India - Demographic and Health Survey - 2017

Publication date: 2017

India National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) 2015-16 International Institute for Population Sciences Deonar, Mumbai 400 088 Ministry of Health and Family Welfare Government of India NATIONAL FAMILY HEALTH SURVEY (NFHS-4) 2015-16 INDIA DECEMBER 2017 Suggested citation: International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS) and ICF. 2017. National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), 2015-16: India. Mumbai: IIPS. For additional information about the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), please contact: International Institute for Population Sciences, Govandi Station Road, Deonar, Mumbai-400 088 Telephone: 022-4237 2442 Fax: 022-2556 3257 Email: nfhs42013@gmail.com, director@iips.net For related information, visit http://www.rchiips.org/nfhs or http://www.iipsindia.org CONTRIBUTORS Balram Paswan S.K. Singh Hemkhothang Lhungdim Chander Shekhar Fred Arnold Sunita Kishor Abhishek Singh Dhananjay W. Bansod Manoj Alagarajan Laxmi Kant Dwivedi Sarang Pedgaonkar Manas R. Pradhan Contents Ȉ v CONTENTS TABLES AND FIGURES . xi KEY MESSAGE FROM SECRETARY OF MINISTRY OF HEALTH AND FAMILY WELFARE . xxi FOREWORD . xxiii PREFACE .xxv )520�',5(&725¶6�'(6. . xxvii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS . xxix CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION . 1 1.1 Survey Objectives . 1 1.2 Sample Design . 1 1.3 Questionnaires . 2 1.4 Biomarker Measurements and Tests . 3 1.5 Pretest . 6 1.6 Training of Field Staff . 6 1.7 Fieldwork . 6 1.8 Strategy to Ensure Data Quality . 6 1.9 Data Processing . 7 1.10 Response Rates . 8 CHAPTER 2 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS . 13 2.1 Drinking Water Sources and Treatment . 14 2.2 Sanitation . 15 2.3 Exposure to Smoke inside the Home and Other Housing Characteristics . 15 2.3.1 Exposure to Smoke inside the Home. 15 2.3.2 Other Housing Characteristics . 15 2.4 Household Wealth . 16 2.5 Hand Washing . 16 2.6 Household Population and Composition . 17 2.7 Birth Registration . 18 2.8 Children’s Living Arrangements and Parental Survival . 19 2.9 Schooling . 19 2.9.1 Educational Attainment . 19 2.9.2 School Attendance. 20 CHAPTER 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS . 53 3.1 Basic Characteristics of Survey Respondents . 53 3.2 Schooling and Literacy . 54 3.3 Mass Media Exposure . 55 3.4 Employment . 56 3.5 Occupation . 56 Contents z�v Contents Ȉ�� vi CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY AND FERTILITY PREFERENCES . 79 4.1 Current Fertility . 79 4.2 Children Ever Born and Living . 81 4.3 Birth Order . 81 4.4 Birth Intervals . 81 4.5 Age at First Birth . 82 4.6 Menstrual Protection . 82 4.7 Teenage Childbearing . 83 4.8 Desire for Another Child . 84 4.9 Ideal Family Size . 85 4.10 Fertility Planning Status . 86 4.11 Wanted Fertility Rates . 87 CHAPTER 5 FAMILY PLANNING.111 5.1 Contraceptive Knowledge and Use .111 5.2 Source of Modern Contraceptive Methods .113 5.3 Informed Choice.114 5.4 Discontinuation of Contraceptives .115 5.5 Exposure to Family Planning Messages .115 5.6 Demand for Family Planning .116 CHAPTER 6 OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY .155 6.1 Marital Status .155 6.2 Age at First Marriage .156 6.3 Consanguineous Marriages .157 6.4 Age at First Sexual Intercourse .158 6.5 Recent Sexual Activity .159 6.6 Insusceptibility to Pregnancy .159 6.7 Pregnancy Outcomes .160 6.7.1 Characteristics of Abortions .161 CHAPTER 7 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY .185 7.1 Infant and Child Mortality.186 7.2 Biodemographic Risk Factors .187 7.3 Perinatal Mortality .188 CHAPTER 8 MATERNAL HEALTH .201 8.1 Pregnancy Registration .202 8.1.1 Registration of Pregnancies .202 8.1.2 Mother and Child Protection Card (MCP Card) .202 8.2 Antenatal Care Coverage and Content .202 8.2.1 Skilled Providers .202 8.2.2 Timing and Number of ANC Visits .203 8.3 Components of ANC Visits .204 8.4 Protection against Neonatal Tetanus .204 8.5 Ultrasound Testing during Pregnancy .205 8.6 Delivery Services .205 8.6.1 Institutional Deliveries .205 8.6.2 Skilled Assistance during Delivery .207 8.6.3 Delivery by Caesarean Section .208 vi z Contents Contents Ȉ vii 8.7 Delivery Costs .209 8.8 Postnatal Care .209 8.8.1 Postnatal Health Check for Mothers.209 8.8.2 Postnatal Health Checks for Newborns .210 CHAPTER 9 CHILD HEALTH .251 9.1 Birth Weight .252 9.2 Vaccination of Children .252 9.3 Symptoms of Acute Respiratory Infection .255 9.4 Fever .256 9.5 Diarrhoeal Disease .256 9.5.1 Prevalence of Diarrhoea .256 9.5.2 Treatment of Diarrhoea .257 9.5.3 Feeding Practices .258 9.5.4 Knowledge of ORS Packets .259 9.6 Disposal of Children’s Stools .259 9.7 Utilization of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) .260 9.7.1 Utilization of ICDS by Pregnant and Lactating Mothers .260 CHAPTER 10 NUTRITION AND ANAEMIA .291 10.1 Nutritional Status of Children .292 10.1.1 Nutritional Status among Young Children .292 10.1.2 Levels of Child Malnutrition .293 10.2 Infant and Young Child Feeding Practices .294 10.2.1 Initiation of Breastfeeding .294 10.2.2 Exclusive Breastfeeding .295 10.2.3 Median Duration of Breastfeeding .296 10.2.4 Complementary Feeding .296 10.2.5 Minimum Acceptable Diet .296 10.3 Anaemia Prevalence in Children .298 10.4 Presence of Iodised Salt in Households .299 10.5 Micronutrient Intake and Supplementation among Children .299 10.6 Nutritional Status in Adults .300 10.7 Anaemia Prevalence in Adults .301 10.8 Food Consumption of Women and Men .303 CHAPTER 11 MORBIDITY AND HEALTH CARE .343 11.1 Tuberculosis .343 11.1.1 Prevalence of Tuberculosis .343 11.1.2 Knowledge and Attitudes toward Tuberculosis .344 11.2 Health Problems .345 11.3 Use of Tobacco .345 11.3.1 Consumption of Tobacco .345 11.3.2 Quitting Tobacco .346 11.4 Alcohol Use, Health Insurance, and Sources of Health Care .347 11.4.1 Use of Alcohol .347 11.5 Health Insurance Coverage .347 11.6 Sources of Health Care .348 11.7 Reasons for Not Using Government Health Care .349 11.8 Recent Contact with Health Workers .349 11.9 Problems in Accessing Health Care .349 Contents z�vii CHAPTER 12 OTHER ADULT HEALTH ISSUES .385 12.1 Coverage of Testing for Blood Pressure and Random Blood Glucose Measurements .386 12.2 Blood Pressure .386 12.2.1 Self Reports of Blood Pressure Measurement and Medication .386 12.2.2 Blood Pressure Levels and Treatment Status .386 12.3 Random Blood Glucose .387 12.4 Health Examinations .388 12.5 Age-Specific Death Rates and Crude Death Rates .389 12.6 Adult Mortality.389 CHAPTER 13 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOUR .411 13.1 HIV/AIDS Knowledge, Transmission, and Prevention Methods .412 13.2 Comprehensive Knowledge .413 13.3 Knowledge about Mother-to-Child Transmission .415 13.4 Accepting Attitudes toward People Living with HIV .415 13.5 Attitudes toward Negotiating Sex with Husband .416 13.6 Multiple Sexual Partners .417 13.7 Paid Sex.418 13.8 Coverage of HIV Testing Services .418 13.8.1 Awareness of HIV Testing Services and Experience with HIV Testing .418 13.8.2 HIV Testing of Pregnant Women .419 13.9 Self-Reporting of Sexually Transmitted Infections .420 13.10 HIV/AIDS-related Knowledge and Behaviour among Young People .421 13.10.1 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS .421 13.10.2 First Sex .421 13.10.3 Premarital Sex .422 13.10.4 Multiple Sexual Partners .422 13.10.5 Coverage of HIV Testing Services .423 CHAPTER 14 HIV PREVALENCE .473 14.1 Coverage Rates for HIV Testing .474 14.2 HIV Prevalence .475 14.2.1 HIV Prevalence by Age and Sex .475 14.2.2 HIV Prevalence by Sexual Risk Behaviour and Prior HIV Testing .477 14.2.3 HIV Prevalence among Couples .478 14.2.4 HIV Prevalence among Young People .478 CHAPTER 15 :20(1¶6�(032:(50(17 .507 15.1 Currently Married Women’s and Men’s Employment .508 15.2 Control over Women’s Earnings .509 15.3 Control over Men’s Earnings .510 15.4 Participation in Household Decision Making .510 15.5 Men’s Attitudes toward Women’s Roles in Decision Making .512 15.6 Women’s Access to Money and Microcredit .512 15.7 Freedom of Movement .513 15.8 Attitudes toward Wife Beating .514 15.9 Attitudes toward Negotiating Safer Sexual Relations with Husband .515 15.10 Women’s and Men’s Ownership of Assets .516 15.11 Ownership and Use of a Mobile Phone .516 viii z Contents CHAPTER 16 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE .563 16.1 Measurement of Violence .564 16.2 Women’s Experience of Physical Violence .565 16.2.1 Perpetrators of Physical Violence .566 16.3 Experience of Sexual Violence .566 16.3.1 Prevalence of Sexual Violence .566 16.3.2 Perpetrators of Sexual Violence .567 16.4 Experience of Different Types of Violence.567 16.5 Marital Control by Husband .567 16.6 Forms of Spousal Violence .568 16.6.1 Prevalence of Spousal Violence .568 16.7 Injuries to Women due to Spousal Violence .571 16.8 Violence Initiated by Women against Husbands .571 16.9 Help-seeking among Women who have Experienced Violence .572 16.9.1 Sources of Help .572 APPENDIX A ORGANIZATIONS INVOLVED IN NFHS-4 FIELDWORK AND HIV TESTING .601 APPENDIX B NFHS-4 SURVEY STAFF .603 APPENDIX C SAMPLE DESIGN .609 1.1 Introduction . 609 1.2 Sampling Frame . 609 Table C.1 Distribution of residential households by state/union territory and type of residence . .610 1.3 Sampling Design and Selection. . .611 Table C.2 Sample allocation of clusters by state/union territory and type of residence .612 Table C.3 Sample allocation of households by state/union territory and type of residence .613 Table C.4 Sample allocation of expected interviewed women and men by state/union territory and type of residence. . 614 1.4 Sampling Weight. .615 Table C.5 Sample implementation: Women .617 Table C.6 Sample implementation: Men .621 APPENDIX D ESTIMATES OF SAMPLING ERRORS .625 Table D.1 List of variables for sampling errors, India, 2015-16 .625 Table D.2 Sampling errors: Total sample, India, 2015-16 .626 Table D.2 Sampling errors: Urban sample, India, 2015-16 .627 Table D.2 Sampling errors: Rural sample, India, 2015-16 .628 APPENDIX E DATA QUALITY TABLES .629 Table E.1 Household age distribution.629 Table E.2.1 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed women .631 Table E.2.2 Age distribution of eligible and interviewed men .632 Table E.3 Completeness of reporting .633 Table E.4 Births by calendar years .634 Table E.5 Reporting of age at death in days .635 Table E.6 Reporting of age at death in months .636 APPENDIX F SURVEY INSTRUMENTS .637 Contents z�ix TABLES AND FIGURES CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION . 1 Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews . 10 Table 1.2 Number of households, women, and men interviewed by state/union territory . 11 Figure 1.1 HIV Testing Algorithm . 5 CHAPTER 2 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS . 13 Table 2.1 Household drinking water . 24 Table 2.2 Household sanitation facilities . 25 Table 2.3 Housing characteristics . 26 Table 2.4 Housing characteristics by state/union territory . 28 Table 2.5 Wealth quintiles by state/union territory . 30 Table 2.6 Religion and caste/tribe by wealth quintiles . 31 Table 2.7 Religion and caste/tribe of household head by state/union territory . 32 Table 2.8 Household possessions . 34 Table 2.9 Household ownership of agricultural land, house, and farm animals . 35 Table 2.10 Hand washing . 36 Table 2.11 Household composition . 37 Table 2.12 Household population by age, residence, sex, and possession of an Aadhaar card . 38 Table 2.13 Birth registration of children . 39 Table 2.14 Birth registration of children by state/union territory . 40 Table 2.15 Children's living arrangements and orphanhood . 41 Table 2.16 Children's living arrangements and orphanhood by state/union territory . 42 Table 2.17 Educational attainment of household population . 43 Table 2.18 Educational attainment of household population by state/union territory . 45 Table 2.19 School attendance by state/union territory . 47 Table 2.20 School attendance ratios . 49 Table 2.21 Reasons for children currently not attending school . 51 Figure 2.1 Household Drinking Water by Residence . 14 Figure 2.2 Household Toilet Facilities by Residence . 15 Figure 2.3 Household Wealth by Residence . 16 Figure 2.4 Population Pyramid . 17 Figure 2.5 Birth Registration by State/UT . 18 Figure 2.6 Orphanhood by Child’s Age . 19 Figure 2.7 School Attendance by Age, Sex, and Residence . 21 CHAPTER 3 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS . 53 Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents . 59 Table 3.2.1 Respondent's level of schooling: Women . 61 Table 3.2.2 Respondent's level of schooling: Men . 62 Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women . 63 Table 3.3.2 Literacy: Men . 65 Table 3.4.1 Respondent's level of schooling and literacy by state/union territory: Women . 67 Table 3.4.2 Respondent's level of schooling and literacy by state/union territory: Men . 68 Tables and Figures z�xi Table 3.5.1 Exposure to mass media: Women . 69 Table 3.5.2 Exposure to mass media: Men . 70 Table 3.6.1 Employment status: Women. 72 Table 3.6.2 Employment status: Men . 73 Table 3.7 Employment status of women and men by state/union territory . 74 Table 3.8 Occupation . 76 Table 3.9 Type of employment . 77 Figure 3.1 Education of Survey Respondents . 54 Figure 3.2 Secondary or Higher Education by Residence . 54 Figure 3.3 Exposure to Mass Media . 55 Figure 3.4 Employment Status by Schooling . 56 CHAPTER 4 FERTILITY AND FERTILITY PREFERENCES. 79 Table 4.1 Current fertility . 89 Table 4.2 Fertility by background characteristics . 90 Table 4.3 Fertility by state/union territory . 91 Table 4.4 Age-specific fertility rates . 92 Table 4.5 Children ever born and living . 93 Table 4.6 Birth order . 94 Table 4.7 Birth intervals . 95 Table 4.8 Age at first birth . 96 Table 4.9 Median age at first birth . 97 Table 4.10 Menstrual protection . 98 Table 4.11 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood . 99 Table 4.12 Teenage pregnancy and motherhood by state/union territory.100 Table 4.13 Fertility preferences by number of living children .101 Table 4.14 Desire to limit childbearing .102 Table 4.15 Desire to limit childbearing by state/union territory .103 Table 4.16.1 Indicators of sex preference: Women .104 Table 4.16.2 Indicators of sex preference: Men .105 Table 4.17 Indicators of sex preference by state/union territory .106 Table 4.18 Fertility planning status .107 Table 4.19 Wanted fertility rates .108 Table 4.20 Wanted fertility rates by state/union territory .109 Figure 4.1 Trends in Fertility by Residence . 80 Figure 4.2 Fertility by Household Wealth . 80 Figure 4.3 Trends in Age-Specific Fertility Rates . 80 Figure 4.4 Birth Intervals . 81 Figure 4.5 Median Age at First Birth by Schooling . 82 Figure 4.6 Teenage Childbearing by State/UT . 84 Figure 4.7 Currently Married Women and Men Age 15-49 with Two Children Who Want No More Children by Number of Living Sons . 85 Figure 4.8 Trends in Wanted and Actual Fertility . 87 CHAPTER 5 FAMILY PLANNING .111 Table 5.1 Knowledge of contraceptive methods .119 Table 5.2 Current use of contraception by state/union territory .122 Table 5.3.1 Current use of contraception .127 Table 5.3.2 Contraceptive use by men with last sexual partner .129 Table 5.4 Knowledge of contraceptive methods among adolescents .131 xii z Tables and Figures Table 5.5 Current use of contraception by age .132 Table 5.6 Number of living children at first use of contraception .134 Table 5.7 Timing of sterilization .135 Table 5.8 Source of modern contraceptive methods .136 Table 5.9 Public sector as source of modern contraceptives methods by state/union territory .139 Table 5.10 Use and source of emergency contraceptive pills .140 Table 5.11 Informed choice .141 Table 5.12 Informed choice by state/union territory .142 Table 5.13 Twelve-month contraceptive discontinuation rates .143 Table 5.14 Twelve-month contraceptive discontinuation rates by state/union territory .144 Table 5.15.1 Exposure to family planning messages: Women .145 Table 5.15.2 Exposure to family planning messages: Men .146 Table 5.16 Men's contraception-related perceptions and knowledge .147 Table 5.17 Men's contraception-related perceptions and knowledge by state/union territory .148 Table 5.18 Need and demand for family planning .149 Table 5.19 Need and demand for family planning by state/union territory .151 Table 5.20 Hysterectomy .153 Table 5.21 Hysterectomy by state/union territory .154 Figure 5.1 What Contraceptive Methods do Women Use? .112 Figure 5.2 Use of Modern Contraceptive Methods by Household Wealth .112 Figure 5.3 Use of Contraceptive Methods by State/UT .113 Figure 5.4 Source of Modern Contraceptive Methods .114 Figure 5.5 Contraceptive Discontinuation Rates for Modern Spacing Methods.115 Figure 5.6 Demand for Family Planning .116 Figure 5.7 Unmet Need for Family Planning by State/UT .117 CHAPTER 6 OTHER PROXIMATE DETERMINANTS OF FERTILITY .155 Table 6.1 Current marital status .163 Table 6.2 Age at first marriage .165 Table 6.3.1 Median age at first marriage: Women .166 Table 6.3.2 Median age at first marriage: Men .167 Table 6.4 Age at first marriage by state/union territory .168 Table 6.5 Consanguineous marriages .169 Table 6.6 Consanguineous marriages by state/union territory .170 Table 6.7 Age at first sexual intercourse .171 Table 6.8.1 Median age at first sexual intercourse: Women .172 Table 6.8.2 Median age at first sexual intercourse: Men .173 Table 6.9.1 Most recent sexual activity: Women .174 Table 6.9.2 Most recent sexual activity: Men .175 Table 6.10 Postpartum amenorrhoea, abstinence, and insusceptibility .176 Table 6.11 Median duration of postpartum amenorrhoea, postpartum abstinence, and postpartum insusceptibility .177 Table 6.12 Menopause .178 Table 6.13 Non-live births .179 Table 6.14 Non-live births by state/union territory .180 Table 6.15 Pregnancy outcome .181 Table 6.16 Pregnancy outcome by state/union territory .182 Table 6.17 Characteristics of abortions .183 Tables and Figures z�xiii Figure 6.1 Marital Status .156 Figure 6.2 Women's Median Age at First Marriage by Schooling .157 Figure 6.3 Consanguineous Marriages by State/UT .158 CHAPTER 7 INFANT AND CHILD MORTALITY .185 Table 7.1 Early childhood mortality rates .190 Table 7.2 Early childhood mortality rates by background characteristics .191 Table 7.3 Early childhood mortality rates by demographic characteristics .194 Table 7.4 Early childhood mortality rates by state/union territory .197 Table 7.5 Perinatal mortality .198 Table 7.6 Perinatal mortality by state/union territory .199 Table 7.7 High-risk fertility behaviour .200 Figure 7.1 Trends in Early Childhood Mortality Rates .186 Figure 7.2 Under-five Mortality Rate by State/UT .187 Figure 7.3 High-risk Births Have Higher Mortality Rates .188 CHAPTER 8 MATERNAL HEALTH .201 Table 8.1 Pregnancy registration and Mother and Child Protection Card .213 Table 8.2 Health problems during pregnancy .214 Table 8.3 Antenatal care .215 Table 8.4 Antenatal care by state/union territory .216 Table 8.5 Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit .217 Table 8.6 Number of antenatal care visits and timing of first visit by source .218 Table 8.7 Components of antenatal care .219 Table 8.8 Antenatal care services and information received .220 Table 8.9 Male involvement in antenatal care .222 Table 8.10 Reasons why child's mother did not receive antenatal care: Men .224 Table 8.11 Antenatal care indicators by state/union territory .225 Table 8.12 Pregnancies for which an ultrasound test was done .226 Table 8.13 Place of delivery .228 Table 8.14 Reasons for not delivering in a health facility .229 Table 8.15 Institutional delivery of youngest child: Men .230 Table 8.16 Delivery and other related information given to men: Men's reports .231 Table 8.17 Delivery and other related information given to men by state/union territory: Men's reports .232 Table 8.18 Adherence to delivery protocol for home delivery .233 Table 8.19 Assistance during delivery .234 Table 8.20 Delivery costs .236 Table 8.21 Timing of first postnatal check for the mother .237 Table 8.22 Type of provider of first postnatal check for the mother .239 Table 8.23 Timing of first postnatal check for the newborn .241 Table 8.24 Type of provider of first postnatal check for the newborn .243 Table 8.25 Symptoms of postpartum complications .244 Table 8.26 Maternal care indicators by state/union territory .245 Table 8.27 Trends in maternal care indicators .246 Table 8.28 Advice received during pregnancy .247 Table 8.29 Delivery and postnatal care by state/union territory .248 Table 8.30 Birth order and delivery characteristics by state/union territory .249 xiv z Tables and Figures Figure 8.1 Trends in Antenatal Coverage .203 Figure 8.2 Components of Antenatal Care (ANC) .204 Figure 8.3 Trends in Health Facility Births .205 Figure 8.4 Health Facility Births by Schooling .206 Figure 8.5 Health Facility Births by State/UT .207 Figure 8.6 Assistance during Delivery.208 Figure 8.7 Skilled Assistance at Delivery by Household Wealth .208 Figure 8.8 Postnatal Care by Place of Delivery . 210 CHAPTER 9 CHILD HEALTH .251 Table 9.1 Child's weight and size at birth .262 Table 9.2 Child's weight and size at birth by state/union territory .264 Table 9.3 Vaccinations by source of information .265 Table 9.4 Vaccinations by background characteristics .266 Table 9.5 Vaccinations by state/union territory .268 Table 9.6 Trends over time in vaccinations .270 Table 9.7 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI .271 Table 9.8 Prevalence and treatment of symptoms of ARI by state/union territory .273 Table 9.9 Prevalence and treatment of fever .274 Table 9.10 Prevalence of diarrhoea .275 Table 9.11 Diarrhoea treatment .276 Table 9.12 Diarrhoea treatment by state/union territory.278 Table 9.13 Feeding practices during diarrhoea.280 Table 9.14 Feeding practices during diarrhoea by state/union territory .282 Table 9.15 Knowledge of ORS packets.284 Table 9.16 Disposal of children's stools .285 Table 9.17 Disposal of children's stools by state/union territory .286 Table 9.18 Indicators of utilization of ICDS services .287 Table 9.19 Indicators of utilization of ICDS services by state/union territory .288 Table 9.20 Utilization of ICDS services during pregnancy and while breastfeeding . 