How to Prevent Maternal Mortality Injustices Around the World Infographic
Publication date: 2020
HOWTO AROUND THE WORLD ., According to the World Health Organization (WHO), 295,000 women died from preventable causes related to pregnancy and childbirth In 2017. Unfortunately, the overwhelming maJonty of maternal deaths (94%) occur In developing countnes. Many nonprofit, government, and health care organizations around the world have made maternal mortality a top pnorlty In their efforts to Improve global and national health and well-being. MATERNAL MORTAUTY RATE (MMR) ACROSS THE GLOBE Between 2000 and 201 7, the global MMR decreased by 38%. But many developing countries still have extremely high MM Rs, and some countries with advanced economies (such as the U.S.) have seen their MMRs Increase over the past few decades. STATISTICS OF GLOBAL MMRS In 2017, 295,000women died during and following pregnancy and childblnh. Adolescent girls under 15 years of age have the highest risk of maternal monality. Adolescent girls ages 10-19 have the highest risks of complications In pregnancy and childblnh. In nearty 75% of all maternal deaths, the major maternal complications are as follows: Severe bleeding (mostly bleeding after chlldblnh) Infections (usually after childblnh) High blood pressure during pregnancy (preeclampsia and eclampsla) Complications from delivery Unsafe abonlon According to WHO, maternal complications may also be •caused by or associated with Infections such as malaria or related to chronic conditions like cardiac diseases or diabetes." STATISTICS OF MMRS IN THE U.S. In the U.S., MM Rs can be four times higher for women who do not receive prenatal care, compared with women who do. For the past six decades, pregnancy-related deaths among American Indian/Alaska Native and non-Hispanic black women have been nearty four times more common than among white women. 25% of women In the U.S. do not receive the recommended number of prenatal visits. 32% of African American women 41% of American-, , Indian or Alaska Native women 21 % of pregnant women In the U.S. experience moderate to severe depression or anxiety, negatively Impacting the mother, child, and family. MMRS IN FIVE DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN 2015 MMRS INFIVE DEVELOPED/DEVELOPING COUNTRIES IN 2015 Deaths per 100,000 live blnhs: Deaths per 100,000 live blnhs: RISKS AND BARRIERS TO HEALTH CARE During pregnancy and postpartum, women are at risk for certain medical conditions that may Impact not only their health but also the health of their child. CAUSES OF MATERNAL MORTALITY IN THE U.S. Leading causes of pregnancy-related deaths among pregnant women: • cardiovascular and noncardlovascular health conditions • Infections • Hemorrhage • Amniotic fluid embolism • cardiovascular conditions • Hemorrhage • Hypenenslve disorders of pregnancy • Infection • Infection • Other cardiovascular conditions • Cerebrovascular accident • cardlomyopathy • cardiovascular and noncardlovascular health conditions POSTPARTUM AND PERINATAL DEPRESSION IN THE U.S. 1 In 9 expectant mothers will experience symptoms of postpartum depression. • Excessive crying • Suicidal thoughts and suicide • Panic attacks • Withdrawal from family and friends • Preterm blnhs • Low blnh weight • Difficulty bonding with the baby NS FOR COMMON C INFECTION: Inject oxytoclcs Immediately after childblnh to reduce the risk of bleeding. Practice good hygiene and recognize and treat the early signs of Infection. Administer drugs such as magnesium sulfate. Though simple solutions exist for pregnancy and childblnh complications, unfonunately health care professionals In many developing countries lack the resources and expenlse to Implement them. The majority of blnhs across several low-Income and lower-middle-Income countries are not assisted by skilled health personnel. BARRIERS TO QUALITY MATERNAL HEAL TH CARE Poverty Distance to facllltles GENERAL BARRIERS: Lack of Information Inadequate or poor quality services IN THE U.S.: Cultural beliefs and practices Closure of rural hospitals and obstetrics programs Is leading to obstetrical desens and poor health outcomes, which points to the need for highly qualified women's health nurse practitioners In these areas. STRATEGIES TO REDUCE AND PREVENT MATERNAL MORTALITY The WHO, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), and the American Academy of Family Physicians (MFP) have announced detailed strategies for reducing maternal mortality rates. (.