 666% 53.4% 17.5% 52.0% 47,361,807 18.1 26.8% 35 5% 85 ~;;;:.;;;r· •wv 1 ~;;;;.;;;j~ •wv ~;;;:.;;;r· •wv Calculated as deviations from deviations from deviations from percent median of median of median of underweight International lnternattonal International (moderate and Reference Reference Reference severe) • 4/S of Salt Population Populauon Population population Dreze/Sen Dreze/Sen Dreze/Sen commissioner Source/Comments NFHS, p 280 NFHS, p 280 NFHS, p 280 NFHS, p 286 NFHS, p286 NFHS, p 286 under five appendixAJ appendix A 3 appendix A 3 estimate . Table 5: Education Draft, not pro 1ry Upper 1ry Habitation Estimated Children, 10-14 years, Estimated school 1ry school school Drop-ou Drop-out Habitation swith spending who have not number of Number of gross gross gross t rates, rates, with 1ry upper 1ry on primary completed primary Children, 6-10 years, children not child enroll men enrollment enrollment primary elementa school, school, education, schooling, male attending 1s1~hool, male in school, labourers Illiterates,?+ t rate rate rate (1993-9 (199T94, percent percent Pupil :.rac~,er rs. per Stata/UT percent (1992-93) percent 1992193) OOO's(1992) (1981) thousands (1991) (1993) (1993-94) (1993-94) 4) 1993 1993 ratio, 1993 pupil em at am a male e total mala e total mala female rural urba total Andhra Pradesh 420% 571% 494% 734% 599% 666% 5,467 5 1,951 ,312 12,640 18,416 933% 1084% 63.7% 422% 628% 692% 122% 44 38 42 616 Arunachal Pradesh 704% 727% 710% 716% 584% 648% na na 181 217 1310% 1158% 545% 605% 687% 346% 87% 25 25 25 1,528 Assam 603% 631% 617% 757% 673% 717% 1,601 7 na 3,592 4,885 929% 1300% 777% 391% 676% 627% 154% 27 26 27 896 Bthar 608% 786% 693% 606% 385% 499% 10,263 7 1,101 ,764 17,168 25,040 731% 761% 34 7% 634% 787% 512% 119% 45 44 45 815 Goa 310% 293% 301% 955% 932% 943% na na 86 167 1043% 980% 964% -26% 123% 767% 246% 23 26 24 1,627 Gujarat 405% 509% 454% 826% 705% 767% 2,288 7 616,913 4,787 8,561 1057% 1191% 696% 463% 600% 907% 493% 36 39 37 1,021 Haryana 503% 551% 52 5% 875% 767% 824% 7266 na 2,214 3,675 838% 1028% 709% 39% 239% 812% 320% 40 38 39 615 Himachal Pradesh 38 5% 438% 411% 944% 891% 917% 112 3 na 539 1,026 1101% 1191% 1112% 263% 197% 210% 57% 28 29 28 1,036 Jammu and Kashmir 509% 527% 518% 919% 813% 868% na 258,437 na na 717% 88 8% 647% 487% 565% 585% 151% 22 20 21 1,267 Kamataka 487% 562% 524% 797% 711% 756% 3,065 0 1,131 ,530 6,264 10,222 1192% 1199% 650% 408% 630% 624% 251% 46 42 44 842 Kerala 257% 223% 239% 952% 955% 953% 2951 na 787 1,789 961% 1023% 1070% -42% 09% 629% 344% 31 30 31 1,418 Madhya Pradesh 542% 667% 624% 660% 552% 564% 5,863 3 1,698,597 11,460 18,164 980% 1045% 669% 284% 44 7% 643% 126% 39 32 36 518 Maharashtra 428% 487% 457% 875% 822% 849% 3,227 3 1,557,756 7,943 15,042 1188% 1194% 807% 276% 498% 542% 20 9% 33 40 36 875 Mampur 568% 669% 579% 922% 886% 904% na na 222 392 1319% 982% 732% 683% 723% 488% 206% 16 19 17 1,108 Meghalaya 778% 712% 74 7% 741% 771% 754% na na 333 370 1343% 748% 405% 321% 577% 577% 114% 22 27 23 686 M1zoram 449% 443% 446% 901% 854% 877% n.a na 42 57 1521% 1356% 1075% 576% 524% 879% 562% 17 22 19 2,734 Nagaland 484% 461% 472% 913% 892% 903% na na 174 210 1017% 1063% 695% 31 .7% 381% 856% 216% 13 25 15 832 Ortssa 535% 637% 584% 779% 655% 718% 2,0693 702,293 4,926 8,471 1006% 968% 570% 525% 612% 496% 137% 31 33 31 584 Punjab 453% 449% 451% 857% 816% 838% 8606 na 3,095 3,948 846% 906% 678% 217% 392% 868% 236% 32 40 34 911 Rajasthan 614% 77 5% 686% 724% 424% 585% 4,369 4 819,605 8,290 13,307 851% 910% 539% 489% 654% 501% 141% 32 27 30 854 S1kk1m na na na na na na na na 61 82 1327% 1176% 596% 623% 784% 541% 150% 14 18 14 367 Tam1l Nadu 285% 337% 311% 920% 874% 897% 2,025 2 975,055 6,426 11,649 1435% 1450% 1014% 173% 363% 620% 148% 45 46 46 897 Tnpura 731% 727% 729% 786% 780% 783% na na 343 551 1267% 1303% 828% 635% 684% 393% 117% 23 21 22 1,167 Uttar Pradesh 567% 730% 642% 711% 502% 612% 13,243.8 1,434,675 26,298 38,470 757% 893% 550% 199% 375% 301% 82% 40 35 38 649 West Bengal 619% 702% 661% 725% 666% 695% 4,771 7 605,263 9,540 14,367 1042% 1239% 938% 404% 467% 404% 67% 42 36 41 475 Andaman & N1cobar I na na na na na na na na 27 36 1322% 932% 799% 98% 27.3% 539% 202% 19 25 21 na Chand1garh na na na na na na na na 55 66 962% 648% 62.7% -149% -91% 784% 432% 31 26 27 na Dadra & Nagar Haveh na na na na na na na na 26 39 1132% 1099% 48.0% 470% 622% 330% 80% 34 28 32 na Daman& D1u na na na na na na na na 8 17 909% na n.a -53% 00% 418% 209% 29 35 32 na Delhi 376% 385% 38.1% 892% 87 5% 884% na na 777 1,154 1102% 868% 79.9% 257% 25.4% 937% 782% 36 30 31 na Lakshadweep na na na na na n.a na na 2 6 1468% 1415% 1113% 155% 522% 73.3% 46.7% 18 21 20 n.a Pond !Cherry na na na na na na na na 57 119 1176% 1401% 1322% -8 0% 75% 455% 178% 32 28 29 na India, Total 51.5,% 62.2% 56.7% 75.0% 61.3% 68.4% 63,2611 - 128,362 200,516 95.9% 104.5% 67.7% D. 36.3% I D. ~3-8% 503% 138% 37 36 37 687 agegr Census Census 14, p214. 14, p214 1994-95, 1994-95, education oup, 1991, 1991, Title Title stateme statement (USing 'tlhterat Estimated as· F1nal Final Enrolement Enrolemenl nt 19(i), 19(11), 1986/87 e' + ( 1-attendance Popuiat1 Populall ratio 1n rat1o 1n p219 p220 weights) 'literal of6-14 age on on classes 1-V classes 1-V Title Tille: divided by e<pnm NFHS, group)*numbe Totals, Totals, and Vi-VIII and VI-VIII of Dropout Dropout number of ary SR. r of chtldren 1n tableS, table 6, of schools schools for rates on rates on 6th AlES 6th AlES children 1n com pi table agegroup pp 210- pp 210- 6th AlES, for general general classes classes 1993, table 1993, table Calcul Calcul Calcul primary Source/Comments eted' do do 37 do do 5-13 217 217 p 42 education. education. 