289 Table 9.21 Indicators of women’s utilization of ICDS services during pregnancy and while breastfeeding by state/union territory .290 Figure 9.1 Childhood Vaccinations .253 Figure 9.2 Trends in Childhood Vaccinations .253 Figure 9.3 Coverage with All Basic Vaccinations by Mother's Schooling .254 Figure 9.4 Coverage with All Basic Vaccinations by State/UT .255 Figure 9.5 Prevalence of Diarrhoea by Age .256 Figure 9.6 Treatment of Diarrhoea .257 Figure 9.7 Prevalence and Treatment of Childhood Illness .258 Figure 9.8 Feeding Practices during Diarrhoea .259 CHAPTER 10 NUTRITION AND ANAEMIA .291 Table 10.1 Nutritional status of children .305 Table 10.2 Nutritional status of children by state/union territory .308 Table 10.3 Trends in nutritional status of children .309 Table 10.4 Initial breastfeeding .310 Table 10.5 Initial breastfeeding by state/union territory.311 Table 10.6 Breastfeeding status by age .312 Table 10.7 Median duration of breastfeeding .313 Table 10.8 Median duration of breastfeeding by state/union territory .314 Tables and Figures z�xv Table 10.9 Foods and liquids consumed by children in the day or night preceding the interview .315 Table 10.10 Minimum acceptable diet .316 Table 10.11 Minimum acceptable diet by state/union territory .318 Table 10.12 Prevalence of anaemia in children .320 Table 10.13 Prevalence of anaemia in children by state/union territory .322 Table 10.14 Trends in prevalence of anaemia in children .323 Table 10.15 Presence of iodized salt in household .324 Table 10.16 Presence of iodized salt in household by state/union territory .325 Table 10.17 Micronutrient intake among children .326 Table 10.18 Micronutrient intake among children by state/union territory .328 Table 10.19.1 Nutritional status of women .330 Table 10.19.2 Nutritional status of men .331 Table 10.20.1 Nutritional status of women by state/union territory .332 Table 10.20.2 Nutritional status of men by state/union territory .333 Table 10.21.1 Prevalence of anaemia in women .334 Table 10.21.2 Prevalence of anaemia in men .336 Table 10.22 Prevalence of anaemia in women and men by state/union territory .337 Table 10.23 Women's and men's food consumption .338 Table 10.24.1 Women's food consumption .339 Table 10.24.2 Men's food consumption .340 Table 10.25.1 Women's food consumption by state/union territory .341 Table 10.25.2 Men's food consumption by state/union territory .342 Figure 10.1 Trends in Nutritional Status of Children .293 Figure 10.2 Stunting in Children by State/UT .294 Figure 10.3 Breastfeeding Practices by Age .295 Figure 10.4 IYCF Indicators on Minimum Acceptable Diet (MAD) .297 Figure 10.5 Trends in Childhood Anaemia .298 Figure 10.6 Nutritional Status of Women and Men .300 Figure 10.7 Trends in Nutritional Status.301 Figure 10.8 Trends in Anaemia Status .302 CHAPTER 11 MORBIDITY AND HEALTH CARE .343 Table 11.1 Prevalence of tuberculosis .351 Table 11.2 Prevalence of tuberculosis by persons per sleeping room and cooking fuel/cooking arrangements.352 Table 11.3 Prevalence of tuberculosis by state/union territory .353 Table 11.4.1 Knowledge and attitudes toward tuberculosis: Women .354 Table 11.4.2 Knowledge and attitudes toward tuberculosis: Men .355 Table 11.5.1 Self-reported health problems: Women .356 Table 11.5.2 Self-reported health problems: Men .358 Table 11.6 Self-reported health problems by state/union territory .360 Table 11.7 Tobacco use by women and men .362 Table 11.8 Use of tobacco by background characteristics .363 Table 11.9 Quitting tobacco use and advice by a health care provider .365 Table 11.10 Quitting tobacco use and advice by a health care provider by state/union territory .367 Table 11.11.1 Use of alcohol: Women .369 Table 11.11.2 Use of alcohol: Men .370 Table 11.12 Use of alcohol by state/union territory .371 Table 11.13 Health scheme/health insurance coverage .372 xvi z Tables and Figures Table 11.14.1 Health scheme/health insurance coverage: Women .373 Table 11.14.2 Health scheme/health insurance coverage: Men .374 Table 11.15 Health scheme/health insurance coverage among women and men by state/union territory .375 Table 11.16 Source of health care .376 Table 11.17 Reasons for not using a government health facility by state/union territory .377 Table 11.18 Recent contacts with health workers .378 Table 11.19 Matters discussed during contacts with a health worker .380 Table 11.20 Contacts with health workers and visit to a health facility or camp by state/union territory .381 Table 11.21 Problems in accessing health care .382 Figure 11.1 Tobacco Use by Sex and Residence .346 Figure 11.2 Health Insurance Coverage of Households by State/UT .348 CHAPTER 12 OTHER ADULT HEALTH ISSUES .385 Table 12.1 Coverage of testing for blood pressure and random blood glucose measurements .391 Table 12.2 Self reports of blood pressure measurement and medication .392 Table 12.3.1 Blood pressure levels and treatment status: Women .393 Table 12.3.2 Blood pressure levels and treatment status: Men .395 Table 12.4.1 Blood pressure levels and treatment status by state/union territory: Women .397 Table 12.4.2 Blood pressure levels and treatment status by state/union territory: Men .398 Table 12.5.1 Random blood glucose levels: Women .399 Table 12.5.2 Random blood glucose levels: Men.400 Table 12.6.1 Random blood glucose levels by state/union territory: Women .402 Table 12.6.2 Random blood glucose levels by state/union territory: Men .403 Table 12.7 Health examinations .404 Table 12.8 Health examinations by state/union territory .405 Table 12.9 Age-specific death rates and crude death rates .406 Table 12.10 Crude death rates by state/union territory .407 Table 12.11 Adult mortality .408 Table 12.12 Adult mortality by state/union territory .409 Figure 12.1 Prevalence of Hypertension by Age and Sex .387 Figure 12.2 Health Examinations for Women .388 CHAPTER 13 HIV/AIDS-RELATED KNOWLEDGE, ATTITUDES, AND BEHAVIOUR .411 Table 13.1 Knowledge of HIV or AIDS .425 Table 13.2 Knowledge of HIV/AIDS prevention methods .426 Table 13.3.1 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS: Women.428 Table 13.3.2 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS: Men .430 Table 13.4 Knowledge of prevention of HIV/AIDS transmission from a mother to her baby .433 Table 13.5 HIV/AIDS awareness indicators by state/union territory .436 Table 13.6 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV/AIDS .437 Table 13.7.1 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV/AIDS by state/union territory: Women .438 Table 13.7.2 Accepting attitudes toward those living with HIV/AIDS by state/union territory: Men .439 Table 13.8 Attitudes toward negotiating sex with husband .440 Table 13.9 Attitudes toward negotiating sex with husband by state/union territory .442 Table 13.10.1 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: Women .443 Tables and Figures z�xvii Table 13.10.2 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months: Men .445 Table 13.11 Multiple sexual partners and higher-risk sexual intercourse in the past 12 months by state/union territory .447 Table 13.12 Payment for sexual intercourse and condom use at last paid sexual intercourse: Men .448 Table 13.13.1 Coverage of prior HIV testing: Women .450 Table 13.13.2 Coverage of prior HIV testing: Men.452 Table 13.14.1 Coverage of prior HIV testing by state/union territory: Women .454 Table 13.14.2 Coverage of prior HIV testing by state/union territory: Men .455 Table 13.15 Coverage of prior HIV testing during antenatal care (ANC) or labour .456 Table 13.16 Coverage of prior HIV testing during antenatal care (ANC) or labour by state/union territory .457 Table 13.17 Self-reported prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and/or STI symptoms .459 Table 13.18 Self-reported prevalence of sexually transmitted infection (STI) and/or STI symptoms by state/union territory .461 Table 13.19 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS and knowledge of a source of condoms among youth .462 Table 13.20 Comprehensive knowledge about HIV/AIDS and knowledge of a source of condoms among youth by state/union territory .464 Table 13.21 Age at first sexual intercourse among youth .465 Table 13.22 Sexual intercourse and condom use among never married youth .467 Table 13.23 Higher-risk sexual intercourse among youth and condom use at last higher-risk intercourse .469 Table 13.24 Recent HIV tests among youth .471 Figure 13.1 Knowledge of HIV or AIDS by Household Wealth .412 Figure 13.2 Comprehensive Knowledge of HIV/AIDS by Schooling .413 Figure 13.3.1 Women’s Knowledge of Condom Use for HIV/AIDS Prevention by State/UT: Women .414 Figure 13.3.2 Men’s Knowledge of Condom Use for HIV/AIDS Prevention by State/UT: Men .414 Figure 13.4 Discriminatory Attitudes Toward People Living with HIV/AIDS .416 Figure 13.5 Knowledge of Where to Get Tested for HIV by Schooling .418 Figure 13.6 HIV Testing Prior to NFHS-4 .419 Figure 13.7 HIV Testing during ANC or Labour by Household Wealth .420 Figure 13.8 Trend in Comprehensive Knowledge among Youth .421 CHAPTER 14 HIV PREVALENCE .473 Table 14.1.1 Coverage of HIV testing by state/union territory: Women and Men .481 Table 14.1.2 Coverage of HIV testing by state/union territory: Women .482 Table 14.1.3 Coverage of HIV testing by state/union territory: Men .483 Table 14.2.1 Coverage of HIV testing: Women .484 Table 14.2.2 Coverage of HIV testing: Men .485 Table 14.3 HIV prevalence by age and residence .486 Table 14.4 HIV prevalence by background characteristics .487 Table 14.5 HIV prevalence by demographic characteristics .488 Table 14.6 HIV prevalence by groups of states/union territories .489 Table 14.7 HIV prevalence by sexual behaviour.490 Table 14.8 HIV prevalence by other characteristics .492 Table 14.9 Prior HIV testing by current HIV status .493 Table 14.10 HIV prevalence among couples .494 Table 14.11 HIV prevalence among couples by groups of states/union territories .496 xviii z Tables and Figures Table 14.12 HIV prevalence among young people by background characteristics .497 Table 14.13 HIV prevalence among young people by sexual behaviour .498 Table 14.14 HIV prevalence among young people by groups of states/union territories .499 Appendix Table 1 Coverage of HIV testing by social and demographic characteristics: Women .500 Appendix Table 2 Coverage of HIV testing by social and demographic characteristics: Men .501 Appendix Table 3 Coverage of HIV testing by sexual behaviour characteristics: Women .502 Appendix Table 4 Coverage of HIV testing by sexual behaviour characteristics: Men .504 Figure 14.1 Percentage of Women and Men Age 15-49 who are HIV Positive .475 Figure 14.2 Trend in Percentage of Women and Men age 15-49 who are HIV Positive .476 Figure 14.3 Percentage of Women and Men who are HIV Positive by Age .476 Figure 14.4 Percentage of Women and Men Age 15-49 who are HIV Postive by Marital Status . 477 CHAPTER 15 :20(1¶6�(032:(50(17 .507 Table 15.1 Employment and cash earnings .519 Table 15.2 Employment and cash earnings by state/union territory .520 Table 15.3.1 Control over women's cash earnings and relative magnitude of women's cash earnings: Women's reports .521 Table 15.3.2 Control over women's cash earnings and relative magnitude of women's cash earnings: Men's reports .523 Table 15.4 Control over men's cash earnings .525 Table 15.5 Control over women's and men's cash earnings and relative magnitude of women's cash earnings by state/union territory .527 Table 15.6 Participation in decision making .529 Table 15.7.1 Women's participation in decision making by background characteristics .530 Table 15.7.2 Men's participation in decision making by background characteristics .532 Table 15.8 Women's participation in decision making by state/union territory .534 Table 15.9 Men's attitudes toward a wife's participation in decision making .535 Table 15.10 Men's attitudes toward a wife's participation in decision making .536 Table 15.11 Women's access to money and credit .537 Table 15.12 Women's access to money and credit and freedom of movement by state/union territory .538 Table 15.13 Women's freedom of movement by background characteristics .540 Table 15.14.1 Attitudes toward wife beating: Women .542 Table 15.14.2 Attitudes toward wife beating: Men .544 Table 15.15 Attitudes toward wife beating by state/union territory .546 Table 15.16.1 Attitudes toward refusing sexual intercourse with husband: Women .548 Table 15.16.2 Attitudes toward refusing sexual intercourse with husband: Men .550 Table 15.17 Attitudes toward refusing sexual intercourse with husband by state/union territory .552 Table 15.18 Men's attitudes toward a husband's rights when his wife refuses to have sexual intercourse .554 Table 15.19 Men's attitudes toward a husband's rights when his wife refuses to have sexual intercourse by state/union territory .556 Table 15.20 Ownership of assets .558 Table 15.21 Ownership of assets by state/union territory .560 Figure 15.1 Employment by Age .508 Figure 15.2 Control Over Women’s Earning .509 Figure 15.3 Women’s Participation in Decision Making.511 Figure 15.4 Attitudes toward Wife Beating .514 Figure 15.5 Ownership of Assets .516 Figure 15.6 Ownership of Financial Assets and Mobile Phone .517 Tables and Figures z�xix CHAPTER 16 DOMESTIC VIOLENCE .563 Table 16.1 Experience of physical violence .574 Table 16.2 Experience of violence during pregnancy .576 Table 16.3 Persons committing physical violence .577 Table 16.4 Experience of sexual violence .578 Table 16.5 Age at first experience of sexual violence .579 Table 16.6 Persons committing sexual violence.580 Table 16.7 Experience of different types of violence .581 Table 16.8 Degree of marital control exercised by husbands .583 Table 16.9 Forms of spousal violence .585 Table 16.10 Violence by any husband in the past 12 months .586 Table 16.11 Spousal violence by background characteristics .587 Table 16.12 Spousal violence by husband's characteristics and empowerment indicators .589 Table 16.13 Spousal violence by state/union territory .591 Table 16.14 Experience of spousal violence by duration of marriage .592 Table 16.15 Injuries to women due to spousal violence .593 Table 16.16 Violence by women against their husband .595 Table 16.17 Help seeking to stop violence .597 Table 16.18 Sources from where help was sought .599 Figure 16.1 Violence during Pregnancy by Level of Schooling .565 Figure 16.2 Women's Experience of Violence by Marital Status .566 Figure 16.3 Types of Spousal Violence .568 Figure 16.4 Trends in Spousal Violence .569 Figure 16.5 Spousal Violence by Husband's Alcohol Consumption .570 Figure 16.6 Spousal Violence by State/UT .570 Figure 16.7 Help Seeking by Type of Violence Experienced .572 xx z Tables and Figures Message z�xxi Foreword Ȉ xvii Foreword z�xxiii Foreword Ȉ xix Preface z�xxv xxvi z Preface From Director's Desk z�xxvii From Director’s Desk ‡ xxiii ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The 2015-16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) was successfully completed due to the efforts and involvements of numerous organizations and individuals at different stages of the survey. At the outset, we are grateful to the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India, New Delhi, for their overall guidance and support. We wish to place on record our sincere thanks to Ms. Preeti Sudan, Secretary, Health and Family Welfare, Ms. Vijaya Srivastava, Special Secretary and Financial Advisor, and former secretaries of the department namely, Mr. C. K. Mishra, Mr. Bhanu Pratap Sharma, Mr. Lov Verma, Mr. K. Desiraju, and Mr. P. K. Pradhan for their guidance, support and contribution to the survey. We also express our gratitude to Mr. Manoj Jhalani, AS & MD, NHM, Ms. Shalini Ashok Bhoyar, Director General (Stats.), Dr. V. K. Srivastava, Chief Director (Stats.), Mr. Janardhan Yadav, DDG (Stats.), Mr. Biswajit Das, Director (Stats.), and Ms. A. P. Meera Dy. Director (Stats.) for their constant support at every stage of the survey. Thanks are also due to Mr. C. R. K. Nair, former Additional DG (Stats.), Dr. Ratan Chand, former Chief Director (Stats.), Mr. P. C. Cyriac, former DDG (Stats.). The coordinators of NFHS-4 wish to place special thanks to Dr. F. Ram, the then Director & Sr. Professor of IIPS during the planning and implementation of the project for his technical, and administrative guidance during his tenure. We also appreciate the continuing interest and efforts made by Dr. L. Ladusingh, Offg. Director and Sr. Professor of IIPS. We express our sincere gratitude to all the members of Technical Advisory Committee, Project Management Committee, Administrative & Financial Management Committee, and Steering Committee for their contribution and providing valuable guidance for successful execution of the survey. We appreciate and acknowledge the untiring efforts and initiative taken by Dr. Fred Arnold, Dr. Sunita Kishor, and other staff members/consultants of ICF, USA in successful completion of NFHS-4. We also acknowledge the generous financial support from different development partners namely, United States Agency for International Development, UKaid, Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation, United Nations International Children's Emergency Funds, United Nations Population Fund, and MacArthur Foundation. We acknowledge the participation and support provided by Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR), the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO), and the National AIDS Research Institute (NARI) for the HIV component of the survey, including HIV testing. We gratefully acknowledge the services rendered by different laboratories namely, National Institute of Mental Health and Neurosciences (NIMHANS), Bangalore, National Centre for Disease Control (NCDC), Delhi, SRL, Kohima, School of Tropical Medicine, Kolkata, GMC & Sir J.J. Group of Hospitals, Mumbai, and Christian Medical College (CMC), Vellore. Acknowledgements Ȉ xxiv Acknowledgements z�xxix We also acknowledge the contribution of NFHS-4 Senior Research Officers, Research Officers and other staff members for their untiring contribution during the entire duration of the survey. We would like to acknowledge the contribution of staff members of IIPS, especially from the Administration, Accounts, Information Communication and Technology Unit, and Library for their continuous cooperation and support during the entire survey period. Our sincerely thank to the Heads and staff of the 14 Field Agencies (FAs) for successfully carrying out the task of data collection, despite many hardships in the field. This acknowledgement cannot be completed without expressing our appreciation for the hard work put in by the interviewers, health investigators, and supervisors in collecting and maintaining the quality of data. Last but not the least, credit goes to all the eligible women, men, and children who spent their valuable time and responded with patience and without any expectation from NFHS-4. NFHS-4 Coordinators Acknowledgements Ȉ xxvxxx z Acknowledgements INTRODUCTION 1 he 2015-16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4), the fourth in the NFHS series, provides information on population, health, and nutrition for India and each state and union territory. All four NFHS surveys have been conducted under the stewardship of the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare (MoHFW), Government of India. MoHFW designated the International Institute for Population Sciences (IIPS), Mumbai, as the nodal agency for all of the surveys. Funding for NFHS-4 was provided by the United States Agency for International Development (USAID), the United Kingdom Department for International Development (DFID), the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation (BMGF), UNICEF, UNFPA, the MacArthur Foundation, and the Government of India. ICF provided technical assistance through the DHS Program, which is funded by USAID. Assistance for the HIV component of the survey was provided by the National AIDS Control Organization (NACO) and the National AIDS Research Institute (NARI), Pune. NFHS-4 fieldwork was conducted by 14 Field Agencies (FAs), and 7 laboratories conducted the HIV testing (see Appendix A). 1.1 SURVEY OBJECTIVES The primary objective of the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey is to provide essential data on health and family welfare, as well as data on emerging issues in these areas. The clinical, anthropometric, and biochemical (CAB) component of NFHS-4 is designed to provide vital estimates of the prevalence of malnutrition, anaemia, hypertension, HIV, and high blood glucose levels through a series of biomarker tests and measurements. The information collected through NFHS-4 is intended to assist policymakers and programme managers in setting benchmarks and examining progress over time in India’s health sector. Besides providing evidence on the effectiveness of ongoing programmes, NFHS-4 data will help to identify the need for new programmes in specific health areas. 1.2 SAMPLE DESIGN Decisions about the overall sample size required for NFHS-4 were guided by several considerations, paramount among which was the need to produce indicators at the district, state/union territory (UT), and national levels, as well as separate estimates for urban and rural areas in the 157 districts that have 30-70 percent of the population living in urban areas as per the 2011 census, with a reasonable level of precision. In addition, the NFHS-4 sample was designed to be able to produce separate estimates for slum and non-slum areas in eight cities (Chennai, Delhi, Hyderabad, Indore, Kolkata, Meerut, Mumbai, and Nagpur), and to provide general population estimates of HIV prevalence for women and men for India as a whole, for urban and rural areas of India, and for 11 groups of states/union territories. NFHS-4 was designed to provide information on sexual behaviour; husband’s background and women’s work; HIV/AIDS knowledge, attitudes, and behaviour; and domestic violence only at the state level (in the state module), while most indicators in the district module are reported at the district level. A subsample of 15 percent of households was selected for the implementation of the state module, in addition to the district module. In the 15 percent of households selected for the state module, a long questionnaire was administered that included all the questions needed for district-level estimates plus additional questions for the topics listed above. To achieve a representative sample of 15 percent of households, NFHS-4 conducted interviews in every alternate selected household in 30 percent of the selected clusters. In all, 28,586 Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) were selected across the country in NFHS-4, of which fieldwork was completed in 28,522 clusters. The NFHS-4 sample is a stratified two-stage sample. The 2011 census served as the sampling frame for the selection of PSUs. PSUs were villages in rural areas and Census Enumeration Blocks (CEBs) in urban areas. PSUs with fewer than 40 households were linked to the nearest PSU. Within each rural stratum, villages were selected from the sampling frame with probability proportional to size (PPS). In each stratum, six approximately equal substrata were created by crossing three substrata, each created based on the estimated number of households in each village, with two substrata, each created based on the percentage of the population belonging to scheduled castes and scheduled tribes (SCs/STs). T Introduction z�1 Within each explicit sampling stratum, PSUs were sorted according to the literacy rate of women age 6+ years. The final sample PSUs were selected with PPS sampling. In urban areas, CEB information was obtained from the Office of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, New Delhi. CEBs were sorted according to the percentage of the SC/ST population in each CEB, and sample CEBs were selected with PPS sampling. In every selected rural and urban PSU, a complete household mapping and listing operation was conducted prior to the main survey. Selected PSUs with an estimated number of at least 300 households were segmented into segments of approximately 100-150 households. Two of the segments were randomly selected for the survey using systematic sampling with probability proportional to segment size. Therefore, an NFHS-4 cluster is either a PSU or a segment of a PSU. In the second stage, in every selected rural and urban cluster, 22 households were randomly selected with systematic sampling. 1.3 QUESTIONNAIRES Four survey questionnaires (Household Questionnaire, Woman’s Questionnaire, Man’s Questionnaire, and Biomarker Questionnaire) were canvassed in 17 local languages using Computer Assisted Personal Interviewing (CAPI). The Household Questionnaire listed all usual members of the household and visitors who stayed in the household the night before the interview. Basic demographic information was collected on the characteristics of each person listed, such as age, sex, marital status, schooling, and relationship to the head of the household. Ownership of an Aadhaar card was determined for each person listed. The parents’ survival status was determined for children under age 18. For children under age five, information was collected on whether each child has a birth certificate or whether the birth was registered with the civil authority. The information on age and sex of household members obtained in the Household Questionnaire was used to identify women and men who were eligible for individual interviews. The Household Questionnaire also collected information on characteristics of the household’s dwelling unit such as source of water; water treatment; type of toilet facilities; type of cooking fuel; materials used for the floor, roof, and walls of the dwelling unit; and ownership of various durable goods. The Household Questionnaire also collected information on the ownership and use of mosquito nets, exposure to second-hand smoke, and the reported prevalence of tuberculosis. A sample of cooking salt used in the household was tested for iodine content. The Woman’s Questionnaire collected information from all eligible women age 15-49, who were asked questions on a large variety of topics, including the following: y Background characteristics: age, literacy, schooling, religion, caste/tribe, media exposure y Reproduction: children ever born, birth history, current pregnancy, pregnancy terminations y Prevalence of hysterectomy y Menstrual hygiene (for women age 15-24 years) y Family planning: knowledge and use of contraception, sources of contraceptive methods, information on family planning y Contacts with community health workers y Maternal and child health, breastfeeding, and nutrition: antenatal care; delivery care; postnatal care; postpartum amenorrhoea; breastfeeding and child feeding practices; vaccination coverage; prevalence and treatment of diarrhoea: symptoms of acute respiratory infection (ARI), and fever; use of oral rehydration therapy (ORT); utilization of ICDS services 2 Ȉ Introduction2 z Introduction y Marriage and sexual activity: marital status, age at first marriage, lifetime number of unions, polygyny, consanguinity, age at first sexual intercourse, recent sexual activity, number and type of sexual partners, use of condoms y Fertility preferences: desire for more children, ideal number of children, gender preferences for children, intention to use family planning y Husband’s background and woman’s work: husband’s age, schooling, and occupation, and the woman’s employment and type of earnings (state module subsample only) y Women’s empowerment: household decision making, mobility, use of a bank account and a mobile phone, ownership of a house or land, barriers to medical treatment (state module subsample only) y HIV/AIDS: knowledge of HIV and AIDS, methods of HIV transmission, sources of HIV information, ways to avoid HIV, previous HIV testing, HIV stigma, other sexually-transmitted infections (state module subsample only) y Other health issues: tobacco and alcohol use, knowledge of tuberculosis, current morbidity (diabetes, asthma, goitre, heart disease, cancer), and household decision making (state module subsample only) y Domestic violence: only one eligible woman per household was randomly selected to answer the questions in the domestic violence section to comply with ethical requirements. Women who were victims of domestic violence were provided with a list of appropriate local organizations that they could contact if they wanted help (state module subsample only) The Man’s Questionnaire was administered only in the subsample of households selected for the state module. The questionnaire covered the man’s background characteristics, media exposure, marriage, employment, number of children, presence at antenatal care visits, contraceptive knowledge and use, fertility preferences, nutrition, sexual behaviour, attitudes toward gender roles, HIV/AIDS, tobacco and alcohol use, knowledge of tuberculosis, current morbidity (diabetes, asthma, goitre, heart disease, cancer), and household decision making. The Biomarker Questionnaire covered measurements of height, weight, and haemoglobin for children, and measurements of height, weight, haemoglobin, blood pressure, and random blood glucose for women age 15-49 and (in the state module subsample of households only) men age 15-54. In addition, eligible women and men were requested to provide a few drops of blood from a finger prick for laboratory testing for HIV. In contrast to the data collection procedure for the household and individual interviews, data related to the biomarkers were initially recorded on the Biomarker Questionnaire and subsequently entered into the interviewers’ mini-computers. This report provides information on key indicators and trends for India. The NFHS-4 figures and those of earlier NFHS rounds may not be strictly comparable due to differences in sample size, and NFHS-4 will be a benchmark for future surveys. The protocol for the NFHS-4 survey, including the content of all the survey questionnaires, was approved by the IIPS Institutional Review Board and the ICF Institutional Review Board. The protocol was also reviewed by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). 