\ World Health ~•; Organization __,, ~ The WHO's "Ending Preventable Maternal Mortality Strategy" Involves working with panners In supponlng countries toward: f AAFP The AAFP has outlined the following four primary objectives In decreasing MMRs: • Addressing Inequalities In access to and quality of reproductive, maternal, and newborn health care services. • Evaluate evidence-based methods to decrease maternal mortality. • Ensuring universal health coverage for comprehensive reproductive, maternal, and newborn health care. • Review methods to Increase recognition of Implicit bias and reduce disparities In maternal morbidity and monality. • Addressing all causes of maternal mortality, reproductive and maternal morbidities, and related disabilities. • Develop strategies to help Improve resident education and support practicing family physicians providing full-scope reproductive and maternity care. • Strengthening health systems to collect high quality data In order to respond to the needs and priorities of women and girls. • Address the growing loss of rural maternity services nationwide. • Ensuring accountability In order to Improve quality of care and equity. The HRSA Maternal Monality Summit - Technical Repon summarizes key findings on actions to decrease rates of maternal monality and morbidity • Access: Improve aocess to patient-centered, comprehensive care for women before, during, and after pregnancy, especially In rural and underserved areas. • Safety: Improve quality of maternity services through efforts such as the utilization of safety protocols In all blnhlng facilities. • Workforce: Provide continuity of care before, during, and after pregnancies by Increasing the types and distribution of health care providers. • Life Course Modet Provide continuous team-based suppon and use a life course model of care for women before, during, and after pregnancies. • Data: Improve the quality and availabillty of national surveillance and survey data, research, and common terminology and definitions. • Review Committees: Improve quality and consistency of maternal monality review committees through collaborations and technical assistance with U.S. states. • Partnerships: Engage In opportunities for productive collaborations with multiple summit panlclpants. CONCLUSION: As public health officials cont inue to collaborate Wlth health care organizations, women's health nurses practlcloners and other health care professionals will play a key role In Implementing solutions for reducing MM Rs In the U.S. and abroad. online.regiscollege.edulonline-master-science-nursing/ Srurces hf¢/wWW.n1'1tf.crg,'toPIC:8Jh'l8tem81•1'188111'1-ln-tl'l8".lnlt8d«elll$/ hfW/WWN.WhO.lnttnews.f'OOTl/f8Ct-6heet8'Cl8tal,lrn8terne1-morta1tty nt¢twwwswnom.o,gtnews/3923781Wome.-.MlhOl)'.YOntn-Ckt~orrm1tment-11>A&Guc&-tr'l8•MStefnlll-Monauty-A11te•.tltrn nt¢twww.rpwn.org/lrre'fil80IOW$l8r,lf,1e?H&Neme=Ellm1n11u,g%.20Aevernstild20M8temet"20Deell'l"'20Pos111on"20St8tement%2.0n,81.pof htipa'.//wWW.811fl:).Org,lrl8'WS/heettn~.pJDIIC/2019C601m818fnelmortallty.hlfl'II l'lttpa'.//WWW.Cl8"o.o'IIC.-8()0\:ll.JtlllC8tlOnS/h-worlO-f8c'IIXlok,lnkcr-Oert222318nk.tnml nt¢tnpwomensneettnar-e.00fl'\/l:!fewnt1rg-poapart1,1m<l8pre8Slon-c1oser-11>1'10me/l'lt¢l8:HWWW.nf88.go1t'slteS/ClefauWli188/hf88,/h'l8tem81•morta11t)O'Matema1-Mort81lty•TecM1C81-A8PC1tPdf
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