1-V I-VII 1, page 26 1, page 26 ated ated ated schools . Table 6: Demographic indicators Female Population Population Populatio ur:oan Life Life Populati Populati Populati Female Female Female slum on under on under on under to male to male to male to male annual annual n density, population Crude Crude Crude Crude Crude Crude Crude Crude expentanc expentanc Total 5, 14, 18, ratio, ratio, ratio, ratio, growth growth person thouSands birth birth birth birth death death death birth y at birth, y at birth, fertilit millions '(111ions millions total under5 under14 under 18 rate, rate, per km2 rate rate rate rate rate rate rate rate male, years fern. years yrate State/UT (1991) 1991) (1991) (1991) (1992) (1992) (1992) 1951-81 1981-91 (1991) (1990) (1971) I 11981J (1991) (1993) (1971) (1981) (1991) (1993) (1990-2) (199-92) (1981) Andhra Pradesh 77 22 6 26 7 972 939 952 952 183% 219% 242 3,807 348 31 7 26 0 231 146 111 97 84 590 61 5 40 Arunachal Pradesh na na na 859 na na na na 319% 10 19 na na 309 276 na na 135 86 na na na Assam 27 81 94 923 953 949 952 274% 219% 286 663 385 330 309 29 5 17 8 12 6 115 102 548 538 41 B1har 133 344 402 911 899 902 890 198% 214% 497 3,270 na 391 307 321 na 139 98 106 604 583 57 Goa na na na 967 na na na 205% 150% 316 na 254 155 168 146 88 68 75 66 na na na Gujarat 47 141 168 934 910 910 902 250% 194% 211 3,101 400 345 27 5 28 0 164 12 0 85 81 591 61 3 43 Haryana 25 63 74 865 842 856 847 278% 245% 372 917 421 365 331 306 99 11 3 82 78 622 636 50 H1machal Pradesh 07 1 9 22 976 883 892 887 197% 191% 93 92 37 3 31 5 285 26 7 156 111 89 86 63 8 642 38 Jammu and Kashmir na na na 923 na na na 205% 257% 76 627 316 31 6 na na 108 90 na na n a. na 45 Karnataka 53 157 186 960 943 949 945 219% 193% 235 3,315 31 7 283 269 255 121 91 90 8 60.0 636 36 Kerala 29 85 10 3 1,036 946 952 956 212% 135% 749 1,363 311 256 183 17 3 90 66 60 6 68 8 744 28 Madhya Pradesh 94 25 0 292 931 945 929 918 234% 241% 149 3,376 391 376 358 334 156 166 13 8 126 541 535 52 Maharashtra 101 27 5 32 3 934 926 915 914 227% 232% 257 6,251 322 28 5 262 250 12 3 96 82 72 631 64 7 36 Mampur na na n.a 958 na na na 305% 260% 82 192 na 266 201 203 na 66 54 48 na na na Meghalaya na na na 955 na na na 267% 288% 79 80 na 326 324 285 na 82 88 68 na na na M1zoram na na na 921 na na na 312% 340% 33 76 na na na na na na na na na na na Nagaland na na na 886 na na na 440% 455% 73 55 na na 18 5 200 na na 33 42 na na na Onssa 41 10 9 13 0 971 933 937 941 198% 184% 203 1,060 346 331 288 27 2 155 131 12 8 12 2 55 9 54 8 43 Punjab 24 69 81 882 874 874 863 204% 191% 403 1,379 342 303 277 263 104 94 78 79 654 67 5 40 Rajasthan 62 169 197 910 884 893 886 258% 253% 129 2,314 42 4 371 350 336 168 14 3 101 9 576 57 8 52 S1kk1m na na na 878 na na na 281% 254% 57 26 na 31 0 22 5 23 7 na 89 75 64 na na na Tam1l Nadu 58 17 3 205 974 946 946 947 159% 144% 429 4,276 31 4 280 208 192 144 11 8 88 8 61 0 632 34 Tnpura na na na 945 na na na 397% 299% 263 65 na na na 233 na 80 76 63 na na na Uttar Pradesh 206 54 8 63 7 879 885 875 857 189% 230% 473 6,531 449 396 35 7 360 201 163 11 3 11 4 568 546 58 West Bengal 86 234 27 7 917 946 941 939 246% 223% 767 4,964 na 332 27 0 256 na. 11 0 83 73 605 620 42 0 Andaman & N1cobar I na na na 818 n a. na na 621% 405% 34 19 na 340 200 21 6 na 84 58 55 na n.a na Chand1garh na na na 790 na na na 1024% 358% 5,632 153 na 246 18.0 180 na. 24 46 36 na na na Dadra & Nagar Haveh na na na 952 na na na 310% 294% 282 0 na 368 311 336 na 141 11.4 12 2 na na na Daman & D1u na na na 969 na na na 1.63% 255% 907 0 na n a. 27 9 254 na n.a 90 86 na na na Delhi na na na 827 na na na 433% 424% 6,352 3,825 336 269 24.7 21 8 7.6 71 63 41 na na na Lakshadweep na na na 943 na na n a. 219% 254% 1,616 0 na n.a 271 25 7 na na 47 6.2 na na na Pond1cherry na na na 979 na na na 217% 294% 1,642 103 na 21 7 19.2 155 na 73 66 61 na na na 0 India, Total 1109 3055 3588 927 913 914 907 215% 216% 273 51,228 369 339 29 5 285 149 12 5 98 9.2 590 594 45 ,;ensus ~~~~~~~10 age 91 91 91 quotea 1n ~~t~~ I ~~t~~ populatio 1nterval females females females urban n data ndata plus 3/5 In In In statistical report SRS report SRS multiplied multiplied of pop 1n Census agegroup agegroup agegroup Census handbook s, Bulletl s' Bulleti bySRS by SRS 15-19 age 1991, diVIded by div1ded by diVIded by 1991, (National table SRS SRS n, table SRS SRS n, NFHS data on data on 1nterval F1nal male1n male1n male 1n F1nal lnstrtute of 12 Bullet1 Bullet1 Janua 1.2. Bullet1 Bulle !I Janua Unpublishe Unpublishe , State age age t1mes populatio agegroup agegroup agegroup. population Urban Repn n, n, 7ss5, Repnn n, n, ry d est1mates d est1mates report d1stnbut1o d1stributio census ntotals, SRS F&M SRS F&M SRS F&M Calculated Calculated totals, Affa1rs), ted Janua Janua ted Janua Janua 1995, from SRS, fromSRS, s' nfrom nfrom populat1o table 11, lnd1cators Indicators Indicators from from table 1.1, table4.11, from ry ry Table from ry ry Table quoted 1n quoted in table Source/Comments 1992 1992 n pp. 82-85 '1992 '1992 '1992 Census91 Census91 pp. 82-85 c 4 SRS 1995 1995 2 SRS 1995 1995 3 Dreze/Sen Dreze/Sen 1.2. Draft, not proof-read vvomen usong Women using Condo Total Total contraceptive Women any modem, muse, fertilit fertilit method, sterilized temporary percent I {1 rate y rate percent , percent method,% (1992-9 991) (1992) (1992-93) (1992-93) (1992-93) 3) 30 28 470% 381% 18% 07% na na 236% 103% 86% 07% 35 34 428% 121% 54% 1.7% 44 46 231% 17 3% 29% 13% na na 478% 295% 