1.4 BIOMARKER MEASUREMENTS AND TESTS Except for HIV testing, the results of all measurements and tests were immediately given to the respondents (or a parent or other adult responsible for children) in the field, along with information brochures. The results were explained to respondents by the specially trained health investigators who conducted the tests. All women and men who were eligible for HIV testing were given a referral card for free HIV counselling and testing. Introduction Ȉ 3Introduction z�3 Anthropometry: Height and weight were measured for children age 0-59 months, women age 15-49, and (in the state module subsample of households only) men age 15-54. The Seca 874 digital scale was used to measure the weight of children and adults. The height of adults and children age 24-59 months was measured with the Seca 213 stadiometer. The Seca 417 infantometer was used to measure the recumbent length of children under two years or less than 85 cm. Anaemia testing: Blood specimens for anaemia testing were collected by health investigators from eligible women age 15-49, (in the state module subsample of households) men age 15-54, and children age 6-59 months. Consent for the test was taken from eligible women and men. For children age 6-59 months, consent was obtained from a parent or an adult responsible for the child. Blood samples were drawn from a drop of blood taken from a finger prick (or a heel prick for children age 6-11 months) and collected in a microcuvette. Haemoglobin analysis was conducted on-site with a battery-operated portable HemoCue Hb 201+ analyser. Respondents found to have severe anaemia (a haemoglobin level below 9 grams/decilitre (g/dl) for pregnant women and below 7 g/dl for women who were not pregnant, men, and children) were referred to a health facility for further evaluation and treatment. Blood pressure measurement: Blood pressure was measured for eligible women age 15-49 and (in the state module subsample of households only) eligible men age 15-54, using an Omron Blood Pressure Monitor to determine the prevalence of hypertension. Blood pressure measurements for each respondent were taken three times with an interval of five minutes between readings. Respondents whose average systolic blood pressure (SBP) was >140 mm Hg or average diastolic blood pressure (DBP) was >90 mm Hg were considered to have elevated blood pressure readings and they were encouraged to see a doctor for a full evaluation. Blood glucose testing: Random blood glucose was measured using a finger-stick blood specimen for eligible women age 15-49 and (in the state module subsample of households only) eligible men age 15-54 using the FreeStyle Optium H glucometer with glucose test strips. A referral form to a health facility for additional medical evaluation was provided for any respondent with D�UDQGRP�EORRG�JOXFRVH�OHYHO�•200 mg/dl. HIV testing: In a random subsample of households, health investigators collected finger-prick blood specimens from eligible women age 15-49 and men age 15-54 who consented to laboratory HIV testing. The protocol for blood specimen collection and analysis was based on the anonymous linked protocol developed for The DHS Program. This protocol allows for the merger of HIV test results with the sociodemographic data collected in the individual questionnaires after removal of all information that could potentially identify an individual. Interviewers explained to eligible respondents the procedure, the confidentiality of the data, and the fact that the test results would not be made available to them. If a respondent consented to HIV testing, five blood spots from the finger prick were collected on a filter paper card to which a barcode label unique to the respondent was affixed. A duplicate label was attached to the Biomarker Questionnaire. A third copy of the same barcode was affixed to the dried blood spot (DBS) transmittal sheet to track the blood samples from the field to the laboratory. Respondents were also asked whether they would consent to allow their blood sample to be stored for future unspecified testing. If respondents did not consent to additional testing, it was indicated on the Biomarker Questionnaire that they UHIXVHG�DGGLWLRQDO�WHVWV�RQ�WKHLU�VSHFLPHQ��DQG�WKH�ZRUGV�³QR�DGGLWLRQDO�WHVWLQJ´�ZHUH�ZULWWHQ�RQ�WKH�ILOWHU�SDSHU�Fard. All respondents, whether they provided consent for HIV testing or not, were given an informational brochure on HIV and a referral card for a free HIV test at a local government health facility. The blood samples were dried overnight and packaged the next day (or when they were completely dry). The filter paper cards with the DBS were placed in low-gas permeable zip-lock bags with a sachet of desiccant and a humidity indicator card. Next, multiple small bags were placed in a large air-tight zip-lock bag along with a dried blood spot (DBS) transmittal sheet. A few sachets of desiccants were placed in the large plastic bag and the bag was zipped closed. At the end of fieldwork in each PSU, samples were sent by Speed Post to the laboratory designated to conduct HIV tests for that state. Upon arrival at the laboratory, each blood sample was logged into the CSPro HIV Test Tracking System database, given a laboratory number, and stored at -��Û&�XQWLO�WHVWHG� 4 z Introduction The HIV testing protocol (Figure 1.1) stipulated that blood could be tested only after the questionnaire data collection had been completed for each state, the data had been verified and cleaned, and all unique identifiers other than the anonymous barcode number had been removed from the data file. The testing algorithm calls for testing all samples with the first assay, the Microlisa HIV enzyme-linked immunoassay (ELISA I). All samples that tested positive on ELISA I were subjected to a second ELISA test (ELISA II), SD Bioline 1/2. Similar to samples that tested positive on ELISA I, a random selection of 2 percent of the samples that tested negative on the ELISA I were also tested on ELISA II, while the remaining 98 percent of samples that were negative on ELISA I were recorded as negative. To monitor the quality of HIV testing and assess the validity of test results, two levels of quality control steps were employed. During HIV testing at the primary laboratory, an internal quality control process was established through the use of control materials and retesting of a random selection of 2 percent of negative samples, as mentioned above. Concordant negative results on ELISA I and ELISA II were recorded as negative. If the results on ELISA I and ELISA II were discordant, the two ELISAs were repeated in parallel. If the results remained discordant after the second set of ELISA tests, a third test was conducted using a Western Blot Test (Bio-Rad) at the National AIDS Research Institute (NARI), Pune, and the result of this test was considered definitive. For the purpose of internal quality control: 1) positive and negative serum controls supplied by the manufacturer with the test kits were included on each microtiter plate of samples, and 2) known HIV-negative, low-positive, and high-positive DBS controls were tested in parallel with the kit controls on every microtiter plate of samples. After HIV testing had been completed, the test results were entered into a spreadsheet with a barcode as the unique identifier. The barcode linked the HIV test results with the individual interview data. Figure 1.1 HIV Testing Algorithm Introduction Ȉ 5Introduction z�5 1.5 PRETEST The pretest training was held in Kharghar, Navi Mumbai, from 25 November to 7 December 2013, and the pretest fieldwork was conducted from 8-12 December 2013. The pretest fieldwork was conducted in five enumeration areas in and around Panvel Taluka that had not been selected for the main survey. A pretest debriefing session was held on 13 December 2013. In all, 37 interviewers and 11 health investigators participated in the training. The pretest field practice covered 147 KRXVHKROG� LQWHUYLHZV�� ���� ZRPDQ¶V� LQWHUYLHZV�� DQG� ���� PDQ¶V� LQWHUYLHZV�� %LRPDUNHU� PHDVXUHPHQW� DQG� WHVWLQJ� ZDV� conducted on 29 children and 181 adults. 1.6 TRAINING OF FIELD STAFF Training was conducted in a tiered fashion. For each of the two fieldwork phases, a Training of Trainers (TOT) course was conducted by IIPS, Mumbai, and ICF. The TOT for the 17 states and union territories included in the first phase (plus the Eastern Region of Uttar Pradesh) was conducted in Puri, Odisha, from 18 August to 2 September 2014, with additional training conducted from 27 October to 3 November 2014 at IIPS, Mumbai. The TOT for the remaining 18 states (plus the Central and Western Regions of Uttar Pradesh) was conducted from 14 November to 1 December 2015 in Chandigarh. The trainees in both TOT courses included project coordinators, health coordinators, statisticians/ demographers, and information technology coordinators from the Field Agencies, and Project Officers/Senior Project Officers from IIPS. The coordinators were responsible for training fieldworkers at the state/UT level. 1.7 FIELDWORK Data collection was conducted in two phases (from 20 January 2015 to 4 December 2016) by 789 field teams. Each team consisted of one field supervisor, three female interviewers, one male interviewer, two health investigators, and a driver. The number of interviewing teams in each state varied according to the sample size. In each state, interviewers were hired by the selected Field Agencies, taking into consideration their educational background, experience, and other relevant qualifications. Female and male interviewers were assigned to interview respondents of the same sex. The assignment of Primary Sampling Units (PSUs) to the teams and various logistical decisions were made by the survey coordinators from each Field Agency. Each interviewer was required to make a minimum of three callbacks if no suitable informant was available for the household interview or if an eligible woman or man in the household was not present at the time of the LQWHUYLHZHU¶V�YLVLW� The field supervisor was responsible for the overall management of the field teams. In addition, the field supervisor conducted spot-checks to verify the accuracy of key information, particularly with respect to the eligibility of respondents. IIPS also appointed one or more project officers or senior project officers in each state for monitoring and supervision throughout the training and fieldwork period to ensure that correct survey procedures were followed and that data quality was maintained. Project directors and other senior staff from the Field Agencies, NFHS-4 faculty coordinators from IIPS, and technical consultants from The DHS Program at ICF also visited the field sites to monitor data collection operations. 1.8 STRATEGY TO ENSURE DATA QUALITY Due to the size and complexity of the NFHS-4 survey, considerable thought went into devising strategies to minimize the non-sampling error and ensure data quality. Some of the procedures adopted are summarized below. y NFHS-4 was conducted in two phases to make the administration of the training and fieldwork more manageable. y In the states included in each phase, fieldwork was conducted in a group of five adjacent districts at a time to facilitate close monitoring and supervision of the training of field staff and the implementation of the fieldwork. y 7R�PDLQWDLQ�XQLIRUP�SURFHGXUHV�DFURVV�VWDWHV��VHYHUDO�FRPSUHKHQVLYH�PDQXDOV�ZHUH�SUHSDUHG��LQFOXGLQJ�D�6XSHUYLVRU¶V� 0DQXDO��DQ�,QWHUYLHZHU¶V�0DQXDO��D�+HDOWK�,QYHVWLJDWRU¶V�0DQXDO� a Household Mapping and Listing Manual, Data Processing Guidelines, and Training Guidelines. 6 z Introduction y There were multiple levels of monitoring and supervision of the fieldwork, including monitoring by district coordinators from the Field Agencies; monitoring by senior staff from the state offices of the Field Agencies; positioning two IIPS project officers with each Field Agency for the entire duration of the survey, in addition to monitoring and supervision by senior project officers, project coordinators, IIPS faculty coordinators, staff and consultants from ICF, and representatives from the development partners and the Ministry of Health and Family Welfare, Government of India. Immediate corrective measures were taken in case there were any deviations from the survey protocols. y The field supervisor on each interviewing team was required to observe interviews in a subsample of households and to conduct back-checks with respondents as a further check on the quality of the fieldwork. y Use of computer assisted personal interviewing (CAPI) and the transfer of field data to IIPS on a daily basis was instrumental in remotely monitoring of progress of field teams. Use of CAPI also enabled IIPS and ICF to run extensive data quality checks on the data from the field and to provide real-time feedback to Field Agencies and teams to help improve data quality. A standard set of 42 field-check tables were produced frequently throughout the fieldwork, covering such topics as response rates, age heaping and age displacement, completeness of reporting, sex ratios for children, patterns of height/length and weight measurements, and the contraceptive prevalence rate. y To ensure uniformity in the implementation of the fieldwork protocols in every state, a centrally-organized Training of Trainers Workshop of four weeks duration was conducted in each phase. Four persons from each Field Agency participated in the workshop (two social scientists, one IT specialist, and one health coordinator). These trained persons were responsible for organizing the state-level training programmes in local and regional languages, for a minimum of four weeks’ duration, which were supported and supervised by IIPS and ICF. y To ensure that biomarker tests were conducted properly in a uniform manner, training videos in English and Hindi were produced to indicate the correct procedures for conducting height/length and weight measurements and to demonstrate in detail how to conduct anaemia and blood glucose testing and how to collect blood samples on filter paper cards for HIV testing in the lab. y Extensive internal and external quality control measures were implemented for the laboratory testing of dried blood spot samples for HIV. The protocol included retesting of a random subsample of 2 percent of HIV-negative samples at the primary testing lab with a second ELISA test, complete retesting of all discordant results on the first two ELISA tests, and conducting a tie-breaker Western Blot test at the National AIDS Research Institute (NARI) for all samples that still had discrepant results on the two ELISA tests after repeat testing. External Quality Control (EQC) involved the re-testing of all HIV-reactive and 2 percent of HIV samples rendered negative at NARI using the full testing algorithm. To ensure independence of the tests, NARI was blind to the results from the primary testing laboratory. 1.9 DATA PROCESSING Electronic data collected in the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey were received on a daily basis via the Internet File Streaming System (IFSS) at the International Institute for Population Sciences, where the data were stored on a password-protected computer. Secondary editing of the data, which required resolution of computer-identified inconsistencies and coding of open-ended questions, was conducted by the Field Agencies, and IIPS checked the secondary edits before the data set was finalized. Field-check tables were produced by IIPS and the Field Agencies on a regular basis to identify certain types of errors that might have occurred in eliciting information and recording question responses. Information from the field-check tables on the performance of each fieldwork team was promptly fed back to the Field Agencies during the fieldwork so that the performance of the teams could be improved, if required. Introduction Ȉ 7Introduction z�7 1.10 RESPONSE RATES Table 1.1 shows response rates for the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey. A total of 628,900 households were selected for the sample, of which 616,346 were occupied. Of the occupied households, 601,509 were successfully interviewed, for a response rate of 98 percent. In the interviewed households, 723,875 eligible women age 15-49 were identified for individual women’s interviews. Interviews were completed with 699,686 women, for a response rate of 97 percent. In all, there were 122,051 eligible men age 15-54 in households selected for the state module. Interviews were completed with 112,122 men, for a response rate of 92 percent. Table 1.2 shows response rates for each state and union territory. Overall, response rates are quite high. Household response rates were over 90 percent in every state and union territory. The response rate for women was also higher than 90 percent in every state and union territory except in Delhi (where it was 82%) and Chandigarh (where it was 87%). As expected, the response rate for men was lower than the response rate for women in every state and union territory. The response rate for men was particularly low in Delhi (53%) and Chandigarh (78%). 8 Ȉ Introduction8 z Introduction LIST OF TABLES For more information on response rate, see the following tables: Tables Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews Table 1.2 Number of households, women, and men interviewed by state/union territory Introduction Ȉ 9Introduction z�9 Table 1.1 Results of the household and individual interviews Number of households, number of interviews with women and men, and response rates, according to residence, India, 2015-16 Result Residence Total Urban Rural Household interviews Households selected 187,095 441,805 628,900 Households occupied 182,415 433,931 616,346 Households interviewed 175,946 425,563 601,509 Household response rate1 96.5 98.1 97.6 Interviews with women age 15-49 Number of eligible women 213,759 510,116 723,875 Number of eligible women interviewed 204,735 494,951 699,686 Eligible women response rate2 95.8 97.0 96.7 Interviews with men age 15-54 Number of eligible men 39,624 82,427 122,051 Number of eligible men interviewed 35,526 76,596 112,122 Eligible men response rate2 89.7 92.9 91.9 Note: Eligible women and men are women age 15-49 and men age 15-54 who stayed in the household the night before the household interview (including both usual residents and visitors). This table is based on the unweighted sample. 1 Households interviewed/households occupied 2 Respondents interviewed/eligible respondents 10 z Introduction Table 1.2 Number of households, women, and men interviewed by state/union territory Month and year of fieldwork, number of households, women and men interviewed, and response rates by state/union territory, India, 2015-16 State/union territory Month and year of fieldwork Households interviewed Women interviewed Men interviewed From To Number Response rate Number Response rate Number Response rate India 1/15 12/16 601,509 97.6 699,686 96.7 112,122 91.9 North Chandigarh* 5/16 6/16 751 91.0 746 86.8 127 78.4 Delhi* 2/16 9/16 6,050 90.1 5,914 82.2 710 52.9 Haryana 2/15 6/15 17,332 99.2 21,654 98.9 3,584 97.0 Himachal Pradesh* 2/16 8/16 9,225 95.3 9,929 95.4 2,417 84.4 Jammu & Kashmir* 1/16 11/16 17,894 98.2 23,800 97.4 6,013 92.2 Punjab* 1/16 6/16 16,449 98.6 19,484 97.8 3,250 93.4 Rajasthan* 1/16 7/16 34,915 98.4 41,965 97.9 6,309 95.2 Uttarakhand 1/15 7/15 15,171 97.2 17,300 96.1 2,174 86.9 Central Chhattisgarh* 1/16 6/16 20,275 98.0 25,172 97.5 3,827 94.1 Madhya Pradesh 1/15 7/15 52,042 98.9 62,803 97.7 10,268 95.6 Uttar Pradesh* 1/15 9/16 76,233 97.5 97,661 97.2 13,835 92.4 East Bihar 3/15 8/15 36,772 99.6 45,812 98.4 5,872 96.3 Jharkhand* 4/16 12/16 25,723 95.6 29,046 95.4 4,069 90.1 Odisha* 1/16 7/16 30,242 98.1 33,721 96.8 4,634 91.2 West Bengal 2/15 7/15 15,327 97.6 17,668 97.1 2,645 93.0 Northeast Arunachal Pradesh* 4/16 12/16 14,617 95.4 14,294 93.3 2,140 88.6 Assam 11/15 3/16 24,542 97.6 28,447 96.1 4,191 90.1 Manipur 2/15 12/15 11,724 98.8 13,593 97.1 1,886 94.1 Meghalaya 4/15 9/15 7,327 98.2 9,202 96.9 1,236 91.1 Mizoram* 2/16 10/16 11,397 97.9 12,279 98.3 1,749 95.7 Nagaland* 3/16 10/16 11,213 97.6 10,790 95.8 1,596 92.3 Sikkim 1/15 7/15 4,662 99.6 5,293 98.1 879 97.3 Tripura 2/15 8/15 4,510 96.8 4,804 96.4 878 89.2 West Dadra & Nagar Haveli* 4/16 6/16 751 93.5 796 94.2 221 85.3 Daman & Diu* 4/16 6/16 1,523 94.1 1,393 94.6 451 90.9 Goa 1/15 4/15 1,588 98.5 1,696 98.8 848 97.4 Gujarat* 1/16 6/16 20,524 96.4 22,932 94.9 6,018 88.3 Maharashtra 4/15 9/15 26,890 95.5 29,460 94.3 4,811 89.2 South Andaman & Nicobar Islands 4/15 7/15 2,413 97.9 2,811 97.6 446 93.5 Andhra Pradesh 5/15 8/15 10,265 95.6 10,428 93.8 1,541 85.6 Karnataka 2/15 7/15 23,842 96.7 26,291 94.5 4,106 89.7 Kerala* 3/16 10/16 11,555 99.6 11,033 98.3 2,086 95.1 Lakshadweep* 7/16 9/16 741 99.1 1,070 97.6 173 96.6 Puducherry 6/15 7/15 3,205 98.0 4,012 99.4 682 96.5 Tamil Nadu 2/15 6/15 26,033 98.6 28,820 98.5 5,317 96.1 Telangana 2/15 5/15 7,786 94.6 7,567 91.8 1,133 82.6 Note: This table is based on the unweighted sample; all subsequent tables are based on the weighted sample unless otherwise specified. The number of women and men is based on the de facto population. The household response rate is defined as the number of households interviewed divided by the number of occupied households. The response rates for women and men are the percentages of eligible women and men with completed interviews. States/union territories with an asterisk were included in the second phase of fieldwork. All other states/union territories were included in the first phase of fieldwork, except for Uttar Pradesh, in which the Eastern Region was included in the first phase (with fieldwork from 1/15 to 7/15) and the rest of the state was included in the second phase. Introduction z�11 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 2 Key Findings x Drinking water: Ninety percent of households use an improved source of drinking water. x Sanitation: Forty-eight percent of households use an improved sanitation facility that is not shared with other households and 9 percent use a facility that would be considered improved if it were not shared. Thirty-nine percent of households have no facility, which means that the household members practice open defecation. x Electricity: Eighty-eight percent of households have electricity (83% of rural households and 98% of urban households). x Cooking fuel: Only 44 percent of households use clean fuel for cooking. x Age distribution: Twenty nine percent of the population of India is under age 15 and 10 percent of the population is age 60 years and above. x Aadhaar card: Sixty-nine percent of the household population have an Aadhaar card. x Bank or post office account: Nine out of 10 households have a bank or post office account. x Birth registration: Eighty percent of children under age five had their birth registered. x Orphans: Among children under age 18, 5 percent are orphans (one or both parents are dead) and 3 percent are not living with a biological parent. x School attendance: The net attendance ratio falls from 78 percent in primary school to 68 percent in middle, secondary, and higher secondary school. The main reason given for children not attending school was that the child was not interested in studies (44% for male children and 25% for female children). nformation on the socioeconomic characteristics of the household population in the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-4) provides a context for interpreting demographic and health indicators and an approximate indication of the representativeness of the survey. In addition, this information describes the living conditions of the population.I Household Population and Housing Characteristics Ȉ 13Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�13 This chapter presents information on the sources of drinking water, sanitation, exposure to smoke inside the home, wealth, hand washing, composition of the household population, educational attainment, school attendance, birth registration, children’s living arrangements, and parental survivorship. 2.1 DRINKING WATER SOURCES AND TREATMENT In India, almost all urban households (91%) and rural households (89%) have access to an improved source of drinking water (Table 2.1). Improved sources of water protect against outside contamination so that the water is more likely to be safe to drink. Urban and rural households rely on different sources of drinking water. The main sources of drinking water for urban households are water piped into their dwelling, yard, or plot (52%), public taps or standpipes (17%), and tube wells or boreholes (17%) (Table 2.1 and Figure 2.1). In contrast, rural households rely most on tube wells or boreholes (51%), followed by water piped into their dwelling, yard, or plot (18%). In rural areas, 58 percent of households have water on their premises or delivered to their dwelling, compared with 82 percent in urban areas. In households in which water is not on the premises or delivered, women age 15 years and above are most likely to collect drinking water (80%). Clean water is a basic need for human life. However, more than 6 in 10 households (62%) report that they do no treat their water prior to drinking. Treatment is less common in rural areas than urban areas; 71 percent of rural households do not treat their water, compared with 47 percent of urban households. Boiling water and straining the water through a cloth before drinking are the most common types of water treatment prior to drinking (10% and 14% of households, respectively). Improved sources of drinking water Include piped water, public taps, standpipes, tube wells, boreholes, protected dug wells and springs, rainwater, and community reverse osmosis (RO) plants. Sample: Households 14 Ȉ Household Population and Housing Characteristics 52 18 30 17 15 16 17 51 39 3.9 4.0 4.0 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.7 0.5 0.5 8.7 11 10 Urban Rural Total Unimproved source Community RO Plant Rain water Protected dug well or spring Tube well or borehole Public tap/standpipe Piped into dwelling/yard/plot Figure 2.1 Household Drinking Water by Residence Percent distribution of households by source of drinking water 14 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics 2.2 SANITATION Improved toilet facilities Include any non-shared toilet of the following types: flush/pour flush toilets to piped sewer systems, septic tanks, and pit latrines; ventilated improved pit (VIP)/biogas latrines; pit latrines with slabs; and twin pit/composting toilets Sample: Households About half of Indian households (48%) use improved toilet facilities, which are non-shared facilities that prevent people from coming into contact with human waste and can reduce the transmission of cholera, typhoid, and other diseases. Shared toilet facilities of an otherwise acceptable type are also common, especially in urban areas; 15 percent of urban households use a shared facility, compared with 6 percent of rural households (Table 2.2 and Figure 2.2). Thirty-nine percent of households do not use any toilet facility, meaning that they practice open defecation. \Trends: The percentage of households practicing open defecation decreased from 55 percent in 2005-06 to 39 percent in 2015-16. 2.3 EXPOSURE TO SMOKE INSIDE THE HOME AND OTHER HOUSING CHARACTERISTICS 2.3.1 Exposure to Smoke inside the Home Exposure to smoke inside the home, either from cooking with solid fuels or smoking tobacco, has potentially harmful health effects. Fifty-five percent of households in India use some type of solid fuel for cooking, with virtually all being wood or dung cakes (Table 2.3). Exposure to cooking smoke is greater when cooking takes place inside the house rather than in a separate building or outdoors. In 29 percent of households, someone smokes inside the house on daily basis. 2.3.2 Other Housing Characteristics The survey collected data on access to electricity, on flooring materials, and on the number of rooms used for sleeping. Ninety-eight percent of urban households and 83 percent of rural households have electricity. Overall, 88 percent of households in India have electricity. Fifty-six percent of households have pucca houses (houses made with high quality materials throughout, including the floor, roof, and exterior walls) and 35 percent have semi-pucca houses. 70 37 48 15 6.0 9.1 3.7 3.1 3.3 0.5 0.1 0.2 11 54 39 Urban Rural Total No facility/uses open space/field Other source Unimproved Shared facility Improved, not shared facility Figure 2.2 Household Toilet Facilities by Residence Percent distribution of households by type of toilet facilities Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�15 2.4 HOUSEHOLD WEALTH Wealth index Households are given scores based on the number and kinds of consumer goods they own, ranging from a television to a bicycle or car, and housing characteristics such as source of drinking water, toilet facilities, and flooring materials. These scores are derived using principal component analysis. National wealth quintiles are compiled by assigning the household score to each usual (de jure) household member, ranking each person in the household population by their score, and then dividing the distribution into five equal categories, each with 20 percent of the population. Sample: Households Table 2.5 presents wealth quintiles according to urban-rural residence and state. In India, the wealthiest households are concentrated in urban areas. Seventy-four percent of the urban population is in the two highest wealth quintiles. By contrast, more than half of the rural population (55%) falls in the two lowest wealth quintiles (Figure 2.3). Chandigarh (81%), followed by Delhi (63%) and Punjab (62%) have the highest percentage of the population in the highest wealth quintile. The states with the highest percentages of popula- tion in the lowest wealth quintile are Bihar (51%) and Jharkhand (46%). Fifty percent of the population in scheduled caste households and 71 percent of the population in scheduled tribe households are in the two lowest wealth quintiles (Table 2.6). The survey also collected information on household effects, means of transportation, agricultural land, and farm animals (Table 2.8 and Table 2.9). Urban households are somewhat more likely than rural households to have a bank account or a post office account (92% versus 88%) and a mobile telephone (96% versus 87%). Rural households are more likely than urban households to own agricultural land (52% versus 13%) or farm animals (60% versus 11%). 2.5 HAND WASHING To obtain hand washing information, interviewers asked to see the place where members of the household most often wash their hands. A place for washing hands was observed in 97 percent of households. Soap and water were observed in 60 percent of the hand washing locations, while 16 percent had water only (Table 2.10). In households in which the place for hand washing was observed, 9 percent did not have water, soap, or another cleansing agent. 16 Ȉ Household Population and Housing Characteristics Figure 2.3 Household Wealth by Residence Percent distribution of de jure population by wealth quintiles 3.1 28 7.0 27 16 22 30 15 44 7.9 Urban Rural Highest Fourth Middle Second Lowest 16 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics 2.6 HOUSEHOLD POPULATION AND COMPOSITION Household A person or group of related or unrelated persons who live together in the same dwelling unit(s), who acknowledge one adult male or female as the head of the household, who share the same housekeeping arrangements, and who are considered a single unit. De facto population All persons who stayed in the selected households the night before the interview (whether usual residents or visitors). De jure population All persons who are usual residents of the selected households, whether or not they stayed in the household the night before the interview. How data are calculated All tables are based on the de facto population, unless specified otherwise. A total of 2,724,122 individuals stayed overnight in the 601,509 sample households in the NFHS-4 survey. The population pyramid in Figure 2.4 illustrates the distribution by five- year age groups and sex. The pyramid shows that India’s population is young, which is typical of developing countries with low life expectancy. The pyramid also shows that fertility has decreased considerably in the last 10 years. Children under age 15 represent 29 percent of the household population, while individuals age 60 and older represent only 10 percent of the household population (Table 2.12). Table 2.11 shows that 15 percent of house- holds have female heads. Urban households are somewhat smaller, on average, than rural households (4.3 and 4.7 persons, respectively). Overall, 15 percent of housholds have one or more foster or orphan children under age 18. Trends: The percentage of children under age 15 declined from 35 percent in NFHS-3 (2005-06) to 29 percent in NFHS-4 (2015-16). In contrast, the population 60 years and older increased slightly, from 9 percent in NFHS-3 to 10 percent in NFHS-4. The average household size decreased slightly between 2005-06 and 2015-16 (from 4.8 versus 4.6 persons), and the percentage of female-headed households was almost the same in NFHS-3 and NFHS-4. Household Population and Housing Characteristics Ȉ 17 2 6 10 0-4 5-9 10-14 15-19 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 65-69 70-74 75-79 80+ Percent Age in years Male Female 2 6 10 Figure 2.4 Population Pyramid Percent distribution of the household population Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�17 2.7 BIRTH REGISTRATION Registered birth Child has a birth certificate or child does not have a birth certificate, but his/her birth is registered with the civil authorities. Sample: De jure children under age five years Table 2.13 presents information on birth registration of children under age five years. At the time of the survey, 80 percent of children under age five years had births registered with the civil authority; this includes 62 percent of children with birth certificates. Female and male children are equally likely to have their birth registered. Children in urban areas (89%) are more likely than children in rural areas (76%) to have their birth registered. Birth registration is lowest in Uttar Pradesh (60%) and Bihar (61%) (Table 2.14 and Figure 2.5). 60 61 63 65 65 67 69 77 77 80 80 82 82 83 83 86 88 92 92 94 94 94 95 95 95 95 96 97 98 98 98 98 98 99 99 99 99 Uttar Pradesh Bihar Arunachal Pradesh Manipur Jharkhand Rajasthan Nagaland Uttarakhand Jammu & Kashmir INDIA Meghalaya Madhya Pradesh Odisha Andhra Pradesh Telangana Chhattisgarh Delhi Daman & Diu Tripura Dadra & Nagar Haveli Assam Haryana Karnataka Chandigarh Maharashtra Himachal Pradesh Gujarat West Bengal Kerala Andaman & Nicobar Islands Mizoram Tamil Nadu Punjab Sikkim Goa Lakshadweep Puducherry Figure 2.5 Birth Registration by State/UT Percentage of de jure children under age five whose births are registered with the civil authorities Trends: Birth registration among children under age five years doubled between NFHS-3 and NFHS-4 (from 41% to 80%). The percentage of births that were registered increased by more than 50 percentage points between 2005-06 and 2015-16 in Jharkhand, Bihar, Uttar Pradesh, Madhya Pradesh, and Rajasthan. 18 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics 2.8 CHILDREN’S LIVING ARRANGEMENTS AND PARENTAL SURVIVAL Orphan A child with one or both parents who are dead. Sample: De jure children under age 18 years Only 3 percent of children under age 18 years are not living with a biological parent (Table 2.15). Five percent of children under age 18 years are orphans with one or both parents who have died. The percentage of children who are orphans rises rapidly with age, from less than 1 percent among children under age 2 to 9 percent among children age 15-17 (Figure 2.6). The Northeast region has the highest percentage of children who are orphans (6% or more in every state except Tripura) (Table 2.16). Trends: The percentage of children under age 18 who do not live with a biological parent decreased only slightly between NFHS-3 and NFHS-4 (from 4% to 3%). The percentage of children under age 18 who are orphans (5%) did not change between 2005-06 and 2015-16. 2.9 SCHOOLING 2.9.1 Educational Attainment Median educational attainment Half the population has completed less than the median number of years of schooling and half the population has completed more than the median number of years of schooling. Sample: De facto household population age six and over Overall, 69 percent of females and 85 percent of males age six and over have ever attended school. One-third of females completed 7 years of schooling or less; 13 percent completed 8-9 years of schooling. Among males, 35 percent completed 7 years of schooling or less; 16 percent completed 8-9 years of schooling. Only 10 percent of females and 13 percent of males completed 10-11 years of schooling. Thirty-one percent of females and 15 percent of males have never attended school. Fourteen percent of females and 20 percent of males completed 12 or more years of schooling. The median number of years of schooling completed is higher for males (6.9 years) than for females (4.4 years) (Tables 2.17). Trends: Educational attainment at the household level increased substantially between 2005-06 and 2015-16. Among females, the median number of years of schooling increased from 1.9 years in NHFS-3 (2005-06) to 4.4 years in NHFS-4 (2015-16). The median number of years of schooling completed by males increased from 4.9 years in NHFS-3 to 6.9 years in NHFS-4. Over the same period, the percentage of females and males with no schooling decreased from 42 percent of females and 22 percent of males to 31 percent of females and 15 percent of males. Household Population and Housing Characteristics Ȉ 19 Figure 2.6 Orphanhood by Child's Age Percentage of de jure children under age 18 with one or both parents dead 0.6 1.5 3.3 6.3 9.2 <2 2-4 5-9 10-14 15-17 Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�19 20 Ȉ Household Population and Housing Characteristics Patterns by background characteristics x Among both females and males, the median number of years of schooling is higher in urban areas than in rural areas (7.0 years versus 3.1 years among females and 8.5 versus 5.8 years among males). x Educational attainment increases with household wealth. Females in the lowest wealth quintile have completed a median of 0 years of schooling, compared with a median of 9.1 years for females in the highest wealth quintile. The median number of years of schooling was 2.9 years among males in the lowest wealth quintile and 9.9 years among those in the highest quintile. x The median number of years of schooling is highest among those who do not belong to scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, and other backward classes (6.4 years for females and 8.2 years for males). The median number of years of schooling is lowest among Muslims than for other specific religious groups (3.7 years for females and 4.8 years for males). x The percentage of the household population with no schooling is higher in rural areas than urban areas (37% versus 19% for females and 18% versus 9% for males). 2.9.2 School Attendance Net attendance ratio (NAR) Percentage of the school-age population that attends primary or secondary school. Sample: Children age 6-10 for primary school NAR and children age 11-17 for secondary school NAR Gross attendance ratio (GAR) The total number of children attending primary school divided by the official primary school age population and the total number of children attending secondary school divided by the official secondary school age population. Sample: Children at the official primary school age for primary school GAR and children at the official secondary school age for secondary school GAR Eighty-five percent of children age 6-17 attend school, including pre-primary school (86% of males and 84% of females) (Table 2.19). Almost all (95%) males and females age 6-10 attend school, including pre-primary school. This percentage decreases to 88 percent for children age 11-14 and then drops further to 63 percent for children age 15-17. There is almost no difference in school attendance by males and females at age 6-14, but males are more likely than females to attend school at age 15-17 (67% versus 60%). Urban-rural differentials in school attendance are minimal at age 6-10, but widen at older ages (Figure 2.7). Seventy-seven percent of girls and 78 percent of boys age 6-10 attend primary school (Table 2.20). The net attendance ratio (NAR) drops in secondary school: only 66 percent of girls and 69 percent of boys age 11-17 attend secondary school. The gross attendance ratio (GAR) is 85 percent at the primary school level and 80 percent at the secondary school level. These figures indicate that a number of children outside the official school age population for that level are attending primary school, and not all those who should be are attending secondary school (Table 2.20). 20 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Gender parity index (GPI) The ratio of female to male children attending primary school and the ratio of female to male children attending secondary school. The index reflects the magnitude of the gender gap. Sample: Children attending primary school and children attending secondary school A gender parity index (GPI) of 1 indicates parity or equality between the school participation ratios for males and females. A GPI lower than 1 indicates a gender disparity in favour of males, with a higher proportion of males than females attending that level of schooling. A GPI higher than 1 indicates a gender disparity in favour of females. The GPI for the NAR is 0.98 at the primary school level and 0.96 at the secondary school level. This indicates that there is relatively little difference in overall school attendance by school-age girls and boys at either the primary or secondary school level. The GPI for the GAR is also slightly less than 1, which indicates that male children outside of the official school age population are only slightly more likely to attend school than their female counterparts; the GPIs for the GAR are the same 0.97 at the primary school level and at the secondary school level. Patterns by background characteristics x At the primary school level, there is no difference in the NAR between urban and rural areas (78% each). However, at the secondary school level, the NAR is much higher in urban areas than in rural areas (72% versus 66%). Household Population and Housing Characteristics Ȉ 21 96 97 95 94 91 91 88 86 70 70 65 55 AGE 6-10, URBAN Male Female AGE 6-10, RURAL Male Female AGE 11-14, URBAN Male Female AGE 11-14, RURAL Male Female AGE 15-17, URBAN Male Female AGE 15-17, RURAL Male Female Figure 2.7 School Attendance by Age, Sex, and Residence Percentage of children age 6-17 years attending school Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�21 x The NARs increase with household wealth at the secondary school level. Attendance in the lowest wealth quintile is 52 percent for girls and 55 percent for boys, compared with 80 percent for girls and 81 percent for boys in the highest wealth quintile. x At the primary school level, there is slight difference in the GAR between urban and rural (83% and 86%, respectively). However, at the secondary school level, the GAR is much higher in urban areas than in rural areas (85% versus 78%). x The GARs increase with household wealth at the secondary school level. Attendance in the lowest wealth quintile is 63 percent for girls and 66 percent for boys, compared with 94 percent for girls and 95 percent for boys in the highest wealth quintile. x There is not much difference by caste/tribe in the NAR and GAR at of the primary school level, but at the secondary school level, children belonging to scheduled tribes have the lowest NARs and GARs. 22 Ȉ Household Population and Housing Characteristics22 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics LIST OF TABLES For more information on the household population and housing characteristics, see the following tables: Tables Table 2.1 Household drinking water Table 2.2 Household sanitation facilities Table 2.3 Housing characteristics Table 2.4 Housing characteristics by state/union territory Table 2.5 Wealth quintiles by state/union territory Table 2.6 Religion and caste/tribe by wealth quintiles Table 2.7 Religion and caste/tribe of household head by state/union territory Table 2.8 Household possessions Table 2.9 Household ownership of agricultural land, house, and farm animals Table 2.10 Hand washing Table 2.11 Household composition Table 2.12 Household population by age, residence, sex, and possession of an Aadhaar card Table 2.13 Birth registration of children Table 2.14 Birth registration of children by state/union territory Table 2.15 Children's living arrangements and orphanhood Table 2.16 Children's living arrangements and orphanhood by state/union territory Table 2.17 Educational attainment of household population Table 2.18 Educational attainment of household population by state/union territory Table 2.19 School attendance by state/union territory Table 2.20 School attendance ratios Table 2.21 Reasons for children currently not attending school Household Population and Housing Characteristics Ȉ 23Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�23 24 Ȉ Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.1 Household drinking water Percent distribution of urban, rural, and total households and de jure population by source of drinking water, time to collect drinking water, and person who usually collects drinking water, and percentage of urban, rural, and total households and de jure population by treatment of drinking water, India, 2015-16 Drinking water characteristics Urban Rural Total De jure population Source of drinking water Improved source 91.1 89.3 89.9 90.2 Piped into dwelling/yard/plot 52.1 18.4 30.1 29.2 Public tap/standpipe 16.9 15.3 15.9 14.6 Tube well or borehole 17.4 50.9 39.2 42.0 Protected dug well 3.7 3.6 3.7 3.4 Protected spring 0.2 0.4 0.3 0.3 Rainwater 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.2 Community RO Plant 0.7 0.5 0.5 0.5 Unimproved source 8.7 10.6 9.9 9.7 Unprotected dug well 1.0 6.0 4.2 4.4 Unprotected spring 0.1 0.6 0.4 0.4 Tanker truck/cart with small tank 2.1 1.1 1.5 1.5 Surface water 0.4 0.8 0.7 0.7 Bottled water1 5.1 2.1 3.1 2.7 Other source 0.2 0.1 0.2 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Time to collect drinking water (round trip) Water on premises/delivered to dwelling 81.6 58.1 66.3 67.2 Less than 30 minutes 15.3 33.6 27.2 26.2 Thirty minutes or longer 2.9 8.3 6.4 6.6 Don't know 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 209,807 391,702 601,509 2,748,553 Person who usually collects drinking water2 Adult female 15+ years 71.2 82.3 80.2 81.4 Adult male 15+ years 24.4 13.8 15.8 14.1 Female child under age 15 years 2.2 2.8 2.7 3.2 Male child under age 15 years 1.1 0.7 0.8 0.8 Other 1.1 0.5 0.6 0.5 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 38,509 164,318 202,827 901,956 Water treatment prior to drinking3 Boil 14.3 7.5 9.9 9.0 Use alum 1.7 1.0 1.2 1.2 Add bleach/chlorine 3.3 3.1 3.2 3.1 Strain through cloth 14.8 14.2 14.4 14.7 Use ceramic, sand, or other water filter 12.5 3.5 6.6 6.2 Use electric purifier 11.0 1.5 4.8 4.6 Allow water to stand and settle 1.2 0.8 1.0 0.9 Other 2.7 2.4 2.5 2.6 No treatment 47.1 70.5 62.3 63.4 Number 209,807 391,702 601,509 2,748,553 1 Because the quality of bottled water is not known, households using bottled water are classified as using an unimproved source in accordance with the practice of the WHO-UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation 2 Excludes those who have source of water on premises or who have water delivered to the dwelling 3 Total percentages may add to more than 100.0 because multiple answers are allowed 24 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.2 Household sanitation facilities Percent distribution of urban, rural, and total households and de jure population by type of toilet facility, India, 2015-16 Type of toilet facility Urban Rural Total De jure population Improved, not shared facility 70.3 36.7 48.4 48.4 Flush/pour flush to piped sewer system 19.8 1.4 7.8 7.5 Flush/pour flush to septic tank 41.1 22.1 28.7 28.7 Flush/pour flush to pit latrine 6.3 7.7 7.2 7.4 Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine/ biogas latrine 0.4 0.7 0.6 0.6 Pit latrine with slab 2.7 4.6 3.9 4.1 Twin pit, composting toilet 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 Shared facility1 14.9 6.0 9.1 8.2 Flush/pour flush to piped sewer system 3.1 0.2 1.2 1.0 Flush/pour flush to septic tank 9.3 3.4 5.4 4.9 Flush/pour flush to pit latrine 1.5 1.4 1.4 1.3 Ventilated improved pit (VIP) latrine/ biogas latrine 0.1 0.2 0.1 0.1 Pit latrine with slab 0.9 1.0 0.9 0.8 Twin pit, composting toilet 0.