73% 39% 31 32 493% 375% 59% 18% 40 38 497% 297% 96% 52% na 31 584% 326% 86% 53% na na 494% 253% 100% 59% 31 29 491% 410% 48% 12% 18 1 7 633% 418% 61% 29% 46 44 365% 264% 40% 22% 30 29 537% 400% 64% 25% na na 349% 109% 103% 12% na na 207% 94% 51% 05% na na 538% 445% 83% 07% na na 130% 63% 65% 21% 33 31 363% 282% 30% 06% 31 31 587% 315% 17.3% 89% 46 45 318% 253% 33% 15% na na na na na na 22 22 498% 37 5% 57'k 16% na na 561% 167% 95% 1.6% 51 52 198% 117% 55% 32% 29 2.9 574% 263% 67% 19% na na na na na na na na n a. na na na na na na na na na na na na na na na na na 603% 200% 31.3% 205% na na na na na na na na na na na na 36 3.6 40.6% 27.3% 5.5% 2-4% Fertllrt yand Mortal lly NFHS lnd1cat , State ors, report state NHFS, s, ment NHFS, table table 16, NHFS, table table 6.7, NHFS, table 6 7, p. 12. p22 67, p141 p 141 6.7, p 141 141 Table 7: Economic Indicators Annual State Estimated public SOP, per consumer Rural Gini coefficient of Gini coeff of Population expenditure on expenditure on capita, expenditure, households per capita consumer per-capita under poverty education as elementary rupees per capita lncome, 1 .rural Rs/year using POS, extendlture consumer line, total, percent of total education as State/UT (1993-94) SOP Annual Growth (1987-88) 1994) %, (1994) ( 987-88) expenditure (1987-88) state budget percentage of SOP 80/81 85/86 90/91 per percen million -85/86 -90/91 -93/94 rural urban household per capita rural urban rural (1994) t s (1993-94) (1993-94") Andhra Pradesh 6,651 107% 155% 12.0% 44 7 57 9 22.459 4,574 69% 0 31 0 36 045 272% 16 8 210% 95% Arunachal Pradesh 7,904 158% 108% 130% na na na na na na na na 375% 03 11.6% 49% Assam 5,916 145% 92% 138% 41 7 739 na na na 023 031 na 368% 85 246% 148% B1har 3,650 118% 76% 164% 37 2 47 4 27,397 4,503 5% 0.26 031 039 534% 440 201% 115% Goa 11 ,658 82% 136% 98% na na na na na na na na 234% 03 195% 56% Gu;arat 7,600 107% 128% 89% 408 57 4 31 ,379 5,652 50% 026 028 050 323% 12 9 208% 119% Haryana 10,359 111% 134% 114% 568 653 48,256 7,691 9% 029 028 041 166% 26 161% 62% H1machal Pradesh 6,519 92% 131% 9.9% 542 961 28,272 4,915 76% 028 028 040 155% 08 212% 78% Jammu and Kashmir 4,244 10 1% 48% 54% 476 63 0 na na na 030 028 na 232% 1 6 11 3% 51% Karnataka 7,029 105% 128% 151% 39 9 532 27,101 4,722 78% 030 034 0 50 381% 162 214% 115% Kerala 6,242 97% 119% 141% 522 644 22,158 4.400 80% 032 036 042 321% 92 263% 134% Madhya Pradesh 5,485 89% 143% 106% 37 2 57 3 23,323 3,838 37% 029 033 041 434% 266 182% 84% Maharashtra 10,984 95% 138% 145% 426 665 35,590 6,567 55% 032 034 049 401% 294 178% 82% Man1pur 5,362 104% 114% 105% na na na na na na na na 329% 06 241% 62% Meghalaya 5,519 106% 150% 68% na na na na na na na na 346% 05 176% 30% M1zoram na 156% 110% na na na na na na na na na 325% 02 151% 95% Nagaland na 123% 141% na na na na na na na na na 349% 03 120% 30% Onssa 4,726 106% 72% 154% 334 581 16,248 2,859 6% 027 0 31 043 556% 168 198% 81% Pun;ab 12,319 114% 129% 137% 631 733 48,588 8,284 6% 0 30 028 047 127% 25 172% 57% Ra;asthan 5.220 101% 162% 76% 407 576 26,503 4,123 25% 032 035 043 346% 141 209% 111% S1kk1m na 140% 109% na na na na na na na na na 347% 01 170% 18% Tam1l Nadu 7,352 118% 141% 131% 387 55 5 21 ,031 4,629 83% 033 036 045 451% 24 3 213% 105% Tnpura na 93% 184% na na na na na na na na na 368% 09 202% 80% Uttar Pradesh 4,744 94% 120% 104% 377 551 23,817 3,728 7% 029 033 049 420% 53 7 188% 97% West Bengal 6,055 100% 125% 90% 40 5 651 26,659 4,647 11% 026 035 040 440% 277 269% 98% Andaman & N1cobar Is na na na na na na na na na na na na 452% 01 121% na Chand1garh na na na na na na na na na na na n a. 129% 01 202% na Dadra & Nagar Haveh na na na na na na na na na na na na 187% 0.0 118% na Daman& D1u na na na na na na n.a na na na na n.a na na 163% 47% Delhi na na na na na na na na na na n.a na 160% 1 3 29.6% n.a lakshadweep na na na na n a. na na na na na na n.a. 373% 00 11 .1% na Pond1cherry na na na n.a na na na na na na na na. 447% 03 154% 65% lnd1a, Total na na n.a na 41 2 61 2 26,395 4,614 36% na na 046 393% 312 7 115% 50% current proport1 proport1 Calculated by pnces on and on and M1n1stry of HRD mutt1ply1ng the two Economic Rs per NCAER NCAER NCAER number number Department of columns to the nght, Survey month report, table report, table report, table of poor of poor Education, assum1ng the shara of 1995-96, at W1,p.107 W1,p 107 W1,p 107 (Lakda (Lakda Annual Report pnmary education 1n table 1 8 1970/7 Data covers Data covers NCAER Data covers wala wala 1994-95, education budget has Quick 1 rurallnd1a rurallnd1a study, p 124, rural India report, report, statement23, p remained unchanged estimate pnces only only tableW9 only. 1993) 1993) 225. since1987 Table 8· Haus1ng charoclenshcs Andhro Pradesh 46 3% 55 1% 54 6% 80 9% 38 4% 54% 411% 53 5% Arunachal Pradesh 40 9% 70 0% 75 1% 87 8% 14 9% II 9% 37 5% 50 7% Assam 18 7% 45 9% 86 1% 88 0% 14 6% 19 0% 37 8% 43 2% B1har 12 6% 58 8% 56 5% 44 0% 30 2% 91% 140% 769% Goa 847% 43 4% 558% 57 8% 50 7% 56% 553% 39 1% GuJaral 65 9% 69 8% 65 7% 549% 569% 4 3% 265% 69 2% Horyana 70 4% 74 3% 643% 521% 50 1% 00% 512% 488% Hrmochol Pradesh 870% 77 3% 600% 82 3% 530% Il l% 361% 529% Jammu and Kashmrr no no no no no 8 1% 57 8% 341% Karnotoka 52 5% 71 7% 62 5% 78 6% 42 6% 58% 51 3% 43 0% Kerolo 48 4% 18 9% 727% 92 4% 56 0% 34 3% 65 0% 0 7% Madhya Pradesh 43 3% 53 4% 53 0% 75 0% 30 5% 9 1% 42 3% 48 6% Mohoroshtro 69 4% 68 5% 64 5% 49 3% 52 2% I 7% 31 5% 66 9% Monrpur 50 9% 38 7% 70 2% 85 5% 54% 17 0% 52 4% 30 6% Megholoya 29 2% 36 2% 85 7% 85 4% 13 3% 390% 19 6% 41 5% ~1zoram 59 2% 16 2% 84 4% 74 8% 191 % 74% 76 8% 158% Nagalond 53 4% 53 4% 75 1% 93 1% 12 6% 230% 59 8% 17 2% OriSSa 23 5% 39 1% 49 3% 73 5% 18 7% 164% 452% 38 4% Pun jOb 82 3% 92 7% 73 2% 36 4% 770% 51 4% 2 1% 486% RaJasthan 350% 59 0% 62 3% 781% 561% 83% 37 3% 54 4% Srkkrm 60 7% 73 2% 777% 74 5% 27 0% 2 5% 77 3% 20 2% Tom1l Nodu 54 7% 674% 57 5% 80 4% 455% II% 711% 27 9% Tnpuro 36 9% 37 2% 96 3% 91 5% 55% 30 3% 22 8% 46 9% Uttar Pradesh 21 9% 62 2% 66 5% 50 4% 41 0% 10 87. 