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 Unimproved 3.7 3.1 3.3 3.4 Flush/pour flush not to sewer/septic tank/pit latrine 2.9 0.6 1.4 1.4 Pit latrine without slab/open pit 0.5 1.9 1.4 1.5 Dry toilet 0.3 0.6 0.5 0.5 Other 0.5 0.1 0.2 0.2 No facility/uses open space/field 10.5 54.1 38.9 39.8 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 209,807 391,702 601,509 2,748,553 1 Facilities that would be considered improved if they were not shared by two or more households Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�25 Table 2.3 Housing characteristics Percent distribution of urban, rural, and total households and de jure population by housing characteristics, India, 2015-16 Housing characteristic Urban Rural Total De jure population Electricity Yes 97.5 83.2 88.2 88.0 No 2.5 16.8 11.8 12.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Type of house1 Kachha 0.9 8.1 5.6 5.5 Semi-pucca 12.6 46.9 34.9 36.4 Pucca 84.5 41.2 56.3 54.8 Missing 2.0 3.8 3.2 3.3 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Persons per room used for sleeping <3 57.4 50.0 52.6 44.0 3-4 30.0 32.2 31.4 34.7 5-6 9.8 13.2 12.0 15.2 7+ 2.7 4.6 3.9 6.2 Missing 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Cooking fuel Electricity 1.0 0.4 0.6 0.6 LPG/natural gas 78.3 23.0 42.3 39.9 Biogas 1.3 0.6 0.8 0.8 Kerosene 2.5 0.6 1.2 1.0 Coal/lignite 1.3 0.7 0.9 1.0 Charcoal 0.6 0.6 0.6 0.6 Wood 12.0 55.7 40.5 41.9 Straw/shrubs/grass 0.5 3.6 2.5 2.5 Agricultural crop waste 0.4 4.4 3.0 3.2 Dung cakes 1.5 10.2 7.2 8.5 Other 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percentage using clean fuel for cooking2 80.6 24.0 43.8 41.2 Percentage using solid fuel for cooking3 16.4 75.2 54.7 57.7 Continued. 26 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.3 Housing characteristics³Continued Percent distribution of urban, rural, and total households and de jure population by housing characteristics, India, 2015-16 Housing characteristic Urban Rural Total De jure population Place for cooking In the house, separate room 64.3 40.9 49.0 49.3 In the house, no separate room 26.0 35.9 32.4 32.1 In a separate building 5.9 11.6 9.6 9.9 Outdoors 3.4 11.5 8.7 8.6 Other 0.5 0.2 0.3 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 209,807 391,702 601,509 2,748,553 Type of fire/stove among households using solid fuels Stove 3.3 0.8 1.1 1.0 Open fire/chullah 96.2 99.1 98.8 98.9 Other 0.5 0.0 0.1 0.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number using solid fuel 34,433 294,596 329,029 1,584,909 Frequency of smoking in the home4 Daily 22.6 32.3 28.9 31.4 Weekly 7.5 8.7 8.3 8.3 Monthly 2.1 2.9 2.6 2.7 Less than monthly 2.6 3.0 2.8 2.9 Never 65.3 53.1 57.4 54.7 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number 209,807 391,702 601,509 2,748,553 1 Houses made from mud, thatch, or other low-quality materials are called kachha houses, houses that use partly low-quality and partly high-quality materials are called semi-pucca houses, and houses made with high quality materials throughout, including the floor, roof, and exterior walls, are called pucca houses. 2 Electricity, LPG/natural gas, biogas 3 Includes coal/lignite, charcoal, wood, straw/shrubs/grass, agricultural crop waste, and dung cakes 4 Frequency of smoking by anyone inside the home Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�27 Table 2.4 Housing characteristics by state/union territory Percentage of households with selected housing characteristics by state/union territory, India, 2015-16 State/union territory Percentage of households: Mean number of persons per room used for sleeping With electricity With improved source of drinking water1 With toilet facility Using solid fuel for cooking2 In which anyone smokes at home Living in a SXFFD3 house ,QGLD� 88.2 89.9 61.1 54.7 42.6 56.3 2.9 1RUWK Chandigarh 99.6 99.5 97.8 4.1 27.5 94.2 2.7 Delhi 99.8 80.0 96.0 1.6 36.9 90.3 2.9 Haryana 98.8 91.6 89.8 47.4 64.3 76.3 2.7 Himachal Pradesh 99.5 94.9 85.7 62.5 56.2 70.2 2.1 Jammu & Kashmir 97.4 89.2 79.3 41.5 66.1 70.9 2.5 Punjab 99.6 99.1 92.9 33.5 21.7 80.8 2.7 Rajasthan 91.0 85.5 54.0 67.8 54.2 64.2 3.0 Uttarakhand 97.5 92.9 82.9 48.1 49.4 64.5 2.7 &HQWUDO Chhattisgarh 95.6 91.1 41.3 76.7 37.9 35.9 2.8 Madhya Pradesh 89.9 84.7 42.8 69.7 52.5 35.7 3.1 Uttar Pradesh 70.9 96.4 45.8 66.7 54.2 33.1 3.4 (DVW Bihar 58.6 98.2 33.5 81.9 51.6 25.9 3.3 Jharkhand 80.1 77.7 30.0 80.6 23.8 37.9 2.7 Odisha 85.5 88.8 35.0 79.6 31.1 44.5 2.8 West Bengal 93.7 94.6 74.9 69.6 59.4 46.5 2.7 1RUWKHDVW Arunachal Pradesh 88.7 87.5 90.8 54.2 50.9 23.9 2.1 Assam 78.2 83.8 88.9 74.2 50.3 25.2 2.3 Manipur 92.4 41.6 98.7 57.6 65.9 17.7 2.4 Meghalaya 91.4 67.9 92.4 74.7 73.6 43.0 2.3 Mizoram 95.9 91.4 99.1 31.2 83.2 54.7 3.0 Nagaland 96.9 80.6 98.3 66.6 51.9 28.4 2.1 Sikkim 99.4 97.6 99.7 39.1 40.0 71.6 1.9 Tripura 92.7 87.3 97.9 62.1 65.2 26.6 2.4 :HVW Dadra & Nagar Haveli 97.4 77.5 60.6 37.4 27.7 50.6 3.2 Daman & Diu 100.0 89.4 93.6 7.3 45.2 92.9 2.7 Goa 99.8 96.3 89.1 13.7 21.3 84.2 2.4 Gujarat 96.0 90.9 71.0 44.2 38.0 77.1 3.2 Maharashtra 92.5 91.5 71.2 36.0 26.6 72.9 3.2 &RQWLQXHG���� 28 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.4 Housing characteristics by state/union territory³Continued Percentage of households with selected housing characteristics by state/union territory, India, 2015-16 State/union territory Percentage of households: Mean number of persons per room used for sleeping With electricity With improved source of drinking water1 With toilet facility Using solid fuel for cooking2 In which anyone smokes at home Living in a pucca3 house South Andaman & Nicobar Islands 97.0 94.3 84.7 22.7 17.5 66.0 2.3 Andhra Pradesh 98.8 72.7 61.3 37.1 34.6 81.5 2.9 Karnataka 97.8 89.3 65.8 43.4 29.2 62.9 2.7 Kerala 99.2 94.3 99.2 42.3 28.9 89.0 1.8 Lakshadweep 99.9 91.5 100.0 53.8 38.8 97.5 2.1 Puducherry 99.6 95.4 69.1 14.0 25.0 81.9 2.4 Tamil Nadu 98.8 90.6 61.7 24.3 33.6 78.9 2.4 Telangana 98.3 77.9 69.0 30.8 33.6 75.0 3.0 1 See Table 2.1 for list of improved sources. 2 Includes coal/lignite, charcoal, wood, straw/shrubs/grass, agricultural crop waste, and dung cakes 3 Refer to Table 2.3 for definition of pucca Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�29 Table 2.5 Wealth quintiles by state/union territory Percent distribution of the de jure population by wealth quintiles, according to residence and state/union territory, India, 2015-16 Residence/state/ union territory Wealth quintile Total Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest India 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 Urban 3.1 7.0 15.6 30.0 44.4 100.0 Rural 28.4 26.5 22.2 15.0 7.9 100.0 North Chandigarh 0.7 2.4 4.9 11.2 80.8 100.0 Delhi 0.1 1.9 13.4 21.8 62.8 100.0 Haryana 1.7 7.3 17.4 26.5 47.1 100.0 Himachal Pradesh 1.7 9.5 23.2 33.3 32.3 100.0 Jammu & Kashmir 7.3 19.6 24.5 23.5 25.2 100.0 Punjab 0.6 3.7 11.8 21.9 62.0 100.0 Rajasthan 17.2 23.1 21.2 18.6 19.8 100.0 Uttarakhand 4.8 17.6 25.0 22.9 29.8 100.0 Central Chhattisgarh 31.0 25.3 16.7 12.7 14.3 100.0 Madhya Pradesh 31.0 22.4 16.0 14.4 16.2 100.0 Uttar Pradesh 29.4 22.9 17.3 14.9 15.5 100.0 East Bihar 51.2 23.2 13.4 8.9 3.3 100.0 Jharkhand 46.1 21.1 14.0 9.9 8.8 100.0 Odisha 37.0 26.2 18.4 11.0 7.3 100.0 West Bengal 22.8 29.7 21.2 17.2 9.1 100.0 Northeast Arunachal Pradesh 19.4 25.2 25.6 20.6 9.2 100.0 Assam 24.4 38.7 18.6 12.2 6.1 100.0 Manipur 8.8 30.9 30.3 19.5 10.4 100.0 Meghalaya 11.4 35.5 31.5 15.3 6.3 100.0 Mizoram 6.0 10.0 20.3 29.0 34.7 100.0 Nagaland 11.8 31.5 26.1 19.3 11.3 100.0 Sikkim 0.6 7.0 42.8 38.0 11.7 100.0 Tripura 13.0 43.4 22.7 14.7 6.2 100.0 West Dadra & Nagar Haveli 21.4 24.0 16.1 20.5 18.0 100.0 Daman & Diu 0.3 12.6 19.5 34.6 33.1 100.0 Goa 0.3 4.5 11.1 28.1 55.9 100.0 Gujarat 8.7 16.8 21.1 24.1 29.4 100.0 Maharashtra 9.2 16.0 22.5 26.4 25.9 100.0 South Andaman & Nicobar Islands 4.4 10.4 21.5 32.7 31.0 100.0 Andhra Pradesh 4.6 15.3 32.5 29.9 17.7 100.0 Karnataka 6.3 19.9 26.7 26.7 20.5 100.0 Kerala 0.3 2.2 13.3 35.8 48.5 100.0 Lakshadweep 0.1 0.4 9.1 52.8 37.6 100.0 Puducherry 2.4 9.3 21.2 30.5 36.6 100.0 Tamil Nadu 3.5 14.7 27.5 31.6 22.7 100.0 Telangana 6.3 17.2 25.9 27.4 23.2 100.0 30 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.6 Religion and caste/tribe by wealth quintiles Percent distribution of the de jure population by wealth quintiles, according to religion and caste/tribe of household head, India, 2015-16 Wealth quintile Total De jure population Lowest Second Middle Fourth Highest Religion of household head Hindu 21.0 20.4 20.2 19.3 19.1 100.0 2,203,861 Muslim 18.0 20.3 20.0 22.9 18.8 100.0 388,606 Christian 11.4 15.9 21.2 23.3 28.1 100.0 64,722 Sikh 0.9 4.5 12.1 22.2 60.2 100.0 46,401 Buddhist/Neo-Buddhist 9.8 18.9 23.8 26.9 20.6 100.0 24,734 Jain 0.2 1.1 7.2 16.6 74.9 100.0 5,448 Other 46.3 28.5 13.2 9.1 2.9 100.0 14,781 Caste/tribe of household head Scheduled caste 25.9 24.2 21.9 16.7 11.3 100.0 566,399 Scheduled tribe 45.2 25.5 14.9 9.1 5.4 100.0 257,178 Other backward class 18.2 19.6 21.1 22.3 18.8 100.0 1,175,204 Other 9.4 15.4 18.4 22.8 34.0 100.0 729,971 Don't know 25.0 21.5 22.0 18.6 12.9 100.0 19,801 Total 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 20.0 100.0 2,748,553 Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�31 Ta bl e 2. 7 Re lig io n an d ca st e/ tri be o f h ou se ho ld h ea d by s ta te /u ni on te rr ito ry Pe rc en t d ist rib ut io n of h ou se ho ld s b y re lig io n an d ca st e/ tri be o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d, a cc or di ng to re sid en ce a nd s ta te /u ni on te rr ito ry , I nd ia , 2 01 5- 16 St at e/ un io n te rr ito ry Re lig io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d C as te /tr ib e of h ou se ho ld h ea d H in du M us lim C hr ist ia n Si kh Bu dd hi st / N eo -B ud dh ist Ja in O th er 1 To ta l Sc he du le d ca st e Sc he du le d tri be O th er ba ck w ar d cl as s O th er D on 't kn ow To ta l In di a 81 .4 12 .5 2. 7 1. 6 1. 0 0. 2 0. 5 10 0. 0 20 .6 9. 2 42 .2 27 .2 0. 8 10 0. 0 U rb an 77 .2 16 .2 3. 1 1. 5 1. 3 0. 5 0. 3 10 0. 0 16 .8 3. 9 42 .2 36 .0 1. 0 10 0. 0 Ru ra l 83 .7 10 .6 2. 5 1. 7 0. 8 0. 1 0. 7 10 0. 0 22 .6 12 .0 42 .2 22 .5 0. 6 10 0. 0 N or th C ha nd ig ar h 81 .1 4. 2 0. 7 13 .9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 23 .9 0. 2 21 .5 54 .4 0. 0 10 0. 0 D el hi 83 .5 13 .4 0. 5 2. 1 0. 1 0. 4 0. 1 10 0. 0 26 .7 1. 5 24 .5 43 .9 3. 3 10 0. 0 H ar ya na 89 .3 6. 7 0. 1 3. 8 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 27 .8 0. 3 44 .0 27 .6 0. 3 10 0. 0 H im ac ha l P ra de sh 95 .5 1. 6 0. 1 1. 2 1. 6 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 23 .3 4. 8 14 .3 57 .0 0. 6 10 0. 0 Ja m m u & K as hm ir 29 .1 67 .8 0. 1 2. 1 1. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 9. 5 8. 8 4. 6 76 .8 0. 3 10 0. 0 Pu nj ab 36 .8 1. 5 1. 3 60 .3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 37 .5 0. 1 19 .5 42 .8 0. 0 10 0. 0 Ra ja st ha n 89 .6 8. 0 0. 1 1. 7 0. 0 0. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 19 .1 14 .3 45 .5 20 .4 0. 7 10 0. 0 U tta ra kh an d 85 .7 12 .2 0. 2 1. 7 0. 1 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 21 .8 4. 1 21 .2 52 .3 0. 6 10 0. 0 C en tr al C hh at tis ga rh 95 .2 2. 4 1. 8 0. 2 0. 2 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 14 .2 31 .1 46 .1 8. 4 0. 2 10 0. 0 M ad hy a Pr ad es h 92 .6 6. 1 0. 2 0. 2 0. 2 0. 6 0. 1 10 0. 0 18 .0 19 .7 43 .9 18 .0 0. 4 10 0. 0 U tta r P ra de sh 82 .0 17 .5 0. 1 0. 3 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 24 .3 1. 3 51 .8 22 .4 0. 3 10 0. 0 Ea st Bi ha r 83 .8 16 .1 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 20 .5 3. 4 57 .5 18 .1 0. 5 10 0. 0 Jh ar kh an d 74 .0 13 .0 3. 7 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 9. 1 10 0. 0 14 .1 27 .7 46 .1 11 .7 0. 4 10 0. 0 O di sh a 95 .0 1. 9 2. 8 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 10 0. 0 20 .0 23 .2 34 .9 21 .1 0. 8 10 0. 0 W es t B en ga l 73 .0 23 .9 0. 5 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 2. 3 10 0. 0 28 .4 6. 3 11 .8 51 .8 1. 7 10 0. 0 N or th ea st A ru na ch al P ra de sh 26 .3 2. 3 41 .0 0. 1 12 .1 0. 0 18 .2 10 0. 0 7. 0 72 .5 4. 9 14 .7 0. 8 10 0. 0 A ss am 63 .8 32 .5 3. 3 0. 0 0. 2 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 11 .0 12 .6 27 .0 48 .4 0. 9 10 0. 0 M an ip ur 46 .0 10 .1 31 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 12 .6 10 0. 0 6. 0 30 .4 18 .1 43 .7 1. 8 10 0. 0 M eg ha la ya 11 .1 5. 1 77 .0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 1 6. 6 10 0. 0 3. 4 88 .0 0. 8 7. 4 0. 3 10 0. 0 M iz or am 0. 9 0. 7 91 .8 0. 0 6. 4 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 1. 1 96 .0 2. 0 0. 5 0. 4 10 0. 0 N ag al an d 7. 3 3. 4 89 .0 0. 0 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 5. 2 89 .3 0. 8 4. 3 0. 4 10 0. 0 Si kk im 58 .5 1. 4 9. 1 0. 0 30 .8 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 5. 6 36 .9 32 .0 25 .3 0. 1 10 0. 0 Tr ip ur a 84 .4 7. 3 4. 6 0. 0 3. 7 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 21 .2 30 .5 17 .8 30 .4 0. 1 10 0. 0 C on tin ue d. . 32 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Ta bl e 2. 7 Re lig io n an d ca st e/ tr ib e of h ou se ho ld h ea d by s ta te /u ni on te rr ito ry — C on tin ue d Pe rc en t d ist rib ut io n of h ou se ho ld s b y re lig io n an d ca st e/ tri be o f t he h ou se ho ld h ea d, a cc or di ng to re sid en ce a nd s ta te /u ni on te rr ito ry , I nd ia , 2 01 5- 16 St at e/ un io n te rr ito ry Re lig io n of h ou se ho ld h ea d C as te /tr ib e of h ou se ho ld h ea d H in du M us lim C hr ist ia n Si kh Bu dd hi st / N eo -B ud dh ist Ja in O th er 1 To ta l Sc he du le d ca st e Sc he du le d tri be O th er ba ck w ar d cl as s O th er D on 't kn ow To ta l W es t D ad ra & N ag ar H av el i 92 .3 2. 6 3. 4 0. 0 0. 4 0. 3 1. 1 10 0. 0 5. 5 53 .7 13 .4 24 .7 2. 7 10 0. 0 D am an & D iu 91 .5 6. 7 0. 7 0. 0 0. 0 0. 2 0. 9 10 0. 0 10 .9 8. 6 40 .1 33 .3 7. 0 10 0. 0 G oa 67 .6 7. 8 24 .2 0. 0 0. 2 0. 2 0. 1 10 0. 0 6. 1 7. 1 24 .0 62 .6 0. 2 10 0. 0 G uj ar at 91 .9 7. 0 0. 5 0. 0 0. 0 0. 4 0. 0 10 0. 0 11 .1 14 .7 40 .8 31 .3 2. 0 10 0. 0 M ah ar as ht ra 78 .6 10 .7 0. 8 0. 2 8. 6 0. 8 0. 2 10 0. 0 17 .3 10 .9 27 .3 43 .6 0. 9 10 0. 0 So ut h A nd am an & N ic ob ar Is la nd s 73 .5 7. 4 18 .5 0. 4 0. 1 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 8. 8 5. 3 21 .6 64 .0 0. 3 10 0. 0 A nd hr a Pr ad es h 84 .8 7. 6 7. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 19 .9 5. 3 49 .6 24 .5 0. 6 10 0. 0 Ka rn at ak a 84 .2 12 .4 2. 9 0. 0 0. 0 0. 3 0. 1 10 0. 0 21 .0 9. 2 46 .4 22 .4 1. 0 10 0. 0 Ke ra la 58 .8 22 .9 18 .2 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 9. 9 1. 2 49 .4 38 .2 1. 2 10 0. 0 La ks ha dw ee p 1. 7 97 .9 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1. 4 95 .4 2. 3 1. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 Pu du ch er ry 92 .5 2. 9 4. 6 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 21 .8 0. 6 77 .0 0. 6 0. 0 10 0. 0 Ta m il N ad u 90 .1 4. 5 5. 3 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 26 .8 1. 9 69 .4 1. 8 0. 1 10 0. 0 Te la ng an a 87 .0 9. 6 3. 2 0. 1 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 18 .8 7. 8 56 .4 16 .2 0. 8 10 0. 0 1 I nc lu de s Je w s, P ar sis /Z or oa st ria ns , t ho se fo llo w in g “o th er ” re lig io ns , a nd th os e w ith n o re lig io n Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�33 Table 2.8 Household possessions Percentage of urban, rural, and total households and de jure population possessing various household goods and means of transport, and percentage with a bank/post office account, health scheme/health insurance, or a BPL card, India, 2015-16 Household possessions Urban Rural Total De jure population Household goods Mattress 82.3 58.4 66.7 67.7 Pressure cooker 83.6 42.2 56.6 57.4 Chair 86.5 70.7 76.2 76.9 Cot or bed 88.5 88.3 88.4 89.6 Table 72.1 46.5 55.4 56.3 Electric fan 95.1 69.1 78.2 78.2 Radio or transistor 10.3 7.0 8.1 8.4 Television (black and white) 3.1 3.5 3.3 3.7 Television (colour) 86.0 51.5 63.5 64.1 Any television 87.0 53.5 65.2 65.9 Sewing machine 33.5 19.0 24.0 26.9 Mobile telephone 96.1 87.3 90.4 92.9 Landline telephone 7.8 1.9 3.9 3.7 Internet 20.4 5.7 10.9 11.2 Computer 19.2 3.6 9.0 9.0 Refrigerator 54.2 16.4 29.6 30.1 Air conditioner/cooler 32.9 9.9 17.9 18.9 Washing machine 28.8 5.5 13.6 13.7 Watch or clock 90.8 71.4 78.1 79.3 Water pump 21.5 14.9 17.2 18.3 Thresher 0.6 1.9 1.5 1.8 Tractor 0.7 3.4 2.5 3.3 None of the above 0.2 1.2 0.8 0.6 Means of transport Bicycle 45.0 55.9 52.1 56.4 Motorcycle or scooter 51.4 30.3 37.7 40.6 Animal-drawn cart 0.9 5.1 3.6 4.4 Car 11.4 3.2 6.0 6.3 None of the above 26.7 30.2 29.0 24.9 Percentage having a bank/post office account1 92.0 88.0 89.4 90.3 Percentage covered by a health scheme/health insurance1 28.2 28.9 28.7 27.3 Percentage having a BPL card 25.2 45.8 38.6 39.2 Number 209,807 391,702 601,509 2,748,553 BPL = Below poverty line 1 Any usual household member 34 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.9 Household ownership of agricultural land, house, and farm animals Percent distribution of urban, rural, and total households and de jure population owning agricultural land by type of land and percentage owning a house and farm animals, India, 2015-16 Household possessions Urban Rural Total De jure population Ownership of agricultural land No agricultural land 86.6 47.4 61.1 57.9 Irrigated land only 7.5 28.6 21.3 23.6 Non-irrigated land only 3.8 16.3 11.9 12.1 Both irrigated and non-irrigated land 1.2 6.7 4.8 5.5 Missing 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percentage owning a house 71.2 84.5 79.8 81.7 Percentage owning farm animals1 10.9 59.7 42.7 48.1 Number 209,807 391,702 601,509 2,748,553 1 Cows, bulls, buffaloes, camels, horses, donkeys, mules, goats, sheep, chickens, or ducks Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�35 Table 2.10 Hand washing Percentage of households in which the place most often used for washing hands was observed, and among households in which the place for hand washing was observed, percent distribution by availability of water, soap, and other cleansing agents, according to background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Percentage of households in which place for washing hands was observed Number of households Among households in which place for hand washing was observed, percentage with: Total Number of households with place for hand washing observed Soap and water1 Water and cleansing agent2 other than soap only Water only Soap but no water3 Cleansing agent other than soap only2 No water, no soap, no other cleansing agent Residence Urban 97.6 209,807 80.3 2.6 10.8 2.3 0.6 3.4 100.0 204,807 Rural 96.3 391,702 49.4 13.2 19.4 2.9 3.6 11.5 100.0 377,257 Education of the household head No schooling 95.8 183,354 42.8 14.8 21.5 2.8 4.4 13.7 100.0 175,628 <5 years complete 96.4 60,952 50.8 10.1 21.3 3.1 3.1 11.7 100.0 58,731 5-7 years complete 96.8 96,060 58.5 9.1 18.0 2.9 2.6 8.8 100.0 93,000 8-9 years complete 97.1 83,487 64.0 8.7 14.9 3.1 2.1 7.2 100.0 81,035 10-11 years complete 97.5 75,216 75.0 5.5 12.1 2.2 1.0 4.2 100.0 73,315 12 or more years complete 98.0 99,950 84.6 3.5 7.2 1.9 0.6 2.2 100.0 97,947 Don't know/missing 96.7 2,490 57.5 10.1 14.2 4.1 2.9 11.2 100.0 2,408 Religion of household head Hindu 96.8 489,726 58.7 10.0 16.5 2.8 2.8 9.1 100.0 474,026 Muslim 96.2 75,426 65.2 8.3 16.6 2.3 1.6 6.0 100.0 72,566 Christian 97.3 16,251 64.3 3.8 19.6 2.8 1.5 8.2 100.0 15,811 Sikh 98.3 9,858 88.4 3.6 6.0 0.4 0.3 1.3 100.0 9,686 Buddhist/Neo-Buddhist 97.8 5,762 75.2 5.0 11.3 2.9 1.4 4.2 100.0 5,635 Jain 97.9 1,261 95.4 1.3 2.0 0.8 0.0 0.5 100.0 1,235 Other 96.3 3,226 28.2 9.3 20.2 2.4 4.2 35.8 100.0 3,106 Caste/tribe of household head Scheduled caste 96.2 123,837 51.9 10.8 19.5 3.2 3.3 11.3 100.0 119,140 Scheduled tribe 95.4 55,438 38.4 13.6 18.4 3.5 6.7 19.5 100.0 52,894 Other backward class 97.1 253,993 60.6 10.4 16.8 2.5 2.2 7.5 100.0 246,669 Other 97.2 163,677 73.3 5.7 12.6 2.3 1.3 4.7 100.0 159,061 Don't know 94.2 4,564 54.3 8.0 19.4 4.4 3.3 10.7 100.0 4,300 Wealth index Lowest 94.2 122,002 24.3 23.2 20.4 3.2 7.7 21.2 100.0 114,961 Second 96.0 118,447 43.2 14.1 23.1 3.5 3.5 12.6 100.0 113,760 Middle 97.1 119,284 60.3 7.0 20.8 3.5 1.4 7.0 100.0 115,822 Fourth 97.9 120,839 78.1 2.8 13.6 2.4 0.4 2.6 100.0 118,330 Highest 98.6 120,937 93.3 0.9 4.5 0.8 0.0 0.5 100.0 119,192 Total 96.8 601,509 60.2 9.5 16.4 2.7 2.6 8.7 100.0 582,064 1 Soap includes soap or detergent in bar, liquid, powder, or paste form. This column includes households with soap and water only, as well as those that had soap and water and another cleansing agent. 2 Cleansing agents other than soap include ash, mud, or sand 3 Includes households with soap only, as well as those with soap and another cleansing agent 36 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.11 Household composition Percent distribution of households by sex of head of household, household size, and household structure, and percentage of households with orphans and foster children under age 18, according to residence, India, 2015-16 Characteristic Urban Rural Total Household headship Male 85.9 85.1 85.4 Female 14.1 14.9 14.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Number of usual members 0 0.1 0.1 0.1 1 4.4 3.9 4.1 2 12.0 11.2 11.5 3 18.0 14.6 15.8 4 26.0 21.9 23.3 5 17.4 18.7 18.3 6 10.4 13.0 12.1 7 4.9 7.3 6.4 8 2.7 3.9 3.5 9+ 4.0 5.4 4.9 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Mean household size 4.3 4.7 4.6 Household structure1 Nuclear 61.0 56.2 57.9 Non-nuclear 39.0 43.8 42.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 Percentage of households with orphans and foster children under age 18 Double orphans2 0.3 0.3 0.3 Single orphans2 3.2 4.3 4.0 Foster children3 2.9 4.0 3.6 Orphans and/or foster children 5.9 8.0 7.2 Number of households 209,807 391,702 601,509 Note: Table is based on de jure members, i.e., usual residents. 1 Nuclear households are households comprised of a married couple or a man or a woman living alone or with unmarried children (biological, adopted, or fostered) with or without unrelated individuals. 2 Double orphans are children both of whose parents are dead. Single orphans are children with one dead parent and an unknown survival status of the other parent 3 Foster children are those under age 18 living in households with neither their mother nor their father present, and the mother and/or the father are alive. Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�37 Table 2.12 Household population by age, residence, sex, and possession of an Aadhaar card Percent distribution of the de facto household population by age and percentage of individuals who have an Aadhaar card, according to residence and sex, India, 2015-16 Characteristic Urban Rural Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Male Female Total Age 0-4 8.0 7.5 7.8 10.1 9.3 9.7 9.4 8.7 9.1 5-9 8.3 7.9 8.1 10.6 9.7 10.1 9.8 9.1 9.5 10-14 9.1 8.8 9.0 11.0 10.2 10.6 10.4 9.8 10.1 15-19 9.4 8.6 9.0 9.7 9.5 9.6 9.6 9.2 9.4 20-24 9.4 9.7 9.5 8.2 9.2 8.7 8.6 9.3 9.0 25-29 9.1 9.5 9.3 7.7 8.3 8.0 8.1 8.7 8.4 30-34 7.9 8.0 8.0 6.5 6.9 6.7 7.0 7.3 7.1 35-39 7.4 7.6 7.5 6.2 6.5 6.4 6.6 6.9 6.7 40-44 6.3 6.6 6.5 5.4 5.5 5.4 5.7 5.8 5.8 45-49 6.1 6.1 6.1 5.3 5.3 5.3 5.6 5.6 5.6 50-54 4.8 5.5 5.1 4.1 4.8 4.4 4.3 5.0 4.7 55-59 4.6 4.4 4.5 4.2 4.3 4.2 4.3 4.3 4.3 60-64 3.6 3.5 3.6 4.0 3.8 3.9 3.8 3.7 3.8 65-69 2.5 2.6 2.5 3.0 2.8 2.9 2.8 2.7 2.8 70-74 1.6 1.6 1.6 2.0 1.8 1.9 1.9 1.7 1.8 75-79 0.9 0.9 0.9 1.0 1.0 1.0 1.0 0.9 0.9 80 + 0.8 1.1 0.9 1.1 1.2 1.2 1.0 1.2 1.1 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Dependency age groups 0-14 25.5 24.3 24.9 31.7 29.2 30.5 29.6 27.6 28.6 15-64 68.7 69.6 69.2 61.1 64.0 62.6 63.7 65.8 64.8 65+ 5.8 6.1 5.9 7.2 6.7 6.9 6.7 6.5 6.6 Total 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 100.0 Sex ratio, all ages1 na na 956 na na 1,009 na na 991 Sex ratio, age 0-61 na na 899 na na 923 na na 916 Aadhaar card Percentage with an Aadhaar card 77.5 75.9 76.7 66.2 64.4 65.3 70.0 68.2 69.1 Number of persons 461,853 441,509 903,362 906,506 914,489 1,820,995 1,368,359 1,355,998 2,724,357 na = Not applicable 1 Females per 1,000 males 38 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.13 Birth registration of children Percentage of de jure children under age five years whose birth was registered with the civil authorities, according to background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Percentage of children whose birth was registered De jure children Registered, has a birth certificate Registered, does not have a birth certificate Total registered Age <2 years 60.4 20.1 80.4 93,746 2-4 years 63.5 15.8 79.3 150,121 Sex Male 61.8 17.7 79.4 127,046 Female 62.9 17.2 80.1 116,820 Residence Urban 77.0 11.8 88.8 69,557 Rural 56.4 19.7 76.1 174,310 Mother's schooling No schooling 41.4 22.4 63.8 68,431 <5 years complete 59.9 19.0 78.9 16,255 5-7 years complete 65.9 17.5 83.4 39,411 8-9 years complete 68.6 16.5 85.2 39,058 10-11 years complete 75.6 13.7 89.3 29,569 12 or more years complete 77.6 13.0 90.6 46,273 Don't know/missing 61.4 15.7 77.1 623 Mother not listed in the household 57.0 15.1 72.1 4,247 Father's schooling No schooling 45.2 20.9 66.1 34,705 <5 years complete 63.1 17.2 80.3 16,684 5-7 years complete 62.8 17.2 80.0 37,537 8-9 years complete 63.0 18.0 81.0 42,950 10-11 years complete 70.8 15.8 86.6 30,352 12 or more years complete 73.8 14.3 88.1 49,847 Don't know/missing 53.6 16.1 69.6 846 Father not listed in the household 52.6 20.1 72.6 30,946 Religion of household head Hindu 62.0 17.7 79.7 190,813 Muslim 60.2 17.2 77.4 41,226 Christian 68.8 16.6 85.4 5,074 Sikh 91.9 5.1 97.0 3,027 Buddhist/Neo-Buddhist 77.5 19.4 96.8 1,898 Jain 88.1 7.9 96.0 290 Other 52.9 22.6 75.5 1,538 Caste/tribe of household head Scheduled caste 60.2 18.5 78.7 53,072 Scheduled tribe 55.6 20.1 75.7 25,798 Other backward class 59.7 17.7 77.4 105,732 Other 71.9 14.9 86.8 57,313 Don't know 66.0 11.0 77.0 1,951 Wealth index Lowest 40.7 23.0 63.8 60,776 Second 57.8 19.5 77.3 52,979 Middle 67.5 16.6 84.1 48,105 Fourth 74.6 14.0 88.6 44,729 Highest 82.3 10.5 92.9 37,277 Total 62.3 17.4 79.7 243,867 Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�39 Table 2.14 Birth registration of children by state/union territory Percentage of de jure children under age five years whose birth was registered with the civil authorities, according to residence and state/union territory, India, 2015-16 State/union territory Urban Rural Total India 88.8 76.1 79.7 North Chandigarh 94.9 * 95.1 Delhi 88.0 (89.5) 88.0 Haryana 94.0 94.3 94.2 Himachal Pradesh 97.7 95.1 95.3 Jammu & Kashmir 90.5 73.3 77.4 Punjab 97.3 99.0 98.3 Rajasthan 81.5 62.5 66.6 Uttarakhand 81.8 74.2 76.7 Central Chhattisgarh 92.6 84.4 86.1 Madhya Pradesh 92.2 78.4 81.9 Uttar Pradesh 67.9 58.1 60.2 East Bihar 64.5 60.3 60.7 Jharkhand 77.7 61.9 65.0 Odisha 90.0 80.7 82.1 West Bengal 97.3 96.7 96.9 Northeast Arunachal Pradesh 80.0 58.3 62.9 Assam 97.4 93.8 94.2 Manipur 74.8 59.7 64.8 Meghalaya 89.2 78.4 79.8 Mizoram 97.8 98.0 97.9 Nagaland 80.2 64.2 68.5 Sikkim 98.6 98.4 98.5 Tripura 96.8 89.9 91.6 West Dadra & Nagar Haveli 94.0 93.3 93.6 Daman & Diu 88.3 98.4 91.5 Goa 98.9 99.0 98.9 Gujarat 97.2 94.8 95.8 Maharashtra 95.8 94.6 95.1 South Andaman & Nicobar Islands 97.2 98.4 97.9 Andhra Pradesh 90.1 79.9 82.7 Karnataka 95.0 94.9 94.9 Kerala 97.2 98.1 97.7 Lakshadweep 98.9 (100.0) 99.1 Puducherry 99.2 98.7 99.0 Tamil Nadu 98.5 98.2 98.3 Telangana 90.1 76.5 83.1 ( ) Based on 25-49 unweighted cases * Percentage not shown; based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 40 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Ta bl e 2. 15 C hi ld re n' s liv in g ar ra ng em en ts a nd o rp ha nh oo d Pe rc en t d ist rib ut io n of d e ju re c hi ld re n un de r a ge 1 8 ye ar s b y th ei r l iv in g ar ra ng em en ts a nd su rv iv al st at us o f t he ir pa re nt s, p er ce nt ag e of c hi ld re n no t l iv in g w ith a b io lo gi ca l p ar en t, an d pe rc en ta ge of c hi ld re n w ith o ne o r b ot h pa re nt s de ad , a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, In di a, 2 01 5- 16 Ba ck gr ou nd ch ar ac te ris tic Li vi ng w ith bo th pa re nt s Li vi ng w ith m ot he r bu t n ot w ith fa th er Li vi ng w ith fa th er bu t n ot w ith m ot he r N ot li vi ng w ith e ith er p ar en t To ta l Pe rc en ta ge n ot liv in g w ith a bi ol og ic al p ar en t Pe rc en ta ge w ith on e or b ot h pa re nt s de ad 1 N um be r of c hi ld re n Fa th er al iv e Fa th er de ad M ot he r al iv e M ot he r de ad Bo th al iv e O nl y m ot he r al iv e O nl y fa th er al iv e Bo th de ad Ag e < 2 86 .8 12 .1 0. 4 0. 1 0. 2 0. 4 0. 0 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 0. 5 0. 6 93 ,7 46 2- 4 86 .7 10 .0 0. 9 0. 4 0. 4 1. 3 0. 1 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 1. 6 1. 5 15 0, 12 1 5- 9 85 .3 8. 4 1. 9 0. 6 0. 9 2. 4 0. 1 0. 2 0. 2 10 0. 0 2. 9 3. 3 25 8, 68 9 10 -1 4 83 .2 6. 8 3. 9 0. 7 1. 5 2. 9 0. 3 0. 3 0. 4 10 0. 0 3. 9 6. 3 27 6, 43 6 15 -1 7 79 .8 5. 7 5. 8 0. 9 2. 0 4. 4 0. 4 0. 4 0. 6 10 0. 0 5. 8 9. 2 15 6, 22 4 Re si de nc e U rb an 87 .5 5. 0 2. 9 0. 7 0. 8 2. 4 0. 2 0. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 3. 1 4. 4 27 4, 08 6 Ru ra l 82 .7 9. 4 2. 8 0. 6 1. 2 2. 6 0. 2 0. 3 0. 3 10 0. 0 3. 3 4. 7 66 1, 13 0 Se x M al e 84 .6 8. 0 2. 9 0. 6 1. 1 2. 1 0. 2 0. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 2. 7 4. 6 48 5, 89 6 Fe m al e 83 .6 8. 2 2. 8 0. 6 1. 1 3. 0 0. 2 0. 3 0. 3 10 0. 0 3. 8 4. 6 44 9, 31 9 W ea lth in de x Lo w es t 80 .4 10 .9 3. 5 0. 6 1. 6 2. 3 0. 2 0. 3 0. 3 10 0. 0 3. 1 5. 9 23 8, 07 1 Se co nd 82 .5 9. 0 3. 1 0. 6 1. 3 2. 7 0. 2 0. 3 0. 3 10 0. 0 3. 6 5. 2 20 5, 17 8 M id dl e 85 .0 7. 0 2. 9 0. 6 1. 0 2. 8 0. 2 0. 3 0. 3 10 0. 0 3. 6 4. 6 18 2, 88 1 Fo ur th 86 .5 6. 3 2. 6 0. 7 0. 8 2. 6 0. 2 0. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 3. 2 3. 9 16 6, 66 4 H ig he st 88 .8 5. 8 1. 7 0. 6 0. 6 2. 1 0. 2 0. 1 0. 2 10 0. 0 2. 6 2. 7 14 2, 42 1 To ta l a ge < 15 85 .0 8. 6 2. 2 0. 5 0. 9 2. 1 0. 2 0. 2 0. 2 10 0. 0 2. 7 3. 7 77 8, 99 2 To ta l a ge < 18 84 .1 8. 1 2. 8 0. 6 1. 1 2. 5 0. 2 0. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 3. 2 4. 6 93 5, 21 6 1 I nc lu de s ch ild re n w ith fa th er d ea d, m ot he r d ea d, b ot h pa re nt s d ea d, a nd o ne p ar en t d ea d bu t m iss in g in fo rm at io n on su rv iv al s ta tu s of th e ot he r p ar en t Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�41 Table 2.16 Children's living arrangements and orphanhood by state/union territory Percent distribution of de jure children under age 18 by children's living arrangements and survival status of parents, percentage of children not living with a biological parent, and percentage of children with one or both parents dead, according to state/union territory, India, 2015-16 State/union territory Living with both parents Living with mother but not with father Living with father but not with mother Not living with either parent Total Percentage not living with a biological parent Percentage with one or both parents dead1 Father alive Father dead Mother alive Mother dead Both alive Only mother alive Only father alive Both dead India 84.1 8.1 2.8 0.6 1.1 2.5 0.2 0.2 0.3 100.0 3.2 4.6 North Chandigarh 91.1 3.3 2.2 0.9 0.6 1.8 0.0 0.1 0.0 100.0 2.0 2.9 Delhi 93.3 1.6 1.8 0.5 0.6 1.7 0.1 0.1 0.2 100.0 2.2 2.9 Haryana 92.1 1.7 2.7 0.3 1.2 1.4 0.1 0.1 0.4 100.0 2.0 4.5 Himachal Pradesh 76.9 16.3 2.5 0.7 0.6 2.5 0.2 0.2 0.1 100.0 3.0 3.5 Jammu & Kashmir 87.7 6.0 2.5 1.2 1.0 1.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 100.0 1.5 3.9 Punjab 89.0 4.4 2.8 0.9 0.8 1.5 0.2 0.1 0.3 100.0 2.1 4.2 Rajasthan 85.0 7.8 2.5 0.4 1.1 2.7 0.2 0.2 0.2 100.0 3.2 4.1 Uttarakhand 81.5 10.7 3.4 0.4 1.1 2.1 0.2 0.3 0.3 100.0 2.9 5.2 Central Chhattisgarh 87.4 2.3 3.0 0.6 1.5 4.3 0.3 0.3 0.4 100.0 5.2 5.3 Madhya Pradesh 88.9 2.8 2.5 0.7 1.3 3.0 0.3 0.3 0.3 100.0 3.8 4.6 Uttar Pradesh 81.0 11.1 2.8 0.4 1.7 2.1 0.2 0.4 0.3 100.0 2.9 5.3 East Bihar 70.7 21.7 2.3 0.6 1.1 2.9 0.1 0.3 0.2 100.0 3.5 4.0 Jharkhand 82.7 8.6 3.3 0.5 1.2 2.9 0.3 0.3 0.3 100.0 3.8 5.4 Odisha 85.5 6.2 3.3 0.4 1.3 2.5 0.2 0.2 0.3 100.0 3.3 5.4 West Bengal 87.7 4.8 2.3 0.6 1.0 2.8 0.2 0.2 0.3 100.0 3.5 4.0 Northeast Arunachal Pradesh 83.9 2.5 3.2 1.1 1.3 5.9 0.8 0.4 0.9 100.0 8.0 6.5 Assam 87.9 3.4 3.8 0.4 1.4 1.9 0.3 0.3 0.5 100.0 3.1 6.3 Manipur 85.2 3.5 3.7 1.4 1.1 3.9 0.5 0.2 0.4 100.0 5.1 6.0 Meghalaya 83.2 6.4 5.0 0.4 0.9 2.0 0.2 0.4 1.3 100.0 3.9 7.6 Mizoram 76.0 7.9 3.5 3.5 1.1 6.3 1.0 0.2 0.5 100.0 8.0 6.2 Nagaland 78.0 4.6 3.3 1.6 1.2 8.4 1.2 0.5 1.1 100.0 11.3 7.3 Sikkim 80.4 3.7 2.6 2.7 1.7 6.4 0.8 0.6 1.1 100.0 8.9 6.7 Tripura 89.5 3.8 2.5 0.2 1.1 2.3 0.3 0.2 0.1 100.0 2.9 4.1 West Dadra & Nagar Haveli 92.7 1.7 2.0 0.9 0.8 1.6 0.1 0.1 0.2 100.0 2.0 3.2 Daman & Diu 85.5 3.7 3.8 0.3 0.4 5.7 0.5 0.0 0.1 100.0 6.3 4.8 Goa 86.1 6.6 4.2 0.5 0.3 1.6 0.5 0.2 0.0 100.0 2.3 5.1 Gujarat 88.4 3.4 2.2 1.1 1.0 3.2 0.2 0.2 0.2 100.0 3.9 3.9 Maharashtra 89.7 2.7 3.3 0.5 0.7 2.5 0.2 0.1 0.3 100.0 3.1 4.6 South Andaman & Nicobar Islands 88.9 3.9 2.5 0.7 0.5 2.9 0.1 0.1 0.3 100.0 3.5 3.5 Andhra Pradesh 88.2 2.7 3.8 0.7 1.0 2.7 0.3 0.3 0.4 100.0 3.6 5.7 Karnataka 86.7 4.6 3.6 0.8 0.5 3.0 0.3 0.2 0.3 100.0 3.8 4.8 Kerala 79.1 16.7 1.5 0.7 0.2 1.4 0.1 0.1 0.1 100.0 1.8 2.0 Lakshadweep 70.3 25.5 2.0 0.6 0.1 1.2 0.0 0.2 0.0 100.0 1.4 2.3 Puducherry 85.1 8.1 4.6 0.5 0.4 1.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 100.0 1.4 5.1 Tamil Nadu 85.3 8.3 2.8 0.7 0.4 2.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 100.0 2.5 3.6 Telangana 88.8 2.8 4.3 0.5 0.8 1.8 0.4 0.1 0.4 100.0 2.8 6.1 1 Includes children with father dead, mother dead, both parents dead, and one parent dead but missing information on survival status of the other parent 42 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.17 Educational attainment of household population Percent distribution of the GH�IDFWR female and male household populations age six and over by highest number of years of schooling completed and median number of years of schooling completed, according to selected background characteristics, India, 2015-16, and NFHS-3 Background characteristic Level of schooling Total Median number of years of schooling completed No schooling <5 years complete 5-7 years complete 8-9 years complete 10-11 years complete 12 or more years complete Don't know/ missing FEMALE Age 6-9 7.3 91.5 1.1 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.9 10-14 3.6 25.7 51.7 18.1 0.7 0.0 0.1 100.0 5.1 15-19 6.6 3.4 11.6 30.1 28.9 19.3 0.1 100.0 8.9 20-24 13.0 4.8 13.7 16.3 13.5 38.5 0.2 100.0 9.2 25-29 21.7 6.5 16.2 15.6 12.5 27.3 0.2 100.0 7.7 30-34 29.7 7.5 16.2 15.1 11.8 19.5 0.2 100.0 6.4 35-39 37.5 8.4 15.7 12.7 10.6 14.9 0.2 100.0 4.5 40-44 44.6 8.7 14.4 10.9 9.2 12.0 0.2 100.0 3.1 45-49 51.8 8.9 13.6 9.0 7.8 8.6 0.2 100.0 0.0 50-54 56.6 9.0 12.7 7.3 6.8 7.3 0.3 100.0 0.0 55-59 62.1 8.6 12.1 6.0 5.6 5.4 0.2 100.0 0.0 60-64 67.6 8.5 10.3 4.6 4.7 4.1 0.2 100.0 0.0 65+ 75.7 8.5 8.0 2.5 2.8 2.2 0.2 100.0 0.0 Residence Urban 19.2 14.0 16.5 13.3 13.0 23.8 0.2 100.0 7.0 Rural 36.8 17.3 16.6 12.6 7.9 8.7 0.2 100.0 3.1 Religion of household head Hindu 31.4 15.7 16.2 12.9 9.6 14.0 0.2 100.0 4.4 Muslim 32.3 19.5 18.3 12.3 8.3 9.2 0.2 100.0 3.7 Christian 18.8 16.2 16.2 13.9 12.9 21.9 0.2 100.0 6.8 Sikh 24.9 10.2 18.2 11.8 13.8 21.0 0.1 100.0 6.2 Buddhist/Neo-Buddhist 23.5 16.2 16.6 18.1 10.3 15.1 0.1 100.0 6.1 Jain 5.8 10.8 15.4 9.6 19.7 38.4 0.4 100.0 9.6 Other 36.8 21.6 15.1 12.3 7.1 6.9 0.2 100.0 2.4 Caste/tribe of household head Scheduled caste 36.2 16.7 16.5 12.9 7.9 9.6 0.1 100.0 3.3 Scheduled tribe 42.5 18.2 15.2 11.7 5.9 6.4 0.2 100.0 1.5 Other backward class 31.9 16.0 16.6 12.5 9.6 13.2 0.2 100.0 4.3 Other 21.5 15.2 16.9 13.8 12.1 20.4 0.2 100.0 6.4 Don't know 36.2 21.4 17.4 11.4 7.4 5.8 0.3 100.0 2.7 Wealth index Lowest 51.6 20.6 14.4 8.6 2.9 1.8 0.1 100.0 0.0 Second 39.6 18.8 17.4 13.2 6.1 4.7 0.2 100.0 2.2 Middle 31.2 16.7 18.6 14.7 9.7 8.9 0.2 100.0 4.2 Fourth 21.7 14.5 18.3 15.3 13.3 16.7 0.2 100.0 6.3 Highest 11.7 10.5 14.0 12.3 15.6 35.7 0.2 100.0 9.1 Total 31.0 16.2 16.5 12.8 9.6 13.7 0.2 100.0 4.4 NFHS-3 (2005-06) 41.5 18.1 15.7 10.2 6.7 7.6 0.2 100.0 1.9 &RQWLQXHG���� Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�43 Table 2.17 Educational attainment of household population³&RQWLQXHG Percent distribution of the GH�IDFWR female and male household populations age six and over by highest number of years of schooling completed and median number of years of schooling completed, according to selected background characteristics, India, 2015-16, and NFHS-3 Background characteristic Level of schooling Total Median number of years of schooling completed No schooling <5 years complete 5-7 years complete 8-9 years complete 10-11 years complete 12 or more years complete Don't know/ missing MALE Age 6-9 6.9 92.1 1.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 100.0 0.8 10-14 3.2 29.2 50.3 16.7 0.5 0.0 0.1 100.0 4.9 15-19 4.3 3.6 11.9 31.8 29.8 18.5 0.2 100.0 8.9 20-24 5.9 4.6 12.3 16.9 14.1 46.0 0.2 100.0 10.0 25-29 8.9 5.5 15.0 18.8 14.7 36.7 0.3 100.0 9.1 30-34 12.3 6.9 15.9 19.4 15.8 29.3 0.4 100.0 8.6 35-39 16.5 7.6 15.7 19.0 15.7 25.2 0.4 100.0 8.1 40-44 19.3 8.3 15.2 17.0 15.6 24.3 0.3 100.0 7.9 45-49 23.7 9.7 15.1 15.7 14.7 20.7 0.4 100.0 7.2 50-54 27.4 10.6 15.4 13.3 14.0 18.7 0.5 100.0 6.2 55-59 29.6 11.1 16.3 12.8 13.6 16.2 0.5 100.0 5.3 60-64 34.9 11.0 16.2 11.1 12.3 14.0 0.5 100.0 4.4 65+ 41.0 13.6 15.0 8.1 10.9 10.8 0.6 100.0 3.1 Residence Urban 8.9 14.2 15.5 15.1 15.6 30.3 0.3 100.0 8.5 Rural 18.4 19.8 18.6 16.7 11.7 14.6 0.3 100.0 5.8 Religion of household head Hindu 14.5 17.2 17.3 16.4 13.3 21.0 0.3 100.0 7.1 Muslim 19.8 22.5 19.6 14.8 10.3 12.7 0.3 100.0 4.8 Christian 11.9 16.1 17.0 15.7 15.7 23.4 0.2 100.0 7.7 Sikh 15.8 11.5 16.7 13.8 18.1 24.0 0.1 100.0 7.7 Buddhist/Neo-Buddhist 8.8 20.1 13.6 19.3 14.9 23.2 0.2 100.0 8.1 Jain 1.6 10.0 10.3 10.6 18.8 48.3 0.3 100.0 10.7 Other 22.4 25.4 17.0 15.7 8.8 10.3 0.4 100.0 4.3 Caste/tribe of household head Scheduled caste 18.8 18.9 18.7 16.9 11.4 15.0 0.3 100.0 5.9 Scheduled tribe 24.0 21.6 18.8 15.7 8.6 11.0 0.4 100.0 4.5 Other backward class 14.8 17.7 18.2 16.2 13.4 19.3 0.3 100.0 6.8 Other 9.8 15.9 15.1 15.6 15.1 28.3 0.3 100.0 8.2 Don't know 20.7 23.4 22.7 13.8 10.1 8.4 1.0 100.0 4.6 Wealth index Lowest 31.3 25.6 19.7 13.8 5.3 4.0 0.4 100.0 2.9 Second 19.7 21.9 20.8 18.3 9.8 9.1 0.3 100.0 4.9 Middle 14.3 17.8 19.8 18.8 13.9 15.1 0.3 100.0 6.7 Fourth 8.7 14.7 17.1 17.6 17.5 24.0 0.3 100.0 8.1 Highest 3.6 10.2 10.9 12.2 17.7 45.2 0.2 100.0 9.9 Total 15.1 17.9 17.6 16.1 13.0 20.0 0.3 100.0 6.9 NFHS-3 (2005-06) 21.9 20.9 18.4 14.8 10.6 13.2 0.2 100.0 4.9 44 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.18 Educational attainment of household population by state/union territory Percent distribution of the de facto female and male household populations age six and over by highest number of years of schooling completed and median number of years of schooling completed, according to state/union territory, India, 2015-16 State/union territory Level of schooling Total Median number of years of schooling completed No schooling <5 years complete 5-7 years complete 8-9 years complete 10-11 years complete 12 or more years complete Don't know/ missing FEMALE India 31.0 16.2 16.5 12.8 9.6 13.7 0.2 100.0 4.4 North Chandigarh 16.3 8.6 14.0 12.3 12.9 35.8 0.0 100.0 8.7 Delhi 18.8 11.9 15.7 12.6 13.6 27.1 0.3 100.0 7.4 Haryana 29.5 12.6 16.2 11.6 11.6 18.3 0.2 100.0 4.9 Himachal Pradesh 20.8 12.0 18.6 11.6 14.4 22.3 0.2 100.0 6.7 Jammu & Kashmir 34.2 12.9 11.5 17.0 10.1 14.2 0.1 100.0 4.6 Punjab 24.0 10.4 17.5 11.2 14.5 22.4 0.0 100.0 6.5 Rajasthan 42.6 14.8 16.0 11.0 5.7 9.8 0.1 100.0 1.7 Uttarakhand 27.1 13.4 15.3 15.0 9.3 19.6 0.2 100.0 4.9 Central Chhattisgarh 32.2 16.0 17.6 16.7 6.4 10.9 0.2 100.0 4.2 Madhya Pradesh 35.7 16.1 17.8 15.2 6.0 8.9 0.3 100.0 3.6 Uttar Pradesh 36.8 16.1 14.4 12.0 6.6 13.9 0.2 100.0 3.0 East Bihar 43.0 20.1 14.1 9.6 6.3 6.8 0.1 100.0 0.9 Jharkhand 38.7 17.5 14.4 12.0 7.9 9.3 0.2 100.0 2.3 Odisha 32.1 17.7 18.0 15.1 8.8 8.2 0.2 100.0 4.0 West Bengal 25.8 20.7 18.1 16.4 9.0 9.7 0.2 100.0 4.5 Northeast Arunachal Pradesh 32.7 19.4 15.3 12.9 8.7 10.9 0.2 100.0 3.5 Assam 24.9 22.3 15.5 19.8 7.4 10.0 0.1 100.0 4.6 Manipur 18.0 18.9 13.5 18.9 11.8 18.6 0.3 100.0 6.8 Meghalaya 16.9 29.9 17.3 13.7 9.7 12.5 0.1 100.0 4.5 Mizoram 8.3 25.2 19.5 20.7 11.4 14.4 0.5 100.0 6.5 Nagaland 18.8 22.3 18.8 18.8 9.5 11.6 0.2 100.0 5.4 Sikkim 20.2 16.8 19.9 15.8 11.4 16.0 0.1 100.0 5.8 Tripura 18.0 21.2 19.8 23.7 8.3 8.9 0.1 100.0 5.4 West Dadra & Nagar Haveli 30.8 15.4 14.5 15.0 9.0 15.0 0.3 100.0 4.6 Daman & Diu 18.4 16.9 17.8 14.7 14.1 17.5 0.5 100.0 6.6 Goa 14.8 17.4 14.7 13.3 17.3 22.4 0.1 100.0 7.5 Gujarat 27.8 16.6 20.5 12.5 8.9 13.4 0.2 100.0 4.9 Maharashtra 22.5 17.2 18.0 14.3 11.8 16.1 0.1 100.0 6.1 South Andaman & Nicobar Islands 15.2 14.4 16.7 18.7 12.3 22.5 0.1 100.0 7.5 Andhra Pradesh 37.9 12.4 19.1 7.8 11.2 11.5 0.1 100.0 3.9 Karnataka 29.1 15.1 17.1 8.6 15.0 15.0 0.2 100.0 5.1 Kerala 4.2 15.4 15.8 17.5 17.9 28.7 0.3 100.0 8.7 Lakshadweep 8.8 17.4 20.9 16.6 16.6 19.4 0.1 100.0 7.5 Puducherry 18.5 10.2 16.8 12.7 15.7 25.9 0.1 100.0 7.6 Tamil Nadu 22.6 11.6 16.9 13.8 13.9 21.0 0.2 100.0 6.7 Telangana 37.3 12.9 14.5 6.7 12.5 16.0 0.1 100.0 3.9 Continued. Household Population and Housing Characteristics Ȉ 45Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�45 Table 2.18 Educational attainment of household population by state/union territory—Continued Percent distribution of the de facto female and male household populations age six and over by highest number of years of schooling completed and median number of years of schooling completed, according to state/union territory, India, 2015-16 State/union territory Level of schooling Total Median number of years of schooling completed No schooling <5 years complete 5-7 years complete 8-9 years complete 10-11 years complete 12 or more years complete Don't know/ missing MALE India 15.1 17.9 17.6 16.1 13.0 20.0 0.3 100.0 6.9 North Chandigarh 6.5 10.0 12.2 13.8 16.2 41.2 0.0 100.0 9.6 Delhi 8.3 12.9 15.0 14.0 16.1 33.2 0.5 100.0 8.9 Haryana 11.6 13.7 16.2 13.7 17.4 27.1 0.2 100.0 8.0 Himachal Pradesh 6.8 12.6 16.9 15.1 21.8 26.4 0.3 100.0 8.8 Jammu & Kashmir 15.9 13.9 12.9 21.4 15.2 20.3 0.3 100.0 7.8 Punjab 14.4 11.4 16.7 13.7 19.3 24.5 0.1 100.0 7.8 Rajasthan 18.1 16.9 18.6 17.0 10.7 18.4 0.3 100.0 6.3 Uttarakhand 9.8 15.3 16.9 18.5 14.3 24.8 0.4 100.0 7.7 Central Chhattisgarh 14.3 18.8 20.0 20.6 9.2 16.7 0.3 100.0 6.4 Madhya Pradesh 16.4 18.1 21.1 19.1 9.4 15.4 0.5 100.0 6.0 Uttar Pradesh 17.5 19.2 16.6 17.3 9.8 19.1 0.4 100.0 6.1 East Bihar 22.5 23.4 16.5 13.2 10.8 13.6 0.2 100.0 4.6 Jharkhand 18.8 20.0 17.3 16.3 11.3 15.9 0.4 100.0 5.8 Odisha 16.3 19.8 20.4 18.8 11.0 13.3 0.4 100.0 6.1 West Bengal 15.4 22.8 18.8 17.5 9.6 15.6 0.3 100.0 5.8 Northeast Arunachal Pradesh 20.1 20.1 15.7 15.0 11.3 17.5 0.3 100.0 5.7 Assam 15.6 24.4 17.0 19.6 9.0 14.3 0.2 100.0 5.8 Manipur 5.2 18.9 13.8 21.1 14.5 26.3 0.3 100.0 8.2 Meghalaya 15.6 31.2 15.9 12.4 10.4 14.3 0.1 100.0 4.5 Mizoram 5.3 23.9 20.3 20.6 11.8 17.5 0.6 100.0 7.0 Nagaland 11.3 22.8 19.1 19.0 12.2 15.3 0.3 100.0 6.5 Sikkim 11.4 18.8 21.2 16.4 12.7 19.2 0.3 100.0 6.7 Tripura 8.9 21.8 19.3 24.9 10.9 14.1 0.2 100.0 7.0 West Dadra & Nagar Haveli 12.6 14.9 15.2 18.7 14.0 23.5 1.0 100.0 7.8 Daman & Diu 7.6 12.6 16.3 18.0 22.2 22.6 0.7 100.0 8.4 Goa 5.5 17.6 13.6 14.3 22.5 26.3 0.2 100.0 8.8 Gujarat 11.2 16.9 19.8 18.0 14.0 19.7 0.3 100.0 7.3 Maharashtra 9.0 17.8 15.8 17.8 15.2 24.2 0.2 100.0 8.1 South Andaman & Nicobar Islands 8.2 14.0 18.4 20.8 15.7 22.7 0.2 100.0 8.1 Andhra Pradesh 22.5 13.6 19.2 9.3 15.1 20.2 0.1 100.0 6.2 Karnataka 15.1 16.0 17.2 10.5 18.0 22.9 0.3 100.0 7.3 Kerala 1.9 13.9 15.7 18.7 20.1 29.3 0.3 100.0 9.0 Lakshadweep 2.8 14.0 17.2 16.3 25.0 23.9 0.8 100.0 8.9 Puducherry 7.0 11.7 16.0 14.5 19.7 31.0 0.1 100.0 9.0 Tamil Nadu 11.9 11.9 17.7 15.4 17.6 25.2 0.2 100.0 7.9 Telangana 20.3 14.9 15.4 8.5 15.9 24.9 0.2 100.0 6.9 46 Ȉ Household Population and Housing Characteristics46 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.19 School attendance by state/union territory Percentage of GH�IDFWR household population age 6-17 years attending school (including pre-primary school) in the 2014-15 school year for the first phase and 2015-16 school year for the second phase by sex and residence, according to age and state/union territory, India, 2015-16 Age and state/ union territory Male Female Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total India 87.5 85.6 86.2 88.2 81.8 83.7 87.8 83.8 85.0 Age 6-10 years (Primary) 96.3 94.7 95.2 96.8 94.2 95.0 96.6 94.5 95.1 6-13 years (Elementary) 94.7 93.1 93.6 95.4 92.0 93.0 95.0 92.6 93.3 11-13 years (Upper primary) 92.1 90.6 91.0 93.2 88.5 89.9 92.6 89.6 90.5 14-15 years (Secondary) 83.5 78.6 80.2 83.1 73.3 76.2 83.3 76.0 78.3 16-17 years (Higher secondary) 65.5 59.6 61.6 65.1 48.9 53.8 65.3 54.2 57.8 11-14 years 90.5 88.4 89.0 91.4 85.8 87.5 90.9 87.1 88.3 15-17 years 70.2 64.7 66.5 70.0 55.4 59.8 70.1 60.0 63.2 6-14 years 93.7 91.9 92.4 94.3 90.4 91.6 94.0 91.2 92.0 6-17 years 87.5 85.6 86.2 88.2 81.8 83.7 87.8 83.8 85.0 North Chandigarh 94.2 * 93.9 92.7 * 91.8 93.5 (83.8) 93.0 Delhi 88.5 94.0 88.5 92.5 (100.0) 92.5 90.3 95.9 90.3 Haryana 91.9 91.9 91.9 90.1 87.0 88.2 91.1 89.8 90.3 Himachal Pradesh 92.6 95.1 94.9 97.4 94.2 94.5 94.7 94.7 94.7 Jammu & Kashmir 90.0 91.1 90.8 92.2 86.2 87.7 91.0 88.8 89.4 Punjab 91.7 90.6 91.0 92.2 90.0 90.8 91.9 90.3 90.9 Rajasthan 88.9 87.7 88.0 85.2 77.3 79.0 87.2 82.7 83.7 Uttarakhand 87.8 90.9 89.8 85.7 88.6 87.7 86.9 89.8 88.8 Central Chhattisgarh 88.3 85.5 86.1 92.0 85.6 86.9 90.1 85.5 86.5 Madhya Pradesh 85.6 82.4 83.3 86.8 77.4 79.9 86.2 80.0 81.6 Uttar Pradesh 78.5 83.2 82.1 79.8 78.1 78.5 79.1 80.7 80.4 East Bihar 85.9 85.2 85.3 86.6 81.7 82.3 86.2 83.5 83.8 Jharkhand 86.5 83.7 84.4 88.1 81.1 82.8 87.3 82.5 83.6 Odisha 85.9 84.1 84.4 85.2 80.4 81.1 85.6 82.2 82.8 West Bengal 83.8 83.7 83.7 89.2 84.7 85.9 86.4 84.2 84.8 Northeast Arunachal Pradesh 91.9 88.3 89.1 88.5 86.6 87.1 90.1 87.5 88.1 Assam 84.2 77.5 78.2 85.7 79.4 80.1 85.0 78.4 79.1 Manipur 94.4 92.3 93.0 93.2 90.8 91.7 93.8 91.5 92.4 Meghalaya 93.6 85.2 86.7 93.9 89.3 90.2 93.8 87.2 88.4 Mizoram 95.1 86.2 91.1 93.2 87.5 90.7 94.2 86.8 91.9 Nagaland 92.1 86.5 88.5 93.2 88.1 90.1 92.6 87.3 89.3 Sikkim 96.3 95.2 95.5 94.2 95.9 95.4 95.3 95.5 95.5 Tripura 95.6 90.1 91.4 92.5 86.4 87.8 94.1 88.3 89.7 &RQWLQXHG���� Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�47 Table 2.19 School attendance by state/union territory³&RQWLQXHG Percentage of GH�IDFWR household population age 6-17 years attending school (including pre-primary school) in the 2014-15 school year for the first phase and 2015-16 school year for the second phase by sex and residence, according to age and state/union territory, India, 2015-16 Age and state/ union territory Male Female Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total Urban Rural Total West Dadra & Nagar Haveli 89.6 80.4 84.0 89.5 83.0 85.5 89.6 81.6 84.7 Daman & Diu 72.5 75.0 73.2 88.2 85.6 87.3 79.0 80.3 79.4 Goa 95.8 96.7 96.1 96.5 96.5 96.5 96.1 96.6 96.3 Gujarat 86.7 82.2 84.0 83.7 74.2 77.9 85.3 78.4 81.2 Maharashtra 89.2 88.3 88.7 87.8 85.4 86.5 88.5 86.9 87.7 South Andaman & Nicobar Islands 93.0 92.0 92.4 92.5 89.9 90.9 92.8 90.9 91.7 Andhra Pradesh 89.9 88.1 88.7 88.6 83.9 85.4 89.3 86.1 87.1 Karnataka 89.8 87.3 88.3 90.9 85.2 87.5 90.3 86.3 87.9 Kerala 97.2 97.1 97.1 98.0 97.5 97.8 97.6 97.3 97.4 Lakshadweep 93.8 95.5 94.3 96.1 100.0 97.1 95.0 97.5 95.7 Puducherry 93.4 92.1 93.0 95.0 93.6 94.6 94.2 92.9 93.8 Tamil Nadu 93.3 91.1 92.2 94.1 92.2 93.1 93.7 91.7 92.6 Telangana 90.6 90.9 90.7 92.4 85.6 88.6 91.4 88.3 89.7 Note: In this table, children's age refers to their age at the start of the 2014-15 school year (assumed here to be April 2014) for the first phase and at the start of the 2015-16 school year (assumed here to be April 2015) for the second phase. ( ) Based on 25-49 unweighted cases * Percentage not shown; based on fewer than 25 unweighted cases 48 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics Table 2.20 School attendance ratios Net attendance ratio (NAR), gross attendance ratio (GAR), and gender parity index (GPI) for the de facto household population by level of schooling and sex, according to selected background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Net attendance ratio1 Gender parity index2 Gross attendance ratio3 Gender parity index2 Male Female Total Male Female Total PRIMARY SCHOOL Residence Urban 78.2 77.0 77.6 0.98 84.3 82.2 83.3 0.97 Rural 78.5 77.0 77.8 0.98 87.4 84.8 86.1 0.97 Religion of household head Hindu 78.5 77.0 77.8 0.98 85.9 83.4 84.7 0.97 Muslim 78.0 76.3 77.1 0.98 89.5 86.5 88.1 0.97 Christian 80.7 81.6 81.1 1.01 87.5 87.7 87.6 1.00 Sikh 78.5 75.7 77.2 0.97 83.5 79.3 81.6 0.95 Buddhist/Neo-Buddhist 76.3 80.3 78.1 1.05 79.6 84.5 81.8 1.06 Jain 84.8 74.9 80.0 0.88 88.5 76.3 82.6 0.86 Other 79.1 78.1 78.6 0.99 91.4 84.9 88.1 0.93 Caste/tribe of household head Scheduled caste 77.6 76.5 77.1 0.99 85.9 84.3 85.1 0.98 Scheduled tribe 76.9 75.3 76.1 0.98 84.9 82.2 83.6 0.97 Other backward class 78.9 77.9 78.4 0.99 87.9 85.3 86.6 0.97 Other 79.1 76.6 77.9 0.97 85.0 82.0 83.6 0.96 Don't know 78.8 78.5 78.6 1.00 91.1 89.4 90.3 0.98 Wealth index Lowest 76.9 76.4 76.7 0.99 89.3 87.6 88.5 0.98 Second 79.2 77.6 78.4 0.98 88.2 85.5 86.9 0.97 Middle 78.4 77.7 78.1 0.99 85.5 83.3 84.4 0.97 Fourth 79.1 76.3 77.8 0.97 84.4 80.6 82.6 0.95 Highest 79.4 77.3 78.4 0.97 82.8 80.0 81.5 0.97 Total 78.4 77.0 77.8 0.98 86.5 84.0 85.3 0.97 MIDDLE, SECONDARY, AND HIGHER SECONDARY SCHOOL Residence Urban 71.5 72.0 71.7 1.01 83.8 85.4 84.6 1.02 Rural 68.3 63.8 66.1 0.93 80.6 76.1 78.4 0.94 Religion of household head Hindu 71.4 68.0 69.8 0.95 84.1 81.1 82.7 0.96 Muslim 56.9 55.5 56.2 0.97 66.9 66.2 66.6 0.99 Christian 75.0 76.3 75.6 1.02 87.2 88.3 87.7 1.01 Sikh 77.5 77.9 77.7 1.00 91.1 93.6 92.2 1.03 Buddhist/Neo-Buddhist 79.1 78.9 79.0 1.00 93.9 89.0 91.5 0.95 Jain 83.7 78.9 81.7 0.94 93.9 101.4 97.0 1.08 Other 55.1 58.1 56.7 1.05 64.8 69.6 67.3 1.07 Continued. Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�49 Table 2.20 School attendance ratios—Continued Net attendance ratio (NAR), gross attendance ratio (GAR), and gender parity index (GPI) for the de facto household population by level of schooling and sex, according to selected background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Net attendance ratio1 Gender parity index2 Gross attendance ratio3 Gender parity index2 Male Female Total Male Female Total Caste/tribe of household head Scheduled caste 67.9 64.5 66.2 0.95 80.4 77.1 78.8 0.96 Scheduled tribe 63.6 60.0 61.8 0.94 75.5 72.1 73.8 0.95 Other backward class 69.5 66.1 67.8 0.95 81.7 78.3 80.0 0.96 Other 72.9 70.9 71.9 0.97 85.4 84.7 85.1 0.99 Don't know 53.8 58.0 55.9 1.08 64.3 68.7 66.5 1.07 Wealth index Lowest 55.4 52.4 53.9 0.95 66.2 62.6 64.4 0.95 Second 66.7 63.9 65.3 0.96 78.5 76.2 77.4 0.97 Middle 70.9 68.4 69.6 0.96 83.9 81.1 82.5 0.97 Fourth 76.5 73.3 74.9 0.96 89.6 88.1 88.9 0.98 Highest 81.4 79.7 80.6 0.98 94.6 93.9 94.3 0.99 Total 69.3 66.2 67.8 0.96 81.6 78.9 80.3 0.97 Note: In this table, children's age refers to their age at the start of the 2014-15 school year (assumed here to be April 2014) for the first phase and their age at the start of the 2015-16 school year (assumed here to be April 2015) for the second phase. 1 The NAR for primary school (standards 1-5) is the percentage of the primary-school age population (6-10 years) that is attending primary school. The NAR for middle, secondary, and higher secondary school (standards 6-12) is the percentage of the population in the appropriate age group for those school levels (11-17 years) that is attending those school levels. By definition, the NAR cannot exceed 100.0 percent. 2 The GPI for primary school is the ratio of the primary school NAR (GAR) for females to the NAR (GAR) for males. The gender parity index for middle, secondary, and higher secondary school is the ratio of the NAR (GAR) for females to the NAR (GAR) for males at those levels of school. 3 The GAR for primary school (standards 1-5) is the total number of primary school students, expressed as a percentage of the official primary- school-age population (6-10 years). The GAR for middle, secondary, and higher secondary school (standards 6-12) is the total number of students in those school levels, expressed as a percentage of the official population that is the appropriate age to be attending those school levels. If there are significant numbers of overage and underage students at a given level of schooling, the GAR can exceed 100.0. 50 z Household Population and Housing Characteristics � 7DEOH������5HDVRQV�IRU�FKLOGUHQ�FXUUHQWO\�QRW�DWWHQGLQJ�VFKRRO� 3HUFHQW�GLVWULEXWLRQ�RI�GH�IDFWR�FKLOGUHQ�DJH������\HDUV�ZKR�GURSSHG�RXW�RI�VFKRRO�EHIRUH�WKH���������VFKRRO�\HDU�IRU�WKH�ILUVW�SKDVH� DQG�EHIRUH�WKH���������VFKRRO�\HDU�IRU�WKH�VHFRQG�SKDVH�E\�WKH�PDLQ�UHDVRQ�IRU�QRW�DWWHQGLQJ�VFKRRO�LQ�WKDW�VFKRRO�\HDU��DFFRUGLQJ�WR� UHVLGHQFH�DQG�VH[��,QGLD����������� 0DLQ�UHDVRQ� 8UEDQ� � ��5XUDO� � 7RWDO� 0DOH� )HPDOH� 0DOH� )HPDOH� 0DOH� )HPDOH� � � � � � � � 6FKRRO�WRR�IDU�DZD\� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� 7UDQVSRUW�QRW�DYDLODEOH� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� )XUWKHU�HGXFDWLRQ�QRW�FRQVLGHUHG�QHFHVVDU\� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� 5HTXLUHG�IRU�KRXVHKROG�ZRUN� ���� ����� ����� ����� ����� ����� 5HTXLUHG�IRU�ZRUN�RQ�IDUP�IDPLO\�EXVLQHVV� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� 5HTXLUHG�IRU�RXWVLGH�ZRUN�IRU�SD\PHQW�LQ�FDVK�RU�NLQG� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� &RVWV�WRR�PXFK� ����� ����� ����� ����� ����� ����� 1R�SURSHU�VFKRRO�IDFLOLWLHV�IRU�JLUOV� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� 1RW�VDIH�WR�VHQG�JLUOV� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� 1R�IHPDOH�WHDFKHU� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� 5HTXLUHG�IRU�FDUH�RI�VLEOLQJV� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� 1RW�LQWHUHVWHG�LQ�VWXGLHV� ����� ����� ����� ����� ����� ����� 5HSHDWHG�IDLOXUHV� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� *RW�PDUULHG� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� 'LG�QRW�JHW�DGPLVVLRQ� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� 2WKHU� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� 'RQ W�NQRZ� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� ���� � � � � � � � 7RWDO� ������ ������ ������ ������ ������ ������ � � � � � � � 1XPEHU�RI�FKLOGUHQ� ������ ������ ������� ������� ������� ������� Household Population and Housing Characteristics z�51 CHARACTERISTICS OF RESPONDENTS 3 Key Findings x Literacy: Sixty-eight percent of women and 86 percent of men are literate. x Schooling: More than one in three women (36%) and 47 percent of men have 10 or more years of schooling. x Exposure to mass media: Twenty-five percent of women and 14 percent of men are not regularly exposed to mass media (newspapers, magazines, television, radio, or cinema). x Employment: Men are more likely to be employed than women; 24 percent of women are currently employed, compared with 75 percent of men. Eighty-one percent of employed women earn cash for their work. his chapter presents information on the demographic and socioeconomic characteristics of the survey respondents, such as age, schooling, place of residence, marital status, employment, and wealth status. This information is useful for understanding the factors that affect use of reproductive health services, contraceptive use, and other health behaviours. 3.1 BASIC CHARACTERISTICS OF SURVEY RESPONDENTS A total of 699,686 women age 15-49 and 112,122 men age 15-54 were interviewed in the 2015-16 National Family Health Survey. Thirty-five percent of women and 34 percent of men are in the 15-24 age group, while 30 percent of both women and men are in the 25-34 age group (Table 3.1). Among respondents age 15-49, women are more likely than men to be currently married (73% versus 60%) or widowed (3% versus 0.6%). The distribution of respondents by religion shows that a large majority of the respondents are Hindus (81%), while 14 percent are Muslims, 2 percent each are Christians and Sikhs, and 1 percent are Buddhists/Neo-Buddhists. Forty-three percent of women and 44 percent of men belong to other backward classes (OBC), while 20 percent each of women and men belong to scheduled castes, 9 percent each of women and men belong to scheduled tribes, and 26 percent of women and 27 percent of men do not belong to scheduled castes, scheduled tribes, or other backward classes. Eighteen percent of women and 15 percent of men are in households in the lowest wealth quintile, while 21 percent of women and 23 percent of men are in households in the highest wealth quintile. T Characteristics of Respondents Ȉ 53Characteristics of Respondents z�53 3.2 SCHOOLING AND LITERACY Literacy Respondents who have completed standard six or higher are assumed to be literate. All other respondents were given a sentence to read, and they were considered to be literate if they could read all or part of the sentence. Sample: Women and men age 15-49 Twenty-eight percent of women and 12 percent of men have no schooling, and women (22%) are less likely than men (30%) to have completed 12 or more years of schooling (Table 3.2.1, Table 3.2.2, and Figure 3.1). Eighty-six percent of men and 68 percent of women are literate (Table 3.3.1 and Table 3.3.2). Trends: Since 2005-06, there has been a substantial increase in the percentage of women and men age 15-49 attending school and completing higher levels of education, and the gap between women and men has narrowed. The percentage of women with no schooling has decreased by 13 percentage points and the percentage of men with no schooling has decreased by 6 percentage points. The percentage of women and men completing 12 or more years of schooling has increased by nearly 10 percent points. Patterns by background characteristics x Younger respondents are more likely to have attended school and to have reached higher levels of education than older respondents. Only 7 percent of women age 15-19 and 14 percent of women age 20-24 have no schooling, while more than half of women age 45-49 (54%) and 46 percent of women age 40-44 have no schooling (Table 3.2.1). x Urban women are more educated than their rural counterparts. One-third of rural women (34%) have never attended school, compared with 16 percent of urban women. In rural areas, 15 percent of women have completed 12 or more years of schooling, compared with 34 percent in urban areas (Table 3.2.1 and Figure 3.2). 54 ‡ Characteristics of Respondents 28 12 5.8 6.0 14 14 17 21 14 17 22 30 Women Men No schooling <5 years complete 5-7 years complete 8-9 years complete 10-11 years complete 12 or more years complete 36 52 27 47 58 40 Total Urban Rural Women Men Figure 3.1 Education of Survey Respondents Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 Figure 3.2 Secondary or Higher Education by Residence Percentage of women and men age 15-49 54 z Characteristics of Respondents x The percentage of women and men who have completed secondary school or higher increases by wealth quintile; 3 percent of women and 7 percent of men in the lowest wealth quintile completed 12 or more years of schooling, compared with more than half of women (51%) and men (58%) in the highest wealth quintile. x Literacy in each group is lowest among men and women in rural areas; women and men age 40-49; those who are widowed, divorced, separated, or deserted; those in the lowest wealth quintile; and those belonging to a scheduled tribe (Table 3.3.1 and Table 3.3.2). x Bihar and Kerala represent two contrasting profiles of literacy. Bihar has the lowest literacy of 50 percent among women and 78 percent of men, while literacy is almost universal among women and men in Kerala (Table 3.4.1 and Table 3.4.2). 3.3 MASS MEDIA EXPOSURE Exposure to mass media Respondents were asked how often they read a newspaper or magazine, listened to the radio, watched television, or went to the cinema. Those who responded at least once a week are considered to be regularly exposed to that form of media. Sample: Women and men age 15-49 Information on the exposure of women and men to mass media is especially important for the development of educational programmes and the dissemination of all types of information, particularly information about family planning, HIV/AIDS, and other important health topics. Men are more likely than women to be exposed to any and all forms of media, including newspapers, television, radio, and the cinema (Figure 3.3). Television is the most common form of media exposure for both women and men across all subgroups, followed by newspapers or magazines. Some women and men do not access to any of the four media at least on a weekly basis (25% of women and 14% of men) (Table 3.5.1 and Table 3.5.2). Trends: Exposure to each of the four types of mass media increased for both women and men between 2005-06 and 2015-16, except for radio, which decreased substantially. The percentage of women who did not access any of the media types at least once a week decreased from 35 percent in 2005-06 to 25 percent in 2015-16. Eighteen percent of men did not access any of the media types at least once a week in 2005-06, compared with 14 percent in 2015-16. Patterns by background characteristics x Rural women are more likely to have no regular exposure to any form of mass media than their urban counterparts (34% versus 8%). The same pattern holds true for men (20% versus 6%) (Table 3.5.1 and Table 3.5.2). x Only 6 percent of women and 3 percent of men with 12 or more years of schooling lack regular exposure to any mass media, compared with 51 percent of women and 42 percent of men with no schooling. Characteristics of Respondents Ȉ 55 27 71 11 8.5 25 55 78 21 22 14 Reads a newspaper or magazine at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Visits the cinema/theatre at least once a month Not regularly exposed to any media Women Men Figure 3.3 Exposure to Mass Media Percentage of women and men age 15-49 Figure 3.3 Exposure to Mass Media Percentage of women and men age 15-49 Characteristics of Respondents z�55 3.4 EMPLOYMENT Currently employed Respondents who were employed in the seven days before the survey. Includes respondents who did not work in the past seven days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reasons. Sample: Women and men age 15-49 Men are three times as likely to be currently employed as women; 24 percent of women age 15-49 are currently employed, compared with 75 percent of men age 15-49 (Table 3.6.1 and Table 3.6.2). Seventy percent of women and 19 percent of men reported that they were not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey. A lower percentage of women than men are currently employed in every state (Table 3.7). Trends: Since 2005-06, current employment levels have decreased for both women and men. Thirty-six percent of women were currently employed in 2005-06, compared with 24 percent in 2015-16. Among men, the percentage currently employed decreased from 85 percent to 75 percent in the past decade. Patterns by background characteristics x Women and men with 8 or more years of schooling, never married women and men, women and men with no children, and women and men belonging to the highest wealth quintile are less likely to be employed than others. x Jammu & Kashmir (14%), and Bihar and Assam (15% each) have the lowest percentage of women currently employed. More than one-third of women were cur- rently employed in Manipur (41%), Telangana (39%), Meghalaya and Mizoram (35% each), and Andhra Pradesh (34%) (Table 3.7). 3.5 OCCUPATION Occupation Categorized as professional/technical/administrative/managerial, clerical, sales and services, skilled manual, unskilled manual, agriculture Sample: Women and men age 15-49 who were currently employed or had worked in the 12 months before the survey Women and men are most commonly employed as agricultural workers (48% of women and 32% of men), followed by production workers (21% and 32%, respectively) (Tables 3.8). A slightly higher percentage of employed women (10%) than employed men (8%) are employed in professional, technical, administrative, or managerial occupations. Figure 3.4 Employment Status by Schooling Percentage of women and men age 15-49 who are currently employed 32 32 26 19 16 20 88 90 87 74 66 68 No schooling <5 years complete 5-7 years complete 8-9 years complete 10-11 years complete 12 or more years complete Women Men 56 z Characteristics of Respondents A large majority of women who worked in the past year and did agricultural work are employed by family members (83%) and earn cash for their work (70%). Ninety-two percent of women who did non-agricultural work earned cash for their work. Eleven percent of women who worked in past year were self employed (Table 3.9). Patterns by background characteristics x Urban women are most likely to be employed as production workers (30%) and service workers (21%), while urban men are most likely to be production workers (39%) and sales workers (19%). In rural areas, however, women and men are most likely to be agricultural workers (64% and 47%, respectively). x A large majority of employed women (81%) and men (90%) earned cash for their work, but 15 percent of women and 8 percent of men did not receive any payment. Characteristics of Respondents Ȉ 57Characteristics of Respondents z�57 LIST OF TABLES For more information on the characteristics of survey respondents, see the following tables: Tables Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Table 3.2.1 Respondent's level of schooling: Women Table 3.2.2 Respondent's level of schooling: Men Table 3.3.1 Literacy: Women Table 3.3.2 Literacy: Men Table 3.4.1 Respondent's level of schooling and literacy by state/union territory: Women Table 3.4.2 Respondent's level of schooling and literacy by state/union territory: Men Table 3.5.1 Exposure to mass media: Women Table 3.5.2 Exposure to mass media: Men Table 3.6.1 Employment status: Women Table 3.6.2 Employment status: Men Table 3.7 Employment status of women and men by state/union territory Table 3.8 Occupation Table 3.9 Type of employment 58 ‡ Characteristics of Respondents58 z Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 by selected background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Weighted percent Number of women Number of men Women Men Weighted Unweighted Weighted Unweighted Age 15-19 17.4 18.1 121,552 124,878 18,740 19,082 20-24 17.6 16.1 122,966 122,955 16,624 16,630 25-29 16.4 15.6 115,043 115,076 16,171 16,151 30-34 13.8 14.1 96,769 97,048 14,604 14,640 35-39 13.0 13.3 90,890 90,433 13,771 13,897 40-44 11.1 11.7 77,969 76,627 12,050 11,954 45-49 10.6 11.1 74,497 72,669 11,451 11,171 Residence Urban 34.6 38.2 242,225 204,735 39,546 32,771 Rural 65.4 61.8 457,461 494,951 63,864 70,754 Schooling No schooling 27.6 12.0 193,078 197,568 12,422 12,777 <5 years complete 5.8 6.0 40,503 39,926 6,171 6,109 5-7 years complete 14.2 14.2 99,687 97,912 14,730 14,910 8-9 years complete 16.7 20.7 116,681 127,404 21,422 23,135 10-11 years complete 14.2 17.4 99,576 95,886 18,030 17,820 12 or more years complete 21.5 29.6 150,160 140,990 30,636 28,774 Marital status Never married 22.5 38.1 157,136 169,814 39,370 39,869 Currently married 73.1 60.4 511,373 499,627 62,499 62,091 Married, gauna not performed 0.3 0.3 1,898 1,983 262 267 Widowed 3.1 0.6 21,657 20,408 583 591 Divorced 0.3 0.3 2,384 3,112 272 316 Separated 0.6 0.3 4,146 3,769 340 308 Deserted 0.2 0.1 1,091 973 85 83 Religion Hindu 80.6 81.4 563,739 519,281 84,211 77,115 Muslim 13.8 13.3 96,461 94,591 13,793 14,437 Christian 2.4 2.2 16,620 52,113 2,277 7,026 Sikh 1.7 1.6 11,618 15,300 1,622 2,210 Buddhist/Neo-Buddhist 0.9 0.9 6,469 8,981 958 1,474 Jain 0.2 0.2 1,264 1,028 163 165 Zoroastrian/Parsi 0.0 0.0 18 7 0 0 Jewish 0.0 0.0 7 7 4 5 Other religion 0.5 0.3 3,374 7,979 351 1,032 No religion 0.0 0.0 116 399 31 61 Caste/tribe Scheduled caste 20.4 19.8 142,619 124,813 20,499 18,479 Scheduled tribe 9.2 8.8 64,144 127,133 9,132 18,404 Other backward class 43.4 43.6 303,837 273,700 45,110 40,181 Other 26.4 27.4 184,594 170,730 28,299 26,179 Don't know 0.6 0.4 4,492 3,310 371 282 Continued… Characteristics of Respondents z�59 Table 3.1 Background characteristics of respondents—Continued Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 by selected background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Weighted percent Number of women Number of men Women Men Weighted Unweighted Weighted Unweighted Wealth index Lowest 17.7 14.7 124,054 133,249 15,205 17,035 Second 19.6 18.8 136,900 149,466 19,402 21,584 Middle 20.6 21.3 143,814 147,168 22,047 22,604 Fourth 21.1 22.2 147,978 138,502 22,930 21,516 Highest 21.0 23.0 146,939 131,301 23,827 20,786 Total age 15-49 100.0 100.0 699,686 699,686 103,411 103,525 Age 50-54 na 7.8 na na 8,711 8,597 Total age 15-54 na 100.0 na na 112,122 112,122 na = Not applicable 60 z Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.2.1 Respondent's level of schooling: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by number of years of schooling completed, according to background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Respondent's level of schooling Total Number of women No schooling <5 years complete 5-7 years complete 8-9 years complete 10-11 years complete 12 or more years complete Age 15-24 10.4 3.6 12.5 23.3 21.1 29.2 100.0 244,518 15-19 6.9 2.9 11.3 30.0 29.0 19.9 100.0 121,552 20-24 13.8 4.2 13.7 16.6 13.3 38.4 100.0 122,966 25-29 22.8 5.9 16.0 15.8 12.4 27.1 100.0 115,043 30-34 31.1 6.6 16.2 15.1 11.7 19.3 100.0 96,769 35-39 39.1 7.6 15.4 12.8 10.5 14.7 100.0 90,890 40-44 46.1 7.7 14.2 11.0 9.2 11.8 100.0 77,969 45-49 53.7 7.8 13.3 9.0 7.7 8.5 100.0 74,497 Residence Urban 15.7 4.4 12.9 15.5 17.2 34.3 100.0 242,225 Rural 33.9 6.5 15.0 17.3 12.7 14.7 100.0 457,461 Marital status Never married 5.9 2.4 8.9 23.4 23.2 36.2 100.0 159,035 Currently married 33.2 6.7 15.8 14.9 11.8 17.7 100.0 511,373 Widowed/divorced/ separated/deserted 48.2 9.0 16.2 11.1 7.6 7.9 100.0 29,279 Religion Hindu 27.6 5.6 13.8 16.7 14.3 22.0 100.0 563,739 Muslim 31.4 7.3 17.1 16.5 12.8 14.8 100.0 96,461 Christian 16.8 5.5 13.1 15.4 16.6 32.6 100.0 16,620 Sikh 17.2 1.8 14.3 14.4 20.2 32.1 100.0 11,618 Buddhist/Neo-Buddhist 14.5 8.0 14.2 24.4 16.0 22.9 100.0 6,469 Jain 2.0 1.0 6.7 10.8 23.7 55.8 100.0 1,264 Other 34.4 10.9 14.0 18.9 10.9 10.9 100.0 3,515 Caste/tribe Scheduled caste 33.0 6.3 15.0 17.5 12.5 15.7 100.0 142,619 Scheduled tribe 42.1 7.7 13.6 16.5 9.6 10.6 100.0 64,144 Other backward class 28.5 5.2 14.3 16.1 14.5 21.2 100.0 303,837 Other 16.6 5.5 13.6 17.1 16.8 30.4 100.0 184,594 Don't know 38.6 11.3 20.6 14.9 8.8 5.7 100.0 4,492 Wealth index Lowest 56.9 7.9 13.3 13.2 5.3 3.3 100.0 124,054 Second 37.9 8.5 16.8 18.6 10.2 8.1 100.0 136,900 Middle 26.4 6.7 17.5 19.5 15.2 14.6 100.0 143,814 Fourth 15.9 4.5 15.2 19.0 19.3 26.1 100.0 147,978 Highest 6.2 1.9 8.5 12.8 19.4 51.2 100.0 146,939 Total 27.6 5.8 14.2 16.7 14.2 21.5 100.0 699,686 Characteristics of Respondents z�61 Table 3.2.2 Respondent's level of schooling: Men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 by number of years of schooling completed, according to background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Respondent's level of schooling Total Number of men No schooling <5 years complete 5-7 years complete 8-9 years complete 10-11 years complete 12 or more years complete Age 15-24 5.2 3.2 11.2 24.6 22.6 33.2 100.0 35,364 15-19 4.4 2.5 10.1 31.3 30.9 20.8 100.0 18,740 20-24 6.1 4.0 12.4 17.1 13.3 47.1 100.0 16,624 25-29 9.4 5.0 14.7 19.9 14.6 36.4 100.0 16,171 30-34 12.5 6.7 16.5 20.2 15.1 29.0 100.0 14,604 35-39 15.9 8.5 16.0 19.4 14.8 25.4 100.0 13,771 40-44 19.2 8.3 16.1 17.5 14.7 24.4 100.0 12,050 45-49 23.9 9.5 16.1 15.5 14.5 20.5 100.0 11,451 Residence Urban 7.6 4.4 12.0 18.1 18.6 39.3 100.0 39,546 Rural 14.7 7.0 15.6 22.3 16.7 23.6 100.0 63,864 Marital status Never married 5.1 2.7 10.0 22.7 22.0 37.5 100.0 39,631 Currently married 16.1 7.9 16.8 19.5 14.7 24.9 100.0 62,499 Widowed/divorced/ separated/deserted 25.3 12.9 21.0 17.3 9.6 13.9 100.0 1,280 Religion Hindu 11.3 5.6 13.8 20.8 17.7 30.7 100.0 84,211 Muslim 17.6 8.7 17.3 20.5 14.7 21.2 100.0 13,793 Christian 9.6 5.7 11.7 18.5 20.1 34.4 100.0 2,277 Sikh 9.6 2.3 13.7 14.8 24.2 35.4 100.0 1,622 Buddhist/Neo-Buddhist 4.5 6.9 13.5 27.1 16.6 31.4 100.0 958 Jain 1.7 0.0 8.3 14.9 17.5 57.6 100.0 163 Other 20.4 12.1 14.3 24.4 11.1 17.9 100.0 386 Caste/tribe Scheduled caste 14.5 6.8 16.3 22.9 16.3 23.2 100.0 20,499 Scheduled tribe 21.9 9.3 16.7 22.1 12.7 17.5 100.0 9,132 Other backward class 11.7 5.2 15.0 20.8 17.9 29.4 100.0 45,110 Other 7.4 5.5 10.7 18.5 19.1 38.7 100.0 28,299 Don't know 14.5 11.3 19.8 26.7 10.7 17.1 100.0 371 Wealth index Lowest 31.9 11.1 20.2 21.5 8.2 7.1 100.0 15,205 Second 17.3 9.2 18.8 25.4 14.5 14.9 100.0 19,402 Middle 10.6 6.3 17.1 24.1 19.1 22.8 100.0 22,047 Fourth 6.1 4.2 12.5 20.8 22.1 34.3 100.0 22,930 Highest 2.1 1.3 5.9 13.1 19.7 57.8 100.0 23,827 Total age 15-49 12.0 6.0 14.2 20.7 17.4 29.6 100.0 103,411 Age 50-54 22.7 4.5 11.9 16.8 15.9 28.2 100.0 8,711 Total age 15-54 12.8 5.9 14.1 20.4 17.3 29.5 100.0 112,122 62 z Characteristics of Respondents Ta bl e 3. 