54 17. 35 1% West Bengal 32 97. 82 0% 78 8% 32 1% 32 6% 27 17. 42 2% 30 7% Andomon & Nrcobar Is 63 5% 67 9% 65 7% 71 5% 10 4% 0 6% 17 6% 81 8% Chondrgorh 83 1% 9777. 79 8% 7 2% 825% no no n a Dadro & Nagar Havel! 54 4% 45 6% 65 1% 79 17. 20 8% n a n a n a Daman & Dru 941% 71 4% 45 87. 49 87. 79 8% no no no Deihl 79 57. 958% 666% 477. 856% 0 47. 2567. 7407. Lokshodweep 985% 119% 64 7% 90 7% 888% 00% 99 9% 0 1% Pandrcherry 636% 888% 500% 65 2% 44 9% no no no lnd1a, Total 42 4% 62 3% 639% 61.5% 41 6% Ill% 41 4% 47.6% Table 9: Gender differentials Excess of female mortality Infant mortality rate Crude death rate, 0-4 over male mortality, percent State/UT (1992) years (1992) (1992) F:M femal F:M under1 0-4 5-14 male female ratio male e ratio year years years Andhra Pradesh 73 68 093 202 19 8 098 -68% -20% -63% Arunachal Pradesh na na na na na na na na na Assam 86 78 0 91 30 5 306 1 00 -93% 03% 148% B1har 71 74 104 24.2 296 1 22 42% 223% 400% Goa na na na na na na n a. na na Gujarat 66 69 1 05 21 0 24 8 118 45% 83% 62% Haryana 73 78 1 07 17 6 17 5 0 99 68% 175% 00% H1machal Pradesh 67 66 099 na na na na -06% 1625% Jammu and Kashmir na na na na na na na na na Kamataka 77 67 0 87 226 207 092 -130% -84% 250% Kerala 21 12 057 50 27 054 -42 9% -460% 143% Madhya Pradesh 109 98 090 368 403 110 -101% 95% 360% Maharashtra 61 57 093 160 15 9 099 -66% -06% 273% Mampur na na na na na na na na na Meghalaya na na na na na na na na na M1zoram na na na na na na na na na Nagaland na na na na na na na na na Onssa 114 116 1 02 31 7 352 111 18% 110% 00% Punjab 54 60 1.11 165 18 3 111 111% 109% 500% Rajasthan 88 92 1 05 31 2 36 3 116 45% 163% 706% S1kk1m na na na na na na na na na Tamil Nadu 58 59 1 02 15 0 15 7 1 05 17% 47% 100% Tnpura na na na na na na na na na Uttar Pradesh 92 105 114 331 431 1 30 141% 302% 615% West Bengal 67 62 093 184 184 1 00 -75% 00% 286% Andaman & N1cobar Is na na na na na na na na na Chand1garh na na na na na na n a. n.a. n.a Dadra & Nagar Haveh na n.a. na na n.a na na na na Daman & D1u na na na na na na na na na Delhi n.a na na na na na na na na Lakshadweep na na na na na na na n.a na Pond1cherry na na na na na na na na n a. India, Total 79 80 1 01 249 282 1.13 1.3% 133% 316% ~~d1cat '~~d1cat M~rtahty M;;'rtahty M;;'rtahty ors, ors, Indicator Indicator Indicator 1992, 1992, s, 1992, s, 1992, s, 1992, stat em table stateme stateme stateme ent33, Calcul 8, pp Calcul nt33, p nt39, nt40, p. 36 do ated 209ff do a ted 36 p42 p43. Primary gross Life expentancy at Literacy rate, percent enrollment rate birth, years (1990-92) (1991) (1993) F:M F:M male female ratio male female ratio male female 590 61 5 104 551% 327% 059 998% 865% na na na 515% 297% 058 14096 0% 1199% 548 53 8 098 619% 430% 070 989% 866% 604 58 3 097 525% 229% 044 922% 532% na na na 836% 671% 080 1058% 1027% 591 61 3 1 04 731% 486% 067 1145% 964% 622 636 1 02 691% 405% 059 867% 806% 63 8 642 1 01 754% 521% 069 1211% 1002% na na na na na na 905% 562% 600 636 1 06 673% 443% 066 124% 1141% 688 744 1 08 936% 862% 092 969% 953% 541 535 099 584% 288% 049 1086% 865% 631 64 7 1 03 766% 523% 068 1226% 1147% n a. na na 716% 476% 066 1359% 1276% na na na 531% 449% 0 84 1320% 1367% na na na 856% 786% 0 92 1578% 1464% na na na 676% 547% 0 81 103.5% 999% 55 9 54 8 098 631% 34 7% 055 1144% 871% 654 67 5 1 03 657% 504% 0 77 896% 81.4% 576 57 8 1 00 550% 204% 037 1104% 585% na na na 657% 467% 071 1385% 1268% 61 0 63 2 1 04 737% 513% 070 1506% 1361% na na na 706% 496% 070 1331% 1199% 56 8 546 0 96 557% 253% 045 904% 59.5% 605 62 0 102 678% 466% 069 1103% 977% na na na 790% 655% 083 1415% 1234% na na na 820% 723% 088 979% 945% na na n.a 536% 270% 050 1270% 974% na na na 827% 59.4% 072 909% 909% na na n a. 820% 670% 082 1083% 1122% n a. na na 90.2% 72.9% 081 1410% 1540% na na na 837% 65.6% 078 1210% 1141% 59.0 594 1 01 64.1% 393% 061 106.2% 85.0% i~;m 10:;uod< SRS, Totals, quoted tableS, 1n pp Dreze/ calcula 210- 6th AlES, 6th AlES, Sen do ted 217 do do p. 42 p. 42 Proportion of rural children attending Children completing five school, 6-10 years of schooling, years percent (1993) (1992-93) male female Total male female na 433% 462% 689% 519% na 422% 418% na na na 333% 351% 752% 666% na 351% 386% 570% 340% na 970% 1007% 950% 941% na 602% 64.6% 789% 640% na 741% 784% 859% 719% na 727% 705% 940% 885% na 57 5% 593% 909% 791% na 546% 594% 764% 648% na 1076% 1093% 949% 950% na 571% 614% 610% 47.3% na 663% 704% 849% 77.5% na 549% 552% na na na 319% 336% na na na 445% 449% na na na 462% 452% na na na 460% 495% 758% 630% na 711% 726% 83.8% 775% na 267% 331% 699% 36.4% na 532% 505% na na na 812% 805% 908% 836% na 427% 450% na na na 432% 475% 695% 454% na 434% 472% 689% 725% na 818% 819% na na na 846% 837% na na na 393% 446% na na n.a 939% 961% na n.a na 706% 734% na. n.a na 845% 904% na na na 1081% 1091% n a. na na 52.0% 54.6% 72.2% 52.2% ~;oo percent NFHS, NFHS, age of State State class I reports reports enrolm , table , table ent do do 3.7 3.7. Proportion of rural children attending school, 11-14 years (1992-93) male female 635% 371% na na 705% 629% 649% 330% 936% 91.8% 787% 579% 858% 658% 931% 851% 903% 741% 672% 46.4% 948% 936% 697% 445% BOB% 562% na na na na na na na n a. 729% 525% 774% 67 5% 752% 286% na na 77.7% 628% na na 751% 382% 681% 550% na na na na n a. na na na na na. n a. na na na 71.4% 55.0% NFHS, NFHS, State State reports reports , table , table 3 7. 3.7 Pro port ion nroll '12- rural -88) nevere children years, (1987 male 327% na 229% 419% na 225% 129% na 215% 260% 04% 306% 126% na na n.a na 340% 226% 261% n.a 115% n.a 27.2% 346% na n a. n.a n.a na na na 26.4% ~hll.tr en, 12-14 Proportion of years, never enrolled rural children, 12-14 (1987- years, u~)" Work participation rate, 1ry school 88) (1987-88 (1991) teachers F:M Proportion female male female male female ratio female 597% 94% 189% 5548 3432 619% 316% na na na 53 76 37 49 697% 230% 285% 51% 180% 4645 2161 465% 288% 673% 195% 380% 47 92 14 86 310% 200% na na na 4956 20 52 414% 638% 387% 102% 177% 5357 2596 485% 387% 424% 62% 146% 48 51 1076 222% 462% na na na 5064 3481 687% 399% 476% 189% 293% na na na 389% 465% 11 7% 174% 5409 29 39 543% 326% 18% 01% 06% 47 58 15 85 333% 673% 664% 66% 181% 5226 32 68 625% 248% 277% 46% 124% 5217 3311 635% 390% na na na 4527 3896 861% 305% na na na 5007 3493 698% 462% na na na 5387 43 52 808% 462% na na na 4686 37 96 810% 340% 54 7% 202% 203% 53 79 2079 387% 231% 333% 79% 79% 5422 440 81% 585% 817% 125% 360% 4930 27 40 556% 271% na na na 5126 3041 593% 341% 263% 37% 56% 5639 29 89 530% 411% na n.a na 47 55 13 76 289% 224% 680% 192% 388% 4968 12 32 248% 253% 459% 130% 152% 5140 11 25 21 .9% 230% na na na 5332 1313 246% 395% na na na 5434 1039 191% 934% na na na 57 50 48 79 849% 350% na na na 5163 2317 44.9% 542% na na n a. 51 72 7 35 142% 599% na na na 4417 760 172% 313% na na na 5055 1524 30.1% 508% 50.7% 10.9% 19.3% 51.55 22.25 432% 31.4% numv• s as percan tageof total 6th AlES, popula table 7, pp. lion 46ft Table 10: Rural/Urban Gaps Urban Children, 6-14 Children, 6-14 Underweight children, Rural Annual popul Population years, who are years, who are Rural children, 6-14 Urban children, 6-14 moderate and populatio growth rate ation, Annual growth under poverty illiterate,rural, illiterate, urban, years who attend years who attend severe, n%, of rural perce rate of urban Crude birth Crude death Infant mortality rate line, percent Literacy rate percent percent school, percent school, percent percent State/UT (1991) population nt population rates (1993) rates (1993) (1994) (1987-88) (1991) (1992/93) (1992/93) (1992/93) (1992/93) (1992-93) (1951 (1981 (1:~r (1981- urba urba urba femal femal -81) -91) (1991) 91) rural n rural n rural n total rural urban rural urban male female male female male e total male e total rural urban Andhra Pradesh 731% 16% 17% 269% 26% 37% 243 234 95 54 66 48 63 209% 446% 357% 664% 323% 519% 144% 190% 668% 46.6% 566% 850% 76.3% 606% 521% 402% Arunachal Pradesh 872% na 25% 128% na 103% 277 27 4 99 11 na na na 394% 173% 370% 716% n a. na na na 761% 646% 703% 824% 711% 767% 403% 259% Assam 889% 25% 21% 111% 56% 34% 304 234 10 7 67 78 67 77 394% 173% 493% 794% 319% 390% 169% 217% 734% 652% 695% 794% 726% 761% 518% 373% B1har 869% 18% 21% 131% 41% 27% 33 0 25 5 11 4 50 68 48 66 526% 577% 338% 679% 401% 643% 138% 296% 598% 336% 469% 643% 678% 767% 64.1% 538% Goa 590% 12% 01% 410% 52% 40% 131 16 8 77 49 na na na 176% 337% 723% 801% 44% 72% 44% 62% 943% 930% 93 7% 950% 918% 93.4% 362% 332% Gujaral 655% 23% 14% 345% 30% 30% 291 258 89 67 70 51 64 287% 396% 531% 765% 237% 388% 139% 176% 788% 617% 705% 892% 818% 857% 458% 405% Haryana 754% 26% 21% 246% 36% 37% 320 264 87 55 70 57 67 162% 178% 499% 737% 207% 346% 144% 167% 859% 695% 782% 908% 886% 698% 394% 330% H1machal Pradesh 913% 19% 18% 87% 25% 33% 27 4 19 6 90 55 70 57 67 163% 62% 619% 642% 58% 109% 26% 51% 936% 871% 904% 964% 938% 951% 483% 302% Jammu and Kashm1 762% 18% 22% 238% 34% 39% na na na na na na na 257% 148% na na 211% 297% 77% 91% 907% 790% 841% 952% 963% 957% 468% 310% Karnataka 691% 19% 16% 309% 30% 26% 267 231 95 52 73 45 65 328% 491% 477% 742% 282% 404% 149% 182% 728% 573% 653% 846% 801% 824% 57.3% 470% Kerala 736% 19% 04% 264% 33% 49% 17 3 17 2 60 58 16 14 16 291% 434% 889% 923% 81% 57% 51% 39% 948% 943% 946% 945% 963% 954% 306% 229% Madhya Pradesh 768% 20% 20% 232% 41% 38% 359 24 3 139 76 105 57 98 419% 482% 359% 70 8% 379% 528% 192% 203% 643% 463% 559% 84 7% 816% 832% 594% 501% Maharashtra 613% 20% 17% 387% 29% 33% 27 0 22.6 93 47 67 36 54 408% 390% 555% 792% 156% 297% 80% 118% 83.3% 692% 764% 907% 878% 893% 57 5% 455% Mampur 725% 20% 24% 275% 177% 30% 202 206 51 42 na na na 394% 173% 558% 705% na na na na 921% 839% 881% 962% 935% 949% 316% 259% Meghalaya 814% 23% 28% 186% 48% 32% 307 17 6 77 27 na na na 394% 173% 411% 817% na na na na 699% 716% 706% 938% 925% 931% 472% 37 5% M1zoram 539% 23% .00% 461% 100% 101% na na na na na na na 394% 173% 725% 935% na na na na 895% 642% 869% 965% 930% 947% 220% 345% Nagaland 828% 39% 43% 172% 119% 56% 18 8 244 44 37 na na na 394% 173% 572% 931% na na na na 860% 868% 874% 967% 97.3% 970% 305% 197% Onssa 866% 1 7% 17% 134% 57% 31% 277 231 131 61 108 65 103 576% 441°A. 455% 720% 233% 393% 103% 193% 74 7% 589% 670% 882% 786% 835% 549% 443% Punjab 705% 18% 16% 295% 29% 26% 27 7 22 6 88 55 59 35 53 126% 129% 526% 721% 289% 349% 223% 224% 811% 731% 774% 889% 890% 88.9% 474% 400% Rajasthan 771% 25% 23% 229% 30% 34% 355 263 101 50 67 61 64 332% 390% 304% 653% 314% 665% 221% 286% 720% 335% 544% 642% 719% 786% 411% 439% S1kk1m 909% 23% 34% 91% 102% -32% 244 191 71 46 na na na 394% 173% 544% 809% na na na na na na na na na na na na Tamil Nadu 658% 12% 13% 342% 26% 18% 193 190 92 57 