3. 1 Li te ra cy : W om en Pe rc en t d ist rib ut io n of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 b y lit er ac y, a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, In di a, 2 01 5- 16 Ba ck gr ou nd ch ar ac te ris tic C om pl et ed st an da rd 6 or h ig he r N o sc ho ol in g or c om pl et ed le ss th an s ta nd ar d 6 To ta l N um be r of w om en Pe rc en ta ge lit er at e1 C an re ad a w ho le se nt en ce C an re ad pa rt o f a se nt en ce C an no t re ad at a ll N o ca rd w ith re qu ire d la ng ua ge Bl in d/ vi su al ly im pa ire d Ag e 15 -2 4 80 .9 1. 9 3. 6 13 .2 0. 1 0. 2 10 0. 0 24 4, 51 8 86 .4 1 5- 19 86 .2 1. 5 2. 8 9. 3 0. 1 0. 2 10 0. 0 12 1, 55 2 90 .4 2 0- 24 75 .8 2. 3 4. 4 17 .1 0. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 12 2, 96 6 82 .4 25 -2 9 63 .9 3. 1 5. 8 26 .4 0. 2 0. 5 10 0. 0 11 5, 04 3 72 .8 30 -3 4 54 .9 3. 3 6. 4 34 .6 0. 2 0. 6 10 0. 0 96 ,7 69 64 .6 35 -3 9 45 .8 3. 6 6. 8 42 .6 0. 2 0. 9 10 0. 0 90 ,8 90 56 .2 40 -4 4 39 .2 3. 5 6. 5 49 .5 0. 2 1. 1 10 0. 0 77 ,9 69 49 .2 45 -4 9 31 .5 3. 6 7. 0 56 .6 0. 2 1. 0 10 0. 0 74 ,4 97 42 .1 Re si de nc e U rb an 74 .4 2. 5 4. 5 18 .1 0. 2 0. 4 10 0. 0 24 2, 22 5 81 .4 Ru ra l 52 .5 3. 1 6. 0 37 .6 0. 2 0. 7 10 0. 0 45 7, 46 1 61 .5 M ar ita l s ta tu s N ev er m ar rie d 88 .4 1. 3 2. 3 7. 7 0. 1 0. 2 10 0. 0 15 9, 03 5 92 .1 C ur re nt ly m ar rie d 52 .7 3. 3 6. 3 36 .8 0. 2 0. 7 10 0. 0 51 1, 37 3 62 .3 W id ow ed /d iv or ce d/ se pa ra te d/ de se rt ed 35 .0 4. 2 7. 4 52 .5 0. 1 0. 9 10 0. 0 29 ,2 79 46 .5 Re lig io n H in du 60 .4 2. 6 5. 2 31 .0 0. 1 0. 6 10 0. 0 56 3, 73 9 68 .3 M us lim 53 .7 4. 0 6. 6 34 .6 0. 5 0. 6 10 0. 0 96 ,4 61 64 .2 C hr ist ia n 72 .5 3. 1 5. 2 18 .7 0. 1 0. 4 10 0. 0 16 ,6 20 80 .8 Si kh 71 .8 3. 6 5. 7 18 .8 0. 1 0. 0 10 0. 0 11 ,6 18 81 .1 Bu dd hi st /N eo -B ud dh ist 72 .8 3. 0 5. 3 18 .1 0. 0 0. 8 10 0. 0 6, 46 9 81 .1 Ja in 95 .4 1. 1 1. 0 2. 3 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 1, 26 4 97 .5 O th er 48 .8 3. 1 8. 2 39 .2 0. 2 0. 6 10 0. 0 3, 51 5 60 .0 C as te /tr ib e Sc he du le d ca st e 53 .3 2. 9 6. 1 36 .8 0. 1 0. 7 10 0. 0 14 2, 61 9 62 .3 Sc he du le d tri be 44 .4 2. 7 5. 9 45 .9 0. 2 0. 9 10 0. 0 64 ,1 44 53 .0 O th er b ac kw ar d cl as s 59 .4 2. 9 5. 4 31 .6 0. 2 0. 5 10 0. 0 30 3, 83 7 67 .7 O th er 72 .4 2. 8 4. 6 19 .4 0. 2 0. 5 10 0. 0 18 4, 59 4 79 .8 D on 't kn ow 40 .3 5. 0 8. 6 44 .1 0. 7 1. 3 10 0. 0 4, 49 2 53 .9 C on tin ue d. . Characteristics of Respondents z�63 Ta bl e 3. 3. 1 Li te ra cy : W om en — C on tin ue d Pe rc en t d ist rib ut io n of w om en a ge 1 5- 49 b y lit er ac y, a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, In di a, 2 01 5- 16 Ba ck gr ou nd ch ar ac te ris tic C om pl et ed st an da rd 6 or h ig he r N o sc ho ol in g or c om pl et ed le ss th an s ta nd ar d 6 To ta l N um be r of w om en Pe rc en ta ge lit er at e1 C an re ad a w ho le se nt en ce C an re ad pa rt o f a se nt en ce C an no t re ad at a ll N o ca rd w ith re qu ire d la ng ua ge Bl in d/ vi su al ly im pa ire d W ea lth in de x Lo w es t 28 .3 2. 8 6. 3 61 .1 0. 4 1. 2 10 0. 0 12 4, 05 4 37 .4 Se co nd 45 .6 3. 6 7. 1 42 .6 0. 2 0. 8 10 0. 0 13 6, 90 0 56 .3 M id dl e 59 .0 3. 5 6. 5 30 .3 0. 2 0. 6 10 0. 0 14 3, 81 4 68 .9 Fo ur th 73 .2 2. 8 5. 0 18 .5 0. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 14 7, 97 8 81 .0 H ig he st 88 .2 1. 7 2. 6 7. 3 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 14 6, 93 9 92 .5 To ta l 60 .1 2. 9 5. 4 30 .8 0. 2 0. 6 10 0. 0 69 9, 68 6 68 .4 1 R ef er s to w om en w ho c an re ad a w ho le s en te nc e or p ar t o f a s en te nc e an d w om en w ho c om pl et ed s ta nd ar d 6 or h ig he r ( w ho a re a ss um ed to b e lit er at e) 64 z Characteristics of Respondents Ta bl e 3. 3. 2 Li te ra cy : M en Pe rc en t d ist rib ut io n of m en a ge 1 5- 49 b y lit er ac y, a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, In di a, 2 01 5- 16 Ba ck gr ou nd ch ar ac te ris tic C om pl et ed st an da rd 6 or h ig he r N o sc ho ol in g or c om pl et ed le ss th an s ta nd ar d 6 To ta l N um be r of m en Pe rc en ta ge lit er at e1 C an re ad a w ho le se nt en ce C an re ad pa rt o f a se nt en ce C an no t re ad at a ll N o ca rd w ith re qu ire d la ng ua ge Bl in d/ vi su al ly im pa ire d Ag e 15 -2 4 87 .7 2. 3 3. 3 6. 5 0. 1 0. 2 10 0. 0 35 ,3 64 93 .2 1 5- 19 90 .0 1. 9 2. 6 5. 2 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 18 ,7 40 94 .6 2 0- 24 85 .1 2. 6 4. 0 7. 9 0. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 16 ,6 24 91 .7 25 -2 9 80 .0 3. 1 5. 1 11 .4 0. 1 0. 2 10 0. 0 16 ,1 71 88 .3 30 -3 4 73 .9 4. 4 6. 6 14 .8 0. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 14 ,6 04 84 .8 35 -3 9 68 .5 4. 9 6. 9 19 .1 0. 2 0. 5 10 0. 0 13 ,7 71 80 .2 40 -4 4 65 .1 6. 1 7. 6 20 .5 0. 2 0. 5 10 0. 0 12 ,0 50 78 .8 45 -4 9 59 .0 6. 4 8. 5 25 .3 0. 3 0. 5 10 0. 0 11 ,4 51 73 .9 Re si de nc e U rb an 83 .3 3. 2 4. 2 9. 0 0. 0 0. 1 10 0. 0 39 ,5 46 90 .8 Ru ra l 71 .8 4. 4 6. 4 16 .8 0. 2 0. 4 10 0. 0 63 ,8 64 82 .6 M ar ita l s ta tu s N ev er m ar rie d 88 .8 2. 0 2. 8 6. 2 0. 1 0. 2 10 0. 0 39 ,6 31 93 .6 C ur re nt ly m ar rie d 68 .7 5. 1 7. 3 18 .3 0. 2 0. 4 10 0. 0 62 ,4 99 81 .1 W id ow ed /d iv or ce d/ se pa ra te d/ de se rt ed 52 .6 6. 0 7. 4 33 .0 0. 5 0. 5 10 0. 0 1, 28 0 66 .0 Re lig io n H in du 77 .6 3. 6 5. 2 13 .2 0. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 84 ,2 11 86 .4 M us lim 66 .1 6. 2 8. 0 19 .1 0. 3 0. 4 10 0. 0 13 ,7 93 80 .3 C hr ist ia n 80 .8 3. 8 4. 8 10 .2 0. 0 0. 4 10 0. 0 2, 27 7 89 .4 Si kh 81 .5 2. 4 4. 4 11 .7 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 1, 62 2 88 .3 Bu dd hi st /N eo -B ud dh ist 82 .2 5. 5 6. 5 5. 3 0. 0 0. 5 10 0. 0 95 8 94 .2 Ja in 94 .5 1. 5 1. 2 2. 9 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 16 3 97 .1 O th er 62 .2 3. 7 9. 3 21 .4 0. 7 2. 7 10 0. 0 38 6 75 .1 C as te /tr ib e Sc he du le d ca st e 71 .6 4. 2 6. 8 16 .9 0. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 20 ,4 99 82 .7 Sc he du le d tri be 62 .1 5. 2 8. 4 23 .6 0. 2 0. 6 10 0. 0 9, 13 2 75 .6 O th er b ac kw ar d cl as s 76 .7 4. 1 5. 2 13 .4 0. 2 0. 3 10 0. 0 45 ,1 10 86 .1 O th er 83 .2 3. 1 4. 3 9. 1 0. 1 0. 2 10 0. 0 28 ,2 99 90 .6 D on 't kn ow 68 .8 3. 8 11 .6 14 .3 0. 2 1. 3 10 0. 0 37 1 84 .2 C on tin ue d. . Characteristics of Respondents z�65 Ta bl e 3. 3. 2 Li te ra cy : M en — C on tin ue d Pe rc en t d ist rib ut io n of m en a ge 1 5- 49 b y lit er ac y, a cc or di ng to b ac kg ro un d ch ar ac te ris tic s, In di a, 2 01 5- 16 Ba ck gr ou nd ch ar ac te ris tic C om pl et ed st an da rd 6 or h ig he r N o sc ho ol in g or c om pl et ed le ss th an s ta nd ar d 6 To ta l N um be r of m en Pe rc en ta ge lit er at e1 C an re ad a w ho le se nt en ce C an re ad pa rt o f a se nt en ce C an no t re ad at a ll N o ca rd w ith re qu ire d la ng ua ge Bl in d/ vi su al ly im pa ire d W ea lth in de x Lo w es t 47 .0 6. 6 10 .9 34 .1 0. 5 0. 9 10 0. 0 15 ,2 05 64 .5 Se co nd 65 .8 5. 4 7. 8 20 .3 0. 1 0. 5 10 0. 0 19 ,4 02 79 .0 M id dl e 76 .7 4. 2 5. 9 12 .8 0. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 22 ,0 47 86 .8 Fo ur th 85 .0 3. 1 4. 0 7. 8 0. 1 0. 1 10 0. 0 22 ,9 30 92 .1 H ig he st 94 .3 1. 6 1. 6 2. 4 0. 0 0. 0 10 0. 0 23 ,8 27 97 .6 To ta l a ge 1 5- 49 76 .2 3. 9 5. 6 13 .8 0. 1 0. 3 10 0. 0 10 3, 41 1 85 .7 Ag e 50 -5 4 53 .5 6. 8 8. 8 29 .9 0. 3 0. 7 10 0. 0 8, 71 1 69 .1 To ta l a ge 1 5- 54 74 .4 4. 2 5. 8 15 .1 0. 1 0. 4 10 0. 0 11 2, 12 2 84 .4 1 R ef er s to m en w ho c an re ad a w ho le s en te nc e or p ar t o f a s en te nc e an d m en w ho c om pl et ed s ta nd ar d 6 or h ig he r ( w ho a re a ss um ed to b e lit er at e) 66 z Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.4.1 Respondent's level of schooling and literacy by state/union territory: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by number of years of schooling completed and percentage literate, by state/union territory, India, 2015-16 State/union territory Respondent's level of schooling Total Percentage literate1 No schooling <5 years complete 5-7 years complete 8-9 years complete 10-11 years complete 12 or more years complete India 27.6 5.8 14.2 16.7 14.2 21.5 100.0 68.4 North Chandigarh 13.7 1.7 10.1 15.3 15.4 43.8 100.0 83.2 Delhi 16.8 2.2 12.1 14.8 18.3 35.9 100.0 80.9 Haryana 23.0 2.8 13.9 14.5 17.2 28.7 100.0 75.4 Himachal Pradesh 9.8 3.5 14.4 12.9 22.7 36.7 100.0 88.2 Jammu & Kashmir 29.2 1.9 8.0 23.7 15.2 22.1 100.0 69.0 Punjab 16.8 1.6 13.3 13.1 20.5 34.6 100.0 81.4 Rajasthan 40.6 4.1 14.9 15.3 9.1 16.0 100.0 56.5 Uttarakhand 21.3 3.0 11.7 19.3 14.1 30.5 100.0 76.5 Central Chhattisgarh 28.0 6.9 15.5 23.1 9.7 16.9 100.0 66.3 Madhya Pradesh 34.1 5.7 15.8 21.2 9.2 13.9 100.0 59.4 Uttar Pradesh 35.7 3.0 11.9 16.5 10.2 22.7 100.0 61.0 East Bihar 47.8 5.3 11.1 13.0 10.7 12.1 100.0 49.5 Jharkhand 37.5 5.7 11.5 16.6 13.1 15.5 100.0 59.0 Odisha 28.0 8.6 16.1 20.7 13.8 12.9 100.0 67.4 West Bengal 22.1 12.8 17.2 21.5 12.9 13.6 100.0 70.9 Northeast Arunachal Pradesh 31.3 6.8 13.0 18.0 13.7 17.3 100.0 65.6 Assam 23.0 10.4 12.9 27.5 11.2 15.0 100.0 71.8 Manipur 10.8 6.4 10.0 26.9 17.9 28.1 100.0 85.0 Meghalaya 16.0 14.6 16.8 19.1 14.7 19.0 100.0 82.8 Mizoram 6.2 8.3 17.2 28.4 16.9 22.9 100.0 93.4 Nagaland 14.9 7.9 17.0 26.9 14.4 18.9 100.0 80.9 Sikkim 12.1 8.8 17.7 20.7 16.9 23.8 100.0 86.6 Tripura 12.3 12.1 19.2 33.0 11.9 11.5 100.0 80.4 West Dadra & Nagar Haveli 30.8 6.2 11.1 16.0 13.6 22.3 100.0 62.5 Daman & Diu 15.0 4.5 12.6 18.7 21.0 28.2 100.0 83.1 Goa 8.9 5.0 10.0 17.8 23.7 34.5 100.0 89.0 Gujarat 22.9 7.4 20.4 16.3 12.5 20.5 100.0 72.9 Maharashtra 14.8 8.1 15.8 19.2 17.0 25.0 100.0 80.3 South Andaman & Nicobar Islands 9.5 5.3 13.6 22.5 16.5 32.6 100.0 84.1 Andhra Pradesh 33.4 5.3 18.7 8.2 16.8 17.5 100.0 62.9 Karnataka 23.9 6.0 15.2 9.5 22.0 23.4 100.0 71.7 Kerala 1.0 2.2 6.7 17.9 24.4 47.8 100.0 97.9 Lakshadweep 1.4 5.6 17.6 18.6 25.3 31.4 100.0 95.6 Puducherry 11.1 2.9 11.6 14.2 21.5 38.8 100.0 85.0 Tamil Nadu 16.0 3.8 13.8 15.5 18.9 32.0 100.0 79.4 Telangana 32.2 4.5 12.7 7.1 19.0 24.6 100.0 65.5 1 Refers to women who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence and women who completed standard 6 or higher (who are assumed to be literate) Characteristics of Respondents z�67 Table 3.4.2 Respondent's level of schooling and literacy by state/union territory: Men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 by number of years of schooling completed and percentage literate, by state/union territory, India, 2015-16 State/union territory Respondent's level of schooling Total Percentage literate1 No schooling <5 years complete 5-7 years complete 8-9 years complete 10-11 years complete 12 or more years complete India 12.0 6.0 14.2 20.7 17.4 29.6 100.0 85.7 North Chandigarh 8.8 0.5 13.0 11.8 13.0 52.9 100.0 87.7 Delhi 7.0 2.7 13.3 22.2 18.3 36.5 100.0 89.3 Haryana 7.5 2.8 13.5 15.3 22.0 39.1 100.0 90.6 Himachal Pradesh 2.3 2.5 10.0 14.0 28.2 43.0 100.0 96.2 Jammu & Kashmir 11.6 2.2 8.6 28.5 19.8 29.3 100.0 87.0 Punjab 10.5 2.3 13.6 13.8 24.2 35.6 100.0 87.5 Rajasthan 13.2 3.9 15.5 23.6 14.8 29.0 100.0 85.4 Uttarakhand 7.7 2.3 12.3 24.1 19.4 34.2 100.0 90.7 Central Chhattisgarh 11.2 7.4 18.0 27.4 12.2 23.7 100.0 85.7 Madhya Pradesh 14.1 6.8 18.3 26.5 12.1 22.2 100.0 81.8 Uttar Pradesh 16.1 3.8 13.8 24.1 14.2 28.1 100.0 82.4 East Bihar 20.8 6.3 13.2 17.2 16.7 25.8 100.0 77.8 Jharkhand 18.0 5.7 13.3 22.8 15.2 25.0 100.0 79.7 Odisha 12.5 8.7 16.5 25.2 16.3 20.7 100.0 84.3 West Bengal 14.3 13.4 17.2 21.3 11.9 21.9 100.0 81.1 Northeast Arunachal Pradesh 16.2 7.5 11.3 20.2 17.8 26.9 100.0 84.5 Assam 14.2 11.6 14.1 26.9 12.7 20.5 100.0 82.8 Manipur 3.1 4.2 9.7 28.2 19.7 35.2 100.0 96.0 Meghalaya 16.4 17.2 15.1 16.8 12.8 21.7 100.0 84.0 Mizoram 2.7 5.5 19.1 29.5 17.5 25.7 100.0 98.1 Nagaland 11.1 7.3 17.5 26.3 15.9 21.8 100.0 85.6 Sikkim 6.0 10.6 18.2 20.1 16.6 28.5 100.0 91.5 Tripura 4.8 10.7 16.7 32.4 16.1 19.4 100.0 89.5 West Dadra & Nagar Haveli 13.5 9.8 5.6 18.6 15.6 36.8 100.0 82.6 Daman & Diu 8.0 2.4 16.2 20.6 28.4 24.4 100.0 89.7 Goa 4.4 2.3 9.5 20.3 28.0 35.6 100.0 94.7 Gujarat 7.9 7.3 16.7 25.0 16.4 26.6 100.0 89.6 Maharashtra 6.3 6.1 11.0 23.0 19.1 34.4 100.0 92.8 South Andaman & Nicobar Islands 6.0 6.9 15.3 19.2 19.5 33.1 100.0 88.5 Andhra Pradesh 17.1 6.4 16.8 8.4 20.0 31.3 100.0 79.4 Karnataka 11.8 7.8 13.4 11.8 23.5 31.7 100.0 85.1 Kerala 0.6 2.9 7.4 18.6 25.9 44.6 100.0 98.7 Lakshadweep 0.6 1.8 12.9 8.3 42.2 34.1 100.0 98.8 Puducherry 5.1 1.4 11.2 16.3 29.3 36.8 100.0 91.9 Tamil Nadu 8.4 3.3 13.8 16.2 20.6 37.7 100.0 89.1 Telangana 16.8 4.1 13.8 10.8 23.2 31.3 100.0 83.4 1 Refers to men who can read a whole sentence or part of a sentence and men who completed standard 6 or higher (who are assumed to be literate) 68 z Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.5.1 Exposure to mass media: Women Percentage of women age 15-49 who usually read a newspaper or magazine, watch television, or listen to the radio at least once a week, who usually visit the cinema or theatre at least once a month, and who are not regularly exposed to any of these media by background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Exposure to mass media Number of women Reads a newspaper or magazine at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Visits the cinema/ theatre at least once a month Not regularly exposed to any media Age 15-19 32.5 70.8 11.5 9.0 23.5 121,552 20-24 30.3 73.6 11.2 11.5 22.3 122,966 25-29 27.3 72.4 10.4 10.3 24.2 115,043 30-34 25.5 70.9 10.1 8.3 25.9 96,769 35-39 23.3 69.9 10.1 7.0 27.0 90,890 40-44 21.8 69.2 10.2 5.6 27.8 77,969 45-49 19.1 68.7 9.7 4.9 28.4 74,497 Residence Urban 43.4 89.0 14.2 15.8 8.2 242,225 Rural 17.5 61.5 8.6 4.7 34.2 457,461 Schooling No schooling 0.5 46.8 6.5 2.2 50.5 193,078 <5 years complete 4.5 64.5 7.4 3.3 32.4 40,503 5-7 years complete 14.9 72.3 8.2 4.6 24.1 99,687 8-9 years complete 26.2 75.8 10.0 6.3 19.4 116,681 10-11 years complete 42.6 85.2 12.9 11.1 10.5 99,576 12 or more years complete 63.1 90.1 17.0 20.5 5.8 150,160 Marital status Never married 40.6 76.2 13.6 11.9 18.4 159,035 Currently married 22.7 69.7 9.7 7.7 27.0 511,373 Widowed/divorced/ separated/deserted 15.9 67.2 8.9 4.3 29.7 29,279 Religion Hindu 26.4 71.9 10.7 9.0 24.6 563,739 Muslim 22.0 61.5 10.2 4.8 33.1 96,461 Christian 42.3 81.1 11.8 11.2 15.2 16,620 Sikh 38.9 93.0 5.2 7.0 5.8 11,618 Buddhist/Neo-Buddhist 34.3 83.3 12.1 13.1 12.9 6,469 Jain 64.2 94.5 17.9 27.2 4.3 1,264 Other 12.3 47.1 6.6 2.0 49.4 3,515 Caste/tribe Scheduled caste 19.9 69.8 9.7 7.1 26.6 142,619 Scheduled tribe 14.3 55.3 8.2 4.5 40.8 64,144 Other backward class 26.0 70.3 10.1 8.4 25.9 303,837 Other 36.9 78.9 12.8 11.2 17.3 184,594 Don't know 9.7 64.3 9.5 4.8 32.3 4,492 Wealth index Lowest 4.5 23.8 6.4 1.8 70.6 124,054 Second 9.6 56.4 7.9 3.4 38.4 136,900 Middle 18.5 80.4 9.8 5.8 15.9 143,814 Fourth 34.1 90.8 11.8 10.0 6.6 147,978 Highest 60.7 95.5 16.0 20.0 2.4 146,939 Total 26.5 71.1 10.5 8.5 25.2 699,686 Characteristics of Respondents z�69 Table 3.5.2 Exposure to mass media: Men Percentage of men age 15-49 who usually read a newspaper or magazine, watch television, or listen to the radio at least once a week, who usually visit the cinema or theatre at least once a month, and who are not regularly exposed to any of these media by background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Exposure to mass media Number of men Reads a newspaper or magazine at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Visits the cinema/ theatre at least once a month Not regularly exposed to any media Age 15-19 54.8 78.5 20.5 29.3 12.8 18,740 20-24 58.5 79.2 20.7 34.0 11.6 16,624 25-29 57.4 79.9 20.6 29.0 12.4 16,171 30-34 55.3 78.4 20.8 19.0 14.1 14,604 35-39 51.7 76.1 20.8 14.2 16.2 13,771 40-44 52.0 75.4 21.2 10.9 17.2 12,050 45-49 48.8 74.1 20.2 9.1 18.7 11,451 Residence Urban 66.8 89.4 24.8 32.0 5.6 39,546 Rural 46.9 70.4 18.1 16.1 19.7 63,864 Schooling No schooling 4.5 51.6 16.1 8.5 41.7 12,422 <5 years complete 14.6 65.6 15.7 11.2 27.4 6,171 5-7 years complete 34.9 72.3 17.3 14.8 19.6 14,730 8-9 years complete 52.4 76.6 19.2 16.2 13.8 21,422 10-11 years complete 69.6 85.5 22.4 26.2 6.5 18,030 12 or more years complete 84.8 89.3 25.1 35.3 3.1 30,636 Marital status Never married 60.6 81.5 21.9 33.8 10.2 39,631 Currently married 51.0 75.5 20.0 15.1 16.7 62,499 Widowed/divorced/ separated/deserted 37.0 61.6 16.8 9.1 29.1 1,280 Religion Hindu 55.1 77.8 20.4 22.5 14.4 84,211 Muslim 48.4 73.4 22.7 20.2 16.1 13,793 Christian 64.7 85.2 23.2 25.9 9.3 2,277 Sikh 54.0 90.6 6.9 17.2 6.8 1,622 Buddhist/Neo-Buddhist 61.4 84.4 29.6 29.1 9.1 958 Jain 84.7 97.5 24.1 27.0 0.2 163 Other 39.5 62.2 18.3 11.2 26.1 386 Caste/tribe Scheduled caste 48.8 76.6 20.4 20.8 15.6 20,499 Scheduled tribe 35.4 63.7 17.6 14.0 27.8 9,132 Other backward class 56.3 76.6 20.6 23.5 14.4 45,110 Other 62.1 84.6 21.8 23.6 9.0 28,299 Don't know 38.4 73.6 23.4 29.2 16.4 371 &RQWLQXHG����� 70 z Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.5.2 Exposure to mass media: Men³&RQWLQXHG Percentage of men age 15-49 who usually read a newspaper or magazine, watch television, or listen to the radio at least once a week, who usually visit the cinema or theatre at least once a month, and who are not regularly exposed to any of these media by background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Exposure to mass media Number of men Reads a newspaper or magazine at least once a week Watches television at least once a week Listens to the radio at least once a week Visits the cinema/ theatre at least once a month Not regularly exposed to any media Wealth index Lowest 21.3 36.2 15.6 8.4 47.8 15,205 Second 37.8 64.9 18.2 13.3 22.5 19,402 Middle 51.5 84.0 20.0 20.6 8.7 22,047 Fourth 66.1 91.4 23.1 27.0 3.8 22,930 Highest 80.8 95.3 24.2 35.0 1.8 23,827 Total age 15-49 54.5 77.6 20.7 22.2 14.3 103,411 Age 50-54 46.2 72.4 21.7 6.4 19.9 8,711 Total age 15-54 53.8 77.2 20.7 20.9 14.8 112,122 Characteristics of Respondents z�71 Table 3.6.1 Employment status: Women Percent distribution of women age 15-49 by employment status, according to background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Total Number of women Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 13.6 4.9 81.5 100.0 21,059 20-24 16.2 5.1 78.7 100.0 21,154 25-29 22.7 6.2 71.1 100.0 19,769 30-34 28.1 6.9 64.9 100.0 17,037 35-39 32.6 7.5 59.9 100.0 15,510 40-44 32.8 7.6 59.6 100.0 13,599 45-49 30.7 7.1 62.3 100.0 12,992 Residence Urban 21.3 3.6 75.1 100.0 43,510 Rural 25.5 7.8 66.7 100.0 77,610 Schooling No schooling 32.4 9.6 58.1 100.0 31,877 <5 years complete 32.4 8.7 58.9 100.0 6,902 5-7 years complete 25.7 7.0 67.3 100.0 17,550 8-9 years complete 18.5 5.3 76.2 100.0 20,268 10-11 years complete 16.1 3.8 80.0 100.0 17,502 12 or more years complete 20.0 3.7 76.2 100.0 27,022 Marital status Never married 18.9 4.9 76.2 100.0 27,821 Currently married 24.0 6.6 69.4 100.0 88,021 Widowed/divorced/ separated/deserted 50.6 8.2 41.2 100.0 5,277 Number of living children 0 18.6 5.2 76.1 100.0 37,432 1-2 24.1 6.0 69.9 100.0 51,093 3-4 30.0 7.8 62.2 100.0 26,539 5+ 29.8 8.7 61.5 100.0 6,055 Wealth index Lowest 28.7 10.7 60.6 100.0 19,430 Second 27.2 8.5 64.3 100.0 22,843 Middle 26.9 6.5 66.7 100.0 25,232 Fourth 22.2 4.4 73.5 100.0 26,358 Highest 17.1 3.1 79.9 100.0 27,256 Total 24.0 6.3 69.7 100.0 121,120 1 "Currently employed" is defined as having done work in the past seven days. Includes women who did not work in the past seven days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reasons. 72 z Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.6.2 Employment status: Men Percent distribution of men age 15-49 by employment status, according to background characteristics, India, 2015-16 Background characteristic Employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Total Number of men Currently employed1 Not currently employed Age 15-19 29.4 4.5 66.2 100.0 18,740 20-24 63.9 6.5 29.6 100.0 16,624 25-29 85.8 6.0 8.2 100.0 16,171 30-34 91.6 5.4 3.0 100.0 14,604 35-39 93.0 5.1 1.9 100.0 13,771 40-44 92.8 5.1 2.1 100.0 12,050 45-49 91.9 5.5 2.6 100.0 11,451 Residence Urban 76.0 3.0 21.1 100.0 39,546 Rural 74.9 7.0 18.1 100.0 63,864 Schooling No schooling 87.6 7.5 4.9 100.0 12,422 <5 years complete 90.3 6.5 3.2 100.0 6,171 5-7 years complete 87.0 6.1 6.9 100.0 14,730 8-9 years complete 74.2 5.8 20.0 100.0 21,422 10-11 years complete 66.4 4.5 29.1 100.0 18,030 12 or more years complete 67.8 4.3 27.9 100.0 30,636 Marital status Never married 48.7 5.2 46.1 100.0 39,631 Currently married 92.0 5.6 2.5 100.0 62,499 Widowed/divorced/ separated/deserted 87.6 5.7 6.6 100.0 1,280 Number of living children 0 55.9 5.4 38.7 100.0 48,608 1-2 93.2 4.7 2.1 100.0 34,618 3-4 91.8 6.5 1.7 100.0 16,586 5+ 89.6 8.1 2.4 100.0 3,599 Wealth index Lowest 76.0 11.0 13.1 100.0 15,205 Second 76.7 6.9 16.4 100.0 19,402 Middle 76.9 5.1 18.0 100.0 22,047 Fourth 75.6 3.9 20.5 100.0 22,930 Highest 72.1 2.6 25.4 100.0 23,827 Total age 15-49 75.3 5.4 19.2 100.0 103,411 Age 50-54 89.5 5.5 4.9 100.0 8,711 Total age 15-54 76.4 5.4 18.1 100.0 112,122 1 "Currently employed" is defined as having done work in the past seven days. Includes men who did not work in the past seven days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reasons. Characteristics of Respondents z�73 Table 3.7 Employment status of women and men by state/union territory Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 by employment status, according to state/union territory, India, 2015-16 State/union territory Women Men Currently employed1 Not currently employed Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Total Currently employed1 Not currently employed Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Total India 24.0 6.3 69.7 100.0 75.3 5.4 19.2 100.0 North Chandigarh 30.9 2.4 66.7 100.0 75.6 0.0 24.4 100.0 Delhi 18.6 2.9 78.5 100.0 69.2 0.8 30.0 100.0 Haryana 18.1 3.7 78.2 100.0 73.8 3.2 23.0 100.0 Himachal Pradesh 24.4 5.5 70.1 100.0 70.9 3.9 25.2 100.0 Jammu & Kashmir 13.7 4.1 82.2 100.0 69.9 5.0 25.1 100.0 Punjab 16.6 2.6 80.8 100.0 78.4 1.8 19.8 100.0 Rajasthan 19.7 9.2 71.2 100.0 67.4 7.6 25.0 100.0 Uttarakhand 17.2 3.4 79.4 100.0 67.7 4.2 28.1 100.0 Central Chhattisgarh 29.1 15.5 55.4 100.0 72.9 9.1 18.0 100.0 Madhya Pradesh 30.1 10.2 59.8 100.0 76.0 7.7 16.3 100.0 Uttar Pradesh 19.2 6.0 74.8 100.0 72.0 7.3 20.8 100.0 East Bihar 14.9 5.1 80.0 100.0 63.6 12.8 23.6 100.0 Jharkhand 22.8 9.1 68.1 100.0 71.2 11.0 17.8 100.0 Odisha 19.7 7.7 72.5 100.0 75.0 8.6 16.4 100.0 West Bengal 19.2 5.0 75.9 100.0 80.8 5.4 13.8 100.0 Northeast Arunachal Pradesh 24.2 9.8 66.0 100.0 67.0 7.3 25.7 100.0 Assam 14.8 3.8 81.4 100.0 80.5 4.4 15.0 100.0 Manipur 41.3 9.9 48.8 100.0 74.4 3.8 21.8 100.0 Meghalaya 35.2 8.8 56.1 100.0 74.6 2.2 23.2 100.0 Mizoram 34.5 11.6 53.9 100.0 81.3 7.8 10.9 100.0 Nagaland 28.1 5.9 66.0 100.0 72.0 5.7 22.3 100.0 Sikkim 19.8 4.1 76.1 100.0 71.3 6.5 22.2 100.0 Tripura 17.6 14.6 67.7 100.0 78.6 2.5 18.9 100.0 West Dadra & Nagar Haveli 24.3 6.3 69.4 100.0 76.0 6.3 17.7 100.0 Daman & Diu 17.4 10.3 72.4 100.0 83.5 4.8 11.7 100.0 Goa 23.7 2.2 74.1 100.0 79.1 1.2 19.7 100.0 Gujarat 31.7 5.2 63.1 100.0 81.8 2.3 15.9 100.0 Maharashtra 30.2 5.7 64.1 100.0 79.2 3.3 17.5 100.0 Continued. 74 z Characteristics of Respondents Table 3.7 Employment status of women and men by state/union territory—Continued Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 by employment status, according to state/union territory, India, 2015-16 State/union territory Women Men Currently employed1 Not currently employed Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Total Currently employed1 Not currently employed Not employed in the 12 months preceding the survey Total South Andaman & Nicobar Islands 17.7 3.5 78.8 100.0 81.2 4.0 14.8 100.0 Andhra Pradesh 33.5 11.4 55.0 100.0 79.6 3.9 16.4 100.0 Karnataka 29.3 5.4 65.3 100.0 80.0 3.6 16.3 100.0 Kerala 17.3 3.8 78.9 100.0 71.6 2.9 25.4 100.0 Lakshadweep 16.9 4.1 79.1 100.0 69.1 0.0 30.9 100.0 Puducherry 20.0 3.2 76.8 100.0 82.8 1.6 15.5 100.0 Tamil Nadu 28.2 4.3 67.6 100.0 77.4 2.3 20.3 100.0 Telangana 38.8 8.1 53.1 100.0 75.3 6.1 18.6 100.0 1 "Currently employed" is defined as having done work in the past seven days. Includes persons who did not work in the past seven days but who are regularly employed and were absent from work for leave, illness, vacation, or any other such reasons. Characteristics of Respondents z�75 Table 3.8 Occupation Percent distribution of women and men age 15-49 employed in the 12 months preceding the survey by occupation, according to residence, India, 2015-16 Occupation Urban Rural Total Women Professional1 19.7 5.3 9.6 Clerical 2.8 0.8 1.4 Sales worker 8.9 3.1 4.8 Agricultural

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