64 48 59 458% 439% 546% 780% 134% 202% 94% 102% 85.3% 748% 801% 873% 864% 868% 521% 37 3% Tnpura 84 7% 38% 25% 153% 57% 65% 24 0 19 5 67 46 na na na 394% 173% 561% 831% na na na na 810% 740% 776% 862% 899% 880% 530% 316% Uttar Pradesh 802% 17% 21% 198% 28% 33% 37 2 30 9 122 79 91 71 88 411% 452% 367% 610% 354% 610% 261% 320% 717% 426% 581% 77.1% 695% 735% 505% 469% West Bengal 725% 23% 21% 275% 28% 26% 286 177 85 41 64 48 61 483% 576% 505% 753% 268% 361% 114% 182% 686% 601% 642% 833% 718% 779% 604% 448% Andaman & N1cobar 733% 62% 40% 267% 64% 42% 21 0 233 61 35 na na na 458% 439% 697% 817% na na na na na na na na na n.a na na Chandigarh 103% na 87% 897% na 31% 142 183 45 35 n.a na na 12.9°A. 129% 59.1% 799% na na na. na na n a. na. n a. na na na n.a Dadra & Nagar Hav 915% na 27% 85% na 54% 336 na 122 na na na na 176% 337% 370% 784% na na na. na na na n.a. n.a n a. na na na Daman& D1u 532% 17% 08% 468% 15% 51% 268 242 80 91 na na na na na 616% 816% na na na na na na. na na na na na na Delhi 101% 13% 77% 899% 47% 39% 250 216 73 39 na na na 13% 169% 669% 762% na na 12.1% 14.4% 899% 828% 86.9% 87.3% 866% 87.0% na 416% Lakshadweep 43.7% na 04% 563% na 46% 242 27 4 63 61 na na na 29.1% 434% 789% 640% na n.a na na na n a. na n.a na na na na Pond1cherry 360% na 01% 640% na 50% 153 156 72 56 na na na 45.8% 439% 654% 79.9% na na na na n.a n.a. na na na n.a na na India, Total I"' ~743% ,1,~~ • .H.~ J,~,~'rl ~n~,6'r! I ~ni.i6'r! I "30.3 "23.5 I n10.5 5.7 79 51 73 ~~~~ ~~~ 44.7% 73.1% ,,.llp . a% 476% 153% 199% 72.2% 52.2% 62.6% 85.3% 79.2% 82.4% .~.§.9% 45.2% population pnma prima sot s of s of Jan Jan Jan Jan t1on t1on Censu Censu proport med1a totals, ry ry pnmar pnmar pnmar 1995, 1995, 1995, 1995, and and s s 1on of n of bnef censu censu y y y table table table table numb numb 1991, 1991, the the analysis s s census census census 6, 7, 6, 7, 6, 7, 6, 7, erof erof Final Final total of Intern ofpnmary abstra abstra abstra abstra abstra 9, 10. 9,10 9,10 9, 10. SRS SRS SRS poor poor Popul Popul these at1onal census ct, ct, ct, ct, ct, Prov1 Prov1 Provi Prov1 estim esbm est 1m (Lakd (lakd at1on ation two Refere abstract, table table table table table sional sional sional SIDnal ate, ate, ate, awala awala Totals Totals age nee table2, 2, pp. 2, pp 2, pp. 2, pp 2, pp figure figure figure f1Qure provis prov1s prov1s report, report, , table , table groups do do do NFHS, do do NFHS, do Popula do pp 86-97 86-97 86-97 86-97 86-97 86-97 s s s s 1011al 10nal 10nal 1993) 1993) 6 6 p56 p56 do lion. . • Table 11: Nuptiality indicators Currently Singulate Singulate married mean age at mean age at women, marriage marriage State/UT percent (year) (1981) i1992-93) 30-34 15-19 years 20-24years years male female male female Andhra Pradesh 522% 857% 919% 231 17 3 236 181 Arunachal Pradesh 286% 758% 913% na na 249 200 Assam 310% 609% 872% na na 27 9 21 6 81har 503% 886% 961% 21 6 166 232 180 Goa 31% 288% 862% 285 230 306 251 GuJarat 220% 745% 952% 233 196 239 202 Haryana 441% 884% 972% 252 179 231 184 Himachal Pradesh 193% 749% 926% 242 191 250 204 Jammu and Kashmir 180% 629% 946% na na 263 212 Karnataka 370% 728% 900% 26 0 19 3 261 196 Kerala 134% 528% 873% 27.5 221 281 221 Madhya Pradesh 619% 887% 942% 208 166 22 0 17 4 Maharashtra 362% 783% 923% 244 188 249 193 Mampur 60% 410% 817% 27 3 234 283 250 Meghalaya 183% 610% 881% 260 21 0 251 21 2 M1zoram 92% 408% 802% na na 27 8 22 9 Nagaland 113% 506% 813% 290 248 25.8 22 7 Onssa 275% 709% 935% 24 3 191 256 207 PunJab 144% 869% 960% 250 21 .1 24 8 211 Rajasthan 383% 875% 972% 206 161 227 184 S1kkim na na na na na na na Tam1l Nadu 244% 714% 888% 261 203 264 20 5 Tnpura 258% 615% 85 8% 268 203 27.3 212 Uttar Pradesh 396% 880% 963% 21 3 16 7 23 0 186 West Bengal 400% 775% 887% 260 193 259 192 Andaman & N1cobar Is na na na na na na na. Chand1garh na na na na na na na Dadra & Nagar Haveh na na n.a na na na na Daman & D1u na na n.a n.a na na n a. Deihl 186% 695% 953% 24.3 205 243 209 Lakshadweep na na na na na na n a. Pondicherry na na na na n.a. n.a n.a India, Total 38.4% 79.4% 93.2% 23.5 18.4 25.0 20.0 1981 Census, 1981 Census, Cited 1n NFHS c1ted 1n NFHS NFHS, p 76 NFHS, p 76 NFHS, p. study, p 78, study, p. 78, NFHS, table NFHS, table 76 table 4 3 table4.3 4 3, p 78 4 3, p. 78 Table 13: Special tables related to scheduled castes and tribes State/UT Proportion of population (1991) Female to male ratio (1991) Infant mortality rate (1992/93) Under 5 mortality rate, (1992/93) Literacy rate (1991) Female work r,artlclpatlon rate ( 991) Total Total Schedule Schedule Schedule Schedule Total Schedule Schedule Schedule Schedule Schedule Schedule Populatio Schedule Schedule Populatio d caste dtribe Others d caste dtribe population d caste dtribe Other d caste dtribe Other d caste dtribe n d caste dtribe n Andhra Pradesh 159% 63% 836% 969 960 972 944 854 680 1148 1344 891 316% 172% 441% 467% 506% 343% Arunachal Pradesh 05% 637% 921% 627 998 859 na na na na na na 573% 345% 416% 124% 44.1% 375% Assam 74% 128% 781% 919 967 923 na 896 953 na 150 3 144 5 539% 492% 529% 181% 338% 216% B1har 146% 77% 834% 914 971 911 1204 87 2 940 1710 1356 132 3 195% 268% 385% 235% 377% 149% Goa 21% 00% 905% 967 889 967 na na na na na na 587% 429% 755% 261% 181% 205% Gujarat 7.4% 149% 728% 925 967 934 699 91 5 699 1193 126 7 97 7 611% 365% 61 .3% 260% 469% 260% Haryana 198% - 549% 860 - 865 839 na 780 1266 na 999 392% 00% 559% 117% - 108% H1machal Pradesh 253% 422% 74 7% 967 981 976 61 7 na 640 936 na 807 532% 471% 639% 356% 456% 348% Jammu and Kashmir na na 836% na na na 577 na 47 4 803 na 63 9 na na na n.a na na Karnalaka 164% 43% 737% 962 961 960 984 856 706 1260 1203 97.1 381% 360% 560% 366% 396% 294% Kerala 99% 1.1% 755% 1,029 996 1,036 na na na na na na 797% 57.2% 898% 317% 369% 159% Madhya Pradesh 146% 233% 744% 915 985 931 1241 1031 901 167 8 1666 1298 351% 215% 442% 353% 483% 327% Maharashtra 111% 93% 869% 944 968 934 852 664 522 1240 988 692 565% 368% 649% 362% 497% 331% Mampur 20% 344% 975% 973 959 958 na na na na na na 564% 536% 599% 310% 460% 39.0% Meghalaya 05% 855% 994% 821 997 955 na na na na na n a. 443% 467% 491% 13.9% 378% 349% M1zoram 01% 948% 999% 157 982 921 na na na na na na 779% 827% 823% 106% 440% 435% Nagaland - 87 7% 838% - 946 886 na na na na na n.a 00% 606% 617% 402% 380% Onssa 162% 222% 555% 975 1,002 971 1608 1134 1153 175 8 1488 128.1 368% 223% 491% 234% 398% 208% Punjab 283% - 544% 873 - 882 na na na na na na 411% 00% 585% 54% - 44% Rajasthan 173% 124% 768% 899 930 910 905 754 711 121 7 123 8 969 263% 194% 386% 289% 406% 274% S1kk1m 59% 224% 749% 939 914 878 na na na na na na 510% 590% 569% 268% 316% 304% Tam1i Nadu 192% 10% 645% 978 960 874 900 na 648 127 3 na 847 467% 279% 627% 409% 445% 299% Tnpura 164% 310% 626% 949 965 845 na na na na na na 567% 404% 604% 89% 25 3% 138% Uttar Pradesh 211% 02% 553% 877 914 879 1381 167.5 1102 2021 222 9 151 3 269% 357% 416% 176% 329% 123% Wesl Bengal 236% 56% 764% 931 964 917 968 107.1 773 136 7 133 0 101 9 422% 278% 577% 132% 410% 113% Andaman & N1cobar Is - 95% 835% - 947 818 na na na na na na 00% 56.6% 730% - 274% 131% Chand1garh 165% - 815% 810 - 790 na na na na na n a. 554% 00% 778% 95% 104% Dadra & Nagar Haveh 20% 790% 942% 925 1,022 952 na na na na na na. 776% 282% 407% 269% 555% 488% Daman& D1u 38% 115% 771% 1,067 931 969 na n.a na na na na 792% 529% 712% 179% 40.5'-' 232% Deihl 191% - 810% 834 - 827 861 na 62.1 82.7 na 781 576% 00% 753% 75% - 74% Lakshadweep - 93.2% 83.8% - 994 943 na na na na. na n a. 00% 806% 818% - 73% 76% Pond1cherry 163% - 838% 983 - 979 n a. n.a n.a na na na 563% 00% 747% 305% 152% India, Total 16.5'-' 8.1% 835% 922 972 927 107.3 90.5 82.2 149.1 135.2 111.5 374% 29.6% 52.2% 22.3% 23.0'/o 43.7% NFHS, NFHS, NFHS, Census Census Calculat Census Census Census SR, table SR, table SR, table NFHS, SR, NFHS, SR, NFHS, SR, Census Census Census Census Census Census 1991 1991 ed 1991 1991 1991 84 84 84 table 8.4 lable 8.4 lable 8.4 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 1991 Abortion 11 .7% Toxaemia 12.8o/o Causes of maternal deaths 1993 Anaemia 20.3%> Bleeding of pregnancy 22.6% Not classifiable 14.6o/o Puerperal sepsis 12.5°/o Malposition of child 5.5o/o Source: Causes of death (rural), Registrar General Trad. birth attendant 35.4% Assistance during delivery 1992-93 Doctor 21.7°/o Nurse/midwife 12.7% None 0.6% Relative/other 29.6o/o Source: National Family Health Survey ' ' ' Own home 61.9°/o Source: National Family Health Survey ' ' . Place of delivery 1992-93 Private institution 11.0°/o Public institution 14.7% Other 0.5% Parents' home 12.0% . ,- . Own home 61.9% Place of delivery, Assistance during delivery 1992-93 Private institution 11.0% Public institution 14.7% Other 0.5% Trad. birth att. 35.4% Parents' home 12.0% Doctor 21.7% Source: National Family Health Survey I ' Nurse/midwife 12.7% None 0.6% 29.6% . ' . Diarrhoea 8.0% I Respiratory infection 14.4 Congetinal malform. 4.6% Causes of infant deaths 1993 Prematurity 46.4% Not classifiable 19.1% Birth injury 3.0% Cord infection 4.5% Source: Causes of death (rural), Registrar General I ' ' . . ,__ Public 97.0% Public and Private Schools 1986 Rural (475,938 schools) Urban (53,454 schools) Private 3.0% Public 57.0% Private 43.0% Source: Fifth All India Educational Survey, NCERT . ' . . ' . . \ Digestive disorders 18.8% Coughs 25.6% Causes of death, 1-4 years 1993 Fevers 21.2% Accidents and injuries 8.6% Other clear symptoms 10.8% Circulatory system 10.3% Central nervous system 4.8% Source: Survey of Causes of death (rural), RGI A I ' \ ' ' { ' Graphs for (juA+ So~ C ~ c=+) Situation Analysis 1996 UNICEF- INDIA First Draft- 19 July 1996 70+ 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 Age-groups (years) I 13.~ 16 14 12 10 8 Population Pyramid, India 1992 6 4 2 0 2 4 6 Percent of total population Source: SRS Fertility and Mortality Indicators I I 8 I I 1~ 10 12 14 16 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 Children's Population Pyramid, India 0-19+ years, 1992 Age-groups (years) 22.s I 23.7: 24.3 24.3 28 34 32 30 28 26 24 22 20 22 24 26 28 Percentage of child population Source: SRS Fertility and Mortality Indicators I I 28.18 I I 30 32 34 . ' Children's Population Pyramid, India 0-17+ years, 1992 Age-groups (years) I 15-17+ 15.3 14.9 : 10-14 :26.1 I I I I I I I I I I I I 5-9 2i8 I I I I I I I 0-4 30.8 26.:8 I I I I I I I I I I I I 26.:8 I I I I I I I I 31.p 35 30 25 20 15 1 0 5 0 5 1 0 15 20 25 30 35 40 Percent of male child pop Percent of girl child pop Source: SRS Fertility and Mortality Indicators I•Male •Female ' I ' . 10-14 5-9 0-4 Children's Population Pyramid, India 0-14 years, 1951 and 1992 Age-groups (years) 0 5 10 Percentage of population 13.5 15 Source: SRS Fertility and Mortality Indicators, Registrar General. 1•1951 1111992 I ' ' 10-14 5-9 0-4 Children's Population Pyramid, India 0-14 years, 1901 and 1992 Age-groups (years) 0 5 10 Percentage of population Source: SRS Fertility and Mortality Indicators, Registrar General. 13.61 15 70- 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 Age-groups (years) 2.3 2.2 2.8 2.9 0 Population Pyramid, India 1981 and 1992 3.5 3.7 5 10 Percentage of population Source: SRS Fertility and Mortality Indicators, Census 1981 15 Age-groups (years) 70- 2 65-69 60-64 55-59 50-54 45-49 40-44 35-39 30-34 25-29 20-24 15-19 10-14 5-9 0-4 0 Population Pyramid, India 1951 and 1992 9.1 5 10 Percentage of population . 12.2 ••• 12.7 Source: SRS Fertility and Mortality Indicators, Census 1981 15 Population, millions 1000 Trend in population and births 1951-95 Million births per year 50 800 -- ---- -------- ------- --- ---- --- -- ----- -- --- -- -- ----- ------ ----- -- ---------- --- -- ---- ---- ------ 40 600 ---- ------- -- ------ ---- ---- ----- ------ -- --- ----- -- ------ ------ ------ ---- ----- ----- --- -------- 30 2 00 ------- ------- --- -------- -- -- -------------------- ------------------ -------- ---- ------------ -- -- 1 0 0 1951 1961 1971 1981 I+ Population • Children born I Source: Census and SRS. Million births calculated as Population*CBR. 0 1991 I ' ' 50 40 30 20 10 Crude Birth Rate Trend in CBR and births 1951-95 0 1951 1961 1971 1981 J •Crude Birth Rate eChildren born I Source: Census and SRS. Million births c lculated as PopulaliOII*CBR. Million births/year 50 40 30 20 10 0 1991 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 Million deaths Number of infant deaths 1971-95 0.5 --------- ---- -- ----------- ------ --------- -- --- -------------- ------- ---------- -- ---- ----- ---------- 0 S~7ca: Census and SRS. ~j'l~deaths calculated a~ ~~11ation*CBR*IMR. 1986 1991 ' ' Trend in industrial and agricultural production 1951-95 Index of production, 1980/81 = 1 00 300 250 --- --- ---- ---------- ------- --- --- -------- --------- -- --------- -------- ----------- ---- ----- --- ------ - 200 ------ ------ -- ------ ------- ---- --- ------- ----------- --------- --- ----- -------------- ---- ---- -------- 150 0 1950 1960 Economic Survey 1995-96, table S 1. 1970 1980 1990 !•Industrial production e Agricultural production ' ' Rupees 3000 Trend in economic performance 1951-95 2500 -- --- --- - -- ----- ----- -- ----- - - --------- --- -- -- ------- - - ------- -- -- -- --- ---- - - ------ - -- - --- - - --24Q-1--- - 2000 1500 -- --- ---- - -- ----- - --- -- ----~- -~-~--~- ~--~--~-~--~- ------- --~15~2~:_ _____ --__ --_____ --_________ --__ --_--__ --_,_ ___ __ ____ _______ ___ ______ ___ ______ _ 1~0 1000 500 0 1950 1960 1970 Source: Economic Survey 1995-96. NNP in 1980/81 prices 1980 1990 I• Net national product per capita I (/) 0 c ., 0 ~ ""U Punjab i:U ::J :!. Himachal Pradesh ::J <0 () 0 Haryana 3 3 (ij' C/) Jammu and Kashmir o· ::J Kerala Gujarat Assam Rajasthan West Bengal Maharashtra India, Total Andhra Pradesh Karnataka Tamil Nadu Uttar Pradesh Madhya Pradesh Bihar Orissa _.:., N w 0 0 0 0 ~ 0 (.n 0 "U CD 0 CD ::J - "U 0 "'C c Q) ~ -· 'U 0 CD :::::s ., ("') c CD ::J :::::s r-+ a. - _.:., CD c.o CX> ., -.J"'C Co 0 CX> < _. CD :::+ '< - - :::::s CD ~ N VJ ~ 01 ()) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 (f) 0 s::::: Punjab= I I II . I I 0 I I (1) I I I r I I I Ill Chandigarh I I I I I I " Himachal Pradesh ' ' 0. Ill :E Delhi Ill I Dr I "U Haryana I 0 ;;o I (1) I I "'C Dadra & Nagar Haveli I I "0 0 I I ::::+ I I c Jammu and Kashmir I I - I Q) Goa I _. I I -· I I Andhra Pradesh I I 0 I I ::J I I Kerala I I I I c I I Gujarat I ::J I Mizoram 0. CD Manipur ., Meghalaya ""0 "0 CD 0 Rajasthan ., (') < Sikkim CD CD ::J I . ;:4. I Nagaland I .- '< I ~ I c.o Assam I I I I ()) ::J I I . Tripura I I I I I CD I I ()) Lakshadweep I ()) I I ._. ., Arunachal Pradesh I CD I I < Karnataka I I -· en CD India, Total I 0. CD en Maharashtra _. - Uttar Pradesh 3 Q) Madhya Pradesh _. CD West Bengal en Pondicherry Tamil Nadu Andaman & Nicobar Is Bihar Orissa I I t ~ .,),. 1\.) w ~ c.n 0> CJ) 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 c ., "'U 0 Punjab CD CD """' 0 r Chandigarh CD Q) ::::J " 0. . Q) Himachal Pradesh :e Q) Delhi Q) :::0 Haryana CD "U "'0 0 Dadra & Nagar Haveli 0 .?- I Jammu and Kashmir I "'C "'0 Q) c :::J Goa I - 2. I Q) :::J Andhra Pradesh co I""+ () Kerala 0 0 3 ::J 3 Gujarat (ij' Mizoram c C/) (5' ::J :::J Manipur c. "'C Meghalaya CD CD """'' ., I () Rajasthan CD "'C r :::J D) Sikkim . 0 " c. - < D) Nag a land .,),. :E (() CD D) Assam ()) ::4. or . '< Tripura I """' ()) CD ()) "0 Lakshadweep 0 ._ ::J ;::+ Arunachal Pradesh CD I Karnataka "'U l CD D) I ::::J I I en 2. I I I""+ India, Total "' •.s&-$}-.><,~'{<'%-;", :-~~:~"'{~'"4u,;,;rq.:.;>,;;,.;_":<.0:~rmra - ::::J 3 co () I Q) 0 Maharashtra I I""+ 3 I CD ~. Uttar Pradesh I en (/) Madhya Pradesh (/) a· ::::J West Bengal Pondicherry Tamil Nadu Andaman & Nicobar Is Bihar Orissa ·. I ' ' '· Population, millions 500 400 300 200 100 0 1951 1961 Trend in literacy in India 1951-91 1971 I e Literates •Illiterates I Source: Census 1991, Registrar General of India 1981 1991 Years 65 Trend in life expectancy at birth 1901-90 55 --------- -------- ---------- ------ ------ --- ----- ----------- ----------------- ------- ------ ---- . ------- - 45 ------- -------- ---- -- ------------- -- ----- ------ ------ ---- ----------- -- 35 ------- ------- ---- -- ------------- -------- ------ ----- ------------- --------------- ------ --------- ------ ~5 ------------ ------- ---- --- ------ --- ---------- -- ------------- --- -- --- ----------- -------- -- -- ---------- - 15 1901 19~1 Source: Census 1991, Registrar General of India I I 1941 1961 1981 leMale •Female! ' . Years 65 60 55 50 45 40 1955 Trend in life expectancy at birth 1955-91 1965 1975 "'"' , Source: Census 1991 , Registrar General of India ·--- 1985 j~Male Female

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